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200 Broadway. 


ENTERED, according to Act of Coup-ess, in the year 1842, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for 
the Southern District of New York. 


IN presenting to his young Countrymen, the 
first of a series of books with the foregoing title, 
the Editor begs leave to state, briefly and sim- 
ply, the plan of the series, and the reason which 
has prompted him to the undertaking. Indeed, 
he can hardly expect the patronage and support 
of those who sustain the interesting and respon- 
sible relationship of parents, without such a 

The design is to present to his young fellow- 
citizens books of a higher value than those usu- 
ally afforded them. Instead of tales and stories, 
written for the young, the series will embrace 
volumes of Biography, History, Travels, &c. 
As it is designed especially for American youth, 
the subjects will not unfrequently be American. 
The intelligent man or child, however, will be 
glad to gather profitable and interesting lessons 


wherever he may find them, and subjects afford- 
ing such lessons, will not be excluded from the 
series, from whatever quarter they may be de- 

It has grown into the familiarity of an adage, 
that " early impressions are the strongest," and 
this is the principal reason which has prompted 
the enterprise. It is known to parents, and per- 
haps to children themselves, that the young in this 
day enjoy peculiar advantages. The time was, 
when books written for children, were far beyond 
the comprehension of a child ; now they are writ- 
ten plainly and simply, so that an intelligent boy 
or girl may readily appreciate and understand 
them. This alone has begotten, perhaps, in chil- 
dren of the present day, a greater fondness for read- 
ing. Of the style of these books the Editor does 
not complain, but he thinks that the subjects are 
not unfrequently bad. Tales and romances are 
written for the young, giving them frequently dis- 
torted pictures of human life, and calling forth 
in them an early taste for trifling and unprofit- 
able reading. He would not here be under- 
stood as finding fault with those beautiful stories, 
sometimes inculcating the most beautiful lessons 
of morality and religion ; but, on the contrary, 
would express his thanks to the men of genius 


who have prepared them. Books of such value, 
however, in this class are exceedingly rare. 

In presenting to the young volumes of Biogra- 
phy, upon well-selected subjects, he hopes he 
is giving to his young Countrymen, the best 
practical examples for calling them up to a lofty 
energy. History is itself " stranger than fiction," 
and opens a wide and unlimited field of ever vary- 
ing incident ; and through books of Travels they 
learn to sit at home like the sweet poet Cowper, 
(as most of them, perhaps, will be forced to do,) 
and see various pictures of the world. The 
men, manners, and things of real life thus be- 
come familiar to them. It is to be hoped, 
and humbly expected, that a taste for such read- 
ing, early acquired, will serve to make them, in 
after life, more profitable and interesting mem- 
bers of society. 

His young Countrymen having been pleased 
to receive his former trifles, written for their 
benefit, with approbation and kindness, he feels 
that he can make them no more grateful return 
than by an honest endeavor to do them a higher 
service. He will have his reward, if they are 
pleased and instructed. 

In conclusion, the Editor feels that he will 
have failed in the statement most essential for 


securing confidence in a teacher for the young, 
if he did not declare himself to be an humble 
member of the Church Militant, living upon the 
hope of being one day a member of the Church 
Triumphant. He considers that all education, 
to be good, must be based upon Christian prin- 
ciple: the heart must be cultivated as well as 
the understanding; and .whatever is placed in 
this series, will be found to be on the side of 

May 1st, 1842. 



The Pleasure and Profit of reading Biography The Birth- 
place of Henry Hudson Circumstances which brought 
him forward His preparation for embarking to find a 
Passage to the East Indies by the North Pole, in 1607 
Sails on the voyage, and after many trials, returns at the 
end of four months and a half, having been farther North 
than any other navigator, and having opened the Whale 
Fishery to his countrymen. . . . Page 13 


Henry Hudson makes his second voyage, in search of a 
North-eastern passage to India Reaches the north side 
of Nova Zembla, and is stopped by the ice Hopes to 
make his Passage on the south side by the Vaygatz 
Straits Finding a large River or Sound in Nova Zembla, 
is induced to try that for his passage Sails up this 
Resolves to return Searches for Willoughby's Land 
Arrives in England after an absence of four months and 
four days. . . . ^ ' '.* J . . 35 



Henry Hudson's employers disappointed He now passes 
over to Holland, and seeks employment from the Dutch 
East India Company Leaves Amsterdam on his third 
voyage, in the ship Half Moon, in the spring of 1609 
Fails in making his passage through the Vaygatz Sails 
westward, reaches the coast of America Enters Penob- 
scot Bay His intercourse with the Indians Passes 
Cape Cod, and sails south beyond Chesapeake Bay^ 
Turns north again Discovers Delaware Bay ; and 
passing on, drops anchor within Sandy Hook After a 
week spent in exploring below, passes the Narrows and 
anchors in New York Bay. . . . Page 45 


The Indian tradition of the first landing of white men in 
the State of New York, as given by the Indians them- 
selves, to the Rev. Mr. Heckewelder, a Moravian Mis- 
sionary among the Indians of Pennsylvania. . 61 


Hudson explores the river since called by his name Es- 
cape of the two Indians Strange experiment of Hudson 
to learn the treachery of the natives The Half Moon 
reaches as far as the present site of Albany The boat 
ascends to Waterford Hudson returns down the river 
Battle with the natives at the head of Manhattan Isl- 
and Sails from the bay, and reaches England, after an 
absence of seven months from Europe. . . 71 



Hudson starts on his fourth voyage, having command of 
the ship Discovery, in the service once more of the Lon- 
don Company His aim is to find a North- West Passage 
to India Reaches Iceland, and witnesses an eruption 
of Mount Hecla Disturbance among his crew Steers 
westward, encountering great quantities of ice Discov- 
ers and explores Hudson's Bay, and resolves to winter 
there Page 90 


The dreary prospect of the winter Disturbances among 
the crew Unexpected supply of wild fowl and fish 
Distress from hunger Hudson sails from his winter 
quarters Green, Juet, and Wilson stir the crew up to 
mutiny Hudson is seized, bound, and thrown into the 
shallop, with others the shallop set adrift Fate of the 
mutineers The ship arrives in England. . 105 


Claim of John and Sebastian Cabot, as having seen what 
is now New York in 1497 ; together with the claim of 
John de Verrazzano, to having entered New York Har- 
bor in 1524 129 


To the most Christian King of France, Francis the First 
The Relation of John de Verrazzano, a Florentine, 
of the land by him discouered in the name of his Maies- 
tie. Written in Diepe, the eight of July, 1524. 137 



The Pleasure and Profit of reading Biograpny 
The Birth-place of Henry Hudson Circum- 
stances which brought him forward His Pre- 
paration for embarking to find a Passage to 
the East Indies by the North Pole, in 1607 
Sails on the voyage, and after many trials, 
returns at the end of four months and a half, 
having been farther North than any other navi- 
gator, and having opened the Whale Fishery to 
his Countrymen. 

IT has been my lot to spend some years of my 
life in the large and flourishing city of New York. 
I have walked its crowded streets, looked upon 
its beautiful churches, (these are the first build- 
ings that I notice in every city,) its fine public 
buildings, and its elegant private residences. I 
have in my possession an old picture shewing 
the appearance of Manhattan Island, upon which 


the city stands, in the year 1635 twenty-six 
years after its discovery by Henry Hudson. It 
is not a great while since, that I was showing 
this picture to one of my little friends, and call- 
ing his attention to the wonderful change that 
had passed over the island since the day when 
Henry Hudson first rested his eyes upon it. It 
was then a poor island, inhabited by savages, if 
inhabited at all, with Indian canoes floating in 
the waters around it. Now it is the largest city 
in our land, and ships from all quarters of the 
world rest upon its waters, almost encircling it 
with a forest of masts. I shall never forget the 
look of surprise and honest inquiry, in the simple- 
hearted little boy, as he turned to me with the 
question, " And who, sir, was Henry Hudson ?" 
He was young, and his ignorance was pardona- 
ble; the more so because he confessed it, and 
at once asked for information. I have thought 
that many older than himself were perhaps, as 
ignorant as he was, and therefore have prepared 
for my young countrymen the story of the life 
and adventures of Henry Hudson. 

Before I begin I must make two remarks to 
my } T oung friends. First, I know few things 
more profitable than the study of the lives of our 
fellow-men. If they were men eminent for good 


qualities, and men devoting themselves to the 
improvement of mankind, we feel an ambition 
kindled in our own bosoms to imitate such men 
" to go and do likewise" they are glorious 
examples for us to follow. If, on the contrary, 
they have been remarkably bad men, by marking 
their follies and their sins, we may perhaps, learn 
to despise their wickedness and shun their ex- 
amples. And if the individuals have been men 
who have lived among ourselves, or trod the 
same ground upon which we ourselves are walk- 
ing, the example becomes tenfold more forcible. 
Then, too, I know few things more pleasant. 
Some readers, in their desire for pleasure, are 
eager to seize each new novel or tale of fiction 
as it falls from the press while the stories of 
real life are crowded with scenes of the wildest 
romance and most daring adventure. So beau- 
tiful indeed are these stories, that many writers 
of fiction seize upon them, and make them the 
basis of their own tales of romance. They are 
like painters who are not original in their pic- 
tures : they are only coloring up and varnishing 
old pictures, and not unfrequently they spoil the 
paintings, leaving them only miserable daubs for 
the people to look at. For my own part, I like 
the stories of real life in themselves, without any 


of their aid. They are in themselves full of ad- 
venture ; they are certainly more natural, and 
above all, they are true. I hope, therefore, that 
we shall find the study of biography both profita- 
ble and pleasant, and most of all perhaps, the 
study of American Biography. 

It is said that in old times many cities had a 
contest, each claiming to be the birth-place of 
the great poet Homer. Some ignorant persons 
have supposed, that there was a dispute between 
two nations, as to the birth-place of Henry Hud- 
son. The Dutch speak of him and write of him 
as Hendrick Hutson, and this, I suppose, is the 
foundation of their mistake. The truth is, that 
all Dutch historians whose opinions are valuable, 
and who speak of him at any time, know that 
he was no countryman of theirs, and call him 
Hendrick Hutson, the bold English navigator. 

It would be pleasant to know something of 
Henry Hudson when he was a boy, that we 
might trace his career, step by step, till we find 
him standing a great man before us. It is said 

The Child is father of the Man," 

and if so, we might hope to find him in his 
school-boy days, a bold and fearless little fellow : 


but of his parentage, connexions, or education, 
I am sorry to say, very little is known. He was 
born in England, and had his home in the city 
of London. His most cherished and intimate 
companion was Captain John Smith, the founder 
of the colony of Virginia. They were much 
alike in temper and disposition, and it is not 
wonderful that there was a strong friendship be- 
tween them. Henry Hudson was also a married 
man, but we do not know who the woman was 
who shared his joys and his sorrows. He had 
one son, for the boy was with his father in all 
his voyages, of which we know anything, and 
they at last perished together. 

The fact that so little is known of the early 
days of Hudson, has always induced me to sup- 
pose that he was what the world calls a self- 
made man. The times in which he lived were 
filled with the daring adventures of hardy navi- 
gators, the ocean was the. pathway to distinc- 
tion, and his young heart was probably fired 
with these stories, and his genius possibly, thus 
thrown in that direction. I have fancied him 
born to poverty an obscure and humble boy, 
struggling against a hard fortune, battling diffi- 
culty after difficulty with undying perseverance, 
until at last he forces his way before the world, 


the maker of his own fortunes. I love these 
self-elevated men. It seems as though they were 
nature's noblemen : the men whom God design- 
ed should be great and useful to their species, in 
spite of all the difficulties, which the world pre- 
sented before them. And I never think of one 
of them without remembering the multitudes of 
my young countrymen who are humbly born, 
and lowly bred. Such men are glorious exam- 
ples for them, telling them not to be frightened 
by difficulties, or turned aside by disappointments, 
but to press right onward in the way of useful- 
ness, and honorable fame. 

Before Hudson comes fully before us, it is well 
that you should understand the peculiar circum- 
stances which brought him forward. After the 
nations of Europe discovered that there were 
rich treasures in that region of country, now 
known as the East Indies, the commerce of that 
region was brought to them partly over land, 
and then floated through the Mediterranean Sea. 
This was a slow and laborious route for trade ; 
and in a little time, those nations farthest remov- 
ed from the advantages of that trade, (such as 
Spain, Portugal, and England,) became restless, 
and desirous of finding a new and shorter pas 
sage to the East Indies. After many hard and 


unsuccessful efforts, at length, in 1499, Vasco de 
Gama, a celebrated Portuguese navigator, doub- 
led the Cape of Good Hope, and passing on, ap- 
peared upon the coast of Hindostan. Thus a 
new track was found, but still it was looked 
upon as belonging particularly to the Portu- 
guese, and moreover, it was still a long and 
dangerous passage. The nations of Europe were 
not yet satisfied. Still thirsting for a shorter 
highway to the wealth of the East, they began 
to think that they might find it by sailing through 
the Arctic Ocean, and passing north-westwardly 
around the coasts of North America, or north- 
eastwardly around the shores of Asia, or possibly 
by moving in a course directly north. You 
would be wearied, if I should tell you of the many 
long and perilous voyages undertaken, to find 
this northern passage. Time and time again, 
voyager after voyager departed, and all returned 

The best of all books tells us that " the love 
of money is the root of all evil." And yet this 
very desire after the riches of the East, was over- 
ruled by a wise Providence for good purposes. 
No northern passage was found, and yet these 
northern voyages have aided the cause of sci- 
ence, have discovered new fields of commerce to 


Arctic fishermen, opened to the adventurous na- 
tions of the old world new and fertile regions, 
and trained up for them, a noble, bold, and har- 
dy race of men. I say a hardy race of men : 
for nowhere is there a more fearful meeting 
with the elements of heaven (those elements 
which man can never control) than in the Arctic 
Seas. Wind and storm, and famine and disease, 
are for ever around the voyager, and to this day 
there is no harder undertaking than the voyag- 
ing and wintering among the icebergs of the 
Polar Seas. He who undertakes it even now 
must have courage, patience, and fortitude under 
all manner of sufferings. Henry Hudson was a 
voyager amid these fearful things. 

Notwithstanding all these failures about a 
northern passage, a number of rich men, living 
in the city of London, still hoped that the pas- 
sage might be found : and in the year 1607, 
joined themselves together as a London Compa- 
ny, and furnished the funds necessary for making 
three voyages. They were determined once 
more to search for the passage by the three old 
routes, north, north-east, and north-west. Know- 
ing that everything depended upon the skill of 
their commander, they chose for their man Hen- 
ry Hudson. 


Hudson readily accepted the command, and 
on the 19th of April, he, with his crew, consist- 
ing of eleven besides himself,* among whom was 
his son John Hudson, went to the church of 
Saint Ethelburge in Bishopsgate-street, and there 
received the sacrament of the Lord's supper. 
This was one part of their preparation for going 
to sea. It was the pious and beautiful custom 
of those days, for sailors to do this. I am sorry 
that it has grown out of fashion : it was but say- 
ing to the whole congregation, that they were 
about embarking upon the sea to meet unknown 
perils, and that their trust was in God, " who 
alone spreadeth out the heavens and ruleth the 
raging of the sea." 

The object of this voyage was to find a pas- 
sage directly across the Pole, or, as Hudson 
himself says in his journal, it was " for to dis- 
cover a passage by the North Pole to Japan and 
China," and you will bear in mind, that this 
was the first effort ever made, to seek a passage 
directly across the Pole. 

On the 1st day of May, 1607, they weighed 

* The names of the crew, as given in the Journal of this voy- 
age of 1607, were as follows: "Henry Hudson, master Wil- 
liam Coltnes, mate James Young, John Colman, John Cooke, 
James Beubery, James Skrutton, John Pleyce, Thomas Bax- 
ter, Richard Day, James Knight, and John Hudson." 


anchor at Gravesend, and taking a northerly 
course, in twenty-six days reached the Shetland 
Isles. Here Hudson found that the needle had 
no variation: but on the 30th of May, (four 
days after,) he " found the needle to incline 
seventy-nine degrees under the horizon/' On 
the 4th of June he found a " variation of five 
degrees westerly." From the Shetland Isles, 
Hudson stood northwest, his object being, as it 
would seem, to strike the coast of Greenland. 
Indeed, he supposed Greenland to be an island, 
and thought that by keeping a northeast course, 
he might possibly pass around it. In a week's 
time, though he had not found land, he made a 
profitable discovery, for he tells us that on the 
1 1th of June, he saw six or seven whales near 
his ship. Thus you will mark one benefit of 
this voyage at once ; for afterward, the whale 
fishery in these Northern seas became a business 
of immense profit, to his countrymen. Two days 
after this, at 2 o'clock in the morning, land was 
seen ahead, and some ice ; there being a thick 
fog at the time, he steered away northerly, and 
the wind coming on to blow hard, he stood away 
south and by east six or eight leagues. The 
weather was now so cold, that the sails and 
shrouds of his ship were covered with ice. In a 


little time it cleared tip, and Hudson was able to 
take a fair view of the land. He could now see 
it stretching in a northeasterly direction nine 
leagues before him. " The land," he says, " was 
very high, mostly covered with snow. At the 
top it looked reddish, and underneath a blackish 
clay, with much ice lying about it." I suppose 
this reddish appearance was what is sometimes 
called red snow. In those countries where the 
snow is almost perpetual, there is a small plant 
of a reddish hue which grows upon the snow, 
and rapidly spreads itself all over it.* In those 
northern regions,the snow-capped hills often have 
this covering of red, and it is said, it is sometimes 
seen even upon the Alps and the Appenines. He 
noticed too, great quantities of fowl upon the 
coast, and was near enough to see a whale close 
by the shore. There was a man of the crew 
named James Young, and I presume he must 
have been the first to have observed the land, as 
Hudson called the head-land before them 
" Young's Cape." Near this cape he saw " a 
high mountain like a round castle," and to this 
he gave the name of the " Mount of God's mer- 
cy" These were on the coast of Greenland. 

* This plant is known as the Protococcus Nivalis. 


Harassed by thick fogs, storms of rain and 
snow, driven sometimes before a gale of wind, 
and at other times becalmed, Hudson still held 
on in a northeasterly course. He was unwilling 
to be driven from it, being anxious to know 
whether the land that he had seen was an island 
or a part of Greenland : and hoping, above all 
other things, that he might find Greenland to be 
an island, and pass easily around it. The fog, 
however, continued so thick and heavy, day after 
day, that he could not see the land, until at last, 
discouraged in this direction, he resolved to steer 
more easterly, hoping to fall in with an island 
which he calls Newland, the same island that is 
marked upon our maps and charts as Spitzber- 

Having sailed some sixteen leagues on this new 
course, land was again seen on the left hand, (or 
larboard side of the ship, as sailors say,) stretch- 
ing southwest and northeast. Hudson thought 
that he was within four leagues of the land. 
He observed birds flying over it, but different 
from those he had seen before. These had 
" black backs and white bellies, in form much 
like a duck." Many floating pieces of ice, too, 
were in the neighborhood of his ship : so that he 
had to move carefully. To increase his anxiety, 


the fog again came on, and he began to fear that 
his ship would be fastened amid these blocks of 
ice. Still keeping a lookout as well as he could 
through the darkness, for the point where the 
land ended eastwardly, he steered northeast 
five or six leagues, and then turned to the south. 
Again he was unwilling to turn asid from his 
purpose. As soon therefore, as the weather 
cleared up, he stood again northeast, and in a 
little time land w r as again seen, as he supposed, 
twelve leagues distant from him. He then took 
an observation, and found this land to be in 72 
degrees 38 minutes north latitude. This land, 
too, w r as very different from that which he had 
seen at Young's Cape : it was a high land, not 
at all covered with snow, and the southern part 
rolled away into very high mountains, but no 
snow rested upon these. To his surprise, he 
found the weather here not so severe, but on the 
contrary, temperate and pleasant. He did 
not, however, explore this land farther. " The 
many fogs and calms, with contrary winds, and 
much ice near the shore, held us," (as he says,) 
" from farther discovery of it." As he knew no 
name, however, as yet given to the land, (for 
his charts did not point it out,) he called it the 
land of Hold with Hope. 


Hudson's employers had desired him to find 
the passage directly across the Pole, and he seems 
to have feared that his time might be thought 
wasted, in some degree, upon the coast of 
Greenland. In his journal, therefore, he gives 
the reason for this delay. "The chief cause" 
(says he) " that moved us thereunto, was our de- 
sire to see that part of Greenland which (for aught 
that we knew) was to any Christian unknown : 
and we thought it might as well have been open 
sea as land, and by that means our passage 
should have been the larger to the Pole : and the 
hope of having a westerly wind, which would be 
to us a landerly wind if we found land. And, 
considering we found land contrary to that which 
our cards make mention of, we accounted our la- 
bor so much the more worth. And for aught 
that we could see, it is like to be a good land, 
and worth the seeing." 

He now held his course northeastward toward 
Newland or Spitzbergen. In two or three days, 
one of the crew again saw high land to the lar- 
board, which fell away to the west the farther 
they moved north. This was the last view they 
had of Greenland. 

Still pressing on, Hudson had continued strug- 
gles against hard winds and heavy fogs, until at 


last he reached a latitude so high, that the 
sun was above the horizon the whole twenty- 
four hours. Here, then, the fogs could not annoy 
him so much. On the night of the 25th, he 
again saw birds like those he had seen upon the 
coast of Greenland, and supposed that land must 
be near, but it was too dark for him to discover 
it. On the morning of the 26th, he again saw 
birds of many kinds flying about his ship, and 
strained his eyes to catch a glimpse of land, but 
the heavy fog prevented. The next morning 
the fog rolled away from the sea, and he saw 
before him the coast of Spitzbergen. He could 
not see it very plainly, however, or approach it 
very closely, for " the land was covered with 
fog : the ice lying very thick all along the shore 
for fifteen or sixteen leagues." He coasted along 
the shore through the day, catching occasional 
glimpses of the land, and was able to make an 
observation, by which he found himself to be in 
the 78th degree of latitude. He was not certain, 
but supposed that he was -now near a point on 
the western coast of Spitzbergen known by the 
name of Vogel Hooke or Vogelhoek. He was 
again surprised to find this region mild and 
temperate compared with that about Young's 


His effort was now to make his passage by 
the north side of the island, and he kept his course, 
as well as he could, almost due north. I say as 
well as he could, for he met here, perhaps, great- 
er difficulties than in any former part of the voy- 
age. He was surrounded by ice, fearing almost 
every moment that his ship would be dashed to 
pieces against the floating masses head winds 
prevailed against him, forcing him almost daily 
to change his course, and storms were his con- 
stant companions for more than a fortnight. Still, 
in spite of all these trials, he worked his course 
northward, noticing, in his way, large num- 
bers of morses, seals, and sometimes bears, until 
he began to fear that the ice would not allow 
him to make the passage on this side of the isl- 
and. It would seem that some of his men found 
time to attack the bears, for several of them, he 
tells us, were made sick by eating bears' flesh. 
During this fortnight, he observed one thing 
which was curious : the sea was at times blue, 
green, and black, and the green sea he found to 
be freest from ice, while the blue sea was almost 
always crowded with it. 

On the morning of the 14th, it was calm with 
fog. Yet they were able to see a bay open 
toward the west, enclosed by high and ragged 


land. The northerly point of this land, which 
was very high and bleak, was first seen by Wil- 
liam Collins, the boatswain, and they instantly 
gave it the name of Collins Cape. On the south 
side of the bay, they discovered three or four 
small islands or rocks. Great numbers of whales 
were sporting in the bay, and while. one of the 
men was amusing himself with a hook and line 
overboard to try for fish, one of these whales 
passed under the keel of the ship, and " made 
her held." They were greatly alarmed, and very 
grateful when the danger was over. " By God's 
mercy," (says Hudson,) " we had no harm but 
the loss of the hook and three parts of the line." 
They found the weather hot, though the swamps 
and valleys near the shore were filled with snow. 
John Colman, the mate, and Collins, the boat- 
swain, went ashore here with two others, and 
found a pair of morse's teeth in the jaw r , quanti- 
ties of whale's bones, and some dozen or more 
deer's horns. They saw too, the tracks of ani- 
mals on the shore. The weather Avas so hot 
that they were glad to find two or three streams 
of fresh water rolling into the bay, where they 
quenched their thirst. The men returned, and 
the wind being in their favor, they again steered 



On the 16th the weather was clear, the wintf 
north, and Hudson found himself surrounded by 
ice in every direction. He could see the land 
and ice extending north-east far into the S2d 
degree of latitude, and seemingly much farther, 
and he was now convinced that he could not 
make his way through the ice on the north side 
of the island. The wind, too, was fair just at 
the moment, and he determined now to sail 
round the" southern point of the island, and press 
his course north-east, hoping to make the passage 
on that side. He continued his couise south for 
more than a week, coasting along the shores of 
Spitzbergen, when, on the 25th, he saw the land 
bearing north. But then he was discouraged' 
from turning the point, and moving toward the 
north-east for "by this time he had observed the 
genera] prevalence of the w r inds on the coast, 
and found that it would be impossible. This 
plan, therefore, he was forced to abandon, and 
now he resolved once more " to prove his for- 
tunes" by the w*est. His aim was nothing less 
than to pass round the north of Greenland, (sup- 
posing it to be an island,) and return by Davis' 
Straits to England. With a heart full of hope, 
he now shaped his course westward. 

Two days after this, while nearly becalmed, 


they were suddenly startled by a tremendous 
noise, made by the ice and the sea. Immense 
mountains of floating ice surrounded them, and 
the waves, rolling high, were heaving the ship 
continually westward toward them. In their 
fright, they lowered their boat, in the hope of 
turning the ship away from the ice; but in this 
they failed, the waves rolling so high that the 
boat, more than once, came near being swamped. 
" In this extremity," (says Hudson,) " it pleased 
God to give us a small gale, at north-west ; and 
by west. We steered away south-east four 
leagues, till noon. Here we had finished oui 
discovery, if the wind had continued that brought 
us hither, or if it had continued calm ; but it 
pleased God to make this north-west and by 
west wind the means of our deliverance ; which 
wind, we had not found common in this voyage. 
God give us thankful hearts for so great deliver- 

The weather cleared up at noon, and they 
saw the ice reflected by the sky, bearing from 
south-west to north-east. As they approached 
still nearer to Greenland, the sky reflected the 
ice still farther and farther, until Hudson was 
satisfied that he could find no passage around 
the north of Greenland. A westerly wind spring- 


ing up, therefore, he altered his course, and 
steered south-east. He now began to think of 
making his way back to England. The thick 
fogs still annoyed him ; his ship stores were be- 
ginning to fail ; the season, too, was far advanc- 
ed, and it was well-nigh certain that he could 
not make the passage this year. Keeping a 
southerly course, he again passed the southern 
coast of Spitzbergen the land being, as he says, 
" not ragged, as all the rest we had seen this 
voyage" came in sight of Cheries Island, for 
which he was keeping a lookout, and saw the 
land covered with cragged rocks, " like hay- 
cocks." Still pressing south, on the 15th of 
August, he put into what he calls " the Isles of 
Farre," (meaning, I suppose, the Faroe Islands,) 
and on the 15th of September, he arrived at 
Tilbury Hope on the Thames.* 

Thus you will perceive, that after a hard voy- 
age of four months and a half, Hudson returned 
without success. Yet his employers were suffi- 
ciently pleased, as we shall soon see, to trust 
him with their second adventure. And though 
he failed in the main enterprise, his voyage was 
far from being useless. 

* The journal of this voyage, made in 1607, will be found in 
" Purchas his Pilgrims," written partly by Henry Hudson, 
and partly by John Pleyce, one of his men. 


He advanced farther north than any naviga- 
tor had been known to proceed before : his voy- 
age opened the commerce of the whale fishery 
to his countrymen ; and some have said that he 
was the discoverer of Spitzbergen.* This last 
supposition, however, is a mistake. While we 
are anxious to give full credit to Hudson for 
whatever he may have done, we should be un- 
willing to detract from the fair fame of another 
man. That island was first discovered in the 
year 1596, by William Barentz, a Dutch navi- 
gator. It received from him the name of Spitz- 
bergen, from its mountainous appearance, and 
the quantities of ice and snow that lay around it. 
The remarkable headland which had been seen 
by Hudson, Barentz had called Vogelhoek, from 
the number of birds that he saw there. After 
this, the island was sometimes, by the Hollanders, 
called Newland. It is strange that any one 
should have thought Hudson the discoverer of 
Spitzbergen, since he himself, in his journal, 
speaks of the island as Newland, evidently know- 
ing where it was, and also of the promontory 
Vogelhoek, which I presume was laid down in 
his charts. 

* Forster's Voyages ; Yatesand Moulton's History of New 
York 5 Belknap's American Biography ; Rev. Dr. Miller, in a 
discourse before the New York Historifcal Society in 1809. 


The most that can be said is, that Hudson 
rediscovered Spitzbergen, and this has been 
said ;* but it is scarcely true. Hudson's speak- 
ing so plainly of the island, contradicts this state- 
ment also. 

All that we claim for him, therefore, in this 
voyage is, that with unwavering fortitude, amid 
constant trials, he pressed his way farther north 
than any other navigator had been before, and 
opened a new and extensive field of commerce 
to the English people. 

* Scoresby, in his account of the Arctic Regions. 


Henry Hudson makes his second voyage, in 
search of a North-eastern Passage to India 
Reaches the north side of Nova Zembla, and is 
stopped by the Ice Hopes to make his passage 
on the south side by the Vaygatz Straits Find- 
ing a large River or Sound in Nova Zembla, is 
induced to try that for his passage Sails up 
this Resolves to return Searches for Wil- 
loughbtfs Land Jlrrives in England after an 
absence of four months and four days. 

As soon as the spring was fairly opened the 
next year, Hudson commenced making his pre- 
parations for a second voyage. This time he 
was to seek his passage for the East Indies in 
the north-east, by passing between Spitzbergen 
and Nova Zembla. 

With a crew consisting, in all, of fifteen per 


sons,* (among whom again was his son John 
Hudson,) he set sail from London on the 22d of 
April. The wind was fair, and so continued day 
after day ; but as he sailed north, heavy fogs 
again met him, so that it was the 24th of May 
before he found himself off the coast of Norway. 
The weather now cleared up, and the cold, which 
had been increasing for some days, became so 
severe that several of the men were taken sick. 
Philip Stacie, the carpenter, seems to have suf- 
fered most. Improving this clear weather, he 
pressed north-east as rapidly as he could. On 
the 29th he had reached a latitude so high that 
" the sun was on the meridian above the horizon 
five degrees," and he was able to take an obser- 
vation at midnight. In two days more his fine 
weather passed away; for, on the 1st of June, 
he had a hard north-easterly gale with snow. 
For two days he struggled against the storm, 
and on the morning of the 3d he saw the North 
Cape, about eight leagues distant, as he suppos- 

*The names of these persons, as given in the Journal of this 
voyage of 1608, were as follows: "Henry Hudson, master 
and pilot ; Robert Juet, mate ; Ludlow Arnall, John Cooke, 
boatswain ; Philip Stacie, carpenter ; John Barns, Johu 
Braunch, cook ; John Adrey, James Strutton, Michael 
Feirce, Thomas Hilles, Richard Tomson, Robert Raynor, 
Humfrey Gilby, and John Hudson." 


ed, and discovered several Norway fishermen in 
sight. Keeping his course north-east, on the 9th 
of June, in the latitude of 75 degrees, he fell in 
with ice, the first he had seen on the voyage. 
Hoping to pass through, he stood into it, loos- 
ening some of it, and bearing away from the 
larger masses until he had passed into it four or 
five leagues. Here he found the ice so thick and 
firm ahead, that he began to fear he had pro- 
ceeded too far, and might be fastened. This 
forced him to return by the same way he went 
in, fortunately suffering no damage (as he says) 
except " a few rubs of the ship against the ice." 
For more than a fortnight he still pressed east- 
ward, struggling with the ice, but failed to reach 
a higher latitude. At one time he would meet 
large quantities of drift-wood driving by the ship, 
then he would see large numbers of whales and 
porpoises, and the sea seemed almost cover- 
ed with birds floating over it. Then again he 
would see numbers of seals lying upon the ice, 
and hear the bears roaring. It was during this 
fortnight, that two of his men declared they saw 
something stranger than all this. Thomas Hilles 
and Robert Raynor positively asserted, that 
on the morning of the 15th they saw a mermaid 
close by the ship's side, looking earnestly at 


them. A sea soon came and overturned her ; 
but they saw her distinctly. Her body was as 
large as a man's, her back and breast \vere like 
a woman's, her skin very white, and she had long 
black hair hanging down behind. As she went 
down they saw her tail, which was like the tail 
of a porpoise, and speckled like a mackerel. 

On the 25th, being still hemmed in with ice, 
while head winds were still prevailing, he found 
that, in spite of every effort, he was drifting to- 
ward the south. He was now convinced that 
he could not proceed farther on the north side of 
Nova Zembla, and resolved to seek his passage 
on the south side of the island, by the straits 
known as " the Vaygatz ; to pass by the mouth 
of the River Ob, and to double that way the 
North Cape of Tartaria." These straits are be- 
tween the southernmost parts of Nova Zembla, 
and the northern coast of Russia. He now shaped 
his course south, and the next day, at the dis- 
tance of four or five leagues, saw that part of 
Nova Zembla, known by the Hollanders as 
Swart Cliffe. Being only two miles from the 
land, he sent six of his men ashore to take a 
survey of the country, and fill the casks with 
water. They found the shore covered with 
s ; the land was marshy, and several streams, 


made by the melting snow, were rolling through 
it. In looking around, they saw the tracks of 
bears, deers, and foxes ; and after picking up 
some whales' fins and deer's horns, they returned 
to the ship. The sea was calm as they came 
back, and they saw two or three herds of morses 
swimming near the ship. Hudson now sent 
seven other men ashore to the place where he 
thought the morses might come in; but they 
failed in taking one of them. These men found 
a cross standing on the shore, quantities of drift- 
wood, and signs of fires that had been recently 
kindled there. Gathering some moss, and such 
flowers as grew in that cold latitude, and taking 
two pieces of the cross, they also returned to 
the ship. 

On the 29th, they again saw large numbers 
of morses in the water ; and in the hope of fol- 
lowing them, and finding where they would land, 
they hoisted sail, and got out the boat to tow 
the ship along. The chase proved fruitless : but 
it brought them to the mouth of a broad river or 
sound, where they anchored near a small island. 
The ice was running rapidly down the stream,' 
and they were forced to weigh anchor twice in 
the night, and stand out to free themselves from 
danger. In the morning he again came to his 


old anchorage near the island. On a small rock 
near by, he saw forty or fifty morses lying asleep. 
He sent all his crew after them, except his son 
John ; but they succeeded in killing only one of 
them, the rest plunging rapidly in the water. 
Before they came aboard, however, they landed 
on the island, where they killed some fowls and 
found some eggs. 

The thought now struck Hudson, that instead 
of trying his passage by the Vaygatz Straits, he 
would attempt to make his way through this 
broad stream before him. He hoped that in 
this way he might reach the east side of Nova 
Zembla. Then, too, the morses invited him, for 
he hoped by taking them to pay the expenses 
of the voyage. " Being here," (he says,) " and 
hoping, by the plenty of morses we saw here, to 
defray the charge of our voyage ; and also that 
this sound might, for some reasons, be a better 
passage to the east of Nova Zembla than the 
Vaygatz, if it held, according to my hope, con- 
ceived by the likeness it gave : for whereas we 
had a flood come from the northward, yet this 
sound or river did run so strong, that ice with 
the stream of this river was carried away, or any- 
thing else against the flood : so that both in flood 
and ebb, the stream doth hold a strong course : 


and it floweth from the north three hours and 
ebbeth nine." 

He now sent the mate, with several of the men, 
to explore the mouth of this river. The next 
day they came back, having their boat laden 
with drift-wood, and bringing with them a large 
deer's horn, a lock of white hair, and great 
quantities of fowl. They had a very good story 
to tell. They had seen a herd of ten white deer, 
much drift-wood lying on the shore, many good 
bays, and one fine river on the north shore, which 
looked like a good place for morses though 
they saw none there. They saw signs that the 
morses had been in the bay. As for the particu- 
lar river which they were to explore, they had 
found it two or three leagues broad, and no 
ground at twenty fathoms the water was of the 
color of the sea, very salt, and the stream set 
strongly out of it. 

This report was so encouraging that Hudson 
soon hoisted sail, and steered up the river. In a 
little time he passed a reef, where he found only 
five or six fathoms' depth, and was then in thirty- 
four fathoms water. He continued his course for 
nine leagues, still finding the water deep, until 
the wind coming out ahead, and the stream run- 
ning too strongly against him, he was forced to 


cast anchor. He now rigged up the boat with 
a sail, and furnishing Juet the mate, and five of 
the crew, with provisions and weapons, sent 
them up the river to take soundings. They were 
to continue their course, provided the water con- 
tinued deep, until they found the stream bending 
to the east or southward. The ship was to fol- 
low them as soon as a favorable wind offered. 
About the middle of the next day the men re- 
turned very tired, bringing a very unfavorable 
report. They had been up the river six or seven 
leagues, sounding it all the way, until at last 
they found only four feet of water. They knew 
that the ship could not pass this point : so they 
did not explore farther, but after landing, gather- 
ing some flowers, and seeing great numbers of 
deer, they returned to the ship. 

All that remained for him now was to return. 
Setting sail, therefore, he passed down the river 
much disappointed, or, as he himself says in the 
Journal, " with sorrow that our labor was in 
vain ; for, had this sound held as it did make 
show of, for breadth, depth, safeness of harbor, 
and good anchor-ground, it might have yielded 
an excellent passage to a more easterly sea." It 
was here, too, that he seems to have been par- 
ticularly pleased with the appearance of Nova 


Zembla, under its arctic midsummer ; for he says, 
" it was to a man's eye a pleasant land ; much 
main high land, with no snow on it, looking in 
some places green, and deer feeding thereon." 
In the evening he sent five of his men ashore, 
hoping again that they might find morses ; hut 
they found none, though they saw many good land- 
ing places for them. They discovered signs of a 
fire that had been made on shore, and returned, 
bringing with them a hundred fowls, called 

It was now the 6th of July, and Hudson knew 
it was too late to attempt his passage by the 
Vaygatz. He therefore shaped his course west- 
ward, hoping to visit by the way Willoughby's 
Land* that he might see if it was correctly laid 
down in his chart. Still intent upon defraying, 
if possible, the expenses of his voyage, he thought 
if he should find this land he would discover 
there abundance of morses, driven down by the 
ice from Nova Zembla. But, unfortunately, he 
did not come in sight of that land. He was yet 
in the region of the ice, and discovered, as in the 
last voyage, that in the green sea he was most 
free from it, while in the blue sea he was almost 

* Some have supposed that Willoughby's Land is the same 
as Spitzbergen, but this is a mistake. 


sure to be troubled with it. Keeping his west- 
erly course, in ten days he saw the promontory 
of Wardhuys off the coast of Lapland, and in a 
little time passed the North Cape. Being now 
off the coast of Norway, the nights had again 
become so dark that he was forced to use a can- 
dle in the binacle, which thing he had not before 
found necessary since the 19th of May. 

Hudson's heart still leaned toward the experi- 
ment of sailing north of Greenland, and he would 
willingly have moved in that direction, but the 
season was now too far advanced ; and he thought 
it his duty " to save victual!, wages, and tackle, 
and not by foolish rashness, the time being wast- 
ed, to lay more charge upon the action than 
necessity should compel." He kept his course, 
therefore, for England, and arrived at Gravesend 
on the 26th of August, having been absent, this 
time, four months and four days.* 

* The Journal of this voyage, made in 1608, written by Hen- 
ry Hudson himself, will also be found in " Purchas his Pil- 


Henry Hudson's employers disappointed He 
now passes over to Holland, and seeks employ- 
ment from the Dutch East India Company 
Leaves Amsterdam on his third voyage, in the 
ship Half Moon, in the spring of 1609 Fails 
in making his passage through the Vaygatz 
Sails westward, reaches the coast of America 
Enters Penobscot Bay His intercourse with 
the Indians Passes Cape Cod, and sails south 
beyond Chesapeake Bay Turns north again 
Discovers Delaware Bay / and, passing on, 
drops anchor within Sandy Hook Jlfter a 
week spent in exploring below, passes the Nar- 
rows and anchors in New York Bay. 

UPON Hudson's return, the company that had 
employed him were greatly disappointed, and 
unwilling at present to make any farther effort. 
But Hudson's heart was still bent upon the great 
purpose for which he had been laboring. Un- 
willing therefore to wait, he passed over to Hol- 
land to offer his services to the Dutch East India 


Company. His fame had gone there before him ; 
they all knew him as " the bold Englishman, 
the expert pilot, and the famous navigator." 
There was one man of this company, Balthazor 
Moucheron, who had made large and unsuccess- 
ful adventures in Arctic voyages, and was there- 
fore opposed to another effort, even under Henry 
Hudson. But the company, without overcoming 
his objections, still met the views of Hudson ; 
accordingly the small ship (or as some say the 
yacht) Half Moon was soon equipped, and the 
command intrusted to him. With a crew con- 
sisting of twenty Englishmen and Dutchmen, or, 
as some say, only sixteen,* among whom was 
Robert Juet, who had served as mate in his last 
voyage, he was now ready to brave again the 
ice and storms of the Arctic seas. 

His object was now to try his passage once 
more by the north side of Nova Zembla, or on 
the south through the Vaygatz Straits. He de- 
parted from Amsterdam on the 25th of March, 
and on the 27th, left the Texel. In little more 
than a month he doubled the North Cape, and 
pressing on, was ere long upon the coast of No- 
va Zembla. Head winds, ice, and fog here met 
him again, and after more than a fortnight's 
* Lambrechtsen says, 16 men, Englishmen and Hollanders. 


struggle against them, he gave up the hope of 
reaching India by the Vaygatz, or indeed by 
any north-eastern route. In this time of disap- 
pointment, he was not discouraged, but seems 
to have had many plans. He had heard of 
America and the vast discoveries made there ; 
and he thought, by sailing westerly, that he 
too might make some discovery which would 
repay his employers for his failure. Moreover, 
he had with him some maps which had been 
given to him by his old friend, Captain John 
Smith, on which a strait was marked south of 
Virginia, offering a passage to the Pacific Ocean 
or great South Sea, as it was then called and 
by this passage he might hope to reach the East 
Indies. Then too, he thought of his former plan ; 
a passage by the north-west, through Davis's 
Straits. He now proposed to his crew, either to 
seek a passage south through the strait laid down 
by Smith, or to sail for the north-west. Many 
of his men had been trained in the East India ser- 
vice, were accustomed to sailing in warm tropical 
climates, and chose therefore, to sail south rather 
than meet the severities of the northern seas. 
Now then, he steered his course westerly, soon 
doubled the North Cape again, and by the last 
of May, reached one of the Faroe Ishnds. 


He remained here twenty-four hours, and had 
his casks filled with fresh water. They then 
hoisted sail and steered south-west, hoping to 
reach Buss Island, which had been discovered in 
1578, by Martin Frolisher. The island was in- 
correctly laid down in his chart, and he did not 
find it. He next shaped his course for New- 
foundland. For more than three weeks he 
now encountered storms and constant gales of 
wind, until at last his foremast was carried 
away. He rigged up what sailors call a jury- 
mast, but the gales continuing, his foresail was 
split. Notwithstanding the tempests, he man- 
aged to run down as far as the forty-fifth degree 
of latitude. Here he met a heavy gale from the 
south-east, but still kept on his course. Three 
days after this he saw a sail standing to the east, 
and hoping " to speak her," he turned from his 
course and gave chase ; but finding, as night came 
on, that he could not overtake her, he again 
turned westerly. Early in July, he found him- 
self off the coast of Newfoundland, and saw a 
great fleet of Frenchmen fishing on the banks. 
Finding himself here becalmed several days, he 
sent his crew to the banks to try their luck at 
fishing. In this they proved very successful 
taking in one day one hundred and thirty cod- 


fish. The wind again springing up, they sailed 
westerly. On the 9th, they spoke a Frenchman 
who lay fishing at Sable Island bank. They 
soon cleared the banks, passed the shore of Nova 
Scotia, and on the morning of the 12th, saw the 
coast of North America before them. The fog 
was now so thick that for several days they were 
afraid to approach the land ; but on the morn- 
ing of the 18th, the weather cleared up, and 
they ran into a " good harbor" at the mouth of 
a large river, in the latitude of forty-four degrees. 
This was Penobscot Bay, on the coast of Maine.* 
Hudson had already seen some of the inhabi- 
tants of this new country ; for on the morning 
of the 19th, while they were standing off, unable 
to enter the harbor, two boats came off to him, 
with six of the natives of the country, who 
" seemed very glad at his coming." He gave 
them some trifling presents, and they ate and 
drank with him. They told him that there were 
gold, silver, and copper mines near by, and that 
the French people were in the habit of trading 
with them. One of them he found could speak 
a little French. 

* Rev. Dr. Miller, in his lecture delivered before the New 
York Historical Society, in 1809, thinks the place of their ar- 
rival was at or near Portland, in the State of Maine. 


He now made his observation of the harbor. 
He describes it as lying north and south a mile; 
he could see the river a great way up, and found 
that he was in four fathoms of water. The first 
thing to be done, was to rig up a new foremast, 
and mend the sails. Some went to work at the 
sails, and others went ashore to cut the mast. 
They needed a fresh supply of water also, and 
some went in search of that, while others amused 
themselves in catching lobsters. In the mean time, 
the people of the country came aboard in great 
numbers. They were very friendly, and seem 
not to have been at all afraid of Hudson's men, 
while the men were afraid of them, all the time 
saying " they could not be trusted." Two French 
shallops came to the ship, filled with Indians 
bringing beaver-skins and fine furs, which they 
wished, like Indians, to trade for articles of dress, 
knives, hatchets, kettles, trinkets, beads, and 
other trifles. 

Hudson's men could not overcome their fool- 
ish distrust of these Indians. They were so very 
suspicious, that every night they kept a strict 
watch from the ship, to see where their shallops 
were laid. At last, their mast being ready and 
their sails mended, the day before they started, 
they manned " the scute" with six men and four 


muskets, took one of the shallops, and brought 
it on board. This was base enough ; but they 
now proceeded to a more disgraceful action. 
They " manned their boat and 'scute' with twelve 
men and muskets, and two stone pieces or mur- 
derers, and drove the savages from their houses, 
and took the spoil of them." It seems that the 
poor natives had never done them the least harm ; 
their only excuse for this cowardly meanness, 
being that they supposed they wished to do 
them harm a supposition without any founda- 
tion, proceeding only from their own idle fears. 
It is to the disgrace of Hudson, that this thing 
was permitted ; and the only excuse that can be 
offered for him is, that he probably had under 
his command a wild and ungovernable set of 
men. It is said that they had many quarrels 
with the natives, and perhaps, in the exaspera- 
tion of their feelings, Hudson found it impossible 
to control them. Even this, however, is a poor 
excuse for him; for he was a man in the habit of 
ruling his men rather than being ruled by them. 
It is to be hoped that he did not willingly allow 
this cruelty to proceed. 

On the next morning (July 26) he set sail, 
steering southward along the coast of America. 
In a little time he came within sight of Cape 


Cod. Anxious to double this headland, and 
afraid to approach a coast of which he was ig- 
norant, he sent five men in the boat to sound 
along shore. They found the water " five fathoms 
deep within bow -shot of the shore ;" went on the 
land and discovered " goodly grapes and rose- 
trees," which they brought on board the ship. 
He now moved toward the shore, and anchored 
near the north end of the headland. Here he 
heard the voices of men calling to him from the 
shore ; and, thinking they might be the cries of some 
poor sailors who had been left there, he immediate- 
ly sent a part of the crew in the boat to the land. 
Upon landing, they found that the voices were 
those of the Indians, who were greatly rejoiced to 
see them. They returned, bringing one of these 
Indians aboard with them. After giving him some- 
thing to eat, and making him a present of a few 
glass buttons, Hudson sent him ashore again in 
the boat. When he reached the land, he gave 
every sign of joy, dancing, and leaping, and 
throwing up his hands. These Indians were 
great smokers : they had abundance of green 
tobacco and pipes, " the bowls of which were 
made of earth, and the stems of red copper." 

After striving to pass west of this headland, 
and move into the bay, which the wine! prevent- 


ed he steered south-east, and the next day fell 
in with the southern point of Cape Cod. He 
knew this to be the headland which Bartholomew 
Gosnold had discovered in the year 1602, seven 
years before. He passed Nantucket and Mar- 
tha's Vineyard, and kept his course still south, 
until the 18th of August, when he found himself 
at the entrance of Chesapeake Bay. Here he 
was near the mouth of " the King's River* in Vir- 
ginia," upon which many of his countrymen 
were settled ; and among these countrymen was 
his early friend Captain John Smith. 

Two years before this, the first English settle- 
ment had been made in America. In the year 
1607, two ships and a bark under the command 
of Christopher Newport, bringing one hundred 
and five persons, had passed up the James River. 
Among these men were John Smith, Gosnold, 
Wingfield, and Ratcliffe, the leaders of the new 
enterprise; and after hard sufferings and some 
hair-breadth escapes, they had succeeded in set- 
tling a colony at Jamestown. It would have 
been delightful to Hudson to have passed up 
that river, and seen his countrymen, and particu- 
larly an old friend in the wild forests of America. 

* The James River, named in honor of King James, is here 
alluded to. 



He would have heard from that friend many a 
story of matchless adventure, how he had lived 
through the treachery of the Indian King Powha- 
tan, and been saved by the noble friendship of 
the Princess Pocahontas. But the wind was 
blowing a gale ; and besides this, he felt himself 
bound to serve the main purpose of his employ- 
ers, and consequently passed on. 

He proceeded south still, until he reached the 
thirty-fifth degree of latitude, and then changed 
his course to the north. We are not told in the 
Journal of this voyage, what induced Hudson to 
change his course, but we can readily understand 
the cause. He had gone far enough south to 
learn that his friend Smith was mistaken about 
his passage into the South Pacific Ocean ; and 
his desire was now to waste no more time in this 
fruitless search, but to make some discovery 
which might prove profitable to his employers. 

Retracing his course, he found himself occa- 
sionally in shallow water as he passed the shores 
of Maryland, and on the 28th, discovered the 
great bay, since known as Delaware Bay. He 
examined here the soundings, currents, and the 
appearance of the land, but did riot go ashore. 
For nearly a week he now coasted northward, 
" passing along a low marshy coast, skirted with 


broken islands," when on the 2d of September, 
he spied the highlands of Neversink. The sight 
pleased him greatly, for he says, " it is a very 
good land to fall in with, 'and a pleasant land to 
see." On the morning of the 3d, the weather 
proved dark and misty, but Hudson, ha\ing pas- 
sed Long Branch, sent his boat up to sound. 
The men returning with a favorable report, in 
the afternoon he brought the Half Moon within 
Sandy Hook, and cast anchor in five fathoms of 
water. The next morning, seeing that there 
was " good anchorage and a safe harbor," he 
passed farther up and anchored within Sandy 
Hook Bay, at the distance of two cable lengths 
from the shore. 

Having marked great quantities of fish (" sal- 
mon, mullet, and rays") in the water, he now 
sent his men ashore with a net. It is said that 
they first landed on Coney Island, (now a part 
of Kings County in this State.) They found the 
soil to be mostly white sand, and on the island 
were plum-trees loaded with fruit, and embower- 
ed with grape-vines; while snipes and other 
birds were floating over the shore. The fishing 
too, proved good, for they took " ten mullets a 
foot and a half long apiece, and a ray as great 
as four men could haul into the ship " 


While the ship lay at anchor, Indians from 
the Jersey shore came on board, and seemed 
greatly delighted to see their new visiters. They 
were dressed in deerskins, well cured, which 
hung loosely over their shoulders, and had 
copper ornaments and pipes. They seemed to 
have an abundance of food, for their land yield- 
ed a fine harvest of maize, or Indian corn, from 
which they made good bread ; but they had 
come, bringing green tobacco, which they wished 
to exchange for beads, knives, and other trinkets. 

In the course of the night a gale sprang up, 
and the ship was driven ashore. Fortunately, 
she was not injured, " the bottom being soft sand 
and oozy," and when the flood tide returned in 
the morning, she was easily got off. The boat 
was now lowered, and the men were sent to sound 
the bay. The shores were lined with men, wo- 
men, and children, attracted by curiosity, and 
the boat's men immediately went to the land, where 
they were treated with great kindness. It was the 
Jersey shore which they now reached, and the 
kindness of the natives was such, that they went 
unmolested far back into the woods of what is 
now known as Monmouth County. In this ram- 
ble, they weie particularly pleased with the 
beautiful oaks of the country. The natives fol- 


lowed them with their kindness, giving them pre- 
sents of green tobacco and dried currants. They 
observed that some of these natives were dressed 
more richly than those seen before. These had 
ornaments of copper around the neck, and wore 
mantles made of fine furs or feathers. Notwith- 
standing all the kindness of these Indians, like 
the poor natives at Penobscot, they were still 
" suspected, though friendly." 

Hudson, in making his observations, had dis- 
covered, as he thought, that the bay in which he 
lay, seemed to be the entrance to a large river, 
four leagues distant ; and the boat having re- 
turned, he now sent five men in her to make 
soundings in that direction. What he saw was 
probably the strait between Long and Staten 
Islands, now known as the Narrows. They pas- 
sed through the Narrows, sounding as they went, 
and discovered the hills between Staten Island 
and Bergen Neck. They found the land as they 
passed, covered with trees, grass, and flowers, the 
fragrance of which was delightful ; and after 
going six miles into the bay of New York, turn- 
ed back. On their return to the ship, when it 
was nearly dark, they were attacked by two 
canoes, containing twenty-six Indians. It was 
raining hard, and their match was extinguished, 


so that they could only trust to their oars to 
make their escape. Unfortunately, one of the 
men (John Colraan, who had been with Hudson 
in his first hard voyage) was killed by an arrow 
that struck him in the neck, and two others were 
slightly wounded. It w T as now very dark, and 
they lost their way, wandering to and fro all 
night, unable to find the ship. It is said that but 
for the darkness, they would all have been mur- 
dered, but this I can hardly believe. Notwith- 
standing this attack, I do not think the Indians 
had any wicked intentions toward these men ; 
for it is strange, if they had, that they did not 
pursue them, and at least take the wounded men 
in the boat. It is probable, that in the darkness, 
the Indians were themselves surprised and fright- 
ened at meeting the boat ; shot at her, and moved 
away as fast as possible. The next day the 
boat returned, bringing the dead body of Col- 
man. Hudson ordered it to be taken ashore and 
buried at Sandy Hook, and in memory of the 
poor fellow who had met so sad a fate, called 
the place Colman's Point. 

When the men returned from this sad duty, 
the boat was hoisted in, and they immediately 
commenced erecting bulwarks on the sides of 
the ship ; and when night came on, they kept a 


strict lookout, expecting an attack from the na- 
tives. But their preparations were idle. The 
natives seem not even to have thought of attack- 
ing them ; for the next day, some of them again 
came on board in the most friendly manner, 
bringing Indian corn and tobacco, to trade with 
the sailors. They did not even seem to know 
that any thing had happened. 

The next day after, however, matters did look 
a little serious, when two large canoes came off 
to the ship, the one filled with men armed with 
bows and arrows, the other under the pretence 
of trading with them. Hudson now would only 
allow two of them to come on board ; these he 
kept, and dressed them up in red coats. All the 
rest returned to the shore, when presently an- 
other canoe approached, bringing only two men. 
He thought now it was best to take every pre- 
caution ; so he took one of these men, intending, 
probably, to keep him with the others as hostages 
for the good behavior of their countrymen. He 
had scarcely taken this last one, however, w r hen 
he jumped up, leaped overboard, and swam to 
the shore. Hudson now weighed anchor, and 
moved off into the channel of the Narrows for 
the night. In the morning, he went over " to- 
wards the east sand-bank, found it shallow, and 


again anchored." The day after, (it being the 
llth of September,) having spent a week in 
exploring south of the Narrows, he passed 
through them into the Bay of New York, and 
finding it " an excellent harbor for all winds," 
once more cast anchor. Here he remained until 
the next day: the people of the country (as he 
says) again coming to see him, " making great 
show of love, giving tobacco and Indian wheat, 
but we could not trust them." 


The Indian tradition of the first landing of white 
men in the State of New York, as given by the 
Indians themselves, to the Rev. Mr. Heckewel- 
der, a Moravian Missionary among the Indians 
of P ennsylvania. 

IT was the 12th of September, and Hudson 
was ready to move up the great river which 
opened before him. Before we follow him in his 
course, however, there is an Indian tradition as 
regards " his first landing," which I wish to lay 
before you. Some say his first landing was upon 
Coney Island, others at Sandy Hook, others on 
the Jersey shore, while some declare it was on 
Manhattan Island, and others again say at Alba- 
ny. It is impossible perhaps, to say where it 
was, and as far as the story is concerned it mat- 
ters but little, for the tradition is the same, let the 
landing have been where it may. 

This tradition is well authenticated, having 


been originally given by the Indians themselves 
to the Rev. John Heckewelder, for many years a 
Moravian missionary to the Indians in Pennsyl- 
vania. It runs as follows : 

" A long time ago, when there was no such 
thing known to the Indians as people with a 
white skin, some Indians who had been out a 
fishing, and where the sea widens, espied at a 
great distance, something remarkably large, swim- 
ming or floating on the water, and such as they 
had never seen before. They immediately re- 
turning to the shore, told their countrymen of 
what they had seen, and pressed them to go out 
with them, and discern what it might be. These 
together hurried out, and saw to their great sur- 
prise the phenomenon, but could not agree what 
it might be, some concluding it to be an uncom- 
monly large fish or other animal, while others 
were of opinion it must be some very large 
house. It was at length agreed among them, 
that as this phenomenon moved toward the land, 
whether it was an animal or not, it would be 
well to inform all the Indians of what they had 
seen, and put them on their guard. Accordingly 
they sent runners to carry the news to their scat- 
tered chiefs, that they might send off in every 
direction for the warriors to come in. These 


now came in numbers, and seeing the strange 
appearance, and that it was actually moving 
forward, concluded that it was a large canoe 
or house, in which the Great Manitto* himself 
was, and that he probably was coming to visit 
them. By this time the chiefs of the different 
tribes were assembled on York Island, and were 
counselling as to the manner in which they 
should receive the Manitto on his arrival. They 
now provided plenty of meat for a sacrifice ; the 
women were required to prepare the best of 
victuals ; their idols or images were examined 
and put in order ; and a grand dance was sup- 
posed not only to be an agreeable entertainment 
for the Manitto, but might, with the addition of 
a sacrifice, contribute toward appeasing him in 
case he was angry. The conjurers were also 
set to work to determine what the meaning of 
this phenomenon was, and what the result would 
be. To these, and to the chiefs and wise men of 
the nation, men, women, and children were look- 
ing up for advice and protection. Being at a 
loss what to do, between hope and fear, and in 
confusion, a dance commenced. In the mean 
time, fresh runners arrived, declaring it to be a 

* Their name for the Supreme Being. 


great house of various colors that was coming, 
and filled with living creatures. It now appeared 
certain that it was their Manitto coming, bringing 
probably some new kind of game. But other 
runners now came in, declaring that it was a 
house of various colors and filled with people, 
but that the people were of a different color from 
themselves ; that they were also dressed in a dif- 
ferent manner from them, and that one in partic- 
ular appeared altogether red. This they thought 
must be the Manitto himself. They were now 
lost in admiration. Presently they were hailed 
from the vessel, but in a language they could 
not understand, and were able to answer only by 
a yell. Many were now for running into the 
woods, while others pressed them to stay, in or- 
der not to offend their visiters, who could find 
them out and might easily destroy them. The 
house (or large canoe) stopped, and a smaller ca- 
noe now came ashore, bringing the red man and 
some others in it. Some stayed by this canoe to 
guard it. The chiefs and wise men formed a 
circle, into which the red clothed man and two 
others approached. He saluted them with a 
friendly countenance, and they returned the sa- 
lute after their manner. They were amazed at 
the color of their skin and their dress, particu- 


larly at the red man, whose clothes glittered* 
with something they could not account for. 
He must be the great Manitto, they thought, but 
then why should he have a white skin ? A large 
elegant Hockhack^ was brought forward by 
one of the Manitto's servants, and something 
poured from it into a small cup or glass, and 
handed to the Manitto. He drank it, had the 
cup refilled, and had it handed to the chief next 
to him for him to drink. The chief took it, 
smelt it, and passed it to the next, who did the 
same. The cup passed in this way round the 
circle, untasted, and was about to be returned to 
the red clothed man, when one of their number, 
a spirited man and a great warrior, jumped up, 
and harangued the multitude on the impropriety 
of returning the cup unemptied. ' It was handed 
to them/ he said, ' by the Manitto to drink out 
of as he had done ; that to follow his example 
would please him, but to return what he had 
given them might provoke him and cause him 
to destroy them. And that since he believed it to 
be for the good of the nation that the contents 
offered them should be drunk, if no one else was 
willing to drink, he would try it, let the conse- 

* This was probably the lace and buttons, 
f Meaning gourd, or bottle. 


quence be what it would, for it was better for 
one man to die, than that a whole nation should 
be destroyed. He then took the glass, smelt it, 
addressed them again, and bidding them all fare- 
well, drank it. All eyes were now fixed upon 
him, to see what effect this would have upon him. 
He soon began to stagger, and the women cried, 
supposing that he had fits. Presently he rolled 
on the ground, and they all began to bemoan 
him, supposing him to be dying. Then he fell 
asleep, and they thought now that he was dead, 
but presently they saw that he was still breath- 
ing. In a little time he awoke, jumped up, and 
declared that he never felt himself before so hap- 
py, as after he had drunk the cup. He asked 
for more, which was given to him, and the whole 
assembly soon joined him, and all became intox- 

" While the intoxication lasted, the white men 
kept themselves in their vessel, and when it was 
over, the man with the red clothes again return- 
ed to them, bringing them presents of beads, 
axes, hoes, and stockings. They soon now be- 
came familiar, and talked by making signs. The 
whites made them understand that they should 
now return home, but the next year they should 
visit them again with presents, and stay with 


them a while. But as they could not live with- 
out eating, they should then want a little land 
to sow seeds, in order to raise herbs to put into 
their broth. Accordingly a vessel arrived the 
next season,* when they were much rejoiced to 
see each other but the white men laughed 
at them when they saw the axes and hoes hang- 
ing to their breasts as ornaments, and the stock- 
ings used for tobacco pouches. The whites now 
put handles or helves in the former, and cut down 
trees and dug the ground before their eyes, and 
showed them the use of the stockings. Then all 
the Indians laughed, to think that they had been 
ignorant of the use of these things so long, and 
had carried these heavy articles hung around 
their necks. They took every white man they 
saw for a Manitto, yet inferior to the Supreme 
Manitto ; to wit, to the one who wore the shin- 
ing red clothes. They now became more famil- 
iar, and the whites now reminded them that they 
wanted some land ; and asked if they might have 
as much land as the hide of a bullock spread 
before them would cover (or encompass.) Their 
request was readily granted. The white men 

* It will be remembered that another ship was sent out 
by the Dutch the next year, after the discovery of Henry 


then took a knife, and beginning at one place on 
the hide, cut it up into a rope not thicker than 
the finger of a little child, so that by the time 
this hide was cut up, there was a great heap. 
They then took the rope and drew it gently along 
(to keep it from breaking) in a circular form, 
and took in a large piece of ground. The In- 
dians were surprised at the superior wit of the 
whites, but did not wish to contend with them 
about a little land, as they had enough. They 
lived contentedly together for a long time : Jhe 
whites from time to time asking for more land, 
which was readily granted to them. And thus 
they gradually went higher and higher up the 
Mahicannituck River? until they began to be- 
lieve they would soon want all their country, 
which proved at last to be the case."f 

This tradition is remarkably confirmed by a 
Dutch historian,J who wrote his history only 
forty-three years after the discovery of Henry 
Hudson. He says, " that the Indians or natives 

* One of the Indian names for the Hudson. 

t This tradition will be found in Yates and Moulton's His- 
tory of New York in the first volume of Hist, and Lit. Trans- 
actions of the American Philosophical Society and again in 
the New York Historical Collection, vol.i., New Series. 

t Adrian Van der Donck, in his description of the New 


of the land, many of whom are still living, and 
with whom I have conversed, declare freely that 
before the arrival of the Lowland ship, the Half 
Moon, in the year 1609, they, the natives, did 
not know that there were any other people in 
the world, than those who were like themselves, 
much less, any people who differed so much in 
appearance from them as we did. When some 
of them first saw our ship approaching at a dis- 
tance, they did not know what to think about 
her, but stood in deep and solemn amazement, 
wondering whether it were a ghost or apparition, 
coming down from heaven, or from hell. Others 
of them supposed her to be a strange fish or sea 
monster. When they discovered men on board, 
they supposed them to be more like devils than 
human beings. Thus they differed about the 
ship and men. A strange report was spread 
about the country concerning the ship and visit, 
which created great astonishment and surprise 
among the Indians." 

There is another story told to the same pur- 
pose in a history of these times written only 
forty-one years after Hudson's discovery. " In 
1609, (as the story reads,) the privileged East 
India Company, by the ship the Half Moon, the 
Captain whereof was Heririck Hutson, discover- 


ed first the country which our people call New 
Netherlands: insomuch that even now inhabi- 
tants of the country remember it, and witness, 
that when the Dutch ships came hither first and 
were seen by them, they did not know whether 
they came from heaven or were devils. Others 
thought them to be sea monsters or fishes.* They 
knew before nothing of other sort of men : a 
strange tale thereof run through their country 

It is said that the tribe of Delaware Indians, 
even to this day, call New York Mannahatta- 
nink, meaning thereby, the Island or place of 
general intoxication^ 

* It is remarked by Yates and Moulton in their history, that 
the same fright seized the minds of the Indians bordering on 
Detroit river, at the time the Lake Erie steamboat " Walk-in 
the- Water" made her first appearance in that river, advancing 
against wind and tide, and sending forth volumes of flame 
and smoke. 

f MS. in the New York Historical Society, cited in Yates 
and Moulton's History of New York, Part I. page 257. 
' J " The Mahicanni or Mohicans call it by the same name 
as the Delawares, but think the name was given in consequence 
of a kind of wood which grew there, of which the Indians 
used to make their bows and arrows. 

" The name the Monseys have for New York is Laapha- 
tvachking, meaning the place of stringing wampum leads. 
They say this name was given in consequence of the distribu- 
tion of beads among them by Europeans, and that after the 
European vessel returned, wherever one looked, the Indians 
vere seen stringing the beads and wampum that the whites 
gave them." Yates and Moulton. 


Hudson explores the river since called by his 
name Escape of the two Indians Strange 
experiment of Hudson to learn the treachery 
of the natives The Half Moon reaches as far as 
the present site of JJ.lbany The boat ascends 
to Waterford Hudson returns down the river 
Battle with the natives at the head of Man- 
hattan Island Sails from the bay, and 
reaches England, after an absence of seven 
months from Europe. 

WE left Hudson in his little ship the Half 
Moon, resting quietly upon the waters of New 
York Bay, and we will now trace him in his 
course up the beautiful stream which since bears 
his name. What must have been the feelings of 
the great navigator as he looked upon the waters 
of that stream as they came rolling to the sea ! It 
was certain that he had discovered a new and 


unknown region which might in some degree 
repay his employers ; and then, who could 
tell but that the river before him, coming far 
from the north, might prove the long desired 
passage to the gems and spices of the East 

On the morning of the 12th, while he was 
still at his anchorage, twenty-eight canoes, filled 
with men, women, and children, came off to see 
him, bringing oysters and clams to trade for tri- 
fles. These Indians had " great tobacco pipes of 
yellow copper, and pots of earth to dress their 
meat in." Hudson's men seem, as usual, to have 
been suspicious of them, and though they traded 
with them, none of them were allowed to come 
on board. 

About noon, with a heart full of hope, he 
weighed anchor, and moved into the river. The 
wind was not fair ; so that he made only two 
leagues, and again anchored for the night. The 
place off which he lay is supposed to have been 
what is now Manhattanville. The next day, the 
wind being ahead, he managed, by the help of 
the flood tide, to pass up only eleven miles high- 
er. This brought him to what is now known as 
Yonkers, and again he cast anchor. In the course 
of this day, he was again visited by Indians, 


bringing provisions, and they seemed very friend- 
ly ; but his crew suspected these also, and none 
of them came on board the ship. 

The day following the weather was fair, and 
a fine breeze springing up from the south-east, 
he passed up through Tappan and Haverstraw 
bays, " the river" (as the journal says) " being 
a mile wide, and anchored at night about thir- 
ty-six miles higher, in a region where the land 
was very high and mountainous." He was now 
evidently in the neighborhood of " the High- 
lands," and his anchorage w r as probably near 
West Point. 

Hudson and his men seem to have been struck 
with the wild and beautiful appearance of the 
country : and strange must have been his feel- 
ings, when in his little " yacht," moored beneath 
the Highlands, the shadows of night fell over 
him. He had braved the tempests of the north, 
and seen the monsters of the ocean, but all now 
was a new world around him. A wild and beau- 
tiful wilderness hung over him. Perhaps in 
the distance he might see the camp fires of 
straggling Indians : then he might hear the 
screechings of the owls, and the scream of pan- 
thers in the wilderness above him, or perhaps 


be startled by the strange and tremendous roar 
of the " Naked Bear" of the Indians.* 

* " Tagesho, or Naked Bear." In a note to Yates and Moul- 
ton's History of New York, there is a singular Indian tradition 
of a remarkable animal that lived in the northern parts of 
New York about two centuries ago. The note cites the man- 
uscript of Mr. Heckewelder for the truth of it. The story, as 
given in the note, is the following: 

"The Yagesho was an animal much superior to the largest 
bear, remarkably long bodied, broad down by its shoulders, 
but thin or narrow just at its hind legs, (or where the body ter- 
minated.) It had a large head and fearful look. Its legs 
were short and thick. Its paws (to the toes of which were 
nails or claws, nearly as long as an Indian's finger) spread 
very wide. It was almost bare of hair, except the head and 
on the hinder parts of its legs, in which places, the hair 
was very long. For this reason the Indians gave it the name of 
1 Naked Bear: 

" Several of these animals had been destroyed by the In- 
dians, but the one of which the following account is given had 
escaped them, and for years had from time to time destroyed 
many Indians, particularly women and children, when they 
were out in the woods gathering nuts, digging roots, or at 
work in the field. Hunters, when overtaken by this animal, 
had no way of escaping, except when a river or lake was at 
hand, by plunging into the stream and swimming out or down 
the stream to a great distance. When this was the case, and 
the beast was not able to pursue farther, then he would set up 
such a roaring noise, that every Indian hearing it would trem- 
ble. The animal preyed on every beast it could lay hold of. 
It would catch and kill the largest bears and devour them. 
While bears were plenty, the Indians had not so much to dread 
from him, but when this was not the case, it would run 
about the woods, searching for the track or scent of hunters, 
and follow them up. The women were so afraid of going out 


The next morning a mist hung over the riv- 
er and mountains until sunrise, when it cleared 
up with a fair wind. Just as he was weighing 
anchor, a circumstance happened, which after- 
ward gave him trouble. The two Indians whom 
he held as hostages made their escape through 

to work, that the men assembled to consider on some plan for 
killing him. At or near a lake where the water flowed two 
ways, or has two different outlets, one on the northerly and 
the other on the southerly end, this beast had his residence, of 
which the Indians were well informed. A resolute party, well 
provided with bows, arrows, and spears, made toward the lake. 
On a high perpendicular rock they stationed themselves, 
climbing up this rock by means of Indian ladders, and then 
drawing these after them. After being well fixed, and having 
taken up a number of stones, they began to imitate the voices 
and cries of the various beasts of the wood, and even that of 
children, in order to decoy him thither. Having spent some 
days without success, a party took a stroll to some distance 
from the rock. Before they had reached the rock again, this 
beast had got the scent of them, and was in full pursuit of 
them, yet they reached the rock before he arrived. When he 
came to the rock he was in great anger, sprang against it with 
his mouth wide open, grinning and seizing the rock as if he 
would tear it to pieces. He had several times sprung nearly 
up. During all this time, numbers of arrows and stones were 
discharged at him, and at last he dropped down and expired- 
His head being cut off, it was carried in triumph to their vil- 
lage or settlement on the North River, and there set up on a 
pole for view: and the report spreading among the neighbor- 
ing tribes, numbers came to view the same, and to exalt the 
victorious for this warlike deed. The Mahicanni claim the 
honor of this act." 


the port-holes of the ship and swam to the shore, 
and as soon as the ship was under way, they 
were seen standing on the shore making loud and 
angry cries, and looking at them " with scornful 
looks." They now moved up the river, " passing 
by the high mountains," until, having sailed fifty 
miles, they came at night in sight of " other 
mountains which lie from the river side." Here 
they found (as the journal says) " very loving 
people and very old men," who treated them very 
kindly. Having cast anchor here, (which was 
probably near what is now Catskill Landing,) 
Hudson sent the boat off, and the men caught 
large quantities of fine fish. 

It was here, perhaps, that the pleasant inter- 
view happened (of which we read in an old his- 
tory of the times*) between Hudson and an old 
chief of the Indians. The story is, that he went 
on shore in one of their canoes with an old man, 
who was the chief of forty men and seventeen 
women. These he saw in a large circular house 
made of oak bark. In the house, he discovered 
a large quantity of maize or Indian corn, and 
beans of the last year's growth, and near the 
house, for the purpose of drying, there lay enough 
to load their ship, besides what was growing 

* De Laet's New World. 


in the fields. Upon his entering the house, two 
mats were immediately spread out to sit upon, 
and food was brought forward in large red bowls 
made of wood. In the mean time, two men 
were despatched with bows and arrows in search 
of game. Soon after, they returned with a pair 
of pigeons; then they killed a fat dog, and 
skinned it in great haste for their guest, with 
shells which they had got out of the water. 
After the feast, they supposed that Hudson would 
remain all night with them. But upon his shew- 
ing signs of departure, the hospitable old man 
became very uneasy and his people, supposing 
that the guest might be leaving because he was 
afraid of them, took all their arrows, and break- 
ing them in pieces, cast them into the fire. 

The quantities of fish taken the evening before,, 
now induced Hudson (the next morning being 
warm and fair) to send some of the men out 
upon another fishing party. This time, however, 
they were not sp successful ; for the natives had 
been there all night in their canoes. In the 
mean time, the Indians flocked on board the ship, 
bringing Indian corn, pumpkins, and tobacco. 
The whole day was consumed in trading with 
these friendly people, and filling the water casks 
with fresh water. Towards night, he again set 


sail, and passing some six miles higher up, found 
the water shoal and cast anchor. He was now 
probably near the spot where the city bearing 
his name has since grown up. The weather was 
warm, and Hudson determined to take advantage 
of the cool hours of the morning. At dawn, 
therefore, the next day he weighed anchor, and 
ran up the river " six leagues higher" but find- 
ing shoals and small islands in the middle of the 
river, he once more stopped. As night came on, 
the vessel drifted near the shore and grounded ; 
but they " layed out there small anchor and 
heaved her off again." In a little time, she was 
aground again in the channel ; but when the 
flood-tide rose she floated off, and then they an- 
chored for the night. This anchorage, it is 
thought, was somewhere near Castleton. 

The next day was fair, and he " rode still" all 
day. In the afternoon, he went ashore with 
" an old savage, a governor of the country, who 
carried him to his house, and made him good 
cheer."* With the flood tide, about noon on 
the following day, he ran up " two leagues above 
the shoals," and cast anchor again in eight 
fathoms of water. The natives now came on 

* Possibly it was here that the scene described by De Laet 


board in crowds, bringing grapes, pumpkins, 
beaver and other skins, for which the sailors 
readily gave them beads, knives, and hatchets. 

Here Hudson seems to have had some misgiv- 
ings as to the depth of the river above him. He 
had now been seven or eight days in reaching 
this point, and his ship had been aground, and 
his soundings shallow, more than once in the 
last three days. The next day, therefore, (the 
morning of the 20th,) he sent the mate with four 
men in the boat to explore the river and take 
soundings. They were gone nearly the whole 
day, and returned with the report that "the 
channel was very narrow ;" that two leagues 
above, they found only two fathoms' water, 
though in some places there was a better depth. 
The next morning they were about starting 
again, to explore the depth and breadth of the 
stream, (for the wind was fair, and Hudson was 
anxious to move up with the ship,) but were 
prevented by the great crowds of Indians that 
came flocking on board. They seem again to 
have been afraid of these men, and unwilling to 
leave the ship while they were there. Finding 
that he was not likely to make any progress on 
that day, Hudson sent the carpenter ashore to 
make a new foreyard for the ship, and determin- 


ed with his men, in the mean time, to make an 
experiment with some of these Indians, that he 
might learn if they were treacherous. 

This experiment was a strange one ; it was 
neither more nor less than intoxicating some of 
the Indian chiefs, and thereby throwing them 
" off their guard." He therefore took several of 
them down into the cabin, and gave them plenty 
of wine and brandy, until they were all merry. 
The poor women looked innocently on, for we 
are told particularly of the wife of one of these 
merry chiefs, who " sate in the cabin as modest- 
ly as any of our countrywomen would do in a 
strange place." The men drank plentifully, and 
presently one of them became so drunk that he 
fell asleep. The rest were now frightened, sup- 
posing him to be poisoned, and immediately took 
to their canoes and pushed for the shore. They 
did not, however, forget the poor man on board-; 
for some of them soon returned, bringing long 
strings of beads, which they hoped the whites 
would accept, and release their poor country- 

The poor Indian slept soundly all night, and 
the next day, when his countrymen came to see 
him, they were rejoiced to find him well. They 
returned to the shore, and about three o'clock 


came again, bringing beads and tobacco, which 
they gave to Hudson. One of them made a long 
oration, and shewed him all the country round 
about. Anxious still farther to shew him their 
gratitude, they now sent one of their number 
ashore, who presenly returned with a large plat- 
ter of venison, dressed in their own style, and 
placed it before Hudson, that he might eat with 
them. After this, they all " made him reverence" 
and departed. 

In the morning before all this scene took place, 
Hudson had again started the mate with the four 
men to sound the river. At ten o'clock at night 
he came back in a hard shower of rain, bringing 
a bad report once more. He had ascended the 
river eight or nine leagues, and found only seven 
feet water and very irregular soundings. 

Disappointed in not finding this the passage to 
the East, Hudson was cheered by the reflection 
that he had passed up this noble stream nearly 
one hundred and fifty miles, and discovered a 
beautiful and fertile region, for the future enter- 
prise of his employers. He now prepared for 
his return.* 

* How far did Hudson ascend the river ? The Rev. Dr. Mil 
ler (in his lecture before the New York Historical Society in 
1809) thinks that the ship Half Moon reached a little above 
where the city of Hudson now stands, while the boat which 


About mid-day on the 23d, he commenced re- 
tracing his way, and went down the river only 
six miles, the wind being ahead. On the 24th, 
he ran down twenty-four miles farther and 
anchored, (it is supposed between Athens and 
Hudson.) Here he was detained four days by 
head winds, but the time was spent pleasantly 
and profitably in surveying the country. Some 
of the men went on shore gathering chestnuts, 
and others strolled along the bank making their 
observations. They found " good ground for 
corn and other garden herbs, with good store of 
goodly oaks and walnut-trees and chestnut-trees, 
yew-trees and trees of sweet wood, in great abun- 
dance, and great store of slate for houses and 
other good stones." While they lay at this an- 
chorage, they had a visit from one who consid- 
ered himself at least an old friend. On the 
morning of the 26th, two canoes came up from 
the place where they met " the loving people," 

was sent to explore and take soundings, went as far as the 
site of the city of Albany. Other writers, however, disagree 
with him. After examining carefully the journal of this voy- 
age, calculating the distances run, with other circumstances, 
and especially bearing in mind that the small yacht, the Half 
Moon, was probably not so large as many of the sloops now 
sailing on the North River, they seem fairly to conclude that 
the Half Moon went nearly as high as the spot where Albany 
now stands, while the boat passed up as far as Waterford. 


(Catskill Landing,) and in one of them was the 
old chief who had been made drunk above, and 
given so much alarm to his countrymen. The 
friendship of this old man must have been strong, 
for he seems to have followed them even to 
the Catskill mountains. He brought now anoth- 
er old chief with him, who presented strings of 
beads to Hudson, and " showed him all the 
country thereabout, as though it were at his 
command." The old man's wife was along, 
with three other Indian women. Hudson was very 
kind to them, invited them all to dine with him, 
after dinner gave them presents, and they de- 
parted begging that he would visit them as 
he passed by, for the place where they lived 
was only two leagues off. 

The wind being north on the morning of the 
27th, they set sail and moved onward. As they 
passed the old man's home, (Catskill Landing,) 
he came off again, hoping they would cast anchor, 
and go ashore and eat with him. The wind was 
too fair and inviting for them to listen to his in- 
vitation, and he left them, " being very sorrowful 
for their departure." Toward night they reach- 
ed the neighborhood of what is known as Red 
Hook Landing, and there had fine fishing. For 
the two next days his progress was very slow, 


for on the morning of the 30th, we are told, his 
ship was anchored off " the northernmost of the 
mountains," meaning, I suppose, the head of the 
highlands. Here again, the natives came on board 
in a friendly manner. Detained for a day by head 
winds, he observed the country closely. The 
description of the land near them is very minute, 
and the town of Newburgh has arisen, perhaps, 
upon the very spot of which the journal speaks. 
" This" (says the journal) " is a very pleasant 
place to build a town on. The road is very near, 
and very good for all winds, save an east-north- 
east wind." Here, too, they were struck with 
the strange appearance of some of the mountains. 
" The mountains look as if some metal or min- 
eral were in them. For the trees that grow on 
them were all blasted, and some of them barren, 
with few or no trees on them. The people brought 
a stone aboard like to emery, (a stone used by 
glaziers to cut glass ;) it would cut iron or steele, 
yet being bruised small and water put to it, it 
made a color like black lead, glistering. It is 
also good for painters' colors." On the 1st of 
October, with a fair wind he sailed through the 
highlands, and reached as far as the neighbor- 
hood of Stony Point, when being becalmed he 
cast anchor. 


No sooner had they anchored, than the natives 
were crowding aboard, astonished at, and ad- 
miring everything they saw. They came trading 
with skins, but these could not procure all that 
they desired. One poor fellow, therefore, was 
prompted to steal. He swept his canoe lightly 
under the stern, crawled up the rudder into the 
cabin window, and stole a pillow with some 
articles of clothing. The mate saw him as he 
moved off with his canoe, shot at him and killed 
him. The rest now fled in terror, some taking 
to their canoes, and some plunging into the 
stream. The ship's boat was manned at once, 
and sent to secure the stolen articles. These were 
easily obtained ; but as the boat came back, one 
of the Indians who was swimming in the water . 
took hold of her, endeavoring to overturn her. 
The cook now drew a sword, and with one 
blow cut off his hand. The poor creature sank 
to the bottom never to rise again. They now 
returned to the ship, got under way immediate- 
ly, and passing down six miles farther, anchored, 
near dark, off the mouth of Croton river, near 
the entrance into Tappan Sea. 

The next day, with a fair wind, they sailed 
twenty-one miles, which must have brought 
them somewhere near the head of Manhattan 


Island. Here they soon found themselves in 
trouble. The two Indians who had escaped from 
the ship on their way up, angry and indignant 
at their captivity, had roused a number of their 
countrymen along the shores of the river, and 
they were now assembled near this point to 
attack Hudson on his return. A canoe ap- 
peared, in which was one of those who had 
escaped, and many others armed with bows and 
arrows. Hudson suspected something from their 
appearance, and none of them were allowed to 
come on board. Presently, two canoes filled 
with armed men dropped under the stern, and 
the attack was commenced with their bows and 
arrows six muskets were fired from the ship, 
and three Indians fell dead. The Indians on the 
land, marking what was done, were now exas- 
perated the more : they moved down to the 
shore in a solid body, (" about one hundred of 
them,") and made ready with their bows as the 
ship passed slowly on. A cannon was now fired 
from the ship upon them, and two more Indians 
fell. The rest fled for the woods, with the excep- 
tion of nine or ten desperate men, who were 
resolved upon revenge. These jumped into a 
canoe, and advanced to meet the ship. The 
cannon was again discharged, the canoe " shot 


through," and another man killed at the same 
time the men fired again with their muskets and 
killed three or four men. Thus the fight ended with 
the loss of nine Indians. The ship now moved 
on her way, and at the distance of " two leagues" 
dropped anchor under the shores of what is now 
known as Hoboken. The next day was stormy ; 
but the morning of the 4th dawned upon them 
with a fair wind. Hudson again weighed an- 
chor, passed through the bay, and with all sails 
set, put out to sea once more.* 

It is said, that Hudson's crew had more than 
once been dissatisfied at the length of this voy- 
age, and at one time even threatened an open 
mutiny. He thought it best, therefore, to learn 
of them now what they desired to do ; whether 
to return to Holland, or steer north again. One 
man (the mate) was in favor of wintering in 
Newfoundland, and seeking a passage to the 
East by Davis' Straits. But Hudson, perceiving 
the mutinous spirit of the men, opposed this, giv- 
ing as his reason, the privations and sorrows of 
a northern winter in a strange land. He kept 
his course, therefore, homeward, and on the 7th 

* The author has followed Hudson very minutely in his 
voyage on the River, because he supposed this part of his 
career had more than an ordinary interest for his young coun 
trymen, and especially those of the State of New York. 


of November, after an absence of little more 
than seven months from Amsterdam, he arrived 
safely at Dartmouth in England. The crew, 
you will remember, was composed partly of 
English, partly of Dutch sailors; and when off 
the coast of England, the English (it is said) 
mutinied, and forced him to put into an English 

The Dutch historians declare that Hudson 
was not allowed to go over to Holland, the 
English king being jealous of their bold mari- 
time enterprises. Be this as it may, certain it is, 
that he remembered his duty to his employers. 
He sent them at once the journal and chart of 
his discoveries, pointing them with pride to what 
he called " the Great River of the Mountains"^ 
and the next year the Dutch were reaping the 
fruits of his arduous enterprise. 

The journal of this voyage { would seem to 
cast two stains upon the fair character of Henry 
Hudson : first, that of cruelty toward the Indians, 

* Lainbrechtsen. 

f The Indian names for the river were Cahohatatea, 
Mahackaneghtue, and sometimes Sfiatemuck. It was early 
called by the Dutch the North River, to distinguish it from 
the Delaware or South River. 

The journal of this voyage in 1609, written by Robert 
Juet, will be found in PurcJias his Pilgrims. 


and secondly, that of want of principle in caus- 
ing the general intoxication on the river. 

As regards the first, it should be borne in mind 
that Hudson had under his command a mutinous 
body of men, and he may have found it impossi- 
ble to control their refractory and ungovernable 
tempers. He seems not even to have thought of 
revenging the death of poor Colman, at Sandy 
Hook : the mate was the man who shot the poor 
Indian for the comparatively small crime of 
stealing the pillow and clothing, and the death 
of the nine Indians killed at the head of Man- 
hattan Island, may be said to have been caused 
in a war of self-defence. 

In reference to the second, it can only be ac- 
counted for, by supposing that Hudson was, like 
his men, suspicious and alarmed, and therefore 
determined to learn the honesty or treachery 
of the Indians by any means whatsoever. 


Hudson starts on his fourth voyage, having 
command of the ship Discovery, in the service 
once more of the London Company His aim 
is to find a North-West Passage to India 
Reaches Iceland, and witnesses an eruption of 
Mount Hecla Disturbance among his crew 
Steers westward, encountering great quantities 
of ice Discovers and explores Hudson 1 s Say, 
and resolves to winter there. 

IT is said that Hudson made new proposals for 
a farther voyage to the Dutch East India Com- 
pany, and that these proposals were declined.* 
His plan was to set sail (with a crew of twenty 
men) from Dartmouth, on the first of March, 
" spend the month of April and half of May in 
killing whales and other creatures near the Isl- 
and of Panar : after that, sail to the north-west 
and stay there till the middle of September, and 
at last return to Holland by the north-east of 

* Forster's Northern Voyages. 


Whether this story be true or false, certain it 
is that he was not long seeking employment. 
Another voyage had given him a greater name, 
and the story of his discoveries roused once more 
the spirit of the London Company. His old 
employers (who had sent him out in 1607 and 
J 8) now called him again into their own service. 
They determined to make an effort for a north- 
west passage by examining the inlets of the 
American continent and more especially Davis' 
Straits, through which it was supposed a channel 
might be found into the " Great South Sea." 
Early in the spring of 1610, therefore, the ship 
Discovery, of fifty-five tons, was equipped, manned 
with twenty-three men, and the command given 
to Henry Hudson.' 

One of these twenty-three was Robert Juet, 
who had sailed with Hudson before, another, his 
son John Hudson, and another, Henry Green, 
whose history I \yill briefly relate to you, as he 
is to act a conspicuous part in this voyage. 

Henry Green was a young Englishman, born 
of respectable parents, and had respectable con- 
nexionsbut by his extravagant and wicked 
habits he had forced them to cast him off, and 
was now almost a beggar. In this condition, 
Hudson fell in with him ; and having pity for his 


youth, and a desire to reclaim him from hus worth- 
less ways, he clothed and fed him, hoping to gain 
the young man's love and gratitude. The thought 
now struck him that he would take Green out 
on this voyage. His name was not entered as 
one of the crew : he was only the companion 
of the master. Yet to rouse his ambition and 
prompt him to that which was good, Hudson 
promised him wages : and to awaken his pride 
the more, encouraged him to hope that he should 
be made upon his return one of the " Prince's 
Guards." Through Hudson's persuasion, a friend 
went to the mother of Green, and asked for enough 
money to purchase some clothes for the voyage. 
Yet she knew the madness and profligacy of her son 
so well, that she hesitated long before she would 
advance even five pounds, and then it was bestow- 
ed on the express condition that it should not be 
given to the young man, but expended for him. 
On the 17th of April, 1610, the Discovery 
dropped down the Thames. It seems that the 
London Company had insisted upon placing 
aboard an experienced seaman by the name of 
Coleburne to make this voyage with Hudson. 
Whether he supposed that this cast a reflection 
upon his own skill, or from some other cause, 
Hudson was displeased with it j and ere the ship 


left the river, he put this man aboard another 
vessel bound up to London and sent him back. 
It is strange that we do not know his motives for 
this, since he sent by the man a letter to his em- 
ployers containing the reasons for his conduct. 

He now kept on his voyage. On the 6th of 
May, he passed the north of Scotland and the 
Orkneys, which he says he found to be " not so 
northerly as is commonly set down." On the 
8th, he saw the Faroe Islands, and on the llth 
was upon the eastern shores of Iceland. Coast- 
ing along its southern shore, he beheld in the dis- 
tance Mount Hecla casting forth its flames of fire : 
and after struggling for more than a fortnight 
against head winds and icebergs, at length, on the 
30th, made a harbor in the western part of the 
island. The natives of this island were poor 
and miserable, but they treated him very kindly. 
He found upon going ashore a hot spring, (Iceland 
abounds in these springs,) so hot that " it would 
scald a fowl" yet we are told the men bathed 
in the water freely. Here Hudson began to discov- 
er that he unfortunately had about him some dis- 
satisfied men. It was rumored that Juet the mate 
had been speaking lightly of the enterprise, dis- 
couraging the men, and trying to destroy their 
confidence in Hudson, calling up their fears by 


telling them of the hazards of the voyage : that 
he had even urged two of the men " to keep their 
muskets charged and swords ready in their cabins, 
for there would be blood shed before the voyage 
ended," and had talked boldly about turning the 
head of the ship homeward. While the ship lay 
here at anchor, a circumstance occurred, which 
gave Juet the chance of making new mischief. 
The surgeon and Henry Green got into a quarrel, 
and Juet took part in it. The whole story is told 
by Habakkuk Pricket, one of the sailors and an 
eye-witness, in the following words : " At Ice- 
land, the surgeon and he (Henry Green) fell out 
in Dutch, and he beat him ashore in English, 
which set all the company in a rage, so that we 
had much ado to get the surgeon aboard. I 
told the master of it, but he bade me let it alone : 
for, said he, the surgeon had a tongue that would 
wrong the best friend he had. But Robert Juet, 
the master's mate, would needs burn his finger in 
the embers, and told the carpenter a long tale 
when he was drunk, that our master had brought 
in Green to crack his credit that should displease 
him : which word was earned to the master's ears, 
who when he understood it, would have gone 
back to Iceland, when he was forty leagues from 
thence, to have sent home his mate Robert Juet 


in a fisherman. But being otherwise persuaded, 
all was well. So Henry Green stood upright 
and very inward with the master, and was a ser- 
viceable man every way for manhood : but for 
religion he would say, he was clean paper where- 
on he might write what he would."* 

On the 1st of June, Hudson sailed from Ice- 
land. Deceived by a fog-bank, he fancied that 
he saw land in the west, but it was not till the 
4th, that he beheld the coast of Greenland " rising 
very mountainous, and full of round hills like to 
sugar loaves covered with snow." The ice 
lay so thick along the shore, that Hudson did 
not attempt to make a landing, but stood imme- 
diately for the south of Greenland. In his voy- 
age now he met great numbers of whales. Some 
came close alongside, and one passed directly 
under the ship, but fortunately no harm was 
done, for which they were very thankful. Doub- 
ling the southern point of Greenland, he passed 
in sight of Desolation Island, near which he saw 
a " great island or mountain of ice," and kept 
his course north-w r est, for the American conti- 
nent. As he passed on, across Davis' Straits, he 
continually met these floating ice mountains, al- 

* It seems from this, that when Hudson left Iceland he was 
ignorant of the extent of Juet's insolence. 


ways endangering and sometimes obstructing his 
progress. One of these overturned once near 
the ship, and taught him to keep farther from 
them : but while struggling to avoid one, he 
would meet another, and the farther he went they 
seemed to him to grow more " numerous and ter- 
rifying." Still, by perseverance and skill, he 
managed to reach a bay, (supposed to be near 
the great strait which now bears his name,) when 
a storm overtook him. The ice was now driving 
so rapidly against the ship, that Hudson was 
forced as his only chance for escape, to run her 
into the thickest of it, and there leave her. Some 
of the men were now dismayed and sick, or, as 
the journal says, " some of our men fell sick : I 
will not say it was of fear, although I saw small 
sign of other grief." When the storm ceased they 
went to work to extricate themselves. It was 
a sad prospect, for as far as the eye could see, 
the waters were covered with the huge masses 
of floating ice. They stood now for one clear 
sea, and then for another, but were still hemmed 
in by the ice in every direction. After trying to 
make their way through north, north-west, west, 
and south-west, they at last laid the ship's course 
to the south. Yet the more they labored, the 
worse their situation became, until at last they 


could proceed no farther. Hudson's heart now 
sickened, for as he cast his eyes again and again 
upon the desolate scene, there seemed no possi- 
bility of escape. Yet his courage failed not, al- 
though he afterwards confessed to one of the 
men that he feared he should never escape, but 
was doomed to perish there in the ice. His 
crew, however, saw no sign of fear in him, for 
he carried a cheerful countenance, while they 
were dismayed and broken spirited. 

He now brought out his chart, and calling all 
the men around him, shewed them that they had 
passed three hundred miles farther than any 
Englishman had been before, and gave them 
their choice, whether they would proceed or turn 
back. The men could corne to no decision : 
some were for proceeding, some for returning. 
One man said that "if he had one hundred 
pounds, he would give four score and ten to be 
at home ;" while the carpenter, who had some 
courage, said " that if he had a hundred 
he would not give ten upon any such condition : 
but. would think it to be as good money as any 
he ever had, and to bring it as well home by the 
leave of God." The great majority of them did 
not care where they went, provided they were 
only clear of the ice, and some spoke angry 


words against the master. This was precisely 
what Hudson expected. He knew that he had 
a mutinous set of men, and that they themselves 
scarcely knew what they desired. Yet this was 
no time to resent their words and punish them. 
His object was to pacify them. He therefore 
reasoned with them, trying to allay their fears, 
rouse their hopes, and inspire them with courage, 
until at length, they all again set resolutely at work 
to bring the ship from the ice, and save them- 
selves. After much labor they succeeded in 
turning her round. They now worked their 
way by little and little, until at length they found 
themselves in a clear sea, and kept on their 
course north-west. 

There is no scene in the life of Hudson shew- 
ing greater firmness and presence of mind than 
this. With his little ship hemmed in by moun- 
tains of ice, and a murmuring and desperate 
crew on board, he might naturally have exhibit- 
ed some symptoms of fear, both as to the dan- 
gers without, and the danger within the ship. 
There can be few situations more perilous, yet 
he is calm. His mind rises with the occasion . 
he brings around him these desperate sailors, 
calms their fears, and inspires them with new 
courage. Overcoming these, he now overcomes 
the storm without, and presses on his voyage. 


On the 8th of July, he again saw the land 
bearing south-west, but it was all covered with 
snow, and he gave it the name of Desire Pro- 
voked. Having now entered the straits which 
bear his name, he kept his course west, and 
spent nearly the whole month of July in passing 
through them. This was a new world around 
them, and as he passed on, he gave names to the 
new bays, capes, and islands, which fell under 
his observation. The main land he called 
" Magnet Britannia" To some rocky islands 
near which he anchored as a shelter from a 
storm, he gave the name of the " Isles of God's 
Mercies" and to a high point of land which he 
passed, the name of " Hold with Hope." To 
other places he gave the names of Prince Hen- 
ry's Cape, King James's Cape } and Queen Ann's 
Cape. They were still occasionally in the neigh- 
borhood of ice, but the men seem now to have 
become familiar with this sort of danger, and 
even from time to time to have amused them- 
selves by chasing bears that were seen upon the 
floating pieces. The last point of land which 
he seems to have marked upon this course, was 
a bold headland upon the northern shore, to 
which he gave the name of Salisbury's Fore- 
land. From this point, he stood south-west, and 


running about fourteen leagues, entered a strait 
about two leagues broad. In honor of two of 
the company that had employed him, he named 
the cape on the south side of the strait, Cape 
Worsenholme, and that on the north, Cape 
Digges. This strait, you willfind, was but the 
passage way to the great bay, which now bears 
his name. 

Full of hope, now that the long-sought pas- 
sage to the East was clear before him, he sent 
a number of the men on shore at Cape Digges, 
that they might climb the hills, and see the great 
ocean beyond the straits. As the men wander- 
ed on the land, which was covered with grass, 
(among which was much sorrel and scurvy 
grass,) they saw herds of deer : at one time as 
many as sixteen in a herd, and abundance of 
fowls flying over their heads. Still pressing to- 
ward the hills, which seemed to grow farther as 
they advanced, they met with strange piles of 
stones. These they thought must be the work 
of some civilized people, but on coming near 
and lifting up one of the stones, they found the 
piles were hollow, and filled inside with fowls 
hung by the neck. A thunder storm now came 
on, and prevented their exploring farther. With 
some difficulty they reached the ship, for a fog 


had risen upon the water, and Hudson found 
it necessary to fire two guns, that they might 
know where he was. They told of what sup- 
plies they had found, and when the storm was 
over, tried to persuade the master to remain here 
a day or two, while they went ashore again, and 
provisioned the ship. But Hudson would listen 
to no such request. He could suffer no delay, 
for he felt almost certain that his way was clear 
before him, and he burned to press onward. He 
weighed anchor immediately, and keeping the 
main land on the left, touched the rocks among 
the Sleepers, encountered a storm, and passing 
south-east, soon discovered two points of land 
before him. He now sent some of the men 
ashore again, to notice if they could see the ocean 
beyond. They returned, reporting that the sea 
was open to the south. Pressing immediately 
between these points he entered the sea, and 
continuing his course south, (stopping only once 
to take in ballast and water,) was ere long at the 
southern extremity of it. It proved to be only 
a part of the great inland sea (Hudson's Bay) 
upon which he was voyaging ; and disappointed 
that he could proceed no farther in this direction, 
with a sad heart he prepared to retrace his 
course northward. Here he began to hear once 


more, the murmurings of his mutinous crew. He 
had borne with their complaints patiently be- 
fore, but now he would endure them no longer. 
Robert Juet the mate, and Francis Clement the 
boatswain, were suspected of making the trouble, 
and Juet, like most guilty men, endeavored to 
make a show of innocence by demanding that the 
charges against him should be investigated. A 
court of inquiry was therefore appointed to try 
him. It was proved that before they reached 
Iceland, Juet had tried to dishearten the men 
and shake their confidence in the commander : 
his insolence as regards the quarrel between 
Green and the surgeon, and his wicked advice 
to some of the men to keep their arms loaded by 
them, were also sworn to : and there were wit- 
nesses to shew that ever since the ship left Cape 
Digges, he had been endeavoring to plot mis- 
chief. Hudson decided, therefore, that he should 
no longer be the mate, and Robert Bylot was 
appointed in his place. The boatswain was 
found guilty of conduct almost as bad, and his 
place was given to William Wilson. Hudson 
seems to have felt sorry that he found these acts 
necessary, for he admonished both Juet and 
Clement kindly, and promised that if they 
would behave well for the future he would not 


only forget past injuries, but be the means of 
doing them good. 

It was now the 10th of September, and Hud- 
son, moving north again, spent the whole of this 
and the next month in exploring the great bay, 
still longing for his eastern passage. From time 
to time tempests would strike the ship, and he 
would make a harbor where he could. During 
one storm they were forced to cut their cable, 
and thereby lost their anchor. At another time 
the ship ran upon rocks, and stuck fast for 
twelve hours, but fortunately got off without 
much injury. At length, the end of October was 
at hand ; " the nights long and cold, the land 
covered with snow" wherever it was seen, and 
it was evident that the season for navigation was 
well nigh past. Hudson now ran the ship into 
a small bay, and sent Habakkuk Pricket, one 
of the sailors, and Philip Staffe, the carpenter, 
off in the boat, to search for a proper place 
where they might shelter themselves for the win- 
ter. In a little time they found what they 
thought a suitable position, the ship was brought 
there, and hauled aground. It was now the first 
day of November ; and by the tenth they found 
themselves shut up for the season : hard freezing 
weather had set in, and the ship was completely 
fastened in the ice. 


Some have found fault with this attempt of 
the commander to winter in this northern bay. 
It is said " that Hudson, on finding, instead of the 
India passage, that he was embayed, became 
distracted, and committed many errors, especially 
in resolving to winter in that desolate region."* 
It is easy to find fault with a man, when we do 
not understand the difficulties of his position, 
and especially when he proves in the end unfor- 
tunate, lie had enough to distract him : but we 
can hardly call him distracted, who bore him- 
self again and again so firmly and calmly against 
his mutinous crew, and met so resolutely tempest 
after tempest in that great bay, which the jour- 
nal speaks of as " a labyrinth without end." 

* Purchas. 


The dreary prospect of the winter Disturbances 
among the crew Unexpected supply of wild 
fowl and fish Distress from hunger Hud- 
son sails from his winter quarters Green, 
Juef, and Wilson stir the crew up to mutiny 
Hudson is seized, bound, and thrown into 
the shallop, with others the shallop set adrift 
Fate of the mutineers The ship arrives in 

A LONG and dreary winter was now set in. 
Two harsdhips were distinctly before them, the 
rigors of a northern winter, and a scanty supply 
of provisions; for the ship had been victualled 
only for six months. Their only hope, therefore, 
was to take care of what they had, to get what 
they could in the neighborhood, and have patience 
till the spring, when they might reach Cape Dig- 
ges, and then probably obtain supplies. 

Hudson prudently commenced at once putting 
the men on an allowance, and then, to encourage 


them to industry in procuring other provisions, 
offered a reward to every man who should kill a 
" Beast, Fish, or Fowl." In about a fortnight, 
one of their number (John Williams, the gunner) 
died :* and in addition to the sorrow of losing a 
companion, another difficulty attended this mis- 

It seems it was customary, when a man died at 
sea, after his burial, to bring his clothes to the 
main-mast, and there sell them to the highest 
bidder among the sailors. The poor gunner had, 
among other garments, left an old gray cloth 
gown, which Henry Green desired, and begged 
the commander that he would favor him and al- 
low him to have it. Upon his agreeing to pay 
as much as any other man would, Hudson impru- 
dently promised it should be his. This dissatis- 
fied the crew, for it evidently showed that Green 
was a favorite. 

Finding his winter quarters not so comforta- 
ble as they might be, he now ordered the car- 
penter to go ashore and build a house, for the 
better accommodation of the crew. The car- 
penter refused to obey, saying, that the frost and 

* Hudson is said to have treated this man cruelly, but no 
word or action of his is brought forward to support this 


snow were such, that he could not do it, and 
moreover that it was no work of his, for he was 
only the ship carpenter. Hudson now became 
angry, and driving him out of the cabin, followed 
him with abusive words, and even threatened to 
hang him. The carpenter, still insolent, replied, 
" that he knew what belonged to his place better 
than Hudson, and that lie was no ho.use carpen- 
ter." The carpenter, though insolent, it would 
seem, was right enough in one particular : it was 
late to build the house now ; it should have been 
attended to when they were first frozen in, and 
he had then spoken to Hudson about it, but at 
that time he refused to have it done. In this 
quarrel, Henry Green sided with the carpenter, 
and this displeased Hudson the more. The diffi- 
culty being ended* the carpenter had time for 
reflection, and* thinking that obedience was best, 
not only built the house, (which, however, prov- 
ed of little advantage,) but was ever after one 
of the warmest friends that Hudson had in the 

The day after this, the carpenter went ashore 
with his gun, taking Green along with him. 
Green left contrary to orders, and the master was 
again displeased with him. He now took the 
cloth gown of the gunner that had been prom- 


ised to Green, and gave it to Robert Bylot, the 
mate. Upon Green's return, he was angry, and 
reminded the master of his promise. Hudson 
upon this spoke harshly to Green, telling him 
" that all his friends would not trust him with 
twenty shillings, and therefore why should he 1 
As for his wages he had none, nor should have, 
if he did not please him well." These words 
were never forgotten by Green, but sank deeply 
in his heart. He seems to have forgotten all 
former kindness in the remembrance of them. 

As the season now advanced, they suffered se- 
verely from the cold : most of the men, from time 
to time, having their feet frozen, and being ren- 
dered thereby lame. But in the way of provis- 
ions, they fared for a while much better than they 
had even expected. For three months, they found 
abundance of white partridges around them, and 
killed of these more than one hundred dozen. 
Other birds too, were sometimes shot. These 
afforded supplies through " the extreme cold 
weather," and when spring came, they were vis- 
ited by other fowl, such as swan, geese, and 
ducks. These, however, were taken with diffi- 
culty. Hudson hoped, when they first made 
their appearance, that they came to this region to 
breed, and might be taken easily, but he found 


they went farther north for that purpose. Before 
the ice broke up, these too began to fail, and 
starvation, now drove them to sad extremities. 
They went climbing over the hills, and wandering 
through the valleys, in search of anything that 
might satisfy hunger. They ate the moss on 
the ground, and every frog that could be found. 
It was a great comfort to them when Thomas 
Woodhouse, one of their company, discovered 
in his wanderings a tree bearing certain buds, full 
of " turpentine substance." They now, from 
time to time, w r ould gather these, boil them, and 
make a palatable drink. These buds, too, 
answered another purpose. When steeped hot, 
and applied by the surgeon to their aching limbs,, 
they gave great relief to the sick.* 

About the time that the ice began to break up, 
they were visited by a savage, (the only one 
they had seen through the winter,) and they were 
greatly cheered by his arrival. Hudson treated 
him with great kindness, made him a present of 
a knife, looking-glass, and some buttons, and 
the man made signs that he would return again. 
He was true to his promise this time, for he came 
back before a great while, drawing his sled, load- 

* This tree is supposed by Doctor Belknap to be the "Pop 
ulus Balsamifera." 



ed with deer and beaver-skins. He was receiv- 
ed again very kindly, and when he strangely 
returned the presents he had received, Hudson 
immediately restored them to him again. He 
then traded with him for one of his deer-skins, 
and the savage, as he left them now, made 
" many signs of people to the north and to the 
south," and promised that after so many sleeps, 
he would come again. Whether (as has been 
said) Hudson's hard bargain for the deer-skin 
displeased him, or whether some other cause 
actuated him, certain it is that he came no more, 
and now all hopes of obtaining provision through 
him were at an end. 

Fortunately, now the ice was so far broken 
up, that they were enabled to make up a fishing 
party, to try their skill with the net. On the first 
day they were very successful : they took five 
hundred fish. They now began to think their 
sorrows at an end, so far as food was concerned, 
but they were doomed to disappointment, for on 
no day after did they take " a quarter of that 
number." At this time, two of the men (Hen- 
ry Green and William Wilson) were so dissat- 
isfied, that they plotted to steal the boat, push off, 
and shift for themselves. But Hudson now called 
for the boat himself, and their plot proved idle 


He had perceived the woods on fire at the south 
for some time, and fancied that if he could reach 
them, he might find some of the people and ob- 
tain provisions. Accordingly he made ready the 
boat, took in eight or nine days provisions, and 
leaving orders that the crew should take in wood, 
water, and ballast, and have everything in 
readiness by his return, he departed. His voy- 
age too, proved profitless ere long he came 
back disappointed and tired, for though he could 
come near enough to see the people setting the 
woods on fire, he could never reach them.* 

The men had obeyed his orders during his ab- 
sence, and were now prepared to depart from 
their cold winter quarters. Before he weighed 
anchor, Hudson, with a sad heart, " distributed 
among the crew the remnant of provisions," 

* Hudson is said to have acted foolishly in leaving the men, 
and not prosecuting the fishing. But this is evidently incor- 
rect, for he took the boat when they were failing in this effort, 
and went off with the earnest desire of doing good to them 

Purchas (in his pilgrimage) says, " at the opening of the 
year there came to the ship's side abundance of fish of all 
sorts, that they might therewith have fraught themselves for 
their return, if Hudson had not too desperately pursued the 
voyage, neglecting this opportunity of storing themselves 
with fish, which he committed to the care of certain careless, 
dissolute villains, which in his absence conspired against 
him in a few days the fish all forsook them." 


about a pound of bread to each man, " and 
knowing their wretched condition, and the un- 
certainty of what might befall them, he also gave 
to every man a bill of return, which might be 
showed at home, if it pleased God that they 
came home, and he wept when he gave it to 

It was about the middle of June, when they 
hoisted sail. Unfortunately, in three or four 
days, they found themselves surrounded by ice, 
and were forced to cast anchor. Here it was 
discovered, that some of the men had already 
ravenously ate up all their bread ; and now some 
cheese was found, and divided among them, 
" about three pounds and a half to each person." 
Some of the more prudent part of the crew re- 
monstrated against this, saying, " that if all the 
cheese was given out, some of the men would de- 
vour their share at once, as they had their bread-," 
and they, therefore, advised that a part should be 
kept back. But as some of the cheese was bad, 
Hudson determined to make an equal division 
of all at once, and thereby prevent, as he hoped, 
all complaints. 

They were now detained at their anchorage 
amid the ice for nearly a week, and it was dur- 
ing this time that signs of open mutiny began to 


appear among the crew. Hudson, it seems, said 
to one of the men, (Nicholas Simmes,) that there 
would be a breaking up of chests, and a search 
for bread, and told him if he had any to bring 
it to him. The man obeyed, and immediately 
brought forward a bag, containing thirty cakes. 
Others of the crew now became greatly exasper- 
ated, and at once commenced their plot for the 
destruction of their commander. 

Green and Wilson now went at midnight to 
Pricket, who was lame in his berth, and opened 
the plan. This Pricket had been a servant of 
Sir Dudley Digges,(one of the company who had 
fitted out the ship,) and the mutineers hoped to 
secure him as a friend, that he might intercede 
for pardon in their behalf with his old master 
when they should reach England. These men 
complained to Pricket, that there was only four- 
teen days provision in the ship, that the master 
was irresolute, not knowing what to do, that 
they had eaten nothing for three days, and 
" therefore, were determined either to mend or 
end, and what they had begun they would go 
through with it, or die." Declaring that they be- 
lieved their only hope was in taking command 
of the ship themselves, they expressed themselves 
fully resolved to do so at all hazards. Their 


plan was, to take the master and all the sick, 
place them in the shallop, set it adrift, and then 
shift for themselves. 

In vain did Pricket plead with them of the 
blackness of this intended crime. He reminded 
them also, of their wives, their children, and their 
country, from which they would cut themselves 
off for ever 'by the deed, but all to no purpose ; 
they were fully bent upon it. Green told him 
" to hold his peace, for he knew the worst, which 
was, to be hanged when he came home, and 
therefore, of the two, he would rather be hanged 
at home than starved abroad." He then com- 
menced cursing, and threatened to have Pricket 
put in the shallop with the rest. Finding his 
efforts useless, Pricket now begged that they 
would delay the crime, but here again he was 
unsuccessful, they declaring that, if they waited, 
the plot would be discovered, and sorrow would 
fall upon themselves. He begged for a delay 
of three days, of two days, of even twelve 
hours, but all without effect. He now upbraided 
them, telling them that it was not their own 
safety they sought, but blood, and that they were 
actuated by feelings of revenge. Upon this, 
Green seized a Bible before him, and swore 
" he would do harm to no man, and what he did 


was for the good of the voyage, and nothing 
else." Wilson then took the same oath, after- 
wards Juet, Thomas, Perce, Moter, and Bennet 
came in and swore to the same purpose. The 
precise words of their oath were as follows : 
" You shall swear truth to God, your Prince, and 
Country ; you shall do nothing but to the glory 
of God, and the good of the action in hand, and 
harm to no man" Pricket seems to have brought 
them to this positive oath, as the only means left 
for restraining them. How heartless they prov- 
ed, and how utterly they forgot the oath, we 
shall presently see. 

Their plan was now arranged, to be executed 
at day-light, and in the mean time, the wretch 
Green hung around the master with pretended 
love. Besides Hudson and the sick, they had 
resolved to put into the shallop the carpenter 
and Henry King. They pretended to be dissat- 
isfied with these, because of some injustice 
done about the provisions ; but the true cause 
of their dislike of the carpenter was, that Hud- 
son loved him, and after leaving their winter 
quarters, had made him the mate in place of 
Robert Bylot. Pricket, however, urged that 
they could not do without the carpenter, and 
they consented that he should remain. It hap- 


pened that King and the carpenter slept upon 
deck that night, and at day-break, King was ob- 
served to go down " into the hold," as Bennet, 
the cook, was going down for water. Some of 
the mutineers now ran and closed down the 
hatches on him, while others held the carpenter 
in a talk, so that he did not notice what was 
going on. Hudson now came up from his cabin, 
and was immediately seized by Thomas and 
Bennet, who held him fast, while Wilson bound 
his arms behind him. " He asked them what 
they meant? they told him he should know 
when he was in the shallop." In the mean 
time, Juet went into the hold to attack King. 
Here there was a sharp conflict, for King had 
got a sword, and not only kept him at bay, but 
would have killed him, had not others who heard 
the noise ran down to Juet's assistance. Hud- 
son now called to the carpenter, telling him that 
he was bound, but he could give him no help. 
Lodlo and Bute reproached their shipmates, 
telling them " their knavery would show itself." 
The boat was now hastily hauled alongside, and 
the sick and lame w r ere called up from their 
berths, to get into the shallop. Hudson now 
called to Pricket to come to the hatch-way to 
speak with him. Pricket crawled up, and on 


his knees " besought them, for the love of God, 
to remember themselves, and do as they would 
be done unto." Their only answer was, to or- 
der him back to his berth, and they would not 
allow him one word with the commander. He 
went back, Hudson still calling to him at " the 
horn which gave light into his cabin, and telling 
him that Juet would overthrow them all." 
"Nay," replied Pricket, "it is that villain, 
Henry Green." 

Hudson, thus bound, was put into the shal- 
lop, and his son John thrown in alongside of 
him. Then came the sick and the lame, Arnold 
Lodlo, Sidrack Faner, Thomas Wydhouse, Adam 
Moore, Henry King, and Michael Bute. Two 
others were to have been put in Francis Clem- 
ents, and the cooper ; but John Thomas was a 
friend to Clements, and Bennet to the cooper, and 
while Henry Green swore they should go, they 
swore they should not, and at last they were al- 
lowed to remain. The carpenter was now free, 
and they desired him to remain, but he declared 
that he would not desert his commander, or stay 
with such villains. He asked for his chest of 
tools, and they placed it in the shallop. Before 
leaving, he went below to talk with Pricket, who 
begged him to remain and use his influence to 


have the others taken back. But the carpenter 
refused, saying, that they would all be in the 
ship again, for there was no one on board who 
knew enough to carry her home. He thought 
the boat would be kept in tow only for a time ; 
but begged Pricket, if they should be parted, 
that if it was his lot first to reach Cape Digges, 
he would leave some token there, by which he 
might know it. Promising in return that he 
would do the same thing, if he had the good for- 
tune to be first there, " with tears in their eyes," 
they parted. The carpenter, now taking a gun, 
some powder and shot, an iron pot, a small quan- 
tity of meal, and some other provisions, leaped 
into the shallop.* The anchor was now weigh- 
ed, the sails hoisted, and with a fair wind 
they stood eastward, dragging the shallop at the 

* " But see what sincerity can do in the most desperate trials. 
Philip Staffe, an Ipswich man, who, according to his name, had 
been a principal staffe and stay to the weaker and more un- 
settled courage of his companions in the whole action, light- 
ening and enlightening their drooping, darkened spirits, with 
sparks from his own resolution ; their best purveyor with his 
piece on shore, and both a skilful carpenter and lusty mari- 
ner on board, when he could by no persuasions, seasoned with 
tears, divert them from their devilish designs, notwithstanding 
they entreated him to stay with them, yet chose rather to 
commit himself to God's mercy in the forlorn shallop, than 
with such villains to accept of likelier hopes." Purchas his 


stern. When they had nearly cleared the ice, 
they cut the rope, and the boat was adrift. 

Now they hoisted their topsails, and stood 
away into a clear sea. In a little time they low- 
ered their topsails, righted helm, and commenced 
the work of ransacking the ship. Chests and 
lockers were broken open, and every place was 
pillaged. In the cabin they found some biscuit 
and a but of beer ; and a few pieces of pork, 
some meal, and a small quantity of peas were 
found in the hold. While they were busy at 
this work, some one cried out, that the shallop 
was in sight. Pricket now besought them to 
take their poor comrades on board again. But 
this they refused to do. Although they had now 
obtained all the provisions to themselves, and 
might at least have taken the boat in tow as far 
as Cape Digges, where Hudson and his compan- 
ions might have found some relief, and perhaps 
once more reached Europe they positively re- 
fused to aid them in any way. The truth is, 
these mutineers did not desire that they should 
live : so they again hoisted sail, and stood away 
from the boat " as from an enemy." 

A more outrageous and heartless crime than 
this, committed by the mutineers, can hardly be 
thought of. It wap ot only murder, but murder 


under the very worst circumstances. Green, the 
ringleader in it, had been taken by Hudson, 
when he was a castaway from his own mother, 
and treated as his own son. He repaid the 
love of his benefactor, by this act of base in- 
gratitude ; and his conduct serves to show how 
early profligacy and sin will deaden the feelings 
of the heart, and steel it against all that is good. 
Juet, another conspirator, had sailed with the 
commander on former voyages, and shared all 
his glories and his perils. Wilson, another of 
the set, had been selected by Hudson as a good 
man, and appointed the boatswain. This was 
the man who, more than any other, refused to 
hearken to the entreaty of Pricket, that the men 
might be taken aboard and these were the 
three principal men who had plotted this mis- 

To make the crime worse, with cold-blooded 
cruelty, they took the sick and the lame, and 
gave these suffering men to the rough winds and 
cold waters of the Northern Sea, with scarcely 
a morsel to subsist upon. It would have been 
mercy, indeed, to have killed them all at once, 
but their cruelty preferred leaving them to a long, 
lingering, and horrible death. And this horrible 
death, even the young son of Hudson was to 


share, though his tender years might have pleaded 
in his behalf. 

The mutineers now kept on their way under 
Henry Green, who was appointed their com- 
mander. Their aim was to reach Cape Digges, 
but it was more than a month before this was 
accomplished. Green was utterly ignorant and 
unfit to command ; Robert Juet thought he was 
wiser, and offered his counsels: but the truth 
is, Robert Bylot was the most serviceable man 
among them, and but for him, they would probably 
have never reached the Capes at any time. Du- 
ring this month, the ship seems to have been 
tossed about at the mercy of the winds, and their 
lives were more than once endangered. At one 
time they were for a fortnight embayed with ice, 
which stretched for miles around them, and feared 
they should never escape. Thrice did the ship 
run upon rocks, and on one occasion remained 
so for hours, until the flood tide floated her off. 
Provisions, too, were scanty ; but they were able 
to make landings sometimes, and catch a few 
fish, shoot a few fowl, and gather the cockle- 
grass which spread itself along the shores. 
Guilt will make a coward of any man, and so 
these men were all cowards : while they feared 
the perils which surrounded them, they also 


feared even the success of reaching England. 
Cursing and swearing, they were continually 
declaring that England was " no safe place for 
them;" and Green swore that the ship should 
keep the sea until he had the king's hand and 
seal for his pardon. 

At length, to their great comfort, they came 
in sight of the Capes, where they hoped for sup- 
plies. The boat was immediately sent ashore to 
obtain provisions. As it approached, it was met 
by seven canoes filled with the natives. The 
savages were at first alarmed, and drew back ; 
but presently they became familiar, and hostages 
were exchanged between the parties. After- 
wards they all went ashore, and met in the tents 
of the natives. There was great joy among 
them. The savages danced, leaped, stroked 
their breasts, and offered them many things, so 
that the men returned to the ship greatly pleased, 
thinking they had found a kind and hospitable 
people. Some few of the mutineers were sus- 
picious of these savages; but most of them, with 
Henry Green at their head, had all confidence 
in their kindness. 

Accordingly, the next day, Green ordered 
the boat to be made ready, and with Wilson, 
Thomas, Perse, Moter, and Pricket, started for 


the shore : the boat was laden with such articles 
as they thought of trafficking, and Pricket, being 
lame, was to remain in the boat, and guard the 
articles while the others landed. Green foolishly 
went unarmed, though some of his companions 
advised him to the contrary. As they came 
near, they saw the savages upon the hills, dancing 
and leaping. The boat touched and was fast- 
ened ; and while Green, Wilson, and Thomas 
met the savages on the beach, who came down 
displaying their articles of traffic, Perse and 
Moter went up on the hills to pick sorrel ; Prick- 
et, in the mean time, remained in the stern of 
the boat. While matters were going on thus, 
one of the savages stepped into the boat j but 
Pricket, being suspicious, ordered him out. In 
the mean time, another stole behind Pricket, un- 
observed, and stabbed him twice before he could 
reach his own dagger and despatch him. Now 
there was a general conflict on shore. Green, 
Perse, Wilson, and Thomas came tumbling into 
the boat, badly wounded. Moter, seeing the 
fight from the hill, leaped from the rocks, plunged 
into the sea, and held fast to the stem ; Perse 
helped him in, seized a hatchet, laid one of the 
savages dead, and pushed off the boat. They 
were followed by clouds of arrows : Green was 


instantly killed, and Perse and Pricket again 
wounded ; still, Perse with Moter rowed rapidly 
to\vards the ship, until Perse fainted, and Moter 
was left to manage the boat alone. Fortunately, 
the savages did not follow" them with their boats. 
Moter now made signals to the ship, (for he 
could not reach her,) and she came to his relief. 
The body of Green was thrown into the sea ; 
Wilson and Thomas died the same day, cursing 
and raving in the most awful manner ; and Perse 
died two days afterward. 

The wretched crew still needed supplies, and 
it was necessary, even at the peril of their lives, 
to obtain them. A party was therefore formed, 
who went along the shore and managed to kill 
a quantity of fow r l ; and now they hoisted sail 
again, glad enough to depart from this inhos- 
pitable region. By the time they reached the 
inlet of Hudson's Straits, their provisions again 
ran so low that they were obliged to live on 
short allowances, and devour even the skins of 
the fowls. Now they pressed toward the Deso- 
lations, as well as they could. Robert Juet urged 
them to steer for Newfoundland, stating that 
there they would find relief from some of their 
countrymen, or, if they failed in that, would at 
least discover some supplies left behind by them. 


Accordingly they altered their course ; but, for- 
tunately for them, as it turned out, the wind 
changed, and they now determined to shape 
their course for Ireland. It is hardly possible to 
give any idea of the sufferings of these miserable 
men, as they were tossed about upon the ocean. 
Ignorant, discontented, and sad, they lived on, 
with their sorrows increasing from day to day. 
All their meat being gone, they were forced to 
take salt broth for dinner, and half a fowl for 
supper ; then, as provisions became more scanty, 
they took the bones of the fowls, fried them in 
tallow, and ate them gladly. Even the vinegar 
and candles were now divided among them 
about a pound of candles to each man. Yet 
they were far from Ireland. Exhausted and 
weakened, they became unable to stand at the 
helm, but sat and steered the ship. Juet died in 
agony, of starvation, and the rest were now 
in despair : they had lost all hope of reaching 
Ireland ; they cared not which way the vessel 
went. The poor wretches " would sit and see 
the foresail or mainsail fly up to the tops, the 
sheets being either flown or broken, and would not 
help it themselves, nor call to others for help." 
At length it pleased God to bring them in sight 
of land. They raised a joyful cry, and now 


strived to reach the coast. This they could not 
do, but now, by God's mercy, a still more joyful 
cry was heard " A sail ! a sail!" A fishing 
bark on the coast had marked their distress, came 
off to them, and took them safely into a harbor 
in Ireland. Their wants were now supplied, 
and through the kindness of the commander of 
the bark, and the sympathy of a stranger, they 
were enabled to reach Plymouth ; thence they 
proceeded to Gravesend, and ere long were in 

Great was the astonishment of Sir Thomas 
Smith (one of the company who had fitted out 
this ship) when these men appeared before him. 
He had not heard of the ship for nearly eighteen 
months, and supposed, of course, that she was 
lost. Great, too, was his sorrow and the sor- 
row of all England, when the sad story of their 
sufferings and sins was made known ; for Hud- 
son had ever reflected honor upon his country, 
and his countrymen loved him and grieved over 

Such was their love, that the London Com- 
pany was not satisfied till it had made an effort 
to save him. The next year, hoping that they 
might learn something of the fate of Hudson, 
and possibly relieve him, two ships (the Disco- 


very, in which Hudson had last sailed, and the 
Resolution) were sent out, under the command 
of Captain Thomas Button. Pricket was taken 
along as a sort of guide ; and as the flood tide 
near Cape Digges was represented by him as 
coming from the west, a faint hope was enter- 
tained that they might also find the Northwest 

The ships returned the next year, having 
failed in both objects. No tidings of Henry 
Hudson were ever more received. Whether he 
persevered until he reached Cape Digges, and 
was there murdered by the savages ; whether he 
perished in the ice, or died by famine, or was 
swallowed by the waves, no man can tell. All 
that is known is, that Hudson and his compan- 
ions w r ere never more heard of. 

Whatever was his fate, however, he has left 
behind him a bright and honorable name. His 
reputation is this ; that with matchless fortitude 
he lived amid the perils of the seas, still giving 
names to strange and unknown regions. In 
England they mourned for him, for he was their 
countryman, and they felt his loss. Yet, though 
he was no native of our land, his discoveries 
make him ours. His daring adventures were 
performed in this New World where we dwell 


and therefore our country has not been un- 
mindful of perpetuating his memory. She has 
seized his name as something which belongs to 
her ; written it upon one of her fairest streams ; 
and graven it for ever upon the palisades and 
the hills of the Hudson. His best monument is 
indeed in this western world ; for here it is, upon 
the continent of North America, that a bay, a 
strait, a city, and a river, all bear the name of 

* The story of this last voyage is gathered from Hudson's 
own journal, the journal of Habakkuk Pricket, and a note 
discovered in the desk of Thomas Wydhouse, all of which 
may be seen in " Purchas his Pilgrims." 

The names of the crew, as far as they can be gathered, 
were as follows: Henry Hudson, John Hudson, Robert Juet, 
Henry Green, Habakkuk Pricket, Robert Bylot, William Wil- 
son, John Thomas, Bennet the cook, Andrew Moter, Michael 
Perse, Philip Staffe, Arnold Lodlo, Francis Clements, Michael 
Bute, Thomas Wydhouse, Sidrack Faner, Adrian Moore, John 
King, Nicholas Simmes, John Williams, Matthews, and the 
cooper, 23. 


Claim of John and Sebastian Cabot, as having 
seen what is now New York in 14-97 3 together 
with the claim of John de Verrazzano, to having 
entered New York Harbor in 1524. 

WE have now followed Henry Hudson in his 
last adventure. The whole of his career is in- 
teresting, but the story of his third voyage par- 
ticularly so to the citizens of the State of New 
York as it sets him forth as the discoverer of 
this portion of the New World ; the first Euro- 
pean who trod upon our own soil. I am anxious, 
however, to do him no more than justice, and 
while I believe that he was thus the discoverer 
of what is now New York, it is right that I 
should tell you, that some have supposed that 
the land which we tread was possibly seen, 
and the harbor of New York probably entered, 
before the days of Henry Hudson. When I 
shall have told you by whom it is thought this 
was done, then I shall have fairly finished. 


The names of John and Sebastian Cabot are, 
I dare say, well known to many of you. If not, 
you will remember now that they were experien- 
ced navigators natives of Venice, who lived in 
England. In the year 1497, these men, under the 
patronage of King Henry the Seventh, sailed 
from England in search of a North-West passage 
to India. It is said, they passed along the coast of 
North America, from the 67th to the 26th degree 
of north latitude. In this run, they must have 
passed what is now known as the State of New 
York, and it is supposed that they must have seen 
the land. But if they did, certain it is, that they 
did nothing more than see it, and even this is un- 
certain. It is very remarkable, that these men 
seem not even to have noticed the coasts along 
which they passed. At least, upon their return to 
England, they had no satisfactory knowledge to 
give farther than this, that there was a western 
continent. Intent, probably, upon the main ob- 
ject of their voyage, (a passage to the East,) and 
not finding it, they lost sight of other things. But 
at best, it is only claimed that they saw the land ; it 
is not pretended that they landed on any part of it 

A stronger claim is set up in behalf of a Flor- 
entine, John de Verrazzano,who was engaged in 
the service of Francis First, king of France. It 


seems that Verrazzano had been trusted by his 
master, for some time, with the command of four 
ships, to cruise against the Spaniards. These 
ships being at one time overtaken by a storm 
and separated, Verrazzano resolved now to keep 
on his way alone, and undertake a voyage in 
search of new regions. The world was then fill- 
ed with the stories of maritime adventures and 
new discoveries, and he seems to have thought 
an effort this way more pleasant, and perhaps 
more profitable, than chasing the Spaniards. It 
was on the 7th day of January, in the year 1524, 
that with these feelings, he set sail from the des- 
olate rocks to the east of Madeira, (known by 
the English as " the Deserters,") and kept his 
course westerly. Nearly two months passed 
away, before he came near the American coast. 
He then reached it in the latitude of 34 degrees 
north, and was of course ofT the coast of North 
Carolina. He now sailed south until he came 
(it is said) to the region of Palm-trees* From 
this point he turned and sailed north, as far as 
about the latitude of 41 degrees north, where he 

* Rev. Dr. Miller, in his lecture before the New York Histor- 
ical Society in 1809, thinks this must have been as far as the 
southern part of the State of Georgia, as the Palm-tree is 
net found north of that. 


entered a spacious harbor. Some suppose that 
this was the harbor of New York. They reach 
this conclusion, as they think, by noticing Ver- 
razzano's description of the harbor which he en- 
tered, together with some other circumstances. 
His description is in the following words : " This 
land is situated in the parallel of Rome, in for- 
ty-one degrees and .two terces; but somewhat 
more cold by accidental causes. The mouth of 
the haven lieth open to the south, half a league 
broad, and being entered within it, between the 
east and the north, it stretcheth twelve leagues, 
where it weareth broader and broader, and 
maketh a gulf about twenty leagues in compass, 
wherein are five small islands, very fruitful and 
pleasant, full of high and broad trees, among 
the which islands, any great navy may ride safe, 
without any fear of tempest or other danger."* 
This has been thought a tolerably fair descrip- 
tion of New York harbor by some ; while one 
celebrated historianf has concluded that it " must 
be that of New York.'' Others again have fan- 
cied, that it agreed better with the harbor of 

* Verrazzano's letter to Francis Frst, in Hakluyt's Collection 
of Voyages. The letter will be given entire at the close of 
this volume. 

t Dr. Belknap. 


Newport, in Rhode Island. I believe, however, 
that by looking closely to the description, it will 
be found by most people, difficult to apply it to 
either of those harbors.* 

Verrazzano remained in this harbor about fif- 
teen days. He with many of his men was 
frequently on shore, trading with the natives, and 
he describes both the country and natives fully. 
Here again, his descriptions of the persons, dress, 
and customs of the savages, are supposed to bring 
before us the same people that were seen nearly 
a century afterward by Hudson. It must be 
confessed that he had time for observation, and 
while his descriptions of the natives may be com- 
plete, it is well known that they will apply to 
the savages on other parts of the American con- 
tinent, as well as to those found upon the soil of 
what is now the State of New York. All that 
can therefore be fairly claimed for Verrazzano 
is the possibility, perhaps probability, of his hav- 
ing been in New York harbor. 

Verrazzano left this harbor (whatever harbor 
it was) on the fifth of May, and keeping a north- 
easterly course, was ere long as high as the 56th 
degree of north latitude and probably some- 

* This is the opinion of Rev. Dr. Miller 



where off the coast of Labrador. From this 
point he sailed directly toward France, which he 
reached in the month of July. A few days after 
his arrival at the port of Dieppe, he wrote his 
letter to the French King, giving the story of his 
voyage. The story, it seems, caused no excite- 
ment at home, nor did it serve as a guide to any 
future navigator. Nearly a century passed 
away before we hear anything farther of this 
part of the American continent, and then we hear 
of it through the voyage and discovery of Hen- 
ry Hudson. Ignorant of the discovery of this 
portion of the new world by any preceding nav- 
igator, he sailed from England, and has left 
among us the certain memorial of his adven- 

It may prove uninteresting to you now, but 

* It is stated by Charlevoix, that Verrazzano, a short time 
after his arrival in France, fitted out another expedition, with 
the design of establishing a colony in America ; and that all 
that is known of this enterprise is, that having embarked, 
he was never seen more, and that it never has been ascertained 
what became of him. 

It is stated, however, by Ramusio, that when Verrazzano 
landed, he and the people who went ashore with him 
were cut to pieces and devoured by the savages, in the sight 
of the rest of the crew, who had remained on board the ship, 
and were unable to help them. This last story is believed 
both by Dr. Forster and Dr. Belknap. 


possibly interesting to older readers, and to your- 
selves hereafter and I therefore give, in an ap- 
pendix, the entire letter of John de Verrazzano 
to the King of France, that every one may judge 
fairly for himself, who was the discoverer of what 
is now the State of New York. The style and 
spelling of the letter are quaint and old fashioned, 
but I prefer publishing it precisely as it is written. 



EIGHT OF JULY, 1524.* 

I WROTE not to your Maiesty, most Christian 
King, since the time we suffered the Tempest in 
the North partes, of the successe of the foure 
shippes, which your Maiestie sent forth to dis- 
couer new lands by the Ocean, thinking your 
Maiestie had bene already duely enformed 
thereof. Now by these presents I will give your 
Maiestie to understand, how by the violence of 
the Windes we were forced with the two shippes, 
the Norman and the Dolphin, (in such euill case 
as they were,) to land in Britaine. Where after 

* Taken from Hakluyt's Voyages. 



wee had repayred them in all poynts as -was 
needefull. and armed them very well, we took 
our course along by the coast of Spaine, which 
your Maiestie shall understand by the profite 
that we receiued thereby. Afterwards with the 
Dolphin alone we determined to make discouerie 
of new Countries, to prosecute the Nauigation 
we had already begun, which I purpose at this 
present to recount unto your Maiestie, to make 
manifest the whole proceeding of the matter. 

The 17 of January, the yeere 1524, by the 
Grace of God, we departed from the dishabited 
rocke by the isle of Madeira, apperteining to the 
King of Portugal, with 50 men, with victuals, 
weapons, and other ship-munition very well pro- 
uided and furnished for eight months ; and sail- 
ing Westward with a faire Easterly winde, in 
25 dayes we ran 500 leagues, and the 20 of 
Februarie, we were ouertaken with as sharpe 
and terrible a tempest as euer any saylers suf- 
fered, whereof with the diuine helpe and merci- 
full assistance of Almighty God, and the good- 
nesse of our shippe, accompanied with the good 
happe of her fortunate name, we were deliuered, 
and with a prosperous winde followed our course 
West and by North. And in other 25 dayes 
we made aboue 400 leagues more, where we 


discouered a new land, neuer before scene of any 
man either ancient or moderne, and at the first 
sight it seemed somewhat low, but being within 
a quarter of a league of it, we perceiued by the 
great fires that we saw by the sea-coast, that it 
was inhabited ; and saw that the lande stretched 
to the southwards. In seeking some conuenient 
harborough, wherein to anchor and to have 
knowledge of the place, we sayled fiftie leagues 
in vaine, and seeing the lande to runne still to 
the southwards, we resolved to returne backe 
againe towards the north, where wee found our 
selves troubled with the like difficultie. At 
length, being in despaire to find any porte, wee 
cast anchor upon the coast and sent our boate 
to shore, where we saw great store of people 
which came to the seaside ; and seeing us ap- 
proch, they fled away, and sometimes would 
stand still and looke backe, beholding us with 
great admiration; but, afterwards, being animated 
and assured with signes that we made them, 
some of them came hard to the seaside, seeming 
to reioyce very much at the sight of us, and 
marvelling greatly at our apparel, shape and 
whitenesse, shewed us by sundry signes, where 
we might most commodiously come aland with 
our boate, offering us also of their victuals to 


eat. Now I will briefly declare to your Maies- 
tie their life and maners, as farre as we could 
have notice thereof: These people goe alto- 
gether naked, except only that they couer their 
loines with certain skins of beastes, like unto 
marterns, which they fasten unto a narrow gir- 
dle made of grasse very artificially wrought, 
hanged about with tayles of divers other beastes, 
which, round about their bodies, hang dangling 
down to their knees. Some of them weare gar- 
lands of byrdes feathers. The people are of 
colour russet, and not much unlike the Saracens ; 
their hayre blacke, thicke, and not very long, 
which they tye together in a knot behind, and 
weare it like a little taile. They are well fea- 
tured in their limbes, of meane stature, and com- 
monly somewhat bigger than wee, broad breast- 
ed, strong armed, their legs and other parts of 
their bodies well fashioned, and they are dis- 
figured in nothing, sauing that they haue some- 
what broade visages, and yet not all of them, 
for we saw many of them wel favoured, hailing 
blacke and great eyes, with a cheerefull and 
steady looke, not strong of body, yet sharpe wit- 
ted, nimble and exceeding great runners, as farre 
as we could learne by experience, and in those 
two last qualities they are like to the people of 


the east partes of the world, and especially to 
them of the uttermost parts of China. We 
could not learne of this people their manner of 
liuing, nor their particular customs, by reason of 
the short abode we made on the shore, our com- 
pany being but small, and our ship ryding farre 
off in the sea. And not farre from these we 
found another people, whose liuing wee think 
to be like unto theirs (as hereafter I will declare 
unto your Maiestie) shewing at this present the 
situation and nature of the foresayd land. The 
shoare is all couered with small sand, and so 
ascendeth upwards for the space of 15 foote, 
rising in form of little hils, about 50 paces 
broad. And sayling forwards, we found cer- 
taine small rivers and armes of the sea, that fall 
downe by certaine creeks, washing the shoare on 
both sides as the coast lyeth. And beyond this 
we saw the open country rising in height above 
the sandy shoare, with many faire fields and 
plaines, full of mightie great woods, some very 
thicke, and some thinne, replenished with diuers 
sorts of trees as pleasant and delectable to be- 
hold, as is possible to imagine. And your Ma- 
iestie may not thinke that these are like the 
woods of Hercynia or the wilde deserts of Tar- 
tary, and the northerne coasts, full of fruitlesse 


trees; but they are full of palme trees, bay 
trees, and high cypresse trees, and many other 
sorts of trees unknowen in Europe, which yeeld 
most sweete sauours farre from the shoare, the 
propertie whereof we could not learn for the 
cause aforesaid, and not for any difficulty to passe 
through the woods, seeing they are not so thicke 
but that a man may passe through them, neither 
doe we thinke that they partaking of the east 
world round about them, are altogether voyd of 
drugs or spicery, and other riches of golde, see- 
ing the colour of the land doth so much argue 
it. And the land is full of many beastes, as 
stags, deere and hares, and likewise of lakes and 
pooles of fresh water, with great plentie of 
fowles, convenient for all kinde of pleasant 
game. This land is in latitude 34 degrees, with 
good and wholesome ayre, temperate, betweene 
hot and colde ; no vehement windes doe bio we 
in those regions, and those that doe commonly 
reigne in those coasts, are the north west and 
west windes in the summer season, (in the be- 
ginning whereof we were there) the skie cleere 
and faire with very little raine ; and if at any 
time the ayre be cloudie and mistie with the 
southerne winde, immediately it is dissolued and 
wareth cleere and fayre againe. The sea is 


calme, not boysterous, the waues gentle, and 
although all the shoare be somewhat sholde and 
without harborough, yet it is not dangerous to 
the saylers, being free from rocks and deepe, so 
that within 4 or 5 foote of the shoare there is 20 
foote deepe of water without ebbe or flood, the 
depth still increasing in such uniform proportion. 
There is very good ryding at sea, for any ship 
being shaken in a tempest, can neuer perish there 
by breaking of her cables, which we have 
proved by experience. Tor in the beginning of 
March (as it is usual in all regions) being in the 
sea oppressed with northerne windes, and ryding 
there, we found our anchor broken before the 
earth fayled or moved at all. We departed from 
this place, still running along the coast, which 
we found to trend toward the east, and we saw 
every where very great fires, by reason of the 
multitude of the inhabitants. While we rode 
on that coast, partly because it had no harbo- 
rough, and for that we wanted water, we sent 
our boat ashoare with 25 men j where, by rea- 
son of great and continual waues that beat 
against the shoare, being an open coast, without 
succour, none of our men could possibly goe 
ashoare without loosing our boate. We saw 
there many people which came unto the shoare, 


making diuers signes of friendship, and shewing 
that they were content we should come aland, 
and by trial we found them to be very corteous 
and gentle, as your Maiestie shall understand by 
the successe. To the intent we might send them 
of our things, which the Indians commonly de- 
sire and esteeme, as sheetes of paper, glasses, 
bels^ and such like trifles, we sent a young man 
one of our mariners ashoare, who swimming 
towards them, and being within 3 or 4 yards of 
the shoare, not trusting them, cast the things 
upon the shoare ; but seeking afterwards to re- 
turne, he was with such violence of the w r aues 
beaten upon the shoare, that he was so bruised 
that he lay there almost dead ; which the In- 
dians perceiuing, ranne to catch him, and draw- 
ing him out, they caried him a litle way off 
from the sea. The young man perceiuing they 
caried him, being at the first dismaied, began 
then greatly to feare, and cried out piteously ; 
likewise did the Indians which did accompany 
him, going about to cheere him and to giue him 
courage, and then setting him on the ground at 
the foote of a litle hil against the sunne, they 
began to behold him with great admiration, 
marueiling at the whitenesse of his flesh ; and 
putting off his clothes, they made him warme at 


a great fire, not without our great feare which 
remained in the boate, that they would have 
rosted him at that fire, and have eaten him. 
The young man hauing recovered his strength, 
and hauing stayed a while with them, shewed 
them by signes that he was desirous to returne 
to the ship, and they with great loue clapping 
him fast about, with many embracings, accom- 
panying him unto the sea, and to put him in 
more assurance, leaving him alone, went unto 
a high ground, and stood there, beholding him 
untill he was entred into the boate. This young 
man obserued, as we did also, that these are of 
colour inclining to blacke as the other were, with 
their flesh very shining, of meane stature, hand- 
some visage, and delicate limnes, and of very 
little strength, but of prompt wit, farther we 
observed not. 

Departing from hence, following the shore 
which trended somewhat toward the north, in 50 
leagues space we came to another land which 
shewed much more faire and ful of woods, being 
very great, where we rode at anker ; and that 
we might have some knowledge thereof, we sent 
20 men aland, which entred into the country 
about 2 leagues, and they found that the people 
were fled to the woods for feare. They saw 


only one old woman, with a young maid of 18 
or 20 yeeres old, which seeing our company, hid 
themselves in the grasse for feare ; the olde 
woman caried two infants on her shoulders, and 
behind her necke a child of 8 yeeres olde. The 
young woman was laden likewise with as many, 
but when our men came unto them, the women 
cried out, the olde woman made signes that the 
men were fledde unto the woods. As soone as 
they saw us to quiet them and to win their fa- 
vour, our men gave them such victuals as they 
had with them, to eate, which the olde woman 
received thankfully, but the young woman dis- 
dained them all, and threw them disdainfully on 
the ground. They tooke a child from the olde 
woman to bring into France, and going about 
to take the young woman which w r as very beau- 
tiful and of tall stature, they could not possibly 
for the great outcries that she made bring her to 
the sea ; and especially having great woods to 
passe thorow, and being farre from the ship, we 
purposed to leaue her behind, beareing away the 
child onely; we found those folkes to be more 
white than those that we found before, being clad 
with certaine leaues that hang on boughs of 
trees, which they sew together with threds of 
wilde hempe ; their heads were trussed up after 


the same maner as the former were, their ordi- 
nary foode is of pulse, whereof they haue great 
store, differing in colour and taste from ours ; of 
good and pleasant taste. Moreover they live 
by fishing and fowling, which they take with 
ginnies, and bowes made of hard wood, the ar- 
rowes of canes, being headed with the bones of 
fish and other beastes. The beastes in these 
partes are much wilder then in our Europe, by 
reason they are continually chased and hunted. 
We saw many of their boates, made of one tree 
20 foote long and 4 foote broad, which are not 
made with yron or stone, or any other kind of 
metall (because that in all this country for the 
space of 200 leagues which we ranne, we neuer 
saw one stone of any sort :) they help them- 
selues with fire, burning so much of the tree as 
is sufficient for the hollownesse of the boate. 
The like they doe in making the sterne and the 
foreparte, until it be fit to saile upon the sea. 
The land is in situation, goodness and fairnesse 
like the other; it hath woods like the other, 
thinne and full of diuers sorts of trees, but not 
so sweete, because the country is more northerly 
and colde. 

We saw in this country many vines growing 
naturally, which growing up, took holde of the 


trees as they doe in Lombardie, which, if by 
husbandmen they were dressed in good order, 
without all doubt they would yeeld excellent 
wines; for hauing oftentimes scene the fruit 
thereof dryed, which was sweete and pleasant, 
and not differing from ours, we thinke that they 
doe esteeme the same, because that in euery 
place where they growe, they take away the un- 
der branches growing round about, that the fruit 
thereof may ripen the better. We found also 
roses, violets, lilies, and many sortes of herbes, 
and sweete and odoriferous flowers different from 
ours. We knewe not their dwellings, because 
they were farre up in the land, and we iudge by 
many signes that we saw, that they are of wood 
and of trees framed together. We doe belieue 
also by many conjectures and signes, that many 
of them sleeping in the fields, have no other 
couert then the open sky. Farther knowledge 
haue we not of them ; we think that all the rest 
whose countreys we passed, Hue all after one 
maner. Hauing made our aboade three days in 
this country, and ryding on the coast for want of 
harboroughs, we concluded to depart from thence 
trending along the shore betweene the north 
and the east, sayeling onely in the day time, and 
ryding at anker by night. In the space of 100 


leagues sayling we found a very pleasant place 
situated among certaine little steape hils ; from 
amidst the which hils there ranne downe into 
the sea an exceeding great streme of water, 
which within the mouth was very deepe, and 
from the sea to the mouth of the same with the 
tide which we found to rise 8 foote, any great 
ship laden may passe up. But because we rode 
at anker in a place well fenced from the wind 
we would not venture ourselues without know- 
ledge of the place, and we passed up with our 
boate onely into the sayd river, and saw the 
countrey very well peopled. The people are 
almost like unto the others, and are clade with 
the feathers of fowles of diuers colours ; they 
came towards us very cheerefully, making great 
showts of admiration, shewing us where we 
might come to land most safely with our boate. 
We entered up the said riuer into the land about 
halfe a league, where it made a most pleasant 
lake aboute 3 leagues in compasse, on the which 
they rowed from the one side to the other, to 
the number of 30 of their small boats, wherein 
were many people which passed from one shore 
to the other to come and see us. And, behold, 
upon a sudden (as it is woont to fall out in sayl- 
ing) a contrary flaw of winde comming from the 


sea, we were inforced to returne to our ship, 
leauing this land to our great discontentment, for 
the great commodity and pleasantnesse thereof, 
which we suppose is not without some riches, 
all the hils shewing mineral matters in them. 
We weyed anker and sayled toward the east, 
for so the coast trended, and so alwayes for 50 
leagues being in the sight thereof, we discouered 
an island in forme of a triangle, distant from 
the main land 10 leagues about the bignesse of 
the island of the Rhodes; it was full of hils 
covered with trees, well peopled, for we saw 
fires all along the coast ; we gave it the name 
of your Maiesties mother,* not staying there by 
reason of the weather being contrary. 

And we came to another land being 15 leagues 
distant from the island, where we found a pass- 
ing good hauen, wherein being entred, we found 
about 20 small boats of the people, which with 
diuers cries and wondrings came about our ship, 
comming no neerer than 50 paces towards us ; 
they stayed and beheld the artificialnesse of 
our ship, our shape and apparel, they then all 
made a loud showt together, declaring that they 
reioyced. When we had something animated 

Claudian Island. Claudia was the mother of King 


them, using their gestures they came so neere us, 
that we cast them certaine bels and glasses, and 
many toyes, which when they had received, they 
looked on them with laughing, and came with- 
out feare a board our ship. There were amongst 
these people 2 kings of so goodly stature and 
shape as is possible to declare, the eldest was 
about 40 yeeres of age, the seconde was a yong 
man of 20 yeeres olde, their apparell was on 
this manner, the elder had upon his naked body 
a harts skin wrought artificially with diuers 
branches like damaske, his head was bayre w r ith 
the hayre tyed up behind with diuers knots; 
about his necke he had a large chaine, garnish- 
ed with diuers stones of sundry colours, the 
young man was almost apparelled after the same 
maner. This is the goodliest people, and of 
the fairest conditions that we have found in this 
our voyage. They exceed us in bigness, they 
are of the colour of brasse, some of them incline 
more to whitenesse, others are of yellow colour^ 
of comely visage, with long and black hair, 
which they are very careful to trim and decke 
up; they are black and quick eyed, and of sweete 
and pleasant countenance, imitating much the 
old fashion. I write not to your Maiestie of the 
other parts of their body, hauing al such propor- 


tion as apperteeneth to any handsome man. The 
women are of the like conformitie and beautie, 
very handsome and wel favoured, of pleasant 
countenance, and comely to behold ; they are as 
wel manered and continent as any women, and 
of good education, they are all naked saue their 
loines, which they couer with a deeres skin 
branched or embrodered as the men use, there 
are also of them which weare on their armes 
uery rich skins of Luzernes, they adorne their 
heads with diuers ornaments made of their owne 
hair, which hang downe before on both sides 
their brestes, others use other kind of dressing 
themselues like unto the women of Egypt and 
Syria, these are of the elder sort ; and when 
they are maried, they wear diuers toyes, accord- 
ing to the usage of the people of the east, as 
well men as women. 

Among whom we saw many peices of wrought 
copper, which they esteeme more than goolde, 
which for the colour they make no account, for 
that among all other it is counted the basest ; 
they make most account of azure and red. The 
things that they esteeme most of all those which 
we gaue them, were bels, christal of azure colour, 
and other toyes to hang at their eares or about 
their necke. They did not desire clothe of silke 


or of golde, much lesse of any other sort, nei- 
ther cared they for thyngs made of steele and 
yron, which we often shewed them in our armour 
which they made no wonder at ; and in behold- 
ing them they onely asked the arte of making 
them ; the like they did at our glasses, which, 
when they beheld, they suddenly laught, and 
gave them us againe. They are very liberal, 
for they give that which they haue j we became 
great friends with these, and one day we entred 
into the haven with our ship, whereas before we 
rode a league off at sea, by reason of the contrary 
weather. They came in great companies of their 
small boats unto the ship with their faces all 
bepainted with diuers colours, shewing us that 
it was a signe of ioy, bringing us of their vic- 
tuals, they made signes unto us where we might 
safest ride in the hauen for the safeguard of our 
ship keeping still our company, and after we 
were come to an anker, we bestowed 15 dayes in 
prouiding ourselues many necessary things, 
whither euery day the people repaired to see our 
ship, bringing their wiues with them, whereof 
they were very ielous ; and they themselves en- 
tring a board the ship and staying there a good 
space caused their wiues to stay in their boats, 
and for all the entreatie we could make, offring 


to giue them diuers things, we could neuer ob- 
taine that they would suffer them to comeaborde 
our ship. And oftentimes one of the two kings 
comming with his queene, and many gentlemen 
for their pleasure to see us, they all stayed on the 
shore 200 paces from us, sending us a small boat 
to giue us intelligence of their comming, saying 
they would come and see our ship ; this they did 
in token of safety, and as soone as they had an- 
swere from us, they came immediately, and hau- 
ing staied a while to behold it, they wondred at 
hearing the cries and noyses of the Mariners. 
The Queene and her maids staied in a very light 
boat, at an Hand a quarter of a league off, while 
the King abode a long space in our ship uttering 
diuers conceits with gestures, viewing with great 
admiration all the furniture of the Shippe, de- 
manding the property of euery thing particularly. 
He tooke likewise great pleasure in beholding 
our apparell, and in tasting our meats, and so 
courteously taking his leave departed. And 
sometimes our men staying 2 or 3 daies on a little 
Hand neere the Shippe for diuers necessaries, 
(as it is the use of seamen,) he returned with 7 
or 8 of his gentlemen to see what we did, and 
asked of us oftentimes if we meant to make any 
long abode there, offering us of their prouision ; 


then the King drawing his bow and running up 
and down with his gentlemen, made much sport 
to gratifie our men : we were oftentimes within 
the land five or six leagues, which we found as 
pleasant as is possible to declare, very apt for 
any kind of husbandry, of Corne, Wine and Oyle : 
for that there are plaines twentie-five or thirtie 
leagues broad, open and without any impediment, 
of trees of such fruitfulnesse, that any seed being 
sowen therein, wil bring forth most excellent 
fruit. We entered afterwards into the woods, 
which we found so great and thicke, that any 
army were it neuer so great might have hid it 
selfe therein, the trees whereof are okes, cipresse 
trees, and other sortes unknowen in Europe. 
We found Pome appil, damson trees, and nut 
trees, and many other sortes of fruit differing 
from ours ; there are beasts in great abundance, 
as harts, deere, luzernes, and other kinds which 
they take with their nets and bowes which are 
their chief weapons, the arrowes which they use 
are made of great cunning, and instead of yron, 
they head them with flint, with jasper stone and 
hard marble, and other sharp stones which they 
use instead of yron to cut trees, and to make 
their boates of one whole piece of wood making 
it hollow with great and wonderful art, wherein 


10 or 12 men may sit commodiously, their oares 
are short and broad at the end, and they use 
them in the sea without any danger, and by 
maine force of armes, with as great speediness 
as they lift themselves. We saw their Houses 
made in circular or round forme 10 or 12 paces 
in compasse, made with halfe circles of Timber, 
separate one from another without any order of 
building, couered with mattes of Straw wrought 
cunningly together, which saue them from the 
winde and raine; and if they had the Order of 
building and perfect skill of workmanship as we 
have, there were no doubt but that they would 
also make eftsoons great and stately buildings. 
For all the sea coastes are ful of clear and glis- 
tering stones and alabaster, and therefore it is 
ful of good hauens and harboroughs for Shippes. 
They moove the foresaid Houses from one place 
to another, according to the commodity of the place 
and season wherein they wil make their abode ; 
and only taking off the mattes they haue other 
Houses builded incontinent. The Father and 
the whole Family dwell together in one house 
in great number, in some of them we saw 25 or 
30 persons. They feede as the other doe afore- 
said, of pulse which grow in that Country, with 
better order of husbandry than in the others. 


They observe in their sowing the course of the 
Moone and the rising of certaine Starres, and 
divers other customs spoken of by antiquity. 
Moreover they liue by hunting and fishing. They 
live long and are seldom sicke, and if they 
chance to fall sicke at any time, they heal 
themselves with fire without any phisician, and 
they say that they die for very age. They 
are very pitifull and charitable towards their 
neighbours, they make great lamentations in 
their adversitie, and in their miserie, the kin- 
red reckon up all their felicitie. At their de- 
parture out of life, they use mourning mixt with 
singing, which continueth for a long space. 
This is as much as we could learne of them. This 
Land is situate in the Paralele of Rome in 41 
degrees and 2 terces, but somewhat more cold 
by accidentall causes and not of nature, (as I 
will declare unto your highnesse elsewhere,) de- 
scribing at this present the situation of the fore- 
said country, which lieth east and west. I say 
that the mouth of the haven lieth open to the 
south halfe a league broad, and being entred 
within it betweene the east and the north it 
stretcheth twelve leagues, where it wareth broad- 
er and broader, and maketh a gulfe about 20 
leagues in compasse, wherein are five small 


islands very fruitful and pleasant, full of hie and 
broad trees among the which islandes any great 
nauie may ride safe without any feare of tempest 
or other danger. Afterwards turning towards 
the south in the entring into the hauen, on both 
sides there are most pleasant hils, with many 
riuers of most cleare water falling into the sea. 
In the middest of this entrance there is a rocke 
of free stone, growing by nature, apt to build any 
castle or fortresse there for the keeping of the 
haven. The fift of May being furnished with 
all things necessarie, we departed from the said 
coaste, keeping along in the sight thereof, and wee 
sailed 150 leagues, finding it alwayes after one 
maner, but the land somewhat higher with cer- 
taine mountaines, all which beare a shew of 
minerall matter, wee sought not to land there in 
any place, because the weather serued our turne 
for sailing ; but wee suppose that it was like 
the former, the coaste ranne eastward for the 
space of fiftie leagues. And trending afterwards 
to the north, wee found another land high full 
of thicke woods, the trees whereof were firres, 
cipresses, and such like as are wont to grow in 
cold countreys. The people differ much from 
the other, and looke howe much the former seem- 
ed to be couiteous and gentle, so much were 


these full of rudenesse and ill maners, and so 
barbarous that by no signes that euer we could 
make, we could have any kind of traffic with 
them. They clothe themselues with beares 
skinnes and luzernes, and scales and other 
beastes skinnes. Their foode, as farre as we 
could perceiue, repairing often unto their dwell- 
ings, we suppose to be by hunting and fishing, 
and of certaine fruits, which are a kind of roots 
which the earth yeeldeth of her own accord. 
They haue no graine, neither saw we any kind 
of signe of tillage, neither is the land for the bar- 
rennesse thereof, apt to beare fruit or seed. If 
at any time we desired by exchange to haue 
any of their commodities, they used to come to 
the sea shore upon certaine craggy rocks, and 
we standing in our boats, they let downe with 
a rope what it pleased them to give us, crying 
continually that we should not approch to the 
land, demanding immediately the exchange, tak- 
ing nothing but kniues, fish-hooks, and tooles to 
cut withall, neyther did they make any account 
of our courtesie. And when we had nothing 
left to exchange with them, when we departed 
from them, the people shewed all signes of dis- 
courtesie and disdaine, as were possible for any 
creature to inuent. We were in despight of 


them 2 or 3 leagues within the land, being in 
number twenty-five armed men of us: And 
when we went on shore they shot at us with 
their bowes, making great outcries, and after- 
wards fled into the woods. We found not in 
this land any thing notable or of importance, 
sauing very great wood and certaine hills, they 
may haue some mineral matter in them, because 
wee saw many of them haue beadstones of copper 
hanging at their eares. We departed from 
thence, keeping our course north east along the 
coaste, which we found more pleasant champion 
and without woods, with high mountains within 
the land ; continuing directly along the coast for 
the space of fiftie leagues, we discouered 32 
islands, lying al neere the land, being small and 
pleasant to the view, high, and having many 
turnings and windings between them, making 
many fair harboroughs and chanels as they doe 
in the gulf of Venice, in Sclauonia and Dal- 
mafia, we had no knowledge or acquaintance 
with the people : we suppose they are of the 
same maners and nature as the others are. Sayl- 
ing north east for the space of 150 leagues, we 
approched the land that was in times past dis- 
couered by the Britons, which is in fiftie de- 
grees. Hailing now spent all our prouision and 


victuals, and hauing discouered about 700 leagues 
and more of new countreys, and being furnished 
with water and wood, we concluded to returne 
into France. Touching the religion of this peo- 
ple which we have found, for want of their lan- 
guage we could not understand, neither by signes 
nor gestures, that they had any religion or laws 
at all, or that they did acknowledge any first 
cause or mouer, neither that they worship the 
heauen or starres, the sunne or moone, or other 
planets, and much lesse whether they be idola- 
ters, neither could we learne whether that they 
used any kind of sacrifices or other adorations, 
neither in their villages haue they any temples 
or houses of prayer ; we suppose that they haue 
no religion at all, and that they Hue at their 
owne libertie. And, that all this proceedeth of 
ignorance, for that they are very easie to be per- 
suaded ; and all that they see us Christians doe 
in our diuine service, they did the same with the 
like imitation as they saw us to doe it. 








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ire prepared to recommend it warmly and without qualification to me perueai (t 
ear readers. It is purely practical : the doctrine of the Eucharist being touched 
upon only in to far as was necessary to guard against error. Tti standard of 
piety is very high, and the helps which it affords to a devout participation of 
the holy sacrament of which it treats, should make it the inseparable companion 
of every communicant. We know indeed of no work on the subject that can in all 
respects be compared with it; arvl for it* agency in promoting that advancement in 
holiness after which every Christian should strive, have no hesitation in classing it with 
the Treatise on ' Holy Living and Dying,' of Bi?hop Taylor, and the ' Sacra Privata,' 
of Bishop Wilson. The period at which the book was written will account for, and 
excuse what in the present age would be regarded as defects of style ; but these are 
fewer than might have been expected, and aie soon lost sight of in the contemplation 
of the many and great excellencies with which it abounds. The publishers have don 
good service to the country in the publication of this work, which is a beautiful reprint 
of the Oxford edition, and we are glad to learn Ihnt it will be speedily followed by lit* 
Disce Vivere ' nd ' Disce MorP of the same author. "-Bonntr of the Crot*. 



Private meditations, Devotions, and Prayer* 

Of the Right Rev. T. Wilson, D. D., Lo d Bishop of Soder and Man 
First complete edition. 1 vol. royal 16mo., elegantly ornamented. 

"The Messrs. Appletcn have brought out. in elegant style, Wilson's' Sacra 
Private' entire The reprint is an honour to the American press. The work itseW 
it, perhaps, 02 the whole, the best devotional treatise ia the language, and it uev 


.s neve; before in tl 

Snblic good, to go to Ayple'o'.'s aid buy the book- 
oubtful, and burn the bad." AVto-Yont Churchman. 




Particularly addressed to those who have lost their friends arid dear 
relations. By Symon Patrick, D. D , sometime Lord Bishop ol 
Ely. 1 vol. royal Itimo., elegantly ornamented. 


And the Frequenting Daily Public Prayers. By Symon Patrick, 
D. D , sometime Lord Bishop of Ely. Edited by Francis E. Pa- 
get, M. A Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Oxford. 1 vol. royal 
16mo., elegantly ornamented 
1 would Miratt, whether there eM be a more useful present than a goo* 

ook 7 And to thuse who thh.k wi'h me in this mailer. I would recommend two 

o:. tents They are both by the s.l nc anih -r. Bishop IVtrick, the one ' On Pray- 
er,' and the o her entitled 'Heart's E:ise ; or a Remc iy against nil Troubles.' It 
was obiervd by the dis'inguish.-d ecil. thai he had a helf in Ids biok case upon 
which he was accustomed to place ' tried authors ;' that is, authors whose opi- 

; and if Hi s 

of such a character ; and if Hi s article sh.vll lie lead liy one ho is willing to give 
fiis fronds some u-eful insTuolion wild reg-.ird to the nature duty, and ydvantaS' 
of prayer, in all Us bra: c\\>$, he ui,l fi.i:f it in the first named volume ; or if the 

v-'arTiv pkl-inein lr1l^ O / th^frfuAt^T^me\lltfrW 'IrTlllm 

Neu-York Ameiican. 


Disce Mori, Learn to Die, a Religions Discourse, moving eveiy 
Christian man to <niier into a serious rein- mbrance of his end. 
By Christopher Sntten. D D sometime Prebend of Westmin- 
ster I'voi. I6mo, elegantly priuteU. 


A beautiful collection of Poetry, chiefly Devotional. By the author 
of "The Cathedral." 1 vol. royal itiaio., elegantly pi inted. 


Or Christian Hisiorv of Knftland in early British, Saxon, and Norman 
Times. By the Rev. Edward Churlon, M. A. - Printed uni- 
form in size and binding with this library. 


Sermons to a Country Congregation By Augustus William Hare 
A. M., la'e Fellow of New College and Rector of Alton Barnes. 1 
vol. royal 8vo. 
" Any one who ein > e pleased with delicacy of thouah' expressed in the mot 

ei'"iue*l d a.u"enforce''i y hv"np N i An^w'ted' UluVtrTlLns-wiTbe^dll^hted wHh *hU 
vo'uinc. which present us with the workings of a rnniu and highly gitted mibd." 
-Quarterly Rev**. 




03?" Parents may with entire safety place in the 
hands of their Children any of these cheap, yet 
elegant Publications. 


E? The greatest care is taken in selecting the works of this popu- 
lar series. Each volume is illustrated with an elegant frontis- 
piece, and bound in superior style. 

The following are now ready to be had separately, or in uniform 

THE POPLAR GROVE ; or, Little Harry and his 

Uncle Benjamin. By Mrs. Copley. 
EARLY FRIENDSHIPS ; by Mrs. Copley. 

net Martineau. 

of the Fiord. By Harriet Martineau. 
MASTERMAN READY; or, the Wreck of the 

Pacific. Written for Young People, by Captain 




Intellectual Mirror. An elegant collection of 

Delightful Stories and Tales : many plates. 
HOPE ON, HOPE EVER ; or, the Boyhood of Fe- 

lix Law. By Mary Howitt. 

SOWING AND REAPING ; or, What will Come 

of It ? By Mary Howitt. 

Mary Howitt. 
WHICH IS THE WISER? or, People Abroad. 

By Mary Howitt. 

those who would make Home Happy. To which 

is added the Confessions of a Maniac. By Mrs. 

SOMERVILLE HALL ; .or, Hints to those who 

would make Home Happy. To which is added 

the Rising Tide. By Mrs. Ellis. 
THE TWIN SISTERS : a Tale. By Mrs. Sandham. 

Griffith, of New York. 

Several other popular works are in preparation. 


The Juvenile Naturalist, or Walks in the Country. By the Rev. 
B. H. Draper. A beautiful volume, with fifty plates. 1 vol. 
square, handsomely bound. 


rhe Juvenile Naturalist, or Walks in the Country. By the Rev. 
B. H. Draper. A beautiful volume, with many plates, uniform 
with " Spring and Summer." 



History of Napoleon Bonaparte, translated from the French of M 
Laurent de L'Ardeche, with five hundred spirited illustrations 
after designs by Horace Vernet, and twenty original Portraits 
engraved in the best style Complete in two handsome volumes, 
octavo, about five hundred pages each. 


Fhe Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. By Daniel De Foe 
With a Memoir of the Author, and an Essay on his Writings, il- 
lustrated with nearly five hundred spirited Engravings by the 
celebrated French artist, Grandville, forming one elegant volum 
octavo, of 500 pages. 


The Vicar of Wakefield. By Oliver Goldsmith. Elegantly illus- 
trated with nearly two hundred Engravings, making a beautiful 
volume octavo, of about 300 pages. 


By R M. Evans. One elegant volume, with many plates. A truly 
interesting Historical Juvenile. 


By R. M. Evans. Many Illustrations, uniform with Joan of Arc- 


Illustrative of various passages in Holy Scripture, with nearly one 
hundred Engravings. Among the authorities quoted will be 
found the following distinguished names : Harmer, Laborde, 
Lane, Madden, Clarke, Pooooke, Chandler, Malcolm, Hartley, 
Russell, Jowitt, Carne, Shawe, Morier, Niebuhr, Bruce, Calmet, 
H. Blunt, Belzoni. Lord Lindsay, &c. 1 vol. 12mo. 


Comprising a Summary View of the Studies, Accomplishments, 
and Principles of Conduct best suited for promoting Respecta- 
bility and Success in Life. Elegantly engraved Frontispiece. 
1 vol. ISrao. 


Comprising a Summary View of Female Studies, Accomplish 
ments, and Principles of Conduct. Beautiful Frontispiece. 1 



Bjr the late Secretary of the Navy. Illustrated by 100 uniqn* 
original plates, by Chapman, elegantly bound. 1 vol. 12mo. 


In a ieries of Letters, especially directed for the moral advance- 
ment of Youth. By the Rev. John Angell James. Fifth edi- 
tion. 1 vol. 18mo. 


Great pains has been bestowed in the selection of this unique Li- 
brary. It will comprise the best works of oar venerated au- 
thors ; published in an elegant form, with a beautiful frontis- 
piece , tastefully ornamented. The following are now ready : 
GOLDSMITH. The Vicar of Wakefield. By OLIVE* 

JOHNSON. The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia, 

OOTTLN. Elizabeth, or the Exiles of Siberia. By Madame 
COTTIN. The extensive popularity of this little Tale is 
well known. 
ST. PIERRE. Fanl and Virginia; From the French of J 


PURE GOLD from the Hirers of Wisdom A collection 
of short extracts on religious subjects from the older writers- 
Bishop Hall, Sherlock, Barrow, Paley, Jeremy Taylor, Ac. 



Bach volute consists of appropriate Poetical extracts from th 
principal writers of the day. 

16 Works PuUisfiea by D. Apptelon df Co. 


A series of instructive works adapted to the youthful mind, o 
a character associated with the annals of our country, has lon$ 
been wanted. This Library is intended to comprise sketcne. 
of the Lives, Adventures and Discoveries of the early founders 
of America ; also the lives of distinguished men connected 
with American history of more modern date : it is likewise 
intended to include some approved works of English authors, 
re-edited with additions and explanatory notes. The whole 
charge of the Library is confided to the hands of the popular 
author of " Uncle Philip's" " Whale Fishery," " Lost Green- 
land," <SfC cj-c. 

The following commence the Series : 


By the author of " Uncle Philip's," " Virginia," <kc. 


Founder of Virginia. By the author of " Henry Hudson," ice 


By Anne Pratt, author of " Flowers and their Associations," &c 


By the author of the ' Adventures of Captain John Smith," &c 


A TALE FOR YODTH. By Harriet Martineau, author of " The Peasant 

and the Prince," " Norway and the Norwegians," &c. 
This truly interesting and instructive work forms the sixteenth vo- 
lume of tlie popular series of " Tales for the People and theii 


A most interesting little volume of practical instruction for youth ; 
illustrated with nearly fifty plates. 

44 This Yolume comprises a series of twelve familiar discourses or conversations 
which took place on as many .Sabbath afternoons, a pious old blind man being the chief 
speaker. It is by the author of ' John Hardy,' ' The Footman,' &c.. and is published 
under the direction of the Society for the promotion of Christian Knowledge. Th 
precepts conveyed are altogether unexceptionable, and the whole volume ia well cak* 
kted to prove attractive with children." Sa. Cfironiclt.