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From 1839 to 1844; 






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, London: Printed l>y Wilmam Clowm andSovs, SiAinlnni Stri-«t. 




Bridle-road — Wreck — Taupo war-party — The Rev. Octavius Had- 
field — Proofs of his worth as a missionary — Wanganui — The 
process of becoming a store-keeper — The feudal attachment of 
the natives secured by trading — Pig-hunting — Dogs — E Kuru^s 
ardour for the chase — Troublesome natives — Conduct of Mr. 
Matthews, a Missionary Catechist — He is justly reproved by 
E Kuril — Missionary, heathen, and civilized natives — Waitotara 
— Inhospitality — Panic of natives on first seeing a horse — Amaze- 
ment — The country about Wanganui — Climate like the south of 
Spain — Winds — Showers — Lawlessness— Pig-stealing — Den of 
thieves — Wreck of the Sandfly ..... Page 1 


Appointment of Officers in England — Progress — Shops — Rope- 
makers — Outrages by Rangihaeata — Tapu on the Beach — Com- 
plaint to Police Magistrate — His answer — Neglect of the Cook's 
Strait settlers by Governor Hobson — No tribunals — Effect on 
natives — News from Auckland only through Sydney— Absurd 
nomenclature — Kindness to natives — Of Government — Of the 
colonists — E Puni, a gentleman — Answer of the Governor to the 
Magistrates' address — The Clendon job — Appointments — Fi- 
nance — East Coast of Middle Island — Port Cooper — Public 
meeting — Native found dead — Warepori excites the natives — 
Alarm — Helplessness — Volunteers — Special constables — Impres- 
sions of natives — Disgrace of Mr. Davy — Judge and Attorney- 
General — Distant legislation — Secret calumnies — Defence of 
his choice by Captain Hobson — Ill-treatment of Company's 
settlers . . . . . . . . .22 


Arrival of the Governor — Public meeting — Undignified landing — 
Empty levee — Mr. George Clarke, Chief Protector of the Abo- 
rigines — Degradation of chiefs — Mr. Clarke's unfounded charge 

a 2 


against Colonel Wakefield — Countenanced by the Governor — 
Natives consent to leave their Pa — Sudden refusal — Perpetua- 
tion of the noxious Pas — Deputation to the Governor — His ab- 
ject appearance — His own description of it — Mr. Hanson and 
Mr. Earp — " Government fever" — The Governor refuses to 
fulfil the Agreement of 1840 — Mr. Clarke's letter — Evil effects 
of indulgence on natives — Example — Misprotection of the 
Aborigines — Hiko repudiates his bargain — I am requested to be- 
come a Magistrate — " Nelson" Colony — Negotiations — The 
Governor goes to Akaroa — Dinner to Captain Arthur Wakefield 
and Captain Liardet — Toasts — Dispute about the site of Nelson 
— Proclamations — Appointments — Things left undone — Stifling 
of Native Reserves — The colonists and the Governor — Lieutenant 
Shortland and Mr. Clarke the real Governors — Their private 
interest at stake ........ 42 


Voyage to Wanganui — Too late for selection of lands — Police 
Magistrate— Jail — Manufacture of hams and bacon — De^iarture 
for Taupo — Ascend the Wanganui — Curious missionary chief — 
Rigorous discipline — Quarrel between natives — Speech of a 
youth— Scenery— The Pass in "The Place of Cliffs"— Giddy 
ascent of cliff — Monument — My attendants — Baggage — Tribu- 
tary of the Wanganui — Slow progress — Forced march — Towai, 
or " Black Birch" — High table plains — Rain — Tonga Riro 
Mountains — Legend of Taranaki — View to south-west — Roto 
Aera, or Lake " Yes, indeed" — Rest — Lake Taupo — Boiling 
springs — A fine chief — Villages on the lake — Visit to Heuheu 
— Feast — ffaka, or Dance — Waitanui Pa — 'Well-behaved 
natives — Proceedings for damages — An Artist in Tatu — The 
process — Natives play draughts —Local attraction of the com- 
pass — Mr. Blackett — Journey from the Bay of Plenty to Taupo 
— Volcanic district — Farewell to Heuheu — His speech — Taptt on 
the summit of a mountain — Mr. Dandeson ,Coates — Distinction 
between religious respect and landed rights — Native irony — 
Return from Taupo — Skirmish — Sacred sand — Sulphureous river 
— Effect of sunrise — Rolling ranges — Flax gardens . . 80 


Progress of Wanganui — Mr. Wansey's attempt to settle — Conse- 
quential airs of the Police Magistrate — Arrival of E Kuru — 


Penalty inflicted for saluting him — Ludicrous proceedings — 
Anger of the natives — Guests — Bell's Farm — His management 
of the natives — Interview with two repudiating chiefs — Their 
proposal — Journey to "Wellington by land — The great chief of 
Manawatu — Efifect of an appeal to native hospitality — Purchase 
of Manaicatu district by Colonel Wakefield — Excellent results of 
Mr. Hadfield's missionary teaching — Houses for travellers . 125 


Foundation of Nelson — Mr. Thompson — First Court of Quarter 
Sessions — First trial of a native — Legal position of natives — - 
Causes for complaint against the Governor — His selection of 
Magistrates — Vast claims to land — Government Estimates — 
Legislative Council — Discontent of the Auckland population — 
Maketu, the murderer — Public Meeting — Neglect of the har- 
bour by Government — Mr. Hanson — A colonist who has become 
an official' — The Bishop — Murder of Milne — Villages — Signs of 
progress — Horticultural Society — Produce — Statistics — Harvest 
weather — Surveying " Cadets" — Accident of Captain Liardet — 
"Wretched state of Auckland — Population of Cook's Strait — In- 
efficient Government Institutions — Second Newspaper — Nelson 
and New Plymouth — Mr. Earp — County Courts — Government 
Land-sales — Fleeting news from the capital — The Governor's 
Speech — Details of the Estimates — Injustice to Cook's Strait — 

• Public Meeting . . . . . . .144 


Voyage to Nelson — Blind Bay — Nelson Haven — Site of Nelson — 
Gaiety of the landing-place — The infant town — Quail — Climate 
— Calm weather — Cattle — Coal and limestone — Selection of 
lands — Native Reserves — Colonizing character of the Nelson 
Gentry — Captain Arthur Wakefield — His name among the na- 
tives — Dr. Imlay, of Twofold Bay .... 177 


Public Meetings — Outrage committed by Rangihaeata upon set- 
tlers — Mr. Murphy, the Police Magistrate — Increasing lawless- 
ness of the natives caused by impunity— Mr. Spain, the Com- 
missioner of Land-Claims — Mr. George Clarke junior the Sub- 


Protector of Aborigines — His qualifications — Petition at Auck- 
land for the recall of Governor Hobson — Wretched condition of 
Auckland — Introduction of pheasants and bees into Wellington 
— Mr. Wicksteed appointed to succeed Captain Liardet at New 
Plymouth — Blood horses from Sydney — Court of Land Claims 
— Its mischievous action — Changed notions of the natives — 
Complicated proceedings — Evidence of E Puni—oi E Tako, a 
Repudiator — Mr. Tod's case — Dilatory progress — Effects — 
Government negligence — Latest dates from Auckland reach 
Wellington through Sydney — Mildness of Winter — Unceasing 
vegetation — Natural pasture — Steam-mill and Brewery — Me- 
chanics' Institute — Mr. Kettle's Exploring Expedition — Gorge 
of the Manawatu — Plain of the three rivers — Formation of the 
country — Native legend — Plain of the Ruamahanga — Its na- 
ture and extent — Wild hogs — Eeturn by the Ilutt Valley — Sa- 
lubrity of the climate — Central position of Wellington . 189 


The Chief E Ahu — He quells Rangihaeata's noisy arrogance — 
He avoids the missionary natives — Journey to Otaki and Ohau — 
The chief's son, Wahine iti — Lakes — The Patriarch Watanui 
— Inland journey — Rangitikei — Obstructions offered to settlers 
by missionary natives — Mr. [Mason, the missionary — Mr. Dawson, 
the Police Magistrate — Native dispute — Consequences — Good 
faith and honest pride of Rangi Tauwira — ^The town of " Petre " 
— E Kuru accompanies me to Wellington — Inland path — 
Bivouac — Race — The Oroua, or Styx — Exaggerated missionary 
notions — Hypocrisy — Its punishment — The surveying station — 
Steam eaw-mill — Reconciliation of two hostile chiefs — The 
Patriarch's £unily — A noble result of Mr. Hadfield's missionary 
teaching — Rauperaha sends his slaves to obstruct settlers on the 
Hutt 221 


Rauperahd's slaves on the Hutt — Veracity of natives — E Puni's 
present — Native labour — Fires — Furniture woods — Boats — 
N^lect of Nelson— Stagnation at Auckland — The Bishop ar- 
rives — Stifling of the Native Reserves — Their value misrepre- 
sented — Their real value — Unjust reproaches against the 
plan — Outrages by natives at New Plymouth— How quelled — 


Proposed arbitration — A Harbour-master appointed — His fit- 
ness for the office — Wiiales — Doings of the Bishop — Want of a 
Church — Death of Mr. Young — ^Mr. Deans migrates to Port 
Cooper — Calumnies against Colonel Wakefield — How refuted — 
Meeting at Auckland — Distressed condition —Remedies proposed 
— Illness and death of Governor Hobson . . . 243 


Lieutenant Shortland assumes the Government — His friendly pro- 
mises — State of Auckland — First Corporation election in the 
borough of Wellington — List of Aldermen — " Old Jenkins" — 
First sitting of Supreme Court— Case of Rangihaeata — Judge 
Martin's decision — Horticultural Shows — Weather — Pitone 
races — Enlivening scene — First emigration from Great Britain 
to Auckland — A newspaper printed by a mangle — Picturesque 
mill — Captain Daniell's farm and road — Beauty of the scenery 
about Wellington ....... 266 


Ph<yrmium tenax, or flax — Details of its manufacture — Flax-trade 
hitherto unsuccessful — The reasons — Flax agitation — Otaki — 
The Rev. Octavius Hadfield — His energy and disinterestedness — 
His wise benevolence — Results of commerce on the natives — In- 
ducements to engage in trade with them — Opposition of Raupe- 
raha and Rangihaeata — Good class of emigration — " Puffers," 
" grumblers," and " good colonists" — Advantages of an exclu- 
sive club — Mr. Charles Buller's description of " the gentlemen" 
colonists — Disgrace of Mr. Murphy — The Police Magistrates 
governing Cook's Strait — Fire of Wellington — Good results — 
Shipping — Death of Warepori — Sketch of the causes of his illness 
and death— Captain Smith's expedition to the South — Colonel 
Wakefield's visit to Auckland — Its harbour and the neighbouring 
country— Its society — Parkhurst boys — Picnics and balls at 
Wellington — Exports — Dye-bark — Titoki oil — Mr. Swainson's 
troubles with Rawperahd!?, annoying emissaTies — His vain appeal 
to the authorities — Rauperaha's slaves continue to encroach — 
Christmas sports at Wellington — Horticultural productions 283 



Concluding selection of lands — Murder of a native woman at 
Cloudy Bay — Disputes with the natives at Tauranga — Lieutenant 
Shortland proposes to enforce the law — The Attorney- General 
considers the natives not British subjects— Mr. Clarke supports 
him — Arrival of Lieutenant Shortland at Wellington — His re- 
ception — Speeches about land — ^Tact of E Puni — Copper ore — 
Return of Mr. Petre from his visit to England — Race-horses — 
Mr. Cooke drives cattle to New Plymouth — Dicky Barrett and 
Mr. George Clarke junior — Arbitration — Mr. George Clarke 
junior promoted — Discussions about compensation for land — A 
mad native — "Windmill — Comet of 1843 — Mr. Spain proceeds 
towards the north — A native murdered by another native in 
Wellington — The murderer goes unpunished — Interview with 
Rmtperaha — His allies — His irritated and threatening behaviour 
— Proposed journey — The ra<a, or flowering myrtle . 321 


Journey to Wanganui — Wahine iti joins me — His relations ob- 
ject — He asserts his own authority — Mr. Spain, the Land Com- 
missioner, at Petre — Upright conduct of an old chief — Death of 
Mr. Mason — The Rev. Richard Taylor — Spirited behaviour of 
E Kuru — Journey towards Taranaki — Bridle-road — Missionary 
opposition — Luxuriant country — Food for cattle in the forest — 
The tutu, a poisonous shrub — Signs of a settlement — Suspension- 
bridge — Advantages of having no port — The yeomen of New Ply- 
mouth — Contentment in a good climate — Security bestowed on 
Taranaki by the Whites — Flocking of natives to the district — 
New claim* — Suspension of the Company's operations — Negotia- 

. tions with Mr. Spain and Mr. Clarke junior — Coast near Cape 
Egmont — Religioas feuds among natives — Inhospitality — 
Changed character — A captive belle — E Kuru's home . 337 


First rumours of the massacre at Wairau — Hauperaha's message — 
E Kutu'b offer of an armed force — The Police Magistrate's ver- 
sion — Fears of E Ahu for his son — Earthquake — Escort of 
natives — Kindness of Wataiiui — Affecting scene at Ohau — 


Rauperaha a missionary — His stratagems — He drives a herd of 
cattle back — Dispute with other chiefs — Speeches — Rauperaha 
insults the Queen of England — His kingly bearing — His powerful 
eloquence — Arrival at Wellington — Evidence relating to the 
Wairau massacre — Lord Stanley's episode — The truth about 
Rangihaeatas wife — No Coroner — Alarm at Wellington — Enrol- 
ment of volunteers by the authorities — Battle of Manganui in 
the North — Caused by the Government. . . .361 


Arrival of Major Richmond and fifty-three soldiers — The volun- 
teer drilling proclaimed illegal — By inadvertence — Meetings of 
the local Magistrates — Deputation to reconnoitre — Visits to the 
Hutt and Porirua — Proceedings of the Magistrates — Petition — 
Lord Ripon's remarks on it — Mr. Clarke's Jtfflori—Proclamation (/ 
— Lieutenant Shortland's Proclamation — Mr. Clarke's Official 
Report — Heartless population of Auckland — Effects of the Act- 
ing Governor's Proclamation — Judge Martin's rule of Court 
— Honourable conduct of Mr. Fox — Public remonstrance to the 
Judge — Mr. Spain's proceedings — Negotiations respecting the 
arbitration — Outrage committed by a native — Arrival of H.M.S. 
North Star — Sir Everard Home's letter to Rauperaha — Taupo 
Bay at Porirua — Taiaroa — Farm near Otako — Disturbances 
at Nelson — Indifference of the Government officers . . 402 


Review of the condition of the natives — Their intercourse with the 
whalers — Church Mission — Samuel Marsden — His object and 
plans — His doings in New Zealand — Purchase of a site — Deed of 
conveyance — Wise benevolence of Marsden— Progress — Increas- 
ing influence — Captain Laplace — Failure of Marsden's project, 
how caused — The independence of New Zealand — How con- 
cocted — Details of coincident missionary land-sharking — Progress 
of labours — Wesleyan Mission — Struggles and perils — Revival — 
New Zealand Association opposed by both missionary societies — 
Income of the societies — Their expenditure in New Zealand — 
Hostility delegated to local missionaries — Results of missionary 
labours — The Government and the natives — Want of system — 
Treaty of Waitangi — Official and literal translations — Disre- 

VOL. II. b 


garded by both parties — Incongruities of Government — Conflict- 
ing systems for the good of the natives — Confusion producefi in 
their minds — Results to be dreaded — Hopes for the appointment 
of an able Governor — Crown colonies and chartered colonies — 
Captain Grey on aborigines — Known prejudices of Captain 
Fitzroy . .432 


News of the appointment of Governor Fitzroy — Modified agree- 
ment between the Company and Lord Stanley — Expedition of 
H.M.S. North Star — Negotiations for the recovery of a stolen 
boat — Letter of Rauperaha — Major Richmond at Nelson — War- 
rant against Rauperaha and Rangihaeata — Ridiculed by Sir 
Everard Home — Dismissal of the frigate as unnecessary — Effect 
of impunity on the natives — Disallowance of Ordinances — Land 
Claims Bill — Corporation Bill — The Company's offer to build a 
lighthouse — Obstructed by Government delays — Proceedings of 
the Wellington Corporation — E Waho rescued by natives from 
the Police — Letter of Major Richmond — Conduct of Mr. Clarke 
junior — Rauperaha's son — False rumours at Otaki — Threaten- 
ing behaviour oi Rangihaeata — Conversation with RauperaJia — 

' His statements — Correspondence — ^Trial of E Waho — Menacing 
movements of natives — The Hutt road — Haunts of lawless 
natives ......... 472 


Arrival of Governor Fitzroy at Wellington — Auckland officials — 
Levee — Discouraging opinions of the Governor — Public rebuke — 
Effect — Dispersion of the assembly — Taunts of the natives — Pri- 
vate interview with his Excellency — Accusations — Captain 
Fitzroy's demeanour — Friendship towards the natives — Captain 
Fitzroy at Nelson — Dismissal of Magistrates — His Excellency's 
interview with Rauperaha at Waikanae — Sir Everard Home 
shakes Rauperaha by the hand — Reflections on Captain Fitzroy's 
decision — Some account of Captain Arthur Wakefield — Major 
Richmond appointed Superintendent — Captain Fitzroy and the 
land-claims — Reasons for leaving the colony — Prospects of the 
colonists — Of the natives — The only hope — Return to Europe. ^ Or 



Bridle-road — Wreck — Taupo War-Party — The Rev. Octavius Had- 
field — Proofs of his worth as a Missionary — Wanganui — The 
process of becoming a Store-keeper — The feudal attachment of 
the Natives secured by trading — Pig-hunting — Dogs-— E 
KurtHs ardour for the chase — Troublesome Natives — Conduct 
of Mr. Matthews, a Missionary Catechist — He is justly reproved 
by E Kuru — Missionary, Heathen, and civilized Natives — 
Waitotara — Inhospitality — Panic of Natives on first seeing a 
Horse — Amazement — The Country about Wanganui — Climate 
like the South of Spain — Winds — Showers — Lawlessness — Pig- 
stealing — Den of thieves — Wreck of the Sandfly. 

Towards the end of May, I sent the Sandfly on to 
Kapiti, and started to join her by land ; wishing to 
see the progress of the road, and to visit the wreck 
of the Jewess. I was accompanied by Lieutenant 
Thomas, who had engaged in the survey department 
of the Company's service, and was proceeding to TVan- 
ganui by land to assist Mr. Carrington in the com- 
pletion of the survey, with five or six additional 
labouring-men. The bridle-road had been completed 
to the distance of about seven miles from Port Nichol- 
son ; and from thence we pushed on by a rough sur- 
veyor's line till we reached the old path from Pitone. 
We slept at Parramatta ; and the next day I travelled 
on to the wreck, Mr. Thomas staying to collect some 
of his things still remaining at the whaling station. 

The Jewess had been driven ashore on the «and, 
only about half-a-mile north of the rocky coast. I 



here found the captain, who had not yet deserted her ; 
as well as Mr. Carrington from Pf^anganui, who had 
been allowed to come to Wellington for a short holi- 
day ; and two travellers from Taranaki, who had ac- 
companied him from TVanganui. The vessel was still 
whole, and we slept in the ])unks of the cabin that 
night, though the high tide, causing rather a smart 
surf after we had got to sleep, rocked her about, and 
washed into the cabin through the holes in her bottom. 
Mr. Churton, a TV^anganui settler, had been a great 
loser by this wreck. Most of the cargo had belonged 
to him ; and although Mr. Hadfield had succeeded in 
persuading some of the natives to return a few of the 
stolen things, they only brought back trifling articles, 
such as pins and tape, pretending to know nothing of 
the more valuable goods. Between the vessel and 
TVaikanae I met a large body of Port Nicholson 
natives, who had been to a conference at JVaikanae 
on the subject of a threatened attack of the Taupo 

It appeared that after ravaging JVaitoiara, from 
which all the inhabitants had again fled, except a few 
txx) old and infirm who were taken, killed, and eaten, 
the taua of the Ngatipchi had come down to Otaki ; 
and that a union of their force with that of the Ngati- 
roMkawa had been proposed, in order to revenge the 
defeat at JVaikanae in October 1839. The Port 
Nicholson natives, on the receipt of this news, had 
mustered 200 or 300 men under H'^arepori, Epuni, 
and Taringa Kuri, and hastened to join their re- 
lations. Mr. Hadfield had succeeded in frustrating 
all these warlike preparations. This gentleman had, 
after very laborious efforts, and in one instance at 
the peril of his life, managed to acquire a very exten- 
sive and honorable influence over the hitherto fierce 


chiefs of the Ngatiraukawa. TVaianui and part of 
his family had become mihanere, as well as several 
other chiefs of rank ; and Mr. Hadfield had wisely 
managed to introduce the new doctrine without de- 
stroying the native aristocracy. He thus dissuaded 
TVatanul, and through him the great part of the tribe, 
from fighting. Heuheu, I heard, had been furious at 
this successful interference with his designs ; but had 
ended by confessing himself fairly beaten, when Mr. 
Hadfield calmly and courageously presented himself 
before him in the midst of his anger, overthrew his 
reasoning, and reproached the old chief in the conclave 
of his people with a want of the dignity and delibera- 
tion suitable to his place of kaumatua or " patriarch." 

I had not yet been introduced to Mr. Had field's 
acquaintance ; but I already began to feel sorry for 
the prejudices which I had entertained against him on 
first hearing that he had come with Mr, Williams. 
All the natives, whether converts or not, spoke in the 
highest terms of his conduct in every particular. I 
knew, intimately, many of his more immediate fol- 
lowers at JVaikanae, some of them of high rink 
among the tribe ; and could not help imbibing from 
them some of that respectful admiration for his character 
which they were proud of acknowledging. His scholars 
were plainly anxious to deserve his praise and affection, 
rather than bound to their duties by an irksome re- 
straint. In com])aring the persuasion which they had 
adopted with that of the \^^esleyans under the guid- 
ance of Mr. Aldred, they were proud of the difference 
between the tu or " bearing" of the two missionaries, 
because theirs was so distinctly a rangatira. The 
heathen natives, too, who had enjoyed an opportunity 
of observing or conversing with Mr. Hadfield, con- 
fessed that he had all the qualities of a chief, and that 



he was a pakeha ngawari, or " mild white man," who 
did not discourage their ancient customs by anger or 
coarse tokens of disgust, but by gentle reason. They 
also admired his manly courage, of which they had 
noted more than one proof, and his art of gaining the 
love of the natives even before he had converted them 
to his creed. Even the corrupt and profane beach- 
combers and whalers of Kapiti would go out of their 
way to say a good word or do a service for Mr. Had- 
field. " He is a missionary," they would say, with an 
oath ; " but he's a gentleman every inch of him ; and 
" when he can do a poor fellow a good turn with the 
"maories, why he will!" They respected him, too, 
for not interfering, unless applied to, in their dealings 
with the natives. 

\^^ith this voluntary and unanimous testimony from 
all quarters, who could help feeling rejoiced that one 
good missionary had already acquired so much influ- 
ence in the immediate neighbourhood of the settle- 
ments ? 

The whaling was at this time going on with great 
spirit ; and I sailed away from Kapiti one morning in 
the midst of an animated chase, the whale and the boats 
having crossed my bows more than once. 

I now remained at JVanganui for some time ; and 
sent the Sandfly backwards and forwards under the 
charge of a steady sailor whom I had engaged. 

My house was full of goods of various kinds belong- 
ing to the settlers, who had not yet got their houses 
ready to receive them ; and I soon found myself as it 
were forced into keeping what would be called a 
" store" in America, or a " shop" in England. In 
trading with the natives, I was obliged to procure all 
sorts of things from Wellington ; and I had numerous 
applications from peoj)le who wanted small quantities. 

Chap. I. WANGANXJI. 5 

and could not get them anywhere else. The same 
with tea, sugar, flour, and other articles of food, which 
I took advantage of the trips of the schooner to bring 
up in bags, casks, or cases ; so that I was very soon a 
shopkeeper in spite of myself. However, I had by this 
time learned to be anything that might be required ; 
and the " shop" was for some time as amusing an em- 
ployment as anything else. I have no doubt my books, 
kept in my own way, would have afforded much matter 
of laughter to any one brought up as a tradesman. I 
seldom received money payments. Pigs from one, 
labour from another, wine from a third ; stationery or 
wooden planks, spades, cart-wheels, or windows-frames 
from some other customer : such was the kind of barter 
which prevailed. I think that the only customer 
from whom I ever received cash for a long while was 
Mr. Mason, the missionary, who paid me in hard silver 
for two kegs of tobacco. 

For this shopkeeping or trading, indeed, I had no 
vocation ; and I entered into it with no views of gain. 
But as" the trading with the White settlers seemed to be 
an almost indispensable condition of maintaining the 
sort of feudal attachment, which I have already de- 
scribed, of a large body of natives, I did not disdain to 
be a shopkeeper for what seemed to me so useful an 
object. I found that few things had so civilizing an 
influence over the natives as this kind of commerce, 
founded on friendship and honour ; and I was content 
to go on losing a considerable sum of money, while I 
gained their respect and esteem — while I introduced 
many of the habits and customs of civilized life by 
showing a due respect for those customs of savage life 
which are respectable — and while I was enabled, as I 
imagined, to exercise an extensive and beneficial effect 
upon the intercourse between the two races. 


I had a large herd of swine running in the swamps 
and fern-ridges at the back of the settlement. For 
a long while I had turned out all those which I 
bought young or in bad condition from the natives, 
after branding them over the tail. They got very fat 
as they grew, the feed being excellent about here. 
The succulent root of the ravpoy or bulrush, is a very 
favourite food of the hog, and the fern was also of 
good quality. 

When I wanted to catch a number to send to Wel- 
lington, or to kill and salt down, a grand hunt took 
place. I had bought one or two good dogs, and bred 
them to the sport. They soon learn to beat the 
ground, and follow the scent of a pig ; and take great 
delight in the chase. If large and strong, and found 
in open ground, a hog will often give a run of some 
miles, and you follow the dogs on foot through high 
fern, reeds, wood, scrub, and swamp, till their barking 
and the snorting of " porker " give notice that he is at 
bay. The pig-dogs are of rather a mongrel breed, 
partaking largely of the bull-dog, but mixed with the 
cross of mastiff and greyhound, which forms the New 
South ^Vales kangaroo-dog. The great nurseries for 
good dogs have been the whaling stations, where they 
bred them for fighting. It soon became a fashion for 
travelling settlers like myself to have a pack of pig- 
dogs, known for their strength, skill, and courage, 
whether in fighting or hunting. At a rude settlement 
such as Wanganui, they served also to protect the 
house from the depredations of the wandering sawyers, 
and other loose Jidventurers, who were getting more 
daring in their undertakings, and from the annoyance 
of a few among the natives who began to pilfer, or to 
breed quarrels by rude and insulting Ijehaviour. On 
one occasion during my absence, the White savages 

Chap. I. /^ PIG-HUNTING DOGS. 7 

had laid a plan for the forcible entry and plunder of 
my house and several others ; but one of their own 
party betrayed them, and my agent and a few others 
took the due precautions, and then sallied out upon the 
gang before they were prepared, and gave them a good 
licking with their fists. Thus we were living under 
club-law ; and a good watch-dog or two were no despi- 
cable guardians of a house, and were very desirable 
companions out-of-doors at night. 

But to return to the hunt. The hog once at bay^ 
bold and unskilled dogs rush straight in for his nose, 
and are often severely wounded by his long tusks or 
his hoofs. An experienced dog, without allowing him 
to escape, watches his opportunity to seize the jowl or 
the root of the ear. A dog that persists in seizing the 
legs, or any other part, is generally shot by his owner, 
as the practice spoils the hams, and is considered con- 
trary to rule. When the dogs are fast, no struggle of 
the hog, no dragging of the dogs through bushes or 
swamp, succeeds in shaking them oflF; and the native 
lads run up and fasten thongs of the flax-leaf round the 
hind-legs. If the animal is very wild, they also bind 
the fore-legs and even the muzzle, as the weight of the 
dogs, and fatigue, prevent much resistance. The pig 
is rarely killed in the field, as it is considered more 
sportsmanlike to bring him in and show him off alive ; 
so that the hunting-knife or rifle, although sometimes 
carried in case of necessity, is rarely made use of. 

This was comparatively tame work to the wild and 
fatiguing chases, which I have at times enjoyed with 
E Kuru and a troop of the maori lads, in districts 
near the river where the hogs had been undisturbed 
for many years, and were claimed by any one who 
caught them. Especially in the district between the 
Wanganui and Wangaihu rivers, we used to spend 
whole days in this pursuit. E Kuru was a keen 


sportsman, and well skilled in pig-hunting. He took 
great pride in my excellent dogs ; and also in beating 
me, which he generally did from his superior activity 
and knowledge of the country. I have often Ijeen 
completely thrown behind, and lost my way among 
some of the wooded hollows into which we have 
descended from the open table-lands; and when I at 
length found my way to the river, and got home an 
hour or two after dark, dead-beat and faint with 
hunger, having been afoot since my breakfast at sun- 
rise, I would find E Kuru smoking his pipe after a 
comfortable meal, swelling with triumph at having 
returned some hours before, with two or three fine 
pork a. 

I found that the settlers had to complain more and 
more of the annoying conduct of a great num})er of 
the natives. The surveyors were more often stopped 
in their work by ])arties, chiefly from Putikiwaranuiy 
but almost invariably mihanere. This continued at 
still more frequent intervals after Messrs. Thomas and 
Carrington, who were delayed for some time at 
JVaikanae by a circumstance which I shall have to 
notice hereafter, had returned to complete the survey. 

The influences which cjiused this interference were 
not difficult to discover. Indeed, no great pains were 
taken to conceal their origin. 

Mr. Bell had arrived in sjifety with his cattle, after 
sonie difficulty in crossing the quicksands of the Tura- 
kina and IVun^aihu, Having an early choice, he had 
obtfiined from those before him an engagement not to 
choose the land on which he should set to work, and 
j)repared to plant himself on a sj)ot, which the sur- 
veyors told him was outside a public reserve, made 
with some view to a town, if allowed by the Company 
in England on certain conditions. This was in a 
valley, about two miles back from the pa where Mr. 


Mason resided. Mr. Bell was very soon warned oft' by 
one or two of the natives, who threatened to burn any 
house he should put up, and prevent his settling. Mr. 
Mason, on his application, had refused " to say a word 
*' which had to do with land to the natives." Bell 
afterwards removed to an equally good spot higher up 
the river on the same side ; partly on account of the 
trouble from the natives, and partly because a gentle- 
man who had joined the above-mentioned engagement 
not to interfere with his selection, had changed his 
mind as soon as Bell's location pointed out the best 
spot. In the new place. Bell finally established 
himself, not without plenty of obstruction from the 
natives ; but how he overcame this we shall see 

About the same time, Mr. Matthews circulated very 
industriously among the settlers, that the whole pur- 
chase of the place had been a farce from beginning to 
end ; that the natives who signed the deed and re- 
ceived the payment formed but a very insignificant and 
uninfluential proportion of the owners of the land ; 
that the payment made was not more than one hundred 
})ounds' worth of goods ; and that E Kuru, who was 
said to have managed the whole transaction, and to 
have secured the largest share of the goods, was hardly 
a chief, and had not the slightest right to dispose of 
the country near the sea. 

Thus, while the natives began to be divided into two 
great parties, those who supported and those who re- 
pudiated the bargain, the repudiators being almost 
without exception mihanere, the settlers began to take 
these long stories for granted, and to grumble and 
complain that they had been deceived. The " repu- 
diators" grew daily in numbers and obstinacy ; and 
openly confessed, when pressed to explain themselves 
fully, that Mr. Mason told them " that the settlers 


" would take all their lands and drive them inland, 
" and that their wives and children would die of stiirv- 
" ation and misery." So plausibly, however, did Mr. 
Matthews tell his story to the settlers, that they con- 
sulted and held meetings, and questioned and cross- 
examined me as to the process which I had adopted, till 
I at length lost patience, and told them at a meeting 
(at which Mr. Matthews had pointedly contradicted my 
assertions as to the negotiations at which I was present 
and he was not) that I was no longer Agent of the 
Company ; and that I had reported my proceedings at 
the end of my temporary agency in buying the place to 
the principal Agent in Wellington ; and I then left the 

JE Kuru took more direct notice of the insults 
thrown in his teeth. When some native reported that 
Mr. Matthews had called him a tutua, which may be 
fairly translated by the English " plebeian," he ran up 
to Mr. Matthews's house, and loudly reproved him be- 
fore a large crowd of natives. I was not present, ]}ut 
heard the scene described by sevenil bystanders. 

They described E Kuru as having arrived panting 
with indignation and anger, but carefully restraining 
his language. Across the fence of the garden he taxed 
the catechist with his evil tongue, in plain but not un- 
deserved terms. He accused him of carrying about lies, 
of defaming one who had done him no harm, and of 
kindling anger between the natives and their White 
friends ; and asked him whether that was the ritenga 
or " creed" of a missionary. Although knowing 
Mr. Matthews had been of very inferior station in life,* 
the savage did not even retort this upon the Christian 

* He knew this from Captain Chaffers, who had seen Mr. 
Matthews at Kapiti, and recognized him as having been sent to 
Terra del Fuego, in H. M. S. Beagle, as a sort of missionary. He 
said he acted as gun-room cook on the voyage. 


teacher who had so gratuitously attempted to lower him 
in the esteem of the White settlers. 

E Kuru had till now set the example to his people 
of following the worship of the missionaries ; but from 
this moment he resolutely and firmly abandoned the 
new doctrine. 

It was a matter of constant observation, now, among 
all classes of settlers, that the results of the missionary 
system of instruction were not by any means satisfactory, 
in a general point of view. At Wellington no less 
than at Tf^anganui, and at other places where there 
were no white settlers, this fact began to startle the 
impartial observer. 

The only good result that appeared to have been ob- 
tained, was the strict and rigid adherence to the mere 
forms of the Christian religion, and a knowledge of 
reading and writing in their own language. But it 
was hardly a matter of doubt that the conversion pene- 
trated no deeper than the mere forms ; and it was to 
be regretted that the instruction given generally was 
purely religious. The mihanere natives, as a body, 
were distinctly inferior in point of moral character to 
the natives who remained with their ancient customs 
unchanged, and also to those who, in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Wellington, had acquired some de- 
gree of civilization and general knowledge, together 
with the Christian creed. A very common answer 
from a converted native, accused of theft, was, "How can 
" that be ? I am a mihanere." And yet at some j)laces, 
such as Patea, where their religious enthusiasm was 
carried, in form, to the most extravagant pitch, they 
maintained the very worst character for honesty and 
courtesy to a stranger. My agent, who had been in 
one of the boats that was wrecked there, described to 
me both these traits in their present state. It nmst be 


remembered that no white man had dwelt there, and 
that they rarely saw one except on a trading or mis- 
sionary visit. The missionary system had therefore en- 
joyed a fair trial without the interference of civilization. 

They were all mihanere or converts ; many of them 
called themselves " the Aj)ostle Paul," " the A[)ostle 
" Timothy," or the " Apostle Luke ;" " Martin Lu- 
" ther," " Ezekiel," or " Solomon." They sang hymns 
night and day, almost incessantly ; discussed at length 
obscure points of doctrine, and even words introduced 
into the books, which were new to their language, with 
indecent virulence ; and carried this exaggeration of 
religion so far, as to be weaving a gigantic and s})lendid 
mat in the pa, which they told all inquirers was for 
Ihu Karaiti, and therefore not to be sold ! 

And yet the greatest circums})ection could not ])re- 
vent them from pilfering to an unlimited extent from 
the traders ; they were harassing and overbearing in 
their dealings, prone to cheat in bargaining by any dis- 
honourable trick, inhospitable in the highest degree, 
and claiming payment for the very slightest service or 
gift, such as even fetching a calabashful of water from 
the river. 

The Wanganui settlers had observed a great deal of 
the same spirit among the mihanere natives with whom 
they had dealings. But they all acknowledged, that 
neither the Taiipo natives, nor the followers o{ EKuru, 
nor those others who were under any good and power- 
ful chief, could be accused of these bad qualities. 

The only case of theft that occurred during the visit 
of the Taupo war party had been unknown to me, until 
the stolen things were restored to me. It appears that 
one of the Rotorua allies, against whose evil designs 
Heuheu had so vigorously guarded, had taken, through 
an open window of my house, a large pocket-comj)ass and 


a pair of nail-nippers, probably mistaking them for a 
tinder-box and a bullet-mould. The old chief, on dis- 
covering this when the party returned to their homes, 
paid the thief two blankets, a cloak, and a double- 
barrelled gun, to get the things back, and then sent 
them to E Kuru, who gave them to me. 

It is worthy of record, that the Taupo natives, on re- 
turning to their home, carried with them the bones of 
their late chief Tauteka in much state. Wherever 
these bones had rested, a carved post or other monu- 
ment was erected to commemorate the event. In the 
midst of the space which had been occupied by Heulieu 
and his party among the white settlers, on their pas- 
sage either way through the place, a small canoe, 
stuck upright and adorned with carving and painted 
designs, showed where Tauteka s remains had stopped 
on their way. This custom bears a curious resem- 
blance to that of our Edward, who erected crosses at 
Tottenham, Waltham, and other places, to mark the 
progress of his queen's corpse. 

The Putikiwaranui natives plundered a considerable 
quantity of the goods which they had persuaded some 
of the settlers to place under their charge during the 
visit, and then exacted very large utu for the care 
which they had taken of them. A body of mihanere 
natives, engaged by a Mr. Nixon to remove his goods 
back to his house in their canoes, took a sudden fancy 
to a cask of tobacco which was among them. Upon 
his refusing to bargain with them for a certain num- 
ber of pigs in exchange for it, they hustled him into 
the water at the landing-place ; and while he was 
thus disabled from resisting, the cask was put into 
another canoe and paddled quickly up the river. They 
paid him for it, at their own price, in pigs, long after- 
wards ; l)ut this was entirely a matter of option with 


The natives about Wellington were becoming a 
useful and industrious race. Almost every settler 
had two or three attached to his establishment, who 
acquired some knowledge of the English language 
and of the useful arts. Many were building houses 
after the European fashion, and adopting European 
clothing ; they were learning the use and value of 
money, and the forms of commerce to a certain extent ; 
and some of them had acquired great decency, and 
even polish of deportment, by their constant and fami- 
liar intercourse with the colonists of all classes. It 
may be ^vorthy of note, that Epuni was building a 
wooden cottage with boarded floor, a door, and glass 
windows, in the pa of Pitone ; that his son, E Pf^are, 
acted as pilot to an emigrant ship, having boarded 
her outside the heads, in a whale-boat manned by his 
own countrymen, all dressed like English sailors, and 
brought her in to the anchorage in front of the 
town ; that E Tako and Richard Davis took to Eu- 
ropean clothing entirely, and that both had deposits at 
the bank ; while Davis had bought a horse for eighty 
pounds, which he used to let out, with saddle and bri- 
dle, at ten shillings a day ; and that the captain of the 
ship London, when half his European crew had de- 
serted the ship, found no difficulty in engaging eight 
native hands for the voyage to India and England. 

In the perfectly wild tribes, the high sense of honour 
and dignity among the chiefs, and their absolute poli- 
tical authority, served to maintain a certain integrity 
and straightforward conduct towards the stranger ; and 
those who had talents to acquire authority, had also, 
with but few exceptions, the will to exercise it with 
justice and kindness towards the White man by whom 
it was merited. . . • 

In the partly civilized tribes, which were at the 
same time converted, the political authority of the 


chiefs was already much weakened ; but its place was 
supplied, to a certain degree, by the example of law 
and order, and by the stirring spirit of emulation ; that 
is, by the influence of the civilized community. 

In the merely converted tribes, the authority of the 
chiefs was suddenly and totally overthrown, without 
the substitution for it of any political organization, in 
order to save the tribe from anarchy. 

This view was confirmed by my subsequent observ- 
ations, as the consequences of the two systems became 
more and more developed. 

I had occasion to verify the account given me by my 
agent of the Patea natives, during a visit which I soon 
after made to that neighbourhood. It being a matter 
of urgency to me to overtake a party who had travelled 
on foot towards Taranaki, I borrowed Mr. Matthews's 
horse, and rode in a few hours to TV^aitotara. The 
horse was known and cared for at that place ; but I 
thought the people rather more distant in their be- 
haviour to me than they had been before. Luckily, 
I found that liberal payment would buy hospitality from 
these savages of degraded character ; and so I did not 
starve. I overtook the party of Englishmen here, and 
they also loudly complained of the mercenary and sor- 
did spirit of the inhabitants. Having a good store of 
tobacco, however, we procured an abundant supply of 
piarau, or " lamprey," which is taken in large numbers 
in this river and some others in this neighbourhood, 
when the waters are swollen. There was no lack of 
other food ; but that, as well as firewood, house-room, 
and even cold water, had to be paid for through the 
nose. This was in a new pa, built with very strong 
stockades and deep trenches, between the foot of 
Te Ihupuku hill and the river. The pretty grove of 
Karaka trees which I had formerly seen growing round 


the base of the hill had been mercilessly cut away, that 
no besiegers might lie in ambush beneath their pro- 

Another object of my journey was to establish a 
trading connexion on a more permanent footing with 
the natives of the TVenuakura river. Those who had 
received me so kindly on my former visit, had sent 
messengers to me at Pf^anganui, begging that I would 
send them a resident trading agent, and promising to 
build a house for me. 

Getting away early from the inhospitable village of 
the Ngarauru, I pushed along to the northward. To 
fivoid the tedious sand-hills on the top of the cliff, I 
struck out a path for myself a little further back, and 
passed along fine open pasture-land, watered by nume- 
rous small streams. 

As I had got a mile or two in advance of the pedes- 
trians, and rode fast along the last part of the beach, 
I was not seen by the inhabitants of the pa, until close 
to the river. They then ran down on to the bejich. 
By this time I had plunged into the river, which here 
flows over soft and shifting sands. The horse's body 
was nearly hidden ; and though many of my old friends 
here had recognized me, and shouted " Tiraweke ! — 
" Haeremai /" they evidently thought that a native was 
carrying me on his shoulders. There were now nearly 
a hundred natives collected, many of whom had never 
seen a horse before, crowding over each other to give 
me the first greeting. 

With two or three vigorous plunges the horse sud- 
denly emerged from the water, and bore me into the 
middle of them. Such a complete panic can hardly 
l)e imagined. They fled yelling in all directions with- 
out looking behind them ; and as fast as I galloped 
pjist those who were running across the sandy flat and 


up the steep path leading to the pa of Tihoe, they 
fairly lay down on their faces, and gave themselves up 
for lost. Half-way up the hill I dismounted, and they, 
plucked up courage to come and look at the Jcuri nui, 
or "large dog." The most amusing questions were 
put to me as to its habits and disposition. " Can he 
" talk ? " said one ; " Does he like boiled potatoes ? " 
said another ; and a third, " Mustn't he have a blanket 
" to lie down upon at night ? " This unbounded 
respect and admiration lasted all the time that I re- 
mained. The horse was taken into the central court- 
yard of the pa ; a dozen hands were always offering 
him Indian corn, and grass, and sow-thistles, when 
they had learned what he really did eat ; and a wooden 
bowl full of water was kept constantly replenished 
close to him. And little knots of curious observers 
sat round the circle of his tether-rope, remarking, and 
conjecturing, and disputing, about the meaning and 
intention of every whisk of his tail or shake of his 

I met at this village with great kindness from all 
my old friends. Several mats, which I had paid for 
while in the process of manufacture when here before, 
were delivered to me on this occasion. 

At Patea, whither I accompanied the travellers the 
next day, we again met with rude and inhospitable 
treatment ; and I returned from thence in two days to 

I had, during this long sojourn at JVanganui^ a 
good opportunity of forming an opinion of the country 
and climate. Pig-hunting, or accompanying the sur- 
veyors on exploring parties, I soon became acquainted 
with most of the district between the sea and the 
broken country which closes in upon the river about 
fifteen miles up. For that distance the river runs 

VOL. II. c 


through a broad valley, which, with its tributaries, 
seems dug out of the surrounding table-land. The 
ascent to the high ground is in most places steep, and 
groves of timber of various extent diversify the surface 
of the valleys. In these, for the most part, is a rich 
swampy soil, prevented from thorough drainage by a 
belt of pumice-stone and sand, varying in breadth, 
which forms the cliflfy banks of the river, and bears a 
growth of high fern. The table-land is for the most 
part open ; in some places teeming with rich pasture, 
and covered with soil fitted for agriculture ; in others 
light and sandy, but clothed with high fern. The 
tops of the forest in the hollows, and the summits of 
the wooded mountains higher than the table-land, 
bound the view towards the towering peaks of Tonga 
Riro. When once on the top of the table-land, you 
might imagine yourself to be on a low and exten- 
sive flat, the eye being carried over the top of the nu- 
merous hollows, formed by streams, to the next table. 
These hollows are in some places broken into the most 
romantic shapes. About five miles up the right bank, 
especially, is a circular indentation in the table-land, 
with a deep narrow valley leading to it from the flat 
near the river. Quaint hillocks and ridges, heaped 
against each other in the most fantastic forms, and 
feathering groves of timber, are scattered about the 
bottom and sides of this natural amphitheatre, of about 
two miles in diameter, which we christened "The 
" Devil's Punch-bowl." The surface of the table-land 
is generally so flat, that swamps are formed on its very 
highest terraces, and large natural ponds are found in 
many elevated spots. 

The climate, although in the middle of winter, was 
delightful. Dr. Peter Wilson, one of the settlers, who 
had long resided at Xerez and Seville, did not hesitate 

Chap, I. CLIMATE. 19 

to compare it with the south of Spain. He only 
qualified this opinion by asserting that so full-bodied 
a wine could not be grown here ; but that he would 
answer for one like the light wines of Germany or 
eastern France. This part of the island, well out of 
the funnel formed by Cook's Strait, is free from the 
rushing currents of wind which almost always blow in 
the neighbourhood of Wellington, one way or the 
other. There, too, the broken nature of the country, 
rising into lofty and irregular pinnacles close to the 
sea, in the projecting tongue of land which contains 
Port Nicholson and Palliser Bay, causes the prevailing 
westerly wind to puff in squally and uncertain gusts. 
All along the uniform country between Otaki and 
Taranaki, a land-breeze prevails during the night and 
early in the morning, and is generally followed by a 
sea-breeze which tempers the heat of the day ; but both 
are moderate and steady in their action. Whole days 
of cloudless calm and light breezes prevail in summer 
as well as winter ; and violent gales are of rare occur- 
rence. The difference in temperature is but little be- 
tween winter and summer : there is perhaps more rain 
in the winter months. But in all the country near 
Cook's Strait, the climate may be called showery rather 
than rainy. Rain is often heavy for a time ; but 
rarely obtains dominion over the weather for more than 
two or three days. And everything dries quickly in 
the fine-weather intervals ; so that though it is rare 
to be a fortnight without rain all through the year, 
there is no complaint of excess of wet, and you never 
hear the question asked which so often meets you in 
England, " When shall we have some fine weather ?" 
The lawless state of the place became daily more 
annoying. I had to lash my cook, who had travelled 
hither with the Taupo party, and who delighted in 

c 2 


the sobriquet of " Coffee," to the big post in the middle 
of the house, with my dog-chains, for theft ; intending 
to send him to Wellington in a schooner, which was 
to sail the next morning. But he proved to me that 
I did not understand thief-taking, or at any rate thief- 
keeping; for he slipped his irons in the night, and 
started to the northward. I Jifterwards heard that he 
was a deserter from the detachment of troops at Auck- 
land, and an accomplice of " Mickey Knight" and his 
friend, in their robberies in that part of the country. 

I had another rather serious instance of the disad- 
vantages of being without law. Three or four loose 
characters, who had arrived from England in the Lon- 
don, kept the licensed grog-shop which was near my 
house, and encouraged all kinds of ruffians, as a kind of 
feudal retinue, by liberal distributions of spirits. It was 
frequently hinted to me that they salted down a great 
many more pigs than they ever bought from the 
natives, or turned out with their brand. My dog had 
got so fond of the sport, that he would follow any one 
who held up a rope to him as a sign that they were 
going to catch a pig ; and many of the large hogs were 
not to be caught by inferior dogs. I detected my 
neighbours of the grog-shop hunting and killing my 
pigs as coolly as if they had been their own ; and one 
morning one of the members of the worthy firm came 
and enticed my dog for the purpose of doing it with 
more gusto. As soon as I found this out, I went down 
to the grog-shop, where the hunting-party were con- 
soling themselves with copious draughts of gin for their 
sorrow at having been deprived of two large pigs bearing 
my brand by my agent, who had caught them in the 
fact. I entered into the joke, and cheerfully Ijegged 
that the innocent amusement of robbing me might now 
cease, as the pleasant excitement of doing it without my 

Chap. I. " DEN OF THIEViES. """ if 

knowledge could no longer be said to exist. One of the 
firnij a poor half-starved and very vulgar son of a 
tanner, who had in some way obtained the aristocra- 
tic name of Burleigh, grandiloquently offered me 
satisfaction with " swords, pistols, or any other 
" weapon," for what he had done. AVhen I quietly 
declined this kind offer of satisfaction for stealing 
my property, and told the hero that he might think 
himself lucky if I did not put him into gaol for 
felony, he laughed, and said, " There was no law in New 
" Zealand ; there was no fear of his getting put into 
" gaol !" I then gave him fair warning that I would try 
my best ; but by the time I got to Port Nicholson, he 
had decamped on board an American whaler lying at 
Kapiti, along with the runaway carpenter, who had also 
assisted in the felonious amusement. Thus I had no 
means of securing a ruffian, who had made use of the 
Government licence for selling grog, to encourage others 
to assist him in robbing me, and to form head-quarters 
for a den of thieves. 

Yet, during all this time, I would have engaged to 
provide a very efficient constabulary, extending for 
twenty miles on the three main tracks by which bad 
characters could arrive or escape, by means of the au- 
thority of E Kuru, and some other native chiefs, on 
whom dependence might be placed, and with no expense 
except when called into action. 

About the beginning of August, I received intelli- 
gence that the Sandfly had struck on a rock in making 
the anchorage at Kapiti on a dark night, and had sunk 
with all her cargo. As there was some chance of 
getting her up again, I proceeded by land to Waikanae, 
with two native lads to carry my blankets and provisions. 

After finding all efforts to raise the vessel vain, I 
proceeded to Wellington. 



Appointment of Officers in England — Progress — Shops — Rope- 
makers — Outrages by Rangihaeata — Tapu on the Beach — Com- 
plaint to Police Magistrate — His Answer — Neglect of the Cook's 
Strait Settlers by Governor Hobson — No Tribunals — Effect on 
Natives — News from Auckland only through Sydney — Absurd 
Nomenclature — Kindness to Natives — Of Government — Of the 
Colonists — Epuni, a gjentleman — Answer of the Governor to the 
Magistrates' Address — The Clendon job — Appointments — Fi- 
nance — East Coast of Middle Island — Port Cooper — Public 
Meeting — Native found dead — Warepori excites the Natives — 
Alarm — Helplessness — Volunteers — Special Constables — Im- 
pressions of Natives — Disgrace of Mr. Davy — Judge and Attor- 
ney-General — Distant Legislation — Secret calumnies — Defence 
of his choice by Captain Hobson — Hl-treatment of Company's 
Settlers. , 

During the month of June, two or three vessels had 
arrived from England bearing immigrants and pas- 
sengers. Their news consisted of the appointment in 
England of a Judge, Attorney-General, and Land 
Commissioner for New Zealand. The latter officer 
was said to be appointed for the special purpose of in- 
vestigating and reporting upon the claims to land in 
Cpok's Strait, not held under the Crown. A third co- 
lony, to have a town, harbour, and district of its own, 
was ttilked of as in active preparation by the Comj)any, 
as one of the measures of vigorous colonization conse- 
quent on their acquisition of the Royal Charter, and 
their agreement with the Government, which re<|uired 
them to double their capital, and guaranteed to them 
an undoubted title to upwards of a million of acres of 


Progress had been made in the signs of civilization in 
Wellington itself. A large and well-furnished chemist's 
shop, with the due allowance of red bottles and blue 
bottles, and glass jars full of tooth-brushes and sponges, 
and gay labels of quack pills and ointments, showed a 
broad front to the beach near Barrett's hotel. As this 
shop, which gloried in the sonorous title of " Medical 
Hall," was close to the usual place of disembarkation 
for passengers, it became a much-frequented morning 
lounge ; especially as Dr. Dorset and another of our 
oldest medical friends were partners in the establish- 
ment. Many other equally gay shops began to orna- 
ment the bustling beach. Two clever rope-makers had 
begun the pursuit of their trade on a large scale, using 
the phormium tenax as prepared by the natives ; and 
they received ample support from all classes, there being 
a considerable demand for small rope for the running 
rigging of ships, fishing-nets, and whale-lines for the 
stations in the Strait. 

The trading and cattle vessels from Sydney and the 
other colonies brought news of a more brotherly spirit 
shown towards us by the inhabitants of those countries. 
The newspapers no longer teemed with unmitigated 
abuse of the place and the people ; and a few staunch 
advocates contradicted the less frequent calumnies, and 
took up the cudgels which our newspaper had got tired 
of using against such mean adversaries. 

Rangihaeata and his followers had destroyed some 
of the bridges on the Porirua bridle-road, and in some 
places trees were purposely felled across the narrow 
path with a view to prevent the easy passage of travel- 
lers. No notice of these acts of aggression was taken 
by the Police Magistrate. 

A trading-boat from Cloudy Bay to Tf^anganui had 
been wrecked near Rangitikei ; and the crew had been 


drowned, including a Ngatiraukawa chief, named 
Koraria, who was a passenger. In consequence of some 
outrages committed on the body by the Ngatiapa na- 
tives, a party of the Ngatiraukawa had made an excur- 
sion across that river, had killed 100 pigs, and taken the 
wife of Hakeke, the Ngatiapa chief, as a slave. But 
they had moreover tapued the beach between Otaki and 
Rangitikei, thus preventing the passage of native or 
white man in either direction for a considerable space 
of time. It was this which had delayed the surveyors 
in their journey to IVanganui. Many other parties, 
bound thither or to Taranaki, had been grievously 
detained, to their serious inconvenience in many ways, 
by this stringent application of one of the old maori 
customs. Koraria had been a brother of PPatanui, 
and the observance of the tapu was therefore most 
rigidly enforced. 

On the 1st of July, the aggrieved travellers had 
made a formal application to the Police Magistrate at 
Wellington for his oflGicial interference ; thinking 
that, after the proclamation of the sovereignty of the 
Queen of England over New Zealand, the officers of 
the Queen would feel themselves bound to forbid the 
obstruction of the natural highway by any class of 
Her Majesty's subjects. 

But Mr. Murphy had met the question in a very 
easy and diplomatic style. His official answer " deeply 
'.' regretted the inconvenience to which the applicants 
" were subjected ; but he had no power to interfere 
" with what was an immemorial and recognized usage 
" among the natives." 

He hinted at the probability that " this and similar 
" customs might become the subject of acts by the 
Legislative Council of the Colony;" until then, he 
could " discover no grounds which would justify his 


" interference." He added, that he understood the tapu 
had been laid on the beach " simply in consequence of 
" the death of a chief, and not from any desire to 
" injure the English settlers in the country." "To 
" attempt violently to break through it, therefore," 
he concluded, " would probably excite feelings of 
" hostility to the settlers, which would involve greater 
" eventual inconvenience than any that can be expe- 
" rienced from a temporary interruption of communi- 
" cation, and might therefore be inexpedient, even if 
** it were strictly legal." And so they had to wait 
until the natives took off the tapu of their own accord, 
or accepted heavy payment for a permission to pass. 
The beach had only just been made free, when I came 
from TVanganui. 

In the town itself, the want of authority vested in 
the sole legal officer was producing great mischief. 
Numerous persons were squatting on the lands re- 
served for public purposes, and destroying the orna- 
mental timber upon them. They were not ejected, 
as the Police Magistrate probably thought that such a 
course " might be inexpedient, even if strictly legal." 

Now that people were locating on the most avail- 
able lands, both in the town and in the neighbouring 
country districts, much complaint was made against 
the evil of non-resident proprietors. Many of these 
had given but very limited powers to their agents, 
restricting them in most cases to the granting 
leases of seven years' duration. And the industrious 
colonist passed with reluctance and heart-burning to 
some less available situation, while some of the best 
sections lay idle and unoccupied under such ridiculous 
conditions, to be increased in value merely by the 
exertions of those who built or cultivated on the sur- 
rounding land. 


The indignation at Captain Hobson's neglect of the 
settlement was fast increasing in violence among the 
settlers. Daily examples of its evil effects were pre- 
sented to each member of the community. People of 
all classes began to sum up the various grievances of 
which they had to complain, and to inquire what 
proofs had l)een manifested of the ** kindness and con- 
" sideration," which Lord John Russell had recom- 
mended to be shown towards the colonists of Cook's 
Strait, in his instructions to Sir George Gipps on the 
first appointment of Lieutenant-Governor Hobson ? ' ' 

To pass over the treatment of the loyal colonists as 
rebels in their first connexion with the Government, 
the first feature of kindness was the crimping of the 
labourers in the Chelydra, and the withdrawal of the 

As though in jealousy of the fine harbour and its 
increasing commerce, the harbour-master had been 
dismissed, and no other appointed in his place. No 
provision of any kind had been made for its pilotage or 
lighting ; the only pilots being volunteers, recommended 
by the Company's Agent, and unable to claim, legally, 
any remuneration for their services. 

Notwithstanding Lord John Russell's very specific 
instructions for the establishment of tribunals of all 
kinds, the whole provision for justice had been, for 
eighteen months from the arrival of the Lieutenant- 
Governor, a single police court, with undefined autho- 
rity and scanty jurisdiction. Thus, in the wretched hut 
which served for a jail, — where prisoners were heavily 
ironed, in order to prevent them from walking through 
the straw walls, — two men, committed for trial, and 
who, until fully convicted, were to be considered as 
innocent, had ])een incarcerated upwards of eleven 
months. And in a community in which much pro- 


perty was daily changing hands, and very numerous com- 
mercial transactions took place, debts remained unpaid, 
and contracts unfulfilled ; wills were unproved and 
unexecuted ; and trespassing, in its various forms, oc- 
curred daily and with impunity. 

The natives had begun to ridicule the idea that 
" Wide-awake's" white men were cared for by the Go- 
vernor or the Queen. The soldiers, while here, had only 
been used once, and then without effecting the object for 
which they had been called ; and in too many instances, 
both before and after their removal, the natives had 
been allowed to see that the person in authority steadily 
refused to interfere when a settler was aggrieved by their 
increasing insolence and extortion. Instances were 
gradually multiplying to prove that this spirit of non- 
interference excited in the minds of the natives a reck- 
less and presuming disposition ; and that such con- 
nivance at their caprices and cupidity could not fail to 
excite the very spirit of hostility to the settlers, which 
the Police Magistrate professed to dread as the conse- 
quence of a firm repression of these bad dispositions. 

Very children in their ideas, the natives could not 
appreciate the merciful forbearance and peaceable re- 
spect for the law which prevented the settlers from re- 
taliating or acting for themselves ; and it appeared to 
them that the 'pakeha were a timid and submissive 
race, relying entirely for defence and protection on dis- 
tant chiefs, who neglected their tribe in the most 
marked manner. And already many of the colonists 
who felt the warmest interest in the welfare of the na- 
tives, began to dread lest this state of things might last 
too long, and lest the mercy and generosity of the su- 
perior race might at some period become exhausted by 
continued and increased irritation, till the strong and 
civilized European should turn in anger on the simple 
savage, confessing his inferiority too late. 


-. Towards the end of July we had a batch of news 
from " Hobson's Choice," as Auckland was very gene- 
rally called. This came by a cattle-ship from Sydney, 
as our dates from that place were two months later 
than those from our own metropolis. -'' 

From Adelaide, Port Philip, and Hobart Town we 
had also two months' later news than from the seat of 
Government, which Captain Hobson had chosen on ac- 
count of " its centrical position." 

The three islands had been proclaimed, in accord- 
ance with instructions from the Colonial Office, as 
New Ulster, New Munster, and New Leinster. Ex- 
cept in official papers, these names have never been 
used, from their great similarity and inconvenience. 
I doubt whether, even at this day, the great majority 
of European inhabitants know which is which without 
looking at a map. 

The proclamation had been accompanied by another, 
recommending the Europeans to be " kind to the na- 
" tives." 

This advice came with peculiar grace and naivete from 
the Auckland Government, which had not yet pretended 
to produce a farthing of revenue from the valuable re- 
serves of the natives at Wellington. It had not made 
the slightest provision for their education or comfort. 
It had not cared whether they were hungry or fed, 
naked or clothed, clean or dirty. It had taken no 
pains to make them acquainted with the laws under 
which they were now living. It had neglected every 
one of the statesmanlike processes necessary to assimi- 
late this numerous population to the more advanced 
race with which they were daily coming into closer 
contact, by gentle and imperceptible degrees. It had 
not yet made an attempt, in any way, to secure for them 
the improvement of circumstances, both bodily and 
mental, which they had a right to expect on becoming 


subjects of the British Empire. Truly, the catalogue 
of native grievances against the powers that be, ap- 
peared already in as fearful array as those of the white 
settlers. They were still living in filthy villages, 
subject to disease from the accumulation of dirt, and 
their residence in ill-ventilated and closely crowded 
dunghills ; still left at the mercy of wars, cannibalism, 
infanticide, and frequent scarcity of food from unskilful 
cultivation ; still clothed badly and inadequately ; still 
ignorant of all that it was absolutely necessary at this 
time for them to know. The neglected settlers at Port 
Nicholson had already done far more than the Govern- 
ment towards the moral and physical improvement of 
the equally neglected natives. 

A paragraph from a Port Philip paper described the 
son of a chieftain as having attended the Auckland 
Governor's installation levee, and bowed, and offered 
his hand, and said " How d ye do, Mr. Governor ? " in 
Maori. " The Governor," it continued, " was much 
'* amused ; and remarked that it was an excellent finale 
" to the first levee in New Zealand." The Governor 
of New Zealand had been long enough in the country 
to have secured the respect and friendship of the native 
chiefs, and a dozen or two ought to have been at his 
right hand, proud of showing their gratitude for some 
substantial attention to the permanent interests of their 

There was at this time scarcely a settler in Port 
Nicholson of any class who had not a whole family of 
natives forming a part of his own. JEpuni would 
frequently walk the six miles from Pitone, in order to 
call on Colonel Wakefield, and his other friends in the 
town. And this not on a begging visit, for he had 
now too much property of all kinds to beg of anybody, 
but because he began to enjoy the pleasure of civilized 


intercourse, and took pride in the friendship and ex- 
ample of his rangatira pakeha. Thus he would stay 
with my uncle for an hour, chatting about the im- 
provements which he was carrying on at Pitone, in 
imitation of those in the town, watching with ad- 
miration the progress of the garden, or the preparation 
of the lawn for seed, talking over the news from 
Auckland, learning something of our laws and insti- 
tutions which was not beyond his understanding, and 
becoming more fit, at each visit, for being raised to the 
social station of his friends. He seemed to take especial 
pleasure in having the opportunitity to teach his sons 
and younger relations a lesson in good behaviour by 
these visits to well-behaved people. Epuni himself 
was a gentleman in every sense of the word, and would 
have been recognized as such in any society. I never 
saw him do an action, make use of a gesture,] or 
betray a feeling, inconsistent with the most refined 
good manners. It needed no recommendation from 
Auckland to make one kind to him and his. There 
was an influence in his very look and speech, which 
must have disarmed the most ungenerous despiser of 
savages. i*^ iirrs 1" T'i'<j.i'>t 

On the 25th of July a small trading schooner brought 
the Governor's answer to the address of the Magistrates, 
and other news, direct from Auckland. This was the 
first arrival from that place since the 3rd of May. I^'ci-jfr 

The answer inferred that the " circumstances, tending 
" to disturb amicable relations between him and the 
" settlers of Port Nicholson," were attributable to them. 
His Excellency held it inexpedient to discuss here the 
suggestions which the Magistrates had thought fit to 
offer on the government of the colony ; but he assured 
them that their interests should be cared for according 
to the instructions which he had received from the 


Colonial Minister, and that any present or future sug- 
gestions for the benefit of the " Southern district" should 
" receive due consideration." 

He concluded by an intricate statement, that " he 
" had reason to hope, when the arrangements of 
" Government were fully complete, that many of the 
" inconveniences of which they complained would be 
" found susceptible of easy adjustment, and that he 
" would not allow himself to believe that he should be 
" denied the satisfaction of soon meeting the settlers at 
" Port Nicholson on terms of mutual confidence and 
" support." This was certainly carrying the language 
of diplomacy, if not to the terseness, at least to the 
ambiguity of a Delphic oracle. 

The first number of a newspaper published at Auck- 
land, and also the first number of the New Zealand 
Government Gazette, published there by authority, were 
received by this opportunity. The independent paper, 
called the Auckland Herald, made a very respectable 
appearance, and promised to take a good stand among 
the press of the South Seas. 

The principal Government doings had been a fresh 
arrangement of the Clendon job, by which the vendor 
of " Hobson's Folly" was to receive a part of his pay- 
ment in 10,000 acres of land, to be chosen according 
to his own taste, in the immediate vicinity of the town 
of Auckland. A considerable balance was also to be 
paid him in cash. 

The following officers had been gazetted : — Edward, 
a brother of Lieutenant Shortland, as Private Secretary ; 
Colonel Godfrey and Captain Richmond, as Commis- 
sioners of Land Claims ; a Mr. Coates, as Sheriff; 
David Rough, who married the Governor's governess, 
as Harbour - master of Auckland ; and Robert A. 
Fitzgerald, as Registrar of the Supreme Court and 


Manager of Intestate Estates. Lieutenant Shortland 
soon afterwards married Mr. Fitzgerald's daughter. 

Three coroners and health officers were appointed 
for the Bay of Islands, Auckland, and Port Nicholson 
respectively; that for Wellington being Dr. Fitz- 
gerald, who had been appointed Health Officer some 
time before. 

A long list of land claims at the north were adver- 
tised in the Gazette, in the order in which they were 
to be investigated. And a proposed Government sale 
of suburban and country allotments, near Auckland, 
was postponed till September. 

A subscription of nearly 500/. had been raised in 
Auckland for the building of a church. Mr. Churton, 
appointed Colonial Chaplain, had handed in to this 
list a small sum from " former parishioners at Threap- 
" wood," which there was every reason to believe he 
must have received while under an engagement with 
the Church Society to afford his spiritual aid to the 
settlers of Port Nicholson. 

A finance minute, issued at Auckland, set forth a 
receipt of somewhere about 50,000/., and an expendi- 
ture exceeding that sum by several hundreds. But the 
actual receipts had been 41,000/. advanced from New 
South Wales, and 21,000/., the produce of the land- 
sale. Out of this profuse expenditure, which seemed 
scarcely to be explained, it was at least certain that not 
more than 1000/. had been expended for the benefit of 
the community at Wellington. The Governors ex- 
periments in founding cities had been very costly, if not 
strikingly successful. 

Captain Daniell and Mr. Greorge Duppa returned 
just at this time from an expedition in the Bailey, 
having been requested by Colonel Wakefield to observe 
and report upon the country and harbours in and near 


Banks's Peninsula, with a view to the selection of a 
site for the expected colony of " Nelson." They had 
coasted from Kaikora, or the Lookers-on, to the north 
side of the peninsula, and Mr. Duppa had ascended 
the banks of one of the rivers which flow into Pegasus 
Bay, for eight miles from its mouth. They described 
the isthmus, which connects the peninsula with the 
main, to be not a sandy neck, as hitherto represented in 
the charts, but a broad extension of the level, low, and 
fertile country which reaches from the broken ground 
of the peninsula to the foot of the snowy range of 
Southern Alps, and extends far to the north and 
south, watered by several small rivers. They united in 
describing this tract of country as affording rich pas- 
turage and excellent soil, and sprinkled with numerous 
groves of pine timber. They also spoke in the highest 
terms of the harbour of Port Cooper, and Port Levi, 
now called Port Ashley. 

As the last paragraph in the Governor s letter to 
the Magistrates seemed to imply that he was really 
" coming," a meeting was held on the 30th of July, to 
consider the manner in which he was to be received, 

Mr. George Butler Earp presided ; and 250 people 
of all classes were present. 

A motion was made, which met with the support of 
Mr. Hanson, for the preparation of a merely formal 
address to the Governor, expressive of the satisfaction 
of the settlers at the visit of the Queen's representative 
to this port, and of their unfeigned loyalty to the British 
Government. The very proposers, however, of this mea- 
sure, declared that they had signed the petition for the 
recall of the Governor, and that they were still of the 
same mind. These were Mr. John Wade, an auc- 
tioneer, and Mr. Rowland Davis, a carpenter ; the two 
great leaders of the "popular" party in the Wellington 



discussions. Dr. Evans, in a masterly speech, pro- 
posed an amendment to the effect that, while the Go- 
vernor's intentions towards the settlement remained 
uncertain, any public expression of opinion on the occa- 
sion of his expected visit would be premature and 
inexpedient. This amendment was seconded by Mr. 
Molesworth, and, after some animated discussion, car- 
ried by a very large majority. 

Early in August, a large vessel arrived from England, 
with immigrants and a principal agent. Captain King, 
R. N., for New Plymouth, and proceeded to that 

On the 5th, an affair of a very serious nature had 
taken place at Wellington. The dead body of a native 
had been discovered on the flat behind Te Aro pa, by 
two Europeans. Two doctors expressed their opinion 
that he had died of apoplexy. The body was removed, 
by the natives of the tribe to which he belonged, to their 
pa at Kai TVara TVara. Mr. Murphy obtained their 
permission to have the body opened, in order that the 
medical men might give their opinion at a coroner's 
inquest. Just as this was about to be done, TVarepori 
came up to the spot, furious and bent on mischief. He 
forbade the proposed proceeding, and endeavoured to 
persuade his countrymen that the man had been mur- 
dered by the white people. His fiery eloquence had 
its wonted effect in stirring the wild passions of his 
audience. A sudden excitement and thirst for revenge 
was soon produced ; and threats of " blood for l)lood," 
and ulu for their countryman's death, were loudly 
made. Mr. Murphy was described as having retired 
pale and panic-struck from the scene ; and he found 
it necessary to send round to a large number of the 
colonists to hold themselves in readiness to preserve the 
public peace, should any violence be attempted. His 


call was responded to by an immediate muster of a large 
body of the settlers. Their promptness and determined 
appearance had a sedatory effect on the natives, and a 
slight degree of quiet was restored towards night. 

A meeting had been called for this very evening, on 
some question connected with the proposed Corporation 
Bill. Previously to proceeding on its intended business, 
the meeting was addressed by Colonel Wakefield, Dr. 
Evans, Mr. Wicksteed, Mr. Murphy, and several other 
persons, on the subject of immediate importance. Cap- 
tain Hobson was severely censured for having so long 
left the settlement in a defenceless position, and the 
following resolutions were unanimously agreed to : — 

" First, — That the executive authority, vested in the 
" Police Magistrate resident in Port Nicholson, is in- 
" adequate to the wants of the settlement." 

" Second, — That the mischief arising and likely to 
" ensue from this want of sufficient executive power is 
" solely attributable to the neglect of the Government, 
" placed several hundred miles distant from Port Ni- 
" cholson, the principal settlement in these islands." 

" Third, — That unless the Queen's representative 
" speedily adopts measures to remedy this evil, it will 
" become necessary for Her Majesty's faithful subjects 
" to organize the means of protection against disturbers 
" of the public peace and the opponents of British law 
" and authority, which is presumed to be established 
" in New Zealand." 

The meeting then proceeded with its original busi- 

The natives still continued to assert that the man 
had been murdered by the white people. They sup- 
ported their assertion by an ingenious piece of ex parte 
evidence. The native had been driving a pig with a 
flax rope ; and it was found, they said, tied up near 

D 2 


the corpse, by means of a knot, which they recognized 
as oi pakeha tying, and never used by the Mauri peo- 
ple. This, even if true, was of course very insufficient 
proof; as a native might have done the deed, and then 
tied the pakeha knot in order to throw the suspicion 
on the wrong shoulders. 

The continuation of this belief among the natives, 
and the flocking of large numbers into the pas in and 
near the town, whether to weep over their relative or 
to discuss the matter, induced a serious apprehension 
that an attack was meditated by them. To inspire 
confidence, Mr. Murphy invited a large number of 
settlers to attend at the court-house on the following 
day, Friday the 6th, and swore them in as special con- 
stables for a fortnight. During Saturday and Sunday 
great excitement prevailed ; armed watches were kept ; 
and some foolish and timid people raised false alarms 
by spreading exaggerated reports and firing guns during 
the night. The natives continued to talk and bluster 
in the different pas in their usual noisy way ; and an 
instance was shown of their imaginative powers by the 
minute representation of the whole proceeding as suj)- 
posed to have taken place, performed by a chief in one 
of the villages before a large audience of both races. 

On Monday morning there was a large assemblage 
at the court-house ; and one of the special constables 
proved the use of calling out undisciplined men and 
arming them on an emergency, by shooting a man in the 
next rank accidentally through the leg. Mr. Murphy 
published a " Government Notice " this morning de- 
claring that there was no danger ; but appointing 
commanders of the volunteers, places of rendezvous, 
special constables, and signals of alarm. 

Two days afterwards the natives met, and jjerformed 
their funeral ceremonies over the corpse ; after which 


everything remained quiet, and the excitement gradually- 

But the law of England had not been carried out. 
The body had not been opened, and the coroner's jury 
had not sat ; though this might have cleared up the 
doubts. The natives had been too long allowed to in- 
dulge their " immemorial and established usages," and 
in consequence a " spirit of hostility" to the white 
man was probably treasured up, which might not have 
arisen at all had the natives been made long before to 
understand, respect, and obey the institution of care- 
fully inquiring into the causes of every suspicious 

W^ith every wish that their simple friends should 
understand all these usages of civilization, what could 
the settlers do, when they had themselves to complain 
that too many of them were neglected in their own 
case ? How could they preach of the benefit of laws 
which hardly existed, while the natives had before 
them the daily proof that the only man to whose 
authority the settlers bowed supported a different 
opinion, and wished to preserve their barbarous customs 
and untaught prejudices intact ? The poor natives 
were most to be pitied. Hearing one thing from the 
colonists, who still wished to impress them with the 
advantages of civilized law, and then the contrary from 
the Police Magistrate, and his subordinates, who as- 
sured them that they should be allowed to follow their 
own wishes, is it to be wondered that they began to 
be influenced more by the words of him who had evi- 
dent power to loose and tie, who could put irons round 
people's feet and hands, who had constables and boats 
at his orders, who said to the highest among the set- 
tlers " Do ! " and it was done ? 

Mr. Davy, who had been sent by the Bishop of 


Australia to supply the place of Mr. Churton, was only 
a candidate for orders, and therefore unauthorized to 
perform the ceremony of marriage. Mr. Hadfield had, 
during this period, kindly travelled from JVaikanae 
more than once, to marry couples and to perform ser- 
vice on the Sabbath-day. During his short sojourns in 
Wellington, he had acquired the respect of the colonists 
as much by the polish and affability of his manners, 
as on account of the universal knowledge of the worthy 
way in which his missionary duties were performed. 

About this time we were deprived even of the inade- 
quate services of Mr. Davy, who had been guilty of 
two unpardonable offences. He had married several 
couples, although without power so to do. He had 
refused to give an account of nearly 50/., paid to him 
as one of the collectors of a charitable subscription for 
a public hospital. But the fact that he had been 
giving a series of champagne lunches and riotous 
bachelor's feasts sufl&ciently accounted for the defalca- 
tion ; and he was ignominiously expelled from the club, 
of which he had been admitted a member, and scouted 
by every person of respectability. As no one would 
attend to hear him read public prayers. Colonel Wake- 
field, Mr. St. Hill, and some other gentlemen, ar- 
ranged to take it by turns to perform this duty. 

On the 14th of August, the Tyne had arrived in the 
port, bearing the Judge, Mr. Martin, and the Attorney- 
General, Mr. Swainson. I had the honour of being 
introduced to them at my uncle's house, when I ar- 
rived from Kapiti two days afterwards. A very high 
opinion was formed of the talents and capability for 
public action of these two officers ; and great hopes 
were entertained that their addition to the official staff 
of the colony would cause a change for the better in 
our treatment by the local Government. It was gene- 


rally supposed that they came from England imbued 
with that spirit of kindness and impartiality towards 
the Cook's Strait settlers which had distinguished 
Lord John Russell in his manly concessions to the 
Company at home. 

It was felt that nothing could be worse, in a political 
view, than the present state of things. It was now three 
months since a word of official correspondence from the 
seat of government at Auckland had reached either 
Colonel Wakefield or Mr. Murphy. It was known, 
through the Sydney papers, and by casual information, 
that a Council composed of a majority of Government 
officials, was legislating at Auckland for the whole colony : 
but the great numerical majority of the inhabitants had 
no opportunity of expressing their feelings or wants to 
this body, while the Governor and his obedient Parlia- 
ment could hardly be supposed to know anything of the 
desires or necessities of those for whom they were making 
laws. Besides this, it was known that profuse expen- 
diture, from which this part of the colony derived no 
benefit, was paving the way for a taxation of which it 
would have to bear its share. It was certain that 
jobbing, in its worst shapes, for the good of the official 
inhabitants, had been allowed to usurp the place of the 
necessary measures of real advantage to the country 
generally, in the decrees which had as yet issued from 
the proclamation metropolis. 

For nearly nineteen months the Governor had been 
promising, but omitting, to make that important visit to 
the principal part of the population which should surely 
have preceded his final choice of a site. And when the 
complaints of those whom he had thus neglected, and 
tantalized, and harassed, and oppressed, reached his ears, 
he had written letters condescendingly to *say, that he 
should soon bear down the " olive branch," and pacify 
the discontented insurgents. 


It began to be thought that he was expecting to be 
recalled for the absurdities and follies already committed 
during his maladministration, and that he had there- 
fore postponed his visit indefinitely. 

The settlers did not know then, that in May 1840, his 
Excellency had been writing despatches to the Govern- 
ment in England, calling the loyal settlers " dema- 
gogues" and men " guilty of high treason ;" that in 
October and November 1840, he had been depreciating 
the location and capabilities of Port Nicholson, only on 
the unfounded evidence of Lieutenant Shortland, in 
order to excuse his selection of a desert site, before he 
had compared it with that already colonized. They were 
not aware that Captain Hobson flattered himself for 
more than a year, that he should be able to stop all the 
complaints of those distressed, all the bitter feelings of 
those injured, all the resentment of those neglected, all 
the indignation of those defamed, by coming to " meet 
** these people, clothed with that power and dignity 
" which became his station," as he wrote to Lord John 
Russell. No rumour had yet reached Wellington of the 
long chain of concocted evidence by which his Excel- 
lency had secretly supported his hasty decision before 
the tribunal of the Colonial Office ; of his unfounded 
abuse of the harbour and climate which he had not 
seen ; or of his suggestions that the Company should 
no longer " be allowed to locate emigrants wherever 
" their personal interests might dictate, or where, from 
" the difficulty of communication with other parts of 
" the colony, they would be placed solely at the mercy 
" of the more wealthy settlers." 

Thus the Governor depreciated the older settlement 
as under the disadvantage of distance from that which 
he had so capriciously founded many months after- 
wards, though he alone had j)roduced the disadvan- 
tageous circumstance. So a man should knock another 


down, and then argue that the injured party ought to 
be deserted, and considered an inferior, because of his 
forcible degradation. So a despot might decree that 
the principal London market should be held on Dart- 
moor, and then complain that the porters of Covent 
Garden were placed at the mercy of the wealthy orange- 
dealers of London by the difficulty of communication 
with the uninhabited heath. 

His Excellency knew that this string of despatches 
could not have met the eyes of the Cook's Strait 
settlers. He was probably confident that this secret 
and ungenerous vilification of his subjects, in order to 
serve a band of hungry and unprincipled flatterers, or 
to justify his own penchant for founding cities in a 
peculiar way, would never return round the world to 
stand side by side with his open expressions of concilia- 
tion and harmony. Thus he had been able to profess 
sympathy and friendly intentions towards those whom 
he had calumniated. He would hardly have been 
willing to present himself at Wellington at all, could 
he have predicted the public distribution of his un- 
manly aspersions against the inhabitants and their 

The rule of the Colonial Office, which provides that 
a colonial Governor shall be enabled to send home his 
defence together with the accusation made against him 
by his subjects, does not provide that colonists shall be 
enabled to send home their refutation together with the 
calumnies heaped upon them by their legal protector. 

Thus the Governor of New Zealand could safely 
write to the Colonial Office in order to disparage, in 
the most unmeasured terms, a community of some 
thousand Englishmen, and immediately afterwards ar- 
rive to meet them " clothed in power and dignity." 



Arrival of the Governor — Public Meeting — Undignified Landing — 
Empty Levee — Mr. George Clarke, Chief Protector of the Abo- 
rigines — Degradation of Chiefs — Mr. Clarke's unfounded charge 
against Colonel Wakefield — Countenanced by the Governor — 
Natives consent to leave their Pa — Sudden refusal — Perpetua- 
tion of the noxious Pas — Deputation to the Governor — His ab- 
ject appearance — His own description of it— Mr. Hanson and 
\ Mr. Earp — " Government Fever" — The Governor refuses to 
.. fulfil the Agreement of 1840— Mr. Clarke's Letter— Evil eflfects 
of Indulgence on Natives — Example — Mis-protection of the 
' Aborigines — lliko repudiates his bargain — I am requested to be- 
'^ come a Magistrate — "Nelson" Colony — Negotiations — The 
■ Governor goes to Akaroa — Dinner to Captain Arthur Wakefield 
: and Captain Liardet — Toasts — Dispute about the Site of Nelson 
— Proclamations — Appointments — Things left undone— Stifling 
of Native Reserves — The Colonists and the Governor — Lieu- 
' tenant Shortland and Mr. Clarke the real Governors — Their 
private interest at stake. 

Accordingly, on the 19th of August, a little vessel 
came round the point about four miles from the town. 

" Emigrant ship !" cried one of the loiterers on the 

" Whaler !" shouted another. 

" No ! it's a large schooner or a brig," said some 
knowing hand, looking with a telescope from the coffee- 
room of Barrett's hotel. 

"Oh! a cattle-vessel from Sydney perhaps, — or a 
" Yankee full of notions" suggested some one in the 
gazing crowd which began to collect. 

" Too small," said the captains and other nautical 
oracles ; " no hay on the quarter for cattle ; — not 
" smart enough for a Yankee !" 


" Perhaps only pigs and potatoes from Hawke's Bay 
*' or TVanganui, after all," said a passer-by, who had 
been attracted by the numerous levelled telescopes and 
the crowd of conjecturing gossips ; — and he walked on. 

" Now, she's in irons !" cried some sailor, as the 
vessel missed stays and drifted astern near the mouth 
of Evans's Bay ; " What a lubberly craft !" 

At length the unknown vessel approached the inner 
harbour, and the red ensign was made out at the peak, 
and the union-jack at the mainmast-head. It be- 
came evident that she must be the Government brig ! 
She anchored off the hotel ; union-jacks were hoisted at 
Colonel Wakefield's house, and at the straw hut in the 
Pipitea pa which served as a police-office and govern- 
ment-house. Boats put off from all parts of the bay, 
including the police-boat with the whole resident staff, 
namely, the Police Magistrate, the Health Officer, and 
the Postmaster ; and a return boat soon brought word 
that it was positively the Governor. 

The natives who heard of it laughed at the report. 
They said the ship was not half so big as the ships in 
which " Wide-awake's" tutua (common) white people 
came, and it could not be the Kawana. They pointed 
to the diminutive size and slovenly appearance of the 
craft ; which certainly did look small among the two 
large emigrant barques, an American whaler, and two 
or three fine brigs and schooners, lying near her, and 
only deserved to be ranked as leader of the mosquito 
fleet of coasters which lay near the shore. They were 
sure we were telling them tito, " lies ;" or hangareka, 
" making fun of them." " We had said so often that 
" the Governor was coming ; they would wait till they 
" saw the Great Chief themselves." 

That same evening a meeting took place at Barrett's 
hotel, which 400 persons attended. The discussions 


on the proposed corporation measure had resulted in 
the appointment of two committees, one by the " aris- 
" tocratic," and the other by the " democratic" party. 
The two committees, after mature deliberations, had 
concluded in uniting to recommend a draft of a bill to 
the inhabitants. The meeting on this night was met 
to approve of a memorial, prepared by Mr. Hanson, and 
which urged the adoption of this bill by his Excel- 
lency. After great difficulty in confining the speakers 
to the subject before them, the chairman repeatedly ex- 
plaining that no difference was made by the arrival of 
the Governor in the harbour, this memorial and the 
recommended draft of a bill were adopted. 

The meeting dissolved, and then formed itself for 
the consideration of another affair. The name of Dr. 
Evans had been erased from the commission of the 
peace, on account of his ready acquiescence in the ap- 
peal which the colonists had made to him that he 
should assist Mr. Murphy on the bench. It was not 
till afterwards generally known that Captain Daniell 
and Mr. Moreing were also removed from the magis- 
tracy, because they had signed the petition for the re- 
call of his Excellency. The meeting expressed their 
sympathy and respect for Dr. Evans, and their deep 
feeling of the insult which had been offered to the in- 
habitants of Port Nicholson by the arbitrary exercise 
of the Governor's authority in his case. 

The settlers then retired ; and, at each other's homes, 
at the hotels, or at the workshops, according to their 
respective classes, quietly commented on the arrival of 
Captain Hobson. But little gladness arose from the 
discussion, as they were convinced that they had an 
enemy to meet, instead of a kind guardian to greet 
with welcome. An admirable feeling of respect for 
their own dignity induced all to scout the idea of hiss- 


ing the Governor on his landing, or making any other 
active demonstration of dislike ; but it was sorrowfully 
whispered how passionate a welcome from the true 
hearts of some thousand Englishmen would have 
echoed along the hills, had they been about to receive a 
ruler who had deserved common respect or gratitude. 

The next day at noon, having engaged apartments at 
Barrett's hotel, his Excellency landed on the beach, 
close to the door, A considerable assemblage of the 
first people in the place had been standing on the road 
near the hotel and Medical Hall, previous to this time, 
talking over the rumoured intentions of Captain Hob- 
son ; but as his boat neared the shore, they stepped 
silently into the houses in a marked manner. I well 
remember that I was rebuked by a large party who 
had retreated into Dr. Dorset's sitting-room for even 
looking out at the window ; but I was determined to 
have a good view of the expected " power and dignity." 
I was not disappointed. 

As the boat grated on the silent and almost deserted 
beach, some nameless tuft-hunter came up just in time 
with a mob of about forty ragged labourers, whom he 
had collected among the idlers at a public-house, and 
they raised a very faint cheer, probably because badly 
paid for. Two still less reputable characters formed 
part of the deputation to receive his Excellency. These 
were Mr. Davy, the embezzling candidate for orders, 
and a drunken Sydney horse-breaker, named Bob Bar- 
rett, who had fastened a smart cavalry saddle-cloth on 
to a wretched old nag, and who rode into the water by 
the side of the boat, splashing the Governor and his 
suite all over, and begging him to ride in procession on 
the horse. Beyond this, I will venture to say that no 
land-owner, no holder of capital, no respectable mecha- 
nic or decent tradesman, no person who had a name to 


lose, assisted ai the disembarkation. Captain Hobson 
at last got rid of the troublesome jockey, and walked 
from the boat to the hotel, looking much mortified. 
He was attended by Lieutenant Smart as his aide-de- 
camp, by his private secrefciry, Edward Shortland, and 
by a " mounted policeman on foot," as an orderly. The 
whole affair looked as little like dignity and power as 
it possibly could. Five or six natives from Pipitea pa 
told us, as they went homewards, that they were much 
disappointed ; that he did not look like a chief at all ; 
and that they could not understand why he was said to 
have so much authority over all the white people. 

A levee, held on the Tuesday following, was an 
equally complete failure. Besides the officers of the 
Government and of the Company, the latter headed by 
Colonel Wakefield, only about forty persons attended, 
chiefly new arrivals ; and several of even this small 
number were butchers or shopmen dressed up for the 
occasion, who were delighted to be able to attend a 
levee at any price. But the real leaders of the com- 
munity, whether by birth, influence, talents, education, 
wealth, or honourable feelings, did not afford his Ex- 
cellency an opportunity of meeting them. One was at 
his farm, another fishing or shooting, a third building 
a chimney, or riding after cattle, another planing a 
plank, and all going on with their usual avocations, as 
though no Governor had been there. I passed the 
door of the hotel on horseback a few minutes after the 
levee had begun : I could see through the window that 
the room was nearly empty ; and the aide-de-camp, who 
had to present the cards of visitors, stood on the steps 
of the outer door jingling his spurs, and sunning his 
gay uniform, without being able to catch a single other 
customer for a peep at the lions. I could not help 
thinking of the four hundred well-behaved people who 


had filled the same room the night before to support 
their own liberties, but who cared not to gaze on 
empty " dignity and power." 

They had sufficiently proved their constant loyalty 
to the Queen and their attachment to the laws of 
England ; and were far too proud and honest to fawn 
on the hitherto unworthy representative of Her Majesty, 
till he should have displayed a disposition to make 
amends for his injustice, and to deserve their open 
countenance and support. 

Among the passengers in the Government brig were 
— Mr. Hal swell, who had been up to Auckland, to 
present his letters from Lord John Russell, and had 
sat in the Legislative Council, as one of the three 
senior Magistrates ; a Collector of Customs for Port 
Nicholson ; and a Police Magistrate, who had been 
appointed eight months before to assist Mr. Murphy 
as an itinerant magistrate for the out-settlements of 
Cook's Strait, but whose arrival had been delayed till 
now by the fact that there had been no means of con- 
veyance to the seat of his duties. 

The three-epaulet Surveyor-general, Mr. Felton 
Mathew, was also among the suite ; as it was under- 
stood, to arrange about the Government reserves in this 

Mr. George Clarke, the lay agent of the Church 
Missionary Society in New Zealand, and formerly 
a catechist and gunsmith of some skill, appeared as 
the Chief Protector of the Aborigines ! It was said that 
he came to make the necessary arrangements for the 
placing of the native reserves on some advantageous 

This gentleman kept very much in the back-ground ; 
but there was a general inquiry as to who the man 
could be, that was always to be seen prowling about in 


the pas, and holding much private talk w ith the dis- 
contented among the natives. He seemed to become a 
part and parcel of the Pipitea and Te Aro villages, 
though not one of the settlers even knew who he was. 
Some presents of blankets from the Government 
were handed by JNIr. Clarke to the people of those 
villages, for distribution to the aboriginal population ; 
but Epuni, Wa report, and several other chiefs of rank, 
refused to accept the donation through their hands, 
having received no sort of attention, or acknowledg- 
ment of their higher station from any of the official 
troop. Thus the door of Barrett's hotel was daily 
surrounded by the chiefs who had been of minor in- 
fluence at the time of our first arrival, but whose im- 
mediate residence happened to be in the town, while the 
real chiefs held no communication with the Governor. 
And the settlers were hurt to see this tacit offence put 
by authority upon the dignity of those whom they had 
hitherto thought it advisable to honour and respect, as 
the worthy and influential leaders of the native tribes.* 

* The Reverend Montague Hawtrey, whom I have already de- 
scribed as the essayist, in 1837, who had embodied in writing the 
views of the Association towards the natives, never ceased to feel a 
warm interest in the prosecution of those views. He wrote, in 
1840, An Earnest Address to New Zealand Colonists with refer- 
ence to their Intercourse with the Native Inhabitants; and the colo- 
nists cordially concurred in his philanthropic suggestions. In this 
paper Mr. Hawtrey says : — " The matter at which I look witli 
" the deepest anxiety is your treatment of the native chiefs. Upon 
" this point your success or failure, as regards the aborigines, 
" appears to me to depend. Not only justice to themselves, but a 
•' respect for the national importance of the New Zealand people, 
" requires that the chiefs should continue to occupy as high a rela- 
" tive position after your settlement among them as before. 

" I fear that this important point has not been sufficiently 
" attended to by the Missionaries, and that the course of things at 
" present going forward in New Zealand, is to depress the chiefs to 


The branch of the local Government which was especi- 
ally directed to the protection of the aborigines, when 
it had any fixed system, proceeded upon that of the 
missionaries, which consi^d in at once overthrowing 
the native aristocracy without substituting any effective 
organization for that destroyed. The suddenness of 
the change seemed highly dangerous for so tender a 
nursling as the aboriginal race. 

Captain Hobson, however, had carefully nursed a 
great chief, who was in opposition to some of the 
Company's land-claims. He brought with him Te 
J^erowero, the TVaikato chief, who had formerly con- 
quered Taranaki from the Ngatiawa ; and when 
Colonel Wakefield spoke to the Governor about the 
settlement of New Plymouth, his Excellency introduced 
JVerowero as the " sole owner of Taranaki^ He even 
afterwards paid him 250/. for that claim. JVerowera 
visited his old enemy, RauperaJia, at Kapki, and then 
returned to the north with the Governor. 

It soon became very clear that Mr. Clarke had con- 
sidered it the main part of his duty to collect every 
complaint that he could hear of on the part of the 
natives against the white people. But, more than this, 
a scene of which I was an eye-witness, proved that 

" the level of the lower orders. It is veiy evident that this is felt 
" to be the case by the chiefs themselves. Many of you have 
" seen the letter addressed by a New Zealand chief to Mr. Marsdeii, 
" After mentioning several matters respecting which he requests 
*' Mr. M. to give them a law, he concludes his letter by the remark- 
*' able words : — " ' Another thing of which we are afraid, and 
" ' which also degrades us, is this, — slaves exalting themselves 
" ' above their masters : will you give us a law in this ?' This ex- 
" pression from a Christian chief is very affecting ; and it is clear, 
" that unless something be done for the purpose of obviating such a 
" result, the natural consequence of the progress of civilization would 
*' be to degrade them from the position which they occupied in their 
" savage state." 

VOX. n. E 


the Protector had no great scruples as to exaggerating 
and improving upon these complaints, when they could 
be made to militate against the settlers or the officers 
of the Company. 

The natives of T'e Aro, who, it will be remembered, 
had first openly interfered with the occupation by the 
settlers of any land, had become much more discontented 
and distant towards the settlers since the arrival of the 
Wesleyan missionary among them. About four acres 
of land on which their pa stood, near the beach of the 
harbour, had been laid out as a public wharf and 
reserve for the site of a custom-house, and two private 
sections ; but they had been unwilling for a long 
while to remove from the place. Colonel Wakefield 
had been more than once on the point of getting them 
to migrate to a block of 38 acres of native reserve, 
which included some of their fiivourite potato-gardens, 
about half a mile from the pa. But, after willingly 
accepting his offer of a sum of money or amount of goods 
as an inducement to the removal in the afternoon, they 
would frequently change their minds suddenly, and 
behave in the morning in so sullen and repulsive a 
manner that it was evident some sinister influence 
had been at work. It soon crept out, for they are not 
clever at keeping a secret, that Mr. Aldred constantly 
advised them, and on the most unworthy grounds, never 
to leave their pa. 

Thus the missionaries destroyed the chieftainship, 
one of the native institutions most worthy of preser- 
vation, and supported the preservation of the filthy and 
unwholesome pas ; though a change which should 
aifiect the manner in which the Maories lived was 
perhaps the one most to be desired, and the one most 
easy to be effected by gradual and harmless degrees. 

The Governor, attended by Colonel Wakefield and 


Mr. Clarke, paid this pa a formal visit, with a view to 
some satisfactory arrangement of their grievances. On 
Colonel Wakefield stating that a portion of the pay- 
ment had been especially set aside, and sent hither by 
JVarepori for the inhabitants of this village, a written 
paper was handed in to the Governor by one of the 
assembled natives. It stated, in the Maori language, 
that certain things had been sent here by IVarepori as 
a present to his sister, who had married one of the men 
of the tribe ; and that this present had never been 
considered as payment for the land. The paper cor- 
rectly enumerated everything that had been included 
in this share of the property, which Warepori had 
intentionally made rather smaller than the others, 
though he took credit to himself, in addressing the Te 
Aro men afterwards, for raising them above their 
former condition of a slave-tribe, by giving them any. 
This I described in the fourth chapter of the first volume.* 

Mr. Clarke, in translating this paper, stopped at the 
word tuahine, '* sister," and stammered, and smiled, 
and turned to the Governor, and hummed and hawed, 
and looked at the paper again, and then looked at 
Colonel Wakefield, and finished by drawing a long 
face and being very grave. Upon being pressed by the 
Governor to explain what he meant, he shuffled, and 
smirked, and sneered ; and then held the paper out, and 
broadly asserted that it named these goods as the pay- 
ment which had been given to " a woman, whom 
" JVarepori had let Colonel Wakefield take on board 
" the Tory." The conception, and the manner of the 
insinuation, were both such as none but a low-minded 
man could have been guilty of. 

It was well known by every one who had been on 

* Page 93. 

E 2 


board the Tory, that Colonel Wakefield had not even 
allowed the crew to bring women on board, although 
such a practice had been ol'ten sanctioned by the ex- 
ample of men-of-war at the Bay of Islands. I obtained 
a sight of the paper, and having read it carefully 
through, I flatly impugned Mr. Clarke's translation. 
Not only does the word tuahine mean " sister," but 
it is capable of no other meaning. Moreover, the 
words of the document were simply what I have re- 
lated above, and it did not contain a syllable on which 
Mr. Clarke's accusation of Colonel Wakefield could be in 
any way founded, even by the most tortuous inference. 

The Protector of Aborigines, however, persisted in 
his assertion ; and when I had proved by appealing to 
the natives that tuahine meant " sister," and not "a 
" woman," he tried to shuffle out of it by saying that 
this was the meaning of the word in the northern 
parts, the dialect of which I could not be supposed to 
know. John Brooks, who had resided eight years 
among the Waikato tribes, and two years in Cook's 
Strait, on being asked for his interpretation, confirmed 
me in repeating, that in the north as well as the south, 
tuahine never meant anything but " sister," and that 
the extraordinary insinuation of Mr. Clarke had not 
the slightest foundation in a single syllable of what he 
had pretended to translate. I shall never forget the 
crestfallen looks of Captain Hobson, who had turned 
triumphantly towards Colonel Wakefield on the be- 
ginning of this accusation, but who now positively 
quailed before his frank and open countenance. Colonel 
Wakefield looked inquiringly in the face of the agitated 
Governor ; who seemed nmch ashamed of the whole 
aflfair, and suddenly, without assigning any reason, put 
an end to the conference. 

Mr. Clarke followed in the official train with per- 


fectly unmoved and unblushing features. If he had 
been honest, and conscious of his own innocence, his 
face must surely have been flushed, and his manner 
agitated, while he lay under so grievous an imputation. 
The prospects of the aborigines, under the official pro- 
tection of such a person, seemed indeed gloomy. 

Only the next morning, however, the Governor gave 
his countenance to Mr. Clarke in a very marked way. 
He sent a message to Colonel Wakefield, inviting him 
to join another conference at Te Aro on that day, for 
the purpose of finally arranging the dispute with the 
natives. Colonel Wakefield answered, that he should 
be most willing, provided that Mr. Clarke were not 
allowed to be present. The only answer to this very 
natural demand was, that the Governor walked along 
the beach towards the pa dX the hour which he had 
appointed, with the Protector of Aborigines on his 
right hand. Colonel Wakefield got on horseback, 
bowed to Captain Hobson as he passed the two, and 
rode to one of the cattle-stations out of town. No 
spectators attended the renewal of the parley with the 

This whole transaction will appear so incredible,, 
when coupled with the fact that Mr. George Clarke 
remains, to this day. Chief Protector of the Aborigines 
in New Zealand, that I should hesitate to place these 
facts upon record, did I not feel confidence in the tes- 
timony of numerous men of unimpeached honour and 
integrity, who were like myself spectators of the me- 
piorable scene. 

Before Captain Hobson left, however. Colonel Wake- 
field had succeeded in prevailing upon the natives of 
Te Aro to leave the pa, and to establish themselves 
upon some native reserves, in consideration of 50/. 
which he was ta give them ; having been authorized by 


the Governor thus to treat for the arrangement. On 
the day ^jefore the Government brig sailed away, and 
when all the suite were on board, this had been agreed 
upon. The new location had been pointed out to the 
head men of the village, and the advantages of building 
new and more wholesome residences in this more roomy 
situation had been explained to them, and fully acknow- 
ledged by themselves. The next morning all differ- 
ences were to be at an end, and a worthy example was to 
be set to all the natives in overcoming their prejudices 
to their own benefit, while they accommodated and 
conciliated their civilized neighbours. All parties were 
congratulating themselves on these happy results. In 
the afternoon, Mr. Clarke unexpectedly landed, and 
paid long farewell visits to the native villages. Mr. 
Aldred was observed to be in unusually close and con- 
fidential communication with the teachers and his 
leading catechumens on the same day. And in the 
morning they repudiated the agreement to a man, saying 
that they were not going to be driven from their paSy 
and that the Governor had told them it was not 
right. No persuasion, no reference to their former joyful 
assent had the least effect upon their sudden fit of 
obstinacy, and the whole affair had returned into its 
original difficulty. One or two efforts were subse- 
quently made at various times, by Colonel Wakefield, 
by Mr. Halswell, and several other worthy persons who 
felt interested in the fate of these unfortunate savages ; 
but without avail : — or if for a time attended with 
success, the most sanguine hopes were always, as before, 
suddenly and mysteriously overthrown. 

So the wretched inhabitants have remained ever 
since in a crowded, filthy, and unwholesome state; 
confirming each other in all their idle and baneful 
habits of life ; devoid of cleanliness in their dress and 


their food ; estranged in disposition, because isolated on 
principle from the white people ; and thinned by dis- 
eases which are generated and confirmed by the want 
of ventilation, warmth, and comfort in their huts. 
The native pas, and the beach near them, remain to 
this day an eye-sore to the cleanly town of Wellington ; 
they are nurseries for the virulent cutaneous diseases 
and pulmonary complaints which decimate the inhabit- 
ants every year ; they are schools for idleness, igno- 
rance, and therefore unfounded suspicion and jealousy 
of tlie white man ; and they present glaring pictures to 
remind the settlers themselves that an obstinate and 
unprofitable obstruction to the agreeable progress and 
amity of both races is loudly encouraged and carefully 
perpetuated by the authorities. Consisting entirely of 
low, miserable, thatched sheds, with fires inside and no 
chimneys, leaning against dry wooden fences, these in- 
habited dunghills are dangerous to themselves and to 
the rest of the town, in case of accident by fire ; they 
harbour troops of half-starved mangy mongrels, which 
rush out day and night upon every horse and foot 
passenger; and, although the inhabitants adhere very 
strictly to the forms of religion, the pa, like Alsatia of 
old, is a terra incognita under no supervision, which 
serves to conceal many a scene of the very worst 
debauchery. Such, however, is the acknowledged 
system on which the aborigines of New Zealand are 
now protected, and doomed to a progress which can 
only be likened to that of a lingering and pestiferous 

Several deputations waited upon his Excellency during 
his stay, to present memorials on various subjects, such 
as the proposed corporation measure, the duties to be 
imposed on spirits, the providing for the reception of 
foreign oil in exchange for refreshments furnished to 


whalers in the port, and various other matters of the 
highest importance to the settlement. On these occa- 
sions the leading colonists did not hesitate to overcome 
their repugnance to meeting the Governor, and boldly 
stated all their grievances, earnestly urging the most 
prompt and efficacious redress. I was present at one of 
these scenes. The Governor and his suite were at one 
end of the long table in the large room at Barrett's 
hotel. Pressing close round the table were settlers 
of various classes, who took the occasion to mention 
many subjects foreign to that on which they had 
obtained an interview. Perfectly unanimous in their 
sentiments, one after the other spoke in firm but 
urgent tones. They made their complaints of past 
occurrences, or questioned the Governor on his future 

The whole audience was struck with the uncollected 
jjearing of Captain Hobson. He looked timidly from 
one to the other of the speakers, and hesitated, and 
stammered, and gave vague unmeaning answers. When 
repeatedly pressed to explain himself, he tried in vain 
to " clothe himself with the power and dignity which 
" became his station :" and, throughout the interview, 
he reminded me of an offending school-boy who should 
have been ])rought up to be reproved before an assemblage 
of scolding parents and teachers, unable to utter any 
rt^monstrance, or too humiliated and broken-spirited 
even to defend himself. To many in the room the 
exhibition was positively painful. I remember expe- 
riencing the same nervous feeling as though I were 
listening to the failure of a maiden speech, or the 
])reak-down of a middling singer in trying to execute a 
difficult passage. 

• ) On one point only was Captain Hobson firm, — in 
defending his Colonial Se<*retary, and approving of 


everything that he had done while here. To give this 
crmp-de-grace to the smarting settlers, he made one 
vigorous rally, and seemed a man for five minutes. 
. When Captain Hobson had got back to Auckland, 
he found courage to describe this scene in a very 
different light to the Colonial Minister. 

He described the very consistent and universal dis- 
satisfaction of the men of note among the colonists, as 
" a great ferment agitated and excited by a venal press, 
" and a few discontented spirits." He added in his 
despatch, that all their subjects of complaint had been 
anticipated by the previous provisions of the local Go- 
vernment ; and that the " disaffected portion of the 
" meeting, finding their principal grievances so promptly 
" met and redressed, endeavoured to introduce many 
" extraneous matters reflecting on the Government ;" and 
that, as they were foreign to the purposes for which 
the interview was granted, he " took an early oppor- 
" tunity of dismissing the meeting." 

He then reported with much pleasure to his Lordship, 
that he " received the warmest and most cordial support 
" from by far the largest and most influential body of 
" the colonists." He had the face to take credit to 
himself, that " even those opposed to his Government 
" displayed no manifestation of displeasure or disloy- 
" alty," without adding that this arose from the for- 
bearance of gentlemen, and the English feeling of 
loyalty, which forbade any unmannerly expression of dis- 
respect towards him who, although a negligent officer, 
was still the representative of the Queen. 

When long afterwards this despatch found its 
way back to Wellington in a published form, it was 
again remarked that a Governor might grossly misre- 
present the actions and feelings of his subjects, without 
an accompanying reply from those so maligned. 


In the same despatch, Captain Hobsoii dwelt with 
much emphasis on the recantation and adherence to his 
views of ]VIr. Earp, who had led the meetings for peti- 
tioning for the recall of his Excellency, and of Mr. 
Hanson, who had declared at one of the public meetings 
that the Governor had no place worthy of his accept- 
ance, when accused by some frank democrat of having 
been bought to advocate moderate measures. 

Only a fortnight after the eventful interview, Mr. 
Hanson was gazetted as Crown Prosecutor for the 
District of Port Nicholson ; to which office was attached 
a salary of 250/. per annum. 

Six days later, Mr. Earp was gazetted as a Justice of 
the Peace, and Member of the Legislative Council. In 
order to be qualified for the latter office, he had been 
placed at the head of the list, so that he might appear 
as one of the three senior Magistrates. This is a process 
probably of colonial custom, and very much resembles 
that of boys taking each other down at school. The 
fact was, that none of the existing Justices found it con- 
venient to abandon their pursuits in the neighbourhood 
of Wellington, in order to have the empty honour of 
going 500 or 600 miles to debate in a Council in which 
the Governor secured a certain official majority on all 

Mr. Earp was now treated in Wellington as one 
who had been wheedled by politeness and flattery into 
abandoning his party, and completely lost the confidence 
of the colonists whom he had for a time led, as soon as 
ever he was seen in obsequious attendance upon the 
Governor. Yet Captain Hobson made a great show of 
tiiking a representative for Port Nicholson back to the 
nominal Parliament at Auckland, and professed for a 
long while to consider his opinions as those of the great 
majority of Cook's Strait settlers. 


The going over of these two gentlemen to the enemy 
was one of the earliest instances of what afterwards 
came to be called " catching the Government fever." 
This idea of some Wellington wit very pithily expressed 
the manner in which the oldest settlers and most un- 
prejudiced officials from England generally imbibed the 
distinctive manners, the vulgar haughtiness and im- 
portance, and the opinionated partisanship, of the Auck- 
land staff, with their first draught from the Auckland 

Colonel Wakefield was in constant communication 
with Captain Hobson on the various subjects comprised 
in the recent *' agreement " in England. To the 
great surprise of most people, it soon got abroad that 
many of the despatches from the Colonial Office to the 
Grovernor were first made known to his Excellency by 
the perusal of copies which had been forwarded to 
Colonel Wakefield by the Directors. Many instances 
occurred in which Captain Hobson denied having re- 
ceived certain instructions, and was startled to find a 
copy of them handed to him out of a little packet of 
papers in the despatch-box of the Company's Agent. As 
all the despatches for the Governor had been forwarded 
to him, and received before his departure from Auck- 
land, the absence of some of the most important among 
them, of which copies had been openly given to the Di- 
rectors in England, looked very like gross neglect or 
intentional omission on the part of the home officials. 

It soon became clear that the Governor would not 
carry out the whole spirit of the agreement, and that 
he would issue no titles to the land which the Com- 
pany had a right to expect, until their purchases should 
be examined and proved before a Commission of Land 
Claims; thus placing them in precisely the same po- 
sition as the other land claimants, and repudiating the 


evident intention of the agreement to grant them a 
complete title at once, in return for their outlay and 
the cession of the greater part of their purchases to the 
Crown. He refused to acknowledge the great boon of 
the native reserves and civilization as a sufficient ex- 
tinction of the native rights ; and opened the way for a 
tedious and lingering consideration of those repudiations 
of the original bargain, which were daily arising from 
the knowledge which the natives had now acquired, of 
the immense value added to the land by population and 

His ultimatum of concession, after much negotiation, 
was a proclamation that the Crown would forego its 
right of pre-emption in favour of the Company, over 
the districts included in the surveys for the preliminary, 
fF'anganui, and New Plymouth settlements ; and that 
a title would be given to the Company for such of these 
lands as should be proved to have been validly pur- 
chased by any one from the natives, the Company com- 
pensating all former purchasers according to the scale 
fixed by the Ordinance. 

And he especially provided that none of the pas or 
cultivations of the natives should be alienated from 
them, except with their own consent. Colonel Wake- 
field was authorized to treat with the natives for the 
further purchase of such sites. This might doubtless 
have been effected at that time, by some little exertion 
and at a moderate expense. But the Te Aro case had 
been of fatal example ; and although Colonel Wake- 
field, by continued efforts on several subsequent oc- 
casions, nearly overcame the difficulties even in that 
very case, he was constantly met by an unseen in- 

Long after the departure of Captain Hol)son, who had 
suggested that the above-mentioned authority should 

Chap. III. MR. CLARKE'S LETTER. " •. 61 

be kept private, in order to prevent evil-disposed persons 
from interfering with its success, it was made known 
that Mr. Clarke had left the letter, of which a transla- 
tion follows, with a chief of Pipitea, and that its con- 
tents had been widely circulated among the natives : 

" Port Nicholson, September 10, 1841. 

" Friend J^J^airarapa, — You ask for a letter from 
" the Governor, that the white man may not drive you 
** from your pas, or seize your cultivations. 

" Listen to the word of the Governor : he says, that 
" it is not according to our laws that you should be 
" driven, if you do not agree to go. 

" This letter is from the Governor. 

(Signed) " Clarke, 

" Protector of the Natives. 

** To TVairarapay Chief of Pipitea." 

It requires rather an intimate knowledge of the lan- 
guage, as well as of the general character of the iXJaoriy 
to appreciate the full effect upon their minds of such 
an announcement. 

The language is not rich, and therefore the same 
word, or sentence, has many implied meanings, as well 
as that suggested by the first glance. In speaking, the 
meaning of a native is expressed rather by his tone and 
accent, by his gestures and the working of his features, 
than by the mere words. In writing, therefore, what 
was only recently a written language, how readily 
might misconstruction arise from a sentence capable of 
implied meaning? 

I have stated that the studied separation of the 
natives from the white people, and their comparative 
isolation in the pas, had already exercised a very mate- 
rial influence on their character. Nor must I omit 
the effect produced upon their minds by the secret insi- 


nuations of artful and interested parties, such as Mr. 
Tod and other private land-claimants, or of others who, 
from their station as Christian pastors, should have 
been the last to employ such means. The poverty and 
ambiguity of the native language was a ready weapon 
in the hands of such unprincipled persons, because 
their advice and opinions, even when repeated in their 
own words, was capable of a harmless as well as of a 
mischievous interpretation. Thus the natives daily dis- 
played increased jealousy of the whites, and more false 
suspicions of their ultimate intentions towards them. 
Prone to lay great stress on a heedless action or an 
insignificant word, painfully sensitive to expressions 
which they formerly considered as a joke, and learning 
to watch with diffidence and incredulity every propo- 
sition made for their own good, as though it were a 
plot against their quiet or their liberty, they were well 
prepared to view the letter of Mr. Clarke as a warning 
against premeditated fraud and deceit. The production 
of this letter by themselves, when pressed for the reasons 
of their varying and unconciliatory conduct, showed 
that they looked upon it as their armour against an 
unworthy ruse. The very mention of driving them 
from their pas led them to look upon the proposed 
bargains as excuses for their violent expulsion ; and 
their dignity was naturally oftended as much as their 
fears were excit-ed. 

Thus the final arrangement of this momentous ques- 
tion was indefinitely postponed, because the Government, 
instead of aiding to adjust it satisfactorily by lending its 
own influence and persuasion towards obtaining the 
free consent of the natives, threw its weight into the 
opposite scale by a manuscript mandate, which was 
hardly impartial even in its words, and was in effect 
strongly conducive to their conviction that it wsis ex- 


Iiedient to refuse offers, only privately sanctioned by 

Fancy an indulgent mother leaving her child with a 
dentist, authorizing him to draw his loose tooth, and 
give him a sugar-plum if he was quite willing. She 
then, instead of explaining to the boy how advantageous 
it would be for him, and herself kindly persuading him 
to have it out, leaves the room with nurse, who is told 
to whisper in his ear as she goes out, that mamma says, 
as it might stop him from going to see the pantomime, 
she'd have him know it's against law for the dentist to 
drag his tooth out if he doesn't like. Of course Master 
Tommy hesitates, and then plucks up courage to sit 
down, but at last sturdily refuses. And when Mr. Cart- 
wright remonstrates, and kindly asks the boy's reason, 
he sobs out what nurse told him ma' said. 

The theory was advanced by some persons, and 
among them were the greater number of the missionaries, 
that the moving from the 'pas would interfere with the 
religious duties of the natives. Surely a far-sighted and 
benevolent Protector of Aborigines would have jumped 
at the chance afforded him of establishing the religious 
as well as secular welfare of the natives on a more per- 
manent footing, by removing them to improved resi- 
dences on the native reserves, with convenient chapels 
and schools supported by the income from those parts 
not occupied, and with perhaps the white man's church, 
or the residence of some respectable and moral families, 
as examples on the neighbouring sections. Whereas 
the joa Pipitea, in which Mr. Clarke virtually advised 
them to remain, was only separated by an open stockade 
from the yard of the jail, in which felons were constantly 
walking, contained the police-court within its fence, and 
was contiguous to the beach, with its riotous pot-houses 
and its boat-loads of drunken sailors. 


> He might as well have advocated their remaining 
permanently in one of the low courts out of the Old 
Bailey, if removed bodily into the centre of Wapping. 

But any extended views for the benefit of the abori- 
ginal race may easily be supposed to have been far be- 
yond the conception of such a mind as Mr. Clarke's. 

His official Report of this visit to Port Nicholson 
shows clearly that he considered it his duty only to 
collect the existing complaints of the natives, and to en- 
courage them in maintaining their stationary condition 
amidst the inevitable progress of a highly civilized com- 
munity. He only speaks of present injustice done to 
them, and does not pretend to ponder whether greater 
benefits might not have been produced by the amicable 
concurrence of the natives in large and statesmanlike 
views for their gradual advancement and ultimate pros- 
perity. He seems to have thought the reserves beyond 
his province, or unworthy of his notice ; as neither did 
he take pains to make the natives acquainted with their 
existence or value, nor does he introduce in his official 
Report of this visit any plan for their comprehensive 
management, or even any acknowledgment of their 

When this document, too, had made the round of 
the world, it appeared that much in answer to Mr. 
Clarke's attacks upon the disposition of the settlers, and 
much qualification of his gloomy account of the dis- 
content of the natives, with its causes, might have gone 
home at the same time, had an equal opportunity been 
afforded to both sides of the question at once. 

A scene at which I assisted, and which is mentioned 
by Mr. Clarke in a manner not very complimentary to 
my veracity, will best exemplify the extent to which 
designing parties had been able to affect the natives, 
even previously to. the arrival of the Governor. The 


reader Will remember the active part which Hiko had 
taken in the sale effected at Kapiti in Oct. 1839. He 
had arrived hither from Porirua, and was living at the 
house of the carpenter, whom I have formerly men- 
tioned as having worked so industriously at Kapiti. 
This carpenter had now become the owner of a large- 
public-house and tavern in the town. Having a claim 
to some land at Porirua, in right of an alleged pur- 
chase from Hiko and other chiefs, he made him various 
presents, and supplied him with grog ad libitum. I 
was called in one morning to relate to Captain Hobson 
what I knew of Hiko's part in the transaction at Ka- 
piti. In the room were the Governor, Colonel Wake- 
field, Mr. Clarke, Mr. Hadfield, the Chief Justice, Dr. 
Dorset, and some other persons. I told briefly what 
I had seen and heard of the affair, and concluded by 
describing the way in which I held the pen straight 
while Hiko made the cross with it opposite his name. 
The deed itself was produced, and Hiko staunchly and 
flatly denied having ever seen it or made the cross. 
He said that he had not touched the pen in my hand, 
as I mentioned — that he knew nothing of the transac- 
tion alluded to — and that he had not sold Colonel 
Wakefield any land ; and this in the face of Colonel 
Wakefield, Brooks the interpreter. Dr. Dorset, and I, 
who had all been present during the whole transac- 
tion, and at his perfectly voluntary signature, after full 
explanation of the deed.* 

* Mr. Clarke made an official report of this visit, which is not 
dated, but is enclosed by the Governor to England on the 13th of 
November, when he got back to Auckland. His Excellency calls it 
a Report on " the state of feeling evinced by the native chiefs in 
" and about Port Nicholson, respecting the occupation of lands in 
" that neighbourhood by the New Zealand Company." The Chief 
Protector of the Aborigines thus relates the occurrence : — " In the 
" examination of the chief Hiko, in the presence of his Excellency 



M The Governor then briefly admonished Hiko that he 
would not allow the road to be obstructed, as that had 
nothing to do with the land question ; and the false 
chief, after promising to remove the trees which had 
been felled across it, returned to his grog-shop. I 
afterwards reproached him with his falsehood, having 
at one time held him in much respect ; but he jier- 
sisted in a firm denial : and I told him he had behaved 
like a slave, and I could never be his friend again. 

Long before the opening of the Court of Land 
Claims, many of the vendors had l)ecome equally de- 
void of honesty and veracity. The pas had been gra- 
dually increased in extent and more substantially 
fenced, and numerous new cultivations had been cleared, 
for which the natives claimed the protection of the 
Governor's decree, as well as for those which they had 
cropped and abandoned. Every delay and indulgence 
served but to confirm them in attachment to their pig- 
sties, and in fresh encroachments on the land unoccu- 
pied at the time of the Governor's very indefinite re- 
striction, and unclaimed at the time when Mr. Clarke 
rushed into condemning the Company's claim without 

Mr. Murphy had requested me to put in writing a 
description which I had made to him of the wretched 

" the Governor, the Chief Justice, Colonel Wakefield, the Rev. O. 
" Hadfield, and other gentlemen, he could not be induced to ac- 
" knowledge the place ever having been alienated ; and according 
*'^to the Company's interpreter, who could speak a little of the lan- 
** guage, his (Hiko's) consent waa not obtained willingly, but he 
" denied ever having signed the deed produced by Colonel Wake- 
" field, while, on the other hand, a nephew of Colonel Wakefield 
" aflfinned he had. One thing, however, appeared evident, that 
" such was the purport of the document produced, that it was cal- 
*' culated to mislead the natives, who were altogether incompetent 
" to trace its designs." 

Chap. HI. .^T'. " NELSON " COLONY, "W 

state of ^f^anganui, through the absence of any authorized 
person to restrain the excesses of the lawless vagabonds 
who infested that part of the country, in order that he 
might lay it before the Governor. His Excellency, in 
consequence, sent for me, and requested me to become a 
Magistrate, together with three other gentlemen living 
at that place. He also assured me that Mr. Dawson 
would include ff^anganui in his itinerary visits about 
Cook's Strait : and that he hoped these measures, and 
the appointment of a small constabulary force, would 
allay the evil. I had felt much reluctance in allowing 
my name to be included in the commission of the 
peace, not unmindful of the dismissal of two gentlemen 
for the free expression of their political opinions. But 
as I had hitherto carefully avoided any active expres- 
sion of my opinion on local politics, lest my relation- 
ship to Colonel Wakefield should be used to accuse me 
of undue prejudice in favour of the Company, I was 
persuaded to accept the appointment, in the hope of 
doing some good to my favourite settlement. 

On the 28th, a fast brig arrived from Plymouth in 
93 days, beating in at night under double-reefed top- 
sails against a strong gale. This was the Arrow, a 
store-ship forming one of the preliminary expedition of 
the proposed " Nelson" colony. She announced that 
two barques, containing the rest of the pioneers, might 
be daily expected, having sailed in company with her. 
It was proposed to found this colony on some part of 
the Middle Island. At first restricted to the territory 
claimed by the Company in right of its original pur- 
chases, its projectors had been afterwards allowed by 
Lord John Russell to fix on any other site which, if 
found more convenient, might meet with the approval 
of the Governor. 

On the 8th of September, the Will Watch arrived, 



bearing Mr. Tuckett as Chief Surveyor, and a whole 
staff of assistants and labouring men for the new 

Colonel Wakefield immediately applied to the Go- 
vernor, requesting him to point out a site fit for the 
purpose, according to the conditions agreed upon between 
liord John Russell and the Company. His Excellency 
suggested a place called Mahurangi, situated about 
fifty miles from the capital at Auckland ; offering a 
site for a town, and 50,000 acres of land immediately 
adjoining it, there ; and stating his confidence of ob- 
taining from the natives the remaining 150,000 acres 
requisite for the new colony in the valley of the 
Thames or the plains of the Pf^aipa. This arrange- 
ment would have been in direct contravention to the 
distinct provisions of the agreement, that the site 
should not be in the vicinity of the capital, lest the 
labourers of the new settlement should be induced to 
desert it, and lest it should interfere with the lands to 
be laid out in the neighbourhood of the capital itself. 
Mahurangi, moreover, was avowedly a very inferior 
harbour and district; and the Governor proposed to 
separate the suburban district of "Nelson" from its 
rural lands by a distance of 100 miles, with Auck- 
land in the centre of the only road Ijetween them. So 
transparent a device for peopling his own pet metro{)olis 
was easily seen through by Colonel Wakefield. But 
the negotiations on the subject were interrupted by the 
departure of the Governor on a trip to Akaroa, on 
the 11th of September. 

On the 18th, the Whitby arrived, bearing my lamented 
uncle Captain Arthur Wakefield of the Royal Navy, 
as Agent for Nelson, and the rest of his staff; and also 
Capfciin Liardet of the Royal Navy, as Agent for New 


I went on board the ship as she came in ; and was 
much pleased to greet among the crew, besides my dear 
and good uncle, several younger relations and school- 
fellows who had engaged as subordinates in the survey- 
ing staff of the new settlement. 

On the 20th, a public dinner was given to comme- 
morate the arrival of the expedition. The honoured 
guests were Captain Wakefield and Captain Liardet, 
and two officers of the French corvette lying at Akaroa, 
who had come up to buy provisions for their country- 
men settled there. Seventy of the elite of the colony 
sat down, the chair having been taken by Dr. Evans. 
I shall not relate all the toasts which paid the due 
tx)mpliments to our guests, or proved our eager welcome 
of the new colonists who were about to join us on so 
large a scale. " Epuni, TP^arepori, and the Chiefs of 
** Port Nicholson" were not forgotten, although they had 
escaped the notice of Captain Hobson. But when the 
chairman, without comment, proposed "the Governor 
" of New Zealand," only about half-a-dozen persons 
besides the Company's officers rose to do honour to the 
toast, and made a feeble attempt to raise a cheer, which 
was drowned in the respectful silence of the great body 
of independent settlers, who sat still with their empty 
glasses upturned on the board. 

A selection of lands at IVan^anui having been fixed 
for the 27th, I joined with two other gentlemen to 
charter the Gem, a schooner of 80 tons ; and obtained 
freight and passengers enough just to cover our ex- 
penses. The rough weather delayed our departure for 
some days ; and we postponed the trip for one day 
longer in order to attend this dinner. The Surveyor- 
General of the Company, Captain Smith, had started 
by land some days before to superintend the selection ; 
and had been followed by two or three land-agents and 
sectionists. As the principal portion of the selectors 


were intending to proceed in the Gem, we made appli- 
cation to Colonel Wakefield to allow a messenger to 
be sent after the Surveyor, with a request to delay the 
selection, if possible, until we should arrive, in case 
we should be detained beyond the time fixed by bad 
weather or any unforeseen accident. On the 22nd 
we left Port Nicholson, with a crowded cabin full of 

As Captain Hobson returned from Akaroa on the 
24th, and finally left Port Nicholson on the 29th, I 
shall here complete the narrative of what he did during 
his stay at Wellington. 

On his return, the negotiation as to the site of the 
" Nelson" settlement was renewed, and finally em- 
bodied in the shape of a correspondence between the 
Governor and the two Agents of the Company. It 
would be tedious to follow out the arguments adduced 
by both parties in support of their respective views. 
The Governor obstinately named Mahurangi as the 
fittest site ; the Agents of the Company suggested Port 
Cooper, of which Messrs. Daniell and Duppa had 
brought back so promising an account. But his 
Excellency declared with some warmth that he would 
" not colonize New Munster." He disapproved of Port 
Cooper in a conclusive but somewhat intem})erate de- 
spatch, in which he imputed motives of gambling and 
speculation to the Company's operations, in such lan- 
guage as to draw forth a pointed rebuke from Lord 
Stanley, who had become Colonial Minister by the 
time the correspondence reached England. Colonel 
Wakefield closed the negotiation by a despatch ex- 
plaining the motives which induced him to fall back 
upon the original permission to select any site within 
the territory claimed by the Company, and named 
Blind Bay as a spot likely to be approved of by 
Captain Wakefield on due examination. And he ended 


by " claiming only from his Excellency's justice due 
" allowance for a conscientious difference of opinion, 
** and his protection for their fellow-subjects destined 
" for the proposed settlement ;" a manly appeal, the 
long neglect of which has been too often charged 
against the local Government. 

Captain Hobson had at length condescended to spend 
twenty-seven days among that part of his population 
which he had himself officially described as " from 
" their rank, their numbers, and their wealth, by far 
*' the most important in the colony." 

His further doings, during this short stay, may be 
gathered from a list of proclamations published by his 
command in the Wellington Gazette ; some framed on 
the spot; others re-publications of those promulgated 
at Auckland on the 26th of July, but which were still 
almost unknown here on account of the distance and 
the unfrequency of communication. 

These proclamations gave official notice of the as- 
sumption by the Governor of the powers of Vice- Ad- 
miral ; of his approval of the town of Wellington, 
and a definition of its boundaries ; of the approval of the 
jail as a common jail (and a very common jail it was) ; 
of the establishment of bonded stores ; of the applica- 
tion of the New South Wales Police Act for towns to 
New Zealand ; of the authority of the Crown Prose- 
cutor to prosecute in his own name ; of the institution 
of an overland mail to TVanganui ; of the tenders to be 
made for the building of a pound ; of the illegality of 
squatting on the Public or on the Native Reserves ; of the 
establishment of a Court of Requests ; of a description 
of the Reserves made by the Crown for public purposes ; 
and of a prohibition against the cutting of timber in 
the belt of land reserved for the ornament of the town 
and recreation of the townspeople. 


The appointments gazetted were the following : 
Mr. Murphy as Sub-sheriff' and Police Magistrate for 
Wellington ; Captain Smith and Mr. Edward Chetham 
of Wellington, Captain King and two other gentlemen 
of Taranakiy Mr. George White of Pitone, and three 
gentlemen of TVanganid besides myself, to be Magis- 
trates of the territory ; Mr. Halswell to be Chair- 
man of the Courts of Quarter Sessions and Requests, 
Sub-protector of Aborigines, and Commissioner for the 
management of Native Reserves for the Southern Dis- 
trict ;* Mr. Hogg, as Sub-treasurer and Sub-collector 
of Customs, with a Landing-waitxir who had also come 
from Auckland ; Mr. William Connell, a colonist 
lately arrived at Wellington, as Postmaster-general 
of the colony, to reside at Auckland ; and Mr. Strang, 
one of the early Scotch colonists, as Registrar to the 
Courts of Quarter Sessions and Requests. 

The Governor had thus made some of the appoint- 
ments necessary for peace and order; had imposed 
taxes, and provided means for their collection. But 
this was all. 

Several important appointments necessary to the 
well-being of the settlement had not been made. The 
extent and importance of the transactions carried on at 
Wellington, together with the distance from Auckland, 
rendered the appointment of a local Judge almost indis- 
pensable. Mr. Martin and Mr. Swainson had sailed 
for Auckland on the 6th of September. 

No Harbour-master had been appointed. Auckland 
had been provided with a Harbour-master almost before 
any vessels entered that port ; while Wellington, after 
receiving 200 vessels, and with a daily increasing ship- 
ping-list, was still without such an officer. 

* Mr. Halswell received no salary for the performance of the 
last two offices. 


And yet the shipping had never been more busy 
than during the Governor's stay at Barrett's hotel. As 
though to contradict his ungenerous adoption of the 
calumnies of his ignorant Colonial Secretary against the 
port, ships, brigs, barques, and schooners were con- 
stantly dropping their anchor, or getting under way, 
or tacking just under his bed-room window. Vessels 
from Sydney and the other Australian colonies, from 
South America, from England, whalers for refresh- 
ments, and a numerous flotilla of coasters were daily 
turning the point, sometimes with fair, sometimes 
against contrary winds. The wharfs and beaches 
were almost obstructed by the landing of goods and 
the activity of a port. Indeed those who did hold 
communication with his Excellency often heard him 
acknowledge that, as a port, nothing could surpass 
Port Nicholson, and that " they must not expect to 
" see anything like it at Auckland." 

No Government buildings were appointed to be 
erected. The jail remained a straw hut, very much 
like a part of the adjoining native pa. The great 
barn which served for police-court, post-office, church, 
and court-house, still stood in the same state in which 
it had been deserted by the surveying staff — dilapi- 
dated, nearly tumbling down, and perfectly pervious 
to the wind in every quarter, with straw walls and 
earthen floor. But the large income to be drawn 
from the settlement by the newly enforced customs 
duties appeared doomed to be spent on Auckland. 

The Governor could not refrain from frequent admi- 
ration of the site and capabilities of Wellington, though 
he never went beyond the immediate neighbourhood of 
the town, not even visiting the Hutt. He very much 
qualified the expressions which he thus loudly made use 
of in words, when he got to Auckland and began to 
write home. But we have already seen that his Excel- 


lency did not scruple to misrepresent matters in order to 
defend his senseless choice to the Colonial Minister. 
Every one who heard him in Wellington felt convinced 
that he deeply regretted having made his election on the 
hearsay evidence of others. His visit to Akaroa had 
undeceived him completely as to one opinion which he 
had very rashly formed, that Auckland was a " cen- 
trical" position, because the Middle Island was hardly 
habitable, and not fit to be colonized ; and the ease with 
which the shipping came and departed on their various 
errands in opposite directions, must have convinced 
him, as a practical naval man, that Cook's Strait, with 
its excellent harbours, and room for the evolutions 
of a navy, is a much more advantageous communica- 
tion between the two coasts than the isthmus of 
three or four miles which separates the port of Auck- 
land from the bar-harbour of Manukao, a port often 
closed for weeks together by the prevailing westerly 

'1( The Governor's conduct with regard to the " Nelson" 
settlement was pitiful in the extreme. He left not a 
means untried of dissuading the foundation of this 
colony on the Middle Island, because he foresaw that 
any commencement of population there would more 
clearly point out the absurdity of considering Auckland 
a " centrical position." He raised up the claims of the 
Nanto-Bordelaise Company, at Banks's Peninsula, in 
opposition to the founding of Nelson at Port Cooper ; 
thus, apparently, wishing rather that France should 
colonize New Munster, than that its occupation by 
Englishmen should prove the fallacy of his hobby. 
Even when they determined on Blind Bay, he tried to 
alarm the Company's Agents by the exaggerated account 
which he gave of the number of claims said to be 
existing in that district, in right of purchases j)rior to 
the Company's ! ..i' :>,/ 


Captain Hobson left the land question in its former 
uncertain state ; reserving for the consideration of a Com- 
missioner, who had not yet been heard of, the claims of 
the natives ; and he did not even define these claims, so 
that they might not be augmented in quantity and extent 
during the indefinite delay. 

Although the Native Reserves seemed to offer a very 
easy means of satisfying the natives in the meanwhile, 
he rather took pains to make them useless and unpro- 
fitable, than to have them explained to the natives, and 
worked for their benefit. I do not hesitate to assert, that, 
had a well-arranged plan for the management of these 
Reserves been carried into execution, even so late as after 
Captain Hobson' s visit, and its effect thoroughly explained 
to the natives by the experience of its benefit, there would 
have been no case for the investigation of the Commis- 
sioner when he opened his court about eight months 
afterwards. Mr. Halswell, a gentleman of excellent 
education, of very kind and benevolent disposition, and 
extended views, who acquired the confidence and respect 
of the natives in a wonderfully short space of time, 
would certainly have succeeded in so establishing an 
improved state of things by means of the Reserves, that 
the Commissioner, when he began to take evidence in 
May following, would have found the natives over- 
flowing with gratitude to the white people for having 
come among them, and for having taught them to live 
with so much happiness and comfort. But Mr. Halswell 
was made to understand that he could not be allowed to 
take more extended views as Sub-Protector than his 
chief, Mr. Clarke; and he was restricted, as the Com- 
missioner of Native Reserves, during the short time that 
their management was left in his hands, to the granting 
leases of seven years' duration. It may of course be 
conjectured that none of the Native Reserves were let on 


these unprofitably short terms. And Mr. Halswell, 
too, like Colonel Wakefield, was ignorant for a long 
while of the writt-en instructions, as to moving from the 
pas, which had been left with his proteges by his supe- 
rior in office. j 

Thus was the great boon to the natives, — the only 
real payment to them proj)osed by the system on which 
the Company wished to provide for their permanent 
benefit and easy amalgamation with the white settlers, — 
stifled in the bud by the author of a rival scheme of 
colonization, who seemed jealous of allowing others to 
do that good to the natives, for which he had forgotten 
to provide in the distribution of his own cities and 
districts of country. And when, long afterwards, the 
Native Reserves produced no beneficial results, because 
shamefully neglected by the Government at whose 
absolute disposal they had been from the beginning, it 
was common for supporters of the local Government to 
make this a reproach to the persons who had devised 
the institution, though they had possessed no control 
or influence over its guidance. *' Look ! " they would 
say, " what good has been done by the Native Reserves, 
" which you so loudly boasted to be the real compensa- 
" tion to the natives for ceding their actual residences 
*' and cultivations ? " 

Captain Hobson must have left Wellington, deeply 
mortified at the manly independence of the settlers. 
Sensibly alive to the gross injustice of his conduct 
towards them, they had recorded their opinion in a 
manner which must have convinced him that they pos- 
sessed enough self-respect to resent an injury. No 
Governor, perhaps, ever witnessed the disapprobation of 
a community so palpably expressed, so temperately re- 
strained to decent expression, or so calmly and firmly 
maintained. He must have become aware that such a 



body of men were not to be neglected, and then appeased 
by a jest about an " olive-branch," or by- a sop in the 
pan : that they were not to be trampled into remon- 
strance, and then awed into submission by a ludicrous 
attempt to display " power and dignity." In short, it 
must have been clear to him that they had brought from 
England the knowledge and intelligence, the education 
and manners, the high courage and generous mind, the 
warm friendship and undaunted advocacy of their own 
liberties, peculiar to British gentlemen ; and that they 
saw through and despised his undignified jealousy and 
spite, his partiality to his own bantling settlement, and 
his obstinate perseverance in maintaining a destructive 
rivalry between the local Government and the northern 
settlers on the one hand, and the Company and its 
settlers in Cook's Strait on the other. They soon dis- 
covered that the interests of the natives, of the mission- 
aries, and of the early settlers, were not considered by 
Captain Hobson for their intrinsic value, but as instru- 
ments to support his own scheme, and to crush its older, 
more successful, and more reasonable rival. And they 
fully understood that he had gone away, detesting, as 
much as he had learned to respect them ; and that an 
unnatural war was still to continue between their legal 
protector and themselves. 

Not yet despairing of ultimate justice from England, 
they again girded up their loins for the struggle ; and, 
glancing carefully around at the naturally advantage- 
ous field of battle which they had chosen, they trusted 
to their own vigorous efforts, and looked forward to 
earning the victory at last, perhaps by a longer course of 
toil and disappointment, but therefore in a manner the 
more creditable to themselves. They began to say, 
what even now they do not cease to assert, that the 
gifts of nature to their adopted country, in soil, in posi- 
tion, and in climate, were so abundant as to warrant 

78 adventuhe in new Zealand. chap. ni. 

the prospect that these alone would enable men of cou- 
rage and energy to struggle through the political diffi- 
culties imposed upon them by a clique of men, who were 
certainly unworthy to tie the latchet of their shoe, in 
regard to their fitness for founding a colony, 
i For one allowance was perhaps due, and was by 
many people made, for the hostile and ruinous policy 
of the Governor. It was clear that he had never 
recovered the unimpaired use of his faculties, since 
his unfortunate attack of paralysis, soon after he 
first arrived at the Bay of Islands. His appearance 
in walking was that of extreme bodily infirmity ; and 
his manner and speech were full of the whimsical ob- 
stinacy and crotchety churlishness of an irritable and 
debilitated mind. In this state, it was not wonderful 
that he became the tool of the very inferior men by 
whom he had surrounded himself; and the Govern- 
ment was described by settlers to the north, who had 
better and longer opportunities of observation than our- 
selves, to have been carried on from the first by Lieu- 
tenant Shortland and Mr. Clarke. As far as education 
and mental capacity are concerned, I have already had 
occasion to dwell on the utter unfitness of both these 
gentlemen for their respective situations. It remains to 
be added, that they were both more or less concerned in 
land speculations in the northern part of the island, 
which could not but have caused them to make very 
strenuous exertions for confirming the Governor in his 
original choice, against all demonstration and argument. 
A Mr. Brodie, who wjis residing at the Bay of Islands 
when Lieutenant Shortland assumed his office, says, in 
a publication which he dedicated to Lord Stanley, that, 
not many weeks after Lieutenant Shortland had been 
in New Zealand, " he, together with Mr. G. Cooper,* 

* Colonial Treasurer, Collector of Customs, and ex officio Mem- 
ber of the Legislative Council. 


" and Mr. Felton Mathew,* and Mr. D. Johnson,t 
" purchased a large tract of country, in the Frith of 
" the Thames, from Mr. Webster, for which they gave 
" a bill of 1000/. Sir George Gipps, Governor of New 
" South Wales, heard of the transaction, and severely 
" reprimanded them ; they were nevertheless allowed 
" to keep the land." 

The Colonial Secretary and the Chief Protector of 
Aborigines both held allotments of land in the most 
valuable part of the town of Auckland, as their share 
of the job so ably exposed by Mr. Dudley Sinclair, and 
so severely reproved by Sir George Gipps. Mr. Clarke, 
not behind the rest of the resident missionaries, laid 
claim to 5500 acres in the northern part of the island, 
and has since obtained a Crown grant of them. 

Surely it was to the interest of these two officers, if 
they really had any influence over the Governor, to 
oppose the establishment of the Government at a place 
where all the land not required for public purposes was 
already appropriated, and rather to retain the Governor 
by all possible means in a district where the spirit of 
land-jobbing could at once obtain 21,000/. for 26 acres 
of a proposed town. 

* Surveyor-General of New Zealand, who reported officially in 
favour of the Thames as the site of the capital, at the same time 
that Lieutenant Shortland furnished an unfavourable account of 
Port Nicholson. 

t Also a Government employe. 



Voyage to Wanganui — Too late for selection of Lands — Police 
Magistrate — Jail — Manufacture of Hams and Bacon — Departure 
for Taupo — Ascend the Wanganui — Curious Missionary Chief — 
Rigorous discipline — Quarrel between Natives — Speech of a 
Youth— Scenery— The Pass in " the Place of Cliffs"— Giddy 
ascent of Cliff" — Monument — My Attendants — Baggage — Tribu- 

. tary of the Wanganui — Slow Progress — Forced March — Towai, 
or " Black Birch"— High Table Plains— Rain— Tonga Eiro 
Mountains — Legend of Taranaki — View to South-West — Roto 
Aera, or Lake " Yes, indeed " — Rest — Lake Taupo — Boiling 

' Springs — A fine Chief — Villages on the Lake — Visit to 
Heuheu — Feast — Haka, or Dance — Waitamd Pa — Well-be- 
haved Natives — Proceedings for Damages — An Artist in Tatu — 
The Process — Natives play Draughts — Local attraction of the 
Compass — Mr. Blackett — Journey from the Bay of Plenty to 
Taupo — Volcanic District — Farewell to Heuheu — ^His Speech — 

' Tapu on the Summit of a Mountain — Mr. Dandeson Coates — 

'. Distinction between Religious Respect and Landed Rights — 
Native Irony — Return from Taupo — Skirmish — Sacred Sand — 
Sulphureous River — Effect of Sunrise — Rolling Ranges— Flax 

We lay at Kapiti in the Gem two days ; having en- 
gaged to pick up some of the goods belonging to TVan- 
ganui settlers which had been wrecked in the Jewess, 
and since brought over and stored on Rauperahas 
island by the agent of Captain Mayhew. 

One morning we enjoyed the sight of some spirited 
whale-hunts ; four fish having been taken in the course 
of an hour, between Kapiti and the main. 

IJaffling N. W. winds, with intervals of calm, and 
the tub-like qualities of the schooner, detained us for 
seven or eight days more before we reached Tf^anganui. 
At length I steered her safely in, one calm morning at 


high water, with boats ahead. She was then drawing 
nine feet seven inches. Opposite my house she was 
rather carelessly run aground on the mud-bank ; but 
this did her no harm. 

We found that the selection was over, our messenger 
having come too late. The passengers of the Gem sent 
a remonstrance to Colonel Wakefield, begging that 
the choice might begin again, as the two or three se- 
lectors who had arrived by land in time had secured 
the best choices for their high numbers as well as their 
low ones, the order of choice of absent persons being 
considered reserved till a future selection, when more 
sections should be laid open. Colonel Wakefield an- 
swered in the negative, as his message to have the 
selection postponed had been perfectly conditional on 
the assent of all parties concerned, including those who 
had taken advantage of our absence. He remarked 
that we had come by water of our own free will, and 
that the accidental delay was the fault of ourselves, if 
of anybody. Although I was a party interested, having 
long before bought three land-orders from a sectionist 
who had not had patience to wait till the survey was 
completed, I was compelled to acknowledge that the 
decision was just. 

I remained rather more than a month at Tf^anganui, 
leading my old half-feudal, half-shopkeeping life ; with 
the house full of goods and of guests, of natives and 
White people, of various classes. Pig-hunts and walks 
with the Surveyors into new districts again spent the 
time agreeably, and I became more and more attached 
to this part of the country. The missionary natives^ 
however, were daily becoming more and more trouble- 
some in their obstruction to the peaceable location of any 
of the sections selected ; new repudiators, who had been 
parties to the sale, daily sprang up, and, after vain re- 



monstrance, were expunged from the list of my friends 
and guests ; and trading with them became daily more 
troublesome and distigreeable. Throughout these trou- 
bles, old Rangi Tauwira, and with him all the natives 
connected with E Kuru, stuck worthily to the bar- 
gain, and commented with indignation on the proceed- 
ings of the others. 

Towards the end of October, Mr. Dawson, the Police 
Magistrate, arrived, with a small attendance of constables. 
It had been determined that he should take up his abode 
at this place, instead of itinerating, as'Tiad been at first 
suggested. The refuse of the population gradually dis- 
appeared from the neighbourhood on this establishment 
of authority. We subscribed to put up a temporary jail 
at our own expense, as the Government would not un- 
dertake to devote any funds to this purpose. A small 
but strong slab-house was built ; and I subscribed the 
timber and shingles for the roof, having some men em- 
ployed in supplying me with these things for my own 
house, from the groves of timber five or six miles up the 

I now first started the curing of hams and bacon on 
a large scale, as the sending pigs alive to Wellington 
was a trade by this time overstocked, and therefore no 
longer profitable. One of the constables and another 
man were skilful hands at this work, and I ens^aged 
them at regular salaries to superintend the manufacture. 
Many others of the settlers soon followed the example. 
Hams and bacon became a considerable export ; and 
those from Pf^anganui soon acquired a known reputa- 
tion at Wellington and Nelson. They were much 
preferred to Westphalia and York hams imported from 
England, as these generally become somewhat rancid 
on the long voyage. 

I now pro|)osed to make a journey to Taupo, to see 


my old friends there. A chief of the Patutokoto tribe, 
named E Para, agreed to accompany me, with his 
attendants and family ; and E Kuru sent me word that 
his Taupo wife and his elder brother would also join 
me with their suite. After preparing all the a,rms, 
goods for barter, provisions, and other requisites, I 
started up the river in my light canoe, accompanied by 
JE Para in a large one of his own, on the 9th of 
November. We were bound to £/ Kurus country 
settlement at Tata, 100 miles up the river, in the first 
instance. I have already described the scenery as far 
as Pukihika, about 70 miles up. The only new feature 
was the sight of Te Kau Arapawa pa in ruins ; the 
houses, and fences, and trees, having been destroyed by 
the Taupo war-party on its return. The inhabitants 
were a branch of the Ngatiruanui tribe, and were there-- 
fore treated as enemies by the NgatipehL On the first 
approach of Heuheus army, they had removed to an 
isolated and almost inaccessible hill, about five milea 
lower down the river, called Tunuhaere, or " Cook as 
you go," on which they built a strong pa, which thft 
Taupo had not stopped to besiege. As they had early ac- 
quired the reputation of thieves and dishonest traders, 
no one regretted the disgrace which they had undergone 
in the abandonment and destruction of their original and 
favourite residence. Nine miles above Pukihika, after 
passing through some more delightful scenery, rather 
more wild and less inhabited in its character, we reached 
a large stockaded village called Pipiriki. Two for* 
tified hills constitute the defences in case of war ; but 
the inhabitants generally reside on the cultivated flat 
lietween the two. They were all mihanere ; but their 
former head chief, £J Kai, being the principal teacher 
and leader of religious exercises, I found them an exceed- 
ingly well-behaved and orderly community. The whole 



population, including the chief, being nearly related to 
E Kuru and Rangi Tauwira, received me very kindly. 
They were all among those who, having assisted at the 
bargain, have never attempted to secede from its ful- 
filment. They sincerely condoled with me on the 
dishonesty of the other natives. "In the old times," 
said E Kai, " we should have fought to maintain you 
♦' in possession of the land, against those who fairly 
" sold, and have since repented and told lies ; but now 
" we are missionaries, and we can only be sorry." 

I was much struck with the severe discipline which 
this curious specimen of a warlike and influential chief, 
turned into a stern religious pastor, maintained over 
his people, who may have amounted to 200 of all sexes 
and ages. The houses and the pa were cleanly and 
well kept. Almost perfect silence prevailed during the 
whole day. Everything was done apparently by some 
rule. The ovens were made up, the firewood cut, the 
court-yard swept out, as though by clockwork; and 
none of that noisy and merry chatter was ever heard, 
which generally distinguishes the Maori village. £ach 
week-day was kept with the solemnity of Sunday ; and 
jokes, songs, dances, or romping, were entirely banished. 
The very children seemed prematurely grown into 
little old men and women. While I was greeting the 
chief and his family, the rest of the community sat at a 
distance. None of the usual crowding round, and if 
it were not for its hilarity, almost intrusive rushing to 
shake hands ; no shouts ; not even a smile. 

In the midst of this remarkable stillness, one among 
the mutes, could refrain no longer, and laughed outright 
at some cheerful observation which I made to the chief. 
" Who laughed?" shouted E Kai, in his deepest 

No answer, — long faces, — and repressed tittering 


among the ranks of the half-hidden children at the 

" Who was it laughed ?" repeated he, seeking to 
find the culprit. But the gay joker could not summon 
courage to acknowledge his crime ; and so E Kai 
treated the assemblage to a long sermon on the sin of 
laughing. He had perfectly by rote the greater part 
of the New Testament ; and quoted from it in order 
to support almost everything that he asserted. " A 
" man that hath looked on a woman," said he, *' has 
" already committed adultery in his h«art : so he that 
" laugheth, hath already stolen ; for the thief laughs to 
** your face while he steals your property. Laugh ye 
** not ! for it is the way to sin." 

Such was the intense religious enthusiasm of this 
extraordinary man ; and such the extravagance of speech 
and doctrine to which he was carried by it. Bene- 
volent and high-minded, of a character to lead other 
men, endowed with much firmness and kindness of 
heart, and even wise on many points, E Kai had early 
embraced the new doctrine with fervour, and had ap- 
pointed to himself the task of leading all his tribe in 
the way that they should go. He reminded me of 
some old patriarch of the Cameronians by his rigorous 
discipline and intensity of purpose ; and, though I 
thought his doctrine carried out in practice to much too 
saddening a degree for such merry men as his followers, 
I could not refuse him my high admiration for the ad- 
mirable success of his plans, for his great consistency, 
and for the having inculcated a very unusual observance 
of the moral virtues as well as the mere forms of the 
Christian religion among his flock. The Pipiriki 
people were certainly the best-behaved natives whom I 
had yet seen under the new regime. Though under 
these severe restrictions while in the village, E Kai 


always encouraged them to unabated industry in the 
field ; and their trade with the White peoj)le had caused 
them to be more cleanly and respectably dressed, and 
better supplied with the luxuries of civilized life, than 
most bodies of natives. I could have wished to see 
many English clergymen, endowed with the same 
worthiness of character, but with education to prevent 
the exaggeration of religion into absurdities, dispersed 
among the natives. Allowing for the ignorance which 
had led E Kai to carry religious feeling to a degree 
which appeared ridiculous to a sensible person, he was 
otherwise a model for many a White missionary. 

The strictness of his principles nearly led to a serious 
quarrel between him and my attendants, They were 
all " devils," or unconverted natives, and almost all of 
them of the Ngatipehi tribe, or closely connected with 
it. Among them were several of the young warriors 
who had been in the last war-party, and had remained 
attached to my establishment on the persuasion of their 
relative, one of E Kurus wives. E Kai and his fol- 
lowers had embraced the party of their brothers in the 
Church throughout the feud, although they had taken 
no share of the actual fighting. Knowing that my 
" boys" would not agree with the people in the pa, I 
had pitched my small tent on the river-bank, below 
the terrace where the village was situated, and had di- 
rected my attendants to light a fire and encamp around 
it. Mr. Niblett (a gentleman whom I had picked up 
at Pukihika, and who intended to join me in the trip) 
and I had lain down in the tent, and were dozing off 
to the monotonous tune of the native songs, with which 
they were beguiling the first hours of the night, accord- 
ing to their almost invariable custom. The opening 
of the tent showed the brawny forms of two or three 
of them, stripped to the waist and squatting round the 


fire, whose red glare flickered over their quivering limbs 
and excited features. Suddenly I heard the stern voice 
of E Kai addressing them from the fence above. He 
complained rudely of the interruption which they were 
causing to the hymns and catechism which were going 
on in the village after the evening service. They an- 
swered, quietly, that they were on the bank of the 
river, the highway for all travellers, and that no one 
could complain of their following their own customs 
there. They added, that the hymns interrupted 
them quite as much as their songs did his people. He 
replied in ruder tones, and with rougher expressions. 
They preserved their good humour, and laughed and 
joked while they carried on the controversy, E Kai 
gradually lost his temper ; and, as they were just going 
to begin again, having invited his attention to a newly- 
invented song, which was quite the fashion, like one 
of Balfe's new operas here, he suddenly addressed to 
them an insulting taunt in these words, " Who painted 
■" the red post ?" This was an allusion to the koko- 
wai - painted monuments which I have mentioned, 
as being erected in the places where Tautekas bones 
had rested. It was as much as to say, '* Who lost 
*' their head chief, and had to fetch his bones home 
** from the field of defeat ?" 

The effect of this taunt was most remarkable. The 
group round the fire suddenly put aside all signs of 
gaiety ; they gathered up their blankets round their 
faces, and hung their heads gloomily down ; and a sad 
silence prevailed for a few minutes, as though they 
were grieving over the dead, and collecting their 
thoughts to resent the insult offered to his memory 
and their own misfortune. At length the eldest of 
the party, a young warrior of 25, who had been one of 
the fugitives from the memorable massacre, rose up to 


his full height, and addressed E Kai in slow speech, 
full of majesty and noble pride. He seemed to over- 
come, for the emergency, the diffidence of a youth to 
speak on important subjects, and assumed the air and 
manner of an old chief renowned in the council. 

" Why," said he, " have you taunted us with the 
** foul death of our great ancestor ? Why have you 
" made our hearts dark by speaking, that w^e should 
" remember the wrongs of our chief? If your creed be 
" one of love and peace, how can you be straight in 
" speaking words which are bitter to the hearts of our 
** people ? Listen ! you have spoken of the past, and 
" you know not what to-morrow will bring. Can you 
" tell when the cold north wind shall blow from the 
** mountain ? Can you see when the snows of Tonga 
" Riro shall sweep down hither from its white face, 
" or when the flooded river shall inundate the level 
*' lands with the water from the hills? You have made 
" a speech which is sore to our innermost entrails ; the 
" word is remembered by the children of Tauteka. 
" Enough has been spoken. I have done." 

No more songs were heard : they lay down in their 
places round the fire, wrapped in their blankets ; and 
they shouted no farewell to the inhabitants when we 
started in the morning. I afterwards heard this aflair 
discussed for days among the chiefs of Taupo ; and it 
was clear that, in case of another war-party coming 
from that place, sanguinary vengeance would be exacted 
for the heedless insult. It was to the probability of 
this that the young orator had referred, when he figur- 
atively described the sons of Heuheu as the cold north 
wind, and the snows and waters of the hills. 

From Pipiriki to Tata, a distance of 20 miles, the 
scenery assumes a new and magnificent character, the 
river flowing between cliffs 100 to 200 feet in height. 


fringed with graceful ferns and mosses down to the 
water's edge, while the wood on the top hangs far over 
the precipice from both sides. In this part, the only 
path to the settlements consists of a rude but strong 
ladder, consisting of trees and kareau, or supple-jack, 
reaching from the water to the top. It is this district 
of the country which is called by the natives Te TValii 
Pari, or " The Place of Cliffs." 

About half-way between the two places we passed 
Mangeao, an almost impregnable position, from which 
the Pf^anganui people have been accustomed to look 
down with security and contempt upon passing war- 
parties of the JVaikato and other invading tribes. 

Coming suddenly round a sharp bend in the river, 
you are in a rapid reach about half-a-mile long, beyond 
which the river again turns to the right. The cliffs 
increase in height as you advance into the reach, so 
that the forest-trees on their edge seem like feathers ; 
the song of the birds among them is only faintly heard, 
and the streams which rush over the steep are frittered 
into the thinnest spray long before they reach the 
water. Facing you, the cliff is surmounted by a steep 
hill of the additional height of some 500 or 600 feet, 
which seems to tower proudly over the trench in which 
the river flows ; and on its top, the natives told me 
afterwards, are cultivations, springs of water, and woods 
of large timber, and ample room to support many hun- 
dred people when compelled to take refuge there. 

Though the river has a considerable descent here, and 
the polers have to work hard throughout the distance in 
ascending, the gradual increase in the height of the cliffs 
combines with the way in which the strata strike the 
water-line, to produce a remarkable optical deception. 
It seems as though you were rapidly descending ; and 
I have more than once noticed that, in returning to- 


wards the sea at the rate of ten miles an hour, you ap- 
pear to be going up hill at this particular spot. Add 
to this, that out of a dark cavern in either clifif, near the 
water's edge, a large stream comes roaring, and echoing, 
and foaming into the river ; that an augmenting dark- 
ness is produced, as you advance, by the height of the 
cliffs and the comparative narrowness of the cleft in 
which the river flows ; and that some old legend or 
superstition makes the natives speak in whispers and 
compose their features to seriousness ; and the sublimity 
of the whole scene may be imagined. Such was the in- 
tense excitement produced on me by this burst of na- 
ture's majesty, when I first went through the pass, that 
I relieved myself involuntarily by a deep sigh and a 
rushing of tears to my eyes, when we had passed on 
into the comparatively tame and reposing scenery which 
immediately follows. 

Just before we arrived at Tata^ we gave notice of our 
approach by a rattling salute. The reports reverbe- 
rated far along the steep walls of the river s channel 
and rolled up the wooded hills above, mingled with the 
sharper tones of the answering salute from the settle- 
ment. At length we reached the foot of one of the 
sky-scraping ladders which I have before described, 
leading to the top of the cliff, here about 200 feet hi<rhi 
while the river is not more than 40 yards broad'. 
The natives clambered carelessly up, with heavy chests, 
and guns, and paddles, and my great dog in their arms,' 
while I was ascending cautiously, step by step, with 
uncertain footing, and hands aching with the efforts 
which I made to clench hard the vibrating rounds of 
the ladder. At the bottom they had shown me the 
spot where " two or three foolish old women," they 
said, " had been smashed quite flat, having missed a 
" step while going down in the dark to the canoes." 

Chap. IV. MONUMENT. 9| 

At last I reached the top in safety. Here E Kuru, 
with all his family and adherents, were drawn up to 
receive me. He has a nice, quiet, happy-looking set- 
tlement, on the flat, about 300 yards in breadth, which 
intervenes between the edge of the cliff and the hills. 
The next day I was guided by him and a large train to 
a mountain called Aurupu, close to the river, about two 
miles higher up, from which I got a view of Tonga 
Riro and Mount Egmont. There is an extensive tract 
of fine wooded upland country all about here, not very 
hilly, and possessing an extremely rich soil. In many 
places, cleared by the natives, there are tracts of 500 
or 600 acres where the plough could be used. The 
native plantations on both sides of the river are very 

After enjoying the view, we descended to the river's 
bank, and crossed in a canoe to Tieke, a large settlement 
two miles higher up the river than Tata, and inhabited 
by people chiefly of the Ngatiawa trilie related to E 
Kuru. Here there is a beautiful monument in honour 
of a dead chieftainess. It consists, as usual, of a large 
canoe stuck upright, and is 30 feet high, ornamented 
with carving representing three figures standing one at 
the top of the other's head. The workmanship is most 
elaborate, scarcely a square inch of the wood being left 
plain ; and the whole is painted with red ochre and 
fringed with albatross feathers. The two men who 
carved it told me it took them six weeks to complete. 
The bones of the person to whose memory the monu- 
ment was sacred were pointed out to me up in a tree. 
It is a common custom with the natives to expose 
bodies in this way, covered with old mats, on platforms 
in high trees, or elevated on long poles, till the flesh 
has rotted off the bones. The bones are then collected 
and placed in their final mausoleum, generally an 


enclosed house above ground. I returned to Tata in 
a canoe, along a reach of the river which is flanked 
by successive buttresses of cliflp, in form like round 

«J It was not till the 19th that the party was ready to 
start. The loads were packed and distributed among 
the natives. I had with me a large quantity of goods, 
both for the purchase of mats and for presents to my 
friends. So one carrier had a large kit full of blankets, 
and another a bundle of half-a-dozen pieces of printed 
calico. A hundred-weight of tobacco formed another 
load ; a tin-box, containing tea, sugar, and bottles of 
jjepper, salt, and mustard ; another, containing journal- 
books, sketch-book, pencils, and other necessary nick- 
nacks ; pipes among the blankets, spare boots or baked 
legs of pork fastened to the top of baskets full of 
shirts ; bags of shot, tinder-boxes, cartouch-boxes, 
canisters of powder, hand-lamps, a bottle of oil, toma- 
hawks, leathern valises with spare clothes, pea-jackets, 
and a light tent, figured among the baggage. One 
man looked like Atlas, as he went along with a huge 
damper on the top of his pack. This is a loaf baked 
in the ashes, which has the advantage of never getting 
much harder than on the day it is baked. 
J The tent packed into very small space. It was 
composed of unbleached calico. It stretched over two 
uprights four feet high, and a ridge pole six feet long, 
to the breadth of about four or five feet. The necessary 
poles and the pegs for the bottom were cut at the en- 
campment each night, or carried from the wood in 
passing when we had to encamp in the open country. 

When rolled up, the tent was not so bulky as a great- 
coat, and yet, when well stretched, it aflforded ample 
shelter from a night's heavy rain to two people. 

. On the 19th, then, we got into the canoes, to 


the number of about 35, men, women and children. 
We pulled down four miles to the place where a 
tributjiry, called Manganm, or " large branch," flows 
into the Wanganui. This we ascended about two 
miles, the natives jumping out and tracking the canoes 
up rapids, several of which had a fall of six feet. The 
Manganui also runs between cliffs, nearly 200 feet in 
height, and is inhabited as far up as we went that 
night. We encamped at a settlement called Moe" 
awatea, or *' Sleep-in-the-day-time," and proceeded the 
next morning, after crossing the river twice immediately 
above, through hilly forest-land for about five miles. 
Here the boys were tired with their heavy loads, and 
stopped in a patch of fern for the night. But it would 
be tedious to relate each day's journey separately. 
Suffice it to say that, although I had been told it was 
but two days' walk from the TVanganui to Taupo, at 
noon on the 23rd the natives said it was still two or 
three days' walk. We had proceeded but slowly. 
Our path lay chiefly along the valley of the Manganui, 
which keeps an average of two miles wide, and is inter- 
sected by a deep cleft in which the river runs. Many 
parts of the valley are clear, and in some places we 
passed over small plains of grass ; in others, we plunged 
into the forest, and crossed steep ridges, apparently in 
order to avoid circuitous bends of the valley. We had 
forded the river five times ; and the assistance of the 
natives was most welcome in overcoming the difficul- 
ties occasioned by the rapidity of the stream, and the 
slippery rocky footing. This road must be perfectly 
impassable in winter, when the river is swollen by 
freshets. The heavy loads had made our progress very 
slow : so that the potatoes began to run short, and 
they all stopped to dig fern in one of the open places. 
Fortunately the river abounded with a kind of bird 


between a coot and a widgeon, called wio, of which we 
shot about half-a-dozen at each ford. 

I now selected two natives to carry my tent and 
bedding, and Mr. Niblett and I determined to push on 
by a forced march. We accordingly left the rest to 
roast fern to their heart's content, and bring up the 
heavy baggage at their leisure. We had only per- 
formed 36 miles, according to rough calculation, since 
leaving Moe-awatea. 

The greater part of the course of the valley has been 
formerly occupied, and since abandoned, by the tribes 
who, leaving Taupo and other parts of the interior, 
gradually migrated to Wanganui, and have now fixed 
their residence on its banks. Every day we were 
shown the sites of ancient pas, and the fields on which 
numerous battles had been fought in the olden time 
between the different tribes from ff^anganui, Taupo, 
Waikato, and even the Ngatikahuhunu of the east 

We pushed on about six miles more to-day through 
forest, and encamped at dark under an old rata tree of 
renown, which glories in the name of Korako. We 
had forded the river twice ; and ascended its bank the 
last time by means of a rickety kareau ladder, al)out 
30 feet high, which is fixed to the cliff' at the exact 
spot where a small waterfall spouts over the edge, and 
renders the ascent far from safe or pleasant. 

It rained moderately all night and poured at day- 
light ; but we had now no other alternative than to 
push on, defying the weather. Ten miles, over a level 
table-land covered with wood, brought us to the Man-' 
ganui, where it is swollen by three smaller streams. 
We descended at least 1500 feet to the stream, crossed 
it and two of its tributaries, and then ascended a 
ragged ridge, to the opposite bank of the dark, deep 


dell in which the stream flows. This dell, with its 
various branches, presents a very picturesque appear- 
ance, from the steepness and height of its banks, which 
are covered almost wholly with the towai. This tree has 
very small dark leaves. It is used for ship-building, 
and is called by Englishmen the " black birch." It 
generally grows in elevated situations. Five miles 
more along a forest, consisting of nothing but towai, 
brought us to a level grass plain, which continues at the 
same height as the table forest-land. The plain seemed 
about four miles in width, and was bounded on either 
side by wooded hills, whose summits were hidden by 
thick masses of clouds. This kind of prairie is called 
mania by the natives. It is covered with a poor tufty 
grass of very delicate blade, though here and there are 
excellent patches of other grasses well fitted for pasture. 
At twilight we prepared to encamp at the edge of a 
point of wood which projected like a promontory from 
the eastern edge of the prairie. We had some difficulty 
in lighting a fire, as it had poured incessantly the whole 
day ; and we were obliged to fare on short commons, 
and sit wrapped in our blankets by the fire until the 
warmth made us sleepy enough to tuni in, notwith- 
standing the wet, which had completely soaked through 
tent, blankets, and everything else. 

Two young weka, or wood-hens, about as large as 
sparrows, which my dog pulled out of their nest in a 
burrow under a fallen tree, were esteemed a valuable 
addition to our scanty supper. 

The rain had continued all night, and gave no signs 
of mercy in the morning ; but as one wio and twelve 
potatoes were our whole stock of provisions, and we 
were still far from our journey's end, delay was out of 
the question. At the first dawn of day we pulled on 
our wet clothes, and walked eight miles along the 


prairie, which is in many parts swampy and covered 
with rushes. We now crossed a small tributary of the 
ff^anganui, and, after two miles* walk through a belt 
of towai forest, a larger tributary called the Tawai. 
The plains now seemed to extend on every side ; and as 
the weather cleared up, and the clouds lifted, we saw 
the majestic forms of Ruapehu, and the Para te tat 
Ton^a volcano, within a few miles of us to the eastward. 
Furthest to the southward lay Ruapehu, covered with 
snow. This is the mountain seen from Cook's Strait. 
A low ridge joins the northern spur of Ruapehu to 
the southern base of Para te tai T'onga, a volcanic 
peak, in the shape of a regular cone, of equal height 
with Ruapehu, and hidden by it from the south coast. 
Para te tai Tonga is the mountain which Mr. Bidwell 
ascended in 1838, and calls " Tonga Dido." Tonga 
Riro, however, is a generic name applied to the whole 
mountain mass. 

To the north-east of the volcano, two peaks, appa- 
rently extinct volcanoes, complete the gigantic group. 
This double peak is called Puki Onaki, and is not more 
than two-thirds the height of either of the others. 
The whole distance from the summit of Puki Onaki to 
that of Ruapehu, may be about 20 miles. 

After eating a quarter of a wio and two potatoes 
each, for breakfast and dinner, we pushed on 12 miles 
over a barren plain to the northern spur of Puki Onaki ; 
on the highest part of which we divided about two 
ounces of sugar, our last atom of food, among the four 
of us, and ate it with much relish. 

Here, too, we took a good rest, and looked about us. 
We had just passed close under the base of a small ex- 
tinct volcano, which rises from the western side of the 
mountain mass to the height of 1400 or 1500 feet, 
and we had crossed the Jfakapapa, a large tributary of 


the TVanganm. This stream takes its rise from a small 
lake, situated to the westward of the lowest part of the 
ridge which unites Ruapehu to Para te tai Tonga. The 
lake is at the bottom of a circular basin of rocks, five 
or six miles in diameter, which is stated by the natives 
to have once been the site of Mount Egmont. 

On quarrelling with his friend Tonga Riro about the 
affections of a small volcanic mountain in the neigh- 
bourhood, which is described as a lady mountain of most 
fascinating appearance, old Taranakl is said to have 
torn up his rocky foundations from this basin, and left 
the ragged and splintered edges to it, which are pointed 
out as proofs of the fact. He then clove a path through 
mountain and wood to the sea-coast, and the JVanganui 
sprang up in his ancient site, and followed his footsteps to 
the sea. So runs the native legend ; and the basin is called 
to this day Rua Taranaki, or Taranaki's Dyke. It most 
likely refers to some tremendous eruptions of nature which 
have doubtless torn these islands at some distant date. 

From this open and elevated spot we could distin- 
guish numerous glades like that by which we had en- 
tered the mania, shooting into the wooded country like 
the fingers of an outstretched hand, diverging from 
the volcano in various directions, and of different 
lengths and breadths. On the edges of that along 
which we had travelled, the trees were dead, and many 
of them scathed and blackened. And in the very cen- 
tre of the broad glade, especially among the swampy 
parts, we constantly came upon the trunks of huge trees, 
black as charcoal, and half buried in the soil. From 
these appearances, I concluded that the glades had been 
formed, at the time of these convulsions, by the irrup- 
tion of streams of burning lava into the woods. At 
present. Para te tai Tonga only vomits clouds of steam, 
and that only now and then ; but it has probably, at a 

VOL. II. li 


former period, and will again, discharge more dangerous 
materials. «l 

On the north-eastern side of the spur, we crossed the 
TVanganui itself, where it just trickles l^etween the 
stones which form its winter bed, and was not al)ove a 
yard wide. It rises from the N.W. side of Puki Onaki, 
and after being swollen by the ff^akapapa and Tawai, 
flows away towards the W.S.W. From the highest 
point of our path, we could trace the broken country 
formed by its valley for many miles almost directly to- 
wards Mount Egmont, which glittered gaily over the 
far horizon. The whole country to the W. and S.W. 
seems one sea of wooded mountain. The northern side of 
Puki Onaki slopes down very suddenly to the shores of 
a small lake, called Roto Aera, or " Lake Yes-indeed."* 
On the western side of this lake, the land is flat and 
clear for eight or ten miles, when it becomes hilly and 
wooded, though a glade of the prairie there runs to the 
northward. The eastern end of the lake is also level 
and clear ; but of that I shall speak hereafter. The 
northern end of the lake is separated from the southern 
end of Tawpo lake by two mountains, called Kakaramea 
and Pihanga, and the wooded ridge which unites them. 

From the spot where we jumped over the Tf^anganui 
to the west shore of Roto Aera is about five miles, the 
last two through a swamp in which we sank up to our 
knees at every step. 1 remember being much exhausted 
by this last exertion at the close of the hard day's 
journey. We were faint with hunger, sore-footed, and 
speechless from fatigue ; but we could not help smiling 
at the absurdity of each other's appearance, when occa- 
sionally resting by standing still up to our knees in 
water, unable to sit or lie down. 

The greatest length of the lake is from N.N.W. to 
* The Roto Iti, or " little lake," of Mr. Bidwill's ' Rambles.' 

Chap. IV. TUKU-TUKU — REST. ; V m 

S.S.E., about five miles. At the N.W. end, a swampy 
isthmus, 100 yards broad, joins a small peninsula to the 
main. This peninsula, called Motu o Puhi, at its junc- 
tion with the isthmus is defended by a very strong 
double fence. On it are the houses inhabited by the 
natives of the lake when compelled to take refuge there 
from the attacks of hostile tribes. A canoe from the 
eastern shore soon answered our salutes from the fort, 
and took us over to a settlement called Jjuku-tuku, 
where they set abundance of boiled potatoes before us ; 
but I fell asleep in my clothes after eating two or three, 
more tired than hungry, notwithstanding the jabber of 
at least fifty natives of both sexes, who crowded into 
the house to stare at the new pakehas, and hear the 
news from Tf^anganui. The house was a warepuni, or 
native hot-house, of large dimensions. It was very 
lofty ; held fifty people comfortably ; and was adorned 
inside with paddles, spears, and nets of two or three 

On the 26th we remained at Tuku-tuku to rest. 
This is a pretty settlement, in the N.E. corner of the 
lake. The underwood has been cut away, but the tall 
forest trees, chiefly matai or mai, remain standing and 
still alive ; the plantations and villages are disposed 
among their trunks, on the acclivity which rises from 
the side of the lake to Pihanga. They grow all their 
potatoes here by throwing up the soil in heaps, about 
four feet in diameter, and a foot high ; so that the 
whole cultivation takes place above the surface in arti- 
ficial beds. The soil is a rich brown loam, mingled, 
however, with a large proportion of powdered pumice- 
stone. The rain continued at intervals, and the clouds 
hung below the summit of Puki Onakl Half-way up 
the steep N.E. face of this mountain, a boiling spring 
juts out, which is considered by the natives a sovereign 



remedy for some diseases : they travel from all parts to 
benefit by its healing qualities ; ff^atanui, the head chief 
of the Ngatiraiikawa tribe, is stated to have obtained 
here a wonderful cure. 

f On the next morning, the rest of our party arrived, 
saluting from the time they crossed the ridge ; and the 
whole day was taken up with the usual tangi, or crying, 
and feasts of potatoes, pigs baked whole in the native 
oven, and pots filled with small fish out of the lake. 
This fish is called hinanga, and resembles Blackwall 
white-bait in size and flavour. Its colour is a pinkish 
white, spotted with black. The rain continued all day, 
but was no interruption to the festival. About 200 
people of all ages and sexes assembled from the villages 
at this end of the lake to greet the strangers. 

29th. The rain continued ; and we were all glad of 
another day's rest for our sore feet. 

On the 30th, passing over the low wooded neck 
which unites Kakaramea to Pihanga, we emerged, 
after about four miles' easy walk through wood, into 
fern ground, from which we enjoyed a magnificent 
view of Lake Taupo and the surrounding country. 

This lake lies much lower than Boto Aera, but 
still at a great elevation above the sea. At the opposite 
end of the lake, a mountain, called Tauhara, is a con- 
spicuous object, rising as it does from a level table- 
country to the height of 3000 or 4000 feet. It bore 
from our position N. 20° E., and might be 35 miles 
distant. I should estimate the length of the lake at 
30 miles, and its mean breadth at 20. The shores, 
from N.W. to N.E., seemed to be lined with cliffs of 
considerable height, from the edge of which a clear table 
plain stretches to the horizon on all sides, except where 
the tops of two isolated mountains may be dimly dis- 
tinguished in the extrenie distance to the N. These 

Chap. IV. LAKE TAUPO. 101 

are probably Rangitoto, and another of the same range. 
On the eastern shore, the cliffs recede from the lake, and 
become more gentle in their slope from the table-land 
to a marshy flat, which reaches without interruption 
from the S.E. to the S.W. corner of the lake. In the 
S.E. corner, a long low isthmus joins a peninsula of 
considerable size and height to the main ; and in a line 
between the peninsula and Mount Tauhara, a small 
island rises to the height of 200 or 300 feet from the 
water. The peninsula is called Motu o Apa, and the 
island Motu Tahiko. About three miles to the south- 
ward of the isthmus, the TVaihato river flows into the 
lake, by three sluggish, shallow mouths ; and the valley 
of the river, from four to five miles in breadth, stretches 
away to the S.E., between Pihanga and Totiga Riro 
to the W., and the western extremity of Kai Manawa 
to the east. Kai Manawa, or " Heart-eater," is the 
name given to that part of the Ruahine range which 
lies to the northward of the source of the Rangitikei 
river. The chain of hills formed by Pihanga, the ridge 
which we had just crossed, and Kakaramea, approaches 
gradually to the lake; and a little beyond the S.W. 
corner, the shores again consist of rocky cliffs, fringed 
with wood to the water's edge, for two or three miles. 
Further to the N., the land again gradually slopes from 
a beach to the table prairie, which extends for about 12 
miles to wooded mountains in the direction of Kawia, 
and apparently with little interruption to the north- 
Ward. About 10 miles from the S.W. corner, the 
gentle acclivity is interrupted by an isolated mountain, 
called TVareroa, whose eastern face appears to be a 
basaltic cliff. Beyond this, the shores are again gradual 
in their rise to the table-land for several miles, till the 
cliffs close in, and continue round the northern extre- 
mity of the lake, where the Waikato issues seaward. 


Between the base of the mountain ridge on which we 
now stood, and the banks of the upper TVaikato, a 
curious isolated hill rises to the height of 600 or 700 
feet out of the marshy flat. This hill is called Maunga 
Namu, or " Sand-fly Mountain," and is used as a ceme- 
tery by the natives. Descending from the high ground, 
we now crossed the Tokanuj a stream which flows from 
the northern side of the Pihanga, and, passing between 
the hills and Maunga Namu, glides into the lake near 
its S.W. corner. After crossing a small swamp, and a 
coppice of low manuka, we came suddenly on a novel 

A space of about 10 acres on either side of the 
Tokanu stream is perforated with holes and cavities of 
various sizes, from which steam issues in large quan- 
tities. Some part of this space is barren, and whitened 
by the sulphureous exhalations from the hot springs ; 
but in other places, manuka and rich grass grow to 
the very edge of a boiling cavity. In some places, a 
small hole only is perceptible, from which issues a 
stream of steam : here the natives form their ovens, 
and cook food very nicely with great expedition. In 
other spots, cavities from 10 to 30 feet in diameter 
are filled with water of various temperatures ; some 
nearly boiling, others tempered by the cold stream 
which runs through one part of them. In one of the 
latter we all had a delicious bath. The cavity was too 
deep to reach the bottom, though we dived ofl* a bank 
eight feet high ; and the temperature varied from 70° 
to 100° as you approached or not the embouchure of 
the different springs that supply the bath. In all 
directions steam or hot water issues from the ground ; 
and the clouds of steam which cover the spot, and the 
gurgling of the diflerent hot fountains around you, add 
to the wonder excited by the strange sight A stranger 

Chap. IV. A FINE CHIEF. 117 ' i., -. HW 

requires to be careful as to where he steps. We were 
shown two deep basins full of nearly boiling water, 
into one of which a man threw his slave for stealing 
potatoes ; while a pig had forced a man who was pur- 
suing him into the other. They said that the bones 
of both were plainly visible a year or two since, but 
have been completely destroyed by the action of the 

It is from this and similar spots, which abound be- 
tween Lake Taupo and the Bay of Plenty, that the 
denizens of this volcanic region have assumed the 
generic name of Pf^ai Korapupu, or " Boiling Water." 

Half a mile from the springs, we reached the set- 
tlement of T'okanu, where 300 people were assem- 
bled to receive us. I was ushered into a house newly 
built in anticipation of my arrival, and then the tangi 
and speeches went on as usual. This place is close 
to the mouth of the stream, on the flat, which is 
here perhaps a mile broad, between the lake and the 
hills. Extensive patches, sown with the kumera, are 
neatly fenced in and cultivated. The remainder of the 
flat is equally divided between a raupo swamp and 
grassy common. This settlement owns for leader a 
chief named Here-kie-kie, or " Flax," who behaved to 
me in the most hospitable and pleasing manner for a 
month that I remained here. Exceedingly handsome 
in figure and face, and of commanding stature, he 
blended great dignity of mien with a very affable dis- 
position, and pleased me no less by the well-earned 
respect and obedience which he exacted from his fol- 
lowers, than by the unassuming way in which he strove 
to do the honours of his residence, and to make us 
enjoy our sojourn with him. Although only about 
28 years of age, his authority seemed unquestioned ; 
and he used it with perfect good-nature in keeping the 


natives from coming into the house, or importuning us 
by their too frequent questions or observations. I con- 
sidered him decidedly one of the finest specimens of a 
wild New Zealander that I had yet seen. 

My companion fell ill soon after we arrived at 
Tokanu ; so that I was detained a month here, in- 
stead of pushing on, as I had intended, to Auckland by 
way of Tf^aikaio and Manukau. I ascertained that in 
eight days I might easily have reached Auckland from 
Taupo, by that route. 

During my sojourn, I visited the different settlements 
between Motu o Apa and one called Pukawa, a few 
miles to the S. of TVareroa. Pukawa is j)leasantly 
situated in the bight of a little cove beyond the wooded 
cliffs before mentioned. About 100 natives mustered 
to receive me and my train, who had arrived in a large 
canoe, in pursuance of their invitation to a feast pre- 
pared for us. They are chiefly missionaries at this 
settlement, which is headed by a chief named Pairangi, 
or " Good Sky." At all the other settlements, a family 
or two call themselves converts, but are very heartily 
despised by the others, who are instructed by their 
head chiefs to adhere to their ancient rites and cus- 
toms. I found that many of the converts were Roman 
Catholics, having the prayer-books of that church, 
and brass crucifixes and relics round their necks. 

South of Pukawa, the wooded cliffs are broken by 
a cascade of 100 feet in height, which falls into the 
lake out of a bower of mingled foliage : this fall, and 
the settlement at its base, are called fFliihi. From 
thence to Terapa* at the extreme S.W. corner of the 
lake close to the northern base of Kakaramea, plantji- 
tions of corn, melons, pumpkins, and kumeras, cover 
the steep bank of rocks which rises from the water to 

* Coteropo of Bidwill's Map. 


the same level as the top of the fall ; and at Terapa 
is a small stream and another settlement, at which old 
Heuheu resides in time of peace. 

The terraced flat between a steaming gorge at the 
western extremity oi Kakaramea and the lake is covered 
with plantations and isolated houses. Among these 
latter, that of Heuheu is prominent. It is about 40 feet 
long, 15 broad, and of a proportionate height : a narrow 
verandah ornaments the northern front, before which 
a square is reserved from the kumera grounds which 
surround it on three sides. On the day that we went, 
by previous appointment, to pay our first visit to the 
old man, about 200 people had assembled in the little 
square ; and Heuheu, who sat at one end of the veran- 
dah, attended by his principal wife, motioned us to a 
seat while he went through the necessary tangi with 
the TJ^anganui natives. A splendid feast followed: 
200 kits of boiled potatoes and kumeras, five pigs 
skewered like birds and baked whole, eight or ten pots 
full of white-bait, and three calabashes of pigeons and 
tuis stewed in their own fat (a sort of galantine de 
gibier\ were brought in by a long train of slaves, and 
piled up in the centre of the square. After this had 
been distributed among the visitors, the chief talked tome 
about TVanganuiy the Governor, and Poniki, and asked 
me to come and see him again before I left the neigh- 
bourhood. In the meanwhile, he gave me five pigs for 
food while I remained at Tokanu, and said he was 
ashamed of having no food to offer me such as White 
men liked. He expressed great gratitude for my re- 
ception of him and his war-party at TVanganui the 
autumn before; and begged me to look about the country 
and call it my own, and the people my people. But he 
accompanied this with a warning not to try and buy 
the land from him, for he had determined never to sell 
either that or his chieftainship. 


i> He concluded the interview by saying that he re- 
membered I was fond of hearing the songs and seeing 
the dances of the natives. So, like a baron of olden time 
shouting " A hall, a hall !" he yelled, He haka, he haka 
mo Tiraweke I " A dance, a dance for Tiraweke ;" and 
100 men and women, headed by his wife Hokokai, went 
through some spirited hakas and waiatas for an hour. 

From Terapa to Tokanu the shore is formed by a 
swamp, which reaches to the hills. About a mile be- 
yond Tokanu, a settlement, called Pf^ai eriki, or " warm 
" water," is situated on some patches of rich dry land, 
on the banks of the branching creeks which drain the 
swamp between the hot springs and the lake. Beyond 
this a point runs out half-a-mile to the north ; and at this 
point the three branches of the Tonga Riro, or upper 
ff^aikato, flow into the lake. About the mouths, and 
in the creeks and lagoons all along between them and 
Tokanu, dwell thousands of ducks of various sorts, 
which afford excellent sport. I spent many hours in 
exploring the various retreats among the rushes and 
flags, from which they did not rise till my little canoe 
came within half gun-shot. 

The principal and easternmost channel of the JJ^ai- 
kato, running for some distance nearly parallel to the 
beach of the lake, which again retreats from the point 
to the S.E. corner, forms a long low peninsula, the 
inner half of whose breadth consists of swamp, while 
the outer is a bank of loose sand, about 100 yards 
broad. On this bank is built a very strong pa, called 
ff^aitanui. Across the eastern end of the bank, a 
strong double fence, 15 feet high, runs from the swamp 
to the lake, and a like fence protects the western point. 
In the pa are the finest native houses that I have yet 
seen. The ware puni, or sleeping-houses, are most of 
them 10 or 12 feet in height, and very spacious : the 
verandah, or open space in front, would easily accommo- 

Chap. IV: ,' WAITANUI PA. •Sr?^!/ 101 

date ten sleepers, and the whole front is carved and 
painted with most elaborate designs. The kauta, or 
cooking-houses, are proportionably large. In that part 
of the joa belonging especially to Heuheuy there is a 
row of cooking-houses 40 feet long by 15 broad, and 
10 feet high in the walls, which are constructed of 
enormous slabs, well fitted together. Round windows, 
with sliding shutters, admit the light and let out the 
smoke. The jt?ais500 yards long and 100 broad; and 
is used as a city of refuge by all the inhabitants of Tau- 
po and Roto Aera. Each division of the tribe has its 
own separatequarters. There was no one in the pa 
on the occasion of my visit, and the fences were ruinous 
in many places ; but they talked of renovating the 
fortification as soon as the harvest should be gathered 
in, to provide against apprehended invasion from TVai- 
hato. A beach of fine gravel lines the shore as far 
as the isthmus, where a stream, called TVai o Taka 
flows into the lake : this is about three miles from 
Tf^aitanui point. Another stream of considerable 
size flows down the middle of the isthmus of Motu a 
Apa, and find its way into the lake on its southern side, 
close to its junction with the peninsula. This stream 
is called Tf^ai Marino, or " calm water." On its N. 
bank is a considerable settlement. Both these streams 
rise from the western spurs of Kai Manawa. The 
only other principal settlements on the lake are at 
TVareroa, and at a place called Motutere, about half- 
way along the eastern shore. The whole force of 
TVaitanui, without allies, amounts to little more than 
400 fighting men. 

While at Tokanu, I could not but observe the excel- 
lent conduct of the natives. This was as much owing 
to their own friendly disposition as to the authority of 
their chief I was never annoyed, as I had often been 


at more civilized or more Christianized settlements. My 
wishes seemed a law to them ; and they were always 
making voluntary efforts to procure me any food or 
amusement which they thought would )je agreeable. 
The only exceptions to this rule were invariably among 
the few missionary families, who seemed to take pride 
in being less courteous than the others, and more over- 
reaching in their barter for the different little things, 
such as shallots, craw-fish, duck's eggs, which they 
brought in exchange for pipes or tobacco. 

Close to my house was a warm spring, so shallow that 
you could lie down on the sandy bottom, holding your 
head out of water. In this bath all the natives assem- 
bled, morning and evening ; and, indeed, I never found 
a time, late or early, that there were not some in the 
water. I soon learned to join them ; and used to re- 
main there for hours, smoking and playing at draughts, 
at which game all the natives have learned to be 
extremely expert. To their frequent use of these baths 
I attribute the cleanliness and good health of the 
natives of this part of the country ; who are totally 
free from the cutaneous diseases so universal among 
the coast tribes, and generally a cleaner and hand- 
somer race. ' . 

While at Taupo, I had several opportunities of no- 
ticing the legal proceedings for damages, as customarily 
gone into by the natives. Pakau, the brother of E 
Kuru, complained at each settlement which we visited 
of his wife having been formerly stolen by a Taupo 
man, who was now dead. He in consequence claimed 
before the assembled population utu, or " compensa- 
tion," from all the relations of the offender, and by 
this means collected large damages. No objection was 
ever raised to his claim, though some of the mulcted 
relations wept, as they parted with a favourite musket 

Chap. IV. AN ARTIST IN TATXT. '^ V ; ; |§9 

or axe rather tlian bear the disgrace of refusing to 
make amends for their kinsman's misdeeds. Pakau 
carried back to TVanganui three muskets, fifteen axes 
and tomahawks, three cartridge-boxes, two kegs of 
powder, and a mat, as damages. He started before 
me, with the great body of my train, and a drove of 
pigs which had been presented to me. 

After I had been at the lake about a fortnight, a 
chief and his train arrived from a place called Te 
TVaiti, in the district of Huriwera, near the East Cape, 
with pigs and mats. The report that there were 
plenty of double-barrelled guns to be got at TVanganui 
had induced him to start with his stock and goods on 
a journey of nearly 300 miles, in order to procure what 
he could not get from the traders on the east coast. 
He had previously despatched a messenger to me, beg- 
ging me to bring some tupara, or " two-barrel," for 
him if I came to Taupo ; and we accordingly met by 
a sort of appointment. A very famous artist in latu 
came with the party, and was kept in constant and pro- 
fitable employment. Everybody, from the renowned 
warrior to the girl of twelve years old, crowded to be 
ornamented by the skilful chisel; and shirts, mats, 
axes, and other articles accumulated in the carver's 
kits. He was a superior man in many respects. He 
used to beat everybody at draughts, and had a store of 
old legends to amuse his audience. I saw Iwikau, or 
" Skeleton," the head fighting chief of the tribe under 
Heuheu, being chipped on the cheek-bone. The in- 
struments used were not of bone, as they used formerly 
to be ; but a graduated set of iron tools, fitted with 
handles like adzes, supplied their place. The man 
spoke to me with perfect nonchalance for a quarter of 
an hour, although the operator continued to strike the 
little adzes into his flesh with a light wooden hammer 


the whole time, and his face was covered with blood. 
The worst part of the pain seems to be that endured a 
day or two after the operation, when every part of the 
wound gathers, and the face is swollen considerably. 
The staining liquid is made of charcoal, I rarely saw a 
case in which the scars were not completely well in a 

I once ascended the isolated " Sandfly Mountain," of 
which I have spoken above ; and was much surprised 
to observe the extraordinary effect which some local 
attraction caused on the compass. Tauhara, the 
high mountain at the north end of the lake, bore 
from here 17° more easterly than it did from Pukawoy 
which is three or four miles to the west of the " Sand- 
" fly." Of course, no sketch of the country, laid down 
entirely from compass bearings, could lay any claim to 
correctness.* ,«j 

I was much surprised to see a slight hoar frost on 
Christmas morning. The wind was blowing from the 
direction of Tonga-Riro ; and this, at our elevation of 
some 1000 or 1500 feet above the level of the sea, 
doubtless produced the unseasonable cold. 

On the 29th of December, two gentlemen arrived in 
a canoe from the eastern shore of the lake, having 
walked from Matata in the Bay of Plenty in four days. 

* I think this accounts for the inaccuracy of the map in Mr. 
BidwilFs ' Rambles,' in which Coteropo, which, from his de- 
scription, evidently means Terapa, is placed in the S.E. instead 
of the S.W. corner. A native, on being asked the name of a 
place or person, will almost invariably prefix the particle ko to 
the name, and thus ko Terapa might easily have been set down as 
Coteropo, Mr. Bidwill's description of the hot springy in the 
mountain gully behind " Coteropo," exactly agrees with those at 
the back of Terapa in the S. W. corner of the lake ; and there is 
no large collection of hot springs all round the lake except at that 
place and on the flat near Tokanu. 

Chap, IV. MR, BLACKETT. '. ill 

One was a Mr. White, who had resided eight years 
among the natives ; part of the time in the TVaikato 
country, and the rest at Matata. His native wife had 
been pointed out to me at Tokanu, where she was 
staying with her relations. Mr. White had become so 
thoroughly master of the New Zealand language, that 
he had even acquired the peculiar dialect of the in- 
habitants of the Bay of Plenty, a branch of the great 
Ngatiawa tribe. At Tf^an^anui, a native who only 
heard him speaking Maori in an adjoining room, 
asked directly who that native from Matata was, not 
having seen that it was a White man. 

The other traveller was the same Mr. John Blackett 
who had been with us at Kaipara two years before ; 
and who had returned from England with his yacht, 
the Albatross cutter of 80 tons. He had started 
the yacht from the Bay of Plenty to Port Nicholson, 
and was on his way to join her there. They described 
the road as being about 90 miles in length, and as 
passing over a perfectly level but barren country the 
whole way. In passing through a district called Tara- 
wera, they crossed, in a canoe, a scalding lake, and 
afterwards ascended a hot river. Fifteen miles of their 
journey had been over a plain of sulphur and hot 
springs, no fresh water being procurable for the whole 
of that distance. A chain of lakes, including Ro- 
torua and several others, almost connects Taupo with 
the sea at the Bay of Plenty. In that district, the 
extinct volcano of Mount Edgecumbe, and an ac- 
tively volcanic island of sulphur, called White Island, 
form the north-eastern end of the volcanic region of 
which Mount Egmont seems to be the south-west ex- 

Although I had sent messengers for medicine and 
advice to ff^anganui soon after discovering the ill- 


ness of Mr. Niblett, we heard no tidings of them ; 
and I proceeded to get the invalid carried there by a 
device suggested by the new-comers, who had often 
seen it practised on the east coast. A litter was 
soon constructed of stout poles and plaited flaxen straps, 
and four natives were hired to relieve each other as 

The day before starting, I went to take my formal 
leave of old Heuheu^ pursuant to his request. After 
the usual greetings had passed, he told me at once that 
he suspected that our two parties had met, one from 
Poniki and the other from TVaitemata (Auckland), 
to consult over his land, with a view to buy it or even 
seize it forcibly at a later season. " If this be your 
wish," said he, " go back and tell my words to the 
people who sent you. I am king here, as my fathers 
were before me, and as King George and his fathers 
have been over your country. I have not sold my 
chieftainship to the Governor, as all the chiefs round 
the sea-coast have done, nor have I sold my land. I 
will sell neither. A messenger was here from the 
Governor to buy the land the other day, and I 
refused : if you are on the same errand I refuse you 
too. You White people are numerous and strong; 
you can easily crush us if you choose, and take 
possession of that which we will not yield ; but here 
is my right arm, and should thousands of you come, 
you must make me a slave or kill me before I will 
give up my authority or my land. When you go, 
you will say I am big-mouthed like all the other 
Maori who have talked to you ; but I am now telling 
you that by which I mean to abide. Let your people 
keep the sea-coast, and leave the interior to us, and 
our mountain, whose name is sacred to the bones of 
my fathers. Do not bring many White people into 


" the interior, who may encroach on our possessions till 
'* we become their servants ; but if you can make up 
" your mind to come yourself now and then, and visit 
" this mean place, whose people are your slaves, you 
*' will find the ^ same welcome. The place and the 
** people are yours. Go to TVanganuir The old 
man said all this calmly and without working himself 
into a state of excitement; but while he disclaimed 
any intention of swaggering, and, in holding up his 
right arm from beneath his mat, displayed his her- 
culean proportions unimpaired by the sixty years that 
have whitened his hair, I could not help admiring his 
calm and manly declaration, and believing it to be, as 
he said, true. I succeeded, after much trouble, irl 
making him understand that we had all come to Taupo 
out of curiosity only, and with no view of acquiring 
land ; and assured him that the southern pakehas, at 
least, would never annoy him by any attempts to wrest 
from him his chieftainship or his land. 

I asked his permission to ascend Tonga Riro on my 
way back; knowing that he had been very angry with 
Mr. Bidwill for doing so during his absence. But he 
steadily refused ; saying, " I would do anything else to 
" show you my love and friendship ; but you must not 
" ascend my tipuna, or ' ancestor.' " He told me that 
he had for the same reason refused the same request 
when made by the two White men who had come 
from the Governor to buy his land ; referring to Dr. 
DiefFenbach and Captain Symonds, who had been here 
two or three months before. 

This was a curious illustration of the enforcement 
of the custom of tapu, as used to support the dignity of 
the chief. Hevheu constantly identified himself with 
the mountain, and called it his sacred ancestor. 

This legend of an hereditary descent from an object, 

VOL IT. 1 


majestic in itself, and naturally productive of awe, 
had doubtless been handed down from father to son 
in the chiefs family; and was wisely calculated to 
maintain the aristocratic position of the leader, by 
apjiealing to the weak and superstitious imaginations of 
the crowd. When I rememl)ered the strong effect 
produced upon myself by the mere sight of the pass in 
" The Place of Cliffs," I inwardly admired the wisdom 
of the ancestors of these people, who had so contrived 
to weave up their own precarious dignity with legendary 
superstition, and the venerable testimony of nature's 
most kingly works. 

Like the first rulers of young Rome, who proclaimed 
their descent from gods, and imposed laws advised by a 
celestial nymph, so Heuheu backed his other claims to 
empire by maintaining inviolate the mysterious tapu of 
his mountain ancestor. 

Any visit made to the spot would, of course, be cal- 
culated to lessen the mystery, as the natives would soon 
learn from the White men that none of the danger 
existed which they supposed to attend such a pro- 

Mr. Dandeson Coates, the lay Secretary of the 
Church Missionary Society, has lately addressed a 
pamphlet to Lord Stanley in support of the position 
that every spot of the islands is the private property of 
the natives. In this pamphlet he adduces this very 
case in support of his rather curious argument : — 

He says, " An illustration of this fact, extracted 
" from the Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown, is re- 
" corded in the * Church IMissionary Gleaner ' for De- 
" cember 1842. In a journey into the interior, he came 
" into the vicinity of Tonga Riro, a snow-capped moun- 
" tain, probably 6000 feet high, and its summit an un- 
** extinguished crater. At Te Rapa, Mr. Brown fell 



" in with Captain Symonds and Dr. DiefFenbach, who 
" were exploring the neighbourhood for scientific pur- 
" poses. JLeaving these gentlemen, who had been to 
" Tonga Riro, Mr. Brown next day proceeded thither 
" himself, and states : — ' Captain Symonds and his 
" ' party were very anxious to ascend the mountain-top ; 
" * but the natives opposed it, on the ground of its 
" ' having been made sacred by their forefathers ; and 
" * that if the tapu were violated, some evil would befall 
** * them. The?/ offered us gold, remarked the old chief 
" * to me ; had they brought some Testaments, we would 
*' ' have consented to their going up the mountain. Tell 
" * the strangers f when you see them again, that if tJiey 
" ' return in the summer, and bring: Testaments with 
" * them, the tapu shall he removed from the mountain.' 
" I do not now dwell," says Mr. Coates, " upon the 
•' evidence which this passage incidentally affords of the 
" value which the natives set upon the Scriptures, and 
" their strong desire to obtain copies of them : / adduce 
*' it as affording a strong presumption of the unii'ersal 
** ownership of land in New Zealand by some chief or 
" tribe ; for if the crater of a volcano, or a mountain 
" covered with snow, be private property , it is difficult 
** to suppose any spot on the island which is not so." 

This is, to my mind, a most fantastic conclusion, 
made by a person totally ignorant of the ideas and cus- 
toms and imaginations which influence the native. Mr. 
Brown expressly says that the natives had forbidden 
the travellers from ascending, — not because the crater, or 
the snowy mountain, was private or public property, — 
but " on the ground of its having been made sacred 
" by their forefathers ; and that, if the tapu vjere vio- 
" lated, some evil would befall them ;" because, in short, 
it was the property of legend, and awe, and the mys- 
teries of their only religion, the tapu : apparently 

I 2 


selected as such l>ecause it was the salient j)oinf in a 
vast uninhabited district, ten miles from the nearest 
human habitation, bearing the devastating marks of 
fiery convulsions, and in which no cultivation had ever 
been begun or thought of, or any occupation made ; be- 
cause it was frequently hidden from the eye of man in 
whirling clouds and in spouting steam ; because it was 
the dread abode of snow and storm ; because man had 
never dared to ascend its sides, or to examine the wild 
chasms in its vicinity. 

By the same argument, I should prove my private 
property in the altar of a church by forbidding a pro- 
fane intruder from stamping on its sacred surface ; or 
the sanctum sanctorum of the ark of the Israelites 
should be considered the private property of theLevites, 
who forbade the entrance of the vulgar within its 
bounds. Thus Mr. Coates fails to distinguish between 
the feeling of religious veneration which prompts any 
one to save what he holds holy from desecration, and 
the mere worldly wish of a proprietor to keep tres- 
passers off his estate, or off the manor to which he has 
a common right with his fellows. 

Oddly enough, he has brought the mysterious prop 
of the chieftainship, which the present missionary 
system conduces to destroy, as a proof of the property 
of savages over land on which they never set foot, 
which the individual missionaries are so anxious to 

Heuheus speech to me sufficiently proved that he, 
at that time, acknowledged a territory as yet un- 
claimed ; for he begged me not to bring many White 
people into the interior, " lest they should gradually 
" encroach on the possessions of the natives" 

The old chief, I fear, must have been speaking in a 
bitter spirit of irony to Mr. Brown, when he told him 


about the Testaments. During the two or three long 
conversations which I had with him, several months 
after Mr. Brown's visit, his determined animosity 
against the introduction of the Christian faith was 
most remarkable. He told me that Mr. Chapman, 
irom Rotorua, had repeatedly pressed him to accept 
books and to become a missionary ; but that he had 
steadily refused, as he saw in the converting of his 
people an inevitable levelling of ranks, and the end of 
his regal sway. When I last received a message from 
him in August 1843, he was still threatening to use 
the missionary books as cartridge-paper, and the tapu 
still dwelt on the sacred mountain. I do not doubt 
that he used the words reported by the Rev. Mr. 
Brown ; but I feel certain that he was dealing in the 
ironical metaphor, which I have already described as 
employed by Turoa at the great conference near Pu- 
h'lhika, and which has often nearly deceived me on 
other occasions. I know one or two chiefs who 
almost always speak in this way, ironical satire being 
esteemed the chef-d'oeuvre of a Maori orator. 

If Mr. Coates does not plead ignorance of the native 
customs as the apology for the very absurd reasoning 
in his letter to Lord Stanley, it will be painful to con- 
clude that he has been hurried into it rather by his 
" determination to thwart the colonization of New 
" Zealand by every means in his power," than by a 
calm consideration of the just rights of the aborigines. 

On the 1st of January 1842, we left Tokanu; Mr. 
Niblett being carried in his litter, and attended by 
about a dozen natives besides the porters. A large 
train also accompanied us as far as Roto Aera. I 
selected two boys to carry my things, as I intended to 
push on ahead from that point. The progress of a 
large party of natives is always very slow, and we were 


two days reaching the eastern end of Roto Aera, round 
the northern and eastern spurs of Pihanga. This 
mountain is an extinct volcano, of which the crater 
opens to the north ; and I heard that this was the lady 
about whom Tonga Riro and Mount Egmont quar- 
relled. She is now called one of Tonga Riro's wives. 
The road leads partly through wood and partly through 
extensive clearings on the side of this mountain, from 
which there is a beautiful view of the valley of the 
upper Pf^aikato. This valley continues to be about 
four miles in width as far as you can see to the 
southward. We passed several pretty villages on the 
road. On emerging from the wood on the south-east 
side of Pihanga, we were gratified with a magnificent 
view of the Tonga Riro group, the clear valley be- 
tween it and the wooded sides of Kai Manavm, and 
that through which a river, called the Potu, drains the 
waters of Roto Aera, between Pihanga and Puki 
Onaki, into the JVaikato. Descending through a 
plain of grass and fern, prettily dotted with clumps 
of wood, we stopped for the night at a settlement 
named after the river, close to where it disgorges itself 
from the lake. The level ground between Pihanga 
and the shores of the lake is covered with the most 
luxuriant grass. A broad belt of timber encircles the 
middle of the mountain, whose bare and ragged 
summit shows plain proofs of former eruptions. 

On the 3rd, an event occurred which delayed us 
here another day. A quarrel arose between a chief 
who had accompanied us from TaM/?o, named Tauranga, 
and an inhabitant of fi village removed from ours about 
100 yards. They met on the greensward between the 
two pas, and Tauranga charged the other with having 
stolen some totara slabs belonging to his uncle from the 
wood, and claimed restitution or payment ; the other 

Chap. IV. SKIRMISH. 119 

retorted, asserting his own right to the tree from 
which the slahs hud heen cut. They both waxed wroth, 
running up and down in short parallel lines, brandish- 
ing their spears, and apparently trying who could talk 
most and quickest. He ngan^are ! he ngangare ! 
" a quarrel ! a quarrel !" was now shouted in both 
villages, and about 30 |)eople ran out from each side to 
see the sport. Tauranga soon challenged his opponent 
to drop his spear and wrestle, and the other accepted 
the offer and threw him after a short struggle. The 
spectators now rushed in on both sides : old women as 
well as men and boys seized the nearest offensive 
weapon ; tomahawks and cutlasses were brandished, 
and a general melee took place. The result was five 
or six broken heads in about two minutes ; and the 
wounded men pointed to their blood, and called for 
support from their respective friends. Many of the 
young men then threw away the sticks and clubs with 
which they had begun the affray, and ran to the pas 
for fire-arms. I stop}3ed a lad who was running to 
load one of my double-barrelled guns, not wishing to 
be implicated even by proxy ; and seeing several men 
who, armed with their own pieces, were hastening to 
the spot, too excited to listen to reason, I called to Mr. 
Niblett, and proceeded to take up my position in a deep 
narrow gully, to l^e out of the reach of stray shots. 
The affair would no doubt have ended fatally, and 
might have originated one of the endless feuds which 
exist even among the different families of the same 
tribe, had not an old chief, named Pehi, who has the 
highest authority at this end of the lake, hastened to 
restore peace. He ran down to the scene of conflict, 
armed with a rusty cavalry sabre, with the flat of which 
he administered sundry impressive admonitions to the 
heads of the most furious on both sides. He reproached 


them with their folly in. thus creating divisions among 
themselves, when they were bound to remain united 
against their common enemies at Tf^aikato and Tf^ai- 
totara, and urged them to draw oflf before an injury 
should have been received on either side which might 
call for more blood as an atonement. His mediation 
was at length accepted ; and although both parties 
continued running up and down, threatening each 
other and making the most hideous grimaces, for nearly 
half an hour, no more violence took place, and all the 
combatants gradually withdrew to plaster the wounded 
skulls. A reconciliation took place in the afternoon 
over a grand feast. Old Pehis warlike recollections 
were excited by the brush ; and he stood up for some 
time to relate to the young men the deeds in which he 
had gained his glory of yore, in company with other 
chieftains of renown. He entered with great spirit 
into a description of various skirmishes, and concluded 
by saying, with a laugh, as he threw away his spear to 
a slave and sat down : " Ah, but this was a very good 
" little affair ; there was no mischief done ; it was very 
*' good play for the hands." 

The path, after crossing the Putu, continues along 
the declivity which slopes from the Ton^a Riro group 
to the upper Waikato valley. The whole country con- 
sists of mania, or grass plains, similar to those on the 
western side, except where the gullies of the small tri- 
butaries are filled with timber. This is chiefly of two 
sorts, the towai, and the toa toa, a small tree, which is 
much prized by the natives for walking-sticks, and only 
grows, they say, in the neighbourhood of Tonga Riro. 
The stick, underneath the bark, is of a bright red co- 
lour, which takes a fine polish. The bark is used l)y 
the natives for the light-brown dye on the borders of 
Kaitaka mats. The gullies are so numerous as to ren- 

Chap. IV. SACRED SAND. 121 

der the journey very tedious. Two of the streams, 
Oturere and TJ^ai Jiohonu, run in gullies 300 feet lower 
than the level of the path. 

After proceeding by a gradual ascent, which keeps 
pace with that of the TVaikato valley, for about 23 miles 
from Hoto Aeray the latter part of which distance was 
partly dry barren land, almost devoid of vegetation, 
and partly morass, we arrived on the edge of a sandy 
desert, exactly resembling those which line the coast 
between Kapiti and PVanganui. From this point 
Ruapehu bears S. 75° W. and Para te tai Tonga, N. 
50" W. This too is the highest point of the prairie 
path ; and here we caught the last glimpse of Lake 
Taupo, of which we had had a magnificent view 
nearly all the way from Potu. The path now de- 
scends, and verges to the S.W. across the sandy desert, 
which the natives call Onetapu, or " Sacred Sand." 
Here another path branches off to the head of the 
Manawatu, by way of Patea, a place near the source 
of the RangitiJci. This path crosses the valley of the 
upper TVaikato, and plunges into the broken country 
formed by the S.W. spurs of Kai Manawa. The na- 
tives describe it as a very tedious path, with many hills 
to ascend, and many streams to cross. They showed 
me an isolated table-land, in the direction of the path, 
which they affirmed to be inhabited by huge ngarara, 
or lizards. No one, they said, had ever dared to 
aseend to it. About three miles along the sandy 
desert brought us to the Waikato, half a mile 
from its source, which is in one corner of a rugged 
cavity in the S.E. side of Ruapehu. It is here quite 
an insignificant gutter. 

The desert now assumed a new aspect. Huge 
masses of rock, of the most diversified shapes and 
sizes, are piled on each other, and disposed over the 


sandy slope of the mountain in variouG forms ; and 
the rocks themselves seem painted with various colours, 
as though stained by some bituminous exhalation. A 
short mile explained the latter appearance. A strong 
sulphureous smell struck my nostrils for some hundred 
yards before arriving at the JVangaihu ; which stream 
bubbles over the opposite side of a stone, from the 
same source as the Ti^aikato, and joins the sea nine 
miles on the south of TVanganui. It is about three 
yards wide and a foot deep. As I crossed it I tasted 
the water, which some Maories had told me was wai 
tai, or " sea water," and others wai kawa, or " bitter 
water." The latter were right ; for it tasted exactly 
like a strong dilution of ink. I had to walk about 
six miles more before I got to any fresh water to 
wash out the nauseous taste. This was a tributary 
of the Tf^angaihu, called TV^ai ihea noa ; on whose 
banks we encamped ; having caught a stray pig from 
a drove belonging to me, which Pakau had driven 
along a few days before. We buried what we could 
not eat, that it might be preserved fresh for the party 
of the invalid, when they should follow. 

Our encampment was not more than a mile from 
the lower line of snow on Ruapehu ; and I longed to 
ascend, as I thought I could perceive a very easy way ; 
but I finally determined to respect the superstition of 
my hospitable friend at Taupo. 

Long before daylight, the natives were as usual 
astir, blowing up the fire to warm themselves and 
roast a few potatoes. When I awoke, a fairy sight 
awaited me. In the midst of the darkness in which 
all below was plunged, the snowy mass above was 
already illuminated by the rising sun. Each peak 
and irregularity of the mountain was tinged with the 
most delicate pink hue. And some minut«s after- 


wards the sky brightened in the east, the extensive 
landscape towards the east and south gradually 
received light, and at length the sun rose into a 
cloudless heaven, and warmed up each feature into 
life and beauty. ' 

We now descended the side of Ruapehu into a plain, 
level with the valley of the JVangmliu^ which here 
takes a sudden bend to the eastward, and disappears 
among some broken wooded country. Turning round 
the corner of one of the ridges which slope from the 
snowy mountain, we proceeded for ten miles along a 
narrow glade of plain, which juts far into the forest 
that covers the country between Ruapehu and the 
TVangarmi. Crossing two tributaries of the TVan- 
gaihu, we plunged into the forest. The rest of the 
journey needs no accurate description. The path 
leads over the most fatiguing hilly forest country that 
I had yet seen of so large an extent in New Zealand. 
After about five miles of flat forest-land, there is 
nothing but a succession of steep ridges to the 
Tf^anganui. Some of these ascents were at least 
three miles long ; and between each ridge a tributary 
of the TVangailiu is crossed. The largest of these is. 
the Mankawero, or " red branch." 

From the summit of one of the highest ridges, I 
got a view back upon Tonga Riro. It towered high 
above a succession of ten or twelve rolling ranges, 
which had the regular appearance of a long ground- 

On the evening of the 8th, we emerged into the 
potato-grounds on the table-lands above Ikurangi, 
the pa which I have mentioned in my ascent of the 
TVanganui ; having traversed about 45 miles of forest. 
Our food was out, and we were glad to encamp, and 
sup from the potatoes which had been abandoned by 


the Ikurangi people through fear of baing surprised 
by a war-party from Taupo. 

On this table-land I saw a great extent of flax culti- 
vations, which have not been used since the time when 
traders from Sydney used to buy large quantities of it 
from the Wanganui natives. The plants were all of 
the tihore, or best species of flax ; with leaves ten to 
twelve feet long, and so luxuriant in their growth, 
that although they were planted in rows at the dis- 
tance of eight feet apart, the outer leaves of one plant 
met those of the next. They have of course been 
transplanted to this elevated situation, which was 
formerly forest, and possesses a rich loamy soil. 

The next morning we descended the long hill to 
the river, got a canoe, and proceeded to my house. 
The upper road to Taupo, by the Alangmiui, is, in my 
opinion, by far the easier of the two ; but both must 
be difficult in winter, when the streams are swollen 
by the melting of the snows from Tonga Riro, 




Progress of ffanganui — Mr. Wansey's attempt to settle— Conse- 
quential airs of the Police Magistrate — Arrival of £! Kuru — 
Penalty inflicted for saluting him — Ludicrous Proceedings 
—Anger of the Natives — Guests — Bell's Farm — His manage- 
ment of the Natives — Interview with two repudiating Chiefs — 
Their proposal — Journey to "Wellington by land — The Great 
Chief of Manawatu — Effect of an appeal to Native hospitality 
— Purchase of Manawatu district by Colonel Wakefield — Ex- 
cellent results of Mr. Hadfield's missionary teaching — Houses 
for Travellers. 

I FOUND tliat a considerable addition had been made to 
the White population of the settlement. The Clydeside, 
a vessel of 250 tons, brought out by her owner, Mr. 
JMathieson, from Greenock to Wellington, had entered 
the river and ascended as far as Landguard Cliff.* She 
bore a large party of passengers from Wellington, 
with their goods and chattels. Macgregor, in acting 
as pilot, had put the vessel on the sand-spits both in 
entering and in going out ; but no serious damage had 
been done. 

A drove of some fifty head of cattle, too, had arrived 
by land for Captain Moses Campbell, who had himself 
come in the Clydeside, and had been followed to this 
place by several Scotch settlers. Many of the survey- 
ing labourers, chiefly Scotchmen, had taken a liking to 
the country while exploring it, and were preparing for 

* The cliff at Waipuna, two miles from the river's mouth, named 
" Landguard " on account of the post on which E Kuru had made 
me cut Colonel Wakefield's name, and which is still there. 


the reception of some of their friends and relations from 

In descending the last part of the river, at night, I 
passed a new house, about ten miles up the north bank 
of the river. I learned that this was the house of a 
gentleman named Wansey, whom I had seen at Wel- 
lington the last time I was there, and who had bought 
a good section from a land-agent there at a high price. 
He had made an attempt to settle on the land ; but 
came to me, two or three days after my arrival, to 
represent the obstacles thrown in his way, and to beg 
my assistance in removing them, if possible. 

It appeared that two or three rival bands of natives, 
some of them from the den of thieves at Tunu haere, 
had been attracted by the sight of his goods, which he 
took up at once, to make numerous excuses for annoy- 
ing and plundering him. Among these was, of course, 
the one now general among the mihanere natives, that 
the land had not been paid for. Mr. Wansey was 
himself ignorant of the language ; and he took up with 
him two White servants, who contributed by their con- 
duct, during his too frequent absence at the settlement, 
to excite the natives to insolence and robbery. One 
was a peculating fellow from Wellington, who knew 
not a word of the Maori language, and was dreadfully 
frightened at their appearance ; the other was a rude 
beach-comber, who knew just enough to abuse the na- 
tives, and excite them to anger by his brutal ways and 
language. Between the two, they managed to raise a 
pretty hornet's nest round Mr. Wansey's ears. 

As it was clear that at least one party had acknow- 
ledged his right to settle on the land by building a 
house for him, I offered to go and live there for some 
days with him, and to make endeavour, by my know- 
ledge of the natives, to arrange affairs on a better foot- 


ing. Mr. Wansey, however, had been to Mr. Dawson, 
the Police Magistrate ; who told him that he could not 
interfere, even to recover the stolen property, as no 
Crown title had been issued for the land. He then 
became totally discouraged ; and so I invited him to 
put up his tent within my fence, and to live as my guest 
until he should find an opportunity of carrying out his 
intention of returning to Wellington. 

Colonel Wakefield had paid this settlement a visit 
during my absence, having ridden the whole distance 
on horseback. He had come to see if any satisfactory 
arrangement could be made with the discontented 
natives, and had held a meeting with them at Putt- 
kiwaranui, in the presence of Mr. Mason, who inter- 
preted between the parties. It appeared, however, that 
nothing could be done before the affair had been 
inquired into by the Court of Claims. 

Several of the respectable settlers assured me, that, 
from the tone of Mr. Mason's behaviour and that of 
Mr. Dawson, it was clear that both had combined to 
encourage the natives in their increasing discontent 
and exorbitant demands. 

Mr. Dawson was represented to me as behaving in 
precisely the same way as Lieutenant Shortland had 
done at Wellington, 

He dated his letters from " Government-house," one 
of the straw-built residences along the river-bank, and 
on all occasions followed the pompous example of his 
brother-officials, " clothed in the power and dignity 
" which became his station." 

He exacted immense fines from every one who came 
before his tribunal ; sometimes mulcting both plaintiff" 
and defendant in cases of assault and battery from the 
grog-shops : took upon himself the offices of harbour- 
master and postmaster, ordering the little pig-schooners 


about, and bagging the letter-bags at every arrival ; and 
strutted about in a manner truly ridiculous. To every 
application from parties who had been obstructed by 
the natives from getting on to their land, he would 
answer, as Lieutenant Shortland did to the folks at 
Port Nicholson, " You have no land ; you are only 
"squatters, and I expect to have orders to turn you 
" off." 

It was not long before I was doomed to feel the 
weight of his official discipline. E Kuru, on hearing 
of my arrival, had despatched a messenger to say that 
he was coming down to greet me in great state, with 
a large train from Tieke, Tata, and Pipiriki, in order 
to hand over the mats and pigs which his brother's 
party had brought for me from Taupo, and to bring 
me a large present of pigs and potatoes. He at length 
arrived on a Sunday afternoon, nearly at sunset. As 
soon as the fleet of canoes turned the point, I ordered 
my boys to fire the customary salute from a long boat- 
gun and another fowling-piece which were in the 
house, and I fired my own double-barrelled gun twice 
or thrice out of my window. As soon as E Kuru 
reached the house, I ordered them to stop firing. The 
rest of the chiefs postponed meeting me till the morn- 
ing, as it was dark ; but E Kuru rushed eagerly into 
the room, and greeted me warmly after my long ab- 
sence. He was delighted to hear how firm a friend- 
ship I had struck up with Heuheu and the chief of 
Tokanu, and expressed great pride that his White man 
should have acquired the respect of his relatives among 
the Ngatipehi. For his wife had told him that my 
visit had strengthened the good understanding of which 
my reception of the war-party laid the foundations, 
and that the people of Tokanu and Terapa would 
henceforth consider me as one of themselves. E Kuru 


assured me of the earnestness of their professions ; 
and begged me to cherish them and befriend them as 
well as I had befriended his people at PVanganui. " Be 
" their pakeha,'* said he, " as you have been mine : 
" they have hearts that remember, and do not tell 
" lies." I was delighted with this new trait of gene- 
rosity ; for a native is generally very jealous of the 
divergence of any of the trade of his particular 
pakeha into any new channel. E Kuru, however, 
seemed only anxious to increase my influence among 
the natives ; so as to bind many together in a bond of 
union and friendship, on which he had firmly rested 
his hope. 

The next day, I was somewhat surprised at being 
served with a summons, charging me with " firing or 
'* causing to be fired certain guns or fire-arms, to the 
" terror of Her Majesty's liege subjects, and in breach 
"of the peace!" 

I of course attended the court on the appointed day,, 
and found myself before a whole bench of Magistrates, 
looking as solemn as though they were going to try 
a Chartist for high treason. A new charge was now 
brought, differing from the summons : for " firing guns 
" in a tumultuous manner, and causing a breach of the 
" peace on the Sabbath !" 

However, it was explained to me that this was not ir- 
regular, as there need have been no summons or warrant 
at all ; and that at any rate my appearance remedied all 
defects in the summons. So the evidence proceeded. 

I need not dwell on the particulars of this ludicrous 
exhibition of magisterial wisdom. Suffice it to say, 
that Mr. Dawson seemed determined to punish the 
doing honour to a chief who had distinguished him- 
self by good behaviour to the settlers ; and that he 
overruled all the scruples of the newly-made Justices, 



not more learned in the law than himself, hy quota- 
tions from a book which contains an epitome of the 
New South Wales law, called ' the Australian Magis- 
' trate ;' and that at the end of several hours of 
evidence, and cross-examining, and clearing of the court 
to discuss knotty questions of law out of hearing of 
the vulgar, I was held up as an example by the in- 
fliction of a fine and costs amounting to 17*. But this 
decision was based on a bye-law of the town of Sydney, 
which imposes a penalty for " firing in the public 
" streets ;" as the wiseacres could not discover, with 
all their law-books, any authority for condemning 
" a tumultuous manner of firing guns," or for making 
that firing a breach of the peace on the Sabbath 
which was not so on a week-day. The decision on this 
ground was of tolerably doubtful legality ; for TVan- 
ganui, although laid out as a town on paper by the 
Company's Surveyor, was not yet proclaimed, or even 
acknowledged as a town, by the Government ; and there 
were not above 150 White inhabitants in the proposed 
town and its environs together. 

But I was principally amused by the grave demeanour 
of the dignified guardians of the law, who hsid s6nt for 
Mr. Mason on the occasion, and begged him to take a 
seat on the bench, and by the anomalous appearance of 
one of them, a dilapidated bookseller from Cork, who 
had not thought proper to array himself in a pair of 
stockings in order to dispense justice. The Chairman 
of the Bench swearing himself on the book, in order to 
give evidence, was also one part of the funny proceed- 
ings. He appeared to think it quite in/ra dig. to l)e 
sworn by the head const-able, as the other witnesses 
had Ijeen. 

The effect u})on E Kuru and the other chiefs was 
rather more serious. Several times during the progress 


of the affair, E Kuru, with anger and anxiety in every 
feature, had come to learn what was going on, as I had 
translated the summons to him at his request. I had 
seen, too, through the open window of the shed in 
which the court was held, several canoes come across 
the river en grande tenue, crowded with natives. I was, 
however, somewhat astonished to find in the great hall 
of the ware, on my return from the Police Court, about 
100 men, including Turoa and all the high chiefs of 
the Patutokoto, as well as E ICurus train. They 
were dressed out as for a state occasion, with feathers, 
and red ochre, and arms in their hands. When I asked 
them what this was all about, they invited me to sit 
down in the circle formed by the grave elders, and asked 
what had l^een the result of the " Governor's" riri, or 
" anger," at my saluting their son ? I told them that 
I had had to pay 17*. as utu for the offence. E Kuru 
then said, " Oh, that does not matter ; you can afford 
" that. But we thought they were going to make a 
" tie* you. In that case, we had assembled in order to 
" pull down the jail, and fix the Governor and his 
" constable on the top of your flag-staff till sun-down." 
I immediately thanked them for their kind intentions 
and their sympathy ; but told them I should have been 
very angry at any such Lynch law. And I gave them a 
feast, and sent them back to their homes, begging them 
to think no more of the affair. 

Soon after this, my house again filled with guests. 
Messrs. White and Blackett arrived from Taupo ; and 
a day afterwards, Mr. JMolesworth and Mr. Watt, toge- 
ther with Mr. John George Cooke, a New Plymouth 
settler, arrived from Wellington on horseback. Colonel 
Wakefield had performed the ride back to that place, 

* This is the jargon of broken English which the natives have 
learnt from traders : make a tie means " imprison." 



110 miles, in two days and a half from hence ; and had 
reported so favourably of the road, that these gentle- 
men determined to make the excursion. They brought 
with them a led pack-horse, besides those which they 

I accompanied them one day to the farm of Mr. 
Bell, who was at this time, in the beginning of Fe- 
bruary, reaping his first crop of wheat. 

He had about thirty acres of land under plough 
cultivation, but some part of this was in potatoes. 
Although he had not succeeded in eradicating the fern 
this first year, and a good deal of it was up among the 
corn, yet what wheat there was was of excellent qua- 
lity, and promised well for the next season. Mr. Moles- 
worth, who had just done gathering in a very luxuriant 
crop on his land in the valley of the Hutt, looked with 
some contempt on this more moderate production, and 
cried down the fern land ; but old Bell predicted, that in 
another year he would hardly fear comparison. After 
partaking of a acone, and a cup of milk in the farm- 
house, and admiring the excellent condition of the 
bullocks, who had been fattening on idleness among 
the rich natural pastures in the neighbourhood, we 
returned to the settlement. 

Bell had managed to locate himself here, notwith- 
standing considerable opposition from the natives, by 
an admirable mixture of firmness, good temper, and 
kindness. He had first paid the natives for putting up 
the frame of a house ; and had then filled up the walls 
with kareau and clay, and whitewashed them. A little 
garden had succeeded. He had then proceeded to clear 
off the flax, and fern, and other scrub, which was waist- 
high on the land which he meant to plough. When 
he began this operation, the interruption commenced. 
One perseveringly annoying and ill-tempered chief 


headed the malcontents ; but Bell had made a friend 
of another, by judicious presents and attentions, and 
obtained some protection from him whenever the per- 
secution became a little too serious. The friend was 
^iri karamuy the chief who had signed the deed at 
Kapiti, and afterwards accompanied E Kuru and 
myself hither to the grand sale. He was a repudiator 
of the bargain generally ; but had appreciated the 
advantages of having a good pakeha to live near him, 
and teach him how to plant potatoes and grow wheat. 
He never did more than remonstrate with E TVaha^ 
the troublesome neighbour ; apparently conniving at 
extortion, though he would not allow violence to 
be used. 

During the progress of the ploughing, E TVaka 
used to come and watch, and keep walking by the side 
of the old farmer, telling him he should plough no 
more. But Bell pretended not to understand him, and 
smiled at him, and geed the bullocks, and warned E 
TVaka to get out of the way of them when they 
turned, and ploughed on. E Waka got furious ; but 
Bell wouldn't look a bit frightened, and told him he 
didn't understand him ; " He must go to the boys," 
meaning his own sons ; " they'd talk Maori to him :" 
and he geed the bullocks, and ploughed on. The 
patience of E TVaka soon got exhausted, and he 
retired sulkily towards the house, after putting in some 
pegs a few yards beyond where Bell had got to, pointing 
to that as his ultimatum. And while the good- wife gave 
him a large mess of bread and milk, or a smoking dish 
of pork and potatoes, and the sons and daughters chatted 
good-humouredly to him while they built a pigsty or 
put up a stock-yard, old Bell was ploughing on. And 
E TVaka ate and smoked, and basked in the sun, 
wondering at the industry of the pakeha, till he got 
sleepy, and crept back to his village for the day. 


The next morning, however, he would he afoot 
pretty early to besiege the pakeha maro, or " hard 
white man," as he called him. But he was never early 
enough; and the first sight that met his eyes was 
always his bite noire, the team of bullocks and the 
old man trudging steadily along the fresh furrows. 
E TVaka would begin by looking for his pegs, and 
hunt about for a long while, grumbling and puzzling, 
before he found out that the plough must have gone 
over them some hours ago, if not the evening before. 
And while he was hunting, the plough sped quietly on. 
Then came the remonstrance, and the shrug of the 
shoulders, and the fury, and the good-humoured in- 
difference, and the reference to the boys, and the meal, 
and the sleepiness, and the return home, and the 
careful pegging of the ground as before. The same 
story over again ; no patience could stand it ; old Bell 
and the team went on, slow, sure, and regular as the 
course of the sun. 

And, besides, on one occasion when E TVaka had 
brought a large troop of attendants, and threatened to 
commit some violence, the old man had called his 
stalwart sons to his side, and taking up a spade or a 
ploughshare, had said, in broad Scotch, while his 
resolute looks and prepared attitude interpreted his 
words into a universally intelligible language, " Dinna 
" ye think to touch a thing that's here noo ; for if ye 
" do, by the God that's abune us, I'll cleave ye to the 
" grund ! A bargain's a bargain ; I've paid ye richt 
" and fair ; and I'll gar ye keep to it." 

And then E TVaka would look frightened ; and 
begin to think his good daily meal was better than a 
blow of old Bell's weapon ; and peace was soon 

And when the ploughing was done, the planting 
potatoes was too amusing to be interfered with, for 


they ridiculed the idea of expecting any crop from 
potatoes cut into small pieces. " Bide and see," said 
the old man ; and they waited with anxiety for the 
time of crop ; and the report spread far and wide that 
the old pakeha with the cows was very good and 
brave and industrious, but that he was certainly gone 
porangi, or " mad," for he had cut up his seed potatoes 
before he put them in. " Poor old man!" they said, 
" his troubles must have turned his head, — such a very 
" absurd idea ! " 

But the crop came better than their own from 
whole potatoes ; and they stared, and found that the 
foolish old man could teach them some lessons in 
growing food ; and they soon honoured him as much 
for his knowledge as they had learned to stand in awe 
of his courage and resolution. 

And though they have not yet allowed him to use 
the whole of his section, he has now fifty acres under 
plough cultivation, sends grain and grass-seed enough 
to Wellington to pay for the luxuries which his 
family require, owns several cows and a flock of sheep, 
calls himself the " Laird of PVanganu'i" and gives 
harvest-home festivals. He talked of buying a horse, 
and caring for no man, when I last saw him. 

But, unfortunately, all settlers have not the admira- 
ble qualities of William Gordon Bell, who has indeed 
shown a great example of success against the numerous 
difficulties which staggered lesser men. 

About this time, Te Anaua, who had completely 
repudiated the bargain in which he had taken so large 
a share, came over to pay me a visit, accompanied by 
Mawaiy another chief of Putikiwaranui. Mnwai had 
certainly not been present at the great sale; but he 
had ap])roved of the arrangement warmly, when I first 
visited this place ; and although absent at Wmkanae 
during the actual signing of the deed, he had received 


a large share of the payment, on his return, which K 
Kuru sent over to Putikiwaranui from what he had 
saved out of the general scramble. Till now, the 
natives of that missionary village had not only refused 
to acknowledge the sale of the land, but had refused 
to receive any extra payment ; Mr. Mason having told 
them that if they did not keep it all to grow wheat 
upon, their wives and children would soon be starving. 
On repeated occasions when I had gone over to try 
and effect some arrangement with Muwai, who headed 
the malcontents, I had been unable to get any answer 
from him : he had frequently abstained from saying a 
single word during my visit, wrapping his mouth 
sulkily in his blanket. The same result had attended 
Colonel Wakefield's interview with them. 

But it appeared they had at length got tired of being 
so long estranged from the \^'^hite settlers ; and began 
to perceive that those who, like £J Kwu'dud his people, 
were admitted to their friendship, lived much more 
happily and comfortably. 

Mawui, after begging me to speak with them in a 
private room, and taking great precautions that no 
other natives should hear what he had to say, volun- 
teered his proposal. 

He first assured me that it was he who had directed 
every annoyance against the White settlers ; that E 
Waka, and Wansey's persecutors, and all others who 
had behaved in the same way, had been only following 
his instructions. 

Although I knew that he was much exaggerating 
his influence over the tribes, and that many of these 
people had acted on their own account, I at once told 
him, that I had always allowed him credit for inten- 
tions, at least, as extensive as he described his opera- 
tions against the comfort of my brothers to be. 

He now proposed to retract his instructions, and to 


locate the people peaceably, if I would bring up a 
schooner with the same quantity of goods as had been 
distributed on the former occasion, anchor her opposite 
Putikiwaranui, and deliver them into his house there. 
No part of the goods was to go to any one else ; and 
the greatest secrecy, he requested, was to be observed 
until the affair should have been concluded. He was 
evidently ashamed that his underhand proposal should 
become generally known. 

I replied, that when I went to Poniki, in a few days, 
I would report his proposition to " Wide-awake," who 
alone could carry it into effect, with the approval of 
the Governor. "Never mind the Governor," said 
Mawai ; " what has he to do with it ? Bring the 
" things, and you shall have all the land." 

I placed not the slightest belief in Mawai% influ- 
ence over the other recalcitrants ; as, if his statement 
had been true, he would have been proud to have 
made the proposal to me at a public conference of their 
number ; but, in order to try him, I entreated that he 
would locate all the settlers who wished to go on to 
their sections in various parts of the river in the mean- 
while, and depend on my word for bringing the goods, 
should his influence prove to be as universal as he had 
said, and should the powers approve of the bargain. 
If I was disappointed, he could always eject the settlers 
afterwards, only saving them for the present from 
starving and idleness. This, after a little hesitation, 
he promised to do ; and the two artful chiefs returned 
to their canoe. 

A day or two afterwards, I started by land, with 
" Yankee Smith," the trader whom I have before 
mentioned, and two of my " boys " to carry baggage. 

We crossed the rivers, and got to Rangitikei late at 
night, after a tedious walk against a strong southerly 


wind. Along these sandy beaches, this is a great hin- 
drance in walking; — the sand drives sharply against 
eyes, nose, and mouth, and stings the face. I have 
often known natives refuse to travel along the coast 
against a hau kino, or " foul wind." 

In the morning, we forded the river, which is quite 
shallow opposite the pa at low water during the 

Arriving about noon at Manaioatu, we found a large 
party of Ngatiraukawa assembled in the pa at the 
mouth. Among them was a chief of high rank, by 
name Taratoa, the head of a branch of the tribe called 
Ngati Parewawa ; and whose daughter was married 
to TVatanui^ eldest son. I had often heard of him, but 
had never met him before. 

He had also heard of me, it appeared ; for after two 
or three lads, whom I recognised among the crowd as 
having been engaged at Kapiti during the whaling- 
season, had whispered to him, he motioned me to a 
seat by his side on a large log outside the pa, and 
addressed me with the usual greetings, telling me who 
he was, and that he was well inclined towards me. I 
answered him, that I was in a hurry to go on, and did 
not like making new friendships on short acquaint- 
ance. I asked him briefly, how much utu he wanted 
for putting us across the river in a canoe ; as a White 
man, who had lately established a ferry a mile higher 
up on the opposite side, was said to be up the river on 
a trading excursion. " Uiu .'" said Taratoa, with well- 
feigned indignation ; " I do not ask utu from a great 
" name like Tiraweke ; one great chief should never 
" beg utu from another. Launch a canoe !" shouted 
he to some of his assistants. " Put my White man and 
** his people across the river !" And as the canoe was 
small, he told me and the Yankee to get in, and the 


boys should follow with, their loads in another trip. 
I thanked him for his courtesy ; but, suspecting that 
this sudden civility could not be genuine, I sent Smith 
and the boy who had got his things first, remaining 
myself with the one who had got mine. 

By the time the canoe was half-way across, some of 
the young men began hinting to me that a suitable 
present of money would be very desirable from me to 
the chief. As he acquiesced in this view, I took five 
shillings out of my pocket, turned round to him, 
and laid them on the log between us. " As you wish 
*' to make a bargain of your courtesy to a guest," said 
I, " there is a shilling for each of us, and one over ; I 
" should only have paid four to go in the boat of the 
"White tiitua (common man). 

He would not take it up, however, at first ; and said, 
that all other passengers that were rangatira, or chiefs, 
had given him " money gold " (sovereigns or half- 
sovereigns) for ferrying them across. He instanced 
" Wide-awake," and the three other gentlemen who 
had returned with their horses some days before me. 
" You ought to make a large present," said he, " in 
" consideration of your great name." I was firm, how- 
ever, and when the canoe came back he told me to 
get in. 

But the man who had guided it across demanded a 
shilling for himself as we were going to embark. I 
threw one to him, and was shouting the customary 
farewell, when another man came up and asked two 
shillings more, as the owner of the canoe. I refused ; 
he called some of the bystanders, and hauled the canoe 
up high and dry on the bank. 

I took no notice of this insult. Waving my hand 
to Smith, I shouted to him, in Maori, to proceed with- 
out me. Haere ki Poniki ! " Go to Port Nicholson ! " 


I sang out, SO that all the bystanders might think I 
was bidding him farewell. 

I then told my carrier to untie his kit, and to spread 
one of my blankets on the sunny side of the log, close 
to Taratoa. I reclined u}>on the blanket in chieftain- 
like comfort, cut up some tobacco, filled my pipe, called 
out to the slaves with an air of authority to bring fire, 
and, after lighting my pipe and taking two or three 
puffs, handed it familiarly to the chief. He took it from 
me, but forgot to use it, for he was aghast at my cool- 
ness. The pipe remained in his extended hand ; his 
mouth was half open ; his features expressed the utmost 
astonishment. The rest of the people, about a hundred 
in number, pressed closer round the log, anxious to 
see the upshot of my singular conduct. At last I got 
up and addressed the chief. 

" The great chief of the Ngatiparewawa" I said, 
" is kind to his friend, the chief of TVanganui. He 
" has said that the name of Tiraweke is marked on 
" his heart. He sees that his friend is tired with the 
" long walk, and he does not wish to send him across 
" the river till his legs are rested. It is good : T'lra- 
" weke will be a manuhiri (or " honoured guest") of 
" Taratoa till he is strong to pursue his path. The 
" great chief of Manawatu will clean out a house in 
" his village for his visitor, and strew the floor with 
*' young fern. He will tell his wives and his slave- 
" women to prepare the ovens, and to lay out a feast 
" worthy of a great name. He will send his young men 
" to the sea for fish, and to the fresh- water creeks for 
" the fat eels of the swamp. He will gather the finest 
" kumera from the gardens, and bid his guest get 
*• strong on the good food of the land. Tiraweke was 
" a fool not to see into the heart of his brother. He 
" will smoke his pipe for two weeks in the village of 


" the great chief, and will then carry to Port Nichol- 
" son a story of a great name that has a great heart. 
" The White chiefs shall know the name of Taratoa. 
" I have done." 

The greatest change was produced by this reflection 
on the want of hospitality shown to one whom they 
had begun by pretending to receive with honour. 
Shouts of admiration and loud laughter at the turning 
of the tables burst from the crowd. The women ran 
to the ovens ; and the old chief, perfectly delighted at 
finding that I had really earned my reputation among 
the natives by a knowledge of their customs and feel- 
ings, laughed heartily, and took me cordially by the 
hand. He insisted on my waiting till some potatoes 
were roasted, and then had the canoe launched, and 
put the basket of kai into it. He escorted me down 
to the water's edge, and returned the money to me. 
" I know you want to go on now," said he, " or I 
" would ask you to do in earnest what you proposed 
" in joke. I am much ashamed; but come back soon, 
" and pay me a long visit, that I may know you are 
" not angry. Go to Port Nicholson." I often after- 
wards spent several days with this chief at his various 
residences, and we have been ever since warm friends. 

We reached Otaki at night, after fording the Oha?/, 
at half tide, up to our chins. I remained two or three 
days in the house of Sam Taylor, a European who 
had long resided in these parts ; and commenced an 
acquaintance with the Ngatiraukaica people. 

They had entered into negotiations with Colonel 
Wakefield for the sale of a large tract of land at the 
Manawatu, which was to be appropriated to a part of 
the preliminary settlement. A formal conference had 
been held here on the subject some time before, when 
the chiefs of the Ngatiraiikawa had derided and over- 


thrown objections raised by Rangihaeatn to the pur- 
chase. Colonel Wakefield had been present, accom- 
panied by Mr. Halswell the Protector of Aborigines, 
Richard Davis as interpreter, and several other of the 

A schooner had carried the goods agreed upon to 
the ManawatUy where they had been distributed. 
Some surveyors were already at work there, and some 
more expected every day. Another vessel, I was told, 
had carried the machinery of a steam saw-mill be- 
longing to a private settler there ; and numerous land- 
owners had paid visits to the district. The natives 
were very anxious for the permanent residence of a 
large body of White people among them. 

Those of the Otaki natives who had become mis- 
sionaries were generally as well-behaved as the people 
of Pipiriki, though not so extravagant in their obser- 
vances ; for Mr. Hadfield had managed very wisely to 
introduce Christianity by the authority of the young 
chiefs, and to make them consider the new doctrine 
as a cheerful rather than a saddening and moping in- 
novation. He had introduced among them the grow- 
ing of wheat ; and generally inspired them with 
friendship towards the White colonists, instead of 
suspicion and jealousy. Many of them had lately 
visited Port Nicholson ; peace having been at length 
restored, by Mr. Hadfield's unceasing efforts, between 
them and the Ngatiawa tribes who inhabited the inter- 
vening country. They had returned with the most 
favourable reports of the treatment which they had ex- 
perienced from the settlers, and of the advantages to 
be derived from friendly relations and trade with the 

The increased traffic of White people along the 
beach had induced two whalers to fit up houses of 


accommodation for travellers at TVaikanae and Te 
Uruhi, and Toms had built a new wooden house as 
an hotel at Parramatta Point at Porirua. The bridle- 
road had been completed for some time ; the bridges 
were repaired and the trees removed ; and I walked 
easily in three hours and a half from the head of 
Porirua harbour to Wellington, where I arrived about 
the first week in March. 



Foundation of Nelson — Mr. Thompson — First Court of Quarter 
Sessions — First Trial of a Native — Legal position of Natives — 
Causes for complaint against the Governor — His selection of 
Magistrates — Vast claims to land — Government Estimates — 
Legislative Council — Discontent of the Auckland population — 
Maketu, the Murderer — Public Meeting — Neglect of the Har- 
bour by Government — Mr. Hanson — A Colonist who has become 
an Official — ^The Bishop — Murder of Milne — Villages — Signs of 
progress — Horticultural Society — Produce — Statistics — Harvest 
weather — Surveying " Cadets" — Accident of Captain Liardet — 
Wretched State of Auckland— Population of Cook's Strait — Ineffi- 
cient Government Institutions — Second Newspaper — Nelson and 
New Plymouth — Mr. Earp — County Courts — Government Land- 
sales — Fleeting News from the Capital — The Governor's Speech 
— Details of the Estimates — Injustice to Cook's Strait — Public 

Colonel Wakefield and Mr. Murphy were both ab- 
sent ; having started in the Brougham, two or three 
days before, on a trip of inspection to the settlements 
of Nelson and New Plymouth. 

The " Nelson" squadron, under Captiiin Wakefield, 
had sailed from Port Nicholson on the 2nd of Octo- 
ber ; and, after visiting Kapitt, and obtaining from 
Rauperaha and Hiko a full acknowledgment that 
Blind Bay had been fairly bought, had proceeded to 
explore the coasts of that inlet. After some days' 
careful examination, a harbour had been discovered 
in the S.E. corner of the gulf, which had remained 
before unknown even to many of the White whalers 
and boatmen who had traded for years in the neigh- 
bourhood. Three or four large emigrant ships had 
called at Port Nicholson to know their destination. 


and then proceeded with pilots provided by the Com- 
pany's agent, to the new port. Several coasting-craft 
now kept up a constant communication with Nelson ; 
whose inhabitants were described as proceeding with 
great vigour in the work of location. A newspaper 
was already published there ; and they had only to 
complain of the apparent indifference of the local 
Government to their proceedings. 

A brig from Auckland had, to be sure, brought the 
news of the appointment of Captain Wakefield as a 
Magistrate. I'his news had come on the 23rd of No- 
vember, together with a Sub-Collector of Customs, to 
take care that the Government should not lose the 
large amount of revenue to be derived from the im- 
position of duties on the importations for the supply 
of the young colony. 

Mr. Henry Augustus Thompson, a gentleman who 
had brought from England recommendations, addressed 
by Lord John Russell to the Governor, that he should 
be appointed to certain offices at Nelson, had arrived 
from delivering these credentials at Auckland at 
the end of February ; and had gone as passenger in 
the Brougham to assume the offices of Police Ma- 
gistrate, Protector of Aborigines, and Government 
Representative, which had been conferred upon 

The first jury-lists in Wellington had been made 
up by the 1st of October ; and the first Court of 
Quarter-Sessions had been opened by the Chairman, 
Mr. Halswell, on the 5th of that month ; and the 
first Court of Requests, with a jurisdiction over debts 
under 50/., had held its sittings on the 19th. The 
establishment of both these Courts in New Zealand 
hnd been proclaimed by Sir George Gipps as early as 
the 4th of January preceding. 



At the Quarter-Sessions, the most interesting case 
tried had been that of a native for stealing a blanket 
out of a store. 

The Chairman, in his charge to the Jury, distinctly 
held that " the natives were in truth and in fact 
" British subjects, and that they were to be treated in 
*' every respect as any of ourselves ; and that they had 
" the same right to the protection of the law, and 
** must be held equally amenable for any breach of it. 
•* In order, however, to shield them from the con- 
" sequences of their presumed ignorance of our laws 
" and customs," he held that " the Court should assign 
" them counsel, and that a sworn interpreter should 
" faithfully translate all that it was important for them 
** to know." 

Dr. Evans was assigned as counsel to the prisoner 
in question, Pakewa, who was the man of highest 
rank in the slave-tribe inhabiting Te Aro. Before 
the jury were sworn. Dr. Evans handed in a plea to 
the jurisdiction. The substance of the plea was, that, 
by the Treaty of JVaitangi* all the rights of chief- 
tainship were reserved to the New Zealanders ; and 
that among those rights was that of administering 
justice among the inhabitants of their own tribe. 

Mr. Hanson, the Crown Prosecutor, objected to the 
plea, on the ground that the Court could not take 
cognizance of the Treaty of TVaitangi unless it was pro- 
duced. That if they could take cognizance of the Treaty, 
and it was of the nature described by the plea, there 
was no evidence to show that the right of administer- 
ing justice was among the rights of chieftainship ; and 

* So the agreement was called by which Captain Hobson had 
acquired for the Queen of England the sovereignty of New Zealand ; 
and which guaranteed to the natives their lands and the privileges 
of British subjects. 


that the present case did not belong to the class of 
cases described by the plea, inasmuch as the matter in 
dispute could not be said to be among the inhabitants 
of the native tribe, since it was between a native and 
an European. 

The Court having adjourned the case, on the next 
day Dr. Evans stated that he would, by the leave of 
the Court, withdraw his plea to the jurisdiction, since, 
upon reference to the Treaty, he found that it did not 
bear out the view he had taken. He, however, must 
claim for the native a jury *' de medietate lingua " 
— composed half of natives, half of Europeans. The 
prisoner was not a native-born English subject; and 
the law had been laid down with great clearness to 
the effect that aliens by birth could only acquire the 
rights of natural-born subjects by an Act of Parlia- 
ment, and, even then, subject to certain restrictions. 
In fact, the prisoner was not even a denizen. As an 
alien, he was entitled to a jury composed half of his 
own countrymen ; or if not, if it should be held that 
he was a British subject, then he (Dr. Evans) must 
challenge the array for partiality, as there was not a 
single native among them. The learned counsel ad- 
verted very strongly upon the circumstance, that while 
the natives were held to be subject to British law, and 
to be liable to all the duties and restraints to which 
British subjects were liable, they were deprived of 
their share in this great constitutional privilege. The 
natives were certainly fully equal to the exercise of 
this francliise ; and it would be felt by the whole 
world, that the pretences upon which their country 
had been settled and their land located upon were but 
a solemn farce, if the New Zealanders were excluded 
from the enjoyment of this right. 

The Crown Prosecutor objected to the demand fer 



a jury " de medietate lingua." This was tx) be had 
only when the defendant was an alien. The prisoner 
was, however, clearly a British subject. So soon as 
New Zealand became a British colony, all the 
natives became ipse facto British subjects. With 
regard to the challenge for partiality, it was not 
needful to express any opinion as to the omission of 
the natives from the jury-list. The present jury had 
been fairly selected, and no ground existed for attri- 
buting any partiality to them. The challenge, if 
made at all, must be made to the poll, not to the 

The Court decided that the jury empannelled should 
be sworn ; which being done, and the indictment read, 
and the purport interpreted to the prisoner, the case 
was proceeded with. 

The evidence was very clear, and showed that the 
native had been aware of his guilt, by the fact that he 
had rolled up the blanket and hidden it in one that he 
was wearing, when charged with the offence by the 

Dr. Evans, in his address to the jury, pleaded with 
great earnestness in favour of the unfortunate native 
at the bar ; bespeaking their merciful consideration, 
seeing that he laboured under the disadvantage of not 
understanding one word of their language or customs ; 
and contending that the dispute had arisen through 
the prosecutor not being sufficiently versed in the 
native language to comprehend the explanation of 
the native in accounting for the possession of the 

The jury retired for a few minutes, and then re- 
turned a verdict of guilty, with a strong recommenda- 
tion to mercy, as he was the first native who had been 
tried under English law. 


' The Court sentenced him to seven days' hard labour. 
The trial lasted five hours.* 

At the same sitting of the Court, an Englishman 
was sentenced to three months' hard labour for steal- 
ing a broken gun, worth 30*-., from a native. The pri- 
soner had been strongly recommended to mercy on 
account of previous good character. 

The whole five months during which I had been 
absent had only furnished more matter for complaint 
against our hostile Governor. 

Money was drawn in large quantities from Cook's 
Strait in order to be spent at Auckland. Not an erec- 
tion of any kind, except a miserable pound, had been 
made or proposed by the Government. The legisla- 
tion for the colony was going on at a great distance 
from the principal body of those for whose benefit it 
was intended ; so that no remonstrance or complaint 
could be heard by the Council of the Auckland Pacha. 

Some news had been received, but at distant inter- 
vals. As much as five weeks had passed at one time 
without news from the metropolis, while cattle-ships 
from New South \^^ales or emigrant-vessels from 
England were almost daily coming to anchor in the 
harbour. What news we did get found its way by 
chance channels, and not by official communication. 

* Hardly six weeks after his liberation, Pakewa again stole a 
pair of blankets, was fully convicted, and was sentenced to seven 
years' transportation. This is probably the case of which Mr. 
Clarke, without much carefulness as to facts, thus speaks in one of 
his official Reports. There is at least no case, of which I have 
heard, more like the one which he relates with such virulence : — 
" At ,Port Nicholson a native was accused of stealing a blanket, 
" and committed for trial. After lying several months in gaol he 
" was sentenced to two years' imprisonment for the offence. The 
'' judge in this case was a Protector of Aborigines ! ! ! — the jury 
" composed of individuals selected from a community not signalized 
" for their general philanthropy towards the natives." 


At the same time that Captain Wakefield's mime 
had been included in the commission of the peace. 
Captain Liardet had also been made a magistrate ; and 
Dr. Evans had been reinstated in the same office. Two 
other gentlemen figured in the list, whose fitness for 
the situation was at least aprocryphal. One was Mr. 
Thomas McDonnell, who had not scrupled to crimp 
labourers for Hokianga, on arriving here in one of 
the emigrant-ships from England. He was reputed, 
moreover, to have deceived the Company as to the 
lands which he had sold them in England ; his whole 
property in New Zealand being mortgaged to' a house 
in Sydney, who had for many years supplied him with 
goods for carying on the timber-trade at Hokianga. 
The appointment of JMr. Robert Tod as a Justice of 
Peace was no great matter of surprise, as that indi- 
vidual had been one of the earliest enemies to the Port 
Nicholson settlers, and had moreover gone up to 
Auckland in order to be a purchaser at the Govern- 
ment land-sales. 

The claims to land already advertised for investiga- 
tion amounted to at least 40,000,000 acres, exclusive 
of the Company's territory. Considering that there 
are only 78,000,000 acres in the whole of the three 
islands, the private land-sharks appear to have been 
disposed to help themselves pretty liberally, had no 
regular system interfered to check their proceedings. 

Lieutenant Shortland's estimate of proposed expen- 
diture for the year 1841 told a curious tale at this 
time. It amounted to nearly 51,000/. Reckoning the 
number of Europeans then in the colony at about 
5000, this was government at the rate of 10/. per head 
per annum for every man, woman, and child. For the 
share devoted to the aborigines' department was little 
more than 2000/. ; and this in salaries to Protectors, 


forage for their horses, travelling expenses, and con- 
tingencies — only 200/. being put down for presents to 
the natives. 

This estimate proposed to spend 4250/. in Port 
Nicholson, 3715/. in the Bay of Islands, and 1013/. in 
Hokianga, Kaipara, and Akaroa : so that very nearly 
five-sixths of this enormous expenditure v^as to take 
place for the glory of the artificial capital. 
' Upwards of 6700/. was included in items for the 
private comfort of the Governor. 

The whole financial structure was well planned to 
support the proclamation-capital at the expense of the 

Profuse appointments to subordinate offices under 
the Government were made the means of inducing 
many a visitor to settle at Auckland. Captain Hobson 
had been commonly heard to say, when he was told at 
Port Nicholson of some settler who wanted an induce- 
ment to move, " I can give him 150/. a year and a 
" comfortable house." 

The Legislative Council had been opened by the 
Governor on the 14th of December; and we gathered 
by fits and starts, that the principal legislative measures 
were the Municipal Corporation Bill, which the Go- 
vernment seemed anxious to pass in order that the 
Wellington people might be compelled to erect at their 
own expense those public buildings which the Govern- 
ment refused to build, and the Police Magistrates 
Bill. This last measure made the Justices of the 
Peace mere puppets, unable to commit a prisoner, or to 
hold him to bail ; and granted to the paid Police Ma- 
gistrates, who constituted the entire machinery of 
Government in these settlements, a power on the 
bench equal to that of any two unpaid Magistrates, as 
well as that from which unpaid Magistrates were 


The obnoxious Land Claims Bill, and the j)etty 
tyranny of the Government officers, had at length dis- 
gusted the mere land-jobbing population of Auckland. 
The newspaper of that settlement, after a long course 
of open jealousy, and mean abuse of us and our loca- 
tion, — after grudging us and Akaroa the seven weeks 
that the Governor had been absent, — after following 
his example in classing as a crime on our part the in- 
convenience which Auckland suffered from the distance 
at which we lay from it, with our larger commercial 
resources, — had positively turned round upon its own 
population, and urged them to take an example from 
us in our independence and public denouncing of our 
oppressors. The Editor asked them, rather naively, 
whether their long life in a penal settlement had 
taught them to submit so tamely to the yoke ? But, 
for this ebullition of spirit, he had received a sharp rap 
on the knuckles from the trustees of the printing 
company by whom he was employed. The principal 
shareholders of this company were either in the imme- 
diate pay of Government, or connected in some indirect 
way with the strings of the Treasury; and so the 
trustees wrote Mr. Editor a letter giving him " notice 
" to quit" at the end of three months. 

A schooner, wrecked near the East Cape, had been 
plundered by a band of natives, headed by some lawless 
White ruffians, who laughed at the master and crew 
when they threatened them with the interference of 
the Government. No further notice was taken of the 

At the Bay of Islands, a native named Maketu had 
committed a cruel murder upon the widow of a Cap- 
tain Roberton, in whose service he was engaged, as 
well as her man-servant and her children. He had 
first tomahawked the servant on account of some verbal 
dispute, and then the lady and children, as they had 


witnessed the deed, or some proofs of his guilt. The 
Police Magistrate, we heard, had been afraid to issue 
his warrant for the apprehension of the criminal, al- 
though H.M.S. Favourite and the discovery - ships 
Erebus and Terror were lying in the bay at the time. 
Two or three old settlers, however, had gone over to 
the island where a large number of natives had assem- 
bled and refused to give Maketu up, and had seized 
him in the midst of them with impunity. The pusil- 
lanimity of the local authorities was much blamed on 
the occasion. 

On the 8th of December, Auckland, Port Nicholson, 
and the Bay of Islands, were declared ports of entry. 

The Jury-list at Auckland gave the number of 
male inhabitants as 655 at this time. 

The unabated tone of feeling at Wellington, that 
we had never been more oppressed than at the present 
time, may be gathered from the fact, that at a dinner 
of 95 persons, composing the A\^ellington Working- 
men's Land Association, which consisted entirely of 
the thrifty and industrious mechanics and labourers, 
the "Governor's" health was unanimously hissed; 
and some one observed that the Chairman must have 
made a mistake in proposing the toast, and intended 
to say " the Governor's successor." 

A more public expression of injured feeling was 
manifested at one of those remarka])le meetings in 
which the people of Port Nicholson had been used to 
vent their constantly collecting indignation. They 
have often been blamed, and called demagogues, and 
riotous, turbulent people, on account of the number of 
these meetings. But when it is considered how nu- 
merous, constant, and repeated were their causes of 
complaint, and that they were separated from their local 
legislators by a space often of weeks, sometimes of 


iiiontlis, it can hardly be a reproach to them that they 
took every opportunity to call out for redress, hoping 
that some generous ear would catch the appeal in 
England, and hold out a helping hand. / 

In a gale of wind from south-east, two vessels had 
been wrecked on the coast in the neighbourhood of the 
Port Nicholson heads. One, an American whaler, had 
mistaken Palliser Bay for the harbour, and had got 
embayed so as to prevent her egress when the gale 
burst on her and carried away her masts; and the 
other, from hugging the coast too close just before the 
sudden shift of wind, had been driven ashore in Lyall's 

The meeting was almost unanimous in its opinion, 
that the accidents had been caused by the want of 
pilots and a lighthouse, or even a distinguishing mark 
at the entrance of the harbour. As Government had 
not even laid down a buoy, or spent a single shilling on 
this harbour, it was thought quite vain to hope for 
redress from the local Government ; and it was there- 
fore proposed that a statement of the circumstances 
should be drawn up and forwarded to England, to be 
brought under the notice of Parliament and the Queen's 

Mr, Hanson, however, and Mr. Strang, had on this 
day a very strong attack of the " Government fever ;" 
and attempted to divert the attention of the angry 
crowd from the misdeeds of their employers, by a long 
string of resolutions imputing to the Company dis- 
graceful carelessness of the interests of the settlers, 
while comfortably making large profits at home. Mr. 
Hanson suggested that the blame should be laid on 
their shoulders. He and his coadjutor both accused 
the Company of spending no money for the benefit of 
the settlers, except in the making of roads, on which 

Chap. VI. MR. HANSON. 155 

they were obliged to employ the labourers to whom they 
had promised employment. 

But ]\Ir. Hanson got no credit for public spirit, and 
was ably exposed by Dr. Evans. The single instance 
of Captain Chajffers was sufficient to disprove his invi- 
dious statement. For the Governor had refused to 
allow that deserving officer to continue as Harbour- 
master, even in the pay of the Company at 300/. per 
annum, because he had signed the petition for his 
recall. The approval of the Governor was of course 
necessary to all measures for the benefit of the har- 
bour ; and the only duty of the Company was to conduct 
emigration. Any buoys, beacons, lighthouses, pilots, 
or harbour-master, were liable to be pulled dow n, re- 
moved, or disregarded, so long as they were unsanc- 
tioned by authority. 

And the meeting carried the original proposition by 
a large majority. 

It was from this time that might be dated Mr. 
Hanson's violent opposition to the Company and to the 
interests of the settlers in Cook's Strait. From this 
time forward it was manifested in various ways, by 
secret letters as well as by public speeches. 

1 have omitted till now to describe, because it was 
not till now that it became thoroughly known, the 
nature of Mr. Hanson's transactions in the Chatham 
Islands. He had always refused to give any account to 
the Principal Agent of the way in which a large quan- 
tity of the stores of the surveying-vessel, Cuba, were 
disposed of, or to hand over the deeds by which he 
had purchased the land for the Company, or to give 
any details of his dealings with the natives. But it 
had only been a matter of general knowledge, that he 
had found means to buy up the stores of a whaler which 
had been wrecked there, and to set up a whaling station 


on his own private account for two seasons. It now 
turned out that he had drawn to a large amount on 
the Company in England from the Chatham Islands 
direct, without instructing the Principal Agent of what 
he had done, or having any authority to do so ; as his 
agency was only to accrue by percentage on the re-sale 
by the Company of the lands which they might acquire 
through his exertions. Colonel \\'^akefield had of 
course reported to his employers at home that he was 
kept in the dark as to Mr. Hanson's proceedings, and 
had thus acquired that gentleman's personal enmity. 
And when news came that the Company had disho- 
noured Mr. Hanson's bills, the Crown Prosecutor glo- 
ried in having kept the deeds as security for his being 
seen harmless through the affair. 

When Mr. Hanson had been degraded to a place 
under the Government, with a sufficient salary, he found 
it very easy to serve two purposes at once. Mobile he 
vented his spite on his old employers, to whom he had 
behaved so ill, he mainl} advanced the designs and 
actively earned the pay of his new masters. The misery 
which he helped to entail on his fellow-settlers ap- 
peared to be of no importance whatever in his thoughts. 
I need hardly say that he has continued to be, and is 
still, a worthy servant of the local Government in 
New Zealand. 

I can imagine no position more despicable and 
wretched than that of one of the original settlers, who, 
having once fairly caught the " Government fever," has 
to perform his unthankful office among his former as- 
sociates. Perfectly acquiring the haughty repulsiveness 
of the troop which he has joined, he is doomed to lose 
the friendship and often even the very acquaintance of 
those who knew him and esteemed him in England, 
and were once partners with him in the noble work of 


early colonization. He appears to become tainted by the 
touch of the Auckland dross : he no longer revives old 
associations, or excites a feeling of sympathy in the 
minds of his independent fellow-settlers. His very 
dinner acquaintances are of a new class, widely differ- 
ent from those to whose society and intercourse he 
has been for many years accustomed ; and the selfish 
vulgarity of their welcome on his accession to their 
rank must ring in his ears harsh and revolting, as the 
low slang with which a band of pickpockets would 
celebrate the introduction among them of a young 
and unpractised offender. 

But few of the members of such young and frank 
communities as the Cook's Strait settlements will 
stoop to conceal their disgust by an outward show of 
politeness. They revere the motto that " union is 
strength ;" and the deserter from the bundle of sticks 
becomes, almost at once, a virtual outcast from good 
society. Though he may still be invited to large balls 
and dinner-parties, he seldom afterwards finds himself 
at the more familiar and friendly pic-nics, and im- 
promptu dances, and pot-luck dinners. In such inti- 
mate society he would be an undoubted wet blanket ; 
for some better man would probably leave the room 
when he came in, without attempting to disguise his 
aversion. He hardly walks along the beach but some 
two or three former friends gallop past him with an 
open sneer on their faces ; and any one who does speak 
to him, of whatever rank, does it coldly and carefully, 
as though he dreaded that his words should be taken 
down and twisted into disaffection at the head-quarters 
of official enmity. 

Wellington was still without a clergyman of the 
Established Church. The news, received through 
Sydney, of the appointment and expected arrival of 


Dr. George Augustus Selwyn, as Bishop of New 
Zealand, with a suite of clergymen from England, 
was hailed as most happy tidings. It was reported, to 
our great delight also, that his Lordship had kindly as- 
sented to the request of the Directors that he would 
mediate between the Company and the Church Mis- 
sionary Society. On the suggestions of the Bishoj), 
the Society had professed to abjure all enmity, and to 
send the most fraternizing instructions to its agents in 
New Zealand. 

In the end of December, a very suspicious murder 
was committed on a man named Milne. His body 
was found dreadfully lacerated, and plundered of his 
clothes and watch, on the Pitone road. Several wit- 
nesses concurred in saying that they had met him 
coming towards the town on the evening before, appa- 
rently in fear of a native who was following a few 
yards behind him. The result of the Coroner's inquest 
was unsatisfactory. A verdict of " Wilful murder 
" against some person or persons unknown" was given 
by the jury; and the offer of a reward of 50/. by the 
Police Magistrates failed to obtain the detection of the 

Notwithstanding all they had to complain of on 
the part of their rulers, the energetic band of colonists 
had made very great progress. Villages were in pro- 
cess of formation at two spots on the banks of the 
Hutt, by land-owners who divided their sections into 
small allotments for sale or improving lease. They 
were named respectively " Aglionby " and " Rich- 
mond." Another village was rapidly being peopled 
on the country section immediately north of the town. 
This section, belonging jointly to Mr. Watt and John 
Wade the auctioneer, was divided off into one-acre and 
two-acre allotments. The proprietors constructed a 


dray-road up the steep side facing the harbour, which 
gave access to the sunny nooks and terracing flats on the 
N.W. slope ; and then they put so many lots up to auc- 
tion at once. Johnny Wade was already well known 
as the George Robins of the colony, and sold off many 
allotments at the rate of 20/. per acre. And these 
were not speculating land-jobbing prices, for they were 
agreed upon by bond fide occupants, chiefly labouring 
men, who had time given them in which to pay up 
their purchase-money. They used to work at their 
little patches of ground after their labour for the day 
was over ; and Wade's Town, which had before looked 
a very bleak hill, of poor soil, and denuded of timber 
by the clearing of former years, soon boasted a popu- 
lation of 200 working people, whose neat cottages and 
smiling cultivations peeped from every nook among 
the picturesque hills, especially on the N.W. side, 
which is sheltered from the cold winds, and timbered 
in pretty patches, overlooking the velvet foliage of the 
Kai Tf^ara TVara. 

In the upland valley of the Karori, too, several 
people had begun to clear. The road had not yet 
reached this, having to cross a steep part of the Kai 
TVara TVara valley ; but the clearers used to find their 
way by an old Maori path, and live in the bush for 
days together. This valley is situate at the eleva- 
tion of 700 or 800 feet above the level of the sea, 
about two miles S. W. of Wellington by the present 
road. The level land in it is about 1000 or 1200 
acres, and this tract boasts the very finest totara and 
other timber. 

Three wooden jetties now projected into the port at 
the south side of Lambton Harbour; and alongside of 
one of them a schooner of 70 tons had loaded the 
machinery of a steam saw-mill, destined for the banks 
of the Manavmtu. 


A fourth pier proved of much convenience opposite 
Barrett's hotel. It was built by subscription among 
the two or three people living on the adjoining section. 

A small steam saw and flour mill had been at work 
in Wellington since the beginning of October, and 
was kept in constant and profitable employment. 

A Horticultural Society had been formed, and had 
held its first show on the 24th of January. Although 
this period of the year, our warmest weather, was by 
no means the most favourable for the purpose, the 
exhibition had been most remarkable. Many new- 
comers who had been present told me that they had 
no idea before they saw this collection, chiefly of vege- 
tables, of what could be produced. 

Two cabbages grown on mere shingle at Pitone, 
within thirty yards of the sea-beach, weighed respec- 
tively 21^ and 12 pounds, being a Hybrid and an early 
Fulham ; although they were kept three weeks after 
arriving at perfection, in order to appear at the show. 

Some of the kidney potatoes grown in the Hutt, 
from native seed, measured nine inches in length, and 
were of excellent quality. Specimens of the red flat 
turnip were shown 19 inches in circumference and 
weighing 2i lbs. ; and of the common white turnip 
21 inches in circumference and weighing 3 lbs- 

The wheat, with remarkably full and large ears, 
had a straw five feet seven inches in length. 

Apples, the first fruits of trees imported from Eng- 
land, were exhibited. 

Every other sort of vegetable figured in the list of 
prizes ; and seedling geraniums and dahlias represented 
the flower-garden. 

Most of these things had been grown, with scarcely 
any attention, on what our detractors called the barren 
and impassable hills which shut Port Nicholson out 
from any available country. 

Chap. VI. STATISTICS. 161 

The supply of poultry was at this time very large. 
Almost every settler possessed a few, and some as 
many as tAVo or three hundred head. 

The statistics of the consumption of butcher's meat 
showed how substantially the colonists were already 
living ; for a calculation made from the weekly con- 
sumption of pork, beef, and mutton, gave 148 lbs. of 
meat per head, man, woman, and child, in the year. 
Indeed, it was notorious that no working man would 
sit down to breakfast without fresh pork ; and that 
they very often ate mutton chops, at 9d. or lOd. per 
pound, three times a-day. 

Three hundred and two vessels had entered the port 
since the beginning of the settlement, and the bond fide 
sales of merchandise during the year 1841 alone in 
Wellington were estimated at 80,000/. But a very 
satisfactory piece of information coupled with this was, 
that although, till the beginning of October, there had 
been no legal means of compelling payments, the dis- 
honour of a bill at the bank had been of exceedingly 
rare occurrence. Cautious dealers had never yet had 
an over-due bill to take up. 

The number of cattle imported during the year 1841 
Was about 1000 head. Dr. Imlay, a large cattle- 
holder at Twofold Bay in New South Wales, had lately 
sent down some very valuable cargoes of a superior 
breed. Heifers from his stock, eighteen months old, 
had been sold by auction at 8/, 10*. per head. 

Bricks were now plentifully supplied from several 
rival kilns ; and many buildings were being erected of 
that material. 

The whole of January and the first part of February 
had been remarkable for a long continuance of line 
dry weather. During this space, however, light showers 
at night were frequent; and there were at no time 



more than nine days and nights entirely without rain. 
As this is just the grain harvest time in New Zealand, 
nothing could be more seasonable ; and refreshing rains 
fell at the end of February to save the pasture on the 
hills from parching, and to keep the potato-crop from 

Mr. Stokes had made another excursion to the 
f'Fairarapa plain ; and confirmed the former good 
accounts of its extent and capabilities. 

Two landmarks had been put up at the heads of the 
harbour. One, a three-sided wooden pyramid with open 
sides, about 70 feet high, on Pencarrow Head, was 
blown down by a gale of wind soon after ; this had 
been put up by public subscription. Another, on the 
highest peak between the mouth of the harbour and 
Lyall's Bay, was more securely fixed by Colonel Wake- 
field's orders, and remains in its place to this day. It 
consists of four tun butts, then three, then one, piled 
above each other, filled with stones and painted white, 
with a flag-staff on the top. I have distinguished 
this beacon with a glass from eight or ten miles to 

The Brougham, after making a passage of 92 days 
last year to London with her cargo of oil and bone, had 
returned on the 9th of February with a new Chief 
Surveyor for the Company, Mr. Brees, who superseded 
Captain Smith. He was accompanied by a large suite 
of young gentlemen, engaged by the Company for three 
years as " Surveying Cadets." I had met two or three 
of these on the Forirua road when 1 came in to town, 
with labourers and theodolites, and other baggage, 
starting for the Manawalv. I remember laughing at 
their dandified appearance, and wondering what new 
arrivals had thus suddenly and without preparation 
taken to the l)ush. Everything about them was so 


evidently new ; — their guns just out of their cases, 
fastened across tight-fitting shooting-jackets by patent 
leather belts ; their forage-caps of superfine cloth ; 
and their white collars relieved by new black silk 
neck-kerchiefs. Some positively walked with gloves 
and dandy-cut trousers ; and, to crown all, their faces 
shone with soap. There had been a little rain, too, 
the night before ; and, having only got about two miles 
from the town, they were actually picking their way, 
and stepping carefully over muddy places. I sat 
down on the stump of a tree and vastly enjoyed the 
cockney procession ; wondering how long the neatness 
of their appearance and the fastidiousness of their 
steps would last. They, on the other hand, stared 
at me, as though they had considered me one of the 
curiosities of the interior ; — turning up their noses 
with evident contempt at my rough red woollen smock, 
belted over a coarse cotton check shirt, without neck- 
cloth, and stout duck trousers, and gaping with horror 
at my longhair, unshaven beard, and short black pipe, 
half-hidden under a broad-brimmed and rather dirty 
Manilla hat. They appeared, too, to view with some 
distrust a sheath knife, about eighteen inches in the 
blade, which I had made my constant companion, and 
with which I was cutting up negro-head tobaccco. 

The mutual expressions of astonishment and derision 
depicted on the respective features of the old hand and 
the young muffs meeting in the bush would have been 
nuts to a painter wanting a new idea. 

A melancholy accident had deprived the New Ply- 
mouth settlement of the services of Captain Liardet. 
While saluting a vessel which arrived in the roadstead 
with emigrants from England, this officer had rather 
carelessly looked down the muzzle of a small cannon 
which had failed to explode, and down which a red* 

M 2 


hot coal had been thrown in order to remedy the 
omission ; and, while he was looking, the gun went 
off, and severely injured both himself and a sailor who 
was assisting him. It was feared that he would totally 
lose the use of his eyes. 

Captain Liardet had given unbounded satisfaction 
during his short administration of office. High- 
minded and generous, and possessed of great moral as 
well as physical courage, this well-known type of the 
British naval officer had soon ac([uired the devoted 
love and respect of the colonists, whose energies he 
had undertaken to direct. They felt that he was to 
be depended upon in any emergency which might 
befall them ; and while his powers of mind thus 
secured general confidence, his very commanding per- 
sonal appearance combined with the affability of a 
gentleman and the frank-heartedness of a sailor to 
make him the universal favourite of his little society. 

Thus, while all who had enjoyed the advantage of 
his acquainttmce mourned the misfortune of an 
honoured friend, the community which had been under 
his fostering charge had moreover to grieve for the 
loss of a valued leader. 

Soon after my arrival, a vessel came from England, 
bringing a Colonial Treasurer who had been appointed 
there. It was a month before he found an opportunity 
of sailing for the seat of Government, to which there 
was no inducement for vessels to go direct from 
England. It was in the same way that the Chief 
Justice and Attorney-General had gone through Wel- 
lington to their destination, 650 miles off by the 
shortest track ever made by a ship. 

An arrival from Auckland brought news up to the 
16th of February, ])ut not even copies of the Bills 
which had become Ordinances of the Council. 


It appeared, however, that the legislative wisdom 
had not been able to get through its first session 
without the most disgraceful squabbles. Of two rival 
Land Claims Bills, one had at length been passed, 
which was declared by the Auckland newspaper to be 
worse than the first. The rejected one had been 
proposed by the Attorney- General, but withdrawn in 
deference to the opposition of the three non-official 
members ; two of whom, Messrs. Porter and Clendon, 
had grievously offended the land-sharks of the north, 
by supporting a bill of Lieutenant Shortland's manu- 
fiicture and introduction. The Corporation Bill had 
also passed, giving ample powers of local taxation and 
management to any town with a population of 2000 
souls which should apply for the privilege. IMr. Earp 
remained in opposition to both measures ; and his 
conduct, which the people of Wellington attributed to 
instability of purpose, was called by the Auckland 
malcontents the working of profound policy. He had 
entered a long protest against the Corporation Bill on 
account of its too democratic tendency. 

Mr. Clayton, one of the early settlers of the Bay of 
Islands, who had been one among the hungry band 
tempted down to Auckland by the Hobson experiment 
of founding a city, had made the following confession 
of the state of the settlements over which that city 
presided, at a large public meeting held to pass 
resolutions against the Land Claims Bill : — 

" There is an admitted exhausted treasury, no 
" agriculture in progression, not a plough in the 
'* ground ; the ships have left our ports, and we have 
** no money." 

At this time, twenty vessels, six of them three- 
masters, were lying in Wellington harbour ; and ten 
of these, including a barque of 250, and a schooner of 


110 tons, were owned by the colonists. The merchants 
were actively engaged in preparing and despatching the 
equipments for the approaching whaling season. Barley, 
wheat and barley straw, and seeds of all sorts, the 
produce of the colony, were advertised for sale in the 
papers. 1'he little steam-mill was inadequate to grind 
the produce into flour, and one or two of the large 
producers were squabbling about first turn. 

The British population of the Company's settlements 
was at this time about 5000, including 3000 at Wel- 
lington and in the innnediate vicinity, 150 at TVnn- 
ganui, 1000 at Nelson, 600 at New Plymouth, and 
200 in other parts of Cook's Strait. Lfirge additions 
to the Nelson population were expected immediately 
from England. 

I cannot help quoting, from the Wellington news- 
paper of the 9th of March, the following description 
of the only Government buildings at Wellington: — 

" There are now about sixty prisoners in the Wel- 
" lington gaol, chiefly mutinous or runaway sailors ; 
" but there are some felons, and one person at least 
" confined for debt only. They are all huddled toge- 
" ther in a wretched Maori building, large enough for 
" twelve or fifteen human beings at the most. W^e 
" are told, and can easily believe, that the atmosphere 
" of this miserable hole, when its unfortunate inmates 
" are put up for the night, is almost suffocating ; and 
" if pestilence should break out amongst them, nobody 
" will be surprised. An advertisement for tenders for 
" the erection of another gaol has appeared in this 
" paper ; but we hear that the sum which our pre 
*' cious Government can afford for the purpose is so 
•* small, that no contract has been offered within the 
*• prescribed limits. This state of things, so disgraceful 
*• to our rulers, is absolutely the subject of merriment 


" to him who is spending hundreds and thousands of 
*' Port Nicholson money on his kitchens and ve- 
" randahs." 

" A decent building for a post-office is also espe^ 
" cially required. On Sunday last we saw INIr. Mantell 
" stuffing an old potato-sack amongst the reeds of the 
'* dilapidated hut he occupies as Postmaster, to prevent 
" the wind from blowing the letters off the table on 
" which he had assorted them for delivery. There are 
" no conveniences for the performance of his duties, 
" and it is really unfair to expect regularity and de- 
" spatch from a public officer to whom the commonest 
" facilities for discharging his duties are denied." 

" What makes the neglect of the Government to 
" furnish a good police-office and post-office most dis- 
" creditable and unjust, is the undoubted fact, that the 
" Port Nicholson contributions to the public treasury 
" amount to many thousands per annum. One-fifteenth 
•' part of the revenue collected here and remitted to 
" Auckland would suffice for the buildings needed ; 
" but this cannot be had, because of the waste at Go- 
" vernment-house and the numerous sinecures at the 
" guiioi Hauraki. A Government more shamelessly 
" prodigal, and at the same time more pitifully mean, 
" never insulted a British community." 

About this time New Zealand began to turn the 
tables on the Van Diemen's Land crimps ; and a \ essel 
arrived from Launceston with several labourers from 
thence. They had accompanied a party of those who, 
having been induced to leave Wellington some year or 
two before, had gladly returned. These indeed declared 
that they had rather live in New Zealand without a 
shirt to their backs, than in the penal colony of Van 
Diemen's Land with two. 

In this month a second newspaper was started at 


Wellington in support of the Government, and in 
opposition to the Company. It was got up by sub- 
scription. The Crown Prosecutor was sole Editor ; and 
another " feverish " attorney figured among the share- 
holders. The original newspaper had for some time 
been issued twice a-week. From this time the columns 
of both partook largely of the tediousness of a contro- 
versy between two country papers of opposite politics. 
The Crown Prosecutor's bantling expired, in a state 
of insolvency, about a year afterwards. 

The Brougham returned about the middle of March. 
In going through the French Pass, she had been 
swept by the violent tide which rushes through that 
narrow channel on to a shoal not marked in the 
French charts, which were the only ones yet existing 
of that part of the coast. At low tide she had been 
left on the ledge almost on her beam-ends ; but after 
some trouble she was got off with but little injury, and 
reached Nelson in safety. My uncle gave me an 
amusing description of the confusion produced by the 
accident; four pack-bullocks in the hold belonging to 
the Company having tumbled over a blood mare from 
England belonging to Mr. Thompson. 

The Brougham had also bumped on a rock in the 
north entrance of Astrolabe Roads, unknown before 
the visit of the Nelson expedition thither ; but, being 
an old teak-built Calcutta pilot-vessel, she had received 
no injury. The accounts from Nelson and New 
Plymouth were most favourable. The settlers were 
described as universally energetic, contented, and san- 
guine as to early success. 

An emigrant vessel, arrived at Taranaki, had laid 
down moorings, sent out by the Company, fit to hold 
a ship of 600 tons in any weather. With this security, 
and some excellent surf-boats, also provided by the 

Chap. VI. MR. EARP. 1^ 

Company, the anchorage and landing at New Ply- 
mouth were no longer hazardous. 

On the 24th of March a brig arrived from Auckland 
with a batch of news, and ]Mr. Earp as passenger. 

This gentleman had enacted a very prominent part 
in the Auckland performances ; which were so repul- 
sive by this time to the Auckland public, that the Go- 
vernment officers had been christened by their own 
newspaper — " A species of sucking Sultans, who ima- 
" gined themselves to be born with the power of 
" cutting off heads and tails at their sovereign plea- 
" sure." This scion of the press had existed one year, 
during which time no fewer than three editors had been 
successively engaged and dismissed by the tender-con- 
scienced proprietors. 

It appears that Mr. Earp had written some articles 
in this periodical in favour of his own conduct and 
against that of some other Members of Council. The 
authorship of the articles had been demanded and 
acknowledged ; the Council had passed a vote of want 
of confidence in Mr. Earp ; Mr. Earp had publicly 
retorted that the feeling was reciprocal, and had been 
supported by a public meeting ; and this had been fol- 
lowed up by a long series of correspondence between 
Mr. Earp, the editor, the lampooned Councillors, 
and their go-betweens, so excessively ridiculous in its 
origin, progress, and termination, that a gentleman, 
being one of the officers of the garrison, who had un- 
fortunately allowed himself to be mixed up in the 
menacing part of the negotiations, was at last obliged 
to withdraw from the entangled web of scribbling, and 
to declare that he would have nothing more whatever 
to do with the affair. 

Mr. Earp's opposition to the Land Claims Bill 
was directed against its manifest tendency to foster 


Auckland at the exj)ense of the Cook's Strait set- 

Although Governor Hobson had affected to consider 
Mr. Earp as the representative in Council of the 
Southern district, he was not generally considered in 
that light by the Cook's Strait settlers ; and this was 
the only part of his conduct of which the great majority 
approved. It is not remarkable that this part of his 
conduct should have been that which caused his expul- 
sion from the Council. 

Altogether, the metropolis appeared to be in a most 
disagreeable state of ferment ; and the peaceable society 
of Wellington began to consider whether it did not 
rather gain by the absence of a Court, which drew in 
its train such endless quarrels and misunderstandings, 
— such violent disputes and mutual recriminations 
— such ungentlemanly and, in truth, buffoon-like mes- 
sages, ending in nothing but more pen and ink, be- 
tween all its distinguished ministers, parliamentarians, 
and subordinate hangers-on. 

The Courts of Quarter-Sessions had been suj)er- 
seded by monthly County Courts, with a similar juris- 
diction. A Mr. Whitaker was appointed Judge of 
that for the Northern district of New Zealand, and Mr. 
Halswell of that for the Southern district. " Every 
" man thinks his own geese swans ;" so the Northern 
district, defined as north of the parallel of latitude of 
38^ 30' S., was to have sittings at Auckland and at 
Kororareka in the Bay of Islands ; while the Southern 
districts, defined as that part of New Zealand south of 
the same parallel, was to have sittings at Wellington 
only. Nelson was still left unprovided with any other 
than a Police Court. 

On looking at the map, it will be at once seen how 
the practical working? of any real measure of Govern- 


ment disproved the " centrical" position of Auckland. 
At least four-fifths of the North Island was by this 
ordinance included in the Southern district. 

On the 1st of February, a second Government land- 
sale had afforded an additional proof of the land-job- 
bing and non-agricultural character of the Auckland 
experiment. In the " county of Eden" (which pro- 
bably originated the clever satire written by " Boz " 
upon speculation towns) thirty-seven lots had been 
put up. Of these only fourteen found bidders ; nine 
out of the fourteen were purchased by persons con- 
nected with the Government ; and the produce of the 
sale had been the sum of 1753/., little more than 1/. 
per acre. A second sale of tovm allotments, in quanti- 
ties of a few perches each, had realized 5000/. This 
was a sad falling off from the first turn of Captain Hob- 
son's roulette, which had reaped 21,000/. for 26 acres. 

Accordingly, it was reported that the Victoria Go- 
vernment-brig might be expected daily. As the me- 
tropolitan land-sales had so signally failed to recruit 
the public purse, it became convenient to send round 
in order to collect the large revenue accruing from the 
settlements in Cook's Strait. The metropolis itself, 
entirely dependent on a lavish Government expendi- 
ture, was to be revived from its expiring state at the 
expense of the only working colonists. 

Maketu, the Bay of Islands' murderer, had been 
tried, found guilty, and executed at Auckland. But 
few natives were present, as the Government had not 
the courage to hold up the example in that part of the 
country where the crime had been committed, or 
among the tribes to which the criminal belonged. 

Fleeting and uncertain rumours reached us that the 
session of the Council had closed ; now confirmed, then 
contradicted ; until a few days later, when a coastings 


schooner brought in a cargo of pigs and a newspaper 
which contained the Governor's closing speech. 

Its distinctive features were — the credit claimed by 
his Excellency for the greatness and efficiency of the 
labours of his first Parliament ; his public allusion to 
Mr. Earp's opposition to the Corporation Bill as sur- 
prising in one who had been selected as the representa- 
tive of a body of people supposed to have brought with 
them, " in all its freshness unimpaired, the English 
" love of liberty ;" and the remarkably bad composi- 
tion and undignified style of the oration. The con- 
cluding sentence, especially, refuted the complaints of 
the open part which the Governor and his officials 
had taken in the vulgar parliamentary squabbles above 
described, by " feeling assured that it would be ac- 
" knowledged that, on all occasions, due deference was 
" paid to opinions when deference was due ; and that if 
" no deference was paid, it was because no deference 
** was due." 

The children at Wellington were taught to try 
whether it were easier to repeat this peroration or the 
old nursery rhyme about " Peter Piper picking a peck 
" of pepper." 

The Auckland estimates for the year 1842, copies 
of which now arrived, were more intelligible. In 
almost every department the intention reigned para- 
mount of fostering Auckland and the Northern dis- 
trict against the Company's settlements. And while 
the very extravagant sum total, 50,992/., enabled every 
one to predict that a heavy burden of taxation would 
have to be borne by every English inhabitant of New 
Zealand, it was clear from the separate items that the 
benefit derived from the expenditure would be almost 
entirely confined to the proclamation-capital. 

Thus, on looking over this estimate, as subsequently 


printed and laid before the British Parliament, the 
following observations are to be made. 

In the Treasury department, a Sub-collector at 
Russell and another at Port Nicholson were to receive 
100/. each ; while 825/. were allotted to the Treasurer 
and his Clerks at Auckland. 

In the Customs department, 1470/. was allotted to 
Auckland ; 830/. each to Russell and Port Nicholson, 
and nothing to Nelson or New Plymouth. 

In the Post-office department, 335/. to Auckland ; 
70/. to Port Nicholson ; 55/. to the Bay of Islands ; 
and 75/. between Hokianga, Kaipara, and Tf^aimate. 

In the Harbour-master's department, 1016/. was put 
down for Auckland ; 60/. for the Bay of Islands ; and 
not a shilling for Port Nicholson, Nelson, or New 

In the Sheriff's department, although a blank was 
left opposite the Sheriff, and 50/. each was assigned to 
each of the deputies at Russell and Port Nicholson, 
202/. for a Clerk and Bailiff' belonged to the Auckland 

In the department of Police alone, Cook's Strait 
seemed at first to have the advantage ; 1007/. being 
allowed for Auckland; 1119/. for Russell; 801/. for 
Hokianga-, 6951 for Akaroa ; 1325/. for Port Nichol- 
son ; and 750/. for a Visiting Magistrate for Cook's 
Strait. Even thus, however, the Northern district 
had 157/. more than the Southern ; and moreover, 
1347/. was set down for the mounted police, which 
was kept entirely .'^t Auckland. 

For the Aborigines' department was allotted the 
total sum of 2335/. ; out of which 230/. would come 
to the share of the Sub-protector at Wellington. 

This item was perhaps the most nefarious of the 
whole. Mr. Clarke, the Chief Protector of Al)ori- 


gines, was to have a salary of 400/. per annum, eijual 
to the Attorney-General's ; an allowance of 125/. a 
year for a Clerk ; of 120/. for natives, who were gene- 
rally employed as his own servants ; of 45/. 12*. Qd. 
for forage for a horse ; and of 725/. for travelling and 
incidental expenses. 

His salary and penjuisites thus far exceeded those 
of the Chief Justice. And yet a comparison between 
the two officers as to education, intellect, and general 
efficiency and capability for their respective situations, 
would have been as ridiculous as one between the 
nature of their respective duties. 

The Chairman of the Court of Quarter-Sessions and 
Commissioner of the Court of Recjuests for the 
Northern District was to receive the same as the like 
officer for the South ; but the Northern Chairman was 
allowed 50/. for travelling expenses, and two Clerks of 
the Peace at 200/. each, one at Auckland and the 
other at Russell ; while the Southern Chairman had 
only one Clerk at the same salary. 

In some trifling articles. Port Nicholson was al- 
lowed to share equally with Russell and Auckland ; 
135/. being divided between the Coroners, 450/. 
between the Clergymen, and 912/. between the Jailers 
and Turnkeys at the three places. But Nelson and 
New Plymouth were wholly omitted. 

The Civil establishment of the Governor, exclusive 
of his salary, 1200/., was put down at 1187/. Under 
this head appeared the salaries of a Superintendent of 
the Domain at 137/. per annum, a Ranger of the 
Domain at 4*. Qd. per diem, an Office-keeper and a 
Gardener, and an extra allowance for labourers of 500/. 

This did not include the items under Public Works, 
devoted to the adornment of the Government-house. 
This building had cost 1000/. in England ; but 1100/. 


was devoted to kitchens, stables, servants' bed-rooms, 
outhouses, and verandahs ; and 350/. to the fencing and 
clearing of the Government Domain. 
w/But it was well known that what appeared on the 
Public Estimates was only a small portion of the total 
sum to be spent on the Government residence. 15,000/. 
was said to be a moderate calculation of its final cost : 
and money for the purpose had already been borrowed 
by the Government, whose funds were so exhausted as 
not to be able to meet more pressing exigencies. 

And yet Lord John Russell's instructions to Captain 
Hobson had dwelt with great force on the necessity of 
frugality generally in a colony ; and had particularly 
required him to set a good example to private circles in 
simplicity and plainness of domestic living. 

The total amount destined for the department of 
Public Works and Buildings was 5354/. ; and of this 
not one shilling was to be spent at any other place 
than Auckland. 

The colonial brig, employed chiefly to carry the 
revenue drawn from Cook's Strait to the seat of ex- 
penditure, was alone to cost 1535/. per annum. 

And all the other items were entirely and purely 
for the benefit of the " centrical " settlement, except 
40/, for a schoolmaster at Port Nicholson. 

The Colonial Secretary coolly estimated the sum to 
be derived from the sale of lands during the year at 
50,000/. ; which would leave, after deducting upwards 
of 12,000/. for the Survey Department, the purchase 
of lands from aborigines, and making of roads and 
bridges, and 50 per cent, from the surplus for immi- 
gration, a net revenue of 19,000/. from that source 
alone. By this means he managed to predict, on 
paper, an excess of expenditure over revenue of less 
than 350/. But the result of the last land-sale made 


it very doubtful whether any balance vvould be left 
from the land-fund, after deducting the 12,000/. above- 

The Wellington people signified their dissatisfaction 
at the manner in which legislation had been carried 
on for them, by another public meeting at the end of 
March. Ignorant even of the provisions of the laws 
to which they had become subject, they passed a reso- 
lution recommending that an application should be 
made to the Secretary of State for the Colonies to 
suspend his approval of the Ordinances until the 
colonists should have time to learn what they were, and 
to forward their opinions on them. And a committee 
was appointed to examine and report ; Mr. Murphy 
having volunteered, towards the end of the meeting, 
to furnish copies of the Ordinances as passed. 



Voyage to Nelson — Blind Bay — Nelson Haven — Site of Nelson — 
Gaiety of the landing-place — The infant town — Quail — Cli- 
mate — Calm weather — Cattle — Coal and limestone — Selection 
of lands — Native Reserves — Colonizing character of the Nelson 
Gentry — Captain Arthur "Wakefield — His name among the Na- 
tives — Dr. Imlay, of Twofold Bay. 

On the 30th, the Martha Ridgway, a large ship from 
London with immigrants for Nelson, anchored at 
Point Halswell ; and the Captain came in to receive 
his orders from the Company's Agent and his con- 
signees in Wellington. Being offered a passage by 
one of these gentlemen, who was himself going over 
in the ship, I packed up a small kit, and went on 
board with him in the pilot-boat. 

We sailed on the evening of the 31st. The wind 
favouring us, we were only 28 hours from our anchor- 
age in Port Nicholson to the bottom of Blind Bay ; 
where we anchored, in consequence of the darkness 
and hazy weather, in eight fathoms. We had been 
accompanied through the Strait by two large ships 
and a coasting schooner. The ships had discharged 
immigrants, and were bound to Nelson ; where two 
other vessels, now discharging there, were to join 
them, in order to sail in company through Torres' 
Straits towards India and China. 

After rounding Cape Stephens, we had made out 
clearly the entrance of Port Hardy, the southern 
mouth of the French Pass, which separates D'Urville's 
Island from the main, the islets at the mouth of 
Croisille's Harbour, and the bluff promontory formed 



by Pepin's Island. All this east side of the gulf is 
backed by high and rugged mountains. The land 
towards Massacre Bay rose blue and clear over the 
distant horizop, until the haze and night closed in ; 
but the low land at the southern end was not yet dis* 
tinguishable, and the bay, looking like a broad strait, 
deserved the name of " Blind" given to it by Captain 

In the morning, which was calm and cloudless, we 
found ourselves lying about half-way between Pepin's 
Island and the entrance of Nelson Haven, and about 
two miles off shore. The vessels in the harbour and 
the buildings on the beach had a curious appearance 
over the low bank of boulders which forms the har- 

This curious bank, of no great breadth, and raised 
but few feet above the highest tides, which indeed 
wash over it in some low spots, runs along parallel 
with the land for about six miles, thoroughly shelter- 
ing a space, which averages a quarter of a mile in 
width, from the force of the sea. This natural break- 
water joins the land at its northern extremity, but 
leaves a narrow gut between its southern point and 
the steep coast adjoining; at the very S.E. corner of 
Blind Bay. This gut is the entrance of Nelson Haven. 
Further to the west, a moderate-sized river, called the 
lyaimea, empties itself by several mouths into the 
sea. This river and the waters which flow out of the 
haven form a deep pool, sheltered by a bar. The bar 
extends from a spot on the seaward shore of the 
Boulder Bank, about half-a-mile north of its southern- 
most point, to the sands which stretch out some dis- 
tance from the low coast, extending 10 or 12 miles to 
the westward of Nelson Haven. 

Our anchorage was outside the bar. On the bar 


are found nine feet of water at low-water spring-tides ; 
but the springs rise 13 or 14 feet on this coast. In 
the pool which I have described is excellent anchorage, 
as in stormy weather the sea is broken by the bar. 
The Bolton, a ship of 500 tons, lay here when we 
arrived, having discharged her immigrants, and being 
in waiting for tlie Lord Auckland, which was dis- 
charging hers inside the haven. The anchorage was 
in consequence called Bolton Roads. From thence 
the navigation to the inner haven requires a practised 
pilot ; as the tides are exceedingly rapid, and the 
channel very narrow. A peaked rock called the 
" Arrow," rises high out of water, not 100 yards 
south of the point of the Boulder Bank ; and the ship 
channel is between the two. As we pulled in, we saw 
the wreck of a large ship, the Fifeshire, which had 
come out of the harbour imprudently with no wind to 
assist her in steering, and had been drifted by the ebb 
directly on to the Arrow. The inner gut, between 
the Boulder Bank and the main, is still narrower, 
but holds out less danger, as the tide sweeps fairly 
through it. 

Once inside this, you may fancy yourself in a dock, 
except that a rapid tide sweeps along the land side for 
about a mile. The side towards the Boulder Bank is 
out of the influence of the tide, and there vessels 
generally anchor. 

A little way inside this last narrow, we saw a group 
of wooden houses, tents, rough booths, and sheds, 
disposed about a small hollow in the side of the hill ; 
and Captain Wakefield greeted us as we jumped out of 
the boat. 

The eastern shore of the haven is formed, for a mile 
from its entrance, by a low but steep ridge of hills 
that are bare of wood. But, beyond this, the haven 

N 2 


expands to the eastward into a broad space, which is a 
lake when covered by the tide, and a mud flat at other 
times, intersected by the branching channels of a small 
river called the Maitai. An amphitheatre of about 
1000 acres, shelving from the southern shore of this 
lagoon to the base of abrupt mountains on the east 
and south-east, seems made for the site of a town ; and 
here Nelson is situated. It is only separated from the 
entrance of the haven by the ridge of hills which I 
have mentioned ; and a path over its summit forms a 
short cut between the haven and the town. Facing to 
the north, it enjoys a view over the wide part of the 
haven and the Boulder Bank into the expanse of Blind 
Bay; and the fringe of wood on the banks of the 
Maitai leads the eye to the forest gullies and towering 
crags in the direction of the Ohiere, or Pelorus river. 

The little village at the haven was all life and 
gaiety. Two large wooden stores and a house for 
immigrants, belonging to the Company, were the i 
centre of business, as labourers came for their rations, J 
or rolled casks and bales into the store. The Lord j 
Auckland was discharging immigrants on the beach ; 
the two Deal boats of the Company were being j 
launched or hauled up by their weather-beaten crews, i 
or making trips to the shipping ; and knots of whalers, 
who had come on a cruise to the new settlement, were 
loitering about on the scattered cannon, ploughs, and 
cart-wheels. Among these beach-combing wanderers, 
I recognised many old acquaintances. Some of these 
eccentric characters seemed curiously divided between 
contempt for the inexperience of the "jimmy-grants," 
as they called the emigrants, and surprise at the general 
industry and bustle prevailing. The cloudless weather, 
hotter than 1 had yet felt it in New Zealand, and the 
vivacity of the scene, made one think that races or a 


fair was going on, rather than a serious settlement. 
All seemed ajffected by the bright blue sky and lovely 
scenery around. In the midst of the toil and confusion 
of landing goods, and looking for relations in the 
crowd, every countenance beamed with good humour 
and enjoyment. The very whalers would now and 
then condescend to show an awkward clodhopper the 
handiest way of hauling a package up the sloping 
beach. But few natives figured in the scene ; as this 
spot had not been inhabited for many years, owing to 
the constant danger from the proximity of the moun- 
tains, whence Pakihure and his brother fugitives were 
said to have more than once made successful forays 
upon the dispersed settlements of their conquerors, and 
of the few Ngatiawa who had arrived in Blind Bay 
after its conquest by Rauperaha and his followers. 
Such at least was the reason assigned to me by Mark, 
the young chief of Rangitoto on D'Urville's Island, 
who came while I was here on a friendly visit to Cap- 
tain Wakefield. 

Near the highest point of the path between the 
haven and the town was pitched the small square 
tent in which Captain Wakefield slept. From hence 
he had only a few steps to walk to the flag-staff, where 
he communicated with the shipping by means of 
Marryat's signals ; and he was conveniently placed for 
going to whichever location required his presence. 

In the midst of the great amphitheatre was a low 
isolated mound. Here a long range of wooden houses 
served as hospital, survey-office, and emigration- 
barracks ; and a constant stream of immigrants, with 
their bundles, was flowing either way between the 
summit of this small Acropolis and the nearest point 
of the lagoon to which the tide would allow the large 
boats to ascend the channel of the Maitai. Wooden 


houses, tents, sheds formed of boughs, frames of clay 
walls and thatched roof, and heaps of goods and 
chattels of various kind, were scattered over different 
parts of the flat. Here and there a newly-arrived 
party might be seen cutting a square encampment out 
of the high fern, and erecting their sheds and gipsy 
fires in the space thus formed. But the principal 
cluster of population was along the banks of the 
Maitai, and on the edge of the wood. 

The long straight lines cut by the Surveyors through 
the fern gave an odd appearance to the landscape ; 
and along these glades short posts were stuck into the 
ground at regular intervals, branded with the numbers 
of the sections on either side, in readiness for the 
approaching selection. As I walked along these 
future streets, quail, either single or in coveys, fre- 
quently started up before my steps. They abound all 
over this part of New Zealand. 

During the month that I remained here, the climate 
was certainly magnificent. There were only three or 
four days' rain ; and the rest of the time cloudless 
skies and calm air glowed upon the landscape. If I had 
any complaint to make, it was that I thought it too 
dry and hot in the day-time ; and that the nights were 
on the contrary very cold, when a light air breathed 
down from the lofty peaks inland. But I remembered 
that all these things are to be judged by comparison, 
and that I had just come from the more temperate 
tract of land near Wellington, which receives its tem- 
perature from a sea-breeze, whichever of the prevailing 
winds may blow. 

The climate in this deep bight of a bay is very 
remarkable. The wind, which blows almost inces- 
santly one way or the other through Cook's Strait, 
seems suddenly to lose its power before reaching the 


southern part of Blind Bay. Thus it is common for 
a vessel to be under double-reefed topsails in the Strait, 
and to have her sails all flapping in a calm soon after 
she has passed D'Urville's Island or Massacre Bay. 
And I frequently observed that the speed and direction 
of the scud overhead, and driving masses of black 
clouds on the northern horizon, indicated a storm 
outside, when all near Nelson lay calm and slumbering, 
except a heavier swell than usual rolling on to the 
shoals at the bottom of the gulf. And in those cases, 
a little coaster, which had been out in the gale, would 
confirm our conjectures on arriving a day or two later. 
During the month, I only saw one day on which it 
blew a hard breeze ; and then two large vessels rode it 
out in perfect safety in the anchorage outside the bar, 
although the wind was nearly due north. Now and 
then a light sea-breeze would bring welcome refresh- 
ment for two or three hours during the afternoon. 
The S(]uadron bound for Torres' Straits took advantage 
of one of these days to beat out of Blind Bay. It con- 
sisted of the Clifton and Birman, which had accom- 
panied us from Port Nicholson, of the Lord Auckland, 
and the Bolton, whose commander, Captain Robinson, 
having been through the much-dreaded Torres' Straits 
before, was appointed commodore by the other Captains. 
We saw them all day from the town, beating in line 
of battle under full sail to the northward. This very 
remarkable immunity from wind causes an almost 
incredible difference between the climate of Nelson 
and that of Wellington, although the two towns are 
as nearly as possible in the same latitude. 

The Hope, a vessel of 400 tons from Sydney, had 
already landed about 100 head of cattle at Nel- 
son. Having entered the haven, she had been able 
to lie so close to the shore, that she was discharged 


and ready for sea in two days from her arrival ; but 
the want of wind kept her four days more, the Fife- 
shire staring her in the face as a lesson not to attempt 
starting in a calm. 

l^'^hile I was there, the Brilliant, of 300 tons, ar- 
rived from Twofold Bay with horses and cattle. Dr. 
Imlay himself was a passenger on board, having come 
to take a look at the settlements in New Zealand, and 
to place on a permanent footing the importation of his 
stock into the country. He was nmch pleased to find 
an old shipmate and friend in Captain Wakefield. 

It is a curious sight to see a large ship enter the 
haven under sail. The most favourable time to do 
this is with the full force of the flood, and against a 
working breeze that blows out of the harbour. Pass- 
ing rapidly between the Arrow and the Boulder Bank, 
she comes up head to wind as her jib-boom end is 
almost over your head while you stand on the beach 
just inside the gut, and she makes way on the starboard 
tack enough to shoot out of the tide, which has swept 
her half a mile up the harbour, into the eddy where 
she is to anchor. 

I only saw from a distance the valleys of the TVaimea 
and Moutere rivers, in which most of the cultivation 
near Nelson is now going on, as I had not time to 
explore any further than the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the town. I must again refer to the litho- 
graphic illustrations, which I have before mentioned, 
for very accurate and interesting representations of 
the town of Nelson and of its country district. 

Coal and limestone had already been found in large 
quantities on the shores of Massacre Bay ; and a coaster 
had brought some tons of each article into the harbour. 

A road was being made by the Company's labourers, 
round the foot of the dividing ridge, from the haven 


to the town. In the course of this work they struck 
at one spot upon a small vein of coal ; but this was not 
found worth working. Coal has since been put on 
board vessels in Massacre Bay at 10*. per ton, and 
sold in Nelson at from 27*. to 30*. 

The selection of the town-lands at Nelson took place 
while I was there. Mr. Thompson selected the Reserves 
for the natives. It seemed difficult to imagine whence 
the population could be brought, for whose benefit they 
were intended. A few natives were generally to be 
seen encamped near the shores of the lagoon ; but 
these were only visitors, who had come from a distance 
to sell their pigs and potatoes. The nearest inhabited 
native villages are Motuekay about fifteen miles to the 
west, and Tf^akapoaka, ten miles to the north of Nel- 
son. E Piko, the chief of Mutueha, had become almost 
a permanent resident since the White settlement had 
been formed. He was much attached to Captain 

I was forcibly struck by the strong colonizing cha- 
racter, if I may so speak, which distinguished the great 
majority of the leading settlers at Nelson. They 
seemed to have entered upon their noble task rather 
with a wish to share in doing good to their poorer 
fellow-colonists, than with selfish and interested views. 
A generous and active spirit of benevolence pervaded 
each thought, each feeling, and action. Most of them 
young men of superior education and intellect, they 
rejoiced in a state of things which allowed of the 
formation of society as it were anew, with the same 
complete materials as in the country from which they 
had come, but with those materials arranged in rela- 
tions less disheartening to the class who earn their 
bread by the sweat of their brow. 

And yet these mild youths, whose kind words could 


SO ably soothe and encourage the emigrant who was 
at tirst startled by the wildness of the country, and 
the early hardships of housing and sheltering his 
family, were as energetic, as brave of heart, and as 
sanguine in the great cause of the colony, as the highest 
and haughtiest blood could have made them. Here 
was the same panting enthusiasm of youth, which 
leads its possessor into the first flight across country 
after the hounds or some less reputable notoriety in 
England, applied to a grander and more lofty object 
at the antipodes. It was the ambition to found a nation, 
instead of that of being known for a daring horseman 
or for the boldest of midnight revellers. It was the 
same necessary excitement, founded on a greater emu- 
lation, and calculated for more permanent utility to 

Their gallant ranks have been cruelly thinned by 
misfortune, and principally by the crowning catas- 
trophe at JVairau. But, in future days, the citizens of 
Nelson will always remember with pride and sorrow 
the names of William Curling Young, George Ryecroft 
Richardson, Patchett, Cotterell, and others now no 
more, who assisted the tirst steps of the infant settle- 
ment with their manly energies. 

If I speak of my own lamented uncle, Arthur Wake- 
field, to say that he watched over their united efforts 
and guided their expanding strength as though they 
had been one family and he their father or their elder 
brother, it is because I feel sure of being supported to 
the whole extent of the statement by every colonist who 
was under his care. He seemed to work all things 
among them according to his own vrill, by wielding a 
gentle parental authority ; and they to follow his ad- 
vice and suggestions, through a feeling of filial respect 
and love. When I relate that to this happy art of 


persuading men to adopt a certain line of conduct, as 
though of their own unaided conviction, and by the 
softest strings of human nature, he added the great 
share of prudence, energy, and coolness in emergency, 
which was necessary to choose the line to be adopted ; 
and when I say, that in the most harassing circum- 
stances his calm and commanding voice was never 
known to use an oath or a harsh word, I am sure that 
every oflBicer who has known him during his thirty 
years of active service in the Navy of his country will 
answer, that he could do no otherwise. 

The few natives who visited Nelson at intervals were 
enthusiastic in their praise of his engaging manner and 
kindly disposition. At TF'aikanae, along the Taranaki 
country, and even far up in the interior, I have often 
fallen in with a travelling Maori, who has been describ- 
ing to a large audience " the soft tongue and great 
" heart of ' Wide-awake ' across the sea." 

Dr. Imlay had to take some of his cattle on to Wel- 
lington, and I accepted his kind offer of a passage in 
the Brilliant. This gentleman and his two brothers 
are probably the largest cattle and sheep-holders in 
New South Wales. Their establishment is at Two- 
fold Bay, but they have stations extending a consider- 
able distance into the interior. I acquired from Dr. 
Imlay many interesting descriptions of the pastoral and 
semi-Tartar life of the Australian cattle-holder. He 
had two aboriginal natives on board, wearing the dress 
of Europeans, and remarkably expert as shepherds and 
in the management of cattle ; and he told me that his 
whaling-station at Twofold Bay was manned almost 
entirely, and carried on with great success, by labourers 
selected from their fellow-countrymen. But he added 
some exciting details of the savage and merciless pre- 
datory warfare which is constantly going on between 


the stockmen and the unreclaimed tribes which hover 
on the outskirts of the pastoral tracts. 

We were baffled for some days off the heads of Port 
Nicholson by strong northerly breezes, the vessel 
being very light, and therefore unable to make much 
progress to windward ; but we at length anchored in 
Lambton Harbour on the 1st of May. 



Public Meetings — Outrage committed by Rangihaeata upon set- 
tlers — Mr. Murphy, the Police Magistrate — Increasing law- 
lessness of the Natives caused by impunity — Mr. Spain, the 
Commissioner of Land-Claims — Mr. George Clarke, junior, the 
Sub-Protector of Aborigines — His qualifications — Petition at 
Auckland for the recall of Governor Hobson— Wretched condi- 
tion of Auckland — Introduction of Pheasants and Bees into Wel- 
lington — Mr. Wicksteed appointed to succeed Captain Liardet at 
New Plymouth — Blood Horses from Sydney — Court of Land- 
Claims — Its mischievous action — Changed notions of the Natives 
— Complicated proceedings — Evidence of JEPuni — Of JE Tako, 
a Repudiator — Mr. Tod's case — Dilatory progress — Effects — 
Government negligence — Latest dates from Auckland reach 
Wellington through Sydney — Mildness of Winter — Unceasing 
vegetation — Natural pasture — Steam-Mill and Brewery — Me- 
chanics' Institute — Mr. Kettle's Exploring Expedition — Gorge 
of the Manawatu — Plain of the three rivers — Formation of the 
Country — Native legend — Plain of the Ruamahanga — Its Na- 
ture and extent — Wild Hogs — Return by the Hutt Valley — 
Salubrity of the climate — Central position of Wellington. 

Two public meetings had been held at Wellington 
during the month of April. 

The first had been unanimous in agreeing to demand 
the application of the Municipal Corporation Bill to 
Wellington. Mr. Murphy, placed in the ehair as 
Sub-Sheriff, had stated that a rough census gave the 
population of the town as 2600 : and all parties had 
joined in following the recommendations of Colonel 
Wakefield and other leading settlers, to secure the 
great privilege of managing their own local affairs. 

The second meeting was held on the 20th, on a less 
satisfactory subject. Some weeks before, six active, 
industrious, intelligent mechanics, possessed of some 


capital, who had arrived from England in one of the 
last ships, took a lease of four sections in the Porirua 
district, about eight miles from town by the bridle- 
road. They intended to clear and cultivate a portion 
of the land, and to erect a saw-mill on the banks of 
the river. After they had carried on their operations 
for some time, in the midst of the hitherto unoccupied 
forest, a body of thirty natives had come and ordered 
them off. They came to Port Nicholson for advice. 
The Police Magistrate, on the application of the 
agents who had let the land, despatched his chief 
constable to pacify the natives ; and the settlers pro- 
ceeded peaceably with their work for another week. 
But then Rangihaeata in person came, with a train 
of fifty men, armed with guns, horse-pistols, and toma- 
hawks. They remonstrated with him for some time, 
but he became too violent to reason. He then com- 
menced the work of destruction, and cut the whole 
buildings to the ground. The sufferers stated their 
loss at upwards of 50/., including some pounds of nails 
stolen by the marauders. 

It was evident that the Police Magistrate had no 
means of arresting the disturbers of the peace, even 
had he been so inclined ; and the meeting expressed 
the readiness of the inhabitants of Wellington as a 
body to support the authority of the Magistrate in any 
way that he should require. A faint attempt to throw 
the blame on Colonel Wakefield was made by Mr. 
Hanson and some of his party ; but the Company's 
Agent repelled the charge in person, by reading copies 
of letters, which proved that he had written to the 
Police Magistrate and to the Company as early as 
June of the last year, predicting the evil consequences 
of allowing the outrages of the natives, in obstructing 
the Porirua road, to go unrepressed. 


A deputation waited on Mr. Murphy, to convey to 
him the sense of the public ; but he bowed them off in 
a diplomatic way, saying that he would avail himself 
of their services when in his opinion recourse to them 
was expedient. 

And his official letters since published prove that he 
was delighted to find, soon afterwards, that the Crown 
Prosecutor had been applied to on the subject. He then 
declared that the application for the indictment of Ran- 
gihaeata before the Supreme Court took the matter out 
of his hands. And thus the affair was left for the present. 

At the same time, letters from IVanganui described 
the natives there as more pertinacious than ever in 
preventing the cultivation or even occupation of any 
land by White people. 

Mr. Clarke's memorable letter, and the mischievous 
advice of the unworthy members of the missionary body, 
had produced a general spirit of repudiation among 
the natives. To meet one, among the numerous chiefs 
who had been parties to the sales in 1839, that held 
fast and honestly to his bargain, was now a rare 

Mr. Murphy's official letters on the subject to the 
Colonial Secretary sufficiently prove the spirit in which 
he acted. He throughout defends the natives in their 
aggressions ; adduces them as proofs of the absolute 
necessity that the whole question of title should be 
investigated before a Court of Claims ; and does not 
disguise a sneer at the offer made by the settlers to do 
that which he could always compel them to do at his 

And at this very time his professions of regard for 
the settlers, and of interest in their cause, had pro- 
cured him the confidence and intimacy of the leading 
men. He was reckoned quite one of the settlers, in 


opinion and feeling, and it had been rumoured, much 
to the satisfaction of every one, that he was likely to 
succeed Captain Liardet as Company's Agent for New 
Plymouth. He was about the only Government officer 
that was ever admitted to the esteem and friendship of 
the select circles at Wellington. 

What was the surprise of some of these friends, 
when they afterwards read his unfeeling and partisan- 
like letters to head-quarters, and learned from good 
authority that he had abused the familiarity and pri- 
vileges of an intimate guest, to report many private 
conversations secretly to the same place ! 

Vain complaints were also made to the Police Magis- 
trate at this time of the destruction of the timber in 
the public belt by the natives, who were in the habit 
of supplying the town with firewood from this conve- 
nient locality. But though the notice which had 
appeared officially against this practice was enforced as 
to Europeans, the natives went on un reproved and 
unobstructed. This, too, was called a question which 
involved the decision of the title ; and so it must await 
the sentence of the Court of Claims. 

Is it surprising that the natives began to get em- 
boldened by the impunity or rather absolute indiffer- 
ence from the authorities which they found to attend 
acts that were denounced to them as illegal by the 
settlers ? They began to consider that there were two 
laws — one rigid and never infringed with impunity, 
but only existing in the fanciful imagination of the 
Whit« people of " Wide-awake ;" and another, loose, 
vague, and having nothing to do with the Maori, 
which was capriciously administered by the Kavmna, 
as the Police Magistrate was invariably called. 

A Mechanics' Institute was now in active operation 
at Wellington. 


On tlie 22nd, Mr. Spain, the long-expected Land 
Commissioner, had at length arrived. The ship in 
which he had come from England was wrecked at the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

After some delay there, he had reached Port Nichol- 
son in a small brig, on the 8th of December 1841, 
and had proceeded to Auckland five days afterwards. 
His long detention there remained unexplained ; but 
it was shrewdly surmised that he had expected to find 
himself sole Commissioner ; and had been at length 
sent down here only because his remonstrances, as to 
the association with him of the two Commissioners 
who had originally been appointed from Sydney, were 
disagreeable to the official gentlemen at the metropolis. 

Mr. Spain was accompanied by Mr. George Clarke, 
junior, a son of the Chief Protector of Aborigines, 
who had been appointed in January Sub-Protector of 
the Aborigines, and was deputed to watch their inte- 
rests, especially during the investigations before the 

This seemed rather an unnecessary appointment ; for 
Mr. Halswell at Wellington, and Mr. Thompson at 
Nelson, were surely well capable of attending to their 
interests ; especially as, being both members of the 
English Bar, their legal knowledge would be of some 
avail to their clients before the tribunal of the Com- 

The appointment was therefore a kind of super- 
seding of these two gentlemen ; and sounded as 
though, being members of the Wellington commu- 
nity, they could not claim the confidence of the 
Auckland cabinet in a duty requiring strict integrity 
as well as great knowledge. 

The very name of Clarke, after the extraordinary 
exhibition in Te Aro pa, was disagreeable to the 

VOL. II. o 


settlers at Wellington ; and it was at once thought 
that but little good could come of the son of such a 

But their premature aversion was changed into 
laughter when they saw a gaunt lad of 18, who 
had evidently got his tail-coat on for the first time. 
It was difficult to guess what might be his qualifica- 
tions for replacing Messrs. Halswell and Thompson 
in the protection of the aborigines before the Court 
of Claims. These two gentlemen were both of some 
station, both married and of mature age, both mem- 
bers of the English Bar, and enjoying the advantage 
of an English University education. They were at 
any rate somewhat experienced in the manners and 
ways of the world, and therefore capable of devising 
some plans for the effectual protection of the abori- 
gines: Mr. Clarke junior had, I believe, been born and 
bred at the missionary head-station near the Bay of 
Islands, almost among the darker natives ; or if he had 
even been to school at Sydney, it was difficult to su])pose 
that, so young, he could have acquired at either place 
the knowledge of mankind and peculiar talent neces- 
sary for the due fulfilment of his very delicate and 
difficult duties. 

His descent from a catechist gunsmith and too fa- 
mous interpreter was of bad omen ; his tender years 
and very imperfect education seemed to imply the 
certainty of his incapacity ; and the fact of his being 
sent to supersede the two original officers placed his 
unfitness in still stronger relief. 

Mr. Clarke junior immediately employed himself 
in prowling about among the pfis, especially those of 
the discontented natives : he neither sought nor 
obtained the acquaintance of any of the leading 
colonists ; and resembled, in the little of his manners 


that was open to observation, a sulky Maori boy, 
rather than even a White Government officer. 

Those who were parties to his appointment will 
probably state in defence of it, that he was thoroughly 
acquainted with the native language and customs. 
Granting this, I would ask whether it be more fit 
that a Protector of Aborigines should be well 
acquainted with the habits of the ruder race, or 
with those of the more civilized and artificial society 
with whom it was wished to amalgamate them by 
soft degrees ? Whether was an educated gentleman 
more likely to acquire the knowledge of the Maori 
habits and language, or an uneducated and but half- 
civilized son of a gunsmith to attain the acquaintance 
with the habits and restrictions, the refinements and 
perfections, of civilized life, both so necessary to a due 
performance of the office in question ? If it was abso- 
lutely necessary to give the son of the Chief Protector 
a berth, it would have been more becoming and suit- 
able to appoint Mr. Clarke junior as a sworn inter- 
preter to Mr. Halswell or Mr. Thompson. Under 
such guidance, he might perhaps have learned, in the 
course of a few years, to be somewhat capable of 
protecting the aborigines. For at present his only 
qualifications made him rather capable of teaching 
civilized men how to become savages, than of gently 
guiding savages to the difficult goal of civilization. 

The other passengers in the brig were a Surveyor 
attached to the Land Commission, and some custom- 
house officers for Akarua. 

The principal news from the metropolis was, that a 
large public meeting had at length followed the 
example of the Wellington people, by adopting a 
petition for the removal of the Governor. His 
Excellency had taken a convenient trip to Kawia, 



accompanied by the Chief Justice, while the meeting 
took place. 

Bills on England, to the amount of 25,000/. had been 
drawn by the penniless Government, and sent up to 
Sydney to be discounted. And here it may be men- 
tioned that all drafts on the Sub-Treasurer at Wel- 
lington, drawn by the Government officers for the 
payment of ~ their salaries, had been for some time 

The general condition of Auckland was described 
as even worse than at the time of Mr. Clayton's 
desponding confession. The inhabitants were said to 
have become soured by disappointment into a touchy and 
pugnacious humour, which gave rise to the most bitter 
bickerings and animosities among themselves. They 
could suggest no remedy for the amelioration of their 
condition, except the reduction of the minimum price 
of Crown lands to five shillings per acre ! 

Several robberies and outrages had been committed 
by the natives on the scattered settlers in the Northern 
district. At TVangari, especially, not far from Auck- 
land, four or five Europeans had been plundered of 
everything in their houses by a foraging-party, which 
assigned no reason for its conduct. 

At the Bay of Islands, a vote of thanks had been 
made to Captain Lavaud, of the French corvette, for 
the protection which he had promised to the Whites, 
while lying in that port during the excitement arising 
from the apprehension and execution of the murderer 
Maketti, and while that protection was withheld by 
their own Government in a manner so negligent as to 
appear intentional. 

On the 1st of May, the London arrived at Welling- 
ton for the second time from England, with a cargo of 
immigrants and passengers. Three other vessels 


turned the point nearly at the same time from Sydney, 
kSouth Australia, and the East coast, respectively. 

Mrs. Wills, who was a passenger in the London, 
deserves the thanks of the colony for having brought 
the first pheasants to New Zealand. A cock and 
three hens were landed in safety, and I was fortunate 
enough to have them placed under my charge by Mrs. 
Wills. A hive of bees, also belonging to this lady, 
had unfortunately died on the passage. 

On the 3rd, a large vessel bound for Nelson called 
in, having to land some passengers here. The Rev. 
Mr. Saxton, a clergyman of the Established Church, 
with his family, was among the passengers for Nelson ; 
and Colonel Wakefield's daughter had come to join 
him, under Mrs. Saxton's charge. 

While at Pitone, I saw the vessel run aground 
just outside Ward Island. Galloping round to the 
town, I got several boats to put ojfF to her assistance, 
and jumped into one myself. On reaching the ship, 
we found she was lying very harmlessly with her keel 
on a soft shingly beach, and would come off with the 
next tide. They had rashly stood too close in to the 
eastern shore in beating in. Thirty or forty boats 
were collected round the vessel, and the captain was 
terribly alarmed lest he should have to pay them all 
for their services. He thought he had to do with 
Deal boatmen, who would claim salvage ; but the 
greater part of the flotilla was manned by private in- 
dividuals, the best men in the settlement having eagerly 
jumped into the boats on the first alarm, and pulled 
about five miles to offer their assistance if required. 
By this ship a hive of bees, sent by Mrs. Allom of 
London, was carried in safety to Nelson. These were 
the first ever sent to that settlement. 

On the 5th, Mr. Wicksteed sailed in the Brougham 


for New Plymouth, having been appointed by Colonel 
\^^akefield to succeed Captain Liardet as Company's 
Agent there. 

^*- On the 13th, a brother of Mr. John Came Bidwill 
brought down a ship-load of sheej), cattle, and horses, 
from Sydney. The latter were principally brood- 
mares of the best New South Wales blood, which Mr. 
Molesworth and two or three other of the wealthier 
settlers had commissioned JMr. Bidwill to procure for 
them in that country. By this opportunity we heard 
of the arrival of the Bishop of New Zealand and his 
ecclesiastical train at Sydney. 

On the 16th of May, the Commissioner, Mr. Spain, 
opened his Court. 

'J'he proceedings of the first three weeks in this 
Court at once showed to every intelligent person that 
the inquiry was taking a course most mischievous to 
the colonists and to the natives. 

During the visit of Governor Hobson to this settle- 
ment. Colonel Wakefield had failed to obtain from 
him an unqualified fulfilment of the conditions of the 
agreement between the Government at home and the 
Company. Had that agreement been fully carried 
out, a Crown title would have been at once issued to 
the (.'ompany to the amount of land to which they 
were entitled by their expenditure on the population 
and survey of the country, and their Agent w^ould have 
selected the land so granted in the districts which the 
Company claimed to have purchased from the natives, 
A subsequent inquiry into the validity of these pur- 
chases, by a Court of Equity and Conscience, would 
have established the cases in which further compensa- 
tion might possibly be due; and also the extent of 
land over and above the quantity assigned to the Com- 
|»any out of their purchases, which would revert to 


the Crown under the conditions of the agreement. 
This arrangement seemed to recognize the great boon 
of the Native Reserves, and those of civilization and im- 
provement of condition, as the real payment to the 
natives for their bond jide claims. It reserved for the 
consideration of a Commissioner those cases in which 
there should appear to have been some flagrant abuse 
of the system adopted by the missionaries and other 
private individuals at the time of the Company's pur- 
chases, and before the establishment of British autho- 
rity in the country, of satisfying the natives by a mere 
temporary payment. 

But Captain Hobson was of opinion that the treaty 
which he had executed with some of the native chiefs 
at JVaitangi, afterwards adopted by other chiefs in 
different parts of the island, had rendered such an 
arrangement impossible. He therefore refused to 
grant any title until after the Commissioner should 
have inquired into the particulars of the purchases; 
and he would only guarantee the Company against the 
claims of other European purchasers from the natives 
in the same districts. 

Colonel Wakefield had been obliged to submit, how- 
ever unwillingly, to this modified consideration of the 
agreement, trusting to the issuing of instructions for 
its being more completely fulfilled from England; 
and, above all, that, should Captain Hobson's view be 
thought correct, a Commissioner, sent out on purpose, 
would judge the case by the strict rules of equity, and 
keep in mind the circumstances existing at the distant 
time when the purchases were made. He trusted 
that the investigation would be speedy and decisive, 
and that this new delay in the final adjustment of 
the important question would not long retard the pro- 
gress of the settlement. 


During nearly ten months which had elapsed since 
that postponement of the question, the opinions of the 
natives as to their rights to land, and as to its value to 
them, had augmented still more than during the two 
years between the purchases and Captain Hobson's 
postponement of their consideration. The mission- 
aries, the rival land-claimants, and other interested 
and prejudiced persons, had not only, like Mr. Clarke 
in his letter, taught the natives to refuse to yield, or to 
insist on increased payment for those lands which they 
had fairly occupied at the time of the original pur- 
chase ; but, backed by the authority of the so-called 
Treaty and the opinion of the Governor, they had 
taught them to believe in rights which they had ig- 
nored before. They had encouraged men to start 
forward as claimants for compensation who hardly 
hazarded an opinion at the time of our original deal- 
ings with them, but who no longer feared the absolute 
authority of their chiefs, now destroyed or nullified by 
the democratic spirit of the missionary teaching or 
the influence of European laws and customs. And 
they had taught all, modern as well as ancient owners 
of the soil, to extend over the waste and uninhabited 
land, rights and claims which had never before entered 
their thoughts. 

At the time of our purchases, the ownership of any 
land not yet occupied accrued to the first occupier. 
The very act of occupation of some sort alone gave a 
title according to the native customs at that time ; and 
the act of thus acquiring a title by occupation to any 
of the hitherto unappropriated land, if forbidden by a 
mightier man or tribe who had the same intention, 
remained undone by the weaker party. In like man- 
ner, when we first arrived in Cook's Strait, the right 
of disposing of what was fairly occupied by the tril>e. 


belonged to the influential chiefs who could compel 
obedience to their dictates. 

The Commissioner of Land Claims, instead of in- 
quiring whether the natives had been fairly satisfied 
for all their rights as they thus stood in 1839, sustained 
the order of things caused by the long delay, and the 
new rights now claimed by the natives in deference to 
opinions formed for them, and carefully instilled into 
their minds in the interval, as those by which he was 
to be guided. 

And the investigation became at once a matter of 
length and intricacy, of long claims, by some argument 
such as Warepori would have crushed by a word or a 
look in 1839, of revived privileges, which had been 
overthrown long before that time by the only law 
then existing among the natives, that of might. 

Thus, one question which, as gone into at such 
length by the Commissioner, promised to encumber 
the inquiry, was that of whether, for instance, JVare- 
pori and the other chiefs who agreed to sell the dis- 
trict of Port Nicholson, in 1839, had a right to do so. 
It was clear that their right, founded on their might 
and influence, had been unresisted and undenied when 
the sale took place. But now, numerous natives 
from 'ie Aro and Pipit ea sprang up, undaunted by 
their former chieftains, and found tongues to claim 
an equal ownership, which then they had never even 

I attended the Court for the first few days, as well 
to give my own evidence as to observe the nature of 
the proceedings. 

To the surprise of every one, Mr. Clarke junior 
acted in the double ofllce of Protector of Aborigines 
and Interpreter to the Court. It seemed almost im- 
possible that the most well-intentioned man should 


fulfil both offices together with correctness. The 
eager Protector might with great ease be carried away 
by his natural prejudice in favour of the aborigines, if 
he did not positively misinterpret, at least to throw by 
his interpretation a shade over the evidence, favourable 
to their case. How much more might this be expected 
from an uneducated lad, who had shown by his un- 
deviating conduct during a month, that he imagined 
the protection of the aborigines to consist in impugning 
the statements and suspecting the intentions of the 
White men ? 

Accordingly, it was observed by more than one 
person, that when Mr. Clarke junior was cross-exa- 
mining a native witness, he would allow him to run on 
in the gossiping way of the Maori as long as his sUite- 
ment appeared to militate against the Company's case, 
but would confine him to a plain " Yes" or " No" 
when he seemed inclined to extend his answer in an 
opposite direction. 

The Court was conducted in a way intelligible only 
to lawyers. Quirks, quibbles, and knotty points of 
law, and decisions as to the manner of proceeding in 
the Court, made by the Commissioner after private 
deliberation and without reason assigned, made the 
affair as mysterious and perplexing to an ordinary 
person as though he had been hearing Small versus 
Attwood argued in the House of Lords. 

The first day was taken up by a dispute between 
the Counsel of the Company, Dr. Evans, and Mr. 
Hanson, the Crown Prosecutor, as to the precedence 
of the Company's claim or that of rival land-claimants 
which had been called on before it. Dr. Evans having 
conceded that the Company's case should first be heard, 
was called on to proceed with it. But Colonel Wake- 
field, not having authorized any such concession, 


objected ; and the Commissioner adjourned the Court 
to the next day but one, " to allow the Counsel to 
" confer on the precedence of the claims." 

At the next sitting, the lawyers still differed ; Dr. 
Evans appealing to a private arrangement made with 
Mr. Hanson, and Mr. Hanson denying any such ar- 
rangement, and appealing to the former decision of 
the Commissioner that the Company's case should 
proceed. And Mr. Hanson, on being asked by Dr. 
Evans for whom he appeared, said first, " for the na- 
" tives," and then, correcting himself, " for Mr. Scott," 
one of the rival claimants to a tract of land in the 
town. Dr. Evans now refused to proceed with the 
Company's case, until Mr. Scott's should have been 
first heard ; and, during an adjournment made for 
two hours by the Commissioner, in order that he 
might reconsider his proposed course, begged Colonel 
Wakefield's permission to throw up the advocacy of 
the Company's claims. He stated that he was in- 
duced to take this course by the hostility evinced by 
the Crown Prosecutor to the Company's interests, and 
the factious and litigious spirit shown by him to their 
advocate, which caused the conviction that Dr. Evans's 
professional assistance would only embroil the question 
on points of law and evidence, when it was wished to 
treat it as one of equity and conscience, agreeably to 
the Commissioner's instructions binding him to that 
spirit. Colonel Wakefield fully appreciated the ho- 
nourable view thus taken of the question by Dr. Evans ; 
and proceeded to conduct the case himself. He was 
sworn, and handed in the deeds and plans. After he 
had given his evidence as to the Port Nicholson pur- 
chase, Mr. Hanson commenced to cross-examine him ; 
and put a (juery which could have nothing whatever 
to do with the question at issue )>etween the Company 


and Mr. Scott. Colonel Wakefield consequently re- 
fused to answer it. 

The Commissioner stated the next day, that he had 
demanded and obtained from Mr. Hanson a statement 
of the grounds of his opposition on the part of Mr. 
Scott, which he did not feel at liberty to disclose; 
and he ruled that Mr. Hanson had a right to cross- 
examine on any point Colonel Wakefield and any other 
witnesses for the Company's case. 

In order to save time. Colonel Wakefield agreed to 
this, however convinced of its injustice. For the 
claims of the Company, having been sent up to the 
Colonial Secretary of New South Wales in January 
1841, in accordance with the Land Claims Ordinance 
passed in that country, were published in the New 
Zealand Government Gazette ; and that of Mr. Scott, 
was known only to the Commissioner. 

Mr. Clarke junior then cross-examined Colonel 
Wakefield. His questions were intended to elicit 
some points of objection which we now heard for 
the first time : such as, that the anchorage of the 
ship was the only thing paid for ; that no publicity 
had been given to the transaction ; and that the 
natives had been induced to sign the deed by being 
told that the Queen would see their names and send 
them presents ! 

An attorney, who appeared for some other rival 
European claimant, also asked, whether Richard 
Davis (the missionary teacher) had not stated his 
possession of some of the land to Colonel Wakefield 
at the time of the sale. Colonel Wakefield answered 
that he had not, " but that his refusal to sell Richard 
" Davis a box of pipes had offended him." 

Colonel Wakefield was then called upon to produce 
further evidence in support of the deed. Dr. Dorset 


and I both went through, the same process of exami- 
nation and searching cross-examination by all parties. 
Mr. Halswell, who attended as Sub-Protector of Abo- 
rigines for Port Nicholson, also put occasional ques- 

E Punt was afterwards called, and thoroughly con- 
firmed our statements by his manly and straightfor- 
ward evidence. Truth was in every feature, and con- 
viction in every word. The old chief had asked me, 
some days before, what was the meaning of this 
Kaiwakawa or "man to decide," as the Commissioner 
was called among them, and what need there was of 
his relating the transaction ? — " It was well known to 
" everybody ; why talk it all over again ?" He had 
also asked me what he should say, I had answered 
him, " Kia pono, he oti ano ! " '' Let it be true ; that 
" is enough ! " And he had nobly followed the simple 
instruction. Although he seemed somewhat confused, 
and at a loss to understand the object of such repeated 
and minute questions upon the points of a transaction 
which had been publicly known to so many, the 
searching examination could not elicit a syllable of 
contradiction in his evidence. I was indeed delighted 
to find that this nobleman among his fellows had not 
been changed or sullied in his integrity by the long 
delay, or by the active insinuations and artifices of our 
interested enemies. 

Colonel Wakefield's own letter, in describing this 
whole day's scene to the Directors, so thoroughly 
conveys the impression which it had left on the mind 
of every spectator, that I shall not attempt to para- 
phrase his words : — 

" In managing the case," he says, " and conducting 
" this examination, I laboured under the disadvantage 
" of complete inexperience in the rules of evidence, the 


" manner of procuring information by precise written 
"questions, taken down before they were put to the 
" witness. I had also to satisfy the Commissioners, 
"jealously alive to every minutia, and two Native Pro- 
"tectors, one of them the local Judge and an ex- 
"perienced Magistrate and Commissioner at home, 
" and to protect myself against two hostile practising 
" lawyers, eager to trip me up, and ready to take ad- 
" vantage of the smallest discrepancy in the evidence." 
" The scene," he adds, " gave one more the 
" idea of the progress of a long-nurtured, vindictive 
" family lawsuit, than that of a fair, equitable, and 
" court-of-conscience investigation into the real merits 
" of a treaty between a colonizing body and the abo- 
" rigines, who are anxious to see its conditions fulfilled 
" on both sides." 

It could not have appeared to a mere spectator that 
the claims of the Company were considered fair and 
legitimate by the Court, until proof to the contrary 
should be adduced by opposing parties. On the con- 
trary, the effect produced upon the mind of a stranger 
must have been, that the Court conceived the Company's 
Agent to have foully deceived the natives into the 
bargain by lying tricks and false promises, and to 
have vamped up a superficial and unreal claim ; and 
that upon him lay the burden of removing this odious 

On the next day, E Punt not appearing to be further 
examined, Mr. Spain called upon Colonel Wakefield 
for further evidence. He has recorded the words of 
his own answer to the Commissioner : — 

" I had understood that ff^arepori always left 
" E Pmii to talk upon occasions of this nature. His 
" evidence, stamped with truth, was before the Court ; 
" and I therefore did not think it necessary to call 


" TVareport, or, indeed, considering the position in 
" which I found myself, any other witnesses in this 
" case. 

" I was prepared to rest the validity of the Com- 
"pany's title on the evidence already adduced. I 
** might, perhaps, have called some other native wit- 
" nesses ; and, with the Commissioner's permission, I 
"would state my reason for not doing so. I found 
" myself by some means or other, I hardly knew how, 
" deprived of the legal assistance on which I had 
" relied, and unable to cope with the legal talent 
" opposed to me. I had to satisfy, in the first place, 
" the learned Commissioner, and I should have been 
" well pleased if no one else had anything to do 
" with the question ; then two Protectors of Abori- 
" gines, one of them interpreter in the same cause in 
" which, as an advocate, he cross-examined the wit- 
" nesses whose evidence he transmitted to the Court. 
" I had further to contend against two practising pro- 
" fessional men, eager lo trip me up, and to fasten on 
" the smallest discrepancy in the evidence, as if this 
" ease were to be decided by all the niceties of English 
" law. 

" I moreover laboured under the disadvantage of 
" having my case known to my opponent, whilst his 
" had not been disclosed to me even by advertisement 
" in the Government Gazette. I had also every reason 
" to think that some of the witnesses I might have 
" called had been tampered with. 

" Under these circumstances, I thought I should not 
" be justified in running any risk of prejudicing the 
" Company's interests by my ignorance of the rules of 
" evidence and the forms of law ; and I begged there- 
" fore, respectfully, to leave the case as it stood with 
" the Court," 


''The Commissioner did not think the case complete ; 
and recommended Colonel Wakefield to call tVare- 
pori. He consented only on account of the recom- 
mendation. This chief, however, was not present, as 
he was suffering from an abscess in his head. 

The Court, on the suggestion of Mr. Hanson, then 
called E Tako. This minor chief will be remembered 
as being a near relation of Barrett's wife ; as having 
taken a most active part in the whole transaction ; and 
as having received one of the six shares for distribu- 
tion among the inhabitants of the Pipitea and Kumu 
toto villages.* He was one of the witnesses to whom 
Colonel Wakefield had alluded as having been tam- 
pered with. Mr. Scott (who claimed a tract of land at 
Kumu toto, in virtue of an alleged purchase from the 
Ngatimutunga tribe, when they resided here five years 
before our arrival) was proved, by E Takos own con- 
fession, to have given him a mare and foal to look after 
the land in question. E Tako also admitted having 
signed the deed, having received one of the six shares, 
and having been present at the war-dance. But he as- 
serted that he had only signed the deed because Barrett 
had told him that the Queen would see his name ; that 
the payment was only made for the anchorage of the 
ship ; and that he had only gone to Pitone at the time 
of the war-dance in order to speak to TVarepori. He 
had evidently been well prepared with his answers 
beforehand. It was a painful exemplification of the 
corruption to which the natives had been subjected, by 
leaving them to the mercy of obstinate litigation and 
the false friendship of selfish land-sharks, and by 
allowing them to choose for themselves their prompters 
Jlnd advisers. 

And the week closed by another day's cross-exanii- 
* Chap. IV. of Vol. T., page 89. 


nation of this witness by Mr. Halswell aud Mr. Hanson ; 
during which Colonel Wakefield retired early from 
the Court, apparently tired out by the harassing and 
vexatious nature of the proceedings. 

In the afternoon, the Commissioner called upon 
Colonel Wakefield; who asked him how this techni- 
cal investigation of the Company's titles was com- 
patible with a declaration which he had formerly made, 
that he had come to carry out the agreement between 
the Company and the Government ? Mr Spain ac- 
knowledged the incompatibility ; but said that his 
orders were to investigate the claims. 

A conversation ensued on the point of the fees of 
the Court, which had been put on an exceedingly high 
scale. According to that, the Company would have 
to pay 5000/. on a final report in favour of their grant 
of 1,000,000 acres, besides incidental fees of 1000/. 
more. The Commissioner declared his readiness to 
receive these fees under protest, and to recommend to 
the Governor that those on the final report should 
be remitted. 

Colonel Wakefield now again put the case in the 
hands of Dr. Evans. For the Company, he refused to 
produce more evidence ; but the Court ordered him to 
call more native witnesses who had been parties to the 
deed of sale, and adjourned in order to give time for 
procuring the attendance of E Pum and PFarepori. 

The next day being the Queen's birthday, and 
neither of these chiefs having chosen to appear, the 
Commissioner proposed to adjourn the Court. Great 
coquetting ensued — JNIr. Spain wishing the parties 
before him to apply for a holiday, and the parties 
wishing the idea to originate with the learned Com- 
missioner; all apparently fearful of being accused of 
causing unnecessary . delay : go it ended in the 

VOL. II. p 


Commissioner sitting all day, with nothing before 

The next day a report was brought that TVarepori 
was dead. The Court adjourned, and proceeded bodily 
to Nga hauranga, where he was lying very ill ; a sur- 
geon, who accompanied the party, blistered and cupped 
the invalid till he rallied. 

Mr. Spain had given out that there would be no 
Court the next day. But, in the absence of the Com- 
pany's Counsel, Mr. Hanson demanded that the case of 
Mr. Tod, another rival claimant, might be brought on. 
The Court acceded ; and the case was partly heard, 
without the knowledge of any one but the Court, the 
claimant, and his Counsel. The next day. Dr. Evans, 
who considered the taking this case in the midst of 
the Company's case as most informal, cross-examined 
Mr. Tod. His claim broke down most lamentably. It 
was proved that he had given 12/. in January 1840 
for two small plots of ground to two natives, who had 
not signed the deed of the Company, but belonged to 
a tribe of which the chief had signed, and had both 
received a share of the goods. One of them had even 
at a later period expressed remorse for having taken 
Tod's money, and offered to return it. Dr. Evans 
elicited some curious contradictions from Mr. Tod; 
who stated that he had come from Australia to Port 
Nicholson solely for the benefit of his wife's health, 
and then Acknowledged that he had brought with him 
deeds for the purchase of land which had been pre- 
pared in anticipation at Sydney. 

And so the tedious affair dragged on. Now a 
holiday was taken to arrange the mass of evidence 
which had accumulated ; now a squabble among the 
lawyers found its way to the gossips of the beach ; 
now some unusual bit of contradictory evidence or 


})erjury was reported by an idler very much in want 
of employment, who had wasted an hour or two on the 
deserted benches of the wooden house in which the 
Court was held. 

For the public had long got weary of listening to 
the same dull questions and answers. During the first 
week, the Court had been crowded with spectators, 
both native and European ; but after that, scarcely any 
one attended, except the people who were paid for their 
attendance, to whom it was a very profitable employ- 
ment, and the witness. Dull rumours sometimes 
reached the public that 3Ioiki (" Moses ") or Apera- 
hama ('* Abraham"), or some other unknown native 
of Te Aro with a missionary name, had been giving 
his evidence for three days ; and people wondered what 
his evidence could have to do with the affair. At 
length, the only knowledge that the Court was still 
going on was gathered from seeing Mr. Clarke junior 
and Mr. Campbell, the Surveyor of the Court, hunting 
about in couples from one Maori -pa to the other, in the 
morning and afternoon, and the Commissioner's Clerk 
swaggering about the beach by himself, to the great 
delight of the loitering Maori children and dogs. 

Early in June, one of the usual public meetings had 
expressed a very strong feeling of the injury which 
would arise to the settlement from the delay apparently 
inevitable should the Court continue its proceedings 
in the same manner as during the first few weeks. 

But the Court sat on, without hurrying, as though 
to show that it cared no more for public meetings than 
did any other of the institutions in New Zealand 
which were worked by the local Government so as to 
injure the settlers. 

Two or three articles, commenting on the dilatory 
progress of the Commission, and the incompatibility of 

p 2 


the two offices performed by Mr. Clarke junior, had 
appeared in the Wellington newspaper at about the 
same time as the meeting was held. 

But a letter from the Crown Prosecutor, demanding 
the author and threatening an action for libel, had 
been the only eflPect of this demonstration on the part 
of the popular organ. 

If such was the impression produced upon the 
Europeans by this lingering burlesque of a Court of 
Equity, by its very imperious and opinionated judge, 
by its childish interpreter protecting the aborigines on 
his left hand, by its squabbling lawyers, by its absurd 
pretensions to great etiquette and formality, by its 
quantity of writing and accumulating documents, and 
by its positive loss of any importance or interest ; the 
natives, who had also failed to receive any impression 
of the dignity, weight, or influence of the institution, 
proved more and more how mischievous were the prin- 
ciples enforced by its operation. Daily new obstruction 
was made to the peaceable progress of the settlers ; 
new claims started up on all sides, in places which 
would probably not be adjudicated upon by the Com- 
missioner for many months to come ; and by the end 
of July, before a single case had been brought to a 
close, no settler attempted to occupy land, whether 
waste or not, except in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the town, or in the valley of the Hutt. Even in 
these cases, if the natives discovered the settler soon 
after his first labours, they commenced their system of 
annoyance, and told him that " Spain and Clarke" — 
for these two gentlemen were always associated together 
by the Maori — would tell him that the land had not 
been paid for. 

A few other slighter negligences of the Government 
were complained of during these three months. 


I> The miserable police establishment of Wellington 
had become very inefficient; and robberies of stores 
and houses along the beach were of very frequent 

^ The want of an insolvent-law was beginning to be 
felt, as the impossibility of occupying country land 
until the question of claims should be settled was be- 
ginning to have its effect ; and several persons, ignorant 
of business, and who had been forced into keen com- 
petition with one another, had become insolvent shop- 
keepers instead of thriving farmers. 

The whalers complained loudly of the duties im- 
posed upon spirits and tobacco, which are both articles 
of great consumption at the shore stations. The to- 
bacco, especially, is employed to procure fire- wood and 
provisions for the party from the natives. They, not 
understanding at all how the Queen could make the 
White people pay twice as much for it as before she 
had anything to do with the country, were staunch in 
refusing to take any smaller quantity than before for a 
pig or a basket of potatoes. And the Wellington 
merchants, who had now got most of the stations de- 
pendent on them for supplies, and the Wellington 
people generally, who appreciated the importance of 
the whaling trade to the commerce of the port and 
town, took up the grievance as their own. 

At the beginning of July, the most recent dates 
from the metropolis reached Wellington again through 
Sydney, as we had none less than three months old 
from Auckland direct. The only intelligence from the 
stagnant capital was, that a Gazette had been published 
there officially in the Maori language. If used with 
talent and judgment, this might indeed have been made 
a powerful engine for the civilization of the natives. 
Now generally able to read, they seized on all print in 


their own language with the greatest avidity ; and 
any publication on other than merely religious sub- 
jects, and backed by authority and influential names, 
would be sure to attract their eager notice as a new 
toy. An advertisement in Maori, by Mr. Lyon, the 
shopkeeper whom I have before described as dealing 
extensively with the Maories, was exciting their lively 
delight at this time in Wellington, and all along the 
neighbouring coast, although it only enumerated the 
various articles which he had for sale. But the set- 
tlers, who observed that Mr. Clarke senior was the 
principal conductor of the Maori Gazette, augured but 
little good from his periodical instructions. 

Nothing could be more encouraging than the mild 
climate and the unceasing bounty of nature during 
these winter months. In May, which answers to 
the chill and foggy November of England, peas were 
in full bloom, small salads in every stage of growth, 
and almost all vegetation unchecked by the season. It 
was likened by Scotchmen to the second month of 
spring in their former land. • ^ ^ 

The produce of garden vegetables as a speculution 
had been long abandoned, on account of the great ease 
with which every one could supply himself. No mat- 
ter how bare, exposed, or rough the spot of ground, 
excellent vegetables could be produced by the most 
careless cultivation. The wild pasture on the hills had 
improved wonderfully under the constant browsing 
and tread of the cattle. Grass was replacing the fern 
all over the barren-looking hills that were cleiir of 
timber ; and, in riding after cattle, many spots could 
hardly be recognised, owing to the great change that 
had taken place. 

And this rich pasture and abundant supply of choice 
vegetables froni cpnipara,tively neglected gardens con- 


tinued during June, the centre winter month, which 
rather resembled a fine English October in its pleasant- 
ijess of temperature. 

-r Towards the end of May, a sudden melting of the 
snows on the Tararua range had caused rather a high 
flood in the valley of the Hutt ; and in the middle of 
June there were a few days of rough gales and heavy 

■f- The little steam-mill was grinding and sawing in- 
cessantly ; several experiments were on foot for invent- 
ing machines to prepare the phormium tencuv ; and a 
brewery was already established, although the hops 
had yet to be imported from Sydney, 

The Mechanics' Institute was in active operation, 
and lectures were delivered weekly on various subjects 
to respectable and attentive audiences. 

About the middle of June, Mr. Charles Kettle, who 
had been performing the duties of Assistant-Surveyor 
to the Company at Manawatu, returned to Wellington 
from an exploring journey into the interior. 

He was accompanied by Mr. Alfred Wills, one of 
the Cadets, and a small party of labourers to carry pro- 
visions and baggage ; and one of the principal chiefs 
of the Ngatiraukawtty named E Ahu, with some mem- 
bers of his family and two or three slaves, had acted 
as guides to the expedition. 

They had ascended the Manawatu to a considerable 
distance above the gorge between the Tararua and 
Ruahine ranges, which I have before spoken of as 
described to me by Jack Duff the trader. Striking to 
the east and south, they left the river, and crossed 
some of the low ridges in which the N.E. extremity 
of the Tararua terminates ; and from thence saw a 
vast extent oi mania, or grass plain country, interspersed 
^ith groves of timber, and watered by the tributaries 


of the Manawatu, of the rivers which descend into 
Hawke's Bay, and of the Ruamahanga, which flows 
into the sea at TVairarapay or Palliser Bay. 

They saw the main branch of the Manawatu stretch- 
ing towards the North, along the N.E. base of the 
Ruahine range. The natives told them that it took 
its rise in the gorges between that and the Kai Man- 
ama range, whose northern extremity abuts on Lake 
T'aupo, and that a canoe might proceed for three weeks 
further up its course. 

Where they left, the Manawatu river was about 
90 miles, by its windings, from the sea. But its 
course is exceedingly tortuous ; so much so, that the 
natives have a legend that it was formed by an Atua, 
or " Evil Spirit," who was in the form of a large 
totara tree, and wormed himself along like an eel on 
his way from the east coast to Cook's Strait. His 
name was Okatia ; and he was said to have followed 
the course of a large tributary of the Manawatu, called 
Tirumea, which takes it^ source in the Puketoi moun- 
tains. The Puketoi range lies between the plain of 
the three rivers and the east coast, in a N. and S. 
direction, the tributaries of the Hauriri river in 
Hawke's Bay flowing round its northern base. 

The expedition now descended the ridge into the 
upper part of the Ruamahanga or J^airarapa plain^ 
and proceeded along its eastern side, crossing many 
tributaries of the river which flows down its centre, 
until they reached a village of the Ngatikahuhunu 

After being received very hospitably by these people, 
they proceeded to the southward, keeping about half- 
way between the base of the eastern spurs of the 
Tararura and the main river. 

Mr. Kettle described the country between the 


Manawatu and the Ruamahanga plain as alternate 
forest and fern land, and conceived that the ridges 
might have been entirely avoided, had they made a cir- 
cuit round their north-eastern extremities. Thus, 
the plain of the upper Manawatu was evidently in 
easy connexion with those so often described by va- 
rious travellers about the country which opens on to 
Hawke's Bay, and also with the vast plain of the 
Ruamahanga. And through the gorge of the Mana- 
watu, this immense tract of available and almost 
uninhabited country may be connected with that 
which lies between Cook's Strait and the Ruahine 
and Tararua ranges, and around Mount Egmont as 
far north as Mokau. 

Although the party suffered severely from the 
weather, which was constantly wet at this season of 
the year where they were travelling, round the spurs 
of one of the great dividing ranges of the island, yet 
all concurred in describing the plain of Ruamahanga 
as a most delightful tract of country. 

The plain was described as 60 miles in length, from 
the ridges which separate it from the upper Manawatu 
to the sea; and of an average width of 12 miles 
between the Puketoi range, which divides it from 
the east coast, and the Tararua range, and that long 
spur of it the Rimutaka, which lies between the Hutt 
and the Ruamahanga. 

The IVairara'pa lake, 10 miles in length, and 
averaging two in width, fills up the lower part of 
the plain. 

They failed in two successive attempts to discover 
a passable path over the Rimutaka ; and endured 
considerable hardship from the continued heavy rains 
among the hills, and from the want of food expe- 
rienced since they had left the plain, where the nu- 


merous pigeons, and an occasional pig caught from 
the wild herds whose traces they were constantly 
observing, had for some days supplied them. A third 
attempt, ascending the Rimutaka nearly due west of 
the middle of the lake, was more successful ; and they 
found their way to the head of the Pakiritahi, a small 
tributary of the Hutt running northward for five 
miles. It joins the Hutt about 15 miles from the 
beach at Pitone. Descending the courses of the tri- 
butary and the main stream, they at length arrived 
at the house of Mr. Mason, the most distant out-set- 
tler in the lower valley of the Hutt, on the 7th of 
June, 32 days after they had started from the survey 
station at the Manawatu. 

They arrived half starved and nearly worn out 
with fatigue, with but a few rags left on their backs. 
I met some of them on the road between Wellington 
and Pitone the same evening ; and they certainly did 
look most miserable objects, although they had pro- 
cured a change of clothing from their friends on the 

Great credit was due to them for the perseverance 
which they had shown in attaining their object. They 
started from the survey station with only a week's pro- 
visions ; and had only the clothes on their backs when 
they left the Manawatu, after paying the natives who 
had poled the canoes up. More than once, the 
men and the natives had despaired of reaching Wel- 
lington, after repeatedly losing their way in the 
eastern gorges of the Rimutaka ; and during several 
days before reaching the settlements, they had lived 
on the wild cabbages which they found near the 
banks of the river. But Mr. Kettle had encou- 
raged them to proceed, by his example as well as 
his cheerful spirit. Wet through during nearly the 


whole journey, and lying on the damp ground every 
night exposed to heavy rains, with the^ scantiest co- 
vering, not a single member of the party, however, 
/suffered any injury to his health ; and after a few days' 
good feeding at Wellington, natives and White men 
were all as fresh and hearty as ever. 

Mr. Kettle's expedition was of great importance, as 
proving that an immense district of land of the finest 
character lay in the immediate neighbourhood of Wel- 
lington, and must eventually be dependent on the 
harbour of Port Nicholson for import and export. 

It had the advantage of being almost unoccupied ; 
the population of the solitary pa being very small, 
while another scanty tribe lived entirely on the 
narrow strip of land between Lake IV^airarapa and 
the sea. 

Mr. Kettle described the plain of Ruamahanga as 
resembling in appearance a vast English park on a 
magnified scale. Alternate tracts of the finest pri- 
maeval forest, and of pasture-land covered with mixed 
fern and grass and small shrubs, lay between the 
numerous streams which are tributary to the Ruama- 
hanga river. 

We knew already, since the bridle-road had been 
made, how easy was the communication, both by land 
and by sea, with the tract of level land bordering on 
Cook's Strait, and extending towards Mokau. And it 
was foreseen that no insurmountable obstacle existed to 
the formation of roads from the Hutt, over the Rimu- 
taka range, into the plain of the Ruamahanga. To 
complete the compactness of the district surrounding 
the little mountainous tract in which lie Port Nichol- 
son and the valley of the Hutt on all sides but the 
south, the communication between the eastern and 
western plains was established by the Manawatu to 


the north of the Tarania range. And the idea, which 
had been at one time so prevalent, that New Zealand 
was a very mountainous and rugged country, began to 
be dispelled. Everybody now acknowledged that the 
comparatively level and easily accessible country far 
surpassed the diificult and impracticable part in 

Chap. IX. THE CHIEF E AHU. ''; .• 2^1 




The Chief E Ahu — He quells Rangihaeata^ s noisy arrogance- 
He avoids the missionary Natives — Journey to Otaki and Ohau — 
The Chief's son, Wahine iti — Lakes — The Patriarch Watanui 
— Inland Journey — Rangitikei — Obstructions offered to Settlers 
by missionary Natives — Mr. Mason, the Missionary — Mr. Daw- 
son, the Police Magistrate — Native dispute — Consequences — • 
Good faith and honest pride of Bangi Tauwira — The town of 
*' Petre" — E Kuru accompanies me to Wellington — Inland 
path — Bivouac — Race — The Oroua, or Styx — Exaggerated mis- 
sionary notions — Hypocrisy — Its punishment — The Surveying 
Station — Steam Saw-mill — Reconciliation of two hostile Chiefs 
— The Patriarch's Family— A noble result of Mr. Hadfield's mis- 
sionary teaching — Rauperaha sends his slaves to obstruct 
settlers on the Hutt. 

I MADE the acquaintance of the chief E Ahu during 
his stay of two or three weeks in Wellington, and 
joined him when he returned to his own residence on 
the Ohau river, as I was again bound for JVanganui. 

This old chief is of the highest rank in the Ngati- 
rauhawa tribe, being of an older branch than even 
JVatanui, though of the same family. He had taken 
an eager part in the selling of Manawatu to Colonel 
Wakefield ; being exceedingly anxious to obtain for 
his people the same advantages which were enjoyed by 
the natives in Port Nicholson from the proximity of a 
White settlement. 

E Ahu was the same chief who had led the first 
party from Taupo to the assistance of Rauperaha in 
subduing the aboriginal inhabitants of Cook's Strait, 
and who had afterwards compelled the rest of the 
tribe to embrace the conqueror's offer of a location on 


the sea-coast, to reap the advantages of trade with the 
White man, by burning down the villages of Taupo. 

I found him very fond of his rank and conscious of 
his authority as a great chief; but he had acquired 
many repulsive qualities as a cruel and merciless war- 
rior, and a considerable share of arrogance and inso- 
lence from his early dealings with the rude traders 
and visitors of the time before us. His character and 
that of his family is best expressed by the names 
given to them by those of that rough class who were 
most acquainted with them. They called E Ahu " The 
"Badger," and^ TVara and Te JVmnuku, his two near- 
est male relations, *' The Bully" and ** The Sneak." 

He was easily impressed, however, with the be- 
haviour which he must adopt in order to make him- 
self agreeable to gentlemen. Whether by his conci- 
liating manner towards them, or by the mere fact of 
his having bought the land and held out hopes that 
they should have White men amongst them, " Wide- 
** awake" had become a great favourite with the chiefs 
of the Ngatiraukawa during his negotiation with them 
at Otakt. E Ahu, who had received ample payment 
for his men employed in " Wide-awake's " service, and 
who had enjoyed the unlimited hospitality of his 
house at Wellington, seemed determined to show me 
his gratitude, and always behaved to me as one chief 
to another. 

1 was witness to a curious scene on the way. Having 
walked much faster than the natives, I got a boat at 
the end of the road, and arrived by myself at Toms* 
inn at Parramatta. Rangihaeata was there, very 
noisy, asking for spirits as usual ; and he requested me 
to buy him a large quantity, in so arrogant a tone that 
1 refused in rather a decided manner. 
- He then went on storming about the land ; saying 


that Wide-awake and I should not have any more ; that 
Porirua was not paid for, and that he would never let 
White people come and live there. He asked whether 
we wanted it all, that we were so greedy ; and said he 
would never sell it unless he received " money gold " 
in casks as high as he could reach. I did not attempt 
to answer him, as he was much excited with drink, 
and indeed gave one no opportunity of putting in a 
word. As he was going out, after finding that I sat 
still smoking without listening to his bullying and 
insulting diatribe, I observed that I had been " all 
" ears, because he was all mouth," and that " two 
" mouths could not talk where one filled the house ;" 
which amused some of his own followers. 

I found him calmer in thepa some little time after-< 
wards, and he asked me whether E Ahu was coming 
after me. When I answered that he was, he ran on 
about Manawatu, and Tf^anganui, and TaranaM, and 
all the land being his everywhere ; and said he was very 
angry with the Ngatiraukawa for having sold Mana- 
watu. ** You shall see," said he, " how I will boo- 
" hoo'boo at K Ahu about it when he comes ;" meaning 
how he would " bounce." I answered very quietly, 
" It is good. I will look when the chiefs begin to 
" speak." 

I had a great idea that Rangi would boo-hoo-boo in 
vain ; for I knew that he had tried to prevent the sale 
by every argument in his power, both here, when the 
first Surveyors went to Manawatu, accompanied by two 
or three chiefs of the Ngatiraukawa, and also at the 
great conference at Otaki, when the sale was finally 
agreed to ; but that E Puke and several other of the 
Ngatiraukawa had laughed at all that he said, and 
told him to go away, for he had nothing to do with it. 

Rangihaeata, however, kept showing me the gri- 


maces of defiance which he meant to make when E 
Ahu should come. And the slaves and attendants 
were all chuckling, and explaining to me every now 
and then that Mokau, as he was often called, was ex- 
ceedingly angry. I took no notice of all this, till K 
Ahu arrived in a canoe which had been sent for him. I 
then told him of the threat which Rangi had made. 
He gave a low laugh, and said to me, "Be a looker- 
" on !" 

The greeting was a mixture of friendliness and dis- 
tant pride, although the two chiefs were very nearly 
related. Clean fern was strewn in two places, on 
opposite sides of the court-yard in the midst of the 
filthy little pa which is close to Toms' house. On one of 
these wariki, or " strewings," Rangihaeata was sitting 
in state with all his attendants. The visitors were 
motioned to the other. 

While the meal of hospitality was cooking in the 
iron pots, Rangihaeata rose to speak. His words were 
a mere repetition of what he had roared in jny ears. 
He began by tracing his own descent and history, and 
saying all the land was his, and that the White men 
were greedy and wanted to take it all. The story 
about the casks of " money gold" followed. He then 
warmed gradually up, and spoke louder and more 
wildly, as he rebuked E Ahu for having sold Mana- 
fjoatu of his own accord, without consulting him, who 
was the real owner, and for having invited White men 
to go and live there. But his speech was moderate 
and his manner tame compared with what his boasting 
had led me to expect ; although they still partook 
largely of that bullying tone and undignified character 
from which his behaviour was never free. 

E Ahu then rose up, and answered him in few, but 
calm and convincing words, " You have said that all 


" the land is yours," said he ; "I do not know ; perhaps 
" it is. You relate as an evil deed that I took upon 
" myself to sell Manawatu to the White man. You 
" say that it was not straight. Look at me ! I E 
" Aku sold Manawatu. I alone, of my own accord. I 
" came not to consult you. I was not good to do so ; 
" I am still not good to do so. I care not for your 
" thoughts on the matter. You have described your 
" pedigree and spoken much of your great name. I 
" too had ancestors and a father. I have a name. It 
" is enough; I have done." 

No one ventured to answer this claim, which I be- 
lieve was true, to a higher descent than that of Ran- 
gihaeata ; whose fame was derived rather from hiscon- 
stant companionship with Rauperaha, and his bullying 
and boastful demeanour, than from his rank by blood. 

In the^morning they seemed very good friends ; and 
we proceeded to Pukenia rather late. We reached 
that j>« towards dusk, and had just eaten our meal 
when the missionary bell rang for prayers. E Ahu 
immediately got up, and told the boys to shoulder 
their loads. He said he could never sleep in this 
village, as he knew the people would sing hymns and 
talk hanga noaiho, or " nonsense," all night. So we 
encamped under a natural arch of rock about a mile 
further along the beach. I rolled myself up in a robe 
of opossum-skins from New South Wales, and picked 
out a spot in the shingly beach pretty free from rocky 

After sleeping very soundly for some hours, I was 
awakened by the bustle of preparation ; and found that 
the chief had had enough rest, and wished to proceed, as 
he was anxious to get home. I was nothing loath, and 
we pushed on by the light of the moon, which had 
now risen, as far as ff^ainui, when daylight appeared. 



Resting occasionally to eat, we reached Otaki the 
same day, having walked about 24 miles from our last 

We stopped two days there, and then proceeded to 
Ohau. About six miles up the fertile valley of this 
river, passing through rich cultivations all the way, 
we reached the residence of the chief in his favourite 
garden. I shall pass over the usual greetings, the 
pleasing hospitality, and the delightful quiet of two or 
three days, during which I became much attached to 
the family of this chief. His eldest son, especially, a 
handsome active lad of about 13, was of a very en- 
gaging disposition ; and showed an eager desire to 
obtain the friendship and acquire the ways of the 
White man. Although so young, he seemed to foresee 
the duties which would devolve upon him when he 
should succeed to the chieftainship ; and he proved by 
every action towards me, and every idea which he 
expressed, how delighted he should be if he might 
be enabled by early instruction to assimilate his 
thoughts, his objects, and his ambition, to those of 
the civilized race. I shall hereafter have to relate a 
striking proof of this feeling. 

Bidding adieu to this new circle of acquaintances, I 
proceeded with a lad whom E Ahu had directed to 
carry my baggage as far as Rangitikei. We crossed a 
pretty lake close to the north of E Ahus settlement, 
called Papal Tonga, or " Beautiful South," and walked 
over about four miles of rich level forest country, 
to the shore of another lake, called Horowenua, or 
" Landslip." After I had fired one or two shots, a 
canoe came to us from a village at the further end, 
and bore us to the residence of TVatanui, on the stream 
which drains the waters of the lake to the coast. 

I slept here one night> and then proceeded, much 


impressed with the very chieftain-like bearing of TVa- 
tanui. While he is known as a renowned leader in 
war, he has also the reputation of great mildness and 
justice. He reminded me much of Heuheu in his 
kingly and herculean person, and his thorough gen- 
tlemanly manner. 

I proceeded by an inland path to the banks of the 
Manawatu, which we struck at a place called Ara- 
tangata^ or " Man's Path," about four miles below the 
spot where Lewis had built his schooner. 

TVatamd has some potato-grounds here, in which 
we found his eldest son Billy ; who lent me his canoe 
to go down to the mouth of the river. Here an 
English lad, who had lost both his arms by an acci- 
dent with a cannon on board the Cuba, kept a house 
of entertainment and a ferry. 

I am almost tired of describing fine districts of 
country. Suffice it to say, that the level tract which I 
had passed over between the Ohau and the ManawatUy 
about five miles from the coast, was as promising and 
as beautiful as any that I had yet seen, consisting of 
alternate wood and fine pasture land, with occasional 
swamps only waiting to be drained to be as available 
as any of the drier country. 

I was accompanied from Manawatu to Rangitikei 
by the wnfe and brother of Taratoa, the chief whose 
acquaintance I had made in so curious a way on my 
last walk from TVanganui. As the rivers were 
swollen, and it had been reported that no natives were 
at the mouth, I accompanied these people to their 
pobito-grounds about six miles up the eastern bank, 
opjtosite to the joa of the Ngatiupa. They behaved with 
great kindness and regard towards me ; and I got a 
canoe from the other side, wished them farewell, and 
crossed over to the village. Here the whole of the 



Ngatiapa residing on this river, who .ire not above a 
hundred in number, have their abode. The country 
is perfectly level in every direction for many miles 
about here, and most fertile. In the open spots, the 
grass is as thick and luxuriant as though it had been 
carefully sown and cultivated. 

I got a boy to carry my pack at this village, and 
struck on to the beach about six miles north of the 
mouth of the river, passing all the way through open 
pasture country. 

We had some trouble in crossing the Ttirakina, and 
went up to the pa on the JVangaihu to sleep and get 
a canoe in the morning. This small village is about a 
mile from the mouth. We reached TVanganui early 
the next day. 

Things were but little altered with the unfortunate 
little band of settlers. They were living on, however, 
by means of their gardens and some barter with the 
natives. Numerous attempts to obtain possession of 
sections on various spots in the district had failed. The 
most friendly professions of those who offered to put 
settlers in possession for a consideration had proved 
hollow and of no avail ; for, after the settler had begun 
his operations, some new claimant would start up and 
interrupt, threaten, and bully, till the unfortunate sec- 
tionist was obliged to abandon his intentions and put 
up with his first loss, as the man with whom he had 
made the bargain generally retired upon the appearance 
of the new claimant. 

Mawai and E Tu had so signally failed in the per- 
formance of their promise to locate people in the mean- 
while, that I hardly thought it necessary to explain 
that Colonel Wakefield had not acceded to their propo- 
sition, because he thought such a course might be con- 
sidered by the I^and Commissioner as an acknowledg- 


ment that the original bargain was an incomplete one ; 
and because, also, their demand was exorbitant, and it 
did not seem at all certain that they possessed the 
power to control all the recalcitrants, E Kuru and 
several other chiefs, now that their proposition was 
public, loudly ridiculed the existence of such an idea, 
and doubted whether their influence and authority 
would extend over even their own fellow-villagers. 
He congratulated me on having escaped from a snare, 
which he said would have cost a ship-load of goods, 
without gaining peaceable possession of any but a very 
small portion of the disputed land. 

I had come hither to break up my establishment, 
and to pull down my house ; as I wished to show the 
natives that I considered they had, as a body, broken 
faith with me. I reminded them that they had pressed 
me to go to Port Nicholson and bring them payment 
for the land, and White men; and that they had 
returned my acceptance of their invitation by not leav- 
ing the White men land on which to grow their food. 
E Kuru was much grieved at my decision, but acknow- 
ledged its justice. Rangi Tauwira came from his set- 
tlement on purpose to beg me not to pull the house 
down, He pointed out the rafters which he had him- 
self cut out, and related the history of the toiara trees 
from which they were formed. He said, with tears in 
his eyes, that it would be a bad word for Tf^anganui 
that I should pull down " TVare TVikitoria " because 
the natives had told lies. But he allowed thati had 
every right to retreat with anger and indignation from 
the place ; and he regretted that I had not followed 
his advice, of covering the land with White people 
immediately after the sale, " before the slippery hearts 
" of the Maori had had time to change." 

I sold all my goods and chattels by auction ; and in 


about three days afterwards the house was levelled to 
the ground by my gang of boys. 

The Putikiwaranui natives had sent a letter in the 
middle of May to Mr. Spain, stating that the north 
side of the river had been purchased, but their side 
had not, and begging him to come and see them and 
hear what they had to say. He had answered, that 
after he had done investigating the sale at Port 
Nicholson he would come and hear the rights of their 
sale; and concluded by begging them to live peace- 
ably with the Europeans until he should come. 

On my applying to them again to allow the settlers 
to locate quietly pending the arrival of the Commis- 
sioner, they had shown me this letter, and refused to 
allow anything of the sort. They had now changed 
their tone, and again said that they would not sell the 
land at all. Mr. Mason had been heard by the set- 
tlers to say, that he thought the natives required a 
large tract of land, as it was expedient they should 
learn" to cultivate wheat. He had also said, on more 
than one occasion, that he could get on much better 
with the natives if there were no White people here 
at all. And he acknowledged that he had never 
attempted to explain to the natives the value of the 
Reserves made for them. I should think, from the sus- 
picion with which they always treated my words when- 
ever I broached this subject to them myself, that they 
had rather been forewarned against this provision as 
a mere ruse to deceive them. 

A circumstance which occurred while I was here, 
showed plainly the manner in which Mr. Dawson, the 
ofl&cer of all work, persisted in supporting Mr. IMason's 

A sectionist, invited by Rangi Tauwira to occupy a 
section near his settlement, had authorized Yankee 


Smith to go with a companion and saw timber from 
the forest with which it was covered. The sawyers 
began by building a small hut, and carrying their goods 
to it from the settlement, with the assistance of Rangi 
Tauwira and his people. 

Soon after they had located, Mawai, with about 
forty armed followers, came up the creek, on whose 
banks the spot was situated, in canoes, with the avowed 
intention of carrying the things back to the town. 
Rangi, who saw them pass his settlement at the mouth 
of the creek, and had heard of their design, walked up to 
the scene of action, with his brother and one of his 
sons, the only people at that moment in his village. 
They sat down quietly near the hut, laying their arms 
in front of them. Mawai and his followers began to 
lift some of the goods, and to carry them towards the 
canoe. The old chieftain said to them quietly, draw- 
ing his hand across his neck, " Begin with my head, 
" for that must go first." And the forty marauders 
immediately dropped their bundles, got into their canoe, 
and returned as they had come to their village. Mr. 
Mason immediately wrote to his friend Mr. Dawson, 
to say that he was sure bloodshed would ensue, and 
that the most dreadful consequences would be sure to 
follow should not some measures be taken instantly to 
check the dispute : the followers of Mawai were bent 
on pursuing the quarrel ; and a fearful feud would 
certainly be caused among the natives should they per- 
sist in this intention. There seemed no great need for 
this alarm, after forty armed men had retreated in 
panic from the simple authority of one chief. They 
well knew that a numerous band of warriors would 
soon be collected by the mandate of Rangi Tauwira, 
and that they would be inevitably overwhelmed in any 
contest with his powerful following. Mr. Dawson, 


however, appeared to place implicit faith in Mr Mason's 
statement, and sent instantly for Yankee Smith. He 
told him, that if he did not immediately bring all his 
things away, and abandon the idea of occupying the 
disputed land, he would bind him over in recognizances 
of 200/. to keep the peace, and forfeit them on any at- 
tempt to return to the place. One would have thought 
that the persons who proposed to disturb the peace 
were those who should have been bound over ; and that 
recognizances should have been demanded from the 
inhabitants of Mr. Mason's village, whom he declared 
to be intent on such riotous proceedings. I told Smith 
this opinion of mine, and that I thought he might con- 
tinue his occupation without the slightest fear of Mr. 
Dawson's threatened illegal interference. I was in- 
duced so to advise him, because I felt sure in my own 
mind that the Putikiwaranui men had already yielded 
to the firm rebuke of Rangi, and that Mr. Mason's 
predictions were entirely unfounded and imaginary. 
But Smith was of a timid character : he feared for 
his pockets, should the decision of the magistrate be 
considered legal, and gave up the point, much to 
Rangts regret. 

As soon as I heard of the old man's spirited and 
honourable conduct, I manned my canoe and pulled 
up to his village, saluted him in formal style, and 
threw my opossum robe round his shoulders. I then 
stayed the greater part of the day and all night at his 
village, and bade him farewell in the morning, after 
assuring him repeatedly that his had indeed been the 
conduct of a rangatira and of a White man's friend. 
He was exceedingly proud of the gift and of the 
manner in which it was made. Whenever I visited 
him afterwards, he always put on the opossum robe 
when he first saw me, and wore it while I remained 


with him. He thus wished to prove that he considered 
it as a distinguished mark of honour and affection. 

I have omitted to state, that the laying out of a 
town at TVanganui, in quarter-acre sections, had been 
approved by the Directors of the Company ; and a 
selection had taken place, every alternate town-section 
being reserved for the Company. The town was named 
after Lord Petre, who was a most unfailing friend of 
the colony in England, and one of the Directors of 
the Company. 

On my return to Port Nicholson, I was accompanied 
by E Kuru and a large train of his relatives. The 
chief wished to see Colonel Wakefield and Mr. Spain, 
in order to urge the speedy settlement of the momen- 
tous question. Colonel Wakefield, thinking to expe- 
dite matters, had begged me to procure his attendance 
and that of as many of the other parties to the deed as 
possible, in order that they might give their evidence 
before the Commissioner at Wellington. Macgregor, 
who had signed the deed as a witness, and I, had 
already been examined as to this sale by the Com- 

E Kuru, however, refused to give his evidence any- 
where but at TVanganui. He felt his honour and 
credit at stake in the affair ; and wished that each 
person concerned should give his evidence openly be- 
fore all those who had assisted at the transaction, and 
on the spot where it had taken place. 

Some of his relations were bound on a visit to the 
natives in Palliser Bay ; and, with my boys, we mus- 
tered about 40 head. Our progress was of course 
slow, and we had again to travel inland on account of 
the freshets in the rivers. We slept one night at the 
TVangaihu pa, and the next day ascended the valley of 
the Turakina about three miles, before we could find 


inhabitants or a canoe. A grand upset took place in 
crossing ; and some hours were taken up in drying the 
wet blankets and guns, and making up by a feast for 
the ducking. So we had to bivouac on the beach, 
nearly in the same spot where I had once suffered so 
much from the cold on a former occasion. 

The next night we got to the pa up the Rangitikei. 

In the morning we crossed in canoes, with some 
difficulty from the swollen waters of the river, which 
is here extremely rapid. 

I had heard of a road leading across from this spot 
to the banks of the Manawatu, and expressed my wish 
to explore it to JE Kuru and the other chief men of 
the party. Although they were at first very averse to 
this plan, as none of the party had been that road, 
and the tribes were all recently at war with E Kuru 
and his people at PV^aikanae, I at last persuaded them. 
I depended on the friendship which I had lately 
cemented with the chiefs of the Ngatiraukawa, and on 
the fact that so many of my boys were closely allied to 
the inhabitants of Manawatu by their Taupo blood, 
for preventing any disagreement between the formerly 
hostile tribes while I should be with the party. 

We inquired our way from some of XheNgatiapa 
natives who were acquainted with it, and pushed along 
to the southward. We travelled all day through 
open pasture land, the path apparently avoiding the 
timbered parts which rose in various directions like 
the islands and promontories of a coast. Towards 
dusk we entered into a spacious kind of bay among 
the wood, and reached the borders of a swamp which 
filled one-half of it. As we had been warned that 
this roio, or " swamp," might be very deep if the waters 
were out, we thought it prudent to encamp till day- 
light. The young men soon knocked up some sheds 

Chap. IX. THE OROUA, OE STYX. 235 

with branches of the tutu, a shrub which grows in 
great abundance on all the open lands, and covered 
them with flax-leaves, reeds, and fern. The remain- 
ing stock of potatoes was then roasted and eaten ; and 
we slept very comfortably till daylight, notwithstand- 
ing the mist which rose from the wide expanse of 
swamp and shrouded us in cold damp. 

At break of day, we followed the track across the 
swamp, about a mile, to the edge of the wood. The 
water was only a little above our knees after all, but 
painfully cold. E Kuru shouted out a challenge for 
who should reach the other side first ; and merry yells 
of excitement, and laughter at the misfortunes of those 
who now and then tripped up against a tuft of flax 
and fell at full length into the muddy water, kept our 
spirits up. At the edge of the wood we found a 
family which was catching eels in a creek close by. 
They were of one of the aboriginal tribes, a remnant 
of the few natives left in tributary freedom after BaU' 
peraha^, invasion. They cooked us some potatoes and eels, 
and my boys shot several pigeons while we were drying 
our wet things. About two miles through the forest, 
which almost entirely consisted of magnificent totara 
trees, brought us to the banks of the Oroua, a tributary 
of the Manawatu, which has been christened the 
" Styx " by the Company's Surveyors. After some 
trouble in procuring a canoe, we descended this river 
about 10 miles to its confluence with the main river, 
where a large pa, called Puke Totara, is situated. 
This is about 42 miles from the sea by the windings 
of the Manawatu. We were here shown into houses 
assigned for our reception. 

The district through which the Oroua runs is of the 
richest alluvial character, being subject to very high 
floods. When we descended it, the water was in most 


places 10 feet below the top of the bank ; but there 
were abundant marks of recent inundation on the 
trees to the height of three feet above the ground. A 
scanty population reaps a plentiful and easy harvest 
from some chosen spots along the immediate banks ; 
retreating to the pa or to elevated spots when the 
waters rise. I was told that a dispute was existing 
between the inhabitants and Rauperaha as to the 
right to cut the totara trees, which are renowned for 
their size and quality. The conqueror had allowed 
these vanquished tribes to live here on sufferance, re- 
serving the timber for himself ; but since the spread of 
the doctrines of Christianity and peace among so many 
of his former followers as well as among themselves, 
the tributaries had not feared to defy Rauperaha, and 
to assert their right to the land and the timber too. 

We had arrived on a Saturday night. The next 
day I met with a remarkable instance of the strait- 
laced and puritanical way in which these people had 
learned to observe the forms of the Christian religion. 

I was very anxious to get to the survey station at 
Kare kare, or " Dig-dig," about 24 miles lower down 
the river ; and, after the morning service, I asked the 
man who seemed to have the principal authority here 
to let me have a canoe for the purpose. He answered, 
that the people were all missionaries, and it was not 
straight to pull in canoes on the " week." (For the 
natives, curiously enough, have adopted the word 
wiki, missionary for " week," to mean the first day 
in it.) 

I told him I did not want any of his men, but only 
a canoe ; as I had plenty of boys of my own who were 
" devils," and did not fear paddling down a river on a 
Sunday. But he told me that the very canoes were 
all tapu on the " week," and that the thing was quite 


impossible. I very much ridiculed the idea of his 
attempting to prove that the canoes kept the Sabbath. 
I tried payment ; but as this was before a crowd of 
people, in the midst of the pa, he still refused, saying 
it was not lawful to buy and sell on the " week." 

Some cooked food, hot from the iron pots, was now 
brought round ; and two or three well-filled kits were 
placed before me. This was the second time that a 
hot meal had been prepared that day. I got up and 
kicked the pile of kits which had been assigned to me 
all over the ground, told my boys to carry my bundles, 
and went out of the pa and encamped among the fern 
close by, saying that if men ought not to paddle, 
women ought not to cook ; and that if canoes were 
tapu, iron pots and firewood were so too. And I re- 
fused to re-enter the fence of the^«. 

The hypocrite came to me soon afterwards by him- 
self, and said that although it was wrong to buy and 
sell, it was allowed to receive a present on the " week ;" 
and began to inquire what-sized present I was inclined 
to give. So that at length, after much haggling, we 
effected a regular bargain : he agreeing to find a small 
canoe which was not tapu, and a man to go with me 
and bring it back, and I to give him a pound of 
tobacco. I selected one of my boys to go with me, as 
the little shell, which was brought round to a secluded 
spot on the river-bank, would only hold three, and that 
by skilful balancing. It was only about 12 feet long 
and 30 inches broad. 

I resolved, however, that the man should not get off 
without full publicity being given to his mean subter- 
fuge. So I shouted to one of my boys, before I de- 
scended the hill, to bring me one of my double-barrelled 
guns. When it came, I began writing with a knife 
upon the stock. The curiosity excited by the call and 


my singular proceeding soon attracted the whole 
population of the pa to the spot where the strict 
observer of the Sabbath had hoped to receive his 
pound of tobacco without being seen. 

After I had written, I rose, and addressed him in 
loud tones so that every one might hear. " You have 
" said," cried I, " that you refused me a cjinoe because 
" it is the week — because the canoes are tapuy and 
" because the men must not paddle. And you have said 
" that it is wrong to buy and sell on the week. But 
" the canoe is ready to start ; one of your own men 
" holds the paddle in the stern ; and I am to give you a 
" pound of tobacco. Listen ! this was not your thought 
" when you refused. You wanted to make the price 
" of your kindness to a guest great ; and you thought you 
** were speaking to a tutua (plebeian), who would cheat 
" you out of your reward for the canoe I have written 
" on this gun that this is Tvraweke^ payment for being 
" carried in a canoe from Ptike Totara to Kare kare. 
" Take it ! it is for you ; you have behaved like a mean 
" slave to me. You shall remember that 1 could pay 
** you with the hand of a chief. Remain in your place. 
" Should I ever travel this way again, I will never 
" land in your unkind village, I will never ask for your 
" stingy hospitality. I will not call to your heart, 
" which has two sides like your tongue, and is to be 
" bought by the largest hand. Remain !" And I gave 
him the gun, and walked down the hill into the canoe. 
Although much pleased to get so great a present, the 
man hung down his head with shame ; he could hardly 
articulate the words, *' Go to the sea !" And the rest of 
his tribe clearly felt the reproach which had been cast 
upon them before E Kuru and their other distin- 
guished visitors, who could scarcely conceal tlieir 
delight at the whole proceeding. 

Chap. IX. STEAM SAW-MILL. 239 

Before dusk 1 had reached the survey station, about 
17 miles from the sea. The river twists very much, 
and is navigable for any craft that can enter over the 
bar as high as 52 miles from the mouth. A point 
36 miles up the river is, however, only eight miles 
from the sea in a straight line. At Kare kare, on 
a kind of peninsula surrounded by the river on three 
sides, the surveyors had two or three houses built, and 
here I remained two nights. On the Monday the whole 
party of natives arrived in two or three large canoes. 
I gave them a feast of flour and sugar, and invited 
Jf^atanui^ second son, who was here with his wife, to 
join the party. I introduced E Kuru to him, and 
begged him to do the honours of the country. He 
did this most willingly; accompanying us down the 
river to Aratangata, and across the country to his 
father's village. 

Just below the survey station, on the north bank 
of the river, the saw-mill of which I have before 
spoken was nearly ready for work. Two brothers, 
named Kebbell, had persevered in a remarkable man- 
ner till their undertaking was complete. They 
obtained a squatting licence from the natives, as the 
Company's district was on the south bank only, and 
then set to work. The engine was a rotatory one of 
20-horse power. It was covered with a thatched 
building of the most curious form ; gable after gable 
and roof after roof having been added on, as each 
part of the machinery was erected and required pro- 
tection. Out of the midst of the heap of angles a 
great chimney rose to the height of about 40 feet. 
This, and the steam, which had been set going once 
or twice on trial, excited the unbounded respect of 
the natives. He puhia mokai ! " It is a tame boiling- 
" spring !" some of them said to me. 


A great many of the natives were employed in 
rafting logs down the river and hjiuling them up the 
bank into the mill-yard, where tramways were laid 
down to carry them to the mill. The forge, the 
residences of the millers and their labourers, iron in 
various shapes, and machinery of all kinds, surrounded 
the bustling scene. Opposite, a shopkeeper from 
Port Nicholson had established a trading store, where 
about 50 natives were loitering and haggling about ; 
and my fat friend Jimmy Jackson was alongside, load- 
ing potatoes into a schooner which he had built at 

When we got to Horowenua village, I was much 
struck by the honourable greeting which pf^atanui 
gave to his former enemy. He expressed his gratitude 
to me for having persuaded E Kuru to trust to the 
honour and good faith of Ngatiraukawa. It must 
be remembered that they themselves acknowledged 
that the result of the battle of TVaikanae was entirely 
owing to the bravery and resolution of K Kuru and 
his followers. There was to me a great pleasure in 
this power of my friendship with both parties to 
reconcile them with each other, although they had 
been deadly enemies before. I felt that the natives 
themselves would appreciate the value of a mutual 
confidence, which thus became the means of making 
all friends between themselves who were friends of 
the same White man. And I was assured of the 
reality of the respect which both parties entertained 
for me, by the fact that they so cordially accepted my 

TVatanui was, perhaps, one of the native chiefs who 
best appreciated the value of the M'hite man's presence 
and brotherhood. He had adopted the Christian faith 
very warmly; but without in the least injuring his 


authority, for either he himself or his second son 
always read the prayers and enforced the performance 
of the Christian observances. He had always adopted 
a great degree of civilization. His houses and clothes 
were always kept scrupulously clean ; he and all his 
family wore clean clothes, and washed with soap in the 
stream every morning ; the cooking was attended to 
with great care, and the food was always served up on 
carefully scrubbed tin plates. In short, whenever I 
spent an hour at this little village, I felt that it was the 
residence of a gentleman. There was a quiet, unob- 
trusive dignity in the well-regulated arrangements 
of the whole establishment. The slaves did their 
work without orders and without squabbling ; a harsh 
word was hardly ever heard. Every one vied in a 
tacit wish that the old gentleman should be comfort- 
able ; and it was pleasing to see him, sitting in his 
house almost always surrounded by some of his family 
— the men all well shaved and combed — the women 
in clean frocks and blankets, busy at some sewing or 
other work; while his son or his daughter-in-law would 
be kindly teaching him to write on a slate. I remember 
how proud he was when he could write his name ; 
and with what genuine kindness he pointed out his 
son Tommy's wife as having succeeded in teaching 
him. The family of Pf^atanui, so united and homely, 
were indeed a notable instance of the success of Mr. 
Hadfield's sweet and gentle teaching. No one could 
avoid feeling emulous of the praiseworthy qualities of 
many kinds which had enabled him to eflfect such an 

TVahine Iti, E Ahus> son, having heard of my 
arrival, came here to meet me, and to invite E Kuru 
to Ohau on the part of his father. But E Kuru and 
the rest were anxious to get on, and struck off to the 



beach. I went to Ohau by the lakes with five or six 
of my boys, who found many of their relations at all 
the settlements. Nothing of any consequence occurred 
till we reached Parramatta after I had joined my people 
at ff^aikanae. Here we were detained a day by a 
violent gale from the south, accompanied with heavy 

Rauperaha and Hiko were both here, and received 
E Kuru in great state, as he was nearly related to 
them both, through his Ngatiawa mother. I had 
little to say to Hiko, as I had never liked him since 
his false conduct before the Governor ; but I had a 
good deal of conversation with Rauperaha, which he 
rather forced upon me than otherwise. 

He told me that he had resolved to prevent the 
White people from spreading any further up the valley 
of the Hutt, as it belonged to him, and he had not 
been paid for it. I rather laughed at this at first, as 
I did not see how he could stop it. I knew that he 
had never visited Port Nicholson, because he was still 
afraid of \he Ngatiawa, whom he had so often threatened 
to invade. Frequently when I had pressed him to 
pay us a visit there, to come to " Wide-awake's" house, 
and make acquaintance with the rangatira or "chiefs" 
of the White people, he had answered snappishly, that 
he had nothing to do with the White people at Poniki^ 
and that if he were to go the natives would all say he 
had gone to beg. 

He now told me that he had sent a number of his 
people over to clear land and settle in the Hutt, and 
that " Dog's Ear," or Taringa Kurt, from Kai ff^ara 
JVara, had agreed to go and join them in this object. 
I was somewhat startled to hear that the obstruction 
was likely to begin so near home from a totally new 
quarter, and hardly believed what he told me. 



jRauperahd's slaves on the Hutt — Veracity of natives — E Puni's 
present — Native labour — Fires — Furniture woods — Boats — 
Neglect of Nelson — Stagnation at Auckland — The Bishop ar- 
rives — Stifling of the Native Reserves — Their value misrepre- 
sented — Their real value — Unjust reproaches against the 
plan — Outrages by natives at New Plymouth — How quelled — 
Proposed arbitration — A Harbour-master appointed — His fit- 
ness for the office — Whales — Doings of the Bishop — Want of a 
Church — -Death of Mr. Young — Mr. Deans migrates to Port 
Cooper — Calumnies against Colonel Wakefield — How refuted — 
Meeting at Auckland — Distressed condition — Remedies proposed 
— Illness and death of Governor Hobson. 

On arriving at Port Nicholson, however, I found it 
was true enough. A large party of stranger natives 
had been for some time clearing a large extent of land 
on the banks of the river Hutt, and preventing settlers 
from occupying other parts, which they stated it was 
their intention to clear. They kept up a constant 
communication with Porirua, by means of a path over 
the dividing ridge which leads to the north arm of 
Porirua harbour. They had first come over soon 
after my departure with E Ahu. 

Taringa Kurt had settled immediately in the neigh- 
bourhood of Mr. William Swainson, the eminent ento- 
mologist ; and his people had begun to clear the forest in- 
discriminately on a section of which Mr. Swainson had 
taken a lease, and on which he had commenced culti- 

I met " Dog's Ear " shortly after my arrival ; and 
he coolly began to abuse Rauperaha and Rangihaeata 
just as usual, saying that they were very bad to drive 
White people off land which they had sold ; and that 



now they had begun to do the same on the Hutt, to 
which they had no right. He was surprised to find 
that I did not greet him or make any answer, and ran 
for some distance along by the side of my horse, asking 
vyhy I was angry with him. I told him that he and 
the two great enemies of the White people were of one 
heart, and that he too had begun to break his faith 
and to drive the settlers off the land. He stoutly denied 
it, and said that he had only gone to grow potatoes for 
the White people for one season, when he would come 
away. But he was astonished when I told him that 
my ears had received the whole story from Rauperaha 
himself, and that I knew him to be that chief's obe- 
dient servant. He acknowledged that he had told me 
a lie, but did not seem at all abashed. On the contrary, 
he treated it as a good joke, and tried to laugh it off, 
repeating that he only went for a time, and all for the 
good of the White people. 

The Maori generally are singular on this point. 
They have little shame in telling a lie ; and it is no 
insult among them to tell a man that he is tito, or a 
Jiar. It even takes some time to make them under- 
stand that no deeper insult can be offered to a White 
man. The same word tito is also applied to improviso 
or inventive singing ; and a famous poet among them 
is thus renowned as a " great liar." They are generally 
amused at the ingenuity of the |)erson who proves to 
them that they have failed to conceal the truth, but 
are seldom ashamed or confused at the public exposure 
of their falsehood. A very few, like E Kuru and 
E Puni, have an idea of that sense of honour which 
makes lying one of the worst crimes which an English 
gentleman can commit. But I always considered these 
men startling exceptions, in many points of character, 
to the generality of their countrymen. 

Chap. X. E PUNl'S PRESENT. lt»^ 

A row of brick building, 80 feet in length, had 
been completed by the Company as an immigrant 
barrack ; and in one of its compartments I lodged my 
train. I obtained from the Company's Agent an order 
for rations during their stay, and gave them iron pots 
and free access to a potato-pit, containing some tons of 
potatoes, which E Funi had lately filled in Colonel 
Wakefield's grounds. 

E Puni had brought this present from Fitone, with 
all his people, in great state. To show the rivalry of 
feeling existing between the natives who held fast to 
their bargain and those who had repudiated, it is 
curious to record that E Tako and the Fipitea and 
Te Aro natives immediately set about making a present 
of the same kind to Mr. Spain and Mr. Clarke junior. 
This is only one proof of how completely, in the minds 
of the natives, the Court of Claims was identified with 
opposition to the settlers. The Commissioner accepted 
the present ; but of course made it clearly understood 
to be a mere mark of courtesy to an indifferent visitor, 
and paid them the full value of the gift. 

My train were quite the lions of the place for some 
days ; the very natives at Fipitea flocking in numbers 
every night to see them perform hakas and waiatas 
with all the gusto of the olden time. 

Mr. Moles worth employed some of them to put up 
a fence on his farm on the Hutt. They worked well 
for a " spirt,'' but he found that they gradually got 
lazy, and relapsed into their favourite pursuits of 
smoking and basking in the sun. In order to work 
well for a continuance, the natives require to be 
treated as companions, and to have the constant urging 
and encouragement of their employer. E Kuru par- 
ticularly possessed the art of leading them on to 
exertion by exciting their emulation and ambition ; 


and from him I had managed to acquire a tolerable 
share of this valuable property. Any one employing 
labourers from among the natives would best succeed 
by a relation with them resembling that which I had 
so successfully established at TVanganui. They then 
strive for the honour and glory of the estate or house, 
of which they feel themselves to form an honoured 
and important part. 

On the 5th of July, an " awful conflagration" had 
taken place. The building which had so long done 
duty as Police-office, Post-office, Court of Justice, and 
Church, took fire, and was burnt to the ground in half 
an hour. Fortunately, Mr. Halswell and the Police 
Magistrate had for a long while doubted the security 
of the edifice, and kept their documents at their re- 
spective homes ; some carpenters who were at work 
near the spot saved what was lying or blowing about 
in the post-office corner of the ricketty hut; and 
the whole damage done was estimated at nearly Jive 
pounds ! 

The wooden " Government-house" at Hobson's first 
" Folly" had been burnt down in May ; and thus had 
perished the whole buildings in the town of Russell, 
which had cost so dear. 

The making of furniture at Wellington had been 
now for some time successfully carried on. The 
totara, the mai, and the hinau, were found to work up 
into very handsome side-boards, tables, and book- 
shelves. It was predicted that the export of these 
woods to England would become of great importance 
as soon as they should become known there.* 

* A cabinet-maker, named Levien, has a workshop adjoining the 
New Zealand House in Broad-street Buildings, where he continues 
to construct furniture of New Zealand woods, which has been much 
admired, and bought at high prices. 


On the 9th, a rather smart shock of an earthquake 
was felt. 

A schooner of 10 tons was launched this month, 
which had been built to the order of Richard Davis, 
the native teacher. He invited several of the settlers 
to a well-managed fete which he gave on the occa- 

Next to the building, yard whence this vessel had 
glided into the water, a man from Deal was driving a 
very profitable trade in the construction of whale- 
boats. The competition at the stations was now so 
great that speed became an indispensable quality; 
and six-oared and seven-oared boats were fast adopted. 
This man's boats got a reputation all over the 
coast ; and I have often been told by the most expe- 
rienced headsmen that they were far superior to any 
which they got from Sydney or from the whaling- 

The Nelson people were complaining sadly of the 
neglect of the local Government. It was only nine 
months since the first foundation of the settlement : but 
their population amounted to about 1900 ; 67 vessels, 
of the aggregate tonnage of 16,030 tons, had entered 
their harbour ; and they were still without any poli- 
tical institutions beyond a Police Court and a Custom- 
house Officer. It was 92 days since they had last 
heard from the capital. 

On the 3rd of August, a brig arrived at Wellington 
from Auckland, bringing news that Wellington had 
been proclaimed as a borough under the Municipal 
Ordinance ; and that the Bishop, who had arrived at 
Auckland, might be soon expected to pay us a visit. 
Of the capital itself, nothing was said to show that its 
stagnation had ceased ; for the papers were filled with 
complaints of the quaggy state of the streets, and of 


impending law-suits ad infinitum, which had arisen 
from the quarrelsome spirit reported by the last arrival. 
Before this brig came, our latest dates from the me- 
troi)olis were 127 days old, and those from London 
were only a fortnight further back. 

On the 12th of August, the Bishop arrived in the 
Government brig, and was received with a salute by 
the inhabitants of Wellington. He landed at Te Aro, 
and was met by a deputation from a public meeting 
held some days before, who presented him with an 
address of congratulation on his arrival. 

Before his Lordship had come, a number of eccle- 
siastical appointments had been gazetted. Among 
these were the Reverend Henry Williams, as Commis- 
sary of the Bishop and Surrogate for the granting of 
marriage licences of the District of the Bay of Islands ; 
his brother, William Williams, as Archdeacon of the 
district of the East Cape and examining Chaplain to 
the Bishop ; and Ministers for the townships of Auck- 
land and Wellington, being the Rev. J. F. Churton 
and the Rev. R. Cole. The last accompanied his Lord- 
ship hither. 

At this time, Mr. Halswell received official notice 
from Auckland, to surrender the trust of the Native 
Reserves to the new Trustees appointed for their ma- 
nagement, namely, the Bishop, the Chief Justice, and 
the Chief Protector of the Aborigines ; which three 
officers for the time being were to hold the trust for 
the future. 

Mr. Halswell had till now been associated with Mr. 
Hanson the Crown Prosecutor, and Mr. Murphy the 
Police Magistrate, for their management. 

This had been left, however, almost entirely to Mr. 
Halswell ; and had proved an unthankful task. 1 
have already described how effectually the restriction 


of the leases by Captain Hobson to the short term of 
seven years had stifled their production of revenue. 
In the letters from the Colonial Secretary to Mr. 
Halswell, the most mean and spiteful jealousy lest 
the Company should interfere in the management of 
the Native Reserves had been displayed. And yet the 
Company had purposely avoided having anytliing 
whatever to do with them, until they could be handed 
over to trustees appointed- impartially. In one letter, 
Mr. Shortland pointedly inquired whether it was not 
the fact that the grossest abuse had been committed 
in one or two instances by the Company's Agent, in 
disposing of native claims by persuading natives to 
settle on their Reserves ; and he stated that no such 
arrangement could receive the sanction of Govern- 
ment. This was in answer to a report from Mr. 
Halswell that some natives on the Hutt had made an 
unjust claim to the land on which some White man 
had settled ; but that he, not the Company, had 
since induced the same natives to locate on a Reserve. 
Mr. Halswell, with very shrewd notions of letting 
some of the Reserves of greatest European value to 
White people, and of inducing the natives to settle 
upon others more esteemed by them, had thus been 
completely frustrated in both his excellent intentions. 
All that the Government ever did for the Reserves 
was to render them useless, and then to employ that 
very uselessness as a weapon against the Company. 
They prevented, by their own restrictions, the accruing 
of any revenue from the Reserves, or the furnishing 
of any location for natives wishing to remove from 
places which had been allotted to White people ; and 
then they called out that the Reserves were worthless 
for letting to White people, and useless for the occu- 
pation of the natives. They took great pains to make 


this benefit a dead letter by artificial means, and then 
declared that no regard had been paid to the interests 
of the natives in the selection of their Reserves, which 
were incapable of producing revenue. 

At this very time the newspaper edited by the Crown 
Prosecutor began its career, by a series of articles ex- 
actly in this strain. Only a few months before, this 
partisan of the Government had addressed a letter, un- 
known to any one in the colony, to the Society for the 
Protection of Aborigines in London, all in the same 
strain. He even very speciously pretended to review 
the actual Reserves, and to prove that they were of no 
value to the natives. But he prudently sent this 
letter to London ; and it could only be contradicted 
in almost every statement when it returned to the 
colony, just like Governor Hobson's calumnies, six- 
teen months afterwards. 

This argument was a very discordant chorus to the 
song so constantly poured into Mr. Halswell's ears by 
the Colonial Secretary, in words displaying the most 
vulgar suspicion and the most fictitious carefulness 
against abuse, by which he was instructed neither to 
locate natives on the Reserves nor to let them to White 
men on any terms that would be accepted. 

It is useless for me to describe the position of the 
Native Reserves actually chosen ; since no one, without 
being on the spot, can appreciate their value. But I 
can most distinctly assert, that the 110 town sections 
of 1 acre each, and the 22 country sections of 100 
acres each, in the immediate neighbourhood of Port 
Nicholson, are of far more than average value as ap- 
plicable to the purposes of the White man. I will add, 
that if barren rock were to cover all the land but those 
2310 acres, and the 500 natives in Port Nicholson 
were left to live upon them, a large proportion of their 


Reserve would be allowed by them to remain unoccupied 
and untouched, even according to their wasteful system 
of agriculture. 

In one or two cases, a deviation from the rule of 
choosing the unchosen section of most value to a White 
man was made at the express request of one of the 
chiefs themselves, in order to choose some hilly but 
favourite location of the natives. With these exceptions, 
I have no hesitation in saying that the Reserves were so 
selected, that I, if I had been the private owner of them, 
should have given my highest approbation to the agent 
who selected them. 

With equal confidence can I aifirm, that had the 
Government to whom their management was intrusted 
performed the trust as it was in duty bound, the chiefs 
of Port Nicholson would by this time have been men 
of wealth and station in the community. Their cattle 
would have been lowing in the pastures, and their corn- 
fields waving in the breeze. Their sons would have 
been educated thoroughly, and their daughters perhaps 
married to settlers of property. Their followers would 
have been well clothed and fed, provided with good 
schools and hospitals, and profitably employed on their 
chieftains' estates. 

And I should consider it one of the duties of a right- 
minded Protector of the Aborigines to impeach the 
local Government of New Zealand for a gross and 
wilful breach of trust in this particular towards their 
helpless and ignorant wards. 

Mr. Halswell was allowed to remain as agent for 
the new Trustees ; but he had little to do after this. 

The value of land generally was beginning to decline 
considerably, in consequence of the long delay in ob- 
taining a good title. The dilatory proceedings of the 
Court of Claims and Mr. Clarke's letter had so encou- 


raged the natives to remain in disputed spots, and to 
dispute other spots which they would not occupy, that 
there was little to be done. In hiring a Native Reserve 
from the Trustees, you might now very probably be ex- 
pelled. Trustee and all, by one of the wards of the trust 
and his uplifted tomahawk. So this property, which 
had been put in Chancery while it might have been 
made useful, was rendered, when released, compara- 
tively valueless by the delay itself. 

Except at Nelson, and of this I shall speak presently, 
nothing more was effected by the new trust. 

And in due time, at the end of the year 1843, Mr. 
Clarke, the Chief Protector of the Aborigines, thus 
tolled the death-knell of the Reserves, in his Official 
Report to Mr. Shortland : — 

" The majority of the Native Reserves at Wellington 
** have been so partially selected as to render them unfit 
" for cultivation and ineligible for leasing, in order to 
** realize for their " (the natives') " subsistence, or for 
" the amelioration of their moral or physical condition, 
" as it must be remembered that the allotments having 
" water frontages, marked on the Company's plan of 
*' Wellington as reserves, are mostly native pus, or 
" spots at present inhabited by natives, and which, as 
" they were never alienated, are not in the power of 
•* the Trustees, although nominated and marked Native 
" Reserves on the chart ; in consequence, the Trustees 
" of the Native Reserve Fund have not yet been able to 
" raise sufficient means to procure medical comforts for 
*' the sick, the sum total of assets at Wellington being 
" 67/. 10*. Whether Mr. Halswell, the gentleman 
*' appointed by the Company to look after these Reserves 
" and apply the funds raised from them to their legiti- 
" mat« uses prior to Her Majesty's Government assum- 
** ing this tfusti met with better success, I cannot say. 


" nor have the present Trustees the means of furnishing 
" information on this subject, although application has 
" been made to Mr. Halswell for it." 

Mr. Clarke junior constantly tells the same story in his 
Reports ; and Mr. Campbell, the Surveyor of the Land 
Claims Commission, seems to have joined in the state- 
ment in order to obtain the appointment of Sub- 
Protector of the Aborigines at Taranaki ; vrhich was 
conferred upon him immediately after he had given the 
opinion which Mr. Spain thus embodied in his Official 
Report as Commissioner of Land Claims, at the end 
of 1843:— 

" Mr. Campbell, our Surveyor, informs me, and I 
" fully coincide in his opinion, that, with few excep- 
" tions, the Native Reserves have been selected in spots 
" so distant from the pas, and where the ground is 
" so hilly as to render them almost useless to the na- 
" tives for the purposes of cultivation ; and that little 
" regard has been paid to the interests of the natives in 
'* these choices " 

The coincidence of the Commissioner's opinion with 
that of his Surveyor is curious, as many of the Reserves 
were certainly never seen by the Commissioner, and 
probably not by the Surveyor, who was seldom known 
to go further than Kai TVara JVara, a mile Irom 
town on the Pitone road. 

There was never a more complete illustration of the 
proverb, " Give a dog a bad name and hang him," than 
the way in which the Government and its officers 
vilified and destroyed the system of Native Reserves. 

On the 13th of August, two settlers from New Ply- 
mouth arrived in Wellington by land, to make arrange- 
ments for buying and forwarding some cattle to Ta- 

The general progress of that settlement was de- 


scribed as most satisfactory. Everybody spoke in 
ecstasies of the country and climate. 

But the natives had given considerable trouble, and 
had only been checked by very decisive measures. 

A large number of natives who had been made 
slaves by the TVaikato conquerors of Taranaki, but 
manumitted since the conversion of their masters to 
Christianity, had returned to their ancient dwellings 
since the establishment of a White population on the 
nearly deserted site. They, of course, found them- 
selves without utu; not having been parties to the sale, 
and being disqualified, according to invariable native 
custom, by the very fact of their captivity from any 
claims to land or payment for it. Although the Native 
Reserves, whether as located by them or let to \A^hite 
people in order to produce a revenue for their support, 
were ample for a much larger population than had in- 
habited Tarayiaki even in its most populous days, yet 
as no officer of Government made any use whatever of 
the Reserves, and the Company had neither the right 
nor the inclination to meddle with them, the emanci- 
pists found themselves also without potato-grounds. 

Having applied to the Company's Agent, but in vain, 
for utn, some of them had recourse to violence. They 
entered a section belonging to a very peaceable settler 
named Pearce, burnt down his cottage, and destroyed 
some raupo for thatching. They then proceeded to 
the next section, where some brothers, named Bayly, 
had put up their tent, and were commencing their 
farming operations. They were very furious, bran- 
dishing tomahawks, &c., and attempted to tear down 
the tent; but the Baylys, very resolute and strong 
men, resisted, and a sort of scuffle or wrestling-match 
ensued between one of the brothers, who is a famous 
West-country wrestler, and a native, who acted as 


champion of the assailants. Twice Bayly threw the 
Maori, and was thrown himself the third time ; where- 
upon the natives crowded round him, and one appa- 
rently was going to cleave his skull with a tomahawk, 
when a bystander levelled his fowling-piece at the na- 
tive, who then gave way. There were about thirty na- 
tives and six white men. A parley ensued, and they 
agreed to refer the case to the Company's Agent, Mr. 

He told them he was determined to put the White 
settlers on the land, and that he would call on the 
Police Magistrate to send any native to prison who 
should break the peace. He assured them at the same 
time, that any chiefs among them having a rightful 
claim to the land should receive whatever compensa- 
tion Mr. Spain, on his arrival, might award. As they 
knew that there was no such chief among them, and 
they heard that protection would be given to the White 
people, they promised to give no further annoyance ; 
and became very good friends with the settlers, work- 
ing for them, and sleeping in the same tent ; satisfied 
also with the excellent Reserves made for them. 

Soon after, a similar affair took place on the banks 
of the TVaitera river, 12 miles north of New Ply- 
mouth. A body of armed natives drove Messrs. Good- 
all and Brown, agents of large absentee proprietors, 
off their section, lying on the north side of the river, 
cut down trees and brushwood, and declared their re- 
solution to keep the White settlers to the south of the 

The real chiefs assured the Company's Agent that the 
rioters had no claim whatever to the land, and only in- 
tended to terrify him into paying utu. The day after 
the riot, he called upon Mr. John George Cooke, a ma- 
gistrate, to swear in a body of special constables ; and 


that gentleman administered the oaths in the presence 
and with the sanction of Captain King, the Chief Police 
Magistrate. Twelve muskets and fifty ball-cartridges 
were put into the long-boat ; and Mr. Cooke nominally 
commanding the party, they proceeded to the M^aitera. 
There they swore in the surveying labourers, making 
their force 28 men. 

The mere demonstration had the desired effect. A 
long knrero with the natives ended in their promise to 
refrain from any further annoyance ; and the Agent 
took formal possession, firing a volley of musketry as 
a salute, and then distributed a few presents. Mr. 
Cooke, who was well known and much esteemed 
among the natives, warned the ringleaders, that on 
a future occasion of the sort he would in person seize 
the culprits with a file of men and lead them to be 
tried. Since this decisive j)reservation of the peace, 
everything had remained quiet. The Company's 
Agent reported the whole proceedings to Colonel 

Soon after receiving this intelligence, and in con- 
sequence, also, of the increasing progress of the invasion 
on the Hutt, Colonel Wakefield proposed to the 
Commissioner that the Government should agree to 
an arbitration for the amount of compensation to be 
awarded to the natives who had really not been paid 
for land to which they had a fair claim, and that the 
award of this arbitration should be arranged to co- 
incide with the progress of the investigations ; so that 
the necessary payment might be made at once, and 
affairs thus set at rest in a more speedy way than if 
the final report of the Commissioner on all the claims 
had to be made before any arrangement could l>e come 
to. The Commissioner was understood to approve of 
this proposal, but could only forward it to Auckland 


for the Governor s approval, when an opportunity for 
domg so should arrive. 

. A Harbour-master and two pilots were at length 
appointed in this month for Port Nicholson. But 
even in this trifling appointment, the Government had 
apparently taken pains to disregard the wishes of the 
principal part of the community. The Police Ma- 
gistrate had been instructed to find out two or three 
persons suited for this office and willing to accept it, 
in order that one might be selected. One of the 
candidates, Mr. Richard Houghton, had come out from 
England early in 1840. He had been commander of 
a steamer in England, and was a pilot for the English 
Channel. He and his large family had engaged in 
the trade of boatmen ; and he had two large boats 
constantly sailing about different parts of the harbour 
in the employ of the shipping. He was an exceedingly 
industrious, hard-working man, perfectly competent 
to handle a ship of any size, thoroughly acquainted 
with every sounding and flaw of wind in the harbour, 
and a regular hard-weather sailor. A memorial, 
requesting his appointment as Harbour-master, received 
the signature of nearly every settler of respectability 
and note from Colonel Wakefield downwards, and of 
every mercantile house of any influence and business. 
Another candidate was a ]Mr. Hay, who had com- 
manded small craft which formerly supplied the 
whaling-stations and traded on the coast from Sydney, 
and who had since settled in Wellington as a trader 
and shipping-agent in a small way. It was heard 
with great surprise that the Governor had decided in 
favour of Mr. Hay. It appeared that he grounded this 
decision on the fact that his memorial contained more 
signatures. Being acquainted with some of the people 
who had influence with the Scotch labourers at Kai 

VOL. II. s 


Wara TVara^ Mr. Hay had got a long list of Donald 
Macdonalds, and Angus Camerons, and Dugald 
Dugalds, and Archie Campbells, to set their crosses to 
a paper which very few of them could read. So 
Jesuitical a reason for annoying the settlers in a petty 
way was worthy of the Government officers. Captain 
Hobson and Lieutenant Shortland both knew per- 
fectly well who the leaders of the Wellington com- 
munity were. But the signers of Mr. Hay's address 
were the ragged mob who had assisted Mr. Davy and 
the drunken horse-breaker in welcoming the Go- 
vernor to Wellington ; and in Richard Houghton's 
memorial was a long array of names, which had 
not been in the list of those present at the Governor's 

The new Harbour-master at once took upon himself 
all the airs of a full-pay Government officer. He 
boards the ships, with white gloves on, when they are 
just going to anchor or have anchored ; has a happy 
knack of laying them athwart each other's hawse, as 
though by predilection ; and has been more than once 
known to ground a vessel in moving her out of the 
harbour, on occasions when the least skilful boat-sailer 
in the town could hardly have done it if he had tried. 
In most cases, the pilots do the whole of the Har- 
bour-master's duty. Mr. Hay seems perfectly satisfied 
with the pay, and the honour of being a Government 

During this and the last month, whales had been 
more than once seen inside the harbour. Inefficient 
crews, with incomplete apparatus, had sallied out in 
chase from the beach, but had proved unsuccessful. I 
remember one party of amateurs pulling out a long 
way, furnished with such a harpoon as small porpoises 
are speared with, and about 20 yards of line. It was 


probably fortunate for them that they did not get a 
chance of tickling the whale with their harmless 

A sperm whale was taken this season by one of the 
shore-parties in Hawke's Bay, and another by a party 
lately established at Kaikora (" The Lookers-on") south 
of Cape Campbell. It is very rare for the sperm whale 
to be met with so near the coast of New Zealand. 

The Bishop made but a short stay amongst us, sail- 
ing for Nelson six days after he had arrived. He had 
left with us, however, a clergyman ; of whose services 
we had long been in want. The Rev. Kbbert Cole 
has ever since amply deserved and obtained the respect 
and kindly feelings of all the settlers as well as of his 
more immediate congregation. Bishop Selwyn became 
deservedly popular at Nelson during his short stay 
there. He was enabled by the Company's Agent there, 
who made him an advance on the fund to be derived 
from the Native Reserves, to order the erection of some 
buildings for the reception of native visitors on one of 
the Reserves in the town, and proposed to add schools 
and hospitals for the natives at an early period. 
Colonel Wakefield had offered the Bishop the same 
facilities at Wellington, besides two of the emigration- 
houses as temporary places for a native infirmary and 
school ; but his Lordship had pleaded the precarious 
state of his health, and a pressure for time, as an 
apology for not arranging these things until he had 
visited Nelson and New Plymouth. But he promised 
to return soon to Wellington for this purpose, and to 
start the erection of a Church. 

Since the destruction of the barn-of-all-work, the 
Church of England congregation had met in a house 
occupied by the Mechanics' Institute, inside the Public 
Reserve on which Colonel Wakefield's house stood. A 



large subscription had been made towards the erection 
of an Episcopalian church at Wellington both in 
England and in the colony ; the Company had come 
forward with a sum of money for this specific object ; 
and all were waiting anxiously for the Bishop to fix 
on the site and to direct the commencement of the 
building. At this time, the Scotch Presbyterian con- 
gregation met in the Exchange, and the Wesleyan 
congregation in a large store closely adjoining. 

When I left Wellington in February 1844, the 
Scotch Presbyterians had enjoyed a neat, substantial, 
and roomy wooden chapel, on the Public Reserve as- 
signed to them, for some months ; the Wesleyans had 
possessed a small wooden building, also for some 
months, and had laid the foundations of a very large 
brick chapel. The Episcopalian church had not yet 
been begun ; nay, the site for its erection had not yet 
been finally decided upon. 

By the same ship that brought the news of Bishop 
Selwyn's active doings at Nelson, we received the 
melancholy intelligence of the death of Mr. Young. 
He had been accidentally drowned while fording a 
river in an exploring expedition with a friend, who 
was unable to save him. 

William Curling Young, the eldest son of one of 
the Directors of the Company, had been a leading man 
in that band of generous and self-denying spirits 
whose character I have on a former occasion attempted 
to depict. I may say boldly that the little society of 
Nelson had scarcely a better man to lose. The last 
public act of his life had been to refuse, with manly 
indignation, the offer of the Auckland Government to 
place him on the Commission of the Peace. His pub- 
lished letter rebuked the Governor most justly and 
severely for having asserted as a principle that a Jus- 


tice of the Peace must consider his political opinions 
shackled by that of the Government under whom he 
held the appointment. The sorrow of the Nelson 
men for the death of a loved fellow-colonist, full of 
promise and honourable feeling, was sincerely shared 
by his numerous friends at Wellington. 

Early in September, Mr. Deans, who had formed 
one of the exploring party which travelled by land 
from Wellington to Taranaki about two years before, 
returned from a trip to the east coast of the Middle 
Island. He was so pleased with the district near Port 
Cooper, which had been described by Messrs. Daniell 
and Duppa, that he began making preparations for 
squatting there with a herd of cattle. He had been 
cultivating, in the interval, a patch of some 10 acres 
at a place called Okiwi, nearly abreast of Ward Island 
on the east shore of the harbour, but wished for a 
more extended field of operations. In the course of 
the next two months he disposed of his lease and irn.- 
provements, and fulfilled his intentions. He visited 
Port Nicholson towards the end of the next year, 
and spoke in raptures of the country where he had 
been living. He was in quiet possession of a vast tract 
of rich pasture, where he could ride about and see his 
cattle increase and prosper rapidly ; and he soon re- 
turned to his chosen location, disgusted with the 
tangled web of difficulties in which he found his old 
fellow-settlers still involved. 

It was at this time that Colonel Wakefield, in a 
letter to the Gazette, took upon himself to answer the 
repeated string of most unfounded charges, constantly 
made against him in the * Colonist,' the Crown Pro- 
secutor's newspaper. 

Among other specific charges, he was accused of 
having " made no effort for the adjustment of na- 


" tive disputes ;" and it was averred that he had 
declared at a public meeting that he *' had not taken 
"any great trouble to urge upon Captain Hobson 
" the necessity of the settlement of the native claims, 
" because, in compliance with the instructions of the 
"Company, he was desirous of keeping the ques- 
" tion open, in order that it might be made an in- 
" strument in the hands of the Directors for attacking 
" the local Government." 

To a positive denial of ever having made such a 
stat-ement, either in letter or spirit. Colonel Wake- 
field added the publication of Mr. Clarke's letter to 
TVairarapa — which he had asked me to translate — 
together with a private one from the Governor to 
himself in September 1841, authorizing him to make 
any equitable arrangement with the natives to yield 
up possession of their habitations. 

The letter of the Governor to Colonel Wakefield 
concluded with these words : — 

" I have made this communication private, lest 
" profligate or disaffected persons, arriving at the 
" knowledge of such an arrangement, might prompt 
" the natives to make exorbitant demands." 

This paragraph of a letter dated September 6th 
1841, looked very extraordinary in juxtaposition with 
that of INIr. Clarke, dated four days later, which I 
have transcribed before. 

Many people understood for the first time why 
Colonel Wakefield had been so signally unsuccessful 
in his numerous and persevering efforts to adjust the 
dispute amicably. The additional odium engendered 
towards the local Government, and especially tovi^ards 
the misinterpreting Protector of Aborigines, maybe 
better imagined than described. 

The Bishop returned here from Nelson on the 10th 


of September, and remained for a month ; at the end 
of which time he proceeded by land towards Taranaki. 
Through Nelson, we gathered a sad account of the 
languishing state of Auckland. On the 5th of August, 
a public meeting had been held at that city for the 
purpose of devising, if possible, some means for better- 
ing the condition of the settlement. No one, however, 
had come prepared with a resolution ; but the meeting, 
after adjourning for a week, adopted a memorial to his 
Excellency, recommending, as the grand nostrums for 
sick Auckland, a speedy adjustment of the claims to 
land by old settlers, and the lowering of the upset 
price of crown lands to 5^. per acre. The poor unfor- 
tunates, like many a man dying of quack medicines, 
clove fast to the land which had ruined them. Some 
of them seemed to have a faint idea that population 
and capital would be desirable addenda ; for the Auck- 
land paper threw out the following despairing sugges- 
tion, like a drowning man catching at a straw: — 

" Something should also be done to appease the 
" Port Nicholson and Nelson settlers, whose unfor- 
" tunate quarrels with the local Government have 
" already done much harm to our settlement. Could 
" not his Excellency do something to enable them to 
" leave the mountains, marshes, and fens of Cook's 
*' Strait, for the settlements to the northward, in 
" each of which there is an abundance of rich and 
" fertile land, which would yield them a remunerating 
" profit for the capital and labour they are now so 
" unprofitably wasting on comparatively useless and 
" unproductive lands ?" 

The Port Nicholson and Nelson settlers would 
surely have been tempted by these kind offers of 
the old settlers to sell them their land ; but, 
unfortunately, the productiveness of the Auckland 


territory and of the county of Eden had not yet been 
tested by the plough ; and the second year's wheat 
crop of the " mountains, marshes, and fens of Cook's 
" Strait," was beginning to look very promising for 
the harvest. 

A deputation had waited on the Governor with the 
memorial ; but his Excellency was too ill to see any 
one, and even unable to affix his signature to a written 

This was indeed his death-illness ; for on the 28th 
of September, the Government brig, bringing the 
Chief Justice to hold a sitting of the Supreme Court 
at Wellington, bore the news of the Governor's death 
on the 10th of that month, at Auckland. 

Any recapitulation of the manner in which he had 
discharged his public duties would be here misplaced. 
Fulsome and unmerited praise is no graceful oflfering 
even to the memory of the dead ; and censure, how- 
ever just, must refrain from opening its stern lips 
when passing over the grave. 

In the virtues of private life, the first Governor of 
New Zealand was allowed by all to have been exem- 
plary. He was carried off by the same harassing and 
enfeebling disease, of which the first symptoms had 
appeared on his earliest arrival to assume his office. 
Let the blame of the evils which were gathered for 
the country during his reign fall on the worthless 
advisers who did not scruple to presume on the weak 
state of his bodily and mental faculties. 

No unseemly exultation was manifested at Wel- 
lington. This was prevented by the same self-respect 
which had induced the inhabitants to express, in so 
firm and yet decent a manner, their disapprobation 
of the Governor's acts when he was present among 


The public press, the officers of the Company and 
of the Government, and some few of those settlers 
who had attended the levee, put on mourning on the 

And the colonists listened anxiously for the first 
words of their new ruler. 



Lieutenant Shortland assumes the Government — His friendly pro- 
mises — State of Auckland — First Corporation election in the 
borough of Wellington — List of Aldermen — " Old Jenkins" — 
First sitting of Supreme Court — Case of Rangihaeata — Judge 
Martin's decision — Horticultural Shows — Weather — Pitone 
races — Enlivening scene — First emigration from Great Britain 
to Auckland — A newspaper printed by a mangle — Picturesque 
mill — Captain Daniell's farm and road — Beauty of the scenery 
about Wellington. 

Lieutenant Shortland's first words consisted in 
a proclamation, pompous and intricate in its formali- 
ties. After recapitulating the provision in the Charter 
for the assumption of the office of Governor, in case of 
his decease or absence, by the Colonial Secretary, and 
therefore so assuming it to himself, and calling on all 
persons to aid and assist, &c., the proclamation thus 
concluded : — 

" Given under my hand and seal, at Auckland, this 
'* tenth day of September, in the year of our Lord 
" One thousand eight hundred and forty-two, 


" Colonial Secretary, 

( ) 

" The Officer administering the Government. 
" By his Excellency's command, 

" For the Colonial Secretary, 

" James Stuart Freeman. 
" God save the Queen !" 

This is very like the awkward mistake of an une- 
ducated man, who puzzles for a long while over the 
suitable termination to some important letter. After 


vainly seeking to decide between " yours very truly," 
" your obedient humble servant," and " sincerely 
" yours," he generally stumbles into the most unappro- 
priate formula which he could select. Willoughby 
Shortland could not appreciate the dignity of simply 
signing his assumption of the office. 

But, apart from the absurdity of the confused 
wording at the end, there was a serious objection to 
the continuance of the Acting Governor as Colonial 
Secretary; for, if he should die, no one would be 
authorized to take the reins of Government. 

His Excellency, however, wrote to Colonel Wake- 
field the expression of his eager desire to be friendly 
towards the settlers, and approved, in general terms, 
of his proposal for an arbitration. He professed the 
utmost anxiety to promote the speedy adjustment of 
the land-claims ; and promised that when these had 
been once arranged, no interference on the part of the 
natives should be allowed. 

Colonel Wakefield therefore determiijed to go to 
Auckland in order to confer with his Excellency on 
the nature of the arrangements proposed. Mr. Spain, 
who had not yet concluded a single case, agreed to 
accompany him. They went in a schooner of 50 tons 
on the 12th of October. 

Sanguine hopes, so long smothered, again prevailed 
among the settlers. The Acting Governor had begun 
well. He had given Nelson a County Court ; and 
promised to make the colonial brig at least of use by 
keeping up a more constant communication between the 
different settlements. 

The Auckland press might certainly be termed a 
phoenix of its kind. The fourth newspaper within 
twelve months had now risen from the ashes of its pre- 
decessor, under the name of the ' Times,' and began 


by promising to " hold out the hand of friendship to 
" Port Nicholson." It was not, however, free from 
the spirit of jealousy which had ever distinguished the 
metropolitan public, though it professed only to " feel 
" compassion for the miserably-chosen settlement at 
" which the hopes and prospects of the Port Nicholson 
•* settlers were perhaps doomed to disappointment." 
f) Retrenchment and economy were beginning to be 
felt at Auckland. Clerks and mechanics were dis- 
charged in numbers from the Government service ; and 
the latter, only able to get work on the roads at 2s. 6d. 
a-day if they had interest with the Superintendent of 
Works, were claiming loudly to be sent back at the 
expense of the Government to the settlement from which 
they had been lured by false promises. It was publicly 
known that Lord Stanley had disallowed the job by 
which the officials had obtained choice town-lots at 
average prices and long credit ; and it was conjectured 
that instructions had also been sent to reduce the reck- 
less expenditure which had alone sustained the capital. 

This disallowance must have been exceedingly un- 
pleasant to the Acting Governor, as he had already sold 
his little lot to one of the independent Members of 
Council for 1200/. 

On the 3rd of October, the election took place for 
the Aldermen and Mayor of the borough of Welling- 

Ever since the proclamation of the borough in 
August, great excitement had prevailed on this subject. 

The Act provided that all male inhabifcmts should 
be entitled to register their votes with the Sub-Sheriff 
by paying one pound sterling each : 350 availed them- 
selves of this privilege. 

The usual competition took place between the Gentry 
and the working men. Each party formed a committee, 


which suggested a list of Aldermen for election, held 
meetings, and canvassed voters. The canvassing began 
even l^efore the registry of voters ; for the two parties 
paid the registry-fee for many of the electors. The 
meetings were most stormy ; and at one of them Dr. 
Evans was pulled off the table upon which he had 
climbed in order to address the populace, by a rough 
stock-keeper from South Australia who was on a visit 
to the settlement. 

Placards, advertisements, electioneering cards and 
squibs, were in as great profusion as on the occasion 
of a contested election for a borough in England. 

On the day of poll, flags and a band of music 
paraded the beach with some of the popular candidates ; 
distinctive cockades were worn ; and the straw hut 
inside the pa, generally used as a Police-office, but now 
as the booth of the returning officer, was surrounded by 
agents of both parties, eager to force cards with their 
own list into the hands of each voter as he arrived. 

All the usual tricks and intrigues were resorted to ; 
and bribery, in the shape of glasses of grog, was largely 
at work. Mr. Macdonnell, the laird of Kai JJ^ara 
Pf^ara, who had received 25/. wherewith to register 
the votes of some of his Highland following, from 
the Gentry's Committee, betrayed them at the last mo- 
ment. He was exceedingly fond of his glass ; and 
Johnny Wade, the " popular candidate," hob-and- 
nobbed with him after breakfast till he had won his 
heart, and then formed a procession with his clan 
to the poll in rather a discreditable state, with 
drums beating and colours flying. The Highlanders 
of course did whatever was done by the " laird." 

But notwithstanding many such tricks, the " Gentry " 
secured a very good Council, and the Aldermen might 
be held to represent the community very fairly. 


At the top of the poll, and therefore first Mayor of 
Wellington, was Mr. George Hunter, one of the early 
colonists from England. He was of advanced years, 
with a large family, and a merchant of the first stand- 
ing in the place. He was also a Justice of the 

The other eleven Aldermen were elected in the fol- 
lowing order : — Mr. William Lyon, the shopkeeper of 
whom I have spoken as having so extensive a trade 
with the natives ; Mr. Fitzherbert, a merchant and 
auctioneer from England, who had been some time in 
the colony ; Johnny Wade, the auctioneer and man of 
the people ; George Scott, a thriving, industrious, 
and well-educated carpenter ; Mr. Molesworth ; Dr. 
Dorset, who had been in our early expedition ; Robert 
Waitt, William Guyton, and Abraham Hort, the 
three principal merchants of the town; Edward 
Johnson, a wholesale and retail shopkeeper; and 
Robert Jenkins, a publican from New South Wales. 

The next six on the list formed a reserve list to 
supply vacancies. They consisted of the Crown Pro- 
secutor, Captain Edward Daniell, a carpenter, and 
three shopkeepers and shipping agents. 

The most extraordinary elevation was perhaps that 
of Robert Jenkins. He had come in one of the vessels 
from Sydney at the same time as the first colonists 
from England. Soon after the move to Thorndon, he 
bought a barrel of beer, and set it on tap in a miserable 
little hut on the beach. He had then crept on from 
one thing to the other, until he had a pretty neat grog- 
shop, with the sign of the " New Zealander." When 
the town sections were given out, he took a lease of 
part of one of the most valuable sections near Te Aro, 
and built on it a large brick house, which quite looked 
down upon the wooden cottage beside it in which the 

Chap. XI. " OLD JENKINS." 271 

Bank was situated. Here he did a thriving business ; 
having his bar full of boatmen and sailors, whalers, 
bullock-drivers, stockmen, and others of the thirsty- 
class, and a neat parlour in which commercial transac- 
tions and sales of cattle and horses were often con- 
cluded over a jug of beer. At length he built extensive 
stables, with four stalls and five loose boxes ; speculated 
a little in buying cattle and setting up a butcher next 
door to him ; took in horses to livery and to be broken 
in ; and became the owner of considerable property 
both in land and stock. When I left, he was paying 
a rent of 20/. a year for 100 acres of hill-pasture near 
the town ; had made an excellent road up the steepest 
hill in the neighbourhood to his section ; had fenced 
in half of it ; and had a fine troop of brood mares run- 
ning on the farm. 

" Old Jenkins," as he is generally called, is quite a 
character. He can suit his conversation and manners 
to any class of society, and there is not a gentleman in 
Wellington who will not willingly chat over the news 
of the day with him at the door of his tavern, and 
often be glad to profit by his experience and knowledge 
of the world. For, although of unknown origin, and 
ignorant even of writing, he has many sterling qualities. 
Though a public-house keeper, he is an absolute ob- 
server of temperance without having taken the pledge ; 
and he can boast an uncommon share of vigour, manly 
independence, and public spirit. He is one of those 
men who must be in a new community to obtain the 
estimation which they deserve. 

On the 4th, the first sitting of the Supreme Court 
at Wellington was held by Judge Martin. 

A case of some interest, and of great importance to 
the relations between the White people and the natives, 
was tried before his Honour. As I was not present. 


I extract from the rejiort of the law proceedings in the 
Wellington newspaper : — 

" Mr. Brewer, on its being understood that all the 
" causes standing on the roll had been disposed oft", 
" renewed his application (which had been adjourned) 
" for a bench warrant to arrest Rangihaeata, in order 
" that he might be brought before his Honour and 
" held to bail for the ensuing session. The offence of 
" which the chief had been guilty was that of violently 
" and illegally taking possession of and demolishing 
" certain buildings in the Porirua district, and it was 
" known that proceedings had been previously instituted 
" against him, and an indictment drawn up by the 
" Crown Prosecutor and served upon the refractory 
" chief. His Honour the Judge considered the whole 
" subject of a very grave and difficult nature, and he 
" requested that some of the Counsel at the Bar would 
" take up the case for the native. Most of the Counsel 
" present stated objections to their pleading the case 
" for the native ; but Dr. Evans kindly proffered his aid 
" in so far as his legal knowledge might enable him to 
" assist his Honour as to the proper steps to pursue. 
"A lengthened discussion followed, during which the 
'* blue book was more than once referred to. It ap- 
" peared that Rangihaeata had not signed the agree- 
" ment made with the confederate chiefs ; but it was 
" argued by Mr. Brewer, that the proclamation of the 
** 21st of May 1840 clearly made Rangihaeata a 
" British subject, and amenable as such to British 
" laws. Dr. Evans was of opinion that the onus lay 
" upon the party applying for a bench warrant to 
" shew that Rangihaeata had ceded possession, by 
" signing the treaty entered into by the confederate 
" chiefs. He also suggested that Rangihaeata was 
" now in the hands of Lands Claims Commissioners, 


" and in fact he had never ceded the land to any 
" one, or parted with the rightful possession thereof, 
" as a free and independent native chief. The pro- 
" ceedings of the Court closed rather abruptly, and 
" it vras understood that his Honour the Judge would, 
" if his time permitted, give the case all the considera- 
" tion in his power before leaving the harbour." 

Some carelessness was displayed in stating that Run- 
gihaeata had not signed the agreement with the confede- 
rate chiefs, commonly called the Treaty of TVaitangi ; 
for Major Bunbury distinctly states, in the report of his 
mission made to Governor Hobson, that both Rangi- 
haeata and Rauperaha signed the document in question, 
on the 19th of June 1840, at Mana, on board H.M.S. 
Herald. It seemed odd that neither the Judge nor 
any of the Counsel should have been in possession of 
an authentic copy of so important a paper, with all the 
signatures attached. But even in the Blue Book, 
which was referred to by them, the brief words "512 
"signatures," are considered sufficient record of a 
document on which the sovereignty of Great Britain 
over New Zealand and certain rights of the natives to 
land are founded ; and scarcely any one knows to this 
day, except by rumour and incidental evidence, who 
were the 512 natives that did sign the Treaty of 
Wmtungi. It would at least be interesting to know 
how many out of the number now acknowledge the 
sovereignty of Queen Victoria and hold themselves 
amenable to her laws. 

I believe the statement was also unfounded that the 
indictment had been served upon Rangihaeata. It is 
true that an indictment was preferred against Rangi- 
haeata, and a true bill foimd against him by the Crown 
Prosecutor. The attorney for the prosecution then ap- 
})lied to the Magistrates for a warrant to hold Rangi- 



haeata to bail at the next court. Upon that occasion 
there was a full bench of Magistrates ; and the grounds 
taken by Mr. Murphy and Mr. White, and ac- 
quiesced in by the Bench, for declining to issue their 
warrant, were, that as the party prosecuting had ap- 
plied in the first instance to the Crown Prosecutor for 
a bill of indictment, and he upon hearing the evidence 
had found a true bill, the Judge of the Court before 
whom the case would ultimately be tried was the 
proper authority to apply to for a bench warrant. The 
next step was the application made by Mr. Brewer to 
the Judge of the Supreme Court. 

Judge Martin reserved this as well as several of the 
civil cases for further consideration ; pursued his 
circuit to Nelson and New Plymouth, which was con- 
cluded by the end of November ; and then met the 
Bishop at Waikanae, and set oflF overland, with the 
cases in his pocket or sent round by sea, to Auckland. 
The party ascended the ManawatUy crossed the plain 
of the three rivers seen by Mr. Kettle, descended the 
Hauriri to Hawke's Bay, and then proceeded all round 
the coast to the capital. When his Honour got to 
Auckland is not accurately known ; but, to the great 
inconvenience of the parties concerned in the civil 
actions, the decisions on the reserved cases did not reach 
Wellington until March 1843, five months after their 
being pleaded in the Court at Wellington. Governor, 
Commissioner of Land Claims, and Judge, all seemed 
equally bent on causing the Cook's Strait settlements 
to wither from neglect and delay. 

In the following words did Judge Martin, after such 
ample consideration, at length shrink from hazarding 
an opinion on the most important case that had been 
brought under his notice : — 

"The Queen v. RangihaecUa. — This is a motion for 


" a bench warrant against one of the aboriginal 
*' natives, for the purpose of holding him to bail on a 
" charge of felony. 

" The issuing of this warrant would be equivalent 
" to decision of several important points. The two 
" main questions involved are : — 

" First, — That of the status, or legal position and 
" liabilities of a certain portion, and that a large portion, 
" of native population. 

" Secondly, — That of the true construction of the 
" 4th section of the Police Magistrate's Ordinance, 
" Session 2, No. 4. 

" The former of these points was touched upon by 
" the Council ; but the discussion was, from the nature 
" of an ejc farte application, less complete than was de- 
" sirable. The latter was not adverted to ; although, if 
" ever the point shall come to be fully argued, the 
" clause referred to may possibly be found to preclude 
" all applications like the present.* 

" Under these circumstances, seeing that the matter 
" sought by this application is not one of right but 
" within the discretion of the Judge, and seeing also 
" that the granting thereof would be a virtual decision 
" of the points referred to, and that too upon a mere eoo 
" parte motion, without any full argument or even 

* The following is the section of the Police Magistrate's Ordi- 
nance referred to : — 

" 4. Offenders to be committed or held to bail only by Police 
" Magistrate. 

" Before any person shall be committed for trial, or held to bail 
" to take his trial on any charge of felony or misdemeanour, he 
" shall be brought before the Police Magistrate of the district within 
" which the offence shall be alleged to have been committed, who 
" shall inquire into the case, and commit the party so charged, or 
" hold him to bail, or suffer him to go at large on his own recog- 
" nizance, or dismiss the case, as circumstances may require. " 

T 2 


" without any argument at all, I do not think I should 
" be exercising a sound discretion if I were to issue 
" this warrant.* 

(Signed) " William Martin, C.J., 

" January 28, 1843." 

We heard that a Horticultural Society was in pro- 
gress of formation at New Plymouth. That at Wel- 
lington had continued to have quarterly exhibitions 
since the opening one which I before recorded ; and 
they were always well worth seeing. Such good 
shows throughout the year could take place in few 
countries. Our coldest month, September (answering 
to March in the northern hemisphere), was just over. 
On the 2nd, the thermometer had been as low as 31° 
Fahrenheit, in the night and at day-break ; but the 
thin ice, which had formed on puddles where water 
had collected in small quantities, melted as soon as 
the sun rose ; and in the afternoon the temperature 
was 60 ^ in the shade. Towards the end of the month, 
there had been genial warm weather, with bats flicker- 
ing about at twilight ; and cauliflowers and other 
summer vegetables had never ceased to appear on the 

A grand race had been appointed to come off on 
the 20th of October on the beach at Pitone. Nine of 
the best horses had been entered some months before 
at 10 guineas each; and now all was the bustle of 
preparation. The horses were in regular training ; 
jockey jackets and caps were in process of manufacture ; 
top-boots and whips were actively sought after; and 

* The practice in issuing the bench warrants is, that where the 
parties are not under recognizance, the prosecutor Jias a right, dur- 
ing the assizes or sessions, to this process against them, to bring 
them immediately into court to answer. — 1 Chilly's Criminal Law, 

Chap. XI. PITONE RACES. 277 

betting-books were pulled out at the hotels, at the 
club, and at other lounges, 

I had been appointed Clerk of the Course ; and 
rode over the day before with " Old Jenkins," the 
most active Steward, to superintend the putting uj) of 
the necessary posts on the course. A day had been 
selected on which a very low spring-tide would leave 
a hard sandy beach uncovered ; and the distance was 
about a mile and three-quarters, from the mouth of 
the Hutt to Pitone pa. It poured with rain on the 
19th, and we augured badly for the weather on the 
next day. Mr. Molesworth's house, where I spent the 
night, was full of sporting characters, including two 
or three of the gentlemen riders for the next day, 
very busy drying themselves after the soaking they 
had got in coming from town. 

In the morning, the village of Aglionby, on the 
opposite side of the river, was in an uncommon state of 
agitation ; the stable-yard of the neat little inn was 
full of grooms and horses ; and clodhoppers, dressed in 
their best, were coming down the path along the river- 
bank, with their wives and children ; for a general 
holiday had been agreed upon. 

By dint of begging and borrowing, I had managed 
to dress myself out in very great style for the jier- 
formance of my duties ; and when I rode out of the 
inn -yard in full Clerk-of-the-Course's uniform, the 
pink coat — the only one in the colony, and an old 
traveller in the East Indies and New South Wales, 
belonging to Mr. Watt — excited universal admiration. 
I was thinking to myself at the time, how awkwardly 
I should be situated if every one were to claim his 
own on the course. 

Soon after I had seen that the course was in due 
order — here and there getting a large pebble or a 


glass bottle picked out of the sand, and begging E Puni 
to have the natives' dogs carefully tied up and to keep 
the pigs at home — the company began to arrive from 
Wellington. Carts, waggons, bullock-drays, were all 
pressed into the service to-day, and the line of road 
was a miniature representation of that to Epsom. Six 
or eight of the ladies came over in a spring-cart con- 
taining chairs covered with flags ; and the only gig in 
Wellington, an importation from New South Wales, 
brought over the chemist of Medical Hall and two 
other shopkeepers. One waggon contained the band 
of music ; and a large flotilla of boats, of all shapes and 
sizes, brought over those who had no carts or horses 
or were too lazy to walk. Booths, tents, and stalls 
were rapidly put up ; and one man wheeled a barrow 
about selling " ginger-pop." 

The " coming in" was close to Colonel Wakefield's 
old house ; and there a cold collation had been provided 
for the ladies. The grand stand consisted of a few 
planks on the top of eight or ten water-butts outside 
the fence, supporting the chairs out of the carts. 

And now my duties began to multiply. Here I had 
to explain to a party of natives why they could not lie 
basking on the middle of the beach ; there to beg a 
party of whalers to haul their boat right up or push 
her nose off the beach ; to get the sails of another boat, 
moored close off, furled so as not to flap about in the 
horses' eyes ; and finally to stop the persevering band 
as the horses were " coming." 

It was one of our brilliant cloudless days, with the 
heat of the sun just tempered by a light air from the 
southward as the tide made. Five or six hundred 
people were assembled by eleven o'clock when the 
horses started ; and it was truly exhilarating to see so 
English a sport well supported, under the more genial 


climate and amidst the beautiful scenery of New Zea- 

Seven horses started; as one had paid forfeit, and 
another had been unfortunately killed some weeks be- 
fore by a bullock, which scoured the beach of the town 
in the paroxysm of fury which the cattle often display 
upon being landed after a long voyage. 

I cannot do better than copy the report of the sport 
from the newspaper of two days afterwards ; premising 
that the favourite among the natives was Mr. Moles- 
worth's Calmuc Tartar, because he resided near them 
on the Hutt ; and that among the White people was 
Figaro, the thorough-bred horse which Mr. Watt had 
brought from Sydney as a yearling early in 1840. 

"Thijksday, Octobek 20, 1842. 

" Sweepstakes for ten guineas each. Gentlemen riders. Heats of 
one mile and three-quarters. 

" The following horses started : — 
Mr. Watt's oh. h. Figaro^ ridden by Owner . 

Mr. Molesworth's bk. h. Calmuc Tartar, ditto 
Mr. Virtue's gr. g. Marksman, ditto . 

Mr. G. Hunter's b. m. Temperance, ditto Dorset 
Mr. Bannister's eh. g. Sulky, ditto Wade 

Capt. Buckley's br. g. Daylight, ditto Owner 
Mr. Revans's gr. h. Mazeppa, ditto Tyser 

^^ Figaro's superior blood enabled him to win both heats with the 
greatest ease. He was the favourite throughout, and freely backed 
at 5 to 1 after the first heat. 

" Several other matches were afterwards made up on the spot, of 
which we believe the following to be a correct account. 

" Sweepstakes for one pound each. One mile — 
Mr. Revans's bk g. Dandy, ridden by Dr. Dorset . . 1 










6 dr. 



Col. Wakefield's ch. g. 

Beau, ditto 

Mr. Watt . 

. 2 

Mr. G. Hunter's br. g. 



. 3 

Mr. Allen's gr. g. 


ditto . 

. 4 

Mr. Virtue's b. m. . 

, , . 


. 5 


" Matches for one pound a side, distance one mile — v^ ^, 

♦' Mr. C. Von Alzdorf 's bk. g. Black Billy beat Mr, Machattie's 
bay pony. 

" Mr. Lyon's cart-horse beat Mr. Virtue's cart-horse. 

" Match for five pounds a side. One mile. 

" Colonel Wakefield's eh. g. Beau beat Mr. Virtue's bay mare.** 

About thirty gentlemen on horseback followed in 
procession behind the ladies' cart on the road to town 
in the afternoon; and we closed the day with a race- 
dinner at Barrett's hotel. 

Early in November, news was brought of the arrival 
of two ships, containing 561 emigrants from England, 
at Auckland. These were the first vessels that had 
come from England direct to the north, except one 
which brought about thirty immigrants to Manukau 
for the Scotch Company just before Captain Symonds's 
death. As no farming was going on, and there were 
therefore no employers among the settlers, the Govern- 
ment had to engage them temporarily, at very low wages. 

The Auckland ' Times' now appeared, printed by 
a mangle, and with capital K's instead of C's. The 
Acting Governor had quarrelled with the editor, and 
forbidden the use of the Government printing-press, 
which was the only one there, and some of the type. 
It was also said that he had despatched the Government 
printer to buy up the apparatus of the Bay of Islands 
newspaper, in order to complete the smothering of the 
press in his own district. The mangled paper still 
scolded these settlements violently ; but this was not 
surprising, as the editor was the brother-in-law of the 
Rev. J. F. Churton, who had deserted his flock in their 
early struggles. 

The only other intelligence was, that 100 land- 
claims had been settled in the north, up to the 24th 
of August. 

The industrious mechanics who had been outraged 


by Rangihaeata had not been daunted by their first 
faihire. They had at length found a spot, on a large 
tributary of the Km Wat'a fWara, fit for the erection 
of a mill ; and it was now at work. 

In the bottom of a thickly wooded valley, only ac- 
cessible over a steep ridge, a natural fall in the nar- 
row rocky gully of the stream afforded great facilities 
for erecting a dam. A platform and rough shed 
extended from side to side of the gully over the dam- 
head ; the wheel and machinery were working under- 
neath ; and two or three circular saws were kept in 
constant employment. The open sides of the work- 
shop displayed this curious work of art in the midst 
of nature's wildest scenery. Two trees mingled their 
branches overhead above the rough mill, and several 
others seemed to grow out of the pool formed by the 
dam underneath their arching boughs. The stern 
craggy sides of the gully might be imagined to frown 
upon so strange a neighbour as the fretting wheel. 
Two or three log-huts under the forest sent up their 
curl of smoke ; while the neat housewives, with their 
flaxen-haired children, stood at the doors to receive 
with joyful pride the praises bestowed by visitors on 
the untiring industry of their husbands. 

Captain Daniell had found a spot in this valley 
suitable for a farm ; and while others were agitating 
and calling upon the Company to make more roads, 
each to his own section, he had himself engaged 
some labourers to make a bridle-road from Kai TVara 
Wara up to his discovery, which cost him about 
30/. The millers, who became tenants of his with 
certain rights as to cutting timber, continued the 
road to the mill. It was afterwards found that Cap- 
tain Daniell's bridle-road might be continued into 
that leading to Porirua, so as to avoid some hundred 


feet of ascent over the first hill out of Port Nicholson 
by about a mile of circuit; and the Company com- 
pleted this line so as to admit the passage of a dray. 
The entrance into Wellington by this road is singu- 
larly beautiful. As you wind round the sides of the 
rocky spurs, beneath gigantic boughs and luxuriant 
foliage, you obtain peeps of the velvet woods of 
the valley of Kai TVara TVara and its tributaries; 
then a view of the western face of Wade's Town, with 
its cottages and bright green gardens ; and, lastly, the 
wide expanse of Port Nicholson, with its ships, its 
peaked mountains, and its glistening town. 



Phormium letiax, or flax — Details of its manufacture — Flax-trade 
hitherto unsuccessful — The reasons — Flax agitation — Otaki — 
The Rev. Octavius Hadfield — His energy and disinterestedness — 
His wise benevolence — Results of commerce on the natives — In- 
ducements to engage in trade with them — Opposition of Raupe- 
raha and Rangihaeata — Good class of emigration — " Puffers," 
" grumblers," and " good colonists" — Advantages of an exclu- 
sive club — Mr. Charles BuUer's description of " the gentlemen" 
colonists — Disgrace of Mr. Murphy — The Police Magistrates 
governing Cook's Strait — Fire of Wellington — Good results — 
Shipping — Death of Warepori — Sketch of the causes of his illness 
and death — Captain Smith's expedition to the South — Colonel 
Wakefield's visit to Auckland — Its harbour and the neighbouring 
country — Its society — Parkhurst boys — Picnics and balls at 
Wellington — Exports — Dye-bark — Titoki oil — Mr. Swainson's 
troubles with Rauperaha^s annoying emissaries — His vain appeal 
to the authorities — RauperahoHs, slaves continue to encroach — 
Christmas sports at Wellington — Horticultural productions. 

At this period I began to pay some attention to the 
preparation of the phormium tenaoc by the natives ; and 
determined to endeavour to resuscitate the trade which 
had once been carried on in that article, as prepared 
by them, from Sydney. Numerous experiments by 
White people for separating the fibre from the pulpy 
portion of the leaf had failed. Whether by boiling 
with soap, retting and beating like the European flax, 
passing between fluted rollers, or other processes which 
the foolish inventors made it a point to keep secret, the 
expense of producing was too great, and the material 
produced was generally harsh and inferior in quality 
to the produce of the native manufacture. It struck 
me that this arose from the starting on a wrong prin- 
ciple. I have already described, in the account of my 


visit to the Pelorus river, the process pursued by the 
natives. They only use a very thin layer of fibres on 
the inner or glazed side of the leaf, and reject the rest 
as refuse, or use it without further preparation for the 
roughest thatch-mats. And all the inventors, on the 
contrary, aim at separating the pulp from the fibre of 
the whole leaf, and thus produce the fibre cleaned, 
but of mixed quality — that refused together with that 
selected by the natives. 

The attention of most people was now turned to 
the subject of making some use of this plan, evidently 
intended to become a main export of the country. It 
became the fashion to have an " idea " about flax ; and 
I, like the rest, formed one of a party who had theirs. 
This was to proceed on the same general principle as 
the natives ; and, if possible, to discover some more ex- 
peditious way of separating, like them, the best from 
the ordinary part of the leaf. In the meanwhile, it 
seemed feasible to start their manufacture again on a 
large scale, and to send experimental cargoes of the 
raw material, thus roughly prepared, to England, for 
examination and report. 

In order to get the fibre which has undergone the 
first scrape into that clean and silky condition in 
which the natives work it up into mats, they pass it 
through many long and laborious processes. It is soaked 
in water, beaten, and twisted ; and then soaked, and 
beaten, and twisted, and dried, over and over again. 
When only scraped, there still hangs to it a brittle and 
glossy chaff, formed by the drying in the sun of the 
glazed surface of the leaf ; but, by mere hackling, this 
is entirely removed. The scraped fibre loses 12 per 
cent, of its weight in hackling ; and the remaining 88 
per cent, is divided between straight clean fibre and 
tangled tow. As labour is of course much dearer in a 


colony than in England, we calculated that the hack- 
ling, or other purifying process, would be most advan- 
tageously performed in England ; and resolved to pack 
the rough-scraped fibre for exportation, as the 12 per 
cent, of chaff could not create an unnecessary surplus of 
freight equal to the difference between the cost of labour 
in hackling in the two countries. 

The event has as yet proved unsuccessful ; and those 
who engaged in the speculation know to their cost 
that it has not been profitable. We had to pay the 
natives at the rate of 9/. per ton at their own resi- 
dences. The goods which we paid them were furnished 
by merchants in Wellington at a very high rate of 
profit; the difficulties of carrying the goods and the 
bales of fibre in small craft and boats to and fro 
between the scattered stations and Wellington, and the 
wages of agents at each station, increased the cost to 
1 5/. per ton delivered in the port : and the incomplete 
apparatus existing for pressing and packing the fibre 
into bales was both costly and inefficient ; for it cost Si. 
more per ton to pack and put on board ship, while a 
ton weight was not compressed into less than nearly two 
tons' measurement. Moreover, the respective merits of 
the different kinds of the phormium tenax were not yet 
known, nor was the most suitable time for cutting the 
leaf ascertained ; and the natives, finding they could get 
the same utu for any kind, continued to cut all the year 
round, and were careless as to mixing what was made 
from three or four species of the plant, varying essen- 
tially in their qualities. They probably also neglected 
the proper time and manner of drying after the scrape. 
All these particulars could only be ascertained by some 
length of experience and observation. The bales, too, 
were often wetted in salt water, when taken through 
surf to a schooner or carried in a leaky craft ; and most 


of those as yet imported have reached England in so 
bad a state, that what cost 18/. to put on board shij), 
besides freight, insurance, and other expenses, has gene- 
rally been sold in London for 15/. per ton. 

But I still believe that this is the right principle 
upon which to proceed ; and that a person or conij)any 
who should import their own goods into the colony for 
trade, attend to the details which I have noted with 
regard to the time and manner of cutting and drying, 
and the various species, and estciblish the collecting and 
pressing on a good footing, would eventually succeed. 
The next step would be, to invent some process of 
machinery which might imitate the native process of 
separation and scraping, with a saving of time and 
manual labour. 

It will probably be found that even the best varieties 
of the plant will be improved by cultivation ; and this 
conjecture is supported by the knowledge that the 
natives themselves cultivate the kind which they use 
for their finest and most silky mats. I have described 
in a former chapter the appearance of the deserted culti- 
vations of this plant on the table-lands above Ihurangi 
on the Wanganui river. On the same character of land 
on the banks of the Patea, and at various settlements 
all along the fertile table-plain between TVanganui 
and Taranaki, I have observed the same custom. The 
species of phormium tenaoe thus cultivated is the t'lhore, 
literally the " skinning " flax. This name describes the 
ease with which it submits to the process of scraping. 
I have seen a native boy take a leaf of it to make a 
lash for his whip, cut it across, and then strip off" the 
inner fibre, perfectly clear of the pulp which dries into 
chaff", without a muscle-shell, and merely by pressing 
it all along with his thumb. The fibre thus produced 
was peculiarly white, soft, and silk-like. 


But, to return to my story : I now began to act as 
" Flax-agitator," using the influence which I had 
acquired among the natives to induce them to resume 
their scraping operations. I commenced at Otahi, 
where the grounds growing korari are very extensive, 
and where the large population promised a good supply 
of the article. In the course of my endeavours, I was 
constantly to and fro between Otaki and Wellington 
for some months, and soon learned to know, as they say, 
every inch of the road, and almost every inhabitant. 

These trips procured me the advantage of an intimate 
acquaintance with the Rev. Octavius Hadfield ; and I 
had the good fortune to add to this valued pleasure 
the satisfaction of securing his earnest co-operation in 
the introduction of the new trade. It was at this 
time that I learned more fully to appreciate the ex- 
cellent qualities of this genuine missionary of the 
Gospel. He was a perfect enthusiast in his vocation. 
A highly educated gentleman, gifted with an extra- 
ordinary share of talents, and the most delicate and 
honourable feelings ; mild and forbearing, persuasive 
and unassuming in his manners ; of distinguished 
address and personal appearance ; possessed of very 
extended information on most general subjects : en- 
dowed, in short, with all the necessary qualifications 
for being known and admired in the highest circles of 
the old world, or for enjoying the luxuries and comforts 
which attend upon the most self-denying pursuits in a 
highly civilized society, he had nevertheless devoted 
his every thought and energy to the reclamation and 
amelioration of savages, who were but little advanced 
from their most warlike and ignorant state when he 
arrived amongst them. 

No selfish views were seen to mingle with his 
duties. No one could say of hira, as of most mis- 


sionaries in New Zealand, that he had the best of 
everything in the place. He had not even so much as 
a garden at either of the two houses, one at TValkanae 
and the other at Otaki, between which he divided his 
time. That at TVaikanae was in the most crowded 
part of the ipa^ hemmed in by fences, and cook-houses, 
and noisy crowds of natives. That at Olaki was among 
the barren sand-hills close to the coast. At one, the 
outer fence of the territory which he occupied barely 
left. room for the stock-yard, in which the two horses, 
absolutely necessary for his constant journeys, were 
tied up ; and at the other, the fence pressed close upon 
the little kitchen and potato-store near the house. The 
furniture of both was such as was barely indispensable. 
Mr. Hadfield was most frugal in his diet, scarcely ever 
eating meat, but living principally on biscuit and an 
occasional fowl ; and would never allow even his de- 
licate state of health to interfere with his onerous 
duties. On one occasion, he very nearly killed himself 
by persevering for several days in contending against an 
adverse gale on board a schooner of ten tons, when 
bound on a mission to Otako in the Middle Island, 
although he was so severely affected as to spit blood 
the greater part of the time. 

I have already related how wisely Mr. Hadfield had 
availed himself of the influence of the chiefs to intro- 
duce the Christian faith with more permanance and 
authority, gently mingling the spiritual change with 
the preservation of the institutions to which the 
people whom he had to change were accustomed; 
and I have elsewhere dwelt on some remarkable in- 
stances of the effect of so merciful and well-devised a 
system. Nor need I repeat that his irreproachable 
character and winning demeanour had procured him 
the love and respect of all classes in both races ; of 


the heathen native and the brutal beach-comber, as 
well as of the grateful converts and the colonists of 

Mr. Hadfield thoroughly appreciated the advantage 
of introducing among the natives a more permanent 
and profitable employment than their rude cultivation 
of potatoes and the rearing of pigs, in both which pur- 
suits they would soon be outrun by the White settlers 
themselves, and both which tended to supply a market 
very fleeting and uncertain in its demand. He had early 
taught them how to cultivate wheat ; and he gladly 
used his best endeavours to support the establishment 
of the flax-trade. Such was the revolution produced by 
it in a few months, that the natives would no longer 
drive pigs to Wellington or sell them at a low price 
to traders who travelled the coast for them. They 
soon found how great a share of the luxuries of the 
Europeans they could receive at their own doors by a 
moderate but steady toil with the muscle-shell ; and 
I fre(|uently saw at OlaJd, what I had never seen be- 
fore except on occasions of especial festival, the natives 
killing pigs, cleanly as they had seen it done by the 
butchers at Wellington, for their own consumption. 
New and improved wants were also introduced : they 
talked of exchanging the produce of their now well- 
paid labour for horses, sheep, and cattle ; hand-mills 
for grinding their corn ; spades, carpenter's tools ; 
rice, sugar, flour, and European clothes. They found 
that they could not only arm and blanket themselves 
and smoke, but feed and dress better, and afford to 
learn many new tastes, while constantly emj)loyed in 
the production of an article for which the demand at 
a good price seemed inexhaustible. For I had care- 
fully explained to them, when they asked me what 
could be done with so much muka, that millions of 
VOL. n. u 


people in England required it for sails and rigging of 
ships, for shirts, trousers, sewing- thread, and other 
innumerable objects, while the potatoes and pigs were 
only tit to supply the mouths of a few thousand settlers 
until they could supply themselves. And as I per- 
severed in my old system of treating the natives whom 
I employed as friends, companions, and retainers, 
rather than as mere hired servants, and took pains to 
excite their emulation, watch and praise their efforts, 
and rather to lose money than to encourage the slight- 
est haggling or overreaching on either side, I was 
soon almost as great a favourite among the Ngat'trau- 
kawa of Otakit\Ohau, and Manawatu^ as among my 
older friends at J'f^anganiii. 

But I had printed several hundred circulars in the 
Maori language, signed with my Mauri name, which 
were despatched by various opportunities to all parts of 
the coast where I had been seen or heard of. In these 
I recommended earnestly the general adoption of the 
manufacture ; and I proposed to myself, in the course 
of time, to superintend the renovation of it all along 
the north coast of Cook's Strait. 

I engaged in this pursuit in the same way as I had 
engaged in pig-trading and shopkeeping at JVanganui, 
not for the sake of profit, but in order to benefit the 
natives. I had become by this time nmch attached to the 
Maori ; I was well acquainted with their language, their 
customs, and their predilections ; and I was delighted 
to see, in a trade which would realize such immediate 
profits to large numbers of natives, an easy means of 
facilitating the civilization of the weaker race, and 
their adaptation for intercourse on equal terms with 
the White man. As the Reserves might have been 
applied to save the chiefs from degradation, so a well- 
regulated commerce of this kind would seem calculated 


to enable the great body of the natives to advance in 
habits, desires, and refinement of ideas. The intimate 
friendships which I formed vrith the various chiefs, 
and the kind of feudal attachment vrhich I have already 
described to be secured by their means from their fol- 
lowers, was especially pleasing to me. I hoped that I 
was serving both natives and colonists on a large scale ; 
and in this hope I was indifferent to the loss of a con- 
siderable sum of money consequent on the confined 
knowledge which I had of mercantile transactions. 

I had always availed myself of the friendship and 
persuasion of the chiefs to work my object ; and 
TVatanui, E Ahu, E Puki, and the other heads of 
the Ngatiraukawa, were my principal co-operators. 
I only met with serious opposition from Rauperaha 
and Rangihaeata ; who resolutely set their faces 
against a trade which seemed so well calculated to 
knit the Maori and the White people in a strong bond 
of mutual confidence and frequent intercourse. They 
refused to allow a store to be built on Kapiti for the 
deposit of the goods and flax, although they had very 
fairly sold the proposed site to the man from whom my 
partner wanted to rent it. They tried to prevent my 
sawyers from cutting plank for a barge to carry goods 
across, although they were authorized to do so by the 
chief to whom the wood belonged ; and they always 
sneered at the possibility of such a traffic being for the 
good of any but the White people. They feared, in 
fact, for the destruction of their own pernicious 
authority, only of great weight in warlike and quar- 
relsome circumstances, by the introduction of so 
peaceable and civilizing an occupation. They hated 
the very yearning for new wants ; as they could foresee 
that a population with civilized habits and desires must 
necessarily be linked in a friendly commerce with their 

u 2 


wealthy and civilized neighbours ; and that, as leaders 
possessed of no eminent qualities but those necessary 
for intrigue, menace, and war, they themselves would 
soon become ciphers in a peaceful tril^e of well-dressed 
and well-fed flax-scrapers and cattle-holders, 

On the 7th of November, the George Fyfe arrived 
from England with immigrants for Nelson, and a 
large batch of cabin-passengers, some for that place, 
some for Wellington. About this time a fresh impetus 
seemed to have been given to emigration in England. 
Several ships had lately arrived at Nelson and New 
Plymouth. They generally bore a very suj)erior class 
of settlers ; and it appeared to have become an 
increasing fashion for the cadets of some of the l^est 
families in the mother-country to swell the ranks of 
colonial society. The Fyfe brought JNlr. Charles 
Clifford and Mr. William Vavasour, among other 
colonists, to Wellington ; and Mr. Constantine Dillon 
to Nelson. One or two of the established settlers had 
alsD sent home for wives ; and these came with the 
families of the new settlers in this and one or two 
succeeding ships with the same class of colonists. 
We also heard with great pleasure that Mr. Henry 
Petre might be soon expected, having married a wife, 
and concluded his preparations for a final return to the 

Happening to be in Wellington at the time, I went 
on board to greet Mr. Dillon, whom I had known 
before I left England. I remember being impressed 
with the curious scene which took })lace on board. 

We had hardly shaken hands, when my friend 
burst out with a series of questions. " Have you 
" got 100,000 acres of the finest land in the world 
" up the Hutt ?" and " Is it true that you've had to 
" live upon rats for some time ?" were among them. 

Chap. XII. THE " PUFFERS." 293 

I looked round the cabin-table at those who had pre- 
ceded me on board, and at once answered, " I see you 
" have had the grumbler.s and puffers on board : listen 
** to but little of what you hear from the people who 
" are in the habit of rushing on board fresh emigrant 
" ships ; come on shore, and judge a good deal for 
" yourself until you have secured an impartial infor- 
" mant." 

The puffers are, perhaps, the most mischievous of 
these two classes, who both seem to delight in per- 
plexing and tormenting the new-comers almost before 
the anchor of the ship is down. They are people 
who seek to give themselves an air of consequence by 
dwelling on the length of time that they have been 
in the colony, on the important station which they 
individually hold among its founders, on their perfect 
and exclusive knowledge of the capabilities of the 
country and the politics of the place, and on the 
advantages to be derived from making their acquaint- 
ance, and thus gaining a share of their notability and 
experience. I remember once hearing one take extra- 
ordinary credit to himself, before a knot of gaping and 
bewildered passengers under the break of the poop, 
because " the ship was at that precise moment," as he 
declared, " passing over the identical spot where his 
" schooner, which he had ordered, and he had built, 
" and he had manned, and he intended to send round 
" to his whaling-station for his oil and his bone, and 
" which was the fastest schooner on the coast, had 
" turned over and sunk some months before !" They 
generally support their vulgar rhodomontade by the 
most exaggerated accounts of people and things ; and, 
of course, the man from England thinks that a person 
who knows such wonderful facts must be better in- 
formed than the newspaper, or the people who write 


home. Then perhaps a grumhler steps over the gang- 
way ; and the puzzled emigrant is met by totally dif- 
ferent accounts. The gnimbler shrugs his shoulders 
and sneers at almost every answer that he makes ; and 
looks at his querist as much as to say, " Well, you are 
** a fool." He dribbles out words of doubt and dis- 
couragement, looks forward to difficulties, and puts 
everything in the light of a deception. He says the 
land is all over 12 miles of hills like those ; that it 
blows and rains worse than any part of the world ; 
that the people are nearly starving ; that the farms on 
the Hutt, about which you have read so much, are only 
model-farms of the Company, managed under some 
good name so as to act as a trap for land-purchasers ; 
and ends by telling you that the Company are a set 
of swindlers, the Government no better, and both 
leagued together to take in every new-comer and do 
for him. And then, perhaps, a violent and ill-bred 
discussion ensues between the pifffer and the grumbler 
across the table, and the poor settler retires to his cabin 
half distracted between the two. 

Some few of the puffers have at least an apology for 
making great men of themselves. They are auctioneers, 
shipping-agents, or people with land to sell or houses 
to let ; and if you once show them the way to your 
breeches-pocket, they at once descend from their Pegasus 
and become your very obedient humble servants. But 
I have been ashamed to see one or two men of some 
station, who ought to have known better, puffing on 
board a ship out of mere wantonness and inordinate 

Some of the grumblers, too, have " reason in their 
" madness." They are often from among the little ped- 
ling class of shopkeepers who have been forced into the 
trade by the long delays about land-titles, and who 

Chap. XII. THE " GRUMBLERS." 295 

have got so habituated to the new pursuit that they do 
not leave it when they can. They come to depreciate 
articles of commerce which you may have to sell and 
they may buy cheap. They tell you things are so bad 
that nothing can be sold ; and you are glad to get your 
little venture off your hands at once. They tell you, 
too, that it is quite useless to set up yourself in trade, 
for there's nothing doing and ruin impends over the 
whole settlement. But I remember one, who after 
dwelling upon this for a long while, and then finding out 
that his victim was neither going to become a grocer 
nor had anything for sale, would point out his miscel- 
laneous shop on the beach, and say " That's my store 
" where you see the tri-coloured flag flying. If you 
" should want anything, you'll get it cheaper there than 
" anywhere else." In the early days, the crimps for 
Auckland and the Australian colonies were also among 
the most active grumblers. But there are plenty of 
them who seem to act from the mere spirit of mischief. 

The grumblers are, indeed, an extensive class, aiid 
do not all come on board ship. They are chiefly to be 
met with in the parlours of the hotels, smoking and 
drinking ; pitching stones into the sea off the jetty ; 
wandering lazily from one resort of idlers to the other ; 
in the billiard-rooms, and near the public-houses. But 
the stranger who frequents these places deserves his 
fate, and no pity is felt for him. He often becomes a 
grumbler himself, by constant association with his tor- 

The grumbler takes pride in sneering at every san- 
guine hope, in ridiculing every energetic effort to pro- 
gress ; and will hear of no attempt to examine into the 
discouraging circumstances which do really exist, or of 
any reason for their existence except the systematic 
deceit practised by the founders of the colony and by 


those whom the grumblers are pleased to look upon as 
first their victims and finally their accomplices. 

They are, of course, disappointed men ; many of 
whom have some cause for their disap[)ointment, but 
no courage to exert themselves or to seek for means of 
overcoming the difficulties in their way. 

A large portion of the class consists of the worth- 
less idlers, of whom their families have thought to rid 
themselves by sending them to the other side of the 
world with a few hundred pounds, a land-order, and 
no friend or adviser. No language can be too strong 
for reproving such parents or guardians. The exiled 
scamp (for he has generally deserved that name in 
England) arrives on the beach, expecting to find every- 
thing as complete and comfortable as at home, only a 
good deal more like an earthly Paradise or Eldorado. 
He has probably been told that in a few years he may 
come home with a fortune ; and he thinks that this 
is to be done by standing still with his hands in his 
pockets. He has had no education to fit him for a 
colonial life ; he has not the slightest knowledge of 
the value of money ; and is one of the unfortunate 
people who can do ** anything." 

He finds that his section is some miles off, and 
covered with timber ; that he will have to live for some 
time almost by himself, to have nothing done for him, 
and in short to work, without many of the comforts 
and luxuries of an old society. And he is shocked to 
find that the gentlemen of the place do not disdain to 
be busy and occasionally to handle an axe or a hammer 
themselves ; and that the really good and pleasant 
circle of society which does exist will not acknowledge 
him or receive him amongst them till he has proved 
his qualifications to join them by roughing it like a 
gentleman and a " good colonist." He is required to 

Chap. XII. THE " GRUMBLERS." 297 

assume the esprit de corps before he is allowed to put 
on the uniform. 

So he resolves to wait till a road is made to his 
section, and till there are some people living near it ; 
he dawdles about the beach ; sets down the gen- 
tlemen for a clique of proud, disagreeable people; 
gradually gets into the habit of frequenting the 
billiard-rooms and the hotels ; and thinks he has 
found out a particularly jolly set of fellows in their 
permanent inhabitants. He drinks, smokes, and sings ; 
perhaps sells his land-order, without having seen his 
section or even been outside the town ; and enjoys 
the thing vastly until his money is spent in doing 
nothing. He goes on for some time on credit. But 
the duns begin to gather round him ; he is perhaps 
deserted by the set at the hotel for some newer hand ; 
and he begins to think that, after all, this sort of life 
is managed better in London. Of course, there is a 
great dearth in Wellington of the amusements which 
would suit his taste : the industrious colonists only 
indulge now and then in recreation, and even at those 
times it is short and moderate, and they return to their 

He is now a confirmed grumbler, and applies the 
maxims and principles which he has picked up over 
the brandy-bottle at the hotel to everything which he 
sees or hears of. He finds excuses in everything for 
his own misconduct : the wind is too violent, the 
rain is too heavy, the sun too scorching, the timber 
too abundant, the land too barren, the houses too 
slight, the roads too bad, the food too nasty — he never 
could have got on ; in short, " it is a wretched hole :" 
and he starts off one morning for Sydney or India, 
having borrowed money or drawn a doubtful bill for 
his passage. He returns to England, generally a worse 


scamp than before, to explain why he could not possibly 
have succeeded by painting everything in the blackest 

What can be said of the bounden protector of such 
a youth, who has not only abandoned his charge to 
irretrievable ruin, but has inflicted a pest on the young 
colony for a greater or less space of time ? No educa- 
tion can be too good, no especial preparation too careful, 
no maxims of prudence and self-dependence too rigidly 
instilled, for a young man who is sent to take part in a 
new colony. There is, perhaps, more need to consider 
the peculiar fitness of the character of an individual to 
become a colonist than to join any other profession. 
He is thrown very much upon his own resources, and 
into a totally new state of society and circumstances ; 
so that a sound education and carefully cherished moral 
courage are the more necessary to supply his want of 
experience and his ignorance of any world but home. 
But it is probably rather through indifference than 
miscalculation that reckless parents send their young 
idle dogs to New Zealand. 

This class of grumbler is of course an extreme case ; 
but the causes of the discontent of many others may be 
soon understood by a careful observer. Some have 
even a very good right to grumble. Their land is, per- 
haps, among that disputed by the natives ; and they 
have made vigorous but unsuccessful efforts to get pos- 
session of it. They belong to the unfortunate throng 
who have fallen victims to the resentment of the Go- 
vernment at being forced to take possession of New 
Zealand and its determination to misprotect the na- 
tives. They are among those crushed by the long 
delay in the investigation of the Land Claims' Com- 
missioner. But even they might, long before, have 
hired land that could be occupied, or found some other 

Chap. XII. THE " GRUMBLERS." 299 

employment in the meanwhile. Their principal fault 
has been that of fraternising with the worthless set 
who have a less right to grumble than themselves. 
For my part, I would rather have hung my coat on a 
peg and worked at labourer's wages, keeping my 
capital safe in a box until a better day should come, 
than live the fretful and thin-skinned life they often 
sink into leading, in the company of men who have not 
half their worth, and who have no claims to be their 

Another class of grumblers are too ridiculous to 
require much notice. These are people who have been 
minor lions, scientific or otherwise, for a few months 
in London, and who hope to be still more so in a small 
colony. Through some inadvertence, the young society 
has not been taught, and fails to discover their peculiar 
vanity — they are talked to for a time more about the 
progress of the colony than about their own heroic 
achievements ; and they become neglected when the 
colonists discover that they can do nothing but talk. 
These are, perhaps, the most vicious grumblers ; but 
they are quite harmless, because easily discovered by 
the levelling of their growls principally at the really 
very good society of the higher class of settlers. 

The grumblers are a dangerous shoal, upon which 
the newly -arrived colonist is very apt to founder. But 
the danger requires no buoying off to the old colonist. 
He keeps in the straight channel of brave perseverance 
and endurance, beating steadily to windward between 
the sands to whose formation he has been a witness, 
and occasionally warning a stranger of their where- 

This leads me to speak of another class of people, 
sometimes met with in the colony, of whom the oldest 
colonists are not at first aware. They come from 


England as well as from the sister colonies ; and bring 
with them letters of introduction as well as personal 
recommendations which introduce them at an early 
period to the familiar friendship of the best society in 
the colony. And it is not, perhaps, till long after- 
wards that some disreputable history or disgraceful 
circumstance of their former life is discovered, which 
explains their exile from the old world. They have 
come with all the outward appearance of gentlemen ; 
they are backed by education, talents, capacity, vigour, 
knowledge of the world, amiable manners, and the 
true spirit of a good colonizer. And when the startled 
society learns the blemish which must dismiss their 
new friend from its ranks, its indignation is often 
mingled with regret that so valuable a colonist in 
other respects should be inevitably unfitted for their 
companionship. He is a man who has betrayed the 
society into a sincere admission of him as their equal, 
though he knows himself to have been irreparably de- 
graded from a similar station in the country from 
whence he came. He thus proves guilty at once of a 
breach of honour, and can be called by no milder term 
than a swindler of their friendship, even though he do 
not repeat the offence which should have been con- 
fessed in order to be forgiven, or, if too grave, hidden 
in conscious retirement. Those who give recommen- 
dations to this class of persons are as nmch to blame 
as the parent who sends his wild son to become a 
grumbler and a sot. The exposure of their protege is 
certainly greater and more vivid than it would be in a 
larger society ; and the injury inflicted on the young 
community is more serious than that arising from the 
presence of a known and unheeded idler. But when 
a colony is considered by the Imperial Government as a 
good place to send its least worthy dependants, it is not 


to be wondered at that society at large should conclude 
that they too can send the people who hang unpleasantly 
on their friendship to a place where their demerits will 
be connived at or unknown. 

Against this class we early made some provision by 
the institution of the Club, on which I dwelt shortly 
in my former pages. Any new-comer is admissible as 
an honorary member for three months, on being pre- 
sented and seconded by two members and approved of 
by the Committee. If he wish to become a member, 
his name has to be posted with that of his proposer 
and seconder for a month, and he is then balloted 

So near the penal colonies of Australia, where loose 
characters abound, this was a most necessary measure. 
Although very quiet and hidden in its operation, it 
has tended very much to preserve a high British tone 
in the society of Wellington, and even of the other 
settlements of Cook's Strait, whose best inhabitants 
become honorary members of the Club during their 
visits to Wellington. Although this club was at first 
assailed with much derision and loud abuse of its aris- 
tocratic character as unsuited to the tastes and feelings 
of the majority, it has steadily maintained its station ; 
and possesses by this time an undoubted power of de- 
termining the claim of a new man to the respect and 
confidence of society. It has, in fact, scarcely any 
other object ; for several married men belong to it, who 
hardly ever use it is a club except when some visitors 
of importance are invited guests, or when some business 
matter requires their attendance. Some idea may be 
formed of its very exclusive character, when it is known 
that there are to this day only 25 members, although 
the number is not limited. This club has probably 
contributed in great measure to preserve the tone of 


Wellington from becoming quarrelsome and ignoble 
like that of Auckland, or vulgar and bargain-driving 
like that of a young town in the west of the United 
States, because it has cherished the great safeguard of 
society, honour. 

It is difficult to describe a " gentleman and good 
colonist" of the Company's settlements; but as it has 
been my good fortune to live among this class for four 
years, and they have been my constant companions 
and intimate associates during that period, I may be 
allowed to quote the description of them which was 
given by Mr. Charles Buller to the House of Commons 
in his famous speech on Colonization : — 

" Within the last three or four years our colonization 
*' has entirely altered its character. The emigration 
" to Port Philip, South Australia, and New Zealand, 
*' has been an emigration of every class, with capital 
** in due proportion to labourers, with tradesmen and 
*' artisans of every kind, and with the framework of 
** such social institutions as the settlers have been used 
" to in their native land. Clergymen and school- 
" masters, and competent men of every liberal profes- 
** sion, are among the earliest emigrants ; artists and 
*' men of science resort to a new field for their labours ; 
*' in the foundation of the settlement you find funds 
" set apart for public works, for religious endow- 
" ments, and even for colleges. Associations of a reli- 
" gious, and charitable, and literary nature, are formed 
*' at the outset ; and these are intended to benefit not 
" only the poor emigrants, but the helpless native, 
" who is brought into contact with a superior race. 
" To such settlements, men of birth and refinem«nt 
" are tempted to emigrate : they do so in great num- 
" bers. I will be bound to say that more men of good 
" family have settled in New Zealand in the three 


' years since the beginning of 1840, than in British 

* North America in the first thirty years of the pre- 
' sent century. It is notorious that the greatest 
' change has taken place in the public feeling on this 
' point, and that a colonial career is now looked upon 
' as one of the careers open to a gentleman. This 

* change in the character of colonization — this great 

* change in the estimation in which it is held — is of 
' greater moment than the mere provision of means 
' for conducting emigration without cost to the pub- 
' lie. It makes colonization, indeed, an extension of 
' civilized society, instead of that mere emigration 
' which aimed at little more than shovelling out your 

* paupers to where they might die without shocking 

* their betters with the sight or sound of their last 

* agony." 

One of these " men of birth and refinement," the son 
of a wealthy English peer, who had worked as hard 
as any yeoman in the settlement, was pressed by some- 
body, M'^hen on a visit to England, to give information 
about the mode of life of the " gentlemen " colonists. 
Being of a taciturn disposition, he answered, " Oh, I 
" don't know : why, we dress for dinner, and don't 
" drink." 

Only one of our " gentlemen " had been led by the 
Government puffing and auction-sales of " the site of 
" the capital of New Zealand" to desert his fellow-co- 
lonists, and to exchange the industrious life of a settler 
in Cook's Strait for that of a mere dealer in land at 
Auckland. This was Mr. Dudley Sinclair. I should 
have objected to mentioning the fact with his name, if 
he had not frequently and publicly boasted of it him- 
self, after residing for some time among the hungry 
land-sharks, land-jobbers, and officials, who composed 
the population of the *' metropolis." 


A rival club was once set up for a short time by 
some men who would certainly not have been admitted 
into the first; but it broke down in a disgraceful fight 
between two of the members with the poker and the 
chairs inside the locked doors of the club-room. 

And as the exclusive club still continued to sift the 
arrivals carefully, unmindful of calumny or ridicule, it 
was at length looked up to and acknowledged, to a cer- 
tain degree, as the legitimate censor of polite manners. 
And those who had begun by being its most strenuous 
opponents were the first to call upon it to perform its 
duty, when one of its members was discovered to have 
committed an unpardonable offence, and to have escaped 
its penalty by an inevitable train of circumstances. 

Mr. Murphy, the Police Magistrate and Government 
representative, had been seen to abstract money from 
the pool at a game at cards, by a young member who 
was looking on. Being only a looker-on, his inexpe- 
rience led him to suppose that he had no right to in- 
terfere in the game. But he took one of the players 
aside and told him what he had seen. The })layer re- 
turned to his game and also observed the proceeding. 
But he wished to secure more evidence, as the first ol)- 
server had gone home ; and he only took the precau- 
tion to t^ll a third member what he had seen as they 
went home for the evening. The third person could 
only advise that nothing should be said, but that the 
culprit should be taken in the fact at a future opportu- 
nity. He had, however, observed that he was detected ; 
so he returned once or tAvice and played honestly, and 
then gave up play, saying he could not afford it. Thus 
it became a delicate matter to rake up the question — 
one of those which should always be settled at the mo- 
ment; and people only wondered for a long while, 
why the two persons who had seen the deed gave up 


the acquaintance of the person in question. But after 
many weeks the affair got abroad, and a loud call was 
raised in all quarters that an inquiry should be made. 
I need hardly say that the evidence of the two gentle- 
men was conclusive, and that the culprit was expelled 
by ballot at a general meeting of the club. This was 
towards the end of the year. It afterwards turned out 
that some persons who had been honorary members for 
a short time had observed equally dishonest tricks a 
long while before, but had not thought themselves 
bound to report what they had seen to any member. 

A dereliction of his public duty soon afterwards 
necessitated the resignation and total banishment of 
Mr. Murphy. To serve purposes of his own, he had 
been accustomed to send a married constable, who lived 
next door to him, to the gaol, with a note to the gaoler 
to keep all the constables he could get or find on gaol- 
duty until four o'clock in the morning — in other words, 
to lock them up till that time. The constable, sus- 
pecting something, read the note which had been left 
unsealed, and returned to his bedroom in time to find 
the Police Magistrate going in, and to give him a sound 
thrashing The cause of the numerous robberies which 
had lately occurred was now apparent ; and the unpaid 
Magistrates assembled to request the Police Magis- 
trate to resign, or to expect the result of their applica- 
tion to the Acting Governor. He resigned. 

It remains to be told, that the Acting Governor 
sought to place the culprit in a subordinate situation 
at Nelson, when he visited that place after coming to 
Wellington, and was only prevented by the indignant 
remonstrance of the settlers. Even the doubtful society 
of Auckland scouted him on his arrival, and he dis- 
appeared. It is only to be hoped that he has changed 
his name, and gone far from the society of man. I 



have already stated that he was known to have acted 
the character throughout of a clever Government spy. 
And yet so numerous were his apparent good qualities, 
that this was one of the cases in which the indignation 
of society was mingled with regret. 

At this time, the Police Magistrate of Tf^anganui 
was labouring under a charge which prevented any 
man from sitting on the bench with him, and under 
the unrefuted imputation of which he has since been 
obliged to retire in utter ignominy and confusion. 

The Police Magistrate at New Plymouth appeared 
to have been selected from among the settlers on 
account of the thorough inaction of his character. 

The appointment of the late Mr. Thompson at 
Nelson was at least imprudent, on account of his known 
excitability of temperament. 

Such were the sole wielders of law and authority 
under whom the Cook's Strait settlers had been doomed 
to writhe and linger for three years. 

On the night of the 9th of November, a fire swept 
part of the beach at Wellington. The houses were 
chiefly roofed with thatch, and many of the walls of 
the same material. A smart N. W. breeze was blowing 
at the time, and the fire spread with fearful rapidity, 
the pieces of blazing thatch flying along to other houses 
100 yards oflF, and igniting them immediately. I formed 
one of a party who tried to save the fire from spreading 
by pulling down houses along the line ; but, though we 
began far to leeward, the house would frequently light 
under our hands, or sparks flew over our heads to 
houses still further off. Fortunately, a large number 
of sailors from the shipping acted well in concert under 
their commanders — several houses were torn or cut 
down, and the thatch carried bodily into the sea. The 
people, too, of the houses to the south of the Flag-staff 


Point* had been alarmed in time to wet their roofs ; 
and though the fire ran along a dry brush fence on the 
top of the hill, it was thus prevented from spreading to 
the bonded warehouses and large stores at the back of 
Te Aro beach. If this had happened, the damage 
would have been immense, as nothing could have es- 
caped the conflagration of the bonded spirits. As it was, 
the damage was estimated at 16,000/. Twenty-three 
houses of thatch were burnt and three pulled down ; 
and upwards of twenty wooden houses of various sizes 
were also burnt. Some curious escapes were observed. 
In one case, the whole wooden wall was scorched into 
cliarcoal, round the window of a room in which there 
were four-hundred weight of gunpowder in kegs ; and 
all the surrounding houses were burnt to the ground. 
After the fire had ceased, all the young settlers still 
remained till daylight, rolled in blankets on the floors of 
some of the large stores at Te Aro, watching lest some 
new outbreak should threaten that part of the town. 

The greatest humanity and good feeling for the 
sufferers prevailed. Many people willingly put them- 
selves to inconvenience to shelter their houseless 
neighbours ; and very large subscriptions were collected 
at Wellington, Nelson, and New Plymouth, and even 
little Wanganui added its mite, for the relief of those 
really distressed by the event. 

In some respects the fire did good. Many of the 
pedling shopkeepers whom I have described were driven 
into the bush, where they might have gone long 
before ; and these seemed surprised to find how easy it 
was to settle, even with their reduced circumstances. 
Two villages, with cultivations and clearings of mode- 
rate size, soon sprang up along the Porirua bridle-road, 

* Among the illustrations already referred to, is a panoramic 
view of Wellington, taken from this Point before the fire. 



at distances of four and six miles from the town ; many 
settled in the upland vale of the Karori ; and a more 
wholesome spirit was thus given to those who remained 
in the town. 

Perhaps the most surprising thing was the rapidity 
with which, notwithstanding so many discouraging 
circumstances, the beach was again covered with a 
better growth of buildings. Out of the ashes of the 
raupo thatch sprang substantial brick and wooden 
stores and taverns, with slate or shingle roofs ; and 
heaps of melted glass and other rubbish were cleared 
away from the site of one of the merchant's stores, to 
make room for the foundations of the Scotch church. 
Within two or three months, this part of the beach 
was more thickly populated than before, and no vestige 
of the fire remained. 

Some of the natives had joined in the subscription 
for the sufferers, and others offered their services to 
rebuild houses without payment. They had been ex- 
ceedingly active in their exertions on the night of the 
fire ; grateful, no doubt, for the like exertions of a body 
of settlers which had saved the greater part of the 
Te Aro pa from destruction in the same way some 
months before. It is painful to record that the Wes- 
leyan missionary had taken advantage of that circum- 
stance to induce them to extend the disputed village 
very much in rebuilding it, carrying the outer fence 
fifty yards beyond where it had formerly stood, instead 
of agreeing to Colonel Wakefield's renewed instances 
that they should quit the location for their own 
Reserves. 1 he natives of the PipHea pa soon after fol- 
lowed this example ; apparently aware that the Go- 
vernor's restriction as to the alienation of their occu- 
pied land had not defined any limits. 

The shipping was exceedingly busy about this time. 


Vessels direct from Valparaiso with flour, one from 
Manilla with tea, sugar, and cigars, and several with 
cattle from Sydney, gave the anchorage and the 
wharfs a busy appearance. The most ridiculous dis- 
putes might be seen daily occurring between the Police 
Magistrate, the Health Officer, the Postmaster, the 
Harbour-master, the Collector of the Customs, and 
the Landing-waiter, as to who had the first right to 
be taken on board by the two boats which served for 
all purposes, and which were hardly ever alongside a 
new arrival till it was surrounded by a dozen boats 
belonging to watermen or private individuals. 

On the 22nd of November, IVarepori died, the 
abscess in his head having proved incurable. The 
poor fellow had lived a degraded and pitiable life for 
some time. He was always peevish and irascible ; 
and had much of the same spirit which I have de- 
scribed as existing in Rauperaha and Rangihaeata, of 
anger at the loss of his authority through the introduc- 
tion of peace and industry. As, however, before the 
dominion of the local Government, /^f^r<?pori had always 
been held up and maintained by the settlers as a great 
chief, and as Colonel Wakefield had more than once 
made it a point to back himself by his authority and 
that of K Puni to repress the outrages of the lawless 
among the White people, we had entertained sanguine 
hopes that the institution of the Reserves would soon 
reconcile him to a station by wealth and property 
equal to that which he had formerly maintained by 
eloquence and the art of war combined with his high 
descent. And he had appreciated these intentions to a 
great extent, for he expressly pointed out the land 
which should be chosen for two of the country sections 
of Native Reserve. His wish had been complied with, 
although these two sections were very hilly, and there- 


fore only fit for the state of agriculture then existing 
among the natives, or for pasture when they should 
have become instructed in our improved methods. 
But from the first arrival of Lieutenant Shortland 
might be dated a change in the temper of this child 
of nature ; the more to be regretted because it might 
have been so gently guided into noble and energetic 
paths under a fostering system. His proud spirit 
soon rebelled under the marked contempt of the 
Kawana for those who had been the chiefs when 
the first White people came. He observed that minor 
chiefs, of no importance formerly, were made much of, 
and considered as the leaders of the natives, because 
they seemed inclined to be dissatisfied with the White 
population. And though the original settlers still 
treated him as the chief, and paid him the same atten- 
tion and deference as before, he soon discerned that 
the Whites who had real authority took every means of 
degrading him below his former inferiors. And he 
found that the promises about the value of the Re- 
serves were not made good. He observed that neither 
were the nativ^es located upon them under any system, 
nor was any other good effect produced by their in- 
come on his sinking condition among his people. And 
when the Governor confirmed the degradation by giving 
the subordinate chiefs presents to be distributed among 
those who had been their artki, or superiors, the final 
blow seemed to have been given. It was this feeling 
of bitterness at being degraded that led PVarepori to 
refuse to give up his village at Nga Hauranga ; to 
attempt to rouse the natives to revenge the death of the 
man whose body had been found ; and to be snappish 
and reproachful in his behaviour towards his best 
friends among the White people, even while they tried 
to do him honour and console him against the galling 


insults to his native dignity. He knew that they were 
not the chiefs in authority of the White people ; and 
he naturally felt as though they had deceived him wil- 
fully into the belief that they could secure his treat- 
ment as an honoured and influential leader of his 
people. The whole question rankled in his mind ; he 
pined, and fretted, and stormed, and grew thin and 
haggard, negligent in his dress, and undignified in his 
manner ; he took to drink and begging ; and died, a 
notable instance of the misprotection of the aborigines. 
He was buried at Pitone ; where his mausoleum of wood, 
painted with kokowai, or red ochre, forms a prominent 
object. At Nga Haurmiga, too, some quaint figures, 
meant to represent the chief, are erected to his memory 
in a tapu spot,' according to native custom. 

I often wondered how E Punt had managed to escape 
the same fate. He was equally aware of the slight 
cast upon him and others of real rank. But I truly 
believe that he possessed judgment enough to distin- 
guish between the generous esteem of Colonel Wake- 
field and the educated settlers, and that, only springing 
from party motives, of the Government officers ; and 
that he was wise enough to prefer the friendship and 
companionship of the gentlemen, without pining after 
marks of honour from an authority whose burlesque 
pomp must indeed have been more despicable to savages 
than even to civilized men. 

On the 23rd of November, Captain Smith returned 
from an expedition to the Middle Island on the Com- 
pany's service. Colonel Wakefield had despatched him 
in a small cutter, about the time that he himself sailed 
for Auckland, to examine and report upon the coast, 
the harbours, and adjoining country along the whole 
east coast of the Middle Island. He had made a very 
careful and interesting report, with accurate sketches 


and maps of the principal harbours and rivers. Unfor- 
tunately, the cutter, in entering the port of Akaroa on 
her return, had been suddenly upset by a squall and 
sunk in deep water ; so that all his maps, books, jour- 
nals, and valuable instruments were irretrievably lost. 
Captain Smith's report to the Company, made partly 
from memory and partly from materials which he had 
sent to Wellington by another opportunity, is still a 
most interesting document, and causes the reader to 
lament the accident which prevented it from being 
complete. The principal new information related to 
the Lake fJ^aiora (mis-spelt TVihold), stretching for a 
long distance behind the Ninety-mile Beach south of 
Banks's Peninsula ; to the harbour of Otako and the 
surrounding country ; to a harbour called the Bluff, 
near the eastern entrance of Foveaux's Strait ; and to 
the New River flowing into that Strait. In short 
words, it proved that a very large and promising field 
was open for colonization in the Middle Island, with 
excellent harbours and inland water communication, 
scarcely any native occupants, and a climate, perhaps 
not so warm as that of Cook's Strait, but equally 

We heard that the natives of Massacre Bay had 
obstructed the operations of the diggers of coal and 
limestone in that neighbourhood, upon finding the 
value of the rocks which they had formerly considered 
worthless, quoting " Spain and Clarke " as having to 
come and decide upon the land ; but that Mr. Thomp- 
son and Captain Wakefield had gone thither with a 
boat-load of special constables, and had set things to 
rights bj an adequate display of firmness and a decla- 
ration that they would enforce British law against any 
disturbers of the peace. 

On the 6th of December, Colonel Wakefield returned 


from Auckland in the same little schooner in which he 
had gone thither. He had been 24 days getting to 
the capital, as a gale of wind had compelled them to 
heave-to for twelve days off the East Cape. He had 
spent nearly a month at Auckland, and was twelve 
days in returning. He brought word that the Acting 
Governor would shortly follow in the colonial brig 
with Mr. Spain ; but they were to call at Tauranga, 
in the Bay of Plenty, to settle some dispute with the 
natives. Colonel Wakefield had left them to follow, 
as he was anxious to reach Wellington in time to bring 
the opinion of the Law-officers of the Crown as to a 
question of the utmost importance to the Municipal 

The Ordinance provided that the election should 
take place every year on the 5th of December. But 
the first election at Wellington had been appointed to 
take place, and had accordingly taken place, on the 
3rd of October last. It remained undecided whether 
it was necessary to have a fresh election on the 5th of 
December of this year, or whether the election of 
October would hold good until December 1843. The 
majority of the Council themselves passed a resolution 
in favour of the latter opinion. Colonel Wakefield 
had come one day too late to inform them that the 
Attorney-General at Auckland was of a contrary 
opinion, but stated it to be a case for the decision of 
the Supreme Court. The Council determined to remain 
in the performance of their duties until this decision 
could be obtained at the next circuit of Judge Martin 
in May. For if the Attorney General's opinion should 
prove correct, an Act of the Legislative Council would 
become necessary to amend the omission of the election 
on the 5th, and the Legislative Council could not be 
assembled until the arrival of a new Governor at an 
indefinite period. 


Colonel Wakefield's experience of Auckland during 
a month might be thus briefly summed up. He 
described the harbour as a good one ; but he con- 
firmed its two great points of inferiority to Port 
Nicholson, which I had often heard allowed by Mr. 
Blackett and other naval men, and by persons even 
interested in the capital. The first is, that a strong 
tide runs both ways through the anchorage ; and 
when the wind blows fresh against this tide, which is 
in the direction of the two prevailing winds, east and 
west, a very inconvenient rip is produced, which makes 
it even unsafe for ships' long-boats to be moored to their 
stern. Mr. Blackett had invited Colonel Wakefield 
to live on board his yacht, but had warned him that in 
rough weather communication with the shore would be 
difficult and unpleasant. The second point is, that at 
low water long flats of soft mud reach out to the dis- 
tance of 400 or 500 yards from the dry beach, and 
at this time much trouble is experienced in landing 
both goods and passengers. Colonel Wakefield likened 
this to what we had observed at Hokianga on a smaller 

He described the neighbouring cpuntry, chiefly on 
the isthmus between the harbours of Auckland and 
Manukau, and between Auckland and the range of 
mountains west of the Piako river, as offering a tole- 
rable expanse of level ground, and pleasant, because 
easy to ride over. But this very quality arises from 
one less promising, which is, that the soil consists 
chiefly of pumice, with scattered lumps and masses of 
scoriae of various sizes lying about on it, and that 
nothing but a stunted growth of fern obstructs your 
free galloping if you avoid these lumps. He had 
observed many pretty and fertile spots ; but these were 
either in gullies or scattered along the valley of the 


Tamaki river, whose embouchure lies a few miles east 
of Auckland heads. Colonel Wakefield described with 
much admiration some fields of artificial pasture laid 
down by Mr. Fairburn, the missionary catechist who 
had claimed 40,000 acres of land on the isthmus, as 
almost the only agriculture which he saw. He 
described the general appearance of the country as 
pretty, from the very contrast between the bare 
plains and the gullies fringed with small timber, 
and from the numerous volcanic peaks of varying 
size with which that tract of country is dotted. As 
to climate, there seemed little to prefer in that of 
Auckland. During the whole month there had been 
plenty of heavy and continuous rain ; and the prevail- 
ing westerly wind blew almost incessantly across the 
flat isthmus from Manukau, hard enough to prevent 
you from hearing your companion speak when galloping 
side by side over the plain. 

The society, as might have been expected, was posi- 
tively none. Even the families of the officials were 
alienated from each other by vulgar quarrels and 
recriminations ; and the only pleasant associates were 
a Captain of Engineers on service at Auckland and 
the other habitues of the mess of the garrison. 

As an improvement to this state of society, 91 
juvenile delinquents from the seminary at Parkhurst, 
in the Isle of Wight, sent out by the Government, 
had arrived at the capital. Some of these were to be 
liberated at once ; others were to be bound to a certain 
term of apprenticeship. It was not long before these 
ingenuous youths showed their skill as instructors of 
the natives. I have heard it more than once described, 
by visitors from Auckland, that there were known 
places of rendezvous outside the town, where the boys 
used to meet the natives coming into town to trade at 


the stores, and teach them how to pilfer with secrecy 
and comfort. A meeting was held at night, as the 
natives returned to their settlements, for the division 
of booty ; and the Maori, unable to keep the secret any 
longer, bitterly complained that the young thieves 
invariably managed to cheat or rob them of all that 
they had stolen on joint account. The natives have 
probably become weary of getting so small a share of 
their own plunder ; as some of the Parkhurst seedlings 
have lately been caught breaking into the houses of 
the settlers, independently of their simple allies. 

A fifth newspaper, the Auckland ' Chronicle,' had 
started with the assistance of the Government print- 

A very few farmers were said to be going out upon 
suburban allotments ; and the streets of the metro- 
polis, which had been long in an impassable state of 
mud and mire, were said now to reflect credit on the 
improved policy of the Acting Governor. 

A schooner, wrecked at Hokianga, had been totally 
plundered by the natives of that part ; and the crew 
of another, at Hawke's Bay, had been assisted in saving 
the cargo and their own lives by the natives. 

Two boys' schools were now established at Welling- 
ton ; one under the superintendence of the Mechanics' 
Institute, the other founded in opposition by a pri- 
vate individual. The two schools had about 150 

Picnics and balls began to multiply as the season of 
the anniversary approached. Among the most pleasing 
of these was a picnic given by Messrs. Clifford and 
Vavasour, who had set an excellent example by clearing 
away at their section, half a mile beyond Captain 
Daniell's farm on the Porirua road, immediately, that 
they arrived. They were in time to ask their fellow- 


passengers in the Fyfe, who were going on to Nelson 
to lunch in a tent in the midst of their first clearing ; 
and a party of the ladies of Wellington joined the 
merry throng, and cheered them to perseverance in 
their good work. 

About this time, a vessel of 230 tons was re-launched, 
having been hauled up, and some damage repaired, on a 
slip which her owner, Mr. Mathieson, had put up at 
Kai fVara TVara. He prepared to receive a vessel of 
400 tons, which had arrived in a leaky state from Eng- 
land some months before. 

Another export was now much talked of. This 
was the bark of the h'mau, a large forest-tree which 
abounds all over the country near Cook's Strait. The 
natives extract from this bark the black dye for their 
mats. The bark is simply pulled into shreds and 
soaked in water. The flax to be dyed is then put to 
soak in the decoction ; and when taken out, is some- 
times rubbed in a sort of sandy mud which contains 
much iron, and is very common on many parts of the 
coast. But this process seems to be avoided in some 
cases by making the decoction in an iron cooking-pot. 
I must leave chemists to explain what the iron has to 
do with the dye. A considerable quantity of this 
bark was now collected and sent to England, that its 
value might be ascertained, and information obtained 
as to what portion of the inner or outer bark, or both, 
it would be expedient to send home. But if any 
answer was obtained to these queries, the merchants 
have kept it all to themselves. 

The berry of the titoki tree might also be turned to 
account. The natives extract a very fine oil from it ; 
and a small quantity, which was sent to England as a 
sample, has been described as of great value for the 
finer parts of machinery. The tree abounds in all the 


forests. The berry is a small black nut, peeping out of 
a pulpy husk, like a raspberry in size, shajie, and colour.* 
Poor Mr. Swainson was at this time more distressed 
than ever by " Dog's Ear" and Rauperaha^ other 
native emissaries. He had hired three sections, of 
100 acres each, of untouched forest-land on the banks 
of the Hutt. He had fondly made plans for laying 
this out according to principles of his own, by leaving 
belts of timber to shelter the patches of cultivation 
from the wind, clumps in various spots for ornament, 
an orchard here, a flower-garden there. He had 
built a substantial farm-house for his family and 
another for his labourers. And he had begun with a 
clearing of about two acres, in which a fine crop of 
wheat for seed was just coming to perfection. Taringa 
Kuri, who had established himself close to the house, 
at first promised to cut only what Mr. Swainson 
pointed out to him, and pretended only to want one 
crop in return for his trouble. But, notwithstanding 
repeated mediations of Mr. Spain or of Mr. Clarke 
junior, which only seemed to make matters worse in- 
stead of restoring peace, the deceitful chief had cleared 
all the wood indiscriminately off a large tract of ground. 
Belt after belt, clump after clump, fell beneath the 
merciless axes of his followers ; and the native clearing 
at length reached to within a few yards of the house 
and the little patch of wheat. They now openly 
laughed at their victim, and told him to " look out," 
for as the dry weather came on, they should set fire 
to the fallen wood. His appeals to the Police Magis- 
trate for interference, to tlie Crown Prosecutor for an 
indictment, to the Court for an injunction, had been all 
of no avail. He only involved himself in a long cor- 

* A drawing of this plant forms one of the before-mentioned 


respondence with these Government officers ; whose 
letters, since published, do little more than find flaws 
in his statements, while they are themselves full of the 
most frivolous arguments and quibbles. And the little 
knot of officials used to sit over their dinner, and quiz 
" that old fool Swainson," as they called him, while 
the work of destruction was going on. How his 
wheat, nearly ripe, and his thatched roofs were saved 
from the fire, I do not know ; but the clearing was 
burned off, potatoes planted and gathered more than 
once, a pa was built on the river-bank ; and in October 
of last year the natives were not only living there per- 
manently, but encroaching still further on a large 
portion of the valley, in any part of which they forbade 
White men from settling. The clearings of the Ngati- 
rangatahi, Ratiperahas especial servants, extended 
nearly a mile along the banks ; and they carefully 
stopped every White man who began to clear or saw 
even in parts that had never before been occupied. On 
one occasion the Pitone natives, and some of those 
from the refractory villages in the town, came over 
with their arms to insist on the abandonment of this 
tract, to which the occupiers had not a shadow of right- 
But Mr. Clarke junior was well informed of their in- 
tentions ; and he and Mr. Spain came over on purpose 
to confine this burst of justice to mere palaver and 
negotiation. And a day or two afterwards fresh 
clearings were being made, and more settlers were ob- 
structed by the intruders. 

I spent my Christmas at Otaki, and dined off a 
haunch of goat venison instead of a sirloin of beef. 
But I heard that the festival had been celebrated with 
" right merrie" sports in Wellington. A cricket-match 
between two clubs which had practised for some 
months, quoits, swings, and other diversions, were nu- 


merously attended on Te Aro flat ; and, to the credit 
of the community be it spoken, not a single case of 
drunkenness or disorderly conduct disfigured the plea- 
sant associations of the day. 

This had been reckoned rather an inclement season 
in New Zealand ; but barley was cut in the beginning 
of December on the banks of the Hutt, which weighed 
74 pounds to the bushel. At the show of the Horticul- 
tural Society on the 27th, prizes were given for potatoes, 
peas, beans, cauliflower, Spanish as well as English 
onions, carrots, rhubarb, artichokes ; wheat, barley, 
oats, rye -grass, turnips, and pot-herbs; strawberries^ 
cherries, goosel)erries, and black currants; dahlias, 
pansies, geraniums, roses, balsams, stocks, pinks, gla- 
diolas, various bulbous flowers from Sydney and the 
Cape of Good Hope ; and three prizes for cottagers' 
gardens on the Hutt and near the town. 



Concluding selection of lands — Murder of a native woman at 
Cloudy Bay — Disputes with the natives at Tauranga — Lieutenant 
Shortland proposes to enforce the law — The Attorney-General 
considers the natives not British subjects — Mr. Clarke supports 
him— Arrival of Lieutenant Shortland at Wellington — His re- 
ception — Speeches about land — Tact of E Pimi — Copper ore — 
Return of Mr. Petre from his visit to England — Race-horses — 
Mr. Cooke drives cattle to New Plymouth — Dicky Barrett and 
Mr. George Clarke junior — Arbitration — Mr. George Clarke 
junior promoted — Discussions about compensation for land — A 
mad native — Windmill — Comet of 1843 — Mr. Spain proceeds 
towards the north — A native murdered by another native in 
Wellington — The murderer goes unpunished — Interview with 
Rauperaha — His allies — His irritated and threatening behaviour 
— ^Proposed journey — The rata, or flowering myrtle. 

1843. — On New Year's Day the concluding selection 
of preliminary country sections took place. The new 
districts laid open were the valley of the Upper Hutt, 
above a gorge six miles from the sea ; a large district 
between the Manawatu river, and a line drawn east 
from Lake Horowenua to the Tararua range ; a varied 
and ratl^er inaccessible district between Port Nicholson 
and the coast of Cook's Strait, which extends from 
Mana to Cape Termoiti ; and some new valleys in the 
neighbourhood of Porirua, and between that district 
and the valley of the Hutt. A few persons availed 
themselves of the permission to reserve their choices 
for some other location, such as TVaikanae or Otahi^ 
where the responsibility of satisfying the natives was to 
lie with themselves. The sectionists and land-agents 
had made a very thorough examination of the new 



districts, and every one appeared well satisfied with the 
choice which he had made. The different maps were laid 
on a long table in the open air outside the survey-oflBice ; 
and the crowd of bustling agents and tormented sur- 
veyors' assistants formed a gay scene. 

Early in the month, the Police Magistrate went over 
to Cloudy Bay to inquire into the circumstances 
attending the death of Rangiawa, or " Squeaker," the 
native wife of Mr. Wynen, who had formed one of our 
party up the Pelorus river in 1839. An Englishman, 
and old whaling inhabitant of the place, was taken up 
on suspicion of having murdered her, and brought over 
to be committed for trial; but the evidence against 
him did not prove sufficient, and he was acquitted at 
the next Court. I heard afterwards in the course of 
my trips to Otaki, where many relations of the murdered 
woman lived, that the natives had been by no means 
satisfied with the result of the proceedings, and that 
the acquitted man had thought it prudent to leave the 

On the 11th, the colonial brig arrived, bringing 
Lieutenant Shortland with his suite and Mr. Spain. 
The settlement of the affair at Tauranga had proved 
less easy and speedy than had l^een expected. The 
circumstances were these. Some members of two 
hostile native tribes in the Bay of Plenty had seized 
upon the ])oats of two White traders, in order to carry 
on some of their predatory expeditions against each 
other. In the course of these, they had committed 
several bloody and treacherous murders ; and having 
got excited, kept the boats. The owners applied to the 
authorities in Auckland to interfere, llie authorities 
were always much more ready to do this at the north 
than in Cook's Strait ; so Lieutenant Shortland carried 
Mr. Clarke junior and his own brother, Edward Short- 


land (whom he had appointed Protector for that 
district, after he lost his place of Private Secretary at 
Captain Hobson's death), to Tauranga, and applied 
for restitution. The Tauranga people, being the 
weaker side, were easily persuaded to give up their 
boat ; but the Maketu natives, who were of the same 
tribe as the wild inhabitants of JLake Rotorua, only 
answered by insulting messages to the deputation of 
three Protectors and the acting Governor's Aide-de-camp, 
a Lieutenant of the detachment at Auckland. They 
sent back word, according to Lieutenant Shortland's 
despatches, that they were determined to persist in their 
practices of war, murder, and cannibalism. I was told 
by a European and by several natives who were on the 
spot, that one message, perhaps not reported to his 
Excellency, was, that " they had nothing but dry fern- 
" root to eat, and would much enjoy a slice of his fat 
" sides to moisten it." It remains on record, at any 
rate, that his Excellency became very irate on the 
return of the deputation with these free-spoken opinions 
instead of the boat; that he sent the brig back to 
Auckland for the whole of the troops and the Com- 
manding Officer, JMajor Bunbury ; wrote to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, Governor, and Senior Naval Officer 
of the station in New South \^^ales, for all the re- 
inforcements which they could spare ; and flourished 
his pen for some time in the seven cuts of the broad- 
sword exercise. 

But, with Major Bunbury and the troops came 
a protest from the Chief Protector, Mr. Clarke, and 
a very pacifying letter from Mr. Attorney-General 
Swainson, raising doubts as to whether the whole of 
New Zealand was British territory, and whether the 
natives who had not signed the Treaty of TVaitangi 
were British subjects, and therefore within the 0|)era- 



tion of British laws. So the Acting Governor left his 
brother and the troops at Tauranga, and returned to 
Auckland to hold a consultation with the Executive 
Council, which consisted of himself, the Colonial Trea- 
surer, and the Attorney-General. Mr. Swainson per- 
sisted in his opinion, and gave it officially ; for which 
he was told by Lord Stanley afterwards, that if he 
continued to entertain such an opinion, he would not 
be considered fit to hold office under Her Majesty's 
Government. The Colonial Treasurer supported 
Lieutenant Shortland in a contrary opinion ; and Mr. 
Clarke, examined for two days before the Council, 
supported the Attorney-General. So it had ended in 
the leaving instructions with Mr. Protector of Abo- 
rigines Shortland to do nothing until Mr. Protector 
of Aborigines Clarke should arrive on the spot ; but to 
keep assuring the natives of the Acting Governor's 
determination to protect British property and enforce 
British law upon all British subjects. And with this 
assurance, I believe, the affair was allowed to drop. 

His Excellency arrived one evening when a ball at 
Mrs. Daniell's had assembled all the ton of Wellingtxjn ; 
and as Lieutenant Shortland had made the amende 
honorable by reinstating Captain Daniell in the Com- 
mission of the Peace, he appeared as an invited guest. 
Notwithstanding his former faults, he was received in 
a very forgiving disposition, in consequence of Colonel 
Wakefield's reports • of his earnest promises that the 
land-claims should be speedily settled. Only one or 
two of the most influential settlers, who had learned 
not to put their faith in Government officers, and had 
seen especial reasons during his former visit to doubt 
the possibility of his good intentions, still showed their 
distrust in a marked manner. Otherwise, the Acting 
Governor was feted in every possible way. He and 


Mrs. Shortland were asked to every ball and dinner- 
party. They were taken to see the Hutt, now in its 
golden beauty ; and they were placed in the front seat 
of the grand stand at the anniversary races. The Act- 
ing Governor was invited to dine at the Club, which 
had never happened to the late Governor ; and his 
levee was very fully attended. He was altogether treated 
with great confidence and good feeling. I really believe 
that he was at this time well inclined to do justice to 
the Cook's Strait settlers ; but of the two subordinates 
w^ho had ruled the former Governor, the more influen- 
tial one exercised a similar sway over him who had 
succeeded to the reins of power ; and by such a sway 
the best of intentions must have been withered. 

H.M.S. Favourite again called in at the same time 
on her way home from Sydney ; and carried to England 
a batch of letters full of the sanguine hopes which were 
generally prevalent. 

His Excellency at least conferred one substantial 
benefit on the town, by directing the erection of a sub- 
stantial and roomy gaol. Numerous escapes had re- 
cently proved the perfect inefiiciency of the Maori hut 
and its stockade. 

The Wellington Almanack was first published this 
year ; and cheese began to be made in the colony with 
tolerable success. 

The third anniversary was celebrated with great 
eclat ; 150/. having been subscribed for the amuse- 
ments, and a large concourse of natives having been 
persuaded by Mr. Halswell and others to join in the 
diversions. A remarkable scene ensued. 

E Mare, the chief of the JVgatimutunga, who had six 
or seven years before forsaken this place for the Chat- 
ham Islands, and his eldest son, had been here some time 
concerting mysteriously with JS TaJro and the Te Aro 
natives as to maintaining their claims to the land ; 


urged by Mr. Scott, who professed to have bought the 
land which he claimed from E Mare himself. These, 
besides Richard Davis and E Pum, were all among the 
throng who came in front of the sfcmd to go through 
their war-dance before the ladies. E Tako took advan- 
tage of the presence of the Governor to lead the speeches, 
with which the natives always excite themselves into 
the dance, upon the acrimonious subject of the land. 
E Mare^ son was beginning to follow in the same 
strain ; when old E Punt, with the feeling of a true 
gentleman, perceived how inappropriate such a discus- 
sion was to this occasion, when all differences v^^ere 
to be drowned in festive rejoicing. With intuitive 
tact, he sprang to his feet, began one of the old and 
favourite legends of the Maori in the accustomed dirge- 
like recitative, warmed with his subject till their strain- 
ing attention was wound up to think of nothing but 
his song, and watched the moment when their muscles 
were distended and their mouths panting with excite- 
ment to give the thrilling signal to rise, to lead them 
through the measured dance to its maddening termi- 
nation, and finally to head them in a sham charge 
down to the pa a hundred yards off; where they 
dispersed, having forgotten all about the land for that 

Two more features of the day must not be omitted. 
A prize was given, and numerously competed for, to 
the native who could scrape the greatest weight of flax 
in a given number of minutes. And the tee-totallers 
had a pleasant party in some pretty tea-gardens which 
had been neatly cultivated and filled with flowers and 
rustic benches in a nook among the picturesque hills at 
the rear of the town. 

On the 30th, his Excellency sailed for Akaroa ; 
returned on the 8th of February ; and took his final 
departure for Auckland by way of Nelson and New 


Plymouth on the 11th of that month. Governor Hob- 
son had deigned to spend five weeks at Wellington ; 
the Acting Governor managed to spare three from the 
superintendence of Auckland. 

It w^as at this time that I first saw some New Zea- 
land copper-ore. Captain Nagle, the commander of 
the Government brig, was the owner of part of the 
Barrier Island in the Gulf of Hauraki, on which a 
very promising mine had been discovered. About 100 
tons of the ore have been since forwarded to Eng- 
land through Sydney. I believe a company of Sydney 
capitalists has been formed to work the mines; but 
their means are so limited that their operations appear 
to be suspended for the present. 

The people of Nelson were now thinking of petition- 
ing for the extension of the Municipal Ordinance to 
that town as well as to Wellington. Auckland could 
not yet boast the required population of 2000. 

On the 31st of January, Mr. Henry Petre arrived 
with his new-married wife and his whole establishment 
in a ship from England. Almost everybody that was 
in Wellington went on board to greet him warmly on 
his return. The Reverend Mr. O'Reilly, a Roman 
Catholic clergyman, was a passenger on board. Mr. 
Petre brought valuable importations to the colony. 
First and foremost were " .^ther" and " Riddlesworth," 
two thorough-bred English horses, which had come 
in boxes on deck, as fat and in as sleek condition as 
though turned out of a London stable. Between 
decks were 19 brood mares and a mule from the Cape 
of Good Hope. Peacocks and pheasants completed the 
muster-roll of the menagerie. 

Mr. Petre was a thoroughly "staunch colonist." 
When he landed on the beach, he confessed that he 
had never been quite happy till he got back. 


At this time, the Company's agent issued a contract 
for the clearing of the Porirua bridle-road to a width 
of six feet, and the felling of the timber for 10 feet on 
either side along the whole 12 miles, so as to admit the 
sun and wind upon the swampy and muddy portions. 
The contractors engaged a large gang of Hutt axe-men, 
headed by a renowned Yankee backwoodsman, who 
used to pocket many a half-crown by making bets with 
new-comers as to the number of minutes he would 
take to get through a tree. They got expeditiously and 
creditably through their contract. 

On the 20th, Mr. John George Cooke, the magis- 
trate who had so firmly settled the fVaitera dispute 
at New Plymouth, started for his home with a herd of 
70 head of cattle and a large flock of sheep. They 
defiled along the beach, followed by their owner, two 
or three stockmen, and Dicky Barrett ; some mounted, 
some on foot. Mr. Cooke had been spending the an- 
niversary at Wellington, and employing it usefully in 
buying stock. Dicky Barrett had been giving his 
evidence before the Court of Land Claims, which had 
resumed its sittings. I was one day present, and was 
much hurt by the pains which Mr. Clarke junior took 
to sneer at his way of pronouncing Maori, and at his 
unsophisticated narrative of his doings as interpreter at 
the different sales. Barrett's Maori diction, like that 
of most of the whalers, was of course not superior to 
his English ; and he had a broad honest way of utter- 
ing lx)th, for which Mr. Clarke junior seemed delighted 
to display his contempt. Dicky perfectly understood 
and could make himself understood by the natives ; 
was thoroughly acquainted with their customs and 
feelings; and possessed twice the qualifications to be Pro- 
tector of Aborigines that the almost equally uneducated 
and infinitely worse-bred lad could boast, who took 


upon himself to laugh at him for faults of accent and 

The arrangements for the arbitration were finally 
made in the end of January. Colonel Wakefield had 
pro}K)sed to abide by the decision of Mr. Spain and Mr. 
Halswell, the Protector of Aborigines, as to the 
amount of compensation to be awarded. But the 
Acting Governor appointed Mr. Clarke to act as one 
arbitrator, and any agent on the part of the Company ; 
Mr. Spain to be umpire, in case of any difference. 

It was only at this time that Mr. Clarke junior 
was released from his duties of Interpreter to the Court 
of Claims. When Mr. Spain accompanied Colonel 
Wakefield to Auckland, Mr. Clarke junior went 
thither in the Government brig, by way of Kapiti, 
Nelson, and New Plymouth. On arriving at the 
seat of Government, he reported to his father, the 
Chief Protector, that the local Protector at Port 
Nicholson was liable to be influenced by his connexion 
with the Company, and seemed negligent of the in- 
terests of the natives. Mr. Clarke, the Chief Protec- 
tor, embodied this statement in his half-yearly report 
to the Acting Governor, and recommended the appoint- 
ment of a Protector for the Southern District. This 
appointment was immediately conferred on Mr. Clarke 
junior ; who was thus placed over the heads of Mr. 
Halswell and Mr. Thompson for all matters relating 
to the natives, as he had already been for the defence 
of their interests before the Court of Claims. 

I was present at the first meeting which took place 
at pa Te Aro for the purpose of settling the amount 
of compensation to be awarded. A table and chairs 
were placed in the midst of the jya, round which sat 
or stood the umpire and the two arbitrators — Colonel 
Wakefield acting on the part of the Company ; and 


Mr. Meurant, who had been 20 years in different parts 
of the island, both north and south, being interpreter. 

KTako^ E Puni, and Taringa Kuri, were among the 
crowd of natives assembled. Of these E Tako was the 
only one that spoke ; but he was supported by several 
of the unknown Moseses and Abrahams of Te Aro in 
showing that the refractory natives were not disposed 
to take any but a very exorbitant payment. They 
assumed all the consequence of head chiefs to them- 
selves, while E Puni and Taringa Kuri sat still and 
silent on the edge of the crowd. A mad but harmless 
native, named E Huka, had got excited by the talking, 
and indulged in a bitter satire on the mock solemnity 
of the whole proceeding. He had on an old beaver 
hat, with a piece of tin tied to the front of it, several 
ragged coats and shirts hung in various shapes over 
his blanket, a shoe on one foot and a stocking on 
the other, and was bedecked from head to foot with 
ribands, scraps of paper, and old rags. With a spear in 
his hand, he ran up and down within ten yards of the 
table, drowning the consequential assertions of E Tako 
and his friends by loud shouts that " all the land be- 
" longed to E Huka, that there was no one like 
" E Huka, that E Huka was the Queen. Never mind 
" Spain, never mind Wide-awake, all-the-go E Huka I 
" Never mind E Puni, never mind E Tako, listen to E 
" Huka /" And then he would stop to smile and have a 
quiet joke with some friend among the surrounding 
White people, or to grin foolishly at Mr. Spain ; but 
directly the speeches got at all loud or egotistical, he was 
off again louder than they could speak. No persuasion, 
no frowns, no harsh words, no kind entreaties, could pre- 
vail upon him to be silent ; he took it all for encourage- 
ment and admiration. The meeting ended in nothing. 

In this month, Mr. Brees, the Company's Chief 

Chap, XIU. COMET OF 1843. 331 

Surveyor, returned from an excursion to the Tf^aira- 
rapa lake and Ruamahanga plain ; and soon afterwards 
a party of settlers, chiefly those lately arrived in the 
Fyfe, also made a trip to that district. The very graphic 
account of Mr. Fox, who was the journalist of the 
party, confirmed to their full extent the former accounts 
of Mr. Kettle and other travellers. Sketches, too, re- 
presented an almost boundless expanse of varied land ; 
the richest natural pasture, the most luxuriant forest, 
watered by numerous streams and rivulets. Colonel 
Wakefield now directed the principal exertions of the 
labourers under the Company to be devoted to the com- 
pletion of the road into the valley of the Upper Hutt, 
with a view to its continuation over the Rimutaka range, 
so as to give access to the plains of the Ruamahanga.* 

At this time, the first windmill in the colony was 
advancing towards completion at Te Aro ; and several 
tanneries were busily at work near the town. The 
tanners found both the bark of the hinau, from which 
the natives get their dye, and the bark of the towai, or 
" black birch," highly suited to their purposes. 

I was at Otak'i on the 4th March, when the splendid 
comet of 1843 was first seen in the S.W. The first 
night some natives rushed into the house to ask for 
explanation of the extraordinary sight. After watching 
it for some hours, I foretold that it would be seen 
again for many nights ; which they would not believe, 
telling me that I was porangi, or " foolish," to think 
that the atua, or " spirit," would appear when I liked. 
And I was much laughed at till the next night, when 
there it was still ! It was seen for nearly a month ; 
and the clearness of the atmosphere added to its beau- 
tiful appearance. The nucleus was distinctly visible, 

* A view of the Plain of Ruamahanga forms one of the Illustra- 
tions published by Smith and Elder. 


like a small star ; and the tail, of uncommon brilliancy, 
subtended an angle of 36° as observed from Welling- 
ton, and of 45° as observed from JVan^anui. 

Towards the middle of the month, Mr. Spain closed 
his Court at Wellington, and proceeded to hold sittings 
on the road to Taranaki. No case had been finally 
reported on by the Commissioner ; but Mr. Spain had 
declared that the claims of the Te Aro, Pipitea, and 
Kumu toto natives, those living in the town, to compen- 
sation, were a fit subject to be arbitrated upon by 
Colonel Wakefield and Mr. Clarke junior. 

About this time, a native deliberately shot another 
in the town of Wellington, for former adultery with 
his wife. After coolly reloading both barrels of his 
gun, he threatened to shoot any one who should attempt 
to follow him, and escaped safely to Ohariu on the 
shores of Cook's Strait. A coroner's inquest wiis held, 
and a verdict of " wilful murder" was returned 
against Kai Karoro, or the " Gull-eater," the native in 
question. But no very strenuous efforts were made by 
the authorities to execute the warrants issued against 
him, or even to discover the place of his retreat. 

In this month, Colonel Wakefield and Mr. Moles- 
worth started to go to New Plymouth on horseback, 
with a groom leading a pack-horse. In passing Mr. 
Spain's Court at Porirua, Colonel Wakefield agreed to 
meet Mr. Spain at TJ^anganui on his return, for the 
purj)Ose of investigating that purchase and arbitrating 
as to compensation ; and he asked me to go thither, 
as soon as I should hear that the investigation was 
likely to take place. I proceeded to Otaki to carry on 
my flax operations, which were beginning to require 
pretty constant attention ; and waited for further 
accounts of the proceedings of the Court of Claims. 
Between some of my trips backwards and forwards, the 


Commissioner pushed on, and I only, heard fleeting 
rumours that he was examining witnesses at Manawatu, 
then that he had reached TVanganui. 

About this time I had occasion to go in a boat from 
Otak'i to Rauperahd^ islet near Kapiti, in order to fetch 
some goods which had been landed for me by a schooner 
at Captain Mayhew's store at that place. 

I had not seen Rauperaha or Rangiliaeata at Otaki 
for some days ; but I found them both here. It ap- 
peared that they were receiving the visit of Karitahi, 
a head chief of the Ngahitau tribe, who had come from 
Otako in a fine large sealing-boat, in order to make 
overtures for the reconciliation of the two tribes. It 
was said, that if this could be effected on a sure foot- 
ing, Taiharoa and " Bloody Jack," Rauperaha^ former 
inveterate enemies, were coming to confer with him on 
various affairs. The natives of Waikanae and Otaki 
told me that this was one of the cases in which, as the 
common Maori proverb says, you must be clever to 
" dive into the projects of Te Rauperaha;^ and his 
movements and those of his new allies were watched 
with the greatest suspicion. 

The southern chief was dressed in an old dragoon 
helmet, and black tail-coat without trousers under his 
dirty mats. His manner was very insolent and undig- 
nified ; and his language a mixture of Maori "bounce" 
and whaling " slang," which showed that he was 
tiiinted by the character of the coarse Europeans among 
whom he had lived. 

I turned to speak to Rauperaha about the flax ; 
telling him how many new people were joining in the 
occupation every day, and trying to interest him in the 
benefits to be derived by the natives. He sneered, as 
usual, at the whole affair, and told me it was only a 
plan of mine to make the natives slaves to the Whit^ 
people. He said they were fools to listen to me. 


He then began to talk about the land with much 
violence ; which surprised me, as I had seen him fre- 
quently at Otaki in the course of the last few months 
without his even broaching the subject. Rangihaeata, 
too, as usual excited by drink, ran up and down for a 
little while using very violent language on the sul>- 
ject ; but he went back to lie down in his hut when I 
laughed, lit my pipe, and passed some merry joke upon 
his large mouth having it all to himself. 

Rauperaha then pursued the subject in a conversa- 
tional style, as I lay on the shingly beach close by him, 
among his basking train. 

" Do you mean to take all the land?" said he ; "you 
*' are driving the natives first from one place and then 
" from another ; are you and Wide-awake to have it 
" all ?" He went on for some time, positively as though 
the natives were being driven out instead of the White 
people, as was really the case in all the settlements ; 
and he declared he would stop it. 

I knew it was useless to argue the point with him, 
as I felt sure that some sinister influence had been at 
work upon him recently, from his irritated manner and 
tone. So I answered, jokingly, and rather to turn 
off" the subject, that I supposed when ships enough 
with 200 people in each had sailed past Kapit'i to 
Port Nicholson, they would, in time, cover the land 
with their grandchildren. And I asked him why he 
did not stop the ships in the Strait with his canoe. I 
told him, too, that it was no affair of mine, and that I 
had no control over it ; that the Governor and Wide- 
awake would settle between them what he had really 
sold and pay him for the rest. I concluded by urging 
him, as I had often done before, to go and see Wide- 
awake at Wellington, and convince himself that no- 
thing but kindness was meant to the Maori. He scorned 
the offer as usual, saying he should be thought a l)eggar ; 


and repeated that lie would stop the White people : he 
didn't care for Wide-awake or the Governor either. 
They shouldn't have Porirua, and they shouldn't have 
the Hutt ; and they shouldn't have fVairau, which he 
informed me was being surveyed by people from Nelson. 
He declared none of those places were paid for. I told 
him that we should always be of two opinions about 
that, and that it was of no use discussing it, as we 
could not agree. And I again tried to joke off the 
dispute, saying that the White people would creep on 
and get their right at last. I remember being struck 
with the hyena-like scream with which he said, " Then 
" we'll fight about it !" But I still laughed at his ob- 
stinacy, and showed him how unequal a battle it would 
be if he trusted to force instead of justice. He said, 
however, that he did not care ; " it must be one for 
" one, till either the Maori or the pakeha were kuapo" 
or " exhausted." 

As I rose to get into my boat, which was now loaded, 
Rauperaha told me that he and Rangihaeata were going 
to Nelson soon to tell the Wide-awake of that place 
not to survey IVairau, as it had not been paid for. I 
highly approved of his intention ; and told him Wide- 
awake would receive him as a welcome guest, and be 
sure to arrange the affair peaceably for all parties. For 
I imagined that Rauperaha would go and get some 
presents, and learn the advantages of being on terms of 
friendly intercourse with the White settlements. 

A few days afterwards, Rauperaha brought his guests 
to Otaki ; and the Ngatiraukawa received them with 
great feasting at the small pa near the mouth called 
Pa Kakuiu, the residence of Topeora, Rangihaeata's 

I had appointed with EAhu to go to Taupo with him 
early this year ; he having promised to show me a very 


easy road, the one by which he originally came to assist 
Rawperaha. It communicated between the " Sacred 
Sand," at the foot of Ruapehu and the country at the 
head of the Rangitikei river ; and E Ahu assured me 
that, with a very little labour, this path might be made 
passable for a horse. Our method of assignation had 
been one peculiar to the natives : we were to start when 
the rata should be in bloom. This is a curious but 
very common plant, which is at first a parasite, winding 
round large trees of the forest till it encircles and 
destroys them, when its numerous coils join together 
in one hollow trunk, leaving their victim to rot inside. 

The rata thus full-grown is certainly the monarch 
of the New Zealand forest. In the gnarled form and 
tough contortions of its limbs, it much resembles the 
oak, and is therefore highly valued by ship-builders for 
knees and timbers. The foliage has also the noble ap- 
pearance at a distance of the English forest-king. But 
the plant is of the myrtle kind, and bears a bright 
crimson blossom* in such abundance that, at its time 
of flowering, the forests look as though some playful 
giant had dipped every other tree in crimson dye and 
stuck them up again. 

This tree is somewhat irregular in its flowering, and 
earlier in some parts of the country than in others. 
But this fairy hue is generally thrown over the wooded 
steeps soon after the middle of summer, about harvest- 
time. The numerous engagements of E Ahu in start- 
ing the flax-trade put our trip out of the question for 
this season. 

* I must again refer the reader to the Lithographic Plates. 



Journey to Wanganui — Wahine iti joins me — His relations ob- 
ject — He asserts his own authority — Mr. Spain, the Land Com- 
missioner, at Petre — Upright conduct of an old chief — Death of 
Mr. Mason — The Rev. Richard Taylor — Spirited behaviour of 
E Kuru — Journey towai'ds Taranaki — Bridle-road — Missionary 
opposition — Luxuriant country — Food for cattle in the forest — 
The tutu, a poisonous shrub — Signs of a settlement — Suspension- 
bridge — Advantages of having no port — The yeomen of New Ply- 
mouth — Contentment in a good .climate — Security bestowed on 
Taranaki by the Whites — Flocking of natives to the district — 
New claims — ^Suspension of the Company's operations — Negotia- 
tions with Mr. Spain and Mr. Clarke junior — Coast near Cape 
Egmont — Religious feuds among natives — Inhospitality — 
Changed character — A captive belle — E Kuru\ home. 

It was not till the beginning of April that I got a 
letter from Colonel Wakefield, dated from Wellington, 
instructing me to go on to TVanganm and manage 
the Company's case before Mr. Spain. Colonel Wake- 
field and Mr. Molesworth had returned by sea from New 
Plymouth in the Government brig, which called on 
her way to Wellington from Manukau with the Chief 
Justice and a new Police Magistrate for Wellington. 

Numerous appointments of Magistrates, including 
many of the principal settlers in the Cook's Strait 
settlements, had been made by the Acting Governor. 

TVahhie iti, the eldest son of E Ahu, whom I have 
already noticed as so eager, although so young, to 
become a civilized gentleman, able to lead his future 
dependents by means of the respect which should 
be paid to him by the colonists of station, determined to 
accompany me to JVanganui and Taranaki ; for I 

VOL. II. z 


intended to proceed to New Plymouth as soon as I 
should have concluded the Company's business at 

Although a recent feud had broken out between the 
Ngatiraukawa and the TVanganm tribes, and several re- 
taliatory outrages had been committed on either side 
of every sort except actual bloodshed, E Ahu readily 
intrusted his son to my care and protection. 

At Hm'owenua, however, I met with serious op- 
position to the young chief's accompanying me. I 
staid there one night, having to settle with TVatanui 
about the removal of several tons of flax which his 
family and his tribe of slaves at a pa on the lake had 
been collecting. Watanui, although of a younger 
branch of the family than E Ahu, is an older 
man, and has more to say on especial family matters. 
He called TVahine id his mokopuna, or " grandchild," 
although the relationship existing between them is 
much more distant. After breakfast jn the morning, 
the old man said very quietly to me, " The boy shall 
not go with you ; he will be killed." I reminded 
Tf^atanui of his recent alliance with E Kuru ; and 
appealed to him whether that chief had not good faith 
enough to repay his hospitality by taking care of his 
grandchild. He acknowledged this, but feared that 
the boy would be makuti, or injured by sorcery and 
incantations on hostile territory; and this, he said, 
neither I nor E Kuru could prevent. I remonstrated 
with him on the unfitness of these fears in a Christian ; 
but he would not be persuaded. I claimed the per- 
mission given by E Ahu, the father of the boy ; but 
ff^atanui said E Ahu was porangi, " a fool;" and 
persisted in putting his veto on the licence. TVatanui^ 
wife, too, Peropero, or " War-dance," told me that 
Wahine iti was a great chief, and not fit to carry 


baggage for White men like a tutua, or " comnion 
" person." I instantly replied to her, with some indig- 
nation, that I too was reckoned a chief among the 
natives ; and that I had asked the young chief to go 
with me not as a servant, but as a companion. And I 
showed her that the baggage was divided between two 
slaves of E Ahu, who had been directed to attend on 
their young master, and one " boy " from my own 
Wanganui troop. 

I then went to Wahine iti, to shake hands with 
him and bid him farewell. I told him how nmch I 
regretted that this opposition should have been raised 
by his relations, as I had hoped to gratify him as well as 
do good to all his people, by treating him as my constant 
companion and equal, and thus exacting for him 
the respect of both White people and natives. The 
little fellow had listened in silence, but with intense 
attention, to the whole discussion. Now he squeezed 
my hand convulsively, drew me towards him as though 
to say something, but could not find utterance ; and I 
saw tears spring from his eyes, although he buried his 
face in his blanket, vainly attempting to overcome his 
emotion by the dignity of his rank. I left suddenly, 
and without the customary farewell to the old patriarch 
and his wife, for I felt much hurt at their want of 
confidence. The surrounding natives immediately 
observed this, and said, "Jie is gone away angry; he 
" did not speak to the patriarch in going ! Awe! awe!" 
(alas ! alas !) 

I had not got more than half a mile along the path 
to the beach, when Pf^ahine iti came running up, his 
eyes sore with crying, and seized a tight hold of my 
arm. Loud shouts were heard from the village, E 
Tf^ahi, e TVahiy hokimai ! hokimai ! " Come back, 
come back!" I stopped, and asked him what this 



meant. He only pointed along the path, and said. 
Haere taua ! " Let you and I go on." 

Two or three of his relations came up with us, and 
tried all means to persuade him to return ; but in vain. 
When they asked him if he had not heard the words 
of his tipuna, or grandfather, he answered that he had ; 
but that he too was a chief, and had his word to say 
as well as H^atanui. " Remain in your place," said he ; 
" I am going on to JVanganui with my White man, 
" to see his good chief J^ Kuru, and then to Taranaki 
" to live in the houses of the White gentlemen his 
" friends. Remain ! " 

JJ^ahine iti was certainly not yet 14 years of age : 
but his claims to be an independent chief were immedi- 
ately recognised ; and his early assumption of the dig- 
nity seemed to produce a sudden awe upon the minds 
of IVatanui^ messengers. Although they were men 
30 or 40 years of age, they appeared to grieve at his 
decision, but to yield implicit obedience to his will in 
striking out his own line of conduct. They shouted 
'* Go to Taranaki ! " and returned to the village. 

I augured the most happy consequences from the 
firm determination of this noble lad to risk all dangers 
and decline advice, in order to prove his perfect confi- 
dence in me, and to secure the means of learning to be 
like a White gentleman. On a mind of such amiable 
docility and such manly decision, what great effects 
might not be produced by the training of it to honour- 
able and enlightened objects ! 

At Manawatu, where Taratoa and U^atanuis eldest 
son, Billy, again tried to dissuade him and to warn 
him of the dangers, he persisted in his intention, though 
he smothered a tear as he left the last dwelling of his 
own tribe. 

Our party was here increased by one of the Assistant 


Surveyors of the Company, on his way to TVanganui 
to assist the Commissioner's Court with the necessary 
plans and maps. 

We reached JVanganui safely on the evening of 
Sunday the 17th of April. I wrote a note at once to 
the Commissioner to apprise him of my arrival. 

But I found that Mr. Spain had got impatient at 
the delay in the arrival of either Colonel Wakefield 
or myself; had held his Court and closed it, after 
three days' examination of witnesses ; and was about to 
return to Wellington the next morning. 

I also heard that E Kuru had begged that no inves- 
tigation might take place until all the parties to the 
sale were present ; and had gone up to Tata, and some 
other places as far as 150 miles up the river, to collect 
many of the chiefs who had signed the deed of the 
Company. I immediately despatched a canoe with 
two boys to hasten his movements ; and begged Mr. 
Spain to postpone his departure, as I found, on availing 
myself of his permission to peruse the evidence taken, 
that it entirely consisted of that of repudiators, and was 
for the most part a tissue of falsehoods. Some denied 
having signed at all ; some said that E Kuru had taken 
all the goods ; some that they were porangi, or foolish^ 
when they signed ; and others that the pigs and pota- 
toes which were given to me after the sale as a present, 
and for which I had immediately paid out of my pri- 
vate property, were the only consideration given by the 
natives for the Company's goods. 

Some correspondence ensued between the Commis- 
sioner and myself ; which displayed on the part of Mr. 
Spain a feeling of personal offence at having been kept 
waiting three weeks, and a scrupulous attention to 
hours (such as dating his letters 3 p.m., in answer to 
mine " only just delivered " ) as important to the public 


call upon the duties of his office. This attention to 
minutes consorted but little with the long months 
which had been dragged over the Port Nicholson in- 
vestigation. Here, too, quite as large a district had 
been bought, as large a payment had been made, a larger 
number of chiefs had signed, and a larger number of 
natives had partaken in the transaction. 

The result of our correspondence was the postpone- 
ment of the departure, and the opening of the Court 
for two days more ; one of which was occupied by the 
evidence of Rangi Tauwira, called by me. 

Like E Puni at Wellington, this venerable patriarch 
told a plain unvarnished tale ; proving how perfectly he 
had understood the bargain, how sincerely he had 
entered into it, and how faithfully he had maintained 
its fulfilment. His evidence closed with the emphatic 
Ae! answering to " Yes, truly!" in reply to three 
pointed questions from the Commissioner himself, 
whether he had sold his pas, his cultivations, and his 
very burying- grounds. The fine old gentleman had 
repeatedly promised to remove his jsa from the section on 
which it stood to a Native Reserve half a mile higher 
up the river, the moment that the sectionist, who lived 
in the town of Petre, should wish to occupy his land. 

The next day was a blank one : but I was not sur- 
prised at this, as my messengers could not reach 
E Kuru^ village by any possibility in less than four 
days ; and if he were there, or perhaps still higher up, 
he could not reach the sea with all his train for several 
days more. 

But on the Friday, notwithstanding my remon- 
strances, the Commissioner departed towards W^el- 

When dawdling for many months over the Wel- 
lington purchase, Mr. Spain had lived in a tolerably 


comfortable house, was constantly dining out, and 
spending a very agreeable life. During not quite four 
weeks at Pf^anganui, he had been obliged to live in a 
miserable hut, hardly tight from the weather, and its 
sandy floor abounding with fleas ; his food consisting 
of pork and potatoes ; and the society almost none. He 
went away after devoting five days out of the four weeks 
to the examination of witnesses, but without having 
even seen the great majority of the chiefs who had 
signed the deed. 

Nine days after Mr. Spain's departure, E Kuru ar- 
rived with a large fleet of canoes, bearing his father and 
most of the influential chiefs of his own and allied 
tribes, who had waited for his summons to come and 
give their evidence. The indignation of the whole 
party may be better conceived than described when they 
found that the Commissioner was gone. Especially did 
E Kuru storm, when he heard from some of the natives 
and one or two of the White people that Mr. Spain 
had described him as having been anxious to avoid 
giving his evidence, or as having been employed in 
catching pigs for me instead of collecting witnesses. 

Mr. Mason, the missionary, had lost his life some 
weeks before this, in crossing the Turakina river on horse- 
back during a freshet, in company with Mr. Hadfield. 
That .gentleman had made vigorous but unsuccessful 
efforts to save his friend, till he was himself exhausted. 
The Columbine, a schooner of 60 tons, arrived from the 
Bay of Islands soon after Mr. Spain's departure, bearing 
the Rev. Richard Taylor as Mr. Mason's successor. In 
numerous conversations with Mr. Taylor, I learned to 
believe that he was impressed with the urgency of 
teaching the natives of Putikiwaranui to be friendly 
towards the Whites, and to abandon, in part, their exor- 
bitant ideas as to compensation. In the meanwhile, he 


persuaded them to allow one or two of the settlers to 
locate on sections which had been formerly strictly in- 
terdicted, and to trust that they should be ultimately 
treated with the most ample justice. This was indeed 
an improvement on the conduct of his predecessor. But 
I regret to say that I have since heard, from most excel- 
lent authority, that he has taken advantage of the death 
of poor E Kuru in last September to urge the repudi- 
ators on to as great exorbitance and obstinacy as before.* 
They had already refused the compensation of 1000/. 
awarded to them finally by Mr. Spain as umpire. 

E Kuru had distinguished himself during my absence 
by a very spirited action. A White settler had begun 
farming operations on a section close to the town, in a 
part of the country the entire alienation of which had 
never before been disputed by any native. Soon after 
he had built a small straw hut there, two or three 
natives from one of the missionary villages had come 
and given him the usual " notice to quit." A slave of 
E Kuru, acting as servant to the White man, heard the 
threat and reported it to his master. E Kuru imme- 
diately ordered six of his young men to take arms, to 
go and live at the hut, and to assist in building a larger 
house which was in progress on the section. A few 
days afterwards, a party of 30 missionary natives, well 
armed, went up avowedly to pull down or burn the 
houses ; but they had desisted from all interference as 
soon as they heard from the slaves that E Kuru had 
instructed them to fight if necessary, and had promised 
to make the affair one of life and death. 

I now proceeded by land to Taranaki, accom})anied 
* On receiving this intelligence, I looked at the List of Land 
Claims, and found that the Reverend Richard Taylor, who only 
went to New Zealand in the year 1838, was a claimant before the 
Land Commissioners of 50,000 acres of land in the northern part of 
the island. 


by JVahine iti and one or two " boys" to carry baggage 
and provisions. 

As far as JVenuakura we also travelled in company 
with a New Plymouth settler, who was driving a flock 
of 300 sheep and six or eight bullocks thither from 
Wellington, after a rest of a week at IVanganm. 

From Patea we had a tedious walk along the top of 
high cliffs for 17 miles. There two small rivers break 
the cliff with their gullies, and a pa, called Manawa- 
pou, or " Broken Heart," contains a population of about 
100 of the Ngatiruanui tribe. Nine miles more along 
the foot of the cliffs, the beach being passable at low 
water, brought us to the TVaingongoro, or " Snoring 

-'• Here resides a fine old chieftain, who was named 
" Te Pakeke," or " The Grown Man," by the TVaikato 
tribes, from the ingenuity and hardihood which he had 
displayed in escaping from their predatory excursions 
into this part of the country, and in harassing their 

The Agent of the New Plymouth settlement had 
determined to cut a bridle-road inland of Mount Eg- 
mont, to connect New Plymouth with the coast of 
Cook's Strait, somewhere between TVaimate and Patea, 
by an easier and a shorter route than that round the 
coast. This object had at length been effected, not- 
withstanding the opposition of the great body of natives 
on this side, entirely by native labour. 

A Wesleyan missionary residing at Tf^aimate, named 
Skeflington, had made the most strenuous efforts to 
overthrow the scheme ; telling the natives that the 
road was made with a view to seize their lands, and 
that it was nothing but a design upon them which 
ought to be viewed with the utmost suspicion. Ac- 
cordingly, they had refused to allow egress to the road 
at Jf^aimate, Manawapou, or Patea. 


But Pakeke, who had become acquainted with a kind 
farmer's family at New Plymouth, two meml)ers of 
which were intended to superintend the native labour- 
ers as soon as permission should be obtained to cut the 
road, at once gave the plan his cordial support, and en- 
gaged that his own especial followers should do the 
work. And he appointed TVaingongoro as the place 
of egress on the coast, as his out-cultivations were on 
the edge of the wood, near the valley of that river. 

Upon this, the missionary raised such a hornet's nest 
about his ears, that though he had formerly lived in 
TVaimate pa, and had been one of the most zealous 
attendants on Mr. Skeffington's religious instruction, 
he removed his own family, and retinue to a new village 
which he built at the mouth of the river where the 
road was to emerge, and suddenly but resolutely ab- 
jured his sectarian faith and called himself a Church- 
of-England man. His following all did the same ; and 
the most revolting religious feud was going on between 
near relations in the two septs of this tribe when I 
passed through the district. The road, however, was 
finished ; and we had met a party of the workmen at 
Manawapou, who were on their way to show the dou- 
ble-barrelled fowling-pieces, in which they had insisted 
on receiving the principal part of the payment, to their 
friends at a settlement inland between the Manawapou 
and Patea rivers. 

On one occasion, Mr. Skeffington had not scrupled 
to ride up among the party when at work, and to use 
such expressions and inducements to them to give up 
their engagements, that one of the two honest young 
farmers, who acted throughout as superintendents, had 
told him his cloth alone prevented him from being 
pulled oil' his horse. 

Along this bridle-road we proceeded, accompanied 
by one of Pakeke^ men, who was christened Koriniti, 


or " Corinthians," and who offered to guide us along a 
part of the way, and to carry a heavy basket of potatoes 
for food. For about eight miles from the edge of the 
cliff, fine pasture-land extends, mixed with occasional 
patches of fern. The whole tract from Pf^anganui 
hither, and as far west as I could see, appeared to be of 
precisely the same character as that over which I had 
passed between Wenuakura and TVaitotara in 1840 ; 
the level table-land being broken by the gullies of nu- 
merous streams which are partially or wholly filled 
with wood. Before entering the forest, I observed that 
a low wooded range of hills extends from the high- 
lands of JVanganui about iialf-way to the base of 
Mount Egmont ; and that we were directing our steps 
towards the centre of the flat district between Mount 
Egmont and the spot where this low range sinks gra- 
dually into the forest. 

After all the beautiful spots and districts which I 
had already seen in New Zealand, I was struck with 
the surpassing beauty and luxuriant productiveness of 
the country hereabouts, just after entering the wood, 
which is at first like an immense shrubbery with occa- 
sional large trees. The abundance of the second crops 
in the existing native gardens, the rankness and yet 
softness of the grass which had sprung up in the old 
deserted patches, surrounded with flowering shrubs 
amidst which countless flocks of singing-birds were 
chasing each other, all combined with the genial at- 
mosphere, although it was approaching to the middle 
of winter, to remind me touchingly of Shakspeare's 
sweet picture of the perfection of agriculture. Just 
such a country and climate is described by him, if 
worked by happy and industrious farmers : — 

" Earth's increase and foyson plenty, 

" Barns and garners never empty ; 


" Vines with clust'ring branches growing ; ^ 

" Plants with goodly burden bowing ; 

" Spring come to you at the farthest 

*' In the very end of harvest ! 

" Scarcity and want shall shun you, 

*' Ceres' blessing so is on you !" 
A long trudge through the forest, of which the trees 
increased in size as we advanced, presented but little 
variety till we emerged on the picturesque broken 
country which stretches northwards from Mount 
Egmont at a distance of 10 or 12 miles from the 
coast. We had slept two nights in the bush, and the 
third we reached a hut in a small cultivation on the 
western edge of the forest. The journey had proved 
very tedious, from the extraordinary number of gullies 
and streams which we had to cross. Among these 
were the Patea and several of its tributaries, which 
take their rise in the side of Mount Egmont. After 
passing them, we came to those which join together to 
swell the four or five small rivers that flow out on the 
western coast between the Sugar-loaf Islands and the 

We had passed about half-way the skeletons of two 
horses. These had belonged to Mr. Cooke and his 
stockman. On his journey with the herd of cattle, he 
had expected to find this road open. On being dis- 
appointed, he left his horse, and was guided by the na- 
tives through the forest along the line which the road 
was to take. His cattle and sheep were in the meanwhile 
feeding and resting in the rich pastures which I have 
described. He directed his stockman to take the horses 
back and drive the cattle round the coast ; but the 
stockman left his horse too, also came through the 
forest, and remained drinking a week at New Plymouth. 
When he got back, both horses were dead of starvation. 
It is a curious fact, however, that cattle will not only 


not starve but thrive in the New Zealand forest, as 
there are many evergreen shrubs, including the karaJca, 
of which cows and oxen are extremely fond. Captain 
Daniell has a herd of 50 or 60 that keep in excellent 
condition on his farm near Kai TVara TVara, although 
there is but little grass on a few small and scattered 
patches of deserted potato-garden. The cottagers along 
the Porirua road keep cows, which give excellent and 
abundant milk, although there is nothing but leaves 
for them to eat for six miles in any direction. 

In the open lands, a shrub called the tutu, to which 
I have more than once referred, is rather dangerous to 
cattle. The natives make a sickly beverage from the 
berries, which are very small, in bunches like currants, 
and of which the seed is highly poisonous. The leaves, 
and especially the young and tender shoots, are much 
liked by the cattle, and often deadly in their effects. 
But this seems a very irregular occurrence. I have 
often known cattle eat the tiitu without being at all 
affected. At other times, and especially in newly-ar- 
rived cattle, a very small quantity causes a disease very 
much resembling that produced by an excess of clover. 
Instant and severe bleeding is the only chance of saving 
the stock affected. The tutu is very abundant among 
fern and dry grass pasture, and is exceedingly difficult 
to exterminate. Horses and sheep either do not eat 
this plant or are never affected by its noxious quali- 

Descending from the broken country, we found our- 
selves on the plains of New Plymouth, which are 
almost entirely covered with fern, varying in height 
from three to ten feet. Scattered groves of timber 
and gentle undulations from the plain into the valleys 
of the water-courses and their tributaries diversify the 
view agreeably. 


At length we got into a line of road through the 
fern. One or two strong wooden bridges over the 
streams, and three or four neat houses and fields in 
various directions, soon told of the neighbourhood of 
a European settlement. We crossed a rough suspen- 
sion-bridge in process of erection, of which the chains 
were supported on the round trunks of four large trees ; 
then some smiling gardens, neatly hedged and ditched ; 
a forge ; a row of labourers' cottages ; some cob houses 
in various stages of progress ; and we reached the house 
of Mr. Cooke, who had invited me, when he was at 
Wellington, to come and find him out. 

From thence to the mouth of the Uatoki river, about 
a mile north of the Sugarloaf Islands, the houses and 
gardens thicken apace ; and there a little nucleus of 
dwellings forms the town.* 

The absence of a port had been of great advantage 
to the 1100 people who had settled at New Plymouth. 
The commerce of a shipping town had not encouraged 
a race of small shopkeepers and petty merchants ; but 
the colonists had at once struck the plough or the spade 
into the ground. I found that a very large proportion 
of the people were scattered about in different directions 
on promising farms ; and a numerous race of small 
farmers or yeomen is rapidly springing up there. A 
great many of this class originally arrived at this set- 
tlement from the West of England; and they have 
had no temptation to change their pursuit for one to 
which they were less accustomed. 

The soil of this undulating and very pretty country 
is for the most part excellent for agricultural pur}X)ses ; 
but the growth of pure fern is not suited for the imme- 

♦ One of the Illustrations, published by Smith and Elder, is a 
most interesting view of this commencement of a town, drawn by 
Mrs. Wicksteed. 


diate maintenance of cattle and sheep. While I was 
staying at Mr. Cooke's house none of his cattle could 
be found for nearly three days, as they had strayed 
many miles in search of pasture. But, of course, arti- 
ficial pasturage will soon remedy this ; and if the fern 
were burnt off, and every one that walked about were to 
carry a few grass-seeds in his pocket, I have no doubt 
but that the grass would eventually choke the fern, as 
it does in other places. 

The population of New Plymouth seemed a particu- 
larly happy set of people. As they are little troubled 
with politics, I rarely saw many of them in the town, 
which is as dull a place, except to look at, as you can 
imagine. But on going to their little farms a mile off 
in one direction or two miles in another, I found them 
hard at work, delighted with the fertility of the soil 
which they were turning over, with hardly a complaint 
to make, and spending homely English evenings round 
a huge farm-house chimney ; rising early, and not long 
out of their beds after their tea and pipes. I could not 
help reflecting, while spending an evening or two in 
this domestic way as a visitor at one of these farm- 
houses, that New Zealand is just the country for people 
like these, the better class of English yeomen. The 
climate is better adapted to an English constitution 
than that of almost any other of our colonies, although 
without a distinct winter, or frost, or fogs, or raw 
easterly winds, to check vegetation or make you house 
your cattle. The amazing productiveness of the soil, 
or rather of the air — for almost all land, if sufficiently 
turned over and exposed for a time, gives abundant 
crops^ — must tend to make agriculture the most plea- 
sant of occupations. And, unless the flax, or the tim- 
ber, or the bark, or mineral productions, are soon disco- 
vered to be valuable exports, it will be difficult to make 
a rapid fortune in the country. 


It is rather a colony for persons of contented mind 
to enjoy life better with the same means, than for for- 
tune-hunters to acquire a great and rapid increase of 
means wherewith to go back and enjoy life in the old 
country. But in the enjoyment of life in the colony, 
I include the constant pleasure of seeing scenery through 
a clear atmosphere, of breathing pure and invigorating 
air, of sleeping nine months in the year with your bed- 
room window open, and yet never feeling it too warm for 
fire when rain or a gale of wind keeps you in-doors. 
For otherwise you are always out of doors, watx^hing 
the robust growth of your plants or the brilliant rising 
and setting of the sun, the surprising condition of the 
cattle without any great care, or the constantly varying 
but constantly beautiful appearances of the landscape, 
be it ever so meagre, which is open to your view. A 
gentleman who had lived nearly four years at Pf'lan- 
ganui almost without doing anything, and totally with- 
out society or excitement, expressed the calm and con- 
tentment thus infused into the most secluded existence 
in the following words : — 

" So we continue to vegetate. How it is we are not 
" all killed with ennui, I cannot imagine, for a duller 
" life than ours at present cannot be conceived ; but I 
" must say, I never in my life found time hang so lightly 
" on my hand, or was more free from care, blue devils, or 
" sickness, than since I have been here. The days pass 
" so quickly that you can scarcely believe that Sunday is 
" come again. Few can say with certainty what day of the 
" week it is ; and yet you do nothing ; walk a few times 
" up the beach, smoke a pipe or two, chat with a few 
, " Maoris, kill a pig, and the day is done." 

IVahtne iti, who always accompanied me to the 
houses of the different settlers, was delighted at the 
urbane treatment which was secured to him by our 
companionship. He appeared to take as great interest 


as I did in the progress of the White community, and 
was in raptures with the roads and bridges. 

"While at New Plymouth, I rode with Mr. Cooke 
to the Waiter a, 12 miles north of the town, and then 
went inland to the Pa Pukerangiora, on the edge of 
the broken country. This site is famous for the dreadful 
carnage which took place upon the capture of the pa 
Tf^ero TVeru, in about 1833. At a settlement near the 
base of the hill on which it once stood, we fell in with 
an old chief of the Ngatiawa, named ff^atitiri, or 
'* Thunder," who had managed to escape from the 
massacre. He related to us many vivid scenes of the 
bloody campaign which had occasioned the total deser- 
tion of this country for so many years. 

Now that living in it was rendered secure by the 
presence of the White settlers, the native population 
was almost daily increasing. Not only returned slaves, 
freed by their TVaikato masters as they embraced the 
Christian faith, but numbers of those who had retreated 
from the harassing life of a frontier country to 
TVaikanae, Port Nicholson, and Queen Charlotte's 
Sound, were flocking back to their ancient habitations ; 
and these formed two classes of new claimants for 
compensation. Finding how great a value had been 
conferred on the land which had been worthless before 
they left, each strove to establish his claim to that sur- 
rounding the spot where he had formerly lived or grown 
potatoes ; and all denied the right of the natives whom 
we had found resident on the spot to sell any but a very 
small portion. 

If we had not bought it, and rendered it secure by 
colonization, they would never have thought of coming 
to establish their claim even to the cultivations and 
ancient sites oi pas which they had formally abandoned 
so many years ago. 

VOL. II. 2 A 


The Native Reserves, however, were abundantly 
sufficient to maintain these new-comers as well as the 
few inhabitants who had dwelt on through danger and 
trouble in their native land. But as the Reserves were 
not managed for the benefit of the natives, the returned 
slaves and exiles were constantly causing little dis- 
turbances, which would have been doubtless more 
serious if they had not remembered the intrepid conduct 
of Messrs. Cooke and Wicksteed at the PFaitera, and 
heard of the heavy falls which Bayly, the West-country 
wrestler, had given the champion of the party who 
came to pull down his tent. 

It was while here that I first heard of the uncertain 
state in which things were now standing between the 
Company and the Colonial Office in England. Mr. 
Wicksteed, the Company's Agent, received a despatch 
from Wellington, informing him of the reduction of 
the Company's expenditure at all the settlements, in- 
cluding that of the salaries of the Agents and other 
officers, by one-half in most cases. 

The Directors were applying to Lord Stanley for 
the equitable fulfilment of the Agreement of 1840, and 
a long negotiation and correspondence had ensued, of 
which the result was not yet known. But in the 
meanwhile the Company's operations Avere suspended ; 
ho more land was sold ; no more emigrants were sent 
out ; and the impetus which had been given to immi- 
gration of the best sort at the end of the last year was 
brought to a stop. 

Great difficulties seemed likely to ensue ; especially 
at Nelson, where there was at present too large a 
proportion of labourers, and where the inability of 
the Company to fill up the large scale on which that 
settlement had been founded, in consequence of the ge- 
neral discouragement caused by the obstruction to their 


proceedings, must necessarily produce very dire effects 
on the condition of the few capitalists already there. 

Even at Taranaki there were a number of labourers 
employed by the Company until they could suit them- 
selves with another master ; and the reduction of their 
wages was likely to create much excitement and dis- 

Thus things seemed to be taking a more unfavourable 
turn than ever when I departed from New Plymouth 
to return by the coast to Tf^anganiii. 

Colonel Wakefield had postponed the continuation 
of the arbitration for award until he might hear the 
result of the negotiations in England. The Directors 
had placed at his disposal 500/. and 1000 acres of land 
for satisfying the natives for such reasonably disputed 
lands as they might be willing to alienate. But Mr. 
Clarke junior had begun by demanding 1000 guineas 
as compensation for the waste and unoccupied lands of 
the natives of the three pas in the town alone, amount- 
ing to perhaps 3000 or 4000 acres, which they hardly dis- 
puted with the settlers. This was when Colonel \^^ake- 
field had asked him in March, before leaving \^^ellington 
for New Plymouth, to " determine upon one proposal, 
" to include all claims for the Port Nicholson district, 
" if there were any beyond those he had advanced, and 
" upon such terms as would leave no question as to 
" the surrender of the pas and cultivations required for 
" the settlement, so soon as the natives could be rea- 
" sonably expected to leave them." 

Before Colonel Wakefield received any answer from 
Mr. Clarke junior to this new proposal, he received, 
on his return from New Plymouth, the news from 
England which I have mentioned, and wrote to Mr. 
Spain on the 24th of May to explain why he was 
compelled to await further orders from the Directors. 

2 a2 


On the same day, he received a letter from Mr. 
Clarke junior informing him, in answer to his proposal, 
that he considered all claims of the natives resident 
within the Port Nicholson district entitled to compen- 
sation to the amount of 1500/. 

Colonel Wakefield, however, still refused to re-open 
the negotiation ; especially as he had not yet received 
an answer from the Colonial Secretary to his applica- 
tion in January to be allowed to select blocks of land, 
in pursuance of a provision of the Agreement, and 
could not therefore know where he should have to 
extinguish the native claims. For he wished to make 
no payments unless the question could be definitively 
settled without intervals to make each claim on this 
coast greater than the preceding one. 

On my way back round the shore, I saw but little 
that was new. From immediately south of Sugar-loaf 
Point, the belt of open country between the coast and 
the wood reassumes its character of rich pasture 
mingled with the fern ; and this all the way to the 
spot where I had struck off to go inland of Mount 
Egmont. Cliffs form the coast, except just about 
Cape Egmont, where the country slopes down gra- 
dually to high-water mark. Between Ngumotu and 
a large pa called Otumatua the country is now thickly 
peopled, entirely by persons who have returned since 
the establishment of the English colony between them 
and the formerly dreaded fJ^aikato. 

At Otumatua I saw a very beautifully carved toata, or 
store-house, of which Mr. Heaphy had made a sketch 
on his visit in 1840 ; and it was pointed out to me on 
that account.* 

At H^aimate, which is only nine miles from TVain- 

* One of the Lithographic Illustrations before referred to repre- 
sents this building. 


gongoro, I was struck with the impregnable position 
of the three j as on isolated portions of the cliiF, only 
to be reached by means of rough ladders. I wondered 
how even the little party of English soldiers should have 
made the natives fly on the occasion of the Alligator's 
expedition in 1834. But the inhabitants told me that 
they had been more afraid of the cannon of the frigate, 
which picked out the houses, than of the soldiers who 
climbed up one side of each of the three hill-forts one 
after the other, as the natives descended by the opposite 
ladder and finally fled into the interior. 

The whole population of natives between the Sugar- 
loaf Islands and Patea struck me as being in a most 
repulsive and pitiable condition. They were all mission- 
aries, but divided in their creeds. The most dreadful 
religious schisms occurred daily between the nearest 
relations, on matters of which neither side really under- 
stood much. And this virulence of dispute on the 
most abstruse as well as the most trifling points of 
religion, l>oth in form and doctrine, I found very much 
replacing the strict puritan observances and adherence 
to absurd exaggerated forms. The disputes resounded 
with the names of the various European missionaries 
of the two denominations, and they compared the 
teachers perhaps more violently than they did the doc- 
trines. The Church party seemed generally to have the 
best of the dispute, for they quoted Mr. Hadfield and 
the Bishop as j)roofs that theirs was a " gentleman," 
or rangatira creed ; and called their opponents' teachers 
shoemakers, tailors, and servants. I took not the 
slightest part in these degrading disputes; and JVahine 
iti treated the disputants with the most sovereign con- 
tempt, saying they were an iwi tutua, or a " nation of 

It is necessary to remind the reader that the Com- 


mittees of the two Missionary Societies at home had 
agreed to divide the island between them ; the Church 
missionaries confining their labours to the Eastern side, 
and the Wesleyans exclusively to the Western side of 
the island. The servants of the missions in the country, 
however, as soon as it became expedient to extend their 
labours to Cook's Strait, seem to have differed about 
the boundary line. The Wesleyans claimed a right 
to convert as far as Port Nicholson, and named Cape 
Palliser as the dividing point ; while the Church mis- 
sionaries considered the spirit of the agreement to allow 
them to extend their efforts as far as Cape Egmont. 
Geographically, I think the Wesleyans were in the 
right ; but, in whatever way that point may be decided, 
it is not to be denied that the dispute gave rise to 
much indecent rivalry between the sects. 

The most disagreeable and saddening remark which 
I made was, that these natives appeared to have entirely 
abandoned their primitive and beautiful hospitality, the 
great redeeming point in the character of the most 
ferocious and treacherous heathen native, whom no in- 
fluence of any sort has yet changed for the better, or 
perverted from the customs of his fathers. Every vil- 
lage reminded me of the " touters " on the pier at 
Boulogne, seeking to pounce on an unfortunate tra- 
veller. Instead of the former dignified reception, with 
a house assigned you by the chief, to whom or to whose 
slaves you made a present for their trouble when yon 
went, here, in these democratic religious communi- 
ties where no man is above another, the whole popula- 
tion rushes at you, and you have to choose between 
five or six different parties, who each jjoint to a house, 
and profess the utmost anxiety to treat you well. But 
you soon find that, whichever you may choose, you 
have to pay for each small kit of potatoes, for the 


carrying of water, or of fern for your bed, and even for 
every stick of fire-wood before you are allowed to burn 
it. And you are withal treated with indifference to 
your friendship, and suspicion of your every motion 
and look, because you are a " devil," which means 
" not a missionary." 

These tribes seem to have been tamed, without being 
in the least civilized, by the new order of things. They 
eat, live, and dress in the same unclean and unwhole- 
some manner as before ; and though they can read and 
write their own language tolerably, and repeat nearly 
all the New Testament by rote, they do not seem to 
have acquired a single generous feeling or the slightest 
refinement of ideas. They always excite in my mind 
the deepest commiseration for their totally disorgan- 
ized state. 

It was only at Otumatua that I met with any kind- 
ness or chieftain-like treatment. Turori, a sister of 
Herekiekie, the chief of Tokanu at Taupo, had been 
taken captive at the battle of TVaitotara in 1840, and 
had fallen to the share of a man christened PFiremu, 
or " Williams," at Manawapoii. But being esteemed 
a great beauty among the natives, — that is to say, being 
of very masculine figure, with large prominent fea- 
tures, a bushy head of hair, loud voice, and well 
tatned between the lower lip and the chin, — Turori 
had soon become the ruler of her master, to any extent 
but that of letting her return to her native country. 

But there were many more claimants to her affec- 
tions among the natives of the neigh])ouring pas^ and 
she had at length abandoned her master to go and 
marry a handsome young teacher at Otumatua, called 
Nera, or " Nay lor." A fierce quarrel of course 
ensued between the master and the husband. The 
relations of either party took part in the dis})ute. 


which they mingled strangely with their religious 
discussions. But it ended in the belle remaining with 
her husband, and ruling him as she had ruled her 

At the request of her brother, I had tried to ransom 
her when I returned from Taupo ; having sent two of 
my boys with a double-barrelled gun each to lay at the 
feet of her master, with my letter begging him to 
accept them as payment for his slave, and to allow her 
to return to her family, l^ut he had refused ; and 
the boys brought me back the guns, and a j)rivate 
message from the slave, that had I come on horse- 
back she would have jumped up behind to fly to 

Now, however, she was perfectly reconciled to the 
life which she led with her huslmnd, who was a fine, 
good-humoured youth, and with her position as the 
acknowledged belle of the country. 

As I had brought her several letters and presents 
from her relations at Tivwpo and JVanganm, Tnrori 
was delighted to show me how thoroughly she joined 
in the grateful and respectful feelings of all her trilx? 
towards me ; and she ordered her husband about in all 
directions to make our party comfortable. 

On arriving at Tf^anganui^ I went up to Tata, and 
s[)ent a very pleasant week or two with E Kuru and 
his family. The chief was living a most happy and 
contented life among his potato-gardens. He showed 
me the trunk of a Mara tree, that he had cut down 
to make a war-canoe which was to be our joint pro- 
perty. He and his four wives vied in attentions of 
every sort to young TVahlne ifi, anxious to make him 
feel how unjust had l^een ff^atamiis suspicions. The 
lad fully reciprocated their kind feelings, and we made 
}is it were l)ut one family. 



First rumours of the massacre at Wairati — Rauperaha's, message — , 
E Kuru's offer of an armed force — The Police Magistrate's ver- 
sion—Fears of E Aim for his son — P^arthquake — Escort of 
natives — Kindness of Watanui — Affecting scene at Ohau — 
Rauperaha a missionary — His stratagems — He drives a herd of 
cattle back— Dispute with other chiefs — Speeches — Rauperaha 
insults the Queen of England — His kingly bearing — His powerful 
eloquence — Arrival at Wellington — Evidence relating to the 
Wairau massacre — Lord Stanley's episode — The truth about 
Rangihaeatds, wife— No Coroner — Alarm at Wellington — ^Enrol- 
ment of volunteers by the authorities — Battle of Manganui in 
the North — Caused by the Government. 

Towards the end of June I descended the river in 
company with E Kuru . 

When we reached Tunu huere, about 1 5 miles from 
the sea, strange reports were shouted to us from the 
pas and potato-gardens as we glided lazily along in 
the glowing sunset. The natives have generally a 
number of exaggerated stories which they delight to 
shout out in this way to people who have been away 
for some time ; and I paid no attention to these cries 
at first, as they seemed no more than customary. 

But suddenly E Kuru sprang up from the couch on 
which he was reclining by my side, the boys ceased 
paddling, and all signed to me to listen. A shout 
came clear and distinct over the water, and I felt faint 
at each word. " There had been a fight," the har- 
binger of ill news cried ; " and Rauperaha had killed 
" Wide-awake and 40 White people — no natives had 
" been killed ; that was all he knew !" 

I tried to laugh it oft"; and E Kuru, too, kept telling 
me it was all fko, or " lies." But from each little 


settlement or hut the same story still rang, with vary- 
ing additional circumstances ; all agreeing, however, 
that Wide-awake was dead. I thought they meant 
my uncle in Port Nicholson, and could not understand 
how any fighting could have occurred there ; I could 
not make it out ; but the reports were too confirmatory 
of each other in the main circumstance ; and every 
yard seemed a mile till I reached the White settlement. 
There was no longer any doubt. An Englishman 
had arrived from Wellington who told the following 
tale: — He had seen the Government brig arrive in 
Wellington and land Mr. Tuckett, the Chief Surveyor 
of Nelson, and two White men and a native who were 
dreadfully wounded, but had managed to escape from 
the combat which had taken place on the Wairau 
plain near Clciudy Bay. It was supposed that no 
others had escaped out of a party of 40 Englishmen 
who had gone from Nelson to the plain of TVairau to 
assist the Police Magistrate and two other Magistrates 
in executing a warrant upon Rauperaha and Ran- 
gihaeata. He knew no more of the details ; but he 
knew that my uncle Captain Wakefield and Mr. 
Thompson were among those slain ; for he had received 
an account of this from Rauperaha himself at Otaki on 
his way hither from Wellington. Rauperaha told him 
that he had tried hard to save the gentlemen and 
keep them as slaves ; but that Rangihaeata would not 
listen to him and killed them all. He said nine had 
been thus killed, after a short deliberation as to what 
they should do with them. Rauperaha had also made 
this man promise to deliver me a message, only allow- 
ing him to pass on his undertaking to do so. The 
message was merely to know what I was to going to 
do — whether I was for peace or war, — and to ask me 
to come to Otaki and see him, that he might korero 
with me. 


This messenger also told me that about 70 volun- 
teers had embarked with Colonel Wakefield on board 
the brig, and were going to Cloudy Bay in hopes of 
saving their fellow-countrymen ; but he had, of course, 
learned at Otaki that they would be too late. 

The White people at Otaki said that Rauperaha had 
sent his canoes up the Manawatu to the care of some 
of his tributary tribes, and was considering by which 
route he should retreat to Taupo or Rotorua, in case 
of pursuit by the White people. Rangihaeata was 
with him ; slightly wounded, my informant told me, in 
the foot. 

I repeated this distinctly to E Kuru ; who had de^ 
clared that he would believe nothing except what I 
told him was true. When I had done, he took me to 
a hut where we could be heard by no one else, held 
me firmly by the hand, and addressed me in a calm 
and impressive voice so that I remember nearly every 
word. " You know," said he, " how many men I 
" could count if I were to send my call to the 
" tribes oi my wives and those of my father. In two 
" weeks, I can count a thousand men, all well armed. 
" From Taupo, as well as from all the settlements 
" where I have relations on TF^anganui, they would 
" all come. I have never teased them to assist me in 
" wars and plunder-parties for trifling matters ; I have 
" never called for war ; they will listen the better 
" when I call them round my name for the first time. 
" Listen ! if Rauperaha tries to reach Rotorua by this 
" path, I will put a net over his head and give him 
" to you. Do not believe, because you have seen me 
" speaking to him familiarly and sitting in his house, 
'' or because I am related to him through the Nga- 
" ttawa tribe, that I have love for him. He is trea- 
" cherous and hard-hearted. Nearly twice ten years ago, 


" he slew my relations as he has done your wiwifwa (parent.) 
" Much blood of my family was spilt at Putikiwaranui 
" before they escaped to the 'Place of Cliffs.' Even 
*' Mawai and ^ Tu, who will not give up the land, 
" will gladly join with the Whites against Rauperaha. 
" Listen ! you and I will go into the bush with our 
" warriors, and we will rise up till we have taken 
" him, or got payment for the blood of our fathers. 
" We will stop him on his way ; or if he escape us, 
" we will pursue him. For this, I do not fear to go 
" to Rotorua or PFai/cato, whose men I have formerly 
" killed in war ; we will follow him to If^uiteinata or 
" among the Ngapulii if he escape so far. It shall 
" be the sacred war-party of our lives ; and we two 
" shall have but one heart. If I am killed first, you 
" will have your brother as well as your father to take 
" payment for. If you are killed first, my arm shall 
" be stronger when thinking of your blood as well as 
" that of my Maori relations. It is enough. I have 
" done!" 

As soon as I could speak, I thanked him sincerely 
for his offer ; but explained to him that in these cases 
White men did not take revenge themselves for the 
murder of their relations. I told him that we had the 
Queen, and laws, and governors and magistrates, and 
ships and soldiers to help them, to punish such deeds ; 
and that they would not be reduced to bringing the 
natives into fresh wars with each other. 

E Kuril listened to all this very gravely, and then 
concluded by saying, as he squeezed my hand, " Well, 
" I have spoken a true word to you. Remember it ten 
" years hence, if you should then require it, and you 
" shall find I have told no lie, but will do what I say." 

The next day a constable })rought a little further in- 
telligence. Colonel Wakefield and a party of JMagis- 


trates had gone over, without the volunteers, to inves- 
tigate matters at Cloudy Bay, as a gale of wind detained 
them for two days, and they reckoned they should be 
too late for the force to be of use. He also brought 
some circulars from Mr. Macdonogh, the new Police 
Magistrate at Wellington, begging me and the other 
Justices to keep things quiet ; to allay the excitement 
and alarm among the White people and natives too ; 
and to send him any intelligence which we could collect. 
He enclosed printed addresses for distribution among 
the White people ; chiefly in the same spirit, but con- 
taining the statement " that the natives had not fired a 
" shot until five of their own number were killed, in- 
" eluding the wife of Rangihaeata, who at the moment 
" had his own son in her arms." 

I could not believe this ; and threw the addresses 
with some disgust on the table of the inn where I was 
reading the letter. 

Colonel Wakefield afterwards, on seeing this address 
when he returned from Cloudy Bay, drew ]\Ir. Mac- 
donogh's attention to the fact that he had made this 
stiitement with evidence to the contrary before him ; 
and Mr. Macdonogh's acknowledgment that he had 
l)een mistaken as to these facts was published. But in 
the meanwhile, the unfounded assertion was spread all 
over Cook's Strait, and had been sent to Auckland, to 
Sydney, and to England. 

I had written by a small cutter and also by land, by 
a native messenger, to Colonel Wakefield, begging for 
accurate particulars, and for advice as to what was going 
to be done ; as, in case of an attempt to take lluii/je- 
raha at Otaki, I felt sure of being able to cut off his 
retreat to the interior, by means of E Kuril. I had 
also written to New Plymouth by a native messenger, 
giving the news as I had it to Mr. Cooke and othei-s. 


and begging them to be prepared for any emergency 
that might occur. 

At length I got an answer from Colonel Wakefield, 
with a newspaper containing an account compiled from 
the evidence taken before Mr. Spain, Dr. Evans, Mr. 
St. Hill, and Mr. Clifford, as Magistrates, at Cloudy 
Bay, with Mr. Meurant as interpreter. It was not, 
however, till I got to Wellington that I had an oppor- 
tunity of making myself fully acquainted with the facts, 
or to peruse the evidence which had been taken at Wel- 
lington, Nelson, and Cloudy Bay before Magistrates. 

Colonel Wakefield wrote me word that it was not 
considered advisable to make any attempt to take 
the murderers now, as without an adequate force the 
attempt would probably fail, and only lead to retaliation 
on out-settlers. 

A day or two after the first news, a slave had been 
sent by E Ahu to beg his son to come back imme* 
diately if he were still alive. For E Ahu had said he 
was sure I should kill his child in payment ; and 
under this supposition had furiously urged the Otaki 
natives to join Rauperaha and Ran^ihaeata in an 
attack on Wellington. This I afterwards heard from 
his own lips. 

When the slave had delivered his message to the 
boy, and a letter to me telling me to let him go, I 
turned inquiringly to TVahine iti, and explained to him 
that I should much prefer delivering him in person to 
his father, as I meant to walk along the beach to 
Poneke ; for that I had no fear of Rauperaha, though 
I did not wish to speak tohim. 

The lad eagerly said that I was quite right, and 
that he would not go till I went, and that if I went 
by sea he would go by sea ; and he joined me in a 
request to his father to come with an escort of armed 

Chap. XV. EARTHQUAKE. 367 

men and meet us at Rangitikei. He assured me that 
Raitperaha was very likely to set slaves to watch for 
me and shoot me on the way, if I did not take this pre- 
caution, though he would not dare to touch me openly 
in the midst of my friends the Ngatiraukawa. So I 
engaged that we should go to meet E Ahu at Rangi- 
tikei, as soon as I should receive letters from Colonel 
Wakefield, and I should hear that the escort was there. 

Having heard in reply from both E Ahu and Colonel 
Wakefield, I prepared to start. In the meanwhile, 
Wahine iti and I had felt the utmost confidence in 
each other. Far from keeping him uBder surveillance 
as a security for my safe journey, I scarcely saw him 
more than every other day ; for he was living on the 
south side of the river with E Para and some relatives 
from Taupo, who took him out pig-hunting in the 
country towards the Wangaihu, whilst I lived in the 
town of Petre on the north bank. 

A few days before I started, the most severe earth- 
quake occurred that I had yet felt. 

This was on the 8th of July. The day had been dull 
and calm, and a little heavy rain had fallen about noon. 
After this, the wind breathed lightly up the river, and 
then shifted in a sudden squall to N.W. with some 
more rain. After this squall, a curious mist drove 
swiftly up the river from the sea, such as I had never 
seen before. It was in a light thin stratum about 60 
feet above the ground, and did not extend either to the 
level of the river or to the tops of the hills. Then the 
mist cleared away, and the afternoon became warm and 
fine at about three. 

Two hours afterwards a sudden waving motion of 
the earth commenced from the direction of Taranaki, 
accompanied by a low rumbling noise. The motion 
continued to increase in force, with occasional wriggles. 


for about half a minute, and it was at least two minutes 
before it was entirely quiet. The people ran out of 
their houses, which were rocking and bending, being 
most of them built with very elastic poles and light tied 
roofs. Some were for running to the hills, some to the 
water ; but the motion was just enough to make your 
footing feel too insecure to run, and some people told me 
it made them turn sick. The river was covered with 
bubbles ; and a man who was standing at the bank, 
up to his ankles, washing a shirt, told me the water had 
suddenly risen to his knees, and then gone down again. 
In the morning some cracks were found in the mud- 
flat between high and low-water mark, five or six feet 
wide, and 100 yards long, and one or two smaller ones 
on the bank close to the water ; as they had filled up 
with mud, we could not tell how deep they had been 
at first. Some of . them, however, were still six or 
eight feet in depth. 

A few badly-built brick chimneys and clay walls were 
damaged, but no accident occurred to any one. The na- 
tives sat still during the whole affair, apparently (juite 
indifferent ; though they afterwards acknowledged that 
they had never experienced so bad a ru, or " shake." 

The most important effect appeared to have been the 
raising of many parts of the flat, on which the town is 
situated, a i^^iv inches, as they could now be seen from 
Putiki for the first time. • 

I have a notion that the slight shocks, very like the 
vibration produced by the rumbling of carts in the 
London streets, which we so often exj)erienced in New 
Zealand, are gradually raising the whole country, and 
that much of the present coast has been thus recently 
raised from under the sea. This earthquake was felt 
more severely about IVanganui than anywhere else. 
The cracks were less at TVangaihu and RangitiJcei, 


hardly perceptible at Manawatu, and not to be seen at 
all at Ohau ; and hardly any shock was felt at New 
Plymouth or Wellington. The cracks all pointed to- 
wards Tonga Riro. 

I armed myself for the journey with a rifle, pistols, 
and cutlass ; and we reached Rangitikei the first night. 
Here I found E Ahu, Billy W^alanui, two or three 
other young chiefs, and about 12 other armed men, 
awaiting our arrival. The old man was much pleased 
when he found that I had kept my word, and that his 
son was safe. 

We slept one night at Manawatu, and the next after- 
noon we reached Watanui^ settlement at Horowenua 
lake. The patriarch showed me the most delicate kind- 
ness. He spoke repeatedly of the care which I had taken 
of his grandchild, and said he would never doubt my 
protection again. " His heart had been sore ever since 
" my departure in anger." He then spoke of the 
Tf^airau affair, and said Rauperaha and Rangihaeata 
had acted very badly. " But," continued he, " we have 
" a Queen ; for she is my Queen as well as yours. 
" And when her soldiers come to take the bad men, I 
" shall sit still and let them go by. I will not rise up, 
" for the two treacherous chiefs were in the wrong. 
" Go, keep your soreness and your anger in your heart 
" till you have reached Poneke." 

At Ohau the scene was most affecting. The tangi 
was held over me as well as over the boy. His rela- 
tions seemed to appreciate the feeling which had led 
me to run some risk in order to bring fVahine Hi in 
person to his home. I had never seen a tangi before 
among the natives which seemed to come so truly from 
the heart ; and tears rushed involuntarily to my own 
eyes. E Tf^aJii tried all he could to brave it out like a 

VOL. II. 2 B 


pakehuy but it was in vain ; and at last he fell sobbing 
on his mother's breast, with his arms round her neck. 

The next day I went on to Otaki, K Ahu still escort- 
ing me with all his train. As I passed between Mr. 
Hadfield's house and the chapel, on my way to the 
house of Taylor my agent inland, two or three women 
recognized me. They jumped from their seats and ran 
down to the pa Kakutti, at the mouth of the river, 
shouting " Here is Tiraweke ; he has come to shoot 
" Rauperaha : alas ! alas !" 

He was living at that pa ; but I remained about two 
days at Taylor's house, near the large pa, about half a 
mile further inland, without seeing him. 

I gathered from White people and natives here that 
Rangihaeafa was living about six miles up the U^ai- 
kawa river, where he was fortifying a strong pa on a 
lake ; and it was understood that the two chiefs in- 
tended to make a stand there, should the authorities 
attempt to take them by force. Rauperaha was living, 
as I have said, at the smaller Otaki pa, and was busy- 
ing himself with the formation of a large party of 
adherents in case of a struggle. He had become a 
" missionary" the very day he arrived here from the 
ff^airau massacre, and was allowed to attend the chapel 
regularly. I could not reconcile this with the cus- 
tom, generally prevalent, of excluding natives from the 
congregation who had only been inattentive to their 
lessons, or hunted the pigs of one of the teachers, or 
spoken lightly, or committed any other trifling offence. 
This kind of excommunication I had observed to be in 
general practice at all the missionary villages. This 
man, however, lying under the accusation of murder, had 
been at once allowed to join the congregation, although 
he had for years before denounced the Christian faith. 


Every one who knew Rauperaha at once understood, 
that he had taken this line in order to secure the 
alliance of the missionary natives, who were now a 
very large and influential party among the inhabitants 
of Otaki and the neighbouring country, i.-.-.uvr • : 

To the other natives he was constantly showing a pair 
of handcuffs taken from one of the constables who was 
slain, and exciting them to resistance by saying that 
these were meant to take the young and strong men 
first, and not weak old men like himself ! His wife 
and his slave-women wore the rings of the murdered 
men. His houses were full of their clothes, their arms, 
and their watches ; a tent belonging to them was pitched 
ostentatiously in the pa, and various other articles were 
hung about as though in triumph after a victory. And 
yet he went to chapel every morning and evening ! Mr. 
Spain, who had been deputed hither by the Wellington 
Magistrates to assure the natives that the White people 
would not attempt to revenge JWairau, but would 
leave it to the Governor, had reported on his return 
that all was pacific and quiet ; and Mr. Hadfield, who 
had accompanied Mr. Spain on that mission, and whom 
I met on my way to TVaikanae, made me turn away 
from him much hurt, when he told me that these poor 
men had only acted in self-defence against people who 
did very wrong ; and that it would be not only unjust 
and illegal, but most imprudent, to attempt to take 
them or try them for their deed. 

I would not give up my flax operations at Otaki^ as I 
thought it better to continue the same friendly inter- 
course as before with my Ngatiraukawa friends, as a 
convincing proof that no hostility between the two races 
generally would follow from the deeds done by two of 
their number. And I trusted to the friends whom I 
had thus made for protection in such dangerous vicinity 



to the two criminals. In passing Ohau, I had been 
shown the house built by the natives for a Mr. White, 
whom E Ahu had invited to come and squat with cattle 
near his settlement. He had shown him over the 
country which he called his ; and Mr. Whit^ had fixed 
upon a spot at the edge of the wood and the pasture. 
He had had two cows running there for some time, and 
was now on his way from Wellington with 20 or 30 

E Ahu, with Matia, E Puki, Keharoa, and two or 
three other important chiefs of the Ngatiraukawa, 
were anxiously expecting him at the main pa, Rangi 
Uru, which is between Mr. Had field's house and 
chapel, and Taylor's house where I was living. 

Early one morning, Mr. White came to Taylor's, 
and said that Rauperaha had set his men to drive the 
cattle back to Wmkanae the moment they arrived at 
the little pa near the mouth where he lived, declaring 
that not only no cattle should go to Ohau, but that he 
would have no White people at all there or at Otaki. 
He would have a clear ground in case it came to fight- 
ing. The Ngatiraukawa chiefs were much surprised 
at this declaration, as they imagined they had a right 
to do what they liked with their own land. E Ahu 
especially appeared to be quite amused, and to think 
that he could talk this fancy away ; for he begged me 
and the other White people to go down to Rauperaha^ 
pa and hear the korero. So we went down in a party, 
natives and White people. It was the first time I 
had been to that pa since my arrival ; for Rauperaha 
and Rangihaeata had upon first coming from JVairau 
seized upon a flax-store which had been built for me 
there; much to the indignation of the builders, to 
whom I had promised a cask of tobacco for the house. 
These were the permanent inhabitants of the /?«, who 


had reckoned upon having my trade close to them. 
I was told that one young man had even lifted his 
spear on the occasion against Rauperaha, but was 
seized and carried up the river to cool, by his more 
submissive friends. I had therefore engaged to have 
another store built, by TVatanui^ relations, at the 
larger joa. 

When we first got to the pa Kakutu, some little 
time elapsed before the horero began. 

I went with Taylor to one of the huts, to assist in 
dressing the leg of a chief who had wounded himself 
in cutting up a whale that had drifted on shore. 
Hauturu, as he was named, was a great favourite of 
mine, from his gentle and dignified manners. He was 
a fine young man, and had been chosen as her second 
husbfind by Rangihaeatas mother Topeora, who was 
the principal resident in the pa. While I was talking 
to him of his wound, Rauperaha crept up doubtingly 
to greet me, and held out his hand. 

I refused this offer in a marked manner, and merely 
answered his greeting by a distant nod. 

He acknowledged the propriety of my refusal, said 
" It is good," and returned to his seat. 
• He then rose to speak. He began with a long 
history of himself and of his conquest of Cook's Strait ; 
all as proving that he was a great chieftain and the head 
of the natives. He displayed, as usual, great eloquence ; 
and he was going on to relate all the circumstances of 
the TVairau affair, but I checked him. I cared little 
to prejudge a serious question, which I still supposed 
would some day be investigated before a competent 
tribunal, from the narrative of the accused man ; and 
I knew that he had already given two or three White 
people different versions from that which he gave the 
man who brought his message to me at JVangartui. 


The narrative could but be painful to me without 
doing any good. Besides, it seemed to me as indelicate 
to listen to his confession or denial of guilt ]>efore the 
inquiry, as it would be to that of any one standing 
committed for trial in an English gaol. So I told 
him I should leave the pa if he talked about JVairau ; 
that I was come only to hear about his right and his 
will to turn White people out of Otaki, as that con- 
cerned me. He immediately promised to abstain from 
the obnoxious subject, but was not long before he got 
round to it again, anxious, I suppose, to exculpate 
himself before me. Upon this I rose, and stepped 
over the stile in the outer fence on my way homewards. 
All shouted to me to come back, and joined with 
Rauperaha in promises that TVairau should not be 
mentioned again. 

He then went on to repeat the prohibition which we 
had heard this morning, saying that all the land was 
his alone. He said Manawatu was fairly sold ; so was 
PFanganui; so was Taranaki; the White people 
might go there. But to Ohau they should not go ; 
and those at Otaki must go away to Kapiti or to Port 
Nicholson. Some of the whalers present laughed at 
this, having too many friends and relations by their 
wives to fear being turned out. Taylor, among the 
number, laughed outright, for he had lived with the 
tribe for many years, and was a general favourite among 
them. RauperaJia turned to him and said, " You must 
** go too, Sammy." i i;!* -^^ ' ;. 

He concluded by calling himself " the king of the 
Maori." He asked " What right had they to want to 
•* tie his hands ? As for WikHoria" he said, " never 
** mind that — woman," was what he said ; but with 
an accent, intonation, and sneer, which gave the 
word its most insulting meaning. I have already 


said that the language is not rich, and the word 
waJiine, "woman," is one of those whose sense is 
qualified by the manner of uttering it, I have no 
hesitation in saying, that he then expressed the most 
infamous term that can be applied to a woman. " Who 
" is she," continued he, " that she should send her books 
" and her constables after me ? What have I to do 
" with her ? She may be Queen over the White people ; 
" I am the king of the Maori ! If she chooses to have 
" war, let her send me word, and I will stand up 
" against her soldiers. But I must have room ; I 
" must have no White people so near." 

I asked him, whether he had not signed a paper to 
say the Queen was his chief, when Mr. Williams 
brought it to him, and also on board the man-of-war ? 
He turned round sharply and said, " Yes ! what of 
" that? They gave me a blanket for it. I am still 
" a chief just the same. I am Mauperahal Give me 
" another blanket to-morrow, and I will sign it again. 
" What is there in writing?" 

Thus one of the most powerful of the 512 chiefs 
spoke of the much vaunted Treaty of JVaitang'i, which 
he had signed twice according to all accounts. 

I now turned to E Aim and the other chiefs, and 
asked them if it were true that all the land belonged to 
Rauperaha alone. I reproached them with dishonesty 
in selling the Manawatu and parts of the Otaki district 
as though it were their own. I reminded E Ahu, 
too, that he had often shown me how much land he 
possessed about Ohan, and that he had invited Mr. 
White to settle there ; and that no one had ever said 
before that it belonged to Rauperaha. 

E Ahu answered me, that when the chiefs of the 
Ngatiraukawa came down from Taupo, they had chosen 
the district out of Rauperaha s conquest in order to sit 


upon ; and that, while peace lasted, nobody had thought 
of Rauperahas, supreme control. They had learned 
to consider the land their own ; they had even laughed 
at the remonstrances of RangihaeaUi a]x)ut selling the 
Manawatu ; and they had wished to get White men 
amongst them. He even said, that while there was no 
anger, Rauperahas claim would not have been ac- 
knowledged. But the ririy or " anger," he said, had 
made a great difference; and the land was gone back 
agfiin to him who had first taken it. It was true; the 
JVgatiraukawa had no land but Taupo and Maunga 
Tautari (a district between TVmhaio and the Bay of 

And then he rose to endeavour to persuade Raupe- 
ruha to change his determination. He reminded him 
of ** the war-parties which he had brought him on 
" his back, to assist him against his enemies, through 
" dangers and troubles more than he could count." 
He related how " he had burned the villages of the 
*' tribe at Taupo to make them come with him to be 
*' by the side of Rauperaha on the sea-coast." He 
counted "how many times they had adhered to him 
"in his feuds with the Ngatiawa,*' and described 
"how much blood of the Ngatiraukawa had been 
*' spilt for his name." E Ahu had now warmed with 
his subject, and was running up and down, bounding 
and yelling at each turn, and beginning to foam at 
the mouth, as the natives do when they mean to speak 
impressively. " Let the cows go !" he cried ; " let 
"them go to my place!" 

Raj/peraha seemed to consider that EAhus eloquence 
was becoming too powerful, and he jumped up too. 
They both continued to run up and down in short 
parallel lines, yelling at each other, grimacing and 
foaming, and (juivering their hands and smacking 

Chap. XV. E AHU'S SONG. 377 

them on their thighs, with staring eyes and excited 
features. As they both spoke together, it became 
difficult to hear what they said, but I caught a sen- 
tence here and there which gave me the sense of their 
argument. " No !" cried Rauperaha ; " no cows ; I 
will not have them." " Let them go !" yelled ^^^w / 
" Yield me my cows and my White man ; the cows 
" will not kill you." " No cows, no White men ! I 
" am the king ! Never mind your war-parties ! No 
" cows !" answered Rauperaha. The cows cannot take 
*' you," persisted E Ahu ; when the soldiers come we 
" will fight for you, but let my cows go !" " No ! no ! 
no indeed !" firmly replied the chief, and he sat 

E Ahu remained standing. He took breath for a 
minute ; then he drew himself up to his full height, 
and addressed his own people in a solemn kind of reci- 
tative. " Ngafiraukaiva," he sang, " Arise ! arise, my 
*' sons and my daughters, my elder brothers and my 
'* younger brothers, my sisters, my grandchildren, arise ! 
" Stand up, the families of the Ngatiraukawa ! To 
" Taupo I To Taupo ! To Maunga Tautari ! To our 
" old homes which we had burned and deserted ; arise 
" and let us go ! Carry the little children on your 
" backs as I carried you when I came to fight for this 
*' old man, who has called us to fight for him and given 
" us land to sit on, but grudges us White people to be 
'* our friends and to give us trade. We have no 
" White people or ships at Maunga Tautari, but the 
" land is our own there. We need not beg to have a 
" White man or cows yielded to us, if they should 
" want to come. To Maunga Tautari I Arise my 
" sons, make up your packs, take your guns and your 
" blankets, and let us go ! It is enough ! I have 
" spoken !" As he sat down, a mournful silence pre- 



vailed. An important migration had l)een proposed by 
the chief, which no doubt would be agreed to by the 
greater part of the Otaki, Ohau, and Manawatu natives, 
on whom was Rauperaha^ chief dependence for his 
defence, or ' : v-v, . ., 

I noticed that' he winced when he first heard the 
purport of E Ahu& song; but while E Ahu con- 
tinued, his countenance gradually resumed its con- 
fidence. Much as I abhorred his character, I could 
not but yield my unbounded admiration to the im- 
perious manner in which he overthrew the whole eflfect 
of E Ahu& beautiful summons to the tribe. 

Instead of his usual doubting and suspicious man- 
ner, his every gesture became tjiat of a noble chief. He 
rose with all the majesty of a monarch ; and he spoke in 
the clearest and firmest tones, so that the change from 
his customary shuffling, cautious, and snarling diction, 
was of itself sufficient to command the earnest atten- 
tion of his audience." 

" Go !" said he ; " go, all of you ! — go, N^atirau- 
" hawa, to Maunga Tautari ! Take your children on 
" your backs and go, and leave my land without men. 
" When you are gone, I will stay and fight the soldiers 
" with my own hands. I do not beg you to stop. 
" Rauperaha is not afraid ! 

" I began to fight when I was as high as my hip. 
" All my days have been spent in fighting, and by 
" fighting I have got my name. Since I seized by war 
*' all this land, from Taranaki to Port Nicholson, and 
" from Blind Bay to Cloudy Bay beyond the water, I 
" have been spoken of as a king. I am the king of all 
" this land. I have lived a king, and I will die a king, 
" with my mer'i in my hand. Go ! I am no beggar ! 
*' Rauperaha will fight the soldiers of the Queen 
" when they come, with his own hands and his own 


" name. Go to Maunga Tautari !" Then suddenly 
changing his strain, he looked on the assemblage of 
chiefs, bending down towards them with a paternal 
smile, and softening his voice to kindness and emotion. 
" But what do I say ?" said he ; " what is my talk 
" about? You are children ! It is not for you to talk. 
" You talk of going here, and doing this and doing 
" that. Can one of you talk when I am here ? No \ 
" I shall rise and speak for you all, and you shall sit 
" dumb ; for you are all my children, and Rauperaha 
" is your head chief and your patriarch." He com- 
pletely won his point by this fearless rejection of their 
assistance, ending in an arrogant assumption of abso- 
lute authority over their movements. One of the 
highest chiefs said to me, " It is true, Tiraweke ! he is 
" our father and ovit Ariki " (superior chief.) "Raupe- 
*' raha is the king of the Maori, like your Queen 
" over the White people ;" and the others bowed a 
silent assent, and each seemed to swell with conscious 
dignity as the follower of such a leader. The cattle 
were not allowed to pass ; but Rauperaha agreed 
quietly to the request of the chiefs in the course of the 
day, that the White people already established here 
should not be sent away. 

Notwithstanding the doubts as to whether there 
would be any fighting, E Ahu anxiously begged that 
his son might still accompany me ; fully trusting that 
I would send him back in the case of war. 

We arrived at Wellington on the evening of the 
23rd of July. 

I now had an opportunity of perusing the deposi- 
tions taken, and of learning from Colonel Wakefield 
the particulars of what had been done since. 

Rauperaha and Rangihaeata had crossed the Strait 
to Nelson about two months before on a begging ex- 
pedition. They received presents and kind treatment 


from Captain Wakefield; but at a conference held 
there they said he should not have the plain of TVairau. 
After Captain Wakefield left the conference, Rangi- 
haeata had as usual gone to excite himself with liquor, 
and was heard to say by several of the settlers that 
" he would pung-a-pungy or kill, Wide-awake if he 
"took Tf^airau" But Captain Wakefield, to whom 
this was reported, said Rangihaeata was a mere bully, 
and that his threats were only noisy vapouring. And 
he directed the preliminary survey of the ff^airau plain 
to be proceeded with, in order that it might be ready 
for selection as soon as Mr. Spain should have decided 
upon the claim. The depositions extend over the space 
of time between the 25th of April, when the surveying 
expedition landed at the mouth of the TVairau, and 
the 17th of June, the day of the fatal massacre. 

The following account has been carefully compiled 
from the examination of witnesses before the Welling- 
ton Magistrates, on board the Government brig at 
Cloudy Bay, and afterwards at Wellington; from 
depositions taken at Nelson and at Otaki by Magis- 
trates ; and from accounts published by survivors in the 
newspapers of Wellington and Nelson. 

The lands in the Wairau district were advertised 
for survey by contract, by Captain Wakefield, in March 
1843. The contracting Surveyors, Messrs. Barnicoat, 
Parkinson, and Cotterell, with their men, forming in 
all a party of about forty, started by sea from Nelson 
on the 15th April, and landed on the ff^airau beach 
on Tuesday the 25th. There they found Puaha,* with 
two or three of his followers, who expressed no dis- 
satisfaction at their arrival. There were till then no 
other natives in the valley ; ])ut in the course of two 
or three days a considerable number arrived from dif- 

* The same chief who*^ mild disposition we had admire<l at 
Cloudy Bay in October 1839. See Vol. I, Chap. V, n. 106. 


ferent parts of the Strait, who manifested their in- 
tention of opposing the survey in various ways. They 
pulled up the Surveyors' ranging-rods, destroyed a saw- 
pit, and on one occasion seven of them, armed with 
muskets, passed through the station, and " talked 
threateningly " to the man left in charge. But they 
abstained from personal violence, and towards the 
White men themselves appeared to entertain no un- 
friendly feelings. They had all along talked of Rau- 
perahd^ approaching visit, who, they said, would send 
the White men away. Their interruptions to the survey 
were complained of to Captain Wakefield. 

Meanwhile, Rauperaha and Rangihaeata, being at 
Porirua in attendance on the Court of Land Claims, 
made known their determination to prevent the survey 
from proceeding ; and Mr. Joseph Toms, mentioned as 
" Geordie Bolts " in a former part of this narrative, 
repeatedly stated that he understood from them that 
they would make a stand at ff^airau, and lose their 
lives rather than allow the White men to take posses- 
sion of that place. Mr. Spain used his influence to 
pacify them ; agreed to meet them at Port Underwood, 
to investigate the land claims, as soon as possible after 
the adjournment of his Court at the end of June ; and 
obtained from them a promise not to enter the Pf^airau 
within the time appointed, nor do anything before his 
arrival. Mr. Toms offered to take Rauperaha and 
Rangihaeata in his schooner to his own place in Cloudy 
Bay, and keep them there until he received a com- 
munication from Mr. Spain. 

On the 28th May, Mr. Toms received Rauperaha 
and his party on board the schooner Three Brothers, 
of which he is captain and owner, at Porirua ; 
and having crossed to Mana, where he took in Rangi- 
haeata and about ten more natives, making about 


twenty-five in all, proceeded to Cloudy Bay. It was 
generally understood on board that the natives were 
going to fight for their land at IVairau. They were 
armed with muskets and tomahawks. Toms himself 
gave them two muskets in exchange for a slave. They 
were landed at Port Underwood, in Cloudy Bay, on 
the 1st of June. They then started with other natives 
in eight canoes and a whale-boat for the Ti^airau, where 
they arrived on the same day. They appear to have 
been about a hundred in number. The first visit they 
paid was to a Mr. Cave at Port Underwood. The 
following account of their behaviour on this occasion 
was taken from Mr. Cave, and communicated to 
the editor of the New Zealand Gazette, by Dr. Dorset, 
who accompanied the Magistrates after the massacre. 
** From the information I gathered from the whalers 
" and the depositions taken at Cloudy Bay, it appeared 
" to me that the natives came fully prepared for mischief. 
" The person on whose testimony I placed most reliance 
" was a Mr. Cave, who had been resident there for the 
*^ last seven or eight years, and who had been always up 
^* to that time on the most friendly terms with the 
*' chiefs Rauperaha and Ran^ihaeata ; a knife and fork 
*' being always' placed at his table for them on their visits 
'" to Cloudy Bay. But this time he noticed a peculiar 
" ferocity about their bearing. They asked for things 
'** in a way that brooked no denial ; and seeing Mr. Cave 
" sharpening an axe, Rangihaeata forcibly took it from 
" him and struck him. Mr. Cave tried to find out 
" what they were after, but could not succeed, and his 
" impression was they were l)ound over to secrecy on the 
*' evening before they landed ; on which occasion, they 
*' had a feast on board Mr. Toms' vessel, where they 
" all got drunk ; Mr. Toms being the only European 
*' present, so far as I could learn." 


: On the same evening, they went up the river 
to Mr. Cotterell's station, in number amounting to 
upvi^ards of 100. Next morning, Rauperaha and 
Rangihaeata, with about 30 followers, after order- 
ing Mr. Cotterell and his men to leave the place, stripped 
and burned his hut and that of his men, together with 
the timber intended for survey-stakes. They then 
assisted the White men to carry the contents of their 
huts to their boats, and despatched them to Ocean 
Bay. Next day, Mr. Tuckett, the Company's Chief 
Surveyor, arrived, met Mr. Cotterell at the mouth of 
the TVairaUy and sent him to Nelson with a note to 
Captain Wakefield. Mr. Cotterell laid an information 
before the Police Magistrate, Mr. Thompson, on the 
12th June. Three other Justices of the Peace were on 
the bench, — Captain Wakefield, Captain England, 
and Alexander M'Donald, Esq. After much delibe- 
ration, a warrant was granted against Rauperaha and 
Rangihaeata on a charge of arson. 

The natives, meanwhile, from Mr. Cotterell's pro- 
ceeded to Mr. Barnicoat's, and carried him with his 
men and goods in their canoes to an uninhabited -pa 
at the mouth of the TVairau, built by Rauperaha as a. 
sort of stronghold many years before, when he depopu- 
lated the country. Another party, armed with axes 
and muskets, went to Mr. Parkinson's station ; while 
a third set out in search of Mr. Tuckett, who was 
absent at another part of the survey. They compelled 
both these gentlemen to come to the pa. Rangi- 
haeata, in the conference with Mr. Tuckett, told him, 
" if he was so fond of the ground, he would kill him 
" and bury him there." A few instances of theft oc- 
curred during these proceedings, but no personal in- 
jury was actually inflicted on any one. Having now 
collected all the White men together, they sent them 


off by their own boats, with the exception of ]Mr. 
Barnicoat and one man, whom Rauperaha allowed to 
remain in charge of some provisions they had not room 
for. The whole body of natives then ascended the river 
in their canoes. In number at this time they amounted 
to 98. Subsequent arrivals swelled this number to 
125, of whom about 40 were women and children. ; 
The Police IVIagistrate at Nelson having issued his 
warrant, and being informed of the numbers of the 
natives, and of their being armed, resolved to attend 
the execution of the warrant himself, accompanied by 
an armed force. He expressed his opinion that such a? 
demonstration would prevent bloodshed, and impress 
upon the natives a sense of the authority of the law. 
It is certain that actual resistance was not anticipated, 
and that the moral eflfect of the presence of the force 
was wholly relied on. The men chosen were of the la- 
bouring class, and intended as a reinforcement to those 
employed in surveying ; many of them had never handled 
a firelock in their lives. The Government brig Victoria 
was then in the harbour ; and, at the request of Mr. 
Thompson, Captain Richards consented to carry the 
party to ff'^airau. It then consisted of the following 
persons : — Mr. Thompson, Judge of the County Court 
and Police Magistrate ; Captain Wakefield, and Captain 
Richard England, both Justices of the Peace; Mr. 
George Ryecroft Richardson, Crown Prosecutor for 
Nelson ; Mr. James Howard, a Warrant Officer in the 
Navy and New Zealand Company's Storekeeper ; Mr. 
Cotterell, Surveyor ; four consfcibles and twelve special 
contables. John Brooks went as interpreter, having 
often been similarly employed. The brig sailed on 
Tuesday, June 13th. In the Gulf, the same day, she 
met the Company's boat on her return from the fVai- 
^OM, with Mr. Tuckett, Mr. Patchett, a Merchant and 


large Land- Agent, and Mr. Bellairs, Surveyor. These 
gentlemen, at the request of Captain Wakefield, joined 
his party with the boat's crew.* 

On the evening of Thursday, June 15, and the 
following morning, the party landed at Tf^airau, 
where Mr. Barnicoat and his men joined them. 
JMuskets, and a cartouche-box of ball-cartridges with 
each, were served out to the men, and cutlasses to as 
many as chose to avail themselves of them. On Friday 
afternoon, they ascended the right bank of the river 
about five miles. On the way they met IPuaha. 
He was accompanied by a small party of natives. 
They had been engaged in clearing land, but had 
been stopped, they said, by Rauperaha, who had 
gone higher up the river. They appeared alarmed 
at the sight of the armed force ; but their fears were 
allayed by Mr. Thompson's informing Puaha that the 
object of his journey had no reference to him or his 
party, but that he had a warrant against Rauperaha 
and Rangihaeata on a charge of arson. Mr. Thomp- 

* Before leaving Nelson, Captain "Wakefield addressed the fol- 
lowing private letter to his brother Colonel Wakefield : — 

" Nelson, 13th June, 1843. 
" My dear William, 

" We heard on Sunday that Te Rauperaha and Rangi had com- 
menced operations on the Wairau, and have burned one of the Sur- 
veyor's houses. 

" The Magistrates have granted a warrant on the information ; 
and Thompson, accompanied by myself, England, and a lot of con- 
stables, are off immediately in the Government brig to execute it. 
We shall muster about 60 ; so I think we shall overcome these 
travelling bullies. I never felt more convinced of being about to 
act right for the benefit of all, and not less especially so for the 
native race. 

" I shall, probably, be able to communicate with you from 
Cloudy Bay. 

" Yours affectionately, 

" Arthur Wakefield.'* 

VOL. II. * 2 C 


son also explained to him that no force would be used 
towards them ; but that they would be required to go 
with him on board the brig, where the case would be 
investigated by himself and the other Magistrates. 
PuaJia replied, that those chiefs would not but believe 
that he came to make war upon them ; but agreed to 
carry them a message to the above effect. He then 
went off in his whale-boat. Higher up, another party 
of natives was met with, and a similar explanation 
given. It being now too late to proceed, the Magis- 
trates and their followers then encamped for the night 
at a pine- wood called Tua Mautine, and set a watch. 
Their movements, it appears, had been all along 
watched and reported by scouts ; and Mr. Cave 
informed Dr. Dorset, that " one of the spies they 
" left behind at the pa went up with and among the 
" English party, counted every man, and a short time 
** before the fight crossed over the brook to his own 
".party, gave the required information, and joined in 
" the fight one of the foremost." 

On the morning of Saturday, June 17, two boats 
having been brought up, the Europeans embarked in 
them and ascended the river a few miles further. 
" They now amounted to 49, 33 of whom were armed 
" with muskets. One or two carried fowling-pieces. 
** Mr. Howard had a cutlass. The remainder were 
" apparently unarmed, but in general were furnished 
" with pocket-pistols." 

When nmstered, before setting out. Captain Wake- 
field having called " Order !" said to them, " Men, 
" whatever you do, do not fire unless you get orders." 
•* A caution," says Mr. Barnicoat, " which was 
" several times repeated to them in the course of the 
" journey." 

Having ascended the river about four miles, the 


party perceived some smoke issuing from a wood, and 
soon heard the voices of the natives, that oi Rangihaeata 
being plainly distinguishable. On advancing, they 
found them posted in the wood, which is about 50 
acres in extent, on the right bank of a deep unfordable 
rivulet, called Tua Marino, which flows into the 
Pf^airau on its left bank, and is at this place about 
30 feet wide. They were squatting in groups in front 
of the dense wood, on about a quarter of an acre of 
cleared ground, with their canoes drawn up on the 
bank of the stream. The White men halted on the 
left bank, with a hill behind them covered with fern 
and manuka, and sloping upwards with several brows 
or terraces. " All bearing arms were now bidden not 
" to cross the stream, or even show themselves until 
" ordered." 

All accounts agree in estimating the number of the 
natives at about 120 or 125, including women and 
children. The men amounted to 80 or 90, about half 
of whom were armed with muskets, the rest with na- 
tive weapons. 

At the request of the Magistrates, a canoe was placed 
across the stream to serve as a bridge by a native 
named " Big Fellow," whom I once had occasion to men- 
tion before ; and Mr. Thompson, Captain Wakefield, 
Messrs. Tuckett, Cotterell, and Patchett, Brooks the 
Interpreter, and Maling the Chief Constable, crossed 

The Police Magistrate then called on Rauperaha 
and Rangihaeata. The former alone came forward ; 
and Mr. Thompson told him that he was the Queen's 
representative, that he had warrants against him and 
Rangihaeata for the destruction of the property of Mr. 
Cotterell, and that he must go on board the brig, with 
such of his followers as he chose, where the matter 

2c 2 


should be investigated. Rauperaha said that Mr. 
Spain would inquire into and settle the business in a 
little while. Mr. Thompson explained, that Mr. Spain's 
business lay in deciding as to land-claims ; that this 
was a question about destruction of property, and had 
nothing to do with the ownership of the Pf^airau. 
Rauperaha requested to have the matter decided on 
the spot ; and professed his readiness to make the com- 
pensation to Mr. Cotterell required by the Magistrates, 
provided their decision pleased him. Mr. Thompson 
replied, that the case must be heard on board the Go- 
vernment brig, whither Rauperaha must accompany 
him. On Rauperaha s reiterated refusal to comply 
with this proposal, put in direct terms to him, Mr. 
Thompson declared he would compel him, Rauperaha 
said he did not want to fight ; but that if the White 
people fought he would fight too. Mr. Thompson, 
pointing to the armed men, threatened that he and his 
party should be fired upon. Sixteen natives imme- 
diately sprang to their feet and presented fire-arms. 
Rangihaeata now came forward, and vehemently defied 
the Magistrates and their power; exclaiming, that "they 
" did not go to England to interfere with the White 
" people, and demanding why the latter came there to 
" interfere with them." The conversation now became 
very rapid and violent; and Puaha, who by frequently 
attempting to intercede seems only to have rendered 
matters worse, stepped forward with his Bible in his 
hand, and prayed that there might be no strife. At 
last, Mr. Thompson called out, " Captain England, 
" let the men advance." 

The conference with the chiefs lasted about twenty 
minutes or half an hour. Great trouble was taken to 
explain to them the non-connexion of these proceedings 
with the land-claims ; and every assurance was given 


them of a fair hearing of what they might have to say 
in their defence. It was, besides, abundantly ex- 
plained, that they were not now to be taken to punish- 
ment, but to trial ; that Mr. Cotterell had complained 
against them, and that the complaint must be examined 
into. Mr. Thompson addressed them through the 
interpreter. Brooks ; and a native of the Bay of Islands 
was present, who explained to them every word that 
was said. 

In the meantime, the men left on the other side of 
the stream had been divided into two bodies, con- 
sisting of 16 and 17 respectively; one under the 
command of Captain England, the other under that 
of Mr. Howard. When the dispute was at the high- 
est. Captain Wakefield, perceiving the danger of being 
separated from the men should a collision arise, pro- 
ceeded to the creek with the intention of bringing 
them over on a canoe, which, with the consent of the 
natives, was laid across it. Mr. Thompson, it seems, 
just then called to Mr. Howard for his men, with 
some allusion to the number of the natives. *' I don't 
" care if there are 5000 of them," was that gallant 
fellow's reply, as he led his party to the stream. In 
the canoe they met Captain Wakefield, whom the rest 
of the gentlemen were apparently following. " Keep 
" your eyes on them, my men ; they have their guns 
" pointed at us," said Captain Wakefield to the ad- 
vancing men. At this moment (observing some move- 
ment among the natives towards Mr. Thompson or 
the gentlemen), he exclaimed in a loud voice, with 
great energy, "Men, forward! Englishmen, forward!" 
and a shot was fired, according to the explicit and con- 
sistent evidence of Joseph Morgan, by one of the 
natives, which laid his comrade Tyrrell dead at his 
feet. These two men, with Northam, also killed at 


almost the same time and spot, were in advance of 
their party, and on the opposite bank of the stream 
when this occurred. 

It was then, apparently, that Mr. Thompson gave 
orders to fire, if any were given at all. Before he could 
be obeyed, however, the natives had fired a volley, 
which was instantly returned. The gentlemen were 
crossing while this went on ; Captain England, the 
last of them, wading through the water, into which he 
had fallen, holding on by the side of the canoe. Those 
of Mr. Howard's party who had reached the other 
bank returned at the same time. The firing was kept 
up briskly on both sides for a few minutes ; but in this 
skirmishing the natives had greatly the advantage, the 
bushes on their side being much closer and affording 
far better concealment. This, and their previous confu- 
sion from meeting in the canoe, may account for the 
greater loss of life among the Englishmen. 

Immediately after crossing, Mr. Patchett received a 
shot in his left side. He leapt up, then fell, mortally 
wounded, on the spot where he had been standing. Mr. 
Richardson came to his assistance, and bent over him 
to receive his last connnands. He said, " I am mor- 
" tally wounded ; you can do me no good — make your 
** escape." Northam and Smith fell at this time near 
the same place. Captain Wakefield, observing his men 
already retreating, as well, probably, as the disadvantage 
at which they were fighting, their enemies being almost 
invisible and themselves exposed, ordered them to retire 
to form on the hill. At this moment, " it is ascer- 
" tained that the natives were on the point of taking to 
" flight, when Rauperaha, seeing the retreat — for there 
" is no doubt that they retreated immediately — excited 
" his men, who, raising a war-cry, darted across the 
" stream in pursuit of the Europeans." These latter 


retreated, without order, in tlie direction of the hill ; 
Mr. Thompson, Captain Wakefield, Captain England, 
and Mr. Howard, urging them " for God's sake to keep 
*' together," but in vain. On the first brow, the most 
strenuous efforts were made by these gentlemen to 
induce the men to stand and form. Mr. Howard 
called to them to fix their bayonets and come to 
the charge. They, however, kept retreating up the 
hill, firing as they went. Captain Wakefield, there- 
fore, in order to prevent a further sacrifice of life, 
ordered the firing to cease ; and Captain England and 
Mr. Howard advanced towards the natives with a 
white handkerchief, in token of peace. Those in ad- 
vance of the retreating party, however, still kept up a 
running fire as they pushed up the hill ; which was re- 
turned by the natives on the whole party indiscrimi- 
nately. Mr. Thompson was seen about this time by 
Mr. Tuckett, who escaped, stamping on the ground 
and clutching his hair, as he exclaimed, " Oh, men ! 
men !" in bitter regret and disgust at their conduct. 
*' Here," 'says Mr. Barnicoat, " when we were as- 
" sembled on the hill, like so many targets which the 
" natives were shooting at, Mr. Cotterell stood out from 
" the rest, and said (I suppose in allusion to his prin- 
" ciples as a Friend), ' I have nothing to do with busi- 
'* ' ness of this kind. If there are any of my men here, 
•* • they had better follow me.' Captain Wakefield then 
'* turned round, and in the most earnest manner ad- 
" dressed him : * For God's sake, Mr. Cotterell, don't 
" ' attempt to run away ; you are sure to be shot if you 
" ' do.'" The retreating party and the natives continu- 
ing to fire. Captain Wakefield and the gentlemen about 
him were compelled to proceed further up the hill, in 
order, if possible, to put an end to the conflict. Mr. 
Cotterell, after accompanying them a short distance. 


sat down, intending to deliver himself up. " This is 
poor work, Dick !" said he to one of the men passing 
him. As the natives came up, he recognised among 
them one to whom he had frequently shown acts of 
kindness ; to him he advanced with open arms. The 
native thereupon discharged his musket in the air ; but 
two others immediately seized him, and dragged him 
by the hair down the hill into a manuka bush. There, 
as was afterwards found, they despatched him with 
their tomahawks. On the second brow of the hill, 
Captain Wakefield said, " Your only chance of life is 
" to throw away your arms and lie down." He and Mr. 
Thompson and Brooks again shouted Kati ! " peace," 
and waved a white handkerchief. Besides the last- 
mentioned persons, there were present Captain Eng- 
land, Mr. Richardson, Mr. Howard, some of the con- 
stables, and a few others. Messrs. Tuckett, Barnicoat, 
and others, went off a little before. The rest fled up 
the hill in different directions, and were pursued a little 
way by some of the natives, who "had with them 
*' a dog, which they shouted to and encouraged in 
" the same manner as when they hunt pigs." The 
natives now ceased firing ; and as they came up, the 
White men delivered up their arms, at Captain Wake- 
field's order. He himself gave up a pistol to one of 
them. The whole party seem to have gone a little 
further down the hill ; where most of the natives, with 
Rauperaha and Rangihaeata, immediately joined them. 
The natives having shaken hands with the prisoners, 
who were standing in a group, loaded their guns, and 
seated themselves in a half-circle before them, the two 
chiefs occupying the extremities. Mr. Richardson, who 
had received a shot in the hip from which the blood 
flowed freely, requested Mr. Thompson to examine it ; 
which he did. The natives brandished their tomahawks 


over the heads of some of the defenceless men. Mr. 
Thompson observing this, said to Rauperaha, " Kati ;" 
which he repeated, and the others then desisted. Ran- 
giliaeata had wounded his foot by treading on a sharp- 
pointed stump ; and Captain England, seeing the nature 
of the wound, took a penknife from his pocket, which 
Bampton handed to him to cut out the splinter with. 
Having succeeded in doing so, he offered to return the 
knife ; but Captain England signified that he would 
make him a present of it. Gold was offered as a ransom, 
but ineffectually. Two natives then approached Captain 
Wakefield, and, seizing him, attempted to strip off his 
coat. Colouring highly, it seems he endeavoured to 
draw another pistol, as Mr. Howard was heard to say, 
" For God's sake, sir, do nothing rash !" or words to 
that effect. Other natives laid hold of Mr. Thompson, 
and were taking his coat and watch. 

Up to this point there is the evidence of White men 
and eye-witnesses for all that I have stated. The only 
man that escaped of all who surrendered themselves to the 
natives, and from whose deposition I have gathered the 
incidents I have related as occurring after the surrender, 
was George Bampton ; who, at this moment observing 
the attention of the natives drawn off him, slipped into 
the bush on a natural pretence, and succeeded in con- 
cealing himself. While lying there he heard some per- 
sons passing near him, one of whom (he believes Mr. 
Howard) said to the other, " For God's sake, if we are 
" to die, let us die together." To whom this was said he 
could not tell. After having lain there near ten mi- 
nutes in all, he heard about five guns fired ; and im- 
mediately after a heavy dull sound, as it appeared to 
him, of a beating or chopping on the ground. He heard 
no cries or screams. Another of the party who escaped 
before the actual surrender, and lay hid at a greater dis- 


tance, heard guns fired at intervals of about five minutes 
between each, and much shouting and hallooing by the 
natives. And this is all we learn of the fate of our 
unfortunate friends from any of their own party. 

A native who took part in the affray gave the fol- 
lowing evidence before the Magistrates as to what fol- 
lowed : — 

" The natives pursued them to another rise of the 
" hill, and followed them until they caught them all ; 
" and Rauperaha was talking to them, and had secured 
" all the chiefs, when Rangihaeata came up and said, 
" ' Rauperaha^remember your daughter,' [one of Rangi" 
" /iaeaia's wives, shot by a chance-shot during the action] . 
" Puahas wife was down at the settlement, and called 
" out to him, ' Puaha, Puaha, save some of the chiefs, 
" 'so that you may have to say you saved some:' but when 
*' she cried they were all killed. Rangihaeata killed 
" them all with his own hand, with a tomahawk. I saw 
" him do it. I saw Rangihaeata kill Captain Wakefield, 
" Mr. Thompson, and Mr. Richardson. I saw him kill 
'^ John Brooks, near the bunch of trees up the hill. I 
" saw him kill Mr. Cotterell. I saw Ratigihaeata 
" snatch away Captain Wakefield's watch after he had 
" knocked him down. He afterwards offered it to the 
" missionary natives ; but they refused to take it, but 
*' said, * Let it lie with the dead, and all that belongs to 
" them.' I heard that the slaves had stripped off" Cap- 
'* tain Wakefield's coat and waistcoat. They paid no 
" attention to what the missionaries said, but robbed the 
" bodies in all directions." 

The deputation from the Wellington Magistrates, 
with Dr. Dorset, sailed for Cloudy Bay on Wednesday 
the 21st. On arriving at Cloudy Bay, they found 
that Mr. Ironside, the Wesleyan missionary stationed 
at Cloudy Bay, had been to Tf^airau with two boats' 


companies of whalers, had discovered 17 of the dead 
bodies, and having no alternative, had already com- 
menced their interment on the spot, according to the 
rites of the Church of England. 

The bodies of Captain Wakefield, Mr. Thompson, 
Captain England, Mr. Richardson, Mr. Howard, 
Bumforth, Cropper, Gardiner, and Coster, were found 
near the spot where the last of those who escaped left 
them alive, lying within 20 yards of each other, in 
their clothes as they fell. Captain Wakefield's coat 
and waistcoat alone had been stripped off. Under his 
head the murderers had placed a piece of bread, and 
a pistol across his throat. Mr. Ironside thus explained 
this in his evidence : — ■" When you found the body of 
" Captain Wakefield, did you see a bit of bread or damper 
" placed under his head ?" — " Yes ; I did." — " Are you 
" aware of any native custom which would account for 
" this being done ?" — " The head of a chief is held 
" sacred, and nothing common should come near it ; 
'* and therefore bread, being common, and being placed 
*' there, it was intended as an insult." The skulls of 
all had been cleft with tomahawks, and generally dis- 
figured with repeated blows, struck with such ferocity 
that every one must have been more than sufficient to 
have produced instantaneous death. No gun-shot wounds 
were perceived in any of the bodies which were not in 
other respects mutilated. One body lay a little to the 
right lower down ; another about 100 yards up the 
hill : and near it Brooks's, dreadfully mangled ; Mr. 
Cotterell's in the manuJca bush lower down, where he 
surrendered himself. All these were placed side by 
side in one grave. Tyrrell's and Northam's were 
brought across the stream, and laid with ^'mith's in a 
second ; and two bodies found in the water, in a third 
near the last. Mr. Patchett's was buried alone where 


he fell. The bodies of Maling, the chief consttible, 
who was known to have been severely wounded, and of 
Stokes another constable, have never been found. It 
is most probable that they crept away into the bush, 
and there expired. As soon as the news reached 
Nelson, persons were sent round by land with provi- 
sions, and orders to keep up large fires. Some of the 
fugitives returned by land, having subsisted on wild 
turnips for several days. Others, who had remained 
hid in the fern or bush till after the departure of the 
natives, were taken up by the brig on her return. 

The following is a list of all the White men present 
at the affray : — 
Police Magistrate and County Judge, Mr. Thompson, 

Magistrates — Captain Wakefield and Captain England, 

Principal Surveyor, Mr. Tuckett, escaped. 
Crown Prosecutor, Mr. Richardson, massacred. 
Land Agent, Mr. Patchett, killed. 
Company's Storekeeper, Mr. Howard, massacred. 
Surveyors — Mr. Cotterell, massacred ; Mr. Barnicoat 

and Mr. Bellairs escaped. 
Passenger of brig, Mr. Ferguson, escaped. 
Interpreter, John Brooks, massacred. 
Chief Constable, — Maling, died of wounds, body not 

Constables, — Gapper, wounded, lost the use of his 
hand; — Coster and William Gardiner, killed or mas- 
Special Constables — Edward Stokes, died of wounds ; 
James M'Gregor, killed ; Richard Burnet, wounded ; 
John Gay, Wm. Maunsell, and John Noden, es- 
caped ; John Bumforth, lost an arm ; Eli Cropper, 
Wm. Northam, Henry Bumforth, Thomas Tyrrell, 



and Isaac Smith, killed or massacred ; Richard 

Warner, escaped. 
Boatmen — Thomas Pay, killed or massacred ; Samuel 

Goddard, Abraham Vollard, John Kidson, George 

Bampton, and Wm. Burt, escaped. 
Men engaged on the Surveys — H. Richardson, Thomas 

Hannam, W. Chamberlain, James Grant, Richard 

Peanter, Wm. Morrison, Joseph Morgan, and John 

Miller, escaped ; Robert Crawford and John Smith, 

wounded ; Wm. Clanzey, John Burton, and Thomas 

Ratcliffe, killed or massacred ; Henry Wray, escaped. 

Lord Stanley, in his letter to Governor Fitzroy 
after the reception of this evidence in England, thus 
follows the example of Police Magistrate Macdonogh 
in stating what does not appear in the depositions. 
He says : — 

" Most calamitously, the commencement of the 
" conflict was signalized by the death by a gunshot 
" wound of a woman who was the wife of one of the 
" chiefs, and the daughter of the other ; she fell a 
" victim to conjugal affection, in the attempt to shelter 
" her husband's life, at the imminent peril of her own. 
" Her death was avenged by him and her father, in 
" the slaughter of the prisoners they had made." 

From what authority the noble Secretary of State 
for the Colonies derived this pathetic episode I know 
not ; but I will follow his example in relating some 
facts connected with the same occurrence, which are 
not in the depositions. 

Dr. Dorset, who accompanied the Magistrates to 
Cloudy Bay for the purpose of attending any wounded 
that might be found, took some pains to inquire who 
this wife was. He was informed by the whalers, that it 
was " Te Rongo" a woman who had been in the prac- 
tice of cohabiting with them to get goods for her chief; 


but who used to share the chiefs couch whenever he 
took her from one whaler in order to enhance her price 
to another i who would pay him better for a temporary 
wife. They said it was only on his visit to Cloudy 
Bay before going to ff^airau, that he had thus taken 
her away from one of their number, and that he had 
not yet found a bargain to suit him. 

I know to a certainty, that the permanent and 
tapued wife of JRangihaeata, whom I have often seen 
at his residence in Mana and at Kapiti, was not killed 
at Wairau ; because I saw her at Otaki many months 
afterwards. How many temporary wives this chief 
may have had, wherewith to supply the whaling 
stations, I will not pretend to count. 

It is also certain that Te Kongo was not the 
daughter of Rauperaha. She may have been some 
relation; as I have already explained, the terms " father" 
and " child" are used very loosely by the natives to in- 
dicate members of an older or younger generation. 

I must also mention, that E Ahu and various other 
natives told me that Rangihaeata had used another 
and less excusable argument to persuade Rauperaha 
that the White chiefs should be killed. When he saw 
the nine or ten dead bodies of the labourers who had 
been shot in fair fight, he said to Rauperaha, " We 
" shall be sure to be killed for this, some day ; the 
" White people will take utu ; let us then have some 
" better blood than that of these tutua (common men). 
" We are chiefs ; let us kill the chiefs and take utu 
" beforehand for ourselves." And the insult to the 
remains of the one whom they considered the greatest 
chief among the White party seems to confirm this 

Had a Coroner's inquest been held on the bodies, 
many of these qualifying circumstances would probably 


have appeared. But Nelson, although it had been 
founded 21 months, and numbered a larger population . 
than the Capital, had not yet a Coroner or the means 
of summoning a Coroner's Jury. 

While the Magistrates went to examine witnesses, 
the people of Wellington became alarmed at their 
totally defenceless state, in case of the outrages of 
Rauperaha and his followers being continued in this 
direction, now that he had managed to get to Otaki 
in safety. What E Ahu had told me of his inten- 
tions, when supposing that I should have killed his son, 
plainly showed that the people of Wellington were 
not wrong. The most sudden whim, the most false 
and absurd report, might lead to these consequences 
in the present excited state of the natives, warm as it 
were with the smell of blood, and kept up to the mark 
by Rauperaha and his handcuff. 

So the settlers had enrolled themselves as volunteers, 
under the express sanction and superintendence of the 
Mayor, the Justices of the Peace, and Mr. Macdonogh 
the Police Magistrate, who swore them in as special 
constables. A Committee of Public Safety had been 
appointed; a battery built and mounted with two 
18-pounders on the flag-staff hill; officers chosen to 
command and drill the volunteers ; and the necessary 
measures taken to place all the powder in the settle- 
ment under the control of the authorities. Curiously 
enough, a large quantity of gunpowder was found in 
the house of the Rev. Mr. Smales, the Wesleyan 
missionary who had replaced Mr, Aldred on his de- 
parture for the Chatham Islands. ]Mr. Smales wrote 
a very ungentlemanly letter in answer to the account 
given of this discovery in the paper ; and caught the 
name of " Gunpowder Smales" among the lower class 
of settlers in consequence. 


Colonel Wakefield told me that he had passed the 
volunteers under review on the Sunday morning pre- 
vious to my arrival, and that they seemed to have pro- 
fited very well by their drilling, except a troop of some 
20 cavalry composed of gentry, whose horses were not 
yet accustomed to the drums or to the banging of the 
sabres about their ribs. There were about 400 
bayonets mustered ; but Colonel Wakefield spoke in 
special praise of the appearance and evolutions of a 
rifle corps of about 100, composed of the higher class. 
They had been well drilled by Major Durie, the Chief 
Commandant of the Volunteers, and their courage 
and dependence on each other in case of sudden emer- 
gency was looked upon as certain. 

Early in June, news had been received at Welling- 
ton of a battle between two native tribes in the North, 
which had terminated in great loss of life. 

Mr. Shortland, almost immediately that he became 
Colonial Secretary, had purchased for the Government 
a large district of land at Manganui, north of the B.ay 
of Islands. But he bought it of a chief named Pana- 
kareao, or Noble, whose fathers had been driven from 
the territory in question to Kaitaia about thirty years 
before. And the conquerors, who had been in peace- 
able possession ever since, had sold the same tract to 
different private individuals about eight years before the 
Government contract. The most bitter disputes had 
arisen between the two native parties, fomented on the 
one hand by the private land-claimants, and on the other 
by the officers and supporters of Government, who, 
from Governor Hobson downwards, concurred in de- 
scribing Noble as " a fine intelligent missionary 
" native." 

At length, the Land Commissioner, Colonel God- 
frey, had gone to investigate the claims to land in that 


district. The White settlers, and the chiefs and the 
natives from whom they bought, appeared and claimed 
the lands. Noble and his tribe also appeared, and 
claimed the same lands for himself and for the Govern- 

Like many other natives, however, he had repented 
of his bargain in the two years which had elapsed 
since it was made, so far as to deny that he had sold 
more than a few small portions to the Government. 

The Commissioner was perplexed and refused to 
act, on the plea that he could not decide between the 
Government of Her Majesty and Her Majesty's sub- 
jects ; indeed, it appears that he was afraid of an out- 
break among the natives, who were highly excited : 
at all events, he consulted his own safety and left the 
scene of strife. The natives also dispersed, without 
coming to any amicable arrangement; but, on the 
contrary, with the full understanding that war alone 
could terminate the dispute. Each party summoned 
their followers and allies to the number of 5000 or 
6000 on both sides. And notwithstanding the 
fact that most of the chiefs in command had signed the 
Treaty of TVaitangt, and that most of the assembled 
natives were professed Christians, the earnest entreaties 
and remonstrances of the Bishop, and of the Missionaries 
headed by the Rev. Henry Williams, had been unavail- 
ing to prevent a pitched battle, which ended in the 
slaughter of upwards of 50 natives, including 15 great 
chiefs, and the total defeat and fight of Noble and 
the rest of his party. 

VOL. II. 2 D 



Arrival of Major Richmond and fifty-three soldiers — The volun- 
teer drilling proclaimed illegal — by inadvertence — Meetings of 
the local Magistrates — Deputation to reconnoitre — Visits to the 
Hutt and Porirua — Proceedings of the Magistrates — Petition — 
Lord Ripon's remarks on it — Mr. Clarke's Maori Proclamation 
— Lieutenant Shortland's Proclamation — Mr. Clarke's Official 
Report— Heartless population of Auckland — Effects of the Act- 
ting -Governor's Proclamation — Judge Martin's rule of Court — 
Honourable conduct of Mr. Fox — Public remonstrance to the 
Judge — Mr. Spain's proceedings — Negotiations respecting the 
arbitration — Outrage committed by a native — Arrival of H.M.8. 
North Star — Sir Everard Home's letter to Rauperaha — Taupo 
Bay at Porirua — Taiaroa — Farm near Oto^o— Disturbances at 
Nelson — Indifference of the Government officers. 

The Government brig had been despatched to Auck- 
land on the 30th of June, and Dr. Evans had taken 
a passage in her, deputed to represent the whole cir- 
cumstances to the Acting Governor. The brig made a 
very quick voyage, and returned just before daylight 
on the morning of the 24th July. 

Soon after she anchored, the reveillee sounded from 
the bugle of the detachment of troops on board, and 
was answered by those of the different divisions of 
volunteers on the shore. The morning was quite calm ; 
and to JVahine iti and my other natives who were 
looking on the scene, these sounds and their clear 
echoes among the hills appeared like magic. They 
were much surprised when I told them that each of 
these sounds conveyed an order to the soldiers. The 
roll of the drums from the ship and the shore succeeded. 


The passengers in the brig were — Major Richmond, 
one of the Land Commissioners, now appointed Police 
Magistrate for Port Nicholson, as he had reported on 
all the claims in the Northern part of the island ; 
Colonel Godfrey, the other Land Commissioner, 
who was going to prosecute his inquiries at Akaroa ; 
and Mr. Edward Shortland, the Sub-Protector of 
Aborigines who had been left to explain the passive 
enforcement of British laws at Tauranga, and was also 
on his way to Akaroa. Dr. Evans also returned ; 
and Captain Bennet of the Engineers had come to 
see about barracks for the troops, which consisted of 
53 men of the 96th regiment, under the command of 
Captain Eyton and Ensign Servantes. 

The wooden immigration barracks of the Company 
were at once placed at their disposal by Colonel \^'^ake- 
field, as a temporary location ; and there they remained 
until February of the next year, when I left the coun- 
try. I believe they are there still. 

Major Richmond had hardly eaten his breakfast 
when he landed, and, accompanied by Mr. Hanson and 
Mr. Spain, in what character was not ascertained, went 
straight to the house of Major Durie, to request in 
very peremptory terms that he would take immediate 
steps for the disbanding of the corps of volunteers 
under his command. 

And the following proclamation was stuck about 
all over the town, when it was found that the Rifle 
Corps still prepared to go through their daily drill : — 

" Whereas divers persons in the borough of Wel- 
" lington have unlawfully assembled together for the 
** purpose of being trained and drilled to arms, and of 
" practising military exercises : Now, I have it in com- 
" mand from his Excellency the Officer administering 
" the Government, to give notice, that if any person 



** whatever shall henceforth so unlawfully asseml)le 
" for the purposes aforesaid, or any of them, in the bo- 
" rough of Wellington, or elsewhere in the southern 
" district of New Ulster, the assemblage of such per- 
" sons will be dispersed, and the persons so unlawfully 
" assembling will be proceeded against according to 
" law. Dated this 26th July, 1843. 

" M. Richmond, Chief Police Magistrate." 

The volunteers had been most lawfully organized 
and drilled, under the express sanction and in answer 
to the invitation of the Assistant Police Magistrate, 
the Mayor, and some nine or ten other Justices of the 

This was the third time during three years and a 
half that the settlers had been compelled by an emer- 
gency to meet in arms. Twice out of these three times 
these meetings were authorized by the Magistrates; 
and twice out of three times they were dispersed as 
illegal by proclamation. In 1840, the settlers hastily 
assembled in arms on hearing that the life of one of 
their number had been threatened ; and the assembly 
was proclaimed illegal by Lieutenant Shortland. In 
1841 the settlers responded to the call of Mr. Murphy 
the Police IMagistrate, met in arms as special consta- 
bles, and dispersed quietly when their services were no 
longer required. And now, in 1843, they had been 
summoned together as volunteers by one Police IMagis- 
trate, and proclaimed guilty of illegality by another. 
Yet, in 1 840, in answer to Governor Hobson's stjite- 
ment that an increase of military force was necessary. 
Lord John Russell, then Colonial Minister, had told 
him that " that the establishment of a local militia 
" would be a beneficial measure." 

It may be imagined that this notice produced no less 
indignation than surprise. It was thought at least a 


want of courtesy not to take any notice of the Com- 
mittee of Public Safety, consisting of the tirst men in 
the settlement, who had organized all the arrange- 
ments. But when the loyal manner in which the set- 
tlers of all classes had responded to the call of the 
authorities, working from daylight till dark at the bat- 
teries, drilling in the rain, and sacrificing a great part 
of their day's work both in the morning and evening, 
was described as a seditious riot, something more than 
want of courtesy was perceived. 

Two days afterwards, the following amendment, for 
it could not be called a retractation, of the offensive 
term, appeared in the newspaper : — 

" Sir, — In the proclamation issued by the Chief 
" Police IMagistrate, giving notice that any future as- 
" semblies for the purpose of drilling will be put a stop 
" to, the former assemblies for that purpose are charac- 
" terised as unlawful. As my attention has been 
" called to this expression, I feel bound, in justice to 
" Major Richmond, to state that its use is solely attri- 
" butable to myself, and that it was used inadvertently. 
" I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 

" R. Davies Hanson, Crown Prosecutor." 

A whole community stigmatised as rebels by inad- 
vertence on the part of one of the Government officers ! 
Meetings were again held, and resolutions passed, 
expressive of the disgust of the settlers at these tyran- 
nical proceedings. But a brief account of the treat- 
ment of the local Magistrates by the new Stipendiary 
will best explain what allowance was made for the 
feelings of the settlers. 

Major Richmond went away to Nelson, after leaving 
his decree and the troops at Wellington ; and Colonel 
Wakefield also took a passage in the brig to set the 
Company's affairs straight at that crippled settlement. 


On the 6th of August, Major Richmond returned. 
The local Magistrates not in the pay of Government 
then at Wellington, immediately requested him to call 
a meeting of the Bench ; and met among themselves to 
concert their measures. We were six, namely — Mr. 
Charles Clifford, Mr. Henry Petre, ]\Ir. William Fitz- 
herbert, Dr. Evans, Captain Daniell, and myself. The 
Government officers in the Magistracy were four — Mr. 
Hanson, Mr. Spain, Mr. Macdonogh, and Major 

The Mayor, Mr. Hunter, had died a day or two 
before the arrival of the Government brig. Mr. 
Guyton was ill in bed ; Mr. Swainson was busy enough 
protecting the abode of his family against the encroach- 
ments and annoyances of ** Dog's Ear" and the other 
natives on the Hutt ; and Colonel Wakefield and Mr. 
St. Hill, who made up the number of Magistrates, had 
remained at Nelson for a time. 

At the first meeting, we only established the right 
of the Justices of the Peace to meet as a body, to elect 
a Chairman at each meeting, to pass resolutions, and 
to have minutes of their proceedings taken by the Clerk 
of the Bench. 

When we first entered the Police Court (one of the 
Company's emigrants-houses, lent to ^the houseless 
Government), Major Richmond tried to treat us in the 
same way as we always had been treated till then, as 
mere puppets. He began making a soft speech, con- 
gratulating us on the quiet state of the natives, and the 
promptitude of the Government in sending down the 
troops as protection. He was going on in this strain, 
when it was moved and seconded that he should take 
the Chair. Only through courtesy we placed him there, 
though we did not acknowledge the right of the Chief 
Police Magistarte. till then assumed, to be permanent 
Chairman of the Bench. 


No resolutions were passed at this meeting ; prin- 
cipally through the weakness of Dr. Evans, who had 
been intrusted with the principal one, but who allowed 
himself to be won over by the smoothing manner of 
the Stipendiary, and kept the resolution in his pocket. 

It was represented to Major Richmond that reports 
had come in from all quarters of the danger to be feared 
from the natives. On the Hutt, scarcely two miles 
from the village of Aglionby, a constable had tried to 
apprehend a native who had been clearly guilty of theft 
in a White man's house ; but he had been surrounded 
by friends of the culprit flourishing spears and toma- 
hawks, very roughly handled, and forced to desist from 
his attempt. Rauperaha and Rangihaeata were said 
to be forming a new pa at the entrance of Porirua 
harbour ; and to have assembled there some 200 men, 
including the whole population of Cloudy Bay. Puaha, 
the missionary chief who had held up the Testament 
before the fighting at WairaUy was said to have come 
over in command of the Company's boat, which formed 
part of their spoil. 

It was agreed that Mr. Petre, Mr. Macdonogh, and 
I, should go and inquire into the truth of these 
reports, accompanied by Mr. Meurant the Interpreter. 

Up the Hutt, we found a very large increase in the 
number of native inhabitants. Two strong jpas were 
being built in the potato-grounds. I recognised a great 
many of Rangihaeata^ especial attendants. Two of 
the men did not conceal that they had been at 
IVa'irau ; and, in fact, boasted of it to the sawyers and 
other White persons who were living by their sufferance 
in this neighbourhood. 

We had a long conference with the principal man 
there, Hapimane, or " Chapman," a nephew of Rau- 
peraha. The culprit was a mere slave ; but as his father 


objected to his being taken to Wellington before a 
White Kai ff^akawa, or ** man to decide," the chief 
said he should not go. The assault on the constable 
was not denied, but asserted to be quite right. The 
thief was produced before us, and most of the stolen 
things were returned ; but Chapman positively refused 
to acknowledge our authority or let the thief go to be 
punished. And so we three Magistrates went away as 
we had come. 

The next day we rode to Porirua. We found 
neither pa, boat, nor a large assemblage of natives. 
But a small party of natives who were there told us 
that Puaha was at Pukerua with the boat, and that a 
pa was about to be built between the whaling-station 
at Parramatta and the ascent towards Pukerua, in a 
sandy bay called Taupo. They laughed at the idea of 
giving the boat back without utu ; and treated the 
whole affair as one of their own wars, where the vic- 
torious party keeps the plunder. And they told us 
plainly that they looked upon these visits merely as the 
reconnoitering of spies. They combined Mr. Spain's 
visit to Otaki with this one of ours in this light ; and 
taunted us with our cowardly way of conducting war. 
They would not believe " that we had come merely to 
" ask for a boat taken in fair fighting ; that was too 
*• absurd ! No ! we were come to spy, and we were 
*' keeping our feud quiet till we saw the right moment 
** to send the soldiers !" 

With this perfect evidence that they had not the 
least idea of considering themselves in any way subject 
to our laws, we returned to Wellington. 

Our observations reported to the next meeting had 
only confirmed the local Magistrates in their opinion, 
that the continuance of the drilling was absolutely 
necessary, not only as a means of restoring confidence 


to the settlers, but in order to prevent the natives from 
presuming on our defenceless state. 

And we asked the Police Magistrate to rescind 
his prohibitory proclamation, as the 53 grenadiers 
could be considered hardly capable of defending their 
own barracks, in case of a sudden and well-concerted 
attack by the natives. 

But the Police Magistrate refused, saying it would 
be quite contrary to his instructions. He said a frigate 
with troops was now daily expected from Sydney : he 
would call the settlers out should any emergency make 
that course requisite. 

We represented to him the absurdity of calling out 
untrained men on an emergency to harass and encumber 
rather than to support the few regulars ; and we in- 
stanced the fatal result of Pf^airau as caused by the 
superiority of savages, who are very perfectly trained and 
drilled by the chiefs in their skirmishing warfare, over 
men who did not know which end of the cartridge to 
bite. And we made him acknowledge that he had 
neither the authority nor the will to cause the additional 
troops to be landed when the frigate should come, or 
the knowledge as to how soon the frigate and all the 
troops might be called upon to act upon the coast, 
and the settlement be again left totally undefended. 
But he smiled, and shuffled, and still pleaded his con- 
venient instructions. 

So we determined to act for ourselves. After ad- 
journing to learn the law of the case, we found that 
the only law against drilling (even if applicable to New 
Zealand, which point remained in doubt), provided 
that persons might lawfully drill and be drilled, if 
authorized so to do by any two Justices of the Peace. 
We came prepared with two resolutions, one asserting 
the expediency of the drilling, and the other intimating 


to the public that we were ready thus to authorize 

But Major Richmond, who had been again courte- 
ously placed in the chair, refused to put the resolution 
when he had heard it read, again pleading his instruc- 
tions ; and, after a long space of courteous remonstrance 
on our part, one of our members moved that he should 
leave the chair, and that Captain Daniell should take 
it. Major Richmond took his hat, and bowed and 
smiled himself out of the room. Throughout the 
proceedings, his total nonchalance and want of sympathy 
for the settlers had been most apparent. We then 
passed our resolutions, and were preparing to publish 
them, when we received an official remonstrance from 
Major Richmond against our doings. He not only 
pleaded his instructions, as though they had anything 
to do with our conduct, but strongly asserted that 
the proposed course was calculated to arouse " alarm 
" and excitement among the natives." This had been 
his main argument at our meetings also. 

We, however, considered that a knowledge by the 
natives of our perfect ability to protect ourselves would 
tend in the very opposite direction ; and that no course 
could so effectually allay excitement in all quarters. 
E Aku and the other Otaki natives had expressed 
some curiosity to see the drilling, and only considered 
it as rather a new toy. Wahine iti was nmch dis- 
appointed when he found that there was to be no 

But two of our number having waited upon Major 
Richmond to discuss the matter, we became convinced 
that that officer would })ersist in dispersing the volun- 
teers, even if drilled under our authority. He refused 
to answer the question made to him, as to whether he 
would feel justified in ordering the troops to disperse 


them at the point of the bayonet ; and as such a 
result would have been of the most injurious effect, 
whether upon the natives or upon the settlers, we for- 
bore from proceeding any further in the matter. And 
the whole community, smarting under the insults 
heaped upon them and the marked distrust of their 
too enduring loyalty, forbore from any course beyond 
the old one of meeting, embodying their feelings in 
resolutions, and sending a manly petition, praying for 
the establishment of a permanent armed force for their 

But the petition was, as usual, sneered at in Auckland 
and neglected in England. 

When it was presented to the House of Lords, by 
the Earl of Malmesbury, in April 1844, Lord Ripon 
said (according to the report in the Times), that " it 
" would be right to ascertain what the inhabitants 
** could do for their own protection, and how far their 
*' claims for the establishment of a permanent force 
" were well-founded. There certainly were means 
" within the reach of the colonists, which they might 
" adopt for their own safety. The Governor was 
" authorized to levy a militia, and to establish a con- 
" stabulary force, as in Ireland, for their safety ; and 
" when there were 10,000 inhabitants, he could not 
" see why such a course might not readily be adopted." 

Between these events and the arrival of Captain 
Fitzroy the new Governor, it was clear that the local 
Government had only sent the troops to keep the 
settlers in order, and because they considered such a 
protection necessary for the natives. 

Major Richmond's despotic proclamation was not 
the only public document which had come in the brig 
from Auckland. 

First and foremost was a proclamation from Mr. 


Clarke, the Chief Protector of Aborigines, to the 
natives. It began by metaphors and figures about 
the horizon l)eing dark ; and conveyed the informa- 
tion already received by the Government as to a " con- 
" flict between the natives and the Europeans." 

He went on to say, " with us both parties are wrong, 
*• according to the laws both of God and man." And 
directly afterwards, " let us wait to hear the correct- 
** ness and truth of this matter ; until which do not 
" let us prejudge." 

Then he professed to analyze the evidence of both 
parties ; and, in so doing, stated that the fact of Rafi- 
gihaeata having slaughtered the prisoners rested upon 
the evidence of the White people ! 

And his whole analysis was tainted with the same 
colour as Mr. Macdonogh's retracted invention and 
Lord Stanley's pathetic episode. 

A proclamation from the Acting Governor to the 
White people forbade them from exercising rights of 
ownership upon any land of which the title was dis- 
puted by any native. 

And the answer of his Excel lencyto the address of 
the Committee of Public Safety was in the same spirit ; 
treating the dead and the survivors of the " contest " 
as the real criminals in the affair. 

The resistance to the Queen's warrant, and the 
accompanying massacre of a Police Magistrate, two 
Justices of the Peace, a Crown Prosecutor, and several 
constables, seemed to call for an active exercise of 
authority in apprehending the murderers and investi- 
gating the whole affair. 

We were met by the assertion that it was a dispute 
about land, in which the White people were the 
aggressors and in the wrong. 

We were accused of prejudging the case as regards 


the natives ; and our dead fellow-countrymen were 
prejudged to have been the only criminals. 

We were suspected of a wish to revenge ourselves, 
and of blood-thirstiness against the whole native race ; 
therefore, 50 grenadiers were sent only to prevent 
us from overawing the natives by preparing our- 
selves for the worst. 

It was foreseen that the natives, presuming on 
the impunity of their first murderous resistance to 
authority, would bring on a repetition of the "con- 
" flict ;" therefore, the Whites were forbidden from 
seeking to maintain their footing wherever the natives 
should forbid. 

But the whole policy of Mr. Acting Governor 
Shortland is best accounted for by Mr. Clarke's letter 
to him, on the first receipt of the depositions at Auck- 
land. Dating from the Protectors O^ce (for these 
officers had early taken upon themselves to assume the 
sounding title of " Protector " by itself), he thus 
writes, in words that prejudge, that falsify the deposi- 
tions and the effect of the affair on the natives, that 
vilify the memory of the dead, that thirst for revenge 
and for more blood of his own fellow-countrymen. 

" Protector's Office, Auckland, 
"Sir, "8th July, 1843. 

" It is my painful duty to enclose for the informa- 
" tion of his Excellency the Officer administering the 
" Government, a copy of the Protector of the Southern 
" District's report of a serious affray which took place 
" between Her Majesty's European and aboriginal 
" subjects at JVairau, New Munster, occasioned by the 
" New Zealand Company's officers taking forcible pos- 
" session of native lands ; and while I feel the deepest 
" sympathy for the unfortunate sufferers and their sur- 
" viving relations, I cannot help regretting and deprecat- 


ing, in the strongest terms, the unconstitutional and 
murderous proceeding of the Police Magistrate and his 
colleagues, in attacking an inoflPensive people, killing 
three, and obliging the remainder, in self-defence, to 
attack in turn their assailants ; which terminated, as 
you will perceive by reference to the enclosed report, 
in the destruction of 19 Europeans, and which more- 
over threatens to bring about a general collision with 
the aborigines of this colony. 

" The desire manifested by the natives to await the 
decision of the Land Commissioner, as expressed to the 
Company's Agent and Surveyors, and reiterated to the 
Police Magistrate on his arrival with an armed force 
to arrest two of their principal chiefs, shows that they 
had no wish to quarrel with the Europeans ; and their 
subsequent conduct, in passing through unprotected 
European settlements without molesting the residents, 
fully substantiates the same fact. 

" I cannot say I am surprised at what has taken 
place ; I rather wonder at the long forbearance of the 
natives in the vicinity of the Company's settlements, 
receiving as they have such deep provocation in the 
forcible occupancy of lands which they never alienated ; 
and I can only account for this forbearance upon the 
principle of the pledge given them by the late Governor, 
Captain Hobson, that they should not be forced off 
land they had not alienated, nor be disturbed in their 
pas Jlnd cultivations. 

*' I am satisfied that such an unhappy affair as that 
of Te Tf^airau could never have occurred had not the 
natives been urged to it by extreme provocation. It is 
a principle with the natives, in all cases of extremity 
'between themselves and the Europeans, to act only 
on the defensive. ' We will not.' say they, * fire 

* a gun at a European, until we see our people first 

* murdered.' 


" The parties engaged in this rash and inhuman 
*' affray have inflicted a deadly wound on the interests of 
" the colony, by means of the unfortunate impression with 
" regard to native character which this circumstance, even 
" after the fullest explanation, will create. They have 
" also occasioned a breach of that confidence hitherto 
" existing, which must prove alike injurious to both 
" parties, and which time only will repair ; and while I 
" entertain the fullest confidence in the integrity of the 
" natives, and am under no apprehension of any undue 
" advantage being taken by them of their late success, I 
" at the same time experience the greatest apprehension 
" of danger from a number of our own countrymen, who, 
" I fear, are using every possible means to widen the 
" breach for the unworthy purpose of taking possession 
" of the coveted lands, and throwing the onus of the 
" aggression on Her Majesty's Government. 

" I am borne out in these remarks, I conceive, by 
" the general tenor of the proceedings of the disappointed 
" settlers in all the Company's settlements, as exhibited 
" in the police reports, and other occasional matter con- 
" tained in the Southern papers, but more especially by 
" the sentiments of the resident Protector,* expressed to 
" me in his private communication ; an extract of which 
" is herewith enclosed for the perusal of his Excellency, 
" as fully in accordance with my own views upon this 
" subject. 

" The only step which I could suggest to Her Ma- 
"jesty's Government in the present painful dilemma in 
" which they are placed by this disastrous occurrence, is 
" to avow, in the strongest terms, their disapproval of 
" the conduct adopted by the Nelson settlers, and the 
" deep horror entertained by Her Majesty's Govern- 

* His own son, who had acted and written in the same spirit as 


" ment at the very severe measures pursued by the 
" aborigines. 

" I think this concession, humiliating as it may 
" appear, more honourable and worthy the dignity of 
" the Crown, than any other line of policy that could be 
" devised, and that most calculated to heal the breach 
" and re-establish confidence. 

" Whatever may be the intentions of Her Majesty's 
" Government relative to this unhappy affair, I need 
" scarcely suggest to his Excellency the necessity of 
" rigorous measures to prevent an indiscriminate re- 
** venge being inflicted by Europeans on natives, or point 
" out to them the pains that will be taken to circulate 
" injurious reports of the aborigines residing in the 
" vicinity of the Company's settlements ; and I would 
" submit to his Excellency the propriety of a gentleman 
" connected with this department proceeding imme- 
" diately to Port Nicholson to act for a time under the 
** directions of the district Protector, enabling him to 
" leave that settlement with confidence ; as present 
" circumstances will render it necessary that he should 
" be in a position to facilitate his visiting the various 
" settlements in the neighbourhood for the purpose of 
** allaying the excited feelings of the natives, and using 
" his influence to restore harmony and peace. I would 
" also submit to his Excellency, that an inquiry should 
" be instituted into the conduct of the survivors who 
** took an active part in the affray, and, if found guilty, 
" punished according to law ; that the equitable 
" manner in which Her Majesty's Government view 
** these proceedings may be apparent to all, and espe- 
" cially to the natives . 

" I have, &c. 
(signed) " George Clarke, 

" Chief Protector of Aborigines. 

" The Honourable Colonial Secretary, &c." 


Mr. Clarke displayed less forbearance, perhaps, and 
took greater pains to circulate injurious reports, than 
even the " disappointed settlers." 

There can be but little doubt that, as I said before, 
Mr. Clarke was the more influential of the two officers 
who had worked on Governor Hobson's paralysed 

From the Auckland public we had at least expected 
some condolence for our sorrows, if not sympathy for 
our wrongs. But the report of Dr. Evans and the tone 
of the Auckland newspapers combined to show that 
they united with the Government to condemn our lost 
friends, and openly exulted over the measures taken by 
the authorities to irritate our wounds and to repress 
an imagined desire for indiscriminate revenge. 

So heartless and unmanly was the character of the 
population which had been gathered together merely 
to scramble for the spoils of a land-jobbing experiment, 
and to share the booty drawn from our hard-working 

The natives, of course, soon heard of the ** rights-of^ 
ownership" proclamation ; and threatened to eject per- 
sons from lands which had been occupied for years, 
making them disputed lands by the very act. Mr. 
Halswell, who had been distinguished for his fatherly, 
though perhaps too indulgent, conduct to natives of all 
classes, was one of the first to receive "notice to quit" 
from the very men to whom his house had afforded so 
much hospitality and kindness. Several settlers in the 
Hutt were warned to leave within a few weeks. 
W^hen the news got to New Plymouth, the natives 
intimated to the Police Magistrate, who had a really 
nice house and farm, that he must make room for 
them within a given time. E Tako expressed his inten- 
tion of receiving the rents from a number of houses 

VOL. II. 2 E 


in Wellington, including Barrett's hotel and the re- 
sidences of Colonel Wakefield and of the Crown 

The settlers, though they forbore from drilling, be- 
gan to practise rifle-shooting in their own gardens, and 
kept stands of arms and ammunition always ready in 
their houses. For no one could say, from hour to 
hour, when he might hear the news that some settler's 
forbearance had been exhausted by the increasing 
licence and insolence of the natives, and that every 
man was required to do his best in defence of the 
women and children. No one believed that the 53 
soldiers alone would be able to defend the broad line 
occupied by the town for an hour, should a general 
attack be made. 

On the 22nd of August, Colonel Wakefield returned 
from Nelson, in a Hamburgh ship which had carried a 
ship-load of German immigrants to that settlement. 
On his arrival at Wellington, he appointed Mr. Wil- 
liam Fox to be Company's Agent at Nelson ; and 
tliis gentleman went there soon afterwards. 

Mr. Fox had come out in the " Fyfe," and was one 
of the sterling colonists whom I have described as 
arriving about that time. He was a member of the 
English bar, and had come with the intention of prac- 
tising in the Courts at Wellington. But Judge Martin 
had made a rule of Court, that no barrister could be 
enrolled as a barrister of the Supreme Court in New 
Zealand without making a declaration in the following 
words : — " I have not since my leaving England done 
" any act whereby I should be precluded from practising 
'* as a Barrister-at-Law." At the sitting of the Supreme 
Court in April, Mr. Fox had very properly refused 
to make that declaration, even under protest, on the 
ground that it was derogatory to the honour of the 


English Bar. To this course he had been induced 
by a manly sense of honour ; for those whom the de- 
claration seemed intended to preclude from the Court 
were just the only persons who would willingly answer 
it falsely. Only to a gentleman, fit in every way to 
practise in the Court, such a declaration became most 

A remonstrance on the subject was sent to his 
Honour the Chief Justice, signed by Colonel Wakefield 
and eight other Justices of the Peace, the Mayor and 
nine of the Aldermen, two of the barristers already 
practising in the Court, and 40 more of the leading 

They respectfully remonstrated against the Judge's 
proceeding, on the grounds above mentioned ; and ap- 
proved the course pursued by Mr. Fox, although they 
felt surprise and deep regret that the exercise of such 
honourable feelings should be the means of depriving 
them of so valuable a settler. 

They observed that there was no precedent for this 
course either in England or in the other colonies ; and 
urged upon his Honour " the justice and expediency of 
" adopting some other course more consonant to the 
" feelings of honourable men, and, as such, better 
" calculated to insure the respectability of his Honour's 
" bar, an object of paramount importance to the colo- 
" nists of New Zealand." 

But Justice Martin answered, that two barristers 
had already made the declaration, and that the leader 
of the bar had appoved of it ; and he concluded by 
saying, " When the authorities at home, to whom in 
" this and in every other matter connected with the 
" administration of justice here I am responsible, shall 
" tell me that I have acted erroneously, the regulation 
" in question will cease to be enforced." 

2 E 2 


Mr. Fox had at first proposed going to Hobart Town. 
But he had made several trips to fVairarapa and other 
parts of the surrounding country : he very early appre- 
ciated the good qualities of the little society to the con- 
fidence of which his honourable conduct gave him at 
once the highest title ; and he was soon considered 
one of themselves. 

Since Mr. Fox's appointment under the Comj)any, 
Wellington and Nelson have been placed under the 
jurisdiction of a separate Judge, Mr. H. S. Chapman; 
who at once did away with the degrading declaration 
in his Courts. 

During Colonel Wakefield's absence at Nelson, Mr. 
Spain took very active measures to induce the settlers 
to call upon him to re-open the suspended arbitration 
for the compensation of the disputed claims. He gave 
lunches and had meetings in his house, day after day, 
of people who had hardly spoken to him before ; and it 
was plainly observable that a strong feeling was arising 
that Colonel Wakefield had been negligent of his duty 
in the matter. It was said that he had no right to go 
back from his agreement, first proposed by himself, to 
accelerate the settlement of the land question by com- 
pensating the unpaid natives according to a fair award ; 
and that it had nothing to do with the case, that the 
Directors were carrying on a negotiation at home, the 
result of which might be the settlement of that question 
without the necessity of any such course. I remember 
that for a time many persons appeared to be jjersuaded 
that the Government authorities had done all their 
duty in the matter, and that the blame of the delay 
now rested on the Company's Agent. 

A deputation of settlers waited upon him on his 
return, with a memorial urging him to tiike the speediest 
measures for the final adjustment of these everlasting 


claims ; and he found a letter from Mr. Spain, dated 
17 days before, offering him an opportunity, before he 
should depart for Auckland, of resuming the negotia- 
tion at the precise point where it had left off in May. 

Colonel Wakefield immediately laid his whole cor- 
respondence relating to the matter, whether with the 
Directors or with the Commissioner and the other 
local authorities, before the settlers. 

And although the intelligence as yet arrived from 
England was anything but satisfactory, — the Company, 
on the contrary, being engaged in an angry dispute 
with the Colonial Office, and their operations being still 
suspended, — he agreed to re-open the negotiation exactly 
where it had left off, and wrote to Mr. Spain and Mr. 
Clarke junior to that effect. Referring to the latter's 
letter of the 23rd of May, claiming 1500/., he thus 
concluded his announcement to the referee on the part 
of the natives : — 

" I am now ready to proceed upon the basis proposed 
*' in that letter, viz., ' that we should include all claims 
" ' of the natives resident within the limits described in 
" ' the New Zealand Company's Port Nicholson deed ;' 
" from which I infer that you have waived your objec- 
" tion to a cessation of the pas and cultivated grounds, 
" with a view to inspire confidence in the minds of the 
" settlers, and re-establish a good understanding with 
" the natives. I must repeat what I have stated in a 
" former letter, that I cannot hold the Company re- 
" sponsible for any settlement that shall not be final 
" and conclusive." 

On the same day, two letters passed, one from Mr. 
Spain demanding, and one from Colonel Wakefield, 
giving an assurance that the amount of compensation 
should be paid when Mr. S})ain's final award as umpire 
should be made, at the conclusion of each case. 


In the afternoon Mr. Spain answered the letter to 
himself, and also that to Mr. Clarke junior ; which, 
curiously enough, the referee had handed to the umpire. 
Mr. Spain first told Colonel Wakefield, he had no right 
to write at all to Mr. Clarke, until he, as umpire, had 
finally decided that the arbitration was to be resumed ; 
accused him of seeking to impose new conditions upon 
the umpire, through Mr. Clarke, inconsistent with the 
original terms of the arbitration ; and then requested 
to know whether he were willing to resume the nego- 
tiation upon the terms proposed in his first letter, with- 
out reference to Colonel Wakefield's letter to Mr. 
Clarke ; with which, although he had answered it, he 
said he could have nothing to do as umpire. 

But Colonel Wakefield was now supported in his 
course by the settlers, who fully concurred in the letters 
which he had written to both Mr. Spain and Mr. 
Clarke junior ; and he answered, that nothing short of 
the " final and conclusive settlement," before demanded, 
would satisfy their feelings and expectations. While 
he repudiated the charge of imposing new conditions, 
he expressed himself " ready, willing, and anxious" to 
proceed in the affair. 

Mr. Spain, however, replied shortly, that these terms 
were such as to interdict the resumption of the nego- 
tiation ; went on board the brig, and sailed the next 
day for Auckland, declaring that he went to obtain 
from the Acting Governor the means of satisfying the 
natives whose expectations had been raised. He was 
accompanied by several of them. 

Ever since the failure of Colonel Wakefield to meet 
Mr. Spain at Pf^anganui, the Commissioner's conduct 
had displayed very manifest symptoms of personal pique. 
This is amply confirmed by his " private and confi- 
"dential" letters to Mr. Shortland, which have been 


since published in the Appendix to the Report of the 
House of Commons' Committee of last year. 

On the 28th of August, the following scene occurred 
within fifty yards of the Police Office and Barracks. 

A native residing at Pipitea Pa entered the house of 
a Scotchman, named Allan Cameron, when Mrs. 
Cameron was the only one of the family at home. The 
intruder opened a box, and without assigning any rea- 
son took from it a large piece of printed cotton. Mrs. 
Cameron remonstrated, and attempted to take the print 
from him ; when the native insulted her, and struck her 
under the ear and in other places. Several neighbours, 
alarmed by her screams, entered the house, and observed 
among other effects of the violence with which she had 
been assaulted, that one of her hands was covered with 
blood. A neighbour, Mr. Bee, a baker, having sent 
for a constable, strove to quiet the native, and advised 
him in vain, if he thought himself injured, to re- 
present the case to the Police Magistrate; and then 
recommended Mrs. Cameron to give up the print, 
and wait till the constable arrived. The native pro- 
ceeded to the pa, and the constable followed him 
and compelled him to restore the print. A number of 
natives were in chapel at the time, but, on hearing the 
disturbance, they rushed into the pa, and casting off 
their blankets, maltreated the constable, by throwing 
him down and jumping upon him. On his calling out 
for assistance, another constable, accompanied by some 
of the neighbours, came to the spot and attempted to 
protect him ; but the natives were too numerous, and 
drove them from the pa. Before he could be rescued, 
he was seriously injured. 

I was present, though not on the bench, in the 
Police Court on the day following. The prisoner having 
first refused to go before Major Richmond, was, after 


much entreaty, persuaded by Mr. Clarke junior to ac- 
company him, and the other natives were prevailed upon 
to suffer him to go to the Police Court. Three wit- 
nesses proved the identity of the prisoner, and he him- 
self confessed having struck the woman several times, 
and that he stole the print and ill-treated the con- 

Mr. Clarke junior treated the offence as of a very 
light character, and told the Chief Police INIagistrate 
" that it was a very trifling affair ;" but the constable 
who had suffered, surprised at his remarks, stated that 
" he had been nearly killed in the affray." 

Major Richmond, after hearing the case, told the 
aggressor he might go, but if ever he did anything of 
the kind again, he would be punished for it. The de- 
cision excited considerable surprise in the minds of 
those present ; many of whom loudly vented their feel- 
ings against Mr. Clarke junior as he quitted the 
office. Mrs. Cameron had sustained considerable injury 
in her head from the effect of the blows she received on 
the above occasion. But, wonderful to relate, the set- 
tlers still forbore. 

About this time, numerous cases occurred of in- 
creasing insolence and outrageous conduct on the part 
of the natives. Up the Hutt, and in other quarters, 
many insfcmces occurred; but they did not apjjear 
in the Police Court, as it had become a bye-word that 
there was law against the Whites and none against 
the Mauri. It is painful to think, that although the 
settlers still respected an authority so inadequately ad- 
ministered, many feelings of private revenge and animo- 
sity have been treasured up at this time, through the 
tottil inaction of the public institution which should over- 
come such feelings by awarding its impartial penalties 
to all wrong deeds. 


On the 30t,h, Dr. Monro and Mr. Domett, two 
settlers who had been deputed from Nelson for the 
same purpose as Dr. Evans from Wellington, returned 
with a similar answer. His Excellency dwelt on the 
fact that he had issued "a proclamation," as though 
that would set all to rights. This was the very pro- 
clamation about " rights of ownership," which had 
induced the natives to disturb settlers undisturbed 
before, to seize upon land which the exertions of settlers 
had just cleared, and even in one or two cases to despoil 
and trample on growing crops. His Excellency con- 
cluded, however, with the assurance, " that the case 
" should not be prejudged ; that impartial justice should 
" be done ; and that the penalties of the law should 
" certainly overtake those whom its verdict should pro- 
" nounce to be guilty." 

On the 31st, H.M.S. North Star arrived from 
Auckland, whither she had gone from Sydney to 
obtain orders. Captain, formerly Lieutenant Best, 
was in command of a detachment of the 80th Foot, 
acting as supernumerary marines on board. As we 
had expected, there were particular instructions that 
the troops should not land, except if actually needed 
for active operation. 

The frigate was received with a salute from the vo- 
lunteer battery, and flags flying everywhere. 

An accident disabled the Captam, Sir Everard Home 
from communicating with Major Richmond for four 

Sir Everard, in his report to the Acting Governor 
of his proceedings on the coast, says Major Richmond 
" had received various reports of attacks meditated by 
" the natives under Te Rauperaha on that place ; that 
" the chief was at a pa not more than 14 miles from 
" Wellington, with between 500 and 1000 of his tribe. 


" fighting men ; that the chief Taiaroa, from the 
" Middle Island, had joined Te Rauperaha, and having 
" been an ancient enemy to him, had made peace ; that 
" the pa at Porirua was fortified, and every preparation 
•* made for an attack on the town of Wellington. 

" I told him in answer, that I could do nothing; and 
" that all that was in my opinion necessary, was for the 
" ship to remain where she was. I however wrote a 
" letter to Te Rauperaha." 

Here follows the letter from the Captain of an 
English man-of-war to a man who lay under the 
accusation of having murdered his countrymen, and 
among them two brother-officers of the writer : — 

" Friend Rauperaha, 

'* It has come to my knowledge that you are col- 
" lecting the tribes round you, because you expect that 
" I am going to attack you. Those who told you so 
" said that which is not true. 

*' It was to keep peace, and not to make war, that I 
" came here. You know, that where many men meet 
•' together, and continue without employment, they 
" will find something to do. They had best go home." 

A day or two after the arrival of the North Star I 
went to Otaki on horseback, in company with a gentle- 
man named Carter, a settler in New South Wales, and 
a relation of one of the officers of the frigate, who had 
come to see what inducements the country held out 
for removing hither with cattle and sheep. 

At Taupo Bay in Porirua, where the natives had 
told us, when deputed by the Magistrates, that ajoa 
was to be built, we found about 200 natives in a new 
village, 12 or 15 large canoes, and the Company's 
boat hauled up among them. 

Hiko came out on the beach, and beckoned to me 

Chap. XVI. T^IAROA. 427 

to stop. Accordingly we pulled up our horses ; and he 
introduced me to Taiaroa, the chief from Otako in the 
Middle Island, who had made a friendly alliance with 
Rauperaha, as reported to Major Richmond. Taiaroa 
talked to me for some time about land, in a disgusting 
jargon composed of whaling slang, broken French, 
and bad English ; so that I was obliged to beg him to 
talk Maori, which I could better understand. I then 
made out that he was angry with Wide-awake and 
the other White people for taking so much land ; and 
he said he should turn the White people off to the 
southward, if he did not get plenty of utu. 

Among others, he mentioned a Mr. John Jones, 
who had a large farming and whaling establishment 
at a place called TVaikawaikiy between Banks's Penin- 
sula and Otako. Mr. Jones was a merchant in Sydney 
when we first arrived in the country ; and though we 
knew that he was connected with the whaling stations 
on this coast, and he had been one of the largest con- 
signers of cattle to Port Nicholson, we had not been 
aware till within a few months before that he had 
100 acres of land under grain crop, nearly 100 head 
of horses besides cattle, and several families of cotta- 
gers employed as farm-labourers at Tf^aikawaiki, be- 
sides a whaling-station. At this time, however, having 
failed in Sydney, he had retired to his New Zealand 
estate with all his family, and had visited Wellington 
on his way, to close accounts with his agents there, 
people sent from Sydney, who had pilfered his property 
to a large extent. 

I asked Taiaroa why " Bloody Jack," or Tuawaike, 
the great chief of his tribe, had not come ; and he told 
me that there was a riri, or " quarrel," between them, 
and that he would not trust himself in Rauperahas 


Although his manner was insolent and overbearing, 
I asked him to go and see ^^^ide-awake and the White 
people at Wellington. He seemed to me another 
sample of the naturally ferocious savage, confirmed in 
brutality by association with the worst class of White 
men, like Rauperahn, Rangihaentay or the other Kawia 
chiefs, whose arrogant and coarse demeanour we had 
observed on first seeing them at Cloudy Bay and Kapiti 
in 1839. 

I now asked Hiko about the boat ; but he said he 
had no command over it, and that those who had would 
require large utu for restoring it. 

While I was speaking to him, I pulled out my 
pocket-handkerchief. He immediately retreated as fast 
as he could, hiding his head under his blanket. He 
told me, when re-assured, that he thought I was pulling 
a pistol out of my pocket to shoot him. I imme- 
diately answered, that I scorned to carry hidden arms 
amongst them ; and showed him that I had none but 
my cutlass and the dagger in my belt, both plainly 

We arrived without further occurrence at Otaki, and 
remained there two days ; during which we went to 
Topeoras pa, and saw both Rauperaha and Rangi- 
haeata. The latter had recovered of the wound in his 
foot, which was but a slight injury received by tread- 
ing on the sharp stumj) of a tree during the fight. 
They both professed to be very friendly to me, and 
inquired what the ship was come for — whether it 
was to take them or not? I told them I did not 
know ; she might be, she might not ; I had nothing 
to do with it. Rauperaha then repeated that he would 
fight the soldiers if they came : Rangihaeata said he 
would eat the ship, soldiers and all. 

We were a week away from Wellington. On my 


return, I found that serious news had come in from 
Nelson by a whale-boat sent on purpose. 

The natives were making active use of Mr. Short- 
land's proclamation at various places. At Motueka, Mr. 
Tuckett described himself as having been protected by 
the resident natives from threats against his life by 
some strangers of the Kawia tribe. 

Several settlers had received distinct warnings at 
about the same time from different natives, that an 
attack was very likely to be made upon the settle- 

The White labourers, whom I have already de- 
scribed as being in excess at Nelson, and employed 
in large numbers by the Company on the roads, had 
acquired the habit of very slack work. Upon a gager 
and inspector being appointed to report upon how 
much less they did than they ought, they assaulted 
these officers and their time-keepers with stones, put 
one of them into a ditch, and seemed likely to proceed 
to further extremities. 

Upon the first receipt of these reports. Sir Everard 
says, " I was requested to detach a portion of the 
" troops under my command to Nelson, not to repel 
" any attack expected from the native population, but 
" to restrain and bring to order about 300 English 
" labourers, which the New Zealand Company had 
" employed on their works. Such a request, I con- 
" sidered required no answer. Having now recovered, 
" and from all I could learn from the most sound au- 
" thorities that there was nothing to be apprehended, 
" I had made up my mind to return to Sydney. 

" Major Richmond had requested me to wait the 
" arrival of Mr. Clarke, the Sub-Protector of Abo- 
" rigines, who could give me the last and best ac- 
" count, as he was to visit all Xhe, jms. He, on his 


** return, confirmed all that I had been led to believe 
" to be true ; but Mr. Clarke is a very young man." 

And he was confirmed in this idea by Mr. Macdo- 
nogh, who had gone up to Taranaki in the brig 
soon after Major Richmond's arrival, and had returned 
on horseback. 

" He came," continues the nonchalant Captain, 
" having visited all the pas, and confirmed the state- 
'* ments of Mr. Clarke : of this gentleman I had op- 
" portunities afterwards of seeing a great deal, and 
" was much struck with his zeal and good feeling for 
" those for whom he is employed, and the sound judg- 
*' ment by which he regulates his conduct." 

Mr. Macdonogh, even when he returned, could 
speak but few words of the language ; much less could 
he understand the feelings and customs of the natives, 
or the plausible behaviour which they can put on 
for occasions. 

Judging from these pacific reports, the Captain had 
fixed a day for sailing to Sydney. But Colonel Wake- 
field eagerly remonstrated with Major Richmond on 
the absolute necessity of making a demonstration, at 
least, in the Strait. He also repeatedly applied for 
the recovery of the Company's boat. 

I was in my uncle's room while this conversation 
occurred. In the course of it. Major Richmond made 
an observation that, in a question of land, he had no 
doubt that Rauperaha could assemble all the natives 
on the island. I answered him, that it was a matter 
not of land, but of protection of life and property. I 
mentioned, as an instance of this, that I had to go to 
OtaJci the next day on business, and that I felt bound to 
carry arms, as there was no protection for British sub- 
jects beyond the immediate beach of the town. Major 
Richmond entreated me to carry concealed arms, if I 


carried any, as the sight of them was calculated to 
produce much excitement among the natives. He 
begged me not to carry any. I assured him that I 
would ; because the very display of arms was enough, 
on the contrary, to be the safeguard against presump- 
tion and outrage. 



Review of the condition of the natives — Their intercourse with the 
whalers — Church Mission — Samuel Marsden — His object and 
plans — His doings in New Zealand — Purchase of a site — Deed of 
conveyance — Wise benevolence of Marsden — Progress — Increas- 
ing influence — Captain Laplace — Failure of Marsden's project, 
how caused — The independence of New Zealand — How concocted 
— Details of coincident missionary land- sharking — Progress of 
labours — Wesleyan Mission — Struggles and perils — Revival — 
New Zealand Association opposed by both missionary societies — 
Income of the societies — Their expenditure in New Zealand — 
Hostility delegated to local missionaries — Results of missionary 
labours — The Government and the natives — Want of system — 
Treaty of Waitatigi — Official and literal translations — Disre- 
garded by -both parties — Incongruities of Government —Conflict- 
ing systems for the good of the natives— Confusion produced in 
their minds — Results to be dreaded — Hopes for the appointment 
of an able Governor — Crown colonies and Chartered colonies — 
Captain Grey on aborigines — Known prejudices of Captain 

Since the fatal catastrophe at TVairmiy the thoughts of 
the reasoning men among the settlers had been directed 
more seriously than ever to the apparently inevitable 
overthrow of the noble experiment in which they had 
come to take a part ; namely, that of civilizing and 
Christianizing the aborigines on a comprehensive and 
statesmanlike system. At the Club, at each others 
houses, while looking over the operations on a farm, 
or at any other place where they met and discussed 
their little politics, a sincere regret for this result was 
generally manifested, and its causes were traced with a 
view to a remedy if possible. 

That the rough whalers and sealers were first the 


oppressors and brutal izers of the New Zealanders, is 
not to be denied. But they were also their first 
civilizers. They taught them many of the wants and 
luxuries of civilized life, and supplied those wants as 
they arose. They taught them to appreciate the com- 
forts of cleanliness, of good houses, food, and clothing ; 
they held out to their emulation the industry, the 
perseverance, and the energy, of the White man. 
They shadowed forth; with a rough and harsh pencil 
to be sure, the blessings of peace and commerce ; and 
they first obtained the respect of the savage for the 
invincible courage and hardihood of our race. The 
frank hospitality and the elevation of the man of 
strong body and will above his fellows, characteristics 
common to the New Zealanders and the whalers, 
assisted much in their rapid amalgamation. Nearly 
the same qualities were necessary to a chief in either 
class ; and it was thus easier for the less civilized and 
less artificial race to acquire the physical improvements 
introduced by the other, even while the vices of the 
refuse of civilization were insidiously destroying many 
of the moral virtues which the savages before possessed. 
The irregular colonizers were thus, without any in- 
tention on their part, except their own selfish enjoy- 
ment, becoming an instrument of change for some 
good and more evil upon the native race ; and the 
very respect which the outcasts bore to a wild chief- 
tainship similar to that which they themselves had 
established when retrograding from the refinements of 
civilized communities, secured the working of this 
instrument by a process analogous to the customs and 
prejudices of the natives, and therefore easy and gra- 

So a father, who had been exiled for some offence 
from the most polished society, might, while careless 

VOL. II. 2 F 


and indifferent to the prospects of his growing son, 
teach him by mere example some of the knowledge 
and manners of the world and the outward appear- 
ance of a gentleman, while he also allowed him to 
acquire the immoral habits which had been his own 

In 1815, the excellent Samuel Marsden introduced 
the blessings of missionary teaching, with a view to 
rescue the New Zealanders from the ruin which was 
impending over them, into the northern part of the 

We are fortunate in possessing an authentic record 
of the first foundation of the Church Mission in the 
Bay of Islands. Mr. John Liddiard Nicholas, who 
volunteered to accompany the venerable founder in his 
expedition, wrote a very interesting work, which con- 
tains an account of all the proceedings, and must ever 
be placed among the most valuable archives of New 
Zealand.* Mr. Nicholas also gave evidence before 
the Committee of the House of Lords in April 1838. 
To him, then, I am indebted for the earlier part of this 

The Reverend Samuel Marsden, Principal Chaplain 
of New South Wales, was already famous for the 
success of missions planted by him in Tahiti, when 
he formed the benevolent project of founding a mission 
in New Zealand. This project was then discouraged 
by almost all who heard of its formation. The caji- 
tains and crews of whaling-ships and trading-vessels, 
who had been accustomed for twenty years to carry 
on a desultory warfare, as well as commerce, with the 

* Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand, performed in the 
years 1814 and 1815, in company with the Rev. Samuel Marsden, 
Principal Chaplain of New South Wales, by John Liddiard Nicho- 
las, Esq., in 2 vols., London, 1817. 


native inhabitants, gave the latter a character for 
treachery and savage ferocity, to which they them- 
selves, perhaps, had a more legitimate claim. Their 
knowledge of the natives was bounded by an inter- 
course into which they never entered without the 
desire to revenge some signal and treacherous defeat, 
or the dread of retribution for some equally disgraceful 
victory. " His plan," says Mr. Nicholas, " was by most 
" persons deemed wild and chimerical ; and a sacrifice 
" of the life of every one was foreboded who should 
" venture to carry it into execution. The New Zea- 
" landers were represented at the colony (New South 
" Wales) in the blackest colours ; and any attempt to 
" impress their mind with religion and morality was 
"judged not only hopeless and impracticable, but rash, 
" absurd, and extravagant." 

Samuel Marsden, however, combined great firmness 
of purpose with the most extended benevolence. He 
first made himself thoroughly acquainted with the 
general character of the Maori, by carrying home with 
him from time to time, and taking under his roof, such 
individuals as were occasionally brought to Port Jack- 
son by the different whalers ; and when he had ma- 
turely formed his estimate of the disposition and capa- 
bilities of the race, he deliberately persevered in his 

In 1810, he proposed to the Church Missionary 
Society in England, that they should send out to New 
Zealand certain proper persons to form a mission. To 
this they readily assented, and engaged three persons 
with their families, Messrs. Hall, King, and Kendall ; 
some of whom embarked with Mr. Marsden, while the 
others followed in the same ship which took Mr. 
Nicholas to New South Wales. Marsden, on his 
arrival in that colony, purchased a vessel for the ser- 



vice of the mission ; and as soon as the newly-engaged 
missionaries had all arrived, sent two of them in the 
vessel, well armed, to the Bay of Islands, to make a 
trial of the disposition of the natives, and to bring any 
of the chiefs to New South Wales who might seem 
inclined to visit it and to forward their views. 

On their return with an encouraging report of their 
reception, and three native chiefs who expressed them- 
selves willing to concur in their projects, Marsden 
determined to accompany them on their final expedi- 
tion, in order to superintend their labours and assist 
in the great work. 

It is important to observe what were the objects 
aimed at by this model of a Christian missionary, and 
by what means he proposed to attain those objects. 
Mr. Nicholas seems to have been intimately acquainted 
with the character and thoughts of his companion, 
since he thoroughly appreciated his great talents, and 
claimed for his virtues that tribute which they undoubt- 
edly deserved. He tells us that Marsden was desirous, 
" as an Englishman, of showing to this bold, high- 
" spirited, and inquisitive people, the proper character 
" of his country ; and as a Christian, of calling them 
" from their gross idolatries to a knowledge of revealed 
" religion, enlightening their minds, and humanizing 
" their pursuits." His plan of operation is no less 
striking ; and I therefore copy it from the words of 
Mr. Nicholas : — " Contrasting the genius and habits 
" of this people with those of the other islanders in this 
" immense ocean, he found them much more prepared 
" for cultivation than the generality of savage tribes, 
** and less tenacious of their own barbarous institu- 
" tions. But he rightly conjectured that moral lec- 
" tares and abstruse religious discourses, however 
** proper at a subsequent period, when the mind became 



" susceptible of their importance, could do but little at 
" first towards reclaiming a people so totally im- 
" mersed in ignorance ; therefore he resolved on a 
" better plan, and paved the way for introducing the 
" mechanic arts, by creating artificial wants to which 
" they had never before been accustomed, and which 
" he knew must act as the strongest excitement of 
" their ingenuity. Accordingly, he did not apply to 
" the Society for men only of scriptural attainments, 
" but for experienced and useful mechanics, who could 
" instruct the natives in cultivating their ground, build- 
" ing their houses, and regulating the whole system 
" of their internal and external economy. The choice 
" made by the Society of the persons sent out for this 
" purpose was judicious and correct. The two me- 
" chanics who had been selected by them were men 
" of regular and religious habits, and indefatigable 
" industry ; the one an excellent carpenter, and the 
" other a shoemaker, who had been previously in- 
" structed, at the expense of the Society, in the mode 
" of dressing flax ; a species of which plant abounds in 
" the island, and is much valued by the inhabitants, 
*' but whose mode of preparing it is of course much 
" inferior to that practised in Europe. Mr. Kendall, 
" who acted as schoolmaster, an employment of much 
" consequence to the success of the mission in this 
" island, was a man every way qualified for his situa- 
** tion. He joined to mild and persuasive manners a 
** stock of useful knowledge, which he had the happy 
" art to impart without appearing rigorous or severe ; 
" and above all, was impressed with a strong sense of 
" the importance of religion, the duties of which he 
" strenuously endeavoured to inculcate in others, while, 
** punctually observant, he always took care to dis- 
" charge them himself. Such were the men whom 


" the Society provided as the guides and instructors 
" of this people. Mr. Marsden, rightly judging that 
" supplying the wants of the natives gratuitously would 
" be attended with an exorbitant expense to the So- 
" ciety, and rather retard than promote the grand 
" object of civilization, purchased the vessel to excite 
" a spirit of trade among them, and afford them conti- 
" nual opportunities of exchanging the valuable pro- 
" ductions of their island for some of our commodities." 

After much earnest importunity, Marsden obtained 
leave of absence from the Governor ; who told him he 
did not think himself justified in granting him per- 
mission to venture his life in so dangerous an enter- 
prise. At his instance. Governor Macquarie made 
Mr. Kendall a Magistrate in New Zealand, and con- 
ferred an authority of a like nature upon the two 
chiefs who were to accompany him. 

On the 28th of November 1814, the brig Active, of 
110 tons, left the heads of Sydney harbour, having on 
board, besides the ship's crew, Marsden, the three 
missionaries and their families, Mr. Nicholas, and eight 
New Zealanders. Strange to say, they were accom- 
panied by three male convict servants ; security for 
whose return to New South Wales in three years was 
given by Messrs. Marsden and Kendal. Two escaped 
convicts, who did not creep from their hiding-place 
until far from land, were also among the passengers, 
and escaped to the shore before the departure of the 
brig from New Zealand. Horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, 
poultry, goats, cats, and dogs, gave the small ship an 
ark-like appearance. 

On the morning of the 16th of December, they 
sailed past the Three Kings and Cape Maria Van 
Diemen, and anchored on the coast some days after. 
Between this time and the latter end of February 


1815, they visited the coast in different places, and 
" explained to the chiefs the objects of the mission, 
" and that the arts of civilization would be introduced 
" among them, and their condition bettered by being 
" taught the culture of wheat and other grain ;"* on 
which they expressed a great willingness to see such a 
state of things. A spot near the Bay of Islands was 
then selected, and bought of the natives to whom it be- 
longed. Two parchment deeds, which had been pre- 
pared in Sydney, were filled up with the boundaries of 
the land in question, which consisted of about 200 
acres, and for which twelve axes were given as payment. 
The moko, or fac-simile of the tattooing on the face of 
the vendors, was drawn upon the deeds, and, with the 
addition of the vendor's mark, served as the ratifying 
symbol of the agreement. The deeds were witnessed by 
Messrs. Kendall and Nicholas on the part of the pur- 
chasers, and by a native carpenter, who drew the moko 
of one of his cheeks, on the part of the natives. The 
native who had ratified the deed and his brother, to 
whom the land belonged, now declared the ground to 
be tapu to all but the White people ; and the natives 
were not allowed to enter it without the concurrence 
of the missionaries. This most curious document, pro- 
bably the first written contract of any kind that was 
ever made between a White man and a New Zea- 
lander, and certainly the first conveyance of land in 
New Zealand ever executed, is supposed to exist in the 
Missionary House in London. An exact copy is given 
by Mr. Nicholas, from whose pages I have transcribed 

" Know all men to whom these presents shall come, 
'* that I, Ahoodee O Gunna, King of Rangee Hoo, in 

* Nicholas's E\'idence before the House of Lords' Committee, on 
the 3rd of April, 1838, p. 4. 


" the Island of New Zealand, have, in consideration of 
" twelve axes to me in hand now paid and delivered 
" by the Reverend Samuel Marsden, of Parramatta, in 
" the territory of New South \^'^ales, given, granted, 
" bargained, and sold, and by this present instrument 
" do give, grant, bargain, and sell unto the Committee 
** of the Church Missionary Society for Africa and the 
" East, instituted in London, in the kingdom of Great 
" Britain, and to their heirs and successors, all that 
" piece and parcel of land situate in the district of 
" Hoshee, in the Island of New Zealand, bounded on 
** the south side by the Bay of Tippoona and the town 
" of Ranghee Hoo, on the north side by a creek of fresh 
" water, and on the west by a public road into the in- 
" terior ; together with all the rights, members, pri- 
" vileges, and appurtenances thereunto belonging : To 
•* have and to hold, to the aforesaid Committee of the 
" Church Missionary Society for Africa and the East, 
" instituted in London, in the kingdom of Great Britain, 
" their heirs, successors, and assigns for ever, clear and 
" freed from all taxes, charges, impositions, and contri- 
** butions whatsoever, as and for their own absolute and 
" proper estate for ever : 

" In testimony whereof, I have, to these presents 
" thus done and given, set my hand, at Hoshee, 
" in the Island of New Zealand, this twenty- 
" fourth day of February, in the year of Christ 
** One thousand eight hundred and fifteen. 
" Signatures to the grant, 

" Thomas Kendall. 

J. L. Nicholas." 

It is worthy of remark, that during this preliminary 

expedition, Marsden had to restrain the agricultural 

ardour of his subordinates. Nicholas says, " We walked 

" over a large extent of level ground directly opposite 


" the entrance of the harbour, and offering one of the 
" most inviting situations of any that we had yet seen 
" for building a town upon ; and will, I doubt not, 
" should the mission succeed, be eventually its prin- 
" cipal settlement. The missionaries evinced a strong 
" desire to fix themselves here in preference to Range- 
" hoo, where the ground being so hilly and steep, the 
" extent of their agricultural labours must necessarily 
" be circumscribed, and confined to a few interjacent 
*' spots. But Mr. Marsden was averse to this measure ; 
" judging very properly, that they should rather consult 
" their sphere of usefulness to others, than that circle 
" which would be most advantageous to themselves," 

On the 28th of February 1815, Marsden returned 
to New South Wales, having left the missionaries busy 
at their work. 

Wise as he was good, his plans were not confined to 
the sole teaching of the Gospel, unaided by humanizing 
civilization or institutions compatible with the subor- 
dination of ranks, which tradition and long association 
had robed with respect in the simple mind of the New 
Zealander. We have seen that he procured the appoint- 
ment of two high chiefs of the tribe among which the 
missionaries were to begin their labours, as Magistrates, 
together with the person who was to head the mission ; 
and thus introduced the great change under provisions 
the most favourable for its continuance, and the most 
agreeable for its manner of operation. He combined 
great moral improvement with a preservation of poli- 
tical institutions. Moreover, he provided that persons 
skilful in agriculture and the mechanical arts should 
he attached to the mission : thus combining spiritual 
with social advancement. He foresaw that, without 
coincident civilization, Christianity would become to 
the savage but an empty mockery and form, a toy to 
be taken up and thrown away at leisure. This was the 


wise and comprehensive benevolence of a man who 
extends his charity to a starved pauper with the greatest 
care and circumspection ; and vrho lays him in a warm 
bed, and brings cleanliness, repose, and comfort to his 
aid, rather than a too abundant supply of mere food, lest 
the sudden change should destroy instead of saving the 
object of his compassion. Under the constant su- 
perintendence of a Marsden, how beautiful must have 
been the results of such a system ! how healthy, how 
contented, how grateful would have been the revived 
patient at the end of his well-fostered convalescence ! 

Marsden revisited the mission in later times ; and 
some of his letters, dated in August 1819, are pro- 
duced by Mr. Coates before the House of Lords' Com- 
mittee of 1838. These letters speak but little of the 
spiritual improvement of the natives up to that time. 
He says, " Their misery is extreme. The Prince of 
" Darkness, god of this world, has full dominion over 
" their bodies and souls. Under the influence of dark- 
" ness and superstition many devote themselves to 
" death ; and the chiefs sacrifice their slaves as a satis- 
" faction for the death of any of their friends ; so great 
" is the tyranny which Satan exercises over this people, 
" a tyranny from which nothing but the Gospel can 
" set them free." He adds, " We cannot hope for the 
" Gospel having its full effect, according to the ordinary 
'* course of the Divine proceedings, without the united 
" aid of the Christian world. Suitable means must 
" l)e provided for the civilization and evangelization of 
" the inhabitants of New Zealand; and if this be done, 
" there can be little doubt that the important object 
" will be attained." 

The civilizing department of the mission had made 
considerable progress. Marsden says : " 17th Septem- 
" ber 1819. I believe that there is ten times more land 
" in cultivation at the present time, in the districts 


" round the Bay of Islands, than there was in 1814, 
'* M'^hen the settlement was first formed. This im- 
" provement in cultivation is wholly owing to the 
" tools of agriculture which have been sent out from 
" time to time by the Society." 

Even two years later, on the 10th October 1821, 
the Rev. R. Butler writes, that " the natives are a 
" proud, savage, obstinate, and cruel race of cannibals ; 
" and therefore every missionary has a great deal of 
" heavy labour to perform, and many privations to 
" undergo, before he does anything according to the 
" ideas of the religious world." 

The worthy missionaries, however, persevered in 
their laudable efforts ; and soon enlisted the great 
engine of civilization, printing, in their favour. In 
1820, Mr. Kendall returned to England, taking with 
him the two chiefs Hongi and TVaikato. They went 
together to Cambridge ; where Professor Lee, from 
their pronunciation, reduced the Maori language into 
a written one, and composed a Grammar and Dic- 
tionary. This afforded the means of translating the 
Catechism, Prayer-book, and Bible, into the native lan- 
guage. The demand for these books gradually in- 
creased ; and some years later, presses were introduced 
into the island. 

In the meanwhile, the missionaries were steadily 
gaining a considerable influence over the minds of the 
natives ; and this influence received some support 
against the lawless White adventurers who attempted 
to overthrow it, by the occasional appointment of a 
Magistrate among their body. 

The following is an extract from the officially pub- 
lished voyage of the French ship " La Favorite," com- 
manded by Capttiin Laplace, who touched at the Bay 
of Islands in 1830. I am sorry to remark, that while 


it proves that the influence of the missionaries was 
great, they would seem on this occasion to have 
exerted it to a somewhat uncharitable end : — 

" The English missionaries at the Bay of Islands 
" exhibit neither the charity which all the ministers of 
" religion profess, nor the generosity for which their 
" countrymen are remarkable towards strangers. My 
" offers and my solicitudes to obtain from them refresh- 
" ment for our sick were alike in vain ; and I am con- 
" vinced myself, that these preachers of the Gospel, sus- 
" pecting me of political purposes, endeavoured to dis- 
" turb the harmony that existed between me and the 
" natives, by insinuating to them I meant to take pos- 
" session of the bay, and revenge the massacre of 
*' Marion."* (A French Captain, massacred with many 
" of his crew some years before.) 

Various causes combined to nullify, to a considerable 
degree, the good effects of the venerable Marsden's 
plans. He was himself restricted by his duties in New 
South Wales to an occasional supervision only of 
the manner in which his principles were carried out. 
Some fearful instances occurred in which the most 
baneful examples were set to the natives by back- 
sliders among the missionaries themselves. What an 
impression must have been produced among the pupils 
by the sight of drunkenness, in one of their head 
teachers, as great as in the ruffians whose conduct they 
came to discourage ! How strong must be our disgust 
when we know that another head of the mission had to 
be expelled by the Society for still more dreadful crimes, 
which even those ruffians would have condemned ! The 
selection of men to carry on the great work had 
evidently not been made with sufficient care. 

The very provision, too, of men of mechanical and 
* Voyage de la Favorite, tome iv. page 35. 


agricultural tastes as missionaries at length defeated 
its own object, when they were no longer under the 
careful supervision of a wise and disinterested director. 
These men, calculated to be excellent colonists, became 
enraptured with the fertile soil and productive climate ; 
and selfishness of a pardonable nature began to mingle 
with their actions when they became private owners 
of land, in order to provide a maintenance for their 
large families of children. As these carpenters, shoe- 
makers, and schoolmasters, too, were left alone with- 
out a man of superior intelligence to guide the working 
of their efforts on the social as well as the spiritual 
state of a nation, they gradually learned to neglect 
the respect due to the institution of chieftainship, 
and to rejoice, to an unchristian degree, in the influ- 
ence and power which they had themselves acquired. 

At length they proposed to found an independent 
state, of which they themselves should be the prime 
rulers and legislators. And their teaching, while it 
equalized all beneath the Book, gradually abandoned 
the coincident lessons of civilization. On the 16th of 
November 1831, the letter from thirteen chiefs of the 
Bay of Islands to King William the Fourth, to vrhich 
I have before adverted, was transmitted by the Rev. 
W. Yate, then Chairman of the Mission, to Lord 
Goderich. It prayed for the protection of the British 
Crown against the neighbouring tribes, and against 
lawless British subjects. In answer to this letter, Mr. 
Busby was appointed as British Resident, and de- 
spatched to the Bay of Islands in 1833, by Sir Richard 
Bourke, then Governor of New South Wales, It 
appears, both from his own letters and from his in- 
structions, that he was accredited to the missionaries ; 
and he writes his opinion, that " unless a defined and 
" specific share in the government of the country be 
" allotted to the missionaries, the British Government 


" have no right to expect that that influential body 
" will give a hearty support to its representative." 

The letter of the thirteen chiefs had doubtless been 
suggested by the missionaries ; for the natives were 
incapable of conceiving its purport, and it was the 
missionaries who proceeded to bring about much 
stronger measures in November 1835. At that 
period, a formal declaration of independence was drawn 
out by Mr. Busby, apparently in consequence of the 
designs of Baron de Thierry, who had some wild 
notions of assuming the sovereignty of New Zealand to 
himself. A circular had been issued from the printing- 
press of the Church Mission, inviting the natives not 
to allow de Thierry to land ; and the missionaries, as 
well as the Agent accredited by Great Britain to them, 
took an active share in procuring the execution of this 
declaration of independence. It was finally signed by 
35 natives, calling themselves the hereditary chiefs and 
heads of tribes of the northern parts of New Zealand. 
The document was witnessed by Messrs. Williams and 
Clarke, of the Church Mission, and two resident 
traders,* and the copy and translation were certified 
by Mr. Busby, as British Resident. A petition was 
also brought round to various parties by Mr. Williams, 
praying for protection against irregular British settlers 
and Charles Baron de Thierry. This last paper, 
although signed by many of the Church Missionary 
body, was signed by them as individuals ; and the 
Secretary of the Church Missionary Society protests, in 
his evidence before the House of Lords, against their 
signatures being considered of the same force when 
unaccompanied by the letters C.M.S. 

Sir George Gipps, the Governor of New South 

* Mr. Clendon, the fortunate vendor of the site for Russell to the 
New Zealand Government in 1840; and Mr. Gilbert Muir, ano- 
ther large land -shark. 


Wales, in his Legislative Council, described this so- 
called declaration of independence, the recognition of 
the flag, and the other attendant measures, as a " con- 
cocted manoeuvre" of the missionaries and their ac- 
credited agent. I have elsewhere described it ; but have 
recurred to it here because it forms so important a part 
of the history of the Church Mission in New Zealand. 

Marsden writes with evident gratification of the 
progress made by the great institution which he had 
founded 23 years before, and which he enjoyed an 
opportunity of beholding in a last visit which he paid 
to the missions in 1837. 

It was about this time that the missionaries, seeing 
the constant influx of settlers from New South Wales, 
and the probability of a British colony being founded 
ere long in the country, began to acquire large tracts 
of land in their private capacity, distinct from those 
farms which were purchased and cultivated for the pur- 
pose of maintaining the mission stations, and instruct- 
ing the natives in agricultural operations. With scarcely 
any exception, they made use of their knowledge of 
the language and spiritual influence among the natives 
to make these purchases. We have ample testimony, 
which has been often before the public, both of the 
large extent of the possessions which they thus acquired, 
and of the fact that, by means of their thorough 
knowledge of the language and experience of the 
native customs, they succeeded in obtaining a more 
secure title to their land than could be obtained by the 
greater part of their secular competitors in this early 
land-market.* Mr. Flatt, one of themselves, says that 
they had begun to purchase about 1832, just after the 

♦ Evidence of Mr. Flatt before the House of Lords' Committee 
of 1838, on New Zealand. Also that of Mr. John Blaekett, before 
the House of Commons' Committee of 1840, on New Zealand. 


letter of the thirteen chiefs to William the Fourth ; 
and he was present at a monster land-purchase, 30 or 
40 miles long, made by Mr. Fairburn, one of the 
catechists. He also tells us of land bought by 
Davis, Kemp, Baker, Clarke, King, and Henry Wil- 
liams the Chairman of the Mission. The latter alone 
had purchased one tract of seven square miles. 

Twenty-six members of the Church Mission actually 
claimed before the L^nd Claims Commissioners, in 1840, 
185,233* acres of land, which were alleged to have 
been bought from the natives between 1832 and 1840. 
They received an award, in May 1843, of 45, 179 acres. 
But the disallowance of one Land Claims Bill and 
the revival of the other rendered a revisal of the award 
necessary. Twenty out of the twenty-six cases were 
revised, and the twenty claimants received a final grant 
of 27,280 acres. The six not yet revised contained some 
of the largest claims, such as that of Mr. Fairburn for 
40,000 acres, and that of the Rev. Richard Taylor (now 
of TVanganui), for 50,000 acres. Among these twenty- 
six claimants, the Rev. Henry Williams, the Chairman 
of the Church Mission, appears for nearly 11,000 acres, 
and Mr. George Clarke, now Chief Protector of the 
Aborigines, and lay Agent of the Society in New Zea- 
land for 5500 acres, f 

With but few honourable exceptions, such as that 
of Mr. Hadfield, who does not, I believe, claim a 

* This is oyer and above 11,607 acres claimed for the Church 
Missionary Society. 

t By some further change in the laws relating to land-claims, 
made by the present Governor Captain Fitzroy, nearly all these 
large claims have been acceded to in full ; and the most recent 
New Zealand Government Gazettes contain official announcements 
that the Crown grants for the full amount lie at the Land Office. 
Among the new grants thus announced, are those of Mr. Clarke, 
Mr. Fairburn, the Rev. Henry Williams, and the Rev. Richard 
Taylor, to the age^eg-ate amount of more than 100,000 acres. 


square foot of land, scarclfly one of the servants of tlie 
Church Missionary Society in New Zealand has been 
free from this blemish of self-interest. It seems 
difficult to imagine whence the funds were procured 
to pay adequately for these tracts, if the buyers acknow- 
ledged in the natives a complete right of property over 
their whole extent. 

The progress of the Church of England missions 
•up to this time may be seen from a table furnished by 
Mr. Coates to the House of Lords' Committee in 1838. 
From this it appears that the mission stations were 10, 
extending over that part of the North Island which 
lies between the North Cape and Tauranga in the 
Bay of Plenty; that they instructed 1431 scholars (of 
whom 94 were adults); gathered 2476 in congregations ; 
and counted 178 communicants. The Wesleyan mission 
in New Zealand arose from a visit made to that coun- 
try, in the year 1819, by Mr. Leigh, a missionary of 
the Society then stationed in New South Wales. 
He made the visit with a view to the benefit of his 
health, on the recommendation of Mr. Marsden. In 
consequence of the observations then made by him, 
on his return he recommended the formation of a 
mission in New Zealand ; and the Society having 
adopted his views, he finally embarked at Sydney with 
his wife, on the 1st of January 1822, for that country. 
He remained at the Church Mission station in the 
Bay of Islands until the next year, when Messrs. 
Turner and White having arrived to assist him in his 
labours, they removed to H^angaroa, the place where 
the massacre of the Boyd had occurred, and formed 
a station there. From this date until the early part 
of 1827, these gentlemen, with their families, under- 
went very severe privations, hardships, and dangers. 
Their life, just like that of the first whaling settlers,; 

VOL. II. 2 G 


was a continued struggle against the grasping disposi- 
tion of the many turbulent characters belonging to the 
tribes of that neighbourhood. They were constantly 
threatened with the annihilation of themselves and 
families, by chiefs who said they wanted to receive 
presents of guns and powder and not to hear books 
read. On one or two occasions they were very roughly 
used ; and they had made but little progress among 
these barbarians, when, early in 1827, the famous 
Hongi invaded the district, and brought with him all 
the attendant scenes of plunder and bloodshed. The 
mission-house was sacked by a foraging-party ; and 
the missionaries' lives were only just saved by a pro- 
vidential rencontre with a well-disposed and powerful 
chieftain named Patuone, who escorted them in safety 
to the care of the Church missionaries at the Bay of 

In October of the same year, Mr. Stack prepared to 
restore the Wesleyan mission at Hokianga ; and in 
1828, Mangungu, on that river, its present head-quar- 
ters, was fixed upon for an establishment. Up to 
1830, so little progress was made, that the mission- 
aries were under great fears lest the Society in England 
should determine to break up the mission. 

Better days, however, were now near at hand. 
During the next seven years great success attended 
the continued efforts of these worthy men ; who seem 
to have kept entirely aloof from the political affairs 
entered into by the Church Missionaries, and also to 
have refrained from any private purchases of land. 
One of their number, Mr. White, was, I believe, the 
only exception. But he was dismissed from the 
Society's employment on account of this and other 
infringements of their rules ; and he made or com- 
pleted the greater number of his purchases and 


speculations at a period subsequent to his dismissal. 
It should be borne in mind, however, that the success 
of his very extensive land-sharking was much promoted 
by the spiritual influence which he had attained as 
chairman of the Wesleyan mission. 

A printing-press was also introduced, in 1836, into 
New Zealand by the Wesleyan mission. The Secretary 
of the Wesleyan Missionary Society reported to the 
House of Lords' Committee, in April 1838, that the 
number of communicants might be stated in round 
numbers at about 1000, exclusive of catechumens who 
only attend public worship, and also of children in 
the schools. 

It was at this time that the New Zealand Associa- 
tion commenced its operations, and encountered the 
inveterate opposition of both the Missionary Societies. 
Although clergymen high in the Church were among 
the most active members of the Association ; although 
their plan of colonization combined, on a scale grander 
than any yet attempted, " the civilization and evangeli- 
" zation of the New Zealanders" which the venerable 
Marsden had also looked forward to as the joint result 
of his system, the Secretaries of both the Missionary 
Societies had been implacable in their enmity to any 
sort of colonization. The principles on which the 
Association proposed to save the people of New Zealand, 
by a system of Native Reserves which should preserve 
the chief in his high station among his people, and 
those on which the intending colonists proposed to 
further this end by the institution of social alliances 
with the chiefs, and an amalgamation rendered sacred 
by the code of honour, were perhaps the wisest and 
most charitable devices for the gradual amelioration of 
a barbarous race by kindly and cherishing degrees, 
that have been known in the history of the world. 



The Secretaries of the Missionary Societies were pro- 
bably unable to conceive or appreciate so provident and 
truly great a philanthropy. For they refused to accept 
the assistance in their holy task of a complete Christian 
and civilized community, with its ministers, its colleges, 
its churches, its benevolent and highly educated Withers 
of families, its settlers of high honour and warm heart, 
its humanizing institutions of all sorts ; and, above all, 
its very minute and anxious provisions for the smooth 
gliding of these benefits into the very nature and dis- 
position of the savages, so that no harsh innovation or 
rude shock of change should shatter the rough marble 
while it was being moulded by a delicate hand into 
the perfect forms of life and beauty. 

The unaided efforts of the missionaries were acknow- 
ledged on all hands to be insufficient for the salvation 
of the New Zealanders, while irregular colonization 
could go on under the so-called independent govern- 
ment of the chiefs, the missionaries, and their powerless 
Resident ; which, indeed, extended little further south, 
even by reputation, than the present site of Auckland. 
Colonization, under the truly great and humane sys- 
tem of the Association, promised all the benefits of 
Marsden's plans on a larger scale, joined to a power of 
restraining the lawless obstructors of Christianizing 
improvement by a powerful and acknowledged Govern- 
ment. Accordingly the Association unfolded all its 
views to the Missionary Societies, with a perfect right 
to hope for their cordial concurrence. 

In June 1837, a deputation from the New Zealand 
Association, consisting of Captain Wellesley, R.N., 
my late uncle Captain Arthur Wakefield, and Dr. 
Evans, waited upon Mr. Dandeson Coates, the Secre- 
tary, on the subject of co-operating with the Church 
of England Missionary Society. They received the 


following concise and memorable reply : " That he 
" had no doubt of the respectability of the gentlemen 
" composing the Association, or the purity of their in- 
" tentions ; but that he was opposed to the coloniza- 
" tion of New Zealand upon any plan, and would 
" thwart them by all the means in his power." 

And most truly did Mr. Coates fulfil his threat. He 
immediately wrote a pamphlet, charging the members 
of the Association, notwithstanding the above words, 
with motives the furthest removed from respectability 
and purity ; and, though defeated in his literary endea- 
vours by the published replies of the Rev. Samuel Hinds, 
D.D., and of my father, Mr. E. G. Wakefield, both mem- 
bers of the Association, and by that of Mr. F. Baring 
in Parliament, he set actively to work in other ways. 

Mr. Beecham, the Secretary of the Wesleyan JMis- 
sionary Society, concurred most cordially in JMr. 
Coates's views. He adduced similar reasons, before 
the Select Committee of the House of Lords in 1838, 
for opposing the Colonization of New Zealand. He 
followed the example of JMr. Dandeson Coates in 
writing pamphlets against the Association and its 
objects, and proved himself to be similarly determined 
" to thwart them by every means in his power." 

The Committees of the two Societies passed strong 
resolutions, declaratory of their enmity to the pro- 
moters and supporters of the proposal to send many 
thousand missionaries of civilization and Christianity 
among the heathen. 

1 will view this violent opposition in none but the 
most charitable light, though many more selfish 
motives might have conduced to its origin. 

It partook much of the paltry vanity with which a 
comparatively weak horseman, manifestly unable to 
persuade a young and half-broken steed, poorly fed 


and worse groomed, to pass quietly over a yawning 
and dangerous chasm in the road, should refuse the 
assistance of a more skilful and able rider, who 
had carefully studied the progressive means necessary 
for profiting by the docile temper of the animal, 
in order to render him as steady and willing as 
other horses, and as complete in all his paces. The 
more intelligent man proposes to break the colt in, 
and to lunge him gently through his paces before even 
placing a rider on his back ; to keep him in good 
health and generous condition ; and points out the 
means for filling up the chasm so that the road may 
be smooth. The other would wish to see the chasm 
filled up, he hardly knows how ; but he obstinately 
rejects the offer of having the colt broken in and 
cared for before he is ridden, and determines rather to 
ride him at it, although ignorant of the right way to 
lift his legs, with a light bit and a weak rein which 
he can break from at his pleasure. To so much 
amounts the objection to civilized colonization, as a 
means of overcoming its irregular predecessor and as 
a necessary step to Christianity. 

The New Zealand Company persevered in the 
intentions of the Association, from whose ashes they 
had sprung. The two Missionary Societies, with their 
extensive ramifications and their joint income of 
200,000/. a-year, persevered in the fulfilment of their 
declarations of hostility. 

The expenditure of the two Missionary Societies in 
New Zealand alone amounted, in the year 1840-41, to 
18,118/. 5s. 6d., of which the Wesleyan mission ex- 
pended nearly 4000/. 

From the first period of our arrival in Cook's Strait, 
we had met with but too many instances of this hos- 
tility, apparently delegated with care to the greater 


number of the local missionaries, and by them carried 
out with earnestness during four years, in that part of 
the country where they only began to preach when we 
began to colonize. Its prevalence threw a repulsive shade 
over the whole course of missionary proceedings ; for 
some of the arguments used against the colonists were 
as unprincipled as they were uncharitable, and as devoid 
of Christian spirit as they were wanting in manly ho- 
nour. Apart from this dark stain, the results of the 
purely missionary system were by no means satisfactory. 
Besides that the very extensive instruction for which 
the missionaries really deserve credit was merely 
religious and in the native language, the chieftainship 
was destroyed among the missionary tribes, and the 
political as well as the physical condition of their 
scholars had clearly retrograded, 

I must, of course, except the labours of Mr. Had- 
field from these remarks ; but even he had steadily 
objected to their instruction in the English language. 
And even he was not free from another grave omis- 
sion made by the missionaries, the Government 
officers, and the Protectors of Aborigines. Although 
they professed such warm philanthropy towards the 
natives, they carried this philanthropy into their so- 
cial relations with them to a far less degree than the 
unassuming colonists. The principal teachers under 
the missionaries are generally their house-servants at 
the same time ; black their shoes, clean their win- 
dows, make their beds, groom their horses, and cook 
their dinner. The missionaries do not admit their 
most industrious pupils, or the proteges to whom they 
are most attached, to dine with them at the same 
table, or to walk when they like into their sitting- 
room, and hold converse on terms of equality and 
nmtual familiarity. I never saw a missionary or a Go- 


vemment officer who treated a native as his brother so 
entirely as I did E Kuru or TVahine Hi, as Colonel 
Wakefield did EPuni, or as many other " devils" did 
the chief to whom they had become especially attached. 

The uncharitable and intolerant rivalry between the 
two sects, almost threatening a religious war between 
actual brothers, was an equally repulsive feature in 
the view. 

Generally, the missionary converts might be likened 
to a family of poor labourers, to whom their landlords 
should have extended the routine charity of tracts, en- 
couraging the children to scorn the authority of their 
parents if they could more quickly learn the contents 
by rote. To crown all, the miserable paupers, in this 
state of domestic anarchy, with their memories full of 
texts from the Bible while their stomachs are craving 
for food, and their limbs shivering, undefended by 
filthy rags from the weather which penetrates through 
their ruinous hut, are then only admitted to the com- 
panionship of their scanty benefactor as menials. 

Such was the narrow benevolence which the mis- 
sionaries maintained against one which provided more 
amply for the whole necessities of the case. 

Next to be considered is the system adopted by the 
local Government towards the natives. Although it 
could hardly be called a system at all, it leaned rather 
towards the missionary principles than towards a more 
enlarged philanthropy. 

In order to obtain a government at all, the first Go- 
vernor threw himself unreservedly into the hands of 
the Reverend Henry Williams and the other mission- 
aries at the Bay of Islands. They were, without a 
doubt, the authors and interpreters of the Treaty of 
Waitangly on which are founded all the relations be- 
tween the Government and the natives, and which 

Chap. XVll. TREATY OF WAITANGl. 457 

distinctly follows out the same views as the string of 
measures described as a '* concocted manoeuvre" by 
Sir George Gipps. It treads closely on the heels of the 
letter of the 13 chiefs, the so-called Declaration of In- 
dependence by 35 chiefs, and the recognition of the 
national flag. It still seems to consider the small 
peninsula north of the isthmus between Auckland and 
Manukau as New Zealand to the world, just as it had 
been New Zealand to the missionaries for 26 years. 

The translation of this famous Treaty, which is given 
officially to the world, is as follows : — 

" Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, of the United King- 
" dom of Great Britain and Ireland, regarding with 
" her royal favour the native chiefs and tribes of New 
" Zealand, and anxious to protect their just rights and 
" property, and to secure to them the enjoyment of 
" peace and good order, has deemed it necessary, in 
" consequence of the great number of her Majesty's 
" subjects who have already settled in New Zealand, 
" and the rapid extension of emigration both from 
" Europe and Australia which is still in progress, to 
" constitute and appoint a functionary properly au- 
" thorized to treat with the aborigines of New Zea- 
" land for the recognition of her Majesty's sovereign 
" authority over the whole or any part of those islands. 
" Her Majesty, therefore, being desirous to establish a 
" settled form of civil government, with a view to 
" avert the evil consequences which must result from 
" the absence of the necessary laws and institutions, 
" alike to the native population and to her subjects, 
" has been graciously pleased to empower and authorize 
*' me, William Hobson, a Captain in her Majesty's 
" Royal Navy, Consul and Lieutenant-Governor of 
" such parts of New Zealand as may be, or hereafter 
" shall be, ceded to her Majesty, to invite the confede- 


" rated and independent chiefs of New Zealand to 
" concur in the following articles and conditions. 

" Article 1. The chiefs of the confederation of the 
" united tribes of New Zealand, and the separate and 
" independent chiefs who have not become members 
" of the confederation, cede to her Majesty the Queen of 
" England, absolutely and without reservation, all the 
" rights and powers of sovereignty which the said con- 
" federation or individual chiefs respectively exercise 
" or possess, or may be supposed to exercise or to pos- 
" sess over their respective territories as the sole sove- 
" reigns thereof. 

" Article 2. Her Majesty the Queen of England 
** confirms and guarantees to the chiefs and tribes of 
" New Zealand, and to the respective families and in- 
" dividuals thereof, the full, exclusive, and undisturbed 
" possession of their lands and estates, forests, fisheries, 
" and other properties which they may collectively or 
" individually possess, so long as it is their wish and 
** desire to retain the same in their possession ; but 
" the chiefs of the united tribes and the individual 
" chiefs yield to her Majesty the exclusive right of pre- 
" emption over such lands as the proprietors thereof 
" may be disposed to alienate, at such prices as may be 
" agreed upon between the respective proprietors and 
" persons appointed by her Majesty to treat with them 
" on that behalf. 

" Article 3. In consideration thereof, her Majesty 
" the Queen of England extends to the natives of New 
" Zealand her royal protection, and imparts to them 
" all the rights and privileges of British subjects. 
" (Signed) W. Hobson, Lieutenant-Governor. 

" Now, therefore, we, the chiefs of the confedera- 
" tion of the united tribes of New Zealand, being as- 
" sembled in congress at Victoria in ff^aitangi, and 


" we, the separate and independent chiefs of New 
" Zealand, claiming authority over the tribes and 
" territories which are specified after our respective 
" names, having been made fully to understand the 
" provisions of the foregoing Treaty, accept and enter 
" into the same in the full spirit and meaning thereof. 
" In witness of which we have attached our signa- 
" tures or marks at the places and dates respectively 
" specified. 

" Done at TVaitangi this 6th day of February in 
" the year of our Lord 1840." 

(512 signatures.) 

The greater part of these complicated and formal 
expressions could not be translated into Maori, which 
had no words to express them. Here follows an exact 
and literal translation of the Maori version which is 
also published officially : — 

" Here's Victoria the Queen of England, in her 
" gracious remembrance towards the Chiefs and 
" Tribes of New Zealand, and in her desire that their 
" Chieftainships and their lands should be secured to 
" them, and that obedience also should be held by 
" them, and the peaceful state also, has considered it as 
" a just thing to send here some Chief to be a person 
*' to arrange with the native men of New Zealand, that 
" the Governorship of the Queen may be assented to 
" by the native Chiefs in all places of the land and of 
** the islands. Because, too, many together are the 
" men of her tribe who have sat down in this land and 
" are coming hither. 

" Now, it is the Queen who desires that the Go- 
" vernorship may be arranged that evils may not 
" come to the native man, to the White who dwells 
*' lawless. 

" There ! Now the Queen has been good that I 


* should be sent, William Hobson, a Captain in the 
' Royal Navy, a Governor for all the places in New 
' Zealand that are yielded now or hereafter to the 

* Queen ; she says to the Chiefs of the Assemblage 
' of the Tribes of New Zealand and other Chiefs be- 

* sides, these laws which shall be spoken now. 

" Here's the first. — Here's the Chiefs of the Assem- 
' blage and all the Chiefs also who have not joined 
' the Assemblage mentioned cede to the utmost to the 
' Queen of England for ever continually to the utmost 
' the whole Governorship of their lands. 

" Here's the second. — Here's the Queen of England 
' arranges and confirms to the Chiefs, to all the men 
' of New Zealand, the entire Chieftainship of their 
' lands, their villages, and all their property. But 
' here's the Chiefs of the Assemblage, and all the 
' Chiefs besides, yield to the Queen the buying of 

* those places of land, where the man whose the land 

* is shall be good to the arrangement of the payment 

* which the buyer shall arrange to them who is told 

* by the Queen to buy for her. 

" Here's the third. — This, too, is an arrangement 
' in return for the assent to the Governorship of the 

* Queen. The Queen of England will protect all the 
' native men of New Zealand. She yields to them all 
' the rights one and the same as her doings to the 

* men of England. 

" (Signed) W. Hobson, Lieutenant-Governor. 

" Now, here's we, here's the Chiefs of the Assem- 
" blage of the Tribes of New Zealand, who are con- 
" gregated at Tf^aitangi ; here's we, too, here's the 
" Chiefs of New Zealand who see the meaning of 
" these words, we accept, we entirely agree to all. 
'* Truly, we do mark our names and marks. 

" This is done at ff^aitangi, on the six of the days 


*' of February, in the year One thousand eight hun- 
*' dred and four-tens of our Lord." 

Even to express this more simple agreement in the 
simple tongue of the savages, the writer of the Maori 
version had to coin several words, such as have been 
coined by the missionaries in the translation of the 
Bible. They are words which were before unknown 
to the native, and therefore not existing in his lan- 
guage. A native, in reading them, would, as nearly 
as is possible to him, approach to an English pronun- 
ciation of the English words ; but his appreciation of 
their meaning would depend entirely upon the expla- 
nation made to him at the time of the English word 
which he had thus attempted to pronounce. Thus, 
f^Pikitoria stands in the treaty for Victoria ; 
Kuini „ „ Queen ; 

Ingarani „ „ England ; 

Nu Tirani „ „ New Zealand ; 

fViremu Hopihona „ William Hobson ; 

Kapitana „ „ Captain; 

Roiara Nawi „ „ Royal Navy ; 

Kawana „ „ Governor; and 

Pepuere „ „ February. 

Two important words, Rangatiratanga and Ka~ 
wanatanga, also require some explanation. The ter- 
mination tanga and some variations of it are used in 
the Maori language to produce the abstract notion of 
any noun or verb to which they are added ; thus an- 
swering to our ing, nesa, ship, hood, &c. For exam- 
ple, hoko is Maon for "to buy" — hokonga, for "buy- 
ing ;" toa, "brave" — toanga, " bravery;" haere, " to go" 
— haerenga, "going" or "journey ;" tamariki, "child" — 
tamarikitanga, " childhood '" mute, "sick" — matenga, 
" sickness." Rangatira is Maori for " Chief," and 
Rangatiratanga is therefore truly rendered 'Chief- 


"tainship." Kawanatanga is an adaptation of the 
same rule to the word Kawana, which had itself 
been coined from the English "Governor;" and there- 
fore it is truly rendered by " Governorship." But the 
natives could have had, at the time of the Treaty, only 
very vague ideas as to the meaning of the English 
word "Governor" which they nearly pronounced. 
In the Treaty itself, they were told that Hopihona 
was a Kavmna. Without very full explanation, Ka- 
wanatanga must therefore have represented to their 
ideas neither more nor less than " Hobsonnesa.' Even 
to this day, in Cook's Strait, where the Governor 
has rarely been seen, the natives invariably call every 
Police Magistrate and the Land Commissioner, Ka- 
wana; and the Protectors of Aborigines, Kawatiaa 
for the Maori, 

Fully to understand the value of this contract, the 
circumstances under which it was procured must be 
kept in view. Captain Hobson's commission was read 
at Kororarika, in the Bay of Islands, on the 30th of 
January, the day of his arrival. On the 5th of 
February, he presented the Treaty to an assembly of 
the natives of the Bay of Islands ; and on the 6th 
it was signed by 46 chiefs. On the 12th, he met 
the natives of the Hokianga j and 56 more chiefs 
signed the treaty. In March, Mr. Shortland, Captain 
Symonds, and four missionaries, were appointed to 
secure the adherence of the chiefs of the northern 
islands to the treaty. One of the missionaries de- 
puted his colleague, Mr. Chapman, and the master 
of a coasting trader, named Fedarb, to obtain signa- 
tures. Copies of the Treaty were thus dispersed 
about the Northern Island. Some of the chiefs re- 
fused to sign it ; but at last, between the 6th of 
February and the 3rd of September, 512 signatures 


were obtained. Of these signatures, upwards of 200 
were those of the chiefs inhabiting the peninsula 
north of the harbour of Manukau and the estuary 
of the Thames ; leaving only 300 to represent the 
inhabitants of more than three-fourths of the North 
Island. There is no evidence whatever that the 
assent of the powerful and warlike tribes of the in- 
terior, in the upper valleys of the JWaipa and TVai- 
kato, around Lake Taupo and the Rotorua lakes, 
was ever asked ; certainly it was never obtained. The 
greater part of the signatures were obtained at flying 
visits, and after one or at most two interviews. 
Presents of blankets and tobacco were made to the 
chiefs who signed ; and there cannot exist a doubt 
that to obtain these presents was with many the mo- 
tive for signing. 

Having not even the name of Governor or Go- 
vernment in their language, it may be supposed that 
the natives had no very precise or definite ideas of 
government ; a thing unknown in fact to their insti- 
tutions. Having no collective name for their own 
country, it may be supposed that they had no distinct 
idea of different countries, of national distinctions, 
and therefore none of foreign relations. There is no 
evidence that adequate means were taken to explain 
those large and novel ideas to them, so necessary to 
the proper understanding, not only of any treaty, but 
even of what a treaty is. Captain Symonds had 
been only a few months in New Zealand, knew but 
little of the language, and had not the benefit of the 
assistance as interpreter of the missionary at Mana- 
kauy who was absent ; and it may be doubted whether 
Mr. Fedarb, the master of the trading-vessel (who 
from his name appears not to have been an Eng- 
lishman), was capable of understanding the treaty. 


much less of explaining it to the natives. It was ob- 
vious, from these considerations, that the framers of 
the Treaty purposed to bind the natives to conditions 
which there were not even the words to convey. 
And, on the other hand, they accepted of aignaturcn 
from those who could not know to what they were 
putting their hands, and professed to the White set- 
tlers to have procured a valid adhesion to the com- 

The Treaty, thus obtained, was overridden by the 
Governor and his deputy before it was completed. 
On the 25th of April, Captain Hobson despatched 
Major Bunbury, in the Queen's ship Herald, " to such 
" places as you may deem most desirable for establishing 
" her Majesty's authority throughout these islands — 
" namely, that which is called Stewart's Island, Middle 
" Island, (marked on the charts Tavai Poenamoo,) 
" and such part of the Northern Islands as may not 
" already have been ceded to the Queen." Major Bun- 
bury soon dispensed with the preliminary form of 
obtaining signatures to the treaty. He landed in a 
harbour of the Southern Island, on the 4th of June ; 
and not meeting with any inhabitants there, he on 
the 5th, " in the probability of not meeting any 
" natives, deemed it advisable the same day to proclaim 
" the Queen's authority over the islands ; for which 
" purpose, a party of marines were landed from the 
" ship, and the usual forms complied with." The de- 
claration of sovereignty attributes the title of the 
Crown to Captain Cook's discovery. Subsequently, 
^lajor Bunbury obtained the signatures of a very few 
chiefs, not head chiefs, on the Middle Island ; and on 
the 17th of June he proclaimed the British sove- 
reignty. It is true, the official declaration bears the 
words " having been ceded in sovereignty by the 


" several independent chiefs :" but this being a simple 
untruth, it has passed for nothing ; and in fact it is 
admitted on all hands that the Treaty of IVa'itangi 
has no application to the Middle Island. But that 
is not all. Governor Hobson did not wait till he had 
obtained his 512 signatures, to proclaim the Queen's 
sovereignty over New Zealand. On the 21st of May, 
when Governor Hobson had only obtained the sig- 
natures of the chiefs of the Bay of Islands, Hoki- 
anga, Kaitaia, and Manukau, (if indeed he had then 
received the signatures from the last-named,) he 
proclaimed the Queen's sovereignty over the North 

The Treaty of TVaitangi has been truly described by 
the House of Commons' Committee of last year as 
" little more than a legal fiction." 

The succeeding acts of the Government towards the 
native population were akin to this first step in im- 
becility. Still guided by the all-powerful missionaries 
in the person of Mr. Clarke, they had insisted upon 
the interpretation of that part of the Treaty which re- 
lated to the lands of the natives, according to the com- 
plicated and intricate rights of property which prevail 
in the oldest and most civilized state, although these 
were surely more incomprehensible to the natives than 
are even their vague ideas on the subject to ourselves. 
But they had constantly remained in doubt as to the bear- 
ing and effect of that clause which related to the subjec- 
tion of the natives to the sovereign dominion of Great 
Britain. Vacillating, feeble, and uncertain, guided by 
no sound or consistent principle, and unassisted by a 
single man of really enlarged and unshackled mind, the 
Government had now enforced the Treaty with the 
utmost rigour in one or two instances ; in others had 
only vainly threatened to do so ; and in some had even 

VOL. II. 2 H 


denied its own right to take any such course. With- 
out making exceptional laws in favour of the natives, 
according to a wise suggestion of the New Zealand 
Association, contained in Mr. Baring's Bill of 1838, 
the Government had preferred to allow individuals 
among them to become, as it suited their own pleasure, 
exceptions to the laws actually in existence, to which 
they were falsely supposed to be yielding obedience. 
And from the first riots in the Bay of Islands in 1840 
to the JVairau massacre, and to the recent stamping 
on the constables in Pipitea pa, there had been nu- 
merous proofs of the nonentity of the Treaty in this 
respect, whether by the connivance, the timidity, or the 
sheer incapacity of the Government by whom it had 
been originated. 

Of course, this tangled web of imbecility clashed 
violently with the efforts of the Company and of the 
colonists to adopt a more extended philanthropy. As 
the Colonial Office was prompted by the influential 
Missionary Societies at home in its unreasonable war 
upon the Company, so the missionaries and the Govern- 
ment officers in the colony were leagued against the 
Agents of the Company and the settlers who had come 
out under its auspices. The noble system of Reserves 
was smothered in its birth, and a schoolboy son of Mr. 
Clarke sent to protect the natives from the wild pro- 
jects of their would-be benefactors. And then the 
effects were laughed at, and held up to scorn as the 
results of the system of the Company and their settlers. 
This was but a poor apology for the total want of such 
provisions in the settlements of the Government. 

If a chieftain was favourable to the plans of the colo- 
nists, like JVarepori or E Puni, he was degraded by 
the neglect of the authorities, and his claim to land or 
chieftainship was considered little or none. But if. 


like TVero TVero or Rauperaha, he seemed likely to 
become a thorn in the side of the young colony, and 
shone forth as one of those turbulent spirits whom, 
under the proposed institutions, the united races would 
have branded with shame and dishonour, and excluded 
ignominiously' from the homage due to worth and 
excellence, he was straightway exalted as a king, and 
let loose from all law or subordination upon the 
" disappointed settlers " of Cook's Strait. 

Disappointed they were, indeed, when all their 
bright visions of sharing a happy home with the grate- 
ful objects of an overflowing benevolence faded into 
one fearful nightmare, in which the unhappy native, 
taught to believe that he was robbed, cheated, and op- 
pressed, proposed to dispute every inch of a soil which 
he had only just learned to consider as of inordinate 
value, against what rankled in his poisoned mind as 
the intrusion of a ruthless invader. 

It was matter of notoriety, that every one of the 
agents in thus corrupting the gratitude of the natives 
into jealousy and suspicion towards the honest colo- 
nists, had a personal interest in the success of the ex- 
perimental metropolis in the north, and therefore a 
corresponding leaning to injure and deteriorate the 
settlements of Cook's Strait. 

The unfortunate native appeared at his last gasp, and 
as though it would be almost impossible to save him 
from utter disorganization of body and mind, as atten- 
dant on the conflicting effects of these contradictory 
and rival systems and caprices. He became like a child 
of ten years old, who should be tormented by the can- 
vassing of three or four candidates of different shades 
of political opinion, all completely above his under- 
standing, to vote for them at a Parliamentary election. 
One might recommend the Thirty-nine Articles, and 



the Latin protest of Mr. Ward against the decision of 
the Convocation, to his undivided attention ; a second 
should talk to him of currency and railway legisla- 
tion ; a third of the agricultural and commercial in- 
terests, reciprocity duties and the sliding-scale ; another 
of Poor-law Bastilles, vote by ballot, annual Parlia- 
ments, and universal suffrage ; and some preposterous 
preserver of pheasants should preach of the promotion 
of the national weal by the prosecution of poachers ! 
Would not the poor child take them all for madmen 
or knaves ; and rush from the squabbling candidates 
with a determination not even to learn his ABC, but 
to stick to his old rocking-horse and humming-top ? 

It was clear that the Saxon blood of the settlers 
would not forbear many years longer under the griev- 
ances endured by them through this misnamed pro- 
tection of the aborigines. Under such a system of 
acrimonious and cankering jealousy fostered between 
the races, it was certain that at least the sturdy White 
children, who were daily taunted on the outskirts of 
the pas by their dark playmates with the weakness 
.ind cowardice of their fathers, would grow up with 
a confirmed hatred of their puny tormentors, instead 
of a generous eagerness to befriend and cherish them 
as feeble brothers. And the leading settlers, who had 
fondly hoped to afford real protection to the inferior 
race, shuddered lest even in their day the law respecting 
forbearance of the Englishmen should be exhausted, 
and the mutual distrust of the races should break forth 
into a general warfare ; which could only end in the 
more or less speedy extermination of the natives, 
crushed like a wasp in the iron gauntlet of armed civi- 

Sanguine as ever, they based their hopes in the 
appointment of some master-mind as the new Governor. 


A truly great man, with unusual moral courage, and 
extraordinary powers of reasoning, with a wide- 
spreading benevolence and a resolution too firm to be 
shackled or controlled by any sinister influence, could 
alone cope with the difficulties which had accumulated 
under his predecessor, and during an interregnum 
which only increased them by its more childish tam- 
pering with the question. 

Some faint conjectures were thrown out that a man 
of note as a statesman might be intrusted with the 
responsible task. But the small amount of the salary 
and the inferior grade of the office were pointed out 
as obstacles to such an arrangement. The infant 
colonies of Great Britain, in whose commencement 
more talent is required than in their management as 
more established communities, are placed under the 
charge of a petty officer with low salary. Yet it would 
seem a very reasonable proposal that the task of draw- 
ing the plans and laying the foundations of the build- 
ing should be intrusted to a well-paid and experienced 
architect, while the subsequent filling up of the frame 
might be confided to a master-bricklayer, who should 
require less salary and have less onerous duties of cal- 
culation to perform. 

In former times, great men, such as Lord Baltimore 
and Penn, were found willing to undertake the charge 
of infant colonies. Those chartered colonies car- 
ried out all the elements of self-government, and the 
Governor, although poorly paid in money, retained 
his place by the respect and affection of his subjects ; 
so that a noble ambition was called forth, and those 
who excelled among the colonists were proud to be, 
as it were, their patriarchs. But under the present 
system of Crown Colonies, it is hardly to be expected 
that men of mark should aspire to an ill-paid office. 


which they are to hold not on the good will of those 
governed but on the caprice of an irresponsible bureau 
at a distance of 16,000 miles. 

The list of likely men for the appointment was 
eagerly discussed. It was hoped that some man like 
Captain Grey, the Governor of South Australia, who 
had published to the world an admirable Essay on the 
true humanity to be observed in bringing savage na- 
tions under BritisK law, might be selected. Although 
the details of Captain Grey's proposed system are 
adapted only to the less-nurtured savage of Australia, 
in its leading principles the Essay is a most statesman- 
like view of the necessary course to be pursued with 
any variety of savage tribe.* 

With a Governor mildly yet firmly gathering the 
whole native population under the undoubted pale of 
British law by such a system ; with a well-regulated 
church of high-minded missionaries like Mr. Hadfield, 
whose main object should be to unite the two races in 
one flock as under one law ; and with a full, vigorous, 
and unimpeded revival of the system of Native Reserves 
and honour to the fading chieftainship ; it seemed just 
possible that the union of all classes of White men in 
a wisely organized and strenuous effort might yet save 
the aboriginal population. 

Captain Fitzroy's name was sometimes mentioned. 
But that officer was known to be so thoroughly j)re- 
judiced in favour of the narrow philanthropy of the 

* Report upon the best Means of promoting the Civilization of 
the Aboriginal Inhabitants of Australia, by G. Grey, Captain 83rd 
Regiment, commanding Australian Expedition. This paper was 
recommended by Lord John Russell to the attention of Governor 
Hob.son, in December 1840 ; and was printed at page 43 of Corre- 
spondence relative to New Zealand, in pursuance of an Order of the 
House of Commons, on the 11th of May 1841. 


pure missionary system, immingled with the concurrent 
benefits of civilization, that such an appointment was 
looked upon as probably subversive of the last hope for 
the natives. I remember one morning hearing several 
of the best and bravest settlers, collected in Colonel 
Wakefield's house, agree, " that when they heard 
" Fitzroy was Governor, it would be time to pack up 
" their things and go." 



News of the appointment of Governor Fitzroy — Modified agree- 
ment between the Company and Lord Stanley — Expedition of 
H.M.S. North Star — Negotiations for the recovery of a stolen 
boat — Letter of Rauperaha — Major Richmond at Nelson — "War- 
rant against Rauperaha and Rangihaeata — Ridiculed by Sir 
Everard Home — Dismissal of the frigate as unnecessary — Effect 
of impunity on the natives — Disallowance of Ordinances — Land 
Claims Bill — Corporation Bill — The Company's offer to build a 
lighthouse — Obstructed by Government delays — Proceedings of 
the Wellington Corporation — £' Waho rescued by natives from 
the Police — Letter of Major Richmond — Conduct of Mr. Clarke 
junior — Rauperaha s son — False rumours at Otaki — Threaten- 
ing behaviour of Rangihaeata — Conversation with Rauperaha — 
His statements — Correspondence — Trial of E Waho — Menacing 
movements of natives — The Hutt road — Haunts of lawless 

The next day, the. 13th of September, the Ursula 
arrived from England. Among other passengers was 
Mr. F. Dillon Bell, who had been for some time Assist- 
ant Secretary to the Company, but had now emigrated 
as an agent for many of the absentee owners of land 
in the settlement of Nelson. He came into the room 
where nearly the same party as on the previous day were 
congregated. After the first greetings were over, he 
said, " By-the-bye, I suppose you know that Fitzroy is 
'* Governor !" Some turned j)ale, others became flushed 
or bit their lips, and a chill silence ensued ; till one, not 
the least persevering and energetic of the group, said, 
" Well ! five years more of troubles and difficulties ! I 
" believe that is the time that a Governor's reign 
" lasts." And he took his hat, mounted his horse, and 
rode at an angry gallop towards his farm, without 


waiting to hear more news from the country of his 

It appeared that the Company had at length been 
forced to terminate their ineffectual efforts to obtain a 
fair fulfilment of the original agreement, by accepting 
a compromise from Lord Stanley. This was, that 
they should receive a conditional prima facie grant of 
the lands to which they were entitled immediately on 
the arrival of the new Governor ; reserving always the 
rights of the natives, which the Governor was, how- 
ever, bound to define without delay, in a final and con- 
clusive manner. A separate Judge of the Supreme 
Court was to be appointed for Cook's Strait ; and Mr. 
Chapman, who had received the appointment, was to 
accompany the Governor. His Excellency was also to 
have the power of appointing a Resident at Wellington, 
with somewhat extended powers, for the Cook's Strait 
settlements. Another provision was, that the Company 
should exchange their claim to land in the Strait, to 
the extent of 50,000 acres, for 50,000/. worth of land 
at Auckland and the neighbourhood ; which they were 
to buy, hold, and colonise, under certain conditions. 

Captain Fitzroy had been selected to carry out this 
modification of the original agreement, which had so 
long been treated as waste paper both in England and 
in the colony. The new^ Governor had been engaged 
in long and intimate communication with the Directors 
of the Company ; and they expressed a high sense of 
his honourable character and intentions, and their con- 
viction that he would carry out the modified agreement 
most beneficially for the settlers, and in the frank 
spirit of instructions from the Colonial Office, of which 
the contents were made known to the Directors, and 
of which they perfectly approved. The Company, 
under the faith of this mutual reconciliation, had re- 


sunied their operations of selling land and despatching 
emigrants to the colony. 

But the new Governor was expected to touch at 
Bahia, at the Cape of Good Hope, and even at Sydney, 
before reaching his Government. 

Fears were not wanting that the crisis of affairs 
brought on by the JVairau massacre, unknown before 
his departure from England, might require too imme- 
diate a declaration of policy in one decided course or the 
other, for the prudent commencement of the reign of 
any but a very superior man. It was clear that the 
question would have to be at once settled beyond a 
doubt, as to whether Rauperaha and Rangihaeata 
were British subjects or not ; and that, if they should 
be considered amenable to British law as having been 
parties to the Treaty of PVaitangi, their apprehension 
and trial in the most formal way would be the only 
course left open. Some even of those who had the 
most acknowledged right to cherish a lingering wish 
for retribution, were so far softened as to dwell on a 
hope that justice might be benignly tempered with 
mercy, after the dignity of the law should have been 
duly asserted, even in the case in which its impartial 
verdict should return the two chiefs as murderers. 

A meeting was held for the purpose of forwarding 
a memorial on this and other important subjects to 
Captain Fitzroy at Sydney ; in the hope that he might 
come from thence direct to Cook's Strait in order to 
rectify the critical state of affairs. 

Mr. White, who had been appointed Police Magis- 
trat,e at Nelson, had now written to Major Richmond in 
confirmation of the former accounts from that place ; and 
Sir Everard, on the sight of the letters, " determined," 
he says, " to go to Nelson : as I could be of little 
" use there alone. Major Richmond said that he would 


" accompany me. I then proposed going first to Mana, 
" near to which island is the pa of Porirua ; there 
" to see Te Rauperaha, to tell him all that was said 
" of him, and to require him to explain himself the 
" circumstances, and to see how things were ; how far 
" fortifications had been carried, the number of people 
" assembled, and the number of canoes collected. The 
" Major then proposed, that the boat taken after the un- 
" fortunate affair at TVmrau, and hauled on the beach 
" near Porirua, should be recovered. He sent Mr. 
" Clarke on foot to let the tribe know that a ship was 
" coming, and to prevent, if possible, the departure of 
" the chiefs Te Rauperaha and Rangihaeata. 

" We sailed next morning, the 5th October, and 

" anchored the same afternoon under Mana. Shortly 

" after rounding the point and opening the island, a 

" canoe passed from Mana to Porirua with three per- 

" sons in her ; one of them we heard afterwards was 

" Rangihaeata. As soon as the ship anchored, I 

" landed, attended by Major Richmond, and Captain 

" Best in command of the detachment on board the 

" North Star. We first went to the whaling-station, 

" or great pa, where we found Mr. Chetham, who 

'' had been sent on to join us. We also soon after met 

" Mr. Clarke. He informed us that 7V Rauperaha 

" had left that morning at daylight for TVaikanae ; 

" which must have been a voluntary movement, as no 

" person knew our intentions till the Strait was 

" entered. We immediately went round to the pa 

" at which the tribe was established. Here we found 

" no one on the beach to receive us ; and having 

" landed, walked to the huts, where we found a few 

" persons sitting together. Rangihaeata, they said, 

'* had fled to the bush. Te Rauperaha was at ff^ai- 

'" hanae ; and, finding nothing could be done, we re- 

" turned on board." 


That same afternoon I reached Porirua, just as the 
man-of-war's boat was pulling out, and after Mr. Clarke 
and Mr. Chetham (the Clerk of the Bench) had gone 
on to the northward. As I rode through the steep 
potato-grounds leading off the beach into the woods 
towards Pukerua, I saw on either side of the path 
about 200 natives, who had run from the village, sit- 
ting on the skirts of the bush, ready to disappear in 
case of any offensive operations. Rangihaeata was 
sitting in the midst of one of the groups. Some of 
them called to me ; but I rode steadily on, as I had no 
knowledge of the intentions of the expedition, 

I slept at Pukerua ; and soon after starting in the 
morning, saw the frigate come under all sail round the 
point, making for Kapiti. Having a message to deliver 
to Mr. Hadfield, I rode up to his house at TVaikanae, 
just as she was coming to an anchor off Evans's Island. 
But a crowd of natives sitting round the gate told 
me that Rauperaha was with Mr, Hadlield, and 
he came and received the letter outside the door. I 
went on to Otaki. 

Sir Everard Home says : — 

" We were received by the Rev. Mr. Hadfield, a mis- 
" sionary, a gentleman of high character and great intel- 
" ligence, who living in the pa amongst them, knows 
" every movement, for none could take place without his 
' " knowledge. He at once declared all the reports to be 
" without foundation. Having walked to his house, 
" which is in the pa, we proceeded to his school-yard, 
'• and the chiefs, Te Rauperaha, and Rere, chief of the 
" tribe inhabiting the pa of Pf^aikanae, came accompa- 
" uied by about 50 men. I then stated to the chief all 
" that was reported of him, and asked him what he 
** had to say to contradict it. He replied, that far 
" from wishing to continue the quarrel with the Euro- 
'* peans, which had been commenced by them and not 


" by him, his whole time was occupied in travelling 
" up and down the coast endeavouring to allay the 
" irritation of the natives, and to prevent any ill con- 
'* sequence arising from the provoking language and 
" threats with which they were continually annoyed 
" by the Europeans passing backwards and forwards. 
" That for himself, he believed them to be lies invented 
" by the White men ; having been assured by the 
" Police Magistrate that no steps would be taken until 
" the arrival of the new Governor, or the pleasure of 
" the Queen was known. This account I have re- 
" ceived from Captain Best, who was present and 
" understands the language. 

" He also declared that they all stood in fear of the 
" White men ; and asked why I had come, if it was 
" not to fight with and destroy them, for they had 
*' been told that was my intention. I told them, that 
" the Queen's ships went to all parts of the world, and 
" that my object was to preserve peace rather than 
•' make war ; and he was advised to believe no reports 
" which he might hear, but to inquire into the truth 
" of them of Major Richmond, through Mr. Clarke or 
" Mr. Hadfield. The afiair of the PFairau was in no 
" way touched upon. After this, the assembly broke 
" up ; and Te Ruuperaha being sent for to Mr. Had- 
" field's house, he was asked to write a letter to the 
" principal person at Forirua, desiring him to give up 
" the Company's boat, which had been taken at the 
" TVairau, when called for. He said, that he had 
" little influence there, but that he had all along 
" wished the boat to be returned; for as long as it 
'* remained in their hands, it would be a bone of con- 
" tention and must cause trouble." 

Nothing appears to have been said about the arms, 
clothes, watches, rings, handcuffs, or tent ; although 
Messrs. Clarke and Macdonogh, who " had visited all 


" the pas" must have seen them. But these were pro- 
bably not a *' bone of contention," as Rauperaha hud 
them all to himself. 

But, to go on with the Captain's narrative : — " Rok- 
" peraha asked, if the boat were given up, whether the 
" quarrel would be considered as terminated. Major 
" Richmond replied, that was a question he could 
" not answer; but that, however he behaved about 
" it, he would have the credit of it ; he was the 
" chief, and that the Government looked to him. 
" He accordingly wrote the letter," which here 
follows : — 

" Go thou my book to Puaha^ Hohepa, and Jl'^atn- 
" rauehe. Give that boat to the chief, of the ship ; 
*• give it to the chief for nothing. These are the 
" words of Te Rauperaha. Your avarice in keeping 
" back the boat from us, from me, Mr. Hadfield, and 
" Mr. Ironside, was great. ITiis is not an angry visit, 
" it is to ask peaceably for the boat. There are only 
" Mr. Clarke, Mr. Richmond, and the chief of the 
" ship ; they three who are going peaceably back to 
" you, that you may give up the boat. 

" This is my book, 
(signed) " Te Rauperaha. 


Furnished with this document, they returned to 
Porirua ; lay at anchor all the next day, being Sunday ; 
and on the Monday morning went ashore, and were 
assisted in launching the boat by " 40 natives, all in 
" the greatest good humour," 

Mr. Hadfield afterwards told me, that Rangihaeata 
and the other natives at Porirua had at first been 
inclined to refuse ol)edience to Rauperaha in the 
matter ; but that a private message sent by the ci;^ef, 
by land, to say that he understood the ship woiild 


fight if it were not given up, had brought them to 
their "greatest good humour." 

The North Star now proceeded to Nelson, arriving 
there the same evening. 

The first thing done there was to warn Mr. Par- 
kinson, who had contracted to survey the Wairau 
plain for the Company, to recall his men, whom he 
had again sent thither. 

The pas of Motueka and fJ^akapoaka were visited 
during the two next days by the Captain, Major 
Richmond, Captain Best, and Mr. White. " Having 
" now seen for ourselves," pursues Sir Everard, " all 
" the points from which any attack was to be expected, 
" and having found all the reports of preparations 
" making by the natives to be entirely false in every 
" respect, the next morning, the 13th, Major Ricb- 
" mond and myself attended a meeting of a portion of 
" the settlers at their request." 

And there a scene occurred, precisely similar to that 
between the Government functionary and the Mao-i>- 
trates at Wellington ; except that the Magistrates fit 
Nelson were accompanied by a large assemblage of the 
settlers, and that their feelings, more nearly wounded, 
felt all the more acutely the galling treatment of the 
Police Magistrate and of the Captain of the man-of- 
war. The landing of any of the troops was abso- 
lutely refused ; although Major Richmond allows in his 
report to the Acting Governor that a small military 
force is " most essential to keep the unruly workmen 
" in awe, to enforce obedience to the law, and insure 
" the preservation of the peace, which certainly cannot 
" at present be effectually maintained." 

He also refused to sanction the payments made by 
the Company towards the erection of a fort ; or those 
which the Agent had made for the absolutely neces- 


sary increase of the police force, which was kept by 
the Government at so small a number, that Major 
Richmond reports to Auckland in favour of the con- 
tinuance of those who had been added. 

But his whole demeanour bore the colour of be- 
lieving in a dastardly spirit of revenge in the Nelson 
settlers, merely because they wished to see the law put 
in force ; and he wished to show a determination to 
keep such a spirit down. 

At length, pushed to exasperation, some one asked 
Major Richmond, "whether on the departure of the 
'* North Star, he would feel himself justified in re- 
" questing the Commander of the French frigate to 
*' move from Akaroa to their protection ?" He replied, 
" Certainly not ; and he considered it would be deroga- 
" tory to any British subject making such an applica- 
" tion." 

The Magistrates at Nelson, having heard some more 
evidence, especially that of Morgan, who relates that 
he saw the first shot from a Maori kill a man by his 
side, had issued a warrant against Rauperaha and 
Rangihaeata for murder ; and they applied to have it 
enforced, now that the authorities possessed the neces- 
sary means. 

But this was refused, with no small manifestations 
of ridicule at the idea. The Capfciin says, in his 
report, " It appeared that, mistaking my functions as a 
" captain of a man-of-war, they imagined that I was 
" bound by law to enforce any act authorized by war- 
" rant from two Magistrates ; and accordingly, on the 
" arrival of the ship, having 50 soldiers on board, a 
" warrant was made out for the apprehension of 7'e 
" Rauperaha and Rangihaeata, and it was supposed 
'* that I should have been honoured with the execution 
" of it. Understanding this, I commenced by explaining 


•* to them how far my authority really did extend ; that 
" troops were put on board on the express condition 
" that they were on no account to be landed except for 
" the preservation of the lives and properties of the 
" British subjects ; and that I should on no account do 
" anything which was contrary to what my own judg- 
" ment told me was right. I left them ; being requested 
" to state my opinions in writing." 

Which he did, as roughly and plainly as he had 

He concludes with some strong symptoms of having 
caught the " Government fever" during his short 
stay : — 

" On the following morning, I sailed for Port 
" Nicholson, where I arrived on the 16th of October; 
" and I left that place on the 21st of the same month, 
" arriving at Auckland on the 10th instant. 

" From all that I have been able to see, I am of opi- 
" nion that none of the settlements, in the parts of 
" New Zealand which I have lately visited, have any- 
" thing to fear from the natives, so long as they are 
" fairly dealt with. At Nelson, a force is wanted, not 
" to repel the attacks of natives, but to restrain and 
" keep in subjection the English labourers brought over 
** by the New Zealand Company, who have, I believe, 
" been in open rebellion against their employers more 
" than once. 

" At that place, also, the general feeling appears to 
" be more inclined to revenge the death of their 
" friends, than to wish impartial justice to be done ; 
" and vengeance and revenge are words that I hfive 
" heard used when speaking of that affair." 

While at Wellington, the officers of the frigate gave 
a picnic to the ladies at the inn at Aglionby. A ball 
was given to them in return at Barrett's hotel ; and 

VOL. II. 2 I 


SO ended the expedition of the North Star to recover 
a boat. 

Mr. Clarke junior gave, of course, the same account 
as Sir Everard Home. In answer to a request for his 
opinion from Major Richmond, he says : — 

" I have the honour to inform you, that I did not 
** observe an unusually large assemblage of natives at 
'* any of the above-mentioned places (Porirua, ff^ai- 
" kanae, and Otaki), nor have I the slightest suspicion 
" of their meeting with hostile intentions. On the con- 
" trary, Te Rauperaha and the principal chiefs re- 
" peatedly and pointedly assured me that no effort 
" should be wanting on their part to preserve peace, 
" and prevent the occurrence of anything that might 
** lead to a collision between the two races. 

" Under these circumstances, I cannot perceive that 
*' there is any necessity for the further detention of 
" Her Majesty's ship North Star in Port Nicholson, 
*' as far as the aborigines are concerned." 

A short time afterwards, a vessel from Hobart Town, 
with 100 soldiers, called at Nelson; but the command- 
ing officer refused to land them, having been forbidden 
to do so unless in case of being actually required to 
defend the lives and properties of the settlers. The 
detachment was on its way to Sydney ; but Sir Eardley 
Wilmot, the new Governor of Van Diemen's Land, to 
whom an application had been sent direct for assist- 
ance, instructed the officer to diverge so far out of his 
way. The vessel stopped two days at anchor in the 
out^r roads, and then proceeded to her destination. 

Thus the whole Tf^airau affair was disposed of, for 
the present ; not as though a successful resistance had 
been made to the execution of the Queen's warrant, 
followed by the cruel murder of her Magistrates and 
their assistants, and the plunder and insult of their 


remains, but as though a battle had been fought 
between the two nations, in which King Rauperaha 
had been victorious, and had followed the customs at- 
tendant on a New Zealand victory ; and as though 
Great Britain were glad to end the campaign on re- 
ceiving from the conquerors a small portion of the 
booty taken in the battle, and an assurance that peace 
should be maintained for the future. 

So, at least, it appeared to the natives. They became 
daily convinced that they could affront, harass, or even 
kill the settlers, and each other, with impunity. 

They readily mistook the destructive humanity of 
the Government for pusillanimity, and the admirable 
forbearance and generosity of the settlers for cowardice 
and weakness. They had TVairau and its authorized 
impunity, with many lesser, only because not deadly, 
instances, constantly before their eyes. E Ahu, and 
many other of the chiefs at Otaki, who were most 
friendly to me and the White people generally, did nov 
disguise their utter contempt for the unwarlike habits 
of the pakeha, and their total disbelief of the extra- 
ordinary powers of the soldiers. With such children, 
seeing is believing. Some of them would often say to 
me, ** You White people are very good for building 
" ships and houses, for buying and selling, for making 
** cattle fat, and for growing bread and cabbages ; 
" you are like the rats, always at work. But as to 
" fighting, you are like them too, you only know how 
*' to run. Our children learn to handle a spear or a 
" tomahawk when they are quite young; and all natives 
" know how to fire a gun. As to your people, very few 
" of them know how to load one properly. As for your 
" soldiers, have they got four arms or four legs, that 
" they should be better than other men ? If I have got 
"a gun like a soldier, I am as good a man as he, 

2 1 2 


** though I have only a blanket instead of a red coat. 
" And the ships can do us no harm, if we get away 
*' from the coast when we see them coming." Thus 
it began to be their firm belief, that the pakeha was 
not only timid but powerless. E Puni and many 
other of the Port Nicholson natives who still remained 
our friends, often remarked to us, that we were no 
longer, as they had hoped, a protection to them against 
the possible attacks of Rauperaha and his followers. 
They candidly confessed that they did not think us 
strong enough to resist him. And some among them 
spoke seriously of removing to Taranaki, or some other 
part of the country less subject to a sudden attack 
from their old enemy. 

If such were the impressions produced upon the 
well-disposed natives by tbe puling indulgence shown 
to them by a Government spiritless except against its 
own people, what could be those produced upon such 
among them as were naturally disposed to support and 
exemplify the supremacy of brute force over law and 
order? For, however much may have been said of 
innocent, harmless, well-disposed, intelligent savages, 
and their remarkable capacity for civilization, it must 
not be denied that many among the inhabitants of 
New Zealand, as among the inhabitants of Great 
Britain, are ruffians by nature. Under the most com- 
plete and humane system of civilization, such savages 
as were naturally ferocious and depraved, or corrupted 
by the irregular colonization M'^hich had taken place 
previous to the arrival of the quiet and orderly settlers 
from England, would have required a firm and un- 
flinching coercion from those most eager to benefit the 
whole race. Even with a view to the protection of 
their fellow-savages from the pernicious example as well 
as the immediate consequences of their barl)arian ca- 


price and revengeful disposition, it would have been the 
duty of a really humane and humanizing Government 
to deter such men as Rauperaha and Rungihaeata 
from the indulgence of their unbridled passions by the 
most iron-like justice and the most severe penalties. 

It was in the end of September that we got the Go- 
vernment Gazette from Auckland, announcing the dis- 
allowance by Lord Stanley of the last Land Claims Bill 
and the Corporation Bill, and also detailing the reasons 
for disallowance. 

The Land Claims Bill had been passed in 1842 to 
amend the one passed in 1841. The principal reason 
adduced by the Colonial Office for disallowing the Bill 
of 1842 was, that it did not provide against an ad- 
mitted evil, the accumulation of land in new colonies 
in the hands of persons without capital or the means 
of introducing labour. The Ordinance of June 1841, 
like the New South Wales Land Claims Bill of 1840, 
limited grants of land to 2560 acres, beyond which no 
grant could be claimed. This restriction was aban- 
doned in the Ordinance passed in 1842, now dis- 
allowed. The next ground taken for its disallowance 
was, that a large body of settlers (the northern land- 
sharks) had represented that it would be injurious to 
their interests. The principle of the Ordinance of 
lb41 was to value the land, to those who had obtained 
it in times of insecurity, and had expended labour and 
capital upon it, at a low rate, which was considered 
just. That principle the Ordinance of 1842 abandoned, 
and placing all parties upon an equality, fixed a uniform 
price of 5*. wherever and under whatever circumstances 
it had been obtained. To the justice of this Lord 
Stanley could not assent. The Governor was then 
instructed to be guided in future by the provisions of 
the enactment of the 9th June 1841 ; which was of 


course revived by the disallowance of the Act which 
had repealed it. 

The legislative wisdom of the Colonial Office appears 
from the fact that the restoration of the old rates of 
valuing the compensation and expenditure placed much 
more land in the hands of the claimants to the north 
than they held under the disallowed Ordinance, not- 
witiistanding the tixing of a limit to claims. A few 
large claimants were certainly restricted to 25r>0 acres ; 
but the great majority of claimants had bought quan- 
tities of land under the maximum at periods when 
their expenditure was allowed to entitle them to an 
acre for every 6d. or I*., instead of every 5s. And 
consequently, the very same claims which had entitled 
127 persons to 67,652 acres under the disallowed Or- 
dinance of 1842, entitled them to 72,002 acres under 
the revived Ordinance of 1841.* 

The Corporation Ordinance was disallowed, because 
it placed the power of establishing beacons and light- 
houses in the hands of the Corporation ; and because 
it vested in the Corporation all unappropriated lands 
within its limits, with the exception of certain re- 
serves. The objection to the latter power was, first, its 
being declared repugnant to the Act of Parliament for 
regulating the sale of the waste land of the Crown ; 
secondly, because it vested in the Corporation property 
of the Crown which her Majesty had not placed at the 
disposal of the Local Legislature ; and thirdly, because 
it might be attended with the improvident waste of a 
large extent of most valuable land. 

'^The first objection came with peculiarly bad grace 
from the Government, who had always obstructed 
rather than furthered any of these necessary erections 

* Revised award published in the New Zealand Government 
Gazette of 6th September 1843. 


as far as Cook's Strait was concerned. So early as 
the 5th of November 1841, the New Zealand Com- 
pany had applied to be allowed to spend 1500/. in 
the erection of a suitable lighthouse at the heads of 
Port Nicholson, provided that such sum should be 
made a charge on the future dues. But Lord Stanley 
had answered that he could " form no opinion on the 
" subject in the absence of any report upon it from 
" the Governor of New Zealand, for which his Lord- 
" ship would immediately apply :" and he " suggested 
" to the Company the propriety of submitting to their 
" Agents in the colony, that as often as questions may 
*' arise there on which it may be necessary for Her 
" Majesty's Government to decide, such questions 
" should be brought to the notice of the Secretary of 
** State through the intervention of the Governor; 
'* since, by adopting any other course, a very serious 
** delay must intervene, which may often be attended 
" with extreme inconvenience to the public ser- 
*' vice." 

This seemed to anticipate delay, and to throw 
the blame beforehand on the Company, for not pro- 
ceeding in what he chose to consider the formal 

Accordingly it was not till the 22nd December 
1842, nearly fourteen nwntha after their application, 
that they were informed that Lord Stanley had " re- 
" ceived a despatch from the Governor of New 
" Zealand, in which he states that he has requested the 
" Police Magistrate at Wellington to furnish him 
" with the plan for the erection of a suitable light- 
*' house at the entrance of the harbour at Port 
** Nicholson, together with an estimate of the expense 
" of erecting and maintaining it, in order that he may 
" be able to report more fully on the subject." 


Nor was this all — the Police Magistrate alluded to 
was no other than Mr. Murphy. Up to the time when 
he had to resign his office in January 1843, he had 
not taken the slightest step towards furnishing the 
plan or estimate, and the letter of the Governor alluded 
to had been lying for months unheeded on his table. 
Colonel Wakefield often pressed him to proceed in 
the business. I have often urged him to get the plan 
and estimate made at once. But he invariably shuffled 
it off with various excuses ; treating it as " of no 
" consequence," or " totally out of his province;" or 
declaring that "he did not know to whom he could 
** apply for the requisite information." His successors 
in the office probably lost all traces of the paper. At 
any rate, nothing more was ever heard of the light- 
house; and even in October 1844, Captain Fitzroy 
discouraged the idea, and had some thoughts of erecting 
a beacon at the heads instead, which will be of no sort 
of use in the dark. This had been done long before 
by private subscription, at the risk of having the 
beacons pulled down or injured because not protected 
or authorized by law. The Corporation had never, up 
to the time of their dissolution^ possessed funds to a 
larger amount than 371/. ; a sum quite inadequate to 
the building a lighthouse, and required moreover for 
other purposes. 

The proposal for erecting a lighthouse at Port 
Nicholson was thus fairly smothered, like the Native 
Reserves, by the Colonial Office and the local Govern- 
ment : Lord Stjinley taking care that it should have 
to go at least three times the distance between England 
and New Zealand, besides four times that between 
Auckland and Port Nicholson ; and the local officers 
taking care that it should faint on the way : Lord 
Stanley preventing the possibility of the thing being 


done by the colonists themselves ; and the Governors 
taking care not to originate the measure. 

The only lands vested in the Corporation of Wel- 
lington were, the belt reserved round the town for 
ornament and recreation, and the land which might be 
reclaimed from the sea. 

The Municipality of Wellington had been in ex- 
istence nearly a year when this disallowance put an 
end to its operations. After the death of Mr. Hunter, 
Mr. William Guyton had been elected Mayor. 

They had imposed no taxes during their short term of 
office ; but had been principally engaged in preparing 
measures for various objects, and in regulating the 
terms on which the land to be reclaimed from the 
harbour for wharfs and quays should be let on im- 
proving leases. They had originated measures for the 
preservation of the town-belt, for the formation of 
markets and slaughter-houses, for the maintenance of 
roads and streets, and for various other useful local 
purposes. The members of the Council were most 
praiseworthy in their attendance, meeting once or 
twice a week ; though one of them had to come about 
nine miles from his home to the Exchange, where they 
met at 10 o'clock. 

Their funds had consisted entirely of fees paid on 
the registration of voters in October 1842, amounting 
in all to 370/. 12*. 6^. 

This had been spent as follows: — 118/. for labour 
in repairing roads and streets; 15/. for the rent of their 
Town-hall ; 50/. for the salary of the Town Surveyor ; 
42/. \5s. for that of the Town Clerk; 7/. for mes- 
sengers, and 37/. for constables ; 8/. for making up a 
rate-book; 2/. lO.y. for engraving a borough-seal; 
5/. 5*. for a large map of the beach frontage; 12/. 12*. 
for law expenses; and 72/. for printing and stationery 
from the two newspaper-offices. 


They were dismissed just as many of their well- 
digested plans were about to be brought into operation. 

Scarcely two months after the departure of the fri- 
gate as perfectly unnecessary, the consciousness of 
impunity had so increased among the natives, that a 
repetition of the " very trifling aflfair " of Mr. Clarke 
junior took place in the very same pa, under precisely 
similar circumstances, and with precisely the same 
performers. The Police Magistrate, apparently consi- 
dering himself the virtual Governor of the M'^hite 
inhabitants of Cook's Strait, thus familiarly excuses 
himseJf to the Governor of Auckland for having em- 
ployed the troops in enforcing British law upon one 
of those who considered themselves as only subject to 
-New Zealand chiefs: — 

" My dear Sir, " Wellington, 5th Dec. 1843. 

" As I have been obliged, much to my regret, to 
** call out the military in aid of the civil power, I take 
" advantage of the sailing of The Sisters to give you a 
" hasty sketch of the affair, lest a garbled account should 
** reach you ; but 1 shall forward it officially to your 
" Excellency by return of the brig, which we look for 
** hourly. On Thursday last, a constable, who was in 
" search of stolen goods, detected some of them in a box 
" belonging to or in charge of a young chief named 
" E TVuho ; and while endeavouring, with the assist- 
" ance of two other constables, to take him into custody 
*' they were not only resisted, but attacked, knocked 
'* down, and otherwise ill-treated, by all the natives who 
*' were in the pa at the time. I hastened to the spot 
** the moment the circumstance was reported to me ; and 
** as I found the prisoner and his party were still deter- 
" mined to set the law at detiance, and refused to yield 
*' to the civil force, I was reluctantly compelled to call 
" upon the military : their appearance, I am happy to 


" say, brought them to reason, and I was enabled, with- 
" out further difficulty, to lodge the prisoner in the new 
" gaol. Next morning, not wishing to cause any excite- 
" ment by sending the military through the town to 
" bring him before me at the Police Court, I directed the 
" constables to conduct him. They used every precau- 
" tion ; but, when opposite the pa, the prisoner contrived 
'' to slip his hand out of the handcuff which attached 
'* him to one of the constables, and bounded into the 
" pa ; when the whole of the natives immediately turned 
" out, armed, to protect him. I gave Mr. Clarke a cer- 
'* tain time to endeavour to get him to go quietly with 
" the constables to the Police Office ; but both the pri- 
" soner and the rest of the tribe obstinately refused, and 
" I was again obliged to call for the assistance of the 
" military. Fortunately, they were again awed by their 
" presence, and the prisoner immediately surrendered. 
" I investigated the case, assisted by Mr. M'Donogh and 
" Mr. Clifford, without delay ; when the evidence was so 
" strong that we had no alternative but to commit him 
" to take his trial at the next County Court, which will 
" be held on the 19th instant. It may be in the recol- 
" lection of your Excellency, that a Mr. Milne was mur- 
" dered on the Fitone road about two years since. The 
" prisoner was then suspected to be the murderer ; and 
*' some of the natives have mixed up this affair with it, 
" while others are indignant that a chief should be made 
" subservient to our laws. There is therefore some 
" excitement in consequence of his apprehension ; but it 
" was a matter that could not be passed over, otherwise 
" they would with impunity have entered any house and 
" pilfered it as they pleased, independent of their out- / 
" rageous conduct to the constables. 1 have written to ^ 
" all the Magistrates, Mr. Hadfield, and other gentle- 
" men of the mission along the coast, that they may give 


" the natives a true version of the business ; and al- 
" though those at the Fipitea pa, where the prisoner 
" was taken from, are rather sulky, yet I do not appre- 
" hend any mischief, more especially as E Punt, the 
" nearest relative of the prisoner, says he shall not 
" interfere, and will be angry with any native that does. 
" This, it is believed, will be a wholesome check to the 
*' natives in these districts, who have, since their un- 
" fortunate success at the Wairau, assumed a different 
" bearing, and are certainly not inclined to yield obedi- 
*' ence to our laws, which before they never disputed. 

" With great esteem, &c. 

(Signed) " M. Richmond. 

" His Excellency Willoughby Shortland, Esq. 
"&c. &c. &c." 

This narrative, correct in the main circumstances, 
contains some misrepresentations, and omits some im- 
portant collateral facts. 

I was again an attendant at the Police Court ; 
although I felt unwilling to take part in a show of 
authority which was only now necessary because it had 
been so long delayed or trifled with. I therefore ab- 
stained from taking my place on the bench, and 
remained a silent spectator. 

It was painful to a real well-wisher of the native 
race to behold the prisoner, guarded on either side by 
a grenadier with his firelock and bayonet, and glancing 
angrily upon the crowd of anxious townspeople who 
thronged the Court. The troops were ready to turn out 
at a moment's notice ; and the Commanding Officer 
was anxiously looking towards the pa about fifty yards 
ofti as though he expected a sudden rescue, while the 
Ensign, also on duty, was watching the proceedings 


inside the Court. At their termination, the prisoner 
was guarded to the new jail, about a mile off, by a 
file of soldiers. 

This E TVaho was the same native who was iden- 
tified at the time as having been seen following Milne 
the night he was killed. 

When the stolen things, for which he was commit- 
ted to take his trial, were seen in his box, clothes said 
to have been worn by Milne the night he was mur- 
dered and stripped were also seen there and identified. 

In consequence of this, Mr. Smith, the cousin of the 
murdered man, who had throughout been diligent in 
his endeavours to find out and bring the murderer to 
justice, at the conclusion of the investigation applied 
for a warrant for the purpose of searching the pri- 
soner's boxes, and the warrant was granted by Major 

The keys of the prisoner's box were given, at the 
conclusion of the investigation of the theft, to Mr. 
Clarke junior. Mr. Smith requested Mr. Clarke to 
accompany him to the pa to examine the boxes ; but 
he hesitated to do so, and at last acknowledged that he 
feared for the safety of his life. He subsequently went 
down as far as the jo«, and on seeing the natives, said 
they were too excited to allow of the boxes being 
searched at that time. Mr. Smith was afraid that, 
should time be allowed, the evidence of the man's guilt 
might be destroyed ; but all his entreaties were of no 
avail. Mr. Clarke's fears overcame his sense of duty. 
His appearance was described by the lookers-on as truly 
pitiable, as he shrunk pale and trembling from the task 
imposed upon him. 

Early the next morning, the Maori were seen by 
numerous and trustworthy witnesses to remove from 
the l)oxes the clothes supposed to be the evidence of 
E TVaho % guilt as the murderer of Milne. Mr. 


Smith applied for Mr. Clarke to go to the j)a with 
him, and after some hesitation that gentleman refused 
to do so. Mr. Smith then proceeded with the con- 
stables to the puj and of course was disappointed. 

I do not know whether Major Richmond wrote to 
all the other Magistrates ; he neither wrote nor spoke 
to me on the subject. 

The Police Magistrate omits to say that it was their 
impunity as well as their success, on other occasions 
as well as at Wairau, which had induced the natives 
to " assume a different bearing." 

But instead of " never having disputed our laws be- 
*' fore," he well knew that they had first disputed 
them at the Bay of Islands only two months after the 
performance of the Treaty of TVailangi ; and that on 
two occasions, the military had enforced obedience at 
that place before our laws had been infringed by the 
natives at Wellington. He knew, moreover, that the 
conduct of Noble and the other natives at Manganui, 
north of the Bay of Islands ; of the plunderers at 
TVangart near Auckland ; of Rangihaeata at Porirua; 
of the natives of Maketu and Tauranga ; and of the 
natives of Port Nicholson, headed by fVarepori, when 
one of their number had been found dead ; were only 
the most remarkable among the many cases which had 
occurred of the cruel results of unpunished disol)e- 
dience and the want of a respectable protective force. 

I rode up to Otaki about this time, with two horses 
which I had to offer for sale to the natives, they having 
begged me to bring them some to look at. I had in- 
tended to take a dozen mules up the coast, some of a 
cargo which had arrived lately from Valparaiso, as I 
thought I could make them useful for carrying flax. 
But I was told by one of my own natives who visited 
the town, that Ranperaha had heard of this, and had 
expressed a firm intention of driving them back. 


I formed some intimacy with one of Rauperahas 
sons, christened Tomihona, or " Thomson." He was 
a very intelligent young man, who had become much 
civilized in the course of various voyages in vessels to 
the Bay of Islands and other places. He had only 
returned to Cook's Strait from one of these trips since 
the IVairau massacre, and lived almost apart from 
his father in the large j9a nearer to the house wherein 
I dwelt. He and his wife were both very neat and 
clean in their dress and their house. He pleased me 
especially by being, although unskilful, fearless on 
horseback. Two old horses had formed part of the 
stock of the farm on Mana for many years, and now 
belonged to the proprietor of the island, Mr. Fraser. 
But soon after the JVairau massacre, Rauperaha had 
taken possession of them, and they had been conveyed 
to the mainland in one of the large sailing-boats be- 
longing to his new allies from the Middle Island. 
He now kept them at Otaki, and his son constantly 
rode about on one of them. He used to follow over a 
leaping-bar without any hesitation, though he more 
than once fell ; and he beat a young horse of mine in 
a regularly-appointed race which we held along a mile 
of straight beach, to the great delight of the assem- 
bled population. 

I was going quietly on with my flax-trading, when 
one morning about the end of December, before I was 
up, a native brought a strange report to the house. 
Rauperaha, he said, had come up very early to the 
large pa, and had stated " that I was reported to be 
" here for the purpose of watching him and Rangi- 
** haeata, in order that twenty men on horseback, whom 
" I expected from Port Nicholson, might be sure to 
" catch them." He also said that Rangikaeata had 
threatened to come and burn the house I was sleep- 


ing in, on first receiving the news. I showed the 
native my rifle and other arms by my bed-side, and 
told him that I would immediately shoot Hangihaeata, 
or anybody else, who should attempt to fire the roof 
over my head. After eating my breakfast, I went un- 
armed to the pa where the two ruffians dwelt. I was 
accompanied by Taylor and two or three friendly 

I found Rauperaha sitting under the tent taken at 
JVairau. Near him were his son " Thomson," a 
nephew of Rangihaeata named E TJ^ivn, and several 
other natives. I had hardly begun -to deny every 
particular of the story which the natives had got 
hold of, when Rangihaeata sprang out of his house 
in an adjoining court-yard, and made a furious 

He was much excited, as though by drink ; he 
foamed at the mouth, leaped high into the air at the 
end of each run up and down, and made frightful 
grimaces at me through the fence whenever he stopped 
opposite to me to turn and run again. He taunted 
me with being a spy, hiding about inland to watch his 
doings. He repeated the old question, about whether 
the soldiers had four arms and four legs that they 
could take him and put handcuffs on his wrists. He 
applied the most insulting expressions to the Queen, 
to all the Governors, and to all the White people. He 
got to his highest pitch of excitement, when he at 
length challenged me to stand out and fight him man^ 
fully, hand to hand, instead of crouching about in am- 
bush. He roared out his own name, and his known 
bravery, and his known strength, and his known 
skill, and his contempt for the Whites as fighting 
men. All this with occasional interjectional yells, 
grinding of the teeth, protruding of the tongue. 


quivering head and limbs, and the usual slapping on 
the thigh. 

It was a complete instance of what he called, in whal- 
ing slang, his boo-boo-boo, or " bounce;" and, unarmed 
as I was, I should probably have thought myself in 
some danger, even with the fence between us, had not 
Rauperaha and the other natives continued to whisper 
to me during the whole time of his harangue, " Don't 
" listen to him ! Don't answer ! Don't be afraid, 
" they're only words ! Don't mind him, Tiraweke !" I 
looked steadily at him without saying a word ; and he 
at length appeared to get tired, or to be convinced that 
I would not be intimidated. He finished one of his 
angry runs by returning into his hut. 

I now turned to Rauperaha, and distinctly denied 
every part of the story which had been reported to 
him. I endeavoured, but without avail, to trace its 
origin. We then held a long conversation ; Rauperaha 
taking pains to impress upon me his power, the care 
which he took of his own people, and the accurate in- 
formation which he constantly received of everything 
that was going on in the neighbourhood of the White 
men's settlements. 

To prove the latter assertion, he instanced two cases 
which, he said, were perfectly well known to him, of 
murders committed by natives in the neighbourhood of 
Wellington, and of which the Whites never had any 
sign or suspicion. The first he stated to have been 
committed up the Hutt by a native then alive, whom, 
however, he would not name. He asked me repeatedly, 
whether any one had been missed up there ; and upon 
my answering in the negative, said that showed how 
little care we could take of our people compared with 
that which he took of his. The second murder he 
described as having been committed among the hills at 

VOL. II. 2 K 


the hack of the town, hy the native who was shot by 
another in Wellington some months before. He 
described the whole afifair circumstantially, and stated 
as a proof that the adze with which the deed was done 
remained with the father of the murderer at a settle- 
ment on the main opposite Mana. 

He then spoke about the natives living in the town 
and neighbourhood ; and declared that there was not a 
single one sincerely friendly to us, except E Puni. He 
named E Tako and Mo^wroo, a chief of Pipitea, as at the 
head of an extensive and well-arranged plan, organized 
at the time of E ^aho's trial, for attacking the town, 
should his sentence have seemed to them too severe ; 
and said that messengers from this tribe had been in 
constant communication with him as to their proceed- 
ings. With his usual treachery, he thus betrayed the 
plans of the Ngatiawa tribes, his old enemies ; but only 
after they had been unsuccessful, and too late for them 
to be thwarted had they been carried out, for the trial 
was to have taken place nine days before, and I did not 
even know the result. He ridiculed the idea of the 53 
soldiers resisting such a combined attack as they had 
planned ; and still more -the belief entertained by many 
people that the natives were Christianized and therefore 
averse to such doings. He said that the mihanere 
was only used as a cloak ; and that in private they 
swore at the missionaries as the principal cause of their 
disasters, and were perfectly ready at any time to sing 
the war-song with their old fury. 

He told me that E Mare, the chief of the Chatham 
Islands, and another native whom he named, had ke])t 
the TVaikanae people informed of their plans, and that 
they, in their turn, communicated with him. 

He praised my prudence in carrying arms wherever 
I went; for, he said, the constables and the soldiers 


had no strength to take care of me here. The Maori 
all carried arms, and were ready to take care of them- 
selves ; why should not I ? It was the custom among 
the Maori chiefs ; why not amongst the Whites when 
they travelled in Maori territory ? '* Carry your arms," 
he concluded, " and look about you as you ride through 
" the Ponrua bush. You might be attacked, perhaps, 
" by some of your own Ngatiawa people." 

He then urged me to return to Port Nicholson, as 
he acknowledged that my stay caused fears to him and 
to Rangihaeata. " The reports were true, perhaps — 
" false, perhaps ; — never mind; would I go to-morrow?" 

I told him I should go two or three days hence, on 
the same day that I had fixed before this discussion, as 
I did not choose to be frightened away by threats. I 
again assured him that I had not the slightest design 
against him or any other native, as my laws bade me 
leave utu to be taken by the Queen for her people, and 
not by the son for the father. But I also told him, 
that if any one tried to burn me in my house, or to 
attack me in the bush, I would defend myself with my 
own hands and do my best. 

This was the last I saw of Rauperaha and Rangi- 

On the New Year's-day, the Bishop visited Otaki 
with Mr. Hadfield. Some natives, who saw him arrive 
at Pakakutu, told me that he at first held ©ut his hand 
to Rangihaeata, but that Mr. Hadfield informed him 
of his mistake, and he then turned to Rauperaha^ and 
shook hands with him. 

The next day I returned to Wellington. When 
there, I published an exact account in the paper of 
what Rauperaha had said to me ; as I felt sure that to 
inform the authorities would only be to have the 
matter hushed up, and it seemed of consequence that 



something should be known about these alleged mur- 

A long correspondence ensued between Mr. Clarke 
junior and E Toko on the one part, and myself on the 
other. They charged me with reporting untruths, and 
unnecessarily alarming the community ; and blamed 
me for not giving the information to the Magistrates 
only. I replied, that I published statements which I 
had heard from Rauperaha, and I named the other per- 
sons who were present ; and I explained that I did not 
wish the matter to be hushed up. Indeed, my letter 
had elicited several from other parties, furnishing 
information corroborative of Rauperaha^ statements. 

The trial of E TVaho for theft had taken place on 
the 19th of December. 

From the time of E Waho^ committal, great ex- 
citement had prevailed among the natives. Meetings 
had taken place at all the pas among themselves, and 
numerous strangers had come into the town from places 
at a distance from Port Nicholson. 

At an early hour the Court was crowded with both 
natives and settlers. 

E TVaho is a grand-nephew of Fj Puni, and is re- 
lated to most of the principal chiefs of Pf^aiwetu, 
Pitone, Pipitea, and other puA-. A large body of natives 
who had assembled at Pitone had been persuaded not 
to come over to Wellington, but many others from va- 
rious places had been arriving for several days before. 

The Judge entered the Court, accompanied by the 
Lord Bishop of New Zealand, who took his seat on 
the bench. Moturoa of Pipitea, who had been the 
most violent in opposing the proceedings, and at one 
time in threatening the Judge, was amongst the crowd ; 
the Judge beckoned to him, and placed him on the 

Chap. XVni. TRIAL OT E tVAtiO. -< ^^ 501 

Counsel was retained for the prisoner, and Mr. 
Clarke junior was sworn as interpreter. 

After the evidence had been gone through at great 
length. Judge Halswell charged the jury very care- 
fully. It so happened that one or two of the jurors 
were men married to native women. 

They retired for an hour, and then returned an 
informal verdict, which they were told by the Judge 
to re-consider. After an hour and a half more, they 
returned a verdict of guilty. 

Upon the Clerk of the Court, through Mr. Clarke, 
demanding of the prisoner why judgment should not 
be passed upon him according to law, the prisoner 
stated, that the things which he had been found guilty 
of stealing were not the property of any White man, 
but belonged to his sister ; and as to anything which 
could be done to him now, he was indifferent. He 
had been degraded by being handcuffed and kept 
in jail, and did not care for anything. 

The learned Judge said he perfectly concurred in 
the verdict ; and sentenced the prisoner to two months' 
imprisonment, with hard labour, in the jail of Wel- 

This sentence was received by loud hisses, as too 
lenient. The Judge directed the usher to close the 
door of the court-house, and ordered the constables to 
take into custody any person expressing either appro- 
bation or disapprobation. 

Upon hearing the sentence, the prisoner loudly 
complained of the degradation of imprisonment, and 
requested most earnestly to be killed with a tomahawk. 
The native Porutu of Pipitea, a near relation of the 
prisoner, had sent a message to the Judge to this effect 
at the last sitting of the Court for appearances, a few 
days before. 


The trial lasted ten hours ; and the Bishop remained 
in Court the whole time. 

It was now found that the natives contemplated a 
rescue. Those who had assembled at Pitone were 
understood to have reached Kai JVara TVara. Dr. 
Evans rode down to them, and advised them to retire ; 
but they advanced to Pipitea pa. Mr. Clarke junior, 
and Dr. Fitzgerald, the doctor appointed by Govern- 
ment to attend the natives, tried their influence ; but 
they were both turned out of the pa. A small body 
of the military were all day close in the neighbour- 
hood of the court, but out of sight; but as a rescue 
had been threatened in case the prisoner should be 
convicted, a Serjeant's guard of 25 men were marched 
out; and J^ TVaho, placed between two constables, 
not handcuffed but surrounded by soldiers, was marched 
off to the gaol. When the natives in the pa saw this, 
they allowed the Bishop to address them ; they were 
about 300. In the morning they fired off their nms- 
kets, which they had kept loaded all night, and quiet 
was restored. 

It was afterwards heard, in confirmation of Raupe- 
raha's account to me, from a good native authority in 
Wellington, that all the Pipitea and Kumu Toto 
natives, of whom E Tako and Muturoa were the chiefe, 
with a large auxiliary force from the neighbourhood, 
were encamped above Kai ff^ara War a, on the occasion 
of the trial, to be ready for action should the verdict 
be disagreeable to them ; and that an order was sent 
from the confederation to the Te Aru natives to en- 
camp on the hills west of the town (their own potato- 
grounds), which they however did not obey. 

It may be mentioned that the Judge asked E Tako to 
dinner with him on Christmas-day, and kindly assented 
to his bringing Moturoa and his wife Martha also to 
his table. 


Mr. Halswell had thus the happy art of blending 
private kindness and attention to the nearest relations 
of the prisoner with a strict performance of the public 
ends of justice. 

About this time, the road was finished a mile above 
the gorge of the Hutt, so that you could ride thither 
on horseback; and a bridge was nearly completed by 
the Company over the river just above Mr. Moles- 
worth's large barn and thrashing-machine. In various 
spots on the lower valley, settlers were daily being 
driven off land which they attempted to occupy, by the 
natives living near Mr. Swainson's curtailed farm. 
The pas there had become the rendezvous for all the 
worst characters from many of the tribes, as well as 
for the immediate followers of Rauperaha and Ran- 
gihaeata. If an outrage, an insult, or a robbery was 
perpetrated, it almost always turned out that the cul- 
prit was an inhabitant of these villages, or, at any rate, 
he soon after became one. These fugitives and repro- 
bates, living almost without chiefs or subordination, 
were contented while they could grow potatoes for the 
market of the town, with a good road along which 
to carry them ; but seemed resolved to prevent the 
White people from entering into competition with 
them in the pursuit. They were not to be made 
friends of: missionaries, settlers, and sawyers, were 
alike laughed at and scorned. Mr. Clarke junior was 
on one occasion threatened and driven away for attempt- 
ing to interfere ; and they seemed to taint the air, like 
a loathsome and augmenting dung-heap, in the very 
path of settlement and civilization. 



AiTival of Governot Fitzroy at "Wellington — Auckland officials — 
Levee -Discouraging opinions of the Governor — Public rebuke — 
Effect — Dispersion of the assembly — Taunts of the natives — Pri- 
vate interview with his Excellency — Accusations — Captain 
Fitzroy's demeanour — Friendship towards the natives — Captain 
Fitzroy at Nelson — Dismissal of Magistrates — His Excellency's 
interview with Rauperaha at Waikanae — ^ir Everard Home 
shakes Rauperaha by the hand — Reflections on Captain Fitzroy's 
decision — Some account of Captain Arthur AVakefield — Major 
Richmond appointed Superintendent — Captain Fitzroy and the 
land-claims — Reasons for leaving the colony — Prospects of the 
colonists — Of the natives — The only hope — Return to Europe. 

On the evening of the 26th January 1844, just a 
twelvemonth since Wellington had been graced with 
the presence of an Excellency of any sort, H.M.S. 
North Star again entered the harbour, with Captain 
Fitzroy on board. She had accompanied the Governor 
from Sydney to Auckland, and brought him thence to 
this place. 

Mr. F. Dillon Bell was also a passenger on board, 
having been up to Auckland as Agent for the selection 
by the Company of the stipulated 50,000/. worth of land 
there. The most important of his arrangements, how- 
ever, made for this purpose with the Acting Governor, 
had been overthrown by his successor. 

In addition to this. Lieutenant Shortland had been 
so wantonly insulted by Captain Fitzroy at his first 
public levee, that he was obliged to resign his office. 

Lieutenant Shortland had done but little during 
his reign of nearly a year towards the good of the 
colony. His term of office was reported in the Auck- 


land papers to have been principally employed in the 
management of a speculation for monopolizing the 
supply of stationery from Sydney to the Government 
offices at Auckland. Notwithstanding the mischief 
vrhich ensued from his negligence and callousness of 
feeling, he will soon sink into oblivion. 

Mr, Cooper, another of Captain Hobson's train, and 
for some time one of the e<r officio Legislative Coun- 
cillors, had proved a defaulter to the Customs revenue, 
of which he was Collector, to the amount of 2500/. 

Mr. Freeman, the only one of their number who 
could write a despatch, had been taken out of the 
debtor's jail on " day-liberty " for many months past, 
for this indispensable purpose. On the resignation of 
Lieutenant Shortland, Captain Fitzroy had appointed 
Mr. Freeman to the vacant office of Colonial Secre- 
tary. But several of the other officials and leading 
people at Auckland intimated that their wives would 
be unable to meet Mr. Freeman's wife at his Excel- 
lency's house ; so that the office was again taken from 
that gentleman, and conferred on a Mr. Sinclair, who 
had made Captain Fitzroy 's acquaintance at Sydney, 
whither he had proceeded as surgeon of a convict- 

Immediately on the arrival of the frigate at Wel- 
lington, a notice was sent on shore and circulated, that 
a levee would be held by the Governor on Saturday, 
the next day, at two o'clock. 

Considering the short notice, the levee was very 
numerously attended. On landing, the Governor was 
greeted w^ith cordial acclamations of welcome from a 
large assemblage of the best settlers in the colony. 
They appeared determined to prove their confidence in 
his favourable intentions towards them. 

The arrangements for the levee were rather undig- 
nified; no aide-de-camp, sentries, or constables had 


been appointed to keep the ingress through the French 
window of the large room in the hotel free ; and I 
got jostled in by the eager crowd, along with two 
or three other settlers, to a spot nearly under his Ex- 
cellency's nose. He had just done thanking the mem- 
bers of a deputation from a public meeting for their 
congratulatory address on the safe arrival of himself 
and his family. He was proceeding to enlarge upon 
some other topics as I got within hearing ; and a 
general stillness, a sort of chill or damp, seemed 
to creep over the noisy bustle of the crowd as his 
opinions were gradually made known. He said that 
all parties might rely on receiving justice, and nothing 
but justice at his hands. He then deprecated, in the 
strongest terms, the feelings displayed by the settlers 
at Wellington against the native population, of which 
he judged by what appeared in their newspapers. He 
stated that he considered the opposition to the natives 
to have emanated from young, indiscreet men ; but he 
trusted that as they had years before them, they would 
yet learn experience. One of the first measures to 
which he would turn his attention, would be the settle- 
ment of the land question, which ought to have been 
settled two years ago. He would send for the Com- 
pany's Agent at ten o'clock on Monday morning, and 
go into the question. Having so lately left England, 
he could not be ignorant of the intentions of people 
there ; none would emigrate to New Zealand unless 
they believed there was a good understanding between 
the settlers and the natives, and unless the settlers 
did all in their power to conciliate the natives, to 
forgive them, and to make allowances for them be- 
cause they were natives, even if they were in the 
wrong. He had great cause of complaint against 
the Editor of ' The New Zealand Gazette ' (the Wel- 
lington newspaper), which he had carefully read for a 


long time, and believed to contain most pernicious 
statements against the native. The natives should 
be protected. Justice should be done. If in the power 
of man, unless some unforeseen obstacles arose, which 
he did not contemplate, he would settle the land ques- 
tion. But, " my friends," continued the Governor, 
" mistake me not ; not an acre, not an inch of land 
" belonging to the natives shall be touched without 
" their consent ; and none of their pas, cultivated 
" grounds, or sacred burial-places, shall be tfiken from 
" them whilst I have the honour of representing the 
" Queen, my Mistress, in this country." 

E Tako and one or two other inferior native chiefs 
were then presented to him. He shook hands with 
them, and treated them with marked courtesy ; he then 
called upon Mr. Clarke junior to interpret to them 
that they might rely upon it that their lands should 
not be taken from them unjustly, but that they must 
assist the Magistrates to prevent the natives from doing 
wrong ; and that he approved most completely of all 
Mr. Clarke had done as Protector, and would support 
him to the utmost in the very arduous duties which 
he had to fulfil . 

Several of the settlers, and among others Colonel 
Wakefield, were then presented to him by Major Rich- 
mond ; and he addressed a few short words of usage to 
some, and only bowed to others. I followed, as soon 
as I could extricate myself from the crush, and handed 
my card to JMajor Richmond. I had made my bow 
and had passed on into the crowd on the other side, 
when the Governor called me back by name. I re- 
turned and stood in front of him ; when he used nearly 
the following words, with a frown on his face, and the 
tone of the conmiander of a frigate reprimanding his 
youngest midshipman : — " When you are twenty years 


" older, you will have a great deal more prudence and 
*' discretion. Your conduct has been most indiscreet. 
"In the observations which I made to this assembly 
" just now, I referred almost entirely to you. I strongly 
" disapprove and very much regret everything that you 
"have written and done regarding the missionaries 
*' and the natives in New Zealand. I repeat that your 
" conduct has been most indiscreet." 

I was so perfectly astounded, that I gained some 
credit for forbearance, which I should otherwise not 
have deserved. I looked steadily in the Governor's 
face while he spoke ; and when he had done, walked 
away in silence without bowing again, and left the 
room. I walked into the billiard-room adjoining. 
Two ofl&cers of the frigate left the room, apparently 
fearing lest they should become unwilling listeners to 
treason, so violently did some of the principal settlers 
express their feelings. The Crown Prosecutor was 
sneering at the exasperated party, and reminding them 
that " he had predicted they would get King Stork 
" instead of King Log." 

I again took a peep into the presence-room. It was 
fast thinning. A large number of the most respecta- 
ble settlers, feeling that their sentiments were the 
same as mine, had put their cards in their pockets and 
left the room without being presented. In a few 
minutes his Excellency remained standing with only 
the officers of the frigate and of the troops looking at 
each other. He then advanced to the open window, 
and began to address the mob of labourers and others 
of the lower classes. He preached on the same text. 
" Live and let live !" he shouted to them ; and the 
labourers cheered vociferously, for they thought he 
was alluding to a recent dispute about the rate of 
wages between the employers and the workmen. But 


when some one in the crowd explained that the allu- 
sion was meant as regarded the natives, and when 
some more clear expressions branded the White popu- 
lation with cherishing unjust hatred and revengeful 
and oppressive feelings towards them, even this audience 
melted away, and the Governor was left talking to the 
winds and a few wondering natives. He then walked 
across the deserted street and beach to his boat, and 
returned to the ship without a single cheer or murmur, 
or expression of feeling of any sort ; except when a 
rude laugh followed the blowing of his cocked hat 
into the water by a puff of wind. 

On Monday I wrote to request a private interview ; 
which was granted me for the following afternoon. 
In the interval, several of the natives had got hold of 
the rumour that I had been rebuked by the Governor ; 
and at two or three houses in the Pijntea and Te Aro 
pas, whose inhabitants had always remained most 
friendly to me up to that time, notwithstanding the 
numerous disputes and bickerings between the races 
generally, they now insulted me, jeered and scoffed at 
me, because " the Governor had spoken angrily to 
" me, and I had not a word to reply." 

Along the beach I more than once met Charley of 
Cloudy Bay (the younger brother of Puaha, who had 
been with us to the Pelorus in 1839), and several other 
natives whom I knew to have taken part in the 
massacre. They shouted JVairau / TVairau ! at me 
as I passed them. They were in Wellington on a 
visit, to trade and to see the arrival of the Governor. 

On Tuesday I had the interview with the Governor 
which I had requested. His Private Secretary and 
Major Richmond were in the room. The Police Ma- 
gistrate rose to retire, but his Excellency desired him 
to remain. 


He began by telling me, that had he not imagined 
that I was about to leave town immediately after the 
levee, he would have taken a less public opportunity of 
expressing his disapprobation of my conduct. 

After reading to me some passages from his instruc- 
tions as Governor, and from the charter of the colony, 
in order to show me that he had a right to reprove 
misconduct, he referred to letters which I had written 
at different times since the first formation of the colony, 
and which had been published in the * New Zealand 
Journal' of London ; remarking that they were filled 
with sneers and sarcasms levelled at the missionaries ; 
and that I had shown myself, in thus writing, a decided 
enemy to their proceedings and to religion I His Excel- 
lency assured me with great regret, that I had, by 
these writings and my general conduct in setting an 
example to the natives, obtained for myself the name 
of the " Leader of the devil's missionaries ! ! " at Syd- 
ney and elsewhere. 

He then told me that my name would be one of 
several to be struck off the Commission of the Peace ; 
and that, although this would appear in public as a 
simple reduction of the number of the Magistrates of 
the territory, it was his duty to inform me in private, 
that he " considered I had been included in the Com- 
" mission most inadvertently by the late Governor, on 
" account of my youth and indiscretion, on account of 
" the bad example I had set the natives, and on account 
*' of my being known as one of those who entertained 
" an especial hatred and animosity towards them." 

He proceeded to blame me severely for having, since 
the JJ^airau massacre, worn arms while travelling 
among the natives who had partaken in that affair, 
although I had been warned against such a proceeding 
by the Chief Police Magistrate, Major Richmond. He 


said that such a course was calculated to encourage dis- 
trust and suspicion among the natives, and was, more- 
over, mere childish bravado ; and that he should " not 
" be surprised if on some future occasion they should 
" take my sword from me and beat me with the flat 
" of it, or duck me in a pond, by way of joke." 

He then censured, in most unmeasured terms, my 
letters in the paper, reporting Rauperaha^ statements ; 
and added, that he was surprised Mr. Clarke should 
have been foolish enough to allow himself to be drawn 
into any such correspondence. He rated me for at- 
tempting by this means to excite the feelings of the 
Europeans against the natives ; and ridiculed the idea 
of " hunting about for foolish stories of skulls in one 
" place and bones in another, in order to alarm people 
" who had not sense enough to treat such reports as 
" they deserved." 

He begged me to consider in what position I should 
have been placed had he chosen to instruct the Attor- 
ney-General to file a criminal information against me 
for defaming the character of the natives alluded to in 
that letter. He " wished me to know, that if I, or any 
" other person, should write a similar letter, he would 
" not be allowed to profit by a friendly warning, but 
" would first hear from an officer of the Supreme 
" Court." 

All this was accompanied with the most overbear- 
ing gesture, the most arrogant expression of coun- 
tenance, and the most dictatorial tone. Even if its 
substance had been true, I could hardly have endured 
the quarter-deck manner of the lecture from my own 
father. It gave me the idea that Captain Fitzroy was 
taking advantage of his high station to lay aside all the 
feeling and demeanour of a gentleman. 

And at the end of the violent attack he rose, and 


wanted to bow me out of the room, saying, " Now, my 
" time is very precious ; I've a great deal of business 
" to transact ;" and so on. I insisted, in as polite 
terms as I could, on being heard at least in defence. 
But I had better have left the room at once ; for I was 
interrupted at every three words, contradicted, brow- 
beaten, unheard, and worse insulted than before. He 
told me repeatedly, " that he knew his duty and he 
" would do it, without caring for public feeling ; that 
" he would not be dictated to ; that he came here to 
" govern, and not to be governed ;" none of which I 
had attempted to deny. 

I was not allowed to explain how unjust and unge- 
nerous a charge was that, against me in particular, of 
bearing animosity towards the natives. At that very 
time, ff^ahine iti was waiting to hear from me when 
I was coming to England ; as his father and all his 
family had agreed that, notwithstanding the chance of 
war, he should accompany me to be educated properly. 
And the lad himself was only one of those who were 
now, I am proud to say, devoted to me. At that very 
time, I was constantly receiving the most pressing 
letters from the chief of Tokanu at Taupo, who had 
travelled from his home first to fVanganui then to 
Otakt, in order to bring me, in state, a present of 40 
or 50 pigs, and as many mats, which he had collected 
for me since my visit to that country. He eagerly 
entreated me to come to Otaki, where he was stopping 
with a numerous train ; as he wished to consult me on 
the present state of affairs, and on the subject of 
migrating from Taupo to TVanganui with his whole 
tribe (400 persons), in order to join in the benefits of 
the flax-trade. I must add, that I had established 
this traffic at Otuki, TVanganui, and other places, 
at a considerable loss to myself, principally to 


befriend the natives on a large scale. In short, I am 
compelled by the charge of Captain Fitzroy to boast, 
that to no White man in New Zealand would his 
accusation of animosity towards the natives have been 
less applicable. 

I just managed to tell his Excellency, that I had 
always intended to resign my commission as Magis- 
trate, on account of his conduct to me at the levee ; as 
I felt that, under such marked censure, I could not 
claim in that capacity any respect either from native 
or from White man. 

A deputation of the settlers had waited on his 
Excellency on Monday and Tuesday, with a memorial 
detailing all their political wants. Except as regards 
the TVairau question, which he passed over by re- 
minding his hearers " that our countrymen were the 
" aggressors," his promises gave general satisfaction. 
He especially promised to settle the all-important 
matter of the land-claims with the greatest possible 

On the 3rd of February he sailed for Nelson, after 
a ball to which he and the officers of the North Star 
were invited by the settlers. 

He returned on the 16th. At Nelson he had 
behaved still more violently than here ; so rebuking 
the Magistrates who had signed the warrants against 
Rauperaha and Rangihaeata, that they instantly threw 
up their commissions in a body, except one wl o pre- 
ferred to be turned out in order that he might forward 
his remonstrance to England. Captain Fitzroy had 
made, both at public meetings and at private interviews, 
the same declarations, that he knew his duty, and that 
he came to govern and not to be governed. He had 
branded the whole population, more deeply than at 
Wellington even, with the name of wishing to oppress 

VOL. II. 2 L 


and exterminate the natives. With scarciely an ex- 
ception, the whole settlement of Nelson had over- 
flowed with the greatest indignation at the treatment 
they received. The few exceptions were placed in the 
vacant seats of the Magistrates. The places of Mr. 
Constantine Dillon, Mr. Macdonald the banker and 
Sheriff, Mr. George Duppa, Mr. Tytler, and Dr. 
Monro, all estimable and independent men, were filled 
up by some unknown persons, who had fawned on the 
Windsor uniform of the Governor. 

His Excellency had then gone to IVaikanae. His 
proceedings there have been minutely recorded by 
an eye-witness, Mr. Dillon Bell, who had obtained a 
passage in the frigate. 

I shall be excused for transcribing a document of 
such length, when I observe, that it is of importance 
to know the precise means by which the Governor of 
an English colony on the other side of the world can 
take upon himself the combined offices of Coroner, 
Judge, and Jury, in order to decide a case of alleged 
murder, entirely from hearing a narrative made by the 
accused party, differing in many important particulars 
from three or four narratives which he had previously 
made of the same occurrence to other persons. An 
intimate knowledge of the facts, as related in this 
naked statement, is indispensable to every person who 
takes an interest in the deliverance of both races in 
New Zealand from the evils with which they are 

Mr. Bell states that his notes are imperfect, but will 
serve as an outline of what took place, as he put down 
nothing but what he was sure of having understood. 
He adds, that his Excellency frecjuently interrupted 
Rauperaha to have questions repeated distinctly, be- 
sides at those times he has got down ; and that Mr. 

Chap. XIX. - MR. BELL'S NARRATIVE. • 5(1^ 

Hadfield still oftener called upon Mr. Clarke junior 
to amend his interpretation of words or sentences. 

'' On Saturday the 10th of February, H.M.S. North Star 
left Nelson, and anchored under Kapiti on the following 
morning. It being Sunday, the Governor would enter upon 
no business, but landed in the afternoon at the pa at Wai- 
kanae with some of the officers and myself, for the purpose of 
visiting Mr. Hadfield, and attending the church. At the 
pa we found Major Richmond, Mr. Symonds the Police 
Magistrate, and Mr. Clarke, who had arrived the previous 
day by command to meet the Governor ; two or three set- 
tlers were also present, and about 500 natives had assem- 
bled. Before going to church, a great number of natives 
congregated in an enclosure, and went through their cate- 
chisms before the Governor ; Ranperaha sitting apart on a 
potato-house, and looking on; Rangihaeata was not at the 
pay having declared, that if the Governor wished to see him 
his Excellency must go up to his place at Otaki. As soon 
as service was over, the Governor returned to the boat. 
Rauperaha had joined the other natives at church, probably 
to get a word from Captain Fitzroy, for he complained of 
not having been spoken to at first ; however, the Governor 
embarked without speaking to him, although Sir Everard 
Home shook hands with him. 

" The next day it was blowing too hard to land in the 
boats ; so we got on board a small schooner anchored near 
us, and sailed over to Waiharme. On our arrival, we found 
that Rangihaeata had come down at the earnest request of 
Rauperaha ; and after an hour's consultation at Mr. Had- 
field's house the conference began. The Governor had pre- 
pared an address which had been translated into Maori, on 
board the North Star, by Mr. Forsaith, the Native Pro- 
tector ; and I suppose the delay at Hadfield's was caused by 
the correction of the speech in both languages. 

" About 500 natives had assembled in the square in which 
they were catechising the previous day, Rauperaha being 



seated next to a chair prepared for the Governor. Rangi- 
haeata at first stood aloof, having, as we understand, quar- 
relled with the other as to what they were to say ; but when 
the Governor had begun to speak, he came down, seating 
himself some 20 yards off behind the ranks of natives, who 
were squatting in a semicircle around us Europeans. Of 
Englishmen, there were present, besides the Governor and 
his Secretary, Mr. Hadfield, Major Richmond, Sir Everard 
Home, and several officers of the frigate, Mr. Symonds 
(Police Magistrate), Mr. Spain and his clerk, Mr. Forsaith, 
and Mr. Clarke junior (Native Protector), myself, and one 
or two settlers, I believe, from Wellington. 

" I did not attempt to take notes of the Governor's speech, 
and what follows is from memory. He commenced by tell- 
ing that he had come out to govern all classes, native and 
European : — ' When I heard of the Wairau massacre at 

* Sydney' (he spoke to this effect), ' I was exceeding angry ; 
' my heart was very dark, and my mind was filled with gloom. 
' My first thought was to revenge the deaths of my friends, 
' and the other pakeha who had been killed, and for that 

* purpose to bring many ships of war, sailing vessels, and 
' vessels moved by fire, with many soldiers ; and had I done 
' so, you would have been sacrificed, and your pas destroyed. 

* But when I considered, I saw that the pakeha had, in the 

* first instance, been very much to blame ; and I determined 
' to come down and inquire into all the circumstances, and 
' see who was really in the wrong. I have visited Welling- 

* ton and Nelson, and have heard the White man's story ; 
' now I have come here — tell me your story, the natives' 
' story, that I may judge between them.* He then directed 
Clarke to repeat his speech so far in Maori. When this 
had been done, as no native rose for a few moments, the 
Governor directed Clarke to call up Rauperaha to speak ; 
and after a little delay and hesitation, the old man rose and 
commenced his harangue. 

" I was unable to take copious notes of Eauperaka^s 
speech, for Clarke's back was turned to me ; and as he 
spoke very low, and I was some paces behind, I often missed 


his sentences. In those cases, however, I put nothing down : 
what follows now is, therefore, only what I heard well, and I 
think it is pretty correct, as far as it goes. 

" He began by saying, that the dispute which had termi- 
nated in the Wairau affair was occasioned by the land not 
being paid for. When the Port Nicholson purchase was 
made, only one tribe met ; and the natives got angry because 
a few only among them were applied to to sell and got the 
payment. The Tory anchored one day off (some place), and 
Wide-awake wanted to purchase the Taitapti* He (Baupe- 
ahd) sold him Blind Bay and Massacre Bay. Totaranui\ 
was also sold, and that was all that he disposed of. Ware- 
pori sold Port Nicholson, and he and his friends sold Blind 
Bay and Massacre Bay. He and Hiko sold the land ; but 
they never consulted Rangihaeata or any other chiefs. When 
Wide-awake came to Port Nicholson afterwards, he claimed, 
places which he {Rauperaha) had never sold. He then was 
proceeding to state what payment he had received; but the 
Governor stopped him, saying it was unnecessary to go into 
that point. However, Rauperaha said he meant it to show 
why he turned the Europeans off land ; and that Wide- 
awake claimed the Porirua district, though he had only 
given a cask of tobacco for it. As soon as Rangihaeata heard 
of these sales, he was in a great rage ; he was up the country 
at the time, and when he came down the goods had been dis- 
tributed. Rangihaeata was at Wairau when a party of sur- 
veyors commenced surveying there; he and his party went 
over to Nelson, and warned the chief surveyor to desist. 
They also went to Wide-awake's house (Arthur), and had a 
korero about the land. Wide-awake said he would take pos- 
session by force, if necessary, as they had sold the land ; and 
if the natives resisted he would make a tie of them. Ran- 
gihaeata said he would never be tied up, even if he should be 
shot for it. Captain Wakefield replied, that if he resisted 
the law, he would be shot. The Maori then returned home, 
and Wide-awake sent more surveyors, Barnecoat and 

* Native name for Blind Bay, literally " sacred tide." 

t Native name for the north end of Queen Charlotte's Sound, 


Thompson, to the Wairau. Rangihaeata came over to Porirua 
to say the Wairau was being surveyed. Then Rangihaeata 
and the rest went over to Queen Charlotte's Sound and sent 
up the Wairau river, where they met Cotterell. (Here I 
missed some sentences.) When the natives had burned the 
tcarres, they brought the things out in safety. (The Go- 
vernor asked what natives had brought out the things? 
Some slaves, answered Rauperaha.) Then Mr. Parkinson's 
people left Cloudy Bay, and afterwards Mr. Tuckett came 
up the river with twenty people in the big boat. The 
natives continued to cultivate their ground, until one 
morning they saw the Government brig standing up, with 
Mr. Thompson and the others on board. (Here I missed many 
sentences.) When the White men came up to where Puaha 
was, Thompson held him by the hands, and detained him. 
On arriving at the scene of the fight, Thompson said, 

* Where's Rauperaha V * Here I am.' ' You are to come 
' with me.' ' Where am I to go V ' On board the brig.' 
Rauperaha answered, that he would not go. Thompson then 
said, ' Come on board to talk.' The natives said ' What 

* is the talk?' Thompson answered, * About the warrh you 
' destroyed.* Then he {Rauperaha) said, * I won't go on 
' board. If you are angry, let us talk here now, and again 

* to-night or to-morrow, as the korero is good about the land ; 
' but as to being tied up, we won't be made a tie of.' Ran- 
gihaeata had yet said nothing. Then Thompson called to 
the constables to bring the handcuffs, and holding up his 
hand said, ' Here is the book of the Queen.' Rauperaha 
said, ' What book ? is it a book to tie us up ?' Then 
Thompson spoke very loud, and was in a great passion, and 
ordered them once more to come on board. Rauperaha and 
Rangihaeata said, • We will not obey you.' Thompson said, 
' Well then, I will order the people to fire.' Rauperaha said, 
' If I am shot, I am shot; but I won't be made a tie of.' 
Thompson told the constables, who were opening the hand- 
cuffs, to put them away, and then called out, ' Fire !' 

" The Governor — * Did Mr. Thompson say * / will order 
' the men to fire,' or did he give the order to fire ? — Mr. 


Clarke had understood Rauperaha to say^ ' Thompson gav6 

* the order to fire.' The Governor : ' Ask him again.' 
Mr. Clarke again repeated his question, and repeated the 
previous answer. '■ 

" Rauperaha continued — He asked Thompson if he was 
going to fire ; and Thompson called out again, ' Fire,' Not 
Wide-awake, but Thompson. Rauperaha then said, ' This 

* is the second time you have ordered them to fire.' The 
women and children were at this time round their fires close 
by. The first few shots from the Europeans killed two na- 
tives and wounded three. When one man had been killed 
and three wounded, he {Rauperaha), Rangikaeata, and Puaha 
called out, ' Now pay yourselves ; fire !' The natives fired, 
and killed three ; then the Europeans fired, and killed a 
woman. The natives soon got desperate ; and then the 
Europeans ran away, firing as they retreated. All went 
away, including the gentlemen ; and the natives chased 
thejn in the bushes. 

" The Governor here asked, * How was Captain Wakefield 
killed ?' 

" Rauperaha gave no decided answer, but continued to say 
that some of his slaves, who had gone after the White men, 
brought back Captain Wakefield to him. 

" Rangihaeata came running down and called out. ' Your 

* daughter.' Captain Wakefield had come from a hill about 
100 yards off, with the other gentlemen ; the firing was still 
going on where the natives caught them; and when those 
natives who had been chasing the White men returned, the 
gentlemen had been killed. Thompson asked him {Rau- 
peraha) to save their lives. He replied, ' Did I not warn 
' you how it would be ? and yet you now ask me to save 
' you!' It was according to their custom after a fight to 
kill the chief men of their enemies. 

" (In this last part I missed a great deal, though I strained 
every nerve to listen.) Clarke spoke so low, that no one 
near me could hear more than I did. But I believe Rau- 
peralia neither offered nor was asked for any account of the 


manner of the gentlemen's death, after the Governor's 
question on that point, which he did not answer. 

** At the conclusion of Rauperahas speech, the Governor 
said, ' Tell him to sit down, that I may think over what to 
say to them.' 

" Captain Fit#roy then took a pencil, and wrote for about 
a quarter of an hour ; and a little more time was then occu- 
pied in consulting with the interpreters, apparently in order 
to translate what he had written into Maori. When this 
was over, the Governor again rose, and spoke to the follow- 
ing effect : — ' Listen, O ye chiefs and elder men here 
' assembled, to my words. I have now heard the Maori 
' statement and the Pakeha statement of the Wairau affair ; 
' and I have made my decision. I, the representative of 
' the Queen of England ; I, the Governor of New Zealand, 
*have made my decision. In the first place, the White 
' men were in the wrong. They had no right to survey the 
' land which you said you had not sold until Mr. Spain had 

* finished his inquiry ; they had no right to build the houses 
' they did on that land. As they were, then, first in the 

• wrong, / vnll not avenge tJmr deaths.'' 

" Repeating these last words emphatically, he ordered Mr. 
Forsaith to repeat what he had said in Maori. When this 
had been done, he went on : — 

" ' But though I will not avenge the deaths of the Pakehas 
' who were killed at the Wairau, I have to tell you that you 
' committed a horrible crime, in murdering men who had 

* surrendered themselves in reliance on your honour as chiefs. 
' White men never kill their prisoners. For the future let 
' us live peaceably and amicably — the Pakeha with the na- 

• tive, and the Maori with the Pakeha ; and let there be no 
'more bloodshed.' He went on to say that he would pro- 
tect them most fully : no pa, or burial-ground, or any other 
land which they did not choose to sell, should be taken from 
them; and no land should be taken henceforward which 
they had not sold. But the Maori should not, on their part, 
disturb settlers who were occupying land ; they must wait 


until he had decided all questions about the land, which he 
was now going back to Port Nicholson to do. He had come 
out here to do strict justice to every one — Maori and Pakeha ; 
and they might depend that he would take care strict justice 
was done. He concluded by recommending them to be 
guided by ' their true friends, the missionaries, the Native 
' Protectors, and the Government officers ;' and wished 
them farewell and the blessing of God. 

" He desired Mr. Forsaith to repeat his last words over 
again when he translated the above into Maori, and parti- 
cularly to repeat his wishes for the blessing of God upon 
them all. Immediately afterwards, his Excellency intro- 
duced Major Richmond as his representative, who would act 
just like him, and decide any disputes about land in his 
absence. He also brought forward Mr. Spain, and told the 
natives that he was going to enter immediately on the land 
question by his command, and would get it settled as soon 
as possible." 

" I watched the natives very attentively," continues 
Mr. Bell, " throughout the meeting ; and I am satis- 
" fied in my own mind (whatever may be thought by 
** others to the contrary), that neither the threat in 
" the first part of his speech, nor his sudden clemency 
" afterwards, produced any great impression on their 
" minds." 

" I did not observe the Governor speak to either 
" Rauperaha or Rangihaeata ; though ^^V Everard 
" shook hands with the former. Immediately on break- 
" ing up the meeting, the Governor took his leave 
"of Mr. Hadfield, and returned to the 'North 

Rauperaha told some whalers at TVaikanae that 
same afternoon, that " this man had been talking a 
" great deal of nonsense to him ; but that it was all 
" t'lto',' or " lies," " and that in fact the Kawmia was 


" afraid of him ! He would eat the frigate, Governor 
"and all!" 

I have already described what got to be called the 
" Government fever ;" which was almost inevitably 
comnmnicated to any person who helped to drain the 
purse of the Cook's Strait settlers through the Auck- 
land treasury. No matter how unprejudiced might be 
the mind of an Attorney-General or a Land Commis- 
sioner on his first arrival from England ; no matter 
how completely a less distinguished subordinate might 
have shared at one time the wholesome spirit and 
feelings of the " good colonists ;" it would be no less 
difficult than invidious to point out a single instance 
which surpassed the others in accepting the ** virus'* 
together with the quarter's salary and the town allot- 

But it is disgusting to remark the purulent and 
contagious nature of the disease. In some cases direct 
private gain could hardly be assigned as the cause of 
the unmitigated infection of persons who were only 
connected with the officials in a casual and honorary 
capacity. It appeared as though the moral plague of 
aversion to the independent settlers was spread by the 
mere breath and odour of authority. 

Sir Everard Home, a Captain in the British Navy, 
had just deserved the honour of being made a Com- 
panion of the Bath for gallantly maintaining the dig- 
nity of Great Britain in the Chinese war, with his 

He bore a Governor and a suite of New Zealand 
officials about the coast for some months. 

He then pressed, with a friendly grasp, the hand of 
a man who had only six months before taken a leading 
part in the foul death of one of his brother-officers, 
most esteemed in the service, besides many more of his 


countrymen. The cunning savage himself must have 
despised the White man, unmindful of the White 
man's blood, even while accepting the ceremony of 
shaking hands, which he knew to convey the sym- 
pathy and approval of the fighting chief who com- 
manded 300 warriors. 

The decision, as he was pleased to call it, of Captain 
Fitzroy, is a still more serious subject. As to his 
opinion that the savages were innocent, I will not lay 
myself open to the charge of making a cry for ven- 
geance on the murderers of a near and dear relative. 
But as he declared that the TVhite men were in the 
wrong, I must claim indulgence for stating the opi- 
nion of many thousand British subjects now living 
in New Zealand, that the TVhite men v;ere in the 

I should not have dared to contradict the verdict of 
twelve impartial and fairly-chosen Jurymen, or to im- 
pugn the sentence of a Judge acting as he was entitled 
and bound to do by the British constitution. But I 
have a right to dissent, in the most explicit terms, from 
the despotic decree of a man who has assumed to him- 
self, against all law and custom, both of those important 

The mode of investigation adopted by Captain 
Fitzroy was subversive of the simplest principles of 
justice towards both the parties. In fact, he decided 
the matter without hearing either state his own case, 
and without giving either an opportunity of answering 
the other. He equally neglected the observances of 
justice towards both parties ; and only did not do 
equal injustice to both, because his passions had deter- 
mined him before inquiry to decide entirely in favour of 

He professes to have heard the White story, and thus 


to be qualified to assume the office of public prosecutor 
of the accused men. When did he hear the White 
story ? It is just possible that he may have read the 
depositions taken before the Magistrates ; but as no 
further proceedings that can be called legal ever took 
place, how can the public know that he ever even did 
that ? He may have read the White story ; but, if he 
did, it could only be that which was reported by those 
Magistrates for the purpose of justifying a particular 
step in the process of investigation, and not as substan- 
tiating the European view of the whole subject. 

He professes to have heard the Maori story, and thus 
to be qualified to act as counsel for the accused person. 
When did he hear the Maori story ? He heard a con- 
fused narrative from one of the accused men, which 
was only one of half-a-dozen varying narratives which 
the same man had told to different persons. 

Thus he picked up what he calls the story of each 
party from one or two chance representatives of its in- 
terests ; and heard both stories by snatches without 
any means of testing the truth of either, and without 
giving either the opportunity of commenting on the 
other. Among the uncivilized savages themselves, 
when they do decide a dispute by formal conference, a 
korero is never thought complete unless the two parties 
fire confronted with each other. But Captain Fitzroy 
preferred a course no less inconsistent with the customs 
of New Zealand than with the laws of England and 
the practice of civilized men. 

There was in the whole proceeding just so much of 
resemblance to the forms of judicial inquiry as to mark 
the absence of substantial justice. Without an oppor- 
tunity to the prosecutor to state his charge, the accused 
person (for he was no prisoner) having been called 
upon to criminate or exculpate himself, without con- 


firmation or denial, and no witnesses on either side 
having been heard. Captain Fitzroy resolved himself 
into a judicial character, and proceeded to make some 
show of coming to a judgment, which there can be no 
doubt that he had in fact reduced to words before the 
pretended inquiry. 

No matter whether his decision were right or 
wrong, he was guilty of a breach of the law, without 
having the apology of conforming to the customs of 
the New Zealand chiefs ; and still less with any pre- 
tence of taking an effectual and straightforward way of 
getting at the truth, and giving a just decision. If he 
had decided that the savages were in the wrong, and 
had taken upon himself to order their apprehension 
and execution for the crime, equally without the in- 
tervention of those forms of our law which are revered 
for their even-handed justice, he would have been 
equally culpable in the highest degree. Indeed, when 
he told the natives that on first hearing of the affair 
at Sydney, he intended to visit them with war and ex- 
termination, he was guilty of great injustice; and 
taught them to believe the question to be one of race 
against race, and not of law against lawlessness. It 
was giving them a strange notion of English law, to 
inspire them with the belief that an English Governor 
would regard it as his duty to lay waste the pas and 
take the lives of a large body of Her Majesty's sub- 
jects because two of their number had committed a 

He avoided this injustice only to refuse all redress 
to that portion of the community whose habitual 
obedience to law rendered it probable that it would 
submit with the greater tranquillity to his injustice. 
For his unconstitutional conduct at TVmkanae was 
but a weak subterfuge for avoiding the necessity of 


using compulsion to enforce obedience to British law 
by rebellious British subjects. 

My uncle and Captain Fitzroy had been friends : for 
they were midshipmen in the same ship ; and not only 
had they kept up the intimacy so occasioned, but in 
1837, Captain Fitzroy had joined his old shipmate in 
so cordially approving of the views of the New Zealand 
Association as to write a strong opinion in its favour, 
and to be a member of it for some days. It is true, 
that after those few days he changed his mind, and 
wrote another letter to my uncle expressing the oppo- 
site views of Mr. Dandeson Coates. Their personal 
friendship, however, was not interrupted ; and when, 
in 1841, Captain Wakefield was about to sail from 
England in command of the preliminary expedition 
for founding Nelson, they held frequent and friendly 
comnmnications on the subject of that undertaking. 
The Committee of the House of Commons of last year 
has spoken of my uncle's " long and distinguished 
" services in the British Navy." These, with the 
exception of nearly four years when he commanded the 
Rhadamanthus on the Mediterranean station, are re- 
lated in a document which the Directors of the New 
Zealand Company printed, in order to inform their 
constituents " what sort of a man Captain Wakefield 
'* was," and which appears in the Appendix to this 
book. I hope the reader will excuse me for praying 
of him to read it. The writer of that document first 
went to sea at ten years of age, with a pay of less 
than 20/. a year, and never afterwards occasioned his 
family the expense of a shilling. He made some prize- 
money, and presented the bulk of it to poor relations. 
He never owed anybody a farthing; and yet always 
seemed to have money in his pocket for a generous 
purpose. In his management of the Nelson settle- 


ment, he was conspicuous for a total absence of selfish- 
ness ; and was accordingly revered by his fellow- 
colonists, who, almost to a man, grieved for his death 
as if they had lost a near and dear relation. I have 
said before how the natives, before they were corrupted 
by the insane course of Captain Hobson's and Lieu- 
tenant Shortland's governments, described him as " a 
" man with a soft tongue and a great heart," He was 
one of the authors of the project for amalgamating the 
natives with the colonists by means of upholding the rank 
of the chiefs through the possession of valuable pro- 
perty in the civilized community, and was an enthu- 
siast in seeking to promote that honourable work. And 
all this Captain Fitzroy knew well. 

This part of the new Governor's conduct of affairs 
was put aside for a time by the settlers, in their con- 
sideration as to how they should treat him. In every- 
thing else they said that he promised to do all that 
they could wish ; and it was useless for them to enter 
into a new contest, already more than half crippled as 
they were. 

Major Richmond was the perfect shadow of his 
Excellency during his stay at Wellington, and was 
duly appointed Superintendent of the Southern Dis- 
trict, with the title of " His Honour," and a salary of 
600/. per anum. It had been thought that some one 
might have been selected for this situation from among 
the leading colonists. Mr Petre and many others were 
considered as fit for the duties as an over-cautious 
hanger-on, who displayed but little sympathy for either 
settlers or natives, and who was apparently callous to 
all feeling except self. 

Every one who knew the public conduct of Major 
Richmond was sure that Cook's Strait would still be 
under the rule of a mere Police Magistrate, only better 


paid. To suppose that he would ever take upon him- 
self any responsibility in emergencies beyond the close 
letter of writt-en instructions, would have been flying 
against reason. I have since heard of several applica- 
tions made to him on most trivial subjects, which he 
declared he could not answer without referring them 
to Auckland. 

Captain Fitzroy re-opened the negotiations for the 
award of compensation to the natives ; calling upon 
Colonel Wakefield to be ready to pay whatever sums 
might be awarded for the disputed waste lands, with- 
out any relation to the reserved pas, cultivations, or 
burial-grounds. I last saw him under the lee of a 
garden-fence, listening to the renewed demands, more 
exorbitant than ever, of E Tako and other inferior chiefs, 
in a little ring of the discontented natives. Mr. Spain, 
Mr. Clarke junior, another Protector of Aborigines, 
and the Private Secretary, were also inside the ring. 
A few settlers were shrugging their" shoulders and 
scarcely restraining their laughter when they heard 
the Governor telling the natives they should have 
whatever they asked, but warning them not to ask too 
much. The day was windy and unpleasant, and the 
place bleak except where the little group were cowering 
under a fence ; so that few people observed the assem- 
blage, or had the least idea that this was a Governor 
conferring with that class of his subjects to whom he 
professed himself most attached. 

His Excellency had fixed his day of departure in a 
week from that time ; but declared, much to the 
surprise of everybody, including Mr. Spain, that he 
was determined to settle the land-claims before he 

For my part, I could stay no more in the country 
with comfort under this Government ; for so long as 


Captain Fitzroy ruled, I must always appear to a certain 
decree as a disgraced member of the society. However 
much I felt sure of the sympathy of the settlers, the 
pleasure of my friendly relations with the natives must 
necessarily be fatally impaired, when they heard that 
the highest authority in the colony had degraded me 
because I was their bitter enemy. 

I might, to be sure, have waited to be turned out 
of the Magistracy, and then have become one of the 
unfortunate men with a case at the Colonial Office in 
Downing-street. So I might have wasted months in 
the "room of sighs," while Mr. Dandeson Coates 
walked past daily to a tite-a-tete with the Secretary of 

I wrote and published a letter to the Governor, de- 
fending myself from his opprobrious charges, in order 
that I might still enjoy the respect of the settlers with 
whom I had spojit four happy years ; and I reminded 
his Excellency at the end of the letter, that his threat- 
ened course of prosecuting me for a libel on the natives 
would not have been compatible with English law or 
liberty. I got an acknowledgment of the receipt of 
this letter, but of course no further notice or answer ; 
and two days afterwards I embarked in a ship that 
was bound for Valparaiso. 

I left Cook's Strait with the conviction that the 
brave colony of Englishmen planted on its sunny shores 
had taken a firm root in the fertile soil ; that no blight, 
however blasting, would be able to wither it; that no 
cold winds would be able to kill its vigorous shoots ; 
that no grubbing would eradicate it ; that no cherish- 
ing of noxious weeds would be able to smother its 
ultimate growth into a flourishing and happy nation : 
so plentiful are the resources of the country, and those 
VOL. II. 2 M 


of the stalwart and invincible colonists who have 
chosen it for their abode. 

But I foresaw for them at least many months more 
of harassing delays, doubts, and torments, under the 
tread of a ruler who seemed well inclined to adopt, as 
far as regarded the delicate native question, the whole 
determination of the intolerant portion of the mis- 
sionaries to " thwart them by every means in their 
" power." 

And I grieved when I felt sure that the poor natives 
must inevitably descend one step nearer towards a 
miserable end, while debased by the care of a father so 
weak as to yield indulgently to every whimsical 
demand and self-destroying caprice which the spoiled 
child might imagine — so foolish as to encourage the 
savage in his infantile ambition to maintain himself in 
a rivalry with the White man. 

The last hope fippeared still to be that some really 
great man might be despatched in time to remedy the 
evils which were accumulating for both Whit-e people 
and natives. Some such man as Lord Metcalfe or Sir 
Henry Pottinger, able and willing to grasp with his 
master-mind the task of uniting two races in one 
natidn, might yet heal the wounds inflicted by a 
prejudiced incapable. A firm and unwavering course 
of foreseeing philanthropy could alone lay sound foun- 
dations for a gentle and permanent union. 

We were 37 days in reaching Valparaiso: I re- 
mained five weeks at that port and in the neighbouring 
part of Chile ; and then rounded Cape Horn in a 
French merchantman, which made the voyage to Bor- 
deaux in 92 days. 

And since my arrival I have written the foregoing 
narrative. I hoj)e it is not unbecoming in me to say 


that my intention in every part of it has been to 
relate truly and exactly the scenes which I saw, and 
the things which were of paramount interest to me 
at the time. So earnest has been this intention, that 
I have often dwelt over-minutely on trivial details, 
and have fallen almost unawares into the language, 
while I acquired the unavoidable spirit, of a partisan. 

2m 2 



1. A Memorial by the late Captain Arthur Wakefield, R.N., to 
Earl Minto, First Lord of the Admiralty. 

My Lord, 2Sth Fehnmry, 1837. 

Returning the ether day to England, after passing 
three years on a foreign station as Senior Lieutenant of 
H.M.S. " Thunderer," having spent nearly 27 years in his 
Majesty's service, nearly 25 years in active employment, and 
upwards of 20 years on foreign stations, including two years 
and a half on the coast of Africa, the first intelligence I re- 
received was of a coming general promotion, and the next 
that 25 Lieutenants, 16 of them my juniors, and 5 of the 
latter serving on the station which I had just quitted, have 
obtained the rank of Commanders, whilst I remain a Lieu- 
tenant of 16 years' standing. Since then I have been led to 
entertain a hope that, as has unavoidably happened before on 
similar occasions, my exclusion from the recent promotion 
may have occurred through accidental oversight ; for which, 
however, I take blame to myself alone, because, wholly occu- 
pied by the service, I have perhaps neglected to bring my 
claims fully to your Lordship's notice. In truth, my Lord, 
during a period of active service, with which that of few 
ofiicers of my age will bear comparison, I have never been 
in the habit of making applications to your Lordship or your 
predecessors, but have, as a principle or rule of conduct 
deliberately pursued, sought promotion by one means only, 
namely, fagging at the hard work of the profession, trusting 
always that in time a claim to notice would be established, 
such as could not but have eflfect with the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty, even though unsupported by soli- 
citations from myself or my friends. 

In the hope then that, provided my only claim to advance- 
ment, services, and character, had been sufficiently expressed 
in due time, I should at least have been included in the 
recent promotion, I would now respectfully petition that the 

VOL. II. 2 N 


oversight of those claims may be remedied, by my being 
placed according to seniority amongst my brother-officers 
who have been recently thought worthy of his Majesty's 

In May 1810, at ten years of age, I entered his Majesty's 
service, on board the " Nisus " frigate, commanded by Capt. 
Philip Beaver, who was an old and intimate friend of my 
father's. I served on board the *' Nisus" until May 1814 ; 
having been present at the capture of the Isle of France and 
Java, under Sir Albemarle Bertie and Sir Robert Stopford. 
At Java I was taken on shore by Capt. Beaver; and was 
present when the breaching batteries sustained a heavy can- 
nonade from Fort Cornelis. 

After Capt. Beaver's death, in April 1813, the "Nisus" 
was commanded by Capt. Charles M. Schomberg ; whose 
good opinion I am well known to have enjoyed until his 
death. In May 1814, when the "^ Nisus" was paid off, I 
immediately joined the "Hebrus" frigate, Capt. Edmund 
Palmer; under whom I served until December 1816, when 
the ship was paid off. Under Capt. Palmer, I served as his 
aide-de-camp in the expedition which resulted in the capture 
of Washington, and at the affair of Bladensburg I had the 
good fortune to secure one of three flags taken from the 
enemy. I entered Washington close to Sir George Cock- 
burn and General Ross, when the General's horse was shot 
under him. I had the honour to be mentioned in Sir George 
Cockbum's despatch, descriptive of this expedition. 

Immediately after this expedition, being then 14 years of 
age, I was put in charge of a prize of 280 tons burden, and 
took her from Chesapeake Bay to Bermuda. 

Having rejoined the " Hebrus," I was present in her at 
the bombardment of Algiers, in 1816, under Lord Exmouth, 
and remained in her until she was paid off, in December 
1816. Capt. Palmer's opinion of me is testified by various 
letters and certificates ; and I enjoyed his warmest friendship 
Tintil the day of his death. 

In December 1816, I passed my examination in naviga- 
tion, two years before my age enabled me to qualify for the 
rank of Lieutenant. 

In March 1818,1 joined the ''Queen Charlotte," Capt. 


Thomas Briggs, bearing the flag of Sir George Campbell; 
and in July 1819, was removed into the " Superb/' bearing 
the broad pendant of Sir Thomas M. Hardy, with whom I 
served until July 1821. During Sir Thomas Hardy's exer- 
cise of diplomatic and consular functions in South America, 1 
had the honour to be selected to attend upon him as Flag 

Although it was with a view to my immediate promotion 
that I had been removed from the " Queen Charlotte" to the 
" Superb," at the especial desire of Lord Melville, then First 
Lord of the Admiralty, expressed to Sir George Cockburn 
whilst holding in his hand the Gazette Extraordinary con- 
taining Sir George's despatch relative to the expedition to 
Washington, I was not advanced to the rank of Lieutenant 
until the partial promotion of February 1821. I served as 
Lieutenant on board the " Superb," until she was paid off in 
June 1822. 

• At this time, when his Majesty George the Fourth went 
to Scotland by sea. Lord St. Vincent, who honoured me with 
his kindest regards, was desirous that I should accompany 
him as his aide-de-camp, when he waited upon the King at 
Greenwich ; and was alone prevented from fulfilling his inten- 
tion by some official objection to his being so attended on 
board the royal yacht. Consequently, I accompanied his 
Lordship no further than to Greenwich. 

In January 1823, I was appointed to the " Brazen," Capt. 
George W. Willes ; under whom I served until September 
1826, on the South American, Channel, and African stations. 
During six months of the " Brazen's" service in the Channel, 
21 smugglers were taken and convicted, and smuggled goods 
captured to a large amount. On the coast of Africa, 900 
slaves were taken ; and I had the satisfaction of taking 420 
of them, when in command of the ship's boats, from a Spanish 
vessel of four guns and 48 men, the crews of the boats 
amounting only to 25, and the vessel being nine miles distant 
from the " Brazen." 

In the following month of September, the commander of 
the "Conflict" having invalided, Commodore BuUen was 
pleased to appoint me to the command of that brig; which I 
held till she was paid off in February 1828; having during 



this command captured two slave-ships loaded with goods (of 
the estimated value of 40,000/.) for the purchase of slaves, and 
actively engaged in the traffic. With respect to my services 
throughout the above five years, I hold the strongest testimo- 
nials from my commanding officers. Admiral Bullen and 
Captain Willes. 

In June 1828, upon the application of Sir Eaton Travers, 
I was appointed Senior Lieutenant of the " Rose ;" in which I 
served on the Cape of Good Hope and North American station 
until January 1830, when her commander was promoted and 
superseded by Commander J. G. Dewar, who was drowned 
on the coast of Labrador in August 1830. ~ The Commander- 
in-Chief, Sir Edward Colpoys, was then pleased to appoint me 
to the temporary command of the " Rose ;" which I held until 
I had completed the execution of Commander Dewar's orders 
for the pr