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From 18 3 9 to 18 4 4; 



VOL. I. 

.• x •» » 





London i Printed by WiLr.iAin Clowis and Sons, SUmlord Stn-et. 






. Early History of New Zealand — Tasman, 1642 — Cook, 1769 — 

1^ Church Mission, 1814 — Magistrates appointed — Wesleyan 
Mission, 1822 — Travellers and their books — Visit of Hongi to 
England, 1820 — Baron de Thierry — 'New Zealand Company of 
1825 — " Land-sharking" and straggling colonization — Hongi's 
iS«^ fire-arras — Bloodshed and depopulation — Captain Stewart and 
Rauperaha — Letter of Thirteen Chiefs to "William IV., 1831 — 
British Resident — Continuation of wars — Declaration of Inde- 
*\i pendence and Recognition of Flag, 1835 — Absurdities— New 

*^ Zealand Association of 1837 — Negotiations with Government — 
Hostility of Mr, Dandeson Coates — Offer by Lord Glenelg of a 
Charter to the Association — Refused : why — Mr. Baring's Bill, 

^' 1838 — New Zealand Land Company of 1839 — Its views — 
Colonel Wakefield appointed to take charge of Preliminary 

% Expedition — I resolve to accompany him . . . Page 1 


Departure from Plymouth — Passengers — Voyage — First sight of 
New Zealand — Cook's Strait — Queen Charlotte's Sound — Ship 
^J^j Cove — Natives — Village — Wretched houses — Dispute with 
Natives — Reconciliation — European settlement — Messenger sent 
— Returns with two Englishmen — Mountains — Forest — Scenery 
of Queen Charlotte's Sound — Tory Channel — Native Pa, or 
^ Fort — H. M, B. Pelorus — • Te-awa-iti — Richard Barrett — Tribes 
\ of Cook's Strait — Proprietorship of land unsettled — 'Vague no- 
tions of Natives — Plan of Native Reserves as real payment 19 


The Whaling-town — Try-works — Joseph Toms — History of Te- 
awa-iti — Foundation — Hardships — Progress — Wages of whalers 
— Summer life — Jealousies — Lawlessness — Hospitality — Clean- 

a 2 


liness— Native whale-boats — Wretched houses and food — Boat 
expedition — Tide-rip — Jack Guard — His perilous adventures 
in 1834— H. M.S. Alligator— Port Gore— Admiralty Bay- 
Wild cattle — Estuary of the Pelorus — Bivouac — Ducks — Tree- 
ferns — Teal — Tributary Natives — Pigeons — Precautions — 
Rapids — Canoe — Horror of brandy — Old Pa — Phormium tenax 
— Scraping — Guard's Island — A sacred Chief— Gale— Arrival 
at the ship — Climate — Illness of Natives — Departure for Port 
Nicholson— Shores of Cook's Strait 44 


Entrance of Port Nicholson— ^Wareport and Epuni — History of 
the tribe — Missionary notions — Talk about land — Tangi, or 
crying — Nayti — Excursion round harbour — Speeches as to sale 
of land — Native cookery — Mocking-bird — Discussions — Sham-* 
fighting — The purchase — Opposition — Vague notions of Natives . 
as to ownership of land — No title but occupancy — Distribution 
of payment — Signature of deed — Nicknames — The Huia — Fish ^ 
— Native hook — Preparations for rejoicing — Gathering — Dress 
— War-dance — Haka, or recitative — Feast — Contentment of 
Natives — Nomenclature — Our satisfaction — Sanguine prospects 
— Intentions towards Natives — Hostility of Native missionaries 
— Reasons 70 


Port Underwood in Cloudy Bay — ^Angry Natives — Peace restored 
— ^Whaling-stations — Fishing — We sail for Te-awa-iti — Fighting 
Bay — We cross the strait to Kapiti — Islets near it — Battle of 
Waikanae — Funeral feast — Rauperaha — His appearance — His 
history — Hongi^a wars — The Kawia tribe — Te Pehi Kupe — In- 
vasion of Cook's Strait — The contending tribes — 'Immense 
slaughter — Allies — Siege and capture of Kapiti — Extermina- 
tion of Aborigines — Visit of Te Pehi to England — His return 
and death — Rauperaha' a revenge — His White coadjutors — He 
acquires influence — Opposes the Ngatiawa — His unbounded 
treachery — His behaviour to White men — Rangihaeata assists 
him in marauding — Whaling-stations — Waikanae village — 
Wounded and dead — Rauperaha on board — Hiko — Negotiations 
for sale of land — News from Sydney — Quarrel among chiefs — 


Threats — Reconciliation — The deed signed — Rauperaha^a ra- 
pacity — Gale of wind — Mana, or Table Island — East Bay in 
Queen Charlotte's Sound — Funeral of trader at Te-awa-iti — Ne- 
gotiations for land — Another deed — Scramble — Extent of rights 
now acquired — Return to Kapiti — Land-buyers from Sydney — 
War-canoes — Warepori and Rauperaha — Wanganui chiefs — A 
warrior — Rauperaha repudiates his bargain . . .105 


Search for Wanganui river — Appearance of country — The chief 
E Kuru lands — Coast — Tonga Riro and Mount Egmont — 
Sugar-loaf Islands — Surf — Native greetings — Barrett and Doctor 
Dieffenbach land — False Hokianga — Hokianga — Signals — Pilot 
— European Settlements — Nature of country — Wesleyan mission 
— ^Mr. Bumby, a worthy missionary — Kauri timber — Natives 
tamed, but not civilized — Lieutenant Macdonnell's establishment — 
Vineyard — Baron de Thierry — Colonel Wakefield buys title-deeds 
of Wairau near Cloudy Bay — Our shipwreck outside Kaipara — A 
cool man-of-war's man — Perils in a boat — Estuary of Kaipara — 
Bivouacs-Mosquitoes — The Navarino — A sailor's hospitality — 
The Tory is hove down — Colonel Wakefield proceeds to Bay of 
Islands — Wairoa river — Mr. Symonds — Country about Kaipara 
—Mr. White, a missionary and " land-shark" — The Guide arrives 
— Mr. John Blackett — Dr. Dorset and I embark in the Guide — 
Dangers — A whaler at sea — Navigation — Sugar-loaf Islands — 
Moturoa — Barrett's adventures — Mr. White — His letters — The 
view from Sugar-loaf Peak — Dangerous situation of the Guide 
— Our dormitory — Twelve days on a rocky islet — Missionary 
hostility — Native language as manufactured by the missionaries — 
Punishment of adultery — Return of the Guide — Two deeds signed 
— Preparations for a skirmish — Mediation — Barracoota fishing — 
Arrival at Port Nicholson 144 


Shipping and tents in sight — We land — Greetings — Colonel Wake- 
field's journey — Overland path — Roman Catholic converts — Ko- 
r<yrareka in the Bay of Islands — Hire of the Guide and her crew 
— Port Hardy — Native raillery — D'Urville's Island — Voyage in 
whale-boat — Welcome by natives — Arrival of emigrants — Rivals 
in buying land — Mr. Tod — The Rev. Henry Williams — Richard 
Davis, the native missionary — Dispute between missions — The 


massacre of Puakawa — Sincere regrets — Colonists from Australia 
— Authority of Native chiefs employed j^inst lawless White 
men — First squatting — Good class of colonists — The settlement 
like an extensive pic-nic — Friendliness of the Natives — Their 
first doubts and fears — How removed — Native-built house, or 
ware — The tent of an Eastern traveller — The hut of an Austra- 
lian " over-lander " — Cattle from Sydney — Proclamation by the 
Governor of New South Wales against further land-sharking — 
Committee of colonists — Why and how fonned — Provisional 
Constitution — Agreement — Flood — The Cuba — Weather— Squa- 
dron arrives — Bank — Salute — Canoe procession — Ratification of 
Constitution by Native chiefs 184 


An exploring journey — The " boys " pack their loads — Farewell 
— Porirua — Parramatta — Waikawa — Nayti — Failure of the 
attempt to civilize him — Potato-grounds — Pukerita — Madman 
— Kumera, or sweet potato — Melons — Coast — Waikanae — Vil- 
lage of the Wanganui chief — Pukeko shooting — Native houses 
— Night alarm — Whalers and Natives at Kapiti — Gratitude for 
books — Shark's tooth — Canoe voyage — Karaka-nMis — Coast — 
Surf — Wangaihu river — Pumice-stone — E Kuru — Wanganui 
river — Encampment — Speeches — Putikiwaranui — Head chiefs — 
Vestiges of Rev. Henry Williams — Fishing fleet — Fishing vil- 
lages — Eagerness to sell land — Native mats — Dishonesty re- 
proved — land-mark — Cliffy shore — Waitotara — Suspicion- — A 
tutua^ or" plebeian" tribe — Missionary calumnies — Valley — Fish- 
ing - weir — Lampreys — Tedious travelling — Wenuakura, or 
" land of plumage " — Hospitality — Crowding — Tihoe pa — Patea 
— Robbery — Utu, or payment — Threats — Restitution — I am 
obliged to return — Parrots — Open plains — Religious scruples 
exaggerated — Excursion up the Wanganui — Scenery — Village 
— Return to Wangaihu — Camp — Fleet of canoes — Rangitikei 
river — Eels — Native gluttony — Prayers at sea — Festival at 
Waikanae — Shipping at Kapiti — Whale-boat journey — Mana — 
Hangiliaeata—CaiTving — We go on to Pitone . . .216 


House built by Natives — Manuka wood — Stock from Australia — 
Horses — Arrival of Captain Hobson at the Bay of Islands — 


Council — Newspaper — Appointments — Harmony interrupted by 
a stranger — The Rev. Henry Williams — Proceedings of the 
Lieutenant-Governor at the Bay of Islands — Mr. "Williams sent 
to extend them to Cook's Strait — Mr. Williams's selfish views — 
Clergymen arrive from England — Settlers in the valley of the 
Hutt — Cheerful progress — Politics — Contentment — Thorndon — 
Dicky Barrett — New South Wales land-sharks — The Surprise 
schooner — Voyage to Wanganui — JE Kuru^s joy — Arrival — 
The Rev. Messrs. Williams and Hadneld — Cession of sovereignty 
— Delusion— Gathering of tribes — Purchase of Wanganui — 
Conference — Authority of a head chief — Deed signed — Distri- 
bution — Greediness — Scramble— Fears — Anger of E Kuru — 
Homai no homai, or a " gift for a gift " — Freshet — Return to 
Port Nicholson 270 


Town of "Britannia" — English boy killed by native — Harmony 
undisturbed — Fire of " Cornish Row " — Earthquake — Notice to 
inhabitants to drill — Lieutenant Shortland, the Colonial Secre- 
tary, arrives with troops — Burlesque pomposity of a constable — 
Proclamation of British sovereignty — British loyalty and good 
feeling — Mounted policemen — Brutality — Laws of a penal colony 
— Mr. Tod excites Natives against the settlers — They begin to 
repudiate — Change in feelings of Natives — The chiefs offended by 
the Government authorities — News from the Bay of Islands- 
Riot of Natives quelled by military — Survey — I postpone my 
return to England 294 


A colonist hires a whaling-station — Porirua — Native custom of 
plunder — H. M. S. Herald — Kapiti — The whalers — Ingredients 
of the class — Character — Knowledge — .Early history — Savage in- 
tercourse between shipping and Natives — Mr. Marsden brought 
convicts to New Zealand — Sealers of the south — Foundation of 
whaling settlements in Cook's Strait — Perils — Increase in 
strength — Precarious commerce— Social arrangements — Articles 
— Laws of the Bay — The season — Ranks — Whaling argot, or 
" slang " — Preparations — The boats— The tackle — Words of 


command — "Works on shore — Officers — Native wives, or wahine 
— A whale signalled — The chase — Stratagems — A new hand — 
"Making fast" — Running — She "sounds"— The headsman — 
Killing a whale — The " flurry " — Towing home — Orgies — Hos- 
pitality — A whaler's house— Cleanliness — The " old man " — His 
boat — Discipline of whalers — CouR^e — Dispute between whalers 
and Rauperaha — Improvement among Natives owing to whalers 
— Bad qualities acquired from the same source — The whalers the 
first pioneers — Their life in the new settlements — Sawyers — 
Traders — " Beach-combers " — List of whaling-stations in 1844 — 
Statistics — Inexpediency of shore-whaling — The whalers might 
have become buccaneers — Disorderly whalers — Industrious car- 
penter — Wareho fishing 308 


Company's store-ships — Major Bunbury's expedition in H. M. S. 
Herald — Proclamation of British sovereignty in Stewart's and 
Middle Islands — JRauperaha and Rangihaeata sign the cession 
of sovereignty — Cattle at Cloudy Bay — Public meeting — Colonel 
Wakefield deputed to present Eiddress to the Lieutenant-Governor 
— News from England — Plymouth Company of New Zealand — 
Sanguine hopes — Purchase of the Chatham Islands — Selection of 
town-lands — New Zealand Land Bill of New South Wales — In- 
consistencies in government — Mr. Busby — Panic of settlers — A 
trip to the Manawatu river — Level country — Ship-building — 
Morose chief — Ascent of the river by a trader — Its course — 
Return to Port Nicholson — The Chilian project — Return of 
Colonel Wakefield with the answer of the Lieutenant-Governor 
— Deputation to Sir George Gipps — The towns in the North — 
French expedition — Its object frustrated — Second riot at the 
Bay of Islands — Disturbance at Port Nicholson — Proclamation of 
Lieutenant Shortland — His offensive pomposity — His undignified 
conduct — A bullock-driver — Settlers drowned at Pitone — Af- 
fectionate Natives — Exploring expedition towards Mount Eg- 
mont 344 


Journey to Otaki — Troublesome natives — Waikawa — Natives de- 
ceive and rob us — Firmness procures restitution — Manawaiu — 


Rangitikei — Scarcity of food — Timid natives — Fine countrj^ — 
Cold — Fording rivers — Wanganui — Greetings — E Kuru gives 
me a house — His chieftain-like treatment of his inferiors — New 
Zealand slaves — Missionaries — Native feud — Battle of Waitotara 
— Ship-building — Confirmation of the purchase^ — Return to Ka- 
piti — "Walk to Pitone — Harmlessness of night-air . .371 


Ships arrive from Sydney — Arrival of Mr. Murphy as Police Ma- 
gistrate — Departure of the Colonial Secretary — Straggling news 
from the north — Death of Mr. Bumby — Progress of Biitannia — 
Club — Country lands — Mr. Bidwill — " Captain " Williams — 
Hire of a schooner — Cloudy Bay — Suspicious death of Mr. Wilton 
— Queen Charlotte's Sound — Wild cattle hunting on Kapiti— 
Expedition of the Brougham with Mr. Murphy and the soldiers — 
Want of a Coroner and Jury — Licences — Discontent of whalers 
— Advantages of barter with good natives at Wanganui . 391 


News from the north — Selection of Capital — H.M.S. Favourite — 
Secret calumnies against Port Nicholson — Abstraction of la- 
bourers by Government — The burlesque foundation of Auckland 
— Mr.FeltonMathew's epaulettes — Sawyers' activity — Absence of 
Police Magistrate — News from England — New Zealand Church 

. Society — Wool — The name of the town changed to " Welling- 
" ton"— Return of the deputation from Sydney — Concessions made 
by Sir George Gipps — Ill-humour of Captain Hobson — The 
Rev. Mr. Churton — Flour-ships from Valparaiso — Health Officer 
appointed — Harbour-master paid by the Company — Preliminary 
expedition of the Plymouth Company — Lord Eliot advocates the 
cause of New Zealand in the House of Commons — Grief for the 
death of Lord Durham — Statesmen and colonists — Abstraction 
of labour for neighbouring colonies — Plain of the Wairarapa — 
Arrival of a Wesleyan Missionary — Christmas at Kapiti — Plunder 
of a wreck near Wanganui — Ascent of the Wanganui — Rapids 
— Canoe-song — E Kuru and his guests — Open house at Wan- 
ganui — A feudal retinue — Gale of wind — Drift out to sea — 
Roman Catholic Bishop — A " happy New Year " — Hopes and 
fears — Merry disputes between higher and lower classes — Anni- 
versary f&te — Injudicious missionary injunctions . . 408 




Official crimping ,of labourers — Withdrawal of the troops from 
Wellington — Once employed — Surprise of colonists — Anger — 
Notice against occupation of lands— Sir John Franklin reproves 
crimping — The New Plymouth pioneers — Public meeting — Peti- 
tion for the recall of Captain Hobson — Why sent home informally 
— Mr. Petre — Mr. Sinclair — Increasing trade with the natives — 
Working Men's Land Association — Lady Franklin . . 436 


The Sandfly — Joseph Toms — Tory Channel — We meet the Broug- 
ham — Foundation of New Plymouth — Calm night — Wanganui 
bar — Curious effects of mist — Native news — Progress of the 
European settlement — Lawless vagabonds — Fears of a war-party, 
or taua — Determination to reconnoitre— :-Pleasant journey with a 
fleet of canoes — Gaiety of the natives — Exaggerated gravity of a 
missionary — Rapids — E Kuru^s political dilemma— Fortified vil- 
lages — Spies — Doubts — Encampment — First view of the war- 
party — Their camp — Speeches — The patriarch Heuheu — Inter- 
view with him — Pukihika pa — The war-party at the settlement 
— Good faith — Native guards 446 


New Zealand is made a separate colony — The New Zealand Com- 
pany is Chartered — Reconciled with the Government — Lord John 
Russell's Agreement of 1840 — A Bishop of New Zealand is ap- 
pointed — Magistrates are appointed — Abuse of authority by the 
Police — Address of the Magistrates to the Governor — West of 
England colonists — Mr. Halswell — Company's roads — Wreck — 
Plunder by natives — Party of volunteers — Stagnation in the 
Government settlements — "Hobson's coming!" — The Harbour- 
master is discharged — Wish for a Municipal Corporation — Pro- 
gress of Wellington — Cattle-driving — Mr. Bell, the Scotch 
former — He drives the first herd to Wanganui — Sale of town- 
allotments at Auckland ../..... 470 



Early History of New Zealand^ — Tasman, 1642 — Cook, 1769^ 
Church Mission, 1814 — Magistrates appointed — Wesleyan 
Mission, 1822 — Travellers and their books — Visit of Hongi to 
England, 1820 — Baron de Thierry — ^New Zealand Company of 
1825 — '* Land-sharking" and straggling colonization — HongVs, 
fire-arms — Bloodshed and depopulation — Captain Stewart and 
Rauperaha — Letter of Thirteen Chiefs to "William IV., 1831 — 
British Resident — Continuation of wars — Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and Recognition of Flag, 1835 — Absurdities— New 
Zealand Association of 1837 — Negotiations with Government — 
Hostility of Mr. Dandeson Coates — Offer by Lord Glenelg of a 
Charter to the Association — Refused : why — Mr. Baring's Bill, 
1838 — New Zealand Land Company of 1839 — Its views — 
Colonel Wakefield appointed to take charge of Preliminary 
Expedition — I resolve to accompany him. 

In order that parts of the subsequent narrative should 
not be misunderstood, it is necessary to furnish a brief 
statement of circumstances relating to New Zealand 
previous to the expedition and events which it is my 
object to narrate. 

The islands of New Zealand were first seen by Tas- 
man in 1642 ; but he was prevented from landing by a 
conflict with the natives, in which he lost four men. 

Until 1769, New Zealand was supposed to form part 
of the great Terra Australis Incognita : but in that 
year. Captain Cook circumnavigated and surveyed the 
two principal islands, gave his own name to the Strait 
by which they are separated, landed at various places, 

VOL. I. B 


and took formal possession of the country, in jmrsuance 
of the following instructions : — " You are also, with 
** the consent of the natives, to take possession, in the 
" name of the King of Great Britain, of convenient 
*' situations in such countries as you may discover, that 
** have not already been discovered or visited by any 
" European power ; and to distribute among the inha- 
** bitants such things as will remain as traces and tes- 
" timonies of your having been there ; but if you find 
" that the countries so discovered are uninhabited, you 
"are to take possession of them for His Majesty, by 
*' setting up proper marks and inscriptions as first dis- 
" coverers and possessors." 

Cook suggested the regular colonization of New 
Zealand ; but no attempt was made to carry his recom- 
mendation into effect, though many schemes for the 
purpose were formed by various persons, including 
Dr. Franklin. 

In the Parliamentary debates which led to the es- 
tablishment of New South Wales in 1788, New Zea- 
land was mentioned as very suitable for an experiment 
of penal colonization, and narrowly escaped through a 
terror of its savage inhabitants and their cannibalism. 

In course of time, however, the frequent visits of 
whaling-ships to the coasts led to such intercourse be- 
tween Europeans and the natives, as suggested to the 
Rev. Samuel Marsden, Colonial Chaplain of New 
South Wales, the project of establishing at the Bay of 
Islands a mission of the Church Missionary Society. 
In 1814, this benevolent scheme was carried into effect 
by Mr. Marsden himself, under the sanction of the 
Governor of New South Wales, who issued a procla- 
mation on the occasion ; whereby he declared himself 
" equally solicitous to protect the natives of New Zea- 
" land and the Bay of Islands in all their just rights 


" and privileges, as those of every other dependency of 
" the territory of New South Wales ;" gave various 
orders and directions ; appointed Mr. Thomas Kendal, 
the first missionary, " resident magistrate at the Bay 
" of Islands ;" extended the orders and directions to the 
adjacent isles, and appointed three natives, Duaterra, 
Shunghee, and Korokoro, to be magistrates. 

In 1819, Mr. Leigh, a missionary of the Wesleyan 
Missionary Society stationed in New South Wales, 
was induced by Mr. Marsden to visit the Bay of Islands 
for the sake of his health ; in lb22 he returned thither 
with his wife; and in 1823, Messrs. White and Turner 
joined him at the Church Missionary station, whence 
they proceeded to found a station of their own at 
Tf^angaroa, north of the Bay of Islands. These gen- 
tlemen endured great hardships, dangers, and priva- 
tions among the turbulent natives of those parts, with 
but little success in their endeavours, for four years 
from this time. I shall hereafter dwell more minutely 
upon the doubts, struggles, and ultimate progress of 
this second missionary enterprise. 

The country was now visited by travellers who pub- 
lished their observations. The works of Mr. Nicholas, 
who had accompanied Mr. Marsden to New Zealand, 
of Mr. Savage,* and Major Cruise f especially, toge- 
ther with the periodical reports of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society relating to New Zealand, had a con- 
siderable effect in England in removing the impressions 
of fear which had been made by the savage character 
of the natives. This result was further promoted by 

* ' Some Account of New Zealand, ' by John Savage, Esq., 
Surgeon. London, 1807. 

•j* 'Journal of a Ten Months' Residence in New Zealand,' by 
R. A. Cruise, Esq., Major in the 84th Regiment of Foot. London, 

B 2 


a visit of two chiefs, Hongi* and Tf^aikato, who ac- 
companied Mr. Kendal to England in 1820, and who 
so artfully adapted themselves to the predilections of 
the circles into which they were introduced, as to pass 
for perfect and very devout Christians. 

Among other places at which Hongi and Waikuto 
were exhibited as Christian converts was the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge. Here, by means of Mr. Kendal, 
they became acquainted with Baron de Thierry, a 
Frenchman by birth. They led the Baron to enter- 
tain the hope of acquiring extensive territories and 
rights of chieftainship in New Zealand ; and Mr. 
Kendal undertook to act as his agent for that purpose 
in the islands. This circumstance deserves notice, as 
having laid the foundation of the attempt made by the 
French Government in 1840 to establish a penal settle- 
ment in the Middle Island. Mr. Kendal received the 
sum of seven hundred pounds from Baron de Thierry 
as the intended purchase-money of lands ; and, in 1822, 
effected a purchase, of which I afterwards heard the 

In 1825, a Company was formed in London for the 
purpose of establishing a settlement in New Zealand : 
it was composed of the following members : — 

George Lyall, Esq. 
Stewart Marjoribanks, 

George Palmer, Esq. 
Colonel Torrens. 
The Earl of Durham. 
Edward Ellice, Esq. 
The Hon. Courtenay 


* This name lias been commonly mis-spelt Shunghee, Shonghee, 
or Shongie, in former works. The natives cannot pronoimce sh. 

J. \y. Buckle, Esq. 
Ralph Fen wick, Esq. 
Jas. Pattison, Esq. 
Lord IIatherton. 
A. W. RoBARTS, Esq. 
George Varlo, Esq. 
Anthony Gordon, Esq. 
John Dixon, Esq. 


The views of this Company were submitted to Mr. 
Huskisson, then President of the Board of Trade ; who 
highly approved of the undertaking, and promised 
them the grant of a Royal Charter in case their pre- 
liminary expedition should accomplish its object : but 
the expedition was confided to incompetent manage- 
ment ; its leader was alarmed by a war-dance of the 
natives, performed, there is every reason to believe, as 
a mark of welcome ; and he abandoned his task after 
purchasing some land hi Hokia7iga and iu the Frith 
of the Thames. ;. v 'j • 

The very ideas which belong to contracts for the 
transfer of land as private property had been unknown 
to the natives until 1814, when Mr. Marsden, desirous of 
obtaining a site for the first missionary establishment 
according to the forms of European law, carried with 
him a technical deed of feoffment prepared by lawyers 
at Sydney. This instrument, when its blanks for the 
names of places were filled up, was signed by the mark 
of certain chiefs in consideration of a trifling payment. 
It became the model of a vast number of contracts for 
the sale of land to Europeans, into which natives were 
induced to enter by the number of Whites who now 
straggled into New Zealand from the neighbouring 
colonies, from French, American, and British ship- 
ping, and even from England. This mode of acquir- 
ing land from savages is now well known as land- 
sJiarking ; a name which implies preying on the weak- 
ness of childish ignorance. 

Although the natives were even unconscious of the 
purport of the deeds which they executed, because they 
had not even conceived the idea of private property in 
land according to European notions, they neverthe- 
less set great store by the European goods paid to 
them . for signing the deeds. Of these commodities 


muskets and gunpowder formed the principal item. 
During the residence of Hongi and Waikato in Eng- 
land, their attention was steadily directed to the acqui- 
sition of fire-arms. Hongi had no sooner returned 
home with Mr. Kendal than he armed his own tribe, 
and its allies, with the warlike presents which he had 
received in England ; and, throwing aside the mask of 
Christian meekness which he had worn in this country, 
he appeared in his true character of an ambitious and 
bloodthirsty warrior. His superior weapons gave him 
an immense advantage over the tribes which he at- 
tacked in all directions from the seat of his own tribe 
near the Bay of Islands. Besides a bloody raid to the 
northward, which had the effect of ruining for a time 
the Wesleyan mission at fVangaroa, he directed all his 
strength against the powerful JVaikato tribes which 
inhabited the western coast of the North Island, be- 
tween Kaipara and IVaikato. These, after a bloody 
struggle of about two years' duration, were driven from 
their home. Turning to the southward in search of 
a new location, they employed against weaker tribes 
the skill and hardihood which they had acquired in 
resisting Hongi ; and these, again, being driven from 
their abode, attacked and either exterminated or drove 
out other tribes still more to the southward. The 
Waikato, expelled by Hongi and the Ngapuhi tribes, 
in their turn expelled the Ngatitoa tribes inhabiting 
Kawia and Mokau ; who again, being led by the 
chiefs Te Pehi and Rauperaha^ advanced upon 
the northern shore of Cook's Strait, crossed th© sea 
into the Middle Island, and extended their ravages 
as far as Otako, almost exterminating the abori- 
ginal inhabitants in their progress. The waves of 
destruction, to which Hongi with his muskets gave 
the first impulse, passed over nearly the whole 


length of New Zealand, a distance of more than 
seven hundred miles. The population of the North 
Island was thinned and scattered ; and that of the 
Middle Island destroyed, with the exception of a 
miserable remnant. 

In one of these wholesale massacres of men, women, 
and children, which was remarkable for extreme 
treachery and cruelty, Rauperaha received the most 
efficient aid from an English savage of the name of 
Stewart. Some particulars of this horrible event will 
be related hereafter ; at present it suffices to state, 
that the wretch was tried for murder at Sydney, but 
acquitted. If British law had been established in the 
country where the event took place, he would inevi- 
tably have been convicted and hanged. The whole 
case is one of many. The irregular settlement of Eu- 
ropeans, which was now making rapid progress, led to 
numerous instances of crime for which no punishment 
could be inflicted. In addition to the spectacle of 
savage warfare in its most destructive excess, the 
country exhibited that of perfect anarchy as respects 
the European settlers. 

Such a state of things urgently required some 
remedy. It would be difficult to conceive one more 
inefficient than that which was applied. In 1831 
there was transmitted to the King, William the Fourth, 
a letter signed with the names or marks of thirteen 
chiefs, residing in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
Bay of Islands, whereby they prayed his Majesty " to 
" become their friend, and the guardian of these islands, 
" lest the teasing of other tribes should come near to 
" them, and lest strangers should come and take away 
" their land ;'* and also " to be angry with such of 
" his people as might be vicious or troublesome " 
towards the natives. 


The application was transmitted by the Rev. Wil- 
liam Yate, then head of the mission in New Zealand, 
and supported by the managers of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society in England, who have for many years 
enjoyed an influence at the Colonial Office, not the 
less for being exercised in secret ; and accordingly 
Lord Goderich, then the Colonial Minister, wrote to 
the thirteen chiefs, granting their request in the name 
of the King. Instructions were at the same time trans- 
mitted to the Governor of New South Wales, which 
induced him to appoint an officer of the British Go- 
vernment to reside at the Bay of Islands, in a capacity 
which it is impossible otherwise to define than by ob- 
serving that its title, that of Resident, would indicate 
diplomatic functions. If we are to judge by the in- 
structions given to Mr. Busby, the Resident, and by 
his official dispatches to the Governor of New South 
Wales, under whose authority he was placed, he was 
accredited, not to any natives, but to the missionaries 
inhabiting the small peninsula at the northern ex- 
tremity of the North Island. Governor Sir Richard 
Bourke says to him : — " You will find it convenient 
*' to manage this conference (with the chiefs) by means 
" of the missionaries, to whom you will be furnished 
" with credentials, and with whom you are recom- 
" mended to communicate freely upon the objects of 
" your appointment, and the measures you should adopt 
" in treating with the chiefs." And Mr. Busby as- 
sures Sir Richard Bourke, that ** unless a defined and 
" specific share in the government of the country be 
"allotted to the missionaries, the British Govern- 
"ment have no right to expect that that influential 
" body will give a hearty support to its representa- 
" tive." Defined functions the Resident had none. 
His authority for the repression of evil was never 


more than nferely nominal. He was described as re- 
sembling a man-of-war without guns, 

During the years immediately following this un- 
meaning arrangement, the wars of the natives con- 
tinued with all the aggravation of destructiveness 
occasioned by the use of fire-arms ; — outrages were 
committed by the white settlers upon each other, and 
upon the natives, and by the natives upon them ; — 
European vices and disease were spread among tl^e 
diminished native population ; — and, according to the 
testimony of every eye-witness who has given evidence 
upon the subject, including that of the most intelli- 
gent and zealous of the missionaries, the numbers of 
the aborigines visibly decreased. At length, in 1835, 
another attempt was made to establish some kind of 
authority in New Zealand. 

The Baron de Thierry, before mentioned, had not 
lost sight of the project which he had formed at Cam- 
bridge during the visit of Hongi and Mr. Kendal. 
From more than one place in the South Seas he gave 
out that the acquisition which Mr. Kendal had made 
for him in 1822 amounted to a right of sovereignty 
over the islands, and that it was his intention speedily 
to take possession of It. Some interest in his pro- 
ceedings had been excited in France, by means of the 
newspaper press. Not a little alarmed at the pros- 
pect, however slight, of a French dominion, the lead- 
ing missionaries now joined with the more decent of 
the settlers at the Bay of Islands in desiring the esta- 
blishment of a national power in the country. But 
instead of applying to the Crown for the full exercise 
of that British dominion which had resulted from the 
acts of Cook and the Government of New South 
Wales, they induced thirty-five chiefs of the little 
northern peninsula to sign a paper, by which they de- 


clared the independence of the whole of New Zealand 
as one nation, — formed themselves into an independent 
state, with the title of " the United Tribes of New 
" Zealand," — agreed to meet in Congress " for the piir- 
" pose of framing laws for the dispensation of justice" 
and other ends, — and invited the Southern Tribes to 
join the " confederation of the United Tribes." 

There cannot be the least doubt that this document 
was composed by the missionaries at the l?ay of 
Islands, and signed by the chiefs with as little real 
comprehension of its meaning as had attended the 
signature by natives of the deeds of feoffment drawn 
up by Sydney attorneys with blanks for the names of 

The vendors in the case of Mr. Marsden's purchase 
could not be supposed to understand the words — '* to- 
** gether with all the rights, members, privileges, and 
" appurtenances thereunto belonging, to have and to 
" hold, to the aforesaid committee of the Church Mis- 
" sionary Society for Africa and the East, instituted in 
" London, in the kingdom of Great Britain, their 
" heirs, successors, and assigns for ever, clear and freed 
" from all taxes, charges, impositions, and contribu- 
*' tions whatsoever, as and for their own absolute and 
" proper estate for ever." Nor could the chiefs under- 
stand what was meant by the words in the declaration 
of independence: — "All sovereign power and authority 
" within the territories of the United Tribes of -New 
" Zealand is hereby declared to reside, entirelyisind ex- 
" clusively, in the hereditary chiefs and heads itf tribes 
" in their collective capacity : who also declare fn'at they 
" will not allow any legislative authority separate from 
" themselves in their collective capacity to exist ; nor any 
** functions of government to be exercised within the 
*' said territories, unless l)y persons appointed by them. 


" and acting under the authority of laws regularly 
" enacted by them in Congress assembled." 

So little were these or any other chiefs of New 
Zealand capable of performing such an act as the 
document describes, that their own language wanted 
the most important words expressive of its purport, 
such as independence, sovereignty, government, con- 
federation, legislative, and even a name for the country 
over which their new authority purported to extend. 
At the instance of the missionaries, however, this 
mockery was recognized by the British Government ; 
and the captain of a man-of-war, acting on behalf of 
William the Fourth, requested the chiefs in question 
to select from a number of flags the one which they 
should prefer as an emblem of national independence. 

The new government was found so unreal, that no 
meeting of the confederated chiefs ever took place ; nor 
was either the confederation, or the declaration of 
independence, or the national flag, even known to any 
of the native tribes out of the small peninsula which 
forms about a twelfth part of the country. 

Various representations were now made to the 
British Government, setting forth the evils of a con- 
tinued anarchy in New Zealand. The merchants of 
London joined in a memorial signed by the principal 
houses engaged in the South Sea trade, A petition 
from the more respectable of the White settlers in New 
Zealand, including the principal members of the Church 
Mission, was sent to England. But, through some 
influence at the Colonial Ofiice, every application was 
disregarded ; and it seemed the fixed purpose of the 
Government to leave undisturbed the experiment of 
training up a native Levitical republic under mis- 
sionary control, directed by a religious society in 


In 1836, a Committee of the House of Commons on 
Aborigines set before the British public, in a form to 
make a deep impression, a grievous picture of the state 
of things in New Zealand. 

In the same year, another Committee of the House 
of Commons inquired into the subject of the disposal of 
waste lands with a view to colonization, and received evi- 
dence as well of the fitness of New Zealand for the pur- 
pose of regular British settlements, as of the deplorable 
results of European settlement without law or order. 

In 1837, a society v^'as formed in London, under the 
name of the New Zealand Association, for the purpose 
of inducing the British Government to establish a suf- 
ficient authority in the islands, and to colonize them 
according to a plan deliberately prepared with a view 
of rendering colonization beneficial to the native inha- 
bitants as well as to the settlers. 

The author of the plan and founder of the Associa- 
tion was my father, Mr. Edward Gibbon Wakefield ; 
but the members of the Association whose position in 
public life attracted attention to the project, and whose 
zealous exertions ultimately saved New Zealand from 
becoming a French penal colony, were Mr. Francis 
Baring (the chairman). Lord Durham, Lord Petre, 
Mr. Bingham Baring, Mr. Campbell of Islay, Mr. 
Charles Enderby, the munificent promoter of Antarc- 
tic discovery, Mr. Ferguson of Raith, the Kev. Dr. 
Hinds, Mr. Benjamin Hawes, Mr. Philip Howard, 
Mr. William Hutt, Mr. Lyall, Mr. Mackenzie, Sir 
William Molesworth, Sir George Sinclair, Sir Wil- 
liam Symonds, Mr. Henry George M^ard, and Mr. 
Wolryche Whitmore. 

The Association, having matured their plan, but ap- 
prehensive of opposition from the Colonial Office, which 
might nip the project in its bud, addressed themselves 


to the Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, with a view 
of obtaining the sanction of the executive Government : 
and they imagined themselves to have received such 
cordial encouragement from his lordship, as Avell as 
from Lord Ho wick, to whom Lord Melbourne referred 
them for the settlement of matters of detail, that they 
f6lt justified in collecting a body of intending colonists 
as an indispensable means of carrying out the under- 

Among other steps taken by the Association, were 
two applications to the Church Missionary Society, 
with a view of establishing a friendly feeling and 
active co-operation between the two bodies. The first 
was made by a deputation which waited upon Mr. 
Dandeson Coates ; by whom they were frankly in- 
formed, that, "though he had no doubt of their respect- 
*' ability and the purity of their motives, he was op- 
" posed to the colonization of New Zealand in any 
" shape, and was determined to thwart them by all the 
" means in his power." The second was a letter from 
Dr. Hinds, in behalf of his colleagues, and addressed 
to the Committee of the Society, but of which the 
receipt was not even acknowledged. 

The views of the Association were openly and 
covertly opposed by Mr. Coates, now by a published 
pamphlet in the form of a letter to Lord Glenelg, at 
that time Colonial JMinister, and then by a pamphlet 
marked ' Confidential,' which was privily but exten- 
sively circulated. These documents flatly charged the 
members of the Association with being influenced by 
motives of personal gain. 

When it became necessary again to apply to Lord 
Melbourne, this time for his ultunate sanction of a 
Bill which was now ready to be submitted to Parlia- 
ment, his lordship received a deputation from the As- 


sociation. Lord Glenelg was present at the interview, 
and spoke on behalf of the Government. He warmly 
censured every principle of the Association which 
Lord Melbourne had formerly approved ; and above all, 
disclaimed any right on the part of the British Crown 
to exercise any sort or degree of authority in New Zea- 
land. The strange scene that ensued was described 
by my father as witness before a Select Committee of 
the House of Commons on New Zealand, appointed 
in 1840, on the motion of the present Lord St. Ger- 
mains, then Lord Eliot. 

It seems more than probable, however, that the 
Prime Minister's sense of justice was affected by the 
remarks made to Lord Glenelg in his presence ; for it 
was presently intimated to the Association, that if 
some of their body would wait upon Lord Glenelg in 
the ensuing week, their application would be more 
favourably received. 

A number of them accordingly attended at the 
Colonial Office, and were received by Lord Glenelg ; 
who informed them, that very recent dispatches from 
the Resident in New Zealand, and the commander of 
a man-of-war which had visited the coasts, had in- 
duced Her Majesty's Government to abandon their 
objections to the systematic and regulated colonization 
of the islands ; that they still objected to the instru- 
ment of colonization proposed by the Association, 
namely, a Board of Commissioners acting under the 
immediate control of the Colonial Minister as public 
officers having no private interest in the matter ; but 
that they were prepared to grant to the Association a 
Royal Charter of incorporation for colonizing purposes, 
similar to those under which the English colonies in 
America were established in the sixteenth and seven- 
♦teenth centuries. Lord Glenelg further explained. 


that a condition of the grant of a Charter would be 
the subscription by the Association of a joint-stock 
capital to be embarked in the undertaking. The sub- 
stance of his lordship's statements at the interview was 
afterwards reduced to writing in the form of a letter to 
Lord Durham. 

Lord Durham's answer* declines the offer of a 
charter, on the ground that the members of the Asso- 
ciation had invariably and publicly disclaimed all views 
of pecuniary speculation or interest, and were thereby, 
as well as by a continued disinclination to acquire 
any private concern in the national work which they 
sought to promote, entirely precluded from assenting 
to the proposed condition of raising a joint-stock 

Early in 1838, a Select Committee of the House of 
Lords was, on the motion of Lord Devon, appointed 
to inquire into the state of New Zealand ; and it col- 
lected a mass of information which but too fully 
confirmed previous representations of the deplorable 
condition of the islands, and further exposed the neces- 
sity of subjecting the materials of disorder to the 
restraints of British law. 

In June of the same year, Mr. Francis Baring 
brought into the House of Commons the Bill which 
had been prepared, and which embodied the views 
of the Association as modified by suggestions which 
they had received from Lord Melbourne and Lord 
Howick. Lord Durham was now in Canada ; and 
though he had not left England without feeling as- 
sured that Mr. Baring's Bill would be supported in 

* Printed, together with Lord Glenelg's letter, in the ' Appendix 
to the Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons 
on New Zealand in the year 1840/ page 148. 


Parliament by Her Majesty's Ministers, it was strenu- 
ously opposed by them, and accordingly thrown out. 

Among the body of intending colonists which had 
been collected by the Association, were several gen- 
tlemen who had disposed of property and abandoned 
professions with a view to emigrating. These, after 
the defeat of Mr. Baring's Bill, determined to act 
upon Lord Glenelg's proposal of a charter, and exerted 
themselves to form a joint-stock company. By degrees, 
and especially after Lord Durham's return from Ca- 
nada, they were joined by many members of the now 
defunct Association ; whose anxious desire to accom- 
plish the national object which had engaged them so 
long at length overcame their repugnance to the con- 
dition on which Lord Glenelg had insisted. Thus 
was formed the New Zealand Land Company of 1839. 

The Government, however, exhibited even a greater 
hostility to this body than to the Association which it 
succeeded. It only remained, therefore, to ado])t the 
views of the Colonial Office by considering New Zea- 
land as a foreign country, and by proceeding to acquire 
land and form settlements in the manner hitherto 
sanctioned by the Crown. 

The new Company were thus forced into the adop- 
tion of what has been termed land -sharking, as far as 
acquiring lands by assignment from savages : but they 
redeemed their reluctant compliance with this usage, 
because the only one recognized by authority, by adher- 
ing to the same systematic disposal of lands for public 
purposes, and the same ample provisions for the future 
benefit of the natives, which formed the leading fea- 
tures of Mr. Baring's Bill.* In order to establish a 

* In 1837, the Association collected information on New Zealand 
from all quarters, and compiled it in a volume which also contained 
their projects. This book was called ' British Colonization of New 


uniform system in these respects, it became requisite 
that they should obtain control over a much larger 
extent of land than could be required for the use of any 
possible number of settlers for years and years to come. 
With this view, and in accordance with the alleged 
national sovereignty of the native chiefs, they resolved 
to send an expedition to New Zealand under the direc- 
tion of an agent, instructed to adopt the usual method 
of acquiring land from the natives, but if possible 
upon a far greater scale than was ever necessary for 
the purposes of cultivation or even of speculation by 
individuals. This charge was confided to an uncle of 
mine. Colonel William Wakefield. He was further 
instructed to select the spot which he should deem 
most eligible as the site of a considerable colony, and 
to make preparations for the arrival and settlement of 
the emigrants. 

A fine vessel of 400 tons, the Tory, was bought 
and prepared for the voyage. She was armed with 
eight guns, and small-arms for all the ship's company ; 
filled with the necessary stores, provisions, and goods 
for barter with the New Zealanders^ and manned with 
a strong and select crew. 

Such a voyage seemed to offer much novelty and 
adventure ; and I, being then nineteen years old, con- 
ceived an eager desire to be one of the party. My 
father gave his consent to my departure; and I was 
fortunate enough to obtain a passage in the Tory from 
the patrons of the enterprise. 

Zealand,' and was published by John W. Parker in that year. The 
views of the projectors relating to the conduct to be observed by 
the colonists in amalgamating with the natives were embodied in a 
beautiful Essay which forms the Appendix, by the Rev. Montaoiie 
Hawtrey, who was one of their number and also a member of the 
Committee of the Church Missionary Society. 

VOL. I. C 


A body of intending colonists was already collected ; 
and they were to follow the first expedition even 
before hearing of its proceedings. A rendezvous was 
appointed for the 10th of January, 1840, in Port 
Hardy, a harbour in Cook's Strait, which was known 
to be good for the largest ships. I intended to see 
the landing of the first body of colonists, and then 
to return in one of the ships which should have borne 
them to their destination. So interesting, however, 
did it become to watch the first steps of the infant 
colony, and so exciting to march among the ranks of 
its hardy founders, that I was tempted to postpone my 
return for four years after their arrival. I can only 
explain this by the narrative contained in subsequent 



Departure from Plymouth — Passengers — Voyage — First sight of 
New Zealand — Cook's Strait — Queen Charlotte's Sound — Ship 
Cove — Natives — Village — Wretched houses — Dispute with 
Natives — Reconciliation — European settlement — Messenger sent 
— Returns with two Englishmen — Mountains — Forest — Scenery 
of Queen Charlotte's Sound — Tory Channel — Native Pa, or 
Fort — H. M. B. Pelorus — Te-awa-iti — Richard Barrett — Tribes 
of Cook's Strait — Proprietorship of land unsettled — Vague 
notions of Natives — Plan of Native Reserves as real payment. 

All our equipments and preparations being at length 
complete, we sailed from Plymouth on the 12th of May. 

The ship was commanded by Mr. Edmund Mein 
Chaffers, of the Royal Navy, who had been acting 
master of H. M. S. Beagle during the survey of Cape 
Horn and voyage round the world, performed by 
Captain Fitzroy between the years 1830 and 1836. 

Besides Colonel AVakefield and myself, the follow- 
ing gentlemen were passengers on board : — Doctor 
Ernest Dieffenbach, a native of Berlin, who had been 
appointed naturalist to the Company ; Mr. Charles 
Heaphy, the Company's draughtsman; Mr. John 
Dorset, who had been promised the appointment of 
colonial surgeon ; Nayti, a New Zealander, who had 
been residing during two years in my father's house in 
London, and who was to act as interpreter ; Mr. 
Richard Lowry, the chief mate ; and Mr. George F. 
Robinson, the surgeon of the ship. The Rev. Mon- 
tague Hawtrey, to whom I have already adverted as 
the writer of the admirable essay on the amalgamation 
of a civilized people with savages, was to have accom- 
panied us as chaplain. He had actually received his 

c 2 


outfit allowance from the Company, but was prevented 
at the last moment by unavoidable circumstances from 
carrying out his intentions. 

In the steerage were — Robert Doddrey, who had 
formerly visited some parts of the coast of New Zea- 
land in a trading schooner from Van Diemen's Land, 
and who was engaged as storekeeper and additional 
interpreter ; the second and third mates ; and Colonel 
Wakefield's servant, besides the steward and his cabin- 

Petty officers and foremast hands, among whom 
were a New Zealander and a native of the Marquesas 
Islands, made up our total muster-roll to thirty-five 

The Tory sailed remarkably well. We crossed the 
line, in 26^ 50' W. longitude, on the twenty-sixth day 
from Plymouth, passed the longitude of the Cape of 
Good Hope on the 10th of July, and saw the high 
land of New Zealand on the 16th of August, about 
noon. We established during the voyage a w^eekly 
manuscript newspaper, and a debating society. These 
recreations, and an ample supply of useful and inte- 
resting books, caused the time to pass cheerfully 
enough. Vocabularies of the Maori or New Zealand 
language were also constructed from Nayti's dictation ; 
and lessons to him in English spelling, many a deep 
game of chess, and an occasional battue of the alba- 
trosses and other marine birds, which abound in the 
high latitudes between the Cape of Good Hope and 
Van Diemen's Land, beguiled the leisure time. These 
battues partook of shooting and fishing; for some- 
times we baited large hooks with bits of pork, and 
caught the gigantic birds by the beak. I remember 
one day seeing twenty-eight live albatrosses on the 
deck together, many of them measuring twelve feet 


from tip to tip of the wings. Once on the deck, they 
cannot escape, as they have great difficulty in first 
rising on the wing. Some of us stored the white 
feathers, supposing from Nayti's account that they 
would be highly valuable in New Zealand; others 
made tobacco-pouches of the web-feet, or pipe-stems of 
the wing-bones ; the naturalist made preparations of 
skeletons and skins, to keep his hand in; and the 
sailors prepared the carcases in a dish called " sea-pie." 

The land which we first sighted proved to be the 
western coast of the Middle Island, not far south of 
Cape Farewell. A remarkable white fissure in the 
mountains forms a distinguishing land-mark at a great 

Having fairly entered the middle of Cook's Strait by 
sunset, we hove to with a fresh N. W. breeze till day- 
light. Once or twice during the night we found 
soundings in about fifty fathoms. This was conjec- 
tured to be near the mouth of Blind Bay. 

In the morning of the 17th we proceeded to the 
eastward. When I came on deck we had land in 
sight on both bows. Bearing away for the southern 
land, we soon made out Stephens Island, and passed 
within five or six miles of it. As we ran along the 
coast, D'Urville's Island, the Admiralty Islands, Point 
Lambert, and Point Jackson were successively re- 
cognized from Cook's chart. The high rugged land 
of the Middle Island, which had at a distance appeared 
barren and sprinkled with rocks, proved on closer in- 
spection to be clothed with the most luxuriant forest. 
As we neared Point Jackson, the breeze died away, 
and we remained for a time becalmed in the entrance 
of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Cape Koumaru * (Koe- 

* It becomes necessary to mention that the Maori or New Zea- 
land language, as reduced to writing by the missionaries, gives a 


maroo of Cook) and the Brothers, Entry Island, 
and the mainland on the north coast of Cook's Strait, 
were now very distinctly visible ; a bright warm sun 
gave the most charming appearance to the romantic 
shores of the Sound ; and we exclaimed against the 
calm which seemed likely to detain us another night 
at sea. Two or three of the most impatient got into 
the cutter, and pulled towards Point Jackson, to try 
and catch some fish ; but they had not got far before 
a light air sprang up, and we glided into the Sound. 
The tide favouring us, they had some trouble in over- 
taking the ship. The scenery became more and more 
majestic as we advanced into this noble estuary. Its 
outer mouth is nine miles wide. High wooded 
mountains rise on both sides ; numerous islands and 
projecting points dot the expanse of still water which 
penetrates far into the interior ; and a glimpse of the 
Southern Alps is obtained in the extreme distance. 
We proceeded between Long Island and Motuara. 
The former, a narrow ridge bare of wood, was crowned 
with native fortifications ; a small pa or fort was also 
visible on the south point of Motuara. As we entered 
the Sound, we saw four canoes under sail, coming 
from the westward. Before we anchored for the night 
in the S. E. entrance of Ship Cove, another canoe came 
paddling off to us, containing eight natives. We at 
first thought they hesitated about venturing near us ; 
but it turned out that they were only stopping to bale 
out their canoe, which was a very ill-constructed 

distinct sound to each vowel, similar to that which it would have in 
the Continental languages. Thus maori is sounded like " mowree ;" 
muka, like " mookah ;" here kie hie, like " herray keeay keeay ;" 
and Koumaru, " Ko-oo-mah-roo :" and I have maintained the or- 
thodox orthography throughout, and have made such words as 
" taboo " tapu. Every word to be so sounded is therefore printed 
in Italics. 


affair. As they came alongside the ship, which had 
almost stopped her way, the canoe was lashed to the 
chains, and the men scrambled on deck with great 
activity. We were at first startled by the quickness 
with which this was done, and by their wild, half- 
naked appearance. All our anticipations had not pre- 
pared us thoroughly for this first meeting; and our 
friend Nayti was so quiet and silent in his manners, 
that the contrast of their demeanour was striking. 
They ran about shaking hands with everybody they 
met, and seemed to consider their appearance as a 
matter of course. One of them, a tall muscular young 
man, ran to assist the helmsman, and seemed proud to 
display some knowledge of nautical terms and the 
manoeuvres of a ship. They all spoke more or less 
broken English, and chattered in a sort of authorita- 
tive way about the best anchorage, giving themselves 
quite the airs belonging to a pilot. They had brought 
on board some fish and potatoes, which we bought for 
a little tobacco. Night closed in as we let go our 
anchor, and they returned to their village. 

August 18th. — This morning, at daylight, we had 
warped farther into the cove, and anchored in 1 1 
fathoms, muddy bottom, within 300 yards of the shore, 
where we fastened a hawser to a tree ; thus occupying 
probably the same spot as Captain Cook, in his nume- 
rous visits to this harbour. There were a good many 
natives on board already ; but, eager to touch the land, 
I got into a small canoe with Nayti, who paddled me 
ashore. The hills, which rise to the height of 1000 
or 1500 feet on three sides of the cove, are covered 
from their tops to the water's edge with an undulating 
carpet of forest. How well Cook has described the 
harmony of the birds at this very spot ! Every bough 
seemed to throng with feathered musicians, and the 
melodious chimes of the bell-bird were especially dis- 


tinct. At the head of the cove is a small level space 
of land, formed by the alluvial deposit of three rills 
from the mountains, which here empty themselves 
into the bay. Landing here, I remained for some 
time absorbed in contemplating the luxurious vegeta- 
tion of grass and shrubs, and the wild carrots and 
turnips which remain as relics of our great navigator. 
Rich historical recollections crowded on my mind as I 
tried to fix on the exact spot where Cook's forge and 
carpenter's shop had stood ; and I was only roused 
from my reverie by the arrival of some more of the 
party, bent on the same object. We collected some 
shells, pebbles, and plants, and returned to breakfast 
on fresh potatoes and some of the fish which had 
been caught in abundance from the ship in the 

The four canoes which we had seen yesterday 
arrived this morning, and came alongside the ship. 
They came from Admiralty Bay, and were bound to 
Cloudy Bay, with pigs and potatoes for sale. Having 
seen us stand in, they came in hopes of having a deal 
with us ; and they also told us that they were going 
through the Sound, thus confirming Nayti's previous 
account that its eastern side consisted of an island. 
They had not abandoned any of their savage customs, 
and rubbed noses with Nayti instead of shaking him 
by the hand. They were also covered with oil and red 
ochre, and seemed much wilder in their manners than 
our friends of Ship Cove. These latter informed us 
that they had been lately visited by a missionary 
schooner, and that they shook hands because they were 
all " missionaries." We could not, however, discover 
whether Wesleyan or Church missionaries had con- 
verted them ; and we soon found that they were not yet 
very attentive even to the forms of the new doctrine. 
They all wished to barter, although this was Sunday ; 


and seemed much surprised that Colonel Wakefield de- 
clined the offer of one of their daughters to remain on 
board with him. This was no doubt owing to the 
vicinity of the whale-ships and whaling-stations in and 
near Cloudy Bay. They were all, however, told to 
return ashore, and bring what they had to sell the 
next day. 

We went ashore again after prayers, and admired 
the luxurious vegetation. The wood on the sides of 
the hills appeared almost impenetrable from the thick 
web of supple-jacks and creepers. We found no natives, 
the cove being under tapu, on account of its being the 
burial-place of a daughter of Te Pehi, the late chief 
of the Kapiti, or Entry Island, natives. Those who 
visited us came from a cove a little farther north, 
called Cannibal Cove by Cook, and Anaho by the na- 
tives. They are called the J^gatihinatui tribe, and 
their principal chief was named Ngarewa, or " The 
Straight Trees." 

August 19th. — The work of filling our water- 
casks and refitting the ship commenced to-day. The 
storekeeper was very busy laying in a stock of potatoes 
and pigs from the natives. A pipe bought a basket 
of potatoes weighing 20 lbs., and a red blanket bought 
three good-sized pigs. These terms, too, were con- 
sidered liberal on our part. In the afternoon we went 
over in the boat to Motuara, the island on which 
Cook had his observatory and garden. It commands 
a fine view of the northern part of the Sound, Entry 
Island, and the high land near Cape Terawiti. The 
island had a very gay appearance, being covered with 
wild shrubs and flowers like an ornamental plantation. 
We fell in with plenty of pigeons, parrots, and other 
birds, which our guns soon made to contribute to the 
table and to the collection of the delighted naturalist. 


None of the natives live here ; but they turn pigs loose 
on the island, and catch them as they are wanted. 

The chief Ngarewa, with his wife, and his son 
Ehoro, a nice intelligent lad of thirteen, remained to 
dinner with us to-day. Their behaviour was very re- 
spectable : they ate heartily of everything, but drank 
little, the father warning Ehoro against too much 

Nayti seemed much pleased at our kind treatment of 
his countrymen. He was at first ashamed of their rude 
appearance, and often apologised to us for it. He 
seemed, too, suspicious and afraid of them, and inclined 
to cling to us in consequence. 

During the next few days we made great friends 
with the natives. The barter went on alongside; 
Ngarewa remained on deck or in the cabin amusing 
himself with a pipe and a book of prints, or trying to 
understand and answer our inquiries about his place 
and people. He did not appear to have much influence 
on the latter, and at any rate never exerted it. Ehoro 
guided us on shooting excursions up the sides of the 
hills, or joined our fishing parties to the next cove to 
the south, where we always had a good haul with our 
scan. The women of the village had almost all re- 
moved to Ship Cove, wliere they eagerly undertook the 
task of washing our clothes. 

On the 22nd we took Ngarewa home to his village 
in our whale-boat, after he had received from my uncle 
a gun and some other small presents. We found the 
village of Anaho in a level piece of ground at the head 
of Cannibal Cove, and were much amused by seeing 
the ware punt, or sleeping houses, of the natives. 
These are exceedingly low ; and covered with earth, 
on which weeds very often grow. They resemble, in 
shape and size, a hot-bed with the glass off. A small 


square hole at one end is the only passage for light 
or air. I intended to creep into one of them to ex- 
amine it ; but had just got my head in, and was de- 
bating within myself by what snake-like evolution I 
should best succeed in getting my body to follow, 
when I was deterred by the intense heat and intole- 
rable odour from proceeding. One large house in the 
village, with wattled walls plastered with clay, we 
were told belonged to an Englishman then in Cloudy 
Bay. The natives use it for a common habitation 
during the day, and assemble in it to prayers every 
morning and evening. They all came out to greet us 
with the constant shake of the hand. 

A mischief-making native, belonging to the Kapiti 
tribe, but who has married a woman here, tried to 
annoy us by threats and extortions of payment for 
wood and water, on account of the tapu of Ship Cove. 
As, however, his demands were exorbitant, and re- 
newed after the satisfactory settlement of the point 
by a small present, he was quietly and firmly refused 
by my uncle ; who reminded him that the natives 
had themselves broken the tapu, large numbers of 
them having removed to the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the burial-place in order to have the advan- 
tage of proximity in their dealings with us. He per- 
sisted in his violent demands ; and early one morning 
came alongside in a canoe, and carried away our fish- 
ing-sean, having first pushed over one of the appren- 
tices who was in the boat. Captain Chaffers went on 
shore with an armed boat to demand instant restitu- 
tion of the net ; and found that our tormentor had 
enlisted the feelings of the other natives in his favour. 
They were sullen and reserved, and refused to give it 
up at first. Their appearance, and the fact that many 
fresh natives were ashore, induced Captain Chaffers to 


return on board, and prepare the ship for an emer- 
gency. The guns were shotted, the crew armed, 
sentries placed at the gangways, and a spring put 
on the cable so that the ship's broadside might be 
brought to bear on the beach where the natives were 
encamped. During these preparations, one or two 
large war-canoes came round the northern point of 
the cove, and dashed in to the beach at great speed, 
the rowers singing in time with their paddles. A 
single canoe, full of natives, now came off to the ship. 
As they silently paddled round the stern, we observed 
that some carried their tomahawks and green-stone 
clubs or meri ponamu. The others kept their blankets 
and mats wrapped over everything but their heads. 
Our original persecutor was the first who attempted 
to ascend the ladder, tomahawk in hand ; but he was 
startled to find at the top a sentry with musket and 
bayonet, and my uncle, who quietly but firmly told 
him to go ashore, and that he would allow no natives 
to come on board armed. " Dogskin," as we had nick- 
named him from his wearing a mat of that material, 
seemed inclined to persist in his intention of getting 
on deck ; but the sight of the end of a pistol sticking 
out of my uncle's coat-pocket suddenly made him 
change his mind; and he descended into the canoe, 
which pulled slowly back to the shore. A smaller 
canoe next came off, with only a boy paddling, and 
an old chief whom we had not yet seen, who showed 
that he was unarmed, and requested to be allowed to 
come on board. This was complied with ; and the 
old gentleman introduced himself as Te TJ^etu, or 
** the Star." He told us that he came from Rangitoto, 
which we afterwards discovered to be in D'Urville's 
Island, and that he was waiting in a bay north of 
Cannibal Cove for fair weather to cross the strait to 


Kapiti, in order to be present at a grand tatigi, or 
mourning feast, over the death of a sister of Rauperaha, 
the great chief at that place. He explained to us that 
every one would cry very much, and that then there 
vi^ould be much kai kai or feasting. He was accom- 
panied by a large retinue ; some of whom had come with 
him in the morning to visit the Ngatihinatui. The 
war-canoes belonged to his party. He seemed much 
inclined to stop on board, and talked to us of the 
quarrel with great indifference. He asserted, though, 
that we ought to pay for the tapu ; but suggested as 
an amendment, that the utu, or " payment," should be 
handed to him instead of " Dogskin." We therefore 
concluded that the demand was altogether unjust, and 
a mere bullying attempt at extortion. 

Te TVetu appeared to be about sixty years old, but 
he was still wiry and strong. He was very amusing 
and fond of conversation. He told us all about his 
place, Rangitoto, which means "blood- coloured sky," 
and expressed his hope that we should pay it a visit. 
He declared himself " no missionary/' and said he had 
four wives, the fifth having lately died. Having in- 
quired how many the Kings of England had, he laughed 
heartily at finding that they were not so well provided, 
and repeatedly counted "four wahine" (women) on 
his fingers. We gave the natives a small present 
of tobacco, recovered the scan, and soon restored 
friendship, as they had become tired of being excluded 
from their market on board. Te TVetu took kindly 
to the cabin-table, where covers were always laid for 
him and Ngarewa^ family, who had taken no part 
whatever in the disturbances. The natives were rather 
puzzled at our display of force, and my uncle's firmness 
on the occasion excited general respect among them. 
They had previously described us as a missionary ship ; 


many of them having taken notice of our observance 
of the Sunday, and some having attended our service 
on that day. They now, however, said we were half- 
missionary, half-soldier. A native missionary teacher, 
named William, assembled the natives who were on 
board to prayers several evenings. Te TVetu always 
sat apart when this took place. No further attempts 
at extortion were made ; and Te Wetu told a canoe-full 
of his people, who attempted to come on board one 
morning, that they were not wanted, and that he was 
very comfortable where he was. 

On the 28th, my uncle sent Doddrey the store- 
keeper, with a native guide, to a village at the south- 
ern entrance of Queen Charlotte's Sound, which Nayti 
and also the resident natives described as containing a 
hundred White men, with three rangatira^ or "chiefs." 
In the afternoon of the following day, he returned in 
a whale-boat with two Englishmen. One was named 
Williams, and was carpenter at the village in question, 
where he said there were about sixty Europeans or 
Americans living by whaling. The other was named 
Arthur, and owned the meeting-house in Anaho vil- 
lage. Both brought their native wives with them. 
That of Arthur belongs to the village, and he gene- 
rally lives there in the summer. It was now, however, 
the season for whaling, in which pursuit we learnt that 
he was engaged ; and he was in consequence living at 
Te-awa-iti, whence the boat came. 

The crew of the whale-boat consisted of young na- 
tive men, dressed in the costume of European seamen ; 
and we heard that a great many of them are employed 
in the boats by the whalers. 

The arrival of our countrymen produced a great 
change in the deportment of the natives. They now 
cringed to our new guests, who took but little notice 


of them; and the obnoxious "Dogskin" disappeared. 
The new-comers confirmed our idea that the demand 
of utu was a mere extortion, and were much amused 
at the relation of our alarm and warlike demonstration. 
They told us that the natives were always ready to 
take advantage of inexperienced visitors in this way. 

We could do nothing here towards attaining our 
object, which was to select and purchase a location 
suitable for the emigrants whom we expected to fol- 
low us in January. Neither Ngarewa nor Te fVetu 
could give us any distinct information as to the owner- 
ship of the land in this neighbourhood. They both 
spoke of Rauperaha as the great chieftain to whom 
they were in a measure tributary ; but they seemed to 
agree that Hiko, the son of Te Pehi, had the best right 
to the land here. Neither, however, was described as hav- 
ing an absolute right to dispose of land ; and the vested 
rights appeared to us to be involved in much confusion. 
Our White friends could not clear up our doubts ; and, 
moreover, it was plain that although the immediate 
vicinity of Ship Cove could boast of excellent harbours 
and sublime scenery, it was not at all suited for a large 
European colony. My uncle therefore determined to 
avail himself of the services of Williams and Arthur 
in piloting the vessel to Te-awa-iti, where we might 
acquire more information. 

While we remained at anchor in Ship Cove, Dr. 
Dieffenbach had ascended two of the hills which 
bound the bay. On the first expedition he was ac- 
companied by the artist and Ehoro. They emerged 
from the forest into a coppice of fern, ten feet high, 
which clothed the upper part of the hill. After a te- 
dious scramble through this, they reached the summit, 
and were rewarded by a panoramic view of the nu- 
merous bays and coves of Queen Charlotte's Sound, 


dotted with many islands, and the northern shore 
of Cook's Strait. They calculated the hill to be 800 
feet above the level of the sea. The second hill he 
ascended with a native guide only. He obtained no 
view from the summit, as it was covered with the 
loftiest forest-trees. He ascertained the height by boil- 
ing water to be upwards of 1500 feet. His guide was 
a good deal frightened, and tried to dissuade him from 
proceeding, before they had completed the ascent, by 
legends of fierce monsters whom they would be sure to 
meet. On one occasion I formed one of a party who 
ascended the hill to a considerable height, by the course 
of one of the streams. We climbed up the sides of some 
picturesque waterfalls, and attained the top of a ridge 
covered with the largest trees. The trunks of some of 
these reached to the height of seventy or eighty feet 
without a branch. This elevated part of the forest 
was almost free from underwood, and moreover quite 
silent, the birds appearing to remain in the lower and 
more lively regions. It was impossible not to be struck 
by the majesty of this primaeval forest. 

August 3 1 . — The weather, which had been very bois- 
terous, with much rain, during the last few days, cleared 
up this morning. Having completed most of our re- 
fittings, and laid in a good stock of potatoes and water, 
we weighed anchor at 10 in the morning, and stood up 
the Sound with a light wind and favouring tide. We 
bade adieu to our friends the natives, and set Te Tf^etu 
and Ngarewa ashore as we got under way. We M'^ere, 
however, accompanied by the native teacher William, 
and by the native who had sprung to the wheel on our 
first arrival. The latter, whose native name was 
E Ware, had made himself a general favourite on 
board, and had apparently taken a fancy to the ship ; 
for he installed himself among the men without any 


agreement, and joined in all the work without any re- 
compense but his meals and a little tobacco. His ac- 
tivity and mirth, together with the rich humour which 
he displayed in executing some of the native dances, as 
well as in mimicking almost every one on board, earned 
for him the sobriquet of "Jim Crow," which he re- 
tained during the whole time that he stuck to the ship. 
He had acquired his nautical knowledge on board a 
whaling- ship in which he had served. I have often seen 
him, in the violent gales which we weathered on various 
parts of the coast, out on the end of the yard-arm 
doing the work of the best man in reefing, and cheer- 
ing the sailors to exertion by some broad joke or irre- 
sistible grimace. He was fully competent to do the 
work of an able seaman ; and his good humour under 
all circumstances was invincible. 

In gliding up the middle of the Sound, we disco- 
vered a succession of bays on either hand, each in 
itself a harbour. One or two are as large as Plymouth 
Sound, easy of access, and perfectly safe in all winds. 
With the exception of a few level spots, like that at 
the head of Ship Cove, the wooded mountains rise 
from the water's edge, many of them to a considerably 
greater height than even Mount Dieffsnbach, as we 
christened the hill which the naturalist ascended with- 
out falling a victim to the fabulous genii of the place. 
Nothing can be imagined more magnificent than the 
scenery, or, however, less suitable for cultivation. It 
forcibly reminded me of the wildest parts of the High- 
lands of the Hudson, with a greater expanse of water. 
At 3 P.M. we reached the entrance of the channel 
which joins the Sound with Cook's Strait to the east- 
ward. The entrance is about a mile wide ; and the 
channel, which was christened Tory Channel after 
Captain Chaffers had surveyed it, turns first to the 

VOL. I. D 


east, and then to the north-east, thus insulating but a 
narrow strip of land, and running nearly parallel to 
the Sound for the greater part of its course. As we 
left the main arm of Queen Charlotte's Sound, we saw 
at its southern end, some six or seven miles from us, 
a tract of level land apparently two or three miles wide, 
from which a grove of high trees rose up. 

The effect of the scenery was heightened by the re- 
markable clearness of the atmosphere. The distant 
land shone forth with distinct outline and brilliant 
colours. When we were at Ship Cove, the wooded 
edge of Entry Island, which is at least thirty miles 
distant, was generally plain to the eye, relieved against 
the snowy mountains of the North Island. As we 
entered into the narrow channel, the wind died away ; 
but a tide, running four or five knots an hour, drifted 
us along. Eddies were formed on the shores, and we 
were obliged to have boats towing a-head in order to 
keep the ship in mid-channel. In most parts of the 
sound and channel the depth of water is from thirty to 
forty fathoms, even close in to the shore; but the 
numerous bays afford more secure anchorage, out of 
the influence of the tide. About half-way through 
the channel a small island lies in the mouth of one of 
these bays, crowned by the palisadoes of a native fort. 
The inhabitants eyed us eagerly from the shore, and 
one or two canoes approached the ship. They seemed 
cautious of too near intercourse. This was soon ex- 
plained to us by our pilots. In the year 1838, the 
Pelorus, English brig-of-war, visited different parts of 
Cook's Strait, and did great service here by rendering 
justice to the injured party in many cases where com- 
plaint was made to the commander. After a display 
of gunnery close to this very pa, the commander de- 
manded and obtained restitution of many articles stolen 


from the whalers for a long space back. The chief, 
named Huriwenua, and his people, had distinguished 
themselves by their dishonesty and harassing conduct 
towards the Whites, and some of the guns were in con- 
sequence pointed against a stack of wood for fencing, 
which they knocked to pieces. This harmless show of 
strength produced an excellent eflfect ; and the visit was 
so recent that their respect for our flag still existed. 
This fortified island is named Mohio by the natives. 

At sunset we anchored off" the village of Te-awa-iti, 
or " The Little River." The whalers, who have a 
rough way of pronouncing the native language, have 
hardened this name into TarwJdte. 

As soon as we arrived, Mr. Richard Barrett, who 
was at the head of one of the whaling parties, came 
off" in his boat to us. We had been highly amused at 
the comfortable obesity of Williams, and considered 
him a promising sample of the good effects of New 
Zealand feeding. What was our surprise on finding 
Dicky Barrett, as he is generally called, as much 
stouter in person as he was shorter ! Dressed in a 
white jacket, blue dungaree trousers, and round straw 
hat, he seemed perfectly round all over ; while his 
jovial, ruddy face, twinkling eyes, and good-humoured 
smile, could not fail to excite pleasure in all beholders. 
And a merry party it was to look upon, as we sat 
round a bottle of grog on the cabin-table, listening to 
the relation of the wild adventures and " hairbreadth 
" 'scapes " of Barrett and his two fellow-whalers. 

Barrett had been in New Zealand for ten or twelve 
years : first as a flax-trader at the Sugar-loaf Islands 
near Taranaki, or Mount Egmont, where, with ten 
other White men, he joined the native inhabitants in 
their desperate resistance to the invasion of the If^ai- 
kato tribes ; and during the last five years as a whaler 



at this spot. On the retreat of the invaders, the 
Ngatiawa, or aboriginal tribe, determined on seeking 
a new country, free Irom the incursions of the enemies 
whom they had only repulsed with great loss to their 
own ranks. Barrett had married the daughter of one 
of their principal chiefs, by whom he has several chil- 
dren. He and his comrades accompanied the Nga- 
tiawa in their migration to the shores of Cook's 
Strait, which Rauperaka and Te Pehi had conquered 
and depopulated when those chiefs migrated from 
Kawia about the year 1825. This was about the year 
1834. Some of the Ngatiawa had settled on the 
shores of Queen Charlotte's Sound, some in Blind 
Bay, others at Port Nicholson, and along the coast of 
the North Island, between that and Kapiti. Constant 
quarrels had occurred between the original conquerors, 
who chiefly belong to the Ngatitoa tribe, and their 
more numerous successors. Rauperaka s party took 
up their residence chiefly at Kapiti, Admiralty Bay, 
Mana, or Table Island, and Cloudy Bay. They are 
often called the Kawia ; and they had been assisted, 
we learnt, in their attacks on the Ngatiawa by a tribe 
of natives called the fVaikorapupu, or " boiling- water," 
who live on the mainland north of Kapiti. The ac- 
quaintance and assistance of Dicky Barrett promised 
to be most advantageous to us, as he was related by his 
wife to all the influential chiefs living at Port Nichol- 
son. This was one of the spots to which the instruc- 
tions of the Company particularly directed the attention 
of their agent, as being likely, from the descrij)tion 
given by Nayti and other persons who had visited it, 
to prove a suitable spot for the establishment of the 
future colony. Barrett's account fully confirmed this 
idea ; and he, after having been made acquainted with 
our views and projects, expressed himself willing to 


second them with all his ability. He was thoroughly 
acquainted with the feelings and customs ol the na- 
tives, as well as their language ; and his constant 
intercourse with them had produced in him a worthy 
admiration of the good points in their character. He 
knew them too well, however, to give them unlimited 
praise ; but was delighted at the prospect of a regular 
English colony, which might cherish and benefit 
them, while it should prevent the disastrous effects 
often arising from the intercourse between the most 
ill-disposed among them, and some of their White 
guests who, outlaws from civilized society, had de- 
generated into something more brutal than the savage. 
We also learnt from him in how unsettled a state 
was the proprietorship of land about Cook's Strait. 
-The country had been conquered about fourteen years 
before by the Kawia tribe. They had almost exter- 
minated the Muopoko, Rangitane, and Ngatiapa, who 
were the original occupiers. And even the spots now 
occupied were in dispute between the conquerors and 
the Ngatiawa, who followed nine years afterwards in 
their track. The very superior number of the Nga- 
tiawa seemed to constitute their only right to supplant 
the conquerors. We learned that a war in consequence 
of some such dispute had been only recently concluded 
in the north end of Queen Charlotte's Sound, and 
that the forts on Long Island were the remains of this 
war. It seems that Rauperaha had crossed the strait 
a year or two previously in canoes, and had established, 
VI et armis, his claim to that island and Motuara, 
which the Ngatiawa had disputed at the cost of eight 
men. The Ngahitau, too, who had originally occu- 
pied Cloudy Bay, had frequently followed their chief 
Tuaivaiki, or " Bloody Jack," in expeditions to recover 
their settlements ; and it was not many years since 


Rauperaha had succeeded in driving them away, and 
establishing some of his relations in Port Underwood 
or TVanganui, the ship-harbour of Cloudy Bay. Thus 
it seemed plain that, even with regard to the owner- 
ship of their villages and potato-gardens, might con- 
stituted the only right. As to the parts lying waste, 
we collected that they were not thought of or claimed 
by any one. Many White men had cleared and culti- 
vated patches of land without bargain or interruption. 
These natives had not, like those in the neighbourhood 
of the Bay of Islands, learned that White men were 
willing to pay a high price for desert land ; and there 
did not seem to have ever been any written bargain for 
land before our arrival. We had become aware, from 
the evidence of missionaries given before a Committee of 
the House of Lords in 1838, that a very different state of 
things prevailed in the northern part of the islands ; 
but it was to be remembered that there, so early as 
1814, Mr. Marsden, the founder of the Church Mission, 
had brought a formal deed from Sydney, in order to 
complete an agreement for the land on which the Mis- 
sion buildings were to stand ; and that, since that time, 
numerous similar purchases on a large scale had been 
made by the missionaries as well as by lay settlers, who 
created a considerable demand for land in that portion 
of the country. Dicky told us plainly, that our wish 
to purchase a large district of waste land would be 
looked upon as a novelty by the natives here. From 
the information which we gathered from him and other 
persons, I feel convinced that a large body of settlers 
might have pitched their tents in many parts of the 
neighbourhood entirely without interruption, and with- 
out being regarded by the natives as intruders on their 

As, however, we did not propose to take possession 


of any territory without a positive sanction on the part 
of the natives, it was determined that Barrett should 
explain our views to them. He confessed that they 
would be sure to accept a payment, and that certainly 
they had a right to it, as we should probably include 
villages and cultivations in such large districts as we 
proposed to buy. 

A very important part of our projected plan was, to 
reserve a tenth portion of the land bought by us for 
the benefit and use of the natives. We had it in view 
thus to secure a valuable property to them, which 
might preserve their chiefs in circumstances equal to 
those of the higher order of settlers in future times. 
We had looked forward to the time when the value 
bestowed on these native reserves, by the improvement 
and cultivation of the other lands with which they 
should be intermingled, and by the presence of a large 
and thriving civilized community, might afford the 
means of furnishing the natives with abundant re- 
venue to support the dignity of their chiefs, with 
improved clothes and food, with houses lilce those of 
Europeans, with cattle and agricultural implements, 
with education and the means of religious worship ; 
in short, with all that might make them respectable in 
the eyes of the future colony. It had of course been 
provided that these reserves, although tapu for the 
natives, should be inalienable by them, as it was fore- 
seen that, without such a precaution, the natives would 
part with their reserves for a nominal value, as soon as 
they should acquire a real one in the eyes of speculat- 
ing colonists. It had also been provided that the 
defects of the system of Indian reserves in North 
America should be avoided. There the reserves have 
been selected in huge blocks which lie unimproved 
themselves, and which, while they produce no benefit 


to the natives, impede the cultivation and consequent 
rise in value of all the lands in their neighbourhood. 
They have been found to produce there the same evils 
which arose from the excessive grants made to indivi- 
duals at the first foundation of the colony of Swan 
River. The Indian reserves in Canada would doubt- 
less become of real value to the Indians, if small 
portions of them could be given away to bond jide 
settlers, able to bring labour and capital to bear on 
their land. The intervening parts of the great desert 
would then acquire more value, and produce more 
revenue, than the whole of it while it remained tapu 
to any but the Indians. 

On a similar principle we proposed to confer a greater 
value on the reserves for the natives in our colony than 
could belong to the whole district while lying waste ; 
for which, nevertheless, we proposed to give them an 
immediate, ample, and satisfactory payment. In order 
to understand our provisions for this purpose, it is 
necessary to know the plan which the Company had 
projected before our departure, for the distribution of 
the land among the intending colonists. 

In the first place, in accordance with the system then 
adopted in all our colonies, the land was to be sold in 
England, at the rate of 100/. for each section, consist- 
ing of one acre in the site of the town, and a hundred 
acres in the surrounding country ; and three-fourths 
of the proceeds were to be expended in carrying out 
labourers to the colony. 

The first colony was to consist of a town of 1 100 acres, 
and a corresponding country district of 1 1 0,000 acres. 

As soon as the list of purchasers of 1000 sections 
should be filled up, a lottery was to be formed in 
England, by which 1 1 00 orders of selection should be 
drawn, corresponding to the sum of the 1000 purchased 


sections, and the hundred sections reserved for the 
natives. To exemplify this, let us take an instance of 
what actually took place when this plan was carried 
into effect. Thus, upon the name of Mr. Duncan 
Dunbar being drawn, a ticket was drawn from another 
wheel, and turned up No. 1, giving him the right of 
the first choice of one among the 1100 town sections, 
and one among the 1100 country sections, as soon as 
they should be surveyed and marked on a map. The 
first native reserve drawn came up No. 7, thus securing 
the seventh best choice of one town and one country 
section, out of the same 2200 sections, to the native 

In this way the native reserves were sure to be well 
scattered among the lands occupied and owned by White 
men, and of fair average value. This system held out 
the brightest hopes of success : the value of the lands 
was thus secured, and it was also provided that such 
portions as the natives might select for their residence 
should be interspersed among the residences of ^White 
men, instead of being so isolated as to preserve their 
rude and uncivilized habits. Nothing can be a more 
degrading sight than the exclusively Indian villages of 
Canada. The defective habits and inclinations of the 
savage are preserved, and his existence as an isolated and 
inferior being is encouraged and perpetuated. They are 
visited as curiosities by the White inhabitants and tra- 
vellers, and are preserved in that light, like wild beasts 
in a show, devoid of comfort or improvement. The 
miserable appearance of the native villages which we 
had seen in New Zealand, tended in the strongest 
manner to confirm these views. Crowded together, as 
the natives were, in small, filthy, and unwholesome 
huts, we found that the animal heat, unpurified by 
ventilation, forced them to sleep quite naked, and that 


both sexes and all ages lay thus huddled together, 
like dormice in a nest. Without a great reform in this 
particular no one, however well-disposed to do so, could 
hope to effect a change in their morals, or to raise them 
up to the level of White people. In order that they 
should be better and more decently clothed, it was 
necessary that an improved process of agriculture 
should enable them to produce more than they con- 
sumed, without taking all their time ; so that they 
might set aside some hours for the cultivation of their 
intellect and their religious education. 

It was hoped that these preliminary changes, abso- 
lutely necessary to their effectual civilization, and yet 
mere steps towards that end, might be in a great mea- 
sure assisted by means of dispersing their residences 
and their cultivations among those of the superior 
race, because the constant example before their eyes, 
and consequent emulation to attain the same results, 
would naturally lead the inferior race, by an easy 
ascent^ to a capacity for acquiring the knowledge, 
habits, desires, and comforts, of their civilized neigh- 

This was what many sincere well-wishers to the 
natives had contemplated in their opinion, expressed 
in England before we left, that civilization should go 
hand in hand with, and in some degree precede 
Christianity among savage tribes. Perhaps the most 
interesting part of our undertaking was our acquies- 
cence in this principle, and the interest which we felt 
in calculating on its expediency from what we observed 
of the natives while in their wildest state. 

Dicky Barrett, who was an excellent whaler, but no 
political economist, did not see the whole bearing on 
our theory of the system of native reserves ; but he 
agreed that it was a noble and just provision against 


the chance of want coming upon them when they 
should have expended the original payment. 

We looked much further ; and considered the real 
payment to he made to them to consist in the confer- 
ring on them the great boon of civilization by such 
degrees as to secure its permanency; and, moreover, 
in the preserving for them a property of sufficient 
value to allow affluence and comfort to wait on the 
process, and crown its final completion. Such were 
the thoughts that passed through my mind after the 
whalers had returned on shore for the night ; and I 
felt happy in supposing, that the humblest share in the 
execution of so great an enterprise might be envied by 
the most ambitious of men. 



The Whaling-town — Try-works — Joseph Toms — History of Te- 
awa-iti — Foundation — Hardships — Progress — Wages of whalers 

. — Summer life — Jealousies — Lawlessness — Hospitality — Clean- 
liness — Native whale-boats — Wretched houses and food — Boat 
expedition — Tide-rip — Jack Guard — His perilous adventures 
in 1834— H. M.S. Alligator— Port Gore— Admiralty Bay- 
Wild cattle — Estuary of the Pelorus — Bivouac — Ducks — Tree- 
ferns — Teal — Tributary Natives — Pigeons — Precautions — 
Rapids — Canoe — Horror of brandy — Old Pa — Phormium tenax 
— Scraping — Guard's Island — A sacred Chief — Gale — Arrival 
at the ship — Climate — Illness of Natives — Departure for Port 
Nicholson — Shores of Cook's Strait, 

September 1, Sunday. — After prayers on board, we 
landed and visited the whaling-town of Te-awa-iti. 
Dicky Barrett's house was on a knoll at the far end of 
it, and overlooked the whole settlement and anchorage. 
There were about twenty houses presented to our view; 
the walls generally constructed of wattled supple-jack, 
called kareau, filled in with clay ; the roof thatched 
with reeds ; and a large unsightly chimney at one of 
the ends, constructed of either the same materials as 
the walls, or of stones heaped together by rude ma- 
sonry. Dicky Barrett's house, or ware as it is called 
in maori or native language, was a very superior edifice, 
built of sawn timber, floored and lined inside, and shel- 
tered in front by an ample veranda. A long room was 
half full of natives and whalers. His wife JE Rangi, 
a fine stately woman, gave us a dignified welcome ; and 
his pretty half-caste children laughed and commented 
on our appearance, to some of their mother's relations, 
in their own language. He had three girls of his own. 


and had adopted a son of an old trader and friend of 
his named Jacky Love, who was on his death-bed, re- 
gretted by the natives as one of themselves. He had 
married a young chieftainess of great rank, and his son 
Dan was treated with that universal respect and kind- 
ness to which he was entitled by the character of his 
father and the rank of his mother. 

We found Williams's ware in the centre of the 
town ; and Arthur's perched up on a pretty terrace on 
the side of the northern hill which slopes from the 
valley. A nice clear stream runs through the middle 
of the settlement. Some few of the whalers were 
dressed out in their clean Sunday clothes : but a large 
gang were busy at the try-works, boiling out the oil 
from the blubber of a whale lately caught. It appears 
that this is a process in which any delay is injurious. 
The try 'Works are large iron boilers, with furnaces 
beneath. Into these the blubber is put, being cut into 
lumps of about two feet square, and the oil is boiled 
out. The residue is called the scrag, and serves to 
feed the fire. The oil is then run into coolers, and 
finally into casks ready for shipping. The men were 
unshaven and uncombed, and their clothes covered 
with dirt and oil. Most of them were strong, muscular 
men ; and they reminded me, as they stoked the furnaces, 
and stirred the boiling oil, of Retzsch's grim imagina- 
tion of the forge in the forest, in his outline illustra- 
tions of Schiller's ballad of Fridolin. On asking one 
whether they always worked on Sundays, he answered 
contemptuously, '*()h! Sunday never comes into this 
' ' bay ! " An Australian aboriginal native was one of this 
greasy gang, and was spoken of as a good hand. The 
whole ground and beach about here was saturated with 
oil, and the stench of the carcasses and scraps of whale- 
flesh lying about in the bay was intolerable. 


Another man, heading a whaling-party here, was 
nicknamed " Geordie Bolts." His real name was 
Joseph Toms ; but being crippled in an encounter with 
a whale, he had the fame of never having been able to 
face one since ; and hence the nom de guerre. His ap- 
pearance was by no means so attractive as that of Bar- 
rett. Independently of the deformity arising from his 
unfortunate accident, he was of small stature and repul- 
sive features. Nor had he acquired the same character 
for hospitality and kindness to either natives or fellow- 
countrymen, which we found universally accorded to 
Dicky. He was married to a near relation of Rau- 
perahtty and by means of this alliance maintained an- 
other whaling station at a harbour called Porirua, on 
the main between the islands of Kapiti and Mana. 

In a bay separated by a low tongue of land 
from the main valley of Te-awa-iti, we found an- 
other whaler named Jimmy Jackson, who had a snug 
little cove to himself. He was positively equal in di- 
mensions to Williams and Barrett both together. He 
gave us a hearty welcome; and never ceased talking 
from the moment we entered his house until we re- 
turned on board. We found him quite an original 
character, who had something to say on every subject. 
He was a great admirer of Bonaparte, whose battles 
adorned his walls in gaudy colours and tinselled frames, 
as bought from some French whale-ship. He sup- 
ported his superficial view of almost everything that 
could be mentioned, by quotations from the Scriptures 
and Guthrie's Geography, which seemed his favourite 
books of reference. He had been, we found, ten years 
here, being one of the first settlers. He declared the 
Pelorus river to be an excellent place for a settlement; 
and oflfered to introduce my uncle to an old friend of 
his in Cloudy Bay, Jack Guard, who knew the native 


owners of that district, and who piloted the Pelorus 
in her trips about the Strait. We had read an ac- 
count in the papers, just before we left England, of 
the discovery by this vessel of a large river and fine 
district opening into Cloudy Bay ; and we were anxi- 
ous to examine it for ourselves. It turned out that 
this was the Ohiere river, which flows into Admi- 
ralty and not Cloudy Bay, and was christened after 
the brig by the officers. 

During the next four days we had ample opportuni- 
ties of observing every thing remarkable at Te-awa-iti 
and its neighbourhood, and of learning many particu- 
lars of its first foundation and subsequent history. 

The above-named John Guard was the first who 
entered the south-eastern mouth of the channel, two 
miles east of our present anchorage, in a small sealing 
vessel. This was in 1827. Having been driven in by 
a gale of wind, he built a house, and carried on sealing 
and whaling, with great risk and annoyance from the 
natives, and no great profit for a long while. The na- 
tives, in a constant state of war (for this was just at 
the epoch of Rauperahas invasion), were so ill-pro- 
vided with potatoes or indeed any kind of provisions, 
that our adventurers subsisted for some time on whale's 
flesh and wild turnip-tops ; and often, for want of work- 
men and tools, they could not save the oil, having no 
casks, and kept only the bone, which they sold on the 
rare occasions when they could find a market on board 
vessels from Sydney. The Ngahitau tribe, in their 
predatory incursions, frequently destroyed their houses 
and all their property, along with that of the natives. 
One old hand, now in Te-awa-iti, had had his house 
burnt down no fewer than four times. 

Since 1831, however, when whaling-ships began to 
resort to Cloudy Bay, Sydney merchants worked the 


stations there and at other places on the coast by means 
of agents. They paid nominally 10/. per ton for the 
oil, and 60/. per ton for the bone, finding casks and 
freight themselves. The wages of the whalers, how- 
ever, were paid in slops, spirits, and tobacco, at an ex- 
orbitant profit. A pound of tobacco, worth I*. Sd. in 
Sydney, was valued at 55. and sometimes 7*. 6d. here, 
and other things in the same proportion. The men, 
a mixture of runaway sailors and escaped convicts, sign 
an agreement at the beginning of the season, in which 
these prices are stated, so that they cannot go elsewhere 
to work, and must submit to these terms. The season 
lasts from the first of May to the beginning of Octo- 
l^er. In these five months, a whaler can earn 35/. if 
the season be good ; but all depends on the success of 
the fishery ; as, if there were no whales caught, there 
would be no pay, and the only wages consist in a share 
of the produce. 

The consequence is a great number of bad debts in a 
bad season, and these fall on the agent or head of the 
party. If he does not advance the men what goods 
they want, they refuse to work ; and sometimes have 
no means of paying their account at the end of the 

The artisans seemed to be the best off. Carpenters 
and blacksmiths get 10*. a day, and insist upon pay- 
ment in money. Williams had amassed a good deal in 
this way, and having laid it out in purchasing goods of 
all sorts from whale-ships, he drove a good trade on 
shore, knowing whom to trust. 

We were told that the different whaling parties on 
both shores of Cook's Strait, near Banks's Peninsula, 
and still further south, were reckoned to procure 1200 
tons of oil annually, and that about 500 White men 
were employed in the pursuit. : 


The more industrious of these, during the summer, 
procure supplies of pigs and potatoes from the natives, 
and make large profits by disposing of them again to 
the whale-ships which look in at the different harbours 
previous to going out on the whaling-grounds, or re- 
turning home full. The less active spend the summer 
at the villages of their native women, either cultivating 
a patch of ground which the natives have tacitly al- 
lowed them to take possession of, or depending entirely 
on their native connexions for fish and potatoes, and 
drinking out the extent of their credit with the agent 
in the strongest and most poisonous liquors. 

Much rivalry is of course engendered by the nature 
of the whaler's occupation ; and we observed that the 
jealousy of the native tribes, fostered by the women 
who cohabited with the white men, often produced 
the most rancorous feelings between rival parties. Those 
living in Cloudy Bay with the Kawia, and those living 
in the Sound with the Ngatiawa, were in the con- 
stant habit of disparaging each other and each other's 
natives ; and seemed to have imbibed a good deal of 
the savage enmity existing between the two tribes. 
In each place separate bays were the abodes of vary- 
ing interests, and even on the same beach indivi- 
duals seemed disunited and in constant feud with each 
other, though we should have imagined that they 
ought to have been united by their common danger, 
or at any rate by their love of gain. Fierce quarrels 
and wild orgies were to be met with both day and 
night ; and never, perhaps, was there a community 
composed of such dangerous materials and so devoid 
of regular law. 

The law of the strong in mind and body was, how- 
ever, in force. Some few men of iron will and large 
limb ruled to a considerable degree the lawless assem« 

VOL, I. E 


blage, and maintained a powerful influence by their 
known courage and prowess, whether in the whale- 
boat or the fight on shore. Some few, too, though very 
few, like Dicky Barrett, were respected for their kind- 
heartedness to all ; and these, of better mould than 
the great body, expressed anxiety for the accomplish- 
ment of our objects. 

The redeeming quality of hospitality we found un- 
bounded among them ; a stranger was always wel- 
come to a share of the meal, a drop of the grog, and a 
seat on a stool, made of a whale's vertebra, in the 
ample chimney-corner. 

There were about twenty-five half-caste children at 
Te-awa-iti. They were all strikingly comely, and 
many of them quite fair, with light hair and rosy 
cheeks ; active and hardy as the goats with which the 
settlement also swarmed. The women of the whalers 
were remarkable for their cleanliness and the order 
which they preserved in their companion's house. 
They were most of them dressed in loose gowns of 
printed calico, and their hair, generally very fine, was 
always clean and well-combed. It was evident that 
the whaler's seamanlike habit of cleanliness had not 
been abandoned ; and that they had effected that change 
at least in their women, who seemed proud of belong- 
ing to a White m<in, and had often, we were informed, 
protected their men from aggression or robbery. 

One day I walked over the hill to another valley, 
which faces the entrance of the harbour. It divides 
into two bays or coves, separated from each other by a 
tongue of land. In each is a native pa ; these are 
named If^ekanui and Hokikare. At the former we 
saw two whale-boats, which they told us were manned 
entirely by natives. They manage to harpoon a whale 
sometimes ; but as they never succeed in killing it, they 


generally receive 20/. in payment from the party which 
profits by their exertions. The natives in these two 
pas amounted to about two hundred, and received us 
very civilly, being well accustomed to trade with the 
whaling-town. We again observed the wretched ap- 
pearance of the houses and food of the natives. Much 
of the latter consisted of dried whale's flesh, of which 
we saw large quantities hung on racks about the vil- 
lage. They were somewhat better clothed than the 
natives at Ship Cove, having, probably, greater oppor- 
tunities of trading with the whaling station. The 
village of Hokikare is prettily situated in a grassy 
valley, about half a mile wide and nearly a mile in 
depth. It faces the entrance of the Sound, which 
is about a mile to the east. 

September 6th. — Mr. Guard having arrived from 
Cloudy Bay in a strong sailing-boat, I determined to 
accompany my uncle, and we started for the Ohiere or 
Pelorus river. Besides Guard and ourselves, we were 
accompanied by a gentleman named Wynen, who had 
lately arrived from Sydney, commissioned by an associa- 
tion of persons there to purchase land in the best situa- 
tions. He had with him his native wife, named Rangi- 
awa. Her brother Hetigia, or Charley, a young chief- 
tain of influence in the Kmvia tribe, accompanied us as 
one of the owners of the district, and in order to obtain 
respect from the few members of the conquered tribe 
who had been allowed to remain, as tributaries, on the 
spot. Our crew consisted of four natives, also of the 
Kawia tribe, and one White man. We had provided 
ourselves with provisions for a few days, and a few 

Retracing our voyage through the Tory Channel 
and Queen Charlotte's Sound, a distance of about 
thirty miles, we looked anxiously into Ship Cove as we 

E 2 


passed, having some hoj)es that a small vessel with 
surveyors, which was to follow us from England im- 
mediately, might have made a quick passage and ar- 
rived. The inlet lay, however, in majestic silence, not 
a curl of smoke betraying even the presence of natives. 
ITie solemnity of the tapu seemed to be again imposed 
on its woods and waters. 

As we passed between Point Jackson and the inner- 
most of a reef of low rocks which stretches out nearly 
a mile into the Strait, we experienced the buffeting of 
a strong tide-rip or race. These are very frequent in 
many parts of the Strait ; and arise from the force of 
the tide, which, generally speaking, flows five hours 
from north to south, and ebbs seven hours in the op- 
posite direction. The numerous friths and bays, how- 
ever, cause various eddies and cross currents ; which 
can only be known by experience. Our guide, as I 
have before said, was a perfect pilot for the Strait, hav- 
ing coasted about the various beaches and inlets for 
more than twelve years. 

His life in New Zealand has been an eventful one. 
In the year 1834, on his return from a trip to Sydney 
in the ship Harriet, he was wrecked in Ohao bay, near 
Cape Egmont. The natives of that part of the coast 
assembled in large numbers to plunder the wreck ; 
and a fight ensued between them and the crew, which 
ended in the defeat of the White party. Some of them 
were killed ; and the rest, including Guard's wife and 
two young children, were taken prisoners. Guard, 
with some few of the party, was assisted in escaping in 
a boat from Moturoa, or the Sugar-loaf Islands, by 
some of the natives concerned. He thus reached 7 e- 
awa-iti, whence he found his way to Sydney. He then 
laid the circumstances before the Council of New 
South Wales, and the consequence was that an expe- 

Chap. III. JACK GUARD. 58 

dition was dispatched by Sir Richard Bourke to reco- 
ver the captives. It consisted of the Alligator frigate 
of twenty-six guns, commanded by Captain Lambert ; 
and the Isabella schooner as a tender, with a company 
of the 50th regiment of foot. The captive sailors 
were first given up, though it appears under the 
promise of utu being paid, made by Guard and con- 
firmed by two interpreters who infringed Captain 
Lambert's especial orders, to make an unconditional 
demand for the restitution of all the prisoners. As, 
however, they were left four days on shore alone 
among the natives, they were forced to save their 
lives, which were threatened, by promising ransom, and 
that the ships would trade for whalebone. At Te 
Namu, a native pa between Cape Egmont and Wai- 
mate, Mrs. Guard was recovered, with her infant 
child. She had been forced to live with a native chief, 
and had been often ill-treated, and even wounded, by 
the natives. In the conflict in which she was taken 
she had received some wounds on the head ; and after 
this the head of her brother, who had been killed and 
his body eaten, was constantly exhibited to her, after 
offering her part of the flesh. These circumstances 
had very naturally exasperated Guard, and many of 
the ship's crew sympathized with him. When the 
chief in question came down to the beach at Te Nait.u, 
he was recognized by Guard, and ordered to be seized 
and taken on board by the officer in command of a 
party on shore. Guard was in command of the whale- 
boat which alone could get through the violent surf. 
The chief jumped overboard, and was then fired at and 
wounded. On his recapture, they treated him with 
great cruelty ; wounding him so severely that his life 
was despaired of when he arrived on board the Alliga- 
tor. He was recovered, however, by the care of the 


surgeon ; and being of great rank, was joyfully ex- 
changed by his tril)e for Mrs. Guard and her child. 
Negotiations were now entered into for the recovery of 
the little boy. The natives insisted upon having utu ; 
and at one of the villages, a lieutenant was waiting 
with a boat just outside the surf for the boy, whom 
they had promised to bring to him, when a musket-ball 
was fired by a native from the cliff close over his head. 
He returned on board and reported the circumstance, 
when the guns of the frigate were brought to bear on the 
pa, and several canoes and some of the houses were de- 
stroyed. At a subsequent period a large body of men were 
landed at Waimate pa, and drawn up in a command- 
ing position on the cliff, while the officers, with a party 
of sailors on the beach below, treated for the surrender 
of the boy. He was at length brought on the shoulders 
of a native ; who was in the act of running away with 
him again, on payment being refused, when one of the 
sailors cut him out of the mat which bound him to the 
native's back ; — another shot the native ; — the soldiers 
hearing the shot, fired at once ; and Guard picked up 
his boy and swam off with him to one of the boats. 
The soldiers and sailors drove the natives into the inte- 
rior, after some little resistance, killing and wounding 
twenty or thirty of them. At the end of three days, 
during which the surf had been too heavy to allow 
them to re-embark, they burned the pas and returned 
on board. 

Mr. Busby, the British Resident at the Bay of 
Islands, and Mr. Williams and the other Missionaries 
and residents there, afterwards expressed their opinion 
to Captain Lambert, " that the example set these people 
'*■ would be most beneficial ;" and that " it was the 
" happiest circumstance that could have occurred for 
" establishing them in safety u|)on the island." And 


one of the principal chiefs at Entry Island " told him 
*' that they were of the worst tribe of persons in the 
" whole of New Zealand ; renegades and people that 
" had escaped from various tribes for thefts and every 
" crime that could possibly be thought of."* 

Striking across the wide entrance of Port Gore, we 
passed close under Point Lambert, and obtained a view 
of the Admiralty Islands stretching out to the west- 
ward. Following the narrow strait between the near- 
est of them, Motu Ngarara, or " Isle of Lizards," and 
the main, we entered a sheltered bay called Ikokoia, 
which stretches half a mile to the south-east, and pre- 
pared to encamp for the night on one of its beaches. 
The natives, directed by Rangiawa, or " Squeaker," as 
she was nicknamed among the whalers, cooked our 
dinner for us ; and we rolled ourselves in our blankets 
under an overhanging bank of gravel, which protected 
us from the heavy dew of a clear starlight night. 

7th September. — We were astir at early daylight, 
and the boat was stowed with the diligence of an old 
sealer. Passing the mouths of two bays (one called 
Titirangi, and the other, which appeared to extend 
seven or eight miles into the interior, Anakoa), we 
reached a boat-channel between the main and the 
largest of the Admiralty group, called Kakaho by the 
natives, and christened Guard's Island, after their pilot, 
by the officers of the Pelorus. This passage is narrow 
and very shallow. We had some trouble in getting 
through against a strong tide. Inclining a little to the 
north-west, we now perceived the entrance to the estu- 
ary of the Pelorus river. Half-way up the hill which 
forms the south head, we saw five head of wild cattle, 

* Evidence of Captain Lambert before Select Committee of 
House of Commons on Aborigines (British Settlements), in May, 
1836; q. 3848-9. 


the descendants of some given to the Kapiti natives a 
few years before by a Sydney merchant, in payment for 
a cargo of flax. The estuary is about a mile wide at 
the entrance, but immediately expands. For forty 
miles we continued to advance along this magnificent 
arm of the sea, which only differed from Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound in the grander scale on which are the 
mountains, the woods, and the spacious bays and har^ 
hours branching out in every direction. So numerous 
and varied in their forms are these ramifications, that it 
would be easy to mistake the track to the fresh-water 
river. The whole scene forms a labyrinth on an 
immense scale, in which you may lose your way 
among tortuous paths of water two or three miles 
broad, and between hedges composed of mountains 
from 2000 to 3000 feet in height, clothed to the sum- 
mits with the most luxuriant and majestic timber. 
Even our pilot guided himself in some of the most in- 
tricate passes by watching the set of the tide. Having 
reached at sunset to within a mile of the spot where 
the Pelorus anchored, we again encamped on a shingly 
beach in a bay on the east side of the Sound. At this 
spot there were some ten or fifteen acres of level 
ground, on which we were shown the remains of a 
large ^^«, once the head-quarters of the tribe conquered 
and almost exterminated by Rauperaha. Our friend 
Charley borrowed one of the fowling-pieces to shoot a 
pigeon which was perched close to us. He would not 
fire until he had got the end of the gun six yards from 
it, and consequently blew it to pieces. He seemed proud, 
however, of his dexterity in having crept so close with- 
out disturbing the bird. The wood-pigeons of this 
country are as stupid as the tree-partridges of North 
America, and, especially in these unfrequented parts, 
are not easily disturbed. We therefore indulged in 


some good-natured raillery at Charley's expense. These 
birds are very large, of brilliant plumage, and extremely 
well flavoured. We had laid our blankets on the 
shingly beach, which makes an excellent mattress ; and 
were rather alarmed in the night by the tide, which, 
on rising, extinguished the fire at our feet. 

September 8th. — Soon after starting this morning, 
we passed the mouths of two deep bays, which stretch 
far to the east and south-east. The natives told us 
that at the head of these are necks of land over which 
the natives haul their canoes into the head of Queen 
Charlotte's Sound and the TVairau river respectively. 
This latter empties itself into Cloudy Bay, south of 
Port Underwood. We had now reached the fresh wa- 
ter, and were steering between extensive mud-flats, 
from among which we disturbed countless flocks of wild 
ducks of different sorts. These are principally the 
black, the grey, the blue-winged, and the paradise 
duck, or J9M tan^i tangi, as it is called by the natives. 
The last is nearly as large as a goose, and of beautiful 
plumage. The drake is of mottled black and dark blue 
and green ; the female has a white head and neck, 
greenish-grey body, and light-chocolate wings. As 
they fly in pairs, the harsh croak of the drake alter- 
nates with a plaintive cry uttered by the duck. Our 
travelling larder was well replenished as we went 
along. The shooting a bird while flying seemed to ex- 
cite unbounded admiration on the part of Charley. 

We were soon ascending against the current of a 
rapid and narrow stream, forming numerous islands 
covered with an abundance of shrubs and scattered 
trees ; the hills close in upon the valley in places. 
The pitau, or tree-ferns, growing like a palm-tree, form 
a distinguishing ornament of the New Zealand forest. 
In these natural shrubberies, too, and especially in wet 


situations, a kind of cabbage-tree, called ti by the na- 
tives, flourishes in great abundance. Its branches are 
covered with distinct bunches of long fibrous leaves, 
which grow in an erect position. The kohai, too, a 
species of mimosa, covered with bright yellow blossoms, 
abounds in such situations, where the stunted growth 
is an almost unvarying sign of constant inundation. 
Among the rank grass and weeds which feathered both 
banks, some small teal constantly escaped our guns ; 
but the pigeons, which sat still on the high branches 
over our heads until we dropped them almost into our 
boat, more than repaid the loss. We remarked, occa- 
sionally, vestiges of floods which seem to have risen 
ten feet in this confined valley. As we proceeded, the 
boat had frequently to be tracked over shallows and 
rapids, the natives leaping readily into the water for 
this purpose. Just before we reached our destination 
for the night, we fell in with a party of the Rangi- 
tane, or tributary natives. These came to our assist- 
ance at the last severe rapid, and obeyed, in apparent 
fear and trembling, every direction of Charley and the 
other members of the victorious tribe. They had as- 
cended hither from Anakoa Bay, in order to collect 
flax and work it into mats as part of their tribute to 
Rauperaha ; and had formed a temporary encamp- 
ment on a shingly island covered with high flax of 
the finest kind, nearly opposite to which we took up our 
position for the night. On the boughs of a small 
grove of trees, beneath which we lit our fire and dis- 
posed our beds and provisions, the pigeons settled in 
great numbers towards sunset. We had only to fire 
as quickly as the fowling-pieces were loaded by the na- 
tives, hardly stirring from one position, the death of 
one bird not disturbing the equanimity of his compa- 
nion on the same branch. 


Many of the forest trees bear berries, which furnish 
food to the pigeons. Their favourite morsel is the fruit 
of the tawa, a tree which abounds everywhere. The 
fruit is not unlike a damson in colour, shape, and size ; 
but, if picked fresh, it tastes strongly of unadulterated 
turpentine. After these berries have fallen some time, 
they become perfectly insipid, but are juicy and refresh- 
ing if they have been lying under the shade. 

When we lay down for the night, our attendant 
natives begged us to examine our fire-arms and hat- 
chets, and to keep them close to our hands, ready for 
use. On inquiry into the reason for this precaution, 
they told us that PaMhure, the great chief of the 
Rangifa?ie, had managed to escape into the hills with 
some few of his followers from the general slaughter 
by Rauperaha, and that the report of our guns might 
attract him, and lead to an attack on our party, for 
the sake of vengeance and plunder. As Jacky Guard 
himself did not neglect the injunction, we also com- 
plied ; but we were not disturbed from a sound sleep 
until early daylight, when I was awoke by some heavy 
drops of dew falling on my face from the overhang- 
ing branches, where they had collected during the 
night. The birds, too, had begun their cheerful 

My uncle and I took our usual morning plunge, and 
experienced the sharp cold of the stream, which takes 
its source among snowy mountains. The natives and 
Guard stood in great astonishment on the bank, and had 
a hearty laugh as we rushed out, shivering and nearly 
blue. As the boat could proceed no further on account 
of the shallowness of the river, we obtained a canoe and 
experienced guides from among the slave tribe, and 
pushed slowly up the stream, wishing to ascertain 
whether the valley, now narrowed to little more than 


a mile, expanded into the interior, as we had been led 
to expect from the account of the officers of the Pelorus 
and the unbounded praises of Jacky Guard. The canoe 
was hollowed out of a single tree, and propelled by al- 
ternate paddling, poling, and tracking, as the different 
parts of the river required. Our guides seemed much 
astonished at everything new about us and our equip- 
ments. At a halt which we made about mid-day for 
a meal, some of them wished to taste the brandy which 
we put into the water. The scene that ensued baffles 
description. They made frightful grimaces, held their 
^ throats with both hands, and rushed down to the river 
with a yell, to plunge their gaping mouths and watering 
eyes into the clear stream. I am convinced that they 
had never before tasted ardent liquors, and that they 
would not readily acquire the taste for them. The 
river was no longer navigable even for our small canoe, 
after getting, with great trouble, eight miles from last 
night's camp. The valley continued to get narrower 
instead of expanding ; and the hills, which occasionally 
broke off precipitously at the bank of the stream, also 
changed their character, being clothed with fern instead 
of wood. The valley itself had lost a good deal of its 
woody character; and when we had got two miles 
further, by walking along the bank and through the 
flax-grounds when practicable, and being carried across 
the fords on the natives' shoulders, we found ourselves 
in a narrow fern valley, now and then relieved by 
patches of flax-growing swamp, and small coppices of 
low wood. We reached some miles further than the 
officers of the Pelorus had penetrated with Guard, and 
then retraced our steps, after setting fire in pure mis- 
chief to the fern. The blaze spread far and wide, and 
its glare was perceptible all night from bur camp. On 
the way up we had passed the remains of another large 


pa, built on a spot apparently safe from inundation. 
Old painted posts and carved monuments rose mourn- 
fully from among the tangled grass and briars, claiming 
respect for a certain venerable appearance of antiquity. 
The pretty situation under the hill-side, the rich vege- 
tation of the spot under a glowing sun, and the solitary 
and decaying relics, told the whole history of Raupe- 
rahas devastating raid, which was not belied by the 
dejected air with which our guides pointed out the 
resting-place of their fathers. 

Moving down a little further to-night, we made a 
tent of the boat's sail close to the flax-collecting en- 
campment. We here saw this magnificent plant in 
perfection. Each plant consisted of some forty or fifty 
leaves resembling those of our flag, from two to four 
inches in breadth, and reaching to the length of eight 
or nine feet. The leaves diverge from the root, and 
two or three flower-stems also shoot from the ground. 
These, however, had only begun to sprout. The leaves 
are all folded in two longitudinally, thus giving an 
inner and outer side to the leaf; but when it has 
attained its full growth, it sometimes opens out, 
although never so as to lie perfectly flat. The inner 
side has a natural gloss, while the outer side is dull. 
The natives seemed to prefer the innermost leaves, 
cutting them at about a foot from the ground with a 
sharp mussel-shell, of which they had brought a large 
stock from the sea-side. When a quantity of leaves 
had been collected, they proceeded to a division of em- 
ployments. Some split the leaf longitudinally along 
the fold above mentioned, and a second gang cut the 
dull or outer side of each half-leaf nearly through 
transversely about mid- way along its length. For this 
operation, which is rather delicate and requires expe- 
rience, a small cockle-shell was used. The art appeared 


to be to cut through all but the fibres, which border 
closely on the glossy portion. The half-leaves, thus 
prepared, were handed to a third workman. He, taking 
a bundle of them in his left hand at the transverse cut, 
and spreading them out like a fan, with the glossy side 
upwards, took a mussel-shell between the finger and 
thumb of his right hand to perform the next operation. 
This consists in giving each half-leaf a longitudinal 
scrape from the transverse cut in the middle to each 
end. He held the leaves extended by seizing the ends 
of each in succession with his big toe. Flax-scraping 
is always performed in a sitting posture, and one foot 
works quite as hard as either of the hands. The dex- 
terity and quickness with which this whole operation 
was performed drew from us repeated exclamations of 
delight, of which the performers seemed not a little 
proud. The result of the scrape is to make about five- 
sixths of the leaf, beginning from the dull side, drop 
off on to the ground in two pieces. The fibres which 
compose the glossy surface remain in the hand of the 
operator, of the full length of the leaf, and he puts 
them aside, and proceeds with another bunch. The 
splitters and transverse-cutters worked faster than the 
scrapers, and when they had operated on all that was ga- 
thered, they also took up their mussel-shell and scraped 
in their turn. The short pieces which I have described 
as dropping on to the ground were treated as refuse, 
and allowed to dry or rot ; the full-length fibre of the 
glossy side alone being preserved to undergo further 
processes previous to manufacture into mats. The only 
use that I have ever seen made of the short refuse is for 
the outer portion of a rough mat, much resembling the 
thatch of a house. These leaves being woven in close 
rows, hanging downwards one over the other, into the 
interior texture of the mat, are perfectly impenetrable 


to rain. I have often braved vi^itli impunity the 
heaviest rain, sleeping under no other shelter. 

The plant is called phormium tenaoc by naturalists. 
The general native name for the plant, we were told, 
was korari ; but each sort, and there are ten or twelve, 
has its distinctive name. Any portion of the leaf, 
when gathered, becomes here kie kie, or literally 
"tying stuff." The operation of scraping is called 
haro ; the fibre when prepared muka. 

These natives seemed to have no property beyond 
the mere means of existence ; and their abject state as 
slaves, holding their lives at the mere caprice of the 
natives by some of whom we were accompanied, was 

We descended the river in company with the four 
or five canoes, in which they stowed themselves, with 
their women and children, cats, dogs, and pet sucking- 
pigs, who all took their places among the baskets 
of flax and potatoes, and seemed as much at home 
when shooting a ticklish rapid as on shore. One boy 
of twelve years old made himself a canoe of two bun- 
dles of soft bulrushes, called raupo, which he bound 
together with flax, and guided with great dexterity from 
his perch in the middle. 

We halted soon after meeting the salt water, tide 
and wind being against us, and bivouacked on another 
shingly beach. 

There is generally a regular land and sea breeze 
here ; but a gale of wind from the Strait to-day pene- 
trated up the Frith of the Ohiere. 

Our friend Jimmy Jackson, who had followed on 
our track, joined us this evening. He had lost his way 
for two days by taking a wrong direction in the laby- 
rinth which I have above mentioned ; and would have 
passed the mouth of the bay in which we were encamped 


without seeing us, had we not brought him to by a shot^* 
He was anxious to know whether we approved of the 
location ; and seemed to ])e afraid lest Wynen and Guard 
should have ascertained our opinion, and determined to 
conceal it from him. He varied his inquiries, how^ 
ever, with descriptions of his own excursion ; telling* 
some wonderful tales of the numl)er of pigeons he had 
shot^ and of one of them flying away with his ramrod 
which he had left in the gun in his hurry to fire quick 
enough. He pushed on homewards the same evening, 
having a White crew. Our native crew declined to 
pull a heavy boat against the wind. Guard told us the 
maori " boys" were good for a sj)irt, but not for hard 
or continued fatiguing labour. 

The next afternoon we encamped early on Guard's 
Island, the wind being again contrary. Landing on a 
sheltered beach on the west side, we found Enai, the 
elder brother of Charley, who had come thus far to 
meet us in order to hear what we thought of the Ohiere. 
He is a tangata tapu, or *' sacred personage," and is con- 
sequently not adorned with tatu. He was endowed with 
the power of cursing, blessing, and, to a certain degree, 
prophesying. He was also supposed to have the art of 
overcoming diseases and bad weather, or obtaining a fair 
wind, by his incantations. He was not a little arrogant 
of his rank and sanctity, and accosted us in a sort of 
slang ofF-hand manner, acquired among the whalers 
of Cloudy Bay. 

An old chief named Pukiroa, uncle to Charley and 
Enai, lived at this settlement, and was also considered 
very sacred. The spot we had selected turned out to 
be tajiu, on account of some of his hair being buried in 
a small painted mausoleum close by ; and he made a 
great fuss about our dinner having been cooked there. 
Being under the protection of the family, however, we 


were not made to pay for the infringement ; and the 
only result was the careful abstinence of the whole 
party from eating anything cooked at our fire, from 
eating or drinking out of our utensils, or even lighting 
their pipes at our fire, or at any fire that could be traced 
to it. The old chief was very ugly, blear-eyed, surly, 
and half-witted ; so that he well suited his character of 
magician. Enai, or " Gun-eye," as the whalers had 
christened him, was privileged by his own tapu to in- 
dulgence from that of his uncle ; and was not modest 
in asking for wine or brandy. To balance in some 
measure these bad qualities, he was a good carpenter, 
and worked industriously at some part of his canoe all 
day long. He much coveted a large clasp-knife of 
mine which contained two saws, and asked for it with 
his usual impudence. 

A gale from S. E. blew all to-day, and brought up 
some heavy rain to-night. We had foolishly neglected 
the well-known sealer's habit in rough weather of 
turning his boat over for a shelter, and had contented 
ourselves with getting inside, having spread the sails 
over the top as an awning. The sails leaked, so that 
we had to bale our beds out in the night. 

On the 12th, being still detained by the gale, we 
crossed the highest ridge of the island, and emerged 
from the wood into extensive clearings on the N. E. 
face, among which some serene villages were prettily 
situated. Some of the Kawia live here, and appeared 
to us better housed and clothed, and more contented 
and free from alarm than any natives we had yet 
seen. They possessed an abundance of flax, pigs, and 

On the 13th, we sailed with a fair wind ; but were 
met near Point Jackson by a second edition of the S.E. 
gale, which forced us to take refuge in Port Gore till 

VOL. I. F 


the morning of the 16th. We were fortunate in find- 
ing a deserted hut free from fleas, and waited very con- 
tentedly for a change. Enai, who had accompanied 
us in his canoe, supplied our mess with fish and birds ; 
and we chattered bad maori with the natives, and of old 
times with Jacky Guard. Port Gore forms a fine har- 
bour of refuge for vessels caught by adverse gales in the 
Strait. Its capabilities in this respect have been appre- 
ciated by the natives, who call it Omahanga, or " Place 
" of Flight." On the morning of the 16th, we left this 
place at seven o'clock, and arrived alongside the Tory 
at three in the afternoon. 

We found that we had missed a noble sight during 
our expedition. A whale had been chased into the 
harbour by some of the boats, and killed close to the 

We could not fail to perceive, on our return, that 
the population of Te-awa-iti were watching our move- 
ments, apparently intent upon purchasing land for 
themselves in the neighbourhood of whatever location 
Colonel Wakefield might select for the expected colony. 
Information also arrived that a missionary schooner 
had visited Port Nicholson, with a message to the na- 
tives not to sell their land, and that Mr. Williams (the 
chairman of the Church Mission) would soon arrive 
from the Bay of Islands. 

My uncle, therefore, who had intended to proceed to 
Cloudy Bay, where Guard and Wynen engaged to pre- 
pare the natives for disposing of the Ohiere to us, deter- 
mined to go to Port Nicholson as soon as the wind 
should be fair. 

We had proved during our excursion that all the 
statements we had heard as to the salubrity of the cli- 
mate were true. Ten nights' bivouacking in the open 
air, although exposed to heavy dew, and in the end of 


winter, had no bad effect on any of our party ; and, with 
the exception of the period during which the gale of 
wind lasted, all the days were genial and exhilarating, 
and some much warmer than English summer weather. 

On the 18th, a calm still detained us at Te-awa-iti. 
The youngest and favourite wife of Tipif the principal 
chief at that place, fell ill to-day. According to the 
universal native custom on such occasions, she was re- 
moved from his house to an open shed near it, and 
became tapu, so that she might eat no food. Tipi and 
his friends, who hourly expected her death, sat wailing 
and weeping around her, now and then discharging 
their muskets. Mr. Robinson, the surgeon of the ship, 
restored her for a time by breaking through the tapM^ 
giving her a little wine, and moving her back to the 
warm hut. The natives were urgent for a dose of 
Epsom salts, which they have been taught by the 
whalers to consider a sovereign remedy for all com- 
plaints. While talking with some of the white inhabi- 
tants as to the general health of the natives, we learned 
that they fret so much when once affected, that they very 
much aggravate the disease. Some of the whalers said, 

" When a maori tells you he's a-going to die, by 

" he will, and no mistake about it. They takes the fit, 
" and off they goes in the sulks." My subsequent expe- 
rience has fully confirmed the fact so roughly men- 
tioned by the sailor. When once attacked by a very 
rapid consumption, which they alone are subject to, 
they say the Atua or " Spirit " has seized them, and 
they will take no encouragement. Much of this may 
be owing to their knowledge that they must be exposed 
to all the vicissitudes of the weather. 

19th. — Some dispute arose as to the proprietorship of 
a whale which the native boat had harpooned. A 
rival agent had instigated the natives to ask more 

F 2 


than their usual 20/. from the party who killed 
the whale. There was no one at hand to whom the 
disputants could refer the matter as a competent and 
disinterested umpire ; and a forcible seizure was con- 
templated by the party not in possession, on the morn- 
ing of the 20th, when we left the Sound with fair wind 
and tide, having weighed anchor at day-light. 

We had got on board Barrett, and his wife and chil- 
dren, with several attendant natives of both sexes, who 
formed a sort of colony in our ample 'tween-decks. 
Dicky had long been too fat and heavy to go out him- 
self in the whale-boats, and left the affairs of the station 
in the hands of a sort of clerk during his absence. We 
also took over a steady trader, named Smith, who knew 
the natives well, and was to be left in charge at Port 
Nicholson, should we succeed in purchasing it. He 
had been mate of two or three vessels about the South 
Seas, and was a little of whaler, sawyer, carpenter, and 
trader. There were many such nondescript characters 
at Te-awa-iti ; but it was rare to find among them so 
trustworthy a man as he whom we had selected. 

To the south of the entrance of Te-awa-iti, the 
bleak, barren hills which bound the Tory channel to 
the east run down into successive points, round one of 
which lies the harbour of Point Underwood. Further 
east we could distinguish the low land at the mouth of 
the fP^airau river, the remarkable cliff called the White 
Bluff, which forms the eastern extremity of Cloudy 
Bay, and the land trending along down to Cajje Camp- 
bell, all backed by a rugged mass of hills that seem to 
augment as they retreat into the interior, from the table- 
lands near the coast, till they swell into the volcanic 
and snow-clad range of Kaikora. Looking north, the 
hills above Te-awa-iti terminate in an abrupt bluff, 
some 300 feet in height, called Wellington Head by 


the Europeans. This is the nearest land to the North 
Island, here seventeen miles distant ; and it was not 
until we had got some offing that we saw Cape KoU' 
maru and the Brothers. The latter are two rocky 
islets, standing forty feet out of water at the distance of 
a mile from the main. As our eyes wandered across 
the Strait, they were met by Kapiti, Mana, and the 
adjacent mainland, the high lands about Cape Tera- 
witi, which is the nearest point to the Middle Island, and 
the coast on either side of Port Nicholson Bay, extend- 
ing about thirty miles from Terawiti to Cape Pal- 
liser. As both coasts recede from the narrowest part 
of the Strait, it is about thirty miles from the entrance 
of Te-awa-iti to that of Port Nicholson. As we drew 
under the high land east of Cape Terawiti, the north- 
west breeze blew fresh over the hills, and we flew along 
under all sail past the long reef of pointed rocks which 
lies off Sinclair Head. This is the bluff termination of 
a range of mountains called Rimarapa^ and lies about 
six miles from Terawiti. 



Entrance of Port Nicholson — Warepori and JEptmi — History of 
the tribe — Missionary notions — Talk about land — Tangi, or 
crying — Nayti — Excursion round harbour — Speeches as to sale 
of land— ^Native cookery — Mocking-bird — Discussions — Sham- 
fighting — The purchase — Opposition — Vague notions of Natives 
as to ownership of land — No title but occupancy — Distribution 
of payment — Signature of deed — Nicknames — The Huta — Fish 
— Native hook — Preparations for rejoicing — Gathering — Dress 
— War-dance — Haka, or recitative — Feast — Contentment of 
Natives — Nomenclature — Our satisfaction — Sanguine prospects 
— Intentions towards Natives — Hostility of Native missionaries 
— Reasons. 

The coast now forms a semicircular bay, at the north- 
east end of which is the mouth of Port Nicholson. A 
low table-land jutting out into a headland which we 
christened Baring Head, and the bluff end of a ridge 
called Turakirai, which divides Port Nicholson from 
Palliser Bay, form the eastern side of the semicircle. 
The western side slopes down from Sinclair Head into 
bare hills of moderate height, which, with a hilly fern- 
covered peninsula, form the western head of the har- 
bour. The cove, at the head of which is the low sandy 
isthmus joining the peninsula to the main, might be 
mistaken by an inexperienced person for the real 
entrance. Piloted, however, by Dicky Barrett, we 
soon opened out the true channel, which lies between 
a two-headed bluff now called Pencarrow Head, a 
mile inside of Baring Head, and the peninsula. A 
reef of low black rocks is situated about mid-channel ; 
and this seemed, as we approached from the westward, 
to close the passage. We found it, however, a mile in 


width between the reef and Pencarrow Head, and beat 
in against a good working breeze. Two islands inside 
the harbour formed distinguishing marks. 

Captain Cook once anchored in the entrance of this 
magnificent harbour. Being anxious to rejoin the other 
ship in company with him, he was unable to examine it, 
but spoke highly of its promising appearance as a 

It was christened Port Nicholson by the captain of a 
Sydney trading vessel some years ago, after his patron 
and friend the harbour-master of Port Jackson, in New 
South Wales. 

As we advanced up the channel, which continues 
from two to three miles in width for four miles from a 
little inside the reef, we were boarded by two canoes, 
containing the two principal chiefs of the tribe living 
on shore. One of mature years, named Epuni, or 
" Greedy," advanced with much dignity of manner to 
greet Barrett as an old and respected friend, and was 
joined in this by his nephew PFarepori, or " Dark 
" House," a fine commanding man of about thirty-five. 
They were both nearly related to Mrs. Barrett, and had 
been Dicky's companions in the dangerous wars of Ta- 
ranaki. The old man, Barrett told us, was as famous 
for his wisdom in council as for his former deeds of 
war. JVarepori exercised the more immediate direction 
of the tribe, having acquired a more modern reputation 
by recent warlike exploits, by his. attractive eloquence, 
and by his perfection in the native accomplishments of 
canoe and house making, clearing, and marshalling his 
followers in the field. 

The harbour expanded as we advanced, two deep 
bays stretching to the south-west from the innermost 
end of the entering channel. From their western ex- 
tremity the land trends round to a valley lying at the 


northern end of the harbour, about eight miles from 
the reef, while the hilly shores of the eastern side con- 
tinue nearly straight to the mouth of the valley ; thus 
leaving the upper part of the great btisin four or five 
miles in width. In this upjier part lie the two islands, 
Ijehind the largest and most northerly of which we 
anchored at the distance of half-a-mile from the sandy 
beach at the valley's mouth. Epuni eagerly inquired 
the motive of our visit, and expressed the most marked 
satisfaction on hearing that we wished to buy the place, 
and bring white })eople to it. IVarepon also expressed 
his willingness to sell the land, and his desire of seeing 
white men come to live upon it. 

When the followers of Epuni and TVarepori formed 
part of the extensive migration from Taranaki about 
the year 1834, they found this district occupied by the 
Ngatimutvnga, who had been allied with Raupei-aha 
during his invasion and conquest of the Strait. Tired, 
however, by the constant incursions of the N gatikahu- 
himUj the tribe who had been driven by them to the 
east coast, but not exterminated, the J^gatimutunga de- 
termined to seek a new location. They partly forced 
and partly paid the captain of an English vessel to 
carry them to the Chatham Islands, which they con- 
quered and occupied. Before they departed, E Mare, 
their head chief, formally ceded the place to PP^arepori in 
exchange for some clubs of green-stone or inert ponamu. 
The Ngatiawa had since that period been much 
harassed by parties of the old occupants, and also by 
invasions from Rateperahas " boiling-water" allies, who 
had sometimes come overland down the northern valley 
which I have noticed. 

The two chiefs passed the night on board. They told 
us that the schooner of which we had heard had left 
some native missionary teachers, and that, in compliance 


with Mr. Williams's instructions, they had built houses 
and chapels in readiness for his arrival. They then 
discussed the merits of the missionary labours. They 
acknowledged that they would be heartily glad to 
renounce war and cannibalism, but deprecated the 
incessant praying and singing, which the younger chief 
especially objected to, as taking the people from their 
industrious avocations, and substituting a monotonous 
repetition, which lasted all day and night, for activity 
in cultivating their potato-grounds or hollowing out 
canoes. " We want," said they, " to live in peace, and 
" to have white people come amongst us. We are 
" growing old, and want our children to have pro- 
" tectors in people from Europe. We do not want the 
" missionaries from the Bay of Islands : they are pakeha 
" maori, or ' whites who have become natives,' We 
" have long heard of ships from Europe. Here is 
" one at length ; and we will sell our harbour and 
" land, and live with the white people when they come 
" to us." 

Kpuni also asked us to explain what the missionaries 
meant by saying, " that all the white men not mission- 
" aries were devils." 

September 21st. — In the morning the two chiefs 
renewed the conversation about the land ; and told 
Colonel Wakefield to go and look at the land, and see 
how he liked it. They did not wish to talk any more 
about it until this had been done ; and TVarepon said 
he should go and finish a large canoe which he was 
working at, and that in two or three days he should 
have done, and my uncle would know whether the 
land was good. A chief named Amahau was appointed 
to take him up the river which flows through the 
valley of which I have spoken ; and they started, with 
Barrett and some natives, in a small canoe. 


Several of us landed at a large village opposite our 
anchorage, and witnessed the ceremony of crying over 
JE Rangiy whom many of her numerous relations had 
not seen for five years. The village lay, as its maori 
name (Pitone, or " End of the Sand ") implied, at the 
western end of the sandy beach, which is about two 
miles long. The main river falls into the sea at the 
eastern end, about a quarter of a mile from the hills 
which bound the valley to the east, and is called the 
Heretaonga. A merry brawling stream, called the 
KorokorOy or " throat," flows between the village and 
the western hills. The valley seems to preserve an 
average width of two miles to a considerable distance, 
bounded on either side by wooded hills from 300 to 
400 feet in height. It was covered with high forest 
to within a mile and a half of the beach, when 
swamps full of flax, and a belt of sand-hummocks, 

The tangi, or crying, continued for a long period. 
The resident natives raised the most discordant whining 
lamentations, streaming at the eyes, nose, and mouth, 
and lacerating every part of their bodies with sharp 
cockle-shells until the blood flowed. This was done, 
however, with considerable regularity and attention, so 
as to leave scars rather ornamental than otherwise after 
the affair was over. Those who wish to commemorate 
one of these scenes of mourning or rejoicing (for the 
ceremonies and native word are precisely the same in 
both cases), apply a black dye to the scar, and thus retain 
a sort of slight tatu. 

The native visitors from Te-awa-iti, who had acquired 
to a considerable degree civilized ways of greeting one 
another, seemed anything but comfortable while the 
ceremony lasted. ITiey had forgotten the art of pro- 
ducing tears at will, and had a decided objection to 


8j3oiling their fine clothes, donned for the occasion, by 
any blood-letting. They therefore hung down their 
heads and looked wretched, patiently waiting for the 
moment when native etiquette would allow them to 
laugh and be cheerful, and exchange the important 
news from either side of the Strait. 

We started with a native guide to look for pigeons, 
strongly impressed with the wish of escaping to a re- 
spectful distance from the melodious greeting. 

Along the foot of the western hills we passed through 
numerous flourishing potato-gardens, and were greeted 
and stared at by those at work in them, who eagerly 
collected all the news from our guides. We found 
abundance of pigeons, and returned laden to the pa. 
The tangi had terminated ; the umu, or " cooking- 
" holes," were smoking away for the feast ; and eager 
groups of inquisitive faces were gathered round the 
proud narrators of our doings in Queen Charlotte's 
Sound. Our friend Jim Crow found many old friends 
and relations at Pitone, and his audience was by no 
means the least numerous or attentive. Nothing can 
remind one more forcibly of the monkey who had seer^ 
the world, than a maori thus relating news. He is an 
incorrigible exaggerator, and swells each minute cir- 
cumstance into an affair of state, taking delight in 
drawing repeated exclamations of amazement from the 
surrounding hadauds, who admire and envy the red 
night-cap or trowsers with which he may be adorned, 
with quite as much zeal as they drink in his metaphors 
and amplifications. 

Nayti, who belonged to a different tribe, the Kawia, 
had not yet had much opportunity of indulging in 
this universal propensity ; he seemed shy and reserved 
among these people, and they appeared to regard him 
with more suspicion than resjiect 


Enai, the Kawia chief, had taken great pains to 
depreciate him in our estimation when we were at Port 
Gore, by saying that he was no chief, and that his 
name was not Nayti, but Eriki Nono, a term, when 
translated, expressive of some contempt. We attri- 
buted a good deal of this to EnaPs envy of Nayti 
for possessing so many fine things. Nayti, however, 
who had confirmed us in our supposition that the name 
Eriki, applied to him constantly by the Ship Cove and 
Te-awa-iti people, signified " chief," now allowed it to 
be only a corruption of Dicky, by which name he had 
served, when a boy, in whale-boats at Cloudy Bay. 
We also discovered that he was not so well related as 
he had stated in England, but that the great attention 
paid to him by people of the highest classes there had 
very naturally induced him to give a tacit consent to 
the term "chief" or "prince," by which they often 
designated him : we therefore attached no blame to 
him for this assumption. The confused idea which 
the natives have of relationship, too, had assisted in 
causing him to make this mistake. A native will 
often state another man to be his tuakana, or " elder 
" brother," meaning only that he is of an elder branch of 
the same family. In like manner, matua, or " parent," 
implies no direct parentage, but often indicates only a 
slight relationship of a person of the older generation 
in the same family. Nayti had told us of his nume- 
rous brothers and sisters, having in fact neither one nor 
the other, but meaning cousins in various degrees. 

We found one solitary white man, named Joe Ro- 
binson, living in a village near the mouth of the river, 
having taken a native wife from the tribe. We saw a 
proof of his industry and ingenuity in the shape of a 
boat, the planks for which he had cut with a hand- 
saw: and he had made all the nails himself out of iron 


hoop. This boat earned many a pound in later times 
by trading round the coast. 

Colonel Wakefield returned on board in the evening, 
having ascended the main branch of the river until 
some snags prevented the further progress of the canoe. 
He described the banks as of the richest soil, and 
covered with majestic timber, except where fertile but 
scanty gardens had been cleared and cultivated by the 
natives. He found some fifty people at work there, 
who had concealed themselves in the bush the day be- 
fore on hearing our guns when we saluted the New 
Zealand flag as we anchored. They greeted him on 
his ascent, and presented him with potatoes cooked in 
readiness on his return. At one spot they inquired of 
the guide whether the White men in the ship were mis- 
sionaries. Upon his answering that they were all devils, 
" shouts of laughter," Colonel Wakefield afterwards 
wrote, " betrayed their acquaintance with his allusion, 
" and their opinion of the uncharitable tenet which had 
" given rise to it." 

September 22nd, Sunday. — The breeze of yesterday 
had increased into a gale, and blew with great violence 
from north-west. The ship, however, was not affected 
by it. Several canoes came off with natives, to be pre- 
sent at our Church service One of them, a low skim- 
ming-dish thing without topside planks, filled and 
turned over, ducking six or seven natives, including a 
woman, who were passengers. They seemed to be per- 
fectly used to such accidents, and some hung on to the 
bottom of the canoe while the others swam with one 
hand and gathered the paddles which had gone adrift. 
One of our boats soon rescued them, and they were 
furnished with dry blankets and sent to warm them- 
selves at the galley. 

In the evening a messenger arrived from abreast of 


Kapiti, with the news that a fight might be expected ; 
the " Boiling- water " tribe having mustered in great 
strength near to that place, and being set on by Eau- 
peraha to attack the Ngatiawa along the intervening 
coast. As there seemed some probability that this in- 
vasion might reach Port Nicholson, the natives one and 
all went ashore in defiance of the gale to gather the 
particulars and consult on measures of defence. 

23rd. — I accompanied Colonel Wakefield and Bar- 
rett in an excursion to the different settlements round 
the harbour. At one about half-way along the west 
shore, called Nga Hauranga, we found Tf^arepori at 
work with an adze on a large canoe. The bottom of 
this vessel consisted of a single tree hollowed out, and 
was sixty feet long. The long planks to be added on 
to the sides were placed between pegs stuck into the 
ground so as to give them the requisite curvature. We 
had not been there long before two large canoes from 
the southern end of the harbour put in at his call. 
They were on their way to Pit one, whither two chiefs 
were going in order to discuss the sale of the land. 
When they had landed, there were about sixty men 
assembled, and they proceeded to hold a korero or 
*' talk," on the all-important subject, while the women 
prepared a feast in the native ovens, and the children 
gathered round us to examine our clothes and other 
equipments, and to stare at our white faces. 

JVarepori put aside his adze, and introduced the 
matter shortly, saying that this white man (Colonel 
Wakefield) had come to buy all their land and give 
them white people to befriend them. 

A chief named Puakawa, or ** Bitter Milk-thistle," 
now rose, and opposed the intended sale with great 
energy. He objected to it on the score of the bad 
treatment which he urged might be expected from the 


White settlers, and represented the folly of parting with 
the new home of which they had acquired so good and 
secure possession after the long sufferings and dangers 
of their migration. He spoke for an hour, most vigo- 
rously, and with admirable emphasis and gesticulation. 
Although I did not then know enough of the language to 
understand all his words, and only gathered the substance 
from Barrett at each pause, his expression and action 
sufficiently explained the spirit and sense of his oration. 
An old sage named Matangi now rose and favoured 
the sale. He was once the most influential chief of 
the tribe, and was a near relation of Tf^arepori^ father. 
His extreme old age and consequent physical debility 
had impaired his influence, but his experience and vene- 
rable dignity still gave great weight to his words. His 
silver-white hair and long beard, and benignant coun- 
tenance, gave him the air of a Priam or a Nestor, and 
he almost wept for joy when he dwelt on the prospect 
of white people coming to protect his grandchildren 
against their enemies. 

TVarepori followed in the same strain ; talking, how- 
ever, about himself a great deal. He said that he was 
known in Europe, and that the ship had been sent to 
him. This is the usual habit of a powerful chief, who 
always seizes upon any opportunity of maintaining his 
personal consequence among his people. No native 
ever " bounces," as it is called by the whalers, at one of 
these public korero, unless he is confident that no other 
member of the tribe dare contradict or ridicule his as- 
sumption. The perfect silence maintained during Tf^a' 
reports somewhat bombastic speech, proved to how 
great an extent he might rely upon his authority. He 
was left, however, with no audience but the leader of 
the opposition, Puakawa, as soon as the cooks dis- 
played their bill of fare. We also partook of the meal. 


having assigned to us two or three newly made baskets- 
ful of birds and potatoes cooked deliciously. The ma- 
ori " umuy" or cooking-hole, is a very complete steaming 
apparatus, and is used as follows. In a hole scraped in 
the ground, about three feet in diameter and one foot 
deep, a wood fire is first lighted. Round stones, about 
the size of a man's fist, are heaped upon the faggots, 
and fall among the ashes as the fire consumes the wood. 
When they are thus nearly red-hot, the cook picks out 
any pieces of charcoal that may appear above the stones, 
turns all the stones round with two sticks, and arranges 
them so as to afford a pretty uniform heat and surface. 
She then sprinkles water on the stones from a dried 
gourd of which the inside has been hollowed, and a 
copious steam rises. Clean grass, milk-thistle, or wild 
turnip leaves, dipped in water, are laid on the stones ; 
the potatoes, which have been carefully scraped of their 
peel with cockle-shells, and washed, are placed on the 
herbs, together with any birds, meat, or fish that may 
be included in the mess ; fresh herbs are laid over the 
food, flax baskets follow, completely covering the heaj), 
and the mass is then buried with the earth from the 
hole. No visible steam escapes from the apparatus, 
which looks like a large mole-hill ; and when the old 
hags, who know how to time the cookery with great 
accuracy from constant practice, open the catacomb, 
everything is sure to be found thoroughly and equally 

The little birds were chiefly the tui or mocking-bird. 
This bird has been often described. It resembles a 
blackbird in size and plumage, with two graceful 
bunches of white feathers under the neck. It abounds in 
the woods, and is remarkably noisy and active. Its most 
common note is a mixture of two or three graduated notes 
on a flute, a sneeze, and a sharp whistle ; but it imitates 


almost every feathered inhabitant of the forest, and, 
when domesticated, every noise it hears. It is of a par- 
ticularly sweet flavour, and very tender. 

We were struck, during the discussion above-men- 
tioned, with the natural dignity and becoming regula- 
rity with which the deliberations were carried on. 
With the exception of an occasional exclamation of 
" korero / korero ! " '* speak ! speak ! " which was 
used like our " hear ! hear ! " in either an encou- 
raging or an ironical sense, or an earnest but low 
expression of approval or dissent, no interruption 
of the orators ever took place ; nor was there any 
contention as to the order in which the different chiefs 
should speak. Even while fPTirepori was employing 
each of his feet to rub off the other a cloud of small, 
troublesome sand-flies which annoyed him while he was 
speaking, not a smile was to be observed even among 
the children. No consulting among themselves took 
place ; each speaker seemed to have come with his 
words prepared, or to rely on his own capacity for ex- 
pressing the ideas of the moment or meeting unexpected 
arguments. Puakawa, although far from convinced, 
seemed to acquiesce partly in the general decision adopted 
in favour of the sale, and moved off with the rest of the 
travelling orators to Pitone, where a similar discussion 
was to take place. We took the remains of our meal 
with us into the boat, and visited one or two settlements 
at the southern end of the harbour l)efore we returned 
on board. It is absolutely requisite, in order to comply 
with the forms of Maori etiquette, for the guest to take 
away his dish and all that he has not eaten. It would 
give lasting offence to leave on the spot any part of what 
is set before him. A compliance with this custom would 
cause some astonishment at a large London banquet. 
24th. — The discussion was renewed at Pitone 
VOL. I. G 


today ; many chiefs being present from the other set- 
tlements. It ended, as yesterday, in the thorough ap- 
proval of the measure by a very large majority ; Pua- 
kawa and a few adherents still looking with a doubting 
eye upon the transaction. When the speeches were 
concluded, and the whole nature of the proposed trans- 
action, including the provision for the Native Reserves, 
had been explained to them. Col. Wakefield asked the 
chiefs, through Barrett, whether they had made up their 
minds ? They asked in return, " Have you seen the 
" place ? how do you like it ?" He answered that he 
had seen it sufficiently, and that it was good : upon 
which they replied, that it would be for him now to 
speak, as they had decided upon selling their lands on 
their own judgment, aided by the advice of their people 
in the neighbourhood. They referred to Puakawa and 
his people, who were the only dissenters, and said that 
they had but little right to speak about the land, and 
had shown no solid argument against its sale. Their 
chief one had been that the white people w^ould drive 
the natives away, as they had done at Port Jackson; 
and this the others over-ruled by adducing the Native 
Reserves, and saying that they would live with the 
Englishmen as with each other. 

After the serious discussion had closed, some of the 
warlike chiefs amused us and themselves by sham-fight- 
ing, and their exercise with the spear and tomahawk. 
One, named Kaihaia, diverted us much by his active 
menacing gestures and hideous grimaces of defiance, 
leaping about like a monkey, and bringing a long 
pointed wooden spear within an inch of our bodies ; 
then retreating with a roar of laughter every time he 
saw us shrink from the thrust. He is nicknamed 3 a- 
ringa kuri, or " Dog's-ear," and professed great hatred 
for Rauperaha, whose name he frequently shouted out 

Chap. IV. THE PURCHASE. '. 8t 

as he brandished his hatchet against thin air. I repaid 
him his surprise the first day that he came on board. 
I had got an accordion under a large cloak, and kept 
time to its notes with my mouth, so as to deceive him 
and twenty other natives into the idea that I was utter- 
ing the various sounds. They showed a profound re- 
spect for my oratorical talents, until I let them find out 
the trick, a day or two after. The accordion in ques- 
tion was called my mouth for a long time afterwards. 

25th. — This morning, the goods which Colonel 
Wakefield intended to give the natives for their land 
were got upon deck, in the presence of about a hun- 
dred of the natives. Except incessant chattering, they 
offered no obstruction or inconvenience to this process ; 
but as they filled up a good deal of room on deck, 
which was wanted in order to assort the various things, 
my uncle requested Tf^arepori to explain this and get 
them to go ashore until all was ready. He instantly 
addressed them from the hurricane-house, and set the 
example of going on shore himself, which was readily 
and expeditiously followed by all. 

On the 26th, when all the articles had been selected 
and arranged, a message was sent on shore for all the 
chiefs, who came accompanied by their sons. They 
examined the stock of goods strictly and carefully, and 
approved of the quality and quantity. They seemed, 
however, embarrassed as to the distribution among the 
six minor tribes of which the population was com- 
posed. It was therefore proposed to them to divide the 
lots on our deck. Colonel Wakefield also sent for the 
principal native missionary teacher, a young man who 
had been christened Richard Davis, after his master 
and patron at the Bay of Islands, and who had arrived 
in the missionary schooner mentioned formerly. It was 
hoped that his presence as a witness to the transaction 



might give it weight and force ; but on his arrival, we 
found him so importunate for presents to himself, and 
so totally devoid of influence or authority among the 
chiefs, that we did not regret his returning to tend a 
sick child at home. 

A very ample and liberal compensation, according to 
the number of native inhabitants and the standard of 
value assigned to land in all former purchases, had 
been appointed by Colonel Wakefield. As he was re- 
solved, however, to distinguish this purchase by a free- 
dom from that haggling and over-reaching spirit which 
we had ascertained to have characterized all former 
dealings with the New Zealanders, he informed them 
through Barrett, that he should show them at once 
what he intended to give, and that he would suffer no 
bargaining for more or less. 

It was plainly, however, contrary to the custom of 
the Maori to dispose of so important an affair with- 
out plenty of talking ; so they debated in due form as 
to the course to be adopted in distributing the goods ; 
and TVarefori, as he had been repeatedly urged by us, 
used his best endeavours to prevent the occurrence of 
one of those fierce and sometimes fatal scrambles which 
Barrett and the other white men told us were the uni- 
versal consequence of a large present of goods to any 
of these tribes. He entreated the different chiefs to 
exert their influence towards preventing such an event 
when our boats should land the goods at the different 
settlements. Some of them seemed half inclined to 
protest against this reform of their customary habits, 
and appeared to look forward with some interest to the 
excitement of a scramble, in which they knew that per- 
sonal prowess obtained the better share. Puakawa 
took advantage of this slight difterence of opinion to 
address another violent harangue to the assemblage, 


dissuasive of the whole measure. He seemed most 
earnest and wilful in his opposition, and used the ener- 
getic action suited to his words. His attentive audi- 
ence cried " korero ! korero ! " as on shore ; and seemed 
to humour his love of contradiction while they differed 
from him in opinion. 

After enumerating the articles of which the payment 
consisted, he described with great vivacity the rush 
which would be sure to take place for them on shore, 
and dwelt upon the fact that there would not be 
enough of everything to go round among all, and that 
many would remain dissatisfied. He said that every- 
one had cleared a bit of land, and that many would 
find themselves deprived of that, and without anything 
in exchange. " What will you say," urged he, " when 
" you find that you have parted with all your land from 
" the Rimarapa to the Turakirai, and from the Tara- 
" rua to the sea ? " 

These were the boundaries which had been pointed 
out by Pf^arepori from the deck in the hearing of 
the assembled chieftains. He had followed with his 
finger the summit of the mountain ranges mentioned, 
and told me their names, in order to their insertion 
in the deed, which I had been employed in pre- 
paring in the course of the day. Tararua is the name 
of a high snowy range, at the head of the great valley, 
from which the two other ranges branch off to the sea. 

It was extremely difficult — nay almost impossible — 
to buy a large and distinct tract of land, with fixed 
boundaries, from any native or body of natives of this 
part of New Zealand, perfectly unused as they were to 
any dealing in land according to our notions. These 
})eople had no distinct boundaries marked when they 
received the cession from the Ngatimutunga, and would 
have been puzzled to walk round or point out accu- 


rately any particular limit between the waste land 
under their jurisdiction and that at the disposal of an- 
other tril>e. The Kawia tribe, indeed, laid a claim to 
this whole neighbourhood, also without exact bounda- 
ries. The Ngatiawa chiefs knew that they had a 
right to occupy any portion of the land near Port 
Nicholson, because E Mare had told them to do so, 
and because they maintained by their own gallantry 
and strength their right to clear new patches where 
they pleased and to live unejected by their enemies. 
But they knew not of any further right to a district 
covered with primaeval forest, far too vast for the use 
of any descendants of their tribe whom they could look 
forward to, and likely, as far as they thought, to re- 
main both unvisited and useless for ages to come. No 
hunting ever led to disputes concerning limits in the 
forest, there being no beasts to hunt ; and the only dis- 
putes respecting land which had yet occurred between 
the natives themselves arose from the invasion of lands 
already cleared or likely to be wanted soon, or the 
taking of trees from a forest already marked out by 
another savage for a supply of canoes or house-timber. 
The first clearer became the acknowledged owner of 
a tract of hitherto intact land : the first axeman in a 
primaeval forest laid claim to the surrounding trees. 
But a claim to waste land beyond this natural one of 
seizure and occupancy was unknown among them at 
this time. It may be safely asserted that Tf^arepori 
considered himself to be making over to Colonel 
Wakefield this vague right deduced from proximity, 
together with that over the more actual possessions of 
the tribe near the sea, when he pointed with his finger 
along a line of hills forming the horizon of sight all 
round, on which he had probably never been, and con- 
.cerning which he could have no certain knowledge 


whether they were inhabited or not by other owners. 
And he had acquired the idea of ownership to this 
wild and desert district by the wish which we had ex- 
pressed, of paying a larger sum than he had yet seen 
for a larger tract of land than any for which he had 
yet heard treated, in order to receive a population 
beyond his imagination of numbers, and to be made 
available with a rapidity beyond what he could con- 
ceive. It was probably the first time that he had 
thought of the boundaries to the waste land over which 
he claimed dominion ; and the haughty way in which 
he pointed out, on being asked the question for the 
first time, that he was " monarch of all he surveyed," 
had some affinity to his former assumption that the 
first ship he had ever seen from Europe was come out 
expressly to him. They were both rapid adoptions 
of new ideas, which our suggestions and offers of a 
new state of things induced him to seize and confirm. 

Colonel Wakefield was accordingly obliged to buy 
of the natives, not certain lands within certain boun*- 
daries, but the rights, claims, and interests of the con- 
tracting chieftains, whatsoever they might be, to any 
land whatever within certain boundaries. Such were 
the terms of all the deeds afterwards executed, and 
such were the terms of the Company's purchases as 
explained fully to the chiefs themselves. 

" What will you say," continued Puakawa, " when 
" many, many White men come here, and drive you all 
" away into the mountains ? How will you feel when 
" you go to the White man's house or ship to beg for 
" shelter and hospitality, and he tells you, with his eyes 
" turned up to heaven, and the name of his God in 
" his mouth, to be gone, for that your land is paid for ? " 

I was sensibly affected by his earnest depiction of 
this scene, and the sincerity which his face reflected as 


he held up so discouraging a prospect to his fellow 
men ; and when Barrett had interpreted his words, 
I glowed with pleasure at the thought that the day 
would come when he would recognize that there were 
White men different from those he had yet seen, who 
would make use of their superiority, and even their 
legal right, only to afford the most extended hospitality 
and kindness to such as himself, and to raise him up 
to a level with themselves. 

These long and repeated discussions were most inte- 
resting and satisfactory ; as they proved how thoroughly 
the most dissentient natives understood the force of the 
transaction, and how gratefully they would welcome 
the subsequent disarming of their suspicions. 

Puakawa wound up his oration by declaring that 
there were about half the goods now shown that had 
been on the deck the day before. His audience, how- 
ever, who had carefully examined the heaps, expressed 
the same frank dissent which never failed to attend 
upon any of his statements which exceeded the bounds 
of truth, or seemed improbable as conjectures. 

The debate had lasted till sunset ; and all but the 
elder chiefs returned to the shore for the night. 

September 27th. — This morning the distribution on 
the deck of the goods commenced ; TVareporx superin- 
tending it with much formality, and several of the chiefs 
addressing the numerous spectators at intervals. Some 
trouble arose from the desire not to open the cases of 
nmskets, of which there were only five, that some might 
be sent to each of the six settlements. In these large 
acquisitions of property, the natives always like to re- 
ceive a bale, a case, or a cask whole, as the transaction 
assumes a more opulent ajipearance in the opinion of 
the other tril^es among whom the news travels. For 
instance, more pigs can be obtained for an unbroken 


cask of tobacco, than for the contents divided into 
many small portions, and exchanged against single 
pigs. My uncle, on becoming aware of the difficulty, at 
once gave them a sixth case, which made things quite 

Tf^arepori placed equal portions of all the other 
goods on each of the musket-cases, till they were ex- 
j)ended. He reserved but little for himself; keeping 
some powder and cartridges, in order to be ready for 
war. Several of the other chiefs showed equal disin- 
terestedness, and declared that their principal object 
was to get white people to live among them. A hand- 
some young man, named E Tako, who was nearly 
related to Mrs. Barrett, received the share for his 
father, the chief of Pipitea and Kurnu toto, two conti- 
guous settlements at the south-west end of the harbour ; 
and he arrayed himself in a good suit of clothes 
selected from the heap. He had taken an active and 
eager part in promoting the agreement, and bringing it 
to a conclusion. Old '* Dog's-ear " received the share 
for his settlement, which is called Kai TVara JJ^ara ; 
Epuni received that for Pitone j TVarepon himself 
took charge of the portion assigned to his immediate 
followers at Nga haurangUy and dispatched a share 
which had been made purposely smaller to the pa Te 
Aro, the most southerly of the settleinents, where a 
tributary tribe, called the TaranaM, had their habita- 
tion. The sixth share was assigned to Puakawa and 
his followers, who had determined, when they saw the 
others receiving their shares satisfactorily, to desist 
from any further opposition. He accordingly took 
charge of the goods, and, though in silence, followed 
the example of the others. 

I had prepared a deed according to Colonel Wake- 
field's instructions, nearly in the words of some deeds 


which we had on board, that had been drawn on the 
model of those used by missionary land-buyers in the 
northern part of the island. The boundaries and native 
names being inserted from 1Varepori'% dictation, the 
deed was brought on deck, and laid on the capstem. 
As I read it through, sentence by sentence, in English, 
Barrett interpreted into Maori ; and he was repeatedly 
urged by Colonel Wakefield to explain fully each im- 
portant provision contained in it. The Native Reserves 
were especially dwelt upon. Although the natives had 
repeatedly discussed every point, and this was therefore 
only a repetition of the agreement to which they had 
all given an ample assent on several occasions, and 
though they were anxious to get the goods on shore, 
and the distribution there ended, they listened with 
great attention and decorum to the recapitulation of 
the deed in both languages. The chiefs then came up 
in succession to the capstem, in order to make their 
marks. As each one's name was called, I wrote it down, 
and held the pen whilst he made a mark opposite. They 
all brought their sons with them, in order, as they sug- 
gested, to bind them in the transaction, and to prove 
that they looked forward to the future. 

The boats were then sent away with the goods to 
the settlements ; the chief of each accompanying them, 
and undertaking to distribute them at his own place. 
The officers in charge of the boats reported on their 
return, that not the slightest tumult had attended the 
landing, and that the greatest quietness and order had 
prevailed while the chief apportioned the lots of each 
head of a family. 

ff^arepori and Epuni appeared at our dinner-table 
to-day, dressed in their newly-acquired suits of clothes, 
and looked very respectable. The former, however, 
soon came into my uncle's cabin to undress, as he found 

Chap. IV. .Ci,.^.. NICKNAMES. /^.. .f 91 

the coat and shoes made him very uneasy. Both these 
chiefs had been to Sydney, and were exceedingly desir- 
ous of becoming like an English gentleman. 

During the time taken up in discussions, I had ac- 
quired a great many words of Maori, and began to 
understand a good deal and make myself understood a 
little. I had become very good friends with the natives 
in various excursions ashore, and was designated by a 
nickname while here, which remained from this time my 
only name among them till I left the country. Some 
of the young people had made many attempts to pro- 
nounce " Edward Wakefield," on receiving an answer 
-to their question as to my name. The nearest approach 
they could make to it was JEra weke, and some wag 
immediately suggested " Tiraweke',^ the name of a 
small bird which is very common in the woods, and 
known for its chattering propensities. As I had made 
it a point to chatter as much as possible with them, 
whether according to Maori grammar or not, they 
agreed that the sobriquet would do, and reported their 
invention at the pa. The old men and chiefs were not 
a bit behind their juniors in their hilarity and fondness 
for a joke, and never called me otherwise afterwards. 
They also christened Colonel Wakefield " TVide-awake^ 
after some chief who had been so called by the flax- 
traders in former times ; and this name also has clung 
to him ever since. 

Dr.Dieffenbach and Mr. Heaphy engaged some native 
guides one day to go and look for some birds called 
huia, which were said to abound in this part of the 

The huia is a black bird about as large as a thrush, 
with long thin legs, and a slender semicircular beak, 
which he uses for seeking in holes of trees for the in- 
sects on which he feeds. In the tail are four long 


black feathers tipt with white. These feathers are 
much valued by the natives as ornaments for the hair 
on great occasions ; and are highly esteemed as presents 
from the inhabitants of this neighbourhood to those of 
the north, where the bird is never found. Near the 
insertion of the beak, a fleshy yellow wattle is j)laced 
on either side. 

Our sportsmen crossed the mouth of the Heretaonga 
river, and ascended a steep ridge of the eastern hills. 
Among the forests on the top they remained ensconced 
in the foliage, while the natives attracted the birds by 
imitating the peculiar whistle, from which it takes the 
name of huia. They only shot two or three, which 
had followed the decoy almost on to the barrels of their 

I had formed one of several shooting parties and 
fishing excursions. The former were generally con- 
ducted in the different creeks into which the river 
divides from a kind of tidal lagoon inside the sand-bar, 
and we fell in with numerous pigeons and wild-ducks 
while exploring their courses as high as our boat could 
proceed. The grandeur of the forest which overshaded 
these clear creeks, the luxuriance and entanglement of 
the underwood, and the apparent richness of the soil, 
could nowhere be exceeded, l^^e longed to see the 
time when the benefit of the latter should be reaped by 
industrious English yeomen. 

Our fishing parties were generally directed to a snug 
cove about a mile south-east of the river's mouth, which 
we christened Lowry Bay, after the first mate, who 
used to be head fisherman, and direct our bungling ex- 
ertions in the management of the sean. In this place 
we generally had a fine haul of plaice, sole, and several 
other kinds of fish. On the beach near Pitone we ob- 
tained several immense hauls, whenever a shoal of 


kawai came into that part of the bay. . The kawai has 
somewhat of the habits of the salmon, entering during 
the spring and summer into the bays, rivers, and fresh- 
water creeks in large shoals : it resembles the mackerel 
in appearance, but is not equal in flavour to either 
of those fish. The natives catch large quantities of 
them with a bone hook at the end of a fish-shaped 
piece of wood, inlaid with the shell of the mutton-fish, or 
haliotiis, which bears the lively colours and brilliancy of 
mother-o'-pearl. This hook requires no bait, and a 
dozen of them are dragged along the water by a canoe 
which pulls at full speed through the shoal. 

There are many other sorts of fish, including the 
tamore, or snapper ; the manga, or barracoota ; the 
mango, or dog-fish, of which the natives catch and store 
large quantities, by drying them in the sun ; and the 
hapuka. This last fish is caught in pretty deep water; 
near reefs and rocks. It often reaches a great size, 
weighing as much as 112 lbs. It bears a considerable 
resemblance to the cod in form, but is, however, of far 
finer flavour. The head and shoulders, especially, when 
cooked, seem a mass of jelly. The moM is also a well- 
flavoured fish, weighing 10 lbs. or 12 lbs. 

Sunday, 29th. — After prayers. Colonel Wakefield 
went round the harbour with Tf^arepori to visit the 
different settlements, in order to see how the people 
were satisfied, and to invite them to a sort of festival 
which was to be held on the occasion at Pitone on 
Monday. At the slave settlement, Te Aro, Ji^arepori 
addressed the occupants, who had the same abject de- 
pendent appearance which we had remarked in the Ran- 
gitane at the Pelorus River. He told them what 
benefits would accrue to them, and excused himself for 
having sent them a smaller share of the goods, as the 
free settlements had required a large proportion ; but 


encouraged them by reminding them that they were 
now armed, and in a position to defend themselves, 
should they be attacked by Rauperaha and the " Boiling- 
*' water " tribes. He dwelt on the promotion in caste 
which they would by this means obtain, as " each man 
" that fell would now be buried with his musket and 
" cartouch-box, and be mourned over as a warrior that 
" died with arms in his hands." He thus eloquently 
conciliated those who had been a little jealous of the 
unequal partition ; and when one of the missionary 
teachers came forward to reproach him for not having 
kept half the land for the White missionaries expected 
from the north, he administered a severe rebuke to his 
assailant, which was loudly applauded by the listening 

" How can you," retorted he, " who are a child, 
" reprove me for anything that I have done ? Jf I had 
" sold the land to the White missionaries, might they 
** not have sold it again to Pf^iwi* (Frenchmen) or 
** Americans ? This rangatira-hoia (soldier-chief)," 
he continued, " will bring many English from their 
** country, and how could they live with a hostile tribe ? 
*' They are not all Englishmen that come from Europe : 
** there is a White man on board the ship who is not 
^* English : I know him by his tongue." This was in 
allusion to Dr. Dieffenbach. We were rather sur- 
prised to find so much knowledge of nations and pre- 
ference for the English in TVareporis mind ; but he 
had most likely acquired it among the flax-traders, and 
during his visit to Sydney. 

He concluded his speech, after getting into the boat, 

by saying that his wish had been to satisfy everybody, 

and that he had kept nothing for himself; that he 

should learn English, and go to England. He laid 

♦ This name is probably derived from " Oui ! oui !" 


his head on Colonel Wakefield's knee, and said that if 
the natives were discontented with him, he should live 
with the White men, and that the tribe of England 
shouldbe his fathers. 

At this place Colonel Wakefield proposed to pay for 
the chapels and houses which the missionary delegates 
had built on a piece of flat land where he intended to 
fix the site of the town ; but Ti^arepori objected, saying 
that he had already paid for the whole of the land and 
everything upon it. 

At each of the other settlements Colonel Wakefield 
engaged the natives to be active in collecting provisions, 
clearing land, and bringing timber for building to the 
site of the town. Warepori supported the request, and 
then asked the young men to collect at Pitone, in order 
to join in a war-dance to be given in the morning. 
Colonel Wakefield was universally treated as a bene- 
factor, and we had the satisfaction of hearing on all 
hands expressions of contentment at the purchase- 
money, and eager hope for the speedy arrival of the 
settlers. The chiefs repeatedly impressed upon the 
people that their land was gone for ever, with the 
exception of what the White people would allow them 
for cultivation and residence ; that they would never 
receive any further payment for it, but would be paid 
for any labour which they performed for the White 
people ; and that the contract would be considered 
tapUy and as inviolable as any of the reservations of 
holy places which are often made among themselves. 

30th. — This morning we observed the natives ga- 
thering from all parts of the harbour. Canoes and 
parties on foot, glittering with their lately acquired red 
blankets and muskets, were all closing in upon the 
place of rendezvous ; fresh smokes rose every moment 
on shore as a new oven was prepared for the feast ; and 


TVare^or'i and the other chiefs who had slept on board 
went on shore early to make the necessary preparations, 
accompanied by our carpenter, who was to su})erintend 
the erection of a small tree which the natives had pro- 
cured for the purpose, as a flag-staff, close to the Pitone 
pa. In the afternoon, on a signal from the shore, we 
landed in our boats with all the cabin party, and all 
the sailors that could be spared, to take part in the 
rejoicings. We were joyfully received by the assem- 
blage, which consisted of about three hundred men, 
women, and children. Of these, two hundred were 
men, and had armed themselves with the hundred and 
twenty muskets they had received from us, spears, 
tomahawks, pointed sticks, stone and wooden clubs, 
&c. Even a dozen umbrellas, which had formed part 
of the payment, figured in the ranks as conspicuously 
as the Emperor of Marocco's son's parasol has figured 
in more recent battalions. Every one was dressed in 
some of the new clothes ; their heads were neatly 
arranged, and ornamented with feathers of the alba- 
tross or hida ; handsome mats hung in unison with 
the gay petticoats of the women and the new blankets 
of the warriors ; the latter were bedizened with waist- 
coats and shirts, and belted with cartouch-boxes and 
shot-belts. It was high holiday with everybody ; and 
a universal spirit of hilarity prevailed among the excited 

As we landed Colonel Wakefield ordered the New 
Zealand flag to be hoisted at the staff ; and the same 
was done at the main of the Tory, which saluted it 
with twenty-one guns, to the great delight of the 
natives at the noise and smoke. 

TVarepori then asked if we were ready ; and told us 
that many men were absent, some at their distant 
gardens, some oq an expedition to the westward, and 

Chap. IV. WAR-DANCE. Wf 

some deterred by the bad weather which had prevailed 
during the morning. He then took his station at the 
head of one of the parties into which the fighting-men 
were divided, " Dog's-ear" having marshalled the other 
at a little distance. 

Tf^arepori was dressed in a large hussar cloak be- 
longing to my uncle, to which he had taken a fancy, 
and brandished a handsome green-stone meri. His 
party having seated themselves in ranks, he suddenly 
rose from the ground and leaped high into the air with 
a tremendous yell. He was instantly imitated by his 
party, who sprang out of their clothes as if by magic, 
and left them in bundles on the ground. They then 
joined in a measured guttural song recited by their 
chief, keeping exact time by leaping high at each louder 
intonation, brandishing their weapons with the right 
hand, and slapping the thigh with the left as they 
came heavily upon the ground. The war-song warmed 
as it proceeded ; though still in perfect unison, they 
yelled louder and louder, leaped higher and higher, 
brandished their weapons more fiercely, and dropped 
with the smack on the thigh more heavily as they pro- 
ceeded, till the final spring was accompanied by a con- 
cluding whoop which seemed to penetrate one's marrow. 
After this preparatory stimulant, the two parties ran 
down to the beach, and took up positions facing each 
other at about two hundred yards' distance. They then 
repeated the dance ; and at its conclusion the two parties 
passed each other at full speed, firing their guns as they 
ran, and took up a fresh position nearer to each other. 

A small reinforcement was now brought up from 
Puakawas village at the mouth of the river to one 
of the parties ; and we were much surprised to see at 
the head of it Richard Davis, the missionary teacher, 
dressed in warlike costume, and his head iDedecked with 

VOL. I. H 


kuta feathers. He took an eager part in the proceed- 
ings, and was the bearer of a sort of sham challenge 
from one party to the other. They now for a third 
time went through the peropero, or " war-dance ;" 
but dispensed with any sham-fighting, as the day was 
nearly at an end, and they wished everything to ter- 
minate in an amicable way. Many of the women had 
joined in the wildest part of the dance, yelling and 
grimacing with as demoniacal a frenzy as any of the 
men. We were shown some natives from JJ^anganui, 
a settlement some distance north of Kapiti, who dis- 
tinguished themselves by their ferocious appearance. 
They had blackened all round their eyes with charcoal, 
and painted themselves copiously with streaks of red 
ochre and oil ; they performed their part with exces- 
sive vigour and gusto, and looked, when in the ecstasy 
of the dance, like demons incarnate. Barrett and 
fffarepori told us that these Wanganui natives were 
looked upon as the most savage and warlike even by 
the other tribes, and that they spoke a different dialect 
from the Ngatlawa. They were closely allied, at this 
time, with the latter. 

A haka was now performed by about one hundred 
and fifty men and women. They seated themselves in 
ranks in one of the court-yards of the pa, stripped to 
the waist. An old chieftainess, who moved along the 
ranks with regular steps, brandishing an ornamented 
spear in time to her movements, now recited the first 
verse of a song in a monotonous, dirge-like measure. 
This was joined in by the others, who also kept time 
by quivering their hands and arms, nodding their heads 
and bending their bodies in accordance with each 
emphasis and pause. These song| are often made im- 
promptu on various subjects ; l)ut those selected for the 
present occasion were principally ancient legends. 


At the conclusion of the hakay we were served from 
the ovens with the joints of a pig, which had been 
sacrificed for the occasion, and the whole assemblage 
partook of an ample meal. We drank the healths of 
the chiefs and people of Port Nicholson in bumpers of 
champagne, and, christening the flag-staff, took formal 
possession of the harbour and district for the New 
Zealand Land Company, amidst the hearty cheers of the 
mixed spectators. The whole scene passed with the 
greatest harmony, and we were sensibly struck by the 
remarkable good feeling evinced towards us by the 

This disposition continued unabated during the three 
days more that we remained at this place. The na- 
tives, whether chieftains, inferiors, or slaves, treated us 
with the greatest kindness and affection. Warepori 
suggested that a deputation should proceed in the ship 
to assist us in buying the district of Taranaki, from 
which they were driven, and of which all who had 
been there, whether natives or White men, spoke in the 
highest terms. He also spoke of a flat and fertile dis- 
trict to the eastward, called Wairarapa, which opens 
into Palliser Bay. He declared it tapu for Colonel 
Wakefield, and swore by his head that no one else 
should have any of it till he had been to see it. 
Barrett told us that it answered his description, and 
had a fresh-water stream running through it into 
Palliser Bay. 

Epum?> eldest son, E IVare^ and a young chief named 
TuaraUy nephew of a former head chief of the Nga- 
tiawa tribes, were selected to go with us to Taranakiy 
and took up their berths on board. E TVare had ac- 
companied Captain Chafters in a surveying expedition 
in one of the boats during the last week, of which an 
excellent chart of the harbour was the result. As 



soon as this was drawn, Colonel Wakefield proceeded 
to name the various points and bays. The south-west- 
ern bay, where the most' secure anchorage exists, and 
where the town was to be built, was named Lambton 
Harbour, in honour of the Earl of Durham, who was 
Governor of the Company, and had been a warm patron 
of the project in England. A piece of level ground, 
over which the town was to extend, was named Thorn- 
don Flat, from Thorndon Hall in Essex, the residence 
of Lord Petre, who had also forwarded with his un- 
ceasing support the intended colony. The river Here- 
taonga received the name of Mr. William Hutt, another 
of the most energetic friends of the undertaking. The 
large island Matiu was christened Somes's Island, 
after Mr. Joseph Somes, the then Deputy-Governor of 
the Company. The most remarkable headlands at the 
entrance were named after Mr. Francis Baring, Sir 
George Sinclair, and Pencarrow, the residence of Sir 
William Molesworth; and the names of other places 
were selected from among those likely to be respected 
and honoured by the future inhabitants as memorials 
of the disinterested founders of the colony. Barrett's 
Reef must not be omitted in this list, as commemo- 
rating our worthy and honest co-operator. 

The utmost satisfaction prevailed among all on l)oard, 
at the conclusion of all the arrangements, as well as 
among the natives. We felt that we had secured, by 
an honourable bona fide transaction with the natives, 
an unexceptionable harbour and site for a town ; and 
although the neighbouring land, with the exception of 
the valley of the Hutt, was rather rugged, we consi- 
dered this as no lasting obstacle to the fitness of 
the place for a colony. Indeed, compared with the 
land on the Middle Island, the hills here appeared both 
low and easy of cultivation. We were moreover con- 


vinced, by the numerous accounts which we had ga- 
thered from White adventurers as well as natives, that 
this was the only harbour accessible to large shipping 
between Manukau on the west side of the North Island 
and the Thames on the opposite coast ; and that the 
shipping and trade of that extensive coast-line must be 
sure to centre here. 

But a far more satisfactory circumstance was the pe- 
culiarly agreeable way in which we felt sure of dealing 
with the native population. Their contentment and 
thorough appreciation of our good intentions in their 
favour, their spontaneous approbation of the whole 
transaction, which gave it more force and solemnity in 
our eyes than the most binding legal forms, and their 
pleasing eagerness for the arrival of our companions, 
all combined to induce in us great hopes of success. 
We felt how fortunate we had been in finding a popu- 
lation so uncontaminated by the vices of irregular coloni- 
zation, so free from any prejudice for or against any 
class of strangers. We were therefore sanguine in our 
hopes that the colonists would be happy among a people 
so well disposed to greet them, and that the warm 
feelings of benevolence which we knew to be enter- 
tained by the principal intending settlers would be exer- 
cised upon a genial soil, when they should encourage 
the natives to co-operation with them in measures con- 
ducive to their own benefit and improvement. We 
relied much on the fact that this people acknowledged 
the powerful influence of one or two chiefs ; and we 
hoped, by maintaining these latter, as persons entitled 
to respect and authority among their own people as 
well as among the emigrants, to work, through them, 
a beneficial change and speedy amelioration of the 
moral and physical condition of the natives. 

U this inferior race were to be raised to our own level, 


it could only be done by means of a process analogous to 
their own customs. It seemed, therefore, reasona])le to 
suppose that their institutions might be most effectually 
improved by means of the very men whom those insti- 
tutions had set forth as the heads and guides of their 
fellow-countrymen. We looked upon IVareporiy 
Epuni, and Puakawa, as capahle of being admitted 
amongst the leading men of the colony ; and as certain, 
when stirred by emulation and worthy ambition, to 
take pride in propagating by their influence a reform, 
easy and gradual because its successive steps should 
be appreciated, recommended, and adopted by those 
whose advice would obtain the greatest respect, and 
whose example would be followed with the most implicit 

We confessed to ourselves that the apparent hostility 
of the native missionaries seemed to augur some difficul- 
ties ; but we persuaded ourselves that they had exceeded 
their mission. They were all men who had been taken 
in war as slaves by the Northern tribes, and who had 
returned, upon their emancipation by their converted 
masters, to spread the doctrines which they had imbibed 
from the European missionaries in that part of the 

Being debarred by native custom from resuming their 
previous caste after having been once enslaved, they 
were evidently very jealous of the authority of the chiefs, 
which they longed to overthrow, as opposed to the 
recognition of themselves as the guides of the tribe in 
matters temporal as well as spiritual. To this jealousy 
we attributed an undue dislike of such as, like ourselves, 
recognized the chiefs in actual authority as the only fit 
movers of the people. And we felt convinced that their 
hostile aspect was in excess of the instructions which 
they might have received from their Christian and 


civilized teachers. We were sanguine, at least, in our 
hopes that those among the latter who should candidly 
examine our proposed measures, would end by cordially 
co-operating with us in employing the chiefs as most 
apt instruments, while made equals with ourselves, in 
the work of civilization and conversion. 

It must be remembered that the projectors of the 
colony had invited the coalition of the Parent Mis- 
sionary Societies at home in this scheme. It was cal- 
culated to shield their flocks from the consequences of 
the irregular and vicious colonization which had already 
exercised a very deteriorating influence on the worthy 
efforts of the missionaries in the north of the islands, 
and which was daily increasing in extent and danger, 
unrestrained by any law or authority. It was in part 
with a view to the removing numerous scenes of conta- 
mination, such as that which I have described at Te- 
awa-iti, that the plan of a regular and orderly coloniza- 
tion was first put forth by the Association in 1837, and 
persevered in by the Company. 

We remembered, too, Mr. Dandeson Coates's undevi- 
ating course of hostility to both the Association and 
the Company up to the moment of our embarking for 
New Zealand. His evidence before the House of 
Lords' Committee in 1838, and his refusal of the 
request made by one of our party for a copy of the 
grammar and vocabulary of the Maori language pub- 
lished by the Church Missionary Society, remained as 
proofs of Mr. Coates's determination, declared in words 
and published in pamphlets, that " he would thwart us 
by all the ** means in his power." 

The secretary of the Wesley an Missionary Society 
had joined Mr. Coates in this course ; and the Com- 
mittees of both Societies had recorded their opinions in 
condemnation of our proceedings. 


We trusted, however, that these bitter feelings would 
not be continued long in the colony ; and that no con- 
troversy or partisanship would be allowed to over-rule 
the conviction of our benevolent intentions which we 
felt sure of impressing on the Christian missionaries in 
New Zealand. We felt sure that their interest in the 
cause of religion, and their appreciation of a body of 
respectable settlers as co-operators and supporters in 
their work, combined with a knowledge of the ways in 
which example affected change in the native mind, 
would soon outweigh the opinion prejudicial to the 
colonists which they might have imbibed from their 
correspondents at home. 

In the meanwhile, the slave teachers were not likely 
to exercise much influence over the disposition of the 
great body of natives towards us ; and we hoped that 
the White missionaries, when they did arrive, would 
come as friends and brethren in the great work. 

Colonel Wakefield left with TVarepor'i Mr. Smith, 
whom I mentioned above, with a stock of garden-seeds 
and carpenter's tools, and a few goods with which to 
encourage the natives in the work of preparation for 
the arrival of the settlers. JVarepori promised to put 
him in a new house at his own settlement, and to take 
care of him till our return. We also landed some pigs 
of a superior breed before we sailed. Some boards 
bearing the words "New Zealand Land Company" 
were put up in conspicuous places on the shores of the 

Chap. V. CLOUDY BAY. 106 


Port Underwood in Cloudy Bay — Angry Natives — Peace restored 
— Whaling-stations — Fishing — We sail for Te-awa-iti — Fighting 
Bay — We cross the strait to Kapiti — Islets near it — Battle of 
Waikanae — Funeral feast — Rauperaha — His appearance — His 
history — HongVs, wars — The Kawia tribe — Te Pehi Kupe — In- 
vasion of Cook's Strait — The contending tribes — Immense 
slaughter — Allies — Siege and capture of Kapiti — Extermina- 
tion of Aborigines — Visit of Te Pehi to England — His return 
and death — Rauperaha's revenge— His White coadjutors — He 
acquires influence — Opposes the Ngatiawa — His unbounded 
treachery — His behaviour to White men — Rangihaeata assists 
him in marauding — Whaling-stations — Waikanae village — 
Wounded and dead — Rauperaha on board — Hiko — Negotiations 
for sale of land — News from Sydney — Quarrel among chiefs — 
Threats — Reconciliation — The deed signed — Rauperaha^s ra- 
pacity — Gale of wind — Mana, or Table Island — East Bay in 
Queen Charlotte's Sound — Funeral of trader at Te-awa-iti — Ne- 
gotiations for land — Another deed — Scramble — Extent of rights 
now acquired — Return to Kapiti — Land-buyers from Sydney — 
War-canoes — Warepori and Rauperaha — Wanganui chiefe — A 
warrior' — Rauperaha repudiates his bargain. 

On the morning of the 4th of November, we sailed 
from Port Nicholson, and anchored at night in the 
mouth of Port Underwood in Cloudy Bay. The lofty 
and more barren mountains beneath Avhich it lies struck 
us as cheerless and desolate after the shores of Port 
Nicholson ; and rude flurries of wind from the high 
peaks whistled among our rigging. 

In the morning of the 5th we warped further into 
the harbour ; and found no less a contrast in the cha- 
racter of the natives inhabiting the two places. The 
Kawia natives had evidently been incited against us by 
Guard and Wynen, who had l3een inclined before our 
arrival to purchase Port Nicholson themselves, but had 


abandoned this idea in the hope of either deriving some 
benefit from our purchase of the Ohiere or of fore- 
stalling us by buying it themselves. The fact that we 
had employed a Te-awa-iti agent in negotiating with the 
rival Ngatiawa tribe, had also excited their envy and 
jealousy. *' Gun-eye" and Charley, with their elder 
brother Puaha, and their uncle Ngaharua, a near rela- 
tion of Rauperaha, who was more commonly called 
" Tommy Street," after a merchant whom he had visited 
in Sydney ; a tall bullying chief named " the Big 
Fellow," and several others, came on board and com- 
plained that we had purchased Poneke, as they called 
Port Nicholson, while it belonged to Rauperaha and 
the rest of the Kawia tribe. 

Colonel Wakefield answered, that he had bought it 
from the natives in possession of it, who asserted it to 
be theirs ; and that the Kawia had better ask Ware- 
pori for some of the payment, if they had a real and 
solid claim. He advised them, jokingly, to make haste, 
lest there should be nothing left but the muskets and 
ball-cartridge. This hint, and the hospitality of our ca- 
bin-table, quickly made friends of these chiefs ; and they 
very soon abandoned this subject, and took up that of 
the purchase of the Ohiere, We found Puaha far supe- 
rior to his younger brothers in dignity of manner. He 
was of a milder temper, and moreover evidently more 
capable of appreciating the advantages to be derived 
from a civilized White society. All the others seemed 
to look no further than the immediate payment, and 
the increased market which they might obtain for pigs, 
potatoes, and firewood. 

We found in this harbour the Honduras bark, 
taking in oil and bone from the stations ; and we were 
very busily employed in making up our letters for 


Dicky Barrett left us at this place, proceeding to 
Te-awa-iti in a sealing-boat with all his family and 
train. He agreed to return to us here in order to pro- 
ceed to Taranaki. 

The harbour of Port Underwood we found much 
exposed to the southerly gales, which send a rolling 
swell right in. Two bays at the head of the harbour 
are more sheltered ; but in no part is there any extent 
of flat land. 

We found several whaling-parties on the different 
beaches ; which are separated from each other by such 
steep ridges that boats are the more common means 
of communication. In Ocean Bay, in which the swell 
causes a good deal of surf, we saw the timbers of some 
small vessels which were being built there, and found 
an old trader named Ferguson who had the reputation 
of never being sober. On the sides of the impending 
hills are the remains of some clearings made by the 
crew of a whaler under the direction of a Captain Blen- 
kinsopp, who purchased this bay from the natives, and 
was also said to have bought the plains of Wairau, 
a few miles further south, from Raiiperaha and Ran- 
gihaeata, his fighting general, for a ship gun, some 
years since. 

In Kakapo Bay, we found Jacky Guard and all his 
family, including his wife, a fine buxom- looking Eng- 
lishwoman, and the children who were with her 
prisoners among the natives. They all looked healthy 
and rosy. 

Still further north on the west side was another bay, 
also inhabited by White people. These two bays are 
much better sheltered than Ocean Bay. 

One party, conducted by a Portuguese, were esta- 
blished in a cove just inside the eastern head, and en- 


joyed a good look-out over to the White BluflP from 
the high neck of land above the houses. 

We had plenty of good fishing while here. A fish 
like the ling, some of which we caught weighing 
50 lbs., gave great sport, requiring half an hour's play to 
kill ; and some conger-eels also furnished amusement to 
parties who went out in the cutter to the reef at the 
entrance of the harbour. One of these enormous crea- 
tures, six feet long and as thick as a man's arm, floored 
everybody in the boat before a cut across his tail de- 
prived him of his strength. 

We had completed our letters on the 9th, and only 
waited for Barrett. On the 12th, the Honduras pro- 
ceeded to Te-awa-iti to take in oil and bone there. A 
small schooner, the Susannah Ann, arrived from Syd- 
ney a day or two before, to take the oil from the station 
of Mr. John, the Portuguese. 

On the 13th we sailed for Te-awa-iti, to look for 
Barrett. Arthur was again on board of us as pilot. 
As we ran along the seventeen miles of rugged and 
barren coast between the two places, he showed us 
some remarkable spots. The first promontory was called 
Run-under Point, from a boat having foundered near 
that spot while running in tow of a whale in stormy 
weather. A small bay, which sometimes affords shelter 
to the whale-boats when caught outside in a heavy gale 
of wind, is called Fighting Bay. Here a great naval 
engagement once took place between the canoes of Rau- 
peraka and his followers, and those of Bloody Jack, 
who was at the head of a predatory party of the Nga- 
hitau. Rauperaha had a narrow escape on this occa- 
sion ; only saving his life by leaving his mat in the hands 
of his inveterate enemy, who had seized him, and by 
diving until he got among his own canoes. He subse- 


quently took advantage of a fog to abandon tlie scene of 
combat, leaving the Ngatiawa, whom he had persuaded 
to join him, at the mercy of their foes. This treacherous 
policy was, we were told, by no means uncommon on 
his part, it being his plan to destroy one enemy by 
means of another. As we approached the mouth of 
the Tory Channel, the wind fell light, and we conse- 
quently lost the flood-tide. We had been hove-to for 
half-an-hour, when a fresh breeze from south-east 
sprang up, and Arthur, who knew the sailing qualities 
of the Tory, told Captain Chaffers that he might " put 
" her at it," and we rattled in against a four-knot tide. 
We flew past the southern head, on to which you might 
have flung a biscuit, with the tide-rip fizzing and smok- 
ing on either side of us. A handy ship is requisite to 
effect this entrance. We found the Honduras making 
eight inches of water, having been swung by an eddy 
against a rock, and narrowly escaped total wreck, when 
coming in with a fair tide yesterday. 

We found that Barrett had been detained by the ill- 
ness of his wife ; and as she was still too ill to come on 
board. Colonel Wakefield determined to cross over the 
Strait and eff*ect an agreement with Hawperaha^ and 
then return to the north entrance of the Sound for 
Barrett. We took with us an interpreter named John 
Brooks, who had been engaged in Cloudy Bay as a 
sawyer. He was thoroughly acquainted with the na- 
tive language and habits, having been eight years among 
the wildest TVaikato natives. 

Four of our crew asked and obtained permission to 
leave the ship here, intending to settle in Cloudy Bay. 
Two others ran away to join them soon after. As the 
whaling season was nearly over, they would probably 
soon repent their bargain, and be glad to engage in 
another ship. They were the most idle of our crew ; 


and were no doubt tempted by the scenes of drunken- 
ness and low debauchery going on in the bays. 

On the 16th, we stood over to Kapiti, leaving the 
Channel with the ebb tide. About four miles N. E. of 
the Brothers, we saw a dangerous rock, looking like a 
boat at a short distance. As we neared the north shore, 
we could distinguish the opening nearly abreast of the 
flat table island of Mana, where a small harbour called 
Porirua indents the wooded hills. These incline in- 
wards from the coast a little to the south of Kapiti, 
and a sandy beach succeeds the rock-bound shore which 
extends from Cape Terawiti. 

As we approached Kapiti, which has a high peak in 
its centre, and is covered with forest to the water's 
edge, we made out some small islands lying off its south- 
eastern extremity. These form a very excellent anchor- 
age for a limited number of ships. A whale-boat from 
the easternmost island soon boarded us ; and the 
" headsman, " or commander of the boat, piloted us into 
an outer roadstead in twenty-two fathoms, which is 
reckoned more convenient for a large ship than the in- 
ner one, as a vessel can more easily get under way in 
case of accident. He told us that a sanguinary battle 
had taken place at a village called Tf^aikanae on the 
mainland, about three miles from our anchorage, the 
same morning. Many of the whalers had witnessed 
the contest from their boats outside the surf. We af- 
terwards gathered the full particulars. The feast to 
which Te JVetu had told us he was going, had taken 
place on Mana, where the funeral obsequies of TVaitohi, 
a sister of Rauperaha, had been celebrated by spme 
thousand natives of different tribes. On this occasion, 
Rauperaha had killed and cooked one of the unfortu- 
nate Rangitane slaves, who brought him tribute from 
the Pelorus ; and had shared the flesh among his most 

Chap.V. battle 0¥ waikanae. m 

distinguished guests. Among these were the Ngatirau- 
kawa, a tribe who were induced several years before by 
Rauperaha to come from tlie interior of the North 
Island in order to assist him in his conquest of these 
parts, and who were led by a renowned chief named 
TVatamii, or " the Great Store." They commonly re- 
side at O^flAri, about twelve miles north of TVaikanae,?LTA 
had been incited by Rauperaha to annoy the Ngatiawa 
on their first arrival from Taranaki. Feuds, bloody 
wars, and a bitter hatred of each other, had been the 
consequence ; and some of their old grievances had been 
revived by their meeting at Mana. Rauperaha cun- 
ningly fanned the flame ; and mutual insults and re- 
criminations followed, on the passage of the Ngatirau- 
kawa past TVaikanae to their homes after the feast. 
Shots were fired in defiance over their heads as they 
passed along the beach, and even some pigs which they 
were driving were taken from them and killed by the 
Ngatiawa. They prepared for a contest, were mar- 
shalled by their chiefs the same evening, and, by pre- 
vious concert with Rauperaha, attacked the JVaikanae 
pa at daylight. 

Two rivers meet there, the TVaimea and the TVai- 
kanae. A small out-lying village, situated on the sandy 
tongue of land between the two, sustained the first 
brunt of the attack. A Ngatiraukawa spy, who found 
a boy of ten years old awake in one of the huts, asked 
him for a light for his pipe, thinking to make him be- 
lieve that he was a friend. His blood, however, was 
the first spilt ; for the gallant little fellow took up a 
loaded musket and shot him dead on the spot. His 
friends now invested the village, which, with only 
about thirty men, held out until their friends from the 
main pa were roused by the firing and crossed the 
PP^aikanae to their assistance. A fierce and bloody 


contest ensued, ending in the retreat of the invaders, 
and their total rout along the sandy beach. 

Rauperaha, who had failed to bring the assistance 
of men and ammunition which he had promised to 
IVatanui, landed from his canoe late in the skirmish, 
but swam through the surf to it on the first symptoms 
of defeat, the Ngatiraukawa losing many men in a 
vigorous rally made to cover his escape. 

The numbers engaged had been, from all that we 
could gather, about equal on both sides, to the amount 
of 400 or 500 men each ; but the defeated had left 
fifty dead on the field, and the conquerors only eigh- 
teen. The beaten party had managed to carry off their 
wounded, of whom there were a much larger number 
on both sides. 

We had just made up a boat's crew from the cabin 
party, to go over and see the field of battle, the sur- 
geons taking their instruments with them, when a 
message arrived from Rauperaha. He was on Evans's 
Island, the nearest to the ship of the three islets, and 
expressed a desire to see Colonel Wakefield. We 
therefore pulled round and went to see him. 

He had just returned from the scene of bloodshed, 
whither he asserted that he had gone to restore peace ; 
and, seeing the arrival of our ship, which was taken 
for a man-of-war by many even of the Europeans, he 
had l^etaken himself with all his goods to the residence 
of an English whaler named Thomas Evans, on 
whom he relied for protection from some imaginary 

We had heard, while in Cloudy Bay, that Rau- 
peraha had expressed himself in somewhat violent 
terms towards us for purchasing Port Nicholson without 
his sanction ; and he was described by the whalers as 
giving way to great alarm when told what the ship 

Chap.v. bauperaha— uis appearance. lis 


was, and as having inquired anxiously what natives we 
had on board. 

As we leaped from our boat he advanced to meet us, 
and, with looks of evident fear and distrust, eagerly 
sought our hands to exchange the missionary greeting. 
During the whole of the ensuing conversation he 
seemed uneasy and insecure in his own opinion ; and 
the whalers present described this behaviour as totally 
at variance with his usual boastfulness and arrogance. 
He made us a pious speech about the battle, saying 
that he had had no part in it, and that he was determined 
to give no encouragement to fighting. He agreed to 
come on board the next day ; and departed to one of the 
neighbouring islands. 

He is rather under the average height, and very digni- 
fied and stately in his manner, although on this occasion 
it was much affected by the wandering and watchful 
glances which he frequently threw around him, as 
though distrustful of every one. 

Although at least sixty years old, he might have 
passed for a much younger man, being hale and stout, 
and his hair but slightly grizzled. 

His features are aquiline and striking ; but an over- 
hanging upper lip, and a retreating forehead, on which 
his eyebrows wrinkled back when he lifted his deep- 
sunken eyelids and penetrating eyes, produced a fatal 
effect on the good prestige arising from his first ap- 
pearance. The great chieftain, the man able to lead 
others, and habituated to wield authority, was clear at 
first sight ; but the savage ferocity of the tiger, who 
would not scruple to use any means for the attainment 
of that power, the destructive ambition of a selfish 
despot, was plainly discernible on a nearer view. 

The life of this remarkable savage forms an sera 
in the history of New Zealand. 

VOL. I. ' 1 


Previous to 1825 he had lived among his tribe, the 
Ngatitoa, in the neighbourhood of Kot<»i«. Hongi* 
returned from his visit to England in 1820, provided 
with muskets and devoured with restless ambition. 
His followers became, by their possession of fire-arms, 
the most powerful tribe in New Zealand. At their 
head he ravaged the whole northern end of the North 
Island. In consequence of these devastating wars the 
ff^aikato and Kawia tribes pressed upon each other, 
and the latter were obliged to give way in the struggle. 

Raujyeraha had already gained a great name by his 
warlike achievements ; and he was thought worthy of 
a place second only to the head chief Te Pehi in the 
guidance of the expelled tribe, which came southward 
to seize upon a new home. 

Te Pehi K.uj)e was the same man who afterwards 
visited England. He was known in former publications 
by the name of Tupai Cupa, a corruption of his real 
title.f He married a wife of rank from the Ngatiawa 
tribe ; and Rauperaha himself was descended from a 
Ngatiawa mother. The two tribes were consequently 
allied to a considerable degree ; and it was not until 
the Kawia reached the southern boundary of the Ta- 
ranaki district, in which the Ngatiawa dwelt, that 
their migration was arrested by opposition. Beyond 
the habitations of the Ngatiawa they met a population 
comj)osed of various barbarous tribes, for the most part 
the aboriginal occupants of those regions. 

The Ngatiruanui and Ngarauru occupied the coast 
between Cajje Egmont and Pf^anganui. At the latter 
place there was a mixed population, formed of the 
original occupants, the Ngaliruaka and Ngatipa, and 

* Misspelt " Shunghee " in former works. 

•}• Volume of the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, on the 
New Zealander*. London, 1830. 


the migrators from a large and powerful tribe who had 
dwelt on the banks of a lake called Taupo, far in the 
interior. These immigrants, who consisted of the JVga- 
titahi and PatutoJcoto tribes, had first compelled a ces- 
sion of territory from the aborigines, and finally amal- 
gamated with them in a friendly way; both uniting 
under the generic name of the TVanganui tribes. The 
Ngatiapa, Rangitane, and Muopoko occupied the suc- 
ceeding coast as far as Kapiti, and also shared the 
southern shores of Cook's Strait with the Ngahitau who 
inhabited Cloudy Bay and Queen Charlotte's Sound, 
A branch of the numerous Ngatikahvhunu tribes occu- 
pied the neighbourhood oiTf^anganui-a-te-ra, or "Large 
" Bay towards the Sun," as Port Nicholson was called, 
in contra-distinction to TVanganui (Port Underwood) in 
Cloudy Bay.* 

The invading party consisted of the Ngatitoa, Nga- 
titama, and N gatimutunga tribes, led by their respective 
head men ; and was directed in chief by Rauperaha 
and Te PeJii. Rangihaeata, or " Sky jealous of the 
" Dawn," was another leading chief of the Ngatitoa, 
and had acquired another name, Mokau, from some 
exploit or defeat at a river of that name south of 
Kawia. E Mare was at the head of the N gatimu- 
tunga ; and our friend " Dog's-ear" and some others 
led the Ngatitama. 

It is related that the invaders possessed but few fire- 
arms ; and the success with which they overcame the re- 
sistance of their opponents, who far exceeded them in 
number, seems to have been owing rather to their 
having become well inured to war during their struggles 
with the Tf^aikato and other northern tribes, and to 
the consequent elevation among them of a few ex- 

* Wanga is a " mouth " or " opening ;" nui^ " large." Tlius 
many rivers and harbours have this common name. 

1 2 


perienced and determined chieftains, than to any vast 
superiority in weapons of war. 

Between the rivers Patea and Wenuakura, in a 
commanding position in the centre of the Ngatiruanui 
country, seems to have been the spot where the first 
pause was made by the invaders, as though to take breath. 
A detached cliff, 200 feet in height, inaccessible on 
all sides except by a narrow and ascending neck of 
land, formed a secure position in native warfare, which 
boasted of no projectile weapons. The old men of the 
N gatiruanui, who still inhabit a pa on its summit 
called Tihoe, describe it as having l)een tenanted by 
Rauperaha and his followers for a considerable s})ace 
of time. The aboriginal tribes seem to have sought 
shelter in the interior from the invading body, as they 
and their descendants at this time inhabit the same 
part of the coast in large numbers. 

The next conflict took place on the banks of the 
JVanganui river. Deep and wide, it must have afforded 
a great aid in obstructing the progress of the con- 
querors. The remains are still in existence, on the 
south bank of the river near its mouth, of the extensive 
earthen fortifications erected by the TVanganui tril)es, 
and ttiken by Rauperaha and Te Pehi ; when they 
destroyed such numbers of their enemies, that every 
family there at the present day bears the hope and 
desire of revenge. The Ngatiapa and Rnngitane, who 
dwelt in the country watered by the Wangaihu, 
Turakinuy and Rangitiki rivers, were next slaughtered 
or put to flight ; and the Muopoko were comj)elled 
to yield before the victorious party as it swept the 
country between Manawatu and the island of Kapitiy 
opposite to which a halt was again called. 

This island, lying four miles from the shore, and 
abounding in natural fastnesses, became the strong- 


hold of the defeated party. The multitudes who had 
yielded to the first shock began to gather in the rear of 
the Kawia ; and while they were closed in from re- 
treat by a muster on the Rangitiki, the country to 
the south was still occupied by the original inhabitants, 
who prepared to defend their native land. The posi- 
tion of the small but vigorous party became immi- 
nently hazardous. 

Rauperaha now sought and obtained assistance from 
the Ngatiraukawa or " Boiling-water" tribes, who at 
that time inhabited the north-eastern shores of Lake 
Taupo. About sixty chosen warriors, under a chief 
named E Ahu Karamu, forced their way through the 
hardships of the inland path, and the dangers and am- 
bushes of the opposing tribes, and joined him near 

It was about this time that a jealousy as to fame and 
influence arose between Te Pehi and Rauperaha. An 
anecdote was related to me by a near relation of Te 
Pehi, which is a full illustration of Rauperaha& 
treacherous disposition, even towards his allies. 

It was after the repulse of several united attempts to 
conquer Kapiti, that one night he left Te Pehi asleep 
at the common encampment; and, taking with him all 
but a small party of Pehi's immediate followers and re-' 
lations, started for Rangitiki ; intending to obtain the 
glory of a victory for himself, while he left his rival 
exposed, with a weak retinue, to any sortie which the 
refugees on Kapiti might attempt. Pehi, on waking, 
remarked the diminished numbers of the warriors, and 
asked why the huts were empty and Rauperaha absent. 
" He is by this time near Rangitiki,^' answered one of 
his followers. " Then I shall be master of Kapiti or 
" dead," replied Pehi, " by the time he returns." He 
mustered his men in the canoes, and gallantly effected. 


with the few devoted followers who had refused to 
desert him, the conquest which had been imi)ossible to 
the whole body when divided by Rauperaha^ envious 

E Ahu Karamu returned to Taupo, and related to 
the rest of his tribe how fine an opening had been made 
for them on the sea-coast, dwelling on the advantages 
to be derived from fishing and trading with the White 
men. He bore Rauperaha^ invitation to the other 
chiefs to lead their men to Cook's Strait, where he 
would assign them a part of his conquest to enjoy and 
maintain, while they assisted him in crushing the 
remains of the insurgents about Rangitiki and Mana- 
watu. The conflicting opinions as to the expediency of 
this course were peremptorily terminated by E Ahu, 
who ordered his young men to burn the houses at 
Taupo ; and the Ngatiraukawa migrated in successive 
bodies to the coast. Rauperaha then proceeded with 
their assistance to crush the remains of the aboriginal 
tribes; and only spared the lives of the few Muopoko 
now existing in that neighbourhood at the urgent en- 
treaty of TVatanui, a great chief of the Ngatiraukawa, 
to leave them as slaves for him. 

Manawatu, Ohau, and Otaki, and the shores of the 
Horowenua and several adjacent lakes, were occupied 
by these recent allies. 

In the mean while, RauperaJia had crossed the Strait, 
and carried destruction among the peaceful inhabitants 
of the Pelorus and other parts of the opposite coast, as 
I have previously related. 

Early in 1826, Te Pehi went on board an English 
ship which was going through the Strait ; and obbiined, 
by his perseverance and energy, the object which he 
had most at heart, — namely, a passage to England, in 
order to bring back, like his old conqueror Hongi, a 


stock of fire-arms from that country. He left his son 
Te H'lko o te rangi, or " the Lightning of Heaven," to 
take his station among the tribe. The details of 
Pehzs sojourn in England are related at full length in 
another work.* 

During Pehi's ahsence Rauperahds influence was 
greatly increased by his talents for intrigue ; Hiko being 
but a young man, and of too little experience and 
authority to lead warriors or to wield the affairs t)f 
numerous allied tribes. 

Fehi returned from England without having ob- 
tained a large present of fire-arms ; but with a strong 
disposition to adopt civilized customs and to encourage 
the friendship and society of the White man. Had he 
lived to this day, he would probably have been a pow- 
erful instrument in the task of improving his numerous 

Soon after his return he proceeded to Banks's Penin- 
sula in the Middle Island, in order to procure some 
greenstone or ponamu from the Ngahitau living there, 
with whom a truce was then existing. He was 
treacherously attacked, killed, and eaten, by those 
among whom he had trusted himself with the most 
implicit confidence. 

It was to revenge his death that Rauperaha under- 
took, in 1830, the expedition which has attracted so 
much attention, because an Englishman lent his aid in 
all ways to the bloody and revolting scenes by which it 
was distinguished. 

Stewart, the captain of the brig Elizabeth, trading 
from Sydney to New Zealand, and another White 
savage who acted as supercargo of the vessel, agreed to 
take Rauperaha with Hiko and a body of their followers 

* ' The New Zealanders,' published in the Library of Enter- 
taining Knowledge, 1830 (Account of Tupai Cupa). 


down to the place, and to remain at his disposal until 
he had accomplished his object, on condition that the brig 
should be loaded with flax on her return to Kapiti. 

The White men landed first and enticed the head 
chief, Te Mairanui, on board the ship where his foes lay 
concealed. The latter then went ashore, accompanied 
by the supercargo, and massacred or made captives 
nearly the whole unsuspecting jK)pulation, to the 
amount of two or three thousand persons. The super- 
cargo boasted, on his return to the ship, of the number 
whom he had shot with his own gun, as though he 
had been at a battue of game. Two White adventurers 
who had been befriended by the chief on shore, came 
off' and cried over their protector. They narrowly 
escaped death themselves, the captain having advised 
the natives to get rid of persons who might report the 
affair at Sydney, and bring down punishment on all 
concerned. The natives, however, unlike the ca})tain, 
refused to injure those with whom they had no quarrel ; 
and the White men were landed when the ship returned 
to Kapiti. The ship's coppers are related to have pre- 
pared the inhuman feast of the cannibals as well as the 
food of the other savages ; and the chief, after being 
exhibited as a captive at Kapiti and Otaki, was killed 
with the usual tortures, and his body dispersed among 
the relations of Te Peki. 

Mairanui had been kept for four or five weeks on 
board the ship by Stewart, as a hostage for the pay- 
ment of the flax : but when it was plain that no flax 
was forthcoming, notwithstanding the promises and 
excuses of the natives, Stewart gave him up into their 
hands, and sailed away to Sydney unpaid for his infa- 
mous services. 

Shameful to relate, although a deputation from the 
southern tribe, backed by the representations of the 


Rev. Mr. Marsden, the venerable founder of the Church 
mission in New Zealand, vraited upon the Government 
of New South Wales, in order to obtain for Captain 
Stewart the penalty which he deserved, he escaped with 
impunity. The affair was hushed up ; evidence which 
might have been obtained was put out of the way, and 
he was tried and acquitted.* 

Since Te Pehis death, Ravperaha had become the 
sole Ariki or ruler of Cook's Strait ; easily weighing 
down the balance of Hiko's higher descent by his 
own superior talents of deceit and knowledge of their 
little world. 

When the Ngat'>aiua migrated from Taranaki in 
about 1834 or 1835, he foresaw a probable obstacle to 
his authority, and moved every indirect means to arrest 
their progress and to destroy them as they came. He 
induced some of his old allies at Taupo to join with 
the J4^anganui tribes in a powerful opposition to their 
advance ; and when this manoeuvre was defeated by 
Hiko, who led a large party to the rescue of his 
mother's relations, Rauperaha hounded the Ngatirau- 
kawa on to their track. 

Since their successful establishment, he had vainly 
endeavoured to injure them by treacherous alliance or 
open enmity, and had acquired among them a reputa- 
tion for duplicity and cruelty almost unexampled in the 
traditions of even Maori history. 

Innumerable accounts have been related to me of 
Rauperaha^ unbounded treachery. No sacrifice of 
honour or feeling seems to have been too great for 
him, if conducive to his own aggrandizement or se- 

* See Evidence of the Eev. W. Yate before the House of Com- 
mons' Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements), 1836; and 
that of J. B. Montefiore before the House of Lords' Committee on 
New Zealand, 1838. 


curity. He has been known to throw one of his own 
men overboard in order to lighten his canoe when 
pursued by the enemy ; and he had slaughtered one of 
his own slaves at the late feast at jMana, to appear 
opulent in the eyes of his assembled guests. This was 
one of the poor, submissive, hard-working tributaries 
whom we had seen at the Pelorus. 
' In his intercourse with the White whalers and 
traders and the shipping in the Strait, he had uni- 
versally distinguished himself by the same qualities. 

By dint of cringing and fawning upon those who 
showed power and inclination to resist his constant 
extortions, and the most determined insolence and 
bullying towards those whom he knew to be at his 
mercy, he succeeded in obtaining a large revenue 
from the White population whether transient or per- 
manent, which he invariably applied to the extension 
of his power among the natives. 

He was always accompanied in these marauding 
excursions, which he frequently extended over to 
Cloudy Bay and Queen Charlotte's Sound, by Rangi- 
haeuta, who had become his inseparable companion 
since his rise in authority. Their respective stations 
were pithily described by one of the whalers, who told 
us that " the RobuUer,'' as he mispronounced his name, 
" cast the bullets, and the Rangihaeata shot them." 
Rauperaha was the mind and his mate the body on 
these black-mail-gathering rounds. They had both 
acquired a violent taste for grog ; and this, with fire- 
arms and powder, were the principal articles de- 

The whaling-station on Evans's Island we found to 
be more complete, and under more thorough discipline 
and efficient mangement, than those in Port Under- 
wood or at Te-awa-iti. The boats put off" after a 


whale just as we arrived, and struck us by their pre- 
cision and good appointment. The head of the party 
was a determined-looking man of middle age, named 
Tommy Evans. He was obliging and hospitable in 
the extreme to us during our stay ; and was reckoned 
the best niiister at Kapiti. 

On one of the other small islands was a station con- 
ducted by an American, who is a renowned enemy of 
the whale ; and two other stations were situated on 
the northern part of the great island of Kapiti. All 
these stations seemed to us to bear a more favourable 
aspect than those on the other side of the Strait. But 
little of the same brutal jealousy existed between the 
different parties, although there was plenty of emula- 
tion. The whalers were much more united among 
themselves and independent of the natives ; and, 
although frequent drunkenness and fighting went on 
ashore, the duty seemed to be done with more alacrity, 
and the native women appeared to exercise less in- 
fluence in fomenting quarrels between their White 
companions. There were fewer nondescript traders 
and idlers here than at the other places ; and the 
** headsmen" or leaders had less trouble in keeping 
their parties together and maintaining the strict disci- 
pline necessary to ensure good work. 

Evans's party had taken 250 tons of oil, and he told 
us that his own profits alone would amount to 300/. 

On the 17th I accompanied our three surgeons to 
JJ^aikanae, to carry succour to the wounded. We also 
took over E Paiu, a young chief of Queen Charlotte's 
Sound, who had begged a passage from Te-awa-iti, 
and found that he had lost his uncle in the battle. 
We landed on the sandy beach, in front of a small vil- 
lage called Te Uruki, where the tangi was going on 
over the corpse. Having left him among his mourning 


relations, we proceeded to the iivdin pa, at the mouth 
of the fFaikanae river, about a mile further north. 
•We were loudly greeted, and conducted into a large 
court of the village, where five hundred men, women, 
and children were assembled in a row to shake hands 
with us. This was no small task ; but in order to 
show them that we approved of their newly-acquired 
missionary principles, we carefully went through the 
whole ceremony. 

This was the largest pa we had yet seen. The 
outer stockades were at least a mile in circumference ; 
and the various passages between the different courts 
and divisions formed a perfect labyrinth. A numerous 
train of youths guided us to the houses of the wounded 
men. As we passed, we observed one of the dead chiefs 
laid out in state in the court before his warepuni. His 
body was wrapt in his best mats ; and his head, with 
the hair neatly arranged and copiously ornamented 
with feathers, reclined against a carved post, which was 
painted with kokowai, or red ochre. In circles around 
stood or sat his friends and relations, wailing and 
lacerating their faces and limbs. 

Our surgeons were all three hard at work for some 
hours, extracting bullets, binding up wounds, and 
setting broken limbs. We found the wounds bound 
up by the natives generally with the leaf of the flax, 
and bark splints on the broken limbs. The patients 
bore pain with the most perfect stoicism. 

The inhabitants of this village professed to be all 
Christians, having been converted by native teachers. 
Accordingly, they buried their fallen enemies on the 
field of battle ; adhering, however, in some degree to 
the native superstitions, by burying a stock of tobacco 
and pipes with each, to console him on his way to the 
Reinga, or future life according to their belief. 


On our return to the ship we found that Raupnraha 
had been on board, having been received by Colonel 
Wakefield with a salute to the New Zealand flag, 
which he did not at all understand. Indeed, it 
rather alarmed him, until it was explained that an 
honour was intended to him and the chiefs who ac- 
companied him. 

Mr. Wynen had preceded us from Cloudy Bay ; and 
the chiefs were at first much opposed to selling any 
land, saying that they had been told the White people 
would drive them away from their future settlements. 
They were also exceedingly jealous of our purchase of 
Port Nicholson. 

Colonel Wakefield, after much discussion, appeared 
to convince them of the friendly intentions of the White 
people towards them, and that they would be much 
benefited by their arrival ; and they finished by saying, 
" Look at the land ! if it is good, take it ! " 

Rauperaha staid on board to dinner, with his wife, 
a tall JMeg-Merrilies-like woman, who had a bushy 
head of hair, frizzled out to the height of six inches 
all round, and a masculine voice and appetite. She is 
the daughter of his last wife by a former husband. 

Rauperaha and several other of the Kawia chiefs 
drank ardent spirits freely, repudiating the use of 
water, and refusing with great contempt anything less 
than a full tumbler. It did not seem, however, to 
have the same effect upon them that it would have 
upon a person unhardened to the use of liquor. 

Rauperaha sat for his portrait to Mr. Heaphy, and 
made a noisy demand for a waistcoat in payment as 
soon as the sitting was over. Indeed, he asked shame- 
lessly for everything which he saw, and he seemed 
well used to being refused. 

On the 18th, the chiefs were again on board. 


Tungia, who was the father of Tommy Evans's native 
wife, and nicknamed " the Wild Fellow " by the 
whalers, was remarkable for his noisy and turbulent 
manner. All the others, except Hiko and his uncle 
Rangihiroa, had the same bad qualities which we had 
observed in the Cloudy Bay natives. They united the 
uncontrolled ferocity of the savage to the acquired 
indifference to honour and the degrading vices of the 
White outcasts among whom they had dwelt. 

Hiko struck us forcibly by his commanding stature, 
by his noble intelligent physiognomy, and by his truly 
chieftain-like demeanour. His descent by both parents 
pointed him out as a great leader in Cook's Strait, 
should he inherit his father's great qualities. He was 
sparing of his words, and mild of speech. He had 
carefully treasured up his father's instructions, and the 
relics of his voyage to England. He showed us a 
volume of the Library of Entertaining Knowledge on 
the New Zealanders, in which is contained a portrait 
of Te Pehi, on which he placed great store. He was 
said to pay his slaves for their work, and to treat them 
with unusual kindness, and the White men spoke of 
him as mild and inoflPensive in his intercourse with 

Rangihiroa, the younger brother of Pehi, was also a 
worthy old chieftain. He was free from the vices of 
the other Kawia chiefs, and was universally well 
spoken of as kind-hearted to all his fellow-creatures of 
both races by even the most depraved of the White 
men. He seemed shy of putting himself forward in 
the discussion, but approved of the proposed transac- 
tion in a mild and firm speech, made for himself and 
for his nephew, who had not yet ventured to rely on 
his eloquence in the conclave of chiefs. 

A gale from south-east detained the natives on shore 

Chap. V. ^/JTO— NEGOTIATIONS. />. IS* 

until the 21st, when they came off, and the proposition 
was again made to them of purchasing the whole of 
their rights and claims of whatever sort to land on 
both sides of the Strait. 

They again discussed the matter very fully, and 
asked to look at the goods. This was complied with ; 
and though they evidently considered the quantity as 
far beyond anything they had yet seen or heard of in 
payment for a thing so great a drug as land, they could 
not refrain from haggling and bargaining for an addi- 
tion to the heap. Hiko requested more soap, women's 
clothing, slates, and such useful articles ; while Rau- 
per aha and his party pressed for more fire-arms and 
powder. This was arranged, after some trouble and 
disagreement ; and Colonel Wakefield proceeded to 
explain to them, by means of the interpreter, the whole 
force of the bargain into which he wished to enter with 
them. A plan of those parts of the two islands over 
which their conquests extended was carefully examined 
by them ; and it was fully explained to them that, after 
this transaction, they would have no more land, or 
rights over land of any sort to sell, and that they 
could not receive any further payment whatever here- 
after for any land if they joined in this agreement. 
They were also told that a suitable portion for the 
maintenance of the chiefs, with their families and suc- 
cessors, would be made tapu for them for ever; and 
that those natives who worked for the White people 
would be paid by them for their labour. All this was 
repeated to them over and over again in different forms, 
till they showed themselves perfectly acquainted with the 
bargain which they were to accept or refuse. They 
ended by agreeing fully to every provision ; and Raupe- 
raha dictated to me the native names of all the places 
on both coasts to which they had any claim, whether 


by conquest or inheritance. This operation took some 
time, as I made him repeat some of the names several 
times, in order to write them down clearly, and as 
he showed me the position of each on the map be- 
fore mentioned. He then joined with the others in 
consenting to cede the whole of his rights whatsoever 
to land in those places. They all agreed to come on 
board to sign the deed, and receive the payment, the 
next day. 

Hikoy however, fell ill, and bad weather pre- 
vented the others from leaving the shore. Rauperaha, 
who is not to be deterred by anything from his own 
selfish objects, came off through a rough sea, in a sub- 
stantial, strong-built, well-manned canoe, and tried to 
induce Colonel Wakefield to conclude the transaction 
without Hiko. " He is only a boy," said he, '* and has 
" nothing to do with the land. Give me the goods, 
" with more powder and arms. Of what use are blan- 
" kets, soap, tools, and iron pots, when we are going to 
" war ? What does it matter whether we die cold or 
" warm, clean or dirty, hungry or full ? Give us two- 
" barrelled guns, plenty of muskets, lead, powder, car- 
" tridges, and cartouch-boxes." His proposition was of 
course quietly refused. 

A small brig, the Syren, arrived here from Sydney 
to-day in the thick of the gale from N.W. Having 
tried to beat up after passing the island, she was baffled 
by the adverse wind and tide ; and Tommy Evans, who 
was prevented by their bad management in going about 
from succeeding in a gallant effort to get on board, had 
a desjierate pull back, which lasted two or three hours, 
against tide and wind. We went on board her when 
she anchored, on the gale abating in the evening, and 
found her in a wretched state, fehe had no binnacle, 
and only a boat-compass ; no second suit of sails, a boat 


not sea-worthy, a broken windlass, no chronometer, 
and she was already so short of food that the passen- 
gers were living on the peas out of the grummets used 
to keep the plates on the table. The captain told us 
that great excitement had been caused in Sydney by 
the news of our expedition and its objects ; and that 
many parties were preparing to come down to this part 
of New Zealand for the purpose of buying up tracts of 
land in the neighbourhood of the intended settlements. 
Even in this ship were numerous deeds sent down to 
agents here in order to confirm some purchases agreed 
upon at former times, and for which some small pre- 
payment had been made. 

23rd. — The Tory having shifted her berth nearer to 
the two small islands on which the natives principally 
reside, the chiefs again came off, Hiko and his uncle in 
a nice whale-boat belonging to the former. A third 
korero took place before about twenty White witnesses 
and a numerous attendance of natives from the shore, 
so that the deck was quite crowded. All expressed 
their perfect consent to the sale, and asked for the pay- 
ment to be made. The goods were accordingly got up 
and placed on deck. Colonel Wakefield had added a 
bale of clothing, and several other useful articles, at the 
request of H'lko, who had persuaded the others to cease 
their clamours for fire-arms. A dozen fowling-pieces, 
included in the payment, were brought up and placed, 
ready for distribution, on the companion-hatch. 

Rauperaha, Tungia, and the other warlike chiefs, 
rushed at these in the wildest manner, each attempting 
to seize one ; but they were all immediately removed out 
of their reach ; and Hiko, who had been trying on one 
of the coats preparatory to the distribution, no sooner 
saw the selfishness and ill-faith of his rivals, than he 
took off the coat, called to Rangihiroa, who had 


remained an unmoved spectator of the whole scene, and 
steered his boat to the shore in high dudgeon. 

Colonel Wakefield immediately declared the nego- 
tiation at an end, and ordered the goods below. The 
turbulent chiefs loudly vented their disappointment at 
this aspect of the affair, laid the blame on each other 
and on him, and accused him of partiality to Hiko. 
They asked why he was to be set before the old men, 
and what he had to do with the land, to be considered 
for so much ? Some of them even made some of their 
customary grimaces at Colonel Wakefield, expressive 
of defiance and contempt ; and Tungia began dancing 
about and uttering a violent harangue, which seemed 
to indicate an intention to attack the ship. Some few 
small articles were pilfered from the heaps in the con- 
fusion, and taken ashore under the mats of slaves who 
had been set to do this. 

They threatened, and tried every means to intimidate 
Colonel Wakefield into proceeding with the affair. 
They said they would sell the land to the French and 
Americans, or to the ships from Port Jackson, of 
which they said plenty would come presently; and, 
finally, they expressed their determination to go to 
Port Nicholson and kill all our natives there. 

Throughout this critical scene Colonel Wakefield 
displayed the most admirable courage and presence of 
mind. He laughed at their taunts, and treated their 
threats with indifference; and at length told them that 
they must leave the ship, whether the affair went on 
or not, if they could not behave more quietly. He 
refused their repeated proposals to buy their lands, and 
to leave Hiko to deal for his own ; and managed, by 
exemplary command of temper and countenance, and 
by a due mixture of firmness and mildness in his 
replies, not only to subdue their riotous disposition, but 


to bring them round to as friendly a spirit as they had. 
been in before the disagreement arose. 

After all had gone ashore but Rauperaha and Tun- 
gia, who remained in hopes of getting the two guns 
as presents, which they had selected and declared tapu 
for themselves, we again shifted our berth, in order to 
take up a more sheltered position. In doing this, we 
experienced a heavy tide-rip and some severe squalls off 
the island ; and when, during one of these, the vessel 
careened over, and the spanker-boom flew in half, 
Rauperaha was in a most abject state of fear ; asking 
me whether she would not turn right over, and repeat- 
ing, as he stood trembling with his face to windward, 
a long, rapid incantation to the spirit of the gale. 
During one of our tacks, which extended to some 
distance, we increased his fears by a joking offer to 
take him to Port Nicholson, that he and Tungia 
might execute their purpose of killing TVarepori and 
our natives. 

On the 24th, Rauperaha and Hiko determined to 
make up their difference, and, unsolicited by Colonel 
Wakefield, came on board unattended. They looked 
for some time over some books of plates in the cabin, 
talking on different subjects, and then requested that 
the deed of conveyance might be read to them. This 
was done, and the whole translated and fully explained 
to them. The map was also again placed before them, 
and they pointed out the places to which they had a 
claim, saying, that no one lived on a great part of it, 
and that this part was of no use to any one, and least 
of all to them. 

They then both signed the deed ; Hiko making a 
cross opposite his name with the pen which I held for 
him, but Rauperaha making a peculiar mark of his 
own with the pen in his own hand. They then left 



the ship, each with his two-barrelled gun, and pro- 
mised that the rest of the chiefs should sign the deed 
on the morrow, when the rest of the goods were to be 

On the next day this was done. Rauperaha and 
Charley signed by proxy for their relations in Cloudy 
Bay, and old T'e JWetu, who was also present, but 
played only second fiddle among this creme de la creme 
of New Zealand aristocracy, for his son Mark, who was 
said to be of great authority in the neighbourhood of 
D'Urville's Island. 

It was agreed that a share for Rangihaeata should 
remain on board, and that his signature should be 
obtained at Mana, where he then was. He arrived, 
however, in a canoe, on the 26th ; and after some blus- 
tering and speechifying, he signed the deed, and took 
his allotted share. 

Nayti left us here, wishing to go and stop with his 
relations near Mana till the emigrant ships should 
arrive. On finding that all our persuasions and en- 
treaties to him to remain with us were unavailing. 
Colonel Wakefield granted him permission to go ; and 
he got into a canoe full of his friends bound for that 
place, with all his boxes and goods. 

Rauperaha, who neglected no opportunity of plun- 
der, had several times tried to profit by Nayti's former 
statement that they were nearly related. Although 
this was not the fact, he had on the earliest occasion 
demanded utu of Colonel Wakefield for having 
brought his tamaiti, or " child," in the ship ; and on 
our receiving the account of the capsizing of our cutter 
one day, Nayti being one of the party on board, he 
ran to my uncle and claimed his relation's property, 
before we could possibly know whether any one was 
drowned or not. On another occasion, he had impu- 


dently seized a gun belonging to Nayti, who was too 
much ashamed to say " no," but was almost crying with 
grief; and the robber would have carried it ashore had 
we not instantly interfered. 

After the sale, he was constantly coming on board 
to beg for whatever he saw or desired ; and was once 
much annoyed by my giving a sword-stick to Hiko, 
the only one of the assembled chiefs in the cabin who, 
although admiring, had not asked for the treasure. 
Rauperaha^ attempts to obtain things were incessant 
and untiring. Threats, prayers, and temptations, (such 
as offering to prostitute to Colonel Wakefield a young 
slave-girl from those on his island,) were all tried in 
succession ; and, although constantly foiled, he seemed 
never to despair. 

Colonel Wakefield, having visited TVaikanae, was 
eagerly received by the missionary natives there, who 
offered to sell their land ; but for no consideration 
except the munitions of war, as they wished to defend 
themselves against the Ngatiraukawa. 

E Patu, and some other chiefs deputed from their 
number, went over with us to Queen Charlotte's Sound ; 
where we intended to effect a contract with the Nga- 
tiawa residing there, similar to that which we had con- 
cluded with the Kawia at Kapiti. 

A strong gale of wind off the entrance of the Sound, 
on the 29th, carried away our foreyard and some of our 
rigging, and left us in a very dangerous position in the 
midst of a boiling tide-rip, driving fast on to the 
Brothers. We escaped, however, by means of the 
superior sailing qualities of the Tory, and the admi- 
rable management of Captain Chaffers, and ran under 
the shelter of Mana to repair our damages. 

We found this island flat on the top, with high cliffs 
all round, except on the side towards the main, where 


a snug amphitheatre contains the pa in which Rangi- 
haeata and a few followers usually reside, and also the 
establishment of the White man owning the island. A 
small flock of sheep and fifty head of cattle, with two 
draught-horses, are attached to this sort of half-farm, 
half whaling-station. The ownership was in dispute 
between the last purchaser of this island and the {igent 
of the last owner, a Sydney merchant, who had neg- 
lected to advise his agent of the sale. 

The first U^hite owner of this island was a Mr. Bell ; 
whose White widow, quite mad, lives among the natives, 
and has acquired all their habits and ways of living. 
Mana has since passed through the hands of many 
owners, all dependent on the caprice and humour of 
Rangihaeata and the other Kawia natives, who have 
been used to kill the sheep for their fleeces, and to 
commit other outrages at their will. During the late 
feast we were told that fifty sheep had been sacrificed. 

On the -3 1st, we arrived in East Bay, opposite Ship 
Cove, followed in by a Bremen whaler who did not 
know the coast and wanted hands. I accompanied my 
uncle in a fatiguing walk over the hills to Hokikare. 
We ascended from Grass Cove, where the boat's crew 
of Captain Furneaux's ship was massacred and eaten in 
1770. We found there two or three whalers' summer 
residences, and were served with a meal ])efore pro- 

At Hokikare we found the natives preparing to 
embark for Waikanae, in order to take part in any 
fighting which might succeed the battle. Tipi had 
collected sixty picked men, with whom he meant to 
make a raid on Rauperaha% island, and seize him, in 
order to avenge the death of his father in some former 
snare laid by the old intriguer. 

We proceeded to Dicky Barrett's at Te-awa-iti ; and 


having engaged the natives to postpone their expedition 
in order to take part in the treaty at East Bay, we re- 
turned to the ship in a boat. During our absence, 
Jacky Love, the trader whom I mentioned as having 
obtained the affection of the natives by his kindness 
and generosity, had died. Two hundred natives fol- 
lowed his body to the grave ; and they subsequently 
erected a monument over it such as usually graces the 
tomb of a great chieftain. This was a canoe stuck 
upright in the ground, some 20 feet high ; painted in 
fanciful designs with red and black dye, and edged all 
round with a fringe of feathers. 

From the 1st to the 8th of November was spent in 
negotiating with the natives, who collected to the 
number of three hundred, and formed encampments on 
the different islands and beaches near the ship, for a 
total cession of all their rights and claims. The same 
full explanations were made that had been used in the 
two former cases ; and the same care taken that ample 
deliberation and due calmness should insure the per- 
fect validity and truth of the transaction. 

Much difficulty occurred, both during these discus- 
sions and at the distribution of the goods, in conse- 
quence of the absence of cMeftains of great influence 
to take the lead in treating and speaking for the others. 
Innumerable petty disagreements had to be put an end 
to, and jealousies to be appeased ; and as no one chief 
possessed sufficient authority to undertake this task, 
much more trouble and annoyance necessarily devolved 
upon Colonel Wakefield. His usual patience, deter- 
mination, and good temper did not fail him ; and he 
fully succeeded in conciliating their universal good- 

The result of this equality of authority among so 
wild a rabble gave rise to a disagreeable scene, during 


the distribution of the goods after the execution of the 
deed by the numerous chiefs. 

One of the many smaller tribes composing the Nga- 
tiawa, namely the Puketapu, consisted of particularly 
quarrelsome and unruly members ; and, after the other 
tribes had taken their shares ashore, this one found it 
impossible to arrange the distribution without a taua 
or "scramble." 

I was in the 'tween decks when it began ; and, hear- 
ing a loud and continued stamping on the deck, 
thought the natives were " rushing" or attacking the 
ship. Under this impression, I sprang aft to obtain a 
weapon of defence from among those always ready in 
the cabin. On my way, I met E Pf^iti, one of the 
chiefs of a tribe which had effected a quiet division ; 
and he reassured me by telling me that no harm 
would be done to the White people, and that I had 
better go up in the rigging and look upon the way in 
which the natives divided their goods. 

Following his advice, I clambered up into the long- 
boat between the masts, and was at first bewildered at 
the sight. About one hundred and fifty natives were 
piled above the various heaps of goods, writhing, strug- 
gling, stamping, pulling each others' hair and limbs, tear- 
ing blankets, shivering whole cases of pi])es and looking- 
glasses, and withal yelling and screaming in the most 
deafening manner. Some of the wildest had stripped 
naked. Disengaging themselves for a moment from the 
mass, they tightened the thong of their tomahawk- 
handle round their wrist, and prepared to plunge into the 
thickest of the mass, where some dearly-prized article 
was in contention among a heap of furies. Barrett, 
however, and some other White men well known to 
the natives, pinioned the arms of two or three of 
the wildest with their own, and gradually restored 

Chap. V. A SCRAMBLE. W* 

order and peace. The combatants looked exceedingly 
crestfallen as they gathered up the remains of the 
broken things ; but took especial pains to tell us that 
it was no fault of ours, but the yorangi or " foolish- 
" ness" of the Maori. Others, who had assumed a quiet, 
watchful attitude during the disturbance, smilingly 
produced from under their mats some chain-hook, 
sounding-lead, or other handy weapon, with which 
they had armed themselves in case of the worst. 

During the negotiations, our old tormentor at Ship 
Cove, " Dogskin,'' once appeared alongside ; but upon 
our recognizing him, although his costume was much 
altered, and pointing him out to the attention of Bar- 
rett and the surrounding natives, he was evidently much 
ashamed, and went right away. Nor did he ever re- 
turn on board. Ngarewa attended the whole proceed- 
ings, and received his share of the payment. 

On the 9th, Colonel Wakefield landed and took 
formal possession in the name of the Company. 

\^^e had now obtained the rights and claims of a 
large proportion of the owners of land on both sides of 
Cook's Strait. 

The Kawia claimants by conquest, and the Ngati- 
awa or actual occupants, had both been satisfactorily 
dealt with in a general way. It remained to satisfy 
the tribes resident along the sea-coast of the northern 
shore, between Waikanae and the Sugar-loaf Islands. 
Colonel Wakefield left it to future times to deal with 
the N ^Ottawa of TVaikanae, many of whose chiefs 
had been concerned in this last affair, and who had 
seemed moreover well inclined to join in the trans- 
action on the occasion of Colonel Wakefield's recent 
visit to them. He also postponed to a less disturbed 
season the idea of dealing with the Ngatiraukawu. And 
he resolved next to proceed to Turanaki, in order to 
satisfy the now scanty occupiers of that extensive and 


fertile region, by the mediation of Barrett and the 
ambassadors from Port Nicholson. 

Considering a large district as secured on each side 
of the Strait, only subject to satisfying the least im- 
portant inhabitants. Colonel Wakefield named the two 
provinces respectively North Jind South Durham, in ho- 
nour of the then Governor of the New Zealand Land 

Having promised a passage across to JVaikanae to 
some of the chiefs, we sailed for Kapiti on the 11th ; 
but a N.W. wind and baffling tide detained us in the 
Strait until the next morning. At daylight Kapiti 
lay about five miles to the S.E. of us. A small barque 
carrying the New Zealand flag passed between us and 
the island, and then hove to under our lee. We were 
in great hopes that this might prove our surveying-ves- 
sel, and hove to in order to communicate with her. A 
whale-boat came on board from the stranger, and soon 
dispersed our sanguine conjectures. She proved to Ijc 
an American whaler, which, having been wrecked in 
the Bay of Islands, had been purchased by some one 
there, repaired, and fitted out under the New Zealand 
flag, and sent down here to tfike up a whaling captain, 
previous to going on a voyage in the South Seas. Cap- 
tain Lewis, or " Horse" Lewis, as he was more gene- 
rally called, the American of whom I have spoken be- 
fore as heading a station on one of the small islets near 
Kapiti, was the man of whom they were in search, 
and the sailing captain came on board of us to ask where 
Kapiti was. We shewed it to him under his nose, 
and told him to follow us in to the anchorage ; giv- 
ing him also as pilot an old whaler who accompanied 
Barrett, named Heberly, but more commonly known 
as ** Worser." We then rounded the north point 
of Kapiti, and anchored in the outer roadstead off 
Evans's Island. The whaling Imrque was christened 

Chap. V. WAR CANOES. 139 

Tokerau on her adoption of a new flag. This is the 
native name of the Bay of Islands, and signifies lite- 
rally " the hundred rocks." 

We found that during our absence a barque had 
been here from Sydney, with an agent sent to purchase 
land for Messrs. Cooper and Levi, merchants in that 
place. The whalers told us that he had purchased 
Kapiti y which we knew to have been purchased 
already so many times, that we omitted both that and 
Mana from the list of places to which we had 
bought the natives' rights. This agent had also bought 
a piece of land on the main near Tf^aikanae ; and he 
had, although informed by every one that the natives 
had made the whole of their rights over to Colonel 
Wakefield a few days before, declared that he would 
buy any land in order to prevent the Tory from ob- 
taining it. He had accordingly promised to give a 
small schooner for the Ohiere, or Pelorus River. 

We were detained a week here by a succession of 
light baffling winds and calms. 

During this interval, fFarepori and several other 
chiefs from Port Nicholson, who had joined the muster 
at Pf^aikanae, came across in their war- canoes to see us. 
On one occasion, three, well manned and armed, bearing 
together nearly one hundred men, came alongside. They 
look very pretty when at full speed. The finely-carved 
head and stern of the canoe are ornamented with feathers 
of the pigeon and albatross ; and bunches of the latter 
plumage, or of that of the gannet, are disposed along 
the batten which covers the joint of the bottom and 
top side of the canoe. The men are placed at equal 
intervals along either side to paddle ; and they keep 
excellent stroke to the song of two leaders, who stand 
up and recite alternate short sentences, giving the 
time with a taiaha or long wooden spear. Two ex- 


perienced hands in the stern use larger paddles for 

The taiaha is rather a long-handled club than a 
spear. It is generally made of manuka, a very hard, 
dark, close-grained, and heavy wood. When polished 
with oil, it becomes nearly black. The taiaha is about 
six feet long. At one end is carved a representation of 
a man's head, thrusting out his tongue, which forms a 
sort of spear-head. His eyes are represented by small 
pieces of the mother-o'-pearl-like shell, which I have 
before alluded to as used for their fish-hooks, let into 
the wood. The tongue and face are all minutely 
carved so as to represent the tatu. Above the fore- 
head, a part of the stiilk of the weaj)on is covered with 
the bright-red feathers from under the wing of the 
kaka or large parrot, to represent the hair ; and an 
abundant tuft of long, white dog's-hair imitates the 
feathers or head-dress. The taiaha is held just above 
the dog's-hair, and flourished in the right hand with 
the tongue downwards. From this place the stalk 
gradually expands into a flat, sharp-edged blade, about 
three inches wide at the end ; and this is the part used 
to strike in fighting, both hands nianaging the weapon 
like a quarter-staff". 

JJ^arepori could hardly talk about the prospect of the 
settlers arriving at Port Nicholson. His mind was 
quite unsettled by the warlike asj)ect of affliirs, and he 
spoke of the probability of his death in the approaching 
contest. We ascertained that about 800 fighting-men 
had mustered at JVaikanae, and that there would soon 
l)e 600 more of the Ngatiawa tribe from different parts 
of the Strait. 

Rauperaha had been for some time at Otakt, as it 
was supposed inciting the Ngutiraukawa to renew the 


One day that fFarepori was talking to us on deck, 
we spied a strong, large canoe stealing along under the 
land of Kapiti, about a mile from us, and apparently 
anxious to escape observation. On applying the spy- 
glasses, we made out the " Old Sarpent," or " Satan," as 
the whalers call him, crouching down in his canoe, 
and occasionally casting a timid glance towards the 
crowd of canoes which surrounded our ship, and urging 
his men to pull harder. He had just returned from 
Otaki, and seemed anxious to reach his own island un- 
observed by the Ngatiawa. Tf^arepori, however, who 
had made him out as soon as any of us, manned his 
war-canoe and started at racing-pace to cut off' his re- 
treat. Forty paddles against six or seven was no fair 
match. Rauperaha, after an ineffectual attempt to 
effect the passage between the innermost islet and 
Kapiti, and so avoid the rencontre, found his ma- 
noeuvring of no avail, and the two canoes remained 
motionless at half musket-shot. The particulars of 
the interview were related to me by some natives on 
HikoE island the same evening. 

TVarepori reproached him with his constant in- 
triguing and setting their enemies against the Nga- 
tiawa. He warned him of what might happen to 
himself should these latter prove victorious. 

Rauperaha answered in the most submissive man- 
ner, that he had no such designs ; and abjured all 
fighting, saying that he would yield Kapiti to Ware- 
port, and retire himself to Wairau, near Cloudy Bay. 

Having thus appeased his interlocutor's anger, he 
invited him ashore to a meal ; and apparent friendly 
relations lasted on the two islets inhabited by Hiko 
and Rauperaha all the night. The latter did not 
come on board of us, but returned to Otaki. 

On the 17th, we had got our anchor up, and sailed a 


little way before a light southerly breeze, which failed, 
however, when we had got opposite to Waikanae. 

While we were anchored with a kedge, three chiefs, 
belonging to the TVanganui tribes, came off from 
fVaikanae to commence negotiations for the sale of 
their district. They were allied to the Ngatiaway 
and had taken great part in the defence of the place 
on the 16th of last month. They heard all the usual 
explanations, described the boundaries within which 
their claims lay, and, after receiving a fowling-piece 
each in part payment, signed a deed which had been 
translated to them. Two of them, Te Kiri Karamu 
and Te Rangi Wakarurua, returned on shore. K.uru 
Kanga, the son of the latter, and principal chief of 
TVanganui, remained on board to show us the en- 
trance of the river, and that we might land him to 
prepare his people for the completion of the purchase 
on our return. He was an active, intelligent man; 
and seemed highly anxious to have White men among 
his people. He was attended by a slave, who acted 
famously as valet-de-chambre, anticipating the slight- 
est want of his master. This chief had taken a dis- 
tinguished part in the battle of fVaikanae. He was 
universally known as a brave warrior and skilful 
general ; and I have since been told by IVatanui, 
E Ahu, and other principal chiefs of the Ngatiraukawa, 
that, had it not been for his determined gallantry and 
that of his attendants, they should have won the day. 
On the morning of the 18th, as we lay nearly be- 
calmed off the sandy beach between TVaikanae and 
Otaki, Rauperaha came on board, on his way from the 
, latter place to Kapiti. He seemed ill at ease, although 
we greeted him kindly notwithstanding our aversion 
for his character. He asked for some grog, and then 
took an early opportunity of stating, in the most bare- 


faced way, that he should sell some land to the vessel 
from Port Jackson, as he wanted more guns, and had 
only sold us Taitapu and • Rangitoto ; that is. Blind 
Bay and D'Urville's Island ! 

Colonel Wakefield reproached him instantly, and in 
the strongest terms, with his falsehood and duplicity ; 
making Brooks, the interpreter, repeat to him several 
times that he had behaved as a liar and a slave, instead 
of a great chief. Rauperaha maintained, however, an 
imperturbable silence, giving no answer to this severe 
attack, or to the reproaches which all the cabin-party 
addressed to him. He demanded and drank another 
glass of grog, and then got into his canoe, which 
pulled for Kapiti. 

We were of course much hurt by this rapid repudia- 
tion of his bargain ; and, though we depended entirely 
upon the perfect justice and openness of the agreement 
which we had made with him, before so many wit- 
nesses and in such explicit terms, for our justifica- 
tion before the world, we foresaw some obstacles 
already arrayed against the peaceful settlement of the 
Strait during the life of this deceitful old savage. It 
seemed natural to suppose, however, that, whether 
obliged to govern and protect ourselves, or acknow- 
ledged and fostered, as we hoped, by the British 
Government, we should always possess a force able to 
protect the plantations against any of his evil designs, 
and to maintain the execution of any just bargain^ 
whether or not he should be inclined to abide by it at 
a future period. 



Search for Wanganui river — Appearance of country — The chief 
E Kuru lands — Coast — Tonga Riro and Mount Egmont — 
Sugar-loaf Islands — Surf — Native greetings — Barrett and Doctor 
DiefFenbach land — False Hokianga — Hokianga — Signals — Pilot 
— European Settlements — Nature of country — Wesleyan mission 
— ^Mr. Bumby, a worthy missionary — Kauri timber — Natives 
tamed, but not civilized — Lieutenant Macdonnell's establishment — 
Vineyard — Baron de Thierry — Colonel Wakefield buys title-deeds 
of Wairau near Cloudy Bay — Our shipwreck outside Kaipara — A 
cool man-of-war's man — Perils in a boat — Estuary of Kaipara — 
Bivouac — Mosquitoes — The Navarino — A sailor's hospitality — 
The Tory is hove down — Colonel Wakefield proceeds to Bay of 
Islands — Wairoa river — Mr. Symonds — Country about Kaipara 
— Mr. White, a missionary and " land-shark" — The Guide arrives 
• — Mr. John Blackett — Dr. Dorset and I embark in the Guide — 
Dangers — A whaler at sea — Navigation — Sugar-loaf Islands — 
Moturoa — Barrett's adventures — Mr. White — His letters — The 
view from Sugar-loaf Peak — Dangerous situation of the Guide 
— Our dormitory — Twelve days on a rocky islet — Missionary 
hostility — Native language as manufactured by the missionaries — 
Punishment of adultery — Return of the Guide — Two deeds signed 
— Preparations for a skirmish — Mediation — Barracoota fishing — 
Arrival at Port Nicholson. 

In the evening a fine breeze swept us past Otakt ; 
and in the morning we were far north of the TVan- 
franui river. E Kuru and his attendant were now 
fairly puzzled ; they had never seen their country 
from further out at sea than they go in their canoes ; 
and as all the land north of JVaikanae is level and 
low for a great distance inland, so as not to bear any 
distinguishing features from the Strait, they confounded 
different parts of this monotonous coast. 

Dicky, however, recognised the land as being be- 
tween Patea and JVanganui. We therefore took 


advantage of a fine north-east breeze off' the land to 
run along close to it, towards the place we sought. I 
remained in the main-top most of the day, gazing with 
delight on the extensive tract of level plains which 
stretched back far as the eye could reach from the edge 
of the cliffs which form the shore. Smokes from 
two or three bays to the northward apj^eared to in- 
vite our approach. As we ran along under all sail 
in the smooth water sheltered by the land, in some 
places within less than a mile of the shore, we at one 
place got into shoal water, six and then four fathoms 
as we neared a stony point. E Kuru warned us to 
stand off* before his caution was confirmed by the lead. 
The weather was too thick for us to distinguish the 
mountains, which lie far distant to the east and south- 
east. We stood off" for the night under easy sail ; and 
found ourselves in the morning abreast of the river's 
mouth, about three miles off". A sandspit on the south 
side seemed to shut up all but a narrow channel with 
foaming breakers. We now bade farewell to E Kuru 
and his attendant, who got into a boat with Barrett. 
The chief was landed at a pa about two miles up the 
river ; and Barrett returned after sounding on the bar; 
just in time, for the wind had freshened fast from 
the time he left, and shifted round to west-north-west 
in a squall, so that we were soon obliged to beat off' 
the coast under close-reefed topsails in a smart gale. 

Barrett reported two fathoms as the shoalest water 
on the bar at half-ebb, and deep water when once 
inside. He described the natives as much alarmed at 
our close approach to the coast, dreading some repeti-* 
tion of the expedition made by the Alligator in 1834. 

We gathered from him that the coast is quite low, 
backed by barren sand hummocks, along the whole 
distance between pf^aikanae and Tf^anganui ; to the 

VOL. I. i^ 


north of which cliffs of moderate height commence, 
and continue all round, with but few interruptions, to 
the Sugar-loaf Islands. 

During the next seven days we were tormented by 
fresh gales from between west and north during the 
day, and calm moonlight nights. In our various tacks 
towards the coast we could frequently distinguish 
breaks in the cliff, which Barrett recognised as the 
locations of Te Namu, Tf^aimate^ and other spots ren- 
dered famous by the visits of the Alligator, and at 
which he had reposed during the great migration of 
the Ngatiawa. 

We enjoyed magnificent views of Tonga Riro, a 
high snowy mountain about ninety miles from the 
coast, in which the JVanganui takes its rise, and 
also of Mount Egmont or Taranaki. The latter 
forms a beautiful object from the sea. It rises gra- 
dually and evenly from a circle thirty or forty miles in 
diameter, one- third of which circle is formed by the 
sea. With the exception of a small group of low hills 
near the Sugar-loaf Islands, the land between the sea 
and the mountain forms an inverted amphitheatre, 
wooded down to within six or seven miles of the cliffs. 
The open ground seemed also interspersed with wooded 
portions. The Ngatiawa natives on board with Bar- 
rett almost cried with joy as they looked once more on 
what all the natives agree in describing as the garden 
of the country. We found soundings in all parts of 
the bay between Kapiti and Cape Egmont. The lead 
gave thirteen fathoms at three miles' distance from the 
entrance of Pf^anganuL 

We at length anchored to the north of the middle 
Sugar-loaf Island, on the morning of the 27th, in eight 
fathoms. A long swell from S.W. made us rpll very 


A volcanic peak at Sugar-loaf Point shoots up to the 
height of 500 feet. Two islands lie at the distances of 
one and two miles respectively to the westward ; and 
several islets and extensive reefs are scattered about on 
the southern side of the point. Barrett went off in a 
whale-boat, accompanied by E Pf^are and Tuarauy the 
two young deputies from Port Nicholson ; but he found 
the surf too heavy for landing. They succeeded in 
making themselves known to some natives on the beach, 
two of whom swam off through the surf, and came on 
board the Tory. 

An interesting scene now took place : Maori custom 
had prevented any communication in the boat ; and 
even for seme time after they had got on board, all four 
sat weeping on the deck, with their heads buried in 
their mats. 

One of the two strangers at length rose, and after 
the ceremony of rubbing noses had been performed by 
all, he related in a recitative dirge, beautifully affecting 
in its tone and expression, the hardships and dangers 
which had been endured by those on shore since the 
retreat of the main body of their relations. Their 
numbers, he said, had been wofuUy diminished by the 
predatory incursions of the TVaikato war-parties. They 
had repeatedly been besieged in their strongholds on the 
peak or the islands ; and, unable to trust themselves so 
far from places of refuge as to cultivate to any extent, 
had lived in a great measure on iish and fern-root. 
"But," he said, "though we muster now no more 
" than threescore, we have determined to remain on 
" our dear native land, and to struggle on through 
" fear and hunger. We are glad to see our brothers 
" from Port Nicholson, and our old White friend." 

Tuarau answered them in an encouraging strain ; 
telling them how he had brought White men to pay 



them for their land, and to protect them from their 
enemies ; and how a like protection had been needed 
and secured by his fathers in the south. He drew a 
short sketch of our progress and intentions, and then 
delivered the advice of JEpuni and Tf^arepori, that they 
should sell Taranaki to their good pakehuy or White 

The next morning we landed Barrett and his train, 
including Tuarau. It was declared impossible to col- 
lect the different chiefs connected with the district of 
Taranaki in less than a week, as some of them resided 
far off. Colonel Wakefield, therefore, determined to 
leave Barrett here to prepare the natives for the sale, 
and to proceed himself at once to Hokianga* and Kai- 
para, two harbours in the north of the island, where 
he had to discover and take possession of certain dis^ 
tricts which had been acquired by the Company from 
former purchasers before we left England. Dr. Dieffen- 
bach was also persuaded by my uncle to land here, and 
seize the opportunity of examining Mount Egmont and 
the surrounding country, so highly interesting to the 
geologist, and of which so little was yet known from 
authentic sources. The surf was still exceedingly high 
on the beach ; but the whale-boats landed Dicky and 
all his goods and chattels, animate and inanimate, by 
an early hour in the afternoon, and we weighed 
anchor and stood to the northward, before a fine fresh 

E TVare had determined to accompany Colonel 
Wakefield in his peregrinations ; Jim Crow considered 
himself now as much attached to the ship as her figure- 
head ; and a native of Rotoma (one of the South Sea 
Islands), named "Saturday," who had been whaling 
under Barrett, also made his choice for the Tory, 
j * Erroneously spelt Jokeeangar and Shukeeanga on some maps. 


Chap. VI. HOKIANGA—SIGT^AhS. 149^ 

On the evening of the first of December, we came 
in sight of what we supposed to be the heads of Ho- 
Jcianga. We had on board some printed directions, 
given us in England, stating that a regular pilot lived 
at the entrance, and that a flag-staff on the south head 
was used to direct ships, by its signals, over the bar. 
As we could see no flag-staff, and as the sea appeared 
to break right across the entrance, we fired several 
guns, but received no answer. Accordingly, we stood 
off all night, and in the morning ran down about ten 
miles to the south, and found the real place. We had 
been last night off TVangaipe harbour, a place some- 
times called False HoJcianga, on account of its great 
similarity to this harbour. The thick weather had 
prevented any observations, and our dead reckoning 
had led us into this error. We passed safely over 
the bar, directed by the flag-staff, which is very ingeni- 
ously arranged, so as to incline to the right or left as 
may be required, A vessel entering or going out has 
to obey its motions by standing in the corresponding 
direction. We found a quarter-less-four, on the shoalest 
part of the bar, which was not breaking anywhere. 
The pilot, Mr. Martin, came on board after we had 
passed all the dangers, and took charge of the ship up 
the river. 

Immediately at the entrance were high sand-hills ; 
but the appearance of the banks improved, being clear 
and level for some way back as we advanced. About 
twenty miles up the river the banks had become irre- 
gular and wooded. At a place called the Narrows 
they approach one another within two ships' lengths, 
having been as much as a mile or two apart up to that 
place. Two or three miles above the Narrows, and 
twenty-six miles from the river's mouth, we anchored 


close to two other barques which were loading kauri* 
timber for New South Wales. On the bank to our 
left was the house and store of a timber-dealer and 
general storekeeper. In front was a small flat island, 
on which were some sawyers* and blacksmiths' work- 
shops. On either side of this island a tributary of the 
Hokianga flowed into the pool in which we lay. To 
the right a point of land just hid from us the buildings 
of the head Wesleyan mission. In ascending the 
river we had passed Herd's Point. This is a tract of 
land that was purchased by the agent of the Company 
of 1825, mentioned in the first chapter, which had 
become incorporated with the New Zealand Land 
Company. It is a tongue of land formed by the junc- 
tion of two tributaries, and is quite level and covered 
with small wood. We heard that the portion pur- 
chased only comprised about half a square mile, and 
high hills bound its inner side. 

We found the whole country about the Hokia?iga 
river very irregular ; and though there is a good deal 
of valuable and available land, it is much dispersed 
among steep hills, and intersected by innumerable 
creeks and mangrove-swamps. At low water the 
banks of the rivers have a most dismal appearance ; 
these swamps and extensive banks of mud drying out 
to a considerable distance from the sound bank, and 
thus making the operation of landing extremely diffi- 
cult and inconvenient. 

During the next two days we visited different parts 
of the river. At MangungUy the Wesleyan Missionary 
station above mentioned, we met with Mr. Bumby, 
then Chairman of the mission. 

We found in this gentleman a truly worthy teacher 

* Spelt Kowdie in many works. 


of the Christian religion. Endowed with considerable 
talents, which were improved by an excellent educa- 
tion, Mr. Bumby could bring enlarged views to bear 
on the appointed tasks of himself and his brother mis- 
sionaries. His manners were conciliating, and essen- 
tially those of a gentleman and man of the world ; and 
he willingly conceded that our efforts and those of the 
mission might work in perfect harmony. 

Mr. Bumby had visited Port Nicholson in the 
schooner which I before mentioned ; and we now felt 
more than ever convinced that the native teachers left 
there had been led by jealousy to exceed their duties. 
He imagined, however, that he had secured the piece 
of ground at Te Aro, on which the houses and future 
chapel had been built. Colonel Wakefield told him 
how the natives had disregarded this verbal agreement 
unaccompanied by payment ; but assured him that 
he would be at all times ready, in fulfilment of his 
instructions from the Company, to reserve a sufficient 
place in the future town for the location of a chapel 
and mission-house of each of the two stations. 

Accompanied by Mr. Hobbs, another missionary, 
Mr. Bumby had walked along the coast from Kapiti 
to this place, doing much good on his way. In the 
course of our frequent visits to the mission, and his to 
the Tory, we collected a great deal of useful informa- 
tion, and acquired a strong friendship for the excellent 
Mr. Bumby. When he was afterwards unfortunately 
drowned by the upsetting of a canoe in the Frith of 
the Thames while in the pursuit of his praiseworthy 
labours, by none of his friends was he more sincerely 
regretted than by those who learned to esteem the 
virtues of his character at Mangungu. 

At the mission were some poor farm-buildings ; a 
press, which was worked by natives under the direction 


of Mr. Woon, the printer ; and a very nice chapel. 
The buildings were of kauri timber, which works up 
very well. The rooms lined with this wood, carefully 
planed, had the neat appearance of a work-box. 

In different places along the banks of the river, huge 
logs of this valuable wood lay ready for sale or embark- 
ation. The few natives about the settlement were 
extensively employed in lumbering, and made large 
profits by this work and the sale of the trees. We 
were much struck, however, by the difference of cha- 
racter as well as physical appearance of the natives here 
in comparison with those of our friends in Cook's 
Strait. The latter had appeared far superior in stature 
and muscular power. There was here, moreover, none 
of the same eagerness to supply a ship with provisions. 
In all the harbours of Cook's Strait, we had always 
been surrounded by canoes, bearing more than sufficient 
for our consumption. Here, on the contrary, it was 
difficult to procure fresh provisions, even by sending to 
the residence of the chiefs. Entirely borne away by 
the high profits arising from the great competition be- 
tween White men for the kauri logs, they neglected to 
cultivate the ground, and disdained going in their canoes 
to catch any of the fish which abound near the heads. 
During the whole time that we lay here, we had not a 
single canoe come alongside for the purpose of barter, 
and were obliged to procure our fresh {)rovisions at an 
exorbitant price from a haggling White dealer. 

The rest of the natives, who are all professed 
Christians, were accustomed to collect from different 
parts of the neighbourhood on the Saturday afternoon, 
in order to be in readiness for the morrow's services. 
They occupied a collection of temporary huts at the 
foot of the gentle slope on which the chapel and 
mission are built. I was much struck by their mise- 


rable outward appearance. They were wretchedly 
clothed, covered with dirt, badly supplied with food, 
generally speaking weak and sickly-looking, and alto- 
gether more abject in their manners and miserable in 
their condition than the slaves at the Ohiere; who, 
however poor and degraded, had at least some lightness 
of heart and physical energy. The missionary natives 
showed no curiosity as to us, and hardly turned their 
heads to answer a question ; they seemed to have lost 
all the MaorVs natural vivacity and inquisitiveness, and 
to be a generation whose feelings and natures were 

In a word, they appeared tamed without being civi- 
lized. Together with the ferocity they had lost the 
energy of the savage, without acquiring either the 
activity or the intelligence of a civilized man. 

They performed, however, their part of the religious 
ceremonies on Sunday with great order and decorum ; 
joining universally in the responses and hymns, and 
listening with marked attention to the sermon which 

On the Monday they again disappeared ; having 
excited no feeling in my mind but that of sincere pity 
for their degraded physical state. 

About two miles above Mangungu, we found the es- 
tablishment of Lieutenant Macdonnell, who had been 
some years in this country, and who had sold his 
claims to certain districts of land here and at Kaipara 
to the Company. We had left him in England, but 
had brought with us his deeds for the lands in ques- 
tion, and letters to his agent, Mr. Mariner. A brig 
was loading kauri spars at the river-side. A nice 
wooden house, belonging to Lieutenant Macdonnell, 
stood on a terrace about fifty yards back from the 
river. Mr. Mariner had a comfortable cottage on the 


bank below, buried in the midst of flourishing gardens. 
The fig and prickly pear were growing well in the 
open air; and a vineyard, with three hundred and fifty 
vines of different sorts, promised great things. Some 
cattle belonging to Mr. Macdonnell were running on 
the tops of the hills, and one of these, which we bought 
for the ship, was very fair meat. 

De Thierry's wild scheme of assuming the sove- 
reignty of New Zealand was of course opposed by the 
natives and White settlers of the Bay of Islands and 
Hokianga. Mr. Busby printed a circular to the chiefs, 
inviting them to resist his designs ; and the Church 
missionaries took active measures for their overthrow. 
On arriving in New Zealand in 1835, he was much 
disappointed when he found his visionary scheme quite 
unlikely to succeed ; and he was also foiled in the 
more legitimate hope of acquiring an indisputable title 
to a large tract of land, by means of the 700/. which 
he had given to Mr. Kendal for that purpose. 

It appeared that Mr. Kendal had purchased some 
land for thirty-six axes ; and De Thierry had been 
involved in constant disputes with the vendors and 
their sons ever sinces. On one occasion he sent to 
Colonel Wakefield for protection against an aggression 
meditated upon him and his family by a turbulent 
young chief, in consequence of a dispute about the 
ownership of some logs of timber. An armed boat 
from the Tory, sent up to his residence, had the 
effect of maintaining peace, until a chief named Nene 
or Thomas Walker, who was much on board our ship, 
had been persuaded by my uncle to go and pacify the 
aggressor, his own brother. Colonel Wakefield him- 
self paid the Baron a visit, and described his family 
as exceedingly interesting and well-bred, but suffering 
from distress and constant alarm. 


We saw nothing of the Roman Catholic Bishop, 
Monseigneur Pompalier, who, we were told, had lately 
bought land for a missionary station on the banks of 
the river, and made many converts. He had been at- 
tacked by both sects of Protestant missionaries in the 
most intolerant manner. 

Colonel Wakefield took formal possession for the 
Company of Herd's Point, and of a district of land 
opposite called Motukaraka, bought of Mr. Macdon- 
nell, in the presence of the original vendors. He then 
sent a messenger over to the Bay of Islands, to procure 
the attendance of Rewa and some of the other chiefs of 
the Ngapuhi tribe, who had made a cession of some land 
on the banks of the Kaipara river to Mr. Macdonnell. 

This gentleman had obtained from the chiefs of the 
Ngapuhi a promise in writing to sell him a tract of 
land on the Kaipara, which they had recently con- 
quered, provided he brought a vessel into that river. 
He had effected this with the Tui, a small schooner 
built at Hokianga ; and his consequent right of pre- 
emption had been bought by the Company. 

We met the chiefs assembled at Hauraki, Mr. Mac- 
donnell's station ; and they confirmed the agreement, and 
deputed a chief named Taonui to go with us to Kai- 
para and show us the land in question. 

Previous to sailing. Colonel Wakefield purchased 
from a lady, representing herself to be the widow of 
Captain Blenkinsopp, some deeds professing to be the 
original conveyances of the plains of TVairau by Rau^ 
peraha, Rangihaeata, and others to that gentleman, 
in consideration of a ship-gun. They were signed with 
elaborate drawings of the moko or tatu on the chiefs' 

On the 16th of December, we set sail for Kaipara. 

On the evening of the 18th, we anchored in ten 


fathoms, on the tail of one of the extensive banks 
which lie outside the entrance of that harbour to the 
distance of five or six miles from the land. We caught 
in two hours enough snapper to last the whole ship's 
company for many days. 

19th. — This morning I was awakened by Dr. Dorset, 
who told me that we were aground. As I was swing- 
ing in a cot, I could not feel any bumping, and treated 
his announcement as a joke. On his repeated state- 
ments, however, I put my foot on deck, and soon felt 
a tremendous bump. I dressed in haste and hurried 
on deck. 

We had trusted almost entirely to a chart with 
which we had been furnished by Lieutenant Macdon- 
nell in England, and which proved totally erroneous, 
omitting any description of a bank which lay in the 
midst of the main channel as drawn by him. As it 
was quite calm, we had been towing in with three 
boats ahead on the top of the flood-tide, and no break- 
ers had pointed out the shoal water. One cast of 
the lead had given twelve fathoms ; and the next, 
" quarter-less-three" and a heavy bump. A long 
rolling swell from the westward was increasing in 
force every minute. 

The usual measures to get the ship off were taken, 
but in vain. Captain Chaffers and the well-disci- 
plined crew exerted themselves most creditably. Five 
of our guns, three or four anchors and cables, a deck- 
load of spare spars which we had taken in at Hokianga, 
and several other heavy articles, were thrown over- 
board. Kedges were carried out and hauled upon, 
but with no effect. Some heavy mill-stones and 
paving-flags were got up out of the hold and rolled 
overboard. One of them was carelessly sent through 
our best whale-boat, which lay at the gangway. 


During half-an-hour the ship continued to bump 
heavily. An old man-o '-war's man, who had joined 
us in Plymouth Sound, amused me much by 
his determined sang froid on this occasion. He 
happened to have been in the Pique frigate, on the 
famous voyage which she made across the Atlantic 
without a rudder after striking on a rock on the 
coast of Newfoundland. He was now at the helm ; 
and coolly rolled his quid in his mouth, as he 
related in a low tone the more appalling dangers of 
that adventure, or warned me to keep further from the 
wheel, each time that a bump of the rudder made it 
spin round like the fly-wheel of a steam-engine. " This 
" is only soft sand," said he ; "I 've been bumping on 
" hard rocks for a day and night and no harm done : 
" shear a little further off the wheel, sir, and mind 
" your legs with them chains," — then a bump and 
whir-r-r-r went the wheel — " only soft sand, sir ! " 
as he rolled his quid over, and again handled the 
wheel. " All right, sir," to an inquiring glance from 
the captain as to the feel of the rudder — then another 
great bump, and warning, and whirling, and rolling of 
the quid, and then he resumed his yarn as quietly as if 
nothing were the matter. 

The tide having ebbed, it became impossible that 
the vessel should come off until the next flood. Co- 
lonel Wakefield mustered a crew of volunteers from 
the cabin to pull ashore in the whale-boat which re- 
mained whole, and obtain assistance from the Nava- 
rino, a vessel which we had been told at HoManga 
was loading spars about thirty miles up the river. We 
thus left the most useful men on board, with the long- 
boat and cutter, the two best boats. E TVare^ Sa- 
turday, Mr. Heaphy, Dr. Robinson, Dr. Dorset, and 
myself were to pull at the oars, thus having one spare 


hand to relieve the tired ; and Colonel Wakefield 

Just previous to our leaving, the cutter had towed 
the long-boat, bearing one of the anchors, to some 
distance from the ship, and dropped the anchor in 
order to get a heave on it the next tide. The violence 
of the ebb, which now ran like a sluice past the ship, 
had prevented them from towing the empty long-boat 
back ; and they had found it extremely difi&cult to pull 
only the cutter back, double-banking the oars. In 
our haste we had forgotten to notice this circumstance ; 
and we were no sooner out of the eddy formed by the 
ship, than we were hurried along seawards, notwith- 
standing all our efforts. 

The heavy swell had now begun to break on the 
outer edge of the shoals, and the roar sounded louder 
and louder in our ears as we drifted nearer to the 
breakers. The day was cloudless, and the sun, nearly 
at the zenith, distressingly hot. The chronometers 
and deeds had been placed in the stern-sheets for 
safety, but not a drop of water. We worked until we 
could perspire no longer, and then the toil was ex- 
cessively painful. An ineffectual attempt to anchor in 
one of the channels had only lost us ground, the line 
having proved too short ; and we were soon within a 
quarter of a mile of the outer breakers, which seemed 
to menace certain destruction. When in the boat, 
we had been unable to distinguish the deep channel, 
as it is tortuous, and several smaller channels perplex 
the observer so near the level of the water, and the 
tide appeared to set across both channels and banks. 

The spot where the vessel struck was two or three 
miles from the sea ; and we were now so far to sea- 
ward of the ship, that we were invisible to those on 

Chap. VI. PERILS IN A BOAT. 169 

Just as we had given ourselves up for lost, a faint 
breath of air was felt from seaward ; one of the 
natives' blankets was extended between two stretchers 
in the bow ; and this, with the unremitting efforts of 
the rowers, kept us in about the same position for two 
or three hours, till the flood-tide made. 

Even then we were not in perfect safety ; the flood 
set so strongly to the northward that we became in- 
volved among new breakers. Saturday, however, here 
took the steer-oar, and steered us with great presence 
of mind through a threatening line of surf ; when we 
found ourselves in a smooth channel, gliding towards 
the harbour at the rate of five knots. Each rested on 
his oar, and we now paused, to establish a better mast 
and sail with a blanket stretched on two of them. 

I shall never forget the pleasure of the first drink 
of water at the rill on a beach near the North Head. 

We pulled and sailed about twenty miles up the 
harbour, which is a great estuary, five or six miles 
wide, receiving the waters of several rivers ; and had 
just gained sight of the vessel's masts about ten miles 
from us, on rounding a point to the north, which 
opened a view of the TVairoa or " Long-water" river, 
when the tide turned against us. We were thus 
obliged to land on the nearest beach, and encamp till 
the flood. As we had worked hard since the morning, 
without even breakfasting, this arrangement was 
agreeable enough to us ; and some tin cans of pre- 
served meat, and our small store of biscuit, were soon 
finished. Clouds of mosquitoes, however, defeated our 
attempts to sleep. The smoke of the fire had scarcely 
any effect on them, and while our eyes were filled with 
wood-smoke, they were stinging our knees and every 
other part of our bodies that was unprotected by any- 
thing thicker than duck. Half-burying oneself in the 


sand, smoking, expeditions to distant parts of the 
shore, or among the fern at the hack of the beach, 
and up the small hills by which it was skirted, — all 
proved unavailing to get rid of these terrible enemies ; 
and at the first dawn of day, as soon as the tide had 
turned, we were glad to leave the inhospitable beach 
and get into the boat, stifl' and unrefreshed. Even the 
natives had exclaimed against the numbers and perse- 
verance of the nai-naiy as the mosquitoes are called in 
Maori. Saturday's stolid unconcerned face was rich 
to behold, as he sat by the fire stirring them out of 
each ear with a small twig. 

A few hours' pull brought us alongside the Nava- 
rino ; where we were most kindly received by Captain 
Warming, as soon as we had told our doleful tale. 
He treated us with the most genuine hospitality, and 
immediately dispatched his mate, with an efficient 
boat's crew, to the assistance of our shipmates. 

After some breakfast and a refreshing bath, I slept 
soundly for some hours ; and, soon after getting up, 
had the satisfaction of seeing the Tory come full sail 
round the point near to which we had passed the 
night. She had forged over the bank into deep 
water, after being exposed for some hours to heavy 
seas which broke over her. The mate of the Nava- 
rino had met her coming into the harbour, and piloted 
her up the next morning to a berth nearly alongside 
of the Navarino. 

The vessel was so much injured as to require heav- 
ing down, and thus it became necessary to take out all 
the cargo and ballast. It was plain that she woujd 
not be again fit for service for a month or two ; and 
the time was fast approaching when Colonel Wake- 
field had engaged to meet the first fleet of emigrant- 
ships at Port Hardy in Cook's Strait. As we could 

Chap. VI. WAIBOA RIVER. 161 

not tell, before leaving England, where the first set- 
tlement would be formed, and as the emigrants were 
to sail in August, a rendezvous had been appointed at 
this known good harbour for the 10th of January 
1840. Colonel Wakefield therefore determined to 
proceed overland to the Bay of Islands, in order to 
charter a small vessel to take him to Port Hardy, and 
then join us here. 

Before starting, he held some communication with 
the natives of this place, a few of whom were en- 
camped abreast of the ship. They had laughed at 
Taonui and the claim of the Ngapuhi chiefs to sell 
their land for them. They acknowledged that they 
had been conquered in former times, but said that they 
had long returned from their places of refuge, and 
were not disposed to be conquered again. They firmly 
refused even to sell the land in question to Colonel 
Wakefield ; but offered to sell a district on the banks 
of another river, flowing into the north-eastern end of 
the estuary. 

Abandoning the task of examining, and, if of value, 
buying this tract, to Dr. Dorset, whom he left in 
charge of affairs for the Company, Colonel Wakefield 
started in one of our boats up the Tf^airoa river on the 
26th December. He had understood that a day's 
walk from the head of this river would take him to 
the Bay of Islands. E TVare and Saturday accompa- 
nied him, to carry his baggage. Messrs. Heaphy, 
Robinson, and Dorset formed part of the boat's crew, 
in order to see as much as possible of the river. 

I was laid up at this time by inflammation from the 
bites of mosquitoes which I had got in bathing at 
HoManga ; and I gladly accepted Captain Warming's 
kind offer of one of his cabins while the repairs of the 
Tory should go on. 

VOL. I. M 


On the 29th, the boat returned, having landed 
Colonel Wakefield about one hundred miles up the 
river. The party described the river as navigable for 
shipping up to that point, and the banks as clothed 
with the finest kauri timber, from twenty miles above 
our anchorage. They had passed several sawyers' and 
lumberers' stations, and also stations of the Wesleyan 
and Catholic missions. They described the mosquitoes 
to be in great numbers and extraordinary vigour in 
every place where they had stopped. 

All the cargo was now landed and stored under 
tents ashore. The cabin-party also established an en- 
campment under a cliff nearly abreast of the anchor- 
age. The Tory was hove down on a sand-bank at the 
first spring-tide, on the 4th of January ; and, after a 
survey by Captains Chaffers and Warming, the neces- 
sary repairs were proceeded with. During this inter- 
val, the Bee brig from Sydney arrived and proceeded 
up the river. We also had a visit from Mr. W. C. 
Symonds, a son of Sir William Symonds, whom I had 
known in London ; and who had come out as agent 
for a Scotch company, which had bought land at 
Manukauy a harbour about thirty miles south of 
this. Mr. Symonds was only accompanied by one 
White man ; and described the natives as having been 
exceedingly dishonest and troublesome in all their 
transactions with him. He had crossed the isthmus 
which lies between the innermost part of the harbour 
of Manukau and the east coast, and had obtained a 
view of the eastern sea. He had endured considerable 
hardships and privations ; and returned to his station 
up the Kaipara river some days after, having provided 
himself with some necessaries. The latter river flows 
into the estuary on its south side, taking its source 
very near the harbour of Manukau. A great inland 


water-communication thus exists along the northern 
part of the North Island, commencing near the isthmus 
between the two coasts, and ending at the spot up the 
Pf^airoa where Colonel Wakefield left the river ; from 
which short overland paths communicate with the 
Bay of Islands and Hokianga. 

The land, however, in the neighbourhood of Kai- 
para harbour and its tributaries is far from promising 
in appearance. The part near the anchorage is chiefly 
table-land clear of timber; and the barren clay of 
which it consists seems to refuse sustenance to any- 
thing but stunted fern. In the valleys cut out of the 
table-land by sluggish streams there are dull swamps 
which might furnish more available land when 

The amateur boat's crew described some of the land 
higher up the river as of a better character, especially 
some hundred acres under excellent cultivation at the 
Wesleyan mission station. 

Mr. White, the former Chairman of the Wesleyan 
mission, had chartered the Navarino, and visited her 
once while she was taking in the splendid spars which 
were rafted down by natives. 

This gentleman had been discharged from the ser- 
vice of the mission some few years before, on account 
of his having engaged very extensively in land-buying 
and trading of all sorts. He was a great land-owner 
on the banks of the Hokianga and Kaipara rivers ; 
and maintained a good deal of the influence which he 
had acquired as a missionary, by retaining the clerical 
habit and continuing to pray and preach to the natives, 
even while bargaining with them in his secular capa- 
city. Mr. White had quarrelled, when in England, 
with some of the projectors of our scheme there, and 
had threatened to oppose us by means of his influence 

M 2 


with the natives. We had, of course, now no dread 
of his interference, as he was not even known in Cook's 
Strait, where the more important part of our pur- 
chases and friendly relations with the aborigines were 
already firmly established. 

About the middle of January, the Guide brig 
arrived, bringing letters from Colonel Wakefield to 
Dr. Dorset and myself. Mr. John Blackett, formerly 
a mate in the navy, who had obtained a passage in the 
brig from my uncle in order to join the Navarino here 
on her voyage to England, was the bearer of these. 
He had been travelling about much in the interior of 
the island for some months, chiefly in the Tf^aikato 
and Thames districts. He expressed a strong interest 
in our proceedings; and hoped, as Captain Warming 
had promised to accompany the Tory as far as Port 
Nicholson when her repairs were completed, to get a 
glimpse of the first operations of the settlers before he 
should return to England. 

Colonel Wakefield informed us, shortly, that he 
had reached Port Hardy on the 11th of January, with- 
out finding any ship from England ; and he instructed 
Dr. Dorset to put some goods on board the Guide and 
proceed to TaranaJd, in order to complete the pur- 
chase there, and bring Barrett and Dr. Dieffenbach to 
Port Nicholson. If we reached the latter place before 
liim, we were to get the natives to build plenty of tem- 
porary huts, in readiness for the emigrants. He had 
chartered the Guide by the month. 

This brig was an old whaler belonging to Sydney ; 
originally a Calcutta pilot-brig, teak-built, of about 
150 tons burden, and swarming with cockroaches. 

A crew had been collected by the great personal ex- 
ertions of Colonel Wakefield and Mr. Blackett, at the 
Bay of Islands, and consisted of the worst class of run- 


away sailors, and probably worse regular "beach- 
combers" of Kororareka. The captain was a lazy, 
indolent old man, fond of grog, and of sleep, and of 
a good charter by the month. The mate was the 
former doctor of the vessel when whaling, perfectly 
ignorant of navigation and seamanship, and, like the 
captain, perfectly devoid of influence over the rascally 

Dr. Dorset, Doddrey the storekeeper, and I, were the 
only ones who took up our berths on board. The ne- 
cessary quantity of goods being on board, we proceeded 
down the river ; and, on the morning of the 29th of 
January, left the Heads with a light south-east breeze and 
ebb-tide. The captain got up to the mast-head, and a 
hulking, cowardly, half-bred Dutch sailor placed him- 
self in the chains to sound. The breeze died away as 
we got to the perilous pass between the "middle patch,'' 
on which the Tory had been wrecked, and the south 
sand-bank. The ebb-tide set us broadside on to the 
patch, on which there was a heavy break. The coward 
in the chains began to holloa with fright as soon as the 
water shoaled to five fathoms ; the skipper scrambled 
down from his high perch, and looked quite perplexed ; 
the crew rushed aft, and lowered the boats after the 
vessel had bumped heavily two or three times, and 
jumped in without any attention to rules of precedence. 
In such a hurry was this done, that ten men jumped 
into one of the boats before the plug-hole was stopped, 
and only two got into the other, when both pulled 
away, leaving me and two of the crew in a very dis- 
agreeable situation on board. The brig bumped away 
at a great rate ; but we three managed to brail up the 
spanker ; which caused the brig to be head on to the 
swell instead of side on, and probably saved her. One 
of the boats was at last persuaded to approach near 


enough to the stern for us to watch an opportunity 
and drop ourselves in ; and we set off to pull for the 

The ebb-tide, however, pushed the brig along every 
time she lifted ; and this movement was aided by the 
breeze, which again sprang up and filled the square- 
sails which we had left set; in a few minutes our 
vessel was going along, clear of the shoal, and all sails 
drawing. We had a hard task to catch her and save 
her from sailing on to the north bank ; but at length 
got her clear of all dangers, and stood out to sea. We 
found she did not leak much, and trusted that no 
serious damage had been done. 

Constant southerly gales detained us at sea for some 
days. During one of these, I was much surprised at 
the way adopted by the captain and crew to make all 
snug without trouble to anybody. 

One morning, on coming up on deck from the 'tween- 
decks where I had slung my cot, I found a hard gale 
blowing and heavy sea running, the brig being hove-to 
under a close reefed main-top-sail, with the helm lashed 
a-lee, and no one on deck or in the rigging. I looked 
into the cabin. The skipper, the medical mate, and Dr. 
Dorset were all snoring. I went forward and peeped 
down the scuttle into the forecastle, where the same 
happy oblivion prevailed. Doddrey w^as fast asleep in 
the 'tween-decks ; and I thus found myself the only 
person awake on board. The old brigj however, was 
an excellent sea-boat, and rode it out like a tub as she 
was ; and I did not disturb the sleepers, knowing we 
had plenty of sea-room. The next time I saw the skip- 
per awake, he told me this was a common practice in 
whalers ; and said it was quite useless to tire the peo- 
ple by thrashing about in heavy weather. He was very 
good fun with his rough navigation. He had a rickety 


parallel ruler, a very doubtful quadrant, and a rusty 
pair of compasses, by means of which he used to make 
a determined guess at the position of the ship every day 
at noon. Having ascertained this to his own satisfaction, 
he would draw a cross of large size on the map, and de- 
clare that to be our actual position, with much empha- 
sis. He denied the existence of any such thing as 
variation of the compass ; and retired upon his dignity 
as commander whenever any approach was made to in- 
quiry as to the data on which he founded his calcula- 

We at length managed to come in sight of the 
Sugar-loaf Islands on the 1st of February, and anchored 
to the north of the inner one, Moturoa, or "High 
" Island," in the afternoon. Barrett came off from the 
island and piloted her to the anchorage. The Acquilla 
cutter came in from the southward and anchored about 
the same time. Mr. White was on board ; and Barrett 
told us that he had been here once before, since he left 
Kaipara, trying to buy the Taranaki district, but had 
been foiled by Dicky's superior influence. 

Dr. Dorset and I landed on Moturoa, and clambered 
up the sides of this conical rock to a terrace about 100 
feet above the sea, where our friends had taken up their 
abode. We found ourselves in a niche about twenty 
yards in circumference, sheltered by ah over-arching 
rock. In one corner was a ware punt, occupied by 
Barrett and his family, and in the middle a wata, or 
" storehouse," stuck upon four poles about six feet high, 
and only approachable by a wooden log with steps cut 
in it. We were received cordially by E Rangi and 
the children, Barrett's black cook Lee, Dr. Dieffen- 
bach, " Worser," the whaler whom I before mentioned 
as having piloted the ToTeerau whaler into Kapiti 
roads, and six or seven natives of both sexes. 


Barrett now related to us all that had occurred since 
we left him here. In the first place, constant rumours 
had been brought down the coast of fresh invasions 
projected from Tf^aikato. In readiness for these, he had 
removed all his family and goods to the island, and the 
natives had stored it with firewood and potatoes. Nu- 
merous parties of released slaves had passed along from 
the northward to their native places further south, 
spreading all the missionary doctrines ; and never omit- 
ting to preach the uncharitable one of calling all White 
men rewera, or " devils," who were not missionaries, or 
to warn the natives against selluig their lands to us, 
who would, they said, drive them away to the moun- 
tains. A variation of this calumny was that we were 
Pikapo, (the Maori corruption of episcopoiy or Roman 
Catholics,) and would therefore infallibly cut their 
throats or drive them away. 

Some White missionaries, and also some lay White 
traders from Kawia and other places to the north, had 
on more than one occasion headed these agitating par- 
ties ; and had distinguished themselves by vehement 
support of these statements and determined attempts to 
obtain the land for themselves. 

Mr. White had, on his former visit, asserted his claim 
to the district ; as founded on his purchase of the 
rights of a large number of inhabitants of Tara- 
naki, originally made captive by the TVaihato tribe, 
but now freed at Hokianga, Kaipara, and other 
places since their masters had embraced the Christian 

The natives residing at JVga Motu, or " the Islands," 
as the land abreast of them is called, refused to acknow- 
ledge this claim ; saying very truly, that they who had 
never lost caste by servitude, or taken refuge in a dis- 
tant land from the persecutions of their enemies, like 


the slaves to the north or their relations in Cook's 
Strait, had the best right to sell the district. They 
had also declined Mr. White's oflfers to buy their claims ; 
stating that they had promised to sell it according to 
E Tiki or Dicky's ^recommendation, and that they 
meant to keep their word. 

In short, Barrett's influence and perseverance had 
effectually conquered numerous efforts made to outbid 
us in this purchase. Too great praise could not be 
given to him for the zeal which he had shown in sup- 
porting our interests, or his disinterestedness in refusing 
the offers of some of these parties, even though we had 
much exceeded the time we had named for our return, 
and the natives were becoming daily more impatient 
for the conclusion of the bargain. The next morning 
a native brought off from the main, where Mr. White 
had landed, letters to Barrett and to Colonel Wakefield. 
The latter was opened by Dr. Dorset, as acting agent. 
They both contained a statement from the worthy ex- 
missionary, that " he had bought the land bounded 
" by the TVanganui and Mokau rivers, and a line be- 
" tween their sources, from the Waikato and Ngatima' 
" niapoto tribes ; and that if we persisted in buying 
" this district from the resident natives, those former 
" conquerors had determined to recommence hos- 
" tilities, or to claim the protection of the British Go- 
" vernment in securing their rights." 

The natives were very angry on hearing the con- 
tents of these letters, and we had some trouble in 
preventing them from going to break up the boat in 
which Mr. White had landed. As we landed, he re- 
tired from the beach, where he had been preaching 
and praying with some of them, to a less conspicuous 
situation. A TVaikato chief, who had come in the 
cutter with him, reassured us and the resident natives. 


He said that White had given some tobacco and a few 
blankets to the TVaikato as payment for those whom 
they lost at Taranaki, which any one buying this 
land would have to do in accordance with native cus- 
tom. " But," said he, " we have not sold your land ; 
" more than half the fVatkato are missionaries now, 
" and these will join with you, as brothers, against any 
** invasion from their heathen countrymen." 

I ascended Paretutu, or " Obstinate Cliff, " the 
Sugar-loaf Peak on the main, to-day, accompanied by 
Dr. Dieffenbach. It is nearly five hundred feet high ; 
and almost perpendicular on the side next the sea, 
whose sullen roar against its base sounds diminished 
to the ear. The tw^o islands, Moturoa, and Motuoma- 
hanga, or '* Isle of Refuge, " appear like rocks to 
seaward. Inland, a magnificent extent of country 
meets the eye. For some miles from the coast it 
seemed clear from wood ; then were extensive park- 
like glades and groves on the edge of the forest, 
which rolled far eastward in soft undulating lines. 
Mount Egmont's snowy peak towered out of the 
clouds at fifteen miles' distance, and Tonga Biro, 
at least ninety miles distant, appeared more to the 
north, glistening over the most distant forest ridge. 
Cape Egmont to the south-west ran down gradually to 
a point, one gently curved line extending from the sea 
to the summit of Mount Egmont. To the north a 
spacious bay extended to near Albatross Head at the 
entrance of Kawia, dotted in its centre by some re- 
markable white cliffs, called Parenunui, or "Large 
Cliffs." On the top of Paretutu we observed two or 
three pits, the remains of places of refuge of the Ngor 
tiawa from their enemies. 

This evening a strong north-west gale set in. In this 
case the anchorage becomes dangerous, and the cutter. 

Chap. VI. THE » GUIDE " IN DANGER. vm 

whose captain was warned by Barrett of the approach- 
ing storm, hove up her anchor and walked away to 
windward in the first of it. Our skipper, who had 
irresolutely postponed his determination to the last, at 
length slipped his anchor, and stood under easy sail to 
the northward. Unable to tack, he came back after 
wearing, evidently in a worse position than before ; and 
dusk, accompanied by a whirling tempest of wind, 
lightning, and rain, hid the brig from our sight. 
Clinging hard to the rock in one of the crannies on 
the northern side of Moturoa, we lit a beacon-fire, and 
made out a light on board which proved her to have 
anchored again just outside the surf. 

We crept into the wata, appointed for the sleeping- 
place of Dr. Dorset, Dr. DieflPenbach, myself, and two 
natives, with no pleasant anticipations as to the fate of 
the brig. The gale had come on so suddenly that we 
had not had time to remove any thing from the brig, 
and all the Company's deeds were on board in my desk. 
Doddrey, however, was in charge of it, and " Worser" 
was fortunately on board with one or two whaling 

We were rather cramped in our elevated bed-room ; 
which was so small that the only way of sleeping 
five in it was to lie across the narrow way, about four 
feet wide, and double up our legs. The violence of 
the storm, which beat right into the niche, precluded, 
however, any idea of sleeping outside ; and we made 
the best of it. 

In the morning the brig had disappeared ; much to 
our contentment, for we had expected to have seen her 
lying wrecked on the beach. She did not again make 
the anchorage until the 13th. 

During this interval we lived in the niche on Motu- 
roa, plentifully fed by the natives. "Black Lee," the 


cook, had a knack of making excellent dishes of pork, 
potatoes, pumpkins, leeks, and fish, of which we got 
plenty. Then Dicky was never at a loss for a yarn, 
and kept us all in good humour. A clamber to the top 
of the island two or three times a day to look out for 
a sail afforded some employment ; as the path was any- 
thing but easy, and the footing on the worn rock rather 
precarious. About half a dozen huts were perched 
about on different parts of the rock, and caves were 
hollowed out wherever the ground had been soft 
enough, and neat wooden doors placed to shelter the 
stores in them. 

We landed twice on the main during these twelve 
days ; but were glad to return to the island to sleep, 
the mosquitoes being in myriads on shore. We did 
not walk far from the landing-place, as the natives had 
no great store of food on the main, and it was neces- 
sary to embark before the surf should be too heavy for 
our small canoes. 

Dr. Dieffenbach related to us his adventures in two 
attempts, the first of which had been unsuccessful, to 
reach the summit of Mount Egmont, which he had cal- 
culated to be about 9000 feet above the level of the sea. 
He had also been along the coast as far as Mokau about 
halfway to Kawia, where he had been received by the 
natives with primitive hospitality. He has since given, 
in a publication of his own,* an interesting journal of 
these expeditions. 

Our monotony was somewhat varied, too, by a fire 
which destroyed one of the huts on the island, and a 
good deal of native wealth, such as slates, catechisms, 
and muskets ; by the arrival of two missionary teach- 
ers, liberated slaves, who preached the old story with 
much vehemence ; and by the execution of native law 
* Dieffenbach's 'Travels in New Zealand,' London, 1843. 


in a case of adultery which had taken place on the 

:^ The conduct of the native teachers caused great in- 
dignation in my mind. I began to believe that this 
continued opposition to our proceedings really origi- 
nated from the White missionaries ; and being now 
able to make myself understood pretty well, told the 
natives my candid opinion of the unchristian tendency 
of these underhand proceedings. But I took care to 
tell them that the rangatira, or "chief" missionaries, 
would come out with the settlers, and behave veiy 
differently from those who incited them against us. 
I also explained to them, that many of these bad 
missionaries were shoemakers or tailors, who received 
money from people in England to preach the Gospel 
to them, but not to make them enemies to White 
people ; and that the clergymen who were to accom- 
pany the settlers would preach to them and the White 
people together in one church. 

It was here, too, that I was first struck with the 
absurdity of maintaining the native language, and the 
extent to which this was done by the missionaries. 
Some of the latter, on their recent visits, had baptized 
and christened most of the children, and many of the 
grown people. They gave them English names; 
but, instead of spelling these names in English and 
teaching the natives so to spell, write, and pronounce 
them, they taught them to pronounce them in Maori 
in the way nearest approaching to the actual sounds ; 
and then commemorated this adaptation by a printed 
card, on which the transmogrified name appeared, with 
the date of baptism. Thus " Caroline " was printed 
" Kararaina ;" " Edward," '* Eruera T " Charlotte," 
« Harata ;" " Judith," '' Urihi ;" " Solomon," "Horo- 
mona ;" " Paul," " Paora." This seemed indeed an 
advance in order to retrograde : it would surely have 


been preferable to baptize them by native names, if they 
would not teach them the English language. I also 
observed this straining of a point in order to preserve 
the native language in the missionary translations of 
the Bible. The Maori language is essentially a poor 
one, and possesses in particular but few words which 
express abstract ideas. The translators have overcome 
the difficulty by coining words, written according to the 
Maori pronunciation which nearest approaches to the 
word sought to be represented. All proper names, 
too, are transformed in the native Bible like those 
given to the natives. 

It must be remembered that the Maori, as made a 
written language, is pronounced in the same way as 
German or Spanish ; that is to say, each vowel has a 
distinct and unalterable sound. No diphthongs, mute 
vowels, or sounds ending with a consonant, occur in 
Maori: many of our sounds, such as^, s, v,j, I, g, ch, 
sh, th, are not in the native language, and offer consider- 
able difficulty to a Maori ; and others which do exist, 
such as d and b, have been banished by the missionaries, 
and included under r and p. The Maori for " angry," 
for instance, is distinctly pronounced " ridi " by most 
natives : the missionaries, however, disclaim the d, and 
write it riri. " A hill " is as certainly buke ; the mis- 
sionaries write it puke. With the exception of 7ig, a 
nasal sound peculiar to the language, the natives find 
it difficult to pronounce two consonants without a 
vowel between them. 

With these explanations, the following table of 
manufactured words in the Maori Bibles and Prayer- 
books may perhaps be understood : — 

glory kororia 

victory wikitoria 

amen amine 






























puka puka 





Simon Peter 

Haimona Pita 



Jesus Christ 

Ihu Karaiti 





July, and also Jews 


In the book of St. 

Matthew alone there are 1 

lowing manufactured words : 





















I hip a 




Chap. VI 













bushel : V 















































witi }x..~/-.'^- ■ ■ 





measures of flour 

mehua paraoa 




































VOL. I. 












Nearly a hundred words in that book are repre- 
sented by sounds of which the meaning has to be 
explained to a native. An equal amount of instruction 
would teach him no inconsiderable part of the ele- 
ments of the language from which the sounds were 

Thus the comparison of the English and Maori 
Bibles, in which I passed a great portion of the twelve 
days spent on Moturoa, induced me to believe it most 
essential that the natives should be instructed in the 
English language as speedily as possible. 

The crime of adultery was most severely punished 
by Ngamotu, or " the Islands," one of the principal 
chiefs, on his wife. He stripped her naked, and dragged 
her along the beach by the hair of the head, beating 
her violently at intervals. Nor did any one attempt 
to interfere ; the whole body of natives remaining pas- 
sive spectators of the cruel penalty. The adulterer's 
house was visited by the assembled relations of the 
wife and husband, who plundered it of everything 
they could lay their hands on, while he oflFered no re- 
sistance, or even remonstrance, according to Maori cus- 
tom. The taua, or " foray," extended to a hut belong- 
ing to him on the island, from which Barrett's attend- 
ants brought mats, flax, and other articles in great 

We had begun to despair of the reappearance of 
the brig ; and thought it extremely probable that the 
disorderly crew had taken possession, and carried her 
off with her cargo to some other country. 

Chap. VI. RETURN OF THE « GUIDE." 179 

On the 10th, a barque stood in to Motuomahanga, 
the outer island, and lowered a boat. The numerous 
signals which we made, however, did not attract her 
notice ; and she stood on to the northward after the 
boat had returned on board from a short excursion. 
This proved afterwards to be the Company's surveying- 
barque Cuba, on her way from Port Nicholson to 

On the 13th, we made out another sail to the west- 
south-west. Barrett launched his whale-boat, and 
we boarded the old Guide about six miles off the 
islands. She had fortunately left a buoy to her first 
anchor ; and to this we fastened her in the evening. 
On the night of the storm she had ridden out the 
fury of the gale until about four o'clock in the morn- 
ing, with her last anchor. At that time the chain 
parted close to the ground, and she was in imminent 
danger. The crew, indeed, loudly expressed their in- 
tention of picking out a soft place, and running her 
stem on to the beach. 

Fortunately, Doddrey, Worser, and the captain and 
mate, had prepared themselves for this emergency, and 
had each undertaken a part of the necessary operations 
for getting her under way. The captain himself seized 
the wheel ; the others loosed the sails and paid out the 
chain; and a favourable shift in the wind allowed 
them to get an offing. Southerly gales outside had 
driven them as far north as the latitude of Kaipara, 
and prevented them from returning before to-day. i'- 

14th. — The natives came on board to-day, and after 
some hesitation on account of a desire for more fire- 
arms, agreed to sign the deed on the morrow. 

Feb. 15th. — This morning I took the deed, drawn 
up like the former ones, ashore. Barrett translated it, 
and explained its provisions. Forty-seven signatures 

N 2 


were then appended to it, including the women and 
the children, whom the chiefs compelled to come and 
touch the pen, as they would be the future chiefs. 
Two or three young men, who had acquired the 
knowledge of writing, signed their names in full. The 
others made a cross opposite to their names, as had 
been done on former occasions. 

A party of fifty or sixty natives, who had arrived 
from a settlement further south, now expressed a 
desire to sell another tract of land adjoining that sold 
by the Ngamotu chiefs ; and a large number of them 
signed a second deed after a short negotiation. The 
goods were then landed in whale-boats through the 

The Ngamotu natives got quietly through the dis- 
tribution of their share ; but those from the south- 
ward, who were extremely wild and uncouth in their 
manners and appearance, although professing to be 
strict mihanere, or " missionaries," could not effect it 
without a scramble. A small stream divided the two 
parties. As soon as the southern party began to show 
a disposition to scramble, one of the chiefs of the Nga- 
motu tribe raised an exciting shout, and cheered his 
followers on to take advantage of this confusion, in 
order to partake of the spoil of their neighbours, after 
they had stowed their own away. 

They came rushing on along the hundred yards of 
beach which separated the two parties, flourishing their 
arms. The readiness with which the others, close to 
whom I was sitting on a sand-hill, dropped their own 
disagreements and threw themselves into a defensive 
attitude, was well worthy of admiration. Along their 
own side of the little rill, the most stalwart warriors 
knelt, protruding forward their sharp wooden spears, 
or grasping the tomahawk firmly, ready to spring upon 


the assailants. Behind these, others loaded the few 
guns in their possession, and quietly took up a station, 
while behind them again the women and children 
handled a weapon as they bent over some heaps of 
goods. And all this in perfect silence ; the occasional 
yells of the charging party alone being heard, as they 
closed rapidly in. 

I was so taken up with admiration at the classical 
attitudes of some of the defenders, who all remained 
still as statues, gazing stedfastly on the advancing 
enemy, after they had once taken their position, that 
I had not thought of getting further from the conflict 
until the moment of meeting seemed close at hand. 
The assailants were all seeking the weakest point as 
they approached ; the guns were pointed on both sides ; 
each muscle of the defenders seemed straining with 
preparation for the shock ; and I suddenly thought of 
my own dangerous position, and flung myself flat 
on the ground, expecting to hear a volley and the 
whistling of bullets over my head. 

Barrett, however, had tripped up one of the assail- 
ants and pinioned another at this critical moment ; 
Worser and the women of his train had also suddenly 
rushed between the threatening ranks of their rela- 
tions ; and after some squabbling and earnest per- 
suasion of the most refractory, peace was re-esta- 
blished. The Ngumotii seemed to treat the affair as a 
mere joke ; but the others were more than suspicious, 
and, sullenly packing their goods on the backs of the 
women and slaves, departed homewards at nightfall, 
without the usual farewell. A strong party of vigilant 
warriors closed the rear of the caravan as it crossed 
the sand-hills inland of Paretutu. 

The two purchases extended from a spot half-way 
between the mouth of the Mokau river and the Sugar- 


loaf Islands, to a river called Tf^angatawa, south of 
Cape Egmont; and inland, to the summit of the 
mountain, and thence to a spot on the banks of the 
TVanganm river, high up its course. Had we been 
provided with a handier vessel and good crew, we 
should have proceeded to extend the transaction by 
treaties at Mokau, and at Patea between Cape Eg- 
mont and TVanganm ; the chiefs of those places 
having been prepared for such an arrangement by 
deputations which had travelled to Ngamotu in order 
to treat with Barrett during our absence. We were 
forced, however, by the inferior sailing- qualities and 
appointments of the Guide, to renounce these expedi- 
tions on a dangerous lee-shore ; and turned her head 
towards Port Nicholson on the evening of the 16th. 
The whole menagerie from Moturoa was transferred 
on board ; three Mokau chiefs accompanied us, in 
order to urge upon Colonel Wakefield the purchase 
of their country ; and we bade farewell to our friends at 
" the Islands," promising that they should soon have 
pakeha to live amongst them. 

We met a south-easter at the mouth of the Strait, 
and were detained by that and a calm until the night 
of the 19th. During the calm, Worser amused us by 
an exhibition of his skill in catching manga, or bar- 
racoota. This is a long fish without scales, exceedingly 
voracious, and generally found in shoals, like the 
kawai. The presence of either of these fish is easily 
detected in a calm, when the shoals rush along the 
surface of the water at intervals, marking it like what 
sailors call a cat!s-paw, or breath of light wind. A 
school, as Worser styled it, having appeared, he 
fitted his machinery, and slung himself in the main- 
chains. At the end of a stick three' or four feet 
long, which he held in his hand, there was fastened. 


by some three feet of strong line, a piece of red wood 
four inches long, two broad, and one thick. Through 
the end of the wood a common nail was driven, and 
turned back so as to form a rude hook. On the ap- 
proach of the shoal, Worser thrashed the water within 
his reach with the bit of wood and the end of his rod, 
whirling it round with great speed. The manga soon 
leapt out of water, disputing with each other for the 
wooden bait. Dozens were darting at one time at the 
hook. When one was hooked, a dexterous heave flung 
him on the deck with centrifugal force, and the hook 
again thrashed the water. This way of angling 
requires much experience and quickness of hand. 
Worser, who was a renowned fisherman in all ways, 
caught upwards of a dozen fine fish in the few minutes 
during which the shoal remained near us. 

Just as it fell dark on the 20th, we rounded Cape 
Terawiti, with a freshening breeze from north-west. 
The skippper got very nervous when the squalls came 
whistling off' the high land about Sinclair Head ; and, 
ignorant of this coast, seemed to dread the long lines 
of black reefs with which it is fringed. We all, how- 
ever, supported Dicky Barrett in his earnest declara- 
tions that it was necessary to carry on ; and made all 
sail to windward. A fine moon, peeping every now 
and then through the driving scud, lighted us on our 
way ; and by daylight on the 21st we were beating up 
within Port Nicholson, close to Somes's Island. 



Shipping and tents in sight — We land — Greetings — Colonel Wake- 
field's journey — Overland path — Roman Catholic converts — Ko- 
rorareka in the Bay of Islands — Hire of the Guide and her crew 
— Port Hardy — Native raillery — D'Urville's Island — Voyage in 
whale-boat — Welcome by natives — Arrival of emigrants — Rival* 
in buying land— Mr. Tod — The Rev. Henry Williams — Richard 
Davis, the native missionary — Dispute between missions — The 
massacre oiPuakawa — Sincere regrets — Colonists from Australia 
— Authority of native chiefs employed against lawless White 
men — First squatting — Good class of colonists — The settlement 
like an extensive pic-nic — Friendliness of the natives — Their 
first doubts and fears — How removed — Native-built house, or 
ware — The tent of an Eastern traveller — The hut of an Austra- 
lian " over-lander"— Cattle from Sydney — Proclamation by the 
Governor of New South Wales against further land-sharking — 
Committee of colonists — Why and how formed — Provisional 
Constitution — Agreement — Flood — The Cuba — Weather — Squa- 
dron arrives — Bank — Salute — Canoe procession — Ratification of 
Constitution by Native Chiefs. 

We soon distinguished with great delight some large 
vessels at anchor between the island and the main ; 
and, when nearer, shouted with joy as we made out 
white tents and new reed-houses along the line of 
beach at the foot of the Hutt valley. At about 9 
A.M. we anchored north of Somes's Island, close to a 
newly-arrived emigrant ship. Two others, apparently 
discharged, also lay in the anchorage. Landing op- 
posite Pitone, I was delighted to meet Colonel Wake- 
field, safe and well. He was accompanied by Captain 
William Mein Smith of the Royal Artillery, to whom 
he introduced me as the Surveyor-General of the New 
Zealand Land Company. We were also greeted by 


several other gentlemen, whose tents or huts were 
pitched in the neighbourhood. 

Colonel Wakefield was living in one corner of a 
large store-house built by Epuni in the pa at Pitone. 
On my way to this grand residence, I was affectionately 
greeted by the old chief and his people, who screamed 
our names, " Tiraweke " and " Takuta " or " Doctor," 
in most dolorous strains. A perfect tangi or lament- 
ation took place in the pa over E Rangi and the 
rest of Barrett's train ; and they all expressed their 
unfeigned delight at our happy meeting, and their 
satisfaction at the arrival of our friends from Eng- 

While Saturday cooked some salt pork and potatoes 
at the fire in the court-yard, I sat down and listened 
to a brief account of my uncle's doings since we parted 
at Kaipara. 

When he had left our boat, he proceeded in a canoe 
about twenty miles further, and then struck into a 
native path, attended by E Ware, Saturday, and a 
guide. He described the country as barren-looking, 
and interspersed with large swamps. Wherever the 
kauri forest had been cut down or burnt, nothing 
grew but stunted fern. This unpromising appearance 
is described by many persons as peculiar to land on 
which the kauri has grown. It is probably a very 
exhausting crop. The path to the Bay of Islands 
proved much longer than it had been described to him. 
He slept two nights in the bush, the second night in 
heavy rain after a march of seventeen hours. He 
described his fatigue during this journey as excessive. 
Anxious in mind, lest he should not be able to meet 
the emigrant ships at the appointed time, and with 
limbs unaccustomed to severe exercise, he used, he told 
me, to push on ahead of the natives until ([uite ex- 


hausted, and then fall fast asleep across the path, in 
order that they might wake him when they came up. 
In this way he proceeded from daylight till dark. 
On the third day, at noon, he reached a settlement, 
where he was greeted with the most friendly demon- 
strations. He disappointed the chiefs by not stopping 
to eat a meal which they had prepared for him, as he 
had to push on past the first settlement on the Kawa- 
kawa, or "Bitter" river, whose inhabitants, all mis- 
sionaries, were gone on that day (Sunday, 29th 
December) to the Church mission station at Paihia, 
or " Good Desire," in the Bay of Islands. At a more 
distant settlement on another river also flowing into 
that harbour, however, he found a party of converts to 
the Roman Catholic religion, starting in a canoe to 
Bishop Pompalier's chapel. They received him joy- 
fully with songs and salutes of musketry, which they 
said the Bishop allowed on Sunday. They professed 
themselves much pleased with the creed which they 
had adopted ; saying that they got presents for attend- 
ing the chapel, and displaying the crosses and relics 
which were hung in their ears. 

Arrived at Kororareka, the principal White settle- 
ment. Colonel Wakefield found twenty sail of whalers 
and other vessels lying in the bay ; among which were 
many French and Americans, and one Portuguese 
manned by a British crew. On landing, he found 
an hotel, at which twenty persons came to dine at the 
table d'hote. He described the little town as well 
kept, and surrounded with neat wooden cottages ; a 
great contrast, as he was assured, to its appearance a 
year before, when three grog-shops alone stood on the 
beach, to deter visitors from approaching. 

After some trouble and negotiation, he managed to 
charter the Guide, which had just returned from an 


unsuccessful whaling voyage, and was lying deserted 
at Paroa, or " Long Fort " Bay, six miles from Koro- 
rareka. Mr. Blackett had given his assistance in 
collecting a crew. On publishing at the grog-shops 
that hands were wanted he received numerous appli- 
cations ; but as those engaged showed some intention 
to pocket the advance and then disappear, it was 
necessary to get them on board to be paid, then hoist 
up the boats, and set a watch to see that no one swam 
ashore, till they had left the harbour. It was not 
till the evening of the 3rd of January that this was 
effected, and even then in great measure by a strictly- 
enforced prohibition against spirits on board. 
, They encountered a violent tempest off the North 
Cape, and passed Kaipara on the 7th ; when Mr. 
Blackett discovered the only compass on board to be 
defective. This fact, and the skipper's surprising 
skill in navigation, caused him to make Cape Farewell 
instead of Cape Stephen ; and then to run down into 
Blind Bay by mistake. A gale from north-west 
threatened to drive them on the lee-shore at the head 
of the gulf; but they at length conquered their diffi- 
culties, and anchored in Port Hardy on the 11th. 

No signs of any emigrant ships were to be seen ; 
and no answer was returned to a fire lighted by 
Colonel Wakefield on the top of one of the highest 
hills whither he had clambered to look out. He dis- 
covered, however, from thence, a small native village 
on the south-east side of D'Urville's Island, which he 
determined to visit the next day. 

In the morning, he and Mr. Blackett walked over 
the hill, and descended into Oterawa, as the village is 
called. Here were living the family and followers of 
Te TVetu, our old visitor at Ship Cove, to the number 
of about two hundred. Colonel Wakefield had at first 


expected rather an angry reception, these being the 
very men who had been refused access to the Tory 
during our first altercation in Queen Charlotte's 

Having all become musionaries since that time, 
they formed in a ring to exchange the rw, or " shake" 
of the hand ; but, as soon as Colonel Wakefield had 
seated himself, Mark, " the Star's" eldest son, and his 
wife, both asked him how he expected to be treated 
after turning them out of his ship ; and said they had 
been told that he was coming to seize their land and 
send them' to Europe as prisoners. He answered them 
good-humouredly, that he would pay them for their 
land if he wanted it and they wished to sell it ; and 
that he expected some food after his long walk. They 
immediately complied with this request, apparently 
ashamed of having till then neglected it ; and were 
soon very friendly and communicative. 

Old Te TVetu had become a missionary, and was 
much weakened by sickness. He was dying of a com- 
plaint of the lungs, which we had remarked as very 
prevalent and fatal among all the tribes. He was 
annoyed at the bad opinion formed of Rangitoto, or 
D'Urville's Island, by my uncle, whom he had pressed 
to say what he thought of it. 

The whole island is a mass of very steep hills, gene- 
rally bare. On the eastern side, an extensive tract of 
table-land is cleared by the natives for potatoes; of 
which they sell the surplus, together with the nume- 
rous pigs running on the hills. Port Hardy is a very 
fine harbour of refuge, but is exceedingly deep close to 
the shore, and rather difficult of egress ; its entrance 
facing towards the prevailing north-west winds. 

On the 14th, Colonel Wakefield dispatched the 
Guide to Kaijmru ; and a messenger arrived from Port 


Nicholson, charged with letters from Captain Smith, 
who was there in the Cuba, anxious to commence the 
survey of the town. Near Oterawa a whaling heads- 
man named Maclaren lived with his native wife during 
the summer ; and he agreed to look out for the emi- 
grant vessels and pilot them to Port Nicholson. 
Colonel Wakefield then proceeded in a whale-boat 
through Queen Charlotte's Sound, arriving at Te-awa-iti 
at midnight on the 15th. He crossed the Strait in 
three hours with a fresh breeze, still in the whale-boat, 
on the 17th ; and was forced by the increasing force of 
the wind to encamp on a beach near Port Nicholson 
heads that night. At noon on the 18th, he reahed 
the Cuba, at our old anchorage north of Somes's 
Island. He described his first welcome by the natives 
as most gratifying ; the chiefs insisted on rubbing 
noses with him, and repeated constantly that all the 
land was his. 

On the 20th, a sail was reported outside ; and he 
boarded the Aurora at the heads. This was the first 
emigrant ship that arrived. A strong north-west wind 
obliged her to anchor at the entrance of the harbour 
until the 22nd, when Colonel Wakefield left a pilot on 
board and returned to the Cuba. During the next 
week, the work of disembarking had been going on. 
A small jetty was run out by the surveying men ; loca- 
tions were allotted near the beach for the pitching of 
tents and temporary huts, in the erection of which the 
natives assisted ; and some wooden houses in frame 
sent out by the Company for the reception of the 
labouring emigrants, were also set up. At this time a 
Mr. Bullen, a Wesleyan missionary, visited the place, 
and performed divine service on board the Aurora on 
Sunday the 26th. 

On visiting Thorndon, the level piece of land at the 


south-west extremity of the harbour, on which he had 
intended to place the town, Colonel Wakefield was 
well received by the natives of that part. More than 
one competitor, however, for land had visited them 
since our departure, and had attempted to buy patches 
of land over our heads. One of these was a Mr. Ro- 
bert Tod, who had arrived in a schooner from South 
Australia, and had immediately looked about for any 
chance of laying claim to a portion of the land, which 
he understood from Smith, whom we had left here, 
to be intended for the occupation of a large English 
colony. He had been fortunate enough to discover an 
inferior chief named Moturoa, or " Long Island," who 
had been absent during our purchase in September, 
and who agreed to sell him three or four acres on the 
most promising part of the beach, near Pipitea Point 
and pa at Thomdon. Mr. Tod appeared resolved to 
maintain this transaction by every possible means ; but 
Moturoa very soon showed a disposition to assent to 
the large sale, and receive some utu from Colonel 
Wakefield for his rights and claims, which Wareptrri 
and Epuni both described as very insignificant. 

A more influential and dangerous rival had also been 
here, in the person of the Rev. Henry Williams, the 
chairman of the Church mission in New Zealand, 
who had arrived in a clipping schooner from the Bay 
of Islands but a short time after our departure. Under 
the pretence of securing a piece of land for the native 
teacher, named Richard Davis, whom I have heiore 
mentioned, he had obtained an assignment to himself 
of 40 acres in the best part of tiie proposed site. The 
transaction seemed, however, to have been attended 
with much secrecy ; and we could not learn what pay- 
ment he had made, or from what chiefs he had ob- 
tained the cession. Smith told us, that on being 


remonstrated with for interfering with land which had 
been already bought, and had been fixed upon as the 
site of a town, Mr. Williams had declared that " he 
" did not care for the Company, which had treated 
** him with great want of courtesy in not informing 
"him of their views in this country." 

The history of his native agent, Richard Davis, or 
Reikana, had not been one to excite faith in his sin- 
cere adherence to the Christian religion. We collected 
from Mr. Bumby at Hokianga, as well as from several 
natives who had visited the north, that Davis had been 
originally carried as a slave to the Bay of Islands, and 
while there, had become one of the early converts of 
the Church mission. He had been emancipated by 
his master, and eagerly looked for an opportunity of 
returning among his own tribe, with a wife to whom 
he had been married according to the forms of our 
religion, and two or three children. About the time 
that Messrs. Bumby and Hobbs of the Wesleyan mis- 
sion were preparing for their expedition to Cook's 
Strait, Davis suddenly became a vehement Wesleyan, 
and applied to Mr. Bumby for a passage in the schooner 
to Port Nicholson ; agreeing to exert his influence 
among his relations there to procure proselytes and a 
pied-d'terre for the Wesleyan mission. It must be 
remarked, that just about this time a disagreement 
had arisen between the two missionary societies as to 
the limits of their respective labours. An understand- 
ing had been come to in England, that the Church 
missionaries should extend along the eastern, and the 
Wesleyans along the western side of the northern 
island. But the missionaries in New Zealand could 
not agree as to the point where east ended and west 
began ; and so the Church claimed the right of con- 


verting round as far as Cape Egmont ; and the Wes- 
leyans asserted their claim to preach as far as Cape 
Palliser, Port Nicholson was thus within the dis- 
puted district : and no honour redounded to his em- 
ployers when Richard Davis, immediately after dis- 
embarking from the vessel of the Wesleyan mission, 
again avowed himself an orthodox member of the 
Church of England, spread the tracts and the doctrines 
of the Bay of Islands mission, and set to work to pre- 
pare the resident natives for the purchase by Mr. Wil- 
liams of some of their land, and for the erection of a 
temporary church. Thus, from the first, two doctrines 
of religion had been preached to the native inhabitants 
of Port Nicholson. 

The natives repeatedly stated that Mr. Williams 
had, during his visit, told them that the White settlers 
expected by us would drive them to the hills, and that 
they ought to have disposed of their land at the price 
of a pound a foot; advising them to claim money on the 
return of Colonel Wakefield. Their good faith, however, 
was as yet unimpaired ; and the firmness with which 
they had resisted such strong attempts to excite them 
to suspicion and distrust of us, and to the infraction of 
their bargain, gave great hopes of the influence which 
we should be enabled to preserve among them by con- 
tinued kind treatment, and by making the Reserves 
prove how much we had been belied. 

We afterwards heard that Mr. Williams had pro- 
ceeded in our track about Cook's Strait ; always fore- 
stalled by us a few days in our purchases of the land. 
At Kapiti he had expressed much disappointment at 
his inability to catch us. 

On the 31st of January, the Oriental had arrived at 
Port Nicholson, bearing some of the leading settlers. 


as well as an additional number of emigrants. They 
had selected the banks of the Hutt river, about a mile 
from the sea, as a temporary location, and set to work 
on tents and houses. On the 7th of February, a sail 
being reported outside. Colonel Wakefield had gone 
out to the Heads in the Cuba, and brought in the 
Duke of Roxburgh, the third emigrant ship, whose 
captain had been lost overboard accidentally in a gale 
of wind off Stephens Island. 

On the 10th, in the midst of the bustle attendant 
on the disembarkation from these three vessels, some 
alarm was produced among the new comers by the 
report of a native attack. A smart firing of muskets 
was heard in the evening on the ridge of hills east of the 
valley, near the native village at the mouth of the Hutt, 
occupied by Puakawa and his people. Colonel Wakefield 
started along the beach for the scene of action. He gave 
a vivid description of the confusion caused among both 
natives and White men. Both came running to him, 
with arms in their hands, seeking from him guidance 
and assistance, and the women and children screamed 
in chorus. On arriving at fi^aiwetu, or "Star-river," 
as the village is named, after the stream which flows 
under the eastern hills, he heard that the firing pro- 
ceeded from our own natives, who had been up among 
the hills in search of Puakawa, This chief had shown 
himself as eager in his friendship for the White people 
as he had been violent in his first opposition to the 
sale, and had gained the respect and esteem of the settlers 
in the few days during which they had known him. 
The captain of the Oriental had received him very 
hospitably on board his ship, and Puakawa had gone 
out to his gardens that morning in order to dig up a 
small present of potatoes for his newly-made friend. 
He had been accompanied only by a woman and a 

VOL. I. o 


slave-boy. His protracted absence at night had raised 
the fears of his sons, who, upon searching for him, had 
found only a pool of blood. They had returned for 
the other men of the joa ; and these, tiring their muskets 
at random in their usual way when excited, as they 
went up the hill, had caused the alarm. 

Colonel Wakefield returned to the store at Pitone ; 
issued forty stand of arms to the men on the beach ; 
and appointed a rendezvous in case of need. Late in 
the evening, armed boats landed from the ships, ready 
to assist, and anxious to hear the news. At daylight. 
Colonel Wakefield returned to ff^aiwetu, with Epuni 
and TVarepori; and a large party of natives started up 
the hill to renew the search. About a mile from the 
pa, Puakawa^ body was found in the potato-ground. 
His head had been cut oflP, and his heart taken out. 
The woman and boy were not to be seen, and were 
supposed to be captives. They wrapped the nmtilated 
corpse in his red blanket, and bore it, lashed to a tree, 
in procession to the village ; where the usual tavgi took 
place, after it had been deposited in the wahi tapu, or 
" sacred ground.'' Colonel Wakefield tried to con- 
sole the widow and children, and then returned to 
Pitone with the chiefs. They seemed inclined to 
believe that the murderers were natives from the 
neighbourhood of Kapiti, probably of the Ngatirau- 
kawa tribe, set on by White men living there ; and 
particularly alluded to the Church missionaries said 
to have recently established themselves there, as likely 
to be hostile to our plans. Colonel Wakefield of 
course refused to place any faith in this supposition. 
It was found out afterwards that the murder had been 
committed by a foraging party of the Ngatikahuhunii , 
or original inhabitants. 

Poor Puakawa ! his death was sincerely regretted 


by the young colony. Warm of heart and strong in 
feelings, he had sturdily resisted all our proposals to 
buy his land, until he became convinced that the re- 
sult would be for the weal of the Maori ; and he had 
greatly affected me, I remembered, by his stirring pic- 
ture of the evils which he expected from the introduc- 
tion of White men into his country. Having once, 
however, made up his mind to receive them, he had 
thrown aside all suspicion of their motives, and had 
applied the whole energy of his character to welcome 
them with kindness and cordiality. The educated 
settlers spoke with delight of his conduct ; and no 
one could reproach him with a harsh word or action 
towards g. White man of any class since their arrival. 
He had entered with vigour into the hardships of the 
first landing, and had held up for emulation among 
his own tribe the name unanimously given to him 
by both races, of " the friend of the White people." 
Though he was only known to them for a very few 
days, the grief for his death was as great among them 
as among the natives ; and his name is to this day one 
which they recollect with affection and reverence. I 
had formed such sanguine hopes of the great useful- 
ness of Piiakawa in leading his people to appreciate 
our kind intentions towards them, and such pleasing 
anticipations of the development of gratitude in so 
generous a mind, as soon as he should be able to per- 
ceive the benefits accruing to him and his descendants 
from our arrival, that I felt his death as the fading 
of a pleasant dream as well as the loss of a valued 

A few wanderers from South Australia, New South 
Wales, and Van Diemen's Land, had arrived between 
our departure and my arrival in the Guide ; some 
with Mr. Tod, some in other small schooners and 



cutters. They applied themselves to make the most of 
the new colony by means of their colonial experience. 
One, named Coghlan, had established a grog-shop half- 
way along the beach, where a disorderly assemblage 
of sailors, stray whalers, and other bad characters 
from the different stations, had become accustomed to 
assemble, and caused some annoyance to the quiet 
settlers by their drunkenness and wild orgies. As 
there was positively no law or authority to prevent 
this. Colonel Wakefield's warning to Coghlan against 
a repetition of the disturbance had been treated with 
some contempt. Upon this he had explained his views 
to ff^arepori and Kpuni ; andthey, with several other 
chiefs of authority, had accompanied him, with their 
arms and mats of state, to the den in question. They 
then confirmed Colonel Wakefield's statement that he 
acted by their authority ; and threatened to send Cogh- 
lan on board ship again if he should not, for the 
future, carry on his business in a more decent manner. 
This demonstration had had as good an effect as a 
caution from a bench of Magistrates. 

In the evening of the day on which we arrived, a 
fourth ship, the Bengal Merchant, anchored in the 
harbour. This vessel came from the Clyde, and was 
laden with Scotch emigrants. These seemed in high 
spirits ; and, although the weather began to be wet 
for some time, they only remarked that it was " rather 
" saft," and worked away at temporary habitations like 
the rest. 

During the next few days, I was busy visiting 
various old friends, who had squatted along the banks 
of the Hutt. The sand-hummocks at the back of the 
long beach were dotted over with tents of all shapes 
and sizes, native-built huts in various stages of con- 
struction, and heaps of goods of various kinds, which 


lay about anywhere between high-water mark and the 
houses. Thus ploughs, hundreds of bricks, millstones, 
tent-poles, saucepans, crockery, iron, pot-hooks, and 
triangles, casks of all sizes and bales of all sorts, were 
distributed about the sand-hummocks. The greatest 
good-humour prevailed among the owners of these 
multifarious articles ; the very novelty and excitement 
of their employment appeared to give them high spirits 
and courage. They pitched their tents and piled up 
their goods in rude order, while the natives, equally 
pleased and excited, sung Maori songs to them from the 
tops of the ware or huts where they sat tying the 
rafters and thatch together with flaxen bands. As I 
passed along, I was greeted by many an old acquaint- 
ance among these, who would jump down from his 
work with a shout of joy, and inquire anxiously 
whether " TiraweJce" had forgotten him. Then would 
come a merry congratulation at my having returned 
safe from the pakarn or " broken" ship, and generally, 
to conclude, a proud sign towards the house erecting 
for his pakeha, and another cheer as he scrambled up 
again to his work. Thus I advanced through a run- 
ning fire of kind greetings. At the back of the hut 
occupied by Coghlan, whither a flag-staff and New 
Zealand flag invited the sailors, a rough and new- 
made track struck off" to the settlement on the river- 
bank, across a miry swamp. After about a quarter of 
a mile of this, I reached the junction of a small creek 
with the Hutt; and soon found myself at the beginning 
of a little village of tents and huts, among the low, 
scrubby coppice wood which covered this part of the 
valley. A rough path had been cleared by the survey- 
ing men along the bank ; and on either side of this the 
colonists had been allowed to squat on allotted portions 
until the survey of the town should be completed. 


The expected surveying vessel, the Cuba, had made a 
very long passage ; and, after touching ineffectually at 
Kaipara and Port Hardy, had come on to Kapiti, 
where those on board heard from the whalers that 
Colonel Wakefield had fixed on Port Nicholson as the 
site of the first settlement. They had accordingly 
arrived here on the 4th of January. Captain Smith, 
the Company's Surveyor-General, had preferred the 
lower part of the valley of the Hutt to Thorndon and 
its neighbourhood for the site of the town : as the 
whole 1100 acres, with sufficient reserves for prome- 
nades and other public purposes, could be laid out on 
perfectly level ground in the alluvial valley; while the 
hilly nature of the country at the south-west extremity 
of the harbour precluded the possibility of placing 
much more than half the town and reserves on flat 
ground. He had, accordingly, neglected the instruc- 
tions given by Colonel Wakefield to the man whom 
we left here, to have the town laid out at Thorndon, 
and had proceeded with the survey on the banks of the 
Hutt. The dense forest and swampy nature of some 
of the ground had impeded the rapid progress of the 
necessary measurements; and these temporary allot- 
ments had therefore been made by Colonel Wakefield 
on the proposed boulevards and public park of the 
town, which were intended to include the scrubby and 
sandy ground near the sea and a broad belt along 
either bank of the Hutt. 

Colonel Wakefield's opinion still remained unchanged 
as to the proper site for the town ; but, imagining from 
the instructions of the Company to Captain Smith that 
that gentleman was entitled to carry out his own opi- 
nion in this respect, he had refrained from stopping 
the surveys already commenced. 
J I found, however, among several of the landholders 


already on shore a disposition to prefer Colonel Wake- 
field's first choice. : v j ' 

The site now under survey was found, as new lines 
were cut through its matted vegetation, to be in many 
places swampy, and much intersected by sluggish creeks, 
the land being so level as to want drainage. The dis- 
tance from the sea, too, seemed a great objection ; es- 
pecially as the river was only navigable at high water, 
and the anchorage was exposed to a strong sea from 
the heads when the wind was southerly, and the long, 
shoal beach was in that case lined by an inconvenient 
surf, which interfered with the dry landing of goods. 
At Thorndon, on the contrary, the anchorage was 
landlocked ; and the largest long-boats might run 
their noses on to a beach on which no surf could ever 
break, opposite the spot on which the town could be 
built. Looking forward to future times, it became 
evident that Lambton Harbour would become the seat 
of commerce by means of its natural capabilities ; and 
it was feared that the possessors of the few earliest 
choices of country sections of 100 acres each might 
become the sole land-owners of a successful rival to the 
town, and the town itself sink gradually into disuse. 
The question, however, was postponed until the whole 
of the land-owners representing the preliminary settle- 
ment of 1100 sections should have arrived to give their 

I found the squatters on the Hutt no less busy and 
merry than their fellows on the beach. I met and 
welcomed two or three old friends whom I had not 
seen since I left England, and made several new ac- 
quaintances among the young capitalists who were 

* Excellent maps, from the surveys of Company's officers, of 
Port Nicholson and of Cook's Strait, are published by Smith and 
Elder, of Cornhill. 


working with their retinue of labourers at putting 
their goods and chattels into some order and security. 
Three gentlemen, whom I was much pleased to see 
again in New Zealand, had formed themselves into a 
commercial firm, and had brought with them, among 
other things, the complete machinery of a steam-engine 
of twenty horse power, adapted for sawing or flour 
mills. These were Mr. Edward Betts Hopper, of 
Dover, Mr. Henry William Petre, and Mr. Francis 
Alexander Molesworth. They were as busy as the 
rest, landing and arranging their goods. At high 
water, the ships' long-boats and private cargo-boats 
brought quantities of goods up to the owners' locations ; 
the labourers and masters worked altogether at the 
casks, and bales, and other heavy things ; the natives 
lent their willing aid, being very handy in the water, 
and then returned, either to a job at hut-building, or 
to hawk about their pigs and potatoes, which they 
brought in canoes to this quick market. 

I walked some distance along the surveyor's line, 
and made the acquaintances of such of the new-comers 
as I did not already know. Each capitalist appeared to 
have a following of labourers from his own part of the 
country. Cornish miners and agricultural labourers 
had pitched their tents near Mr. Molesworth ; Kentish 
men dwelt near Mr. George Duppa, a little higher up ; 
and many of the Scotch emigrants were collected near 
a point between two reaches of the river, where Mr. 
Dudley Sinclair and Mr. Barton were erecting their 
dwellings. At the latter place Mr. Sinclair's English 
cow was browsing on the shrubs of her newly-adopted 

Small patches for gardens were already being 
cleared in various spots ; ruddy flaxen-haired children 
were j)laying about near the doors ; find the whole 


thing made an impression of cheerfulness and content- 

Then the mildness of the climate, the good prepa- 
rations made before leaving England, and the hearty 
good-feeling existing among the colonists themselves 
as well as between them and the natives, all tended to 
give the extensive bivouac the air of a pic-nic on a 
large scale, rather than a specimen of the first hard- 
ships of a colony. 

For, although all were often wet in the numerous 
boat-excursions and fording of streams and creeks, or 
occasional showers of rain, no one felt any injury to 
his health ; master and man toiled with equal energy 
and good-will ; and both enjoyed a good meal, often 
served up with all the comforts of civilized life. Thus, 
in a little, cramped, but weather-tight tent, you found 
a capitalist in shirt-sleeves, taking a hasty meal off 
preserved meat and good vegetables (the latter groWn 
from the seeds we had left with Smith), and drinking 
good beer or wine ; and this from excellent glass and 
crockery, with plate, and clean table-cloths, and cruet- 
stands, and all the paraphernalia. The labourer ate 
an equally comfortable dinner from the pot-au-feu, 
full of ration-meat and potatoes or cabbages, which 
had been prepared by his wife at the gipsy-fire out- 

Each English family had got a native or two par- 
ticularly attached to them. They supplied their guests 
with potatoes and firewood, and with an occasional pig ; 
shared in the toils and meals of the family, delighted 
at the novelty of every article unpacked, and very 
quick at learning the use of new tools and inventions ; 
chattered incessantly in Maori and broken English ; 
devoted themselves, each to his own pakeha, with the 
greatest good-breeding, patience, and kind attention ; 


and soon accustomed themselves to observe and imi- 
tate almost every new habit, with a striking desire of 
emulating the superiority of their White brothers. 

Even this first step in colonizing their country must, 
however, have been a startling contradiction to all 
their previous ideas. 

Although we had often explained to them that 
many hundred White men would come and cover the 
country, their minds had evidently not been of suffi- 
cient capacity to realize the idea of such numbers. The 
Maori language has no word for a number above 
mano, a " thousand ;" and even this is generally used 
indefinitively to describe any large amount. 

Accordingly, soon after the emigrants from the two 
first ships had landed to look about them, ff^arepori 
came to Colonel Wakefield's hut one morning, and 
showed him the war-canoes hauled down to the wa- 
ter's edge ready for launching, in front of Pitone. 
Upon being asked his meaning, he said he was come 
to bid farewell. " We are going," said he, " to our 
" old habitation at Taranaki. I know that we sold 
" you the land, and that no more White people have 
" come to take it than you told me. But I thought 
'* you were telling lies, and that you had not so many 
" followers. I thought you would have nine or ten, 
" or perhaps as many as there are at Te-awa-iti. I 
** thought that I could get one placed at each pa, as a 
" White man to barter with the people and keep -us 
" well supplied with arms and clothing ; and that I 
" should be able to keep these White men under my 
" hand and regulate their trade myself. But I see 
" that each ship holds two hundred, and I believe, 
*' now, that you have more coming. They are all 
" well armed ; and they are strong of heart, for they 
** have begun to build their houses without talking. 


" They will be too strong for us ; my heart is dark. 
" Remain here with your people ; I will go with mine 
" to Taranaki." 

After some ineffectual attempts at dissuading him, 
Colonel Wakefield thought he had better not interfere 
any more with this sudden panic ; and told him that 
if he doubted the power and wish of the White people 
to make the life of the natives happy, he had better go, 
although he should much regret the separation. 

On Tf^arepori's return to the pa, however, he found 
the council of chiefs, from which he had come with 
this message, totally dispersed. The emigrants had 
eagerly urged the natives to assist them in building 
temporary shelter. Some were gazing with delight 
on the liberal offers of blankets, guns, and tobacco 
made by the new-comers for materials and labour ; 
while others had already started off" to the woods to 
cut rafters and ridge-poles. Others were assisting to 
land goods, and could not be persuaded to remain idle 
enough to talk about going while good pay attended 
smart work. They unanimously refused to start until 
they should have reaped the abundant harvest to be ob- 
tained by working for the pakeha ho, or " new White 
" men ;" and when they found that this harvest was con- 
tinual, and that they were not only well paid for their 
work, but treated with uniform kindness and gratitude 
for their prompt services ; — when they found, too, that 
the visitors were not all stalwart, well-armed men, but 
many of them good-natured women and smiling chil- 
dren, while the very men proved kinder than they had 
expected ; — the canoes were hauled up, and the whole 
Taranaki scheme was treated as a vagary of which 
they were much ashamed. PVarepori himself often 
laughed at this sulky fit with Colonel Wakefield and 
myself; and had domesticated himself as the par- 
ticular friend of a family on the banks of the Hutt, 


whom he supplied with food and the labour of his 

Old Epuni had attached himself especially to Colo- 
nel Wakefield. The stores had been placed entirely 
under his care, of which he was not a little j)roud. 
He and his people were engaged on a good-sized house 
near the store-house for my uncle. Another Pitone 
man had built a house for me ; but as I was not sure 
of remaining very long, I had declined the honour of 
a residence of my own. I made the house, Maori re- 
tainer, and all, over to Dr. Dorset, who had taken 
shelter at first under the roof of an old friend of his, 
a passenger in the Aurora. 

A brisk northerly wind and rain continued from 
the evening of the 23rd to the morning of the 27th ; 
but the squatting still went on with great vigour. 

On the 26th, Captain Heale of the Aurora gave a 
farewell dinner on board to the principal settlers ; and 
I, among others, accepted his invitation. The bright 
hopes and good prospects of the young colony formed 
the subject of several animated speeches, and various 
sanguine conjectures were hazarded as to the future 
history of the New Zealand flag. 
, The rain continued, with but few intervals, till the 
1st of March, with a heavy south-east gale, which 
threw a heavy surf on to the beach, and tried the 
strength of several of the tent-ropes. 

During this time, I either wandered about among 
the squatters, or chatted with the natives at Pitone pa. 

Colonel Wakefield and I lived in a room, partitioned 
off from the large barn-like store, which faced the 
south-east, and was anything but warm during the 
gale, the only window being a piece of canvass, and the 
door a rickety and badly-fitted one from a ship-cabin, 
A large dresser along one side of this room, which was 
about eight feet broad and twenty long, served for 


table and writing-desk. At the end furthest from the 
door, a "bunk," or wooden shelf, supported Colonel 
Wakefield's bed. Mine was a cot, placed on the top 
of a pile of musket-cases and soap-boxes against the 
partition. The floor consisted of the natural grey 
shingle which formed the beach ; and the roof, which 
was luckily waterproof, bent and yielded to every puff 
of wind. The plan of tying everything together with 
flax, in both the walls and the roof, makes these Maori 
houses so elastic that no wind can blow them down. 
The thatched walls are highly airy, and a copious ven- 
tilation circulates through them in every direction. 

We had, however, plenty of thick blankets, and used 
to sleep soundly and turn out fresh and hearty at day- 
break. Then a sea-bath was close to the door ; and 
wonders were done in the cooking way by Saturday, 
the Roto ma man, who officiated as Jack-of-all-trades 
until the return of my uncle's servant in the Tory. 
I used also to be constantly in and out of the tent of 
Mr. Henry Moreing, which was close by. This gentle- 
man had formerly travelled in Egypt and India, and 
his double tent was consequently perfect as to order and 
comfort. He had also brought the virtue of hospi- 
tality from the East ; and I ate many a dinner in that 
rude spot, the good points of which might have been 
envied by a European petit-maitre. 

Next to his two tents was the camp of a Mr. Craw- 
ford, who had been one of the first overlanders from 
New South Wales to Adelaide, and who seemed deter- 
mined to "rough it" as roughly as possible. He 
dwelt in a low hut, into which it was necessary to 
crawl, in common with some uncouth-looking Austra- 
lian servants, who made one think at once of bush- 
rangers and banditti. JNIr. Crawford was, however, 
a mate in the navy, and of very good family. About 
this time he bought, for 1300 guineas, five land-orders 


from Mr. Dudley Sinclair. These land-orders were 
each an authority from the Company to their agent 
to allow the owner to select one town acre and one 
hundred country acres according to the number which 
he had obtained in the lottery, explained by me in a 
former chapter. 

A brig arrived from Sydney with thirty head of 
cattle. She was stated to be chartered by a compiiny 
formed in Sydney with a large capital to buy land and 
occupy it. The agent on board laid claim to a large 
tract of land nearly opposite the island of ManOj 
bought from some former purchaser ; but the opera- 
tions of the agent had been stopped by a proclamation 
made at Sydney on the 14th of January against any 
further purchasing of land in New Zealand. A 
Sydney paper on board contained a copy of this do- 
cument, which was issued by the Governor of New 
South Wales in order to stop the very extensive land- 
sharking going on in all parts of the islands lately 
placed under his government, especially since our 
doings had acquired publicity. The agent on board 
asked from 30/. to 40/. per head for his cows, but could 
find no buyers at that price. 

On the 2nd of March, the first meeting of the Com- 
mittee or Council of Colonists took place. 

In order to understand what this means, it is neces- 
sary to glance back at the steps taken by the settlers 
and their friends in England between the sailing of 
the Tory and the departure of the first emigrant- 
ships from Great Britain. 

The intending colonists, in directing their course to 
New Zealand, were aware that the natives of that 
country were represented as independent by the Go- 
vernment which refused to foster them in their ad- 
venture, and by the missionary body which had 
threatened to " thwart them by every means in its 


" power ;" and they were therefore prepared to accede 
to this representation, and to place themselves under a 
government of the native chiefs, which would be as 
nominal as their independence and their flag. 

So perfectly fantastic and nugatory had been the recog- 
nition by Great Britain of the independence of New Zea- 
land and its national emblem, that we found the natives 
in Cook's Strait totally unacquainted with the meaning 
of a flag, and unable to distinguish the ensign of New 
Zealand from that of France, England, or America, 
And notwithstanding the letter of the thirteen chiefs 
of the Bay of Islands to William IV., on which the 
declaration of independence was founded, the only 
sovereign of England known by name to those natives 
whom we had met was Kin^i Hori, or " King George," 
whose name was remembered because, nearly twenty 
years before, he had given Hongi the guns by means 
of which that chief originated the most desolating 
wars of the country. 

The colonists were not, therefore, without hope that 
the British Government would determine to extend its 
protecting dominion over them, as soon as they should 
have carried their bold scheme into execution. 

In the meanwhile, it became absolutely necessary 
that some provision should be made for the maintenance 
of law and order among the young comnmnity, on 
their reaching the shores of New Zealand. It was 
well known that the chiefs, however independent, 
would be perfectly incapable of constructing such laws 
as would control and protect a civilized community. It 
seemed, therefore, advisable to form some plan of regu- 
lation and discipline among themselves, to which the 
sanction of the independent chiefs should be afterwards 
invited. A remarkable agreement between all the in- 
tending colonists was_ the instrument for this purpose 


agreed u|)on after much deliberation. This document 
is such a curiosity in politics, and so wise in the sim- 
plicity of its provisions for the circumstances contem- 
plated, that I venture to transcribe it entire at this 

We, the undersigned, intending to inhabit the New 
Zealand Land Company's first and principal settlement, 
with the view to provide for the peace and order thereof, 
do hereby agree among ourselves, and pledge our honour 
to submit ourselves to the following provisional Regu- 
lations, and to enforce them on each other ; that is to 
say, — 

1st. That all the persons, parties to this agreement, 
shall submit themselves to be mustered and drilled 
under the direction of persons to be appointed as here- 
inafter mentioned. 

2nd. That in case any of the persons, parties to this 
agreement, shall commit any offence against the law of 
England, he shall be liable to be punished in the same 
manner as if the offence had been committed in Eng- 

3rd. That in case any dispute shall arise between any 
of the persons, parties to this agreement, such disputes 
shall be decided in the manner hereinafter mentioned. 

4th, That a committee shall be formed of the fol- 
lowing persons : — 

Colonel William Wakefield, the Company's 

Principal Agent ; 
George Samuel Evans, Barrister-at-Law ; 
Hon. W. H. Petre ; 
Dudley Sinclair, Esq. ; 
Francis A. Molesworth, Esq. ; 
Capt. Edward Daniell: 


Lieut. W. M. Smith, the Company's Surveyor- 
General ; 

R. D. Hanson, Esq. ; 

E. B. Hopper, Esq. ; 

George Duppa, Esq. ; 

George Hunter, Esq. ; 

Henry Moreing, Esq. ; 

Henry St. Hill, Esq. ; 

Thomas Partridge, Esq. ; 

Major I). S. Durie. 
That Colonel William Wakefield shall be the first 
President thereof. That in all cases the Company's 
Principal Agent shall be the President. That the 
Company shall have the power to appoint five addi- 
tional members. That the Committee shall have the 
power to add five additional members. That the num- 
ber of members shall not exceed twenty-five. That 
five members shall be a quorum for all purposes. That 
Samuel Revans, Esq., shall be the first Secretary to the 

5th. That the Committee shall have the power to 
make rules for their meetings, and to appoint the ne- 
cessary officers ; and that a meeting of the Committee 
shall take place within three days after five members 
shall have arrived in the settlement. 

6th. That the Committee shall have power to ap- 
point a person who shall be called an Umpire ; and that 
George Samuel Evans, Esq., barrister-at-law, shall be 
the first Umpire. That the Umpire shall preside in all cri- 
minal proceedings, and, assisted by seven Assessors, shall 
decide on the guilt or innocence of the party accused. 

7th. That if the party be declared guilty, the Um- 
pire shall state the punishment to he inflicted ; pro- 
vided that, without the special approval of the Com- 
mittee, no imprisonment to he stated by the Umpire 
VOL. I. p 


shall exceed three months, and no fine to be so stated 
shall exceed 10/. 

8th. That in all civil proceedings, the Umpire shall 
preside ; that each party may choose an arbitrator, who 
shall sit with the Umpire, and the award of the ma- 
jority shall bind the parties; and the Umpire shall have 
all necessary powers of compelling the attendance of 
witnesses, and the production of books and papers, and 
of examining the witnesses. 

9th. That the Committee shall have power to appoint 
five of their members, who shall be called a Committee 
of Appeal ; and to such Committee an appeal may be 
made in all cases civil and criminal, and the decision 
of such Committee shall be final. 

10th. That the Committee and the Umpire shall be 
authorized to make such rules and orders for their 
government in the execution of their duties as they 
shall think fit. 

11th. That the Committee may direct in what man- 
ner the Assessors shall be chosen. 

12th. That the Committee shall direct the calling 
out of the armed inhabitants, and shall make rules 
and regulations for the government of the same. 

13th. That the Company's principal Agent shall have 
the highest authority in directing the armed inhabi- 
tants when called out ; and that the Committee shall 
have the power to appoint such other persons as they 
think fit to assist in such direction. 

14th. That the Committee shall have power to make 
regulations for preserving the peace of the settlement, 
and shall have power to levy such rates and duties 
as they shall think necessary to defray all expenses 
attending the management of the affairs of the colony 
and the administration of justice. 

Chap. VII. FLOOD— THE " CUBA." 211 

This constitution was taken on board the fleet of 
emigrant ships, when preparing to sail from the 
Thames, by some of the directors of the Company; 
and the adhesion of the whole colony was obtained to 
its enforcement. The parchment original was for- 
warded in one of the ships to Colonel Wakefield, who 
had been declared the first leader of the Provisional 
Government. It was in accordance with this agree- 
ment that the first meeting of the Committee took 
place, in a wooden frame house belonging to Captain 
Smith, which was then situated in the sand-hum- 
mocks about half a mile east of Pitone, on the 2nd of 
March 1840. Nothing could, however, be done be- 
yond preparatory measures for obtaining the sanction 
of the chiefs, many members of the Committee being 
yet absent. " '- •• ....'' 

A report was brought, just at*dusk on the same day, 
that the Hutt was overflowing its banks in many 
places ; and we started in Barrett's boat to ascend 
the river in order to give assistance. The attempt 
proved ineffectual, owing to the force of the cur- 
rent swollen by the rains. In the morning, Colonel 
Wakefield went up the valley, and found that many 
of the reports had much exaggerated the real state of 
things. There had been, however, as much as eight 
inches of water in some of the houses on the river- 

In the afternoon, the Cuba arrived from Kawia, 
and anchored in Lambton Harbour, as a strong south- 
east gale was blowing, which made the roadstead at 
Pitone inconvenient. Mr. Richard Davies Hanson 
had arrived in the Cuba from England, with the ap- 
pointment of Agent of the New Zealand Land Com- 
pany for the purchase of lands : it being supposed that 
he might effect a good deal necessarily left undone by 



US during the time when Colonel Wakeiield should 
be employed in receiving the emigrants. He had 
accordingly sailed for Kawia on the 7th of February, 
in order to purchase any available land in that neigh- 
bourhood or in that of the fVaipa and TVaikato rivers. 
The Cuba passed the Sugar-loaf islands, without dis- 
tinguishing our signals, on the 10th, and reached 
Kawia on the 12th of February. After the examina- 
tion of an extensive tract of country near that harbour, 
and while about to negotiate for its acquisition, Mr. 
Hanson was arrested in his proceedings, by a copy of 
the same proclamation which I have mentioned as 
interrupting the movements of the agent of the Poly- 
nesian Company of Sydney. He had, in consequence, 
left Kawia on the 2Uth of February, and called at 
Port Hardy to take refuge from bad weather. A 
pleasing piece of news to us was, that the Cuba had 
seen the Tory off Kapifion the 1st instant; so that we 
might hourly expect to see our old shipmates : we had 
begun to despair of ever seeing them again, on account 
of their long delay since we left them at Kaipara. 

On the 4th, at noon, the gale ceased, the weather 
cleared up, and the sun shone out bright and warm. 
There is nothing more cheering than the convalescence 
of the weather in Cook's Strait after an attack of cold 
rainy weather from south-east. The atmosphere is 
rare and clear ; everything dries quickly ; and the 
plants seem to grow visibly as the wind shifts gra- 
dually round to a genial breath Irom north-east. I 
walked along the banks of the Hutt, to see what 
damage the flood had done. The people were all 
joking about the fright which it had caused them, 
and still appeared to treat it as a pic-nic casualty. 
Notwithstanding the long-continued rain and rough 
weather, no colds or rheumatisms were complained of. 


and the work of squatting went on as cheerfully as 
ever. Some, however, who had learned by the flood 
in how low a situation their first dwellings had been 
placed, determined to remove in time. About thirty 
or forty people, chiefly followers of Mr. Molesworth 
from Cornwall, erected a long row of reed and flax 
cottages on an elevated shingly ridge to seaward of 
the small creek at the south end of the bivouac, and 
christened it Cornish-row. 

On the 5th, the boiler of the steam-engine was 
towed up the river, the different vents having been 
first plugged, so as to make it float. On the beach a 
speculator from Sydney attempted to sell some goods 
by auction in the open air, and collected a goodly 
throng of gaping emigrants ; but he wanted an ad- 
vance of 50 per cent, on Sydney prices for bad Sydney 
things, and could find no buyers. 

On the 6th, the Aurora sailed for Hokianga, to 
get a cargo of kauri spars. One of the colonists de- 
parted in her with a saw-mill, being led to believe 
that he should be able to work it there with more 
advantage than here. Vessels had been seen outside 
the harbour during the last two days, prevented froni 
reaching the heads by calms and light land breezes. 

About four in the afternoon of the 7th, Colonel 
Wakefield and I were sitting outside Mr. Moreing's 
tent, enjoying a cigar and the genial weather, when 
we made out three large vessels at once at the entrance 
of the harbour. I soon recognized the old Tory as 
one of them. Just as it fell dusk, they brought up a 
sudden storm of southerly wind, lightning, and rain, 
which made us retreat under the tent as the squadron 
emerged from behind Somes's Island under full sail. 
We had not been very long under shelter, when Dr. 
Evans, one of the earliest members of the Association 


ot 1837, burst into the tent, soaked through, but ap- 
parently wild with excitement and pleasure at having 
at length landed on the shores of the country in which 
he had been so long interested. He told us that the 
three ships were, the Adelaide, in which his family 
and those of several other principal colonists were 
passengers ; the Glenbervie, which bore the manager, 
clerks, and well-lined safe of a branch of the Union 
Bank of Australia, both from London ; and the Tory, 
with which they had kept company from Port Hardy. 

In the morning, a grand salute was fired by all the 
ships, which lay at anchor in an extended line between 
the beach and Somes's Island. The weather was 
delicious; and a large concourse of those on shore 
assembled to gaze on the imposing sight. Six large 
ships, decked with colours, above which the New 
Zealand flag floated supreme, were thundering away. 
The natives shared in the general excitement, and pro- 
posed to take Colonel Wakefield in their canoes round 
the fleet. No sooner said than done ; and away they 
started in three large war-canoes, racing under the 
stern of each ship in succession, while the salute con- 
tinued. In Epums canoe, the place of honour near 
the stern was assigned to Colonel Wakefield ; and 
the two other canoes were commanded by ff^arepori 
and Tuarau. They shouted their war-song most 
vigorously as they passed close to each astonished 
poop-load of passengers, and completed the circle of 
the vessels at full speed without a single pause. I 
was much amused by the grimaces of E Moe, or 
" Sleep," who plied his paddle at the bow of his 
brother Epimi's canoe, which got back first to the 
beach. " Sleep " grinned hideously over each bow al- 
ternately in unison with the wild canoe-song. 

During the next few days, the passengers of the 


Adelaide made themselves acquainted witli the respec- 
tive merits of the two sites for the town, and gave 
their voices almost unanimously in favour of Thorn- 
don. It was therefore decided to commence the 
survey of that district. This change of course caused 
some delay, as the time already spent in cutting lines 
and laying out the streets in the valley of the Hutt 
became almost useless. It was doubtless, however, a 
wise change. 

The machinery of the provisional government being 
now complete, the ratification of the chiefs of Port 
Nicholson was obtained to its Constitution, and the 
Committee was approved and empowered by them as a 
" Council." Measures were put in readiness for all 
sorts of public works ; the appointment of officers, the 
regulation of finances, and the selection of sites for a 
powder-magazine, infirmary, and other public institu- 
tions, were considered; and the note of organization 
and arrangement sounded busily in all quarters. 



An exploring journey — The "boys" pack their loaxls — Farewell 
— Porinca — Parramatta — Waikawa — Nayti — Failure of the 
attempt to civilize him — Potato-grounds — Pukerua — Madman 
— Kumera, or sweet potato — Melons — Coast — Waikanae — Vil- 
lage of the Wanganui chief — Pukeko shooting — Native houses 
— Night alarm — "Whalers and natives at Kapiti — Gratitude for 
books — Shark's tooth — Canoe voyage — Karaka-nxits — Coast — 
Surf — Wangaihu river — Pumice-stone — E Kuru — Wanganui 
river — Encampment— Speeches — Putikiwaranui — Head chie& — 
Vestiges of Rev. Henry Williams — Fishing fleet — Fishing vil- 
lages — Eagerness to sell land — Native mats — Dishonesty re- 
proved — Land-mark — Cliffy shore — Waitotara — Su.spicion — A 
tutua, or plebeian tribe — Missionary calumnies — Valley — Fish- 
ing - weir — Lampreys — Tedious travelling — Wenuakura, or 
" land of plumage " — Hospitality — Crowding — Tihoe pa — Patea 
— Robbery — Utu, or payment — Threats — Restitution — I am 
obliged to return — Parrots — Open plains — Religious scruples 
exaggerated — Excursion up the Wanganui — Scenery — Village 
— Return to Wangaihu — Camp — Fleet of canoes — Hangitikei 
river — Eels — Native gluttony — Prayers at sea — Festival at 
Waikanae — Shipping at Kapiti — Whale-boat journey — Mana — 
Rangihaeata — Carving — We go on to Pitone. 

Things were in this state, when I determined to 
set off on a journey along the coast towards the 
T'Vanganui river.* 

I had been much confined hitherto by the pretty 
constant employment of writing, for I had acted as 

* I owe it to the kindness of Mr. John Arrowsmith, and to the 
public spirit which he applies to the advancement of geographical 
knowledge, that I have been enabled to furnish the reader with a 
map of New Zealand more correct than any that has yet appeared. 
It embodies the recent French surveys and those of the Company's 
surveyors in the Middle Island, besides the sketches of travellers in 
other parts. It is, however, only a map of reference for these 
volumes ; and therefore contains no names not mentioned in them. 
I may be allowed to add that the only complete map of New Zea- 
land is that published by Mr. Arrowsmith. 


secretary to my uncle ; but now that a regular clerk 
had arrived in one of the^ships,-! resolved to take an 
opportunity of seeing for myself some of the natives 
unvitiated by intercourse with savage White men, and 
unimproved by missionary labours.*^ I proposed to pro- 
ceed past Mount Egmont as far as Mokaii, and then 
to return, or [proceed still further, according to cir- 
cumstances. A great advantage was held out to me 
by the arrival in Port Nicholson, on a visit to some 
friends, of Te Rangi TVakarurua, or " the Calmed 
" Sky," one of the chiefs of TVanganui who had re- 
ceived a gun in part payment for that district on board 
the Tory at Kapiti, in November, 1839. He pro- 
mised me a body of slaves to carry my baggage as far 
as JVuikanae ; where he said he would join me, and 
make arrangements for passing me on" in one of his 
canoes. I agreed to this rendezvous ; and the old chief 
brought me, on the morning of the 13th, eight native 
lads, who were to carry my baggage. He was living 
himself at Kaiwaruwara, the village of our old friend 
" Dog's-ear," and had left his canoe at a village between 
Cape Terawiti and Maria, called Ohariu, which was 
principally inhabited by relations of TVanganui people. 

On the morning of the 14 th, my goods were packed 
up into kawenga, or " loads," by the slaves. They con- 
sisted of blankets, shirts, tobacco, pipes, axes, powder 
and shot, fish-hooks, beads, two double-barrelled guns 
besides my own fowling-piece, a little biscuit, log- 
books, and pencils, &c., &c. The " boys" were ex- 
tremely handy in making up the bundles, which they 
strapped on to their backs by belts resembling braces 
in form, neatly plaited of flax. 

Warepori was very jealous of the departure of so 
many taonga, or " goods," to another tribe ; and urged 
me eagerly not to go, as I should be sure to be robbed, 
and perhaps killed, by such wild natives as those 


among whom I was going. I laughed, however, at 
this caution ; thinking very justly that fVareporiy 
however much allied to the TVanganui natives now, 
still felt a hatred towards the tribe which had so 
much impeded the migration of the Ngatiawa from 
Taranaki. The usual farewell was shouted by the 
assembled Pitone natives ; and I started up a steep 
footpath beyond the " Throat " stream. 

The Maori farewell is simple and dignified in its 
expression. The traveller says to those he leaves, — 
Enoho! "sit down!" or "remain!" ov Enoho ki to 
koutou kainga ! " stop in your place ; " and the sta- 
tionary party answer, Haere ki tou kainga ! "go to thy 
" place ! " In this case they shouted " Haere ki fVati' 
" ganuir 

We ascended a steep hill, through extensive potato- 
gardens belonging to Tuarau ; and from thence had a 
noble view of the harbour and the infant settlement. 
After a tedious march of two or three hours over very 
undulating ground on the top of the range, along a 
track constantly obstructed by webs of the kareau, 
or supple-jack, we came to the brow of a descent, from 
which we had a view of a narrow wooded valley, and 
a peep of the sea in Cook's Strait over a low part of the 
further hills. On descending the hill, we found our- 
selves in a fine alluvial valley, through which a consi- 
derable stream brawled and cascaded. Noble forest-trees 
and plenteous underwood intercepted all view of any- 
thing but the beaten track along which we progressed. 
Just about dusk, we emerged from the forest into a jun- 
gle of flax, shrubs, and long reeds, at the spot where the 
stream discharges itself into an arm of the sea which 
forms part of the harbour of Porirua, or " Dark pit." 
Wooded hillocks of moderate height surrounded this 
arm, and gave it the appearance of a small inland lake, 
which trended away to the northward. I was very 


anxious to push on to the spot where " Geordie Bolts" 
of Te-awa-iti had his whaling-station, as a heavy rain 
made it desirable to seek some shelter for the night. On 
advancing about a mile along the flat muddy beach of 
the harbour, I came to a hut, where three Europeans 
were gathered round a fire. They told me that it was 
yet two or three miles to the station, and that the tide 
was now up to the foot of the wooded hills further 
along, leaving no dry path. I therefore accepted their 
offer of a part of their hut. It was a miserably-built 
affair, and let in plenty of rain ; but I covered myself 
with two or three thick blankets, and they kept me 
warm, although wet through before morning. 

The three men were exceedingly rough-looking -fel- 
lows ; and were engaged, they told me, to go to Port 
Nicholson and drive back the cattle belonging to the 
Polynesian Company, to the land purchased by them 
at this place. I afterwards heard that I had passed 
the night with three of the most dangerous characters 
on the coast, all supposed to be escaped convicts from 
New South Wales. They were the positive refuse of 
the whaling-stations. They treated me, however, with 
kindness and hospitality in their rough way. 

At daylight a sawyer's boat, attached to the whal- 
ing-station, came into a creek close to the hut ; and I 
made a bargain with him to convey me to Parramatta, 
as the whaling-station had been named, after a town 
in the environs of Sydney in New South Wales. My 
native attendants had been but scantily supplied with 
food, and started off along shore to a settlement near 
the mouth of the harbour where they had some friends. 
As I proceeded in the boat, I saw them wading along 
under the branches of the trees, often immersed up to 
their waists in the high tide 

After a pull of about three miles, we arrived at 
Parramatta. It is situated on a low point of clear 


land, on the north side of a narrow gut l)y which the 
waters of Porirua harbour communicate with a deep 
bay, opening into the sea nearly opposite the island of 
Mana. The harbour consists of two arms ; along one 
of which I had come in the boat this morning, while 
the other, of nearly equal extent, runs in to the north- 
east. The gut which I have mentioned is not more than 
two hundred yards wide at high water, and both the 
ebb and the flood run through it with great rapidity. 

Jim Cootes, one of the three ruffians in whose 
company I had passed the night, very hospitably took 
me to a comfortable hovel near the whaling-station 
in which he lived ; for neither Toms nor any one 
whom I knew were at his house at the station, this 
being out of the busy season. Two or three houses, 
such as we had seen at Te-awa-ifi, and a filthy pigsty- 
like pa, were situated close to the sheers under which 
the whales are cut up. It appeared that the Polyne- 
sian Company, which I have before mentioned, had 
bought some land here from some former White pur- 
chaser, and had sent a surveyor to inspect it : but the 
natives had treated him roughly, and made him put 
up his theodolite and carry it away to Kapiti. 

I had not been long at Parramatta, when one of 
my boys, a free native from Pari-pari, or " Cliflf- 
" cliff," a settlement between this and Kapiti, came 
over in a canoe to tell me that the slaves refused to go 
any further. They were anxious to return and finish 
a house which they had commenced for the ^^''hite 
people at Port Nicholson, and fearful lest some other 
natives should complete the house and carry off the 
payment for the whole work. I therefore got into the 
canoe with him, and proceeded through the gut to a 
village called TVaikawa, or " Bitter Water," close to 
the southern head of the outer bay of Porirua, where 
I found them assembled in a house building for a 


Mr. Berners. This was the agent whom we had 
found engaged in a dispute about Mana when we were 
there before. It appeared that he had agreed to 
evacuate the island as soon as this house should be 
completed for him by his own natives. 

I was pleasantly surprised to find my old friend 
Nayti among the crowd, who greeted me on my 
arrival. It will be remembered that he had left us 
at Kapiti about four months before, to come to his 
native village, which is close to this. He was much 
ashamed of the wretched state in which I found him. 
He was wrapped in a blanket and mat, and as dirty as 
any of his fellow-countrymen around. He tried to 
excuse himself for not wearing English clothes, by 
stating that he had been too ill ; but a White man at 
Parramatta had assured me only an hour before that 
Nayti had given away everything he possessed. This 
was a sad result of all the pains that had been taken 
to civilize and educate him. 

When the Association was first formed, in 1837, my 
father, hearing that two New Zealanders had arrived 
in a French whaler at Havre, sent over Captain W. 
C. Symonds and another friend to fetch them to 
London. I remember their arrival at the rooms of 
the Association in the Adelphi. One was Nayti ; the 
other was named Jackey, and was a native of the 
country near OtaJco in the Middle Island. They had 
both worked as common seamen on board the French 
whaler, and were delighted at the prospect held out to 
them of a comfortable shelter. As I took them in a 
hackney-coach to my father's house in Chelsea, I 
pointed out the shops, the crowd of passengers, and 
the public buildings which we passed. They gazed 
for some minutes in mute astonishment on the bewil- 
dering sight, and then, by an apparently unanimous 
impulse, covered their faces with their hands, and 


leant back in the coach, as though they could not 
conceive, and refused to be forced to see, any more of 
such perplexing things. In this attitude they steadily 
remained until we arrived at home. 

Jackey, who shortly afterwards took up his abode 
in the family of Dr. Evans, died of a consumption, of 
which he had already acquired the seeds, and was 
buried in Brompton churchyard. 

Nayti remained, till our departure in the Tory, an 
inmate of my father's house, and advanced rapidly in 
the outward appearance of civilization. He soon made 
numerous acquaintances, even among the highest class; 
and acquired a great knowledge of polite manners and 
a great fondness for London life. During the two 
years which he spent in London, he was most kindly 
treated by his Royal Highness the late Duke of 
Sussex, who frequently invited him to his assem- 
blies. He used to ride in Hyde-Park, skate on the 
Serpentine, and walk about London to pay visits by 
himself ; was a regular attendant at churchy and a 
great favourite among all his friends. When he left 
England in the Tory, he was loaded with presents 
of all kinds ; among others, with a handsome medal 
bearing the portrait of her Majesty, presented to him 
by the Duke of Sussex. 

I have formerly mentioned that the great respect 
paid in London to his supposed rank of "Chief" or 
** Prince," had at length induced him to acquiesce in 
the exaggeration, and that we were only undeceived 
in this respect on our arrival in New Zealand. His 
fellow-countrymen of all ranks had so ridiculed this 
somewhat innocent assumption on his part, that he 
was too glad to bribe their good-will by means of 
his valuable property. Indeed, among the natives 
it is very unusual to refuse a request, for the gift 
of anything; only such a request is generally pre- 


vented by a natural modesty among themselves. 
Nayti's fellow-villagers, however, and the chiefs of 
the Kawia tribe, were all so much accustomed to brag 
and bully on board the ships, and anywhere else where 
they thought such conduct would be of any profit, 
that they had long lost this dignified habit of shame. 

Rauperaha and RangiJiaeata, and their com- 
panions, had "bounced" him, as the whalers called 
it, out of the best of his possessions ; and the inferior 
neighbours had not been slow to follow the example, 
as soon as the great vultures had been satisfied. He 
was thus divested of everything he had once owned. 
I urged him strongly to return to Port Nicholson, 
where Colonel Wakefield was daily expecting him, in 
order to install him as interpreter to the Company at a 
salary of 50/. per annum, and to receive him, moreover, 
as a welcome guest in his house. I told him that Dr, 
Evans and many of his other old friends were arrived ; 
and he at length promised to go.* 

I paid the repudiating boys some pipes and tobacco,, 
and sent them back with many reproaches for breaking; 
their agreement. 

The free man, however, resolved to go on with me. 
He was a strong, tall, and good-humoured young man,^ 
and seemed to take a fancy to the journey. He was 
named Puke Totara, or " Totara hill." The Mara 
is one of the finest trees of the forest ; and is the prin- 
cipal wood used by the natives, whether for canoes, 
houses, or fencing. Another who stuck to his bargain 
was the same attentive slave who had accompanied 
E Kuru Kanga in the Tory from Kapiti to J^a~ 
nganui. He was of the Ngatikahuhunu tribe ; but had 
been taken captive by E Kurus father during some 

* Nayti paid Colonel Wakefield one or two visits at Wellington, 
but preferred living at his own village in the native fashion. He 
died there, of consumption, in 1842. 


of the wars in the interior. His name was Konatu, 
or " Stand there ! " I procured one or two more boys 
at TVaikawa, and, by increasing the weight of the 
loads, managed to distribute all my cargo among the 
diminished number. 

It was only on the next day, about noon, that the 
weather would allow us to cross the bay, as a strong 
southerly gale caused a rippling sea in the entrance, 
which is nearly a mile wide. About the middle lies a 
reef of rocks ; and vessels- enter between this and the 
south head, over a bar which bears fifteen feet at high 
water spring-tides, the fall of tide being from six to 
seven feet. 

We now ascended a wooded ridge, through forests of 
much smaller timber and less impeded by kareau than 
that between Pitone and Porinia. Four or five miles of 
easy travelling brought us on to an extensive and some- 
what tabular amphitheatre, cleared to the extent of 
two or three hundred acres for native potato-gardens ; 
and whence we looked, through the naked trunks of 
the trees left standing in the clearing, upon the island 
of Kapiii, and a long reach of the sandy beach and 
level country opposite. Penetrating through the gar- 
dens to the edge of a steep declivity overlooking the 
beach of a semicircular bay, we saw, on a spur of the 
table-land separated by two deep gullies through which 
streams run to the sea, a native pa or fort. This, my 
guides told me, was Pukerua, or *' Two hills," the 
usual residence of "the Wild Fellow," whose noisy 
acquaintance we had made at Kapiti. From the 
depressed end of this spur the cliffy edge of the am- 
phitheatre rises on either hand to a great height. To 
the north, especially, the coast for four or five miles is 
backed by an almost perpendicular wall 300 feet in 
height, but completely covered with stunted verdure. 

In crossing the gully to arrive at the pa, we were 


met and welcomed by a madman, the first I had seen 
among the natives. He was fantastically dressed in a 
mixture of European and native clothing, and jabbered 
away on all subjects with great speed, to the unbounded 
amusement of the monkey-like children, who flocked 
around the pakeha ho, or " new White man." The 
madman was quite harmless, and led me very politely 
to the hut assigned for my residence. 

I found that "the Wild Fellow" was absent at 
Kapiti ; but the few natives in the pa prepared to 
make me comfortable, and the women soon produced 
an ample meal of vegetables and birds for myself and 
my train. The madman, E TVitu fastened himself to 
one of the posts of the house with an iron hoop, and 
amused the natives by extravagant orations till a late 

In the morning, having given some tobacco to the 
owner of the hut, and to the women who cooked the 
food, I proceeded along the foot of the verdant wall of 
which I have spoken. The beach was shingly and 
studded with rocks. I picked up several pieces of sponge 
on my way. At one spot we passed through a natural 
arch in a spur of rock which jutted into the sea. I 
had to get on to E Pukes shoulders ; and he seized 
a favourable time to run through the passage, as the 
surf occasionally rolled breast-high into it. A little 
further on, some neat plantations of the kumera, or 
sweet potato, betrayed the neighbourhood of a settle- 
ment. They extended about thirty yards up the face 
of the hill, in terraces formed by logs of wood laid 
horizontally, and supported by large pegs. The ter- 
races were covered with sand from off the beach, which 
the natives assured me was the best soil for the growth 
of the kumera. In storms, these plantations must be 
covered with salt spray, and swept by the north-west 

VOL. I. Q 


wind ; but on this day a hot sun shone upon the bank, 
and I was told that such a position was esteemed highly 

We soon reached Pari pari, E Puke's residence ; and 
he insisted on my remaining there till the next morn- 
ing. The village is situated on a terrace of the hill, 
about fifty feet above the beach, and very neatly built. 
Below, two or three canoes were hauled up under 
some karaka trees, which formed a pleasant grove in 
a sort of recess from the beach. The old men of the 
pa were sitting beneath their shade, enjoying their 
pipes. They greeted me very cordially, and held out 
their hands to be shaken, having lately become miha- 
nere. Puke explained to me that they were all of the 
JVgatiawa tribe. Arrived at the house assigned for 
my sleeping-place, one of the numerous children who 
had eagerly followed me presented me with a water- 
melon, which the heat of the day made me enjoy very 
much. I gave him a fish-hook in return, which the 
rest of the audience no sooner saw, than a large pro- 
portion of them started for more melons, and before 
the evening I was abundantly supplied. The natives 
were rather annoying by their eagerness in crowding 
round me, especially when eating a melon, as they 
would scramble across me for each single seed. I at 
last declared that 1 would throw all the seeds away 
if they did not all sit at a convenient distance ; but 
that if they did I would take care of the seeds, and 
return them to the person who had sold me the melon. 
There were about one hundred natives at this village, 
men, women, and children : at Pukerua 1 had only 
seen about twenty, but some others were said to be 
absent at Kapiti with their chief. 

About half-a-mile beyond Pari pari the hills recede 
from the coast, and the rocky shore is replaced by a 

Chap. VIII. WATKANAE. 227 

shoal sandy beach backed by sand -hummocks. Along 
this we travelled the next day about eight miles to 
Waikanae. The day was again extremely hot, with 
scarcely a breath of wind stirring ; and I repeatedly 
stopped to sit down and eat a water-melon. We crossed 
several small streams, at the mouth of which were for- 
tified villages. These were Wainui, or "large river;" 
fJ^areroa, or " long house ;" and TVare Maukii, or 
" Maukus house." At each of these I was pressed by 
some of the inhabitants to "haere kiiita," or "go inland," 
meaning me to accept of their hospitality ; but I had 
determined to get to Pf^aikanae, and so refused them 
all. I learned that all these villages were inhabited 
by Ngatiawa ; except PPainui, which was the residence 
of T(9 Hurumutu, or " the Cut-hair," one of the Katvia 
chiefs, who had been a party to the sale at Kapiti, and 
more commonly known there by the name of Tommy. 
At TVaikanae I was recognised by many of my old 
acquaintances. Some had met me in Queen Char- 
lotte's Sound ; some in Port Nicholson ; and some 
showed their healed wounds, and reminded me of my 
visit to them with the surgeons. My name was well 
known, and shouts of *' TirawekCy Tiraweke ! " passed 
along the avenues and court-yards. They told me 
that a White missionary was now living here. I could 
not well make out his name from their pronunciation, 
but concluded, from their calling him a relation of 
Te Wiremu, or Mr. Williams, that that gentleman 
had left him here when he was following us about Cook's 
Strait in November. They told me nothing about 
his character, but complained that they could not get 
as many books from him as they wished. After a short 
rest, I proceeded to Ara pawa iti, or " Small canoe- 
channel," the village of the Wanganm people. Passing 
through the large village, and crossing a high sand-hill 

Q 2 


at the back, we came to the banks of the JVaikanae 
river, here narrow and deep. A numerous fleet of 
canoes of all sizes was moored inside. We followed 
the stream for 200 yards, and then diverged across 
some fertile potato-grounds on a sandy flat, in the 
midst of which an oblong stockade surrounds the 
dozen houses of which the village is composed. We 
here found only two or three female slaves, the old 
chief not being yet arrived with his canoe. 

I amused myself by pursuing a bird called the pukeko 
about the neighbouring country. The sand-hills were 
all covered with cultivation, and these birds creep 
out of the intervening swamps to feed on the potatoes. 
^\iQ pukeko is of a dark blue colour, and about as large 
as a pheasant. The legs, the bill, and a horny conti- 
nuation of it over the front of the head, are of a bright 
crimson colour. Its long legs adapt it for its swampy 
life ; its flight is slow and heavy, resembling that of a 
bittern. I succeeded in killing two or three ; and al- 
though my boys told me that it was kai kinoy or " bad 
** food," I found one of them a very good addition to 
my meal of boiled potatoes. In the course of my rambles 
I came across two strong-looking nags, which the na- 
tives told me were the missionary's property. 

In the native villages there are always two kinds of 
houses. The ware puni, or " house of rest," I have 
already de-cribed at the village near Ship Cove. I 
had since seen many much larger and more commo- 
dious than those at that place. They are all, however, 
built on the same principle, of keeping in the animal 
heat ; and are therefore most repulsive to a European. 
Some of them have their front wall removed back 
three feet from the front of the roof. In this case a 
nice airy veranda is formed, which makes a very good 
sleeping-place. The ware umu, or " oven-houses," 


have open walls, built of upright sticks at intervals of 
an inch or two. They have thatched roofs to protect 
the cooks and the store of firewood, which is gene- 
rally piled up inside in rainy weather. The open walls 
let out the smoke and let in the air, and these kitchens 
are therefore much more adapted than the others for 
the bedroom of a traveller. At this time, too, the na- 
tives, although most of them professing Christianity, 
had by no means divested themselves of many of their 
ancient superstitions ; one of which was a positive in- 
terdiction against the very presence of food or drink in 
a ware puni. To light a pipe from the fire inside was 
considered equally sacrilegious. In order to avoid the 
inconvenience of these restrictions, and yet refrain 
from offending against any of the customs which I 
found still revered by my kind hosts, I therefore found 
it much better to take up my abode in a ware umu or 
vmre kauta, both which names apply to the kitchens. 
Here I had only to avoid one thing, namely, the 
hanging food overhead ; for this also is a terror, and 
if done intentionally, a grievous offence to the Maori 

I had hardly got to sleep, when I was awakened by 
the dogs barking, and a sudden rushing of garments. 
Puke came in from the adjoining ware, where the 
boys and the slave girls had been sleeping, and told 
me that they had been alarmed by hearing people 
prowling about in the neighbouring potato-gardens. 
He whispered that it was probably the Ngatiraukawa 
come on another midnight attack ; and begged the 
loan of my guns and ammunition, in order that he and 
the other boys might reconnoitre. The girls had run 
off to the main village on the first alarm. I imme- 
diately acceded, for their sakes, although I felt sure 
that I should not be injured, even if the report were 


true. Several young men soon arrived with their 
arms from Ti^aikanae, and a regular examination of 
the banks of the river and neighbourhood was made. 
The barking and growling of the dogs, the whispering 
and rustling of the prowling sentries among the po- 
tato-plants, and the anxious face of Fuke, lighted up 
by the flickering of the embers, as he frequently came 
in to report that all was well, kept me between waking 
and sleeping till daylight ; when all the fears seemed 
to vanish, and it was soon discovered that the alarm 
had been caused by some kiiki^ or slaves from Pf^ai- 
kanae, stealing in the gardens. 

Old jK Rangi not having arrived from the south, 
I got a canoe manned, and went over to Kapiti. The 
mouth of the ff^aikanae is choked up with sand-banks, 
but at high-water a whale-boat can enter and ascend 
the river about six miles. The hills are about seven 
miles from the beach here ; and the ta tika, or " flat 
" tract," seems to improve as it recedes from the sea. 
Groves of high timber extend outwards about two 
miles from the foot of the hills. 

Kapiti is about four miles from Waikanae. I took 
up my residence on Hiko^ Island, and saw several of 
the chiefs who had been parties to the sale. They 
had all become converts since I was here before, and 
on the 22nd I heard prayers read and a sermon 
preached by a native teacher. Rmiperaha was absent 
at Otaki. The island on which he lives had been 
bought by an American captain named Mayhew, who 
was residing at the Bay of Islands, but had a store 
here for the supply of the whaling-stations, and a 
clerk to manage it. I heard much about the prospects 
of the approaching whaling season. There were to 
be upwards of twenty boats fitted out at the different 
stations at Kapiti this year, though all were now 


dull and almost deserted ; some of the people being at 
Sydney, some at various places about the Strait. I 
was much struck by the gratitude of some of the 
young natives here, to whom I gave some Maori 
hymn and prayer books. They had been complaining 
that they had to pay pigs or potatoes in order to get 
any from the White missionary at W^aikanae ; and I 
had fortunately got a few among my baggage, which 
Mr. Bumby had been kind enough to give me at Ho- 
kianga. Immediately upon their distribution, these 
youths seized my hand and placed it on their heads. 
Though I could not precisely understand the meaning 
of this ceremony, their faces expressed thanks too sin- 
cerely to be mistaken. I could have wished to have 
been more amply supplied with these publications ; 
but, unfortunately, the hostility of the Missionary 
Societies in London had been carried to such an 
extent as to refuse either sale or gift of a single copy 
of any of their publications in the Maori language, or 
Grammars and Vocabularies, to a person sent by the 
Company to request a supply for our expedition. I 
rejoiced to think that a printing-press, which had been 
brought out in the Adelaide by Mr. Samuel Kevans, 
might soon be made a means of gaining the friendship 
of our book-loving friends. 

On the 23rd, Konatu and two or three other boys 
came over in a canoe to tell me that Mangi had 
arrived. I therefore bade adieu to my friends at 
Kapitiy and returned to TVmkanae. It was too late, 
however, to proceed to TVanganui ; so I went out 
shooting again, after paying my respects to Rangi, 
whose numerous retinue gave the little village a busy 

In the morning I gave him a pair of blankets and 
some other little presents in return for the loan of the 


canoe ; and we poled out of the river, some delay being 
occasioned by the necessity for steering clear of the 
numerous sand-banks. While on the beach waiting 
for the rest of my party, E JV'iti, one of the prin- 
cipal parties to the sale in East Bay, Queen Charlotte's 
Sound, addressed me. He reproached me strongly with 
having bought Taranaki ; which, he said, belonged 
to him and the other Ngatiawa at this village. I told 
him that they ought not to have run from it ; and that 
we had paid the people who had maintained possession 
through great troubles and danger. He grew gradu- 
ally calm on this subject, and ended by asking me when 
White people would go to live at Queen Charlotte's 
Sound, and by entrusting me with a letter directed to 
Huri Patene, a missionary chief, as he assured me, 
at Otumatua, a village on the coast between l^Vaiiganui 
and Taranaki. I had with me several letters from 
natives at Port Nicholson to their friends at Taranaki ; 
among others, one containing a shark's tooth as a 
present from Tuarau to one of his friends at Ngamotu. 
These teeth are held in great estimation for ear-orna- 
ments. The root of the tooth is covered with red 
sealing wax, and a piece of black tape passed through a 
hole in order to suspend it, so that the pointed end 
hangs on the cheek. 

We at length hoisted our sail before a fresh 
southerly breeze, amidst the discharge of muskets and 
shouts of haere I " go ! " about an hour before noon. 
Our vessel was a strongly-built canoe, with niore beam 
than they generally have, and an extra top-side plank 
to keep out the sea. E Ao, or " the air," a son of 
E Rangi, and half-brother of Kuru Kanga, was in 
command of the craft. Besides him, six young men, 
among whom was Puke, worked their paddles; and 
Konatu steered with a paddle, whilst another man 

Chap. VIII. ^^i?^^^-NUTS. 288 

yawed the canoe about with a clumsy imitation of the 
steer-oar used in whale-boats. E Ao^ wife and child, 
with two slave women, and two wretched-looking curs, 
completed our muster-roll. Cold cooked potatoes and 
fish were stowed in the bottom of the canoe, with large 
baskets of the kernel of the karaka berry. 

The karaka-tree much resembles the laurel in its 
growth and foliage. It bears bright orange -coloured 
berries about the size and shape of damsons, growing 
in bunches. The fruit is sickly and dry; but the 
kernel forms an important article of native food. It 
is enclosed in a tough stringy husk. The natives 
gather the berries when ripe ; and after separating the 
pulp of the fruit from the kernel by steaming them in 
large umu, or ovens, they collect the kernels in baskets 
and soak them in a pool, dammed up in a running 
stream. They are allowed to remain in soak until 
they ferment, when they are fit for use. As they 
require no cooking, the natives use them extensively in 
travelling. A cockle-shell is used to break the husk. 
Their odour is so offensive that I could never prevail 
on myself to eat them ; but I have known many En- 
glishmen who had acquired a taste for them, and 
described them as very good food. 

In the large canoes, a wattled floor, made oikareau^ 
is raised level with the junction of the body of the 
canoe and the topsides ; and on this the passengers sit. 
A square hole amidships is left for the use of the ^a, 
or baling-spoon. This is rather a graceful implement, 
being often handsomely carved. It somewhat resem- 
bles the small shovel used to take coals out of a scuttle, 
with the handle turned forward over its upper side. 
We were provided with a duck sail, which most of the 
canoes now possessed, the owners having bought them 
of the whalers in exchange for provisions'. The 


former native sail was made of a fine grass, woven into 
very pretty patterns, with graceful open work in 
various parts. 

Our helmsman was so inexpert in managing his 
steer-oar while running before a freshening breeze, 
which sent up a short chopping swell as we advanced 
from under the shelter of Kapiti, that he yawed us 
about till we shipped a sea, and it was determined to 
reef the sail. As this happened oflf Otaki, where 
their enemies the IVgatiraukawa reside in large numbers, 
the natives got much confused and alarmed, and cle- 
verly managed to break the lug-yard. It was at 
length fished, and we proceeded more steadily. 

The boys pointed out to me the mouth of a river 
called Okau, about fifteen miles from TVaikanae. As 
we ran along about two miles from the shore, I saw a 
remarkable grove of high pine-trees rising from behind 
the sand-hummocks. This was an hour before sun- 
down ; and they told me that it was near the mouth of 
a river called the Manawatu, or " Hold-breath," which 
flows into the sea about twenty-five miles from Ka- 
piti. The hills between this and Otaki turn in to 
the eastward, so that the country begins to form a 
plain of great breadth. 

At sunset the wind died away, and the boys paddled 
hard to reach another river called Rangitikei ; but we 
found a heavy surf at its entrance, and although the 
moon shone bright, and fires were made by the natives 
on shore, it was reckoned prudent to defer the land- 
ing till daylight. When we had made an offing of 
about a mile, the crew repeated a short prayer, and 
then composed themselves to sleep, except those who 
alternately watched against a change in the weather 
or the drifting of the canoe towards the shore. When 
I woke -once or twice during the night, the canoe was 


lifting over the long swell, the moon and stars shining 
bright and clear, and a heavy dew falling on the 
sleepers coiled in their blankets, and the only sound 
to disturb the calm of the scene was the distant roar 
of the surf. At the break of day I found the natives 
engaged in a lively discussion ; unable, from the 
monotonous appearance of the low sand-hummocks 
which form the coast, to determine our exact locality. 
After some vain pulling about, first north, then south, 
they at length made up their minds that TVanganui 
lay about twelve miles north of us, and pulled in that 

A very heavy surf hid the coast from us every now 
and then ; and when they discovered signs of an im- 
mediate gale from the south-east, my crew held a long 
consultation. My advice was asked as to whether we 
should at once land through the surf, or run the 
chance of being caught by the gale in order to seek 
smoother water at the entrance of the JVanganui. I 
left it entirely to them, and they soon afterwards 
turned the head of the canoe towards the shore. 
Before entering the surf, they made all preparations 
for an accident. They shook off their mats and 
blankets, and made me strip to my shirt and trowsers. 
The guns and other heavy articles were lashed to the 
thwarts of the canoe. I was placed in the bow, be- 
tween two strong fellows, who were enjoined to have 
a particular regard for my safety. 

All hands now took to the paddles; two at the 
bow and two at the stern assisting the manager of 
the steer-oar to keep her square before the sea. 

A " smooth" or favourable moment was seized, and 
we dashed along on the top of a foaming roller, with 
our liveliest stroke and a cheering song. Tena! tena! 
or " hurrah ! hurrah ! " shouted the steersman. Kia 


tika ! or ** keep her straight ! " yelled the others ; 
and the roller broke on either side of us, and roared 
along towards the shore. As the surf extended nearly 
half-a-mile from the beach, this was repeated several 
times ; and the operation of landing was very well 
performed, excepting the conflicting advice which was 
given by all hands at once in the shrillest tones every 
time a roller passed. The moment we touched the 
sand, my two supporters lifted me up with a jerk, and 
pitched me high and dry on to the beach. Before I 
had time to recover myself, they had all jumped out 
into the water, and hauled the canoe out of reach of 
the next wave. 

We encamped on the barren sand-hills at the back 
of the beach, and proceeded to dry our clothes, which 
had all been well drenched. I was sorry to find that 
one of my only pair of boots had been lost during the 
landing. Ten minutes after we were in safety, the 
predictions of the weather-wise among the natives were 
verified, and a fresh gale came up in a puff from the south. 
It was accompanied, however, by fine, clear weather; 
and thus proved rather agreeable than otherwise. 

One of the lads was at once despatched to IVanga- 
nui to give news of our arrival, and to bring back 
E Kuru Kanga to meet me. In the meanwhile I 
walked along the sand-hills to the south, to a small 
river called the PVangaihu, or " Nose opening." At 
its mouth it was not more than twenty yards broad, 
but seemed deep and rapid : inside, it expanded to the 
width of a quarter of a mile. I picked up, on its banks, 
lumps of scoriae and pieces of stone containing petri- 
fied shells, of the same kinds, however, as those now 
existing. Quantities of pumice-stone also spoke of 
the volcano of Tonga Riro, from which the natives 
told me that this river, as well as the Wanuanui and 


the TVaikatOy take their source. All the coasts of 
Cook's Strait, indeed, are sprinkled with the pumice 
which constantly floats down the two first of these 

in the evening, E Kuru and about a dozen of his 
attendants arrived, with some slaves bearing potatoes 
and karaka-nut^ for our party. I had been much at- 
tracted by the engaging disposition and manners of 
this young chief during the few days which he spent 
on board the Tory ; and was delighted to renew our 
acquaintance. He also appeared much pleased, and 
greeted me most cordially. 

The drift-wood, which abounded on the beach, 
served to maintain large fires, in the ashes of which 
the potatoes were roasted ; and it also formed a shelter 
from the wind, no despicable precaution against the 
fine sand which otherwise penetrates everything. 
Two small court-yards were formed by placing logs 
upright close to each other ; one for our party and 
one for our visitors. At dusk, prayers were said, all 
having become mihanere ; and then we lay down in- 
side our fences. The wind died away with the setting 
sun, and the same clear moon and stars and heavy dew 
presided over the night. 

In the morning, the sun rose cheerfully into a sky of 
pure blue ; and the surf being much abated, the young 
men launched the canoe and proceeded towards the 
mouth of the river. I preferred walking with E Kuru 
along the beach. I was of course bare-footed, all at- 
tempts at finding my unfortunate boot having proved 
ineffectual. The survivor was borne as a melancholy 
memento by one of my attendants, who took great pride 
in explaining its details and the fate of its companion 
to the wondering strangers. At one or two spots we 
got a glimpse l)etween the sand-hummocks of the snowy 


summit of Tonga Riro, a broad-topped mountain. Al- 
though at least seventy miles distant, it was perfectly 
clear and distinct. 

After walking about eight miles along the beach, 
we struck off across the hummocks, and two miles more 
brought us to an elevation whence I discovered the 
first reach of the fJ^anganui river. We were close to 
its south bank, and the entrance appeared about two 
miles to the westward, leaving but a narrow tongue of 
sand between this reach and the sea. I at once recog^ 
nized the low cliffs of sand on the north head, and per- 
ceived the snowy cone of Mount Egmont over the 
tapering point of land to the west. A large extent of 
flat open country stretched away to the north-west on 
the opposite side of the river, here a])out half a mile in 
width. Descending to the beach of the river, we 
soon reached an encampment at the foot of a high cliff, 
which formed a bluff point on the south bank. A tent 
had been made purposely for me of the mast, yard, 
and sail of a canoe ; and food, cooks, and steaming- 
ovens met the eye on every side. E Kuru gracefully 
waved me to the tent, and invited me to rest. He 
prevented the inquisitive crowd Irom entering its door, 
and sat outside himself until I asked him to come in. 
It was lined with clean mats, so as to form a comfort- 
able covered couch. 

Several large canoes arrived in the course of the 
day from the villages higher up ; and there were soon 
about a hundred persons assembled near the tent. 
Many of the chiefs made formal speeches, to the effect 
that I was welcome to the place. They afterwards 
approached the tent, and E Kuru told me their different 
names and relationship to himself. Immediately on 
my arrival, he had killed a pig for me ; at that time an 
invariable custom of native politeness towards a guest. 


During the speeches, he took particular pains to ex- 
plain to me whatever expressions I had not understood, 
and to impress me with a knowledge of the character 
and influence of each speaker. His attention, gene- 
rally, was most pleasing, and perfectly dignified and 
free from obtrusiveness. 

The cliff I found was called W^ahtpuna, or " place of 
" the spring," from a small rill which gurgled from 
half-way up its side. As the water of the river is 
almost always brackish here, this becomes a great place 
for the encampment of passing visitors. 

About noon, E Kuru took me in a canoe to the 
principal village on this part of the river, on the same 
side as our camp, and about a mile above it. The 
high land, of which the cliff forms one extremity, 
recedes from the river near the mouth of a small 
tributary, and another low range of table-land closes 
in upon the river about a mile above this. On the 
river bank, in the midst of the level between the two 
ridges, the pa named Putikiwaranui was situate. On 
landing, I found about thirty large canoes ranged along 
the shore, and 300 or 400 people assembled to receive 
me. Among these was an uncle of Tuarau, who had 
taken a principal part in the sale of the Taranaki 
district, and who was on his way to TVaikanae with 
a numerous following. He greeted me with much 
pleasure. This was the chief whose nickname of 
" Wide-awake" had been transferred by the natives to 
Colonel Wakefield. E Kuru introduced me in due 
form to the three principal chiefs of the JVanganui 
tribes. Each of them sat in his own court-yard, sur- 
rounded by his own immediate followers. The first 
was Turoa, or " High-stand," an old chieftain of the 
tribes which had migrated hither from Lake Taupo. 
He was cased in a thick coat of red paint, made of 


ochre and shark's oil, which covered his very hair and 
clothes. He motioned me to a clean mat spread by his 
side, and spoke a few words of welcome with much 
dignity of manner. He said the land was for me ; 
that his child, E Kuru, had told them all to sell it to 
" Wide-awake," and that, as I was come, it was there 
for me. Like speeches were made to me by Rangi 
Tauwira, or " Sky marked with lightning," a very 
venerable grey-haired chief, l)ent nearly double with 
years, and uncle to E Kuru ; and by Te Ana-ua^ or 
" the Rainy Cave," the head chief of the Ngatiruaka, 
or aboriginal tribes, whose sister was Turoa^s principal 

Te Ana-ua handed me a strip of paper from a cloth 
in which it had been carefully wrapped. On perusing 
it, I found it to bear the following written statement : 

* Wanganui, December 17th, 1839. — This is to give 

* notice, that this part of New Zealand has been pur- 
' chased of the native chiefs residing here for the 

* benefit of the Ngatiawa tribes, extending from Ra- 
' ngitikei to Patea, towards Taranaku by Henry Wil- 
' liams." I translated this to the large concourse of 

natives who were assembled on the spot, and asked 
them if it was true. They assured me most fully and 
unanimously, that neither had any such agreement 
been mentioned to them, nor had a single fish-hook or 
piece of tobacco been paid to any one, except to the 
boys who carried Mr. Williams's things, or to those 
natives who became converts to the Christian religion. 
I then asked Te Ana-ua whether he had been aware 
of the contents of the paper. He answered that he 
had not ; but that he thought it was a certificate of 
.good character and hospitality left with him by the 
missionary, in order that future travellers might not 
hesitate to place themselves under his protection. I 



could scarcely believe for some time that such a decepr 
tion could have been made use of by Mr. Williams, in 
order to prevent our completion of a bargain which 
we had commenced at Kapiti a month before his 
arrival. I could not see a single excuse for the action. 
It was by no means calculated to give these ignorant na- 
tives a high opinion of the character of the White man 
for honest and straightforward conduct ; as they were 
kept uninformed' of its motive, either real or apparent. 
Even the alleged motive would have been an unjust 
one, the Ngatiawa tribes having no claim whatever to 
the tract of land in question, and having been but few 
years before at open war with the actual occupants, 
during the great migration from Taranaki. I did not 
hesitate to write on the back of the notice that it was 
an " arrant falsehood," together with the information 
which, gathered from the natives on the spot, had led 
me to form this opinion. I then returned it to Te 
Arna-ua^ convinced that he would hand it to Mr. Wil- 
liams on his next visit. 

I answered the speeches of the chiefs by telling them 
that I was not come to buy their land, but to look at 
the j)eople and the country ; and that they must apply 
to " Wide-awake" for the completion of the purchase, 
as I intended to travel about the country for a month 
or two. I presented each of the three head chiefs 
with a red blanket, and distributed fish-hooks and 
tobacco among the inferior crowd. I also bought with 
some more of the same articles a large store of paicoy 
or native fish-hooks. I have already described these 
hooks, which are used for the kawai fishery, and take 
their name from the halioim-^heW, with pieces of 
which they are lined. I had a long conversation with 
Turoa and some other chiefs after the ceremonial 
visits were over. This old chief described, in a pithy 

VOL. I. R 


way, the effect produced on the natives of this place by 
Mr. Williams's visit in December. It appeared that, 
after missing us in Cook's Strait, that gentleman had 
landed at JVmkanae with Mr. Hadfield, the missionary 
whom 1 had heard of there, and had travelled on foot 
nearly as far as Ngamotu at Taranaki, and then 
returned, leaving his companion at TVaikanae. On 
my asking Turoa what sort of a man Williams was, 
and how he behaved to the natives, the old man 
answered, " He is a tangata riri, or * angry man,' who 
" shuts his tent-door upon us, and does not sit by our 
*• sides and talk kindly to us, as you do : but he has 
" the Atua (God) upon his lips, and we are afraid of 
" his anger." At dusk I returned to Wahi puna, and 
slept in my tent. 

At daybreak next morning a whole fleet of canoes 
went out to sea to fish. Together with Wide-awake's 
party, there were at least fifty sail. At the flood, which 
was in the afternoon, they all entered the river, and pro- 
ceeded to fish for the kawai, large shoals of which had 
come in with the tide. As this fishery is always con- 
ducted at full speed, the sea-reach, about three miles 
long, presented a most lively scene. A light breeze fa- 
voured the sailing one way ; so that half of the canoes 
were under sail, and the others pulling in the opposite 
direction. They continued thus to alternate for two 
or three hours, singing as they paddled, and yelling 
with delight whenever an unusually large fish was 
hauled in. I passed through the centre of this fishing 
fleet, on my way to a village on the opposite side, 
about half a mile above Putikiwaranui. I found here 
about two hundred men, women, and children. £J Kuru 
told me that they were from the TVahi •pari, or " Place 
" of Cliffs," a name given to the upper part of this 
river, where it runs between very high steep banks. 


He explained to me, that none of the natives lived per- 
manently near the sea-side ; but that their pas and 
cultivations were far up the river, among the moun- 
tainous country, which they consider more fertile as 
well as more secure from hostile attacks. These vil- 
lages near the sea were only used during this season, 
when the fish abound and the constant fine weather 
allows the almost daily exit of the canoes. At the 
end of the summer they return up the river with large 
stores of dried fish. I now understood why these vil- 
lages were so poorly built and badly fenced. I had 
not seen a good house in either of them ; and the 
fences, instead of being formed of high strong wooden 
uprights, as I had seen them in other pas, were made 
of reeds and grass, supported on weak sticks to the 
height of four feet ; evidently calculated for no other 
purpose than that of breaking the force of the sea- 
breezes. I now understood that these were mere tem- 
porary villages used for fishing. While I was at this 
village, talking to several of the chiefs, sunset ap- 
proached. The canoes came dashing in from the 
fishery, and a sort of harvest-home took place. Each 
crew joined in a triumphant chorus as they neared the 
village, and the old women, perched in various atti- 
tudes on the large racks erected for drying the fish, 
yelled out their discordant welcome, attended with 
much hideous grimacing. The fishermen jumped out 
of their canoes, and prepared to attack huge meals 
which had been cooked in readiness for their arrival ; 
and the women cleaned and opened the fish, and hung 
them up on the racks. I again slept in my tent. 

During the next two days, I was visited formally by 
the three head chiefs, who brought presents and made 
speeches to me. Turoa in particular was very vehe- 
ment. He told me that I had no business to go tra- 



veiling about to Mokau and other strange places, but 
that I was bound to return to Port Nicholson and get 
a vessel and goods from " Wide-awake" and pay for 
the place. He said I should be plundered by the rude 
natives to the north ; reproached me with neglecting 
these, who were resolved to be my friends ; and re- 
minded me that Williams had the intention of return- 
ing soon with a ship to buy the place, and that, 
perhaps, when the natives saw his goods, they would 
not be able to resist selling to him instead of to me. 
Pakoro, a near relation of Turoa, followed in the 
same strain. The wild energy with which he spoke 
might easily have been mistaken for anger by an in- 
experienced auditor ; and even I should probably have 
feared some violent termination to the harangue, had 
not E Kuru, constantly seated at my elbow to inter- 
pret difficult sentences and assist me in my answers, 
explained to me that " his mouth was great because 
"his heart was Avarm" Pakoro ended by flinging 
over my shoulders a very handsome kaitaka mat, which 
he had been wearing while he spoke. 

While here, I collected a considerable number of 
mats of all kinds, some of which were given to me by 
chiefs, and the others sold by inferior natives. The 
mats are generally of four kinds. The plainest and 
least valued is the porera. This is plaited very closely 
with unscraped flax, split into narrow bands, and is 
used as floor-cloth for a house or a couch. It has a 
glossy straw- like surface, and is very useful in keeping 
a bed from the damp ground. I bought some about 
seven feet square for a few heads of tobacco. 

The next in value is the korowai. It is woven of 
muka, or scrai)ed flax, and ornamented with bunches 
of twisted tags of the same, dyed black. The tags are, 
however, sometimes left white ; at other times they are 


formed of strings scraped only at regular intervals, thus 
leaving the gold-coloured straw on the spaces not 
scraped. By thus dyeing or not dyeing, scraping or not 
scraping the tags, or by alternating dyed and scraped, 
undyed and unscraped tags, on the same mat, a great 
many varieties of the kornwai are made ; but the most 
general one is that with scraped and dyed tags. These 
mats, although often worn by men, are more com- 
monly the dress of the women. 

A third sort of mat is the tiehe, or rough outside 
covering. Its outside is formed of the refuse from the 
operation of flax-scraping; but the inner surface is 
often woven very closely, and of the finest flax. The 
slaves generally wear very coarse mats of this kind, 
having no women who are allowed to bestow pains on 
mat-making for themselves and their relations. The 
tiehe, like the korowai, varies much in colour and 
quality. They are all perfectly waterproof, the leaves 
of the outside thatch overlapping each other like tiles. 

But the most valued Maori mat is the haitaka or 
parawai. This is woven of the very finest, silky, snow- 
white muka, and is unsullied by any tag or ornament 
except a border of a foot in width at the bottom, and ■ 
six inches on the two sides. This border is dyed black, 
except where sets of parallel zigzag lines, and the 
lozenge-shaped spaces between them, are left white or 
stained chesnut-colour with another dye. Lately a 
very bad taste of introducing coloured worsted, taken 
from European clothing, has spoiled the chasteness of 
their execution ; but an old parmaai, with nothing but 
Maori materials and manufacture, is certainly a very 
handsome garment, and the border is really classical in 

The two sexes have different ways of wearing the 
mat or blanket. The man wears it tied on his right 


shoulder like a Roman toga, so as to have his right 
arm free ; the woman ties it over her hreast, and holds 
the sides together with her hands. In carrying a child, 
the man dresses like a woman, as the child clings round 
the neck of the person who carries him, and is sustained 
by the blanket, grasped tight round both their bodies. 

There were very few blankets among the Jf^anganui 
natives. Indeed, they had begged me very naively to 
see " how many things of the pakeha they had among 
" them," when I read to them Mr. Williams's manu- 
script imsc. 

I was much pleased by the conduct of E Kuru on 
one of these days. A cringing, sneaking Ngatiawa 
native, who stated himself to be a relation of TVare- 
pori, had brought a porera for sale. Thinking it 
better than any which I had yet seen, and ignorant as 
yet of the price-current here, I modestly inquired 
whether he would take an axe for it, fully expecting 
to be indignantly refused. He immediately, however, 
jumped at the offer ; threw the mat into my tent, and 
ran away to the village as hard as he could, Avith the 
axe under his mat. This had been done in E Kurus 
absence, and under cover of the tent from the natives 
sitting in the neighbourhood. On the return of E 
Kuru about half an hour afterwards, he gave me two 
or three mats of different kinds which he had collected, 
and then, seeing the new porera, asked how much to- 
bacco I had paid for it. When I had related the 
whole transaction to him, he became very angry ; and 
without more words, took the porera, and started off 
at a run for the village, more than a mile ofiP. He was 
back, pufl&ng and blowing, in little more than half an 
hour, with my axe. " There," said he, " don't buy any 
" more mats without speaking to me : the man is a 
" thief; he would be glad to sell his mat for six heads 


" of tobacco to any of us, and counted upon my know- 
*' ing nothing of this. I have taken care, however, 
** that he should not gain for TVanganui people the 
" name of robbing you under pretence of a fair hoka 
" Q bargain')." 

On the afternoon of the 29th, I told the assembled 
chiefs that I could not accede to their request, but 
should proceed on the next day to the northward. 
They then determined that JE Kuril should accom- 
pany the Ngatiawa fleet to the south, and urge upon 
Colonel Wakefield the completion of his bargain. Hei 
Turoa, and Wide-awake, took me up to the top of 
the cliiF, from which a wide view of the country on 
the west bank was obtained, as well as of the valley 
in which Putikiwaranui is situated, of two or three 
miles of the river's course above that spot, and of 
the distant mountains of Tonga Jiiro and Taranaki. 
On the summit a carved and half-burnt post marked the 
site of an ancient j9a, whence the assembled tribes of this 
district had formerly resisted the passage of the Ngati- 
awa across the mouth of the river. The three chiefs 
begged me to carve the name of my matua, or " parent," 
as they called Colonel Wakefield, on this post ; in order 
that his name might keep the land for him, as his child 
refused to do so. They said they wanted to prove to 
Mr. Williams, should he return to buy the land, to 
whom they had really promised it. I did as they re- 
quested me ; and then passed over in a canoe, with all 
my goods, chattels, and retinue, to the opposite shore, 
where some of the boys had already pitched the tent. 
I was a good deal annoyed this night by mosquitoes ; 
the air being warm and heavy. 

In the morning I made agreements with a body of 
carriers, including one or two of those who had ac- 
companied me from Port Nicholson ; and started over 


the sand-hills to the l)each about two miles beyond the 
river's mouth. Ehina, the native who had tried to 
get too much payment for his mat, applied for an en- 
gagement in my suite; and, although I was warned 
by the significant looks of E Kuru and E Puke, who 
still remained with me, not to have anything to do 
with him, I at length gave way to his earnest entrea- 
ties, and assigned him a load. 

Wq walked for about fourteen miles along a hard 
sandy beach, at the foot of cliffs varying in height from 
one to two hundred feet, broken in two or three places 
by the gullies through which streams descend from the 
table-land on the top. The lowest stratum of these 
cliffs was generally a blue clay, studded with shells, all 
of modern sorts. After comparing it with the pieces 
of stone which I had picked up at fVangaihu, I con- 
cluded that they had been detached from this stratum 
and hardened by exposure to air or water. Half-way 
up the cliffs, I frequently observed layers of sound trees 
of large size lying in a horizontal position, and some- 
times protruding into the air where a land-slip had 
carried away some of the surrounding soil. Higher 
still, strata of lignite, which occasionally dipped down 
below the beach, were also to be distinguished. The 
natives tried to account for the trees by saying that 
that had formerly been forest-land, and that the in- 
habitants of bygone days had cleared it for potatoes. 
They were puzzled, however, to account for the super- 
incumbent hundred feet of soil ; and so, I confess, 
was I. 

Coming to a point, where the sea dashed against the 
cliff, we ascended a beaten path in one of the natural 
breaks, and got on to the top. Plains of barren sand, 
only varied by occasional hummocks and stunted shrubs> 
extended four or five miles into the interior. Groves 


of trees, however, peered over the glowing horizon, and 
spoke of fertile land in the interior. 

Five miles across this desert, by a half-beaten track, 
brought us to the top of a sand-hill, whence we got a 
delicious peep into the valley of the fFliifotara, or 
" Totara river." The valley seemed about a mile and 
a half in width, and the opposite side was clothed with 
timber. Close to the further bank of the river, which 
wound through the vale, was a sort of Acropolis, on 
which stood the village to which we were bound. 
Except on the very top, the houses were shaded by a 
luxuriant grove of karaka trees, which encircled the 
base and feathered up the sides of the fortified hill. 
The village was called Te Ihupuku, or '* the nose of 
" the belly." Descending the sand-hill, we traversed a 
fertile but somewhat swampy plain, and crossed the 
river, which is here about twelve yards wide, and runs 
between high banks. 

' I was much struck by the want of cordiality shown 
by the inhabitants. As I ascended the steep hill with 
my train, scarcely any greeting was addressed to me, 
no shouts of haeremai, so universal a welcome to the 
stranger, were to be heard; and the few inquisitive 
natives that ran out to look at the arrival, sat in silence, 
or slowly retreated to their huts. On reaching the 
summit, we found two or three natives awaiting us ; 
and I was about to ask for the chief, when Konaiu, 
whose advice I had always found it prudent to follow, 
whispered me to sit down in silence like the rest of my 
train ; and explained that there was no chief of con- 
sequence among this tribe. I had been accompanied 
by a dozen or more of the attendants of Wide- 
awake, the native chief, as the southerly wind, which 
delayed the departure of their fleet, had allowed them 
to give me their escort so far. They, too, seemed 


rather offended at their reception, but sat in silence, 
with their bhinkets or mats raised nearly up to their 
eyes. After some little consultation among the inha- 
bitants, whose number continued gradually to increase, 
and much whispering and mystery, we were shown 
into a large building used as a chapel by the natives, 
who had been all converted very recently. A large 
fire was lighted in the centre of the house, so as to 
illumine every part of it ; and while we partook of some 
food which was placed before us, the whole population 
of the village, amounting to perhaps 100 of all ages 
and sexes, walked in and took their places. A native 
teacher performed prayers as soon as our food-baskets 
were removed ; and then entered upon a long Philip- 
pic against me and mine. 

I began now to understand the unusual distrust and 
want of friendliness shown by the inhabitants of this 
village. The preacher, for he remained in the wooden 
pulpit from which he had read prayers while delivering 
his oration, spoke for an hour in the most cruel way of 
me, of Colonel Wakefield, and of the intentions of the 
White settlers who had followed us. He insisted upon 
the old story, so widely spread about to our damage, 
that we were come to buy all their land and drive 
them to the mountains ; that we were Pikapo, or Ro- 
man Catholics, and therefore sure to cut their throat-s. 
He repeatedly warned them against me in particular, as 
come to spy the fulness of their land ; and mixed all 
this up with quotations from the Scriptures, whether 
apt or not, and digressions to discuss some abstruse 
point of religious doctrine, so that he might have 
passed for an inspired priest fulminating the edicts of 
the Church against some heretic or tempter of the peo- 
ple. The discourse, too, was interlarded with words 
of mihanere manufacture, such as I have before de- 


scribed, to which his audience seemed to listen with 
great respect, as though forming part of the new 
creed ; althougK I am sure that they could not under- 
stand them, and have great doubts whether even the 
declaimer was aware of their signification. 

On inquiring from my attendants who the orator 
was, they told me he was a returned slave from the 
Bay of Islands, and had been left as teacher by Te 
TViremu, or Williams. They also told me, that the 
Ngarauru tribe, who inhabit this valley, were a tutua, 
or inferior tribe, who had no chiefs ; and that thus Te 
Aro Aro, or " the Body," as the slave teacher was 
called, ruled them as he listed. I therefore took no 
notice of his virulent attack ; but after making friends 
with some of my neighbours by desultory conversation 
on other subjects, and by playing with their children, 
made my bed, and covered myself up as though to 

This marked indifference to his eloquence soon 
stopped Aro Aro ; but some of my companions did not 
fail to take up the cudgels for me, and there ensued a 
stormy discussion, by which I was occasionally half 
waked, to see the figure of my assailant gesticulating 
from the high pulpit, his malignant features seeming 
more repulsive in the half-dreaming glances which I 
thus obtained. 

In the morning I strolled about the citadel, and 
gazed with pleasure on the fertile country around. 
The river meanders through the valley down to its 
embouchure among the sand-hills on the coast about 
four miles off. The sides of the valley, approaching 
steeply to its bank about two miles above the j9a, close 
it in from the sight in that direction. The valley 
varies in width from one to three miles, and extensive 
table-lands appear to stretch away from the top of the 


green slopes which bound the valley. These slopes are 
almost all covered with timber ; but the level ground, 
both above and below, has a truly park-like aj)pearance, 
being covered with a jungle of fern, grass, reeds, flax, 
and shrubs, intersj)ersed with groves and fringes of tim- 
ber of various kinds and sizes. 

About a hundred yards above Te Ikupukn, a strong 
and well-made fishing-weir stretched across the river, 
only two or three small passages being left for canoes. 
This, they told me, was for catching the piarau, a fine 
sort of lamprey which is taken in abundance in this 
and the neighbouring rivers during freshets. The weir 
is called hutu by the natives. They place eel-pots, 
called hinaki, which are very artistically made, at the 
lower extremity of funnels formed by series of upright 
poles driven into the bed of the river, the interstices 
being filled up with fern. 

I was much surprised to find, on the very pinnacle 
of the Acropolis, a quantity of large oyster-shells im- 
bedded in the soil. The natives whom I interrogated 
persisted that they had been there from time imme- 

After breakfast, for which I took care to pay liberally, 
I left the inhospitable Christian village, and proceeded 
along the north bank of the river, through fern and 
grass, to the sea-side. About a mile from the beach 
my train stopped to consume the remains of the eatables 
which had been set before them. They told me that 
the inhabitants were so repulsive and suspicious in their 
manners, that they had preferred coming on here in 
order to satisfy their hunger. This was at a deserted 
fishing village, as the racks and fish-bones sufficiently 
described. In the river at this place about a hundred 
stumps of large totara trees rose vertically above the 
level of the water, almost impeding the whole naviga- 



tion. I could not learn whether they had been 
growing there, or had been brought down by freshets. 
As, however, they were without exception in an upright 
position, and at about the distance from each other at 
which trees usually grow, I concluded thjit the river 
had at some distant period changed its course, and 
flowed through a totara grove. I even conjectured 
that the river might have taken its name from this cir- 

The wind having shifted this morning, the greater 
part of my escort returned from hence to TVanganuiy 
as they expected the canoes to start. I proceeded with 
Konatu, Puke, Hina, and four other boys, over the 
sand-hills on to the beach. About two miles north of 
the river's mouth we again came to cliffs, and were 
obliged by the high tide to travel along their summit. 
This was very tedious work, up and down sand-hum- 
mocks and through heavy hot sand for about ten 
miles. I was partly consoled, however, by splendid 
views of Tonga Riro and Mount Egmont, the day 
being clear and perfectly unclouded. The latter 
mountain became more and more beautiful as we 
lessened our distance from it. Descending to the 
beach as the tide ebbed, we passed along the foot of 
the cliffs, which diminished in height for about two 
miles, and then gave way to low sand-hummocks, like 
those south of TVanganui. Many bustling streams 
rushed through gullies to the beach. Turning a 
point in the sandy beach, we discovered a bay bounded 
on the north by two or three high bluffs, and pro- 
ceeded for about a mile to the mouth of a small river 
flowing out of its bight. Two villages, built on either 
side of the river, poured out their inhabitants upon 
the beach to greet us. One tall fellow lifted me on 
his shoulders, and carried me across the mouth of the 


stream wliere it flows over the yielding sand of the 
beach. I then sat down on a log of drift-wood to 
await the arrival of my boys, whom I had left far 
behind with their heavy burthens. The natives of 
the place crowded round me, and entreated me to stop 
there for the night. They " had cooked food for the 
" White man," they said, " as soon as they saw him 
" come round the point." When the boys came up, 
they said they were tired and hungry, and so I agreed 
to take up my quarters here. A shout of joy followed 
my decision, and a dozen competitors vied for the task 
of recrossing the river with me, as I had given a 
small scrap of tobacco to the one who had first volun- 
teered his services. It was in the pa on the south side 
of the river that a house had been prepared for me. 
This village was called Te-O^ and consisted of about a 
dozen houses. It was situated on a point of land 
twenty feet above the bank of the river, which flowed 
round it on three sides. Opposite, on a perpendicular 
cliff 200 feet high, which hung over the river, was 
the main joa, called Tihoe. The river was called 
JVenuakura, or *' Land of Plumage." 

I was shown into a ware umu, which had been care- 
fully carpeted with fresh fern ; my boys deposited their 
loads inside ; and the gaping crowd gathered round 
the narrow door. A chief named Ngakumu (who did 
not appear, however, to possess much influence) kept 
them from pressing too close, and occasionally reproved 
them for attempting to crowd in. The Maori expres- 
sion for " Get out of the way!" is simply Port! " it is 
** dark!", thus answering somewhat to the Irishman's 
*' Stand out o' my daylight !" 

In travelling among strange natives, there is nothing 
more disagreeable than their habit of crowding round 
a stranger. In these cases, a good-humoured joke has 


often more effect in repressing the nuisance than pas- 
sionate or testy behaviour. I soon learnt numerous 
expressions which served to make them ashamed of 
their pertinacious staring. Hepura ahau? ^'Am I one- 
-eyed?" Tokohid nga ngarara M taku moJco? " How 
" many lizards are there on my face?" were among the 
most efficacious. If eating, I would ask them if they 
were looking for my kai, or food ; and the old men 
would then reprove the crowd, and tell them that they 
were annoying the guest. The N gatiruanui, who in- 
habit the coast for many miles north of this place, are, 
like the Ngarauru at TVaitotara, a tribe without chiefs 
of consequence, and hence much more difficult to 
hold intercourse with. After I had finished my meal, I 
caused a diversion by purchasing various things from 
them for tobacco and fish-hooks. Porera mats, pawa 
hooks, baskets, fishing-lines, and carved boxes made 
their appearance on all hands, and some even brought 
pigs, dried dog-fish, and baskets of potatoes to barter. 
The crowding continued after I had done buying; and 
I had some difficulty in clearing a space in an open shed 
for my blankets, and getting the natives out in order 
to sleep. After all, they had some excuse for their an- 
noying conduct. They were, perhaps, more wild and 
untaught than the slaves whom we had met at the 
Pelorus River, and stared with more amazement at all 
my clothes and equipments. A large audience assem- 
bled to see me wash in the river at daybreak. Roars 
of laughter and screams of astonishment resounded 
from every quarter when I proceeded to brush my 

Crossing the river in a canoe, I climbed up a steep 
ascent to the main pa. The cliff is nearly precipitous 
on all sides, except where a narrow neck joins it with 
the mainland. This neck, however, slopes upwards to 


the /)«, and is defended by native fences and trenches of 
the strongest kind. A double row of stockades is tilled 
in with earth to the height of a man, leaving small 
holes level with the ground. A trench inside the 
stockade is dug to the depth of a man's body ; and 
spears and muskets are thrust by the defenders through 
the small holes. A second bank is raised inside the 
trench, from behind which a second row could ply 
their weapons against the stormers of the palisadoes ; 
and high fighting stages, protected by fences stuffed 
with turf, also afford commanding stations for de- 
fenders to fire over the outer fence. The entrance, 
through which only one man can pass at once, is so 
twisted as to be exposed to the enfilading fire of the 
whole line of defenders. 

There were signs, outside the stockade, of two outer 
rows of defences in former times ; as artificial banks 
reached from cliff to cliff across the neck. Thus three 
strong stockades, one commanding the other, must 
have made this side impregnable to Maori warfare; 
and an assault, except by stealth, on the other faces, 
would have been sheer madness. It was here that 
Rauperaha paused for some months during his inva- 
sion of Cook's Strait. The security of the position had 
been well appreciated by that clever general. 

Descending on the other side of the pa, we passed 
round the foot of one of the bluffs which we had seen 
the day before, and found ourselv^es at the mouth of 
another and larger river, called the Patea, which takes 
its source in the eastern side of Mount Egmont. 
About a mile up the south bank, a pa, called Haere 
hau, or " I go," was perched on a cliff. I was persuaded 
to go there and stop another night, as the natives 
wished to show me the same hospitality as those of the 
neighbouring village. We therefore ascended the cliff. 


and stored the loads in a house appointed for my re- 
ception. 1 was amply provided with provisions of all 
kinds ; and my lish-hooks again procured me plenty of 
water-melons, which were very agreeable in this warm 
weather. I was all day talking to a crowd of natives 
assembled round me, and combating the usual mis- 
sionary calumnies. They told me that Mr. Hadfield 
had christened this joa "England," and that he had paid 
a blanket for a piece of land which they showed me on 
the banks of the river, where he intended to build a 
chapel. Our conversation turned a good deal upon 
ships and soldiers. I found the history of the Alliga- 
tor's expedition in 1834 still fresh in their recollections. 
J'Vmmate^ where the soldiers landed, is about thirty 
miles further along the coast, and inhabited by the 
same tribe. They asked eagerly whether such a thing 
would happen again ; and I of course told them that it 
would only in case of their bad conduct provoking 

In the morning, as I was about to start, J^uhe told 
me that a man had " gone off to the bush," or run 
away, with some of my blankets. I immediately assem- 
bled the inhabitants of the j9«, and inquired whether 
this were the fact. It turned out that Ehina had been 
suspected of adultery with a wahine tapu, or married 
woman, at Te-O last night, and that a man named 
fVikura, a relation of her husband, had taken his load 
as well as his mat in utii, or payment, of the crime. 
Ehina, on being called, stood silent in the middle of the 
court-yard, wrapped in my pea-coat, but neither denied 
nor confessed the charge. As I had already had reason 
to doubt his honesty, I did not attempt his defence, but 
inveighed loudly against the injustice of robbing me for 
his sins. This was allowed by the audience, but they 
said the robber was gone, and could not be found. 

VOL. I. s 


I then said that I would wait a day for the restitu- 
tion of my blankets ; but that, if they were not then 
forthcoming, I should return to Port Nicholson, and 
certainly get a ship and soldiers to punish them for the 
theft. I then sat down. 

Great confusion ensued. Some went whispering 
about to their neighbours ; the women began to cry ; 
and my boys looked exceedingly uncomfortable. The 
owner of the house in which I had slept took all the 
loads, put them into his ware puni, or sleeping-house, 
and, shutting the door, sat against it. This, he told 
me, was to prevent the other natives from plundering 
any more. 

In the midst of their indecision, a vessel, which had 
been observed in the ofl&ng trying to beat to the north- 
ward, tacked in-shore, and visibly approached. Two 
or three men now came close to me, and asked, '* what 
" ship that was, and whether she were going to land 
" people here ? " 

My real opinion was, that it might probably be the 
Tory, as she was to leave for Sydney in a week or 
two after my departure, and was to land at Ngamotu 
the Mokau chiefs whom we had brought from thence 
in the Guide. I told them so at once ; and the de- 
claration produced an instant effect. They all knew 
the name of the ship, which had spread far and wide 
since the large land-sales ; and some of them murmured 
to each other, that this was " Wide-awake's " ship, 
come to see his child safe round the coast. In ten 
minutes the blankets, and even Ehinas mat, were laid 
on a house close by ; and the natives begged me to 
think that this restitution had been made, not through 
fear of punishment, but on account of the influence of 
the commandment, u4ua koe e tahaey " Thou shalt not 
" steal," which they had lately adopted. I did not tell 


them my candid opinion of their truth as well as their 
honesty, but quietly prepared to cross the river in a 
canoe and journey on. All my boys, however, except 
three, refused to proceed any further ; alleging, as their 
reason, that the woman's husband lived at TVaimate, 
and that there the people were much wilder, and the 
affair might end there in murder as well as robbery. I 
was nmch annoyed at not being able to prove to them 
how little I expected such a catastrophe ; but they were 
obstinate in their fears, and the three who agreed to go 
on were not sufficient to carry my things ; so I reluc- 
tantly turned back, and slept at Tihoe that night. 

On the next day I ascended the TVenuakura river 
about ten miles in a canoe. Flocks of wild ducks 
afforded good sport, and the river wound between 
wooded banks of moderate height and occasional Ioav 
lands brought into neat cultivation. Potatoes, maize, 
kumeras, water-melons, and gourds and pumpkins of 
various kinds, were in profusion. I slept under a shed, 
close to the river, in a pretty grove of trees. We had 
feasted on parrots, tuisy pigeons, and ducks. The kaka^ 
or large russet parrot, is of excellent flavour, and very 
abundant in many places. The natives catch many of 
them young, and keej) them as mokai, or pets, with a 
bone ring round their leg, fastened by a string to an 
elastic stick, on which they soon learn to swing. The 
numbers of them on the banks of this river have pro- 
bably originated its name. The other tribes often 
buy parrots' plumage here, to bind round their taiahch 
or long wooden clubs. 

In the morning we ascended the river-bank on the 
south side, through a low coppice, and emerged upon a 
vast table plain. It extends from the edge of the sand- 
hills on the top of the cliff some ten or twelve miles in- 
land, when the land begins to undulate and to be covered 



with forest. The plain is generally covered with 
fern, grass, and the tutu shrub. ITiis plant somewhat 
resembles the elder in the pith of its stem, and bears 
bunches of small black berries. The seeds of these are 
poisonous ; but the natives make a sickly beverage by 
pressing the berries, and carefully straining the juice 
from the seed. I shall have to recur to this plant in 
another place with regard to its effect on cattle. The 
rivers and their tributaries appeared to flow in deep 
trenches, hollowed out of the table-land, and fringed 
with wood. The path which we followed led princi- 
pally through fern, sometimes ten or twelve feet high. 
Where it was only two or three feet high, it was often 
matted over the path, which is not much used ; so that 
my legs and feet were well scratched before the even- 
ing. I had tried sandals woven for me by natives of 
green flax, but found that they hurt my feet, and had 
thus learned to go along bare-footed. 

About dusk, we passed through some fertile and 
pleasant gardens and out-settlements belonging to 
Tf^aitotara, in which the people were harvesting and 
gardening ; and soon after descended into the valley of 
that river, about a mile above the fishing- weir. Not- 
withstanding the pain ensuing to my feet, I had en- 
joyed this walk much better than that along the beach ; 
as the views across a level and fertile country had 
afforded much variety and excitement. 

We found Te Ihujniku nearly deserted ; but forty 
or fifty people came in from the nearer cultivations to 
prayers in the evening. I was happy to find that the 
malignant teacher was away at a distant settlement. 
The people were, in consequence, much more urbane in 
their treatment of me. I had some food cooked over- 
night for my boys, who were all mihanere ; but in the 
morning they refused to travel at all As I was very 


anxious to reach TVanganui in time, if possible, to get 
a passage with the fleet of canoes, and as the weather, 
moreover, which had continued fine during the whole 
of this excursion, became cloudy and threatening, I told 
them that I knew the way and would proceed alone, 
and they might follow the next morning. They deter- 
mined, however, to accompany me ; and we pushed along 
over the sandy desert to the sea-beach. Here we found 
the tide up to the foot of the cliff, and called a halt. 

Prayers were read by one of the party ; and I then 
invited them to make a meal which would last them 
to JWanganui. One of them replied, after looking at 
the sun, that it had not yet begun to descend, and that 
they might not eat till then. I could not believe their 
statement, that the White missionaries had impressed 
this observance upon them, as such an idea seemed too 
absurd. I left them, however, to their own will. 
When the tide had ebbed sufficiently, we travelled on ; 
but, owing to a halt which we were obliged to make 
for a meal in the afternoon, did not arrive at my former 
encampment on the north bank until an hour after 
dark. We here found a row of low sheds, built since 
our departure by some fishing party. On my firing a 
shot, one of Turoa% sons came over in a canoe from 
Tf^ahipima, with a basket of potatoes, which were soon 
roasted in the ashes. He related the various news of 
what had occurred since our departure. Among other 
things, the great fleet had started, but had been 
obliged to put into Wangaihu by foul weather. I there- 
fore despatched one of the boys immediately to tell 
jE Kuru to wait for me. 

In the morning, Turoa came over with his large 
canoe to carry me over to the pa ; and many other 
natives also came to greet me. About noon E Kuru 
arrived ; a hard gale having set in from the west, which 


precluded the departure of the fleet. He immediately 
selected a good-sized house and court-yard for our joint 
residence. Pigs were killed, and provisions of all kinds 
collected. The boys feasted largely during the next 
day ; the gale continuing, with much rain. P 

On the next day, the 8th of April, E Kuru proposed 
an excursion up the river, as the wind was still un- 
abated. I assented with pleasure. A large convenient 
canoe was prepared ; the place of honour was spread 
with mats for the chief and myself, and a strong crew 
manned the paddles. We proceeded about twenty 
miles up the river, which continued perfectly navigable 
for coasting-craft during the whole of that distance. 
The valley resembled that of the Tf^aitotara on a large 
scale. The slopes up to the table-land were further 
removed, the groves of trees more extensive and of 
larger timber, and the river averaged a hundred yards 
in width. About twelve miles above Putikiwaranui, 
however, the hills close in and the river winds among 
scenery as majestic as that of the highlands of the 
Hudson. In some places, hills eight hundred or a 
thousand feet in height, clothed with every variety 
of forest timber or fern, with beetling crags peeping 
out in places, slope down to the water's edge. Pic- 
turesque gardens and small settlements were perched 
on the banks, or half-way up the ascents ; and many 
canoes, laden with food for the fishermen, glided 
gracefully down the river. As we met, kind greet- 
ings were addressed to the chief and his White man, 
and often a basket of cooked birds or other food 
was handed into the canoe. The weather, too, im- 
proved as we increased our distance from the sea ; and 
at length no wind could be felt, and the fleecy scud 
drifting along overhead was the only sign that the 
gale continued. On arriving at a considerable village 


situate at the foot of a steep conical hill, and em- 
bowered in karaka-trtQ^, we pulled into a small tribu- 
tary of the river, which gives its name, Te-kau-ara- 
pawa, to the pa. On the opposite bank of the creek, 
most of the inhabitants sat or lay basking in the sun 
on a raised stage, on which they had spread their mats. 
Muskets were fired, and loud shouts of welcome re- 
sounded through the crowd. We were handed to the 
pataka, or stage, and abundance of food was set before 
us. A large house was prepared for our accommodation 
for the night, and a chief named E Taua, related to 
E Kuruy killed the customary pig. 

An inferior chief named Te Kuiha, or " the old wo- 
** man," addressed me in the usual strain of mihanere 
censure ; but I answered him with great emphasis from 
the stage, and being in a good humour from the serene 
weather and delighful journey, soon demolished his ab- 
surd arguments, and made friends with the whole au- 
dience. E Kuru sat in silence, enjoying the scene, 
and now and then encouraging me by a look, as much 
as to say " Go along ! that's it ! " or by a word where 
I got puzzled to express myself. Among other absurd 
charges, the man accused me of not being a Christian 
because I smoked tobacco, which he maintained to be 
a creed by itself ! I told him that I considered myself 
as good a Christian as he, but that still I would invite 
all the audience to try my tobacco, and distributed some 
all round. My opponent coming, after a little hesita- 
tion, for his share also, a general laugh greeted his 
sudden recantation. During the next day we stopped 
at this place ; the wind still continuing to drive the 
white scud, though we enjoyed calm, warm weather 
below. E Kuru took my gun to shoot pigeons in the 
woods ; and I climbed to the top of th^ highest hill in 
the neighbourhood, but was repaid by no view, the 


tops of wooded mountains confining the sight in all 

In dropping down the stream the next day, I sounded 
as we went, and found at least six feet at low-water up 
to a slight rapid about half a mile below Te-kau-aror 
pawa. In the evening, we took a hasty meal at Puti- 
kiwaranui, and were then taken by Turoa in his 
canoe to fVahipuna. On the way he repeatedly urged 
me to come back and pay for " my place," as he called 
it. The moon lighted us over the sand-hills, and after 
two hours' sharp walking we arrived at the TVangaihu 
river. One of the boys carried me across a ford about 
half a mile above the mouth on his shoulders, with 
much exertion, from the uncertain nature of the sandy 
bed. On the opposite side we found temporary fences 
of driftwood and reeds built round the bivouac of 
each separate canoe's crew. I was soon asleep in the 
tent, in a corner of that prepared for E Kuru ^vA 

The sun had not yet risen when the whole en- 
campment was astir. The canoes crept out of the 
narrow outlet of the river almost in silence, their 
crews being but half awake. A perfect calm prevailed, 
and a light ripple only fell on the beach. We had all 
got out to sea, when the sun rose over the land into 
an unclouded sky, and chattering and singing soon 
began to accompany the lively strokes of the paddle 
as the natives warmed to their work. The fleet con- 
sisted of thirty-three good-sized canoes, bearing to- 
gether about 300 natives and 200 hogs. I understood 
that the hogs, as well as some of the canoes, were 
presents from JVanganui natives to some of the Kapiti 
chiefs. One fine canoe in particular was being taken 
to Rangihiroa, Hikos uncle. The canoes kept pretty 
close together to-day, as no wind tried their different 


rates of sailing. Spirited races sometimes took place 
between two or more canoes for half a mile. We 
pulled along close to the beach, so as often to hold 
conversation with some of the party who had preferred 

On arriving at the mouth of the Rangitikei, we 
found rather high breakers on the sand-spits, but were 
directed to a smooth channel by a man on shore, 
who waved his mat in the direction which we were 
to take. 

We stopped at a fishing-village about two miles up 
the north bank of the river, where the sand-banks on 
either side were replaced by extensive swamps, bearing 
a high growth of flax and reeds. We here found 
about fifty of the Ngatiapa, or aboriginal tribe, who 
had provided large stores of food with which to regale 
our party. Encampments were soon made ashore ; 
and we were detained for four days by rain and wind, 
and for two days more by the determination of the 
natives not to move till all the kai was exhausted. 
One of our hosts used to bring to my tent every morn- 
ing a dozen of delicious eels, grilled on a cane passed 
through them lengthways ; and of vegetable food there 
was profusion. 

After the fine weather returned, I had repeatedly 
pressed the chiefs to travel on ; but they had always 
at their fingers' ends excuses for stopping. At length, 
on the afternoon of the 17th, all their stories about 
the land-breeze driving them out to sea, or the sea- 
breeze forcing them on to the coast inhabited by their 
enemies, or bad dreams of the old men, or the freshet 
of the river making the exit dangerous, were fairly 
exhausted, and, what was more to the purpose, the 
taka kai, or ** spread of food," was also drawing to a 
close ; so the two tribes exchanged complimentary 


speeches, and friendly war-dances, and sham fights, 
and we started on the 18th at daybreak. 'i"vt*at> 

At the close of a beautiful day we were off Ofaki. 
A well-manned canoe which had been out fishing went 
in to the beach at full speed on our approach. Our 
party seemed quite as much afraid as those in the fugi- 
tive bark, for they begged me to cease firing at some 
black- fish which were following in our wake, lest the 
Ngatiraukawa should think the shots meant as de- 
fiance, and come out to fight us. E Kuru had also 
begged me, at the commencement of the voyage, not 
to throw potato-peel, fish-bones, or any article of food 
overboard, as the sea was tapu, or sacred. I could not 
learn the reason, but it seemed to be only during the 
period of our passage. 

At dusk the whole fleet crowded together, the canoes 
touching each other, in order to say prayers. The 300 
voices rising in unison from the undulating raft pro- 
duced a solemn effect. A calm moonlight night 
succeeded, and the canoes were hauled up on the beach 
about a mile north of TVaikanae. I got into a canoe 
with my former conductor, E Ao, and persuaded him 
to proceed to the village at once, as a very heavy dew 
was falling. The main body encamped at a distance, 
in order to make their entry by daylight. It was mid- 
night by the time I was housed. 

In the morning I went to Arapawa iti, the Wanga- 
nui village, and found the surrounding potato-gardens 
covered with people, all in their best clothes. The 
TVaikanae natives circulated among the bivouacs of 
their newly-arrived visitors, many of them dressed in 
their European clothes ; and those who had none were 
dressed in new blankets or mats. Their head-dresses 
were ornamented with albatross and hum feathers. 
The hogs were alljlanded, and fastened with flax ropes 


to stakes. Presents and greetings were being inter- 
changed, and the whole place had the appearance of a 
lively fair. Some of the whalers from Kapiti had 
come over to try and buy pigs ; and they told me that 
some boats were going to Port Nicholson soon, with 
pigs and potatoes for sale to the settlers. I determined 
to cross over and get a passage in one of them. E 
Kuru presented me with thirteen pigs, which had 
formed the cargo of his canoe, and told me that his 
slaves should proceed with them to Port Nicholson. 
I left him at TVaikanae until the boats should be 
ready to start, when I promised to send for him ; and, 
bidding adieu to my principal fellow-travellers, I crossed 
to Hiko^ island.j 

Here I found that Captain Lewis, the American 
whaler whom I have formerly mentioned, was absent 
at Manawatu collecting provisions ; but that he and 
his brother would proceed with two boat-loads imme- 
diately on his return. I was entertained hospitably in 
his house during my stay of a week. I constantly saw 
Hiko and Rangihiroa, and once or twice Rauperaha. 
They seemed rather jealous of my making friends 
with the TVanganui natives ; but were, however, very 
friendly and hospitable. 

Active preparations were being made for the ap- 
proaching whaling season. Everything, indeed, was 
ready, and the whales alone were expected. One had 
been killed on the 19th of this month; but this was 
reckoned unusually early ; the season being considered 
to begin on the 1st of May, from which day the written 
agreements of the parties commence, and there being 
rarely whales seen on the north side of the Strait until 
the middle of that month. 

While I was here, four vessels arrived at once on 
one day, and anchored at Long Point at the north end 


of Kapiti. There a projecting tongue of flat land 
forms an anchorage well sheltered from all winds but 
south-east. Two stations were established on the 
beach ; and two of the vessels were schooners from 
Sydney, with stores, boats, and men for them. A 
third was the William Wallace, a Sydney whaling- 
barque ; and the fourth, a French barque from Sydney, 
the Justine of Bordeaux, with a heterogeneous cargo 
of goods and passengers. Among the latter were — 
our former companion Mr. Wynen, who had been to 
New South Wales since I last saw him; and a Mr. 
Scott, who told me that he had. in 1831, had a flax- 
trading station at Ff^anganm ; and that, at that time, 
the entrance over the bar was so shallow that even a 
whale-boat could not get in at low-water. He also 
said that he had traded at Port Nicholson when the 
N gatimutunga tribe, who have since removed to the 
Chatham Islands, were residing there. 

On the 28th, (Captain Lewis having arrived, I sent for 
E Kuru, and we started in a whale-boat for Port Ni- 
cholson. Lewis's brother accompanied us in another 
boat. Both boats were deep-laden with potatoes. Our 
crews consisted chiefly of natives. That night, after 
visiting Mana, we slept at a settlement on the main- 
land opposite; where a chief related to the native 
girl who travelled with Lewis did the honours of his 

On Mana I saw Ranscihaeata ; who said that Tf^a- 
nganui and all that country belonged to him and 
Rauporaha, and seemed to be very jealous lest the 
resident natives should get paid for the land there. 
He had a magnificent ware puni in the pa on Mana. 
The ridge-pole of the roof was at least twelve feet 
from the ground, and the front of the veranda was 
covered with most elaborate carving. On the apex of 


the conical gable a grotesque wooden figure was 
perched, profusely ornamented with feathers and a 
tuft of red horse-hair, with a pipe in his mouth. This, 
he told me, laughing, was meant to represent " Wide- 
' *' awake." 

'- The next day we reached Pitone beach, having been 
whisiced along from Cape Terawiti by the squalls off 
the high land. As we entered the heads of the har- 
bour, we saw a barque come out full sail, and stand 
away to the south-east. This turned out to be the 
Cuba ; in which Mr. Hanson, on his own suggestion to 
Colonel Wakefield, had been despatched to acquire 
land in the Chatham Islands for the New Zealand 
Land Company. 



House built by natives — Manuka wood — Stock from Australia-^ 
Horses — Arrival of Captain Hobson at the Bay of Islands — 
Council — Newspaper — Appointments — Harmony interrupted by 
a stranger — The Rev. Henry Williams — Proceedings of the 
Lieutenant-Governor at the Bay of Islands — Mr. Williams sent 

' to extend them to Cook's Strait — Mr. Williams's selfish views — 
Clergymen arrive from England — Settlers in the valley of the 

, Hutt — Cheerful progress — Politics — Contentment — Thorndon — 
Dicky Barrett — New South Wales land-sharks — ^The Surprise 
schooner — Voyage to Wanganui — E KunCs, joy — Arrival — 
The Rev. Messrs. Williams and Hadfield — Cession of sovereignty 
—Delusion — Gathering of tribes — Purchase of Wanganui — 
Conference — Authority of a head chief — Deed signed — Distri- 
bution — Greediness — Scramble — Fears — Anger of E Kuru — 
Homai no homai, or a " gift for a gift " — Freshet — Return to 
Port Nicholson. 

I WAS welcomed by Colonel Wakefield into the house 
which I had seen building for him when I was here 
before. It was very neatly constructed of wooden up- 
rights, ridge-pole, and rafters, all bound together by 
flax-bands, and covered with a thick coating of leaves 
of the nikau (a kind of palm) and tufts of grass. It 
afforded a good shelter from the rain, but allowed the 
wind to circulate with perfect freedom. A planked 
floor and partitions, and English-made doors and win- 
dows, with brick chimneys, gave it a comfortable ap- 
pearance. It had the advantage of being on a dry bed 
of shingle, and was protected from the weather by a 
wooden railing filled in with bunches of the manuka. 
This is a shrub very abundant in some parts. The 
plant resembles the tea-plant in leaves and flower, and 
is often used green by the whalers and traders for the 


same purpose. If made strong, however, the beverage 
has a nauseous bitter taste resembling that of hore- 
hound. It sometimes grows into large trees, and the 
timber is then hard and close-grained. It is the most 
valued for firewood of any of the New Zealand 
woods ; and is used by the natives for clubs and 
spears, on account of its hard, heavy, and tough qua- 

I was soon informed by Colonel Wakefield of the 
principal events which had happened during my ab- 
sence. Several vessels had arrived from Sydney, Port 
Philip, and Hobart Town, with a stock of cattle and 
sheep for the young colony. A few of the owners of 
these flocks and herds had determined to take up their 
abode here, having come with the intention of only 
selling and going away. The stock had been placed 
on the fern-covered land at the south end of the har- 
bour. Among the importers of stock was Mr. James 
Watt, who had been settled at Bathurst in New South 
Wales. He brought with him two horses; one of 
which was a young thorough-bred, which afterwards 
became the sire of many New Zealand-born steeds. 

A trading-vessel from the Bay of Islands had 
brought the news of the arrival of Captain Hobson 
there, and a copy of his proclamation assuming the 
office of Lieutenant-Governor, under the Governor of 
New South Wales, " in and over any territory which 
" was or might be acquired in sovereignty by her M.a- 
"jesty, her heirs, or successors, in New Zealand.'' 
The reports as to his further or proposed proceedings 
were so vague and contradictory that they are not 
worth recording. 

The Council, authorized by the chiefs of the district, 
had met weekly ; and had proceeded to take measures 
for the administration of the provisional government. 


After appointing officers, including a magistrate and 
constables, they had prepared an address to the colo- 
nists, which was printed in the first number of a news- 
paper on the 18th of April, together with the ratifi- 
cation of their arrangements by the chiefs. The address 
of the Council simply explained its duties and its ear- 
liest acts. 

The apparatus of the newspaper had been obtained 
by subscription among the principal colonists, and the 
management of it undertaken by Mr. Samuel Re vans, 
who arrived in the Adelaide. The first number had 
been published in London, in September 1839, under 
the title of the ' New Zealand Gazette.' 

Various appointments under the Company had also 
been made. Captain Chaffers was harbour-master; 
" Worser," pilot, living near the heads with a whale- 
boat and crew ; Doddrey, superintendent of works ; and 
Barrett, agent for natives and interpreter : and store- 
keepers, a physician and surgeon to the infirmary, and 
an emigration agent, had also been named. 

The infant government had worked smoothly enough. 
A few lawless wanderers from other parts and still 
fewer quarrelsome emigrants had been checked in their 
disorderly outbreaks by the police. The utmost cor- 
diality between the natives and the Whites had con- 
tinued to exist, almost without a blemish : for our 
docile hosts, if offended or outraged by one of the rude 
outcasts from society against whom the police enact- 
ments w€re most especially directed, had learned to 
appreciate the distinction existing between them and 
the respectable portion of the community. They re- 
garded with admiration the peacefulness established 
by our habits of Liw and order, and displayed an al- 
most unhoped-for degree of good temper in yielding 
their assent to the new order of things, which forbade 


the injfliction of summary punishment as vengeance by 
the oiFended party, according to their former customs. 

The first serious interruption to the working of the 
young institution had been caused by a stranger. A 
dispute had arisen between Captain Pearson, the master 
of the barque Integrity, and Mr. Wade, who had char- 
tered her from Hobart Town. The charterer had applied 
for the interference of the authorities, and the captain 
had been arrested, on the 14th, by warrant and brought 
before the Police Magistrate. He had refused to re- ;:s' 
cognize the court, and had accordingly been committed. 
He escaped, however, on board his ship, and defied our 
puny constabulary force, which had as yet enforced 
the law rather by the unanimous support of the body 
of colonists than by its physical or numerical strength. 
When I arrived, he was still on board his ship, and 
negotiations were pending as to the manner in which 
the affair might be arranged. 

On the 19th, the Reverend Henry Williams had ar- 
rived from the Bay of Islands, in the Ariel schooner. 
The objects of his mission had not been made publicly 
known ; but they transpired in the course of his com- 
munications with Colonel Wakefield and some of the 
other colonists. 

The Council had truly observed in their address, 
that the recent proclamations of the Governor of New 
South Wales and of the Lieutenant-Governor of New 
Zealand had formally disclaimed the existence of any 
right of sovereignty over New Zealand in the English 
Crown ; and as Mr. Busby, the late British Resident 
in this country, had often been likened to a man-of- 
war without guns, so the next anomaly in politics pre- 
sented to the inhabitants of the Bay of Islands had been 
a Lieutenant-Governor over nothing. 

It appeared that one of the first measures of Captain 

VOL. I. T 


Hobson, after his arrival in January, had been to ac- 
quire some territory over which he might extend his 
dominion. He had accordingly assembled some two 
hundred natives living at or near the Bay, and about 
one hundred Europeans, including missionaries and 
officers of his suite ; and had proceeded to ask the 
chiefs, through Mr. Williams as interpreter, to give 
the Queen the power to protect and restrain them. 
And a document had been read and interpreted to 
them; which, after a good deal of hesitation and 
opposition, thirty or forty chiefs had signed on the 
next day. We understood that by this document the 
chiefs had ceded their sovereignty to the Queen of 
England ; but we remained in ignorance of any of its 
other provisions. 

Now it just oozed out, that Mr. Williams was 
charged to procure the assent of the chiefs in Cook's 
Strait to a similar cession of their sovereignty, in order 
to make the document a secure foundation on which 
to build the assumption of the sovereignty by the 
English Crown. Although Mr. Williams's negoti- 
ations with the chiefs of Port Nicholson for this pur- 
pose were conducted with great privacy and mystery, 
of course they had constantly reported the proceedings 
to Colonel Wakefield ; who had yet been, for a long 
time, unable to discover what they were required to 

Another negotiation, however, had employed a con- 
siderable part of the Reverend Mr. Williams's time. 
He had communicated to Colonel Wakefield his claim, 
in the name of Richard Davis, the native teacher, to 
about sixty acres of land in the best part of Thorndon, 
where the town was about to be built. On investiga- 
tion and inquiry. Colonel Wakefield found this claim 
to be totally without foundation. Subsequently, in the 


course of a long and full conversation, Mr. Williams 
had very candidly explained himself. He had told 
Colonel Wakefield that he had a large family, and was 
naturally desirous of providing for them. He very 
plainly intimated that he wished to have some share 
in the profits likely to accrue from the growth of the 
infant colony, and so completely confessed his selfish 
views, that Colonel Wakefield, anxious to secure the 
friendship, or at any rate to ward off the enmity of so 
influential a person, at once offered to reserve for him 
two acres having frontage on the beach of the harbour, 
one in his own name, and one in that of Davis, on 
condition of his abandoning his original claim. The 
proposition had been at once acceded to. 

Mr. Williams had been so earnestly engaged in the 
prosecution of this more personally advantageous ob- 
ject, that the natives had shrewdly perceived that some 
dispute was going on as to land between him and 
Colonel Wakefield, and were reluctant, while it ap- 
peared to last, to listen to any of the Government 
envoy's proposals. But, as soon as they saw the affair 
had been amicably arranged, they went on board in a 
body, got a blanket each, and signed the paper presented 
to them. Mr. Williams, having thus accomplished 
both his objects, proceeded to visit the other chiefs of 
Cook's Strait. He sailed the same day that I arrived 
from Kapiti. 

On the 21st, another ship, the Bolton, had arrived 
from England ; bearing, among other passengers, the 
Reverend J. F. Churton, who had been appointed 
chaplain by a Church Society in connexion with 
the settlement, and the Reverend J. G. Butler, 
also a clergyman of the Established Church. The 
arrival of these two gentlemen with their families had 
been hailed with much pleasure by the members of the 

T 2 


Church of England. Previous to this time, the reli- 
gious duties had been performed by the Reverend John 
Macfarlane, a minister of the Kirk of Scotland, who 
had accompanied the colonists from the Clyde in the 
Bengal Merchant. And although all classes of Pro- 
testants had united to perform Divine worship under 
his guidance, and had expressed their gratitude for his 
unwearied exertions in executing the various duties 
required of him, the arrival of Messrs. Churton and 
Butler was a great comfort to all parties. Mr. Chur- 
ton had established himself at Thorndon, where the 
passengers of the Adelaide and Bolton, and several of 
those persons who had originally dwelt at Pitone or 
on the banks of the Hutt, served to form a numerous 
congregation on the site of the future town, Mr. 
Butler had come to reside at Pitone, close to Colonel 
Wakefield's house. This gentleman had been a mem- 
ber of the Church mission in the Bay of Islands in 
former years ; and thus held a commission of the 
peace from a former Governor of New South Wales. 
The Company, thinking that this might prove of use 
in the enforcement of our young laws, had been eager 
to secure his services. Although his piece of parch- 
ment from an ex-Governor had been of no great 
weight, Mr. Butler's accession to our society soon be- 
came a very valuable acquisition, not only on account 
of the ministerial functions which he exercised at Pi- 
tone, but on account of his knowledge of the customs 
and language of the natives, and his praiseworthy will- 
ingness to employ it so as to win their best affections. 
The Butler family became quite revered by the Pitone 

On visiting my friends up the Hutt, I found the 
same cheerfulness, activity, and sanguine hope of suc- 
cess prevailing. Nice gardens were well cleared, neatly 


fenced and cultivated, and fresh with young vegetables 
and plants ; every one was loud in praise of the fertile 
soil. Boats and barges were being built ; and the 
little children were learning to paddle a light canoe in 
the river. Sawyers were located among the abundant 
timber ; the sounds of the axe and saw as they cut the 
noble pine-trees into useful proportions, and of the 
hammer nailing some useful building, rang through 
the air ; and a general appearance of progress and satis- 
faction pervaded the place. 

The colonists had but few ideas about their political 
state. Many of them were so busy about the various 
details and arrangements of their locations, as to be 
positively ignorant of what had gone on upon the beach 
for some days, and would ask the gossip from a loung- 
ing idler like myself while they proceeded merrily with 
their work. Then they would enlist my labour for a 
time, if useful ; and thus I often found myself engaged 
in many a little task of which I had never before 
known the necessity. They were all delighted to hear 
that we were likely soon to have the protection of our 
own British Government ; and spoke with eagerness 
of the speedy arrival of Governor Hobson among them. 
In the meanwhile, however desirous of being once 
more under the flag of Great Britain, they felt con- 
tented with the creditable way in which the experi- 
ment of a provisional government had been supported 
by the excellent deportment of the great body of peo- 
ple, and were justly proud of being able to resign a 
peaceful and orderly community into the guardianship 
of those laws which, under so slight a restraint, they 
had never ceased to respect and obey. The continu- 
ance of an agreeable intercourse with the natives, 
whose general amiability and capacity for great things 
was acknowledged by all, had contributed in no small 


degree to the universal contentment. And the genial 
climate and almost incredible fertility of the virgin 
soil left no doubt in their minds as to the eligibility of 
the country in which they were so happily circum- 

JE Kuru, who accompanied me on these excursions, 
could not refrain from expressing his unfeigned plea- 
sure at the sight, and would tell me, with tears starting 
from his eyes, that he hoped the same would soon be 
at TJ^anganui. 

At Thorndon, the bustle of settlement was also 
apparent. Numerous houses had been built by the 
natives, and occupied by some of the colonists. Some 
few wooden houses brought from England were also 
in process of erection. Dicky Barrett had returned 
from Queen Charlotte's Sound in the Cuba, with his 
whole establishment and property, and had installed 
himself in a clay- walled house at Thorndon, in exactly 
the same manner as at Te-awa-iti. The house was 
always half full of hungry natives, and idle White 
men who had wandered from the whaling-stations, 
and the large iron pots and spacious table constantly 
extended his too undistinguishing hospitality to all ap- 
plicants. He was quite proud of the change which he 
had aided to produce in the appearance of the place and 
the prospects of his friends the natives, and used to 
spend his time in watching the proceedings of the new- 
comers; sometimes mystifying a whole audience of 
gaping immigrants by a high-flown relation of a whaling 
adventure, or of some part of his Maori campaigns. 
Kind-hearted to a fault, always good-humoured and 
sanguine, and scrupulously honest in all his trans- 
actions, Richard Barrett was eagerly sought as an 
acquaintance by all who were capable of esteeming his 
sterling worth. 


It was about this time that we heard, by the arrival 
of some vessel from Sydney, of the agitation produced 
among the people in that place who had bought land 
in this country, with respect to the likelihood of their 
claims being allowed. A land commission, to in- 
quire into all such claims, was talked of by the Go- 
vernor of New South Wales, and the fears of the 
Australian land-sharks had been excited by the rumour. 
Mr. Went worth, who was said to claim very large 
tracts in the Middle Island, had taken a leading part 
in an association formed for the purpose of watch- 
ing over their interests. 

On the 6th of May, Captain Pearson left the har- 
bour with his ship. All attempts to procure an 
amicable arrangement of the dispute had failed ; and 
he had gone away vowing vengeance on the " demo- 
"crats," as he called us, for attempting to preserve justice 
and order. A proposition made to enforce the autho- 
rity of the Police Magistrate, by bringing Pearson out 
of his ship, had been finally abandoned; it being 
thought better to let the affair drop quietly than to 
bring more irritation and annoyance upon the settle- 
ment by maintaining a principle against a man who 
seemed determined to irritate and annoy the community 
on account of the very arrangements which it had 
made to insure public tranquillity. 

On the 14th, I started in a schooner of thirty tons 
for JVanganui. She belonged to a man named Mac- 
gregor, who had been living by sealing and other 
pursuits for some years in the neighbourhood of 
Foveaux's Straits. With the assistance of some other 
men, he had built this boat ; and, having got on board 
some natives connected with Tf^anganui, he had come 
up in search of that place in order to land them and 
obtain payment for their passage in pigs and potatoes. 


which he meant to sell to the whaling-ships on the 
coast to the southward. To escape some rough 
weather, he had run in here one night, seeing an ap- 
pearance of shelter, and had been highly astonished hi 
the morning to find himself in the midst of an active 
European settlement of more than a thousand persons, 
where he had thought to find an uninhabited country, 
or at any rate only natives. He had consequently 
named his vessel the Surprise. 

Colonel Wakefield chartered the craft by the month, 
and caused to be put on board a large quantity of 
goods, approved by J^ Kuru, and considered by him 
sufficient for the purchase of the IVanganui district. 
He then requested me to proceed to Tf^anganui in the 
vessel, and act as agent for the Company in procuring 
the confirmation of the resident chiefs to the deed 
executed by E Kuru, his father, and another chief, at 
Kapiti, in November 1839. I readily acceded, feeling 
much pleasure in being able to assist in such a pro- 
ceeding, as the first step towards the accomplishment 
of my friend E Kurus dearest hope. The third chief, 
Te Kiri Karamu, was also at Port Nicholson, and had 
already entered into some negotiations with JNIac- 
gregor ; and I soon found that some jealousy existed 
as to which chief should have the honour of taking 
the first vessel into the ff^angnnui river. These 
scruples were easily adjusted, as I said both should go, 
and I would claim the envied distinction. Several 
other natives of ff^anganui were allowed a passage on 
board, and Captain Chaffers was instructed to accom- 
pany me in order to make a survey of the entrance and 
bar of the river. 

Our craft was no crack sailer, but she was safely 
and strongly built, round as a Dutch dogger, under- 
rigged, and as comfortable below as could be expected 


for her size. After weathering Cape Terawiti, we 
were detained between Mana and Kapiti for some 
days by foul winds ; and again, after anchoring under 
Rauperahas island, in a strong south-east gale and 
pitch-dark night, when I alarmed the master by in- 
sisting on piloting him in to the anchorage, instead of 
heaving-to till daylight. Captain Chaffers had been 
seized with illness, and was obliged to keep his cabin, 
or I should not have presumed to set myself up as 
pilot for any place known to him, I sent a boat 
on shore at Tf^aikanae to try and get Rangi IVa- 
karurua to accompany us ; but he at length told us 
from the beach, close to which we were under sail, 
that he should not go, but his son would represent 

On the 19th, we at length entered the river, passing 
through heavy breakers on the bar caused by two 
days' continued westerly gale. The soundings on the 
bar were twelve feet at nearly high-water. Whilst 
in the most dangerous part of the entrance, E Kuru, 
who was perched on the top of the foremast to pilot 
us in, could not restrain his exultation at bringing a 
vessel into his river. He let go his hold, balanced 
himself on the cross-trees on his feet only while the 
vessel lifted and drove on the high rollers, and shouted 
out an impromptu song in celebration of the event, 
flourishing his hands and arms with the usual quiver- 
ing motion. When he had brought his " lo triumphe'' 
to the concluding yell, we were sailing up the river in 
smooth water. 

We saw but few natives at the villages near the 
sea ; and JE Kuru started oft' up the river in order to 
gather them to the sale, telling me that he should be 
several days away. We had anchored about a mile 
above Putikiwaranui, opposite the mouth of a creek 


called Puma, where Turoa had lately built a few huts 
and established himself. The river was very deep 
here, our anchor being down in seven fathoms not 
twenty yards from the shore. 

While I was waiting for the return of E Kuru and 
the gathering of the clans, Messrs. Williams and Had- 
field arrived by land. They held no communication 
with me ; but I heard from the natives, and also from 
Macgregor, the skipper, who called upon them in their 
tent, what had been their proceedings. Turoa and 
Te Ana-ua^ with several other of the chiefs who had 
held communication with them, told me that Mr. 
Williams had asked them to sign a paper, and pro- 
mised them a present of a blanket from the Queen. 
They had answered at first by requesting him to show 
the paper to the other White people then on the spot, 
in order that the transaction should be a public one ; 
which he had refused to do. He then asked them 
who the White people in the ship were ; and upon 
their informing him, he had urged them not to sell 
their land, saying that " all the goods in the vessel 
" were light, and might be lifted with the hand, but 
" that the one-one^ or ' land,' could not." They took 
care to assure me, however, that this hangareka or 
"joke" of Williams, as they termed it, had not shaken 
their resolution of abiding by their bargain. 

In the evening of the day after Mr. Williams's arrival, 
they came on board, and told me that Turoa and Te 
Ana-ua had received a blanket each on signing, and 
that Williams had departed to the southward. I could 
not ascertain whether any other chiefs had signed or 
not. I gathered from Macgregor that the paper was 
one ceding the sovereignty to the Queen, similar to that 
to which the adhesion of the Port Nicholson chiefs 
had been obtained ; and was rather surprised that Mr. 


Williams had not taken pains to acquire the assent of 
more of the chiefs, or of any of those towards Patea and 
the country to the north. 

On inquiring of Turoa whether he understood what 
he had signed, he repeated to me, that my Queen had 
sent him a blanket, and that he had been told to make 
a mark in order to show that he had got it. When 
I explained to him that my Queen had become his also, 
and that she and her Governor were now chiefs over 
him as well as over me, he became very agitated, and 
repeatedly spoke of following Williams in order to 
return the blanket and upbraid him for the deception. 
He finally determined, however, that he must have got 
to Wangaihu by that time, and that he could not catch 
him. " But," said he, " a blanket is no payment for 
** my name. I am still a chief." 

Macgregor, who had taken a great fancy to TKun- 
ganui, and was pressed by the natives to build a house 
there and trade with them, told me that he had stated 
his intention to do so to Mr. Williams ; asking him 
whether, supposing his claim to turn out the best, he 
would not eject him from his location. Mr. Williams 
had answered, that there could be no objection to his 
settling, and that he would answer for his not being 
harshly treated by him when he should take posses- 
sion of his claim. Macgregor then asked me ; and I 
gave him the same assurance on the part of the Com- 

About a week after E Kuru^s departure, large bodies 
of natives began to arrive in canoes down the river. As 
they rounded the low point above and came in sight 
of the ship, they would often fire guns, which were 
returned from Piirua. On the ninth day, some men 
in a canoe in advance told me of the near approach of 
E Kuru with his nuinga, or " host," from the JVahi-^ 


pari, or " Place of Cliffs." Soon after this announce- 
ment, twenty or thirty crowded canoes, closely touching 
each other, glided in silence round the point ; and as 
they came full in sight, discharged their fire-arms in a 
grand volley, which was answered from the schooner 
and the shore. They continued to advance in this 
formal manner until near the vessel, when JEJ Kuru's 
canoe came alongside, and the others pulled to the north 
bank, where they soon formed a temporary encamp- 
ment on the fern-covered level. There were now about 
seven hundred natives assembled in the immediate 
neighbourhood ; and JE Kuru told me that all were 
here who could possibly be collected, and that we 
might proceed to business. 

After several discussions at the different villages 
and on board the schooner, at which I explained, 
through the interpreter, the whole force and meaning 
of the transaction which was about to be made, I in- 
vited E Kuru to assemble them all at one place. This 
was done at the fishing-village at which I had for- 
merly seen the people from TJ^ahiparl. On a bright 
sunny day, I landed there from the schooner, and 
found a truly imposing audience assembled. In a 
small court-yard of the village all the superior chiefs, 
to the number of 20 or 30, were sitting on the ground 
dressed in their best mats and feathers, with all their 
green-stone clubs and taiaha shown off to the best ad- 
vantage. The roofs of the adjoining huts, the fences, 
the fish-racks, were bending under the weight of 
crowds of inferior natives, who sought for a peep at 
the conference. The rest of the assembled hundreds 
were contented to sit or stand so as to hear the ex- 
pected speeches. Among the assembly were some of 
the wildest natives I had yet seen. Most of them were 
stout and muscular, more than half of them nearly 


naked, and plentifully bedaubed with red paint and 
charcoal ; all constantly carried some weapon, as though 
by instinct and the habit of danger. 

Captain Chaffers, John Brooks the interpreter, 
IMacgregor, and some of his crew, accompanied me to 
a par era which had been spread in a place kept clear 
for me. 

Perfect silence reigned throughout the multitude 
while speeches were made; and every word must 
have been heard by every member of the assembly. I 
began by asking the chiefs if they had finally made up 
their minds to complete the sale. Five or six of them 
immediately answered, that they had had many moons 
(months) to do that in, and that all that they wanted 
was for me to bring the paper that they might sign, 
and the goods that they might carry them away. 
Several chiefs then rose in succession, and fully de- 
scribed the country sold, tracing all the rivers up to 
Tonga Riro, and saying tou kainga ! " thy place," 
after the name of each. 

Rangi Tauwira, the old chief nearly bent double 
with age, arrogated, without exciting a murmur of 
dissent, the right to be called the take or " root" of 
the tribes. " I am so old," said he, " that you can all 
" remember from tradition better than I can tell you, 
" whether this is not true. This is my White man ; — 
" the land is for him !" 

E Kuril still remained by me, explaining the full 
meaning of the expressions used. He did not speak in 
public ; indeed, this seemed reserved entirely for the 
kail matua, or "elders "of the tribes. For when, in 
answer to my request that any native objecting to the 
sale would now speak, an inferior and middle-aged 
chief named Makeiu rose to do so, a curious scene took 
place, which illustrated in a forcible manner the au- 


thority of the high chiefs over the lower ones as to 
land as well as everything else. 

Maketu, who was in the inner court-yard, shortly 
explained, that he should keep his land for another 
White man, whose acquaintance he had made in Port 
Nicholson when he went there with the fleet, and 
who had promised to marry his daughter and trade 
with him. He did not rise to say this, but spoke from 
a reclining posture, and in a conversational tone, as 
though " unaccustomed to public speaking." 

Turoa leaped in a moment from his seat, and, shaking 
his mats back so as to free his right hand, in which 
the meri ponamu gleamed, ran furiously up and down 
while he insisted on a retractation of this refusal. 
" E Mahtl^ said he, *' the land is yours ; but I am 
" your ariki (or superior chief)," and he leaped into 
the air at the end of his run. " There is my White 
" man ; for him is all the land — you must sell yours 
" too to him." And he lay down again, and wrapped 
his mats round his chin. 

I told Maketu, through the interpreter, that I did 
not wish to buy his land against his will, but that we 
would have that which belonged to him marked out, 
that he might sell it to others. I was asking whether 
any more wished to do the same, and explaining that 
they must not touch any of the payment, when Maketu 
interrupted Brooks by saying, still sitting, " It is 
enough ; the old man has beaten my head with his 
meri, and I am ashamed ; my land is for his White 

Though I had not shown the natives the goods in- 
tended as payment, I had repeatedly read to them the 
list ; and on this occasion the head chiefs shortly an- 
swiered to my inquiries whether they were satisfied 
with the quantity, — " E Kuru has seen them, — it is 


" good !" It was then agreed that the chiefs should 
come on board the schooner and sign the deed, and 
that several large canoes should be brought alongside 
under the direction of E Kiiru, to receive the goods, 
and land them at the spot where this concluding con- 
ference had taken place. It was also agreed that this 
chief should distribute the goods, as I hoped, from his 
great influence and connexion with all the different 
branches of the JVanganui tribes then assembled, that 
he might accomplish this in peace. The general as- 
sent to this arrangement seemed to confirm my view. 

Twenty-seven head chiefs signed the deed on the 
deck of the schooner, after it had been read and inter- 
preted, with full explanations, to them, and to a large 
audience which surrounded us, either floating about in 
numerous canoes or clustered on the bank at Purua. 
The goods were then handed into the canoes by men 
appointed by E Kuru. No attempt at pilfering took 
place ; and all the things were carried in order and 
quiet to the shore. The spectators proceeded gradually 
to the scene of distribution ; and when I landed, some 
time after the last canoe had gone away, with all the 
White men except one to keep the vessel, the distribution 
was going on. 

On an extensive level at the back of the little village, 
a piece of land a hundred yards long and twenty broad 
had been cleared of the fern. About twenty-four 
heaps of goods were ranged along this space ; and E 
Kuru, with his elder brother, a chief of no great note, 
were adding gradually to each heap, and explaining 
their proceedings in a loud voice. We took our seats 
on the roof of a hut, from whence we could survey the 
whole proceeding. The different tribes were gathered 
in groups at short distances from the row of heaps, 
each under their respective leaders ; and watched the 


process with the most eager anxiety. Now and then 
a little knot might be seen encroaching on the space, 
and creeping, without rising, nearer to some tempting 
heap. Then a chief of another tribe would rise, and, 
although scarcely able to restrain his own followers or 
perhaps himself from imitating their example, would 
rebuke them for their dishonest intentions. Then E 
Kura would flourish his bright tomahawk high in the 
air, and fly along each side of the line of goods, anger 
and menace in every gesture, and determination in his 
features ; and the boldest retired to their former 
stations. But while he was busy unpacking a bale, or 
making his calculations as to the fairest way of sharing 
out the contents, the almost invisible encroachments 
and the loud rebukes became more frequent and daring, 
the offenders became less willing to hear reason, and 
the others more prone to share in the offence. At 
length neither E Kurus eloquent appeals to the dig- 
nity of the chiefs, nor his terrific threats against the 
multitude, could produce their intended effect: little 
children were first sent to pilfer a pipe or a looking- 
glass, and though they were seen no one would touch 
them ; then the parents, watching, rebuking, envying, 
and seeking to overreach each other, were closing in 
on all sides. A crisis was evidently at hand. 

E Kuru threw down what he had in his hand, and 
walked slowly and moodily to a seat by my side. This 
seemed to create a pause for a few minutes, as though 
the covetous crowds were uncertain of his intentions. 
" Go on board ship," said he to me, " with all your 
" White men. I cannot get them to do it quietly, 
** and we shall come to a fight. You might get hurt 
** if you remained ; and, moreover, I am ashamed that 
" you should see us fight madly for these things when 
** I have engaged to do my best to count them out 

Chap. IX. A SCRAMBLE. 289 

" quietly. But such is their custom, and they will 
" have a scramble. Go ! " I immediately acceded to 
his request. We had hardly got on board ship before 
we saw and heard a truly wild scene. We were about 
a quarter of a mile froin the spot, and on the opposite 
side of the river. 

Seven hundred naked savages were twisted and 
entangled in one mass, like a swarm of bees, over the 
line of goods ; and their cries of encouragement, anger, 
disappointment, vengeance, pain, or triumph, were 
blended in one ferocious growl. With a telescope 
could be distinguished brandished weapons, clenched 
fists, torn blankets, uplifted boxes, and occasionally a 
man's body as he leaped or was borne against his will 
over the heads of the throng ; and the faint breath of 
the sea-breeze, as it died away with the setting sun, 
brought an occasional shrill yell or the scream of a 
woman in louder tones than the general buzz. 1 much 
feared that some loss of life would ensue. Two or 
three canoes now put oflf from the shore ; and the 
owners, who had succeeded in securing a share of the 
goods, increased our fears by their contradictory 
rumours as they paddled hastily up the river. Some 
said that Te Ana-ua had been the first to cry Uak'i 
na ! or " Rush now ! " and that E Kuril had brained 
him on the spot. Shortly after, Turoa and Te Ana- 
ua came alongside in two canoes, tolerably laden with 
spoil, and exclaimed against the smallness of their 
share, saying that E Kuru had got all for himself and 
his people. They wanted to return the goods to me ; 
but I steadily refused, and told them that the bargain 
was concluded, and they must now arrange the division 
in their own way. They then went to their settle- 
ments with the goods. Te Ana-ua appeared to have 
been wounded, having a bandage round his head. 

VOL. I. * u 


After the riot had subsided, E Kuru himself came 
on board. He was very excited and angry, but made 
great efforts to conceal the fact. He said that the 
natives were many of them maddened by the struggle, 
though no lives had been lost ; and that, until they 
should calm down, we might be in some danger. He 
therefore advised me to move the ship down opposite 
to the Tfahipan village, where a large body of his 
own men were collected to guard a quantity of the 
goods which he had made tajni^ and secured in his 
house from the general plunder. He said it was true 
that he had saved the principal things of value, but 
that he should divide them fairly the next day. Te 
Ana-ua had been the first to cheer them on to the 
scramble, but E Kuru had not touched him, though 
he got a slight accidental scratch in the melee. I 
shifted the schooner s anchorage, and E Kuru remained 
on board all night to protect us from the chance of 
any assault. He said that when their blood was up, 
he could not answer for what they might do. Several 
other natives described to me his good generalship in 
directing the seizure of most of the goods by means of 
the great numerical strength of his retainers. 

In the morning, things were much more quiet. 
Many of the wildest natives had departed with what 
they had been able to secure ; and E Kuru distributed 
some of the other things. Last of all, he opened the 
only case containing fire-arms. The avidity of the sur- 
rounding chiefs could no longer be restrained ; and in 
the course of a scramble which ensued among the aris- 
tocracy, he had been thrown down and hurt a good deal 
against the nails of the case, and his European clothes, 
which he constantly delighted to wear, were nearly 
torn off his back. He came on board in high dudgeon ; 
and at first threatened to leave his people and his place. 


and return with me to Port Nicholson. I talked with 
him mildly, and at some length ; and he ended by con- 
fessing that a wiser course would be for him to remain 
and prepare them gradually by his example as well as 
precept for more gentle conduct when the White men 
should arrive. He cried as he told me that he was 
ashamed to think how much worse I must consider his 
people than the other Maori whom I had seen ; and 
urged me to bring, with the White people, plenty of 
constables and soldiers to induce respect and tran- 
quillity. Rangi Tauwira very pithily expressed his 
wishes in this respect by a simple illustration. " These 
" are pakeha" said he, as he lifted a handful of sand. 
" Do this to TVanganm ! " and he scattered the sand 
over the deck near him. 

I was now taken ashore to see a present, or homai 
no homai, literally a " gift for a gift," which had been 
prepared for me. It consisted of thirty pigs and about 
ten tons of potatoes, ranged in a row along the line 
which had been occupied two days before by the goods. 
Having counted them and got them on board, I gave 
JE Kuru a blanket each for the pigs, and a pipe or a 
head of tobacco for every two baskets of potatoes. 
The baskets being small, this was reckoned a very 
liberal rate of payment. The chief divided it at once 
among the owners of the provisions, who were almost 
entirely his own people. 

I accepted and paid for this gift as a private specu- 
lation on my part. ' On the occasion of JE Knrus 
former present to me of his canoe-load, I had given 
him, in Port Nicholson, a blanket for each pig, and 
sold them to the settlers up the Hutt very readily. 
Both he and I had been so satisfied with our respective 
profits in the transaction, that I had at once accepted 
his offer to load the schooner on the same terms, and 



had provided myself with a private stock of goods for 
the purpose, and repaid to Colonel Wakefield a pro- 
portion of the charter-money equal to my proportion 
of the use of the vessel. I have been thus particular 
in detailing this private pig-dealing adventure, because 
I was long afterwards accused by some " repudiating " 
natives and some of their White protectors of having 
received the cargo of provisions as payment for the 
goods belonging to the Company (worth about 700/.) 
which I had paid for the land. 

We were detained a day or two by strong westerly 
winds, which made the bar too dangerous to attempt 
going out ; and the violence of the breakers was in- 
creased by a very rapid freshet which set out of the 
river, and made even our berth inside far from agree- 
able, by reason of the numerous large trees which 
drifted down. One night a tree some fifty feet in 
length took us athwart hawse, and bent our stem 
nearly gunwale under by its weight, until the crew, 
assisted by some natives sleeping on board, managed to 
pole it off to one side. 

Having bidden farewell to JE Kuru and the other 
natives, after promising to return soon and trade with 
them, and begging them to build houses about this 
part of the river, for which the White people would 
be glad to pay them, I weighed anchor and got safe 
out. On the 2nd of June we got back to Port Ni- 
cholson. In beating up to Pitone, we fell in with a 
whale-boat, which used to ply daily with passengers 
between Thorndon and Pitone, at the fare of half-a- 
crown. It was started by a man named Wright, who 
had been one of Barrett's companions in the Tara- 
naki wars, and a whaling headsman at Te-awa-iti. 
I got into the boat, as the wind was falling light, and 
immediately got an offer for my cargo from one of the 


passengers, a late Major in the British Auxiliary Legion 
of Spain, who had taken to deal in anything that was 
profitable. As, however, I had partners in my ven- 
ture, I was obliged to decline the honour of selling 
the Major a bargain until I had consulted them. 

I must now again look back to the leading events 
which had occurred since my departure. 



Town of " Britannia" — English boy killed by native — Harmony 
undisturbed — Fire of " Cornish Row " — Earthquake — Notice to 
inhabitants to drill — Lieutenant Shortland, the Colonial Secre- 
tary, arrives with troops — Burlesque pomposity of a constable — 
Proclamation of British sovereignty — British loyalty and good 
feeling — Mounted policemen — Brutality — Laws of a penal colony 
— Mr. Tod excites natives against the settlers — They begin to re- 
pudiate — Change in feelings of natives — The chiefs offended by the 
Government authorities — News from the Bay of Islands — Riot of 
natives quelled by military — Survey — I postpone my return to 

The name of " Britannia " had been determined on for 
the town. Many people had moved over to Thorn- 
don, where it was to be founded, and a brisk trafl&c 
was carried on between the two places. Merchants 
and retail dealers were beginning to show a little order 
in their arrangements ; and two or three rough 
attempts at shops were to be seen up the Hutt, at 
Pitone, and at Thorndon. The newspaper was pub- 
lished regularly once a-week, proposals had been made 
for the establishment of a local bank, two or three 
taverns of respectable appearance were organized, and 
a schoolmaster was busy showing his testimonials and 
craving support. A schooner of sixty tons, built at 
Tahiti, had come from the Bay of Islands, and 
brought a cargo of pigs which she picked up on the 
east coast. The Jewess, as she was named, had been 
bought by two or three mercantile colonists, and was 
the first decked vessel belonging to Port Nicholson. 
She had arrived on the 17th, bringing news of the 
recovery of Governor Hobson's health from a severe at- 


tack of paralysis, and of the arrival of 150 soldiers at 
the Bay of Islands. His Excellency was still there, 
and still undetermined as to the site of his future 
capital. The Port Nicholson people had, therefore, 
great hopes that he might arrive here within a short 
time, at least to judge of the fitness of this place. 

Brick- making had been commenced by two enter- 
prising colonists, one of whom was Mr. Dudley Sin- 
clair. The bricks brought out from England were so 
dear that there seemed every chance of success for 
these beginners. Firewood was abundant and close 
to the kiln, which was on the beach, under a cliff' said 
to consist of excellent clay for the purpose. 

An English boy had' died a few days after I left, of 
a wound given him with a spear a month before by a 
native. Some people reported that the boy and his 
brother had been stealing potatoes from the natives' 
gardens, and that the wound had been given in conse- 
quence by a native belonging to the place. On an 
inquest, however, which was held before the Police 
Magistrate, Major Baker, and a respectable jury, no 
evidence was brought forward to support this view ; 
and it seemed more probable that the outrage had 
been committed by some out-lying scout of a foraging 
party of the NgatikahuhunUy similar to that which 
had killed Puakawa. So excellent was, at this time, 
the good feeling existing between the two races, that 
the death of the lad, although involved in mystery, 
had not caused the slightest mistrust of the natives. 
I found them as comfortably domesticated as before 
in all the White peoples' houses, and as well con- 
tented with the brotherly treatment which they expe- 
rienced as on the former occasion. 

On the night of the 25th of May, the line of cot- 


ttiges which I have formerly described as " Comish- 
" row" had been burnt down ; the inflammable nature 
oi the roofs and walls having overcome all the efforts 
of the settlers of all classes, who had hurried from their 
beds to the scene on the first alarm. No lives, how- 
ever, were lost. The houseless families were received, 
some by their neighbours, some in the Company's 
emigrants' houses ; and a ready subscription had re- 
placed the burnt clothes and other things belonging to 
some of the labourers, who, being poor, could ill afford 
even so small a loss. 

The blaze had hardly subsided, when the sleepers 
were again aroused by the shock of an earthquake. 
This had been but slight, and had done no damage. I 
was much amused by the description of the alarm pro- 
duced upon some settlers, who ran out in very light 
clothing and fired their muskets and pistols, under the 
idea that a troop of natives were trying to pull the hut 
down. The natives, especially, related with great glee 
the want of presence of mind displayed by some of the 
more timid Whites. It was now remembered that 
Captain Cook had mentioned his feeling the slight 
shock of an earthquake in Ship Cove seventy years 
before, and that a shake had been felt at Te-awa-iti 
whilst we were up the Pelorus river with Jacky 
Guard. The effect seemed to have been only ])artia], 
for no one at TVanganui had ex{)erienced the slightest 

On the 30th of May, Colonel Wakefield, as Presi- 
dent of the Council, and with their consent, had issued 
a notice to the inhabitiints between the ages of eigh- 
teen and sixty, requiring them to form themselves into 
a militia under his direction. The last paragraj)h of 
the notice thus explained the motives of this measure. 


and was a good sample of the integrity of feeling upon 
which the colonists depended for a sound maintenance 
of the infant Constitution : — 

"As it is intended to occupy no more than one hour 
" in each week in this muster of the armed inhabitants, 
" the object of which is to assure the minds of all 
" persons of the existence of an adequate force for the 
" preservation of order, it is believed that all who feel 
" interested in the protection of life and property, as 
" well as in upholding the power and authority of the 
" British race, will make it a point of honour to attend 
" and answer to their names, when called upon the 
" nmster-roU, with such arms as they may be in the 
" possession of: and it is expected that the employers 
" will make no deduction from the wages of those 
** employed by them, for the small portion of time that 
" may be taken from the day's labour for the discharge 
" of an important public duty." 

The natives had been apprised of this contemplated 
arrangement, and had expressed unfeigned satisfaction. 
It was proposed that they also should be gradually 
induced to train, and the chiefs so instructed in the 
duties of officers, that the two races might eventually 
mingle in the ranks of the militia, as well as in our 
other social institutions. They did not fail to appre- 
ciate the security from the attacks of the Ngatikahu- 
himit or other hostile tribes which we should all 

On the afternoon, however, of the day on which I 
had arrived at Pitune, an agent of the British Govern- 
ment arrived in the harbour ; and these merely provi- 
sional measures were of course at an end. A boat 
from Thbrndon brought the news to Pttone at night,, 
that the Integrity had returned, bearing Lieutenant 
Shortland the Colonial ^ecreUiry, a detachment of 


thirty soldiers, and some supernumeraries, consisting of 
" mounted police " without their horses, constables, &c. 
It was rumoured that Captain Pearson and some of 
his passengers had reported us at the Bay of Islands as 
** a turbulent set of rebels, who were establishing a 
" republic at Port Nicholson," and that the thirty 
soldiers had been sent to quell the rebellion ! It was 
added, that the invading force had held no communi- 
eation with the shore, the prudent Colonial Secretary 
having probably deemed it advisable to reconnoitre 
before landing on the insurgent shore. 

Merry and loud were the jokes that rang through 
the tents up the Hutt, whither I carried the news. 
Bombastes Furioso, Tom Thumb, and Jack the Giant- 
killer, were quoted and parodied, and some hours' 
amusement was derived from this ludicrous mistake 
of the Government as to our hostility, and the over- 
whelming force which they had sent to exterminate 
us. All, however, were delighted to know that we 
were at length recognized and claimed by our natural 
protectors ; and the relief from all possible insecurity 
which seemed to be assured liy the event, hel})ed not a 
little to maintain the cheerful good-humour which 
laughed at the " questionable shape " in which the 
event came. 

The first measure of the Royalist forces was to send 
a man on shore the next morning to pull down all the 
New Zealand flags which he might find hoisted. This 
was probably an experimental measure only ; .is a 
single constable performed the task very early, almost 
before anybody was up. The man who performed this 
bold deed at Pitotie assumed, while he did it, the most 
ridiculous appearance of authority. He had been one 
of our early immigrants, brought out, 1 think, in the 
Aurora. He was usually styled "Captain" Cole, and 


had, I am inclined to believe, once been something in 
an East Indiaman. On hearing of the arrival of Cap- 
tain Hobson as Lieutenant-Governor, he had managed 
to get a passage in some craft to the Bay of Islands. 
He had succeeded in getting appointed Chief Constable 
for Port Nicholson, and had accompanied Lieutenant 
Shortland, not a little elated with his official dignity. 
Although I have often since observed the remarkable 
pomposity which a Government official of every class 
assumes in a colony, I never saw a more complete in- 
stance than Constable Cole. 

As he strode up to the flag-staff near Colonel 
Wakefield's house, on which a rather ragged New Zea- 
land flag was hung, he threw disdainful and yet cau- 
tious glances around him. When he saw that there 
were only two or three people in their night-caps peep- 
ing from their doors and windows to know who had 
been boating so early on such a cold morning, he 
plucked up spirits, and seemed to reflect that he had 
to represent the dignity of the British Crown. His 
funny little head arranged itself quite straight in a 
most appropriate military stock ; his ungainly figure 
and gait became almost martial ; he frowned sternly, 
as though to awe the rebels ; and advanced straight 
upon the flag- staff with as much resolution as though 
he had been taking Ciudad Rodrigo by storm. He 
had some little trouble in undoing the string, and it 
would not run very freely through the hole at the top 
of the staff; but at length he accomplished his gallant 
undertaking, and proceeded with a flourish to extend 
the sovereignty of England over the flags which 
adorned the snoring grog-shops along the beach. 

It was not till the 4th that Lieutenant Shortland dis- 
embarked at Thorndon, to hoist the Union jack and read 
the proclamations of the sovereignty of the Queen of Eng- 


land over New Zealand. A large assemblage of the 
colonists, including Colonel Wakefield and most of the 
members of the much-dreaded Council, joined in the 
proceedings in the most loyal manner, and expressed 
to Lieutenant Shortland their pleasure at the event. 
The soldiers landed, and encamped in tents at one end 
of Thorndon ; and Lieutenant Shortland, with his 
suite, ensconced themselves in some half-finished houses 
at that place. The other Government officers were. 
Lieutenant Smart of the 28th regiment, who was in 
command of the three or four policemen above-men- 
tioned ; Lieutenant A. D. Best, commanding the thirty 
men of the 80th ; and a Clerk of the Bench, who also 
assumed the duty of Post-master. The most ready 
submission was evinced to the legal authorities, and 
things had been so well organized by our temporary 
arrangements, that no great change seemed to take 
place. The days of the Council were only remembered 
as a time of happy freedom from lawlessness, and it 
was perhaps thought a fortunate occurrence that no 
very rude blow had ever been aimed to disturb the 
economy of the perilous experiment. It was a proud 
boast, however, for this community, that nearly 1500 
English people and 400 untutored savages had lived 
for five months without any serious breach, that could 
be traced to one of them, of the laws to which they 
were bound by nothing more than a voluntary agree- 
ment, and which could summon no physical force to 
their assistance. And this, too, in the midst of the 
troubles and anxieties of their landing and settling on 
a wild shore, far from home and any of the associations 
which might have led them to cherish their ancient 
customs ; where valuable property was constantly left 
unwatched, and even uncovered, as a tem])tation to 
crime ; where flight seemed easy, and a defiance of all 


law no great effort. The very worst examples, and oc- 
casionally great provocation from lawless outcasts of 
the most depraved habits, had not served to corrupt 
the community which restrained their excesses ; and 
even the defiance of these voluntary laws by a man of 
some station who had been no party to the agreement 
had failed to impair the strength or unity of the com- 
pact. And then, to crown all, the worth and good 
faith of this most prudent agreement was made clearly 
apparent, by the willingness, nay, the eagerness with 
which the authority was resigned into the hands of 
those who called this orderly conduct sedition and re- 
bellion. They, forsooth, although supported only by 
a physical force totally inadequate to compel submis- 
sion if resistance had been intended, assumed a dictato- 
rial tone, well calculated to irritate rioters or rebels, 
and to render them more obstinate. 

Much of this admirable result was no doubt owing 
to the British origin of the colonists, which had im- 
planted in them a respect for law proportionate to their 
love of liberty ; and some portion of it to the very 
complete state in which the young society had arrived, 
with leaders whom many of the inferiors had been 
used to respect, with clergymen, and with many of the 
arrangements which promote social order and comfort 
in the most highly civilized countries. Thus, the 
" democrats " at Port Nicholson heartily assented to 
the proclamation of the Queen's authority, while they 
could not withhold their good-humoured laughter at 
the burlesque arrogance with which it was accom- 

One feature, however, of the new authority was pe- 
culiarly repulsive to the English colonists. This was 
the presence of the " mounted police" on foot whom 


I have before mentioned. This force consists of picked 
men from the regiments quartered in New South 
Wales, who are mounted and armed to make war upon 
the reckless " bush-rangers," as the escaped convicts 
are termed in New South Wales. Admirably adapted 
for this purpose from their courage and experience, 
they formed, doubtless, a very good precaution against 
the runaways who abounded in New Zealand ; but 
they were hardly fitted to be brought into immediate 
contact with a population like the great body of our 
immigrants, who were totally unused to the rigours of 
a penal colony. The few prisoners who had been com- 
mitted for trial by Major Baker were handed over to 
the lawful authorities. They had been confined in 
one of the Company's wooden houses at Pit one, which 
was appropriated as a lock-up, and a boatful of 
"mounted police" came over to convey them to a 
thatched house at Thorndon which had been selected 
for a jail. Joe Robinson, the Englishman whom we 
had found at PFaiweiM pa, had been engaged a few 
days before in a drunken merry-making over a wed- 
ding, where some fights had occurred ; and he had 
been committed on the charge of assaulting another 
man who lay badly wounded in the adjoining wooden 
house which was the Company's infirmary. Kobinson 
himself had been a good deal hurt, and moved down to 
the boat with some difficulty. I remember sharing 
with some of the simple labourers who looked on a 
feeling of indignation at the brutal way in which one 
of the policemen repelled a friend of the prisoner's who 
offered him his assistance to walk to the boat. An 
idea of the chain-gangs of New South Wales, guarded 
by military, was called up by the displaying and jingling 
of handcuffs, carbines, and sabres, which accompanied 


the whole proceeding, A spontaneous murmur of dis- 
apj)robation arose from the little crowd as the armed 
police jumped into their boat and shoved off. 

My own first acquaintance with the new authorities 
strongly reminded me that we were now under the 
laws of New South Wales. I had stored the potatoes 
I brought from TVanganui underground in the court- 
yard of my uncle's house, which was surrounded by a 
strong fence. Several vagrant pigs, however, had found 
means to break the fence, and get at the tempting cave. 
After ineffectual attempts to stop this waste by filling 
up the gaps and pelting the pigs with stones, I deter- 
mined to give them a salutary lesson in the shape of 
small shot from a gun. The natives had willingly 
agreed to this plan, which is quite according to their 
customs, even if you kill the thieving pig, provided 
always that you leave the carcase on the spot till the 
owner fetches it away. I had been told, too, by several 
of the settlers, that, according to English law, I should 
only render myself liable to a civil action for the value 
of the pig, which might be met by another for the 
value of the potatoes, should the owner of the thief 
prove litigious. 

I was rather startled, however, to receive a summons 
by the hands of the all-important Constable Cole, to 
answer a charge before the Magistrates at Thorndon 
of shooting a pig. I appeared at the appointed time, 
and was somewhat alarmed when told by Lieutenant 
Shortland that I had rendered myself liable to seven 
years transportation, according to New South Wales 
law, by turning over a young pig who had caused 
much devastation in my potato-cave a few days before ! 
He advised me to compromise the affair ; which I im- 
mediately did by giving the owner a pound, and telling 
him that I should willingly have paid him for his pig 


had he applied tx) me in the first instance. He was 
a man from Sydney who kept a tjivern at Pitone, 
and who had thus early displayed his acquaintance with 
the penal laws, without giving me the least notice. 

A brig from Sydney about this time brought news 
that a subscription for our relief was being collected at 
that place, the most false reports having been circulated 
there that we were destitute and starving, and half- 
drowned by floods ! A speculator had hurried down 
with a cargo of flour, thinking to sell it at a high price ; 
but he could not sell a bag, and was quite surprised to 
find that we had plenty to eat. 

Not long before the arrival of the Colonial Secretary, 
Mr. Tod had carried his opposition to the settlers to 
so dangerous an extent as to call forth the severe anim- 
adversion of the Council, and the' public exposure of 
his intrigues in the ' Gazette.' He had engaged a 
large body of natives to build him a house upon the 
land to which he had laid claim, and encouraged them 
by continued presents of food and clothes, and pro- 
mises of still larger ones when the house should be 
completed, to become personally interested in the 
support of his pretensions. He was warned that, if 
he did not desist, the authorities would remove his 
house ; and had so repeated this warning to the na- 
tives, that they expressed their intention of resisting 
such an exercise of authority by force if necessary, and 
were very nearly brought into actual collision with 
some of the settlers, who vented their indignation 
alike upon the corrupting White man and the faith- 
less natives. A judicious spirit of forbearance among 
the leaders of the White people had prevented any 
breach of the peace, but the seeds of a nmtual distrust 
between the two parties had naturally been sown. 
The natives had become divided into two parties, for 


and against the honourable fulfihnent of their bargain ; 
and they had also become aware that unity did not 
prevail among the White j:eople. 

About this time, the natives at Te Aropa, where the 
Wesleyan native teachers resided, and at Pipitea, where 
Richard Davis and Robert Tod lived, showed a decided 
inclination to repudiate the sale. It was observed that 
these natives particularly attached themselves to the Go- 
vernment officers, whom they had soon discovered to be 
in some degree opposed to our feelings and proceedings. 
They became more distant in their intercourse with us, 
and apparently very wary in their conversation. Tf Unre- 
port, Epuni, and the other head chiefs, ridiculed these 
pretensions on the part of a few inferior chiefs and slave 
tribes, and told us not to regard them as of importance. 
They seemed, nevertheless, rather hurt at the greater 
distinction shown by " the men of the Queen," as they 
called the officials, to the lesser and uninfluential 
people of Pipitea and the other settlements near 
Thorndon. On returning to Pitone from I'horndon 
one day, I found Tf'^arepori in exceeding bad humour, 
haranguing a mixed audience of Whites and natives. 
He attacked me on my arrival, reproaching me and 
Wide-awake with the ftict that he was not treated 
with the consideration due to his rank and name. He 
drew two diagrams with charcoal on a billet of fire- 
wood, and said, " Look ! it ought to be, Warepori, 
" the Queen, the Governor ; but it is the Queen, the 
"Governor, Tf^arepori. This is bad." I explained 
to him that this was no fault of his old friends ; and 
that he had assented to this arrangement when he 
signed the paper and got a blanket from Williams. 
He answered with much violence, that he had not been 
made to know of any such thing when he signed it, — 
and then went sullenly into his hut. 

VOL. I. X 


Epuni, who was always distinguished by his even 
temper, and by his mild, affable manner, showed no 
such violent anger ; but he was greatly hurt, and said 
that the new White people did not seem to know the 
chiefs from the slaves. " However," continued he, 
" I do not know that this Governor can do me much 
*' good, and I shall hold tight to my first White man 
" Wide-awake." 

Our news at about this period from the Bay of 
Islands was, that the Governor was but slowly recover- 
ing from his attack of paralysis ; that he was about 
to buy a piece of land at that place of a trader named 
Clendon on Government account, and at some immense 
price ; and that the military had been called into use 
on the 20th of April in awing some riotous natives at 
the Bay of Islands. 

It appeared that the natives had refused to allow a 
Maori witness to attend a trial for murder ; and that 
they had demanded the cession of the accused, also a 
native, into their hands, that they might judge and 
punish him according to their customs. They had at 
length consented to accompany the witness, a woman, 
to the church at Kororareka, where the examination 
of the prisoner was being carried on ; but there they 
had got so warm upon the refusal of their repeated 
request for his delivery to them, that it was thought 
necessary to send for the troops. Great credit was 
said to be due to the Police Magistrate on the occasion ; 
for though no shots were fired and no blood shed, the 
natives had appeared to be convinced of the folly of 
resisting the law. 

A little dissatisfaction was now to be found among 
some of the settlers at Port Nicholson, owing to the 
delay which had appeared to exist in the survey. 
These early grumblers, however, had hardly made al- 


lowances for the obstacles presented by the hilly and 
densely wooded country in which part of the town had 
to be laid out, or for the time occupied by the first 
mistake of surveying a site in the valley of the Hutt. 
The survey was now progressing fast ; and Captain 
Smith confidently promised that the map of the town 
should be ready for inspection about the middle of 

I had now become so interested in the progress 
of the colony, — especially since the establishment of 
British government, — that instead of seeking for a 
passage towards home by one of the emigrant ships 
going to India or China for a cargo, I postponed my re- 
turn to England indefinitely, I determined to see a 
little of the first formation of a town and of the first 
agricultural operations. As the town-sections were 
not to be chosen for a month at least, I set off to spend 
this interval at Kapiti, having conceived a great desire 
to observe the proceedings of the whalers, then in full 




A colonist hires a whaling-station— PonVtm — Native custom of 
plunder — H. M. S. Herald — Kapiti — The whalers — Ingredients 
of the class — Character — Knowledge — Early history — Savage in- 
tercourse between shipping and natives — Mr. Marsden brought 
convicts to New Zealand — Sealers of the South — Foundation of 
whaling settlements in Cook's Strait — Perils — Increase in 
strength — Precarious commerce — Social arrangements — Articles 
— Laws of the Bay — The season — Banks — Whaling argot^ or 
" slang " — Preparations — The boats — The tackle — Words of 
command — Works on shore — Officers — Native wives, or wahine 
— A whale signalled — The chase — Stratagems — A new hand — 
" Making fast " — Running — She " sounds " — The headsman — 
Killing a wheJe — The ''flurry" — Towing home— Orgies — Hos- 
pitality — A whaler's house — Cleanliness — The " old man " — His 
boat — Discipline of whalers — Courage — Dispute between whalers 
and Rauperaha — Improvement among natives owing to whalers 
—Bad qualities acquired from the same source — The whalers the 
first pioneers — Their life in the new settlements — Sawyers — 
Traders — "Beach-combers" — List of whaling-stations in 1844 — 
Statistics — Inexpediency of shore-whaling — The whalers might 
have become buccaneers — Disorderly whalers — Industrious car- 
penter — Wareho fishing. 

Macgregor was just about to return to TVanganui^ 
having turned the dollars which he received for his 
charter into goods fit for bartering with the natives. 
I took a passage in the Surprise to Kapiti, and we 
sailed on the 17th of June. Having to deliver some 
casks at Porirua, where two of our colonists had hired 
Tom's fishery at Parramatta for the season, we entered 
that harbour, and anchored close to the sheers in 
twelve fathoms. A whale was being cut-in under 
them, and we took swarms of fish, which had been 
attracted by the carcass. Lieutenant Joseph Thomas, 
one of the lessees of the fishery, received me very hos- 


pitably in his hut, and described himself as highly 
amused in his new pursuit. He was an old traveller, 
and had seen many countries and people ; but he was 
most pleased with the eccentricities of the " whaling 
" mob" which he had to rule, and which he ruled very 
well. He got on very well with the natives too, hav- 
ing been recommended to the especial protection of 
Rang'ihaeata by his landlord Toms. The chief did 
protect the station from any other annoyance than his 
own ; only exacting a kind of black-mail in return on 
his frequent trips from Mana, 

I went one day with the Captain, as the whalers 
never failed to call him, to Koroiwa, a small settle- 
ment on the main opposite Mana. The leader of a 
whaling -station established at this place had been 
lately drowned in attempting to land through a heavy 
surf on the neighbouring coast. The natives had as- 
sembled from Mana and other places near to scramble 
for the property of the defunct, according to a very 
common native custom, and Rangihaeata had, as usual, 
come in for the lion's share. Some of the whalers 
intended to apply for the interference of the authorities 
in Port Nicholson. From the heights above the 
beach I witnessed a spirited chase after a whale, which 
extended far to seaward of the island. 

On another occasion I accompanied my host in an 
amphibious excursion round the north-east arm of the 
harbour. We had a canoe with us, but waded over 
some of the numerous creeks when walking along parts 
of the beach. The country is exceedingly pretty, and 
the hills moderate in height and steepness. Many 
small valleys, through which streams flow into the 
bay, afford very desirable spots for settlements. But 
few little nooks were at this time appropriated to native 


In two or three days, the Surprise having completed 
her discharging, we sailed for Kapiti with a light 
north-east breeze. Soon after crossing the bar and 
standing to seaward on the starboard tack, we saw a 
large ship bearing down from Kapiti under a press of 
sail, with studding-sails alow and aloft. I at once 
decided that she was a man-of-war ; but the skipper 
said that it might be an emigrant ship, or even a 
whaler, as these had plenty of hands to reduce sail. We 
stood across her bows about two miles from her, and 
watched her to the southward. She appeared to 
heave-to or anchor for some time at Mana, and then 
stood on, between that island and the main, towards 
Cape Terawiti. When we arrived at Kapiti my con- 
jecture was confirmed. It was the Herald frigate, 
which had picked up Rauperaha in his canoe and sailed 
on, after holding but little communication with the 

While I remained at Kapiti, I was most kindly and 
hospitably treated by all the whalers, as well as the 
natives. I soon became as it were free of the place, 
and could reckon on being a welcome guest in any 
house. I was much interested in observing the life of 
these rough men, and in finding that many generous 
and noble qualities redeemed their general inclination 
to vice and lawlessness. 

This is a class of men peculiar to the South Seas, 
and deserving of especial notice by those who take inter- 
est in looking back to the first introduction of civilized 
habits among the aboriginal inhabitants of Polynesia. 
They are peculiar in a curious contradiction of cha- 
racter ; and deserving of especial notice as having been 
the real pioneers of civilization. And their history is the 
more worthy of being recorded now, inasmuch as they 
have only existed in their purity while they were 


paving the way for more improved vehicles of civiliza- 
tion, and have naturally yielded with more ease than 
the natives to amalgamation with the race from which 
they sprang. The class still exists, and the chief 
occupation of its members tends to maintain some of 
their peculiar qualities ; but I am induced to dwell on 
what I know of their lives, habits, and character, from 
having had the opportunity of observing them whilst 
they were unimpaired in originality, and the sole di- 
rectors of change, whether for better or worse, among 
the natives. 

The class, as a whole, may be called " the whalers ;" 
though I have observed some varieties of the genus, 
which have also their own nomenclature. 

The whalers who established themselves on the 
coasts of New Zealand were composed of sailors, who 
had committed no crime, but were tempted, by the 
facility of living in comfort on shore there, to leave 
their ships ; and of runaway convicts from the neigh- 
bouring penal settlements in New South Wales and 
Van Diemen's Land. Some few, born in those colonies, 
were probably descended from members of one or the 
other of these two classes. These " currency lads," as they 
are called, are distinguished for great physical strength 
and beauty ; and have probably been indebted to their 
early acquaintance with the hardy life of a stock- 
keeper or shepherd, and their consequent experience 
of the intercourse between the White man and the 
savage, for that moral ascendancy which they generally 
acquire over their classmates in New Zealand. 

From the varied nature of these ingredients arises 
the contradiction of character for which the whalers 
are so remarkable. The frankness and manly courage 
of the sailor mingle with the cunning and reckless 
daring of the convict, or " lag," in no common manner. 


Though prone to drunkenness and its attendant evils, 
the whaler is hospitable in the extreme, and his rough- 
buiit house is a model of cleanliness and order. His 
unbounded generosity would soon have encouraged the 
covetousness of the natives to grasping and bullying, 
had he not gained universal respect among them for 
undoubted courage, and openly expressed his hatred 
and contempt for such as distinguished themselves by 
those bad qualities. His want of book-learning is coun- 
teracted by a considerable knowledge of the world ; 
the consequence of which is a remarkable power of dis- 
crimination between quackery and real ability, between 
hypocrisy and sincerity, in those with whom he meets. 
Thus, since the tirst days of regular colonization, no 
man better than a whaler can distinguish between a 
charlatan doctor, or a low-minded, hypocritical mis- 
sionary, and a doctor who knows his business, or a wor- 
thy minister of the Gospel. He is the first to expose 
and ridicule the faults of one class, while he yields a 
willing respect to the virtues and knowledge of the 

I of course speak of the general character of this 
class of men ; to which there are some terrible excep- 
tions. It is, however, highly to the credit of the whalers 
generally, that a man of notoriously bad character, 
whether a fellow-countryman or a native, meets with 
the contempt which he deserves. 

It is difficult to learn how soon this rough class of 
pioneers first established themselves in New Zealand, 
As early as 1793, the whaling-ships of different na- 
tions began to touch on the coast. Their intercourse 
with the natives was marked by great cruelty and in- 
justice on one part, great treachery and dishonesty on 
the other, and revolting blood-thirstiness and a strong 
spirit of revenge on both sides. The lives of many 


innocent persons, both native and European, were sacri- 
ficed to the feelings excited by former oppression and 
murders. It was during some part of the period be- 
tween this date and 1 807, that George Bruce, an Eng- 
lish sailor, accompanied a chief named Te Pehi ashore, 
in the north of the islands, married his daughter, and 
became, under the chief's protection, a tatued chief- 
tain himself. It appears that this was the earliest time 
at which a European ever resided in New Zealand. 
Bruce exercised a very beneficial influence over his con- 
nexions, improving the nature of the intercourse, which 
continued unabated between the shipping and the na- 
tives. But he was at last treated as a native by some 
unprincipled skipper, who decoyed him and his wife on 
board ship, landed him at JNIalacca, and sold her to an- 
other captain at Penang. 

Between that period and 1814, we can hear of no 
European having lived on shore. The scenes of bar- 
barism continued to be acted between the savages of 
both races. They had reached such a pitch in that year, 
the " massacre of the Boyd" and other similar scenes 
having attracted general attention, that the Governor 
of New South Wales issued a proclamation which 
denounced them as notorious on the occasion of the 
benevolent expedition headed by Mr. Marsden to found 
the missionary establishment at the Bay of Islands. 

From the language of this paper, it seems probable 
that some few sailors or runaway convicts had even 
ventured to reside among the natives ; and this view is 
confirmed by the fact, that two runaway convicts, de- 
sj)ised and half-starved by the natives, because idle and 
arrogant, gave themselves up to Mr. Marsden, in order 
to return to the penal colony.* 

* ' Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand performed in the 
years 1814 and 1815, in company with the Hev. Samuel Marsden, 


From the foundation of this establishment may be 
dated the spread of loose characters over the northern 
part of New Zealand. Two convicts who concealed 
themselves on board the missionary brig escaped into the 
country ; and, strange though it may appear, part of the 
retinue of the first missionaries also consisted of three 
convicts, for whose return to New South Wales within 
three years Messrs. Marsden and Kendal gave security.* 
I am unable to ascertain whether or not the security 
was forfeited. 

It is more difficult to ascertain the date at which 
sealers began to establish themselves on the southern 
coasts. Even in the end of the last century, certainly, 
parties were left with provisions and ammunition to 
collect seal-skins for colonial vessels on those coasts. 
There being but few natives in that part, it was pro- 
bably some time before the two races came into col- 
lision ; but I have met in New Zealand a person who 
is now attached as interpreter to the local Government, 
and who had about that period led the hazardous life of 
a sealer in the south. He related to me many hair- 
breadth escapes, and numerous instances in which the 
physical superiority and union of the Europeans had 
been required to maintain their position and defend 
themselves from the unprovoked aggressions of their 
treacherous neighbours. 

But the foundation of the whaling settlements on 
shore seems to have been laid about 1827, when the 
same men who had for years previously pursued the 
arduous life of a sealer along the coasts of the JNliddle 
Island and Foveaux's Strait were encouraged to en- 
gage in the pursuit of the whale, and to form esta- 

Principal Chaplain of New South Wales,' by John Liddiard 
Nicholas, Esq., in 2 vols., London, 1817, vol. i. p. 215. 
* Ibid. vol. i. p. 37 ; vol. ii. p. 206. 


blishments for that purpose in the neighbourhood of 
Queen Charlotte's Sound, Kapiti, and Cloudy Bay. 
The two latter places were for many years great 
rendezvous for whaling-ships, and some of their crews 
also formed stations on the land. 

At this period the native wars were raging in all their 
fury. Rauperaha had not yet succeeded in totally expel- 
ling " Bloody Jack " and the Nf^ahitau tribe from their 
original dwelling-place, and the European proteges, for 
they were at first no more, had to share in the hardships 
and losses of the invading tribe with whom they had fra- 
ternized. More than once their dwellings were burnt 
and their little all plundered, in a successful foray of 
the expelled inhabitants. I have already spoken of 
Fighting Bay, where a naval engagement took place 
between the canoes of the hostile tribes, from which 
Rauperaha barely escaped with his life. 

The White men, however, increased in number, 
while they rebuilt their establishments, and by com- 
munication with Sydney acquired property, by which 
they became the protectors of the natives. The 
Ngatiawa tribes, too, in their migration from Ta- 
ranaki, when expelled by the TVaikato, had formed 
populous settlements in the immediate neighbour- 
hood. The Ngahitau no longer dared come from 
the south when their invaders were well supplied 
with fire-arms and ammunition, and reinforced by the 
whalers' good boats, well manned and equipped, and 
additional native allies. The sharp lances and har- 
poons could serve as arms in case of necessity, and the 
light whale-boat was a formidable opponent to the 
unwieldy canoe. 

During the early times, too, of these establishments, 
their communication with Sydney had been very pre 
carious, and they were for a long while unprovided 


even with the means of pursuing their trade in the 
most profitable manner. The carcass of the whale 
had often to be abandoned for want of casks in which 
to stow the oil, and the whalebone was the only re- 
ward which they earned by their courage and skill. 

In 1839, when we arrived in Cook's Strait, their 
relations with Sydney were upon a more regular foot- 
ing, and they had been for several years uninterrupted 
by hostile inroads from pursuing their occupation. 
The whaling-town of " Tarwhite " I have already 
partly described, as well as the numerous stations at 
Kap'itl and Cloudy Bay. 

In the first beginning, these men associated together 
in small parties, and agreed upon one more skilful than 
the rest to direct the boat and take the principal part in 
killing the whale ; but his authority probably extended 
no further. As these establishments became more nu- 
merous, and were regularly fitted out and maintained 
by merchants in Sydney, not only were the members of 
a " party" enrolled under articles to serve for the 
season, but the head man of each obtained a species of 
despotic authority, maintained both on shore and in 
the boats by the exertion of a strong will. The result 
was a discipline almost as good as that of a man-of- 
war, which could not fail to excite admiration. 

It is very remarkable that there exists among the 
whalers a certain code of laws, handed down by tradi- 
tion, and almost universally adhered to, relating to 
adverse claims to a whale. Each whaling-bay has its 
own law or custom ; but they are generally very 
similar. It is recognized, for instance, that he who 
has once made fast has a right to the whale, even 
should he be obliged to cut his line, so long as his 
harpoon remains in her ; and each harpooner knows 
his own weapon by some private mark. The boat 


making fast to the calf has a right to the cow, because 
she will never desert her young. A boat demanding 
assistance from the boat of a rival party shares equally 
with its assistant on receiving the required help. 
These and many other regulations are never written 
down, but are so well-known that a dispute rarely 
arises, and if so, is settled according to precedent by 
the oldest " headsmen." The only instance I ever 
knew of going to law on the subject occurred in 1843, 
when a boat had seized a whale that drifted from her 
anchorage, and returned the harpoon remaining in her 
to its owner. The whale was nearly ten miles from 
the place where she was killed ; but universal indigna- 
tion was expressed against the man who insisted on 
appealing to a court of justice against the " laws of the 
" bay." 

The season for which the men engage themselves 
begins with the month of May, and lasts till the be- 
ginning of October, thus extending over five months 
which include the winter. It is during this season 
that the female or cow whales resort to the coasts of 
New Zealand with their young calves ; and this in 
such numbers during some years, that whaling- ships 
were accustomed to anchor at Kapiti, Port Underwood, 
and the ports in Banks's Peninsula, and thus to carry 
on a fishery subject to less hardship than in the open 

The men are enrolled under three denominations : — 
headsman, boat-steerer, and common man. The heads- 
man is, as his name implies, the commander of a boat ; 
and his place is at the helm except during the moment 
of killing the whale, which task falls to his lot. The 
boat-steerer pulls the oar nearest the bow of the boat, 
fastens to the whale with the harpoon, and takes his 
name from having to steer the boat under the heads- 


man's directions, while the latter kills the whale. 
The common men have nothing to do but to ply their 
oars according to orders ; except one, called the tub 
oarsman, who sits next to the tub containing the whale- 
line, and has to see that no entanglement takes place. 
The wages are shares of the profits of the fishery, apr 
portioned to the men according to their rank ; — the 
headsman getting more shares than the boat-steerer, 
and the boat-steerer than the common man. The 
leader of the " party" commands one of the boats, is 
called the " chief headsman," and is said to " head" the 
party, as each headsman is said to " head" his own boat. 
The boat-steerer or harpooner is likewise said to " steer" 
the boat to which he belongs, or, more frequently, its 
headsman. Thus, on meeting two whalers, and asking 
them what is their situation, one might answer, ** I 
" heads the Kangaroo," while the other would say. 
" and I steers Big George." 

Their whole language in fact is an argot, or slang, 
almost unintelligible to a stranger. All their principal 
characters enjoy distinctive appellations, like the heroes 
of the Iliad. Thus I know one of the chief headsmen 
who was never called anything but " the old man." 
Another was called " Long Bob ;" a third " Butcher 
** Nott;" and a fourth, an American, "Horse Lewis,*' 
to distinguish him from his two brothers of the same 
name. I have already said that Joseph Toms, of Te- 
awa-iti and Porirua, never went by any other name than 
" Geordie Bolts." Another was only known as " Bill 
"the Steward." " Flash Bill," " Gipsey Smith," and 
" Fat Jackson," " French Jim," " Bill the Cooper," 
and " Black Peter," may be allowed to conclude our 
selection from the titles of the whaling peerage. Then 
every article of trade with the natives has its slang 
term, — in order that they may converse with each 


other respecting a purchase without initiating the 
native into their calculations. Thus pigs and pota- 
toes were respectively represented by " grunters " and 
" spuds; " guns, powder, blankets, pipes, and tobacco, by 
" shooting-sticks, dust, spreaders, steamers/' and" weed;" 
A chief was called a " nob ;" a slave, a "doctor;'' a 
woman, a " heifer ;" a girl, a *' titter;" and a child, a 
" squeaker" Then for the different native chiefs they 
had also private names, — such as " Satan," " the Old 
"Sarpent," "the Bully," "the Badger," "the Sneak," 
" the Greybeard," " the Murderer," " the Wild Fel- 
" low," and " the Long un." 

The parties enrolled in Sydney received an advance 
and spent it there ; a brig or schooner then carried the 
whole " mob," as the party was sometimes called, to 
their station in New Zealand, with new boats, tackle, 
provisions, spirits, goods with which to barter for fire- 
wood and fresh food from the natives, clothing, tobacco, 
and various other necessaries, which were placed under 
the care of the chief headsman, and charged to him at 
an immense profit by the owner of the party in Sydney, 
as an advance on the produce of the season. Arrived in 
New Zealand, the party was joined by such members as 
had considered it convenient or agreeable to spend their 
summer there, and soon stood on a complete footing. 

The boats, which are now painted and fitted 
up, deserve a particular description. The whale- 
boat is a long clinker-built boat, sharp at both 
ends, and higher out of water at the head and stern 
than amidships, about twenty to thirty feet long, and 
varying in breadth according to the make. At the 
stern, a planking even with the gunwales reaches five 
or six feet forward, and is perforated perpendicularly 
by the loggerhead, a cylindrical piece of wood about 
six inches in diameter, which is used for checking the 


whale-line by taking a turn or two round it. On this, 
too, it is customary to cut a notch for every whale 
killed by the boat. The old-fashioned boats were ge- 
nerally made to pull five oars, the rowers of which 
were called respectively, beginning from the bow, the 
boat-steerer, bow-oarsman, midship-oarsman, tu])-oars- 
man, and after-oarsman. Boats are now built, how- 
ever, for the shore-parties, to pull six, seven, and even 
eight oars. I believe an uneven number is the best, 
as in that case there remains an equal force on each 
side of the boat when the boat-steerer, who is also 
harpooner, stands up to do his work. The boat is 
steered by means of a long and ponderous oar, called 
the steer-oar, which leans on a piece of wood fixed to 
the stern-post, and is confined to its place by a strap 
reaching from the top of the stern-post to the end of 
the support. The oar, however, moves freely in this 
loop, and is generally covered with leather for eighteen 
inches of its length to protect it from wear and tear. 
Close to the handle is a transverse iron peg, which is 
held with the right hand, and serves to turn the oar. 
The headsman stands up to steer in the stern-sheets, and 
exhibits great skill in the management of the steer-oar, 
which is twenty-seven feet long in large boats. In a 
rough sea, an inexperienced }»erson would not fiiil to be 
thrown overboard by it, but a whaler manages it with 
great ease and grace. The oars pull between thole- 
pins, which always have a small thole-mat and spare 
pin attached, and are also protected by leather. On 
the opposite side of the boat to the tholes, below the 
level of the thwarts, a piece of wood with a small niche 
is strongly fixed to the side of the boat. This is for 
" peaking the oars," or placing the handles into, with- 
out taking the oar out of the thole, so that the blade of 
the oar remains out of reach of the water, whether 


sailing or running when fast to a whale. A boat in 
the act of peaking her oars to stop, is said to " heave 
" up." The mast and large lug-sail are stowed, while 
rowing, under the after-thwart with the other end pro- 
jecting on the starboard hand of the helmsman, who 
can thus stow or unstow it himself. A whiff, or light 
flag-staff with fancy colours attached, is stowed with 
the mast and sail. The mast is shipped in the bow or 
second thwart, and the halyards are made fast to the 
midship-thwart. These boats are very fast under sail, 
and will bear a great press of canvas. In the bow of 
the boat a planking, similar to that in the stern, reaches 
some three or four feet aft, and has at its after end a 
notch large enough to admit a man's leg. This is to 
steady the harpooner while striking the whale. One 
of the forward thole-pins is called the crutch^ from 
having branches on it which support the harpoons ready 
for use. The harpoon is an iron weapon, shaped like 
the top of a fleur-de-lis, and barbed so as not to draw 
out. It is placed on an ashen handle, five feet long, 
and its point is covered by a small wooden case. The 
line is already fast to them, and communicates with 
two tubs in the middle of the boat, in which two hun- 
dred fathoms of whale-line are neatly coiled. Spare 
harpoons, and lances with oval steel-pointed heads, all 
covered at the points, are ranged under the thwarts ; a 
light kedge is in the head-sheets, a water-keg and a 
bottle of grog are placed in the stem-sheets, with the 
pea-coats of the crew, and a box of biscuit if they ex- 
pect to remain out late. Sometimes a " spade " is added 
to the armoury of the boat ; this is a sharp iron weapon, 
like a small baker's shovel, on a long handle. It is 
used by some of the boldest whalers to cut about the 
whale's tail and render her less dangerous after she has 
been struck. 

VOL. I. Y 


The boats are fancifully painted by their headsmen 
with mouldings of different colours, and a *' nose " dif- 
ferent from the body. In the nose is generally painted 
some fanciful design, as a star, a crescent, a ball, or an 
eye. The name, too, frequently figures along the out- 
side of the stern-sheets. 

The words of command are, as they need be, short 
and clear: one side is called the two-side, where the 
two oars are in the five-oared boat, and the other the 
three-side ; but in giving directions, the headsman only 
says, " pull two, back three," or vice versa. The other 
terms of head all, starn all, peak, heave up, &c., require 
no explanation. These boats are remarkably lively in 
a sea-way, will run very long before a gale of wind with 
safety, and will land safely through a very high surf. 
They often run on when they are obliged to reef the 
sail by fastening the weather yard-arm to the gunwale ; 
and are believed capable of standing any weather, if 
hove-to with the steer-oar peaked, under the lee of a 
raft formed of the oars, mast, and sail. Some years 
ago, two whale-boats reached Guam in safety from 
Drummond's reef near the Equator, where their vessel 
had been wrecked. During heavy weather, they had 
frequent recourse to this plan, in the course of their 
perilous voyage of two thousand miles. 

The try'Works, or large iron vats for boiling out the 
oil, are also cleaned, repaired, or renewed as circum- 
stances may require ; the ways for launching the boats 
are strengthened and repaired ; the sheers and scaf- 
folding with their tackle, the windlass, and planked 
way, used for cutting the blubber off the whale, are 
looked to, and made fit for use ; the boat-sheds, dwell- 
ing-houses, cook-house, and cooperage are made wea- 
ther-tight against the winter; and the provisions 
and other " property " are stowed away. The proper 


officers have been selected — such as cooper, carpenter, 
steward, cooks, painter, and "tonguer." The last- 
mentioned dignitary takes his name from having an 
exclusive right to the oil obtained from the tongue 
and other interior parts of the whale, in payment of 
his duty of " cutting-in," or dissecting, the whale. To 
a large party there was generally attached a clerk, who 
kept the accounts of each man at the store ; that is to 
say, that the men were all allowed to run into debt at 
the beginning of the season, receiving clothing, to- 
bacco, and spirits at most exorbitant prices, so that the 
balance, if any, to be paid them in money at the end 
of the season might be as small as possible. Then the 
station was provisioned with potatoes and firewood 
bought from the natives ; pigs bought, killed, and 
salted down, and every preparation made. 

A very important one was the providing the whole 
party with native wives for the season. Those men 
who had remained during the summer were generally 
provided with a permanent companion, among whose 
relations they had been living, either in perfect idle- 
ness, or employed in cultivating a small patch of land, 
or in buying pork and potatoes from the natives and 
selling them again for goods to the ships which 
touched on the coast. But the men who returned 
regularly with the oil to Sydney, or were then enter- 
ing on their first season, went with such of their 
comrades as were well known by the natives to the 
different villages in the neighbourhood, for the purpose 
of procuring a helpmate during the season. Regular 
bargains were struck between the experienced headsman 
or boat-steerer and the relations of the girls selected 
and in most cases the bargains were punctually ad- 
hered to. In cases where the wife was negligent or 
slow to learn her duties "of cooking, clothes-mending, 



and washing, the uncle or father would often take 
away the delinquent and bring another more fitted to 
perform his part of the bargain. The whaler's part 
consisted in a payment made on the completion of the 
bargain, and in a certain degree of indulgence to the 
begging visits of his new relations during the season. 
This provision appears to be looked upon as a necessary 
one by the headsmen ; and doubtless contributes 
much to the cleanliness, steadiness, and good order oi 
the men. The duty of the wahine is to get up an 
hour before daybreak ; cook the breakfast and arrange 
what her lord means to take in the boat, which ought 
to start before the day ; wash and mend his clothes ; 
keep the house in order ; and prepare his supper for 
his return. Then upon her reposes the task of grant- 
ing hospitality to the traveller while the master of the 
house is away. And to these she often adds the \o- 
luntary one of exposing herself to the brutality of the 
latter and his companions, excited by her attempts to 
dissuade him from the drunken orgies and wild scenes 
of combat which frequently succeed the return from 
the chase. ITiese whalers' wives are generally distin- 
guished by a strong affection for their companion ; are 
very quick in acquiring habits of order and cleanli- 
ness ; facilitate the intercourse between the whalers 
and their own countrymen ; and often manage to ob- 
tain a strong influence over the wild passions of the 
former. Wives in everything but the ceremony, 
many of them l)ecome so formally on the arrival of an 
English clergyman in the neighbourhood. They 
form a very pleasing part of the picture, assisting in 
the civilization of their own countrymen by showing 
their esteem for the estimable qualities of the half- 
civilized man, while they partly succeed in softening 
and destroying those blameable features in his rough 


character which nature teaches them to pity rather 
than to despise. 

The preliminary orgies are nearly over ; the clerk 
stops the advances until something has been earned ; 
the headsmen administer a severe personal castigation 
to some few notorious characters who grumble at 
this curtailment of their ease; the boats are prac- 
tised every day in pulling and sailing ; when at length, 
one morning early in JMay, a whale is signalled from a 
hill near the bay, where a look-out is constantly kept. 

Three or four boats are quickly launched, and leave 
the ways at a racing-pace ; the boats of the rival sta- 
tions are seen gathering towards the same point ; and 
the occasional spout of the whale, looking like a small 
column of smoke on the horizon, indicates the direc- 
tion to be taken. A great deal of stratagem and ge- 
neralship is now shown by the different headsmen in 
their manceuvres to be first " alongside." The whale 
may probably go for two or three miles in one direc- 
tion, and then, after the various speed of the boats has 
placed them in a long file, tailing one after the other, 
suddenly reverse the position by appearing close to the 
last boat. The six and seven oared boats have greatly 
the advantage while the chase continues in a straight 
line ; but the short, old-fashioned five has the best of 
it if the fish makes many turns and doubles. It is 
very common for some of the boats to dog the motions 
of that of a rival party commanded by a headsman of 
known experience ; and thus two boats may some- 
times be seen starting suddenly in a direction to- 
tally opposed to that taken by the others, and a race 
shortly begins between these two, the rest having no 
chance. The "old file" in one of these two has 
guessed from some circumstance in the tide, wind, or 
weather, or from some symptom noticed in the last 


spout, that the fish would alter its course a point or 
two ; and another headsman, who has been atten- 
tively watching his movements, at last declares that 
" George is off," and, with a fresh word of encourage- 
ment to his crew, follows swiftly in his wake. 

The chase now becomes animatino^ : this last 'ma- 
nceuvre has cut off a considerable angle described by 
the whale ; her course and that of the boats almost 
cross each other ; and the crisis seems ap])roaching. 
The headsman urges his rowers to exertion by en- 
couraging descriptions of the animal's appearance. 
" There she breaches ! " * shouts he ; " and there goes 
" the calf ! " " Give way, my lads ; sharp and strong 's 
" the word ! — there she spouts again ! — give way in 
" the lull ! — make her spin through it ! George a'n't 
" two boats' lengths a-head of us. Hurrah ! Now 
" she feels it, — pull while the squall lasts ! Pull ! — 
" go along, my boys !" All this time he is helping the 
after-oarsman by propelling his oar with the -left hand 
while he steers with the right. This is technically 
called " backing-^p" Each oar bends in a curve ; the 
foam flies from her bows as a tide-ripple is passed ; and 
both boats gain perceptibly on the whale. " And 
" there goes flukes ! " continues the headsman, as the 
huge animal makes a bound half out of water, and 
shows its broad tail as it plunges again head-first into 
the sea. " Send us alongside, my lads — now give 
" way ! — hurrah, my bonnies — hearty and strong ! — 
" hurrah ! I '11 wager a pint (there goes the calf 
" again !) — I '11 wager she tries out eight tun if she 
" makes a gallon — hurrah ! hurrah ! hurrah then ! — 
" three or four strokes more and she '11 come up under 
" our nose. Stand up. Bill !" The boat-steerer })eaks 
his oar, places one leg in the round notch in the front 
* She leaps out of the water. 


of the boat, and poises the harpoon, with line attached, 
over his head. 

A new hand, pulling one of the oars, begins to look 
frightened, and flags at his work, looking occasionally 
over his shoulder ; a volley of oaths from the headsman 
accompanies a threat to " break every bone in his skin 
" if he funks now ;" and, beginning to fear the man 
more than the fish, he hardens his heart and pulls 
steadily on. 

A momentary pause is occasioned by the disappear- 
ance of the whale, which at last rises close to the rival 
boat. Their boat-steerer, a young hand lately pro- 
moted, misses the whale with his harpoon, and is 
instantly knocked down by a water-keg flung full in 
his face by his enraged headsman, who spares no " bad 
" French" in explaining his motives. Our original 
friend then manoeuvres his boat steadily to the place 
where the whale will probably appear next. " Pull 
" two, back three !" shouts he, following a sudden turn 
in the whale's wake ; and, as she rises a few yards in 
front of the boat, he cries in rapid succession, " Look 
" out ! — all clear ? — give it her ! " and the harpoon 
flies true and straight into the black mass. This is 
called " making fast." " Peak your oars," says the 
headsman ; the line whistles over the bow ; a turn is 
taken round the loggerhead to check the rapidity with 
which the line runs out, and the boat flies positively 
through the water, forming ridges of foam high above 
her sides. The men sit still with folded arms by their 
peaked oars, the boat-steerer with a small hatchet in 
his hand to cut the line should any entanglement 
occur ; and the after-oarsman occasionally pours water 
on the loggerhead, which smokes furiously. Now is 
shown the skiM of the headsman in steering the boat 
at this tremendous speed, and in watching every mo- 


tk>n of the frightened whale. Now he gives directions 
to " haul in," when the line slackens ; now says 
" veer away again," as the fish takes a new start ; and 
ever and anon terrifies the new hand, who can't tell 
what's going to happen, into a sort of resignation. 
The others seem to think the " running " rather a 
relief from work than anything else ; they positively 
look as if they would smoke their pipes, were it not 
against all rule. 

The whale rapidly takes the line, — and the 200 
fathoms in the boat are nearly exhausted by its sudden 
determination to try the depth of water, technically 
called " sounding ;" — but another boat of the same 
party, which had " hove up," or peaked her oars, when 
the chase was resigned to the two, comes up in answer 
to a whiff hoisted by our boat, and fixes a new harpoon 
in the whale as she rises to take breath. She soon 
becomes exhausted with her efforts, runs less rapidly, 
and rises more frequently to the surface ; and the heads- 
man at last foresees the lucky moment. 

" Come aft ! " he cries ; and he and the boat-steerer 
change places. The boat ceases her progress as the 
whale stops to rest. "Down oars, — give way!" are 
the orders given in sharp, clear tones ; and the crew, at 
least the old hands, know that he is nerved for his 
work by the decision apparent in his voice, and the 
way in which he balances the sharp, bright, oval- 
pointed lance. 

The whale seems to sleep on the surface ; but she 
is slowly preparing for a move as the boat comes up. 

He follows her every movement. " A steady pull ! 
" Row dry, boys ! — lay on ! Pull two, back three ! — 
" lay on ! head of all ! lay me alongside !" and, as the 
whale slowly rolls one fin out of water, the lance flies 
a good foot into the spot below where the " life" is 


said to be. The quick obedience to his instant order 
of " starn all — lay off !" saves the boat from annihila- 
tion, as the whale swings round its huge tail out of 
water, and brings it down with a tremendous report. 
She then " breaches," or leaps, and plunges in every 
direction ; the headsman continues to direct his crew 
and boat-steerer, while he poises a new lance, and 
keeps just out of the vortex formed by her evolutions ; 
the assistant boat and a third one have come up, and, 
being all of one party, watch outside the splashing for 
the best chance. One goes in, and having fixed a 
lance, receives a blow which smashes the boat and two 
men's legs ; the third boat picks up the men ; our 
hrst man at last gets steered into the vortex, gives a 
well-aimed lance in the life, and retreats from the 
foam, which receives a roseate hue. The monster leaps 
out of the sea, flourishing her tail and fins, and strikes 
the water with a noise as loud as cannon. She wrig- 
gles, and plunges, and twists, more furiously than 
ever, and splashes blood over the boat's crew, who 
still restrain their excitement and remain collected in 
all that they do. She is now in her "flurry;" — she 
is said to " spout thick blood ;" and is a sure prize. 
The boat, by great good management, escapes all 
accident ; and the headsman chuckles as he cuts a 
notch on the loggerhead, and gives the crew a " tot 
" all round," promising the novice that he will have to 
treat the party to a gallon to-night, in order to pay his 
footing on killing his first fish. 

If the tide is favourable, all the boats of the party 
assemble, and tow the whale home ; if unfavourable, 
she is anchored for the night ; and the boats reach the 
ways at dusk. A drunken rejoicing lasts till the middle 
of the night ; the headsmen meet in the principal ware 
at supper, and spin long yarns about their old whaling 


feats, the speed of their new boats, the strength of their 
crews, and the likelihood of a good season ; the doctor, 
generally the runaway surgeon of a whaling-ship, who 
gets fed and clothed by all the neighbouring stations, 
attends to the broken limbs ; and the little town gra- 
dually subsides into silence, now and then interrupted 
by the barking of a bull-dog from one of the huts, or 
the jibbering of a night-bird (called the titi porangi) 
as it flies across the bay. So passes the season ; except 
that while a whale is trying out, the operation goes on 
night and day ; alternate gangs, still commanded by 
their headsmen, being " on watch " at the try-works. 
This has been already described at Te-awa-iti. 

Should a stranger visit the settlement on his travels, 
he is met by a hearty welcome. The best of eating 
and drinking is placed before him ; the steward and 
the women are ordered to attend to him while the 
boats are away ; and the best bunk is prepared for him 
at night. For the information of those who do not 
know what a bunk is, I must explain that it is a bed- 
place built against the wall of a house or ship. They 
are commonly ranged in double tier, like those in the 
saloon of a Channel steamer. 

A whaler's house is generally built by the natives. 
It is either entirely composed of reeds and rushes woven 
over a wooden frame, — or else the walls consist of a 
wattled hurdle made of supple-jack (kareau) covered 
inside and out with clay, and the roof is thatched. A 
huge chimney nearly fills one end of the house ; — and 
generally swarms with natives, iron pots and kettles, 
favourite dogs, and joints of the whale's backbone, 
which serve as stools. A view of some fine hams, 
bacon, and fish, repays the exertion of peering through 
the wood-smoke up the chimney. Bunks with neat 
curtains line the greater part of the sides of the house. 


A large deal table and two long benches stand in the 
middle of the hard earthen floor. The rafters support 
spare coils of rope, oars, masts and sails, lances, spades 
and harpoons, and a tin oil-lamp carefully burnished. 
Two square holes in the wall serve as windows, with 
wooden shutters for the night. The harness-cask (for 
salt meat), flour-keg, and water-butt, stand on one side, 
and a neat dresser, shining with bright tin dishes and 
a few glasses and articles of crockery, on the other 
side of the door. On the threshold an old mongrel 
pig-dog, scarred all over the head and neck by repeated 
battles, lies repelling the advances of a tame sow, and 
those of some begging natives, who have an equal 
desire to be allowed the opportunity of picking up any- 
thing which may have been left about inside. Two 
or three of the Maori are asleep, rolled in their 
blankets against the sunny wall ; and a few half-caste 
children are playing with the goats or hallooing at the 
fowls and pigeons on the oily beach before the house. 
The great cleanliness and neatness which prevail 
in the house, and in the dress of the native women 
and their children, reminds one of a Dutch coaster ; 
this is evidently a point on which the whaler is ex- 
ceedingly particular. 

Should a vessel heave in sight, boats will pull out 
a long distance to meet her, and pilot her in. This 
arises partly from a wish to hear news, and partly 
from the proverbial readiness of the sailor to assist his 
fellow. When the Tory was lying at Kapiti in Oc- 
tober 1839, a brig was seen to the southward, making 
vain attempts to reach the anchorage against a strong 
north-west gale. Ignorant of the locality, and weak- 
handed, the captain was exposing himself to the un- 
favourable tide, and losing ground. Tommy Evans, 
the " old man" who headed the principal station. 


started in the worst of the gale to get on board. The 
vessel was badly managed, and, by wearing instead of 
tacking, missed the boat, which was thus left about 
three miles from the station, in the midst of a heavy 
tide-rip, to struggle back against a spring-tide and 
gale of wind. For two hours the boat remained 
pulling in the same spot, unable to advance. At 
length the tide slackened, and we saw the tired crew 
haul up the boat on the ways. The brig was by this 
time ten miles off, and the gale more violent than 
ever. One of the men muttered as he walked to his 
house that " he had not signed to pull after Sydney 
" brigs." The "old man" turned round and said with 
a string of oaths, " You grumble, do you ? I shall pull 
"out to her again. — Launch my boat!" and it was 
with great difficulty that he was dissuaded from the en- 
terprise, which would probably have been his last. This 
man's station on Tokomapuna, or Evans's Island, was 
always a model of discipline. His boat might have 
been taken for a fancy gig from a man-of-war or yacht. 
She was painted flesh-colour, with a red nose bearing 
the Prince of Wales's feather ; and her name, the 
" Saucy Jack," was painted near the stern. The crew 
were generally in a sort of uniform ; — red or blue 
worsted shirts, with white binding on the seams, — 
white trowsers, and sou'-westers. A mat was in the 
stem sheets ; the tholes, were carefully covered with 
matting ; the harpoons, lances, mast and sail, and the 
very whiff, were protected by covers of canvass painted 
green. When she dashed alongside a vessel at anchor, 
the oars were shipped, and the steer-oar was drawn in 
and received by the after-oarsman as the headsman 
left the boat. She was then shoved off, with a line 
from her bow thwart to the vessel, each man remain- 
ing at his place, in regular man-o'-war style. The 


same order and discipline is preserved at the different 
look-outs where the men land, while waiting till 
whales appear. If there is deep water, the boat is 
moored off the beach, with a shore-line ; if it is on a 
shallow coast, as between TVaikanae Point and Otaki, 
the boat is hauled up out of the tide and supported by 
chocks, and a boat-keeper constantly attends to her. 
Two fires are lighted for each crew ; at one are the 
headsman and boat-steerer, the rest of the men at the 

They have sometimes very hard work : in seasons 
when the whales are scarce, I have seen boats from 
Kapiti at Horowenita, a distance of fifteen miles to 
windward, half an hour after daylight. And the whole 
distance is rowed without a rest ; it is not until arrived 
on the ground selected for the day that the headsman 
allows them to peak their oars and light a pipe. 

They seem to dare the elements on almost all occa- 
sions. I have seen a whale-boat leave Wellington for 
Kaikora, to the south of Cape Campbell, in a gale of 
wind which kept many small coasters in, only because 
Black Murray, the chief headsman, thought his men 
had enjoyed drinking enough on their advances, and 
because he thought it easier to get them away to the 
station while they were intoxicated. He got safe across, 
having performed, by means of his own skill and pre- 
sence of mind, a task most difficult and dangerous even 
to a sober boat's crew. 

During the season of 1843, a whale pursued by seve- 
ral rival boats fied into the surf which breaks a quarter 
of a mile from the shore off Otaki in or after heavy 
weather. Most of the boats " hove-up " outside the surf ; 
and I believe none of the headsmen would have engaged 
even to land that day without capsizing. But " Bill the 
* " Steward," who was luckily heading a short, handy 


boat, went boldly in after the fish, fastened, ran, and 
killed her, all in the surf. 

This remarkable decision and courage has also dis- 
tinguished them in their disagreements with the na- 
tives. Early in 1843, Rauperaha and Rangihaeata, 
intent upon plunder, picked a quarrel with a man 
named " Long George " who headed a small two-boat 
station on the main island of Kapiti. They surprised 
him one morning, attended by their retinue, and took 
away everything that he had, including his boats, to 
Rauperaha^ island. He managed to communicate with 
the two large whaling-stations. The head of that on 
Evans's Island refused to interfere, dreading the inter- 
vention of the Magistrates at Wellington. The heads- 
men of that at Te Kau o te rangi seem to have known 
how groundless such fears were, and settled the affair 
with promptitude and effect. They filled two or three 
boats with men armed with lances, harjxjons, spades, 
or old rusty muskets, and pulled straight down to Rau^ 
perahas island. 

He came out on the beach as they approached, and 
began " bouncing," as it is called, and asking their in- 

" We'll show you when we're ashore!" answered 
they ; and jumping out of their boats, they surrounded 
him and Rangihaeata with their dangerous wea}>ons, 
and demanded instant restitution of everything that had 
been taken. 

The request was immediately granted, as well as the 
additionally submissive terms of making the natives 
themselves launch the boats and put the other goods 
into them. They then left the humbled ruffians, with 
a promise to drive them right away from Kapiti if they 
committed another like offence. 

In some of the stations, the common men are all 


native lads; — and those who have employed them 
speak well of the experiment. It may be supposed that, 
in consequence of this custom, and that of having native 
wives, tiie whalers had effected a considerable change 
among the natives before the arrival of the Tory. We 
found many who dressed constantly in European 
clothes, and spoke a good deal of English ; — some few 
had acquired a considerable knowledge of carpentering; 
the canoes were most of them sailed with duck sails 
instead of ^ flax ones, and steered with a steer-oar, in 
imitation of the boats. Two boats were fitted out from 
the native village of ff^ekanui, close to Te-awa-iti, 
entirely by natives ; who, though they never succeeded 
in killing a whale, often made fast, and received 20/. 
for each one from the boat which profited by their ex- 
ertions. Hiko always travels in a whale-boat, and has 
been known to fasten on a whale. The natives to the 
south are said to be still more forward in their imi- 
tation of the industry and skill of the whalers and 
sealers. The Ngahitau tribe are reported to own 
thirty large sealing-boats. Some of these I have seen 
at Kapiti, during a visit made by some chiefs of that 
tribe to Rauperaha. They are exceedingly fine sea- 
boats, managed with a steer-oar, round at both ends, 
and rigged with two lug-sails. " Bloody Jack," their 
principal chief, is said to manage his boat with the 
courage and skill of an Englishman, and to keep out 
at sea in harder weather than any of his countrymen 
during their expeditions along the coast to collect 

But the bad points of the whaler's character have 
also passed, with the very worst effiBct, into the dispo- 
sition of some of the natives. They have acquired, in 
some few cases, the habits of drinking ; in many, 
boastful and insolent behaviour, and callousness to 


feeling. The old chiefs have become accustomed to be 
bribed and flattered into good-humour in the early 
days when the whalers were not numerous enough to 
defend themselves, and also in the summer when they 
are dispersed about. In consequence, these chiefs have 
acquired an overbearing, grasping, and bullying demean- 
our ; which, though laughed at by the whalers when 
assembled, falls with redoubled force on new-comers 
unused to deal with them, or on scattered settlers. 
They never fail to try it on every European with whom 
they meet. In some revolting instances, (but these, I 
will say, are exceptions,) the natives have been incited 
and assisted in hostility towards the colonists by some 
of the whalers. I believe that the whalers, as a class, 
would be the first to brand such wretches with infamy, 
if fully convicted of the crime. 

The whalers had thus, before our arrival, braved the 
first dangers of the intercourse between the savage and 
the civilized man ; — they had explored the coast and 
seaboard country, and had introduced new wants as 
well as new vices, and a considerable degree of respect 
for the physical qualities of the pakeka among the abo- 
riginal population. With the exception of the expedi- 
tion made by Marsden in 1814, 1 believe that in every 
instance these rough pioneers had smoothed the way for 
a more valuable civilization ; and that the missionaries, 
or the settlers, followed on their traces. I mention 
this with no wish to detract from the credit due to that 
system which first proposed to seek the benefit of the 
natives alone, and to obtain a deserved moral influence 
over them ; but I state as a curious fact, that, whether 
as whalers and sealers in the south, or sawyers and flax 
or provision traders in the north, the first rough and 
unconscious pioneers of civilization were those who 
experienced the greatest hardships ; and that they 


preserved their station among the natives by the display 
of their physical force. 

In his dealings with the European settlements, the 
whaler very much resembles a sailor oflpa cruise. After 
the men have been paid the balance due to them at 
the end of the season, they go to Wellington or Nelson 
to spend it. The trade of supplying them and buying 
their oil has naturally fallen out of the hands of the 
Sydney merchants, into those of persons at Wellington, 
who pay them better, and send the oil direct to Eng- 
land. During six weeks or two months, Wellington 
becomes a Portsmouth in miniature. Every public- 
house has its fiddle and hornpipe going ; a little 
theatre fills once a-week ; and the weak constabulary 
force of Wellington suffers from various practical jokes. 
Boat-races, on which heavy bets sometimes depend, 
come off, and an occasional fight, arising from the pro- 
found contempt which the whaler expresses for the 
" lubber of a jimmy-grant^ as he calls the emigrant, 
completes the programme of the amusements during 
the period. Should the whaling-trade increase and 
prosper, the quiet people will soon be forced to reside 
in villas out of town, and resign Wellington to its busi- 
ness as a sea-port. When the money is spent, most of 
the men seek for employment in the settlements. 

Some join with the sawyers, a class of men who are 
composed of nearly the same materials, and whose cha- 
racter is somewhat congenial to that of the whaler, as 
they live a wild life in the forest on the outskirts of the 
settlements, love drink, and have known many of the 
same places and people. The sawyer's habits, however, 
do uot encourage the same hardy daring, or an equal 
degree of order and cleanliness. The sawyer proper is 
decidedly an inferior grade of the whaler. 

Others trade with the natives for pigs and potatoes, 



wWcli they" bring to market in the settlements. The 
mere trader, also, is naturally a degree below the 
whaler. In order to make a profit, he must take pains 
to fawn and flatter the natives, without making any 
unnecessary presents ; a task very difficult, and debasing 
in its moral effects. The best man is the one who 
retires, after his " spree," to the village where the tribe 
of his native woman reside, and spends the summer in 
cultivating a bit of land given to him by the natives. 
Some few of these are in constant doubt between the 
quiet pleasures of agriculture and a domestic life, and 
the wild excitement of the whale-chase. I have heard 
more than one declare, as he showed me his neat patch 
of wheat, or promising fruit-trees, that " he had had 
" enough of whaling," he should " let those fag that 
" would next year ;" but the 1st of May saw him again 
at his steer-oar, eagerly backing up, and shouting, 
" There she spouts !" 

^" The lumberers and sawyers of the kauri districts, 
the pork and flax traders who catered for the Sydney 
coasters for many years in the Northern Island, at 
Kawia, Taranake, the Bay of Plenty, and Poverty 
Bay, and Rotorua and the other neighbouring inland 
districts, were all of the same class, and have often dis- 
played the same reckless courage while taking a part 
in the native wars. The sealers of the south were as 
nearly as possible the same men, and were distinguished 
for the same qualities. 

The refuse of these different classes is to be met with 
in all parts of the islands. Idle, drunken, vagabond, 
and vicious in his habits, he would become the bush- 
ranger of New Zealand were there temptation enough 
for such a class. As it is, he wanders about without 
any fixed object, cannot get employed by the whaler or 
any one else, as it is out of his power to do a day's 


work ; and he is universally known as the " beach- 
comber." He often visits the apologies for jails which 
are suffered to exist in the new settlements ; but only 
remains in them as long as it suits his convenience to 
be fed at the public expense. One of them, an Irish- 
man well known in Cook's Strait as " Larry," after 
escaping from the hut called a prison, which then 
sheltered the bad characters at Wellington, declared 
his intention of "walking to Sydney hy land this 
" sason ! " 

The whaling stations dependent on Wellington in 
the season 1844 were as follows : — 

On the North Island there were — 

2 boats at Mana ; 
■''^' 7 „ Kapiti; 

11 „ Hawke's Bay ; 

3 „ Palliser Bay ; 
2 „ Taranaki ; 

and on the Middle Island there were — 
2 boats at Te-awa-iti ; 

7 „ Port Underwood ; 

8 „ Kaikora, south of Cape Campbell ; 

4 boats near Port Cooper ; 

9 „ on the south side of Banks's Peninsula ; 
2 „ fWaikawaiki, between that and 

Otako ; and 
11 „ stations further south. 

Many of the thirty-two stations to which these boats 
belong have removed from Cook's Strait to places fur- 
ther south which have been thought more available. 
These sixty-eight boats employed in their own manage- 
ment and that of the small craft attending on them 
about 650 men. 

In the last season they procured 1215 tuns of oil, 



and 49 tons of whalebone ; worth altogether about 
50,000/. in the London market. 

The success of the fishery varies, of course, every 
season ; but there is every reason to think that it is on 
the decline. The whales are, doubtless, unnecessarily 
thinned by the practice of killing the cows, and even 
the young calves, who do not survive the practice of 
making fast to them in order to catch their mother. 

The shoals seem to set in from the southward late 
in April or in the beginning of May, and are seen 
first in Cook's Strait, at Palliser Bay and Port Un- 
derwood. They then proceed up the Strait, preferring 
the north shore, which is generally shoal, and thus 
passing close to Mana and Kapiti. They fill the 
shoal " Motherly" bay extending along nearly 150 
miles of coast, between Kapiti and Cape Egmont, 
and are also seen for some distance north of the Sugar- 
loaf Islands. In the " Motherly" bay, as it is called, 
because they resort to it for calving, they have never yet 
been disturbed ; and I have seen them in great num- 
bers, basking outside the surf, from the coast between 
Manawatu and Patea. 

I cordially join with those who consider that all 
shore-whaling should be forbidden, as I am convinced 
that a much greater advantage would result to those 
who profit by the trade, were ships fitted out from 
our Australasian colonies, and the fish allowed to visit, 
unmolested, the calving-bays to which they resort 
during the period of gestation. A considerable waste 
of time and expense would be obviated, were the 
whalers fitted out from the ports of Australia and 
New Zealand which are close to the whaling- 
grounds, and other ships employed to bring the pro- 
duce home. A whaler sails from England, and 
returns, perhaps full, after three years. She has only 


spent, however, two years at the most on the whaling- 
grounds ; while the colonial whalers would be con- 
stantly in employment, except while discharging and 
relitting at a spot within a week's sail of their work. 

It is friglitful to calculate what might have been 
the consequences had these rough colonizers been 
allowed to go many years more unheeded. That the 
natives would have been speedily exterminated is 
hardly to be doubted — whether by vice and disease, 
or by actual collision with these growing commu- 

Their bad effect might even have been felt by all 
the maritime world. In a country so adapted for the 
building and outfitting of ships, and where living was 
so easy and comfortable, the tortuous bays of the 
Pelorus and Queen Charlotte's Sound might have 
swarmed with a powerful nation of buccaneers, pos- 
sessing every requisite for the spoliation of our com- 
merce with Australia and the South Sea Islands. On 
one occasion, when some rumour of a war between 
the United States and Great Britain had reached 
New Zealand, I knew of extensive designs among the 
whalers for seizing as prizes, with their boats alone, 
every American whaler or other ship that might 
approach the Strait. 

Having thus dwelt rather harshly on what the 
whalers might have become, I am bound to say that 
I owe them personally many obligations. Although 
they have a dark side to their character, they claim 
gratitude for their frankness and hospitality, and 
admiration for their extraordinary intrepidity, their 
unbounded resolution, their great power of enduring 
hardships, and their perseverance in overcoming prac- 
tical difficulties. 


Captain Lewis had been disappointed of the neces- 
sary supplies for whaling, which had been promised 
him by Mayhew, who kept the store on Rauperahas 
island. He had in consequence gone to Manawaiu, 
and joined two or three other men in building a small 
schooner. He still, however, kept a house on Hiko's 
island, and was often there. A small party of very 
disorderly whalers had established themselves with 
the natives on the other end, and were positively 
despised by the men of the other stations, because they 
were often so drunk, or ill from continued drinking 
and debauchery, as to miss many chances of whales. 
An industrious Scotch carpenter, who had left a 
whaling-ship some years before, afforded a striking 
contrast to their disgusting behaviour. His name 
was William Couper, and I had known him when I 
was here before in the Tory. He kept steadily sober 
and industrious, and was said to have accumulated a 
good little capital, what with mending the whale-boats 
and ships, and trading with the natives, who, under 
the influence of Hiko, had befriended and patronized 
him. He had patched up two old boats, and was 
about to take them for sale to Port Nicholson, where 
he thought of setting up in some line, should the 
place appear " likely." 

I spent much of the time in fishing for wareho. 
This fish, which much resembles the kawai in form, 
differs in its superiority of flavour, and also in being 
found only at this season of the year. The inner side 
of Kapiti, and the small bay near Cape Terawiti, in 
which the village of Ohariu is situate, seem to be its 
favourite grounds. The natives are very fond of this 
fish, and take large quantities, which they dry in their 
usual way in the sun. When put into a salting-tub 

Ckap.XI. 'IK WASEHO FlSamO. S49. 

for about twenty-four hours, and then up the chimney 
of a wood fire for a week, the wareho becomes quite an 
epicure's breakfast. ' 

When I was tired of catching these fish and seeing 
others catch whales, I got a cast over to TVaikanae in 
one of the boats, and walked to Pitone, resting one 
night at Captain Thomas's hospitable ware. I reached 
Port Nicholson about the 14th of July. 



Company's store-ships — Major Bunbury's expedition in H. M. S. 
Herald — Proclamation of British sovereignty in Stewart's and 
Middle Islands — Rauperaha and Rangihaeata sign the cession 
of sovereignty — Cattle at Cloudy Bay — Public meeting — Colonel 
Wakefield deputed to present address to the Lieutenant-Governor 
— News from England — Plymouth Company of New Zealand — 
Sanguine hopes— Purchase of the Chatham Islands — Selection of 
town-lands — New Zealand Land Bill of New South Wales — In- 
consistencies in government — Mr. Busby — Panic of settlers — A 
trip to the Manawatu river — Level country — Ship-building — 
Morose chief — Ascent of the river by a trader — Its course — 
Return to Port Nicholson — The Chilian project — Return of 
Colonel Wakefield with the answer of the Lieutenant-Governor 
— Deputation to Sir George Gipps — The towns in the North — 
French expedition — Its object frustrated — Second riot at the 
Bay of Islands — Disturbance at Port Nicholson — Proclamation of 
Lieutenant Shortland — His offensive pomposity — His undignified 
conduct — A bullock-driver — Settlers drowned at Pitone — Affec- 
tionate natives — Exploring expedition towards Mount Egmont. 

The barque Brougham had arrived from England 
with a plentiful store of flour and other provisions ; 
the Company having thus taken all necessary precau- 
tions against the possibility of that starvation from 
which the Sydney people had so kindly volunteered 
to save us. She was lying opposite my uncle's house, 
having landed her cargo at the Pitone stores. A 
second store-ship was daily expected, which was to 
bring out a wooden house for the Governor, as well 
as more provisions. 

On the 20th, her Majesty's ship Herald had visited 
Port Nicholson, just after I fell in with her in the 
Strait. Major Bunbury had been instructed to pro- 


ceed in that frigate to extend the sovereignty of the 
Queen of England over the Middle and Stewart's 
Islands. He had visited various ports in both those 
places, and obtained the signatures of Tuawmke or 
" Bloody Jack," of a brother of the same Mairanui 
who was taken and killed by Rauperaha in the Eliza- 
beth trip, and of several other chiefs, to a copy of 
the agreement signed at the Bay of Islands. He had 
declared the sovereignty of her Majesty by formal 
proclamation, and taken possession of both islands ; at 
Southern Port, in Stewart's Island, on the 5th of 
June ; and at Port Underwood, in Cloudy Bay, on the 
17th of the same month. In the latter case alone the 
proclamation based the assumption of sovereignty on 
its cession by the native chiefs. 

He had then visited Kapiti, and meeting Rauperaha 
in his canoe, had taken that chief down to Mana, in 
order to obtain the signatures of Rangihaeata and 
Hiko. The latter was absent on the mainland ; but 
Rangihaeata and Rauperaha had both signed on 
board the Herald on the 19th of June. Rauperaha 
thus signed twice, for his signature had been previously 
obtained by the Rev. Henry Williams. 

On the 20th, the Herald had anchored in the 
entrance of Port Nicholson, and Major Bunbury had 
communicated with the Colonial Secretary. On the 
21st, the frigate sailed all about the harbour, and 
Major Bunbury had landed and been introduced to 
some of the settlers at Captain Smith's house. It had 
at first been reported that the Herald was to take the 
soldiers round to Mana, in order to settle the dispute 
over the whaler's property which I have mentioned. 
It subsequently appeared that Major Bunbury had 
treated this affair as of little importance, although the 
whalers had represented to him that Rangihaeata and 


other chiefs had got possession of a considerable part 
of the property. The IVigate sailed away on her return 
to the Bay of Islands the same evening, beating out in 
the dark against a fresh south-east breeze, with her 
boats holding lights on the extremities of the reefs. 

News had been heard of the arrival of a ship-load of 
cattle in Cloudy Bay, with the agent of a Sydney firm, 
who claimed the Wairau plains near that place. They 
had written to Colonel Wakefield, informing him that 
they held the original of the deed by which Rauperaha, 
Rangihaeata, and other chiefs, had made that district 
over to Captain Blenkinsopp many years before. So 
that it appeared that the deed sold to Colonel Wake- 
field at Hokianga by his widow was possibly only a 
copy. The agent, Mr. Wilton, had, however, been 
prevented from driving his cattle on to the plains by 
our old friends the Cloudy Bay natives, who denied the 
sale altogether ; and the cattle were running, by suf- 
ferance, on the hills close to Port Underwood. 

A public meeting of the colonists had been held on 
the 1st of July, for the purpose of voting an address to 
Lieutenant-Governor Hobson. Colonel Wakefield had 
presided at this meeting, and had been unanimously 
called upon to proceed to the Bay of Islands for the 
purpose of presenting the address to his Excellency. 
The utmost loyalty and good feeling had reigned over 
the assembly, whose sentiments cordially chimed in 
with those of the Directors of the Company. The Di- 
rectors, without assuming any power of controlling the 
settlers, had conveyed to them, by means of the dis- 
patches brought in the Brougham, an earnest hope that 
they would render every assistance and co-operation in 
contributing to the success of Captain Hobson 's mis- 
sion. The address, which was unanimously adopted, 
was couched in the most loyal terms. While it ap- 


pealed with surprise against the imputation upon their 
allegiance displayed by Lieutenant Shortland's pro- 
ceedings, it humbly expressed the hope of the settlers 
that his Excellency would decide upon fixing the seat 
of government at a spot so admirably adapted for it as 
Port Nicholson, and among the great body of the 
respectable colonists from England. 

The Brougham was preparing to convey Colonel 
Wakefield on this mission when I arrived, and he 
sailed on the 19th of July. 

The Platina, which had brought Governor Hobson's 
wooden house, and some more provisions and stores for 
the Company, had arrived on the 6th. Colonel Wake- 
field had therefore to obtain the instructions of the 
Lieutenant-Governor as to the destination of his resi- 
dence. It was sanguinely hoped that, in answer to 
the concluding paragraph of the address, his Excel- 
lency would send back word to have it erected here, in 
readiness for his arrival amongst us. 

The Platina brought news of the assemblage of 
some thousands of emigrants in England, in readiness 
to embark as soon as they should hear the first ac- 
counts of the arrival and proceedings of the Tory ; of 
the change of the name of the Company, now styled 
the New Zealand Company ; of the formation of 
another company at Plymouth,* who were to be in 
connexion with the main Company, but to have a 
town and district for their colonists distinct from that 

* Among the Directors of this Company, which afterwards 
merged into the London Company, and became its West of Eng- 
land Branch, were — Lord Devon (Governor) ; Sir Anthony Bul- 
ler ; the Mayor of Plymouth ; Lord Eliot (now Lord St. Ger- 
mains) ; Sir Charles Lemon ; Sir William Molesworth ; Mr. E. 
W. W. Pendarves ; Mr. Edward St. Anbyn ; and Sir Hiissey 


of the first settlers ; and of the publication of a news- 
paper in England especially devoted to news relating 
to this colony, and called the * New Zealand Journal.* 

This appearance of vigorous eflbrts at home in sup- 
port of the progress of the new community, combined 
with the knowledge that they had overcome all the 
difficulties which had at first arisen from an apparent 
belief of the local authorities in their disaffection, pro- 
duced among the settlers the brightest hopes and most 
lively spirits. It was looked upon as almost certain 
that Captain Hobson would be too glad to respond to 
their loyal invitation ; and that a vigorous and happy 
colony, fostered and cherished by his countenance and 
authority, and supported by such strong sympathy at 
home, would soon achieve no despicable reputation for 
itself as well as for him. 

On the 1 3th, the Cuba returned from the Chatham 
Islands. Mr. Hanson, the Company's agent, had suc- 
ceeded in purchasing the whole of the group. These 
islands have been so fully described by Messrs. Dief- 
fenbach and Heaphy,* who formed part of the expedi- 
tion, that I refrain from following in their track by 
repeating what I collected from them. 

Colonel Wakefield, having appointed Mr. Hanson 
as acting Agent of the Company during his absence, 
sailed in the Brougham for the Bay of Islands on the 
1 9th. On the 28th, the selection of the town-lands 
commenced, after a little delay arising from protests 
and objections by some of the numerous choosers. 

* ' Narrative of a Residence in various Parts of New Zealand,' by 
Charles Heaphy, Draftsman to the New Zealand Company. Smith, 
Elder, & Co., 1842. 

' Travels in New Zealand,' by Ernest Dieffenbach, M.D., late 
naturalist to the New Zealand Company. In 2 vols. John Murray, 


Many of the original buyers in London had confided 
the task of selecting for them to agents among the 
colonists. The meeting for this purpose took place 
in a large unfinished wooden building, which Dr. 
Evans had brought out with him, and which Dicky 
Barrett had bought and erected on the beach for an 
hotel. A table was placed on that part of the ground- 
floor which was floored, to support the map of the 
town and the books of the principal selectors. The 
most interested or most querulous settlers were ga- 
thered round Mr. Hanson, Captain Smith and his 
assistants ; asking questions, raising difficulties or 
meeting them, and keeping an eye to some desired sec- 
tion ; while those who had but late choices, or others 
who were mere spectators, stood talking in the win- 
dows of the long room, or explored the skeleton upper 
story of the embryo hotel. On the 3 1st, some mistake 
was discovered in the plan ; and the further selection 
was consequently postponed to the 10th of August, 
and was not completed until the 14th. 

Ample reserves for public purposes appeared on the 
plan ; one acre was reserved for the Company," as a site 
for the immigration buildings, and the Native Reserves, 
consisting of one hundred sections of one acre each, were 
judiciously selected by Captain Smith. Among others, 
the section on which the hotel was building, which is 
of as great value as any in the town, fell to the lot of 
the natives. 

Two acres adjoining each other, and possessed of 
some of the best water-frontage, were also excluded 
from the general choice, in accordance with the 
arrangement made between the Rev. Henry Williams 
and Colonel Wakefield. This rather startling excep- 
tion was passed over, however, in silence by even the 


most captious of the protesters. They seemed to ap- 
preciate its useful object. 

On the 4th of August, intelligence was received from 
Sydney, which produced great agitation among the 
settlers at Port Nicholson. The views of Sir George 
Gipps, the Governor of New South Wales, with re- 
gard to claims to land in this country, had been em- 
bodied in a measure called the New Zealand Land 
Bill, and this, we heard, had passed the Legislative 

The Bill commenced by declaring that the abori- 
ginal inhabitants of New Zealand had no right to 
confer any permanent interest in their lands on any 
individual not a member of their tribes, because they 
could only be considered to hold these lands in trust 
for their future descendants. It therefore declared 
any title to lands in New Zealand not derived from 
the Crown null and void. All claims to such lands 
were to be addressed within six months to the Co- 
lonial Secretary of New South Wales, in order that 
he might refer them to a Board of Commissioners ; 
for whose appointment, operations, and remuneration, 
the Bill also provided. It was especially enacted that 
the Commissioners should be guided in their inquiries 
" by the real justice and good conscience of the case, 
" without regard to legal forms and solemnities." 

But the most remarkable feature of the new law 
was a most stringent provision, which forbade the 
Commissioners from recommending favourably to the 
Governor any grant of land " exceeding in extent 2560 
" acres, or comprehending any headland, promontory, 
"bay, or island that might hereafter be required for 
"I the purposes of defence or for the site of any town, 
" nor any land situate on the sea-shore within a certain 


'* number of yards of high-water mark, or any other 
" land situate within so many miles of the mouth of 
" any river navigable for vessels of more than fifty tons 
" burthen, nor of any land which, in point of situation 
" or otherwise, would have been in New South Wales 
" not open to the selection of settlers under the Go- 
"vernment Regulations Avhich were in force on the 
" 1st of July 1840." And it was especially provided 
that the Governor might use his discretion in grant- 
ing or not any claim, even if recommended by the 

The panic which seized the great body of colonists 
on the receipt of this intelligence is hardly to be con- 
ceived. The measure promised to deprive them of the 
very site of a town under their feet, which was at that 
moment being distributed to them for occupation and 
improvement. Moreover, it seemed uncertain whether 
any country lands at all would be shared among them ; 
as the Company, like any other claimant, might be re- 
stricted to the maximum allowance of four square 
miles of land : for the Bill, expressly disallowing the 
consideration of any payment made for land, except to 
the aboriginal inhabitants, overthrew the claims of the 
settlers at Port Nicholson to the land for which they 
had paid at the rate of a pound per acre to the Com- 
pany ; who, in their turn, employed three-fourths of 
this payment in carrying labourers to the colony. 

The inhabitants of New South Wales who owned 
land in New Zealand had petitioned and spoken before 
the Legislative Council against the Bill. Generally, 
they objected to the principles on which it was founded, 
as totally at variance with those of the proclamations 
and proceedings of Lieutenant-Governor Hobson. 

He had assumed the sovereignty of the Queen over 


New Zealand on the ground that it had been ceded 
by chiefs whom he recognized as having been an in**^ 
dependent power before he obtained that cession. 

The Land Bill, on the contrary, asserted the right 
of the Crown to define and restrict the privileges 
exercised by these chiefs during a long period of their 
independence previous to the cession ; to decide whether 
they had possessed during that independence the right 
of granting away their lands ; and to enforce the 
nullity of all titles so granted. In short, the question 
at stake between the opponents or friends of the mea- 
sure was, whether any legislation of the present British 
Government could affect what the native chiefs had 
done before they ceded their independence. If so, it 
was argued, the whole process of cession became a 
mere vain form, as the British Government might 
now invalidate their former independence with as 
much right as their former unfettered possession of 
their lands, and right to do as they liked with their 

Then individual opponents had put forward the 
great injustice which they should endure, in the case 
of the enforcement of the measure. Among the fore- 
most and most earnest of these was Mr. Busby, the 
late British Resident, or " man-of-war without guns,'' 
at the Bay of Islands. 

Mr. Busby, whether accredited to the missionaries, 
or to the thirteen chiefs to whose letter his appoint- 
ment was the answer, had not failed to consider the 
thirteen chiefs or some of their relations as fully jus- 
tified in selling to him a large tract of land, as they 
had to his coadjutors the missionaries ; and he had 
laid out a township, which he called " Victoria " on a 
part of it which was likely to increase rapidly in value. 


as it formed a portion of the coast of a very frequented 
part of the Bay of Islands, and lay at the mouth of one 
of the rivers which flow into that harbour. 

Thus, Mr. Busby complained, that he was not only 
ousted from his place by the Lieutenant-Governor 
over nothing, but was deprived of a property which 
he had long previously acquired by the free consent of 
the court whose independence had been recognized at 
the same time as his own official existence. For, al- 
though virtually accredited to the Church missionaries, 
he had been nominally accredited to the New Zealand 
nation, represented by the thirteen chiefs of the Bay 
of Islands. On the appointment of Mr. Busby, and 
the subsequent selection of a flag by some of the thir- 
teen chiefs or their relations out of a dozen offered for 
their choice by the captain of some man-of-war which 
once anchored in the Bay of Islands, had been founded 
the theory that Great Britain had recognized the New 
Zealanders as an independent nation: and, although 
neither Busby nor the flag had ever been heard of by 
any natives residing beyond the extreme North end of 
the North Island, the negotiations between the British 
Government and the New Zealand Association, and 
the proceedings of Lieutenant-Governor Hobson, had 
recognized this somewhat fanciful theory. It was in a 
tent erected on the land which Mr. Busby had acquired 
from the chiefs while independent, that Lieutenant- 
Governor Hobson, by obtaining a cession of their sove- 
reignty, had first acquired the dominion as well as the 
name of a Governor. And six months after this very 
cession, Mr. Busby saw himself deprived, by Lieute- 
nant-Governor Hobson's commanding officer, of his 
valuable acquisition, on the ground that those very 
chiefs had at no time, even before Captain Cook's visits 
to New Zealand, been independent to such a degree as 

VOL. I. 2 a 


to give them an unrestricted right to dispose of their 
lands to any but their own people. 

The Port Nicholson settlers had the same reason to 
cry out against the injustice of this sweeping measure ; 
and they moreover felt that they had deserved some 
better reward for the courage with which they had ex- 
tended British occupation over this part of the islands, 
and the loyalty with which they had hailed and assisted 
the establishment of British allegiance. 

Various were the projects suggested by the panic- 
struck adventurers, each according to his disposition. 
Some few hoped that Caj)tain Hobson would become 
unshackled Governor of New Zealand as a separate 
colony, and trusted that he would follow a course con- 
sistent with the ceremonies by which he had been in- 
augurated. Another class, perplexed by so sudden 
and extensive an obstacle, and deprived of the en- 
couragement which Colonel Wakefield's presence had 
afforded to their early efforts, invented wild schemes of 
re-emigration to another country and more considerate 
laws. But another very brave, prudent, and influential 
class, determined to stand manfully before these first 
serious difficulties. They appeased the fears and ridi- 
culed the flighty projects of the weak-minded, while 
at the same time they nerved themselves for the new 
delay and troubles suspended over their heads by the 
Government of New South Wales, 

This agitation was at its height when, early in Au- 
gust, I proceeded to explore the lower part of the 
Manawatu river. I had joined with a merchant of 
Port Nicholson in supplying Captain Lewis of Kapiti 
with some of the goods necessary for building his 
schooner, and he was to pay for them either in pigs 
and potatoes or in a share of the vessel ; so that I went 
to see what facilities the river might afford for trading. 


I proceeded by land to If^aikanae, crossed in a canoe 
to KapHi, and there engaged a half-decked boat of 
three tons for the trip. The owner of the boat, 
Geordie Young, was a partner in the management of 
one of the whaling stations. This station was situated 
in a nook among the precipitous sides of Kapiti, near 
the Long Point. It took its name from a stream, Te 
kaho o te rangi, or " the mantle of the sky," which 
formed a narrow gully, in which the houses were 
perched. I was detained here two days Ijy stormy 
weather from the south-east, during which nothing 
except the whale-boats could venture out. The rough 
hospitality of the whalers, however, made me as com- 
forbible as possible ; and I watched two or three ex- 
citing chases from the look-out hill which overhung 
the principal ware. 

Starting with the end of the breeze, we soon reached 
the mouth of the Manawutu river ; and landed through 
the surf on the beach to the north, the bar looking 
dangerous. Three young natives, travelling to the 
northward, bivouacked on the sand-hills with us until 
dark. At midnight, the tide being more favourable, 
we threw out our ballast, and poled our boat, 
through the inner rollers on the north sand-spit, into 
the river. About a mile along the north bank, we 
found a small deserted pa, where we put up for the 
night. At daylight, we proceeded about fifteen miles 
up the river, to the spot where the vessel was building. 
The river was deep but narrow, and the land on both 
sides level, and apparently very fertile ; but the waters 
of extensive swamps drained sluggishly over the low 
banks in many places. Until near Captain Lewis's 
huts, the country was nearly clear of timber ; and we 
enjoyed an uninterrupted view of the north-western 
face of the Tararua range over the high flax and reeds 

'2 A 2 


on the south bank. To the north the horizon seemed 
unbounded. Near the small dock-yard, forests of large 
timber l>egan to line the banks ; and in one of the 
finest groves we perceived the skeleton of a small ves- 
sel on the stocks, two reed-huts, a pig-sty, and a saw- 
pit. Captain Lewis and his brother, now looking more 
like Yankee backwoodsmen than whalers, a sawyer, a 
carpenter, and their native wives and relations, greeted 
our arrival. 

After inspecting the little clipper, which was about 
thirty tons burthen, we sat down to the usual meal of 
pork and potatoes, and spun yams till bed-time. The 
night was warm and calm, and I spread my blankets 
outside the huts, as our party was rather numerous. 

The next day, I returned to the^a at the mouth of 
the river, accompanied by young Lewis, who was to 
fetch some pigs from Rangitikei j on one side of which 
river the Ngatiraukawa had settlements, while the 
other was inhabited by the Ngatiapa, who received me 
with the Wanganui fleet in April. We passed two or 
three native gardens on our way to the mouth, and at 
one spot landed to see a chief of some consequence, 
named Tai Kapurua, or " Full tide." He was very 
rough and repulsive in his manners ; although grey 
hair and a long white beard combined with his large 
stature to give him a dignified appearance, as he sat 
among his wives and relations near the bank. He 
evidently took me for one of the traders from Kapltit 
who often came to buy provisions here, and said, im- 
mediately that I landed, " Go on to the sea ; I have 
" no pigs." I explained to him, however, that I came 
to make his acquaintance, and not to deal with him ; 
but I could not prevail upon him to relax in his manner, 
even by a present of a small piece of tobacco, which he 
received as though merely his due ; so I shouted the 


customary " Remain in tliy place ! " and jumped into 
tlie boat. The Haere ki tai ! " Go to the tide ! " re- 
turned the civility. 

While Lewis went, with his native wife and two lads 
as attendants, to fetch the pigs, Geordie Young and I 
borrowed the whale-boat of an English trader, who ar- 
rived from an expedition up the river soon after us, and 
proceeded to sound the entrance. A very smooth day 
favoured our attempt. A long sand-spit stretches to 
north-west, about a mile from the south point of the 
mouth. A shorter bank on the north side leaves a nar- 
row passage between the two, and at the extreme end 
of this we found six feet at low-water. The soundings 
then deepened, inwards, to two and a half fathoms be- 
tween the two dry points. The day being fine, the cone 
of Mount Egmont appeared exactly between the two 
spits. Over the level tract of country nearly due north 
appeared Tonga Riro ; and the top of a range of dis- 
tant mountains tipped with snow, called Rua Hine by 
the natives, bounded the horizon between that and the 
east. In that direction a gorge exists, between the 
southern end of the Rua Hine and the low north-east- 
ern extremity of the Tararua range, which I imagined to 
communicate with the country towards Hawke's Bay. 

This conjecture was confirmed by the narrative 
which Jack DujBf, the trader, gave us of his journey. 
He had ascended the river as far as a whale-boat could 
go (about fifty miles, according to his calculation, from 
the mouth), through country of the same level and fer- 
tile character, and abounding with the finest timber. 
Having obtained a canoe and native guides, he pro- 
ceeded two or three days' journey higher up, over nu- 
merous rapids and shallows, and through a gorge 
where the river formed a cataract between the cliffy 
extremities of the two mountain ranges. He described 


the country as again opening out beyond this gorge, 
and related that the natives of the furthest settlement 
to which he attained spoke a somewhat different dialect 
from the Ngatirmikawa, and called it only two days' 
walk to the " East Cape." As I had found this name 
applied by the Cook's Strait natives to the eastern 
coast generally, I concluded that his informants proba- 
bly referred to some part of Hawke's Bay. He de- 
scribed a numerous population as dwelling below the 
gorge, and complained much of their rude and savage 
manners. He even attributed his safety from plunder 
or outrage to the company of his native woman, who 
was related in some distant way to the tribe. 

The next morning, Lewis having returned with a 
dozen fine hogs for me, we left the river, Dufi' showing 
us a tolerable boat-passage through the breakers about 
the middle of the south spit. We stopped a night at 
Kapifi, where I picked up two sawyers who begged 
for a passage ; and a few hours at Mana, which I found 
in possession of an agent of the last White purchaser. 
Ranii'ihaeafa was also there, and, hearing that I had 
been looking at Manawafu, took occasion to t«ll me that 
it belonged to him and Rauperaha. We then sailed 
with a squally breeze from north-west round Cape Te- 
rawiti, beat into the harbour during the night, and 
landed at daybreak on Pitone beach. 

I found that the choice of the town sections had 
been concluded on the 1 4th, to the ultimate satisfaction 
of all the squabbling agents and proprietors. 

The panic caused by Sir George Gipps's Bill had in- 
creased to a very high pitch ; and I heard that a set of 
the colonists had seriously projiosed a general re-migra- 
tion to Chile. It was suggested that the vessels in 
harbour should be chartered, and that a preliminary 
expedition should start at once to make terms with the 


Chilian republic. This scheme, however, was discou- 
raged and ridiculed by the steadier settlers ; and it 
failed for want of a leader in whom the confidence of 
any large number could be reposed. Dicky Barrett, 
with his usual rough wit, had helped to throw cold 
water upon the wild speculaton. An old, high- 
sterned, wall-sided cutter of 50 tons, built many years 
before in Queen Charlotte s Sound by Jacky Love, had 
been lying opposite Barrett's door since his final 
removal from Te-awa-itit with a broom at her mast- 
bead, and the constant subject of mirth and derision. 
Dicky got some bills printed, advertising 'her for Val- 
paraiso, with " a high poop and experienced surgeon ;" 
and I believe that this squib contributed in no small 
degree to remind the people how ridiculous was the 
idea of another migration. 

On the 16th of August, the return of the Brougham 
with Colonel Wakefield from the Bay of Islands 
restored general confidence. It was soon rumoured 
abroad that the news from head-quarters was good ; 
and the Chilians now seemed quite ashamed of their 
fears and their vain attempts to change the opinion of 
the community. 

On the 19th, a public meeting was held in the 
unfinished hotel, to receive the answer of Captain 
Hobson to the address of the colonists. Colonel 
Wakefield stated the results of his mission ; — that he 
had been received by the Lieutenant-Governor in the 
most courteous manner ; and that he was assured that 
the feelings of Captain Hobson to the settlers at Poft 
Nicholson under the auspices of the Company were of 
the most friendly nature. Colonel Wakefield stated 
that ,his Excellency had condescended to admit him 
to his acquaintance, and had thus enabled him to form 
a high opinion of his kindness of heart and nature, his 


love of justice, and his high-minded and straight- 
forward conduct. He therefore felt convinced of 
Captain Hobson's sympathy for the community in Port 
Nicholson. He then read the answers to the address 
and to the offers of support from the Company and the 

The first letter graciously acknowledged and gave 
the inhabitants of the district of Port Nicholson credit 
for their expressions of loyalty and attachment to the 
Crown and Constitution, and for the cordial support 
which, as he learnt through the reports of the 
Colonial Secretary and Magistrates, had been rendered 
by all classes to the Government authorities. It con- 
cluded with thanks to Colonel Waketield for the flat- 
tering manner in which he had presented the address, 
and with the hope that, under the blessing of Divine 
Providence, the resources of these^valuable and import- 
ant islands might be speedily developed. 

The second letter quietly declined the invitation to 
his Excellency to reside in this part of the country. 
He acknowledged that this was at the sacrifice of his 
own ease ; but he said that a sense of public duty in- 
duced him to select " a more centrical position, and 
" one more adapted for internal communication." 

These letters were dated in July. On the 25th of 
May the Lieutenant-Governor had written, in his 
dispatches to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
that " the proceedings of the Association at Port 
" Nicholson amounted, in bis opinion, to high 
"• treason ;" that " taxes had been levied, and most un- 
" just as well as illegal exercise of magisterial autho- 
" rity had been practised ;" and that " it struck him as 
" a matter of congratulation that he did not go there, 
" as he had intended, early in March ;" as " he should 
*' have made his appearance amongst these dema- 


** gogues without even the power to appoint a Magis- 
•' trate, and should have only displayed his inability to 
" perform the most ordinary duty of a Governor." 

The meeting passed a resolution expressive of great 
pleasure at the reply of the Lieutenant-Governor. 
They then thanked Colonel Wakefield for his energetic 
and able advocacy of their interests. 

The same meeting proceeded to consider the position 
which the settlers occupied, and the measures to be 
adopted in consequence. A series of resolutions was 
passed, stating their whole case and grievances ; and it 
was agreed that a memorial embodying these reso- 
lutions should be prepared, and presented to the 
Governor of New South Wales by a deputation, to 
consist of Dr. Evans, Mr. Hanson, and Mr. Moreing. 
The meeting also recommended the appointment of 
Mr. E. G. Wakefield as agent in England for the 
body of colonists, and that a requisition to that effect 
should be prepared and signed by the colonists. 

Colonel Wakefield told me that he had experienced 
a very violent gale of wind off the East Cape in pro- 
ceeding from hence, during which the Brougham was 
hove-to for three days, and her boats washed away. 
He had found Captain Hobson residing in a wooden 
house built by Mr. Clendon on the piece of land which 
he had agreed to sell to the Government for 13,000/. 
He described this tract of land as similar in size and 
appearance to Somes's Island, inconvenient of approach, 
and of very precipitous character. The Lieutenant- 
Governor's cow had fallen down one of the steep places 
near the house, and broken her neck. His Excellency, 
however, nothing daunted, had determined to found a 
town, to be called Russell, on this site. But it was 
supposed that the Capital and seat of Government was 
to be founded at some new place in the Frith of thf* 


Tliames. There were thus three towns at the Bay of 
Islands alone. First, the Government town in em- 
bryo, Russell, which as yet contained only the Govern- 
ment house and the barracks, which had been built as 
stores by Mr. Clendon before the arrival of his Excel- 
lency to give him his lucky bargain ; secondly, the 
late Resident's town, Victoria, in the lots of which a 
good deal of speculation had already taken place ; and 
thirdly, Kororareka, or the actual town, where the 
whole White population except the missionaries had 
long taken advantage of the superior situation and capa- 
bilities for communication with the best ship-anchorage. 
His Excellency had also proclaimed another town, to 
be founded at Hokianga, and called " Churchill ;" but 
this was never heard of any more. Some persons 
expressed astonishment at the number of towns about 
to be founded in proportion to the inhabitants of the 

Colonel Wakefield described his reception by 
Captain Hobson to have been most kind and cour- 
teous ; and constantly expressed a high opinion of his 
private virtues. During his stay at the Bay of 
Islands, he had resided at the Government house at 

A French frigate and whaler had arrived at the 
Bay of Islands during this period, on their way to 
Banks's Peninsula, where it was proposed to land some 
French emigrants who were on board. This expedi- 
tion had been expected for some time, reports having 
been rife that F" ranee intended to claim possession of 
at least the Middle Island. Even before the proclama- 
tion of British sovereignty in Port Nicholson, we had 
often debated among ourselves as to the necessary 
steps for preventing the extension of French dominion 
over us, and the ratiiication by the chiefs of our infant 


Constitution had been hailed in great measure as a 
safeguard against such an event. The negotiations 
which took place at the Bay of Islands between the cap- 
tain of the French frigate and the Lieutenant-Governor 
had ended in the dispatching of her Majesty's brig Bri- 
tomart, then lying in the Bay of Islands, to the harbour 
oi Akaroa in Banks's Peninsula, with two Magistrates, 
who were to establish British authority and be in 
readiness to warn the French settlers on their arrival 
that they would land on British territory. The brig 
was then to come on to Port Nicholson, one of the 
Magistrates having been appointed Police Magistrate 
for this place. 

On the 3rd of June it had been necessary to make 
a second display of the military at the Bay of Islands, 
in order to quiet some menacing natives. The quarrel 
had arisen in some dispute about a boat between the 
natives of the 'pa at Kororareka and the crew of an 
American ship, and some serious attack on the W^hite 
settlement was at one time apprehended. The mere 
appearance of the military had restored order ; and 
the Governor had subsequently received the thanks of 
both natives and W^hite people for their prompt inter- 

An account of this affair was contained in an early 
number of a newspaper, printed at the Bay of Islands, 
and principally supported by the insertion of the Go- 
vernment notices, which were made official in that 
paper. The first copies I saw were on very bad paper, 
printed in almost illegible print with the worst de- 
scription of type. 

I have already observed that, since the efforts of Mr. 
Tod, and the arrival of the Government authorities, the 
natives of the Te Aro and Pipiteapaa had become more 
and more suspicious and distant towards the colonists. 


It was on the 26th of August that this feeling first 
produced any outbreak. Captain Edward Daniell, 
who had lived, up to the time of the selection, with 
his wife and family in a ragged hut on the beach at 
Thorndon, had begun to erect a wooden house on one 
of the town acres which he had chosen. As this hap- 
pened to be on a deserted garden of the Te Aro people, 
they had obstructed his proceedings in some way, and 
a quarrel had ensued. A report got about that Cap- 
tain Daniell had been struck down by a blow from a 
tomahawk ; and all who heard the report rushed to 
the spot with their arms, in readiness for any emer- 
gency. The difference, however, was by no means so 
serious as had been represented; and was amicably 
settled soon after the muster of the settlers. Their 
readiness to support a member of the community, who 
was known as well for his kindness of heart as for his 
courage, in his supposed danger, appeared to alarm the 
Colonial Secretary much more than the increasing dis- 
position of the natives to interfere with the peaceable 
occupation by the settlers of the land which they had 
sold. The next morning a printed notice or procla- 
mation was circulated about the settlement. It was 
couched in these terms : — 

" Whereas certain })ersons residing at Port Nichol- 
" son, New Zealand, part of the dominions of her 
" Majesty Queen Victoria, did, on the evening of yes- 
" terday, assemble with arms at a native pah, named 
^* Tarinaki ; 

Now, therefore, I, Willoughby Shortland, a Ma- 
" gistrat^ and Colonial Secretary of New Zealand, do 
^' caution all jjersons from assembling under arms on 
^' any pretence whatever, without being duly author- 
'" ized so to do, upon the allegiance they owe to her 
^' Majesty Queen Victoria. 


" Given under my hands, at Port Nicholson, this 
" 27th day of August, 1840. 


" Colonial Secretary and Chief Magistrate." 

There were some curious stories abroad as to the 
composition of this proclamation, and the numerous 
revisions of it before it was published. The Colonial 
Secretary had been distinguished, during the three 
months which he had now spent here, by a very large 
share of the same pomposity and burlesque hauteur 
which had so amused the spectators of Constable Cole's 
chivalrous expedition against the flags. This assump- 
tion of dignity was the more offensive to the educated 
part of the settlers, inasmuch as the dignitary was not 
troubled with too great a share of literary acquire- 
ments. Some people had, indeed, asserted that he 
could not write his own name ; but I believe the mis- 
take arose from his having designated himself in some 
correspondence as Colonial Seoetary. His general 
bearing, however, towards the colonists of all classes, 
had frequently obtained for him the title of Sancho 
Panza ; and he had been heard to say, on some occa- 
sion when the question of a separate Government for 
these settlements was mooted, that he should not 
mind being the Lieutenant-Governor over this part. 

The following extract from a letter written to Eng- 
land, by one of the leading men in Port Nicholson, 
shows that Lieutenant Shortland had not spared the 
attempt to injure the settlement more seriously : — 
" Mr. Shortland, during the short time he has been 
" here, has made himself universally disliked, by a sort 
" of quarter-deck assumption of authority, which, as you 
" may imagine, does not go down with the class of 
" people residing here ; but he is still more disliked on 
" account of many covert attempts to entice away the 


" labourers from this place. Thanks to our exertions 
" and those of the Colonel, he has been almost entirely 
" unsuccessful, except in one solitary instance, and 
" that was a Cornish man who came out in the Rox- 
" burgh. The man was employed by me at the time, 
*' and had been so ever since he had been here, and was 
" very well satisfied, so that I felt I had a just cause to 
" feel aggrieved. I therefore went and told Shortland 
** my opinion of his conduct before the whole assem- 
" blage of his officials. From the manner in which he 
" received my remarks, I presume he felt their truth." 

The Bench of Magistrates had been particularly 
remarkable for their summary infliction of large fines 
in almost every case brought before them. Five or 
ten pounds were very often required in cases of com- 
mon assault, and from three to five pounds for drunk- 
enness and breach of the peace. It appeared a very 
convenient way of recruiting the public revenue ; and 
as none of the settlers knew anything of New South 
Wales law, or to what court they could appeal against 
the decisions, a very plentiful harvest was reaped. 
Complaints of the arbitrary nature of the proceedings 
were often made ; but then, no one knew how to get 
them investigated, and as money was plentiful in those 
early days, the affair was soon forgotten. 

Sam Phelps, a drunken, foul-mouthed bullock-driver 
from one of the neighbouring colonies, was a frecjuent 
contributor to the public revenue. He was an excellent 
hand at his profession, which is a very flourishing one 
in all new settlements, and his pockets were always 
well lined with money. If he made it like a good 
bullock-driver, however, it was his pride that he 
spent it in the same way, in drinking large doses of 
ardent spirits. The Magistrates and constables of 
course interfered with this predilection. Sam appeared 

Chap. XII. A BULLOCK-DRIVER. .' . 368 

not to care so much for the fine — he had got used to 
that, and paid it with great regularity, — but the manner 
of inflicting it seemed to offend him, and he took his 
own means of revenging himself. 

His team of bullocks were soon christened ** Short- 
" land," " Smart," " Best," and " Cole ;" and he used 
to apply the coarsest epithets to them as he flogged 
them along. One day the Colonial Secretary, stately 
and pompous as usual, happened to pass the dray which 
they were dragging over the beach. Brutal threats 
to " cut Shortland's tail off if he didn't move on ;" to 
" break his heart," to " cut his liver in two," or to 
" whip his skin oflP," startled him in his promenade ; 
and on turning suddenly round he beheld old Sam 
" whacking" his team. 

To the surprise of the spectators, the Chief magis- 
trate asked the bullock-driver whether ** he applied 
" those expressions to him ? " 

Sam answ^ered, with an innocent grin, " I wasn't a 
" speakin' to you ; I 'm a driving my bullocks ; that 's 
*' my business ;" and the Colonial Secretary retreated 
from the scene, amidst a loud repetition of the most 
frightful imprecations, threats, and mockery of the 
bullocks by the bullock-driver, who triumphed over his 
superior. A crowd of the lower classes roared with 
laughter during the whole scene. 

Sam Phelps was quite a character, only to be seen in 
new colonies. He had been exercising his trade in the 
recent settlements in Australia, where he had no doubt 
witnessed and appreciated on many occasions the pride 
of tyro Government officers. After this scene, he com- 
pletely gained his point in holding up the early Magis- 
tracy to ridicule ; and a crowd of idlers would always 
collect at the door of each public-house to see Sam 
pass, and hear him address his titled team. As long 


A8 he remained in this settlement, his habits were pre- 
cisely the same, and he only changed the names of 
his bullocks according to those of the magistrates who 
fined him. "Colonel," "Murphy," " Halswell," &c., 
were subsequently substituted for the first offenders, as 
fresh Magistrates sat on the bench. But he was 
naturally attracted to new settlements, where money 
was plenty, and good labour, like his, scarce ; and he 
successively visited the lat«r settlements of New Ply- 
mouth and Nelson in their first days. I think I have 
heard that he at length died of drink in the latter 

As I before said, it was currently reported that the 
proclamation was the result of much consultation. 
The finale seemed to have been exceedingly perplexing, 
and it was said that the one actually produced had 
been selected out of many proposed, such as " given 
" under my hands and seals," " given under my seals," 
*' given under my hand and seals," and " given under 
" my hands and seal." 

An event had occurred at PUone a few days before 
which serves to show how affectionately the natives of 
that village still regarded us. A boat from Thorndon, 
overladen with passengers, and steered by an inex- 
perienced hand, had been suddenly capsized in the surf 
which was rolling on to the beach before a strong 
southerly gale, and the whole crew and passengers 
were immersed in the breakers. The l*itone natives, 
men and women, headed by Epnni and his wife, 
dashed into the surf, and used their utmost efforts to 
rescue the drowning men. They succeeded in saving 
two or three, but nine men were brought dead upon 
the heach. The scene was most impressive. Natives 
and colonists of every class were employed in bearing 
the bodies under shelter, and using the means at hand 


for attempting to revive them. The relations of those 
who were expected from Thorndon that night were 
rushing wildly from group to group, the venerable 
clergyman entreating them to hope and resignation, 
and comforting the distressed women in the midst of 
the howling storm ; while the natives, wet and shiver- 
ing from their generous exertions, wailed in their 
customary way on the outskirts of the crowd. E^very 
now and then one of them would rush to me, and 
asking whether " Wide-awake " was in the boat, plunge 
again into the rollers, and dive in ditferent directions 
till he was tired. I had been very anxious about my 
uncle, as he had been over at Thorndon, watching the 
progress of the settlers there, and it was reported that 
he had been one of the party. Under this impression, 
the natives never ceased their laborious search until I 
ascertained from the master of the boat, who was one 
of those fortunately saved, that Colonel Wakefield had 
not been one of his passengers. But I was gratified 
to observe that the sorrow of the natives was no less 
deep and sincere for those colonists of more humble 
class who had suffered than it might have been for 
him whom they still considered the " Chief of the 
" pakeha.^' The tangi, which lasted in the pa during 
the greater part of the night, appeared as heartfelt as 
any of those among themselves, and they seemed to be 
weeping for dear brothers of their own tribe. 

An opinion seemed to be prevalent at this time that 
the whole country was as mountainous as the district 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Port Nicholson. 
Colonel Wakefield therefore determined to despatch 
a party of surveyors by land to Taranaki^ in order that 
their official report of the quantity and quality of land 
observed by them between the two places might dissi- 
pate this unfounded conjecture. The party was to 

VOL. I. 2 B 


consist of Mr. Robert Park and Mr. Robert Stokes, 
two of the Company's Assistant Surveyors ; and Mr. 
Charles Heaphy, the draughtsman. Mr. Deans, an 
enterprising young Scotch settler, who had already 
been employed in superintending a party of labourers 
while cutting surveyor's lines through the valley of 
the ■ Hutt, volunteered to accompany the expedition ; 
and I also offered my services as far as Pf^anganui, 
whither I was desirous of returning. Six labourers 
were selected from the surveying-staff' to carry the 
requisite supply of instruments, blankets, and pro- 
visions; and I engaged a native lad to carry my 
kawenga, or load, as far as Tf^aikanae. 



Journey to Otaki — Troublesome natives — Waikawa — Natives de- 
ceive and rob us — Firmness procures restitution — Manawatu — 
Rangitikei — Scarcity of food — Timid natives — Fine country — 
Cold — Fording rivers — Wanganui — Greetings — E Kuru gives 
me a house — His chieftain-like treatment of his inferiors — New 
Zealand slaves — Missionaries — Native feud — Battle of Waitotara 
— Ship-building — Confirmation of the purchase — Return to Ka- 
piti — Walk to Pitone — Harmlessness of night-air. 

We started from Pitone amid the affectionate farewells 
of Epuni and his followers, on the morning of the 
27th ; and slept that night at Parramatta whaling- 
station, in Lieut. Thomas's new house, the floor of 
which was well strewed with clean fern. The second 
night we reached Pari-pari, and early the next after- 
noon we arrived at TJ^aikanae^ well drenched by a 
heavy shower of rain. We were most hospitably 
received by old Rangi Tf^akarurua at the Tf^anganui 

Mr. Stokes called on the Rev. Mr. Hadfield, who 
resided in the midst of the principal p«, and was 
received very kindly by him. He insisted on our 
making use of a new house built for him at Otaki, and 
gave Mr. Stokes a letter to one of his native teachers, 
who had charge of the key. Mr. Hadfield had not yet suc- 
ceeded in effecting a complete reconciliation between the 
two tribes, and I could not at first engage any native 
to carry my burden through the hostile country. Old 
Rangi, however, ordered a lad of thirteen, who was a 
slave to his son, E Kuru, to proceed as my servant, and 



we started along the unknown coast the next morning. 
About nine miles from TVaikanae, we came upon the 
remains of a fortification of some extent, five or six 
acres being surrounded by a mound and trench, and a 
few carved posts still remaining in the ground at one 
end. On the south bank of the Otakl river, about a 
mile further on, were still more recent remains of a large 
'pa. My slave informed us that these had been the respect- 
ive residences of the two tribes on the first arrival of the 
Ngatiawa from Taranaki five years before, but that con- 
stant feuds and skirmishes had taught them to recede 
from each other, and leave the country between the 
two rivers as a neutral ground. We forded the Otaki 
river about a quarter of a mile above its mouth, and 
passed through two stockaded villages on the north 
bank. In one of these a White man, a retired whaler, 
had a house ; and after a short chat with him we 
pushed on to Mr. Hadfield's new ware, which was 
situated about half a mile further north, among the 
sand-hills between the beach and the principal pa of 
Otaki. Having found the native teacher, we were 
admitted into the house, which was a neatly-built and 
substantial erection, entirely the work of the natives, 
but fitted by a White carpenter with doors, windows, 
and a chimney-piece. 

We prepared to cook our evening meal, and to 
spread our blankets on the floor ; but the news of our 
arrival had spread to the village, and we were soon 
inundated with visitors. At least fifty natives of all 
ranks, ages, and sexes, crowded the doors and windows, 
and, unmindful of all persuasion or menace, filled the 
whole room. One very arrogant young chief, whose 
name we did not learn, evidently held the highest 
authority, but would not exert it in our favour. He, 
and like him all his followers, laughed at our entreaties 


for room and air, menaced in turn when we spoke 
roughly, and examined all our clothes and accoutre- 
ments to their hearts' content ; gave directions about 
the cooking, the lights, the arrangement of the beds, 
and every other detail ; and literally imposed upon us 
their noisy, chattering, hot, and not too odorous com- 
pany for some hours. The native teacher was only a 
slave, and had not the slightest influence over them, 
nor did he attempt to interfere ; so we bore the in- 
fliction with patience, if not with good-humour, until 
they gradually decamped to their own abodes. 

In the morning, we visited the large pa. It is situ- 
ated on two sand-hills, and protected to the east by a 
narrow deep tributary of the Otaki, called Manga- 
pouri, or " Dark branch." The position is strong with 
a view to native warfare ; and the village seems calcu- 
lated to hold some hundred people. Very few, how- 
ever, were now in the village. The house of fF'atanui, 
the head chief, was pointed out to us, and also his 
wafa, or store-house, elaborately carved and ornamented, 
in the same division of the pa. The chief, we were 
told, was absent at another settlement near Manawatu. 
A White trader, whom I had met before at Kapiti, 
was now residing in this village ; and we bought a 
small pig from him, and hired a native to drive it, as 
we understood that we should meet with no more 
inhabited settlements between this and JVanganui. 
From the summit of the pa, the view extended over a 
fertile tract of park-like and partially wooded country 
as far as the foot of the Tararua range, here about 
seven miles from the coast. 

Six miles along the sandy beach brought us to the 
Ohau river, which is joined by the TVaikawa, or 
" bitter water," about a mile from the sea. A little 
above the fork we crossed in a canoe to a pa on the 


opposite bank, inhabited by a branch of the Ngatirau- 
kawa tribe. We were welcomed to a house which was 
assigned to our party, and invited to remain till the 
next morning. The threatening appearance of the 
weather, which promised rain and a gale from north- 
west, and the wish to give the whole party a good rest 
before proceeding along the tract of deserted coast, in- 
duced us to acquiesce in this arrangement. Abundance 
of food was placed before us ; ample firewood was fur- 
nished for our fire ; and the few natives were very 
courteous and obliging in their behaviour. They sang 
some of their native songs ; listened with attention 
to ours; and Maori traditions and lessons in the 
language were exchanged for such information, regard- 
ing ourselves, as we found amusing to them, till a late 
hour. Heavy rain detained us here the whole of the 
next day ; and our friendly relations with our hospi- 
table hosts continued. 

In the morning, when we had finished our daylight 
meal, we prepared to start ; but an unexpected occur- 
rence again delayed us. On packing up our bundles, 
we found that numerous goods were missing. Several 
pounds of tobacco, two or three shirts, soap, fish-hooks, 
handkerchiefs, pannikins, and many other things, were 
nowhere to be found ; and three shot-belts, which we 
had hung up on the door-post just before breakfast, 
had also disappeared. In the meanwhile, the congre- 
gation of natives had very much diminished. It soon 
became plain that they had taken advantage of our con- 
fidence in their friendliness to plunder the baggage. 

After mustering the men and their packs outside 
the house, I told those of our party who had guns to 
load them with ball and be on their guard ; and then 
addressed a middle-aged man, who had evidently the 
greatest authority among the tribe, and who had 


watched in silence our search for the missing articles^ 
of which I wrote an accurate list. He sat unmoved 
on a canoe, with his face half-wrapped in his blanket, 
while I spoke. 

I read to him the list of what we had lost, and told 
him that I was sure we had been robbed here. I dwelt 
on the deceitful way in which he and his people had 
plundered their guests while they cajoled them by 
friendly behaviour; and told him that the name of 
thieves would from henceforth remain theirs among 
the White people. 

I then stated firmly, that I would wait one day for 
restoration of the stolen things ; but that, if they were 
not brought back by the next morning, I should send 
the rest of the party on their route, and return to 
Port Nicholson for a large party of soldiers or of my 
friends. " I shall have to go barefooted and alone," 
said I (for one of my boots was among the plunder), 
" but I will return with a war-party to destroy this 
" village and your canoes, and take payment from your 
" cultivations for what you have stolen." 

The audience seemed aghast at this announcement ; 
the women wailed and waved their arms about as 
though at an ordinary tangi ; and the chief stammered 
out various excuses, — that " strangers had taken the 
** things," and that " they were gone to the bush ; he 
" could not find them." 

I had the packs placed carefully inside the house, 
and then repeated my terms. Warning every one to 
be on the look-out and ready with his arms, I then lit 
my pipe, and sat down in front of the chief 

He was at last convinced that I had stated my real 
intentions, and ascended a high fighting-stage at one 
corner of the pa, whence he shouted towards the hills 
an earnest address to the thieves to bring back what 

arr adventure in new Zealand. cbap. xiii. 

they had stolen. The rest of the audience dispersed, 
and ran to another village close by. 

The old man continued all day and a great part of 
the night on his rostrum, shouting at intervals towards 
the other village, while we kept constant watch, ad- 
mitting no natives into the house, and refusing their 
food. JMy little slave was trembling with fright, but 
told me that I had spoken well to them, and that the 
things would come back. In fact, they were all brought 
in, except some trifling articles, before our breakfast 
in the morning. At intervals, a native would come 
stealthily into the village, saying that he had found 
tfiis or that on the path or in a potato-garden. The 
chief collected them in a heap as they were brought to 
him, and handed them over to me in the morning; 
claiming, however, utu or payment for his exertions 
in the matter. This I steadily refused ; and we moved 
on to the house of an intelligent young native about a 
mile in the interior. He pressed us eagerly to partiike 
of his hospitality, as the weather was again wet, and 
he wished to prove to us that all the natives of this 
place were not thieves. He produced a certificate from 
the clerk of Evans's whaling-station at Kapiti, and told 
us that he had built the house for him. He and his 
family entertained us very kindly and hospitably, and 
then carried us on their shoulders across the Ohau in 
the morning. 

A tedious walk of fifteen miles along the beach, re- 
lieved by no view but that of the sand-hummocks 
looming in successive long points as we advanced, 
brought us to the mouth of the Manawatii. For- 
tunately, a body of natives were inhabiting the small 
village in which I had slept during my excursion with 
Geordie Young, and they succeeded in getting us 
across in three trips of a small rickety canoe, notwith^ 


standing the rip caused by a fresh sea-breeze against the 
strong ebb. They could, however, supply us with no 
provisions, as they were only visitors like ourselves, 
from a settlement near the gorge of the Manawatu ; 
and were themselves living on the flesh of a stranded 
whale, which had induced them to come down to the 
sea. They had collected the whalebone for barter 
with Europeans, and were trying out a small stock of 
oil for their home consumption in two or three iron 
pots. On a stage in the pa were several baskets of 
potatoes ; and I proposed to take one, leaving some to- 
bacco in its place according to native custom ; but the 
whalers discouraged this proposal, saying that they 
knew the owner had reserved them for seed, and would 
be angry at their being taken, even if amply paid for. 
So we were obliged to be satisfied with some of our 
biscuit and salt meat. 

The next day we reached Ra7igitikei, about thirteen 
miles further along the same desolate-looking coast. 
The small stockaded pa on the south bank was quite 
deserted, and the very houses which had formerly 
sheltered my large party on the opposite side seemed 
to have been removed. We fired two or three shots, 
hoping to attract some natives, as our stock of pro- 
visions was running low, and there were no pota- 
toes on any of the stages ; but we received no answer. 
Little Heuheu, my slave, now suggested that we 
should sound for a potato-pit ; and the ramrods were 
accordingly stuck into the earth in every probable nook 
of the pa. The lad at last pounced upon an abundant 
store, and we filled two large baskets with the potatoes, 
which were remarkable for their size and quality. 

Just before dusk, I observed the bushy heads of 
two natives stealing a look at our proceedings from 
behind a low fern-covered ridge on the opposite bank. 


They disappeared immediately on my shouting to 
them ; but when I had called out that it was " Ti- 
" raweke and his White people very hungry and tired," 
a small canoe glided out of the rushes a little higher 
up, and they were soon sitting by our fire smoking a 
welcome pipe. They were of the Ngatiapa tribe, and 
had seen me on my former visit here. Our guns had 
attracted their notice ; but they had feared to cross 
over, thinking that we were a party of the Ngatirau- 
hawa, to whom this po belonged, and some of whom 
they described to be little scrupulous in plundering or 
tyrannizing over the remnants of the aboriginal tribe, 
under very slight pretexts. I told them of the potatoes 
which I had taken, and left in their charge some to- 
bacco for the owner. They told me that the potatoes 
had been collected for Captain Lewis by some of his 
natives, and that they would give them the utu. The 
level country is of great extent hereabouts ; the Tara- 
rua and Rua Hine ranges lie far distant to the east and 
south-east, and Tonga Miro, due north by compass 
and about seventy miles off, towers over the plain, 
which rises gradually into a table-land and broken 
ridges near his base. This view was majestic at sun- 
rise ; the excessive clearness of the atmosphere allow- 
ing us to see dark places clear of snow on the sides of 
the mountain. Mount Egmont, too, was visible fur- 
ther to the north-west. This district appeared from 
the pa clear of timber, and well adapted for pasturage 
for a considerable distance inland. 

After recompensing the natives for ferrying us over 
the river, we proceeded along the coast, still sandy and 
desolate. We passed two or three trickling streams, 
and two dead whales stripped of their whalebone by 
natives ; and encamped among the sand-hills, after 
about fifteen miles' march, near one of the small rills. 


The drift-wood, which abounds along the whole of this 
coast, served to maintain a large fire ; and after our 
meal we spread our blankets within its genial warmth, 
under the lee of a sand-hill, which protected us from 
the sea-breeze. But the wind shifted about the middle 
of the night, and blew fresh from the east off the 
snow-capped ranges. The cold was the most bitter I 
had yet experienced ; and we found it impossible to 
sleep, although muffled up in woollen shirts and pea- 
coats, and rolled all together under the thickness of 
three blankets, close by the fire. I alone got a doze 
towards daylight, by deserting the common couch, and 
coiling myself on the very edge of the fire, among the 
smoke and showers of sparks on its lee side. 

We were early on foot, and soon warm with walk- 
ing. About four miles further on, we came to a river 
called the Turakina, which we forded without difficulty 
at a spot indicated by the native lad, about half a mile 
from the sea ; the water being up to our waists, and 
very cold. After another mile of sand-hills, we reached 
the banks of the JWangaihu, and saw the remains of 
the encampment occupied by my party in April. The 
fording of this river was more difficult, the current be- 
ing extremely rapid, and the bed of the stream a shift- 
ing quicksand which seemed to move along with the 
water, and varied in consistency, so that at one step 
your ankles were hardly immersed and at the next you 
sank up to your arm-pits. The river is here about 
two hundred yards in breadth, and the water was pain- 
fully cold. After warming our limbs and drying our 
clothes at a large fire, we pushed along the beach, 
passed the remains of my first bivouac, and at length 
reached the hill near PVahipuna, overlooking the valley 
of the TVanganui. A glowing sunset warmed the 
features of this lovely scene, and we sat for some 


time enjoying the view. The Surprise schooner was 
lying at Purua ; we could distinguish numerous large 
houses on either bank of the river, especially two or 
three apparently inhabited near the large pa ; and we 
could see the hospitable smoke, and hear the hum of 
people from the native villages. After our long dreary 
journey, and breaking suddenly from barren sand-hills 
upon this pleasant scene, we all felt lively and good- 
humoured ; and, after firing our guns as a signal, raced 
and skipped and shouted like children down the sand- 
hill to the river's beach, notwithstanding our sore feet 
and hunger. 

On reaching Putikiwaranm, I was loudly greeted by 
many of my old friends, and E Kuru soon dashed on to 
the beach in a boat manned by natives, and gave me his 
usual dignified but most hearty welcome. We got into 
the boat, and landed at the spot where the scramble 
for the goods had taken place. E Kuru signed to me 
to follow him, and led the way to a very large warCf 
about twenty yards from the bank. " This house is 
"yours," said he; "tell your White men to go in." On 
entering, I found it indeed a noble present. The house 
was fifty feet long and twenty-eight feet broad. Slabs 
of totara wood, two feet broad, neatly smoothed with 
the adze, and placed at regular intervals of five feet, 
formed the frame-work of the walls ; and these, nine 
feet high and six inches thick, were composed of 
neatly packed bundles of raupo or bulrushes, lined in- 
side with the glazed reeds of the tohe tohe, and outside 
with the wiwi, or fine grass. The reeds are as thick as 
a finger, of a golden yellow colour, and stand hori- 
zontally between the slabs, bound in their place by 
flaxen ties, which are noosed round each separate reed, 
and cross horizontally from slab to slab at distances of 
a foot. The roof, also six inches thick, was composed 


of four layers : the innermost, tuhe tohe reeds, like the 
walls ; the second, bark of the totara ; the third, 
raupo ; and the outside one, tufts of fine grass, put on 
like shingles, with the roots downwards. The roof 
was supported by one post in the centre of the house, 
a foot in diameter, which upheld a huge slab as a 
ridge-pole ; and four large corner rafters, and several 
smaller ones, all neatly adzed out of solid trees, sloped 
down to the four walls. Two tie-beams, six inches 
each in diameter, supported the inward pressure of the 
walls, directly under each end of the ridge-pole, to 
which they were attached by perpendiculars. 

A splendid hog was brought alive as the customary 
present ; and one of the surveying-men, a butcher by 
trade, proceeded to show his science. A store of 
potatoes, pumpkins, kumeras, and shallots, was piled up 
in one corner of the house, and a fire was lit near the 
middle, on the hard earthen floor ; and a numerous 
troop of E Kuril's followers and relations busied them- 
selves in helping the butcher and the cook, fetching 
water, peeling potatoes, or strewing one end of the 
house with clean fern for our sleeping-place. 

Little Heuheu was as busy as the rest, and chat- 
tered a lively description of all our proceedings. I 
remember being struck by the kind greeting which 
E Kuru gave him, almost as though he had been his 
own son. He kindly dwelt on his courage in coming, 
and his endurance in carrying my heavy load, and evi- 
dently felt sincere pleasure when I loudly praised the 
boy's services. By this sort of treatment, E Kuru had 
secured the perfect devotion of his slaves. Except in 
cases of misconduct, I never heard him use a threat or 
a harsh word towards them. They were treated exactly 
as members of the family, and allowed to take part in 
the amusements as well as the labour of the tribe. 


They were always as well clothed and fed and supplied 
with tobacco as himself. By his own example, and by 
frequently holding them up to the emulation or ridicule 
of the rest, according to their merits, he had succeeded in 
raising them to great perfection in all the parts of a 
native's education, and to a very complete discipline : 
they were confessedly the best paddlers and polers and 
pig-hunters, the most expert house-builders and woods- 
men on the river ; and under so good and noble a master 
they gloried in the title of slave. I have frequently 
been told by some among them that they would far 
rather remain his slaves than return freed to their own 
tribe and country. I have somewhat anticipated my 
impressions on this subject, which were of course not 
fully acquired until I had seen much more of E Kuru 
and his people ; but I should find it difficult to describe, 
as gradually as it was urged on my mind by a hundred 
scattered and trifling circumstances, this trait of my 
friend ; and I feel sure that the reader will pardon an 
anachronism which serves to record this striking cha- 
racteristic of a savage, whose high name rested no less 
on his generous qualities than on his noble pedigree. 

The condition of a New Zealand slave is indeed 
rarely very painful or oppressed. Mokaiy the word for 
*' slave " most used in the native language, is the same 
which they apply to favourite birds, dogs, or pigs, and 
is fairly represented by the English word " pet." * 
To be sure, they hold their life at the mercy of their 
lord, and obey his orders under penalty of death ; but 
they rarely do harder work than the other members of 

* The more offensive and insulting tenn, tau reka reka, is less 
frequently used, and is applied rather to captives newly taken in 
war, and while the passions of the masters are hot. A third word, 
pononga, answers rather to our " servant ;" and the fourth, kuki, is 
probably only a corruption from the " cook " on board ships. 


the tribe, and are not separated from the society and 
conversation of their masters, except the latter be of 
remarkably tyrannical or avaricious disposition, and 
thus inclined to make them endure his caprice, or work 
hard in order to gain for him large payment. The 
following are a few examples of the latter class of mas- 
ters. Rauperaha wantonly killed one of his slaves who 
brought him tribute at the Mana feast, in 1839, in 
order to serve a dainty dish to his Ngatiraukawa allies. 
Rangihaeata once took a young slave-child by the heels 
and dashed its brains out against a post, in Otak'i pa, 
for breaking his pipe while lighting it. A chief at 
Taupo in the interior threw his slave into one of the 
boiling ponds there for stealing a few potatoes. 

But E Kuru was no less startling an exception on 
the other side ; for while it was common for even kind 
masters to speak depreciatingly of their slaves to a 
White man, he always took ^pains to obtain the same 
kind appreciation and generous familiarity for his slaves 
from the White man as he yielded to them himself, I 
may mention as a proof of this, that it was only after 
some years and much careful observation, that I had 
learned to distinguish the slaves from the free men 
among his retinue. 

After a solid meal, we began to exchange our news. 
E Kuru told me that two White missionaries had ar- 
rived ; one of whom lived in the houses near Putikiwa- 
ranui, while the other inhabited a house at the point 
about 400 yards above this spot. He told me that a 
great many houses had been built by the natives in 
readiness for the White settlers, and that the clearings 
for potato -gardens had been increased and extended, in 
order to insure an ample supply of provisions for them. 
A trading-boat from Port Nicholson, the very one 
built by Joe Robinson, had been brought hither by one 


of the settlers from England. He had ascended the 
river seventy miles in a canoe, reaching a large and 
populous pa called Pukehika ; and had gone away again 
with his boat well loaded. 

Mr. Matthews, the missionary whom E Kuril had 
described as living on this side of the river, was very 
kind in his offers of hospitality to our party, and sent 
us sugar, wine, and several other acceptable supplies. 
He also gave us an interesting account of a battle which 
had taken place between two tribes of the natives, at 
fj^aitotara, very lately. From his information, com- 
bined with that furnished by E Kuru and other natives, 
I gathered the following particulars of the affair. 

It appears that a feud had existed for many years be- 
tween the Ngarauru and Ngatiruamii tribes inhabit- 
ing the country between TVaitotara and TVaimate^ and 
the Ngatipehi who dwell on the shores of Lake Tmqio 
in the interior of the island. Each of these parties had 
friends and allies among the different divisions of the 
TVanganui tribes. The Ngatiruaka, or aboriginal in- 
habitants, headed by Te Ana-ua, were friendly to the 
coast natives, who resembled them both in the antiquity 
of their dwelling near the sea, and in the eagerness 
with which they had adopted the doctrines of the na- 
tive teachers who preceded the ^'N'^hite missionaries.* 
Turoa, on the other hand, and the Patutokoto tribes 
under him,were open allies of the Taupo tribes ; from 
among whom they had originally migrated to the banks 
of this river, and whose adherence to their ancient 
form, or rather want of religion, they still in great 

* The Ngarauru at Waitotara were now especially under the 

superintendence of Mr. Matthews in his office of catechist ; and he 

used frequently to ride there on one of three horses, bred at the Bay 

of Islands, which he and his superior, Mr. Mason, had brought to 

Wanganui with them. 

Chap. XIII. NATIVE FEUD. . 385 

measure imitated. E Kuru had a more difficult game 
to play. Of his four wives now living, one was of the 
highest Ngatipehi blood, while another was the daugh- 
ter of a chief of as great influence as any among the 
democratic Ngarauru. 

It appears that the old grievances had been again 
raked up, principally by the inhospitable reception given 
at Taupo to two native teachers, who had been deputed 
from fVattotara to convert their former enemies, as 
well as to secure a lasting peace. Heuheu, the despotic 
chief of the Ngatipehi, was violently opposed to the 
introduction of the new creed, because it avowedly 
levelled the distinction between chief and slave, and 
raised up as leaders of the community those who, like 
the two emissaries in question, had lost caste by the long 
captivity which had been the means of their acquir- 
ing Christian knowledge in the normal schools of the 
North. The teachers had been very roughly handled ; 
and Heuheu had threatened that, if they returned on 
the same errand, he would " eat their heads, and make 
" cartridge-paper of their hymn-books ! " This treat- 
ment had led to recriminations and insulting messages 
between the IVaitotara natives and Turoay who warmly 
espoused the cause of his angry relation. The eager 
pupils of the repulsed teachers at length forgot all their 
new lessons of Christian meekness, assumed a high 
tone, and said that " Turoa^ head was potatoes for 
'• their ovens." So outrageous an insult was not to be 
tamely borne by a chief whose head was tapu, or sacred 
even against the touch. The very deepest affront had 
been openly sent as a message to him. He immediately 
communicated with his warlike allies ; and the conse- 
quence had been the arrival of a taua tapu, or " sacred 
" war-party," in the territory of the offending tribe. 
This expedition had been composed of 140 picked men, 

VOL. I. 2 c 


singled out by the tohunga, or sages, from the whole 
tribe. They were headed by Tauteica, a chief of almost 
equal importance to Heuheu himself, and most of the 
other great names of the tribe. The number was made 
up of tried and experienced warriors, and victory was 
promised to them by the soothsayers, who confined their 
number to that above mentioned. 

At the beginning of the campaign, they had carried 
all before them. The inhabitants fled almost without 
a blow towards Patea, and abandoned Te Ihupuku 
and another strong pa to the conquerors. These, 
who had chosen the harvest-season for their arrival, 
lived for some time on the fat of the land, slaughter- 
ing pigs, and gathering in the kumeras, Indian 
corn, potatoes, and other abundant crops of the fertile 

The rightful reapers, however, returned suddenly, 
reinforced by allies from the Ngatiruanui and Taranaki 
villages to the number of 600, and blockaded the in- 
vading army in E Toka, or '* the Rock," a pa almost 
impregnable by mere assault. It was about this time 
that Mr. Matthews arrived among them and attempted 
to mediate between the two parties. But little blood 
had been actually shed ; the besieged had exhausted 
their food and their ammunition ; and a parley was 
soon agreed to. The besiegers were to be allowed to 
enter the fort in order to be reconciled with their foes, 
and shake hands with them according to the new cus- 
tom ; which, strangely enough, the Christian natives 
seemed to consider as a sign of the faith and as a reli- 
gious ceremony, rather than as a civilized improvement 
on the process of nose-rubbing. In return, the Taupo 
party were to be allowed to depart for ff^anganut with 
all the honours of war ; and peace was to be between 
the tribes. I have often listened to the animated de- 


scription of the scene which ensued given me by some 
of the Ngatipehi. 

r Mr. Matthews was with the besieged when they 
admitted their new allies. These walked quietly up 
the hill, and marshalled themselves in considerable 
numbers inside the fort. They then advanced towards 
the others, who were sitting to receive in a dignified 
way the expected greeting. But, holding out the left 
hand, each Christian native now seized a heathen by 
the right wrist instead of the hand, and assaulted him 
with his tomahawk, till then concealed beneath the 
mat. A frightful scene of carnage ensued. Those 
that escaped the first onslaught fled down the hill, 
amidst the musketry of the party in the fort, and were 
received by fresh parties placed in ambush among the 
fern in the low grounds. Mr. Matthews generously 
ran with them, hoping by this means to prevent the 
murderous fire ; but he was obliged by its continuance 
to take shelter and leave them to their fate. Out of 
140 men, only forty reached Wanganui ; and many of 
these were lying, severely wounded, in the village of 
Turoa, who had managed to escape unhurt. Tauteka 
and several other leading chiefs were among the slain. 
E Kuru told me that, before the slaughter, he had 
decided upon considering the Taupo people as the first 
aggressors, and that he had consequently sent the 
Ngarauru a supply of arms and ammunition, although 
he had taken no actual part on either side : but the 
treachery of the so-called Christians, and the sight of 
his wounded relations, together with the memory of 
the dead, had evidently produced a change in his 
mind ; and though he still appeared publicly as a strict 
neutral, his feelings were now strongly enlisted in 
favour of the vanquished party. It was said that 
Heuheu would not fail to take up the cause in earnest, 

2 c2 


and that he might be expected, as soon as the summer 
season should again furnish provisions in the culti- 
vated grounds, to revenge the defeat of Tauteka with 
a strong muster of allies from Waikato and Rotorua. 

Macgregor, the owner of the Surprise, had made a 
trip to his old abode in the South of the islands since I 
last saw him. He had brought back with him several 
of his fellow-settlers ; and these had been located by 
E Kuru about five miles up the river, near a grove of 
pine-trees, from which they were cutting the timber 
for a small vessel. E Kuru apologized for having 
thus far disposed of any of the territory which he had 
sold to me ; but asked and received my sanction to 
their squatting, for this purpose, until the settlers 
should require the land. The ship-builders themselves 
went through the same form. Macgregor had, in 
acccordance with his intentions formerly agreed to by 
me, established a trading station at Turoas village of 
Purua. The boat in which E Kuru had ferried us 
over on our arrival was placed at his disposal by the 
shipwrights, to whom it belonged ; and we ascended 
the river in it to within a few miles of Te Kau 
uirapawa, accompanied by E Kuru. 

A mile beyond the new dock-yard, we reached a 
settlement where Rangi Tauwira was dwelling with 
his people. He had already paid me a visit of cere- 
mony, bringing the accustomed offering of a fine pig ; 
;and his example had been followed by Te Ana-ua, 
Turoa, and some other chiefs of consequence. On 
this occasion, the venerable old man, although bent 
double with age, insisted on joining the party, with his 
favourite son, a merry, frank-hearted lad of ten or 
twelve. He coiled himself up in the bow of the 
boat, gave us the names of every settlement and tri- 
butary stream along the banks, and seemed to consider 


his presence, whenever Mr. Park landed to complete a 
sketch of the river, as a thorough confirmation of the 
bargain, in which he had taken so earnest a part. He 
eagerly rejoiced in thinking that the use of the compass 
and pocket-sextant were measures indicative of the 
early arrival of the settlers, and frequently repeated 
his former metaphor of covering the land with White 
people as he did with a handful of sand. On our 
return to my house, I accompanied the rest of the party 
as far as the north head of the river, and wished them 
a prosperous voyage to Taranaki. 

Having engaged a passage in the Surprise, which 
was well laden with live hogs, I bade farewell to E 
Kuru; promising to return soon in order to establish a 
trading station, and to hasten the arrival of surveyors 
and settlers to inhabit the numerous houses which 
had been built for them. 

I landed at Kapiti, and in a day or two after crossed 
over to the main, and walked to Port Nicholson. In 
the course of this walk I was benighted on the hills 
between Porirua and Pitone, having mistaken the time 
of the rising of the moon. As it was too dark to pro- 
ceed along the tortuous path beneath the thick foliage, 
I lay down to sleep for a few hours among the moss 
and forest-fern beside the path. It is worthy of 
remark, that although everything was so damp that 
I could not light a fire, and I had no blanket or any 
other clothes but those in which I walked, to shield me 
from the wet, I suffered no inconvenience from cold, 
and rose fresh and vigorous at the first dawn of day. 
A bull- dog, presented to me by a whaler at Kapiti, kept 
watch on the path while I slept, and scoured the 
bushes all round whenever an owl or other night-bird 
disturbed the sylvan silence. On reaching the hill 
above Pitone, just as the sun rose over the eastern 


range, I felt as if returning home, and gazed with 
pleasure on the majestic harbour and sleeping settle- 
ment. The day was calm, and the sky unclouded.* 

* I must refer the reader to a series of lithographic plates from 
sketches by the draughtsman and surveyors of the New Zealand 
Company and other persons, which are published by Messrs. Smith, 
Elder, and Co., of Cornhill. I have selected them from the portfolios 
of the Company, kindly placed at my disposal for this purpose, as 
very correct Illustrations of many of the scenes described in this 
book. The view of the harbour from the hills above Pitone is one of 



Ships arrive from Sydney — Arrival of Mr. Murphy as Police Ma- 
gistrate — Departure of the Colonial Secretary — Straggling new8 
from the North — Death of Mr. Bumby — Progress of Britannia — 
Club — Country lands — Mr. Bidwill — " Captain " Williams — 
Hire of a schooner — Cloudy Bay^ — Suspicious death of Mr. Wilton 
— Queen Charlotte's Sound — Wild cattle hunting on Kapiti — 
Expedition of the Brougham with Mr. Murphy and the soldiers 
— Want of a Coroner and Jury' — Licences — Discontent of whalers 
' — Advantages of barter with good natives at Wanganui. 

This was the 27th of September ; and I must now 
retrace the events which had occurred at Port Nichol- 
son during my absence. 

The Pitone natives, headed by JEpuni and Pf^are- 
pori, had armed and proceeded towards Tf^airarapa 
shortly after my departure, doubtful of the intentions 
of a party of the Ngatikahuhunu tribe, who had lately 
assembled there. The expedition had, however, ended in 
a reconciliation between these ancient enemies ; and Te 
Hapuku, the head chief of Hauriri in Hawke's Bay, 
soon after visited his new friends in a trading scliooner. 

The Coromandel had arrived from London, via Syd- 
ney, with a heterogeneous cargo of passengers, and a 
large stock of sheep, horses, and cattle. Among the 
passengers were the conductors of a mercantile firm, 
established here by a Liverpool house, and also Mr. 
Petre and Major Baker, who had been visiting Sydney. 
Major Baker had been obliged to go there in conse- 
quence of an action brought against him successfully 
by Captain Pearson of the Integrity, for his imprison- 
ment of him while Police Magistrate under the pro- 
visional Government. 


Several ships from Sydney had also arrived during 
this period, laden with stock and other articles suited 
to the new market. This intercourse, once established, 
remained upon a permanent and vigorous footing ever 

Among the arrivals in the port had been her Majesty's 
brig Britomart, which had conveyed a Magistrate to 
Akaroa, in anticipation of the arrival of the French co- 
lony. Mr. Michael Murphy, formerly Clerk of the 
Bench at Parramatta in New South Wales, had ar- 
rived in this vessel to take his place as Police Magis- 
trate for the District of Port Nicholson on the 3rd ; 
and Mr. Shortland had returned to the court at Russell 
in the brig on the 16th, to the no small relief of the 

The Platina had sailed on the 2nd for the same 
destination, with the Governor's official residence on 

On the 4th, the Cuba had conveyed the Port Nichol- 
son deputation to Sydney. Dr. Evans was accom- 
panied by his wife, and left his house and goods in 
charge of a native chief of PipiteOy who had become 
attached to the family. 

A few numbers of the Bay of Islands Gazette had 
found their way hither, through Sydney ; and from 
these were gathered our only news of what had l^een 
going on to the north. 

Allotments of land in the Governor's town of Rus- 
sell had been officially announced for sale. The Col- 
lector of Customs, however, appeared to be residing in 
Mr. Busby's town of Victoria ; and the Kororareka 
people had christened the city of Russell ** Hobson's 
" Folly." It appeared, too, that some land had been ac- 
quired for the Crown, by purchase from natives, at 
Manganui, a place some distance to the North of the 
Bay of Islands. 


New Zealand had been included in the Bishopric of 
Australia, for spiritual purposes. 

. 1 Those of us who had known the Rev. Mr. Bumby 
were sincerely grieved to hear of his death by drowning, 
in the Frith of the Thames. While engaged in the 
prosecution of his missionary labours, he had been 
upset in a native canoe, and shared the fate of several 
of the crew. We had been led by our short but inti- 
mate acquaintance with this gentleman to form a high 
opinion of his benevolent and extended views as to the 
welfare of the native population, and to indulge in the 
hope that he would have been enabled, by his station at 
the head of the Wesleyan mission, to carry out the 
really statesman-like process of their gradual and agree- 
able amalgamation with the settlers, in the means to 
which he had so cordially agreed with Colonel Wake- 
field. Moreover, the manners of an educated gentle- 
man and the qualities of a true Christian had endeared 
him to us as a private friend. 

Dr. Dieflfenbach had returned from a trip to explore 
the valley of the Hutt, which produced no great result. 
He had traced it nearly to its source, and ascended to a 
spot on the Tararua range, from which he obtained a 
view of Kapiti and the adjacent part of the Strait. 
It was proved, however, beyond a doubt, that no ex- 
tension of this valley led to the plains North of the 
range ; and also, that the valley contained a consider- 
able quantity of very rich alluvial land and luxuriant 

The colonists had been busily engaged in removing 
to Thorndon and the flat near Te Aro pa, where sub- 
stantial wooden buildings were fast assuming the ap- 
pearance of a town. General consent had established 
its future name as "Britannia;" and the newspaper, 
which had stopped its weekly issue once in order to 


effect a removal, now sprang from a neat wooden j)rint- 
ing office under the additional title of the " Britannia 
** Spectator." 

The Company's barque Brougham had been employed 
in transporting the more bulky articles across the har- 
bour. Among these was the iron safe of the bank, 
which had arrived in the Glenbervie, containing the 
specie and notes which were to form the currency of 
the settlement . Mr. John Smith, the manager, showed 
great anxiety during the transit of the safe, and having, 
been observed by the natives sitting upon its summit 
as it lay on the deck, acquired from them the title of 
"Jacky Box," by which he was ever afterwards known 
among all shades of colonists. 

Colonel Wakefield was busy, like the rest, getting 
up a town residence. A swampy clay mound of some 
six acres in extent had been reserved for public purposes 
near Barrett's hotel ; and on a spot near the summit 
of this some labourers were busy digging the holes for 
the foundation-piles. He had bought a house brought 
from England in frame from a colonist who hesitated 
about setting it up for himself ; and proposed, by the 
addition of a veranda and kitchen, to make it a tolera- 
bly comfortable dwelling. The holes filled with water 
as fast as they were dug ; and I remember ridiculing 
the idea of the location ever becoming tenable. Epuni, 
too, who had once tried a crop of potatoes on the very 
spot, declared that it was good for nothing. A person 
who should now walk up the hard drive, and inspect the 
lawn of rye-grass and clover, or the fertile garden near 
the house, with its geraniums grown into hedges, could 
form no idea of what the place was before it was 
drained by careful cultivation. 

The state of the community was at this time exceed- 
ingly cheerful. All the labour of the settlement was 


absorbed at high wages in the work of building, gar- 
dening, and fencing; and everybody was well and 
pleasantly employed either in working or superintend- 
ing his workmen. 

It was at this time that a club was formed, called 
the Wakefield Club in honour of Colonel Wakefield. 
The original members were about twenty ; and a small 
house was bought from a settler who had squatted in a 
nook among the hills overlooking the town soon after 
erecting it on his town section close to the water's edge. 
Visitors and travellers were allowed to become hono- 
rary members for three months ; — and at a house- 
dinner held every Saturday a stranger was sure of 
meeting some of the principal colonists ; for the sub- 
scription and entrance-money had been purposely fixed 
at a high sum. A remarkable esprit de corps prevailed 
in this little select society ever since, and Saturday 
soon became for most of the members a tapu day, on 
which no invitation was accepted. 

On the 5th of October, a selection took place of such 
of the country lands as were already surveyed. These 
included thirty sections, of 100 acres each, in the lower 
part of the Hutt valley, twenty-five of which were 
chosen ; and ten between the town and the sea-coast 
to the south, of which four were chosen. Three sec- 
tionists availed themselves of the privilege of fixing on 
any spot along the shores of the harbour, the bounda- 
ries to be marked out hereafter ; and chose, respectively^ 
the valley of the Kai TVara Wara, where " Dog*s- 
" ear's" village stood ; — iV^a hauranga, where JVare- 
pori resided ; — and a block of rough, barren-looking 
hills partially clear of timber, and adjoining the 
northern edge of the broad Belt reserved for public 
purposes all i^pund the town. The 7th, 15th, 20th, 
22nd, and 28th choices, being Native Reserves, were 


chosen by the Surveyor-General nearly in a block in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Pitone ; — the 500 
acres including the />« itself, the valley of the Korokoro 
or " Throat" stream, a frontage of three-quarters of a 
mile on the beach of the harbour, and some of the 
most valuable land between the western hills and the 
Hutt river. 

Mr. Molesworth, who had long had an eye to a 
beautiful tract of land about two miles up the east 
bank of the river, secured two sections with some early 
choices ; and proceeded immediately to clear a few 
acres for cultivation. Several other persons followed 
his example ; and the sound of the axe rang merrily 
through the lower part of the valley. 

Mr. John Came Bidwill, a gentleman engaged in 
mercantile pursuits in New South Wales, but who 
added a great knowledge of natural history and shrewd 
powers of observation to that enterprising spirit and 
love of adventure which combine to make a good colo- 
nist, was at this time visiting our settlements, and I 
was fortunate enough to be introduced to his acquaint- 
ance. Mr. Bidwill had on a former occasion visited 
the Bay of Islands, the Frith and valley of the Thames, 
and the districts of Taupo and TVaikato. During that 
journey, he had ascended the volcano of Tonga Riroy 
and his narratives of this and other adventures were 
most interesting. As they have since been published 
under his own name, I will only refer my reader to 
the work as one which will well repay the trouble of 
perusal.* When we heard that the Governor had the 
intention of founding a new city, to be the metropolis 
of the country, somewhere in the Gulf of Haurake or 
Frith of the Thames, Mr. Bidwill strongly expressed 

* ' Rambles in New Zealand,' by J. C. Bidwill, Esq. London : 
Orr and Co., 1841. 


his opinion of the superiority of Port Nicholson and 
the surrounding district in most of the necessary quali- 
fications over the proposed site ; and proved that he 
was in earnest by buying at b, high price some of the 
early choices. 

v- I was just now about to proceed to Wanganui by 
sea, having chartered a decked schooner of twelve tons 
burthen for the purpose of keeping my engagement 
with JS Kuru. 

The owner of the vessel was our old friend Wil- 
liams, the carpenter of Te-awa-iti, who had suddenly 
sprung into great opulence and fame. He had been 
to Sydney and persuaded a merchant there to fit him 
out as the head of a whaling-station in Port Under- 
wood. Soon after his return he bought this craft of 
the man who had built her in Cloudy Bay, for 
300/.; and married one of the female immigrants 
from England, with a very noisy wedding-feast at 
Pitone. He used now to speculate largely in all sorts 
of small trade, talk still more largely on all subjects, 
and astonish the quiet folks of Port Nicholson by his 
dress and svv^agger. He wore a cap ornamented with 
gold lace, a new suit of glossy black, and a gold watch 
and chain, the glitter of which might be distinguished 
from one end of the beach to the other. " Cloudy 
" Bay Williams," however, as he was called, was very 
good-humoured and harmless, and bore the name of 
being no less open-handed towards his whaling asso- 
ciates than in his poorer days ; so that he was by no 
means disliked, even by those who laughed at the as- 
sumption of grand airs and the title of " Captain" by 
the ci-devant carpenter. 

Some idea may be formed of the demand which was 
now existing for small craft to manage the coast-trade 
and supply the settlement with pigs and potatoes, from 


the fact that I agreed to pay 100/. for three months' 
use of this little boat, the owner paying the wages of 
the skipper only ; and these wages were 6/. per month, 
besides food and grog. The two other men's wages 
were 4/. per month each. 

Mr. Bidwill and Mr. Dudley Sinclair, wishing to 
see something of the other parts of Cook's Strait, 
accompanied me in the trip ; and on the morning of 
the 7th, having embarked the requisite goods for 
■barter, and provisions for the voyage, we sailed for 
Cloudy Bay, where I had agreed to land Williams. 
-With a fresh north-west breeze, we buffeted through a 
rough tide-rip off Sinclair Head, and anchored at night 
in the cove above Jacky Guard's, where Williams had 
established himself The next day I visited my old 
acquaintances. Guard had got a new house, which he 
had built as a grog-shop, to accommodate the increas- 
ing whaling traffic of the Bay. The season having 
just closed, the place was exceedingly quiet. Most of 
the whalers had gone to spend the balance of their 
earnings in Port Nicholson, or were employed by the 
settlers there, as sawyers, carpenters, boatmen, or 

A startling piece of news was conveyed to us while 
here. Mr. Wilton, the agent of a Sydney house, whom 
I have already described as prevented by the natives 
from entering the TVairau plain with his cattle, had 
lost his life at the mouth of that river, together with 
the rest of a boat's crew. Whether this had happened 
by the upsetting of the boat or in another way, no one 
of the party remained alive to say ; but blood-stained 
«lothes, and some of the articles which had been in the 
boat, found dry on the beach, led the White people to 
opine that there had been some foul play ; and that the 
fragments of the boat, also found upon the beach, were 


only a device to support the story of their being acci- 
dentally drowned. iC- *'. i.v ■ 

After beating about for two days between the mouth 
of Port Underwood and the Te-awa-iti entrance of 
Queen Charlotte's Sound, baffled by the violent squalls 
which a north-west gale sent whirling over the rugged- 
looking mountains of this coast, we at length anchored 
in Jackson's Bay. A vessel from Sydney, which had 
been loading oil from the station, was also lying here. 
This was the same vessel which had been sent from 
Sydney to Kapiti on a vain attempt to rival us in 
buying land; and Captain Rhodes, who now com- 
manded her, was the same agent who had been in- 
trusted with the duty. But he had long abandoned 
his enmity to the Company and their settlers, and was 
now engaged in establishing a mercantile house on the 
shores of Lambton Harbour. As he was going to visit 
Port Nicholson immediately, I despatched by him an 
account of the suspicious occurrences at U^airau to 
Colonel Wakefield and to Mr. Murphy. 

The north-west gale still continuing unabated, I took 
advantage of the sheltered water to stretch as far to wind- 
ward as Ship Cove, through Queen Charlotte's Sound. 
This, by beating to windward during the flood and an- 
choring during the ebb-tide, may be effected during the 
most stormy weather by even a sluggish vessel. And then, 
watching a day when the gale was steady and well to 
the westward of north, I fetched the north end of Kapiti 
with a flood-tide, and ran down the landward side of the 
island to the inner anchorage among the islets at its 
south end. During the weather that had prevailed, no 
sailing-vessel could have reached this point by keeping 
the open Straits, as a short, angry, toppling sea runs 
there during stormy weather, and the tide ebbs to the 
south two hours longer than it flows to the north. 


We were detained here by a continued series of calms 
and strong north-west gales until the 19th, having 
made several unsuccessful attempts to get to the north- 
ward. The time, however, was not left unemployed 
or spent unpleasantly. Mr. Bidwill was delighted at 
the number of chitons, trochi, and other rare shells 
which he found among the rocks at low-water ; Cap- 
tain Lewis received us hospitably in his house ; and 
the details of the whaling-stations and the acquaint- 
ance of the eccentric characters attached to them were 
new, at least to my companions. 

Two days were spent in a very exciting sport. I 
have before mentioned that a herd of wild cattle, 
sprung from two or three sent here from Sydney some 
years back, inhabited the wooded hills and gullies of 
the island ; and I resolved to shoot one of the herd. 
Having bargained with Rauperaha, who claimed the 
ownership of the herd at the south end, I paid him 
five sovereigns and a half for permission to shoot one ; 
and obtained from him a messenger, charged to in- 
struct his slaves living or cultivating on the island to 
assist our party as guides to their haunts or heath's of 
the wood. 

One high peak, generally capped with clouds in 
stormy weather, rises from near the centre of the 
island, and shoots out numerous woody ridges, like 
claws, towards the outer edge. These ridges vary in 
steepness, and in the extent of the table-land on their 
summits ; and the intervening spaces are either preci- 
pitous gullies or valleys of easier slope, each furnished 
with a rill of pure water. Extensive patches have 
been cleared of wood by the natives at remote periods, 
and the slaves of the Kawia chiefs still work some 
nice spots and reside irregularly in picturesque 
groups of huts among the high grounds. Wher- 


ever the land has been cleared, a very rich natural 
pasturage lias sj>rung up among the bleached trunks of 
the dead trees, chiefly consisting of a grass resembling 
our " timothy," and of yellow trefoil ; and the presence 
of the cattle seems to have improved its growth and 

The first day was employed in finding the recent 
tracks of the herd, and making ourselves acquainted 
with their favourite haunts and the formation of the 
country. We only got one peep at them, and then 
became sufl&ciently aware of their timid and sagacious 
nature, and of the great caution which we must ob- 
serve in order to get within shot. We had beaten 
and explored every corner south of the Peak to no 
purpose, except a single small gully at the south-west 
corner. This gully, filled with tall shrubs rather 
than trees, was only separated from the sea by a 
narrow ridge of rocky ground, clear of timber, and 
just broad enough, between the wood and the perpen- 
dicular cliff, to allow the passage of a single man or 
beast, except where a terrace, about thirty yards in cir- 
cumference, projected over the surf, which whispered 
hoarsely four hundred feet below, f laving walked up 
the narrow ridge an hour before and round the head 
of the gully, after beating some valleys higher up and 
following some fresh tracks towards the Peak, we con- 
cluded that the herd had crossed the high dividing ridge 
to the north end of the island, and were on our way back 
to the boat, looking upon it as impossible that they could 
be hidden close in this small gully. We were thus 
advancing towards it from a large clearing on its inner 
or land side, in order to descend along the edge of the 
wood which obstructed our view of the " breakneck 
" path," as we christened it. In order to form a more 
accurate idea of tlie size and shaj>e of this gully, Mr. 

VOL. I. 2d 


Bidwill and I climbed two small trees on its edge, and 
raised our heads only above the level of the wood. 

Three hundred yards from us, on the little terrace 
which I have before mentioned, we saw about thirty 
head of cattle. Some were lying down, others stand- 
ing up ; and all apparently enjoying the warmth of 
the setting sun. We instantly popped down our 
heads, and told what we had seen to the rest of the 
party. Entering th6 gully at different points, we 
crossed it as quickly as we could without noise, and 
met on the clear ridge. But the herd was gone, and 
no one had seen a sign of a single head. 'Ihey pro- 
bably smelt us, as we were to windward of them ; 
although we had hoped that the flickering puffs and 
intervening pauses into which the breeze had died 
away as the sun sank, would not have served to carry 
any sign so far. 

The next day we made a more successful attempt. 
A brother of Captain Lewis got the first shot, at a 
young cow which ran past him at the distance of a 
hundred yards ; but the ball only grazed her between 
the horns, and she was soon out of shot. Our pack of 
natives, of whom we had engaged a much larger num- 
ber to-day, were now for some time at fault. We had 
assembled very near the spot from which we saw the 
herd on the preceding evening, to eat a mid-day meal, 
when a native crept cautiously out of the gully, and 
signed to us to follow him in silence. He then guided 
us to within fifty yards of three head of cattle, which 
were quietly chewing the cud near the rill in the 
bottom of the gully. Lewis, Mr. Bidwill, and I then 
aimed at one each, and tired together. Mine, severely 
wounded in the flank, took up the gully, and the 
other two in the contrary direction. By retracing my 
steps to the clearing above, I now commanded the 


exit from the lower end of the wood, where a favourite 
track crossed a tributary valley, which had been once 
cleared. One of the two kine that bolted that way had 
gone up the opposite hill before I got out of the wood ; 
but the second, a fine two-year-old heifer, stood for a 
moment so that I could aim at her neck between the 
dividing branches of a large tree. The ball passed 
nearly through her neck, sticking just inside the skin 
on the other side, and she staggered and fell, bellow- 
ing, on her knees. Lewis, who had followed in her 
track, now came up with her, and advanced with a 
Bowie knife to give her the deathblow ; but she 
mustered strength for a last effort, rose, and rushed 
furiously upon him. Having only slugs in his gun, 
he reserved the charge till she was quite close, and 
then fired full in her forehead. He was just in time, 
for she fell dead with her nose upon his feet. 

The natives who had followed the third returned in 
about an hour, having tracked it by the drops of blood 
as far as the dividing ridge, and then given up the 
chase. We now skinned and quartered our game, and 
carried it in triumph to the boat. 

The meat was excellent, and lasted us for a long 
while. Every one was surprised to find this wild 
beef so tender, so fat, and so delicate in flavour. 

On the 19th, having made another attempt to pro- 
ceed to the northward, we were again baffled by a 
calm ; and drifted back with the ebb to our anchorage. 
The Company's barque Brougham had anchored in the 
afternoon, and we went on board to hear the news. 

Mr. Murphy was on board, attended by Lieutenant 
Best and the soldiers ; Colonel Wakefield having at 
once placed the ship at his disposal for an expedition 
about the Straits. 

Crossing over to Port Underwood, he had first made 

2 D 2 


some investigation of the occurrence at Ji^airau. But 
it appeared that, however suspicious were the circum- 
stances which I have mentioned above, no very clear 
evidence could be found of violence having been com- 
mitted. The Cloudy Bay natives stated their opinion 
that Mr. Wilton and his party had been murdered l)y 
the aboriginal natives, whom they described to be still 
existing as fugitives there as well as at the Pelorus 
river. Some more searching investigation should 
have taken place at the time ; for the treating of such 
an event almost as though of no consequence was 
calculated to be of very bad effect on the natives, 
whether guilty or not. Nothing more, however, was 
ever said officially about the affair. The Police Ma- 
gistrate was, perhaps, hardly to blame ; for, while the 
Governor was playing at town-making to the North, 
we were still left destitute of any of those autho- 
rities, such as a Coroner and his Jury, under whose 
notice such an affair must have been brought publicly 
forward, had we enjoyed the protection of laws re- 
sembling those to which we had been used in Eng- 

Mr. Murphy had afterwards visited the whaling- sta- 
tions in Queen Charlotte's Sound, and then come over 
to Kapiti, in order to compel the heads of stations and 
others selling spirits to take out licences, just like the 
tavern-keepers in Port Nicholson. This measure ex- 
cited a considerable degree of ill-feeling among the 
whalers, who thought it very oppressive and unjust ; 
as the amount of the required licence, 30/, annually, 
would take away seriously from their profits. And 
they added, with great truth, that they derived no 
protection or advantage from the Government which 
thus proposed to draw a revenue from them. They 
had still to protect themselves against the frequent in- 


science and rapacity of Rauperaha, Rangihaeata, Tn- 
ngia^ and the other bullies among the Kawia chiefs ; 
and the nonchalant hushing-up of the Wilton affair 
was well calculated to make them, as well as the na- 
tives, consider the legal authority in the islands to be 
powerless and inefficient. 

A runaway convict, who wag suspected of having 
stolen from a French whaler a whale-boat which he 
had been heading this season, was made prisoner on 
board the Brougham. Although she came to anchor 
with a Government pendant at the mast-head, he had 
recklessly gone on board to offer his services as pilot, 
or learn the news from Cloudy Bay ; but had been 
immediately recognized and placed in irons by Mr. 
Murphy, on not being able to produce his ticket of 
leave. " Gipsey Smith," however, as he was called, 
did not long suffer confinement ; for he quietly stepped 
through the thatched wall of the apology for a jail at 
Britannia, a few days after he had been placed in it, and 
walked very deliberately back to Kapiti, and thence to 
some safer place of refuge. 

R'tuperaha was much alarmed at the visit of the 
soldiers; and inquired with great anxiety, on what 
errand they had come. 

The next morning, a fresh southerly breeze suc- 
ceeded the calm ; and we sailed towards TVanganui, 
while the Brougham beat down to Mana, favoured by 
an ebb-tide. 

On my arrival at TVanganu'i, I presented some goods 
to E Kuril, to be distributed among the builders of 
my house ; landed a large stock of goods for barter ; 
and embarked a cargo of pigs which had been collected 
in readiness for my arrival. 

I never made a bargain with E Kuru during my 
transactions with him, which lasted lor two or three 


years from this date. He used to bring me a cargo for 
the vessel as a homai no homai, or " gift for gift ;"' and 
I used on some future occasion to present him with a 
bale of blankets or a quantity of other goods, equiva- 
lent to the market value of the cargo. In this barter 
of mutual confidence, I was sometimes his debtor for 
a month or two, to the amount of ten or twelve tons 
of potatoes and forty or fifty hogs ; and at other times 
he would be a month or two in my debt to a like 
amount. But we never had a single disagreement 
about the accounts ; and the numerous followers and 
relations who invariably confided their ventures to 
the care of this chief, were always satisfied with their 
speculation. I had thus soon established, through 
the authority and with the co-operation of their own 
head chief, an amicable intercourse with a large num- 
ber of natives. They were dependent on me to a cer- 
tain degree for the supplies of European articles which 
they required, and I on them for a cargo. And this 
commerce being carried on entirely by myself and the 
upright chief in mutual presents, a friendship more 
lasting than that of mere customers was soon engen- 

The natives at Turoas village and at Pufi/dwa- 
ranui were by no means to be traded with on the same 
terms. They had already acquired in great measure 
the cunning habits of low traders from Macgregor and 
his crew ; who, although constantly trying to over- 
reach the natives, profited no more than if they had 
treated them with constant openness and generosity. 

We here met several natives from Taupo who re- 
membered Mr. Bidwill's ascent of Tonga Riro ; and 
he was soon known among them by no other name 
than that of the mountain. 

The weather during our stay was very wet, and the 


river much swollen by floods. I returned by way of 
Kapiti, and arrived in Port Nicholson on the I9th of 
November ; having left a person in charge of my 
house, who was commissioned to carry on the trade 
and get a cargo ready by my return. 



News from the North — Selection of Capital — H. M. S. Favourite — 
Secret calumnies against Port Nicholson — Abstraction of labour- 
ers by Government — The burlesque foundation of Auckland — 
Mr. Felton Mathew's epaulettes — Sawyers' activity — Absence of 
Police Magistrate — News from England — New Zealand Church 
Society — Wool — The name of the town changed to " Welling- 
" ton" — Return of the deputation from Sydney — Concessions made 
by Sir George Gipps — Ill-humour of Captain Hobson — The 
Rev. Mr. Churton — Flour-ships from Valparaiso — Health officer 
appointed — Harbour-master paid by the Company — Preliminary 
expedition of tlie Plymouth Company — Lord Eliot advocates the 
cause of New Zealand in the House of Commons — Grief for the 
death of Xord Durham — Statesmen and colonists — Abstraction 
of labour for neighbouring colonies — Plain of the Wairarapa — 
Arrival of a Wesleyan missionary — Christmas at Kapiti — Plunder 
ofa wreck near Wanganui — Ascent of the Wanganui — Rapids 
— Canoe- song — E Kuru and his guests — Open house at Wan- 
ganui — A feudal retinue — Gale of wind — Drift out to sea — 
Roman Catholic Bishop — A " happy new year" — Hopes and fears 
— Merry disputes between higher and lower classes — Anniversary 
fete — Injudicious missionary injunctions. 

A SCHOONER had arrived, soon after we left Port Nichol- 
son in the Jane, from Launceston, the Bay of Islands, 
and the Thames. The report was, that the Lieutenant- 
Governor intended shortly to visit the future site of his 
Capital, an uninhabited place called IVaitemata in the 
Frith of the Thames, in her Majesty's ship Favourite, 
then lying at the Bay ; and that he would afterwards 
come on from *' Auckland," as he had christened it, to 
us. But on the 5th of November, the Favourite ar- 
rived in the harbour, having been eleven days from Auck- 
land, without his Excellency, who had remained there 
with his suite and hangers-on, who now swelled the total 


population of his metropolis to the number of 150. It 
was added that Captain Hobson expressed no intention 
of coming hither for the present. An official notice 
appeared, moreover, in the Gazette, signed by the Police 
Magistrate, offering high wages, and temporary rent- 
free allotments of land for residence, as an inducement 
to twenty-one mechanics to proceed to Auckland in 
the employ of Government. This advertisement ex- 
cited much unpleasant feeling in the minds of the co- 
lonists. They remembered that these labourers had 
been brought to Port Nicholson by means of the high 
price which they had paid in England for their land ; 
they knew that all the labour in the settlement was at 
this time employed, at good wages ; and they justly 
grudged their abduction by these higher inducements, 
to be employed on Government works which, at that 
enormous distance, could confer no possible benefit on 
the settlement to which the labourers in all fairness 
belonged. And his Excellency was by many accused 
of wishing to inflict a grievous injury on the settlers 
in Cook's Strait, in addition to his long and inexplica- 
ble neglect. . It was not known that his Excellency 
was at this time writing dispatches to the Colonial 
Minister in England disparaging the capabilities of 
Port Nicholson, and asserting the refusal of the natives 
to part with the land near it. The letters of Lieutenant 
Shortland, on which he founded these accounts, were 
dated at Russell in October and November ; that is, 
after he had got back from Port Nicholson. I must add, 
that the extraordinary misrepresentations contained in 
them, as to the position and capacity of the harbour 
and the nature of the surrounding country, were fully 
contradicted by the best authorities after the letters 
had reached England. 

The Governor's liberal invitation was, however, some- 


what counteracted by a letter received by a carpenter 
named Cockburn from a brother chip, who, being of the 
wandering class, had proceeded to the Thames some 
time before : it spoke in the most discouraging terms 
of the prospect for labourers at a place where there 
was no other employer than the Government. The 
Reverend Mr. Churton, who had for some time shown 
a strong disinclination to fulfil his engagement with 
the colonists by remaining with them, and an irre- 
sistible craving for a situation graced by the pre- 
sence of a Governor, Colonial Secretary, and other 
people with fine titles, took up the cudgels for the 
infant metropolis, and expressed vehement doubts as to 
the authenticity of the letter. Unfortunately for his 
theory, Cockburn brought the letter to the Gazette 
Office, where he left it for inspection, after begging 
attention to the post-mark. We were not surprised at 
a rumour that Mr. Churton had been appointed by the 
Bishop of Australia to the Bay of Islands, and that he 
would soon leave us. 

An American brig, which had called at the Bay of 
Islands, on her way hither with a cargo of " notions " 
from Rhode Island, had brought a file of newspapers 
from the Bay. These contained the reports of meet 
ings of land-owners at the Bay of Islands, in the frith 
of the Thames, and at Manganui, north of the Bay, 
the parties to which had voted memorials to the Queen 
and Parliament for the separation of New Zealand from 
New South Wales, and had joined the Sydney Asso- 
ciation in opposing Sir George Gipps's Land Bill. A 
colonel and a captain had been appointed Commis- 
sioners according to that measure, and had arrived 
from Sydney at the Bay. 

There was also a ridiculous account of the taking 
formal possession and foundation of Auckland by the 


Government Surveyor-General, Mr. Felton Mathew 
on the 18th of September. Formal possession was 
taken in the name of the Queen, and her health was 
drunk at the foot of a flag-staff. Salutes were fired 
from the two vessels which had brought the party 
there three days l)efore, the boats ran races, and a 
lunch on board ship was honoured, we were told, by 
the presence of the following Government officers : — 
" the Police Magistrate, the Colonial Surgeon, the 
" Harbourmaster, the Superintendent of works, the 
" Sub-Protector of Aborigines, the Surveyor-General 
" and his lady ! " This brilliant staff assembled on 
the uninhabited shores of a harbour in which their 
own two vessels lay, contrasted singularly with that 
provided for the large and stirring population of Bri- 
tannia, to wit, a Police Magistrate and an Assistant 
Postmaster. The grand show thus made at Auck- 
land before nobody by Mr. Felton Mathew and his 
brother officials, without even waiting for the arrival of 
the founder, was strikingly characteristic of the man 
and the class. Mr. Mathew had been promoted to the 
situation of Surveyor-General of New Zealand from 
that of Town-Surveyor of Sydney. While holding 
that office, by which it seems he was entitled to wear 
an epaulette, he had made a very serious application to 
the Governor for permission to wear two. " You may 
** have threCy if you like," answered Sir George Gipps, 
" but I couldn't think of allowing you to wear two." 

On the 12th of October, Mr. Murphy had issued a 
prohibition against the cutting of wood by sawyers 
without the permission of the owner of the land. This 
partial recognition of the title of the settlers, so neces- 
sary to prevent the great devastation which was now 
progressing in all the timbered lands within a few 
miles from the town, had been steadily refused during 


the reign of the Colonial Secretary ; who used to tell 
the applicants " that they were all squatters, that they 
*• had no more right to the timber than the sawyers, 
"until the Crown had granted a title to the land, 
". and that he expected shortly to receive orders to 
** eject them from the Crown lands." 

During the building of the town, so great had been 
the demand for sawn timber, and so high the price paid 
in consequence, that the sawyers, paying nothing for 
their logs, used to earn enough in two days to remain 
idle and drunk the other five. Reckless in their de- 
struction of the forest, they cut down only the best 
trees, and often left a log untouched after it was felled, 
in order to take some other which would fall in a 
more convenient position. They lived a wild life on 
the outskirts of the settlement, and their forest huts 
afforded shelter to the sailors who deserted their ships, 
and to many worse characters. 

The activity of all classes at this time was truly 
cheerful to behold. Carpenters, land-agents, mer- 
chants, shopkeepers, and hotel-keepers advertised in 
the paper and got their premises into order ; the de- 
mand for labour exceeded the supply ; the numerous 
fleet of coasters and the neighbouring natives combined 
to keep food at a reasonable rate, by pouring into the 
market large quantities of pigs and potatoes ; and 
the constant employment of every one, so satisfactory 
because productive of progress and improvement, con- 
tinued to keep the great majority of people gay and 

During the Police Magistrate's trip of eleven days 
in the Strait, the absence of this solitary authority 
was very severely felt. Constant rows, unheeded or 
unrepressed by the feeble and now headless police, 
occurred on the beach, especially among the seafaring 

Chap. XV. 



class ; and much inconvenience resulted to the indus- 
trious settlers. Among the principal disturbers of the 
peace was the captain of a Hobart Town whaler lying 
in the port after a successful voyage, who used to land 
his men at Barrett's hotel, which had been formally 
opened on the 22nd by a public dinner, and treat them 
to champagne. 

The surveying expedition had returned from Tara- 
naki ; and the report of Mr. Stokes to the Chief Sur- 
veyor had satisfied every one that a very large and 
available district of land must finally become depend- 
ent upon Port Nicholson for the outlet of its produce. 

On the 14th of November an emigrant vessel had 
arrived from England with the smallpox on board. 
A quarantine-tent was erected on the east side of 
Lambton Harbour, the necessary precautions were 
taken, and the sick cured by the Company's surgeon ; 
and the disease spread no further. 

The most important news from the mother-country 
was the formation of a Church Society there, which 
undertook to negotiate for the appointment of a sepa- 
rate Bishop for the colony, and the endowment of 
Churches and clergymen. The New Zealand Company 
had engaged to present the Society with 2000 acres of 
land for these purposes. 

The following noblemen and gentlemen formed the 
General Committee of this Society : — 

The Earl of Devon ; i J. J. Briscoe, Esq., M.P. ; 

The Lord Ashley, M.P. ; 
The Lord Courtenay; 
The Viscount Sandon, 

. M.P. ; 
The Hon. F. Baring, 
M.P. : 

W. E. Gladstone, Esq., 

M.P. ; 
J. R. Gowen, Ekq. ; 
Sir Stephen Glynne, 

Bart., M.P. ; 
EdmundHalswell, KsQ.; 



CflAP. XV. 

William Hutt, Esq., 

Sir G. Sinclair, Bart., 

M.P. ; 

John Abel Smith, Esq., 

Alderman Thompson, 

The Archdeacon of 

London ; 
The Archdeacon op St. 


The Dean op Chiches- 

Rev. G. H. Bowers ; 

Rev. G. Brett ; 

Rev. a. M. Campbell ; 

Rev. G. Hamilton ; 

Rev. S. Hawtrey ; 

Rev. W. Harness ; 

Rev, Samuel Hinds, 

Rev. W. Selwyn; 

Rev. J. G. Ward. 

We also heard that a small lot of wool from this 
country, but whether from Mana or the missionary 
farms in the north was not ascertained, had been 
greatly approved of, and bought at an unusually high 

The Directors of the Company signified to their 
principal agent their earnest wish that the town 
founded on the shores of Lambton Harbour might be 
named after the Duke of Wellington, in order to com- 
memorate the important support which his Grace had 
lent to the cause of colonization in general, and more 
particularly to those principles of colonization by 
which these settlements were guided, by his strenuous 
and successful defence against its enemies of the mea- 
sure for colonizing South Australia. The settlers took 
up the view of the Directors with great cordiality, and 
the new name was at once adopted. The newspa|)er 
now took the final title of the * New Zealand Gazette 
* and Wellington Spectator.' 

On the 27th of November I made another trip to 
TVanganid in the schooner, and returned on the 14th 
of December. 


The main feature in the affairs of Port Nicholson 
during this interval had been the return of the deputa- 
tion from Sydney, at the very time that one hundred 
more country sections were about to be offered for 
selection. After some discussion and consultation, 
this had been postponed until the deputies should have 
rendered an account of their proceedings to a public 
meeting. The deputies had laid the whole case of the 
settlers, distinctly from that of the Company, before 
Sir George Gipps, and had claimed his consideration 
and indulgence as due to the community from their 
numbers and importance, and from the great value 
which their presence had added to the whole district, 
and especially to the Reserves made for the natives. 

After some explanatory correspondence and nume- 
rous interviews, they had succeeded in obtaining from 
Sir George Gipps the following ultimatum, subject, of 
course, to the approval of the home authorities. 

The local Government engaged not to disturb the 
settlers at Port Nicholson, but to endeavour to procure 
for them a confirmation of their titles to 110,000 acres 
of land, and to their town, on certain conditions, which 
may be thus briefly sunnned up : — 

That the 110,000 acres should be taken in one con- 
tinuous block. 

That the Reserve of one-tenth for the natives should 
be made as before, according to the order of choice 
which had fallen to them by lot. 

That certain Reserves should be made for public 
purposes, of specified character and extent. 

That the Government, not receiving any benefit 
from the sale of lands in the township, did not feel it 
incumbent upon it to erect any public works or build- 
ings, except such as might be necessary for the admi- 
nistration of justice and the collection of the revenue ; 


but that it would endeavour to procure for the inha- 
bitants a Charter of Incorporation for IMunicipal pur*' 
poses, so as to enable them to raise the necessary funds' 
and support the necessary local institutions from their 
ewri resources. 

The rights of the natives, and those of purchasers 
from them, as against the Company, were reserved for 
the consideration of the Commissioners under the 
Land Claims Bill ; but it was clearly provided that 
bond fide private claimants were to be compensated by 
the Company or the body of the settlers, in the same 
way as though the Government had founded a town 
on the spot, by an award of money, or of land in 
another situation, according to certain proportions. 

In order to prevent the abuse of this guarantee, the 
selection of the Native Reserves, both past and future, 
and that of the Reserves for public purposes, were 
declared subject to the approval of the Lieutenant- 
Governor, if not made by officers appointed by him for 
that purpose. 

The Cuba had put in at the Bay of Islands, in order 
that Captain Hobson might be informed of the result 
of the deputation. His Excellency had appeared to be 
disappointed at the important concession made in 
favour of the Port Nicholson settlers by Sir George 
Gipps, and had remarked ill-humouredly, in the pre- 
sence of the deputies, when they presented him with 
his superior's dispatch informing him of the arrange- 
ment, " What does Sir George Gipps mean by this ? 
" He might as well have given up the government of 
" New Zealand to the Company ! " A similar feeling 
of regret had of course been manifested among the 
subordinate officials. 

The main concessions made by Sir George Gipps in 
this arrangement were, the treating with persons not 


direct purchasers from the natives, and the giving 
them a town, Khrbour, and headlands, notwithstanding 
the special reserve of such sites made by the Land 
Claims Hill. Sir George had also promised to recom- 
mend a great boon to the community in their Mu- 
nicipal Incorporation for local purposes. 

The only unfavourable condition was that of taking 
the land in a block ; which would probably carry out Sir 
George Gipps's avowed intention of considering the 
lottery held for order of selection as one in which there 
should be blanks as well as prizes : for much of the 
land within a compact block of 110,000 acres round 
Port Nicholson, and which would fall to the lot of the 
later orders of choice, was looked uj)on at that time as 
inaccessible and comparatively worthless ; and the sec- 
tionists had understood when they bought, that only 
available land would be offered for selection. 

The only objection to the acceptance of this com- 
promise was that the case of the Company might be 
weakened by it ; but, considering that the deputies had 
treated with Sir George Gipps on the part of the 
settlers exclusively, this objection became of little im- 
portance. On the other hand, the recommendation of 
the able Governor of New South Wales was looked 
upon as an undoubted guarantee of a good title, and as 
securing permanence and stability to the future opera- 
tions of the settlement. 

Such were the sentiments finally expressed at the pub- 
lic meeting which, on the 15th of December, " grate- 
fully and loyally " accepted the offer of Sir George ; 
and while the remarkable neglect of our interests ma- 
nifested by Lieutenant-Governor Hobson was severely 
animadverted upon in the course of the discussions, the 
resolutions passed expressed the " unanimous and cor- 
" dial thanks of the meeting to his Excellency Sir 

VOL. I. 2 E 


" George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales, for 
" the spirit of justice and liberality he has displayed 
" towards the community of Port Nicholson." An 
address was prepared embodying these sentiments. 

The Rev. Mr. Churton had been remarkable during 
these discussions for his querulous and discontented 
spirit. As he was one of a second series of sectionists, 
for whom a district was proposed to be surveyed at 
TVanganuiy he certainly had some reason for alarm 
lest the Company should be prevented from exercising 
or granting rights of ownership over any land outside 
the block sufficient only for the preliminary settlement 
granted by Sir George Gipps ; but the time and manner 
in which he made these complaints were remarked by 
many people as especially disagreeable. Mr. Davy, a 
candidate for orders, was appointed by the Bishop of 
Australia to act as clergyman at Port Nicholson, and 
arrived to replace Mr. Churton. The approaching de- 
parture of the latter for the seat of government was 
not viewed with great regret by the community, who 
had been rather alienated from their pastor by his un- 
bending stiffness and morose manner, and by his general 
want of the colonizing spirit, which should have 
taught him to bear with some few unavoidable diffi- 
culties, and to animate and console those of his flock 
who wanted patience and resignation under difficulties, 
rather than to encourage them by his constant example 
to discontent. 

The news from the North brought by the Cuba, 
and by a trading schooner which arrived from Sydney 
and the Bay of Islands on the 18th, were, that a fire had 
burnt down a great part of the palace sent on from 
Wellington and erected at the Thames, besides the 
whole of the Lieutenant-Governor s furniture ; that his 
Excellency had bought a brig of 200 tons for the ser- 


vice of the Government ; and that a sale by auction of 
allotments of land in the town of Auckland had been 
advertised for March next. 

Two vessels had arrived at Wellington from Val- 
paraiso, loaded with flour ; and the price of this article 
of food was reduced to 20/. per ton from the high 
price which it had hitherto maintained. One of these 
vessels, a Chilian bri^, had called at the Bay of 
Islands ; and Dr. Fitzgerald returned in her with the 
appointment of Colonial Surgeon and Health Officer 
for this settlement. This was the first case of one of 
the original colonists from England being thought 
worthy of a Government office. It has been related 
that the Company's surgeon had to perform its duties 
in a recent case of the most vital importance. The 
duties of Harbour-master, by no means a sinecure, 
had also been performed by Captain Chaffers, with a 
salary of 300/. per annum from the Company; but 
this appointment was not recognized by the Lieutenant- 

On the 12th of December, the ship London had 
arrived from England with 250 emigrants and passen- 
gers. Among the latter was Mr. Frederick Alonzo 
Carrington, who held the appointment of Chief Sur- 
veyor to the Plymouth Company before mentioned. 
This body had bargained to receive from the parent 
society a district of 50,000 acres, including a site for a 
town to be called " New Plymouth," and to be distri- 
buted in the same way as the preliminary settlement 
at Port Nicholson. Mr. Carrington was deputed to 
confer with Colonel Wakefield on the subject of select- 
ing the next most eligible site within the territory 
claimed by the Company on either side of Cook's 

We heard with pleasure by this opportunity that 

2 E 2 


the cause of colonization had enlisted a powerful advo- 
cate among its parliamentary supporters in the person 
of Lord Eliot (now Earl of St. Germains). A nume- 
rously signed petition from the merchants, ship-owners, 
and bankers of the city of London, had been the ground 
on which his Lordship had founded a motion for in- 
quiry into the proceedings of the Colonial Office, the 
Local Government, and the Company, as regards New 
Zealand. Lord Eliot, and Mr. Vernon Smith in op- 
posing his motion, clearly exposed the blunders, whe- 
ther accidental or intentional, committed by the Colo- 
nial Office as to the sovereignty of New Zealand ; 
their recent disclaimer of which had encouraged the 
French to entertain the hope of anticipating us in ob- 
taining it from the so-called independent chiefs, through 
cession from them. The Colonial Office appeared to be 
less acquainted than other persons with the features of 
the case, and the matter ended in Lord Eliot's motion 
being agreed to, notwithstanding the opposition of 
Lord John Russell and his subordinate. 

The grievous news of the death of the Earl of Dur- 
ham was received at the same time. That distinguished 
nobleman, the first Governor of the New Zealand 
Company, had merited the sincere esteem of the Cook's 
Strait colonists, not only by his strenuous and disin- 
terested advocacy of their particular interests, but also 
by his thorough support of the principles of coloniza- 
tion on which the Company's settlements were based, and 
by the kindly interest which he was known to take in all 
questions affecting the Colonial empire of Great Bri- 
tain. It is pleasing to know that the sorrow for Lord 
Durham's death was deep, heartfelt, and universal at 
Wellington. A respectful address of condolence was 
immediately prepared and signed, for presentation to 
the widowed Countess, 


Little do the majority of distinguished British 
statesmen know or appreciate the earnest gratitude 
which can be produced in the hearts of the men who 
found colonies by some degree of legislative kindness 
or care for their unprotected state. Those are men 
of generous minds and strong feelings, who carry 
with them their families, and risk their all, spread- 
ing their country's name in the remotest parts of 
the globe, even though uncertain of adequate protec- 
tion because not fostered or even recognized by the 
parent Government ; who trust to their own resources, 
and confide in each other's good faith and conduct ; 
who become quickly inured to hardships ; who are 
rendered provident and energetic by difficulties ; who 
spring more hopeful and determined from under each 
successive disappointment ; and who steadily persevere, 
heedless of obstacles and derision, as the undaunted 
pioneers of civilization and religion. Alas ! with few 
honourable exceptions, men of great name and reputa- 
tion, ministers, statesmen, and legislators of rank and 
influence, seek a more substantial reward than gratitude 
for their exertions, or a more known field than strug- 
gling colonies for their ambition. Immersed in the 
politics of the world, they are ignorant or careless of 
the warm thanks which these young and vigorous 
communities readily offer to their few benefactors : — 
and the brave planters of a new colony are thus gra- 
dually neglected, left without the protection of laws or 
government, placed at the mercy of a few placemen 
who do not know their wants, and tormented by the 
irresponsible caprice of a bureaucracy, which rules them 
from a distance with indifference approaching to con- 
tempt, till at length their noble energy is crushed, or 
their loyal forbearance is exhausted, and they become 
ruined men or rebels at heart. 


Various associations were in course of formation at 
this time, for purposes calculated to advance the pros- 
perity of the settlement ; — such as the importiition of 
cattle on a large scale from the neighbouring colonies; 
the encouragement of inventions for the preparation of 
the phormium tenoujc or indigenous flax-plant ; and the 
establishment of an Exchange and Public Library. 
The making of bricks was now first successfully carried 
on; and a large kiln was in active operation at Kai 
TVara TVara, a mile from the town. 

Attention had for some time been drawn to the in- 
creasing attempts made by parties from the neighbour- 
ing colonies to abstract labour from us. No means 
seemed to be considered too dishonourable for the 
accomplishment of this purpose. The grossest calum- 
nies were circulated in the public prints of New South 
Wales and Van Diemen's Land, against our soil, cli- 
mate, and state of society ; and the crimps who char- 
tered vessels and visited our harbour drew the most 
highly-coloured picture of the advantages to be derived 
by labourers from a removal to their country. These 
foul doings excited the greatest indignation among the 
main body of settlers ; and it was clear that there 
existed no surer way of provoking their hatred than one 
which so militated against their vital interests. 

The plain of the TP^airarapa had been recently visited 
by a traveller from this place. Like Lieutenant Best, 
and others who had seen parts of this district, he spoke 
most highly of its capabilities in all respects except 
the possession of a harbour. These opinions were 
important, as proving that, on the east as well as the 
west, a large extent of country was dependent on the 
harbour and town of Wellington as a commercial 

On the 23rd of December a barque arrived from 


Kawia, bearing Mr. Jolin Aldred as Wesley an mis- 
sionary for this place. He fixed his abode near 7 e 
Aro pa, on the spot which the late JMr. Bumby had 
imagined himself to have secured for the mission, and 
which had been laid out as a Public Market-place in 
the plan of the town of Wellington. 

The next day I again sailed for TVanganui, taking 
with me Mr. W. Carrington, one of the assistant- 
surveyors, and five or six of the Company's labourers, 
with their goods and chattels. Colonel Wakefield had 
decided upon having a district surveyed at that place, for 
distribution among the sectionists of the second series. 
About noon on Christmas-day, we reached Kapiti. 
Having to touch there, I ran close alongside Evans's 
Island, hardly stemming the ebb with a light southerly 
air, which had died away as the sun rose. Twenty or 
thirty whalers, who had chosen to remain till the next 
season, and were holding high holiday on the island, 
ran out and launched a boat to tow me to the anchor- 
age. They insisted on our partaking of their Christ- 
mas feast, and we landed amidst a salute of musketry 
and of some small cannon on the flag-staff mound. No 
one, except two or three of the headsmen, was sober, 
and I was glad to get into the chief headsman's house 
out of the way of the reckless firing. My crew and 
the surveying-men were made welcome under a spaci- 
ous awning of boat-sails. We were feasted on roast 
sucking-pig, ducks, and plum-pudding, and re-embarked 
at night, the breeze having freshened up. The men 
were got off as soon as they were fit to be bundled like 
dead sheep into the hold, and we sailed away. Two 
of the sailors, including the skipj^er, were fortunately 
steady hands, and had returned early on board sober ; 
and the little craft did not require a large crew to sail 
her. , 


Calm weather and light winds kept us two days 
more between Kapiti and TVanganui, only fifty-seven 
miles. ;.( ;. vftt 

Mr. Carrington established himself in a house near 
thejoa at Putikiwaranui, and commenced the survey 
on both sides of the river by cutting the necessary lines 
through the high fern along the banks. 

A boat from Wellington on its way to this place 
having been wrecked, near the mouth of the Turukina 
river, a week or two before my arrival, I proceeded 
thither along the beach, accompanied by the Reverend 
Mr. Mason and E Kuru. The few natives who lived 
on the banks of that river had plundered the wreck, and 
there was some suspicion that foul play had been prac- 
tised on the unfortunate crew, consisting of four per- 
sons. Three bodies had been found near the plundered 
boat by two White men who walked to Wellington 
shortly after the event, one of them with the head 
separated from the trunk ; and they had buried the 
bodies and carried the news to Wellington. We pro- 
ceeded to a settlement about a mile inland, where we 
found some natives cutting the sails and ropes into 
shapes suitable for their own canoes. They also pro- 
duced some chests, containing clothes, books, and letters, 
which led me to identify the passengers in the boat ; 
but refused to give anything up without ample pay- 
ment. They told us that the more valuable portion of 
the cargo had been carried far up the river or to Ran- 
gitikei by another set of natives ; and declared that 
the bodies had been washed on shore dead, and that 
the absent natives had mutilated one of the corpses as 
described. These natives professed to be mihanere, or 
converted Christians ; but Mr. Mason could not per- 
suade them to give up their plunder. E Kuru was 
very indignant at their conduct, and regretted that they 


were not under his authority. At TVangaihu we met 
with Pukeroa, the old magician of Guard's island at 
the mouth of the Pelorus, who was on his way to 
JVaikato by way of the Wanganui river. He had 
also secured a large portion of the spoil ; but ridiculed 
the idea of restoring it to the friends of the deceased, as 
quite contrary to all Maori custom. He loudly asserted, 
that when a boat, canoe, or ship was wrecked, all look- 
ers-on were entitled to whatever they could pick up. 
He was much delighted at having found a case of 
bottled gin. On my return to ff^anganui, I forwarded 
a list of the things which I had seen, and a statement 
of what I had heard, to the Magistrate at Port Nichol- 
son ; but no further notice was ever taken of the 

Soon after this, the Jewess schooner of sixty tons, a 
vessel owned in Port Nicholson, entered the river, and 
anchored at Purua. There were several passengers 
on board, who had come to inspect the proposed district. 
As I intended to travel up the river to E Kuru, who 
had gone to collect pigs at the inland settlements, I 
offered places in my canoe to three or four of them ; 
and we thus formed a merry party. 

The canoe was roomy and safe, fitted with a mast 
and sail, and manned by four or five strong rowers, 
selected from the train always attendant upon Ware 
IVik'itoria, or ** Victoria house," as E Kuru had chris- 
tened my establishment. 

The kareau platform was covered with clean native 
mats, and abundance of food and bottled beer was stowed 
away in the bottom of the canoe. The weather was 
uniform, sunny, and exhilarating because not oppres- 
sively hot ; and thus we were rather on a party of 
pleasure than an exploring expedition. 

We slept the first night at a village opposite 2 e 


Kau arapawtty that place being deserted by the inhabit- 
ants, who were busy gathering their crops ; and pushed 
on the next day. We found the scenery improving iu 
magnificence as we proceeded. Occasionally we passed 
picturesque little settlements hung midway down the 
partly cleared acclivities, or laid out on small flats 
bounded by the mountains and a bend of the river. 
Long reaches walled in by steeps that were mantled 
with noble forest or high fern, and dotted here and 
there with stern crags, stretched between the bends ; 
and at each bend the river generally foamed over a 
rapid of greater or less ascent. After passing several 
of these by poling, and ascending the current about 
ten miles from our sleeping-place, we gave the natives 
a rest at mid-day on a shingly beach at the foot of a 
rapid which shot down with more than usual force. 
The river above it turned sharp to the right, and facing 
us was a steep wall of verdure rising to the height of 
some hundred feet. 

My boys had told me that E Kuru was entertain- 
ing a large party of visitors from TVaikuto, and that 
we might expect to meet him before we reached his 
settlement. We had not long disembarked before 
the regular song of the war-canoe rang from the 
woods opposite ; and, as we rose to look about us, a 
large fleet came round the point and shot the rapid at 
full speed. E Kuru was in one of the last canoes, 
and beckoned those who had passed to turn in to our 
encampment. Here the whole party rested for an 
hour. The chief introduced me to the principal men 
among his visitors, who already knew me by name as 
" the White man who had paid for TVanganui ;" and 
he reminded me of several old acquaintances among 
his relations, who were also in the train. He then 
invited me to travel in his canoe, where the stern- 


sheets were covered with fine mats ; and we returned 
towards the sea, reaching my house about mid- 

Several persons travelled by land from Wellington 
at this time to make themselves acquainted with the 
TVanganui country ; among others, the wife of the 
cooper of a ship in Port Nicholson, who had deserted 
and engaged in the service of a person intending to 
settle here, whom he accompanied. The natives were 
much struck with the courage and perseverance of this 
woman, who had been the first of her sex to perform 
this journey of 110 miles on foot, crossing the rivers 
and undergoing the other hardships of the route. I 
found most of the travellers very foot-sore and half- 
starved at Mr. Carrington's house one afternoon, hav- 
ing crossed the river on hearing the news of their 
arrival. I now made my house a caravanserai for all 
travellers, inviting them to accept of its shelter until 
they had agreed for the purchase of some of those 
built by the natives. 

I had divided the great barn into three parts with 
rude reed partitions : one for the sleeping-room, where 
people might spread their blankets on the floor ; one 
for goods and provisions ; and the large space in the 
middle as a sort of public hall, where natives, sawyers, 
travellers of the lower class, my crew, or any one else, 
might sit round the fire and partake of whatever kai, 
or food, was going on. I continued this system as 
long as I kept the house ; and even after the two 
wings were furnished with wooden floors, walls, and 
ceilings, and civilized doors and windows, the centre 
remained an open hall where all but known bad cha- 
racters of either race might assemble and be welcome 
round the ample chimney-corner. But the separated 
rooms were kept strictly tapu, and not even the chief 


himself ever ventured into them without my permis- 
sion. In the absence of established laws and usages, 
I found this sort of feudal system very effectual. I 
liad always a crowd of attendants ready to perform any 
task ; the natives who partook of the shelter and hos- 
pitality of the house would have felt ashamed if they 
had not kept it constantly well supplied with food ; 
and it soon became a word of reproach among the 
natives to any man, that he had been refused permis- 
sion to enter the outer door. 

Having loaded a cargo of potatoes in bulk, I started 
for Port Nicholson towards the end of January, with 
several passengers who were returning, and who spread 
their blankets on the top of the potatoes. We made a 
prosperous run to Kapiti ; and, after remaining there 
one day, and taking two natives as passengers, started 
early in the morning with a freshening breeze from 

When we rounded Cape Terawiti an hour before 
dark, the breeze had increased into a gale ; and we 
flew along before the squalls which dashed down the 
gullies of the high land, and raised the spray in 
whirling columns high over our little masts. Hugging 
the shore in order to avoid l)eing driven to sea, we 
rounded Sinclair Head in safety ; but the night came 
on pitchy dark, and the gale increased in fury, so that 
we could not see our way to an anchorage in which I 
had before taken refuge under the eastern head ; and 
I was obliged to heave-to and drift till the morning, 
after passing within half the craft's length of one of 
the reefs. The gale was so violent that the sea was 
white with foam and almost smooth, for some miles 
from the shore ; but when we were well out, and ex- 
posed to the steady blow through the Strait, a heavy 
and dangerous sea knocked us about like a nut-shell. 


The only sail we could carry was a balance-reefed 
mizen, about the size of a large pocket handkerchief; 
but under this the boat rode it out gallantly, and 
caught the seas on her well-rounded bow. I slept 
soundly during the heaviest part of the gale ; but the 
skipper told me when I looked up, that during two 
hours he had never expected to see daylight again. At 
break of day we found ourselves in the latitude, but 
well to the eastward, of Cape Campbell, the wind being 
less strong, but a heavy sea running. My passengers 
had been much frightened and inconvenienced by the 
water, which leaked in at the topsides and reached up 
to them in the rolls of the boat. About eight o'clock 
we were able to make a little sail, hoping to fetch 
under the lee of Cape Palliser, and to find a tem- 
porary anchorage there. In the evening we had 
reached within a few miles of it, but the baffling 
willies of wind off the land and the set of the tide 
round the Cape prevented us from nearing the shore. 
In the morning it had fallen calm, but we had drifted 
ten or twelve miles to the north, along the eastern 
coast. The wind had been gradually drawing round 
to the south-west, and the clouds were gathering over 
the high peaks of the Middle Island. By night it was 
blowing as hard as ever from that quarter, and the 
sea, sweeping uninterrupted from the south, was as 
high as at the Cape of Good Hope. We were again 
under our pocket handkerchief, standing off and on 
near the coast, for two days and two nights. I had 
hoped to find some bay or cove large enough to afford 
us shelter ; but when we examined the coast, we 
could see nothing but terrific surf, tumbling upon 
sandy beaches or flying in jets of spray from the faces 
of high cliffs. When the weather moderated, we were 
off Cape Turnagain ; and we did not reach Port 


Nicholson until the 30th of January, very nearly out 
of water, firewood, and provisions. 

Monseigneur Pompalier, the Roman Catholic Bishop 
of New Zealand, had visited Wellington during my 
absence, on his return from the French settlement at 
Akaroa to his head-quarters at the Bay of Islands. 
The gentlemen of the Club, and others who had en- 
joyed his acquaintance, spoke highly of his urbane 
manners and his philanthropic views with regard to 
the welfare of the natives. 

" A merry Christmas and a happy New Year " had 
been celebrated in old English style. Fat bullocks 
had been slaughtered and dressed with evergreens, and 
the New Year saluted with ringing of bells, firing of 
cannon, and hoisting of flags. 

Two days afterwards, a vessel had arrived from 
Greenock with 200 emigrants ; and these I found 
located in some houses which had been built on 
speculation by old " Dog's-ear " and his tribe at Kai 
JVara TVara. He told me, in his usual comical way, 
that he thought " Wide-awake " had slighted him by 
sending such poor people to his settlement ; for he could 
not understand the bare feet of the Scotch lassies. 

Mr. Churton had gone, with his family and chattels, 
to the Bay of Islands. 

It was determined towards the end of the year, to 
celebrate the first arrival of the settlers, on the 22nd of 
January, by an Anniversary fete. 

So favourable was the state of things in the settle- 
ment, and so bright were the prospects for the future, 
that everybody joined heartily in this idea. 

The harvest was in progress in the valley of the 
Hutt. Consisting chiefly of potatoes, as a good clean- 
ing crop for the newly-cleared land, it had surpassed 
the most sanguine expectations. It had also lieen 


proved beyond a doubt, that the high estimates made 
by some persons of the expense of clearing heavily- 
timbered land in New Zealand was far beyond the 
actual cost. Some of these theorists had placed their 
estimate as high as 40/. per acre, and had assigned this 
calculation as a reason for their own unwillingness to 
" face the bush." Mr. Molesworth, however, had by a 
year's experience proved the cost of clearing, and the 
return from the first season's crop. Although he had 
at first, from inexperience, paid at a rather higher 
rate, he now cleared his land by contract at the rate 
of 121. per acre. This I take from his own care- 
ful estimates. The samples of wheat and bar- 
ley produced in some small patches promised an 
equally good return under a grain-crop. The rapid 
improvement of the condition of sheep and cattle, on 
the natural pasturage of th« hills south and south- 
east of the town, was no less remarkable. Visitors 
from New South Wales, with all their prejudice 
against a young rival colony, did not hesitate to ac- 
knowledge that the cattle showed better, that the 
cows gave more and richer milk, and that the meat 
was more delicate in flavour than in that country. 
The limited pasturage, instead of being consumed by 
the cattle, had advanced in quality and quantity. The 
fern, through which we used to ride up to the knees of 
the horses, had been trodden down in many places, 
and grasses had sprung up in its room. 

Greater confidence was also felt as to the quantity 
of available land easily accessible in all directions from 
the site of the town. The first explorers in all direc- 
tions had been followed by many others, and every one 
encouraged his neighbours by the accounts which he 
brought home. Port Nicholson was no longer looked 


upon as hemmed in by mountainous country and pos- 
sessed of no rural district but the Hutt, but as the door 
of a large, fertile, and very available district, both east 
and west, and as the central harbour of a coast- line 
reaching from the East Cape to Kawia. It began to 
be felt, in fact, that in spite of difficulties and obstacles, 
the colony had fairly " taken root," and only wanted 
being left without interference to prosper by means of 
its own natural capabilities. 

During the year, 119 vessels had entered, and 112 
vessels had left the port. The White population al- 
ready amounted to 2500 men, women, and children ; 
and there were nearly 200 houses erected in a to\vn of 
which the inhabitants had been in possession but four 
months, and during two months out of that time 
doubts of a secure title had prevented many from 
erecting 'a permanent or substantial dwelling upon 
the land : 18,000 acres of rural land had been se- 
lected by the end of the year, and held out a large 
field for enterprise in the coming season. Out of the 
whole community, only twenty-five men were on the 
Company's hands, pursuant to their engagement to 
employ labouring emigrants until they found service ; 
and these were receiving twenty shillings a-week, be- 
sides their rations which might fairly be counted as 
seven shillings more. 

But few causes of sorrow had to be weighed against 
these facts. A crimping-vessel from Launceston had, 
to be sure, induced fourteen labourers to leave the 
place ; but among these there was only one whose 
departure was regretted. The event had served to 
remind all of the last act of the Lieutenant-Govern- 
or and his total neglect of Cook's Strait and its 
inhabitants ; but people were getting tired of this sub- 


ject, and began to believe that, if only neglected, Cook's 
Strait could almost do without him. 

The prosperous state of the working-classes did not 
fail to show itself by their very obstinate, but inoffen- 
sive, determination to have a share in the arrangement 
of the forthcoming festival. The democracy and aris- 
tocracy of the place could not manage to agree about 
the persons to be appointed as a Committee of Manage- 
ment. A man or a measure proposed by one of the 
employing class was sneered at or joked down by the 
carpenters and tailors ; a proposition from a mechanic 
or labourer was objected to or cavilled at by a rangor- 
tira ; and no union could be formed. In vain middle- 
men tried to reconcile the merry disputants ; in vain 
the leaders of the two jesting parties yielded here or 
condescended there; no lasting peace could be con- 
cluded : and after many days' good-humoured dispute, 
it was determined to satisfy all parties by holding two 
festivals on different days, to be called the " Popular" 
and the " Select" fete. 

The " Select" people gave a subscription ball at 
Barrett's hotel on the night of the 22nd ; the stormy 
weather having prevented any out-door amusements. 
On Saturday the 23rd, a rowing-match took place in 
the harbour under their auspices : but a proposed sail- 
ing-match was put off, in consequence of an accident 
having happened to one of the boats. 

On Monday, the " Populars" presented a much more 
extensive bill of fare. The weather having declared 
fine by ten o'clock, flags waved over many of the 
houses and the masts of the shipping, and a spirited 
race between four whale-boats round the vessels at 
anchor started the proceedings. 

Then came a hurdle-race by four horses, over some 

VOL. I. 2 F 


level ground at the back of Te Aro pa, for a purse 
of fifteen guineas : and the name of " Calmuck 
** Tartar," ridden by Mr. Henry Petre, deserves to be 
recorded as the winner of the first race in New Zea- 

A sailing-match followed; ten riflemen next con- 
tended for a prize of five pounds and entrances ; and 
the minor sports of jumping in sacks, climbing a 
greasy pole, and wheeling barrows blindfolded, finished 
the fun of the day in a right merry manner. 

A " Popular" ball, joined by most of the male aris- 
tocrats, was given in the evening at one of the large 
wooden stores erecting on Te Aro beach. 

The natives had not been forgotten. An ample 
feast of rice and sugar, which is a dainty dish with 
them, had been provided ; and a prize in money was 
held out as an inducement to a canoe-race. I was very 
sorry to hear that the newly-arrived Wesleyan mis- 
sionary forbade the attendance of those over whom he 
exercised influence, and that this part of the festivity 
was thus crushed in the bud. I need hardly comment 
on the painful feelings excited in the minds of the re- 
flecting settlers, and indeed of all classes, by this inju- 
dicious attempt on the part of their religious pastor to 
denounce the partaking by our simple friends of an an- 
nual rejoicing over our arrival among them. He first 
taught them to look upon our gifts with suspicion, and 
upon our invitation to them to be joyful with us as 
forbidden and of no good. 

On the 24th, Mr. F. A. Carrington, who had been 
despatched by Colonel Wakefield in the Brougham to 
seek a site for the New Plymouth colony, returned, 
after a partial examination of Blind Bay and a visit to 
the Sugar-loaf Islands. He had decided on choosing 


the latter and the neighbouring country for his ope- 

Another shipful of immigrants and passengers from 
England had arrived in the midst of the fete. Many 
of these were owners of land in the second series, 
anxious to be located at once with their families. 

2 f2 



Official crimping of labourers — Withdrawal of the troops from 
Wellington — Once employed — Surprise of colonists — Anger — 
Notice against occupation of lands — Sir John Franklin reproves 
crimping — The New Plymouth pioneers — Public meeting — Peti- 
tion for the recall of Captain Hobson — Why sent home informally 
— Mr. Petre — Mr. Sinclair — Increasing trade with the natives — 
Working Men's Land Association — Lady Franklin. 

The day after I arrived, four vessels entered the har- 
bour together. Among them was the Columbine, a 
missionary schooner; and the Chelydra, a large barque 
from the Thames, chartered by Government to remove 
our army of thirty soldiers to the metropolis. 

But it was soon found that this vessel had come on 
another and more noxious errand. Instructions had 
come by her to carry out the crimping measure already 
officially announced ; and the instructions were obeyed 
in the most disagreeable manner. The Police Magis- 
trate, warned by the warm notice which had been 
taken of the advertisement authenticated by his signa- 
ture, appeared ashamed or afraid to do the dirty work 
himself; so the constables were deputed to go about 
among the newly-arrived emigrants, and try every 
means of persuading them to engage. The soldiers 
acted as though they had been in the plot ; and as- 
sisted in harassing and frightening the new-comers, 
who had hardly had time to look about them. 

The withdrawal of the soldiers, in itself, inflicted no 
great injury on the settlement ; as they were always 
causing disturbance by their drunken quarrels at every 


public-house along the beach : but it served to give the 
fresh immigrants an idea of their unprotected state, 
and of the indifference with which they were treated 
by the Lieutenant-Governor ; and thus confirmed the 
false reports and comparisons between the two places 
made by the constables. It also corroborated the 
growing belief among the natives, that the Kawana, or 
" Governor," did not care for the White people here, 
and that an armed force would never be allowed to 
afford them protection. 

Only once had the soldiers been called upon to 
act, and then the result must have emboldened the 
natives to think but little of their efficiency. A 
native belonging to a settlement near Mana had pil- 
fered from a shop while on a trading visit, and he and 
his friends laughed at the constables when they came 
to take him up. The officer and two or three soldiers 
had been sent to assist the civil power ; but the thief 
disarmed Lieutenant Best and threw him down, so 
that a bullet shot through the leg of one of his assist- 
ants by one of the soldiers probably saved his officer's 
life, the " mob" of natives having rushed in upon their 
fallen foe. The thief, however, escaped. 

The colonists were thunderstruck at this open 
manifestation of hostility on the part of Captain Hob- 
son. You could meet no one, of any class, who had 
not the subject on his lips and anger in every feature. 
As I have said before, this was the most tender point 
on which to attack a community whose very principles 
were that they could secure an efficient supply of 
labour by paying a high price for their land. The 
colony stood on the maintenance of a just proportion 
of land, labour, and capital. The founder of a distant 
settlement, who was attempting to establish his state 
with only one of these elements, was destroying our 


balance by taking away the labour which he recjuired ; 
thus not only })roving the fallacy of his rival experi- 
ment, but unjustly seeking to uphold it by the abstrac- 
tion of a necessary prop from one which, long before 
established, had every prospect of success. 

It was only a month since a private individual from 
Van Diemen's Land, who had dared to support his 
unprincipled conduct by a published justification of 
his crimping proceedings, had been scouted by the 
whole community, and held at a distance by its re- 
spectable members. How then could the same people 
bear with a similar conduct on the part of the highest 
authority over them, as his first act, after awaking 
from negligence which resembled a total ignorance of 
their being ? With praiseworthy forbearance and 
patience beyond belief they had borne the long neglect, 
still hoping for the time when they might convince 
their Governor, by an affectionate and loyal reception, 
that he ought to act as their ruler and father. But he 
could now no longer plead that he wished no harm, 
if he did no good, to this plantation ; he had first de- 
clared open war, and the sturdy colonists repeated the 
cry, and nerved themselves for the struggle. From 
this moment the Governor commonly went by the 
name of " Captain Crimp ;" and the propriety of peti- 
tioning her Majesty for his removal from. oflSce was 
at once agitated, .-r^'t" 'wf'» v i ■'■.] .,v> i r-.; 

At the same time, an official notice appeared warn- 
ing persons not to settle or occupy the lands of Ta- 
rmiaki or Wanganui under land-orders from the New 
Zealand Company, as such had not been conveyed by the 
Crown. As it was confidently believed, however, that 
the next arrival would bring the news of a satisfactory 
arrangement in England of the Company's claims to 
those districts, no great attention was paid to this pro- 


hibition, issued by the New South Wales Government 
on the suggestion of Captain Hobson. 

The news brought from the Northern Districts did 
not say much for the inducement held out to labourers 
to go thither from this settlement. The Bay of 
Islands Gazette had ceased to appear, having been 
threatened with punishment by legal proceedings in 
consequence of its free remarks upon the doings of 
Government; and the official Gazette Extraordinary 
now issued from the Church Mission press at Paihia. 

The state of the Bay of Islands generally was de- 
scribed as very wretched, and the Lieutenant-Governor 
was blamed for having in great measure caused it by 
the establishment and then capricious abandonment of 
Russell. The whaling-ships, which had formed the 
principal support of that settlement, were driven away 
by the prospect of port-dues, and duties on their oil, 
tobacco, and spirits, as well as the augmented price of 
potatoes and pigs. 

An impudent piece of official land-jobbing in the 
allotments of the town of Auckland had been discovered 
and exposed. 

Instead of the whole of the land ready for sale at 
that place being put up on fair and equal terms to all 
bidders, Lieutenant Shortland and other Government 
officials had been allowed, ex officio, prior and exclu- 
sive selections. Of course, they had picked out some 
of the most valuable lots. But this was only the least 
part of the injustice. Instead of the price to be paid 
by the officials being determined by that given for other 
land of the same or nearly equal value, these fortunate 
gentlemen were to be allowed to purchase their lots at 
the average price of one-half of the town, good, bad, 
and indiflferent; and, until the half should be sold 
and the average ascertained, they were to pay nothing. 


A short remonstrance to Sir George Gipps was drawn 
up on the subject by Mr. Dudley Sinclair, and signed 
by twenty-five leading settlers of Wellington. At 
the same time, a requisition for a public meeting to 
consider the misconduct of the Lieutenant-Governor 
was published, with the signatures of the most in- 
fluential people of the settlement. I shall transcribe 
it word for word : — " We, the undersigned, land- 
" holders and residents of Port Nicholson, viewing 
" with surprise and disgust the nefarious attempt 
" which is now being made by Captain Hobson to de- 
" prive us of our artificers and labourers, men brought 
'* out at our own expense for the benefit of the settle- 
" ment of Port Nicholson ; and feeling persuaded that 
** her Majesty's Government at home will neither 
" countenance such manifest injustice to ourselves nor 
" sanction conduct so ungentlemanlike on the part of 
" its officials ; and being also fully convinced that any 
" representations from us as a body will receive from 
'• her most gracious Majesty every possible considera- 
" tion ; do hereby call a meeting of our fellow colonists, 
** to be holden at Barrett's hotel, on JNlonday next, 
"the 15th day of February, for the purpose of adopt- 
" ing a petition, praying for the removal of Captain 
" Hobson from the Deputy Government of New Zea- 
" land." 

Curiously enough, at this very time Colonel Wake- 
field received from Sir John Franklin, the Governor of 
Van Diemen's Land, an answer to his complaint 
against the practices of the crimps, which condemned 
these proceedings as most disgraceful, and utterly repu- 
diated them on the part of his Government. This letter 
must have been felt as a stinging reproof by the crimp- 
ing Governor of Auckland. 

On the 8th of February, the Brougham sailed finally 


for Taranaki, with sixty persons for the new settle- 
ment, including Dicky Barrett and all his train. He 
had long pined for his ancient residence in that part 
of the country ; and was delighted to carry thither 
with him, as a boon to his native friends, the avant- 
garde of a large European population and market 
for their produce. The vessel was a perfect Noah's 
ark, bearing the germ of a colony ; her decks were 
completely heaped up with furniture, animals, plants, 
and children. 

On the 15th of February, an important meeting 
took place, pursuant to the requisition which I have 
transcribed above, at Barrett's hotel. Mr. George 
Butler Earp was voted into the chair. After his 
address, explanatory of the objects of the meeting. 
Captain Edward Daniell proposed three resolutions, 
as follows : — 

" That Lieutenant-Governor Hobson has systemati- 
" cally neglected his duty to her Majesty's subjects 
" settled at Port Nicholson. 

*' That his Excellency's recent attempt to deprive 
" this settlement of its skilled labour, by inducing me- 
" chanics and artificers to leave it and enter into the 
" employment of Government at Auckland, is calcu- 
" lated to inflict serious injury upon the settlement. 

"That the annexed petition to the Queen be for- 
** warded to England, and presented to her Majesty, 
'• stating the above-mentioned grievances, and praying 
" her Majesty for protection, and the recall of the Lieu- 
*• tenant-Governor." 

The petition alluded to briefly and plainly set forth 
the grievances of the petitioners, and concluded with a 
prayer for the removal of Lieutenant-Governor Hobson, 
and such other relief as to her Majesty might seem fit. 


This motion was seconded by Mr. James Coutts Craw- 

Mr. Hanson appeared at the head of a more mode- 
rate party, who doubted the expediency of demanding 
the recall of Captain Hobson. They considered this 
to be a very likely means of exciting the hostility of the 
Colonial Office. He read an address, in the form of a 
petition to both Houses of Parliament, which exposed 
the grievances at greater length, and prayed, indefi- 
nitely, for redress. He then moved for the adoption of 
this address as an amendment to the motion for the 
original petition. Some discussion ensued. The prin- 
cipal question at issue between the two parties was 
that of being guided by expediency and caution, or by 
an unflinching and open-mouthed denouncing of the 
enemy. Among such an assemblage, there could be 
but little doubt of the result, and the original motion 
was finally carried amidst acclamation. 

The meeting concluded by carrying motions for the 
forwarding of the petition through Valparaiso to Eng- 
land, and for sending copies to Sir George Gipps and 
Lieutenant-Governor Hobson. Thus the supporters of 
the measure fell, through ignorance, into the error of 
neglecting a very stringent rule of the Colonial Office,' 
which requires all complaints against a Governor to be 
forwarded through him, in order that they may be 
accompanied by his defence. There was some reason, 
in this case, for a deviation from the rule, as such a 
course seemed likely to involve a dangerous delay to 
the petition, both by the length of the voyage hence 
to Auckland, and by the absence of any means of 
conveyance homewards from that place. Moreover, 
the people of Wellington had, virtually, no Governor 
through whom to transmit their statements, but only 
a distant enemy to complain against. And, as there 


was no commercial intercourse between Wellington 
and Auckland, it would have been necessary to charter 
a vessel on purpose to communicate with the Govern- 
ment. This, indeed, has been repeatedly the case in 
later times, when such communication has seemed 
so desirable to the Cook's Strait settlers or to the 
Company's Agent as to overcome the objection, to such 
an enormous rate of postage. .; I •. - . ■ ■ i. 

The petition, numerously signed, was forwarded to 
Valparaiso by the Cuba, on the 2nd of March. Mr. 
Henry Petre was a passenger in this vessel, on his way 
to England ; whence he proposed returning finally to 
the country which he had adopted, for he had perfectly 
satisfied himself as to its natural capabilities and its 
future prospects. 

In the end of February, the Chelydra had sailed for 
Auckland, with the troops, and the crimped mechanics, 
who were allowed a free passage among other induce- 
ments. Mr. Dudley Sinclair, attracted by the prospect 
of speculation in town-lots at the proposed capital, left 
Wellington in this ship. He had parted with all his 
land and other property, and totally separated himself 
from the colonists, among whom he had come as a 
leading man. He openly avowed that he was only a 
land-jobber, and not a colonist. 

A schooner, and the old cutter which had been lying 
so long idle off Barrett's house, had sailed for TVan- 
ganuiy with some of the second-series sectionists and 
their goods. 

The increasing trade which the natives maintained 
in the town began to draw attention. Mr. Lyon, one 
of the earliest Scotch colonists, kept a shop which was 
their favourite resort; and he had in his ledger up- 
wards of sixty names of native customers, to whom he 
was not afraid to give credit to a certain extent. They 


now began to understand the use of money. Bringing 
their produce into town from all the neighbouring set- 
tlements, and even occasionally from a great distance, 
they would only take money in exchange ; though they 
commonly spent it during the same day, at some of the 
shops along the beach. 

The workmen now founded a very useful association 
among themselves. Looking to the increasing value 
of land, both in the town and the neighbouring 
country districts, they wisely formed a kind of savings 
bank, which applied the surplus of their high wages to 
the purchase of desirable lots. By this combination of 
their funds they secured the advantage of entering the 
land-market with a considerable capital, and the land 
acquired was afterwards distributed in lots propor- 
tionate to the amount of the subscription. As a means 
of attaching the working population to the locality by 
making them all owners of the soil, the " Working 
" Men's Land Association " received the cordial sup- 
port and approval of the employing class. 

On the 3rd of March, her Majesty's ship Favourite 
again entered the harbour, having Lady Franklin, the 
wife of the Governor of Van Diemen's Land, and her 
suite, as passengers. This lady had recently visited 
South Australia, Port Philip, and Sydney, and was 
now completing her tour of the Australasian colonies 
by a visit to the different settlements in New Zealand. 
Lady Franklin resided, during her short stay here, in 
the house of Colonel Wakefield, which was by this 
time fitted up with some degree of comfort. She also 
made a trip to see the farms on the Hutt. Before her 
departure, a congratulatory address was presented to 
her ladyship by a deputation from the settlers, which 
alluded to the friendly feeling displayed towards them 
by Sir John, and to her own literary and scientific 


acquirements. On the 9th, the Favourite carried this 
welcome visitor to Akaroa, whence she was to proceed 
to the Thames and the Bay of Islands. The sloop 
had made the passage from Hobart Town to this port 
in ten days. 



The Sandfly — Joseph Toms — Tory Channel — We meet the Broug- 
ham — Foundation of New Plymouth — Calm night — Wanganui 
bar — Curious effects of mist — Native news — Progress of the 
European settlement — Lawless vagabonds — Fears of a war-party, 
or taua — Determination to reconnoitre — Pleasant journey with a 
fleet of canoes — Gaiety of the natives — Exaggerated gravity of a 
missionary — Rapids — E Kwru's political dilemma — Fortified vil- 
lages — Spies — Doubts — Encampment — First view of the war- 
party — Their camp — Speeches — The patriarch Heuheu — Inter- 
view with him — Pukihika pa — The war-party at the settlement 
— Good faith — Native guards. 

On the evening of the 5th I sailed again for TVan- 
ganui, in the Sandfly, a schooner of ten tons which 
had been built on the banks of the Hutt, and which I 
had chartered for three months for the Jf^anganui 
trade, I was accompanied by Mr. John Tylston 
Wicksteed, a gentleman who had lately arrived in the 
London, and who, as land-agent for the Church So- 
ciety of which I have before spoken, wished to examine 
the district of Wanganui, the Company having granted 
that society a land-order in the second series entitling 
them to 4000 acres of land. 

I beat out against a fresh southerly breeze, which 
fell calm when we had reached Sinclair Head. In 
the morning we were half-way across the Strait, and 
a light air was blowing from the north-west. On 
arriving off the entrance of the Tory Channel, I found 
the tide had begun to ebb, and so anchored in deep 
water under the lee of the south head. " Geordie 
" Bolts," or Joseph Toms, of Te-awa-iti, who was on 


his way to his station at Porirua, was forced by the 
same circumstance to anchor alongside. We ex- 
changed news and civilities. I gave him the last 
Wellington newspaper and some baker's bread; he 
handed me some fine vegetables out of his garden. 
He had a nice place at Te-awa-iti, much improved 
since our first arrival. The seeds out of the Tory 
which we gave him had served to furnish a very pro- 
ductive garden : he had a flock of forty or fifty goats, 
and as many geese. Besides his two whaling-stations 
at Porirua and Te-awa-iti, he had another in Port 
Underwood, and had taken out licences for public- 
houses at all three. That at Porirua, especially, pro- 
mised to yield him profit, as the amount of travelling 
by land was rapidly increasing on the north side of 
the Strait since the foundation of the settlements at 
TVanganui and Taranaki. At one o'clock the flood 
made, and we sailed on our respective destinations. 
As we beat into the channel, and passed Te-awa-iti at 
a rapid rate, we took a baked leg of mutton and the 
fresh vegetables out of our stove, and enjoyed the 
scenery while we ate our dinner on deck. About half- 
way along the channel we met the Brougham, striving 
to beat up to Te-awa-iti, where she had to take in oil 
and bone for London. I went on board and told the 
captain that the flood-tide had made, and he therefore 
anchored in one of the bays till the next ebb. I then 
gathered from him the particulars of the location of 
the New Plymouth settlers. Mr. Carrington had 
at first fixed upon the banks of the river JVaitera as 
the site of the new town. The embouchure of this 
river is about twelve miles north of the Sugar-loaf 
Islands, and has a bar nearly dry at low-water, with a 
rise of twelve feet in the spring-tides. They had 
found, however, that a bad surf ran there at times 


when it was comparatively smooth at Ngamotu ; and 
after capsizing one or two boats at the entrance, the 
site had been removed to the coast close to the islands. 
The captain described the settlers as all well, and 
busied in preparations of all kinds. 

Proceeding up the Sound, we found ourselves be- 
calmed a few miles before reaching Ship Cove, near 
the entrance of West Bay. Although the bowsprit 
nearly touched the branches of the trees which over- 
hung the water, we could find no bottom with seven- 
teen fathoms of line ; so we lay till morning, lifting on 
the long swell which rolled in from the north. It 
was one of those bright clear moonlight nights so 
highly to be enjoyed in New Zealand ; and I sat till a 
late hour on the deck, listening to the shrill twittering 
of the night-birds as they flew across from hill to hill, 
or the gentle washing of the sea on the beaches and 
rocks, which gleamed in the moonlight, or lay hidden 
beneath the tufted foliage. When I rose in the morn- 
ing, we had got a fair wind, and were about half-way 
between Cape Koumaru and Point Jackson. I liere 
calculated our course for JVanganui, and steered 
straight for the mouth of the river. Mr. Wicksteed 
much enjoyed the comprehensive view afforded of the 
noble scenery of Cook's Strait. 

The next morning at break of day, we were off the 
river's mouth ; from which a cloud of mist was drifting 
out before the cold morning land-breeze. The sea was 
quite smooth ; so I beat up into the fog till the water 
shoaled, and then anchored in nine feet until I could 
make out the passage over the bar. The peaks of 
Tonga Riro, glowing with sunshine, towered over the 
top of the mist as we advanced, and Mount Egmont's 
snowy cap peeped out of the clouds to the westward 
as the sun spread his light that way. I had merci- 


lessly pulled Mr, Wicksteed and another passenger 
out of their warm beds to admire the strange effect. 
They had hardly got on deck when we became 
shrouded in the mist ; and a scene ensued which must 
have combined with the fog, as it drove past us, and 
retained the shadow of our rigging in gigantic propor- 
tions when an occasional gleam of the rising sun 
penetrated it, to make them think some magic was 
used in this handiwork of nature. We first heard 
voices in the fog, which I soon recognised to be those 
of the natives coming out to fish. Not so my compa- 
nions ; nor was their wonder appeased when the canoes 
hove in sight. Their hulls and sails were magnified 
by the fog into huge unwieldy ships, as they rose 
and fell on the long ground-swell ; and their crews 
appeared uncouth giants. I had engaged in a long 
hallooing conversation with them even before they ap- 
peared ; and five or six canoes were soon lashed to 
our taffrail, while thirty or forty chattering fellows 
sprang on deck to shake hands and exchange news. 
They told me that two boats, engaged in a rival trad- 
ing expedition to Patea from this place, had both been 
wrecked at the mouth of that river ; that the two ves- 
sels had arrived safely from Wellington, and had landed 
their passengers and goods ; and that the expected war- 
party from Taupo had arrived on the banks of the 
river, headed as had been foretold by old Heuheu him- 
self. After asking me the news from Poneke, as they 
abbreviated Port Nicholson, and inquiring, as usual, 
what goods I had brought for trade, they proceeded to 
the fishing-grounds, about two or three miles out to 
sea. Twenty-five or thirty canoes, bound on this 
errand, passed us or called as they went. The fog 
now cleared off, and displayed the pretty country about 
Wanganuiy smiling under a warm and cloudless sky. 

VOL. I. 2 G 


When the tide flowed, I heat across the bar, and up 
to my house, about four miles from the mouth. We 
passed the Elizabeth, a schooner of 70 tons, aground 
on a mud-flat opposite TVahifurm ; and the old cutter 
at anchor a little higher up. 

Of course the White population of the place was 
much increased since my last visit ; they now mustered 
fifty or sixty. Nearly all the houses built by the 
natives had been bought or bargained for by the new- 
comers ; and a large number of Maori found ample and 
well-paid employment in erecting fences, assisting to 
land goods, and other initiatory measures of the set- 
tlers. Two or three gentlemen with their families 
were among the number ; and I was delighted to see 
this settlement, which I almost considered identified 
with myself and E Kuru, in such active progress. Seve- 
ral people had travelled hither by land, in readiness for 
the first selection of lands advertised by the Surveyor- 
General, on the 18th of March. But the Assistant- 
Surveyor was not yet ready for such a proceeding, and 
several walked back as they had come. Others, liking the 
place, and finding living very cheap from the abundant 
supply of food by the natives, determined to remain 
here until the land should be distributed. Some 
engaged in the trade with the natives ; others wasted 
their money and their time at two grog-shops esta- 
blished by Macgregor and another person on either 
side of the river. The Government had not scrupled 
to grant two publicans' licences for this small popula- 
tion, as it brought sixty pounds per annum into their 
treasury ; but they had provided no police, not even a 
constable, for the maintenance of law and order. 

Among other bad characters who had found their 
way to this refuge for the lawless, were two prisoners 
escaped from the jail at the Bay of Islands. They had 


committed the most daring robberies both there and in 
the Frith of the Thames, and then travelled by the 
lakes of Rotoriia and Taupo, and this river, to the 
settlement. I did not of course learn this part of 
their history until long afterwards. One of them, an 
American named M'Leod, had assumed the name of 
Mickey Knight, and got engaged by my agent as car- 
penter to the establishment. He was a first-rate 
workman, and had excited general praise by the execu- 
tion of some tables and benches for the house, and a 
set of gates for the fence of the yard. He spoke the 
native language very well, had with him a native 
wife from the Thames, and had been tatued from the 
knees to the hips at the Navigator Islands. Having 
an easy address and off-hand manner, he had intro- 
duced himself to the acquaintance of Mr. Carrington, 
the Assistant-Surveyor, and of a gentleman lately 
arrived from England who was living in his house. 
They soon began to tell every one that Mickey had 
received an education far above his station, and pos- 
sessed an inexhaustible fund of information which 
merited for him the treatment of a companion. When 
he had effectually worked himself into their confidence 
and familiarity, he took advantage of their absence 
from home and a dark night, to break into a writing- 
desk which contained neaiiy fifty pounds in gold. 
One of the surveying-men, however, who was asleep 
in the next room, heard the noise, and saw him de- 
camp with the desk under his arm ; and Mr. Nil)lett, 
the owner of the money, attended by a large number 
of natives from the pa, where he had been talking with 
them, gave chase. The culprit was captured, after 
his arm had been broken by a blow with a paddle 
from his pursuer, and half the money was found on 
his track. He was a prisoner in my house when I 

2 G 2 


landed. I immediately offered to put him in irons, 
and send him in the schooner to Port Nicholson ; but 
Mr. Niblett said he had gpt half the money back 
and broken the thief's arm, so he did not think it worth 
while to have the trouble of going to Wellington to 
prosecute, especially as a conviction must be quite un- 
certain under the very undefined jurisdiction and au- 
thority of the Police Magistrate there. So I told 
them to give the honest carpenter his bundle of 
clothes, and bowed him out of the house. He left that 
night, and I never heard of him again ; but his compa- 
nion pretended to know very little of him, and remained 
as carpenter to one of the grog-shops, where he had 
managed to inspire confidence or to meet with kindred 

The reports respecting the war-party, which were 
brought down daily by canoes laden with produce for 
the new market, constantly varied in character. The 
White missionaries, and the Ngatiruaka tribe who 
were their more especial adherents, had alarmed the 
newly arrived immigrants by a description of the fero- 
city and recklessness of the tribes composing the tauay 
or " army." Mr. Matthews, especially, denounced them 
several times in my hearing, as treacherous, dishonest, 
and bloodthirsty ; and predicted the worst consequences 
from their arrival in the vicinity of so much plunder. 
My immediate attendants, most of them still rewera, 
or " devils " (as the missionaries had long taught the 
natives to call all White men not of their own cloth 
and all Maori not converted), told a very different 
tale ; and Turoa and other non-converted natives con- 
firmed my belief that the Tuupo tribes were ruled 
by powerful and generous chiefs, able and willing to 
set an example to their followers of friendliness to- 
wards the White man. 


The Ngatiniaka natives, invited to a general con- 
ference between the invading party and the inhabitants 
of If^anganui, were preparing to ascend the river in 
large numbers ; and Messrs. Mason and Matthews de- 
termined to accompany them, in hopes of being able 
to prevent the further advance of the war-party, and 
to persuade them to return peacefully to their homes. 

On a former visit, 1 had seen the arrival at Tui'oas 
village of a deputation from Tmipo, announcing the 
preparations for the expedition. ]\Ir. Matthews had 
taken me over to hear their speeches, and had begged 
me to join with him in recommending the old chief to 
dissuade his allies from their warlike purpose, and in 
assuring him that the Governor would certainly inter- 
fere to prevent a war, even among themselves, and that 
if this was done perhaps bloodshed would ensue be- 
tween the races. Thinking that this was really the 
intention of the Government, I had seconded Mr. 
Matthews's views to the best of my power ; and had, 
after warning Turoa of my intention, informed Mr. 
Murphy of the approaching events when I returned 
to Wellington ; and advised him, when he asked my 
opinion, to send the detachment of soldiers up to 
TVanganid, if he really thought it his duty to stop the 
strife. Lieutenant Best, however, had for various 
reasons refused to be detached by the Police Magistrate 
without the authority of his commanding officer at 
Auckland; and there the ajBPair rested. 

Turoa now taunted me very much with my former 
statement ; and told me he heard that the Governor 
would not even leave the troops at Poneke. I took 
the best course, and acknowledged to him that I had 
mistaken the intentions of the authorities. He also, 
and all his train, prepared to join the conference. I 
determined to attend it too, and to be guided very much 


in the affair by the counsel of E Kuru, who was at his 
own settlement a hundred miles up the river. 

So I started the Sandfly off to Port Nicholson, and 
rigged a new canoe for my trip. She was a very 
graceful, light-looking vessel, without topsides, but 
with tapering head and stern well peaked up at either 
end ; about thirty feet long, broad in the beam, quick 
and handy to paddle, and adapted for six people. She 
was painted a bright red with kokowai, or baked ochre, 
and from a long staff on the stern I hung an English 
red ensign. I gave a passage to a trader named 
Yankee Smith, who was bound to Pukihika with a 
boxful of goods, and four of my " boys" completed the 

Recommending the settlers not to be alarmed till I 
should return with a report of what was to be ex- 
pected, I started a day after the missionaries and the 
body of natives, who were sure from their numbers to 
travel slowly. THe first night we encamped close to 
Te Kau arupuwa, after some trouble in finding a house 
free from fleas. In villages which have been the 
longest deserted, these annoying insects always abound 
most; and the only way to prove the houses is to 
make one of the native boys put his leg inside the door. 
In many cases he draws it back perfectly covered. 
Another canoe, bound to the puni, or camp, of the taua 
joined us here. 

A small drizzling rain prevented us from starting 
till about ten o'clock the next morning; but it partook 
of the character of the fog at the bar some days before, 
for the rest of the day was calm, warm, and cloudless. 
I shall not attempt to dilate upon the scenery, which 
was of the same lovely kind as that which I have de- 
scribed during a former excursion here. The whole 
way up, it was the same. The river winds, or glides, 


or rushes through a mountainous but fertile country, 
of which the luxuriant monotony is relieved by cun- 
ningly-placed native fortifications, or isolated huts 
among rich gardens. Canoes, laden with the various 
kinds of native produce for the sea, met us occasionally 
on our way ; the occupants generally allowing their 
bark to drift listlessly with the current, except where a 
rapid required skilful pilotage. They basked idly in 
the sun, or ate, or smoked, or played with the pet 
parrots which are generally perched on a pliant stick 
overhanging the water, swinging themselves up and 
down, flapping their wings, and screaming in shrill 
discord. The kind greeting was never omitted ; I was 
now generally known among all the denizens of the 
river ; and the namnai, " come hither," or tena koitou, 
" hail to ye all! " was often accompanied by the present 
of a cooked pigeon or parrot, or a basket of kumera, or 
a melon. 

About noon we overtook the fleet of the mihanere na- 
tives, lying at the foot of a moss-covered cliff", which was 
crowned with the stockades of a moderate-sized pa. On 
the top of a wooded mountain about a mile inland of 
this, another stockade surrounded the last refuge of the 
inhabitants in case of assault. I ascended to the vil- 
lage, where a large assemblage were busily engaged in 
doing justice to a feast prepared for them. Te Ana-ua 
(otherwise called E Tu), Mawai, and several other 
chiefs of Putikiwaranui, were among the throng. A 
basket of food was placed before me on my arrival ; and 
I ate some, and took the rest into the canoe with me, 
according to etiquette. We now proceeded in company, 
and the scene became most enlivening. There were 
about twenty canoes, varying in size from the stately 
war-canoe in gala dress of clean feathers and oiled 
carving with its crew of forty warriors, to the low shell 


in which five little naked urchins pushed along, scream- 
ing and yelling with delight whenever the pakeha ad- 
mired their efforts, and laughing at the upsets which 
attended them at nearly every rapid. Good-humour 
prevailed among the throng; merry jokes and jeers 
passed from canoe to canoe ; and the thoughts of all 
seemed to be brightened by the delicious weather, which 
continued sunny and fine, without any great heat. 

Nothing more pleasant than such a journey. Re- 
clining on a platform covered with soft mats just for- 
ward of my steersman, under the shade of a broad- 
brimmed Panama hat, now smoking, now sketching, 
now noting some name, or legend, or genealogy of 
a tribe as related by Konatu, who always held the 
steering-paddle ; now handing my pipe to be filled by 
one of the other boys, and then seizing a paddle or a 
pole and raising a canoe-song to encourage my crew, as 
some old acquaintance came up alongside and chal- 
lenged me for a race, I entered heartily into the spirit 
of our expedition. The Maori himself is all excitement 
when in action, and enjoys nothing better than to see a 
pakeha in the same high spirits as himself On such 
occasions, the loudest laugh, the sharpest repartee, the 
wildest cheer, the most skilful use of the paddle, may 
be said to win their hearts ; and accordingly, whenever 
my canoe got puzzled by a severe rapid, a dozen of those 
who had passed it would leave theirs above, and jump 
screaming into the water to lend a hand. The old 
chiefs even, however calm and dignified at a korero, or 
discussion, make it a point to relax during a journey. 

The only chill cast on the innocent gaiety of the 
throng was the cold and untimely gravity of Mr. Ma- 
son, the head missionary, whose large canoe kept up 
with the rest. I was surprised to see him maintiiin a 
face of which not a feature moved, a posture in which 


not a muscle changed, for miles and miles together. 
And his dress and attitude made me feel quite uncom- 
fortable, from my certainty that it was all forced and 
annoying to himself. The black tail-coat, trousers 
strapped down, waistcoat and stiff cravat, black beaver 
hat and rusty kid gloves, could not possibly be agreeable 
in this weather ; for I was quite warm enough in my 
shirt-sleeves, white duck trousers, and open collar. 
Then he sat on one of the thwarts of the canoe, not 
above three inches in breadth, perfectly upright, looking 
straight ahead, with his two hands leaning on a cane 
well before him. He seemed to keep his crew at a dis- 
tance. No one sat or stood within a yard of him, and 
he hardly ever spoke. A bare " good morning" was 
the only answer to my greeting the first time we passed ; 
and during the whole of this, to me, highly exciting 
journey, neither jokes, laughter, nor songs, neither the 
scenery nor the weather, not even the nervous passage 
of some of the dangerous rapids, which made me look 
about for a place to swim to in case of upsetting, had 
the least effect upon Mr. Mason's automaton stillness. 
I could not help thinking how much more permanent 
an effect might attend the teaching of a man of educa- 
tion and discernment, who would have joined to a cer- 
tain degree, on such an occasion, in the playful humour 
of these grown-up children. 

The passage up the rapids, some of them having a 
fall of six feet in a short space, excited my admiration 
as soon as I had got over the nervousness. It was a 
good instance of the excellent time which the natives 
keep in their songs and dances, although perfectly 
ignorant of and unable to appreciate music. 

On reaching the foot of a rapid, the crew abandon 
the paddles, stand up in the canoe, and handle long 
poles made of manuka^ toa toa, or other hard wood. 


and charred at the lower end. They now push against 
the bed of the river in perfect unison, the poles plung- 
ing and lifting, while the canoe foams ahead, as though 
by clock-work. The helmsman also steers with a 
pole, balancing himself in the high peaked stern, and 
guiding the canoe by poling under or away from it. 
The silence is only interrupted by the grating of the 
poles against the sides of the canoe and the foaming of 
the water, or by an occasional brief word of direction 
from the man in the bow, — ki uta ! *' towards shore ! " 
or ki waJio ! " outwards ! " The canoes follow each 
other in single file, with scarcely two feet between the 
stern of one and the bow of the next ; and though a 
collision would in most cases render the capsizing of 
both inevitable, such is the skill of the natives, that 
an accident rarely occurs in going up the rapids. The 
natives of TVanganvi have a known reputation for this 
peculiar exercise ; and men of other tribes poling on 
this river are much laughed at for their awkwardness 
and the numerous duckings they get in consequence. 
A crew of experienced TVanganui natives poling up a 
strong rapid is a very pretty sight. As it is hard 
work, they generally strip, leaving only a shirt or mat 
round the waist, and the exercise throws them into 
the most graceful attitudes and develops their mus- 
cular energy. A byword, much used all over the 
islands, alludes to the known practice in poling, while 
it mimics the uncouth dialect of this tribe. After I 
became as it were identified with them, it was often 
shouted after me by the Kapiti or Nfraiiuwa natives, 
— Ira ! ira ! e weke, e toko kituhua ! " Hallo ! hallo ! 
*• old man, pole away inland !" 

We stopped for the night at a settlement called 
Oawitu ; where we overtook many of Turoas followers, 
who own extensive cultivations hereabouts. Towards 


dark the weather got cloudy and threatening, and I 
was busy making a tent on the bank of two blankets, 
when a small canoe came dashing down the river ; 
and I soon recognised E Kurus manly voice in the 
loud chorus which accompanied the sharp stroke of 
the paddles. He had come to meet me, in order to 
kawe or " escort" me to the conference. One of his 
brothers and half a dozen of his young men accom- 
panied him. 

I found that he still kept a strict neutrality. He 
told me that he should take no part in the conference, 
but would recommend me to the friendship of his 
hungawai, or "relations by marriage," among the 
Ngatipehi. He assured me that Heuheu was a very 
noble-minded chieftain, and advised me to ask him 
frankly about his intentions to the White people, as 
he was known for a strict adherence to his word. 

Fortunately, the night proved fine ; and the next 
morning we started at peep of day. About twelve 
miles brought us to a pa called Oper'iki, consisting of 
two fortified villages, one on each bank of the gully, 
from which a stream falls about thirty feet into the 
river. The land on either side of the gully runs 
level, at an elevation of sixty or seventy feet above 
the river, for a considerable distance in all direc- 
tions, and the level is covered with luxuriant crops. 
On a shingly beach opposite the pa we all stopped to 
breakfast, and two messengers from the Taupo party 
came down to meet us. They said little about the 
intentions of their comrades, but seemed to look about 
them well, and form a good estimate of our numbers 
and arms, while manifesting great indifference to the 
peaceful exhortations of the missionaries. Both White 
and Brown began now to fear that our journey would 
end in a rupture of some sort ; for E Kuru sent a 


canoe back to my house, and asked me to send a note 
for all my guns, flints, bullet-moulds, lead, and powder. 
A canoe containing one or two White traders joined 
us here from the settlement. 

We now proceeded to Ikurangi, hpa about six miles 
further on, where it seemed resolved that we should 
all wait until more news were heard from the puni or 
resting-place of the Ngatipehi. Accordingly, all the 
canoes were hauled up, and tents built, on an island 
facing the pa. The Patutokoto people, whom we had 
passed at their resting-places last night, also arrived 
and took up their quarters on the island. It was alto- 
gether an animated scene. In the midst of lofty moun- 
tains, whose sides are diversified by wood, plantations, 
tracts of fern land, and cliflPs peeping out here and 
there, on a level point which slopes gradually down to 
a sudden bend in the river, is situated the pa with its 
double fence and fighting-stages towards the river, and 
a perpendicular descent towards that reach of it in 
which the island lies, formed by a rapid foaming on 
each side. Between the island and the pa, all the 
canoes were either hauled up or moored to poles. A 
fishing-weir is built in the midst of this rapid, and the 
little children were swimming and splashing in the 
most dangerous part of it. The natives belonging to 
the pa were sitting outside their fence on the top of 
the cliff, watching the people on the island, which was 
quite gay with the little flags and banners of different 
colours that most of the canoes had hoisted in imi- 
tation of mine. Two canoes went up to the taua, and 
returned again this afternoon. E Kuru, who went 
in one of them, told me he had not landed, being afraid 
that the Ngatipehi might owe him a grudge for as- 
sisting their enemies on the former occasion. Two or 
three of the Ngatipehi people came down in one of 


the canoes to see tlieir friends among the Patutokoto ; 
and a tangi, or crying-match, and speeches from both 
parties, lasted till I was asleep. 

Starting again at break of day, we ascended about 
six miles, when a cry was raised to keep the canoes 
close together ; and in this order, with perhaps fifty 
canoes and three hundred people of all ages and both 
sexes, we doubled a point, and came in full view of the 
Ngatipehi encampment. From the edge of a bank, 
rising very steep for forty feet from the eastern shore, 
the ground was cleared of wood, and rose gradually in 
the form of an amphitheatre, backed by a forest. Five 
hundred warriors were disposed in rows about this 
clear space, according to their tribes and families, each 
with his musket or two-barrelled fowling-piece. After 
a ^QW shots had been fired from our flotilla, by way of 
greeting, I saw a chief running up and down harangu- 
ing the others ; and immediately they answered by a 
regular discharge of musketry, backwards and for- 
wards, along each row, which lasted for nearly five 
minutes. I was much surprised to find them so well 
armed ; each man had a musket, and some two, and 
slaves to carry them. Our party all encamped exactly 
opposite to them, and some time passed in silence. 
Some of the Ngatiruaka canoes pushed on to Piiki- 
hika, which is but a few miles further up. In the 
course of an hour, during which I was much amused 
by the perseverance of a Tmipo dog, who earned pre- 
sents of tobacco for his master by swimming across 
the river and back, the chiefs of the Patutokoto tribes, 
attended by all their people, pushed across to see their 
relations. They had dressed themselves out in what 
they considered " full fig." Many of the men were 
dressed a 1' Europeenne, with the exception of shoes 
and stockings ; several of the women wore caps or bon- 


nets, adorned with gaudy ribbons and albatross fea- 
thers ; and those that had neither gown nor other Eu- 
ropean luxury to show, of which there were but few, 
donned their cleanest blankets or mats. The mission- 
aries and I also went over. A tangi by all hands 
lasted nearly an hour, during which I walked about 
the encampment, and could not help admiring the 
well-formed limbs and clean skins of these natives, 
compared to most of those whom I had before seen. 
Quite free from the cutaneous disease which prevails 
to so great an extent among the inhabitants of Cook's 
Strait, they were moreover the strongest and best- 
built natives that I had yet met with. I was told 
that this was owing to their constant bathing in the 
puhia, or " hot springs," near their settlements ; from 
which they have earned the sobriquet of the f^f^ai- 
korapupu, or " boiling water" tribes. 

To the tangi succeeded speeches, many of them ener- 
getic and well-worded, by both parties, in purport as 

An orator spoke from either party alternately, and 
every speech began with nearly these words — *' Come 
" hither, come hither, my relations ; come hither, my 
" fathers, my brothers, my sisters, and my children; wel- 
" come!" The speakers on the Tempo side seemed to wish 
to sound the feeling of the others towards them ; and 
urged their friends to send them canoes to descend the 
river, and also to join them in obtaining a revenge 
which both must desire over their mutual enemies at 
J^yaitotara. The answers of the Pafutokoto were to urge 
them to return quietly, for various reasons : some said 
that they had no canoes to spare ; that the Ngafipehi 
had lost all their young men, and that old men and 
women and children would be all slaughtered at Tf^ai- 
totara ; others, again, said that they had turned miha- 


nere, and could not join them, and urged the anger of 
Ihu Karaite as a reason why they should give up the 
idea of lighting, and that the White mihanere said the 
pukapuka or book, would be strong against the heathen. 
But the tone of irony in which some of these reasons 
were stated, particularly by Turoa, who had never ceased 
to be a warm and zealous ally of the Ngatipehi, was 
highly amusing, and showed plainly that none of the 
Patutokoto had any idea of stating their real feelings in 
open assembly. Old Turoa, who alone of all his tribe 
appeared in a ragged mat, which, together with every 
part of his body, was well encrusted with kokorvai, or 
red ochre, and a night-cap which partook of the same 
rusty hue, began with the usual plaintive greeting, com- 
prehending, however, his grandchildren also in the 
list. " You ask for canoes," said he ; " how can I 
" give them to you ? You see I have but one, full of 
" women, and boys, and children. How can you think 
" that I have come to join you ? Beside?," he added, look- 
ing with a most comic grin at Messrs. Mason and Mat- 
thews, " I am just becoming a missionary ; I have the 
" book in one hand, and a cap on my head, which I 
" never wore before ; and the anger of Ihu Karaite 
" will come upon me if I go to fight." He ended by 
urging them to return in peace. Some of the Taupo 
chiefs expressed their determination to go on, whether 
assisted or not ; and after a Wanganui man had 
asked them to go across the country, in order to spare 
the Tf^anganui plantations, old Heuheu concluded the 

Above six feet in stature, but so Herculean in limb 
as to disguise his height, he rose proudly from a spot 
of elevated ground where he had been sitting among a 
knot of his wives and children, shook his mats from 
his right arm, and began his speech with slow and 


distinct articulation. The most perfect silence pre- 
vailed among the hundreds assembled. Children who 
had been playing on the edge of the crowd ; young 
men and women who had been renewing old acquaint- 
ances and exchanging the latest gossip ; warriors who 
had been examining each other s arms en connoiaseur 
while the great number of chiefs spoke ; all were 
now hushed and still. Stragglers might be seen 
pressing close to the scene of conference ; whispers 
might be heard that " the kau matua, or ' patriarch,* 
" was going to speak ;" and then the whole audience 
held its breath. This was evidently the great speech, 
— the lion of the day. 

Like the others, he began by hailing his relations ; 
and then proceeded with an oration full of majesty, 
terseness, and emphasis. His words must have been 
heard across the river by the men of Putikiwaranui, E 
Kuru, and others who had not crossed over. " You 
" have all been speaking crooked," said he, " and 
" hiding your words in lies. Listen to me ! I am 
" going to speak straight. I go to JJ^aitotara, to 
*' avenge the death of my people, and to bring their 
" bones home. I have not come to beg canoes, or 
** food, or assistance. If you lend me no canoes, I 
" can walk along the banks with my children ; and 
" we will cross at a ford when a cliflF is in our path : 
" we shall find our way to the sea. I can help myself 
" to food ; my children see the plantations, and they 
" gather with a gun in one hand and a basket hi the 
" other. I want no help but that of my own meri 
" ponamu, which my arm knows how to shake." And 
he lifted it high over his head and brandished it 
haughtily before them. 

" As to the missionary words," he continued, " who 
*' cares for them ? What is the anger of Ihu Karaite 

Chap. XVII. HEUffEU—ms HARANGUE. ■ 40$ 

" to US ? Were they missionaries who shook hands 
" and gave the hongi (salute) to my people, and then 
" put them to death ? Why, I am a missionary at 
" that rate ; but my creed is my meri. Will that not 
" be stronger than your puka puka tapu ?" He then 
blamed the missionaries and all White people for being 
the cause of much disagreement among the Maori, and 
severely censured those chiefs who had signed away 
their power to King George. " You are all slaves 
" now," he said, "and your dignity and power is gone. 
" But mine is not :— just as there is one man in Eu- 
" rope. King George, so do I stand alone in New 
" Zealand, the chief over all others, the only free one 
" left — look at me, for I do not hide while I say so ; 
" I am the Heuheu, and rule over you all, just as my 
" ancestor Tonga Riro, the mountain of snow, stands 
" above all this land ! " 

He wound up by a spirited address to the Patutokoto, 
which brought tears to many an eye ; and I could see 
the young warriors clutching their weapons tightly 
while every muscle quivered with excitement, when he 
shouted, in the wild yell to which he had gradually 
increased the tone of his voice, " Where is Tauteka ? 
" where are all your parents and brothers ? their 
" bones are at TVaitotara. Will you not join us in 
" gaining possession of the bones of our ancestors ? 
" Will you not release your sisters from being slaves ? 
" A fight for your fathers' bones ! Be brave ! be 
" brave ! be brave ! There has been enough of talk." 
And he sat down, while the assembly dispersed. 

In the course of the afternoon I brought some to- 
bacco over as a present to the old chief, and gave him 
some more to distribute among his people, who had 
scarcely any. I then asked him whether he intended 
any harm to the pakeha ; promising their friendship 

VOL. I. 2 H 


should he behave well, but assuring him that we were 
fully prepared and determined to resist any attack on 
our houses and goods on the sea-side. He answered, 
that he had seen White people in his part of the 
country too ; and that he knew what great advantages 
he should lose by quarrelling with them : for instance, 
he said, he should not get tobacco, as he had just now, 
blankets, or powder, or any of those things which the 
Maori got by letting the White man live quietly 
among them. He assured me that no harm was in- 
tended to the White man, and that all his party were 
bound on no other purpose than revenge for their 
tupapaku, or " dead :" and I told him that I thought 
he was quite right ; for he forced me to acknowledge 
that the White people of my country would do the 
same, should the fViwi, or French, kill any of our 
chiefs. I felt now convinced that there was nothing 
to fear ; although the missionaries persisted in assur- 
ing me that there was no' trusting these natives, and 
that they knew no such feeling as gratitude, and had 
the worst reputation of any natives in the islands. 

We remained two or three days in our encampment 
opposite to theirs, frequent visits being paid on both 
sides. During this time the old chief showed the most 
violent feeling of enmity towards the doctrine of the 
missionaries. Wlienever he heard their followers 
sing one of their discordant hymns on our side, he 
would come out of his hut and muster one or two 
hundred to drown the sound by a native song. When 
they visited his camp, he pursued the same plan to 
drown their exhortations, though he treated them in 
other respects with dignified politeness. 

I visited the pa at Pukihika, about six miles above 
the encampment. A young slave, Mr. Matthews's 
head teacher, poled me up in a light canoe. He was 

Chap. XVII. PUKIHIKA. 46f 

very cautious of talking politics on the road ; but I 
could not discover whether this arose from his con- 
sciousness of the little weight which attached to his 
opinion as a slave, or whether he thought that I was 
one of the enemy. He was a willing lad, and used 
to work hard enough in digging Mr. Matthews's gar- 
den, cleaning his shoes and knives, and grooming his 
horse, for the sake of his own station at the head of 
the native class. 

PukihiJca is a very extensive pa, or rather a col- 
lection of seven or eight detached ones, on a hill at a 
bend of the river to the westward. It is about seventy 
miles from the sea, and well chosen as a mustering- 
place for the TVanganui tribes living within that dis- 
tance from the coast, in case of attack from TVaikatOy 
Taupo, or the Strait. I found nearly all the mis- 
sionary population gathered here, apparently to con- 
sult over Heuheu^ avowed determination. Messrs. 
Mason and Matthews had pitched their tent in the 
middle of the court-yard in the principal village. I 
returned to my encampment after a short look round. 
Here I found that the war-party had been supplied by 
their relations with an ample fleet of canoes, and that 
they would proceed the next day, by easy stages, to- 
wards the settlement. E Kuru and I preceded them 
in my canoe. 

On arriving at the settlement, I reported my opinion 
that no danger was to be feared, and advised the 
colonists to receive the travellers kindly and hospitably. 
One or two were nevertheless persuaded by the mis- 
sionaries when they came, to carry their valuable goods 
over to the pa at Pidikiwaranui, and leave them in 
charge of the chiefs ; the pa having been newly for- 
tified for fear of an assault. 

The taua, to the number of five hundred, arrived 

2h 2 


some days afterwards, and built their huts close to the 
houses of the settlers. But during the period of their 
stay, not a single instance occurred, to our knowledge, 
of misconduct on their part. On the contrary, their 
presence had the effect of overawing many troublesome 
fellows among the missionary natives. The most per- 
fect discipline reigned in the camp, and the chief evi- 
dently prided himself on the strict fulfilment of his 

One night, when he felt suspicious of a small body 
of Rotorua allies in his train, who were really of 
doubtful reputation, and who were said to have plotted 
a night-attack on our houses, he placed guards of his 
own followers at every house along the beach. On 
that night, twelve stout warriors lay round the fire in 
the midst of my house, with their arms in their hands, 
ready for any emergency. We were also on the alert ; 
and I had arranged signals by bells and gongs so that 
we could all assemble at short notice in one spot. 
These precautions doubtless awed the conspirators, and 
no alarm was given. After remaining among us four 
days, during which they made themselves very useful 
in assisting the settlers for small payment, they had a 
grand war-dance and some more speeches, and then 
started off" along the beach, joined by many TVan- 
ganui natives, and among others by E Kuru, who had 
ended by deciding finally for his Taupo allies. During 
their stay, I always had an ample quantity of rice, 
flour, sugar, and other food ready for visitors, and a 
seat at my table for the chiefs. I afterwards found 
that hospitality shown to a war-party on its path is the 
very strongest claim to the affection of the natives 
among themselves. 

Before the arrival of the taua^ a good deal of an- 
noyance had already arisen to the surveyors from na- 


tives who tried to obstruct their proceedings. These 
were generally persons of no authority as chiefs, and 
often of no fixed residence. When traced they always 
turned out to be missionary natives. During the stay 
of the war-party this annoyance was never met with. 

A few days after the departure of Heuheu, I went 
on board the Sandfly, which had made a trip in my 
absence, and arrived at Wellington on the 19th of 



New Zealand is made a separate colony — The New Zealand Com- 
pany is Chartered — Reconciled with the Government — Lord John 
Russell's agreement of 1840 — A Bishop of New Zealand is ap- 
pointed — Magistrates are appointed — Abuse of authority by the 
Police — Address of the Magistrates to the Governor — West of 
England colonists — Mr. Halswell — Company's roads — Wreck — 
Plunder by natives — Party of volunteers — Stagnation in the 
Government settlements — " Hobson's coming ! " — The Harbour- 
master is discharged — Wish for a Municipal Corporation — Pro- 
gress of Wellington — Cattle-driving — Mr. Bell, the Scotch 
farmer — He drives the first herd to Wanganui — Sale of town- 
allotments at Auckland. 

Great and good was the news which, had arrived 
from England while I was away. The Bailey, a fast- 
sailing schooner, had been sent by the Company with 
the announcement of the favourable aspect which 
things had taken at home. 

New Zealand had been proclaimed as an independent 
colony, and Captain Hobson as Governor. But the 
inquiry so ably set on foot and directed by Lord Eliot 
had furnished a complete exposition of the absurdities 
which had marked the first era of the colony as one of 
rivalry between the Colonial Office and the Company 
at home, and between the local Government and the 
Company's settlers here. The consequence had been, 
a complete reconciliation between the discordant parties 
in England ; for which great credit was given to Lord 
John Russell, the then Colonial Minister. The famous 
" Agreement " between the Government and the Com- 
pany guaranteed to the latter a grant of an acre of land 
for every five shillings which they had expended upon 


the colonization of the country; and the Company 
yielded to the Government all its claims in right of. 
purchases from the natives. I shall not inflict upon 
the reader the minor provisions of this document, as 
none of them qualified these main conditions in any 
important particular. The Company were incorporated 
by Royal Charter, required by the Government to 
double their capital, and recognized as a valuable in- 
strument for the colonization of the country. 

Another very satisfactory piece of news was the cer- 
tainty that a Bishop of New Zealand would soon be 
appointed. Private letters described that the influence 
of the powerful body of men composing the New Zea- 
land Church Society had overruled the scarcely con- 
cealed opposition to this measure of Mr. Dandeson 
Coates, the lay Secretary of the Church Missionary 
Society, and of Mr. Stephen, one of the permanent 
Under-Secretaries of the Colonial Oflice. It was very 
naturally concluded that, even if our Governor should 
persist in fixing his desert capital at a distance from the 
centre of population and of the islands, the future 
Bishop at least could not fail to recognize Wellington 
as the place most fit for his location, both by the num- 
ber and by the character of its inhabitants. 

The birth of the Princess Royal, now also made 
known in this country, afforded an opportunity of ad- 
dressing her Majesty. A meeting was therefore held, 
and a loyal address adopted, which did not fail to 
thank her Majesty for the recent act of justice done to 
the colony by the advice of her Ministers, or to pray 
that the representative of the Queen might be in- 
structed to take up his abode among a community 
which had such claims to his care and attention. 

While public dinners and rejoicings marked the wel- 
come with which the separation of the colony from 


New South Wales was received, all parties felt deeply 
grateful to Sir George Gipps for the act of speedy and 
statesmanlike justice which had induced him to con- 
sider favourably the peculiar claims of the settlement ; 
and it was especially in parting from his rule, that we 
called to mind how he at least had treated us with a 
fostering hand. 

A few days before the arrival of all this intelligence, 
a trading schooner from Kawia and the Thames had 
brought the news that four gentlemen of Wellington 
were appointed Magistrates of the territory. These 
were. Colonel Wakefield, Mr. George Hunter, Mr. 
Henry St. Hill, and Captain Edward Daniell. The 
three gentlemen who composed the deputation to Sir 
George Gipps had been placed in the commission of 
the peace some time before ; but, ignorant of the New 
South Wales law, and not having been regularly 
sworn in, they had refrained from acting as Magistrates 
until a very recent period. 

A public meeting, however, had been thought neces- 
sary to consider " the steps necessary to protect the 
" public from the outrages of the Police establish- 
ment." Complaints had been made of the use of pis- 
tols and handcuffs, and ruffianly dragging to the lock- 
up, on unfounded charges, by the Police constables. If 
the conduct of the inferiors was thought irritating to 
the highest degree, the administration of the penal 
code of New South Wales by the Police Magistrate 
had also been complained of, and some of his decisions 
were severely remarked upon as illegal and unconstitu- 
tional. With no appeal from this irresponsible and 
undefined authority, which disj)ensed in ca})ricious quan- 
tities a law unintelligible to free Englishmen, the 
aggrieved parties had determined on requesting Dr. 
Evans and Mr. Hanson (Mr. Moreing being absent 


from the settlement) to take their place on the Bench 
of Magistrates. Dr. Evans had acceded to the request, 
notwithstanding the petulant display of temper made 
by Mr. Murphy on the occasion of his first acting 
upon this resolution. The hitherto unrestrained poten- 
tate declared, in the Police Court, that he would not 
sit on the Bench while Dr. Evans did, except in cases 
which, by law, required the presence of two Magis- 

The first act of the newly-created Justices was to 
address a very able paper to Captain Hobson, congra- 
tulating him on his new and independent position. 

They seized the opportunity to urge upon him a ces- 
sation of the lamentable hostilities which had already 
existed between the great mass of the subjects and the 
Government of the colony, and to impress him with 
the importance of considering the changed aspect of 
affairs, in such a manner as to fix the authority of his 
presence in the nucleus of the only systematic scheme 
for peopling the islands. They dwelt at some length 
on the results of the exploring expeditions which had 
proved Port Nicholson to be essentially a central posi- 
tion for the whole islands to be so peopled, although 
they acknowledged that Auckland might perhaps have 
been chosen advantageously for a capital had no 
British settlement previously existed, and had it fallen 
to the province of the Governor to choose a centre 
from which colonization should diverge. But they 
pointed out to him, that the Agreement seemed to 
recognize the Company as the colonizing instrument of 
New Zealaand, and to leave the Governor to the dis- 
charge of the higher functions of government. And 
they argued, that for the sake of the native as well as 
the White population, he would best do this by direct- 
ing in person that portion of the European colony 


which far exceeded in numbers, means, and vigour, all 
the rest put together. If Captain Hobson had pos- 
sessed the slightest wish to repair his insults to the 
community of Port Nicholson, he would have jumped 
at such an excellent opportunity of reconciliation, and 
of ruling Cook's Strait with pleasure and honour, 
instead of leaving it to be neglected by a Police Magis- 
trate. This very statesmanlike document was signed 
by Colonel Wakefield, Mr. Hanson, Mr. George Hun- 
ter, Mr. Henry St. Hill, Captain Daniell, and Dr. 

Two other ships had arrived from England just be- 
fore the schooner. 

One, bearing the Agent of the Plymouth Company 
and the first batch of settlers for New Plymouth, had 
anchored in Cloudy Bay. The Agent, Mr. Cutfield, 
had crossed to Wellington in a small craft, in order to 
learn from Colonel Wakefield whither he was to pro- 
ceed, and had returned to take the ship to her destina- 
tion. This body of West of England settlers had 
started under the auspices of a very distinguished festi- 
val at Plymouth, at which the first announcement had 
been made of the happy termination of the negotiations 
with the Government. Bearers of good news, they 
had met bright hopes on their arrival ; for each new 
account from the surveying-party and travellers spoke 
more highly of the great capabilities of the Taranaki 
district, and confirmed the reputation which had long 
earned for it among the natives the title of the 
" Garden of the Land." 

Another vessel had brought nearly two hundred 
and fifty more immigrants and passengers to Welling- 
ton. Among the passengers was Mr. Edmund Storr 
Halswell, who had been appointed by the Company 
Commissioner for the management of the Native Re- 


serves. It was understood that this gentleman bore 
letters from the Colonial Minister to Governor Hob- 
son, recommending his confirmation in the above 

The New Zealand Company had always wished 
that some impartial party should be intrusted with 
the management of the Native Reserves for the benefit 
of the aboriginal population. They had taken no 
steps to apply those already selected to any purpose, 
because, they were liable to be accused of interested 
conduct. It was now hoped that the Governor would 
enable Mr. Halswell to derive from the native estate 
the great advantages which it was capable of confer- 
ring on those for whom the Company had reserved it. 

I must add, that in the six weeks during which 
I had been absent, a road long in progress round the 
west side of the harbour had been completed by the 
Company's labourers ; and Sam Phelps had been the 
first to drive his bullock-dray over it to Pitone. A 
bridle-road from Kai Wara TVara to Porirua was 
also in progress, as well as one from the town into an 
elevated valley of some extent, called Karori, situated 
a mile to the south-west. A wooden building of some 
pretensions in point of architecture had been erected 
as a Public Exchange at Te Aro, and a wharf had 
been run out into the harbour near the same spot by 
Captain Rhodes. New stores, houses, and fences, had 
sprung up in every direction ; and the clinking of the 
hammer and sudden apparition of new habitations still 
went on, day after day, with unceasing activity. 

The day after I arrived, another vessel, which had 
sailed at the same time as the Bailey, arrived in the 
harbour. Resides duplicates of despatches, it brought 
upwards of a hundred more colonists of various classes 
for Wellington. 


Official despatches from Government to Captain 
Hobson, announcing to him the arrangement with 
the Company, and requesting him to treat the settlers 
in Cook's Strait "with kindness and consideration," 
had been sent in the Bailey, and were forwarded in a 
brig to Auckland. 

On the 21st, a very severe gale from the north-west 
was experienced. No damage occurred to the vessels 
in our excellent harbour ; but we were sorry to hear 
that the Jewess schooner, on her way to TVanganuit 
full of settlers and goods, had been driven away from 
her anchorage at Kapiti, and totally wrecked on the 
beach near Paripari, after being cast on her beam- 
ends in the attempt to make an offing. A Brazilian 
whaler, also driven from the anchorage, had managed 
to get clear out to sea. 

Two lives had been unfortunately lost in this wreck. 
George Wade, one of two brothers who had been 
among the earliest to bring cattle and horses from 
Hobart Town, and whose energy and perseverance had 
contributed not a little to the active progress of the 
settlement in its younger days, was one of those lost. 
The other was the native chief Wide-awake, whom I 
have already mentioned more than once. 

The TVaikanae natives, we heard, who were re- 
lated to him, had made his death an excuse for plun- 
dering the wreck. Although all professing tx) be 
mihanerey or Christians, they had not scrupled to 
allege the old native custom as their apology, and 
claimed whatever they could collect or take as uiu for 
the death of their chief. On the receipt of this 
disastrous intelligence, forty young settlers armed 
and started for the spot, taking it for granted that 
the Police Magistrate would, as usual, be unable or 
unwilling to interfere. Mr. John Wade joined the 


party, hoping to find at least the remains of his bro- 
ther. I furnished him with letters in Maori to Hiko 
and other chiefs of that part of the coast, begging 
them to assist him in this object, and also in that of 
preventing the disgraceful plunder and the bloodshed 
which might ensue. 

An anonymous writer in the Wellington newspaper 
complained of the social state of Tf^anganui, and com- 
mented on the " debauchery of the settlers." I pub- 
lished a letter attributing this vice, and, moreover, the 
frequent robberies and outrages committed by the 
runaway convicts and other ruffians who had congre- 
gated there, to the improper conduct of the Govern- 
ment in licensing two grog-shops, without providing 
any officer for the maintenance of law or order of any 

An answer was received from Sir George Gipps to 
the remonstrance against the official jobbing in allot- 
ments at Auckland. His Excellency had signalized 
the end of his rule over New Zealand by disap- 
proving, in the strongest terms, of the whole pro- 

Some chance arrivals from Auckland and the Bay 
of Islands about this time furnished a doleful account 
of the stagnation and despondency produced there by 
the various experiments in founding and governing 
cities. The people of Auckland, consisting of a iew 
mere land-sharks or hangers-on, attracted from Sydney 
and the Bay of Islands by the expenditure of the Go- 
vernor and his suite, and the approaching land-sale, 
vented their ill-temper at the disappointment of their 
hopes, by the expression of undisguised hostility and 
vulgar jealousy towards the thriving settlers of Wel- 
lington. The news concluded, as usual, with a report 
that Captain Hobson was about to visit us. 


This last piece of intelligence, however, was already 
becoming too worn-out to attract much attention. It 
was a byword and a joke at all the hotels, at the 
Club, the Exchange, and other places of assemblage 
where the gossip of the day was discussed. To the 
question, " what news from the north ? " the inva- 
riable answer was " Hobson's coming!" and it be- 
came the custom to say of a waiter, a ship, or anything 
else proverbially dilatory, but which was " coming," 
instead of '*so's Christmas," "so's Hobson!" This 
was in fact a better figure of speech, for Captain 
Hobson, unlike Christmas, had been "coming" for 
more than a year. 

On the 5th of May, the Brougham sailed for 
London with a full cargo of oil and whalebone and 
several passengers. Among these was Captain Chaffers. 
He had been independent enough to sign the petition 
for Captain Hobson's recall. His services as Harbour- 
master had then been declined by the Government, 
while they refused even to authorise his acting in the 
pay of the Company, and neglected to appoint an 
officer in his stead. He carried with him, however, a 
highly creditable testimonial of his great ability and of 
the services which he had rendered to the colony, 
signed by seventy of the most respectable of the 
settlers, who moreover presented him with a sum of 
money which they had subscribed and begged him to 
apply to the purchase of a piece of plate in England, 
commemorative of this opinion. The other passengers 
were persons who, like Mr. Petre, went with the in- 
tention of returning to take up their final abode in the 

The inhabitants of Wellington, anxious to secure the 
advantfiges of a Municipal Corporation, as proposed to be 
granted them by Sir George Gipps, determined to meet 


and consult upon tlie course to be pursued, and upon 
the details of a measure, such as they could approve, 
which they might after mature deliberation submit to 
Governor Hobson as the basis of such an arrangement. 
The working-men again resolutely claimed, and perse- 
vered till they obtained, their share in the deliberations. 
The discussions between the two parties, and the for- 
mation of Committees from among their united ranks, 
occupied a considerable space of time. But, notwith- 
standing the little differences as to the share which 
either class was to be allowed in the preparations, an 
observer could not fail to be struck by the fixed deter- 
mination of the colonists of all ranks to obtain the 
power of managing their own local affairs. The utter 
neglect and indifference which the distant authority 
had manifested towards these matters thus became an 
evil not unmingled with good, since it had brought 
forcibly home to the mind of each individual the ur- 
gency of the local institutions being entrusted to the 
direction of those persons who were sure to be most 
interested in their wholesome state. 

I spent a month at Wellington very pleasantly. 
Horses were now plentiful, and the new roads af- 
forded delicious rides ; a curious contrast being pre- 
sented by the neat macadamized causeway, and the 
groups of workmen and wheelbarrows, among the pri- 
mseval forest and wild scenery which they penetrated. 
At the Hutt, the cultivations and clearings looked 
cheerful and promising. From sixty to a hundred 
families were now permanently settled in that district ; 
neat cottages and luxuriant gardens appeared along the 
banks ; the rich crop had induced many a doubting 
settler to clear some land this year ; and the axe-men 
had begun to be a large and important class. Groups 
of smiling children bobbed and pulled their fore-locks 


to " gentlemen from town " as they rode up the river- 
bank ; and new fields were to be noticed at every suc- 
cessive visit. 

Cattle-driving, too, on the pasture hills, afforded ex- 
ercise and excitement. Following the system pursued 
in New South Wales, owners of cattle brand their 
herd and let them run loose over the hills, and then 
drive them at a gallop into the stock-yard when they 
are wanted. The cattle get exceedingly wild and fast ; 
so that it requires bold and hard riding in some in- 
stances to head them. The gentlemen and the stock- 
keepers who had come from that country soon taught 
us the manner of proceeding; and idlers were often 
enlisted as volunteers when a grand muster was to be 
effected, or some particularly wild heifer to be found 
and driven in. The stock-whip, a very necessary in- 
strument for this work, requires some description for 
English readers. A stout wooden handle a foot in 
length is attached to a heavy thong of plaited hide, 
about fifteen feet long from the handle to the end of 
the lash. This whip is whirled two or three times 
round the head, and cracked with a report as loud as 
that of a pistol in the face of a stubborn animal. The 
wildest cattle when charging you will turn from it, if it 
be used with skill ; but an inexperienced hand is very 
apt to slice his own face or injure his horse severely, 
without at all alarming the cattle. 

About the middle of May, Mr. William Gordon 
Bell, a stout Scotch farmer, showed a noble example of 
enterprise by driving the first herd of cattle to PVan- 
ganui. Mr. Bell had enjoyed farming experience in 
several parts of the world. While connected with an 
estate in the West Indies, he had married a woman of 
colour, by whom he had a fine hardy family of two 
sons and two daughters. After residing some time in 


various parts of the Australian colonies, he had crossed 
over to this country, with Mr. James Watt, who had 
been the first to attempt agriculture at Port Nicholson. 
Long before the town was distributed, Mr. Bell had 
begun to farm a piece of land between the harbour and 
the sea for Mr. Watt ; and had been the first to use 
the plough in Cook's Strait. The land in question 
was of a poor clayey nature, and in a spot swept by 
both the prevailing winds ; so that the crop of wheat, 
though good in quality, was scanty. The industry of 
Bell and his family, while working for ah employer, 
had been most remarkable. He owned two or three 
sections in the second series, including the seventh 
choice; and having completed his engagement with 
Mr. Watt, he determined to start for TP^anganui with 
his family, a cow; and six fine oxen which he had 
bought. The bridle-road to Porirua was only partly 
finished ; and the crossing of the various rivers seemed 
to offer some difficulty ; but the old man had walked 
over the whole route to satisfy himself, and on his re- 
turn declared his determination to get the cattle there. 

His departure was a fine sight. The cow and the 
six bullocks yoked in a team, with packs on their backs, 
were attended by old Bell and his two sons. He was 
known by every one to possess an unlimited stock of 
perseverance, firmness, and energy. In coming from 
Watt's farm to the beginning of the Porirua road, he 
had to pass through the whole town ; and all the 
spectators flocked to shake his iron fist, and wish him 
every success. He answered in broad Scotch dialect, 
that " they should go — he would take care to succeed." 
And many an eye watched them file up the steep path 
from Kai TVara Wara, and disappear among the 
woods on the top. I had furnished him with letters 
to various chiefs along the road with whom I was 

VOL. I. 2 I 


acquainted, requiring their help at the rivers and their 
friendly assistance along the road. His ploughs, drays, 
bags of seed, and other implements and articles of 
bulk, were put on board the Sandfly and another 
schooner, in which the women of his family also pro- 

On the 15th of May, an American trading-ship 
came in from Auckland. The long expected sale 
of the first town-lands had taken place, and twenty- 
six acres had realised the enormous sum of 21,000/. 
Considering the very small and purely land-jobbing 
population of the place, and the reasonable doubts 
as to whether a bona fide colonization of the neigh- 
bouring country would for many years give a real 
town value to these lots, the land-jobbers had started 
at a very high figure. The only other intelligence 
was that the Governor had begun his independent 
reign by gazetting Lieutenant Shortland as Colonial 
Secretary, and fixing his salary at 600/. per annum. 


London : Printed by Wjlliam Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street. 







OF KING HENRY YIII. Published by Authority. 5 vols. 
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Mr. MURRAY'S LIST OF BOOKS.— Blograptoy. 

'>. ^ ■■ 


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Mr. MURRAY'S LIST OF BOOKS.— «eligion. 



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*#* Clergymen wishing to introduce this Selection will 
be alloiced a discount. 

HISTORY OF JOSIAH. By the Author of 
"Gideon, THE Man op Miohtv Valour." Fcap. 8vo,4*. 6d, 

" A pleasing scripture history, accompanied by many 
moral and religious reflections." — Literary Gazette. 


India and Cbina. 

AFFGHANISTAN. By Lady Sale. Eighth Edition. 
Plans. Post Bvo, 12s. 

" The journal of one whose very name lightens up the 
eye, and gl.<iddens the spirit— of one, whose ' story shall 
the good man tell his son'— the journal of our high- 
minded noble countrywoman. Lady Sale." — Alheneeum. 

"Lady Sale evinces a degree of strong sense, judgment, 
and familiarity with details, which might do credit to a 
veteran general." — 2^'aval and Jdilitary Gazette. 

TJP THE INDUS. By Sir Alexander Burnes. Second 
Edition. Map and Plates. 3 vols. fcap. Ovo. 18*. 

" The admirable publication of Sir Alexander Burnes." 
—Literary Gazette, 

" The author is evidently a man of strong and mascu- 
line talents, high spirit, and elegant taste, and is in every 
respect well qualified to tread in the steps of our Malcolms 
and Klphinstones." — Quarterly Review. 

IN THAT CITY. By Sir Alexander Burnes. Second 
Edition. Portrait and Plates. 8vo, 18*. 

" The charm of the book is in its buoyant style. Personal 
character, domestic scenes, and oriental manners, are 
painted with vivacity, case, and lightness of touch." — 

Badakhshan. By Lieut. John Wood, Indian Navy. Map. 
8vo. 14*. 

"The valuable geographical details which Lieut. Wood 
has collected, and his clear sketches of society, render his 
volume one of the most agreeable and instructive of its 
class." — Athenaum. 

" Extremely well written ; full of natural pictures of 
scenery and character." — Examiner. 

Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and 
Bokhara. By Mr. William Moorcroft and Mr. Georoe 
Trebeck. 2 vols. 8vo, 30*. 

" A most valuable narrative."— Quor<er/y Review. 

or MALACCA, including Pcnang, Malacca, and Singa- 
pore. By LieuT, Newbold. 2 vols. Bro, 26;. 


with a Narrative of the Military Operations at Cabul, 
which ended in the Retreat and Destruction of the British 
Army. By Lieut Vincent Eyrk, Bengal Artillery. 
Seventh Edition. Plan. Post 8vo, 12t. 

" A volume of thrilling interest." — United Service 

" The public has cause to be thankful to Mr. Eyre, for 
so excellent and so valuable a narrative." — Times. 

"One of the most enchaining narratives we have met 
with for a long time." — Spectator. 


ton. Maps. 2 vols. 4to, Al. \is. M. 


pressions of Manners and Society In India, described 
from a Three Years' Residence. By a Lady. Post 8to, 
9*. Cd. 


By Lord Jocelyn, late Military Secretary to the Chinese 
Expedition. Sixth Edition. Plans. Fcap. 8vo, 5*. 6J. 

"Lord Jocelyn supplies us with some striking facts and 
unknown parliculars."— iiYerary Gazette. 

IN CHINA. The Operations in the Yano tze Kia.s. 
and Treaty of Nanking. By Captain Granville ( 
Loch, R.N. With 3\Iap. Post Bvo, 8*. 6d. 

" One of the best books that the War has produced."— 

" The sketches of Chinese character are the most strik. 
ing and the most graphic, we have met with."— iVoea/ 
and Military Gazette. 


Described from the Accounts of Recent Dutch Travellers. 
Post Bvo, 9s. 6d. 

" Containing all the information about Japan which has 
been obtained ; well arranged and well put together." — 
Literary Onzette. 

"This useful account of a very curioiu people."— 


NOTICES ON CHINA, and our Commercial 
Intercourse with that Country. By Sir George Staunton, 
Bart. Second Edition, Bvo, I2t, 

Mk. MURRAY'S LIST OF BOOKS.— Voyages and l^avel^. 

XlfEediterranean, and Asia ASCinor. 

XIV. ! 

THE MEDITERRANEAN, during the Years 1840—41. 1 
By the Countess Gbosvenob. With 26 Plates. 2 vols, 
post 8vo, 28*. 

RESIDENCE IN ATHENS. By the Rev. Christopher 
Wordsworth, D.D., Prebendary of Westminster. Second 
Edition. Maps and Plates. 8vo, 12*. 

ATHENS, AND THE MORE A. By Edward Giffard, 
Esq. Plates. Post 8vo, 12*. 

" Whether as a guide to the traveller, or as amusing 
summer reading to those who stay at home — Mr. Giffard's 
work is very creditable to its author.'' — Quarterly Review, 

By Robert Pashi,ey, A.M., Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Maps, Plates, and Woodcuts. 2 vols, Bvo, 

2;. as. 


MINOR IN 1838. Including a Visit to several unknown 
and undescribed Cities. By Charles Fellows, Esq. 
Second Edition. Plates and Woodcuts. Imperial 8vo, 28*. 

being a Journal kept during a Second and more Recent 
Excursion in Asia Slinor in 1840. By Charles Fellows, 
Esq. Plates and Woodcuts. Imperial 8vo, 21. 2s. 

"Our author has discovered eleven ancient Lycian cities, 
and has allowed the learned world to perceive that Lycia 
is a mine of antiquarian treasures, of which he has only 
scraped the surface."— il/Aen<c«?». 



MARBLES, discovered by Charles Fellows, Esq. in 
Asia Minor, and now deposited in the British Museum. 
Plates. Imperial 8vo, 5*. 



AND ARMENIA ; with some Account of the Antiquities 

and Geology of those Countries. By W. L. Hamilton, 

Esq., M.P., Secretary to the Geological Society. Map, 

I Plates. 2 vols. 8vo, 38*. 

"Mr. Hamilton's archaeological researches and his nar- 
rative in general, have our warmest commendations."— 

Sgypt and tbe Sast. 


n Description of Egypt ; with Information for Travel- 
lers in that Country. By Sib Gardner Wilkinson. 
Woodcuts and Map, 2 vols. 8to, 42*. 

" No one should visit Egypt, or take the overland pas- 
sage to India, without availing himself of this work as his 
travelling Companion. It should be used as a Hand- book 
by all who travel to India, or make the Tour of Egypt and 
T\it\ies."— Evangelical Magazine. 

" An invaluable guide to all who visit the valley of the 
Nile." — Atheneeum. 


ANCIENT EGYPTIANS, derived from Hieroglyphics, 
Sculpture, Paintings, &c., still existing, compared with 
Ancient Authors. By Sir Gardner Wilkinso.v. Second 
Editioyi. With 600 Illustrations. 6 vols. 8vo, 6/. 8*. 

"Sir Gardner Wilkinson has done more to make the 
people of the Pharaohs known to us moderns tbau any 
( contemporary yniiei."— Atheneeum. 

from Notes made during a Tour in those Countries. By 
John G. Kinnear, Esq. Post 8vo, 9*. &/. 

" Short, pleasant, and interesting ; we find ourselves, 
when we close the book, in a tolerable state of familiarity 
with Eastern manners." — Times. 

"Mr. Kinnear writes extremely well, and his descrip- 
tions proclaim him a good observer." — Examiner. 

Polynesia and tbe Soutb Seas. '. 


SEAS ; during 1839-40-41-42-43. By Captain Sir Jauss 
Clark Ross, Knt. Plates and Maps. 2 vols. Bvo. /» the 

" These volumes will contain an Account of Kergnelen 
Island, Van Diemen's Land, Campbell and Auckland 
Island, New Zealand, Falkland Islands, Cape Horn, and 
New South Shetland. The Discovery of a Southern Con- 
tinent named Victoria Land, and the determination ot the 
South Magnetic Pole." 



By Routes through the interior. With contributions to 
the Geography, Geology, Botany, and Natural History of 
the Islands. By Ernest Dieffenbach, M.D., Naturalist 
to the New Zealand Company. Plates. 2 vols. 8vo, 24*. 

" Incomparably the best work which has yet appeared." 
— Christian Remembrancer. 

" A book from which the reader will draw a vast deal of 
information and amusement," — Glasgow Argus. 



Rev. p. O. Hill, Chaplain of H. M.. S. Cleopatra. Map. 
Fcap. 8vo, 3*. 6rf. 

" We hope this little book will have a wide circulation. 
We can conceive nothing so likely to do good to the 
righteous cause it is intended to promote." — Examiner. 

" Mr. Hill is a pleasant, unaffected, and elegant writer, 
with a fund of good sense, and his brief and popular work 
is well adapted for public circulation." — Spectator. 

Central and South America. 


Being a Second Visit to tho Ruined Cities of Central 
America. By John L. Stephens, Esq. 120 Engravings. 
2 vols. 8vo, 42*. 


L. Stephens, Esq. 18 Engravings. 2 vols. 8vo, 32*. 

"At once so amusing in their details and so instructive 
in their inquiries."— iiVernry Gazette. 

" These delightful volumes 1 It is grievous to quit a 
store so brimful to overflowing of what w« like best."— 
Atheneeum. ... , . , 

" The pleasantest and best work that has lately ap- 
peared." — Spectator. 

0/ these Travels 15,000 copies havi been sola. ■ 


prising Travels on tho Banks of the Parana and Rio do 
la Plata. By J. P. and W. F. Robertson. 3 vols, post 
8vo, 20*. &d. 


PAS and among the An.Ics. By Sir Francis B. Head, 
Bart. Third Edition, post 8vo, 9*. Qd. 


OF RIO DE LA PLATA. By Sib Woodbinb Paiush, 
K.C.U. Map. 8vo, 18*. 

Mr. MURRAY'S LIST OF BOOKS.— Voyagre* and Travels. 

PACIFIC TO THE ATLANTIC, crossing the Andes In 
the Northern Provinces of Peru, and descending the great 
Biver Maranon. By IIknay Listkr Haw, R.N. 8ro, 12;. 

XTorth America. 


from the Kiver Potomac, by Baltimore in Maryland, to 
Texas and the Frontiers of Mexico. By G. W. Feather- 
STONHAUOH, Esq. With Plates. 2 vols. 8vo, 2C». 

"His notices of the natural history of the distiicts through 
vrhich he passed are novel and interesting, particularly his 
account of the mines, and his other geological memoranda: 
and his occasional pictures of theheroes of thejbowie knife, 
the gentleman slave breeders, and various strange species 
of the genus homo he met with during his travels are re- 
uiarkably characteristic and entertaining." — New Monthly 

■ A YACHT voyage' TO TEXAS, AND 
THE GULF OP MEXICO, during the Year 1843. By 
Mrs. HousTOUN. AVith Plates. 2 vols, post 8vo. 21*. 

" Worth a cart-load of modern travels." — Morning 

" A work which every one should read." — Time$, 

XXXV t. 

THE WILDS OF CANADA. By Sir Geohok Hbad. 

Second Edition. Post 8vo, 10*. 


PER CANADA: for the Use of Emigrants. Third 
Edition. Fcap. 8vo, 1*. M. 



With an Account of the Cod Fishery — Fog Banks— Sealing 
Expedition, ttc. ; and a Geological Survey of the Island. 
By J. B. Jukes, Esq. Slap. 2 vols, post 8vo, 2J*. 


TTNITED STATES. Written during a Journey in North 
America. By J. B. Godley, Esq. 2 vols, post 8vo. 16*. 

" Here is at least one English book of which the Ame- 
ricans cannot reasonably complain." — Atheneeum. 

" The production of a sensible and intelligent traveller." 
—Eclectic Reeiew. 


By Robert Grkenhow, Librarian to the Department of 
State of the United States. Map. 8vo. 16x. 




From the German. By Capt. A. C. Sterling. Fcap. 8vo. 6*. 
" Lively and comprehensive." — Alhenaum. 
" A record of worth and utility." — Literary Gazette, 



Described from a Year's Residence in that Country, chiefly 
in the Interior. By the Rev. R. Lister, M.A. 
Post 8vo, 9*. Crf. 


with a Few Hints to the Salmon Fisher in Norway. By 
John Milforo, Esq. 8vo, 10*. 6d. 

Described from Notes mado during a Journey to these 
Countries. By the Eari. of Car.varvon. Second Edition, 
2 vols, post 8vo, 21*. 

" A work of superior ability, interest, and value." — 
United Service Journal. 

"These lively and various pages."— JMmteum. 

Or the Journeys, Advoitures, and Imprisonments of an 
Englishman in an Attempt to circulate the Scriptures 
in the Peninsula. By Gkorgb Borrow, Esq. Eourlh 
Edition. 3 vols, post 8vo, 2"*. 

" Mr. Borrow has come out as an English Author of 
high mark. We are reminded of Gil Bias, in the narratives 
of this pious, single-hearted man." — Quarterly Review. 

Alto a Cheap Edition for the Colonies. Pott Ovo, 5*. 



Their Manners and Customs, Religion and Language. liy 

George Borrow, Esq. Third Edition. 2 vols, post Svo, )8*. 

" A curious, a very curious work, and contains some of 
the most singular, yet authentic descriptions of the gipsy 
race which have ever been given to the public." — Literary 

" Evidently the work of a man of uncommon and highly 
interesting endowments." — Quarterly Review, 


With Remarks on the Social and Political Condition of that 
Country. By Peter Evan Turn bull, Esq. 2 vols. 8vo,24*. 


Barrow, Esq. Woodcuts. Post 8vo, 10*. 6d. 
"Agreeably written, faithful and minute." — Athenteum. 

NASSAU. By An Old Man. Sixth Edition. IGmo, 5*. 
" Just suited for the pocket and for the Rhine Travel- 
lers." — Athenteum, 

Showing what may be done in a Tour of Sixteen Months 
upon the Continent of Europe. Post 8vo, 8*. 6d. 

amidst the wildest Scenes of the FRENCH and SPANISH 
MOUNTAINS. By T. Clifton Paris, B.A. Woodcuts. 
Post 8vo, 10*. 6d. 

" Contain better descriptive passages, strikingly pic- 
turesque, and without the least strain and effort, than we 
recollect in any book of the same light pretension." — 


described in a Series of Letters. By A Lady. 2 vols. 
Post 8vo, 18*. 


MANDY, with some Remarks on Norman Architecture. 
ByU.O.KNioHT,M.P. Second Edition. Plates. Post8vo. 

With Sketches of History, Literature, and Art. By 
Catharine Taylor. Second Edition. 2 vols, post 8 vo, 17*. 
" A more pleasant and instructive book, to assist in that 
higher branch of education, cannot be imagined." — 

ITALY. By Colonel and Mrs. Stisted. Witli lUustra- 
tions. 8vo. Nearly ready. 

the Channel Islands and Isle of Man. By Sir Geoiiob 
UsAD. Third Edition. 2 vols, post 8ro, 12*. 

Mr. MURRAY'S LIST OF BOOKS.— Hand-books. 


Oiving detailed and precise Information respecting Steamers, Passports, Moneys, Chtides and Servants, 
with IHrections for Travellers, and Hints for Tows. 


from ULAI to the BLACK SEA. >Iap. Post 8vo, 10*. 
ALPS of SAVOY and PIEDMONT. Map. PostSvo, 10*. 

LAND. A Series of Maps and Plans of the most fre- 
quented Roads, Cities, and Towns, &c. Engraved and 
coloured. 3 vols. PostOvo. Vol. 1, 12*., vol. 2, 9*., vol. 3, 6*. 

and Plans. Post 8vo, 12*. 

CONSTANTINOPLE. Maps. PostSvo, 15*. 

BARD Y, and TUSCANY. Map. Post 8vo, 12*. 
Maps. Post 8vo, 13*. 

SICILY, AND NAPLES. Map. Post 8vo. Nearly read!/. 


Being a short and easily intelligible giiide, pointing out 
to the unlearned the leading styles of Art. From the 
German of Kuoler. Post 8vo, 12*. 





PROVENCE, and the PYRENEES. Map. Post 8vo, 12*. 


With all the necessary information for Travellers in that 
Country, and on the Overland Passage to India. By Sir 
Gabdner WiuiiNSON. WoedcutsandMap. 2 vols. 8vo,42*. 

Post 8vo. Nearly Ready. 


&c. Map. PoBt8vo. Nearly ready. 


8vo. In preparation. 

PRESENT ; a Complete GuroE to Strangers, alphabeti- 
cally arranged, to facilitate reference. Map. Post 8vo. 
In preparation. 

LERIES OF ART in and near London. With Catalogues 
of the Pictures, accompanied byHistoricalandBiographical 
Notices. By Mrs. Jameson. Post 8vo. 

and NEIGHBOURHOOD ; a Road-Book to the Palace 
and Guide to the Picture Gallery and Gardens. By 
EowARp Jesse, Esq. Fifth Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 
8vo, 2*. 6d, 

a Guide to the Palace, Picture Gallery, and Gardens. By 
EnwARn Jesse, Esq. Second Edition. Woodcuta. Fcap. 
Bvo, 2*. 6d. 



TIONS. By PsTSB CuNNuroHAM, £aq. Woodcata. Fcap. 

8vo, 2*. (id. 

Crtttcal cajptiTi0niS on tl^c ^m\S'iaakg, 

" Mr. Murray's series of Handbooks seem destined to embrace all the sights of the yrorli,"— Spectator. 

" The useful series of Handbooks issued by Mr. Murray."— S^aminer. 

" Mr. Murray's excellent series. Compiled with great care. The information full and satisfactory." — Alhenteum. 

" Well considered, well arranged, and well compressed. They combine every practical information, with satisfac- 
tory descriptions and extracts from the most accomplished travellers, unencumbered with long historical details, 
which not unfrequently are uselessly intruded into these manuals." — GentUman'i Magazine. 

" An immense quantity of minute and useful information respecting all places of interest, presented in a plain, 
unostentatious and intelligible manner." — United Service Gazette, 

" All the information a traveller requires ; and supplies an answer to every difficulty which can possibly arise." 


" An excellent plan, and contains much in little compass, and is an amusing resource when the road it doll and 
our companion has fallen asleep." — Asiatic Journal. 

" A world of useful information." — British Magaxine. 

" Capital guides 1 A man may traverse half the continent of Europe with them irithout asking a question." 
— Literary Gazette. 

" Distinguished for the clearness of their arrangement, the specific character of their directions, the quantity and 
quality of the matter they contain, as well as for the style and finish of the literary workiaansbip."— Spectator. 

Mr. MURRAY'S LIST OF BOOKS.— Poetry, tUe Drama, &.c. 



(llbrarp Q^Oftion.) 
Comprising his Poetry, Letters, and Journals. Collected 
and arranged with Notes by Scott, Jeffrey, Wilson, Heber, 
Lockhart, Ellis, Campbell, Milman, &o. By Thomas 
MooBK, Esq. Flatca. 17 vols. fcap. 8vo, 5x. each. 

(focftct (J^Hition.) 
With Plates. 10 vols. 18mo, 25*. 


(Crabclling ©Sltion.) 
With Portraits and Views. New and cheaper Edition. 
Royal 8vo, 15*. 



(illttstratelr (SOition.) 
With Sixty Vignette Engravings by eminent Artists 
from Sketches made on the spot, expressly to illustrate 
the Poem. A New Edition. Demy 8vo, 2U. 

" A splendid work — worth illustrating, and worthily 
illustrated." — Atheneeum. 
" A volume of rare excellence."— Liierary Gazette, 


(9acKet iJOitton.) 

1. GiAoun. 

2. Bride op Abydos. 

3. Corsair. 

4. Lara. 

5. SiEGB OP Corinth. 

6. Bkppo. 

7. Mazeppa. 

8. Island. 

9. Parisina. 

10. Prisoner of Chillon. 

2 vols. 24mo, 5s., or separately, 6d. each. 




(Ipocltct iStiitfon.) 

5. Two Foscari. 

6. Deformed Tbansforhed. 

7. Cain. 

8. Werner. 

ie vols. 24mo, 7t., or separately at 6d. and It. each. 

1. Makfrbd. 

2. Marino Faliero. 

3. Heaven and Earth. 

4. Sakdanapalus. 


iVotttt COitton.) 
With an Engraved Title. 24mo, 2/. 6<i. 


His Life, Letters, and Journals. By his So.v. 
Plates. 8 vols. fcap. 8vo, 5*. each. 
"Nature's sternest painter, yet the best." — Lord Byron. 
" Crabbe's delineations of the passions are so just." — 



With Biographical and Critical Notices, and an Ess-ay 
on English Poetry. By Thomas Campbell, Esq. Portrait 
and Plate. Netc Edition. Royal 8vo, lbs. 

"A volume rich in exquisite examples of English 
poetry, and sugifestive of delightful thoughts beyond any 
similar volume in the language. ".^^t/a«. 


By Ue.vrv Reeve, Esq. Post 8vo, 4/. 
' Mr. Reeve's graceful prodaction." — Athemtum. 

and Romantic. Translated by J. Q. Lockhart, i:»<j. 
Third Edition, v/iih illuminated Titles, Coloured Borders, 
Vignettes, &c. 4to. 21. 2t. 

" The very fine and animated translations of Mr. Lock- 
hart." — Hallam'g Literary History. 

"A more appropriately as well as beautifully embellished 
volume never was offered to the world." — Edinburgh 

" The illustrations are carried throughout with a luxury 
of decoration unexampled in this coaatry. "—Athenaum. 


Third Edition. Portrait. Fcap. 8vo, 7*. 6rf. 

" Bishop Heber has taken a graceful station among the 
favoured bards of the day." — Literary Gazette. 

Rev. 11. H. Milman. Second Edition. Plates. 3 vols, 
fcap. 8vo, 18*. 

"A fine, classical, moral, and religious poet."— Li/erar;/ 

Fcap. 8vo, 6*. 


By James and Horace Sjiith. With Notes by the 
Auth(}rs. Twentieth Edition. Portraits. Fcap. 8vo. St. M. 
" The happiest yeu d'esprit of its kind in our day, has its 
merits attested by the extraordinary words, ' Twentieth 
edition.' " — Literary Gazette. 

By the late Miss Euzabeth SMrrH. With a Memoir by 
H. M. Bowdler. New Edition. Post 8vo, 10*. 6d. 

WRITERa With Biographical Notices. By Sarah 
Austin. Post 8vo, 10*. 

"A delightful volume." — Athenaum. 
" Mrs. Austin has done good service to English litera- 
ture by the publication of these fragments." — Examiner. 


IN PROSE AND VERSE. By Edward Reeve, and Johw 
Edward Taylor. Fcap. 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

"Translated with elegance."— &pec<(ifor. 

Selected and Edited by his Son. Plates by Cruiksua-VK. 
Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo, 5*. 

Mk. MURRAY'S LIST OF BOOKS.— School Books, &.d. 


RACE. Tr.anslated from Mullkr, by Tupnbl and Lkwis. 
Second Edilion. Maps. 2 vols. 8vo, 2C*. 

" We close the volumes in admiration of the author's 
unwearied industry and great knowledge." — New Monthly 

By the Rev. John Williams, Rector of the Edinburgh 
Academy, and Archdeacon of Cardigan. 8vo, 10<. Od. 
WALL Lewis, A.M. New Edition. 8vo, 12*. 

By Augustus JIatthle. Translated from the German by 
Blomfield. Fi/lh Edilion. Revited by Kk.vrick:. 2 vols. 
8vo, 30*. 

" The Fifth Edition of Matthiae's Greek Grammar exhi- 
bits by farthe most complete system of grammatical rules 
and examples tliat have yet been given to the world, em- 
bodying the latest results of the scholarship of the present 

AUTHORS contained in the Fifth Edition of 
8vo, 7*. 6d. 


A Critical Examination of the Meaning and Etymology of 
various Greek Words and Passages in Homer, Hesiod, 
and other Greek Writers. Translated with Notes by 
FiSHLAKK. Second Edition. 8vo, 14*. 

"A most able disquisition. It contains a deeper and 
more critical knowledge of Greek, more extensive research, 
and more sound judgment, than we ever remember to 
have seen in any one work before." — Quarterly Review. 


REGULAR GREEK VERBS ; with all the Tenses that 
are Extant — their Formation, Meaning, and Usage, ac- 
companied by a Complete Index. Translated with Notes, 
by FisHLAKB. Second Edition. 8vo, 7«- 6<i. 

" Buttman's Catalogue contains all those prominent 
irregularities so fully and fundamentally investigated, that 
1 was convinced a translation of them would jirove a va- 
luable assistant to every lover and student of Greek lite- 
rature.' ' — Pre/ace. 



Edited, with English Notes, by Thomas Mitchell, Esq. 
8 vo, 10*. each; 1. WASPS.— 2. KNIGHTS.— 3. CLOUDS. 
—4. FROGS. 8vo, 15*. 

A New Edition of the Text, edited with English Notes, by 
T. Williamson Pkile, D. D., Head Jlaster of Repton 
School. Second Edilion. 8vo, 9*. 


A New Edition of the Text. Edited, with English Notes, 
by T. AVilliamson Pkile, D.D. Second Edition. 8vo, 9*. 
" By far the most useful edition ever published in this 
country." — Oxford Herald. 

OF ARISTOPHANES. By J. AV. Suvern. Trans^latcd 
by W. R. Hauutom, F.R.8. 2 vols, post 8ro, 4*. 6d. each. 

ANCIENT GREEKS. Translated from the German of 
Henry Hasb. Fcap. 8vo, 5*. 6d. 

" Some work appeared to be wanting on Grecian Anti- 
quities, which, without being unnecessarily diffuse, should 
give a notion of the discoveries of modern scholars, and 
particularly of German scholars."— Pre/ace. 

THE GREEK LANGUAGE. By G. J. Pbn.vjngton, M.A. 
Late Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, 8vo, 7* • Gd. 

ANCIENT WRITINGS discovered on the Walls and 
Streets of POMPEII. By the Rev. Christopher Worbs- 
worth, D.D. With Woodcuts. 8vo, 5*. 

Coleridge, M.A. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo, 7*. Od. 


or King Edward the Sixth's Latin Grammar. Nev 
Edilion, revited, 12mo, 3*. 6d. 


Abridged from Matthi^ by Blomfield. New Edition, 
revised by Edwards. 12mo, 3*. 

" The Editor has endeavoured to substitute shorter and 
more simple definitions and explanations than those which 
are contained in the original work." — Bishop of London's 


MINORA. 12mo, 1*. 6d. Part 2, including the Syntax. 
12mo, 2*. 

designed for early proficients in the Art of Latin Versifica- 
tion, with Prefatory Rules of Composition in Elegiao 
Metre. By the Rev. W. Oxbnham, M.A,, Second Matter 
of Harrow School- 12mo, 4*. , _ 


MICHAEL, Classical Master in the Edinburgh Academy. 
Second Edition. Post 8vo, 8*. 6d. 

" The author has displayed much industry and scholar' 
ship, and left few sources of information unexplored. To 
the authorities for particular verbal forms, he has contri- 
buted largely, and has rendered his book a storehouse of 
facts of the utmost value to the student and critic."— 
Tail's Magazine. 

" Little less than a complete lexicon of the language, in 
so far as the verb is concerned. Those who possess it will 
scarcely require any other dictionary to explain the mean- 
ing or unfold the parts, or discover the different construe- 
tions of this the most essential element of speech." — Scot- 
tish Literary Gazette. 


Including Exercises and Vocabularies. By the BeT. 
Walter P. Powell, M.A., Head Master of tUo Grammar 
School at Clitheroe. 12mo, 3t.0d, 

' x,\it. 

GUAGE, for Beginners ns well as the more advanced 
Learner. By O. JI. Heilner. I2mo, 10*. 
" Au excellent practical introduction."— Spec/afor. 


Mr. MURRAY'S LIST OF BOOKS.— Education and Art. 


LAND, from the First Invasion by the Romans, lo the 
Accession of Queen Victoria. For the Use of Youog 
Persons. Eleventh Edition. Woodcuts. 12ino, 7i. 6d. 

from the Conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar, to the Reign 
of Louis-Philippe. For the Use of Young Persons. Sixth 
Edition. Woodcuts. 12mo. 7s. 6d. 

"These works are constructed on a plan which is novel 
and we think well chosen, and we are glad to find that 
they are deservedly popular, for they cannot be too strongly 
recommended, as adapted for the perusal of youth."— 
Journal of Education. 

author of " Biblical Researches in the Holy Land." 12mo. 
In preparation. 

TO HER UNCLE IN ENGLAND. Comprising a variety 
of interesting Information, arranged for every Day in the 
Year. Fifth Edition. 12mo, r».6d. 

" I am reading ' Bertha ' with the utmost avidity. I can 
scarcely take my attention from this, the best of all juve- 
nile compilations." — Rev. George Crabhe. 

" An excellent little work."— Cap*. Basil IJall. 


IN EARNEST; or the First Principles of Natural Philo- 
sophy inculcated by Aid of the ordinary Toys and Sports of 
Youth. Fifth Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo, 8*. 

" We know of no other book which so charmingly blends 
amusement with instruction. No juvenile book has been 
published in our time more entitled to praise." — Examiner. 

LAND. By the late Lady Callcott. Seventh Edition. 
Woodcuts. 18mo, 3*. 

"This little History was written for a real little Arthur, 
and I have endeavoured to write it as I would tell it to an 
intelligent child. 1 well remember what I wanted to be 
told myself in addition to what I found in my lesson- 
books when first allowed to read the History of England." 
— Author's Preface. 

" Lady Callcott's style is of the right kind ; earnest and 
simple." — Examiner, 


ENGLAND, FOR CHILDREN. ThirUenth Edit. 18mo,3*. 

SevenUi Edition. Fcap. 8vo, i*. 6d. 

CHILDRE.V. By the Author of " Stories fob Children." 
Third Edition. 1 2mo, 2*. 


An Attempt to render the Chief Events of the Life of 
Our Saviour intelligent and proQtable to Young Children. 
Second Edition, 18mo, 3f. 6<l. 

Suited to the tastes of Little and Grown Children. By 
Otto Spkcktkb. With 12 Illustrations. 4to, 7*. 6d. 

"Twelve designs full of excellent humour." — Examiner. 

" Not mere sketches, but complete pictures, and tell the 
story with dramatic force." — Spectator. 

" These designs tell the story excellently well." — 

"A book for kindly remembrances." — Literary Gazette. 



FOR YOUNG PERSONS, Arranged for each Month. By 
Mrs. LoDDON. With 40 Woodcuts. ISmo, 4s. 

" It must be agreeable to many parents to know that 
Mrs. Loudon has begun to apply her excellent talents and 
extensive knowledge of natural history, to the service of 
the young. This is the first volume she has given to the 
juvenile world, and it is a very delightful one." — 
Chambers' Edinburgh Journal. 


With Sketches of Nelson, Wellington, and Napoleon ; in the 
style of" Stories for Children." IBmo, it. 6d. 



Maria Edgeworth. Woodcuts. 2s. 6d. 

"These tales display the same interest and truth to na- 
ture which have raised Miss Edgeworth to the head of all 
writers for children." — Westminster Review. 


in English, French, Italian, and German. For the daily Use 
of Young Persons. By a Lady. IGmo, St. Cd. 

" The design of this volume is excellent."— ilWa*. 

" An excellent design."— J^iVfroty Gazette, 



during the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. Taken 
from the principal Works of the greatest Painters, never 
I)cfore engraved. With English Descriptions, by Louts 
GauNKB. With Forty-five Plates, Folio. P/aj» or Co- 

" This work is exactly what we most required, reflecting 
the highest honour upon Mr. Gruner, and is likely to 
create a complete revolution in British decorative design. 
We shall now have opportunities for enjoying and studying 
the brightest gems of decorative art."— Mr. Ckabbe's 


their Lives, Acts, Characters, Attributes, &c, as Illus- 
trated by Art, from the earliest Ages. By Mrs. Jamkson. 
Post 8yo. Jn the Press. 



Prom the Age of Constantine the Great to the present 
Time. Translated from the German of Kuolkr. By 
Lady; and Edited, with Notes, by C. L. Eastlakr, It. \ 

" Intended as a short and easily intelligible guim.-, 
pointing out to the unlearned the leading styles of Art." — 


late 6m Charles Bell. A New and Enlarged Edition, 
Kith Engravings and Woodcuts. Imperial 8vo, 21*. 

"The artist, the writer of fiction, the dramatist, the 
man of taste, will receive the present work with gratitude, 
and peruse it with a lively and increasing interest and 
delight." — Christian Remembrancer, 

Mr. MURRAY'S LIST OP BOOKS.— Science, Vatoral History, A.e. 




Being Instructions to Students in Chemistrj'. on the 
Methods of performing Experiments of Demonstration or 
Research, with accuracy and success. By Michael 
Faradav, F.R.S. Third Edition. 8vo, 18*. 

" No student should think of commencing the study of 
practical chemistry without having previously possessed 
this indispensable guide." — Provincial Medical Journal. 

By Charles Babbage, Esq. Second Edition. 8vo, 9*. 6d. 

MANUFACTURES. By Charles Babbage, Esq. Fi/th 
Edition. Fcap. 8vo, 6*. 

NATURAL NUMBERS from I to 108000. By Charles 
Babbage, Esq. Second Edition. Royal 8vo. 6*. 

SCIENCES. By Mary Sombbville. Sixth Edition. 
Fcap. 8vo, 10*. 6rf. 

" The style of this astonishing production is so clear and 
unaffected, and conveys with so much simplicity so great 
a mass of profound linowledge, that it should be placed in 
the hands of every youth the moment he has mastered the 
general rudiments of education."— Quor/er/y Review. 



Deduced from the Circle, and Geometrically Demon- 
strated. By the Duke of Somerset. AVith Diagrams, 
12mo, 3x. 

INCi ; for the Use of Young 0£Scers and Others. By O. 
D. BUHR, Esq. 8vo, 10*. 6d. 


VARIOUS SCIENCES. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo, 6*. 6d. 

"WITHOUT INSTRUMENTS. Woodcuts. 8to, 2*. 6d. 

GUNS AT SEA. By Capt. John Harvey Stevens. 8vo, 3*. 


For the Instruction and Examination of Officers, and for 
the Training of Seamen Gunners. By Major-Genehal 
Sir Howard Douglas. Second Edition. 8ro, 15*. 


F.G.S., Commissioner for the Crown under the Dean 
Forest Mining Act. With Woodcuts, Fcap. 8vo, price 1*. 


York and Oxford, 1831-32, 13*. Gd. Cambridob, 1833, 12*. 
Edinburgh, 1834, 15*. Dublin, la^", 13*. 6d. Bristol. 
1833, 12*. Liverpool, 1837, 16*. 6d. Newcastle, 1838, 
15*. Birmingham, 1839, 13*. 6d. Glasgow, 1840, 15*. 
Plymouth, 1841, 13*. 6(2. Manchester, 1842, 10*. 6d. 8vo. 


lated from M. Dufbenoy, Director-General of Mines in 
France. With Plates. 8vo, 5*. 6</. 



AVith a Journal of a Tour in 1841-2. By Charles Lvell, 
Esq. With Illustrations. 8vo. In Preparation. 


Or, the Ancient Changes of the Earth and its Inhabitants, 

considered as Illustrative of Geology. By Chariks Lyell, 

F.G.S. Second Edition. AVoodcuts, &c. 2 vols. I2mo, 18*. 



Or, the Modern Changes of the Earth and its Inhabitants, 

considered as Illustrative of Geology. By Charles Lyell, 

F.G.S. Sixth Edition. AVoodcuts, &c. 3 vols. 12mo, 24*. 

" Very interesting and amusing, and should be read by 

every one who talces an interest in this rising branch of 

Natural History." — Jameson's Journal. 

" A worlc that supersedes every other on geology." — 
New Monthly Magazine. 


MOUNTAINS, Geologically Illustrated. By B. I. MuR- 
CHisoN, President of the Geological Society, M. Ed. dr 
Verneuil, and Count A. A'on Kkvserling. With Map, 
Tables, AVoodcuts, Sections, &c. 4to. Nearly Ready. 


OF YORKSHIRE. By John Phillips. Part I — THE 
YORKSHIRE COAST. Plates and Map. 4to, \l. 11*. M. 
Map and 25 Plates. 4to, il. 12*. 6d. 


CHisoN, Esq., V.P.R.S. A Niw Edition, augmented and 
revised by H. E. Strickland, ILA-, aud Jajuss Buouian, 
F.G.& With Plates. 8ro. 


By Edward Jesse, Esq. AVith Anecdotes of the Sagacity 
and Instinct of Animals, and Extracts from the Unpub- 
lished Journals of Gilbert AVhitk, of Selborne. Fifth 
Edition, AVoodcuts. Fcap. 8vo, 6*. M. 


LIFE, with Recollections of Natural History. Second 
Edition. ByEnWARP Jesse, Esq. AVoodcuts. PostSvo, 12*. 

•' One of the most valuable additions that have been 
recently made to our practical knowledge in the Natural 
History of our own country ; and were we to follow our own 
feelings, we should transcribe a very large portion to our 
pages." — Gentleman's Magazine. 

Fourth Edition, with AVoodcuts. Post 8vo, 9*. 6d. 
" A boolc that ought to find its way into every rural 
drawing-room in the kingdom, and one that may safely be 
placed in every lady's boudoir." — Quarterly Review. 

BRITISH BELEMNITES.with Essays on their Geological 
Distribution. By John Phillips, F.R.S. Part I. 8vo, 5*. 

A Popular Introduction to the Natural System, and 
Classification of Plants. By Mrs. Loudon. Woodcuts. 
Fcap. 8vo, 8*. 

" To any one who wishes to comprehend the names and 
nature of plants, this charming volume can be safely re- 
commended." — Spectator. 

" So treated as to render the subject easily understood 
by the meanest capacity." — Gardeners' Gazette. 

" Much valuable information." — Naval and Military 


Mr. MURRAY'S LIST OF BOOKS.— Oeneral X.iteratnre. 



in the 15tb, IGth, and 17th Centuries. By IIknry Hallam, 
Esq. Second Edition. 3 vols. 8vo, 3Cf . 

" To all lovers of literature this work will be acceptable ; 
to the young, we conceive, invaluable."— QuoWer/y 

"The most important contribution to literary history 
which English libraries have received for many years."^ 
Edinburgh Review. 




Abercromiiie, M.D. Tenth Edition. Post 8vo. Price 8x. 6d. 


FEELINGS. By John Aueucrombie, M.U. SixthEdition. 
Fcap. 8to, 6t. 


•' THE JEWESS : A Tale of the Baltic. 
By A Ladv. Second Edition. Portrait. Fcap. Svo,4s.6d. 

" So much life anil reality." — Athenteum. 

" Told in an unaffected manner, and the characters are 
well drawn." — Spectator, 


HAWKESTONE ; a Tale of and for England 
in the Year 184—. 2 vols. fcap. 8ro. 

By J. Stampohd Caldwell, Esq., M..^., Barrister-at-Law. 
8vo, \0s. 6d. 

" The common place book of an intelligent, well-read 
man. We cannot imagine more delightful or profitable 
reading for those whose access to books, or lime to devote 
to them, happens to be limited." — Examiner. 

from British Indian History. By J. F. Davis, Esq. 
Fcap. 8vo, 3s. 6d. 

" The whole of this spirit-stirring little volume is well 
entitled to perusal."— iVaoa/ and Military Gazette, 

I. Family Life; 2. Social Life; 3. Studious Life; 4. 
Active Life; «. Political Life: 6. Moral Life; 7. Reli- 
gious Life- By GBcmoK Long, Esq. PostSvo. 


OF MAN. By Geokgb Long; Post 8vo, 6i. 


By the late William Taylor, of Norwich. New Edition, 
revised and augmented. By J. W. Robberos, Esq. flvo. 
In Preparation, 




On Some of the Most Important Diseases. By Sir 
Henry Halford, Bart., M.D, Third Edition, Fcap, 8vo, 
Cf. 6d. 


With an Account of the best Places of Resort for Invalids. 
By Sir James Claek, Bart., M.D. Third Edition, revised. 
Post 8to, 10/. 6d. 

Contents: Powers of Life to Sustain Surgical Opera- 
tions — Different Effects of Bleeding— Squinting, and the 
Remedy — Tic-Douloureux — Nerves of Respiration — 
Powei-8 circulating the Blood — Diseases of the Spine. 
By Sir Charles Bki,l, K.U. 2 Parts, 8vo, 12*. 6d. 


THE HUMAN MIND, By Thomas Mayo, M.D. Fcap. 
8vo, 5/. Cd, 


By John Abbecrombie, M.D. Third Edition, Fcap. 8vo. Ct. 

PECULIAR TO WOMEN. By the late Robert Goocii, 
M.D. Second Edition, Sro,\2t, 


DISEASES OF WOMEN. By Robert Ferguson, M.D. 
Post 8to, 9/. 6d. 


ENGLAND. Chronologically arranged from the Reign 
of William I. to the Revolution is 1688. By Charles 
Ubkry Parry, M.D. 8vo, 30s. 

PENDENCIEa ByGEo. CoKNKn-ALL Lewis, Esq. 8vo, 12/. 

" A masterpiece oC lucid arrangement, of logical state- 
ments, and of vigorous reasoning, — Examiner. 

RiciiAHD Jo.NKs, Jil.A., Caius College, Cambridge. Secotid 
Edition. Post 8vo, 7/. 6c«. 

and the Working of the New Bank Charter Act. By 
John Fullarton, Esq, Second Edition, 8vo, 7*. 6d. 

By Sir Robert Peel, 8vo, 3s, 

OP RUSSIA IN THE EAST, New Edition, with aM.ip 
showing the Eacroachments of Russia. 8vo, G/. 

Mr. MURRAY'S LIST OF BOOKS.— »ome»tlc Boonomy. 




A new system, suited to the present advanced ttate of the 
art, but founded upon principles of economy and practical 
knowledge, and adapted to the use of Private Families. 
By a Lady (Mrs. Rcndkll). The ffjth Edition, im- 
proved by the addition o/900 new Receipts, and a Chap- 
ter on Indian Cookery. By Emma Roberts. Fcap. 8V0, 6*. 
*»* Of this work 310,000 copies have been sold. 

" One of the most practically useful books we have seen 
on the subject." — British Critic. 

"This is the sixty-seventh edition of the celebrated 
•work of Mrs. Rundell, which has now so long been the 
standard work of reference in every private family in 
English Society. The new edition has large additions 
made to it, consistent with the spirit which gave popu- 
larity to the work." — Worcestershire Guardian. 

" This work was originally compiled by Mrs. Rundell, 
solely for the use of her own daughters, but, like other 
good works, it was not destined long to be under a 
bushel, and she accepted 2000 guineas from Mr. Murray, 
and gave her receipts to the public." — Hull Advertiser, 

This popular cookery-book is rendered a complete guide 
for modern cooks by the addition of nearly a thousand 
receipts, suited to the present advanced state of the art." 
— Derby Reporter. 

"In point of excellence as to cookery, and economy in 
expenditure, leaves no room to any rival. The present 
editor has added nearly 1000 entirely new receipts, given 
in a plain, concise, and explicit manner." — Keane's Bath 

" No housekeeper ought to be without this book, which 
is adapted to every grade of society — the rich, the middle 
classes, and the poor." — Durham Advertiser. 

" Some time back we noticed a fifty-eighth edition of 
Mrs. Rundell's excellent Systrm of Domkstic Cookbry. 
We have now received the sixty seventh— a statement, 
we presume, sufficient in itself. The present editress 
has added numerous receipts, which have imparted 
to the original work all the improvement of which it was 
capable." — Brighton Gazette. 


A Collection of more than a Thousand truly valuable 
Receipts in various Branches of Domestic Economy. Keic 
Edition. Fcap. 8vo, bs. 6rf. 

*;(•* Uniform with " Domestic Cookery." 

"A larger quantity of truly valuable matter than any 
book of the same kind ever contained."— BriVisA Critic. 

" There are few things which the reader can seek for on 
which he will not find some useful information."— Jlfon/A/y 

By M. Caivemb, some time Chief of the Kitchen to liis 
Majesty George IV. Translated by William Hall. 
Second Edition. With 73 Plates, 8vo, I6t. 


Containing Examples selected with the greatest care, and 
arranged so as to render them easy to a Novice in the Art. 
By MiBS Lambert. Fourth Edition. 16mo, U. W. 


Being New and Choice Examples of Crochet, arranged 
•with the greatest care. By Mis3 Lambert. Stcond Edition. 
Woodcut* 16mo. 2*. 6d. 


Practical Instructions and Directions for every Month 
in the Year ; with a Calendar of Operations. By Mrs. 
Loudon. Sixth Edition. Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo. C*. 

" This charming little book ought to find its way into 
every cottage and mansion in the country."— ^«a«. 

"Thoroughly practical, and distinguished by great good 
sense." — Gloucester Chronicle. 

"A most valuable little book." — Bath Chronicle. 

" Mrs. Loudon's little volume fulfils every promise, and 
is a perfect vade mecum of the art in all its branches." — 
Literary Gazette. 

" Mrs. Loudon (the wife of the celebrated writer) has 
written a most useful and agreeable Manual for Ladies on 
Gardening, which cannot be too extensively known." — 
Salopian Journal. 

" Written with such simple eloquence and truth, it is 
enough to make one fall in love with gardening and 
flowers." — Dublin Monitor. 

" This volume is a faithful and intelligent guide. Mrs. 
Loudon gives the result of ten years' instructions by her 
husband, the well-known horticulturist; and her work is 
consequently the fruit of long practice and experience."— 
Edinburgh Evening Post, 


Plain Instructions for Rearing all Sorts of Domestic Poul- 
try ; with the best Mode of Managing the Dairy and Pig- 
gery. By the Author of "British Husbandry." Woodcuts. 
Fcap. 8vo, 8*. 

" A beautifully got up little work, containing a variety 
of useful and interesting matter, and forming an excellent 
guide to the poultry-yard, dairy, and piggery.'' — Derby 

" A very interesting little volume, abounding with most 
valuable hints in every branch of domestic economy." — 
Reading Mercury. 

" This substantial guide to the poultry-yard, the dairy, 
and the piggery, is neither intended for the mere cottager 
nor for persons of large fortune, but for those ladies in the 
middle ranks of life who study healthlul domestic economy, 
either for the pleasure or the profit which it affords. The 
volume is appropriately preceded by two illustrations of 
HbrMajbstx's poultrv-tabd. We cordially welcome 
the volume." — Newcastle Journal. 

" A truly excellent book, produced in the best possible 
style. It is full of information."— A'aea/ and Military 


A Complete Guide to every Kind of Decorative Needle- 
work, Crochet, Knitting, and Netting, with a brief 
Historical Account of each Art. By Miss Laubebt. 
Fourth Edition. AVith 115 Woodcuts. Post 8vo, 10/. ed. 

" We recommend it as containing; a great deal of prac- 
tical information. The historical portion is gracefully and 
well written, and the work is instructive and amusing." 
— Atheneeum. 

" The most curious, complete, and erudite treatise on 
the art of needle- work that has, probably, ever been com- 
piled." — Atlas. 

" An eminently practical work ; clear in its explanations, 
precise in its directions, natural in its arrangements."— 
Polytechnic Review, 

With Practical Remarks on its Preparation and Arrange- 
ment. By Miss Labibert. With numerous Engravings. 
Post 8vo, 9». 6d. 

" A book on a good subject, full of instruction and inte- 
rest."— CamSnrfg'e Chrnniclc, 

" Worthy of a place in every Chiistian gentleman's 
library."— Or/orrf Herald, 


Mr. MURRAY'S LIST OF BOOKS.— Sportlngr, rarmlngr, 


' ART OF DEER-STALKING ; Illustrated by a 
Narrative of a few Days' Sport in the Forest of Alholl ; with 
some Account of the Nature and Habits of the Heed Der.and 
a short Description of the Scottish Forests, Legends, Super- 
stitions, Stories of Poachers, Freebooters, Ac. By William 
ScRoi-E, F.L.S. riates by Landseer. Second Edition. 
Royal 8vo, 21. 2t. 

" Brief and imperfect as the preceding abstract is, we 
think that it will fully justify the high praise we have be- 
stowed on this work, and induce our readers to sit down to 
the luxurious repast from which we have risen." — 
Edinburgh Jieview. 

" Ha? all the charm of an autobiography, combined 
■with that of a series of excellent unaffected lectures on the 
science of .re chase." — Quarterly Review. 


in the Tweed, with a short Account of the Natural History 
and Habits of the Salmon, By William Scrope, Esq., F.L.S. 
With Plates by Wilkie, Landsbbr, Simson, and Cookb. 
Royal 8vo, 42*. 


By NiMROD. Second Edition, with Plat«s by Aik&n and 
Gilbert. Post 8vo, 9«. M. 



By Richard Pknn,F.R.S. Second £dtaon. With 24 Plates. 
Fcap. 8vo, 8/. 

" They have the air of novelty, and charm by their preg- 
nant brevity, sly sarcasm, and oily laaneas."— Quarterly 


tical Hints on Highland Sports, and the Habits uf the 
DiSerent Creatures of Game and Prey ; with Instructions 
in River, Burn, and Loch Fishing. By John Col()uuocn. 
Second Edition, with Plates. 8vo, 9*. Cd. 

" Unpretending, clear, and practical, and does honour 
to the ' parent lake.' The book breathes of the mountain 
and the flood, and will carry the sportsman back to the 
days of his yoat\i."— Quarterly Review, 



Arranged on a New and Easy Method. By the Author 
of "British Husbandry." 4to, IOj. 



A Treatise on the Nature and Value of Animal and Vege- 
table Manures. By F. Falkner, Esq. Fcap. Svo, 6«. 6d. 

"A very useful book." — Lord Palmerston. 

" A valuable work for farmers ; in which the materials, 
character, and elements of farm-yard manure, are laid 
down in a forcible manner." — British Farmer's Magazine. 

" Will be read with avidity for its valuable information." 
— Farmer's Herald. 

" Addressed to the practical farmer, and vrritten as such 
books ought to be." — Belt's Messenger. 

" Of great value, and ought to be the pocket-companion 
of every farmer." — Derbyshire Courier. 

AND IRRIGATION. By the Author of "British Bus- 
bandry." Second Edition. Svo, '^t. 

GREAT BRITAIN and IRELAND ; with Extracts from 
the Parliamentary Reports and Evidence, from 1833 to 
1840. With Preface by Henry Drummono, Esq. 2 vols. 
Svo, 2I«. 

CULTURAL CLASSES. By Charles Daubeny, M.D. 

An Appeal in their Behalf. By W. S. Gill v, D.D. Second 
Edition. Flans, Estimates, &c. Svo, 4(. 



fivo, 6/. 


8vo, 5*. 


8vo, 20*. 
Compiled from Official and other authentic Documents, 
with the Dates of Commissions, War Services, and Wounds 
of nearly every Officer '■' ■ 

"A well-compiled t ^ost useful work, not merely to 
the profession, but | ,)ublic." — Alhenaum. 

' Publi'V ,y, by order of the Lords CommiS' 

$io* rally. 2t. 


Considerably Enlarged and Improved. Published by Order 
of the Lords Commistionert (if the Admiralty. 1847. 5«. 


CAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 8vo,3«. 6rf. 



Published Monthly. Post Svo, 2t. 6d. 




Is printed on good paper with large readable type, and 
is designed to furnish the inhabitants of Great Britain 
and her Colonies with the higliest Literature of the day, 
consisting partly of original Works, partly of new editions 
of popular Publications, at the lowest possible price. It 
is called for in consequence of the Acts -which have 
recently passed the British Parliament for the protection 
of the rights of British authors and publishers, by the 
rigid and entire exclusion of foreign pirated editions. 
In order, therefore, that the highly intelligent and 
educated population of our Colonies may not suffer from 
the withdrawal of their accustomed supplies of books, 
and with a view to obviate the complaint, that a check 
might in consequence be raised to their intellectual 

advancement, Mr. Murray has determined to publish a 
series of attractive and useful works, by approved authors, 
at a rate which shall place them within reach of the means 
not only of the colonists, but also of a large portion of the 
less wealthy classes at home, who will thus benefit by the 
widening of the market for our literature: and the "Colo- 
nial Library " will, consequently, be so conducted that it 
may claim to be considered as a " Library for the Empire." 
The series of Works designed to appear in Mr. Murray's 
" Colonial and Home Library," will be selected for their 
acknowledged merit, and will be exclusively such as are 
calculated to please the most extensive circles of readers. 
They will be printed most carefully, in a superior style, 
and on good paper. 

PMiahed Monthly^ Post 8vo, 2s. 6d. 


Nos. 1 and 2. 

," There is no taking leave of a book like this: better 
fare we never had it in our power to offer our readers."— 

" Sorrow's odd, amusing, and instructive work." — 
Cambridge Chronicle. 

Nos. 3 to 6. 

"The most perfectly charming book we ever read." — 

" One of the most delightful books in the language."— 
Quarterly Review. 

No. 7- 

•'One of the most interesting and popular works of the 
present century."— ^Aerdeen Journal. 

"By far the most welcome of the series. Irby and 
Mangles' interesting Travels was almost from the first a 
sealed book— those who were admitted to its pages, prized 
it highly." — Literary Gazette, 

No. 8. 


" A book so replete with interest and information as to 
be truly a legend of the United Services of its day."— 
United Service Magazine. 

" Mr. Murray has conferred a public benefit by selecting 
this narrative for an early Number in his acceptable series." 
—Literary Gazette, 

No. 9. 

" These Sketches are singularly graphic and interesting. 
The Author rides among the wild people, encamps with 
them, and listens to the strange tales of mighty robbers or 
daring exploits with wild beasts." -CAe/<enAa»» C/tronicle. 

"A new and highly interesting work, for which Mr. 
Murray would have been entitled to charge two or three 
guineas." — Greenock Advertiser. 

No. 10. 


" A series of charming descriptions ; the style full of 
ease and freshness." — Examiner. 

" ' Familiar Letters' by a young and beautiful and witty 
English spinster, whose work will cause a sensation hardly 
inferior to that which attended the bursting of the ' Old 
Man's Brunnen 'QxiMles.'"— Quarterly Review. 

No. 11. 

"We have read nothing in fiction or in history, which 
has so completely rivetted and absorbed our interest as 
this little volume. If it be a fiction, it is worthy — we can 
give no higher praise — of De Foe." — Quarterly Review. 

" Possesses all the lively interest of a romance, and all 
the external evidences of a truthful narrative." — York- 

No. 12. 

" Models of what biography ought to be ; embracing all 
the facts in the lives of their respective subjects that can 
be of any interest." — Dublin Freeman's Journal. 

" Southey's admirably written lives." — Yorhshireman, 

No. 13. 

" Mrs. Meredith is a pleasant unaffected writer ; and 
the book derives interest from being a lady's view of 
Ntw South Wales." — Spectator. 

"A pleasantly written account, by a lady who, to strong 
and shrewd observation, adds the merit of recording her 
first impressions with a fidelity and simplicity rarely found 
in this book-making age." — Newcastle Courant. 

No. U. 


" The interesting and instructive volume with which 
Mr. Barrow has enriched our biographical literature."— 
Edinburgh Review, 

No. 15. 

"The combined singularity of the facts, and the mode 
of narration, render this as curious a book as any that 
has appeared, not excepting ' Borrow's Bible in Spain.' " 
— Spectator, 

No. 16. 

"These highly amusing Btc ' actual Jamaica 

lifo."— Quarterly Review, 




& 15 
. 2 
. 11 
. 3 
. 3 
. 6 
. 4 
. 11 


ABEBCROMBrK's (Dr.) Works . . 12 

Agricultural (The) Journal . . 14 

Amber Witch (Thel . . . . 16 

Austin's German Writers . . 8 

Babbage's (Chas.) Works . . . 11 

Barrow's Lombardy . . .6 

— Life of Drake . . . 15 

Bell (Sir C.) on Expression . . 10 

— Practical Essays . . . 12 

Bentley's ( Dr.) Correspondence . 2 

Bertha's Journal . . . . 10 

Bjornstjerna on the Hindoos . . 3 

Blunt's (Hev. J. J.) Works . . 4 
Sorrow's Travels in Spain . 6 
Brewster's Martyrs of Scieaco . 
British Association Ueports . 
Brogden's Catholic Safeguards . 

— Liturgy and Kitual 
Bubbles from Nassau 
Burnes' (Sir A.) Travels 
Burr on Surveying 
Buttman's Works . 
Byron's (Lord) Works . 

— Life . 

Caldwell's Results of Reading 
C'ami>bell's British Poets 


Careme's French Cookery 
Carmichael's Greek Verbs 
Camar\'on's Portugal 
Clark (Sir J.) on Climate . 
Coleridge's Greek Poets 
Colonial and Home Library . 
Colquhoun's Moor and Loch 
Conybeare's Sermons . . 
Crabbe's Poetical Worla 

— Life 2 

Cunningham's Life of Wilkie . . 2 

Dates and Distances . . .6 

Daubeny on Agricultural Classes . 14 

Davis* (J. F-) Benares . . .12 

Dibdin's Naval Songs . . . 8 

Dieffenbach's New Zealand . . 5 

Domestic Cookery . . . . 13 

Douglas on Naval Gunnery . .11 

Drinkwater's Siege of Gibraltar . 15 
Drummond's Agricultural Classes . 14 

Dudley's (Lord) Letters . . . 2 

Dufrenoy on Hot Air . . . 11 

Eldon's (Lord) Life • . .2 

Elphinstone's India . . . . 1 

Exeter's (Bp. of) Sermons . . 3 

Eyre's Affghanistau . . .4 

Facts in Various Sciences . . 11 

Family Receipt Book . . .13 

Faraday's Manipulation . . . 11 

Farmer's Account Jiook . . .14 

Farming for Ladies . . . . 13 

Featherstonhaugh's America . . 6 

Fellows' (C.) Travels . . . 5 

Ferguson on Women . . .12 

FuUarton on Currencies . . . 12 

Geoobaphical (The) Journal . 14 

Giffard's Ionian Islands . . . 5 

GiUy's Peasantry . . . .14 

Godley's Canada . . . . C 

Gooch on AVomen . . . .12 

Grant's Nestorians . • . . 4 

Greenhow's Oregon . . . G 

Grosvenor's (Lady) Voyage . . 5 

Gruner's Frescoes . . . .10 

Halford's Essays . . . . 12 

UaUam's England . . . . 1 

— Literature of Europe . . 12 

Hamilton's Ilindostan 

— Asia Minor . 

— Aristophanes 
Hand-books for Travellers 
Hawkestone, a Tale . 
Hay's Morocco . 
Hili's Slave Ship 

— (Lord) Life 

— (Richard) Correspondence 
Holland's Psalms . . 
Houstoun's Texas . . 
Hart's Army List . 
Ilase's Ancient Greeks . 
Head's Pampas . 

— Forest Scenes 

— Home Tour 
Heber's (Bp.) Sermons 

— India 

— Poetical AVorks 

— Hj-mns 
Ileilner's German Grammar 
Xbby and Mangles' Travels 
Jamieson's Legends of Saints 

— Public Galleries 
Japan .... 
Jesse's Natural History , 

— Country Life 
Jewess (The), a Tale . 
Jocelyn's (Lord) China . 
Jones on A\'ealth 
Josiah, History of ... 
Journal of a Naturalist , . 
Jukes's Newfoundland 
Kinnear's Cairo . . 
Knight's Normandy . 
Laeordb's Arabia Petrsea 
Lambert's Needlework 
Land Drainage 
Lappenberg's England . 
Latin Grammar 
Letters from Madras 

— the Baltic 

Lewis on Dependencies 
Lindsay's Lectures . 

Little Arthur's England 
Loch's China . 
Lockhart's Life of Bums 

— Spanish BaUads 

— Late War 
Long's Essays . 
Loudon's Gardening 

— Botany . 

— Natural History 
Lowe's (Sir Hudson) Memoirs 
Lycll's Works on Geology 
Mahon's (Lord) Histories 

— Belisarius . 
Manning On the Church 
JIarkham's (Mrs.) England 

— France 

Marlborough (The) Despatches 
Matthia;'s Grammars's Maranon 
Mayo on the Mind 
Memoirs of Father Ripa . 
Meredith's New South Wales 
Alilford's Norway . 
MUman's Christianity 

— Gibbon 

— Poetical Works 
Milman's Life of Gibbon . 
Mitchell's Aristophanes 
Moorcroft and Trebeck . 
Moore's Ijife of Byron 


. 4 

. 6 
. 9 
. 7 
. 12 
. 15 
. 5 
. 2 
. 2 
. 4 
. 6 
. 14 


Muck Manual for Farmers . . 14 
Mailer's Dorians . . . . 9 
Murcliison's Geology . . .11 
Nautical (The) Almanack . . 14 
Navy (The) List . . . . 14 

Newbold's Malacca .... 4 
Nimrod on the Cliase . . .14 
Oxenham'k Latin Elegiacs . 9 
Paris' Pyrenees . . . . 6 
Parry's Parliaments . . .12 
Pashley's Crete .... 5 
Peel's (Sir R.) Address to Students 12 


Peile's yEschylus . . . . 
Pennington on Greek 
Penn's Maxims and Hints . 
Phillips' Belemnites . . . . 

— Geology . . 
Philosophy in Sport . . • 
Powell's Latin (Jrammar , . 
I'rayer-Book Illuminated . 
Progressive Geography . . . 

Puss in Boots 

Quarterly Review 

Ranke's Popes of Rome 

Reeve's Characteristics of Painters 

— and Taylor's Translations 
Rejected (The) Addresses 

Ride to Florence . ... 
Robertsons' South America . 
Robinson's Biblical Researches 

— Scripture Geograpliy . 
Romilly's (Sir Samuel) Life . . 
Ross's (Sir James) A'oyage 
Rundell's Domestic Cookery 
Russia in the East 
Sale's (Lady) Journal 
Scrope on Deer Stalking . 

— Salmon Fishing 
Sentences from the Proverbs 
Sewell's Christianity 
Stisted's Italy . 
Smith's (Miss) Fragments 

— (Dr. W.) Life . 
Somerset on the Ellipse . 
Somerville on Science 
Sopwith's Mining Museum 
Southey's Hook of the Church 

— Cromwell and Hunyi 

— Life of Dr. Bell 
State Papers (The) 
Staunton's China 
Stephens' Central America 
Sterling's Russia 
Stevens on Pointing Guns 
Stories for Children 
Sydenham's (Lord) Memoirs 
Taylor's (Miss) Italy 

— (Wm.) Memoirs 

— — Synonyms 
Traits and Stories of Negro Life, by 

M. G. Lewis . . , 

Twiss's Life of Lord Eldon 
Venablrs' Russia . . . . 
Watt's (James) Life . . . . 
Wilberforce on Church Courts 
Wilkie's (Sir D.ivid) Life 
Wilkinson's Egypt 
Williams's Homenis 
AVood's Source of the Oxus . . 
AVordsworth's Athens 

— Inscriptions . . 

Latin Grammar 

•~ Minor Greek Grammar 9 

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