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AP.l 21956 

MTIONM. AIB MUSEUM 



/ 



XIII. No. I 



THE BENOIST FLYING BO.\T 



25 Cents 



JERONAUTICS Tagc 2 July, \ 9 



Do You Trust Your Motor? 



DIDIER MASSON Writes: 

"Moreno's Camp, Sonora, Mexico. 
"Dear Mr. Curtiss : 

"I am very glad to congratulate you in the present letter of the wonderful work I am 
getting out of one of your motors ' 

"I have already been flying about twenty-four hours and I have never been disap- 
pointed through lack of power. I have not a single spare part for the motor, and ab.^o- 
lutely no trouble. 

"Many of the flights I have to do daily are of about 60 to sO miles, of which half is 
entirely within the lines occupied by the federal army. A forced landing would certainly 
mean a disagreeable ending for me, so you can imagine how greatly I appreciate its effi- 
ciency and reliability. 

"Respectfully yours, 

"D. MASSON." 



AUG USTIN PARLA Flew From Key West to Cuba Without Any 
Naval Escort ! He Wired : 

"Glenn H. Curtiss: 

"She flew like a bird. Motor never missed a shot. 

"PARLA." 

i 

"JACK VILAS" Made the First Flight Across One of 
America's Inland Seas. Wires: 

"GLENN H. CURTISS: 

"Made flight across Lake Michigan today in one hour ten minutes. Reached height 
of over three thousand feet with passenger. Motor never made a miss in the whole trip, 

"L. A. VILAS." 

CURTISS MOTORS Are Used by Government Fliers of 
The United States, Russia, Japan, Italy, Austria, Germany, et al. 



^ If you think you can't afford a CURTISS MOTOR, give 
us a chance to prove you can't afford to fly without one. 

^If you do not realize the advantages of using CURTISS 
MOTORS, let us describe to you in detail why they 
lead the world. 



OUR CATALOG IS WORTH HAVING. IT'S FREE 



CURTISS MOTOR COMPANY 

21 LAKE STREET, :: :: HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y. 



Ill aiisivcring advertisements please mention tliis magazine 



4ER0NA UTICS 



"Page 3 



July, 1913 



PARAGON PROPELLERS 



Standard Two-Blade Type: 



P AR ACiONS ^^^^ ^^^ distinction of being the only ])ropellers ever officially 
* ■'^i^-'^vavyi^tJ indorsedby any government. Let us send you a copy of the Re- 
port on Paragon Propellers from the Senior Aviation Oificer to the Secretary of the Navy. 

This is the standard propeller, par ex- 
cellence, unapproached for strength, 
safety, service and durability. Let us send you Report of Curtiss Aeroplane Co., show- 
ing four per cent, gain in speed and twelve per cent, in climbing— in comparative tests. 

TV»r*»ia-Rljirl^ Xvnp» • These give greater flying thrust and more speed with 
1 llic;c: iJlcxuc; * J^pc. j^gg diameter. Lieut. J. H. Towers, Senior Aviation 
Officer, U. S. N., reports, "The three-bladed Paragon gives more thrust and more speed 
than any other propeller we have had." This type of propeller has come into very 
great demand among our customers. 

Twistpd TvnP • ^°^ machines with chain or gear-driven propellers. These 
1 W lo LCU 1 y pc . ^j-g jjQj carved into shape but twisted and pressed under great 
pressure, heat and moisture. No cross grain. Higher pitch, less slip, faster flying. 
Used and fully endorsed by U. S. Government Aviators. 

Special Flexing Type for Flying Boats: Sent^'^The'^^bSdes 

are curved and designed in a manner that causes the pitch to change in proportion to 
varying loads on the propeller and to conform to irregularities in the air. With these 
propellers the engine is kept at its best running speed, very nearly constant, both on 
the ground and under all conditions in the air. They take the machine off quicker and 
climb better than any type of propeller we have ever produced. They run with prac- 
tically no vibration and are almost silent on a muffled engine. 

For Hydro Machines get the new Jj 1 JtitL £iU(j£i Paragon 

Paragons are not only best but also cheapest. Consult with us freely and get full 
information. We solicit correspondence, but do not urge anyone to purchase. 

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., BALTIMORE, MD. 




Burgess 
Flying Boat 

Built for 
U. S. Navy 




HE BURGESS FLYING BOAT 

is another record breaker. Built to comply with the strenuous requwements of 
the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test flights and was immediately accepted. _ Al- 
ready a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines. 
Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes are still unexcelled. Motor equip- 
ment depends entirely upon' the purchaser. We recommend the Sturtevant 
mntnr as the most reliable American type. 

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at 
greatly reduced prices. 

Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, under the direction of 
Frank Coffyn, is located at Marblehead adjoining the works. Early application is 
necessary to secure enrollment. 

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass. 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



JERONA UTICS 



'Page 4 



July,\9\3 



You Can Have 
Perfect Ignition 

V/OU can insure your- 
-'• self satisfaction and 
obtain the utmost efficiency 
from your motor by refus- 
ing "some magneto and 
plugs" and insisting upon 
the standard, Bosch Mag- 
neto and Bosch Plugs. :: 

Literature sent on request 



Bosch Magneto Company 



201 W. 46th STREET 



NEW YORK 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



4ER0NA UTICS 



Page 5 



Jub, 1913 



Technical Talks 

By the Technical Editor 

The Fluid Deflector of M. Constantin and its Application to the 

Aeroplane 



I have before me American patent No. 
1,065,506 to Louis Constantin, on means for 
reducing the resistance to the passage of 
chicles in tiuids. This invention is based on 
the fact that the streams of fluid deflected 
laterally by a body in motion preserve their 
new direction for a certain distance after they 
are out of contact with the body, and also 
cause the streams of fluid which they en- 
counter to participate in the deflection. 

If a blunt-ended vehicle be provided with 
a screen of appropriate dimensions (but small- 
er than the major section of the vehicle), sup- 
ported at an appropriate distance in front of 
it, then, the streams of air will be deflected 
outward so that they will not encounter the 
vehicle, and the resistance will be that of the 
screen. 

This screen may be a disc, a cone, or two 
plates, preferably curved, and forming a di- 
hedral angle. Best results are, however, ob- 
tained by employing a number of curved 




j^y. 7. 



plates, arranged as shown in figure i deflect- 
ing the fluid to both sides, or above and be- 
low; or, concentric truncated conical surfaces, 
as shown in figure 2, deflecting the fluid all 




^y,2. 



around the vehicle. In these figures a is the 
vehicle, b the plates, and c the support. Where 
it is desired to deflect the fluid to one side 
only, a single set of parallel plates can be 
used. 

It is reported that the use of this device on 
an automobile effected a saving in power of 
20% at a speed of 42 kilometres per hour. 

Of course we are reminded that a large 
part of the resistance of a body is stern 
resistance, which this device probably does 
not diminish. It is possible that by initiating 
an inward deflection at the stern, the resist- 
ance of that porton could be diminished. 

A single curved plate, or several parallel 
plates, can be employed to shield an observer 
from the wind. Thus, a deflector placed in 
front of an aeroplane pilot, will shield his 
head from the wind, while permitting him 
to see over the deflection. 

M. Constantin has applied the principle 
of the wind deflector to the aeroplane wing, 
the object being to increase the rarif action 
above the wing by a more energetic upward 
deviation of the air streams, thus increasing 
the lift. An account of the results obtained 
is given in "Aerophile" of June ist, by M. 
Menri Mirguet, of which I shall give a short 
abstract. 



Figure 3 shows a section of the "Ponnier" 
wing which was modified by having its enter- 
ing edge made concave as shown in figure 4. 
To show the character of the rari faction 
above the wing, streamers were fastened a 
foot apart along the rib (this was a full sized 
wing) ; in figure 3 these streamers show that 
the air follows the contour of the wing, while 
in figure 4 they show a rari faction over the 
portion a, the first two standing erect with 
their ends turned toward each other. 




It is inferred that the intensity (and area) 
of the rarifaction can be increased by em- 
ploying a series or set of deflecting plates 
(similar to those referred to above) and the 
lift still more increased. This, no doubt, can 
be done, but what effect it will have on the 
lift-ratio remains to be seen. 

As before stated, the wind pressure on 
this deflecting portion is detrimental, and one 
{Continued on page 7) 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 6 



Jub, 191 



The Championship Race 

By R. A. D. PRESTON 




R. A. D. Preston of The Goodyear Tire 
Rubber Company, Akron, O., aide in the fligh 
of the balloon "Goodyear," which won th 
National Championship Race at Kansas City 
July 4th, tells the following fascinating star 
of his experience on the memorable flight: 




HE start : We struck a fair equilibrium 
about 1,500 feet above ground, and saile 
rapidly away to the northeast. A few mir 
utes later we saw the "Kansas City Post 
Honeywell's balloon, and the "Kansas Cit; 
n," John Watts, coming after us. Th} 
"Goodyear" continued at approximately ori^ 
inal height until after midnight, the othej 
two balloons appearing to be working we 
of us. 

Almost as soon as we were well in the a: 
over in the north appeared what seemed to 
the inevitable thunder shower for this racj 
and as the night grew on another came vip 
the east, and .we could see more lightni 
flashes away to the south. At 2:10 A. M. t 
sharp patter of rain above told us that 
were in the storm. In a minute or two tM) 
rain was pouring down on the balloon, and m 
a few seconds more we started downward, f 

Upson watched the instruments, while tha 
aide hustled inboard the sand bags and othal 
accoutrements we had hung outside the basketii, 
This was to prevent them being torn off if WW 
should drag along the ground. About 2 :30jl 
while I was making things fast inside the< 
])asket, Upson called to me that our dragi 
rope had touched ground, and to watch out' 
It poured rain for half an hour or so, and we< 
raced along with the storm, the drag ropfi 
hitting the tops of the hills, and once or twicS^ 
the basket struck the ground, but quickltj 
bounced up again. The lightning helpeti 
rather than worried us, as it assisted us ifl( 
making out the country ahead. We flasheGi 
by a windmill and several trees at close rangCH 
but were not in much danger of striking thesj< 
as we could see them some distance ahead. I 



Gradually the storm drew away from us, 
and it was not long before it was light enough 
to see the ground pretty clearly. We had 
crossed the Mississippi during the storm, but 
where we do not know. Just after the storm 
an upward air current carried us up into low 
lying clouds, and for a few minutes we were 
completely surrounded by the wet mist. As 
soon as we could we descended to an altitude 
of five or six hundred feet. As it was nearly 
dawn, we decided to drag rope, that is, — let 
the balloon go along at low altitude with the 
drag-rope trailing along the ground until 
the sun should expand the gas and carry 
us up. 

We drag-roped for about an hour over the 
sharply rolling country. The wind would carry 
us up the slopes without throwing any ballast, 



sometimes driving us along only a few feel 
from the ground. In passing over some tele-- 
graph wires, the drag-rope tied itself neatlji 
around one of them, and the "Goodyear' 
hung for a moment securely moored in thw 
air. A strong gust of wind, however, was tow 
much for the wire, and off we started again( 
the knot on the end of the drag-rope cuttinji 
quite a swath through the brush and wirti 
fences, till we finally cut off the offendingi 
knot. The sun was just breaking through thf 
clouds to the far east, and we knew that wij 
would shortly be well up in the air. We leJ 
the balloon come down a little as we weni 
along in a northeasterly course, and after j 
repeated hallooing to the farmers below, Wf 
finally found at 6 125 A. M. that we were fivi 
miles north of Mineral Point, Wis. 



AERONA UTICS 



"Page 7 



July. 1913 



There were clouds all about us, but the sky 
just above was clear. The balloon ascended 
as the gas heated up — to take readings of speed 
kept me busy for the next hour, when Upson 
called my attention to a large city below us, 
which we knew from the capitol to be Madison 
Wis. We were then at 7 140 going due east 
in fine shape at 42 miles an hour, fast ap- 
proaching the upper cloud layer, and at 8 .20 
passed over its edge. The cloud sea was so 
dazzling white that we were glad to put on 
the heavily smoked glasses we had obtained 
for this condition. This cloud sea was won- 
derfully beautiful, extending almost level for 
miles around with good sized cloud peaks to 
the north and south. In a few minutes we 
could hear the steamer whistles at ^Milwaukee, 
and a little later, down through rifts in the 
clouds were the waters of Lake Michigan. 
At 10 o'clock we could see the land again, 
though we did not see either shore of the 
lake we had crossed. Just before noon we 
reached our highest elevation of nearly 13,000 
feet. Here the balloon shaded us from the 
sun, and we quickly realized that it was 
"winter" at this altitude. Before this, while 
above the clouds, I had been watching the in- 
struments from an improvised paper tent in 
one end of the basket, as I had lost my sun 
hat during the storm and the heat while the 
sun was shining on us, was intense. 

Mountainous clouds were piling up above 
the lever cloud layer to the south, and as this 
probably meant a thunder shower Upson let 
the balloon come down slowly to take ad- 
vantage of the more northerly currents at 
lower altitudes. At 600 feet, we stopped a 
little while just above the lower cloud layer 
which was beginning to break up. The upper 
cloud layer had disappeared just before we 
came down. \\'e did not stay long above the 
lower layer as we could see behind us a big 
funnel shaped cloud, and the air at this eleva- 
tion seemed very unstable. Once we ran into 
a little whirlwind which turned the balloon 
around rapidly three or four times. It was 
interesting at this height to look down and 



see the shadow of the balloon on the clouds 
below, surrounded by a bright rainbow-like 
ring. 

Descending through the lower cloud layer 
was very interesting. We did not go into 
the cloud at all, but seemed to slide down the 
side of this huge ball of mist with the ground 
in plain sight just over its edge. We were un- 
certain as to our whereabouts before de- 
scending through this cloud layer, but figured 
that we were somewhere in the vicinity of 
Saginaw Bay. Once below the cloud, how- 
ever, land was visible to the horizon. 

The unstable atmospheric conditions were 
fast using up the gas and ballast, and we 
realized then that it was only a question of 
pushing the "Goodyear" as far as we could 
toward the lake. 

The country below was not particularly in- 
viting as with few exceptions it was covered 
with tall stumps and strewn with dead, broken 
trees,_ the cut timber district of Northern 
Michigan. 

By three o'clock our ballast was all gone, 
and soon our empty sand bags, camp stools, 
water, milk cans, and most of our provisions 
were also gone. Reserving a little for landing, 
we looked ahead for a smooth spot and finally 
discerned a little spot of fairly smooth ground 
which we endeavored to reach. We hit a little 
short of it, narrowly missing a tall dead tree, 
but bounced up again and succeeded in drop- 
ping the balloon directly on a little plot which 
proved to be a buckwheat patch. Considering 
the strong wind blowing, Upson made an ex- 
ceptionally fine landing. 

We soon realized now that we had had no 
sleep and hardly a bite to eat during the race. 
After a vigorous attack on the remaining 
provisions, we left the balloon practically as 
it was and tumbled into bed at the nearest 
farm house for a good fifteen hours sleep. 

After packing up the next day, it developed 
there was not train south till 2 A. M. Not 
until we boarded this train, and I picked up a 
paper in the smoking compartment did we 
learn that we had won the Balloon Champion- 
ship of America. 



TECHNICAL TALKS 

[continued from pa^t^c j) 

would suppose that the loss entailed in de- 
flecting the air upward, would equal the gain 
due to increased rari faction. However, an 
ounce of experiment (properly conducted and 
rightly interpreted) is worth a pound of 
argument, and I shall give a brief account of 
the results obtained, taken from the article 
above mentioned. 

The first test was made in the Eiffel Labor- 
atory by M. Drzewiecki on a wing section 
which he had previously studied and which 
was primarily designed to be used as a 
propeller blade section. "By making the 
upper entering edge concave the characteris- 
tics of the profile were changed as if by 
magic." The lift was augmented, the drift 
diminished; and the efiiciency (lift ratio) was 
increased nearly (x)% for large angles of 
attack and 40% for 3° ; so that this section 
most inappropriate for an aeroplane wing, 



was thereby rendered better than the majority 
in present use. 

A similar test was made by Commandant 
Dorand on a very thin and good wing section 
and an improvement (in efficiency?) obtained 
of 15% for 3°. 26% for 0°. and 55% for 
15°, angles of attack. A second test was made 
by him on a propeller, which showed a marked 
improvement, though the propeller was al- 
ready very good, and therefore hard to amel- 
iorate. 

Dr. Amans tested wing models of small 
span and reported an improvement of 95%. 

Finally ]\I. Constantin. in collaboration with 
Commandant Dorand. had ten models tested 
at the Eiffel Laboratory. One of these was 
especially good, giving greater lift than the 
Bleriot XI bis. wing viz. 140% at 0°, 54% at 
3°, and 40% at 6°. 

A full sized Ponnier aeroplane was tested 
at Mourmelon. The modification of the wing 
(Contittued on page j6) 



AERONA UTICS 



PageS 



July, 1913 



The Savary Tractor Biplane 

By LEICESTER B. HOLLAND 





iNE of the most interesting 
of the French aeroplanes at 

OHUi; the present day is the 
tPB Savary biplane. Practically 
-|jM' unknown in this country ; 
^M and, until recently, little 
O^ heard of even in France, 
i'V"^ it is at present coming in- 
'titM to considerable prominence 
as a weight carrier. 
Robert Savary, the builder, 
became enthused by the first flights of Wilbur 
Wright at Le Mans and immediately set to 
work to build for himself. First at Le ^lans 
and then at Chartres he worked steadily away, 
wasting little energy on advertising or sensa- 
tional flights, but devoting all his attention 
to building a machine in which the qualities 
of efficiency and safety should be pre-eminent. 
When in 191 1, at the military competition 
at Rheims the Savary biplane swept every- 
thing before it, not only carrying by far 
the greatest useful weight per horsepower, 
though by its sturdiness of construction the 
heaviest machine entered, but also showing 
the best speed of the biplanes. 100 kiloms. an 
hour on a closed circuit of 5 kilometers, the 
aviation world began to take notice, and the 
recent considerable orders for Savary biplanes 
by the French and Italian governments to- 
gether with the decoration of M. Savary with 
the Legion of Honor are evidence that his 
machines are living up to the promise they 
then gave. 

The latest achievement of note of the 
Savary machine is the carrying of six pas- 
sengers by the pilot Frangeois, for an hour 
and a quarter. The passengers represent a 
weight of 472 kilos and the useful load car- 
ried, including oil and gasolene, totalled 580 
kilos. The pilot carried his passengers to a 
height of 850 metres, thus easily breaking the 
records for height and duration with such a load. 

The main factor sought in the design of 
the Savary machine is safety. To this end 
all parts have been made unusually strong ; 
the horizontal members of the tail and the 
whole framework of the wheels and skid 
(the skid itself being a heavy T bar of ash) 
being of steel tubing, while the longitudinal 
members of the planes and the struts be- 
tween planes are of ash. 

The engine, radiator and tanks are placed 
in front of the pilot so as to avoid the danger 
of his being crushed by the motor in a bad 
landing. This has necessitated putting the 
propellers in front of the main planes to 
avoid complications of transmission. Two 
propellers of 2.5 m. diameter by 1.75 m. pitch, 
turning in opposite directions at 900 R. P. M. 
are used. M. Savary is altogether convinced 
of the superior efficiency of the two chain- 
driven propellers of large diameter at slow 
speed over the single propeller connected 
directly to the motor. To test the matter he 
built a machine exactly like his regular ma- 
chines except that it was driven by a single 



propeller coupled direct to a Gnome engine.! 
He found that the twin screw machine, weigh-! 
ing with its power transmission and passenger 
125 kilos more than the single screw machine, 
flew, nevertheless, at a speed of 26 kilometers 
an hour greater than the other. Moreover, 
it is claimed that a twin-screw machine is 
easier to manipulate than the one single screw , 
type, there being no gyroscopic action ; and 
certainly even the beginners find that it is 
as easy to turn the Savary to the right as to 
the left. A third claim for the twin screw is 
that it provides greater lateral stability which 
would seem to be true for the Savary, as 
while responding readily to the action of its 
ailerons it is very little affected by "choppy" 
air. Incidentally, the arrangement is a very 
comfortable one for the pilot, for the two 
propellers form a pocket of still air just at 
the "nacelle" so that there is no greater 
rush of air than that caused by the speed of 
the machine, and even this is somewhat broken 
and very pleasantly warmed by passing through 
the radiator and across the exhausts of the 
motor before reaching the pilot. 

The chief danger connected with the use 
of two chain-driven propellers, that of the 
possible rupture of one chain while the other 
continues to hold, has been cleverly overcome 
by the use of a single long chain passing over 




Arrangement of transmission. A, motor sprocket- 
B and B', propeUer sprocket; C and C, idle 
sprockets. 

both the propeller sprockets and the two 
sprockets on the shaft of the motor and kept 
in position by two small idler sprockets (see 
diagram). In this way the crossing of the 
chain, which is necessary to cause the pro- 
pellers to turn in opposite directions is made 
very much more gradual, taking place in the 
whole length of the chain, instead of in half 
that distance as in the Wright transmission. 

The motor chiefly used is a four cylinder 
Labor-Aviation, water cooled, developing 70 
H. P. at 1300 R. P. M., though in many of 
the machines a 75 H. P. air cooled Renault 
motor, turning at 1700 R. P. M. is used 
instead. 

The running gear is also unusual and is 
perhaps the strongest and most effective in 
use on any aeroplane to-day. It consists of 
a single long and very heavy ash skid cen- 
trally placed and reaching far in advance of 
the centre of gravity to prevent "somer- 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 9 



July, 1913 



I 







saulting" in l)ad landings. This skid is braced 
by a triangular system of steel tubing form- 
ing a truss capable of withstanding the most 
violent shocks. 

The two wheels are suspended by a sort 
of universal joint from the front longitudinal 
member of the lower plane. While strongly 
braced by steel tubing to prevent their tipping 
sideways, they are free to swing forward and 
back and also to turn like castors ai)(Hit a 
vertical axis. Wire guys connect each wheel 
with the front end of the skid by means of 
rubber tension springs. These springs hold 
the wheels normally in a position below the 
skid but allow them under pressure to swing 
back and up until the skid rests upon the 



ground. Another similar rubber spring limits 
the castor action of the wheels causing them 
to stand normally straight fore and aft. The 
wheels are mounted unusually far apart (4 
meters), and, being quite independent of each 
other in their action, make operations on the 
roughest ground and landing in an inclined 
position comparatively simple matters. 

When stationary the machine rests on the 
two wheels and the rear end of the skid with 
the front pointed slightly up. but as soon as it 
begins to roll on the ground, it assumes a 
horizontal position being balanced entirely 
on the wheels with the skid lifted clear. In 
landing the wheels swing up and the skid, 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 10 



July, 1913 



sliding along almost its full length, brings the 
machine rapidly to a stop. 

Longitudinal stability is assured by a bi- 
plane tail joined to the main cell by a quad- 
rangular frame of steel and ash, trussed 
lengthwise and also crosswise. Each tail 
plane, of about 4 sq. m., has a fixed non-carry- 
ing triangular part in front to insure stability 
and behind these are hinged the flat, square 
elevator planes with about 8 sq. m. surface. 
These planes work both up and down ; their 
large area and their position far in the rear 
of the main cell make it impossible to "en- 
gage" the machine in a rapid descent. 

There is no rudder in the tail, M. Savary, 
thinking that any vertical surface far to the 
rear of the centre of gravity would give the 
machine a constant tendency to head up into 
the wind. Steering is done by four vertical 
planes or shutters mounted in pairs on the 
outside rear struts of the cell. To turn to 
the left, the two left shutters are closed, thus 
presenting an enormous resistance at this 
point and causing the right end, where the 
shutters are left in the stream line, to swing 
around. The tail being without a rudder 
swings easily and very short turns can be 
made at a moderate inclination, while in 
straight flight the shutters being close to the 
centre of gravity do not cause the machine 
to veer from its course. 

The upper and lower main planes are built 
of longitudinal members of ash channelled to 
shape, and connected at the intersection with 
the struts by solid ribs of ash of I-beam 
section. Between these are solid ribs of 
poplar. The frame work is covered with a 
heavy linen and varnished with "Novavia." 
The two planes are i m. 80 apart. The 
upper one has a spread of 14 m. 40 and the 
lower one of 10 m. 80; both are 2 m. 20 
deep. The total carrying surface is 52 square 
meters. The overhanging portions at the 
ends of the upper planes are hinged to fold 
down so that the spread can easily be reduced 
to 10 m. 80 for storage in the hangars. 

Lateral stability is obtained by ailerons 
hinged to the rear of the upper plane only. 
These are arranged to work positively both 
up and down. 

The "nacelle" is built of wood covered with 
varnished linen. The pilot sits in the rear 



where he can see behind the lower plane. In 
front of him is the seat for the passenger 
and in front of this again, the motor and the 
radiator. The lower wing is cut away from 
front to rear for a space of about a foot on 
either side of the "nacelle" to allow a free 
view of the ground while the motor group 
being no wider than the "nacelle" and not 
descending below the bottom of it cuts off 
no view at all except when the machine is on 
the ground. 

All three controls are united in a single 
wheel on a steering post mounted on a 
universal joint. Steering to right and left 
is done by turning the wheel as in an auto- 
mobile. Tipping the post right or left con- 
trols the l^alance, and forward and back, 
the descent and ascent. All these movements 
are quite instinctive, and the machine can be 
easily controlled by either hand alone. The 
throttle is placed on the wheel and the lever 
for advancing the spark and the sight feed 
for the oil on the edge of the "nacelle." 
The main gasoline tank is situated between 
the pilot and passenger forming a back for 
the latter. A glass gauge indicates at a 
glance the amount of gasoline in the tank. 

The average speed with two on board is 
100 km. an hour, the net weight is 625 kilos, 
and the carrying capacity is 300 kilos. 

The machine with which Frangeois flew on 
May 8 with six passengers is a specially large 
one built for weight carrying. In this type, 
the upper plane has a spread of 19 m. 50; the 
lower one 14 m. 50. The motor is a no H. P. 
water-cooled Salmson (Canton-Unne) and 
the nacelle is arranged with two little benches 
facing each other in front of the pilots seat. 
The weight imloaded is 700 kilos. Two pairs 
of twin wheels instead of the ordinary single 
wheels are used; the two tires of each pair 
being bound to each other with tape, thus 
forming a tread about eight inches wide and 
enabling the machine to land and fly from 
the heaviest sort of ground. 

So easy is it to handle the Savary machine 
and so efficiently does the landing gear work 
that two-thirds of the pupils at the school 
at Chartres obtain their license without hav- 
ing had a single item of breakage. 




Vlflb STRVCTVRt Of 3AVAKC 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 



July. 1913 




New Model "CH" Wright 



The planes, rudder, motor and drive follow 
he standard model "C" lines. The span is 
;8 feet, chord 6 feet and the surface area is 
ibout 440 square feet. The weight empty is 
)20 pounds, exclusive of the weight of the 
•entre hydroplane float, which is 240 pounds. 
Dne of the new Wright six cylinder, 60 H. P. 
notors is installed, driving two propellers, 8 
"eet 6 inches diameter. The machine is fitted 
vith special instruments recording the angle 
)f incidence with regard to the air currents. 
tc. 

The hydroplane unit consists of a single 
3ontoon, 10 feet long, 6 feet wide and 10 
nches deep, and a small pontoon supporting 
he tail. The form of the pontoon and its 
position has been determined with great care 
ind a type arrived at that makes the water 
Dlaning features of this machine unusually 
fficient. 

Mr. Wright has carried passengers on 
numerous occasions and the best weight lift- 
ing performance was when he flew with two 
of his assistants, Jacobs and Taylor, and 
Taylor's boy, in addition to considerable 
amount of fuel, which made a total load on 
the machine of almost 800 pounds. 

The model "CH" rises almost instantly to 
the top of the water, since it starts and leaves 
the surface under the expert handling of I\Ir. 
Wright, in less than 10 seconds, which is by 
far the best performance to date in hydro- 
aeroplaning. Mr. Wright has made over one 



hundred flights with this machine, and on 
one occasion flew over Dayton, landing on 
the Miami River at a point between two 
bridges not over one thousand feet apart, 
and rose again from this place and flew off 
over the town to the starting point with per- 
fect ease. During June and the early part of 
July at his station on the ]\Hami River, Mr. 
Wright frequently did a large business in 
carrying passengers, taking up one after an- 
other, often despite winds of as high as 10 to 
15 miles an hour. 

The locality on the Miami River where the 
tests were held would generally have been 
considered an almost impossible place for 
hydro-aeroplaning. The river is very narrow 
and on both sides are steep banks covered 
with trees, making flying in any kind of wind 
an extremely difficult matter. Mr. Wright, 
however, considers this to represent the aver- 
age conditions that would have to be met by 
a machine of this type if it is to have any 
extended use at all as a means of travel be- 
tween inland towns, or in opening up in- 
accessible country over shallow streams. It 
is particularly for these purposes as distinct 
from the rough water work that would be 
met with in larger bodies of water, that Mr. 
Wright worked out this machine. Its flying 
qualities have been studied carefully to render 
it every bit as good as the best land machines, 
which is distinctly not the case with most 
other hydroaeroplanes to-day. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 12 



July, 1913 




f r 



^^"=fli' 



^[7 








uX^ is'J 



I73B 



I think AERONAUTICS is the best maga- 
zine published on the subject of flying and I 
wish it came every week. I especially like the 
drawings and descriptions of foreign ma- 
chines. — C. L. M., Tenn. 



I notice, by the way, that men of discrim- 
ination and education read AERONAUTICS 
in preference to the other journals in this 
field.— C. W. S., Cal. 



SANDT DIES FROM INJURIES 

Erie, Pa., June 21. — Earl Samlt, aviator, died liere 
from poisoning after the amputation of his leg, neces- 
sitated by a fall in his aeroplane at Grove City, Pa., 
on June 12. 



Yes, 1 still read AERONAUTICS regu- 
larly but A and F I find 

I rarely need to get. — Subscriber. 



STANDARD CONTROL FOR NAVY 
AEROPLANES 

All aeroplanes of the U. S. Navy will be 
fitted with a "universal control" so that any 
aviator may operate any type or make of 
machine without learning new controls or en- 
dangering life by flying without proper train- 
ing. It has been found impossible to get any 
body of men to agree on the merits or de- I 
merits of any one of the present systems so \ 
Captain W. Irving Chambers is going to ar- 
rive at the point by scientific analysis and ex- 
periment. 



lAERONA UTICS 



Page 1 3 



/u(p, 1913 



The Martin "Aeroyacht" 



Unique among the new types of aircraft 
which have been perfected during the last 
year is the "'aeroyacht," designed and built by 
Glenn L. Martin, the noted California manu- 
facturer of aeroplanes and hj'droaeroplanes. 
The new machine is a four passenger con- 
vertible tractor, which combines a maximum 
of power and efficiency with comfort and 
safety. The body of the aero yacht is twenty- 
five feet in length, and being oval in shape, 
presents a minimum of head resistance while 
it is in flight. The machine is fitted with two 
seats of the "surrey"' type, each being forty- 
eight inches wide. The pilot occupies the 
rear seat with one passenger, the other two 
passengers occupying the front seat. 

The body is mounted on a pontoon seven- 
teen feet in length, which is built up of Span- 
ish cedar planking eight inches wide. Forty 
sets of rib bracing form the carcass of the 
pontoon, which is divided into eight water- 
tight compartments. This method of con- 
struction insures the safety of the machine. 



should the pontoon be damaged while in the 
water. The outer surface of the pontoon is 
covered with cloth and glue, and is finished 
with three coats of varnish. It has a displace- 
ment of three thousand pounds. 

The main pontoon may be detached from 
the liody of the machine, and replaced with a 
landing gear in thirty minutes. The landing 
gear adopted by Mr. Martin is of the two 
wheel, rubber spring type, and is equipped 
with a central skid. It is similar in design to 
the landing gear of the Day tractor, which 
has proven remarkably strong and efficient 
during the last year. 

The supporting planes of the aero yacht 
have a spread of thirty-five feet, with a span 
of seven feet between the struts. The planes 
are set five and one-half feet apart, and the 
wings have a camber of three and one-half 
inches, with a chord of five feet two inches. 
The wing section is built up, with solid ribs 
nine inches apart, and short ribs, three inches 
apart, over the nose. By this construction the 




Glenn Martin's ■ 'Aeroyachf 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 14 



July, 1913 




OlB/v/v /V/7/F77/V 1702, 



Glenn Martin Hydro 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 15 



/u/y, 1913 



Conover-varnished cloth is held firmly to the 
designed curve of the plane, and forms a very 
efficient wing. The front beam is an "I" sec- 
tion two and one-quarter by one and one- 
half inches, the rear beam being two by one 
and three-eighth inches. 

The wing tip pontoons, which are of a 
unique design original with Mr. Martin, are 
of the same mechanical construction as the 
main pontoon. They are so shaped that at 
a speed of sixty miles an hour they support 
their own weight in the air, at the same time 
presenting practically no head resistance. They 
engage the water at a planing angle, render- 
ing it impossible to bury a wing under any 
condition. The smaller pontoons have a dis- 
placement of two hundred and twenty-five 
pounds each. 

An 8-cylinder 80 H. P. Curtiss motor fur- 
nishes the power, mounted in the forward 



part of the body, ahead of the pilot and pas- 
sengers. The motor is enclosed under a de- 
tachalile aluminum hood, making it easily ac- 
cessible for adjustment, and is cooled by two 
specially designed Hall-Scott radiators which 
have proven extremely efficient. The motor 
is also equipped with a muffler designed by 
Mr. Martin, which effectively silences the ex- 
haust but creates no back pressure in the motor. 
The fuselage is put together in a simple 
and efficient manner which makes it unnec- 
essary to drill any holes through the longi- 
tudinal members of the body. This is made 
possible by the metal fittings, which were de- 
signed by Charles H. Day, superintendent of 
the Los Angeles factory of the Glenn L. Mar- 
tin Co., and fittings of the same type are used 
connecting the struts and wire to the wing 
sections. Patents have been applied for on 
this feature of the machine. 



Christofferson Flying Boat 

By E. W. HAMMER 



Silas Christofferson, the man who flew from 
the roof of a hotel in Portland, Ore., is now 
operating a flying boat, equipped with the first 
of the new Hall-Scott hundreds. The machine 
carries three passengers at sixty miles an hour 
and four could be put in without any trouble. 
It will be interesting to note the flights that 
are to be made at Lake Tahoe, which is six 
thousand feet above sea level. Two of these 
flying boats, with similar motors, are to be 
supplied to explorer Amundsen. 

The upper plane spreads 49 feet ; the lower 
S3 feet 6 inches. Chord 5 feet 6 inches, cam- 
ber 3.5 inches at 26 inches back, separation 
5 feet 5 inches and the total area is 432 square 
feet. The trailing edge of the upper plane 
is cut away for propeller clearance but at a 
point near the ailerons it curves out to 6 feet 
5 inches. The main planes have an angle of 
incidence of 6 degrees. In their construction 
spruce has been used throughout. The upper 
is in 3 sections and the lower in two. In the 
entering edge two strips have been used, the 
outer being sharply pointed. For the trailing 
edge a strip of spruce is used with an oval 
leaving edge. Ribs, of I section, built up 
are used in main planes, ailerons and ele- 
vators. Battens of .25 inches by .5 inches have 
been used and to give lightness the .25 inch 
web has been bored out. The w-eb is mortised 
into the batten, glued and nailed. Oval strips 
.875 inches by .375 inches run diagonally 
through the inside of each plane and a num- 
ber of small tapered strips between the end 
ribs act as a reinforcement. The main beams 
are of I section, formed by a web having 3 
laminations .75 inch thick mortised into strips 
1.375 inches by .375 inches. At the hull tlie 
main spars have their greatest thickness, 1.625 
inches, tapering down to about i inch about 
half the length of the wing. 

Lateral stability is maintained by two aile- 
rons in the top plane, 2.5 feet wide by 6.5 feet., 
with a reverse camber of .375 inch. 

The fixed part of the tail has an area of 



24 square feet., maximum spread 9 feet and 
maximum length fore and aft of 4.75 inches 
and is set at a negative angle. Spruce I ribs 
are used as in main planes. 

The twin elevators are splayed out to afford 
room for the rudder. The two elevators" 
spread total 12.5 feet and the total area is 
34-33 square feet. In the stabilizer and ele- 
vators the forward edges are hollowed out 
and the ribs set in. 

The balanced rudder is 4.25 feet by 3 feet 
high and has an area of 9.75 square feet. 
Goodyear fabric is used throughout, and three 
sizes of Roebling cable. In the turnbuckles 
chrome nickel steel is used for the ends and 
Tobin bronze in the centers. The wire ends 
are all made fast by double ferrules. Cold 
rolled steel is used for strut sockets and bed 
rail clamps. All the metal parts are nickel 
plated. The total weight is 1,200 lbs. 

Length of hull from stem to stern is 24.5 
feet, the maximum beam is 34 inches and the 
greatest depth 32 inches ; draft is approxi- 
mately 4 inches. The greatest width and depth 
are found at a point even with the deepest 
camber. The maximum beam runs back to 
a point 12 inches forward of the trailing edge 
of the lower plane and then rounding oflF 
gently flattens out to a wedge at the stern. 
The hull rounds up 12 inches at the bow and 
has approximately 9 feet of flat bottom meas- 
uring from a line taken at the rear of the 
hood. The bottom is protected by 2 runners 
of spruce, having a base of 2 inches and a 
running surface of 1.5 inches, and 2.5 inches 
in depth. The runners taper off both fore and 
aft and are hollowed out in sections. In order 
to prevent water leaking into the hollow cham- 
bers the entire base of the runner is covered 
with canvas and waterproofed. Hull sheath- 
ing is .25 inch cedar on the bottom, .1875 inch 
to a point 14 inches up the sides, and from 
here to the gunwale .125 inch cedar has been 
put on over .25 inch by .5 inch spruce ribs that 
are reinforced by .5 inch longitudinal spruce 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 16 



July,\9\3 



strips. The hood is covered with .125 inch 
mahogany and runs back to a cockpit that 
has an opening of 9 feet which furnishes 
ample room for pilot, passengers, motor and 
propeller clearance. The balance back of the 
hull is sheathed with .125 inch cedar. 



The ICO H. P. Hall-Scott motor is placed in 
the rear of the cockpit and is braced by 16 ga. 
by .25 inch tubing. The motor is geared 18-24 
and drives by Diamond chain a Christoffer- 
son propeller of 9 feet pitch by 8 feet 5 
{Contt7Uied on page jj) 




— ( 



Christofferson Flying Boat 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 1 7 



July, 1913 




The Cooke Tractor Airboat 



The Weldon B. Cooke Aeroplane Company, 
of Sandusky, Ohio, has just completed a fly- 
ing boat of novel design, which, it is claimed, 
embodies the good features of all its con- 
temporaries. It is a seaworthy-looking de- 
sign and the motor is in an accessible posi- 
tion. The motor is mounted in the hull just 
forward of the aviator's seat, and can be 
very easily reached. A hot bearing, a dis- 
connected wire, a loose nut, can all be dis- 
covered and quickly remedied "even while in 
flight." It is not necessary to climb over the 
seat or onto the planes to change a spark plug 
or do any of the hundred and one things 
an aeroplane motor needs. 

The most notable feature of the Cooke air- 
boat is the hull, built by the Davis Boat Works 
Co. of Sandusky. It is a fine example of the 
boat builder's art, light, substantial, and grace- 
ful. There is not an abrupt line in the hull, 
with the exception of the step. It is finished 
in natural wood throughout and a most at- 
tractive boat. The materials employed arc 
oak, mahogany, and cedar, all very carefully 
selected from well-seasoned stock, and thor- 
oughly varnished inside and out, with Valspar. 
The planking is double, with the inner layer 
laid diagonally, and oiled gingham between 
the layers. The sides are two layers of 
J/^ inch, the deck one thickness of J4 inch. 



and the bottom forward where the blows 
strike in hydroplaning, are two layers of ^5 
inch. The planking is riveted every two 
inches with copper nails, making a hull that 
will wit-hstand enormous shocks without split- 
ting or springing a leak. The beam is very 
broad and the freeboard very high, making 
an excellent boat for rough water. A dive 
into a wave, except from a height is almost 
impossible. The Cooke company is the only 
firm of its kind located on the Great Lakes, 
and the head of the firm has done a great 
deal of flying over Lake Erie. The firm is, 
therefone. well qualified to know what is most 
important in the design of an airboat for 
severe conditions. The hull has four water- 
tight compartments, any one of them large 
enough to keep the boat afloat in the event 
of a collision damaging the bottom. The 
planes are entirely independent of any other 
part of the boat, and could be cast adrift in 
a storm without crippling the boat or power 
plant, and, it would even be possible to drive 
home under power without the planes. 

The boat has a comfortable seating capacity 
for five persons besides the pilot, in two seats 
arranged in tandem. The total weight of the 
machine in flying order is 1,500 pounds, leav- 
ing a margin of about 700 pounds for live 
load. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 18 



July, 1913 



Dimensions of the hull are as follows : 
Length, 28 feet; beam, 5 feet; beam (at step), 
4 feet; height of step, 8 inches; draught at 
step, 16 inches; position of step, 11 feet aft; 
position of C. G., 10 feet aft; freeboard at 
bow, 3 feet; freeboard at stern, i foot; seats, 
two, in tandem ; width of seats, 4 feet. The 
motor is a Roberts Six, 75 H. P., located in 
hull, forward, double chain drive to paragon 
propeller, 10 feet diameter, 10 feet pitch. 
Motor speed, 1,200 R. P. ]\I. Propeller speed, 
600 R. P. Al. Gasoline and oil capacity, three 
hours. 

The propeller is mounted in front, on a 
framework of steel tubing built up from the 
deck, and is driven at half motor speed by 
two roller chains running in guides. The pro- 
peller shaft is in a direct line with the center 
of head resistance in the air. The blade is a 
Paragon, left-hand, 10 feet diameter by 10 
feet 2 inches pitch. The propeller shaft is 
mounted on radial and thrust ball bearings. 



The planes are substantial, made up in /J^ 
foot sections, center sections all double wired, 
chord 7 feet, gap 7 feet. There are six sec- 
tions in the top plane and four in the bot- 
tom. The top plane spreads 45 feet and the 
lower 30 feet., the total area being 500 square 
feet. The wing tip pontoons are flat on the 
bottom side and have a displacement of 200 
pounds each. The two ailerons, of ig square 
feet each, are hinged to the rear beam of the 
top outside section, are interconnected and 
work both ways. The tail is the conventional 
fixed stabilizer of 40 square feet surface. 
There are two elevators of 25 square feet each 
and a rudder of 19 square feet. There is no 
vertical fin. 

The operation of the control is similar to 
the Benoist. right-hand lever for lateral and 
longitudinal control, and left-hand lever for 
rudder. The trials of the boat have not yet 
taken place, but the builders expect to put it 
through its paces in the near future. 



BRITISH MOTOR COMPETITION 



The British War Office will hold a naval 
and military aeroplane engine competition to 
begin on February i, 1914, at the Royal Air- 
craft Factory, Farnborough, Hampshire, 3^, 
miles from London. A prize of £5,000 ($24,- 
332) will be awarded to the maker of the en- 
gine which, in the opinion of the judges, best 
fulfills the requirements of the competition 
and which is entirely suited for the aeroplane 
service. Although only engines of British 
manufacture will be allowed in the competi- 
tion, a statement of what will be required to 
permit of an entry and also of the attributes 
which are considered desirable in an aero- 
plane engine may be of interest to American 
manufacturers. 

SPECIFIED REQUIREMENTS. 

Horsepower : Ninety to two hundred. 

Number of cylinders : More than four. 

Gross weight per horsepower : Calculated 
for si.x hours' run, not to exceed 11 pounds. 

Shape of engine : Suitable for fitting in an 
aeroplane. 

Origin of engine: British manufacture 
throughout. 

DESIRABLE ATTRIBUTES. 

Light total weight; economy of consump- 
tion ; absence of vibration ; smooth running, 
whether in normal or inclined position and 
whether at full power or throttled down ; slow 
running under light loads ; workmanship ; 
silence; absence of deterioration after tests; 
simplicity of construction ; suitable shape to 
minimize head resistance; precautions against 
accidental stoppage, e. g., dual ignition ; adapt- 
able for starting otherwise than by propeller 
swinging; accessibility of parts; freedom 
from risk of fire; absence of smoke or of 
ejections of oil or petrol (gasoline) ; conveni- 
ence of fitting in aeroplane; relative invul- 
nerability to small-arm projectiles; economy 



(in bulk, weight, and number) of minimum 
spare-part equipment; excellence of material; 
reasonable price; satisfactory running under 
climatic variations of temperature. 

The engines will be submitted to the fol- 
lowing tests : 

Two runs of six hours each, at full power 
or throttled down, as desired by the judges. 
Engines to be placed in inclined positions 
not exceeding 15 degrees for short special 
runs. The consumption of fuel and lubricant 
will be measured. Engines to be dismantled 
by the competitors' mechanics between the 
runs if desired by the competitors or the 
judges, but no work of any kind to be done 
on an engine except under observation. 

At any period during the competition the 
judges may impose such other tests as they 
desire, including runs of longer duration, in 
order to bring out the relative merits of com- 
peting engines. 

OPENING FOR AMERICAN 
MANUFACTURERS 

The most satisfactory way to secure a mar- 
ket for American aero engines in the United 
Kingdom would be by direct representation in 
this country and by using every opportunity 
for making demonstrations. An excellent op- 
portunity exists at present for the establish- 
ment of an English market for American 
aero engines provided their efficiency can be 
absolutely demonstrated. Nothing should be 
left undone to interest the British Admiralty 
and War Office, and manufacturers of aerial 
craft of every description, as well as pro- 
fessional aviators. Moreover, a definite and 
persistent course of advertising would pro- 
duce satisfactory results to the manufacturer. 
— From the U. S. Consular Report. The Gyro 
motor has already gone to England and is 
demonstrating the Gyro in flight. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 19 



July, 1913 



New^ Developments in Aeronautics 



LATEST BENOIST BOAT 

The illustration shows the new Benoist 
flying boat, "Lakes Cruise" model. This ma- 
chine will carry two passengers besides the 
aviator with ease and makes about 70 miles 
an hour. Its dimensions are as follows : 




Spread 35 feet ; fore and aft. over all 23 
feet; chord 5 feet; gap 6 feet ; width 36 inches ; 
depth of boat at the step 30 inches. The 
propeller is driven by sprocket and chain with 
engine installed in the boat as is common with 
the Benoist machines. 



STREAM-LINE FLOW UNDER AIRBOAT 
HULLS 

In one airboat of recent date the exhaust 
from the motor comes out immediately behind 
the step in the main float, with the object of 
producing a layer of gas abaft the step in 
order that the get off from the water may 1)C 
speedy. Again, in an airboat exhiliited at the 
last Olympia show a pair of quadri-spherical 
cowls, fitted on top of the float, lead air down 
sloping-aft tubes to just behind the step, with 
the same end in view. Even though the 
introduced exhaust in the one case and air 
in the other achieve their object when the 
airboat is rising, it might be asked whether 
they are worth while when their detrimental 
effect on the streamlines when in the air is 
considered, says James E. Steele. Associate 
Member Institute of Naval Architects, in 
British Aeronautics. 

When flying, the lift, which would other- 
wise be exerted by the sweet-flowing stream- 
lines beneath the float, is in part destroyed bv 
the disturbing influence of the introduced air 



or exhaust; this results in a lift-reduction due 
to the loss in air reaction. 

The air issuing from the bottom of the float 
at an angle of about 45 degrees to the stream 
lines will disturb their natural flow, resulting 
in the lift-reduction mentioned above. It 
might be thought that the admission of air 
l;ehind the step would get rid of the negative 
pressure or suction at that part, but air ad- 
mitted for that purpose would only increase 
the body of dead air which must be dragged 
along with the float. 

To retain what good there may be when 
rising, and yet to get rid of the adverse effect 
when flying, means should be provided for 
cutting out in both the cases mentioned, when 
the machine is in the air. Cowls capable of 
being housed when flying would achieve that 
object in the one case, besides doing away 
with the drag which they exert. 



FLYING BOATS ARE OFFICIALLY 
MOTOR BOATS 

While to require flying boats or hydro- 
aeroplanes when operating in the water as 
motor boats to be equipped in accordance 
with the Act of June 9, 1910, will impose 
conditions which might interfere, at least to 
some extent, to their use out of water; at 
the same time, it is the opinion of E. E. 
Chamberlain, Commissioner of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce, in a letter to AERO- 
XAUTICS, that these vessels which go at a 
high rate of speed should, for the protection 
of other vessels, be equipped with lights if 
navigated after sunset, and for the protec- 
tion of those on board should have life saving 
devices. The course which they propose to 
take should be indicated by signals as in the 
case of other vessels and if they are in a fog 
their position should be indicated. "I am in- 
clined to think, therefore," says Mr. Williams, 
"that while navigated as motor boats they 
are required to have equipment on such ves- 
sels and comply with the Rules of the Road," 
as contained in Department Circular 236, 

The rules of the department provide that 
these craft, motorboats, must be inspected by 
the local inspectors ; they are divided into 
classes — less than 26 feet, 26 feet to 39 feet 
inclusive, and 40 feet to 64 feet. Certain 
lights must be carried after sunset, and these 
of a certain size and properly positioned. 
Whistle, fog horn, bell are other fittings. If 
carrying passengers for hire, certain life pre- 
servers must be carried and the pilot must 
be licensed. A fine of $100 is provided. The 
act is enforced by collectors of customs and 
other officers. 



Airships are not made of air, neither are 
they exactly shipshape. But let not these in- 
consistencies discourage you, for if an air- 
ship is not what you think, it is at least as 
dangerous as it looks. But why speak of 
danger — look at the people who marry! 

— "Doctor" S and "Doctor"' W. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 20 



July. 1913 



NEW HALL-SCOTT- 1 00 H. P. 

The new loo H. P. motor of the Hall-Scott 
Motor Car Co. has been built especially for 
the flying boat, although it can be used di- 
rectly connected in any standard machine. 
Enough power is provided to lift a standard 
flying boat into the air under any weather 
conditions, or get off the water with more 
passengers. The bore and stroke is 5 inches 
respectively. 

Their system of cylinder construction is 
much similar to the previous models. Cyl- 
inder walls, heads, and pistons are cast from 
a special grade of close grained grey iron. 
Main cylinder walls are machined upon both 
sides. Steel water jackets are autogenously 
welded to the cylinder walls, forming non- 
leakable joints; the steel of such thickness 
that it is not readily dented. The assembly 
is then baked, enameled black on the outside, 
and ground to size. 





Comparison of the 80 H. P. and 100 H. P. Cylinders 

Cylinder heads are cast with water jackets 
completely encircling the valves, so that there 
is no danger of the valves sticking or break- 
ing from overheating. The inside of the head 
is carefully machined to insure equal compres- 
sion. Two plugs are carried in the head, a 
Bosch magneto firing both at the same time, 
insuring increased power over the single sys- 
tem. 

Particular attention is called to the strength 
and rigidity of the cylinder and head assem- 
bly mounting on the crank case, the five steel 
rods brought from inside the crank case and 
passing through the heads, to which they are 
securel}' bolted. Copper asbestos gaskets 



placed between head and cylinder provide an 
easy means of assembling and an absolutely 
tight joint. 

Crank cases are of the best aluminum alloy, 
hand scraped both inside and out, and hand 
polished on the outside. The bottom oil case 
is removable, so that main bearings, etc., may 
be easily inspected. A large capacity oil pump 
is cast integral with lower case, providing 
enough oil for a run of seven hours. 

The crank shaft is hand forged from one 
piece of special heat treated steel, machined 
and ground to size, and accurately balanced. 
It is supported on five bearings of unusually 
large diameter. The cam shaft gear is driven 
by a gear, formed integral with crank shaft. 
All main bearings of Wm. Cramp's white- 
metal. Main bearing caps are of aluminum 
alloy with heavy steel strap supporting same, i 

Cam shaft is of heavy, seamless steel tub- 5 
ing, supported on five bearings. Cams of ma- , 
chine steel, hardened and accurately ground!'] 
to size and doubly pinned on cam shaft. 

Large 2^2 inch nickel-steel valves are placed 1 
directly in cylinder heads, no valve cages used, jl 
which allows of simplicity in design, the head 
being easily removed, and equal compression ; 
in all cylinders. 

All connecting rods are of I beam construe- | 
tion, made of special carbon steel, drop forged 
and heat treated, which develops great stiff- 
ness, and prevents crystallization. They are 
bored and reamed on special machine tools 
made for this one purpose, which absolutely 
insures correct centers and alignment. The 
connecting rod caps are held in place by spe- 
cial nickel-steel bolts, properly secured by 
locking device. 

The oiling system is a combination force 
feed and splash, with constant level. The 
oil is circulated by means of a gear pump, 
which forces the oil in equal amounts to the ! 
different individual compartments in which 
the connecting rods dip, and an absolutely | 
constant level is maintained at any motor speed, j 

Liberal allowance is made in cylinder jacket ' 
space, in the size of water pipes and all con- 
nections, to allow of perfect cooling of the 
motor under most severe conditions. A large 
capacity centrifugal pump is used in connec- 
tion. Connection between the cylinder and 
head is made with pipe by-pass, preventing 
any danger of water leak into cylinder. 



i 






J L 



The 80 and loo Crank Cases 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 2 



July, 1913 




Published Monthly by Aeronautic j "Prejj 

122 E. 25th ST., NEW YORK 

Cable: Aeronautic. New York 

'Phone, 9122 Madison Sq. 

ERNEST L. JONES. Prest — - THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treas'r-Sec'y 

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor - M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor 

HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor 

subscription rates 

Umted States, $3.00 Foreign, $3 50 



No. 71 



JULY, 1913 



Vol. XIII, No. 1 



Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at tlie Postofflce, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

<I AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30tli of each Month, All copy must be received by the 2oth. 
Advertising pages close on the 25th. 

^ Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send 
currency. No foreign stamps accepted. 



cylero cTWart 



RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line. 
Payment in advance. 



MOTORS FOR SALE 

ENGINE FOR SALE— 8-cyl. "V," list price, 
$1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this 
motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't 
picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker 
who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete 
with propeller, $800. Address, "Eight Cylinder," 
care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New 
York. 

BARGAIN— SO H. P. Gnome; also 50 H. P. An- 
zani. Both guaranteed in excellent condition. Will 
sell cheap owing to death of aviator, .\ddress. Rose, 
AERONAUTICS. 



SO H. P. motor. Full equipment of exhibition extras. 
Everything in good mechanical condition; $3,200 cash 
will buy it. Act quick. K, care of AERONAUTICS. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



WISE — One copy of the rare book by John Wise, 
A System of Aeronautics, for sale to first comer at 
$10. First-class condition. This book is getting 
more rare every day. Address Sheahan, care of 
AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York. 



B.\CK NUMBERS OF AERONAUTICS WANTED 
— \ oiume one, number five; volume two, number 
two; volume three, numbers two and four; volume 
four, numbers four, five and six; volume six, number 
ore. Address Arvis Roach, 401 Cedar St., San An- 
tonio, Tex. 



AEROPLANES 



SACRIFICE — A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one 
of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall- 
Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in A\ condition, for $1,800 
cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. 
Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped 
for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser 
at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the 
season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's 
door. Address "Sacrifice," care of .AERONAUTICS, 
122 E. 25th St., New York. 



HYDROAEROPLANES, AEROPLANES, MO- 
TOR.S— 30, 50, 75 H. P. Great Bargains. Demon- 
strations. Patterson, A986 Trumbull, Detroit, — July. 

WANTED ENPLOYMENT— Young man, 25 vears 
old, no bad habits, engine expert, designed and built 
machine for past 5 years, also considerable work in 
gas engine designing, wants position with firm or 
individual in aeronautical work. Herbert Kellogg, 
Kewanee. 111. 



MERCHANDISE WANTED 



I'OR SALE — Tractor biplane. Good exhibition 
machine. Tent, extra parts, crates, $400. Eight cyl- 
inder 60 IT. P. motor, Bosch magneto, Schebler car- 
buretor, radiators, gas tank, two propellers, fully 
guaranteed, $800. F. Robinson. 59 Glasgow St., 
Rochester, N. Y. 

B.\RG.'\IN — 30 foot Curtiss type biplane, with 
5 foot extensions, chord 5ft., single surfaced, lami- 
nated ribs, dble. surf, elevator, 4-cyl. 50-60 H. P., 
new. Engine turns 6 by 5 propeller at 1,500. Also 
extra 7 ft. propeller. Engine alone cost $1,600. Can 
be seen any time. Must be seen to be appreciated. 
$850 whole outfit. Address W. B. R., care of AER()- 
NAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York. 

FOR SALE— My 38 ft. double surfaced mono., 
weight 750 lbs. Exceptionally well built of best ma- 
terials, 8 foot 2 inch propeller. Simple control (sec 
November, 1912, AERONAUTICS). Machine now 
powered by 4-cyl. 30 H. P. Boulevard engine, wliicli 
is light. Am unable to finance further. Complete 
machine, tools, etc.. for first $1,000. Will sell 
power plant separate including engine, complete 
ignition system, special designed 18 lb. radiator for 
$150. Herbert Kellogg, Kewanee, 111. 

IMMEDIATE SALE NECESS.VRY! One Model 
"D" genuine Curtiss aeroplane with hydro attach- 
ment, equipped with brand new Model "O" Curtiss 



W,-\NTED— A 60 or 70 H. P. aero motor. Must 
be water cooled, with radiator, magneto, propeller, 
all complete. Price not over $500. Hall-Scott pre- 
ferred. .\ddress Motor, care of .AERONAUTICS, 
122 East 25th St., New York. 



BOLAND AEROPLANE AND 
MOTOR COMPANY 

THE BOLAND MOTOR 

S cyl. " \' " type 60 H.P. 240 pounds. 



RELI.\HILITY 
MAXIMUM POWER. 



Dl'RARILITY 
MINIMUM WEIGHT. 



THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE 

equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) 
and BOLAND MOTOR. 

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of 
utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of con- 
trol which is basic in principle. Write for particulars. 

Factory : Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J. 

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 22 



July, 1913 



A special designed 2 inch carburetor is fur- 
nished which is adjustable from the aviator's 
seat. 

With the exception of crank cases, cylinder 
heads, water and oil pumps, etc., all parts are 
fully nickel plated. 

This motor is claimed to actually develop 
120 brake test at 1,500 R. P. M. "Rating its 
propeller thrust test, as most aviation engines 
are rated, it actually delivers 175 H. P. at 
1,500 revolutions," the manufacturer states. 

The Hall-Scott Motor Car Company rate 
this motor by brake test at 1,500 R. P. M. 
"During a recent four-day test, this new type 
motor never failed to register under 120 brake 
test horsepower at 1,500 R. P. M. Taking the 
horsepower by propeller thrust, or wind horse- 
power, it actually registered 170 H. P. at the 
same speed." 

In placing such a motor before the public, 
this company believe they have come as near 
as possible to perfecting a motor that will run 
as long and constantly as a slow speed sta- 
tionary engine. This is due to the fact that 
special care has been taken in the cooling sys- 
tem as well as the large bearing surface to 
the crank shaft, connecting rod, and cam shaft 
bearings. 

THE BILLINGSLEY ACCIDENT 

Some conclusions have been arrived at by 
Captain W. Irving Chambers from the fatal 
accident to Ensign Billingsley, all the details 
of which were fully known. It shows : ( i ) 
the advantages of sticking to the machine, 
especially in flights over water; (2) that 
safety straps should be used invariably; (3) 
the necessity for wearing a life saving coat 
or equally effective device in flights over 
water; (4) the desirability of a standard con- 
trol — this has now been systematically decided 
for the navy. 

No fault has been attached to the machine 
which had been fully examined and parts 
thereof tested. It was a Wright with Curtiss 
8-cyl. engine and Curtiss pontoon with wing 
tip balancing floats. The machine was extra 
strengthened, which, no doubt, prevented its 
collapse during the fall. 



The illustration shows this machine the 
navy's B2. Note flotation and freeboard. 
Lieut. Ensign Herbster was particularly 
pleased with the pontoon and engine, and used 
it in his altitude flight. 



HEAT AND COLD RETAINING BOTTLES 

We have been advised that the new Icy- 
Hot Bottle for keeping things hot or cold has 
been so improved that it will withstand the 
ordinary jars and jolts of setting down too 
hard or even dropping. This great stride in 
the manufacture of these bottles means a great 
deal to sportsmen as they are unable at all 
times to give things their proper care. They 




are absolutely guaranteed to keep hot liquids 
hot 24 hours or cold liquids cold 3 days. The 
Icy-Hot is the same double glass bottle 
vacuum principle, discovered by James Dewar 
in 1892, but through ingeniously inserted 
shock absorbers it has been commercialized 
to the extent that it is now considered a 
necessity, and is as simple as a child's toy. 
The Icy-Hot Bottle Company is located in 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 




The Navy's B-2 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 23 



July, 1913 




= Leading Makers 

of Supplies 
for Aeroplanes 



Goodyear Experts give aviators and aeroplane manufacturers benefit of 
highest grade products at home. Best American and European ideas com- 
bined in Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric, Tires, Springs and other Accessories. 
Made by Pioneers. Used by those who KNOW. 



Used by 

Leading 

Manufacturers 



fiOOD^^EAR 

^•, ««*: AKRON, OHIO 

Aeroplane Fabric and Accessories 



Used by 

Prominent 

Aviators 



After 14 years devoted exclusively to the making 
of rubber goods, we have perfected the ideal fabric 
for Aeroplanes. This fabric is the utmost in dura- 
bility — it is reliable — the fabric that both veteran 
aviators and manufacturers have generally adopted, 
because of its reliability. 

MOISTURE PROOF— STAYS TIGHT 

Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric is impervious to at- 
mospheric conditions. This is one of its big advan- 
tages. Heat and cold will not affect it; neither 
will water. Hence ideal for hydroaeroplanes. 

Owes superiority to the method of treating the 
cloth. It is impregnated with the Goodyear 
Compound. Thus moisture can't get to the fibre. 
The result is a fabric that won't stretch, won't 
shrink, won't mildew, won't rot. 

All fabric furnished with or without metallic fin- 
ish, as desired. 

Used by The Curtiss Aeroplane Co., The Wright 
Co., Burgess Company & Curtis, Glenn L. Martin 
Co., Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co., Benoist Air- 
craft Co., and by Lincoln Beachey, Walter Johnson, 
and other prominent manufacturers and aviators. 



GOODYEAR AEROPLANE TIRES 

SINGLE TUBE, ALSO NO-RIM-CUT AND 

CLINCHER DOUBLE TUBE 

The bigger the tires the better the service. Large 
tires means greater cushioning effect and greater 
strength to sustain the strain of landing. So we rec- 
ommend and build large tires. Let us tell you 
more about Goodyear Aeroplane tires and the fa- 
mous aviators who use them. 

Besides Aeroplane fabric and tires we also make 
Aeroplane Springs, Shock Absorbers, and other 
accessories. 

BALLOON HEADQUARTERS 

We are the American headquarters for Balloons. 
We build balloons complete, guaranteeing them 
fully in every respect. The best principles of For- 
eign and Domestic Balloon building combined in 
Goodyear. 

Write us for full particulars. 

Take us into your confidence. Tell us your particular 
problem. Perhaps we can help you solve it. We know 
we can effect a SAVING. Let us send descriptive booklet. Write TONIGHT. 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio 

Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities 

We Make All Kinds of Rubber Tires, Tire Accessories and Repair Outfits 

MAIN CANADIAN OFFICE, Toronto, Ont. CANADIAN FACTORY, Bowmanville, Ont. 



Consult With Us 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 24 



July, 1913 1 

i 

i 



T\u 



SIMPLE STRUT SOCKET 

strut socket used by the Thomas 



Brothers is very simple, makes possible the re- 
moval of struts without loosening or detach- 
ing anv wires or cables, nuts or bolts, or else. 




A heavy cotter pin keeps the strut in its place 
in the socket. The angle of the casting is fig- 
ured out so that these sockets may be used 
for either front or rear struts by simply turn- 
ing them end for end. The casting is of 
aluminum. 



BENOIST'S CHAIN DRIVE 

The illustration shows the chain drive of 
the Benoist flying boat. Since the photo was 
taken, Shelby tubing chain guards are used. 
The engine is cranked by inserting a lever in 
a ratchet at the forward end of the propeller 
shaft, the operator standing up in the front 
by the seat. The chain is standard Diamond 
1% inch roller, i inch pitch. Both engine 
and propeller sprockets have i8 teeth. The 
propeller shaft is wired in with Roebling 
cable with spoke nipple turnbuckles. 

The engine shaft and propeller shaft is 
separated by a distance rod which is ad- 
justable, this distance rod, of course, carrying 
one-half inch "two in one" New Departure 
ball bearings at each end. 

The forward end of the propeller shaft is 
also carried in a ball bearing, and the four 
thrust wires originally used to take up the 
thrust of the propeller, have since been 
changed to two upper thrust wires, but the 
two lower ones have been replaced by two 
spruce thrust members extending from the 
bearing housing at the rear end of the pro- 
peller shaft anchored down at the lower end 
of the front engine struts. 



Newspapermen usually re-write their stolen 
dope but an aeronautical weekly in this coun- 
try takes the whole thing bodily from ad- 
vance sheets of .AERONAUTICS and prints 
it as an important piece of A. W.'s own news. 




Benoist Chain Drive | 

BLERIOTCAN NOW LAND ON VESSELS ; 

According to cabled reports, Louis Bleriot ; 
has devised a scheme by which aeroplanes may* 
take flight from steel ropes stretched over the 
deck of a vessel, and land upon the same. It! 
is said that successful trials have been madej 

of the device. -j 

-'* 

Leo Stevens may be very careful in counting ' 
out the aviator's share of the money; indeed,^ 
he is over careful. Sometimes he figures out = 
there's nothing coming to Stevens at all when-: 
the aviator gets his. : 



BOLAND AEROPLANE AND 
MOTOR COMPANY 

Factory: CENTER STREET, NEWARK, N. J. 
Office: 1821 Broadway, New York City 

\\T A KTTCn at 0"" AVIATOR who will 

W All 1 SLU FLY at Exhibitions :: 

One-half Interest in this Company is offered for sale by 
the administrator of the Frank E. Boland Estate. 

Address: CHARLES W. FOLEY 

7 White Terrace, Newark, N. J. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 25 



July,\9]3 



Only the best methods and 
the best equipment will in- 
sure you satisfaction 

The 

Sloane School 



provides 



the 



ASK OUR PUPILS 

AEROPLANES, MOTORS 
and ACCESSORIES 

Manufactured and Sold 



Agents for 

Deperdussin Caudron Anzani Gnome 
Renault Clerget Le Rhone 

"FIXATOR" METAL FITTINGS 



WE SELL NOTHING BUT THE BEST 



SLOANE AEROPLANE CO. 

MAIN OFFICE, 1733 BROADWAY, NEW YORK 

'Phone Columbus 5421 



C. & A. Wittemann 



AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS 



Manufacturers of 



Biplanes 



Monoplanes 



Hydro-Aeroplanes 
Gliders Propellers Parts 

Special Machines and Parts Built 
to Specifications 

Laree stock of Steel Fittingrs, Laminated Ribs, 
and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. 
Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P. 

FLYING AND 
TRAINING GROUNDS 

Works: Ocean Terrace and Little Clove Road 
STATEN ISLAND, NEW YORK CITY 

Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tompkinsville 




(MEG. U. S. PAT. OFF.) 



AERONAUTICAL MOTORS IN 
GOVERNMENT SERVICE 



The motor mentioned in the following 
clipping from a Washington paper is one of 
the several muffled STURTEVANT motors 
in daily operation at the Army and Navy 
Aviation camps. 



Army Officers in Soutj^rn 
Camps IVIaking Rec(^s. 
Four New Det 



Notice has been recehJpi- at the War 
Department of several important flights 
made by the army aviajprs at their south- 
ern winter camps, Ixeut. Thomas Mill- 
ing-, In what Is knoTn as the Burgess 
tractor, with Lieut./Sherman as passen- 
ger, flew from Gal*ston to Houston and 
returned, a total d*tance of ninety miles, 
in about an hour*and a half. He circjed 
the city of Houjilon in the course of the 
flight and lJ&*sed^ through two rain 
storms. 

Lieut. •HafTy*"Graliam, with Lieut. Call 
as passenger, flew over approximately the 
same course in tlio Burgess machine 
equipped with a Sturtevant motor. They 
covered a distance ot about ei?TTt\- miles 
and passed through one Rainstorm in the 
course of the flight. 

Lieut. Klrtland, with Sergt. Idzarlk d9 
ijasseiiger, started over the same course 
but after c-overing abotit forty-five miles 
\vas compelled to stop on account of the 
vain. 



SEND FOR CATALOG No. 2002 

B. F. STURTEVANT CO. 



Hyde Park, 



Boston, Mass. 



And all principal cities of the world 



/« ausiveriug advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 26 



July, I9I3I 




Obst Hydro 

By HARRY SCHULTZ 



The hydroaeroplane model herein shown 
and described was constructed by Mr. Charles 
V. Obst, of Cypress Hills, Long Island. Mr. 
Obst was lately elected president of the Long 
Island Model Aero Club and it may be well 
stated that he is very capal:)le of filling that 
office. Mr. Obst is one of the neatest con- 
structors of model aeroplanes in America to- 
day, and all his models are original with him, 
and are worked out on a scientific basis. 

The model shown in the accompanying 
drawing holds the world's record for single 
propeller hydros, having made a duration of 
30 seconds ; and, in fact, is the first success- 
ful single propeller hydro model in the world, 
with the possible exception of the Bragg Smith 
model of England. 

The fuselage consists of a single stick of 
balsa wood, one-half inch square at the middle, 
tapering to one-half by one-quarter of an inch 
at the ends. The stick is 40 inches long and is 
made of two pieces of wood ^ inch by % inch 
laminated together for strength. A small pine 
plug is fitted to the front of the stick as 
shown at "A" to protect the same, as balsa 



wood is very soft. The bearing for the pro- ' 
peller is placed on the rear end of the stick : 
as shown, and the stick is given a coat of i 
shellac. j 

The planes are constructed of bamboo, the 
main plane having a span of 23^4 inches, the 
chord at the center being 4 inches and at the 
tips 2 inches ; area 69 square inches. The 
elevator has a span of 12 inches and a chord ' 
of 3 inches at the center. The main plane I 
has a dihedral angle of 150 degrees, and in 
the center of the same a slot is left for the 1 
center stick to fit in. Both planes are cov- ] 
ered on the under side with silk fibre paper ] 
treated with Ambroid. 

The propeller is nine inches in diameter ; 
and has a pitch of 11^ inches. The width of j 
the blade is it's inches. The propeller re- 
volves at 1,160 R. P. M., gives a thrust of j 
3^ ounces and is driven by 18 strands of 
1.4 inch flat rubber, the rubber being carried 
above the single stick. 

The pontoons are constructed of 3^ inch 
spruce and are covered with double thick- 
ness of silk fibre paper coated with Ambroid. 




iBiiJi 4-? t r - ^-^-^--^-i; ^,~TT 




- -^ ■ g ^^ ■ ^.■s '^^^t^i^-n 



OBST HYDRO. 



t7a3 




T^W^ 






AERONAUTICS 



Page 11 



July, 1913 




< BENOIST ^ 

PLANES hold Ihe followiuo records: 

Vv'orld's long distance hydro record with one passenger. 
World's long distance hydro record with two passengers. 
American endurance record, aviator and three passengers. 
Have more world's records than all other m'f'rs combined. 
1 he first successful Tractor Biplane built in America. 



Records indicate superior efficienry. 

Why not get an efficient machine 

ivhile voii are about it? 



The h'e-,v 
Pi'voist 
F/ villi; 

;; BENOIST AIR CRAFT CO. 

A.t/.» 6628 DELMAR BLVD. ST. LOUIS, MO. 



50 H.P. 

160 POUNDS 



GYRO MOTOR 



80 H.P. 

207 POUNDS 




Endurance Record to Date 
4 hrs., 23 min. 



Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout 



From the 

"MOTORWAGEN" 

of Nov. 20. 1912 
In the testing establishment 
(>t' Dr. Bendemann at Adlei shot" 
(near Berlin), a 7-cylinder Gyro 
Motor was recently tested. In 
a 5-hour endurance rim and at 
1,000 R. P.M., an average of 45.7 
H . P. was obtained. The fuel 
consumed was 14.7 kg- gasoline 
per hour and 3.06 kg. lubricat- 
ing oil, which is more favorable 
than the Gnome motor of the 
same horse-power. The weight 
o'" the motor was 73 kg. 
Send for Catalog 



THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Oirard Street, Washington, D. C. 



IVIAGIN ALIUM 

12 l-:io LIOIITKR, lo^i STKONGKR 

AND OVER TKN" XIMISS AS TOTIGH 
AS THE BE^iT ALUMINUM CAST- 
INGS. WEIGHS ONE-THIKE> AS 
MUCH AS IKON. : : ! : I 

FOR CYLINnKRS. l»ISTONS. 
CRAN'Iv CASKS. SOCKETS ANI> 
OTHKR >VEROPL.VXE FITTINGS 



G. A. CRAYKN &, CO. 

81 NE>V iSTREKT, N.V. C 

MKTAI. DI^HT. 

MORRIS R. MACIIOL 



HYDROS 



BUILD YOUR OWN 



Over 100 complete 

(irawiiiK-^ .Scale 1" 

I foot; some full size 

riinls28"x3t;" 

ONLY COMPLETE PRINTS 

EVER SOLD 

AERONAUTICS. 122 East 25th St.. New York 



$8.00 




•-''-'^' * 5011 are inter- 

fslrd In a reliable, efficient 

andeconcrical power plant. 

;, 1 hat is the only kind we 

*^ build. Four sizes. 

f"^ Kemp Machine Works 

J Muncie, Ind. 



Ill anszccriiig adz'crtisciiicnts please mention this magacinc. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 28 



Jub, 1913 



The main or front pontoons each measure 7^)4 
inches in length, ij^ inches in width and J/j 
inch in depth, and are divided up in five air- 
tight compartments, these compartments be- 
ing constructed or formed by double thick- 
nesses of silk fibre fastened across from up- 
per to lower braces. The rear pontoon meas- 
ures 3-)4 inches in length, 1I/2 inches in width 
and 1/2 inch in depth, and is divided into two 
airtight compartments in the same manner as 
the main pontoons. 

The main pontoons are fastened to the 
frame by rubber bands, are held 6^ inches 
below the main stick by diagonal bamboo 
braces as shown at an angle of 10 degrees 
to the water level. The rear pontoon is 
placed at the extreme rear, extending under 
the propeller and is fastened to the main 
stick by two upright bamboo sticks as shown. 

The model rises in 4 or 5 feet, flies at an 
altitude of 30 or 40 feet and is a fast, steady 
flyer. Complete and ready for flight, it 
weighs 414 ounces. 

MODEL NOTES BY HARRY SCHULTZ 

In the first interclub contest in America 
which was held a few weeks ago at Ralph and 
Church Avenues, Brooklyn, N. Y., the fol- 
lowing clubs entered : N. Y. Model Aero 
Club, Long Island Model Aero Club, Bay 
Ridge Model Aero Club and Summit Model 
Aero Club. Owing to the inclement weather 
and many other obstacles the Summit and 
New York clubs became discouraged and fell 
out of the race, leaving the contest to be bit- 
terly fought out between the Long Island and 
Bay Ridge clubs. 

The following are the results of the con- 
tests, it being seen that the Bay Ridge club 



is the winner, it having 94.41 points to 93.02 
points of the Long Island Model Aero Club. 
L. I. Bay Ridge 

Points Points 

Distance from hand 20 14-53 

Duration, hand 20 19.88 

ground 19.38 20 

Distance " 14.89 20 

Duration, water 18.75 20 

The cup for which the above contests were 
held, was kindly offered by Mr. Francis A. 
Collins of New York. 

In order that all records for model flying 
may be held by America it has been decided 
to hold an interclub tractor contest, the rec- 
ord for tractors now being held by England. 
All persons interested' kindly communicate 
with Mr. Edward Durant, Aeronautical 
Bureau, World Bldg., New York City. 

Great interest has been aroused among the 
model enthusiasts by a contest to be held 
shortly, known as the Scientific Contest. The 
models must weigh 8 ounces without the 
rubber, and must be a scale model or a pro- 
totype of a full size machine. In order that 
models mav be studied from a more scien- 
tific point of view and that the so-called 
"flying stick" may be done away with, a club 
to be known as the Scientific Model Aero 
Club is now in the process of formation. The 
meeting will be held in the board room of 
the World Building. All persons interested 
in this branch of model aeronautics should 
communicate with Mr. Edward A. Durant for 
particulars regarding the club. 

Model flying contests are held every Sun- 
day afternoon at the field of the Long Island 
Model Aero Club, Old Mill Park. Crescent 
Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



NEW WORLD DISTANCE RECORD 

The world's model distance was broken 
June 14, 1913, at the Cicero Aerodome, by 
Arthur Nealy, former President of the Illinois 
Model Aero Club, according to the Aero Club 
of Illinois of the Windy City. "The distance 
made was 2,740 feet and duration was 72 
seconds. The model was a very fast one and 
a very good climber as the average altitude 
was 400 feet. The distance was taken by the 
officials of the Illinois Model Aero Club. This 
was the final meet for distance machines and 
the club is now devoting its time to hydros. 



are secured by their hooks in the eyes 21 and 
22 and turning the crank operates the small 
wheels in opposite directions. When wound 
the strands are disengaged by removing their 
hooks one at a time from the eyes. In this 



STRAND TWISTING DEVICE 

Model flyers will be interested in the device 
of ^Montague Palmer, of New York, for 
winding up rubber power plants. In the 
device shown in the illustration there are two 
friction wheels each of which carries an eye 
consisting of a U-shaped piece of wire secured 
at its ends in the wheel, thus the wheels with 
these eyes form twisting heads to which the 
elastic strands of twin propeller machines are 
attached. These small wheels are driven in 
opposite directions by friction from a driving 
wheel 2^. which wheel is retained in engage- 
ment with a spring as shown. Proper bear- 
ings are provided for these wheels and the 
shafts. In winding, the two strands of rubber 




way both strands are wound up the same 
number of revolutions simultaneously. The 
patent has been assigned to H. Rosenstein of 
the Ideal model concern. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 29 



yu/j/J913 




A New Wright Flyer 

We will present this season a new 
model, known as Model '*E", designed 
especially for 

EXHIBITION FLYING ' 

This model will be equipped with either 
four or six cylinder motor, turning a single 
propeller. It is so designed that it can be taken 
down for express shipment and reassembled 
within a few hours. 

The old models, refined in details, will be 
continued for use of those who wish to fly tor 
pleasure and sport. 

All models mav be equinped with HYDRO- 
PLANES. 

The Wright School of Aviation 

Our School of Aviation will open at Simms 
Station (Dayton) about April ist with a corps 
of competent instructors. The school will be 
under the personal supervision of Mr. OrviHe 
Wright. Tuition for a complete course will be 
$250.00. Enroll now. 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY 

Dept. "A", Dayton, Ohio 
New York Office, - - 11 Pine Street 



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AERONA UTICS 



Page 30 



July). 1913 



News in 
General 




The Thomas Flying Boat in the Lakes Cruise 



NEW INCORPORATIONS 

Shaw Aeroplane Co.. Indianapolis, Ind., $10,000. 
The directors of the new company are B. Russell 
Shaw, a local aviator; F. Russell Horn, L. L. Boyer, 
N. V. Boyer and N. E. Carter. 



International Aerial Company, Boston, $50,000; 
Guiseppe Colucci, Carlo F. Arzillo, Sophia J. Lager. 



BUSINESS TROUBLES 

Papers have been served in a suit by the City 
of New York against the defunct Walden-Dyott Co. 
for the collection of taxes. 



DEATH OF KERNS 

Thaddeus Kerns, an aviator, 20 years old, was 
killed at Chico, Cal., July 15. When the wreckage 
hit the ground the radiator crushed the aviator's head, 
while other parts of the biplane pierced his body. 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

At the end of May, for which report is just issued, 
there remained in warehouse 10 foreign built aero- 
planes and parts, valued at $10,084. Perhaps aviators 
lack the funds to take them out or send them back. 
Exports for May totaled but 1, at $2,752. No im- 
ports and exports of foreign machines. 



VILAS CROSSES LAKE MICHIGAN 

( )n July 1st, Logan A. X'illas, in his new Curtiss 
flying boat, flew across Lake Michigan, from St. 
Joseph, Mich., to Chicago, 111., a distance of 64 miles 
"in one hour and ten minutes. The start was made 
from St. Joseph at 4.15 P. M., with William Bastar 
of I5enton Harbor, as passenger. The flight was 
made at an average height of 3,000 feet. This was 
the first aeroplane flight across Lake Michigan. De- 
tails of the Vilas boat appeared in the last issue. 



AERONA UTICS 



"Page 3 1 



/u/i;, 1913 




MORE 
POWER PER CUBIC 
INCH 
OF PISTON DIS- 
PLACE- 
MENT THAN ANY 

OTHER 

TYPE MOTOR EVER 

BUILT 



EARL V. FRITTS who gained his pilot license with a Thomas Biplane, 
equipped with a 60-70 b. p. MAXIMOTOR 



IT 
WILL PAY YOU 
WELL 
TO INVESTI- 
GATE 
OUR NEW OVER- 
HEAD 
VALVE MOTORS 

WRITE 
FOR CATALOG 



Maximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich. Bath, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1913. 

Dear Sirs: — Wish to inform you that 1 have today successfully filled the require- 
Tients in a number of flights to qualify for my pilot license. The MAXIMOTOR 
itood with me right through to the end and no other motor on the field has anything 
an your new product. I wish you the most of success duiing this coming season. 
Sincerely. EARL V. FRITTS. 



Maximotor Makers 

DETROIT 

No. 1528 East Jefferson 



Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES 



Has long been regaided as the standard 
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Each number has fort-y pages of interest- 
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The cover for each month is printed in 
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The valuable and authoritative formulae 
furnished throughout the year are alone 



Some of the other regular features are 

Articles on practical and timely photo- 
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Illustrations showing examples of the 
woriv of the best American and foreign 
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Foreign Digest. 

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and 
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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 32 



Jub,\9\3 



NATIONAL BALLOON RACE 

The national championship balloon race from 
Kansas City, July 4, to decide this j-ear's champion- 
ship and to select the team of three to represent 
America in the international race from Paris this 
Fall, was won by the balloon "Goodyear," R. H. 
Upson, pilot, and R. A. U. Preston, aide. The 
balloon was built by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber 
Co., and both the aeronauts are good fellows con- 
nected with that company. This balloon made the 
longest duration in the race, 19 hours 52 minutes. 

There were seveti entries but only five balloons 
actually got away from the grounds. Following is a 
table of the contestants, the first three being now 
eligible for the American team: 

"Goodyear," R. H. Upson and R. A. D. Preston, 
to West Branch, Mich., 685 miles. 

"Kansas City II," John Watts and Geo. J. Quisen- 
berg, to Goodrich, Mich., 673 miles. 

"Kansas City Post," Capt. H. E. Honeywell and 
W. C. Gift'ord, to Rockwood, Mich., 658 miles. 

"Mill. Population Club," John Perry, Albert Von 
Hoffman and A. Von Hoffman, Jr., to Manchester, 
Mich., 616 miles. 

"Overland," Roy F. Donaldson: unplaced, as no 
reports sent in of landing. If he is going yet there 
ought to be a new record. 



BALLOON ASCENSIONS 

Phila., July 1.— Dr. T. E. Eldridge, Dr. Geo. H. 
Simmerman. Helen .Simmerman and Mrs. Chas. Pooley 
in the "Phila. IF' to North Penn. 

Phila., July 8. — Rob't. E. Glendenning and A. M. 
Biddle, Jr., to Hammonton, N. J. 

Kansas City, July 4. — E. S. Cole piloted three 
young women in the Kansas City III in a 21 mile 
trip. 

Akron, O., Tune 22. — R. H. Upson, pilot, and 
R. A. D. Preston, both of the Goodyear Tire & Rub- 
ber Co., in the "Goodyear" at 10:05 P. M. 



NEW PILOTS 

Following are the new pilots certificated, with date 
and place of trials: 

239. Henry K. Crowell (Wright copy with Gyro 
motor). College Park, June 6. 

240. E. Wm. Steele (Curtiss), Los Angeles, Tune 
IS. 

241. Lt. C. G. Chapman (Wright), Manila, May 13. 

242. Lt. Herbert Dargue (Wright), Manila, May 2. 

243. Lt. Clyde P. Rich (Wright), Manila, May S. 

244. Tomoshige Ikuhara (Curtiss) San Diego, Tune 
28. 

245. Alfred F. Lym (Curtiss), San Diego, Tune 30. 

246. John A. Bixler (Wright), Dayton, July 2. 

247. Bernard L. Whelan (Wright), Dayton, July 
10. 

248. A. A. Bressman (Wright), Dayton, July 14. 
249 Jos. A. Ritchie (Curtiss), San Diego, June 28. 



GROVER BELL 

Petaluma, Cal., July 6 — In trying to avert a col- 
lision with a frightened horse which dashed across 
the field as Grover Bell was finishing a glide resulted 
in his death. Bell threw his machine over too far 
and came down head foremost. He died next day 
from a fractured skull. 



DEATH OF LIEUT. CALL 

Houston, Tex., July 8 — Lieut. Loren H. Call, U. S. 
Signal Corps, was killed on this day in an army aero- • 
plane near the aviation camp at Texas City. ; 

The Board of Ofiicers appointed by Gen. (Tarter to I 
investigate and report on the circumstances connected 1 
with the death of Lieut. Loren H. Call, C. A. C, I 
reported the accident to have occurred as follows: | 

Lieut. Call left the aviation field in a type C ' 
Wright aeroplane at 6.21 a. m., July 8, 1913. He I 
climbed till he attained an altitude of about 800 j 
or 1,000 feet. He was flying towards some smooth | 
ground at a different part of the camp in order to ■ 
take sotne tests to qualify as "Military Aviator" ] 
While flying at this altitude it appears that one wing 
dropped but the machine was brought to the level 
immediately. A very short time afterward the left 
wing dropped very much so that the machine made 
an angle of about 45 degrees in the air. Lieut. Call ' 
evidently attempted to straighten out the machine 
by making a turn to the left and pointing the nose of j 
the machine down, for at this time the machine took | 
a very steep angle downward. From that time on this i 
angle gradually increased until the aeroplane came i 
down towards the earth perpendicularly. At about 
200 or 300 feet from the ground the plane began to , 
turn upside down and during that turn the wings i 
collapsed and the machine dropped to the ground. I 

It appears that the machine hesitated a moment ! 
as it began to turn upside down at the end of the ( 
drop during which time Lieut. Call climbed out on 
one wing, evidently with the intention of straight- 
ening out the machine as that wing was a trifle 
higher than the other one. However, when the ma- i 
chine hit the ground the wing to which Lieut. Call i 
was hanging struck the ground first. ' 

There is no evidence to show that the machine was ; 
broken in any parts until it began to turn upside down ] 
at the end of the drop. However, at the time the J 
machine made this turn it apparently collapsed. ' 

The board further called attention to the fact that 
the testimony of the eye witnesses of the accident 
shows that Lieut. Call preserved his possession to the 
last moment and did all in his power to right his 
plane. 



ROBINSON APPRECIATES NAIAD 
CLOTH 

Hugh Robinson, of the Benoist Aircraft Co., writes 
the C. E. Conover Co.: "After using your Naiad aero- 
nautical cloth for several years I wish to say that I 
find it entirely satisfactory in every particular. I 
find it particularly well adapted to hydroaeroplanes 
as it is not affected by the action of either salt or 
fresh water." 

At the Burgess works the editor noted the fine wing 
finish produced by the Conover "dope" which is now 
used in preference to the already prepared fabric. 
This varnish is put on with a brush after the cloth 
is stretched and tacked, making it water, weather 
and fireproof. 



GREAT LAKES FLYING BOAT CRUISE 



Flying about 885 miles, frotii Chicago to Detroit, 
in less than fifteen hours flying time, the only one 
out of five starters to finish the course, J. B. Ver- 
planck's Curtiss flying boat, with Beckwith Havens 
as pilot, won the cruise, though one day late ac- 
cording to the schedule. Mr. Verplanck was a pas- 
senger throughout the trip. The trip started July 8 
and finished July 18. 

The starters were: Antony Jannus in the Benoist 
machine, Walter Johnson in the Thomas, Glenn L. 
Martin in the Martin Tractor, and Roy N. Francis 
in the Paterson-Francis. Owing to an accident Mar- 
tin had to delay the start until Friday, July 11. 

The details of the race, day by day, are as follows: 

Tuesday, July 8. — Jannus started with Paul Mc- 
Cullough from Grant Park, Chicago, with Havens 
close on his heels in advance of a big storm. Jan- 
nus and IMcCullough, his passenger, flew as far as 
Gary, Ind. The propeller was broken off at Gary and 
they started to paddle seven miles to shore. A gale 



struck them and completely wrecked the machine 
and the boys were rescued by a tug. The machine 
has never been found. The race was abandoned by 
Jannus at this point. 

Havens reached Michigan City and made the ap- 
proximately 50 miles in 50 miriutes, actual flying 
time. He made hut one stop and this was to offer 
assistance to Jannus. 

Johnson started third, without a passenger, but 
got to land before the storm broke at Robertsdale, 
Ind., just outside of Chicago. Francis did not start 
until the following day on account of the high wind. 

Walter Johnson abandoned the race here on the 
12th after an unsuccessful attempt to get a start from 
Robertsdale, Ind., where he had been delayed. John- 
son launched his craft and started the engine. Head- 
ing into the face of the sun, he failed to notice a 
piece of wreckage which punctured two of the water- 
tight compartments; he had no facilities for making 
the necessary repairs. 



\ERONA UTICS 



"Page 33 



July, 1913 



.!•+++*■ 



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AERONA UTICS 



"Page 34 



yu/p,l913 




Marshall Earl Reid's Curtiss Flying Boat as it struck, nose first, on the marsh back of Wildwood. When 
Reid struck the " hole in the air " which wrecked his boat he started to glide to a lagoon, but the flying boat 
came down within 14 feet of the water's edge and safety. The planes were smashed, but the boat did not 
receive so much as a scratch. The boat will be repaired. 



Wednesday, July 9. — Havens flew from ^lichigan 
City to South Haven for more gasoline. He finally 
flew into the harbor at Macatawa by dark. 

Hot in pursuit of Havens, Roy M. Francis, with 
Irving in the passenger's seat, started from Chicago 
and flew to Michigan City. After taking on a fresh 
supply of gas he left Michigan City for Macatawa 
Bay, expecting to overtake Havens. It was nearly 
7 p. m. when Francis made an attempt to start for 
Macatawa but ran into a log and he was forced to put 
back to shore for the night. 

Johnson stayed ashore at Robertsdale. 

Thursday, July 10. — None of the contestants made 
an attempt to proceed, owing to the high winds. 

Friday, July 11. — Francis left South Haven and 
flew over the land to Macatawa, alighting on the 
water there at 7.15 a. m. and was under way again 
an hour later, flying to Pentwater, 236 miles from 
Chicago. 

Havens and Verplanck flew from Macatawa to 
Pentwater, a distance of 74 miles in a headwind. 

Glenn L. Martin, the last of the contestants to 
start, sailed away from Chicago at 7.30 a. m. He set 
out to catch up with the leaders and registered the 
record day's mileage thus far, a distance of 162 miles. 
He flew the distance from Chicago to the first con- 
trol, Michigan City in 40 minutes, a distance of SO 
miles. He stopped at Michigan City for one hour, 
and was ofi^ again. After stopping at the Macatawa 
control, 84 miles away, Martin, with Charles Day, 
as passenger headed for Manistee. A thumbscrew 
worked loose on his carburetor and dropped oft" a 
spring. They glided to the surface of the water at 
Lake Harbor, near Muskegon, a distance of 162 miles 
from Chicago. 

Saturday, July 12-13. — High winds, rough seas and 
accidents to machines from the storm, during the 
night, suspended the race for the day, with the only 
three flyers, who remain, at the same points where 
they spent the night. 

Monday, July 14. — Havens and Verplanck started 
from Pentwater, were checked past Manistee and ar- 
rived at Frankfort for gasoline. Starting again from 
Frankfort they flew to Charlevoix, Mich. 

It was reported that Martin left Muskegon and flew 
to Pentwater within an hour after Havens soared 
away from the latter town. 

Roy Francis made several unsuccessful attempts 
to leave Pentwater in the afternoon and finally an- 
nounced that he would pack up his boat and return 
to Chicago, the referee having disqualified him. 

Tuesday, Jtily IS. — (ilenn L. Martin returned to 
Muskegon, Mich., this afternoon from Pentwater and 
withdrew from the cruise. 

After Francis and Martin had withdrawn from the 
contest, Havens set out from Charlevoix and passed 
the checking station at Mackinac Island and landed 



at Duncan, near Cheboygan. They were away again 
after lunch and then made the longest non-stop flight 
of the cruise, a distance of lOS miles to Alpina. Then 
setting out again at 5.45 they flew to a port near 
Point Lookout, landing at 7.35 p. m. 

Wednesday, July 16. — Havens flew to Bay City, 
thirty miles away, flying the distance in 40 minutes. 

Thursday, July 17. — Owing to the bad weather in 
the morning, they did not start until 12.29 p. m., 
flying through a storm, which broke while in flight, 
they reached Port Sanilac, north of Port Huron, 
where they passed the night. 

Friday, July 18. — The aviators left Port Sanilac, 
Mich., flying down to Edison Beach, near Port Huron, 
in a heavy wind. 

Starting away again at about 2.30 p. m. they com- 
pleted the trip from Edison Beach to Detroit, a dis- 
tance of 60 miles in 60 minutes. 

W. E. Scripps, of Detroit, in a Burgess hydro- 
aeroplane, met Havens and Verplanck in Lake St. 
Clair and escorted him into the city. 

Havens and Verplanck are considered to have won 
the silver trophy offered by the Aero Club of Michi- 
gan for the best elapsed time between the two cities, 
there having been no other contender. 

Photos of the Thomas and Martin machines appear 
in this issue. Details of the Vilas were in the June 
number. (See scale drawings in February.) Benoist 
boat described in January. 



AUTOMOBILES AND AIRCRAFT IN 
GERMANY 

The automobile industry enjoyed a most 
prosperous year, expansion along all lines 
surpassing that made during 1911. Foreign 
trade grew from $14,000,000 in 191 1 to $21,- 
oco,ooo in 1912, the increase manifesting itself 
principally in the exportation of passenger 
cars. 

The aircraft industry, on the other hand, 
passed through a bad year and remains in a 
critical condition, owing to overproduction. 
The army and navy are practically the only 
customers and for various reasons they con- 
fine their purchases to as few types as pos- 
sible, while new manufacturers, most of them 
with little capital, are constantly opening up 
shops for the development of new ideas and 
unduly increasing the field of production. — 
Daily Consular Report. 



AERONA UTICS 



Pgae 35 



July. 1913 



sk Men Who Know 

^ WHAT THEY THINK OF 



1913 ROBERTS MOTORS 




Gentlemen: St. Louis. Mo., July 24, 191 3 

We have been using one of your new 1913 6-Cyiinder 75-H. P. motors in one of our new flying boats, and would say that 

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We were able to carry two passengers beside the aviator in the new Lakes Cruise Boat, and are now working night and day 

on another flying boat for one of your motors. 

We congratulate you on your success in getting out this last product, and beg to remain 

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Scndfo7- our lOO Cita/otT. Per Tom W. Benoist, Mgr. 

The ROBERTS MOTOR CO., 1430 Columbus Ave., Sandusky, Ohio 



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"NO. 1," METEOROLOGY 

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AERONAUTICS 



Page 36 



Juh, 1913 



U. S. Patents Gone to Issue 



Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by 

Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner 

of Patents, Washington, D. C. 

Even in these enlightened days, the crop of 
patents on absolutely worthless, or even ques- 
tionable, devices increases rather than de- 
creases. 

It would take an entire issue of the maga- 
zine to abstract in a full and clear manner the 
claims of the majority of the patents issued. 
In a great many cases it is even impossible to 
give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus 
the patent relates to. In most instances^ we 
have used merely the word "aeroplane" or 
"helicopter" if such it is. Where it is im- 
possible to indicate the class, even, in which 
the patent belongs, without printing the whole 
patent, we have used the word "flying ma- 
chine." 

The patents starred (*) are those which 
may be found of particular interest ; but it 
must be understood we do not pretend to 
pass judgment upon merits or demerits. 

Where patent seems to have particular_ in- 
terest, the date of tiling will be gWcn.— Editor. 



Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and 
prior art of which are unknown to you — William 
Macomber. 



ISSUED JUNE 17. 1913 

1 064,872 — David S. Thomas, North Platte, Neb., 
FLYING MACHINE. 

1,065,033 — Frederick William Dufwa, Mexico, 
Mex., Equilibrium Device, in which a swinging car 
operates various rudders. 

1,065,216 — Julius C. Christiansen, New York, N. Y., 
Universally 6perating STEERING MECHANISM. 

1,065,263 — Gustav Mees, Dusseldorf, Germany, 
STEERING and STABILIZING MECHANISM; 
shaft, spokes radiating therefrom, blades rotatable on 
spokes, outer and inner frame, flexible sheet, etc. 

ISSUED JUNE 24, 1913 

*1,065,389 — Harry A. Orme, Wesley Heights, D. 
C, LANDING GEAR, of flexible design, ni which 
wheels are capable of swinging outwardly for land- 
ing on skids, etc. 

1,065,394— William Rabsilber, New York, N. Y., 
FLYING MACHINE consisting of tubular body, 
propellers and supporting planes therein. 

*1, 065, 506 — Louis Constantin, Paris, France. Re- 
ducing the Resistance of a Surface by means of a 
"screen" of appropriate section less than that of the 
midship section at an appropriate distance m front 
of a wing (or vehicle), screen constituted of sev- 
eral inclined walls parallel to each other and sepa- 
rated by vacant spaces, attachments connecting them, 
and connection of screen (or bow) to wing (or 
vehicle). See p. 219, June. 

1 065 656 — Paul Benni, Lublin, Russia, AUTO- 
MATIC MEANS for STEERING and BALANCING. 
Pendulum and electro-magnetic system. 

1 065,739 — Ludwig Soramer, Munich, Germany, 
MAN POWER FLYING MACHINE. 

* 1,065, 799 — Ambroise Goupy, Paris, France, AERO- 
PLANE, in which planes are "stepped" and may 
be moved forward or backward to the desired angle 
with relation to the longitudinal dimension of the 
frame. 



ISSUED JULY 1, 1913 \ 
1,066,203 — Richard Gilardone, Mutzig. Germany, 

AEROPLANE TRACK: amusement device. I 

1,066,346 — Ernest Peter \'incent. Oceanic, N. J., 
AEROPLANE, in which supporting planes rotate. 

1 

ISSUED JULY 8, 1913. : 

* 1,066, 860 — Edmund Sparmann, Vienna, Austria- | 
Hungary. Filed Dec. 5, 1910. AUTOMATIC 

STABILIZER, both lateral and longitudinal. Uses j 
gyroscopes whose a.xes of rotation are vertical but 

whose axes of oscillation are perpendicular to each ■ 

other. The claims are too long to abstract here. ' 

^ *1, 066, 981— Thomas W. Benoist. St. Louis, Mo. \ 

Filed July 1, 1912. CURVE changing mechanism i 

in which the camber may be reduced and changed | 

back to normal while in flight or otherwise, in which i 

a third lateral (but sectional) beam is used and ap- | 

jiaratus for altering the camber by flattening the i 

ribs. ' 

1,067,086 — William James Wells and Daniel Lewis, > 
Cananea, Mex., AIRSHIP. 

ISSUED JULY IS, 1913 \ 

*1, 067, 271 — Lewis Hector Ray, Ottawa, Ontario, ; 

Can., CONTROL FOR AEROPLANES; wheel on I 
a column extending through a bell-shaped member, 
spindle below column with lever for rudder, universal 
joint connecting column with spindle, etc. 

1,067,272— Arthur T. M. Recklin, Bay City, Mich.,. ■ 

KITE. ■ i 

1,067.425— Herbert E. Hawes, New York, N. Y., [ 

AEROPLANE. ; 

*L067,432 — Charles Francis Jenkins, Washington, | 

D.^ C, AILERON STABILITY and ELEVATING ■ 
SYSTEM; usual ailerons between outer portions of 

wings, longitudinal central seat rod arranged to swing ' 

vertically and having oppositely projecting lateral i 

arms, a rotary and sliding steering column arranged ;! 

to actuate said vane in rotating, means whereby slid- j 
ing said column compels variation in the elevation of 

the arm-bearing portion of said rod, and wires con- ; 

necting the arms to the wings and compelling both j 

to move in the direction of the movement of the | 

arms. { 

1,067,466— Norman Clark and Albert E. Plank, i 
Quincy, 111., SL'RFACE. An aeroplane having a ] 
plane flat top surface and a convex-curved lower ■ 
surface adjacent to the front edge and extending . 
back beyond the middle of the body of the plane , 
almost to its rear, and reversing into a concave sur- 
face adjacent to the rear, substantially as described. ] 

1,067,559 — Joseph A. Steinmetz. Philadelphia, Pa., , 

PARACHL'TE for an entire aeroplane. I 



TECHNICAL TALKS 

{Conliiiufd fro)n page y) 

from that shown in figure 3 to that shown in 
figure 4 produced a marked improvement in 
flying qualities. 

This is all very interesting and remarkable ; 
but, until we can see the tabulated data giving 
Kx and Ky we can not form a definite con- 
clusion as to the actual value of this improve- 
ment. 

If the thickness of a wing is increased by 
changing the contour of its upper surface, 
both the lift and drift are increased. The 
use of a concave entering edge and the exist- 
ence of head resistance in a complete aero- 
plane bring about that the ratio of lift to total 
horizontal resistance is not greater for a 
thick wing than for a thin one. Consequently 
with a wing of variable thickness we obtain 
an aeroplane of variable speed. This method 
is safer than changing the cambre of the wing, 
and simpler than changing the area. 

M. B. Sellkrs. 



VERONA UTICS 



"Page 37 



/a/j,. 1913 



FRENCH AEROPLANES 



:ngineers 
nventors 

tVIATORS 
:ONSTRUCTORS 



TAKE NOTICE! 

For all photos, des- 
criptions, data, news, 
drawings, etc., re- 
garding FRENCH 
AVIATION, address 
below : 



Etudes Aeronautiques 

ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.C.P. 

20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau ( Vosges \ France 



IXDAMS-FARWELL 

{EVOLVING MOTORS 

AVE BEEN IN 




THE ADAMS 

M ATHOL STREET, 



COMPANY 

DUBUQUE, IOWA, U. S. A. 




^^Thomas School 

OF AVIATION 

OFFERS Si -FERIOR ADVANTA GES 

Address, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. 
BATH, N. Y. 



The Bowden Patent 
Wire Mechanism 

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY 

SOLE IMPORTERS 250 WEST 54th ST., NEW YORK 



AERONAUTICAL 
RADIATORS 

Built in capacities and types for standard 
and special aviation motors 

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your 
specifications for special designs 



EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY 

Broadway and 57th St., New York City 



Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators uf all types 



FOR FLYING BOATS USE 

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE 

Use our Waterproof Liquid 
Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, 
or Yellow Soft Quality Glue 
for waterproofing the canvas 
covering of flying boats. It 
not only waterproofs and pre- 
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For use in combination with 
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201 South Street 



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Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 



CHRISTOFFERSON FLYING BOAT 

{Cojttinued frotn page j6) 

inches diameter. The center of the hollow 
chrome nickel steel propeller shaft is placed 
14 inches below the rear main beam. The 
diameter of the shaft tapers from 2 inches at 
the propeller and gears to i foot 5 inches at 
the forward end. The radiator is at the rear 
of the motor and the 20 gallon gasoline and 
the oil tanks are located in the hull under the 
motor. 

Wing floats are used at extremities of lower 
plane. These are torpedo shaped in vertical 
section, oval at front and flattened at the rear. 

The control is of the Dep type. 



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SLOANE AEROPLANE CO., - 1 733 BROADWAY, New York City. 

Agents: Eames Tricyle Co., San Francisco; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago. 



JERONA UTICS 



"Page 38 







Harry Bingham Brown 

The Greatest of the Great 

Especially engaged for the 

Halifax Exposition 



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Assisted by 

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The Two 

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Managers of high standing that 
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will do well to address 



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Box 181, Madison Sq. N. Y. City 



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4ER0NAUTICS 'Pag09 




Vulcanized Proof Material 

For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubber- 
ized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest 
material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no 
effect. Any strength or color. 

^^Red Devir^ Aeroplanes 

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations. 

Hall-Scott Motors 

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 
8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors 
guaranteed. Immediate delivery. 

Experting 

W^ill install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's 
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Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island. 

CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN 

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York 

AEROPLANES 

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



JERONAUTICS "Page 40 July, \9\3 



1913 
Edition 



EIFrEIi 

Translated by Lieut. Jerome C. Hunsaker, U.S. A aval Constructor 

Resistance of the Air and Aviation 
IN ENGLI SH 

Magnificent Quarto Volume, Cloth, 242 pp. 27 

LARGE PLATES AND TABLE OF POLAR DIAGRAMS 

1913 ENLARGED EDITION 



Lieutenant Jerome C. Hunsaker. U.S. M., naval constructor, detailed by the gfovernment to superintend 
the courses in aeronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technolog'y, has made a notable contribution to 
his subject by translating into English Gustav Eiffels master-work, "The Resistance of the Air and Avia- 
tion." The translation includes the record of e.xperiments conducted at the Champ-de-Mars laboratory, and 
an appendix givinpf a summary of the results, and supplementary chapters containing valuable and impor 
tant tables and diagrams. 

Captain W. IRVING CHAMBERS, of the Bureau of Navigation, says : 

"This book, in my opinion, contains the most valuable information on Aviation yet pub- 
lished, and it is very desirable for our American students, designers, manufacturers, aeronau- 
tical and engineering associations, clubs, colleges, and libraries, to secure copies in English as 
soon as possible." 

The " SCIENTinC AMERICAN " says : 

" Eiffel's work makes it possible to calculate a full-sized aeroplane from the data obtained 
in experiments with a model. In nearly all cases, the full-sized machines thus determined 
have given the results expected." 

Heretofore, this misterly production has only been procurable in French, yet even in the original ver- 
sion it is now extensively used in America for reference. The translation of the text with additional matter 
is of the greatest importance to every one interested in the scientific study of aviation. 

PRICE. $10. EXPRESS PAID 

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100 H-P delivers 130 H-P at 1500 r.p.m. BRAKE TEST. 

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60 H-P has proven itself a guarantee to success, espec- 
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40 H-P is the lightest motor for its power upon the mar- 
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; what my experience at their camp led me to think it 
. So far as the trip was concerned we had no mechanical 
Katever. Much of the credit for our success must be given 
■tiss O-X Motor. 



d perfectly." 



In a Curtiss Flying Boat, 

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raising Contest 



If You Fly for 
Sport or Business 
You Should Own 
a Curtiss Motor 



RTISS MOTOR COMPANY HAMVoNospm'" y 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 42 



August, 1913 




< BENOIST ^ 

PLANES hold (he followiug records: 

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American endurance record, aviator and three passengers. 
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Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout 



From the 

"MOTORWAGEN" 

of Nov. 20. 1912 
In the testing establishment 
of Dr. Bendemannat Adlershof 
(near Berlin), a y-cylinder Gyro 
Motor was recently tested. In 
a 5-hour endurance run and at 
i.ooo R. P.M., an average of 45.7 
H. P. was obtained. The fuel 
consumed was 14.7 kg. gasoline 
per hour and 3.06 kg. lubiicat- 
ing oil, which is more favorable 
than the Gnome motor of the 
same horse-power. The weight 
of the motor was 73 kg. 
Send for Catalog 



THE OYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C. 



M A G Ps A HU M 

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AERONA UTICS 



Page 43 



August. 1913 



THE NEWEST 

HYDRO- 
PARAGON 

Two, Three and Four Blades 

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Plain Paragons- One Kind of Wood Throughout. Cheaper and Better in Every Way 
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Used on all Navy Machines 

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Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes aie still unexcelled. Motor equip- 
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We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at 
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In answering advertisements please mention this magaginf. 



JERONA UTICS 



"Page 44 



August, 191 j 



Are You Absolutely 
Sure of your 
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THE achievements of the 
world's most notable gas en- 
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assured perfect ignition when it's 
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Bosch Magneto Company 



201 W. 46th STREET 



NEW YORK 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 45 



Jlugust. 1913 



Developing New Ideas 

By GEORGE M. DYOTT 



The title of tliis talk may seem rather dull; 
nevertheless, I feel sure that a great many of 
us set about development work in a way that 
is expensive and non-productive of results. 
So, if I can lay before you in a clear and con- 
cise manner the most logical method of ap- 
proaching new problems the time may not be 
altogether wasted. 

Time and time again I have witnessed in- 
dividuals vainly endeavoring to exploit some 
new ideas, which, at the start, were funda- 
mentally wrong. Had a little thought been 
brought to bear on the subject at the outset 
considerable time and money would have been 
saved. 

There is a right way and a wrong way of 
doing everything in this world and I see no 
reason why aviation should be any excep- 
tion to this rule. A few years ago, when 
there was very little authentic information 
published concerning aeronautics, the only 
method of procedure was to experiment and 
collect data upon which to work ; but in these 
days, when the main principles are so well 
established there is no excuse for ignoring 
what others have already done in the field. 

Before proceeding, I ought to first define 
just what I mean by a right and wrong way. 
Spending money and learning nothing, or 
spending time and money proving principles 
which are already known to be wrong, are 
wrong ways ; the right way is that one which, 
for a minimum of time and money, produces 
definite concrete results. 

The qualities necessary for success in de- 
velopment work are: good judgment and a 
logical, open mind coupled with a keen ap- 
preciation and respect for other people's ideas. 
Prejudice is fatal to the development of sound 
ideas. 

The first stumbling block to avoid is ig- 
norance of what is already known of the 
laws of mechanics irrespective of aeronautical 
ideas. 

Let me illustrate the point at Tssue. A 
short time ago a man asked my advice con- 
cerning a pendulum stability device which he 
was about to finance. The inventor had con- 
structed a model and from it was suspended 
a weight at the end of a cable. By a single 
throw of a lever this weight could be raised 
or lowered as desired. In the full sized ma- 
chine, which was to be built, the pendulum 
would weigh 150 to 20O pounds and had to be 
raised 20 to 30 feet in two seconds. In order 
to accomplish this, it would require the ex- 
penditure of well over one horse power of 
energy. Xo matter what merit the device had, 
this one feature alone would make it worth- 
less. 

Before working on new ideas be sure you 
are familiar with the old ones. When a prin- 
ciple is once established there is no good in 
proving it all over again at the expense of 

* Lecture before The Aeronautical Society. 



time and money. Take a few lessons from 
those who have had experience and you will 
learn better and quicker. Take as an ex- 
ample the theory of low centre of gravity as 
an aid to stability. The position of the centre 
of gravity is now fairly well understood and 
yet we still find individuals placing it as low 
as possible: a little careful study would often 
help the novice in avoiding errors of this 
kind. 

In carrying out new ideas it is essential that 
the reasoning in support of them should be 
logical, but still more important it is to see 
that the premises upon which the reasoning 
is based are true. The only way to be sure 
of this is to be thoroughly familiar with the 
subject in hand. 

When I first started building machines I 
considered the Bleriot type of under carriage 
extremely dangerous for ground work. 
Hence, instead of making my wings light 
and flexible, I made them rigid and heavy. 
The advantage of this was apparent when 
I found my machine continually tipping 
over on a wing tip. So on every occasion I 
decried the Bleriot landing gear and wing 
construction, pointing out the superiority of 
my own ideas. All of this reasoning sounded 
well enough but later on when I actually 
went to the Bleriot school in France my aston- 
ishment knew no bounds when I discovered 
that it was almost impossible for one of their 
machines to lurch over on a wing tip. The 
reason was then apparent — it was the under- 
carriage, which a few months previously I 
told everyone was dangerous : actual experi- 
ence proved it to be a marvel of ingenuity and 
necessitated a considerable rearrangement of 
my own ideas on the subject. 

In developing a device wc often overlook 
the fact that it must not only work to be suc- 
cessful but it must work better than other 
devices or have some point of superiority, 
whether it be low cost or simplicity which 
places it ahead of existing devices. As a 
business proposition today it is of little use 
to construct an aeroplane that merely flies — 
it must fly better than others or else navigate 
to better advantage. .\ tight rope walker 
once conceived the idea of running a wire 
from the roof of his house to the street below 
and over it he effected entrance and egress. 
His friends, however, still continued to use 
the staircase as it required less agility and 
was more reliable. This same line of reason- 
ing applies to the development of aeronautical 
apparatus. 

Some experimenters make originality the 
kevnote of their designs: originality should 
not be overlooked, yet to strive for it to the 
exclusion of everything else is decidedly bad 
practice. I once saw a machine equipped with 
a verv original shock absorbing device. Its 
weight was 35 pounds. On a Deperdussm 
monoplane the shock absorbers weigh three 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 46 



Jiugust, 1913 



pounds and are just as efficient. The extra 
32 pounds could have been well dispensed with 
and as a whole the machine would have been 
improved. 

As most of you are interested in developing 
complete machines rather than the appliances 
let me say a few words on this subject. At 
first do not depart too far from the beaten 
path and be sure you know what constitutes a 
good flying machine before starting to build 
one. Without doubt, the money spent in 
going to a standard first class school is well 
invested ; the pupil becomes familiar with the 
feel of the air and if under good instructors 
will learn principles of flight which he never 
can learn from books. When once he has 
passed his license tests, experience in flying 
other standard types of machines will prove 
interesting and valuable if development work 
is to be undertaken. The broader one is 
experienced the better is one able to judge 
the relative merits of different ideas. 

Avoid many variable or unknown quantities 
wherever possible. The combination of un- 
known motor, propeller, machine and operator 
makes it exceedingly difficult to arrive at facts. 
If, for example, you wish to try a certain pro- 
peller, do so on a machine with which you 
are familiar and with an engine whose char- 
acteristics are well known; then, if the per- 
formance of the aeroplane as a whole is im- 
proved, it must be due to the propeller, 
providing that no other changes have been 
made. By such a process of elimination really 
interesting data can be procured. 

I know a man who spent the entire summer 
building a machine in which he mounted a new 
motor with a propeller of an uncertain de- 
sign. Everything about the machine was novel 
and when it refused to fly he never knew to 
what to attribute the failure. It is a de- 
plorable fact that there are so many cases of 
a similar nature on record as such methods 
hinder rather than advance the cause of avia- 
tion. 

SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENT. 

I look for subsequent development of the 
aeroplane to take place along standard lines 
just the same way that the automobile or 
other industries have developed along paths 
which were more or less defined at the start. 
Evolution is always slow and new ideas never 
supplant old ones over night so that I do not 
expect anything very startling for some time 
to come. The helicopter, which is the dream 
of many inventors, will undoubtedly come 
with increased knowledge of aerial appliances, 
but I feel that it will be through a perfection 
of the present aeroplane rather than a new 
discovery relating to helicopters. Witness the 
extraordinary manner in which some of the 
modern machines climb and then compare 
the slow rate of ascents years ago. It cer- 
tainly looks as if the logical outcome were 
to be a vertical rise with all facilities for 
moving in any horizontal direction. 

As to automatic stability, here, again, we 
are logically forced to the conclusion that it 
is but a matter of time when it will be an 
actual fact ; nevertheless, we must not over- 
look the fact that great advancement has 



been made along this line, particularly with 
wings which might be termed inherently 
stable. As it is impossible to design an auto- 
matic machine to do a piece of work until 
we can first do it manually, so, likewise, is it 
impossible for us to automatically control an 
aeroplane until we can do so first by hand 
under all conditions. It will probably be some 
time before we can thoroughly understand 
all the conditions which exist in the vast ex- 
panse of atmosphere which surrounds us. 
THE FUTURE OF THE AEROPLANE. 
One word as to the future of the aeroplane. 
Does it, in its present state, look like a com- 
mercial article? Fortunately for myself, I am 
one of those who is absolutely convinced that 
it has a future, and a great one. Admitting 
its many shortcomings and its present limita- 
tions, I still see a vast field of usefulness 
spreading out before me. Not as a weapon 
of war so much as a vehicle of peace. Granted 
that in the former capacity it will find wide 
application, but it is in the cause of peace 
where it will evidently play its greatest part. 
To send a thousand tons of coal to Albany 
one would naturally resort to river trans- 
port, a ton of valuable merchandise would 
go by freight train and an individual by 
express passenger service. In each successive 
step, the cost of transport increases and does 
so in certain proportion to the speed of travel. 
Had I to be in Albany at 3 P. M. and it was 
now 2.30 P. M. the air route would be em- 
ployed if possible; did it take an aeroplane 
the same time as it did a steam train there 
would be no occasion to develop aerial trans- 
port, but if the latter offers a speed of transit 
hitherto unattainable by other means then 
there will be a demand for it irrespective of 
the cost. In other words, high speed travel 
is an essential feature of this age and genera- 
tion, and anything which brings about this end 
is indispensable to civilization. 

In conclusion I might say that the fore- 
going remarks apply to the development of 
ideas rather than the research work in 
unknown fields. Those engaged in research 
must always deal with the unknown and al- 
low their imagination full play as it is only 
by tearing onesself away from the beaten 
path and preconceived ideas that new theories 
can be postulated. Work of this kind is al- 
ways tedious and costly and those who engage 
in it simply blaze the trail for the more prac- 
tical man to come in and pass judgment on 
the theories which have been evolved. 



A man in Long Beach, Cal., "refused" the 
magazine at the post office after accepting it 
for a year after his subscription expired. 
Not receiving reply to notification of expira- 
tion, or to letters requesting payment, pre- 
sumption was that the subscriber wished the 
magazine continued. However, he takes this 
round-about way of notification rather than 
come forward and say he cannot pay for the 
numbers he has had, or advise us on notifica- 
tion of expiration that he doesn't wish to 
continue. This is a cheap and underhanded 
way of obtaining a subscription for nothing. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 47 



Jlugust, 1913 



Technical Talks 

By the Technical Editor 

Resistance of Solids and Wind Deflection 



In my last talk I said that by initiating an 
nward deflection at the stern of a blunt 
•nded body, the resistance of that portion 
:ould be diminished. This is illustrated by 
■xperiments of the National Physical Labo- 
atory, made in water, on the model of a 
lirigible having a stern removable in sec- 
ions. It was found that a portion having a 
liameter equal to four-fifths of the major 
ection could be removed, without materially 
ncreasing the resistance. Tests with colored 
vater showed that the portion truncated was 
■eplaced by a conical zone of dead water. 
The sloping sides of the truncated stern caused 
he fluid streams to converge as shown in 



r^Lg.. 



In connection with the subject of wind de- 
flection, Dr. Cousin and M. Gingon have, in 
the Technique Aeronautique of Feb. i, an 
article on the determinism of the form on the 
flight and speed of the bird. They quote from 
]\Iouillard the statement : "there are probably 
forms which give a counterpressure superior 
to the pressure" ; meaning, thereby, that such 
a body, once started, would experience a 
resultant pressure forcing it forward. This 
is obviously absurd. 

It is possible, however, to have a body on 
which the counter-pressure would equal the 
pressure ; in which case only frictional re- 
sistance would remain. 

I shall not attempt here to abstract this 
article, but shall give only the most salient 
points of the theory. Fig. 2 shows an out- 




r±g.a 



line of a bird, seen from above, showing 
direction of air streams. It is seen that the 
bird's head forms a wind deflector shielding 
the front of the body from pressure, and 



deflecting the air streams in such a way that 
their convergence produces a pressure on the 
after-body. 

These investigators point out that : 
(i) There is an inverse ratio between the 
size of the head and the length of the neck. 

(2) There is a direct ratio between the 
length of the neck and the major transverse 
diameter of the body. 

(3) There is, therefore, a direct ratio be- 
tween the size of the head and the diameter 
of the bod}-. 

The head and fore part of the body form 
a cone of penetration ; and the after-body, a 
cone of utilization ; the relation between these 
two cones being such, that the air streams 
deflected by the head shall return to produce 
a pressure on the whole after cone, and shall 
not return too soon or too late. Hence the 
accessary relation between the size and shape 
of the beak, head, neck and bodv. 



-^ K 




Tdt 



Similarly, in Fig. 3, we have a side view of 
the bird showing that here the air streams 
deflected downward return to produce pres- 
sure (lift) on the under side of the after 
body; while those deflected upward produce 
a rari faction (lift) over the whole upper 
surface. 

The authors go much further with their 
theory, showing how the direction of the air 
streams may be controlled by the lengthening 
of the neck and binding of the wings; besides, 
much more. But at present the important 
questions are : 

(i) Does the bird's head act as a wind 
deflector, reducing the resistance of the body 
to forward motion ; and, 

(2) Can the air streams be deflected so as 
to converge on the after-body annulling the 
rarifaction generally occurring over that area? 

As soon as I have opportunity I shall in- 
vestigate these questions, using my wind- 
tunnel. M. B. Sellers. 



AERONA UTICS 




Ntv/ Burgess Flying Boat 



On July 19 the flying boat ])uilt for R. J. 
Collier and powered with a 220 H. P. Anzani 
motor was taken up by Frank Cofifyn for the 
first time. It proved wonderfully fast on the 
water. After two short runs Cofifyn took it 
a few feet into the air. He found that the 
speed far exceeded that which he had an- 
ticipated. It developed well over 75 miles 
per hour. This is especially surprising on 
account of the very large extra weight car- 
ried, the power plant complete weighing 968 
pounds. On account of the difficulties in 
starting the motor by hand with a reducing 
gear a Hartford self-starter was installed and 
it is very pretty indeed to see Cofifyn along- 
side the wharf press a button, when the 
Anzani motor immediately jumps into action 
and the big double propellers create a hurri- 
cane that well nigh sweeps one off his feet if 
he happens to be behind it. 

On account of the very high speed and m- 
creased weight over the estimated weight, 
wing extensions were added to make the 
machine more easj' to operate. 

Late in the spring Collier placed an order 
with the Burgess Company and Curtis for 
a flying boat, and at the same time purchased 
a 220 H. P. 20-cylinder Anzani motor from 
the Anzani Company in France. It was speci- 
fied that the flying boat should make a speed 
of at least 75 miles per hour, should carry a 
fuel capacity of about 4 hours flying and carry 



one or two passengers. Cofifyn has taken 
contract to fly it for him. 

It will be noticed from the plans that th 
upper plane alone warps, the lower plane 
being rigid and are separated by a single lin 
of steel struts. This is a distinct departur 
in American design which gives a greate 
efficiency by a marked reduction of the hea 
resistance. 

Each wing is built up on a tubular steel spa 
3^ inches in diameter and with the tube stet 
vertical struts separating the main planes, th 
main cell is practically a steel skeleton, 
wood entering edge (hollowed out for light 
ness) and a wood stringer parallel to th 
wing spar serve to maintain the spacing o 
the ribs, which are of wood, placed ever 
twelve inches apart. 

The upper surface is fitted with 5 foot ex 
tensions and has a span of 41 feet 4J/2 inches 
As the drawings show, it is made up in 4 sec 
tions. The lower plane measures 33 feet 4] 
inches in span. 

The 20-cylinder motor, with its cylinder 
arranged radially in staggered rows, drives 
four-bladed propeller direct through an exten 
sion of the crank-shaft, supported on ball 
bearings upon a tubular steel standard buil 
up from the hull. In this latest design it ha 
been possible to get the center of thrust ver; 
near the center of resistance. 

{Conti7iued on page 61) 




ERONA UTICS 



Page 49 



August, 1913 




Burgess 220 H.P. Flying Boat 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 50 



Jugust, 1911 




The Grant Monoplane 

With Changeable Angle of Incidence 



Mr. R. R. Grant, of Norfolk, Va., following 
out the same line of experiments made with 
his former machine at the old Jamestown Ex- 
position grounds, has just finished a new 
tandem monoplane, a hydroaeroplane of the 
catamaran type, which, while embodying the 
same general principles of the old machine, 
has some interesting new features, one of 
which is a device whereby the angle of in- 
cidence is changed while in flight. 

To accomplish this, a double movement, 
which maintains a constant lifting centre and 
adjusts the proper ratio between the forward 
and rear surface, is provided. The operator 
turns a small wheel located between the double 
seats when changing or adjusting for the 
proper angle. 

Further, the surfaces are full Cissoid of 
Diodes form, this form having been adopted 
on account of its high efficiency and that for 
all change in angle the C. of P. movement 
travels at a constant ratio, /. e.. within reason- 
able angles of flight. With this curve a very 
much increased inherent stability has been 
obtained and, further, it functions perfectly 
with the tandem system, i. c. the C. of P. 
variations are always in a corrective direction, 
thereby assisting in making the machine auto- 
matically stable. 

From many experiments with the old ma- 



chine in flight Mr. Grant found that the good 
effects of the negative angle in the rear plane 
of the tandem system is destroyed liy the 
improper placement of the C. of G. These 
two physical elements being the secret of 
longitudinal stability and when coupled with 
the best form of surface the longitudinal 
stability can be considered as nearly perfect. 
In the old machine after these features 
were incorporated the longitudinal stability 
could always be depended upon, and in no 
instance did it ever fail though many severe 
tests were made. A very fine technical de- 
scription of the inherent longitudinal stability 
feature of the tandem system will be found in 
Captain W. Irving Chambers' article in • 
AERONAUTICS for February, this year.' 
Capt. Chambers states that the theory or ob- 
ject of the tandem system (referring to the 
Drzewiecki machine) is, "to so adjust the 
plane surface that when exterior perturbing 
forces disturb the equilibrium a dynamic 
couple is born which restores the equilibrium 
immediately and automatically." The same 
physical results take place in the tandem 
system with the small plane in the rear, pro- 
vided, the C. of G. is properly placed, the 
centre of gravity must at all times become the 
axis centre around which the lifting and drift 
pressures converge, for in this type of ma- 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 5 1 



ylugust, 1913 





^^Y **A1II^@ STALLS 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 52 



ylugust, 1913 



chine no inertia pressures are necessary, for. 
as Capt. Chambers puts it, it is "Aerostable," 
i. e.. all corrections being the secondary result 
of the perturbating forces themselves. At the 
conclusion of three years' experiment in the 
field Mr. Grant corroborates the laboratory 
results of M. Eiffel on the tandem system 
but brings out the fact that whereas by a 
properly designed tandem system, longitudinal 
stability can be made practicly perfect and, 
therefore, lateral stability will be greatly in- 
creased, nevertheless, a perfect lateral sys- 
tem is necessary and he has developed one 
embodying the same inherent or automatic 
feature as the longitudinal, a system depend- 
ing upon the secondary effect of the perturb- 
ing forces to bring about the necessary cor- 
rections. A full description of his lateral 
system will be found in AERONAUTICS of. 
August, 1912. 

The new machine's dimensions are : spread, 
42 feet ; length, over all, 41 feet ; physical 
length, 32 feet : each main wing, 16 feet by 
92 inches chord ; camber, top, 6 inches, bot- 
tom T,y2 inches ; mean curvature, Cissoid of 
Diodes, or the curve giving the duplication 
of the cube; the surfaces are pivoted 11 
inches back from the entering edge, the axis 
consisting of a i-}4 inch Shelby steel tube of 
18 gauge which runs the entire length of the 
plane. All supports and stays converge along 
this axis centre. This scheme of support is 
so rigid that the machine can be lifted by 
the outer tip of the surface, although it weighs 
1600 pounds. 

The power plant consists of a 100 H. P. 
Emerson 2 cycle engine, which has lieen 
thoroughly rebuilt by Mr. Grant. This en- 
gine was used and its many defects located in 
the first machine and will be used during the 
tests of the present machine. The engine 
swings a 9.33 diameter, 6 feet pitch propeller 
of Mr. Grant's own make. The engine, if it 
proves satisfactory, will be equipped with a 
Delco starting system with a special Exide 
battery. The starting outfit weighs 160 
pounds, and is all ready to be installed as soon 
as the engine has proven satisfactory, other- 
wise a new engine will be installed. 

The El Arco radiator is placed in front of 
the operator, the operator's car being arranged 
automobile style. This arrangement has been 
adopted to centre the weight as much as 
possible, as well as to form a windshield and 
supply warm air to the occupants. The air 



can be defiected, if desired, by a shield for- 
ward of the seats. 

The elevator and rudders have the same 
surface area, 30 square feet, and there is 
also 30 square feet in the damper wall ; the 
damper wall can be adjusted for use with 
and without pontoons, as the machine is con- 
vertible. 

The wing framework is constructed, of 
white ash and Shelby steel tubing, covered 
with Goodrich Alumina cloth. The front 
lateral spar is of ash i inch by i inch, and 
the rear is a tube lJ4 inches by lyi inches, 
II inches from front edge. Ribs are solid 
web I beam section glued and brass screwed, 
made of bass wood. For the rear 2 feet there 
is no web and the rib is flexible. A ^ inch 
brass tube forms the rear edge. 

The control system is of the Curtiss prin- 
ciple, constructed of aluminum and brass 
tubing. The control wires are run in dupli- 
cate on both sides of the machine through the 
longitudinal steel tubes, and so arranged that 
one entire side may break without in the least 
affecting the control. 

The surfaces are rigidly supported to the 
strut member and, while lateral equilibrium is 
controlled by the forward plane by a differ- 
ential change in the angle of incidence, wdiich 
works normally automatic, no warping or 
change in form of surface is made. The 
forward surface is normally 2 degrees higher 
than the rear, Init ratio changes with angle of 
incidence. 

The construction of this machine has been 
carefully calculated and all stresses and strains 
taken into consideration along the same line 
as if it were a bridge and a factor of safety 
of 50 to I has been obtained. All stays and 
guys are of Swedish steel wire and sockets 
and clips of steel. Total area of machine, 
364 square feet. 

The floats are of catamaran type, each 2 
feet wide, 21 feet long. For the forward 9 
feet the sides are parallel but from this point 
converge to a point at the stern. For the 
forward 9 feet the bottom slopes at an angle 
of 4 degrees to a depth of 13 inches, sloping 
up again aft at a reverse angle of 3 degrees. 
The decking of the float is crowned to a 
height of 3 inches and the bottom is curved 
transversely with a 2 inch camber. Each 
pontoon is divided into five water-tight com- 
partments. 



BOOKS RECEIVED 

ALL THE WORLD'S AIRCR.\FT 1913, by Fred 
T. Jane. Fifth issue of this book, a large cloth 
volume, which contains a list of the principal types 
of dirigibles and aeroplanes in all countries, with 
scale drawings and short table of dimensions and 
details with each: a section devoted to historical 
aeroplanes of the last six years; a department giving 
illustrations and details of all the world's engines: 
and, finallv. an aeronautical "Who's Who" and di- 
rectory. Published by Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 
Overy House, 100 Southwark St., London, S. E. 

METEOROLOGISCHE AUSBILDUNG DES 
FLIEGERS, by Dr. Franz Linke. Cloth, 8vo., 
70 pp., with 30 text illustrations, colored wenther 



charts and tables. Tublished at Mk. 1.70. by R. 
Oldenbourg, Munchen, Germany. 

DIE WAHRHEIT LENDER DEN STAND DER 
LLIFTSCHIFFAHRT. 1913. by Victor Silberer, pub- 
lished by N'erlag der Allgemeinen Sport-Zeitung. 
\'ienna, Austria. 

CAUSERIES TECHNIQUES, SANS FOR- 
MULES, SUR L'AEROPLANE, by Captaine du 
Genie Duchene, published by Librairie Aeronautique, 
40 Rue de Seine, Paris, at 6 francs. 8vo., paper, 
258 pp., with figures and charts, etc. Chapters in- 
clude. Speed, Power, Propellers, Longitudinal Sta- 
bility, Transverse Stability, Turning, Effects of 
Wind, etc. The Eiffel and other tables are given and 
attempt has been made to treat of aerodynamics in 
simple language. In French. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 53 



August, 1913 



New Curtiss for Navy 



The latest Curtiss flying lioat, "U. S. N. 
C2," for the United States Xavy completed 
its official tests on August 14 under the ob- 
servation of Captain W. Irving Chambers, 
U. S. X.. Lieut. H. C. Richardson, Naval 
Constructor, U. S. X., and Lieut. P. N. L. 
Bellinger, U. S. X. Most of the tests were 
made by moonlight the night before. This 
was done because the specifications demanded 
calm weather for certain trials. 

In addition to an unusual equipment of 
instruments, about 300 pounds of oil and 
gasoline, the flying boat made the trial flights 
with a load of approximately 700 pounds. 
With this load an average of ten flights with 
and against the wind showed a mean speed of 
a fraction less than 60 miles per hour. Slow- 
speed tests with the same load showed a mean 
of less than 50 miles per hour. Unofficially 
the same machine has shown a slow speed of 
less than 45 miles per hour, but the air was 
"bumpy" during the tests and it was not con- 
sidered advisable to slow the flying boat to 
the limit. The gliding test proved a surprise, 
for with motor stopped at an altitude of four 
hundred feet the boat glided 2,800 feet before 
touching the water, and then was brought 
down purposely to avoid landing on the shore. 
With the load carried a gliding angle of not 
more than five to one had been expected. 

Compared with the Curtiss flying boats the 
Xavy has used during the past year the new 
machine seems very large. The hull has an 
extreme width of 50 inches, a depth of 46 
inches, and a total weight of 500 pounds. 
Full}' loaded for the tests the machine weighed 
approximatel}' 2400 pounds. 

"C-2'" is a decided Vee-liottom, and her 
step is a deep Vee-shaped notch, the boat 
riding on the extremities of the branches of 
the V when at speed. Her sides are built up 
solid to the coaming and have a decided flare, 
so that her flotation increases with the load 
imposed. Instead of the collapsible windshield 
used on the earlier craft the sloping bow of 
the new boat is built up strongly and is solid 
except for the hinged panel in the centre 



which turns forward to form a gang-plank 
over the bow. Looked at from the bow the 
hull suggests a wedge, the resistance of which 
increases almost evenly on all four sides. 

The equipment of the hull of "C-2" is very 
complete. Behind the seats in the hull is 
located a 40 gallon fuel tank, in addition to 
the tanks direct-connected with the power 
plant. At present it also has a gyroscopic 
stabilizer which operates both lateral and 
longitudinal controls. The instrument board 
is especially compact and shows at a glance 
conditions affecting every part of the ma- 
chine. An air-pressure speed gauge shows 
very accurately the speed of the machine in 
still air or traveling across the wind. A 
shaft-speed indicator shows engine speeds 
at all times. An angle indicator, a barometer, 
an anemometer, a gasoline gauge, and a 
clock, are on the same board. 

Above the hull are minor changes. The 
wings are built up one piece, with very sub- 
stantial frames, with a spread of 39 feet for 
the upper plane, and 30 feet for the lower 
one. The chord is 66 inches and the gap 66 
inches. They are covered with the toughest 
of unbleached linen, coated with some new 
"dope" which waterproofs them and at the 
same time renders them nearly transparent. 
The tail structure remains practically un- 
changed. 

The power plant includes a rebuilt Model 
O Curtiss motor with Model 0-X valve action, 
— practically an 0-X complete, and developing 
90-100 H. P. 



From Chicago — "Enslirouded in smoke 4,000 feet 
in the air almost directly above the loop district, W. 
C. Robinson, a Chicago aviator, yesterday fought a 
desperate battle against death when a fuse blew out 
en his engine and flames ignited the wings of his 
monoplane. The aviator finally succeeded in quench- 
ing the fire with a small hand extinguisher which 
he carried on the machine and reached the aviation 
field at Cicero safely. 

"i^cores of members of the Aero Club of Illinois, 
watched the battle tlirough field glasses." 




AERONA UTICS 



Page 54 



August, 1913 



A Comparison of Wind Tunnels 



BY M. B. SELLERS 



M. Raihouchinski, in the Bulletin of the 
Aerodynamic Laboratory of Koutchino, Part 
IV, gives an account of experiments to de- 
termine the comparative value of various 
types of wind tunnel. 

A model of the Eiffel tunnel was made 
having a trunk or nozzle 60 cm. in diameter ; 
this was compared with the Koutchino tunnel, 
with reference to the variation in air speed 
and pressure due to the variation in size of 
the bodies under experiment. 

For this purpose discs of different sizes 
were mounted on the balance normal to the 
current. The air speed in the Eiffel tunnel 
was measured in the nozzle. Taking for com- 
parison the ratio of the diameter of the disc 
to that of the tunnel, it was found that the 
air speed in both tunnels diminished with 
increasing size of discs, but for discs of 
small diameter ratio, the variation was less 
for the Koutchino tunnel. 

The unit pressure on a disc decreased with 
increasing size, in the Eiffel tunnel ; whereas 
in the Koutchino tunnel, it increased. 

But, for small discs, the variation in the 
Koutchino tunnel was very small, while in 
the Eiffel tunnel it was much greater. 

Therefore, so long as the dimensions of 
the objects of experiment are kept within 
proper limits, the variations in air speed and 
unit pressure are small in the Koutchino tun- 
nel, and M. Raibouchinski concludes that it 
is superior to the Eiffel tunnel for that 
reason. 

The pressure in the Eiffel tunnel decreases 
because the cylinder of air is expanded by 
the obstruction offered by the disc, its velocity 
diminished and the rarifaction on back of 
disc reduced. In the Koutchino tunnel it is 
iiiercasvd because the obstruction causes a 



local increase of air speed increasing the 
rarifaction on the back of the disc. The 
Rateau and similar tunnels are open to the 
same objection as the Eiff'el tunnel, but in 
a greater degree. 

M. Eiffel and ]\I. Flopp have recently 
found, for square plates, a maximum pres- 
sure, very pronounced near 40 degrees in- 
clination, while observations made before 1910, 
by a number of investigators, showed no 
similar condition. M. Rateau, Prof. Prandtl 
and Prof. Mallock have found that between 
30 degrees and 40 degrees inclination of a 
plate, the pressure was subject to more or 
less rapid fluctuations, and they attributed 
this to different types of eddies formed be- 
hind the plate. 

M. Raibouchinski, with his large tunnel, 
found no greater fluctuation between 30 de- 
grees and 40 degrees than at other angles ; 
and no similar maximum at 40 degrees. In 
order, therefore, to determine if possible 
the reason for the difference, he constructed 
a small Prandtl tunnel (which is a closed 
circuit tunnel ) 60 by 60 cm. ; and in order 
to produce less interference with the air flow 
around the plate, the rod. which usually 
supports the plate at its edge, was bent 
around so as to support the plate at its 
middle. With this support the same pressure 
fluctuations and maximum were found, as 
described by Prof. Prandtl, but with the 
usual support they were not found. On re- 
moving all the return portion of the Prandtl 
tunnel these conditions were not found with 
either support. 

M. Raibouchinski concludes that the current 
in the Prandtl tunnel is steadier, and con- 
sequently the eddies or vortices are longer 
preserved, thus provoking the rapid rise in 
pressure at the critical angle. 



BOOKS RECEIVED 



MECHANISCHE GRUNDLAGEN DES FLUG- 
ZEUGBAUES, by A. Baumann. Published in two 
parts by R. Oldenbourg, Gluckstiasse 8, Munchen, 
Germany. Fully illustrated with drawings and 
tables. Each part sells at 4 Mk. — Das vorstehend 
angegebene Werk stellt einen Niederschlag nicht nur 
der theoretischen, sondern audi der praktischen 
Arbeit des Verfassers auf dem vorliegenden Gebiete 
dar. Es behandelt, ohne auf irgendwelche speziellen 
Konstruktionen naher einzugehen, diejenigen Fragen 
und mechanischen Probleme, welch fijr alle Flugzeug 
gattungen von gleich groser Bedeutung sind. Um 
das \'erstandnis und die Verarbeitung des Stoffes zu 
erleichtern, wird der Leser, von den denkbar 
cinfachsten Fallen ausgehend, schrittweise mit den 
komplizierten Problemen vertraut gemacht. Es 
werden so nach und nach alle Fragen behandelt, die 
fiir die Berechnung und den Bau von Flugzeugen 
von Wichtigkeit sind und gleichzeitig der Grund 
gelegt fiir das Verstandnis des noch folgenden 
Bandes. der sich mit den Stabilitatsfragen befassen 
wird. Nach einer kurzen allgemein gehaltenen Be- 
sprechung des Luftwiderstandgesetzes gibt der \'er- 
fasser ncue, mit seinen Versuchen und praktischen 
Ergebnissen iibereinstimmende, einfache Formeln. 
auf Grund deren die Berechnung des Auf- und 
Riicktriebes von Tragflachen ermoglicht wird. 



BAU UND BETRIEB VON PRALL-LUFT- 
SCHIFFE. Part II, by Richard Basenach, 11" pp., 
cloth, with 80 illustrations. Published at 3 Mk. each 
part by R. Oldenbourg, Munchen, Germany. 

THE GAS ENGINE HANDBOOK, by E. W. 

Roberts, M. E., seventh edition, rewritten and en- 
larged. Pocket size, flexible leather binding, 313 pp. 
freely illustrated; published by Gas Engine Publishing 
Co., Cincinnati, O., at $2. The book has been 
written as an epitome of gas engine practice and as 
a handy book of reference. All the matter is 
simply written and no one could be said to be an 
expert on gas engines without having the knowledge 
sold in this book. All knowledge must be bought 
somehow. There is a chapter on the design of 
aeroplane motors in which there is given a few simple 
rules for the design of engines of the light weight 
required in this service. The chapter deals with an 
up-to-date subject in a concise manner. While the 
author does not go into minute details on this subject 
as much as might be desired, it is touched upon in 
the chajiters on the design of details. 

:\IODEL FYING MACHINES, by A. P. Morgan. 
Paper, 16mo., 70 pp., fully illustrated. Published liy 
Cole & Morgan, Newark, N. J., at 25 cents. A hami- 
hook on model flying machines, with full instructions 
as to making, scale drawings of various models, etc. 
Indispensable to the novice. 



ZRONA UTICS 



Page 55 



August, 1913 



New Developments in Aeronautics 



IT WAS FLY TIME 

An aviator flew into 

A garden where he found 

A pretty maiden, bashful, too — 

And so — he "stuck around !" 

Indeed, this flyer chap pursued 
His wooing with a vim, 
For this coy maiden whom he wooed 
Had made a hit with him. 

And so he formed a plan to gain 
This maiden, oh, so shy ; 
Said he : "Let's take my aeroplane 
And spoon up in the sky !'" 

The maid demurely hung her head ; 
A plan she also had : 
Til tell you what let's do instead — 
Let's go and see my dad. 

My daddy always loves to meet 
You chaps who aviate ; 
You see, he has a special treat 
He likes to demonstrate. 

For daddy now and then invents. 
The latest thing he's done 
Is what he calls the 'Home Defence 
Electric Airship Gun.' 

You see, they live when they go up : 
\\'hen thev come down — thev're dead ! 

And, -'" 

The flyer chap had fled ! 



"And did'your caller fly, my dear?" 
Asked father, with a whoop ; 
And (laughter answered with a cheer : 

"You bet ! He flew the coop !" 

H.\ZEN CONKLIN. 



LATEST GERMAN WRIGHT 

^ new, much improved, military aeroplane 
the Wright type has now been produced 

the German army. The new flying ma- 
ne, in contrast with the old model, which 
ried only two people, provides room for 
ir and, if necessary, five persons. For this 
■pose the machine has been fitted with a 
my fuselage, which ofifers a comfort and 
tection against the wind. Windows have 
n built in the floor, through which the 
)t may see downward or throw projectiles, 
carrying capacity of about 400 kg. (880 
) and superior climbing ability have been 
lined. The construction of the supporting 
nes is in the main the same as in the nor- 
1 Wright machine. The steering gear has 
n arranged according to the regulations of 

army board ; consequently, pilots used to 
er types will have no particular difficulty 
steering this new Wright type. 



The measurements of the machine are as 
follows: The span of the main planes is 
13.5 m. (44 ft., 4 in.) from tip to tip, the 
planes are 1.8 m. (5 ft., 11 ins.). The area 
of supporting surface is 42 sq. meters (ap- 
prox., 463 sq. ft.). The distance between 
planes is 1.6 m. (5 ft., 3 in.). Length from 
front to rear is only 9.65 m. (31 ft., 8 in.). 
The motor develops 100 H. P. at 1,350 revo- 
lutions. A specially constructed transmission 
reduces the revolutions of the propellers, 
which are 2.6 m. (8 ft., 6 in.) long, to 810 as 
compared to the revolutions of the motor. 




In this way the macliine attains a speed of 
about 90 kilos, (approx. 56 miles) an hour. 
Its weight is 750 kg. (1,635 lbs.), the carry- 
ing capacity, including fuel, etc., 400 kg. (882 
lbs.). The machine fully loaded needs, for 
starting or landing, a space of only 60 to 80 
meters (197 to 262 ft.) in length. 



HALL-SCOTT ENGINE TEST 

Besides testing the new 100 H. P. Hall-Scott 
motor on a dynamometer, it was put on a test 
stand under propeller load and it gave a pitch 
speed of 10,500 feet per minute with a 7 foot 
pitch propeller. The thrust \vas 550 lbs. This 
shows a low thrust but is explained by the 
fact that a high pitch blade was used, being 
cut down until the required R. P. M. were 
obtained. This would show an estimated 
horsepower of 175, which is incorrect as the 
same engine tested on a dynamometer gave 120 
H. P. at the same R. P. M. This is stated by 
R. S. Scott, of the company, to prove that 
horsepower cannot be correctly estimated by 
using the formula pitch speed x R. P. M. x 
thrust, divided by 33.000. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 56 



August, 191 



NAVY TRIES STANDARD CONTROL 

The U. S. Navy will be the first military, 
or civil body in the world to adopt a standard 
method of control. The necessity for this 
has previously been announced in this maga- 
zine. , 

A temporary conclusion has been arrived at 
by theoretical analysis, and Captain Chambers 
intends to put this in each of a Wright and 
Curtiss machine in one seat but hooked up 
to the old control so that either aviator can 
work it. 

This will be tested, as well as all other 
systems and modifications on a land machine 
that is being rigged up, whereby each aviator 
can be tried with each system and the fatigue, 
smoothness and all other results can be re- 
corded chronographically and compared. The 
final result will be fitted in all machines on 
one side of the double system and when all 
aviators are proficient the old controls will 
be replaced entirely. The aviators themselves 
are at last stirred up to desiring the change, 
but, of course, are not unanimous as to rec- 
ommendations. 



HEAVY DUTY CURTISS WHEEL 

A new wheel for heavy duty has been 
marketed by Curtiss. There are io8 spokes 
II gauge, set in a double row on the inside 
and in a single row on the outside ; the rim is 
of pressed steel, swedge countersunk for 




nipples ; steel hub offset 2 inches, screw dust 
cap; shaft diameter i inch, adjustable cones 
on shaft held by lock washers and nut. Size 
20 inches by 4 inches, straight clincher ; weight, 
with tire and inner tube, 17 pounds. 



WILSON STABILITY DEVICE 

After patenting in many countries an auto- 
matic lateral stability device, John W. Wilson 
announces the marketing of it in the adver- 



tising pages of this issue. Referring to th 
system, Mr. Wilson states : 

"My device and its method of applicatio 
is absolutely new, and has never, to 
knowledge, been attempted by any builder 
flying machines of any type, and constitute 
in my opinion, the first step towards re; 
flight, as I hope to be able to show by son 
of my more recent applications for patent 
I have long realized that an aeroplane, lit 
a bird, is an effect, a single track vehicl 
calling for absolute alignment, and that ; 
no time should the centre of pressure be s 
altered as to constitute a drag for the purpos 
of restoring lateral balance. It is well know 
that the systems of ailerons and wing warpir 
are both ineffective unless the aeroplane mail 
tains a forward motion, and once stalled : 
the air, there is always grave danger th; 
the aeroplane may never again be righte^ 
My device, depending upon no drag of an 
kind, allows of an instant change of suppo 
by the turning of the entire supporting plan 
the banking side of the plane moving on 2 
axis oblique to the perpendicular forward, u] 
ward and inward, while the opposite side movi 
backward, downward and inward, and at tl 
same time the weight-carrying body havir 
thus been thrown out of line, automatical 
adjusts itself back into line. This rearrang 
ment of the four incidences — support, pre 
sure, gravity and thrust, — is accomplisht 
without the use of either vertical or horizont 
rudders, without either ailerons or wing war 
ing, without changing the centre of pressu 
or slacking speed, a combination of advaii 
tages which also allows of slower speed lan^j 
ings, owing to the instant readjustment of tl 
centre of support, and aids in reducing tl 
dangers of aeroplaning to a minimum." 



WRIGHT INCIDENCE INDICATOR 

A new instrument for the use of aviators 
now marketed by The Wright Company. Tl 
use of an instrument showing angles of ii 
cidence in the air, so that a pilot, who knov 
his machine's limiting range of angles, couj 
he sure of remaining within safe flying pos 
tions, would save a good many lives. 

On climbing, if the machine is set at tc 
great an angle, the lift falls off, the drift ii 
creases, and the machine first begins to sir 
and then in losing headway to "stall." 1 
diving, if the angle is made too small, tl 
centre of pressure moves very far back, ar 
the degree of safety is greatly reduced 1 
its proximity to a position of down pressun 
on the top of the wing; there is also th 
possibility in again turning up of receiving 
pressure on the under-side of the tail surfac 
which would prevent the machine's recov6 
ing from the dive. There are many no 
who consider this the principal cause 
diving accidents that have taken place. 

If in climbing, diving or in normal flyir 
the air currents are disturbed, rising, descent 
ing or deflecting from side to side, the ang! 
of the machine with the horizontal, which 
registered by the ordinary gravity clinometei 



:rona utics 



Page 57 



Jlugust, 1913 



*Vilson's 
Lateral 
Balance 

for Aeroplanes 

\dvantages Over All Others 

Absolutely no drag in turning. 
No vertical rudders required at 
any time. 

Automatically rights itself later- 
ally. 

Centre of Support, Pressure, Grav- 
ity and Thrust always in line. 
Makes its own banking without 
reducing speed. 

Fastest and safest aeroplane in 
the world. 

Strain equalized, danger of buck- 
ling reduced to a minimum. 
Can be propelled for miles by 
lateral device alone. 

FULLY PROTECTED 

BY PATENTS AND RIGHTS IN THE 
FOLLOWING COUNTRIES 






^EAT BRITAIN 
ERMANY 
JSSIA 
JSTRIA 
UNCE 
LGIUM 
^AIN 

DRTUGAL 
ALY 



NORWAY 

DENMARK 

SWEDEN 

HUNGARY 

CHINA 

JAPAN 

CANADA 

AUSTRALIA 

SWITZERLAND 



THE UNITED STATES 

Adapted to all types of 
Aeroplanes and Dirigibles 

censes Granted. Correspondence Solicited 

OHN W.WILSON, Patentee 

COURT ST., BOSTON, MASS., U. S. A. 




Now Ready 

The Airman's Vade=Mecuni 

"NO. 1," METEOROLOGY 

By Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B. 

(Vice-President Royal Meteorological Society; Council 
Aeronautical Society ) 

CONTENTS : Introduction and 5 Chapters on 

Temperature, Pressure.Wind, and Precipitation. 

Weather Forecasting. Index. 

(rihtstyateci) 

Price 40 Cents Net Post Free 

"AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Buildings, 
London Wall, London, E. C. 



STYLES & CASH ^tS/.;tr" 



Aeroplane, Motor and Accessory Catalogues 
Circulars, Brochures, Bulletins, etc. :: :: 



135 W. 14th STREET 



NEW YORK 



SUPPLIES AT REDUCED PRICES 

Goods of quality at less than the clieapor kiiid. 
G.t our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AVIATIC" 
ami a small order will toll vou wliy those who know 
send to us when they want the best at the right price. 
Let us give you a special figure on that supply list. 

HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO. 

208 30th Avenue Seattle, Wash. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 58 



August, 191 



does not represent the angle of the planes 
to the air. This latter, however, is the im- 
portant thing to know, and, as no such in- 
strument was on the market. The Wright 
Company proceeded to turn out one of their 
own, which has recently come into extended 
use in Government service. 

In ascending or descending currents, to fly 
properly balanced, the machine may take an 
angle quite out of proportion to the horizontal, 
but with this incidence indicator, the pilot 
is positive that the planes are receiving their 
proper pressure, and that the centre of sup- 
port has the correct relation with regard to 
the centre of weight. It is safe to say that 
keeping within the range of safe flying angles 
would eliminate almost 80 per cent, of the 
accidents. 




As may be seen from the illustration, the 
Wright Incidence Indicator consists of a light 
air vane, which operates a pointer on a dial 
by a special mechanical contrivance eliminat- 
ing any gravity influence. The pointer in- 
dicates at any time the angle of the chord 
of the planes with respect to the air currents 
through which the machine is flying, and, as 
already stated, is entirely independent of 
gravity in distinction to the usual clinometer, 
which takes no account of ascending or de- 
scending currents. The weight of this in- 
strument is 2^ lbs., and the dial can be read 
clearly at a distance of 10 feet. It can be 
fitted to any type of biplane on a convenient 
strut, and on a monoplane can readily be 
fitted to one of the cabanes, or to some mem- 
ber of the chassis. It sells for fifty dollars. 



GERMAN ARMY SPECIFICATIONS 

The Aeronautical Department of the Ger- 
man Army has promulgated standard specifica- 
tions applicable to all aeroplanes purchased 
during 1913 for military purposes. In sub- 
stance they are as follows : 

German materials and products must be ex- 



clusively employed in the construction of t' 
aeroplanes. They must be insusceptible 
weather influences and all parts must 
easily interchangeable. They must be bu 
so as to be readily assembled and demount' 
into sections which can be easily loaded ( 
railway cars or road vehicles. Assemblii 
must not take more than two hours nor d 
mounting more than one hour nor requi 
the assistance of more than five persons. Wi 
a view to transportation the greatest wid 
must not exceed 14.5 meters (47-6 feet) ; t 
length over-all, 12 meters (39.4 feet) ; ai 
the height, 3.5 meters (11.5 feet). Motors 
more than 100 H. P. are not to be used exce< 
with the special approval of the milita I 
authorities. Other things being equal, prefer 
ence will be given to machines equipped wi^ 
low-powered motors. It must be possible j 
start the motor from the pilot's seat. 1 
positive speed of at least 90 kilometers ( j 
miles) an hour is required. ]\Ioreover, j 
must be possible in every case to reduce tl 
speed during a flight to 75 kilometers (4(1 
miles) and still fly forward on a horizonll 
line. Provision must be made for carryin 
fuel, oil, etc., sufficient for four hour's ru ( 
ning. The fuel supply must be placed so i 
to afford absolutely no danger to the ere i 
There must be some device provided f 1 
thoroughly suppressing the noise of the mote 1 
A machine loaded not only with fuel, oil, et I 
for four hours and with instruments ai; 
tools but also with a further load of at lesi 
200 kilograms (441 lbs.), in which the weigi 
of the pilot and observer is included, mul 
be capable of leaving the ground after a rt( 
of not more than one hundred meters (3\ 
feet) ; of attaining within 15 minutes an al'i 
tude of at least 8co meters (2625 feet) ai< 
of coming to a standstill after landing d 
even ground within a distance of 70 mete< 
(220 feet). The machine must also be capabi 
of rising from rough ground and landiii 
thereon. It must further be possible to Iai< 
by gliding with motor shut off from a heigl 
of 500 meters (T640 feet) making eith( 
right or left-hand curves. Comfortable a< 
commodations must be provided for pilot at< 
observer with protection from the wind. Til 
body must afford sufficient room for the i)( 
stallation of a bomb-throwing device, f« 
the storing of bombs and for photographing 
The instruments, including barometer, bam 
graph, compass, tachometer and stop-watc 
must be arranged so as to be readily ol' 
servable. It must further be possible for tH 
pilot to watch the stand of fuel and oil :i 
flight. There must be easy communicatioi 
between him and the observer. The steerim 
apparatus must work as easily as possibU 
Automatic stability is a great desideratum. 



Among the "millionaire sportsmen" purchasdl 
ftliat seems to be the popular title for any purchasij 
of a flying boat) who are being instructed in til 
operation of the new Curtiss flying boats, are Geor^ 
U. von Utassy of New York, William Thaw, Williai 
E. Scripps of Detroit, Gerald Hanley of ProvidencJ 
Barton L. Peck of Detroit, and Steve MacGordon. ] 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 59 



August, 1913 



HEATH PROPELLER PITCH METER 

Spencer Heath, who makes "Paragon" pro- 
pellers, carries with him wherever he goes, a 
curious instrument which he made several 
years ago for the purpose of measuring the 
pitch of aeroplane propellers. The instrument 
is a direct reading or direct recording pitch 
meter. It shows the pitch of any part of a 
propeller blade upon which it is laid, just 
like reading the time of day from a watch. 
In the manufacture of propellers it is con- 
sidered indispensable for reliable work. 




The main body of the instrument is an 
aluminum plate about twelve inches long and 
nearly half as wide. A card covering the 
greater portion of the plate registers in a 
groove at the bottom and at the side and is 
held by a clasp. This card is marked with 
vertical divisions to correspond with each 
half foot of blade radius, indicating each foot 
of diameter. A protractor arm, or blade, is 
pivoted near the left end of the plate so that 
the blade will swing upward across the card. 
A spirit level carried on the pivoted end of 
the blade shows when it is in a level position. 

To use the instrument, the propeller is 
placed with its axis vertical and the flat or 
concave sides of the blades up. The blades 
are chalked off in half-foot spaces from the 
center out. The bottom edge of the pitch 
meter is laid across the blade at one of the 
chalkings. This gives the instrument the 
same inclination as the angle of the propeller 
blade, but the protractor arm is brought up 
to the level position and a short line or prick 
mark is made where its edge intersects the 
corresponding division on the card. By re- 
peating at various division points along the 
propeller blade a series of marks or intersec- 
tions is obtained, the height of which from 
the base line of the instrument indicates the 
exact pitch of the propeller for each division 
point. Connecting these points by a smooth 
line gives the pitch curve, or "graph," of the 
propeller blade measured. If the blade is a 
true screw of uniform pitch from hub to tip, 
the "graph" will be a straight line parallel 
with the base of the instrument. "Very few 
blades," says Mr. Heath, "are found to pos- 
sess the pitch characteristic, although some of 
them apparently were so intended. In some 
propellers, the Curtiss. for example, there is 
a decided upward trend to the curve, showing 
a rapid increase of pitch out to the tips of the 
blades. In others, the Chauviere, say, the 



pitch is high near the hub and rapidly dimin- 
ishing towards the end and then, in most 
cases, suddenly going up a little at the tip." 

In the construction the graph card is made 
as part of the design and the propeller built 
accordingly, with the pitch at every point ex- 
actly corresponding with the angle formed by 
the protractor arm. 

TO AVOID GAS LINE TROUBLES 

Many are the aero motor stoppages caused 
by a leaking gas line. If the pipe is not 
chafed the trouble usually lies in a break 
through vibration. Copper pipe should be 
annealed by heating red hot and cooling 
rapidly in cold water to make it soft and 
pliable. One or two spiral turns will give the 
pipe a springy action that absorbs vibrations. 
The coil should lie in a horizontal plane to 





^WROn.C 



^IS^^yom 



prevent the cuUectinn of sediment or air 
locks. The bending should be done around 
a pipe held in a vise. The illustration from 
The Car shows the proper method of making 
the coil. If the motor chokes on opening the 
throttle wide but runs smoothly partially 
open, the trouble is due to dirt in the car- 
buretor or lint in the feed line. Disconnect 
at the carburetor; if the gas flows free, look 
in the carburetor. 



MORE POWER-EASY STARTING 

The motor starts easier and runs smoothly 
at slow speed if the mixture is slightly rich. 
The admission of extra air in the manifold 
above the carburetor will speed up the en- 
gine, produce more power and reduce likeli- 
hood of carbon deposits. A hole may be 
drilled in the intake pipe and threaded. Fit 
a coupling in the pipe and a petcock at the 
other end, or screw a petcock directly in the 
manifold, after drilling out to a larger diame- 
ter the hole through the petcock. A spring 
pulling one way on the lever of the petcock 
will keep it closed and preserve the set mix- 
ture. A Bowden wire or cable to a sector at 
the operator's hand will pull the petcock open 
the desired amount. After starting the run, 
the petcock may be opened to obtain the in- 
creased engine speed. Priming may be done 
through the petcock in starting the cold en- 
gine. The same system may be employed for 
cleaning the engine with kerosene. A rubber 
tube with one end slipped over the petcock 
and the other in a can of kerosene, the pet- 
cock then opened, the kerosene will be rapidly 
sucked up through the motor and the carbon 
softened up and blown out. As the motor 
slows down, shut off the cock till it picks up 
again and repeat. 



AERONA UTICS 



"Page 60 



yJugust, 1913 



Sopwith Biplanes 

T. O. ^[. Sopwith, whose flights in America 
will be easily rememj^ered, is now one of the 
foremost constructors in England. A number 
of models are being putout of the tractor type 
in addition to the "bat boat," and propeller 
machine. 

Both the land and water machines are of 
the tractor type, with planes staggered. In 
the 80 H. P. Gnome land machine accommo- 
dation is made for two passengers to be 
seated side by^ side in addition to the pilot, 
all three having an excellent view. Only the 
head of a person of average size protrudes 
from the covered-in fuselage, ample protec- 
tion being afforded in consequence. The wing 
section seems to be the outcome of practical 
experience on a number of machines fitted 
with planes of various cambers. In normal 
flight this plane-section flies the machine at an 
angle of incidence of between i^ degrees and 
2 degrees. 

Balanced ailerons take the place of the 
warping wings. Wing sections, can, it is 
claimed, in consequence of the use of ailerons. 
l)e built considerably stronger — not only this, 
but another addition is employed to increase the 
strength of the wings, in the shape of a num- 
l)er of rectangular distance-pieces between the 
front and rear spars at each point where the 
interplane struts are attached. These relieve 
the various ribs of compression strains. The 
four tips of the main planes, and the outer ex- 
tremities of each meml)er of the tailplanes. 
consist of steel tubing. Attachment of the 
fabric is effected by sewing, the "bag" thus 
formed being slipped on afterwards. 
.With regard to the hydro-aeroplanes, three 
different types are under construction, apart 
from the "bat-boat," which has temporarily 
been put aside in order to permit the construc- 
tion of less original types. 

Two main floats fitted with spring suspen- 
sion are fitted in addition to a single tail- 
float. A roo H. P. Anzani drives a propeller 
of approximately 9 feet diameter, covered 
with thin copper to prevent splintering on the 
waves. The span of the top plane is approxi- 
mately 56 feet ; the floats are widely spaced, 
]o feet 3 inches apart. There is, in conse- 
quence, no necessity for wing-tip floats. The 
main ones are mounted on inverted V-struts. 
As in all the other models, balanced ailerons 
are fitted, these being of considerable dimen- 
sions. Current for wireless is provided by a 
dynamo driven by chain from the starting- 
shaft at a rotational speed of 3,400 R. P. M.. 
there being a metal-to-metal cone-clutch to 
disengage the magneto when necessary. Pres- 
sure is maintained in the petrol tanks by 
means of the usual air-fan and pump. The. 
plane section is the same as that employed in 
the land-tractor, though the machine flies with 
its main planes at an angle of incidence of 
about 4 degrees. 

Each float is covered with thin Holland 
blind union, which is glued on and varnished. 




and through which the wood can clearly be 
seen. Three inspection covers are fitted, the 
interior edges of the interstices for which are 
padded in order to render them watertight. 
The hull is built up in two % inch thick- 
nesses of cedar, the first skin being diagon- 
ally built up with 4 inch strips, while the 
outer is composed of similar strips running 
longitudinally. In addition to the outer layer of 
fabric, another one is placed between the two 
layers of wood. The interior is coated with 
black varnish — a suitable combination of gas- 
tar and naphtha. 

The floats on the particular model in ques- 
tion are fitted with laminated steel springs^ 
Four of these springs are attached to each 
float, the extremities of the front one being 
rigidly fastened to clips screwed onto a i 
inch by i^ inch vertical strut within the hull. 
The rear spring, on the other hand, is free to 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 6 \ 



August, 1913 




move. The apex of the front spring is con- 
nected to that of the rear by means of a 
radius rod. There are, of course, two of 
these — one on each side of the float. The 
only result of the flattening out of the front 
spring is to slide the rear one backwards, the 
enormous compressive stresses which would 
otherwise arise on that portion of the float 
between them being, in consequence, avoided. 

The bottoms of the floats are convex, with 
a camber of i^ inch. The bottom consists in 
part of a number of "ribbons," or minor 
longitudinals. Those running along the bot- 
tom of the rear half of the float are con- 
tinued past the step until they die ofif where 
they meet, and where they are attached to, the 
ribbons from the bow. These are themselves 
continued to the upright portion of the step, 
on which they abut, the consequence being 
that triangular girder is formed. 



NEW BURGESS FLYING BOAT 

(Continued from page 48.) 

Gasoline and oil are supplied from tanks 
above the motor, they, in turn, being tilled 
from the larger tanks placed in the hull. 

The hull of the new boat presents some re- 
finements over the last type, though in gen- 
eral its design is much like the other. A 
higher free-board, however, adds to the com- 
fort of the occupants when negotiating rough 
water. The hull proper is 2 feet 5 inches wide 
frorn the front to slightly aft of the engine 
section, whence it tapers to the conventional 
knife-edge supporting the vertical rudder. Its 
overall length is 28 feet. The hull is built of 
mahogany planking over oak frames, with 
a _ number of watertight compartments dis- 
tributed along its length, and is constructed 
in two sections to facilitate shipment. 

General specifications are as follows : Spread 
of upper wing, 41 feet 4^ inches; spread of 
lower wing, t^z feet aVz inches; depth of 
wing, 5 feet 6 inches each ; gap, 6 feet 8j4 
inches ; area supporting surface, ZIZ square 
feet ; length over all, 30 feet, 6 inches ; length 
of hull, 28 feet; height, 10 feet 2 inches; 
power plant. Anzani motor ; total weight of 
power plant, 968 pounds ; total weight, net of 
machine, 2.000 pounds. Propeller, Burgess 
type, 4 blade ; diameter, 8 feet each ; pitch 7 
feet 9 inches. 

The work on the 1913 specification Army 
aeroplane has been delayed on account of 
the non-receipt of the 100 H. P. Renault 
motor which furnishes the power. The parts 
are all manufactured and the assembly will 
progress very speedily after receipt of the 
motor and the armor plate. 

The new steel construction and reinforced 
ribs have awakened a great deal of interest 
on the part of those acquainted with aero- 
plane construction. There is no doubt but 
that this machine represents a stronger type 
of construction than anything heretofore built 
in this country. 

The three standard Burgess tractors or- 
dered by the Signal Corps are well nigh 
completed and are also awaiting delivery of 
motors. The company is employing more 
men than ever before. 



I will never fly again. Fear has driven me 
out of the skies for all time. Not fear of my 
own death or the dread of bodily injury for 
myself has made me give up an art which I 
dearly love, but the blame and remorse for 
the death of brother aviators who went crash- 
ing into eternity trying to "out-Beachey 
Beachey." I have quit as pacemaker for 
Death. * * * i am tormented with a de- 
sire to "Loop the Loop" in the air. I know 
that I can do it, but I know that no one else 
can do it. * * * They say I have shown 
wisdom rare in a gambler, for I quit the game 
when I was a winner. — Lincoln Beachey. 

And they say gamblers dont "squeal!" If 
a winner, why do immeasurable harm by writ- 
ing rot like this for a few paltry "yellow jour- 
nal" dollars? 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 62 



Jugust, 1913 



THE LANGLEY AERODYNAMICAL 
LABORATORY 

A concrete plan of organization and con- 
duct of the Langley Aerodynamical Labora- 
tory, inaugurated at a meeting of the Regents 
of ' Smithsonian Institution on May i, has 
been formulated by the secretary. 

An advisory committee, composed of the 
director of the laboratory, one member desig- 
nated by the Secretary of War, one by the 
Secretary of the Navy, one by the Secretary 
of Agriculture and one by the Secretary of 
Commerce, and others designated by Secre- 
tary Walcott of Smithsonian, a total of not 
more than fourteen, will advise as to the or- 
ganization and work of the laboratory. 

The organization, under proper regulations 
and fees, may exercise its functions for the 
departments of the Government and for any 
individual, firm or association, provided such 
department, firm, etc., defray the cost of all 
material and services employed in the exer- 
cise thereof. 

The advisory committee comprises a chair- 
man, recorder and twelve additional members, 
all of whom serve for one year, elected annu- 
ally about May 6, the new members to be 
appointed prior to date of election. 

The advisory committee is provided by 
Smithsonian with suitable office headquarters, 
administrative and accounting systems, library, 
etc., and the laboratory has an income pro- 
vided for it of $10,000 the first year and $5,000 
annually for five years. The franking privi- 
lege of the Postal Service is also provided. 

For the exact determination of aerophysical 
constants, the calibration of instruments, test- 
ing of aero engines, propellers, materials, 
etc., the committee has the co-operation of 
the U. S. Bureau of Standards, which has 
complete equipment for studying the mech- 
anics of materials and structural forms; for 
standardizing instruments; for testing power 
and efficiency of motors. The Weather 
Bureau co-operates on eveny phase of aero- 
nautic meteorology and is completely equipped 
for this work. The War and Navy Depart- 
ments have official representatives abroad to 
report periodically on every important phase 
of the art; each has an assignment of officers 
who design, test and operate air craft and 
who determine largely the scope and char- 
acter of their development ; each has ma- 
chines in actual service with fields and shops. 

Smithsonian Institution possesses the unique 
character of a private organization with Gov- 
ernmental functions and prerogatives. It can 
receive appropriations directly from Con- 
gress, or be recipient or custodian of private 
funds, or be the recipient of material objects 
representing any province of nature or any 
branch of human knowledge or art. 

Endowment or other funds bearing the 
name of the giver will be accepted. Until 
adequate appropriations have been made by 
the Government the activities of the organi- 
zation and committee will have to be sus- 
tained largely by private resources. 



SUBSIDISED FLYING 

The German national aviation fund com- 
mittee has decided to expend a large portion 
of the fund in reliability prizes. Every Ger- 
man flier on a German machine, with a 
German or foreign engine, who remains an 
hour in the air — -not in a competition — receives 
$250, and for each further consecutive hour 
another $250; if with a passenger he receives 
an additional $125. This holds good from 
March ist till December 12th, 1914. 

The flier must be insured, must stay at an 
altitude of 1,500 feet for at least fifteen min- 
utes, the receipt of a prize binding the aviator 
to place himself at the disposal of the 
military authorities in case of war, and to 
participate in a three weeks' practice. 

Whoever flies more than six hours at a 
stretch is entitled to a monthly sum of $500 
in addition to the former sum. This income 
the pilot holds until his record is beaten, 
but his receipts may not exceed in any case 
the sum of $2,500. 

For the longest distance across country 
within 24 hours, minimum not be less than 
312 miles, the prizes consist of a monthly 
payment of $750, not exceeding $2,250 al- 
together — until such time as ♦^he winner is 
beaten in similar manner. A considerable 
proportion of the fund is to be expended in 
insurance against accident — a well-known in- 
surance company having agreed to undertake 
it at a very low premium. 



A SOMERSAULT IN THE AIR 

A most unusual occurrence reminiscent of 
Capt. Reynolds' somersault recently befel 
Capt. Aubry when flying a Deperdussin for 
the purpose of efifecting reconnaissance over 
the region of Villerupt. "I was returning 
after a 35 minute flight," he says, "facing a 
wind of about 22 M. P. H. My altitude was 
about 2,500 feet. At the moment of descent 
a series of violent gusts struck the machine, 
and on throttling-down and switching off, I 
was obliged to dive in order to make the 
controls effective. 

"As I dipped the nose of the machine," he 
continues, "a couple of quickly successive 
gusts struck the top of the main planes and 
placed me in a z'crtical position. While en- 
deavoring to manipulate the elevator I found 
the machine had taken me in a perfectly 
vertical chute to less than 1,500 feet. It here 
adopted a horizontal attitude upside-down and 
proceeded to effect a tail-first vol-plane." 

The pilot, fortunately, was able to retain 
his seat. "The machine then gradually took 
up the vertical position again, describing a 
gigantic form of S while doing so. Flatten- 
ing out. I flew to a spot about two miles 
distant." 

It appears that the captain then desired to 
make another short flight in order to keep 
away any "bad impression" that might come 
to him subsequently, but his mechanic, who 
had witnessed the whole affair, persuaded him 
that the top cabane might have been weakened 
by the strain. 

Three prominent French officers certify the 
truth of this statement. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 63 



Jugust, 1913 



TESTS OF SPRUCE BEAMS 

Alec Ogilvie has recently carried out some 
tests with various types of white spruce which 
would be used for the upper rear beam of a 
biplane. In the test the load was applied as in 
a Wright machine, assuming the upper plane 
carries 55 per cent, of the load, or, say, 715 
pounds of the 13CO pounds (exclusive of 
weight of wings), and of this 58 per cent, 
being carried by the rear beam in normal 
flight at 42 M. P. H., which, in a machine 
spreading 40 feet would mean a distributed 
load of 10.3 pounds per running foot. At a 
speed of 60 j\I. P. H. the rear beam is assumed 
to carry 83.5 per cent, of the load, or 14.8 
pounds the running foot. 



pensive to make, it gave very satisfactory 
results under test. 

Spar No. 5 is easily made with a spindle 
machine, but when tested shows up as being 
rather weak laterally. 

Spar No. 6 is a mild steel tube measuring 
1.25 inches in outside diameter. Its section is 
19 gauge ; it is solid drawn and unannealed. 

The breakages were particularly interesting, 
and the accompanying photographs show up 
the weakness of the spars very clearly. 




The method of testing is shown in the ac- 
companying diagram, the wire connections be- 
ing similar to those in use in Wright machines, 
and it will be seen the bracing system of this 
machine is identical with the guying of the 
beams in the tests. Loading was done by 
putting bricks in boxes hung from the beam 
where the ribs would cross the spar and the 
additional boxes shown represent the calcu- 
lated strut thrusts. 




Spar No. 3 was difficult to construct because 
the glue on such a long length gets cold before 
the nails can be driven in. 

Spar No. 4 is of the Maurice Farman type. 
Its halves are joined up with a fillet of hard 
wood. It will be observed that, although ex- 



i?}e 



Spar No. i broke downwards as a beam in 
the inner bay.* It was obviously at the point 
of fracture also at the hook joint. There was 
twice as much deflection in the inner as in the 
outer bay. 

Spar No. 2 liroke in the inner bay as a 
beam. It also broke at the screw holes of the 
hook fitting. This was probably because the 
screw holes cut into too large a proportion of 
the fibres of the spar. 




Spar No. 3 showed weakness in the glued 
joint. It was also weak against torsion, and 
twisted at the inner hook fixing through an 
angle of approximately 30 degrees just before 
fracture. The fine nails used weakened the 
side members, as is shown by the failure in 
compression at each nail. 

Spar No. 4 is undoubtedly the best spar of 
the series. It failed as a beam in the inner 
bay. 

* "Bay"' is the portion of the beam between the 
supports. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 64 



yJugust, 1913 



Spar No. 5 is too weak sideways, and the 
failure occurred in the inner bay by the lateral 
collapse of the spar as a strut. This was not 
altogether unexpected, as the low lateral 
moment of inertia for this spar is very notice- 
able. It was also apparent from the fracture 
that a larger radius in the channels would 
have been an improvement. 

Spar No. 6 failed as a beam in the inner 
bay. The objection to this spar is that it is 
rather heavy. 

Table 1. — Strength 



2; ^ W w « W « 






1 .485 1.94 .285 .558 .554 1.08 2.19 62.3 128 

' .495 2.02 .558 .285 1.13 .575 2.19 104.0 210 

3 .354 1.79 .577 .577 1.03 1.03 1.50 60.2 170 

4 .405 1.21 .697 .672 .84 .81 1.94 90.3 223 

5 .400 1.65 .697 .356 1.15 .59 1.94 83.9 210 

6 .517 25.1 .0307 .0307 .77 .77 .157 69.9 135 
The units for columns EI^ and EI are "millions 

of pound square inches." 

Table II. — Deflections 
Inner Bay. | Outer Bay 
Maximum deflection in inches in each span at 
No. loadings in lbs. per ft. of 
15.6 26.1 36.6 47.2 



15.6 26.1 36.6 47.2 



1 


.30 (.70) 1 


.22 2.18 i 


.37 .66 .85 


.94 


2 


.10 .21 


.34 .50 


.16 .29 .41 


.52 


3 


.16 .38 


.61 


.35 (.53) .70 




4 


.18 .32 


.50 .72 


.30 .48 (.65) 


.80 


S 


.13 .24 


.35 .49 


(.18) .30 .44 


.57 


6 


.10 .24 


.51 .90 


(.30) .50 .67 


.85 




The bracket 


ed deflections 


; were interpolated. 





GERMAN DIRIGIBLES 

The best known German dirigibles are the 
Zeppelin, Schtitte-Lanz, Parseval, .Sieni,ens- 
Schuckert and Gross. These five types dif- 
fer markedly from each other in construc- 
tion. The two first have rigid balloon bodies. 
Zeppelin uses aluminum and Schtitte-Lanz, 
wood for the material of the frame. Both 
types of construction have so far proved 
good. The Zeppelin has often remained very 
long aloft in test flights; thus, a short time 
ago it accomplished a 36-hour voyage with- 
out any accident or stop whatsoever. These 
ships are built so that they can land on water 
and they are, therefore, purchased by the 
naval administration. The motors are very 
reliable and are manufactured by a sister com- 
pany of the Zeppelin shipbuilding concern 
(Maybach motors). Herr Maybach was form- 
erly an engineer with the Daimler (Mer- 
ced'es) Motor Co. The Daimler Motor Co., 
besides Maybach, makes i.irship motors. They 
are of 100 H. P. and 200 H. P. The products 
are of about equal value, but it may be that 
Maybach has had the greater experience with 
airship motors. The other German airship 
motors cannot be counted as first class. 

The rigid ships manoeuver very well in the 
air, but good hangars are necessary. Turn- 
able hangars are the best. There is one in 
Germany. The long trips made by the rigid 



type are made possible principally by the 
minimum gas loss which characterizes this 
system. In the rigid ships the gas is not con- 
tained at large in the balloon body but in bal- 
loonettes, which are confined within the main 
balloon body. The balloonettes are very im- 
pervious to gas. Recently they have been 
made out of gold beater's skin. The bal- 
loonettes are furthermore surrounded by the 
air inside the balloon body and by the bal- 
loon covering itself, which hinder the inva- 
sion of the sun's rays. It is a great advantage 
of the rigid type that the outer shape of the 
body cannot be altered by temperature 
changes. The chief difference between the 
Schiitte-Lanz and the Zeppelin airship lies in 
the material of which they are built and in the 
outer shape. Neither factory takes orders for 
export. 

The Parseval dirigibles are the most widely 
used in Germany. They have the great ad- 
vantage over the rigid types, that they can be 
emptied anywhere and packed for transpor- 
tation. The Parseval patents have been pur- 
chased by the Luftfahrzueg-Gesellschaft m. 
b. h. in Bitterfeld, and orders for export are 
taken by the companv. 

The Siemens-Schuckert airship is of very 
large dimensions and possesses a high load- 
carrying power. It differs from the Parseval 
ship only in the details of construction. A 
half-rigid dirigible exclusively for military use 
is manufactured by Maj. Gross, but it has been 
supplanted by the types mentioned above. 

The speed of a Zeppelin airship, equipped 
with a 500 H. P. engine reaches some 70 
kilometers (43.5 miles) an hour. A Zeppe- 
lin can carry more than 30 persons. 



A subscriber wants to know why aero clubs 
do not investigate fatal accidents and endeavor 
to determine the causes for the general benefit 
of the art. "Search us!" AERONAUTICS 
has urged this but nothing has ever come 
about. 



I wish to say a word in regard to your 
magazine while I am writing. Ever since the 
early part of 1910 I have been reading your 
magazine and I don't know what I would 
have done in several cases without it. It has 
proved a boon to me ever since the start. 
I also wish to congratulate you upon the 
technical work that you publish. Out here 
much work is done by such articles and great 
improvement has been issued therefrom. — 
L. S. W., Calif. 

AEROPLANE GUNS IN U. S. ARMY 

.:Vccording to the Ordnance Department of the U. 
S. Army, the development of special batteries of guns 
for firing at aeroplanes is considered impracticable. 
In the development of field artillery, however, the 
carriages are now being built to provide for high 
elevations which will permit of their being used 
against aeroplanes if necessary. The new field gun 
carriages will also permit of a greater traverse of 
the gun on the carriage than formerly, which will 
permit of following a fast moving target for a con- 
siderable distance without moving the carriage it- 
self. These changes, however, are not directly 
caused by the use of aeroplanes but are the natural 
improvements in field gun carriage design. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 65 



j^ugust, 1913 




Obst Tractor No. 36 

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor 



The model shown in the accompanying 
drawing was designed by Mr. C. V. Obst of 
the Long Island Model x'Vero Club. 

It is a scientifically designed tractor model 
and has shown its great stability by flying in 
heavy winds, as the writer can personally 
testify to. Hand launched it has repeatedly 
made flights of over 600 feet and when used 
as a R.O.G. model has made a duration of 
over 40 seconds. 

The centre of gravity and centre of pres- 
sure coincide while the thrust is 1% inches 
above the centre of pressure. The weight of 
the model complete and ready for flight is 
4 ounces. 

The fuselage is built up in a triangular 
form and is 31 inches in length, 2 inches 
wide and 2j4 inches high at the front, taper- 
ing to a point at the rear, the two lower spars 
being bent up at the front to join the upper 
spar, as shown. The fuselage is held rigid 



by a series of l>amboo braces, each 5 inches 
apart. Upper spar is poplar '4 inch square, 
tapering to ys inch square at the rear where 
it is rounded and held loosely in a loop of 
wire. By this method the whole torque of 
the motor is taken up by the last 6 inches of 
this spar and the whole frame is not twisted. 
The lower spars are maple dowel sticks 3/16 
inch diameter, planed on two sides and 
tapering towards the rear. All joints are 
bound and glued with Ambroid, then the 
entire frame is shellaced. The main plane 
is 271/^ inches in spread, with a chord of 4 
inches. The centre point of the same is 2 
inches in advance of the tips and the plane 
has a dihedral angle of 145 degrees. The 
plane is made entirely of bamboo and the 
front spar of the same is bent around to 
form the ends. Seven ribs are used, placed 
4^4 inches apart and having a camber of 
■''s inch. The plane is covered on the under- 



€>^y^ ^Acicfcyv- clVcr.36' 



fudcL^^ 



• 74.i- 




G^^Z^^d. ^^-^^^^e '^'^"^r^b^r^ 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 66 



Jlugust, 1913 



side with silk fibre paper treated with Am- 
broid varnish. The rear plane is rectangular 
in form, 13 inches by 4 inches, and is made 
of bamboo, and covered and treated in the 
same manner as the main plane. 

The rudder is made of a single piece of 
split bamboo bent to the shape shown, with 
a fiat piece projecting forward for binding 
the same to the frame with rubber. It mea- 
sures 2j4 inches by 2^ inches and is double 
surfaced with silk fibre paper and treated 
with Ambroid. 

The screw is 9^ inches in diameter and 
12 inches pitch and a blade width of lYz 
inches. It is driven by 14 strands of Y?, inch 
flat rubber 27 inches long placed above the 
frame and gives a thrust of 2 ounces, at 
1,000 R. P. M. The propeller bearing is of 
tubing and the shaft is a heavy threaded rod 
with washers and nuts. 

The landing gear consists of two 12 inch 
bamboo skids bent up in front to protect the 
propeller. The skids measure J4 inch by 
1/16 inch in cross section and taper to ^8 inch 
by 1/16 inch at the rear. The skids are 
attached to the fuselage by four uprights as 
shown. A pair of i^ inch tin wheels covered 
with fibre and revolving on a steel axle are 
slung from the skids by rubber bands. 

The model is a fast and steady flyer and 
has won many contests when the wind was 
of such velocity as to prevent other tractor 
models from remaining in the air. 



THE BAUER PARACHUTE DROPPER 
FOR MODEL AEROPLANES 

The device shown in the accompanying 
drawing is the idea of George Bauer, of 
New York, and is a very ingenious device 
for the dropping of small parachutes from 
model aeroplanes while model is in free 
flight. The device has been tried out many 
times at Van Cortlandt Park and works ex- 
cellently. 

The device is applicable to model aeroplanes 
with the usual "A'" frame, but with minor 
modifications it may be readih- applied to any 
type model. It is usually placed a few inches 
in front of the centre of gravity but it may 
be placed wherever desired, according to the 
machine in which it is placed. 

In the drawing, ff represent the two main 
bars of the frame. The receptacle for the 
parachute is constructed of a sheet of alumi- 
num, 34 gauge, bent to a stream-line form as 
shown; about a half inch of the same on 
each side is bent and secured together, as 
shown, to form the rear of the receptacle. 
At the rear of the receptacle 2, a small brass 
lug 3 is attached, this lug having a perfora- 
tion 4 therein. Through this perforation 4 
extends a small bolt or paper fastener, this 
bolt or paper fastener holding on the bottom 
5 of the receptacle very loosely so that it 
can swing very easily from side to side. On 
one side of the bottom 5 an upright lug 6 
is formed as shown. Another lug 7 is formed 
on the front of the liottom plate as shown, 



this lug being provided with a small perfora- 
tion. The receptacle is secured to the frame 
of the model by being attached to the two 
bamboo braces ],i as shown. 

Attached to the frame in the position shown 
is a small wire hook 15, and running from 
this hook to a hook 13 is a small rubber 
band 14, this rubber band being stretched 
when placed upon the hooks, the object being 
to hold the door of the parachute receptacle 
open (see Fig. 3). 

On the opposite framework, a small piece 
of tubing II is secured. In this tube a wire 
shaft turns freely; upon the outer end of 
this shaft a tiny copper washer is soldered, 
and on the other end of the shaft a hook 10 
is formed. Attached to the frame is another 
hook loa as shown. Running from the hook 
10 to the hook 8 is a small rubber band, this 
band being hung very loosely between the 
hooks. 

The operation of the device is as follows : 

The hook 8 is attached to the ordinary 
winder for winding up the motors of the 
model aeroplane, and the hook loa is inserted 
in the hook 10, to prevent the shaft from 
turning in the tube 11 while the rubber is 
l)eing wound, and then the rubber is wound 
up (the number of winds being governed by 
the time when it is desired that the parachute 
drop). When the rubber is wound it is 
hooked back in its proper position, and it 
then will draw the door 5 of the parachute 
receptacle closed, the lug 6 preventing the 
door from being pulled over too far. The 
parachute is then placed in the receptacle. 

The model is then wound up and the hook 
loa is released from its interlocking position 
with the hook 10, thereby allowing the hook 
10 and its shaft to revolve in the tube 11 
under the power of the rubber band 9. The 
model is then launched for flight. When the 
winds in the rubber 9 have wound out (this 
taking about 20 seconds, although the time 
may be regulated as desired as hereinbefore 
stated) the rubber will hang loosely, allowing 
the rubber band 14 to draw the door 5 open 
(Fig. 3), and the parachute will fall out, 
open in two or three feet and gently descend 
to earth, this having no efl^ect on the flying 
of the model. If the device is made properly 
it should not weigh more than lYz ounces. 



^^^ 



^^-Z 



l^c^.d 




-TARACHUTE DROPPEK TO'K 
nODEL AEROPLANES. ~ 






AERONA UTICS 



Page 67 



Jlugust, 1913 




AKRON, OHIO 



The Well Known Name, That, On Aeroplane Accessories Means 

Certified Service 



stay-Tight Fabric Extra Service Tires and Wheels 



Si) impreofnated with the 
Goodyear Compound that 
weather has little or no effect 
upon it. Moisture-proof and 
non-rot ! VV^on't shrink nor 
stretch. Ideal not only for 
aeroplanes but for hydroaero- 
planes because of waterproof 
quaiitief. Used by leading 
manufacturers. 



Goodyear Aeroplane Tires are the las: 
word in Seyr'ice. They are made inrgr be- 
cause large tires are stronger and more resil- 
ient—two qualities vital to the success of 
aeroplane tires. Built by tire e.xperts to do 
for aviators v^-hat famous Goodyear No-Rim- 
Cuts do for automobile owners — viinitnizi- 
tw/ic-itsi' and iiiultif'ly service. Single Tube, and 
Double Tube Tires of .^o-Rim-Cut and 
Clincher Types. Also strong wheels. 



Balloons 

Besides (ioodyear Aeroplane 
Fabric, Tires, Springs, etc , we 
build balloons complete and guar- 
antee them ;is to material and work- 
manship. All spherical balloons pur- 
chased by U.S. Government during 
past two vears have been Good- 
\ears. Uig future for ballooning. 
Let us explain their value as ad- 
vertising and amusement features. 



^r\te for Booklet 

On Aeroplane Accessories 



Tells how you can probably save 
money — how you can surely get 
the mcst Reliable Accessories. 



The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio 



Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities 




Antony Jannus with Two Passengers Flying the New Benoist Flying Boat, Equipped with Six Cylinder 



Aeronautical Motor 



(REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.) 



This machine is now owned by Mr. W. D. Jones of Duluth 
The most prominent aeroplane manufacturers in the country recognize the superiority of the Sturtevant motor 
SEND FOR BULLETIN No. 2002 

B. F. Sturtevant Company, Hyde park, boston, mass. 



/;; aiiswcriiifi adi-crtisciiwiits /^/('a.yt' iiicntioii this iiiaya.':iiic. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 68 



August, 1913 




"Pubttjhed Monthly by Aeronautics Prtjj 

122 E. 25th ST., NEW YORK 

Cable: aeronautic. New York 

•PHONE, 9122 Madison Sq. 

ERNEST L. JONES. Pres't — - THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treat'r-Sec'y 

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor — M. B. SELLERS, Technical Edilor 

HARRY SCHULTZ, IVIodel Editor 

' " SUBSCRIPTION RATES 

United STATES, $3 00 Foreign, $3 50 



No. 72 



AUGUST, 1913 



Vol. XIII, No. 2 



Entered as second-class matter Segtember 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, under tlie Act of March 3, 1879. 

^ AERONAUTICS is issued on ttie aotli of each Month. All copy must be received by the 20th. 
Advertising pages close on the 25th. 

^ Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send 
currency. No foreign stamps accepted. 



cylero cTVIart 



RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line. 
Payment in advance. 



MOTORS FOR SALE 

ENGINE FOR SALE— 8-cyl. "V," list price, 
$1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this 
motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't 
picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker 
who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete 
with propeller, $800, Address, "Eight Cylinder," 
care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New 
York. 



AEROPLANES 

SACRIFICE — A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one 
of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall- 
Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in Al condition, for $1,800 
cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. 
Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped 
for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser 
at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the 
season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's 
door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 
122 E. 25th St., New York. 



BARGAIN-— 30 foot Curtiss type biplane, with 
5 foot extensions, chord 5ft., single surfaced, lami- 
nated ribs, dble. surf, elevator, 4-cyl. 50-60 H. P,, 
new. Engine turns 6 by 5 propeller at 1,500. Also 
extra 7 ft. propeller. Engine alone cost $1,600. Can 
be seen any time. Must be seen to be appreciated. 
$850 whole outfit. Address W. B. R., care of AERO- 
NAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New York, 



IMMEDIATE SALE NECESSARY! One Model 
"D" genuine Curtiss aeroplane with hydro attach- 
ment, equipped with brand new Model "O" Curtiss 
80 H. P. motor. Full equipment of exhibition extras. 
Everything in good mechanical condition; $3,200 cash 
will buy it. Act quick. K, care of .-VERONAUTICS. 



FOR SALE — Curtiss Military Aeroplane. Planes 
not covered and without engine. Price, $90. A. B. C, 
95 West St., Maiden, Mass. 



MONOPLANE GLIDER. Exhibition Flyer. Money- 
maker. Practically New. Has Rudder Controls and 
Skids. Immediate Sale Necessary. Bargain! Avia- 
tion Directorv, Lawrence, Kansas. 



MODEL CONTESTS 



Brooklyn, N. Y., July 13, 1913 — A tractor contest 
was held by the Bay Ridge Model Aero Club on the 
above date. Flights from the hand of over 600 feet 
were made by W. F. Bamberger, with a duration of 
43 seconds. A flight of 25 seconds was made by 
L. Bamberger. The models were all single propellered. 
The members of this club are greatly interested in 
Tractor models and are desirous of competing with 
other clubs in contests of this kind. 

A contest for biplane models, rising from the 

ground, for duration will be held by the Long Island 

IModel Aero Club on Sept. 1, 1913, at their grounds. 

Old Mill Park, Crescent Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y., for 

•a silver medal. 

At a competition for duration from the hand, 
held at the Ingleside Golf Grounds in California on 
May 30th, the world's record was broken by W. L. 
Butler of Vista Grande, Cal., who made a flight of 
170 seconds. It is interesting to note that Mr. 
Butler, who is one of California's best model flyers, 
made five other flights, all over 100 seconds. The 
official world's records now stand as follows: 

Duration from hand, W. L. Butler, 170 sees. 

Distance from hand, Arthur Nealy, 2,740 ft. 

Distance from ground, L. Bamberger, 1,542 ft. 

Duration from ground, W. F. Bamberger, 81 sees. 

Hydroaeroplane duration, Geo. A. Cavannah, 60.4 
sees. 

Tractor hydro, duration, Harry Herzog, 28.4 sees. 

At the semi-annual election of the Long Island 
Model Aero Club held in .Tuly, the following members 
were elected officers: Charles V. Obst, President; 
Dan Criscioli, Secretary, George H. Gorgas, Treasurer, 
and Harry Schultz, Corresponding Editor and Club 
Photographer. The club is growing fast. Meetings 
are held every Friday evening at 8 p. m. at 123 



Euclid .Vve., Cypress Hills, L, I. Every Sunday 
morning at 9 a. m., much interesting flying and 
testing of new models can be seen at the club grounds 
at Old Mill Park, Brooklyn. Monthly contests are 
held with silver and bronze medals as prizes. Non- 
members are permitted to compete in these contests 
on payment of a small fee. 

During the past two months a great deal of fine 
flying has been done, and many new and interesting 
machines have been brought out. Freeland and 
Ness have been making duration flights with feather- 
weight machines, while Hackradt with a heavy, original 
type speed monoplane has shown his model capable 
of fine altitude and distance. Obst has been making 
excellent high flights with his novel tractor model. 
He has lately brought out a small staggered biplane 
model which has made excellent flights. Fine R.O.G. 
flights under favorable weather conditions have been 
made by King. Ness has been experimenting with a 
flying boat model, which has given promising results. 
H. Criscioli has under construction a six foot 
monoplane model of which excellent results can be 
expected. Scientific models are becoming very popu- 
lar among the members of the club, and models of 
this kind have been constructed by Corgas, Obst, 
Cavanagh and Funk. Some of the members are ex- 
perimenting with other methods of propulsion besides 
rubber. A power turbine is being tested by one 
flyer and a machine is all ready for its installation. 
Two other members have designed a simple steam 
driven model with many original ideas. The same 
is now in the course of construction and will soon 
be completed. 

Address all inquiries regarding model flying to the 
model editor, Harry Schultz, 252 West 115th St., 
New York City, N. Y. 



ERONA UTICS 



"Page 69 



August, 1913 



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AERONA UTICS 



Page 70 



August, 1913 



ftt&tf'p^ 



NEW ARMY AEROPLANES 

About September 15tb the official tests will be 
made of the new high-powered military machines in 
which the engines are now being installed. These 
machines are: a 100 H. P. Renault motored aero- 
I)lane from Burgess Co. & Curtis, a 90 H. P. 
Austro-Daimler motored Wright and a 160 Gnome 
engined machine from Curtiss. 

Ill addition to these machines there are due to 
be delivered this autumn three Burgess tractors 
with 70 Renaults and one Curtiss tractor. These 
machines will all probably be delivered by the first 
of November, making a ttotal number of machines 
in the possession of the Signal Corps at that time, 
twenty-four. 

A field has been leased for three months at Os- 
borne, O.. near Dayton, for the purpose of conducting 
tests on the three new aeroplanes ordered to conform 
to the most recent requirements for military type 
aeroplanes formulated by the office of the Chief 
Signal Officer. A svnopsis of these rigid requirements 
were printed in AERONAUTICS for February. 

IN THE NAVY 

The Navy will purchase as many machines as it 
can use to advantage, or, in emergency, as many 
as may be required, but it is the intention of 
Captain Chambers to keep along with development 
and expects better results with each machine. Just 
now, no new ones will he ordered until the matter of 
a standard control is settled and this is being done 
as rapidly as possible. 



THE GYRO MOTOR IN ENGLAND 

The Gyro motor is coming in for a good deal of 
attention through the sensational flying of the aviator 
demonstrating it and the machine is being advertised 
as one of the attractions at the Hendon weekly 
meetings which are always novel and crowd-drawing 
and have proven wonderfully producting of live 
interest. The few attempts made in America by 
clubs to hold anything like regular "days" invariably 
prove fizzles from the attendance point of view. 
The recent review on Long Island by Navy officials 
resulted in magnificient flying by the Moisant and 
other flyers but outside of the Navy men themselves 
the public was not among those present. 

Claude Grahame-hyphen-White might be able to 
duplicate Hendon over here, but no one else seems 
to have the knack. 



ALTITUDE RECORD ALMOST BROKEN 

The American altitude record, 11,642 feet, as made 
by Lincoln Beachey at Chicago in 1911, was almost 
broken- at Bath, N. Y., July 26, when Frank Burnside 
reached a height of 11.450 feet. Burnside is connected 
.tith the Thomas Brothers aviation school and in the 
flight operated one of their new type headless biplanes. 
He ascended at 4:29 o'clock and completed the flight 
at 6:15 o'clock, being in the air one hour and 46 
minutes. 

The day was very clear, the sky almost cloudless, 
and yet he would disappear from sight at times, 
while directly overhead. It was a beautiful flight. 
The machine and motor behaved perfectly. A new 
Curtiss O-X motor was used. 

Burnside said that the earth seemed to be saucer 
shaped, and that a great concrete wall surrounded 
this concaved earth; and, of course, he was always 
directly above the centre; and that around the top 
of this dark concrete-like wall, the horizon appeared 
woolly. 

On July 31, Burnside left the school grounds at 
live o'clock and landed on the Curtiss field at 
Hammondsport at 5:10. He visited with a number 
of his friends, attended a dance, and returned the 
following morning. 



For the Perry's \'ictory Centennial Celebration, 
August 16, Walter Johnson will have the flying boat, 
equipped with a 90 H. P. Austro-Daimler, and Frank 
Burnside will pilot the hydroaeroplane. This will be 
equipped with a 90-100 Curtiss. 



SPEED ALONE WILL NOT WIN IN- 
TERNATIONAL PLANE RACE 

The distance this year for the international aero- 
plane race will remain at 200 kiloms. over a mini- 
mum circuit of 5 kiloms. Competitors must pass ( 
a preliminary test consisting of a flight over aj 
straight course of two kiloms., there and back, speed I 
to be taken both ways, which must be no more than i 
70 kiloms. an hour, mean. The winner, therefore, ; 
of the contest will be he of the machine which haS'J 
the greatest range of speed. 



NEW CORPORATIONS 

Heinricli Aeroplane Co., Inc., Baldwin, N. Y.;i 
manufacturers of aeroplanes; capital, $15,000. If 
corporators: Arthur O. Heinricli, Albert S. Heinrich, 
Baldwin, L. I., N. Y. ; Henry C. Karpen, 584 Broad- 
way, Brooklyn. 

Shaw Aeroplane Co., Portland. To build aeroplanes, 
give exhibitions, etc.; capital, $500,000. President, 
R. C. Brown, Somerville, Mass.; treasurer, C. J. 
Poingdester, Belmont, Mass. 

G. S. A. Aviation Company, Inc., Hornell, N. Y. 
To manufacture and exploit aerial machines, etc. 
Capital, $10,000. Incorporators: Clinton Gray, 222 
Main street; George A. Salzman, 28 W. Genesee 
street, and Harry L, Allen, 27 Armory place, all 
of Hornell, N, Y. 

The Flying Association, Inc., New York City. 
To manufacture and exploit aerial craft and to con- 
duct a general publishing business in connection there- 
with. Capital, $30,000. Incorporators: Thomas A. 
Stoddart and Arthur C. Beck, both of 2 Rector street. 
New York City and David Kaess, 11 Broadway, New 
York City. 

The Atwater Safety Flying Machine Company, 
Akron, Ohio. Capital, $25,000. Incorporators: M. 
L. Atwater and Joy Atwater, both of Akron, Ohio. 

Aero Sales Company, Inc., Springfield, Mass. Capi- 
tal, $50,000. Directors and officers: George LTrich, 
president and treasurer, Hartford, Conn.; C. H. 
Sughrue and J. J. Tanzy, both of Springfield, Mass. 

Itala Aeroplane Company, Inc., New York, N. Y. 
Capital, $100,000, Incorporators: Rubino Plastino, 49 
Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y.; Arthur B. La Far 
and George R. Cooper, both of 80 Maiden Lane, New 
York, N. Y. 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Three aeroplanes and parts of domestic make were 
exported during June with a value of $7,826. No 
imports for the month. During 12 months, ending 
June 30, 13 machines and parts were imported, valued 
at $52,696. There remain in the warehouse 3 for- 
eign machines of a value of $11,623. 



August Stenzy, a Baltimorean, who catalogues sev 
eral aeronautical motors of great powers, was re 
strained by three policetiien from leaping over th( 
lieutenant's desk to attack his wife when he receivec 
a sentence of 60 days in jail for beating his mate 
who swore out a warrant for him, according to thf 
Baltimore Sun. Must have thought he was aviatoi 
Beatty! 



JERONA UTICS 



"Page 7 1 



August, 1913 



[FRENCH AEROPLANES 



ENGINEERS 
INVENTORS 
AVIATORS 
CONSTRUCTORS 



TAKE NOTICE! 

For all photos, des- 
criptions, data, news, 
drawings, etc., re- 
garding FRENCH 
AVIATION, address 
below: 



Etudes Aeronautiques 

ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.C.P. 

20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau (.Vosges \ France 



ADAMS-FARWELL 

REVOLVING MOTORS 



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Address, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. 
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The Bowden Patent 
Wire Mechanism 

J. S. BRETZ COMPANY 

SOLE IMPORTERS 250 WEST 54th ST.. NEW YORK 



AERONAUTICAL 
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Built in capacities and types for standard 
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Write for prices on standard makes. Send your 
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EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY 

64th St. & West End Ave., New York City 



Also MaDufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types 



FOR FLYING BOATS USE 

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE 

Use our Waterproof Liquid 
Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, 
or Yellow Soft Quality Glue 
for waterproofing the canvas 
covering of flying boats. It 
not only waterproofs and pre- 
serves the canvas but attaches 
it to the wood, and with a coal 
of paint once a year will last 
as long as the boat. 

For use in combination with 

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veneer in diagonal planking, 

- and for waterproofing rriuslin 

for wing surfaces. 



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201 South Street Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 



WIRE 

We make an extra high grade 

plated finish wire for 

aviators' use. 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS 

John A. Roebling's Sons Co. 

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SLOANE AEROPLANE CO., - 1733 BROADWAY, New York City. 

Agents: Eames Tricyle Co., San Francisco; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 72 



August, 1913 



DEATH OF ROCHE 

Henri de la Roche, who claimed to be a French 
aviator, died in the hospital at Omaha, Neb., on Au- 
gust 15th. from injuries received the previous week 
in getting off the ground with an experimental ma- 
chine. He pulled back on the elevator suddenly, the 
'plane lifted and fell on one wing. Eye witnesses 
state that apparently the man was not accustomed to 
aeroplanes. He claimed to be a brother of Baroness 
de la Roche. 



DEATH OF BRYANT 

Johnny Bryant was killed at Victoria, B. C. on 
August 6, when he landed on the top of a two-story 
building. Bryant was an exhibition flyer of three 
years' experience. It is reported that the accident 
was due to improper repairs. As usual, no oflicial 
investigation is made of these fatalities. 



DEATH OF COLONEL CODY 

Col. S. F. Cody was killed while trying out a new 
aeroplane of his own construction on August 7th at 
Aldershot, England. His passenger, named Evans, 
was also killed. 

The machine used at the time of the accident was 
a new hydroaeroplane, fitted with a 100 H. P. motor 
and was built for the race around England and Scot- 
land, for which a prize of $25,000 is offered. The 
machine appeared to "crumple up," the wings sud- 
denly shooting upwards and the whole structure col- 
lapsing. 

Col. Cody's death is the hardest blow that British 
aviation has felt, perhaps, since the time of the tragic 
loss of Rolls. He was an Anglo-American, born in 
Fort Worth about 1861. A few years ago he be- 
came a British subject. 

He was a cow puncher in his early days and later 
turned his attention to experimenting with man-lift- 
ing_ kites. Going to England he continued his ex- 
periments and achieved such success that the British 
War Department attached him to its aviation staff and 
he helped to design and construct the first British 
dirigible. In 1908 he made short flights with his 
first aeroplane. In 1909, Cody broke the world's 
record for cross-country flight, flying 40 miles over 
the country around Farnborough. He won all of the 
British Michelin prizes but one. Last year he won 
the $20,000 prize in the military competition open to 
the world, and $5,000 for British machines. He was 
also awarded $25,000 for his kites. 

Col. Cody was buried at Aldershot on August 11th, 
with military honors. 

Mr. Evans, the other victim, was a sportsman and 
an officer in the Indian Civil Service. 

"The most reasonable assumptions are either that 
a wire of some fitting came loose and hit the pro- 
peller which broke, the fractured blade flying forward 
and cutting the rear spar, and so letting the whole 
wing fold up, or else that the spar broke and the 
flying pieces broke the propeller. 

It is believed that both Cody and his passenger, 
Mr. Evans, might have been saved if they had worn 
safety belts, for the evidence is conclusive that they 
were thrown out as the machine broke, and came to 
the ground some distance from the machine which 
itself came down on the tops of some trees which so 
broke the fall that the central section, comprising the 
seats for the pilot and passenger, and the engine, came 
down comparatively gently, the engine not being torn 
from its bed, and the woodwork surrounding the seats 
not being broken anywhere." 



EVERYTHING FOR THE MODEL MAKER 

Everything imaginable in the way of supplies and 
scale models, and then some more is listed in the 
new 48-page catalogue of the Ideal Aeroplane & Sup- 
ply Co., the fourth issued, beginning with a little 
sheet of 6 pages a couple of years ago. Even Cecil 
Peoli is made famous by a model named after him be- 
cause it is a replica of his record model made when 
he was a model flyer instead of a real dyed-in-the- 
wool aviator. Models to scale may be had of the 
well-known types of aeroplanes, even to the latest 
Curtiss flying boat. This is a surprise catalogue. 



of General Scriven, chief signal officer. The army 
wants to know if Scott can drop bombs with as great 
continued accuracy as he did when he won the Miche- 
lin prize for bomb dropping over all foreign com- 
petitors on their own ground, and if these bombs 
will do as great damage as promised by the bomb 
dropping adherents. The French Government has 
bought several of Scott's devices, of which a full 
description has appeared in AERONAUTICS. Scott 
is now on the Pacific Coast. 



BALLOON ASCENSIONS 

Akron, O., July 19.— R. A. D. Preston, pilot, with 
X. M. Patterson in the "Goodyear" to Hadley, Pa. 
Distance, 70 miles; duration, 6 hours 30 minutes. 



AKRON DISTANCE RECORD 
Akron, O., July 26. — R. H. Upson, pilot, and Dr. 
J. S. Millard in the "Goodyear" to Rushford, N. Y., 
covering 190 miles in 11 hours IS minutes. 

This last flight was a very good illustration of the 
possibilities of steering spherical balloons. "We went 
due north for a while, but gradually brought around 
to the northeast striking Lake Erie at Ashtabvda. We 
found the wind below 1,200 feet to be blowing to- 
ward the lake, but above that to be from the lake, 
and by keeping the balloon at the proper height we 
succeeded in just skirting the shore for a distance 
of over 60 miles, passing over the cities of Ashta- 
bula, Conneaut and Erie." 



Other ascensions from Akron, unlisted, are: One 
on July 4th, 30 miles in 2J4 hours; one on June 17th, 
100 miles in 5 hours. 



Kansas City, July 27. — H. E. Honeywell and party 
were up in the "K. C. Ill," using lunch for ballast. 
The aeronauts want to know what becomes of the 
weight when the lunch is eaten. 

"If you eat a pound of food you don't weigh a 
pound more than before eating it. You weigh a few 
ounces more, but not a pound. What becomes of the 
weight, I'm not philosopher enough to say, I only 
know it is a fact. So by consviming some ten pounds 
of food yesterday, we lightened the balloon by sev- 
eral pounds, and arose accordingly." 

The party finally made a safe landing on the Keller- 
strass farm, south of Kansas City. The start was 
made from Overland Park. 



SCOTT TO DROP BOMBS FOR ARMY 

Riley E. Scott is to drop bombs at the army's 
field at San Diego in the near future at the request 



Phila., Aug. 23 — A. T. Atherholt, pilot, Harrison 
Smith and G. B. Newbold in the "Penn." to Lake- 
wood, N. J. 

RECRUITS WANTED FOR AVIATION 
SERVICE 

It is desired to invite the attention of ofiicers of 
the army to the status of aviation in our service. At 
present the law permits the detail of 30 army officers 
for aviation and provides an increase of thirty-five 
per cent, pay and allowances while on such duty. 
It is hoped Congress will enact legislation providing 
for further increase of pay and other advantages. 

About ten vacancies are now existing. Applications 
for these will be given due consideration, taking into 
account the order of their receipt. The detached ser- 
vice law does not apply to officers on aviation duty. 
Experience in training officers for this duty has shown 
that it is advisable to limit the details to men not 
exceeding thirty years of age. The applicant should 
be certain of his fitness physically and temperament- 
ally. This involves excellent eyesight, good hearing, 
endurance, quickness of action and presence of mind. 
Blanks covering these points may be obtained from the 
Chief Signal Officer, Washington, D. C, on ap- 
plication. 

North Carolina man wants $25,000 for involuntary 
ride through air in the suit of J. W. Smith against 
the Cumberland County (N. C.) Agricultural Society 
for $25,000, which Smith demands for "mental 
anguish," he is alleged to have suffered during an 
involuntary ride he took when his foot was caught 
in a rope attached to a balloon on the grounds of 
the society last fall and was carried a mile through 
the air. And yet, some people buy 5,000 dollar aero- 
planes to do tiie same thing. 



AERONA UTICS 



"Page 73 



Jiugust, 1913 




MORE 
POWER PER CUBIC 
INCH 
OF PISTON DIS- 
PLACE- 
MENT THAN ANY 

OTHER 

TYPE MOTOR EVER 

BUILT 




IT 
WILL PAY YOU 
WELL 
TO INVESTI- 
GATE 
OUR NEW OVER- 
HEAD 
VALVE MOTORS 

WRITE 
FOR CATALOG 



EARL V. FRITTS who gained his pilot license with a Thomas Biplane, 
equipped with a 60-70 h. p. MAXIMOTOR 



Maximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich. Bath, N. Y., Feb. 5, 1913. 

Dear Sirs: — Wish to inform you that I have today successfully filled the require- 
ments in a number of flights to qualify for my pilot license. The MAXIMOTOR 
stood with me right through to the end and no other motor on the field has anything 
on your new product. I wish you the most of success during this coming season. 
Sincerely, EARL V. FRITTS. 



Maximotor Makers 

DETROIT 

No. 1528 East Jefferson 



Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography 

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES 



Has long been regarded as the standard 
American Authority on photographic 
matters. 

Each number has forty pages of interest- 
ing photographic text, printed on fine paper 
from good type, and illustrated with many 
attractive half tones. 

The cover for each month is printed in 
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The valuable and authoritative formulae 
furnished throughout the year are alone 
worth the price asked for subscription. 

ONE DOLLAR FIFTY A YEAR SUBSCRIBE NOW FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY 

Foreign Subscription, Two Dollars A Sample Copy Free 

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION 

135 West 14th Street, : : : New York 



Some of the other regular features are 

Articles on practical and timely photo- 
graphic topics. 

Illustrations showing examples of the 
work of the best American and foreign 
pictorialists. 

Foreign Digest. 

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and 
photographers' association notes. 

Items of Interest. 

A department devoted to "Discoveries." 

Reviews of the new photographic books. 

Desciiption of the latest novelties and 
specialties brought out by dealers and 
manufacturers. 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 74 



August, 1913 




New Moisant Monoplane. Designed by Kantner 



WOOD BREAKS CROSS COUNTRY 
RECORD 

August 8 — The American cross-country non-stop dis- 
tance record was probably broken when C. JMurvin 
Wood, the Moisant flyer, flew from his shed on the 
Hempstead Plains, L. I., to Gaithersburg, Md., where 
he landed to adjust his engine, which had been miss- 
ing for some time, and to get his bearings, after hav- 
ing become lost in the smoke and haze over the city 
of Baltimore. The distance has been figured as 239 
miles. His total time in the air was 5 hours, 1 
minute. 

Wood started at 4:30 in the morning in the at- 
tempt to fly to Fort Myer, Washington, demonstrate 
his new monoplane before army and navy ofiicials, and 




return the same day. The incident at Gaithersburg 
delayed him until late in the afternoon, when he 
finally completed his journey by landing on the parade 
ground at Ft. Myer, where General Leonard Wood 
and several officers were waiting. At 4:30 a spe- 
cial train engaged by the Moisant company, the builder 
of the machine, left the Pennsylvania station and 
though it made over 90 miles an hour for portions 
of the distance, a delay at Philadelphia to get word 
of Wood's location allowed him to get some twenty 
minutes ahead of the train at that point, so that fur- 
ther attempts to beat Wood to Washington were given 
up by those on board the train. 

Later demonstrations were made before officials of 
the army and the machine finally shipped back to 
New York. 

The longest non-stop cross-country record, made in 
this country is the official 220 miles of Lt. Milling 
and passenger, made between Texas City and San 
Antonio. 

PRINCIl^AL EVENTS 

July 22 — Glenn Martin left Muskegon, Mich., at 
which point he had abandoned the Lakes Cruise, at 
6:45 a. m. and landed at Grant Park, Chicago, at 
12:50 p. m., covering a total of 160 miles. The trip 
from Muskegon to St. Joseph was made without a 
stop, a distance of 80 miles. The next stop was Calu- 
met Park where more fuel was taken on to finish 
the trip. He carried with him Charles Day, the 
builder of the machine. 

August 6 — Beckwith Havens, with a passenger, left 
the Detroit Motor Boat Club at 5:25 p. m. for Toledo, 
where he arrived safely, covering a distance of 55 
miles in 65 minutes. With Harry Atwood he flew to 
Detroit again and back to Toledo, going one way in 
37 minutes. 

August 15. — Grover C. Bergdoll flew alone from 
Llanerch, Pa., to Atlantic City, N. J., a distance of 
appro.ximately 63 miles in 1 hour 50 minutes in his 
Wright, his second flight to Atlantic City within a 
year. 

^^ug. 23 — Havens arrived at Cleveland on way to 
Buiifalo, having made stops at Sandusky and Cedar 
Point on the wav. 



Chassis of the New Moisant 



FAIL TO INDICT DE VILLERS 

The Curtiss aeroplane company tried on Aug. 26 
to have Yves de Villers, president of the notorious 
.\eroplane Motor and Equipment Company, indicted 
on a charge of grand larceny. 

Curtiss made a contract with the Government to 
furnish a Gnome 160 H. P. tractor. 

"Curtiss said that he contracted with De \'illers to 
furnish the motor for $7,772, and that after various 
delays a second-hand motor, not equal to 160 H. P. 
was delivered. The payment of $5,239.67 in June 
was the transaction on which the charge was based. 
The grand jury decided that no crime had been com- 
mitted." 



JERONA UTICS "Page 75 A ugust, 1913 



BALDWIN 



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For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubber- 
ized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest 
material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no 
effect. Any strength or color. 

^^Red Devir^ Aeroplanes 

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations. 

Hall-Scott Motors 

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 
8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors 
guaranteed. Immediate delivery. 

Experting 

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's 
aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert 
advice. 'Planes balanced. 

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hydro-aeroplanes. Private sheds and workshop. 
Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island. 



CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN 

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York 

AEROPLANES 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 76 



Jlueust, 191 J 



U. S. Patents Gone to Issue 



Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by 

Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner 

of Patents, Washington, D. C. 



Even in these enlightened days, the crop of 
patents on absolutely worthless, or even ques- 
tionable, devices increases rather than de- 
creases. 

It would take an entire issue of the maga- 
zine to abstract in a full and clear manner the 
claims of the majority of the patents issued. 
In a great many cases it is even impossible to 
give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus 
the patent relates to. In most instances we 
have used merely the word "aeroplane" or 
"helicopter" if such it is. Where it is im- 
possible to indicate the class, even, in which 
the patent belongs, without printing the whole 
patent, we have used the word "flying ma- 
chine." 

The patents starred (*) are those which 
may be found of particular interest ; but it 
must be understood we do not pretend to 
pass judgment upon merits or demerits. 

Where patent seems to have particular in- 
terest, the date of filing will be given. — Editor. 



Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and 
prior art of which are unknown to you — William 
Alacomber. 



ISSUED JULY 15 

1,067,773 — Joseph A. Steinmetz, Philadelphia, Pa., 
APPARATUS FOR DEFENDING AGAINST AIR- 
CRAFT, consisting of captive aerial bombs which ex- 
plode on contact. Filed Sept. 6, 1912. 

ISSUED JULY 22 

1,068,108— Giuseppe Colucci, Boston, Mass., AERO- 
PLANE in which there are alternately biplane and 
monoplane surfaces arranged tandem. 

* 1,068, no — Newton B. Converse, Fresno, Cal., 
STABILITY system using compressed air or electro- 
magnet devices. 

1.068,165 — Peter Peterson, San Francisco, Cal., 
Spring device for giving an initial upward impetus 
to an aeroplane at the moment of starting. 

*1, 068, 166 — Peter Peterson, San Francisco, Cal., 
LANDING GEAR in which pontoons and wheels are 
employed and pontoons raised for purpose of landing 
on land. 

1,068,311 — Romulo Felix Burga, Liverpool, England, 
AEROPLANE; wing surface, means for adjusting in- 
clination or curvature of main planes, etc. 

L068, 332— Rudolph G. Dressier, New York, N. Y., 
FLYING MACHINE with oscillating wings. 

ISSL'ED JULY 29 

*L068.437 — Augustus F. W. Macmanus, San An- 
tonio, Texas, STABILITY device employing ailerons 
between main planes and vertical rudders moved 
by a swinging weight, such as motor and pilot. 

1,068,501— Tohn S. 
AEROPLANE. 



Jorgensen, Reno, Nevada, 



1.068,651— De Bert Hartley, Chicago, 111., AERO- 
PLANE with tilting supporting and controlling planes, 
automatically or manually operated; balancing sus- 
taining planes pivoted on longitudinal axes with areas 
outside pivots overbalancing that inside, etc.; 31 
claims. 



1.068,652— De Bert Llartley, Chicago, 111., AERO 
PLANE with main planes dihedrally angled or curved 
pivoted to change angle of incidence, capable o 
being independently or simultaneously warped, etc. 
29 claims. 

1,068,663— James C. Johnston, Blackwell, Okla. 
STABILITY device comprising front, rear and sid 
controlling planes swing about axes transverse t' 
line of flight, levers, etc., operated by pendulum. 

1,068,727 — Guido Antoni and Ugo Antoni. Pisa 
Italy, SURFACE; a lifting plane which is rigi. 
along front edge with a part of its rear edge adjacen 
to the body of the aeroplane flexible upward an^ 
downward and warped into an upward curve. 



ISSUED AUGL'ST 5 

1.069,138 — Henry L. E. Johnson, Washingtor 
D. C, STRUCTURE patent providing for an inverte 
arch structure under the lower plane, on whic 
motor and operator may be carried if desired. 

1,069,332- — Richard F. Hommel, San Francisco. Cal 
PIVOTED PROPELLER driving motors on eac 
plane, adjustable "centerboard." 

*1, 069, 346 — Stanislaus Palmowski and Wincer 
Chwalkowski, New York, N. Y., means for CHANC 
ING THE ANGLE OF INCIDENCE of main wing 
by rotating them about an axis. 

ISSUED AUGUST 12 

1,069,662 — Daniel W. Adams, Glendale Spring 
N. C, PARACHUTE LAUNCHING device fr 
aviators. 

1,069,688 — Joseph Gavura, Johnstown, Pa., C0]\ 
BINED AEROPLANE AND AUTOMOBILE. 

1,069,694 — Louis Adolphe Hayot, Beauvais, Franci 
JET PROPULSION device for sustaining and pr. 
pelling aeroplanes. 

1.069,823— Alfred M. Sipes, Mobeetie, Texa 
DIRIGIBLE propelling device. 

1,069,906— Henry J. Snook, Santa Monica, Cal 
HELICOPTER. 

1,070,197 — Charles Scott Snell, London, Englanc 
means for supplying stores or other articles to aeri; 
craft while in flight by a winding mechanism, hoistin 
device, grapple, etc. 

1,070,200 — Peter Stolberg, San Francisco, Cal 

BALANCING DEVICE comprising vertical surface 

pivotally mounted at extremities of the lower plani 
means for shifting, etc. 

ISSUED AUGUST 19 

1,070,576— Frank M. Bell, El Paso, Tex. Con 
pressed air engine starter with the tanks used 
floats; vertical fins on top plane; wing sections opei 
top and bottom, under fins and horizontally dispose 
propeller in line with openings, two engines drivin 
concentric propellers. 

1,070,625 — Leon W. Perry, Denver, Colo., ST.^ 
BILITY device in which electrical contacts are mad 
by a ball on an oscillatory runway.* j 

1,070,782— John E. DeBaun, Spring Valley, N. Y 
FLYING MACHINE in which bag-like devices ope 
and close alternately. 

1,070,856 — August L. Batsleer and Samuel I 

Thomas, Manchester, N. H., ANCHORING device fo 

holding aeroplanes, which may be tripped by th 
aviator himself. 

1,070,972 — George W. Lynn, Detroit, Mich., PRC 
PELLER with adjustable controlled pitch blades an 
means to control pitch of blades by an operating roc 
bell-crank lever, etc. 



AERONAUTICS Page 77 August, 1913 



BARGAIN 

HARRY BINGHAM 

BROWN 

Retires from Aviation. Will Dispose 
of his GENUINE 

WRIG HT 

Biplane with all equipment, including 

''Safety Pack'' and all extras, in 

first-class condition, at 

$2000.00 



A. LEO STEVENS 

Box 181, Madison Square - New York 

/;; aiisivcring adi'ertisemcnts please mention litis Diagazine. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 78 



August, 1913 



Only the best methods and 
the best equipment will in- 
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The 

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St. Louis, Mo., July 24, 1913 

Gentlemen : 

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We congratulate you on your success in getting out this 
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THE BENOIST AIRCRAFT COMPANY. 

Per Tom W. Benoist, Mgr. 



The ROBERTS MOTOR CO. 

No. 1430 Sandusky Avenue 
SANDUSKY, :: :: OHIO 



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AERONA UTICS 



Page 79 



August, 1913 



Hotel Cumberland 

NEW YORK 
Broadway at 54th Street 

"Broadway" cars from Grand Central Depot in 10 min- 
utes, also 7th Avenue cars from Pennsylvania Station 




Headquarters for 
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THE 

WRIGHT COMPANY 



OUR aeroplanes for land 
and water purposes re- 
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beginning of flying, the most 
efficient machines in use. 

Mr. ORVILLE WRIGHT and our 
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spent over two years in careful ex- 
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to meet. Naturallv, therefore, 

THE WRIGHT AEROBOAT 

combines efficiency, safety, sea-wor- 
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Model "D", one passenger, speed, 
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of 1640 feet in 3 minutes. 

— The Amc ican Record. 

Model "E", single propeller, exhi- 
bition machine, designed par- 
ticularly for ease in assembling 
and taking down. 

Model "C-H", hydro-aeroplane, de- 
signed particularly for use over 
small inland streams. This ma- 
chine shows higher efficiency 
than has ever been attained in 
marine flying. 

THE WRIGHT SCHOOL AT SIMMS STATION, 
NEAR DAYTON, OHIO 

Complete tuition, $250. No charge for break- 
age. Pilot may use school machine for his li- 
cense tests free of charge. Dual control used. 
Average length of course, two weeks. Our 
terms are the best, and our equipment also, 
as we wish to encourage flying in this way. 

THE WRIGHT INCIDENCE INDICATOR 

An indispensable instrument for the 
amateur aviator. Price $50.00. 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY 

DAYTON, OHIO 
New York Office: 11 PINE STREET 



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JERONAUTICS 



"Page 80 



August. 1913 



1913 
Edition 



EirrEii 

Translated by LitUT. Ierome C. tluNSAKKk, U.S. A aval Conslructo}- 

Resistance of the Air and Aviation 
IN ENGLI SH 

Magnificent Quarto Volume, Cloth, 242 pp. 27 

LARGE PLATES AND TABLE OF POLAR DIAGRAMS 

1913 ENLARGED EDITION 



Lieutenant Jerome C. Hunsaker. U.S. M., naval constructor, detailed by the government to superintend 
the courses in aeronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has made a notable contribution to 
his subject by translating into English Gustav Eiffel s master-work, "The Resistance of the Air and Avia- 
tion." The translation includes the record of experiments conducted at the Champ-de-Mars laboratory, and 
an appendix giving a summary of the results, and supplementary chapters containing valuable and impor 
tant tables and diagrams. 

Captain W. IRVING CHAMBERS, of the Bureau of Navigation, says : 

"This book, in my opinion, contains the most valuable information on Aviation yet pub- 
lished, and it is very desirable for our American students, designers, manufacturers, aeronau- 
tical and engineering associations, clubs, colleges, and libraries, to secure copies in English as 
soon as possible." 

The "SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN " says: 

" Eiffel's work makes it possible to calculate a full-sized aeroplane from the data obtained 
in experiments with a model. In nearly all cases, the full-sized machines thus determined 
have given the results expected." 

Heretofore, this m isterly production has only been procurable in French, yet even in the original ver- 
sion it is now extensively used in America for reference. The translation of the text with additional matter 
is of the greatest importance to every one interested in the scientific study of aviation. 

PRICE. $10. EXPRESS PAID 

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Write for Catalocues =^ 
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XIII. No. 3 



SEPTEMBER, 1913 



ASK US TO SEND YOU 
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AERONAUTICS 



Page 82 



September, 191 




< BENOIST •:: 

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American endurance record, aviator and three passengers. 
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Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout 



From the 

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of Aug. 23rd. 1913 

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doubt about his (Beatty) 
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the pushing- power of his 
GYRO ENGINE, which 
for its size is ONE OF 
THE MOST POWER. 
FUL IN ALL HENDON 

Send for Catalog 



THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Cirard Street, Washington, D. C. 



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iERONA UTJCS 



Page 83 



September, 1913 



THE NEWEST 

HYDRO- 
DRAGON 

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Curved Blades — Self-adjusting 
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Paragor, STEEL EDGE 
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Thin Maple slotted into 
ends of hlades 

Transverse Dowels extending 
through curved holes 
edge to edge of blade 

Scperate Blades Reneuiahle 
case of accident 

Laminations steamed and bent 
of blade before 
assembling 




Largest and Strongest Patent 
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Laminated and Maple Plated 



PARAGON PATENT TAPERED HUB JOINTING 



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For 

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Plain Paragons— One Kind of Wood Throughout. Cheaper and Better in Every Way 

than any Propeller that is not a PARAGON 
Over two hundred propellers in stock. Any size or pitch on short notice. Avoid infringement. 

Beware of unscrupulous imitators. 

A.MERICAN Propeller Co., 249 e. Hamburg st., Baltimore, md. 




Burgess 
Flying Boat 

Built for 
U. S. Navy 




HE BURGESS FLYING BOAT 

is another record breaker. Built to complv with the strenuous requirements of 
the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test flights and was immediately accepted. Al- 
ready a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines. 
Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-a.eroplanes are still unexcelled. F'oreign or 
Domestic Motors installed to meet the preference of individual purchasers. We 
recommend the Sturtevant motor as the most reliable American type. 

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at 
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Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, is located at Marble- 
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BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass. 



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JERONA UTICS 



September, 1913 




In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 85 



September. 1913 



Aviation in France 

BY LEICESTER B. HOLLAND 



IIHl 


uimifflp^in^^iiii 



N actual development of the 
aeroplane, France is un- 
doubtedly considerably ahead 
of the United States, but 
this is due neither to great 
superiority on the part of 
the constructors and avia- 
tors, but chiefly to the fact 
that France is in a continual 
fever of militarism, a con- 
dition not altogether to be 
envied. Ever since 1871 public opinion in 
France has had its eyes fixed on Germany, 
either in fear of further invasion or in hope 
of revenge for the loss of Alsace-Lorrain, 
and the aeroplane has now suddenly appeared 
as a magic weapon by which the national 
honor and prestige is to be restored. 

It is not the government alone that is 
buying aeroplanes for the army, but well-to-do 
individuals, clubs, newspapers, actors and 
actresses, and even schools present them to 
the national flying corps. Those who can 
not afford to present a machine themselves, 
contribute to the general subscription for 
"aerial defense." 

Great interest is also taken in all things 
connected with military aviation ; demountable 
hangars, aeroplane workshops mounted on 
auto trucks, rapid fire guns for use on aero- 
planes and on automobiles for use against 
aircraft are of absorbing interest to the 
French nation and occupy a large part of the 
space in aero exhibitions. Wireless experi- 
ments, too, have been very successful, though 
only in sending messages. I do not know 
of any great success attained in receiving 
wireless messages on aeroplanes. The re- 
sult is that with such a steady inflow of 
orders the manufacturers are enabled to 
keep fairly large plants going and run their 
business on a scale and with a degree of com- 
petition and progress quite impossible in this 
country. 

But if military aviation were not existant 
in France the conditions there would be prac- 
tically what they are here, for aviation has 
not yet developed to a state of commercial 
utility while as a form of sport the French 
are perhaps even less interested in it than we 
are ourselves. 

Aeroplanes are not being bought by in- 
dividuals. The majority of those flying are of- 
ficers of the army and such civilians who fly 
are demonstrators in the employ of the manu- 
facturers. Of the makers themselves, none 
are flying save the Farmans. Bleriot, even, 
has given up flying. 

It seems quite possible, therefore, because 
the military development is denied us in this 
country, that we will be forced to develop 
along the commercial and sporting side; and 
this, after all, is the more permanent though 



slower development. We have already de- 
veloped the hydroaeroplane, the ideal machine 
for sport, into the "flying boat," a type not 
unknown in France, but far ahead of the great 
majority of French hydroaeroplanes which 
retain the old form of a land machine fitted 
with floats instead of wheels. 

France has been known as the country 
of monoplanes while the biplane was called 
the American type. This distinction can 
no longer be applied as biplanes are com- 
ing more and more into general use for 
"all 'round" work. The biplane is gener- 
ally considered safer and more stable and 
the monoplane's development is being con- 
fined to speed lines. The latter is not a 
weight carrier, it is not adaptable to the 
purposes for which a biplane may be used. 
In it every effort is being made to increase 
speed. "Monococque" construction is becom- 
ing more and more common, every bit of 
wood and metal is given stream line form to 
reduce head resistance, every ounce of weight 
is being eliminated, increased power is being 
used and the wing surfaces are being studied 
for speed effects. 

It seems quite possible that the eventual 
type will be between the monoplane and bi- 
plane, the "sesquiplane" if one may so term 
it. For the biplanes are approaching the 
monoplanes in a way. Eiffel has shown in 
his laboratory that the lower plane carries, 
approximately, only a third the weight carried 
by the upper and advises reduction in size of 
the lower. This is being generally done. 
The lower plane gives increased stability over 
that of a single plane and has considerable 
use for structural reasons, while the efficiency 
of the machine is increased over that of the 
old biplane. Where warping systems are used, 
however, in the Breguet and Astra, the lower 
plane still remains the same size as the upper. 
A feature of the Breguet machine is that the 
entire wings are very flexible, even the control 
cables have springs introduced in their lengths 
and beyond a certain point the operation of 
rudder and elevator and warping is impos- 
sible. This produces a machine which while 
"smooth" and indifferent in light wind eddies, 
is rather difficult to manage under severe 
conditions. In general the manufacturers are 
building their wings less rigidly, almost all 
having flexible trailing edges and some being 
positively "S" shaped in order to allow gusts 
to slide more easily past. 

Another interesting type that is being de- 
veloped is the "canard" or tail-first machine; 
this may be either a monoplane or biplane. 
Of this genus the original Wright is con- 
sidered the prototype though strictly speaking 
the Wright had no tail at all. The number of 
experimental machines of this kind has in- 
creased rapidly of late, the Voisin biplane 
being the best known. Bleriot built two, the 



AERONA UTICS 



"Page 86 



September, 1913 



first a failure, the second is being tried out. 
Lieutenant Blard has been flying fairly suc- 
cessfully at the army station of Chalais- 
Meudon with a machine built along these lines, 
and another of all-welded metallic construc- 
tion is being manufactured for general sale 
by Besson. The advantages claimed for this 
type are, greater longitudinal stability, greater 
field of vision, the pilot being in front of, 
rather than behind the main wings, and greater 
security in landing, the centre of gravity being 
over the rear rather than the front of the 
skids. 

The tandem plane machine is coming for 
its share of experimentation. Drzewiecki has 
built a tandem monoplane with the front plane 
nearly as large as the rear one, with the 
centre of gravity approximately in the middle 
of the fuselage. The front and rear planes 
are of different sections, the front being 
normally at 8 degrees and the rear one at 
5 degrees, or 3 degrees negative to the for- 
ward plane. On account of the difference in 
section and area of the front and rear sur- 
faces, the total lift of the forward surface 
varies less rapidly than that of the rear sur- 
face when the angle of incidence changes. In 
case of a sudden dip, the difference in power 
of the two units is reversed. That under the 
forward plane becomes preponderant and 
rights the machine. Lateral stability is main- 
tained by changing the angle of incidence of 
either half of the front plane. (See in AERO- 
NAUTICS for February, 1913, article by Cap- 
tain W. Jrving Chambers.) 

This assurance of longitudinal stability 
seems to be the most important step in the 
direction of security in aeroplanes, as the 
majority of accidents seem to be due to a 
loss of headway and consequent "slipping" of 
the machine, in mounting too suddenly or to 



"engaging" the rudder in descending too 
rapidly. Farman has a system of control 
levers by which the control acts with less and 
less efficiency the further the rudders are 
turned toward one extreme or the other and 
the Doutre stablizer has proven very efficient 
and is being considerably used. This instru- 
ment consists briefly of a plate placed at 
right angle to the direction of flight. Any 
sudden increase of lelative speed through the 
air causes increased pressure on the plate 
which pushes back a piston in a cylinder which 
in turn operates a servo-motor and controls 
the elevator. A decrease in pressure allows 
the plate to be pushed forward by a spring 
when a similar operation takes place and the 
elevator automatically heads the machine 
down. Two small weights by their inertia 
actuate the piston in the same manner when 
there is any such things as "holes in the air" 
which would not effect the wind plates (fully 
described in AERONAUTICS. 

The chief effort that is being made in de- 
velopment along lines not strictly military is 
due, more than to any other person, to the 
present president of the Aero Club de France, 
Deutsch de la Meurthe. He is an immensely 
wealthy man, has given large sums to aero- 
nautics in prizes, for achievements in dirigibles 
as well as aeroplanes, and established the 
Aerodynamic Laboratory at St. Cyr. He has 
interested himself in encouraging develop- 
ment of weight carrying machines and it will 
be remembered that he had Bleriot build him 
an aeroplane taxi, with an inclosed cab body, 
with every convenience found in the auto- 
mobile taxi, except the indicator of the fare. 
His latest machine is one he had built for 
him by Voisin. It is a huge hydro called the 
"Icaire" capable of carrying eight to twelve 
passengers. 



NO GREAT PROGRESS SINCE 1903 

I am not quite so keen for aeronautical 
literature as I was a year or more ago, be- 
cause it seems to me that no adequate progress 
has been made since the Wrights pointed the 
way. The amount of flying is great enough, 
machines are better built, motors are more 
reliable and more powerful in proportion to 
weight, but after all, the Wright principle of 
construction has not been materially improved 
upon except in such manner as experience 
would naturally suggest and the essential 
features remain unaltered. This either speaks 
pretty well for the Wrights or not very well 
for those who have followed in their foot- 
steps. 

My own belief is that the aeroplane as at 
present constructed has not nearly reached its 
greatest stage of development either in theory 
or practice. I have not lost interest in the 
future of aviation, as I believe there is very 
much yet to be accomplished in the way of 
improvement. What is most needed now is a 
new race of aviators. At present those aviators 
who are most in the public eye, seem to care 



nothing for their occupation except as a tem- 
porary stepping stone to enable them to reach 
as soon as possible a stage of existence where 
they wont need to risk their own necks in the 
air. It is the machine itself that is mostly to 
blame for this state of things. When the ideal 
flying machine makes its appearance, aviators 
wont be so anxious to retire from their aerial 
experiences, but will enjoy them so thoroughly 
that they will never want to quit. Neither 
will the enjoyment of these experiences be 
confined to the young and the strong. It will 
be common for old men and even invalids to 
get the benefit of the upper air without a 
suggestion of fear, and I expect to see this 
consummation, although I am in my sixty- 
seventh year. I can not myself claim to have 
contributed very much to the promotion of 
aviation except as a passenger on two oc- 
casions when I certainly did make some con- 
tributions, in a way. I covered about forty 
miles all told with a noted aviator who soon 
thereafter lost his life, doing stunts, I think, 
which his better judgment did not approve, 

— Subscriber. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 87 



September, 1913 



Technical Talks 

By m. b. Sellers 
THE DUNNE AEROPLANE 



In view of the present public interest in the 
Dunne aeroplane, I shall give a brief explana- 
tion of its stabilizing qualities, based chiefly 
on material contained in Mr. Dunne's com- 
munication to the Aeronautical Society of 
Great Britain (Jan. 29, 1913). 

As is generally known, the machine has re- 
treating wings, forming a V in a horizontal 
plane. These wings are cambered as though 
they formed the roof of a cylindrical tunnel, 
running diagonally lengthwise of each wing, 
so that the crown is nearer the rear side of 
the wing at its outer end ; the diameter of the 
tunnel preferably diminishing toward the 
wing tip. 

Thus, the wing presents a quasi warp ; the 
chord of the outer end being at a negative 
angle in normal flight as shown in Fig. i, 
which shows a front and plane view. 



'-V-s\-~.nL', 




M«) 1)91 



Fig. I 



Now the relative wind, due to a side gust, 
will come across the port or starboard bow, 
and will blow more across the tunnel in case 
of the windward wing and more down the 
tunnel on the leeward wing as shown in Fig. 
2 (in which the wind is supposed to come 
from the observer's eye toward the picture). 
It is obvious that the windward wing wilt 
encounter greater resistance than the other, 
and the machine will at once swing around to 
face the wind. This device, therefore, pos- 
sesses greater weathercock stability than 
would be conferred by a large vertical tail 
plane on a conventional machine, besides act- 
ing more quickly. 

Considering, now, longitudinal balance : the 
forward and central part of the aeroplane 
constitutes, with the lateral parts, a "longi- 
tudinal V" ; in fact, every portion of the wing 
bears this relation to the part adjacent. When 
the machine rears, the lift on the after posi- 
tive portions of the wings increases more 
rapidly than that on the forward portions, 
because the angles of attack are nearer zero ; 
this causes the centre of pressure to move 
backward along the wing; at the same time 



the negative portions are being reduced in 
area; all of which promote longitudinal stabil- 
ity. 

Finally, we have what Air. Dunne calls the 
reserve tangent device. If the vectors (rep- 
resenting tile resultant pressures.) are drawn 
at points along the wing, say at each rib, those 
in front will slope backward, and as we go 
toward the wing tip the vectors will become 
shorter and slope more and more forward ; 
and in normal flight the resultant of them all 
will slope backward. 




But if the machine loses headway, and 
therefore begins to sink, the angle of attack 
will increase, the rear pressures will increase 
more rapidly than those in front, and the 
centre of pressure will not only move back- 
ward but will incline forward, thus furnish- 
ing a propelling component. Instead, there- 
fore, of diving like a conventional aeroplane, 
it will be able to accelerate with only a gradual 
descent. Mr. Dunne states that the effect this 
has on the smoothness of path in high winds 
is simply amazing, and that the machine 
maintains itself under full control at appar- 
ently impossible angles. (I do not entirely 
agree with the above explanation.) 

Mr. Dunne shows mathematically what oc- 
curs after the machine has been forcibly tilted 
sideways, but I shall not give that here. The 
machine first commences to circle toward the 
low side, but at once the outer wing tends to 
lag and be depressed, due to the faster moving 
negative tip, and to the angle at which the 
different parts of the wings meet the air in 
describing the curve. The machine will, 
therefore, tend to level up, and straighten out 
the curve. In order, therefore, to maintain 
the bank and curve, ailerons must be used. 
If turned by an ordinary rudder the machine 
depresses the outer iving. 

As to lateral stability, or steadiness, the 
coning of the wings at the front produces a 
slight positive dihedral, while the tips present 
a negative dihedral. These, under the action 
of a side gust, oppose each other, and tend to 
damp I'ut incipient oscillations, and it is found 
that in ordinary side gusts, little rocking is 
produced. 

The negative surface exposed decreases with 
increasing angle of attack. If a .strong side 
gust initiates a windward roll, it will also in- 
crease the angle of attack and so decrease the 
negative surface, thus checking the roll; and 
vice versa. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 88 



September, 1913 




The 1913 Dunne. 



Finally, an aerofoil presenting its long edge 
to the wind, receives at small angles, greater 
pressure than if exposed the other way; but 
at large angles, beyond 30 degrees, it receives 
less pressure. Now, a side gust encounters 
the windward wing more on its long edge, 
and the leeward wing more endwise, there- 
fore, the pressures are greater on the wind- 
ward wing. But if by an excess of over- 
turning forces, the machine is being upset 
sideways, the preponderance of pressures on 
the windward wing will diminish as the in- 
clination increases, and, beyond 30 degrees the 
pressures on the leeward wing will be the 
greater. It would seem, then, impossible to 
be blown over much beyond 30 degrees no 
matter how violent and unevenly applied the 
gust. 

Though we may not concede all that Mr. 
Dunne claims for his machine, we must admit 
that it possesses remarkable stability. 



THE DUNNE RUDDERLESS 
MONOPLANE 

Patrick Y. Alexander once said : "Dunne 
is one man you should watch carefully." J 
W. Dunne began active work on gliders in 
190S in secrecy. 

In 1909 Dunne started on his own account 
and built a heavy biplane, and, after many 
changes, in the fall of 1910 he flew before 
Orville Wright and Griffith Brewer, letting 
go the levers and writing notes. (See 
AERONAUTICS, March, 1911, pages 81-83 
for description and text of patent.) 

Then work on a monoplane was begun. 
The monoplane had its trials in the summer 
of 191 1 and was along similar lines. Little 
was heard of this. 

Dunne went back to his biplane, lightened 
it and began flying it with N. S. Persival as 
pilot, in the summer of 1912. Many passen- 
gers were carried, among them Commandant 
Felix, who was attracted by the monoplane 
and who induced the Nieuport firm to lend 
a Gnome motor. "I saw the apparatus fly 
once, then mounted it without hesitation, 



made the first flight with levers in hand and 
maneuvered to test the apparatus, then a sec- 
ond flight during which "1 let go everything, 
and at the end of a moment stood up on my 
seat and had great trouble to avoid dancing 
a jig for joy. The next day I started for 
France." 




Readers will remember the successful flight 
just recently made by Felix from London to 
Paris in the latest Dunne biplane. "The ap- 
paratus stood there every possible test : hail, 
wind, heat waves met with in the country at 
1500 metres height and difficult landings both 
hard and brutal, the machine acted admirably 
everywhere. I flew in very doubtful weather 
at Villacoublay, and the next day in really 
rough weather before my superiors, who, ac- 
cording to their habit desired to form their 
own conclusions, says Julien Felix. 

Ailerons are necessary for steering as there 
is no rudder or elevator. These ailerons are 
used for both purposes. 

(References: Aeronautical Journal, Janu- 
ary, 1911; Flight, June 24, 1911; Flight, June 
18 and 25, 1910; British Aero, July, 191 1; 
Flugsport, September 6, 191 1; AERONAU- 
TICS, March, 1911.) 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 89 



September, 1913 




1911 DU/l.Nf ?lS>NO-' 




1764 



Recent doings of the Dunne machine are of 
interest. After trying over Paris and giving 
demonstrations at Villacoublay. during one 
of which Commandant Felix got out of the 
seat and walked along the lower wing ( on the 
side with, not against, the torque couple), he 
flew the machine to Deauville, where he has 
been flying consistently. Once, while flying 
at Deauville, he gave an interesting demon- 
stration of what could be done in emergencies. 
Hearing the engine missing, he locked the 
levers, walked back to the engine, a distance 
of over 12 feet, adjusted matters to his satis- 
faction and then returned and resumed con- 
trol, the episode taking two or three minutes. 
It is not known what the trouble with the 
engine was, but it is believed that it was the 
ignition wire to the back-plate. The centre 
of gravity must have moved nearly a foot. 

The present Dunne machine is operated by 
two levers which actuate the ailerons situated 



at the extremities of the upper and lower 
planes. Moving the two levers forward or 
back makes the machine descend or ascend 
respectively. When steering to the right, the 
right hand lever is drawn backward and the 
left hand one pushed simultaneously forward. 
These actions result in the flap on the pilot's 
right having its trailing edge elevated while 
that on the left has its trailing edge depressed. 
Each of the wings spreads 7.9 metres, chord 
1.65 m. spaced 2 metres apart. The ailerons 
in the upper plane measure 2.25 m. by 75 cm. ; 
those in the lower plane, which are not out 
quite so far, measure in spread 1.45 m. The 
fuselage is 5.40 m. long, height at rear i m., 
at the seat 1.80 m. ; greatest width 80 cm. The 
chassis is novel. There are skids under each 
wing tip, and at the fore and aft extremities 
of the fuselage. The running gear consists of 
two wheels. The motor is an 80 H. P. Gnome 
and the speed averages 80-90 K. P. H. 



AERONAUTICS 



"Page 90 



September, 1913' 



Benoist "Type XIV" Air-boat 



The new "type 14" Benoist air-boat differs 
in detail only from the old type 13 boat built 
by that company in the latter part of 191 2 and 
flown the first time successfully on the last 
dav of the year. (Full drawings and details 
in January, 1913, AERONAUTICS.) 

The new type is constructed as the old with 
the motor down in the boat, and, of course, is 
still chain drive. The original lines of the boat 
part are still preserved, only being built wider 
to make seating capacity for two side by side. 

The boat proper is twenty-three feet long, 
the direction rudder extending two feet fur- 
ther back. The hull is twenty-two inches high 
at the step and carries practically the same 
height up to and including the passenger seat 
and control lever space. Step is five inches 
deep. 

The air and water rudders are constructed 
integral, the lower part of the air rudder be- 
ing made of wood and extending down into 
the water. To make the water rudder efficient 
when machine is moving slowly or the tail is 
high it is extended six inches below the stern 
of the boat and protected by a sprag which 
is simply an extension of the small centre 
board placed under that part of the boat. 

A larger gap between the main planes is 
employed than in the regular Benoist tractor 
machine, it now being six feet.. 

The Benoist company was the first to build 
a successful flying boat with the motor down 
in the hull. This was adopted unanimously 
by the engineering board, consisting of Tony 
J annus, Hugh Robinson and Tom Benoist, 
after repeated tests for efficiency both in 
water and in air ; great attention being given 



to the factor of safety regardless of whether 
the machine was to be used as a boat or aero- 
plane The findings in favor of the motor in 
the hull were as follows: "ist — The motor in 
the hull made the machine much more stable 
in the water, eliminating the trouble experi- 
enced by the other builders in keeping the 
machine from turning over when the water 
was a little rough or a light wind blowing, 
when the machine was anchored or not mov- 
ing forward. 2nd — This also added greatly to 
the apparent safety of the machine. The same 
objections urged against the motor up high be- 
tween the planes back and above the aviator 
and passengers holding good in the flying 
boat as well as in exhibition machines. The 
Benoist company developed the first success- 
ful tractor biplane in this country, and as this 
style of plane has become very popular the 
last two years among exhibition men because 
of its much greater factor of safety in com- 
parison with the propeller-driven machines it 
was decided that the motor must not go up 
high under an}' condition." 

The motor is placed on two strong beams 
running parallel with one another practically 
the full length of the boat. These beams are 
made strong and heavy and add materially in 
strengthening and stiffening the boat fore and 
aft. They are sixteen inches high in front 
of the step and, under the motor, seventeen 
feet long and two inches thick. 

The motor drives a propeller Syj feet 
diameter by 5.50 feet pitch. These propellers 
are constructed by the Benoist company, be- 
ing brought up to the highest state of perfec- 
tion after repeated tests and experiments. A 




AERONA UTICS 



"Page 9 



September, 1913 



The Latest Eenoist 
Flying Boat 




y2 inch by ^ inch by i inch Diamond roller 
chain is used to transmit the power of the 
engine to the propellers, the chain rvmning in 
tubular steel guards to eliminate any possi- 
bility of becoming entangled in wiring or pro- 
peller in case of high speed, breakage, or 
strain. 



^\f 


J3»l 


K 


g|H 


liHil^B^Bi '^ 1^ 


'w 


\ 

9sf 


^ 


B 




^v 


1 ■•■•^ 


IH^I 


km^ 


SS 


■ill 'M,i, . 



A honeycomb radiator of their own manu- 
facture is used with 513 sq. in. of presented 
surface on the 75 H. P. Roberts motor and 
480 sq. in. on the Sturtevant 70 H. P. motor. 



The radiator is placed above and back of the 
motor just in front of the drive chain. 

The shaft that carries the propeller is 
mounted between the main planes eighteen 
inches below the trailing edge of the upper 
plane. It took a great deal of experimenting 
coupled with some ingenuity to evolve a sys- 
tem of struts and wires to carry this shaft 
that woijld take up the strains, both thrust 
and tortional. However, this was overcome 
after many experiments, and a system both 
light and durable, substantially as indicated 
in the drawings is used. Both ends of this 
shaft are carried by combined thrust and 
radial ball bearings; the distance rod or chain 
tightener also using ball bearings at each end. 

The regular Benoist tractor planes are used, 
differing only in gap and length of separate 
sections : Spread of main planes, 35 feet 4 
inches; gap, 6 feet; length of sections outside 
of engine section. 8 feet ; chord of wing 5 
feet ; camber 2^^ inches : greatest depth of 
camber, 21 inches back of front edge: wing 
area, 337 sq. ft. ; ailerons, four, each 8 feet 
long and 20 inches wide. Wings covered with 
No. 2B Naiad aero cloth. All guy and con- 
trol wires Rocbling special stranded cable. 

This boat equipped with either a Roberts 
or Sturtevant motor will carry two pas- 
sengers beside the aviator, and is capable of 
carrying seven hundred pounds of useful 
load consisting of passengers, gasoline or 
freight. 

The motor is cranked by a lever and ratchet 
arrangement on the forward end of the pro- 
peller shaft. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 92 



September, 1913 




Curtiss "English" Flying Boat 



Certainly there is nothing slow about the 
development of the Curtiss flying boat. Last 
month, as in previous successive months, a 
new model was described in these columns, 
and here, almost before the varnish on its 
predecessor has had time to set, comes an- 
other new craft with still further modifica- 
tions. 

This time it is a really truly four-passenger 
craft along the same general lines as the now 
well-known Curtiss model. For lack of a 
more appropriate name we may refer to it 
as the "English" flying boat, because it is 
the machine shipped to Mr. Curtiss in Eng- 
land for the demonstrations already arranged 
for there. It also may be used for the pro- 
posed Anglo-American flying boat contest ; 
the Sopwith air-boat being mentioned in the 
despatches as a probable competitor. 

Instructor Francis Wildman of the Curtiss 
training camp tested the new machine Sep- 
tember 15-16, and reports indicate that this 
boat marks some distinct advances over any 
of the previous models. On the first "jump," 
which Wildman made alone, the boat left the 
water within a hundred feet of the starting 
point. It proved a quick climber and a steady 
flier. About quarter of an hour was devoted 
to this preliminary test, during which Wild- 
man tried the machine at every angle. Re- 
turning to the landing stage Wildman, who 
weighs 158 pounds, took aboard Henry Kleck- 
ler, weight 168 pounds; Mortimer Bates, 155 
pounds ; Harvey R. Kidney, 138 lbs. His 
flight with these four aboard lasted nearly 
an hour, during which an altitude of approxi- 
mately 2,000 feet was attained. Wildman was 
anxious to attempt the establishment of an 
official passenger-carrying duration and dis- 
tance record, but like many other really com- 
petent flyers, he never has troubled to fly 
for a pilot license so that his record would 
not be "official." Photographs taken during 



this four-passenger flight show the handi- 
ness of the new boat both on the water and 
in the air. The machine is shown steeply 
banked on a short turn near the water, as 
well as climbing on turns ; good evidence 
that even when carrying 700 pounds the craft 
is not overloaded. 

Repeated trials over the measured mile 
showed an average speed of exactly 60 M. 
P. H. The average mile with the wind was 
55 seconds, against the wind, 1.05. 

During the two days devoted to the tests 
Wildman flew several hundred miles with the 
new machine, trying it on diff^erent occasions 
with two, three and four passengers. Some 
of the old hands at aviation were inclined to 
be skeptical about the desirability of the 
after cockpit until they tried it out. Then all 
were unanimous in declaring it the most com- 
fortable place on the "ship." 

"I never fully realized the luxury of aerial 
travel until I rode in the back of this flying 
landaulet," said one experienced airman after 
a long flight. "There one seems indeed 
"monarch of all he surveys.' Wildman told 
me to make myself comfortable without giv- 
ing a thought to the balance of the machine 
and I proceeded to do so. I lounged back in 
one corner, smoked a cigarette and enjoyed 
the scenery. Then it occurred to me that I 
had long been curious as to the effect of air 
pressure on different parts of the machines 
when in action, so I spent several minutes 
watching for vibration in the cables or sur- 
faces. The yellow wings spread out on both 
sides of me, smooth and solid as a floor. 
There was no perceptible movement in them, 
the cables were motionless ; none of that vi- 
bration which is said to make a 1/16 cable 
equal in head-resistance to a i inch upright 
was apparent. I changed at will from one 
side of the cockpit to the other, without any 
noticeable effect on the balance of the ma- 



AERONA UTICS 



"Page 93 



September, 19 1 3" 



chine. Finally I stood up and leaned over 
the forward edge, then shifted to the after 
side. It was always the same, — nothing to 
disturb the feeling of absolute stability." 




Improvements are shown from keel to up- 
per surface. The hull, which is of solid 
mahogany, polished like a piano case, has 
six inches more beam than any previous 
model, a decided Vee-bottom, with a steel- 
shod keel extending beyond the step. Ma- 
hogany is used for planking the bottom, but 
is covered with sheet Duralumin, and ma- 
hogany lines the double cockpit. A new 
style of construction in the hull has resulted 
in greater strength, though the boat weighs 
considerably less than the canvas-covered 
models built for Jack Vilas, J. B. R. Ver- 
planck, and some others. Increased comfort 
for the passengers is secured by the raised 
deck. 

In the wings and ailerons further changes 
are noticeable. Considerable weight is saved 
by the new one-piece construction, and with 
no sacrifice of strength. The spread of the 
upper surface has been increased to 41 feet, 
while the lower one measures 30 feet. In- 
stead of being secured by a diagonal brace as 
heretofore, the upper extension is trussed 
above and below, and the outer end of the 
aileron is supported by a post descending 
from a socket near the end of the upper plane. 
Surfaces are of unbleached linen, made semi- 
transparent by the new Curtiss waterproofing 
preparation. No changes of any moment have 
been made in the tail structure. Like those 
in the U. S. Navy's "C-2," described last 
month, the horizontal members are higher 
than in former Curtiss machines, but the area 
and general dimensions are the same. 

The hull is 25 feet long, with a beam of 
50 inches, and an extreme depth of 46 inches. 
Made entirely of dark Honduras mahogany, 
fastened throughout with copper rivets and 
outside with round-headed brass screws. Both 
forward and after cockpits are ceiled and 



panelled in mahogany. Seats are uphol- 
stered in dark brown corduroy, and after 
cockpit seat-back is upholstered. Metal fit- 
tings are finished in maroon enamel. Center 
panel of forward deck folds over to form 
rubber covered and cleated gangplank. En- 
trance to after cockpit is through the for- 
ward one, engine supports having been de- 
signed to allow room, and to decrease head 
resistance of machine. Hull is mono-hydro- 
plane, with Vee-bottom, keel extending be- 
yond the step, so as to form a substantial sup- 
port when boat is run high and dry on run- 
way or beach. 

Design of the superstructure differs con- 
siderably from previous models. Wings are 
of one piece. Upper wings have a spread of 
41 feet; lower wings measure 30 feet. Chord, 
61 inches. Wing structure is lighter and 
stronger than formerly. Beams are laminated 
and tapered, fastened at joints with copper 
straps. No holes are bored in the main 
beams. Ailerons have been increased in size 
and now measure 12 feet long by 3 feet deep. 
These are hinged on the outside rear uprights, 
and steadied by struts depending from the 
outer extreme of each upper surface. Each 
aileron is wired independent of the other and 
in case of the disablement of one the machine 
can be handled by the other. 

The power plant comprises one of the new 
Model 0-X 90-100 H. P. Curtiss motors, with 
a new style of radiator which is of smaller 
area than the old ones but of greater capac- 
ity. An 8 feet 6 inches Curtiss propeller is at- 
tached direct. Main fuel supply is from two 
20 gallon tanks fitted into the corners of the 
after cockpit. Air pressure forces the gaso- 
line from these tanks to a 3-gallon tank lo- 
cated on the motor bed, whence the gasoline 
flows by gravity to the carburetor. 

Weight of this boat is approximately 1.40Q 
pounds, speed 60 M. P. H. , 



An important use of the aeroplane would 
lie picking out headquarters, the enemy's com- 
manding general and important encampments 
like that, and by using shrapnel, a large shell 
weighing 500 pounds with high explosives, and 
being able to drop it within a square of 120 
feet, I think you could make it very uncom- 
fortable for the commanding general. I think 
that would be an important use of the aero- 
planes. Against fortifications — I firmly believe 
that 500 pounds of nitrogelatin placed near 
a barbette disappearing gun carriage would 
put that completely out of service. If dropped 
on a mortar battery, I think it would tem- 
porarily at least put that out of order, and 
especially the range-finding system. The ac- 
curacy of these guns depends entirely on the 
range-finding system. These systems are 
screened as much as possible from the sea 
in the scacoast fortifications, but they cannot 
be screened from the air, and I think it would 
be very readily put out of business, and when 
the range-finding system is put out of busi- 
ness the battery is put out of business, at least 
until it is repaired. 

LiKUT. R. E. Scott, 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 94 



September, 1913 



New Developments in Aeronautics 



HOW PEGOUD DIDN'T LOOP 
THE LOOP 

The newspapers widely heralded the re- 
ported feat of the French aviator Pegoud, 
with a Bleriot monoplane, in "looping the 
loop." As a matter of fact, he did nothing of 
the kind. Wonderful as his feat was, which 
he repeated for the benefit of the military, he 
merely headed downward in a vertical line, 
and with his elevator turned the machine on 
its back for an approximate distance of 400 
yards for 15 seconds. Again with the eleva- 




tor, the machine was brought to the vertical 
position again and leveled out. Of course, 
Pegoud was strapped in. It will be remem- 
bered by readers of AERONAUTICS that a 
similar performance was done involuntarily 
by Capt. Aubry in a Dep. It is reported that 
Bleriot hopes to see Pegoud turn his mono- 
plane over sideways in the air and back again, 
instead of in the vertical direction. 

In 1905 Maloney, who was employed by 
Prof. J. J. Montgomery to operate his gliders 
in free flight after being released high in the 
air, once pressed too hard on the "stirrup" 
which warped the wings, and made a 
side somersault very much like one turn of 
a corkscrew. Wilkie, another operator, not 
to be outdone, said he would do the same, and 
actually made two side somersaults, one in 
one direction and one in an opposite, then 
made a deep dive and a long glide and when 
about 300 feet high brought the aeroplane 
to a sudden stop and settled to the earth. 

After this, Montgomery changed the ma- 
chine to allow but plain sailing. (See p. 49, 
January, 1909, AERONAUTICS.) 

In 191 1 Lieut H. R. P. Reynolds, R.E., 
was turned upside down in a Bristol biplane 
by a whirlwind at a height of some 2,000 
feet, and alighted safely, but wrong side up. 



In 1912 W. R. B. Moorhouse purposely forced 
the nose of a Bleriot up as far as it would go 
and then switched off, in an endeavor to force 
a tail-slide, by way of an experiment. The 
machine stood still on end, then rolled slightly 
over sideways and dived, descending without 
damage. A Maurice Farman, piloted by a 
pupil, performed a similar feat involuntarily 
at Eastchurch. Capt. Aubry, on a Deperdus- 
sin, also turned a somersault in the air, un- 
intentionally, and survived. 

On August 25th Pegoud left his aeroplane at 
an altitude of about 750 feet and descended in 
a parachute invented by a man named Bonnet. 
The aeroplane was left to shift for itself. 

After attaining an altitude of about 600 feet, 
and, facing the direction of the wind, Pegoud 
was seen to release the lever for liberating the 
parachute, diving at a slight angle as he did 
so. Suddenly he was seen to be suspended 
in the air, while the machine continued on its 
course alone with its engine running. It rose 
till, at a height considerably above Pegoud 
and his parachute, it effected a tail-slide and 
turned completely over. Righting itself almost 
immediately it glided at a normal angle to the 
earth, very little damage being done. Pegoud, 
meanwhile, was gently lowered into the 
branches of a tree, entirely unharmed. 

The device is constructed by Bonnet, and is 
kept flat against the rear of the fuselage by 
means of two spring arms. The pilot is at- 
tached to it by means of rubber cords, and 
can release the arms when necessary with a 
lever at his side. Oscillations of the para- 
chute when in action are dampened by a hole 
14 cms. in diameter, and through the fact that 
the air can percolate slightly through the silk 
immediately adjacent to it. 



A PRIZE FOR STABILIZERS 

M. Henry Bonnet has offered a prize of $200 
to the pilot of a machine which shall fly a dis- 
tance of 20 kil. without there being any inter- 
vention on his part in order to maintain bal- 
ance in either the lateral or longitudinal direc- 
tion. The rudder may be used for steering, 
but no warping to nullify its effects on bal- 
ance is permissible. The tests will take place 
in a wind having a minimum velocity of 10 
M. P. H. A representative of the Commission 
Sportive Aeronautique will be seated beside 
the pilot, and will, in consequence, be able to 
assure himself that none of the controls are 
manipulated. 

CHANGE IN PILOT CONDITIONS 

At the last meeting of the F. A. I. it was 
decided that the conditions under which pilots' 
certificates are obtained should be altered, 
though not to any serious extent. The aero- 
plane pupil must now ascend to an altitude of 
100 metres instead of 50 in the height test, and 
glide with his engine completely stopped. 

The dirigible pupil, also, must now make 
20 ascents in order to obtain his brevet. This 
number holds good if he already has one for 
spherical balloons — if not, 25 ascents must be 
made. 



4ERONA UTICS 



Page 95 



September, 1913 



WOMAN DROPS FROM AEROPLANE 

European papers seem to have the idea that 
?*egoud, when he cut loose from his aeroplane 
n mid-air with a parachute and safely de- 
icended to earth, did a new and wonderful 
eat. And here, since Leo Stevens a year 
igo. introduced dropping from aeroplanes by 
)arachute, one can almost say this "stunt" 
s being done daily. 




Scarcely more than a line was given in news- 
papers to the drops made by Aliss "Tiny" 
Broadwick from Glenn Martin's tractor dur- 
ing the Perry Centennial Celebration during 
August, and now being made as an exhibition 
feature in the Middle West. The illustration 
shows how the parachute was attached to the 
fuselage of the machine. 



BLERIOT AERIAL LAUNCHER 

The latest invention of Louis Bleriot. al- 
ready mentioned in AERONAUTICS, may be 
found of practical value for the launching and 
landing of aeroplanes on board war vessels 
suitably ecjuipped. Trials have already been 
successfully made in the presence of French 
marine officials. In the trials the apparatus 
used was an 80 meter long cable suspended 
in the air by transverse cables at each end at- 
tached to posts in the ground 20 meters apart. 
On the Bleriot monoplane is a V-shaped frame 
which supports the actual device itself. The 
aviator, who was Pegoud again, approached 
the long cable in flight and maneuvered his 
aeroplane so that the two wooden forks at- 
tached to the framework mentioned before 
came on either side of the cable. Under pres- 
sure the catch at the junction of the forks al- 
lows the cable to pass by and closes again. 
The motor is stopped and the machine slows 
down on the upgrade of the cable. To start 
from the wire, speed is attained and the catch 




released by the pilot's pulling the control, 
which can easily be seen in the illustration, 
and the monoplane is free. The left photo 
shows the catch closed over the wire. The 
one on the right shows Pegoud just before 
catching the cable. 



EFFECT OF CHANGES IN TEMPERA- 
TURE ON CARBURETION 

Ordinarily the change is not so great that 
it will have any effect on the motor. The only 
time that I have ever noticed this to occur was 
at Texas City, while maneuvering there with 
the troops. It was late in the season, about 
May, I think, and the sun had begun to get 
pretty hot. I had climbed to 3.000 feet and 
noticed a bank of cloud coming up. There 
was a very perceptible change of temperature, 
beginning at 1,500 feet, being much cooler than 
on the ground. The carburetor had been ad- 
justed to the temperature on the ground, this 
usually being sufficient for all ordinary 
heights. In coming back, after circling over 
the places that I had been sent to reconnoiter, 
the cloud bank had moved inland about 10 
miles. The clouds were so thick that I could 
see nothing, so I glided down until I had 
passed through them.| All of this time the 
motor had been missing considerably but just 
as soon as I went through the cloud the motor 
immediately started firing properly. There 
must have been a difference of 10 degrees or 
1!^ degrees in the temperature. 

LiKUT. MlI.IJNG. 



It is of interest to note that the motor on 
this flight was a Renault, air-cooled. We can 
recall a certain air-cooled car which demanded 
carburetor adjustment night and morning. 



It does not take long to teach a man to fly. 
but it takes a long time to make a military 
aviator. It is easy to teach a man to fly. They 
are doing it now at the Wright school in 10 
days, and any man can learn to fly in 10 days. 

To make a man an expert military aviator 
cannot possibly be done under one year. 

Lieut. Arnold. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 96 



September, 1913 



NEW FAST WRIGHT MODEL 

While the school work has been progressing 
steadily, one of the new model "E." exhibition 
machines has appeared at the field, and under 
the expert guidance of Mr. Orville Wright on 
September 3rd, a few hours after leaving the 
factory, was in the air on its initial flight, climb- 
ing with plenty of reserve power and showing 
up a good speed. This machine is of the 
single propeller type, the first one of the pro- 
ducts of the Wright factory to be so equipped, 
and the comparison of its performances with 
that of the two propeller machine, is even 
more interesting and instructive than the 
technical staflf of the Wright Company had 
anticipated. Many exceedingly important fea- 
tures have been brought out, and Mr. Wright 
is spending a good deal of time flying this 
machine in various kinds of weather. 

Its chief features are the ease of knocking- 
down and packing in boxes for cheap ship- 
ment from place to place, and also that the 
size of the sections themselves are such that 
if complete knocking-down into boxes is not 
done, the sections of the machine can be placed 
in an express car. This so greatly facilitates 
the getting around from place to place in mak- 
ing exhibition dates, that those familiar with 
this field, who in recent visits to the factory 
have inspected type "E"' are most enthusiastic, 
and foresee in it exactly the type of machine 
that they require in their work. 

The tests that are being made now will con- 
tinue for some time, so that this type will be 
standardized and ready for the road long be- 
fore next spring. 

Many exhibition flyers and managers are ex- 
pected at Dayton to view the performances of 
this machine later in the fall, "when it has 
gone through the mill" of the thorough tests 
and experiments that it is being put to. 

The work at the Wright School, at Simms 
Station, has been continued steadily and one 
of the recent graduates of the school, who 
demonstrated excellent ability in his lessons 
was Mr. A. B. Gaines, of New York City. Al- 
though Mr. Gaines got to the stage where he 
was flying alone in fine form, it was necessary 
for him to return to the city before taking 
his pilot's license. However, Gaines is to con- 
tinue work on the aeroboat next spring. 

At present there are training at the school 
under Oscar Brindley's expert guidance, Mr. 
Lindop E. Brown of Glasgow, Montana, and 
Mr. H. :M. Rinehart of Dayton, Ohio. 



CORK FOR HYDROAEROPLANE 
FLOATS 

An English dealer in a special variety of 
granulated cork (Leoline Edwards, 81 St. 
Margaret's Road, Twickenham) claims that 
this is twice as buoyant as ordinary cork, the 
air cells being considerably larger. It is sug- 
gested that floats be filled with this, with the 
handicap of slight extra weight, but with the 
assurance that danger from punctures would 
be greatly diminished. This cork is resilient 
and could as well be used for jackets, padding 
for seats, and so forth. 



AIR EQUIPMENT OF THE U. S. ARMY 

Sixteen aeroplanes are in the Army aviation 
service at the present time and seven more 
are on order and ought to be delivered early 
in October. 

In the Philippines are : i Wright B, 30 
H. P., training machine; i Burgess hydro- 
aeroplane with 60 H. P. Sturtevant ; 2 Wright 
C. 50 H. P.; all of which can be turned into 
hydros with equipment at hand. There are 
5 pilots. 

In Hawaii : i Curtiss E, 75 H. P. ; i Cur- 
tiss tractor, 80 H. P. ; i pilot. 

San Diego : i Wright B, 30 H. P. ; i Wright 
C, 30 H. P. : I Burgess-Wright F, 40 Sturte- 
vant ; 2 Wright C, so H. P. ; i Curtiss D-E, 60 
H. P.; I Curtiss D, 75 H. P. There are 7 
pilots and 8 under instruction. 

San Antonio: i Wright D, 50 H. P. No 
pilot. 

Texas City : i Wright C, 50 H. P. ; i Bur- 
gess tractor, 70 Renault. Two pilots. 

In all, there are but 19 officers on aviation 
duty, of which number all can fly. 

The machines on order are: i Curtiss 
standard, 70 H. P. Curtiss motor; 3 Burgess 
tractors, 70 H. P. Renaults ; i Wright with 
90 H. P. Daimler; i Curtiss tractor with 160 
H. P. Gnome ; i Burgess tractor with a 100 
H. P. Renault. The State Department has 
purchased 8 Renault 70's and the new ma- 
chines added to the one on hand will make 4 
of these most successful tractors with 4 en- 
gines in reserve; these are considered an 
intermediate type between the standard Wright 
and Curtiss machines and the new high- 
powered machines coming through. 

At Fort Omaha there are 5 fill balloons 
and I captive and a complete hydrogen out- 
fit using the electrolytic process. 

The old original Wright is now in Smith- 
sonian Institute. Two Wrights, a Curtiss, a 
Curtiss flying boat and a Burgess (Wright 
type) have been destroyed in accidents. 



U. S. AEROPLANE GUN 

Very few details are available of the ex- 
periments that have been made by the Ord- 
nance Department on high-angle guns, but it 
can at least be said that improvements have 
been made to existing types in the U. S. Army 
sufficient to make them adaptable. 

Technical details: Weight of projectile, 6 
pounds ; muzzle velocity, 2400 feet per second ; 
maximum limit of elevation 70 degrees ; semi- 
automatic breech mechanism. Most promis- 
ing projectile, high explosive shrapnel, the 
head of which detonates after a travel of 
about 75 yards beyond point of burst of the 
shrapnel The two puffs of smoke thereby 
secured serve to outline the trajectory near 
the point of burst and facilitate adjustment 
of range. 



In the flight around Berlin on August 30th and 31st, 
22 machines started and 16 finished. Of the success- 
ful aeroplanes, Bosch magnetos were used on 11 of 
them, which number also used Bosch plugs. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 97 



September, 1913 




Some German Heads 



I think the Panama Canal would be put out 
of business, probably in one hour or two 
hours, by an enemy with aeroplanes. That is, 
of course, my own personal opinion. We 
do not know the effect of an explosive dropped 
from an aeroplane, because it has never been 
done except in a small way. I firmly believe 
when the experiments are carried on in that 
direction that it will be found to be very de- 
structive. 

No matter how strongly the canal is forti- 
fied a (enemy's) fleet does not come within 
range of the guns ; they cruise out 20 or 30 
miles. The distance to Gatun Dam or to the 



locks would be probably half an hour's fly. 
They send out their aeroplanes loaded with 
high explosives, say 20 or 30 of them, as many 
as they can send, hoping that some of them 
will get back; but in warfare we take chances, 
and if they destroyed the canal no doubt they 
would be willing to lose them all. They send 
them up and they are flying one after another, 
placing 500 pounds of nitrogelatin first on the 
spillway and later up the Culebra Cut. caus- 
ing slides. I think some of you gentlemen 
know the effect of an explosive, on the earth, 
causing it to slide. 

Lieut. R. E. Scott. 



AERONA UTICS 



Pagz 98 



September, 1913 



THE ROYAL AIRCRAFT FACTORY BE 2 

The biplane built by the Royal Aircraft 
Factory, England, the BE 2, early this year 
was the third of a series constructed and was 
designed after a series of experiments on 
full-sized machines to improve their efficiency 
and stability and the results obtained were in 
almost perfect accord with the computations 
of laboratory data. During these tests, im- 
provements in speed, in range, in amount of 
load carried, in climbing ability, stability, ease 
of control and total efficiency, were obtained 
as the net results of applying laboratory data. 
The BE 2 was expressly calculated to exceed 
the requirements of the 1912 British aeroplane 
competition, from data furnished by the Brit- 
ish National Aerodynamical Laboratory. The 
improvements were almost wonderful. The 
BE 2 has a range of from 42 M. P. H. to 72 
M. P. H., can alight at speeds below 40 miles, 
climb at 480 feet a minute for first thousand 
feet, and go 6,000 feet at an average climbing 
speed of 380 feet a minute without passenger 
and has a gliding angle of i in 8 under best 
conditions. 

The wings are set at a dihedral angle, each 
wing rising 1% degrees. Ends of the planes 
may be warped 7 degrees in either direction. 
As the usual flying angle is 2 degrees to 3 de- 
grees, the down side of the plane has a maxi- 
mum angle of 9 or 10 degrees, while the up 
side has a negative angle of 4 to 5 degrees. 
Though the efficiency is superior at 4 or 5 de- 
grees angle, the large surface is used to get 
range of speed and rapid climbing. The tail 
plane has an area of 52 sq. ft. and carries fly- 
ing about 35 pounds. The machine can be 
turned in a radius of 120 feet if properly 
banked. The area of the rudder is 12 sq. ft., 
and exercises a force of 115 pounds at 16 feet 
radius from c. of g. at 68 M. P. H. and at an 
angle of 20 degrees. 

The elevators are hinged to the rear of the 
stabilizing plane and have a total surface of 
25 sq. ft. 

The landing gear consists of ash skids with 
a reinforced tubular axle with rubber shock 
absorbers. A rear skid is attached to the 
fuselage by a swivel joint and is turned with 
the rudder making steering on the ground 
possible at low speeds. 

The 70 H. P. Renault engine can be throttled 
down so that the machine will stand still and 
the pilot can start without assistance. In ac- 
tual flight the engine revolutions can be run 
from 1,350 to 1,950 and propeller revolutions 
from 675 to 975, still maintaining horizontal 
flight. The muffler which has been tried, seems 
to reduce the horsepower under load by 2%. 
The aeroplane has been inverted and laid 
on its back and the wings have been loaded 
to three times the loaded weight of the ma- 
chine-weight of wings. This resulted in the 
strengthening of the rear lateral spar to give 
it the same proportional strength as the front 
one; however, the lighter spar did not take 
a permanent set. 

The area of the upper wings totals 202 sq. 
ft., the lower, 172 sq. ft. 



THE 



BREGUET TWIN-FLOAT SEA- 
PLANE 



While the hydroaeroplane meeting this 
spring, at Monaco, proved a succession of 
disasters, one unqualified success alone stood 
out. Moineau's magnificent flight in a gale 
will not readily be forgotten, and more than 
deserved the gold medal awarded it by the 
Ministry of Marine; and when Bregi carried 
off a non-stop flight of 160 miles, Louis 
Breguet fully established his reputation as the 
foremost French hydroaeroplane constructor 
of the day. 

The two machines in question were of 
slightly different type, that of Moineau driven 
by a 2GO H. P. i8-cyl. Canton-L^nne being pro- 
vided with one main central float furnished 
with oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers and one 
small auxiliary swivelling float midway along 
each wing, while Bregi's 130 H. P. machine 
had twin floats working on rubber shock ab- 
sorbers. For the present we will confine our- 
selves to a description of this latter seaplane. 1 
To British Aeronautics we are indebted for aJ 
description of this machine. Its main dimen- j 
sions are : Span, 5o.8 feet ; chord, 5.7 feet ; \ 
length over all, 32 feet ; plane area, 484 sq. ft. ; 
length of floats, 13 feet; displacement of; 
floats, 560 gallons; weight (empty), 1,98b lbs. ; 1 




JmALAmaiAFimCTr3££ 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 99 



September, 1913 



useful load, 750 lbs. ; loading, 5.6 lbs. per sq. 
ft. ; tankage, 4 hours. 

The fuselage is not unlike that of the land 
machine, but with one important difference 
from the constructional point of view. It 
consists of four steel tubes converging to- 
wards the tail, and braced at intervals by steel 
struts and cross-pieces, by means of clips, 
none of the members being pierced. The 
lower surface of the fuselage is horizontal, 
the upper side curving downward towards the 
rear. The forward portion, of heavier gauge 
tubing, contains the seats and forms the motor 
bed. The seats are exceptionally roomy and 
give ample accommodation for two passen- 
gers, with a certain amount of space for lug- 
gage or spare parts. On the whole, this four- 
steel-tube fuselage is preferable to the old 
central-tube one, since it eliminates the dan- 
ger from torsional stresses to which the other 
type was always exposed. 

The wings are of the usual type, save that, 
in addition to the wires which prevent the in- 
cidence from falling below a certain angle and 
so obviate the danger of the wings flattening 
out in their rotary movement about the main 
steel spar, additional stops are provided, as a 
farther safeguard, which limit the movement 
of the steel spring connecting each rib to the 
spar. The upper plane has no dihedral, but 




the lower plane has a distinct dihedral angle, 
which has the further advantage of giving 
greater clearance to the wing tips. 

The control is of the now usual Breguet 
type, and is universal : fore-and-aft movement 
of the lever operates the elevator, sideways 
motion actuates the warp, while steering is ef- 
fected by twisting the wheel, motor car fash- 
ion. A foot warp control is added for the 
purpose of relieving the arms during long 
flights — a hydro by reason of its greater 
weight and the resistance of the floats requires 
more power to work the controls than a land 
machine — and of giving greater power of con- 
trol in gusty weather. Incidentally, of course, 
it acts as a safeguard against the rupture of 
one control cable. The foot control is gen- 
erally only employed to restore lateral balance 
in gusts and eddies, the hand warp being used 
for the more delicate maneuver of bankings 
All the control wires, with the exception of 
those of the warp, are carried within the 
fuselage — a most important point in a hydro. 

The tail is of the ordinary Breguet type,. 
save that the upper surface of the elevator is 
cambered so as to lift the weight of the tail 
float. The rear of the fuselage is equipped 
with a long triangular fin, to give weathercock 
stability and to balance the lateral float re- 
sistance, fixed to the fuselage by four steel 
arms. 

The engine is a 9-cyl. 130 H. P. Canton Une, 
fitted with two carburetors and running at 
i,35o R. P. M. in the air. It is further pro- 
vided with an excellent self-starter. An 
auxiliary magneto, giving an exceptionally 
long spark is fitted and operated from the 
pilot's seat by twirling a small switch-lever. 
When this is in operation a single swing of 
the starting lever starts the engine without 
effort. The propeller is a Chauviere tipped 
with copper. The pressure in the main tank 
is maintained by the familiar little air pro- 
peller working in the slip stream. 

But the chief feature of the Breguet hydro, 
all said and done, is the marine portion — the 
floats and their attachment to the fuselage. 
The twin floats are of the Fabre type, with a 
perfectly flat under surface, and are consti- 
tuted by two skins, the outer one being slightly 
flexible so as to yield slightly to the uneven 
surface of the water. Each float is 13 feet 
long, and divided into six water-tight compart- 
ments. The bow is fair-shaped and the upper 
surface slightly domed, so that, on the whole, 
the air resistance is not unduly high. The 
small tail-float rigidly attached to the rear of 
the fuselage is chiefly designed to protect the 
rudder since, normally, the machine rides the 
water on its two main floats. A small stream- 
line float is attached to the extremity of each 
wing tip. 

We now come to the suspension which, 
more than any other single feature, renders 
the Breguet hydro so distinctive and has un- 
doubtedly played an important part in its suc- 
cess. Louis Breguet was the first to recog- 
nize the great importance of shock absorbers 
for marine work, in which they play an even 
more important part than on land machines. 
{Coniiftued on page loj) 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 100 



September, 1913 



BIPLANE "PONNIER-PAGNY" ON 
NEW PRINCIPLE 

Half biplane, half monoplane is the struc- 
ture built by two young French designers, 
after a study of two machines, a monoplane 
and a biplane, built by the same firm and with 
the same system of equilibrium. They found 
between these two types absolute dissimilarity 
instead of the similarity expected, considering 
they are two solutions of the same problem. 
In other industries similarity is the rule. 

However, in the Ponnier-Pagny one finds 
this similarity, whether a question of mono- 
plane or biplane, one or two passengers. 

Excepting hydroaeroplanes, all the apparati 
of this firm belong to the category of machines 
■whose centres of gravity, pressure, resistance 
and thrust about coincide. The c. of g. is, 
however, located slightly below the centre of 
pressure. The incidence of the horizontal tail, 
naturally non-supporting, is negative, and its 
value varies from minus 3^ degree for single 
man machines to minus i degree for two man 
machines. This disposition gives to the longi- 
tudinal dihedral the greatest value and as- 
sures excellent longitudinal stability. More- 
over, a "lorward preponderance,"* and thus 
assures automalic gliding descent in the event 
of a sudden stoppage of the motor. 

The screw is always a propeller and mounted 
direct connected to the motor, except for the 
special armored war machine. Its axis passes 
through the centre of pressure of the sup- 
porting surfaces (which are "sloped as de- 
sired"). If the machine is a single seater, 
the pilot, whose weight is an essential factor 
for proper balance, is placed forward of the 
entering edge ; in the passenger machine, 
either the passenger sits over the c. of g. and 
the pilot in front, or else a passenger (ob- 
server or marksman) is placed in the extreme 
front before the pilot ; or finally, the pilot 
and passenger sit side by side in line with 
the entering edge of the wings. In every case 
the field of vision is the greatest possible. 
Furthermore, the masses are near the c. of g. 
Therefore, the "nacelle," or car, is short and 
can be enclosed with sheet steel in streamline 
form. 

The first machine of this series has com- 
menced trials and the results were conclu- 
sive as to the principles involved, only a few 
slight details of construction had to be al- 
tered and the new machines confirmed expec- 
tations. 

The "fuselage," or, more exactly, the car, 
is not in the first machine of steel. It is com- 
posed of a framework of steel tubing, cov- 
ered with a fabric. The disposition of the 
organs is identical with that of the final ap- 
paratus. Special fittings, strong and light, 
are employed to connect them to the tubes of 
the fundamental prism. 

The wings, designed with great care, com- 
prise three parts: (i) An entering edge, very 
short, of angular shape acting as a wind de- 
flector. (Modifications are under test for the 

* By "forward preponderance" is meant that the 
■c. of g. is forward of the c. of p. on wings. 




application of the Constantine system and ac- 
tual tests are being made in flight by Ponnier 
himself. Note, in passing, recent article by 
Mr. Sellers in AERONAUTICS on the ex- 
periments of M. Constantin.) (2) A thick 
sustaining surface, comprised between the two 
spars, acting by depression on the back, and 
compression on the face. The profile of the 
back is parabolic and tangent to the leading 
and trailing edges ; that of the face is parallel 
to it and joins with the leading and trailing 
edges. (3) The trailing edge is in the form of 
a blade, with parabolic profiles, and which op- 
erates by "recuperation." The centre of pres- 
sure is equidistant between the two spars 
which are jointed and not "journalled." Act- 
ing chiefly by depression, the wings have a 
very small incidence, variable according to the 
type of machine. Their profiles are similar. 
All the factors of their outline are in a mathe- 
matical relation advanced by Pagny, after nu- 
merous experiments made on wings of very 
difi'erent dimensions, of which the incidence 
varies from 4 degrees to o degree, and the 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 101 



September, 1913 




QMVDR9/I 



cambre from 150 millimetres to o millimetre, 
passing through intermediate values. At 
the limit, for o degree and o millimetre, the 
face would be flat and the back parabolic. 

The transverse dihedral is positive and is 
25 millimetres per metre. 

The warp is effected by pivoting the spars 
about their axes, and journalling the ribs on 
the spars; there is, therefore, no tension. The 
warp is progressive and powerful, and its ex- 
treme flexibility renders it quasi-automatic. 

(Bielovucic affirms he did not operate the 
warp during his flight over the Alps). 

Lateral stability is by warping, as above 
stated. Soon comparative trials will be made 
with ailerons and flaps. Longitudinal stabil- 
ity is assured by a foldable tail at the rear 
of the fuselage, same being at a negative angle 
of incidence, and an elevator in two parts, to 
permit the swinging of the rudder. 

A vertical rudder is hinged to the rearmost 
strut of the fuselage. The tail truss is com- 
posed of beams of steel tubing and struts of 
the same material, braced with music wire. 



^^ The landing gear is composed of two lateral 
' V's," the branches of which are tied to the 
car, the tops of which are fastened by two pins 
rigidly to the prism. The axle is jointed, its 
displacement being limited by rubber bands. 

A special device is used for the attachment 
of the motor, which can be varied, making it 
quickly demountable. Controls by a lever with 
double movement and by foot pedals. The 
folding of the machine is well worked out. 
The wings are demountable ; also the tail — and 
their disarrangement is almost impossible. 



CAUDRON NOT MERELY AMPHIBIOUS 

Abroad they point to American flying boats 
as inland water craft unsuited for sea flying 
and supporting this contention they consist- 
ently stick to catamaran floats. The Caudron 
people, of whose machines we have seen a 
sample in this country use wheels as permanent 
fixtures, located in slots built in the pontoons, 
the wheels just projecting below the high step. 
Other foreign makers frequently use wheels 
which can be drawn up or let down. As will 
be seen from the drawings herewith, the 
"tread" is wide and the wheel axles are at- 
tached rigidly to the floats. Spring suspen- 
sion is provided by rubber shock absorbers. 
The six chassis struts to each float are con- 
nected to two bars which are parallel to the 
sides of the float and far enough apart for the 
float to swing freely between them. This 
framing pivots about a cross-tube attached by 
clips to the float, which clips act as bearings 
for the transverse tube. At the rear, between 
the rearmost struts, there is another trans- 
verse tube also secured to the float. The ends 
of this tube extend far enough on either side 
to rest upon the parallel side spars mentioned 
first and the rubber bands bind the two flexibly 
together at their junction. It will be seen that 
the float pivots about the forward cross- 
member with a certain amount of vertical 
movement as admitted by the rubber bands. 

The surfaces are the same as on the land 
machines. The' rear portion of the main 
planes are flexible and the front and rear 
struts are quite close together. Lateral sta- 
bility is secured by warping and the elevator 
is one single plane, which is also warped. The 
rudders are twin and are above the elevator. 
Control is by a universally mounted post for 
elevator and warp, with foot-yoke for the 
rudders. 

The 80 H. P. Gnome is carried by overhung 
bearings and drives an 8 foot propeller. Two 
unique floats support the tail when the ma- 
chine is at rest on the water and under the 
main planes are wing tip cylindrical floats. 
Some of these machines have been sold to the 
French Government and are now being intro- 
duced into England. 

The area of the main planes is 3-0 sq ft.; 
sjian of upper plane, 42 feet; lower 28 feet; 
tail plane (elevator), 50 sq. ft.; rudders. 16 
sq. ft; total length. 26 feet 8 inches; chord, 
5 feet I inch; gap, 5 feet i inch. Full details, 
with scale drawing, of the Caudron monoplane 
were published in the October, 1912, issue. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 102 



September, 1913 



ANOTHER NEW SOPWITH WATER 
'PLANE 

The machine which Harry Hawker used in 
his great flight for the "Round Britain" Daily 
Mail prize was built by T. O. iM. Sopwith, 
whose land machines were described in a 
previous issue. 

This new water 'plane resembles the land 
machine generally but is fitted with a lOO 
H. P. 6-cy!inder Green engine. It will be 
remembered by readers that a Green engine 
won the 24-hour test for the Alexander prize, 
of which test a full report was printed in 
AERONAUTICS. 

The fuselage of this machine is of conven- 
tional construction, the longitudinals being of 
of ash and the struts and cross members in 
the head section of ash and in the rear of 
spruce. The main spars of the staggered 
planes are of spruce, I-section, the planes be- 
ing set at a small dihedral angle. The engine 
section is covered in with aluminum. 

Lateral stability is secured by ailerons of 
large size in both upper and lower surfaces, 
interconnected. These are operated by the 
rotation of the hand wheel which is mounted 
on a vertical column ; a forward-and-back 
movement actuates the elevator and the rud- 
der is turned bv a foot lever. The control 




cables are inclosed in the body for the greater 
part of their lengths. The upper plane is open 
over the engine section. As shown in the 
drawings, "baffle plates" of streamline form 
partially make up for the lack of upper sur- 
face in this centre section. 

With pilot and passenger up, fuel and oil, 
the weight is about 2,400 pounds and the fly- 
ing speed around 60 M. P. H. 

The single-step floats are framed in ash and 
spruce and covered with cedar. (A note on 
cedar lumber was published on page 136 of 
the April, 1913, issue). There are three com- 




partments, two of which in each boat will 
keep the machine afloat. In addition to struts 
to the lower plane there are struts running up 
to the bow end of the fuselage to take the 
weight of the engine. The struts between the 
planes are hollowed out and all are of spruce. 

Pressure is used on the gasoline tank and 
maintained by a small pump attached to a 
strut and driven by a small air propeller. 

Total area main planes, 500 sq ft. ; elevator 
area, 26 sq. ft.; tail plane area, 120 sq. ft.; 
rudder, 12 sq. ft. 



The Daily Mail offered a prize of $25,000 
to the first English aviator who, on a British- 
built machine, accomplished a circuit of the 
British Isles in 72 hours. Harry Hawker, after 
one previous trial in which he was obliged to 
give up, started with a passenger, on Aug. 25 
from Southampton, followed the eastern coast 
up beyond Aberdeen, most to the north of 
Scotland, turned across Scotland at Cromarty 
diagonally southwest over the Caledonian 
Canal to Oban, on the western coast of the 
island. They left Oban the morning of the 
third day and crossed the Irish Sea and down 
the eastern coast of Ireland to a landing at 
Portrain, just a few miles north of Dublin. 
While making a spiral to land here. Hawker's 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 103 



September. 1913 




/?ffOi. E r- £W Gj./r/vJ> 



foot slipped from the rudder bar and lost con- 
trol of the machine so that it dropped to the 
water. The mileage covered was 1,043 out of 
the total of 1,540. This incident was sufficient 
to preclude the possibility of repairing and 
finishing within the time limit. The first day 
495 miles were covered in five stages, the long- 
est single flight being one of 150 miles in 178 
minutes. 

Sopwith machines have made the following 
British records : Duration, 8 hours, 23 min- 
utes ; height, 11,450 feet; two-man height, 12,- 
903 feet ; three-man height, 10,600 feet, and 
world's four-man height record of 8,400 feet. 



RADLEY'S HYDRO-AEROPLANE 

James Radley, another English aviator 
whose flights have been numerous in Amer- 
ica, and one of the members of the English 
team in the 1910 international race, with Gor- 
don England, has produced a "waterplane" 
with features a bit out of the ordinary. 

This machine is a modification of a ma- 
chine built earlier this year with similar twin 
floats in which the pilot and passengers sit 
but which was powered with three Gnome en- 
gines, each driving by chain a propeller shaft. 



and each of the three being capable of being 
eliminated as a driving element. These floats 
were more or less of the conventional, simple 
type. 

In this latest machine the floats are real 
boats, constructed by a boat-builder and are 
'"clinker" built, known to all users of row 
boats, in which the planks overlap instead of 
butt together. Cedar is used and there are 
three watertight compartments ; water is pos- 
sible of entrance only in the central section 
of each boat. Two people may sit in each, 
tandem. The controls are of the type made 
famous by Farman. 

.\ single engine is used this time, an 8-cyl- 
inder Sunbeam of 150 H. P., which drives 
through a two-to-one gear, a 4-bladed pro- 
peller, 9.5 ft. diameter and 4 ft. 7 ins. pitch. 
The engine runs normally at 2,200 and is a 
development of the automobile engine of the 
same name which has recently attracted great 
attention in track racing through its many 
wins at high speeds. 

The location of the tank will be seen from 
the drawing, and this holds upwards of 80 
gallons of gasoline and 8 gallons of oil. 

Hickory spars are used for the main planes, 
of I-section, with poplar and spruce ribs. 
Struts are spruce, with exception of those in 
the engine section which are of Honduras 
mahogany. It may be interesting to note that 
the struts are hollowed out. 

Lateral stability is maintained by ailerons 
in the top surface only, positive acting; one 
goes up as the other goes down and vice 
versa. 

The elevator is of conventional type hinged 
to a non-lifting tail. The rudders are twin. 
The fabric is linen, coated with British Email- 
lite, which can now be purchased in the 
States. 

The weight of the entire machine, with four 
up and fuel for ten hours, is 2,500 lbs., and 
the speed is 60 miles an hour. 

Total area main planes 560 sq. ft. ; tail 
plane, 24 sq ft. ; elevator, 35 sq. ft. ; top plane, 
290 sq. ft. ; rudder, 18 sq. ft. 



In criticizing the British Government for 
lack of support of the aeronautical industry 
and for lack of availaole aeroplanes in case 
of sudden necessity, the number being set at 
^S. Howard Flanders, a constructor, remarks 
quite as a matter of course: "Moreover, there 
are not more than about 48 British machines 
on order." Why, if we could count ofifhand 
48 aeroplanes flying daily in .America we 
would think we were flourishing. 



Xinety-nine miles an hour for a Wright — 
This is reported in England when a Wright 
l)iplane is said to have exceeded, even, this 
speed fitted with an 80 H. P. water-cooled 
motor. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 104 



September, 1913 



DEMOUNTABLE TURNBUCKLE 

Everything for rapid take-down ! We have 
now arrived at the quick detachable wire 
strainer, or turnbuckle ; and it is patented in 
France and other countries. One wire fas- 




tens at A and another at B. To close, the 
lever C is folded up in its slot, the vvhile the 
loop A slips into place, the lock D slips over 
the hook of C and there you are. Tightening 
would be accomplished in the usual way. 



AERO STRENGTH OF VARIOUS 
COUNTRIES 

The strength of the air battalions of the 
various countries, tables of expenditures and 
appropriations have been compiled by the 
aeronautical section of the Signal Corps for 
use in the recent hearing before the Commit- 
tee on Military Affairs. Doubtless this in- 
formation is as near accurate as can be ob- 
tained, as it is useless to expect that foreign 
government are willing to furnish any data 
whatever. This compilation follows : 

France : 14 dirigibles, 8 under construction ; 
611 aeroplanes, 238 officers permanently de- 
tailed, 620 military pilots, 1. 174 officers and 
enlisted men on aviation duty. 

Germany: 15 dirigibles, 5 dirigibles under 
construction, 420 aeroplanes, 300 military 
pilots. 

Russia: 12 dirigibles, 10 dirigibles under 
construction, 200 aeroplanes, 80 military pilots. 

England : 6 dirigibles, 2 dirigibles under 
construction, 168 aeroplanes, 135 military 
pilots, 74 oflficers and 682 men on permanent 
air duty. 

Japan : 2 dirigibles, i dirigible under con- 
struction, 23 aeroplanes, 20 military aviators. 

United States: no dirigibles. 17 aeroplanes, 
19 military pilots, 19 officers detailed for avia- 
tion duty. 

Italy: 8 dirigibles, 2 dirigibles under con- 
struction, 153 aeroplanes, 175 military pilots. 

Mexico : 7 aeroplanes, 5 military pilots. 

Austria : 7 dirigibles in use, 3 under con- 
struction, 136 aeroplanes, 91 pilots. 

Brazil : 3 dirigibles, 18 aeroplanes, 12 pilots. 

Belgium : i dirigible, i building, 40 aero- 
planes, 68 pilots. 

Spain: i dirigible, 48 aeroplanes, 20 pilots. 

Bulgaria: i dirigilile, 28 aeroplanes, 10 
pilots. 

Roumania : 24 aeroplanes, 15 pilots. 

Chile : i dirigible, 6 aeroplanes, 3 pilots. 

China: 25 aeroplanes, 12 pilots. 

Greece : 52 aeroplanes, 10 pilots. 

Switzerland : 4 aeroplanes, 27 pilots. 



Turkey: 2 dirigibles, 15 aeroplanes. 

Servia: 8 aeroplanes. 

Argentine: 5 aeroplanes, 15 pilots. 

Australia : 4 aeroplanes. 

Norway : 3 aeroplanes, 5 pilots. 

Montenegro : 3 aeroplanes, 5 pilots. 

Denmark : 6 aeroplanes, 8 pilots. 

Holland and Sweden : 3 aeroplanes, 10 pilots. 

APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1913. VARIOUS 
COUNTRIES. 

France* $7,400,000 

Germanyt 5,000,000 

Russia 5,000,000 

England 3,000.000 

Japan fi.ooo.ooo 

Italy 2,100.000 

Mexico 400,000 

United States 125,000 

* $2,400,000 in for the Navy. 

t Approximate. 

t $12,500,000 and $25,000,000 will be ex- 
pended in the Navy and Army respectively 
covering a period of 5 years. 



By the end of 1916 the Chinese army expects 
to have 1000 aeroplanes, this year's budget 
calling for the purchase of 250. 



The Chairman. And how long do officers 
generally stay in the (aviation) service? 

Lieut. * * * That depends upon the tem- 
perament of the officer. Lieut. * * * has 
been in the service for some time; he started 
at the same time I did, and it has not affected 
him as far as I can see, but his length of ser- 
vice has made him more cautious ; that is all. 
Some other officers find that it gets on their 
nerves, and they become practically worthless 
as aviators. 

The Chairman. I suppose that after an of- 
ficer loses his nerve he is worthless as an 
aviator ? 

Lieut. * * * Yes, sir; and he must quit, 
or he will kill himself; he will probably kill 
himself and somebody else with him. — Hear- 
ing before Committee on Military Affairs. 



The model shown in the photograph is that 
of the Curtiss fiying boat. It is Ysth full size, 
is complete in every detail and is one of the 
finest examples of the model maker's art 
in America. 




AERONA UTICS 



'Page 1 05 



September, 1913 




Published Monthly by Aeronauttcj "Prtjj 

122 E. 25t- ST., NEW YORK 

Cable: A=ronautic. New York 

•Phone, 9122 Madison Sq. 

ERNEST L. JONES. Pres't — - THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treas'r-Sec'y 

ERNEST L, JONES, Edilor - M, B. SELLERS, Technical Ediior 

HARRY SCHULfZ, Model Edilor 

SUB=;C=^lPTION RATES 

United States, $3 00 Foreign. $3.50 



No. 73 



SEPTEMBER, 1913 



Vol. XIII, No. 3 



Entered as second-class malter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

^ AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the 2oth. 
Advertising pages close on the 25th. 

^ Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send 
currency. No foreign stamps accepted. 



cylero cTWart 



BREGUET WATER PLANE 

{Conti'fiuedjroin pn^e gg.) 

In the case of a central float airboat the mat- 
ter is relatively simple, but with two floats 
the designer is immediately confronted by the 
difficulty of one float being constantly in 
danger of being struck by a wave, while the 
other descends into a trough, so that equilib- 
rium may be easily upset; hence the necessity 
not only for enormous strength in the flrst 
place (and each of the Breguet floats weighs 
180 lbs.), but for enormous shock absorbing 
capacity. Moreover, each float must be sprung 
so as to work wholly independently of the 
other. 

This problem Breguet has solved in quite an 
original manner. To the front of each float, 
well in advance of the c. g., are attached two 
steel struts tied together by cross-struts, and 
mounted on ordinary universal joints. To the 
center of the after part of each float is at- 
tached a single steel strut by means of a ball- 
and-socket joint, whence it passes upwards 
through a hole in the lower plane, giving suf- 
ficient room for play, and joins the three front 
struts on a collar sliding vertically against 
heavy rubber shock absorbers of the type for- 
merly used on the REP. Moreover a diago- 
nal strut runs from the front and rear of each 
float to a central longitudinal steel tube con- 
nected to the fuselage by an inverted pyramid 
of steel struts. Every single joint constitutes 
a hinge, with the result that there is perfect 
flexibility and play in each direction. The 
system is ingenious to a degree ; more, it is 
highly eff'ective and once again reveals the 
originality of mind and the thorough going 
but unbiased manner in which this con- 
structor approaches each new problem, a qual- 
ity in which so many other designers, 
adaptors, and manufacturers are deficient. 

This fine machine is not a land aeroplane to 
which floats have been attached ; it is a sea- 
plane in the true meaning of the word. 



The amount of accessories to keep aero- 
planes in the field is astonishing. During some 
British manoeuvers with two airships and 
fourteen aeroplanes, it took 8 motor cars, 12 
light tenders, 10 heavy tenders, and 8 steam 
trucks to keep them going. 



RATES: 15 cents a line, 7 words to the line. 
Payment in advance. 



FOR SALE — 50 H. P. Gnome motor, practically 
new. Address letters Gnome, care of AERONAU- 
TICS. 122 E. 25th St., New York. 

F()R SALE — Tractor Riplane. Genuine Benoist 
19Ki model. Good as new. Will demonstrate. Ad- 
dress Tractor, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th 
St.. New York. 

FOR SALE — Returning to Europe, will sell Tractor 
Biplane 42 feet spread, extra parts, large tent, crates, 
etc.. Al exhibition machine, $300.00. 8-cyl. Y motor, 
Paragon & Normale propellers, radiators, gas tank, 
$700.00. Fully guaranteed. Will accept best offer 
for complete outfit. i\Iust be sold. Robinson Bros., 
59 Glasgow St.. Rochester, N. Y. 

ENGINE FOR SALE— S-cyl. "Y," list price, 
$1,500; new, never used. The one who buys this 
motor gets one of those few real bargains that isn't 
picked up every day. Thoroughly tested by maker 
who desires to sell the last one in his shop. Complete 
with propeller. $800. Address, "Eight Cylinder," 
care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th St., New 
York. 

SACRIFICE— A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one 
of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall- 
Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in Al condition, for $1,800 
cash, subject to demonstration to bonafide purchaser. 
Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped 
for the road. I'ree instruction in flight to purchaser 
at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the 
season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's 
door. ."Xddress "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 
122 E. 25th St., New York. 



Now Ready 

The Airman's Vade = Mecuni 

"NO. 1," METEOROLOGY 

By Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B. 

(Vice-President Royal Meteorological Society; Council 
Aeronautical Society i 

CONTENTS : Introduction and 5 Chapters on 

Temperature, Pressure, Wind, and Precipitation. 

Weather Forecasting. Index. 

Price 40 Cents Net Post Free 



'AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Buildings, 
London Wall, London, E. C. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 106 



September, 1913 



U. S. ARMY REQUIREMENTS FOR 
WATER PLANES 

I. Pontoon type of machine with inclosed 
body in which aviators are seated and instru- 
ments specified installed. 

2. In case of single pontoon it shall have at 
least one longitudinal center line water-tight 
bulkhead and at least two transverse water- 
tight bulkheads giving not less than six water- 
tight compartments. In case two pontoons are 
used, each pontoon shall have at least two 
transverse water-tight bulkheads or not less 
than three water-tight compartments. Pon- 
toons shall have at least three inches free- 
board when machine is fully loaded, this test 
made after machine has been floating on water 
24 hours. 

3. In flying boat type of machine aviators 
to be seated in boat and instruments speci- 
fied installed. One longitudinal center line 
water-tight bulkhead and at least two trans- 
verse water-tight bulkheads ; that is, not less 
than six wate;r-tight compartments. Sutifi- 
cient freeboard not to ship water going 30 
miles an hour in the open sea in a 25 mile 
wind. 

4. Plane of either type capable of easy 
handling on water, to have a tactical diameter 
of not more than 100 yards. 

5. Protective armor for pilot, observer, and 
engine, subject to Ordnance Department pene- 
tration tests for a small-arm fire. Armor shall 
be made of chrome steel and be about 0.075 
inch thick. 

6. The following instruments and radio 
equipment shall be placed on each machine and 
shall be considered a part thereof : Tachome- 
ter, compass, aneroid barometer, barograph, 
map holder, stretching board, combined, clock, 
angle or incidence indicator. 

7. All above instruments of make and type 
approved and furnished by Signal Corps, 
United States Army. 

8. A radio telegraphic apparatus on each 
machine. Equipment furnished by the Signal 
Corps. 

9. Power plant may be designated by Chief 
Signal Officer. _ Six hours' test on the block 
to determine its horsepower, speed, gasoline 
and engine consumption. 

10. Upon delivery for tests the manufac- 
turer will furnish the following data concern- 
ing the aeroplane: (a) weight, (b) normal 
angle of incidence in horizontal flight, (c) 
gliding angle, (d) gasoline and oil consump- 
tion of engine, (e) Safe increase angle of in- 
cidence, (f) two blueprints of engine and 
aeroplane, (g) list furnished with data. 

TESTS TO BE PASSED 

1. Carry two people with seats to permit 
largest field of observation for both. 

2. Control capable of use by either. 

3. Floats strong enough to allow beaching 
and rough water. 

4. Pack for assembling by 6 men in 1^/2 
hours. 

5. Ascend at least 1,500 feet in 10 minutes, 
with live load of 400 pounds, and fuel and 
oil for 4 hours. This load to be carried in all 
prescribed flying tests. 

6. Starting device. 

7. Non-stop 4-hour flight. 



8. Minimum speed 38 M. P. H.. and maxi- 
mum not less than 55 M. P. H. 

9. Machine capable of safe gliding. 

10. Manufacturers shall furnish demon- 
strators for all tests. 

11. Manufacturers must provide name plate, 
giving necessary data, such as maker's type 
and serial number. 

12. System of control of pattern approved 
by Board of Officers conducting tests. 

13. Desirable features : silencer, flight in 
20 mile wind, efficient stabilizing device, start- 
ing machine from within exposed body or 
boat. 

THE SIKORSKY AIR LIMOUSINE 

Probably the biggest aeroplane yet built is 
the new machine just now attracting attention, 
built by one Igor Sikorsky, a student with the 
Technical Institute at Kieff, Russia. It has 
flown a number of times and now holds the 
world's record for duration with seven on 
board, i hour 4 minutes. The passengers can 
walk around during flight and make sudden 
movements without affecting the stability of 
the aeroplane. 

The aeroplane is generally of standard type, 
but heavy and with a cabin added. Four Argus 
motors of 100 H. P. each, driving 4 propel- 
lers, are placed in pairs, two in front, two at 
the rear, a pair on either side of the cabin, 
mounted on the lower plane. In later trials 




the rear motors were moved to the front 
alongside of the other two, and the speed in- 
creased to 66 miles an hour. The supporting 
surface is 120 sq. m., spread 28 metres, total 
length 20 metres. There are eight wheels to 
the chassis, with elastic suspension. Ailerons 
for lateral equilibrium. The weight of the 
machine is 2700 kilos. (5940 lbs.). The ma- 
chine gets off in about 600 feet and lands as 
easily as any other. The speed is over 45 
miles an hour. It can carry 1600 lbs. load. 
The fuselage, of wood, terminates in a bal- 
cony for an observer. Back of this is a cabin 
10 feet long, with two pilot wheels. Still to 
the rear is another cabin for passengers, pro- 
visions, bombs, etc. Even a couch is provided. 
One motor may be out of service or under 
repairs during flight. The whole machine can 
be quickly taken down for transport. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 107 



September, 1913 



THE 

WRIGHT COMPANY 



OUR aeroplanes for land 
and water purposes re- 
main today as in the very 
beginning of flying, the most 
efficient machines in use. 

Mr. ORVILLE WRIGHT and our 
engineer, Mr. G. C. Loening, have 
spent over two years in careful ex- 
periment on the air-worthiness and 
sea-worthiness of aeroboats, in or- 
der todetermine thoroughly thecon- 
ditions that these cratt would have 
to meet. Naturally, therefore, 

THE WRIGHT AEROBOAT 

combines efficiency, safety, sea-wor- 
thiness, stability and contiol on the 
water in a degree that surpasses 
anything yet produced. 

Further Information Upon Request 



OUR STANDARD TYPES 

Model "C", two passenger, military 
scout, extensively used by 
United StatesWar Department. 

Model "D", one passenger, speed, 
scout — in its official military 
tests, this machine has consist- 
ently demonstrated a climbing 
of 1640 feet in 3 minutes. 

— I he A liter ican Record. 

Model "E", single propeller, exhi- 
bition machine, designed par- 
ticularly for ease ia assembling 
and taking down. 

Model "C-H", hydro-aeroplane, de- 
signed particularly for use over 
small inland streams. This ma- 
chine shows higher efficiency 
than has ever been attained in 
marine flying. 

THE WRIGHT SCHOOL AT SIMMS STATION, 
NEAR DAYTON, OHIO 

Compleie tuition, §^50. No charge for break- 
age. Pilot may use school machine for his li- 
cense tests free of charge. Dual control used. 
Average length of course, two weeks. Our 
terms are the best, and our equipmeiit also, 
as we wish to encourage flying in this way. 

™E WRIGHT INCIDENCE INDICATOR 

An indis-|jensablc instrument for the 
amateur aviator. Price $50.00. 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY 

DAYTON, OHIO 
New York Office: 11 PINE STREET 




McCormick's Flying Boat Exceeding 
60 Miles Per Hour 



If your Business 

were Building Aeroplanes 

You wouldn't stake your reputation on anything but 
the most RELIABLE fabric, tires, accessories, etc., 
that money could buy. Insist on such quality now 
when your safety is at stake. Follow the lead of 
successful manufacturers and insist upon the use of 

GoodJyear 

^J tV' AKRON, OHIO 

Stay-Tight 
Aeroplane Fabric 

The one fabric that is reliable at all times and under 
all conditions. It stays the same rain or shine. 

Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric is so treated that weather 
has little or no effect upon it. It is moisture-proof — non-rot. 
Won't shrink or stretch — practically non-inflammable. 

Here are some of the famous makers who believe in and 
use this quality fabric : The Curtiss Aeroplane Company, 
Burgess Company & Curtis ; The Wright Company ; 
Glenn L. Martin Co. ; Benoist Aircraft Company ; 
Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Co. 

We also make a full line of Aeroplane Tires in sin- 
gle tube, and double tube. No-Rim-Cut and Clincher 
Types. We furnish rims, also buih-up wheels. 

Let us inform you more fully on \\o\f 
GOODYEAR renders Aviators a saving 
service. Write for our circular on aero- 
plane accessories today. 

The Goodyear Tire S Rubber Company 

AKRON, OHIO 

Toronto, Canada. London, England. Mexico City, Mexico 
Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities. 
Write us on Anything You Want in Rubber. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 108 



September, 1913 




THE FREELAN BIPLANE 

BY Harry schultz, model Editor 

The model biplane shown in the accom- 
panying drawing was constructed by Clifford 
Freelan, of Cypress Hills, L. I., and was the 
winner of a contest recently held by the Long 
Island Model Aero Club, the results of which 
appear below : 

The fuselage consists of a single stick of 
balsa lA inch square, tapering to ^4 inch by 
yl inch at the front. The rear brace of bamboo 
is 9 inches long, H inch at the center, taper- 
ing to % inch at the ends. 

The propellers are carved out of spruce, 
are g inches in diameter and have a pitch 
angle of 45 degrees. The propellers are fitted 
with the usual bearings of I's inch tubing. 

The planes are constructed entirely of bam- 
boo. The upper main plane has a spread of 
28 inches, with a chord of 5 inches at the cen- 
ter, tapering to 4 inches at the tips. The lower 
main plane has a spread of 19 inches with a 
chord of 5 inches tapering to 4 inches at the 
tips. The struts or stanchions between the 
planes are eight in number and measure 5 
inches in length. As shown in the drawing 
the main stick or fuselage passes between the 
main planes. As shown, the planes are slightly 



staggered. The elevating plane is constructed 
the same as the main plane, and measures 
13 inches in spread with a chord of 33/2 inches 
at the center. It is placed on an elevation 
block 54 inch high about 3 inches from the 
front of the main stick. The planes are cov- 
ered on the under side with silk paper and 
coated with ambroid varnish. 

The chassis is constructed of bamboo, the 
rear skid being bent from a single strip of 
bamboo }i inch square and 7 inches in length. 
The front skids are 8 inches in length and 
are braced as shown. The spread between the 
wheels is 10 inches. The wheels are ^ inch in 
diameter and are constructed of two layers 
of a's inch spruce laminated together. They 
are fitted with small pieces of tubing for 
hubs. 

The model is driven by two motors of 14 
strands, each of % inch flat rubber. 

The accompanying photograph shows an 
exhibition model built by W. L. Butler, of 
Daly City, Cal. Mr. Butler is one of the 
foremost model flyers of the Pacific Coast, 
and as stated in last month's issue, is at 
present the holder of the world's record for 
models flying from the hand with a duration 
of I/O seconds. 














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AERONA UTICS 



"Page 109 



September, 1913 



aM><I>4"I- 



!: ^ 



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Ill answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 1 1 



September, 1913 



HXX^fTP^^^ 



WRIGHT-CURTISS LITIGATION 

The last stage of tlie suit against the Herring- 
Curtiss Co. and Glenn H. Curtiss, brought by The 
Wright Company for alleged infringement of U. S. 
Patent Number 821,393, will be fought out by the 
attorneys for both sides in the United States Cir- 
cuit Court of Appeals, Post Office Building, New 
York, some time in November, it is expected, the 
case having been appealed by Curtiss to this, the 
last court. 

In the event of a decision in favor of the plaintiff, 
the amount of damages to be awarded will have to 
be figured out by a Master, who will be appointed 
by the Court. Arguments may be made before him 
by representatives of either side tending to arrive at 
a proper amount. Having made up his mind as to the 
damages accruing, the Master would take steps to 
collect, by attachment if necessary. The Court may 
award no damages, on the other hand. If the deci- 
sion is that there has been no infringement, the suit 
will he dismissed and the use of ailerons for main- 
taining balance will be free. 

There is no case in the courts against the present 
Curtiss Aeroplane Co. or the Curtiss Exhibition Co. 
The Herring-Curtiss Co. was formed in 1908, but 
a disagreement between the principals led to inter- 
nal legal dissensions and the company went through 
bankruptcy. Mr. Curtiss bought the plant at the 
receiver's sale and sold it to the newly formed Cur- 
tiss Aeroplane Co. 

The ailerons in the earliest Curtiss machines had 
a slight curve and these are the ones on which the 
present suit is brought. Later Curtiss adopted per- 
fectly flat ailerons and introduced a device intended 
to equalize the aileron resistance, if any should oc- 
cur, irrespective of whether they present equal, posi- 
tive and negative, angles to the line of flight. Neither 
the flat ailerons, or any using the equalizing device, 
seem to come within the machine proved in the 
present case. It would appear that in case the plain- 
tiff wins in this last court, the defendant company 
is bankrupt, and the suit is for infringement by the 
company and Curtiss jointly. And, also, the status 
of the ailerons as used at present on Curtiss ma- 
chines with the operation of the special equalizing 
device appears to be still inisettled. 

HISTORY OF THIS FAMOUS CASE. 

In January, 1910, an order for preliminary in- 
junction was granted, restraining Curtiss, etc., from 
manufacturing, selling and exhibiting, allowing, how- 
ever, the concern to proceed under a $10,000 bond. 
An appeal of the injunction proceedings was taken 
to the same court as will hear the present appeal, 
which court reversed the decree. The injunction was 
dismissed, costs imposed on the plaintiff and the bond 
cancelled. In November, 1912, after many months 
of taking testimony, tlie case was argued, briefs were 
submitted, and in February, 1913, Judge Hazel 
handed down the first oninion on the merits of the 
patent in favor of the Wrights. Appeal was at once 
taken. Since this decision, the Curtiss interests have 
operated under a $10,000 bond again. 

The above statement of the status of the suit is the 
view of the attorneys for the defendant. On the 
other hand, the plaintiff considers that the suit was 
not based on curved ailerons. The proving of their 
use was simply for the purpose of demonstrating that 
it really was not intended to carry pressure on the 
top as well as the bottom sides. Of course, it will 
depend entirely on the decision of the Court as to 
what will be covered. 



INTERFERENCE IN PATENT OFFICE 
OVER DEVICE CLAIMED NOT TO ' 
INFRINGE WRIGHT PATENT 

Incredible as it may seem, patent examiners, maga- 
zine editors, constructors and patent attorneys have 
never till now discovered the patent issued to Leicester 
B. Holland for a device which seems identical with 
that used in the Boland aeroplane, which is alleged 
not to infringe the Wright patent and on which ap- 
plication for patent was made on March 18, 1910, just 
a few days prior to the application, on March 21, 1910, 
for the Holland patent, which actually issued on Sept. 
19, 1911, No. 1,003,459. 

The patent examiner in each case has apparently 
not been cognizant of the work of his colleague until 
very lately, when interference proceedings have been 
instituted.' The Holland patent has long been issued 
and the inventor naturally supposed himself safe as 
to priority. Boland has priority of application and 
Holland has the issued patent. Boland has gone along 
building machines and prosecuting the claims on his 
unissued patent under the same belief, totally un- 
aware of the existence of a patent already issued cov- 
ering the identical feature — at least it seems so, for did 
they not conflict there would be no interference action. 

There are eight claims to the Holland patent which 
cover, in short, a rigid vertical surface at each lateral 
extremity of an aeroplane means for swinging each of 
these vertical surfaces about a diagonal axis extending 
from one edge of one main plane to a point in vertical 
alinement with the opposite edge of the other main 
plane. 

COL. REBER TO INVESTIGATE ACCI- 
DENTS 

Colonel Samuel Reber has begun an exhaustive in- 
vestigation concerning accidents in the military avia- 
tion service. 



GYRO EXPLOITS ABROAD 

R. S. Mooie is making his aviator-demonstrator 
"hump himself" over there at the Hendon weekly 
meetings. The Gyro-motored Wright is made to carry 
four full grown people and race fast Deps in speed 
contests. The speed contests are handicap afTairs 
and the figures imposed upon the various machines 
are intended to equalize them and make the results 
depend principally on the skill of the pilots and the 
ability of the mechanics to get the engines in best 
trim. Moore's aviator was able on one occasion to 
beat our American friend. Brock, who was mounted 
on a 75 H. P. Dep., a 70 Farman and even a 100 Dep., 
which started scratch. 



RUSSIA WANTS MOTORS 

Engineer N. Kouznetzoff, Aeronautical Department, 
Ingeniernaya 13, St. Petersburg, Russia, wants to 
hear from American motor manufacturers with cata- 
logues. 



BOOKS RECEIVED 

GRUNDLAGEN DER PHYSIK DES FLUGES, 
von Dr. Raimund Nimfuhr, 8vo., paper, 106 pp., with 
10 figures. Published by Druckerei und Verlags- 
Aktiengesellschaft vorm. R. v. Waldheim, Jos. Eberle 
& Co., Vienna VII/1, Austria, at M. 4. Chapters: 
Einleitung; Die Luftverdrangungs- (Luftstoss-) 
Theorie, Senkrechter Luftstoss, Der schiefe Luft- 
stoss, Mangel der Luftverdrangungstheorie; Die 
Theorie der statodynamischen Auftriebserzeugung mit 
Beriicksichtigung der Atmosphare als Ganzes und der 
Kompressihilitat der Luft, etc.; Zur Theorie der 
Drachenflieger. 

REVIEW OF APPLIED MECHANICS, by L. Le 
Cornu, 8vo., paper, IS pp. Published by Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington. D. C, free upon request. 
Contains note on aerodynamical laboratories. 

HOLES IN THE AIR, by W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D., 
8vo.. paper, 13 pp., plates. Published by Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D. C, free upon request. 



JERONA UTICS 



"Page 



September, 1913 



[FRENCH AEROPLANES 



ENGINEERS 
INVENTORS 
AVIATORS 
CONSTRUCTORS 



TAKE NOTICE! 

For all photos, des- 
criptions, data, news, 
drawings, etc., re- 
garding FRENCH 
AVIATION, address 
below : 



Etudes Aeronautiques 

ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.G. P. 

20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau (Vosges \ France 



ADAMS-FARWELL 

REVOLVING MOTORS 



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Write for prices on standard makes. Send your 
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FOR FLYING BOATS USE 

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE 

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WIRE 

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Agents: Eames Tricyle Co., San Francisco; National Aeroplane Co., Chicago. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 1 1 2 



September, 1913 



DEATH OF LIEUT. LOVE 

A Board of Officers at the Signal Corps Aviation 
School, San Diego, Cal., have investigated the aero- 
plane accident which resulted in the death of 1st 
Lieut. Moss L. Love, 11th Cavalry, on Sept. 4, 1913. 

This Board, of whom two were eye witnesses of the 
accident, reported as follows: 

Lieut. Love left the field at 7.23 a. m., Sept. 4, 
in Wright machine No. 18. He climbed to approxi- 
mately 2,000 feet and flew at that altitude until 8.01 
a. m., when he started to volplane. After complet- 
ing a right turn at an altitude of approximately 1,000 
feet, he continued on a straight-away glide very little, 
if any steeper than the normal gliding angle of this 
machine. At an altitude of about 300 feet he was 
observed to put on power. He continued gliding at 
approximately the same angle as before for quite a 
perceptible interval of time. Then the angle oi glide 
gradually became steeper and steeper, the machine 
becoming vertical. There is a difference of opinion 
as to whether the machine went beyond the vertical 
or not, but the majority of witnesses are of the opin- 
ion that it did, striking the ground on the top plane 
first. The position of the machine seemed to bear 
this out. Witnesses are uncertain as to whether 
power was kept on until he struck the ground. The 
machme was a total wreck, but an examination showed 
all wires intact. Up to the time of the final dive, 
Lieut. Love seemed to be flving well, with the ma- 
chine under thorough control, and as far as anyone 
could tell there was no collapse of any part of the 
machine in the air. The machine was thoroughly 
examined before Lieut. Love went up and had al- 
ready been flown several times that morning. 

The Board is therefore of the opinion that the acci- 
dent was due in no way to any defect in the aero- 
plane itself. The air at the time was slightlv puffy, 
but not dangerously so. The machine at all times 
up to the final dive seemed to be under thorough 
control, therefore, the only reasons that can be given 
for the the accident are either that Lieut. Love be- 
came unconscious in the air or that the dive was 
caused by bad air. 



MODEL CONTESTS 

At the flying field of the Long Island Model Aero 
Club m Brooklyn, N. Y., on Labor Day, September 
1, 1913, a contest was held for biplanes rising from 
the ground for duration. 

The contest was won by Clifford Freelan of the 
Long Island Club, whose model is described herein 
The total of his three best flights was 155 seconds; 
the average, therefore, being 51 2/3 seconds. 

W. F. Bamberger of the Bav Ridge Model Aero 
Club was second with a total of 130 seconds and an 
average of 43 1/3 seconds. His machine was fitted 
with Dunne type planes and showed remarkable stabil- 
ity in spite of the strong wind prevailing. 

Excellent flights were also made by Frank Braun 
and Chas. V. Obst of the Long Island Club. Obst's 
niachme was an excellently constructed biplane of 
the headless type with a built-up fuselage. He, how- 
ever, was handicapped on account of the weight of 
his model and the low pitch propellers with which it 
was provided. 

The contest was attended by an enormous amount 
of spectators and was a great success. 

A contest for tractor models was held by the Bay 
Ridge Model Aero Club at the flying grounds at 
Rugby, Brooklyn, N. Y. The contest was a very 
exciting one, the models showing remarkable stability. 

W. F. Bamberger, president of the Bay Ridge Club, 
was the winner of the single propeller tractor contest 
with a flight of 782 feet. This constitutes a new 
world's record as it surpasses the former record of 
519 feet held by F. G. Hindsley of England. F. 
Hodgeman, flying a double propellered tractor made 
excellent flights; his best being 633 feet. 

The world's record has been broken for rising off 
ground models, for duration, by Mr. L. H. Slatter, 
of England, with a duration of 131 seconds. His 
model weighs 8H ounces. 



"Last year we had a few visitors to the field; this 
year a dozen people at the field on a Sunday we con- 
sider quite a crowd; still we keep right on flying and 
working. 

"Why don't you try and get the Aero Club to run 
a meet, spend a few dollars, and give us a chance to 
make some money; we won't hold on to it but will put 
it in circulation as fast as we get it." — A Hcmfstead 
Aviator. 



PEGOUD ACTUALLY DOES THE LOOP 

On September 21, cables report that Pegoud, after 
a dive turned his aeroplane so that the wings formed 
a right angle with the earth, righted, turned the ma- 
chine over again on the other wing, righting each 
time. Then he looped the loop, diving vertically, 
heading the nose up, gliding upside down with the 
wheels above around the loop and then diving again 
to normal position. While the machine makes com- 
plete somersault about its transverse axis, it seems 
clear to aviators here that Pegoud must have been 
falling all the time, which would make the altitude 
at the "top" of the loop actually less than at the 
beginning; in other words, that Pegoud did not actu- 
ally make a circle in a vertical plane with the top 
John Iseman, Joy Atwater, E. C. Flick and C. E. O. Sim. 

Pegoud is quoted as follows: 

"If some fearful gust of wind should turn an aero- 
plane over, the pilot could regain a normal position 
by pivoting on one wing. I proved this three times 
by flying downwards with a machine on its side and 
righted each time, both on the right and left wing. 
The downward falls with the wings perpendicular to 
the earth, whether the engine is running or not, are 
no longer dangerous. 

"I tried in the whole series of these falls by warp- 
ing a wing to its fullest extent, without using the rud- 
der. The way in which the machine righted itself, 
merely by a movement of the rudder in the reverse 
direction, was simply amazing. 

"For my falls of 500 feet, tail downward, I pointed 
the nose of the aeroplane upward by pulling the steer- 
ing pillar right back, and I let her rip. The way I 
tried to capsize the machine sidewise was by warp- 
ing a wing to the fullest extent in the very act of 
banking steeply. 

"If I want to capsize an air machine in the ordi- 
nary way I simply start coming down, stop the en- 
gine and push the steering pillar right forward until 
the machine has turned over on its back. I have al- 
ways wanted to loop the loop, though I had not an- 
nounced my intention of doing so until recently. 
When I was 2,500 feet up I began a precipitate de- 
scent by pushing forward the steering pillar, then I 
pulled it backward, the engine running freely un'il 
the machine was round the loop and ready for the 
vertical dive." 

A Russian army aviator who duplicated Pegoud's 
first upside-down flights was court martialed and given 
30 days in jail to reflect. 

MILTON KORN DIES FROM FALL 

Celina, O., Aug. 19 — Milton Korn died as the result 
of injuries received in a fall during a flight as passen- 
ger with his brother in a biplane, on Aug. 13. The 
brother did not sustain fatal injuries. No details 
of the accident are available. 



MAX LILLIE KILLED 

Galesburg, 111., Sept. 16 — Maximilian Theodore Lil- 
jestrand, known as Max Lillie, for several years a 
most successful flyer of his Wright biplane, owner of 
a school of flight at Chicago, was killed in giving 
an exhibition. An examination by G. C. Loening, of 
the Wright Company, states that the machine used 
was constructed of spare parts of old machines and 
parts made by Lillie; that vital steel parts were 
rusted, the cloth was rotten, that joints were stiff, 
that inferior metal parts were occasionally used, 
though control wires were in good condition ; that any 
number of joints and wires might have given way 
due to increased strains; wires and pins showed wear; 
the direct cause of Lillie's death is ascribed to the 
folding up of a right wing straightening out from a 
turn to the left and about to land. 



INCORPORATIONS 

Indianapolis (Ind.) Aerial Navigation Company of 
America, $100,000 capital stock. Capt. G. L. Bum- 
baugh is president and general manager. Associated 
with him are Harry B. Wilson, assistant cashier of 
the City National Bank as vice-president and treas- 
urer, and Herbert A. Luckey, attorney, as secre- 
tary. The purpose of the company is to deal in 
dirigible balloons. About $25,000 of the capital stock 
has been subscribed. 

Russell Aeroplane Co., of Cleveland, Tex., capital 
$12,000; incorporators: James M. Murray, E. T. Mur- 
ray, J. D. McDowell, A. S. Deuel, Cleveland. 

The Atwater .Safety Flying Alachine Company, 
Akron; flying machines; $25,000; M. L. Atwater, 
of the circle higher above the ground than the bottom. 



ylERONAUTICS 'Page 113 September, \9\ 3 



BALDWIN 



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Hall-Scott Motors 

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 
8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors 
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Experting 

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Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island. 

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Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York 

AEROPLANES 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 1 1 4 



September, 1913 



BUSINESS TROUBLES 

Paul Studensky, of Brooklyn, N. Y., a Russian, 
who has lived in the United States two years, has 
brought suit against the Silver Lake Aviation Com- 
pany of New Berlin, O., for $10,000 damages. The 
aviation company is supposed to conduct a school of 
flying. Studensky says he signed a contract June 7, 
by which he was to be employed one year at $50 a 
week and 20 per cent, of gross exhibition receipts, are 
covered by a guarantee of $100 weekly. He says that 
after two weeks he was notified his salary had been 
stopped. 

WORLD RECORD WATER FLIGHT 

Sept. 23 — Roland Garros flew from St. Raphael, 
France, across the Mediterranean to Bizerta, Tunis, 
non-stop, in 7 hours 53 minutes, a distance over 
water of about 560 miles. No floats on his land ma- 
chine were used, nor were any boats stationed along 
the route. , „ ^ 

Sept. 7 — Alfred Friedrich and passenger flew from 
Berlin to Paris. He started on Sept. 3. 

Sept. 13 — A. L. Sequin flew non-stop from Pans 
to Berlin, about 590 miles. . 

Sept. 17 — The Michelin cup for distance flying was 
awarded today to Aviator Fourny, who covered 9,993 
miles between August 25 and September 16. Fourny 
flew daily and never once suffered serious mishap. 



CHRISTOFFERSON'S NEW PLANE 

Mr. Christofferson is now flying a small racing bi- 
plane of his own make, equipped with a Hall-Scott 
60 H. P. motor. This is an ideal equipment for till- 
ing exhibition dates, and so far he has filled five or 
six within the last two weeks. The most noteworthy 
of these was his date at Salt Lake City, altitude S,.i00 
feet, where he flew without extensions for two days 
without any trouble whatsoever. The next date was 
at Provo, '75 miles distance, and he flew this one 
afternoon at better than 72 miles an hour. He states 
that the equipment was perfect in every way, and 
that it gave as much or more power than his 80 
H. P. motor. Blakely writes from Canada that he has 
flown 500 miles, cross country, without a stop be- 
tween flights, within the past 10 days. A 60 H. P. 
power plant has been sold to the Salvadorean Gov- 
ernment. 

INTERNATIONAL RACE 

There are 10 contestants entered in the inter- 
national race at Rheims, France, on September 29. 

Chas. T. Weymann, the Europeanized American, 
is to be the representative of the States, and will 
probably use a Dep. . 

There will be a three days' meeting at Rheims, on 
September 27th, 28th and 29th. The first day will be 
given up to the French eliminating trials for the 
Gordon-Bennett race; the programme for the second 
day will be made up of various competitions, while 
the Gordon-Bennett race will take up the last day. 
For the race six countries have entered: France, 
Great Britain, United States, Belgium, Germany and 

The race is over a 10 kil. course for 200 kilometres. 
Landings are permitted. The winner of the race 
will be that competitor who has completed the whole 
distance in the shortest time. The machines must 
be capable of flying as slow as 42 miles an hour, 
demonstrated beforehand. 



BALLOON ASCENSIONS 

Holmesburg, Pa., Sept. 18— A. T. Atherholt, Dr. 
Jerome Kingsbury and P. H. Bridgman in the 
"Penna." landed at Flagtown, N. J., after a night 
trip, encountering a heavy rain storm. 



AVIATION SCHOOL IN LIMA 

An aviation school has recently been founded in 
Lima under the auspices of the National Aero League 
(Liga Nacional Pro-Aviacion) under $27,000 subsidy 
by the Peruvian Government for acquiring aeroplanes 
and other equipment necessary for such a school. 
The instruction will probably be in charge of J. 
Ramon Montero, instructor in the Bleriot school, 
near Paris, who participated at the Chicago aviation 
week of 1912, and has since given exhibition flights 
in Lima. Inquiries regarding possible acquisitions 
of needed supplies can be addressed in English to 
Senor Montero. 



U. S. Patents Gone to Issue 

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by 

Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner 

of Patents, Washington, D. C. 



Even in these enlightened days, the crop of 
patents on absolutely worthless, or even ques- 
tionable, devices increases rather than de- 
creases. 

It would take an entire issue of the maga- 
zine to abstract in a full and clear manner the 
claims of the majority of the patents issued. 
In a great many cases it is even impossible to 
give in a few lines what sort of an apparatus 
the patent relates to. In most instances we 
have used merely the word "aeroplane" or 
"helicopter" if such it is. Where it is im- 
possible to indicate the class, fven, in which 
the patent belongs, without printing the whole 
patent, we have used the word "flying ma- 
chine." 

The patents starred (*) are those which 
may be found of particular interest; but it 
must be understood we do not pretend to 
pass judgment upon merits or demerits. 

Where patent seems to have particular in- 
terest, the date of filing will be given. — Editor. 



Do not attempt to invent in a field the science and 
prior art of which are unknown to you — William 
Macomber. 



ISSUED AUGUST 26, 1913 
1,071,180 — Alfred Arnold Remington, Birmingham, 
England, AIRSHIP. Apparatus for condensing the 
water vapor in exhaust gases in order to keep total 
weight of an airship intact. 

1,071,425— Rudolph Jary, Chicago, 111., AERO- 
PLANE, with two upper supporting planes tandem 
and removable additional planes between the former, 
and means of attachment. 

1,071,505— Alexander Bryant, Chicago, 111., AIR- 
SHIP, with supporting planes and beating wings. 

ISSUED SEPT. 2, 1913. 

1,072,078 — Joseph H. Beckwith, St. Louis, Mo., 
HELICOPTER with parachute above each lifting pro- 
peller. 

ISSUED SEPT. 9th 

* 1,072, 5 14 — Tohann Schutte, Danzig. Germany, 
DIRIGIBLE BALLOON detail. Attachment of cars 
to rigid airships so as to avoid injury to the car and 
connections with the frame as frequently happens 
with this class. 

1,072,663 — Anthonv R. Silverston, Milwaukee, Wis., 
FLYING MACHINE, comprising tubular body with 
means for driving air through it; aeroplanes, etc. 

1,072,664 — Anthony R. Silverston, Milwaukee, Wis., 
FLYING MACHINE more or less similar. 

1,072,710— Henry C. Fisk, Stafford, Conn., STA; 
BILIZER for aeroplanes consisting of a "dished" 
plane above the supporting planes, and means for 
attachment. 

1,072,764 — William A. Nagel, Harrison, Ohio, 
PARACHUTE ATTACHMENT with tube fitting 
around the 'chute, means to open parachute container 
for tulae and 'chute, means for ejecting. 

ISSUED SEPT. 16th 

1,073,277— Henry G. Morris, Philadelphia, Pa., 
HELICOPTER. 

1,073,334 — George E. Dickson, New Lenox, 111., 
FLYING MACHINE. Rigid reciprocating para- 
chutes, with valves therein. 



AERONAUTICS Page 115 September, \9\3 



BARGAIN 

HARRY BINGHAM 

BROWN 

Retires from Aviation. Will Dispose 
of his GENUINE 

WRIG HT 

Biplane with all equipment, including 

"Safety Pack'' and all extras, in 

first-class condition, at 

$2000.00 



A. LEO STEVENS 

Box 181, Madison Square - New York 

In ansivering advertisements please mention tliis magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 1 1 6 



September, 1913 



Subscriber's Forum 



AUTOMATIC STABILITY 

An article in the June number of AERONAUTICS, 
which also refers to other articles elsewhere, speaks 
of the proposed use of negative wing-tips or a re- 
versed dihedral angle of the wings as a means of au- 
tomatic stability. This should never be attempted. 

In the first place, we may draw an inference from 
the fact that no birds fly in this way, except in hover- 
ing, an evidently difficult accomplishment, even for 
them. 





In the second place, I demonstrated by theory and 
experiment, as far back as 1897, that a curved body 
suspended in an air current follows the line of least 
resistance. The concave aeroplane "a" (Fig. 4) in 
still air or drifting with the air, and with sufficient 
steadying weight at "b" will make an excellent para- 
chute; but if driven forcibly in the direction of the 
arrow "c," it will tend to buckle around, in the direc- 
tion of the arrow "d," moving as though on the sur- 
face of a sphere of identical curvature. If this plane 
be slightly elevated at the front, and held rigidly 
with framework and a tail, it will, of course, be per- 
fectly safe; but, when a question of lateral stability 
is concerned, and instability is the defect to be over- 
come, such lateral forms as shown at "f," "g" or "h" 
are very liable to sudden disaster and should never 
be employed. Any one of them is liable to "catch 
a crab" and "turn turtle" (or do any other unde- 
sired marine zoological stunts) at any instant. 

The greatest source of lateral stability, in an aero- 
plane as in a bicycle, is headway; the greater the 
speed, the less apparent veering of the head-wind 
will there be, due to the lateral gusts. And this ap- 
parent veering can easily be annulled — as in bicycle 
riding — by heading up into the gust. This can be 
almost entirely accomplished by having a larger rud- 
der, or a keel. A large, vertical vane or partition, 
or several of them a little back of the centers of 
gravity and support, and centered at about the height 
of the center of gravity, would be quickly affected 
by a gust; and the further back it was placed, the 
more tardy the action, but the smaller the necessary 
area. 

Where the wings are set at a positive dihedral 
angle, as at "i," any sudden side-gust will bring the 
apparent headwind more or less under the windward 
wing. Here, again, the broken curved surface tends 
to slide as on the surface of a sphere; but it is a 
lower surface, the center being overhead. This will 
produce a lateral rocking or careening, but of a much 
safer kind, because the motion of translation is 
against gravitation, upward, instead of downward and 
with the gravitational acceleration, as in the former 
case. By the time that the gust gets to the rudder, 
and turns the head into the wind, the aeroplane will 
be ready to slide back again to safety, from its own 
weight. Of course, the rocking motion will be less 
in proportion as the dihedral angle is small and the 
center of gravity high. It will also be less in pro- 
portion as the lateral lever-arm is short. I would, 
therefore, also suggest shorter span for the wings 
with three planes, as tending to better lateral stability. 
RuTER W. Springer. 



CONCERNING THE INVERTED V 

An article in this issue by Mr. Springer condemns 
the transverse inverted V disposition of aeroplane 
wings. His arguments are answered in the articles 
to which I referred in my June "Talk." 

The statements made there concerning this dis- 
position are justified both by theory and experiment. 



As before stated, a lateral gust is equivalent to a 
veering head wind or to the momentary turning of 
the aeroplane's longitudinal axis at an angle to its 
course. 

In Fig. 2 the inverted dihedral wing is shown 
turned in this way, the course being toward the ob- 
server; and it is evident that the angle of attack 
of the windward wing A will be diminished while that 




of B will be increased; in fact, A may receive the 
air pressure on its upper side. The windward wing 
A is, therefore, depressed while the wing B is raised. 
This is confirmed by experiment, and experiment fur- 
ther shows that a machine of this kind having a low 
c. g., and coming into this position, turns toward the 
low side. M. B. Sellers. 



The contention that a lateral gust is equivalent to 
a veering head wind, and that the windward wing 
will be depressed while the leeward wing will be 
raised, if an inverted dihedral angle is employed,-— 
is perfectly correct, so far as it goes. In fact, as 
the wings cant, under the influences stated, these 
influences will continue to act with more and more 
power, and the canting will become more and more 
pronounced, until the aeroplane upsets. The effect 
would be exactly analogous to that of feathering an 
oar the wrong way in rowing; the near wing would 
receive the air pressure upon its upper side, — which 
would be far worse than any "hole in the air," and 
there would be an instantaneous and fatal exempli- 
fication of the law that the V-shaped dihedral is the 
form of stability, by the aeroplane assuming that posi- 
tion. However, "crabs" are not aerial animals; and 
I hope no one will experiment in "catching crabs" 
in this manner. Of course, a low center of gravity 
would do much to impart steadiness; but a high 
c. g. has many points of superior excellence; and we 
are talking of aerial stability, not possibilities of in- 
stability. Ruter W. Springer. 



To the Editor: 

What is the simplest way to calculate a power plant 
for an aeroplane for given loan of 2000 lbs., planes 
placed 1.6, diameter and pitch of propeller at motor 
speed of 1200 R. P. M., speed 60 miles an hour. 

J. H. B., Tex. 

Aiiszver. — For 60 miles an hour you can count 20 
lbs. per H. P. for an average machine (amount car- 
ried ranges from 16 to 25 lbs.); diam. of propeller 
depends on make — for 100 H. P. about 9 ft. by 
S.5 ft. pitch. 

To the Editor: 

Please tell me how to balance a Dumont 'plane which 
is too heavy in front and not heavy enough behind. 
The tail will tip up at half speed rudder level. 

C. R., 111. 

Answer. — Move weights back a little or give tail 
more negative angle; or both. 



HARPER'S AIRCRAFT BOOK, by A. Hyatt Ver- 
rill. 8vo., cloth, 242 pp., profusely illustrated. Pub- 
lished by Harper & Brothers, New York, at $1.00 net. 
Written particularly for boys and young men at 
school, Mr. Hyatt, through his intimate knowledge 
has made the book an intimate introduction to the 
men and boys who have done things in the big as 
well as little planes. Members of the model aero 
clubs will find the book invaluable. J\lr. Verrill is an 
authority on motors and is known personally to many 
of his fellow members of The Aeronautical Society, 
before which organization he has frequently lectured. 



/lERONAUTICS 



'Page 117 



September, 1913 



To the Readers of this 'Magazine^ 
GREETING : 

I beg to steal a page from the many of "good stuff" to air 
my troubles. 

This is no Swan Song. That's settled right now. Periodicals 
are generally published for two reasons: usually to make money, 
sometimes as a philanthropy. 

This magazine falls in neither class. It is published for the 
benefit of those who find profit in it. The editor is not a philan- 
thropist (though he would be were it possible). The editor is not 
a business man, or he would not be publishing an aeronautical 
journal. 

That some profit by its publication I know, for they pay their 
subscriptions. That others profit by its publication I know, for they 
say so. Now there are still some who speak not ; neither do they pay. 

These do I address. There are but three propositions. Pay, 
promise to pay, or say frankly you don't want the magazine. 

I am doing my best to furnish the best there is. If you find 
a better magazine, subscribe to it; and then tell me you've found it. 
That will help me, perhaps. If you object to certain features, tell me. 

I can't speak to you all with sounding words. I must ask 
you to read what I write. If you don't want the magazine, say so. 
If you have found a better, tell me ! If you do want it, may I have 
your renewal order or your check? 



Thank you in advance. 



fe-^ 





HALL-SCOTT 

100 H-P delivers 130 H-P at 1500 r.p.m. BRAKE TEST. 

It is the only motor in the world designed 
especially for the Flying Boat. 
60 H-P has proven itself a guarantee to success, espec- 
ially over lard flying. 
40 H-P is the lightest motor for its power upon the mar- 
ket especially adapted to geared down planes. 

. Write for Catalogues ==^^=== 

upon these power plants and let us figure on your equip- 
ment if you want the BEST. 



Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., 



SAN FRANCISCO 
CAL. 



AERONA UTICS 



"Page 118 



September, 1913 




MORE 
POWER PER CUBIC 
INCH 
OF PISTON DIS- 
PLACE- 
MENT THAN ANY 
OTHER 
TYPE MOTOR EVER 
BUILT 



f 






y, ' 




Bp>^WBBHH^^^ 


i 






,B1 fcife &../■-..■-; ■: *• 


1 1 . 






tef,^«^ii&i;^.i^iLw 


, .¥ 


r:^^*,^ 


^ieJ?....^SHWHw 



IT 
WILL PAY YOU 
WELL 
TO INVESTI- 
GATE 
OUR NEW OVER- 
HEAD 
VALVE MOTORS 

WRITE 
FOR CATALOG 



EARL V. FRITTS who gained his pilot license with a Thomas Biplane, 
equipped with a 60-70 h. p. MAXIMOTOR 



Maximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich. Bath. N. Y., Feb. 5, 1913. 

Dear Sirs : — Wish to inform you that I have today successfully filled the require- 
ments in a number of flights to qualify for my pilot license. The M AXIMOTOR 
stood with me right through to the end and no other motor on the field has anything 
on your new product. 1 wish you the most of success during this coming season. 
Sincerely, EARL V. FRITTS. 



Maximotor Makers 

DETROIT 

No. 1528 East Jefferson 



Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography 

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES 



Has long been regarded as the standard 
American Authority on photographic 
matters. 

Each number has forty pages of interest- 
ing photographic text, printed on fine paper 
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attractive half- tones. 

The cover for each month is printed in 
varying colors, and is ornamented with a 
different and pleasing photograph. 

The valuable and authoritative formulae 
furnished throughout the year are alone 
worth the price asked for subscription. 



Some of the other regular features are 

Articles on practical and timely photo- 
graphic topics. 

Illustrations showing examples of the 
work of the best American and foreign 
pictorialists. 

Foreign Digest. 

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and 
photographers' association notes. 

Items of Interest. 

A department devoted to "Discoveries." 

Reviews of the new photographic books. 

Description of the latest novelties and 
specialties brought out by dealers and 
manufacturers. 



ONE DOLLAR nFTY A YEAR SUBSCRIBE NOW FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY 

Foreign Subscription, Two Dollars A Sample Copy Free 

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION 

135 West 14th Street, : : : New York 



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AERONA UTICS 



Page 119 



September, 1913 




Antony Jannus with Two Passengers Flying tbe New Benoist Flying Boat, Equipped with Six Cylinder 



Vt£G. U. 9. PAT. OFF.) 



Aeronautical Motor 



This machine is now owned by Mr. W. D. Jones of Duluth 
The most prominent aeroplane manufacturers in the country recognize the superiority of the Startevant motor 
SEND FOR BULLETIN No. 2002 

B. F* Sturtevant Company, Hyde park, boston, mass. 



I NAIAD I 
Aeronautical Cloth 



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AND 



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Christmas Dinners 

FOR 

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Tliiouj^liout the 
L'nited StJitts 

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matter liuw sin:ill 
TO COMMANDER 

MISS BOOTH 

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Vett'n Dept. Comm. Ettill, 108 N.Oearborn St. Chicago 




Grandma Gets Due 



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AERONA UTICS 



Page 120 



September, 1913 



Only the best methods and 
the best equipment will in- 
sure you satisfaction 

The 

Sloane School 

provides these 
ASK OUR PUPILS 

AEROPLANES, MOTORS 
and ACCESSORIES 

Manufactured and Sold 



Agents for 

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AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS 
Manufacturers of 



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Monoplanes :: 



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Lar^e stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribs, 
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Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P. 

FLYING AND 
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Works : Ocean Terrace and Little CloT* Road 
STATEN ISLAND. NEW YORK CITY 

Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tompkinsville 




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Ask Men Who Know 

WHAT THEY THINK OF 

1019 ROBERTS 
IVlO MOTORS 



St. Louis, Mo., July 24, 1913 
Gentlemen : 

We have been using one of your new 1913 6-Cylinder 
73-H. P. motors in one of our new flying boats, and would 
say that we have found this motor to be exactly what we 
want for our flying boats without a single qualification. 

We were able to carry two passengers beside the aviator 
in the new Lakes Cruise Boat, and are now working night 
and day on another flying boat for one of your motors. 

We congratulate you on your success in getting out this 
last product, and beg to remain. 

Yours very truly, 
THE BENOIST AIRCRAFT COMPANY, 
Per Tom W. Benoist, Mgr. 



The ROBERTS MOTOR CO. 

No. 1430 Sandusky Avenue 
SANDUSKY. :: :: OHIO 



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iiililllllMlllMililllliiilii^ 

XIII. No.4^^""oCTa^, 1913 ^^''^''^'^ 



/Jt^ents 




"RESULTS TELL THE STORY 



99 



iV YORK AERIAL DERBY. October 13 . WM. S. LUCKEY. Winner Second, CHARLES F, NILES 61 Miles in 52 Min. 54 Sec. 

i/VPORT. R. I., to NEW YORK. October 5 . . . . WILLIAM THAW 230 Mile« in 220 Minutes — STEVE MacGORDON 

SANY to NEW YORK. October 7 BECKWITH HAVENS — 172 Miles in 153 Minutet J. B. R. VERPLANCK 



ehind These 



events of a week, a score of achievements 
this season, and hundreds of them dur- 
ing the past ten years, you find the 



CuRTiss Motors 



VRE YOU WASTING TIME, MONEY, PATIENCE, OPPORTUNITY by using molors that "just answer the purpose"? 

)k the facts in the face! Why not insure success by booking with us for 1914 motors? Investigation is cheap insurance; 
write us for information, booklets, photographs, and particularly for proposition to the trade. 

URTISS MOTOR CO., 21 Lake Street, Hammondsport, N. Y. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 122 



October, 1913 



EHs 



< BENOIST ^ 

PLANES hold (he followiug records: 

World's long distance hydro record with one passen&er. 
World's long distance hydro record with two passengers. 
American endurance record, aviator and three passengers. 
Have more world's records than all other m'f'rs combined. 
The first successful Tractor Biplane built in America. 



Records indicate superior efficiency. 

Why not get an efficient machine 

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The New 
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Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout 



From 

"AERONAUTICS" 

(London) 

August, 1913. 

"Beatty's Gyro (50 
h.p.) — beyond doubt 
a remarkably efficient 

engine — must be cap- 
able of producing 
something like 60 

h. p." 

Send for Catalog 



THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C. 



MAGrs ALIUM 

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nflN'T ^"'^ "' unless 
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That is the only kind we 
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Reasonable Prices 

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Muncie, Ind. 



In answering advertisemettts please mention this magazine. 



lERONAUTICS 



Page 123 



October, 1913 



P 



ARAGON 

IN PROPELLERS 



Stands for Highest Quality, 

Lowest Price 

and Certain Satisfaction 



The Enterprise and Integrity — the Character and high Engineering Skill 
nought into Paragon Propellers have won for them the highest and widest 
jcognition, both Government and private, of any propellers in America. 

ANNOUNCEMENT 

Our facilities have now developed far beyond the demands of the present American trade. 
)ur factory capacity with the special propeller machinery now in operation is more than 
lirty blades per day in two, three and four-bladed propellers. 

We therefore solicit QUANTITY CONTRACTS with responsible dealers and manu- 
icturers in all countries. 

We desire to form trade connections in every large city of Europe and America. By our 
ethods of production we can deliver highest grade propellers in wholesale quantities at European 
Drts for less than pervailing costs of manufacture. 

We can furnish any preferred styles, materials or construction, original or copied designs, or 
ibmit samples for specified service — all subject to most rigid inspection and test. Any kind of 
letal protection at little, if any, additional cost. 

Every Paragon user must have full satisfaction or his money returned. We serve. 

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO. 

43-249 E. Hamburg Street - - Baltimore, Md., U. S. A. 




Burgess 
Flying Boat 

Built for 
U. S. Navy 




HE BURGESS FLYING BOAT 

is another record breaker. Built to comply with the strenuous requirements of 
the U. S. Navy, it fulfilled its test flights and was immediately accepted. Al- 
ready a number of orders have been placed by sportsmen for similar machines. 
Burgess Aeroplanes and Hydro-aeroplanes are still unexcelled. Foreign or 
Domestic Motors installed to meet the preference of individual purchasers. We 
recommend the Sturtevant motor as the most reliable American type. 

We have a number of used motors and hydro-planes which we are offering at 
greatly reduced prices. 

Training school patronized by both the Army and Navy, is located at Marble- 
head adjoining the works. Early application is necessary to secure enrollment. 

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass. 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



JERONA UTICS 



"Page 124 



October, 



,1913! 







/^ 


:f^^ 


\}^ 


' The Flight Around Manhattan Was 


^^l^ 


Another Bosch Victory 


\ 


— Of Course 


\ 


1st Luckey — Curtiss — Bosch 


\ 


2nd Niles — Curtiss — Bosch 


\ 


3rcl Wood— Moisant— Bosch ' 


\ 


and 

Sablatnig's Remarkable Al- 


1 


titude Record of 3,281 feet 


1 


with five Passengers is a 


1 


Bosch Record, too. : : 


I 


BE SURE YOU GET 


1 


"Locating the Spark Plug" 


^^ 


It tells you what you ought to know 


r 

Bosch Magneto Company 




201 W. 46th STREET :: NEW YORK 

L 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 125 



October, 1913 



A YACHTMAN'S VIEW OF THE AIR BOAT 

By Chas. D. Lynch 
Chairman Sports Committee Perry Centennial Celebration 



Certainly nothing can beat leaving the water 
and ahghting on it with a fl3-ing-boat when it 
comes to sport. Planing through the water at 
50 miles an hour sends a wonderful thrill 
through you. Starting out of the water gives 
you a sensation more thrilling. Alighting on the 
water and skipping along over a few waves, 
then settling a little and planing along, caps 
the climax and you are a fliying-boat-fan 
right ! 

For yachting men who like to handle the 
stick when "she has a bone in her teeth" the 
writer recommends a trip in a flying boat as 
they will be most likely to fully appreciate the 
pleasures to be experienced. Sailing high in 
the air for a long time at 65 miles per hour 
was intensely interesting and a great experi- 
ence. Viewing the map below, noting the 
bays and inlets, the islands, the farms, the 
boats, the docks, etc., has studying geography 
backed off the boards. No map ever conveyed 
ideas such as an air trip will give. 

As we circled and soared upward, constantly 
driven on our course as a first-class motor 
yacht would be, the writer was greatly im- 
pressed with the fiying-boat's possibilities for 
sport and for use in scouting or dispatch-car- 
rying. Sitting in a comfortable position, in 
a boat wth plenty of "freeboard," enjoying 
a sense of safety instilled by the substantial 
construction of the boat and the wonderful 
operating devices over which the pilot had 
perfect control, it was a great treat to go 
around an aerial race-course encircling the 
bay where Perry had put in after his victory 
in 1813, then to seemingly "bank" at the turns 
as it would seem natural we should, then turn 
and incline downward, not with a drop or 
slide, but with a steady drive on a down 
grade, then easily incline upward and drive 
on an upgrade — all this seemed wonderful to 
the observant and grateful passenger who was 
being initiated into the new sport he had been 
hearing about but never indulged in before. 

My flight was made during a four week's 
regatta at Put-in-Bay. Ohio, a part of the big 
Perry Centennial Celebration, celebrating the 
One Hundredth Anniversary of Perry's Vic- 
tory in the Battle of Lake Erie, and a century 
of peace between Canada and the United 
States, was held this August under the 
auspices of the Inter-Lake Yachting Asso- 
ciation, from the 19th to the 26th. 

There were regattas for sail yachts, power 
boats, naval militia cutters and whaleboats, 
cajioes, rowing shells, swimmers, and prob- 
ably for the first time, "aeroyachts." The 
sport of flying in and over the water was 
classed with other aquatic sports. 

All the advance fine weather dope was up- 
set. The week proved the worst in August 
and the worst in August for years. A north- 
east gale of magnificent proportions, even 
the kind that would have worried the sail 
yachts or power boats, proved the only "worry" 



the committee had on Tuesday morning of 
.\ugust 19th, fhe date for things to begin. 

The day before the ever-surprising Tony 
Jannus hove in sight over South Bass Island 
of which Put-in-Bay is the anchorage, coming- 
straight from Sandusky, over Lake Erie, in his 
Benoist flj'ing-boat which was destined to be 
the real "thriller" of the meet. A few min- 
utes after "Tony" landed the crowd sighted 
another craft in the distant atmosphere. Beck- 
with Havens, in his big Curtiss flying-boat 
of Chicago to Buffalo fame, came down from 
the higher altitudes and made a beautiful 
landing. Havens had come from Toledo, 
right over Lake Erie for forty miles, with 
his friend Chenevert, of Detroit, as passen- 
ger. They had enjoyed a delightful forty 
mile cruise in thirty-six minutes — just aa 
afternoon sail. 

On Sunday the 17th, Walter Johnson, with 
his Thomas flying boat with his new Austro- 
Daimler motor; Frank Burnside and Fred 
Fells, of Thomas Brothers, with a pontoon- 
type hydroaeroplane, and William Bleakley 
with his Benoist pontoon-type hydro had ar- 
rived at Put-in-Bay and started to asseinble 
their "yachts" at convenient "mooring" points 
assigned by the committee. 

The assembled pilots and aviation repre- 
sentatives, together with the yachtsmen on 
the committee, all in great enthusiasm over 
the plans the committee had laid down, turned 
in that Monday night feeling that things 
couldn't be any better. 

The first day a gale broke and the whole 
week was stormy, one day flights being com- 
pletely impossible. Despite the winds and 
waves every man flew. On Saturday, the 
23rd. Havens waved goodby and flew to 
Cleveland with a passenger. 

The next day Jannus concluded his flights 
and flew away to Sandusky, wdiere he caught 
a train. 

The accident to Bleakley the first day of 
flying, the 20th, is of interest to builders. 

William Bleakley climbed into his seat in 
the Benoist Tractor of the pontoon-type and 
slipped into the water heading out into the 
bay. Bleakley had an enviable reputation as 
a flyer before. His reputation didn't suffer 
by what happened. It was not his fault. The 
wind was too strong. As he cleared the 
water between the piers and tried steering to 
"starboard" to head into the wind his pon- 
toon was barely lifting from the water. 

As it would leave the water it would be 
slapped back into the trough of the waves 
which were rather large out in the open water. 
There was a struggle with the hydro and pilot 
pitted against the weaves and wind. Bleakley 
in his rather high seat in the fuselage and 
{Continued on page 132) 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 1 26 



October, 1913 



TECHNICAL TALKS 

By M. B. Sellers 

THE AVIETTE 



In a recent contest between bicycles driven 
by aerial propellers, the first prize was won 
by Rene Bernard, who covered the loo metres 
in 83/5 seconds (about 26 miles per hour), 
and the 2 kil. in 3 minutes, 25 seconds (22 
M. P. H.). This race was organized by the 
journal "I'Auto" in order to help solve the 
problem of propulsion of the Aviette. Be- 
cause no flapping wing machine had been 
specially built to make the turns of the Pare 
des Princes, the prize of 500 francs offered by 
M. Dubos was not contended for. 

This calls to mind an article by M. Constan- 
tine, in which he shows why there is no hope 
for the Aviette as a practical means of aerial 
locomotion. His reasoning is briefly this : The 
maximum speed of a bicycle rider is about 
22 miles per hour; at this speed most of the 
resistance is air resistance; an Aviette flying 
this fast will require about 200 sq. ft. of sur- 
face ; at a slower speed the area required 
would be impractically large. As we have as- 
sumed that a bicycle rider uses about all his 
power to propel the bicycle alone at this speed, 
he certainly cannot maintain the same speed 
when overcoming the additional resistance due 
to the drift of the wings. This, of course, 
refers to the aeroplane aviette. 

On the other hand we have the flapping 
wing machine, the ornithopter, and it would 
seem that if there is any hope for the Aviette 
it would be in that direction, as the ornithopter 
seems to be specially adapted to this purpose. 
To operate a rotary propeller by muscular 
power, a slow reciprocating motion must be 
transformed into a rapid rotary motion, this 
is not necessary with beating wings. Further- 
more, it would seem that while large beating 
wings, for a power driven machine, would 
present grave mechanical difficulties, the 
smaller ones required for a lighter, man- 
propelled machine would be more practicable. 

By beating wings I mean those designed for 
use in so-called "rowing flight," where the 
wing acts as an aeroplane, attacking the air 
at a small angle, on both the up and down 
stroke. This method of flight, practiced by 
large birds, is pretty well understood, but, so 
far, does not seem to have been successfully 
imitated mechanically. Lilienthal studied this 
mode of flight, and his book, "Bird Flight as 
a Basis of the Flying Art," deals chiefly with 
this subject. He estimated that the air re- 
action due to reciprocating motion was nine 
times as great as that due to uniform motion. 
In some early experiments with a valvular 
wing machine, actuated by foot power, he ob- 
tained a lift of 88 pounds (the estimated effort 
being i H. P.). This machine, however, did 
not reproduce rowing flight, and I merely cite 



it because the lift obtained was considerable. 
For support in rowing flight rapid forward 
motion is essential and the flexure of the 
wing arm must be automatically adjusted to 
the forward speed and stroke speed. I have 
made a model travel about 8 feet per stroke. 
Large birds travel a considerable distance 
with each stroke. 

Some writers are of the opinion that the 
wing feathers act as valves on the up stroke. 
This may be true in rising or hovering flight, 
l)ut it can hardly be the case in rowing flight, 
in which the whole wing has probably a small 
positive angle of attack on the up stroke ; or, 
at least the inner portion of the wing acts as 
a supporting surface throughout the stroke. In 
my opinion a machine with valvular wings 
will not operate efficiently. 

M. B. Sellers. 



To THE Editor: 

Will you be so kind to state, if possible, a 
fixed table which is the simplest and safest 
way to calculate a power plant for an aero- 
plane, a monoplane will take place first to get 
the right size power for a given load. Planes 
placed any practical angle. How to deter- 
mine now the diameter and pitch of propeller 
according to speed of motor for a desired 
mileage in minimum winds. Or will name a 
book which practically deals more to solve 
these problems. — /. H. B., Texas. 

Answer — The power required to drive an 
aeroplane depends (among other things) on 
the weight, speed, efficiency of wings, and re- 
sistance of the fuselage framing, etc. Un- 
less these data are given the power cannot 
be computed. The efficiency of the wings de- 
pends on their section, aspect ratio, shape, 
number and spacing, and on the angle of at- 
tack required. 

The best book for determining the probable 
value of these data for a proposed machine 
is: "Eiffel's Resistance of the Air and Avia- 
tion." Price $10. Ordinarily, a power plant 
is determined from the weight carried per 
horsepower by machines in use and these data 
are given from time to time in AERONAU- 
TICS and other magazines. M. B. S. 



Think very highly of your paper and wish 
you every success. — R. R. B., Boston. 



I want to say that your journal is, in my 
estimation, the best of the aero papers and I 
find it of great interest. — JV. D. B., Ohio. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 127 



October, 1913 




THOMAS FLYING BOAT 



Looking at the Thomas flying boat one be- 
gins to wonder whether or not this is really 
a descendant of the old four-cylinder guess- 
the-horsepower grass mower built by William 
T. and O. W. Thomas in the year 1908 at 
Bath, N. Y., which has since been put on the 
map. However, both the "boys" affirm the verity 
of the boat's family tree and we can take their 
word every time. They also promise a later 
type with a regular limousine body, glass 
windows, speaking tube, shades and all. 

This machine is of just the ordinary con- 
ventional pattern but does the work. The 
boat is of the one-step type, there are wing- 
tip floats and in general follows accepted 
practice so far as there may be "practice" 
in this new branch of the flying family. 

The upper plane spreads 43.5 feet ; the 
lower, 33.5 feet. Chord 5.5 feet, spaced 5 feet 
4 inches apart. Total area of supporting sur- 
face is approximately 350 sq. ft. The curve 
is fairly deep, being 3.75 inches, about one- 
third back. The planes are built in sections. 



amply guyed with Roebling 3^2 inch wire cable 
with special turnbuckles. 

Goodyear fabric covers, top and bottom, 
the planes. The laminated spruce ribs (spaced 
1 1.5 inches apart, .375 inches wide and 1.125 
inches deep) join to the main spars by metal 
strips. The lateral spars are D-shaped. 
laminated, measuring 1.125 inches by 1.75 
inches for the front one and the rear spar is 
approximately the same in cross-section size 
but rectangular. The spars are spaced 44.5 
inches apart. Struts are, of course, of stream 
line form and join the beams by the quick de- 
tachable Thomas sockets, described hereto- 
fore in AERONAUTICS. These struts are 
of solid spruce and measure i^ inches by 
2^4 inches. The rear edges of the wings are 
flexible. The gliding angle is about one in 
eight, it is claimed. 

Ailerons are used for lateral stability, 
hinged to the rear spar of the upper plane 
only, and measure 13 feet by 2 feet. Cable 
( ( oniiiiued on page 142) 




AERONA UTICS 



Page 128 



October, 1913 



NEW BURGESS TRACTORS FOR THE U. S. SIGNAL CORPS 



Three 70 H. P. Renault engined tractors 
ordered in the summer from the Burgess 
Company and Curtis to be built along the 
lines of the Burgess Tractor delivered to the 
Signal Corps in the summer of 1912 are now 
completed. 

Dimensions of the new machines are ex- 
actly similar throughout to the original. (See 
May-June number, 1912). Many refinements 
are noticeable. The wing sections have been 
made of the same dimensions top and bot- 
tom and are thus interchangeable. The cen- 
ter upper panel is of the same width as the 
fuselage with the two small sections on either 
side, thus doing away with a central juncture 
of the upper wing and the uprights immedi- 
ately in front of the operators. 




A wind shield is provided and ample room 
for instruments. Seats are upholstered and 
neatly finished in leather. 

The machine is supported on two pairs of 
vertical braces instead of diagonal braces as 
formerly; simplifying not only the number of 
spare parts required for emergency equip- 
ment, but also greatly reducing time required 
for installation. 

The new Burgess treated Irish linen is fur- 
nished on the fuselage, wings and rudders. 



This has been found to increase the speed 
of the machine considerably and is absolutely 
weather proof. 

The gasoline supply is carried in two tanks 
supported on each side of the fuselage and 
is fed to the engine by gravity, thus doing 
away with the added complication of pumping 
devices at a cost of slightly additional head 
resistance. 

The machines are equipped with mahogany 
Burgess propellers of the two-blade type. 



The photograph shows the Model H Bur- 
gess Tractor, three of which have been or- 
dered by the U. S. Signal Corps. The first 
two machines have been tested out success- 
fully. 

The hydroplanes on which the tractors 
are mounted are of special type. The ma- 
chine is easily convertible into a land ma- 
chine, the work being accomplished in less 
than fifteen minutes. The whole machine 
can be taken down ready for shipment in- 
side of half an hour. 

The speed of the machine is increased over 
the 1912 type by three or four miles on 
account of the refinements in construction 
and the use of the Burgess linen. It now has 
a speed ranging from 45 to 60 M. P. H. 



SIGNAL CORPS TEST OF 100 H.P. RENAULT 

The details of the Signal Corps" test of its 
100 H. P. i2-cyl. air-cooled Renault motor for 
the big biplane now completed by the Burgess 
Co. & Curtis, are of interest. The test was 
made at the Naval Experiment Station, An- 
napolis, Md., under the supervision of Lieut. 
N. H. Arnold. The motor was mounted 




AERONAUTICS 



Page 129 



October, 1913 






^^ 







through the medium of adjustable pillars and 
wooden beams to a cast iron testing base. 
It was clamped to the wooden beams, which 
were in turn clamped to the wrought iron 
pillars. Adjacent to this base was a second 
test base, on which was mounted a water 
brake with its necessary piping and scale 
beam. The half time shaft of the motor was 
rigidly coupled to the shaft of the water 
.brake. As this type of Renault motor drives 
through the half time shaft, the revolutions 
delivered by it are one-half the actual speed of 
the motor itself. On a third base adjacent to 
the water brake, a 70 H. P. Sprague dyna- 
mometer was mounted, connected by rigid 
coupling to the free end of the water brake 
shaft. The cooling was effected by a 60 
H. P. turbine driven blower connected to an 
air shaft about 18 inches diameter. The 
nozzle was shaped to drive the air over the 
cylinders, the blower being about 10 feet from 
the motor under test. The motor at 1,800 R. 
P. M., the half time shaft being 9C0, developed 
easily ico H. P., about 75 H. P. being con- 



sumed in the dynamometer and 25 H. P. in 
the water brake. 

The aeroplane, which must be able to fly as 
low as 38 M. P. H., weighs 2,600 pounds, has 
armor plate protecting aviators, consisting of 
Disston's steel .08 inches thick, 3.4 sq. ft., and 
has a carrying capacity in excess of any previ- 
ous American aeroplane. The striking fea- 
tures are its immense size and separation be- 
tween planes. A large amount of steel tub- 
ing is used in place of wood struts and wing 
members. The landing chassis is particularly 
stronglv built. 



BOSCH PUSH BUTTON SWITCH 

A new switch put out by the Bosch Com- 
pany will interest every aviator. With this 
the magneto is "on" except when pressure of 
the foot shorts it ; or it may be instantly 
locked in either "on" or "off" position. It 
certainly "looks bad" to find a knife switch 
in use — and it is more than occasionally. 

The Bosch press liutton key switch is 
extraordinarily simple in form and meets 
the approval of those who desire a positive 
and mischief-proof method for either tem- 
porarily or permanently short-circuiting their 
mae:netos. 




It may be located on the floor board and 
by the pressure of the foot the magneto can 
be temporarily short-circuited. This is an 
obvious advantage when gliding down. Re- 
lease of the foot pressure immediately re- 
moves the ground connection, afforded by the 
switch, and the magneto will resume its in- 
tended operation. 

When the button key is inserted and turned 
to the right or left until it snaps into posi- 
tion, the connection between the magneto pri- 
mary circuit and ground is open ; when pres- 
sure is placed upon the key, or the key is 
removed, which is accomplished by turning it 
one-quarter turn to the left or right, a con- 
nection is made that grounds the primar>' 
winding and the magneto is made inopera- 
tive. 

The Bosch press button key switch is fur- 
nished only in nickel finish with the button 
key as a standard. List price $1.50. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 130 



October. 1913 



CURTISS 100 H. P. MILITARY TRACTOR 




The new military tractor recently shipped 
to the army aviation camp at San Diego is 
very similar to that of last spring, described 
in the February number. Following are the 
principal dimensions and chief points of dif- 
ference. 

Wings, one piece, upper, 41 feet by 66 
inches; lower, 31 feet by 66 inches. 

Ailerons, 12 feet by 3 feet; in order 
to do away with the usual diagonal strut at 
the end of the wing Farman flaps were tried 
out, but the control proved so much less posi- 
tive than with the standard ailerons that the 
latter were restored, the outer ends secured to 
posts or struts depending from the trailing 
edge of the upper surface. 

Fore and aft, the machine measures 25 feet ; 
tail of fuselage, 14 feet ; body, including 
motor, 7 feet ; rudder 4 feet. Tail sur- 
faces and rudder same dimensions as "Eng- 
lish" flying boat-standard, described last issue. 

The "full floating" fuselage, as shown by the 
pictures, appears to be new and patents have 
been applied for. Three sets of heavy rubber 
bands on each side support the fuselage in 
the heavy four-wheeled chassis, assisting very 
decidedly in absorbing the shock of hard 
landings. The same system has been tried 
out on the Curtiss hydroaeroplane and the fly- 
ing boat. 

The wings of this machine are practically 
the same as used on the standard machines, 
except that they are made in one piece each 
side of the chassis, instead of the panel con- 
struction, which gives them a little greater 
strength. The beams are very strong and 
heavy at the inner end and taper all the way 
out to the tip of the wing, giving them the 
maximum of strength in proportion to the 
load at each point and reducing the weight. 
The planes are very rigid and quickly de- 
mountable by the removal of four bolts, one 
each at top and bottom of either plane. 

The chassis with the wings removed is only 
42 inches wide at the points where the wings 



attach, and the over-all width of the running 
gear is about 65 inches. The tread of the 
wheels is 56 inches, which is standard road 
gauge so that the chassis may be towed along 
a standard road if necessary. 

The tail surfaces and elevators are the 
same general shape used on the flying boat. 

The fuselage is constructed of four mem- 
bers of white spruce, which are tapered from 
the rear beam out to the extreme end, thereby 
reducing the weight in proportion to the 
strain at each point. 

A new system of wiring and bracing is used 
which does not require any holes through 
these corner members, so a lighter piece may 
be used and the same strength secured as a 
larger one fastened in the ordinary way with 
holes through at each joint. 

The lateral balance is by ailerons, separately 
connected so that they can either be operated 
in unison or independent of each other. It 
is claimed the machine can be balanced by 
either in case of accident to the other. 

The tail surfaces are quickly and easily 
detachable for packing up. The entire fusel- 
age is covered to reduce head resistance and 
the seats are placed side by side as in all 
standard Curtiss construction. The field of 
view from this machine is exceedingly good, 
as the seats are about midway between the 
front and rear beams over the lower plane' 
so that a good downward angle of vision is 
obtained and for looking directly downward a 
space of 12 inches is left alongside the fusel- 
age out to the first rib on each side. 

The engine is located directly in front of 
the operators and the carburetor projects 
through the dashboard into the cockpit where 
it may be adjusted by either operator and 
is at all times under observation. 

The gasoline tank is placed under the seat 
and has a capacity of 40 gallons. There is an 
auxiliary tank on the dashboard which has 
a capacity of two gallons and is kept supplied 
by a mechanical pump driven by the engine 
from the main tank. There is a plate-glass 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 131 



October. 1913 




window in the front of this auxihary tank 
which answers two. purposes — the level of gas 
in this tank may be seen and also the stream 
of gasoline coming in from the pump, and 
this being directly in front of the pilot, any 
failure of the pump to work would be quickly 
noted. If, for any reason the pump should 
stop working, it is only necessary to throw 
over a small lever on the front of the tank 
which controls a distributing valve and give 
a few strokes on a hand air pump, which 
is located within easy reach of either operator, 
when the level in the auxiliary tank will be 



maintained as before by air pressure in the 
main tank. 

The propeller is a 9-foot by 8.5-foot pitch 
two-blade Curtiss, driven direct from a Cur- 
tiss OX 90-100 H. P. 

The radiator is mounted on the forward end 
and just back of the propeller and the hood 
over the engine is attached to the rear edge 
of the radiator, similar to an automobile. The 
air coming through the radiator and around 
the cylinders is deflected out on each side and 
away from the operators by curved metal 
shield which forms the dashboard and closes 
the cockpit away from the motor. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 132 



October. 1913 



The hood over the engine has a small up- 
curve which deflects the air over the heads of 
the operators and stops the strong blast in 
the face, which is common to the ordinary 
tractor. 

This machine is much more convenient for 
tearing down or reassembling than the stand- 
ard machine, as the power plant and running 
gear stay intact when packed for shipment. 

The fuselage is easily and quickly attached 
when setting up, the wings being in one piece 
are more easily handled so that the assembling 
can be done in a very short time. 

This machine handles exceptionally well on 
the ground and may be turned around with- 
out outside assistance on the ground in a 
very small space. It is fitted with a standard 
folding shoulder yoke and dual wheel, which 
gives either operator control at will. It can, 
however, Le fitted with a single throw-over 
wheel if required for military work. 



This tractor is the one ordered to be fitted 
with a i6o H. P. Gnome over which a suit 
was brought against the seller, DeVillers, al- 
leging motor not up to standard required. 
(See drawings February issue.) 

The disappointment occasioned by the 
failure of the motor to meet test require- 
ments, after the Curtiss Co. had paid some 
$10,000 in cash for it, was accentuated when 
the motor itself was attached on a writ of 
replevin by a Mr. Prince of Boston. The 
Government was then asked to allow the 
maker to enter a machine equipped with one 
of the new Curtiss 150 or 200 H. P. motors 
now under construction, the loss to be entirely 
on the maker in case the machine failed in 
any way to meet the requirements established 
for the machine equipped with the Gnome 
motor. 



"Find enclosed check for $3.00 for my subscrip- 
tion. I would not be without it. I was one of your 
first ones and will stick." — G. E. Y., Omaha, Neb. 



A YACHTMAWS VIEW OF THE AIR BOAT 

{Continued from page 12^) 

with his big pontoon offered great resistance 
to the wind and his efforts to "point up into 
the wind" proved unavailing and he was 
sheered off his course, along the trough of the 
waves, with wind "abeam," and in about a 
minute from the time of his start at the plat- 
form was dashed "head on" against a rocky 
end of the Island of Gibraltar. Committee 
boats laying out for emergencies headed for 
the rocky point quickly. Bleakley emerged 
from the wreck of his craft saying, "I'm all 
right," and he was, too. Had Bleakley got- 
ten to windward 50 feet he would have 
cleared the rocky point. In the absence of a 
rudder and with a straight-sided pontoon of- 
fering the greatest possible resistance to the 
waves and with a high wind to boot, there 
was only one outcome — a smash. 

Leaving the water clean and quick, and 
soaring at will in the air, circling the harbor, 
swooping down near the water, then up, then 
turning, over steamboats, docks or shore, 
sometimes close and sometimes far away, al- 
ways smiling and occasionally waving to those 
on the piers. Control seemed to be the pre- 
dominating virtue about the flying-boats in 
all their flights at Put-in-Bay, whereas, the 
pontoon-type hydros seemed more awkward 
in the water and less in their element. In the 
air, too, the flying-boats seemed more pleas- 
ing" to the eye of the yachting crank on ac- 
count of their more shipshape lines and more 
bird-like appearance which seemed to give 
them grace and make them seem better 
adapted to flying, at least, about the water 
where comparison could be made with the 
lines of the sail and power yachts anchored 
nearby. 

At last the enjoyable occasion was over. 
The engines had worked perfectly, the Roberts 
motors in the Benoist machines, the Curtiss 
and the Austro-Daimler in the Thomas Bros.' 
machines and the big 96 H. P. Curtiss in the 



Curtiss flying-boat. Not once, to the com- 
mittee's knowledge, did any body fail to start 
when he intended to. Barring the accidents 
the machines were under perfect control, ex- 
cept it appeared that there should be some 
sort of a rudder for the pontoon-type ma- 
chine that would act in the water, and prob- 
ably a larger rudder on the flying-boats to 
give them a deeper action and more "sure- 
footedness" in the water, to prevent leeway 
and to insure their being able to turn into 
the wind to get their elevation at all times. 
It appeals to a yachtsman to have as good a 
rudder as possible on a flying-boat when it 
starts with the wind abeam and has to turn 
into the wind to get up out of the water. 

The novel experiences, the knowledge 
gained, and last but best, the enjoyable com- 
panionship with the good fellows connected 
with aviation who were at Put-in-Bay will 
always be remembered by the Committee on 
Aviation of the Perry Centennial, all of 
whom are boosters for the new aquatic sport 
— flying-boats. 

"There ought to be a law against aviation," 
said the humane citizen. 

"There is one," replied the cold-blooded 
man. "The law of gravitation is continually 
interfering with it." — Washington Star. 



Dr. A. F. Zahm and Naval Constructor Hunsaker 
are in Europe getting information on foreign labora- 
tories. 

It (AERONAUTICS) is the only book on 
aeronautics that is worth while. — IV. B. E., 

Utah. 

Witty Chap — "Learning this piece of music makes 
me feel like an aviator." 
Dense Girl — "How so?" 
Witty Chap — "Trying to conquer the air." 

The Globe. 



Aviator Weds Nurse. — Headline. 

The ideal bride for an airman. — Evening 

Sun. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 1 33 



October, 1913 



NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN AERONAUTICS 



PUTTING THE 'PLANE TO BED 

In mooring the army's machines, five bands 
are used, two on the engine section, one on 
either side of the motor, and one at either 
end of the planes. The tail is held down by 
a fifth band thrown over the tail spars, the 
elevator being held in position by a couple 
of tripods. These bands are drawn taut and 
held in position by tent pins. The motor 
and propellers are protected by covers made 
especially to fit them. 




The bands are made of double thickness 
ten-ounce duck with a six-foot rope attached 
to either end. The bands are ten feet long by 
two feet in width. This method of mooring 
proved very successful, the machine at times 
being subjected to wind of 6o miles an hour 
and severe rain and sleet storms. 



You certainly put out an interesting book. 

-J'alciitiiic & Cojiipaiiy. 



THE MARS BIPLANE 

The Deutsche Flugzeugwerke (German 
Airship Works) in Lindenthal near Leipzig, 
produces the Mars biplanes and monoplanes 
and have obtained success with their machines. 
The Mars biplane is "distinguished for its 
great stability, unusual gliding ability, enor- 
mous carrying capacity and ascending fitness." 
In the l)iplane all parts correspond to the Mars 



monoplane, inasmuch as the carriage, the 
body, the installing of the motors, the seat ar- 
rangement and the rudder are the same. 

By those means it is possible to substitute 
parts of a monoplane for a biplane and vice 
versa. 

The total carrying surface of the Mars bi- 
plane amounts to 46 square metres ; the up- 
per deck has a span of 18 metres, the lower 
one 13 metres. The span can be reduced to 
13 metres for the whole apparatus by folding 
the exterior ends of the upper deck, so it can 
be placed without difficulty into a small 
hangar. The length of this machine is 9 
metres. In constructing this and the Mars 
monoplane especial emphasis was laid on quick 
demounting and speedy re-erection of the 
same, and the machine responds in this point 
to all requirements of the military department. 

The speed under full load (i. e., pilot, pas- 
senger and gasoline for 4 hours) is 120 kilos. 
The material used is of the very best quality 
and consists of seamless steel tubing, knotless 
ash, pine and spruce-wood veneering. The 
Rami covering is especially impregnated and 
is protected against climatic influences by a 
particular varnish. 

In front of the body are comfortably and 
ingeniously sheltered the motor, benzine tank 
and a little further back passenger and guide, 
and the body itself consists of a fish-like boat 
of little air resistance and greatest firmness. 
The radiator is situated in front of the motor. 

The propeller is directly affixed on the 
motor-shaft. The high-profiled wings are 
strongly outlined and possess inherent stability 
through upward bent end-flaps. All control 
cables are of piano wire. The steering wheel 
is attached to a lever and by tilting the former 
down or putting it back the rudder is put in- 
action. By turning the steering wheel the 
lateral stability is maintained, while the lateral 
steering is obtained by means of a foot-lever 
in such a way that by Dressing down the right 




AERONA UTICS 



Page 134 



October, 1913 



foot the steering corresponds to the right and 
by pressing down to the left will result in 
steering to the left side. 

The extremely staunch carriage consists of 
generously dimensioned steel-tubing resting 
upon four running wheels. The dampening 
planes can be "displaced while in flight by 
a patented contrivance which is operated by 
a specially adjusted hand-wheel. This inno- 
vation makes it possible that the pilot doesn't 
need to attend to the elevation rudder while 
in flight, with resulting relief in guiding the 
machine." 



PEGOUD'S LOOP 

The first illustration shows the complete 
loop made by Pegoud with his Bleriot on 
Sept. 21. Three different times he "tried" 
to upset sideways by a side slip on the wing, 
but could not accomplish this, the c. of g. of 
the machine being too low to permit this. In 
an opening of blue sky among clouds, a 
glimpse was caught of the machine in a tail 
first plunge in a vertical position. The ma- 
chine was then righted after a side slip on 
the wing (the machine sliding sideways 



,^--c?— 


0-* 


:4 




V 


-^i 






1 


• i ^s 




s 


; i r--- <^-^ 




•f. 






> 


^ -4 ^ ^ 






.■-4^ 


179-}- 







downward). Pegoud next tried a complete 
revolution, taking a vertical drop and turn- 
ing over sideways. His fourth experiment 
consisted in flying vertically upward from 
the force acquired by a sudden descent. Pe- 
goud then did another tail first dive, then 
ascending to about 8co metres. From this 
height he suddenly dipped towards the earth 
and succeeded in making a complete "loop- 
the-Ioop," the loop being about loo metres in 
diameter. Having accomplished this Pegoud 
again described the letter S, his head down- 
ward, and turning over sideways, as described 
last month. Then he let go of all controls. 
The machine descended at first in a dive, 
then ascended and then made a tail first dive, 
Pegoud then taking hold again of his con- 
trols, these slides producing "a delicious sen- 
sation." "I have executed what appeared to 
be the most difficult feat, the turning over 
sideways completely and bringing back to 
equilibrium. Besides I have vertically as- 
cended and have looped the loop. To ter- 



minate the demonstration I have described 
the letter S with the lateral righting of the 
machine (i. e., turning over sideways)." 

At Brooklands, England, he repeated his 
performance in a strong wind on September 
25, making, in different words, a slow spiral 
in the longitudinal sense, the axis of the 
spiral being approximately horizontal, after 
a vertical dive and turning the machine on 
its back. Again he looped the loop by div- 
ing for a comparatively short distance with 
engine on, dropping his tail, rising vertically 
by momentum. 




The machine used has the top pylon in- 
creased in height so that the upper bracing 
to the planes is at a better angle and the 
bracing is by stranded cable. The elevator 
flaps are those of the 70 H. P. Bleriot and 
straps pass over the aviator's shoulders. 

Pegoud proves it is possible to capsize a 
machine and right it again by exercise of 
cool judgment if there is sufificient air room 
and no disturbing air currents. 

Later, at Buc, these stunts were continued, 
Pegoud doing the loop five consecutive times. 
Lieut. Poulet, of French army, has also flown 
upside down. The simple "S" was illustrated 
in the September issue. The second illustra- 
tion is from Pegoud's own sketch. 

One, Chanteloup, on a Caudron 80 H. P. 
biplane is reported to have turned his ma- 
chine "over on its side and let it sideslip for 
some distance, and then gradually got it up- 
side down, and flew in that way for a few 
seconds before making another dive and re- 
gaining the normal flying position." 



AERONA UTICS 



"Page 135 



October, 1913 




THE WRECKED ZEPPELIN 

The Zeppelin L-2, which burned in the air 
on October 17, killing the entire party aboard, 
numbering 28, was the first of the new ships 
of battleship class built under new specifica- 
tions. 

A third car has been added, way for'ard 
and the two engine cars have been re-bal- 
anced. This bow cabin is the "bridge" of 
the new ship. 

The L-2 represented the highest engineer- 
ing development of the rigid airship. Dwarf- 
ing all preceding Zeppelins, it was the first 
true unit of the German navy in its fleet of 
"aerial battleships," of a type and power 
which answered the Admiralty's demand for 
offensive action. 

The L-2 was sustained by the enormous 
volume of 27,000 cubic metres of hydrogen, 
disposed in 24 entirely separate gas cham- 
bers, placed end to end throughout the 526 
feet length of hull. Her tremendous buo^-- 
ancy sustained her own weight of 24 tons and 
an additional cargo of 12 tons. Her four 
Maybach motors each developed 225 H. P.. 
900 H. P. in all. These engines were dis- 
posed in pairs, one pair in each engine gon- 
dola, fore and aft. One engine of each pair 
could drive both propellers above the gon- 
dola, on either side of the hull. Two of 
these engines — one forward and one aft en- 
gine — could drive the airship up to an alti- 
tude of a mile and a half. 

The radius of action of the L-2, fixed by 
the attainments of preceding Zeppelins of 
proportionately smaller size, was given as 
2,000 miles by employing only three-fourths 
of her fuel capacity The percentage of gas 
leakage in the case of the L-i, which was 
lost recently in the North Sea, was i^, the 
gas chambers in the L-2 being supposed to be 
virtually impermeable. 

Both of these latest Zeppelins were known 
to have attained absolute control of the ex- 
pansion and contraction of their gas lift, due 
to the perfection of a system of circulating 
currents of air, driven by pumps through the 



air space between the gas chambers and the 
inclosing hull. 

In the captain's "bridge," were placed 
the valves, pressure gauges, thermostats, 
barographs, steering wheels and navigating 
charts. The whole gondola was closed in 
with a steamer deck canopy and glass win- 
dows. Leather divans were placed for the 
captain and his officers. 

The ofhcers' quarters were amidships, built 
closely into the bottom of the hull. This 
was a comfortably furnished cabin, 100 feet 
in length. A long gangway of V shape ran 
from the bow to the stern of the ship and 
connected the navigating "bridge," motor gon- 
dolas and quarters. It continued upward in 
a curve to the rudders at the stern, which 
was reached by a companionway. 

The speed developed by the L-2 during her 
first "shop trials," over Lake Constance, be- 
fore she proceeded to Berlin, was 54 knots, 
or 62.18 statute miles an hour. This was ac- 
complished with 390 more horsepower than 
the L-i possessed. The Mauretania's fastest 
average speed is 27.04 knots. The L-2 made 
this great speed with motors weighing only 
3,924 pounds, or seventy-six pounds lighter 
than the same motor that drove the L-i. 
Motors and the crew of twenty-two repre- 
sented TfYj tons. Fuel for a 2,000-mile run 
amounted to six tons, leaving 2]^ tons for 
wireless equipment, guns and ammunition. 

The airship's armament, as demanded by 
the specifications, published last year by a 
semi-ofiicial army journal, was to be four 
guns of the quick-firing type, each weigh- 
ing fifty pounds. One was to be mounted on 
top, and three to be carried at equidistant 
points along the gangway, one forward, one 
aft and a third amidships, in the officers' quar- 
ters. The ship could carry two tons of 
ammunition, or when leaving three guns be- 
hind could carry one and a half tons of 
bombs, according to the mission undertaken. 

The L-2 was not the largest airship which 
the German Admiralty contemplated. Her 
successors, according to the published esti- 
mates by army journals, were to attain sizes 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 136 



October, 1913 



up to 30,oco cubic metres. Zeppelin engineers 
had expressed the opinion that airships of 
that size were entirely feasible. A ship of 
30,000 metres would arrive at the colossal di- 
mensions of 650 feet, with a diameter of 
eighty feet, and command 1,400 to 1,500 H. P. 
T. R. MacMechen. 

The reports state that the cause of the 
burning, or explosion, of the L-2 was a fire 
amidships. No definite information is avail- 
able and from the lack of information it is 
assumed the Government knows the cause 
and is not disturbed. As the engines are 
nowhere near amidships it is possible, if there 
was a leakage of gas, due to a defect in any 
of the gas chambers inside the hull, the hy- 
drogen would escape into the air spaces be- 
tween all the gas chambers and the inclosing 
hull. Entering the stairway shaft, it would 
rise to the top, and if the top hatchway was 
open would escape into the air. Mixed with 
air, hydrogen will explode instantly, or com- 
ing in contact with a spark. If the accepting 
commission was testing the quick-firing gun 
a spark might produce the explosion, although 
it was said that the gun's silencer made the 
ignition flameless. 

The cable dispatches state that the flames 
first burst from the point where the officers' 
quarters are located. In the ceiling of the 
cabin is the hatchway, opening into a shaft 
through which a spiral stairway ascends be- 
tween the two central gas chambers and 
comes out on top of the hull in an observa- 
tory, in which a quick-firing gun is mounted 
for protecting the airship from attack by 
aeroplanes overhead. 

The two motor gondolas are situated, one 
160 feet forward and one 160 feet aft of the 
amidships section, wdiere the officers' quarters 
and wireless equipment are located. Above 
these engine gondolas the bottom of the ship's 
hull is fireproofed with aluminum sheeting. 
A ladder reaches from the deck of the gon- 
dolas to the gangway above. The gondolas 
are partly exposed, in order that any escap- 
ing gasses may be blown away. It is difficult 
to understand how they could climb the lad- 
der and enter the hatch above. 

A writer in La Genie Civil, before the late 
accident, in discussing the relative merits of 
dirigbles, mentoned that of the nine destruc- 
tions of Zeppelins since 1906, two were caused 
by explosions. "This relative frequency of 
explosions deserves some consideration and 
we may state that the system itself favors 
these accidents. There is between the outer 
cover and the small elementary balloons 
closed spaces where the least escape of hydro- 
gen — and there is always an escape of hydro- 
gen- — forms a detonatins^ mixture ; after- 
wards, all that is needed to cause the catas- 
trophe is some little casual circumstance. The 
material of the covering is not stretched and 
there may be developed between this material 
or somewhere on the framework a rubbing 
of some sort that would develop a little bit 
of electricity and cause a spark." 

As the day of the catastrophe to the L-2 
was fine one would eliminate the chance of 
explosion by induction of electricity. 



Count Zeppelin has under way in the Zep- 
pelin factory a new and greater dirigible and 
this he plans to pilot himself across the At- 
lantic to the United States and may even 
cross the continent to the 1915 World's Fair 
at San Francisco. The North Sea is now 
a mill pond to the Zeppelins and crossing 
the Atlantic in two days' will make it nothing 
more than a large lake. The Hamburg- 
American line, which is heavily interested 
in the Zeppelin Company even plans regular 
trans-Atlantic passenger trips. 



ZEPPELIN PROBE RESULT 

Berlin, Oct. 29 — The explosion is attributed 
in the official report to a partial vacuum 
formed in the centre gondola behind a new 
kind of windshield, used for the first time. 
It sucked the gas escaping from beneath the 
aluminum structure of the dirigible into the 
gondola, where it was exploded by a spark 
from the motor. 



A GASLESS DIRIGIBLE 

Apparently few have given the subject 
thought, but there seems to be no reason why 
there should not be practical airships which 
do not use hydrogen for sustentation. A hot 
air dirigible ought to prove useful — its first 
cost would be less, upkeep less, operation 
cheaper and almost equal to hydrogen in lift- 
ing capacity. 

In the March, 1909, issue of AERONAU- 
TICS is an airship of this type roughly out- 
lined by C. W. Sirch ; one made in sections, 
a la Zeppelin, using fireproofed fabric for a 
covering over a frame work composed of a 
central tubular spine with truss rods extend- 
ing outward therefrom like spokes of a wheel 
and wires for rims, burners in every compart- 
ment, companionway underneath the length 
of the bag, air compressor, propellers at ex- 
tremities of the bag, etc. 

A curve plotted by Mr. Sirch after calculat- 
ing the per cent, buoyancy of air at tempera- 
tures rising to 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit shows 
that air at approximately 440 degrees has the 
same buoyancy as hydrogen gas. Materials 
have been subjected to a temperature of 440 
degrees without damage, although it is de- 
signed to raise the temperature only about 
100 degrees over atmospheric. The textiles 
used which are subjected to a high tempera- 
ture exhibit a remarkable immunity from the 
effects of heat. It is claimed the contents of 
the bag will lift 65 pounds for every degree 
of rise in temperature. 

In manceuvering it is necessary only to ad- 
ditionally heat the air sufficiently to rise above 
obstructions. Either end can be elevated or 
lowered by warming or cooling the air in the 
compartments situated there. 

The use of air disposes at once of the cost- 
liness of hydrogen, danger from inhalation, 
explosion and fire, leakage and replenishment 
in transit, ballast and the difficulty of obtain- 
ing a supply requiring a generating plant. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 137 



Odoher. 1913 




AERONA UTICS 



'Page 138 



October, 1913 



WRIGHT AUTOMATIC STABILITY SYSTEM 

A patent just issued to Orville and Wilbur 
Wright, assignors to the Wright Co., will be 
read and digested with great interest by all in 
aviation. 

This patent was filed Feb. lo, 1908, and 
issued Oct. 14, 1913. The number is 1,075,533. 

From the following it will be seen that it is 
intended to provide automatic means whereby 
the fore and aft balance of the machine may 
be maintained at a determined angle of in- 
cidence, and means whereby the angle of in- 
cidence at which the machine is automatically 
balanced may be varied at the will of the 
operator while the machine is in flight : and 
an automatic mechanism for maintaining the 
lateral balance of the machine, the automatic 
controlling mechanism being adapted to ad- 
just the angles of incidence of the opposite 
lateral portions of the aeroplanes and the 
position of the vertical rudder to restore the 
lateral balance of the machine if the same 
should be caused to tilt to one side or the 
other. 

The device consists in short, according to 
the claims, of the combination with an aero- 
plane and means for maintaining balance : 

(i) Of (for automatic longitudinal bal- 
ance) a movable horizontal "vane" actuated 
by air currents when the course of the ma- 
chine varies, means controlled by said vane 
for operating the elevator, connections al- 
lowing the angle of incidence at which the 
machine is automatically maintained to be 
varied by the operator, a vane so mounted it 
can rise and sink without changing its angle 
with aeroplane, means for adjusting the angle 
of the vane with the aeroplane, means for se- 
curing same in adjusted position. 

(2) Of {for lateral automatic balance), in 
a machine whose wing tips may be "twisted" 
a pendulum mounted to move laterally, means 
for producing said twist, connection between 
pendulum and means for twisting, manual 
means for same, means for separating the one 
from the other, means to allow pendulum 
to operate on a turn as well as otherwise, a 
fluid pressure cylinder, pistons, valves and 
connections. 

Another claim covers the simple combina- 
tion of means carried by a plane and co-oper- 
ating therewith to automatically twist said 
plane, or to move lateral and portions to dif- 
ferent angles of incidence, so that if ailerons 
should be decided in the suit pending to be 
an equivalent of warping, the system would 
be barred as far as automatic operation of 
ailerons is concerned. There are 42 claims 
in all, concisely and strongly drawn. 

The other Wright patents in this coun- 
try are: 821,393, issued May 22, 1906, now in 
suit (see AERONAUTICS, page in, Sept., 
1913) ; 987,662, of March 21, 191 1, covering 
the use of vertical vanes and ailerons. (See 
AERONAUTICS, page 192-193, May, 1911.) 

The new patent described in this issue is 
similar to one issued in England, described 





in AERONAUTICS, Sept., 1909. This de- 
vice has been lately used most successfully in 
a simplified form. 

LATEST WRIGHT PATENT. 

A fluid pressure cylinder t,2 is suitably 
mounted and comprises an enlarged portion 
34 and a reduced portion 35. The enlarged 
portion is provided with a piston 36 which in 
turn has a member 2>7< adapted to serve as 
a piston rod for the piston 36 and as a piston 
for the reduced portion 35 of the cylinder. 
A crank arm 58 is suitably connected to the 
disk 26, which, in turn is adapted to be con- 
nected to the drum 22, said arm being pro- 
vided at its opposite end with a wrist pin 59 
adapted to extend through a slot 60, prefer- 
ably formed in the wall of the reduced por- 
tion 35 of the cylinder, and engage the pis- 
ton 2>7^ thus causing the drum 22 to be rotated 
as the pistons 36 and 2>7 reciprocate within the 
cylinder 32. The reduced portion 35 of the 




AERONA UTICS 



Page 139 



October, 1913 




cylinder is connected with an air storage 
receptacle 39, by pipe 40, normally in open 
communication with both the cylinder and the 
air tank. A constant air pressure is exerted 
on the piston 37. The enlarged portion of 
the cylinder is connected with the air tank by 
means of a pipe 41, which is provided at a 
point between the cylinder 34 and the tank 
39, with a three-way valve 42 adapted to be 
automatically controlled to regulate the ad- 
mission of air to the cylinder, as shown in 
Fig. 8. The port 46, is of such a size that it 
is at all times in communication with the 
outlet portion of the pipe 41. The other ports 
are so arranged to bring either the port 47 
into alignment with the inlet portion of the 
pipe 41, or the port 48 into alignment with the 
exhaust port 44 in the casing 43, or the valve 
member may be turned so as to move both of 
the ports 47 and 48 out of alignment with the 
respective ports of the casing, thus closing 
the outlet pipe 41 against the passage of fluid 
and locking the piston against movement. The 
valve member 45 is provided with a suitable 
operating handle or arm 49 which is adapted 
to be connected to the automatic controlling 
mechanism. 



-^^ 




FOR LONGITUDINAL STABILITY 

The automatic controlling mechanism pre- 
ferably consists of a small horizontal plane 
50, mounted upon the frame of the machine, 
at a small negative angle with reference to 
the main aeroplanes, free to have a limited 
vertical movement, and so connected to the 
arm 49 of the valve member 45 as to actu- 
ate the valve as the regulating plane moves 
up or down. But in order to rise or descend 
it is necessary to change the angle between 
the regulating plane and the main aeroplane 
and adjustment of some kind to permit this 
change at the will of the operator while the 
machine is in flight is desirable. There are 
provided one or more arms 51, which are 
rigidly mounted on a shaft 52 pivotally con- 
nected to the frame of the machine and which 
extend downward. Pivotally connected to 
each of the arms 51 are links 53, which are 
approximately parallel and extend outwardly 
from the arms 51 and the frame of the ma- 
chine and support between their outer ends 
the rigidly mounted plane or vane 50. They 
are pivotally connected at their outer ends 
by a connecting member 54. The two upper 
links 53 are rigidly mounted on a shaft 53'. 
The vane 50 may be mounted upon a single 
arm, as shown in Fig. 6. A suitable counter- 
balance 55 is provided for the vane 50. The 
frame supporting the vane 50 is connected 
to the arm 49 of the valve 42. As herein 
shown, one of the upper links 53 of this 
frame is connected to the arm 49 by means of 
a pivoted connecting link 56. The pivotal sup- 
ports for the arms 51 permit the frame sup- 
porting the vane 50 to be moved relatively to 
the main frame of the machine and thus 
adjust the vane 50 so that its plane forms any 
desired angle with the plane of the main aero- 
planes. A suitable friction clutch is pro- 
vided for locking the arms 51 in their ad- 
justed position, such as the spring clip 57. 
If desired, suitalile stops 61 may be pro- 
vided for limiting the movement of the links 
53 and the vane 50. 

In use, the vane 50 is adjusted by means of 
the arms 51 to such angle with the main 
aeroplanes as it is desired that the aeroplanes 
shall maintain with relative wind. If the 
relative wnnd at any time strikes the aero- 
planes at an angle of incidence greater than 
the angle between the aeroplanes and the 
regulating vane 50, it also strikes the vane 
on the underside and forces it upward and 
rotates the valve member 45 to bring the inlet 
port 47 in alignment with the pipe 41, thus 
permitting the air from the storage tank 39 
to pass into the enlarged portion 34 of the 
cylinder 32. The difference in the area of the 
piston 36 in the cylinder 34 and the piston 
37 in the cylinder 35 is such that the air pres- 
sure in the cylinder 34 overcomes that in the 
cylinder 35 and moves both pistons longi- 
tudinally of the cylinder, thus actuating the 
crank arm 58 and rotating the drum 22 to 
adjust the elevator to such a position as to 
cause the forward end of the machine to 
move downwardly, thus decreasing the angle 
of incidence of the aeroplanes and also of 
(Continued on page 142) 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 140 



October, 1913 



NEW WRIGHT MODEL. E. 

The Wright Company has recently brought 
out a new type of machine for exhibition 
work called Model "E," which is the lirst pro- 
duct of this company equipped with only one 
propeller. This machine is a small single pro- 
peller biplane with the customary Wright con- 
trols, but differs considerably from previous 
products of this company in details of con- 
struction. 

A 4-cyl. Wright, water-cooled motor, 30 
H P., is mounted alongside of the operator. 
The motor drives by chain the single central 
propeller, which is 7 feet in diameter. The 
tail spars supporting the rudders are spread 
wide apart so as to clear the propeller Ihe 
motor, seat, gasoline tank, radiator and pro- 
peller drive are all concentrated m one cen- 
ter section which is 4 feet 6 inches wide. On 
either side of this, by means of readily de- 
mountable fittings, are attached the wings, 
consisting of a cell of only two panels. Ihe 
tail spars are likewise attached to the center 
section by demountable fittings, so that to 
take the machine down, it is only necessary 
to take off the wings on either side, and the 
tail at the rear, making the largest remaining 
dimension about 14 x 5 feet. 

The wire fittings at the base of the strut 
on this new machine are a novel hook ar- 
rangement of great simplicity, making it pos- 
sible to undo the wires merely by taking out 
the strut and loosening them up. As in pre- 
vious joints on Wright machines the strut is 
held in place by a pin, and in this fitting the 
hook plate is the base plate of the strut With 
the wires in the hooks, as soon as the strut 
is put into place the wires are locked in. 

The landing chassis is exceedingly simple, 
resembling very much the landing chassis on 
the well-known Wright type "C." Two 24 
X 4 inches wheel are mounted to the custom- 
ary Wright skids. 

A finished detail which is very effective is 
the manner in which the front blinkers are 
constructed of wood, quite rigidly fastened 
to the front of the skid, and doing away with 
much of the wire bracing formerly used. 

The details of the control mechanism be- 
tween the levers and rudders are quite dif- 
ferent from other tvpes of Wright aeroplanes, 
because of the necessity of clearing the pro- 
peller end of protecting the wires and cables 
at points in the vicinity of the propeller tips. 
The vertical rudder is 16 inches in depth, 3 
feet II inches in height, of the usual biplane 
form, pivoted in a balanced position The ele- 
vator is 12 feet wide by 2>4 feet deep. The 
wings of this machine are covered with linen, 
treated with a new preparation which has been 
evolved after a long series of experiments 
at the Wright plant, and which gives an ex- 
cellent finish to the cloth, without at the 
same time causing it to tighten too much. 
The finish given to the entire machine is 
typical of the fine work that is being turned 
out at the Dayton factory, and the neat ap- 
pearance of the machine is most pleasing. 

This machine has been designed Particu- 
larly to meet the requirements of exhibition 




flying, which calls for a light, handy ma- 
chine, easily taken down and set together, 
occupying little space, and possessing plenty 
of climbing power and speed. 

The span of Model "E" is 32 feet, the chord 
is 5 feet and the surface area approximately 
316 sq. ft. The total weight ready for flight 
is only 730 pounds, which makes the machine 
all the easier to handle on and off cars, and 
in getting around from place to place. 

During the past month on various occa- 
sions, Mr. Orville Wright has been flying 
this new machine at Simms Station, putting it 
through a long series of tests. The machine 
handles well in the air. is remarkably easy to 
land, and quick to start. A recent test of the 
time it requires to take down the machine 




Page\4\ 



October. 1913 




\.i^ made, and it took only 12 minutes after 
'lling it into the hangar at the conclusion 
if a riight to get it ready for shipment. 



PHE NEW WRIGHT SIX CYLINDER MOTOR 

The new Wright six-cyHnder motor, which 
s a development of the "six" first brought out 
It Dayton in 191 1, has lately demonstrated 
ery high efficiency, and excellent reliability, 
iarry N. Atwood, who is flying a Wright 
ype hydro-aeroplane at Toledo is the first to 
ise one of these new motors, and the unusual 
lerformances of his machine with the new 
quipment at Toledo have created a very 
ound enthusiasm. Though not trying for 
stunt" records, Init rather to demonstrate re- 





liability and consistent good performance, At- 
wood has been carrying passengers, among 
them F. R. Coates, of Toledo Railway & Light 
Co.; Nathaniel Paige of the General Electric 
Company, and E. Lee Miller. 

The new motor, 4^^ inches by 41^^ inches, 
as were the old ones, has been vastly im- 
proved in construction. The ports have been 
made larger, and both exhaust and intake are 
now mechanically operated. A novel fea- 
ture which insures economical use of fuel and 
a safe and convenient means of throttling 
down is the fitting of Zenith carburetors. 

As this is the type of motor to be used in 
the new type of W'right aeroboats, the demon- 
stration of its excellence for water flying is 
of considerable significance. The weight of 
the motor complete is only 265 pounds, and 
it is said that the power developed is over 70, 




on the Wright type machine. The A. L. A. 
M. rating would show the motor as devel- 
oping but 46 H. P. It is common knowledge 
the A. L. A. M. rating is often exceeded, as 
in the case of the four-cylinder Wright, for 
instance. 

Atwood consistently succeeded in making 
his Wright type machine with this new motor 
get ofif the water with a passenger in less than 
15 seconds, climbing at nearly 300 feet a min- 
ute, and with an air speed that is easily varied 
from 42 to 56 miles an hour, a combination 
of greater safety, due to the low landing 
speed, with higher speed for cruising being' 
obtained. 



I wish to continue 
TICS as I find it * 
the rest. 



reading AERONAU- 
* *_ far better than 
' V. D., Detroit. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 142 



October, 1913 



WRIGHT STABILITY PATENT 

{Coniniued from page ijg) 
the vane 50 and causing the air currents to 
come in contact with the upper surface of the 
vane moves the same downwardly, as shown 
in dotted lines, Fig. 5 and reverses the valve 
member 45, moving the elevator m the op- 
posite direction and again movmg the aero- 
planes to an increased angle of mcidence. 
These operations are repeated successively 
until the movement of the vane 50 has been 
gradually reduced and the vane has but a 
very Hmited movement. By providmg means 
for varying the angle of the vane to the aero- 
plane, there is provided means for varying 
the particular angle of incidence at which 
the aeroplane is automatically maintained, 
and thus the driver is enabled to direct the 
machine up or down without interrupting the 
working of the automatic controlling mech- 
anism. ,T ^ n C t-U^ 

In Fig 6 is shown a modified form of the 
controlling vane and arrangement for vary- 
ing the angle of incidence. The operation will 
be apparent from the above details. 

FOR LATERAL BALANCE 

Any suitable means may be provided for 
warping the wing-ends and for compensat- 
ing inequalities in the resistance of the right 
and left wings. This need not be gone into 
as readers are familiar with the Wright rud- 
der and warp system. 

For automatically operating the warping 
and rudder drums 65 and 74 of the Wright 
machine, is provided another air cylinder 
78, pistons, etc., similar in construction 
to' the cylinder 32, and connections which 
operate similarly to above. The arm 83 of the 
valve 82 is connected by means of a link 84 

THOMAS FLYING BOAT 

[Ciuif/niied from page 127.) 




with one arm 85 of a bell crank lever which 
is pivotally connected to the frame of the ma- 
chine at 86 and has its opposite arm 87 of 
considerably greater length than the arm 85 
and extending downwardly to a point near 
the lower aeroplane, where it is provided 
with a suitable weight 88, thus forming a pen- 
dulum. Suitable stops 90 may be provided to 
regulate the motion of the pendulum. Nor- 
mally the pendulum 87 is substantially ver- 
tical and maintains the valve 82 in its closed 
position, thus holding the piston in the cyl- 
inder 78 against movement. But should one 
end (side) of the machine rise the pendu- 
lum 87 will swing toward the lower side, 
operating the valve 82 to admit pressure at 
one end of the piston and move the same 
longitudinally of the cylinder. Thus through 
the medium of the connecting rod 79. and the 
disk 69, the drums 65 and 74 are rotated, 
thereby warping the wings and turning the 
vertical rudder 10. The first swing of the 
pendulum is such as to carry the rudder and 
aeroplanes beyong the neutral point, and con- 
sequently the pendulum will swing back and 
reverse the position of these parts. These 
operations are successively repeated until the 
pendulum 87 loses its movement and comes 
to rest. If it is desired to drive the machine 
in a circle, the drum 74. which controls the 
vertical rudder and which is held in place 
on the axle 66 by friction only, may be turned 
to a new position on the axle 66 and thus set 
the vertical rudder at an angle to its normal 
position, and with the parts thus reset, the 
automatic-controlling mechanism will oper- 
ate then in exactly the same manner as when 
the machine is being driven forward in a 
straight line. 



^^i^^^^Oc. 



of .0625 inches diameter runs through copper 
leaders with bell mouths where turns are made 
to the steering wheel, rotation of which oper- 
ates the rudder. 

The rear of the boat carries a fixed stabiliz- 
ing surface of 10 sq. ft., triangular in shape. 
This is set at a slight angle, 2 degrees. To 
this stabilizer are hinged the two elevator flaps, 



which have a total of 16 sq. ft. of surface^ 
Movement of the steering column fore and 
aft operates the elevators by .0625 inch wire 
cables, which enter the rear part of the boat 
and continue to the column out of sight in the 
interior of the hull. The rudder measure; 
in rough outline 3 feet by 5 feet and has i 
total area of 9 sq. ft. A foot lever operate- 
this by concealed wires in the hull. 

The boat is 26 feet long, 2 feet deep, with ; 
3- foot beam. There are four watertight com 
partments, cross braced cedar bulkheads be 
ing used. Internal cross ribs spaced 8 inche 
apart, are used throughout the length of tb 
boat. ' Cedar planking, in cross diagonal nar 
row strips, is used in building the hull. Thi 
is nailed on the framework with wire brads 
Linen and white lead is placed between_ th 
two layers of planking. The hull is entirel; 
covered with sheet steel, painted gray. Th 
cockpit is formed in the hull itself. Th 
spray shield, of Goodyear fabric, is detach 
able. Side doors permit easy entrance. Th 
boat can carry 75o pounds in excess of 1I 
own weight. The boat weighs, empty 4c 
pounds, and the total weight of the complel 
machine, empty, is 1,200 pounds. The powe 
plant is a 65 H. P. 6-cyl. American-bui 
engine. It drives direct a propeller, 8 fc 
diameter by 5 feet pitch. 



ERONA UTICS 



'Page 143 



October, 1913 




THE FUNK TRACTOR 

By Harry Schultz, Model Editor 

The model shown in the accompanying 
awing was constructed by Rudie Funk, of 
; Long Island Model Aero Club. Although 
has not been tested very extensively up to 
; present time, it has many good qualities 
i no doubt will prove itself a prize winner, 
rhe fuselage is constructed of spruce ^s 
fg of an inch and is 36 inches long. The 
;elage is 3 inches wide at the center and 
braced by an "X" bracing of bamboo as 
)wn. It is brought together and glued at 
front and rear. At the front where the 
) main beams are joined together, is at- 
hed the bearing block and at the rear is 
00k for the reception of the rubber motor. 
~he main plane is 32 inches in span with a 
ird at the center of 6 inches. The edges 
1 ribs of the plane are constructed of t^ 
h flat steel wire, and the main beam is of 
ite pine ^ by ^ of an inch in thickness 
1 is rounded off to a stream line form. 
z sketch shows the construction of the 
le. 



The tail plane is constructed with its edges 
of wire and the two ribs are double ribs of 
bamboo. The planes are covered with silk 
hbre paper and coated with Ambroid var- 
nish, the mam plane being covered on the up- 
per side and the tail double surfaced. 

The propeller is carved from a block of 
white pine and is 10 inches in diameter with 
a pitch of about 14 inches. The concave edge 
IS the entering edge. It is driven by 12 
strands of Vs inch flat rubber 



MODEL FLYING AND ITS PURPOSES 

By the Model Editor 

_ The writer has been asked a number of 
times the following questions: "What is the 
purpose of flying models ; is it merely a sport 
for boys, or is there any knowledge to be 
gained that would aid in the construction of 
man-carrying or full-sized machines?" 

Model flying can be considered in different 
ways. Some of the model flyers indulge in 
It for the purpose of whiling away their time 
while others indulge in it for the purpose of 




He/KRiN G- s^oc/c 







B f 






/TtST/CA^XJS, 



'9»3 . 



/<»EK.Of<AL»riCS 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 144 



October, 1913 



learning whatever can be learnt, and which 
would aid them in the construction of man- 
man-carrying or full-sized machines.''" 

If the new ideas of would-be inventors were 
f^rst tried out by means of the flymg model 
there would be thousands of dollars saved 
yearly and less "flying tenement houses" on 
the scene. When these "inventors" are 
spoken to on the subject, they no doubt wdl 
state that their ideas were embodied in a 
model, said model being in the form of a 
glider, the same being cast from a balloon or 
high elevation and because of the fact that 
the glider descended safely to earth they con- 
sider themselves to be the possessor of a re- 
markable "invention." This is merely a half- 
way method of testing out a new idea. Let 
the invention be embodied in a model equip- 
ped with power, let the model be adjusted and 
placed on the ground. If it will rise and 
show good stability and good qualities of 
flight, it is then time to think of embodying 
the same in a full sized machine. If this is 
done much of this wanton waste of money 
will be avoided. 

The model aeroplane of today has reached 
the stage of being practically perfect. It will 
fly in winds that will keep a man carrying 
machine on the ground. When equipped with 
skids it will rise from the ground, show per- 
fect stability, soar away for over fifteen hun- 
dred feet and alight perfectly at the end of 
a flight When the model is equipped with 
pontoons or floats it will skim the water, rise 
gracefullv from the surface and fly off. Any- 
thing that can be done by a man-carrying 
machine can be duplicated by its miniature 
edition, the model aeroplane. Scarcely had 
the first hydroaeroplane risen from the water 
when this feat was duplicated in model form. 
One young enthusiast has attached a para- 
chute dropping device to his model (see 
\ERONAUTICS, Aug., 1913), which en- 
ables the parachute to be dropped at any pre- 
determined time. 

The canard tvpe machine such as the Val- 
kvrie Boland, Voisin. and Bleriot, was known 
to the model flyers years before the above ma- 
chines were put upon the market, and, in fact, 
is the type of model that holds all records 
today. 

In conclusion, therefore. I desire to state 
that those who take up model flymg as a 
sport, will not find a more exhilarating sport 
and those who take it up for the purpose of 
gaining knowledge, will find that there is 
something new to learn every minute, and 
they will never regret the time spent. 



DUNNE MODEL 

The stability of a Dunne type aeroplane 
may be readily demonstrated with an easily 
made paper model. 

A strip of fairly stiff writing paper ji/^ 
inches by 10 inches, doubled up, then ^folded 
along dotted line, as shown in sketch "A, is 
the glider. A slight bend should be given the 



I'HiriNt pAfEU 



: 




DVNN M^DEL 



wings ; slight at the center and near the for 
ward edge to more convex towards the ends 
"B." A piece of tin about ^4 inch by i incl 
is bent so as to clamp on the keel. This rna; 
be moved back or forward till the machin 
flies best. Best results are gotten by launch 
ing with a slight forward movement, as i 
"C." E. J. Bachmann, Jr. 



PROGRESS IN PROPELLERS 

The progress of aerodynamics has been ii 

timately associated with that of the perfec 

ing of the motors as well as with the increa; 

of knowledge as to the action of air upon su 

faces in movement. As to the dynamics < 

the air, considered with regard to aviatio 

we may distinguish between the theoretic 

and experimental results. Among the form 

there is the important study of Soreau on tl 

propeller, of which he spoke at a conferen 

last year of the Societe des Ingenieurs civi 

Soreau remarked that there are two schoc 

devoted to the theory of the screw. One co 

siders the elements of the screw itself, wit 

out taking into account the movements of t 

fluid molecules; the other school, better coi 

prehending the flow of liquids, finally reach 

an avowal of their powerlessness and becai 

strengthened in that avowal as the study 

the physical phenomena showed increasi 

complexity. Soreau says that, after havi 

sided with the latter school at first, he nc 

believes that it is possible to analyze the i 

tion of the blades of the screw, with t 

double reservation that the action takes pk 

in a limited space and that we be content w 

approximate laws. These laws lead to f( 

mulc-e no longer wholly empirical, because, 

thus developed, they show the parts play 

by the various dimensions, indicating th 

order of magnitude and relative influen 

Starting thence, the author has commenc 

to analyze, guided by preconceived ideas, 1 

better experiments on the subject and ho] 

to get some general results. For some ti 

analagous ideas have guided the Naval En 

neer Doyere in the study of marine sere' 

for which investigations the Academie < 

Sciences, in 191 1, bestowed a part of the V: 

lant prize. L. Lecornu 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 145 



October. 1913 



Model Flying 
Machines 

A thoroughly modern hand 
book describing' and illus- 
trating in detail the prin- 
ciples of fliiht and giving 
full directions for building 
] seven types of model ma- 
jt chines. Seventy pages, 56 
.;! original illustrations, and 9 
•ij full page detail plates. 
-J" Paper covers only. 

25 cents per copy, postpaid 

COLE & MORGAN, Pub., Newark, N. J. 




Stays Tight 
As a Drum 



yy 



Now Ready 

The Airman's Vade=Mecuni 

"NO. 1," METEOROLOGY 

By Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B. 

(Vice-President Royal Meteorological Society; Council 
Aeronautical Society 1 

CONTENTS : Introduction and 5 Chapters on 

Temperature, Pressure,Wind, and Precipitation. 

Weather Forecasting. Index. 

(/l/ustrated) 

Price 40 CenU Net Post Free 

"AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Buildings, 
London Wall, London, E. C. 



Goodyear Aeroplane Fabric, now used by practically 
all aeroplane makers, is famous for its STAY-TIGHT 
properties. Made of highest grade long fibre cotton. So 
thoroughly impregnated with the Goodyear compound 
that it is MOISTURE-PROOF and NON-ROT. 

GOODJ^AR 

^B w-^ AKRON. OHIO 

AEROPLANE FABRIC 



won't shrink or stretch. Great for " Hydros " as well as 
" Aeros," because waterproof. Send a postal today for 
all the facts about Goodyear Aeroplane Accessories, 
Fabric, Tires and Springs — (also Balloons). 



THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER CO. 

AKRON, OHIO 

Toronto, Can. London, Eng. Mexico City, Mex. 

Branches and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities 

Write Us on Anything You Want in Rubber 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY 

ARE NOW PREPARED TO DEUVER 

The New Six-Cylinder 60-H.P. Wright Motor 

MODEL 6-60 

EQUIPPED WITH MECHANICAL VALVES AND DOUBLE 
CARBURETORS: BORE 4,", STROKE 4'," 

This Motor can be throttled down to 700 r.p.m. without in any way affecting the 
smoothness of running, and with its full speed of well over 1500 r.p.m. a flexi- 
bility is obtained that compares favorably with the best types of motor car engines. 

The structural details of this Motor are exceedingly simple and reliable, and its 
performances recenlly both on land and in water flying, show it to be a worthy 
successor of the Wright Four-Cylinder, 40. 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY 

New York Office 
11 PINE STREET 



DAYTON. OHIO 



AERONA UTICS 



"Page 146 



October, 1913 



JUST A FEW FOREIGN FLIGHTS AS AN EXAMPLE OF WHAT MIGHT 
BE TRIED IN THIS COUNTRY 



Sept. 4 — Gsell (waterplane) flies with three 
passengers, 3 hours 11 minutes 4 seconds, a 
new world record. 

Sept. 5-7 — Friedrich (Etrich) flies, Berlin 
to Paris, with a passenger; 3 intermediate 
stops; 950 kils. 

Sept. 9 — Reichelt and mechanic (Harlan) 
fly from Berlin to Paris, making 5 interme- 
diate stops; 950 kils. 

Sept. 13 — Friedrich flies to London, with 
Etrich as passenger. 

Sept. 13 — A Seguin (H. Farman) flies from 
Paris to Berlin, non-stop, in 10 hours 51 min- 
utes. 

Sept. 13 — Guillaux (Clement Bayard mono- 
plane, Clerget motor) flies from Paris to 
Savigny-sur-Braye, 190 kils., with a passenger. 

Sept. 14 — Chevillard flies Copenhagen, Den- 
mark, to Gottenberg, Sweden, with passenger, 
260 kils., non-stop. 

Sept. 15 — Figueroa (Bleriot) flies from An- 
tofagasta to La Pampa, Chile, a distance of 
210 miles. 

Sept. 15 — Stoeiifler (Aviatik) flies from 
Mulhausen, Germany, to Plotsk, near War- 
saw — Poland, 1,200 kils., during the night in 
8 hours, 6 minutes. 

Sept. 16 — Flying daily at Etampes since 
Aug. 25, an average of 694 kilometres, Fourny 
covered a total of 15,990.8 kilometres in 23 
days (Maurice Farman biplane, Renault 
motor), in competition for the Michelin prize 
for pilot who covers greatest distance in any 
number of days, flying at least 50 kils. a day. 
This in miles, is 9,929.54, representing a 
straight flight along the 40th parallel from 
Peking to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. 

Sept. 16 — Emile Vedrines (Ponnier mono- 
plane, 100 H. P., see AERON.\UTICS, p. 
101, Sept.) attained 161 M. P. H. cross-coun- 
try with the wind. 

Sept. 16 — Stievator flies from Freiburg to 
Konigsburg, Germany, 700 miles, with pas- 
senger; two stops. 

Sept. 16 — Guillaux returns with passenger 
in 50 minutes from Savigny, at a speed of 
210 K. P. H., with a strong wind behind. 

Sept. 16 — Friedrich and Etrich leave Hen- 
don, and arrived back in Berlin on Sept. 20, 
made three intermediate stops. 

Sept. 22 — Noel (White) carries 7 passen- 
gers for 17 minutes 25 2/5 seconds, a world 
record. 

Sept. 23 — Garros flies non-stop from St. 
Raphael, France, to Bizerta, Tunis, crossing 
the Mediterranean Sea, a distance of 560 
miles, the longest non-stop over-water flight 
yet made. It represents a flight from Phila- 
delphia to Charleston, S. C, in distance. 
He was 7 hours 53 minutes in the air. 
(Morane monoplane, 60 Gnome). 

Sept. 24 — Moreau in "aerostable" machine 
flies 20 kilometre circuit without touching lat- 
eral controls in wind not less than 5 kils. per 
second. He used rudder and elevator entirely. 

Sept. 24 — Thuelin (Farman) flies across 
Baltic Sea from Landskroma, Sweden, to 
Stralsmund, Germany, a distance of 180 kils. 
noTt stop. 



Sept. 24— Oct. 2— Chevillard (H. Farman) 
with passenger flies Stockholm to Gefle, Swe- 
den, 180 kils.; to Falon, 95 kils.; Vasteras, 149 
kils.: Upsala, 80 kils.; to Nordkoeping, 
Sweden, 300 kils.; to Carlstad, to Orekra, 300 
kils.; touring Sweden. 

Sept. 26 — Langer flies 9 hours 1 minute 57 
seconds, making German duration record. 

Sept. 26 — \'ictor Stoeffler flies from War- 
saw to Berlin, 550 kils., non-stop, 4 hours 
2 minutes. 

Sept. 29 — St. Steffen flies from Berlin to 
Brussels with one intermediate stop. Distance, 
420 miles. 

Oct. 1 — Sablatnig took 3 passengers to a 
height of 2,800 m., at Berlin; 4 to 2,080 m., 
and 5 passengers to 1,000 m. 

Oct. 2 — L. Noel (White) _ took up 10 pas- 
sengers; reached 600 feet height. 

Oct. 3 — Noel flies at Hendon with 9 pas- 
sengers for 20 mintues, making a new world 
record. 

Oct. 3 — Sablatnig took up five to 1,015 m. 

Oct. 5 — Roland Garros (Morane — 160 
Gnome) makes new hydroaeroplane speed rec- 
ord in Lake Como race — 127,72 kils. per 
hour. 

Oct. 10 — Victor Stoeffler (Aviatik) flies 
from Warsaw, Russia, to Berlin, Germany, non- 
stop, in 4 hours 2 minutes. Distance, 341 
miles. 

Oct. 12 — Reiterer (Etrich) with passenger, 
flies Berlin-Copenhagen, non-stop, 229 miles. 

Oct. 13 — Seguin (H. Farman) flies from 
Paris to Bordeaux, and back, non-stop, 1,040 
kils., in 13 hours 5 minutes, beating the 
world's distance and duration record for non- 
stop flying. 

Oct. 14 — Stoeffler (Albatross) makes long- 
est flight in one day, 1,376 miles, in 22 hours 
47 minutes, actual flying time, from Berlin to 
Posen and return, Berlin to Mulhausen, and 
to and from Mulhausen to Darmstadt. Total 
elapsed time 24 hours 36 minutes. This was 
in the attempt to beat the record of Brinde- 
jonc des Moulinais, from Paris to Warsaw, 
1.382 kils., who beat Guillaux, who flew from 
Biarritz to Brockel, Germany, 1,340 kils.; 
both flights in 24 hours elapsed time. Among 
other attempts made for the Pommery Cup 
were Letort (Paris — Dantzig), 1,350 kils; Ja- 
noir (Etampes — Berlin), 1,000 kils.; Gilbert 
(Paris — Caceres). 1,300 kils.; Guillaux (Paris- 
Bermillo), 1,160 kils.; Seguin (Biarritz — 
Breme), 1,350 kils. 

Oct. 15— Thelen (Albatross) flies 867 miles 
with passenger in one day, making three 
stops. 

Oct. 16 — Garros (Morane — Saulnier) flies 
from Marseilles to Paris, a distance of 836 
kils., non-stop. 

Receiving orders to join the maneuvers, 
Lieut. Collard recently ilew from Epanile to 
Agen, his destination, a distance of 600 kils. 
He encountered very rough weather, espe- 
cially in the neighborhood of Bordeaux, but 
accomplished the trip without a hitch. 



Mr. John D. Cooper, the Curtiss aviator, has com- 
pleted the demonstration of a recent shipment of 
Curtiss water-flying machines for the Imperial Rus- 
sian Navy. The trials were perfectly successful, all 
the machines being approved and accepted by the 
government within two weeks after their arrival 
there. 

Curtiss flying-boats and hydroaeroplanes now form 



the entire aerial equipment of the naval aviation 
corps, some sixteen machines having been accepted 
during the past year, with others under course of 
construction in America, and arrangements about 
completed for the establishment of a branch factory 
in St. Petersburg. Extensive experiments were made 
during the year with hydroaeroplanes turned out by 
leading European builders, but none of these proved 
as satisfactory as the American machines. 



£RONA UTICS 



Page 147 



October, 1913 




FOR AN AERONAUTICAL CENTER 



It is generally admitted in inner circles, and, 
fortunately, the general public is aware of 
; fact, that there is a "slump" in aero- 
utics. 

Ballooning is not quite as popular as it 
s been but one could scarcely assign a den- 
e cause for the decline. The races here 
s coming year will have a great beneficial 
ect and we anticipate increased activity, 
llooning is comparatively inexpensive. The 
;t cost is less than that of an aeroplane; 
rties can make trips at moderate expense 
d there is no shed to rent and little repairs. 
The dirigible is coming back and we are 
)king hopefully to the time when we will 
; two-man sporting ships sailing about, and 
5sibly a big passenger cruiser or two. 
Zertainly we have less cause to worry over 
: prospects of the ever-delightful balloon- 
f sport than over the outlook for aviation. 
vVithout a doubt it is probable that the 
aths in aviation so conscientiously chron- 
ed and totalled in the daily newspapers 
ve scared off a great many, who have no 
owledge of the "other side." 
That aeroplanes have been used almost en- 
lely for exhibition work and not for sport 
[me has deterred the so-called "sporting 
l.ss" from taking up aviation with avidity. 
We have looked to the flying-boat to bring 
out a reversal of public sentiment and to 
luce sportsmen to take up over-water avia- 
■n. With regret one must admit the flying- 
at has not wrought the change expected — 
ssibly it will in time. 

Perhaps a reduction in the selling price would 
)rk wonders. The automobile has ceased 
be a rich man's toy — it is the necessity of 
e man of smaller means. Let the aeroplane, 
id or water, come within the limit of the 
cketbook of the bulk of the citizens. 
We do not want to assume to prescribe for 
iation but from the following thoughts 
mething may be worked out. 
With the novelty of the aeroplane worn 
f, spectators at the flying fields are now 
w and far between. They are no longer 
ntent to sit around for hours waiting for 
chance hop or two. Flying fields are gen- 
ally too far from city limits to make quick 
cess feasible and this disadvantage militates 
;ainst popularization. 

Assuming that New York is the hub of a 
eat wheel, and that it has peculiar advan- 
ges for the furthering of any industry and 
ort, let us make it a great aeronautical cen- 
r. Select the best available field, one as 
?ar the city as possible and with the quick- 
t means of transportation. Let every manu- 



facturer whose future is dependent on ac- 
tivity in aviation lend his aid to making this 
field the scene of his work. Locate the fac- 
tories at this field, if possible. At least, here 
conduct the flying schools. 

We find Curtiss training military officers 
and citizens at San Diego, at Hammondsport ; 
Burgess, at Marblehead : Benoist, at St. 
Louis ; Thomas at Bath ; Wright, at Dayton ; 
Aloisant and Sloane at Hempstead, and so 
on ; one finds fields scattered all over the 
country with a machine or two at each. There 
are individuals conducting schools or experi- 
ments at scores of other places. There is little 
interest created at any one of these individual 
grounds. No benefit is derived from the pub- 
lic's witnessing the desultory flights at these 
scattered grounds. 

Imagine all these military, naval and civil 
schools, and some factories, propeller work- 
shops, repair shops, individual exhibition or 
sporting flyers, making headquarters at one 
great center ! There would certainly be no 
greater expense conducting schools at one 
place than another. 

With practically all the interests grouped 
in one place, there would be flying constantly 
going on. The general public on which we 
want to draw for recruits will have their en- 
thusiasm returned to them, they will be go- 
ing to this center to see the flying. They 
will be sure of seeing machines in the air at 
any time of any day. They will be making 
passenger flights, taking lessons, buying ma- 
chines. 

Entrance fees could be charged on every 
day. Weekly meets could be held at no ex- 
pense. The students and instructors are fly- 
ing anyway. Let them make the weekly 
flights competitive and afford enjoyment for 
a crowd. The income from attendance could 
be distributed pro rata among the men flying, 
among the manufacturers and schools. Soon 
we would see people in line for passenger 
flights. 

The public would be paying for the privi- 
lege of increasing its own interest in flying. 

The doings at this great field would be 
chronicled in the newspapers — we see nothing 
in the papers about the flights now at our 
present scattered fields. 

A centering of interests like this would ab- 
solutely create wide attention. There is no 
good to result from complaining of lack of 
interest and doing nothing to make interest. 
Let the manufacturers do something them- 
selves to Iielp themselves. 

A national center such as suggested should 
be conducted by the manufacturers and school 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 148 



October, 1913 



concerns — by those whose interests are most 
affected — free from any club alHance. 

One could add pages of suggestions for 
making such a center a wonderful missionary 
movement, a manufacturing and industrial 
center, a selling institution, protitable from 
the start. 



GOVERNMENT PROGRESS IN AERO- 
NAUTICS 

Colonel Samuel Reber is now at the head 
of the Aeronautical Division of the Signal 
Corps which has been practically reorganized 
under the present Chief Signal Officer. Here- 
tofore, aeronautical work has been done 
under the direction of Major Squires and 
Major Russel, who succeeded the former, 
but these officers were hampered by other 
duties in the Signal Office. Good work it 
has been with the limited funds placed at 
command by a penurious or short-sighted 
Congress. Many remember the whole-souled 
endeavors of General Allen, now retired, and 
appreciate the labors of his successors. Gen- 
eral Scriven and Major Russel. 

Acquaintances of Colonel Reber know him 
for a man with directness of purpose and an 
adequate knowledge of aeronautical needs. 
Things will move along just as fast as Con- 
gress will permit by provision. The recent 
bill before Congress to take aeronautics out 
of the hands of the Signal Corps and make it 
a separate arm has not yet been passed, praise 
be ! 

Captain Chambers, head of aeronautics in 
the navy, is big-hearted, informed and com- 
petent in aeronautical matters. He knows the 
needs of the navy in aeronautics, is con- 
versant with all that has been done in for- 
eign navies in aeronautics, and is endeavoring 
to accomplish still greater things than those 
which have in the past been enumerated in 
the press. 

The ways, routine and red tape, of army 
and navy secretaries and Congress, are in- 
explicable to the layman and because every 
ship of our navy afloat is not equipped with 
a complement of aeroplanes and aviators is 
no reason to assume that we are in the ruck 
on this particular point. We haven't heard 
of any foreign armored ships with air scouts 



in actual service and it may be that before 
another year rolls around we will be fairly 
well fitted to hold our own. 

Somehow or other we get the idea that 
Europe is so far ahead of us that we'll never 
catch up. If we had the public temperament 
here and an open-minded Congress we might 
do a shade better. 



NOT PREDICTED— MERELY EXPECTED 

Mr. McCormick has abandoned his $50,000 
experiment station at Cicero flying field 
* * * 

Failure of the models in which Mr. Mc- 
Cormick has been interested is said to be the 
cause of the closing of the experiment sta- 
tion. On one design, known as the umbrella 
plan, because of its shape, he is said to have 
spent $25, coo. — Chicago Journal. 



Those who disagreed so forcibly with our 
editorial on the ways and ways of spending 
in aeronautics, may now find their opinions 
changed. 



WILD BILL EXPAINS 

In days gone by the expression was: "Lo, the pool 
Indian." Now, however, it is the more up-to-the 
minute: "Lo, the poor aviator!" 

Eugene Heth. better known as "Wild Bill," spen' 
a few hours in Memphis yesterday. Incidentally, Hetl 
says that aviation is fast becoming so commonplaci 
that before long the birdmen will find that the re 
muneration is not sufficient for the risk. 

"There are too many aviators, and the country i 
flooded with machines, good and bad," explained Heth 
"Then another thing that is working against the rea 
artists in the game is that a crowd of amateurs an 
glad to make contracts for a few hundreds a day.— 
Memphis Appeal. 



BOOKS RECEIVED 

THE AIRMAN, bv Captain C. Mellor, R. E., li 
mo., cloth, 123 pp., illustrated. Published at $1.00 
postage 10 cents, by the John Lane Co., 120 W. 32ni 
St., New York. 

This book contains the experiences of a young En^ 
lishman, who in three months was to learn to fl' 
and then present his certificate to the War Office. H 
elected to try the school at Etampes, France, and th 
Maurice Farman biplane was the machine he chose 
He graphically describes his school, his first flight 
liis visit to the salon to see the exhibition of aeria 
locomoton, his first flight in a monoplane, etc. H 
gives many useful notes for the prospective pupil, an> 
his experiences will be invaluable to every would 
be pilot of the air. 




"Pxiblijhed Monthly by Aeronautics "Prejj 

122 E. 25tm ST., NEW YORK 

Cable: Aeronautic. New York 

■PHONE, 9122 Madison Sq. 

ERNEST L. JONES. Pres't — THOMAS C. WATKINS, Treas'r-Sec 

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor - IH. B. SELLERS, Technical Edilor 

HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES 

United States, $3 00 Foreign, $3. 5i 



No. 74 



OCTOBER, 1913 



Vol. XIII, No. 



^ A ttd^k/I'',?^ second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice, New Yorl<, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

^ Afc,KONAUTlCS IS issued on the 30th of each Month. All copy must be received by the aotf 
Advertising pages close on the 25th. 

^ Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not sen 
currency. No foreign stamps accepted. 



lERONAUTICS 



"Page 149 



October, 1913 



To the Readers of this Journal: 



Please accept my thanks for the hearty response to my 
letter of last issue. It was a surprise to really find such a heavy re- 
sponse. 

Now, won't those who have not yet responded make the appeal 
100 per cent, fulfilled by replying at once? The encouragement given 
by those who did co-operate is great. With replies reaching the hun- 
dred per cent, mark you'll create enough dynamic energy to last 
a long while. 

This magazine is published for the benefit of those who find 
profit in it. It is neither a money-making proposition or purely a 
philanthropy. 

That some profit by its publication I know, for they pay their 
subscriptions. That others profit by its publication I know, for they 
say so. Now there are still some who speak not ; neither do they pay. 

These do I address. There are but three propositions. Pay, 
promise to pay, or say frankly you don't want the magazine. 

I am doing my best to furnish the best there is If you find 
a better magazine, subscribe to it; and then tell me you've found it. 
That will help me, perhaps. If you object to certain features, tell me. 

I can't speak to you all with sounding words I must ask 
you to read what I write. If you don't want the magazine, say so. 
If you have found a better, tell me! If you do want it, may I have 
your renewal order or your check? 

Thank you in advance. 





^^ 




HALL-SCOTT MOTORS 

Winter flying has already started in California. The following 
well known aviators have their water planes equipped with HALL- 
SCOTT motors : — 



BOB FOWLER 

SILAS CHRISTOFFERSON 

WM. BLAKELEY 

ROY FRANCIS 



A. G. SUTRO 
ALFRED BARRETT 
OTTO RYBITZKI 
HENRY UNNO 



Besides these there are fifteen other planes, or 80t of all aeroplanes and flying 
boats upon the Pacific Coast, equipped with HALL-SCOTT motors. 

We can furnish you with the most complete, powerful, and reliable power plant 
upon the market from 30 to 100 H-P. Write for our interesting catalogues fully 
describing these motors. 

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO. 

818 Crocker Bldg. - San Francisco, Cal. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 1 50 



October, 1913 




NEWS IN 



GENERAL 




AMERICAN WINS BALLOON RACE 
Goodyear and Honeywell 

HE international balloon race was won for Uncle 
Sam for the fourth time in the eight years of the 
existence of this event by Ralph H. Upson and R. A. 
D. Preston in the balloon "Goodyear," with H. E. 
Honeywell and J. H. Wade in the "Uncle Sam" 
second. 

The race started from Paris, October 12th. There 
were 18 balloons in the contest. Upson landed a) 
Bempton, England, on the North Sea, within 200 yard: 
of the clilfs. Honeywell landed in France nea! 
Brest. The distance covered by the "Goodyear" i: 
about 400 miles. No new records were made. 

This achievement was only accomplished througl 
the scientific handling of the balloon by these youni 
aeronauts. They were competing with meri of fa 
greater experience, and under foreign conditions tha 
from the beginning were considered a big handicap 

Air. Upson has made a study of ballooning an; 
was well informed on the various currents of ai 
that were to be encountered along the coast. Uf 
son and Preston have the honor of being the onl 
two contestants who sailed their balloon outside c 
France. When the balloon "Goodyear" headed ft 
the ocean, Upson was familiar enough with the pn 
vailing air current to know that counter-winds woul 
be met that were sure to blow him back over tl 
continent. This proved to be the case. They crosse 
the English Channel and traveled miles over tl 
Atlan.tic, however, before these winds were ei 
countered. . 

Their scientific study of ballooning and the g^ 
tightness of the fabric were the main reasons f< 
enabling them to win. 

The "Goodvear" is the same balloon that won tl 
National Championship Balloon Race at Kansas Cit 
Tuly 4th, 1913. It was also in the national race 
1912. 

ASCENSIONS 

Oct. 10 — Wm. Assmann and Joseph O'Reilly in t' 
"Mill. Pop. Club" from San Antonio to Russellvill 
Mo., a distance of about 725 miles in 22 hours 40 mi 
utes in endeavor to beat Lahm Cup record. 

Oct. 1— R. H. Upson and R. A. D. Preston in t 
"Goodyear" from Paris on a trial trip, landing at Poi 
a distance of 78 miles. 



NEWS BREVITIES IN U.S.A. 



Sept. 22 — "Ed" Steele in a hydroaeroplane flew over 
the Pacific Ocean from North Bend, Ore., to Flor- 
ence, with one stop at Gardiner, a distance of 40 
miles. Finish is intended to be at Yaquina. 



George Dyott has again gone to England. 



Oct. 4-5 — William Thaw and Steven McGordon (Cur- 
tiss flying boat) flew from Newport to New Haven, a 
distance of 94-)-^ miles, in 93 minutes. The following 
day Thaw and MacGordon continued their flight, 8454 
miles more, and landed near The Aeronautical So- 
ciety's grounds at Oakwood Heights, S. I., after one 
intervening stop at Hunters Point. 

The steamship distances, Oakwood to Newport, are 
given above. 



Oct. 7 — Beckwith Havens and J. B. R. Ver Planck 
(Curtiss flying-boat) flew from Albany to near Oak- 
wood Heights, S. I., with a stop at Chelsea, N. Y., a 
distance of 148.5 miles via route. The total elapsed 
time was 2 hours 45 minutes. The flying weight was 
approximately 2,000 pounds. The first stage was 81 
miles. 



I have always found your magazine invaluable. 
R. P., [Villiamstown, Mass. 



Oct. 16 — Havens and Verplanck flew from O; 
wood Heights, S. I., back to Fishkill, arriving the 
the 18th, a distance of 64 miles. 

Oct. 22 — Raymond V. Morris in Gerald Hanle 
Curtiss flying-boat, with a passenger, made the loi 
est flight made around Providence this season. ' 
covered, according to the Government charts, a c 
tance of 145 miles in 125 minutes. Bristol, F 
River and other points on Narragansett Bay wi 
flown over. Sixteen gallons of gasoline were ci 
sumed. Morris's passenger was William Batcher, 
motor expert from the Curtiss factory. During i 
three months the Hanley flying-boat has been in cc 
mission it has flown approximately 6,500 miles at 
average speed of sixty miles per hour. 

Oct. 8 — W. C. Robinson, carrying copies of a n 
newspaper, flew from Montreal to Ottawa, cover 
about 109 miles in 2 hours 55 minutes actual fly 
time. He made five stops on the way, of vvhich th 
were scheduled for the delivering of copies of 



AERONAUTICS Page 151 October, 1913 



BARGAIN 

HARRY BINGHAM 

BROWN 

Retires from Aviation. Will Dispose 
of his GENUINE 

WRIGHT 

Biplane with all equipment, including 

"Safety Pack'' and all extras, in 

first-class condition, at 

$2000.00 



A. LEO STEVENS 

Box 181, Madison Square - New York 

1)1 answering advertisements please mention this magaciitc. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 152 



October, 1913 




INTERNATIONAL 'PLANE RACE \ 

Prevost won for France the 200 kilo «• v 
metre Gordon Bennett "international" 
aeroplane race, held Sept. 29th, Rheims. 
France, in a 20-foot span Dep with flat 
wings, 160 Gnome motor, making new world records 
as follows: 

10 kils. (6.2 m.) 2 min. 56 3/5 sec. 

20 kils. (12.4 m.) 5 min. 54 1/5 sec. 

30 kils. (18.6 m.) 8 min. 52 1/5 sec. 

40 kil. (24.8 m.) 11 min. 50 1/5 sec. 

50 kils. (31 m.) 14 min. 48 1/S sec. 

100 kils. (62 m.) 29 min. 40 sec. 

150 kils. (93 m.) 44 min. 38 sec. 

200 kils. (124 m.) 59 min. 45 3/5 sec. 

}i hour 50 kils. 

Yi hour 100 kils. 

1 hour .200 kils. 

Greatest speed 203. o5 K.P.H. 

His fastest lap was at the rate of 126.9 miles an 
hour and his average for the entire distance was 
124.69 miles. 

Emile \'edrines (Ponnier — 160 Gnome) was second 
in 1 hour 51.4 seconds. 

Gilbert (Dep — 160 Le Rhone), third, in 1 hour 

2 minutes 55.4 seconds. 

Crombez (Dep— ^160 Gnome) was the only foreign 
contestant, and his time was 1 hour 9 minutes 52 
seconds. 

America was not represented by Weymann, as ex- 
pected. He claims he was named by the F. A. I.'s 
representative in this country and advised by the club 
that a syndicate was being formed by Norman Prince 
to buy a 200 H. P. Dep, the club declining any re- 
sponsibility. After many cables the Dep was not forth- 
coming and, according to interviews with Weymann, 
he was never able to get a satisfactory explanation of 
Mr. Prince's intentions. I can only imagine that the 
whole business was a big bluff. I have telegraphed to 
him saying so. 

"Now, without a machine it is, of course, impossible 
for me to compete in the race, much to my regret. I 
understand that another American pilot, named Kant- 
ner, was also bluffed in the same way. Who is Mr. 
Prince, I should like to know?" 

Prince denies he's a "bluffer" and replies: 

"I countermanded the order for a Deperdussin 
monoplane because Mr. Weymann stayed at Gynard 
for one month after the Paris-Deauville race without 
answering cables sent by me instead of being in Paris 
attending to the delivery of the machine, or at Rheims 
practising for the races. 

"In other words, he failed to stay on the job and 
I cancelled the order for the machine." 

Harold Kantner was first named by Prince and 
Kantner went abroad. When Weymann seemed avail- 
able. Prince decided Weymann offered a better chance 
for winning and oft'ered the machine to him. 



The International Race 
Winning Dep. 



LUCKEY WINS FIRST AIR DERBY 

Under the auspices of Tlie Aeronautical Society, 
for prizes aggregating $2,250, offered by the Nciu 
York Times, five aviators covered a 51 mile course 
around Manhattan Island in a 42 mile wind on 
October 13th in a race held to celebrate the tenth 
anniversary of man's first power flight, tliat of 
Wilbur and Orville Wright, December 17, 1903. Out 
of those who had entered the celebration flights and 
the race, the following five actually started on sched- 
ule time, in a wind measured by the Weather Bur- 
eau at 36 to 42 miles an hour, from the field of the 
Society at Oakwood Heights, across Staten Island 
and the Bay, up the East River, over the Harlem 
and back down the Hudson to the field: William S. 
Luckey (Curtiss, 100 H. P.), Charles F. Niles (Cur- 
tiss, 100 H. P.), C. Murvin Wood (Moisant mono- 
plane, 50 Gnome), J. Guy Gilpatric (Sloane Mono- 
plane, 50 Gnome), Tony Jannus (Benoist Tractor, 7i 
Roberts) ; and they finished in the order named. 
The two monoplanes were blown wide of the course 
and the old passenger carrying Benoist was no speed 
match for the Curtiss machines. Not an incident 
marred the race and each engine drove along with 
out skip. Luckey found his intake pipes freezing 
but was able to knock off the ice and keep going 
Coming down the Hudson with the wind at the back 
a speed of 75 miles an hour was attained by him. lie 
used a propeller from a flying-boat which gave 
standing thrust of 650 pounds. 

Wood made the fastest time from Spuyten Duyvil 
to Oakwood Heights, covering the 24 miles in 14 
minutes 19 seconds, a speed of 100.7 M. P. H. He 
took 58 minutes 19 seconds to get to Spuyten Duyvil 
Luckey and Niles both beat the monoplanes goina 
up the East River against the wind in speed but Won^i 
beat both in speed on the return. Figures seem to 
show that Niles made 90 miles an hour on the return 
leg, evidently getting a better breeze, or else ob- 
servers figures were not taken accurately, at Spuy- 
ten Duyvil. 

Exhibition flights had been arranged to take plac : 
during the afternoon but the high wind kept th : 
other machines on the ground. Burnside with his 
Thomas, Daimler motor, was not able to set up in 
time and another tractor was disqualified by reason 
of alleged poor condition. Other machines present 
were Ray Benedict (Gressier, 60 Anzani), Ruth Law 
(Wright 30), Allen S. Adams (Sloane-Dep, 60 An- 
zani). 

Luckey received first prize of $1,000, Niles the 
second, $750; and Wood the third, $500. 



AERONAUTICS p<,je 153 Odoter, 1913 



BALDWIN 

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For Aeroplanes, Airships, Balloons. First Rubber- 
ized Fabric on the market. Lightest and strongest 
material known. Dampness, Heat and Cold have no 
effect. Any strength or color. 



a 



Red Devir^ Aeroplanes 

That anyone can fly. Free Demonstrations. 

Hall-Scott Motors 

Eastern distributor. 40 h. p., 4-cyl.; 60 and 80 h. p., 
8-cyl., on exhibition at Wittemann's. All motors 
guaranteed. Immediate delivery. 

Experting 

Will install a Hall-Scott free of charge in anyone's 
aeroplane and demonstrate by expert flyer. Expert 
advice. 'Planes balanced. 

Private Flying Field 

Fine private field with smooth water frontage for 
hydro-aeroplanes. Private sheds and workshop. 
Located at Oakwood Heights, Staten Island. 



CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN 

Box 78, Madison Sq. P.O. New York 



AEROPLANES 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 154 



October, 1913 



ACCIDENT TO WALB. 
Capt. Walb started from Hempstead in a Schneider 
biplane but fell in the Bay nearing the shore of 
Staten Island. He was rescued by a boat and his 
machine towed ashore. 

FLY FROM HEMPSTEAD. 
Wood flew from the Moisant sheds at Hempstead 
to Oakwood Heights for the race. 

AERO CLUB PLACES NILES FIRST. 
The race was supposed to be open to un-"licensed" 
aviators as well as licensed pilots. Luckey was an 
unlicensed man. Every aviator in the "ce went 
in with the knowledge that the race was open to any- 
one and each expressed himself m public as caring 
nothing one way or the other— whether he had a 
license or not, however, sanction from the Aero 
Club of America was asked for by President Twombly 
of the Society and granted by the Club. At a meet- 
ing of the contest committee of the Club, held after 
hi race, it was decided that Niles was ofticially 
the winner, moving up the succeeding contestants 
a place. As the money had already been paid to the 
winners bv the Times this action on the part of the 
Club is ridiculous. It is the rule to punish licensed 
pilots for taking part in unsanctioned contests by 
suspending them, barring them from any sanctioned 
contests and failing to record their exploits as of- 
ficial " The club states that the contestants in the 
Air Derby asked the judges immediately before the 
race if it was sanctioned and received an answer 
in the affirmative. The club also states that the race 
was sanctioned by it and that, therefore no punish- 
ment could fall on the contestants save Luckey, who 
hid no license. The Aeronautical Society, it seems, 
never authorized anyone to apply for a sanction. 
THE RETURN OF LINCOLN BEACHEY. 
Lincoln Beachey was one of the first to enter in 
the round-Manhattan race and had a special machine 
built by the Curtiss Company. A gnevous accident 
occurred, however, during his trial flight which re- 
suUed it^ the killing of a spectator and the wreck- 
ing of his machine, which put him out . of the con- 
test which would signal his return to aviation 

The figures, as agreed upon by the New \ ork 
Timers' Club, and the judges, who struggled through 
as best they could without the sanction, are as tol- 

l°^t= 52:54.0 

Luckey 54:55.0 

Niles 58-19 

Wood . .■.".■.■.1:08:53.6 

Gilpatric .1:13:57.0 

Jannus . 

Cups were also awarded by The Aeronautical So- 
ciety to Luckey and Niles, the cups having been orig- 
inally offered by O. Chanute through the Society to 
be given for meritorious service. 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

For month ending July 31, foreign parts were im 
ported at a valuation of $4,531; of domestic exports 
one aeroplane and parts at $3,113; in the warehotos* 
July 31, 3 aeroplanes and parts valued at $6,708. JN( 
exports of foreign made material. 

We exported during August 4 aeroplanes and part! 
valued at $12,221. Three foreign-made machines am 
parts remain in warehouse, valued at $/,70e. Unl, 
parts were imported, valued at $538. 



INCORPORATIONS 

The Hudson River Aviation Company of New York, 
Inc. of Manhattan, motors, engines, etc.; $30,000. 
H W. Kays, George J. Foley, Thomas L. Cunning- 
ham, 46 Hamilton Place, New York. i 

The Intermountain Aviation Company of Salt Lake 
Citv has filed articles of incorporation. The capital 
stock of the company is $20,000. C. A Tyler is presi- 
dent, J. A. Kaufman, vice-president; b. U tluttaker, 
secretary and treasurer. These with A. S. Ash, W. ^. 
Hill D E. Howard and N. G. Morgan form the direc- 
torate. All of the ofllcei-s are of Salt Lake City excepi 
Secretary Huffaker, whose home is m Tooele. 



BUSINESS TROUBLES 

Lulu Joyce has sued the Silver Lake Aviation Co. 
of New Berlin, O., to obtain judgment on a $500 note 
The motor mortgaged as security was not valaubl 
enough to cover the note and she asks for executio 
on other assets. Judgment was confessed and ton 
closure granted. 

The case of Dr. D. S. Quickel, asking for the ai 
pointment of a receiver for the Arbogast Aero Con 
pany, Anderson, Ind., will be called. The Arboga: 
Company, in which Dr. Ouickel was a stockholder ii 
vested several hundred dollars in an aeroplane an 
it is alleged the contrivance flew over into Wisconsi i 
somewhere and has not been seen since. 



AVIATOR JEWELL DISAPPEARS 

Albert H. Jewell, a graduate of the Moisant Scliool 
at Hempstead, started early in the morning o" Octo- 
13 to fly to the Oakwood Heights aerodrome to go 
in the Air Derby. Nothing has been seen or heard 
of him,or his 50 Gnome Moisant monoplane. Seaich 
parties have failed to find him. It is generally be- 
lieved that he has been swallowed up in the marshes 
and quicksands on the south shore of Long Island 
Some cling to the opinion that he got out to sea and 
was drowned. No wireless reports have been received 
of his having been picked up by any °'^tg°>"|,„steam- 
ship The Aeronautical Society has offered $400 toi 
information and the Moisant Company $350. 



How Joseph C. O'Flahertv, known in the aviatic 
world as Joseph C. Stevenson, did his flying on , 
nurse's money until he finally met his death, at Ki 
mingham, Ala., on Oct. 8, last year was broug 
out Sept. 30 in the Surrogates' Court, New Yor 
in the course of an inquiry demanded by the avmtoi 
brother, William F. O'Flaherty of 152 West Fort 
eighth Street, administrator of the estate. 

One matter in dispute was the ownership of 
Hall-Scott motor. Mr. O'Flaherty learned that t 
motor was still in the possession of Miss Libbie 
Dixon, of 246 West Fifty-first Street, and she \\ 
subpoenaed to the Surrogates' Court for examinatic 

She said that she first met the aviator while 
was ill in a hospital in which she was a nurse b 
had come into an inheritance of about $50,000 a 
gave up nursing. She bought his aeroplane and • 
vanced $2,165 in payment for the motor. When _ 
met an untimely death at Birmingham the only tin 
she could do was to take possession of the motor. 



TARIFF ON AEROPLANES LOWERED 

The new tariff admits the importation of foreign- 
built aeroplanes at 20% ad valorem instead of 43%, 
as formerly. An aeroplane is considered as an en- 
tfre y and comes under the heading of structures 
composed principally of metal. Motors alone are 
subject, also, to 20% duty. 



FINAL DIVIDEND OF HERRING-CURTISS C 

A final meeting of the creditors of the Herrr 
Curtiss Company is called for the 1st day of Novf 
ber 1913, to be held at the Court House in Ba 
N Y at which time and place an application will 
made" for a final accounting by the trustee in t 
proceeding and for an order directing a final d 
dend to be paid to the creditors. 



I know of no better magazine published— H. C. R., 
Othello, Wash. ^___ 

Since the first of the year exports of Aomt%i\c aero- 
planes and parts total 4, with a value of $18,395. 



BAR AIRMEN FROM CANAL ZONE 

Washington, D. C, Oct. 4— President Wilson 
signed an executive order forbidding the operaf 
of aeroplanes or any other aeronautical craft o 
the canal zone without the written permission of 
chief executive of the canal zone. The order i 
forbids the taking of pictures from any aeroplane 
balloon over the zone without similar permission, 
penalty is a fine of $1,000 or a term in jail not 
ceeding one year or both fine and imprisonment 
the discretion' of the court. 



ERONA UTICS 



"Page 155 



October. 1913 




3K A <PILA>S>S ISY HTvSEILr 




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Builders, as well as aviators, are MAXIMOTOR'S most ardent supporters. 



For testimonials, and further particulars, just write to 

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Airmen Should Be Interested In Photography 

the^hotographic^mS 



ias long been regarded as the standard 
Vmerican Authority on photographic 
natters. 

Each number has forty pages of interest- 
ng photographic text, printed on fine paper 
rom good type, and illustrated with many 
ttractive half tones. 

The cover for each month is printed in 
■arying colors, and is ornamented with a 
ifferent and pleasing photograph. 

The valuable and authoritative formulae 
urnished throughout the year are alone 
rorth the price asked for subscription. 



Some of the other regular features are 

Articles on practical and timely photo- 
graphic topics. 

Illustrations showing e.xamples of the 
work of the best American and foreign 
pictonalists. '^ 

Foreign Digest. 

Camera club happenings, exhibitions, and 
pnotographers' association notes. 

Items of Interest. 

A department devoted to "Discoveries." 

Reviews of the new photographic books. 

Description of the latest novelties and 
specialties brought out by dealers and 
manufacturers. 



.NE DOLLAR FIFTY A YEAR SUBSCRIBE NOW FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY 

Foreign Subscription, Two Dollars A Sample Copy Free 



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135 West 14th Street, : : : New York 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 156 



October, 19 



MODEL CONTESTS 

New York, Sept. 27th, 1913.— A very exciting con- 
test for duration for models rising from the ground 
was held at Van Cortlandt Park today. In spite of 
the strong wind prevailing, excellent flights were 
made. The contest was won by Carl i rube, a iz- 
vear-old Yonkers boy with a flight of 60 seconds. 
Trube in spite of his youth, has proven a wonder 
at the "game," and has been a winner of most ot 
the contests held here lately. Excellent flights \vere 
also made by Kipp, Radcliff and McLaughlin. ihe 
prize was a bronze medal donated by the Aeronau- 
tical Society. Official timer, Mr. Edward Durant. 

New York, October 24th, 1913— Carl Trube again 
proved to be the winner of the contest held here 
at Van Cortlandt Park on the above date, with a 
flight of 61 seconds. The prize was a copy ot 
"Harper's Aircraft Book for Boys," donated by Mr. 
Edward Durant of the Aeronautical Bureau. 

Oakwood Heights, S. I., October 13, 1913-A num- 
ber of contests were held here m connection with the 
flying tournament of The Aeronautical Society. in 
spite of the strong wind prevailing in the morning. 
Which kept the full-sized machines on the ground, 
at times the air was literally "full of models. ihe 

antics and capers of the models in the strong wind 
demonstrated their stability and seemed to greatly 
amuse the crowd. Much amusement was caused by 
a model striking the roof of a hangar bouncing ott 
and continuing its flight as if nothing had happened. 
The contest for models rising from the ground was 
won by W. F. Bamberger with a flight of 65 3/5 
seconds. He was hard pressed by G. A. Cavanagh, 
who was forced to withdraw from the contest, owing 
to a mishap to his model. The Tractor contest was 
also won by W. F. Bamberger with a flight of 25 
seconds. Lester Ness was second with a flight ot 
24 seconds. . , , .^, , , 

Many of the flyers were provided v\?ith models 
unsuitable for entry in the contests and they pro- 
ceeded to demonstrate the flying qualities of the 

"""Excellent flights were made by L. P. Steinberg, a 
diminutive member of the New York Model Aero 
Club W. F. Bamberger, L. Bamberger, Harry Her- 
zog ' Olson, Braun, Ness and others too numerous 
to mention. Among those present was the former 
world's champion. Armour Selley, who, although not 
provided with a model of his own, endeavored to 
entertain the spectators by showing that he could 
fly others' models as well as his own Mr. Nicholas 
S Schroeder, the well-known model flyer and writer 
oil the science was also present and endeavored to 
explain to the various model flyers the proper 
method of flying their respective models. ihe con- 
tests were a great success m every respect. _ 

All questions regarding models and model Hying 
may be addressed to the model editor, Harry Schultz, 
23 West 106th Street, New York City, N. Y. 



club, has experimented with and has lately perfected 
a new type of rubber motor by which a model can tp 
flown with about one-fifth the length of rubber usee. 
The power is the same and a great saving m weight 
is made. He has also constructed a new style model 
glider which has proven to be a remarkably steady and 
eiificient flyer. Tractor models are being given nuioh 
prominence by the club members and excellent fligliU 
have been made with models of this type by Obs" 
Braun, Ness and Funk. Persons m the vicinity ( 
the club interested in models and model flying ca 
not do better than to join this club. All applicatioi^ 
can be addressed to the president, C. \ . Obst, 4U 
Grant Ave., Cypress Hills, L. I. 



MAN-MADE MUSIC RIVALS THE BIRDS 

Captain G. L. Bumbaugh, the veteran balloon man 
is responsible for furnishing the songsters of the aii 
above Indianapolis with piano music for he recently 
ascended with a Baldwin player piano attached .t( 
one of his balloons with a young lady operator pliy 
ing sweet tunes and Bumbaugh reclining on the to| 
of the piano just under the load ring. On landipi 
the drag rope was caught by spectators and to shf)ii 
the piano to be still playable Miss McDonald favoij* 
the natives with another tune. 



ON SCHMIDTS DEATH 

Charles H. Schmidt, brother of George Schmid 
who met with a fatal accident at Rutland, Vl 
Sept. 2, writes regarding it: 

"When at an altitude of 500 feet the motor beg? 
to miss fire — dirt in carburetor — and George imm 
diately started a volplane. Spellman, the passengc 
lost his head, rose from his seat and stood on tlir 
rear control wires which passed between his les 
This terrible strain broke the rudder wire. Then t 
passenger reached forward and seized my brothe 
shoulder control and pulled that toward him. Tl 
of course, threw the plane on a steep bank. Wi 
the rudder control gone, George was powerless 
straighten again, while the passenger hung desp. 
ately to the shoulder control. My brother struggl 
hard to bring her back, but he could not get out 
Spellman's grasp. The machine took a very ste 
or sharp turn and crashed to the ground. Geoi 
stuck to his seat trying hard to straighten the pla 
while the passenger freed himself entirely from 
seat, still hanging on to the shoulder control. 1 
actual fall was about 200 feet. Spellman escai 
with a few slight injuries." 



MODEL CLUB NOTES 

The Long Island Model Aero Club members, ow- 
ing to the increase in interest, have had a very busy 
summer, and new members are being added regular y. 
The club held a biplane contest lately, the results 
of which appeared in last month s issue, C. ^reelan 
being the winner with a duration of 57 seconds. As 
far as can be ascertained at the present time this 
constitutes a world's record for biplanes. His bi- 
plane, a splendid piece of workmanship, flew very 
steadily and easily captured the prize, a handsomely 
engraved silver medal. . , ^i 

Biplanes have become very popular with the mem- 
bers of this club and many very fine specimens ot 
workmanship are being brought out. Hartman s bi- 
plane has surpassed all others m spectacular and 
exhibition flights. The flying field of the club has 
been changed and all flymg is now done at Liberty 
Hdghts Woodhaven, L. I. The club has under 
consideration the construction of a man-carrying 
glider and a committee is investigating the cost, 
method of construction and design. , , , , , 

Among the many new and novel models developed 
is a steady Dunne type monoplane built by Freelan. 
A small heavy R. O. G. speed model has been con- 
structed by Shotwell and has proven itself to be one 
of the speediest and finest spectacular flyers ever 
constructed and is constantlv duplicating the stunts 
of Pegoud in model form. Dan Criscouli s foui foot 
model proved to be a very steady stable distance and 
duration flier. Charles V. Obst, the president of the 



CLUBS COMBINE IN PHILLY 

At the reconciliation meeting of the Aeronaut 
League of Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia A 
Club on Sept. 26th, a firm foundation was laid 
the new organization. Every member seemed v 
active in the new project with the result of the 
lowing nominations for officers: 

President, Walter Bryan, Edwin J. Doyle; v 
president, Joseph J. Hickey, Kenneth Robertson 
Reginald Woodcock; secretary, D. Earle Dunlap, '^ 
lian Keck and Percy Pierce; treasurer, Hai 
Woodcock, Alan McMurry, Donald Robertson, 
Earle Dunlap and Percv Pierce. 

The election took place Oct. 3rd at 8 p. m. 
meetings for the time being will be held at 610 Si 
31st Street. 

The Kemp Machine Works of Muncie, Ind., in: 
facturers of the well-known Kemp air-cooled aerop 
motors, announce that they have secured Mr. j 
G. Hanna to take charge of the sales department. 
Hanna has been activelv connected with the busi 
side of aviation since 1910 and is thoroughly fam 
with all branches of the sport. Intending purch.i 
may be assured that their wants will be well 
promptly attended to. This enterprising firm 
ports business excellent. They have booked six or 
in the past three weeks which certainly is not 
for this rather dull time of the year. While 
American market has so far been monopolized 
the water-cooled motor, there are evidences ( 
change of opinion. The Government's apparent 
erance for Renaults is significant. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 157 



October, 1913 



SLOANE 



Manufactures the best and 

most reliable aeroplanes 

in America 

FURNISHES 



MONOPLANES- 

II which are the standard in de- 
I sign and construction. 

FLYING-BOATS- 

for sportsmen — both mono- 
plane and biplane types. Boats 
that are entirely satisfying. 

GNOME ANZANI 
RENAULT 



at 1 



ower prices 



Sloane Aeroplane Co. 

1733 Broadway - New York City 



There are reasons for the change. It is now gen- 
rally admitted that an engine can get the most 
ower out of the gasoline when it is operating at a 
;mperature around 350 degrees. If ample bearing 
nd wearing surfaces are provided, high-grade ma- 
;rials used, and an efficient lubricating system in- 
tailed, a motor can function perfectly at this tem- 
erature for any desired time, and without undue 
epreciation. To thus get more power from a given 
ylinder size, or the same power from a smaller cyl- 
ider, of course, means less weight per horsepower, 
.nd to eliminate the chance of radiator leakage or 
f the water boiling away is, of course, another step 
jward reliability. 

Mr. Kemp states that the factory is running full 
me and keeping well ahead of orders. The firm 
lakes it a point to always have motors in stock ready 
->T immediate delivery. It is expected that the new 
-cyl. 75 H. P. model will be ready for the market in 
le spring. Prospects for a big business next year 
re regarded as excellent. 



YOUNG GERMAN AVIATOR— Engineer and 
onstructor of flying machines not infringing Wright 
atent. Licensed Pilot, late Constructor and Instructor 
ith German firm, Expert on Gnome, Mercedes and 
rgus motors. Driver high power autos and Motor- 
vclist, is looking for position with firm or private 
ivner of a Flying Boat, etc. Speaks English. Ad- 
ress, German Aviator, care of AERONAUTICS, 
22 E. 25th St., New York. 



AVIATOR WANTED who can fly a Curtiss type 
achme. Apply to George E. Yager, 119 N. 15th 
treet, Omaha, Neb. 



FOR SALE — Tractor Biplane. Genuine Benoist 
U3 model. Good as new. Will demonstrate. Ad- 
ess Tractor, care of AERONAUTICS, 122 E. 25th 
.> New York. 



C. & A.Wittemaimjj 

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERS 

Manufacturers of 



Biplanes 



Monoplanes :: 



Hydro-Aeroplanes 
Gliders Propellers Parts \\ 

Special Machines and Part* Built 
to Specification* 



Large stock of Steel Fittings, Laminated Ribi, 
and Struts of all sizes carried in stock. 
Hall-Scott Motors, 40-60-80 H. P. 

FLYING AND 
TRAINING GROUNDS 

Work* : Ocean Terrace aad Little CIot* Road 
STATEN ISLAND. NEW YORK CITY 

Established 1906 Tel. 717 Tompkinsville 



Broadway Central 
^ Hotel ^ 



CORNER THIRD STREET 

In the Heart of New York 



Special attention given to Ladies unescorted 

SPECIAL RATES FOR SUMMER 

OUR TABLE is the foundation of our 
enormous business 



AMERICAN PLAN 
EUROPEAN PLAN 



$2.50 upwards 
$1.00 upwards 



Send for Large Colored Map and Guide of New York. FREE 



TILLY HAYNES 

Proprietor 



DANIEL C. WEBB. Manager 
Formerly of .Charleston, S. C. 



The Only New York Hotel Featuring 

AMERICAN PLAN 

Excellent Food Good Service 

Moderate Prices 



ylERONA UTICS 



'Page 1 58 



October, 1913 



I FRENCH AEROPLANES 



ENGINEERS 
INVENTORS 
AVIATORS 
CONSTRUCTORS 



TAKE NOTICE! 

For all photos, des- 
criptions, data, news, 
drawings, etc., re- 
garding FRENCH 
AVIATION, address 
below : 



Etudes Aeronautiques 

ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.C.P. 

20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchaieau (Vosges\ France 



ADAMS-FARWELL 

REVOLVING MOTORS 



HAVE BEEN IN 




THE ADAMS 

21 ATKOL STREET, 



COMPANY 

DUBUQUE, IOWA. U. S. A. 




—Thomas School 

OF AVIATION 

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES 

Address, Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. 
BATH, N. Y. 



STYLES & CASH ^'lT!Tr 

Lithographers 

ESTABLISHED 1865 " "^ 

Aeroplane, Motor and Accessory Catalogues 
Circulars, Brochures, Bulletins, etc. :: :: 



135 W. 14th STREET 



NEW YORK 



CHARMY 



PROPELLERS 



AERONAUTICAL 
RADIATORS 

Built in capacities and types for standard 
and special aviation motors 

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your 
specifications for special designs 



EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY 

64th St. & West End Ave., New York City 



Abo Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types 



FOR FLYING BOATS USE 

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE 

Use our Waterproof Liquid 
Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, 
or Yellow Soft Quality Glue 
for waterproofing the canvas 
covering of flying boats. It 
not only waterproofs and pre- 
serves the canvas but attaches 
it to the wood, and with a coat 
of paint once a year will last 
as long as the boat. 

For use in combination with 
calico or canvas between 
veneer in diagonal planking, 
and for waterproofing muslin 
for wing surfaces. 



' ^ATEHPROOl 

•-'ftUID GLt 

C QVAUTY 
; **• rERDINAND & 

BOSTON. nA59 



Send for samples, circu- 
lars, directions (or use, etc. 



L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 
201 South Street Boston, Mass.. U.S.A. 



WIRE 

We make an extra high grade 

plated finish wire for 

aviators' use. 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS 

John A. Roebling's Sons Co. 

TRENTON, N. J. 




ALL AERO BOOKS 
FOR SALE BY 

AERONAUTICS 

122 E. 25 St., New York 



USED by Gilpatric and Wood in "Times" Aerial Derby 
USED by Wood in his flight to Washington 
Have proven their superiority 

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO. 

1733 Broadway, :: New York City 



iERONA UTICS 



"Page 159 



October, 1913 



^h****- 

K 



PATE NTS SECURED or fee returned 



#TT Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office record*. 

^U and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free, 



Write for our Guide Books 
Send for our 



special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. 

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS 

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of 
patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay 
as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed. 



VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY 



Main Offices 



724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. 



WASHINGTON, D. C. T 

BURGESS PATE NTS 



FOR SALE — Year old passenger 
water machine, Sturtevant Motor, 
guaranteed in first class condition. 
Only bar gam ever offered. Owner 
has bought flying boat. $2,000. 

Address, Burgess, care Aeronautics 



HYDRO 




peciat grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed. 
attan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan 
)r Skids \V\ diameter and under any length. 

I. DELTOUR, Inc. ^„'lier..'' • 



Machinist and Model Maker 

Inventors accorded every facility 
and Mechanical Assistance. : : 

H. C. BROWN, 54 Park Ave.. Brooklyn, N.Y. 



JOURNAL OF THE UNITED 
STATES A RTILL ERY 



A bi-monthly magazine of artillery and 
other matter relating to coast defense. 

Published under the supervision of the 
School Board, Coast Artillery School, 
F(xt Monroe, Virginia. 

$2.50 a year. 

With Index to Current Military Litera- 
ture, $2.75. 



L. PARKER 

Ex-member Examining Corps, U. S. Patent 0<iie* 

Attorney-Bt-Law and Solicitor of Patents 

American and foreign patents secured promptly and 
with special regard to the complete legal protection of 
the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 
30 McGill BIdg. WASHINGTON. D. C. 



CURTISS 3-foot Model pi YINQ BOAT 

Build this Model 

It embodies the latest ideas in Aero- 
nautics. Concise Plan with Building 
Instructions, 25c. OTHER 

_, . ,^ „,., "IDEAL" 3ft. MODEL PLANS: 
— Blenot. 1 5c: Wnght, 25c: Nieuport, 25c; Cecil Peoli Cham- 
pion Racer, 25c; Curtiss Convertible Hydroaeroplane, 35c. 

COMPLETE SET OF SIX, $1.25 POSTPAID 

48 pp. "Ideal" Model Aeroplane Supply Catalog 5c 

IDEAL AEROPLANE & SUPPLY CO.. 82A W. Broadway, N.Y 




SUPPLIES AT REDUCED PRICES 

Goods of quality at less than the cheaper kind. 
Get our 40-page catalog "EVERYTHING AVLATIC" 
and a small order will tell you why those who know 
send to us when they want the best at the right price. 
Let us give you a special figure on that supply list. 

HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO. 

208 30th Avenue Seattle, Wash. 



PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS 

have positive action, are small and 
light, easily applied to any motor 

^^^~^^^^^^^ Write for circular ^^~~~~^^"^^"" 



PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO. 

636-644 First Avenue. New York, U. S. A. 



BOLAND AEROPLANE AND 
MOTOR COMPANY 

THE BOLAND MOTOR 

8 cyl. " V " type 6o H.P. 240 pounds. 



RELIABILITY 
MAXIMUM POWER. 



DURABILITY 
MINIMUM WEIGHT. 



THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE 

equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) 
and BOLAND MOTOR. 

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of 
utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of con- 
trol which is basic in principle. Write for particulars. 

Factory : Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J. 

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONA UTICS 



Page 160 



October, 1913 




Antony Jannns with Two Passengers Flying the New Benoist Flying Boat, Equipped with Six Cylinder 



(/?fC. (/. S. PAT. OFF.) 



Aeronautical Motor 



This machine is now owned by Mr. W. D. Jones of Duluth 
The most prominent aeiopiane manufacturers in the country recognize the superiority of the Sturtevant motor 
SEND FOR BULLETIN No. 2002 

B. F* Sturtevant Company, Hyde park, boston, mass. 



4.^^^**^^^*********************** 



NAIAD 
Aeronautical Cloth 



r'H.Es "jEi 



t 

♦ 

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t 

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AND 



Aero Varnish 

We were the first in the field, 
and the test of time is proving 
that our product is the best. 



* 
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+ 

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= + 



* 

t The C. E. Conover Co. | 

^ MANUFACTURERS f 

J 101 Franklin Street, New York | 



Sample Book A-6, Data and Prices on Request 



Christmas Dinners 

FOR 

300,000 

POOR 
PEOPLE 

Will be 
supplied by 

The 
Salvation Army 

Throughout the 
United Sbites 

Will you help by 

s tiuliiiKH 

doimtiou. no 

matter huw sniiill 

TO COMMANDER 

MISS BOOTH 

118 W. 14th St., New York City 

Vest'n Dept. Comm. Ettill, 108 N.Dc&rborn St. Chicago 




Grandma Gets One 



-^ 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Miiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiaaiiiiiiiwi 




EBOMilTIC 



iiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii MyiiiiMiiiiiiiiii 



■lllllliliililiiMMlM 



No. 5 



NOVEMISER, 1913 



25 Cents 






ST PRIZE 

limes 
ial Derby" 

'resented by 

THE 
)NAUTICAL 
SOCIETY 

To 

im S. Luckey 

FOR THE 

irst Flight 

id New York 

her 13th, 1913 




ii 



RESULTS 
TELL 
THE 

STORY" 



Luckey used a 
Curtiss Machine 
and a Curtiss 
"O-X" Motor. 

WHAT MOTOR DO YOU/pE? ' 

d you buy it because it was the best you could find, orj^becausel.iti vras cn'Sap ? 

has it cost you in lost opportunities ? 

»uld you sell it to Lincoln Beachey, or Harold F. McCormick,' 

or France, Germany, Russia, England, Italy, Japan, Brazil, MexT&i^-^^ rrir^^-get- llitetms, 

)uy the best. 

'e have some special bargains just now in slightly used Model O, 80 h. p. Curtiss 

i ; replaced in Flying Boats by the O-X. 

;11 us your motor troubles ; let us send you information, quotations. 

TISS MOTOR CO., 21 Lake Street, Hammondsport, N. Y. 



Page i6j 



AERONAUTICS, Xov. 1913 




< BENOIST ^ 

PLANES hold Ihe Sollowing records: 

World's lon$ dis'ance hydro record with one passenger. 
World's long distance hydro record with two passengers. 
American endurance record, avia'.or and three passengers. 
Have more world's records than all other m'f'rs combined. 
The first successful Tractor Biplane built in America. 



Records indicate superior efficiency. 

Why not get an efficient machine 

•while you are about it ? 



T/ir Neiu 

Bent) 1st 

Flying 

^:r BENOIST AIR CRAFT CO. 

Action 6628 DELMAR BLVD. ST. LOUIS, M . 



50 H.P. 

160 POUNDS 



GYRO MOTOR 



80 H.P. 

207 POUNDS 




Endurance Flying Record 
to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min. 



Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout 



From 

"AERONAUTICS" 

(London) 
SEPTEMBER, 1913 

"During the week he(BeaUy ) 
made a striking performance, 
taking up three passengers at 
once on his machine, which 
speaks volumes for the ef- 
ficiency of the Wright and 
even more for his 50 h. p. 
Gyro, unquestionably one of 
the best rotary motors in 
existence. " 

Send for Catalog 



THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street. Washington. D. C. 



jl/Q^Sc/£/vc/:s 



Model Flying 
Machines 

A thoroufrhly modern hand 
boiik describing and illus- 
trating in detail the prin- 
ciples of fli.;ht and piving 
full directions for building 
seven types of model ma- 
chines. Seventy pages, 56 
original illustrations, and 9 
full page detail plates. 
Paper covers only, 

25 cents per copy, postpaid 

COLE & MORGAN, Pub., n'^w y^o'rk!^'^. 




I FRENCH AEROPLANES 



ENGINEERS 
INVENTORS 
AVIATORS 
CONSTRUCTORS 



TAKE NOTICE! 

For all photos, des- 
criptions, data, news, 
drawings, etc., re- 
garding FRENCH 
AVIATION, address 
below : 



Etudes Aeronautiques 

ALEX. DUMAS, Engineer, E.G. P. 
20 Rue Ste. Marie, Neufchateau (.Vosges , France 



//; aiisz^'criiiu adz-crtisciiinifs /^!casc iiiciitioii this 



magazine. 



K'( )XAUTICS, Xov. 1913 



Page 163 



P 



ARAGON 

IN PROPELLERS 



Stands for Highest Quality, 
Lowest Price and 

Certain Satisfaction 

The Enterprise and Integrity — the Character and high Engineering Skill wrought 
ito Paragon Propellers have won for them the highest and widest recognition, 
oth Government and private, of any propellers in America. 

ANNOUNCEMENT 

Our facilities have now developed far beyond ihe demands of the present American trade. 
>ur factory capacity w^ith the special propeller machinery novv^ in operation is more than thirty 
lades per day in two, three and four-bladed propellers. 

We therefore solicit QUANTITY CONTRACTS with responsible dealers and manu- 
cturers in all countries. 

We desire to form trade connections in every large city of Europe and America. By our 
ethods of production we can deliver highest grade propellers in wholesale quantities at European 
3rts for less than prevailing costs of manufacture. 

We can furnish any preferred styles, materials or construction, original or copied designs, or 
ibmit samples for specified service — all subject to most rigid inspection and test. Any kind of 
etal protection at little, if any, additional cost. 

Every Paragon user must have full satisfaction or his money returned. We serve. 

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO. 



43-249 E. Hamburg Street 



Baltimore, Md., U. S. A. 




One of the 

BURGESS 
FLYING 
BOATS 

Built for U. S. Navy 

Our aeroplanes have always met the Government's most rigid specifications on the first test 

THAT IS BECAUSE WE SPECIALIZE 

THE BURGESS MILITARY TRACTOR holds the American Endurance and Distance Record for 
pilot and passenger— 4 hours 22 minutes— during which a speed of 72 miles per hour was attained. 
The Government has ordered three more Burgess Tractors for immediate service. 
THE BURGESS FLYING BOATS of special design built for U.S. Navy represent a startling 
departure in construction, affording a maximum of efficiency in flight and ease of handling. The 
staggered wings, rigid lower surface, entire warping upper surface constructed about a steel 
member are original features of this type. 

Flying Boats of similar design are under construction for use of sportsmen. 

THE BURGESS TRAINING SCHOOL patronized by both the Army and Navy is located at Marble- 
head adjoining the works. Continued flying until January first. Special rates on application. 

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS Marblehead, Mass. 



/;; ansiccrimj advcrtiscmciils please iiwiilion this uiagazinc. 



Page 164 



AERONAUTICS, Xov. 1913 




tjing aeronautical pi- 
lots the world over 
give preference to the 

Bosch Magneto 

There are nearly two million 
in use. Surely that is sufficient 
proof to convince any one that 
Bosch is superior ; but the fact 
that every world's record is 
also a Bosch Record is con- 
clusive evidence that Bosch 
merits the consideration of 
every one interested in aviation. 

Be Satisfied Specify Bosch 

We will be glad to make magneto 
recommendations for your motor 
Write for December"Bosch News" 

BoschMagnetoCompany 

223-225 West 46th Street, New York 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



^AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Page 165 



REVOLVING CYLINDER MOTORS^ 

By EMILE BERLINER. 



Any man who is a member of an organiza- 
ion in wiiich Mr. Hammer is a leader is sure 
o be live and progressive. I presume you 
nembers are familiar with motors in general 
nd there is no need to dwell on the features 
)f the various internal combustion engines. 
rhe automobile has been of service in devel- 
iping the aeroplane and the airship through 
le education given in motors. 




Latest Gyro Motor of 80 H. P. 

There is no need to discuss the status of the 
^ciprocating motor. It has its good points 
id its limitations, as, for instance, the tly- 
heel which adds weight, the muffler which 
jnsumes power, vibration, etc. With the 
)tary motor, we have the difficulty of cooling 
) contend with. 

It was a long time before our shop settled 
le question of whether or not a revolving 
inder motor was a reciprocating engine, 
inally I asked Mr. Simmons to make a model 
f our motor, showing the cylinders and pis- 
ms, etc., in fact, a complete cross section of 
When ready and rotated one side figured 
lat the pistons had a movement of about 4 

The other side then toiik a circular piece of 
irdboard, covered up the major portion of 
e pistons so that only their tips extended 
yond the cardboard sheet (ill^istrating) and 
lis showed that there was no reciprocating 

*Paper read before The Aeronautical So- 
ety, November 20, 1913. 



motion left. There is reciprocating motion in 
that the gas action is reciprocating; also a 
slight amount in the connecting rods moving 
left and right. 

To give you the history of our motor, we 
were experimenting with a helicopter in 1901-3 
and it was necessary to have a very light 
motor. After trying the lightest reciprocating 
motors we could obtain, we heard a few years 
later that a rotary motor was being made by 
the Adams Company, of Dubuque, la., and 
that several were being used in automobiles. I 
sent Air. Moore out there to see if they would 
make an engine of very light weight. The 
weight of these motors at that time was very 
considerable, probably 20 pounds per H. P. 
"Can you make one of 3 or 4 pounds per 
H. P.?" They finally said, "Yes." They suc- 
ceeded in producing two motors of about 30 
H. P., weighing less than 100 pounds each. 
These motors were built in the winter of 
1907-8 and were the fi.rst light weight revolving 
cylinder internal combustion motors ever made. 
One is now next to Air. Langley's radial re- 
ciprocating motor in the National museum in 
Washington. While we do not know whether 
the French or Gnome makers, knew of this or 
not, they did not come out with the Gnome un- 
til the latter part of 1909, so that this country 
lias not pirated anything in the way of rotary 







• New Intake 
Mechanism 
of the 80 Gyro 



aeronautic motors. It is strange that in all 
these years there should bo only one or two 
successful rotary motors in the world when it 
is well known that the Gnome has been a great 
financial success. The reason is that it is not 
easy to make such motors. 

The very highest type of workmanship is 
{Qoiiihiutd on page 171) 



Page I 66 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



GORDON-BENNETT BALLOON RACE 

By CAPT. H. E. HONEYWELL. 



The great international balloon race, in which 
the Yankees carried off all honors with colors 
flying, started from the Tuileries Gardens, a 
beautiful spot in the very heart of Paris, 
President Poincaire giving the word that re- 
leased the first at 4 p. m. and the others every 
five minutes thereafter, in the presence of an 
enthusiastic crowd of 500,000 people of all 
nations. They gave all a hearty cheer, es- 
pecially the French and American balloons, 
as they proved the favorites. 

"Uncle Sam" took the air gracefully at 
5 p. m., No. 12 in the race, and the only other 
American balloon, piloted by Upson and Pres- 
ton followed No. 17. All made a fine getaway 
to the south. We weighed off heavier than 
all, just tipping the tree tops and missing the 
Louvre by a few feet followed up the Seine. 
The people went wild. 

The next morning found us about 150 miles 
south of Paris, with 13 l)alloons in sight, all 
around, above and below us. How to get 
away from our competitors was a great ques- 
tion. Finally about 10 a. m. the light breeze 
veered around carrying all to the northwest, 
the altitude varying from 3,000 to 7,000 feet. 
Mr. Wade, my worthy aide, and myself held 
a regular council of war in the basket for two 
hours at the same time feeling for new air cur- 
rents that might spring up. Something had 
to be done ; we were getting desperate. Finally 
we located one very thin current running to 
the west, near the earth and underneath the 
clouds now forming. Either one of two things 
could be done: make a great altitude at a 
great sacrifice of ballast, with no certainty of 
finding the usual east current that would carry 
us over the Alps; or valve down, run under- 
neath our competitors to the v/est, gain the 
outside of the circle, putting all nearer Paris 
and in a trap, as it were, make for Brest, the 
extreme west point of France. We decided on 
the latter course, and it proved excellent. Every 
time we passed under one of our competitors 
we would kiss them good-bye, knowing that 
they were out of the race unless they crossed 
the channel during the second night, which 
we figured they would not do — surely a trap 
if we could hold our position. 

Upson and Preston out-nerved the rest and 
landed up in England, distance 400 miles, 
taking first honors. Good for them ! How- 
ever, fortune favored them somewhat. By 
starting last in the race they did not backtrack 
nearly so far as some others, hitting the 
channel early in the evening and at a narrow 
point, Cherbourg, while the rest did not draw- 
up to the channel until after midnight, at a 
much wider place further west. 

We struck the Bay of Biscay at the north- 
east corner about dusk. Throwing a little 
ballast, we ascended to the northwest current, 
followed along the shore, with nothing but 
lighthouses in sight. The clouds obscured the 
moon, very dark, altitude 2,000 feet, making 



12 miles per hour. At about 10 ,p. ni. two more 
lighthouses showed up just ahead, on either 
side. Knowing we were nearing the west 
coast and our trip must necessarily terminate 
shortly, as Ireland was several hundred miles 
away and the only land in our path, we valved 
quite near to earth, continuing on for some 
time, with a sharp look-out for the ocean. 
Suddenly the moon broke through the banks 
of fog clouds, and showed the shimmering 
water about % mile ahead, with no more light- 
houses to invite us further. We valved a 
hasty descent. Touching earth lightly, I pulled 
the panel, and the balloon laid over on a steep 
hillside, with the basket trying to roll back- 
wards down the embankment. After extricat- 



I 




ing ourselves from the general mix-up of sand- 
provisions and water, of which we had plenty 
for another day's run, we looked at our watch 
10.30 exactly, sgjX hours out. 

Making a house of our basket we rolled u) 
in our steamer rugs for the night, damp am 
cold. Daylight found us preparing a ho 
breakfast on our lime stove. Soon a fe\ 
hundred natives gathered. After exhaustin 
our limited French we resorted to the si^ 
language that worked so well in Russia la^ 
year. After securing a wagon, we drove t 
Pont de Buis (Finistere). province of Brittai 
and caught the train for Paris, winners 
the second prize. 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Page 167 



It is rumored in Paris that "Uncle Sam" is a 
French creation. She is strictly an all-Ameri- 
can balloon, made by the French-American 
Balloon Co., of St. Louis, Mo., as was the old 
"Uncle Sam" that took third honors for Amer- 
ica in the 1912 Gordon-Bennett, from Germany 
U> the tall porcupine forests of Russia, 1,100 
miles awav. 



THE INTERNATIONAL BALLOON. 

The accompanying sketch has been drawn l)y 
Captain H. E. Honeywell to illustrate his air- 
manship in dropping to a lower western cur- 
rent to obtain further distance before reaching 
the ocean in the international ballon race of 
October 12th in which America won first and 



second place. Upson and his aide Preston 
"out-nerved" the other contestants, numbering 
eighteen, from eight different countries, and 
Honeywell and Wade "out-generaled" them. 
The circles near the bottom of the map show 
the relative positions of the balloons 18 hours 
out from Paris, the start ; the others mark the 
landings. 

The official distances made by the three 
obtaining places are as follows : 

Upson and Preston (America), 618 kils.; 
clur. 29 h. 35 min. 

Honeywell and Wade (.\merica), 483 kils.; 
dur. 29 h. 35 m. 

Capt. Pastine (Italy), 437 kils.; dur. _}- h. 
25 m. 

The French balloons finished sixth, ninth and 
thirteenth. 



HOW WE WON THE GORDON-BENNETT 

By R. A. D. PRESTON. 



The Gordon-Bennett Cup was won this year 
by taking every advantage of winds at the 
different altitudes, of our knowledge of the 
probable meteorological conditions over Great 
Britain, and our willingness to sacrifice gas 
and ballast to maintain the proper direction. 
Practically all of the voyage was easy sailing 
and most of it at moderate speed. Drag- 
roping across the lower part of Yorkshire in 
the storm and the landing less than 300 yards 
from the cliff at Bempton (Yorkshire) were 
rather exciting, and while crossing the south- 
ern part of England we made great speed; 
otherwise there was little excitement during 
the trip. 

The "Goodyear" had been carefully groomed 
for the race, and behaved excellently through- 
out. Our equipment of navigating instruments 
is very complete, and proved of utmost ser- 
vice, as, given a tight balloon, it was direction 
rather than endurance that would count in 
the pecuHar weather conditions then existing. 

We were well provisioned, carrying non- 
perishable food and water sufficient for five 
days (in case of landing far from habitations) 
and a nice box of sandwiches, cakes, cheese, 
and fruit to eat in the air. Thermos bottles 
of malted milk, coffee, and a bottle of milk 
completed the list. 

We took no stimulants on this trip, except, 
of course, a bottle of oxygen and a respiratory 
apparatus for use at high altitudes. This last 
was not used, however, as the third day out, 
when ordinarily we should have gone high, 
we kept low over England to prevent lieing 
blown to the east. 

Except at our maximum altitudes, over the 
Channel, it was not excessively cold. Here 
we were glad to make use of the heavy 
blankets and woollen leggins our trial flight 
from St. Cloud on October 6 had shown us 
were required. 

Tlie start of the race from the Tnileries was 
beautifully managed, and the "Goodyear," No. 
t8, ascended at 5.25 p. m. and sailed away 
low over Paris to the southeast. Most 



of the other balloons were visible, those which 
went high bearing to the west. Our com- 
patriot, Honeywell, was also going low, and, 
as long- as we could see him, farthest of all 
to the east. 

We remained at about i,oco ft. during the 
night, gradually working round to the west, 
passing over Illiers at 6.15 p. m. and Nogent 
at 7-53 P- m. 

Monday was a beautiful day. We let the 
l)alloon rise with the sun to 5,800 ft., remain- 
ing till after 12 o'clock in fine equilibrium. 
The course at that altitude was nearly due 
west. The light, cumulus clouds below us 
over the green fields and white villages made a 
pretty picture. 

At 1 1. 1 5 a. m. we sighted Berliner for the 
second time, approximately 15 miles to the 
southeast, and in another half hour nine bal- 
loons were in sight from southeast to south- 
west all higher than the "Goodyear." 

In the afternoon the wind (at 5,800 ft.) 
worked round towards the south a few de- 
grees. Remaining at this altitude till about 
3 o'clock, we were then a few nnles south of 
Mortain. Knowing that the wind at 5,800 ft. 
at least would easily take us across the Chan- 
nel, and that to beat Brest we would have 
to reach PIull on the east coast of England, 
Upson proposed descending, on the chance that 
the surface currents would veer sufficiently to 
the south to allow us to drag-rope across the 
Channel, for which we had a particularly suit- 
able drag rope. By 4 p. m. the barograph 
showed 2,300 ft., but the wind was carrying us 
too much towards the west. Overl)oard went 
a little ballast, and soon tlie "Goodyear" was 
up to 13,000 ft., sailing finely to the north- 
west. 

.\t 6.20 the coast nortli of Granville passed 
beneath us. Over the Channel, however, due 
to the radiation from the water, we rose to 
8,2C0 ft., where the direction was too far north 
and carried us overland again near .St. Ger- 
main. Dropping slowly, tlie direction became 



Page it 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



more favorable, the wind carrying us out 
over Armond Ville la Roge (14 miles west of 
Cherbourg) at 10.25 jx m. At this point I 
took charge of the balloon while Upson got a 
little sleep. 

We were but a short time at sea before the 
lights of St. Catherine's Point, the Needles, 
and St. Albans' Head, together with several 
others I did not recognize, were visible, and 
it was easy to chart our course from bearings 
on these lights. On this night, as well as on 
the previous one, the moon shone brightly and 
nearly full, and several steamers were visible 
below. 

Berliner had followed us all the afternoon, 
and looked as though he were coming across 
the Channel, but we lost sight of him a little 
east of Granville. 

Crossing the Channel the "Goodyear" grad- 
ually descended to 3,600 ft., and at this height 
I watched, with keen satisfaction, the Isle of 
Wight bluff pass beneath our basket at 2.y 
a. m. The wind was coming more and more 
from the west at this elevation. Soundings 
showed a better and faster current near the 
ground, so down we came to below 1,000 ft. 
and struck off north through England at a 
tremendous speed, most of the time in low, 
heavy clouds. The moon became obscured 
shortly after landfall, and we saw neither 
moon nor sun again. Crossing the river just 
below Southampton I hailed a steamer below 
and got a reply, which, however, I could not 
make out. 

It was now only a question of keeping as 
far to the west as possible, but only to 600 ft. 
were the currents favorable, and Upson, now 
at the helm, displayed great skill in holding 
the "Goodyear"' just above the trees without 
crashing into obstacles. We kept this up an 
hour or so. Ballast was going fast, however, 
and as it was now day and the wind not 
quite so strong, we cut loose the drag rope 
and trailed for miles through Lincolnshire. 
After repeated bailings we located ourselves 
precisely near Lincoln. Near the ground the 
direction of the wind would just enable us to 
make Hull, now our objective. 

At 11.30 a. m. the "Goodyear" shot out over 
the Humber, south of Hull, the drag rope 
leaving a white wake in the river 300 ft. below. 
It was now quite stormy, the wind more vio- 
lent and gusty, and pouring rain. The "Good- 
year" is provided with a drip-band near the 
bottom to drain off rain outside the basket, 
but we had lost so much gas that this was no 
longer efficient, and a mean drizzle spattered 
down on our heads. 

As we had sufficient ballast now to reach 
the sea, and drag-roping in the storm was 
anything but pleasant, Upson let the "Good- 
year" rise to 800 to 1,000 ft. to test the upper 
currents, while I watched the misty horizon 
for the North Sea. After one or two false 
alarms we sighted it near Bridlington, Init the 
wind veered round sharply here and for a few 
minutes there were hopes of our going still 
further north. A sudden squall caught us, 
however, and from a good altitude I saw the 
water over Buckton Cliffs. Less than a quar- 



ter of a mile away, Upson made a remarkable 
landing. We dropped in a turnip patch only 
one held away from the edge of the cliff'. It 
must have been blowing at least 35 miles an 
hour, and the basket rolled and slipped along 
over the uprooted turnips at a great rate. I 
remember thinking at the time what fine roller- 
bearings these turnips made. For an instant 
or two it looked as if we would not bring it 
up short of the cliffs, and Upson told me 
afterwards that he had been figuring on the 
quickest way to get over the edge of the 
basket. We struck a confusion of earth, 
fence and hedge at the end of this field, how- 
ever, and it held the basket long enough for 
a good deal of gas to escape through the 
large slit made by pulling the ripping panel. A 
few feet beyond this hedge the basket came 
to rest, and the voyage was ended. We ran to 
the edge of the cliff and congratulated each 
other that we had stopped just in time. — Brit- 
isli . Icroiiautics. 



ROBERT G. FOWLER'S VIEWS. 

Mr. Ernest L. Jones, 
New York, N. Y. 

My Dear Mr. Jones, — Have been perusing 
your October number with a good deal of in- 
terest, particularly as regards comparisons of 
activity in this country and abroad ; but when 
you stop to consider the market the European 
maker has to demonstrate his planes to and 
the national pride in their achievements. 

In this country flying comes under the head 
of circus stunts, whereas in Europe they justly 
regard it as scientific advancement. 

To-day's paper recorded the death of two 
more army fliers. It seems time that they 
should be safeguarded a little, provided with 
speed and angle indicators, and not allowed to 
blindly grope their way to a knowledge of 
flying. 

I have used such instruments since 191 1, 
and have been saved many a nasty smash 
through their quick indication of a plane's 
misbehavior. 

It is also a fact that my plane is the only 
one in the United States that has a motor 
speed indicator, incidence indicator, and an 
aerometer to show flying speed. 

Speaking of arousing interest in the flying 
exhibitions in large cities, it is interesting to 
cite our experience here with our water planes. 

On November 16 we had five planes in ac- 
tion along the bay shore of the Panama Pa- 
cific grounds, a charge of twenty-five cents 
being made, motor-cars fifty cents, and the at- 
tendance after only eight days' advertising was 
around 6,000. 

Last Sunday, the 23rd inst., we had nearly 
thirteen thousand people inside and a large 
grand stand completely filled. Am enclosing 
the list of events run off with six planes in 
action a great deal of the time. 

ROBERT G. FOWLER. 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Page i6g 



THE WRIGHT AEROBOAT 



The Wright aeroboat may briefly be de- 
scribed, therefore, as a step in which hydro- 
aeroplane and flying boat characteristics have 
been altered to give a new type. The machine 
consists of two distinct parts: the boat hull 
containing the seats and motor, to which is 
rigidly attached the aeroplane structure, con- 
sisting of wings and rudders. The two seats 
side by side are placed in front of the main 
surfaces, the motor is set below and behind 
them, and drives two propellers in the cus- 
tomary Wright fashion. The aeroplane and 
rudder details are quite similar to the stand- 
ard Wright type "C," excepting that the 
strut arrangement is altered, and due to the 
concentration of the load at the center, the 
wiring and joints have necessarily been made 
of much larger and* stronger section. The 
span of the surfaces is 38 ft., the chord is 6 
ft., and the total lifting surface is 432 sq. ft. 
The propellers are ^Yi ft. in diameter and 
are driven by the motor at 600 r.p.m. The 
elevator which is raised to the center line of 
tb.e propellers is 48 sq. ft. in area and with 
the large type ''C" rudder, and the enormous 
transverse control that is given by the warp- 
ing system, the control in the air of this ma- 
chine is more powerful than on other marine 
aeroplanes. 

Perhaps the most interesting part of the ma- 
chine is the boat hull itself, which is of novel 
construction and which inaugurates a new 
type of craft. The hull is made of special 
metal alloy, treated so as to prevent corrosion 
by salt water, and more nearly approaches in 
its hydroplaning qualities, good practice of 
motor boat work than has previously been 
done. The hydroplaning part of the hull con- 
sists virtually of two hydroplane surfaces, both 
presenting their most efficient angle to the 
water at the same time that there is given the 
best lifting angle of the planes, and the best 
line of thrust of the propellers. The rear 
])lane has been studied with extreme care, as 
the angle of this plane for its highest efficiency 



requires consideration of the wave thrown back 
from the front hydroplane surface. 

The hull is 3 ft. deep, 18 ft. long and 43 in. 
wide. The weight of the hull fully equipped 
is 300 pounds. This includes the motor bed 
and seats, dash board, etc. Its strength, not 
only due to its compact form, but due to the 
manner in which the framework back of the 
metal has been designed, is enormous. The 
hull is divided into six entirely water-tight 
compartments. The hull is water-tight through- 
out, the motor and seats being set above the 
top of the water-tight portion, so that the hull 
itself is really in this sense a pontoon. There 
is no possibility, therefore, of shipping water 
and adding to the weight of the machine. 

The arrangement of the seats and controls is 
exceedingly neat, and eff^ective, and approaches 
in appearance, as well as comfort, to auto- 
mobile practice. The engine is operated en- 
tirely by foot throttle combined with a throttle 
lever exactly as on motor cars. A dash board 
is fitted on which the instruments are placed, 
and back of the hood, conveniently at hand, 
are a klaxon horn, priming can, starting crank, 
anchor and anchor rope. The anchor rope is 
passed out through a port in the extreme bow 
of the machine, a very neat detail, which 
makes anchoring easy, and quick of operation. 
The starting mechanism consists merely of a 
safety starter, geared up from the motor. The 
handle is inserted on the auxiliary shaft back 
of the seats, and is easily turned with one hand. 
The motor is very accessible from the seats, 
even permitting of replacing spark plugs while 
in flight and of easy inspection. Being at 
the rear, the noise and exhaust are entirely 
away from the operator. A small flag is 
fitted at the bow to indicate, as in usual Wright 
practice, the least tendency of the machine 
to skid. 

The manner in which the seats are closed 
in, the form of the hood, and the neat side 
doors and steps fitted, make the entire ar- 
rangement not only finished in appearance, but 
perfect in protection against air and waves. 




Page 170 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 




URICHTnaDEZLD 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Page 171 




The total weight of the aeroboat ready fo" 
lli^ht is 1,200 pounds. The live load that has 
liLLii carried in the tests at Dayton has 
amounted to practically 600 pounds, making 
the total load in flight, 1,800 pounds. 

The machine is equipped with a six-cylinder, 
II. P. Wright motor, which gives 30 pounds 
carried per H. P., the highest figure yet 
attained in marine aeroplane work. 

In addition to the main center pontoon, 
two auxiliary pontoons are fitted. These are 
also made of metal, weighing 11 pounds apiece, 
and are of a form which insures the cor- 
rection of the balance of the machine with th;.' 
least amount of drag, a feature which for 
rough water work is of the utmost importance. 

The control of the craft on the water is 
done entirely by the side paddle system, in- 
vented by Grover C. Loening some time ago, 
and used by him in his early aeroboat experi- 
ments. This method of control is far more 
effective than a water rudder, and turns the 
machine at high speed in any kind of wind. 

The aeroboat was designed by Grover C 
Loening under the direction of Mr. Orville 
Wright, and was entirely constructed at the 
Dayton factory. 



REVOLVING CYLINDER MOTORS. 

IConli lined from paije 1C>'>\ 

imperative and one has to contend with the 
well-known formula of centrifugal pressure, 
according to which each pound of weight ro- 
tating at a distance of i foot from the center 
of rotation at 1,100 r.p.m. produces a cen- 
trifugal pressure of 412.6 pounds. Every mov- 
ing part has to be calculated with refer- 
ence to that law. Everything must be 
made of the finest steel, perfectly balanced, 
perfectly hardened. If not balanced there is 
produced a knocking. All wearing parts must 
be perfectly tempered, especially the valves and 
the mechanism operating them. 

(Here jMr. Berliner illustrated his talk by 
reference to the moving model of the Gyro 
motor.) 

The makers of rotary motors are engaged 
right now in attempts to produce a motor 
with but one valve, leaving out the intake 
valve. I believe it will be accomplished suc- 
cessfully. It has been done in a way but not 
yet economically. (Illustrating on model.) 
The intake will be very similar to that in two- 
cycle engines. When that time comes, we will 
have the model motor for aeronautics and it 
ought to run a hundred hours without any 
trouble. In the Gyro motor we have reduced 
\,Continued on page 1S0\ 



Page 172 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 




NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN AERONAUTICS 

CURTICS RUNNING GEAR SYSTEM. 

A device for equipping water 'planes with 
wheels which can be raised or lowered while 
in flight has been patented by Glenn H. Cur- 
tiss in Great Britain (12,643). 

The claims cover the combination of sur- 
faces with float, hydro surfaces at wing ends 
capable of variation of inclination, ailerons, 
wheels which in lowered position project 
through the float, with locking device. 

In order that the operator may vary the in- 
clination of the floats and blades, there is pro- 
vided a lever 42 connected to a wire 43 lead- 
ing to each float, so that by movement of said 
lever from the position shown in Fig. 2 to 
that shown in Fig. i, the floats, and with them 
the blades, may be inclined upward. Move- 
ment of the lever in the reverse direction al- 
lows the floats and blades to return to a hori- 
zontal position where they will exert slight 
head resistance to the rush of air. At rest on 
the water, the floats may be allowed to take 
the horizontal position. When the machine is 
started, the operator may throw his lever to 
incline the floats and blades, as shown in Fig. 
I, and they will then act as a stabilizing 
rneans. Wheels are hung from the machine 
and project slightly below the lower surface 
of the boat, as indicated in Fig. 2. For rais- 
ing the wheels out of the water when the 
machine is floating, and for depressing the 
same at will, 47 is a brace pivoted at 48 to the 
frame of the machine, and 49 is another brace 
pivoted at 50 to the frame, and at 51 pivoted 
to a short arm 52. A locking device shown m 
Figs. 3 and 4 in detail operates to hold the 
wheels in their depressed position shown in 
Fig. I. As shown in Figs. 3 and 4 the wheel 
is pivoted to the U-shaped frame 52 havmg 
projections 53 pivoted to the U-shaped end 54 
of the brace 49- Bent arms 55 fixed to the 
frame 52 carry pivoted to them at 56 a lock- 
ing detent 57, which has a catch-nose 58 en- 
gaging a bar 59 on the U-shaped frame 54. 
60 is a spring normally holding the latch in 
the position shown in Fig. 4- The preferred 
mechanism for raising the wheels comprises 
a slidable rack bar 105 engaged by a spring- 
pressed detent 106. 62 is a wire connected to 
the bar and running to the axle of the wheel, 
being led over suitable pulleys such as 61. 
107 is a foot lever pivoted to the boat at T08 
and carrying a spring dog 109. no is a spring 
to draw lever 107 backwards. As the foot 
lever is reciprocated it forces the bar 105 
downwardly, being held by detent 106 at each 
reciprocation, drawing on wire 62 and col- 
lapsing the frame 47- 49. 52 to the raised posi- 
tion. The holding latch 106 may be tripped 
by a wire in and handle n2 adjacent to the 
operator's seat. In order to release lock 57 
a wire n3 runs therefore to a pulley n4 
loose on wire 62. This latter is slack when 
the wheels are down and locked, and as the 
slack is taken up it draws on wire 113, un- 
locking latch 57 just before wire 62 becomes 
taut. Of course, the other wheel is provided 
with the same construction, the wires 62 of 



both wheels being connected to rack bar 105. 
Releasing the detent 106 before the machine 
comes out of the water allows the weight of 
the parts and the resistance offered by the 
water to throw the wheels back to the locked 
position. The machine may then travel 
out of the water onto the land and over the 
same without the resistance which would be 
exerted by the boat if in contact with the 
earth. 



THE AUSTRO DAIMLER MOTOR. 

The go H. P. Austro Daimler motor, with 
one of which one Thomas flying-boat is 
equipped, has recently been tested by the 
Austrian army authorities. 

Previous to the first test the engine was 
tested on the dynamometer, and was found to 
deliver 80 B. H. P. at 1,310 revolutions per 
minute. It was then disconnected from the 
dynamometer and the propeller fitted that the 
engine was to drive when in the machine. The 
engine then ran without a stop for 20 hours 
under full load.— Average number of revolu- 
tions per minute, 1,320. _ 

At the end of this run the engine was vol- 
untarily stopped for half an hour and exam- 
ined. Everything was found to be in perfect 
order and no adjustments at all were neces- 
sary. ' Following directly after the half an 
hour's stop the test was resumed and the en- 
c^ine ran for a further 20 hours without a 
stop, under full load.— Average number of 
revolutions per minute, 1,320. 

At the conclusion of this period the engine 
was again voluntarily stopped and once more 
connected up to the dynamometer, and was 
found to be delivering the same power as 
before the tests. , 

The engine was straightway dismantled and 
the parts examined by the army ofiicials. It 
was found that no visible wear had taken 
place and that all the parts were in perfect 
condition. 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Page 173 




1 he yo il. P. Austro-Daimler has recently 
undergone several alterations in detail all of 
which go far towards improving it as an en- 
gine for use under all manner of conditions 
while making no real change as to its relia- 
bility. 

The cylinder (120 by 140 mm.) attachments 
are different. At the bottom of the cylinder 
a pressed steel flange is screwed on to the 
barrel. This flange is drilled to take seven 
holding-down bolts. There is little likelihood 
of cylinders leaving the engine in future. 

A propeller carrier, consisting of a flange 
and collar in one piece, tapered to fit the 
crankshaft and keyed in two places, is sup- 
plied with every engine. A second detachable 
flange-piece bolts to the other. 

The Bosch magneto fitted is wholly enclosed 
that it may be both dust and waterproof — a 
most necessary provision in these days. It is 
of the two spark type (that is, it sparks 
simultaneously on two plugs in each cylinder). 

Each of the sparking plugs has a fibre and 
porcelain cover, thereby ensuring that it will 
not short-circuit even in the heaviest rain. 




.".nolher necessary provision has been made 
as a result of several serious accidents which 
have recently occurred with various types of 
aero engines — the carburetor has been made 
fireproof. To quote the firm's own descrip- 



tion, "The float chamber is wholly enclosed 
and airtight except for an overflow and vent 
pipe of very small bore. The intake passage 
is continued in the shape of a long pipe, so 
that should the engine 'blow back' the flame 
would be muffled. So also is the extra air- 
pipe similarly muffled and gauze covered." 

Lubrication is by Bosch lubricator driven 
by helical gearing from the crankshaft. Two 
piston pumps, one a piston valve and the 
other a positive pump, are actuated by cam- 
shaped discs. The pressure obtainable is 
about 1,000 pounds to the square inch. The 
oil leads are of weldless steel tubing and are 
arranged neatly outside the engine. Thus any 
repairs can be made readily and quickly. 

The throw of these pumps can be regulated 
in a simple manner by moving in or out a 
series of screws placed round the rim of the 
filling up orifice. 

The oil consumption is one-half gallon per 
hour; the gas consumption, about 8 gallons 
per hour. Copper jackets are electrically de- 
posited on the cylinders. The motor is equip- 
ped with push-button and battery starter. The 
motor develops 90 H. P. at 1,300 revolutions. 

A BLERIOT STABILISER. 

Perreyon has been testing a Buc a Bleriot 
machine fitted with a new stabilizer invented 
by M. Bleriot. The apparatus principally 
consists of a weight attached to an extension 
of the cloche, and in its trials it seems to 
have worked perfectly. In one flight, Perre- 
yon took up M. Rene Quinton, and flew round 
and round for a quarter of an hour without 
touching the cloche, his arms, in fact, re- 
maining folded. 



1 like to have your magazine till I stop you 
from sending it. — J'. M. K., A'ezu Jersev. 



WHY ROTATIVE MOTORS HAVE 
ODD NUMBER CYLINDERS. 

L. Lecornu has told succinctly why rotative 
motors have an odd number of cylinders. "The 
reply is given through the formula which I 
had occasion to prove, and which may be 
stated as follows: n^K (-j-p — 2) where "n" 
is the number of cylinders, "K" the number 
of cranks, and "p" the order in which the 
sparking occurs ; that is, after having sparked 
the first cylinder, then the one of rank, p+i, 
is sparked, then 2p-f-i, and so on until the first 
one is reached again. In order that all the 
cylinders may be sparked in turn it is neces- 
sary and sufficient that "p" is prime with "n." 
'i hat granted, it follows that, if one crank is 
employed in order to simplify and make the 
mitor as light as possible, "k" must equal "i" 
?:ni'l when p=2, "n" must be odd. 



NEW BOOKS RECEIVED. 

THE CURTIS.S F].YI.\(; 1!().\T is the title of a 
brochure gotten out liy the Curtiss Aeroplane Co.. of 
Hamrnondsport. N. Y., which deals with the pleasures 
of aerial aquatics and is from the pen of Lyman J. 
Seely, although he doesn't say so. It's a beautifully 
gotten up booklet, immensely practical, absorbingly 
interesting and enough to almost make an aero 
editor buy. 



Page 174 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



THE DUNNE MACHINE IN AMERICA. 

For a number of years VV. Starling Burgess, 
together with everyone engaged in the devel- 
opment of aviation, has watched with the 
greatest interest the development of Lieu- 
tenant Dunne's experiments. The many acci- 
dents during the last year on machines gen- 
erally recognized as the safest yet built has 
caused the general public and many intimately 
interested in aviation to well-nigh despair of 
attaining the long wished for safety in flight. 

The commercial development of the aero- 
plane depends upon the production of a fly- 
ing machine that is inherently stable. It is 
not too much to say that little or nothing ha^ 
been accomplished either in this country or 
France towards this end during the last three 
years. That mechanical devices for the oper- 
ation of wings and rudders, however perfect, 
cannot be considered as solving the problem, 
is claimed by adherents of inherent stability. 

Like almost every great inventor Lieutenant 
Dunne has worked alone with little or no en- 
couragement from those already interested in 
the art of flying to a point where his success 
could not be further overlooked. The flight 
of Commander Felix, so fully reported in 
AERONAUTICS and the American press, 
marked the debut before the world of the first 
inherently stable aeroplane. 

Not only private individuals but the military 
aviation experts in both England and France 
became interested at once. Before the mails 
bringing the details of the new aeroplane could 
arrive the Nieuport Company, one of the mos: 
progressive in France, had obtained not only 
a license to build the Dunne machine in France, 
but also an order from the Government for 
the construction of four Dunne aeroplanes to 
be delivered at the earliest possible moment. 

The English Government, which up to this 
time had looked upon the Dunne machine 
merely as an undeveloped possibility, hastened 
to place their order for three machines for 
immediate delivery and thus tardily recognized 
Dunne's great achievement. 

Mr. Burgess went abroad for the sole pur- 
pose of thoroughly investigating the latest 
developments in Lieutenant Dunnei's work. 
He was both surprised and dehghted to find 
that Lieutenant Dunne was already fully ac- 
quainted with his own success as a designer of 
aeroplanes as well as of yachts. 

London "Engineering," the leading technical 
paper of the world, in its issue of October 3 
devoted its supplement and principal pages 
to a detailed description with photographs 
and drawings of the three latest and most 
successful Burgess aeroplanes — the Burgess 
Tractor, the Burgess Coast Defence Hydro- 
aeroplane, and the Burgess Flying Boat, all 
now in active service in our Army and Navy. 

Under these favorable conditions a contract 
giving Mr. Burgess the sole license to manu- 
facture under the Dunne patents was easily ar- 
ranged. Investigation of these patents re- 
veals the fact that Lieutenant Dunne has very 
carefully protected in them the basic prin- 



ciples of his method of inherent stability, 
and that they can be easily defended from 
infringement. 

"With its advent in America the many dis- 
puted questions of the easiest method of con- 
trol, whether by wheel or by levers, whether by 
ailerons or by warping wings, lose their im- 
portance. The Dunne aeroplane is inherently 
stable, but two levers are used and these are 
used simply for guiding up or down, or to the 
right or left. The machine cannot tip over 
either laterally or fore or aft." 

Of course one can appreciate the enthusiasm 
which Commander Felix has so well described 
when he first realized that he could remove his 
hands from the levers and allow his machine 
to fly alone over the waters of the English 
channel while he spread out before him his 
mid-day lunch. 

The Dunne machine is not an easy aero- 
plane to construct. Its principles of balance 
depend upon a very careful co-ordination of 
varying wing curvatures from center to tip. 
Lieutenant Dunne has supplied Mr. Burgess 
with the fullest drawings, patterns and templets 
and the first American Dunne is now under 
construction. Mr. Burgess is now designing 
the hydroplanes for the new machine, for it 
has not yet been equipped to fly over the water. 
This involves serious engineering problems, as 
the machine arises and alights in a very dif- 
ferent manner from the older types of aero- 
planes. 

Mr. Burgess' work therefore will be watched 
most carefully by the thousands interested in 
aviation who are waiting for the day to arrive 
when they can take up the art themselves with 
an assurance that in doing so they are not 
entering an unduly hazardous sport or occupa- 
tion. 

The advent of the Dunne machine in Amer- 
ica under Mr. Burgess' skillful guidance marks 
a great step in the development of American 
aviation. 



AEROPLANE TO SPEED UP WAR- 
FARE. 

"An all-around speeding up" of strategic 
operations may be expected in wars where 
aeroplanes are used is the opinion expressed 
by Major F. H. Sykes, Commandant, Military 
Wing, Royal Flying Corps, of England, and 
the plans drawn out previously in peace will 
require greater care in order that the pre- 
liminary dispositions of troops may be the best 
possible; yet, "the old, old principles prevail" 
in warfare and in any case "no revolution of 
methods will occur." 

Citing instances from the battles of recent 
and not so recent history. Major Sykes went 
on to tell The Aeronautical Society of Great 
Britain at a recent meeting that, due to the 
use of aircraft, "the sequence, order, counter- 
order and disorder should be less frequent. 
If the huge masses of modern armies are 
found to have been wrongly placed, no amount 
of zeal, training, bravery, or mobility can 
make up. There will be no time for a gen- 
eral re-shufiling. The offensive will increase 
in advantage over the defensive. Leaders must 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Page 17$ 



be prompt and correct in decision ; troops pre- 
pared to make long and rapid movements." 

Certain things being equal, the greatest 
number will win. General Jackson, by small, 
mobile daring forces, by rapid hidden move- 
ments was sometimes able to defeat consid- 
erably larger numbers. "Aircraft will, I think, 
render this line of action impossible," says the 
Major. 

That war is impossible without command of 
the air, he thinks is a statement which should 
refer possibly to wars of a few years hence. 
Further, he says : "I even hold that command 
of the air can never really be of the same 
nature as command of the sea. Neither can 
the same extent of strategical or tactical free- 
dom in the area of operations be obtained, 
which might result from the vigorous use of 
good cavalry. 

"At sea and on land there are only two di- 
mensions. In the air the third, climbing, is 
the difficulty. It may be overcome" with time 
and further progress but this third dimen- 
sion is a "severe stumbling block." A heavy 
machine, perhaps, with guns and ammunition 
and armor, would be a slow climber and 
difficult to land easily and safely. "For 
the time being it would certainly seem that the 
fast scouting machine will have various ad- 
vantages over the heavier type." Then, if 
both sides use it, each will know a pretty good 
lot about what the other is doing. "If both 
sides have fighting machines, the side upon 
which this fact has the least moral effect will 
have an important advantage. A little fight- 
ing in the air will, I think, have a far-reaching 
deterrent effect on the moral of the aerial 
forces of the losing side." 

Aeroplanes will save cavalry much unnec- 
essary work. A general in three and a half 
hours can report the enemy's strength, posi- 
tion, etc., if within an 80-mile radius. "The 
reports of aircraft will afford a degree of se- 
curity, a saving of officers, men and horse- 
flesh, in anxiety and strain on the commander, 
in mental wear and tear of the infantry and 
artillery." Fog and night will prevent aerial 
reconnaissance and, owing to the speed, the 
field of observation will not be very detailed; 
and small bodies of men will learn to quickly 
hide. 

It will be difficult to recognize opposing air- 
craft, or any at all from the ground. A reduc- 
tion in number of types is suggested as an aid 
to recognition, and tables of types of friend 
and foe will have to be issued to troops. 



THE TURNER "AVIAPHONE." 

Mr. K. M. Turner, who has been a close fol- 
lower of aeronautics for several years, devel- 
oped his aviaphone originally for the U. S. 
Army Aeronautics Corps to facilitate and 
make more effective aerial reconnaissances. 

The device, which is an adaptation to aero- 
nautics of Mr. Turner's famous "Dictograph- 
Turner" interconversing system, was worked 
up to its present state of efficiency in co-oper- 
ation with a number of the Army aviation ex- 



perts, at the Government grounds in Augusta, 
Ga., and also at Hempstead, Long Island, 
where its utility and value was demonstrated 
in a number of very exacting tests. 

As is well known, the noise of the engine 
has long made it difficult for the observation 
officer in any heavier than air craft to freely 
communicate wath the operator of the machine. 
Army officers have recognized this as a serious 
handicap to the operation of the machine and 
its mobility in action, where seconds are too 
precious to be wasted. 

The Aviaphone consists of a powerful trans- 
mitter with a tube projecting upward from it, 
permanently attached to each man in the ma- 
chine, connected by wire with a set of pow- 




erful earpieces permanently affixed to the 
head, by means of a headband. The trans- 
niitter is attached to each man by means of a 
light harness and is arranged so that by 
bending his head slightly downward, his mouth 
is directly in front of the tube. This enables 
him to talk freely into it and keeps both hands 
free at all times, he having nothing to handle 
in the use or operation of the system. The 
wire connecting the transmitter with the ear- 
pieces of the other man in the machine is so 
arranged that in the event of the latter fall- 
ing from the machine, the wire is instantly dis- 
connected and the second man prevented from 
being carried down with his companion. 

At the same time that the transmitter of 
the aviaphone magnifies sound several hundred 
per cent., it also clarifies sound, providing per- 
fect articulation. The earpieces rest on rub- 
ber cushions and while held so firmly against 
the ears that no outside sounds can intrude, 
the pressure of continuous use causes the user 
no annoyance. The batteries for the operation 
of the instrument can be stowed on the person 
of either one of the men, being so small that 
they fit easily into a pocket. They register 
less than three volts and about twenty am- 
peres. 

The experiments made of the device by 
.\rmy officers and also by lay-aviators, both 
amateur and professional, have been so highly 
successful, that Mr. Turner is confident that 
the aviaphone will soon become a necessary 
and indispensable appointment of every air 
craft. 



Page 176 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



KNABENSHUE DIRIGIBLE. 

The only dirigible known to be operating 
in this country is now the new big ship of 
Roy Knabenshue, who has gone back to the 
gas bag after dallying with the aeroplane as 
an exhibition contractor. 

The car has a capacity of ten persons, and 
has taken up 132 people for trips of 3 to 15 
miles from and back to the aerodrome at 
Pasadena at a speed of 30 miles an hour, with 
but a 30 h. p. motor. 

The bag is 150 ft. long, 2,000 cubic metres 
capacity, Hansen motor. The propellers are 
Wright type. 

The ship is of non-rigid type, with a rectan- 
gular (cross section) framework below run- 
ning the entire length of the bag. The ele- 
vating rudders are at the rear, and behind 
them are the six vertical rudders. The motor 
drives two propellers, one at either side of the 
framework at the end of triangular braces, 
driven by chain. Twenty trips were made 
from Sept. 20 to October 16 (20 days) with a 
total duration of 6 hours 31 minutes. 

CURTISS O-X MOTORS COMPARED, 

With the weight of the remodeled 75-80 
h. p. Curtiss motor increased by a few pounds, 
new valve action and increased bearing sur- 
faces bringing the net total up to 320 pounds, 
and the gross total ready for a run of four 
hours, including gasoline, oil, radiator, water, 
etc., up to 638 pounds in producing the 90-100 
h. p. O-X motor of the same bore and stroke, 
the O-X shows real lightness. Here is a com- 
parative table, the figures taken from a Eu- 
ropean publication : 



"In the table below a net delivered horse- 
power of 85 is claimed for the 100 h. p. 
Gnome, the same for the O-X Curtiss and "^2 
for the 70 h. p. Renault. Weights for the 
Gnome and Renault motor fuel, etc., I have 
taken from the foreign publication referred 
to; those for the Curtiss O-X were supplied 
by Lieut. B. L. Smith, U. S. N., who had 
compiled the data from his Navy machine for 
his own information." At 1,800 r.p.m., the 
O-X shows 106 6 h. p. 



THE FLYING BOAT AS A DEPEND- 
ABLE VEHICLE. 

Raymond \'. AJorris, who acted during the 
summer and fall as pilot for Gerald Hanley 
of Providence, has kept a daily record of his 
season's flying with the Curtiss boat. His 
book shows a total of more than no flying 
hours, approximately 6,000 miles, with but 
one overhatiling. Broke one rod. 

C. C. Witmer, in charge of Harold F. Mc- 
Cormick's flying boat, has flown approximate- 
ly 5,000 miles, with one overhauling of the 
motor. No breakage. 

L. A. Vilas kept a partial record of his 
summer's flying from June to October, and 
he estimates that he flew more than 3,500 
miles. So far he has not had occasion to 
drop the lower half of the crankcase. The 
motor has not been overhauled since it left 
the factory. No breakage. 

J. A. D. McCurdy, in charge of George von 
Utassy's flying boat, flew every fair day from 
mid-July to mid-October. Estimated mileage 
5,oco. Broke one bearing can. 



MOTOR 



WEIGHT 

Net 



GALS. GAS 
Per Hour 



GALS. OIL 
Per Hour 



FUEL WT. 
Four Hours 



TOTAL WT. 

Motor and Fuel 



WT. PER H.P. 

For 4 Hours 



100 Gnome 


308.64 


12.1675 


2.7 


377.76 lbs. 


686.4 lbs. 


8.07 lbs 


70 Renault 


462.966 


9.26 


.79 


246.03 " 


709. " 


9.946 " 


90-100 Curtiss 


430. 


8. 


.5 


208. " 


638. " 


7.505 " 




Knabenshue Dirigible 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 191: 



Page 177 



MAXIMOTOR: LATEST loo-HORSE- 
POWER MOTOR. 

The ever-increasing popularity of the flying- 
hoat brought with it the necessity of larger- 
powered motors. Maximotor makers have 
kept step with this demand and the new power- 
ful lOO-horsepower IMaximotor is the result. 

A brief description will give the reader a 
good idea of how Maximotors are built up, 
from materials mostly imported from England 
and Germany ; also showing a good many 
points of refinement in mechanical construc- 
tion not found in other American aeronautic 
motors. 

To begin with, the cylinders are of the over- 
head valve type cast in pairs from vanadium 
gray iron containing 30 per cent, steel. 

Casting the cylinder in pairs lias the advan- 
tage of producing a more compact power plant, 
giving them united strength and reducing the 
manifold joints. The piston also is cast from 
the same material, heavily ribbed at the head 
and machined both inside and outside, allowing 
equal expansion. 

All the valves are located in the Iiead and 
mechanically operated. 




Maximotor, lUO H. P. 

The crank shaft is cut out of a solid billet 
of imported chrome nickel steel, double heat 
treated, thereby producing a very high tensile 
strength, machined, hollow bored, and ground 
to size within one thousandth of an inch. 

Imported ball-bearings are employed on all 
main crank-shaft bearings, which are five in 
number. The propeller-end of crank-shaft is 
unusually rigidly supported ; two extra heavy 
annular ball-bearings are employed to carry 
the load as well as thrust, and are mounted in 
a vanadium steel housing which, in turn, is 
recessed and bolted to the crank-case proper 
by six nickel steel studs. 

The cranC-case is in one casting from a 
special aluminum alloy, eliminating a good 
many joints and bolts; which feature is most 
essential in an aeronautic power plant. 

The connecting rods are drop-forgings of 
chrome nickel steel, double heat treated, to 
give extra strength and allowing them to be 
made very light. 



The cam-shaft is of nickel steel tubing; the 
cams of special high carbon steel tempered, 
ground and held in place by taper pins. 

The oiling system is mechanical by a small 
rotary pump placed in the oil-sump in bottom 
of crank-case. 

A double oiling, carburetor, and ignition 
system can be arranged if especially desired. 

In a three hours' test by a hydro-dynamom- 
eter the motor showed in excess of 100 horse- 
power at 1,350 r.p.m., consuming Sj/ gallons 
of fuel and 7 pints of lubricating oil per hour. 
On the testing stand, for propeller test, the 
motor pulled from 625 to 650 pounds thrust, 
turning a two-bladed propeller, with a diameter 
of 8 feet and a perimeter of 6 feet, at from 
1.350 to 1,400 r.p.m. The weight is approxi- 
mately 375 pounds exclusive of radiator and 
propeller. 

The Maximotor makers are prepared to make 
prompt delivery on the following sizes of 
motors : Model "A" : 4 cylinders, 40-50 horse- 
power; Model "B" : 4 cylinders, 60-70 horse- 
power; Model "C" : 6 cylinders, 70-80 horse- 
power; Model "D" : 6 cylinders, 90-100 horse- 
power. 



THE 6-CYLINDER 60-HORSEPOWER 
WRIGHT MOTOR. 

Ever since the first motor that flew the first 
aeroplane was developed in 1903 by the Wright 
brothers, the development of the Wright motor 
has steadily continued. The basic principle 
adopted in those early days to develop a power 
plant that combined efficiency, reliability, light- 
ness, strength and simplicity, has been adhered 
to with remarkable perseverance. In 1908, 
when public flying first began, the world was 
astonished to find the Wright 4-cylinder 40- 
horsepower motor a more reliable and more 
efficient aeroplane engine than any that had 
been previously developed by acknowledged ex- 
perts in gasoline engine work. 

Several automobile firms abroad in 1908 and 
1909 took to perfecting the Wright 4-cylinder 
engine for use on the foreign Wright machines, 
and the fact remains that not a single one 
equalled in general adaptability combined with 
lightness, reliability and strength, the genuine 
Wright motor, manufactured in Dayton. 

It is needless to dwell upon the marvellous 
feats that have been performed with the Wright 
4-cylinder engine. Since 1908, v.hen it was first 
publicly flown by the Wright brothers, their 
product has remained to this day a standard 
expt)nent of reliability and good service. 

The necessity for greater power, particularly 
in heavy scouting military machines and in 
aeroboat work, led the Wright Company to 
consider a more powerful engine, and for over 
two years steady development work has been 
done on a 6-cylinder engine of larger stroke 
than the four, and replete with improvements 
in detail. This new 6-cylinder engine, called 
type "6-60" has lately reached the completion 
of its development stage and the Wright Com- 
pany are now prepared to make deliveries on 
the new engine. 



Page 178 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



In general the appearance of the motor is 
very compact. Its projected area on the plane 
is small, making its air resistance low. Ac- 
cessibility of all parts is apparent on first 
glance. There are an unusually small number 
of parts that can get out of order. 

The magneto, pump and oiler are all driven 
from the crank shaft, through gears on the end 
of the motor at i^ engine speed. All the 
gears, water pump, oil pump and magneto con- 
nections are in the open, accessible and easy 
of inspection. The pump, oiler and magneto 
are all placed on a shelf, integral with the 
crank case on the exhaust side of the motor 

On the opposite side is the cam shaft, also 
driven by gears, all enclosed with the pump and 
magneto gearing in one gear case. 

The new "6-60" has not been developed for 




the use of specialists, but on the contrary it is 
adaptable to the most general aeroplane prac- 
tice, to motor boats, or to any apparatus re- 
quiring a light, compact, reliable gas engine 
power plant. No special oil or gasoline is 
required for its operation, and in its construc- 
tion there is an entire absence of complication 
which would in any wav render replacement 
difficult. 

Ignition is by a "Mea" high-tension magneto. 
Provisions for two sets of plugs are made in 
the cylinder heads, and either a single or 
dual system of ignition can be used. If it is 



not desired to use a dual system the plugs are 
either left unwired or replaced by a blank 
stud, or pet cocks for priming in cold weather. 
Provision is also made for fitting water-tight 
caps on the plugs. A 60-degree rotation of the 
magneto is obtained, giving retardation neces- 
sary for safe cranking. 

A gear pump driven by worm from the 
pump and magneto shaft forces the oil from 
the well in the crank case to the distribution 
points. A splash system is used, with lips on 
the ends of the connecting rods. Throughout 
the engine grease cups are fitted, in simple and 
accessible manner. 

Two "Zenith" carburetters of ample size, 
each feeding 3 cylinders, are mounted in a very 
neat manner on the intake manifold. The in- 
take air-vents of the carburreters being close 
to the cylinder walls and receiving hot air from 
around the cylinders. The two control levers 
are joined by a rod and locked turnbuckle 
fitting. The "Zenith" carburreter is remark- 
ably simple and effective, and will operate per- 
fectly on the lowest to the highest speeds on 
practically any grade of fuel. It is not affected 
by altitude. There are no springs to weaken, 
no valves to bind or get dirty, and no pistons 
to get loose. The construction of the spray 
nozzle is such that the motor receives a con- 
stant mixture at all speeds. 

As in all previous Wright aeroplane motors, 
a water cooling system is used. On the same 
shaft used for the magneto drive is mounted 
a centrifugal pump, 3^4 inches in diameter, 
which, like the magneto, runs at ilA times the 
engine speed, and which delivers a high-pres- 
sure flow of water directly to the intake mani- 
fold on the base of the cylinder and cylinder 
heads, cooling the valve and spark plug regions 
and passing out through the manifold above to 
the radiator. A T-bolt construction is used 
for fixing the manifold to the cylinders and_ 
for aeroplane work it has been found exceedi 
ingly simple and reliable. By a convenient 
arrangement of the bolts the water flow is 
restricted in a uniform manner so that it de- 
livers an equal amount to all cylinders and 
insures the uniform cooling of the entire 
motor. The water jackets on the new "6-60" 
consist of Bessemer steel, seamless, tubing, 
shrunk on with a .005 inch shrinkage, with 
ample shoulder for bearing surface and plenty 
of stock to insure water tightness. The cylin- 
der head is screwed into the cylinders and the 
jacket shrunk on, after which the entire cylin- 
der is tested out by a water pressure test. 

The one-piece crank shaft on the "6-60" is 
made of crucible chrome nickel auto steel. 
The steel is first drop-forged and roughed out, 
and after a special heat treatment the bearings 
are ground to exact size. 

The cylinders cast separately, with their 
novel heads and their remarkable strength and 
lightness, are made of a light, medium grade of 
cast iron of fine grain, uniform structure, low 
in sulphur, avoiding brittleness, and medium in 
silicon, which gives softness enough for per- 
fect machining. The iron is high enough in 
manganese to produce a splendid wearing sur- 
face, andi the casting is, throughout, light in 



AERONAUTICS, Xov. 1913 



Page 179 



structure, well-proportioned, and splendidly 
designed to avoid casting strains. The cylinder 
heads are made of medium griy iron of the 
same composition. 

The cylinder head is screwed onto the cylin- 
der and, as previously described, the water 
jacket is fitted and the whole tested for water 
tightness. Then the cylinders are again set 
in a lathe and bored to exact size. This 
method of treatment insures absolutely perfect 
alignment of the cylinder walls as it relieves 
all strains due to shrinking of the jacket. 

To- avoid the possibility of pitting, cast iron 
valves are adopted. The valve is made with 
a chrome nickel steel stem ; screwed into a 
gray cast iron head with a tine thread. The 
s'tem is riveted to the head, after which the 
valve is centered and machined to a finished 
size. 

The valve springs are made of a specially 
drawn Vanadium steel wire. The springs are 
rolled and ground on the ends, after which 
they are heated and in tests show a pull of 
381/2 pounds per inch. The breaking of a valve 
spring is practically rendered impossible. 

The rocker arms, fitted with rollers on the 
end, are made in a simple manner of high 
grade steel plate, carrying a plug fitting into 
the push rod tube in a manner which permits 
of exceedingly simple adjustment by the manu- 
facturer, but one which can in no way work 
loose or be tampered with when the motor is 



in use. However, any necessary adjustment is 
always easily made by adding or reducing the 
number of small washers between the end of 
the push rods and the base of the stem on the 
rocker arm. The valves are unusually large 
and are all mechanically operated. 

The pistons are made of a very fine grade of 
gray iron, low in sulphur, carefully machined 
and of generous proportions. The piston rings 
are also made of gray iron of a special casting, 
which insures springiness to the ring. The 
piston pin is made of Shelby tubing, machined 
to .010 of an inch. The pin is then heat-treated 
and carbonized after which it is ground to 
size. The connecting rod of "H" column cross 
section is a drop- forging of high grade ma- 
chine steel. Bronze bearings are used on the 
piston end of the connecting rod. 

For general use the fly wheel is fitted to the 
engine, as is also the ingenious Wright valve 
release rod, which, by merely pushing with one 
hand at once opens all the valves of the engine. 

The Wright "6-60" engine weighs 305 pounds 
complete, and although rated at 60 horsepower, 
develops at its high speed considerably more 
than this. The speed of the engine can be 
varied at will between the limits of 1500 and 
600 r.p.m. without affecting" the smoothness of 
its running. 

A mufiler and cut-out may be fitted, on order, 
for which an extra charge is made. 




D 



Wright 6-60 Engine 



Page 1 80 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



BEACHEY'S LOOP MACHINE. 

The macliine which Lincoln Beachey is using 
in his loop-the-loop stunts is a special Curtiss 
built by him and James LaMont at the Curtiss 
factory. There are really few changes over the 
standard Model D Curtiss land machine, de- 
tails of which have heretofore appeared in 
AERONAUTICS. The engine is a Curtiss 
of 90-100 horsepower. 

The whole machine is heavily wired, the 
plane sections with 3/32-inch Roebling wire, 
and doubled in parts as usual. The front and 
rear lateral spars are double-heavy, about i]/2 
inch by 3 inches, and a trailing edge has been 
replaced. The wings spread 24 feet 3 inches 
over all, built in three sections each, 9 feet x 
6 feet 3 inches x 9 feet. The separation be- 
tween planes is 5 feet 6 inches. The tail out- 
riggers are 2 feet shorter than usual and 
there is no fixed stabilizing plane at all save 
one, 6 inches at widest part, in center, tapering 
to 2 inches at either side to which the elevators 
are attached, the latter having been increased 
slightly fore and aft to give more surface. The 
front wheel is brought in about 2 feet and the 
pilot sits almost over it. The rear wheels have 
been set slightly further forward and the 
planes are closer to the ground than normally 
due to shortening of rear wheel braces, forks 
and front "V," the top plane being only 7 feet 
from the ground. 

A belt comes from the bottom of the seat 
and up over Beachey's lap to hold him in while 
upside down, this strap being set loose in- 
stantly by pulling out a pin or key. In addi- 
tion, there is a shoulder strap. The machine 
weighs, unloaded, 901 pounds. 

On November 18, at Los Angeles, Lincoln 
Beachey celebrated his return to flying by 
flying upside down, and later looped the loop 
with a specially built and braced miniature 
Curtiss biplane. Pegoud is touring Europe 
giving exhibitions, Chevillard has done the 
loop with a Farman biplane, and others are 
copying the feat in various parts of tlie world. 



REVOLVING CYLINDER MOTORS. 

[Cont'nutd fri}m page m\ 
the amount of oil used through oil shields as 
it is well known that a large amount escapes 
through the intake and exhaust valves through 
centrifugal pressure. 

As to gyroscopic effect — all aviators who 
have flown with both reciprocating and rotary 
motors state they would never go back to the 
reciprocating kind. 

It is astonishing to see a Wright machine, 
fitted with a rotary motor, fly. It is a different 
machine. It will rise from the ground almost 
like a helicopter. It will have a lifting pow^rr 
for ballast three times of one with a Wright 
motor. It is quite a revelation to see that 
comliination of a splendidly designed lifting 
machine as the Wright always has been eco- 
nomical in power, when a first class rotary 
motor is hitched to it. The chains are seen 
to run straight like ribbons, showing the lack 
of vibration. There is very little vibration on 
the plane with a rotary motor. We test our 
Gyros on a very lightly constructed "wind 
wagon," but while you can feel some vibration 
when touching the wooden supports you could 
not see them move. 

Some experiments have been made using 
graphite instead of oil. We have tried some- 
thing along this line, with the graphite sus- 
pended in the gasoline. We tried it the other 
day with jG gasoline to see whether it would 
stay in suspension as well as it does with 65 
gas. We found it would not keep suspended 
any length of time but it took but very little 
vibration to keep it suspended and we rather 
think that even the slight vibration of the 
motor will suffice on future tests. This idea 
was given to us by Captain A. T. Lucas, of 
Washington, D. C, who found that artificial 
graphite had sufficient lightness for permitting 
this system of lubrication to the exclusion of 
oil. But whether the motor would develop 
as much power is somewhat questionable as 
the "sealing" property of oil would be lacking. 




AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Page 181 




DESIGN FOR A SELF-RISING MODEL 

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor. 



The accompanying drawing sliows a design 
for a self-rising model. Models of this type 
are much in use in England, wliere this tail- 
behind type first originated. This model is 
designed for flying in windy weather and ought 
to he just the thing for this time of the year. 

The fuselage consists of two strips of silver 
spruce, J4 in- by 3/16 in. at the center, taper- 
ing slightly towards the ends and out to a 
stream line form. The frame is bound at the 
front, fitted with the usual hooks, and glued. 

Running across the frame 12 in. from the 
apex is a bamboo brace, 3/16 in. wide, out 
to stream-line form, and extending upright 
from this brace is a 2^2 in. piece of 1/16 in. 
piano wire, fitted with a loop at the top 
through which extend bracing wires as shown. 
The construction is clearly shown in Figs, i 
and 3. The rear brace of the frame, or pro- 
peller-bar, is of bamboo, % in. wide by ]4. in. 
in thickness, out to stream-line form, and 
12 in. from this rear brace is another brace of 
bamboo, and extending from this brace to 



the rear brace are diagonal strips of bamboo, 
tliis space being filled in with fabric to form 
the tail. 

The main planes measure 24 in. span, with a 
chord of 4^2 in. at the ends, extending in for 
8 in. The entering edge and main beam of 
the plane is of 3/16 in. wide by 1/16 in. spruce, 
cut to stream line form and the trailing edge is 
of y^ in. square bamboo. The plane and tail 
is covered on top with silk treated with Am- 
broid varnish. The fin is constructed of a 
single piece of bamboo, and is 2^^ in. high and 
3''j in. long. Fig 4 shows the construction of 
the same. 

The propellers are cut from a solid block of 
white pine, and are 8 in. in diameter, with a 
pitch of 20 in. They are given a coat of 
white shellac. 

The bearings consist of Yz in. lengths of 
tubing, bound and glued to each end of the 
propeller bar. Bent around the propellers at 
the hub are small strips of tin as shown ^'n 
Fig. 5- 



^./, 



S 0'Affcre.Jt 




1 






teas. 



'/feKOAlAl'r/Ci 



Page 182 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



The chassis or running gear is made of 1/16 
in. flat steel wire, the rear skid being 5 in. long 
and the front chassis, including the wheels, 
being 10 in. high. The wheels are of laminated 
wood, fitted with small pieces of tubing for 
bearings as shown in Fig. 6. 

The motors consist of 12 strands of l4> i"- 
flat rubber for each propeller. 

The Long Island Model Aero Club is one of 
the foremost organizations of . its kind in 
America. The memljership of this club is 
steadily increasing and at the present time 
there are over twenty-five members on the 
books of the club. Model flying contests are 
held every Saturday afternoon at Van Cort- 
landt Park under the auspices of The Yonkers 
Model Aeroplane Association between 3 and 5 
P. M. Official Mr. Edward Durant. 



MODEL FLYING IN ENGLAND. 

Those who have kept close watch on the 
progress of model flying are aware that there is 
great activity on the other side of the Atlantic. 
Throughout England there are over fifteen 
model aero clubs, many of them having work- 
shops, private flying grounds, man-carrying 
gliders and many members. 

All records that the American model flyers 
could boast of as being World's records are 
gradually being swept away by the fine flying 
of our English cousins. For instance, our rise- 
off-ground duration record is 81 seconds, while 
the English record for this branch of flying is 
169 seconds by Mr. J. E. Louch. Mr. J. E. 
Louch is one of the foremost model flyers 



in Great Britain and is the holder of the record 
for hand launched tractor models, 45 seconds. 

Another famous English flyer is Mr. L. H. 
Slatter, who holds the records for distance, 
R. O. G. models, 365 yards, single screw 
hydro, 35 seconds, twin screw hydro, 45 sec- 
onds. 

The French model flyers take a more serious 
view of model flying than is taken in this 
country. Their models are mostly large scale 
models or scientific models equipped with car- 
bonic acid gas motors, compressed air or min- 
iature gasoline motors. 

From the above it will be seen that if the 
American model flyers desire to retain 
"World's Records" in this country, they must 
"put their best foot forward" at once in that 
direction. 

The following is a statement of the world's 
records as they stand today : 

Distance, hand launched, Arthur Nealey 
(American), 2,740 ft. 

Duration, hand launched, W. L. Butler 
(American), 170 seconds. 

Distance, R. O. G., L. Bamberger (Ameri- 
can), 1,542 ft. 

Duration, R. O. G., J. E. Louch (English), 
169 seconds. 

Hydroaeroplane, Geo. E. Cavanagh (Ameri- 
can), 60 2/5 seconds. 

Single screw tractor, hand launched, dis- 
tance, C. C. Dutton (English), 798 ft. 

Single screw tractor, R. O. G., distance, C. C. 
Dutton (English), 590 ft. 



TRYING A GYROSCOPE STABILIZER. 

Arm}' and navy fliers have about CLincluded 
a busy season of study and experiment at the 
Curtiss camp and factory at Hammondsport, 
N. Y. Lieut. P. N. L. Bellinger made hundreds 
of flights while trying out a gyroscope stabil- 
izer, flying on one occasion "from Hammonds- 
port to Penn Yan and return, a distance of 
about 40 miles, without using the manual con- 
trols." He is now on duty at Annapolis. Lieut. 
Richardson, N. C, who spent the summer at 
Hammondsport observing trials of new ma- 
chines and studying flying boat construction, 
is now on duty at Washington where he is con- 
ducting a series of tank experiments on hydro- 
plane models. Lieut. B. L. Smith, M. C, is 
still at Hammondsport flying the Curtiss bat- 
boat A-2 and watching the construction of the 
navy's new fleet of flyingboats Lieut. W. R. 
Taliaferro, U. S. A., and Lieut. J. E. Carberry, 
U. S. A., who have been studying motor and 
aeroplane construction at the Curtiss factory, 
leave December ist. 



I always look forward to the coming of 
your paper with great interest, and want to 
congratulate you on the big up-hill fight which 
you are making in the service of aerial navi- 
gation in the United States. — C. L. L., Paris. 




Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press 

122 E. 25th St., New York 

Cable: AERONAUTIC, New York 

'Phone, 9122 Madison Sq. 

A. V. JONES, Pres't ERNEST L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y 

ERNEST L. JONES, Ediior M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor 

HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES 

United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50 



No. 75 



NOVEMBER, 1913 Vol. XIII, No. 5 



Entered as second-class matter September 22, llt08. :it the 
PostofHce, New York, viiider the Act t)f March 3, 187ii. 

^AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. 
All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising 
pages close on the 25th. 

^ Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and 
payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. 
No foreign stamps accepted. 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Page 183 



UX/j^f^'pi^ 



Panama-Pacific Meet. 

The first meet of the Panama-Pacific Exposition 
flyers took place Nov. i6 on the Exposition Grounds, 
and was distinctive in that all macliines participating 
were hydros or flying boats. It was a great success, 
notwithstanding the one or two mishaps which oc- 
curred. The following Sunday Roy Francisco, 
Frank Bryant and William Blakeley were added to 
the list of machines flying, those of Fowler, Christof- 
ferson, Sutro, Rybitski. A prettier sight cannot be 
imagined than five hydroaeroplanes in the air at one 
time. Sutro's mishap cost the loss of his machine, 
as the boats towing the submerged hydro to shore 
broke it up considerably. He was endeavoring to 
make a turn with a passenger too close to the water 
and dug a wing tip in the water. 

Hall-Scott equipment is used iii all the machines 
flying at the Exposition 
Grounds so far. 

The meet was held under 
the direction of the Pacific 
Aero Club. The six 'planes 
raced around Alcatraz Isl- 
and, through the Golden 
Gate and back and forth 
over the fair grounds. The 
flights were all exhibition, 
and no times were officially 
recorded. 

Similar aviation meets will 
be held every Sunday and 
holiday throughout the win- 
ter. Three more aviators, 
Glenn Martin, Frank I'ry- 
ant and Miss Siedel, a pupil 
of Martin's, will fly begin- 
ning next Sunday. 



bars. The hope is to eventually organize all the air pilots 
in a good fellowship organization. The club will have no 
dues or memtership foes. Persons who have been pas- 
sengers and aero editors can belong as "honorary" 
members. This is the first the Eastern aero world 
has heard of "Charlie" W'illard for many moons. 



Judge C. O. Prowse, of Hopkinsville, Ky., has 
built a fine-looking aerial yacht, w-ith many refine- 
ments. All diagonal bracing wires are removed. 
One row of struts is used instead of two and there 
is but one main lateral beam. He is working on an 
automatic stability device on which patents are pend- 



For Flying Boat - 
Builders. 

L. W. Ferdinand & Co. 
have received the following 
testimonial to the excellence 
of their glue from Hugh 
Robinson: 

"I wish to say that I have 
always used your Jeffrey's 
Marine Glue in the con- 
struction of motor boats, 
etc., and have never been 
able to find another glue 
which would give the entire 
satisfaction that it does. In 
the construction of the hull 
of the Benoist Flying Boats, 
which I designed and built. 
I always use Jeffrey's 
Marine Glue exclusively and 
they are a marvel of 
strength and lightness ami 
never leak or take water in 
the least." 



Air Pilots' Club. 

Licensed pilots living at 
Los Angeles have organized 
the Air Pilots' Club, with 
George B. Harrison presi- 
dent: Roy Knabenshue, vice- 
president; Charles F. Wil- 
lard, secretary. Walter 
Brookins, Glenn Martin, 
Beryl Williams, Harry 
Holmes and others in South- 
ern California are also mem- 



5^/ /f/3 






■7l 'cYc^a^i^/- AoL^, c^ e*^^ 









:/i 



/ 



A 



^>7^ 




CV-iJ~L^ C^-ui^ 



o ^ 



The halftone is of a letter from Garros endorsing the Bosch Magneto 
used in his Trans-Mediterranean Flight 



Page li 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Imports and Exports. 



The imports and exports of aeroplanes and parts are running far behind the figures for ii 
Ijythe following schedule: 



12, as sliown 



Imports, aeroplanes 

Imports, parts 

Exports of domestic aeroplanes... 

Exports of domestic parts 

Exports of foreign aeroplanes 

Exports of foreign parts 

Foreign aeroplanes in warehouse. . 
Foreign parts in wareliouse 



Sept. 



191J 

5 @ $17,162 

— $196 
.3 @ $5,500 

— $533 
S @ $29,259 

4 @ $17-055 

— $73 



$13,548 

$13,800 

$1,100 



$7,623 



9 mos. ending Sept. 



1912 

8 («) $58,639 

— $1,439 
25 @ $84,901 

— $3,927 
14 @ $55,335 

— $2,677 



1913 

@ $900 

$18,617 

@ $48,900 
$14,200 

@ $10,332 



Deaths of Army Officers. 

San Diego, Nov. 24. — Lieutenants Hugh M. Kelly 
and Eric L. Ellington met death in flight. 

Captain A. C. Cowan, commanding the post, was 
among the eye-w itntsses of the accident. 

"They were trying out a new six-cylinder ma- 
chine," he said, "and they were between 80 and 100 
feet from the ground when they lost control. 

"The macliine was a new one and Kelly was not 
familiar with it. Ellington went as instructor. The 
machine had a dual control, which enables either oc- 
cupant to manage it at will. The controls were con- 
nected, enabling the instructor to correct instantly 
any mistake made by the pupil. 

'"The machine apiiarently began its descent in a 
proper manner and at the usual angle. Then it ap- 
peared out of control. The altitude was so low we 
felt the officers would have only a rough fall. 

"A careful inspection of the wrecked aeroplane 
convinced us that the controls were in good order. 
1 he men were instantly killed." 

"The death of Lieutenants Kelly and Ellington was 
due to their starting the engine when 80 feet from 
the earth, while making a long glide," said Lincoln 
Heachy, "and it was impossible to right it in the 
short distance between the men and earth." 

The official report has not yet been made. 



Manila, Nov. 14. — Second Lieutenant C. Perry 
Rich, of the Philippine Scouts, U. S. A., was killed 
to-day in a fall with a hydroaeroplane into Manila 
Bay. Lieutenant Rich, who was the only member of 
the Philippine Scouts attached to the aviation corps 
here, was encircling the Asiatic fleet, which was at 
anchor in the bay, when the accident occurred. A 
launch from the torpedo boat Decatur picked up his 
body. No official report as yet. 



Business Troubles. 

Yves de Villers, of the Aeroplanes, Motors and 
Equipment Company, No. 1780 Broadway, was ar- 
rested on Nov. 25 by Detective Leigh, of the District 
Attorney's office, on an indictment charging grand 
larceny. The amount involved is $5,239.67, and the 
charge is made by the Curtiss Aeroplane Company, of 
Hammondsport, N. Y. The action grew out of a 
deal involving the purchase of an aeroplane engine. — 
Neio York Herald. 



The jury in the $25,000 libel suit of J. V. Martin 
againt the Times I'rinting Company, of Seattle 
(V\'ash.), on Oct. 29, brought in a verdict for the 
defendant. Martin charged that a libelous story of 
his work as an aviator at the 191 2 Potlatch was pub- 
lished by the defendants and hurt his business. 



Judgment was rendered Oct. 24, New York, in 
favor of plaintiff in Aeronautics vs. Fred Schneider 
in the sum of $195.50 for advertising alleged to be 
due plaintiff, and execution was issued. 

Wright-Curtiss Suit. 

On Nov. 6-7 the last hearing was had in the 
L'nited States Circuit Court of Appeals on the ap- 
peal of the defendant company from the decision of 



Judge Hazel. Briefs submitted and arguments heard. 
The Court is now working over the evidence and is 
expected to render its opinion by the end of the 
month. This opinion will be final unless the United 
States Supreme Court will consent to a review of 
the case. 



Balloon Ascensions. 

Holmesburg, Pa., Nov. 4. — C. 1'. Wynne, pilot; Dr. 
Jerome Kingsbury and T. II. Bridgeman, passengers, 
ascended in the "Penn. I" and landed at Medford, 
N. J., 25 minutes later. 

Oct. 10 — Capt. G. L. Bumbaugh took up four pas- 
sengers from Indianapolis and made a short trip. 



New Companies. 

Flint Automatic Hydro-Airship Co., Incorporated, 
Manhattan; hydro-airship factory; capital, $100,000. 
Incorporators: G. W. Martin, C. II. Flint, H. Flint, 
Brooklyn. 

The Lubin Safety Hydroplane and Aeroplane Com- 
pany, Incorporated, of Manhattan; hydroplanes, aero- 
planes, motors for air craft, $100,000; J. H. Freedman, 
Benjamin J. Lubin and Arthur P. Marr, 108 Fulton 
street. New York. 



Curtiss Goes Abroad. 

Glenn H. Curtiss is sailing again for Europe, and 
expects to be there for several months. His imme- 
diate destination is the Paris show, but most of the 
winter proljably will be spent in Italy. 

With Mr. Curtiss will be Mohan Singh, a Hindu 
from the Punjaub. Singh has been in America for 
the past three years. He became interested in avia- 
tion in 1910, joineid the Curtiss training camp at 
San Diego, and flew a Curtiss land machine for a 
year or more. With the development of the hydro- 
aeroplane he took up water-flying and in due course 
qualified as a flying boat pilot. He is one of the 
few licensed pilots operating three types of machines. 
Singh's present intention is to make his way to 
India by easy stages. There he hopes to take some 
part in the development of aviation in his own 
country. En route he will make a short stop in 
London. Singh's real ambition is to find among the 
wealthy Indian visitors of the metropolis some multi- 
millionaire rajah who would like to navigate the 
Indus at a speed of a mile a minute in a Curtiss 
flying boat. 



AERO MART. 

60 Hall-Scott $473 

50 Farman, all 4-cyIinder 375 

30 Heath, water cooled 190 

20 Thomas 50 

All like new. 

500 aeroplane wlicels complete witli tires, $5.75 
cacli. while they last. 

HEATH AlsRIAl. VEHICLE CO., Chicago, III. 

\\'AXTKI) TO BUY or rent an aeroplane motorJ 
20-50 h. p., good condition. A. Illisson, 6 Reverel 
St., Portland, Ore. 



AEl^JONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Page 185 



Chrisfmas Dinners 

FOR 

300,000 

POOR 
PEOPLE 

Will be 
supplied by 

The 
Salvation Army 

Tliroughoiit (lie 
United Sbites 

Will you Iieli) by 

s fiidiny a 

doiwitioii, no 

matter liow sm.'iil 

TO COMMANDER 

MISS BOOTH Grandma Gets One 

1 18 W. 14th St., New York City 

^gst'p Dept. Comm. Estill. 108 N.Dearborn St. Chicai"- 




Balloons 

Built Complete 

Ooodye.H- Balloon Knbiicis l)iiilt fo|- strength 

and gas tightness. 

Fabric made for every type of b.illonns. We 

also build complete balloons. 

Bui It to resist deteriorating: effects of weather, 

storms and wear and tear, C;ood>ear Balloon 

Fabiii' offers you the utmost in safety and 




Special erades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, 
Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan 
for Skids l^ diameter and under any length. 

J. DELTOUR, Inc. '""H'lif TS.^' • 



economy. 

G00tt#FAR 

^* =*^ AKKdX.OHIO 

Balloon Fabric 

It was the Balloon "CTOodyear"— built complete 
in our factory— that won the National Clmmpion- 
shii) Balloon Bace at Kansas City, on .July 4. It 
went up in the t<-eth of a eale that actually 

whipped to jiieeis some of the ( peting basrs". 

It was tlie Bdlluun "GocKliicar" thut u-oii the In- 
ternational Race for the Gordon Bennett Cuv— 
October 12— going half again as far as its nearest 

rival. 

Write today for full particulais about Goodyear 
Balloons and Balloon Fabric (also (roodyear 
Aeroplane Accessories, Fabric, Tires "and 
Spiinfi-s.) 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 

AKRON, OHIO 

Toronto, Canada; Loadon, England; Mexico City, Mexico 

Branchei and Agencies in 103 Principal Cities 

ir/-/7<' r.i till A)iiit),iii,i Ynii Want in Riihher 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY 

ARE NOW PREPARED TO DELIVER 

The New Wright Aeroboat, Model "G" 

EQUIPPED WITH TWIN SCREWS. DRIVEN BY THE NEW 

WRIGHT SIX CYLINDER 60 H. P. MOTOR, FITTED 

WITH MUFFLER AND ELECTRIC STARTER 

This craft is the development of years of careful experiment and combines in its 

novel form the best practice in hydro-aeroplane and flying boat work. The 

dangerous features of the flying boat — lack of safety in flying, shipping of water 

and foundering in a rough sea, addition of weight, due to water soaking, the 

presence of the motor unprotected over the heads of the passengers, and the drag 

and unseaworthiness of the long fuselage hull, have been eliminated. 

The structural details of the new machine are worked out to combine simplicity, 

strength and reliability. 

The craft is perfectly adapted to the use of sportsmen as a machine for safe and 

comfortable travel over water at high speed. 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY 
Dayton, Ohio 



New York Office 
11 PINE STREET 



In answering advertisements please mention tliis magazine. 



Page I 86 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Model Club Notes. 

With three out of four Sundays unfit for flying, 
and tlie majority of the days upon which the meet- 
ings were held ' rainy, things have been rather un- 
favorable for the Long Island Model Aero Club mem- 
bers. A series of weekly contests have been ar- 
ranged, and those that have already been held have 
proven very interesting. 

On October 26 a combination distance and dura- 
tion contest for hand launched models was held in 
spite of very unfavorable weather, which kept many 
of the flyers from participating in the event. 

The contest was won by L. Bamberger, of the Bay 
Ridge Club, with C. \'. Obst, of the L. I. M. A. C, 
a close second. Because of the unfavorable weather, 
the flying was far below the standard. 
The results follow: 

Points Points Total 

Distance Duration Points 

L. Bamberger i i 2 

C. V. Obst 2 3 5 

Ness 8 2 10 

Braun 6 5 11 

Gorgas 7 6 '3 

Freelan 9 5 i4 

W. Bamberger 5 7 12 

R. Olson 3 8 II 

G. Webber 4 4 8 

W. Koch o 9 

Time, 3 p. m. to 5 p. in. 
Judges — Messrs. Swini and Moriarity. 
The best flying of the month was done on Novem- 
ber 2, when a very large number of flyers were at 
the field. A remarkable point of this day's flying 
was the fact that every model on the field, regard- 
less of size or type, made flights of over 100 seconds. 
The duration races by Lester Ness and R. Funk were 
very interesting, both models circling close to one 
another with very close and exciting finishes. 

Freelan's single propellered model made very ex- 
cellent distance and duration flights and his three- 
bladed bent wood propeller when tested on C. \'. 
Obst's large single propellered model gave very good 
results. Three bladed propellers are becoming very 
popular with members of this club. 

In the altitude and distance races C. \'. Obst's bird 
model excelled all others, showing marvelous climb- 
ing qualities, at times reaching an altitude of over 
500 feet and making distance flights of over 2,000 
feet. 

A club repair and supply box is one of the new ac- 
cessories of the club, so that individual flyers need 
not bring supplies or parts to the field. A very inter- 
esting meeting was held on November 14, at which the 
writer had the pleasure to be present. A number of 
very interesting discussions arose regarding contests 
to be held, proposed challenges, altitude of various 
flyers on the field, etc. 

The club is looking forward to a very interesting 
series of contests to be held this winter, including 
the Collins Gold Medal contest to be held shortly. 

All queries relating to models and model flying may 
be addressed to the model editor, Harry Schultz, 
23 West io6th Street, New York City, N. Y. 



Books Received. 

A\'IATION, by Algernon E. Perriman, 8vo, cloth, 
360 pp., with 30 plates and many diagrams, published 1 
at $4.00, postage 21 cents e.xtra, by George H. Doranj 
Co., New York. A popular technical work of in- 1 
terest to the general student as well as to the man j 
who is in aviation as a profession. To the amateur I 
builder of aeroplanes in the L^nited States it will be| 
of incalculable benefit. 

Chapters include: \Vhat an Aeroplane Is — Instruct- 
iveness of J'aper Models — Constructional Features of 
the Modern Aeroplane — Elquilibrium in the Air — 
Lateral Balance — Steering — Longitvidinal Stability — 
Principles of Propulsion — Concerning Resistance — 
The Cambered Wing — Work of Lilienthal, Wrights, 
Voisin, Farman, Dunne and Weiss — British Military 
Trials of 1912 — Hydroaerojjlanes — ,\ccidents — Ro- 
mance and Early History — Founding of the Science^ 
of Flight — Invention of the Glider and Pioneer: 
History and Appendices containing numerical exam-] 
pies, application of laws, etc. 



Patents. 

ISSUED OCT. 2 1st. 

1,076,422 — Herbert Champion Harrison, Lockport, 
N. Y. RADIATOR having vertical front and side 
faces extending at acute angles to the line of travel, 
said radiator comprising a vertical series of perfor- 
ated plates extending at an acute angle rearwardly 
from said front face, and a series of water tubes ex- 
tending vertically in the passages between said angu- 
larly-extending plates. 

1,076,514 — Victor M. Osborn, La Fayette, Ind. 
AEROPLANE, including a main frame of approxi- 
mately frusto-pyramidal form, a car or platform car- 
ried by said main frame, a similarly shaped inde- 
pendent frame pivotally connected with the vortex 
of said main frame for relative longitudinal tilting 
motion on a horizontal transverse axis, said inde- 
pendent frame extending above the main frame and 
beneath the car or platform, and wings fixed to the 
independent frame and mounted to tilt therewith, 
the said main frame and car forming a gravity con- 
trolled body operating by gravity to maintain a nor- 
mal perpendicular position, and means for tilting 
said independent frame upon the body and holding 
it in tilted position. 

1,076,644 — William Lafavete Quick, New Market, 
.\la. ORNITHOPTER. 



ISSLJED OCT. 28th 

1.076,803— J. N. Williams, Derby, Conn. HELI- 
COPTER. 

1,076,879 — B. Flick and Paul Reinig, Berlin-Marien- 
dorf, Germany. AEROPLANE. 

Bethlehem, 



1,077,004— Frederick Sifferman, 
Pa. FLYING MACHINE. 



South 




HALL-SCOTT MOTORS 

Winter flying has already started in California. The following 
well-known aviators have their water planes equipped with HALL- 
SCOTT motors: — 

BOB FOWLER A. G. SUTRO 

SILAS CHRISTOFFERSON ALFRED BARRETT 
WM. BLAKELEY OTTO RYBITZKI 

ROY FRANCIS HENRY UNNO 

Besides these there are fifteen other planes, or SO^t of all aeroplanes and flying 
boats upon the Pacific Coast, equipped ^vith HALL-SCOTT motors. 

We can furnish you with the most complete, powerful, and reliable power plant 
upon the market from 30 to 100 H-P. Write for our interesting catalogues fully 
describing these motors. 

HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO. 



818 Crocker Bld^. 



San Francisco, Cal. 



AERONAUTICS, Xov. 1913 



Page 187 



i'^.'^J^'.'^.)^\'f^.'^'.^^*"^.'^J^.'fi'.>.^^^^ 



AMERICA'S LEADING BALLOON 
AND DIRIGIBLE CONSTRUCTOR 

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Page li 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



U. S. PATENTS GONE TO ISSUE 

Copies of any of These Patents may be Secured by Sending Five Cents in Coin to the Commissioner 

of Patents, Washington, D. C. 



ISSUED SEPT. 23, 1913 
1,073,648 — Paul Witzel, Berlin-Weissensee, Ger- 
many. Combination aeroplane and airship. 

1,073,655 — Josef Bercz, Cologne-Ehrenfleld, Ger- 
many. Flapping wing machine. 

1,073,977— Ralph P. Fox, Fort Hancock, N. J. Bal- 
ancing system in which auxiliary balancing and sup- 
porting surfaces are arranged in front, the rear, and 
at opposite sides of the machine beyond the main 
supporting surface; the auxiliary surfaces being of 
circular form in plan and elliptical in vertical section. 

1.074,007— Frederic Mylius, Atlanta, Ga. AERO- 
PLANE, comprising a transverse carrier plane ex- 
tending downwardly and forwardly having its up- 
per surface concave, and rearwardly converging 
guide planes secured at their forward ends to the 
carrier plane, said guide planes having their upper 
surfaces concave adjacent their forward ends and 
convex adjacent their rear ends, etc. 

1,074,031— Ira Allen, Dansville, N. Y. AIRSHIP 
with the controlling means mounted upon and within 
the gas bag. 

1,074,063— Harry A. Orme, Wesley Heights, D. C. 
RUDDER for aeroplanes comprising a vertical 
sleering plane, said front rod being pivotally 
connected to the rudder post of the vertical plane, said 
horizontal plane being centrally slotted or divided to re- 
ceive the vertical plane therebetween, elevating cords 
connected centrally to the horizontal plane, said cords 
being arranged within the vertical plane, and pass- 
ing through the rudder post, and cords connected 
to the front rod of horizontal plane, upon oppo- 
site sides of the said post, for movement. 

ISSUED SEPTEMBER 30th 

1,074,135— Nathan J. Paddock, Jersey City, N. J. 
STABILITY DEVICE, employing a pendulum which 
can be raised or lowered. 

* 1,074, 256 — Edson F. Gallaudet, Norwich, Conn. 
CONTROL SYSTEM, using movable surfaces to tilt 
an aeroplane around with its longitudinal and 
transverse axis operator's seat swinging as a pendu- 
lum, operative connections; rudders in pairs, upper 
and lower, forward and aft and means for turning 
upper ones in one direction and lower in opposite 
to balance machine about longitudinal axis, similar 
arrangement for horizontal rudders, etc. 

*1, 074,257 — Edson F. Gallaudet, Norwich, Conn., 
CONTROL SYSTEM, using movably mounted auxil- 
iary sustaining planes above and below the main 
wings, means for simultaneously effecting both a 
lateral displacement and a transverse angular move- 
ment, control mechanism, etc., so that when a 
machine is tilted laterally, the horizontal component 
of the reactions may be used for controlling the ma- 
chine. 

1,074,281 — George Mitchell, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Combined AEROPLANE and HELICOPTER. 

1,074,288 — Martin Pearson, Los Angeles, Cal. 
HELICOPTER. Navigation. 

* 1,074,499 — Wesley N. Ensign, Whitestone, N. Y. 
SHOCK ABSORBER for aeroplanes, comprising air 
cylinder and piston with a vertically disposed stand- 
ard rigidly secured to the frame of the aeroplane 
at its upper end; a swinging rod pivotally secured 
to the lower end of the said standard and extend- 
ing forwardly from said standard, its forward end 
journaled to the axle of a supporting wheel, and a 
member having its upper end pivotally secured to 
said standard near the upper end thereof and hav- 
ing in its lower end an air cylinder, a second mem- 
ber having its lower end journaled to the axle of 
the wheel and having its upper end slidably engaging 
the exterior of the air cylinder, and having a suit- 
able plunger disposed within the cylinder. 

1,074,525 — Michael A. Parisano, New York, N. Y. 
STABILITY DEVICE in which pendulum is used 
to operate ailerons, a toothed bar engaging flexible 
tip of pendulum dampens small movements; main 
frame of aeroplane being a tube in which propeller 
is placed; wings at dihedral angle. 



ISSUED OCTOBER 7 
1,074,659— Leon Spiro, Everett, Wash. AUTO- 
MATIC BALANCE for aeroplanes, in which hori- 
zontal propellers are placed at lateral extremities of 
the wings and put in motion by clutch, shaft and 
gearing mechanism from motor, actuated by a pen- 
dulum. 

1,074,830 — Ernst Blochmann, Bitterfield, Germany. 
SUSPENSION of the sliding cars of airships on a 
running cable, with means to automatically stop the 
movement. 

1,075,302— Rubino Plastino, New York, N. Y. 
AEROPLANE in which a central plane is movable 
fore and aft and auxiliary planes at both ends cap- 
able of adjustment to various inclinations, etc. 

ISSUED OCTOBER 14th. 
1,075,447 — Edwin D. Stevenson, Wadsworth, Ohio. 
EQUILIBRATOR, comprising a lifting propeller 
above center of machine driven by motor, and con- 
trolled by a pendulum. 

*1,075,533— Orville and Wilbur Wright, Dayton, 
Ohio. AUTOMATIC STABILITY device compris- 
ing a vane actuated by the air currents with means 
for operating a balancing mechanism, which con- 
sists of horizontal rudder, for longitudinal stability; 
and a pendulum operating movable surfaces at lateral 
extremities of machine and a vertical rudder. 

1,075,540— John W. Boughton, Philadelphia, Pa. 
AEROPLANE, comprising a central frame, station- 
ary vertical planes mounted thereon, horizontal 
planes pivotally mounted on said vertical planes, 
auxiliary frames movable on said vertical planes, 
said horizontal planes being pivotally connected with 
the auxiliary frames and transversely extending 
planes to the rear of said vertical planes. 

1,075,791— Johann Pobuta, Elizabeth, N. J. AERO- 
PLANE with cigar shaped body, flat on top, deck 
house, main parallel sustaining planes with lower 
mounted on deck house, propellers, etc. 

1,075,863 — Ingemar Rvstedt and Melvin Steele, 
Dayton, Ohio. FLYING MACHINE, with "safety 
wings" which can be folded or extended from oppo- 
site sides of the body, lifting propellers, driving' pro- 
pellers, etc. 

1,075,969 — Tames Edward Eraser, St. John, N. B., 
Canada. FLYING MACHINE in which the wings 
furnish ascension and propulsion by being driven in 
circular orbits, the plane of rotation being coin- 
cident with the line of flight. 

ISSUED OCTOBER 21st. 

1,076,218 — Harrv W. Macomber and Frederich H. 
D. Bergmann. St. Louis, Mo. AEROPLANE. 

Aeroplane comprising a plurality of overlapping 
sections with air inlet openings between said sec- 
tions, said sections being arranged in a series in the 
line of flight of the machine and with their forward 
edges in the same horizontal plane, each of said 
sections having its lateral edges drooped more than 
the next one in front. 

Top plane constructed in two laterally divided 
portions, each portion comprising a plurality of sec- 
tions inclined rearwardly and downwardly with tha 
forward edge of all but one of the sections disposed 
above and spaced from the rear edge of adjacent 
sections, etc. 

1,076,339 — Wm. F. Wiles, Thomas Macleod, and 
Frederick Wm. Wiles, Brisbane, Queensland, Austra- 
lia. AEROPLANE in which the wings are hingedly 
connected to the central section and may be moved 
to various dihedral angles during flight, which move- 
ment operates ailerons at lateral extremities of top 
planes. 

1,076,377 — John George Aulscbrook Kitchen, Scott- 
forth, England. AEROPLANE having a circular 
main supporting surface with an opening in the cen- 
ter, the rear part of the surface having a sharp de- 
pression in the upper surface along the longitudinal 
center line forming a keel on the under side. 



AERONAUTICS, Kov. 1913 



Page i?g 



Now Ready 

The Airman's Vade=Mecuin 

"NO. 1/' METEOROLOGY 

Py Colonel H. E. Rawson, C. B. 

(Vice-President Royal Meteorological Society; Council 
Av--ronautical Socii.ly) 

CONTENTS : Introduction and 5 Chapters on 

Temperature, Pressure, Wind, and Precipitation. 

Weather Forecasting. Index. 

Price 40 Cents Net Post Free 

"AERONAUTICS," 3, London Wall Bnildingi, 
London Wall, London, E. C. 



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Use our Waterproof Liquid 
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Page I go 



AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 







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AERONAUTICS, Nov. 1913 



Page 191 



.!•+++♦• 



PAT E NTS SECURED OR FEE RETURNED 



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Send sketch or model for FREE Search of Patent Office records. Write for our Guide Books 
and What to Invent with valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our 
special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. 

$600,000 OFFERED IN PRIZES FOR AIRSHIPS 

We are Experts in Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. Copies of 
patents in Airships, 10 cents each. Improvements in Airships should be protected without delay 
as this is a very active field of invention and is being rapidly developed. 



VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY 



Main Offices 



724-726 NINTH ST., N. W. 



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Ex-member Examining Carpi, U. S. Patent Oftiea 

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In ansxixving advcrtisciiicuts please mention this magazine. 



Page 192 



AERONAUTICS, \ov. 1913 




Antony Jannns with Two Passengers Flying the New Benoist Flying Boat, Equipped with Six Cylinder 

imwmmi Aeronautical Motor 



iREG. U. S. PAT. OFF.) 



This machine is now owned by Mr. W. D. Jones of Duluth 
The most prominent aeroplane manufacturers in the country recognize the superiority of the Eturtevant motor 



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In ansiuering advertisements please mention this magasine. 



DECEMBER, 1913 




Curtiss Flying Boat— U. S. Navy's "C-2" 



"ResultsTell the Story" 

During 1913 more than a score of prominent Ameri- 
cans flew 200,000 passenger miles in Curtiss Flying 
Boats, without a single serious accident. 

For more than two years Curtiss Water-Flying 
Machines have been used by the World's Leading 
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These pertinent records are unique in the history of 
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Curtiss Flying Boat is in a class absolutely by itself. 



Illustrated Descriptive Matter Mailed Free 

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE CO., 21 Lake St., Hammondsport, N. Y. 



Page 194 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 




< BEN0I5T 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Benoist School of Aviation will open on January 1st, at 
St. Petersburg, Florida. The school will be under the 
personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. 
We will also conduct the first regular schedule passenger- 
carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. 
Students who want to join the school and prospective 
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THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street. Washington, D. C. [ 



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J\ V 1 A 1 1 U III ILLUSTRATIONS 

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By ALGERNON E. BERRIMAN, M.l.A.E., A.F.Ae.S. 

Technical Editor of "Flight" 

A popular technical work of interest to the ecnoral student 
as well as to the man who is in aviation as a profession. To 
the amateur builder of aeroplanes in the United States it will 
be of incalculable benefit. 

Chapters inciude: 
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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 195 



ALL MARINE FLYERS 

Should investigate the merits of the Three-Bladed Paragons. iSma//«r .S7;e than corres- 
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enables them to carry higher pitch. The added blade gives them a stronger hold on the air. 

Results: — Less Vibration — Full Turning Speed — Higher Pitch Speed = Smaller 
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reason and Paragon price economy besides. 

There are questions in your mind. Write to us for the answers intelligently stated and illus- 
trated by photographs. Full brass blade protection at only nominal cost. 

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md. 




HALL-SCOTT MOTORS 

Winter flying has already started in California. The following 
well-known aviators have their water planes equipped with HALL- 
SCOTT motors: — 

BOB FOWLER 

SILAS CHRISTOFFERSON 

WM. BLAKELEY 

ROY FRANCIS 



A. G. SUTRO 
ALFRED BARRETT 
OTTO RYBITZKI 
HENRY UNNO 



Besides these there are fifteen other planes, or 809* of all aeroplanes and flying 
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describing these motors. 

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818 Crocker Bld^. 



San Francisco, Cal. 




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One of the 

BURGESS 
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Built for U. S. Navy 

Our aeroplanes have always met the GoTernment's most rigid specifications on the first test 

THAT IS BECAUSE WE SPECIALIZE 

THE BURGESS MILITARY TRACTOR holds the American Endurance and Distance Record for 

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The Government has ordered three more Burgess Tractors for immediate service. 

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head adjoining the works. Continued flying until January first. Special rates on application. 

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 196 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



On the Way to 
Two Million 

THE demand for Bosch Magnetos is 
such that within a remarkably few 
years it has been necessary to greatly 
increase manufacturing schedules. The 
Bosch Factories are well on the way to 
supplying the two millionth magneto. 

THE 

Bosch Magneto 

remains the one perfectly reliable ignition 
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designed that its regularity can be de- 
pended upon under all conditions. You 
always will have confidence when your 
engine is Bosch-Equipt. ^ If you will 
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mend the magneto moA suitable for it and 
send you literature describing the magneto 
in detail. 

Why not be among the 
Two Million Satisfied 

Bosch MagnetoCompany 

201 West 46th Street : New York 



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AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 197 



THE DREAMED AEROPLANE 

By RITA GREEN BREEZE 

Since the time of the first aeroplane, man has thought of taking pozver from the air, deliv- 
ering poicer by liArcless or using some yet undiscovered force to antagonize gravity. Buel 
Hurndon Green, M. E., zcas a charter member of the Aero Club of California, a man of 
distinction zvho zvas a credit to his time. He died August 27, 1911, and his life and zcorks 
zvere zcritten dozen in the October issue of AERONAUTICS for that year. His sister, the 
wife of an attorney of Los Angeles, is a mHsicia)i zvith no mediumistic leanings, and with 
no knozvledge of mechanics. The foUowi)ig "message" came to her in a dream on Decem- 
ber 2, 1913, and as near as she has been able zvithout technical knozvledge she has set down 
his chords as recalled by her. 



On the night of December 2,, my brother, 
Buel H. Green, deceased August 27, 1911, 
appeared to me in a dream; he was jubi- 
lant: said he had returned to earth to 
teach a great thing. 

With that he brought forward a contriv- 
ance that resembled in form a huge sled, 
but built without a solid bottom to it, which 
he said was an aeroplane. There were no 
wings or overhanging parts, except for a 
network of copper wires. The frame was 
made of aluminum and was riveted together 
with myriads of copper bolts, the caps of 
which glistened brightly in the sunshine. 
Toward the front on the right-hand side, as 
I stood looking at it from the front, was 
the dynamo, and toward the back on the 
left was the seat. This seat was made of, 
and thus completely insulated by, rubber. 

He stepped in and soared into the air 
gracefully, easily, and without the least 
hesitation : upon alighting he explained to 
me the principle upon which the invention 
was constructed. 

"On the sea," he said, "the ships are quite 
at the mercy of the elements. There has 
been no way found yet to extract the power 
from the water, both to propel the craft 
and to insure its safety. The present forms 
of aircraft are equally, or, on account of 
the unexplored nature of the atmosphere, 
etc., still more unsafe. 

"This invention that you see is run by 
electricity, and constructed of aluminum to 
make it light; the dynamos and all the riv- 
ets and wires are made of copper, which 
is the best known conductor of electricity; 
my dynamos are sufficiently charged in the 
beginning to start with, and the wires and 
rivets are so proportioned and arranged as 
to act as conductors which supply the 
power, collected from the atmosphere, to 
run with: here at my feet (pointing to a 
place in front of the rubber seat) is a dial 
which registers the amount of electricity 
which I have at command at any given mo- 
ment; if the supply becomes more than I 
need, 1 simply shut it off by turning this 
lever (pointing again to one of a collection 
of handles in front of the seat), which in- 
sulates some of my copper collectors; or, if 
need be, by deadening the dynamo. This 
dynamo is placed toward the front, as 3'ou 
see, in order that the air in motion may 
strike it first, thus enabling me to get the 



full benefit of a brisk current of air before 
its force is spent. 

"This machine is safe," he said, "because 
it is not only self-propelling, by gaining 
its power from the atmosphere, and can be 
accurately regulated, but because the oper- 
ator need fear no current of air, however 
swift or stagnant, however charged with 
electricity or inert, because he is independ- 
ent of all these heretofore fearsome forces. 
He can generate power in his dynamo, 
when he needs it, and repel an overcharge 
of electricity when he doesn't. 

"Bags of gas, upon which the dirigibles 
depend, are clumsy and unsafe; and wings 
to an aeroplane are more unsafe, being of- 
ten unwieldy, beside the unreliability of 
the engines. This latter form of invention 
is only suited to the limited intelligence 
of birds, which the Creator has so admir- 
ably equipped for their purpose, but for 
man, the supreme creature of creation, let 
him not continue to be subject to the ele- 
ments; let him conquer them. 

"Set this message of mine abroad on the 
earth by describing this machine; perhaps 
it will direct the efforts of my brother in- 
ventors, so that they may reach the goal 
sooner." 



Lincoln Beachey has in a way proved 
something more remarkable than his ability 
to fly upside-down and to loop-the-loop; he 
has proved that the public is very much in- 
terested in aviation and quite willing to pay 
for the privilege of seeing flying that is out 
of the ordinary'. One might think no more 
bizarre idea possible than that of giving a 
public flj'ing exhibition in San Diego, Cal. 
No town or city in the United States sees 
as much free flying. The natives of San 
Diego have only to look over their Iieads 
any day in the week to see the military 
aviators from the U. S. Army aviation 
camp flying over the city. It is claimed 
that the average San Diegan will not bother 
to turn his head to see an aeroplane in 
flight, j'et San Diego put down $4,000 to 
see Beachey loop the loop. There was no 
guarantee, nothing but an ordinary an- 
nouncement that an admission fee would be 
charged that afternoon, and the "gate" 
was four thousand big iron men. What 
will the gate be in the big cities? 



Page 198 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



GOVERNMENT ENGINE TESTING PLANT 

With facilities noiv for the testing of engines under official conditions, wide-azvake engine 
builders will at once see the advertising value in a Certificate of the Bureau of Standards of 
the U. S. Government. The English 12- and 24-hour tests have brought the Green engine an 
international reputation. The Gyro motor of American fame has had its official laboratory 
test in Germany. Purchasers zvill demand official data. TJic data derived from tJiese tests zvill 
be of value to designers of aeroplanes. 



The purpose of the testing plant of the 
U. S. Signal Corps and Bureau of Stand- 
ards is that of determining the perform- 
ance under load of commercial gasoline 
motors for aviation or for general purposes. 
As previously announced in AERO- 
NAUTICS, any maker may have tests made 
upon payment of the actual expense of the 
test. 

Facilities are provided for determining: 
(a) horsepower actually developed, (b) 
weight of motor and essential accessories 
per actual h.p., (c) fuel consumption per 
h.p.h., (d) maximum power motor will de- 
velop and sustain for six or more hours, (e) 
reliability during the six hours' test, (f) 
power at various throttle openings. 

One room is the motor rooin and when 
the doors are closed gases and the din of 
the exhaust are kept out of the dynamo 
room. Testing base is a single cast-iron 
unit extending 51;/ feet into the dynamo 
room and 6j/{^ feet into the motor room, 
grooved like a planer bed, provided with 
holding bolts, and is set on a concrete sub- 
base extending downward 2 feet to solid 
soil. The cast-iron base has north and 
south center line scribed into it for aligning 
motor with dynamo shaft. 

By a Yale & Towne half-ton trolley and 
hoist one man can handle a whole motor 
without help. 

Two pairs of cast-iron jacks with con- 
necting angle iron form a part of the equip- 
ment of the test base in the motor room. 
They provide ready means for both leveling 
and alignment. 

Cooling is provided for by means of a 
No. 8 Sturtevant top horizontal-discharge 
blower, its inlet being connected with the 
outer air. The outlet connects to a gal- 
vanized-iron chute extending to the center 
of the test base. A removable section of 
this chute is provided so that when in posi- 
tion the air may be forced directly against 
the motor to be tested or may be diverted 
to cool the radiator of water-cooled motor. 

An impact tube is provided for determin- 
ing velocity of cooling air and a Taylor 
thermometer is supplied for checking tem- 
perature of cooling air at point of outlet 
and temperature of cooling water in cir- 
culating system of water-cooled motor. 

A pair of Fairbanks scales are provided 
for weighing motor. 

Attached to the blower is a pressure 
gauge for reading the air pressure from the 
impact tube, a throttle for connection to the 
gasoline motor, and a double pole single- 



throw switch for short-circuiting the motor. 
The throttle may be adjusted for various 
lengths of throttle openings and fitted to 
any type carburetter. 

The gasoline supply is located on the 
dynamo side. Two 2,5-gallon tanks are pro- 
vided, set in a fixed rest. Above each tank 
is a hook with pendant and a Fairbanks 
suspension scale is installed for attachment 
to either tank. The tanks are filled at the 
outer end in the usual way and their outlet 
provides a water pocket with drain cock and 
a shut-ofif cock; each shut-off cock being 
connected to one side of a Y branch. The 
main stem of the Y extends through the 
partition for connection to the motor. 

The Sprague dynamometer used is rated 
at 125 h.p., and should not be loaded above 
150 h.p. It carries a Hopkins tachometer. 
The drive shaft extends through the parti- 
tion into the engine room. 

The switchboard carries in addition to the 
equipment provided by its makers a sub- 
panel by means of which the blower may be 
operated either from the local 250-volt cir- 
cuit or from the dynamo circuit. The 
dynamometer may be operated as a motor, 
thus serving the purpose of a motor starter 
when used in test. 

For a test the motor is swung into posi- 
tion, clamped to the angles, using a plumb 
bob to rnake sure of center line; surface 
gauge to determine its height with refer- 
ence to the motor shaft and spirit level to 
check its setting. The universal joint is 
next set on the dynamo shaft and a coupling 
made up for motor shaft. As these 
couplings are not universal a set of bronze 
castings has been provided which may be 
machined to fit the various types of motor 
ends. The drawing shows general scheme 
of attachment of these couplings. A drop- 
forged end has been provided with the set, 
which may be utilized for smaller motors 
having short ends. 

All oil is drained from crank case and new 
oil is brought up to running level, weight of 
oil used being determined and recorded. 
Tachometer is tested for accuracy, the gaso-l 
line tanks are filled and weighed and gaso- 
line tested for specific gravity, blower op-1 
erated and velocity of cooling air checked,] 
temperature of outer air is read. 

The "dynamometer sheet" shows the ob- 
server's records so far as the dynamometer 
is concerned. Before starting the test 
proper the leading data describing the 
motor and the test number is checked with 
the "motor sheet." Every reading or datum 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 199 



COUPLER FOR 
J AVIATION MOTOR TEST. 




NO957 



'\OTOR ENC» 



.sioe 

COUPLER PETAIL 




l>YN«MO ENp 



MEtHOD OF COUPLING 



CJiJTIiS *»S 



I62S 




called for on these sheets must be clearly 
recorded in order that the test may be com- 
plete. 

As soon as the motor is started a 15-min- 
ute run is made, observing all apparatus 
closely and stopping and starting as often 
as necessary to correct any defects which 
would prevent a life test. Just at the close 
of the preliminary run the load should be 
added until the motor loses speed and a 
record made of the power thus developed. 
This record should also show power at %, 
Yi and % throttle. 

When everything is operating properly, 
observers take station and arrangements 
are made for the test proper for a period of 
six hours at the full rated power of the 
motor, or if the motor will not develop its 
rated power, at the maximum load it will 
maintain. The motor man reads pressure 
gauge and temperature, the assistant tester 
reads Fairbanks scale attached to gas tank 
in use; the dynamo man reads tachometer 
and notes reading of dynamometer scale, 
which he locks in position as he signals for 
reading. This is repeated every 15 minutes 
during the six-hour test. In interval be- 
tween tests assistant makes entries for time 
on all sheets and checks weights of oils, 
etc., used by motor man. When gasoline 
tank approaches empty point, dynamo man 
takes charge of shift of tank connections 
and, making proper notes, cuts in new tank. 

At the completion of the test, the motor 
is loaded to its capacity and record made, 
showing actual power developed at ^, V2, 
^4 and full throttle. If motor is water 
j cooled, radiator is watched for refill and 
weight of water added and when refilled, 
noted. Short stops if not the fault of the 
motor need not vitiate the test, but must be 



noted. Stops of such duration as to give the 
motor time to get cool vitiate results. 

Test being completed, oil is removed from 
motor and weighed, filled radiator with con- 
nections are weighed, motor with its regu- 
lar fittings are weighed, motor is carefully 
inspected for loose or defective parts or for 
bearings running unduly hot. 

All engines tested at this plant will re- 
ceive a certificate from the Bureau of Stand- 
ards, giving the power for varying speeds, 
and gasoline and oil consumption, upon 
payment of a nominal fee. In every case 
those submitting the engine for test will 
have to pay all expenses incident to ship- 
ment to and from testing plant and for the 
provision of the necessary gasoline, oil and 
other supplies. Under direction of the of- 
ficial in charge of the tests, he will attend 
to the installation of the engine for test, its 
operation during the test, and its dismount- 
ing and removal as soon as test is com- 
pleted. The owner of the engine under test 
is privileged if he so desires to be repre- 
sented at the test. 

Complete folder, data sheets, etc., may be 
had free upon application to the Bureau of 
Standards. 



The 80 h. p. Gnome "Avro" biplane is the 
latest success of the Roe company. One 
of the most amusing sights at Hendon at 
the present moment is to see the pilot, Mr. 
Raynham, one minute going at over 80 miles 
per hour and then gently sauntering round 
the Aerodrome at less than 30. 

One of his favorite tricks is to vol-plane 
upwards. This he does by stopping his en- 
gine when 5 ft. from the ground, and then 
gliding up to some 60 ft. or so. 



Page 200 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



AVIATION IN THE NAVY 

Abridged from the Annual Report 
By Captain W. IRVING CHAMBERS 



Among the lines of work in naval aviation 
have been the development of the flying boat 
and the establishment of a national aero- 
nautical laboratory.* The success of the 
former is assured, and only the action of 
Congress in appropriating suitable funds is 
needed to enlarge the work of the Langley 
Aerodynamic Laboratory, now being carried 
on with limited endowed funds. Various 
Government departments and civil institu- 
tions will work with the laboratory and are 
represented on its advisory committee. A 
broad scheme of co-operation is now in prac- 
tice whereby the work at all institutions in 
the country and the Government depart- 
ments will be co-ordinated with that of the 
Laboratory. 

The coming year the Naval aeronautic 
service will be greatly enlarged and will in- 
clude the use of dirigibles, if the Navy De- 
partment acts in accordance with recom- 
mendations recently made. 

During the twelve months (August, 1912- 
July, 1913) 1,525 flights were made, as com- 
pared with 593 from the beginning of naval 
aviation, in 191 1, up to August, 1912. The 
total of flights from beginning to end of 
July, 1913, was 2,118, carrying 1,470 passeng- 
ers, for purposes of instruction or observa- 
tion, for 502 hours, covering a distance of 
about 27,097 miles. These flights have been 
made by fourteen aviators, in a total of 653 
hours, sometimes as pilot and sometimes as 
passengers. 

Other officers tg the number of 240 have 
taken flights of instruction or observation, 
in addition to other duties. Besides these, 
266 flights have been given petty officers and 
enlisted men, and 130 to civilians. The fig- 
ures for these latter are included in previous 
figures. 

The Navy now owns five Curtiss and two 
Burgess flying boats, in addition to three 
machines of another class. Three officers 
are under instruction at the present time, 
all that the department can spare; others ex- 
pected later. 

EXPERHIENTAL WORK. 
Lieut, Ellyson has demonstrated the prac- 
ticability of starting in flight from a taut 
wire cable (see AERONAUTICS, Oct.. 
1911), using a Curtiss hydroaeroplane, and 
in being launched from a catapult (see 
AERONAUTICS. Dec., 191 1). Night flights 
have been made by Lieut. Towers in a Cur- 
tiss hydroaeroplane, in one of which he 
made the present world's endurance record 
for water 'planes of 6:35:10.0 and the Ameri- 
can endurance record for any 'plane. An- 
other machine of similar make was used by 
Lieut. P. N. L- Bellinger in a climbing test 
to 6.200 feet. A Wright land machine has 

*Aeronautics, Feb., May and Aug., 1913. 



been used for experimenting with various 
pontoons, finally adopting a single one with 
balancing floats. Various motors have been 
used, and is now fitted with a Sturte- 
vant 4-40. Wireless tests have been made 
with this machine, and notable long flights. 
Another, made from Wright parts by the 
Navy officers, was fitted with a six-cylinder 
Curtiss and a pontoon of same make. 
Notable moonlight and other flights were 
made with it. and it had good climbing and 
manoeuvering powers. Specially strength- 
ened with extra wires, it was saved from col- 
lapse in the flight of June 20, when Lieut. 
Billingsley was thrown out and the machine 
fell some 1,600 feet, without putting it be- 
yond repair. A Curtiss flying boat has been 
used for many long flights. The measured 
speed is 60.53 ni.p.h., with Curtiss 90-100 
h.p. motor. In all the Curtiss machines, the 
original power plants have been increased 
by Curtiss engines of greater power. 

Lieut. Ellyson has been launched from a 
catapult in this machine. The Burgess 70 
Renault-engined flying boat has been re- 
ceived too recently for report, bttt has shown 
up well (AERONAUTICS, May, 1913). An 
improved catapult, along the same prin- 
ciples as the old (see AERONAUTICS, 
Dec, 1912), with improvements, will shortly 
be tested on board ship. 

An improvised Sperry gyroscopic stabil- 
izer is fitted to a Curtiss flying boat, and 
experiments have not been completed. 

Efforts are being made to test out all sys- 
tems of control, with the purpose of adopt- 
ing a standard control to be fitted to all 
Navy aeroplanes, which, after trials, will be 
installed in all machines. 

Yhe model basin has given the Navy a 
mass of information on the location of steps 
in pontoons, effects and location of ventilat- 
ing tubes, efficiency of shapes, etc.. and 
diving effects of hulls now in use. The 
craftsmanship of the scientific boat builder 
is now required to decrease weight while 
improving strength and sea-keeping quali- 
ties. Experiments are under way with metal 
hulls. 

Improvements suggested by Navy aviators 
and by work abroad in the arrangement and 
shape of wing surfaces are being tested by 
using power models. It is expected to equip 
a full-size machine especially for research 
work in co-operation with the national lab- 
oratory. An old 191 1 Curtiss hydroaeroplane, 
converted into a hydro, has now been 
changed into an experimental machine (E-i). 
called the "O-W-L" boat (over water and 
land), and shows a range of speed of 44 to 
65 m.p.h. It is efficient as a land machine, 
with resilient landing gear, enough weight 
or power of endurance being sacrificed to 
provide efficiency as a water machine; has 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 201 



improved handiness and efficiency as a 
water machine, and the possibility of elimin- 
ating the land gear for extended flying over 
water exclusively. Lieut. Smith, who had 
never flown a land machine before, used this 
and negotiated eleven landings and starts on 
land with ease. This was done before the 
characteristics of the Wright "aeroboat" 
were known, and it is anticipated that boats 
of this type will be equipped as an "O-W-L" 
boat, with wheels, to rival the performances 
of E-i. 

The navy has purchased this year two 
Burgess flying boats, four Curtiss flying 
boats, one O. W. L. boat made at the Cur- 
tiss factory, three Renault engines, five Cur- 
tiss engines, and a great quantity of spare 
parts. 

Three more Curtiss flying boats will be 
delivered to the U. S. Navy this year, if 
present expectations are realized. With its 
highly polished hull of solid mahogany, after 



cockpit or cabin paneled in the same wood, 
and upholstered in dark-brown corduroy 
stuffed with Kapok, these big machines make 
a beautiful picture. Especially designed to 
meet the latest naval requirements, the boat 
has a highly arched forward deck, which ef- 
fectually shields the occupants of the cock- 
pit from wind and spray and makes swamp- 
ing of the forward cockpit practically im- 
possible. Instead of the usual flat bottom, 
this boat has a double concave forming a V 
in the center, better able to withstand heavy 
seas; it alights on the water with no per- 
ceptible shock. Some changes are notice- 
able in the superstructure. The wings are 
both of the same spread, about 35 feet, with 
a cord of 66 inches. A gap of 72 inches 
separates the planes. They are covered in 
heavy unbleached Irish linen, treated with a 
semi-transparent "dope." which makes the 
fabric impervious to oil, gasoline or water 
High effciency in the plane surfaces was 
shown on the gliding test. 



ARMY AERONAUTICS FOR 1913 



By the end of this year the Signal Corps 
will have 15 aeroplanes and hydroaeroplanes 
in service. The total complete purchases to 
date have been 24, of which 9 have been de- 
stroyed in accidents. 

The following is the list of this equip- 
ment, scattered in San Diego, Manila, 
Hawaii and San Antonio: 

r Wright B, 30 h.p. Wright. 

2 Wright C, 50 h.p. Wright. 

2 Wright D, 50 h.p. Wright. 

1 Curtiss D, 75 Curtiss. 

2 Curtiss E, 75 h.p. Curtiss. 

2 Curtiss H, 75 and 90 h.p. resp. 

I Burgess F, Wright type, 40 Sturte- 

vant. 
4 Burgess H, 70 Renault. 

To be yet delivered are: i Wright, 90 
Daimler; Curtiss tractor. 160 Gnome; and 
a Burgess tractor, 100 Renault. 

More than 2.943 flights have been made, 
with a total duration of over 626 hours, dur- 
ing the year. 

There are 11 officers capable of flying 
alone. These liave militarv aviator certifi- 
cates and there are 9 taking instruction. It 
has been found that a year is not too short 
a time in which a military aviator may per- 
fect himself. It is to be regretted that 
the Arm}^ offers no inducements to officers 
to enter flying ranks and even though the 
limit allowed for this work from the regular 
army is but 30. this number has never been 
reached at any one time. The officers, as a 
rule, remain but a short time in this service 
unless they have shown marked interest 
or ability. Of those now flying, but 3 have 
been connected with aviation for two years 
and of the balance but 2 for more than a 
year. 

Eleven officers and one enlisted man have 
been killed in aeroplane accidents since 1908. 



have met their deaths this 



of which 7 
year. 

None of the civilian flyers is trained for 
military purposes and none of the Militia 
has had opportunities for flying. One at- 
tempt in years past to organize a civilian 
flying branch failed miserably. Another at- 
tempt is now being made along the same 
lines by another civilian. There are ex- 
tremely few private aviators even trained 
in cross country flying. More stringent 
rules for military aviators' certificates are in 
force January 1st next. 

A new radio equipment for aeroplanes has 
been developed in the Signal Corps labora- 
tory and it is expected that ranges of at 
least 30 miles will be possible from the aero- 
plane (AERONAUTICS, June). The set 
developed represents the latest achieve- 
ments in the art: the quenched spark, 500- 
cycle generator, etc., and it is believed no 
foreign army is prepared to duplicate the 
set. Experiments have been made with 
dropping cards and with smoke signals from 
the James Means device, the latter with 
more or less success. 

Mapping and photographic experiments 
have been conducted with good success for 
the past two years — 234 miles being covered 
in one particular map, every 6 inches 
equalling 10 minutes of flight (AERO- 
NAUTICS, April). 

Xlie Scott bomb dropper was tried and 
this proved the principle of the device cor- 
rect. No other instrument has equalled it, 
as proven in the Michclin competitions. 
Further experiments will be made at San 
Diego shortly. 

Eight Renault 70 h. p. engines have been 
bought by the Signal Corps and it is ex- 
pected to have an entire squadron of 4 ma- 
chines of the Burgess tractor type, with 4 
engines in reserve. 



Page 202 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



All the flying this year has been at Manila. 
San Diego, Hawaii and at Texas City, with 
the second division of the regular army. 
Here Jong cross country flights were made, 
up to 4 hours 22 minutes non-stop. One 
trip, out and back in three days, covered 
540 miles (AERONAUTICS, April). At 
Texas City the flights were made in con- 
nection with the field operations of the 
troops and under the eyes of the command- 
ing officers. 

In the Fall of 1912 aeroplanes were used 
to locate troops, targets, give range and 
direction and locate hits; in gun fire experi- 
ments with the Lewis aeroplane gun 
(AERONAUTICS, October, 1912). 

In firing experiments conducted by the 
Signal Corps at College Park, the Lewis 
aeroplane gun was found to be well adapted 
for service on aeroplanes, as it is sufficiently 
light in weight for a man to fire from his 
shoulder. The gun was fired both from the 
ground and from an aeroplane. In the 
latter case it was mounted temporarily on a 
practice machine of the Wright type, and 
was fired from an altitude varying from 200 
to 600 feet. There were 14 hits out of 50 
shots. The speed of the aeroplane was 45 
miles an hour. The target used was a strip 
of white cloth 60 feet long by 5 feet wide. 
The results of this firing were gratifying, 
as it was found that the aim could be ob- 
tained by driving the machine directly over 
the target and holding the gun in place or 
by pivoting the gun itself and using both 
methods together. The rate of firing was 
300 to 700 a minute. 

The Ordnance Department has devel- 
oped a high-angle gun for offensive use 
against aircraft (AERONAUTICS, Sep- 
tember). 

Aviation is to the Army a vital necessity. 
Much data has been compiled and every- 



thing is now in good shape for rapid 
progress and practical results if the encour- 
agement asked from Congress is extended. 
Navigation of the air will be developed 
into a powerful military force — if not al- 
ready such — and if present plans can be car- 
ried out the Signal Corps will demonstrate 
the efficiency of military aeronautics. The 
immediate future seems to rest with the 
Signal Corps — and Congress. The scientific 
knowledge necessary is in the Signal Corps, 
which supervises under the law all the serv- 
ices of communication, observation and 
reconnaissance and thus far aircraft have 
proven to be of the utmost value for these 
purposes. When the aeroplane and the 
dirigible have demonstrated their value as 
fighting units, then it may be advisable to 
relieve the Signal Corps from aeronautical 
work and put the air machines in a separate 
arm. 

It is hoped, when Congress appropriates 
the funds, to establish aeronautical centers 
and schools at Augusta, Ga., San Diego, 
San Antonio, and other places where land 
and weather conditions are favorable for 
teaching. At San Antonio there will soon 
be a great artificial lake most suitable for 
water flying and the first and principle cen- 
ter will be located near this city. Here 
plans include administration and school 
buildings, barracks for 80 men, field officer's 
quarters, 20 officers' quarters, 10 sheds, ma- 
chine shop and stores, shed for 16 auto trac- 
tors and a stable. If the estiniates for the 
following year are approved, two non-rigid 
dirigibles and two revolving houses and hy- 
drogen plants will be put in service. A 
moderate-sized dirigible of this type will 
cost about $175,750 and a rotating shed, 
$122,500. A gas plant will cost $8,955. Port- 
able gas plants cost about $7,500. Three 
officers and 50 men are suggested for the 
lighter-than-air work. 



THE YEAR 1913 IN REVIEW 



Figures for 1913 show that eight manu- 
facturers of aeroplanes have produced and 
practically sold 162 aeroplanes, of which 71 
have been flying boats and 4 hydroaero- 
planes, valued at over $857,955. Additional 
to these, the products of scattered makers 
and individuals should figure considerably 
over 100. The majority of these are home- 
built and fitted with lower-priced engines, 
so that the valuation of these would approx- 
imate $230,000. Of these, a dozen were fly- 
ing boats and five or six hydroaeroplanes. 

It is not at all unlikely that many more 
than 100 were built of which no record has 
ever appeared, and which cannot, of course, 
be counted. Many machines have been re- 
built many times, while we have figured 
construction entire but once. Parts supplied 
by manufacturers would add considerably to 
the total. 



The motors built by builders who do not 
make aeroplanes, or by aeroplane factories 
which also make motors, total 115, valued 
at $141,400. Of these figures, but five 
($17,000) are included elsewhere. 

Aeroplanes and parts of domestic manu- 
facture exported from January, 1913, to 
November i, totaled 16, valued at $64,175. 
Foreign-built aeroplanes and parts imported 
during the same period totaled one, with a 
value of $19,625, while two foreign ma- 
chines were sent out of the country, being 
valued at $10,332. Remaining in the ware- 
houses are two foreign machines and parts, 
valued at $7,708. Domestic exports for 1912 
were fifty, valued at $167,255, while imports 
were twenty-nine, valued at $100,733. 

The above figures are much better than 
those of 1912, when one manufacturer esti- 
(Continued on page 215) 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 203 



INTERNATIONAL AEROPLANE RECORDS 



Duration, h., m., 
Distance, kiloms. 
Altitude, meters 
Greatest Speed in 
Climbing Speed 



Speed, h., m., s. 



k. p. h. 

500 m. 

1000 m. 

Skil. 

10 kil. 

20 kil. 

30 kil. 

" 40 kil. 

" " 50 kil. 

, " " 100 kil. 

■'" " 150 kil. 

" 200 kil. 

250 kil. 

300 kil. 

350 kil. 

400 kil. 

"i W 450 kil. 

500 kil. 

" " 600 kil. 

" 700 kil. 

" " 800 kil. 

900 kil. 

" 1000 kil. 

rime, kils., in y^ hr. 

V2 hr. 

;' '; I hr. 

" 2 hr. 

" " 3 hr. 

4 hr. 
5hr. 
6hr. 
7 hr. 
8hr. 
9 hr. 

10 hr. 

11 hr. 

12 hr. 

13 hr. 
Distance, straight line, in kil 



1-Man 

^13:17:57.2 

1,010.9 

5,880.0 

203.8 

tt*3:35.o 

tt4:56.5 

1*1:43-4 

2:56.6 

5:54-2 

8:52.2 

II :50.2 

14:48.2 

29:40.0 

44:38.0 

59:45-6 

2:01 :53.6 

$2:49:00.0 

1:3:26:16.0 

^3:55:27-6 

{4:24:44-8 

{4:54:06.2 

±5:52:38.0 

+ 9 :3i :oi.o 

110:44:45.8 

In :59:o9.6 

$13 :oi :i2.o 

50.0 

100. o 

200.0 

246.9 

1310.2 

{410.9 

{510.0 

+490.0 

{522.9 

{585.2 

t66i.2 

{744-8 

+ 820.8 

{904.4 

^980.4 

461.7 



2-Men 

6:42:49.6 

410.0 

4,960.0 

ti35-9 

{{"9:00.0 

{2:58.0 

{4:24.8 

{8:51.0 

1:13:18.6 

{17:44-8 

{23:13-0 

{44:36.6 

{ I :o7 : 10. o 

{2:03:49.0 

2:34:48.4 

3:04:50.0 

3:34:46.8 

4:04:42.6 



{31-0 
{66.6 
{133-4 
191. 9 
291.9 
391-9 



3-Men 

3 :i6:oo.o 

{i 12.0 

{3,580.0 

{102.8 



{2:52.0 
^5:45-0 
$11:59-4 
{17:52-6 
{22:44.4 
+ 29:37.4 
{59 :o8.o 



4-Meit 

3:11 :i4.o 
+ 1 10. o 
2,830.0 
{106.0 



{3:48.0 
{6:16.6 
{12:03.0 
{17:37.0 
+ 23:11.0 
{29:47.0 
{56:33-0 



5-Men 

3:01 :i7.o 

250.0 

1,400.0 

$87.2 



$3:34-0 

{7:08.0 

{14:00.6 

21:53.8 

29:13-4 

30:31-0 

I :i3:oi.2 

1 :49:i 1.8 

2:25 :02.2 

3:01 :i7.o 



6-Men 

1 :io:i7.o 

600.0 



7-Men 

Duration 

I :oo :oo.o 
Altitude 
850.0 m. 



8-Men 

Duration 
00:17:25.4 



{106.0 



20.0 

40.0 

82.3 

165.0 

247-3 



. *Made in the United States. 

. Practically all records are held by Cosch-equipped 

.motors. 

{Made before 1913. 

jNot recognized by F. A. I. but official according to 
A. C. A. 



AMERICAN AEROPLANE RECORDS 



duration, h., m., 
distance, kiloms. 
\ltitude, meters 
Greatest Speed i 
limbing Speed, 

5peed, h., m., s. 



rime, kils., 



■Man 
■Man 



.Mighting from mark 
Weight^carrying, pounds 



500 m. 

1000 m. 

5 kil. 

10 kil. 

20 kil. 

30 kil. 

40 kil. 

50 kil. 
100 kil. 
150 kil. 
200 kil. 
250 kil. 

'/ihr. 

Vz hr. 

1 hr. 

2 hr. 

3 hr. 

4 hr. 
meters 



1-Man 

{{6:10:35.0 

1283.62 

{3. 548.50 

ti74-io 

1*3:35-00 



2-Men 

4:22:00.00 



tl,422.00 
tlOI.76 



t*09:oo.oo 



3-Men 

ti :54:42.6o 



4-Men 

1:5400 



156.26 



t6:i3-40 
ti2:26.oo 
ti8:42.oo 
t24:49.8o 
t3i :oi.6o 



{24.14 
136.24 



1*1:43-38 

t6:55-95 
110:32.51 
114:03.59 
{17:34-88 
135:16.65 
{53:04-73 
ti :io:56.85 
13:32:56.40 
{40.00 
tSo.oo 
{166.60 
ti4i.97 
{214.57 
{283.62 
{0.445 
- - . {458.0 

-Man Endurance, Cross-country, Non-stop, 4 b. 31 m. 
-iNIan Endurance and Distance, Cross-country, Non-stop for Monoplanes, 4 h. 31 
-Alan Distance and Duration, Cross-country, Non-stop, 220 miles, 4 h. 22 m. 

Miscellaneous World Records 

;allooxs 

I )i stance — **2,42o.6s3 kiloms. 

Duration — **{73 lirs. 

Altitude — ±io,Soo meters. 
HRIGIBLES 

Distance — 810 kiloms. 

Duration — 15 hrs. 

.Mtitude — {3,080 meters. 

Speed — 64.8 k. p. h. 
vITES 

Altitude — $7,265 meters. 
JOUNDIXG BALLOONS 

Altitude — 35,080 meters. 
Made in U. S. A. 
*Just beaten, according to cables. 
Made prior to 1913. 



t6:56.40 



*\Vorld records. 
$Hydroaeroplane. 
{Prior to 1913. 

217.5 miles. 



Miscellaneous U. S. Records 

r.ALLOOXS 

Distance — +1,887.6 kiloms. 

Duration — {48 h. 26 m. 

Lahm Cup — {1,172.9 miles. 

DIRIGIBLES 

Speed — {31-559 k. p. h. 
Duration — {2 h. i m. 50 s. 

KITES 

Altitude — $'7,265 meters. 

SOUNDING BALLOONS 

Altitude — $ 30,486 meters. 
*\\'orld records. 
{Made prior to 1913. 



Page 204 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN AERONAUTICS 



AEROPLANE INSPECTION OF 
POWER AND TELEGRAPH CABLES. 

That it is feasible and even practical from 
the results standpoint to inspect power 
wires, telephone and telegraph lines, etc., 
from on high, may be deduced from the ex- 
periments recently made by Robert G. Fow- 
ler in his tractor biplane, with which be 
crossed the Isthmus of Panama. 

The first part of December, Fowler en- 
tered into a contract with the Great West- 
ern Power Co., of Sacramento, Calif., to 
carry one of their regular line inspectors 
over the territory usually covered by sev- 
eral men to discover broken insulators, 
wires down, etc., in order that the repair 
crew may get to the spot in the quickest 
possible time. 

Sections of the line that usually take 8 to 
10 hours to discover mishaps were covered 
by Fowler and a passenger-patrolman in 
less than an hour. A broken insulator was 
easily discovered from a height of 1,500 feet 
even. A landing was quickly made and the 
information telephoned in to the company's 
office. The progress of the pedestrian- 
patrolman could easily be seen from the 
aeroplane. The photograph is that of Fow- 
ler in his machine with his passenger. 

Fowler's machine is a Gage tractor, Hall- 
Scott 8o-h.p. power plant. Spread of top 
plane is 42 ft.; lower, 31 ft.; weight ready 
for flight, 1,100 lbs.; speed, 60-70 m.p.h. 



ZEPPELIN MILEAGE STATISTICS. 

An interesting statement of the work 
done by the Zeppelin passenger cruisers 
since the commencement of the passenger 
service in June, 1910, has now been pub- 
lished. Ending September, 1913, the list 
runs as follows: 

"Deutschland," 7 trips of 20^^ hours' du- 
ration, 1,035 kms. (625 miles) distance, car- 
rying with crew 142 persons. 

"L. Z. 6," 34 trips, 66 hours 11 minutes' 
duration, 3,132 kms. (1,880 miles), 726 pas- 
sengers. 

"Ersatz Deutschland," 24 trips, 52 hours, 
2,627 kms. (1,580 miles), 436 persons. 

"Schwaben," 230 trips, 499Y2 hours, 28,468 
kms. (17,100 miles), 4,622 persons. 

"Viktoria Luise," 372 trips, 820 hours 51 
minutes, 45,343 kms. (27,250 miles), 7,863 
persons. 

"Hansa," 268 trips, 577^ hours, 3^,273 
kms. (18,800 miles), 5,598 persons. 

"Sachsen," 170 trips, ZilVi hours, 18,614 
kms. (11,200 miles), 3,884 persons. 

Roughly computed, the above figures 
work out at 100 entire days spent in the 
air by the vessels, out of a total of 1,218 
days, covering a distance of 130,492 kms. 
(81,375 miles), or about three times round 
the globe, and carrying 23,271 passengers 
without injury to any of them. 



I lend all possible aid to AERONAUT- 
ICS, as I consider it the most deserving of 
all aero magazines printed in the English 
language. J. A. B., Calif. 



I well know that there are few technical 
journals that cover their field in such a 
thorough, reliable and practical manner as 
AERONAUTICS. H. R. K., Calif. 




AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 205 



THE GRANT "AEROSTABLE " 

Flights have been made during the past 
month of Mr. R. R. Grant's water monoplane, 
with changeable angle of incidence, on the 
Elizabeth River, Norfolk, Va. 

With the exception of the engine all parts 
of the machine worked out as anticipated, 
it was found that slight changes would be 
necessary in the pontoons, that is, they did 
not free from the water quick enough, there- 
fore, a step in vertical alinement with the 
center of gravity is necessary. 

Satisfactory tests could not be made with 
the change of angle on account of the un- 
steady running of the engine and the short 
periods in the air, but the mechanical parts 
of this system worked perfectly. 




The machine will be converted for land 
work and in the spring a new engine will be 
installed. The same landing system which 
proved so satisfactory on the first machine 
will be used, French and Italian patents have 
been issued and on file are German, English 
and three American patents covering the ma- 
chine. 

If present plans come out as expected 
Mr. Grant will ship the machine to New York 
and continue the demonstration work. 

It may be interesting to add that the pic- 
ture shown was taken after the machine had 
been six weeks on the bay without shelter, 
during which it went through two very severe 
storms without damage, during one of the 
storms it dragged anchor and went into the 
marsh but without any damage. The machine 
proved itself to be safer in a storm than the 
average motor boat. 

See AERONAUTICS for August 1912, and 
August, 1913, for details and drawings. 



to mind a patent issued some time ago to 
Spencer Heath. 

Inquiry reveals the fact that soon sheet steel 
propellers will be on the market. 

The American Propeller Co. will, of course, 
continue making the wooden ones in various 
styles and sizes until they have a complete 
line of tools and dies for a wide range of 
manufacture in the metal ones. 

"There is no doubt about the metal pro- 
peller being the real thing when it is formed 
up out of a single sheet of steel, as disclosed 
in my patent," says Mr. Heath. Using steel 
about .05 to .10 inch in thickness, the weight 
will be just about the same as the present 
hardwood propellers. From the manufactur- 
ers' standpoint, the great advantage will be 
cheapness of manufacture. From the avia- 
tor's standpoint, it will be their extreme dura- 
bility against both wear and accident and 
their almost perfect safety and security owing 
to the fact that they can never go to pieces or 
get out of balance in any way. Whatever 
happens in an accident, the steel will always 
be there, no matter how badly it may be 
crumpled. There will be the same safety con- 
trast as between wood and all-steel construc- 
tion in railway coaches. The steel propellers 
will also be in demand from a military stand- 
point. They can be made from the same chrome 
nickel steel that is required by the War De- 
partment for the armoring of vital parts of 
the machine. The propeller will then be as 
nearly bullet proof as any other part. 

The peripheral velocity of the blades in 
comparison with the velocity of a rifle ball 
is such that it will make no practical differ- 



^,^-^e. — ^/a. 




METAL PROPELLERS NEXT 

The recent flying boat accident in the Hud- 
son in which a propeller tore loose at the hub 
and one blade drove through the boat, calls 



ence as regards the penetrating power of the 
ball, whether the blade meets it coming or 
going in the course of its revolutions. 

Figures i and 2 are plan views of blanks 
from which the propeller may be formed. 
Figs. 3, 4 and 5 are top, side, and bottom 
views respectively of a propeller formed from 
the blank of Fig. i. Fig. 9 is a plan view 
illustrating the method of forming the ma- 
terial of the propeller into the requisite shape. 
Fig. 10 is a modified form of Fig. i. Fig. 11 



Page 206 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



is a perspective view of Fig. 10 folded com- 
plete. Figs. 12 to 17 are sections of Figs. 10. 
Fig. 19 is a section through the hub portion. 

rhe propeller is formed into shape from a 
blank of sheet material, the central portion 
of which is formed into a hollow shell at and 
adjacent the axis of the screw, and the other 
parts of which form the main portions of the 
blades, the hollow central portion being ex- 
tended along the blades toward their extremi- 
ties in such manner as to give them firm 
strength and stiffness. 

In constructing the propeller, a cast metal 
form or pattern, made sectional to facilitate 
subsequent removal, is superposed upon the 
blank, as shown in Fig. 9. The blank is 
shaped or spun closely to the pattern which is 
afterward removed, leaving the sheet metal 
shell. 

The single seam or joint extending from 
end to end of the propeller (along either the 
entering or the trailing edge) is made whole 
by electric or other autogenous welding. The 
hubs are reinforced by diamond-shaped welded 
plates carrying the bolt-circle for attachment 
to the engine forge. The strain of the bolts 
is taken by a cylinder between the hub plates. 
The surprising thing about these propellers is 
their enormous strength and hardness, consid- 
ering the amount and weight of material used. 

Pending the coming out of the all-steel 
blades, the above mentioned concern now pro- 
vides steel armor on nearly all the w'ooden 
Paragons turned out and is now putting up 
for the navy large three-bladed propellers 
similarly protected ; also a four-bladed pro- 
peller to be used on a seven ton boat. The 



of the question of durability except in case of 
serious and violent accidents. 




steel plating is about .025 inch thick and made 
in one piece shaped up over cast iron die forms 
so that it will fit perfectly over the ends of 
the blades. They are fastened by thin nails 1%. 
inches long extending clear through the pro- 
peller and further secured by cement which 
gives great adhesion between the metal and 
wood. For the U. S. Navy Paragons, copper 
and bronze are used in place of steel. With 
this metal protection there is not much left 



AEROPLANES IN THE BALKANS 

The Russian aviator, M. Sakoff, played a 
not unimportant part in the taking of Yanina. 
He left Nicopolis in a biplane on February 
8th, carrying six bombs. At a height of 460 
feet he steered for the forts surrounding the 
town. His machine was assailed by artillery 
and rifle fire and two bullets struck the bi- 
plane; but the parts hit were not vital, and 
the pilot was able to continue his flight. Ovei 
Fort Bezhani, which was the key to the situa- 
tion, M. Sakoff dropped his six bombs, which 
did considerable damage and caused a panic 
In the course of his return flight to Nicopolii 
the airman suddenly discovered that his petro 
was exhausted, as one of the enemy's bullets 
had pierced his reservoir. M. Sakoff was 
consequently, obliged to descend near Pre- 
veza for petrol and repair. He regained 
Nicopolis without further trouble. The in- 
formation that he was able to give to the 
military authorities justified an immediate at- 
tack, with the result that Yanina fell a few 
days later. 

Other Bulgarian aeroplanes were hit dur- 
ing the war. Out of four aviators who were 
killed, but one death was due to enemy's bul- 
lets or shrapnel. A great part of the 25 
machines were old, more or less decrepit, or 
obsolete. The aviators were mostly foreign 
civilians. 

The Servians had 20 machines and the 
Greeks twelve. The Greek aviators did note- 
worthy reconnaisance work over Salonika 
and good drawing were made of Prereza. 
One Greek, with a hydroaeroplane, recon- 
noitered the Turkish fleet with an observer, 
dropped bombs on the vessels and forts and 
returned safely after 2>^ hours to the Greek 
destroyer. 

The Turks had about 14 machines but only 
one was set up when the war broke out. For- 
eign civil pilots as well as Turkish military 
were employed. Two machines were cap- 
tured, a few broken by continued moving, 
and some burned to save them from the 
enemy. No mechanics could be had and the 
lack of information obtainable by aeroplane 
caused disaster at Kirkkilisseh. 




FOKKER FLYING BOAT 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 207 




ARMY AERONAUTICS 
Appeals to Congress for aeronautical ap- 
propriations during the past three years have 
resulted in meagre funds indeed. Perhaps 
those who rail may be spending their efforts 
in vain. This country is proverbially slow 
in taking up new inventions. Military aero- 
nautics is undoubtedly new, even to military 
men themselves. Yet, abroad, every effort 
is being made by experts in the science of 
arms to ascertain the last vestige of benefit 
the aeroplane may be in warfare and 
through countless experiments and trials to 
invent improvements in aircraft. The re- 
sults of all this work are, obviously, most 
gratifying. 

In this new art and science of aeronautics 
it is particularly difficult to impress matter- 
of-fact people. The calls of the Army and 
Navy for aeronautical funds, and the en- 
dorsements of civil aeronautical organiza- 
tions are discounted by Congress. Quite 
naturally! 

National pride on the part of taxpayers, 



as well as the military importance of being 
properly prepared, demands that this coun- 
try be in the forefront of progress in aero- 
nautics as in other branches of national ad- 
ministration. 

The whole matter of aeronautical appro- 
priations can quickly be settled by first-hand 
methods. Let Congress send a small com- 
mittee abroad to see with its own eyes what 
the great powers of Europe are doing m 
aeronautics. Let this committee study the 
question! All interested in aeronautics are 
willing and anxious to abide by the views 
of Congress once the importance of this art 
is given the opportunity to demonstrate for 
itself. This is better than volumes of offi- 
cers' reports and lay handbooks. This 
would be a Congressional trip that the 
American people want to have some Con- 
gressmen take. 

We believe Congress is fair and willing 
"to be shown" if the proper opportunity is 
presented. May not this suggestion offer 
this opportunity? 



Aeronautics Issues Semi-Monthly 

BEGINNING with the first of 1914, AERONAUTICS will be issued twice a month, 
on the 13th and 30th. The first January Number will appear January 13th ; 
the second January Number will be mailed January 30th. Advertisements will ap- 
pear every issue or every other issue as desired by advertisers. The price of single 
issues will be 13 cents. 

THINGS are moving more swiftly these days. The "slump" in aeronautics in this 
country is over. Whatever of industry there is is now solid and growth from 
now on will be real. "There will be more done in the next 18 months than has been 
done to date in aeronautics." 

rpHE aeronautical manufacturers are most enthusiastic over the announcement that 
A AERONAUTICS is to be a semi-monthly, the first in this country. "If any mag- 
azine gives value received it is AERONAUTICS." "We think the time is about ripe 
for such a step and no doubt will make AERONAUTICS more popular than ever." 
"It will increase the field of AERONAUTICS' usefulness to a great extent." 
With such whole-hearted support from the trade, and with the generous endorse- 
ment of the readers, which AERONAUTICS has always enjoyed, the future holds 
no limitations. 

WILL my good friends, the readers, show their so often expressed appreciation 
of the magazine in an active way? Will you, friends, see that your town 
library subscribes? If you know of someone who may be interested in the magazine, 
will you send me his name for a sample copy? Will you induce your clubs' secre- 
taries to subscribe to AERONAUTICS ? If there is an educational institution in your 
town, will you say a word? Wherever you can find an opportunity, will you boost 
for aeronautics and the magazine? 



Page 208 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 




TENTH A 



At a public meeting held December 18, the nearest 
date of the scheduled monthly meetings of The 
Aeronautical Society, there was celebrated the Tenth 
Anniversary of Practical Power Aeroplane Flight. 
Ten years and a day before, Orville Wright flew 
a distance of 120 feet under power at a uniform 
elevation. 

The meeting was presided over by William J. Ham- 
mer, a long-time friend of the Wright Brothers. 
Hudson Ma.xim and Hon. James M. Beck lauded the 
achievements of the famous inventors. "Much honor 
is due to the many inventors, from Leonardo da 
\inci down to the Wright Brothers, for helping to 
solve the problem of mechanical flight. A few of 
them almost did it, but not quite. There was that 
difference in what they did and what the Wright 
Brothers did, which, in this world, divides success and 
failure. Consequently, the Wright Brothers are at 
once the Columbus, the Peary, the Ericcson, the 
Morse, the Bell, the Edison, of aeronautics," said Mr. 
Maxim. 

A set of engrossed resolutions were presented to 
Mr. Orville Wright by Lee S. Burridge in behalf of 
the Society. Thomas A. Hill was called upon to 
present Mr. Wright with a bronze figure by Auguste 
Moreau. Ralph H. Upson addressed the meeting and 
told of the situation in aeronautics in Europe as 
viewed bv him. 



On December 17th was celebrated the Tenth 
Anniversary of the First Flight made in a 
Power Driven Aeroplane. 

Ten years ago on that day, Wilbur and 
Orville Wrig'ht made four flights on the 
coast of North Carolina near Roanoke Island, 
a spot historic in America's history as the 
site of the first English settlement in the 
Western Hemisphere. 

The first flight started from level ground 
against a 27-mile wind. After a run of 40 
feet on a monorail track, the machine lifted 
and covered a distance of 120 feet over the 
ground in 12 seconds. It had a speed through 
the air of a little over 45 feet per second, 
and the flight, if made in calm air, would have 
covered a distance of over 540 feet. 

Three days before, on the 14th of December, 
Wilbur Wright had essayed a flight from the 
side of the Kill Devil sand hill, but in three 
and one-half seconds he landed at the foot of 
the hill without having demonstrated the abil- 
ity of the machine to sustain itself in hori- 
zontal flight. Altogether four flights were 
made on the 17th. The first and third by Or- 
ville Wright, the second and fourth by Wil- 
Inir Wright. The last flight was the longest, 
covering a distance of 852 feet over the ground 
in 59 seconds. After the fourth flight, a 
gust of wind struck the machine standing on 
the ground and rolled it over, injuring it to an 
extent that made further flights with it impos- 
sible for that year. 

The gliding experiments of Lilienthal in 
1896 led the Wright Brothers to become in- 
terested in flight. The next four years were 
spent in reading and theorizing. In the Fall 
of 1900 practical experiments were begun with 
a man carrying glider. These experiments 
were carried on from the sand hills near 
Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first glider 
was without a tail, the lateral equilibrium 
and the right and left steering were obtained 
by warping of the main surfaces. A flexible 
forward elevator was used. This machine was 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 209 



DF FLIGHT 

Mr. Wright said: "I wish to take advantage of this 
opportunity to express to the members of this Society 
my appreciation of the honor they have done my 
brother and myself in making us honorary members at 
the inception of the organization, and also for the 
resolutions in commemoration of our tirst flight and 
tlie presentation of this figure, wliich is very beautiful, 
I can assure you. 

"Vour presiding officer has mentioned the stabilizer. 
I think it is a little premature to say anything about 
it at present. It is true that fur some years we have 
been working on a machine to make flying safe, 
taking balancing out of the hands of the man, so that 
only steering is left to the care of the operator. We 
have a device which experiments of the last few 
months have given us very great hopes will do this. 
I do not know what there is I can say about it at 
present. I do not like to talk too much aljout things 
until we have them actually perfected and in operation. 
What we have at presen.t takes care of both lateral 
and fore-and-aft balance and it performs in a manner 
better than an operator can do. In making turns it 
banks the macliine the proper amount, it never allows 
'stalling,' which is common to too many of our opera- 
tors and has been the cause of so many accidents. 
We have had a few little mechanical problems which 
have delayed us but we hope to have it ready for the 
market before the summer season." 



flown as a kite with and without operator, 
and several glides were made with it. 

A second machine was designed of larger 
size, and many glides were made with it in 
1901. This machine was similar to the one of 
1900 but had slightly deeper curved surfaces, 
Experiments with this machine demonstrated 
the inaccuracy of all the recognized tables of 
air pressures, upon which its design had been 
based. 

In 1902 a third glider was constructed, based 
upon tables of air pressures made by the 
Wright Brothers themselves. The lateral con- 
trol was maintained by warping surfaces, and 
a vertical rear rudder operated in conjunc- 
tion with the surfaces. Nearly a thousand 
gliding flights were made with this machine. 
An account of these experiments given in 1903 
by Mr. Chanute in talks before scientific socie- 
ties in Europe and in articles contributed to 
technical papers, led a number of persons in 
France to take up experiinents with a simi- 
lar machine, which was called a Chanute- 
Wright type. Among these were Archdeacon, 
Esnault-Pelterie and the Voisin Brothers. 
Captain Ferber had already in 1902 built 
what he termed a "Chanute-Wright" type ma- 
chine. 

In 1903, the Wright Brothers designed a 
machine to be driven with a motor. They 
also designed and built their own motor. This 
had four horizontal cylinders, 4 in. by 4 in., 
and developed 12 h. p. Two propellers, turn- 
ing in opposite directions, were driven by 
chains from the engine. After many delays 
the machine was finally ready and was flown 
on the 17th of December, 1903, as related 
aliovc. 

In the Spring of 1904, power flights were 
continued near Dayton with a machine similar 
to the one flown in 1903. but slightly heavier. 

The first complete circle was accomph^shed 
uii the 20th of September, 1904, in a 
Continued on page 220 




flight 




Page 210 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



''STABILITY IN FLYING MACHINES"* 

Criticism on Mr. Merrill's Paper 

By L. B. SPERRY 



Let me ask if there are any aviators pres- 
ent who care to fly a machine which under 
certain conditions would suddenly dive or 
climb, with a tendency more powerful than 
his controls? If there are any who are 
looking for such a vehicle on which to test 
their powers let them choose the so-called 
inherently stable plane. 

Air. Merrill has conceded that the so- 
called inherent stability is more or less pen- 
dulous in action, resulting in undulating 
flight. So-called inherent stability cannot 
call upon a considerable righting couple 
without moving out of its stable zone to 
generate that righting couple; it cannot, 
therefore, return to its zone until the dis- 
turbing forces cease. In other w^ords, a so- 
called inherently stable plane defeats its 
own purpose when, in order to fight a dis- 
turbing influence, it departs from its stable 
zone to do it. Then consider that a ma- 
chine having powerful torques, which tend 
to make it assume certain aspects to the 
atmosphere, will be most dangerous on 
rough days. When this machine enters an 
up or down trend it will try to bring about 
the same relation to that up or down trend 
that it formerly had in quiet atmosphere. 
The aviator will then have to fight to keep 
the machine from diving or climbing. 

Now let us compare an aeroplane with a 
ship. It is true that the longitudinal sta- 
bility of a ship working in two fluids, as it 
does, is not analogous to the longitudinal 
stability of an aeroplane. In lateral stability 
it is akin, since lateral tip does not increase 
the lift of either, but decreases it. We find, 
as naval architecture has advanced in seek- 
ing seaworthiness, that the righting couple 
has been tremendously reduced. The "Irn- 
perator," for instance, has a metercentnc 
height of about the length of your 16-inch 
slide rule. Now, if powerful righting 
couples are the vogue for ships, then a raft 
would be the boat on which to fight rough 
seas, and we should wish to discard the 
present type of aeroplane. 

We have it from an eye-witness of the so- 
called lateral inherently stable Fowker ma- 
chine that to him it did not fly but fluttered 
constantly, tipping from one side to the 
other. At times it tipped to large angles, 
and what amazed him was that it did not go 
all the way over. From the foregoing we 
feel justified in describing such a machine 
as inherently cranky instead of inherently 
stable. 

So-called inherent stability is not a new 
thing; on the other hand, very old. Lang- 
ley, Lilienthal, Montgomery, all worked on 



*Read before the Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
October 14, subsequent to the Merrills lecture before 
the same Society. 



this theory for stability. One of the first 
Bleriot machines was a following plane 
type, copied from Langley. In 1905, John 
J. Montgomery, of Santa Clara, California, 
filed a patent for his inherent stable plane. 
From 1885 to October 31, 191 1, he experi- 
mented with his inherently stable plane 
which caused his death when he evidently 
was unable to straighten it from a nose dive. 
That that type is not the present type, is 
only another indication of the fallacy of a 
large righting couple. 

My experience has led me to believe that 
present machines have more righting couple 
already than is necessary. So much for so- 
called inherent stability. 

The sum and substance of Mr. Merrill's 
paper is that present machines have certain 
defects in design which make them unsafe. 
He suggests remedies for these defects, and 
concludes by saying that before aviation is 
placed upon a firm foundation a correct the- 
ory of design must be worked out by labora- 
tory research. 

Paragraphs 5 and 6 of the abstract read 
as follows: 

"Present machines are so badly designed 
that dangerous couples are introduced 
which have to be offset by other couples in- 
troduced by the pilot. That we fly as well 
as we do is not due to the design of the 
machine but to the skill of the pilot." 

"It is possible to design a machine in 
which the couples introduced are righting 
couples, and in which no offsetting couples 
are needed. Until such a machine is pro- 
duced there will be only a small market for 
the sale of flying machines." 

All save one minor defect in "present ma- 
chines" do not exist in a correctly designed 
machine, as for instance the Curtiss flying 
boat. I have no connection, by the way, 
with the Curtiss Company, but am naming 
this machine because it is the one with 
which I am familiar. 

The first defect, see paragraph 4 of the 
body of the paper, reads as follows: 

"These rotations have a great influence 
upon safety in flight, not only because they 
throw the machine away from a safe hori- 
zontal position, but particularly because they 
affect the speed of the machine upon which 
control depends. Of the two, a stalling ro- 
tation is the more dangerous for two rea- 
ons: (a) because the pressure angle is in- 
creased, which increased the resistance, and, 
unless the thrust of the screw is increased 
proportionally, the speed is decreased. This 
is always dangerous, and many accidents 
have been due to stalling, (b) If the an- 
gular velocity of a stalling rotation is high, 
there will be a rapid increase of pressure 
per square foot on the supporting surfaces, 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 211 



and this sudden strain may cause the ma- 
chine to collapse. Several deaths have been 
due to this cause." 

Reason (a). We will grant that the the- 
ory is correct, although I do not know of 
anyone experiencing difficulty along this 
line. 

Reason (b). That if the angular rotation 
is too high, it may cause the collapsing of 
the machine is ridiculous. Imagine a ma- 
chine to be dived vertically so as to attain 
a maximum velocity of 125 miles per hour 
(Beachey timed on a vertical dive). The 
machine to then be given the angle at which 
it will give the maximum lift, this total lift 
on a 2,000 flying boat will be 6.7 times the 
normal lift. This is a rough estimate of the 
maximum stress that can be possibly exert- 
ed upon a machine. Dr. Zahm allowed a 
safety factor of 10 or 12 on the Curtiss fly- 
ing boat. Mind you that in normal flying 
one never reaches beyond 70 or 75 miles per 
hour. I can of course get the necessary co- 
efficient from Eiffel which would allow me 
to calculate the stress within a small per 
cent. 

Next, see paragraph 7, which reads: 

"Too rapid a diving rotation has caused 
the downward collapse of machines and the 
deaths of some aviators." This stress has 
been considered in a similar manner by Dr. 
Zahm in the design of the Curtiss Flying 
Boat. 

Referring to paragraph 11 of his paper, 
Mr. Merrill does not consider the pressure 
brought to play on the tail surfaces, when 
the machine's angle is changed from 5 deg. 



to 8 deg. The stability couple produced by 
the shifting of the center of pressure is 
very small compared with the stability one 
caused by pressure on the tail planes. Eif- 
fel's graphs show that a change of angle 
of from 5 deg. to 8 deg. shifts the pressure 
2-^,2 per cent, forward, which means a mo- 
ment of % feet on a machine having a 5 
foot cord. The anti couple would there- 
fore be on this 2,000 lb. machine 250 lbs. — 
ft. Now let us consider the stability 
couple. The 50 sq. ft. of tail area having an 
angle of 3 deg., will give us according to 
Eiffel, 144 lbs. lift, acting at a distance of 
14 1-5 ft. The stability couple is equal to 
2,045 lbs. ft. minus 250 lbs. ft., the anti 
couple produced by the center of pressure 
shift, leaves i,79S lbs. ft. stability force. 

The gist of paragraph 18 and on, etc., is 
given in paragraph 4 of the abstract, which 
reads: 

"In most machines lateral stability is 
maintained by increasing the positive 
pressure angle of the tip to be raised. This 
tends to retard that tip and turn the ma- 
chine in the wrong direction. This false 
turning movement is offset by the vertical 
rudder. It is possible to maintain lateral 
stability by moving a surface to a negative 
angle on the tip to be lowered, and this 
will produce a turning movement in the 
right direction, hence no offset will be 
needed." 

This defect is not present in the Curtiss 
machine, when the high side is retarded 
more than the low one because of the down 
trend that exists between the wings. 



NEW TESTS FOR MILITARY PILOT 



The following requirements for a military 
aviator, effective January i, 1914, have been 
approved by the Secretary of War. 

Make a cross-country flight over a triangu- 
lar course not less than 100 miles in perimeter 
with two intermediate landings ; flight to be 
completed within 48 hours after start. 

Make a straight-away cross-country flight, 
without landing, of at least 60 miles, over a 
previously designated course; return flight to 
be made either same day or flrst subsequent 
day weather permits. 

During both flights candidate shall remain at 
least 1,500 feet up. 

Remain for at least 30 minutes at an altitude 
of between 2,500 and 3,000 feet. This require- 
ment may be accomplished during one of the 
cross-country flights. 

Execute a volplane, with motor cutout com- 
pletely, at an altitude of 1,500 feet, the motor 
to be cut out when aeroplane is over the land- 
ing field, and on landing cause the aeroplane 
to come to rest within 300 feet of a previously 
designated point. 

Reports will be submitted giving the main 
military features observed during the flights 
made under first two paragraphs. 

No tests made with passengers. 



The candidate will then be examined the- 
oretically and practically on his ability to read 
maps; his knowledge of the compass and how 
to steer thereby; his knowledge of the aero- 
plane, i. e., what constitutes safe, construction; 
how to make the ordinary repairs of an aero- 
plane; the action of the machine under ordi- 
nary flying conditions, covering the points on 
the action of the controls, how the angles of 
lift on the wings change in making turns, how 
the pressures change both on the main planes, 
rear elevator, and vertical rudder; and what 
constitutes safe flying as far as gliding, bank- 
ing, etc., is concerned. 

He will be examined on his knowledge of 
gasoline motors, carburetters, the most common 
troubles that occur to motors, and how to cor- 
rect them. He shall be able to make simple 
repairs, dismantle and assemble motors, and 
shall show a thorough knowledge of all motors 
in use at the school. 

He shall be examined in meteorology and 
topography in so far as they relate to aviation. 



To AERONAUTICS.— You have done a 
great pioneer work. W. S. H., Miss. 



Page 212 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



SPECIAL PREMIUM OFFER TO MODEL BUILDERS 



A special premium ofifer is made to 
new subscribers in the model field. A 
complete set of materials for a model 
Bleriot-type monoplane, shown in the 




illustration, with directions for con- 
struction and flying, will be given free 
with each new yearly subscription sent 
in by a model flyer. This set of pans 



sells alone for $3. The subscription to 
AERONAUTICS is $3 yearly. Read- 
ers of the model page may have both 
for the price of one. 

This unassembled model is built by 
the Wading River Mfg. Co., of Wad- 
ing River, N. Y., and includes com- 
plete woodwork and rattan cut to 
lengths, fabric for covering planes, 
proofing solution, wheels, ball-bearing 
propeller shaft, propeller blank, rub- 
ber strands, nails, wire, tubing, axle, 
etc., etc. This concern makes, in un- 
assembled or assembled form, minia- 
ture aeroplanes of all the well-known 
types and furnishes supplies of all 
kinds for the building of miniature 
flying machines. An extensive cata- 
logue is sent free on request. 



MODEL NOTES 

By HARRY G. SCHULTZ, Model Editor. 



The model shown in the accompanying 
drawing was constructed by Derza Dayko, 
of Perth Amboy, N. J. 

In spite of its large plane surface and 
high pitch slow turning propellers, it is an 
excellent flyer and has made flights of 2,100 
feet and 121 seconds' duration. 



The fuselage is of the well-known "tri- 
angle" or "A" type, and is constructed of 
two spruce strips 38 inches long by ^-^ x J^ 
inch in cross section, braced at the center 
by an X-brace of bamboo. The rear brace 
or propeller bar is also constructed of split 
bamboo % 'x. % inch. 



DKTKO ALBATROSS' 




AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 213 



The planes are constructed of spruce and 
bamboo, the main spar in each being ot 
spruce; the spar in the main plane being 
J4 X 5/32 inch in thickness, and that in the 
elevator being 3/16 x Y^ inch in thickness. 
The ribs and entering and trailing edges of 
the planes are of bamboo, and the tips ot 
each plane are given a slight negative angle, 
as shovv^n. Both planes have a rather deep 
camber and are covered on the upper side 
with bamboo paper, treated with Ambroid 
varnish. 

The propellers are 12 inches in diameter, 
with a pitch of approximately 36 inches, and 
are carved from a solid block of white pine. 
The bearings consists of the usual small 
pieces of tubing and washers. Each pro- 
peller is driven by 11 strands of >8-inch flat 
rubber. 



MODEL GLIDERS. 



Although there are many model flyers 
thoughout the country, there are very few 
who have gone into the model glider side 
of the sport, although those who have ex- 
perimented in this manner will readily tes- 
tify that much more sport can be had with 
model gliders than with the model aero- 
planes. 

In order to obtain good glides, a hill or 
slope must be obtainable, and the glider is 



launched from the top of the hill against 
the wind, with the nose of the glider pomt- 
ing slightly downward. 

A glider must be much more delicately 
balanced than a model aeroplane, and flights 
can be obtained with a well-balanced glider 
of over 1,500 feet with durations of over 100 
seconds. If the glider has the least too 
much elevation and is headed into a strong 
breeze, it will quickly stall and slide back- 
wards. The object is always to get the 
glider on an even keel, and in view of the 
fact that the glider is headed into the w^ind, 
there always is a tendency for the front of 
the machine to rise and the rear to drop, 
thereby causing the glider to stall, as above 
stated. To overcome this it is generally 
necessary to weight the front of the glider 
in some manner, although the writer knows 
of one flyer who had his front plane, or ele- 
vator, so arranged as to increase or de- 
crease its surface, according to the velocity 
of the wind. 

The writer is an enthusiast on this side of 
the sport and would like to hear from 
others, receive descriptions of their gliders, 
results of flights, etc. 



All queries regarding models and model 
flying should be addressed to the Model 
Editor, Mr. Harry G. Schultz, 23 West io6th 
street. New York City, N. Y. 



MODEL AEROPLANE CIRCLES CITY 
HALL. 

Mr. Frank Schober, late of the Curtiss Company, 
has lately turned his attention to performing stunts 
with model aeroplanes, and on the 21st of November, 
1913. he proceeded to entertain the downtown section 
of New York by launching a model from the tower 
of the World Building. The model was a small 
affair, of a type known as Red Racer, and immediately 
following the model a small glider was launched. 

The model climbed in spirals to an immense height, 
circled the City Hall several times and with unerring 
accuracy landed in the doorway of the Hall, as though 
it had full intentions of paying a visit to his Honor 
the Mayor. The glider soared practically out of 
sight, having a duration of over 2 minutes. 

The tests were witnessed by a large crowd and Mr. 
Schober had a very difficult time getting his model 
into his possession again. 



THE COLLINS CONTEST. 

The Collins R. O. G. model contest, held on De- 
cember 14, proved to be a great success and resulted 
in a new world's record being established by Mr. R. 
Funk, of the Long Island ]\Iodel Aeroplane Club, 
with a flight of 1,620 feet, breaking Mr. L. Bam- 
berger's record of 1,542 feet. 

In the distance contest held in the morning, the 
small, speedy model of Mr. C. Obst (L. I. M. A. C.) 
had its own way and looked to be an easy winner, 
but by his last flight Mr. Funk demonstrated the 
superiority of his model by easily eclipsing Obst's best 
flight of 1,264 feet. 

The afternoon contest was for duration, and Hodg- 
man (B. R. M. A. C.) showed that his model pos- 
sessed great stability in spite of the very strong wind 
blowing, by winning the contest with a flight of 56 2/5 
seconds. The field was covered with small trees, 
which greatly interfered with the flying of the models 
and resulted in a combination model flying and tree 
climbing contest. .\ very strong wind blew all day, 
and it can be said that there were not more tban 
two or three models in good condition after the con- 
test. While in the air some of the models performed 
feats that would have put Mr. Pegoud to shame, 



looping the loop, flying upside down, side slipping and 
performing other marvelous feats. 

Mr. Edward Durant and his very able assistant, 
Mr. George Bauer, conducted the contests in fine 
style. Mr. Durant acted as official timer and Mr. 
Bauer had the tiresome task of measuring all 
flights, and it can be said that quite a number of 
miles were traversed by him. The contest was con- 
ducted on the point system, and after the mathe- 
maticians had consulted, it was found that Mr. R. 
Funk was the winner. The results are as follows: 
POINTS. 

Dis- Dura- Points, 

tance. tion. Total. 

Funk I 3 4 

Hodgman 4 i 5 

Obst 2 5 7 

Heil 6 2 8 

Cavanagh 6 4 10 

W. Bamberger 3 7 10 

Ness 6 5 II 

Judges — Messrs. Durant and Bauer. 
The prize for which the contest was held was a 
handsome gold medal offered by Mr. Francis A. Col- 
lins. Mr. Collins is one of the benefactors of the 
sport and is continually offering prizes to encourage 
the flyers. 



MODEL CONTESTS. 

Excellent contests are held every Saturday after- 
noon at \'an Cortlandt Park, between the hours of 2, 
3 and 5 o'clock. The contests held on December 6, 
IQ13. for duration, R. O. G. models, was won by Mr. 
Frederick Watkins, with a duration of 62 seconds; 
second, Mr. Carl Trube, 55 seconds, and Mr. Rad- 
cliffe was third with 46 seconds. 

Contests in competition for a cup offered by Mr. 
Ilerreshoff started on Deceml)er 14. The first contest 
was a very exciting affair, with a great number of 
spectators and competitors, and was won by Mr. 
Frederick Watkins, who, by the way, seems to have 
tlie knack of winning these weekly contests, with a 
flight of 1,224 feet, rising from the ground. Mr. 
RadclifTe was second, with a flight of 040 feet. These 
contests will run for two weeks longer and promise 
to be very interesting affairs. 



Page 214 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



SUBSCRIBER'S FORUM 



ON LATERAL CONTROL. 

May 19, 1912. 
To the Editor : — - 

In regard to Albert Adams Merrill's article 
in your April issue on the " 'The Fallacy' of 
Existing Systems of Lateral Control": 

When Mr. Merrill states that in his pro- 
posed system of producing simply a negative 
angle of incidence on the high side of the 
aeroplane for lateral balance "the rudder plays 
no part," he must be calculating on flying in 
random directions in the air; for in order to 
keep in the straight or desired course the ver- 
tical rudder must surely be used in nearly 
every balancing operation with such an ar- 
rangement. If both ailerons are meant to be 
normally lifting, then to leave the low-side 
aileron normal and first simply decrease the 
angle of incidence on the high side must cause 
greater speed on that side and consequent 
deviation from the course unless the rudder is 
used to counteract it; and if the rudder is not 
used to counteract it, then the greater speed of 
the high side resulting from the lessened head 
resistance will tend to cause increased lift — 
instead of depression — on this high side, mak- 
ing it necessary to bring the aileron to the 
same angle of incidence upward from the hori- 
zontal (in horizontal flight) as that to which 
the untouched (low-side) aileron is set down- 
wards, before the head resistances on the two 
sides are equal ; for until this is accomplished 
either the vertical rudder must be used or the 
machine will veer out of its course — toward 
the side of the greater angle of incidence; and 
as, much oitener than not, the amount of de- 
pression of the high side caused by bringing 
the aileron on that side to the same angle up- 
ward as it was downward, would not be ex- 
actly the amount of depression required to 
right the machine, the steering device must 
therefore be used more or less in all these 
other cases in order to keep in a straight 
course; and a wavering course is wasteful be- 
cause longer. 

This action is hence more complicated than 
the present aileron and rudder use; and while 
it is doubtless somewhat more efficient, es- 
pecially in making turns, than the ordinary 
method, which uses large and wasteful angles 
of incidence and then uses the vertical rudder 
to counteract the very unequal lateral re- 
sistances (such as bringing one aileron to 12 
degrees incidence while the other is level), 
there is, I am convinced, a much better and 
more logical method. This is the use of ail- 
erons normally level and non-resisting when 
the machine is flying on the level, thus turning 
equally as much upward on one side as down- 
ward on the other, so that the head resistances 
are always equal in level, straightaway flight 
and the vertical rudder is therefore not re- 
quired at all in balancing, greatly simplifying 
it; smaller — and hence more efficient — angles 
of incidence are used than in any other sys- 
tem in producing the same balancing effect, 
and in banking for turning there is less resist- 



ance on the swift-moving, outer side and more 
resistance on the slow inner side (aiding in 
steering) than probably in any other balanc- 
ing method with ailerons or wing-tips, and 
less use of the vertical rudder is therefore 
necessary in turning. And, in this connection, 
it should be noted that the vertical rudder 
must slow up the whole machine when used, 
because located at the center line; so that 
steering by means of using a variable re- 
sistance surface on the inner side of the turn 
is doubtless more efficient, because it slows up 
only the side that should be slowed. 

Besides making ailerons normally level, or 
zero-angle, I would make them bend in a 
curve up or down, as does the Wright eleva- 
tor, thus giving a more efficient lifting or de- 
pressing surface than a flat one would; and 
I also add vertical, lateral sides, extending 
several inches above and below, so as to con- 
serve the vacuum above and also prevent the 
compressed air below from spreading side- 
ways to no purpose, especially toward the rear 
of the aileron; but perhaps level ailerons with 
a fixed concavity and these vertical sides 
would be most practicable and efficient. 
Yours very truly, 

Elmer G. Still, 
Livermore, Gal. 



THE BOSCH NEWS. 

Attention is called to the Bosch News, pub- 
lished by the Bosch Magneto Co., 223 West 
46th Street, New York. The Bosch News is 
a handsome little house organ and each issue 
contains valuable information on the care of 
magnetos, new developments, various types, 
mounting, wiring, relation to horsepower of 
motors, etc., etc. Every one who owns a 
magneto should ask the Bosch company to put 
him on its mailing list. This little journal is 
full of worth-while data and should be re- 
ceived regularly. This is not a "press notice" 
but a plain, simple paragraph for the good of 
all. 



PATENTS ISSUED. 

•1,077,111— C. R. and A. V). Wittemann, Ocean Ter- 
race, Staten Island, N. Y. STABILITY system. 
Claims cover combination, with an aeroplane, of auto- 
matic pivoted connected balancing vanes arranged in 
vertical positions parallel to the direction of travel 
adjacent wing ends and having their upper rear ends 
turned diagonally outward and forward, means for ad- 
justing said vanes, connection between them. 

By shifting the operating lever to right or left, the 
upper curved edge of the right hand balancing vane 
will be moved outwardly and downwardly while the 
corresponding end of tlie left hand balancing vane will 
be moved inwardly. By this movement a greater por- 
tion of the outer surface of the right hand balancing 
plane will be caused to assume a more horizontal posi- 
tion and thereby offer a greater resistance to the air 
and serve to lift the right hand plane, the left hand 
balancing plane at the same time being caused to 
present a smaller area to the air and lessening the re- 
sistance of the air thereto will permit of the left hand 
plane rising and thus cause the machine as a whole to 
move and become properly balanced. 

1,077,114— C. E. Baker, Hamilton, O. PARA- 
CHUTE for aviators. 



AERONAUTICS. Dec. 1913 



Page 215 




FOR FLYING BOATS USE 

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE 

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black, Wliito, or Yellow Soft (,)u;ility (;hu> for water- 
proofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas 
but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as lonfr as the boat 

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planliins; ind for 
waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, cir-culars, ilirectiot^s for «Ve etc 

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Ma.s., U. S. A. 



THE YEAR 1913 IN REVIEW. 

Continued from pane 202 

mated some 46 as the total production for 
established factories. All these figures are 
far below the total for 191 1, when the count 
was 750 for manufactured aeroplanes by 
bona fide factories and individuals. 

The definite advance of the year 1913 
bears out in every particular the statements 
published in the January, 1913, number. Esti- 
mates for 1914 by several conservative man- 
ufacturers put the production for next year 
at more than double that for 1913. It is en- 
couraging to note the confident opinion of 
the trade concerning the outlook for 1914. 

The holding of the international and na- 
tional balloon races in this country next 
year, as well as the growing interest in the 
pleasure of free ballooning, will stimulate 
this sport, and balloon builders view with 
satisfaction the anticipated increase in the 
volume of business, which has been neg- 
ligible for the past few years. 

The small exhibition dirigible may be ex- 
pected to return to the favor of fair man- 
agers, _ as these will appear now as real 
novelties. Witli hydrogen easily available 
in compressed form, smaller and lighter 
balloons will be built to take advantage of 
the superiority of hydrogen over coal gas. 
Perhaps we will see a demonstration of the 
"hot-air" dirigible next year, as admissions 
are now made of its practicability. 

STATEMENT OF THE AERONAUT- 
ICAL SOCIETY REGARDING 
"TIMES'" AERIAL 
DERBY. 

In the course of arrangements for the race and 
the interchange of communications between possible 
contestants and The Aeronautical Society, upon the 
affirmation of at least three "licensed" contestants 
that they had no objection to competing in a so-called 
"unlicensed" contest, and by reason of the fact that 
one entrant (who turned out to be the winner) was 
not the holder of any flight certificate from any organ- 
ization, it was announced to all competitors and was 
veil known that the race was open to any competent 
flyer who cared to take part. 

The Society is given to understand that a few days 
subsequent to the race the Aero Club of America held 
a meeting of its contest committee and declared that 
as far as its "official" records were concerned Charles 
S. Niles was the winner, and not William S. Luckey, 
who made the best time, by reason of the latter 
not being a "licensed" pilot. 

Having been informed that the Aero Club of Amer- 
ica had, prior to the race, communicated with the 
New York Times, the donor of the prizes, regarding 
the matter of "license" for the race, The Aeronautical 
Society addressed the Aero Club of America asking 
that body to inform the Society whether or not it 
had so communicated with the Times and, if so, the 
purpose of the interference. No satisfactory informa- 
tion or replies were vouchsafed. 

The magazine Flying, the official organ of the 
Aero Club of America, later reported the event, plac- 
ing Luckey first, Niles second, etc., in accordance with 
the report of the Society's judges, stating therein that 



the race had been sanctioned upon application made a 
few days before and that W. Irving Twombly, then 
president of The Aeronautical Society and a member 
of the Aero Club of America, had been appointed the 
Club's "responsible steward." 

It developed that Mr. Twombly had asked for "sanc- 
tion" on behalf of the Society, without authority. A 
resolution was passed by the P.oard of Directors of 
The Aeronautical Society to the efTect that Mr. 
Twombly's action, though taken in good faith and 
with tlie best of intentions, was unauthorized by the 
by-laws of tlie Society or any action on the part 
of the members; the Society being already on record 
in favor of Federal control. The by-laws provide 
that nothing shall be done affecting the policy of the 
Society without vote of the membership. This reso- 
lution further provided: 

"That it is the sense of this meeting that the 
Aeronautical Society desires to maintain its friendly 
relations with the Aero Club of America and all 
other bodies of a similar character for promoting the 
general welfare of the science and sport of aviation 
but the recognized and established policy of this 
Society is and always has been to maintain strict im- 
partiality in its relations with all other bodies and 
organizations engaged in similar undertakings, that it 
is not and never has been affiliated witli any other 
organization and does not recognize and has not at 
any time recognized the authority of any other organ- 
ization in directing, controlling licensing, or other- 
wise interfering in the discharge of the work for 
which this Society was organized, and 

"Re it further resolved that it is the sense of this 
meeting that this Society should continue to maintain 
its attitude of impartiality and individuality in all 
matters aeronautical, both scientific and of a sport- 
ing character, at the saiue time maintaining as far as 
possible the most friendly relation with all other 
bodies or organizations similarly engaged." — State- 
ment authorized by the Board of Directors. 



AERO MART. 

For Sale — Our last year's monoplanes and biplanes; 
very cheap for cash, or trade for anything of value. 
— F. .M., 1522 Norwood .\ve., Toledo, Ohio. 




Published Monthly by Aeronautics Press 

122 E. 25th St., New York 
Cable : AERONAUTIC. New York 

'Phones j ^Jjg \ Madison Sq. 

A. V. JONES, Pres't ERNEST L. JONES. Treas'r-Sec'y 
ERNEST L. JONES, Editor M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor 
HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Ed tor 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES 
United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50 



No. 76 



DECEMBER, 1913 Vol. XIII, No. 6 



Entered as second-class matter September 22, inos, at the 
Postofflce, New York, under the Act of Marcli I!, 1ST9. 

^AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each Month. 
All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertising 
pages close on the 25th. 

fl Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and 
payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. 
No foreign stamps accepted. 



Page 216 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



MtUj'^i^'^i^ 



AT THE ARMY AVIATION SCHOOL. 

The winter course of instruction at the Army avia- 
tion school at San Diego started on the 8th of De- 
cember by a course of lectures on aero mechanics and 
aero design by Dr. A. F. Zahm, Secretary of the 
Advisory Committee of the Aerodynamical Labora- 
tory. On December 30 and 31 Prof. W. F. Durand, 
of Leland Stanford, will give two lectures on pro- 
pellers. At the close of Dr. Zahm's lectures, W. J. 
Humphreys, Ph.D., of the Weather Bureau, will give 
a course on meteorological physics and the laws of 
the atmosphere as applied to aeronautics. There will 
follow a course on theory, design and operation of 
aviation motors, a course on topography, aerial recon- 
naissance and photography, and a course in radio- 
telegraphy. The lectures are given immediately after 
the close of flying each day, which continues from 
daylight to 10 p. m. It has been found that it re- 
quires from nine months to a year, with a lot of ex- 
perience in cross country work, before a man can 
really be said to be an aviator. 



LIEUT. RICH'S ACCIDENT AT 
MANILA. 

The following is the substance of an extract from 
an official letter on this subject: The machine was 
flying at an altitude of approximately^ 500 feet and 
through some unaccountable reason Lieut. Rich fell 
from or w^as thrown out of the Wright 50-h.p. hydro- 
aeroplane to the waters of Manila Bay. Instant death 
resulted, as when the relief party arrived on the scene 
it was found that he had breathed his last. The 
cause of the fall will probably never be definitely 
known, as it seems that he got a good start and was 
progressing nicely at that altitude — when suddenly 
the machine was seen to wabble and tilt forward and 
Lieut. Rich was seen to fall clear of the machine, 
striking the water with terrific velocity, and the_ ma- 
chine fell directly, or as near as could be determined, 
upon him. 

DR. BRASHEAR RIDES IN 'PLANE. 

Prof. John A. Brashear has been the first scientist 
in this "country to try the aeroplane. Accompanied 
by Prof. E. C. Larkin, of the Mt. Lowe Observatory, 
Dr. Brashear was interested in seeing Mt. Holly, near 
Los Angeles, as a possible site for an observatory. 
They visited the aeroplane sheds, and Glenn Martin 
offered to show Dr. Brashear Mt. Holly as no pro- 
fessor has ever seen it before. The Doctor accepted 
the offer, and pronounced his trip the realization of 
a dream. 

Dr. John Alfred Brashear is an authority on solar 
phenoniena, the floor of the lunar crater Plato, comets 
and their physical changes, formation of volcanic 
craters in the moon, development of astrophysical in- 
struments, optical surfaces plane and curved, the re- 
finement of modern measurments, etc. He is a mem- 
ber or officer of many of the world's greatest scientific 
bodies. 



LONGEST FOREIGN CROSS- 
COUNTRY TOUR. 

Daucourt, a French aviator, and a passenger started 
from Paris on Oct. 21st, with their destination at 
Cairo, Egypt. The flight was made via Augsburg, 
Munich, in Germany; Vienna. Budapest, Arad, in 
Austria-Hungary; Bucliarest, Varna, on the coast of 
Bulgaria, thence to Constantinople, where they ar- 
rived on Nov. Qth. On Nov. i6th the start for the 
second stage of the flight was made. On Nov. 2_6th 
they reached Ihsian, in Asia Minor, within 700 miles 
of their goal, where the Borel monoplane was slightly 
damaged in landing. On the following night the 
machine was set on fire, and the force of the explo- 



sion of the gasoline tank completely wrecked the 
machine, thus ending the flijjht. The total distance 
flown by the aviators was about 3,000 miles, in 35 
days. 

FLIES 13,000 MILES IN 39 DAYS. 

Paris, France, Nov. 29. — By flying 9.996 miles 
(16,096 kil.) in 30 consecutive days, Helen won 
the Michelin prize for the pilot who covers the great- 
est distance in any number of consecutive days, flying 
at least 50 kil. a day. The remarkable record was 
made over a cross-country circuit. Helen covered 
more than the direct distance tlirough the air between 
the north and south poles. Counting the flying on 
nine days, of which Helen lost the credit through 
having to stop before reaching the official timekeeper, 
he had covered 20,787 kil. in 39 consecutive days. 



SANTA CLAUS BY AIRSHIP. 

Cecil Peoli delighted the children of Montreal by 
flying in to the announced location from a secret '' 
starting place, dressed in Santa Claus costume. This 
is the first time Santa has made his Xmas trips t)y 
'plane. 1 

Corning, N. Y., Dec. 23. — Santa Claus came to 
Corning by aeroplane to-day. The Corning Business 
Men's Association hired Frank Burnside, of Thomas 
Bros., to fly to Corning dressed as Santa, and dis- 
tribute gifts to the children of the city from his 
aeroplane as he flew low over the streets. 



NEW SPHERICAL RECORD. 

Berlin, Dec. 22. — Herr Kevlen, with two passengers, 
ascended from Bitterfeld, Prussian Saxony, in the 
balloon "Duisburg" on December 13. He descended 
at Perm, in European Russia, near the Siberian fron- 
tier, establishing a world's distance and duration 
record. He was in the air 87 hours and traveled a 
distance of 1,738.8 miles. 



BOMB DROPPING IN GERMANY. 

The bomb-dropping competition, organized by the 
Ministry of War, came to an end on Nov. i7tli at 
Doeberitz. The weather was unfavorable and the 
aviators lacked experience. The winner was Herr 
Schauenberg, who, while flying at an altitude of be- 
tween 2,500 and 3,000 feet, managed in tlie course 
of an hour to drop two bombs on a target 262 feet in 
diameter. The attempts were not brilliant, and the 
entire competition was a deep disappointment to all 
concerned. — -The Aeroplane. 



NEW RECORD FOR ARMY. 

San Diego, Cal., Dec. 18. — .\ new army altitude 
record was made here to-day by Lieutenant H. B. 
Post, who ascended 10,600 feet, a gain of more than 
2,000 feet over the previous record. The ascent was 
made in a Curtiss 90-100 h.p. aeroplane No. 23, from 
North Island. Lieutenant Post made the first 3,000 
feet at an average rate of .';40 feet a minute. 



MARTIN MAKES RECORD ALTITUDE 
FLIGHT. 

Los Angeles, Cal., Nov. 26. — Glenn L. Martin 
ascended with a passenger to an altitude of 9,800 feet. 
He used a Martin tractor, Curtiss 90-100 h.p. motor. 



Raymond V. Morris is building at the Curtiss works 
a wonderful fine monoplane flying boat. 



No Atlantic Flight Yef,' Wright Thinks.— Wend/me. 
Our files corroborate Mr. Wright. — N. Y. Sun. 
Same here! 



\ERO'NAUTICS, Dec. 1913 Page 217 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY 

ARE NOW PREPARED TO DELIVER 

The New Wright Aeroboat, Model "G" 

EQUIPPED WITH TWIN SCREWS. DRIVEN BY THE NEW 

WRIGHT SIX CYLINDER 60 H. P. MOTOR, FITTED 

WITH MUFFLER AND ELECTRIC STARTER 

This craft is the development of years of careful experiment and combines in its 

novel form the best practice in hydro-aeroplane and flying boat work. The 

dangerous features of the flying boat — lack of safety in flying, shipping of water 

and foundering in a rough sea, addition of weight, due to water soaking, the 

presence of the motor unprotected over the heads of the passengers, and the drag 

and unseaworthiness of the long fuselage hull, have been eliminated. 

The structural details of the new machine are worked out to combine simplicity, 

strength and reliability. 

The craft is perfectly adapted to the use of sportsmen as a machine for safe and 

comfortable travel over water at high speed. 

THE WRIGHT COMPANY New York Office 

Dayton, Ohio 11 piNE STREET 



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mg photographic text, printed on fine paper pictorialists. 

from good type, and illustrated witti many Foreien Dieest 

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Page 218 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



INDEX FOR VOLUME XIII. 



Note.— Volume I started with the first issue, that 
of July, 1907, Volume II started with the issue of 
January, 1908. Volume III started with the July, 
1908, issue. Volume IV started with the January, 
number. Volume V started with the July, 
number. Volume VI started with the January, 
issue and Volume VII started with the July, 
1 910, issue. Volume VIII started with January, 191 1, 
number. Volume IX started with the July, 191 1, 
issue. Volume X with January, 191 2, Volume XI with 



1909, 
1909. 
1910, 



July, 1912, Volume XII with January, 1913, and 
Volume XIII with July, 1913. 

Only principal articles are indexed. News notes in 
general, and smaller mentions are not indexed. 
Pages I — 40, No. i, July 1913. 

" 41 — 80, No. 2, August, 1913. 

" 81 — -120, No. 3, September, 1913. 

" 121 — 160, No. 4, October, 1913. 

" i6i — 192, No. 5, November, 1913. 

" 193 — 224, No. 6, December, 1913. 



Aeronautics, Government Progress in 148 

-Vccidents, Fatal: 

Schmidt 156 

Jewell 154 

Lillie 112 

" Korn 112 

Kelly and Ellington 184-216 

" Love I ' 2 

" Billingsley ~- 

Bell 32 

Call 32 

" Roche 7^ 

" Bryant 72 

Rich 184-216 

Aeronautical Society Statement on Derby 215 

Aeroplane, Beachey's Special Curtiss 180 

" Army, tests of 7° 

" Army, German specifications S8 

" Breguet Hydroaeroplane 98 

" Burgess Tractor for Army 128 

" Caudron, drawings loi 

Curtiss, 100 H. P. Army Tractor 130 

" • Christofferson, 60 H. P. Racing, with 

drawings i'4 

" Derby, Race around Manhattan 152 

" Dunne, Burgess building i74 

" Dunne, with drawings.. 87 

" German Army specifications 5*^ 

" Grant Monoplane, with Changeable 

Angle of Incidence, with drawings 50, 205 

Guns in U. S. Army 64-96 

" International Race ii4> 152 

" Mars biplane ^32 

" Martin "Aeroyacht," with scale draw- 
ings 13 

" Mooring of Army i33 

" Navy, Standard control for 12-50 

" Ponnier-Pagny biplane, with drawings 100 

" Radley-England hydroaeroplane, with 

drawings ^°3 

" Record, Burnside almost makes 70 

" " Flight, by Garros across Medi- 
terranean 114 

" " Wood's Cross-Country non- 
stop 74 

" Royal Aircraft Factory BE 2, with 

scale drawings • 9° 

" Savary Tractor, by Leicester B. Hol- 
land, with drawings 8 

" Sikorskv Air-limousine 106 

Sopwitli, 80 H. P. Land Tractor 60-102 

" Tariff lowered on • ^ 54 

The Green Dreamed, by Rita Green 

Breeze • • • '97 

United States Army requirements for 

water-'planes '"" 

Wright. German military 55 

Model E 96, 140. 137 

" " Model "CH," hydroaeroplane, 

with scale drawings 1 1 

Aero Strength of various countries........ •• 104 

Airboat, A Yachtman's View of the, by Chas. D. 

Lvnch '-5 

Aircraft and Automobiles in Germany 34 

Armv, Aeroplanes, test of 7" 

" ' " mooring of '3^ 

Equipment of the United States Q^ 

" German, specifications for aeroplanes 58 

" Tests for aviators • ••• 21 1 

United States, requirements for water 

'planes • "° 

United States, aeroplane guns m 64-96 

" Aeronautics for 1913 ^°l 

" Aeroplanes in Balkans 200 

" Aviation School, Lectures 210 



Aviaphone, Turners' 175 

Aviette, the, by M. B. Sellers 126 

Balloon, Ascensions 32, 72, 114, 150, 184 

" Dirigible, German 64 

" " Knabenshue 176 

" " Zeppelin "12" disaster ....135-6 

" •' a Gasless 130 

" New Record 2it> 

" Race, International, by H. E. Honey- 
well and R. A. D. Preston. . 150, 166, 167 

" " National championship 6, 32 

Bell, Grover, death of 32 

Bleriot Aerial Launcher 24-95 

Billingsley accident 22 

Bryant, death of 72 

Carburetion, Effect of Temperature on 95 

Call, death of Lieut 32 

Center, For An Aeronautical (Editoral) 147 

Chain Drive, Benoist 24 

Cody, death of Col. S. F 72 

Constantin Fluid Deflectors, by M. B. Sellers s 

Control, Navy tries standard 56 

Corporations, New 30, 70, 112, 154, 184, 210 

Curtiss-Wright suit no, 184 

Developing New Ideas, by G. M. Dyott 45 

Dirigibles, German 64 

L-II Disaster US 

Ellington, death of 184 

Floats, cork for 96 

Flying-Boat, as a dependable vehicle 176 

" Benoist, "Lakes Cruise" model 19 

ings 90 

Benoist, "Type XIV," with scale 

drawings 90 

" Benoist Chain Drive 24 

" Burgess, 220 H. P., with scale draw- 
ings 48 

" Christofferson, with scale drawings.. 15 

" Cooke tractor "airboat'" 17 

" Curtiss "English" 92 

" Curtiss, Navy C-_2 53 

" Great Lakes Cruise 32 

" Hulls, Stream Line Flow under... 19 

Officially a Motor Boat 19 

" Thomas ' -7 

Wright, Model G 1 69 

Fowler, Inspection of Power Wires 204 

France, Aviation in, by Leicester B. Holland.... 85 

Great Lakes Flying Boat Cruise 32 

Germany, Subsidized Flying 63 

" Dirigibles 64 

Ideas, Developing New, by George M. Dyott.... 45 

Imports and Exports 30, 70, 154. .1 84 

Industry, Review for 1913 202 

Inspection of Power Wires, by R. G. Fowler.... 204 

Jewell's disappearance 1 54 

Kelly, death of Lieut _ 1S4 

Laboratory, Langley aerodynamical... 62 

Lillie, death of Max "2 

Love, death of Lieut 112 

Metal Propellers -'05 

Models, by Harry Schultz, 

26, 68, 65, 108, 143, 156, 181, 186, 212, 216 

" Strand Twisting Device 28 

Motor Boat, Officially the flying boat is a 19 

Motor, Austro-Diamler 90 H. P •'• • • 172 

" British Competition (1914^ '8 

Bureau of Standards Testing Plant 198 

" ■ Curtiss O-X compared 17° 

" Easy starting of 59 

" G vr'o in England 7° 

Hall-Scott 100 H. P. description and test. 20-55 

" Maximotor, 100 H. P ■• i77 

" Renault, Signal Corps test of the 100 H. P. 128 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 219 



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Page 220 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Motor, Revolving Cylinder, by Emile Berliner. . . 165 
Rotative, why cylinders aie odd in number 173 

" Wright 6 cylinder 60 H. P 141-177 

Navy, Curti.ss C-2 Flying Boat 53 

'■ Aviation in, for 1913 2o» 

Standard Control for Aeroplanes 12-56 

Patents 186, 188, 114, 76, 36, 214 

" Boland Interference no 

" Curtiss running gear 172 

Wright 138 

Pegoud's "Loop the Loop" 94, 112, 134 

Rich, Lieut., death of 184-216 

Pilots, F. A. I. changes in conditions 94 

Propeller, Heath pitch meter for 59 

" Progress made 144 

Propellers, Metal 205 

Records for 1913 203 

Review of 1913 202 

Revolving Cylinder Motors, by Emile Berliner.. 165 

Roche, death of 7^ 

Schmidt, death of 156 

Somersault in the air, a 62, 94, 112, 134 

Spruce beams, tests of 63 

Stability, Bleriot stabilizer I73 

" Bonnet prize for 94 

" Device, Wilson 56 

" Gyroscope Stabilizer tried 182 

" Inverted "V" 116 

" \\'right automatic 138 

"Stability in Flying Machines," Criticism on 

Merrill Paper, by L. P>. Sperry 210 

Stability, by E. G. Still 2 '4 

Strut Socket, Thomas 24 



TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF FLIGHT 

Continued from page 2(i'J 

covering a distance of about one mile. z\lto- 
gether 105 flights were attempted during the 
year, the longest of which were two of five 
minutes each, covering a distance of about 
three miles. All of the flights were started 
from a monorail. 

After September a • derrick and a falling 
weight were used to assist in launching the 
machine. 

Experiments were continued in 1905 near 
Dayton with a machine similar to the ones of 
the two previous years. Between the dates 
of September 26th and October 5th, six flights 
were made, each covering a distance of more 
than TO miles and lasting more than 17 min- 
utes. The longest was a little more than 24 
miles in length and 38 minutes in duration. 

The years 1906 and 1907 were spent by 
the Wright Brothers in constructing new ma- 
chines and in negotiations with various Gov- 
ernments. The Wrights proposed to furnish a 
machine that would carry a man and fuel sup- 
plies, sufficient for a flight of 100 miles; to 
demonstrate the machine with a flight of one 
hour's duration, in which the machine must 
cover a distance of more than 30 miles and 
rise to a height of more than 100 feet. _ They 
further proposed to manoeuver over circular 
and "L" shaped coutses. They agreed that 
they were not to receive one penny if their 
machine should fail in any one of these par- 
ticulars, but the heads of the military depart- 
ments of all the Governments were so skep- 
tical that they were afraid of becoming the 
"laughing stock of the world" in entering 
into negotiations even under such conditions. 

It was not till 1908 that the Wright Brothers 
found purchasers for their invention. In that 
year they made a contract to furnish one ma- 
chine to the Signal Corps of the United States 
Army and to sell the rights to their invention 
in France to a French company. In_ both 
cases they agreed to carry a passenger in ad- 



Subsidized flying 62 

Switch, new Bosch press-button 129 

Tariff lowered on aeroplanes 154 

Technical Talks, by M. B. Sellers: 

" " Aviette, the 126 

" " Constantin, Fluid Deflector of 

M., and Its Application to the 

Aeroplane 5 

" " Dunne Aeroplane, with scale 

drawings 87 

" " Solids, Resistance of, and Wind 

Deflection 47 

" " Wind Tunnels, Comparison of. . 54 

Test, of spruce beams 63 

Signal Corps test of Renault 100 II. P. 

motor 12S 

Turnbuckle, demountable ioj) 

Turner "Aviaphone" 173 

United States Signal Corps buys Burgess trac- 
tors 128 

\"ilas Crosses Lake Michigan 30 

War, Aeroplanes in Balkans 206 

Wilson Stability Patent 56 

Wind, deflections and resistance of Solids, by "SI. 

P>. Sellers 47 

" Tunnels, A Comparison of, by M. P.. 

Sellers *. 54 

Wood Flies to Washington 74 

Wright-Curtiss Suit 110, 184 

Wright Incidence Indicator 56 

Wright, Tenth Anniversary of Flight 208 

Zenpelin, L-II 135-6 

" Mileage Statistics 204 

oition to the operator, fuel sufficient for a 
fliglit of ICO miles, and to make a speed of 
40 miles an hour. 

After making some preliminary practice 
flights at their old experiment grounds near 
Kitty Hawk in May, igo8, Wilbur Wright went 
to France to give demonstrations before the 
h'rench Syndicate and Orville Wright to Wash- 
ington to deliver the machine to« the United 
States Signal Corps. The machines used by 
Wilbur Wright had been standing in bond 
in the warehouse at Havre since August of 
the year before. Owing to damage done to 
the machine in shipment, it was not ready for 
the official demonstrations until late in the 
year. 

Meanwhile Orville Wright in September, 
1908, started demonstrations of the machine 
contracted for by the United States Govern- 
ment. On the 9th he made two flights, one 
of 57 minutes, and the other one hour and 
2 minutes, world's records. On the loth and 
nth, these records were increased, and on the 
I2th a ight of I hour and 15 minutes was 
made. On the 17th, the tests were^ termi- 
nated by an accident in which Lieutenant Sel- 
fridge met his death and Mr. Wright was se- 
verely injured, so that he was not able to com- 
plete the tests until the following year. 

Four days after the accident, on 21st of 
September, Wilbur Wright made a flight of i 
hour and 31 minutes at Le Mans, France, which 
record he improved several times during the 
following months, and on the 31st of _D<- 
cember, \von the Michelin Trophy by a fliglu, 
in which he remained in the air 2 hours and -'4 
minutes. 

From 1907 to date readers are entirely fa- 
miliar with progress t'nroagh the reports in 
this magazine. A complete chronology of the 
flights of the Wright Brothers and all others 
up'' to IQTO will be found in William J. Ham- 
mer's "Chronology of Aviation," which can lie 
had free, upon application to AERO- 
NAUTICS. 



AERONAUTICS, Dec. 1913 



Page 221 




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AERONAUTICS, Dec. 191, 



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Page 3 



TECHNICAL TALKS : The Flying Motorcycle 

By M. B. SELLERS 



I am asked to say something about the 
ying motorcycle, meaning, in this case, a 
lotorcycle fitted with wings, but without 
ir propeller,_and intended to make "hops." 
'o do this it is obviously necessary to attain 

speed during the preliminary run greater 
lan that required for flying; and then to 
se up the momentum, due to this excess 
^eed, in overcoming resistance during the 
lide. _ The glide can be made by first 
icending and then gliding down; or, by a 
early horizontal flight, using an increasing 
igle of attack as the speed diminishes. In 
ly experience these two methods give 
jout the same trajectory. 

During the run the wings will be held at 

small angle, preferably the angle of least 
Drizontal resistance; and the type of wing 
3sired would be one having a very small 
Drizontal resistance at this angle, and a 
jnsiderable lift combined with good effi- 
ency at its flying angle. (I shall not con- 



sider wing dimensions or profile in this 
article.) In order to rise it will be neces- 
sary either to change the angle of the wings 
with the machine, or to operate the elevator. 
As the weight of the rider and engine are 
between the wheels, it will require consid- 
erable force in an elevator to raise the front 
wheel unless some special provision is made 
for this. 

The wheel can, however, be fitted with 
extensible fork or spring fork or other de- 
vice to aid in raising front of machine (I 
have used a spring balanced rear wheel on 
my aeroplane for a similar purpose for sev- 
eral years). 

One serious difficulty suggests itself, viz.: 
that of landing. _ If the machine lands side- 
ways or in an inclined position, there will 
be likelihood of a smash. I shall not at this 
time consider the question of dimensions, 
weight, etc., because I have no data at 
hand. 



THE WRIGHT AUTOMATIC STABILIZER 



Orville Wright, who has for some months 
;en doing active experimenting and test- 
g with the automatic device, which has 
;en patented in various countries (see 
ctober AERONAUTICS for full abstract 

the system), has been awarded the Col- 
tr trophy for 1913 in consideration of the 
greatest achievement in aviation" for the 
?ar, the practical demonstration of auto- 
atic stability, despite the fact that the use 

the device in 1908-9, when others were 
arcely flying, was a much greater achieve- 
ent than that of to-day's date. On De- 
■mber 31, 1913, Air. Wright flew before a 
)ecial awards committee. He used only 
le rudder lever, and at one time made 
ven successive turns of the same diameter 
-about one thousand feet. In this man- 
!uvre, although a puffy wind was blowing, 
e machine preserved practically the same 
mk throughout, and proof that this bank 
as the correct one was shown by the con- 
ant altitude of about seventy-five feet, 
hich was preserved throughout the seven 
iccessive turns, the machine neither skid- 
ng nor side slipping. 

The apparatus has been greatly simpH- 
;d over the form described so fully in the 
ctober number, and any oscillating tenden- 
es are overcome. The purpose of the 
esent experiments are to determine the 
:st form of the apparatus, and since many 
instruction changes are continually being 
ade, a detailed description of the device 
this moment would have no value. 
The Wright device consists essentially of 
•0 elements, of course — the one preserves 
e lateral stability of the machine, the other 
eserves the longitudinal, that is, its diving 



or rearing. The lateral stability mechanism 
is functioned by n pendulum. The pendu- 
lum preserves its position, and when the 
machine, due to lateral oscillations, changes 
its positions with respect to the pendulum, 
the_ latter at once operates a mechanism 
which brings the machine back to a level. 
The pendulum motion being entirely lateral 
no accelerations of the machine can start it 
swinging. The longitudinal stabilizer is 
functioned by an air vane on the basis that 
the only correct base line for operation 
in longitudinal stability is the relation of 
the aeroplane to the air that is passing 
through it and is entirely independent of 
gravity, of the earth's axis or of any other 
attraction which would involve the use of 
peiidiilums, gyroscopes, etc. The reason for 
this is that very often in flying there are 
apt to be large bodies of air that have con- 
siderable up trend and down trend, and un- 
less a machine preserves its angle of inci- 
dence for proper balance in these up trends 
and down trends irrespective of its relation 
to the horizontal, it is apt to be upset. 

The apparatus banks the machine on 
turns the proper amount, it prevents "over- 
controlling," it prevents "stalling," it op- 
erates automatically to balance the machine 
fore and aft and laterally — all that the pilot 
has to do is to steer and land. The device 
always operates to the exact extent proper 
and is a better operator than the man him- 
self. It takes balancing entirely out of the 
hands of the navigator, though the latter is 
at all times free to take control himself. 

Once a course is set. using the automatic 
device, and the desired elevation attained. 



Page 4 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 1914 



the pilot can spend his time conversing, 
taking notes, pictures or eating and drink- 
ing. On a long glide, the usual lever is set 
for the desired angle and the device again 
takes care of head-on gusts as v^ell as 
lateral stability. The same statement can 
be made for climbing — and the device re- 
cently invented, called an Incidence Indi- 
cator, described in the August issue, tells 
the pilot the safe angle of incidence at 
which to set his machine for the climb. 

Mr. Wright stated to AERONAUTICS 
that inside of ten years — this period was 



CURTISS 200-H.P. MOTOR. 

A new model still of Curtiss motors is in 
course of production at Hammondsport. 
This will be rated at 200 h.p., cylinders 5 in. 




by 7 in. The chart of expected power issued 
by the company shows 200 h.p. at 1,600, 
although at 3,000 r.p.m. the power may run 
up to 260 h.p. The cylinders are larger bore 
and stroke than those of any other aero- 
nautical engine. The maximum power is 
high on account of the high volumetric effi- 
ciency effected by two inlet and two exhaust 
valves, all 2^ in. diameter with iS/32 in. 
lift. This new motor is known as Model V. 



mentioned in the query — people would think 
no more of entering an aeroplane than 
stepping in an automobile. 

As shown bv the September, 1909, num- 
ber of AERONAUTICS, the automatic 
stabilizing device is not new with the 
Wright company. It was even used in act- 
ual flights in 1908 and IQ09 by Orville and 
Wilbur Wright. 

During the exhibition flights with the de- 
vice on Dec. 31, 1913. the wind was 15-20 
m.p.h., according to the local weather bu- 
reau. 



THE CAR FOR THE AVIATION 
FIELD. 

A little car to travel between railroad 
stations and the ^yi,j}tion field, to run to 
town with, to carfja^-ound parts and repair 
work, to tow disabiqd-i 'planes off the field 
and for general utility purposes, ought to 
find favor with aviators and others who 
have much walking to do in connection with 
the aeronautical trade. Charlie Merz, the 




Stutz race driver, is the designer of (hi.' 
very thing, and our old friend, "Talk witl 
Parsons," 54th street and Broadway, Nev 
York, sells it, or will to anyone mentioning 
this magazine. Parsons will even send 
circular if you want it. It would be jus 
fine for Sloane to deliver propellers with 
Paragon might jack up one wheel and rui 
the band saw with it. "Cap" P-aldwin sureh 
needs it to save that long walk from Oak 
wood Heights. And it only costs $45C 
Fifty miles an hour and 50 miles to th' 
gallon of gas. 



C. C. Witmer is at Miami, Fla., fiom which i ojr 
he plans regular trips to Soldiers Key, Cape Flrridi 
and later to Palm Beach in his Curtiss flying boat. 



iERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 1914 



Page 5 



OXYGEN RESPIRATION AT HIGH 
ALTITUDES. 

The French seem very prejudiced in favor 
• i oxygen and often start using it at only 
0,000 feet. In the Gordon-Bennett Race, 
Jpson and Preston carried a small tube of 
■xygen for emergency purposes, but did not 
se it. The breathing apparatus consisted sim- 
■ly of a small gas tight bag connected with 
he oxygen tank, and provided with a mouth 
liece through which the oxygen could be 
reathed. 

Based on valuable works on the hygiene of 
ir-navigation by Prof. Dr. von Schroetter, 
nd the eminent aeronauts, Dr. Fleming, 
Vigand and others, the Draegerwerk has con- 
tracted special lireathing apparatus for this 
er -ice. 



outside. The working capacity of the appa- 
ratus is dependent on the oxygen consumption. 
If the emergency type provided with 180 litres 
of oxygen consumes on an average 5 litres per 
minute, the oxygen store will be sufficient for 
36 minutes' breathing. Based on the same av- 
erage consumption of oxygen, the type to be 
used for intended high altitude flying supplies 
one man with air for three to four hours — if 
twin cylinders are taken up; the same time 
for two fliers. Special care should be taken 
that breathing appliances used for aeronaut- 
ics should be fitted with a reducing valve 
protected against burning out. as otherwise 
explosions attended by serious consequences 
may occur. This apparatus may be obtained 
from Draeger Oxygen Appliance Co., Pitts- 
burg. 




There are two different types — one for high 
\ltitudes in balloons and the other for aero 
md hydro-aeroplanes. The Draeger, for in- 
ended high altitude flying, has an oxygen 
;tore of 2,000 litres in large twin steel cylin- 
lers. In this apparatus is embodied all the 
experience gained by long years of successful 
practice in the construction of oxygen inhala- 
:ion apparatus. Special care was also h^re 
;aken in adapting the mask for mouth and 
nose breathing. The inhalation is started by 
ipening the valve on the oxygen cylinder. A 
'finimeter" allows of the control of the pres- 
sure contained in the steel cylinders, and the 
oxygen consumed per minute can be ascer- 
tained from a small manometer. A regulating 
screw on the reducing valve permits of an ad- 
justment of the oxygen supply, from i to 10 
litres per minute. The oxygen passes in the 
First place into an economizer bag, and is from 
thence inhaled through a flexible aluminum 
pipe, which does not hinder the free movement 
of the user. The additional requirements of 
outside atmosphere is obtained through a small 
hple in the mask, so that the breathing air is 
as a rule saturated with 40 per cent, of oxygen, 
qtiite sufficient for alveolaric tension. The ex- 
haled air and oxygen surplus escape to the 



"SKY TRAVEL MADE SAFE." 

"An aeroplane that positively won't tip over 
and which will go faster with a 50 H. P. engine 
than any other aeroplane with 100 H. P., and 
which will carry passengers is the invention 
of John R. Humphrey, of 423 Willard Avenue, 
Richmond Hill, N. Y.," at least we are so 
informed by Mr. Humphrey himself in the 
reading notice he has kindly mailed us. 

"Mr. Humphrey has waited until all the im- 
provements and devices he has invented have 
been amply protected by law before making 
his discovery known to the world. He has 
been working on the improvements for sky- 
traveling for the past three years, and has ex- 
perimented and tested his machine until he 
has proven its success beyond the peradventure 
of a doubt." We have Mr. Humphrey's own 
words for this. 

"With this aeroplane the aeronaut [sic J 
can fix his steering apparatus rigidly fast and 
travel over the machine to the engine when 
anything is out of order and leisurely make 
the needed repairs or new arrangements of 
the parts." Running water and conveniences 
seem to have been omitted. 

"One of the most interesting features of this 
new flying machine is the automatic balancing 
device. It is so simple that it's a marvel that 
it was never discovered and applied before. 
With this device a tyro can sail aloft in this 
machine and be certain that no matter how 
adverse the elements or treacherous the air 
currents the machine will sail serenely along." 

"Another interesting thing about the appa- 
ratus is the peculiarity of the shape of the 
new airship [sic. again]. Mr. Humphrey has 
applied the name of 'Arrow-aeroplane.' \X 
offers less air resistance than any other sky 
ship thus far devised and skims through the 
air practically on the same principle that 
Nature has embodied in swift birds. It is 
long and rakish in appearance and answers 
more readily to the impulse of the machine's 
power than any aeroplane thus far seen. 
Technically speaking it is a monoplane." That 
"long and rakish" is awfully in vogue among 
reporters. 

"Mr. Flumphrcy has invented many devices. 
one of his most noted ones being a power- 



Page 6 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 1914 



potato digger, which took the first prize at the 
State Fair in Minneapolis in 1897, and which 
is being used widely in the West. One curious 
thing about the inventor is that he writes 
verse and has written many volumes. This 
proves that a man can be a poet and still be 
practical. His aeroplane promises to be his 
greatest achievement." If it fulfills the above 
promises it will dig up more money than ever 
did a potato digger potatoes. 



WHAT IS A RECIPROCATING 
MOTOR? 

November 24, 1913. 
Editor AERONAUTICS, 

122 East 2Sth Street, City. 
Dear Sir: 

At the last meeting of The Aeronautical So- 
ciety (Thursday, November 20th), Mr. Emile 
Berliner gave a talk on the revolving cylinder 
motor, and in the course of his lecture brought 
out the point very strongly that his motor was 
not a reciprocating piston motor. This, I wish 
to state, is a wrong impression and one which 
can be easily disproved. The reciprocation is 
there whether the cylinders revolve or not. 

Let us take for example the five cylinder 
motor as used for demonstration by Mr. Ber- 
liner. 

Let us consider cylinder No. i. Here we 
have the piston in the position la. In order to 
have a true rotary motion it should be in 
the position ib, that is, parallel to the axis of 
the cylinder, and we see that it is just a dis- 
tance equal to the length of the crank behind 
its true position for non-rotary reciprocating 
motion, if we consider the rotation as clock- 
wise. 




In cylinder No. 2 the two positions are not 
so far apart and for a cylinder at a position 
exactly above in a line with the centers of the 
crank-pin and the crank-shaft they coincide. 
As we pass on around the cycle to position of 
cylinder No. 3 the difference again begins to 
increase, but is now ahead of its "non-recip- 
rocating" position. For a cylinder in the hori- 
zontal position on this side the piston will be 
just as far in advance of its true position as 
it was behind on the opposite side. Again at 
the bottom we fi.nd a position of coincidence 



and from there to the top it again falls be- 
hind. Thus we see that in one revolution the 
piston has reciprocated a distance equal to 
twice the length of the crank or exactly equal 
to the stroke of the motor, which is the same 
as the reciprocation of the ordinary |fixed 
cylinder motor. 

The fact that the angles between the connect- 
ing rods vary, being less on the side away from 
the crank, shows that the pistons get closer 
together and farther apart alternately during 
the revolution, shows this very clearly. 




Angular "Pos'iiion 

of Cra-ytk ,„r 

Another erroneous idea is that which one 
might be led to believe from the statement by 
Mr. Berliner that there is a loss of power in 
accelerating the reciprocating parts, and in 
slowing down and reversing the direction of 
motion of these parts. If we plot a curve 
showing the relation between the work or 
energy of the piston of any reciprocating pis- 
ton motor and the angular position of the crank 
we obtain a curve of the type shown in Fig. 2. 
During the first part of the stroke energy is 
put into the piston in the form of momentum, 
the velocity increasing up to the point that the 
connecting rod is tangent to the crank-circle. 
From there on, the piston must slow down and 
in so doing acts as a flywheel, giving up its 
energy to keep the crank in motion, to com- 
press the fresh charge or to eject the burnt 
gases as the case may be. The only loss is 
the friction loss, which is common to all types 
of engines, reciprocating or otherwise. 

Hoping that this letter may be printed in 
your next issue, while the subject is still fresh 
in the minds of those who heard the lecture, 
as I think the matter one of great importance, 
I remain. 

Yours sincerely, 

Ralph S. Barnaby. 

257 Hamilton Avenue, 

New Brighton, Staten Island. 




" I guess I'm one ot the earliest settlers, all rightl " -Scr/itfrj 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 1914 



Page 7 



TO MAKE A YAW METER. 

Is the little piece of string used by Wright 
aviators to detect side-slipping, which string 
caused so much unsatisfied curiosity when 
Orville Wright was making the first flights 
at Washington, now to be displaced by an 
instrument, which does exactly the same 
thing? The Wright bit of "rag" is not pos- 
sible on monoplanes but the instrument may 
be. 

A "yaw-meter" is an instrument that meas- 
ures, if the air is at rest, the angle that the 
direction of movement of an aeroplane makes 
with its keel, and at once indicates a "side- 
slip." If one considers an aeroplane at rest 
and the air blowing against it, it measures 
how nearly the direction of the wind is "head- 
on." "If an eddy in the moving air meets 
the aeroplane, the direction of the wind will 
change and this will be indicated. A wind- 
vane carried by an airship or aeroplane would 
also show how nearly the movement was head- 
on in the same way as the yaw-meter. But 
the wind vane would be difficult to read when 




YAM m:TI:R 



placed in a position free from eddies in the 
air caused by the aircraft itself. With the 
yaw-meter the dial and hand can be placed 
in a convenient place for observation," states 
Horace Darwin in the first "Wilbur Wright 
Memorial Lecture" before the British Aero- 
nautical Society, a talk on scientific instru- 
ments. 

"Two Pitot tubes are made like the letter 

Y (see figure) with the openings at the tops 
of the two arms. If the wind blows sym- 
metrically to the two tubes the pressure will 
be equal in both. But if the direction of the 
wind changes it will meet the opening at the 
end of one tube more nearly in the direction 
in which the tube is pointing, and the pres- 
sure will be increased. The opposite will 
take place in the other Pitot tube and the 
pressure in it will be diminished. 

"The pressure from these two Pitot tubes 
is taken by two pipes to the indicating appa- 
ratus which can be at any convenient distance 
[away. Each tube is connected to a circular 
Ibox the top of which is an airtight flexible 
diaphragm which can move outwards. A rod 
is connected to each diaphragm, and these 
I rods are pushed outwards by the air pressure. 
I "The hand indicating the angle of "yaw," 
that is the angle at which the air meets the 

Y Pitot tube, is pivoted about the point O, 



and is continued to P. At this point it is 
connected to the two rods from the dia- 
phragms by a freely moving joint. If one 
rod pushes with a greater force than the 
other the hand is moved over to one side, 
and it will come to rest when OP is in the 
direction of the resultant of the forces with 
which the two rods are pushed outwards, and 
when it is in equilibrium the hand will show 
on the scale the angle of yaw. If the speed of 
the aeroplane increases the hand will not move 
because the air pressure and consequently the 
pushing forces in the two rods will both be 
increased in the same ratio. 

"The same instrument can be connected to 
a wind-vane which moves the Y Pitot tubes so 
as to face the wind. The tubes are arranged to 
show if the wind has an upward or downward 
tendency and the angle between the direction of 
the wind and a horizontal plane is measured." 

PERRIN LIFE PRESERVER. 

A novel collapsible life preserver has been 
marketed by a Frenchman named Perrin. A 
couple of bags hang deflated over one's breast. 
These may be quickly inflated, on the occa- 
sion of a descent or fall into water, by means 
of a small tube of compressed air, for which 
a pocket is arranged in one of the floats. 

The outfit consists of a well-made and com- 
fortably shaped airbag of rubberized fabric; 
it slips on and fastens in front, more or less 
in the fashion of a vest, and in its deflated 
condition is not in the way. Inflation is 

r 




achieved with the help of a tube some four 
or five inches long, containing air, highly 
compressed. This cylinder is placed in a 
receptacle made for it in one corner of the 
belt, and the pressure of a thumb upon an ex- 
ternal lever suffices to puncture the cylinder's 
cap and allow its contents to expand into the 
airtight bag. Thus the belt or "brace" may 
be worn without inconvenience, deflated, and 
may be inflated immediately when the unde- 
sired emergency occurs. 



Pa ere 8 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 19 14 



Nftj6««i^pJ^ 



OFFICIAL REPORT ON ELLINGTON- 
KELLY ACCIDENT. 

The following is the summary of the official report 
in the case of the accident to Lieuts. Ellington and 
Kelly. About 7 o'clock on the morning of November 
24, Lieut. Ellington, Chief Instructor on the Wright 
machines, made a flight in aeroplane No. 14, and 
found that the engine and machine were in excellent 
condition. On landing, both he and Lieut. Kelly in- 
spected the machine and left the ground. When a 
mile from the hangars, the machine was seen to de- 
scend at a normal gliding angle, beginning at about 
200 feet from the ground; the glide continued until 
about 75 feet from the ground, when the angle of 
glide suddenly steepened into a headlong plunge, and 
at the moment of striking the ground the machine was 
nearly vertical. The machine was practically a new 
one, having been only a total of 34 minutes in the 
air before the flight in which the accident occurred. 



The students at San Diego made 289 flights, with a 
total of 43 hours and 34 minutes, during the month 
of November. 



NEW CORPORATIONS. 

The Ostend Aerial Navigation Co., Cincinnati, O.; 
manufacturing and dealing in airships; $15,000. The 
incorporators are Charles E. Droste, W. H. Droste, 
Laura Kelcher, Joseph Ostend, Dave Ostend and 
Agron Strashem. 

The Grinnell (Iowa) Aeroplane Co. has come into 
existence, with the following business men as incor- 
porators: D. S. Morrison, president; F. H. Gifford, 
vice-president; W. C. Robinson, secretary; E. B. 
Brande, treasurer; H. W. Spaulding, B. J. Ricker 
and Jesse L. Fellows. 

Connecticut Aeroplane Company, of New Haven, 
$500,000 paid in. Officers: President and treasurer, 
Everard Thompson: vice president, E. A. Mullikin; 
secretary, Samuel C. Morehouse, all of New Haven. 



NEW COURSE AT MASSACHUSETTS 
TECHNOLOGY IN AERODYNAMICS. 

Before the Alumni Council of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology at its last meeting, Lieut. 
Jerome C. Hunsaker, U. S. N., outlined some of the 
needs of education in aerodynamics, with suggestions 
as to the courses that are to be offered in the study 
at the institute. President Maclaurin's recent report 
to the corporation announced the establishment of the 
courses, making Tech. the first educational institu- 
tion in the country to begin the work of making ade- 
quate provision for developing the science of aeronau- 
tics. Lieut. Hunsaker, who leceived his M.S. from 
Tech. in 191 2, has been detailed by the Secretary of 
the Navy for duty at the institute, and having spent 
the summer abroad, presents now an outline of the 
plans. Incidental to this exposition were a brief his- 
tory of the development of aerodynamics and a sketch 
of what is being done in Europe educationally, ex- 
perimentally and in aeronautics. 

Lieut. Hunsaker dwelt on the fact that the real 
advances in the making of machines must depend on 
the man technically trained. It lies with the tech- 
nical schools therefore to be ready to prepare men 
for the specialty of aerodynamic work. It is only a 
question of time when aerial navigation will present 
its problems to the engineer, and the engineers must 
be ready. 

The speaker was careful to indicate that at the 
present time the principal demand for engineers of 
the special kind is from governments. He sees no 
great present demand for such men in work not fos- 
tered by such authorities, and sees no immediate 
future either for commercial use or for sport. But 



it is the fact that the governments of Great Britain, 
France, Germany, Russia, Austria, Italy, Greece, etc., 
are all actively at work with the flying machine; he 
believes it to be the results of the solution of tactical 
problems and that all these powers are not united in 
making a mistake. For that reason, therefore, the 
United States must adopt similar methods. It is not 
impossible that the demand for skilled specialists may 
be sudden, and it is exceedingly desirable that a body 
of men be already educated in the special lines that 
will be needed in the development of air-craft. Mr. 
Hunsaker believes it would be unfair to students to 
make of them nothing but engmeers of aerodynamics, 
for it may be some time before such specialists are 
in demand, but at the same time he realizes that 
with the engineering training already established at 
Technology, it is practicable and not difficult to in- 
stitute courses which will replace certain present op- 
tions by other ones which bear directly on this 
specialty. 

"Such a course," he said, "would presume good 
preparation and could be given in one year's time. 
There should be instruction in advanced mathematics, 
rigid dynamics, fluid dynamics, experimental aerody- 
namics, explosion motors, meteorology, propeller, aero- 
plane and dirigible design, patent law, physics of 
gases, chemistry of hydrogen and general mathe- 
matics of flight." A wind tunnel of the type used 
in England will be necessary, and is to be installed 
without waiting for Technology to get to its new 
home. 
'*" An aerodynamic laboratory w'ill be desirable and 
necessary both for research and industrial testing. 
The designs made by a student can be tested by him- 
self in the wind tunnel and proved good or bad. 
Further than this, if a systematic series of models 
should be designed and tested, some contribution to 
knowledge must inevitably follow. Motor testing 
should also be provided for the engines of air craft 
in a way especially fitted for their peculiarities. 

For the present, it is proposed to give courses in 
general aeronautics and aeroplane design to the of- 
ficers of the United States navy who are under in- 
struction in the department of Naval Architecture, 
and to the senior class in mechanical engineering as 
an option. By next year it is hoped there will be 
sufficient interest to warrant a complete graduate 
course in aeronautical engineering. A small special 
laboratory will be equipped in the near future. 



HALL-SCOTT GET 141-H.P. FROM 
NEW MOTOR. 

The Hall-Scott Company reports that the latest test 
of one of their new loo h. p. 8 cyl. motors, 134 and 
141 b. h. p. were obtained at 1.500 r. p m. The test 
was run during a period of three days, and at no 
time, the company states, was less than 131 b. h. p. 
obtained at 1,500 r. p. m. The factory reports a rusli 
of orders and fine prospects. 



NEW HAMILTON "AEROBOAT." 

A surprise is promised in the new Hamilton aero- 
boat, which is now nearing completion. It is of the 
motor-in-the-hull type, and has many new features that 
should make it very popular the coming season. One 
of the features wdll be the standardized construction 
system in building. The makers intend to bviild them 
in groups, and all alike, instead of each and every ma- 
chine a new model with several experiments attached. 
By this system cost of production will be greatly re- 
duced, without in any way interfering with the qual- 
ity. Should a customer require a spare part, it will 
be ready to install without a lot of fitting. The 
Hamilton people are also establishing a chain of 
agencies that will be at the service of the owner of 
the Hamilton product. In fact, thev are modeling 
their organization along the lines of modern auto- 
mobile practice. 



lERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 1914 



Page 9 



Aeronautics Issues Semi-Monthly 

BEGINNING with Ihe first of 1914, AERONAUTICS will be issued twice a month, 
on the 15th and 30th. The first January Number will appear January 13th; 
the second January Number will be mailed January 30th. Advertisements will ap- 
pear every issue or every other issue as desired by advertisers. The price of single 
issues will be 13 cents. 

THINGS are moving more swiftly these days. The "slump" in aeronautics in this 
country is over. Whatever of industry there is is now solid and growth from 
now on will be real. "There will be more done in the next 18 months than has been 
done to date in aeronautics." 

THE aeronautical manufacturers are most enthusiastic over the announcement that 
AERONAUTICS is to be a semi-monthly, the first in this country. "If any mag- 
azine gives value received it is AERONAUTICS." "We think the time is about ripe 
for such a step and no doubt will make AERONAUTICS more popular than ever." 
"It will increase the field of AERONAUTICS' usefulness to a great extent." 
With such whole-hearted support from the trade, and with the generous endorse- 
ment of the readers, which AERONAUTICS has always enjoyed, the future holds 
no limitations. 

WILL my good friends, the readers, show their so often expressed appreciation 
of the magazine in an active way? Will you, friends, see that your town 
library subscribes? If you know of someone who may be interested in the magazine, 
will you send me his name for a sample copy? Will you induce your clubs' secre- 
taries to subscribe to AERONAUTICS ? If there is an educational institution in your 
town, will you say a word? Wherever you can find an opportunity, will you boost 
for aeronautics and the magazine? 



AERONAUTICAL 
RADIATORS 

Built in capacities and types for standard 
and special aviation motors 

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your 
specifications for special designs 



EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY 

64th St. & West End Ave., New York City 
Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators tf all types 



BOLAND AEROPLANE AND 
MOTOR COMPANY 

THE BOLAND MOTOR 

8 cyl. "V " type 60 H.P. 240 pounds. 

RELIABILITY DURABILITY 

MAXIMUM POWER. MINIMUM WEIGHT. 

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE 

equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) 
and BOLAND MOTOR. 

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of 
utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of con- 
trol which is basic in principle. Write for particulars. 

Factory : Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J. 

Office: 1821 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



SLOANE 



Manufactures the best and 

most reliable aeroplanes 

in America 

FURNISHES 



MONOPLANES- 

which are the standard in de- 
sign and construction. 

FLYING-BOATS- 

for sportsmen — both mono- 
plane and biplane types. Boats 
that are entirely satisfymg. 

GNOME ANZANI 
RENAULT 

at lower prices 



Sloane Aeroplane Co. 

1733 Broadway - New York City 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page lo 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 19 14 



If the Hamilton aeroboat is anywhere near what 
the builders claim, the price of $2,150 should make 
them very popular. Their years of experience have 
taught them that economy in construction and a rea- 
sonable selling price are required to interest the ma- 
jority of prospects. They will market both two and 
three-seat aeroboats, the first lot of which are now 
under construction. One of their machines, which 
was sold through advertising in AERONAUTICS to 
H. W. Kenzie in New Zealand, was flovvn by a 
sixteen-year-old boy for fifteen minutes the first time 
in the air. 



FOWLER'S INSPECTION FLIGHTS. 

Robert G. Fowler deserves no little credit for the 
good flights he has been making during his contract 
to inspect the power wires of the Great Western 
Power Co. Two notable flights were of 175 and 200 
miles respectively. It took 2 hours and 17 minutes 
to make 70 miles during the first flight mentioned, 
on account of the high wind. The other course neces- 
sitated flying with his passenger over Mt. Diablo, at 
an altitude of 5,000 feet. 



AN APPRECIATION. 

Mr. E. L. Jones, Editor AERONAUTICS. 

Dear Sir: Will you be good enough to give space 
to this inadequate expression of my thanks to those 
two staunch and steady, tried and trusty friends who 
permitted me to use their names and gave their time 
in the important and patriotic campaign started for 
a certain purpose, of which many readers of this 
magazine are aware. These gentlemen, Mr. C. J. 
Hall, of the Union Savings Bank and Trust Co., and 
Mr. W. W. Gibbs, vice-president of the German- 
American Savings Bank, Los Angeles, gave their 
services for the national campaign as if they knew 
what our European friends do in such campaigns. 
Service is the great thing in this world. It is to be 
hoped that the rest of us will do our part during 
the coming months. Sincerely yours, 

C. W. SIRCH. 



NAVAL AERONAUTICS— AIR CRAFT 

WILL TAKE THEIR PLACE IN 

THE FLEET. 

The Secretary of the Navy has decided that the 
science of aerial navigation has reached that point 
where air craft must form a large part of our naval 
force for offensive and defensive operations. Nearly 
all countries having a navy are giving attention to 
this subject. This country has not fully recognized 
the value of aeronautics in preparing for war, but it 
is believed that we should take our proper place. 

This is the policy that has been adopted. Captain 
W. I. Chambers, U. S. N., retired, in charge of 
aviation in the navy, is recognized as one of the 
leading men in this science in the world. Lieut. John 
H. Towers, U. S. N., an aviator of recognized ability, 
has had charge of the aviation camp at Annapolis, 
under Captain Chambers. He has contributed largely 
to the development of naval aviation by practical 
work in e.xperimentation and in training personnel for 
flying. Several other officers and a detachment of 
men are working with Lieut. Towers. The navy has 
other qualified aviators and some students of aviation 
to assist in further development. 

Captain Chambers will continue his excellent work 
at the Navy Department. Captain Mark L. Bristol has 
been assigned to the study and development of the 
art of aerial warfare for the navy. 

It has been decided by a board of naval officers 
that Pensacola is the best location in this country for 
a naval aeronautical center. The Secretary has ap- 
proved the findings of this board, and selected the 
naval station at Pensacola, Fla., for a naval aero- 
nautical station. The aviation camp at Annapolis will 
be transferred there, and a flying school, in charge of 
Lieut. Towers, will be permanently established. The 
battleship Mississippi has been detached from the 
reserve fleet and assigned as aeronautical station ship 
at Pensacola. She will sail in a few days. Lieut. 
Commander H. C. Mustin, a qualified aviator, student 
of aviation and an officer of much mechanical ability, 
has been assigned to special aeronautical duty on 
board the Mississippi. He is to take up the problem 
of the work of air craft at sea with the fleet. 

This new impetus to aeronautics in our navy is 
only the beginning of a program that has been mapped 



out. The flying school at Pensacola, working with the 
Mississippi, will produce trained personnel and evolve 
a complete system of training. A scheine for syste- 
matically carrying out experiments and tests and 
bringing outside experts into close touch with our 
work will be developed. The designers of air craft 
in the United States, and of the world if possible, 
will be invited and induced by substantial financial 
assistance to provide for our navy the best type of 
air craft obtainable. The question of airships has 
already been considered. The purchase of airships 
for experiment and the training of personnel will be 
taken up soon. The manufacture of air craft in this 
country will be encouraged. 

When the Navy Department goes to Congress for 
financial assistance, it will not be based upon theories, 
but upon actual experience and practical results. 



BEACHEY'S LOOP RECORD. 

During the month more than 100,000 people iiave 
paid to see Beachey fly. From Oakland and Los 
Angeles, he starts for a tour of the world via Aus- 
tralia, stopping at Honolulu. 

From Dec. 13th to Jan. ist Beachey flew in five 
cities, looping the loop some thirty-eight times and 
flying upside down twenty-seven times. 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 

Imports of 'Planes and Parts. 

October $ 108 

For 10 months ending October i 19,625 

Exports of Domestic 'Planes and Parts. 

October $ 1,015 

For 10 months ending October 16 64.1 75 

Exports of Foreign 'Planes and Parts. 

October $ 900 

For 10 months ending October 2 11,232 

In Warehouse. 
October 31 — Three $7,623 



NO SPEED FREAKS IN 1914 RACE. 

The regulations governing the 1914 race for the In- 
ternational Cup, which will be held in France over 
a 200-kilometre course, provide that competing ma- 
chines will have to compete in preliminary tests over 
a straight line out and back of about two kilometres, 
at a mean speed of not more than 70 kilometres (43 fi 
miles) an hour. In this test the machine must carry 
sufficient petrol and oil to cover the whole of the 
course of 200 kilometres. Three attempts will be 
allowed each competitor. After this qualifying test 
has been passed, no modification may be made to the 
machine. Repairs will only be allowed with the per- 
mission and under the control of the stewards. 



SETS NEW ALTITUDE RECORD. 

Saint Raphael, France, Dec. 27. — The world's alti- 
tude record for aeroplanes was broken to-day by 
Georges Legagneux, who ascended to a height of 
20,295 feet in his monoplane. The duration of the 
flight was I hour and 35 minutes. 



FIVE NEW ZEPPELINS. 

Five new Zeppelins are to be ready by April: two 
for the Germany army, two for the navy, and the 
fifth is for passenger service on Lake Constance. 



AUTO MOTOR RUNS 14 DAYS. 

Of the accessories fitted to the Moline-Knight 
sleeve-valve engine, which on January 2d completed 
the 336-hour test, none shows up more prominently 
than the Bosch magneto and the Bosch plugs. These 
important attributes of the engine were subjected to 
a difficult trial, having passed through the 336-h(iur 
test, the preliminary runs, the horsepower test and 
the 5-hour economy test without being touclied or 
adjusted in any manner whatsoever, and neither the 
magneto nor the plugs missed an explosion during 
the entire time. 

One gains an idea of what the ignition system per- 
formed during the 336-hour test when it is known 
that over 44,352,000 sparks were produced by the 
magneto and 11,088,000 sparks passed across the 



niRONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 1914 



Page II 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY 

ARE NOW PREPARED TO DELIVER 

The New Wright Aeroboat, Model "G" 

EQUIPPED WITH TWIN SCREWS. DRIVEN BY THE NEW 

WRIGHT SIX CYLINDER 60 H. P. MOTOR, FITTED 

WITH MUFFLER AND ELECTRIC STARTER 

This craft is the development of years of careful experiment and combines in its 

novel form the best practice in hydro-aeroplane and flying boat work. The 

dangerous features of the flying boat — lack of safety in flying, shipping of water 

and foundering in a rough sea. addition of weight, due to water soaking, the 

presence of the motor unprotected over the heads of the passengers, and the drag 

and unseaworthiness of the long fuselage hull, have been eliminated. 

The structural details of the new machine are worked out to combine simplicity, 

strength and reliability. 

The craft is perfectly adapted to the use of sportsmen as a machine for safe and 

comfortable travel over water at high speed. 



THE WRIGHT COMPANY 
Dayton, Ohio 



New York Office 
1 1 PINE STREET 





Published Semi- Monthly by Aeronautics Press 

122 E. 25th St.. New York 

Cable : AERONAUTIC. New York 

c 9122 ) 
'Phones -j . . ,, [- Madison Sq. 

A. V. JONES. Pres'i ERNEST L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y 

ERNEST L. JONES, Editor M. B. SELLERS, Technical Editor 

HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor 



Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, 
Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan 
for Skids lj'4 diameter and under any length. 

J. DELTOUR, Inc. ""iZitTj''- 



'we are headquarters^ 

(ov model aeroplanes, accessories and supplies 
\'er.v ciiiiiplete catalog free on request 



SUBSCRIPTION RATES 



Wading River Mfg, Co. - 

Wading River. N. Y. 



United States, $3.00 



Foreign, $3.50 



No. 77 



JANUARY 15, 1914 Vol. XIV, No. 1 



MODELS 



Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at tlie 
Postoffice, New York, vinder the Act of March 3, 1879. 

^ AERONAUTICS is issued on the 15th and 30th of each 
Month. All copy must be received 6 days before date of 
publication. If proof is to be shown, allowance must be 
made for mailing. 

C Make all checks or money orders free of exchange and 
payable to AERONAUTICS. Do not send currency. 
No foreign stamps accepted. 

CHARMY 

PROPELLERS 



STYLES & CASH ''''"'"•' «'•'■•>"" 

Lithographers 



ESI .-^BLISIIED la 



Aeroplane, Motor and Accessory Catalogues 
Circulars, Brochures, Bulletins, etc. :: :: 



135 W. 14th STREET 



NEW YORK 



USED by Gilpatric and Wood in "Times" Aerial Derby 
USED by Wood in his flight to Washington 
Have proven their superiority 

SLOANE AEROPLANE CO. 

1733 Broadway, :: New York City 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 12 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 1914 



electrodes of each of the four plugs. It took just 
88,704,000 separate movements of the magneto contact 
breaker to produce these sparks. 

This is an unprecedented performance. The motor 
ran without any stop whatever for 336 hours, with 
wide-open throttle and set spark, at an average speed 
of 1,117 revolutions per minute, giving an average 
brake horsepower of 38.3. The lowest horsepower 
reading for any fifteen-minute interval during the 
entire 336 hours was 36.4. 

At the end of the 336 hours, without stopping the 
motor, the speed was increased and the motor de- 
veloped an average of 53 brake horsepower for a 
period of one hour, while averaging 1,670 revolutions 
per minute. 

Prior to and following the endurance run, a series 
of short tests were made, with wide-open throttle and 
spark set for maximum power, to determine the power, 
friction and fuel consumption of the motor at vari- 
ous speeds. The same carbureter setting employed 
during the endurance run was used in these runs. 
The maximum brake power shown in these tests was 
53.6, at 1,682 revolutions per minute. 

The motor was dismantled before and after the 
test to permit careful inspection. At the end of the 
test the parts of the motor were, without exception, 
in excellent condition. There was no perceptible 
wear on the bearings, .sleeves or other parts. 



ST. 



PETERSBURG-TAMPA 
LINE. 



AIRBOAT 



The St. Petersburg-Tampa (Fla.) Airboat Line an- 
nounces its 1914 schedule. Boats leave St. Peters- 
burg daily at 10 a. m. and 2 p. m., returning from 
Tampa at 11 a. m. and 3 p. m. I he popular captain, 
Tony Jannus, remains on the bridge this year as 
usual. A change has been made in rates, however — • 
quite a reduction, in fact, from previous schedules: 
$5 per trip, round trip $10. Passengers are allow-ed 
200 lias, gross, including hand baggage. Excess is 
charged at ?5 per 100 lbs., minimum charge 25 cents. 
Express rates for packages, mail matter, etc., $5 per 
100 lbs., minimum charge 25 cents. Fat men over 
200 lbs. pay for excess baggage. 




Captain Jannus began this season's daily trips from 
St. Petersburg across the w-ater to Tampa on January 
I, Mayor Pfeil, of the former city, bidding the 
privilege of the first flight up to $400, while N. A. 
iVIitcliell paid $175 for the second. The over-water trip 
takes from 19 to 23 minutes. 

The new vessel is the product of the Benoist air 
ship building plant at St. Louis and follows standard 
commercial packet lines. Little attention has been 
given to luxuries; in fact, there are no staterooms at 
all on this boat. 

Tony Jannus made himself known to New Yorkers 
in the race around Manhattan on Columbus Day last 
when he piloted to its dock the good ship Benoist in 
a 43 mile wind. With progress in these air cruiser 
packets, we will doubtless soon come to vessels more 
or les5 analogous to the old luxurious steamers of 
191 3, which oldest inhabitants will remember with fond 
recollections. 

Entering the above in my diary after an interesting 
discourse with Mr. Foss, the engine builder, to bed, 
albeit I would much rather stay up awhile and see 
the new mail boats w-ith their great lights make a 
patchwork of the upper air. 



AERO MAIL BILL MAY BE KILLED. 

The bill to provide for experimental carrying of 
mails in certain parts of the United States where it 
now takes many days for the delivery of pouches is 
meeting with strenuous opposition on the part of hard 
headed Congressmen. The greater need is for aero- 
planes and dirigibles for the Army and Navy and 
efforts should be concentrated towards proper appro- 
priations in this respect rather than for mails. 



BEACHEY FLIES INSIDE BUILDING. 

I,incoln Beachey again demonstrated his own su- 
perior technique and at the same time evidenced the 
great accuracy with which he handles his Curtiss 
biplane, when he flew around inside Machinery Hall 
at the Panama Exposition groinids in San Francisco 
last week. He started his flight with his "loop" ma- 
chine (see AERONAUTICS for November, 1913) out- 
side the building, then swooped through the doorway 
and around the great building. Machinery Hall is 
some 900 ft. long and the arches are 75 ft. wide. 
In flight Beachey is said to have had no difficulty, but 
in landing it is reported he ran into a big net, set 
at one end of the hall for his protection, and slightly 
damaged his machine. He was quite uninjured and the 
machine so slightly that it was ready for the exhibi- 
tions he gave ne.xt day. Beachey is- booked to start 
round the world next week. 



CURTISS 'PLANES WITH AUTO- 
MATIC STABILIZER. 

Two Curtiss aeroplanes equipped with automatic 
stabilizers are entered in the $77,200 prize contest to be 
conducted in France, beginning in February, by the 
Aero Club of France for L'Union pour la Securite en 
Aeroplanes (see p. 152, August issue). One of the 
machines is now in Paris, while the other is being 
prepared here for final tests and will be shipped soon. 

Mr. Curtiss, working with the LTnited States Army 
aviation corps, and the U. S. Navy aviation corps, and 
the Sperry gyroscope company, has devoted much 
time to the problem since 1912. Tests made during 
the past season were so satisfactory that the device 
was entered for the competition inaugurated by the 
Union Pour La Securite en Aeroplans several months 
ago. More recently a second Curtiss machine, to be 
equipped with another device which has passed the 
severest tests, was entered and will be shipped in 
time for the elimination trials. Little publicity has 
been given the trials here. 



MACKAY TROPHY WON AT RECORD 
BREAKING SPEED. 

Flying 58 miles in 46 minutes, locating and ac- 
curately describing an advancing "enemy," and fin- 
ishing the flight with a glide of 8 miles to within 25 ft. 
of a prearranged landing mark, won the Mackay 
Trophy for Lieutenant Joseph C. Carberry, Sixth In- 
fantry. The flight was made in the latest Curtis mili- 
tary tractor delivered to the U. S. Army aviation corps 
at San Diego, equipped with a Curtiss 90-100 h.p. 
motor, on December 30th. 

Lieutenant Fred Seydel, C. A. C, accompanied 
Lieutenant Carberry on the record breaking flight as 
official observer. 

Flying at an altitude of 3,500 feet the aviators 
searched the country for the expected enemy and 
when well over Point Loma discovered the troops 
which had left Fort Rosecrans at 7 a. m. Indicating 
the number of troops, their marching speed and direc- 
tion on the map, they swung about and flew back to 
Encinitas. 



Orville Wright says flying now is fool-proof. This 
is gratifying — because it is the only thing that is. — 
A'. Y. Eve. Sun. 



Ilaldeman von Figyelmessy is doing some good work 
on IStaton Island with the Curtiss engine tractor of 
O. E. Williams. Fig.-etc. doesn't at all mind turning 
over in the air a couple of times with a loose engine 
bed and getting thrown out. Never heard that it vyas 
part of the Hammondsport course to fall three stories 
on one's head to get a degree. Perhaps Ilaldeman 
von F. was only doing post-graduate work. 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 1914 



Page 13 









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Page 14 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 19 14 



NAVY RECEIVES MORE FLYING 
BOATS. 

Three more Curtiss flying boats and an O. W. L. 
have been delivered to the U. S. Navy. The C-3 was 
tried Dec. 7 at Hammondsport and showed 60 m.p.h., 
minimum 45 m.p.h., with Lieut. B. L. Smith and 
Ensign Chevalier in the machine. She readily car- 
ried three people and 25 gallons of gas, total weight 
500 lbs. Left the water inside of 1,500 ft., climbed 
1,500 ft. in 13 minutes and made an endurance run 
of an hour. This machine was packed for transport 
with the marines to Culebra for winter maneouvres. 

The C-4 and the C-5 were tested at Annapolis on 
Dec. 24. The maximum speed of each was, respect- 
ively, 64.157 and 59.052 m.p.h. The minimum speeds 
were, respectively, 45.033 and 49.672 m.p.h., the ap- 
parent shortcoming in C-5 being due to lack of time 
to adjust motor. C-5 left the water in 1,100 ft. 
and climbed at the rate of 143 ft. per minute. The 
oil consumption was 5 pts. per hour and the fuel 
consumption 7.'8 gals, per hour. C-4 left the water 
in a run of 1,000 ft. and climbed at the rate of 150 
ft. per minute to 1,500 ft. Oil and gas consumption, 
respectively, 4 pts. and 8 gals, per hour. 

The O. W. L. (over land and water) machine, the 
E-i, is a modified Curtiss hydroaeroplane, fitted with 
wheels, running in rectangular slots in the pontoon. 
These wheels can be drawn up out of the way and 
fi.xed stationary by a lever. This machine has also 
gone to Culebra. The first tests of this e.xperimental 
type, hastily constructed, were highly satisfactory, 
showing a speed range of 44 to 65 m.p.h., with sur- 
prising m;ineouvering qualities in the air and splendid 
ada|)tability fur work on both land and water. 



FLYING AT PANAMA-PACIFIC. 

The flying at the Exposition grounds has been 
truly wonderful. Every Sunday there are at least 
si.x hydros, and sometimes ten, giving beautiful dem- 
onstrations of the modern water craft, its efficiency, 
speed and reliability. "Beachey's stunt is wonderful. 
At first I did not think much of it from hearing 
others talk about it, but, believe me, when I say it, is 
worth walking miles to see." 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

FLIEnERKliRZ. Leitfaden fiir Mililar-und Zivil- 
fljeger, von Josef Flassig, k. u. k. Leutnant und Feld- 
pilot der oesterreichischen Luftschifferabteilung. 
i6mo, cloth, 164 illustrations and tables, charts and 
drawings, published at K. 7.20 by K. v. Waldheim, 
Jos. Eberle & Co., Andreasgasse 17, Wien VII, 
Austria. 

Contents include:— DIE PTIYSIKALISCHEN UND 
METEOROLOGTSCIIEN EIGENSCITAFTEN DER 
LUST — Physikalische Eigenschaften, \)er Luftdruck, 
Die Lufttcmpcratur, Der Wind, Die Luftfeuchtigkeit. 
DER LUFTVVl DERST.XND— Senkrechter Luftstofs, 
Schiefer Lnftstols, .Stirnwiderstand auf Stabe, Ande- 
rung des Luftwiderslandcs durch die Form des Kor- 
pers, Widerstiindc von Streben und Seilen, Wirkung 
der stromenden Luft auf gewolbte Flachen, Versuche 
von Lilienthal, der Gottinger Anstalt und der Ver- 
suche von Eiff'el, Der Luftwinderstand bei Drachen- 
fleigern. Die Berechnung von Propellern. DIE 
FLUGMASCHINE— Der Rumpf, Die Steuerung, Die 
Die Kolben, Die Kolbcnringe. Das Motorgehause, 
Verwindung. DER B.ENZINMOTOR— Die Zylinder, 
\'orang bei der Zundung. Zundvorrichtungen, Die 
Wichtigsten Vergastertypcn, Die Arbeitsweise des 
Benzinmotors, Instandhaltung des Motors und Repara- 
turdesselbcn, Visitierungstabelle, Storungen am Motor, 
Die Typen der Aeromotoren, Bremstande. BENZIN 
LTND OL — Die chemische LIntcrsuchung der Brenn- 
stoffe. Die chemisch-physikalische Untersuchung der 
Schmiermittel. MATERIALKUNDE— Das Holz, Eisen 
& Stahl, Zink, Knpfer, Blei, Zinn, Nickel, Aluminium, 
Legierungen, Zugfestigkeit der Metalle und deren 
Legierungen, Zugfestigkeit von Drahten, Das Loten, 
Das Schweifscn, Das Ilarten. FESTIGKEITSLEHRE 
— Zulassige Spannungen, Festigkeit gerader Stabe, 
Zusammengesetztre Festigkeit, Belastungsfalle beim 
Flugzeughau. DIE SCHULE DES FLIEGENS— 
Dienstordnung und DirecUtiven fur den Pilotenkurs, 
Die Ilaftpflicht fur die Flieger, Die Ausbildung im 
Flieeen. FLUGTECHNISCIIE PIIOTOGRAPHIE 
ANILANG — Organisatorische Bestinimungen fur die 
Luftschifferabteilung, Meldeformular, Die Sportkom- 
missare fur Flugmachincn, Die Prufungskommissare, 
Die neuen Bestinimungen, Die Federation Aeronau- 
tique Internationale, Lizenz. 



COURT GIVES WRIGHT DECISION 
New York, Jan. 14.— Yesterday the U. S, 
Circuit Court handed down an opinion in favor 
of the plaintiff in the Wright-Curtiss suit. 
Full abstract of decision in next issue. 



At the Paris Exhibition, December 25th, there were 
65 pieces of apparatus on which ignition systems were 
fitted. Of these 65, 56, or 86<%, used the Bosch mag- 
neto. The balance was divided among three other 
makes of ignition systems. 

In the national award for the best distance covered 
in 24 hours, Bosch-equipped aeroplanes made a clean 
sweep, winning all prizes from i to 6, inclusive. 

Prize I was won by Stoeffler — Aviatik monoplane, 
Mercedes engine, Bosch magneto. Stoeffler covered 
2,079 kilometers, about 1,291 miles, which is a world's 
record. His prize was 100,000 marks, or $25,000. 

The second prize, Schlegel — Gotha monoplane, Mer- 
cedes engine, Bosch magneto. Distance, 1,497 kilo- 
meters. Prize, 60,000 marks. 

Third prize, Caspar — Gotha Hansa monoplane, Mer- 
cedes engine, Bosch magneto. 1,381 kilometers. 

Fourth prize, Thelen — Albatros biplane, Mercedes en- 
gine. Bosch magneto. 1,373 kilometers. 

Fifth prize, Kastner — Albatros monoplane, Mercedes 
engine, Bosch magneto. 1,228 kilometers. 

Sixth prize, Geyer — Aviatik biplane, Mercedes en- 
gine, Bosch magneto. 1,173 kilometers. 



AERO MART. 



SACRIFICE — A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one 
of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall- 
Scott 60 II. P. motor, all in Ai condition, for $1,350 
cash, subject to demonstration to bona-fide purchaser. 
Shipping boxes, propeller, crates, completely equipped 
for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser 
at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the 
season. Opportunity knocks but once at every man's 
door. .Xddress "Sacrifice," care of AERONAUTICS, 
122 E. 25th St., New York. 

AVIATOR WANTED— Can use a good aviator who 
can fly exhibitions, make repairs, build, etc., a first- 
class all-around man. Fair salary year round. Ad- 
dress, with references. Aviator, care of AERONAU- 
TfCS, 123 E. 25th St., New York. 



On Board S. S. Coamo, 

Nov. 28, 1913. 
Mr. Jones, 

Ed:tor of AERONAUTICS, 

New York City. 

My Dear Sir, — Read with regret that Mr. 
Rrown is retiring from aviation. Perhaps 
Mr. Stevens can use him as an assistant on the 
bee farm he became interested in at Rio 
Pedras, Porto Rico. He told me personally 
when I met him on the island that he would 
supply much honey to the world by his mil- 
lions of bees. I wish both of those gentlemen 
luck, and hope they will not get stuck as my 
friend Mr. Beachey did with his sugar. Per- 
haps Mr. Stevens' idea is to have the bees 
carry the honey from the sugar cane that 
Beachey left behind. Leave it to him. 

With my best wishes to you, I beg to re- 
main, 

Cordially, 
(Signed) Antonio Morales. 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 1914 



Page 15 



PATENTS 

SECURED or FEE RETURNED 
VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY 



Send sketch or model for FKKK seareli of Patent Office 
record. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with 
\,iliia')le List of Invenlions Wanted sent Free. Send for our 
special list of prizes offered for Aeroplr.nes. $600,000 
Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Kxperts in 
Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. 
Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each. 

Main Offices: 724-726 NINTH STREET, N.W. 
WASHINGTON. D. C. 




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ALL AERO BOOKS 
FOR SALE BY 

AERONAUTICS 

122 E. 25 St., New York 



TENTS 



C. L. PARKER 

Ex-mcmbcr Examining Corps, U. S. Patent Offio* 

Attorney-at-L«w and Solicitor of Patents 

American and foreign patents secured promptly and 

with special regard to the complete legal protection ol 

the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 

30 M-Gill BWtr. WASHINGTON, D. C. 



We wish to announce the 1914 models of the 

Hamilton Aeroboat 

60-70 H.P.. $2,150 :: 90-100 h. p., $2,700 



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our aim to make this Aeroboat the same to aviation 
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HAMILTON AERO MFG. CO. 

208 Thirtieth Avenue Seattle, Wash. 



HALL-SCOTT 
MOTORS 

Tom Gunn, the greatest 
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power plant. 

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Write for catalogues upon our 
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PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS 

have positive action, are small and 
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PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO, 

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This page contracted for by 


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FOR NEXT ISSUE 




FOR FLYING BOATS USE 

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE 

Use our Waterproof Liquid (jlue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft tonality Uiue f(n' water- 
prooniipr the canvas coveritu? of flyiUK boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas 
but attaclies it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat. 

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for 
waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc. 

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 



In anszvering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page i6 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 15, 1914 




< BENOIST 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Benoist School of A\iation will open on January 1st, at 
St. Petersburg, Florida. The school will be under the 
personal supervision of Tom W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. 
■We will also conduct the first regular schedule passenger- 
carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. 
Students who want to join the school and prospective 
agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our 
flying boats will do well to address 



The New 
Benoist 
Fh/ini/ 
Boat in 
Action 



BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY 

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida 



50 H.P. 

160 POUNDS 



GYRO MOTOR 



80 H.P. 

207 POUNDS 




Endurance Flying Record 
to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min. 



"F L 1 G H T'* 

July 26th, 1913 

"Some may say — to the obvi- 
ous benefit of the Company 
whose representatives have 
adopted his very practical 
method of calling attention 
to the GYRO engine (50 h. p.) 
that it is all due to the motor, 
which probably develops 
about three times as much 
power as the machine re- 
quires for the purposes of 
straightforward flight." 



Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout 



Send for Catalog 



THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C. 



ALL MARINE FLYERS 

Should investigate the merits of the Three-Bladed Paragons. S/naZ/er >S7:e than corres- 
ponding two blades, with fine lines of design, make them turn more freely. Free tnrning 
enables them to carry higher pitch. The added blade gives them a stronger hold on the air. 

Results: — Less Vibration — Full Turning Speed — Higher Pitch Speed = Smaller 
Slip — Faster Flying — Stronger Manoeuverin^ — Safer Handling and Control. 

Uncle Sam uses three-bladed Paragons almost exclusively in his Navy Boats — There's a 
reason and Paragon price economy besides. 

There are questions in your mind. Write to us for the answers intelligently stated and illus- 
trated by photographs. Full brass blade protection at only nominal cost. 

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md. 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



JANUARY MONTH-END EDITION 



ll lflHi ll l i m i H I MH I 



■IIMIiillillllilMiWIllMllllilHIilllM 




EKCMITIC 



liiiiiiilltlililiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiililllllililllliiMilliiiiiii 



COMBINED WITH "FLY" MAGAZINE 



XIV. No. 2 



JANUARY 31, 1914 




Page 18 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 31, 1S)U 




< BENOIST 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Benoist School of Aviation will open on January 1st, at 
St. Petersburg, Florida. The school will be under the 
personal supervision of Tom 'W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. 
"We will also conduct the first regular schedule passenger- 
carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. 
Students who want to join the school and prospective 
agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our 
flying boats will do well to address 



The Xew 
Benoist 
Fli/inii 
Boat in 
Action 



BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY 

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida 



50 H.P. 

160 POUNDS 



GYRO MOTOR 



80 H.P. 

207 POUNDS 




Endurance Flying Record 
to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min. 



From 



"F L^I G H T" 

July 26th, 1913 

"Some may say — to the obvi- 
ous benefit of the Company 
whose representatives have 
adopted his very practical 
method of calling attention 
to the GYRO engine (50 h. p.) 
that it is all due to the motor, 
which probably develops 
about three times as much 
power as the machine re- 
quires for the purposes of 
straightforward flight." 



Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout 



Send for Catalog 



THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C. 



ALL MARINE FLYERS 

Should investigate the merits of the Three-Bladed Paragons. )Sma//e»' .S«ie than corres- 
ponding two blades, with fine lines of design, make them turn more freely. Free turning 
enables them to carry higher pitch. The added blade gives them a stronger hold on the air. 

Results:— Less Vibration — Full Turning Speed — Higher Pitch Speed = Smaller 
Slip — Faster Flying — Stronger Manoeuvering — Safer Handling and Control- 
Uncle Sam uses three-bladed Paragons almost exclusively in his Navy Boats — There's a 
reason and Paragon price economy besides. 

There are questions in your mind. Write to us for the answers intelligently stated and illus- 
trated by photographs. Full brass blade protection at only nominal cost. 

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md. 



In answering advc>'tisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 31, 1914 



Page 19 



U. S. NAVAL AERONAUTIC SERVICE 



The Na'i'y's Board of Aeronautics, convened under 
Navy Department Orders, composed of Senior Mem- 
ber Captain W. Irz'ing Chambers, Commander C. W. 
Brittain, Commander S. S. Robison, Lieut, M. H. 
Si)nons, Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson, Lieut. 
J. H. Towers, First Lieut. A. A. Cunningham, has 
reported a very comprehensive plan for the organiza- 
tion of an adequate mobile Naval Aeronautic Service, 
to include a great aeronautical centre, zcith a goodly 
equipment of aeroplanes and dirigibles as a starter. 

The plan proposed sho-ws that something is being 
accomplished in our Navy, just about the time some- 



one has alleged it to be asleep. If put in practice, our 
naval aeronautic equipment zi'ill be second to none. 
Even the over-boosted foreign naval air zvork ivill be 
eclipsed. Some of the zvork already done by the 
boats and the nezv type O. W. L. machine. It only 
remains for Congress to supply the asked-for funds, 
to 'vhich end the efforts of those interested should be 
bent, rather than to picking Haws and pulling political 
zcircs. It is understood, hoivever, that there is money 
enough available for proceeding with the main part of 
the ivork at once. 



The Board recommends that Congress 
be asked to appropriate as early as possible 
$1,297,700. This covers estimates as fol- 
lows: 

(a) SO Units of aeroplane, outfit, 

spare engines and parts 

(fleet service) $500,000 

(b) One 10,000 cubic meter diri- 

gible, outfit and parts (fleet 

service) 173,000 

(c) 1 I'^ixed and 1 portable hy- 

drogen plants (Pensacola 

plant) 17,000 

(d) 1 Double floating dirigible 

shed (Pensacola plant) .... 90,000 

(e) 1 Mooring mast (Pensacola 

plant) 1,200 

(f) 1 Combination captive and 

free balloon (Pensacola 

plant) 800 

(g) Fixed and portable aeroplane 

sheds (Pensacola plant).. 18,000 

(h) 3 Motor boats, 3 tractors, 2 

trailers (Pensacola plant). 39,400 

(i) Gasoline storage (Pensacola 

plant) 4,000 

(j) Maintenance 100,000 

(k) 2 Dirigibles, Vedette type 

(Pensacola plant) 85,000 

(1) 6 Units of aeroplanes, outfits, 
spare parts, etc.; 6 tents; 
4 knockdown trucks (ad- 
vance base outfit) 92,300 

(m) One 2,200 cu. m. dirigible 
and accessories (advance 

base) 177,000 

$1,297,700 

ONE GREAT AIR CENTRE MOST ECONOMICAL. 

Based on the experience of foreign coun- 
tries, the Board has confined its attention prin- 
cipally to the establishment at one suitable 
aeronautic centre — at the Pensacola (Florida) 
Navy Yard — for reasons of climate, conven- 
ience and facilities. 

Immediate additions are planned, as pro- 
vided for in the foregoing schedule, in which 
provision is also allowed for a meteorological 
observatory and equipment, as standard plans 
for building kites to be furnished to all flag- 
ships, library and amusement. 

AEROPLANES ON ALL SHIPS. 

Aeroplanes to be used from ships of the 
fleet and from auxiliaries. One aeroplane 
with spare motor, parts, etc., to be placed on 



all battleships as soon as practicable. Auyi- 
iliaries to carry stores and supplies. Officers 
to be instructed with machines of the same 
types, pilots to be available for either land or 
water flying, standard type of control to be 
used, desirable to develop a single type of 
aeroplane to meet all requirements. 

A FLYING SCHOOL. 

Flying school to be at Pensacola, for rea- 
sons previously stated and in order to co- 
operate with the fleet, maintained in two 
categories: 

Sea Section for advanced practice and ex- 
periment. A reserve ship to be used as a 
mobile advanced flying school, ror testing de- 
vices to be employed in installation and use 
of aeroplanes on battleships, and for such ex- 
periments as launching catapult, hoisting ap- 
paratus and stowage. This ship would also 
be used for stores, barracks and in conjunction 
with dirigible flights at sea to make such tests 
as the practicability of replenishing an air- 
ship with fresh supplies of fuel and hydro- 
gen, the accuracy of bomb dropping appli- 
ances, and the tactics to be employed in con- 
tests between aeroplanes and dirigibles. Per- 
sonnel to consist of commanding ofiicer, three 
air pilots and usual complement of ships in 
reserve. 

Land Section in charge of an officer of the 
Aeronautic Division. Equipment as per sched- 
ule. For instruction and practice. 

COURSE OF instruction AND DUTY. 

Students and air pilots will be given in- 
struction in practical work on machines, theo- 
retical study, instruction in aeroplane and diri- 
gible operating to qualify for naval air pilot 
certificate whose holders are considered com- 
petent for sea service. Those recommended 
for advanced instruction in aeronautical engi- 
neering to be sent each year to the institution 
giving the best course, this post-graduate in- 
struction to be later conducted at the Xaval 
Academy if possible. 

One or more air pilots each year to be se- 
lected for experimental work in the Aircraft 
Factory and the National Laboratory, or 
sent abroad for foreign study. 

AERONAUTIC SERVICE WITH FLEET. 

When certified pilots have been transferred 
to the Sea Section they are available for trans- 
fer to a ship of the fleet and to be in charge 
of the aeroplane attached to that ship. 



Page 20 



AEnOXACTfCS. Jan. -".l, 1!)14 



BALLOONS, DIRIGIDLES AND ACCESSORIES. 

Four dirigibles to be bought : one for ex- 
peditionary service with the fleet, one for use 
at an advanced base and two of Vedette class 
for Pensacola plant, as listed previously in 
the schedule. A mooring mast which has 
been satisfactorily used in England will I)e 
adopted for mooring the airship at the ad- 
vanced base, or two dirigibles may be housed 
in the double floating shed which is provided 
for. Study to be commenced on a special 
auxiliary ship in connection with the aero- 
plane auxiliary, starting on the basis that it 
must accommodate a 10,000 cubic meter diri- 
gible. 

Experiments will be made with a combina- 
tion free and captive balloon for preliminary 
instruction of dirigible pilots and to ascertain 
of what service they may be with the fleet. It 
is suggested that experiments be also made 
with hot air balloons. 

Laboratory work of the Navy to l)e carried 
on at the Washington Navy Yard in connec- 
tion with the model basin and the National 
Aeronautic Laboratory. 

PERSONNEL OF NAVY AERONAUTIC CENTRE. 

The personnel of the Navy Aeronautic Cen- 
tre to consist of: the Commandant, over two 
divisions (Aeronautic — with aids, officers, en- 
listed personnel of Navy and Marine Corps to 
carry on instruction both with dirigibles and 
aeroplanes ; Oi'Erative — comprising staff to 
operate the Yard for purposes of Aeronautic 
Centre); three aids (instructors). Senior Aid 
to be Executive Officer of Yard and in charge 
enlisted men ; i Gunner, i Boatswain, i Car- 
penter as assistants to Executive Officer ; i 
Marine Officer commanding Marine Guard 
distinct from Marine Corps personnel of the 
Aeronautic Department. 

department organization. 

An Air Department in the Navy Depart- 
ment to be established under the Division of 
Operations in charge of a Director of Naval 
Aviation, with assistants and authority and 



responsibility to carry the organization into 
effect. The Director to proceed with the 
organization of a Naval Air Service. This 
Air Department not to be a separate depart- 
ment, as such is deemed unnecessary and in 
conflict with present legal status. Great stress 
is laid on this point with the object of main- 
taining harmonious operation with the present 
simple and efficient system in the Navy De- 
partment to obtain efficiency in the general 
results. 

The task of co-ordination in the Navy is 
made possible through the assistance provided 
for in the Council of Aids, each looking after 
a natural division of the labor, with authority 
to advise but not to execute. The system is 
theoretically perfect. The Board urges that 
the Secretary of the Navy have one represen- 
tative especially engaged in aeronautics, with 
an office for meetings of representatives of 
the bureaus, for records, files, reports, etc. 
Aeronautics has heretofore been in charge of 
the Bureau of Navigation, but this Bureau 
cannot spare the time to specialize on aero- 
nautics, so that the Board believes the estab- 
lishment of an office of Naval Aeronautics 
under the Secretary's office is essential. 

OFFICE OF naval AERONAUTICS. 

To l)e in charge of Director of Naval Aero- 
nautics, with rank of Captain if practicable, 
to co-ordinate the work for Secretary of 
Navy in co-operation with necessary assist- 
ants representing the Bureaus. Assistant Di- 
rector — an officer with aeronautic experience. 
of rank of Commander if practicaljle, to repre- 
sent Director in absence. Other Assistants 
representing each : Bureau of Navigation. 
Construction and Repair, Steam Engineering', 
Ordnance, Marine Corps. One of these as- 
sistants to be an air pilot. All assistants to 
form a board or council to investigate all 
prol)lems connected with development, main- 
tenance and instruction of Naval Aeronautic 
.Service, in addition to their regular Bureau 
duties, and to assemble at the Office of Naval 
Aeronautics whenever desired. 



TRAFFIC MANAGER BENOIST AIR 
LINE ISSUES OPERATION SHEET. 

We have just received the operation, sheet of the 
Benoist Airline at St.- Petersburg, Fla., for the first 
ten days of its work. 

It would seem tliat not only is the airboat practical 
for commercial purposes, but it is more reliable and 
has a greater earning power than the automobile or 
motor boat. 

The following figures can be taken from the opera- 
tion sheet which appears herewith: 

Ntimber of trips made, 26; number of passengers 
carried, 52 ;_ hours flown, 12 hours, 43 minutes, 30 
seconds; miles flown, 682; gallons of gasoline con- 
sumed, 170;^; gallons of lubricating oil, igj/'- 

This makes 1,364 passenger miles flown in these ten 
davs, and 25 passenger hours. 

When we figure that 682 miles was made in this 
ten days in regular commercial work and multipIyinL; 
this by three, equals 2,000 miles for one month. 

The usual pleasure automobile seldom ever runs 
more than 1,200 to 1.500 miles a month, and then it 
is supposed to be kept on the road practically all I be 
time. Of course, in a four-passenger machine this 
runs the passenger mileage up as high or higher than 
in the airboat, but the usual auto taxicab used in 
commercial work seldom ever makes more than goo 
miles in one month, which at three passengers car- 
ried continuously W()uld only equal 2,700 passenger 



miles in one month, while the airboat made practi- 
cally that many passenger miles in twenty days. 

This is a really remarkable showing when you con- 
sider that the airline at the present time has only 
one boat at St. Petersburg, and it is necessary to 
keep this in service all the time. Also this boat has 
been tised for over six months, having been put into 
seivice on July 4 and kept in exhibition work all that 
summer and fall, giving exhibitions at Put-in-Bay, 
Grand Rapids, Keokuk, Paducah and many other 
]ilaces. besides several long river runs on the Missis- 
sippi, Illinois and Ohio Rivers. 

It has never had an overhauling since it left the 
factory, but, of course, is not in as good condition as 
a new machine would be. 

Two more passenger carrying planes, however, were 
shipped on the 15th inst to St. Petersburg, and it is 
expected the operation sheet for the next period of 
ten days will show an even more successful business. 



KANSAS CITY GETS BIG BALLOON 
RACE. 

The international balloon race this year will 1)c 
started from Kansas City, Mo., on October 6, this 
city having agreed to offer $7,200 in prizes, allow 
free gas to the entrants and make all arrangements 
for handling the event. 



AEnOXAUTICS. Jan. HI. 1014 Pagn 21 

WRIGHT-CURTISS LITIGATION ENDED 



PATENT UPHELD 



On January 13, 1914, Judges Lacombe, Cox 
and Ward, of the U. S. Circuit Court of Ap- 
peals, handed down the final opinion in the 
Wright-Curtiss suit. 

The present opinion merely confirms the 
previous one of Judge Hazel in this case and 
that of Judge Hand in the Wright-Paidhan liti- 
gation. In part, it says : 

■^"We are in full accord with tlie reasoning by vvhicli 
* * * (Judge Hazel and Judge Hand) reached the 
conclusions tliat the patent in suit is a valid one, that 
the patentees may fairly be considered pioneers in the 
liractical art of flying * * * and that the claims 
sliould have a liberal interpretation. * * * That 
the third claim, when liberally construed, has been 
infringed seems too plain for argument. As to the 
other claim, in which the vertical rear rudder is an 
element we are satisfied from the testimony, as was 
the court below, that during some parts of their flight 
defendant's machines use the rudder synchronously 
with the wings so that by their joint action lost balance 
may be restored, or a threatened loss of balance be 
averted. Sucli use of the rudder constitutes infringe- 
ment and a machine that infringes part of the time is 
an infringement, although it may at other times be 
so operated as not to infringe." 

For a period of five years the patent suit 
of the Wright Company against Glenn H. Cur- 
tiss and the defunct Herring Curtiss Company 
has been litigated. The last hearing was on 
November 6 and 7, 1913, in New York. The 
deliberations of the three judges sitting took 
until January 13, 1914, when the final opinion 
was handed down. 

Readers of AERONAUTICS are aware of 
every step in this and the other suits brought 
in the upholding of the validity of the Wright 
I'nited States patent through the reports and 
decisions printed in this magazine. 

For arguments and the reasoning of Judges 
Lacombe, Cox and Ward, of the U. S. Circuit 
Court of Appeals, reference must be had to 
Judge Hazel's opinion printed in full in the 
-March, 1913, number of AERONAUTICS and 
to Judge Hand's opinion in the Wright-Paul- 
han case, printed in the April, 1910, issue, which 
opinions, up for review before the appeal 
judges, are now confirmed. 

It is not anticipated that the victorious 
Wright Company will deal harshly with its 
competitors, now that its privilege of granting 
licenses has been legally accorded. There 
would be no advantage accruing from forcing 
others to close down. The greater the com- 
petition, the greater the number of 'planes 
produced. A thousand aeroplanes on which a 
hundred thousand dollars in royalties have been 
l)aid are more to be desired than the obtain- 
ing of the same sum on a hundred machines. 
It is not unlikely that arrangements will be 
made for convenient partial payments of back 
royalties and for granting licenses for further 
operations on the basis of moderate fees. 

The one great result will be the binding of 
efforts to devise a system of balance which 
does not infringe the Wright patent. The 
Wright brothers have always contended that 
the adjudication of their patent would stinui- 



late inventive genius. The litigation has al- 
ready had its effect along this line. Patents 
have been applied for on devices to equalize 
the pressures on ailerons. There is an inter- 
ference proceeding in this connection being 
prosecuted at this time. Others have entered 
applications or have received patents on sys- 
tems which are alleged to be non-infringing. 

The Wright patent has now been adjudicated 
in the United States and Gerrnany and prac- 
tically so in France. There is a small chance, 
however, that the suit in question may be 
again before the court. Appeal may be still 
taken to the United States Supreme Court, 
the highest in the land, under certain condi- 
tions. If carried to this court and not ad- 
vanced on the list, that it would probably not 
come to trial for two or three years is the 
o])inion of a lawyer. 

The present status, therefore, is that manu- 
facturers of aeroplanes which infringe the 
Wright patent in accordance with this deci- 
sion are enjoined from further manufacture 
and sale unless an arrangement is made with 
the owners of the patent, the Wright Com- 
pany, and while the decision applies specifically 
to the Curtiss type of machine only and in- 
directly to the Farman type, nevertheless the 
court rules that the claims of the Wright 
patent should be liberally construed and conse- 
quently modifications of either of these types 
would not evade the infringement in accord- 
ance with the broad scope of the decree. 

As to the aeroplanes already manufactured 
and sold, unless a settlement be made direct, 
the procedure for the award of loss of profits 
or daiTiage incurred, is to refer the entire mat- 
ter to a Master who will take testimony in 
order to reach a conclusion for an award. 
This is slow process and dependent upon the 
evidence produced at the hearings before the 
Master as to the extent of the award. The 
statutes specify that the award can be for a 
sum equal to three times the damage sustained 
or profit lost by the owner of the patent and 
precedent in such cases limits the award to one 
of these conditions and not to both. If loss of 
profits are demanded, it must be proven that 
the infringing manufacturer actually made 
profits and was not doing business at a loss. 
If damage sustained is claimed, then it is a pre- 
sumption that purchasers of the infringing 
article would have purchased the patented ma- 
chine if the infringement had not been manu- 
factured and offered for sale, but the defendant 
has the right to prove, so far as he can. that 
the dift'erences in the two articles are of sufii- 
cient importance that purchasers of his ma- 
chine would not have purchased the patented 
machine and would, therefore, have not pur- 
chased any. It is therefore impossible to an- 
ticipate the probable amount of award recom- 
mended by the Master and which is then 
transmitted to the court for final adjudication. 



Page 



9.9, 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 31, 1914 



THE SLOANE FLYING BOAT 



In accordance with its expansive policy 
for 1914 the Sloane Aeroplane Company of 
New York in addition to producing several 
newf types of military monoplanes and bi- 
planes is bringing out flying boats and bat 
boats [O. W. L.] designed and constructed 
to meet the most rigid naval requirements. 

The first machine, of a sporting class, is 
now under construction. 

General Dimensions — "Speed," "Scout" 
and "Sporting" Types — Span (top), 36 feet; 
span (lower), 23 feet; chord (top), 6 feet; 
chord (lower), 5 feet 6 inches; gap. 6 feet; 
over-all length, 26 feet. Surface — 310 



square feet on "Speed Scout" and "Sport- 
ing Type"; 405 square feet on "Sea Scout." 
Length of hull, 22 feet; width of hull, 36 
inches; seating capacity — 2 or 3 persons. 
Power plant — 80 or 100 h. p. Gnome — or 130 
h. p. Salmson on Naval (or good domestic 
motor of 100 h. p.) Speed Scout. Tank 
capacity — 5 hours. 

Hull is single step, built up of two-ply 
mahogany and canvas, copper-riveted, over 
a framework of ash and spruce ribs. Plan- 
ing surface 36 inches wide, V-shaped. 
Eight water-tight bulkheads, fitted with in- 
spection covers. 





L^ 




ThcS^ 



Fly.^o Bo 



Trpc St 

Ciit/fioiaof/ - S'-t 
Oap - 6'-c 



'.•''■/r/>»r'5j7«/S.«r- 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 31, 19 U 



Page 23 



Nose of boat rounded off and stream- 
lined. Ample space provided for wireless, 
marine and navigating equipment. 

In the "Navy." "Sea Scout" and "Speed 
Scout" types, the rounded front is swept 
back to just in front of the operators' seats 
and is given a slight curl up at this point 
to form a wind and spray shield, which at 
the same time gives an absolutely perfect 
vision over the front and sides. 

In the sporting type a permanent cabin 
is fitted, constructed of a light framework 
and entirely covered with transparent pyra- 
line sheeting with its after part hinged 
so that it can be tipped forward for en- 
trance or exit to the boat. 

Two front seats are placed side by side; 
double control of the well-known Deper- 
dussin type. Behind the operators' seats 
and immediately between the two planes is 
the passenger's seat. 

Planes are of single piece construction, 
framed monoplane style. Top one spans 35 
feet, chord 6 feet; the bottom one spans 2^ 
feet, chord 5 feet 6 inches. 

Strong diagonal bracing is used to truss 
the planes internally so that there is no 
bending or straining when in flight. 

Only two uprights on each side of the en- 
gine section. This cuts down head resist- 
ance and permits the top extensions to be 
folded down when the machine is not in 
use. 

For extended sea work these extensions 
modified somewhat will be folded from the 
operator's seat so that in case of emergency 
the wing area can be cut down while the 
craft is riding on the water. 

Factor of safety of six to one allowed 
for. Main guy wires, '/s-inch and 3/32-inch 
steel cable, doubled throughout and fitted 
with extra strong turnbuckles. All control 
wires doubled and extra strong. 

Ailerons, 9 feet by 2 feet, operate in the 
usual manner, one up and the other down. 

Rear stabilizing fin. 7 feet b}^ 8 feet, is flat 
and set at a slight lifting angle. It is built 



in two parts and hinged to the vertical fin so 
that it can be folded down out of the way. 

The two elevating flaps, which measiire 3 
feet deep, are spread out so that they oper- 
ate in a position to give the utmost leverage 
and control, with the least possible drag and 
resistance. 

The combination braces and control levers 
of the elevating flaps are made of steel 
tubing and are so fitted that by merely un- 
fastening one turnbuckle all the bracing can 
be taken ofT intact and the steel braces 
folded down flat against the elevators and 
aileron's. The combination air and water 
rudder which is hinged to the rear of the 
boat and its vertical fin swings between the 
two elevator flaps. This is also fitted with 
collapsible braces. 

The controls consist of the well-known 
Depcrdussin wheel and foot lever arrange- 
ment. Pushing the wheel backwards and 
forwards operates the elevators, while turn- 
ing the wheel to the right and left works the 
ailerons. Steering to the right and left is 
accomplished by the foot bar. 

Main gasoline tank carried in the hull 
under the rear seats. Capacity has been 
figured out to allow for flights of at least 
five hours' duration. Tanks are of the pres- 
sure type and the air pressure is supplied to 
them by means of a small air driven pro- 
peller which operates through the speed of 
flight. Gasoline is forced to a small gravity 
tank situated in front and slightly above the 
carburetor. Air pressure gauge is fitted in 
front of the operator. A hand pump is fitted 
to supply pressure in case of emergency. 

Either 80 or 100 H. P. Gnomes will be 
used as standard equipment. This can be 
varied, however, and domestic motors of 
100 H. P. or more used if desired. In the 
Speed Scout type of machine a 130 H. P. 
Salmson Motor will be used. In all cases 
the motor is mounted midway between the 
two planes so as to bring the center of 
thrust more in line with the centers of re- 
sistance and weight. 



WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT. 

L. J. Seely, of tlie Curtiss Aeroplane Co., made the 
following personal statement, in response to inijuiries 
of Aeronautics, regarding his attitude on the recent 
decision : 

"Any intelligent statement regarding the probable 
effect on the aviation industry in this country of the 
decision in the \\'right-Curtiss case, would depend 
upon one's knowing whether this long drawn legal 
battle has been fought for moral or financial reasons. 

"If the issue is a financial one, fought out to de- 
termine legal rights, any final decision, whether pro 
or con, must be helpful. The amount of money made 
in manufacturing aeroplanes in this covmtry by any 
or all manufacturers has not been enough to keep 
the contestants busy for long in settling up accounts, 
and enabling them to start out with a clean slate 
and a knowledge of just what to expect. 

■'The winners, one may assume, would establish 
a schedule of royalties calculated to bring them the 
best financial return; the losers would then decide 
whether they could better afford to pay the amount 
demanded, or set about perfecting and exploiting 
other means of lateral control; with the further 
alternative of pulling stakes and establishing their 
business in some European country where the Wright 
patents have been more precisely construed. 

"If, on the other hand, personal pride, or per- 
sonal animus, should override all other considerations 



settled conditions in the trade may be as far off as 
ever. 

"Here at Hammondsport, where at this writing we 
have had definite word neither from Mr. Curtiss, nor 
from the Wright Company, we are proceeding on the 
assumption that business expediency will determine the 
issue." 



DEATH OF HAMILTON. 

Charles K. Hamilton, the first man to try to loop- 
the-loop, died at his home, 225 West logth street. 
New York, on January 22, from hemorrhage. Hamil- 
ton was a New Britain, Conn., boy and started his 
air experiences riding kites for Israel Ludlow. He 
went into exhibition dirigible operating. Learning to 
fly a Curtiss machine in Hammondsport in 1908, he 
quickly was known all over the country as the most 
daring exhibition flier in this country. In attempting 
the loop in Seattle in 190Q the machine, for some 
unknown reason, dropped sidewise to the water when 
he reached the top of the loop. Hamilton's best 
known flights were from New York to Philadelphia 
and return, and from San Diego down into Mexico 
and return. For the past two years Hamilton has 
been doing little- flying. Recently he has been con- 
nected with the IJoland Aeroplane and Motor Com- 
jiany and was expected to fly the new water machine. 



Page 24 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 31, 1014 




THE CURTISS MONOPLANE FLYING BOAT 



In the monoplane flying boat designed by 
Glenn H. Curtiss for Raymund V. Morris, 
of New Haven, is suggested the breadth of 
the field Curtiss expects to cover with 
water-flying machines during the coming 
season. To date we have seen definite an- 
nouncements of four quite distinct models; 
first, the new four-passenger mahogany 
boat ; second, the O. W. L. type, designed for 
naval use; third, the tandem-seated, straight- 
sided, ocean-going naval type; fourth, this 
little single-seated speed machine. 

In Morris' little racer there is not a single 
stick that matches up with anything pre- 
viously turned out by the Curtiss plant. 
The hull is dififerent, both in design and in 
method of construction; the wings are dif- 
ferent in curve, in shape, in construction; 
even the radiator and propeller were de- 
signed especially for this trim craft. Only 
the Model O-X Curtiss motor is the same 
in all the dififerent boats. 

That it is a very efficient outfit may be 
gathered from the fact that the surfaces 
are lifting approximately ten pounds to the 
square foot, for with pilot and fuel the 
machine weighs very nearly 1,200 pounds, 
while the lifting surface is almost exactly 
120 square feet. 

Morris tried out the machine under every 
disadvantage. It was during the blizzardy 
weather of the early part of January, with 
a cold, rough wind blowing, and the mer- 
cury just above zero. Mist and spray 
turned immediately to ice and in a few min- 
utes flying boat and flier were well coated. 
But the monoplane flew and it flew fast. It 
jumped off the water, running before the 
wind, and just where the operator did not 
want to rise with an untried machine and 
unfamiliar controls. Morris made four 
flights that day and several more later in 



the week for the benefit of a motion pic- 
ture concern. His actual speed was not de- 
termined, for it was too cold to put out 
timers, but when the boat rushed by on the 
water it made you think of a rocket in a 
street-car track. 

In form the hull suggests an expensive 
imported cigar; big at the end between your 
teeth, flat part of the way on one side, and 
tapering gently to nothing at the other 
end. Its principal dimensions are: length, 
22 feet; beam, 30 inches; depth, 36 inches. 
The bottom, as far back as the step, is the 
new double Vee type prescribed on the new 
navy boats, C-3, C-4, C-5. The bow is 
pointed instead of square. 

In construction, the hull is unique. The 
frame is a basketwork of ash strips, the 
ribs carried completely around the longi- 
tudinal members. Around the frame was 
wound diagonally a first skin of 3-32 inch 
mahogany planking. This was covered with 
heavy Sea Island cotton set in marine glue, 
and over this was secured another skin of 
3-32 inch mahogany plank, laid longitud- 
inally. Not only did the partially com- 
pleted hull look like a cigar, but it was 
wrapped like one. Two holes were cut in 
the tube to permit the entrance of the 
pilot and. possibly, of one passenger. The 
pilot's seat is low. both to give him every 
protection from the wind, and to bring the 
shoulder yokes at the greatest diameter of 
the hull. Unless Morris sits up very 
straight to have his picture taken — only 
half his head shows above the coaming. 

Tlie superstructure is novel. The wings 
are set about 40 inches above the hull, at- 
tached at the top to the welded steel struc- 
ture supporting the engine bed, and braced 
below by struts extending to a cross beam 
which carries the balancing pontoons. In 



.\EnOX.\rTICS, Jan. 31, V.)U 



Page 25 




general outline nothing like them, I believe, 
has been seen in America. Swept back at 
an angle of 7 degrees in an easy curve that 
finishes in the points forming the trailing 
edge ailerons they strongly suggest, at cer- 
tain angles, the wings of a monster swallow. 
Tliis illusion is fostered by the curve given 
tiie ribs and by the occasional uptilting of 
tlie aileron on the high side of the ma- 
chine. The rib curve is original, though in 
some measure similar to that of the Brit- 
ish "B-E 2." 

Total spread of the wings, from tip to tip 
of ailerons, is 34 feet. The spread of the 
supporting surface is 28 feet. For 20 feet 
in the center the chord is 60 inches, while 
for four feet at each end the main surface 
is practically triangular. 

Rudder, flippers, and rear stabilizing sur- 
faces follow the lines of those used in stand- 
ard models of the Curtiss flying boats, modi- 
fied as to size to fit this smaller machine. 

Morris expects to ship the" machine at 
once to St. Petersburg, Florida, whence to 
get in trim for the expected series of flying- 
I)oat speed contests that seem to be on the 
cards for the comin.g season. 



W. J. Minier, of Brooklyn, N. Y., is now at 
work on a model Curtiss flying lioat. He has 
just finished an exhibition model of a Bleriot, 
1/6 full size. It is of very excellent work- 
manship and is complete in every detail. 



AERONAUTISM LAST YEAR. 

Fifty-two balloon ascensions were made during 1913 
and a total of 150 people taken up, including the 
pilot, distributed among 18 balloons of from 40,000 
to 80,000 cubic feet capacity. The total of gas 
used was 3,300,000 cubic feet, costing around $3,300. 
Fifteen of these balloons are in the central West. 
What a fine big race this would make! No ascen- 
sions were made by army balloons or the army dirig- 
il)le during the year. 



AEROPLANES FOR VENEZUELAN 
ARMY. 

Some time ago a fund of $6,000 was raised by 
popular subscription to jjurchase one or more aero- 
planes for use in the army of Veuezuela. Report 
was made of this fact by representatives of other 
nations, aiicl there has been correspondence with a 



London cnnipany, but nothing definite has resulted. 

General Cioniez, the President of Venezuela, has 
indicated that he would be willing to augument the 
amount raised by popular subscription, which may in- 
terest aeroplane manufacturers in the I'nited .States. 



ARMY FLYER BREAKS RECORD. 

San Diego. Cal.. .Tan. 20. — Fieut. W. R. Talliaferro, 
of the army's first aero corps, flew continuously from 
San Diego to Pasadena and back as far as Elsinore 
to-day. The distance covered — 260 miles — is an 
.American non-stop record. Lieut. Talliaferro was 
forced to dej-cend because he ran out of fuel. 




Page 26 



AERONAUTICS, Jan. 31, 1914 



THE DEAN RACER 

By HARRY SCHULTZ, Model Editor 



Fuselage is constructed of two strips Amer- 
ican whitewood % inch square, 34 inches long. 
They are joined together at front to form a 
point. A "W" of 1/32 in. diameter steel piano 
wire is litted thereover and Iwund with white 
silk thread and shellaced. Seventeen inches 
from the front, or apex, of the fuselage is a 
cross stay or hrace of "dowel wood" planed to 
a stream line section 34 in- l^y 14, in. and 3^ 
ins. long. The rear brace is same thickness, 
634 ins. in length, placed 2 ins. from the rear 
of the fuselage. These braces are secured to 



said shaft are two Y^ in. clock washers of steel, 
acting as bearings. 

Planes are of whitewood, the main plane 
measuring 24 ins. in span, with a chord of 
2'4 ins. at the center, tapering to i^ ins. at 
the tips. This plane has a camlier of 1/16 in. 
at the center, "washed out" towards tips. It is 
1/16 in. thick at center, coming to a knife edge 
at entering and trailing edges ; entering edge 
being protected by a strip of silk shellaced to 
the edge. A slight dihedral angle is obtained 
l)v steaming and licnding at the center. Eleva- 



-J)eci7t ^czcer-^ 





.eleilaiion, Hoc^K 



tips ieni cZotM/z., 



^ e s^rcunds '^'Z^'^^' 




fuselage by means of small nails. Fuselage is 
braced by diagonal braces of No. 2 guitar wire 
and these attach to hooks secured at the upper 
and lower junctions of the wooden cross braces 
as shown. By merely turning the hooks in- 
wardly the diagonal wire braces are tightened. 
Propellers are 8 ins. in diameter, with a 
l)lade width of \Y% ins. They are steam twist- 
ed, the wood being hard quality, straight 
grained, American whitewood 1/16 in. thick. 
Bent around the hub of propeller is a strip 
of sheet tin, secured to the blade by punch 
holes. Bent around this strip of tin is the 
shaft of 1/32 in. steel piano wire, which goes 
completely around the tin strip and ends in a 
spiral on the inner side of the propeller, where 
it is soldered. Mounted on the fuselage, by 
binding and glueing, are brackets of sheet 
brass, Y\. in. wide by 1/16 in.' thick, drilled for 
the reception of propeller shaft; and fitted on 



tor is made of the same material as the main 
plane, measuring 11 ins. long with a chord of 
J 3/5' ins. at the center, tapering to i^ ins. at 
the ends, and 1/32 in. in thickness. It has a 
slight dihedral angle and the tips of the same 
are bent downward to an angle of 30°. It is 
mounted on an elevation block ^ in. in height 
liy Ya in. wide. The main plane is so narrow 
and affords such small lift it is given an eleva- 
tion on blocks 3/16 in. in height, the blocks 
lieing secured to the plane by small nails, 
driven and clinched over. 

Each propeller is driven by six strands of 
]\ in. flat rubber totaling i>4 ozs. in weight. 

When tested in flight the model proved to be 
marvelonsly fast and it is unfortunate that its 
distance qualities have not been ascertained. 



Sec "News in General" for model contests. 



\AERONAUTICS, Jon. 31, 1914 



Page 27 



PATENTS 

SECURED or FEE RETURNED 

VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY ''''"°'"""'''"^ISISSSton^"-c.-^- 



Send sketch or model for FRKE search of Patent Office 
record. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with 
valuable List of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our 
special list of prizes ottered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 
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JANUARY 31, 1914 Vol. XIV, No. 2 



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rage 38 



AERONAUTICS. Jan. 31, 1914 



MiUj^i^^i^ 



LANGLEY AERODYNAMICAL 
LABORATORY. 

The Advisory Committee of the Langley Aero- 
dynamical Laboratory held its third meeting Decem- 
ber I at the Smithsonian Institution. Secretary 
Charles 1). W'alcott, Chairman of the Committee, i)re- 
sided, with the following members in attendance: Cap- 
tain W. I. Chambers, U.S.N. ; Mr. John Hays Ham- 
mond, Jr.; Dr. W. J. Humphreys; Col. Samuel 
Reber, U.S.A.; Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson, 
U.S.N. ; Major Edgar Russel, U.S.A.; Brig. C.en. 
George P. Scriven, U.S.A.; Dr. S. \V. Stratton; Dr. 
Albert F. Zahm (Recorder). 

Major Russel submitted a complete account of the 
aeronautical motor-testing laboratory of the U. S. 
Signal Corjis and Bureau of Standards. L Published 
in the December issue.] 

Dr. Zahm submitted to the Committee an extended 
list of the best recent works on aeronautics in 
English, French, and German, which will be available 
to all investigators in aeronautics who may choose to 
examine them. Dr. Zahm also gave a brief abstract 
of his complete and extended report on European 
aeronautical laboratories, their organization, resources, 
equipment, investigations, etc. 

Captain ^\'. I. Chambers reported that his committee 
on naval air craft design had made extensive experi- 
ments during the summer on gyroscopic stabilizing 
apparatus, the results of which were very interesting, 
but not quite ready yet to be given in detail. He 
stated that the navy desired a form of flying machine 
adapted for both land and water use. 

Dr. Stratton spoke of the great need for a more 
uniform and accurate type of anneroid barometer at 
the present time, and told of the work of the Bureau 
of Standards in developing a standard type of this 
instrument. He also gave an account of the aero- 
nautical laboratories of England and France, which 
he had studied preparatory to aerodynamical experi- 
ments for the Advisory Committee at the Bureau of 
Standards. 

Naval Constructor Richardson reported that his 
conmiittee had conducted elaborate experiments on 
the forms of hulls of flying boats, in relation to tlieir 
speed and resistance when on the water and when 
submerged, as a result of which a form of hull has 
been devised which appears to have decided advantages 
over those already in use, in point of stability and 
economy of power. 

General Scriven explained the tests by the Army 
of the various forms of machines, and took occa- 
sion to emphasize the high standard of efficiency now 
required of the army fliers. At the recently estab- 
lished school of aviation at San Diego, there are at 
present fifteen army officers receiving instruction and 
training, which is more thorough and exact than that 
given at the schools conducted by the commercial 
companies. He spoke with even greater emphasis of 
the caution drilled into the minds of the officers not 
to attempt mere circus feats in the air, but to con- 
fine themselves only to such experiments as would 
fit them for the actual needs of flying in time 
of war. 

Mr. John Hays Hammond, Jr., announced that 
very satisfactory experiments have been conducted at 
the Hammond Radio-Research Laboratory at Glou- 
cester, Mass., in the development of wireless receiv- 
ing apparatus for use with air ships. New and much 
improved results have been achieved in long-distance 
reception, using small transmitting antenna and small 
receiving aerials. Mr. Hammond was invited to test 
tlie working of his apparatus on a Signal Corps 
aeroplane to ascertain its value for the transmission 
of intelligence between the commanding officer and 
his air scouts on the wing. 



CONNECTICUT COMPANY READY 
FOR BUSINESS. 

The Connecticut Aerojilane Company, of New 
Haven, Conn., recently incorporated, now has one of 
their representatives in Europe, perfecting arrange- 
ments, securing data, etc., for a start in February. 
The company projioses to "build a product equal to 
the world's best in model, strength of construction 
and finish. Looking still to the future it proposes 
to go further and standardize its flying machines as 
the automobile has been standardized, making all 
parts of any year's model interchangeable, and with 
parts easily obtainable. The aeroplanes and flying 
floats of The Connecticut ^Xeroplane Comjiany will 
be built by the M. Armstrong Company of New 
Haven, one of the oldest firms of its kind in the 
LTnited States, whose product has a national reputa- 
tion for excellence. This company has today a large 
trade in automobile bodies, but is able to give space 
to the manufacture of planes as well, without inter- 
ference with other work. No higher guarantee of 
excellence in construction of air craft is needed 
than the announcement that The M. Armstrong 
Company will build them. Freedom from heavy over- 
head expense will be largely eliminated, which will, of 
course, very consideraljly reduce the first cost of the 
planes." The Armstrong Company has gone very 
thoroughly into the matter of manufacture, and have 
guaranteed this company that they can produce and 
deliver two macliines a week. 



MODEL CLUB NOTES. 

At the well-attended meetings of the Long Island 
Model Aero Club business has been carried on in the 
usual way. On Friday, November 28, medals were 
presented to Messrs. Freelan and Bamberger, winners 
in recent contests. Mr. L. Ness was awarded a medal 
for his standing in a recent tractor contest. An ex- 
cellent contest was held on November 23 for tractor 
models. This contest was won by Mr. C. V. Obst, 
with a flight of over 600 feet, which is comparatively 
a simple flight for this model to make. Many new 
models are being brought out weekly, the most notable 
of which are a beautifully constructed headless type 
duration and altitude flyer constructed by Mr. Daniel 
Criscouli, and a smaller machine of similar type by 
Mr. Hackradt. Ness' three-bladed tractor model has 
been making excellent flights. Obst has been experi- 
menting with the tail planes of his tractor model and 
has found methods of greatly improving the lift of 
same. 

The club has accepted a challenge from the junior 
L. I. M. A. C. and the contest will be held shortly. 
Tlie Bay Ridge Model Aero Club is steadily coming 
to the fore. At all contests held lately the members 
of this club were much in evidence, generally scoring 
a win for the club. Most notable among the mem- 
bers are the Bamberger brothers, who are in fact the 
founders and guiding spirits of the club, and it is 
very seldom that the names of one of the brothers 
does not appear as the winner of a contest. Other 
well-known flyers are Messrs. Heil and Olson. The 
club has not a very large membership, but Mr. \V. F. 
Bamberger, the president, states they desire "quality 
and not quantity." 

On December 20, 191 3, in spite of a bitter cold, 
lilustry day the last contest for the Herreshoft" tro])liy 
was held. The first two contests for this trophy, hclil 
on previous Saturdays, had been won by Frederick 
W'atkins, and it looked as though he would be a 
winner of the last and final contest, but Rudie Funk, 
of the Long Island Model Aero Club, with his world's 
record distance model jiroved otherwise and he quickly 
took the lead with a flight of 1.592 feet. Excellent 
flights were also made by L. Bamberger, of the Bay 
Ridge Model Aero Club. 



AHROXAL'TICS, Jan. :]], IDU 



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Page 30 



AEROXAUTICS, Jan. ill, 1914 




OFFICIAL BULLETIN 



A. C. PENN. ELECTION. 

The annual election of officers was the i>rincii)al 
feature of the meeting of the Aero Club of I'enn- 
sylvania, held at the Uellevue-Stratford Hotel, Phila- 
delphia, on Friday evening, January 9th. Those 
chosen were: 

President — Clarence P. Wynne. 

\'ice-President — Joseiih A. Steinmetz. 

Second Vice-President— \V. 1). Harris. 

Secretary — George S. Gassner. 

Treasurer — Laurence Maresch. 

The Program Committee have arranged for a talk 
bv the First Vice-President, Jos. A. Steinmetz, at the 
nionthly meeting on F^eb. 6th, at which time Mr. 
Steinmetz will describe the appliances for which he 
has been recently granted patents, providing for de- 
fense against invasion by aeroplanes and dirigibles in 
time of war. At the monthly meeting, on March 26th, 
Col. Samuel Reber, U. S. A., will address a joint 
meeting of the Franklin Institute and the Aero Club 
on "Rect-nt Pmgrtss in Milita'y Aeronautics." 

FOUR FLY FAST FOR FLYING BOATS. 

Dr. C. M. Olmsted, of the C. M. O. Physical 
Laboratory, of Buffalo, is now at Miami, Fla., making 
tests of a new propeller, worked out by the Laboratory, 
on the McCormick four-passenger Curtiss flying boat 
in charge of C. C. Witmer. In a preliminary trial 
on January 17 four heavy passengers were carried at 
an increased rate of speed over that attained thereto- 
fore with aviator alone; also got off the water with 
four up with the wind and flew with the motor at 
quarter throttle. This was the first flying test for 
this new jiroiieller. which has been patented. 

SLOANE TO PRODUCE FLYING- 
BOATS. 

Miller Reese Hutchison. E.E., Chief Engineer to 
Thomas A. Edison, was recently elected Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Sloane Aeroplane Company of New York. 

This is the first instance of any noted engineer 
engaging in the manufacture of aeroplanes in this 
country and. no doubt, Mr. Hutchison's engineering 
ability' will be of much advantage to the company, 
which has now enlarged its manufacturing activities 
and is preparing to construct flying boats and bi- 
planes as well as monoplanes. 

Mr. Sloane and Walter H. Phipps are working on 
the design of an original monoplane which, it is con- 
fidently expected, will be one of the most efficient 
aeroplanes in the world. 

The Sloane land school, which will open at Hemp- 
stead in April with John Guy Gilpatric in charge, 
promises to be even more successful than in previous 
years and already a number of pupils have enrolled. 
The Sloane Aeroplane Company will also open a fly- 
ing boat school in the vicinity of New York and this 
will undoubtedly attract a number of pupils as well as 
arouse considerable interest in flying boats among 
New Yorkers. 



LIEUT. POST MAKES 152 MILES 
CROSS COUNTRY. 

San Diego, Jan. g. — Lieut. LI. B. Post, in a Wright 
biplane with 40-h.p. Sturtevant motor, flew non-sto]) 
to Winchester, via Oceanside, a distance of about 76 
miles. 

About TO miles inland, the country is very moun- 
tainous for 10 miles more, with very bad air condi- 
tions at the time. The air was so rough that the 



effort of staying in the seat became even more wear- 
ing than controlling the machine. The machine itself 
acted almost like a bucking horse, tipping up, down 
and sideways with entire impartiality, and occasion- 
ally spinning around sideways from 45 to 90 degrees. 
Many times the maximum wind warp was entirely 
without effect until he allowed the machine to plunge 
downward a considerable distance and thus jiick up 
high speed. The altitude at the beginning of this 
10-mile stretch was 5.000 feet, probably 1,500 feet 
above the peaks, but he lost about 1,000 feet due to 
tlie necessity of plunging to regain control. 

The supply of gasoline gave out at 11.05 a. m., 
over Winchester, Cal., 19 miles from Beaumont, the 
objective, and it was decided to leave the machine 
at Winchester over night. 

The return trip was made without incident the fol- 
lowing day, except that in the morning Post found 
a portion of the tail of the machine to which one of 
the elevator controls is attached broken, also the 
throttle wire. 

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AERONAUTICS, Jan. 31, 1914 





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AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 1914 



Page 



On the Way to 
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Page 35 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 1914 



PROPELLER EXPERIMENTS— By M. B. Sellers 

Series 1 — Oct. 28 to Nov. 6. 1913. 
apparatus described, constantin profile tested. 



The object of the present investigation is to 
determine the thrust and speed of various pro- 
pellers under the same torque, and in this series 
the Constantine protile is compared with some 
other types. 

If we compare a propeller blade to an aero- 
plane wing, the thrust will correspond to the 
lift, and the turning moment to the drift. The 
propeller, acting on air, in motion axially, 
might roughly be compared to an aeroplane 
climbing. 

Of two propellers, identical except in blade 
profile, the torque being the same, that giving 
the greater thrust will have the more efficient 
profile (i. e., the higher lift ratio). This, 
however, involves a consideration of the angle 
of attack; one profile may be the more efficient 
at one angle and the other at another angle. 

The angle of attack of an element of a pro- 
peller blade rotating at a fixed point will de- 
pend on its inclination, velocity and on the 
velocity and direction of the part of the slip 
stream which it encounters. It would seem 
that this angle does not differ greatly for fixed 
point rotation from that in flight ; however, I 
shall consider this matter at another time. 

As this inquiry concerns the direct connected 
propeller with small angle of attack, the pitch 
of the test propellers was purposely made 
short. 

Apparatus — The function of the present ap- 
paratus is to rotate all propellers with the 
same torque, to measure the thrust, and to ena- 
l)le the speed to be determined. For this I 
employ a descending weight, rotating the pro- 
peller by means of a cord wound around a 
drum. This device, though primitive, possesses 
some advantages over more elaborate appa- 
ratus. 

In Fig. 1 the drum D is affixed to the shaft S 
turning in bearings CC. The propeller A is 
fastened to the boss B by two screws. The 
shaft has a play axially of Y^ in., and the 
thrust of the propeller extends the spring F, 
moving the pointer E over the scale G. In 
Fig. 2 the cord which leads from the drum D 
over the pulleys H and I to the fastening J, is 
shown. ' With the present arrangement, the 
drum makes 60 revolutions during the descent 
(^f the weight W, and it was found that the 
acceleration continued throughout this run. To 
obviate this, the weight P was suspended from 
W by the cord K. By adjusting the length of 
K and weight of P, the proper acceleration 
was produced by P and W acting together, and 
after P had struck the floor the speed was 
maintained constant by W acting alone. To 
keep the cord from escaping, the loop L, Fig. 3, 
was made in its end. The rotation at constant 
speed varied from 35 to 40 revolutions with 
different propellers, during which time the 
pointer remained stationary. The time was 
taken from the moment when P struck the 
floor till W struck P ; the possible error was 
one-fifth second, giving speed error between 



termine speed accurately. 

5 and 10 per cent. It was not intended to de- 

To insure an open scale several springs were 
used, one from to 10, one from 8 to 18, etc. 
The calibration was tested every few runs. 
The aggregate thrust error did not exceed J/^ 
oz. The drum measures \% in. x 6 in.; the 
actual measured torque (at 1 ft. .) was 3.8 oz. 
All propeller blades were segmental as shown 
in Fig. 4. The pitch of all, except Nos. 3 and 
4, is 10 in., practically uniform (except near 
hub). Propellers lb and Ic are modifications 
of la. Type b has the Constantin wind de- 
flecting curve at the entering edge. No. 1 and 
No. 2 are the same except in thickness. The 
table gives the thrust in ounces and revolu- 
tions per minute. 

It is seen that the Constantin profiles are 
inferior to types a and c; this was a surprise 
to me because, although it confirmed my orig- 
inal opinion, it was contrary to the reported 
results obtained with this profile. 

In the second experiment with No. lb', where 
the weight W has been increased to give a 
torque of 5.6 oz., the velocity has risen to 800 
rev. ; but the thrust is still less than that for 
la or Ic. The conclusion is obvious. 




710 ,1 ■;<'« /"'reK 

Tic-/ li" JJltch 



The c type is more efficient than the a type, 
at least for small angles of attack. 

No. Id, cambered on face 1-16 in., gave 
rlightly less thrust than with flat face. 

The" superiority of No. 2 over No. 1 shows 
the advantage of a thin blade. 

Coiitinueclon page 42 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 19^4 



Page 36 



FOREIGN AERONAUTICAL MOTORS 

By the Staff Correspondent. 



The variety of different types of motors ex- 
hibited at the recent Paris Aeronautical Salon 
would indicate that European designers and 
manufacturers are still at a difference of opin- 
ion as to which is the best type of motor for 
the purpose. It is not the purpose of this arti- 
cle, however, to discuss suitability or prophesy 
the ultimate type. We will confine ourselves 
to the salient points of each motor, commencing 
with those of the stationary type. 

The Renault is probably the best known of 
the foreign motors in the United States be- 
cause of the fact that our Government has 
purchased ten or more of these during the past 
year, and the American cross-country record 
was accomplished by Lieut. Milling with a 
Burgess tractor biplane fitted with a 70-h.p. 
Renault. This engine is built in one of 70 
and 100-h.p. sizes. The smaller motor has 
eight individual, air-cooled cylinders arranged 
on one crank case in groups of 4 at 90 degrees 
to each other and acting upon a single crank 
shaft. A single cam shaft also operates all 
the valves, the inlet valves being in pockets on 
the sides of the cylinders and the exhaust 
valves in the heads. 

The cylinders have a bore of 3)4 in. and a 
stroke of 4>j4 in-, and the motor develops its 
rated horsepower at 1,800 r.p.m. As this speed 
is not suitable for direct operation, the pro- 
peller shaft is formed by an extension of the 
cam shaft, which, of course, rotates at one- 
half the speed of the crank shaft, or 900 r.p.m. 
This feature has undoubtedly contributed 
largely to the success of the engine because of 




the fact that the slow speed propeller, for slow 
speed machines, is much more efficient. It is 
also claimed by the manufacturers that any 
gyroscopic effect of the propeller is overcome 
by the crank shaft rotating, in the opposite 
direction. 

Cylinders are cooled by a fan on the crank 
shaft which delivers a large volume of air into 
a chamber between the two groups of cylinders 
formed by a sheet metal housing over the top 
of the engine, and the air passes out through 
the horizontal flanges on the cylinders, thereby 
giving very uniform cooling to each one. This 



fan, however, absorbs a considerable amount 
of power, probably not less than 6 h.p. when 
the engine is operating at full speed, and it is 
a question whether this arrangement is lighter 
per horsepower delivered to the propeller shaft 
than the water-cooled design when one sub- 
tracts the power required to operate the fan, 
and adds the weight of the fan and its sheet 
metal housing and the rather heavy cooling 
flanges which are necessary on the eight cyl- 
inders. The convenience of the air cooling, 
however, is a great advantage. 

The carburetor is of the manufacturer's own 
make of the duplex type, having a single float 
chamber and two separate jet chambers, with 
an inlet pipe leading to each group of four 
cylinders. The engine is fitted with a single 
spark, Bosch magneto of the H.L. type, oper- 
ating at engine speed and firing all eight cyl- 
inders. 

Lubrication is accomplished by a gear pump 
located in the oil sump in the bottom of the 
crank case. This pump delivers the oil under 
a slight pressure to the main bearings, from 
where it is thrown off into circular oil scoops 
on the crank shaft, lubricating the connecting 
rods by centrifugal force. All other parts of 
the motor are oiled by splash. Baffle plates 
are interposed between the base of the cylin- 
ders and the crank case to prevent over- 
lubrication of the cylinders. 

The two groups of cylinders do not stand 
directly opposite each otlier on the crank case, 
but are staggered the necessary amount, so that 
all the connecting rods are alike, and each has 
separate big end bearings. The weight of this 
motor, complete with magneto and carburetor, 
is 415 lbs. 

The 100-h.p. Renault is of the same general 
appearance as the 70-h.p. size, except that it 
lias 12 cylinders, 3a^-in. bore by 5^-in. stroke, 
and these are arranged in two groups of six at 
an angle of 60 degrees to each other. This 
diff'erence between the angle of the cylinders 
of the 8-cylinder and 12-cylinder motors is. of 
course, necessary in order to secure uniform 
firing. 

In the case of this larger motor, the cylin- 
ders are placed opposite each other, and the 
two connecting rods act upon a common crank 
shaft bearing, one being a master rod and the 
other being attached to it with a small pin 
like the piston pin arrangement. Two single 
spark Bosch magnetos are used, each firing one 
set of six cylinders. A double carburetor, as 
on the 8-cylinder motor, also divides the motor 
into two separate 6-cylinder engines. 

This engine is very long and somewhat 
clumsy for its power, weighing 630 lbs. How- 
ever, it develops its rated horsepower quite 
easily, as was shown when one was recently 
tested by the U. S. Government at Annapolis, 
and developed 103 h.p. on the propeller shaft 
at 900 r.p.m., and, of course, was developing 
somewhat more than this on the crank shaft 
because of the loss in the reduction gears. 

To be continued 



Page 37 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 1914 



THE SPERRY GYROSCOPIC STABILIZER 



One January 21st, Lawrence B. Sperry 
left for France with the latest development 
of the gyroscopic stabilizer, with which ex- 
periments have been conducted at the Cur- 
tiss plant, at Hammondsport, for the past 
eighteen months. 

The device may be placed in any con- 
venient location on a gasless craft and con- 
nected by cables with ailerons or warping 
wings and with the elevator. The sole am- 
bition in life of the controlling gyroscopes 
used is to maintain their position parallel 
with the horizon. A tilting up on one 
w^ing end opens a small valve in an air 
cylinder and permits air from a storage 
tank to move a piston. The piston rod is 
connected to a vertical lever, to which 
cables run to the ailerons. It is clear that 
this can be arranged to pull upward the 
aileron on the high side and create a down- 
ward pressure, and the reverse for the low 
side. 



device located under the seats of the Navy's 
"C-2." The device in the foreground is the 
one for lateral stability. A separate unit 
was used for longitudinal stability, located 
in the bow of the boat. A is the arm open- 
ing the valve. A cable is run to a foot 
lever: pulling on this opens the valve to 
the outside air and cuts out the automatic 
device. C is the lever which is hooked by 
a rod to the usual Curtiss shoulder yoke 
control. E is the piston rod which oper- 
ates the lever C, as is obvious. 

Fig. 1 also shows a diagrammatic view 
of the wiring of the aileron control systein. 
H is a little lever which opens the shoulder 
braces to permit easy ingress. At J is the 
device equalizing the pressure on the 
ailerons. Many changes have been made 
in the device now taken to Europe, as will 
be noticed later on. 

Electric current to rotate the gyroscopes, 
which are practically induction motors, at 




The same gyroscopes resent longitudinal 
tipping, and another cylinder and piston 
are employed for operating the elevator. 

To bank on a turn, the operator in the 
Curtiss machine, for instance, moves his 
shoulder brace as ordinarily. This, of 
course, opens the valve in the cylinder 
again and the ailerons operate to bank. At 
the point desired, the automatic device, the 
gyroscope, takes up the work again and 
maintains the set bank, until the operator 
puts the machine back on a level keel 
again. As a matter of fact, the pilot "fools" 
the gyroscope by changing its horizontal 
relation to the horizon, and it goes right 
on believing that any further alteration in 
bank beyond the amount set for is abnor- 
mal and should be automatically corrected. 
A similar stunt is done to volplane. 

The illustration (Fig. 1) shows the earlier 



a speed of 14,000 r.p.m. is obtained from a 
generator, which is now driven by a belt from 
the aeroplane's engine. Increase of engine 
speed shifts the belt, so that a fairly uniform 
generator speed is obtained. This generator 
furnishes both direct and alternating cur- 
rent, which may be used for lighting, igni- 
tion, wireless or other purposes. This gene- 
rator weighs about 22 lbs. The gyro- 
scopes, their frames, cylinders and other 
mechanisms, weigh about 40 lbs. A com- 
pressed air tank adds some 12 lbs. Uni- 
form pressure is maintained in the tank by 
an automatic pump fitted in a hole drilled 
in the top of the cylinder, and forces air 
and gases from the engine cylinder into 
the reservoir on the tiring stroke. Later on 
electricity will be used instead of the com- 
pressed air tank. 

Coniiiiued on pane 39 



lERONAUTICS, Feb. .14, 19H 



Page 38 



THE THOMAS FLYING BOAT 



The 1914 Thomas flying boat has many 
new features, both in design and construc- 
tion, and is in keeping with the Thomas 
reputation of high-grade design and effi- 
ciency. During the past year several meth- 
ods of construction were experimented 
with. 

First, the all-wood hull was tried and 
discarded because of the great amount of 
water absorbed by the planking. It was 



found that the all-wood hull would increase 
in weight over 100 lbs. after being in use a 
couple of weeks. 

Next, a wooden hull was tried with metal 
bottom. This was found to have advant- 
ages over the all-wood hull, but still the 
sides absorbed a great deal of water. 

Finally, a third type was tried, in which 
the hull was built of wood and then en- 
tirelv covered with metal. This boat was 




Page 39 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14. i9U 



put through a number of tests during the 
summer and fall, and in efficiency, both in 
the water and air, more than hlled its de- 
signer's expectations. It has been timed 
to leave the water in eight seconds from 
the time the engine was started, and to 
have a speed of over 65 miles an hour in 
the air. 

The 1914 model contains all the good fea- 
tures of last year's model, and in addition 
has new ones in both design and construc- 
tion. The new model might well be called 
"The boat with a backbone," as, contrary 
to the usual practice in flying-boat con- 
struction of building over frames and fitting 
in braces and centerboard last, the new 
model is built from the keel up, just as all 
boats are built, from the smallest motor 
boat to an ocean liner. 

Length over all, 25 ft. 5 in.; length of 
hull, 23 ft; span of top plane, 36 ft. 4 in.; 
span of lower plane, 28 ft. 4 in.; chord, 5 ft.; 
gap, 68 in.; top beam, 40 in.; bottom beam, 
34 j/^ in.; maximum depth, 36 in.; total area 
of main planes, 310 sq. ft.; power plant, 
Austro-Daimler 90 h. p.; total weight of 
rtymg boat, empty, 1,275 lbs. Hull proper 
is 23 ft. in length, beam 34^/2 in. at bottom 
and 40 in. at top. Divided into water-tight 
coinpartments, any one of sufficient capa- 
city to float the machine. Spruce keel en- 
tire length of boat; from this the body of 
the hull is built up on ribs of spruce spaced 
4 in. apart and double planked with cedar. 
Two layers of yi-'m. planking. Decided V 
bottom, from the step to a point forward 
of the seats, which makes a stronger con- 
struction than flat bottom and does not add 
to weight. After planking, the boat is en- 
tirely covered with a special grade of gal- 
vanized sheet steel. It will not absorb 
water, is easy to repair in case of puncture, 
and will last indefinitely. Mahogany spray 
shields; cockpit paneled with same ma- 
terial. Seats upholstered in dark gray. 
Center panel of spray shield operated by 



small lever in cockpit, making an easy en- 
trance to the boat. 

Bottom of boat is protected by a large 
center skid of ash, running entire length, 
and two smaller ones on the sides. Center 
skid is fastened to inside keel by an im- 
proved method, which prevents leakage. 
Skid is shod with steel, and at the step has 
a heavy heel which is capable of support- 
ing the entire weight of the machine. The 
boat is finished in battleship-gray color, 
and all metal work is highly polished. 

The hull has been designed for use with 
the engine mounted either midway be- 
tween tiie planes or on the hull itself. With 
the motors mounted between the planes, 
the boat has extra seating capacity in the 
after cockpit. 

Wings are built up in panels, for con- 
venience in shipping; upper plane contain- 
ing seven sections, and lower five. All guy 
wires 3/32 in. galvanized steel cable, fitted 
with a special type of Bleriot turnbuckle. 
All control wires are doubled for safety. 
The standard Thomas strut socket is used, 
and struts can be taken out _ and planes 
packed without losing any wires. Wing 
curve is standard Thomas curve, used for 
past four years. The stabilizer is 10 ft. in 
length and an average of 2 ft., with an area 
of 20 sq. ft. The two elevator flaps contain 
22y2 sq. ft., and the balanced rudder 9 
sq. ft. The ailerons have a length of 11 ft. 
and an average width of 18 in., and contain 
about 23 sq. ft. 

The boat is fitted with a new system of 
control. The elevator is worked in the 
usual way, by forward and backward move- 
ment of the steering column, and the rud- 
der by rotating wheel on it, but the aileron 
control is worked by foot pedals. The 
whole control is very neatly worked out 
and undoubtedly will be adopted as stand- 
ard, with a view to meeting the United 
States Navy requirements. 



THE SPERRY GYROSCOPIC STABILIZER 

Continued from page 31 

A dial on one side of the device shows 
the angle of flight at all times. A plate 
anemometer, which may be located in any 
convenient place, shows on a dial, similar 
to an automobile speedometer, the speed 
of the aeroplane relative to the air. Ad- 
justment can be made so that a fall in 
speed to any set point will operate the air 
valve in the cylinder and cause the ma- 
chine to 'plane until the proper speed has 
again been attained. 

The bow of the boat shown in Fig. 1 
contains, in the experimental device, a du- 
plicate of the set shown, connected to the 
elevator control system and operating in 
the same manner as the other unit. Added 
to this was the plate anemometer. 

In the latest machine, the gyroscopes for 
both stability systems and all mechanisms 
are located in one unit. 



7a^/e For Ca/culaflnq Weights of Aerop/ane Frame- Work 


Th/ckness 


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and /Ish = .022*' F'or Cubfc Inch. i0*a 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 1914 



Page 40 




THE BOLAND FLYING BOAT 



The Boland flying boat made its debut at 
the Motor Boat Show in February. Here is 
surely an original aft'air — a tailless, rudderless, 
aileronless monoplane flying boat, and alleged 
to be non-infringing! 

Frank E. Boland began experimenting, as 
we recall, in 1907, and bought an almost un- 
flyable machine in 1908 and started to work. 
Eventually he brought to the public notice his 
"jib" system of control, with which readers are 
entirely familiar through drawings and de- 
scriptions of earlier machines. To steer the 
machine, the hand-wheel is turned left or right 
for steering thus respectively. The cable pulls 
one jib only inward, creating a resistance on 
that side of the machine tending to turn and 
bank it. The jib is revoluble about an oblique 
axis from the lower end of the forward strut 
to the upper end of the rear strut. To bal- 
ance, the jib on the high side is pulled in, the 
hand-wheel being turned naturally to the high 
side. The jib produces a drag and a down 
pressure and the aeroplane rights. To operate 
the elevator, the wheel and steering column is 
pushed forward for "going down" and pulled 
toward the operator for "going up." 



The wings, rigid, are guyed to a mast in the 
stern of the boat. A light cantilever bridge 
extends from the boat out to the wing-end 
floats and acts as a truss for the jibs and the 
floats. 

The two-step boat is of mahogany ribs and 
stays, covered with one ply spruce and a layer 
of Irish linen painted with Conover "dope" 
and enamel varnish. A 3-in. ash gunwale ex- 
tends along the deck and projects forward to 
form the support for the elevator. The engine 
struts are also fastened to this gunwale. The 
cockpit carries two tandem ; 6-in. gunwale. 
The passenger sits under the horizontal center 
of gravity. At every step is a handhole for 
bailing out. On the dashboard there is a hand 
pressure pump for gasoline supply, a tachom- 
eter and an air gauge. A magneto cut-out 
button is located in the hand-wheel, and there 
is also a switch in the hub of the wheel. The 
right foot operates the throttle and spark, the 
spark advance being connected with the throt- 
tle. 

The hollow mast is of oak and mahogany, 
laminated. This is fastened in the keel and 
Continued on page iii 




^ ^»^^\h^\\)ll^m\\^^^yyyA^^u\^■ v.^\^^\^\\\\\\\\\\Vffl^^^ 



^age 41 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 19^4 



ANOTHER NEW CURTISS FLYING BOAT 



A change in hull design, in engine section 
ubing and wing-end floats are the principal 
Features of the latest Curtiss flying boat, ex- 
libited at the Motor Boat Show in New York 
n February. 

There is no folding hood, as the mahogany 
sheathing is brought up in a solid rounded 
I'orm. At the forward seat the sides flare out 
dightly to make more room. The shoulder 
graces which operate the ailerons fold outward 
in either side, making for easy entrance and 
egress. An Elliott instrument board under the 
lood contains a clock, indicating barometer, 
achometer and air speed indicator. A knife 
■witch for the magneto is fastened to the un- 
ler side of the hood. As the main 30-gallon 
?as tank is under the rear passenger seat, air 
iressure is employed, and there is an air gauge 
itted under the hood. A pop-off valve limits 
he amount of pressure. The air pump is 
geared to the cam shaft. This forces gasoline 
nto the small 3-gallon gravity tank just back 
)f the radiator, which is now slightly enlarged, 
md has thin vertical tubes. In conjunction 
/ith the instrument board there is also an angle 
)f flight indicator. 

Curtiss boats are now made with one-piece 
vings, which allows more strength and better 
ilignment. The lower plane in the engine sec- 
ion is of mahogany, cut out to allow another 
;eat for the third and fourth passengers. The 
ipper wings separate in the center of the 
engine section. The lower wings are each 
diorter than the two upper halves on account 
)f allowance for the above arrangement in the 
ower engine section. Both upper and lower 
►vings are connected to the engine section by 



Q. D. sockets. A removable pin permits rapid 
demounting. All struts may be removed with 
the wings without loosening up any of the guy 
wires. The power plant remains intact with 
the boat. 

Under the wing ends are floats,, fitted to the 
curve of the wings, straight sided, terminating 
in a sharp vertical edge at the rear under the 
beam. A flat paddle is attached on the under 
side. Non-skid panels are fitted as usual. The 
engine is an 0-X 90-100, which insures an 
average of around 60 m.p.h. The total weight 
of the machine, without operator or supplies, 
is 1,400 lbs. 

The surfaces are covered with linen, coated 
with spar varnish, with a high gloss. There 
is a starting crank, of course. This conflicts 
with the single large beam running down from 
the engine bed to the bow, but as the engine 
does not have to be "swung," there is no ob- 
jection on this account. 

The forward part of the hull has a V bot- 
tom, the greatest curvature being forward, de- 
creasing to straight lines at the step. A tow- 
ing ring is in the extreme nose of the boat, 
and the bow is protected with copper sheath- 
ing. The usual hand holes are to be found 
in the top of the tail of the boat. The wings 
have been flattened somewhat and the angle 
of flight is about 6 degrees. The fixed tail 
surface has a slight lifting angle. The pro- 
peller is a standard Curtiss, metal tipped, 8 ft. 
diameter by SJa ft. pitch. The steering column 
provides two wheels for either of two men to 
use. Under the engine is a drip pan, which 
protects the occupants of the rear seat. The 
chord has been shortened to 5 ft. 




4ER0NAUTICS, Feb. 14, 1914 



Page 42 




THE U. S. NAVY'S LATEST FLYING 
BOATS. 

The last three machines supplied the U. S. 
Navy are similar to the Curtiss boat seen at 
the Boat Show and the previous boats sup- 
plied in a general way. There is no seat under 
the engine for extra passengers and no drip 
pan under the engine. The chord is 5 ft. 6 in. 
The gasoline tanks flank the engine, as shown 
in the drawing, and the upper plane is fitted 
with extensions. The hood is rigid, but is 
differently shaped, as will be noticed in the 
sketch. The engine tube bracing at the rear 
beam is not as simple as the Show boat. 



CURTISS FLYING BOAT FOR ITALIAN 
NAVY 

Another new hull design has been employed 
in making the machine for the Italian Navy. 
The hull is straight sided instead of flaring at 
the forward seat, as is the custom in the 
standard and the U. S. Navy boats, where the 
occupants sit side by side. But two occupants 
are provided for in the Italian boat, placed 
tandem, permitting a narrower hull. The ver- 
tical sides are of mahogany veneer, 3-ply. This 
enables the entire side to be made of one 




piece, i. e., the mahogany is cut out the full 
shape instead of being used in narrow strips. 
Otherwise, the internal constrtiction is the 
same as that of other Curtiss boats. 

The occupants, seated tandem, are entirely 
protected except for the face when the hood 
is down; when the hood is raised, they are 
completely covered up. This hood is con- 
structed similar to an automobile top, with 
])ows and fabric ; transparent material is in- 
serted in the cloth between the iiows and 
across the front. The bows run fore and aft, 
and the top opens in the longitudinal center 
and folds down within the sides of the hull. 

The hull being narrower than standard, al- 
lows of a transparent strip on either side of 
the hull in tlie lower engine section, so that 



tlie rear occupant has sight directly downward. 
The cockpit, in which Ijoth sit, is elliptical in 
shape. The front wing beam crosses the cock- 
pit just ahead of the rear man. Controls are 
standard Curtiss, except that they are so ar- 
ranged either man may do the operating, or 
can be disconnected at once for instruction 
work. In this boat there are two spars run- 
ning down from the engine bed to the bow of 
the boat. In other respects the machine is the 
same as that seen at the Boat Show. 

The weight, empty and without supplies, is 
1,400 lbs. The chord of the wings in this boat 
is 5 ft. 6 in.; the spread is the same as the 
Show boat. 



PROPELLER EXPERIMENTS 

Continufd from pdijc •'*•"' 

With zero pitch, type b gave practically no 
thrust, while type c gave 9 oz. 

The No. 4, same as No. 1 except that it has 
15-in. pitch, gave less thrust than No. 1. 

No. 5, with 24-in. diameter, gave more thrust 
than No. 1; and No. 6, with blade 4^4-in. 
wide, gave same thrust as No. 5 at slightly 
reduced speed. 

Table 1. 



Propeller 


Thrust, 


Speed. 




Propeller 


Thrust, 


Speed, 


la 


20^0 


750 






ounces 
26 


rev. p.m. 


2c 


800 


Ix 


13 


670 




3c 


9 


920 


lb 


11'2 


630 




4a 


18 


640 


lb' 


11 


600 




5a 


26 


1,100 


Ic 


23 


800 




5b 


16 


960 


Id 


22'2 


800 




5c 


27 


1,200 


2a 


23' 2 


800 




6a 


26 


1,050 


2b 


18 


800 




lb' 2 


17 


800 


2b' 


18 


800 











(To he continued) 



THE BOLAND FLYING BOAT. 

Continued from, page in 

guys run to the wings, the bow of the boat 
and the engine bed. The main wing spars end 
in a special socket on the mast. The wings 
have a camber of 4^_. in, tapering to 3->4 in. 
and are set at a 5-in. angle. The wings are 
also set at a dihedral angle in the later direc- 
tion. W'ings are of linen, Conover treated and 
spar varnished. 

The 70-h.p. Boland engine will be supplanted 
by the new 100-h.p. motor, 4^/. x 5^/>, driving 
a 4-bladed propeller 5/2-ft. pitch by 7-ft. diam- 
eter; 100 h.p. is claimed at 1,250 r.p.m. With 
the present engine the outfit weighs around 
<)00 lbs. 

Leonard W. Bonnev, a former Wright fiyer, 
is chief pilot with the Boland Aeroplane & 
Motor Co. A description of the 100-h.p. Bo- 
land engine will be given in a subsequent issue. 



\uic 43 



AERONAUTICS, Pcb. 14, 1914 




FOR FLYING BOATS USE 

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE 

Usr our Waterproof Litiuid Glue, or No. 7 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Olue for water- 
l)roiifintr the canvas covering of flyingr boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas 
but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as lone as the boat. 

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diaconal planking:, and for 
watei'prooflnK muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, direcliiiis for use, etc, 

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 




OTRORS 



Longren and his HALL-SCOTT powered tractor 

The Young Aviation Co., Topeka, Kansas 
have written 

"We have used No. .51 three seasons, has 
done elegant work all this time, no motor 
failure, and have filled more dates than 
any other aviator in the state of Kansas 
and most of Oklahoma and Nebraska. 

Signed A. R. LONGREN." 

Investigate our 100 H. P. equipment 

Hall-Scott Motors Guarantee Success 



Hall-Scott Motor Car Co. 

818 Crocker Bldg. San Francisco, Cal. 



AERONAUTICAL 
RADIATORS 

Built in capacities and types for standard 
and special aviation motors 

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your 
specifications for special designs 



EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY 

64th St. & West End Ave., New York City 



Also Manufacturers o( Automobile Radiators of all types 



PEDERSEN OIL PUMPS 

have positive action, are small and 
li<>ht, easily apjjlied to any motor 

^^-^^^ Write for circular ~"^^^^~=^"~^^ 



PEDERSEN LUBRICATOR CO. 

636-644 First Avenue, New York, U. S. A. 



>: 

>: 
:♦: 

:♦: 

>: 
:♦; 






The Sloane Aeroplane Co. 



Tlie only builders in tlie world of military mono- y 
planes, biplanes and llyinj; boats. Full eciuipiiiont j».^ 
for military and naval aviation furnished. 'ff. 



SLOANE 

FLYING BOATS 

For Sporting and Naval Use 

OWL BOATS 

For Over Water and Land Flying 

SLOANE MONOPLANES 
TRACTOR BIPLANES 

and 

Rear Propeller Gun-Planes 

SLOANK AERO-SKIMMKRS for sports- 
men. Ideal for higii speed travel on the 
water and delivery use on shallow streams. 

GNOME -ANZANI— RENAULT, at lowest prices 

Aeroplanes built to special design. Designs developed. 
Parts supplied — In fact everything aeronautical furnished. 

Sloane Aeroplane Co. 

1733 Broadway :: New York City 



>:>;^>;>:>i>;>:;«-:«i>;>;i»^>i:*: ••i'»;>i;^>i>::*;>; •♦• ■♦;:t;^j»i 



BOLAND AEROPLANE AND 
MOTOR COMPANY 

THE BOLAND MOTOR 

8 cyl. "V " type 6o H.P. 240 pounds. 

RELIABILITY DURABILITY 

MAXIMUM POWER. MINIMUM WEIGHT. 

THE BOLAND TAILLESS BIPLANE 

equipped with the Boland Control (two movements) 
and BOLAND MOTOR. 

THE BOLAND CONTROL is the embodiment of 
utmost safety and simplicity in a new system of con- 
irul which is babic in principle. Write for particulars. 

Factory : Ft. Center St., Newark, N. J. 

Office: 1821 3ROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



CAPITALIST or PROMOTER 

Wanted — — 



Will try to cross the Atlantic in shortest 
possible time with my new type airship 

.1 Practical Accomplishment 
WALTER V. KAMP, 551 W. 178th St., New, York 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 1914 Pa<re 44 

CURTISS AIR BOAT TO CROSS visable to continue his flight. He dismounted the 

ATLANTIC niachine, loaded it in a box car, and shipped it to 

Rodman X^anamaker is having built by the Curtiss tZl.Pt^.\^'I ''''"• 'Pr '"^'^'""\."^^d ^^'^^ ^ Curtiss 

Aeroplane Cj. a huge flying boat in which an attempt g^l'^^le ' ^°"'°° ^'"'^^°'^'" 

is expected to be made to cross the Atlantic in its t-i ' r ., ^ r c- t^- j: 

smallest dimension during the year. ,, ^he summary of the reports from San Diego for 

At the p-sent "state of the art" it has been ^'i^.^tf enduig January 24 . shows no flights 45 

.1 1 .. ■ u ur ^r i • ii 1 ij 1 passengers carried; total time in air as hours and 28 

thought imp -..bable that crossing the pond would be „ii„„tes. Since January i to January 24, there have 

accomplished. However, Cur iss has done_ a lot of ^een 306 flights, "140 passengers carried; total time in 

things people said he couldn t do and this may be ^-^ i^^^,,.« ^^^^ ^, ,\,i„utes. In the above total are 

one of hem There are plenty of battleships scattered i„eluded three cross-countrv flights of 85, n4 and 

about this Ittle sphere. Perhaps this country, Eng- ^-,^ miles " 
land, France, Germany and others could be induced 

to distribute a chain of boats along the projected IMPORT AND EXPORTS. 

route. At best, they would be some considerable dis- Imports 

tance apart; at the same time, any safeguard is bet- p^. 'Nfovember 

ter than noi,e and it might be possible, by traveling „ ;nonths ending' November "i", ' aeroplane 

at a great leight, with powerful glasses, to almost ajjj parts $iq 62- 

keep a battleship in sight at all times. ExpoifV ^f' DmnVsiic M^niifac'turel ' ' 

GLOBE AIR RACE. ^"^ November. 2 and parts. . . i5,379 

T, . , ■ , ^, 1, T, ,2 T- •^- 1 II months ending JNovember, 18 and parts.. 79.554 

It IS clamed the Panama-Pacihc Exposition has Exports of Foreign. 

offered $i5o.<,oo in prizes for an air race around the p^,. Xovember, none T 

world, open to all types of craft, and will raise „ ^^^^^j,,^ ^^- November, 2 and parts... 11,23. 

$150,000 moie. T Tf- 7 A- I 

^ ■' In H areliousc, November 30. 

AERO CLUB OF PHILADELPHIA 3 Aeroplanes 762,^ 

DINNER. NEW ALTITUDE FLIGHT ENDS 

The first iiinual banquet of the Philadelphia Aero FATALLY. 

Club was b( Id February 5th The speakers were: After makini? a new American' altitude record o) 

Marshall Red Henry M.Neely, \\ dliam D. Harris, ,^^,^^ feet at \San Diego, February 9, Lieut. Flenrv 

Ulysses S. \vilson, E. R. Brown, Dr. George S. Gass- 3 p^gj^ g^my aviator, was killed, after descendini 

ner. Percy Pierce %yas toastmaster. The club was g^fgiy ^^ ^.;thj„ so„,e 600 feet of the earth. It le 

founded in 911 and in the tirst two years many reported that at that height "the plane was seen tt 

records were made in model flying. An incomplete collapse" and the pilot was thrown clear of the 

aeroplane has been presented to the club. machine into five feet of water. The Signal Corps 

STEVENS' LIFE PACK AGAIN DEM- ^^■*"', °f cou«e. make an official report. 

r\MC'T''D A TTTTk altitude record has been held by Beachey wnc 

OfM o 1 KA 1 rLiD. made 11,642 feet at Chicago in 1911. Lieut. Post's 

On Febrvrry 4, Leo Stevens' "life pack" was best flight was one of 152 miles in 2 days. (Sec 

again emplojed by moving picture people for a sensa- issue of January 31.) 

tional film. With two taxicabs, Rodman Law and -,tt r-.o t^t tt-<c. TTT-inTT-.T-. T-w/-kTirn,T 

Miss Constaice Bennett startled across Brooklyn NlLtS FLIES UPSIDE DOWN. 

bridge and at the center leaped out and climbed over C. S. Niles, second in the race around New York, 

the rail anc' — dropped. If this had happened in a former Curtiss and Thomas biplane flyer, flew a 

France, the oapers and magazines would have been Moisant monoplane upside down in a most sensational 

full of the "wonderful" feat. Here, however, where and heart-stop])ing flight at Mineola on February 3. 

the idea originated, such feats are so common they In attempting to make the loop, it is reported the 

scarcely call for comment. The "pack," as everyone machine dropped tail first before getting completely 

knows, is merely a silken parachute properly folded over, but Niles was able to recover, 

in a little big strapped to the shoulders. When the cr'OTT' Tr\ Fi'Pr^TJ ■ROTUT'RC 

jump is made, the 'chute opens in 20 or 30 feet. ,. ^,V, ,^ c- ^'^^.'^ a^^mnii. 

Lieut. Riley E. Scott is on Ins way to San Diego 

T A T T/i ■UTT'XJ'DO'O T>T7r«/^'C>Tk T'OTD to resume bomb dropping experiments after those 

T-, ffi , . ,^. Vr T- , / made with mediocre results at Washington two vear. 

The official report ot the trip of Lieut. Taliaferro, on j^,g ,p inability of the machine used to lif't the 

January 20 : rom North Island, Cal., via J^os Angeles weight 
and Pasadena to Elsinore, shows that he covered 

224 miles in 3 hours and 50 minutes, an average of INTERNATIONAL BALLOON RACE. 

58.4 miles y-A- hour. R. H. L'pson and Capt. H. E. Honeywell have 

Taliaferro flew at an average altitude of about so far been selected as two of the team to represent 

5,000 feet. Having obtained gasoline and oil from Uncle Sam in the big race from Kansas City, Octo- 

Elsinore, he flew to a point six miles southeast of ber 6. It is apparent that there will be no national 

Temecula, h.iiding there on account of the engine ,-ace this year to select the team as originally urged 

having stopped. He flew back to Elsinore, spending hv AERONALTTICS, finallv put in practice and as 

the night at that place (total distance in air for the ],"^s ijgeii the custom for tlie past three years, 

day 270 milej; total time in air 4 hours and 41 min- .,,.,.^_..-, .,»., .,.,., ^.,,,„t-...-,»t tt^ttt-.<^ 

utes). Leaviig Elsinore at 9:30 a. m. on the morn- AVIATOR IN AIR SIXTEEN HOURS. 

ing of Janusry 21, he continued his flight until eight Munich, Feb. 8. — The aviator Ingold broke tlie 

miles west cf Corona, where the engine stopped on world's record for a cross country endurance flight. 

account of tie poor gasoline obtained at Elsinore. He remained in the air for 16 hours and 20 minutes, 

He landed i:i the only possible landing place in that and covered a distance estimated at 1.050 miles witli- 

part of the country, a very muddy, newdy plowed out landing. Ingold started at Mulhausen, Alsace, 

field, at 10:08 a. m. (distance 35 miles, time 38 min- and flew- far to the north. He then proceeded south- 

utes). The field where he landed was so soft that ward to Munich, landing in a suburb. 

the wheels sink into the ground to their hubs. This ■ 

field was svrrounded on three sides by high hills Johannisthal, Feb. 3. — The aviator Brunolanger to- 

and trees, a id a swamp on the fourth side, and as day broke the world's record for an endurance flight, 

there was no place within a radius of 5 miles from He remained in the air for fourteen hours and seven 

which he coi Id take to the air he deemed it inad- minutes. 



age 45 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 1914 




< BENOIST 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Benoist School of Aviation will open on Janua'/ 1st, at 
St. Petersburg, Florida. The school will be uider the 
personal supervision of Tom 'W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. 
■We will also conduct the first regular schedule passenger- 
carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Ta ipa, Fla. 
Students who want to join the school and prospective 
agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our 
flying boats will do well to address 



The Sew 
Benoist 
Fli/ing 
Boat ill 
Action 



BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY 

St. Louis, Missouri or St. Petersburg Florida 



50 H.P. 

160 POUNDS 



GYRO MOTOR 



80 H.P. 

207 P(3UNDS 




Endurance Flying Eecord 
to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min. 



'*F L I G H T" 

July 26th, 1913 

"Some may say — to the obvi- 
ous benefit of the Company 
whose representatives have 
adopted his very pra -tical 
method of calling attention 
to the GYRO engine (50 h.p.) 
that it is all due to the motor, 
which probably dev<dops 
about three times as much 
power as the machine; re- 
quires for the purposes of 
straightforward flight." 



Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout 



Send for Catalog 



THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C. 



J 



ALL MARINE FLYERS 

Should investigate the merits of the Three-Bladed Paragons. Smaller She than corres- 
ponding two blades, with fine lines of design, make them turn more freely. Free turning 
enables them to carry higher pitch. The added blade gives them a stronger hold on the air. 

Results: — Less Vibration — Full Turning Speed — Higher Pitch Speed = Smaller 
Slip — Faster Flying — Stronger Manoeuverin^ — Safer Handling and Control. 

Uncle Sam uses three-bladed Paragons almost exclusively in his Navy Boats — There's a 
reason and Paragon price economy besides. 

There are questions in your mind. Write to us for the answers intelligently stated and illus- 
trated by photographs. Full brass blade protection at only nominal cost. 

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md. 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 191 4 




^tHHS^lSfi^ 



OFFICIAL BULLETIN 
OFFICERS. 

Clarence P. Wynne, President. 
Jos. A. Steinmetz, ist I'icc-PrcsiJent. 
\Vm. D. Harris, 2nd Vice-President. 
CiEORGE S. Gassner, Secretary 
Laurence Maresch, Treasurer. 
Office of the Club, Bel'.evue-Stratford, Phila., Pa. 



NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

Members of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania in 
good standing will receive semi-monthly copies of 
AERONAUTICS as one of the benefits of member- 
ship, together with the monthly journal "Flying." 
By this arrangement, A. C. P. members obtain more 
from a magazine standpoint than those of any other 
club in the country. 

DEMAND FOR CHARAVAY 

That the consistent good work of Charavay pro- 
pellers and the high quality of construction is up- 
holding their enviable reputation for efficiency and 
long service is evident from the number of new 
orders and repeats orders that the Sloane Aeroplane 
Company is continually receiving 

The Sloane Aeroplane Company has just brought 
out a new 3 bladed type for flying-boats and tractors, 
the first of which was delivered to the U. S. Navy. 
No propeller is allowed to leave the factory before 
being inspected by an expert as to correct pitch and 
balance. The balancing is accomplished on a special 
ball bearing bracket and the weights of the blades 
are not allowed to vary a fraction of an ounce. 

.\mongst recent purchasers are the governments of 
the United States, Guatemala and Mexico, Moisant 
[nternational Aviators, Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin, 
('apt. Hugh L. Willoughby, Lieut. J. M. Murray, 
Richmond Aeroplane Co., Lieut. Walb, Maximillian 
Schmitt, Benoist Aircraft Co., R. V. Morns, and 
E. B. Ford, son of the famous maker of Ford cars. 



ST. PETERSBURG LINE ADDS NEW 
ROUTE. 

The St. Petersliurg-Tampa Airboat Line, established 
by the Benoist Aircraft Conipany of St. Louis, has 
is'sued a statement of its first month's! business, cov- 
ering the 31 days of January. With no Sunday flying, 
this "left only 27 possible days of operation. In these 
27 days, 97 trips were made. Out of these, 4)^2 days 
of flying were lost, 3 days loss was caused by a broken 
crank shaft in the motor, and the balance ascribed to 
bad weather. 

There were carried in all, 184 passengers, and the 
boat made a distance of 2,234 miles, or 4.46S passen- 
ger-miles, which surely compares not only favorably, 
but much better than the usual taxicab or automoliile 
used for commercial w'ork. 

The line has proved hi.ghly remunerative, as the 
cost of up-keep has been much less than for the same 
work with an automobile, and the amounts received 
for the work have, of course, been greater. 

The first understanding was that this line was to be 
ojierated for three months during the tourist season, 
but the business men have been so delighted with the 
performances of the boats that they are now making 
arrangements to continue the line clear through th-: 
suinnier and fall, and increase the number of ma- 
chines to a great extent for next winter. 

Two more machines have been received now and 
are to be put in active service. 

.Another line is contemplated between St. Petersburg 
and Tarpon Springs, a distance of about 45 miles. 
Tliis to ni.-ike stops at Pass-.A-Grille, Clearwater, Bel- 
lair and Tariioii Springs. 



Poge 4( ^: 



AERO MART 



FOR SALE — -Our last year's monoplanes and b 
planes; very cheap for cash, or trade for anythin 
of value. — F. M., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohic 



SACRIFICE — A Curtiss type biplane, flown by on 
of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hal 
Scott 60 H. P. motor, all in Ai condition, for $1,35 
cash, subject to demonstration to bona-fide purchasei 
Shipping bo.xes, propeller, crates, completely equippe 
for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchase 
at well-known flying field. The best bargain of tli 
season. Opportunity knocks but once at every maiv 
door. Address "Sacrifice," care of AERONAL^TICi 
122 E. 2Sth St., New York. 



EXCEPTIONAL OPPORTUNITY is offered by e: 
pert to finance building of patented Cross-Country an 
VVater Aeroplane of the future which possesses star 
ling new features. Self-balancing, impossible to co 
lapse. Can be built with one or more motors. Ern 
Ebbinghaus, 105 East 84th St., New York. 



FUND NOV 



NATIONAL AVIATION 
$1,270,000. 

Paris, Feb. i. — The national subscription for tl 
French aerial war fleet amounts to $1,270,000, accor 
ing to announcement made by Senator Reynion 
president of the National Aviation Committee, ai 
the fund will enable the committee to present tg tl 
army 210 aeroplanes, pay for the training of ; 
expert pilots and erect 70 aeroplane sheds. It is i 
tended to establish a complete system of militai 
air ports throughout the country, so that militai 
aeroplane pilots will be able to acquire an intinia 
knowledge of every part of France without ever beii 
out of reach of shelter and needful supplies. 



San Francisco and the Hall-Scott concern are d 
veloping an intrepid flock of flving men. Roy Franc' 
Otto Rybitzki, W. H. Blakley,' Alfred Barrett, Charl 
Bryant, R. G. Fowler, Silas Christofferson, and 1 
brother Harry; and, until quite recently when 1 
family objected, Adolph Sutro. 

Each Sunday, when the weather is favorable, ai 
that has been every Sunday since the beginning 
the enterprise two months ago, a flying tournamei 
so to say, has been held on the Exposition grount 



George A. Gray, a Wright flyer of more or le 
repute, is reputed to have looped the loop at .\tlani 
I'.each, Fla., on January 25. Strange to say, accot 
ing to the newspaper reports, he flew his "aeropla 

ujiside down." 

NEW BENOIST AIR BOAT. 

The new Benoist Airboat "45" has been received 
.St. Petersburg and put in active service on the ' 
Petersburg-Tampa line. This boat is about the sai 
as the previous models, with several refinements ai 
a new wing that has demonstrated much greater e 
ciency over the old one. It created much surpri 
around the areo camp when Jannus got ready to ma 
his regular trip to Tampa after trying out the 11 
chine, and announced that he would take two passe 
gers instead of one. Two passengers were (]uick 
loaded in and Jannus had no trouble at all in gi 
ting these out of the water and made the round ti 
on schedule time. Each of the two trips were ma 
that day; several special flights were made and t 
machine trdlied up over 100 miles for the first d 
equipped with but a 75-h.p. Roberts motor. 

It will be noticed by examination that it has iiui 
cleaner lines than the older 'plane; motor much mo 
accessible; chain guards and back part of the mot 
exposed, making it much more efficient for the rad 
tion of heat, while the hood has a new curve, whi 
eliminates a lot of spray and the strong wind th 
blows in the passengers' faces in the old boat. 

It has a spread of 42 ft.; a gap of 6 ft. and 
chord of .s ft. 2 in. The complete machine, ready 
fill up. weighs 1,250 lbs. On the regular Tampa trii 
with two passengers aboard, besides the aviator, th 
take enough gasoline for the round trip and th 
some for emergencies — about 22 gallons in all. T 
gasoline and water cooling weighs about 150 lbs. 



age 47 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 1914 




E. V. Fritts flying at Oneonla. N. Y. in his 100 H-P 
MAXI MOTORED Biplane. 



: .-\ c"_-A.>se IS)^^ ^.TxSiciLir 



For your Flymg-boat, or cross country flying, 

...MAXIMOTOR... 

will fi'l a long felt want for an ideal aero- 
nautic, power-plant. 



Builders, as well as aviators, are MAXIMOTOR'S most ardent supporters. 



For testimonials, and further particulars, just write to 
MAXIMOTORS (^1^33^ ^MERS" 



ARE BUILT IN FOUR DIFFERENT SIZES 
FROM 50 TO 150 H-P 



DETROIT 

1528 JEFFERSON AVENUE E. 




^''^ Thomas School 

OF AVIATION 

OFFERS SUPER! OK ADl'ANTA GES 

Address, THomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. 
BATH, N. Y. 



WIRE 

We make an extra high grade 

plated finish wire for 

aviators' use. 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS 

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AERONAUTICS, Feb. 14, 1914 



Page 4! 



PATENTS 

SECURED or FEE RETURNED 
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record. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent witli 
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special list of piizes otlered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 
Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in 
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Main Offices: 724-726 NINTH STREET, N.W. 
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DON'T ^'''*^ "' v'"'*"" 

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srceconcnic; I fower plant. 
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,^ Reasonable Prices 

Kemp Machine Works 

Muncie, Ind. 



PATENTS 

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with special regard to the complete legal protection ol 

the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 

30 McGill Bldg. WASHINGTON. D. C. 




Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic \Vork. Reed, 
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FEBRUARY 14, 1914 Vol. XIV, No. 3 



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EXHIBITION FLYING 

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joining the use of all such infringing 
machines. 



■ason tif inn will in 



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CHARAVAY 

Two- and Three-Bladed 
PROPFI LERS ^^^^^^ AEROPLANE CO., 1733 Broadway, New York 

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



The St;iiul;ird Anuiican Pi'opeller. Fiirnislied to tlie 
CTOvernnients of tlie fiiiled SImIcs. Mexico, (iuatemala, etc., 
and the leiuliiisr American Aviatcirs, 

Three-bladed type for flying boats and tractors 
Actual tests liave proven the new three-bladed types to be 
•20 per cent, more efflcient than any other. 
Hare you our neir prU-e li':t .' Write ,/or it am! sare money 



lifillBIiilliMii 




i 



ESCMilTIC 



I lllli illlll ili illUliH 




ITH WHICH IS COMBINED 

Official Organ and Bulletin — Aero Club of Pennsylvania . 
The Aeronautical Society 



■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■•■••>••■■•••■■• 

::::::::::::::s::::::::;:;::;::;:s::::::::;::::::::: s:::::s:::!::sa:::::::::::::::::::::::::::»::s:»:::::sK 




Press Despatches Say: 

"Mountains Check Birdman's Flight" 

Silas Christofferson flew well enough with 

his old motor until he faced the perils of Tejon Pass. 

There he paused long enough to install a 

Curtiss 0-X Motor 

With this he' continued safely to San Diego. 

Let us give you motor facts 

THE CURTISS MOTOR CO., 21 Lake St., Hammondsport, N. Y. 



Page 50 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 




< BENOIST ^ 

ANNOUNCEMENT 

The Benoist School of Aviation now open at St. Petersburg, 
Florida. The school is under the personal supervision of 
Tom 'W. Benoist and Tony Jannus. 

■We also conduct the first regular schedule passenger- 
carrying air line in the world, St. Petersburg to Tampa, Fla. 
Students who want to join the school and prospective 
agents who want their territory for the exclusive sale of our 
flying boats will do well to address 



The New 
Benoist 
Filling 
Boat in 
Action 



BENOIST AIR CRAFT COMPANY 

St. Lonis, Missouri or St. Petersburg, Florida 



50 H.P. 

160 POUNDS 



GYRO MOTOR 



80 H.P. 

207 POUNDS 




Endurance Flying Record 
to Date, 4 hrs., 23 min. 



**F L I G H T*' 

July 26th, 1913 

"Some may say — to the obvi- 
ous benefit of the Company 
whose representatives have 
adopted his very practical 
method of calling attention 
to the GYRO engine (50 h, p.) 
that it is all due to the motor, 
which probably develops 
about three times as much 
power as the machine re- 
quires for the purposes of 
straightforward flight." 



Built of Nickel Steel and Vanadium Steel Throughout 



Send for Catalog 



THE OYRO MOTOR COMPANY, 774 Oirard Street, Washington. D. C. 



J 



"REMARKABLE PROPELLERS" 

Are those which are able to show results anywhere near to the ordinary performance of two- 
and three-bladed PARAGONS. The making of constant change, refinement and improve- 
ment is a feature of all PARAGON designing, but here are a few figures for the year 1913 : 
Report of Curtiss Aeroplane Co., February 8, 1913. 
Curtiss 8' dia. x 5' pitch — Revolutions 1225 — Flying speed 54.5 miles per hour. 
Paragon 8' dia. x 5' pitch — Revolutions 1244— Flying speed 56.5 miles per hour. 
Weight of machine 1335 lbs. Load carried 565 lbs. Total weight 1900 lbs. 
Report of Gerald Hanley, Providence, R. I. ( Curtiss Flying Boat) October 13, 1913. 
Curtiss two-blade, 8' dia.— Rev. 1250, Thrust 480 lbs.— Rev. 1300, Thrust 505 lbs. 
Paragon Three-blade, 7^' dia.— Rev. 1250, Thrust 570 lbs.— Rev. 1300, Thrust 580 lbs. 
Lieut. J. II. Toivers reports to the Secretary of the Navy as foUoivs : 
"The three-bladed PARAGON gives more thrust and more speed than any propeller we have had." 

THE AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 E. Hamburg St., Batimore, Md. 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 



Page 51 



THE U. S. NAVY O.W.L. II 




Hydroaeroplanes are said to constitute the 
eyes of tlie modern navy. The title applied 
to the most recent aid to naval vision, the 
"O.W.L." type, is not intended to suggest that 
these machines see well at night, but was 
selected by Captain Washington I. Chambers, 
at the head of the American naval aviation, 
to designate craft equally useful "Over Water 
or Land." 

Glenn H. Curtiss produced the "Triad" in 
February, 1911 (see AERONAUTICS, April, 
1911), and later adapted wheels to the flying 
boat (AERONAUTICS, March, 1913). The 
"Triad" was the first machine arranged for 
alighting on either land or water. 

To Captain W. I. Chambers, of the Navy, is 
due the resuscitation of the type, and its pres- 
ent development into the O.W^L. boats built by 
Mr. Curtiss for the U. S. Navy during 1913. 

The first machine of the new type was turned 
over to Lieut. B. L. Smith, U. S. M. C, last 
June and with it a long series of experiments 
was carried on. The combined weight of two 
aviators was some 370 pounds. The wings 
used were those of the "U. S. A-2," a Model E 
Curtiss hydroaeroplane acquired in 1911. The 
motor was a new Curtiss O-X, which gave the 
machine a mean speed of 65 m.p.h. but which 
showed in spurts a maximum of 70 m.p.h. In 
low speed trials landings were made at less 
than 40 m.p.h., or almost an exact duplication 
of some recent English trials, where a range 
of from 38 m.p.h. to 69 m.p.h. was shown and 
muchly advertised. 

O.W.L. differs from the standard hydro- 
aeroplane in that the pontoon, or hull, is 
wider, and it has a step similar to that of the 
standard Curtiss flying boat. The seats, in- 
stead of being attached to the superstructure 
as in the hydroaeroplane, or being in the hull, 



as in the case with the flying boat, are set on 
the pontoon. 

A windshield is formed by a light frame- 
work, covered with water-proof fabric, built 
up to entirely surround and shield the op- 
erators. 

The O.W.L. No. 2, illustrated here, is a more 
substantial machine than O.W.L. No. 1 and is 
probably the most advanced development of the 
type so far evolved 

The pontoon is of very effective form, Vee- 
bottomed and pointed at the bow. Above it a 
high-decked body has been built which not 
only shields the operators from wind and 
spray, but would effectually protect them also 
in case of a long dive into the water. 

Metal lined pockets in the hull carry the 
wheels and springs of the leading gear. These 
are dropped into position by the shifting of a 
lever, and locked, either up or down, by the 
movement of another lever, both within easy 
reach of the operator. Heavy coil springs take 
up the shock of shore landings. The gear can 
be raised or lowered while the machine is in 
flight, or may be entirely removed where only 
over water work is the order of the day. When 
the wheel gear is removed for exclusive water 
flight buoyancy may be increased by inserting 
water tight aluminum boxes into the wheel 
pockets. 

Captain Chambers holds to the opinion that 
it is the ideal navy type for both the Marine 
Corps and the Sailors; that it is a necessity 
for Navy work which is to be executed mostly 
off coasts where either rocks or bad surfs 
abound or in the vicinity of land which is not 
generally suitable for an ordinary land machine 
and where communication must be kept up be- 
tween the fleet and the base of operations on 
shore. 



Page 5^ 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 



FOREIGN AERONAUTICAL MOTORS^ 

By the Staff Correspondent 



DE DION BOUTON. 

The De Dion Bouton Automobile Co. ex- 
hibited an 80-h.p. motor which was ahnost 
identical to the 70-h.p. Renault, except that the 
cylinders had a somewhat larger bore, being 
4 3-16 in. instead of 3-}4 in., while the stroke 
remained the same as the Renault, 4^4 in. 

It might be said that this motor was of 
somewhat neater design than the Renault, prin- 
cipally because of the fact that the cylinders 
were placed opposite each other, which short- 
ened' the motor somewhat. In this case, the 
connecting rods are not arranged the same as 
on the 12-cylinder Renault, but one rod yokes 
over the big end of the other, and oscillates 
on the outside, as is the De Dion practice in 
their 8-cylinder V automobile motors. 

The carburetor is of the Zenith duplex type, 
having two chokes and a single float chamber, 
and is jacketed and heated by exhaust. 

The motor develops its rated horsepower 
with the crank shaft turning 1,800 r.p.m., and 
the propeller is driven by the cam shaft at 900 
r.p.m. The weight of this engine complete is 
465 lbs., being practically the same per horse- 
power as the Renault. This is the only model 
of aeronautical motor which the De Dion peo- 




•**^»«««»«^-^!S. 



pie build at the present time and it has been 
on the market about one year. During this 
time it has become very well known in Europe, 
and one can find a numl^er in use at the vari- 
ous flying grounds in France and also at Hen- 
don, England. The engine seems to have given 
a good account of itself in the majority of 
cases, and is quite as well spoken of as the 
Renault. 

, None of these three motors which have 
just been described develops a large amount of 
pewer per cubic inch of cylinder capacity be- 
cause of the fact that low volumetric efficiency 
and low compression are necessary in order to 
accomplish ait cooling with cylinders as large 
as are used. 

PANHARD-LEVASSOR. 

The neatest designed engine of the type was 
a 100-h.p. 8-cylinder V, water-cooled motor 
exhibited by Panhard & Levassor, who are so 



well known in the automobile industry. The 
bore and stroke was 4 5-16 in. x Syi in., and 
each group of four cylinders was cast en bloc 
and fitted with copper water-jackets. The cyl- 
inders are of the conventional L head design, 
and the valves are arranged all on one side at 
a slight angle from the vertical, in order to 
reduce the size of the combustion chamber. 




Each group of four cylinders is, of course, 
arranged at 90 degrees to each other, and also 
are directly opposite each other, the connecting 
rods having a common big end bearing. The 
valves are operated by a single central cam 
shaft, which also is extended to form the pro- 
peller shaft, as is the case with both the De 
Dion and Renault. 

This motor is fitted with one magneto oper- 
ated directly from the crank shaft, which sup- 
plies a single spark to all eight cylinders, but 
the carburetor is of the double barrel type with 
single float chamber, which seems to be univer- 
sally used on all 6, 8 and 12-cylinder engines. 
This is necessary because of the fact that the 
suction strokes on any engine of more than 
four cylinders overlap each other, and if sup- 
plied by single manifold and single carburetor, 
the inlet gas is drawn from one cylinder which 
has just lilled to another which is just com- 
mencing to fill. 

The crank shaft turns at 1,500 r.p.m. and 
the propeller shaft at 750. The weight of the 
motor complete, but without the radiator, is 
440 lbs. 

This motor has been little heard of as yet, 
although a similar engine was exhibited by the 
same concern at the Paris Salon a year ago, 
and it is rather strange that it has not made 
the progress that the De Dion has made in the 
same length of time. For 100 h.p. it is very 
much more compact and of lighter weight than 
the 12-cylinder Renault, even including the 
necessary radiator. 

'llegan in the Fob. 14 issue 



AERONAUTICS,, Feb. 28, 1914 



Page 53 



AUSTRO-DAIMLER. 

The Austrian Daimler Motor Co. exhibited 
one of their 90-h.p. 6-cylinder motors, which 
are already known in this country through the 
Wright Co. and the Thomas Bros. Aeroplane 
Co., each of whom has one at the present time. 

The engine is of the 6-cylinder vertical type, 
having a hore of 4^i in. and a stroke of 5^. 
Individual cvlinders are used with electro-de- 




posited cooper water-jacket, and valves at an 
angle in the head, operated by single rocker 
arm, as was formerly done on the Curtiss mo- 
tor. The engine is arranged to have the pro- 
peller attached direct to an extension of the 
crank shaft, which turns at a normal speed of 
1.300 r.p.m. 
One Boscli magneto of the two-spark type 



supplies ignition to two different plugs in each 
cylinder simultaneously. The Bosch lubricator 
is also used, and this feeds a small quantity of 
fresh oil to each crank shaft bearing, while 
the rest of the motor is lubricated by splash. 
None of the oil is carried in the lower part of 
the base of the engine, except as required for 
the connecting rods to dip into, the fresh oil 
being supplied from an external tank. This is 
a decidedly different system from the circulat- 
ing system most generally used, and although 
it is rather more complicated and unsightly 
liecause of the necessary external oil tank, it 
has the merit of supplying fresh, cool oil to 
each l)earing, and probably shows a better oil 
consumption than is possil)le with the circulat- 
ing system. 

Two carburetors are fitted, each supplying 
two groups of three cylinders. These are sep- 
arate instruments with individual float cham- 
bers and not of the duplex type with single 
float chamber referred to above, but the throt- 
tle valves are carefully synchronized, and the 
two instruments undoubtedly operate as one. 
The manufacturers claim that the weight of 
this motor, including the radiator, is 360 lbs., 
which is exceedingly light for an engine of 
tills type and power. 

This company also builds 40, 65 and 120-h.p. 
engines, all of the same type and same general 
construction, except that the two smaller sizes 
have only four cylinders. The large size model 
was first brought to the attention of the world 
when Cody won the British War Ofiice Trials 
with a machine of his own design fitted with a 
120-h.p. Austro-Daimler motor. 



ON LATERAL CONTROL. 

A REPLY TO MR. STILL BY ALBERT ADAMS MERRILL. 

In the December, 1913, number of AERO- 
NAUTICS there is a letter from a Mr. Still 
on lateral control referring to a previous article 
by me. This letter shows that Mr. Still does 
not understand my statements relative to the 
reversed Farman system. When I state that 
with this system stability is maintained with- 
out the use of a vertical rudder I do not state 
that the machine will fly straight ; in fact, it 
will not. But the point is that this system 
will check rotation about the longitudinal axis 
without the use of the vertical rudder. There- 
fore, it is reducible to practice and does not 
infringe either Claim 3 or Claim 7 of the 
Wright patent. 

I wish American readers would remember 
that of the machines flying, the vast majority 
use either the Wright or the Henry Farman 
systems. The Curtiss is used very little, in 
spite of the fact that here we see quite a few 
Curtiss machines. The flying done in this 
country is practically nothing in comparison to 
what is done abroad and, as yet, comparatively 
few Curtiss machines are used abroad. I per- 
sonally like the Curtiss system and my criticism 
is of the Wright and Farman systems ; also in 
proportion as the negative angle aileron is 
given the most work the Curtiss system im- 
proves. Yet plainly the Curtiss infringes 



Wright's Claim 3 because it consists of a simul- 
taneous movement in opposite directions of 
the marginal portions of the supporting sur- 
face. Every aileron at a positive angle is a 
supporting surface. 

In the reversed Farman system a proper re- 
lation of the moments inertia about the three 
axes and a proper disposition of the center of 
side pressure would cause the machine to come 
back to a straight course without turning the 
rudder. It is simply a question of offsetting 
couples and the effect of the time element on 
the rotations about the two axes, longitudinal 
and vertical. 

"lind'' Mars has looped the looji matrimonially and 
married his former wife. Harry Atwood has become 
engaged. 

Reports of Massoit's death as a spy have been 
greatly exaggerated. The Mc.x. l)atting average is not 
high. 

For details, illustrations, plans, descriptive matter, 
and general character, it would be hard to beat 
.VERONAUTICS. Wouldn't miss it for anything. 
Yours sincerely, 

P. J. P., .Seattle. 



Eufaula, Ala., is to have an exhiljition on April 8. 



Portland, Ore., wants to have a balloon race for 
the Rose Festival on June 12. Chance for the balloon 
men to get busy. 



Page 54 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 




THE FUNK R. O. G. MODEL. 
By Harry Schultz, Model Editor. 

The model shown in the accompanying 
drawing was constructed by Mr. R. Funk, 
of the Long Island Model Aero Club, and 
at the present time is the holder of the 
world's record for distance for models ris- 
ing from the ground, with a flight of 1,620 
feet. In all contests in which this model 
was entered it showed its wonderful flying 
ability by winning each time, in spite of 
the very gusty winds and inclement weather 
prevailing. 

The fuselage is constructed of two strips 
of spruce 5-16 x 1-4 in., tapering toward 
their ends. It is in the form of a triangle, 
braced at its center by an "X" bracing of 
bamboo, as shown. The rear brace or 
propeller bar is of split bamboo ^ in. wide 



and 13 in. long. The propellers are made 
of birch, steamed to shape, and have a pitch 
of about 20 in. and a diameter of 12 in. The 
bearings are of the usual type, consisting 
of small pieces of tubing and washers. 

Each propeller is driven by 20 strands of 
^8-in. flat rubber. The large plane is con- 
structed of flat steel wire 1-24 in. by 1-32 
in. in thickness. The ribs of the plane are 
mounted on a strip of white pine, 7-16 in. 
in width by 3-32 in. in thickness. The main 
plane measures 32 in. in span, with a chord 
of 6 in. in its center. The elevator is 19 in. 
in span, with a chord of 4 in. in its center, 
and is constructed in precisely the same 
manner as the rear plane. Both planes are 
covered with silk paper treated with cellu- 
loid solution and are secured to the fram^ 
in the usual manner by rubber bands. 

The chassis or running-gear is constructed 



7V-4/e T'XAA/e. 



x^o ^'/SU 




^^"2//Arffr£ry^ 



CPAAf 



fiinK TiOd./nc^el. 



Sfirc/it 



\i ~ h IcuilecC 
Propeller' 



erx^cr/Tio 



1661 









AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 



Page 55 



of split bamboo, the front side members 
each being in the form of a "U," joined to- 
gether by bars extending across the frame 
and acting as a brace for the same. The 
wheels are made of cord, fitted with tubing 
acting as hubs, and these wheels are mount- 
ed on an axle made from an ordinary hat- 
pin. 

The rear portion of the chassis is made 
of bamboo, to which is secured a small 
cork wheel Yz in. in diameter. The front 
chassis, including the wheels, is 9y% in. 
high; the rear skid, including the wheel is 
7 in. high. 

As above stated, this model has made a 
flight of 1,620 feet, but has practically flown 
over 1,000 feet on every flight made by it. 

THE SCHOBER THREE-BLADED 
PROPELLER. 

Three-bladed propellers are fast coming 
to the fore among the model builders, and 
many different methods of constructing 
them are known. One of the chief diffi- 
culties of making this type of propeller is 
securing the blades at the center, or hub. 
One of the best methods of doing this, and 
obviating the necessity of an awkward and 
weighty hub, is shown in the accompanying 



drawing, which is the idea of Mr. Frank 
Schober, lately connected with the Curtiss 
company. 

The hub of the propeller is laminated 
from strips of spruce and mahogany, as 
shown, and is in form the general outline 
of a triangle. At each point of the triangle 
are saw-cuts or slots into which the three 
blades, which are made of birch and are 
bent to shape by steaming, are inserted and 
glued therein. When the glue becomes 
hard all the surplus wood around the hub 
is cut away, and the propeller is carefully 
sand-papered and schellaced or painted, as 
desired. 

It might be well to state, however, that 
these propellers are very unsuitable when 
used singly, as they exert a tremendous 
amount of torque, and if used singly a pro- 
peller of this type should be set slightly to 
the side of the model in which the propeller 
turns, instead of at the center line of the 
model. 

In the next month-end issue of AERO- 
NAUTICS I Avill describe the Schober 
model flying boat. This should prove of 
interest to all model builders, as, so far as 
I am aware, it is the first model of this kind 
to be a success. 



SLOANE 220 H.P. AERO-SKIMMER. 
By Walter H. Phipps. 

The new aero-skimmer, or gliding boat, 
built by the Sloane Aeroplane Company of 
New York for Robert J. Collier, is the first 
of its type ever constructed in this coun- 
try, and doubtless the highest powered in 
the world. It was designed specially for 
Mr. Collier by John E. Sloane and Aviator 
Frank Coffyn. In general appearance the 
craft resembles a huge bob-sled, and in 
fact when traveling at speed it greatly re- 
sembles one, for it glides swiftly over the 
surface of the water in a similar manner 
to a sleigh over the ice. Since this one 
was produced, another has been ordered 
by another prominent sportsman. 

The Sloane Aeroplane Company expects 
to sell a number of these gliding boats 
during the spring and summer for pleasure 
and commercial use, for, owing to their 
high speed and shallow draught, they are 
valuable on shallow streams and in the 
tropics. 

General Dimensions: Length, 18 ft. 3 
in.; width, 13 ft.; depth of hull, 2 ft.; depth 
of hydroplanes, 16 in.; number of hydro- 
planes, 5; width of hydroplanes, 28 in.; 
length of hydroplanes, 13 ft.; motor, 220 
h.p. Anzani; seating capacity, 6 people; 
speed, 60 miles per hour. 

The chief novelty of the boat is the hull, 
which is of unique design. It consists of 
five very wide and narrow hydroplane sur- 
faces, each measuring 13 ft. by 20 in., at- 
tached one behind the other to a girder 
frame work, with a 6-in. air surface be- 



tween each one. This arrangement gives 
the utmost possible planing surface with 
the least possible drag and suction, which 
accounts for the tremendous speed of the 














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I" 




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new craft — just over 60 miles an hour, 
which is faster than the fastest motor boat. 
The construction of the hull is both sim- 
ple and strong. The five hydroplane sur- 
faces, which are of two-ply wood construc- 
tion are bolted and fastened to four main 

(Continued on )ie.rt iKHie) 



Faye 56 

lb 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 
I t / t-va tio on Lt/i. I 




06 Lift, k^.''^ 7 



TECHNICAL TALKS— By M. B. Sellers 

COMPARISON OF LIFT-RATIO AND LIFT OF AEROFOILS. 
Lift-Ratio Plotted on Lift. 



In comparing several wing profiles to_ de- 
termine their relative suitability for a given 
aeroplane, it is essential to compare the 
lifts as well as the lift-drift-ratios or effi- 
ciency, and I have for some time employed 
a method of doing this which I believe is 
new, and which has proved so useful 
to me in presenting these important prop- 
erties to the eye and mind that I would 
like to make it public. It consists in plot- 
ting the lift-ratio on the lift. 

In the figure herewith the abscissas give 
the metric unit lift (Eiffel's K^), and the 
ordinates the lift-ratio, K»/Ky, or effici- 
ency. Thus, the higher a curve extends the 
greater the efficiency; and the farther to 
the right, the greater the lift. The angles 
of attack are given at the determined 
points on the curves. 

The profiles here considered are those in 
Eiffel's work, which seemed of most prac- 
tical importance, and the values used in 
plotting the curves were those given in 
the "Annex." 

It is seen that the maximum efficiency 
for the Breguet is slightly less than that 
for the Bleriot, but its lift for any lift- 
ratio below 13, is greater than that of the 
Bleriot. Below a lift-ratio of 10, the Cres- 
cent and C-13.5 give greater lift. 

An important consideration in comparing 
profiles is the thickness. Within certain 
limits, the thinner a profile of any type, 
the more efficient it is. The Maurice Far- 
man (M. F.) has a higher maximum effi- 
ciency than the No. 7; but it has a thick- 
ness of only 4V of the chord, while that of 
the No. 7 is^s of the chord. 

The maximum ordinate of the No. 7 is 
at the center. M. Eiffel tested two profiles, 
Nos. 16 and 17, having the maximum ordi- 
nates at \ and \ of the chord from the 
front. These gave lower maximum effici- 
encies than the No. 7, but higher lift and 



efficiency at large angles. There is, how- 
ever, a want of agreement between the 
tables on p. 143 ("Annex") and the curves 
plotted on p. 100; the values given for No. 
17 being used in plotting the curve desig- 
nated as No. 16, and vice versa. There is 
evidence elsewhere indicating that the 
tables are correctly designated, and my 
own experiments also indicate that the 
maximum ordinate should not be nearer 
the leading edge than 5 of the chord. 
More experiments are needed to determine 
this point. 

SLOANE 220 H. P. AERO SKIMMER 

Continued from par/e 55 

beams, each measuring 8 in. deep by 2 in 
wide, and which run the full length of the 
boat. These main beams are in turn cross- 
braced with wooden spacers and rigidly 
fastened to the sides of the hydroplanes by 
large steel plates. The two center main 
beams carry the six seats for the operator 
and passengers, directly in the center, and 
at the rear are the supports for the 220 h.p. 
20-cylinder air-cooled Anzani motor, which 
drives through a special adjustable bracket 
shaft and double-chain arrangement the 8- 
foot four-bladed propeller. 

The rudder, which is operated by an n'u- 
tomatic steering wheel, is situated at the 
extreme front of the boat. 

The company is putting on the market a 
number of different sizes and styles of 
these gliding boats, which will range in 
power from 35 h.p. up to several lumdred 
h.p. In addition, that are marketing a light 
canoe glider fitted with a small Charavay 
propeller, which can be driven by any suit- 
able motorcycle engine of 5 to 10 h.p. A 
special Charavay propeller for one of these 
craft has just been supplied by the Sloane 
Aeroplane Company to E. B. Ford, son of 
Kenry Ford, the noted automobile man. 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 



Page 57 



HtJ[^fip^i^ 



WRIGHT PATENT SITUATION. 

Since the adjudication of llie Wright patent in the 
United States Courts, no action has tlius far been 
taken by the Wright Company as to either restraining 
infringing nial<ers or granting licenses to operate. 
Letters have been sent to such companies, however, 
asking for a statement of the machines built to date, 
selling prices, moneys received from the sale of ma- 
chines and parts, and the balance sheet. Letters have 
also been sent out generally warning purchasers, fair 
managers, etc., not to contract for infringing machines. 
As to what action will be taken upon the receipt of 
replies to these letters to manufacturers, the Wright 
Company is silent. The company has been assailed by 
queries of all kinds and rumors are thick. Some say 
licenses will be granted to those who come forward 
with frank statements and arrange for settlements; 
others intimate that but two or three companies, after 
having obtained ample capital, will be licensed; an- 
other rumor suggests that the victorious company 
holds to the opinion that it can manufacture all_ the 
aeroplanes likely to be required in this country; it is 
probable the rumor that a combination of the infring- 
ing makers will be granted a license has as much foun- 
dation in fact as any of the others. 

It is obvious that competition is the life of trade, 
and it might be suggested that were Ford the sole 
manufacturer of automobiles he would sell less cars a 
year than he does to-day with the vast number of other 
builders soliciting business. It would not be good 
business, it has been pointed out in all directions, to 
follow the policy that the Wright Company can manu- 
facture all the aeroplanes likely to be purchased in 
this country. It is argued that while that would as-" 
suredly be physically possible, such policy would result 
in prompt diminution of the present demand, not to 
mention the probable total elimination of the expected 
general sporting interest in flying, which era, due to 
the advent of the flying boat, has seemed of late 
almost at hand. 

All who can afford it do not buy Packard cars. 
Some prefer the Peerless. Those who cannot afford 
expensive cars are satisfied with those of less price. 
If flying is to progress at all and if there is to be any 
industry, the public must take up flying to a vastly 
greater extent than it has. There must be machines 
of different makes and varying in price. Selling only 
to the Army and Navy is clearly profitless. It is un- 
deniable that aviation must look to the public for 
support. It is obviovis that for the general advance- 
ment and from even the selfish interest and dividend 
point of view of the owner of a controlling patent in 
aeronautics, it is more advantageous to reap a certain 
sum from a thousand aeroplanes produced than from 
a hundred. 

An analogous situation is in the automobile trade. 
The owners of the Klaxon horn patents won their in- 
fringement suits and shortly after granted licenses to 
the very makers against whom they instituted infringe- 
ment action. The license permits manufacture on 
royalty of the infringing horns in their present form 
and shape, and carries with it recognition of the 
validity of the Klaxon patents and consent to issi:ance 
of injunctions. The infringing horns were sold at a 
cheaper price. 

The owners of this patent, from this attitude, evi- 
dently assume the position that it is to their financial 
advantage to have competition. 



BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS 

WITHDRAW FROM AVIATION 

FIELD. 

As_ is generally known, in the early part of 191 1 
the Burgess Company and Curtis made a license con- 
tract with the Wright Company for the use of all 
Wright patents during their life, the consideration 



being a definite royalty of $1,000 on each machine 
manufactured. 

During the first year. Burgess aeroplanes very simi- 
lar to the Wright type were manufactured and gen- 
erally sold. It was on one of these that the first 
long cross-country flight was made in America — that 
of Atwood, from St. Louis to New York. Other 
Burgess machines were prominent in exhibition and 
sporting use during the year. 

Mr. Burgess developed the first successful hydro- 
planes for this type of flying craft, and these were 
immediately sought for by such sportsmen as W. E. 
Scripps of Detroit, R. J. Collier of New York, and 
by the Navy Department. Early in the following 
year Mr. Burgess departed from the Wright type of 
aeroplane to types of his own design, built to meet 
the special requirements of a growing trade. 

The Burgess Tractor, exhibited in New York at 
the last Aero Show, is perhaps the best known. It 
was built under an order from the U. S. War De- 
partment and later delivered to the army, and it was 
on this machine that Lieut. Milling, with Lieut. 
Sherman, flew from Texas City to San Antonio, es- 
tablishing the then American cross-country passenger 
record as well as the American passenger endurance 
record. s| 

The Renault aeronautical motor was introduced by 
the Burgess Company into active service in both the 
army and navy, where it has become practically the 
standard for highest efficiency. 

In the spring of 1913 the first Burgess flying boat 
was designed and constructed, with many original 
features, such as a triangular construction of steel 
girders. Notwithstanding trie fact of its great 
weight, its evident strength and comparatively low- 
powered motor, it passed its navai requirements with- 
out difficulty. Since then other flying boats have 
been constructed with like success. 

The Burgess Coast Defence Hydro, of the double 
pontoon variety, and a number of tractors were de- 
livered to the War Department during the same 
year, all of which machines have been fully clescribed 
in AERONAUTICS. 

"The Burgess Company, during the long adjudica- 
tion of the Wright patents, many times delayed, paid 
its royalties of $1,000 i^er machine, regardless of the 
fact that it was not receiving any protection or any 
other benefits in return," reads a statement issued 
bv the Burgess Company. "Payments were con- 
tinued without interruption, in anticipation of the 
time when the Wright patents would be adjudicated 
and the licensees should be protected against in- 
fringers. 

"Coincident with the court decision early in 1913, 
upholding the Wright patents, the Wright Company 
became dissatisfied with the royalty of $1,000 per 
aeroplane and sought pretexts to cancel the existing 
contract, at the same time requesting the Burgess 
Company and Curtis to become licensees under a 
new contract, which called for increased royalties 
amounting to 20 per cent, on all sales, including aero- 
plane parts, motors and other product not patented or 
subject to patents by the Wright Company. 

"Many have considered that the royalty under the 
original contract with the Wright Company, of $1,000 
per aeroplane, was excessive, and a thorough test by 
the Burgess Company and Curtis, working under this 
royalty license for three years, has proved this to 
be the case; as while their business has steadily grown, 
it has been run at a loss. So tlie suggestion 
to increase the royalty on finished machines and to 
apply a similar royalty to parts not patented by the 
Wright Company was equivalent to stifling any pos- 
sible business as Wright licensees, and after mature 
consideration the directors of the Burgess Company 
and Curtis decided to withdraw from the aviation 
field rather than to endeavor to operate under pro- 
hibitive conditions." 



Page 58 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 



THE BURGESS COMPANY FORMED. CHRISTOFFERSON FLIES 382 MILES. 



The JJurgess Coiii])any was organized the latter 
part of January. It will occupy the plant formerly 
occupied by the Burgess Company and Curtis, and 
will build aeroplanes under the Dunne patents, as 
well as aeroplane parts, motors, speed boats and 
yachts. The officers are W. Starling Burgess, presi- 
dent; Greely S. Curtis, treasurer, and F. H. Russell, 
manager. Mr. Greely S. Curtis, whose interest in 
aeronautics dates back to e.xperimental work with 
Lilienthal in Germany, has not lost any of his en- 
thusiasm in the developmetit of the art. His engi- 
neering skill has been of great value to his associates 
in the past, and his continued connection in the in- 
dustry cannot help but be a strong factor in future 
development. 

F. il. Russell, manager of the Wright Company 
until the development of the hydro-aeroplane by Mr. 
Iiurgess, in the fall of 191 1, and since manager of 
the Burgess Company and Curtis, will assume the 
management of the Burgess Company. 

It will be the policy of the Bur.gess Company in 
all of its work to maintain the highest standard of 
quality and the broadest business co-operation toward 
its competitors, with the one aim constantly before 
it of developing the flying machine into a safe 
vehicle for military, sporting and commercial pur- 
poses. 

As stated some time ago, W. Starling Burgess, of 
Marblehead, obtained the exclusive right for the 
manufacture of the Dunne aeroplanes in America. 
Before this contract was made, a very careful study 
was made by Mr. Burgess in England of the opera- 
tion of the Dunne machine (AERONAUTICS, Sept., 
1QI3), and he became convinced that the development 
of aviation would be along the lines of inherent 
stal)ility, as distinguished from the manually con- 
trolled types of the past and the mechanically ope- 
rates types which are now presenting themselves. 

The Dunne machine, which is claimed to be non- 
infringing, has never been adapted to marine flying. 
Mr. Burgess's particular aim during the spring will 
be the experimentation and construction of the Dunne 
machine equipped with hydroplanes. Already one 
machine has been constructed and flown among the 
floating ice of Marblehead Harbor, and so far the 
experiments lead to the belief that a complete solution 
of the inherently safe flying boat is at hand. 



The Hacker Safety Hydro-Aeroplane Company, of 
Brooklyn, has been incorporated with a capital of 
$75,000, and the following directors: David Hacker, 
of Brooklyn, and Paul Sussman and Harry Lapin, of 
New York City. 

THOMAS BROS. ISSUE CATALOGUE. 

The catalogue just issued by tlie Thomas Bros. 
.Aeroplane Co. has an interesting chapter on "Acci- 
dents and Their Causes," which has been written 
with a view to endeavoring to disabuse the public 
mind of the dangers they connect necessarily with 
aviation. Stress is laid on the metal hull of the 
Thomas boat. Another chapter is devoted to the 
"Safety of the Flying Boat," in addition to a gen- 
eral description of the Thomas flying boat for 1914, 
and of the standard and Nacelle models of the land 
machine. 

DEATH OF NAVAL FLYER. 

Pensacola. — Lieutenant J. McC. Murray, of the 
United States naval aviation corps, stationed here, 
w-as instantly killed on Feb. i6th, when his machine 
]ilunged into Pensacola Bay. The machine was de- 
molished, and Lieut. Murray's body was discovered 
shortly afterward about 100 yards from the spot 
where he fell. 

Lieut. Murray had been flying out over the gulf 
and was returning to the station when the accident 
happened. An investigation seems to indicate that 
Murray "stalled" his machine. He was coming down 
in a succession of "steps," and at about 200 feet or 
less he took the final plunge from a height too low 
to recover. 



ARMY AVIATOR BREAKS CROSS- 
COUNTRY MARK. 

San Diego, Cal., Feb. 15. — Flying 140 miles in 1.^3 
minutes was the record made to-day by Lieut. C. 
Willis, U. S. A. The second record of the day was 
made by Theodore Maccaulay, who attained a height 
of 4,200 feet in nine minutes. 



Silas Christofferson completed at Los Angeles, on 
Feb. i6th, his 382-mile flight, which he started at San 
Francisco on Feb. 9th. A stop was made at Fire- 
bough on account of a broken propeller (140 miles 
from start). Then to Fresno (181 miles. His final 
landing was made by moonlight at Lerdo (271 miles), 
completing the longest one-day's cross-country flight 
made in America. 

The following day he flew into Bakersfield (283 
miles). The railroad mileage is, of course, greater 
tiian these map figures, as the first day's journey 
figures 306 miles by rail. 

On the iith five attempts were made to cross the 
Tecliachapi Mountains, but return was finally made to 
liakersfield to make a change of engines. 

On the 1 6th he flew into Los Angeles (382 miles). 
The original plan was to fly to San Diego (499 
miles). 

FLORIDA-NEW YORK AIR TOUR. 

Tony Jannus is planning a trip from St. Petersburg 
up the coast to New York, starting about the first 
week in April. The object of the trip is to establish 
the Benoist airboat in the minds of the public as 
having made the longest over-water cruise up to that 
time, and to include in this cruise the longest .Amer- 
ican non-stop over water flight; this after completing 
7,000 or 8,000 estimated miles over the St. Petersburg- 
Tampa ferry route. The machine, ready for 200 miles' 
non-stop flying, weighs 1.700 lbs. and will carry 400 
lbs. more, the former weight including life preservers, 
tools, rope, paddles, fire extinguisher, water, oil, gaso- 
line — everything in cruising equipment save camp tent, 
folding bath tub, portable range and steam heating 
system. 

DEATH OF FRANK M. BELL. 

"Dr." Frank AL Bell was seriously injured in an 
aeroplane accident near Meridian, Miss., and died as 
a result of his injuries. 

Aero Clubs would do good work if they would inves- 
tigate accidents in the endeavor to arrive at the causes, 
as is done by the U. S. Government and the British 
aero clubs. 

MARTIN MAKES NEW PASSENGER 
RECORD. 

Los Angeles, Feb. 14. — Glenn Martin started from 
Los Angeles with two passengers to fly to San Diego, 
with the intention of breaking the altitude and en- 
durance records with two passengers. 

He succeeded in all except reaching San Diego. An 
accident to his engine off Oceanside forced him tc 
land. They reached an altitude of 4,000 feet and 
were in the air two hours, an American record. 



Daytona, Fla., Feb. 5. — Mrs. Robert Goelet made 
a flight with Ruth Law. 



San Francisco. Feb. 5. — It is reported an arrange- 
ment has been made by the Panama-Pacific Exposi- 
tion with the Parseval Airship Company to operate 
one of their ships in passenger service during the 
exposition. 

Dallas, Tex., Feb. 11. — J. H. Worden, a Moisant 
flyer, Fred DeKor, Miss Katherine Stinson and 
Frank Terrill flew during the National Corn Show 
at Dallas. 

Raymond V. Morris is now with the flying boat 
colony at St. Petersburg. C. C. Witmer is flying 
McCormick's boat at Miami. Walter Johnson, after 
I)urchasing from the Thomas Bros, a flying boat of 
his own, is teaching pujiils in Florida. Stephen 
MacGordon is flying Thaw's boat at Palm Beach. 



NEW MOTOR FOR GALLAUDET 
BULLET. 

A new Maximotor power plant is being put in the 
Gallaudet's "bullet" flying boat and trials will soon 
begin with this. 

Man calls on the President and announces he 
wants to teach Mr. Wilson how to fly. The police 
found $1,022 in his pockets. — N. Y. Tribune. 

Certainly, he was no aviator — not with that much 
money! 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 



Page 59 



SPECIAL PREMIUM OFFER TO MODEL BUILDERS 



A special premium offer is made to 
new subscribers in the model field. A 
complete set of materials for a model 
Bleriot-type monoplane, shown in the 
illustration with directions for con- 
struction and flying, will be given free 
with each new yearly subscription sent 
in by a model flyer. This set of parts 
sells alone for .$3. Tiie subscription to 
AERONAUTICS is $3 yearly. Read- 
ers of the model page may have both 
for the price of one. 

This unassembled model is built by 



the Wading River Mfg. Co., of Wad- 
ing River. N. Y., and includes com- 
plete woodwork and rattan cut to 
lengths, fabric for covering planes, 
proofing solution, wheels, ball-bearing 
propeller shaft, propeller blank, rub- 
ber strands, nails, wire, tubing, axle, 
etc., etc. This concern makes, in un- 
assembled or assembled form, minia- 
ture aeroplanes of all the well-known 
types and furnishes supplies of all 
kinds for the building of miniature 
flying machines. An extensive cata- 
logue is sent free on request. 



AERONAUTICS, 122 East 25th Street, New York 



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quick sale, $790. Will demonstrate. G. Welles, :66 
S. Goodman St., Rochester, N. Y. 



FOR SALE — -Our last year's monoplanes and bi- 
planes; very cheap for cash, or trade for anything 
of value. — F. M., 1522 Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio. 



SACRIFICE^A Curtiss type biplane, flown by one 
of America's most famous aviators, with 8 cyl. Hall- 
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for the road. Free instruction in flight to purchaser 
at well-known flying field. The best bargain of the 
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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 60 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 



WHEN IS A FLYING BOAT A MOTOR 
BOAT? 

The question as to whether a flying boat and a 
hydroaeroplane is to be considered a motor boat while 
navigating on the water is now before the law officers 
of the Department of Commerce for consideration and 
an opinion will shortly be rendered. This is the result 
of the question having been raised by AERONAUTICS 
(see July, 1913, number), when Commissioner E. E. 
Chamberlain ventured a personal opinion. The Aero- 
nautical Society then forwarded the Department a copy 
of a set of rules designed to cover the matter, which 
had been prepared by a special committee at some 
previous time. If this class of flying machines comes 
under motor boat rules, Tony Jannus will be the first 
to make application for a license for the operation of 
the Benoist Air Line at St. Petersburg. 



two motors are placed side by side and either one or 
both can drive on the propeller shaft. 



BOMB-DROPPING TEST AT SAN 
DIEGO. 

Experiments in the dropi)ing of bombs will be made 
at San Diego very shortly, using the device of Riley 
E. Scott, who will do the operating. Aerial bombs of 
various weights have been manufactured at the Frank- 
ford arsenal and shipped to the Signal Corps aviation 
school. Plungers with varying arming ratio and non- 
delay primers for use in dummy bombs were made a 
part of this shipment. An incendiary and illuminating 
projectile is in course of development, but it is not 
known whether this will be tried out aerially. 

The importance of boml) dropping from air craft is 
indicated by the fact that these experiments will be of 
a confidential nature, and the description of war ma- 
terial is always confidential, and it is against the policy 
of the War Department to print descriptions of espe- 
cially designed apparatus. 

Full descriptioH of the Scott device, with which he 
won the Michelin prize two years ago, has been printed 
in AERONAUTICS. 



BOMB-DROPPING IN MEXICO. 

Thomas J. Dean writes he is in charge of the aero- 
planes for the Constitutionalists in Mexico. The illus- 
tration shows the aeroplane that was seized as contra- 
band of war by the United States when Dean was 
bringing it from Los Angeles to Arizona in May, last 




year. It was afterwards stolen and smuggled across 
the border into Mexico and was flown over Ortiz, 
Sonora, from the Constitutionalist lines. Eombs were 
dropped at the Federal gunboats in Guaymas P.av. 
Out of five trips over the boats one was close enough 
"to get four men off the boat and disabled the Tam- 
pico, putting her in the drydock for five days. The 
picture shows the machine ready to leave the ground 
for a trip over Cuaymas Bay at Maylorena, Sonora. 
The bombs can be plainly seen under the center of 
the machine." 

TWIN MOTORS FOR TRANS- 
ATLANTIC FLIGHT. 

A. G. Watkins, of 27 N. Conestoga street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., is the inventor of a system of coupling 
two motors together in such a manner that either can 
be instantly disconnected or instantly thrown in. The 



THE TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHT. 

Editorial discussion of the Wanamaker-Curtiss trans- 
atlantic project in papers from New York to San Fran- 
cisco has been very reassuring to those who feel that 
of late the American press has treated aviation cav- 
alierly. With very few exceptions — notably the Boston 
"Transcript," whose aviation editor cannot coriceive of 
anything practical in aviation developing west of Mar-" 
blehead — editorial writers have been at some pains to 
base their opinions on the facts and figures given out 
for publication. Tliey have given due consideration to 
facts and possibjlities, and the result has been the 
almost unanimous approval of the project outlined. 

Lyman J. Seely, of the Curtiss companies, says: 
"The few exceptions recorded seem to be based on 
false premises. Some assume that the distance to be 
flown is from 2,500 to 3,000 miles — instead of some 
1,640. Or, that no reliance can be placed on any 
compass— despite the assurance of Garros and other 
distance fliers that they found the reverse to be the 
case. Or, that in other duration flights (around closed 
circuits), the average speeds have not exceeded 60 
miles per hour — although it has been stated repeatedly 
that the flight will be attempted only with a strong 
following wind, backed by expert assurances that the 
direction and duration of this wind can be depended 
upon. 

"As to the motor: the average runs of Curtiss 0-X, 
loo-h.p. motors during- the past year have been 3,500 
to 4,000 miles without overhauling. In one case a 
motor with a record of more than 10,000 miles of actual 
flight was, after overhauling, run for 40 hours under 
load at flying speed without an adjustment and with- 
out missing an explosion. 

"The suggestion that more than 200 h.p. is needed 
is refuted by duration flights recently made in Ger- 
many. February 3, Bruno Langer flew 14 hours 7 
minutes. February 8, Karl Ingold flew 16 hours 20 
minutes. February 12, Langer, in an effort to fly 18 
hours, flew 16 hours 1 minute, when, because of loss 
of fuel, he was forced to descend. These flights were 
made with jiractically standard machines equipped with 
lOO-h.p. motors. 

"On the basis of past performances, the optimists 
seem to have a good many points on the pessimists in 
calculating chances on the transatlantic venture." 



BOATS SUCCESSFUL ABROAD. 

Another shipment of Curtiss flying boats and Curtiss 
motors started for Russia last week. The half-dozen 
flying boats and twelve (J-X motors when packed for 
foreign shipment filled three large box cars and rep- 
resented a tidy fortune. From Italy G. F. Campbell- 
Wood cabled a report on the successful acceptance 
flights of the first of the new fleet of Curtiss machines 
destined for that country. All of the tests for speed, 
weight carrying, climbing, seaworthiness, etc., were 
passed easily, and the machine turned over to the 
admiralty. 

I'aion D'Orcy cabled from Constantinople of an ar- 
rangement with the Turkish Porte for the early demon- 
stration of Curtiss flying boats for that country. Cur- 
tiss flying boats now have been adopted for naval use 
by almost all of the European governments, including 
Ivussia, Germany, Italy, Austria, Spain, et al. 



TRANSATLANTIC PILOTS. 

Lieut. John IT. Towers, a prospective entrant for 
the Wanamaker-Curtiss transatlantic flight, has tele- 
i graphed from the Navy aviation camp at Pensacola to 
Ci. H. Curtiss his intention to come North this week 
to discuss plans for the prospective flight. If arrange- 
ments prove satisfactory to him, he will then apply to 
the Secretary of the Navy for permission to participate 
in the attempt. Also insistent on going is John 
Lansing Callan, of Albany, a very experienced oper- 
ator of Curtiss machines, who is now stationed at 
Pensacola to observe exj)eriments on behalf of the 
Curtiss Com]iany. Callair flew nearly 12,000 miles last 
summer, frequently making 500 miles a day for sev- 
eral consecutive days, despite the fact that he landed 
and changed passengers every 10 miles. William S. 
I.uckey, winner of the race around Manhattan Island, 
is anxious to volunteer and feels confident the flight 
will be a success. As Lieut. Porte, the British avia- 
tor, arrives here on the Campania Saturday, it is prob- 
able the actual entrants will be finally decided upon 
within a week. 



iERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 



Page 61 



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Page 62 




OFFICIAL BULLETIN 
OFFICERS. 

Clarence P. Wynne, President. 
Jos. A. Steinmetz, 1st I'ice-President. 
VVm. D. Harris, 2nd Vice-President. 
George S. Gassner, Secretary 
Laurence Maresch, Treasurer. 

DIRECTORS. 

Arthur T. Atherholt. Harold H. Knerr. 
H. F. Bamberger. VVm. H. Sheahan. 

Dr. Samuel C. Falls. Walter S. Wheeler. 
Office of the Club, Bellevue-Stratford, Phila., Pa. 



The Aero Club of Pennsylvania held its stated meet- 
ing at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, Philadelphia, on 
the evening of February 6, 1914. 

The routine business of the meeting included the 
appointment of a Committee on Arrangements for the 
dinner to be tendered to Col. Samuel Reber, U. S. A., 
on Thursday evening, March 26, on which evening 
Col. Reber will address a joint meeting of the Frank- 
lin Institute and the Aero Club of Pennsylvania. 

Arrangements were also made whereby members of 
tliis club will in the future receive free of expense 
tu themselves regular subscriptions of "Flying" as well 
as AERONAUTICS, providing their dues are paid in 
advance. 

^\fter the business meeting a most interesting ad- 
dress was made by Mr. Joseph A. Steinmetz, the 
newly-elected vice-president, which was received with 
much enthusiasm by the members present. Mr. Stein- 
metz spoke particularly on methods of offense and de- 
fense by aeroplanes and other air-craft during time of 
war. 

A movement is on foot for the purchase of two 
30,000-ft. balloons with a view of having frequent 
races during the coming season. It is expected that 
there will be much activity in this sport in and around 
Philadelphia in the very near future, due to the fact 
thai the Aero Club of America looks upon this club 
as a leader in that sport in the East. 

PRACTICAL MEN WANT TO CALL 
WORLD RACE OFF. 

Aeroplane constructors, aviators, private owners and 
others interested in bona fide progress have appealed 
through AERONAUTICS to the management of the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition to change the conditions of 
the proposed prize for a round-the-world race and 
make the offer for a flight to be accomplished in 
North America. 

J. Guy Gilpatric considers the world race "in its 
present form absolutely impossible, but fear that the 
'knock' to the science sure to follow the inevitable 
failure to succeed would cripple it for several years." 
Cecil Peoli subscribes to the same opinion. 

It is urged that the prize money, variously figured 
from $150,000 to $300,000, be made available for a 
race between the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts. The 
Curtiss Aeroplane Co. suggests a flight from New 
York to San Francisco by way of the Panama Canal. 
"That would have real significance for the Exposition. 
Its advertising value would be greater than an around- 
the-world flight because the American press could ob- 
serve and report the progress of the fliers each day. 
This would be absolutely out of the question in case 
anyone were foolish to start through the Arctic Circle 
on the proposed flight." "A race across the Siberian 
steppes is of about as much value for an advertising 
or boosting proposition as pasting circus bills inside 
the tent," says another manufacturer. 

It is pointed out in almost every letter that AERO- 
NAUTICS is daily receiving from these practical peo- 




AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 



29 WEST 39th STREET 
NEW YORK 

TELEPHONE BRYANT 4600 



OFFICIAL BULLETIN. 
Notice to Members. 

At a meeting of the directors of the Aeronautical 
Society, February ig, 1914, it was voted that the 
magazine AERONAUTICS be sent to every member 
in good standing as one of the benefits of membership 
and that the said journal be made the bulletin and 
official organ of the society. 

In order that members may obtain the 
benefit of this arrangement, it is earnestly 
requested that those in arrears place them- 
selves in good standing at the earliest pos- 
sible date. 
Announcements of meetings, papers presented, lec- 
turers and other notices of the society will, until 
further notice, be published in AERONAUTICS, 
which will be mailed on the 15th and 30th of each 
month to members in good standing. 

Next General Meeting. 

The next general meeting of the society will be 
held in the rooms, 29 West 39th street. New York, at 
8.30 o'clock, on Thursday evening, March 12, 1914. 

Speakers. 

S. S. JERWAN, aeroplane pilot, expert and lec- 
turer, will address the society on THE ART OF 
PRACTICAL FLYING. The talk will be profusely 
illustrated with lantern slides. Mr. Jerwan will de- 
scribe the sensation of aerial travel and give his hear- 
ers a complete course of instruction in piloting, dem- 
onstrating with stereopticon views and models. 

CAPTAIN FRITZ E. UTTMARK, Principal of the 
New York Nautical College, will treat of TRANS- 
ATLANTIC AEROPLANE TRAVEL, telling how the 
aeroplane may be navigated by instruments, how to 
safeguard the journey, the dangers and ways to mini- 
mize — all from the standpoint of the mariner. In 
view of the proposed attempts to cross the ocean, this 
lecture is most timely. 

Members are invited to bring their friends. 

New Members. 

Harold B. Anderson, Wintor Motor Co., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Ethelbert Favary, in Broadway, New York. 
F. J. Mulder, 165 East 86th street. New York. 

Membership Certificates. 



Engraved membership certificates, size i i in. by 
14 in., hand imprinted on Japan vellum, suitable for 
framing, are now prepared and will be sent to all 
members in good standing and to all members elected 
in future. 

Directors' Meeting. 

Notice to Directors: — Directors' meetings will be 
held regularly, as in the past, every Thursday evening 
except those on which general meetings are held. 



pie that very, very few entries could possibly be hoped 
for under the present offer, owing to the enormous 
expense alone; while a tour of North America, visit- 
ing the principal cities, would really attract a large 
number of entries, reduce the expense to competitors, 
interest to an enormous extent the public through the 
press and result in a great step forward in the popu- 
larization of flying, toward which every effort of those 
genuinely interested in the future of aeronautics 
should be bent. The time and energy now spent in 
making America lead in sensation woidd do wonders 
if directed along optimistically intelligent lines. 

The rovnid-the-world air race has proven thus far a 
great advertising scheme for the Panama-Pacific Ex- 
position, but even the accomplishment of sucli a flight 
would have more of the attraction of novelty than the 
merit of utility. It would prove nothing that could 
not be proved with less danger and expense, and with 
more practical results. 



lERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 



Page 63 



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Page 64 



AERONAUTICS, Feb. 28, 1914 



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