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XV. No. 1 



JULY 15, 1914 



"5 <>nts 




Properly oj 
E. W R< 5SCHON 




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<ll 

No king ever enjoyed 
such sport as this. Four 
to five hundred miles 
without pause, at a 
speed of more than a 
mile a minute. 

Five hundred thousand 
passenger miles with- 
out one serious acci- 
dent. Used by six 
Governments and by 
private owners nearly 
everywhere. 












CURTISS TRAINING SCHOOL 

Offers Instruction in the Construction, Care 
and Operation of Aeroplanes and Flying Boats 

C,For capable men who are ambitious and seek a permanent foundation 
for future work in Aviation, it offers unsurpassed advantages. 

C.An open field for pleasant, remunerative employment. 

C. Classes limited to ten students under the personal supervision of Mr. 
Glenn H. Curtiss. 

COpportunity to keep directly in touch with latest developments in 
Aviation. 

THE SPRING CLASS HAS GRADUATED AND THERE 
ARE A FEW VACANCIES IN T HE MID-SUMMER CLASS 

Our Booklet '"Training" is Illustrated and gives Full Particulars 
GET YOUR COPY TO-DAY 

THE CURTISS AEROPLANE CO., Hammondsport, N. Y. 

Manufacturers of Aeroplanes, Motors and Equipment for the 
Leading Governments of the World. 



raze 2 



AERONAUTICS, July 15. 1914 




In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AEROXAUTICS, July 15, 1914 



Page 3 



HOW TO FIND THE WAY ACROSS THE OCEAN 

By LEON GOLDMERSTEIN 

Associate Editor A. S. M. E. Journal, Chairman Technical Board Aeronautical Society of America 



When Lieutenant Porte Ikacts 
^ross the Atlantic one of the great- 
est difficulties facing him will be to 
find his way to Europe. The ship's 
captain is in a far better position 
"in this respect. In the first place, 
he has a vessel which can keep its 
direction much better than an air- 
ship. It is less liable to drift, and 
the captain has far better facilities 
for making an estimate of the pos- 
sible drift, if any, because he knows 
the currents, and can easily estimate 
the force and direction of the wind. 
Also, the steamer, especially the 
modern passenger vessel, is rather 
overengined than otherwise, and, bar- 
ring gales, will cleave its way no 
matter what the wind or tide may 
be. Finally, the captain has elabo- 
rate instruments for making observa- 
tions and carefully worked-out tables 
for taking care of all possible errors, 
whether those of observation, or due 
to lack of precision in the indica- 
Hjof of his instruments. What is 
"■Ril! more important, however, is 
that the ship's captain has all the 
time he wants and pretty comfort- 
able surroundings for making his 
calculations, while, even if he should 
commit a small error (and this is 
not likely) , he would still have 
enough fuel and provisions to get 
to his destination. 

The position of the airship pilot is 
entirely different. He lias only a 
limited knowledge of the drift of his 
ship, as there may be movements of 
large bodies of air which can carry 
his craft miles and miles out of his 
way without his having the slightest 
intimation of the deviation. He has 
only the scantiest instruments at his 
command, and the dip and zigzag of 
the flight, together with the jar and 
whirr of the engine, make correct 
observation a matter of the greatest 
difficulty. The use of nautical tables 
in his case depends on his knowledge 
of his elevation, which he does not 
have, as barometer readings at his 
level would be of value only if he 
knew what the barometer reads at 
sea level, which, of course, he does 
not. It is hardly necessary to add 
that the present day aeroplane is not 
the kind of place peculiarly suitable 
for performing mathematical calcula- 
tions, and an error would be espe- 
cially dangerous, owing to the fact 
that both fuel and provisions have to 
be taken only in such amounts as 



would permit the fliers to reach their 
goal. In fact, from what is known 
of the flight of Porte, it appears is 
rather to risk going without break- 
fast on the last day, than carrying 
any American food over to the Brit- 
ish market. 

The problem rises, therefore, as to 
whether there is any way of finding 
the way across the sea without hav- 
ing to carry a certified navigator 
aboard, and running the risk to lose 
the way notwithstanding. What is 
known as the wireless radio-goniom- 
eter, a long name for a compara- 
tively simple thing, may prove to be 
the solution of this particular diffi- 
culty. 

The essential part of a radio- 
goniometer, or wireless direction- 
finder, is a system of two loops of 
wires of equal size, suspended verti- 
cally and crossing each other at 
right angles. This forms what is 
known as the aerial circuit, and in- 
cludes, in addition to the wire loops, 
a coil of wire and a condenser in 
series with each of the loops. The 
two coils of wire, with their con- 
denser, are contained in a box pro- 
vided w-ith a handle which permits to 
vary both condensers simultaneous- 
ly. Inside the crossed coils there 
is a third coil, called the exploring 
coil, mounted on a vertical spindle 
so that it can be set at various an- 
gles with respect to the fixed coils. 
The detecting system, which is con- 
tained in a separate box and con- 
nected by wires to the exploring 
coil, consists of a pair of telephones 
and a crystal of carborundum, in 
series with a potentiometer and bat- 
tery, the latter being required to 
sensitize the carborundum crystal. 
The exploring coil picks up the 
signals from the aerial circuits, and 
passes them on to the detector, 
where they are rendered audible in 
the telephone. 

The finding of the direction by 
means of this apparatus is based 
essentially on the following con- 
siderations: The relative strength 
of the current induced by an in- 
coming electric oscillation depends 
on the angle which the direction of 
the aerial forms with the direction 
of the propagation of the wave. 
The currents induced in the aerial 
pass later on through the coils in 
the direction-finding instruments and 



produce there two magnetic fields, 
the relative strength of which de- 
pends on the relative strength of 
the currents induced in the two 
aerials, and, as the fields are at 
right angles to one another, they 
produce a resultant field at right 
angles to the direction from which 
the signals are coming. The ex- 
ploring coil will receive its loudest 
signals when its plane is at right 
angles to the resultant field, or in 
the direction from which the signals 
are coming. 

The theory of the apparatus is 
somewhat complicated, but its actual 
manipulation is extremely simple, and 
in less than half a minute one can 
locate the direction from which 
the signals are coming. There will 
be no trouble to design the ap- 
paratus so that it would weigh not 
more than a few pounds, and be 
easily adjustable to a given length 
of wave. By combining the direc- 
tion with some kind of amplifier, 
such as an audion detector or gas 
amplifier, signals coming from a 
considerable distance could be easily 
heard even above the noise of the 
engine. 

The system to be used would be, 
therefore, to have a number of land 
stations — such as Newfoundland, 
Long Island, Massachusetts, Ireland, 
etc. — send out for one minute every 
half hour signals on a wave length 
not used for messages, say 900 
meters. The pilot figures them out 
beforehand, and the angle he has 
to keep with the beeline from the 
station to which he refers, and all 
he has to do is, every time he gets 
the signals, to correct his direction 
with respect to them. He has no 
calculations to make, and if he 
misses some signal he will get one 
next time. 

This system might be considerably 
elaborated by providing for vessels 
at sea to send buili signals and 
their position, and equipping the 
aviator for each trip with a special 
chart giving direct readings of his 
position for each angle with the 
signal line from a ship, no matter 
what the position of the latter may 
me. That would really mean hav- 
ing a modified and very much sim- 
plified Bowditch for aerial naviga- 
tion, and we do not see how this 
could be obviated otherwise. 



THE TRANSATLANTIC FLYER "AMERICA" 



After three weeks of experiment- 
nig it has been decided to apply 
the "sea-sled" principle to Rodman 
Wanamaker's flying boat, America. 
Trials of the machine. hastily 
equipped with a false bottom in the 
shape of an inverted V, proved this 
construction to be the one best bet 
for raising a heavy load off the sur- 
face of the water. 

Thus fitted out, the America 
planed nicely at twenty miles an 
hour and with only half the avail- 
able power. Therefore, Glenn II. 
Curtiss has started work on an en- 
tire new hull of the sea-sled type 
and the work will be finished by 
July 26. Present indications are 
that the Wanamaker expedition will 
start for Newfoundland on August 



1 and that Lieutenant John Cyril 
Porte and George E. A. Hallett will 
make their attempt to fly the At- 
lantic about August 10. 

Following is a detailed descrip- 
tion of the machine as it now 
stands: Length over all, 11 Vi feet: 
length of hull, 33 l / 2 feet; width of 
hull, 7 feet; depth of hull, 6 feet; 
length of cabin, 7 feet; height of 
cabin, 5 feet; width of cabin, 4 
feet; spread upper wing, 74 feet; 
spread lower wing, 46 feet; chord, 
both, 7 feet; gap, between wing, 7]/ 2 
feet; weight, empty, approximately 
3,000 lbs.; weight, fully loaded, ap- 
proximately 5,000 lbs.; speed, 62-65 
miles per hour in still air; to this 
add or substract speed of wind ma- 
chine is traveling with or against. 



Description of hull: Forward 
section, for 16 feet 6 inches is of 
the inverted Vee-bottom conduc- 
tion, or "sea-sled" type. Aft of 
this a conical tail terminating in a 
point twenty feet from the main 
body of the boat. Over the main 
section a rigid top fitted with cel- 
luloid windows, forming an enclosed 
cabin or pilot house. Here are 
seats for the two pilots; dual con- 
trols throughout, so that either may 
operate the machine, or both simul- 
taneously. 

Construction of hull: Over a 
framework of closely spaced ash 
ribs a planking of spruce, covered 
with heavy canvas set in marine 
glue. The bottom of the forward 
section is double skinned and inter- 



Pa°c 4 



AERONAUTICS, Julv 15. 1914! 




1916 



THE "AMERICA" WITH TEN ON BOARD 



laid with Sea Island cotton set in 
marine glue. Fastenings are several 
thousand brass screws and copper 
rivets. 

Description of wings: Wings are 
composed of seven sections; a cen- 
ter panel of ten by seven feet 
above the power plant; four main 
sections (two upper and two lower) 
approximately 18 x 7 ft., and two 
overhangs on the upper surface 
measuring 15 x 7 ft. each. The 
shape of the wings is known as the 
N. P. L. wing section, which after 
exhaustive experiments made at the 
National Physical Laboratory, Ted- 
ding ton. Eng., was considered most 
efficient for this work. The wing 
frames are built up solidly of ash 
and spruce, covered with a heavy 
ribbed silk which is coated with a 
special water and fireproof dope. 

Controls : The aerial rudder for 
turning from left to right has a 
depth of five feet and a length of 
four and one-half feet. The ele- 
vators are located on either side 
of the main rudder, and their di- 
mensions are six feet by four and 
one-half feet. The ailerons or 
trailing flaps at the extremities of 
the wings are at present single act- 
ing, and measure fourteen feet in 
length by a maximum of four feet 
in depth. These are used to cor- 
rect the lateral balance of the ma- 
chine. If one side tips up the flap 
on that side is pulled above the 
normal level of the plane, with the 
combined result of slowing the 
speed of that side and at the same 
time depressing it through the pres- 
sure on the upper side of the flap. 
These controls are operated as fol- 
lows: The rudder, by turning the 
wheel to left or right; the elevators, 
by pulling the wheel forward or 
back ; the ailerons, by foot pedals. 

I 'ower Plant: Consists of two 
.Model O-X Curtiss aviation motors 
rated at 90-100 h p. each, "Bosch 
equipped, of course." These are 
mounted midway between the 
planes, each four and a half feet 
fr<>m the center. Two propellers, 
one to each motor, are bolted di- 
rect to the motor shafts. They 
turn at a maximum speed of 1,250 
to 1,300 revolutions per minute, but 
the machine is expected to fly un- 
der perfect control with the mo- 
tor* turning at less than 1,000 revo- 
lutions per minute. The machine 
is e pected to fly with either one 
or both should occasion demand. 

Fuel supply: Seven gasoline 



tanks have a total capacity of 312 
gallons of gasoline ; two tanks 
mounted on the engine beds have 
a capacity of 30 gallons of lubri- 
cating oil. Six main tanks are lo- 
cated just aft of the pilot house; 
these drain simultaneously, and the 
fuel is pumped to a gravity feed 
tank midway between the motors 
by a rotary gear pump. A special 
gauge on the side of this gravity 
tank indicates the action of the 
pump. In case the gear pump fails 
the aviators have an auxiliary hand 
pump. In 30 hours the two en- 
gines consume a little over 280 
gallons of gas and 9y 2 gallons of 
oil, after a 30-hour run of each 
engine. 

I nstruments: The compass is 
nearly as large as ship's, especially 
constructed by the late Lord Kel- 
vin's firm in England, which makes 
the instruments for the British ad- 
miralty. Tachometers show engine 
speed, aneroids show altitude, spe- 
cial Waltham watches for time, the 
standard Pi tot tube speed indicator 
as used on all Curtiss boats, incli- 
nometers, fuel and oil gauges com- 
plete the equipment, except for the 
Sperry drift indilator which show's 
on a dial directly the drift from a 
straight course, having been tested 
out on a U. S. Navy airboat flown 
by Lieut. Towers. In the cabin 
are Lieut. Porte's navigation instru- 
ments, such as sextant, chart table, 
etc. 



BURGESS INAUGURATES 
AERIAL JOURNALISM 
Under the auspices of the Boston 

Journal, the Burgess- Dunne sea- 
plane took the first pictures of a 
news nature ever taken in this 
country from an aeroplane so far 
as may be recalled. 

Less than 12 hums after the 
great Salem fire, piloted by Clifford 
Webster, the Burgess Dunne sea- 
plane carried a press photographer 
over the blazing ruins at an ex- 
tremely low altitude. 

The photographer rose from his 
seat, walked forward and snapped 
the pictures, leaning out over the 
Fronl of the fuselage to the side of 
Webster. The flight lasted an hour 
i ml five minutes, in which a large 
number of pictures were taken. The 
photographer was on his feet most 
of the time excepting when chang- 
ing plates and had no difficulty in 



taking views both from the rear 
and front of the machine. 

It will be noticed that the ruins 
were still smoking and very hot. 
Webster found the air very turbu- 
lent, of whirlwind variety, with a 
strong ascending column in the cen- 
ter. The successful operation of 
the machine through these air con- 
ditions with a man walking from 
forward to back of the fuselage, a 
distance of eight feet, gives one an 
idea of the stability of the Burgess- 
Dunne seaplane and widens the 
area of possible usefulness of air- 
craft. 

The air-craft industry of France 
is mostly confined to the manufac- 
ture of aeroplanes, 1,350 of a total 
motive force of 80,000 horsepower. 
7 dirigibles of an aggregate of 1,760 
horsepower and 64.500 tons capa- 
city having been manufactured in 

1912. The financial condition of 
the aeronautical industry was fair 
during 1913. Most of the orders 
received were for air craft for mili- 
tary and naval purposes for the 
French and foreign Governments, 
principally Great Britain and Rus- 
sia. There were 272 aeroplanes, 
valued at $5,707,782, exported in 

1913, and 13 hvdroaeroplanes, val- 
ued at $297,606.' 



Your magazine has come to hand, 
and read with interest, for it is in- 
teresting to one who is not espe- 
cially interested in the work beyond 
a general understanding of the 
world's progress, and to those who 
are directly interested, owners or 
contemplated owners, it certainly 
must be indispensable. 

Will say that for the uninitiated 
your journal inspires confidence to 
believe more readily and to know 
bow to believe more that is seen in 
the "evcrv-dav press." 
W. W. McC, San Pedro, X. M 



This sto,y is being told of George 
Beatty, the w. k. aviator. It 
seems, according to the relator, 
Mrs. Beatty wanted to buy George 
a present, but couldn't seem to find 
anything just suited, so she ex- 
plained her quandarj to another of 
Mineola's products, saying: "George 
doesn't smoke or drink, or go out 
nights or play cards and I don't 

know what to buy." 

The friend: "Is he fond of fancy 
work?" 



AERONAUTICS, July 15, 1914 



Pa-ee 5 



WIRELESS AS CONNECTED WITH AERONAUTICS 

WILLIAM DUBILIER, R.S.A., A.A.I.E.E. 



[Abstract from Mr. Dubilier's 
paper read before the Aeronautical 
Society of America, June 11th, 
where he prefaced his remarks with 
a note on the history of wireless 
and its adaptation to aeronautics. 
At the conclusion of his considera- 
tion of various systems he showed 
lantern slides of various experimen- 
tal sets which have been employed 
here and abroad in military and 
civilian trials, and then showed in 
operation two complete sets as have 
been adapted and ordered by the 
English and the American Govern- 
ments for aeroplane and balloon 
work.] 

For wireless installations on 
board aeroplanes and balloons the 
most important consideration has 
been to install apparatus which will 
conform to the limitations of the 
weight and space, and still provide 
a suitable and efficient means for 
transmitting messages to the de- 
sired points with the small aerial 
wire system and power limited to 
the size of air craft. The demand 
for light and easy removable sta- 
tions for Army and Navy work is 
constantly increasing. During the 
time of war, wireless communica- 
tion, due to the way in which the 
stations can be quickly removed, is 
of great service in connection with 
aeronautics, for it enables the lead- 
ers of the battle to send commands 
rapidly and to receive the position 
of the enemy. The operator is 
usually carried as a passenger and 
transmits signals at the same time 
as he makes observations. The ap- 
paratus used in all respects is inter- 
changeable with the portable field 
sets, as this enables any operator of 
the field signal corps to work the 
aeroplane outfit when necessary. It 
is so arranged that the machines are 
of double key type so that messages 
can be sent by either the aviator or 
the passenger. 

The current is obtained from a 
generator friction driven from the 
fly wheel of the engine or from stor- 
age cells. Experiments have also 
been made with wind motors, where 
the generator was driven by an 
aero fan. 

The equipment at present used 
by the U. S. Government has an 
output of about 1 25 watts, weighs 
about 75 pounds, and it has been 
claimed that a radius of 30 miles 
has been obtained. The new equip- 
ment designed by the author has a 
total weight of less than 20 pounds 
with double the capacity and less 
than l /2 the space, so that immedi- 
ately one will be able to see the 
advantages from every standpoint. 

Recently several European gov- 
ernments have been making experi- 
ments with apparatus for army 
work and have arranged conditions 
contrary to those which have been 
planned and adopted by all wire- 
less workers up to date; in fact, 
have gone back to old days when 
the ordinary Hertz oscillator, un- 
tuned and of open circuit, was 
used. Now several officials have 
suggested the use of apparatus 
wherein the transmitter is not 
tuned, and they advance several 
points in its favor. 

First, in transmitting a sharply 
tuned signal it takes a longer time 
for the receptor to get into proper 
adjustment for receiving these sig- 
nals. 



Secondly, the transmitter can be 
more quickly adjusted, as it is not 
necessary to carefully adjust the 
oscillating circuits in order to bring 
them in resonance. 

Thirdly, messages can be sent in 
secret code, hence it does not 
matter whether the enemy receives 
them or not. Then if the signals 
sent out are not tuned sharply, the 
greatest hindrance can be done to 



used, which is let down from the 
aeroplane or balloon or an auxiliary 
balloon used for elevating wires. 
This plays a very important part 
in determining the range of a wire- 
less station, for, roughly, it varies 
directly with the height of an aerial 
and cube root of the power. 

Many different kinds of apparatus 
have been designed for aeroplane 
work. Portable stations supplied 




the enemy by interfering with their 
stations, for it will he difficult for 
them to tune out these highly 
damped waves. It has therefore 
been desirable to send out waves 
with a flat resonance curve. 

In order to get the largest amount 
of power out of the transmitting 
station and to arrange the circuits 
in resonance, the following figures 
will be of great interest to give one 
an idea of the size of the aerial 
and capacities that is necessary in 
installations The speed of electric 
wave? is about one billion feet per 
second. If oscillations or waves of 
a frequency of one million is de- 
sired, it will be necessary to have 
a wave length of about 1,000 feet, 
for to send messages with wave 
lengths of very much less, is not 
practical, due to many difficulties, 
such as absorption, heat losses, in- 
duction losses, etc., therefore, if 
signals are to be sent longer wave 
lengths should be obtained by using 
larger inductances. The size of 
these are also limited, for the ma- 
chine again becomes inefficient 
when too much inductance and too 
little aerial capacity is used, hence, 
a compromise must be made, where- 
by sufficient aerial length and sur- 
face is used, coupled with a fairly 
large inductance. To get an idea 
of the length of the aerial, roughly, 
the wave length transmitted is 5 
times the length of the aerial, plus 
in times the length of wire in the 
coil or helix. To make up the 
length, usually a trailing wire is 



by the Marconi Company, type L, 
especially adopted for aeroplanes, 
weigh 50 pounds, have a capacity of 
50 watts and a radius of about 10 
miles. Type Ll weighs 200 pounds, 
has a capacity of about 500 watts 
and a sending radius of 50 miles, 
while type M. for dirigible balloon 
work, has a capacity of 1.500 watts, 
a sending radius of 200 miles and 
weighs 500 pounds. One of these 
installations was tried on board the 
Flanders, a British machine, and 
was made up in 2 separate con- 
tained units with the idea of dis- 
tributing the weight. It fitted un- 
derneath the pilot and passenger 
seats, and the only part exposed 
was the manipulating key with sev- 
eral controller switches, which were 
placed in the most convenient posi- 
tion for the operator to carry out 
the simultaneous work of observing 
and reporting. 

Another aeroplane installation 
used is one constructed by the Lor- 
enz Company, using a quenched dis- 
charge gap for the production of 
nearly continuous oscillations. The 
outside dimensions of the box are 
IS x 15 x 21 inches. The weight 
of the transmitter without the gen- 
erator is 100 pounds, the dynamo 
used is 500 volts with a capacity of 
500 watts. This apparatus consists 
of a discharge gap made of 2 large 
electrodes, each electrode shaped 
like a half ball and cooled by a 
hydro-carbon vapor. Although this 



Page 6 



AERONAUTICS, July 15. 1914 



apparatus is not efficient, it has received on a service peck aerial 30 Roughly, the principal used is 
already been installed by several feet high consisting of 2 wires in the producing of pulsating currents 
foreign governments. parallel. 4 feet apart. A ground of a musical frequency from direct 

The Telefunken Company have n , et with , a ne 8 dr 'ven 12 inches into currents by means of a tuned cir- 
also made an apparatus for aero- the ea rth "' as us ed as a balanced cuit. This circuit contains a con- 
plane work which has a capacity capacity. The station was erected denser charging device, condenser 
of about 300 watts and occupies 3 on 6 rass ' and 1Q 4 volts direct cur- and an inductance. The condenser 
cubic feet. A small dynamo is I*"' were used for transtritting. charging device is set in operation 
used, belt or friction driven from Ihe current in the aerial v as 1 '/i mechanically or electro mechanical- 
the main engine, and this apparatus amper „|- 5 e condenser capacity ly, and by means of springs is 

has a sending radius of from 15 to was - 0015 ""•■ a loose coupler be- given a certain definite working 
20 miles. 

For balloon installations, where 
large aerials can be constructed, 
much greater distances could be ob- 
tained. It has been reported that 
the Zeppelin airships are transmit- 
ting signals 200 miles with a 5 kw. 
installation, and all the Zeppelin 
airships that are making public trips 
have on board regular telegraph 
forms, the same as used on ship 
stations, and passengers can send 
their messages at published rates to 
any part of the world. 

The greatest danger attached to 
balloons from wireless installations 
is the fact that the gas may be- 
come ignited by sparks produced 
by induced currents that occur in 
metal parts. This danger cannot 
be eliminated with the larger instal- 
lations where high voltage trans- 
formers are used, but there are cer- 
tain systems, such as the Poulsen, 
Lorenz and that devised by the au- 
thor, where the voltage of the 
transmitting oscillations are greatly 
reduced, thus eliminating to some 
extent the danger of induced cur- 
rents. All metal parts, such as the 
valves, etc.. must be thoroughly 
covered with a thick coating of 
some form of insulating varnish. 
For balloon work the wireless tele- 
phone is the most practical method 
for transmitting communications, 
for it eliminates the telegraph op- 
erator, the danger of explosions by 
brush discharges and makes possible 
quick transmission of signals. Fig. 
I shows Dubilier wireless t> I phone 
installations for balloons and aero- 
planes. 

The aerial on board the Zeppelin 
halloon is almost 600 feet long, and 
a 500 cycle generator is driven by 
an independent engine at a speed 
of 3,000 revolutions per minute. 
1 he wave length varies from 400 
to 1,200 meters. 

The illustration (Fig. II, Dubilier 
wireless telegraph apparatus for 
aeroplanes) herewith shows a port- 
able Dubilier apparatus weighing 
20 pounds with a maximum ra- 
pacity of V 2 kw. The system de- 
vised by Mr. Dubilier eliminates the 

alternator! 6 A*™-" ^Jj^l"^. J." 5ted ; 

dyna 

pie d 

™ from 200V<ra r £: thus ffi&t 1 




ing used, 
across the 
which was 



Fig. 1. 

The maximum voltage frequency, say 500 cycles Then 

spark gap was 7,000, the inductance and capacity is so 

of tie quenched type ad. varied that its natural frequency 

ngs in is also 500 or a harmonic of the 



rnator. A small direct current the aerial Tests were m»X»iJS f ="« or a harmonic of the 

amo is used, and then by a sim- three ranges in connection wirt a , f , requeTlc >;. ° f the oscillator. Under 

device alternating currents are 300 watt Marconi ins^llat?,, , condition the primary current 

duced having any desired fre- alnnnM. til ™ " 1! ' ta . llat " ,n \, > >s transformed into pulsating cur- 

n„„ f, m .. d„„ , ™ . e alongside for co npansons. From rents havin,, =, s;„„ ,„„..„ ...:.u 




more compact for 
a given power, therefore more port- 
able and readily adapted for trans 
port purposes. It is especially de- 
signed for aeroplane installatio 



places signals were faucet 'with water runni 



ng out into 



received clear and good, being 



times audibility a, the Utter Test a,e?a ie^'ov Ya^'o? its'welgl,. 
At the third test the rece v no- end »l. n i. k„„„..' „ o>., -i, ■ w , el s nt 



rd test the receiving end when it becomes filled 
as connected to the wrong side of closes a 



This lever 




port issued by^ Cap.ain"LeFroyVat paratus opera,ed"o„ a" "so To'.t Z- opened 'and ftTUYa^afloweS 

wis ,,l°d a 6 S W - att 'i "° V0lt set cumu ' a,or weighing 35 pounds had to flow into the veseTmi 
frl, I ,■ A nA A S ' e " 3 h were sent a radlUS of approximately the same filled, and then the operation is rl 
from a slandard nortahlp »,;,! ..j ,li«tar,^»= „,.„, H operation is re- 

peated. Hence, we have quantities 



trom a slandard portable aerial and distances. 



AERONAUTICS, July 15. 1914 



Page 7 



of water being thrown out instead 
of a continuous flow; so does this 
system operate on direct current. 

The inductance of the primary 
oscillating circuit acts as the pri- 
mary of a high tension transformer, 
the secondary discharge of which 
produces oscillations in the well- 
known manner. A quenched spark 
is used of a special design and is 
shown on the cover of the appa- 
ratus. This gap consists of long 
copper bars with smoothly planed 
ends placed about .003 of an inch 
apart, the discharge taking place be- 
tween the planed ends. Any num- 
ber can be connected by a small 
short circuiting rod. The induc- 
tance is mounted in back of the 
instrument and is connected to a 
hot wire ammeter, which indicates 
the amount of power that is being 
radiated. 

In experiments carried out by 



Mr. E. J. Simon and L. J. Lesh, 
an aerofan was used to drive the 
generator. This was equipped on 
board a Curtiss military hydro-aero- 
plane and was of about 14 kw. ca- 
pacity, with a 500 cycle generator 
driven by a fan 20 inches in diam- 
eter, and aerial wire 600 feet long 
was wound on a reel and weighted 
by a 3-pound piece of lead; this 
was used as the trailer and taken 
in as it became necessary. The in- 
stallation weighed 105 pounds, and 
it was found necessary to attain a 
fairly good speed to generate 
enough power to operate the appa- 
ratus efficiently. 

In connection with aeroplane mil- 
itary work, a motor car installation 
is being used by the English Gov- 
ernment. The capacity is \Vi kw., 
and the generator is run by the 
motor engine. The aerial can be 
erected in a short time and when 



folded up fits on the side of the 
car. It has been found that these 
motor car stations are only suitable 
for well-constructed roads. The 
range of the apparatus was from 50 
to 70 miles. 

The question of receiving signals 
on board aeroplanes and balloons 
has been a very difficult one, for 
the noises and vibrations of the en- 
gines and air currents make it un- 
practical to receive signals with a 
telephone receiver. A receiving ap- 
paratus was designed for the Aus- 
trian Government in which a visible 
signal was used. The operator is 
able to observe dots and dashes by 
means of a small light. It is ad- 
visable to use Prof. Flemming's os- 
cillation valve or Dr. De Forest's 
audium, for they act as amplifiers 
to the received signals and are not 
affected by vibrations. 



THE LAW OF SIMILITUDE 



As to the means of stepping 
from the model to the aeroplane; 
it is known that the force on a sur- 
face due to the wind may be writ- 
ten as KSV 2 , S being the area of 
the surface, V the speed of the wind, 
and K a quantity which for two 
similar surfaces similarly placed is 
approximately a constant, independ- 
ent that is of the velocity and the 
area. If K were really constant 
the step from model to aeroplane 
would be simple; to obtain the force 
on the aeroplane at a given speed 
it would merely be necessary to 
measure that on the model at some 
speed and increase it in the ratio 
of surface of the aeroplane to that 
of the model and of the squares of 
the respective velocities. But ex- 
periment proves that the force is 
not strictly proportional to the 
square of the speed. If the lift 
and drift coefficients of an aerofoil, 
i.t'., the ratio of the lift or of the 
drift to the square of the speed, be 
determined, they are found to vary 
with the speed. This is shown in 
Figs. 1 and 3, which represent the 
result of such a series of experi- 
ments, and in which, as the speed 
changes from 10 to 50 feet per 
second, there is a growth in the 
coefficients. 

At an early point in the work of 
the Advisory Committee for Aero- 



Vmnahotft tf ^YOnp »f « -:.-... » 



nautics. Lord Kayleigh called atten- 
tion to the fact that if K be not 

V*r,.f,.» r of X, ft C t{ f<t.*nf o f « «N,rf>/ «,„ AV/ 

«*/* eh* -pet 9f fj be*** 



rent, L some linear dimension of 
the surface, and : the kinematic 



s 


j 1 




i i 


^><f 


*S 


r^ 


3 








j€^ 


'*. 








t= 




* 










1 

^ 




j7 












1 






,£;, ' 




































i 


!-^S"= 


~j 


J i i :. 



constant for similar surfaces it 

VL 

must depend on the quantity 

or in mathematical terms be ex- 
VL 

pressible as a function of 

v 
where V is the velocity of the cur- 




viscosity of the air. If then we 
plot the value of K as found for 
an aerofoil in a given position, but 
for different values of the velocity 
against VL, the spots ought to be 
on a smooth curve and the form 
of this curve will determine K as 
a function of \'L. This has been 
done in Fig. 4, where the values of 
the lift to the drift ratio are 
plotted against VL (or rather, for 
convenience, against log VL) for 
the series of experiments shown in 
the preceding curves. 

Again, experiments have been 
made at the Aerodynamical Labo- 
ratory of the University of Paris 
on full-sized aerofoils. These have 
been repeated at the Laboratory on 
models 1-16 of the scale, and when 
the results are reduced by the 
above law, the agreement in the lift 
experiments is practically complete ; 
the measurement of the drift is 
more difficult and the agreement is 
less good, but the results for the 
ratio are given in Fig. 4, and it 
appears that at the highest value of 
VL yet reached in the model ex- 
periments the value of the ratio 
lift-drift is somewhat less than for 
the full scale experiments, but that 
values for the coefficient found 
from the 50 ft. per sec. observa- 
tions in the channel do not differ 
greatly from those belonging to the 



Paze 8 



AERONAUTICS, July 15, 1914 



actual machine. This point can be 
checked more fully when the large 
channel is complete, and the neces- 
sity of checking it afforded a strong 
reason for the building of that 
channel. 



From "The Development of the 
Aeroplane," being the second Wil- 
bur Wright Memorial Lecture, de- 
livered by Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, 
F. R. S., F. Ae. S., before the 
Aeronautical Society of Great 
Britain, at the Royal United Serv- 
ice Institution, Whitehall, on Wed- 
nesday, May 20, 1914. 



tures. The beams are very deep and 
strong, and the ribs are built up in 
the most improved monoplane fash- 
ion, closely spaced and with light, 
false ribs between every one to 
preserve the special shape of the 
wing and prevent any sagging of 
the cloth. The wings are covered 
with linen treated with four coats 
of aero varnish and two coats of 
spar varnish; tlTus giving the planes 
a smooth finish that is proof against 
weather and seas. The struts which 
fit into special steel sockets are of 
streamline form wrapped with linen 
and treated with the same varnish 



craft a speed of sixty miles an hour 
on the water and seventy miles an 
hour in the air. 



— Clarion o#- ifl^Swiw ^m Ly - 




AT JOHNSON'S SCHOOL 

Consistent good weather has been 
productive of much flying at the 
W. E. Johnson School of Aviation 
at Conesus Lake. The machines 
have been in the air from daylight 
till dark practically every day for 
the past three weeks, and great num- 
bers of people have watched the 
flying daily. Not a few people have 
taken advantage of the opportunity 
and taken a ride over the lake. 

Walter Johnson brought up the 
new school boat and put it through 
its paces successfully, and it has 
been doing good work every day. 
This boat is equipped with one of 
the new Kirkham 70 h.p. motors, 
and seems to have considerable ex- 
cess power. 

The school has purchased two new 
motors and will have dual control 
boats for both inside of a couple of 
weeks, and from all appearances 
will have use for all of them, as the 
summer class is pretty well filled. 



KANTNER WINS NEW 

YORK RACE 
Eiarold Kantner, with a Schmidt 
monoplane, won in 43 m 26 1/3 s. 
»o over Albert S. Heinrich in a Hein- 
rich monoplane (46 m. 46 4/5 s.) 
in the July 4 air race from Gov- 
bLOANE FLYING BOAT a s used on the wings, making them ernor's Island, in New York Har- 
The first trials nf the new Sin, no P roof against the elements and ren- bor, to Spuyten Duyvil, back down 
flying boa? were conclude 1 at Stein der " g them almost '"capable of the river to the Atlantic Yacht 
way Beach L I he latte oar or r0t "! 1 F or sn,iMin S: an important Club at Seagate and return to the 
June ' " v consideration in flying-boat work, starting line between Governor's 

All the guy wires are doubled, as Island and Mistress Liberty. The 
are also all the control wires. The Heinrich machine was flown to 
tail planes, elevator and rudder are Governor's Island from its shed at 



This flying-boat, using the Dep- 
monoplane style of rib. which was 
expected to compare favorably both 



in auick rising id »,iX ,,!,! of arn ' ,le Slze and pleasing lines, Hempstead. 

witnThVS miliary ^nTpiln"! «h=h blend in with the rest of the The flying boats of V 

and tractor biplanes. At the first mach,ne - (Curtiss). Niles (Rolan. 



erplanck 

1) and 



trials, with three people aboard and 
the throttle only half open, the new 
craft literally "tore off the water," 
with Gilpatrick as pilot. 

This "sporting type" belongs to 
the class of long hulled water- 
planes. The central hull furnishes 
the flotation, as well as acting as 
a fuselage to carry tail planes and 
rudder. 

Just as the main hull is construct- 
ed of solid mahogany, so are the 
two wing tip pontoons. These 
wing tip pontoons only weigh about 
six pounds apiece. The motor is 
placed a little over midway between 
the planes, affording a space for 
two passengers in the rear, just in 
back of the two front seats, from 
which the craft is controlled. The 
hull is of single step type, V bot- 
tom, in front, and constructed 



f\ 




The new Sloane three-in-one con- riurnside ( Thomas t «■?,> t„ 1,0,-* 

*S ^.-d "tanner with spruce and trol has been designed especially gone in the race but the hea^y 

me r p, n=vfi "^ ^ '£■ hett " Water off Cone y Island Prevented 

meet naval requirements The con- getting off. Burnside had flown 

s operated entirely through down from Hobbs Fer 



ash frames. The front dash is In., 
and gracefully shaped, affording an 
efficient wind and sprav shield. The 
hull 




he whole wheel from side to side, 



wing has a span of 42 ft. and 

chord of 6 im, and the lower wing „„ 1M 

has a span of 30 ft and a chord of the wheel to the right and left 



works the ailerons, while tun 
. the wheel to the right and left op- 
The ailerons are fitted erates the rudder. 



to the outer extremities "of "each ' ^VM***. AE J?°NAUTICS a re- 

w." B , - d «< h ~ » "' x 30 The power plan, consisted of a ™ One^pecSaHy *nlfe T/aUiVe is the 

The interior construction of the a„°8 ft. dfamete "S 2 sT? inT.ch SScSS ™- "" iCh ' ** V " y '"" 

planes ,s one of the special fea- Charavay propeller', which gave She itTUC " Ve - R D g 



AERONAUTICS, July 15, 1914 



Page 9 



U. S. ARMY AEROPLANE COMPETITION 



Brigadier-General George P. 
Scriven has just issued a circular 
covering conditions of a contest to 
be held at the Signal Corps Avia- 
tion School at San Diego around 
October 14, this year. 

The contest is open to all build- 
ers, and the matter of royalty to 
The Wright Co. will probably be 
taken care of by the Government, 
whose privilege in the matter of 
patent rights has been fully ex- 
plained in AERONAUTICS. 

If five or more machines qualify, 
the Signal Corps will purchase the 
three which make in order the 
greatest number of points; the first 
for $12,000, the second for $10,000. 
and the third for $8,000. If but 
three or four qualify, the first two 
will be purchased at $12,000 and 
$10,000. respectively. If but two 
qualify, the one making the highest 
number of points will be purchased 
at $12,000. . 

All inquiries concerning this 
competition should be addressed to 
the Chief Signal Officer of the 
Army, Washington, D. C. 



The type desired, a military re- 
connaissance aeroplane, must pos- 
se's following characteristics: Bi- 
plane, erclosed fusilage, two seater, 
dual con'rol, maximum speed of i ot 
less than seventy and a minimum 
spee^ of not more than 40 miles 
per hour when carrying fuel and 
oil for four hours' flight at sev- 
enty p iles ner hour and a useful 
load tf 450 pounds, and i ndtr 
these conditions of load, to climb 
4,000 feet in ten minutes. First 
class material and workmanship. 
Head resistance to be kept down. 
Power plant is to be located in front 
of the occupants and suited to the 
requirements of the aeroplane. The 
motor must be capable of throttling 
to '0 per cent, of full speed and 
running without overheating over 
the land. The motor must be sup- 
olied with a positive means of stop- 
ping by a short circuiting device, 
by release of compression or by 
other suitable means. It is desir- 
able that the radiators, if used, 
should conform to stream-line re- 
quirements and act as an effective 
shelter for the motor. The motor 
should be provided with positively 
driven pump for pumping gasoline 
from the reservoir to the service 
tank and will also be provided with 
attachments for hooking on a flexi- 
ble tachometer, the shaft for this 
purpose to come off the motor at 
right angles to the propeller shaft, 
preferably downward. The propel- 
ler or propellers should be of suffi- 
cient form and construction and 
suited for the particular machine 
and possessing a minimum efficiency 
of 70 per cent., that is to say, to 
have a slip of not over 30 per cent. 
The controls should be of such a 
type as approved by the Chief Sig- 
nal Officer of the Army. During 
the trials the builder may use such 
controls as are familiar to his dem- 
onstrator, but the Signal Corps de- 
sign shall be substituted at the 
builder's expense prior to delivery 
and acceptance of any machine ac- 
quired as a result of this competi- 
tion Wear and friction in the con- 
trol leads must be eliminated in 
every possible way. and the leads 
shall' be as direct as possible. Leads 
to pitching and steering shall be in 
duplicate. The landing gear to be 



as strong and simple as possible to 
be efficient in absorbing shocks in 
landing and running at full speed 
over rough and plowed ground. The 
maximum gliding angle shall under 
no condition exceed 1 on 6, that is 
to say. one foot of drop for each 
six feet of advance. All parts shall 
be efficiently protected from the ac- 
tion of the weather by the use of 
suitable paint or furnished with cov- 
ers. The power plant shall be so 
arranged as to be readily removed 
and replaced bodily without disturb- 
ing the alignment or the fastenings 
of the planes or landing gear. The 
machine complete shall be capable 
of being assembled from transpor- 
tation cases in not to exceed two 
hours by four mechanicians and of 
being disassembled and packed in 
transportation cases in not more 
than one hour and a half by the 
same number of mechanicians. No 
part shall be of such length that 
when packed in its case the case 
shall exceed twenty feet in length. 
The manufacturers who desire to 
enter this competition shall inform 
the Chief Signal Officer of the 
Army on or before September 1. 
1914, of this fact in writing and 
shall supply the President of the 
Board of Officers who will conduct 
the tests, the following data on or 
before October 1, 1914: 



blades and blade area of the pro- 
peller or propellers used and if 
geared down, the ratio of gearing. 

The machines entering the com- 
petition must be delivered on the 
ground of the Signal Corps Avia- 
tion School at San Diego, Cal., on 
or before October 20, 1914, at the 
manufacturer's expense. Each man- 
ufacturer shall supply a demon- 
strator. The Signal Corps will pro- 
vide suitable housing for the ma- 
chines and the fuel and oil for the 
tests. The competitive test will be 
conducted by a Board of Officers 
to be appointed by the Chief Signal 
Officer of the Army under detailed 
rules to be promulgated later. 

To enter the competition, each 
machine must qualify by demon- 
strating by actual trial that it com- 
plies with the above requirements 
by making a non-stop flight of four 
hours in the air and by making the 
climb fully loaded, of 4,000 feet in 
ten minutes. The machines will be 
graded by points, taking into con- 
sideration the following: 

Construction and workmanship, 
speed, maximum and minimum, 
climbing and manoeuvering ability, 
ease of handling, gliding angle, in- 
herent stability, suitability of land- 
ing gear, distance of run on the 
ground when starting and landing, 
field of vision, etc. 



(a) Weight, fully loaded when 
fully equipped. 

(b) Normal angle of incidence in 
horizontal flight. 

(c) Gliding angles. 
l.l) Safe ranges of angle of in- 
cidence. 

i e ) Fuel oil and water consump- 
tion with certificate of performance 
( subsequently described). 

(f) Blueprint or diagram to scale 
of aeroplane and motor complete. 

i K ) Stress diagram of planes 
showing tensile and bending stress 
on beams, struts and brace wires, 
clearlv indicating the material used 
and the factor of safety in each 
member, together with moment dia- 
grams. 

(h) Itemized weight of parts. 

The certificate of performance 
shall consist in a certified test of 
the motor as follows: 

1. One hour run at the rated 1.. 
H. P. on the test stand. 

2. Half hour run at the maxi- 
mum power on the stand. 

3. A run of half hour at 20 per 
cent, of the rated revolutions per 
minute. During the test, the fol- 
lowing data shall be reported: 

Revolutions per minute at the rat- 
ed B. II. 1'. 

Revolutions per minute at max- 
imum B H. P. 

Minimum revolutions per minute. 

The oil per B. H. P. and the fuel 

per B. H. P. . 

A statement of the condition ot 

the motor at the end of a half hour 

run. , , . 

In addition to the above data, the 
following information shall be not- 
ed on the certified test sheet to 
accompany each motor: 

The maker's number, horsepower, 
stroke, diameter of shaft, piston 
displacement, type of magneto, type 
of tachometer used in test, weight 
complete, starting arrangement, car- 
bureter (trade name), cooling sys- 
tem, lubricating system, type of 
spark plugs used, date and place of 
test, the tvpe. pitch, number of 



NAVAL APPROPRIA- 
TION PASSED 

The President signed the Naval 
\ppropriation Bill on June 30. It 
is with the greatest regret, how- 
ever, that we record the fact that 
the SI, 297. 700 extra to the appro- 
priation recommended by the Board 
of Aeronautics (see AERONAU- 
TICS for Jan. 31) was not added 
by the Naval Affairs Committee so 
that aeronautics in the Navy will 
have to drag along about as before, 
depending on what the various bu- 
reaus can spare, which will prob- 
ably be in the neighborhood ot 
$200,000. , , 

Thus plans for an enlarged air 
navy will have to wait another year 
and give other countries still more 
of ail opportunity to equip them- 
selves in advance of the United 
States. 

Tony Tannus carried a 340-pound 
man recently in one of the many 
passenger flights he has been mak- 
„g from SandusEy, where he has 
established himself. His brother, 
Roger Tannus. has been flying the 
Benoist "Lark of Duluth, owned 
by William Jones of that city. 

BALLOONISTS FOUND 

Rov Donaldson and Wilbur Hen- 
derson, who were almost given up 
for lost in the balloon race from 
Portland. Ore.. June 11 returned 
to Portland Tune 1/. They were 
six davs finding a habitation and 
were emaciated and on the point of 
collapse when they staggered to a 
hut and asked for food. 



FOR ^ \LE — Our last year's mono- 
planes and biplanes; very cheap for 
cash, or trade for anything of value. 
F. M.. 1522 Norwood ave., loledo, 
Ohio. ' 



Page 10 



AERONAUTICS, July 15. 1914 



PANAMA PICTURERS Richmond, Va., July 3.- _ 

PINCHED Scott paid to see a ball game at 

San Francisco, July lO.-War- ftff |"" f eet f, 3tk on A P ril 19 ' 

"""V, 1913. Before the game was over 



Simeon ALTITUDE RECORD IS 
NOW 24,600 FEET 

On July 14 Heinrich Oelrich estab- 



Field e^itor^of^The^iin^M^aa" a , n aero P ,ane swooped down from lished "a new world altitude record, 
, 1SL™-A™ -"" se JL._ ag £" the heavens and swiped him on the 24,600 feet (7,500 metres), from 



zine," a photographer, and Riley E, 
Scott of bomb-dropping fame, were 
issued today at the request of John 
W. Preston, United States District 
Attorney. They are charged with 
disclosing military secrets, and the 
penalty 



back. He therefore brought suit Leipsic. Otto Linnekogel made the 
against the Park, demanding dam- previous record on July 9, 6,600 
ages in the sum of $300, claiming metres, at Johannisthal. 
the aeroplane was an advertised at- 
traction. ^____ 

The 



JL°iSfS S SlB^t ^SS^£^£& DIRIGIBLE UP 35 HOURS 

$1,000 fine if made in t/e United £« ^tf^t^o^d gainst 

dangers it could not foresee such 

the park of an 

had not em- 



e-mitler-'Can "the^Panama aS th f fa,l 'T t* - 
:e Destroyed from the Air ? * -oplane winch „ 



States. 

In April "Sunset 
article t 
Canal Ei 

Reproductions of photographs taken 
from an aeroplane accompanied the -u^,! 
text. 

"By the act of March 3, 1911 
Congress strengthened the regula- however 
tion, so that it is now a violation of H-mm-rer 
» . plain statute for a civilian ■ dCmi 



The dirigible duration record has 

been increased to 35 h. 20 m. by 

the French airship "Adjutant Vin- 

cenot," which carried its pilot and 

eight passengers this period on 

The jury thought that Mr. Scott f^f I 9 / beating the ] German record 

ould recover $150 for his injuries, 

and brought in a verdict for that 

amount July 2. Judge Crump 



held by the Zeppelin L-3, 34 
59 m. 



h. 



sustained the defendant's 
and setting aside the 



a piain statute tor a civilian to ■ » c j- - ----- -- — -- *■■- 

take or publish photographs of an? t^ftdTnV ent " ed a V " dlCt f ° r 
fortification, whether complete or netendant. 



process of construction. Th*. 
War Department regards the en- 

esLTiliaT^^V'^'rnsfrucfont'aJe IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 
emphatic in this case." Imports for May, 1 and parts 
The fact that the pictures com- va ' ued at $5,776, the aeroplane re- 
plained of in this case were taken mainm g >n warehouse on May 31 
from an aeroplane raises for the Exports, 1 and parts, $4,558. Nc 
first time an interesting point of ex P crls of foreign made machines 
jurisdiction by the national author- Goods in warehouse May 31, $5,276 



'PLANE RECORD NOW 
24 HOURS 



ities over the upper air and 
volves a decision as to whether a 
person sailing over a reservation 
can be held to have unlawfully en- 
tered it. This point 
important in a militar; . 
right to take photographs, because „ 
military expert might by merely 
passing over a fortress observe 
enough to enable him afterward to 



Reiuhold Boehm (Albatross bi- 
plane, 75 h.p. 6 cyl. Mercedes 
motor), using the same machine 
employed by Landmann in making 
his non-stop flight of 21 h. 49 m. 
.. on June 28, flew on July 11 from 
Exports, 1 and parts, $4,558. No Johannisthal non-stop for 24 h. 

12 m. Speaking of his wonderful 
flight, he said: 

"My provisions consisted of a 
vacuum flask filled with cold milk, 
several packets of chocolate, and a 
few cakes. Despite the heavy load, 
I ascended easily, and in order to 
save petrol flew slowly around the 
aerodome. First I did not go high, 
er than 30 feet. As night wore on 
I went higher and for an hour or 



NEW CORPORATIONS 

Sanaudres Wireless & Aero Visi- 
ilitary view as the b , Mes , sa B e c °-> develop system of 
telegraphic optic acoustics on aero- 
planes, semaphoric signal system, 

$100,000; C. B. Mason, A. Mat- 

r=-o AC j ,i.< m, i '- kal i wcin uigiiu auu iui an nour or 

ters. A. Sanaudres, 124 Thompson tw0 r left Joharinistha , and flew 



draw an accurate sketch of the de- street 



fences. 

In this instance, however, depart- 
ment officials pointed out, the pub- 
lication specifically directed atten- 
tion to alleged shortcomings of the 
defence system of the Panama 
Canal. 



Lansing. Mich., June 22. — Inter- 
national Flving Boat Transit Co., 
Detroit, $10,000: stockholders are 



across Berlin and Potsdam. 

"I returned to the aerodome at 
midnight and then took up my 



H. I:. Hartley, John H. Fietzell, weary circuit. How many rounds 
P. M. Coates, etc. / made 1 suppose nobody will ever 

Southern Ballooning Com- 



Th. 

panv, Cherrvville, N. C. ; capital 
$3,000 authorized and $1,000 sub 
scribed by J. F. Weathers and 
others for giving public exhibitions 
of halloon ascensions and aerial 
flights. 

Deselektro Company, Augusta, 
Me., to manufacture and deal 



know. I must have covered round- 
ly 1,350 miles, as my speed aver- 
aged 37^4 miles an hour. The en- 
gine was working perfectly at the 
finish. If I had had enough petrol 
I could easily have flown another 
twelve hours. I finished fresher 
than I started, although I was on 
duty for twelve hours without rest 
before I went up. The Atlantic 
flight is sure to be accomplished 
soon. It is only a case of a pow- 
erful enough machine. No machine, 
in ray opinion, will be practicable 
which does not contain three en- 
gines, none of which should be 
worked to its limit. There should 
also be two separate pilots. I 
found myself growing stronger after 
inebignal Corps has accented a the first ten or twelve hours. If 



BUSINESS TROUBLES 

Fargo, N. D., June 18.— It is said 
Bob St. Henry, the birdman, bor- 
rowed some money once when here 
on an aviation exhibition. A local . 

man, who indorsed his note, has battleships, aerial craft and all 
been looking for some wav to set otlier vessels of war; capital. $1,- 
even. Recently St. Henry's aero- OOO- 000 - President. R. S. Buzzell; 
plane, being shipped from Montana treasurer, I~ J. Coleman, Augusta. 

to Winnipeg, was taken off the train 

here to be transferred. The local 
man heard it was on the depot plat- 
form and had it attached. There 
is some legal red tape to unwind, 
but he hopes to secure the machine 

inV'L^fon telnet "* '"^ ?£," , G,en \ M f '»" t™cto7Yf jTrti» y'o"u can survive the" strain "o? thai 
me aviatio n busin ess. ino h.p. motor), recently completed, period the rest is easy" 

. Pittsburgh, Pa., July 7.-Fo..ow- ZZsZ ThT'Ifm^nTs'ts "A , T °^ d J?» ™ d °£ the «W^» 
■ng a meeting of several hundred Diego 



ARMY BUYS MARTIN 
TRACTOR 



stockholders of the "Italian Aero 
plane Co.," Louis Maida and M 
Loretio Manasterio were arrested 



is la?«J fierc< ; thunder storm burst over the 
acquisition one of The finest ma- *"<>dome, "»t K°hm refused to 



chines ever seen outside of France. 
A second machine may also be 



give up. During the daylight 
hours Bohm put in a good deal of 
time reading, but usually had to 
contend with brisk winds, especially 
at the higher altitudes. When the 
storm came on he had been alert. 



The machine was equipped with 



charged with failure to show the bought from Martin. On July 7 
Dooks of the company. The com- Martin flew 71 miles over the ocean 
pany is said to have been organized from Balboa Bay to North Island 
about nine months ago and scores Martin carried Lieut. T. S. Bowen i 

of Italians bought $1 shares in the as a passenger and made the trip ¥' s ha ! ,ds ; veri ? SOre and hardened 
concern Peter Angelo was made in 175 minutes, with his Army ma from the stee ""g- 
nead ot the company shortly after chine. 

its organization. Announcements Flving done at the S. C. Aviation Bosch plugs, magneto 'and' starter, 
one of the ^ com- School, San Diego, Cal., week end- A new world's record of 18 hours 

une 24 

isthal, 

Rumpler 

pped. 

. that's 

the use? 




AERONAUTICS, July 15, 1914 



Page 11 




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Page 12 



AERONAUTICS, July 15, 1914 



GOODYEAR WANTS NA- 
TIONAL BALLOON 
RACE 

The balloon "Goodyear," piloted 
by R. A. D. Preston, M. D. 
Tremelin, aide, won the National 
Balloon Race from St. Louis July 
11. They landed near Constance, 
Ky., July 12, less than 24 hours 
after the start. Ralph H. Upson, 
who used the same balloon in win- 
ning the international race last fall, 
and Preston will comprise two of 
the American team this year, Capt. 
H. Eugene Honeywell being the 
third, in the international race from 
Kansas City in October. 

The contestants were as follows, 
in the order in which they finished. 
Official distances have not yet been 
measured: 

1. — "Goodyear," R. A. D. Preston 
and M. D. Tremelin to Constance, 
Ky., 320 miles. 

5. — "America III," Dr. Jerome 
Kingsbury and C. P. Wynne, presi- 
dent Pennsylvania Aero Club, landed 
near Princeton, Ind , 143 miles. 

8.— "San Francisco 1915," E. S. 
Cole and R. E. Emerson landed 
near McLeansboro, 111., 98 miles. 

2. — "Pennsylvania II," Arthur 
T. Atherholt and P. T. Sharpies 
landed near Rockville, 111., 214 
miles. 

6. — "Miss Sofia," William Ass 
mann, no aide, landed near Flat 
Rock, 111., 132 miles. 

4.— "Uncle Sam." Paul J. McCuI- 
longh and Win. II. Trefts, landed 
near Lewis. Ind., 154 miles. 

3. — "Aero Club of St. Louis," 
John Berry and Albert Von Horr- 
mnnn, landed near Terre Haute, 
Ind., 161 miles. 

7 — -"Kansas City II," John 
Watts and W. F. Comstock, landed 
near Enfield. III. 105 miles. 

Berry was asked for damages to 
a cornfield when he and a young 
woman made their landing on a 
farm near East St Louis on June 
18 and the balloon was held by the 
farmer for payment. 

The "America III" is the gift of 
Rodman Wanamaker to the Aero 
Club of America. It made its trial 
ascent the first week of July with 
Dr. Kingsbury, Clarence P. Wynne, 
A. R. Hawley. Henrv Woodhouse 
and C. Jerome Edwards. The bal- 
loon was made by Leo Stevens. 



it was decided, as was anticipated, 
not to award the Grand Prix of 
$77,200. Two prizes were awarded, 
one of $10,000 to the Sperry 
Gyroscopic Co. and the other of 
$6,000 to the Paul Schmitt biplane 
with variable angle of incidence. It 
was also decided to award seven 
consolation prizes as follows: $3,000 
to Caudron Brothers for their two- 
seated biplane, $2,000 to the Doutre 
stabilizer, $2,000 to the Societe Avi- 
\uto for the Lelarge carburettor, 
1,600 for the Eteve stabilizer, 
$ 1 .000 to the Moreau monoplane, 
$400 to the Robert parachute, and 
*200 to MM. Philippe and Perron 
or their "demarreur." 



SPERRY WINS STABIL- 
ITY PRIZE 

The Sperry gyroscopic stabilizer, 
fitted to a Curtiss flying boat, won 
$1(1,000 of the safety prizes offered 
by L'Union pour la Securite en 
Aeroplanes, as noted in AERO- 
NAUTICS for April, 1913. A note 
on the Sperry apparatus was pub- 
lished in the issue of Feb. 14, 1914. 
The U. S. Navy stands ready to 
purchase one or more of these in- 
struments upon satisfactory demon- 
stration. Various trials were made 
heretofore, but changes suggested 
and no perfected instrument has 
yet been installed for sale-demon- 
stration to the Navy. 

The French contest was con- 
cluded near Marseilles on July 2. 
In the demonstration Lawrence 
Sperry operated his Curtiss ma- 
chine at all angles, leaving the 
stabilizer to correct the forced in- 
stability. In one instance Sperry 
rose in the machine and held his 




hands above his head while a 
mechanic crawled out to the wing- 
ends. M. Rene Quinton, president 
of the National Aerial League, flew 
with Sperry. who took his hands 
from the wheel and allowed the 
machine to take its own gliding 
angle under the operation of the 
automatic stabilizer, and even a 
glide was made with the stabilizer 
with one wing up at an angle of 45 
degrees during the glide. As ex- 
plained in the previous article in 
AERONAUTICS, the machine may 
be banked and the instrument set 
to maintain this bank, despite any 
disturbances, or the stabilizer may 
be set to keep the machine level. 

As finally evolved, the machine 
consists of a double set of 
gyroscopes, operated by the aero- 
plane engine. One pair of these 
gyroscopes is attached to the lateral 
ailerons. The other pair controls 
the taii rudder and keeps the ma- 
chine on even keel. 

The illustration shows the instal- 
lation of the perfected apparatus, 
!nnking fn.ni the bow of the flying 
boat, and the plate anemometer. 

Altogether the committee since 
the opening of the competition on 
January 1, witnessed trials by 21 
competitors out of the 56 who had 
entered. After a very long sitting 



BROCK AGAIN WINS 

London, July 12. — Walter L. 
Brock, our American friend, flying 
an SO h. p. Morane-Saunier, 'won 
the race from London to Paris and 
back, covering the 502 miles in 
7 h o m. 6 s. , an average speed 
of 71 ;-2 m.p.h. 

The only other competitor to fin- 
ish was Garros, whose net living 
time was 8 h. 28 m. 47s., with" the 
same type of machine. This is the 
third big race Brock has won 
abroad, the other two being the 
aerial Derby, as previously men- 
tioned, and the London-Manchester 
race. 



GARAIX SECURES 

ANOTHER RECORD 

At Chartres on July J Garaix on 
the Schmitt biplane, in which Au- 
gust Belmont is interested, fitted 
with 160 h.p. Rhone motor, suc- 
ceeded in regaining for France the 
duration record for pilot and three 
passengers which had been held by 
Gsell with 3 h. 11 m. 30 s. The 
new record made by Garaix is 4 h. 
3 m. 29 s. 



'AERONAUTICS, Tulv 15, 1914 



Page 13 



Send sketch or model for FRKE search of Patent Office 
record. Write for our Guide Books and Wbal lo Intent with 
valuable Liit of Invention! Wanted sent Free. Send for our 
special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 
Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in 
Aeronautic! and have a special Aeronautical Department. 

Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each. 

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Superior Training 
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Address 

Sloane Aeroplane Co. 

1733 Broadway New York 



The 

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Company 



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Patents) 




THE NEW WRIGHT 
AEROPLANES 

For sport, exhibition or 
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past ten years 

The Wright Company 

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Page 14 



AERONAUTICS, July 15. 1914 



•AIRHOLE" AT LANDING. 



The velocity of the air at the surface of the earth 
is not the same as at some elevation from it, and the 
air may be perfectly still at the ground level while at 
a comparatively slight height there may be a wind of 
some 10 m. (32 ft.) per sec This is due to the pro- 
tection afforded the lowest layers of air by the un- 
evenness of the earth surface. 

If a flyer runs against a wind of 10 m. per sec, 
with an absolute velocity of 25 m. per sec, his relative 
velocity is 15 m. per sec, and when he suddenly enters 
a stratum of still air his velocity remains only 15 m. 
per sec, which is not enough for planing; as a result 
he hits the ground with a thud, having struck an 
airhole. In landing, it is always a safe thing to select 
a fully open place where there is nothing to keep the 
wind out. The height of fall through an airhole is 
directly proportional to the velocity of the aircraft. 
Let G be the weight of the apparatus; v the velocity 
of the aircraft in still air; v x the wind velocity; h the 
height of fall. Further, let v x =10. When the craft 
is in air having v x = 10, its kinetic energy is 
Gv 2 
\ = 

where g =■ 9.81. When the craft passes into the air 
having v x = 0, it loses some of its kinetic energy, 
which then becomes 

G 
A 2 = — {v — v 1 )* 



The difference between the values of A x and A t indi- 
cates the kinetic energy A required to bring the aircraft 
back to the speed that would allow it to float in the 
lower air stratum. In this case z\ = v — 10, which 
gives after substitution: 

10.C 
A = (v— 5) 

t 
What is wanted, however, is to establish the relation 
between v and h. When a craft of weight G falls 
through h, a kinetic energy A = Gh is liberated, 
and therefore Gh may be substituted for A in the 
preceding equation, which finally gives 

10 
h = — (v — 5), 

S 
But g is approximately equal to 10, and therefore 

h = v — 5 
may be accepted as being approximately correct. This 
equation shows that the height of fall through an 
airhole increases with the speed of the aircraft, and 
that it is independent of the weight of the aircraft (the 
latter because G does not figure in the equation for 
h). Table 1 gives the height of fall through an air- 
hole due to the craft coming from air moving against 
it at 10 m. (say 32 ft.) per sec into still air, as 
functions of the speed of the airship. — (Das Luft- 
loch" bet der Landung, E. Heinkel. Der Motorwagen, 
Vol. 16, No. 4, p. 91, Feb. 10, 1913. iy 2 pp., 
1 fig- ptA.) 





i in miles 




ti' in ft. 






v in km 


per min. 


v in m 


per sec. 


h in m 


h in ft. 


50 


31 


14 


46 


9 


29.5 


75 


47 


21 


69 


16 


52.5 


100 


62 


28 


92 


23 


75.5 


125 


78 


35 


115 


30 


98 


150 


93 


42 


138 


37 


122 




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AEROX.-iUTICS, Julv 15. 1914 



Page 15 





ON A CLASS BY BT-SEILr 



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By ALGERNON E. BERR1MAN, M.I.A.E., A.F.Ae.S. 

Technical Editor of "Flight" 

A popular technical work of Interest to the general student 
ae well as to the man who is in aviation as a profession. To 
the amateur builder of aeroplanes in the United States It will 
be of incalculable benefit. 

Chapters include: 
What an Aeroplane Is; Instruetiveness of Paper Models: 
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The Cambered Wing; Work of Lilienthal, Wrights, Volsln, 
Farman, Dunne and Weiss; British Military Trials of 1912; 
Hydroaeroplanes: Accidents: Romance and Early History: 
Founding of the Science of Flight; Invention of the Glider 
and Pioneers; History and Appendices containirjg numerical 
examples, application of laws, etc. 



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Page 16 



AERONAUTICS. July 15, 1914 



THE NAVY BOATS AT PENSACOLA 

are equipped with 

PARAGON PROPELLERS 



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I XV. No. 2 



JULY 31, 1914 



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EROMITIC 




Property oj 

E w R :hon 




Some Competitive 
Trophies Won in 
1913— With 

CURTISS 
0-X MOTORS 



Except by Their Products, the 
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THE MACKAY TROPHY, won by 

Lieutenants J. E. Carberry and Fred 
Seydel, U. S. Army ; flying 58 miles in 
46 minutes. 

TIMES AERIAL DERBY, won by 

William S. Luckey, flying around Man- 
hattan ; 60 miles in 52 minutes. 

TIMES AERIAL DERBY, second, 
Charles F. Niles. 

AERO and HYDRO 1,000-mile Cruise 
Trophy, won by J. B. R. Verplanck and 
Beckwith Havens ; Chicago to Detroit. 

MICHIGAN AERO CLUB 1,000 -mile 
Speed Trophy, won by Verplanck and 
Havens; Chicago to Detroit. 



Ask for Our Catalogs 

THE CURTISS MOTOR CO., 

21 Lake St., Hammondsport, N. Y. 



CURTISS 
O-X M°T°RS 



Page IS 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



Pane 19 



A SUGGESTION FOR THE POWER PLANT OF AN 

AEROPLANE* 

By DAVID L. GALLUP. M.E , Professor of Gas Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute 



This paper has to deal indirectly 
with the question of power plant in 
an aeroplane, and has in reality 
two objects in view: First, to bring 
to your attention certain principles 
and their effect upon the perform- 
ance of the gasoline engine, and, 
secondly, to do this in as brief and 
concise a manner as is possible. 

Some of you are aware of the ap- 
paratus installed at the Worcester 
Polytechnic Institute some years ago 
for the purpose of testing aeroplane 
propellers, and possibly are ac- 
quainted with the results, a few of 
which were presented in a paper at 
one of the branch society meetings 
last fall; but in order that those 
who are not familiar with them 
may appreciate the value and sig- 
nificance of the experiments con- 
ducted, a brief resume will be given 
here. (Report and description of 

Slant and tests was given in AERO 
AUTICS, July. 1911.) 

The main testiug plant is located 
at a lake about nve miles from the 
institute, and consists principally 
of a steel boom 85 feet in length, 
and which is free to rotate about a 
vertical axis at the center of the 
boom. At the end of this boom is 
placed the propeller, which is driven, 
through a system of gears, by an 
electric motor located at the center 
of the boom. The axis of the pro- 
peller shaft is at right angles to 
that of the boom, and is therefore 
tangent to the circle described by 
the same. 

Rotation of the propeller about its 
own axis produces a thrust which is 
available for rotating the boom at 
any desired speed, and which may 
be controlled in various ways. 

Arrangements have been made 
whereby the speed of the propeller 
in r.p.m., the speed of the boom 
tip in m.p.h., the thrust of the pro- 
peller in lbs., and the h.p. delivered 
to the propeller may be readily de- 
termined by instruments suitably 
placed. 

An additional scheme for testing 
was embodied in the use of an ice- 
boat driven by an aeroplane pro- 
peller, and which made possible the 
obtaining of very high speed in a 
straight line. 

Many tests have been made with 
these two forms of apparatus, and 
on many styles of propellers, with 
the result that there is on hand 
some very interesting data con- 
cerning the performance ot propel- 
lers under conditions similar to 
those in actual service. 

Perhaps the most notable feature 
which was developed from tests of 
the average propeller was the drop 
in thrust as speed through the air 
increases, and the approach to zero 
thrust as this continues to increase. 

In the type of propeller put out 
a few years ago, with a pitch of 5 
to 7 feet, this drop is very notice- 
able. In such cases the "standing" 
thrust is the maximum obtained, 
and this falls off as flight begins, 
and in almost direct proportion, un- 
til at ordinary speeds through the 
air the thrust exerted by the pro- 
peller is approximately not over 
half of the maximum obtained when 
stationary. 

Later types of propellers having 
large pitches, such as 9 to 12 ft , 
give a characteristic somewhat dif- 
ferent from that just mentioned, in 
that the maximum thrust is obtained 
after the aeroplane has begun to 
move through the air. The speed 



at which this is obtained is ap- 
proximately 10 to 25 m.p.h., after 
which the thrust falls off as before. 

Still other forms of propellers, 
notably the "variable pitch" type, 
may be so constructed as to give a 
fairly uniform thrust throughout 
what might be termed the working 
range of speeds, and wkich i 1 -. "i 
course, the ideal condition. 

Simultaneously with the experi- 
ments for obtaining the thrust char- 
acteristics of propellers, was obtain- 
ed data showing the "effectiveness" 
of the latter at various r.p.m. "Ef- 
fectiveness" in this case has refer- 
ence to the thrust in pounds per 
h.p. necessary to drive the pro- 
peller, and is, as can be readily 
seen, the only proper measure of 
the value of a propeller. 

Time will not permit of going into 
a tabulation of this data, but a 
study of the same seems to indicate 
that a relatively low r.p.m. is more 
desirable than what is now common 
practice, and which runs from 1,000 
to 1,800 r.p.m. These high speeds 
result in a great deal of energy 
loss due to the needless churning 
of the air, and also on account of 
the fact that the time involved in 
a half revolution ' of the propeller 
is so small each blade of the latter 
is brought to do its work in a dis- 
turbed atmosphere, all of which 
naturally tends to reduce the "ef- 
fectiveness" of a propeller. 

The Wright propeller, of large 
diameter, large pitch and low r.p.m., 
is an excellent example of a highly 
effective propeller doing with a 
small engine practically what some 
of the larger engines, driving pro- 
pellers of small diameter, low pitch, 
at high r.p.m., accomplish. 

In the majority of cases, propel- 
lers are direct-connected to the 
crank shaft of the engine, and for 
the two reasons that transmission 
through gearing or chains introduces 
a greater possibility of break' low n, 
and also since it has always been 
supposed that high r.p.m. of the pro- 
peller was preferable. High r.p.m. 
naturally goes with the customary 
type of gasoline engine, and this in 
turn follows, since it is established 
that for a given h.p. output a high 
speed engine weighs less, and hence 
is an argument for its adoption in 
aeroplane practice. 

The real object of this paper i^ 
to endeavor to show that there are 
manv reasons why these ideas should 
be abandoned in favor of an engine 
of the slow-speed type, driving a 
propeller of large diameter and large 
pitch. 

Taking up the propeller, as be- 
fore stated, the average high-speed 
type is working at ordinary flight- 
speeds at greatly reduced "effec- 
tiveness," and this can be material- 
ly bettered by reducing the r.p.m., 
or rather by increasing the pitch to 
correspond to the reduced r.p.m., 
in order that the thrust may not be 
lessoned. This will give a greater 
per cent, of efficiency for the whole 
system, and for the reasons stated 
in the beginning. 

Turning now to the engine, an 
analysis of its performance indi- 
cates that, generally speaking, with 
a given bore the power is propor- 
tional to the piston speed. This 
may be effected by increasing the 
r.p.m. for a given stroke, or in- 
creasing the stroke for a given 
r.p.m. 



A concrete illustration of the poinl 
it is desired to bring out may be 
fcrm 1 nt the following. Two en- 
gines of identical be re, but having in 
;me case a stroke equal to the bore 
and m the ether a stroke equal to 
twice the bore, with, other things 
being equal, deliver exactly the 
same h.p. at a certain r.p.m. for the 
first, and at half that r.p.m. for 
the second. Piston speeds and gas 
speeds are identical in both en- 
gines. There are, however, certain 
differences, and it is on these that 
the argument depends. 

In the short-stroke motor, although 
tin total jacket loss per minute is 
the same as in the long-stroke mo- 
tor, the surface exposed to the heat 
is half as great and the number of 
times per minute is twice as great, 
necessitating a much heavier duty 
per sq. in. of wall surface in the 
short than in the long-stroke motor. 
The significance of this is apparent 
when it is considered that the popu- 
lar motor for aeroplane purposes is 
air cooled. 

Following this, the number of 
r.p.m. is in the long-stroke motor 
being reduced for a given power 
output, the shocks due to reciproca- 
tion are correspondingly less, and 
this point may be extended to cover 
many of the parts of the engine. 
The value incident to this is self- 
evident. Valve breakages, crystal- 
lization, valve-spring trouble, loose 
bearings, etc., are to a large extent 
reduced, and in some cases entirely 
eliminated. 

The only real disadvantage which 
can be traced to the adoption of the 
long stroke motor, of the slow- 
speed type, is represented by the 
increased total weight making the 
weight per h.p. output greater. To 
just what extent this would be is 
n >t absolutely known, since auto- 
rhobile engineering has not prog- 
ressed sufficiently for conclusions to 
be drawn regarding relative weights 
per h.p. for equivalent designs, since 
few, if any. exist; but the general 
opinion seems to prevail that the per 
cent, increase would be relatively 
small— say 10. This, of course, is 
negligible when all factors are taken 
msideration, since all of the 
preceding statements have attempted 
to show that much more "effective- 
ness" per lb. of engine and aero- 
plane would result if these ideas 
were adopted. 

Briefly, then, the arguments are: 

1. Increased effectiveness of pro- 
peller; 

2. Increased life of engine. 

As both of these have a direct 
bearing upon the safety of the avia- 
tor or his passenger, there should 
be no further need .for argument, if 
the data upon which the statements 
are based is correct. 

In conclusion, then, it is stated 
that the ideal arrangement consists 
of the long-stroke motor of such 
dimensions that 700 to 1,000 r.p.m 
is the speed at which maximum h.p. 
is developed, and direct connected 
to this a propeller of such dimen- 
sions as to absorb the maximum h.p. 
at the speed mentioned, and also to 
give its maximum thrust after flight 
has begun if of the constant-pitch 
type. 



* Paper read before the New Ha- 
ven Branch "f the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, 
May 1. 



Pane 20 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



THE INTERNATIONAL CODE OF AERIAL LAW 



In iqoq an International Juridic 
Commit tec mi Aviation was organ- 
ized at Paris and with the year mm 
began publishing the "Revue juri- 
dique international de la Locomo- 
tion atr ieii lie." The committee on 
January 16, 1910. decided upon the 
outline of a legal code of the air. 
The committee itself consists of 
jurists, lawyers and legal students 
in principal countries. The national 
membership forms a national com- 
mit tee acting through a repress nta- 
tive executive committee in Paris. 
This executive committee makes 
general studies upon a point of law 
and issues its preliminary decisions 
to national committees, which report 
back their opinions. The text de- 
cided upon in this way is definitive- 
ly passed at annual congresses. 

The importance of such work is 
shown by the experiences of the 
Institute of International Law, 
whose preliminary studies have been 
the foundation of every interna- 
tional law codification in existence. 
Beyond question the committee's 
code will be the basis of diplomatic 
action when time for that is ripe. 

The American committee consists 
of James Brown Scott, 2 Jackson 
Place, Washington, national dele- 
gate to executive committee; 
Charles F. Beach, 95 rue des Petits- 
Charaps, Paris, national reporter; 
Denys P. Myers, 40 Alt. Vernon 
Street, Boston, national secretary; 
Arthur K. Kulin, New York City; 
Gov. Simeon E. Baldwin of Con- 
necticut, George Whitelock of 
Maryland, William W. Smithers of 
Pennsylvania, Joseph W'heless of 
Missouri and Ambrose Kennedy of 
Rhode Island. 

Through the procedure above de- 
scribed the following text has been 
decided upon: 



Book I. Public Aerial Law. 

CHAPThR I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF 
AERIAL CIRCULATION. 

Art. 1. Aerial circulation free, ex- 
cept for right of subjacent states to 
take certain measures with a view 
to own security and that of persons 
and property of their inhabitants. 
Art. 2. It is prohibited to pass 
above fortified and military works, 
etc., or neighborhood within a 
radius determined by the military 
authorities. Art. 3. Administrative 
and pul ice authorities regulate or 
prohibit circulation above built -over 
areas. 



CHAPTER II. NATIONALITY AND REG- 

1M R \TinN Op AIRCRAFT. 

Art. 4. Every aircraft must have 
one nationality only. Art. 5. Na- 
tionality of aircraft that of owner. 
I f aircraft belongs to a company, 
nationality that of headquarters of 
company. If owners of aircraft are 
of different nationalities, its nation- 
ality will be that of joint owners 
who possess two-thirds value. Art. 
6. Every aircraft must bear sign in- 
dicative of nationality. Art. 7. 
!■ vei v aircraft must carry descrip- 
tive document containing informa- 
tion proper to individualize. Art 8. 
Every owner before putting craft 
into circulation outside private aero- 
dromes must have obtained from 
public authorities inscription upon 
a register of matriculation kept by 
proper authority. Each state regu- 
lates registration within own terri- 



tory. Art 9. Aircraft must bear 
distinctive mark indicating place ot 
registration. Art. 10. Registration 
lists will be published. 

CHAPTER III. LANDING AND ALIGHT- 
ING ON WATER. 

Art. 1 1. Aircraft may land upon 
unenclosed properties; also alight 
upon and navigate all waters. Art. 
1 2. Except in the case of "force 
majeure," this right is prohibited to 
them: (a) in the boundaries of 
closed properties; (b) within the 
boundaries of areas built over, ports 
and roadsteads, outside of spaces 
reserved for this purpose; (c.) in 
navigable channels wdiere the dif- 
ficulty of passage necessitates this 
prohibition, which must be expressly 
formulated by the competent author- 
ities. Art. 13. Every aircraft which 
enters above a prohibited zone is to 
alight at first signal from competent 
authorities as soon as possible. 



CHAPTER IV. JETTISON. 

Art. 14. Jettison consists in any 
voluntary throwing overboard of ob- 
jects. Art. 15. Jettison of all nature 
to injure persons or property pro- 
hibited, except in case of imminent 
danger. Art. 16. In any case, dam- 
age lone gives cause for reparation. 

CHAPTER V. WRECKS. 

Art. 17. Whoever finds all or part 
of disabled and abandoned aircraft 
must make declaration thereof to 
proper authority. Art. 18. Com- 
petent authority, when duly advised, 
will immediately take the measures 
necessary to assure the preservation 
of wreck and discovery of owner. Art. 
1 q. < (wrier of wreck may reclaim it 
from the authorities in charge with- 
in period of one year from discov- 
ery by paying expenses of preserv- 
ing, [n addition he must pay finder 
premium of discovery calculated on 
the basis of 10 per cent, of value 
on the day of restitution, minus ex- 
penses. 



CHAPTER VI. LEGISLATION APPLI CA- 
RLE AND 1 USISDICTION COMPETENT 
IN RESPECT TO AERIAL LOCOMOTION. 

Art. 20. Aircraft which is above 
the high sea or territory not under 
the sovereignty of any state is sub- 
ject to legislation and jurisdiction 
of country whose nationality it 
possesses, Art. 21. When an air- 
craft is above territory of a foreign 
state, the acts committed and the 
deeds occurring on board, which are 
of a nature to compromise security 
or public order of subjacent state, 
are regulated by the legislation of 
territorial state and judged by its 
courts. Art. 22. Reparation for 
damages caused to the persons and 
goods above the territory of the 
subjacent state by an aircraft is 
regulated by the law of this state. 
The action for relief may be 
brought either before the courts of 
this state or before the courts of 
the state whose nationality the air- 
craft possesses. Art. 23. Acts com- 
mitted and deeds occurring in space 
on board an aircraft and which do 
nol affect the security or the public 
order of the subjacent state remain 
subject to the legislation and the 
jurisdiction of the country whose 
nationality the aircraft possesses. 
Vrt. 24. In case of a birth or a 
death on board during an aerial 
voyage, the pilot will make record 



thereof on the log-book. In the 
first place where the aircraft shall 
land the pilot will have to deposit 
a copy of the record which he shall 
have made. The deposit will be 
made as follows: If the place is 
part of the territory wdiose national- 
ity the aircraft possesses, to the 
proper public authority; if the place 
is situated in foreign territory, in 
the hands of the consul whose na- 
tionality the aircraft possesses. In 
case there is no consul in this place, 
the copy of the record will be sent 
by the pilot by registered mail to 
the consular authority, or to the 
competent authority whose national- 
ity the aircraft possesses. 

Book II, Private Aerial Law. 

TITLE I. CIVIL. CHAPTER I. PROP- 
ERTY ABOVE. 

Art. 25. No one may, on account 
of a property right, hinder the 
passage of an aircraft under condi- 
tions which do not present for him 
any appreciable inconvenience. Art. 
26. Any abuse of the right of pas- 
sage gives cause against its respon- 
sible author for action for damages. 

CHAPTER II. REPARATION FOR DAMAGE 
CAUSED BY AIRCRAFT. 

Art. 27. Reparation for damage 
caused by an aircraft either to per- 
sons or goods that are on the sur- 
face of the earth falls on the cus- 
todian of the aircraft, the right of 
the injured person to look to the 
one responsible at common law be- 
ing unimpaired. Art. 28. The cus- 
todian, held to reparation for the 
damage done, has a recourse against 
the responsible author thereof in 
H! 01 dance with the common law. 
Art. 29. In case the damage should 
be due wholly or in part to the act 
of the person injured, the judge 
shall have the right to pronounce 
the total or partial exoneration of 
the custodian. Art. 30. The cus- 
todian may bring the exception of 
"force majeure" as a defense. Art. 
31. The provisions of Art 27 are not 
applicable if, at the moment of the 
accident, the person injured or the 
thing damaged were transported by 
aircraft, or if the person injured 
was himself occupied in the manage- 
ment of the machine. 

The remainder of the code is yet 
to be worked out. 




• *)*"**" t-awOnc^^cmoA 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



Page 21 



THE SELLERS QUADROPLANE. 



Are we now to have the Ford of 
the air? An aeroplane which costs 
little, economical in upkeep and re- 
pairs, eliminates the professional 
driver, cuts shed cost and adapts 
pleasure flying to the proletariat? 

Matthew B. Sellers, whose contri- 
butions to AERONAUTICS have 
been invaluable, has been flying 
his novel machine at the Aeronauti- 
cal Society's aerodome at Oakwood 
Heights, St at en Island, during the 
last of July. Readers are familiar 
with flights made from time to time 
during the past six years. The 
feature of rising automatically from 
the ground and the wheels auto- 
matically raising to land on skids 
was used by Mr. Sellers in his 
gliders in 1908 and since in the 
power machine, with which he began 
(lying in 1909. (See patent and 
drawings in October, 1909, issue.) 



of spruce. The curve is 1 in 16 
and set at 5 degrees, the normal 
angle of flight, the c. of p. comes 
about 2/5 from the front edge. The 
fabric is cotton cloth, coated with 
Conover varnish. The cambre is 
2V 2 ins. 

The planes are spaced 2 ft. 2 in. 
vertically apart. They are supported 
on inclined struts attached to the 
front spar of each plane, the rear 
of the wing being supported by 
posts from the inclined struts, these 
posts being nearly vertical The 
upper wing acts as an elevator, 
being pivoted on the front spar. The 
machine is stabilized laterally by de- 
pressing either ends of the two up 
per planes to lift the low sides of 
the machine, the high side of the 
planes being left to flatten out by 
anv increased air pressure. 

Control of elevation is effected by 




ay|y£ 



The disposition of the planes in 
steps is due to wind tunnel experi- 
ments made by Mr. Sellers in 1903 
and to results obtained with models 
made at that time and later. The 
same machine, without an engine, 
was used as glider in the summer 
of 1908 and in December. 1908, 
made its first short flight, using a 
French Dutheil-Chalmers 2 cyl. 
opposed engine giving about 5 h.p. 
This engine was used intermittently 
till the present engine I Hates 2 
cyl. opposed, 8 b.h.p.) was put on 
and flights made with it in the fall 
of 1910. Since then various im- 
provements have been tried out and 
experiments made to determine the 
dimensions of the most efficient pro- 
peller for the conditions. In com- 
paring this machine with others in 
regard to horsepower it must be re- 
in emhered that, for simplicity, this 
propeller is direct connected, and 
that if geared, greater efficiency 
would he obtained — this may be done 
later on. 

The machine in its present form 
does not embody the final construc- 
tion and it is certain that when a 
full set of double surface wings and 
a-proper fuselage are used the effi- 
ciency will be considerably im- 
proved. Experiments have also been 
made with the propeller behind on 
an extension shaft, employing, in 
that case, a warping vertical rudder. 

The machine spreads IS ft., is 12 
ft. total length and about 8 ft. high. 
There are four supporting planes, 
3 ft. bv 18 ft., arranged in steps, 
the highest in front. These have, 
in the past, been single surfaced, but 
a trial is now being made with two 
of these double surfaced. The ribs, 
in pockets, are 1.5 ft. apart, made 



a handle bar which is rotated about 
its horizontal axis; left and right 
steering li> movement about it- ver- 
tical axis in the same manner as a 
bicycle is steered; while lateral sta- 
bility is maintained by rocking the 
handle bar in a vertical plane, the 
bar being universally mounted. 



The operator sits on a spring seat, 
slightly in front of the c. of g. on a 
level with the skids. The machine 
runs on 3 wheels, the rear wheel 
being spring mounted so that as the 
propeller is started the whole ma- 
chine is tipped forward, raising the 
rear of the machine, so that the 
planes are at a very small angle. 
As speed over the ground increases, 
the spring on the rear wheel is ex- 
tended and the rear of the machine 
depressed, thereby increasing the 
angle •<{ the planes and causing the 
machine to leave the ground without 
an} operation of the elevator plane. 
When the motor is cut off for land- 
ing the two front wheels auto- 
matically spring up and allow the 
machine to alight on its skids. The 
machine stops within about 30 feet. 
The weight of the machine com- 
;'< n is about 1 in Ihs.. w ithout gas 
and oil. The speed is _'l m.p.h. 
The aviator, .Mr. Sellers, who weighs 
I 411 lbs., In toys the weight carried 
up to 250 lbs., which is 31 lbs. 
p and 1 ! i lbs. pei sq. ft. of 
'he total lifting surface 
being 200 sq. ft. 

The vertical rudder is triangular 
in shape, with about /" sq. ft. of 
surface. There is also a fixed Hal 
surface set at a negative angle of 
4 degrees about on a level with the 
second plane from the top. This 
has about S sq. ft. of surface. 

In flight, banking for a turn is 
entirel) a ith the rudder. The 
ng is not used as a rule but is 
onally used to prevent over- 
banking. 

EMERSON ENGINES 
AGAIN MARKETED. 

The well known two cycle engine, 
the Emerson, has been placed on 
the market again by the Herfurtli 
1 - Co., Alexandria, Ya. The 

f icture of these has been taken 
this company and for a lim- 
ited time, in view of the removal tn 
a larger factory, special price- are 
quoted— $1,200 for the six cylinder, 
100 h.p ■ - for the four cyl- 

60 h.p., the former prii ■ 
the Emerson Engine To. being $2,- 
000 and $1,400, respectively. Quick 
deliveries can be made of these. 




View of the Sellers Machine with Propeller in the Rear. 



Th e engi ne is a 2 cyl., 3 ->£ ins. 
by 3% ins., opposed 4 cycle Hates 
motor, air cooled, driving a tractor 
screw 5 ft. 6 ins. diam. by 27 ins. 
pitch at 1,350 r p.m.: standing 
thrust 90 lbs. The engine is rated 
at 10 h.p. and tests show it develops 
S h.p. at 1,350 r.p.m. 



All repair parts can now be fur- 
nished for those engines now in 
service. It will he remembered that 
the flights of Tony Jannus in Wash- 
ington in earlier days made this 
engine well known. Jannus is t" 
this day an exponent of the two 
cycle motor and a user. 



Pazc 22 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



THE "AMERICA'S" 
FLIGHT POSTPONED. 

The preliminary trials with the 
Km I m.ii i Wanamaker transatlantic 
flying boat America were concluded 
with two impressive flights. First 
Glenn II. Curtiss flew the ma- 
chine with a total useful load of 
considerable more than a ton. He 
started out with more than 200 gal- 
lons of gasoline and one passenger. 
By degrees this load was increased 
by two more passengers and some 
four hundred pounds of sand. The 
weighl carried was considered to 
i qua! the w eight of enough gasoline 
and oil to fly the America for twen- 
ty four hours. Three 100 h.p. mo- 
tors were used, the third being placed 
nn the top plane, driving a tractor 
screw. Lieutenant Porte estimates 
that the flight from New Found- 
land to the Azores will take from 
seventeen to twenty hours, accord- 
ing to wind conditions. 

Next day Lieutenant Porte made 
i he longest flight so far made with 
the machine. Leaving the flying 
camp about 7 o'clock he flew to the 
Penn Van end of the lake. There 
.i shorl stop was made, and the re- 
turn flight may he said to have been 
mail* after dark. On this flight 
I 'orte was accompanied by George 
Hallett, the assistant pilot selected 
for the transatlantic project. 

WHY THE POSTPONEMENT. 

Following these tests Mr. Curtiss, 
Lieutenant Porte, and Mr. Gash, 
personal representative of Mr. Rod- 
raati Wanamaker, held a consulta- 
tion of war to debate the advisability 
of trying to get the machine in con- 
■ 1 1 1 i. iii to ship to New Fotmdland on 
Wednesday. Mr. Curtiss thought it 
possible the machine could be 
p iti hed up and crated in time to 
catch the August 1 boat from New 
York, but advised enough delay to 
give him an opportunity to properly 
rebuild the bottom of the boat and 
to incorporate in the rebuilding such 
modifications as had been suggested 
hv the series of twenty-seven ex- 
periments carried out. Lieutenant 
Porte did not like the delay be- 
cause he knew if he failed to catch 
the boat sailing August 1 he could 
not get another ship before August 
8; that would mean arriving at New 
Foundland August 13 or 14 and it 
would be at least the 17th or 18th 
before the machine could be as- 
sembled ready for the big adven- 
ture, As the period of equinoxial 
storms begins between the 10th and 
20th of August, and these would 
prevail until the latter part of Sep- 
ternber. In other words, if the 
boat were shipped Friday instead of 
Wednesday a delav of two months 
in starting the flight must result. 
Mi Gash sided with Mr. Curtiss 
.'inl stated emphatically that Mr. 
Wanamaker would not favor making 
.i start until every possible thing 
to insure its ultimate success bad 
been taken care of. Lieutenant 
Porte finally was won over to the 
side "i the others and the post- 
ponemenl of the attempt until Octo- 
bei l was announced to the press 
correspondents. 

PRESENT ACTIVITY. 
Monday the work of taking apart 
the machine was begun. The hull. 
■-"■m uh.u battered by five weelcs of 
i ['"-lire and rough handling by man 
"d the elements, was taken to the 
i urtiss boat shop and will be thor- 
oughly overhauled. The original 
h ittom will be torn out and a new 
one fitted in its place. Some 
changes will be made in the form 



EUROPEANS BATTLE IN THE AIR. 
AIR FLEETS OF THE POWERS. 



Paris, August 4.— German army 
aeroplane reported to have dropped 
three bombs on the garrison town 
of Luneville, killing fifteen persons. 
Three German dirigibles reported 
maneuvering over P.russels. Nu- 
merous aeroplanes from French avia- 
tion centers said to be flying over 
Paris in flotillas of twos, threes 
and fives toward Germany. German 
dirigible supposed to have dropped 
explosive on a French town, an- 
nihilating a patrol of troops. 



Paris, August 3. — The famous 
aviator, Roland Garros, cable dis- 
patches state, drove his aeroplane 
headfirst into a German airship, kill- 
ing himself and the 2$ men of the 
crew of the ship when the latter 
ignited and burned from the ram- 
ming. 

Brussels, August 6. — German aero- 
plane and Zeppelin dirigible re- 
ported destroyed by Belgians. A per- 
sonal conflict is reported between 
a Belgian and a German aviator 
who fired revolvers at each other 
and then planed to the earth. 



All cabled stories of operations of 
aircraft in the present European 
war must lie accepted with a grain 
of salt. Very little reliable news 
of any kind is coming from the 
scene of conflict and wierd stories 
like that of the Garros incident must 
be discounted until verified. The 
possibility of an aeroplane being able 
to accomplish this without being hit 
hv the airship's guns is most re- 
mote, not to mention the unlikeli- 
hood of Garros's patriotism being 
carried to the extent of deliberate 
personal destruction. His value to 
his country is greater alive than 
dead, as an economic proposition. 

A few aviators, whose names come 
to mind, might well be spared for 
such feats, but as these are not the 
kind likely to enlist we will prob- 
ably be spared the misery of hear- 
ing of their sacrifice. 

There are no less than 105 air- 
ships, from the vedette tvpe to the 
monster Zeppelin, on hand or under 
construction by France, Germany, 



Russia. England, Japan, Italy, Aus- 
tria, Brazil. Belgium, Spain, Bul- 
garia, Chile and Turkey. The 
powers now at war have 84 of these. 
Tw enty-six powers have more than 
2,048 aeroplanes on hand. Russia 
alone has 336 more ordered. The 
powers now fighting in Europe have 
not less than 1,575 aeroplanes in 
service, with a minimum of 3.224 
officers and enlisted men on aviation 
duty. This latter number is cer- 
tainly far below actuality as no 
figures on men, non-pilots, attached 
to aviation are available for four 
out of these six countries. It is 
safe to estimate that this figure 
should be increased by at least 2.500, 
making 5,724 men mi aviation duty. 
These figures do not include, either, 
men asstened to dirigibles, which 
would add another thousand to the 
air forces of the quarreling nations. 

France has 22 airships, Germany 
20 in service and 20 more to draw 
nn ; Russia has. with orders. 22 ; 
Fneland 8: Austria 10; Belgium 2. 

The colossal sums invested in 
preparations for war in the air by 
the powers now involved in the ti- 
tanic strueyle totals the staggering 
sum of $117,645,000 expended in 
the six vears up to 1914. Of this, 
in round figures. Germanv has al- 
readv spent $28,000,000: France, 
$22,000,000: Russia. $12,000,000; 
Italy, $8,000,000: Austria, $5,000\- 
000. and England. $3,000,000. 

Public subscriptions, $7,100,000 in 
all, separate from the above, add 
$3,500,000 to Germany, $2,50(1,000 
to France, $1,000,000 to Italv and 
$100,000 to Russia. Yet this is not 
all of the hoard being poured into 
death machines of the air. The 
appropriations of the governments 
for 1913 were: France, $7,400,000; 
Germanv, $5,000,000; Russia. $5,- 
000.000: England, $3,000,000: Italy, 
$2,100,000; Japan, $1,000,000, and 
Mexico, $400,000, as against $125,- 
000 by the United States, making 
additional expenditures of $24,025,- 
000 during the current year. Now 
that war is on it is probable that 
the overwhelming appropriation 
made by Germanv of $37,000,000 to 
he expended during 1914-18 may be 
drawn upon. 



of the bottom; it will be wider all 
over, a little longer, and consider- 
ably flatter at the step. Technically, 
it will have more flotation and a 
more efficient planing surface. The 
special C. M. O, propellers will have 
a new sheathing of metal, better 
fastened than the original metal 
cover. It was the tearing loose of 
the original copper cover, which 
broke its way through the upper 
plane, that was largely responsible 
for the postponement of the start. 
Tw it tn three weeks will he con- 
sumed in the work of reconstructing 
and refurnishing the machine; then 
a few test Hi ghts wil he made to 
guarantee the rightness of everv- 
thing and the machine will be 
shipped to New Foundland. 

Whether or not Lieutenant Porte 
succeeds in piloting the Amer ; ca 
safelv across the Atlantic Ocean the 
development of the machine seems 
to have been well worth the work 
expended on it. A series of unique 
experiments were conducted by Mr. 
Curtiss working in conjunction with 
Lieutenant Porte, Captain Creagh 
Osborne, Or. A. F Zahm, Lieuten- 
ant Towers and other men of high 



standing in tins field. The results 
of the different trials were care- 
full v cheeked and tabulated, and 
will doubtless prove of great value 
to the future of hydroaviation. 



TRANSATLANTIC FLYER 
MAY STOP AT FLEM- 
ISH CAP. 

A transatlantic flight is a mere 
bagatelle, or ought to he. All the 
experts have figured it out and it 
is all verv simple. Take any one 
of the different advices and the 
thing is done. Only one little er- 
ror was made in all the gratuitous 
offerings and that was the sug- 
gestion that stop be made at Flemish 
Cap, the eastern end of the New- 
foundland Banks. Unfortunately 
this piece <~.f "land," which is about 
50 miles long by 25 miles wide, is 
58 fathoms under water at the 
least depth, according to the C/nited 
States Ilydrographic Office, which 
department, however, may be en- 
tirely wrong in its surmise, or per- 
haps the expert had in mind carry- 
ing a demountable submarine. 



AERONAUTICS, July 31. 1914. 



Page 23 



MEASURING HORSE-POWER IN THE AIR 



To measure horsepower in the air, 
there is yet to be discovered a direct 
method other than a special rigging. 
If the propeller be mounted directly 
on the engine shaft, and the engine 
bed so mounted as to turn on an 
axis parallel to the engine shaft, the 
turning moment can then be meas- 
ured during flight and the power 
computed from that and the r.p.m. 
If the propellers are chain driven, 
idler spockets can be inserted in the 
chain and its tension measured dur- 
ing flight; or, this could, even be 
measured directly by having the pro- 
peller shafts especially supported, as 
in a machine like the Wright. 

In most cases it would be sufficient 
to know the revolutions of the en- 
gine during flight and the power 
when standing just before a flight. 
Then by means of the power curve 
of the engine it would he simple to 
get a close approximation of the 
power during the flight. There 
w ould always be the chance that 
differences of carburetion and cool- 
ing between standing and flying 
would make an error, but if the 
power curve of the engine had been 
determined originally with an arti- 
ficial wind blowing onto the engine, 
if air cooled, or on the radiator, if 
water cooled, the error ought not to 
be so great. 

Taking an example, suppose: 

1. R.P.M. before flight = 1,150. 

2. liar. = a, Therm. = b, just be- 

for flight. 

3. R.P.M. during flight = 1,300. 

4. P.ar. = a. Therm. = b, during 

flight. 



5. Block test power curve of motor 

is as per diagram. 

6. Propeller takes 75 II. P. for 1,200 

R.P.M. when Bar. = m, and 
Thermometer = n. 

First correcting for barometer 
difference a — m, and thermometer 
differences b — n we find, let us 
say, that there is such a correction 
that it would take 7S II. P. to turn 
propeller 1,200 R.P.M. on the day 
of the flight. 

Now engine actually turned pro- 
peller only 1,150 on day of flight. 

Correcting for revolutions (1,200 
— 1,150) the power of the motor 
as indicated by propeller revolutions 
on day of flght is 6S H.P. at 1,150 
R. P.M. Now, block test power 
curve shows 78 H.P. for 1,150 
R. P.M. Therefore, engine is 10 
H.P. weak on day of flight or about 
12JX per cent, weak, as compared 
with its showing on the block. 
Revolution during flight was 1 ,300 
II. P. according to block test power 
curve is 84 at 1.300. Deduct 1 2 ' , 
per cent, and we have 73 H.P. dur- 
ing flight. 

In this way a record of revolu- 
tions before the flight and during 
ih ■ flight, when taken in conjunc- 
tion w ith the barometer and ther- 
mometer will give us the power if 
we know the characteristics of the 
motor and propeller made at some 
previous block test. But we must 
be sure that propeller has not 
warped. This can best be checked 
by seeing if standing thrust corre- 
sponds to the observed R.P.M. after 
thermometer and barometer correc- 
tions are made. 




T 85 

1 

175 

f 
65 

















































































































i4oo = r .f? r-v. 



AT SAN DIEGO. 

The return of six aviators and 
forty-two men from Galveston, Tex., 
on July 17, to North Island brings 
the United States Government force 
up to seventeen officers and ninety- 
four men at the camp. 

Flying done at S. C. Aviation 
School, San Diego, Cal., week end- 
ing July 25, 1914: Flights, 58; 
time in the air, 15 hours 18 minutes; 
passengers carried, 30. 

Summary, lanuary 1 to Tulv 25, 
1914: Flights, 1.296; time in the 
air, 349 hours 17 minutes; passen- 
gers carried, 635. 

For the week ending July 1 1, 
1914: Flights, 34; time in the air, 
8 hours 22 minutes; passengers car- 
ried, 23 

Summary, January 1 to July 11, 
1914: Flights, 1,185; time in the 
air. 322 hours 27 S A minutes; pas- 
sengers carried, 582. 



chine whose speed has been reported 
as 2 ' 4 miles in two minutes flat. 
Certainly this is extraordinary speed 
fur motor boats. Of the sea sled 
type, with surface propellers, Sturte- 
vant motors have been supplied. 
Vincent Astor is one purchaser and 
the United States Navy another. 
The Navy's sea sled will he used 
in connection with the air fleet at 
Pensacola. 



AERO SCIENCE CLUB OF 
AMERICA BULLETIN. 

At the recent living boat con- 
test held bv this club, at Dyker 
Heights. Brooklyn, N. Y., Mr. 
Charles V. Obst was the winner 
with a flight of IS 4/5 seconds, 
winning the bronze medal offered 
by Mr. Harry Schultz. As this 
was the first contest of this kind 
ever held it proved to be very 
interesting and was attended by a 
great number of spectators. 

' in the last Sunday of August 
a hydroaeroplane duration contest 
will be held at Union Course Pond, 
Woodhaven. L. I. Mr. Edward 
Durant and Mr. George Bauer have 
kindly consented to act as judges 
to time the flights. No entry fee 
will be charged and all persons in- 
terested are cordially invited to at- 
tend and enter the contests. The 
contest will be held between the 
hours of 2 and 5 p. m. 

In order that sufficient time be 
given to prospective contestants and 
all other interested persons the club 
has decided to name all contests two 
months ahead. Therefore the con- 
test for the month of September will 
be for speed. The following are 
the rules adopted for this contest: 

All models are to start at a cer- 
tain line and the first model cross- 
ing a mark 800 feet from said line 
is the winner. 

All models are to rise from the 
ground with the wind. 

Models must be in full flight when 
crossing the finishing line. 

This contest will be held on 
September 20. 1914. at Van Cort- 
landt Park, New York City. 

This contest is expected to be of 
great help in the development of 
the model as regards streamlining 
and reduction of resistance. 

This club meets every Saturday 
at the rooms of the Aeronautical So- 
ciety, 29 West 39th Street, New 
York City. All persons interested 
are invited to attend. For further 
information address the secretary, 
Mr. Harry Schultz. 



AERO MOTORS FOR 
SPEED BOATS. 

Aeronautical motor manufacturers 
are finding a new field — purchasers 
of skimmers and sea sleds. A Gyro 
motor has been installed in a ma- 



NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

Report on European Aeronaui i- 
cal Laboratories, with 1 1 plates, 
by Albert F. Zahm, Ph. D-, pub- 
lished by Smithsonian Institution 
from the Hodgkins Fund. The pam- 
phlet reports the visit of Dr. Zahm 
and Assistant Naval Constructor 
Jerome C. Hunsaker, U. S. N., to 
the principal laboratories near Lon- 
don, Paris and Gottingen for the 
purpose of studying, in behalf of 
Smithsonian Institution, the latest 
developments in instruments, meth- 
ods, resources used, etc., for the 
prosecution of aeronautical research- 
es. Copies of this pamphlet may he 
had upon application from Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington, 
D. C 



HE SIMPLY DOESN'T 
BELONG 

Picking a balloonist for president 
of the aero club is a good deal like 
picking the propelling power of a 
jinrickshaw as president of the 
American Automobile Association. — 
X. Y. American. 



FOR SALE, on account of sick- 
ness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, 
or trade for anything of value. 
E. M.. 1522 Norwood" ave., Toledo, 
( >hio. 



BACK NUMBERS WANTED— 
December, 1910, and March. 1911, 
issues of AERONAUTICS (Ameri- 
can) wanted. Fifty cents each. 
Address Secretary, Aeronautical 
Society of Great Britain. 11 Adam 
st.. Adelphi, London, W. C. 



Page 24 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



NEW MAXIMOTOR 

The advent of the flying boat, 
with its ever increasing popularity 
and safety's demand for larger and 
higher powered motors, has made it 
imperative that the Maximotor mak- 
ers accede to this demand with the 
new improved Model "B," 100 h.p., 
6 cylinder vertical type. 

These improvements are the cul- 
mination of months of experimental 
work achieving toward the objective 
points, Power, Reliability, and Dur- 
ability. 

In a three- hour test, the company 
states, coupled to a hydro-dyna- 
mometer, this motor developed in 
excess of 111 actual brake h.p. at 
1,350 r.p.m., which is phenomenal 
for a 5 in. by 5 ' .: in. six cylinder 
engine. (The A, L. A. M. rating 
for this size is 60 h.p.) During 



100 HORSEPOWER. 

head. They are machined both in- 
side and out, so as to allow for uni- 
form expansion, and equal weight. 

The connecting rods are drop 
forgings of chrome-nickel steel, 
double heat treated, and are very 
light in weight, as. in fact, are all 
the reciprocating parts. 

Some very fine detailing is to be 
found in the crankshaft design. 
This is cut out of a solid billet, or 
slab, of heat-treated crome-nickel 
steel imported from Germany. After 
the shaft is cut. it goes through a 
machining process which brings it 
down to within several thousandths 
of its finished size. The shaft and 
crank-pins are then hollow bored and 
the whole ground and finished to 
size to wit bin one one-thousandth 
of an inch. 




this lest the motor consumed S^A 
gallons of fuel and 7 pints of lubri- 
cating oil per hour and showed a 
throttle range, without skipping, of 
350 to 1,400 r.p.m. under load. The 
weight of the motor complete as it 
was mounted on the stand was 372 
pounds. 

Among the numerous improve- 
ments to he found on the new Model 
"B" 6 is the improved overhead 
valve system, with parts strength- 
ened and bearing areas increased; a 
double set of large ball bearings, 
carrying the propeller end of crank 
shaft and mounted in a steel disc 
housing, instead of aluminum, as 
heretofore; an arrangement lor a 
double individual magneto ignition 
system: double force-feed oil pumps; 
wider wrist-pin bearings; and a 
strengthened crank case, especially 
the supporting arms which have 
been just doubled in size. Also a 
compression release device is pro- 
\ ided where desired. 

The new Maximotors are built of 
the highest grade of imported Eng- 
lish and German materials. 

As will be seen from the ac- 
companying cut, the cylinders are 
of the overhead valve type (all 
valves mechanically operated by ad- 
justable push rods), cast in pairs. 
Tii is arrangement tends to produce 
a very compact construction, gives 
the cylinders greater strength for 
equal weight, and reduces the mani- 
fold joints and connections just 
about one-half in number. The ma- 
terial from which the cylinders are 
cast is a high grade vanadium com- 
position, containing 30 per cent, 
steel. Strength and lasting qualities 
are claimed for the formula, as well 
as i !• an, smooth castings free from 
defect. Pistons, likewise, are cast 
from the same material as the cyl- 
inders and are heavily ribbed in the 



Five imported annular ball bear- 
ings are employed to carry the 
crankshaft. The propeller end of 
the crankshaft is especially rigidly 
supported by two extra heavy com- 
lined radial and thrust ball sets. 
These heavy duty ball bearings are 
mounted in a vanadium steel hous- 
ing which is in turn recessed and 
bolted to the crank case proper by 
six nickel steel stud bolts. 

Lightness is secured in the cam 
shaft member by utilizing nickel 
steel tubing of large diameter arid 
heavy wall. The cams are of spe- 
cial carbon steel tempered and 
ground and are held in place by 
taper pins. All the valves are 
operated by tubular push rods and 
nickel steel rocker arms from a 
single cam shaft. 

An equalizing intake manifold of 
cast aluminum is bolted to the cyl- 
inder intake ports and a special 
manifold muffler (shown in the end 
view of the six cylinder motor il- 
lustration) can be fitted for silencing 
the exhaust. 

In addition to the "B" 6 and the 
other stock models, the Maximotor 
makers are putting on the market 
as a standard a 125 h.p., eight cyl- 
inder, V-type along general Maxi- 
motor lines, the first of which will 
appear in the very near future. 



NILES LOOPS THE LOOP 
FOR CONEY. 

Beginning July 28. Charles F. 
Niles, in his Moisant monoplane, 
began a week's exhibition at Coney 
Island, looping the loop, flying up- 
side down, and so forth, under the 
auspices of the merchants* associa- 
tion. On one day he dropped a 
dummy from the air to the horror 
of thousands who watched his antics. 



PARLA TO TEACH 
CUBAN OFFICERS. 

The well known Cuban aviator, 
August in Par la. a Curtiss pupil, is 
to be given charge of instructing 
officers in the Cuban army in flying 
and aeronautics generally. Last 
year Sr. Parla, who at that time 
was the first and only Cuban aviator, 
became the hero of the Republic 
after his flight from Key West to 
Cuba in a Curtiss hydroaeroplane, 
and since then be has flown in most 
of the larger towns of the Island. 
He made some remarkable flights 
above Santiago on May 20 last. 
His re.cent book, written in Spanish, 
entitled "August in Parla y Aviacion 
en tuba." tell in a descriptive man- 
ner of some of his numerous ex- 
ploits. 



SCHMITT VARIABLE AN- 
GLE MACHINE MAY 
COME HERE. 



It is not 
near future a 
angle biplane 
this country, 
templation by 
is interested i 
ers are acqua 
characteristics 
published in 
and with the 
records made 



unlikely that in the 
Paul Schmitt variable 
may be brought to 
This idea is in con- 
August Bejmont, who 

n the machine. Kead- 

inted with the general 
of this machine as 

the April 1 5 number 
scores of new world 
by Garaix as pilot. 



"SAFE AND SANE" MA- 
CHINES FOR ARMY 
AND NAVY. 

The first Burgess- Dunne machine 
has been shipped to the United 
States Navy from the Burgess works 
at Marhlehead and the one for the 
Army will be delivered within a few 
weeks. This Government will be the 
first to own one of these inherently 
stable machines and its undoubted 
success in the Army and the Navy 
will be watched with interest by all. 

The Burgess-Dunne seaplane was 
recently converted into a land ma- 
chine and a number of flights made 
with it on the old Squantum field 
near Boston. Flight after flight was 
made by Mr. Webster running over 
the field and leaving the ground 
without any guidance whatsoever, 
the controls being locked. It climbs 
well over 300 feet per minute and 
its balance in the air is quite as 
good as with the boat attachments 
which were transferred back onto 
the machine in just an hour and 
forty minutes, when the machine 
was flown to Marhlehead, a distance 
of 18 miles, in ten minutes — natu- 
rally with a strong wind. 



JANNUS MAKES GOOD 
FLIGHT. 

Cleveland. July 23. — Tony Jan- 
nus carried Miss Lilly Irvine from 
Cedar Point to Euclid Beach, a dis- 
tance of 60 miles, in his flying boat. 



I enjoy reading your interesting 
and instructing paper every month 
from beginning to end, and look 
forward to its arrival each time 
with pleasure. I am very glad to 
sec that you do not intend to have 
any fake rumors in it, but just the 
facts, so that all its readers can rely 
upon it implicitly. I shall always 
be glad to help you in anyway I 
can. 

W. B. S., Worcester, Mass. 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



Page 25 



WHAT AMERICAN AVIA- 
TION NEEDS. 

Support by the public. 

Support by the Government. 

Federal control of flying. (For 
years urged by AERONAUTICS.) 

Endowed aeronautical laboratories. 

Aeronautical engineering courses 
in technical colleges. 

Scientific construction methods. 

Improved motors. 

Before the Committee on Mili- 
tary Affairs last fall Colonel Reber 
said : 

"Congress has not appreciated the 
importance of or given adequate 
support to military aviation. On 
the other hand, the great nations 
of Europe have realized its im- 
portance and France has led the 
world in its utilization. Aviation 
has appealed more strongly to the 
imagination and esprit of the 
French people than to the rest of 
the world. This nation, seeing an 
opportunity of increasing its mili- 
tary strength over that of its neigh- 
bors, who have not been so prompt 
to realize the utility of aviation, 
raised large sums of money by 
popular subscription for the pur- 
chase of aviation material for the 
army and public opinion has forced 
the government to support ami de- 
velop the fourth arm of the French 
army. The French and English 
governments have for the past two 
years given direct support and en- 
couragement to manufacturers by 
money awards at military trials, 
and subsequent orders for the ma- 
chines winning in the trials. 

"Experience, experiment and ap- 
plication of engineering principles 
have advanced the construction of 
the aeroplane far beyond the pioneer 
machines of our chief inventors. 
Judging, however, from the large 
number of freak machines that are 
to be seen in the hangars around 
our aerodromes, there is no gen- 
eral realization that the correct de- 
sign of an aeroplane calls for a 
new branch of engineering — aero- 
nautical engineering — which em- 
braces physics, mechanical engineer- 
ing, meteorology and even marine 
engineering and naval architecture. 
It is to be hoped that the day will 
soon come when the carpenter shop 
or backyard will no longer serve 
as a factory nor the would-be con- 
structor obtain his plans from an 
octavo volume on 'How to Build 
an Aeroplane,* or from the pages 
of an aeronautical journal. The 
number of imitators of successful 
designs is great, but trie really 
competent designer is a 'rara avis' 
in this country." 



pile «>f j n nk we installed our 100 
h.p. in which Blakley flew from 
here to Bakersfleld and made such 
a wonderful record, you would also 
have great confidence in the wonder- 
ful ability and lasting qualities of 
this large motor. 

M>>st of the aviators have left 
town to fill dates, hut presume they 
will return within the month. Wel- 
don B. Cook is doing nicely in the 
exhibition business, and believe he 
will be in a position to purchase 
one of our large motors to install 
in his flying boat in which he ex- 
pects to carry passengers across the 
Bay. 

Glenn L. Martin has just taken 
delivery of one of our new 100 h \>. 
motors t<< install in his military boat 

which will be tried out si' "illy ill 

the South. 



HALL-SCOTT OPTI- 
MISTIC. 

We are looking forward to the 
< lovernihent trials in San Diego, 
which are scheduled to be run on 
or about the 1st of October. If the 
Government does contemplate order- 
ing forty machines from the win- 
ner, and prizes for the second and 
third contestants, we believe it will 
be a great stimulant to the American 
manufacturers in this line of busi- 
ness. At the present time we have 
two of the best concerns in the 
United States building special planes 
for our 100 h.p. motors to enter 
tlifse tests, and frankly speaking, 
believe they will be record break- 
ers. If you could have seen the 



MAXIMUM PROPELLER 
SPEED. 

On the question whether or not 
there is a known maximum speed 
or velocity beyond which a propeller 
blade should not move, Spencer 
Heath, the manufacturer of Paragon 
propellers, states: 

"I am convinced that there is such 
a point and I place the maximum 
velocity of the ends of the blades 
at something like 40.000 ft. per min. 
This would make about 2.000 r.p.m. 
the maximum turning speed for a 
6 ft. propeller and it would be pos- 
sible to use up advantageously a 
whole lot of power with a 6 ft. pro- 
peller at this speed. There is also 
a minimum blade tip velocitv which 
I think is around 10,000 or 12,000 
ft. per min., which means that a 
6 ft. propeller would do poor work 
at less than 500 or 600 r.p.m." 



SELFNIUM CELL FOR 
AUTOMATIC STA- 
BILITY. 

A recent lecturer on aeronautics, 
as quoted in your March 31 issue, 
having declared that ''It is essential 
to the success of any automatic con- 
trol that the forces called into play 
to make the corrections of trim 
should not react on the director of 
those forces, whether this is a pen- 
dulum or gyroscope or any other 
equivalent device.*' 

I write to suggest a means of 
accomplishing this without any fric- 
tional contact whatever with the 
pendulum or gyroscope or combina- 
tion of the two — namely, the use of 
selenium, with its wonderful prop- 
erty of being a very good electrical 
conductor in the light and a very 
poor one in the dark. On the pen- 
dulum or gyroscope would be ar- 
ranged two arcs of about 90 degrees, 
opaque at their centers and also on 
opposite halves of each arc, and 
shaded gradually to transparent at 
the ends of the other halves, with 
two steady lights and two selenium 
cells, one of each on opposite sides 
of these arcs and in fixed position 
on the machine, so that when the 
machine is level (or otherwise bal- 
anced, as in proper banking) the 
lights and selenium cells will be in 
line with the opaque centers of the 
pendulum's arcs, and so that any 
variation from this balanced position 
would permit one light or the other 
to shine through a correspondingly 
translucent nart of its arc onto its 
selenium cell, thus regulating the 
strength of the current flowing 
through the cell and restoring bal- 
ance by electrical means when that 



side of the machine is too high. In- 
stead of selenium, natural "i abso- 
lutely pure antimonium sulphide 
' antimonite) could be used, having 
the advantage of "no troublesome 
inertia.*' according to e v perim nt= 
described in a scientific journal of 
March 2, 1912. 

A not her method of using a pen 
dulum or gyroscope for balancing a 
flying machine without disturbing 
the equilibrium of such a balancer, 
would be to simply enclose it in a 
transparent case in front of the 
aviator, or. rather, together with an 
upward extension of the pendulum, 
so that, by the aviator simply mov- 
ing his lateral -balance lever always 
in unison with the latter toward the 
too-high sirle, balancing might be 
successfully accomplished even by a 
novice, as in learning without an 
accompanying instructor, and this 
device might also aid aviators not 
having a well-developed balancing 
faculty, or "bird sense." or by the 
upper lever extension being made 
very long it could possibly be made 
more sensitive to small or incipient 
disturbance of equilibrium than the 
best aviators. This would also have 
an advantage that every automatic 
balancing device should possess — 
that of being instantly suspend al Me- 
at the will of the aviator. 

The writer has not patented either 
of these devices, but secured a caveat 
on the first-described one some four 
years ago, and anyone is privileged 
to use them. 

ELMER G. STILL. 

Livermore, Cal., July 13, 1914. 



BRITISH LABORATORY 
REPORT 

The technical report for 1912-3, 
the fourth of the series, of the Brit- 
ish Advisory Committee on Aero- 
nautics has just been published. 
The report summarizes the work 
undertaken, and detailed particu- 
lars are given. The investigations 
cover general questions in aerody- 
namics, experiments on wind chan- 
nels, including description of the 
new 4-ft. wind channel at the Na- 
tional Physical Laboratory ; experi- 
ments on models of wings, bodies, 
etc. ; models of complete aero- 
planes; stability, efficiency of pro- 
pellers, strength of construction; 
hydroaeroplanes and design of their 
floats; fabrics, researches on alloys, 
etc. The volume contains over 400 
pp.. with many plates, and is pub- 
lished by Wyman & Sons, Fetter 
Lane, London, E. C; price, $2.43. 



The Chilean Government has es- 
tablished an aviation school near 
Santiago, Chile, where army and 
navy officers are being trained with 
good results. There have been sev- 
eral serious accidents, but only two 
deaths. It is proposed to fly over 
the Andes to Argentina, which calls 
for a sustained flight for an hour 
or more at an altitude of about 15,- 
000 feet. The longest flight yet 
made in Chile was from Concep- 
con to Santiago, a distance of 
about 300 miles. No aeroplanes are 
manufactured in Chile, those im- 
ported practically all coming from 
Europe. 



Page 26 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 




"SELF -RISING" MODEL MONOPLANE A. B. C. 
No. 62 

The data and drawings of this with the best gold size. This proof- 
model have been kindly furnished ing is unaffected by weather con- 
me by its designer and constructor, ditions and is thoroughly air-tight 
Mr. A. B. C, of a prominent Lon- and water-proof. 



don model aero club. 

The model has been designed 



The elevator is 9 in. by 2 l / 2 in. 
(max. chord) and is made from 



especially to withstand bard and 1/30 in. spruce wafer. The tips 

continuous wear and is the result of the elevator are upturned as 

of five months* experimenting with shown on sketches 2 and 3. The 

various models capable of rising elevator is mounted on piano wire 

under their own power With a attachment, which allows a very 

model similar to the on? described fine adjustment of the elevation to 

M r- q won the first "self-ris- be made (see sketch). 




Selp-Rjsing Model Aeroplane 

'abc "eg. 



ing" competition with a flight of 
762 ft. The actual distance flown 
by path was over 1,000 ft. On a 
fairly calm day the model will at- 
tain a height of 80 ft. and finish its 
flight with a splendid volplane and 
land gracefully on its wheels. 

The fuselage is triangular and is 
constructed of two pieces of '4 in. 
sq. by 32 in. long silver spruce, 
connected at the rear with a 
stream-line cross bar. The latter, 
also the cross-stay, situated midway 
along the fuselage, are firmly 
bound to the main members with 
' j in. silk ribbon soaked in hoi 
glue: this makes a joint that is 
almost unbreakable. 

The bearings at the rear are com- 
posed of the usual "L" pieces of 
stiff brass, bound with silk to the 
ends of the main longitudinals and 
1 rill i'd to take the propeller shafts. 
Rigidity is given to the fuselage by 
cross bracing with No. 30 (std. wire 
ga.) piano wire as shown in plan 
view. No wire strainers are used, 
but tension is given to the trussing 
wires by curling the hooks to which 
the wires are fastened (see sketches 
2 and 3). 

The main plane is rectangular in 
shape, the span being 25 in. and 
the chord 5 in. The frame is con- 
structed from birch. The spars are 
H in. by 1/16 in. and the ribs % 
by 1/16 in. The ribs are bound to 
tin spars with strong cotton and 
glued This frame is then covered 
with light Jap silk and is proofed 



The main plane is attached to the 
fuselage with fine iron florist's wire, 
but the elevator is fastened to its 
attachment with rubber bands. 

At the apex of the fuselage a 
continuous piece of 18 s. w. g. 
piano wire is used for making the 



and is made of bamboo. The main 
central skid is extended forward 
and upwards at the nose of the 
model so as to form a protecting 
skid. Two pairs of wheels are 
used : one pair 1 54 > n - diam. and 
the other 1^~ in. These wheels 
are tin and come off a cheap toy 
motor and will be found quite 
strong enough and very much bet- 
ter and lighter than those of equal 
strength sold on the market at the 
present time. 

The supporting struts of the chas- 
sis are about 5/16 in. by % in. and 
are streamline. They fit into small 
tin lugs bound to the fuselage. The 
central skid is ' j in. by 1/16 in. 
thick and should extend about 5 in. 
to the rear of the main axles so as 
to prevent the propeller from touch- 
ing the ground. 

The propellers are carved from 
solid mahoganv and are 9 in. diam., 
pitch 20 in. These propellers some- 
what resemble a scythe and revolve 
outwards from the top as viewed 
from the rear. This shape has 
proved a great deal more efficient 
than ordinary helical screws and 
considerably better than the bent 
wood screws. 

' The power consists of 6 strands 
of l /\ in. by 1/32 in. strip rubber 
to each propeller, and about 900 
turns can be given to each when 
well lubricated. 

The total weight complete is 4 l / 2 
oz. The average distance flow n is 
350 yards, but flights of over % 
mile have been accomplished a num- 
ber of times. 

L. S. L., Jr. 



MORANE-SAULNIER — Latest 
type. Set of detailed working draw- 
ings for sale at $200. Sale exclu- 
sive. Morane-Saulnier holds best 
records cross-country and speed fly- 
ing. Owner of drawings can super- 
intend construction. Address A. F., 
-tp AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 
54th St., New York. 



CG 



^^ 




rubber motor hooks. These are 
covered with cycle valve tubing. 
The hooks on the propeller shaft 
are similarly protected. Two col- 
lets are used on each propeller shaft 
to reduce friction at the bearings. 
The landing chassis resembles 
that of the famous "Cody" biplane 



JOHN WISE— "History and Prac- 
tice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. 
We have just secured another copy 
of this famous, rare work. Cloth, 
8vo, ill., 310 pp. steel engraving 
frontispiece. For sale at $10. 
AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th St., 
New York. 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



Pave 27 



DENINE GLIDER 
M. A. Denine, of Spokane, Wash., kindly 
sends us details of a novel glider, the publi- 
cation of which he hopes will stimulate gliding 
sport among the young men. 

We find the tail-less type easier to get off 
the ground and control than the tail types for 
the amateur glider-aviator. We have used 
both and find this type the eas'er to learn to 
control. The very flexible rear edge on the 
elevator and main planes take up the shocks of 
sudden gusts of wind and heip the longitu- 
dinal balance accordingly. We dc not recom- 
mend it as a power machine. 

The material consists of two clear spruce 
planks 20 feet x 12 inches x 1 inch, ash ribs 
for ailerons, spruce ribs for main planes, one 
pine board Yz inch x 12 inches x 12 feet, one 
bicycle frame, wire, j/j 6-inch bolts, shingle 
nails, galvanized sheet iron, and a few extras 
will be needed. Cover with unbleached muslin. 
Use glue for sizing cloth. 

Instructions: Rip beams for main planes 
from spruce planks, crosspieces for planes, 
outriggers, struts, etc., as per drawing. Make 
beams streamline except where strut sockets 
fit. Sockets can be cut from steel tubing as 
per drawing. Space sockets on beams 4 feet 
apart ; next attach crosspieces, using galvan- 
ized iron strips to hold same in place. Ribs 
go on next ; give them a cambre of 4"/> inches ; 
attach each rib with three nails and a strip of 
galvanized iron, two nails for strip and one 
through rib. When both planes are made, in- 
sert struts in sockets and cross-wire each 
section with No. 16 piano wire, except center 
section, in which use heavier or double wire. 
Next, make outrigging, then elevator, and next 
skids. Use extra heavy wire in outrigging 



above skids and for skid braces. It is better 
to have a little extra weight than a collapse 
when landing. It est me three weeks' work 
to learn to use extra heavy wire on the landing 
gear. 

In attaching outrigging, be fure that when 
the top beams are level the main planes have 
an angle of incidence of 4 inches. Attach 
skids so that the main planes have the same 
angle on the ground, namely, 4 inches. The 
glider flies at its ground angle. 

Make the extension for the top plane 5 feet 
x 6 feet 6 inches chord, leaving beams projec- 
ting 6 inches on the inside of extensions so 
that they can be attached to main planes. 
Where ribs overlap rear beam give them a 
reverse cambre on a steaming board until they 
reach the position marked "A" in the side 
elevation drawing. When attaching warp 
wires, which must be only attached to the top 
of the aileron, tighten them until the aileron 
reaches a point just above the line marked 
"horizontal line." Your warp wires will now 
have no slack in them and when one aileron 
is warped up the spring downward of the oppo- 
site one will still keep the warp wires taut. 
Attach extension with steel clamps. Balance 
glider with pilot in the seat so that when the 
glider balances over the center of pressure of 
the main planes there is a weight of 22 pounds 
on the point of c. of p. of the elevator. 

Gliding: Take glider to a hill, with a gentle 
slope. Do not use a steep hill, as there is 
always an air hole at the bottom and the 
glider will fall to the ground ^t that point of 
its flight. I fell through one of these pockets 
four times before discovering what caused the 
glider to suddenly sink. Take the glider up 
hill a couple of hundred feet, attach ropes at 
the ends of the lower plane and to the cross- 




Page 28 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



bar below elevator ; have a boy tike each rope 
and run down hill. The boy with the elevator 
rope must leave enough slack in his rope to 
allow the front end of the glider to rise, but 
as soon as the glider gets into the air must 
take up all slack, so as not to allow the head 
end to rise above the horizontal. Instruct the 
boys towing the glider to increase their speed 
as soon as it begins to descend. This is abso- 
lutely necessary, as, during the first trials the 
tendency of the operator is to raise his elevator 
too far and thus lower his speed, so that the 
glider begins to settle and unless the boys in- 
crease their speed, a heavy landing will result. 

Now, as to the operating of the controls. In 
taking your seat see that all controls work 
smoothly and be sure to try them and look 
them over carefully, before each flight. Push 
the elevator column from you until the elevator 
is at a negative angle of about two degrees 
and tell the boys on the ropes to start. If the 
hill you are experimenting on is sandy or 
covered with grass the glider will have speed 
enough to rise with a 30- or 40-foot run. Now 
pull the control column quickly toward you a 
couple of inches and return it to its original 
position again ; do this two or three times in 
as many seconds and then pull the column 
toward you until the elevator has a slight 
positive angle, and hold it there. The glider 
will leave the ground now. As soon as it 
does decrease the angle of the elevator slightly. 
This will put the machine at a gliding angle 
and increase the speed. Try to keep as close 
to the ground as possible. Under no condition 
must you hold the elevator in the same position 
as when leaving the ground it increase its 
angle during the first jump forward; if you 
do the glider will "stall" and either dive or 
drop as through an "air hole." 

Just before landing bring the elevator con- 
trol further toward you, and the glider will 
rise slightly and come down without any shock. 
After the first few Mights you will hardly 
know when you. landed, the shock will be so 
slight. The lateral control is by the wheel. 
Turning it to the right raises the left side of 
the glider, and vice versa. Do not move the 
ailerons over 2 inches as they are very sensitive 
and an over-control will tip the glider further 
over on the opposite side than it was on the 
side you originally intended to raise. Let the 
boys on the ropes attend to your lateral balance 
until you have thoroughly mastered the eleva- 
tor control. You will find that is about all 
you will be able to attend to during the first 
few flights. 

Do not use the rudder unless absolutely 
necessary. After you have mastered all the 
controls and feel sure you can manage the 
machine, remove the rope on the elevator. 
Next try a flight with the ropes attached to 
the central uprights and last of all with a 
releasing gear on the ropes so that they can 
be dropped during flight. 

In free flight a glider built with care, and 
according to the plans illustrated, flights of 
from two to four hundred yards can easily be 
made. 

We have many of three hundred yards and 
one of four hundred, although the conditions 
that we experimented under were nowhere 
near the best. An aeroplane has never been 



able to get up over 800 feet in Spokane, Wash., 
on account of the condition of the air there. 
We have gone up in the glider over 70 feet, 
and if that and our record of four hundred 
yards cannot be beaten in a lower altitude by 
some builder of the glider illustrated it will 
be because it is not built according to the 
plans. 

We will be glad to hear from builders of 
this glider and will answer any question as to 
construction and operation of same. — Denine 
Bros, and Hemingway, 1110 East Indiana Ave.. 
Spokane. Wash. 




29 West 33th Street. New York 

OFFICIAL BULLETIN. 
Data Sheets. 

The second series of data sheets 
has been sent out to members, con- 
sisting of nearly a hundred sheets. 

All members in good standing arc 
entitled to these. 

These data sheets provide mem- 
bers with information which could 
be obtained only at great expense 
by subscribing to every aeronautical 
publication issued in the world, by 
buying every book published, by ob- 
taining reports of every laboratory 
and testing plant, with the attend- 
ant expense of translation and time 
of abstracting. 

The data sheets are issued free to 
members as fast as they can be 
prepared. 



Membership dues in The Aero- 
nautical Society are $10 a year, no 
initiation fee. Members receive 
data sheets, the magazine, AERO- 
NAUTICS, engraved certificate of 
membership, free monthly lectures. 
For further information address the 
Secretary. 



Directors' meetings are being held 
every Thursday evening throughout 
the summer, as usual. Regular 
weekly members' meetings are held 
as* usual. The monthly lectures have 
been suspended for the summer sea- 
son. 



Plans are in progress for the per- 
petuation of the race around New 
York as inaugurated last Fall, mak- 
ing it an annual event on a par 
with the great classics of the sport- 
ing world. 



Notice to Delinquents. 

Delinquents in payment of dues 
are earnestly requested to place 
themselves in good standing at the 
earliest possible moment in order 
that they may receive the official 
bulletin, AERONAUTICS, semi- 
monthly, the membership certificates 
and data sheets. 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



Page 29 




Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aero- 
nautics 

■ Y 

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 

250 West 54th Street 

New York 

Telephone, Columbus 8721 

Cable, Aeronautics, New York 



ERNEST L. 

M. B. SELLERS, 
HARRY SCHULTZ, 
C. A. BEIER, 



JONES 



Editor 

Technical Editor 

Model Editor 

Advertising 



Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 
1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 
15 cents a Copy. 

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philip- 
pines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada 
and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries. 

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each 
month. All copy must be received 6 days before 
date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allow- 
ance must be made for receipt and return. 

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange 
and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS. 

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discon- 
tinuance is desired at the end of their subscription 
period, otherwise it will be assumed that their sub- 
scription is to be continued. 



THE COAST LINE TO 



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Railroad tickets accepted for transportation on D. & C. 
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Philip IT. McMillan. President. 

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AERONAUTICS - 250 W. 54th St.. NewYo 



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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 30 



AERONAUTICS, July 31. 1914. 



AN AEROPLANE SPEEDOMETER. 

An aeroplane "speedomoter" in wide use in 
Europe is the Morell "Anemo-Tachometer," 
illustrated herewith. This shows, like any 
automobile speed indicator, the relative speed 
of the machine through the air in meters per 
second, or miles per hour, as preferred. This 
instrument sells for $68 in this country, duty 
paid, through Schuchardt & Schutte, oo West 
street, New York. 

This is a safety device which should go far 
towards preventing the many accidents due to 
"stalling," as it will immediately show loss of 
headway due to reduction in speed. For loop- 
ing the loop and other "stunts" it will safe- 
guard the pilot by showing when he has at- 
tained the desired high speed. With it he will 
determine the lowest speed at which he can 
safely fly his machine, which may be necessary 
in reconnoitering, and thereafter the instru- 
ment will serve as a warning when the limit is 
reached. In gliding, the pilot can mark on 
the dial his safe l'mit and be guided in future 
by this. 




In throwing bombs, the aim depends prin- 
cipally on keeping a certain uniform speed be- 
tween sighting the object of the aim and the 
throwing of the bomb, because this space of 
time has to be ascertained by means of a stop 
watch. The Anemo-Tachometer will allow to 
ascertain the necessary speed of the machine 
for this purpose. 

In climbing, the speed of the aeroplane, al- 
though the revolutions of the propeller remains 
the same, is decreased according to the climb- 
ing angle. If this angle is too great, the speed 
of the machine will drop below the minimum 
limit, the aeroplane will not answer the rudder 
any more and drops back. The Anemo-Tacho- 
meter shows the falling of the speed exactly. 

In descending there is added to the speed 
obtained by the pull of the propeller, the in- 
fluence of the acceleration of masses. The 
Anemo-Tachometer shows the increase of the 



speed occasioned thereby exactly and allows 
the same to be counteracted by necessary steer- 
ing movements or shutting down of the motor. 

The knowledge of this acceleration is ex- 
tremely important for gliding. The accelera- 
tion of the masses increases according to the 
gliding angle and the length of glide. On the 
other hand, if the gliding angle is too flat, the 
speed of the machine becomes so small that the 
steering organs do not act any longer. As it 
is necessary to reduce the final speed of the 
machine by the corresponding position of the 
elevator so that a gentle landing on earth is 
possible, and inasmuch as the gliding angle 
and the gliding speeds are different for every 
machine, the constant control of the speed by 
means of the Anemo-Tachometer is of prime 
importance, because it will remove a certain 
insecurity which is the more dangerous the 
less the pilot has learned through experience 
just how to manage the machine in such flights. 

Not only for the purposes above described, 
but also for economy of flight, the Morell 
Tachometer is of importance. An increase in 
speed often is attained only by an unpropor- 
tional consumption of gasoline, depending on 
the form of the propeller and the resistance 
of the entire aeroplane construction. The most 
economical speed can be ascertained and re- 
tained by means of the Anemo-Tachometer 
controlling at the same time the revolutions 
of the propeller by the aeroplane Tachometer 
"Phylax." It is recommended to also note this 
speed on the scale in a desirable manner. 

Differences between the speed and capacity 
of the motor can also arise in agitated air when 
the direction of the flight is changed as com- 
pared to the direction of the wind (either with 
the wind or against it). These differences can 
become very disagreeable. They are also ascer- 
tained instantaneously by comparison of the 
reading of the motor Tachometer "Phylax" 
and the Aeroplane Anemo-Tachometer, and can 
be balanced by steering operations or regula- 
tion of the motor. 

The Anemo-Tachometer is mounted on the 
aeroplane so that neither propeller wind or 
other wind set in motion by the aeroplane has 
any influence on the action of the Anemo- 
Tachomoter. Special conditions can always be 
met by special construction of the Anemo- 
Tachometer, always keeping the dial on the 
same level as the eyesight of the pilot. 



As a means of conveyance the aeroplane 
is gaining on the automobile; there are more 
than two thousand certified aviators in 
Europe and America to-day and a hundred 
types of aeroplanes; stability of the flying 
machine is practically assured by recent 
patents on both sides of the Atlantic; and 
who shall say that in ten years more the 
world will not be flying and the automobile 
will not seem archaic? — N. Y. "Sun." 



I cannot see that AERONAUTICS is in need of 
any improvements while you continue the drawing 
and technical talks. — H. L. IV., Charlotte, N. C. 



We like your magazine and will surely continue 
reading same as long as it is as high grade as it is. — ■ 
F. B., Missouri. 



[ERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



Page 31 




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Officers of the army qualifying as military 
aviators will receive in addition to a military 
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Page 32 



AERONAUTICS, July 31, 1914. 



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Page 34 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



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AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



Page 35 



LEONARDO DA VINCI— By Charles Beecher Bunnell 



Up to the present moment, no an- 
cient record of the problems of 
Aeronautics has been found, ex- 
cepting the manuscripts of Leonardo 
da Vinci, one of the most honored 
men of his time, who died in the 
arms of the King of France, in I5*9- 
It's not definitely known just how 
many manuscripts he produced. Most 
of these are drawings and specifica- 
tions on scientific subjects. Among 
them is '"A Treatise Upon the 
Flight of Birds" and the drawings 
attached look like the curious things 
that happen to our aviators when 
their machines balk. But to us, the 
most interesting drawings in the col- 
lection are the hundred or more 
pictures specifying his ideas on 
heavier than air flying machines.^ 

Any one spending one hour with 
Leonardo's manuscripts is con- 
vinced he was the greatest me- 
chanical genius of that time, and 
a supernatural master of art and 
poetry as well. 

In 1502, Cardinal Borgia, the mili- 
tary leader, made Leonardo his en- 
gineer. (Cardinal Caesare Borgia 
was the brother of Lucretia Borgia, 
Duchess of Ferrara, the "toxicolo- 
gist.") 

In artillery he constructed a 64- 
barrel field gun of the revolving 
type ; he fired perforated bomb- 
shells; he suggested vertical-fire; he 
fired sharp pointed, iron stars that 
prevented cavalry horses from cross- 
ing the ground where they were 
scattered ; he invented a turret fire 
that is ahead of the present method; 
he tired shrapnel, arrows, etc., etc., 
from breech loading guns; he also 
fired shot from a steam gun on the 
continuous performance principle 
and he built a catapult with a fifty- 
foot bow that threw a hundred 
pound arrow over a mile. 

In optics he described the camera 
obscura; in acoustics, he said: "If 
a ship at sea heaves to, the putting 
of a tube into the water enables 
ships a long distance off to be 
heard" ; in astronomy he had cal- 
culated the Penumbra; in hydraulics 
he built the finest kind of self-acting 
pumps; in canal building he used 
the most up to date methods of ex- 
cavation. 

The rotary snow plow will have to 
take a back seat (over a mile back); 
he invented a moving machine with 
revolving knives attached to two 
wheels in front of a span of horses. 



and also revolving knives on two 
more wheels back of the horses, the 
hind wheels turned a shaft that 
went to the front of the machine 
(going between the horses and pro- 
jecting over the front wheels which 
were armed with knives just like 
the rotary snow plow. But this ma- 
chine was a war engine made to 
plow men. 

Leonardo regarded himself a mili- 
tary engineer, and in the letter he 
wrote to Sforza (II Moro) he 
enumerated 10 points wherein he 
excelled in war engine construction: 
in art he had one clause, part of 
which runs: — ■ 

" ; also in painting 

I can do as much as any other, 
be he who he may." 

But it's to the drawings here re- 
produced, relating to Aeronautics 
that we will refer. 

The idea of the parachute came 
from Leonardo, (see "P" in the 
illustration) which he describes in 
his own words: 

"If a Man Carry a Domed 
Roof of Starched Linen, 18 
Feet Wide and 1 8 Feet Long, 
He Will be Able to Throw 
Himself From any Great Height 
Without Fear of Danger." 

His first wing drawings resem- 
ble, somewhat, the Bleriot wing. 

In figure "T" of our illustra- 
tion, the drawing is very suggestive 
of a spring powered toy. "B" 
shows the modern method of con- 
struction Leonardo used 400 years 
ago. "I" shows the inclination of 
flight. In "A" we have the flexing 
of the wing tip that is now a sub- 
ject of litigation between two pres- 
ent day claimants. "S" shows a 
hand and foot power flying ma- 
chine. "D" illustrates a double 
wing. "W" shows that a man has 
by the use of a fan brought his 
weight to zero — or is it a hint m 
aerodynamics which is being worked 
out by a great western genius who 
will soon print a little book giving 
out his new discoveries on engines 
and propellers? "A" and "a" 
shows another method of flexing the 
tips. In the "Condor motion" 
drawing you will note how the 
whole machine resembles a bird fly- 
ing toward the observer. In the 
"foot power flying machine" the 
hands grasped the bar in the wings. 

In the automatic flying machine 
of our illustration, we show the 



power spring actuating cranks that 
flap the wings. The wings are 
copies of bird wings that Leonardo 
had dissected. He made his mus- 
cles, however, to pull through fric- 
tion loops. He also made the wings 
have a third motion that was pro- 
duced in the "shoulder blades" by 
a link, just as a bird or man moves 
his shoulder blades around his own 
back. 

The action of air upon a pro- 

Eeller wheel was well known to 
eonardo because he had designed 
a chimney wheel that turned a spit 
on which game was roasted. 

Leonardo said: "The Man in the 
Flying Machine to be Free from the 
Waist Up, That He may be Able 
to Keep Himself in Equilibrium, as 
He does in a Boat, so That the Cen- 
tre of His Gravity and That of His 
Instrument may set itself in Equili- 
brium and Change when Necessity 
Requires it to the Changing of the 
Centre i»f its Resistance." 

It took Lilienfhal and Chanute a 
great many years to find the above 
fact out, then they found Leonardo 
observed it 400 years before their 
time. 

According to Cuperus, "Leonardo 
practiced flying successfully." 

Sidney Colvin says: "He seems 
certainly the man whose genius has 
the best right to be called universal, 
of any that have ever lived." 

Ilallam. the historian, said: "His 
knowledge was almost preternat- 
ural." 

One most remarkable thing about 
Leonardo's writings is, they are 
written from the right toward the 
left, they were also written by the 
left hand, so that to read them one 
must use a mirror. This was a 
precaution against theft of his 
ideas, against which he wished to 
guard. Of course, there are a few 
of his writings that are not re- 
versed. 

Leonardo's treatise on the flight 
of birds is most interesting. His 
investigations were exhaustive and 
treat on eddies, up currents and 
about everything that brings the 
modern aviator to sudden grief. 

A mechanic who takes up Leon- 
ardo's drawings, immediately knows 
the whole problem without any in- 
structions whatever. That comes 
from his method of drawing, which 
is superior to the very best practice 
of the present day. 



THE HAGUE AND AIRCRAFT IN WAR 

By Arthur K. Kuhn, A.M. 

(From a paper read at the International Law Session of the American Political Science Association.) 



Along with the subjects sub- 
mitted for discussion by the First 
Hague Conference by the circular 
letter of Count Mouravieff, of Janu- 
ary 11, 1899, was a proposal to re- 
strict the use in military warfare of 
the formidable explosives already 
existing, and to prohibit the throw- 
ing of projectiles or explosives of 
any kind from balloons or by similar 
means. The proposal so far as it 
related to aerial craft was not 
called forth by any actual experience 
in modern warfare. Balloons were 
used by the French as early as the 
battle of Fleurus in 1794, by the 
Russians in 181 2, by our Federal 
troops in Virginia, by the French 
at the siege of Paris, and by the 
British in the Boer war. The propo- 



sition was apparently an effort to 
anticipate the future progress of 
aerial science. 

Mouravieff's proposal was re- 
ferred to the committee which in 
turn submitted it to its military 
sub-committee. This sub-committee 
first voted a perpetual prohibition of 
the use of aircraft for throwing 
projectiles or explosives which, on 
motion of the American delegate. 
Captain Crozier, was limited, in full 
committee, to cover a period of five 
years. In this form, it was passed 
by the Conference and accepted by 
the Powers. 

The action was for humanitarian 
reasons alone and was founded on 
the opinion that in the condition of 
the art as it then existed, persons 



or property injured by this means 
might be entirely disconnected from 
the conflict and of no practical ad- 
vantage to the belligerent. The 
period of five years was intended to 
allow complete liberty of action un- 
der such changed circumstances as 
might be produced by the progress 
of invention. 

The prohibition expired by limita- 
tion on July 28, 1904, and the sub- 
ject was therefore again brought up 
for consideration by the Second 
Hague Conference under a sugges- 
tion made by the Belgian delega- 
tion to renew the prohibition in ex- 
actly the same terms. In sub-com- 
mittee two amendments were made, 
to be applicable in the event of a 
failure of the main proposal, one by 



Page 36 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



Russia the other by Italy. Russia 
proposed to limit forever attacks by 
these means upon undefended places. 
Italy proposed to add to the Rus- 
sian proposition that no projectiles 
or explosives should be launched 
from balloons not dirigible and 
manned by a military force, and fur- 
thermore that the same restrictions 
that rested upon land and naval war- 
fare should apply to aerial warfare 
"wherever compatible with this new 
method of combat." 

The declaration as finally passed 
was in the same terms as that of 
the First Conference except that, at 
the suggestion of Great Britain, the 
renewal extends to the close of the 
Third Peace Conference. The 
declaration has been ratified among 
others by Great Britain. Austria 
and the United States, but though 
the period for ratification expired 
June .?<>. 1908, seventeen nations 
have failed to give assent, among 
them Germany, France, Japan, Italy, 
Mexico and Russia. On the princi- 
ple that since the period of conven- 
tional regulation of the usages of 
war, everything may be done which 
is not expressly forbidden by treaty 
or customary practice, and as there 
is no precedent whatever governing 
the use of aircraft in advancing the 
cause of a belligerent, it would 
seem that in the absence of such a 
prohibition, it would constitute a 
legitimate operation of war. The 
launching of projectiles from bal- 
loons has been placed in the same 
class of undertakings as the subjec- 
tion of coast cities to ransom at 
the demand of a powerful fleet. 
Neither has been seriously consid- 
ered by a responsible belligerent, 
yet both constitute a sufficiently 
serious menace to humanity to war- 
rant consideration bv international 
conference. 

An objection which has been 
raised to the prohibition as framed 
is the fact that there is no recipro 
cal prohibition against firing upon 
aircraft. This would make them 
open to attack, yet deprived of their 
proper defense. The real opposition 
seems to lie in the technical posi- 
tion of the respective powers in re- 
gard to their present land and naval 
forces and the advancement which 
each has made in aerial war. A 
great naval power like Great Britain 
would naturally be interested in the 
prohibition by reason both of the 
menace to her military isolation and 
because the strongest naval vessel 
might not be proof against de- 
structive agents thrown from above 
It may yet be that a supposed ad- 
vantage by reason of superior naval 
strength may be much reduced if 
not entirely eliminated by com- 
pensating advantages in aerial 
strength. That Germanv has thus far 
abstained from ratifying the declara- 
tion nnght seem to be a result of 
her progress in the use of dirigible 
balloons and the great expenditures 
of money being made for this ac- 
count Russia's change of attitude 
may be accounted for in a similar 
manner bv the loss of her navy 
since the First Hague Conference. ' 
The proposal contained in the 
amendment advanced by the Russian 
delegation to render unfortified 
places immune from attack by air- 
craft was given effect in a 'much 
broader form than was then ex- 
pected. The immunity of unde- 
fended places was discussed under 
the general regulation of land war' 
Fare and an absolute prohibition 
the bombardment of unde 
towns, villages and dwellings 
whatever be the means employed" 



was agreed upon and is now a part 
of the convention on the laws and 
customs of war (Art. 25). Tins 
does not refer to bombardment from 
the sea, but there can be no doubt 
of its application to aircraft. As 
,111 American authority has said, 
•When exposed to such an attack, 
no place can be said to b< 'de 
fended.'" It is strange that though 
the original declaration has failed of 
endorsement by many states, the 
amendment lias been given broad 
conventional elfect through the ac- 
tion of a different committee. 

The treatment to be accorded to 
the crew of captured aircraft in 
time of war has also constituted a 
serious problem in international law. 
During the war of 1870, a strong 
inclination was shown on the part 
of Germany to treat them as spies. 
Sixty-four balloons were launched 
during the siege of Paris, and it 
will be remembered that Gambetta 
made his escape to the provinces in 
this way. Bismarck favored ex- 
treme measures, and in fact all bal- 
loonists who passed over the Ger- 
man lines were severely dealt with 
when captured. This attitude has 
been severely criticized by writers 
upon international law as "neither 
secrecy, nor disguise, nor pretence 
is possible for those who man air- 
craft. 

The dispute has now been defi- 
nitely settled through Art. 29 of 
the Hague convention which provides 
that "individuals sent in balloons 
for the purpose of transmitting dis- 
patches and the general keeping 
up of communications between the 
different parts of an army or terri- 
tory" shall not be treated as spies, 
and the French official manual for 
the use of military officers specifi- 
cally affirms their right to be 
treated as prisoners of war. 

The obligation of a neutral state 
no doubt extends to the airspace 
over its territory as well as to its 
land surface and territorial waters. 
But the extent of that obligation 
has never been defined. An abso- 
lute duty to exclude the passage of 
belligerent craft through its air- 
space would indeed be onerous. 
Again with the increasing capacity 
of aircraft to carry articles of 
greater or less weight a law of con- 
traband applicable to aircraft may 
in time be developed. I simply 
mention these questions in passing. 
however, as they are not yet of 
sufficient practical importance for 
useful discussion at this time. 

The present period is manifestly 
an introductory one in the develop- 
ment of a new medium^ of inter- 
communication and traffic. It is 
doubtful that the air will ever be as 
important commercially as the sea, 
yet science is the cause of many 
surprises. But even in its present 
development, the nations are now 
united by a closer bond, for the 
air is medium in respect of which 
each nation, no matter how small 
in area, or howsoever situated, is 
equally favored in harbor and coast- 
line. Indeed, it has been denomi- 
nated "the universal highway." 

On the other hand, wdiile the ad- 
vent of efficient aircraft will ex- 
tend the plane of warfare to a third 
element, the ultimate result will 
tend to make for the maintenance 
of peace. Small parties may be 
able to pass over protective armies 
on expeditions aimed at the seat of 
government itself, where the body 
of particular individuals most re- 
sponsible for the war reside. This 
fact will tend for the first time to 



subject responsible individuals to im- 
mediate and personal danger after 
the declaration of war, which here- 
tofore has not been usually the 
case, and thus the development of 
aerial navigation will make for 
peace. Its advent, therefore, will 
be beneficial from both points of 
view. In peace, its development 
will depend upon sacrifices of the 
lesser for the greater good. In 
war. its use should be restricted so 
as to extend to it a humanitarian 
control equal to that now exercised 
over the methods of warfare here- 
tofore employed. 



AIRCRAFT IN THE 

EUROPEAN WAR 

As far as any practical data can 
be gleaned from the heterogeneous 
cables from London, Paris and 
Brussels, the aeroplanes seem to be 
fulfilling the promises made for 
them by military experts. 

What the Zeppelins will do re- 
mains to be seen as they have evi- 
dently been kept under cover thus 
far for some definite purpose. They 
would, doubtless, be most effective 
against the English tleet which, 
wiped nut of existence, would 
greatly enhance the possibility of 
bombarding English fortified ports 
and cutting off supplies and com- 
munication to her colonies. A re- 
cent naval critic has the view that 
the airships will be most effective 
in this direction. 

A cabled report of the use of air- 
craft says: 

"The remarkably definite way in 
which the positions and movements of 
the German troops have been located 
by the General Staffs of France 
and Belgium is due almost entirely 
to the success of aerial reconnoit- 
ering. The advent of the aeroplane 
already has revolutionized strategy 
and tactics. In this regard the su- 
periority of French airmen and 
French aeroplanes has given the 
allies a decided advantage over the 
Germans. Reconnaissance in force 
by cavalry has been almost super- 
fluous on the Franco-Belgian side, 
but the Germans, whose aerial scout- 
ing is inferior, have had to resort 
to it along the line. 

"A scouting aeroplane carries two 
officers, one as pilot, the other as 
observer. The officer observer car- 
ries a photographic apparatus, and 
in many cases remarkably clear pic- 
tures of the enemy's positions have 
been secured from dangerously low 
altitudes. French aerial scouts have 
taken amazing risks in this respect, 1 
flying well within the range of hos- 
tile rifles in order to insure accu- 
rate observations. Generally speak- 
ing, German officers engaged in 
similar work have flown at greater 
altitudes. Successful as the aero- 
plane has been for reconnoitering, its 
value as an instrument of destruc- 
tion has proved practically nil. 
Judging from the experience of this 
campaign, the use of aeroplanes will 
be limited to scouting, and not be 
extended to actively offensive opera- 
tions. This applies, at any rate, to 
the aeroplane in its present form. 
In many cases German military avia- 
tors have endeavored to disguise 
themselves as Frenchmen, sometimes 
by displaying a conspicuous tricolor 
of France on their machine." 

Franco-German miscellaneous ca- 
bles tell of the frontier being pa- 
trolled by rival aeroplanes within 
easy sight of each other, of a Zep- 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



Page 37 




Pase 38 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



pelin having zepped over Liege dur- 
ing the bombardment, pursued by a 
Belgian aviator who lost his life 
in destroying it, after which the 
Germans confining their activity 
here to aeroplanes for scouting, 
several being destroyed by shots 
from the forts; of a French aviator 
reconnoitering the Germans from 
Belfort and returning with valuable 
information, the machine riddled 
with holes; of a report from St. 
Petersburg telling of the destruction 
of a German Parseval non-rigid en- 
tailing the loss of four; of a Ger- 
man dirigible sailing over Liege and 
dropping several bombs in the city, 
killing 17 civilians and firing several 
buildings, with two Belgian avia- 
tors in fruitless pursuit; of bombs 
dropped on the railway station at 
Nainur, Belgium and on a bridge, 
without great damage. 

A Zeppelin dirigible is reported 
hit and destroyed by Belgian gun- 
ners, using an explosive shell. 

Many German aeroplanes sighted 
along the border and French avia- 
tors flying across the line quickly 
pursued by overwhelming numbers 
of German "planes and driven back. 
One German aviator is reported to 
have flown over the Vosges moun- 
tains and dropped bombs in Vesoul, 
the capital of a department of 
France, returning safely. Two Bel- 
gian aeroplanes give chase to a Ger- 
man aeroplane scout who was flying 
above the Belgian fortified position 
on the Meuse, the result being hid- 
den by the darkness. Two German 
aeroplanes follow a French aviator 
and shoot at him unsuccessfully. 

Servians are said to be using aero- 
planes to reconnoiter Austrian oper- 
ations. 

Two German aviators were fa- 
tally hit and the third seriously 
wounded, while their machines were 
wrecked. The German airmen were 
reconnoitering the Belgian trenches 
at Diest. 

Small bombs dropped from aero- 
planes seem to do little damage. 

Many of these reports are printed 
again days later with changes. No 
authentic information is available. 

France is reported to have ac- 
quired a German aeroplane factory 
by the capture of Mulhausen. 
French reports say a German avia- 
tor was brought down by hitting the 
motor and made a prisoner of the 
pilot and observer. Pistol duel in 
mid-air between French and Ger- 
man aviators with no results re- 
ported. German aviators drop 
bombs in the department of the 
Meuse but injure no one. A 
French family receives a letter tell- 
ing of the destruction of a Zeppelin 
by bombs from a French aeroplane 
flying above it. Russians are re- 
ported to have brought down a Ger- 
man aeroplane with four aboard, all 
being killed. An airship, sup- 
posedly German, was seen over the 
North Sea from Amsterdam, Hol- 
land. 

Two German aviators killed and 
one seriously wounded by Belgians is 
the report on the German recon- 
naissance of the Belgian lines. 

"The guns that were especially de- 
signed to destroy aeroplanes have 
more than fulfilled their mission and 
the markmanship of the Belgians 
has been wonderful. On the other 
hand the Krupp aero guns used by 
the Germans have all but proved 
useless. Thev were used against the 
Belgians at Liege, but in nearly ev- 
ery instance it developed that their 
range was too limited for them to 
do any real damage. 



"The Belgian aero corps is prov- 
ing of inestimable value to the field 
forces. Every move of the in- 
vaders is anticipated and because of 
the excellent transport arrange- 
ments it is possible for the Belgian 
field commanders to meet the Ger- 
mans more than half way in every 
attack." 



AEROPLANES ARE 

CONTRABAND 

Great Britain's contraband of war 
proclamation places arms, ammuni- 
tion and all distinctly military sup- 
plies on the list of "absolute" con- 
traband. 

"Aeroplanes, airships, balloons and 
aircraft of all kinds and their com- 
ponent parts, together with acces- 
sories and articles recognizable for 
use in connection with balloons and 
aircraft are among contraband ma- 
terial." 



MR. BERLINER 

AGAIN AT WORK 

Mr. Emile Berliner, inventor of 
the Victor talking machine, tele- 
phone transmitter, the Gyro motor, 
etc., who has been working for many 
years on a direct-lift machine, as 
has been duly recorded in AERO- 
NAUTICS^ together with the re- 
sults of his experiments, has re- 
newed activity on this type of ma- 
chine. The new apparatus will have 
one screw turning in a horiontal 
plane, with a small auxiliary verti- 
cal screw to oppose the torque of 
the lifting screw and prevent the 
turning of the apparatus about its 
vertical axis. Means will be pro- 
vided to so adjust the vertical screw 
as to exactly compensate for this 
turning movement. 



GOODYEAR BALLOON 
LANDS IN ONTARIO 

The Goodyear balloon that left 
Akron August 1 at 10 p. m., in 
charge of Pilot R. A. D. Preston, 
who won the national balloon race, 
and carrying Williard Seiberling, 
son of F. A. Seiberling, president of 
the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., 
and W. D. Burns, landed east of 
Chatam, Ontario, early Sunday 
morning. 



When a hydro-aeroplane fell into 
Swedish waters a submarine boat 
dived under it and brought it to 
shore uninjured. 



Balloon {sic!) Flight Delayed. 
Lieutenant Porte Not to Attempt 
the Ocean Trip Until Fall. — From 
an Oshkosh (Wis.) newspaper, July, 



TO FLY FROM 

BUILDINGS 

Edwin Maxwell writes he is in- 
stalling a powerful motor in a small 
monoplane of but 6 ft. spread and 
will make flights from the tops of 
high buildings, landing in the street 
below. Biographical sketch and no- 
tice of funeral will be printed later. 



HOCH DER ZEPPELIN 

Who iss it sails der atmosphere 
As light as foam on stein of beer, 
Und has Chon Bull knockkneed mit 
fear? 
Meinself — Count Zep. 

Who iss it alvays in a smash, 
Und in der trees iss going, crash! 
Und swears der German three em 
dash 5 
Meinself — Count Zep. 

Who patches up his cloud machine 
Und buys more Chon D. gasolene, 
Und sails again, calm und serene ? 
Meinself — Count Zep. 

Who beats all sky men in a flight. 
All but dose Yankee Brothers 

Wright? 
Who does admit dey're ausgesight ? 
Meinself — Count Zep. 

— Denver Republican. 



A NEW WORLD'S 

HEIGHT RECORD 

On July 14 the German pilot 
Oelerich created a new world's alti- 
tude record by attaining a height 
since estimated at 8,999 metres, or 
26,200 ft., though it was previously 
reported to be only 7,550 metres, or 
24,760 ft. In either event the world's 
record is well beaten, and is likely 
to stand at the present figure for a 
considerable time. The machine on 
which the feat was accomplished 
was a D.F.W. biplane of a new type 
—being of smaller span — driven by 
a British-built 1 20 h.p. Beardmore 
Austrian Daimler. 



AERO MART 



AERIAL SUPPLIES. MOTORS 

AND EQUIPMENT. 
Bargains in the following material: 
Two Gibson propellers, 7 and 7^ 
ft. diameter by 5 ft. pitch, $25, $30. 
One set of genuine Wright spread- 
bars, hangers, thrust bearings and 
propellers, complete, like new, of- 
ers. Eight-cylinder, Vee type, 50 
h.p. motor, with propeller, tank and 
shipping crate, a sacrifice, $300. 
Get Complete catalog of high-grade 
aerial supplies. American Aviation 
Co., Chester, Pa. 



FOR SALE, on account of sick- 
ness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, 
or trade for anything of value. 
F. M.. 1522 Norwood ave., Toledo, 
Ohio. 



QUICK SALE FOR CASH— Two 
Curtiss-type double-surface aero- 
planes, each with 50-h.p. Roberts 
motor; both outfits in flying shape; 
can be seen at any time; everything 
complete; $600 for the two outfits 
for quick sale. B., care AERO- 
NAUTICS. 



FOR SALE — Hatton Tumor's 
"Astra Castra," the most famous 
and rarest of all Aviation works. 
Published in 1S65 at 10 dollars. 
Magnificently illustrated, large 

quarto, 527 pages, in splendid con- 
dition. Will be sent post-free for 
24 dollars. 

Remittance to be sent to ''Astra," 
c /o The Editor, "Aeronautics," 170 
Fleet St., London (England). 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



Page 39 



THE CONVERSE AUTOMATIC STABILIZER 



In the 324-mile race April 20-22, 
from San Francisco to Hakersfield, 
aviator Arthur Rybitzki used an 
automatic stabilizer invented and 
patented by H. B. Converse, of 
Fresno, Calif. 

A short circuit made it impos- 
sible for the aviator to cut out the 
stabilizer by the hand switch while 
in flight or at all, and the manner 
in which the short was covered with 
tape show every indication that 
same had not been touched since 
originally put on in San Francisco 
before the flight. 



each outer end, these acting on 
rollers carried by a vertical bar hav- 
ing bearings in brackets which also 
support the cam shaft, the two bars 
have arms supporting % in. diam- 
eter pins (insulated from the arms). 
These pins depend into the vertical 
ends of a steel tube set transversely, 
the lower part of the tube, con- 
necting the two vertical legs of 
same, is formed in the shape of a 
cusp (as a means for dampening the 
oscillation due to momentum). 

A horizontal cross tube having 
a cup in its middle connects the 




The aviator was fully dependent 
on the stabilizer at all time during 
the remarkable race, in which he fin- 
ished with honor, a race, includ- 
ing cross nights and back flights, 
amounting, it is claimed, to four 
hundred miles. 

Within itself, when connected to 
the ailerons or warpable surfaces, 
the device is a complete operative 
unit, depending for operation on 
the aeroplane's forward motion 
through the air. The machine, 
which weighs 10 pounds, consists 
of a main magnalium frame, having 
on the forward end, a D. C. gen- 
erator, 25 watts, 100 to 120 volts. 
It is driven by a 1 2 in. dia. 10 in 
pitch propeller, geared to rear end 
of generator shaft and operated 
thereby are a pair of electro-magnet 
friction cone clutches, turning op- 
positely, the electro-magnets being 
of the common solenoid type, with 
stationary coils having a shaft on 
which is mounted the iron plug 
armature, within a brass tube, about 
which is the coil. The friction 
cones are on the rear end of the two 
clutch shafts; on the forward ends 
are the two gear wheels meshing 
with each other, providing oppo- 
site drive. The generator and the 
two clutch shafts and cones revolve 
constantly, 4 to 1 .ratio. The 
driven elements of the two clutches 
(the cone cups 1 are geared to a 
single drum, about which are two 
turns of each of the two aileron 
cahles having their ends attached to 
lugs on the drum, the other ends 
passing through suitably located 
pulleys and being attached to the 
rear edge of the ailerons. 

"The stabilizer has been used 
very successfully, when connected 
up using an equalizer means be- 
tween the ailerons, thus acquiring 
equal head aileron resistance, and 
so avoiding turning, or any tend- 
ency to turn, about a vertical axis 
of the aeroplane." 

On the rear shaft end of the drum 
is a worm meshing with a gear on 
a transverse shaft having a cam at 



upper parts of the two vertical legs 
of the tube; the lower half of the 
composite tube contains pure mer- 
cury, the upper half and the cross 
tube and cup contain oil. 

The pins are adjusted in a posi- 
tion slightly out of contact with the 
mercury (when level) requiring a 
tilting angle of about one.-half de- 
gree to make electrical connection 
with the mercury ( which remains 
level). From one pole of the gen- 
erator connection is made to one 
end of each clutch coil, from the 
other end of each coil connection is 
made to the pin on the same side as 
the clutch connected to ; from the 
steel mercury tube a wire leads to 
the other pole of the generator. 

The function of the above men- 
tioned cams is to lift the pins, with- 
drawing same from the mercury, 
when the clutch is in operation. 

The operation of the stabilizer is 
as follows: In straight ahead flight 
the mercury remains level. A gust 
of wind hits one side of the plane. 
causing the plane to start tilting. 
When it has tilted to the extent of 
one-half to one degree, but yet mov- 
ing slowly (on account of the inertia 
of the machine) electrical contact is 
made with the pin on the low side 
of the plane, throwing in its clutch, 
operating the drum and cable which 
pulls down on the lower aileron and 
upon the other aileron and at the 
same time lifts the contact pin 
which is to avoid overdoing the 
righting effect and oscillation. _ But 
as the pin rises at mean velocity it 
follows that the plane is either tilt- 
ing faster or slower (generally 
slower owing to the earliness of con- 
tact) than the pin is rising. If 
the former a long time of contact 
will result, hence greater aileron 
pull or angle resulting; but if 
slower, then the pin quickly lifts 
away from the mercury, releasing 
the clutch, which now backs up to 
neutral position by means of the 
air pressure against the aileron (or 
contact on the other pin operating 
the other clutch in the reverse direc- 



tion). It is thus seen that the cir- 
cuit is broken early enough to allow 
the ailerons to arrive in neutral po- 
sition by the time, or before, the 
plane is level, thus avoiding over- 
balancing. 

In circular flight, the mercury 
column does not remain level, be- 
cause the direction of force acting 
thereon which is a resultant of ver- 
tical gravity and lateral centrifugal 
force is dependent on the ratio be- 
tween the two. It follows that 
when the aviator moves the rudder, 
causing circular flight . the mercury 
rises in the side farthest from the 
turning center, causing electric con- 
tact, and therefore banking the 
plane, which will be at right angles 
to the resultant direction of force. 

In flying during windy weather, 
the wind must be considered in 
banking for a turn, i. e., in flying 
into a head-on wind", to turn about 
to fly with same but a slight bank is 
proper, while having a wind with 
him and turning about into the 
w ind a much greater bank is re- 
quired, to avoid side slipping. 

The stabilizer takes care of all 
of this. The momentum acting on 
the mercury in turning (in the form 
of centrifugal force) increases in 
proportion to the square of the 
velocity. Of course whether the 
v ind is ahead or astern, affects the 
•-peed of the aeroplane. 

With this stabilizer in operation 
on a 'plane there is positively no 
side slip whatever, it is claimed, or 
overbalancing or over or under 
banking. 



GERMAN COMMERCIAL 
AIRSHIP LINES LOSE 

MONEY 

Notwithstanding the fact that the 
receipts amounted to close upon a 
million marks (about $200,000), the 
chairman announced at the recent 
annual meeting of the German Air- 
ship Traffic Co. that there was a 
loss during 191. 3 of 250,000 marks. 
This deficit was sufficiently disquiet- 
ing, but it was trusted that the 
company would be able to tide over 
affairs until the airship industry 
had developed to the extent antici- 
pated. Passenger trips made by air- 
ship during the year had brought in 
a sum of 540,000 marks, while in 
the preceding year they had realized 
490,000 marks. A sum of over 330,- 
marks was realized through sub- 
ventions and profits upon the ma- 
terials used. 

The charge for admissions to the 
airship sheds, and various other 
things, brought in a sum of 81,000 
marks. This, in itself, was all fav- 
orable enough, the chairman said, 
but the deficit was principally due 
to the great expenses in connection 
with maintaining the airships and to 
other matters. The continual en- 
deavor to improve the ships, in case 
of war, was another tremendous ex- 
pense. After prolonged discussion, 
a premium of 54,000 marks had been 
arranged with the insurance com- 
panies. While the expenses of the 
upkeep amounted, in 1912, to 416,- 
000 marks, in 1913 they were 476.000 
marks. The chairman declared that 
a great improvement in the airship 
industry was to be expected within 
the near future, but that things 
would need to improve considerably 
before the company would be able 
to clear expenses. 



Page 40 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



NAVAL AEROPLANES AT SEA 



An invention has been patented 
in England which is designed to 
supersede present methods for 
launching aeroplanes off ships at sea. 

There have been many methods 
suggested for this purpose of launch' 
ing aeroplanes from ships, and for 
embarking them while at sea. They 
are as follows: The aeroplane was 
intended to alight upon a special 
platform on the ship, either a per- 
manent or temportary structure. It 
was also intended to depart there- 
from. The objections to this 
method are many, and quite ob- 
vious. (2) the aeroplane was to run 
along a wire rope or be shot off a 
rail, and either be picked out of 
the sea by derrick, or to fly under 
a wire rope and catch hold of it by 
means of hooks. This latter is the 
feat of an acrobat, and is then only 
possible if the ship were not oscil- 
lating, while the former is danger- 
ous and not desirable. ( 3 ) The 
aeroplane to be lifted bodily on to 
the surface of the water by derricks 
or the like, from which it would 
rise in the ordinary way. This 
method would be slow and clumsy 
and would not be good for the aero- 
plane, and in anything of a sea 
would be positively dangerous owin 



plane is launched and embarked in 
such a manner that oscillations ot 
the ship would not be so dangerous. 
It may be said by some that it is 
desirable to launch hydro-aeroplanes 
directly from the snip, when the 
w ater is too rough to rise from. 
Even if it is possible to launch them 
directly (and this is not at all cer- 
tain ), it is obvious that some such 
method as is here suggested will be 
necessary in order to regain the 
ship. 

The illustrations show the floating 
pontoon with an aeroplane about to 
be "beached." and then drawn up 
the bridge to the deck. This bridge 
or gangway is hinged both to the 
ship and pontoon by detachable 
hinges. The sketch shows what 
would happen if the vessel is roll- 
ing in a seaway, and provided the 
period of roll were made fairly long, 
there would be ample time to take 
advantage of the level phase to haul 
the aeroplane on to the deck. The 
rollers in the way of the floats 
would facilitate hauling up and 
launching with speed. 

The whole apparatus could be 
stowed away on board when not in 
use, and would fold up and be lifted 
on board bv derricks. 




the pld Harvard aviation meets, 
and there, on the bank, the boat was 
taken off and the land equipment 
designed by Mr. Burgess put on. 
One will notice it is very much 
simpler than the English construc- 
tion. The whole thing was a grand 
success from the very start. Web- 
ster made a number of flights on 
the first afternoon. On the fol- 
lowing morning he left the ground 
repeatedly without touching his 
hands to the levers. 

Contrary to the expectations of 
many, the machine was found to 
control perfectly on the ground, 
both arising and alighting. The ex- 
change of land equipment for water 
equipment lightened the gross 
weight of the machine by about 175 
pounds and cut clown head re- 
sistance, increasing its climbing abil- 
ity from 200 to over 300 ft. per 
minute and its speed from 60 to 
about 63 miles per hour. 

After these flights had been com- 
pleted, five men put on the old 
boat, and in a 3 5 -mile wind Web- 
ster flew back to Marblehead, 1 7 
miles, in nine minutes, which is 
"going some." 



NEW BOOKS 

FLIGHT WITHOUT FORMULAE, 
by Commandant Duchene; trans- 
lated from the French by J. H. 
Ledeboer, editor of British "Aero- 
nautics." 8vo, cloth, 21 1 pp.; il- 
lustrated with diagrams and charts. 
Published by Longmans. Green & 
Co. $2.25 net. May be supplied 
through AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 
54th street, New York. 

This book treats of the principles 
of flight and of the problems in the 
mechanics of the aeroplane in the 
simplest possible language, and does 
not contain a single mathematical 
formula. Here is a book which the 
great majority should have. There 
are very few people in this country 
who have anything like a smatter- 



to the oscillations of the ship. No In the case where the apparatus 

other method has been suggested yet. is fitted to the stern of a ship, the 

In the method here described by amplitude of pitching in a sea from ing of technical knowledge, and jhis 

C. W. Pidcock, in British "Aero- which it is possible to launch aero- hook will lav the foundation for a 



nautics," the aeroplane 



hydro- planes would be slight. 



better understanding. 



NAVY GETS FIRST 

BURGESS-DUNNE 

Early in August the first Burgess- 
Dunne seaplane was delivered to 
the U. S. Navy on board the cruiser 
North Carolina, at Newport News, 
Manager F. H. Russell went down 
there to install it, and flights were 
made by the different aviators 
there, and all expressed themselves 
as enthusiastic over its inherent 
stability. A number of other Bur- 
gess-Dunnes are now being manu- 
factured, among which might be 
mentioned one for the U. S. Army, 
to be powered with 120 h.p, Salnv 
son motor. 

The Burgess-Dunne No. 1 ma- 
chine is being flow n daily in and 
around Marblehead. Thursday, Au- 
gust 6, Mr. Webster, accompanied 
by Ensign Edwards, U. S. N., made 
a very pretty 20-mile flight to Bos- 
ton, harbor, and after encircling the 
new Navy aviation cruiser North 
Carolina, landed alongside and 
moored their craft while taking 
lunch with their fellow aviators in 
the service. After lunch they re- 
turned to Marblehead by the air 
route. 




Mr. Webster is almost dailv mak- 
ing flights as far as 42 miles up 
and down the coast, with passengers, 
and some interest has been awakened 
in reco nn oite ring off shore in con- 
nection with movements of the for- 
eign cruisers, which are searching 
for marine vessels outside the three 
mile limit. 

On July 16 Webster flew the ma- 
chine to Squantum, to the site of 



110-h.p. MOTOR for sale. Spec- 
ially built, 8 cylinder V, 4^ by 7, 
water cooled, built by Christie Ma- 
chine Co. for C. K. Hamilton. 
Flown by him at Belmont and Sac- 
ramento. Cost $5,000. Perfect 
condition, ready to put in 'plane. 
Can be seen any day. Run not 
more than 4 hours total in flight. 
$1,000 cash only. Address Hamilton, 
c/o AERONAUTICS. 



'AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



Faze 41 



THE ACCESSIBLE CIRCLE 

If a vessel starts from point O, in go from O to m, he will head in a 

calm air, with a speed V , it will direction parallel to Om', which is 

arrive, in the lapse of one second, the apparent trajectory of the ves- 

according to the direction taken, at sel, while O'm is its real path. Since 

some point on the dotted circum- in a second vessel, under the above 

ference (O center, V radius). But conditions, can only reach points 




if the vessel encounters a regular inside the circle with the center O', 
wind of speed r, the circumference it is called the accessible circle. 
(full line) on which it will find itself When the circumference of this dr- 
aft er one second will be that of cle includes the point O', that is 
radius V drawn from the center O', V — r ' <T O, the vessel can move 
such that 00' is equal in length (to in all directions around O, and also 
scale) and direction to the speed v to A, i.e., against the wind, if is 
of the wind. If the pilot wishes to actually dirigible, 



FOX-PHILLIPS SKIMMER 



One of the new So h.p. Gyros 
has been installed, with an air 
screw, on the Fox-Phillips skim- 
mer. The boat is 20 ft. long by 37 
in, wide, and has pontoons on 
either side to keep it from tipping 
over on making turns. 

The skimmer just produced by F. 
fox and D. B. Phillips, of Wash- 
ington, is designed to produce a 
watercraft with the speed of an 
automobile. The Gyro 80 horse- 
power motor runs the craft at 60 
miles per hour, at which speed it 
draws but an inch of water and 
the pontoons are well above the 
surface. The bow does not rise, as 
in the usual speed boat, the bottom 
remaining nearly parallel to the 
surface of the water. Only brief 
spurts have been made at this speed 
as yet as the pressure of the water 
invariably tears away or crushes 
some part of the sheathing. This 
is being remedied. 

The weight is about 650 lbs., in- 
cluding motor. There is a main 
hull 2o ft. by 3 ft., with stabilizjng 
pontoons, 6 ft. by 2 ft., one each 
side at the stern. These are con- 
nected with the main hull by wings 
of streamline section covered with 
thin spruce. The Gyro motor is 
mounted on the main hull between 
the pontoons and drives direct an 
8 ft. 3 in. diam 5 ft. 2 in. pitch 
propeller at 1,250 r.p.m. For'ard of 
the motor is the cockpit containing 
seats for two persons, steering 
wheel, etc. 

The most novel feature is a pat- 
ented device for maintaining a 
cushion of air between the hull and 
the water, the object being to re- 
duce skin friction. This is accom- 



plished by the use of wide funnels 
facing in the direction the boat 
travels and connecting with large 
tubes which pass through the hull 
from top to bottom. At high 
speeds the great air pressure, aided 
by the suction of the water past 
the mouths of the tubes, causes a 
large volume of air to be dis- 
charged under the hull. This is 
prevented from escaping sideways 
by runners on each side, extending 
2 in. below the bottom. In spite 
of these runners some air escapes 
on each side of the mouth of the 
forward air tube, which is close to 
the surface, at full speed. The 
blast of air and spray gives the 
appearance of a jet of steam escap- 
ing from the side of the hull. 



AT LAST! WRIGHT, BUR- 
GESS, CURTIS, ETC., 
TAKE NOTICE. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
335 Leavenworth St., 
AERONAUTICS. 122 East 25th St., 
New York City. 

Gentlemen : A flying machine, 
known as the "Helicopter Hydro- 
Airship," has been invented and 
patented by a mechanic of this city, 
by name H. Van Wie, which is a 
sucessful combination of parachute 
and planes, insuring safety, lifting 
power and speed. It is entirely dif- 
ferent from present flying machines, 
and as far superior to all of them 
as the modern electric train is su- 
perior to the old stage coach. It is 
destined to revolutionize not only 
methods of flying, but all methods 
of transportation, and will have a 
radically revolutionary effect on 
everything. 

You are most cordially invited to 
investigate. 

1. It leaves the ground or water 
at once. 2. Alights straight down. 
3. Has 400 per cent, lifting 'and sus- 
taining capacity. 4. Is absolutely 
non-collapsible. 5. Can remain sta- 
tionary in the air, with the aid of 
the helicopter. 6. An average speed 
of 500 miles per hour is a conserva- 
tive statement. 7. Passengers, avia- 
tors and engines are protected by 
enclosures. 8. Propeller has twice 
the efficiency of the old; two revolve 
in opposite directions on one shaft; 
three twin screws provide more than 
six times the power of the average 
aeroplane, with much less resistance. 
9. Carries duplicate of everything, 
including engine. 10. Can be re- 
paired while in flight. 11. has high- 
est efficiency with lowest loss of en- 
ergy. 12. Has no oscillation. 13- 
No noise from propellers. 14. No 
top suction. 15. Is in itself an auto- 
matic stabilizer. 16. Can be run by 
a 12-year-old boy with safety. 17- 
Can be built any size. 18. Is equip- 
ped with all modern conveniences. 
19. Is made portable, but need not 
be shipped, as it can be flown any- 
where. 

Mr. Van Wie intends to build a 
12-passenger. 2-aviator machine. It 
will take less than three months to 
build, and cost about $15,000. If 
you are interested financially, I shall 
be very glad to hear from you. 
Yours truly, 
E. S. Nelson, Secretary. 



»* 




Frank H. Burnside. the star 
Thomas flier, flew in Norristown, 
Pa., August 12. 13. 14 and 15 with 
great success. He made some 
spectacular flights. 

George Newberry, who just grad- 



uated from the Thomas School, has 
been flying at Alexandria Bay, N. 
Y., a hydro-aeroplane. His flights 
have been very successful and it 
looks as if he will become a good 
pilot. 



Page 42 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



DE LLOYD THOMPSON 
MAKES NEW ALTI- 
TUDE RECORD 

De Lloyd Thompson, who has 
been looping the loop with his Day 
tractor for some months (illustrated 
herewith), has recently fitted one 
of the new Gyro So h.p. duplex 
valve motors, and on August 6 broke 



from that time no other propeller 
has been used on the machine, ex- 
cept when the Paragon was laid up 
for repairs. The officers say they 
get about the same results with both 
propellers, but it is noticeable that 
the Paragon is the only one they 
use. 

In 191 1 we made for the Roberts 
Motor Co. two propellers, which were 
exactly alike in every particular, 



J* 



; *l r ^l* , l 





the American one-man altitude 
record by reaching a height of 14,350 
feet. 

Thompson says he was climbing 
without loss of speed up to 12,000 
feet, and from there he had a strug- 
gle. He ran out of gasoline in p' l j 
minutes, and was out of sight for 
45 minutes. 

A description of the new valve 
mechanism of the latest 80 h.p. 
Gyro motor was published in the 
June 15 issue. The Gyro factory 
is now running day and night, and 
has on hand enough orders to last 
the year out. 



THE WIDTH OF BLADES 

Speaking of the width of propel- 
ler blades, it may be of interest to 
know how narrow they have been 
made in some recent foreign de- 
signs. An 8 ft. 10 in. propeller, 
developed in the Royal aircraft fac- 
tory of Great Britain for use on 
Renault motors, with heavy bi- 
planes, has the following width: 4- 
ft. diameter, 6 1-8 in.: fc-tt <iia - 
eter, 6 3-16 in. ; 8- ft. diameter 
3 15-16 in. Two of these propellers 
were furnished with the Renault- 
driven navy boat D-2, and there was 
a great deal of favorable talk about 
them among the officers, as these 
propellers were supposed to embody 
the best results of very extensive 
experiments at the Royal aircraft 
factory, both in the laboratory and 
on the field. The two propellers 
are set at right angles to each other 
on the same shaft, so the combina- 
tion approximates a four-bladed 
propeller. After this propeller was 
used a short time, we furnished an 
SJ^-ft. three-bladed Paragon, and 



except that one had a blade about 
50 per cent wider than the other. 
Upon test, they reported no prac- 
tical difference in speed. The thrust 
was not taken. 

The blade of a propeller must not 
be considered as an oar or paddle 
pushing hack ward against the air. 
It does not move broadside, but 
edgewise through the air, and its 
angle of attack is very fine. We 
must consider the air as flowing 
across the blade from leading to 
trailing edge, just as it flows across 
an aeroplane wing, except that the 
angle of incidence of the blade is 
very much less. The business of 
the blade is to so affect the air 
flowing over that the stream of air 
will leave the blade at a slight angle 
from the direction in which the air 
approaches the blade. The blade 
has to be wide enough to cause this 
change in the direction of the air 
flowing over it, without breaking 
the air into turbulent eddies, 
whirlpools, etc., and without drag- 
ing any dead air along with the 
blade as it moves. If the blade is 



amount of change in the flow of the 
air, except that there will be a very 
slight increase of skin friction, due 
to the added surface, but this is too 
small a matter to make any practi- 
cal difference. It is probable that 
nearly all propeller blades are wider 
than they need to be in order to 
produce the same amount of 
change in the direction of flow of 
the air as it leaves the blade. The 
average propeller could be cut down 
considerably in width without af- 
fecting appreciably the speed at 
which it turns; but if the width is 
so far reduced that the air flowing 
over it cannot form in smooth, even 
lines, but surges around both edges 
of the blade, its efficiency will be 
enormously reduced and probably as 
much or even more power will be 
required to turn it at a given 
speed. The aim in propeller design 
is to secure ample width to insure 
a smooth flow of air over the face 
and back of the blade, under the 
expected condition of power, speed 
and slip. Any greater width than 
this may do no serious harm within 
reasonable limits, but encumbers the 
machine with unnecessary wood and 
a little more skin friction in the 
blade. 

Spencer Heath. 



JEFFERY GLUE IN 

WANAMAKER BOAT 

Ilammondsport, N. Y., 

August 1 _\ '14. 

L. W. Ferdinand & Co., 
Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen : We are pleased to 
state that your water-proof liquid 
glue has been used for securing the 
canvas to all of the Curtiss flying 
boats. It is also used on the Rod- 
man Wanamaker trans-Atlantic fly- 
ing boat, "America." 

It is perhaps unnecessary to add 
that in the construction of these 




wide enough to produce this change 
of direction of flow, it can do no 
more than this after it has been 
made wider; neither will it con- 
sume any more power for a given 



water-flying machines dependence is 
placed on nothing less than the very 
best materials the market affords. 

Yours very truly. 
(Signed) The Curtiss Aeroplane Co. 



* F FERYS PAT& 
' "ATEF.PROO* 

L| QUID CLV 

C QUALITY 

**• FERDINAND * ] 

•WTO*. HtU 



FOR FLYING BOATS USE 

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE 

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 7 Black. White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for water- 
proofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas 
but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat. 

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for 
waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc 

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Ma.s. U, S. A. 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



Page 43 




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Page 44 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



VELOCITY OF RISE AND LIFTING POWER OF 
BALLOONS 

(first vertical 



In the case of rubber pilot bal- 
loons it is important to be able to 
tell beforehand the velocity of risfe 
and lifting power of a balloon of 
given dimensions; or, conversely, 
to design a balloon for specified 
velocity of rise and lifting power. 

foE&n: $S„JE?r S"ffi£Si 'of *«: Velocity of ascent in mep 

weight G in grams (first horizontal per second, when filled with hydro- 
line) and thickness of material of gen or illuminating gas respectively. 

Weit'ht of Spherical Balloon Envelope in Grams, 



walls S in microns 
column: i micron = o.ooi mm). 
Table II gives: Lifting power, in 
grams, of balloon of given weight 
and thickness of walls, when filled 
with hydrogen or with coal gas 
(section IV). Tables III and V 



s 


10 


20 


30 


40 50 


60 


80 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


Mikron 




I.- 


-Diameter 


in Centimeters. 










50 


26 


36 


45 


52 58 


64 


7S 


82 


100 


118 


• 30 


140 


40 


28 


40 


SO 


58 64 


70 


81 


92 


114 


•30 


146 


160 


30 


33 


47 


58 


66 74 


82 


95 


107 


•30 


•SO 


• 68 


185 


20 


40 


58 


70 


82 92 


102 


116 


130 


160 


186 


210 


230 


lo 


58 


82 


100 


118 132 


144 


164 


184 


240 


260 












II. — Lifting Power in Grams — Hydrogen 








50 




9 


25 


42 64 


94 


155 


220 


460 


740 


1050 


1400 


40 


4 


20 


45 


76 no 


'55 


245 


355 


690 


• 100 


• 570 


2100 


30 


12 


42 


86 


138 195 


270 


420 


600 


• •50 


1800 


2500 




20 


30 


96 


190 


290 410 


560 


840 


1200 


2250 


3500 


4950 




10 


104 


310 


570 


920 1270 


1700 


2520 


350O 


7250 


9800 








III. 


— Vel 


ocity 


of Ascent 


in Meters 


Per Minute— 


-Hydrogen. 




50 






120 


125 150 


'65 


«85 


200 


230 


250 


270 


~8 5 


40 




120 


145 


160 175 


190 


200 


225 


250 


280 


290 


310 


30 


112 


'49 


170 


190 200 


215 


235 


250 


280 


310 






20 


146 


182 


200 


220 240 


250 


270 


290 










10 


190 


230 


260 


280 300 






















IV.- 


—Lifting Power 


in Grams — Coal Gas. 






Jo 






4 


16 25 


38 


74 


"5 


235 


400 


590 


780 


40 




'0 


18 


36 54 


76 


132 


195 


370 


620 


910 


1200 


30 




20 


44 


76 no 


•50 


240 


355 


680 


1080 


■330 


2000 


20 




55 


106 


180 255 


320 


530 


750 


• 370 


2200 


305O 


3950 


10 




192 


310 


560 810 


1020 


1640 


2300 


4200 


6500 


8950 






V 


— Ve 


ocity 


of Ascent 


in 


Meters 


Per Minute- 


-Coal 


Gas. 




50 








82 93 


105 


127 


140 


• 67 


188 


202 


215 


40 






91 


112 123 


133 


1 «;i 


165 


188 


210 


225 




3" 




102 


125 


140 151 


162 


178 


195 


220 








20 




138 


156 


175 188 


■95 


212 


230 










10 




182 


198 


220 236 










• • 







KILOGRAMS IN ENGLISH POUNDS (AVDP.) AND CWTS. 



hg 


lbs. 


cwls. 


hg 


lbs. 


cwts. 


kg 


lbs. 


cwts. 


kg 


lbs. 


cwts. 


1 


2,20 


0,020 


31 


68,34 


0,610 


61 


■34,48 


1,201 


91 


200,62 


1,791 


2 


4,4" 


0,039 


32 


70,55 


0,630 


62 


136,69 


1,220 


92 


202,82 


1,811 


3 


6,61 


0,059 


33 


72,75 


0,650 


63 


■38,89 


1,240 


93 


205,03 


1,831 


4 


8,82 


0,079 


34 


74,96 


0,669 


64 


141,09 


1,200 


94 


207,23 


1,850 


5 


11,02 


0,098 


35 


77jl6 


0,689 


65 


143,30 


1,280 


95 


209,44 


1,870 


6 


•3,23 


0,Il8 


36 


79,37 


0,709 


66 


145,51 


1,299 


96 


211,64 


1,890 


7 


• 5,43 


0,138 


37 


8l,57 


0,728 


67 


■47,71 


1,319 


97 


213.85 


1,909 


8 


•7,04 


0,158 


38 


83,78 


0,748 


68 


■49,91 


•,339 


98 


216,05 


1,929 


9 


19,84 


0,177 


39 


85,98 


0,768 


69 


152,12 


•,358 


99 


218,26 


■,949 


10 


22.05 


0.197 


40 


88 : i8 


0,787 


70 


■54,32 


1,378 


100 


220,46 


1,968 


11 


24,25 


0,217 


41 


90,39 


0,807 


7i 


156,53 


•,398 


101 


222,67 


1,988 


12 


26,45 


0,236 


42 


92,59 


0,827 


72 


■58,73 


1,417 


■ 02 


224,87 


2,008 


■3 


28,66 


0,256 


43 


94,8o 


0,846 


73 


160,94 


•,437 


■03 


227,07 


2,028 


•4 


30,86 


0,276 


44 


97,00 


0,866 


74 


163,14 


1,457 


•04 


229,28 


2,047 


»5 


33,07 


0,295 


45 


99,21 


0,886 


75 


■65,35 


• ,476 


■05 


231,48 


2,067 


16 


35.27 


0,315 


46 


101,41 


0,906 


76 


■67,55 


1,496 


106 


233.69 


2,087 


• 7 


37,48 


0,335 


47 


103,62 


0,925 


77 


■69,75 


1,516 


107 


235,89 


2,106 


18 


39,68 


0,354 


48 


105,82 


o,945 


78 


171,96 


■,535 


108 


238,19 


2,126 


•9 


41,89 


0,374 


49 


108,03 


0,965 


79 


174,16 


■,555 


■99 


240,30 


2,146 


20 


44,09 


o,394 


50 


110,23 


0,984 


80 


176,37 


1,575 


no 


242,51 


2,165 


21 


46,30 


o,4t3 


51 


112,44 


1,004 


8i 


■78,57 


1,594 


III 


244,71 


2,185 


22 


48,50 


o,433 


52 


114,64 


1,024 


82 


180,78 


1,614 


112 


246,92 


2,205 


23 


50,71 


0,453 


53 


116,84 


•,043 


83 


182,98 


■,634 


■■3 


249,12 


2,224 


24 


52,91 


0,472 


54 


119,05 


1,063 


84 


■85,19 


■,654 


II 4 


251,32 


2,244 


25 


55,12 


0,492 


55 


121,25 


1,083 


85 


■87,39 


1,673 


"5 


253,53 


2,264 


26 


57,32 


0,512 


56 


•23.46 


1,102 


86 


189,60 


■,693 


Il6 


255,73 


2,283 


27 


59,52 


0,532 


57 


125,66 


1,122 


87 


191,80 


1,713 


■■7 


257,94 


2", 303 


28 


6l,73 


0,551 


58 


■27,87 


1,142 


88 


194,01 


1,732 


Il8 


260,14 


2,323 


29 


63,93 


0,571 


59 


130,07 


1,161 


89 


196,21 


1,752 


■■9 


262,35 


2,342 


30 


66,14 


0,591 


60 


■32,28 


1,181 


90 


198,41 


1,772 


120 


264,55 


2,362 



SIGNALING TO AERO- 
PLANES. 

In order to communicate signals 
from a battery to the aeroplanes, the 
following methods were used by the 
artillery at Fort Riley, observers 
being carried by Lieuts. Milling and 
Arnold, in Model B Wrights, as re- 
ported by the Artillery Board: 

"Two strips of canvas, each about 
two feet wide and fifteen feet long, 
were laid on the ground, both in 
rear of the battery, and with pins 
in each corner to hold them in place 
on the ground. If these two strips 
were laid, one in prolongation of 
the other, pointing toward the front 
of the battery, it indicated that the 
battery desired the observer in the 
aeroplane to reconnoiter for a target 
in that general direction, and, having 
found it, he indicated on a card the 
direction of these strips on the 
ground and the direction in which 
ilu target lay, or signaled the radio 
to move the strips to the right or 
left. He also, when practicable, in- 
dicated an approximate estimate of 
the range. The strips were then 
laid one across the other in the 
form of a cross, which indicated to 
the observer that the battery was 
about to fire and wished him to 
observe and report. If it was de- 
sired to acknowledge receipt of a 
signal from the aeroplane, the strips 
were placed in the form of a letter 
"T." If it was desired to have a 
message repeated, the strips were 
placed in the form of a letter "V." 
If it was desired to recall the aero- 
plane in order to consult with the 
observer, the two strips were placed 
parallel to each other and two Of 
three yards apart. These signals 
worked perfectly. 

"Of the various systems of signals, 
the radio seems to promise the great- 
est rapidity, it is believed that this 
system should be adopted and sup- 
plemented by the use of cards in 
case anything happens whicli would 
prevent its operation. The long- 
hanging antenna seems to be objec- 
tionable to the aviator, and it is 
hoped that some means will be dis- 
covered whereby its use will not be 
necessary. The card system is quite 
satisfactory, and it is believed that 
it can always be used where time 
is not a very important element, as 
in general it will not be with the 
character of targets that will be fired 
at with these methods. 

"The Board is of the opinion that 
the use of observers in aeroplanes 
in connection with artillery firing at 
hidden targets is entirely practicable 
and furnishes means for reaching 
targets which could not otherwise be 
touched." 



1 cwt. (Hundredweight) 112 lbs. 50. S9 kg. 



According to the Tagliche Rund- 
schau of Berlin, the German Aero- 
plane Works at Leipzig have re- 
ceived a commission from the Brit- 
ish War Office to deliver 1 8 bi- 
planes, which are to be equipped 
with Mercedes motors. This Leip- 
zig firm recently won the first prize 
at a competition test of marine 
aeroplanes. The Albatross Works 
at Johannisthal are at present build- 
ing for the British Admiralty 12 
water biplanes, which will also have 
100-horsepower Mercedes motors 
and must attain a speed of 100 kilo- 
meters (62 miles) per hour. The 
Rundschau adds that Turkey regu- 
larly obtains its aeroplanes from 
the German Rumpler Works, to 
which the Swiss Government also" 
recently gave a large order. 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



Page 45 



PATENTS 

SECURED or FEE RETURNED 
VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY 



Send sketch or model for FRKK search of Patent Office 
record. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with 
valuable Lilt of Inventions Wanted sent Free. Send for our 
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Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. 

Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each. 

Main Offices: 724-726 NINTH STREET, N. W. 
WASHINGTON D. C. 



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SLOANE SCHOOL OF AVIATION 

Superior Training 

MONOPLANES and FLYING-BOATS 

- Address 

Sloane Aeroplane Co. 

1733 Broadway New York 




The Thomas School 

OF AVIATION 

OFFERS SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES 

Addrt... Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. 
BATH, N. Y. 



WIRE 

We make an extra high grade 

plated finish wire for 

aviators' use. 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS 

John A. Roebling's Sons Co. 

TRENTON, N. J. 



THAT PROTECT AND PAY rnrr 
BOOKS. ADVICE AND SEARCHES r Kt-t 

Send sketch or model for search. Highest References 
Best Results. Promptness Assured. 

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 
624 F Street, N. W. Washington. D. C. 




DON'T t 



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build. Four sizes. 
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Muncie, Ind. 



The 








Wright 


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(The 
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Patents) 



THE NEW WRIGHT 
AEROPLANES 

For sport, exhibition or 
military use, over land or 
water now embody the im- 
provements that have been 
suggested by the experiments 
quietly conducted during the 
past ten years. 

The Wright Company 

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pine St. 



4 Cyl, 60 H. P. 225 lbs. 6 Cyl., 100 H. P 300 lbs. 

Special feature is patented one piece copper water 
jacket. Mavinff to Larger Quarters. 

SPECIAL PRICE FOR LIMITED TIME 

4 Cyl., $ 900.00-reduced from $1,400.00 Quick 
6 Cyl.. 1,200.00-rediiced from 2.000.00 Delivery 

Herfurth Engine Co., Alexandria, Va. 



EMERSON 

ENGINES 



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Pase 46 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



NEW TYPE OF MOTOR. 

A new type of gasoline motor 
claiming 300 h.p. for a weight of 
220 lbs. was exhibited at the Paris 
Salon. This is the Demont rotary 
motor with six cylinders; its chief 
peculiarity is that it is double act- 
ing, having a large diameter cylin- 
der and a large tubular piston rod 
extending from both sides of the 
piston and sliding in tubes m both 
ends of the cylinder, the packing 
being metallic rings. The piston 
also is hollow, thus permitting a 
current of air to pass through the 



machine from gusts of wind and 
changing regime. We do not pos- 
sess any very exact information on 
the importance of the dynamical 
efforts imposed on the apparatus in 
full flight, and what is usually called 
the co-efficient of security is a co- 
efficient of a purely static order. 

On dirigibles, the knowledge of 
tensions during flight is not less in- 
teresting. It is interesting not only 
for the materials which compose the 
suspension and the car, but also 
the resistance of the material (cov- 
ering) of the balloon to which the 
cables are directly suspended. Ac- 




are provoked by sudden variations 
due to shocks. 

It is composed of a bar provided 
with three wheels that are placed 
on the cable, like that indicated in 
the figure seen from the side. The 
central wheel presses through the 
medium of a stirrup, Dd, on a hy- 
draulic capsule. This sliding stir- 
rup slides on another fixed stirrup, 
Fd', mounted on the bar. The cap- 
sule is connected by a metallic tube 
to a registering manometer. When 
the tension of the cable varies, the 
pressure on the capsule varies equal- 
ly, and these variations are recorded 
on the drum of the instrument. The 
initial position of the central wheel 
depends on the diameter of the ca- 
ble, and is regulated at the outset 
by means of the screw, G, which dis- 
places the vernier, V. 

This apparatus, constructed by the 
Richard firm, is 50 cm. long, and it 
is a powerful model, capable of 
measuring a tension of 150 kg. to 
S00 kg. It gives good results. The 
needle of the register instantly obeys 
the variations of the tension, and 
shows a variation of about 10 kg. 
It is necessary to fill the capsule 
well and it must be entirely free 
from bubbles of air. This is an es- 
sential condition. 



NEW BOOKS. 

FLYING, Some Practical Experi- 
ences, by Gustav Hamel and Charles 



~J C. Turner. 8vo, cloth, 338 



,"£■• 



tube and piston for cooling. The 
lube is sufficiently large to allow the 
connecting rod, which extends up 
into it, to oscillate. The connecting 
rods are all located in the same 
plane of rotation, and to permit this, 
all except one of them is forked at 
the end; each fork is of different 
width, so that each wider fork em- 
braces the narrower ones on the 
crank of the single throw crank 
shaft. 

The inlet and exhaust valves, me- 
chanically operated, are parallel with 
the motor's axis, the exhaust valves 
projecting forward, and inlet valves 
backward from the cylinders. Thus 
the effect of centrifugal force is 
avoided. 

It is claimed that this construc- 
tion permits the use of larger cylin- 
ders on account of the greater cool- 
ing surface, and the closeness of 
the heated walls to all parts of the 
charge. 



cording to the distribution of the 
efforts between these last, the cover- 
ing can be subjected to local efforts 
very variable; capable not only of 
compromising the resistance of the 
covering, but perhaps even its per- 
meability. 

It is in view especially of this 
last study that the apparatus has 
been reconstructed, which will be 



handsomely illustrated, published by 
Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 
at $3.50 net, postage extra. This is 
pre-eminently a practical book. One 
finds in it a vast amount of material 
of invaluable use to experienced 
fliers, as well as to amateurs and 
those about to take up flying or pur- 
chase machines. Practically a cor- 
respondence course is given in the 
first lessons. Accidents are dis- 
cussed, their causes and prevention, 
with illustrations from those of re- 
cent history and the probable rea- 
sons therefor, and the possibility of 
their having been avoided. Cross- 
country flying is taken up and 
everything relating to aerial touring 
considered. Entrants for long-dis- 
tance contests will find notes for 
their use which are the product of 
the years of extraordinary experience 
of the author, Hamel, who is too 
well known as one of the great fliers 
to need introduction. 

Among other subjects are: Choos- 
ing a Machine, Different Kinds of 





(gP* 




XI 



MEASURING THE 
TENSION OF STAYS 

IN FULL FLIGHT. 

On an aeroplane, knowledge of 
the tension which the stays may 
sustain in the course of flight is 
naturally most interesting. It per- 
mits one to determine the pressure 
sustained by the wings and the 
rate of fatigue of the parts of the 



experimented with equally on aero- 
planes. 

(Fig. 1) — The machine is built 
on the known principle of the bend. 
Its peculiarity lies in the property 
that it possesses of automatically 
registering the variations of the 
tension of the cable, whether these 
variations are due to the" progres- 
sive variations due to the efforts ex- 
erted by the wind or whether they 



Flying, High Flying, Oversea Fly- 
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Future of Flying, the Aeroplane in 
War, Wireless, Night Flying, Pho- 
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To go into detail would take too 
much space, but every reader is 
urged to become a purchaser of this 
practical book, which may be had 
through AERONAUTICS, postpaid, 
at the same price. 



AEROXAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 



Page 47 




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Pave 48 



AERONAUTICS, August 15, 1914. 




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Page 50 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 




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AERONAUTICS, 1914. 



Page 51 



A REVIEW OF AERONAUTICAL PROGRESS* 

By JOHN J. LONG 



In these days of startling prog- 
ress in the aeronautical world, we 
are prone to think that the develop- 
ment oi aeronautics is of entirely 
recent date, The problem of hu- 
man flight, however, has occupied 
the mind of man for centuries, and 
many and divers have been the so- 
I mi i 'iis offered even before the 
dawn of the nineteenth century. 

That famous artist and enginei i . 
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), 
was the first to give a technical 
suggestion for artificial flight. His 
design consisted essentially of 
aim g , w Inch were to be attached 
to the body of a man and operated 
liv Ins arms and legs. This scheme 
never passed beyond the paper 
stage, but Faust e Yeranzio in 1617 
made a descent from a tower in 
Venice in a crude form of para- 
chute, made of canvas, and he was 
probably the first actual experi- 
menter. .Many other schemes, 
some utterly impractical, followed 
Veranzio's attempt, notable among 
which was that vi the Marquis de 
Racqueville. who, in 174 J, made a 
si.hr u hat successful glide from the 
window of his Paris mansion across 
the gardens of the Tuileries, final- 
ly landing in the Seine. 

The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph 
and Jacques, invented the hot air 
balloon in 1783, and in the fall of 
that year Pilatre de Rozier, in a 
balloon of this type, made the first 
human ascent in a free balloon 
(November 21, 1783). It is inter- 
esting to note that this pioneer 
aei onaut was also the first to give 
up his life in the effort to conquer 
the air. Hydrogen gas had been 
discovered in 1776, and the cele- 
brated physicist, Chasles, suggested 
its use in a balloon. DeRozier im- 
mediately constructed a balloon in 
which he attempted to combine the 
advantages of the hydrogen and the 
fire balloons, joining together two 
separate envelopes, the upper filled 
with hydrogen and the lower filled 
with heated air — an extremely dan- 
gerous combination. After sailing 
f »r half an hour, the balloon sud- 
denly burst into flames and the 
aeronaut was dashed 3,000 feet to 
his death. 

These balloons were, of course, 
incapable of accurate direction, and 
efforts were made to design a bal- 
loon which would be dirigible. Gen- 
eral Meusnier, in 1784. anticipated 
in his design many of the excellent 
features of our modern dirigible. 
Among these may be mentioned the 
elongated form, the girth fastening, 
the triangular suspension, the air 
balloonet, the screw propeller, even 
indicating the place where the pro- 
peller should be installed. The 
death of Meusnier at the siege of 
Mayence, a few years later, un- 
doubtedly prevented the practical 
development of this design. 

The great difficulty in the way 
of the practical dirigible was a suit- 
able power plant, which should com- 
bine light weight with efficiency. 
Giffard, well known as the inventor 
of the steam boiler injector, en- 
gaged himself in an attempt to 
solve this difficulty, and obtained a 
working steam engine weighing 100 



'Paper presented at the spring 
meeting of the New Haven Section 
of the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers. 



pounds and capable of five horse- 
power. In 1852 In- lmilt a dirigible 
in which was installed a three- 
horsepower engine of this type, 
with a three-bladed propeller mak- 
ing ll 11 revolutions per minute. Flu- 
airship w-as spindle shaped, 144 feet 
long, -JO feet in diameter at mid- 
section, and of 90,000 cubic feet 
capacity. Tins dirigible, on at least 
one occasion, attained an independ- 
ent velocity of about live miles per 
hour. 

Passing over intervening attempts, 
man} of w hich l>i ought forth im- 
provements of the Giffard design. 
we ci ime to the \\ oi k of i laptains 
Renard and Krebs of the French 
army, They constructed a dirigible 
in i 884, in shape something like a 
fish, with the master-section at a dis- 
tance from the nose of about a 
quarter length. The airship was 
driven by a nine-horsepower electric 
motor, actuated by current from a 
specially designed battery of chrom- 
ium chloride cells. This motor drove 
a large wooden propi set for- 

ward, at a rate of 50 r.p.m. The 
rudder, fixed aft. was a solid body 
made of two four-sided pyramids, 
fixed together at their bases. The 
car was fixed rigidly to the net of 
the balloon by a diagonal rope sus- 
pension, and was provided with a 
sliding counterweight capable of 
movement fore and aft to balance 
any displacement of the center of 
gravity. Tins balloon, the "La 
France." left it^ hangar in Septem- 
ber. 1SS5. performed evolutions over 
Paris, and returned to the starting 
point — the first flight on record 
where a balloon started from a 
definite point and returned under 
its own power. The maximum ve- 
locity was about 15 miles per hour. 

The modern types of dirigibles 
have added little in fundamental 
principle to the work of Renard 
and Krebs. The "rigid" type, as 
exemplified by the Zeppelin, has 
been developed in Germany with 
marked success, while in France the 
"semi-rigid" type has been exclu- 
sively exploited, dating from the 
first Lebaudy dirigible in 1902. 

Turning now to the development 
of the *'heavier-than-air" machine. 
Sir George Cayley, in a paper pub- 
lished in Nicholson's Journal for 
1809-10, enunciated some of the 
principles and ideas of mechanical 
flight, and even made a rough cal- 
culation of an engine which might 
be used as motive power, incidentally 
dropping the hint that a mixture of 
gas and air, when exploded under a 
piston, might give very satisfactory 
results. Cayley analyzed the forces 
acting on the wings of a bird, and 
showed experiments which he had 
performed to illustrate the relations 
between resistance and velocitv in 
a surface moving through a medium. 

In a paper on "Aerial Locomo- 
tion." read at the first meeting of 
t lie Aeronautical Society of Great 
Britain, in 1866. F. II. Wenham 
enunciated the important principle 
that the supporting force on an in- 
clined surface being driven through 
the air is limited to a narrow p 
near the front edge. This fact, of 
course, suggested a large "aspect 
ratio." He also pointed out the 
desirability of superposing the sup- 
porting surfaces to obtain great 
lifting power. 

In 1S90 Sir Hiram Maxim carrh d 
on a series of experiments on a 



captM e ma< hine of large size. The 
ne had a total lilting surface 
oi 6,000 square feet and weighed 
8,000 pounds. It was driven by 
two specially designed steam en- 
■-.'in. -, i ai ii w< ighing 310 pounds 
and ca|.able of developing ISO liorse- 
\ lifting effect of 3,000 to 
4,000 H's. was obtained, and on one 
trial the machine broke awaj from 

its upper guide rails. 

Professor S 1'- Langley, cele- 
brated for bis researches in solar 
physics, nexl took up the pre 

at the Smiths,, man Institute. m 

Washington. Every detail was sci- 
entifically wmked out by him, ami 
he even developed a type of engine 
for his ov u use. I ie succeeded in 
accomplishing many flights with 
models, and then undertook the con- 
struction of a man-carrying machine. 
After much effort and many trying 
delays, he evolved a machine which 
he planned to launch from a house- 
boat on the Potomac. Defects in 
the launching apparatus proved dis- 
astrous tO In- "aerodrome." as In 
called it, and. disheartened by the 
ridicule of the press and the lack of 
funds, he was compelled to forego 
any further experiment. 

Contemporaneous with Langley, 
Otto Lilienthal I 1848-1896) * had 
been carrying on exhaustive experi- 
ments with man-carrying gliders in 
Germany After developing his 

glider until it was capable of ulnles 
"t over 300 yards from a height of 
30 yards or more, he planned a 
double-decked aeroplane, equipped 
with a motor. While testing a new 
steering at rangement, the machine 
lost its equilibrium and Lilienthal 
was killed by a fall of about sixty 
feet. 

Octave Chanute, a bridge engi- 
neer, introduced Lilienthal's ideas 
to this country, and, in conjunction 
with Herring, developed a biplane 
glider which was capable of several 
hundred satisfactory flights. The 
Wright brothers, Wilbur and Or- 
ville, encouraged by what they had 
learned of Lilienthal's success, made 
a number of successful gliding ex- 
periments, which led to the con- 
struction of a motor-driven aero- 
plane. This resulted in a successful 
flight of 59 seconds on the 17th of 
December, 1903 — undoubtedly the 
first man flight in a motor-driven 
aeroplane. 

Santos-Dumont won the Arch- 
deacon prize on October 23, 1906, 
for a flight of 25 metres, the first 
flight in Europe, and in January. 
1908, Farman covered a triangular 
course of one kilometer, thereby 
winning the Archdeacon-Dents, h 
prize. Farman established yet an- 
other record by making the fust 
cross-country flight from Chalons 
to Rheims, a distance of 17 miles. 
and Eleriot made the first ell 
trip across country from Toury to 
Artenay, a distance of 19 miles 
One July 25, 1909. Bleriot crossed 
the English Channel, and in the 
same year Glenn Curtiss won the 
first international contest for 

America at Rheims. 

The modern history of aeronau- 
tics i- encompassed in a remarkably 
• span of yi ars. The success- 

ful dirigibles of the French army 
and of Zeppelin in Germany, and 
the developing til of the many types 

( < 'on tin ued <>>i Paae'68) 



Page 52 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 
AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORIES 



The specialization of aviation as 
an aid to warfare and its minimi- 
zation as a sport has led directly 
to the enlargement of or institution 
in European countries of great ex- 
perimental plants and laboratories 
devoted to academic and engineer- 
ing investigations. Whatever studies 
will promote the art of aircraft con- 
struction and navigation are prose- 
cuted by these laboratories. The 
laboratories of London, St. Cyr and 
Johannisthal are practically unlimit- 
ed in the scope of their researches. 
A note on some of these has been 
written by Dr. Zahn and published 
by the Smithsonian Institute. 

There is the Eiffel Aerodynamic 
Laboratory, near Paris, supported 
by the private purse of the famous 
G. Eiffel, who has contributed a 
number of volumes to the art, which 
are considered basic as to their 
data. , . , 

France also has the Aerotechnical 
Institute of the University of Paris, 
at St. Cyr, under M. Maurain, 
founded by Baron Deutsche de la 
Meurth, who furnished $100,000 for 
the original plant, $3,000 a year 
for maintenance during bis lifetime, 
and was presented to the University 
of Paris; and the military estab- 
lishment at Chalais-Meudon, re- 
sembling the British Aircraft Fac- 
tory; and the "Conservatoire Na- 
tionale des Arts et Metiers," cor- 
responding to our Bureau of Stand- 
ards. 

Germany has the Gdttingen Aero- 
dynamical Laboratory, under the di- 
rection of Prof. Prandtl of the Uni- 
versity of Gdttingen, begun with 
money supplied by the Motor Air- 
ship Study Company and supported 
by financial aid of the government; 
and the "Deutsche Versuchanstalt 
fur Luftfahrt zu Adlershof," at the 
Johannisthal flying field, near Ber- 
lin. 

In England, the British govern- 
ment established at Teddington the 
National Physical Laboratory, under 
the directorship of Dr. R. T. Glaze- 
brook, chairman of the Advisory 
Committee for Aeronautics, and the 
Royal Aircraft Factory at Farn- 
borough. Both are under this Ad- 
visory Committee, which also con- 
ducts work at private concerns, such 
as Vickers Sons and Maxim, and 
are supported by the government. 
The Northampton Polytechnic In- 
stitute, London, and the East Lon- 
don College also have aeronautical 
laboratories. 

In Russia there is the Aero- 
technical Institute of Koutchino, at 
that city, under the direction of M. 
Riabouchinsky. Italy has an im- 
portant plant. These two will be 
dealt with in a subsequent article. 

The Factory has disclosed defects 
in leading types of machines, indi- 
cated means of betterment, and has 
improved efficiency, stability, factor 
of safety and range of speed in the 
machines studied there. It has pro- 
duced a stable, efficient and safe bi- 
plane, with a range of speed from 
4") to 80 miles an hour. A standard 
control is being worked out, and 
opinion favors the Deperdussin. 
The Advisory Committee publishes 
annual reports, which can be ob- 
tained by any one through the pub- 
lishers. 

The Eiffel Laboratory consists of 
a single building, housing a wind 
tunnel designed and patented by 
Eiffel, experiment rooms and test- 
ing devices, such as wind balances, 



electric propeller tester, apparatus 
for measuring distribution of air 
pressure over the surface of models, 
instruments for finding center of 
pressure, etc. The work of the 
laboratory is all indoors, and is con- 
fined to wind tunnel measurements 
principally. Seven skilled men are 
employed. Reports on work are is- 
sued occasionally in book form by 
M. Eiffel, as is well known to all 
readers. 

The British "Advisory Commit- 
tee" primarily is occupied with gov- 
ernmental work, but does under- 
take tests and researches for indi- 
viduals. The work includes whirl- 
ing table and wind tunnel measure- 
ments, testing of engines, propellers, 
metals, fabrics, cables, varnishes, 
hydromechanic studies, meteorologi- 
cal observations, mathematical in- 
vestigations in fluid dynamics, the 
theory of gyroscopes, aeroplane and 
dirigible design, and so forth. The 
Committee was formed of twelve 
expert civilians, under the presi- 
dency of Lord Rayleigh, appointed 
by the Prime Minister to work out 
theoretical and experimental prob- 
lems for the army and navy. One 
building is provided for the 60-foot 
whirling table for the testing of 
models and model propellers; an- 
other for a large expanded-tvpe 
wind tunnel, which is some 80 feet 
long bv 7 feet square, which, with 
the wind balance, makes an outlay 
of $16,500 for the building and 
equipment. A small wind tunnel 
bouse, with a tunnel half the above 
size, costing $20,000; a small water 
channel for testing stream-line flow 
about models; two wind towers for 
testing flow and pressure of free air 
on large scale models; large marine 
model tank, wood and metal work- 
ing shops, stores, etc., are other 
facilities. The Royal Aircraft 

Factorv is adjacent to the military 
grounds at Farnborough. and is con- 
cerned with the scientific improve- 
ment of aircraft construction, 
though it frequently manufactures 
on a large scale aeroplanes, airships 
and propellers. Both the above in- 
stitutions have a whirlintr table and 
engine testing plant. The Labora- 
tory investigates models particular- 
ly, and the Factory full-scale craft, 
parts and appurtenances. The Fac- 
tory spends around half a million a 
vear and emolovs 700 men. and with 
its mammoth plant, covering many 
acres and comprising half a dozen 
larce buildings, it can produce one 
aeroplane a day. 

The St. Cvr institute conducts 
large scale experiments in the field 
as well as indoor work, and makes 
investigations for the eeneral public 
or allows private individuals to use 
the laboratory. The director has 
three or four assistants at work, 
and the aid of a large advisory 
council of eminent engineers, scien- 
tists and officers. A special feature 
is the %-mile track, with electric 
cars for tests on large propellers 
and full-size aeroplanes. The site 
covers some 18 acres, and comprises 
a central hall surrounded on three 
sides bv workshops, stores, labora- 
tories and power house. Equip- 
ment includes wind tunnel, balance, 
fan. arrangement for measuring 
friction of air on surfaces at all 
V pi""Ui(>c. pi^r-t^:*. H"inmnmeter for 

™rpci.riiiir G\eu nr"n-lW torn 'IP, 

nrmmt^ for studying heb'copters. 
°nmne tester, chemical laboratory 
for studying light gases in all re- 



spects, material for containing tame 
varnishes, etc. All instruments of 
value are at hand, and workshops 
furnish test wings and parts and re- 
pair facilities. The electric railway 
enables full-sized aeroplanes to be 
tested in a condition of flight, so 
that lift, drift and moment or center 
of pressure can be determined at 
once as it travels across the field. 
The institute publishes yearly bul- 
letins of its work. 

The laboratory at Gdttingen is 
near the university, and is not so 
very extensive, being composed of 
but one small building, housing a 
wind tunnel, with numerous instru- 
ments. The results of experiments 
here have been published in various 
German technical periodicals. Of 
particular interest are the determina- 
tions of pressure distribution on 
models of airship hulls and meas- 
urements of the resultant wind 
force on oblique hulls and wing 
forms. The work of this laboratory 
has chiefly been devoted to w i n.d- 
tunnel experiments. 

The plant at Johannisthal, the 
largest except the British, adjoins 
the great flying field and numerous 
aircraft factories, aeroplane sheds, 
etc. Dr. Eng. F. Bendemann is 
director, with ten assistants. Both 
indoor and outdoor researches are 
conducted, and it is liberally sup- 
ported in its work, which has un- 
limited scope. There is one main 
building, with a 100- foot tower for 
wind observations in which to test 
aeroplanes of full size ; a building 
used for construction work, and five 
smaller buildings, each containing 
an engine-testing outfit. It is in- 
tended to fly full-size aeroplanes 
with measuring instruments mounted 
on a car on a railway, in a similar 
manner to the method at St. Cyr. 
Wings are tested for stress and 
strain, a device is being used to 
measure the force employed in 
operating controls, motors are tested 
in the usual manner of engineers, 
and the equipment generally is nat- 
urally such as would likely be seen 
in such an institution. 

Other German laboratories are the 
testing department of the Zeppelin 
Airship Company, which is not open 
to visitors; the aerodynamical lab- 
oratory of Prof. Reissner, of the 
Technical High School at Aachen; 
Major Parse val's laboratory in the 
high school at Berlin, and an ex- 
perimental plant of Dr. Fr. Ahl- 
born at Hamburg. 

The equipment of the Aerody- 
namic Laboratory of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology con- 
sists of a wind tunnel 16 square 
feet in section, through which air 
is drawn by a seven-foot four- 
bladed propeller. The steadiness of 
the current has been carefully studied 
with the result that the wind 
can be kept uniform in velocity 
within one per cent. The variation 
of velocity across a section is also 
within one per cent. Any speed 
from 4 to 40 miles per hour can 
be maintained. 

The wind tunnel and the aerody- 
namic balance are made from the 
plans of the National Physical Lab- 
oratory equipment, Teddington. Eng- 
land, by whose director. Dr. R. T. 
Glazebrook, F.R.S., the complete 
plans were generously presented. 

The balance is a duplicate of the 
English balance, and shares with the 

(Continued on Page 62) 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 



Page 53 



SOARING FLIGHT 

Written for AERONAUTICS by O. Chanute. 



[The following article, written by 
Mr. Chanute in 1908, still holds good 
in a general way, though the figures 
might be modified in the light of 
more recent work. However, we 
do not yet know the coefficients 
for a buzzard's wing, or for a 
whole buzzard, except the experi- 
ments of Dr. Zahm here cited, 
which show a very small horizontal 
resistance for the whole bird. — 
Km roR. I 

There is a wonderful perform- 
ance daily exhibited in Southern 
climes and occasionally seen in 
Northerly latitudes in Summer, 
which has never been thoroughly 
i xplained. It is the Soaring or 
Sailing flight of certain varieties 
of large birds who transport them- 
selves on rigid unflapping wings 
in any desired direction; who, in 
winds of 6 to 20 miles per hour, 
"ircle, rise, advance, return and 
emain aloft for hours without a 
teat of wing, save for getting un- 
ler way or convenience in various 
maneuvers. They appear to ob- 
tain from the wind alone all the 
in si i ssary energy, even to advanc- 
ing dead against that wind. This 
feat is so much opposed to our gen- 
eral ideas of physics that those who 
have not seen it sometimes deny its 
actuality and those who have only 
occasionally witnessed it subse- 
quently doubt the evidence of their 
.w ii eyes. Others who have seen 
che exceptional performances specu- 
late on various explanations, but 
the majority give it up as a sort 
of "negative gravity." 

The writer of this paper pub- 
lished in the "Aeronautical An- 
nual" for 1896 and 1897 an arti- 
cle upon the sailing flight of birds, 
in which he gave a list of the 
authors who had described such 
flight or had advanced theories for 
its explanation and he passed these 
in review. He also described his 
own observations and submitted 
some computations to account for 
the observed facts. These compu- 
tations were correct as far as they 
went but they were scanty. It was 
for instance shown convincingly by 
analysis that a gull weighing 2.188 
pounds, with a total supporting sur- 
face of 2,015 square feet, a maxi- 
mum body cross-section of 0.126 
square feet and a maximum cross- 
aection of wing edges of 0.09S 
square feet, patrolling on rigid 
wings (soaring) on the weather 
side of a steamer and maintaining an 
upward angle or attitude of 5° to 7° 
above the horizon, in a wind blowing 
12.78 miles an hour which was de- 
flected upward 10° to 20° by the 
side of the steamer (these all being 
carefully observed facts) , was per- 
fectly sustained at its own "relative 
speed" of 17.8S miles per hour and 
extracted from the upward trend of 
the wind sufficient energy to over- 
come all the resistances, this energy 
amounting to 6 44 foot-pound per 
sec<md. It was shown that the same 
bird in flapping flight in calm air, 
with an attitude or incidence of 3° 
to 5° above the horizon and a speed 
of 20.4 miles an hour was well sus- 
tained and expended 5.88 foot-pounds 
per second, this being at the rate 
of 204 pounds sustained per horse- 
power. It was stated also that a 
gull in its observed maneuvers, ris- 
ing up from a pile head on un- 
flapping wings, then plunging for- 



ward against the wind and subse- 
quently rising higher than his start- 
ing point, must either time his 
ascents and descents exactly with 
the variations in wind velocities, or 
must meet a wind billow rotating 
on a horizontal axis and come to 
a poise on its crest, thus availing 
of an ascending trend. 

But the observations failed to 
demonstrate that the variations of 
the wind gusts and the movements 
of the bird were absolutely syn- 
chronous, and it was conjectured 
that the peculiar shape of the soar- 
ing wing of certain birds, as dif- 
ferentiated from the flapping wing, 
might, when experimented upon, 
hereafter account for the perform- 
ance. 

These computations, however satis- 
factory they were for the speed of 
winds observed, failed to account 
for the observed spiral soaring of 
buzzards in very light winds and 
the writer was compelled to con- 
fess: "Now, this spiral soaring in 
steady breezes of 5 to 10 miles per 
hour which are apparently horizontal, 
and through which the bird main- 
tains an average speed of about 20 
miles an hour, is the mystery to be 
explained. It is not accounted for, 
quantitatively, by any of the theories 
which have been advanced, and it is 
the one performance which has led 

- e observers to claim that it was 

done through 'aspiration'; i. e., that 
a bird acted upon by a current, 
actually drew forward into that cur- 
rent against its exact direction of 
motion." 

A still greater mystery was pro- 
pounded by the few observers who 
asserted that they had seen buz- 
zards soaring in a dead calm, main- 
taining their elevation and their 
speed. .Among these observers was 
Mr, E. C Huffaker, at one time 
assistant experimenter for Professor 
Langley. The writer believed and 
said then that he must in some way 
have been mistaken, yet, to satisfy 
himself he paid several visits to 
Mr. Huffaker in eastern Tennessee 
and took along his anemometer. He 
saw quite a number of buzzards sail- 
ing at a height of 75 to 100 feet in 
breezes measuring 5 or 6 miles an 
hour at the surface of the ground 
and once he saw one buzzard soar- 
ing apparently in a dead calm. 

The writer was fairly baffled. The 
bird was not simply gliding, utilizing 
gravity or acquired momentum, he 
was actually circling horizontally in 
defiance of physics and mathematics. 
It took two years and a whole series 
of further observations to bring 
those two sciences into accord with 
the facts. 

Curiously enough the key to the 
performance of circling in a light 
wind or a dead calm was not found 
through the usual way of gathering 
human knowledge, i. e., through ob- 
servations and experiment. These 
had failed because I did not know 
what to look for. The mystery was, 
in fact, solved by an eclectic process 
i i a injecture and computation, but 
once these computations indicated 
what observations should be made 
the results gave at once the reasons 
for the circling of the birds, for his 
then observed attitude and for the 
necessity of an independent initial 
sustained speed before soaring be- 
gan. Both Mr. Huffaker and my- 
self verified the data many times 
and I made the computations. 



These observations disclosed sev- 
eral facts: 

1st. That winds blowing 5 to 17 
miles per hour frequently had rising 
trends of 10° to 15° and that upon 
occasions when there seemed to be 
absolutely no wind there was often, 
nevertheless, a local rising of the 
air estimated at a rate of 4 to 8 
miles or more per hour. This was 
ascertained by watching thistle down 
and rising fogs alongside of trees or 
hills of known height. Every one 
will readily realize that when walk- 
ing at the rate of 4 to 8 miles an 
hour in a dead calm the "relative 
wind" is quite inappreciable to the 
senses and that such a rising air 
would not be noticed. 

2nd. That the buzzard sailing in 
an apparently dead horizontal calm 
progressed at speeds of 15 to 18 
miles per hour, as measured by his 
shadow on the ground. It was 
thought that the air was then pos- 
sibly rising 8.8 feet per second, or 6 
miles per hour. 

3rd. That when soaring in very 
light winds the angle of incidence 
of the buzzards was negative to the 
horizon, i. e., that when seen com- 
ing towards the eye the afternoon 
light shone on the back instead of 
on the breast, as would have been 
the case had the angle been inclined 
above the horizon. 

4th. That the sailing performance 
only occurred after the bird had ac- 
quired an initial velocity of at least 
1 5 or 18 miles per hour, either by 
industrious flapping or by descending 
from a perch. 

5th. That the whole resistance of 
a stuffed buzzard, at a negative angle 
of 3° in a current of air of 15.52 
miles per hour was 0.27 pounds. This 
test was kindly made for the writer 
by Professor A. F. Zahm in the 
"wind tunnel" of the Catholic Uni- 
versity at Washington, D. C, who 
moreover stated that the resistance 
of a live bird might be less, as the 
dried plumage could not be made to 
lie smooth. 

This particular buzzard weighed 
in life 4.25 pounds, the area of his 
wings and body was 4.57 square feet, 
the maximum cross section of his 
body was 0. 1 10 square feet and 
that of his wing edges when fully 
extended was 0.244 square feet. 

With these data it became sur- 
prisingly easy to compute the per- 
formance with the co-efficients of 
Lilientha! for various angles of in- 
cidence and to demonstrate how this 
buzzard could soar horizontally in 
a dead horizontal calm provided that 
it was not a vertical calm and that 
the air was rising at the rate of 
4 or 6 miles per hour, the lowest 
observed, and quite inappreciable 
wit hnut actual measuring. 

The most difficult case is pur- 
posely selected. For if we assume 
that the bird has previously ac- 
quit ed an initial minimum speed 
of 17 miles an hour (24.93 feet per 
second, nearly the lowest measured), 
and that the air was rising vertically 
6 miles an hour (8.80 feet per 
second), then we have as the trend 
of the "relative wind" encountered: 
6 

— = 0.353 or the tangent of 19° 26' 
17 

which brings the case into the cate- 
gory of rising wind effects. But 
the bird was observed to have a 



l\njc 54 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 



negative angle to the horizon of 
about o u as near as could be 
guessed, so that his angle of in- 
cidence i" the "relative wind" was 
reduced to 16° 26'. 

The relative speed of his soaring 
was therefore: 

\ elocity = V 17- + 6 2 — 18.03 
miles per hour. 

At tins speed, using the Langley 

co-erricient recently, practically con- 

■ urate experiments 

hi Mr. Eiffel, the air pressure 

would be — - 

18.03 3 x ii.uti.iJ7 = 1.063 pounds 
per square foot. 
If we apply Lilienthal's co-et- 
Lmnis for an angle of 16° 26', we 
have for the force in action: 

Normal: 4.57 x 1.063 x 0.912 = 
4.42 pounds 

Tangential: 4.57 x 1.063 x —0.074 
= — U.359 pounds 
which latter, being negative, is a 
propelling force. 

Thus we have a bird weighing 4.25 
pounds not only thoroughly sup- 
ported, but impelled forward by a 
force of U.359 pounds, at 17 miles 
per hour, while the experiments of 
Professor A. F. Zahm showed that 
the resistance at 15.52 miles per 
hour was only 0.27 pounds, or 
17= 

(1.27 x — = 0.324 pounds at 17 

15.52 2 
miles an hour. 

These are astonishing results from 
thi data obtained and they lead to 
the inquiry whether the energy ot 
the rising air is sufficient to make 
up the losses which occur by reason 
oi the resistance and friction of the 
birds body and wings, which being 
rounded do not encounter air pres- 
sures in proportion to their maxi- 
mum cross-section. 

We have no accurate data upon 
the co-efticients to apply and esti- 
mates made by myself proved to be 
much smaller than the 0.27 pounds 
n sistance measured by Professor 
Zahm, so that we will figure with 
the latter as modified. As the speed 
is 17 miles per hour, or 24.93 feet 
per second, we have for the work: 

Work done: 0.324 x 24.93 = S.07 
foot-pounds per second. 

Corresponding energy of rising air 
is not sufficient at 4 miles per hour. 
This amounts to but 2.10 foot-pounds 
per serum 1, but if we assume that 
the air was rising at the rate of 
7 miles per hour 1 10.26 feet per 
second), .it which the pressure with 
the Langley co-efficient would be 
0.16 pounds per square foot, we 
have "ii 4.57 square feet, for energy 
of rfcing air: 4.57 x 0.16 x 10.26 = 
7.5ii foot-pounds per second, which 
is seen to be still a little too small, 
but w ell within the limits of error, 
in view of the hollo v shape of the 
bird's wings, w Inch receive greater 
pressure than the Hat planes ex- 
perimented upon by Langley. 

These computations were chiefly 
made in January, 1899. and were 
communicated to a few friends, who 
found an fallacy in them, but 
thought that few aviators would un- 
derstand them if published. They 
were then submitted to Professor C. 
F. Marvin, of the Weather Bureau, 
who is well known as a skilful 
physicist and mathematician. I le 
wrote that they were, theoretically, 
entirely sound and quantitatively 
probably as accurate as the present 
state of the magnitude of wind 
pressure--, permitted. The writer de- 
Term ined. however, to withhold pub- 



lication until the feat of soaring 
flight had been performed by man, 
partly because he believed tnat, to 
ensure safety, it would be necessary 
that the machine should be equipped 
with a motor in order to supplement 
any deficiency in wind force. 

The feat would have been at- 
tempted in 1902 by Wright Brothers 
if the local circumstances had been 
more tavorable. i hey were ex- 
perimenting on "Kill-Devil Hill," 
near Kitty Hawk, N. L. This sand 
hill, about 10(J feet high, is bordered 
by a smooth beach on the side 
whence come the sea breezes, but has 
marshy ground at the back. Wright 
Brothers were apprehensive that it 
they rose on the ascending current 
of air at the front and began to 
circle like the birds, they might be 
carried by the descending current 
past the uack of the hill and land 
in the marsh. Their gliding ma- 
chine offered no greater head re- 
sistance in proportion than the buz- 
zard and their gliding angles of de- 
scent are practically as favorable, 
but the birds performed higher up 
in the air than they. 

Professor Langley said in conclud- 
ing Ins paper upon "The internal 
work ui the wind": 

"The final application of these 
principles to the art of aerodromics 
seems then to be, that while it is not 
likely that the perfected aerodrome 
will ever be able to dispense alto- 
gether with the ability to rely at 
intervals on some internal source of 
power, it will not be indispensable 
that this aerodrome of the future 
shall, in order to go any distance — ■ 
even to circumnavigate the globe 
without alighting — need to carry a 
weight of tuel wdiich would enable 
it to perform this journey under 
conditions analogous to those of a 
steamship, but that the fuel and 
weight need only be such as to 
enable it tu. take care of itself in 
exceptional moments of calm." 

Now that dynamic flying machines 
have been evolved and are being 
brought under control it seems to 
be worth while to make these com- 
putations and the succeeding ex- 
planations known, so that some bold 
man will attempt the feat of soar- 
ing like a bird. The theory under- 
lying the performance in a rising 
wind is not new, it has been sug- 
gested by Penaud and others, but 
it has attracted little attention be- 
cause the exact data and the man- 
euvers required were not known 
and the feat had not yet been per- 
formed by a man. The puzzle has 
always been to account for the ob- 
served act in very light winds and 
it is hoped that by the present se- 
lection uf the most difficult case to 
explain, i. e., the soaring in a dead 
hoi isontal calm, somebody will at- 
tempt the exploit. 

The following are deemed to be 
the requisites and manoeuvei s 1" 
master the secrets of soaring flight: 

1 St. Develop a dynamic flying 
machine weighing about 1 pounds 
per square foot of area, with stable 
equilibrium and under perfect con- 
trol, caiiable of gliding by gravity at 
angle of one in ten (5%°) in still 
air. 

2nd. Select locations where soar- 
ing birds abound and occasions 
where rising trends of gentle winds 
arc frequent and to he relied on. 

3rd. Obtain an initial velocity of 
at least 25 feci per second before 
attempting to soar. 

4th. So locale the centre of grav- 
ity that the apparatus shall assume 



a negative angle, fore and aft, of 
about 3°. Calculations show, how- 
ever, that sufficient propelling force 
may still exist at 0°, but disappears 
entirely at + 4°. 

5th. Circle like the bird. Simul- 
taneously with the steering incline 
the apparatus to the side towards 
which it is desired to turn, so thai 
the centrifugal force shall be bal- 
anced by the centripetal force. The 
amount of the required inclination 
depends upon the speed and on the 
radius of the circle swept over. 

6th. Rise spirally like the bird. 
Steer with the horizontal rudder, so 
as to descend slightly when going 
with the wind and to ascend when 
going against the wind. The bird 
circles over one spot because the 
rising trends of wind are generally 
confined to small areas or local 
chimneys as pointed out by Sir H. 
Maxim and others. 

7th. Once altitude is gained 
progress may be made in any di- 
rection by gliding downward by 
gravity. 

The bird's flying apparatus and 
skill are as yet infinitely superior 
to those of man, but there are in- 
dications that within a few years 
the latter may evolve more accurate- 
ly proportioned apparatus and ob- 
tain absolute control over it. 

It is hoped therefore that, if 
there be found no radical error in 
the above computations, they will 
carry the conviction that soaring 
flight is not inaccessible to man, as 
it promises great economies of mo- 
tive power _ in favorable localities 
of rising winds. 

The writer will be grateful to 
experts who may point out any mis- 
take committed in data or calcula- 
tions and will furnish additional in- 
formation to any aviator who may 
wish to attempt the feat of soaring. 



An American consul in Oceania 
reports that a person in his district 
desires to purchase an aeroplane, 
lie has been deferring purchase 
awaiting further perfection in the 
construction of such machines. 
Manufacturers should lay special 
stress in the literature upon all im- 
proved safety features of their air 
craft. The inquirer is understood to 
favor the monoplane type. Prices 
should be quoted cash f. o. b. San 
Francisco or c. i. f. a certain port 
in I i.eania. 



"I enjoy AERONAUTICS very 
much, and when my subscription is 
up my money will be on deck for a 
renewal." -\V. J. K., Savannah, Ga. 



3ht iffirmnrtam 

377 letters which have 
been sent to 377 sub- 
sen hers asking for pay- 
ment of 377 subscrip- 
tions clue. 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 

AIRCRAFT IN THE WAR 



Page 55 



Aeroplanes, from the scattered 
and mostly-to-be-doubted reports 
which percolate through the censors, 
after being manhandled, pruned, 
manicured and otherwise treated by 
the newspaper boards of strategy, 
seem to be meeting with all the 
success claimed for them as instru- 
ments of reconnaissance. In addi- 
tion they seem to be able to act 
in offense and defense upon occa- 
sion, when opposing aircraft are to 
be taken care of. 

Of course, machines have been 
brought down by gun tire, some 
bombs have been dropped there- 
from, pilots or observers have been 
killed in flight or made prisoners 
upon descent being forced by arms 
or by troubles peculiar to aeroplanes 
in war as well as peace. 

One wonders to what purpose the 
Zeppelins and other airships are 
being put at the present time, or to 
v hich they will be put, as no au- 
thentic information is available as 
to their activities. Some half dozen 
are said to have been captured or 
destroyed. The same number is said 
not to have been captured or de- 
stroyed by the enemy. One may 
believe whichever story most pleases 
his imagination. 

After it is all over, there will 
undoubtedly be accurate informa- 
tion made public in so far as its 
publication will not tend to destroy 
the value of aircraft in future wars 
which are still a possibility, judging 
from past centuries of human na- 
ture. 

The military aeroplane, according 
to "Steve" MacGordon, one of the 
best known of American aviators, 
says the Sun, has proved its worth 
and the European powers are doing 
their utmost to keep their stock of 
machines replenished. MacGordon 
has just arrived from a tour of the 
Continental countries, after being 
reported as enlist i Tig in the French 
air fleet. William Thaw was also 
said to have joined the French air 
force. 

"Information as to just what the 
aeroplanes were doing in the war 
u as hard to get in France," said 
MacGordon, "but I talked with Ro- 
land Garros and several military 
aviators who had been at the front 
with the French and British armies, 
and learned enough of what was 
going on to be sure that the "fourth 
arm" has not proved a failure. All 
of them agree that for scouting and 
range rinding the aeroplane is in- 
valuable." 

"The Germans arc at a disad- 
vantage so far as their aeroplanes 
are concerned. Most of their ma- 
chines are of the 'D. F. VW and 
"taube" types. They are beautiful 
machines and wonderfullly well 
built, but speed has been sacrificed 
for stability and, from the reports 
that came to me, this has been dis- 
astrous. 

"The French machines are speedy 
and can cut circles around the 
clurnsv German planes. If a German 
machine is seen in the air by the 
French no attention is paid to it 
until the officers have decided that 
the enemy has learned too much- 
Then two or three fast machines 
^re sent out to 'get' the unwelcome 
visitor, and. although little news has 
leaked out through official channels, 
I am certain that they have been 
'getting* them. 

"To my mind the best machines 
of all are those built in England. 
Sopwith and Vickers machines have 



been shipped to the Continent and 
are being usea by the allied torces. 
i lie iop;\ ith tabloid type can make 
ii.i nnics an hour, and the Vickers 
gun 'uus, armoreu and carrying a 
ganing gun, can fly at S3 nines, 
i ou can see wnat an advantage tnis 
gives ihem over the German ma- 
rines, which travel at aOout 5j 
nines an hour. 

'" 1 lie reason that so many ma- 
chines have been struck by bullets, 
according to the French and English 
army fliers, is that the pilot lias 
liiKcn too many chances." 

John Lansing Lallan, who went 
to the Azores last July to await the 
arrival ot Lieutenant forte with the 
"America," has arrived from Eng- 
land. 

Lallan confirmed the rumor that 
the "America" had been purchased 
by the .British Admiralty, and from 
his statements it was apparent that 
more machines of the same type will 
be delivered to Great Britain. Ac- 
cording to Callan, it was through 
the representations of Lieutenant 
Forte that the purchase was de- 
termined upon. 

Editorially the New York Sun 
says: 

"Every nation which still believes 
that something of humanity should 
be maintained in the usages of war- 
fare should raise its voice against 
this archdeed of pitiless savagery; 
against the repetition of sucli sense- 
less and unforgivable blind massa- 
cre" as the dropping of bombs from 
a Zeppelin upon Antwerp. 

In reply to this, the Army and 
Navy Journal says, "Captain Boy- 
Ed, Xaval Attache of the German 
Embassy, defends the attack upon 
Antwerp by a Zeppelin. Antwerp, 
he says, is a fortress and must be 
prepared for bombardment, whether 
from land or sea or air. The second 
Hague peace convention lias in ii" 
way prohibited the use of projec- 
tiles from the air. The effect of a 
bomb from an airship can hardly be 
worse than that of a shell from a 
large siege gun, and we must get 
used to the new idea of carrying 
war into the air. The non-military 
population was just as much at liber- 
ty to evacuate Antwerp as the popu- 
lation was who left Tsing-tau before 
Japan bombarded it. While the ac- 
tion of the Zeppelin cruiser in no 
way was forbidden by the interna- 
tional law, lie adds, a French avia- 
tor, before war had been declared, 
sinned against the Hague peace con- 
vention. He threw from his aero- 
plane bombs into the unfortified and 
unsuspecting city of Nuernberg. In 
conclusion he says: 'I believe thai 
the excitement of our enemies over 
the alleged use of our airship is to 
be traced to their disappointment 
for not being able to make war in 
this most modern way for lack of 
similarly efficient airships.' " 

In a news despatch to the Sun 
from Amiens, France. Duncan Mc- 
Diarmid tells of a w'ounded Scotch 
private who. in describing the fight- 
ing "somewhere around Mons," 
said: "The German artillery was re- 
markably precise in its shooting. 
Zeppelins and aeroplanes were over 
us all the time, giving the gunners 
the range, so that the shells were 
bursting within two or three feet 
of where we were in the trenches. 
Nearly all our wounded were struck 
by shrapnel." 

Other British wounded from the 
fighting around Mons arrived at 



Rouen. There Hamilton Pyfe re- 
cords one of them as saying: "The 
German artillery over a range twe 
or three miles off soon opened on 
us. Fortunately most of the shells 
burst behind us and did no harm. 
Some burst backward and got among 
us. They kept it up as hard as 
ever when it was dark. In the day- 
time they had aeroplanes 'a tell 
them where to drop the shells. They 
were flying about all the time. One 
came a bit too near. Our gunners 
a long way behind waited and let 
him come. Two thousand feet up, 
he was, I dare say. All of a sud- 
den the gunners let fly. We could 
see the thing stagger and then good- 
bye, Mr. Flying Man! He dropped 
like a stone, all crumpled up." 

An Englishman who arrived at 
London from Belgium and who saw 
a Zeppelin in action, is reported as 
saying that for the purpose of drop- 
ping bombs the airship ascends to a 
height which protects it from the 
range of gunfire and then lowers a 
steel cage by a cable a distance of 
2,000 or 3,000 feet below the dirigi- 
ble. The soldier whose duty it is 
to drop the bombs is stationed in 
this cage, which is strong enough 
to resist rifle fire and is a difficult 
mark for artillery because of its 
small size and because by means 
of the cable suspending it, it is 
kept m constant motion. 

On September 15 there came the 
story that Russian artillery put out 
of commission a Zeppelin which 
came low over the ground, causing 
the white flag to be hoisted; after 
which, it is claimed, the crew 
dropped bombs from the surrendered 
airship and killed 23 persons and 
caused the wreck of the airship as 
well before they reached the earth 
and were captured by the Russians. 
On September 14 the press bureau 
in London issued some news from 
Marsha] French, commander of the 
British forces, complimenting Brit- 
ish aviators on the precision, ex- 
actitude and regularity of the news 
brought in. 

"During a period of twenty days, 
up to the 10th of September, a daily 
average of more than nine recon- 
naissance flights of over 100 miles 
each has been maintained. 

"The constant object of our avia- 
tors has been to effect an accurate 
location of the enemy's forces and. 
incidentally, since the operations 
cover so large an area, of our own 
units. 

"The tactics adopted for dealing 
with hostile air craft are to follow 
them constantly with one or more 
British machines. This has been 
so far successful that in five cases 
( ierman pilots or observers have 
been shot while in the air and their 
machines brought to ground. As a 
consequence the British flying corps 
has succeeded in establishing an in- 
dividual ascendancy which is as 
serviceable to us as it is damaging 
to the enemy. 

"Something in the direction of 
the mastery of the air already has 
been gained in pursuance of the 
principle that the main object of 
military aviators is the collection of 
information. 

"Bomb dropping has not been in- 
dulged in to any great extent. On 
one occasion a petrol bomb was suc- 
cessfully exploded in a German bi- 
vouac at night, while: from a diary 
found on a dead German cavalry 

{Continued on Page 6i) 



Pave 56 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 



TRANSMISSION GEAR 



coupling any kind of motors or en- 
gines together, and which assures 
FOR AEROPLANES means of being able to have reserve 
power and a cool motor for long 
A. G. Watkins. of 27 N. Cones- flights, there is another very im- 
toga street, Philadelphia, has de- portant fact to be considered and 
vised a plan for using twin motors which should not be overlooked, 
singly or coupled. The best expert and structural en- 




"As I promised, I am sending 
you blueprints of multiple motor 
gear. Fig. 1 is a view of same 
looking down upon it. Fig. 2 shows 
a side view of double-acting lever 
that just throws intermediate gear 
in place and afterward the clutch. 
Danger of stripping gears in throw- 
ing either motor in action while 
other is running is eliminated, as 
gears run loose until clutch is put 
in operation. Gears can also be 
changed so as to drive the propeller 
either slowei or faster than the 
motors run. 

"Another thing in favor of such 
couplings is entire elimination of 
bevel gears and very little loss of 
power by friction. In addition to 
the advantages of this means of 



dtiueitto: 



gineers have recognized that a ma- 
chine built with motors side by 
side, as in this means, enables the 
machine to be built with a great deal 
more stability than as at present, 
as it distributes the weight that is 
now placed directly in the center 
of planes. The right kind of pro- 
peller that should be used on ma- 
chines equipped with this improve- 
ment should be one covered with a 
deposit of copper, and reversible 
blades for adjusting the different 
pitches. This improvement for 
motor boats and hydros, engineers 
say, is of vast importance, in that 
by this means they can now use a 
larger propeller, which does away 
with slippage and almost doubles 
speed with practically no vibration." 



UNITED STATES BOMB 
TESTS FINISHED 

The bomb aiming and dropping 
tests which have been going on for 
many weeks past at the Signal 
Corps aviation school at San Diego, 
with the assistance of Riley E. 
Scott, the winner of the Michelin 
bomb-dropping prize and inventor 
of the most successful apparatus in 
use for the aiming of , bombs from 
aircraft and thee measuring <<i sp'eed 
over the earth w bile j in * night; are 
now cornpleted. The results of 
these trials are keHdg ft^VVefVei. 



HAMMONDSPORT 
NOTES. 

Contrary to precedent the Curtiss 
Training Camp here was closed 
September 1, and the equipment, 
instructors, et al. have moved to 
winter quarters on North Island, 
near San Diego. Cal. Activity at 
San Diego this winter will be un- 
precedented. The United States 
Army aeroplane competition will be 
held on North Island, near the 
Curtiss camp, beginning October 20. 
This will afford unusual opportunity 
to see the latest developments in 
military aeroplanes and in military 
flying; and partly on account of it 
the date of the opening of the fall 
class at the Curtiss camp has been 



advanced from November 15 to Oc- 
tober 15. A little later in the win- 
ter San Diego expects to witness 
sume of the flying scheduled in 
connection with the opening ot the 
Panama-Pacihc International Expo- 
sition. Some of the students now 
enrolled have expressed the inten- 
tion of visiting San Francisco for 
the opening of the exposition. 
Among those now at the San Diego 
camp are Glenn H. Curtiss, Ray- 
mond V. Morris and Francis Wild- 
man. Mr. Curtiss expects to give 
personal supervision to the work 
at the camp this winter. 

Hammondsport is not entirely be- 
reft of fliers. Baxter H. Adams 
made a very pretty cross-country 
flight a few days ago under unusual 
conditions. Mr. Adams has prom- 
ised to do some flying in the vicinity 
of Ithaca, the seat of Cornell Uni- 
versity. He elected to fly the 50 
miles across the hills and "Finger" 
lakes, rather than ship around by 
rail, and proposed to make the trip 
on Monday. Sunday, however, saw 
the weather fixing for a week of 
thunder showers, which developed 
on Monday into good imitations of 
cloud bursts. A series of violent 
thunder storms filled Tuesday morn- 
ing, but Adams telephoned Ithaca 
that "rain, shine or cyclone" he 
would leave Hammondsport at 2 
o'clock. At that hour no rain was 
falling, but the sky was piled high 
with heavy black clouds and thun- 
der rumbled threateningly not far 
away. Adams was determined to 
make the trip, and promptly on 
the hour he set out. The country 
he had to fly over was akin to 
mountainous; all hills, ranging 
about 2,000 feet in altitude, wooded, 
and split with rocky gorges. To add 
variety he had four lakes to cross. 
Not too good an outlook for a 
man's first cross-country exper- 
ience. He had it well planned 
though. Leaving the Curtiss trail. - 
ing camp he flew about 3 miles up 
the valley and in five minutes was 
back over the camp, having reached 
an altitude of about 3,000 feet. 
The last seen of him here was a 
tiny speck entering a canon between 
two cloud mountains. Thirty-five 
minutes later he "checked in" on 
the fair grounds at Ithaca all safe 
and sound. He had been some- 
what confused and flown several 
miles out of bis way just after leav- 
ing Lake Keuka, but through rifts in 
the clouds had recognized Lake Wa- 
neta below him and altered his 
course accordingly. He passed over 
Lakes Waneta. Lamoka, Seneca and 
Cayuga on his trip. Adams flies 
a dinky Curtiss Model D with a 
24 foot spread and a Model O-X 
Curtiss motor. It is practically a 
duplicate of the machine with which 
Lincoln Beachey made his first 
loops. 



Yesterday's English mail brought 
some interesting news regarding 
Lieut. John C. Porte, who was to 
have piloted the Rodman Wana- 
maker transatlantic flying boat. It 
seems that Ilendon's famous flying 
field is to be taken over by the 
navy and The Aeroplane reports on 
"fairly reliable authority" that Lieu- 
tenant Porte, now an officer of the 
Royal Naval Air Service, will be in 
command there, assisted by Mr. 
Richard T. Gates and our old friend 
Mr. Claude Grahame-White. It also 
reports that the big Curtiss flying 
boat built by Saunders for the Cir- 
cuit of Britain race has passed the 
official tests very well and has been 
taken over by the Admiralty. 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 



NEW COMPANIES. 

The Omaha Overland Company, 
Omaha, Neb., is a new corporation 
filing with the Secretary of State 
with a capital stock of $1*0.000. The 
company will do a general business 
in the manufacture and handling of 
automobiles, flying machines and 
similar machines. The incorporators 
are James Janison and Helen Comp- 
ton. 



PARCELS POST AERO- 
PLANE STAMP. 

I las any one noticed the 20 cent 
parcels post stamp? It bears a 
Wright aeroplane as a design, with 
the inscription, "Aeroplane Carrying 
Mail." 



Page 57 

for finishing, the Curtiss Company 
elected to put on copper sheathings 
themselves. It was one of these 
extra pieces of sheathing which 
broke louse and caused a delay. 
\ ery truly yours. 

Chas. M. Olmsted. 



THE IDEAL MACHINE 
AT LAST! 

Sept. 1st, 1914. 
To the Editor, AERONAUTICS, 
250 W. 54th St., 

New York, N. Y. 
Dear Sir: 

I have been looking for a thor- 
oughly practical flying machine ever 
since I read of the Wright Broth- 
ers' first Dayton flights. But I 
have always felt that there was 
something lacking in the machines 
offered for sale. I find in your 
August 15 issue (p. 41) that my 
machine has indicated its possible 
arrival. 

The claims made for this machine 
are so attractive that I am impelled 
to write to you an open letter on 
the subject and hope you will put 
me right if I am wrong. 

Claim 1 asserts that the machine 
leaves the ground or water "at 
once." This appeals to me very 
strongly. When I leave the ground, 
I always like to leave at once. It 
avoids this feeling of doubt. 

Claim 2 also appeals strongly. It 
says that the machine "alights 
straight down." I have always fa- 
vored straightforward practice in all 
things, and a flying machine which 
alights straight down is distinctly to 
my liking, provided, of course, that 
it does not alight "at once," as is 
the case when leaving the ground. 

Another claim which must appeal 
to everybody is the fact that this 
machine is equipped "with all mod- 
ern conveniences." It also is 
claimed that everything is "non-col- 
lapsible." I take it that this non- 
collapsible feature also applies to 
tin- modern conveniences. There are 
certain of these modern conven- 
iences which it would be distinctly 
unpleasant to have collapse at the 
wrong moment. 

Another attractive feature is that 
the machine can be run by twelve 
year old children, and therefore 
does not need necessarily to be 
shipped. This is good economy be- 
cause frequently it happens that a 
twelve year old child can escape 
the conductor's attention and get 
through on a half fare. Thus we 
would he able to send one of the 
children for the machine at a rea- 
sonable price and he could bring it 
home as he would a quart of milk. 
Another desirahle teat u re is the 
speed. Five hundred miles an hour 
is claimed. This would mean, of 
course, that it would take an entire 
hour to go from New York to Buf- 
falo, but on Sunday afternoon this 
would not be irksome. It would 
preclude the possibility of running 
out to Denver for afternoon tea and 
be hack in time for 7 o'clock dinner, 
unless, of course, we hurried, which 
is not always pleasant. Still, I think 
that considering the other very de- 
sirable features, this this speed of 
500 miles per hour might be put up 
with. 

very truly, 
Dowe Ting Thomas. 
Hartford, Conn. 



C. M. O. PROPELLERS 
AND THE "AMERICA." 

I . M. O. PHYSICAL LABORA- 
TORY, INC. 
Buffalo, New York. 
C. M. Olmsted, Ph. D. 
President, and 
Director of Laboratoi y. 

August 25, 1914. 
The Editor of AERONAUTICS: 

Dear Sir — In an article explain- 
ing the postponement of the flight 
of the "America," in the July jl 
U U> tNAUTICS, the following 
statement appears: "The special 
C. M. O. propeller will have a new 
sheathing of metal better fastened 
than the original metal cover. It 
was the tearing loose of the original 
copper cover, which broke its way 
through the upper plane, that was 
largely responsible for the postpone- 
ment of the start." 

While it is complimentary to the 
efficiency of the Olmsted propellers 
that they are necessary attachments 
for the getaway of the "America," 
it is not entirely fair to the manu- 
facturer to employ the word "orig- 
inal" in describing the copper 
sheathing which by tearing loose 
during a trial flight caused a delay. 
When similar statements appeared 
in the daily papers at the time of 
the accident, the writer paid no at- 
tention to them, hut when ap- 
pearing in a journal like AERO- 
NAUTICS it would seem proper to 
state that the original metallic 
sheathings which cover the concave 
faces of the blades, are still in Al 
condition and do not show the 
slightest evidence of weakness or 
unfitness for the work. The cop- 
per sheathing which came loose dur- 
ing a flight was one placed on the 
back of a blade by the Curtiss Com- 
pany after purchasing the propellers. 
anl the work had not been inspected 
or ( >. K.'d by anybody connected 
with the C. M. O. Physical Labora 
tory, Inc. 

According to agreement, on ac- 
count of the great rush, the Olm- 
sted propellers were shipped to 
Hammondsport for a trial of the 
new principle before they were fin- 
ished that is to say, before they 
were put into a w tat her-proof con- 
dition by filler, varnish, etc., a 
process which cannot be rushed. 
The idea was to utilize for finishing 
the propellers that time which would 
be necessary for overhauling and 
packing the "America," and during 
which the propellers would other- 
wise be lying idle. 

As everybody who has followed 
the tests of the "America" knows, 
the hydroplaning bottom was 
changed a great many times, and 
many more trials made than had 
been originally intended. Conse- 
quently the Olmsted propellers, with 
«mly "a lick and a promise" for 
varnish, were put through the tests 
during which the tips of the blades 
were sometimes ripping through 
sht-c-ts of h ater thrown up by the 
mal-adiusted hydroplaning board. 
Naturally, the semi- varnished sur- 
faces of the blades began to 
weather. Rather than lose time by 
shipping the propellers to Buffalo 



UPSON COVERS 180 
MILES. 

Ralph H. Upson and party had a 
rather unusual balloon trip the last 
week in August. They ascended 
Sunday morning in a practical calm, 
but the speed steadily increased to 
over 50 miles per hour, which took 
them to a point 12 miles east of 
Olfcan, N. Y., a distance of 180 
miles in the six hours they were 
in the air. R. II. Upson, of the 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, 
was the pilot. 

VICTOR VERNON FLIES 
150 MILES. 

Victor Vernon, owner of a new 
Curtiss flying boat, and Harvey R. 
Sidney flew from Rar Harbor, Me.. 
to Kennebunkport Beach, about 150 
miles, in 2 hours 29 minutes on 
Sept. 3, in order to be on hand for 
the Labor Day celebration. Many 
passengers were carried at both 
places. Flights were later made at 
Cornell, Ithaca. 



TO BALLOON ACROSS 
THE CONTINENT. 

Albert Carter and J. M. O'Con- 
riell expect to start October 1 on 
an attempt to cross the continent, 
using one large and ten smaller bal- 
loons attached together, using the 
gas from the smaller balloon as 
needed and cutting them up for 
ballast. 

"By previous experiments," Car- 
ter writes, "1 am satisfied that at 
an altitude of 13,000 to 15.000 feet 
there is practically always a drift 
to the east or northeast and it is 
our intention to rise gradually until 
we reach this current and stay in 
it as long as possible. 

"By using a number of smaller 
balloons to replenish the gas and 
make additional ballast we hope to 
remain in the air four or five days. 

"Tin- main balloon holds 60,000 
cubic feet. Five hold 10,000 each, 
and four hold 2,500 each. 

"A silk pilot balloon is arranged 
so that it can be sent up 1 mile 
above to search out currents going 
in the right direction and a small 
rope with occasional streamers can 
be let down below same distance, 
giving us a method of finding out 
the direction of air currents for a 
mile above or below without sacrific- 
ing gas or ballast, as would be nec- 
ssa^v in a single balloon. 

"\\ rather conditions being favor- 
able we will start at 2 p. in., and 
if successful in reaching the eastern 
current will cross the Sierras some- 
where north of Mt. Whitney that 
afternoon and the Nevada desert the 
first night. 

"Our object is to prove that at 
high altitudes there is practically 
always a current flowing eastward 
and that to cross the continent in 
a single flight it is only necessary 
to reach the proper altitude and stay 
there four or five days." 



Who should have been the first 
man in the Bible to be connected 
with aeronautics? 

Aaron ought. 

— Walter Levick. 



Page 58 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 




29 West 39th Street. New York 

OFFICIAL BULLETIN. 

FIRST GENERAL 
MEETING. 

The first general meeting of the 
society for the winter season will 
take place on Thursday evening, 
October 1st. A program in sym- 
pathy with the world topic. "The 
Present War," will introduce a 
number of specialists who will de- 
liver brief but pointed addresses 
which have been combined under the 
general head: "Aerial Offense and 
Defense in War." In view of the 
active part aircraft are now taking 
in actual warfare, these addresses 
and tlie general discussion which 
will be allowed to follow them, 
should evoke very unusual interest. 
The entertainment committee has 
set itself to secure the attendance 
nf the most instructive and interest- 
ing talkers on this subject. The 
meeting gives every promise of be- 
coming one of the most notable in 
the history of the society. 



AERIAL DERBY. 

The society is actively engaged in 
an effort to perpetuate the "Aerial 
Derby" as an annual classic. This 
is assured if negotiations between 
the Wright Company and the society 
come to a successful issue. Aside 
from this activity, the new special 
committees on research laboratory, 

mete logy, aviators' certificates 

and an important convocation of 
scientists are busily at work. The 
present year promises the most suc- 
cessful effort shown since the foun- 
dation of the Aeronautical Society 
of America. 



THE 1914 YEARBOOK. 

The Year Book of The Aeronau- 
tical Society of America has just 
been issued and will prove of great 
interest and value to the growing 
membership of the leading aeronau- 
tical organization in America and 
will d on lit less prove a surprise to 
the press and to the general public 
who have, until now, known too lit- 
tle of the many and varied accom- 
plishments of this hard-working or- 
ganization, the achievements of 
which will compare most favorably 
with the activities of other aeronau- 
tical organizations in Europe. 

The year book" is presented in a 
pocket edition of 43 pages, upon the 
cover of which appears a reproduc- 
tion of the Engineering Societies 
Building at 29 West 39th St., 
New York, the headquarters of the 
Society. The first twelve pages are 
given up to a list of the Society's 
officers and directors, illustrations 
showing the membership certificate, 
flag, badge of the Society, the va- 



rious aviation grounds, club houses 
and hangars of the Society at Mor- 
ris Park 190S-9, Mineola 1910-12, 
Oakwood Heights 1912-14. Import- 
ant flying meets held by the Society 
on October 12, 1912; November 4, 
1912; May 30, 1913, and October 13, 
1913, are referred to and particular 
attention directed to the Times 
Aerial Derby, October 13, 1913, in 
commemoration of the first flight by 
the Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk, 
December 17, 1903, on which flight 
five aviators started and computet 1 
the course around Manhattan island 
without an accident in a 43-mile 
wind. 

Then follows a terse statement of 
the aims and objects of the Society, 
a flashlight photograph showing the 
Society's first great banquet, held at 
the Hotel Astor, April 27, 1911, 
which constituted the largest and 
most important gathering ever held 
of eminent nun interested in the 
science of aerial locomotion. Over 
800 members and guests were pres- 
ent, including President Taft and 
many other most distinguished men 
in America. 

Following ill is is a reference to 
AERONAUTICS, the official bulle- 
tin of the Society, and it is stated 
that on February I 1 '. 1914. the So- 
ciety voted that this representative 
magazine should be made the of- 
i:< mI bulletin and organ of the So- 
ciety and sent free to every member 
in good standing as one of the ben- 
efits of membership in the Society. 

Other pages present the titles of 
the various lectures, addresses and 
debates delivered under the Socie- 
ty's auspices from July, 1908, to 
July. 1914, and this list, while not 
complete, shows a record of accom- 
plishments of which any society 
might well be proud. 

Reference is made to the special 
meeting on December 18, 1913, in 
commemorati f the 10th anniver- 
sary of the first flight by man in a 
pov er Men >plane. A copy of the 
engrossed resolutions presented to 
( >rvil1e Wright, the surviving bro- 
ther, is shown, as well as a cut of 
the bronze statue presented to Mr. 
Wright upon the occasion by the 
Society. The booklet also includes 
the constitution and by-laws, ref- 
erence to the technical board and 
the data sheets sent to all members 
in good standing, list of all mem- 
bers, application form and a state- 
ment that this pamphlet is issued 
with a view to assisting the active 
campaign fur new members anil all 
members are requested to send in at 
once the names of prospective mem- 
bers that they may be included in 
a new and enlarged edition. There 
is at present no initiation fee and 
the dues are ten dollars a year. 
Copies will he mailed upon request. 




AERO SCIENCE CLUB OF 
AMERICA BULLETIN. 



On the 30th day of July, 1914, a 
hydro contest was held at the Union 
Course pond, Woodhaven, L, I. The 
winners were C. V. Obst with a 
flight of 28 seconds, and D. Cris- 
cuoli, 26 seconds. Messrs. Obst and 
Ness gave exhibitions of their 
"skimmers." Mr. Obst figures that 
the speed of his skimmer was ap- 
proximately 35 miles per hour. The 
judges were Messrs. Durant and 
Bauer. 

About fifteen entries have been re- 
i eived for the speed contest to be 
held at Van Cortlandt Park on Sun- 
day afternoon, September 20th. The 
course over which the speed of the 
models will be determined is 600 
feet. The first prize will be in 
cash, the second will be an up-to- 
date publication. The chief judge 
will be Mr. Edward Durant, Direc- 
tor of the Club, who will be assisted 
by a starter. Many new and novel 
model speed machines are now in 
the course of construction and the 
contest promises to he a great suc- 
cess. The entry fee for non- 
members of this club will be 25 
cents. 

This club desires to acknowledge 
with thanks the six copies of the 
aeronautical books donated by Har- 
per & Brothers to be offered as 
prizes. 

Mr. C. IT. Heitman has kindly 
offered several prizes and in the 
next bulletin notice of the contest 
in which these prizes will be given 
will be stated. 

This club meets every Saturday 
evening at the rooms of the Aero- 
nautical Society, 29 West 39th St.. 
New York City. All persons inter- 
ested are invited to attend these 
meetings. 

For further information, address 
he Secretary, Mr. Harry Schultz. 



Lieut. Col. F. H. Sykes, com- 
mandant of the British Royal Fly- 
ing Corps, in his annual addr- - al 
the Royal United Service Institu- 
tion. London, reviewed the progress 
made in military aviation during the 
past year and summarized the in- 
formation gnined through exper- 
ience. Principally he dealt with the 
factors of safety under the con- 
ditions of present aerial flight, and 
suggested changes in construction of 
advantage to military aviators. He 
advocated the abandonment of flexi- 
ble wings and the universal adop- 
tion of flaps or ailerons; the use of 
more substantial landing gear; in- 
creased strength and simplicity in 
design and construction; experi- 
mental work on better means of 



communication between aeroplane 
and aeroplane, and aeroplane and 
the ground ; the standarization of 
minor parts; the development of a 
larger type of machine. On the 
subject of flexible wings Colonel 
Sykes said: "One cannot consider 
airworthiness without touching on 
the question of wing-warping as op- 
posed to flaps. There is no doubt 
that the continual flicking about of 
the control lever during a long 
flight, caused by the self-warping of 
wings in a wind, has a very tiring 
effect on the pilot, and further, the 
warping wing requires more keeping 
in true than one fitted with flaps. 
The dismantling and general hand- 
ling of wings fitted with flaps is, 
besides, easier, quicker, and less 
liable to mistake." 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 



Page 59 




THE OBST FLYING BOAT MODEL 

By Harry Schultz, Model Editor 



Some few weeks ago the Aero 
Science Club held the first model 
Hying boat contest. A contest of 
tliis kind has been recommended for 
some time, and this contesl was 
held at the suggestion of Charles 
V Obst. who won the contest with 
a flight of 18 4/5 seconds. 



The boat i's 20 inches long, tyi 
inches deep, 2V- inches wide and 
has two steps. The sides are of 
1 inch poplar and cross bi a< i - 

of birch forming eight compart- 
ments. It i- connei ted by b 
strips running up to the main stick 
and secured thereto by rubber 




^Cr'SoU, ^/-ccA>»- ftyc{r~0 



ffasin /fonoplatzc. 



His model, which is shown in the 
accompanying drawing, is of the 
biplane type. 

The main stick is balsa wood, 40 
inches long and ' _• inch square at 
the center, tapering inwards the 
tnds. The rear brace or propeller 
bar is $'/2 inches long and is of 
bamboo. It is braced by two strips 
of bamboo running diagonally and 
the space thus formed is filled in 
with fabric, thus forming a tail 
plane. 

The upper main plane has a span 
of -"' inches with a curd of 4 inches 
and a dihedral angle of 165 degrees. 
The ribs, entering and trailing edges 
are of bamboo and the main beam 
is of spruce. The lower plane is 
constructed in the same manner ex- 
cepl that it is rectangular in shape, 
and the balancing pontoons are 
Formed on the ends of the plane, 
as shown. The span of this plane, 
including the pontoons, is IS inches 
with a chord of 4 inches. The 
balancing pontoons are 1% inches 
deep. The planes are separated by 
a box-like structureof bamboo strips, 
as shown, and are simply held 'here- 
on by rubber bands, so that eithei 
plane may be removed at will, with- 
out disturbing the position of the 
other. 

Situated under the tail plane is 
a small fin, constructed of bamboo 
strips and covered with fabric. 



bands winch take up the shock ol 
landing on the ground or water and 
prevents damage to the boat. 

The boat, planes and tin are cov- 
ered with silk fibre paper and treat- 
ed with ambroid, which draws the 
same taut and makes it water- 
proof. 

The propellers are S inches in 
diameter, are fitted with bearings of 
tubing and at i dm i u by fourteen 
strands of ' * inch flat rubber. 

The model rises from the water 
after a run of about 10 feet and 
is .i vt ry -table flyer. 



istics of the model are the peculiarly 
shaped main plane and tail, the very 
delicately constructed fuselage and 
method of bracing the same. The 
propellers are very fast and ef- 
fective, raising the model from the 
water with a run of only 2 or 3 
feet. Mr. Herzog's latest model is 
equipped with propellers of this type 
and rises to great heights and loops 
the loop after rising, an almost un- 
believable feat for a model to per- 
form. 

No. 2. — The Mann Monoplane. 
Perhaps no other model in the 
world is as well known as the 
Maun monoplane. The model is the 
>f R. [•". Mann, of London. 
England, and is credited with having 
pi rformed many remarkable dis- 
tance and duration flights. At one 
time it was supposed to have made 
a flight of 4,300 feet, but upon the 
rumor being investigated it ap- 
peared to have been more or less 
of a "fairy tale." While the ma- 
chine is an excellent flyer, any ol 
the American models of today are 
vastly superior to it. The chief 
characteristics of the model arc the 
main plane, which is constructed of 
piano wire, has only three ribs and 
is covered in a peculiar manner, and 
the elevator which is of birch bent 
to a peculiar "bird-wing" shape. 
The propellers are of twisted wood 
i hitch) and are rather heavy when 
compared with the propellers in uni- 
versal use today. 

(To be continued.) 



EXPORTS AND IMPORTS. 

June imports, parts only, totalled, 
'planes and parts. $32,260. 

Exports for June, 'planes and 
parts, were $27,590; for 12 months 
ending June 30, $226,149. 

Exports of foreign built aircraft 
and parts, for June, $5,1 56. 

Aircraft and parts in warehouse 
June 30, $5,069. 



THE WORLD'S WELL- 
KNOWN FLYING 
MODELS. 

No. I.— The Herzog Tractor Hy- 
dro. This model was constructed 
by Harry Herzog, of New York 
( My, a well known model flyer and 
a former member of the New York 
Model Aero Club. At the Oak 

w I Heights meet, where it first 

made its appearance, it proved hs 
superiority over the other tractor 
models bv winning first prize with 
a llight of 28 4/5 seconds, this 
being a world's record for models 
of this type. The chief character- 



Charles Cabanne Cra lie and F. 
Ray Leimkuehler have established an 
experimental station at 5587 Page 
Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo, consist- 
ing partly of a wind tunnel through 
which air speeds of 90 miles per 
hour are planned. Stream lines 
about surfaces tested will be ac- 
curately photographed with the aid 
of smoke streams introduced into 
the current. Models of all recog- 
nized and useful shapes will be 
photographed in the various posi- 
tions and speeds of common prac- 
tice. Constructors are requested to 
bend accurate diagrams of stand ird 
wing section, standard strut, etc-. 
for test. Special surfaces will be 
tested free if they fall within the 
scope of regular work, other wise a 
charge will be made covering costs 
of special test. 



Or can our watery walls keep 
dangers out that fly aloft? — Jasper 
Fisher, the True Trojans. 1630. 

From this quotation it will be 
seen that it is scarcely correct to 
describe the seaplane as a new 
weapon. 



Page 60 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 



F LYING 

l! 



By HAMEL and TURNER 

Large 8to., cloth, 338 pp. 

$3.50 postpaid 

The one best practical non-technical book of the 

year. Kecommended to pilots, students, amateurs, 

pective purchasers and the casually interested, 

AERONAUTICS -250 W. 54th St.. NewYork 



j 



WE ARE HEADQUARTERS 

for model aeroplanes, accessories and supplies 
Very complete catalog free on request 

Wading River Mfg. Co. 

Wading River. N. Y. 




We 

WALTER E. JOHNSON 
SCHOOL OF AVIATION 

UP-TO-DATE METHODS 

Summer Season at Lake Conesus, Livonia, N. Y. 
Winter Season in Florida 

Superior Training on Dual Hydro and Flying Boat by com- 
petent Pilots, under supervision of W. E.Johnson, endurance 
record holder, formerly instructor of The Thomas Brothers 
School of Aviation. Three years experience as instructor. 
Thousands of flights without a hitch ! 

Write guiekly for reservation in Summer-class to 

The Walter E. Johnson School of Aviation 

LIVINGSTON INN, LIVONIA, N. Y. 



cylERO MART 



JOHN WISE— "History and Prac- 
tice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. 
We have just secured another copy 
of this famous, rare work. Cloth, 
8vo, ill., 310 pp, steel engraving 
frontispiece. For sale at $10. 
AERONAUTICS, 250 West 34th St., 

MORANE-SAULNIER ,— Latest 
type. Set of detailed working draw- 
ings for sale at $200. Sale exclu 
sive. Morane-Saulnier holds best 
records cross-country and speed fly- 
ing. Owner of drawings can super- 
intend construction. Address A. F., 
care AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 
54th St., New York. 

BARGAIN IN BOOKS— Will sell 
following books: Aerial Navigation 
i Salverda) $1.50; Navigating the 
Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; 
Aeronautical Annual, 1895-6-7 

(James Means) $5; Travels in 
Space (Valentine & Thompson) 
$ .50; Art of Aviation (Brewer) 
$1.50; Airships Past and Present 
(Hildebrand) $3; Proceedings Int. 
Congress Aerial Navigation, Chica- 
go, 1893, $5; various other books 



thrown in to purchaser of the lot. 
L. E. Dare, 216 West 104th St., 
New York. 

FOR SALE — On account of sick- 
ness, aeroplane, very cheap for cash, 
or trade for anything of value. 
E. M., 1522 Norwood ave., Toledo, 
Ohio. 

QUICK SALE FOR CASH— Two 
Curtiss-type double-surface aero- 
planes, each with 50-h.p. Roberts 
motor; both outfits in flying shape; 
can be seen at any time; everything 
complete ; $600 for the two outfits 
for quick sale. B., care AERO- 
NAUTICS. 

FOR SALE — Hatton Tumor's 
"Astra Castra," the most famous 
and rarest of all Aviation works. 
Published in 1865 at 10 dollars. 
Magnificently illustrated, large 
quarto, 527 pages, in splendid con- 
dition. Will be sent post-free for 
24 dollars. 

Remittance to be sent to "Astra," 
care The Editor, "Aeronautics," 170 
Fleet st.. London (England). 



J. C. MARS— Mail held for him 
can not be delivered on account of 
removal without leaving forwarding 
address. Kindly advise AERONAU- 
TICS, 250 W. 54th st., New York. 

AERONAUTICS would be pleased 
to hear from A. S. Le Vino, 
Robert Edelstein, Henry W. 
Walden, Hon. C. O. Prowse, 
Wm. H. Kuhl, American Aero- 
plane Supply House, Charles W. 
Foley, Walter E. Watts, De- 
troit Aeroplane Co., J. R. Haw- 
ley News Co., Mose Jacobs, 
Fred Shneider, A. C. Triaca, 
Welles & Adams, Harriman Mo- 
tor Works, P. Brauner, 
Charles B. Kirkham. 

GAS BALLOON for sale; new 
35,000 cubic foot balloon; sewed in 
blocks; varnished; net, valve, appen- 
dix, loop, basket, sand bags, $250. 
E. Jorgensen, 1831 Belmont ave., 
Chicago. 111. 



LONG ISLAND AGAIN SEES FLYING 



The first of the Fall season ol 
Week- End Aerial Meets, given un- 
der the auspices of local flyers and 
manufacturers, began with promise. 
Fully $80,000 was represented in the 
aeroplanes assembled on the Hemp- 
stead Plains aviation field on Sep- 
tember 5. 

The program opened with a three- 
circuit flight of the field's course, 
the total distance being 9.3 miles. 
The time recorded in this race is to 
be the handicap rating for the same 
machine in future events. The 
Sch mitt monoplane, winner of the 
first prize in the 4th of July race 
from Governors Island to Spuyten 
lhiyvil and return, was again piloted 
by Harold Kantner, who, flying at 
the rate of more than a mile a min- 
ute, covered the course in 9 min- 
utes exactly. Albert Heinrich, who 
won second prize in the 4th of July 
race, made the circuit in 11 minutes 
and 30 seconds. Peter Millman, the 
"Texan," in a Moisant monoplane, 
in 12 minutes and 50 seconds; Sid- 
nej F. Beckwith, in the Beckwith- 
Crabtree military tractor, in 13 min- 
utes. A time allowance will be giv- 
en this machine, it being a biplane; 
the other contesting machines all 
monoplanes. 

( >n Labor Day, regardless of a 
thirty-mile gale that blew across the 
field, J. Guy Gilpatric, in a Sloane 



monoplane, gave a wonderful exhi- 
bition of flying under unfavorable 
conditions. Carl T. Kuhl, in a 
Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane, also made 
a flight in this wind. Harold Kant- 
ner made an altitude flight of 3,500 
feet in 9 minutes, and Sidney F. 
Beckwith carried off the "bomb" 
dropping honors, The Beckwith- 
Crabtree machine met with a slight 
accident at the close of the meet, 
but will be in the contests Saturday. 

The first of the "Free Admission" 
Sundays ( which will continue each 
Sunday during September and Octo- 
ber) brought out 3,000 people to the 
field. 

Five aviators, in five different 
types of aeroplanes, displayed good 
accuracy in dropping bombs from an 
altitude of from 1,500 feet to 3,500 
feet, before a large assemblage of 
people on the Hempstead Plains av- 
iation field. Garden City, Saturday, 
September 1 2th. 

Carl T. Kuhl, in the Kuhl-Bays- 
dorfer biplane, although a novice at 
bomb dropping, came within 39 feet 
of the mark. Harold Kantner, in 
the famous Schmitt monoplane 
dropped two bombs, one within 40 
feet and the other 42 feet of the 
mark. This showed a decided im- 
provement uver last week, as the 
bombs dropped on Monday averaged 
50 feet of the mark. At present the 



target is a large piece of white can- 
vas 20 feet square spread on the 
ground, but later on the target will 
represent a small ship, which will 
be easier for the aviators to see. 

Next on the program following the 
bomb dropping, was the altitude 
tests. The first aeroplane to make 
this flight was the Kuhl-Baysdorfer 
biplane, piloted by Carl T. Kuhl. 
He rose to an altitude of 1,800 feet. 
Peter C. Millman rose to 2,900 feet 
and Harold Kantner in the Schmitt 
monoplane, to 3,400 feet. Millman's 
Moisant is the same type monoplane 
that the Moisant International Avia- 
tors built for the Mexican Constitu- 
tinmR Chas. F. Niles, the loop-the- 
loop and upside-down flier, is in 
Mexico at present demonstrating 
these machines He is expected 
hack at the field in two or three 
weeks. 

Cecil Peoli. in a new type of 
aeroplane, made the best landing. 
From an altitude of 500 feet he 
shut off his motor and volplaned to 
within a few feet of the mark. 
Peoli. who is only 20 years old, a 
graduate of Captain Baldwin, calls 
his aeroplane a semi -monoplane, 
which is really a cross between a 
biplane and monoplane. It is 
equipped with a 75-h.p. Rassenber- 
?er motor. 

D. B. Wright. 



AEROXAUTICS, 1914. 



Page 61 



THE AERONAUTICAL BOOKSHELF 



Epitome of the Aeronautical 
Annual % james means 

In one volume is contained the principal articles from 
the three annuals of 1895, 1896 and 1897, published by Mr. 
Me«ns. Contains the theories and experiments of Cay ley 
Wenham, Lilicnthal. Maxim, Langley and others, written 
by themselves. Fundamental facts are given. One of the 
absolutely necessary volumes. III., 224 pp., $1.12 

The Problem of Flight 

B T HERBERT CHATLEY 

A strictly technical book for the engineer. 

111., 119 pp., $3.50 

The Conquest of the Air 

By the Late Prof. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH 

A popular but authoritative book on 
the Ocean of Air. History of Aero- 
station, Dirigible Balloon, Flying 
Machine, The Future of Aerial Navi- 
gation. 111., $1.10 



Bird-flight as the Basis of 

Aviation By GUSTAV LIUENTHAL 

Covers the gliding work of (). .mil n. Lilienthal. 

III.. 166 pp., $2.50 

The Aeroplane in War 

By C GRAHAME WHITE and H. HARPER 

A book with prophecies of the future. 111., $3.00 

Experiments in Aero- 
dynamics By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY 

This with the other Langley book forms the keystone 
of the aeronautical library. Purely technical. Details of 
the experimental machines of Professor Langley. The 
indispensable book. III. $1 50 



Indispensable Books 



Aerial Navigation 

By DR. ALBERT F. ZAHM 

In popular terms Dr. Zahm portrays 
the progress of aeronaut ics.lenving out 
unproductive experiments. The pilots 
of today know little of the history of 
the machine they use daily. The per- 
centage of those who are familiar with 
progress is small. Dr. Zahm writes an 
absorbing volume which must take its 
place on every bookshelf. 

111., 486 pp., $3.00 

Art of Aviation 

By ROBERT W. A. BREWER 

One of the b*st handbooks on avia- 
tion. Semi-technical. A really valuable book for the 
amateur, experimentor and pilot. 111., 266 pp., $3.50 

Langley Memoir on Mechan- 

I««l EU^kl- B y Prof - s - p - LANGLEY 

lcai r ngm and ch arles m. manly 

In this ponderous volume is found additions to Professor 
Langley's previous work and contains wonderful photo- 
graphs and scale drawings of all of the models and the 
engines constructed and tested by Langley and his 
assistant, Mr. Manly. The mathematician will delight 
in the formulae and the practical man will find a vast 
amount of data. One of the scant dozen "best books." 

Handsomely ill., 4to, 320 pp., $2.50 

Curtiss Aviation Book 

By GLENN H. CURTISS and AUGUSTUS POST 

_ A popular book. Describes Curtiss' flights, his early 
life, how he planned and worked out his machine— close 
view of the man. Other chapters by Lt. Paul Beck. Lt. 
Ellyson and Hugh Robinson. 111., 307 pp., $1.49 



Langley's "MEMOIR" 

Langley's "EXPERIMENTS" 

Maxim's "ARTIFICIAL AND 
NATURAL FLIGHT" 

Loening's "MONOPLANES 
AND BIPLANES" 

Mean.' "EPITOME" 

Brewer's "ART OF AVIA- 
TION" 

Hayward's "PRACTICAL" 
AERONAUTICS 



Artificial and 
Natural Flight 

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM 

Concise history of development of 
flying machines and Maxim's own ex- 
perimental work. There are but few 
worth-while technical books on avia- 
tion. This is one. Ills., 172 pp., $1.76 

Monoplanes and 

D: n l» MA0 B y GROVER 

Biplanes c. loening 

Covers design, construction and 
operation. The author has taken the 
work of the best known ex peri men tors 
and analyzed the results, comparing 
them and averaging. Another nec- 
essary book. III., 345 pp., $2.50 

How to Build an Aeroplane 

By ROBERT PETIT 

A handbook for the young man in school, or beginning 
building for amusement. A semi-technical book, simply 
written. 111., 131 pp., $1.50 

Building and Flying an 
Aeroplane By chas. b. hayward 

A practical handbook, covering construction of models, 
gliders and power machines. HI., 160 pp., $1.00 

Practical Aeronautics 

By CHAS. B. HAYWARD 

Treatise on Dirigibles, Aeroplanes, Motors, Propellers, 
Practice, Future, etc. 111., 800 pp., $3.50 



AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 62 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 



AIRCRAFT IN THE WAR (Continued from Page 55) 



soldier it has been discovered that 
a high explosive bomb, thrown at n 
cavalry column from one of our 
aeroplanes, struck an ammunition 
wagon, result ins: in an explosion 
which killed fifteen of the enemy." 

The Sun records a dispatch stat- 
ing that on September 8 the French, 
in retreating, left behind 30 aero- 
planes for the Germans. 

Rifle bullets penetrating the sur- 
faces of reconnoitering aeroplanes 
seem to produce but a faint quiver- 
ing of the machine and affect its 
flying not a whit. Bullets have been 
reported as having disabled motors 
and the pilot? have been able, when 
not too far from the home camp, 
to glide to safety. 

Apparently bombs have as much 
difficulty in achieving results as does 
AER< INAUTICS in collectii 
counts. Bombs were dropped on 
Paris on two occasions, but little 
damage has been reported. French 
aviators pursuing were unable to 
overtake the German machine ' In 
one occasion, it is claimed, one ma- 
chine was brought down and the 
aviators killed. Another storj is 
that one machine was found on the 
outskirts, but the aviator was mis- 
sing. 

There are many reports of avia- 
tors having been killed by shots 
from the ground. The consensus 
of opinion on bombs seems to be 
that little damage is done. 

A scheme for "mining the air" 
at night with kites and small bal- 
loons, with bombs attached, is sug- 
gested in daily papers by a "mem- 



ber of ill i !i ii. i al Staff of the 
U, S. Army.'' 

A third ascenl over Antwerp by 
a Zeppelin is said to have been 
frustrated by Belgian marksmen 
whose bullets '"made a picket fence 
of steel almost a mile high." A 
few days before bombs had been 
dropped, which damaged several 
houses and "slightly wounded" ten 
or twelve persons. 

None of the German aeroplanes 
which has been flying over l'aris 
has been brought down directly over 
the city by the French marksmen, 
it is cabled. 

This fact may he due to the fact 
that aeroplanes are armored, but ex- 
perts sa > thi i it more probably is 
'In. tn the fault of the marksmen 
in aiming straight for the object. 

which is moving from 20 to 30 
yards a second. It is calculated 
that :i takes a missile from three 
to 1 1 ve seconds to reach an aero- 
plane at the height of from one to 
two thousand yards, by which time 
the object would have moved a hun- 
dr< d and fifty yards. 

The experts advise, therefore, fir- 
ing salvos in advance of the line of 
flight under orders of men under- 
standing ballistic science. 

A United Press correspondent 
writes from Berlin of an inter- 
view he had with a German soldier 
wounded in the storming of Liege: 

" The world has yet to learn of 

■ mil; power of our Zeppelins. 

1 saw one at work at Liege. It was 

the dropping of explosives on the 



there that started their down- 
fall." 

'"If you ask Dame Frochard." 
says the Sun correspondent at Ant- 
werp, "what she thinks of the suc- 
cess of aeroplanes or dirigibles in 
warfare, she says: 

" 'Well, they are very noisy, but 
[ don't think they'll kill many peo- 
ple. I never heard such a noise in 
my life when our roof blew off, but 
the bomb seemed to explode up- 
ward, ! wonder that it didn't blovt 
back and hit the balloon.' 

"It happened on the night of Au- 
gust 24. Dame Frochard and the 
children have rooms on the second 
floor of a narrow three-story build- 
ing right in the centre of town. 
Half a block away is Antwerp's 
Wall Street and Stock Exchange. 
' hie block in another direction is the 
of King Albert. 

"One bomb was for the palace, 
w here the King and Queen are 
sleeping. It hit within a block of 
the building. Their bomb hit the 
roof w here I >ame Frochard slept. 

"The explosion aroused the city. 
Four mure followed in different 
parts of the town in quick succes- 
sion. Evidently the Zeppelin was 
g over tlie tow n. The Bel- 
<-:' mi- told me tint ten persons were 
killed in four different sections of 
town that night." 

( in September - it was reported a 
new Zeppelin had been finished to 
take the place of one said to have 
been captured by the French. The 
same day a denial was issued from 
Merlin stating that no dirigibles had 
been shot down or otherwise lost. 



AERODYNAMICAL LABORATORIES (Continued from Page 52) 



original the distinction of being the 
only apparatus in the world upon 
which can be measured the three 
forces and three couples exerted on 
a model when placed oblique to the 
wind in any attitude. The investi- 
gation of the rolling, pitching and 
yawing movements for an aeroplane 
when side slipping is of especial in- 
terest in considering stability. The 
European laboratories, with the sin- 
gle exception of the English and 
possibly that of the Vienna Hoch 
Schule, confine their work to ex- 
periments with the wind in the axis 
of the model. 

The laboratory is in charge of 
Vssistant Naval Constructor J. C. 
Hunsaker, U. S. Navy, detailed for 
this duty by the Secretary of the 
Navy, with 1>. VV. Douglas, S.B., as 
assistant. 



Rest arch is conducted by students 
in aeronautical engineering and naval 
architecture. At present Assistant 
Xaval Constructors H. E. Rossel 
and C. L. Brand, U. S. Navy, are 
temporarily attached to the staff of 
the laboratory for the purpose of 
conducting a research in aeroplane 
stability. 

The laboratory is supported out 
of the general funds of the Institute 
of Technob igy, and consequently is 
to be used primarily for teaching 
the principles of aerodynamics and 
to afford data for students for use 
n problems. 

The laboratory is also available 
for use by private constructors and 
inventors, who are invited to sub- 
mit problems for investigation. It 
'■-■ hoped by charging a moderate 
fee to defray in part the expenses 



of general research for the benefit 
of the art. 

Aside from wind-tunnel investiga- 
tions, question of stability will be 
studied by large models self-pro- 
pelled in the open air. For this no 
special equipment is required, be- 
yond the facilities of the very com- 
plete wood-working and machine 
shops of the Institute. One large 
model is now under construction 
by students. No research on gaso- 
line motors is under way at the 
present time, but facilities for mak- 
ing tests on economy and efficiency 
of motors will be provided when 
funds are available. 

Lieut. If. C. Richardson is in 
charge of the V. S. Government 
wind tunnel at the Washington 
Navy Yard. 



A REVIEW OF AERONAUTICAL PROGRESS 

(Continued from Page 51) 



of aeroplanes in this country by the 
Wrights and Curtiss, and abroad by 
Bleriot, Farman and others almost 
equally well known, are all matters 
of recent journalistic accounts. 
When the trans-Atlantic flight, 
which is now being planned, has be- 
come an accomplished fact, man- 
kind will have witnessed the con- 
quest of the last of the three ele- 
ments — land, water and air — which 
has so long defied his utmost en- 
deavor, and the possibilities of this 
conquest are almost beyond de- 



scription. The rapid development 
of the past few years lias been but 
the beginning of a greal 
which the future holds for aero- 
nautics. 



THE AEROPLANE 
HAZARD. 

The Compensation Inspection Ra- 
ting Board has computed the avia- 
tion hazard of employes of aero- 
plane manufacturers and fixed the 



rate at 48.06 per cent of the pay- 
roll, with a minimum of $1 000 per 
employe. The board's bulletin con- 
tains the following: 

"New Classification : To be in- 
serted in manual : 

"Aeroplane Manufacturers — Oper- 
ation and demonstration, 4S.60 per 
cent. Minimum premium $1,000 for 
ea"ch employe engaged in operation 
and demonstration." 

Tli is is the highest rate in the 
compensation rate manual. 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 



Page 63 




Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aero- 
nautics 

BY 

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 

250 West 54th Street 

New York 

Telephone, Columbus 8721 

Cable, Aeronautics, New York 



ERNEST L. JONES 
M. B. SELLERS, 
HARRY SCHULTZ, 
C. A. BEIER, 



Editor 

Technical Editor 

Model Editor 

Ad\ ertising 



Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 
1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 
15 cents a Copy. 

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philip- 
pines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada 
and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries. 

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each 
month. All copy must be received 6 days before 
date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allow- 
ance must be made for receipt and return. 

Make all checks and monev orders free of exchange 
and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS. 

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discon- 
tinuance is desired at the end of their subscription 
period, otherwise it will be assumed that their sub- 
scription is to be continued. 



THE COAST LINE TO 



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Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland, and Detroit 
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and Detroit to Mackinac Island and way ports. Special 
Steamer Cleveland to Mackinac Island two trips weekly 
June 25th to September 10th, making no stops enrou'e 
except at Detroit every trip. Daily service between 
Toledo and Put-in-Bay June 10th to September 1 0th. 

Railroad tickets accepted for transportation on D. & C. 
Line steamers in either direction between Detroit and 
BulTalo or Detroit and Cleveland. 

Send two-cent stamp for illustra ted pa mp hlei giving detailed 
description of various trips. Address L. G. Leu/is, General 
tassenger Agent, Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company 

Philip II. McMillan, President. 

A. A. Schantz, Vice Pres. and Genl. 








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MR. CHARLES B. KIRKHAM 

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designed by Mr. Kirkham, including the famous 
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I 'reparations are already under way to pro- 
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KIRKHAM MOTORS 

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AVONDALE, N. J. 



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Page 64 



AERONAUTICS, 1914. 



PATENTS 

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Page 66 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 



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AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. Page 67 

STABILITY OF AEROPLANES* 

By ORVILLE WRIGHT, B.S., LL.D., Member of The Franklin Institute 

The subject of "Stability of Aero- as soon as the machine begins to acting in the opposite direction to 

planes" is too broad to permit of a move forward, the center of pres- that of the center of resistance, a 

discussion of all of its phases in one sure, instead of remaining at the variation in the quantity of any one, 

evening. I shall, therefore, confine center of the surfaces, as was the or of all, of these forces will not in 

myself more particularly to a few case when descending vertically, itself have a disturbing effect on the 

phases of the fore-and-aft or longi- moves toward that edge of the sur- equilibrium about the lateral hori- 

tudinal equilibrium. In learning to face which is in advance. The cen- zontal axis. But these forces in the 

fly. the beginner finds most difficulty ter of gravity being located at the ordinary flying machine dn not act 

in mastering the lateral control; it center of the surface and the center in the same line. Usually the center 

is his lack of knowledge of certain of pressure in advance of the center of thrust is high in order to give 

features of the fore-and-aft equilib- of the surface, a turning moment is proper clearance between the pro- 

rium that leads to most of the seri- created which tends to lift the front pellers and the ground; the center 

ous accidents. These accidents are of the machine, thus exposing the of gravity is low to enable the ma- 

the more difficult to avoid because surfaces at a larger angle of inci- chine to land without danger of be- 

they are due to subtle causes which dence and at the same time to a ing overturned; and the center of 

the flyer does not at the time per- greater resistance to forward move- resistance is usually between the 

ceive. ment. The momentum of the ma- centers of thrust and gravity. When 

\ flvintr machine must he halanced chine ' a , cti "S through its center of a flying machine is traveling at uni- 
in three drecmis about an axis grav ' ty below th ? center of forward for , ra speed the Propelling forces ex- 
fore and aft ill its' line of motion resistance, combines with the for- actly equal the resisting forces. In 
about an ax s extendi, - in a lateral ward ce , nter of P r «sure in causing case the thrust of the propellers is 
direction from tin to tin n "the " ,e SUrfaCe t0 be r0tated about its d ™'» is '>ed by throttling the motor, 
wines and abou a vertical axis lateral axis ' The machi "'= "ill take the momentum of the machine act- 
wings, ana aDout a vertical axis. „ n ,,„.,..- p j „„,,,-<,,* „«+:i :*. c„ii.. «™ k~i„.„ *u~ .. -r ■ * 




,-;,, m -,.,,-1 ti •■ -,u~ * *i .-i •- 1 " 1 "- ""' uegm lu buue uacKwaru. iuiucu upwaiu. prouucinsj a greater 

axiTis eenera iv referred to J steer The cenler of pressure immediately angle and a greater resistance 8 The 

f;i nlfh^ h y ", » ° , ," reverses and travels towards the same effect is produced if the ma- 

fmiV.il s g , I < \T, '"P^'f" 1 rear edge of the surface, which now chine be suddenly struck bv a gust 

function is that of lateral equihb- in the backward movement has be- of wind of higher velocity "from in 

come the front edge. The center of front. The thrust of its propellers 
If the center of support of an 6 ravlt y again being back of the cen- will be temporarily slightly de- 
aeroplane surface would remain fixed ter °f pressure, the advancing edge creased, the resistance due to the 
at one point, as is practically the ot "' e sur tace will be lifted as be- greater wind pressure will be in- 
case in marine vessels and in bal- Iore ' and ,he pendulum effect of the creased, and the momentum of the 
loons and airships, equilibrium ! ow "eight will be repeated. A fly- machine ( the center of gravity being 
would be a simple matter But the " lg machine with a low center of low) will in this case also turn the 
location of 'the center of pressure gravity, without rudders or other surfaces upward to a larger angle, 
on an aeroplane surface changes means ,0 maintain its equilibrium, While these variations in the forces 
with every change in the angle°at Wl " oscillate back and forth in this acting in the horizontal line have of 
which the" air strikes the surface rnanner until it finally falls to the themselves a certain amount of dis- 
At an angle of 90 deg. it is located g ro "" d - turbing effect, yet it is from the 
approximately at the center of the It .,,;,, ,, ave ,,„_ observe t from . cha P ges °, '""dence which they in- 
surface As the anizle becomes less ., " , wl " '! ave been observed from troduce that one encounters the 
suriace .-is tne angle Decomes less, t he foregoing that the equilibrium greatest difficultv in rmintaimno 
the center of pressure moves for- in , he horizontal plane was disturbed Iquilfbrium maintaining 
yard. On plane surfaces it con- by two turning moments acting about equI1,Dr,UIn - 

l J™TJ° m °,'? ,° r fi Va n aS th u a " g J e the lateraI 1'orizontal axis of the The two principal methods used in 

decreases until it finally reaches the machine; one produced by the force preserving fore-and-aft equilibrium 

front edge. But on cambered sur- of gravity and the lift of the surface have been, first, the shifting of 

faces the movement is not contm- ac ting in different vertical lines, and weight so as to keep the centtr of 

nous. After a certain critical ang e the other by , he center of momen- gravity in line with the changing 

of incidence ,s reached, which angle tum and the center of resistance center of lift; and, second, the utili- 

depends upon the particular form of acting in different horizontal lines. zation of auxiliary surfaces, known 

mov« Wl 1*a ,V ? X TeSSU I e n ■ M > rt, * i , f as elevators, to preserve the position 
moves backward with further de- It is evident that a low center of of , he cen ter of pressure in line with 
crease in angle until it arrives very gravity is a disturbing instead of a a fixed center of gravitv . The nrst 
close to the rear edge. At angles correcting agent. The ideal form method has been fo \ md impracticable 
ordinarily used in flying, angles of of flying machine would be one in on account of the impossibility of 
3 deg. to 12 deg., the travel of the which the center of gravity lies in shifting large weights quickly enough- 
center of pressure is in this retro- the line of the center of resistance The seC ond method is that used in 
grade movement and is located, ac- to forward movement and in the nl ost of the flying machines of to- 
coraing to the angle of incidence, at line of thrust. In practice this is day. 
points between 30 per cent, and 50 not always feasible. Flying ma- 
iler cent, back of the front edge of chines must be built to land safely Flying machines of this latter type 
the surface. The location of the as well as to fly. A high center of should have their auxiliary surfaces 
center of pressure on any given gravity tends to cause a machine to located as far as possible from the 
surface is definitely fixed by the an- roll over in landing. A compromise main bearing planes, because the 
gle of incidence at which the sur- is therefore adopted. The center of greater the distance the greater is 
face is exposed to the air. gravity is kept high enough to be the leverage, and consequently the 
-r, , . , iL e but a slight disturbing factor in smaller the amount of surface re- 
the placing of the center of grav- flight and at the same time not so quired . Tbe auxiliary surfaces are 
itv of the machine below its center high as t0 interfere in making safe usually placed either in front or in 
of. support appears at first glance, landings. the rear of the main supporting sur- 
to be a solution of the problem of . faces, since they act with greater ef- 
equilibnum. This is the method The three forces acting on an ncie ncv in these positions than when 
used in maintaining equilibrium m aeroplane in the direction of its line placed" above or below, 
marine vessels and in balloons and of motion are the thrust of the pro- 
airships, but in flying machines it pellers, the momentum or inertia of With a view to high efficiency, no 
has the opposite of the desired ef- its weight, and the resistance of the part of either the main surfaces or 
feet. If a flying machine consisting machine to forward travel. If trav- the auxiliary surfaces should be ex- 
of a supporting surface, without eling in any other than a horizontal posed on their upper sides in a way 
elevator or other means of balancing, course, a component of gravity in to create downward pressures. One 
were descending vertically as a the line of motion will have to be pound of air pressure exerted down- 
parachute, the center of gravity ver- reckoned with. \Yhen these forces ward costs as much in propelling 
tically beneath the center of support are exerted in the same line, with power as two pounds of downward 
would maintain its equilibrium. But the centers of thrust and momentum pressure produced by actual weight 

'Presented at the stated meeting of the Franklin Institute held Wednesday, May 20, 1914, when Dr. 
Wright received the Institute Elliott Cresson Medal in recognition of the epoch-making :ork accomplished 
by him in establishing on a practical basis the science and ar\ of aviafyft.. 



p 68 AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 




a line fixed surface in the rear, set at a of the weight and the elevator prac 

Grille? with the dfrection of travel, negative angle, receives an increased tically none at all. Under these cou- 

^H he o her at rent angles to the pressure on its upper s.de as the ditions the mam surfaces fa 1 more 

ie fVaveY "bi?" S?med "lift" speed increases,. This downward rapidly than does .the ^rear elevator 




machine s approximately one-sixth on variation in course and speed as steeply downward, speed is recov- 

of tie we ght carried. When travel- to render it inadequate to meet fully ered but slowly The more the oper- 

fnVnn a horizontal course the lift the demands of a pract.cal flying ator tries to check the downward 

^vertical andls exactly equal to the maclime. plunge by turning the elevator, the 

total weight of the machine and load- In order to secure greater dynamic greater becomes the angle of inci- 

This load mav be real weight, or it efficiency and greater manoeuvring dence, and the greater the forward 

may be parTly real weight and partly ability, auxiliary surfaces mechant- resistance. At ordinary stalled an- 

"own^arc pressures exited on parts cally operable are used in present gles the machine must descend at an 

of the surfaces. For every pound of flying machines instead of the prac- angle of about 25 deg. with refer- 

weight carried, a thrust of approxi- tically fixed surfaces of the inter- ence to the horizontal in order to 

matlly one-six h pound is required. ent!y stable type. These machines maintain its speed. If the speed be 

If however instead of real weight possess the means of quickly recov- already below that necessary for 

a 'downward air pressure is exerted er.ng balance without changing the support, a steeper angle of descent 

n some part of the machine, this direction of travel and of manoeu- will be required, and considerable 

ownward pressure must be overcome vring with greater dexterity when re- time may be consumed before sup- 



ine. In this case the Horizontal equilibrium. ±i may uc uuu «= u — -«>•--- -■ - --- o— -- — .- ----- - --- 

component of the one pound down- rule that the greater the dynamic ef- or 300 ft., the machine is likely to 
ward pressure will be about one- ficiency of the machine and the strike the ground before the speed 
sixth pound, and the horizontal greater its possibilities in manoeu- necessary to recover control is ac- 
component of the compensating up- vring, the greater the knowledge and q u ' r , ed - , , ... „ 
ward pressure also will be about skill required of the operator. . The danger from stalling comes 
one-sixth pound, making a total of If the operator of a flying ma- m the operator attempting to check 
one-third pound required in thrust chine were able to "feel" exactly the machine s downward plunge by 
from the propellers, as compared the angle at which his aeroplane turning the mam bearing surfaces to 
with one-sixth pound thrust required meets the air, 90 per cent, at least still larger angles of incidence, in- 
bv one pound actual weight carried, of all aeroplane accidents would be stead of pointing the machine down- 
It is therefore, evident that the use eliminated. It has been the lack of ward, at a smaller angle of inci- 
of downward air pressures in main- this ability that has resulted in so dence, so that the speed can be re- 
taining equilibrium is exceedingly large a toll of human lives. In- covered more quickly. It is safe to 
wasteful and. as far as possible, struments have been produced which say that fully 90 per cent, of the 
should be avoided. In other words, indicate closely the angle of inci- fatal accidents in flying are due to 
when the equilbrium of an aeroplane dence at which the machine is fly- this cause. Most of the serious ones 
has been disturbed, instead of using ing, but they are not in general use. occur when, after long glides from 
a downward air pressure to depress Nor does the average flyer realize considerable heights, with the power 
the elevated side, an upward pres- how exceedingly dangerous it is to of the motor reduced, an attempt is 
sure should be utilized to elevate the be ignorant of this angle. Most of made to bring the machine to a 
low side. The cost in power is twice the flyers are aware that "stalling" more level course several hundred 
as great in one case as in the other, is dangerous, but do not know when feet in the air. The machine quick- 

The dynamically less efficient sys- they really are "stalling." X loses its speed and becomes 
tern of downward air pressures is A flying machine is in great dan- stalled. All of us who have seen 
used to some extent, however, on ger when it is flying at its angle of ™e novice make a pancake land- 
account of its adaptability in pro- maximum lift. A change either to mg have seen the beginning of a 
ducing more or less inher'ently sta- a smaller or a larger angle results case of stalling which might have 
ble aeroplanes. An inherently stable in a lesser lift. There is this im- been fatal had it taken place at a 
aeroplane mav be described as one portant difference, however, whether he !S h t ot 100 or 200 it. 
in which equilibrium is maintained the angle be increased or decreased. The greatest danger in flying 
hv an arrangement of surfaces, so While a smaller angle gives less comes from misjudging the angle of 
that when a current of air strikes lift, it also has less drift resistance, incidence. If a uniform angle of 
one part of the machine, creating a so that the machine is permitted to incidence were maintained, there 
pressure that would tend to disturb gain speed. On the other hand, the would .be no difficulty in fore-and-aft 
the equilibrium, the same current larger angle gives not only less lift equilibrium. As has already been 
striking another part creates a bal- but encounters a greater resistance, stated, for any given surface and 
ancing pressure in the opposite di- which causes the speed of the ma- any .given angle of incidence, the 
rection. This compensating or cor- chine to be rapidly checked, so that position of the center of pressure is 
recting pressure is secured without there is a double loss of lift— that h * e °- Under these conditions, it 
the mechanical movement of any due to angle and that due to a lesser th ? center of gravity were located to 
part of the machine. speed. coincide with the center of pressure 

The first to propose the use of The maximum lift is obtained in and a uniform angle of incidence 
this system for the fore-and-aft con- most flving machines at some angle maintained, the machine would al- 
trol of aeroplanes was Penaud, a between 15 deg. and 20 deg. If the ways be m equilibrium 
voung French student, who did much machine be gliding from a height . « is in accordance with this prin- 
experimenting with model aeroplanes with the power of the motor throt- «ple that experiments the past year 
in the 70's of the last century. His tied or entirely turned off. and the have brought about a considerable 
system is used only to a slight ex- operator attempt to turn it to a level advance in the development of auto- 
tent in the motor-driven aeroplanes course, the speed of the machine matic stability. A small horizontal 
of to-day, on account of its waste- will soon be reduced to the lowest *?■ vane ,s s0 mounted on the ma- 
fulness of power and on account of at which it can support its load. If ch . ,n f as to ride edge-wise to the 
its restriction of the manoeuvring now this level course be held for «' ln d "hen the machine is flying at 
qualities of the machine. even only a second or two. the speed the desired angle of incidence. In 

Penaud's system consists of a and the lift will be so diminished case the machine varies from the de- 
main bearing surface and a horizon- that the machine will begin to fall sired angle, the air will strike the 
tal auxiliary surface in the rear rapidly. v .ane 9", either its upper or lower 
fixed at a negative angle in re- The center of pressure on a cam- s,de - . 1 he slightest movement of the 
lation to the main surface. The bered aeroplane surface at angles vane m "'her direction brings into 
center of gravity is placed in front greater than 12 deg. to 15 deg. (Continued on page 78) 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 



Page 69 



CURTISS MODEL "J" TRACTOR BIPLANE 



The Curtiss Model "J" and Model 
"J-2" tractor biplanes have been de- 
veloped to meet the 1914 specifica- 
tions of the United States Army, 
and several of the Model "J" have 
already been adopted and are in use 
by the Signal Corps at San Diego, 
after demonstrations by Raymund V. 
Morris. 

These models can be furnished as 
land machines or as hydroaeroplanes. 



section is crosswired in three direc- 
tions. The third and fourth vertical 
struts are placed so as to act as wing 
struts, and they have extensions run- 
ning to the upper surface. 

The streamline effect is preserved 
throughout by enclosing the front of 
the fuselage, with motor and mount- 
ings, in a cowl of Duralumin, slotted 
to admit air to the motor. Stream- 
line cowls protect the cockpits and 



sengers, 2; fuel capacity, 4 hours; 
speed range, loaded, 45-75 m.p.h. ; 
climbing speed, 400 ft. p.m. ; price 
f. o. b. Hammondsport, $7,500; hy- 
droplane equipment, extra, $500. 

Mode] "J-2" — Span — Lower plane, 
30 ft.; upper, 24 ft.; chord, 60 in.; 
ailerons (4), 7x2 ft.; length over 
all, 24 ft. ; rudder area, 16 sq. ft. ; 
flippers, 16 sq. ft.; area fixed tail 
surfaces, 30 sq. ft.; number passen- 




Gj* 



KURTiss, 





MODEL "J," RECONNAISSANCE 
TYPE. 

Model "J" tractor is arranged for 
pilot and observer, seated in tandem, 
and is equipped with double controls, 
so that either man may take charge. 
With Curtiss Model O-X 90-100 h.p. 
motor, it has an extreme flying range 
of from 40 to 90 miles per hour, 
carrying two men and four hours' 
fuel. Flying light, Lieut. Goodier 
climbed 1,000 ft. in 1 minute; fully 
loaded, its guaranteed climbing speed 
ie 2,000 ft. in 6 minutes. 

MODEL "J-2," FAST SCOUT 
' TYPE. 

Model "J-2'' Curtiss tractor is a 
single-seated speed scout, as fast a 
biplane of its horse power as ever 
has been produced, but still substan- 
tial enough to stand up well under 
the stress of hard service. With 
Model O-X Curtiss motor, the "J-2" 
tractor lias more of a range. 

The wings of both these models 
are of latest approved section, one- 
piece type. Wing frames are built 
up carefully of ash and spruce, with 
beams shaped and grooved by hand, 
important joints copper strapped, the 
whole securely stayed with piano 
\\ ire. Covers are of unbleached 
linen, thoroughly coated with our 
own water and oil-proof preparation. 
Model "J" wings have a spread of 
40 ft. 2 in. for the upper surfaces, 
and 30 ft. for the lower surfaces; 
the area of lifting surface is ap- 
proximately 350 sq. ft. Model "J-2" 
wings have a span of 24 ft., upper 
and lower alike, and an approximate 
area of 240 sq. ft. 

The fuselage is of rectangular sec- 
tion, 26 in. wide by 35 in. high at 
the cockpit, tapering to nothing at 
the rudder. The longerons are ash 
strips,. l'/i in. in diameter, tapering 
to 1 in. The fuselage is corner 
braced with nine sets of struts, 
which are joined with corner clamps 
without piercing the longerons. Each 



deflect the wind from the pilots, as 
well as shield from the weather the 
dashboards on which the instruments 
are mounted. Behind the cockpits 
the fuselage is covered with water- 
proofed linen. 

The Curtiss Model O-X motor is 
mounted on engine beds of laminated 
ash and spruce 2 in. x 3 in. in diame- 
ter. It is fastened in front to a 
plate of 3-32 in. steel, which joins 
the longerons, and also carries the 
radiator. The rear ends of the en- 
gine beds are mounted on a hard- 
wood cross member framed into the 
second pair of vertical struts of ex- 
tra size. 

The fuselage is supported by an 
undercarriage consisting of three 
supporting struts on each side, borne 
on two streamlined wire wheels. The 
tires are 26 in. x 5 in. Wheels are 
attached with rubber band shock ab- 
sorbers. Protection from an upset 
in case of an unusually hard landing 
is afforded by two white oak skids, 
6 ft. long, turned up in front; they 
also help shield the propeller. The 
tail skid is of white oak and sprung 
mi with rubber bands. 

Turn-up ailerons 10 ft. in length 
liv 2 ft. wide are attached to the 
trailing edge of the upper surface 
on Model "J" tractor. Model "J-2" 
has turn-up ailerons on both upper 
and lower surfaces. These are 7 ft. 
long by 2 ft. wide. The vertical 
rudder has an area of 30 in. x 36 
in., is well secured to the stern post, 
and is double wired. Horizontal 
rudders, or flippers, have an area of 
16 sq. ft. Either the Curtiss system 
of control, consisting of shoulder 
yoke and steering wheel, or the 
Deperdussin system, with foot bar, 
can be provided with these models. 

General dimensions are: 

Model "J" — Span, lower plane, 30 
ft.; upper, 40 ft. 2 in.; chord, 60 in.; 
ailerons (2), 10 x 2 ft.; length over 
all, 26 ft. 4 in.; rudder area, 16 sq. 
ft.; flippers, 16 sq. ft.; area fixed 
tail surfaces, 30 sq. ft.; number pas- 



gers, 1; fuel capacity, 3 hours; speed 
range, loaded, 45-SO m.p.h.; climb- 
ing speed, 500 ft. p.m.; price f. o. b. 
Hammondsport, $7,500; hydroplane 
equipment, extra, $500. 



JACQUITH MAKES GOOD 
FLIGHT. 

On Sept. 21 the Curtiss flyer Jac- 
quith, with passenger, R. F. Patter- 
son, flew from Seaside Park to At- 
lantic City, about 62 miles, in 1 hr. 
3 min., in a Curtiss flying boat. 

MOISANT MOVES. 

The Moisant International Avia- 
tors have moved their office from 
1790 Broadway to the factory at 
Thompson and Fiske avenues, Win- 
field, Long Island, N. Y. 



It is of interest to note that a 
wonderful exhibition of looping-the- 
loop and upside down flying by Niles 
at the Trenton fair failed to attract, 
as one-third of the people were 
watching a vaudeville performance 
on the ground the same time Niles 
was performing in the air. 



La Liberte, according to a Paris 
despatch, declares that cage birds, 
especially canaries, never fail to sig- 
nal the presence of an airship or 
aeroplane "by giving a cry of sur- 
prise." The paper suggests that 
they should be used as watch birds. 



It is suggested that British sports- 
men should make up parties for air- 
craft fighting and for just one sea- 
son leave the duck and the wood- 
cock alone. — Army and Navy Jour- 
nal. 



Harry Bingham Brown was mar- 
ried on October 7th. No more fly- 
ing for H. B. B. 



Page 70 



AERONAUTICS. Sept. 15. 1914. 



THE "ST ECO" AEROPLANE 



The "St ecu" aeroplane, designed 
1, I .mi.'- ft, Stephens, wis built in 
the spring of 1911 from drawings 
prepared in the latter part of 1910. 
These drawings were submitted to 
and approved by the late Octave 
Chanute. 

"At the time no biplane had been 
built without a front elevator or 
with a tractor propeller; that the 
wing section is practically the same 
as one of the most efficient forms 
evolved by the Eiffel experiments 
during the past few months, and 
that the machine embodies in its de- 
sign and construction all of the fea- 
tures that have been developed dur- 
ing the past four years which tend 
to make the living machines more 
efficient and stable." 

The supporting surfaces of this 
machine are arranged so that it is 
naturally stable, both longitudinally 



up, turning it to the right or left for 
steering horizontally, as with a bi- 
cycle. 

The attachment of a single con- 
trolling surface and its movement in 
performing the functions of steering 
are such that it acts to automatically 
compensate- the tilting of the ma- 
chine when turning, accomplishing 
the same result as the reverse move- 
ment of a vertical rudder, as covered 
by the Wright patent, claims over 
which there has been so much con- 
troversy. By a tilting motion of the 
handle bar. the steering plane may 
be rocked in either direction and 
used as an auxiliary balancing device 
manually controlled, this tilting mo- 
tion aiding more or less or counter- 
acting the effect of the steering of 
the machine upon its normal balance. 
' This single surface is supported 
on a bearing located near its center, 



swing freely out toward the outer 
end of the planes, but not inwardly 
further than to be in line with the 
forward motion of the machine when 
flying straight ahead. 

These balancing planes co-operat- 
ing with the form of the outer ends 
of the wings, maintain the proper 
angle of the machine when turning, 
so that it will not skid outwardly for 
want of sufficient banking, or slide 
inwardly and downwardly from over- 
hanking, their operation being some- 
what similar to a check valve on 
each end of the wings of the ma- 
chine. 

If the machine in turning starts to 
skid outward, the balancing plane on 
that end of the wings acts as a 
check to the motion of the machine 
in that direction and in conjunction 
with the form of the wings and 
their relative dihedral angles, creat- 




and transversely; this is accom- 
plished by an adaptation of the prin- 
cipal of the Zanonia leaf, a form 
that has also been taken advantage 
of in the design of the "Dunne," a 
British development, and the "Et- 
rich'" aeroplane of Germany. Addi- 
tional features aiding in the natural 
stability of this machine are the 
staggering of the wings, the upper 
plane being located forward of the 
lower, and also having a slightly in- 
creasing angle of incidence, a com- 
bination of these features in con- 
junction with the transverse form of 
i he planes, giving the maximum of 
natural stability when flying. 

All of the supporting surfaces of 
tins machine are fixed, thus permit- 
ting permanent construction and 
bracing not affected by warping or 
twisting while the machine is in ac- 
tion. The single tail surface, which 
carries a portion of the load, is the 
only controllable surface used in 
steering the machine in any desired 
direction. 

The operation of this surface for 
both elevator and rudder effect is 
performed by direct connection, 
without pulleys or levers, to a steer- 
ing post and handle bar, similar to 
the handle bar of a bicycle, the mo- 
tion required being of such a simple 
nature that a novice will instinctive- 
ly make the proper movements, viz., 
shoving the handle bar forward to 
go down and drawing it back to go 



having a universal movement, so that 
any movement of the handle bar in 
the hands of the operator will cause 
a similar directional movement of 
the tail steering plane. 

This tail steering plane is con- 
nected to the machine by a simple 
method which allows of its adjust- 
ment, so that normally the machine 
when in action will fly straight 
ahead, and is so located and ad- 
justed, relative to the main support- 
ing surfaces, as to cause the ma- 
chine to automatically assume the 
minimum gliding angle downward 
when the power is shut off. 

The controlling mechanism always 
automatically assuming its normal 
relative position for straight ahead 
flying, should the operator for any 
reason or intentionally remove his 
hands from the controlling lever; 
this important function is accom- 
plished by a simple method of sup- 
porting the steering member without 
any actuating device other than the 
pressure of the air upon the tail of 
the machine, which provides for cer- 
tain action obtained from the motion 
of the machine itself through the 
air. 

As an auxiliary to the special form 
and arrangement of the main sup- 
porting planes designed to maintain 
transverse stability, the machine is 
fitted with two balancing planes, one 
on each side, placed vertically be- 
tween the second set of struts in 
from the outer end and hinged to 



ing an additional lift on that side of 
the machine, tending to maintain 
the machine at the proper angle 
sideways for turning, the balancing 
plane on the opposite end of the 
planes being neutral, swinging free 
in line with the angle of drift of the 
machine. 

Should the machine overbank and 
tend to slide down and inwardly, the 
inner balancing plane on that end of 
the wings will immediately become 
active, reversing the operation, as 
previously explained. 

The advantages claimed in the 
construction of this machine are 
natural inherent stability obtained 
by the form of the planes and sim- 
ple movable parts operated positively 
by the pressure of the air upon the 
machine when in action without any 
mechanical or electrical contrivances, 

Simplification of Parts — This ma- 
chine having but one movable con- 
trollable part, which for steering in 
either a horizontal or verticle. plane, 
is connected to the steering lever in 
the hand of the operator by direct 
connections without intermediary 
levers or pulleys. 

The design of this machine pro- 
vides for instinctive control by sim- 
ple mechanism, tending toward 
greater safety, strength in construc- 
tion by the reduction of movable 
parts, and simplification of control 
by the elimination of vertical rud- 
ders, ailerons and wing warping. 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 



Page 71 



CAREY STABILITY SYSTEM. 



Edwin R. Carey, of Pueblo, Colo., 
suggests the alleged non-infringing 
lateral stability system shown in the 
drawing herewith, after having tried 
it out. He offers the idea to others. 
The drawing is after the original 
sketch made by Mr. Carey in April, 
1910. 

The inventor states: "That others 
have, in a measure, considered simi- 
lar devices, look at the joint elevator 
of the Cody 1909-11 type. Reverse 
the design of his machine, leave off 
his tail and use the dimensions here- 
with and there is quite a similarity. 
However, I knew nothing of his de- 
vice at the time. Dunne uses ailerons 



sions and universal 'cloche' to assist 
in rising by positive incidence to 
help elevator, and by rearward side- 
wise motion made them function to 
restore balance, but to my knowl- 
edge this is the only one to use the 
elevators as such to control balance. 
Dunne uses ailerons as elevators. 
We use elevators as ailerons, only 
they function as feathers on an ar- 
row by impingement behind center 
oi thrust, center of pressure, weight 
and inertia, and can be worked in 
conjunction, separately, with or 
without rudders." 

The warping elevators arc oper- 
ated in both directions, independent- 




TRANS-ATLANTIC 
MODEL GOES ABROAD. 

Contradicting the criticism that the 
"America" was a freak or specially- 
built machine for stunt purposes, is 
the sale abroad of practically a du- 
plicate which was shipped September 
30 to England. According to pub- 
lished reports, the machine is said 
to have been acquired for the British 
Admiralty on the recommendation 
oi Lieut. John C. Porte, who, as 
prospective pilot for the transatlantic 
project, was entirely familiar with 
the "America" and her possibilities. 
^ The only statement made bv the 
I urtiss Aeroplane Co. was that when 
war was declared and it became evi- 
dent the transatlantic flight could not 
be attempted this year, the "An 
i' a" was dismantled, and a 
type of machine along simij. 
was developed from it and \>, 
the market. A new arrangemeiu 
made with Mr. Rodman ^'aia m a. 

whereby Mr. Curtiss is '" d^M-n 
new and larger mac! 
year's transatlantic at' e, "P 

Of the "Transatlantic"', 
is now catalogued J - v 
Aeroplane Co., it s 
have been ordered f or delivery in 
America, though th< impression pre- 
vails that eventual!! these will hnd 
their way to Europe The new ma- 
chines differ frou th e "America" 
only in details. r Jie « is greater 
planing surface. ' lje sten :- 
lower, tlie ta . 

Curtiss O-X 90 h. _ used. 

A detailed descr . ,i of the type 
will be published in an earlv issue. 






line jfoi 

Said S 



Curtiss 
several 



for steering and elevating. Richard 
Harte did in 1870; so did the 'Diap- 
son' flown by Schreck at Juvisy ; 
Mouillard also, as well as Du Tem- 
ple in his models. Small models of 
my device are filling requirements 
with rudder as a vane, or left off 
entirely. Cody and Martin have used 
ailerons in conjunction with eleva- 
tors to restore balance. In 1910-11 
Goupy used ailerons on wing exten- 



ly or simultaneously, to restore lat- 
eral balance. Another arrangement 
would be to have a vertical rudder 
at each one of these tails instead of 
one rudder as shown in the original 
sketch. The main planes are rigid 
in the design, and the entire control 
is as shown in the tail. A foot bar 
operates the rudder, and right and 
left hand levers the twin elevators. 
A machine of this pattern was built 
and flown in 1911, Mr, Carey says. 



SLOANE CO. CHANGES 

NAME. 

A new organization known as the 
Aircraft Co., Inc., has been formed 
to build the well-known Sloane Aero- 
planes and to conduct the business 
carried on by the Sloane Aeroplane 
Co. The office of the Company will 
remain at 1737 Broadway and the 
manufacturing will be carried on at 
Bound Brook, X. J., and Long Island 
t ity, N. V. 

This Company is in a position to 
turn out the various standard types 
of aeroplanes in large numbers. 
There is a very well equipped ma- 
chine plant operating in connection 
with them under the name of Sloane- 
Daniel Motor Co. In this -plant a 
specialty is made of light weight, 
high speed gas engines suitable for 
aeroplanes. These aeronautical mo- 
tors will be sold by the Aircraft Co., 
Inc. 

John E. Sloane, formerly president 
of the Sloane Aeroplane Co., is 
president of the new concern; M. R. 
Hutchinson, E. E., vice-president 
and Daniel L. Meenan, Jr., secretary 
and treasurer. Mr. M. R. De Miege 
is also associated with the company 
in an executive capaciiy. 

Charles H. Day, the well-known 
builder of "Day Tractors," who 
built De Lloyd Thompson's record 
breaking machine and who previously 
was connected with Glenn L. Martin 
Co., is now associated with the Air- 
craft Co.. Inc., and will be in direct 
charge of the construction of the 
Sloane Aeroplanes which will be 
built exclusively by this company. 



Mr Stevens is making a strenuous 
effort to revive ballooning, and the 
race at Pittsfield on October 8 ought 
to do a lot to help along. 



Page 72 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 



KEMP EIGHT-CYLINDER AIR-COOLED. 



The Kemp Machine Works, of 
Muncie, Ind., has just put on the 
market a new and enlarged edition 
in its J-8, 75-h.p., 8-cyl. V., air- 
cooled motor, equipped with a blow- 
er to insure positive circulation of 
air around all the cylinders evenly, 
the only air-cooled American motor 
with stationary cylinders. 




A blower mounted on the forward 
end of motor drives a current of air 
through its two outlet pipes to mani- 
folds on each group of four cylin- 
ders. The manifolds distribute an 
equal quantity of air to each cylin- 
der, where it is forced around under 
an aluminum jacket and between the 
regular cooling flanges to an outlet 
diametrically opposite its point of 
entry. Thus each cylinder gets ex- 
ac;»y as much air as any other, and 
aii pti' ts of the C\ linder are coolt d 
uniformly. Blower fan, casing, mani- 
folds and jackets are all of alumi- 
num, amply strong for the puij-ose, 
and the weight of the entire outfit is 
but 31 lbs. "Compare this with the 
weight of a 75-h.p. radiator, empty," 
says Mr. Kemp! 

The maker guarantees absolute 
freedom from the dangers of over- 
heating and all the resulting conse- 
quences, and "for the user the most 
trying problem and the greatest 




weakness of all other motors — the 
cooling problem — simply ceases to 
exist." 

The cylinders, 4J4 i»- x ^H i n *» 
are of the valve-in-head type, ac- 



knowledged the best for maximum 
efficiency, with both valves, of rich 
tungsten steel, mechanically oper- 
ated. The cooling flanges, as on all 
Kemp motors, are turned from the 
solid semi-steel stock. Pistons are 
of the same material, very light, 
with two concentric Wasson rings 
and three oil grooves. 

The connecting rods are of the 
same aluminum bronze alloy used 
satisfactorily in the past, with a 
"strength equal to that of steel and 
no liability to crystallization and 
fracture." They are of a new sec- 
tion, with a third rib down the cen- 
ter, much stronger than the usual H 
sei tion. 

Crank shaft is cut from a solid 
billet of special vanadium steel, heat 
treated, and bored throughout. It is 
supported on five bearings of hard, 
high speed, nickel motor babbit, and 
equipped with ball thrust bearings 
tor either pushing or pulling. It 
projects sufficiently at the rear end 
for attachment of gear to connect 
with hand or electric starter. 

The crank case is of an aluminum 
alloy of high strength, thoroughly 
webbed and ribbed. 

Oil sump in base has a capacity of 
4 gals. A gear pump takes the oil 
from this compartment and keeps a 
constant stream flowing over cam 
shaft and crank shaft bearings, 
whence it splashes to cylinders. The 
lubricating system is simple, suffi- 
cient and certain. 

"We have endeavored to make the 
motor a lightweight power plant, as 
all aeronautical motors should be. 
At the same time, we have not left 
off an ounce of material where it 
could do any good. Dependability 
and freedom from breakage has been 
our chief aim, and the motor is re- 
markably solid and substantial as 
compared with most lightweight aero 
motors. To further insure depend- 
ability and durability, we have de- 
signed it to give its rated power at 
very moderate speed." 

Ignition is by the Mea BHS mag- 
neto. 

Two Zenith carburetors are used, 
one serving each group of four cyl- 
inders. A Paragon propeller is fur- 
nished with each engine, as the 
Kemp winks have concluded, after 
the tests with these propellers, that 
they are the most suitable. Each 
propeller furnished is designed to 
suit the particular machine on which 
it is to be used, and the 3-bladed 
P.-.ragon will be fitted if desired. 

While this model is rated at 75 
h.p., it is guaranteed to turn an 8- 
ft. diameter by 5-ft. pitch propeller 
to at least 1,250 r.p.m., stationary, 
with corresponding increase in the 
air. It is understood, however, that 
I he normal speed of this motor is 
1,200, and should not be run above 
that.' 

The A. L. A. M. rating of this 
motor would be 72.25 h.p. The 
weight complete is but 375 lbs., and 
the price is $1,250. The gas con- 
sumption is 4 gals, an hour, which is 
low, and the oil consumption 3 qts. 



AUGUST EXPORTS AND 
IMPORTS. 

Imports: Parts only, $2,153. For 
eight months ending August, one 
'plane and parts were imported to 
value of $13,910, of which $12,054 
is the valuation of the parts. 

Exports: One 'plane and parts, 
$1,690, of which the 'plane repre- 
sents $1,500. Certainly aeroplanes 
are not overvalued when shipped. 
For eight months ending August, 25 
aeroplanes have been shipped, repre- 
senting $153,399, with parts totaling 
$25,001 additional. 

Exports of imported goods: None 
for August ; for eight months the 
total was but $207. 

In Warehouse: On August 31 
there was one foreign-built machine, 
valued at $1,856. At the same time 
in 1913 there were three and parts, 
valued at $7,708. 



JULY EXPORTS AND 
IMPORTS. 

Imports: Parts only, value $86. 
For seven months ending July, 
'planes and parts to amount of $11,- 
757. 

Exports: Two 'planes and parts 
for July, value $45.66. For seven 
months ending July, value was 
$176,710, as against $36,039 and 
$69,165 for 1913 and 1912, respec- 
tively, for the same period. 

Exports of foreign manufacture : 
None. For seven months ending 
July, value totaled $207. 

In Warehouse July 31: One 'plane 
and parts, $5,069. At the some time 
in 1913, there were in the warehouse 
three 'planes and parts, to the value 
of $7,708. 



ALMOST A NEW ENDUR- 
ANCE RECORD. 

A new record for aeroplane en- 
durance in America was nearly estab- 
lished on September 25, when Lieut. 
Joseph Carberry, U. S. A., accom- 
panied by Oscar Brindley, remained 
in actual flight for 4 hours and 7 
minutes, during which time they 
flew to Los Angeles and back and 
then across the Mexican boundary 
and back to the hangars on North 
Island. The old record is 4 hours, 
22 minutes. The machine used was 
the new Wright tractor-type "pusher" 
with the 90-h.p. Austro-Daimler mo- 
tor, being delivered to the Army. 



THOMPSON ALTITUDE 
RECORD OFFICIAL. 

The new American altitude record 
recently made with a Gyro motored 
machine by De Lloyd Thompson has 
been officially fixed at 15,256 ft. 
(4,651.22 metres). 



AROUND-THE-WORLD 
RACE. 

Well, what has become of it? 
Also, where is Arnold Kruckman: 



NEW BOOKS. 

EXPERIMENTS, by Philip E. 
Edelman. 16mo, cloth, illus., 250 
pp., published at $1.50 by Philip E. 
Edelman, Minneapolis, Minn. A 
most desirable work to place in the 
hands of any young man that has 
shown a tendency toward scientific 
study. The scope of .the book is 
well set forth in the frontispiece as 
"a series of selected, grouped and 
graded experiments which may be 
repeated in a simple manner, cover- 
ing a wide range of applied science" 
evolved from the wonderful develop- 
ments of the last decade in physics, 
chemistry and electricity. It is in- 
teresting reading for even those who 
are thoroughly familiar with the sub- 
ject matter. 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 



Page 73 



AIRCRAFT IN THE WAR 



Until the war is ended and naval 
and army critics report on the value 
of aircraft as reconnaissance means, 
in offense and defense, little of real 
use will be learned. 

Reports vary from one extreme to 
the other and, of course, such re- 
ports are from untrained men and 
without definite significance. It 
would appear, however, that aerial 
reconnaissances have been the means 
of preventing "surprises" and have 
made the great battles long drawn 
out affairs decided by number of 
troops and marksmanship, strength 
of armament and position. "With- 
out doubt the aeroplane is the great- 
est single factor in this war," is 
the opinion of one expert. 

The Zeppelins have made them- 
selves conspicuous by their absence. 
A few desultory sorties have been 
made, according to reports, but as 
a real factor they have yet to demon- 
strate their worth. They are evi- 
dently being held back for some 
definite purpose which will appear at 
the rigured-upon time. 

Reports continue of aeroplane 
scouts being brought down by rifle 
fire, of the miscellaneous dropping 
of bombs and arrows from aero- 
planes, of duels in the air between 
opposing scouts, and of occasional 
flights, with bomb dropping, over 
Paris. 

Herbert Corey, in the Globe, 
states: 

"Aircraft have utterly failed to 
justify themselves as instruments of 
battle in the great war. As instru- 
ments of reconnaissance they have 
been of great value. This formula 
was suggested to me by an officer 
of the British flying corps: 

" (hie howitzer is of greater value 
than twoscore of dirigibles. One 
aeroplane may conceivably be of 
greater value than a squadron of 
scouts.' 

"M. Bleriot, the first man to fly 
the English channel, and now one of 
the leading aeroplane makers of 
France — his factory is at work day 
and night turning out aircraft for 
use in the war — made this state- 
ment: 

" 'The dirigibles have done nothing. 
The aeroplane has been useful — but 
the last word remains with the guns.' 

"M. Pegoud, who has figured in 
several daring exploits, is quoted as 
follows: 

" 'From an aeroplane one sees — 
but one does not always know what 
it is one sees. The airman may see 
that the enemy is in possession of 
territory, but the work of developing 
in what strength it is held must still 
be carried out by cavalry or motor 
scouts.' 

"Little has found its way into 
print as to the details of the work 
done by dirigibles or planes in the 
war. Gossip from the front, heard 
"in London and Paris, is that innum- 
erable attempts at aggression have 
been made by the aircraft of both 
sides. In one case a German "dig" 
floated over the city of Brussels 
and discharged nine powerful bombs. 
From the airman's viewpoint condi- 
tions for this savage raid were ideal. 
There was no wind, and the motor 
balloon was maneuvered over the 
city as easily as a catboat in a 
breeze. The bombs fell upon a 
densely thronged city, thereby as- 
suring the maximum of cost to life 
and property. 



"Only twelve persons were injured, 
of these only five were killed. The 
total damage amounted to the shat- 
tering of the upper story of a 
house and to the excavation of a 
saucr-shaped hole in the ground in 
v\ lw<_ li a man might lie down com- 
fortably. One shell from a six- 
pounder would have wrought infin- 
itely more ruin, and falling in the 
same space, would have cost more in 
life. The Germans were at the time 
within ten miles of the centre of 
the city of Brussels at one point of 
their line. The siege howitzer of 
today has an effective range of more 
than twelve miles. A projectile dis- 
charged from such a gun would have 
absolutely demolished any building 
upon which it fell. 

Another successful attempt at war 
from the air was that exploit of 
which M. Pegoud was the hero. 
With one companion he flew over a 
series of German encampments near 
Gravenmacher, in Belgium. He flew 
at night and at only 500 ft. altitude 
In lack of exact knowledge gossip 
has it that his load of bombs weighed 
500 lbs. He discharged every one 
before he returned. 

"The net result, so far as can 
be ascertained, was that the fright- 
ened Germans blanketed their lires 
so 1 1 Kit the aeroplanist could not 
find his target. It was at first stated 
that two convoys of ammunition 
were destroyed by his bombs. This 
has not been confirmed. It is 
highly likely, of course, that if an 
ammunition caisson were struck by 
an explosive projectile it woidd be 
destroyed. It does not necessarily 
follow that the next wagon of am- 
munition would suffer. The 'in- 
cendiary' bombs he carried would 
unquestionably cause a conflagration 
if they fell among city houses. They 
are almost harmless — as harm is 
counted in this war — if they fall 
among the tents of an encampment. 

"It is definitely known that each 
side has been continually engaged in 
i xperiments upon the other by 
means of bombs. The French, at 
least, have indicated they will give 
this up as a bad job. Even the 
moral effect has worn off. In the 
daytime marching troops have had 
no difficulty in avoiding the dropped 
bombs. Bomb throw ing at night is 
highly harassing to the thrown at, 
but the animated targets have the 
consolation that, like lightning, an 
aeroplanist never strikes twice in 
the same place. 

" 'Our reports from Belgium are 
that in broken, wooded, hilly country 
an airman is quite unable to distin- 
guish with any certainty the numbers 
or disposition of the troops beneath 
him,' said the British officer quoted. 
'He might make a fairly accurate 
estimate of what was going on upon 
a plain beneath him. Even so, in 
the present state of development he 
would only be able to report that a 
certain number of small or large 
bodies of troops were under way in 
a given direction. Such reports have 
been of great value to us, but they 
must be supplemented by feeling out 
the country by cavalry scouts.' 

"Nevertheless, the countries en- 
gaged in this great war are adding 
to their aeroplane squadrons as rap- 
idly as possible. It is conceded that 
they - have not justified the high 
hopes that were entertained of them 
before the war began. But they are 
one of the great dice of war, and 
they will be thrown again and again, 



in the hope that at last there may 
turn up a winning hand." 

A report which conflicts seriously 
with that to the effect that no Ger- 
man airships have been destroyed is 
this: 

Of the Zeppelin units, one is be- 
lieved to have been disabled by the 
lire of the Liege forts on Aug. u and 
another was demolishel in a shed al 
Metz by the French aviator Fink. 
Two others have been seen by Bel- 
gian aviators, apparently wrecked by 
wind squalls, in the forest between 
Metz and Aix-la-Chapelle. Another 
has been brought down at Badon- 
viller, near Luneville. Of the re- 
mainder, two are supposed to be on 
the Russian frontier and the others 
at Cologne, Hamburg and Kiel and 
on tin.- French frontier. A German 
biplane captured at Cernay has been 
added to the 22 guns and other 
trophies to be placed at the foot of 
the Alsace monument. 

Speaking of the relative merits of 
Zeppelins and the French non-rigid 
type of airships, as demonstrated in 
the present war, M. Sabatier, the 
well-known airship specialist, says: 
"French airships have been doing 
excellt m work, and so far escaped 
unscathed, although often under fire, 
( >ne of them, starting from Man 
beuge, flew over Treves and beyond, 
returning safely to its shed. On 
the other baud, we have bagged sev- 
eral Zeppelins. The reasun for this 
apparent invulnerability of the 
French airship is simple. By reason 
of the elasticity of our gas bags we 
can safely maintain a very high 
altitude, beyond ordinary gun range. 
This is impossible with the rigid 
shell of the Zeppelin, which cannot 
bear the expansion of gas, more par- 
ticularly in this hot weather; so the 
French have a distinct advantage in 
airships." 

A young Belgian aviator was re- 
ported as saying: "It is very difficult 
to distinguish anything. Men look 
so small from such a height. For 
example, unless you are directly 
above them, you can scarcely see 
even artillery upon a road." A rifle 
bullet struck the propellor of his 
machine and broke it slightly, but 
did not stay his flight. The ex- 
plosions of shells were very disturb- 
ing because they interfered with the 
equilibrium of the machine. "As to 
noise? But the noise of the engine 
drowns every other sound. So far 
as reconnoitering airman is con- 
cerned a battlefield 'is quite silent." 

Says the Paris Temps: "The ex- 
perience of our air people shows 
that an aeroplane is safe from 
bullets when 1,000 yds. high, and 
at 2,000 yds. an aviator still can 
observe accurately with the naked 
eye." 



ITALY MAY BUY HERE. 

Enea Bossi, a well-know n Italian 
engineer and designer, is in New 
York conferring with manufacturers 
here. 

"The Italian government now has 
17 dirigibles, two of which are as 
big as Zeppelins; 2S0 biplanes, and 
70 hydroplanes," Mr. Bossi said. 

Sept. 11. — Aeroplanes with search- 
lights are said to have guarded at 
night the headquarters of the Ger- 
man general staff and the Kaiser 
at Luxembourg. 



Page 74 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 



Sept. 19. — British army officer said 
to have stated that the aeroplanes of 
the allies are doing splendid service. 
In one instance one located a Ger- 
man troop train at night and 
dropped a torch to indicate the 
range. "Our artillery blew the 
train to atoms in a few minutes." 

Sept. 21. — Aeroplane reconnois- 
sance reports German retirement, 
with trains and stores. 

Sept. 21. — Japanese hydro-aero- 
planes, throwing bombs, destroyed 
barracks and set fire to two im- 
portant forts at Tsingtao. 

Sept. 2i. — British aviators said to 
have set fire to hangars near Col- 
ogne, while German newspaper says 
only a few windows were broken. 

Sept. 22. — British naval aeroplanes 
attack Zeppelin shed at Dusseldorf 
and dropped three bombs. Extent 
of damage not known. 

Sept. 24. — Frenchman arriving in 
America tells of steel arrows, six 
inches long, rounded at one end and 
brought to a needle point, with 
grooves along the other end, launched 
a thousand at a time from aircraft 
fitted with special boxes, whose bot- 
toms open. 

Sept. 25. — German airship drops 
four bombs, making great cavities 
in the ground, damaging houses and 
breaking street lamps and wires. 

Sept. 25. — Germans said to have 
lost most of their aeroplanes, but 
the "Zeppelin fleet is intact." 

Sept. 27. — German aeroplane flies 



over Paris and dropped a bomb. One 
man was killed. Three others bombs 
were dropped, doing "comparatively 
little damage." A German airship 
sailed over Belgian cities during the 
night and dropped bombs, causing 
considerable damage to gas works 
and buildings. 

Sept. 30. — Japanese aviators say 
they hit a German vessel with bombs 
at Kaio-chow, and the guns of war- 
ships silenced two harbor forts after 
obtaining range signaled by Jap 
hydros. 

Oct. 1. — French pilot and mechanic 
use aeroplane gun on German scout 
machine, killing both German occu- 
pants and setting fire to the ma- 
chine. 

Oct. 1. — Italian dirigible sent out 
to locate floating mines in the Ad- 
riatic. 

Oct. 2. — German aeroplanes drop 
proclamations over territory in which 
Russian troops are stationed, urging 
Russian soldiers to surrender. 

< let. 2. — During night German air- 
ships dropped bombs on Antwerp 
forts without serious damage. Ger- 
man gun fire is very accurate, being 
directed by officers in captive bal- 
loons to the front of German bat- 
teries. Captive balloon said to be 
poor substitute for aeroplane recon- 
naissance. British aviators direct fire 
from Antwerp forts. 

Oct. 3. — British official press bu- 
reau issues statement that the naval 
air service, including aeroplanes and 



dirigibles, patrolled a line between 
Ostend and the English coast during 
movement of troops from England. 

Oct. 3. — Japanese aeroplanes chase 
a German one at Tsingtao. A cap- 
tive balloon is reported in use there. 

Oct. 5. — Report that airships are 
being groomed, new stations built 
on North Sea and material and sup- 
plies collected for a raid on Eng- 
land. 

Oct. 6. — Kaiser confers Iron Cross 
on commander and crew of a 
Schutte-Lanz airship, for "the mag- 
nificent aerial reconnoitering that 
led to the destruction of the three 
British cruisers" torpedoed in the 
North Sea by German submarines. 

Oct. 7. — Six German airships sail 
over Antwerp during the night, set- 
ting fire to oil tanks. 

Oct. 7. — German aeroplane Hies 
over I'aris, dropping two bombs, 
w Inch wounded three persons. 

Oct, 8.— Aeroplane drops bombs 
over airship at Cologne, but driven 
off by tire without doing damage. 
Bomb from aeroplane said to have 
damaged airship and shed at Dus- 
seldorf. Airship reported seen over 
North Sea. Duel in the air be- 
tween Belgian scout and German 
flyer, resulting in the loss of the 
German pilot and craft. 



"Fall Fashions Volplane to Broad- 
way," is the expression used in a 
haberdasher's advertisement in a 
New York paper. 



U.S. ARMY AERONAUTICS— GOVERNMENT COMPETITION 



Great activity reigns at the Signal 
Corps aviation school in North 
Island, near San Diego, Cal., at 
the present time. In fact, the school 
seems to have taken on a new lease 
of life since the return of the de- 
tachment which was hurried away 
for service in Mexico but which 
never got farther than Galveston. 

Recently, four buildings have been 
added to the school : two hangars, 
each accommodating ten machines, a 
commodious storehouse and a head- 
quarters building. These buildings 
were constructed under the able su- 
pervision of Captain Kirtland and 
add greatly to the appearance of the 
aerodrome. 

Several new machines have recent- 
ly been added to the equipment, in- 
cluding one Martin speed scout and 
two Martin school machines, all 
tractors equipped with Curtiss O-X 
100 h.p. motors; two Curtiss tractors 
and one Curtiss flying boat, with, 
of course, Curtis motors, O-X model; 
and one Wright modified tractor, 
with 90 h.p. Austro-Daimler engine 
in front and twin chain driven pro- 
pellers in rear. 

Some eleven constructors have en- 
tered for the military competition 
(see AERONAUTICS, July 15), 
which has been set to commence Oct. 
20. Of these only Curtiss, Martin 
and Christofferson are on the ground 
and it seems unlikely that all of 
the entries wil have machines ready. 
Neither the Thomas, Sloane nor 
Moisant companies are entering the 
competition. In fact, a large num- 
ber of machines can hardly be ex- 
pected in view of the severity of the 
specifications, the small number of 
prizes and the mediocrity of the 



prizes themselves. Other expected 
competitors include: The Wright Co., 
Maximilian Schmitt, Aeromarine 
Plane & Motor Co., and Gallaudet 
Co. 

Perhaps in the year one of the 
next era Congress will wake up and 
make a respectable attempt to foster 
the aeroplane and motor industries 
in America. Let us hope so — but 
not too strongly! 



Mr. Riley Scott has completed his 
experiments with his bomb dropping 
device, covering a period of five 
months, and reports have been made 
to the War Department. According 
to the Army ami Navy Journal, a 
new type of aero bomb developed by 
the Ordnance Department was tried 
out with complete success. The 
range finder invented by Mr. Scott 
was used in the experiments and it 
is reported that remarkable accuracy 
was attained. The bombs, which 
were of two sizes, fifteen and fifty 
Hi--., were equipped with adjustable 
fuses. Until the fuse is set the bomb 
can be handled with perfect safety. 
In dropping from an aeroplane the 
bomb is placed in a holder below 
the machine with a light wire cable 
attached to the fuse. At the proper 
time, the aviator pulls the cable 
attached to the fuse, which arms the 
bomb. This is done just before the 
bomb is released. The Scott range 
finder is telescopic and indicates just 
when the bomb should be dropped in 
order to strike the target. This is 
done by calculating the speed of the 
machine with respect to the ground 
and taking the height from an an- 



eroid barometer, which is corrected 
before each flight. 

With all the attention that the 
European armies have given to aero- 
planes and Zeppelins, none of them 
has developed a reliable range tinder. 
Most of the bombs dropped have 
been guided only by the judgment of 
distances and estimates of the speed 
of aeroplane without the aid of in- 
struments. This, it is stated, ac- 
counts for the inability of any of 
the Powers in the present war to do 
effective work with bombs at high 
altitudes. The maximum height at 
which the tests were made at San 
Diego was 2,500 ft., but the accu- 
racy with which the bombs were 
dropped indicates that the Scott 
range finder is a success and will 
enable military aviators, with proper 
training, to do accurate work at a 
height of 5,000 or more. Th : s would 
place aeroplanes out of the range of 
small arms and the present type of 
field artillery guns. The bombs con- 
taining high explosives tore holes in 
the hard soil, 6 to 10 ft. in diameter 
and 3 to 5 ft. deep. 

A full description of the original 
apparatus and the theurv has been 
printed in AERONAUTICS. 

Experiments have recently been 
conducted with a parachute device, 
the demonstrations being made by 
Mr. and Mrs. Broadwick. The Con- 
verse stabilizer, described in AERO- 
NAUTICS for August 15, will 
shortly be tried. 

The Curtiss aviation school opened 
October 1 5, and Curtiss himself is 
already on the ground. The Curtiss 
school occupies part of North Island 
and teaching is done with both land 
and water machines. 



IERONAUTICS,' Sept. 15, 1914. 



Page 75 



AERONAUTICS 

>' New and Enlarged Edition. Commencing January. 1914 -J 

j* The Leading British Monthly >• 
>♦« Journal Devoted tothe Technique W. 
:♦: and Industry of Aeronautics >■ 

>$ (FOUNDED 1907) ;♦■ 

?S Yearly Subscription One Dollar j»j 

A Eighty-five Cents : Post Free & 

>J {Money Orders Only) ;♦■ 

V M n f a < A specimen copy will be mailed ^ 

'♦! 1,,0le ' free on receipt of 15 cents >J 

$ Heac/ Office: ;.»? 

$ 170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C. !* 

>! American Office: 250 West 54th Street, New York *- 



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FLYING ON LONG 
ISLAND. 

Bombs, made of plaster of paris 
and shaped like the projectiles used 
on w ar vessels, were dropped by 
the aviators on the Hempstead 
Plains field at Garden City, at the 
weekly meet on Sept. 19. These 
bombs were about 12 inches long. 
At one end was a stick 15 inches 
long, which has cardboard quills at 
the top to keep the bomb steady 
when dropped. At the other end 
\\a> a large wire nail. Inside the 
plaster of paris bomb was a large 
quantity of lampblack and a 3-inch 
cartridge, from which all the shot 
had been removed. When the avia- 
tor dropped the bomb from the aero- 
plane it whirled around and around 
in its descent, and as it struck the 
ground the nail was driven up in 
the bomb against the cartridge, 
which caused the bomb to explode 
with a loud report, and the lamp- 
black, scattering in all directions, 
looked like dense smoke. 

The handicap rating of the ma- 
chines on the field at present is: 
hour; Heinrich monoplane, 64 m.p. 
Schmitt monoplane. 69 miles per 
h. ; Kuhl-Baysdorfer biplane, 62 
m.p.h, ; Moisant Blue Bird mono- 
plane, 62 m.p.h.; Heinrich School 
monoplane, 56 m.p.h.; Beckwith 
military tractor, 42 m.p.h. 



These week-end affairs are being 
conducted under the auspices of the 
Week End Meets Association, of 
which John E. Sloane is president, 
A. J. Moisant vice-president, D. S. 
Houghton secretary and Albert 
Heinrich treasurer. So far as 
known no license has been obtained 
from the Wright company. All av- 
iators are cordially invited to par- 
ticipate. Passengers are carried at 
$12.50 per flight. 



AERO MART 

FOR SALE— 46 copies Aero and 
Hydro; 31 copies Aircraft; 4S copies 
VERONAUTU S. Numbers begin 
September, 1911, end 1914. Price 
$5.00 for the lot. Purchaser to pay 
express charges. R. B. Curnutt, 703 
Ninth Ave. So., Great Falls, Mont. 



WILL KENT my double covered 
26 ft. x 6 ft. monoplane to a re- 
liable party. Address E. M., 1522 
Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio. 



WRIGHT Model B for sale as it 
stands; $50 will put it in perfect 
condition; engine in first-class shape. 
Met with slight accident in landing. 
Price $1,000 cash. Address S-, care 
AERONAUTICS. 



BARGAIN IN BOOKS— Will sell 
following books: Aerial Navigation 
(Salverda) $1.50; Navigating the 
Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; 
Aeronautical Annual, 1895-6-7 

(James Means) $5; Travels in 
Space (Valentine & Thompson) 
$ .50; Art of Aviation (Brewer) 
$1.50; Airships Past and Present 
(Hildebrand) $3 ; Proceedings Int. 
Congress Aerial Navigation, Chica- 
go, 1893, $5 ; various other books 
thrown in to purchaser of the lot. 
L. E. Dare, 216 West 104th St., 
New York. 



E< >R SALE— Biplane tractor, 35 
ft. spread, equipped with 60-h.p., 6- 
cylinder, air-cooled motor, Bosch 
magneto. Master carburetor and 
speed indicator; Farman-type land- 
ing gear. Everything in first-class 
condition. Demonstration by ap- 
pointment, or photograph sent by 
mail; $400 cash, worth $2,000. 
Leonard L. McCarty, 1014 S. Main 
St., Los Angeles, Calif. 



JOHN WISE— "History and Prac- 
tice of Aeronautics," by John Wise. 
We have just secured another copy 
of this famous, rare work. Cloth, 
8vo, ill., 310 pp, steel engraving 
frontispiece. For sale at $10. 
AERONAUTICS, 2S0 West 54tb st., 



Page 76 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 




NEXT GENERAL 
MEETING. 

The next general meeting will be 
held the first Thursday in Novem- 
bei the 5th. The subject will be 
'Aerial Strategy," to be discussed 
by competent men. Announcement 
Lit. ; 

The first meeting of the season 
w as such a success that a special 
effort should be made to improve 
even upon this. 



29 West 3Sth Street, New York 

OFFICIAL BULLETIN 



NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

Oct. 6, 1914. 

Fellow Members: For the firsl 
year in the history of the Aero- 
nautical Society there has been no 
series of meets at our aerodrome, 
now located at Oakwood Heights, 
Staten Island; but it must not be 
assumed that this is due in any 
way to inactivity on the part ot 
those responsible, because the rea 
son is due entirely to causes beyond 
our control. 

During last winter there was 
every assurance of most pretentious 
events taking place at our aero- 
drome, as we were assured of $10,- 

in prizes to be contested for 

on Decoration Day. The donor of 
the prizes, in endeavoring to obta n 
a license from the Wright Company, 
failed to receive any reply for some 
weeks and withdrew the offer. 

Notwithstanding this setback, it 
was decided to endeavor to hold the 
Aenal Derby on Columbus Day or 
Election Day, and in order to make 
this an open contest for all avia- 
tors, whether licensed or not, cor- 
respondence was initiated with Mr. 
Orville Wright with a view to ob- 
t.ii n in- this privilege under a li- 
cense, and an acceptance was finally 
i e< en ed. Efforts were immediately 
undertaken to raise prizes for the 
Aerial Derby and any other con- 
tests that could he developed. The 
owners of the Times, who had been 
the donors last year, were approach- 
ed, but they frankly stated it would 
be impossible, in view of the Eu- 
ropean war. which consumed all the 
available news space, to do justice 
to any scientific or sporting even! 
and therefore recommended the 
postponement of the Derby till the 

spring. 

i ) 1 1 r efforts are now directed to 
ward holding the Aerial Derby on 
Decoration Day, believing that the 
tune will then be propitious, under 
the assumption that the European 
conflict will then be at an end and 
that many of our aviator members 
will have returned from the front, 
among whom may be mentioned R. 
G. Guerquin, Albert Fileux, William 
Thaw, George Dyott and others. 
The year 1914 will be a memorable 
one from many standpoints, one of 
which is regretfully the fact that 
for reasons beyond our control our 
aerodrome has not been taken full 
advantage of in the matter of meets. 
But instead of this acting as a dis- 
couragement, it should stimulate us 
to greater and more pretentious ac- 
tivity next year, and it is the hope 
that all members will send any 
suggestions and offer to help make 
the year 1915 the most active in 
ttie history of the Aeronautical So- 
ciety. 



FIRST GENERAL 
MEETING. 

The first general meeting of the 
fall and winter series of the Aero- 
nautical Society of America was 
held Oct, 1 . The speakers were: 
Mr. Hudson Maxim, "Aerial War- 
fare" ; ( apt. Ewald Hecker, form- 



erly 13th Royal Dragoons, German 
army, "The Military Phase of Avia- 
tion"; Capt. Washington I. Chamb- 
ers, C S. N., "The Naval Angle." 



Notice to Delinquents. 

Delinquents in payment of dues 
are earnestly requested to place 
themselves in good standing at the 
earliest possible moment in order 
that they may receive the official 
bulletin, AERONAUTICS, semi- 
monthly, the membership certificates 
and data sheets. 

Membership dues in The Aero- 
nautical Society are $10 a year, no 
initiation fee. Members receive 
data sheets, the magazine, AERO- 
NAUTICS, engraved certificate of 
membership, free monthly lectures. 
For further information address the 
Secretary. 




The photograph is that • f Angus- 
tin Parla. the Cuban aviator, who 
v as recently appointed instructor of 
the Cuban Army. The picture is 
published by courtesy of Fausto 
Rodriguez. 

The Cuban Government, realizing 
the usefulness of the aeroplane, has 



established an aviation corps in the 
army. Parla is now opening the 
new military flying school. The 
Cubans have taken up aviation since 
the early start of the "game," and 
among them are the great fliers 
Parla, Rosillo and Gonzalez. Parla 
flies a Curtiss and the other two 
Morane-Saulniers. 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 



Page 77 




J ' IIMM1MIII Mill II. 



Published semi monthly in the best interests of Aero- 
nautics 

BY 

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 

250 West 54th Street 

New York 

Telephone, Columbus 8721 

Cable, Aeronautics, New York 



ERNEST L. 
M. B. SELLERS, 
HARRY SCHULTZ 
C. A. BEIER, 



JONES 



Editor 
Technical Editor 
Model Editor 
Advertising E 



Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 
1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 
15 cents a Copy. 

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philip- 
pines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada 
and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries. 



The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each 
month. All copy must be received 6 days before 
date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allow- 
ance must be made for receipt and return. 



Make all checks and monev orders free of exchange 
and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS. 



Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discon- 
tinuance is desired at the end of their subscription 
period, otherwise it will be assumed that their sub 
scription is to be continued. 



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Paee 78 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 



DEATH OF WELDON B. 
COOKE. 

Considerable information is avail- 
able regarding the accidental death 
of Weldon B. Cooke at Pueblo, 
Colo., on September 16, through a 
subscriber of AERONAUTICS, who 
made a special investigation. He 
was appointed by a local newspaper 
to arrange with Cooke for the carry- 
ing of a passenger from Colorado 
Springs, the 45 miles across country 
to Pueblo, and assisted in setting up 
the machine at the Springs. It ap- 
pears the machine was in bad shape. 
The struts were of pine, the engine 
bed the same, with a crack connect- 
ing the three holes for the engine 
and radiator in one bed beam. The 
cable attaching the elevator to the 
steering pillar was too short and was 
pieced out with "bale" wire. The 
front main later spar was pine and 
the rear one oak. 

The trip from Colorado Springs 
was made all right, Cooke ariving 
the day before the accident. On 
the ISth he was coming in after 
some circles over the grounds and a 
trip over the surrounding territory, 
when a vertical strut was seen to 
break in mid air and fall to the 
ground, where it was later picked 
up. Cooke then made a left turn 
and dive to the ground. In this, 
witnesses watching through glasses 
state, a cable or control wire 
snapped. The machine hit a fence 
and was smashed to small pieces. 
Cooke's body was badly broken. The 
machine was a tractor, with Roberts 
engine, made by Cooke himself at 
Sandusky. 



PICELLER KILLED. 

William Piceller, who learned to 
fly under George Beatty, was killed 
on October 2 after a flight of sev- 
eral minutes over the field at Hemp- 
stead, L. I. Witnesses are unani- 
mous in stating that his right wing 
warping control broke in the air. 
The chain passing over the pulley in 
the warping lead was found broken 
and is thought to have been defec- 
tive. The machine was home-made 
of the Wright model B type and was 
in distressingly bad shape. 

Two fatalities in one month due 
purely to negligence. 



P. A. R. S. BALLOON 
MAKES FIRST ASCENT. 

The new balloon of the Philadel- 
phia Aeronautical Recreation So- 
ciety, the "Greater Philadelphia," 
made its initial ascent on September 
29 from Point Breeze, with Dr. 
George H. Simmerman, Dr. Thomas 
E. Eldridge, E. Minor Fenton and 
George N. Storch as passengers. 
Mayor Blankenburg christened the 
balloon, which carried a supply of 
women's suffrage literature as ballast 
and a letter to President Wilson, 
which, it was hoped, would be pos- 
sible of dropping over the White 
House. The air currents decided 
otherwise, and the landing was made 
five and a quarter hours after the 
start at Yineland, N. J., close to the 
house of Mr. Fenton's mother, who 
did not know he was of the party 
until he stepped out of the basket. 
Dr. Eldridge piloted the balloon. It 
was built bv A. Leo Stevens for a 
capacity of 60,000 cu. ft. The dis- 
tance from Point Breeze to Vineland 
is 32 miles. 



BALLOON RACING 
REVIVED. 

Thousands of people lined the 
roadway between Pittsfield and the 
gas works on October 8, in automo- 
biles, side cars, carriages, farm 
wagons, with shank's mare and many 
other equipages, when four balloons 
left the ground in a sort of hare 
and hounds contest. 

Leo Stevens started in a pilot 
Balloon at 12:35, with the condition 
that be land by 3 o'clock. This he 
did at a point called Stevens Brook, 
some 22 miles from the start. His 
landing was the signal for the other 
balloons to alight, manceuvering to 
descend as near as possible to the 
pilot balloon. Robert "Golden" and 
aide Sydney Walsh in the "l'Ecur- 
eil," won the cup offered by F. 
Harrison Higgins when they col- 
lapsed their bag only three thousand 
feet away. 

Alan R. Haw-ley. with George Von 
Utassy, in the "North Adams" was 
second and Messrs Jerome Kingsbury 
and William H. Richardson in the 
"L C. U-," third. Stevens' aide was 
Gordon Bruce, of the Tribune, and 
the balloon he used was the "Danc- 
ing Doll." 

Cortland F. Bishop offered a cup 
for the first automobile to arrive at 
the pilot balloon, \\ hich was won 
by Roy Bridge, of Pittsfield. 

There were 32 moving picture men 
on the field and a revival of balloon- 
ing seems imminent. 



Frank H. Burnside, the Thomas 
star flier, flew at Concord, N. C., 
on Sept. 29th and 30 th, attaining 
great success. Chas. Fev, jr., flew 
at Cobleskill, N. Y„ "Sept. 22d- 
25th. He gave a very good exhibi- 
tion of fancy flying during the four 
days. 



STABILITY OF AEROPLANES— Continued from page 68) 



action a powerful mechanism for op- 
erating the controlling surfaces. 

If the wind strikes the vane on 
the under side, as would be the case 
when the machine takes a larger an- 
gle of incidence, the elevator is 
turned to cause the machine to point 
downward in front till the normal 
angle is restored. If the air strikes 
the vane from above, a smaller an- 
gle of incidence is indicated, and an 
opposite action on the elevator is 
produced. In this system no particu- 
lar angle of the machine with the 
horizontal is maintained. It is the 
angle at which the air strikes the 
aeroplane surface that is important. 
If the vane is set at an angle of 5 
deg. with the main supporting sur- 
faces, and the machine is traveling 
on a level course, increasing the 
power of the motor will cause it to 
begin taking on more speed. But 
as the lifting effect of an aeroplane 
surface is the product of two fac- 
tors — its speed and its angle of inci- 
dence — any increase in speed will 
produce a greater lift and cause the 
machine to rise. The machine will 
now be turned upward, with the 
surfaces meeting the air at an angle 
of 5 deg. On the contrary, if the 
power of the motor be reduced or 
entirely turned off, the machine will 
immediately begin to decrease in 
speed, requiring a larger angle of 
incidence for support. But as soon 
as the angle begins to increase, the 



air will strike the regulating vane on 
the underside and the elevator will 
be turned, pointing the machine 
downward till the component of 
gravity in the direction of travel be- 
comes sufficient to maintain the nor- 
mal speed. In this case the planes 
will be inclined downward with ref- 
erence to the horizontal. It is evi- 
dent that a machine controlled by 
regulating the angle of the machine 
with reference to the impinging air 
is not liable to the dangers of "stall- 
ing" already described. 

Several other methods of main- 
taining fore-and-aft equilibrium auto- 
matically have been proposed. One 
utilizes the force of gravity acting 
on a pendulum or a tube of mer- 
cury; the other, the gyroscopic force 
of a rapidly revolving wheel. In 
both of these systems the angle of 
the machine is regulated with refer- 
ence to the horizontal, or some other 
determined plane, instead of with 
the angle of the impinging air. 

In the case just referred to, in 
which the power of the motor was 
suddenly turned off while traveling 
on a level course, with these sys- 
tems, the planes would be maintained 
at their original angle with the hori- 
zontal without any regard to the 
angle of incidence. The machine 
would continue forward till, through 
the loss of momentum, its speed 
would become so reduced and its 
angle of incidence so great that it 



would be exposed to the dangers" of 
diving. 

The pendulum and mercury tube 
have other serious faults which ren- 
der them useless for regulating fore- 
and-aft equilibrium. If the machine 
suddenly meet with a greater resist- 
ance to forward travel, either as a 
result of change in direction or of 
meeting a stronger gust of wind 
from in front, and its speed be ever 
so slightly checked, the pendulum 
will swing forward and instead of 
turning the machine downward, so 
as to maintain the normal speed, 
will cause the machine to be in- 
clined upward in front and thus fur- 
ther increase its forward resist- 
ance. 

The pendulum has proved itself 
an exceedingly useful device, how- 
ever, in regulating the lateral sta- 
bility of aeroplanes. In this case 
the effects of momentum and cen- 
trifugal force act on the pendulum 
in the proper direction to produce 
desired results. 

I believe the day is near at hand 
when the flyer will be almost entire- 
ly relieved of the work of maintain- 
ing the equilibrium of his machine. 
anil that his attention will be re- 
quired only to keeping it on its 
proper course and in bringing it 
safely in contact with the ground 
when landing, 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 



Page 79 




GYRO HOLDS 

Altitude Record ! 

WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER 



Kansas City, Mo. . 

August 6th, 1914. 
Gyro Motor Co . , 
Washington, D.C. 

Broke altitude record this after- 
noon, approximately forty-seven hundred 
meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed 
flight authorized by Aero Club of 
America. Record should be official. 
Motor worked fine, only carried five 
gallons of gas, made altitude in forty 
minutes used old spray nozzle. Will 
write full particulars later. 

DE LLOYD THOMPSON. 






New Gyro "Duplex 



>> 



80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 



100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs. 



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774 Girard Street 



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Page 80 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 15, 1914. 



PATENTS 

SECURED or FEE RETURNED 
VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY 



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SEPTEMBER 30, 1914 



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Paee 82 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 




GYRO HOLDS 

Altitude Record! 



WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER 



Kansas City, Mo . , 
August 6th, 1914. 
Gyro Motor Co . , 
Washington, D.C. 

Broke altitude record this after- 
noon, approximately forty-seven hundred 
meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed 
flight authorized by Aero Club of 
America. Record should be official. 
Motor worked fine, only carried five 
gallons of gas, made altitude in forty 
minutes used old spray nozzle. Will 
write full particulars later. 

DE LLOYD THOMPSON. 

New Gyro "Duplex" 

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs. 

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY 



774 Girard Street 



Washington, D. C. 



< BEN01ST ^ 

Aeroplanes Flying Boats 

AIRCRAFT CO. 

St. Louis, Mo. 



BALLOONS 



Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs, 
Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, 
Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 
95% of American and Canadian clubs. 

A R0NAU 

Madison Sq. 
Boi 181-NewYork 



LEO STEVENS 



AERONAUTICAL 
RADIATORS 

Built in capacities and types for standard 
and special aviation motors 

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your 
specifications for special designs 



EL ARC0 RADIATOR COMPANY 

64th St. & West End Ave., New York City 

Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of all types 



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AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 



Page 83 



SOME EXPERIMENTS WITH A BIPLANE 

By Albert Adams Merrill. 



The value of the longitudinal dihe- 
dral as a means of obtaining fore 
and aft stability has been known to 
students of aeronautics for a long 
time. Its value was shown first by 
Penaud in 1871. All monoplanes 
and biplanes, with the exception of 
the Dunne, introduce this dihedral 
between the mam surface and a hori- 
zontal tail, either front or rear. This 
tail is small, relative to the main 
surface, and since the righting 
couple is a function of the product 
of area and horizontal gap a small 
tail necessitates a large gap. I be- 
lieve that a large horizontal gap is 
bad because it causes a time lag in 
the introduction of the righting 
cminle which will tend to set up 
oscillations. The first effect of a 



C.P. for each surface at 0, 12. 3.4, 
and 15.4 degrees are plotted. Taking 
X and Y moments about degrees 
we get A, which is the C.P. for 
and 3.4 degrees. Increasing the in- 
cidence 12 degrees and taking X and 
Y momenta about 12 degrees we get 
B, which is the C.P. at \2 and 15.-1 
degrees. We need go no higher be- 
cause above 1 5 degrees the C". P. 
moves in the right direction on each 
surface. Plotting the values of Rx 
and Ry at B we get R, the new 
resultant which passes back of A and 
produces a small righting couple. 

Manifestly, knowing the charac- 
teristics of any given surface we 
can combine two of these surfaces 
so as to set any righting couple we 
desire. This method is sound when- 




gust on the front main surface is 
to upset the machine, since all single 
cambered surfaces are unstable, and 
only when the gust strikes the rear 
surface will the righting couple come 
into action. Manifestly then the 
shorter the distance between the two 
surfaces the less time will there be 
for the upsetting gust to start oscil- 
lations. This is proved by the ad- 
mitted fact that a monoplane is 
steadier longitudinally at high speed 
than at low speed and this is simply 
because the time lag mentioned above 
is reduced. 

Starting with a righting couple of 
a fixed magnitude, such as exists in 
a monoplane, to reduce the time lag 
wc must move the tail forward, but 
if we do this we must increase its 
area to keep the magnitude of the 
couple constant. As we bring the 
tail forward we must move it away 
from the slip stream of the main 
Surface if we are not to lose ef- 
ficiency and we arrive at the form 
show ii in Fig. 1. This type may be 
called a staggered converging biplane 
and it is with this type that I have 
been experimenting. 

The difference of incidence be- 
tween the two surfaces is 3.4 de- 
grees, the larger angle being in 
front. The surfaces used are Eiffel's 
No. 3, single covered, and the method 
of computing the righting couple is 
as follows: The surfaces are drawn 
to scale and the positions of the 



ever the amount of stagger is 
enough to prevent interference be- 
tween the surfaces. A full stagger 
seems to do this. 

My machine, which is a tractor, 
was constructed in Boston last March 
and my first flights were made in 



Squantum, where I succeeded in 
making several good straight flights. 
On land there was not the slightest 
trouble in rising, in fact to keep the 
machine from climbing fast we had 
to throttle the engine. The machine 
was very sensitive to its elevator, 
hut it would climb or glide without 
moving the elevator simply by alter- 
ing the thrust. Tins proved that 
the righting couple resides in the 
supporting surfaces. 

To continue my experiments with 
the least danger to my pilot I de- 
cided to put the machine on pon- 
toons. 1 spent a lot of time over 
the problem of the proper adjust- 
ment of the C.G. to the center of 
lift and center of buoyancy, but 
finally got what I wanted so that 
the machine would rise and act over 
\\ ater as it did over land, except 
that the weight of the pontoons low- 
ered the C.G. and made the moment 
inertia of the machine greater, and 
hence the flights steadier. I have 
made only short straight flights over 
water and only in winds. In a calm 
the engine seems not to have the 
power to overcome the water re- 
sistance. It is an old rotary rated 
at 50. 

The photographs sffow the machine 
wtth no horizontal tail. These flights 
demonstrate that safety can be ob- 
tained without the use of an auxiliary 
surface either front or rear, and 
without the use of negative tips as 
in the Dunne. Both of my surfaces 
are lifting surfaces throughout their 
entire area. It may not be wise to 
fly this type of hi plane without giv- 
ing the elevator a longer moment 
arm, but nevertheless my pilot had 
no trouble in producing an undulat- 
ing flight with ailerons placed at the 
rear of the lower surface. However, 
1 would advise in practice a fuselage 
have a vertical and horizontal rud- 
der but no fixed horizontal surface, 
as the latter is not needed. 

In these experiments I have paid 
no attention to the problem of in- 
herent lateral stability, but have used 
ailerons working on the reversed 
Earman principle, a system which I 
have advocated for years and which 
now, I think, Mr. Glenn Curtiss is 
using. I have borne, myself, prac- 



TnE MERRIL L 
CONVERGING STAGGER ED 




June. For an elevator I use ailerons tically the whole cost of these ex- 
on the trailing edge of the lower perirnents and cannot carry them any 
rear surface. The machine at first further at the present time. I feel 
was a land machine and the experi- sure that the idea underlying this 
ments were made on the field at (Continued on paue W) 



Page 8.4 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 




IT'S A SAD STORY, MATES 



The much-heralded competition of military 
aeroplanes at San Diego. California, which 
was scheduled to commence Octoher 20th. 
proved to be more or less of a farce — more 
rather than less. The $30,000 infant, whose 
coming was hailed with such delight by the 
hungry Aviation family, passed away shortly 
after birth, and has been laid to rest with 
man\ tears in the graveyard of American 
aviation, where repose so many lost hopes. 
Tombstone there is none to mark its last rest- 
ing place, for the frail mother who gave it 
brief being. Mrs. Sig. Corps, is too poor to 
buy even a wooden headpiece to mark the 
lonely grave. 

In other words, in the parlance of the high- 
brows, the Competition for Avions was called 
off — pardon, rescinded — on account of the 
failure of the contestants to comply with the 
technical regulation requiring them to file by 
Octoher 1st drawings to scale of aeroplanes 
and motors and certified test sheets of mo- 
tors. That was the official reason given, but 
the real reason, according to the Chief of our 
Aerial Detective Bureau (transmitted to us 
by private leased wire, the shortest in the 
world), was that the powers that he, armed 
with bmg-range telescopes, couldn't find 
enough competitors to make a competition. 

Which is as was to lie expected. As our 
office boy sometimes opines, facetiously we 
suspect. "What do you want for thirty cents?" 
In this seventh year of military aviation in 
America, the government suddenly wakes up 
in the fact that the aeroplane industry is lan- 
guishing and decides to hold a big competi- 
tion. It is not yet fully known just how the 
authorities came to this important conclusion, 
unless perhaps some member of the National 
Board of Air Strategy caught a casual glimpse 
of the south side of an aeronautical editor 
going north or observed the abbreviated fam- 
ily wash of one of our noted constructors 
hanging on the line. However that may be, 
it was decided to bold a big competition. 
That decision having been reached, after long 
and careful consideration, someone suggested 



that it might be a good idea |n offer prizes. 
Of course, that was an entirely new idea and 
had to be carefully threshed out. Finally, 
however, it was decided to offer prizes. 

Here is where the excitement begins. Some- 
one suggested that the prizes lie made large 
enough to make it worth the while of everj 
constructor in the country to enter the com- 
pel ition. He was promptly thrown out of the 
window. Then the door was locked, the 
blinds w-ere drawn and the authorities went 
into executive session. An ancient sock was 
carefully withdrawn from behind a faded 
likeness of G Washington, Esq.. and with 
bated breath the available funds were counted. 
Clink, clank, clink, the tarnished coins 
dropped upon the table. There was found to 
lie just sixty -seven cents and a pewter nickel. 
After li inking up the aeronautical appropria- 
tion ni Montenegro for the current year and 
reading the digest of an opinion rendered by 
the Ahkoond of Swat on the value of aero- 
planes in warfare, it was tinallv decided to 
rehabilitate the art by offering thirty cents in 
prize money and, as a futtber incentive, to 
decorate the winning aviator with the pewter 
nickel. The final scene was enacted amid 
great applause. 

It is, of course, difficult to understand why, 
in the face of such munificence, the construct- 
ors of the country didn't fall over one an- 
other, figuratively speaking, trying to get a 
piece of the change. It has been suggested to 
us that maybe thej couldn't figure bow they 
were going to make any money out of the 
competition, but we indignantly spurn such a 
suggestion. It is impossible that our patriotic 
constructors take such a sordid view of the 
matter. We are inclined to believe that the 
stupendousness of the competition and the 
size and variety of the prizes so flabbergasted 
them that they have not yet recovered from 
the shock. Something like the old lady of 
Yonkers who saw a dollar bill in the street, 
and fell dead from heart failure. At least. 
let's give them the benefit of the doubt. 



TO OUR READERS 



This magazine endeavors to keep its read- 
ers informed on all new developments in the 
aeronautical world, especially in America, and 
is always glad to print descriptions and 
sketches or drawings of new machines and 
worthy inventions. It is impossible, however, 
in the present state of aeronautics in Amer- 
ica, to have paid correspondents at the vari- 
ous centers of interest throughout the coun- 
try, and we have to rely largely upon the 
good will of our friends and those interested 
in the welfare of the art to keep us in touch 



with new developments. Won't you, gentle 
reader, help out by sending in a description 

of any worthy new thing that you may know 
about, whether your own or somebody else's: 
This especially applies to established con- 
structors and to builders of new machines 
and appliances. Unfortunately, the editor of 
this magazine is neither a millionaire or a 
mind-reader, and unless you send in the ma- 
terial we have no means of getting it. The 
magazine is published for you. and it's up to 
you to help out. Giddap! 



AERON IU.TICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 



A. F. BONNAUE Pa * e 8S 

"IT PAYS TO ADVERTISE" 



It is general practise for individuals, part- 
nerships, companies and the like to maintain 
offices for the transaction of business. This 
is done for the purpose of having a fixed and 
convenient place where the person engaged 
in business may be found by those who would 
fain do business \\ ith him. Few there be in 
business so humble that thej have not some 
place that they dignify with the designation, 
"my office." 

Xow, the twin-brother of the office is the 
advertisement. The one is the complement of 
the other. Unless people know that you are 
ready and willing to supply certain commod- 
ities, they will get them somewhere else. An 
advertisement in your trade journal is just 
as much of a necessity as a place in which to 
do business. If a man doesn't happen to 
know what you are selling, or where your 
office is, he is not likely to engage a detective 



to imd out. If he wants to buy a carload of 
razors, he naturally consults the Daily Close 
Shave, and if his mind hankers for power 
plants or other aeronautical provender, he 
most likely buys, borrows or steals a copv of 
AERONAUTICS. 

While this was being written a man came 
in and asked for a copy of this magazine in 
order to look up a place where he could buy 
certain aeroplane accessories. This not onlv 
happens occasionally, but nearly every day, 
and sometimes several times a dav. Still there 
are those who do not believe in "advertisin"-— 
who hide their light under a bushel, so to 
speak. It may be remarked, however, that the 
top-notchers are the ones who do advertise. 
They are the leaders. Anvbody from John 
Wanamaker to John the Bootblack will tell 
you that. 

"There's a reason." 



THE ' COMPLEAT" SWINDLER 



Optimistic students of human nature are 
recommended to the aeronautical business for 
their postgraduate course. 

If optimism still prevails after juggling 
with delinquent subscribers, debtors and the 
all-around crooks, its possessors must have 
the "faith that moves mountains." 

Witness the latest example of air-trading! 
One of America's well-known aviators — one 
who has long been held up as an exception, 
universally liked and admired, a man who 
has held the friendship and confidence of all, 
who some time ago started in business for 
himself — has apparently left for parts un- 
known, as Uncle Sam fails to find him in the 
locality in which he has made his home for 
many years past. 

One doesn't mind so much being tricked 
by those who have the reputation of being 
out-and-out bunco men. by those who are 
known to be in the questionable class, or by 
strangers who "put it over" — the creditor 
himself is the one to be blamed for his trust- 
fulness: lint to In- defrauded by one's own 
friend, win has always been held in the high- 
est esteem, is quite annoying. 

Adverse criticism does not always attach 
itself to the man who honestly starts in busi- 
ness with small capital, tries as best he may 
to arrive somewhere and then fails, when he 
admits his debt and frankly makes a plain 
statement of his situation. One has much 



sympathy for the men who legitimately try 
ami fall back in honest endeavor. 

I hit the man who. with his property judg- 
ment-proof and his assets hidden away, from 
the start conducts his affairs by deception, 
with easy promises and easier forfeitures! 
with the sole idea of getting as far as pos- 
sible before the crash, is he who can not be 
loo strongly condemned. He meets his debts 
> notes and his notes by honor-sworn prom- 
ises (as if he had honor) and other notes 
both of which are as valueless as the man 
himself is false. And in the end, which comes 
sooner or comes later, he merely walks out, 
sans souct, and launches himself in some 
other budding industry, there to repeat the 
operation with a new crop of suckers. 

We have noted one example of such men- 
parasites on the struggling shoots of an in- 
dustry—a man whose history began in the 
early days of the automobile, with a quick 
change to aviation, and latterly attempted to 
skim some cream from the cyclecar trade. 
\\ lure he will cling next remains to be seen. 
Such men are pirates. Thev fraudulently 
trade upon the popular interest in a new 
I ing. They rob the public, they steal the 
deserved profits of the earnest worker who 
actually adds to the human store, they cast 
discredit upon the industry they swindle 
which only years of continued struggle and 
investment by the legitimate houses" will re- 
store to its proper plane. 



An American consular officer in 
southern Europe advises that a firm 
in his district desires to communicate 
with American manufacturers of 
aeroplanes, gasoline motors, propel- 
lers, magnetos and spark plugs, etc., 
and with manufacturers of all ma- 
terial for building, equipping, and 
repairing aeroplanes. Price lists and 
c-stimates should be f. o. b. any- 
American port having direct connec- 
tions with destination. Correspond- 



ence and catalogues should be in the 
Spanish language. Address Depart- 
menl of Commerce and Labor, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

'You can't imagine how easy it 
is to pilot an aeroplane,' said a lec- 
turer at South Orange, N. J., re- 
centiy. 'It is too easy to fly. I 
never felt safer than when I was 
in the air. The air is safer than 
the street.' The lecturer declared 



he would not drive an auto across 
Fifth Avenue at Forty-second Street, 
New York, but would fly an aero- 
plane anywhere 

The Jersey apple-jack season is 
open. 



With the European war being de- 
cided by aircraft, one wonders when 
Congress will see fit to interest it- 
self in appropriating some little 
money for aeronautics. 



Page 86 AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 

AIR CRAFT IN WAR 

By George P. Scriven, Brigadier-General, Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army. 

Existing conditions show that aid of air craft, and more especially ity little is known of this power of 
whatever may be the conclusions of the aeroplane, a reconnaissance air craft, though much is guessed and 
drawn as to the use of air craft for bv troops moves less in the dark, more feared. It seems probable, 
offensive purposes in warfare, and knows better what to look for and however, to judge from existing con- 
as to the importance of the dirigible, learn in detail, and loses less time ditions, that the effect is largely 
there can be no doubt of the value and effort in accomplishing the ob- moral, and that physical results here- 
of the aeroplane in rapid and long- ject sought. No move of concentra- tofore obtained from this method of 
range reconnaissance work, and of tion from flank or center, no en- attack have been far too meager 
its power to secure, and to trans- velopment of a wing nor reinforce- to warrant the cost, effort, and risk 
mit by radio, visual signals, or direct ment of a weak position should re- called upon to produce them, 
flight, information of importance to main unknown to the adversary in * Of the attack by aero- 
armies in the field. So true is this the case where he possesses a thor- plane, however, although I believe 
that it seems probable the aeroplane onghly efficient flying corps. It its importance is exaggerated, it is 
and, to some smaller degree, all air would seem, therefore, that not only admitted that it may prove useful at 
craft have altered, not the principles has the power of all reconnaissance times, and may be resorted to against 
of strategy, which are immutable, but troops been increased by the air "proper objectives when needed, if the 
the theory and application of grand craft, but the need and importance aeroplanes are available. On the 
tactics. It now appears that the of the cavalry in reconnaissance work other hand, it may later be shown 
actual game of war is played openly has not been lessened, but, on the that aerial offensive flights, especially 
with cards laid on the table, and contrary, has been greatly increased in conjunction with sea operations, 
opportunity no longer is given for by the aeroplane. may prove important; but it is use- 
inference as to concealed movements I n addition to the influence now 3ess t0 prophesy, and I believe the 
or for surprise, perhaps not even exerted by air craft on grand opera- on 'y sare conclusion at this tune i l- 
for the exercise of the high military tions, events now appear to show gliding the value of aerial offensive 
quality of anticipation of the unseen that its value in more detailed opera- is tnt " verdict, "not proven." 
movements of the adversary. It is tions is great and may increase in It may be said, however, that if 
now recognized that the possibility the future to enormous proportions, the future shows that attack from 
of brilliant and unexpected blows It is now well established that the the sky is effective and terrible, as 
and surprises by enterprising com- accuracy, value, and power in war- niay prove to be the case, it is evi- 
manders has been largely eliminated fare of field and siege artillery have dent that, like the rain, it must fall 
from modern operations of war by been greatly increased by this agency, upon the just and upon the unjust, 
the information supplied by aviators, and it may almost be said that guns and it may be supposed will there- 
It is proved that the modern air craft are fought by means of the eyes of fore become taboo to all civilized 
lays open to the field of mental view the aviator. It should be self-evi- people; and forbidden at least by 
the whole of the immediate theater dent that the same is true of guns paper agreements. Be that as it may, 
of war and that the commander's of the seacoast and land fortirica- in view of present conditions it ap- 
view reaches far beyond the limits tions. So clearly has this been pears that the use of air craft for 
of actual vision of troops. The air shown that there now appears a attack alone does not warrant the 
craft sees and indicates the larger noticeable change in artillery tactics, expense of production of air craft for 
operations of war and points out to Instead of the old-fashioned system this purpose; and no recommendation 
the slowly moving troops on the of range finding by experiment, the I0r the construction and adoption 
ground not only the points to be exact range is now found with the oi dirigibles on a large scale 
attacked or defended, but to recon- help of aeroplanes. No doubt artil- IS made at the present time. The 
naissance troops, especially the cav- lery fire direction has been enormous- aeroplane should continue to be our 
airy, the objective to be sought, the ly increased in accuracy by the main reliance for aerial work at 
localities to be searched, and the aeroplane, and infantry tire largely present, and the dirigible as a service 
character of information to be ob- improved in efficiency by the same im ' t mav ue " De placed on the wait- 
tained. means. "iff list. 

By no means does the air craft But bes ; des illfluence o{ this char . Bui it should be noted and re- 
supersede, nor can it ever supersede, acter the aeroplane has undoubted f- alled later wh f" ec ° nom »- condj 
detailed information which can be use in the nndh of concea]ed post- ! ons are more favorable, that both 
acquired only by close observation, tion m the , B cation of shi £ at the aeroplane and the dirigible have 
by contact, and by development of sea or at anchor witl]in def £ nses proved successful in coast patrol, 
the enemy s forces and positions. possibl in the det ection of sub- and T be e(|l,al r ly *?. for ironl ' er 
fhis is the work of the troops in the marine mi d certain] in the guard purposes. In this service the 
held; but the air craft does indi- enormous increase of efficiency given dirigible especially of the smaller 
cate to either commander the char- t0 fire and j n m oth d ^Jj f type, will be the more valuable ma- 
acter, location and general disposi- observation chine, as from its leisurely flight, its 
tion of opposing forces. ' power to keep the air at night and 

Not only is the aeroplane inval- . But the useful, approved, and most to use the searchlight, and especially 

uable in locating the position of the important work of air craft is prob- on account of its ability to hover 

enemy, but it has especial value to ably to be found chiefly in recon- and to examine carefully the world 

a commander in finding his own naissance and the collection and beneath, it may become useful as a 

troops, in keeping him informed transmission of information in the border patrol when freed from the 

when movements are taking place, of theater of military operations; for danger of gunfire and from hostile 

the position of his flanks and center, this reason aviation must be reckoned aeroplane attack. But for the pn s- 

his outposts, his cavalry, of the po- as a vastly important branch of the ent it is believed that the Arms 

sitions attained by any detached body Signal Corps of the Army. The should rely upon the aeroplane and 

— in slmrt, of keeping him constantly use of air craft for these purposes the hydroaeroplane for the patiol 

in touch with the locations and cannot be open to the charge of in- of sea coast and frontier, and tot 

movements of all of bis troops under humanity and cruelty. But as to the use in its island possessions and ex- 

the changing conditions of war. service and value of air craft in posed positions. One or two dirigi- 

This much is proved; but it does offense, much doubt remains, except ble, if of American manufacture and 

not follow that the air craft cur- where an overhead attack upon troops design, might well be purchased when 

tails the work of reconnaissance of can be made effective — a condition money is available for experimental 

other arms of the service, the in- that probably does not often arise, purposes and to encourage our manu- 

fantry. the signal corps, and, more although many isolated instances of facturers in endeavor along this line 

especially, the cavalry. On the con- its value in attack are cited. When of work; but I am not yet prepared 

trary, it extends the usefulness and used in general destructive work to recommend that the Army take 

power of all, for if the general field against non-combatants, dislike to up the dirigible seriously, as its value 

of reconnaissance is outlined, it is this method of attack must always is still believed to be indeterminate; 

obvious that the cavalry or infantry exist. A fire sown broadcast upon it requires the co-ordination of too 

can more readily strike its objective the earth or employed under condi- many favorable conditions to insure 

and more quickly and accurately tions which make specific aim useless success, and its cost is comparatively 

obtain information regarding any par- is at least distasteful. But beside great. 1 Should large appropriations 

ticular point than if obliged un- this feeling, it now appears that as be made in the future for the avia- 

seeingly to search the whole field a weapon capable of injuring an 

of operations for locations and forces enemy by the dropping of bombs 1 Probably in proportion of about 
regarding which an intimate knowl- and other missiles, little of im- 1 dirigible to 35 aeroplanes of the 
edge is desired. In other words, by portance has been proved. In real- best type. 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. p age 87 

tion service the question of the war and for the accumulation of vation from captive balloons which 

dirigible will appear in another light, spare parts. must necessarily he sent up some dis- 

but the time is not thought opportune Once the type of military machine tance in the rear, is a poor substi- 

to pass beyond the experimental stage is determined it will be an easy and tute for the direct overhead recon- 

in regard to other air craft than comparatively inexpensive matter to naissance obtainable from aeroplanes 

the aeroplane. It is doubtful whether maintain a considerable reserve of or dirigibles. 

the dirigible is worth its cost as an parts in storage, with manufactur- In addition it is asked that con- 
offensive machine, and for recon- ers or elsewhere, ready to be as- sideration be given by the War De- 
naissance or defense it seems to be sembled as needed, should the policy partment to the training of men of 
of far less value than the aeroplane, of supplying a large reserve be the National Guard in the work of 
The dirigible is seemingly useless in deemed unwise. aviation, and to the establishment of 
defense against aeroplane or gunfire. The captive balloon, too, has its a reserve corps of flying men 
and its attack may be safely left to uses, but they are limited. Obser- throughout the country, 
the care of fire from the ground and * * * " * * 
to the aeroplane. The value of the 
dirigible as an observation station is 

obvious, and is no doubt very great AVIATION IN THE U. S. SIGNAL CORPS 

under circumstances which prevent *-v*x* wj 

its destruction from below or by From June, 1913, to February, been returned to their branch of the 

aeroplanes, but such conditions will 19U, an amount of flying quite service and unsuitable enlisted men 

probably rarely be met. and at pres- unprecedented in the history of avia- have been assigned to other duties 

em it is believed that the use of tion in the United States was carried It is the intention to establish a 

the dirigible in offense, defense, or on at the Signal Corps Aviation high standard of efficiency for both 

reconnaissance is so limited that its School, San Diego, Cal. Unfor- officers and enlisted men on aviation 

adoption now for these purposes is tunately there were three accidents, duty and to see that this standard 

not worth while. Its power of gen- resulting in the death of four offi- is maintained. Valuable experience 

eral destruction when no resistance cers. While it could not be estab- has been gained during the year bv 

is offered is tremendous, but for this lished that these accidents were due the officers conducting the aviation 

work it is not believed that prepara- lo faulty construction or design of work of the Signal Corps. With lit- 

tion should be made. the machine, the result was a loss tie or no previous experience and 

The continued development of the of confidence in the "pusher" type of no precedents to guide them, they 

aeroplane in our service, by the en- machine in which all these accidents have had to train themselves and 

couragement of Congress in granting had occurred, and a decision made their subordinates at the same time, 

men and money to an extent war- to abandon that type. This reduced A great deal of this work is of a 

ranted by the size of our Army, is the number of machines considered character entirely different from any- 

strongly urged. To this goal the suitable lor service to four Burgess thing else in the service. To suc- 

Signal Corps is bending its best ef- tractors and one Curtiss tractor. This cessfully adapt it to the needs of 

forts. change caused considerable delay the service will require the best 

It is believed, however, that aero- ■" t,,e work, as only one or two thought and the most careful study 

planes, their accessories, and the offi- oltlcers had Dee » trained to fly a on the part of those officers charged 

cers and men to use them should tractor machine; but instruction on with this duty, 
be liberally supplied. the ?<: machines was pushed forward 

As to the genera, type of aero- ^en maVby^t ^Then PRESENT CONDITIONS. 

plane, a word must be said. In the a detachnlen ,, with t g«' of the bes , At the present time the aviation 

United States we have for military machines at San Di d work of the si , c . Qn 

purposes stood by the biplane, and to Galveston, Tex. This detachment very satisfactory basis. There are 

events are now proving the wisdom returned t0 San Di Qn j , - 2 4 officers, 115 enlisted men and 7 

of this attitude. It is believed that 1914 ■> > civilians performing aviation duty at 

the present practice points strongly Considerable equipment has been the Signal Corps Aviation School at 

in favor of the biplane over the added , [he Sj « ,' c Avia ° ion San Diego, Cab, and in the Philip- 

monoplane as a war machine In- Schoo , at San s Di b ' h . pine IsIands Applications of offi- 

deed, there is little doubt that he of machines and apparatus nec . cers for detail as aviation students 

types of machines now used by the ess (or their maime £' ance . Five are being regularly received. * * * 

aviation section of the Signal Corps of the machines now in serv ; During the year the policy has 

are the best which are known for resent , he v hj h deve | opmc nt been adopted of employing expert 

military purposes. I speak of types, of aeroplane construction in the civilian instructors to give the pre- 

not de ails, and refer especially to Unit ed States , and wi „ com liminary instruction in flying. The 

the biplane tractor. This Army ma- £avorabIe with thi „ K that h as been '-""Its obtained have demonstrated 

clone has resulted from close study done ahroad = s beyond a question of doubt the wis- 

and experiment and is the product ..... dom of this policy. There are now 

of long trial, from which the con- a mlmb er of expert aviators in the 

elusion is reached that the machine The present outlook for securing service, but expert aviators are not 

with propeller action that is, the satisfactory aeronautical engines in necessarily competent instructors In- 

puller— is superior and safer than the the United States is very encourag- structors must have special qualifica- 

pusner. Evidently, in case of acci- ing . . . « The A , ner ican manu- tions in addition to being expert 

dent with the former machine, the facturers have recently shown a very aviators. 

aviator falls above rather than under encouraging activity m the matter of * * * In addition to the regu- 

the weights. It is probable that the produc j ng first-class aeronautical en- lar instruction in flving. in the care 

Size and power of aeroplanes will gines , and at , ea5t one American- and repair of aeroplanes, and the 

be enormously increased in the fu- made engine will compare very fa- operation, care, and repair of aero- 

e * vorably with those manufactured nautical engines, courses of lectures 

The aeroplane is not in itself an abroad. were delivered on the subject of 
expensive machine: but the cost as a * . . . . meteorology and meteorological in- 
whole will not be small. It has been struments, aeronautical engineering, 
noted that the wastage in aeroplanes, PROGRESS. propellers, and on internal-combus- 
as shown by notes from abroad, is Under the act of July IS, 191-1 1,on engines by eminent authorities 
enormous: and with the appropria- r see \ERONAUTICS April 15], the on these subjects. 
tions for the aviation service of the w 0r k" of aviation was' given a great ..... 
Army it is especially desired to em- impetus, the work of the Signal _ . . . ,_ t 
phasize the fact that the life of an Corps \viation School, at San Diego, Experiments in dropping bombs 
aeroplane is short and decreases cal "was reorganized and much , Irom an aeroplane were begun early 
rapidly with use, and especially with pVogress made m -^P rn > 1914, at San Diego. These 
use in the field. Unlike: the long There has been a very marked im- experiments were interrupted and had 
service of ordinary war' machines. provement in the personnel of the ",' b f indefinitely postponed when 
such as rifles, held and siege guns, av j at j on section during the year Of- detachment was sent to Galves- 
the life of the aeroplane under the ficers unsuited t0 tlli5 wor k'have t0 "- „ . , 

vicissitudes of actual operations is Sufficiently satisfactory results 

brief, like that of an insect, which were obtained, however, to warrant 

it resembles. It follows that a sufn- 2 Editorial Xote. — The aeroplane continuing these experiments at the 

cient supply of aeroplanes wdll be competition was expected to bring earliest opportunity. 
required upon the outbreak of hos- out information sufficient for the There were also conducted at San 

tilities for both Regular and Volun- school to decide on a standard ma- Diego experiments in observing sub- 

teers, and means should be provided chine. All conditions for the contest marine mines from aeroplanes, which 

for their rapid manufacture during were printed in the July 15 issue. were continued from time to time 



Pase 88 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 



with interesting results, and a dem- 
onstration was given of a parachute 
pack designed for use by aviators. 
This parachute is packed in a com- 
pact bundle and carried on the back 
of the aviator. This device weighs 
about 8 pounds. At a height of about 
1,200 feet the demonstrator jumped 
from the aeroplane, and the para- 
chute opened promptly and lowered 
him gently to the ground. It is 
believed that as a life-saving device 
this parachute pack has considerable 
merit and warrants its development 
for use in our service. 

The First Aero Squadron was or- 
ganized at San Diego, Cal., during 
September, 1914, in accordance with 
General Orders, No. 75, War De- 
partment, December 4, 1913. This 
squadron consists of 16 officers, 77 
enlisted men, and 8 aeroplanes, and 
is ready for field service. It is 
expected that a second squadron will 
soon be organized. 

During the year [ending June 30] 
there were a total of 3,340 flights 
made, with an aggregate time in the 
air of 747 hours and 50 minutes, 
796 passengers being carried. Among 
the best performances of the year 
were the following: 

From San Diego, Cal., to Venice, 
Cal.; distance, 115 miles. 

From Venice, Cal., to San Diego, 
Cal., via Cienga, Cal.; distance, 134 
miles. 

From San Diego, Cal., to Elsinore, 
Cal., via Pasadena, Cal. ; distance. 
220 miles; duration, 3 hours and 39 
minutes. 

From San Diego, Cal., to Bur- 
bank, Cal., and back to San Diego; 
distance, 246 miles; duration, 4 hours 
and 43 minutes. This flight estab- 
lished new American cross-country 
distance and duration record for ma- 
chine carrying pilot and one pas- 
senger. 

A great many flights were made 
during the vear at high altitudes 
ranging from 5,000 to over 12,000 
feet. 

Altitude and cross-country work is 
the very best training for service in 
time of war and should be under- 
taken by only the most experienced 
aviators. 

The Signal Corps Aviation School 
is now located at North Island, in 
San Diego Bay. All of the condi- 
tions for a suitable training station 
are more completely fulfilled at San 
Diego, Cal., than at any other point 
in the United States. This locality 
has been used as a training station 
at some time during the past four 
years by the Army, the Navy, and 
several civilians. All agree that for 
training purposes it is unexcelled. 
It is requested by the com- 
manding officer of the training school 
that land be secured at San Diego. 
It is therefore recommended that 
steps be taken at once to secure a 
permanent location for the Signal 
Corps Aviation School on or near 
North Island. This island is the 
best place known for preliminary 
training, and it is recommended that 
an effort be made to secure land here 
for use as an aviation training sta- 
tion and that the Signal Corps Avia- 
tion School be permanently located 
thereat. 

AVIATION IN PHILIPPINES. 

An aviation school was opened at 
Fort William McKinley March 10. 
1913, with four officers and a small 
detachment of enlisted men. During 
the following July three of the offi- 



cers fulfilled the requirements of the 
War Department and were rated as 
military aviators. In August, 1913, 
the school was transferred to Pasay, 
arrangements having been made for 
a temporary hangar on the beach 
at the Manila Polo Club. As this 
was the rainy season, the Fort Wil- 
liam McKinley flying field was fre- 
quently covered with water and deep 
mud, but at Pasay hydroaeroplane 
flying over Manila Bay was con- 
tinued during all favorable oppor- 
tunities between typhoons. Three 
accidents occurred, in which three 
aeroplanes were wrecked and one 
officer killed. After these accidents 
the aviation school was discontinued 
on account of the lack of training 
machines. 

From March 24 to November 14, 
1913, the aviation school made 696 
flights, the total duration being 7S 
hours and 57J^ minutes, not in- 
cluding short runs on the ground 
during the instruction of students. 

An officer and a small detachment 
of enlisted men were sent to Fort 
Mills in October, 1913, for hydro- 
aeroplane work. The first flight at 
this point was made November 6, 
and from that date to the following 
June 78 flights were made, the total 
time in the air being 37 hours and 



47 'A minutes. The longest flight 
was 2 hours and 5 minutes, and the 
highest altitude reached, 5,500 feet. 
At this point flights were made to 
observe the results of mortar fire, 
for practice in locating targets, and 
in observing the result of siege-gun 
fire from Corregidor at targets on 
the Mariveles shore. During these 
flights various means of signaling 
from the aeroplane were tried, and 
the work was all of a great practical 
value. 

AVIATION IN HAWAII. 

The aviation station was estab- 
lished at Fort Kamehameha on July 
14, 1913, with 1 officer in charge, 
a detachment of 12 enlisted men, and 
1 civilian aeronautical engine expert. 
Two machines were set up and 
flights made by the officer in charge 
up to November 23, 1913. The tent 
hangars first used being unservice- 
able, were replaced with more sub- 
stantial hangars of wooden frame 
with galvanized iron covering. This 
detachment has been transferred to 
the school at San Diego, and reached 
the latter point in the middle of 
August, 1914. — From the Annual Re- 
port of the Chief Signal Officer, 
Brig. -Gen. George P. Scriven. 



LATEST BURGESS-DUNNE FOR ARMY 



One will notice the 120 h.p. Salm- 
son motor and the new type radiator, 
designed by W. Starling Burgess, in 
the new Burgess-Dunne aeroplane 
recently built for the War Depart- 
ment. 

This machine with the heavy hy- 
droplane equipment, weighing over 
317 pounds, developed a speed in 
the air with two passengers of 75 
miles per hour and climbed at the 
rate of over 300 feet a minute. The 
aeroplane has been shipped to San 
Diego for active service. This is 
the first Burgess-Dunne to be de- 



livered to the War Department. The 
aeroplane is very heavy and built 
for real hard service. 

On the initial trip on October 10 
of the new Dunne biplane built at 
Marblehead for the United States 
Government an average speed of 75 
miles an hour was reported. A fea- 
ture of the new machine is a nickel 
steel armor plate J /& inch thick to 
l»e installed in the operator's car. 
This new type of war machine is the 
heaviest Dunne machine ever built. 
It weighs 1 ,700 pounds and has a 
carrying capacity of 2,300 pounds. 




AERONA UTICS, Sept. 30, 191J& f_ £ £ Q [\j/sj_ PROPERTY Page 89 




AERO SCIENCE CLUB 

HOLDS FIRST SPEED 

CONTEST. 

The first model aeroplane speed 
contest ever held was held with great 
success under the auspices of the 
Aero Science Club at Van Cortlandt 
Park, New York City, on Sunday, 
September 20th, 1914. 

The wind velocity was very small, 
so that the flights were very slightly, 
if at all effected by the wind. 

The contest was held over a course 
of S28 ft., or 1/10 of a mile, the 
models rising from the ground under 



By Harry Schultz, Model Editor 

THE FUNK SPEED 
MODEL. 

At the speed contest recently held 
by the Aero Science Club, the re- 
sults of which appear above, the 
model constructed by R. Funk, and 
shown in the accompanying draw- 
ing, demonstrated its superiority over 
the other models entered by winning 
the contest, flying the distance of 52S 
feet, or 1/10 of a mile, in 14 2/5 
seconds. 

The fuselage, or main beam, of this 
model consists of an I-beam of 
spruce, measuring J4 by 3g of an 




model 



Easier* reacted 




treated with Ambroid is secured to 
the front of the model as shown. 

The chassis is constructed entirely 
*f 1/32 in. steel wire. It consists 
of a central skid, the front upper 
end of which is bent into a square 
to fit the main stick. It extends 
downwardly, and then rearwardly 
where it is bent slightly to form a 
support, and act as a skid, for the 
rear portion of the model. Extend- 
ing upward near the rear of this 
skid the upper end of which is 
looped about the main stick is a 
wire brace. The portion of the 
chassis to which the wheels are at- 
tached is of a triangular form, the 
upper end of which forms a square 
through which the main stick passes. 
The entire chassis is removed by 
simply withdrawing the main stick 
from the three square portions of 
the center skid, wheel portion and 
brace. 

The propellers are 7 in. in diam- 
eter and of rather low pitch. Thev 
are constructed of thin birch steamed 
to shape, each half of the blade be- 
ing made separately, and then the 
two halves constituting the entire 
propeller being joined at the center, 
thus forming a thickened portion 
through which a perforation can be 
drilled for the reception of the pro- 
peller shaft. 

Each propeller is driven by 8 
strands of 's-in. flat rubber. The 
entire model weighs slightly over 2 
ounces. 



their own power. With a very 
straight and speedy flight R. Funk 
annexed first prize, doing the course 
in 14 2/5 seconds, or at the rate of 
approximately 26 miles per hour. 

The writer took second prize, after 
strenuous attempts to persuade bis 
model to fly straight, doing the 
course in 16 seconds, or at the rate 
of 22J^ miles per hour. 

Carl Trube, a youngster from 
Yqnkers, N. Y., whose models are 
noted for their fine flying, was third, 
doing the course in 20 seconds. 

Many interesting events took place 
and the air was continually full of 
models. 

Probably the most overworked 
persons on the field were Messrs. 
Edward Durant and George Bauer, 
the judges. Mr. Durant acted as 
timer and Mr. Bauer as starter. 

The prizes were cash, offered by 
the club, and aeronautical publica- 
tions kindly donated by Harper and 
Brothers. 



inch at the center, and tapering to- 
wards the front and rear ends. In 
order to strengthen the same it is 
covered with fibre paper and treated 
with Ambroid varnish. Extending 
upw ardly from about the center of 
this stick is an upright of wire, 
looped at its upper end, and passing 
from the front of the stick, through 
the loop, and to the rear of the 
stick, is a single strand of very fine 
steel wire. At the rear and fitted 
into a slot in the stick, is the pro- 
peller bar measuring 7 ! i in. in 
length, and .U in- wide by ' 4 in. 
thickness. 

The main planes are entirely con- 
structed of 1 /32 in. fiat steel wire, 
the main plane measuring 19 in. in 
span and 2 in. in chord at the cen- 
ter. The elevator measures 6 in. in 
span and has a chord of 1H in. at 
the center. Both planes are covered 
with China silk and treated with 
Ambroid. A small fin constructed 
of steel wire and covered with silk, 



THE SCHULTZ SPEED 
MODEL. 

The above model was constructed 
by the writer and won second prize 
in the speed contest above men- 
tioned, doing the course in 16 sec- 
onds. 

The fuselage is constructed of l /i 
by 3 /16 spruce and is 30 in. in 
length. As shown, it is of the usual 
triangular form and is braced by 
two bamboo strips, the front one be- 
ing 9 in. from the apex of the tri- 
angle and the rear one being 10 in. 
from the rear of the frame. The 
propeller bar is of bamboo and is 
7J4 in. in length and ; 4 by 's in. in 
thickness. The bearings, which con- 
sist of y 2 lengths of tubing, are se- 
cured to the propeller bar by binding 
very tightly with silk thread, then 
:oating with Ambroid glue. 

The tail plane, is constructed of 
l A in. square bamboo and is of a 
triangular form, the triangle being 
formed by strips extending from the 
propeller bar to the rear brace and 
being secured thereto as shown. The 
front plane is constructed of 1/16 
m. tlat steel wire and has a main 
beam extending across the same on 
the under side, of spruce 3/16 by 
1 ? in thickness. 

Both planes are covered with gold- 
beaters skin, sometimes known as 
Zephyr skin and treated with Am- 
broid. 

tContijiued o?i page 9U) 



Page 90 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 



GLENN MARTIN MAKES 
NEW RECORD. 

After the "competition" at San 
Diego was called off, Glenn L. Mar- 
tin put his machine through the 
paces on Oct. 29th, with the result 
that he climbed 4.170 ft. in ten min- 
utes, and 4,500 ft. in 1 1 minutes, 



the American cross-country record 
by carrying two passengers, besides 
himself, a distance of about 1 10 
miles. 

These two machines are worthy in 
every way of the best traditions of 
American workmanship and their 
designers and builders deserve great 
credit for what they have done. 




and party, consisting of his family, 
Robert Nolker, president of the St. 
Louis Aero Club, and members, were 
waiting to christen the new balloon. 
The Mayor's daughter, Edna, broke 
a bottle of Mississippi River water 
nver the anchor and then took her 
place in the basket for her first 
ascent. Both river banks were 
crowded with people, watching the 
spectacle, which marked the start oT 
a river pageant. 

Leaving the boat's deck, the bal- 
loon slowly drifted over the river 
to the shore, above the crowds and 
the city to the northwest, where 
luncheon was enjoyed 7,300 ft. above 
terra firma. Landing was later made 
on the historic farm of General 
Grant, now owned by Augustus A. 
Busch, the brewer, who was the 
first to arrive with his car and as- 
sist in the deflation. Hugh Wagner 
brought Mr. Honeywell and Miss 
Kiel back to the boat for dinner. 



NEW BALLOON COM- 
PANY. 

With a change in the distribution 
of stock of the French- American 
Balloon Co., of St. Louis, the name 
becomes the Honeywell Balloon Co., 
with Capt. H, E. Honeywell as pres- 
ident and general manager, as a 
reward for the long list of achieve- 
m nts to which Honeywell points 
with pride. 

Honeywell balloons were entered 
in 14 big races and 9 first, 6 second, 
and 4 third places were obtained. 
In 1908 a trip of 870 miles was 
made, making a new American rec* 
ord for distance and duration. In 
the international race from Stutt- 
gart. Germany, 1912. a distance of 
1,200 miles was covered, with the 
balloon landing near Moscow , Rus- 
sia, winning third prize. In the in- 
ternational race last year Honeywell, 
in his own balloon, obtained second 
place for America. In the inter- 
national race in 1911 at Kansas City, 
Honeywell's balloon, non-contestant, 
beat in distance the German winner 
of the race. In the international 
contests, of course, the best prodi.cts 
of foreign countries were repre- 
sented. 



cai r\ ing the full required load con- 
sisting of 450 lbs. of sand attached 
to the fuselage, gasoline and oil for 
four hours' flight and one passenger. 
] It- afterwards broke the American 
passenger record by flying for five 
hours and fifteen minutes with the 
full Army load, as above stated. 
These remarkable flights were made 
with the new Martin speed scout 
which was entered for the competi- 
tion and which is equipped with the 
new Hall-Scott Type A-4, 100 h. p. 
motor. 

The engine swings a 8 ft. 4 in. by 
5 ft. 9 in. propeller at 1,500 r. p. m. 
in the air, giving a speed of 90 
miles per hour for the machine. 

Christofferson's machine was not 
on hand on the day set for the be- 
ginning of the competition on ac- 
count of continued motor trouble. 
He had taken it to Los Angeles 
< \ i al days before, and, after try- 
ing two motors, shipped it back to 
San Francisco. Before leaving San 
1 liego, however, he unofficially ful- 
filled the requirements by climbing 
4,000 ft. in ten minutes with full 
load. On the trip between San 
Diego and Los Angeles, he broke 



They have really produced machines 
which compare favorably with the 
best products of European construc- 
tors, and that without one-tenth of 
the encouragement that European 
constructors receive. In plain Eng- 
lish, it will be a damshame if the 
government does not recognize and 
adequately reward their efforts. 



HONEYWELL STARTS 
BALLOONING WEST. 

Capt. H. Eugene Honeywell of the 
French-American Balloon Co., has 
finished a new balloon of silverized 
fabric, which made its initial esccnt 
on October 11. The new bag, the 
"New St. Louis," of 40,000 cu. ft. 
capacity, was inflated in St. Louis 
and towed over thousands of wires, 
over factories, railroads and other 
obstacles a half mile to the Mis- 
sissippi River where a tug boat was 
waiting to tow the balloon up the 
river, under the free bridge, to the 
harbor boat "Rastus Wells," which 
was anchored in mid-stream about 
a mile distant, where Mayor Kiel 



ENGLAND PAYS FOR 

USE OF WRIGHT 

PATENT. 

The Aero Club of America has 
been notified that the British Gov- 
ernment has officially recognized the 
Wright Brothers' patent and has paid 
to the British Wright Company $75,- 
000 in settlement for the past, present 
and future use of the Wright patent 
in Great Britain. 

This still leaves the patent in the 
possession of the British Wright Com- 
pany, which can collect royalties from 
other users of the invention in Eng- 
land. This is in settlement of the 
sued claim for $375,000 which has 
been in the British courts for the 
pasl year. 



Old subscriber writes in to say : 

"Stop Miss 's subscription at 

once and send me bill. After talk- 
ing it over we have come to the 
conclusion that it is no use paying 
six dollars a year when by getting 
married we can both use the same 
copy and save 50 per cent, on the 
damhighcostof living." 

Never looked at it that way, but 
the idea is brilliant, just the same. 



tERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 



Page 91 



NEW LONG DISTANCE NON-STOP FLIGHT. 



A new American record for non- 
stop cross countrj flight was estab- 
lished .in October 1 Tth by \V. C. 
Robinson, of Grinnell, Iowa, in his 
flight from lies Moines to Kentland, 
Ind., a distance of 375 miles, in four 
hours and 4-4 minutes. 

Robinson had intended to fly to 
following the railroad all 
of the way. When he reached near 
Clinton, Iowa, however, he was 
forced to ascend above the storm 
clouds, and lost his way. He left 
1 1, - Moines at l 11 56 in the morning 
and alighted in Kentland at 3.40 
p. m. I le was timed passing OVI ' 



. ision. The dimensions of the ma- 
chine are: Span, 35 ft.; chord, 7 ft.; 
length, 25 ft. The motor is a radial 
also designed by Robinson, o 
cylinder, 5-in. bore, 6-in. stroke, de- 
veloping lOCT-h.p. ami turns an 8-ft. 
propeller, 6'.. ft. pitch at 1,250 
r.p.m. Gross weight, "on lbs. 
Forty-five gallons of gasoline and 
7 gallons of oil were consumed on 
the" long trip. The distance actually 
down is said to lie 400 miles, which 
figures a:', average speed of S4 miles 
per hour. Not a little of the success 
was due to the use of Bosch magneto 
and plugs. 




JANNUS REPORTS GOOD 
BUSINESS. 

•Tuny" Jannus. writing from 
Baltimore says, "We have made a 
killing here. In fact, ever since 
my machine wore out on me at 
Cedar Point I have kept my brother 
busy with bookings, and our first 
week here, although we had ex- 
pected to do practically nothing, 
netted $745. Oil in passengers alone." 

The pioneer flying boat pilot has 
combined with his brother. Roger 
r annus, in business, with offices and 
"factory at Battery Ave. and Ham- 
burg St., Baltimore, Md., where they 
are busv filling contracts for exhi- 
bition flights and passenger carrying 
.hh] are taking orders lor the design- 
ing and construction of flying boats 
.in I l.md machines. 

Construction work is to be begun 
uii ,i .^-passenger flying boat, known 
as the "Exposition Model" and two 

i . . 1 1" the same type have been 

ordered. "Tony" will go to Florida 
tm about two weeks to till some con- 
tracts ami return to Baltimore, pre- 
. irerj possible apparatus new- 
orders will" justify and have the 
contingent of three flying boats 
and one fast monoplane arrive at 
San !"■ ancisco by the 20th. 



Grinnell at 11.37 a. m., having made 
the 56 miles from the starting point 

in 4 1 minutes and at noon he was 

sighted over Marengo, a distance of 
96 miles from Des Moines, Roches- 
ter, J a.. u;is passed at 12.57 p. m., 
after which point he began ascend- 
in- to an altitude of 7.500 ft. and 
flying above the clouds for some 
three hours the remainder of the dis- 
tance. J I is course was due east, but 
a strong wind blew him toward the 
south. "During tin' last half hour 
of the flight," says Mr. Robinson, 
"the clouds below me began break- 
ing up and gave me a sight of the 
ground. My gasoline ran out and I 
descended slowl) and found myself 
in Kentland." 

The machine used was a two- 
seater, side by side, monoplane of 
Mr. Robinson's own design and built 
by tlie Grinnell Aeroplane Company, 
of Grinnell, la., under his super- 



Mr. Robinson staled that before he 
1 he had some apprehension 
about being able to get out of the 
small held in which he started with 
the large gasoline tank, but that he 
found that the machine rose from 
the ground as easily with the large 
tank as it did with the small 5-gal- 
lon tank, and that he as yet does 
not know the lifting power of the 
machine. Robinson intends 1<i keep 
increasing the size of his tank and 
gasoline until he discovers how much 
it will carry, and it would not be 
at nil surprising to see him double 
the capacity he used in his trip to 
Kentland and go with the wind for 
a world's record. 

After several setbacks owing to 

gasoline and a slight injury to 

the 'plane in landing at Momenee. 

111., Robinson completed the trip to 

Chicago on October 20th. 



The Jannus brothers — Roger and 
Tony — made spectacular flights over 
i lie 1'atapsco beginning November 1. 
taking with them in their giant hydro- 
biplane several Raltimoreans as pis- 
sengers. The first two t<> make the 
flights were Richard Clapp and 
i Heath, the maker of "Para- 
gon" propellers, while a waiting list 
ne half dozen others was on 
hand to make up the day's enter- 
tainment. 



FOREIGN COMMERCE IN 

SEPTEMBER. 

I Ml'( IRTS. 

Veroplanes None 

Parts $13,548 

mos. , ending Sept., 
'planes and parts 13,910 

EXPORTS. 

5 aeroplanes $16,600 

Parts ..-•• 89 

9 mos.. ending Sept., 

'planes and parts 195,089 

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN MAKE. 

Aeroplanes None 

I 'arts None 

9 mos., parts only $207 

IN WAREHOUSE SEPT. 30. 

1 aeroplane $1,856 



ANOTHER NEW ALTI- 
TUDE RECORD. 

Cat lam 11. 1.. Mnll.r. of the 1 . S 

Signal Corps birdmen, on October S 
made a new American altitude record 
of 17,185 feet, using the new ( urtiss 
Model I tractor, described in the 
last issue. The Curtiss ''"-100 OX 
motor was fitted, of course. 

It's now up to Thompson and his 
Gyro-motored machine i" again break 
this new figure. 



HONEYWELL MAKES 

TWO BALLOON 

RECORDS. 



miles, and the altitude record from 
7,3 t. to 8,000 ft. 

With Honeywell were Miss Estelle 
Lilich, 3515 Tenessee avenue, and 
tier fiance, Edwin C. Koenig, vice- 
president of tile Missouri Press Brick 
Company, and William H. Threfts, 
Jr., a 'photographer. The party 
started from Priester's Tark and 
landed at Kinmundy. 111. 

Honeywell sailed without a drag 
rope because of the weight of the 
load He had difficulty in landing 

id part of the basket dragged 
through a pond, wetting its occu- 
pants. Farmers near Kinmundj 
! the balloon and held it until 
il could be tethered 

Honeywell made the previous rec- 
ord with four in the "Missouri." 



Capt. H. E. Honeywell broke two 

American records in the balloon, 

Xew St Louis, on Nov. 1st. He . , 

increased the distance record for The Macy stabilizer will he tried 

four passengers in a balloon of out shortly at the Signal Corps \> a 

4U.000 cu. ft. capacity from 77 to 85 tion School at San Diego. 



REGARDING COOKE'S 
DEATH. 

In noting the death of Weldon 
Cooke last issue, an error was made 
in stating the machine was a tractor, 
lie, it seems, changed from the 
tractor described in full in AERO- 
NAUTICS at the time, and built a 
Curtiss-type pusher, with Roberts 6- 
cylinder motor, ailerons on upper 
plane. Double surfaced Irish linen, 
treated with home-made "dope," 
which Cooke said cost 20 cents a 
gallon to make. His seat was on 
1, rackets bought for 10 cents at a 
Woolworth store. Not a turnbuckle 
or lock nut on the machine. The 

ii aileron had a broken rib. Cooke 
-.o.l he had flown it that way till 
"now (Pueblo) and gotten by with 
it — guess" he could now. The gaso- 
line tank had a leak and Cooke 
drove in a wooden plug as big as a 
lead pencil to stop the flow. 



Page 92 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 



JOINT CONFERENCE ON AVIATION 




29 West 39th Street, New York 

OFFICIAL BULLETIN 



The Aeronautical Society of Amer- 
ica, in collaboration with many na- 



The inventors, after the Confer- 
ence, may be given a certificate 
showing that their invention has been 
submitted to the Joint Conference. 
If the Joint Conference so decides, 
the opinion passed on the invention 
may be included in the certificate. 

There will be no charges for the 
consideration of the inventions, but 
the inventors will fully prepay all 
mail matter addressed to the Society, 
as well as all express charges for 
drawings, models, etc. Should a 
demonstration of apparatus be ar- 
ranged for, the inventor will bear 
the cost of it. 

All inventors wishing to submit 
their inventions are invited to com- 
municate with the Technical Board 
of the Society, 29 West 39th Street, 
New York City, and to submit to it 
.ill data in their possession, such 



Mr. Daniel L. Braine, 185 Madi- 
son Ave., New York City. 

Mr. Walter L. Post, SO Church 
St., New York City. 

Mr. Joseph Barbato, 11 Pine St., 
New York City. 

Mr. George Adams, 113th St. and 
Riverside Drive, Riverside Mansions, 
New York City. 

Mr. Leroy M. Whetstone, 3820 
Franklin St., Philadelphia, 



North 
Pa. 

Mr. 
James 



Tames Mitchell Beck, 
"Hotel, Philadelphia, 



Elected Nov. 5th. 



St. 
Pa. 



tional engineering organ izations descriptions, data of tests, 
this country, will on Feb uary 5tn p inventor is in a position 
ind 6th 1915, consider the inven- f lc - . LI \ llL inventor is m a position 
ana oin, i»xj, y* ctnhilitv to submit a model, or can show an 
tions tending to increase the stabim _ r i ^^ 



and safety of flight in heavier-than- 
air machines. 

In addition to the Technical Board 



apparatus of working size, he should 
so state to the Technical Board. It 
must be clearly understood that all 
information so submitted may be pre- 




nd representatives of the Aeronaut!- sen ted in public meeting of the So 



cal Society of America, representa. 
tives of several national engineering 
organizations will take part. 



following have already sent in lists \^ tn ,\ 



ciety, and, therefore, no inventions 

data of a secret nature should be 

communicated to the Technical 



of their representatives 

American Mathematical Society 
American Society of Mechanical En 



The Technical Board will consider 
the inventions submitted with a view 
of preparing for the meeting of the 



gineers, Massachusetts Institute of Joint Conference on Aviation such 
Technology, American Physical So- data as will enable the Conference 
ciety. to form a clear and correct judg- 
The complete list of representatives ment of the value of the invention, 
will be published later. The Joint and will collaborate to this end with 
Conference will consider the inven- the inventor to the best of its abil- 
tions submitted solely with the view ities. The Technical Board retains 
of promoting thereby the progress of the right of withholding from pres- 
aeronautical engineering in the entation any invention either out- 
United States. The work of the side of the scope of the Joint Con- 
conference will be embodied in its ference, or on which sufficient in- 
proceedings, the publication of formation has not been presented, 
which, in full or in part, will be or. which appears to be based on er- 
decide'd on by the Joint Conference, roneous theory. No invention will 
It will also express a general opinion be rejected on the latter score if 
on each of the inventions submitted, embodied in working size. 

GENERAL MEETING. 

The general meeting of Nov. 12th 
< \\ hich was erroneously announced 
in the preceding issue) was de- 
voted to the important subject of 
AERIAL STRATEGY IN WAR. 
An address on "THE WIRELESS 
PHASE" was delivered by Mr. E. 
BUTCHER, of the Marconi Wire- 
less Telegraph of America, followed 
by an open debate, Messrs. Hammer 
and Kimball acting as exponents of 
the attacking power of aircraft and 
Messrs. Goldmerstein and Jones ex- 
plaining the means of defense against 
such attacks. 



ROUND TABLE DISCUS- 
SIONS. 

It is the intention of the Board 
of liirectors to increase, as far as 
possible, the benefits derived by mem- 
bers from belonging to the Aero- 
nautical Society of America and to 
liven up generally interest in mat- 
ters aeronautical. With this purpose 
in view it has been decided to re- 
sume the round table discussions 
which were so pleasant a feature of 
the early days of the Society, and 
W Inch enjoy a great popularity in 
several European engineering or- 
ganizations. The rooms of the So- 
ciety will be thrown open to mem- 
bers Thursday evenings and a gen- 
eral "conversazione" will take place. 
No formal lectures or papers are 
expected to be presented at such dis- 
cussions, but members are welcome 
to raise questions in connection with 
the art of flying which are of more 
or less general interest, as well as to 
tell of their work in the develop- 
ment of the new art. Probably 
somebody will always have something 
to say about new books on aviation, 
or about a new article in some for- 
eign paper or engineering periodical, 
and it is generally expected that 
members will greatly enjoy the even- 
ing spent in the Society's rooms. 
Members are entitled to bring with 
them friends interested in aviation. 
No "conversazione" will take place 
on evenings of general meetings. 



During the second week of Feb- 
ruary next the first Joint Aero- 
nautical Convention in America will 
be held in the Engineers Building 
when there will be exhibited a "new 
electro-mechanical motion that will 
show the basic principle of inherent 
stability in aeroplanes. 

"This mechanism, when in oper- 
ation, expresses an earnest desire to 
continue in an elliptical orbit-plane 
tangential to, or parallel with, the 
earth's surface ; while it also pre- 
cesses, nutates, perturbates and per- 
forms all the functions of a satel- 
lite. Therefore, it is another moon 
to the earth. It is also an electron 
model in accord with the electron 
theory of the universe which may be 
expressed as follows: 

"If we assume that inside all 
chemical and other atoms there are 
minute electrons, or planets, con- 
stantly spinning, and flying, in or- 
bital planes, then we may prove one 
law governing the universe. 

"Sir J. J. Thomson, of Cambridge 
University, England, was awarded 
the Alfred Nobel $40,000.00 cash 
prize in the year 1906, for advancing 
the electron theory which has not 
been refuted, and it now remains for 
some one to make a special study 
of electron models in order to re- 
veal the electron formula. 

"The discoverer would be entitled 
to another Alfred Nobel $40,000.00 
cash prize with others too numerous 
to mention, and, the discoverer 
would also be known throughout the 
world as the greatest scientist in 
history." 

1-Hr further information address 
I I any Scluiltz, secretary the Aero 
Science Club of America, Room 718, 
29 W. 39th St., New York, N. Y. 



NEW MEMBERS. 

Mr. Brandon Hendricks, life mem- 
bership, 924 West End Ave., N. Y. 
City. Elected July 30th. 

Mr. F. N. Brown, 65 Livingston 
St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Elected Au- 
gust 27th. 

Mr. Orvis A. Roach, 401 Cedar 
St.. San Antonio, Texas. 

Mr. Frank A. Roy. 527 Fifth 
Ave., New York City. Elected 
Sept. 19th. 

Captain Ewald Hecker, 248 West 
52nd St., New York City. 

Mr. Hilding Freudenthal, 250 
Manhattan Ave., New York City. 

Elected Oct, 7th. 

Mr. George I. Brown, 17 State St., 
New York City. 



Mr. N. B, Converse, of San Fran- 
cisco, inventor of the Converse Au- 
tomatic Stabilizer, which was re- 
cently described in these columns, is 
now engaged in constructing a new 
fore-and-aft and lateral stabilizer, 
which he expects to have ready for 
trial tests within a fortnight. This 
stabilizer follows the lines of his 
lateral stabilizer which was tried out 
w ith complete success on the ma- 
chine of the late Arthur Rybitski a 
few months ago. The new stabilizer 
will weigh only 18 lbs., complete. 



I have no criticisms for your 
magazine — nothing but praises. It 
is the best of the four that I take. 
STEVEN STUART. 
Seattle, Wash. 



IERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 



Paze 93 



"if 



iL.ii i^ i-J ±A 



E M ERSO N 



TWO CYCLE 

4 PORT SYSTEM 



J 



The Most Powerful and Finest 

AERO ENGINE 

Built in America 



Photo, Specifications and Price mailed upon request 

THE HERFURTH ENGINE CO., Alexandria, Va. 



» 



* 



BALLOONS 

DIRIGIBLES 

Records prove we build the best Bal- 
loons in America. Nine 1st prizes. 
Three 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of 
fourteen World-wide Contests. 

Write for prices and particulars. 
HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 
4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo. 



AERONAUTICS 



AVIATORS. NEAR AVIATORS 
WII STUDENTS SHOULD IN- 
VESTIG \TE OUR PROPOSITION 
FOR PARTIALLY FINANCING 
\N1> MANAGING AT FRISCO 
FOB 10 MONTHS. $3,500 RE- 
QUIRED, $20 PER LESSON UN- 
TIL SUCCESS IS ASSURED. 
\DDRESS TANNUS BROTHERS, 
BATTERY AVENUE AND HAM- 
BURG STREETS, BALTIMORE, 
MH. 



New and Enlarged Edition. Commencing January. 1914 

The Leading British Monthly 
Journal Devoted to the Technique 
and Industry of Aeronautics 

(FOUNDED 1907) 
Yearly Subscription One Dollar 
Eighty-five Cents : Post Free 

Wonev Orders thtJy) 

n^^,f«. A specimen copy will be mailed 

11CHC. f ree on rece jpt f 15 cents 

Head Office: 

170 Fleet Street - - London, E. C 

American Office: 250 West 54th Street. New York 



WILL RENT my double covered 
26 ft. x 6 ft. monoplane to a re- 
liable party. Address E. M.. 1522 
Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio. 

WRIGHT Model B for sale as it 
stands: $50 will put it in perfect 
condition: engine in first-class sbape. 
Met with slight accident in landing. 
Price $1,000 cash. Address S., care 
AERONAUTICS. 

FLYING ON LONG 
ISLAND. 

Only tli rough the cooperation of 
the aeroplane manufacturers lo- 
cated on the aviation field at Garden 
< "ity. could the meets, such as is 
programed each week, be made pos- 
sible. Fully five to eight aeroplanes 
take part in the Saturday events 
while two or more passenger carry- 
ing machines entertain the multi- 
tude of Sunday visitors. 

On Saturday afternoon, Sept. 19th. 
Harold Kantner made a pretty flight 
in the Schmitt monoplane, rising to 
an altitude of 5,000 ft. This was 
followed by a handicap race between 
the Schmitt monoplane and the Kuhl- 
Baysdorfer biplane, around the field 
three times, in which the mono- 
plane won. 

Fully 1,000 people visited the field 
Sunday and were rewarded by see- 
ing some fine flying. An accident 
occurred at the close of the after- 
noon, which wrecked one machine 
hut in which no one was hurt. 
Fred Jacobs went out in the Schnei- 
der machine for his second flight in 
a biplane. At the extreme end of 



cylERO MART 

BARGAIN IX BOOKS— Will sell 
following books: Aerial Navigation 
(Salverda) $1.50; Navigating the 
Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; 
Aeronautical Annual, 1895-6-7 

(James Means! $5; Travels in 
Space (Valentine & Thompson) 
$.50; Art of Aviation ( Brewer) 
SI. 50: Airships Past and Present 
(Hildebrand) $3; Proceedings Int. 
Congress Aerial Navigation, Chica- 
gi i, 1 893, $5 ; various other books 



thrown in to purchaser of the lot. 
L. K. Dare, 216 West 104th st.. 
New York. 

HAVING found a mechanical 
movement that would build an aerial 
apparatus that would be superior to 
the present aeroplane, and not hav- 
ing the money to build a try-out ma- 
chine. I will give an interest to re- 
liable parties who will exploit the 
device. F. G. L., care AERO- 
NAUT!* S 



the field, in trying to make the turn, 
his control wire broke and the ma- 
chine came down on one wing, 
crumpling it up under him. 

The program for Oct. 3 was post- 
poned on account "f the death of 
William Piceller. Late in the after- 
noon however Albert I lei n rich and 
Bonney made several flights so as 
not to disappoint the crowd at the 
field. 

A new feature introduced at the 
Columbus day meet was a balloon 
chase. Several rubber, gas-filled toy 
balloons were released, and as they 
sailed up in the air, the aviators 
went after them. Whether the bal- 
loons were too small or whether the 
aviator was unable to manage both 
his aeroplane and revolver at the 
same time, «s not known, but the bal- 
loons floated aw ay unharmed. Al- 
lien Heinrich was the first to com- 
pete in the bomb-dropping contest. 
The first few bombs he dropped 
missed the target by 300 ft., but 
after a little practice he was able 
to drop them with more accuracy. 
Sidney Beckwith. in bis military 
tractor biplane, also made some 
good scores. 



The program for the following 
Saturday had to be postponed to 
Sunday, owing to had weather. On 
Sunday, however, the 4.500 people 
who were at the field saw some ex- 
ceptionally fine flying. A novel fea- 
ture of the day was the use of hu- 
man targets for bomb dropping. 
Arthur Heinrich and two other avia- 
tors went out on the field and vol- 
unteered as targets. This caused a 
meal deal of ercitement, for if the 
bombs had struck the men. the re- 
sult would have been disastrous, as 
the bombs are quite heavy and are 
tilled with cartridges which explode 
when they hit the ground. Heinrich 
made several flights with passengers 
and Beckwith gave a splendid exhi- 
of landing. 

On Saturday, Oct. 24, the pro- 
gram consisted of bomb dropping, 
races and balloon chasing. An in- 
teresting exhibition was given on 
Election day and owing to the great 
success of these meets the Week End 
M eel - Association have decided to 
have them continued, with a special 
program for Thanksgiving Day, No 
admission is charged to the field on 
Sundays. — D. B. Wright. 



Page 94 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 



AERIAL BOMBS AND PROJECTILES 




Seconds Elapsed Tjr 



VETERAN BALLOONIST 
IS DEAD. 

Samuel Archer King, a veteran 
balloonist, died at his home in Phila- 
delphia on November 3. He was 86 
years old and made his first ascen- 
sion in 1851. I luring his career as 
an aeronaut he made 4S0 ascensions, 
and never met with a serious acci- 
dent. 

Professor King, formerly a pho- 
tographer, made his first ascension 
in Fairrnount Park in 1851. and im- 
mediately became not only one of the 
foremost enthusiasts in the sport, but 
also soon was acknwledged to be one 
of the best informed and most ef- 
ficient pilots of aerostats. 



SOME EXPERIMENTS 
WITH A BIPLANE 
(Continued from page R3) 
disposition is a valuable one and 
will come into general use some 
day. It took several years for de- 
signers to see the value of the 
negative aileron which 1 have advo- 
cated for so long a time and I am 
curious to see bow long it takes 
designers to see the value in the 
staggered converging biplane. 

Aly experiments over water were 
ed on al Marble-head, Mass., and 
all the members of the Burgess Com- 
pan} saw the flights which my ma- 
chine made. It seems to me that 
tc get a tr.net or tailless biplane to 
ik and land safely is to do some- 
thing new in aeronautics. 

MODEL NOTES 
(Continued from pape 89) 

The chassis is of a very simple 
form, as shown, and is constructed 
of ' ,s in. square split bamboo cut 
to streamline form. The wheels are 
ol ■in inch in diameter and arc oi 
cork; filled with small pieces of to- 
lling for hubs. The propellers are 
carved from white pine and are 7 
in. in diameter with a pitch of ap- 
proximately 13 in. Each propeller is 
di ven by 10 strands of ] fi-in. flat 
rubbei , 



The accompanying chart has been 
arranged by Wilbur K. Kimball to 
represent graphically approximate 
data on falling bombs and projec- 
tiles. These values will be modified 
by variations in the density of the 
atmosphere. 

The vertical scales of fall in feet 
may be read for all three curves. 
The upper horizontal scale may be 
read for C and the lower one for 
A and B 

The space traversed for any sec- 
ond of time is twice the time (2t) 
minus 1 times 16. OS. represented by 
the curve A on the chart. 

The total distance fallen in any 

number of seconds is graphically 

shown by the curve B, and is the 

time in seconds squared times 16.08, 

gt- 



The velocity at the end of fall is 
gt. i. c, number of seconds times 
32.16. 

The velocity in feet per second 
acquired during fall is 8.02 times 
the square root of the space trav- 
ersed. 

If the projectile has an initial 
velocity of, c. g.. 640 ft. per second 



Con C), approximately that of the 
projectile tired by a Zeppelin, the 

corresponding distance shown by the 
chart which it would have to fall to 
attain this velocity is 6,400 ft.; and 
the time required, 20 seconds. 

To calculate the time of fall with 
this initial velocity, add the distances 
and subtract the corresponding 
times. For a projection of 6,000 ft., 
e. g., add 6,400, making 12.400, re- 
quiring 27-?4 seconds, less !0 
seconds approximately. From curve 
A the space traversed in the 30th 
second is 944 ft. 



Wiator Jacquith was fined $22.50 
for duck hunting with his Curtiss 
flying boat, despite the plea of his 
attorneys, "who argued that the 
magistrate and game warden were 
giving a wrong interpretation to the 
law, as the so-called hoat had no 
dimensions and was without spi 
draught." 



F. C. llild. formerly the head and 
feet of the American Aeroplane Sup- 
ply House, of Hempstead, L. I., is 
now in the French aviation reserve 
nt Tours and w ill shortly go to the 
front. 



While we are discussing speed 
models it recalls to mind the models 
constructed some few years ago by 
Stewart R. Easter, a former member 
of the N. V. Model Aero Club. 
These models are noted for their 
high speed, extremely light weight, 
excellent flying and high-class con- 
struction. 

The main plane was extremely 
small, having a span of only 16 inJ 
In fact, one of the Faster models 
had a main plane with a span of only 
14 in. 

These planes were double surfaced, 
being flat on the under side and 
cambered on the upper side. The 
front elevator had a very sharp 
dihedral angle, presumably for the 
purpose uf obtaining straight flights. 

The propellers were 7 in. in diam- 
eter and were carved so thin that it 
scarcely seemed possible for them to 
last for more than one flight, al- 
though as a matter of fact the break- 
ages were very few. The fuselage 
of this model was also a very deli- 
cate piece of construction. 

Flights of over 1,700 ft. were very 
often obtained with this model, it 
being the holder of the world's rec- 
ord for distance for some time. 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 



Page 95 




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Pane 96 



AERONAUTICS, Sept. 30, 1914. 



PATENTS 

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Send sketch or model for FRKE opinion as to Patent- 
ability. Write for our Guide Books ai d What to Invent with 
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Very complete catalog free on request 



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OCTOBER 15, 1914 



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We aim to keep constantly abreast of the latest demand in aeronautical motors. That 
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Altitude: CAPT. H. LEROY MULLER. U. S. A.. 17.185 feet. 

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120 H.P. MODEL "U," 6-CYL., VERTICAL, 5" x 7" 
160 H.P. MODEL "V," 8-CYL., VEE TYPE, 5" x 7" 

With each of these motors the maximum brake horse power is considerably above the 
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Page 98 



AERONAUTICS, October 15. 1914. 



Confidence in 
Quality Products 

WHAT is the reputation of the igni- 
tion system on your aeroplane ? 
Getting your money's worth means 
more than getting one hundred cents in- 
trinsic value for every dollar expended — it 
means satisfactory service from the product 
bought, service on which you can depend 
whether the test or work is severe or ordinary. 

We BOSCH MAGNETO 

is the quality system. That fact has long 
been established not by any one individual 
opinion, but by nearly two million users who 
use the Bosch Magneto and know! 

Don't accept "magneto" as an ignition speci- 
fication ; insist that it read Bosch Magneto, 
and then look for the name on your aero- 
plane's magneto. 

Be Satisfied Specif// Bn.sc/i 

Correspondence Invited 

Bosch Magneto Company 

201 West 46th Street New York 



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AERONAUTICS, October 15, 1914. 



Pa y 99 



THE HYDROAEROPLANE IN COAST DEFENCE 
RECONNAISSANCE 

By Captain V. E. Clark, Aviation Section, Signal Corps. 



In Europe, under actual war con- 
ditions, the aeroplane is daily prov- 
ing its ability to pierce mosl ef- 
fectually "the fog of war" — on land. 
The purpose of the present article 
is : . point out several practical uses 
of the hydroaeroplane as an adjunct 
to coast defi ns< to call to the read- 
er's attention the possibilities in the 
use of tins machine as a factor in 
the defense of our coast lines. 

I'>v the general term "hydroaero- 
planes," I mean all heavier-than- 
air flying crafl capable of arising 
from and alighting upon water, in- 
cluding so-called "flying boats," 
"aero boats," etc. 

In discussing the adaptation of 
t lie hydroaeroplane to coast recon- 
naissance, i will assume that the 
machine will always carry two men, 
vlin will divide between them the 
duties of pilot, observer, and signal- 
man; and be provided with compass, 
other instruments, and a signal 
transmitting equipment. For some 
purposes the latter should be a wire- 
less outfit; and for others, a smoke- 
|i vice, such as a cylinder con- 
taining soot with apertures which 
can be opened and closed by the 
signalman. Practical tests in France 
have shown thai a com pact wi re- 
|i ss outfit, weighing only about sixty 
Is vnli antennae, and not in- 
terfering with the flight of the aero- 
plane carrying ' is capable of send- 
ing messages sixty miles, under ordi- 
ii,M . ci mditions. 

BEI ON \ VISS VNi : . 

ia i Dist ovcring an . Ipproaching 
Fleet. 

In Fig, l have been indicated 
roughly three flight courses illus- 
trating a plan by which, in case of 
an expected approach by hostile 
men-of-war or transports, three hy- 
droaeroplanes might effect a more 
complete reconnaissance of our 
North Atlantic coasl waters by 
making, back and forth, daily flights 
of three hours' duration, than would 
he possible by employing a score of 
the fastest destroyers. 

It is not only possible, but highly 
ble, that, in the near future, 
hydroaeroplanes will be designed 
that will be able to "get off," make 
extended flights during which im- 
plicit confidence may be plated in 
the motor, and laud without dam- 
age in almost any weather in which 
the navigation of a destroyer is 
practicable. There should, however, 
be some sort of break- water shel- 
tering the get-away and landing 
water areas; and, in the plan sug- 
gested, the terminal points have been 
chosen with this in view. 

In this connection, it must be 
remembered that a strong wind, after 
having blown over a large expanse 
of water, may be. to the occupants 
of an aeroplane flying in it. no more 
dancer i>u s or uncomfortable than a 
dead calm. Strong winds over 
land become broken up by hills, 
cliffs, canons, and even trees or 
houses, until the air becomes very 
turbulent. On the other band, there 
being none of these irregularities on 
the surface of the water, strong 
o inds will usually remain fairly 
i onstant in force and direction. 

At each terminal point there 



should be hangars, a machine simp. 
supplies, extra motors, spare parts, 
and a force of mechanicians and 
relief pilots. 

On a day of average atmospheric 
transparency, an observer in a ma- 
chine flying at a height of two 
thousand feet could "make out* a 
fleei "t vessels at a distance of at 
It ,i-i fifty nautical miles. 

The shaded portion of Fig 
then, indicates the area in which 
the enemy would be visible to .it 
least one of the flying scouts. \n<-i 
he had entered this area, the • i ■ 
of his fleet, the character of In- ves- 
sels, and the direction of his move 
ment would be reported to the wait- 
ing coast defense commanders. 

The report would, al the very 
least. gi\ e the < )oas1 A rt illerj r ''■ 
sonnel at New STork, Fori VI 
Boston, and I 'hiladclphia fi fte< n 
hours, and at the other fo 
points within the zone, eight hours, 
in which to prepare powder, fire 
trial shots, and even, possibly, move 
troops from the points nol threat- 
ened to those that appear t<> be in 
danger. In the meantime, til 
mv would be utterly unaware of the 
presence of the air scout. It is im- 

to i hear an aei ■ 

at a distance of even ten miles. 

ih) "Run B a I og and 

Movements Beh in i 

In many of our harbors. low Fog 
banks, broken by many ri Its. and 

extending only a shorl disl ance oul 
from thf fortified shore, are very 
common. 

Should a coast defense command- 
er have reason to expect an attempt 
to "'run by." from hostile vessels 
behind such a fog bank, thi 
vice of a hydro might prove invalua- 
ble. The flagship would be 
ii\ . "cling over the harboi entrance; 
the observer •* ould mak : i | 
atory signal; and then the pilot 
should describe a series of 
circles, keeping his altitui le con- 
stant, and passing, during the course 
of eacli circle, vertically over t he- 
target ship. The observer should 
cause a puff of smoke to be emitted 
when directly over the target. There 
would be practically no danger to 
the aeroplane from the fire of i he 
enemy's ships. I', will be found that 
the only fire effective agaii I 
aeroplane is thai of a regiment of 
infantry, in which there is a very 
large percentage of poor shots, the 
resultant wide dispersion increasing 
the probability of the aeroplane's 
being bit in a vital spot, despite 
the usual error in estimating range. 

While the hydro is mancm. 
as described above, the observers at 
(be ends of horizontal base: 
shore could, using azimuth instru- 
ments capable of swinging through 
a large vertical angle, track, al leasl 
roughly, the course of the targi I as 
indicated by the path and signals ol 
the aeroplam While this method 
should prove particularly useful to 
mine commands, I believe thai a 
sufficiently accurate track for the 
firing of mortar and gnu salvos h; 
' 'as< 1 1 T might be obtained. 

The movements of a flei I attempt- 
ing to taki ■ of a smoke 
screen might be followed and made 



know n in shore observers by an 
aeroplane using these same tactics. 

Cc) "Run-By" at Night. 

Should a coast defense ci >m 
mander expect a "run -by" undei 
cover of darkness, he u ould order 
one of his hydros to c i r< le o\ er 
the harbor entrance. Even I 
I he hostile \ ess< Is \\ ere runni ng 
with "all lights doused," the ob- 
in the aeroplane w ould be 
able to detect their approach by 
watching for the flames down in 
the --nil ike funnels and indicate the 
■ ■ e, strength, and direct ion oi 
movement of a fleet by the use of 
Very pistol signals. Successive 
points in the course of a ■, ■ 
might be indicated to those on shoi e 
by dropping light bombs on tin vi - 
sel w lu ii over it. 

i'Ii Loi ating Submarines and 

■ ■ tie Mines. 
It has been found that, unless 
; : er is \ ery muddy, at an al- 
titude of about seven hundn ■ ' 

me nn lies arc distinctly vis- 
ible from the air above: and that, 
from an ah itude of twi i the 
feet, the movements of a submarine 
i-boat may be easily obse 
R em pl< lying the tad ■ 
in fb); i. e.. es dar cir- 

cles at a cons nd mak- 

ing smoke puffs when direct!} 
the target, the hydro miglil render 
l aid to the mine i ommand 
in its operations against submarines, 

1 i ■ \gains Land- 

ing Fo\ ■ c i 

In (a | was described a mi th "1 
vvhetebj warning of the approach 
of : i ansports might be g 

I Fter forces had Ian. I. 

some poinl distant from coast forti 
i ith the intention of oper- 
ating against the defenses of the 
m land, the movements 
of these troops might be followed 
from .: plane as readily as 

oplane fitted with land- 
ing wheels. The hydro could start 
or land, for instance, at one of the 
terminal points in Figure 1 . or in 
the harbor oi the city itself. The 
operations of the hostile force mighl 
■ I daily t'-i im the time 
when (hey were several days' march 
dis t a n t . 

i- i i' i CON l K"l . 

mi VI 01 tar FtVi ai a : a get ( >b- 
scui ed i'i om 1 Ire t ontrol Station 
by a Promontory. 

■M it be desired to fire on a 
\ essel i ibscurecl from the ■ ■ 

Hon ..I fii itrol stations by a 

high point of land, precisely the 

; ■ in ■ ggesti 

in i ii i mighl used ti > direct ob- 
; of mortars, 
The hvdro should maintain an alti- 
tudi mosl convenient £ 
by the base end azimuth instru- 
\ simple system of signals 
mighl be used to indicate to the 
i ri- i. pmmandi r | lie relative location 
ni' the ia oi and 1 he 

i argi I . at all times during the fir- 
■ 



Pa°c ioo 



AERONAUTICS, October 15, 1914. 



(g) Indirect Mortar and Howitzer 
Shrapnel Fire Against Land Forces. 

Information, sufficiently accurate 
for indirect shrapnel fire, as to the 
position of the enemy "on the other 
side of the hill," might he ohtained 
through use of the hydroaeroplane. 
Also, during this fire, corrections in 
elevation and azimuth might be 
made from information obtained 
from signals sent from the flying 
hydro. 

(h) Spotting for Extreme Long 
Range Firing. 

Suppose a fleet of the enemy's 
dreadnoughts should open a bom- 
bardment at a range of, say, twelve 
to fifteen thousand yards, against 
the protected city or against the for- 
tifications. Should an attempt be 
made by the shore batteries to si- 
lence this bombardment, it would 
be next to impossible to determine, 
especially if the observing stations 
were located only a little above sea 
level, whether the center of impact 
were "over" or "short" of the tar- 
get ships. 

A hydroaeroplane, equipped with 
wireless, circling over a line normal 
to the line of fire drawn from the 
target, as close to the target as 
safety permitted, could, by using a 
simple code, keep the fire command- 
ers on shore constantly informed as 
to the proper range corrections. 



The observer could use, for de- 
termining range errors, a range rake 
the coss arm of which is capable 
of movement and adjustment along 
the beam "observer to target," which 
should be graduated. The distance 
from observer to target, to be laid 
off along this beam, may be obtained 
by short computation, from a table, 
or by a simple instrument. The 
two values required are: (1) the 
altitude of the observer, which may 
be read from an aneroid barometer; 
and ( 2) the angle, in a vertical 
plane, at the aeroplane, between the 
two lines; (a) vertical through 
aeroplane; and (b) aeroplane to tar- 
get. The angle (2) may be obtained 
by an instrument, sheltered from the 
wind, consisting of a weighted arm 
which hangs vertically, with a grad- 
uated (sextant-like) arc attached, 
along which a simple sight (ob- 
server to target) may be moved; 
and the required vertical angle read. 



(i) Dropping Bombs on Destroyers 
and Counter-Mining Craft Obscure! 
from Shore Observation. 

If, because of fog, darkness, 
searchlight out of service, or in- 
convenient location of mine field 
with relation to rapid fire batter- 
ies, these batteries should be un- 
able to fire effectively on counter- 
mining craft or destroyers, the hy- 
dro might be of great aid to the 



mine command by dropping explo- 
sive bombs on the hostile vessels 
from a low altitude. 

(j ) Attacking Dirigibles. 

Should our coast forts ever be 
threatened by bomb-dropping dirig- 
ible balloons, hydroaeroplanes should 
form an effective means of defense. 

Possessing superior speed and mo- 
bility, and presenting a much smaller 
anil more erratic target, they would 
be a constant menace to these mon- 
sters of the air. We have records 
of at least one, and probably two 
encounters, during the present Eu- 
opean war, in which patriotic French 
pilots have, by plunging their ma- 
chines headlong into the envelopes 
of Zeppelins, demonstrated that, by 
the sacrifice of one man, a hostile 
dirigible, representing from twenty- 
five to one hundred and fifty men 
and hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars in fighting material, may be 
rendered a complete loss. 

Experience may prove that it is 
possible to destroy a dirigible from 
an aeroplane by the use of a hand 
arm firing small explosive shell, or 
by throwing into the top of the bal- 
loon a harpoon to which is attached 
a bomb with time fuse, diminishing, 
to snmc extent at least, the danger 
to the pilot of the attacking aero- 
plane. — Journal of the U. S. Artil- 
lery. 



WRIGHT COMPANY STARTS NEW INFRINGEMENT SUIT 



On November 18, 1914, Judge 
Julius M. Mayer, of the U. S* Dis- 
trict Court, sitting at Buffalo, signed 
two orders on motion of H. A. 
Toulmin and H. A. Toulmin, Tr.. 
attorneys for The Wright Company. 

One order directed The Curtiss 
Aeroplane Company to show cause 
on or before November 30 (later ex- 
tended to December 15) why a pre- 
liminary injunction should not be 
allowed; the injunction motion 
stands for hearing on December 22. 

The second order of the court 
directed the defendant company, 
should it deny that its machines 
have been "constructed in substan- 
tial accordance with the drawings 
accompanying the injunction mo- 
tion," to produce drawings of its 
machines "correctly showing the 
construction and arrangement of the 
parts utilized in recovering lateral 
balance and employed in directing 
the machines in various directions of 
flight." 

This is a new suit against a new 
company, with which Mr. Curtiss 
is connected, organized in 1910. 
The new bill of complaint sets out 
that The Curtiss Aeroplane Com- 
pany, the new defendant, was organ- 
ized by Mr. Curtiss during the 
pendency of the former litigation; 
that of the 200 shares of capital 
stock of this company 198 shares 
were subscribed for by Mr. Curtiss, 
one share by Mrs. Curtiss and one 
by R. G. Hall. Then the bill sets 
out that this new company has made 
and dealt in three types of ma- 
chines: 



'Type 1, in which the ailerons 
are attached to the standards which 
connect the supporting planes and 
which ailerons are operated in the 
same manner as in the Curtiss ma- 
chine which the courts have held 
to be an infringement and have en- 
joined The Herring- Curtiss Com- 
pany and Mr. Curtiss personally 
from making, using, selling or ex- 
hibiting. 

"Type 2. which also has ailerons, 
but which are attached to the rear 
margins of the upper supporting 
planes, yet are operated in the same 
manner as are the ailerons in Type 
1, and with the same result, by re- 
covering lateral balance. 

"Type 3, which has the ailerons 
located and connected to the upper 
main plane in the same manner as 
in Type 2, and in which, it is al- 
leged by the defendant, the ailerons 
are not worked simultaneously, one 
upward and the other downward. 
but are operated one at a time, and 
are merely tipped up each time they 
are operated as distinguished from 
being tipped up and tipped down 
alternately." 

The new bill of complaint sets out 
all that is stated above, and charges 
the new company with infringing 
the Wright patent, that was sus- 
tained in the other suit, by "mak- 
ing, using and selling the three 
types of machines, two of which 
types, Nos. 1 and 2, are substan- 
tially the same as the original ma- 
chine, while the third type is a mere 
modification." 



In the original suit injunctions 
were issued against The Ilerring- 
Curtiss Company, and Mr. Curtiss 
personally, and they were enjoined 
from making, using, selling or ex- 
hibiting infringing flying machines 
permanently. 

Every move in this famous patent 
suit has been completely chronicled 
in AERONAUTICS, with court de- 
cisions in full. 

On Type 3 there is, however, a 
sufficiently new field opened up to 
bring into the new case one or more 
claims of the Wright patent not di- 
rectly litigated in the former suit. 
In this machine the ailerons are 
claimed not to present any positive 
angles to the line of flight, and, it 
;s said, only one aileron is operated 
at a time, and then on the high 
siik— to lower :t by creating a down- 
ward pressure, no attempt being 
made to life the low side by pre- 
senting the aileron to a positive 
angle. In this machine, should any 
tendency to turning about the verti- 
cal axis he noticeable, the vertical 
rudder would, theoretically, never- 
the less be turned, it is said, in a 
manner to prevent such turning. 

The final determination of the 
new case on this point will be await- 
ed with interest as the system so 
persistently urged by A. A. Merrill 
in AERONAUTICS and other jour- 
nals is frequently claimed not to 
infringe the Wright patent. 



AEROXAUTICS, October 15, 1914. 



Page 101 



$5,000,000 RECOMMENDED FOR AIR NAVY 



Secretary of the Navy Daniels 
asks, in his report recently issued. 
'.000 for naval air service for 
the 1916 program. 

The General Board in its en- 
dorsement oi August 30, 1913, and 
accompanying memorandum, brought 
to the attention of the Navy De- 
partment the dangerous situation of 
the country in the lack of air craft 
and air men in both the naval and 
military services. A resume was 
given in that endorsement of condi- 
tions in the leading countries 
abroad, showing the preparations 
being made for air warfare and the 
use of air craft by both armies and 
navies and contrasting their activity 
with our own inactivity. Certain 
recommendations were made in the 
same endorsement looking to the 
beginning of the establishment of 
a proper air service for our Navy. 

The result was the appointment 
of a Board of Aeronautics in Octo- 
ber, 1913 (all dulv recorded in 
\l RONAUTK Si. that board made 
further recommendations, among 
them the establishment of an aero- 
nautic school and station at Pensa- 
cola and the purchase of 50 aero- 
planes. 1 fleet dirigible and 2 small 
dirigibles for training. 

At the present time all the Navy 
owns is 12 aeroplanes, "not more 
than two of which are of the same 
tvpe and all reported to have too 
little speed and carrying capacity 
for service work," according to a 
statement of the General Board of 
the Navy in November, 1914, to the 
Secretary of the Navy. 

"In view of the advance that has 

been made i)i aeronautics during the 
Past year, and the demonstration 
note being made of the vital im- 
portance of a proper air service to 
both land and sea warfare, our 
present situation ran be described 
as nothing less than deplorable. As 



n, ■;. deevloped, air craft are the 
eyes of both armies and navies, 
and it is difficut to place any limit 
to their offensive possibilities. 

"In our present condition of un- 
preparedness, in contact with any 
foe possessing a proper air service, 
o a r seo Hting wo u Id be blin d. We 
would be without the means of de- 
tecting the pi escnee of submarines 
or mine fields or of attempting di- 
l erf attack on the enemy from the 

hile our own movements would 
be an open book to him. The Gen- 
eral Board can not too strongly 
urge that the Department's most 
serious thought be given this matter, 
mid that immediate steps he taken 
medy it, and recommends that 
< ongress be asked for an appro- 
priation of at least §5,000,000 to be 
available immediately for the 
purpose of establishing an efficient 
! tee." 

When the fleet was ordered to 
Mexican waters in April two aero- 
plane sections of two aeroplanes 
each, completely manned, with full 
outfits each, were sent on the Missis- 
sippi and Birmingham to Vera Cruz 
and Tampico respectively.. There 
was no occasion for the use of aero- 
planes at Tampico, but those at Vera 
Cruz were used continually and 
though the machines were not fitted 
for land work they did, for 43 days, 
a good deal of scouting over the 
trenches protecting Vera Cruz. 
There were daily flights without re- 
gard to weather or other conditions. 
Their scout work assured the Com- 
mander-in-Chief that no mines had 
been planted, enabled him to locate 
sunken works, and was of ines- 
timable value in the combined opera- 
tions of the Army and Navy. 

The recent wars have demon- 
strated the inestimable importance 
of scouting. Air craft on land 
prevent surprises of the kind which 



have determined most military vic- 
tories. They provide the best means 
for discovering submarine mines and 
submarines and have now become 
an indispensable naval adjunct. 

DANIELS HITS LOCAL 
TALENT. 

The orders given early in the 
year for some foreign-built aero- 
planes have not been filled, owing 
tu the war. These were for testing 
that the Navy might adopt those best 
fitted. "The best types of American 
manufacture have been ordered and 
the department will develop this 
modern branch of the naval ser- 
vice steadily and rapidly. Indeed, 
it has been more ready to develop 
it during the past year than the 
manufacturers of this country have 
been to supply the demand for craft 
of approved design," says Secretary 
Daniels. 

The Navy is conducting a large 
number of experiments with models 
of floats and pontoons for aero- 
planes at the Washington Navy 
Yard: also, at the same place, in 
the wind tunnel with aerofoils and 
models of aeroplanes. A number of 
different experiments are being car- 
ried out at the present time, mostly 
of a minor importance, at the U. S. 
Navy Aeronautic Station, Pensa- 
cola, Fla. In addition to the ex- 
perimental work and the flying 
school the Pensacola Station is car- 
rying on repairs of machines in use. 
Recently a new picket boat was re- 
ceived at that station. It is of the 
Viper type of hydroplane, and has 
a speed of about 35 miles an hour. 
It is used for patrolling the course 
while flying for experiment and in- 
struction is going on. 

Captain Mark L. Bristol is in 
charge of the "Office of Naval Aero- 
nautics" in Washington, with the 
title, "Director of Aeronautics." 



U. S. NAVY ORDERS SEC- 
OND BURGESS-DUNNE. 

The second Burgess-Dunne has 
been ordered from the Burgess Com- 
pany at Marblehead and from this 
it would be assumed that the previ- 
ous one has been found of ad- 
vantage. Full details of this type 
of machine, the claims made there- 
for and performances have been 
chronicled in AERONAUTU S. 

This new one will have an Ameri- 
can engine, a Curtiss O-X. The 
general characteristics are : biplane 
of the inherently stable type, car- 
rying a pilot and passenger side by 
side. The pilot and passenger, mo- 
tor and instruments are protected 
by a stream line hood. There are 
duplicate controls. The full load will 
be fuel, oil and cooling water for 
four hours' flight with 350 pounds 
additional. It is to get away in 
2.000 feet at a speed of not over 
50 miles an hour with full load and 
climb at the rate of not less than 
100 feet per minute, glide not less 
than 5 in 1, and have a speed range 
of from 60 to 40 miles an hour, or 
better. It will be readily handled 
and maneuvered on the water and 
be fitted for hoisting on board ship 



and so arranged as to be quickly 
assembled or broken down. It will 
have one main pontoon and two 
auxiliary pontoons. 

NAVAL REQUIREMENTS. 

A naval authority has recently 
stated to the editor that manufac- 
turers of aircraft have not developed 
these craft so that they would be 
used by armies or navies, especially 
navies, though late products have 
come nearer satisfying the demands 
of an army. The use of aeroplanes 
on water has been mostly confined 
to rivers, lakes and inland waters 
and the future naval air and water 
machine must be suited to the open 
sea. It is argued by the manufac- 
turers, on the other hand, that the 
governmental demand, as far as this 
country is concerned, is so small 
that it is out of the question for 
manufacturers to do all the ex- 
perimenting at their own expense 
with only a possibility of selling 
the products to the government. At 
any rate, our "well known" army 
and navy is more or less handi- 
capped by the slowness of Congress 
in realizing the necessity of an 
aeronautical branch. 

The aeronautic officers on board 
the "North Carolina" in Europe 



are returning home and will go to 
the Navy Aeronautic Station at 
Pensacola and then a great deal 
more work will be done. These of- 
ficers returning are : Lieutenant- 
Commander H. C. Mustin, Lieu- 
tenant P. N. L. Bellinger. Lieutenant 
R. C, Saufley and Ensign W. Cape- 
hart. The work at Pensacola at 
the present time consists in instruc- 
tion of the new class of officers 
that has been detailed. There will 
be 10 officers in this class when 
finally assembled, of which eight 
have already been detailed. 



NAVY MAY BUY DIRIG- 
IBLES SOON. 

The Navy has asked for bids on 
two small dirigibles, but the con- 
tract has not yet been let, nor, as 
far as one knows, has it been 
definitely decided what type or size 
will be used. 

The newspaper story recently pub- 
lished is quite untrue. No one at 
the present time is making any 
dirigibles for the government, nor 
have any orders been issued. 



Pare 102 



AERONAUTICS, October 15, 1914. 



NEW CORPORATIONS. 

Ascension Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Sparta. Wis., by Nathan 
Steele. 

The Circular Monoplane Company, 
Rochester, X. Y.. has been incorpo- 
rated with a capital stock of 850,000 
ana will begin business with $1,000. 
The directors are Joseph F. Claes- 
gens, George A. Claesgens and Ag- 
nes 11. I laesgens, all of 246 Avenue 
i . Walter P. Davis, of 551 Pi 
Avenue South, and Frederic A. 
Geiger, of 292 Seyle Terrace. Jo- 
seph Claesgens is the inventor of 
a monoplane of a new type. 



SPEEDS 

Miles per Feet per 

Hour Second. 

1 1.47 

2 2.93 

3 4.41 

4 5.87 

5 7-33 

6 

7 10.29 

8 11.76 

9 13.23 

10 14.66 

11 16-12 

12 17-59 

13 19.06 

H 20.53 

15 22.00 

16 - ; I 

17 24. 1 '4 

18 26.41 

19 27. SS 

20 29.35 

25 36.70 

30 1 

35 

40 

45 66.01 

50 73.34 

55 80.67 

60 87.96 

65 95.29 

70 102.62 

75 109.05 

80 117.28 

85 124.61 

90 131.84 

95 13 

100 146.60 



Metres per 

Second. 

.447 

.894 

1.341 

1.783 

4.035" 
4 470 
4.916 
5. 165 
5.813 

6.705 
7 1 8 
7.601 
8.050 

9.945 
II 376 
13.411 
15.646 
17. SSI 
20.1 16 

24.5SS 
26.S22 

3.1.451 

38.007 
40.233 

42 44-: 
44.7(14 



We take the following from the 
San Diego Union San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, September 20, 1914: 

"Interest in the war department 
competition is growing hourly as the 
time for the contest approaches. 
The greatest fliers in America are 
t North Island preparing for 
the competition. Pitted against each 
other will be Raymond Morris and 
Francis Wildman of the Curtiss 
School, probably assistcl b} ' 
Curtiss; Oscar Brindley of the Wright 
School; Glenn Martin, regarded as 
the most scientific flier in America; 
Silas Christofferson, and the entry 
of the Benoist company not yet 
named. 

"With these famous and expert 
birdmen putting their planes through 
the difficult maneuvers prescribed 1 ■ > 
the war department, spectators 
said, will witness some of the mosl 






THE TURNER AVIAPHONE IN USE 



thrilling flights ever seen in this 
country." 

When, O Lord, will aviation in 
this country cease to be ridiculous? 
Contemplating the far-flung publicity 
given to the Hearst Transcontinental 
"Flight," the Gould "Prize" and the 
Panama- Pacific "Around-the-World 
R li ' . ' not to mention a score of 
other similar fiascos, it is small won- 
der that that shrewd old gentleman, 
the American Public, regards us 
more or less as a bunch of fakers. 



THE TURNER AVIA- 
PHONE. 

Further, experiments have been 
conducted with the K. M. Turner 
"aviaphone," described i" AERO- 
NAUTICS some time ago, and re- 
cently a test was made on a Thomas 
flying boat at Stamford and in the 
Peoli machine on Long Island, by 
Wilbur R. Kimball, representative 
of the < ienera] Acoustic Co. 



The Turner aviaphone lias been 
produced after some years of ex- 
periment, and is now offered to 
aviators ami aviation schools as a 
practical instrument by which com- 
munication may be had during flight. 
It is especially valuable to govern- 
ments for use in the aviation corps 
of the armies and navies. Officers 
flying with a pilot can direct scout- 
ing movements, leaving both hands 
free for making notes, taking pic- 
tures, etc. 

The instrument consists of two 
helmets or caps, two specially wound 
receivers for eacli user, breast pi ate. 
connecting cords, battery weighing 
liil 5 <>zs, plugs and jacks, the en- 
tire outfit weighing but 5 lbs. 5 ozs. 
We furnish regularly caps as shown 
in the illustration; the receivers, 
however, can lie adj listed to any 
type or -li/c- of helmet or headgear. 
The mouthpiece, extending from the 
specially constructed breastplate 
transmitter, is in position only dur- 
ing conversation. 



AERONAUTICS, October 15, 1914. 



Page 103 



DE KOR LATEST TO prompted the use of wood and cloth form showed general superiority and 

LOOP. with wire and turnbuckles to obtain greater freedom from the eviis of 

rigidity. '1 he linen was given six discontinuity. 

llus photo is of I-reo De Kor and coats of Emaillite. which upon ad- "In larger models observation will 

his new tract, .r biplane equipped vice was not varnished. The prep- be made from windows along either 

witli an 80-li.p. Duplex Gyro and aration not being waterproof this side and under wings, the body be- 

a Simmons propeller. This ma- oversight caused trouble, the upper ing entirely enclosed. 

chine was built and flown at Los surface of wings having to be re- "Patents' on the entire design of 

the Airbirde Flyer (trade mark 
_„ name), have been issued and me- 
chanical patents on wings, body 
form, and method of lateral control 
have been fully allowed." 

Lateral stability is designed to be 
effected by the vertical fins. "In 
two trial flights of 5 and S minutes 
each, the tins proved superior to 
wing warping, though on a rectangu- 
lar lifting surface they would not 
do." 




THE MERRY 

PARACHUTE 

She called him her Darius Green, 
And donned her widow hat. 

Then jumped aboard his aeroplane — 
Now what do you think of that? 



SI 



Angeles, Cal., and save excellent 
results. De Kor on his first flight 
made 2 loops. This is the first time 
that he has ever looped. lie states 
that it is the best motor he has 
ever sat behind. 



THOMAS BROTHERS 

MOVE TO ITHACA 

FOR ROOM. 

Tin.- recenl great impetus given to 
aviation by the present European 
war has, to pome extent, been re- 
spnnsihle for the move of the 
Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Com- 
pany to [thaca, X. V.. where they 
have secured a factoi v, giving ap- 
proximately three times the former 
capacity; ami. in addition, excellent 
facilities for water dying over the 
beautiful Cayuga Lake, which is ap- 
proximately forty miles long, with an 
average width of two miles. At the 
head of the lake they have an excel- 
lent flying field for land school 
work, and for demonstrating. In 
addition to this Cornell University 
offers considerable opportunities for 
research work. 

Ithaca is an exceedingly pleasant 
and live little city of 15,000 popu- 
lation, offering excellent hotel ac- 
commodations, and many diversities, 
and on the whole is an ideal spot 
in which to take a course in aerial 
training. 

A new military tractor biplane is 
at present under construction to be 
tested before the first of the year. 

'"The prospects in aviation have 
never looked brighter, and we be- 
lieve that within a year aeroplanes 
will assume a position of immense 
importance in this country, as they 
already have abroad." say the 
Thomas Brothers. 



covered. For the wheels special 
hubs and spokes were made, taking 
20x4 Goodrich tires and rims. The 
high carbon steel Shelby tube axle 
suspends from steel spiral springs, 
the whole being carried by light 
Shelby tubing bent to appropriate 
form as shown in illustrations. 

"I he control rudders operate by 
means of flexible wire cables car- 
ried into body to foot and lever 
control. 

"A 70-h.p. water-cooled motor of 
four-cylinder overhead valve con- 
struction was installed, driving a 



charming that the 



was so 
wheels 
Began to buzz around, 
And in a jiffy the machine 

Was lifted from the ground — 
Now what do you think of that? 

And Bonis kissed her on the cheek, 
Which made the Chauffeur sigh; 

So as a gentle hint, of course, 
She leaned up to Dari — 
Now what do you think of that 

But 'twixt the lips and stealing 
ships, 
They bumped up in a cloud, 




R. D, BRUCE BUILDS 
NOVEL FLYER. 

Robert 1). Bruce, of Pittsburgh, 
Pa., has been experimenting the past 
year with the machine illustrated 
here, which he calls the "airbirde." 

After experimenting with models 
in flight, this large machine was 
built to scale. 

"Laminated wood construction is 
of course preferable but the factors 
of time and financial consideration 



propeller of beautiful design. For 
protection on the flying field a cir- 
cus tent was obtained but a severe 
storm disagreed emphatically with 
this procedure. Altho now con- 
signed to the experienced handling 
of Mr. Allan S. Adams persistent 
motor trouble caused a postpone- 
ment of extended trials until spring, 
when a dependable motor of another 
make will be installed. The total 
area of the machine is 300 sq. ft., 
weight 900 lbs. (which will be re- 
duced about 200 lbs. in next mod- 
els) . spread of wings 40 ft., total 
length 35 ft., body 5 by 20 ft., 
wings 10 ft. deep along body, mean 
aspect ratio 6 to 1 , camber ratio 
1-20. greatest sectional wing depth 
6 in. An interesting coincidence 
in the wing section form noted is 
that while constructed to require- 
ments of the mechanical key de- 
vised, the outline form is an exact 
duplicate of that designed by M. 
Eiffel (Resistance of the Air & 
Aviation-Eiffel, I'. 84, wing S. plate 
II). The experiments with this 



fore, 

Anil tore the mizzen shroud — 
Now what do you think of that? 

And they were falling, when she 
cried; 
"Oh catch my merry hat!" 
They used it for a parachute — 
Xow what do you think of that? 
— Walter Scott Haskell. 



Mr. .1. Madison Thorp, of Ala- 
meda. California, is the inventor of 
an aeroplane launching and landing 
device for ships which seems to 
have much merit. The device con- 
sists essentially of a launching and 
landing car mounted upon two cable 
ways and of means by which these 
ways are maintained in a horizontal 
position, no matter how the ship 
rolls. The apparatus is light, occu- 
pies little space and is capable of 
being readily dismounted and put 
aside when not required for imme- 
diate use. 



Page 104 



AERONAUTICS, October 15, 1914. 



NEW CURTISS MILI- 
TARY TRACTOR. 

"Model N" is the latest military 
tractor from the Curtiss plant in 
Hammondsport, with a range of 
speed, with two people up and five 
hours' fuel, of from 40 to 75 miles 
an hour, climbing 4,000 ft. in 10 
minutes, using a 100-h.p. O-X'S 
motor, a refinement of the O-X 90- 
100-h.p. motor which is now stand- 
ard in Curtiss machines. 



AVIATOR IS FINED UN- 
DER RULING THAT 
HYDROAEROPLANE 
IS MOTORBOAT. 

Under an opinion handed down 
bv the Solicitor-General of the 
United States, holding that hydro- 
aeroplanes are subject to all of the 
regulations governing the operation 
of motorboats, Collector of Customs 
William F. Stone to-day imposed 
penalties totaling $550 upon Dean 
R. Vankirk. of Washington, owner 
of the flving boat Columbia. 

So far as is known the imposition 
of the fines upon Mr. Vankirk is 
the first time the Government has 
ever sought to penalize an aviator. 
He was fined $100 for navigating 
after sunset, $100 for running with- 
out lights. $100 for having insuf- 
ficient life-saving devices aboard Ins 
flying boat and $250 for not having 
copies of the pilot rules aboard. 

Only a few days ago Collector 
Stone had the hydro-aeroplane of 
the Jannus brothers, in this city, in- 
spected, and found that it was fully 
equipped in accordance with the mo- 
torboat regulations. 

This ruling was agitated by 
AERONAUTICS some time ago and 
an opinion similar to this -was ren- 
dered by the Solicitor General on 
a supposititious case. This view is 
heartily in accord with the opinions 
of aviators wdio are strong for Fed- 
eral control of flying. 




New Curtiss Model N, Military Tractor 



well as formidable, and we believe 
that both the Aeronautical Society 
and the Aero Club of America 
should combine in an effort to reg- 
ulate legislation so that the Depart- 
ment of Commerce will have com- 
prehensive laws governing aircraft 
on both land and water and in the 
air." 

Jannus Brothers. 



"The present government license 
for motor boat operators is a thing 
that has proved very sensible, as 



ELTON AVIATION COM- 
PANY ORGANIZED. 

The Elton Aviation Co., Youngs- 
town, Ohio, has been organized by 
Albert Elton, H. P. McQuiston and 
11. M. Rinehart to give exhibition 
flights. While making a flight in a 
Model B Wright at Lynchburg, Vir- 
ginia, October 9th, Howard Rine- 
hart. the aviator, fell a distance of 
1,800 ft. The accident was caused 
by the elevator not being properly 
wired up, causing same to collapse 
in mid-air, causing subsequent loss 
of control of the machine. In his 
downward descent he turned com- 
pletely over twice, the motor stop- 




ping on the first turn, and after 
she settled on the second turn up 
side down she drifted on down to 
the ground like a large piece of 
paper, and falling into a cemetery 
near the flying grounds. Rinehart 
received an injured sciatic nerve 
v, hich is about the total amount of 
his injuries. All things considered, 
it was a miraculous escape from 
death. We have had the Model B 
completely rebuilt by The Wright 
Company and have purchased the 
Model E single propeller exhibition 
machine. 



9. . The Lorain (Ohio) Hydro 

& Aerial Co., composed of Lorain 
men, has received two car loads 
of aeroplane parts and at once will 
engage in the business of manufac- 
turing aeroplanes and accessories and 
also will book exhibition flights. 
Several contracts have been signed. 
The company and its officers are 
J. E. Peppin, president; J. J. Kelly, 
vice-president ; K. F. Banning, sec- 
retary and treasurer; K. F. Walzek, 
designer and builder. 



Curtiss Model N 



JANNUS TO JOIN IN 

OPENING SAN DIEGO 

EXPOSITION. 

Roger Jannus, of Jannus Brothers, 
Baltimore, arrived in San Diego 
December 13th. Knox Martin left 
for the same destination December 
15th. The two flying boats belong- 
ing to these gentlemen left by 
freieht December 15th. and are due 
in San Diego the 28th inst., and 
should be flying on the opening day 
of the Panama-California Exposi- 
tion. 

The construction of the Jannus 
Brothers' new "Exposition Model" 
four- passenger flying boats contin- 
ues briskly, and one should be ready 
for a test by January 5th. Tony 
Jannus leaves for Detroit Tuesday, 
December 15th, to purchase Maxi- 
motors for the season's output. In- 
cident to this trip will be several 
prospects who have expressed their 
desire of going to San Diego on 
the co-operative taxi plane proposi- 
tion. It is expected by those who 
are posted on the matter that the 
height of the season at San Diego 
will be in February and again in 
October. The Jannus Brothers will 
supply flying boats for the passen- 
ger carrying trade at this Exposi- 
tion. 



.-iERON.IUTICS, October 15, 1914. 



Page 105 



JANNUS BUILDING NEW 
FLYING BOAT. 

After six weeks in Baltimore the 
Jannus Brothers have now three 
more pilots in their camp, and two 
flying boats in excellent condition. 
The most active of the pilots has 
been Roger J annus, well-known for 
his good work in Florida, Duluth 
and the Mississippi Valley. In the 
last few days the aviator, Knox 
Martin, who formerly spent a year 
doing exhibition work in South 
America with aeroplanes, is now a 
confirmed flying boat pilot, having 
joined the Jannus Brothers and 
bought Tony Tannus* St. Peters- 
burg-Tampa flying boat. The stu- 
dents, J. D. Smith and Fritz Eric- 
son, are both flying alone, and are 
practically ready for pilot's license 
test after 12 lessons apiece. These 
men both learned under the new 
system of one-half hour lessons at 
$20.00 apiece. Alfred W. Harris, 
of Peoria, is taking a few lessons 
in anticipation of the completion of 
a new machine which is being 
built to his order in St. Louis. Mr. 
Harris has flown with Tony Tannus 
on numerous occasions in Peoria 
and Cedar Point, and is a warm 
personal friend of De Lloyd Thomp- 
son. 

The Knox Martin machine is an 
extra good job, looking better than 
ever before, having been re-designed 



and re-built from stem to stern. 
This machine carries three people 
easily, and is a good rough water 
fighter. Roger Jannus and Knox 
Martin will open their winter sea- 
son at San Diego, January 1st, car- 
rying passengers. The factory is 
working on a new Exposition Model, 
a three-passenger flying boat, and 
this machine is expected to be a 
winner. There is also in work a 
new monoplane designed for a 6- 
cylinder radial motor. 

The new Jannus Brothers' fac- 
tory in Baltimore has been a source 
of local interest, and it is an aston- 
ishingly complete place considering 
the length of time given to this end 
of the business. In the course of 
the next six weeks a complete outfit 
for machine work should perfect the 
equipment. 

Clarke Thomson, pilot and sports- 
man, indulged in two hours and 
seven minutes flying recently with 
Tuny Jannus. They nosed in and 
out of every cove and river between 
Baltimore and Havre De Grace. 
"Millions" of ducks were encoun- 
tered in the famous Susquehanna 
flats. The trip was made purely 
nne of observation and no guns 
were carried. Mr. Thomson is a 
sportsman who has frequently pa- 
tronized aviation, having received 
his pilot certificate under George 
Beatty. Mr. Thomson has flown 
in other machines, hut "his last and 



longest trip with Tony Jannus was 
the most delightful and thorough!} 
satisfying of any; although a strong 
wind prevailed the entire day. 
Mrs. Gwendolyn Whistler Haugh- 
ton. wife of Percy D. Haughton, 
the famous Harvard football coai □, 
w ,is Mr. Thomson's guest. All o I 
the guests at the Grace's Poinl 
Ducking Club were very enthusias- 
tic, and expect to fly with the Jan- 
nus Brothers later in the season at 
San Diego and San Francisco. 

The Jannus Brothers find their 
methods of extracting coin very ef- 
fective. One machine has just been 
sold and they have taken in $2,000 
in passenger money since we have 
been here. Considering the season 
and the fact that only one machine 
has been working, one would n< <x 
call this poor. 

The specifications of the new Jan- 
nus boat are as follows : Total 
area, 4S0 sq. ft.; spread. 45 ft. 10 
ins.; chord, 5 ft. 6 ins.; hull, length 
over all. 25 ft.: hull, beam. 3 ft. 
10 ins.; Paragon propeller, 9 ft. 6 
ins. ; geared, 3-4 ; motor, now a 
Roberts, but a Maximotor is now 
being bought, of 75 h.p.; carrying 
capacity, 3 ; speed range, 
m.p.h. is claimed. 




KILLED IN THE LOOP. 

Venice, Cal.. Dec. 3- — Thomas J. 
Hill, an aviator, was killed here to- 
day attempting to loop the loop over 
this city. It is reported a guy wire 
supporting one wing collapsed. 
Glenn Martin has stated that the 
guy wires were standard and that 
the monoplane Hill used had not 
been -.-specially strengthened for this 
feat. 



TERRELL DIES TO SAVE 
CROWD. 

Chesterfield, S. C, Nov. 13.— 
Frank P. Terrell was killed in land- 
ing when he swerved his machine 
to avoid the crowd which had surged 
on the track after he had ascended. 
It is claimed his engine stopped 
and he was endeavoring to land and 
had to choose between hitting the 
crowd or endangering his own life 
in making a landing in a spot safe 
for the crowd. He paid for his 
heroic act with his life. 



DEFINES "AERONAUTI- 
CAL." 

The Chairman of the Congres- 
sional Committee, before which Cap- 
tain Mark L. Bristol has recently 
appeared, has settled the status of 
""aeronautical." 

"For instance, we have the aero- 
plane, and we have also the hydro- 
aeroplane, and that connects it with 
the water. We have in the word 
'aeronautical' — 'aero,' which relates 
to the air, and 'nautical.' which re- 
lates to the sea, have we not?" 



UNCLE SAM USES 
JEFFERY'S. 

Teffery's Waterproof Liquid Glue, 
C < hialitv, has been adopted by the 
United States Aeronautic Stations 
and the United States Navy De- 
partment. 



I can hardly wait from one issue 
till another to' get AERONAUTICS, 
I like it so well. — N. L., Ohio. 



Pa'jc 106 



AERONAUTICS, October 15, 1914. 



THOMAS MILITARY, TWO-PLACE, TRACTOR BIPLANE 



This new machine has been de- 
signed to supply the demand for a 
well built, speedy, and safe two-pas- 
senger machine, having a large speed 
range, and capable of flying with 
ample reserve when carrying two 
people, gasoline, oil, etc., for a flight 
of from four to six hours. 

Over-all dimensions: Length over- 
all. 26 ft.; span. 36 ft.; chord, 5 
ft.; yap. 5 ft. 

The wings are built up in five 
sections. The four large sections 
comprise practically the entire lift- 
ins Mir face of the machine. The 
small section fits over the fuselage. 
The wing curve is designed from 
data obtained from M. Eiffel's ex- 
periments in his Paris laboratory, 
and is especially selected so as to 
have not only an extremely low lift 
to drift ratio, but is also especially 
adapted to fast climbing with load, 
and also being capable of sustaining 
the machine in flight, fully loaded, 
at a comparatively low speed. Most 
of the wood used in the wing con- 
struction is clear, silver spruce, and 
all the beams, ribs, etc., are of the 
lightest sections possible consistent 
with the strength required in each 
member. All ribs are built up in 
such a way as to assure their per- 
fect alignment, and are proof against 
warping, and also weakening, due 
to exposure and weather conditions. 
The fuselage is made up largely 
of white ash. All longitudinal mem- 
bers are channeled out and tapered 
for lightness. All clips are of steel, 
and are so designed that they do 
not pierce the longitudinal members. 
Running gear is of the two-skid. 
two wheel type, having two 26-in. 
by 4-in, wheels and specially made 

G lyear tires, mounted on a trans- 

■■ . ii axle, which axle is in turn 
carried on the skids through the me- 
dium of rubber shock absorbers. 
All running gear members are of 
streamline section; also the axle 
is streamlined by a channeled mem- 
ber joining the skids. 

The power plant is completely en- 
closed, and is mounted in the front 
of the fuselage, having the radiator 
immediately in front of the engine. 
and a light weight, aluminum, fold- 
ing hood effectively shielding tin- 
former and preserving the stream- 
line form of the fuselage. A ser- 
vice gasoline tank is mounted in 
front of the passenger's seat, and a 
storage tank, holding twenty li:iI- 
Ions, is fitted under the pilot's seat, 
and, through a pressure pump, sup- 
plies the storage tank. 

Elevator operated by pull and 
push on steering wheel, which is 
mounted on a substantial, pivoted 
posl The movement is conveyed 
to two sturdy, all steel, flaps, hinged 
to the stabilizer. 

Rudder is operated by a rotation 
of the wheel, the rudder itself be- 
ing of all steel construction. 

Ailerons are four in number and 
are hinged to the outer extremities 
of the rear wing spars. They are 
operated by a leaning shoulder bow, 
or, as an alternative, by foot pedals, 
mounted in the front of the pilot's 
i ompartment. All the controls are 
very strongly constructed, and are 
made largely of steel tubing, with 
.ill j. .nits wrapped and brazed; they 
are "i ample size to take care of 
i In n requirements. 

All fittings are made specially for 
theii places, and such articles as 
turnbuckles, eyebolts, etc., are _ of 
the latest and most accepted design 



and quality, All bolts, clips, etc., 
are made of steels having a high 
tensile strength. 

The fabric used is a high grade, 
imported. Irish linen, sewn on to 
the machine, and then treated with 
from live to nine coats of a special 
"dope" solution. 

The factor of safety on this ma- 
chine is "seven," Wires are of 
ample strength and are of Roebling 



lution counter, showing engine 
speed (Tel. Manufacture); incli- 
nometer, showing angle of flight; 
clock, barograph, showing height; 
1'itot tube, giving air speed; switch. 
gasoline shut-off, magneto advance. 
The seats are of the aluminum 
bucket type, and are fitted with a 
3-in. curled hair cushion, uphol- 
stered in a serviceable gray cordu- 
roy. 




manufacture, and doubled for safe- 
ty, Each part is easily accessible. 
and such parts as strut connections 
and wing fastenings can lie very 
quickly assembled i ir taken down. 
I n front of the pilot's seat is 
iii ic. I a substantial mahogany dasb- 
board, having the following stand- 
ard equipment: instruments let in 
flush, gasoline preserve gauge, revo- 



A Thomas propeller is used in 
conjunction with the 90-h.p. Austro- 
I laimler motor. 

The gasoline consumption is ap- 
proximately nine gallons per hour, 
under full load, and the oil con- 
sumption is less than one-half gal- 
lon per hour. 

Weight of machine, empty, 1,075 
It-'., approximately*. 



WARRING COUNTRIES 
HAVE 6,000 PLANES. 

A table has been made up by 
Captain Mark 1.. Bristol, Director 
of Aeronautics in the Navy, show- 
ing the estimated machines on hand 
on I lecember I , I'M -1. among the 
foreign pow ers, as follows: 

Austria Hungary 600 

Belgium 60 

Great Britain 900 

France 1,400 

Germany 1,400 

Italy .' {00 

Ta-an 20 

Russia 1.000 

5,680 

Dirigibles are figured as follows: 

Austria Hungary S 

Belgium 

Great Britain 12 

France 30 

Germany 60 

Italy 4 

Tapan 2 

Russia 20 

136 
At the beginning of the war the 
United States had 23 aeroplanes in 
both Army and Navy. A recent 
despatch says Italy has 10 dirigibles 
and 1 16 aeroplanes. 



the Signl Corps. lie has been for 
eight months at the flying school 
at San Diego and has become skilled 
in the management of aeroplanes. 

The ruSw course at Tech, which 
lias been open only this term, is 
beginning auspiciously, according to 
Lieu tenant Ilunsaker, who has 
charge of the instruction. Be- 
sides Captain Clark', M. S. Chow, 
one of the M. I. T. graduates in 
naval architecture, is making the 
study of the subject leading to the 
degree Master of Science; three 
other Chinese are taking the work 
in their regular institute courses 
ami one senior in mechanical engi- 
neering is specializing in aero- 
dynamics. 



M. I. T. COURSE OPENS. 

One of the students recently reg- 
istered at the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology is Captain V. E, 
Clark, of t'niontown. Pa., who has 
joined the institute for the benefit 
of the special post-graduate work 
on aerodynamics. Captain Clark 
is a graduate of Annapolis who has 
been transfered to the army and is 
attached to the Aviation Section of 



TEN MONTHS' EXPORTS, 
$214,057. 

IMPORTS. 

For October None 

For 1 months ending Octo- 
ber, 1 aeroplane $1,856 

For 3 months ending. Octo- 
ber, parts 12,054 

EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC. 

Tor October. 3 aeroplanes. .$17,000 

For October, parts 1,968 

For 10 months ending Octo- 
ber, 33 aeroplanes 186,' 99 

For 10 months ending Octo- 
ber, parts 27,058 

EXFORTS OF FOREIGN. 

For I Ictober None 

For 10 months ending ( Icto- 
ber. parts $207 

IX WAREHOUSE. 

On Oct. 31. 1 aeroplane and 

parts $1,856 



IERONAUTICS, October 15, 1914. 



Page 107 




MJVWi 



Combined with "FLY 




Published semi-monthly in the best interests of Aero- 
nautics 

>y 

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 

250 West 54th Street 

New York 

Telephone, Columbus 8721 

Cable, Aeronautics, New York 



ERNEST L. 
M. B. SELLERS, 
HARRY SCHULTZ 
C. A. BEIER. 



JONES 



Editor 

Technical Editor 

Model Editor 

Advertising 



Entered as Second Class Mail Matter, September 22, 
1908, under the Act of March 3, 1879. $3.00 a year, 
15 cents a Copy. 

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philip- 
pines and Porto Rico. 25 Cents extra for Canada 
and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries. 

The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each 
month. All copy must be received 6 days before 
date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allow- 
ance must be made for receipt and return. 

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange 
and payable to AERONAUTICS PRESS. 

Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discon 
tin nance is desired at the end of their subscription 
period, otherwise it will be assumed that their sub- 
scription is to be continued. 



The 

Wright 

Company 



(The 

Wright 

Patents) 




THE NEW WRIGHT 
AEROPLANES 

For sport, exhibition or 
military use, over land or 
water now embody the im- 
provements that have been 
suggested by the experiments 
quietly conducted during the 
past ten years. 

The Wright Company 

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pine St. 



cylERO MART 



AVIATORS. NEAR AVIATORS 
AND STUDENTS SHOULD IN- 
VESTIGATE OUR PROPOSITION 
FOR PARTIALLY FINANCING 
VND MAX \i,1\i; AT FRISCO 
FOR 10 MONTHS. $3,500 RE- 
QUIRED, $20 PER LESSON UN- 
TIL SUCCESS IS ASSURED. 
UDDRESS IANNUS BROTHERS, 
BATTERY AVENUE AND HAM- 
BURG STREETS, BALTIMORE, 
MD. 

WILL RENT my double covered 
26 ft. x 6 ft. monoplane to a re- 
liable party. Address E. M., 1522 
Norwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio. 



BARGAIN IN BOOKS— Will sell 
following books: Aerial Navigation 
(Salverda) $1.50; Navigating tbe 
Air (Aero Club of America) $.50; 
Aeronautical Annual. 1895-6-7 

(.Tames Means) $5; Travels in 
Space (Valentine & Thompson) 
$.50: Art of Aviation (Brewer) 
$1.50; Airships Past and Present 
(Hildebrand) $3; Proceedings Int. 
Congress Aerial Navigation, Chica- 
go, 1S93, $5; various other books 
thrown in to purchaser of the lot. 
I.. E. Dare, 216 West 104th St., 
Xew York. 



WRIGHT Model B for sale as it 
stands; $50 will put it in perfect 
condition; engine in first-class shape. 
.Met with slight accident in landing. 
Price $1,000 cash. Address S., care 
\ER( iN UTICS. 



WANTED -Party with $2,500 to 
take half interest in Airbirde Ex- 
hibition Co.: can book machine solid 
season 1915: will give same interest 
to flyer having 80-h.p. Gyro motor, 
or to manufacturer of financial re- 
sponsibility who can assume the 
manufacturing license; will furnish 
the machine for affirmative tests. 
Robert D. Bruce, 338 Hastings St., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



ADVERTISEMENTS IN AERONAUTICS 



Once and for all time let us an- 
nounce that we do not publish adver- 
tisements free, nor do we print any 
advertisements on a basis of replies 
received from the same. Our repre- 
sentatives in soliciting for AERO- 
NAUT I CS have been approached 
with such propositions, the inference 
being that aeronautical publications 
are doing this. Let us say that we 
value too highly the patronage of 
those firms and individuals who have 
persistently used our columns and 
paid therefor, to entertain any such 
proposition. 

ADVERTISERS IN AERO- 
HAUTICS ARK PAYING FOR 
THEIR SPACE. When we sav that 
AERONAUTICS reaches the heads 
of the influential governments of the 
world we are making a statement 
that is backed up by the subscription 



list and bv the results obtained. 
Advertising in AERONAUTICS 

makes an appeal to a larger buying 
power per paid subscription ill in 
that of all other aeronautical jour- 
nals in the United States com- 
bined. 

Established in 1907, AERO- 
NAUTICS has gained and main- 
tained the confidence of all its 
subscribers and today its results 
gained for advertisers is testified to 
bv the amount of PAID advertising 
that the magazine carries. 

It is unfair to accept the adver- 
tisement of a big firm FREE for 
the sake of inducing smaller firms 
to sign contracts under the impres- 
sion that the big firm is paying for 
its space. 

[t is unfair to the subscribers to 
make them believe that AERO- 



NAUTICS supports a vast and va- 
ried number of industries. 

A certain number of reliable firms 
have found it to their advantage to 
use the advertising columns of 
AERONAUTICS. Our subscribers 
have long since found that such 
advertisers as use AERONAUTICS 
are reliable. FOR THIS REA- 
SON WE DO NOT NEED TO 
P R I N T ADVERTISEMENTS 
FREE. AER( >NAUTICS STANDS 
ON ITS MERITS. WE CAN 
CARRY AN ADYEKTISI R'S 
MESSAGE TO THE MOST IM- 
PORTANT MEN INTERESTED 
IN AERONAUTICS THROUGH- 
OUT THE WORLD. 

Results prove this. 



Page 108 



AERONAUTICS, October 15, 1914. 




29 West 39th Street. New York 

THE AERONAUTICAL 
SOCIETY BULLETIN. 

The first three Round Table 
Talks were held on Nov. 19th, Dee. 
3rd and Dec. 10th and proved to be 
a success., both as to the number of 
members present and to the interest 
displayed in the subjects discussed 
and there is no doubt but that these 
Talks will be become a permanent 
and important feature in the So- 
ciety's work. 

The informal manner in which 
these meetings were conducted 
brought out a diversity of subjects 
and spirited debate which furnished 
intellectual enjoyment perhaps uti 
attainable in a formal public meet- 
ing. 

Among the subjects discussed 
were: the Stagel Semi-Rigid Dirig- 
ible; a Process of Purifying Hy- 
drogen Gas bv Electrified Iodine; 
the Conill Rotating Cylinder and 
Crank Shaft Motor; the Sherwood 
Non-warping Biplane; a System of 
Skv Rockets for Aerial Defense; 
the Mezzatesta Floatless Type of 
Carburetor; the Pollizzi Tandem 
Surface Monoplane with Dual Mo- 
the Demand for a Small Type 
of Aeroplane Capable of Starting 
from a Country Road; Friction 
Losses in Universal Joints; the Pro- 
posed Nilson Tvpe of High Powered 
Gasolene Motor; the Most Useful 
Power Range for Future Progress 
in Aeroplane Development; a Pro- 
cess for Building up Cylinders for 
Aeroplane Motors by Oxy-acetylenc 
Welding; Prof. Micbelson's Work 
in Producing Exceedingly Tough 
Steel, and the Ionic Theory of Mat- 
ter. 

The subject of Aerial Defense was 
debated with the result that it was 
deemed the duty of the Society to 
offer its services to responsible de- 
fense societies and leagues and to 
a-sisl thru in the preparation of 
plans involving the use of aircraft. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

Th f > Round Table Talks will be 
continued on Thursday evenings ex- 
cept those falling on Christmas Eve 
and New Year's Eve when the 
meetings will be held on Wednesday 
evenings. Dec. 23 rd and 30th re- 
spect ively. Members will please 
take notice of these two special 
dates, The regular Thursday even- 
ing meetings will be resumed in 
January. 



A well-known aviator was not feel- 
ing verv well, so he thought he 
would consult a physician, to whom 
he was a stranger. He told the 
doctor his symptoms. The doctor 
examined him carefully and said : 

"My dear sir, vou are ail right. 
What you want is plenty of fresh 
air." — Globe. 




BULLETIN. 

This organization desires to thank 
the Society of Municipal Engineers 
<>f Xew York City for their hospi- 
tality and the courtesies extended 
to this club at the recent visit to 
Mineola on Saturday, November 
7th, 1914. 

The Milwaukee Model Aero Club 
has become affiliated with it. form- 
ing the Milwaukee branch of The 
Aero Science Club. The officers 
of this branch arc as follows: Lynn 

E. Davis, president; Raymond Man 1 -, 
vice-president ; < iilbert Counsell, sec- 
retary and treasurer; Walter Lohn- 
dorf, director of contests. 

George F. McLaughlin has been 
appointed recording secretary of 
J he Aero Science Club. 

The club desires to extend a vote 
of thanks for the very excellent 
trophy offered by Mr. Henry S. 
Willard for open competition. Rules 
regarding the contests to be held for 
this trophy will be furnished on 
application, 

The club also extends thanks to 
th»- Aero Club of America for the 
kindness accorded to its members 
iiti their visit ti> the Aero Club on 
November 2lst. 

At a supplemental gliding con- 
test, in preparation for the con- 
tests as arranged for by Mr. Hart 
of the Aeronautical Society, Mr, 

F. M. Broomfield was a winner, 
having a percentage of 61. The 
contest was for stability. 

Club pins <if sterling silver have 
been obtained and all members de- 
siring same will please remit to the 
secretary. 

At Van Cortlandt Park on Sat- 
uiday. November 21st, the world's 
record f.>r R. O. G. models for dis- 
tance in competition for the Herres- 
hoff cup, was broken by Fred Wat- 
kins, with a flight of 1,761 ft. 

After January 1st, 1915, the Long 
Island Model Aero Club will be- 
come a section of this organization. 

The following are the results of 
the contest held for the prizes 
kindly offered by Mr. Charles H. 
Heitman: 

R. Funk and A. Barker, 73 J4 
seconds; W. Bamberger, 62 seconds; 
C. Freelan, 49 seconds. This con- 
test was held on the afternoon of 
October 1 1th, at Liberty Heights, 
and was the largest contest of its 
kind held in some time. Fourteen 
of America's best model flyers com- 
peted foi the prizes and a consider- 
able number of flights were made 
by the many model enthusiasts not 
entered in the contest. The num- 
ber of official flights made has been 
estimated to be over two hundred. 
With the ideal weather conditions 
prevailing, excellent flights were 
made by every model flyer and 
many times three or more machines 
were in flight at once. 

Promptly at 2 p. m. the contest 
was opened, and continued until 5 
p. m., being judged by Mr. Edward 
Durant, director, and Mr. C. V. 
Obst, president of the Aero Science 
Club. A very large number of 



model flyers were on hand to wit- 
ness the flying. Among the spec- 
tators was Archibald Hart, a Direc- 
tor of The Aeronautical Society of 
America, whose interest and support 
are highly appreciated by all the 
members of this club. The start 
was made from the L. I. M. A. C. 
launching platform which was very 
kinuly offered for this special event. 
For the first time in any event two 
flyers won, both R. Funk and A. 
P>arker, making the same duration 
of 7Z l / 2 seconds in their last flights. 
Directly after the meet closed a 
flight of 7& seconds was made by 
Barker, this being but 3 seconds be- 
low the American record. 

It is interesting to note that this 
contestant's machine was smashed 
four times in succession during the 
competition, and he was handicapped 
by a broken finger, which was in 
splints and greatly interfered with 
him repairing his models. 

Attention is called to the gliding 
contests to be held at Highland 
Park, Brooklyn, N. Y., as follows: 
December 6th, Duration ; December 
13th, Stability, and December 20th. 
Weight-carrying. All gliders must 
be thirty inches in span. No entry 
lit- The prizes for these contests 
are kindly offered by Mr. A. Hart 
of The Aeronautical Society. 

Attention is called to the con- 
tests for the Herreshoff year trophy 
competed for every Saturday after- 
noon at Van Cortlandt Park. No 
entry fees charged. 

Each of the Directors of The 
Aeronautical Society of America 
paid respectively Ten Dollars into 
the Treasury of The Aeronautical 
Society of America, making a total 
of Thirty Dollars, to be competed 
for in model contests to be con- 
ducted under the auspices of the 
Aero Science Club of America. 
Each of the three respective winners 
w ill be entitled to all privileges of 
The Aeronautical Society for one 
year. 

For further particulars address 
the Secretary, Harry Schultz, at 
the rooms of The Aeronautical So- 
ciety. 29 West 39th Street, New 
York City. 



AERO CLUB OF PENN- 
SYLVANIA. 

Philadelphia. Pa., Dec. 1, 1914. 
A stated meeting of the Aero Club 
i'f Pennsylvania was held at the 
Belle vue-Strat ford, Friday evening, 
December 4th, 1914, at 8.30 p. m. 
Meeting of the Board of Directors 
at 7.30 p. m. 

Mr. E. C. Malick, a former mem- 
ber of the club, who has been flying 
in the West during the past sum- 
mer, gave an informal talk on his 
experience. 

Clarence P. Wynne, 

President. 
George S. Gassner, 

Secretary. 



NEW BOOKS. 

GAS. GASOLINE AND OIL EN- 
GINES, by Gardner D. Hiscox, 1915 
edition, revised and enlarged by 
Victor W. Page: 8vo, cloth, 640 pp , 
435 ills., published by Norman W. 
Henlev Publishing Co., 132 Nassau 
St., New York, at $2.50. Copies 
mav be had through AERONAUT- 
ICS. 



Page 109 



AERON ICTICS, October 15, 1914. 

THE U. S. NAVY USES 

gBecause they are the best In a large measure and Proved Best bs test and official , , 

•I Others use Pl»m Paragons because thes are not only best but also cheapest. «J For Efficiency 
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Three 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of 
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Write for prices and particulars. 
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AERONAUTICS 



WHEN in California look for 
Jannus Brothers' EXPOSITION 
MODEL, passenger carrying 
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booklet. 

TONY and ROGER JANNUS 
now c u.i.i.n i in 

JANNUS BROTHERS 

Factory: Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street. Baltimore. Md 



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Page 110 



AERONAUTICS, October 15. 1914. 



THE BEATING WING 
MACHINE. 

Every once in a while someone 
announces the discovery of a wing 
movement that rivals the bird's in 
results. We have heard lately 
from Edison, in the public press, 
about the speed of the bumble bee's 
wings. 

According to Spencer Heath, 
there is nothing in it. "The bee's 
wing seems to move with incredible 
swiftness because we consider only 
the number of pulsations per min- 
ute, or per second, and wholly for- 
get the fact that the length of 
movement of the wing tip in each 
pulsation is only the fraction * > f 
an inch. The eye cannot follow the 
blades of an insect's wing but I 
think it has still less chance to 
follow the blades of an aeroplane 
propeller. I haven't the data at 
hand to figure it out but I think 
if we multiply the vibrations of the 
bee's wings by the sweep of its 
tip in one vibration, we will yet 
probably a less tip velocity than we 
have in some aeroplane propellers. 
If an aeroplane propeller could be 
as large relatively to the size of 
the machine as an insect's wings are 
to its body, there would be no 
need of any planes. Prof. Petti- 
proved (and he was after- 
wards corroborated by Prof. Marey) 
that the action of a wing, whether 
of bird or insect, is identical with 
the action of a screw. The wing 
of a bird does not in any respect 
resemble, in its operation, the wing 
of an aeroplane. It is only the 
gliding animals' like flying squirrels, 
lemurs and flying fish, that have 
any organ resembling the wing of 
an aeroplane, but, of course, the 
soaring birds use their wings in this 
way part of the time." 



DEPOSITION OF 

METAL UPON WOOD 

tt is now generally acknowledged 
— and the decision made has been 
the result of disastrous experi- 
ences- — that it is absolutely essential 
that the tips of propellers on hydro 
aeroplanes in any but the smoothest 
water should in some way be pro- 
tected by a sheet-metal covering, 
says British Aeronautics. Let us 
examine the only methods by which 
this lias hitherto been accomplished. 

A Mr. Barber, we understand, 
was the first to use a metal-sheathed 
propeller, the covering being ob- 
tained merely by depositing copper 
in a bath on a wooden propeller, 
which had been prepared for this 
by means of the application of finely 
powdered plumbago, which convert- 
ed the wooden surface into the con- 
ducting medium necessary. The 
Chauviere Co. then introduced pro- 
pellers of which the tips were cov- 
ered with sheet-copper, this being 
attached by means of multitudinous 
rivets. This is the seaplane propeller 
most largely in use at the present 
lime, but would seem to suffer from 
the disadvantages that, in the first 
place, it is considerably heavier 
owing to the presence of so many 
rivets than would be one covered 
only with the sheeting; secondly, 
the rivets are liable to increase the 
size of the holes drilled in the wood 
through which they pass, and thus 
to weaken the blade by the shocks 
which would be occasioned by occa- 
sional contact with spray or crests 



of waves; and thirdly, perfect even- 
ness of surface after lengthy use is 
difficult to retain. 

An excellent solution to the diffi- 
culty was finally arrived at by M. 
Lang, who was aware of the tend- 
ency of a sheathing by Mr. Bar- 
ber's ;■ "bcess to fly of! through cen- 
trifugal force at the slightest op- 
portunity. By his process a thin 
strip of copper is firmly embedded 
mi the blade at the required distance 
from the tip, and the wood between 
these two is prepared in order that 
copper may be deposited upon it. 
"I Ins certainly seems to he the most 
satisfactory method of surmounting 
the difficulty, for the "anchoring 
strip" and sheathing become one and 
the same thing, disintegration being 
highly improl 

Another method by which the at- 
tachment could be effected has lately 
come t" mi [ notice, and may here 
be brief] y \ lesi ribed \ pape r was 
recently read by Dr. Each on the 
subject i i I the pulverization and 
spraj ing of metals, .1 proa ss w hich 
would seem to be singular],' suitable 
■',1111111- 1 he end n question. 
The apparatus, evi lived b S 
1- so designed that jets of oxygen 
and hydrogen stream out at a high 
■ 1 ignil d on emergence, 
thus c on si il li1 ing the on [11 arj oxy- 
gen hlowpipe. The intense 
fl 'me resulting melts a projecting 
pulverizes it, and 
throws the particles forward under 
pressure, I tion of this 

anything suitably placed will 
then result, and the thickness E 
the coating may vary between a few 
!ii in inch up to more 

than half an inch. 

This process, needless to say, finds 
m; il-, applical ions 1 il her than that 
suggested for propeller blades. 
Vluminium, the one metal that up 
to the present has not been available 
for treatment by the electro-deposi- 
tion, can he utilized by the spraying 
process. Its use ha sbeen suggest- 
ed as a means for rendering diri- 
gible and balloon fabrics more im- 
permeable to gas. and the possibility 
of protecting all wooden portions 
and the fabric of aeroplanes against 
the weather would seem perfectly 

An American inventor. A. G. 
Watkins, of Philadelphia, has pat- 
ented a system for the deposition 
of copper upon wood and other 
materials to any thickness desired, 
and samples of this work have been 
shown in the office of AERONAU- 
TICS. A note on this subject has 
previously appeared in AERO- 
NAUTICS, and it is interesting to 
note that some definite use has 
been made of copper-deposited pro- 
p e 1 1 <: ' 1 - . 



PENDULUM STABILIZ- 
ERS. 

To the Editor: — 

Noting in your March 31st issue 
an article on "The Fallacy of Pen- 
dulum Stabilizers." in which quo- 
tations are made from a lecture by 
II R A. Mallock, F. R. S.. to 
the effect that "It is essential to 
the success of any automatic con- 
trol that the forces called into 
play to make the correction of 
trim should not react on the direc- 
tor of those forces, whether this 
is a pendulum or gyroscope or any 
other equivalent device." and that 
"any device in which the correcting 
force tends to alter the position ot 



the corrector is more likely to do 
harm than good," thewriter ventures 
the opinion that although the above 
expressions may put it a little too 
strongly, there is nevertheless much 
truth in the lecturer's contention, 
and several years ago — on May 
5th, 1 910, to fee exact, before cav- 
eating was abolished — I filed a cay- 
eat on a device to overcome this 
reaction of the balancing devices on 
the pendulum or gyroscope or com- 
bination of the two. It is evidently 
essential for the purpose to avoid 
all fractional contact— even that nec- 
essary for making electrical connec- 
tions — between the balancer and the 
corrector, and this I proposed to_ ac- 
complish by means of a selenium 
cell in connection with an electrical- 
ly controlled balancer, the preferred 
form being a pendulum steadied by 
gyroscopes in balanced relation, an 
arc or semi-circle on the pendulum 
opaque at the center and gradually 
shaded to transparency at each end, 
and a fixed, steady light shining 
through this translucent arc to the 
selenium cell. Then, as the pendu- 
lum changes its position relative to 
that of the fixed light and selenium 
cell, the amount of light shining 
through this shaded arc varies, and 
this varying light wave falling on 
the selenium cell vanes accordingly 
the latter's electrical conductivity 
and hence the strength of the elec- 
trical current passing through it to 
operate the controls. Separate de- 
vices would of course be used for 
lateral and longitudinal balancing. 
The pendulum might be arranged 
to swing outwardly by centrifugal 
force in order to balance while 
turning, only the variations from 
normal banking ihen affecting the 
selenium cell's electrical conductiv- 
ity and hence the balancing de- 
vices. Also, instead of selenium, 
natural or absolutely pure antimony 
sulphide (also known as antimonite, 
stibnite and gray antimony) could 
be used, as according to a scien 
tific journal of March 2d, 1912, this 
substance "has been found to pos- 
sess a photo-electric sensitiveness 
similar to that of selenium but for 
there being no troublesome inertia," 
both of these minerals possessing 
the remarkable power of being very 
good electrical conductors while in 
the light and very poor ones in the 
dark. 

The writer has not patented these 
ideas, and anyone is privileged to 
make use of them. 

ELMER G. STILL. 

Livermore, Cal.. May 31, 1914. 

P. S. — Tn my next communica- 
tion I will reveal my ideas on how 
vertical, hovering and slow flight 
may be accomplished, demonstrating 
the method by means of aerodynamic 
experiments already made, \\ hose 
full significance has evidently been 
overlooked, and also showing the 
several principles that render bird 
flight so efficient. 



To the Editor: — 

There is one tiling which you 
left out in the Tulv 31st issue oi 
AERONAUTICS Under the 

heading, page 25, "What American 
Aviation Needs." you forgot one 
most important thing. I will 
acknowledge that American Avia- 
tion needs what you have sug- 
gested, but in addition it needs that 
that pioneer among ;i\ iation jour- 
nals. Aeronautics, soon comes into 
its own! I sincerely hope thai das 

is not far distant. 

— Earle L. Ovington. 



AERONAUTICS, October 15, 1914. 



Page 111 



PATENTS 

SECURED or FEE RETURNED 
VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY 



Send sketch or model for FREE opinion as to Patent- 
ability. Write for our Guide Books and What to Invent with 
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Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. 
Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each. 



Main Offices: 771 NINTH STREET, N. 
WASHINGTON. D. C. 



W. 



PATENTS 

The first important WILLIAM N. MOORE 

step is to learn whether Patent Attorney 

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Please send sketch of your in- Washington, D. C. 

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FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS 

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FOR FLYING BOATS USE 

JEFFERY'S MARINE GLUE 

Use our Waterproof Liquid Glue, or No. 1 Black, White, or Yellow Soft Quality Glue for water- 
proofing the canvas covering of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas 
but attaches it to the wood, and with a coat of paint once a year will last as long as the boat. 

For use in combination with calico or canvas between veneer in diagonal planking, and for 
waterproofing muslin for wing surfaces. Send for samples, circulars, directions for use, etc. 

L. W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Mass. U. S. A. 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 112 



AERONAUTICS, October 15. 1914. 




GYRO HOLDS 

Altitude Record! 



WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER 



Kansas City, Mo. . 

August 6th. 1914. 
Gyro Motor Co. , 
Washington, D.C. 

Broke altitude record this after- 
noon, approximately forty-seven hundred 
meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed 
flight authorized by Aero Club of 
America. Record should be official. 
Motor worked fine, only carried five 
gallons of gas. made altitude in forty 
minutes used old spray nozzle. Will 
write full particulars later. 

DE LLOYD THOMPSON. 

New Gyro "Duplex" 

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs. 

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY 



774 Girard Street 



Washington, D. C. 



< BENOIST «r 

Aeroplanes Flying Boats 

AIRCRAFT CO. 

St. Louis, Mo. 



BALLOONS 



Airships, Aeroplanes. Gas Generators, Safety Packs, 
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Madison Sq. 
Box181,NewYork 



LEO STEVENS 



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RADIATORS 

Built in capacities and types for standard 
and special aviation motors 

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your 
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Also Manufacturers of Automobile Radiators of at! types 



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VOL. XV. N >. 8 



OCTOBER 30, 1914 

Issued February 11, 1915 



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Hold the Principal American Records as Follows: 

Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. 
Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. 
Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones, U.S. A., 8 hrs. 53 min. 
Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. 10 min. 

Motors Ready for Delivery 

MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. 

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THE CURTISS MOTOR CO. „ A &b*SfpWS. v. 




Page 114 



AERONAUTICS 



When It's the 
Ignition Question 

remember that Bosch 

Magnetos have help- 
ed in securing practically 
every world's record. 

When you have decided 
upon using Bosch, your 
decision is absolutely right. 

Be Satisfied Specify Bosch 

Correspondence Invited 

Bosch Magneto Company 

201 West 46th Street : New York 



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AERONAUTICS 



Page 115 



Published semi-monthly in the best interests 

oi Aeronautics by 

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 

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Telephone, Circle 2289 

Cable. Aeronautics. New York 




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Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22, 1908, under the Act of 
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CARBURETORS FROM THE FUNCTIONAL STANDPOINT 

By Ralph S. Barnaby 



The "Perfect Carburetor" is brought 
out so often, and in so many different 
forms, that the average person is abso- 
lutely at loss as to what to believe, and 
how to judge what he sees. 

There are two ways to approach the 
carburetor question : first, the functional, 
and second, the structural. The logical 
method is to first consider the functions 
to be performed, and next, having these 
functions in mind, to consider the mech- 
anism, and see whether all the functions 
are properly carried out. And this 
analysis is equallv beneficial to the in- 
ventor of a carburetor and to the pros- 
pective purchaser. 

The function of the carburetor is to 
deliver to the engine a dry mixture of 
air and fuel, in "best mixture" propor- 
tions. Let us analyze this statement care- 
fully. 

( a ) A "dry" mixture, because the com- 
pleteness of combustion is only realized 
w hen the liquid fuel is wholly gasified, 
and not in drops, which give imperfect 
contact with the air. Also a wet mix- 
ture will be sure to condense out in part, 
in the transmission line, so that even 
if we start with the proper air-fuel ratio, 
we would not have it when it reached 
the cylinder. This especially true in the 
complicated forked and bent passages 
used on many of the multi-cylinder en- 
gines. 

(b) A mixture, meaning an intimate 
contact, as near a molecular contact of 
air and fuel as possible, in order that 
when the time for combustion comes, 
each particle may have its air to com- 
bine with. This alone will give com- 

, plete and rapid combustion. 

(c) Best mixture proportions. For 
s. every fuel there is a definite amount 

of air necessary for complete combus- 
tion of any given quantity of fuel, and 
v this ratio is a constant. For gasoline it 
is, by volume, 52.74 cubic feet of air per 
j cubic foot of gasoline vapor at the same 
i temperature, and by weight, 15.24 pounds 
of air per pound of gasoline. If more 
~ than this amount of gasoline is used, it 
P cannot burn in the cylinder, and simply 
goes out in the exhaust, where it may 
burn at the outlet of the exhaust pipe. 
Here there is plenty of air. But com- 



bustion here does no good, and the fuel 
is wasted. If too little gasoline is used, 
the cylinder charge will be mostly air, 
and the power will fall off, or the charge 
may refuse to ignite at all. 

This fact cannot be too strongly im- 
pressed, as it is not generally practised. 
If any have tried this constant best mix- 
ture plan and failed, the fault is not here 
but in some other part of the system. I 
shall speak of this point again later. 

The first method of carburetion was 
to pass air over a pool or reservoir of 
gasoline, and allow it to pick up the fuel 
by evaporation, or, by brushes or mixers, 
to be saturated with it. This plan failed, 
as it permitted fractional, or selective 
distillation, i. e.. the air picked up the 
lighter constituents of the fuel and left 
the heavier. Changes of temperature 
would cause different amounts to be 
picked up, and the whole system was 
without regulation. This brings us to 
the firs,t requirement. 

1. There must be a method of meas- 
uring out the proper amount of fuel and 
air for complete combustion, and then, 
having the proper amount of each, pro- 
Nidi' a means of mixing them thoroughly, 
and a means of gasifying the liquid fuel. 
It makes no difference in wdiat order 
these last two operations are done, but 
the metering must be done first. 

In order to insure complete gasification 
of the fuel, the temperature must be high 
enough to vaporize the heaviest con- 
stituent of the fuel, and this temperature 
depends on the pressure and on how 
closely the air and "liquid are mixed. If 
there is no mixture of the two, the tem- 
perature required is the boiling point of 
the liquid, at atmospheric pressure. If 
the liquid exists as spray or small par- 
ticles having a large surface exposed to 
the air, or if the pressure is reduced 
by a Venturi entrance or a similar de- 
vice, the tempeature may be much lower. 
For gasoline, the average air temperature 
is sufficient, if thorough mixing is given 
at a slightly reduced pressure. 

Kerosene, which will not all vaporize 
at 900 degrees F., will yield a dry mix- 
ture at under 300 degrees, if properly 
mixed. 



Thus our functions to be fulfilled in 
the carburetor are : 

1. -Metering of air and fuel in con- 
stant proportion. 

2. Preventing vaporization until the 
metering is completed. 

3. Making maximum contact at a 
suitable pressure to produce complete 
vaporization. 

The temperature consideration is a 
most important one. Not only in the 
carburetor itself, but also in the passages 
connecting it to the cylinder. If there 
is only one cylinder and the carburetor 
is closely connected to it, the mixture 
leaving the carburetor need not be per- 
fectly dry, as the inlet valve itself is a 
good heater and will dry it readily. If, 
however, the passage is forked and bent, 
or made in the various ways necessary 
to the multi-cylinder engines, a mixture, 
wet. and full of suspended particles of 
fuel, will not divide evenly at the forks, 
will deposit drops of condensate along 
the pipe, some cylinders will get more 
fuel than others and an unequal distri- 
bution of work will result. Any one who 
does not believe this, need only try run- 
ning his engine on one cylinder at a 
time, or in combinations of pairs by 
disconnecting the spark-plugs of the 
other cylinders, and see if they all give 
the same horsepower on a brake. Of 
course, valve and spark timing must be 
the same on all cylinders in these tests 
or the power will vary regardless of a 
constant mixture. 

Man\- readers will object to the definite 
air-fuel ratio which has been mentioned 
all, if you will notice on the side that 
more gasoline is needed. In the para- 
graph before we have one answer for 
them. They are probably not using all 
that they measure out. Even barrine 
the condensate issue, there is still another 
factor. This is air leakage. One of 
the greatest of these, or I may say the 
greatest of these is around the inlet- 
valve stem, amounting to a considerable 
percentage, as these stems are seldom, 
if ever, packed. 

We are, therefore, making up in the 
carburetor for defects in the motor, at 
the cost of increased fuel consumption, 
and hence for the aeroplane, a decreased 
radius of action. 



Page 116 



AERONAUTICS 




Burgess Latest War 'Plane Supplied U. S. Army 



NEW DURATION RECORD. 

San Diego, Cal. — Lieut. Byron G. 
Jones, army aviator, is to-day the holder 
of a new record for continuous flight. 
He remained in the air eight hours and 
fifty-three minutes on January 16. 

The machine used was a Martin train- 
ing tractor with Curtiss model "O" en- 
gine of 80 h. p. rating. 



ARMY WANTS AN AIR 
ENGINEER. 

The U. S. Civil Service Commission 
announces an open competitive examina- 
tion for aeronautical mechanical en- 
gineer, i.e., a M.E. who has specialized 
on aeronautical motors. From the eligi- 
bles evolved by this exam, a vacancy at 
$2400 a year will be filled in the Signal 
Corps Aviation School at San Diego, and 
other vacancies as they occur in other 
branches of the service. For the present 
this man will take up the motor end of 
Colonel Reker's experimental plant, 
while G. C. Loening will handle the 
aero-dynamical part of it. 

Technical education will count 30 
weights ; experience and fitness 70 
weights. 

Applicants must be graduates in me- 
chanical engineering of some reputable 
school, familiar with the theory and 
practice of engineering as applied to 
internal combustion motors and have 
practical experience in the design and 
testing of such machinery. Additional 
credit given for experience in mechan- 
ical engineering as applied to aviation 



motors and machinery. Other require- 
ments are discreetness, moral fitness, et 
cetera. 

Persons desiring to meet the require- 
ments and desire this examination 
should at once apply for Form 1312, 
stating title of the examination for 
which the form is desired, to the U. S. 
Civil Service Commission, Washington, 
D. C. Application must be filed with the 
Commission at Washington prior to 
close of business February 10. 



NEW FIRM TO BUILD WAR 
AERO MOTORS. 

Dusenberg Brothers have opened a 
new motor building plant at 2654 Uni- 
versity avenue, St. Paul, Minn. Ma- 
chinery has been installed the past week 
and has been removed from Des Moines, 
Iowa ; Jackson, Mich., and Dallas, 111. 

"One of the first propositions to be 
takrn up by the new St. Paul firm will 
be the building of 200 aeroplane motors 
for Russia and France. Both of these 
nations have made an urgent request 
on the Dusenberg Brothers for early 
shipments," according to the St. Paul 
Pioneer Press. 

JANNUS' BUSINESS 
GROWING. 

The Jannus Brothers factory is busy 
and they are anticipating the delivery 
of the new 8 cyl. Maximotor about Jan. 
IS. The new machine should carry five 
passengers and fuel for four hours. A 



useful load of 1200 lbs., they figure, will 
make them a formidable contender for 
military business. 

Roger Jannus and Knox Martin are 
doing well at San Diego and although 
not within the Exposition grounds, they 
have a central location that should en- 
able them to do a capacity business. 

NEW CORPORATIONS. 

Polyplane Motor and Metal Mfg. Co., 
St. Louis, Mo. Capital $100,000. In- 
corporators : W. P. Morgan. Jesse M. 
Neff, Charles Klein, F. P. Smith, Gus 
Stalhopoulis and S. H. Reynolds. 



The Laq Aeroplane Company. Gibson, 
City, 111., capital, $2,500; general avia- 
tion business ; incorporators, Andrew 
Miller. C. C. Harry, G. H. Bloom. 



Judgment has been rendered in the 
First District Court of the City of 
Newark, New Jersey, on the twenty-first 
day of November, 1914, against Charles 
B. Kirkham in favor of Aeronautics 
Press, Inc., for $350.90, with costs 
amounting to $21.70 additional. 



William B. Atwater, the aviator, was 
recently adjudged in contempt of court 
by Judge Hough in the United States 
District Court for refusing to obey a 
ruling by Referee Anthony at a hearing 
on a petition by Atwater to be adjudi- 
cated a bankrupt. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 117 




FRONT ELEVATION 




ARMY'S FIRST WAR 'PLANE. 

The Burgess-Dunne No. 3 was ac- 
cepted by the Signal Corps Board after 
successful tests at San Diego, December 
30, 1914. It is equipped with a 135 h.p., 
9-cylinder Salmson motor. The machine 
developed a speed of 75 miles per hour 
with full load, consisting of two pas- 
sengers, four hours of fuel. In this 
condition it climbed 350 feet a minute. 

This machine was built as an experi- 
mental type subject to further develop- 
ment. The wings are of the same di- 
mensions as the original Burgess-Dunne 
aeroplane. See p. 83, March 31, 1914, 
Aeronautics. "The machine is in- 
herently stable in the broadest meaning 
of the term." 



Scale Drawing of the Burgesi-Dunne, No. 2 



During the tests Mr. Webster allowed 
the machine to fly by itself for long 
periods, and demonstrated that it could 
not be stalled even with the levers pulled 
back and the motor suddenly shut off. 
It was not expected that this aeroplane 
would develop anything like the speed 
or climbing power shown in the tests 
and its success demonstrates beyiond 
doubt that high efficiency may also be 
obtained in the inherently stable type of 
aeroplane. The machine is shown 



equipped with a Turner aviaphone and a 
Benet-Merciers rapid firing gun. Burgess 
supplied the Canadian contingent in the 
big war. 

Burgess has so built this type that its 
upper and lower wings by means of 
hinged struts are capable of being folded 
one against the other. The flying wires 
remain at all times intact and the wing 
supporting wires alone need be cast off 
for disassembling. These features to- 
gether with the entire absence of tail 
and tail surfaces make this aeroplane 
compact and easy to handle. 

Wing spread, 45 ft. ; length over all, 
26 ft.; height, 10 ft. 11 ins.; weight, net, 
1250 lbs.; fuel, oil and water for 300 
miles, 420 lbs.; armor, 100 lbs.; useful 
load, 420 lbs. ; total, 2140 lbs. 



Page 118 



AERONAUTICS 



NAVY WILL SOON 

In the statement of the Hon. Josephus 
Daniels. Secretary of the Navy, before 
the House Naval Committee. December 
11, 1914, Mr. Buchanan introduced in the 
record a letter prepared by Captain Mark 
L. Bristol, Director of Aeronautics, re- 
viewing progress made in naval aero- 
nautics during the year. Plans are under 
way for a big Navy sea 'plane competi- 
tion and bids on dirigibles are being 
received. 

Secretary Daniels said that last year 
there were $1,000,000 which could have 
been spent for aeronautics but there 
were no suitable aircraft to buy and 
this money was turned back into the 
Treasury. At the present time, if nothing 
is appropriated there would be but $200,- 
000 or $300,000 available. (See Aero- 
nautics, p. 9. July 15, 1914.) 

This letter of Captain Bristol follows, 
practically in full : 

The plans for development of aero- 
nautics in the Navy are those that were 
recommended by the Board on Naval 
Aeronautics i see Aeronautics, p. 19. 
Jan. 31, 1914), modified as we proceed 
in accordance with the experience ob- 
tained in actual practice. 

Thus far the recommendations of that 
board have been realized to a great ex- 
tent. An officer of naval aeronautics, 
with a director of naval aeronautics, has 
been established in the Navy Depart- 
ment. Each bureau of the Navy De- 
partment concerned is giving special at- 
tention to aeronautical development. An 
aeronautic center has been established 
at Pensacola, and designated the United 
States Navy Aeronautic Station, where 
all kinds of experiments are being car- 
ried out and classes of officers and men 
are being trained for aeronautical ser- 
vice in a flying school under a compre- 
hensive course of instruction. A wind 
tunnel has been constructed at the Wash- 
ington Navy Yard to be used, together 
with the water model basin (see Aero- 
nautics, p. 133, May IS, 1914) for ex- 
periments with all kinds of models for 
aeronautical development. An aero- 
nautic ship has been detailed for experi- 
mental work and the training of officers 
and men in handling aircraft for the 
purposes of war. Designs for a dirigible 
shed have been prepared and construc- 
tion will begin when the first dirigible is 
ordered. Every point covered by the 
above board has been given considera- 
tion. 

The aeroplanes for the fleet for war 
purposes will be purchased or con- 
structed as soon as a type suitable for 
the purpose is developed. Proposals for 
a number of aeroplanes will be sub- 
mitted to the manufacturers in this 
country in the immediate future. 

In an endeavor to obtain a proper type 
of sea aeroplane manufacturers have 
been given a trip at sea on the aero- 
nautic ship and constantly given every 
information we have. It is to be re- 
gretted that only a few of the manu- 
facturers of aeroplanes, aeroplane mo- 
tors, and propellers have scientific engi- 
neers capable of evolving correct de- 
signs. Where the designs of aeroplanes 
have shown material merit orders have 



BUY AEROPLANES 

been given for machines, and under 
specifications prepared by the manufac- 
turers themselves. 

* * * The "flying boat" type * * * 
is not satisfactory for a sea aeroplane. 

The Navy Department is now going 
to try to obtain a proper sea machine 
by advertising for a comparatively large 
number. It is hoped we will obtain bet- 
ter results than the Army. 

Orders were placed in Europe last 
June for two machines of the latest 
types developed there. The breaking out 
of the war prevented the delivery of 
these. 

The manufacture of dirigibles in this 
country is in such an undeveloped state 
that proposals sent out October 2, 1914, 
have only been responded to by three 
different concerns, and one of these re- 
plies was only received two weeks ago, 
and one concern that has been very 
active in advocating Government en- 
couragement is still asking for an ex- 
tension of time. This proposition is for 
the simplest kind of a dirigible with only 
general characteristics. If this war had 
not occurred, an order for one or two 
dirigibles would have been placed abroad 
before this time. 

The plans for a captive balloon are 
being prepared and estimates drawn up. 

A list of volunteer aviators has been 
prepared and is kept in the department 
ready for use in time of emergency. 

A circular letter has been prepared and 
will lie issued to all Naval Militia organi- 
zations to organize an aeronautical ser- 
vice. 

* * * The development of aeronau- 
tics has been impeded by the difficulties 
that beset the path of any new thing; 
by the breaking up of the work at Pensa- 
cola when the aeronautic ship Mississippi 
and "aeroplane sections" were sent to 
Vera Cruz (see Aeronautics, p. 101, 
Oct. 15, 1914) ; by the sale of the Mis- 
sissippi, and by the urgent necessity of 
sending the new aeronautic ship North 
Carolina to Europe for the relief of 
American citizens in the warring coun- 
tries. These difficulties have not, how- 
ever, prevented satisfactory progress. 



In the aeronautic service of the U. S. 
Navy at the present time there are 18 
officers and 77 men and 12 machines, 
covering: 6 hydro-aeroplanes, 5 boat 
aeroplanes and 1 boat and land aero- 
plane. 



NAVY TO HAVE AEROPLANE 
COMPETITION. 

American manufacturers of aeroplanes 
will shortly have another chance to 
spread themselves in a competition — this 
time under the wing of the Navy. Cap- 
tain Mark L. Bristol, Director of Aero- 
nautics, will soon announce the terms 
and conditions. It is to be hoped that 
this competition will develop more than 
did that of the Army, in which but one 
aeroplane was duly entered, although 
eight different companies signified their 
intention to enter in the first place. 

More aeroplanes and less grape juice! 



NAVY'S TEST HYDROPLANE. 

Naval Constructor H. C. Richardson, 
U. S. N., has introduced the hydroplane 
glider as an apparatus for testing mo- 
tors and propellers. A glider has been 
built for the purpose of determining 
experimentally whether or not it would 
be feasible to use such a glider for these 
tests. Preliminary experiments indicate 
that this can be done, but there are diffi- 
culties to overcome and results are being 
held secret for the time being, at least. 

The dirigible specifications have not 
yet been issued. 

Lieutenant Commander H. C. Mustin, 
Lieutenants P. N. L. Bellinger and R. C. 
Saufley, and Ensign W. Capehart have 
returned from Europe; and Lieutenant 
Bellinger and Ensign Capehart have gone 
to Pensacola to the Naval Aeronautic 
Station. Lieutenant Commander Mustin 
is on temporary duty in the Department 
for a while before going to Pensacola 
to take charge of that station. Lieuten- 
ant Saufley is going to the works of the 
Sperry Gyroscope Company for tempo- 
rary duty in connection with aeroplane 
stabilizers. 

It is expected that a new Burgess- 
Dunne aeroplane will be delivered at 
Pensacola early next month. This ma- 
chine has some improvements over the 
first one that was obtained. 



EXPORTS AND IMPORTS. 

IMPORTS. 

November, 1914 none 

Same period, 1913 none 

11 mos. ending Nov.. 1914, 1 aero- 
plane ($1856) and parts ($12,- 

054), total $13,910 

Same period, 1913, 1 aeroplane 
($900) and parts ($18,725), 

total 19,625 

Same period, 1912, 16 aeroplanes 
($61,100) and parts ($1776), 
total 62,876 

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 

November, 1914, 1 aeroplane 
($3000) ; parts ($28,935) 31,935 

Same period, 1913, 2 aeroplanes 

($6050) ; parts ($9,329), total. 15,379 

11 mos.. ending Nov., 1914, 34 
'planes ($189,999) ; parts $55,- 
993), total 245,992 

Same period, 1913, 18 'planes 
($54,950); parts ($24,604), 
total 79,554 

Same period, 1912, 32 'planes 
(103,751); parts ($9,390), 
total 113,141 

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN. 

November, 1914 none 

11 mos., ending November, parts 
only 207 

Same period, 1913, 2 'planes 

($10,332) : parts ($900), total. 11.232 

IX WAREHOUSE NOVEMBER 30. 

1914. 1 aeroplane 1,856 

1913, 3 aeroplanes 7,623 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 119 



DE VILLERS CONVICTED. 

Yves de Yillers, who has become quite 
notorious through his business relations 
in the aeronautical held, was convicted 
on January, 1915, of grand larceny and 
sentenced to a term of 2}A to 5 years, 
by Judge Swann, Court of General Ses- 
sions, Xew York. The case was prose- 
cuted in behalf of the People by District 
Attorney Arthur C. Train. 

The indictment on which he was con- 
victed alleged that a contract was entered 
into in March, 1 1 '13. between de Villers, 
representing the Aeroplanes Motors and 
Equipment Co., a company formed by 
de Yillers, subsequent to the dissolu- 
tion of the Aeroplane Motors & 
Equipment Co., (with which J. A. D. 
McCurdy was connected a short while) 
and the Curtiss Aeroplane Co., by which 
de Yillers agreed to deliver to the latter 
company a 160 h. p. 14 cyl. Gnome motor 
to be used in a Curtiss tractor which 
the Signal Corps had ordered, the en- 
gine of which was to deliver 150 h. p. 
on test in the Bureau of Standards. 
The price was $7960 with propeller, and 
de Villers undertook to guarantee 150 
h. p. on test or refund the purchase 
price. Some $2672 was paid in advance, 
and the balance was also paid prior to 
delivery at Annapolis for test, as de 
Villers demanded full payment in order 
to release the motor from customs duty 
and charges said to be due on the motor 
which de Yillers claimed was imported 
on part payment by him. On the wit- 
ness stand, Glenn H. Curtiss testified 
de Villers gave him and his representa- 
tive. H. C. Genung, to understand the 
motor was to come direct from the 
Gnome factory. 

The motor delivered but 101 h. p. on 
test and a demand for the return of 
the money was made by the Curtiss 
Aeroplane Co. The money was not 
forthcoming. Shortly thereafter the 
motor was replevined by Norman Prince. 
of Boston, and it turned out that de 
Villers had attempted to palm the Prince 
engine oft' on the Curtiss company as 
the latest type motor and one direct from 
the factory. Testimony was offered to 
the effect that markings on the box 
"Burgess Co. & Curtis. Marblehead,'' 
etc., were erased by de Villers before 
delivery was made at Annapolis. 

The order was placed by Curtiss with 
de Villers in March, 1913, and the 
motor which was delivered in May, was 
one made up of various misfit parts, 
which motor Norman Prince had im- 
ported under an exhibition bond in 1912 
and which had been installed in the 
Burgess racing monoplane which was to 
have defended America in the Gordon- 
Bennett race at Chicago in that year, 
but which never was even flown through 
a disagreement in the matter of a pilot. 

An arrangement appeared to have been 
made between de Villers and Prince to 
sell the Prince motor and it appeared 
that Prince could not collect from de 
Villers for the motor and so replevined 
it. The motor finally went back to 
France and Prince saved the pavment of 
45 per cent. duty. Curtiss, however, 
paid not only the nefore-mentioned sum, 



which price included 45 per cent, duty 
and transportation, for the motor which 
failed to meet the requirements and 
lost the sale of a tractor to the Signal 
Corps, but lost the motor as well. Cur- 
tiss has neither the motor nor the money. 

RECOGNITION FOR 
GARDNER. 

I oily Jannus and Spencer I I eath of the 
American Propeller Co., have inaugu- 
rated a movement in which manufac- 
turers and all others interested in aero- 
nautics are urged to write letters to 
their Senators and Representatives com- 
menting on the alertness and capabilities 
of our army and navy officers with the 
appropriations that have been at com- 
mand, and urging more liberal appro- 
priations which will produce domestic 
machines entirely suitable to military 
needs. 

These gentlemen also urge the com- 
mending of Representative A. P. Gard- 
ner for his active work in behalf of 
aeronautical preparedness. 

Tlie watchword is: More Aeroplanes 
and Less Crape Juice! Readers of 
Aeronautics are appealed to in this 
matter. Get busy. 

GERMANY'S PROTEST 

AGAINST BOMBS AND 

AERIAL COMBAT. 

In view of the interest attached to the 
air raids being made daily in the great 
European conflict, is worthy of noting 
the proposal made by Professor Richard 
Eickoff, President of the German group, 
to the 19th Interparliamentary Con- 
ference, held at Stockholm, August 19- 
20. 1914, which Conference drafted 
various resolutions and proposals for 
inclusion in the programme of the Third 
Peace Conference with a view to the 
final establishment of a permanent inter- 
national judiciary. 

Professor Eickoff's resolutions urged 
a unanimous renewal of the Declaration 
of 1899 (See Aeronautics, p. 35, August 
15, 1914) prohibiting the throwing down 
of explosives from apparatus for aerial 
navigation and the limiting of such ap- 
parati to operators of reconnaissance, 
investigation and sanitary service. 

ARMY ACCEPTS AUTO- 
STABLE. 

The BD-3 Salmson motored Burgess- 
Dunne was accepted on December 30 
by a trial board of the Army, consisting 
of Lieutenants Fulois, Milling and Car- 
berry. Webster flew the machine both 
on land and water with full load and 
his control of the machine both on the 
ground and in the air was a great sur- 
prise to all who witnessed the flights. 

AEROPLANE CLUB IS BUT A 
MEMORY. 

With 51 cents in the hands of Frank 
Hamburger. West Side hardware dealer, 
and treasurer of the organization, the 
International Aeroplane Club, of Dayton, 
O.. is destined to be but a memory. 

Last December, 1914. members of the 
organization that started out to per- 



petuate the memory of Wilbur and Or- 
ville Wright admitted that there is no 
probability of re-establishing the club 
and putting it on a permanent basis. 
— Dayton Journal. 

CURTISS ENLARGES 
FACILITIES. 

I ie Curtiss Aeroplane Company will 
occupy about one-fifth of the space of 
the Thomas Power Buildings, Xo. 1200 
Niagara Street. Buffalo, N. Y. The 
space to be occupied by the Curtiss 
Company will not interfere with the 
business of the E. R. Thomas Motor Car 
Company, which will occupy the same 
quarters as formerly. The Curtiss plant 
in I lammondsport will not be abandoned, 
but will be employed to its capacity, and 
the Buffalo branch will be used to as- 
semble the parts made in Hammonds- 
port, and by other firms on contract, 
this branching out being the only way 
open to the Curtiss company to keep 
abreast of its rush of orders, occasioned 
by the European war. 

FAILURE OF THE ZEPPELINS. 

The London Engineer condemns Zep- 
pelins as having done nothing that an 
aeroplane could not have done better, 
according to the Army and Navy Jour- 
nal. A few desperate pilots wdio were 
willing tn throw their lives away could 
successfully ram and destroy any air- 
ship that has ever sailed. Speed and 
maneuvering powers of the aeroplane 
are far greater than those of the Zep- 
pelin, and such guns as the latter carry 
would find the greatest difficulty in 
bringing down every one of a covey 
of aeroplanes before one had got suf- 
ficiently close or into such a position 
as to ram with certainty. 

It is becoming more and more abun- 
dantly clear that as far. at any rate, as 
the present war is concerned, the func- 
tion of bomb dropping lias been shown 
to he wholly insignificant in its power 
of destruction, as much from a Zeppelin 
as from an aeroplane, and is no longer 
the dreaded thing it was. If more 
serious attacks should be attempted by 
the remaining Zeppelins that Germany 
possesses they will be met as those al- 
ready made have been met, or, as a 
last resort, by the concerted action of 
a handful of aeroplanes. The great 
duty which the aeronaut can perform 
is to spy out the enemy's position, and 
in doing this he is no doubt rendering 
signal service. For this work the aero- 
plane is better than the airship in every 
respect save one. It is less visible, it 
is faster, it is a smaller target, it carries 
fewer men, it is readily transportable, 
requires no gas plant to charge it, costs 
but a fraction of the price of a Zeppelin, 
and. finally, can fly at a higher altitude. 
It suffers only from the fact that it can- 
not remain at ■'est in the air. but this is 
a very small disadvantage when set 
aeainst the many that the airship pre- 
sents. To sum up. while the aeroplane 
has done brilliant work during the last 
three weeks, the Zeppelins have proved 
a hopeless failure. 



Page 120 



AERONAUTICS 



U. S. ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN 
SECRET. 

The Bureau of Ordnance, of which 
Admiral Strauss is the Chief, does not 
consider it advisable to make public data 
relating to the anti-aircraft gun recently 
developed. 

ARMY'S ANNUAL FLIGHT 
COMPETITION. 

Six Army aeroplanes left San Diego, 
Calif., for Los Angeles, a distance of 
some 108 miles, on December 21, with 
the intention of Hying back the follow- 
ing day in competition for the Mackay 
Trophy. This trophy is offered annually 
for accuracy in locating the main column 
of the "enemy," accuracy in reporting 
strength of regiments, squadrons, etc. 
Six started, two arrived at Los Angeles 
and one finished. The two, pilots Dodd 
and Morrow, which arrived at Los Ange- 
les, weathered the severe storm and the 
one that failed to reach San Diego after 
leaving Los Angeles was forced to land 
only through motor trouble. Bad 
weather intervened and the return flight 
and competition was held on the 23rd. 

Captain Dodd and Lieutenant Fitz 
Gerald won the trophy, through skill, 
attention to detail and care displayed 
in the preparation for and during the 
entire contest. 

The following are the facts with re- 
spect to the flight of the machines taken 
from the report of flights. All the ma- 
chines left Xortli Island, San Diego, 
as follows : 

Captain T. F. Dodd, pilot, with Lieu- 
tenant S. W. Fitz Gerald as observer, 
left the ground at 8 a. m., December 21, 
1914, in a Burgess tractor with 70 h. p. 
Renault motor, and reached Los Ange- 
les, landing about four miles southeast 
of designated field at 10 :30 a. m. on 
account of exhaustion of oil supply. Oil 
obtained, and leaving the ground at 12 
m., reached the field at 12 :08 p. m. Suf- 
ficient oil had been taken to allow for 
the time necessary to reach the field and 
a half hour more. The flight was made 
by map and compass, and at 10:16 [2 h. 
16 m.] the machine had arrived close 
enough to the field for the spectators to 
read the number painted on lower planes. 
The pilot and observer could not see 
the landing signal. The machine was 
flown westward to the edge of Los An- 
geles, then circled back, and east to near 
Whittier, following the Whittier Boule- 
vard to search for the landing signal. 
The oil was becoming low and at 10:30 
landing was made. December 22 storm 
conditions prevailed. 

December 23. The machine left the 
field at Los Angeles for Mackay Trophy 
Contest at 9 :44 a. m., and after complet- 
ing the reconnaissance made landing at 
North Island at 1 p. m. 

Lieut. J. C. Morrow, pilot, with Lieut. 
R. C. Holliday as observer, left North 
Island in a Burgess tractor with a 70 h. p. 
Renault motor at 8.02 a. m., and landed 
at designated point near Los Angeles at 
10:22 a. m. [2h. 20m.] Left Los Angeles 
for the return trip at 9:48 a. m. Decem- 
ber 23. The gas lead breaking, was 
forced to land near Oceanside, about 35 



miles from start. In landing, a puff 
struck the machine, damaging it. 

Lieut. T. DeW. Milling, pilot, with 
Captain W. L. Patterson, observer, left 
North Island at 8 :20 a. m.. in a Burgess 
tractor, which had been rebuilt by the 
Signal Corps, with a 70 h. p. Renault 
motor. Forced landing due to motor 
trouble was made in the vicinity of Agra, 
about 35 miles from start. Owing to 
soft, bad ground in which the machine 
landed, it was damaged. 

Lieut. W. R. Taliaferro, pilot, with 
Captain B. D. Foulois as observer, left 
North Island at 8.24 a. m., in a Martin 
tractor with Curtiss 90 h. p. engine. 
Landed near Pacific Beach about 9 miles, 
at 8 :40 a. m. Upon landing report was 
made by telephone to North Island, and 
another machine (Martin tractor with 
Curtiss 90 h. p. engine ) was flown to 
Pacific Beach and turned over to the 
pilot. At 10:20 a. m. another start for 
Los Angeles was made and at 11:00 
o'clock a forced landing was made at 
the foot of the San Onofre Mountains, 
about 54 miles from San Diego. Cause 
of forced landing, a small particle of 
glass in the eye of the pilot, and as the 
wind was blowing over sixty miles per 
hour, it was too dangerous for the pilot 
to slow down and lessen the noise of 
the motor sufficiently for him to notify 
the observer of his trouble. The ma- 
chine landed under very unfavorable con- 
ditions in soft ground, damaging the 
landing gear and propeller. 

Lieut. J. E. Carberry, pilot, with Lieut. 
A. R. Christie as observer, left North 
Island at 8 :29 a. m.. in a Curtiss ma- 
chine with Curtiss 90 h. p. engine. Forced 
landing. Machine damaged. Impractic- 
able to make repairs to motor in time to 
continue flight. Machine dismantled and 
shipped to North Island. 

Captain H. LeR. Muller, pilot, with 
Lieut. F. G. Gerstner as observer, left 
North Island at 8 :32 a. m. When op- 
posite the San Onofre Mountains, caught 
a terrific gale, and after a most ex- 
citing experience made a normal landing 
a half mile from shore in the Pacific 
ocean. Lieut. Gerstner was drowned 
while trying to swim ashore. The ma- 
chine was a Curtiss tractor, with Cur- 
tiss 90 h. p. motor. 

On the 21st all of the contestants en- 
countered one of the worst storms off 
the San Onofre Mountains. Dodd and 
Morrow were both fortunate and skill- 
ful enough to get through to Los 
Angeles without accident. 

DEATH OF LIEUTENANT 
GERSTNER. 

Los Angeles, Dec. 21. — Lieut. Fred- 
erick J. Gerstner of the United States 
Army Aviation Corps was drowned 
while swimming ashore after a descent 
into the ocean during the race from 
San Diego to Los Angeles. 

Capt. William L. Patterson, observer 
on a Burgess tractor, who with his 
pilot, Lieut. T. D. Milling, had landed 
near Oceanside, went to the rescue of 
Lieut. Gerstner and his pilot, Capt. H. L. 
Muller, but failed to save the life of 
Lieut. Gerstner. 

The militarv authorities do not believe 



that the fatality can be attributed di- 
rectly to aviation. 

About opposite Oceanside, Pilot Mul- 
ler, with Lieut. Gerstner as observer, at 
6000 feet altitude, encountered very puffy 
air, which compelled him to work his 
controls all the time. 

A bad puff struck him under the right 
wing and the machine side-slipped about 
300 feet by the aneroid. He righted the 
machine, put on full throttle, and pointed 
slightly down, when a puff struck the 
plane in the same manner. 

As quick as lightning the right wing 
went over his head, the ship dived ver- 
tically from that position downward, 
then upside down. He pulled the machine 
up very gently, being cautious not to 
overcontrol, as in the dive the machine 
had gained a tremendous speed. The 
machine responded to his control and 
shot out of the dive until the nose was 
vertically upward. She then fell on her 
left side, giving the impression that she 
was tailsliding, until the left wing 
seemed to sink out from under and the 
machine went into another nose drive. 
This second dive appeared to be fully a 
thousand feet. The machine was wob- 
bling badly, as though the angle of in- 
cidence was changing rapidly and un- 
controllably. When the machine was 
pulled out of this dive it made a partial 
loop, the left wing being lower than 
the right. 

After the imperfect loop he regained 
partial control, but the machine did not 
hold any definite angle. The machine 
being very unstable, it followed an un- 
dulating course up and down like a 
runaway roller-coaster. 

In the meantime Capt. Muller had been 
working to throttle the motor, but could 
not reach the hand-throttle at first with- 
out getting out of his braces, as the 
throttle had stuck. The machine then 
made two loops without any control 
whatever. 

It then came down almost vertically, 
sliding to the left, but about 300 feet 
from the water Capt. Muller cut his 
switch and obtained full control of the 
machine when between 50 and 100 feet 
above the surface. A normal landing 
was made on the water. 

With the exception of a few wires in 
the wing section streaming in the wind 
the machine landed undamaged on the 
water and came to a stop with the nose 
down and Lieut Gerstner under the 
water. Capt. Muller pulled him up on 
the rear seat, and they both got out, 
standing on the running gear. Lieut. 
Gerstner insisted that one of them ought 
to go ashore. Lieut. Gerstner claimed 
that he was an experienced swimmer. 

After having been in the water for a 
considerable period, Lieut. Gerstner in- 
formed Capt. Muller that he was going 
ashore. He continued swimming, and 
when about a half mile away disappeard 
from Capt. Muller's sight. 

Lieut. Gerstner's body was found in a 
kelp patch a short distance from the 
shore. It is considered regrettable that 
Lieut. Gerstner did not stay with the 
machine, as it is certain that, had he 
done so, he would have been saved with 
Capt. Muller. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 121 



THIS BIPLANE HAS 125-MILE 

SPEED, CARRIES 4-INCH 

GUN. 

At the military camp at Vizzola Ticino, 
Italy, the authorities have been experi- 
menting with a new biplane, whose in- 
ventor is not known, though it is sup- 
posed that Pilot Pensuti, who has been 
taking it up during the experiments, is 
responsible for its construction. It is 
larger than any other aeroplane in Italy, 
measuring seventy feet from wing to 
wing, and has 300 horsepower distributed 
among three rotary motors so placed 
that the pilot can repair any two while 
the plane is in motion. There are 
armored seats for three men and a 4- 
inch gun. 



The machine went up a mile and a 
quarter with complete success recently. 
It is able to stay in the air twenty-five 
hours and can carry a cargo weighing 
about a ton. Its average speed is 125 
miles an hour. — .V. V. World. 



Riley E. Scott, ex-Lieutenant U. S. 
Army, whose fame introduced bomb- 
dropping, or vice versa, left some time 
ago for the seat of war, or thereabouts. 
Not knowing his future address, he 
failed to disclose it upon his sudden and 
surreptitious departure. He left behind 
him, however, some holes in the aviation 
field at San Diego caused by the impact 
of his bombs filled with a secret ex- 
plosive developed in the Ordnance De- 
partment. 



Paris, Jan. 4. — William Thaw, J. J. 
Bach and Weston Kail, three members 
of the American volunteers, who were 
attached to the Foreign Legion and who 
have been definitely accepted for service 
with the French aviation corps, will be 
sent to the front after a few weeks ser- 
vice at the military school at St. Cyr. 

These men are the first foreigners ever 
admitted to the French Aviation Corps. 
— The Sun. 



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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 122 



AERONAUTICS 



ANOTHER AVIATOR NOW HAS NATIONAL LICENSE. 



The Department of Commerce, Steam- 
boat Inspection Service, at Baltimore, 
has issued to A. C. Beech a license to 
operate and navigate a motor vessel, 
under Motor Boat Act approved June 
9. 1910. 

Flying machines that have combined 
with and in their construction a vessel, 
if such machine is propelled by ma- 
chinery, becomes a motor vessel when 
in the water, and for that reason it was 



still in danger of being restricted by 
foolish laws. 

"Tony" Jannus was the first in this 
country to secure a Federal license. In 
the winter of 1913-1914, at the time of 
the agitation by Aeronautics of this 
subject, Jannus applied for license at 
Tampa. Fla. In the course of time, a 
delay being unavoidable by his move- 
ments about the countrv, the boat was 
inspected and finally Jannus got his 



(JJ^^i^^M^^l^j^ ' 




^^g^ZdUli. 






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Jd£t&eZ4&. c/tvuef^f 



necessary for Mr. Beech to procure a 
license. 

The same form of license was issued 
as those to all other motor vessels less 
than 65 feet in length carrying pas- 
sengers for hire. The license was is- 
sued Nov. 20, 1914, by Charles W. 
Wright and Edwin F. White, members 
of the Board of Local Inspectors. 

Aeronautics has continuously urged 
that registration of aircraft and licens- 
ing of operators should be under Federal 
control and it would seem, in view of 
the obvious advantage of such control, 
that all aeronautical organizations 
formed to really advance the interests 
of flying would devote some energy to- 
wards this end. rather than to sit' idly 
by and allow individual states to pass 
conflicting and onerous statutes. With 
machines that operate from the water, 
of course, Federal control is already an 
established fact but land machines are 



license, dated Aug. 10, 1914, the first 
ever issued for a hydroplane. 
On this subject Jannus advises: 
"For the benefit of your readers let 
me say that they must do the things the 
Department requires for boats. No 
anchors or lights to be carried by day 
are required and the special style of 
life preserver will eventually be allowed 
but in the meantime all pilots are liable 
to heavy fine for not complying. This 
applies to hydros and boats both. You 
must have motor vessel operator's li- 
cense, one cork steamboat inspected life 
preserver for every soul aboard on each 
trip, two copies of the pilot's rules, a 
whistle, and a fire extinguisher capable 
of putting out burning gasoline. There 
is no charge for any of the services of 
the department for furnishing the li- 
cense, rules or the information, but the 
applicant must appear in person at the 
Steamboat Inspectors' office in any of 
the towns that are ports. 



AIR NAVY MAY GET 

$1,187,600. 

If the pleadings of Naval officers do 
any good, the House of Representatives 
may consider the appropriation of $1,- 
187,600 for aeronautical work appro- 
priate for argumentation in Congress 
and it might even come to pass that the 
House will suggest to the Senate, etc. 

At any rate, Captain Mark L. Bristol 
put his best aileron forward in the hear- 
ing before the House Naval Committee 
and explained that this $l,i87,000, if re- 



ceived for the fiscal year of 1916, would 
be expended about as follows : 

48 aeroplanes $525,000 

1 dirigible 174,600 

1 hydrogen set 17,000 

1 floating shed for 2 dirigibles 90.000 

1 mooring mast 1.200 

2 dirigibles for school 85.000 

1 kite balloon 800 

Sheds at Pensacola 150,000 

3 picket boats 31.000 

Gasoline storage 4,000 

Maintenance 109.000 

$1,187,600 



Captain Bristol estimated the cost of 
a suitable aeroplane at $11,000. "The 
aeroplane industry in this country," Cap- 
tain Bristol said, "is looking up, also 
the manufacture of dirigibles, and if you 
should appropriate a good sum of money 
to be expended on air craft our manu- 
facturers would be encouraged then to 
go into the development of air craft with 
e serious consideration than they d' 
at present. The manufacturers in this 
country lack good engineering knowl- 
edge, and you cannot get a good engi- 
neer without paying him a good salary, 
and they do not feel like doing that un- 
less they see some way of paying for 
that engineer, both as regards his actual 
salary and making some profit beside on 
his work. We have been doing every- 
thing we could to encourage them with 
what money we have had thus far, but 
they knew- the amounts available and 
naturally don't see much money in it." 

At present, of course, manufacturers 
cannot he sure of getting a contract 
even if they do come up to specifica- 
tions, due to the lack of funds. 

At the hearing, also, Captain Bristol 
presented the draft of a law to increase 
the pay of officers of the Navy and 
Marine Corps who are detailed on aero- 
nautic dutv by 35% and to increase the 
pay of Navy pilots by 50%. The 35% 
to be allowed only when the men are 
detailed to actually make flights and the 
50', likewise. The proposed law also 
provides that no more than 48 officers 
of the Navy and 12 officers of the Marine 
Corps be detailed for actual flying; that 
one year's pay be given a beneficiary in 
the case of a fatal accident not attribut- 
able to the aviator's own negligence and 
that the pension now provided by law for 
a widow be doubled; that enlisted men 
receive 35% increase in pay under the 
same conditions as above ; that no more 
than 96 men of the Navy and 24 men 
of the .Marine Corps at any one time 
shall be detailed to aeronautic duty; that 
a year's pay and pension be given ai 
above stated. 

At the present time non-commissioned 
officers and men receive no extra pay for 
aeronautic duty and enlisted men have 
been required to take flights without 
any extra compensation. 



In a report to the House on December 
29 by the Military Committee and by the 
action of the sub-committee of the House 
Naval Committee in recommending that 
$1,000,000 be appropriated for naval air- 
craft, aeronautics mav have $1,300,000. 

The military bill authorizes $300,000 
for aircraft for the Army. 



Representative Mann, on Feb. 2. 1915, 
fought the $1,000,000 appropriation, and 
on his motion the amount was cut to 
$500,000. 



The term "aeroplane" as used in Con- 
sular reports relates to any heavier- 
than-air flying machine, whether mono- 
nlane. binlane. etc.. as distinguished 
from dirigible and ordinary balloons. 
Under the term "parts" are included 
motors, chassis, wings, etc., not shipped 
in conjunction with a complete machine. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 123 



PATENTS 

SECURED or FEE RETURNED 

VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY M.i„office S: 



Send sketch or model for F R K H opinion as to Patent- 
ability. Write for our Guide Books aj)d What to Invent with 
valuable List of Inventions Wanted s.-nt Free. Send for ruir 
special list of prizes offered for Aeroplanes. $600,000 
Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in 
Aeronautics and have a special Aeronautical Department. 
Copies of Patents in Airships, 10 cents each. 



771 NINTH STREET, N. 
WASHINGTON. D. C. 



W. 



PATENTS 



Manufacturers want me to send 
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and description of your invention and I will give you an honest 
report as to securing a patent and whether I can assist you in 
selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. 
Personal attention in all cases. 

WM. N. MOORE 
Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C. 




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PATENTS 

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Ex-member Examining Corps, U. S. Patent Otfio* 

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Best Results. Promptness Assured. 

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624 F Street. N. W. Washineton. D. C. 



BALLOONS 



Airships, Aeroplanes. Gas Generators, Safety Packs, 
Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, 
Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 
95% of American and Canadian clubs. 

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DIRIGIBLES 

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AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md. 



PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY 



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JANNUS BROTHERS 

NEW 120 H. P. FIVE PASSENGER FLY- 
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Roger Jannus and Knox Martin at New Southern 
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Boats. Florida course announced later. 

NEW FACTORY 

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Booklet on Request 



DATUMTC Frederick W. Barker 

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AERONAUTICS 

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 124 



AERONAUTICS 




CONSTRUCTION DETAILS. 

In the winter when the enthusiasm of 
most model flyers is at a very low ebb, 
there are, however, a great number of 
them who still remain true to the sport 
in spite of the cold and inclement 
weather. The device shown in figure 1 
is the idea of A. K. Barker, and is 
adapted to be attached to the skids of 
the model in place of the wheels, or 
pontoons, if the model happens to be 
a hydro. These little "skates" enable 
a model to rise very quickly from the 
frozen surface of a lake or pond or from 
any short stretches of ice. These tiny 
"skates" create less friction than wheels; 
allow the model to rise with a shorter 
run. and weigh less. While attachments 
of this kind have been made before, we 



By Harry Schultz, Model Editor. 

wire for the shaft with a hook formed 
at one end as shown, for the reception 
of the rubber motor. A half-inch piece 
of brass tubing is bound and glued to 
the rear member of the fuselage as 
shown. It will be noticed that the 
tubing is bound to the under side of the 
propeller bar, and in order to make a 
very secure joint it is advisable to cut 
a small recess in the propeller bar in 
which the tubing is bound. A small 
strip of brass or any other like material 
is cut as shown and slipped over the 
hub of the propeller. A hole is drilled 
through the brass strip as shown. To 
assemble the bearing, the piece of steel 
wire is passed through the tubing and 
through the hole in the brass strip and 



In figure 4 is shown a simple method 
of constructing a bent wood propeller. 
It will be seen that the entire propeller 
is made in two parts, one blade being 
made at a time. 

In this manner both blades can be 
;;irefully compared and both blades easily 
made to have the same pitch, by an 
application of steam and boiling water. 
When the blades are bent to shape they 
are joined at the center. Some model 
builders make this joint by binding and 
gluing, but the preferable method of 
making the same is by gluing and drill- 
ing four small holes through the thick- 
ened portion formed by the overlapping 
ends, and inserting small brads in these 
holes as shown. The hole for the pro- 
peller shaft is readily drilled through the 
thickened portion formed by the over- 
lapping ends of the two blades. 

In figure S is shown the method of 
joining the two members of a triangular 
frame at the front end, and the method 
of attaching the rubber hooks thereto. 
It will be seen that the inner sides of 
the sticks are tapered as shown so that 
when the two sticks are brought to- 
gether a point is formed. A double hook 
is formed of a small piece of piano 
wire and bound and glued over the end. 




have never seen them constructed in 
substantially the same manner as shown 
herein, which consists of a small section 
of safety razor blade shaped to the out- 
line of a sled-runner and inserted and 
glued in a slot in a small piece of spruce. 
Two small holes are drilled through the 
spruce block so that the entire "skate" 
can be "sewed" to the skid on the model. 
Figure 2 shows a simple method of 
making a propeller bearing. It merely 
consists of a short piece of steel piano 



propeller, and the outer end of the wire 
is bent around the end of the propeller 
so that the propeller will turn with its 
shaft. The drawing shows the assembled 
bearing. 

Figure 3 shows a well known English 
tractor model in flight, particulars of 
which have not been obtained at the 
present time. 

Those who have made propellers of 
twisted wood will realize the difficulty of 
obtaining the same pitch in each blade. 



ASHMUSEN 12-CYL. ENGINE. 

Things are brightening up for the 
Ashmusen Mfg. Co., of Woonsocket, R. 
I. 

They are now specializing on an 8- 
cylinder, 70 horse power, and a 12- 
cylinder, 105 horse power, aircooled aero- 
nautical engine. These are both of the 
geared propeller type. They have now 
made manufacturing arrangements at 
Woonsocket, and have facilities in one 
of the largest machine shops in the 
country equipped for this class of work. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 125 



The 

Wright 

Company 

(The 

Wright 

Patents) 




THE NEW WRIGHT 
AEROPLANES 

For sport, exhibition or 
military use, over land or 
water now embody the im- 
provements that have been 
suggested by the experiments 
quietly conducted during the 
past ten years. 



The Wright Company 

DAYTON. OHIO New York Office: 11 Pile Si 



WIRE 

We make an extra high grade 

plated finish wire for 

aviators' use. 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS 

John A. Roebling's Sons Co. 

TRENTON, N. J. 




Hydro 
Aeroplanes 



Safety 



Flying 
Boats 



THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO., Ithaca, N. Y. 



AERONAUTICAL 
RADIATORS 

Built in capacities and types for standard 
and special aviation motors 

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your 
specifications for special designs 



EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY 

64th St. & Weit End Ave., New York City 

AUo Manufacturer! of Automobile Radiator, of all typei 



BALDWIN 



Kg Balloons 

Saw Dirigibles x^, 

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Motors 5SJ 

Box 78. Madison Sq. P.O., New York fiSJ S^j 



SLOANE AEROPLANES 

will now be built T^L A "— £ *. *t~" ¥ 

exclusively by l ne Aircraft Co., Inc. 

a reorganization The Sloane Aeroplane Co. 

Full particulars of our Standard Sloane Aeroplanes- 
Motors and Accessories on request. 

THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc., Sole Manufacturers of 
1733 Broadway, New York Sloane Aeroplanes 



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$ 101 Franklin Street, New York | 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 126 



AERONAUTICS 



GERMANY PROTESTS CUR- 
TISS MACHINES. 

A protest has been made by the Ger- 
man Ambassador to this country alleg- 
ing the exportation of Curtiss machines 
to France, England and Russia to be 
an infringement of the obligations bind- 
ing upon a neutral country, claiming 
them to be contraband. 

When the matter is taken up with 
the Curtiss Aeroplane Company officially, 
the contention will be that hydro-aero- 
planes are not vessels of war, are not 
fitted with guns for war purposes and 
are not sold to belligerents. 

WHO INVENTED THE 
HYDRO- AEROPLANE ? 

Announcement has just been made of 
the result of an interference suit in the 
Patent Office in which Albert Janin 



claimed priority over Glenn Curtiss in 
the invention of the hydro-aeroplane. 

In response to the published story of 
the Patent Office's award to Janin in 
the suit, Mr. Curtiss states: 

"Mr. Janin and his attorney are quite 
premature in announcing the award of 
invention of the hydro-aeroplane to Mr. 
Janin. The interference with Mr. Janin 
involves, one claim. The claim involves 
the use of the small side floats which 
are in action when the machine operates 
on the surface of the water as a hydro- 
plane. It does not involve the features 
which made the hydro-aeroplane a suc- 
cessful flying machine, or the features 
of the flying boat. The decision in ques- 
tion is but a preliminary one of one 
of the three Patent Office tribunals. It 
is not in the United States courts. This 
is the second decision to be rendered 
by the Patent Office. The first of them 



was in my favor, and I might at that 
time have made the same announce- 
ment which Mr. Janin has now made, 
and it would have been equally prema- 
ture. Vet another Patent Office decision 
is to be made by the Commissioner of 
Patents himself before the Patent Of- 
fice concludes the matter. The final de- 
cision which determines the award of 
this particular claim is in the province 
of the United States Court of Appeals. 
When this final decision is rendered and 
not until then will any statements of 
Mr. Janin's concerning the award of in- 
vention be entitled to serious considera- 
tion." 



Wilbur R. Kimball and T. R. Mac- 
Mechen are at 66 Victoria street, West- 
minster, London, working on a dirigible, 
it is assumed. 




OF AMERICA 
29 West 39th Street. New York 

OFFICIAL BULLETIN 

The members are keeping up their interest 
in the Round Table Talks, now the feature of 
attraction at the Thursday evening meetings — 
8:30 p. m. — -every week, the number of mem- 
bers attending being steadily on the increase. 

The undertakings of the Technical Board and 
various committees always claim attention; and 
general discussions have followed. During the 
past few weeks, the presentation of certain 
novel methods of stabilization have been in- 
cluded among the subjects that have come up 
for consideration. 

On January 7, at the invitation of Mr. A. 
Leo Stevens, the members of the Society gath- 
ered at the Sportsman's Show, held at Madison 
Square Garden, where Mr. Stevens had an 
aeronautic exhibit including two large and one 
small inflated passenger-carrying balloons with 
their full equipment; Mr. J. J. Curran also ex- 
hibiting his Queen monoplane. 

An informal meeting of the members present 
was held at the close of the evening, when a 
vote of thanks was tjiven Mr. Stevens for his 
hospitality. 

On January 14th. Mr. A. J. DeVoe, the well 
known weather prophet, addressed the members 
at the rooms of the Society on his conception 
of meteorological laws and the governing of 
weather conditions by the moon. Members, 
keenly alive to the value of practical fore- 
casting, plied Mr. DeVoe with numerous ques- 
tions, bringing out useful points from which 
they might make their own deductions for use 
in aerial undertakings. 

The strong evidence of awakening interest in 
the Government for a fairly liberal employment 
of air craft in the Army and Navy services is 
giving renewed hope to inventors, designers and 
manufacturers of promising activity, the con- 
summation whereof will mean an increased 
scope for the useful functions of the Aero- 
nautical Society of America. Every member 
of the Society, therefore, is requested to lose 
no opportunity of bringing, as new members, 
men who they believe will be of benefit to the 
organization and who may themselves profit 
through its operations. 

Also, at this important epoch in the art of 
aviation in America, when it really appears to 
be about to expand, perhaps in the manner of 
its extent in Europe — though possibly on dif- 
ferent lines — it is incumbent on every member 
to stand by with full support, keeping in as 



close communication as possible, that all may 
profit. 

If behind in dues members should not delay 
in remitting, for the Society needs its revenue 
to carry on its important work. 

As regards the First Joint Conference on 
Aviation, to be held in the Engineers Building, 
February 5 and 6 next, a number of interesting 
inventions and devices for insuring a higher 
safety of flight have been presented and every- 
thing points to this conference being a real 
step forward in the understanding of the 
proper designs of aircraft which is especially 
important at the present time in view of the 
strong revival of interest in matters aero- 
nautical. 

All city members, also country members on 
visits to town, should call at the Society's 
rooms when able, so that they may keep posted 
in all aeronautical matters. The office of the 
Society is open daily from 10 to 5; Saturdays, 
10 to 1. Members are also entitled to free 
use of the library, on the 13th floor of the 
building, open from 9 a. m. to 9 p. m. daily, 
and comprising the most complete engineering 
library in America, with all U. S. and foreign 
patents. 



*e.*o Club 



^nnsylvA^ 



OFFICIAL BULLETIN 

At the fifth annual meeting of the Aero Club 
of Pennsylvania January 8 in the Bellevue- 
Stratford, the following officers were elected: 
Joseph A. Steinmetz, president; W. D. Harris 
and \V. J. Shedwick, vice presidents; George S. 
Gassner, secretary; L. Maresch, treasurer, and 
A. T. Atherholt, Henry F. Bamberger, \Y. II. 
Sheban, C. P. Wynne. H. H. Knerr and \V. S. 
\\ heeler, directors. 

Clarence P. Wynne, who has served the club 
as president so untiringly for the last three 
years, declined re-election on account of pres- 
sure of business engagements. 




The club is negotiating for the use of an 
armory for an indoor contest. It has been 
decided that this contest will be for controllabil- 



ity of flight. The date for the contest has not 
been decided upon, but this matter will be taken 
up as soon as it can be ascertained for what 
date the armory can be secured. 

Mr. Henry S. Villard has kindly offered a 
very excellent trophy for competition by the 
club. The form of contest is being decided 
upon and the rules and place of competition 
will be announced later. This trophy is now 
on exhibition at the Aero Club of America. 

The following persons have been admitted to 
membership: 

Edward P. Warner. Concord, Mass. 

Walter II. Phipps, New York City, N. Y. 

Raymond M. Zimber, New York City. N. Y. 

Frank Schober, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A donation of three prizes has been made 
to the Milwaukee branch of this club for com- 
petition as soon as the weather improves. 

The Long Island Model Aero Club has 
formed the Long Island section of the Aero 
Si ience Club. Election of officers has taken 
place. 

On December 27, 1914. the final glider cu- 
test of the recent series was completed, and 
A. K Barker proved to be a winner with 70 
points, The contest was for weight-carrying. 

Club flags have been made, the colors of the 
same being red and blue. These can be ob- 
tained at a reasonable price by applying to the 
Secretary. 

Mr. Edward P. Warner, the representative 
of this club at Concord. Mass.. desires to an- 
nounce that a series of model aeroplane con- 
tests will be held at Concord, Mass., during the 
spring of 1915, the events being held on the 
following dates: 

March 13. — Distance, launched from the 
hand. 

March 27. — Duration, launched from the 
hand. 

April 24. — Distance, rising off the ground. 

May S. — Duration, rising off the ground. 

May 22. — Duration, rising off the water. 

These contests will last from 2:15 to 5 p. m. 
and each contestant may have as many trials as 
he desires during that time. The contests are 
open to any rubber driven model and the 
models need not be constructed by the entrant 
himself. At each contest there will be awarded 
to the winner a silver medal and a bronze medal 
i<n- the best record by a boy under sixteen 
years of age, using a model constructed by 
himself. Several cups will be given to those 
securing the greatest number of points in the 
four contests in which he makes the best show- 
ing: that is, those who compete in all five con- 
tests will have their worst score omitted. Points 
wil 1 lie given to every competitor on a per- 
centage basis. A small entry fee is charged and 
all entries should be made before March 1. 
Further information can be supplied by Mir. 
Edward P. Warner, Concord, Mass. 

At the meeting held on January 9, Messrs. 
Schober and Funk exhibited the compressed air 
engine constructed by them. The engine proved 
to be a great success and it worked excellently. 

For further information apply to the Secre- 
tary, Harry Schultz, qt the rooms of the Aero- 
nautical Societv. 29 West 39th Street, New- 
York Citv. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 127 




GYRO HOLDS 

ML Altitude Record! 



WESTERN UNION DAY LETTER 

Kansas City, Mo. , 
August 6th, 1914. 
Gyro Motor Co. , 
Washington, D.C. 

Broke altitude record this after- 
noon, approximately forty-seven hundred 
meters. Kansas City Aero Club observed 
flight authorized by Aero Club of 
America. Record should be official. 
Motor worked fine, only carried five 
gallons of gas, made altitude in forty 
minutes used old spray nozzle. Will 
write full particulars later. 

DE LLOYD THOMPSON. 

New Gyro "Duplex" 

80 H. P. 7 Cylinder, 200 lbs. 100 H. P. 9 Cylinder, 250 lbs. 

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY 



774 Girard Street 



Washington, D. C. 





New Yoik Branch 

1972 BROADWAY 



U.S. Government Depends 
on Goodyear Balloons 

Every balloon bought by the government the la£t three 
years has been made by Goodyear. 

Goodyear balloons won the American National Elimi- 
nation Race out of Kansas City in 191 3, the Inter- 
national Race out of Paris in 1913, and the American 
National Elimination Race out of St. Louis in 1914 

Dirigible Balloon Bags— Any Size 

Goodyear makes dirigible balloon bags in sizes from 75,000 cubic 

feet capacity up to 500,000 cubic feet or larger. Goodyear 

balloon fabric is thoroughly impregnated with rubber, not merely 

coated, which keeps dampness away from the fibre and adds to its 

Strength and gas tightness. 

Goodyear Balloon Experts 

The Goodyear organization includes men thoroughly experienced in the manu- 
facture and handling of balloons. Also engineers who know the scientific details 
of design and construction. They have been the exclusive balloon builders for the 
government. They can build for you, too. 



Ask Us Your Questions 

Tell us your particular problems, whether balloon 
or aeroplane We can help you solve them. 
Write us today for further details. Address 
desk 136. 

THE GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY, Akron, Ohio 

Makers of Goodyear Automobile Tires 



GOODOTEAR 

^^ tV' AKRON. OHIO 

AERONAUTIC SUPPLIES 



hi answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 128 



AERONAUTICS 













SIMPLICITY 

and PRICE 

THE MAXIMOTOR has 
always been sold at a price 
that put it within the reach 
of all. 

WE have been enabled to 
give Sterling Worth at Maxi- 
motor Prices because of the 
simplicity of design, and the 
ease and rapidity with which 
these motors can be built. 

MANUFACTURING in 
Detroit, the home of the gas 
engine, has played no small 
part in reducing the cost of 
production. 

Let Us Send You Our Catalogue 
and Prices 

DETROIT 

1530 Jefferson Ave. Michigan 


The 

Ball-bearing 

Motor 






JSf 


Model A8V 
110-120 H. P. 









VOL. XVI. No. 1 



MARCH 15, 1915 



15 Cents 




liiilllllllftlillill M 1 



ESOMilTIC 



■HI 



MiieriiiiiiiiiiiiaiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiTEB 




nriimiiiiiniiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiii! 



' / 




Hold the Principal American Records as Follows: 

Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. 
Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. 
Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron 0. Jones, U. S. A., 8 hrs. 53 min. 
Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. lOmin. 

Motors Ready for Delivery 



MODEL "S," 6-CYL., 60 H. P. 
MODEL "O," 8-CYL., 80 H.P. 



MODEL "O-X," 8-CYL., 90 H.P. 
MODEL "OXX," 8-CYL., 160 H. P. 



THE CURTISS MOTOR CO. ha^ k dIpI t r r t ee £. v. 




Mi! 



Page 2 



AERONAUTICS 



Practically every 
aeronautical record 

was made possible by the 
use of the 

Bosch Magneto 

That fact alone is conclusive 
proof as to the worth of Bosch. 

Where you cannot take a chance 
there you musT: have Bosch. 

Be Satisfied Specify Bosch 

Correspondence always Invited 

Bosch Magneto Company 

201 West 46th Street : New York 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 3 



Published semi-monthly in the best interests 

of Aeronautics by 

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 

250 West 54th St.. New York 

Telephone, Circle 2289 

Cable. Aeronautics. New York 




ERNEST L. JONES Editor 

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor 

HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor 

ERANK CASH Ass't Editor 



Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22, 19US. under the Act of 
March 3. 1879. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy. 

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 
25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries. 

Make all checks and money orders free of exchange and payable to AERO- 
NAUTICS PRESS. 



The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must 
be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allow- 
ance must be made for receipt and return. 

Subsi ubers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the 
end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their 
subscription is to be continued. 



NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS 

With this issue is begun Vol. XVI, 
With Xo. 1. The issues for each six 
months have, heretofore, formed one 
volume. There should have been 12 is- 



sues for Vol. XV, instead of the 8 
which have been published. Instead of 
continuing to name future issues con- 
secutively, completing Vol. XV, to avoid 
an anachronism, a new start is being 



made with the current date, March 15, 
1915. 

All unexpired subscriptions are set 
ahead four months so that every sub- 
scriber will receive the full complement 
of issues due him. 



AEROPLANES WITH VARIABLE INCIDENCE 

By M. B. Sellers 



A communication presented to the 1 — These conditions being realized, 
Russian Society of Engineers of Paris. the pilot can, at his pleasure, ascend or 
by L. Kolpakoff-Miroclmitchinko en- descend, without increasing the head 
titled Avions a Incidence 'Variables, is resistance, and without employing the 
of considerable interest, in view of the elevator, which often requires consider- 
success of the well known Paul Schmitt able effort ; by simply changing the angle 
biplane. This machine, piloted by of the wings relative to the fuselage. 
Garaix, made records of height and Therefore, ascending, horizontal or de- 
speed with 4, 5, 6 and up to 10 passen- sc ending path without tin use of the 
gers. I shall give briefly the substance elevator. 
of this communication. 2 — In case the aeroplane should, from 

x, „ • , , ■ ■ . ii ; t, ..„ any cause, loose speed, the elevator 

By variable incidence is here un- tj v • t..,<. i-., 

«J*™a ft,- „™„„,*„ „f ,„ ,„™l,„ would become inoperative; _ but, by 



derstood the property of an aeroplane 
to change the angle of attack of its 
planes without recourse being had to 
its auxiliary controlling surfaces. Two 
conditions must be realized: (1) The 
axis of thrust and the direction of the 
head resistance should be confused (i. e., 
in line) no matter what the incidence. 
(2) The centre of pressure (i. e., sup- 
port) of the machine should always be 
directly over the centre of gravity for 
any incidence. 

As the centres of resistance and sup- 



changing the inclination of the wings. 
the speed could be quickly augmented, 
and the impending danger averted; 
therefore, facility to rapidly regain the 
normal speed. 

3 — In leaving the ground the wings 
can be set at a zero angle during the 
run, till proper speed is attained ; then 
the angle can be increased to that giv- 
ing the most rapid ascent ; hence : easy 
and rapid rise in starting. 

4 — Supposing that the normal (hori- 
zontal) attitude of the fuselage is the 



port are variable with varying angle of one of least resistance to penetration ; 
attack ; it suffices to bring these back to then, in the ordinary aeroplane this re- 
their normal position by a suitable dis- sistance is greater when flying "cabre." 
placement of the lifting planes (as is But with the variable incidence aero- 
done in the Paul Schmitt). plane the fuselage may maintain its nor- 



mal attitude while the incidence of the 
wings is increased, thus reducing resist- 
ance, and favoring slow flying (because 
the slowness of flight is limited by the 
increased total resistance due to increase 
in drift). Besides, the large angle of 
attack required for very slow flight is 
dangerous in the ordinary machine, but 
in the variable incidence machine, the 
fuselage being nearly horizontal and 
moving along its axis avoids the risk 
due to extreme incidence. 

In the same way in augmenting the 
speed by reducing the angle of the wings, 
the body may be maintained in its nor- 
mal attitude and the empennage will not 
act as a brake, — therefore, great varia- 
tion of speed. 

5 — With the motor stopped, the descent 
can be made slowly with wings at max- 
imum allowable angle of attack, the 
fuselage and chassis remaining hori- 
zontal .and machine landing properly on 
its wheels ; and on the ground it can be 
quickly stopped by extreme inclination 
of the wings. Therefore, slow descent, 
lauding on even keel, and quick stoppage 
after landing. 

Finally the axis of the propeller is 
always parallel to the trajectory, which 
is of some advantage. 



ADVERTISEMENTS IN AERONAUTICS 



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nounce that we do not publish adver- 
tisements free, nor do we print any 
advertisements on a basis of replies 
received from the same. Our repre- 
sentatives in soliciting for AERO- 
NAUTICS have been approached 
with such propositions, the inference 
being that aeronautical publications 
are doing this. Let us say that we 
value too highly the patronage of 
those firms and individuals who have 
persistently used our columns and 
paid therefor, to entertain any such 
proposition. 

ADVERTISERS LN AERO- 
NAUTICS ARE PAYING FOR 
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AERONAUTICS reaches the heads 
of the influential governments of the 
world we are making a statement 



that is backed up by the subscription 
list and bv the results obtained. 
Advertising in AERONAUTICS 
makes an appeal to a larger buying 
power per paid subscription than 
that of all other aeronautical jour- 
nals in the United States com- 
bined. 

Established in 1907, AERO- 
NAUTICS has gained and main- 
tained the confidence of all its 
subscribers and today its results 
gained for advertisers is testified to 
by the amount of PAID advertising 
that the magazine carries. 

It is unfair to accept the adver- 
tisement of a big firm FREE for 
the sake of inducing smaller firms 
to sign contracts under the impres- 
sion that the big firm is paying for 
its space. 



It is unfair to the subscribers to 
make them believe that AERO- 
NAUTICS supports a yast and va- 
ried number of industries. 

A certain number of reliable firms 
have found it to their advantage to 
use the advertising columns of 
AERONAUTICS. Our subscribers 
have long since found that such 
advertisers as use AERONAUTICS 
are reliable. FOR THIS REA- 
SON WE DO NOT NEED TO 
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IN AERONAUTICS THROUGH- 
OUT THE WORLD. 

Results prove this. 



Page 4 



AERONAUTICS 



NAVY OPENS BIDS FOR NINE HYDROS 



Fourteen bids were opened February 
27. 1915, for the furnishing of the U. S. 
Navy Aeronautic Station, Pensacola, 
Fla.. of two lots of hydroaeroplanes and 
motors, as below. Delivery of one 
hydroaeroplane of the first lot to be 
made not later than April IS, 1915, and 
the balance by June 15, 1915 ; delivery of 
the second lot to be made in pairs by 
the above respective dates. Alternate 
bids with greater time for delivery could 
be submitted, but the Navy reserved the 
right to award on the time stated above. 

The bids were as follows, with the 
items bid on mentioned by figures in 
parentheses which correspond to the 
schedule given below : 

Aircraft Company: (1) $6962, (2) 
$5142. (3) $716, (4) $2760, (la) $7962 
and $6780, (2a) $5000 and $4837, (3a) 
$725 and $716, (4a) $3000 and $2760. 
If automatic stabilizer accepted with 
each 'plane cost of Item 2 power plant 
in each case will be reduced $190. 

Burgess Company: (1) $6400, (2) 
$4325. (3) $280, (la) $5350, (2a) $4325, 
( 3a ) $280. Has inherent stability. Wire- 
less outfit and lighting not included as 
no definite approved type specified. 
■ Curtiss Aeroplane Company: (1) 
$10,500, (2) $7000, (3) $425, (4) $3000. 
(la) $10,500. (2a) $7000, (3a) $425, 
(4a) $3000. Informal — no guarantee. 

Gallaudet Company. Inc.: (1) $1800; 
for one machine. 

Grinnell Aeroplane Company: (1) 
$6500, (2) $8000, (3) $500. 

Wm. C. Hurst: (1) $7500, (2) $3500; 
informal — no guarantee. 

Peoli Aeroplane Corporation: (1) 
$3100. (2) $3700, (3) $500, (la) $3100, 
(2a) $3700, (3a) $500. 

Shaw Aeroplane Company: (1) $4499, 

(2) $3415, (3) $586; informal— no guar- 
antee. 

B. F. Sturtevant Company: (2) $4325, 
(2a) $4325. Price does not include 
wireless and lighting outfits, but includes 
fitting such if furnished by Government. 

Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Company : 
(1) $4600 and $5850, (2) $3550 and 
$6380. (3) $750. These prices for Type 
H.S. and S. respectively. Prices do not 
include wireless or lighting outfits. 

The Tvgard Engine : (2) $14,000. (2a) 
$14,000. " 

The Wright Company: (1) $9740, (2) 
$5200, (3) $60, (la) $7500, (2a) $4940, 
(3a) $60. Price does not include wire- 
less and lighting outfits, compass, chart 
holder or sextant. 

B. Stephens & Son: (1) $3000, (2) 
$3400. (3) $200: if Sturtevant motor is 
furnished Item 2 will be $4200. 

G. H. Armitage: (1) $3800. (2) $4300, 

(3) $250: informal— no guarantee. 
Prices were itemized as follows : 

BID A — 3 Hydroaeroplanes and 4 
power plants : 

1. Aeroplane — Includes the aeroplane 
proper, with stabilizers, controls, control 
surfaces and leads, armor, launching 
truck, engine covers, cockpit covers, etc., 
together with the necessary crating. 



2. Power Plant — Includes motor, pro- 
peller, radiator, gasoline and oil tanks, 
piping, controls, gasoline and oil gauges, 
wireless outfit, lighting outfit, power 
transmission system and the necessary 
shipping crates. 

3. Instruments — Includes instrument 
board complete, compass and drift in- 
dicator, lightweight sextant, chart holder, 
incidence indicator and necessary pack- 
ing for shipment. 

4. Automatic Stabilizers — If proposed. 
BID B— 6 hydroaeroplanes and 8 

power plants : 

la. Same as above. 
2a. Same as above. 
3a. Same as above. 
4a. Same as above. 

QUICK DELIVERY A FACTOR. 

Machines having characteristics dif- 
fering from above will be considered 
under certain conditions. Bids will be 
awarded on merits of design, complete- 
ness of specifications and price and time 
of delivery. 

Decision will be made as to design on 
the basis following, in the order given : 
Speed, radius of action, climb, glide and 
reduction of head resistance. The power 
plant will be considered from the view 
of propeller efficiency, fuel consumption, 
weight and compactness. 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. 

Two-seater, With fullest practicable 
view in all directions for pilot and ob- 
server who are to be protected in a 
stream line body. 

To have, with full load, speed range 
50-80 miles per hour, and a radius of 
action of 4 hours at full speed. 

Climb 250 ft. per minute for first 10 
minutes. 

Glide at least 6 to 1, still air, engine 
dead. 

CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN. 

Certain standard Government require- 
ments must be adhered to. Information 
must be given as to material used in 
construction, grade, manufacture, break- 
ing strength, elastic limit, per cent 
elongation; maker of motor, magneto 
and carburetor, with particulars. 

Other requirements are: 

Protection from weather and spray for 
all parts by the use of approved paints, 
metal plating or non-corrosive material. 

Portable covers for cockpit and power 
plant. 

All interior woodwork will be given 
protection against moisture. 

The hull or boat structure should be 
utilized in reinforcing the main struc- 
tural girders. The principal hulls shall 
be subdivided into water-tight compart- 
ments so arranged that the flooding of 
any one of them shall not seriously en- 
danger the machine when adrift. Ready 
means of draining while afloat, which, 
if practicable, shall be operated from 
cockpit. 

Suitable provision in fuselage for 
mounting the outfit. 

The control surfaces to give positive 



control when flying at slow speed. The 
controls are to be capable of operation 
by either person unassisted or in con- 
junction, and the pilot should be able to 
take charge from the other by force. 

Duplicate leads are required to the 
ailerons or rolling rudders, to the warps, 
and to the steering and diving rudders. 
The duplicate leads should, so far as 
practicable, follow different lines from 
those of the principal leads. 

The wings shall be capable of being 
readily and quickly removed, or closed 
or folded. 

Suitable fittings for hoisting aboard 
ship from the water. 

All parts, and particularly the power 
plant and wings, shall be thoroughly se- 
cured to withstand the impulse neces- 
sary to launch the machine from a cata- 
pult and to withstand the shock of rough 
landings. 

A transportation truck is to be pro- 
vided with each machine, with wheels 
to permit use on soft wet sand. 

POWER PLANT. 

To be provided with starting means 
from either seat. 

The carburetor provided with means 
for heating, and with means for muffling 
to prevent fire. Provision to prevent 
danger of fire in case machine should 
turn upside down. 

Double independent ignition and dou- 
ble magnetos. , 

The motor protected from moisture 
and spray. 

The ignition and auxiliary circuits 
must be thoroughly protected from short 
circuits from spray. 

All aluminum parts to be given pro- 
tection against the effects of salt water. 

All oil piping annealed. 

A positive system of pumping gasoline 
from the reserve tanks to the service 
tank shall be provided unless gravity 
feed from all tanks is used. 

Gas. water and oil service pipes will 
be protected against vibration. 

A positive means of cutting off the 
gas at the service tank shall be readily 
accessible from either seat. 

At least one reliable method of stop- 
ping the motor shall be provided, to be 
operated from either seat. 

Fuel-tank capacity for at least 4 hours 
flying at full power, and provision for 
an additional 200 pounds of gasoline. 

The service feed tank shall have a 
capacity for at least one-half hour's 
flight, and shall be so fitted as to prevent 
danger from fire in case the machine 
should turn upside down. 

So far as practicable, the entire power 
plant should be assembled as a unit on 
a good rugged foundation, which can 
be readily removed or replaced with a 
minimum disturbance of connections. 

Provision is desirable, on the engine 
shaft proper, for driving the wireless 
and lighting generators and stabilizer 
generators, but where this is not prac- 
ticable rigid and substantial connections 
to the engine bed are required so as to 
preserve the proper alignment for driv- 
ing these auxiliaries. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 5 



The motor shall, if practicable, be so 
installed as to permit of dropping the 
lower crank case without the removal 
of the motor from its foundations. 

PROPELLERS. 
Efficiency should exceed 70 per cent. 
Protected from the action of spray and 
broken water. The hub face plates shall 
be thoroughly interconnected independ- 
ently of the propeller bolts. A safety 
nut shall be provided, so that in case the 
propeller bolts carry away the propeller 
cannot come off the hub. 

MOTOR TESTS. 

Before installation one motor to be 
selected, shall be put through the com- 
plete set of tests in succession as de- 
scribed herein. The remaining motors 
shall be put through test D. These tests 
shall take place before a designated Gov- 
ernment representative. 

Test A. — One-half hour run on the 
block to determine the maximum brake 
horsepower and the revolutions neces- 
sary to deliver the rated horsepower, to 
be followed by the calibration run for 
determining the b. h. p. r. p. m. curve. 

Test B. — Motor and propeller to run 
one-half hour at full power while in- 
clined upward at an angle of 10°. 

Test C. — Motor and propeller to run 
one-half hour at low speed while in- 
clined at an angle of 10° downward. 
The low speed should not exceed 25 per 
cent of the speed for full power. 

Test D. — Four hours' run of the motor 
with calibrated moulinet at full power. 
After the 4-hour run the motor shall be 
disassembled and the motor and auxil- 
iary parts shall be weighed. It will then 
be carefully examined and conditions 
within noted, particular attention being 
paid to the amount of wear and of car- 
bon deposit. If the above tests and in- 
spections are satisfactory, the motor shall 
be reassembled and given an additional 
4-hour run, without any adjustments or 
replacements during same, and during 
which observations shall be made in ex- 
actly the same manner as in the previous 
4-hour run. 

During the above trials records of the 
revolutions obtained and the correspond- 
ing power developed shall be made every 
10 minutes, together with notes as to the 
general action of the motor while run- 
ning. The engine shall be thoroughly 
balanced and vibration shall be a mini- 
mum. Oil and gasoline consumption will 
be measured for each of the above trial 
runs, and notes made as to the tempera- 
ture of the circulating water at the in- 
let and outlet. No adjustments or re- 
placements are to be made during the 
above trials. Special attention will be 
paid to making certain that during the 
inclined runs the lower cylinders are at 
no time being flooded. 

TRIALS. 
"Full load" comprises the machine 
complete in order of flight, including in 
addition 380 pounds for pilot and ob- 
server ; fuel oil and water for at least 
4 hours' flight at full power; and the 



outfit and equipment; or an equivalent 
load in place. 

Outfit and Equipment. 

Pounds. 

Machine gun and mount 30 

Box of ammunition 60 

Instrument board 20 

(The instrument board to include a 
watch-chronometer, an inclinometer, a 
tachometer, a barometer, and a speed- 
ometer.) 
Armor protection for engine and crew 40 

One compass and drift indicator 6 

Sextant 2 

Chart holder 2 

Incidence indicator 2 

Emergency rations, including drink- 
ing water 20 

Tool kit 10 

Fire extinguisher 8 

Sea anchor and line 6 

First-aid kit 8 

DEMONSTRATION TRIALS. 
Before entering the prescribed accept- 
ance test, each machine shall be flown 
by a representative of the builder. Dur- 
ing these trials the machine shall carry 
the specified full load, and demonstrate 
to the satisfaction of the inspector that 
it is capable of meeting the requirements. 

ACCEPTANCE TRIALS. 
Then the machine will be given ac- 
ceptance trials at United States Navy 
Aeronautic Station, Pensacola, Fla. Each 
additional machine must perform con- 
sistently with the original of its type. 

SEAWORTHINESS. 

The machine must ride at anchor or 
adrift in a 25-mile wind in open water 
for 4 hours without danger of capsizing. 

When adrift, it should normally head 
into the wind. 

Under way at low speeds, it should 
steer readily. 

It should be provided with a bow 
chock and cleat for towing and mooring 
purposes, and with means for steering 
while being towed. 

With "full load" : 

The machine shall be capable of get- 
ting away in a calm in smooth water 
in a distance of not over 1500 feet (from 
a start with the engine throttled down 
to one-quarter of the full speed revolu- 
tions at the starting mark). 

It should also be capable of getting 
away and of alighting in a 25-mile wind 
in rough water in the open sea. 

It should be capable of landing at high 
speed before the wind without danger of 
nosing under. 

The hull should, to as great a degree 
as possible, combine the following qual- 
ities : 

Begin planing at or below 20 miles 
an hour in rough water. 

Be free from suction effects. 

Have in general a skid-form profile. 

Have a sufficiently easy bow to allow 
of plowing through a moderate sea with- 
out undue pounding or wetness. 

Have a sufficiently strong bottom to 
sustain punishment at high speed. 

The machine should not capsize on a 
skidding landing or when running at 



high speed on the surface with wind and 
sea abeam. 

AIR WORTHINESS. 

To have efficient longitudinal, lateral, 
and directional stability in strong and 
variable winds up to 35 miles per hour 
and to be capable of banking steeply 
without danger. 

Longitudinal control shall be such as 
to enable recovery after a steep glide, 
and to enable the machine to readily 
assume the gliding attitude in case power 
should fail while climbing. 

Any machine proposed shall have 
initial or natural lateral, longitudinal, 
and directional stability in flight, such 
that moderate variations from the neu- 
tral attitude shall produce positive right- 
ing moments. Any special arrangement 
of the planes as to their plan form, 
dihedral angle, or the adjustability of 
the angle of the main planes or of the 
stabilizers for this purpose shall be 
clearly described, together with the ef- 
fects produced. 

Inherent or natural -stability will be 
demonstrated by steadying the machine 
in horizontal flight and then holding the 
controls in a fixed position. Under such 
conditions the machine should hold its 
course and trim for an appreciable period 
without requiring correction or involving 
the machine assuming a dangerous atti- 
tude. 

Automatic stabilizers, if used, must be 
of demonstrated efficiency and reliability. 
They must be sensitive, capable of ad- 
justment, as small and light as prac- 
ticable, and should be applicable to any 
standard type of control without re- 
quiring undue rearrangement. They 
should be capable of being instantly 
thrown into or out of action as re- 
quired. They should not interfere with 
the directional control of the machine. 
When the automatic stabilizer is in oper- 
ation, the control of direction should be 
attained either through the regular con- 
trols or in a manner exactly similar to 
that ordinarily employed. If such an 
installation is proposed, it should be 
made a separate and independent item 
and be accompanied with complete plans 
and specifications, with price, and price 
list of spares. 

The lower limit of speed should be at- 
tained at an angle which is not in danger- 
ous proximity to the stalling angle, and 
without the use of the "reverse control" 
or the jockeying of the engine power. 

Climbing, turns, fuel and oil, speed 
range and gliding tests will be made. 

Bidders will submit following data 
with their proposals: Full particulars 
of their machines, with power curves, 
drawings, etc. 

WHO GOT THIS ORDER? 

The Chinese Government has decided 
to give rewards to Chinese inventors of 
airships, says the Peking Daily News. 

A Canton telegram to the Shun Pao 
reports the Chiangchun Lung Tsi- 
kwang, of Canton, has arranged to buy 
two aeroplanes from an American firm 
at a cost of $32,000. The aeroplanes 
have arrived, and the trials are being 
arranged for. — Consular Report. 



Page 6 



AERONAUTICS 



NEW 140 H.P. STURTEVANT MOTOR 



The latest motor especially designed to 
suit aeronautical requirements by the B. 
F. Sturtevant Company is of the eight- 
cylinder V type, four-cycle, water- 
cooled ; bore 4 inches, stroke S]/ 2 inches ; 
normal speed 2000 r.p.m. The propeller 
shaft is driven through a reducing gear 
which can be furnished in different gear 
ratios so that the propeller turns at 
any desired speed between 1000 and 1500 
r.p.m. 

Cylinders, of the L head design, ex- 
haust and intake valves on same side, 
are cast in pairs of semi-steel with in- 
tegral water-jackets. Large openings in 
the back and top, closed by aluminum 
cover plates, enable very accurate mould- 
ing and thorough cleaning. 

Valves, hardened tungsten steel, heads 
and stems from one piece ; large diame- 
ter and easily removed for inspection or 
grinding without disturbing any other 
part of motor. They are operated di- 
rect from one central camshaft which 
lies between the two groups of cylinders 
above the crankshaft. 

Pistons are of same material as cyl- 
inders, ribbed in the head for strength 
and cooling; three compression rings. 
The piston pin is chrome nickel steel, 
bored hollow and hardened. 

Connecting rods are of H section, ma- 
chined all over from forgings of a spe- 
cial air-hardening chrome nickel steel, 
which after being heat-treated has a 
tensile strength of 250,000 pounds per 
square inch. They are, consequently, 
very strong and yet unusually light and. 
being machined all over, are of absolutely 
uniform section, which gives as nearly 
perfect balance as can be obtained. The 
big ends are lined with Sturtevant white 
metal and the small ends are bushed 
with phosphor bronze. The connecting 
rods are all alike and take their bearings 
side by side on the crankshaft. 

Crankshaft is machined from a billet 
of the highest grade chrome nickel steel 



weight. It is carried in three large bear- 
ings lined with renewable bushings of 
Parson's white brass. 



and is ribbed on the bottom to assist in 
cooling the oil. 

The camshaft is contained within the 




The base consists of two castings of a 
special aluminum alloy. The upper half 
is designed with a view to strength and 
rigidity rather than extreme lightness. 
It extends considerably below the cen- 




properly heat-treated to obtain the best 
properties of this material. Large diam- 
eter and bored hollow throughout, in- 
suring maximum strength with minimum 



tre line of the crankshaft to further 
increase its strength. The lower half is 
of light construction, designed for the 
purpose of containing the lubricating oil 



upper half of the base between the two 
groups of cylinders and is supported in 
six bronze bearings. It is bored hollow 
throughout and the cams are formed 
integral with the shaft and ground to 
the proper shape and finish. The gears 
operating the camshaft, magneto, oil and 
water pumps are contained within an 
oil-tight casing and operate in a bath of oil. 

The propeller shaft is carried on two 
large annular ball bearings and driven 
from the crankshaft by hardened chrome 
nickel steel spur gears. These gears are 
contained within an oil-tight casing in- 
tegral with the base on the opposite end 
from the timing gears. A ball thrust 
bearing is provided on the propeller shaft 
to take the thrust of a propeller or trac- 
tor as the case may be. 

Lubrication is of the complete forced, 
circulating system, the oil being supplied 
to every bearing under high pressure 
by a rotary pump which is operated by 
gears from the crankshaft. The oil pas- 
sages from the pump to the main bear- 
ings are cast integral with the base, the 
hollow crankshaft forming a passage 
to the connecting rod bearings and the 
hollow camshaft distributing the oil to 
the camshaft bearings. The entire sur- 
face of the lower half of the base is 
covered with a fine mesh screen through 
which the oil passes before reaching the 
pump. About two gallons of oil are 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 7 



contained within the base and this is re- 
plenished as fast as used by a secondary 
oil pump operated by an eccentric on the 
camshaft. This draws fresh oil from 
an external tank which can be made of 
any capacity desired. 

The carburetor is of the Zenith type 
especially designed for this motor. It is 
of the double horizontal design with one 
float chamber and two jets, each sup- 
plying one group of four cylinders. It 
is located between the cylinders and sup- 
plied with a liberal amount of hot air 
from the exhaust so that the mixture 
is not affected by changes in weather 
conditions. 

Ignition is by two Bosch or Mea 
water-proof magnetos placed face to face 
on each side of the carburetor between 
the two groups of cylinders. The spark 
plugs are located in water-cooled bosses 
in the centres of the cylinder heads. 

The water circulation is accomplished 
by a centrifugal pump which delivers 
a large quantity of water through the 
cylinder jackets and maintains a uniform 
temperature around all parts of the cyl- 
inders. The screw caps over the valves 



spa/fe test op sfuplavzht ae&onaitical moto&z. 

Model ,5 

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are covered with a single plate so that 
the water passes over these so that that 
there are no surfaces of the cylinders 



RECORD FOR NEW THOMAS TRACTOR. 

The illustration is of the new Thomas pilot, passenger and IS gals, of gasoline 

military two-place tractor, which was de- was 81.1 m.p.h. over a measured course, 

scribed in the issue of "October 15, 1914." Climb with pilot, passenger and 15 gals. 

The Thomas brothers have been thor- of gasoline for the first 1000 ft. 1 minute 




oughly testing on the head of Cayuga 
Lake, and they believe they have ac- 
complished an American record for a 
quick rate of time with pilot and two 
passengers, besides a heavy load of gas. 
The figures are as follows : 

Machine loaded with 40 gals, of gaso- 
line, 3 L 2 gals, of oil, pilot weighing 165 
lbs. and two passengers of 170 and 155 
lbs. respectively, besides the regular 
equipment of instruments required by 
the army, the climb in 10 minutes was 
exactly 4000 ft. Also the speed with 



25 seconds : 4000 ft. 7 minutes 35 seconds. 
A 90 h.p. Austro-Daimler engine is fitted. 
The machine lists at $8000. 

With a 100 h.p. Sturtevant or Curtiss 
motor, the price on this would be $6500. 

A scout racette type biplane with 60 
h.p. Sturtevant or Curtiss engine sells at 
$5500. An exhibition machine with same 
motors sells for $4500. The new 1915 
flying boat with same engines brings 
$6500. 

The Thomas company is bidding on 
the Navy specifications. 



"Within two years, in my opinion, the 
postal aviator will be as common a sight 
in this country as the railway mail clerk 
is now." — Assistant Postmaster-General 
Wood, January 14, 1915. 



* * * If the club goes in for aviation, 
I'm going to resign." — Statement of same 
man in 1908. 



Aero Club President Takes Flying 
Boat Trip. — Headline in a 1915 news- 
paper. 

"I'm opposed to the club's going in 
for aviation ; this is a balloon club. 



Palm Beach, Fla., February 3. — E. K. 
Jaquith, accompanied by Lionel Arm- 
strong, of Pasadena, Cal.. made a trip 
in an aeroplane from here to Miami in 
an hour and five minutes this afternoon. 
Mr. Armstrong made an altitude flight 
of 2000 feet with Jaquith this morning. 



uncooled. Information concerning the 
radiator is not given as the requirements 
are usually different in each installa- 
tion. 

A starting crank is provided by which 
the motor can be readily started from the 
machine. The crank handle can be ex- 
tended to pass through a control board 
if desired. 

Light weight and extremely efficient 
mufflers can be supplied also, one for 
each group of four cylinders which ef- 
fectively silences the exhaust with only 
a slight loss of power. 

Every motor is first coupled to a 
dynamometer and required to show its 
rated horsepower. It is later subjected 
to a rigid test with a propeller under the 
same conditions which it operates in 
actual service. 

The weight of the motor complete 
with carburetor, magnetos, starting 
crank, propeller hub, bolts and front 
plate, but without radiator and propeller, 
is 550 lbs. — 3.9 lbs. per b.h.p. The price 
of this motor is $4,000. 

Another model, a six-cylinder, 80 h.p., 
is sold at $2,400. 

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS. 

IMPORTS. 

December, 1914 none 

Same period 1913. parts $1,865 

12 mos. ending Dec, 1914, 1 
aeroplane ($1,856) and parts 

($12,054)— total 13,910 

Same period. 1913, 1 aeroplane 
($900) and parts ($20,590) — 

total ' 21,490 

Same period. 1912, 16 aeroplanes 
($61,100) and parts ($1,776) 
—total 62,876 

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 

December, 1914, 6 aeroplanes 
($63,500) and parts ($90,004) 
—total 153,504 

Same period, 1913, 1 aeroplane 
($6,375) and parts ($1,002) — 
total 7,377 

12 mos. ending Dec, 1914, 40 
'planes ($253,499) and parts 
($145,997)— total _ 399,496 

Same period, 1913, 19 'planes 
($61,325) and parts ($25,606) 
—total 86.931 

Same period, 1912. 35 'planes 
($113,251) and parts ($13,176) 
—total 126,427 

FOREIGN EXPORTS. 

December, 1914 none 

December, 1913. 1 aeroplane.... 4,049 
12 mos. ending December, parts 

only 207 

Same period, 1913, 3 'planes 
($14,381) and parts ($900) — 
total 15,281 

IN' WAREHOUSE DECEMBER 31. 

1914, 1 aeroplane 1,856 

Forty aeroplanes, with a total valua- 
tion as above, figure $6,337.47 each. If 
the parts were made up, at this rate, 
the number of additional aeroplanes 
u.mld amount to over 23, making 63 the 
total exported for the year. 



Page 8 



AERONAUTICS 



THE 1915 BENOIST BOAT 




The Benoist airboat for 1915 is being 
made in two standard models, as follows, 
by the Benoist Aeroplane Company, of 
Chicago, 111. : 

Model "A" is a two passenger machine 
requiring 75 h.p. for efficient service. It 
has a spread of 36 ft., chord of 5 ft., and 
a gap of 6 ft. The standard machine is 
constructed with a spruce hull of the 
following dimensions : Length, fore and 
aft, 23 ft. ; width at passenger seat, 38 
in.; step situated 30 in. back of front 
strut, and is 5 in. deep. The part of 
the bottom in front of the step is doubled 
J A in. spruce, while the rear bottom is 
single 3-s in. spruce. The sides are made 



of Yi in. spruce. The complete hull is 
finished in Valspar varnish, three coats 
on the inside and six coats outside. This 
year the standard boats may be equipped 
with the motor set in the hull of the 
boat or up between the planes, as pre- 
ferred by the purchaser. The area is 
365 sq. ft. Weight, with 75 h.p. motor, 
1180 lbs. Useful load, 650 lbs. Farman- 
type lateral stabilizers, 16 sq. ft. Fixed 
tail stabilizer, 10 sq. ft. Elevator flaps, 
18 sq. ft. The wings are covered with 
Irish linen, treated. The upper works 
of the boat are of mahogany. The con- 
trols may be the Benoist modified Far- 



man or Deperdussin type, as preferred. 
The Model "B" has the following 
specifications: Spread. 51 ft. 6 in.; chord, 
5 ft., and a gap of 6 ft. The hull is 42 
in. wide and 24 ft. fore and aft. This 
model requires 100 h.p. The motor may 
be placed either in the hull or up be- 
tween the planes, according to the wishes 
of the purchaser, the same as in Model 
"A." Area, 497 sq. ft. Weight, with 100 
h.p. motor, 1390 lbs. Useful load, 800 
lbs. Stabilizers and elevators, same as 
in Model "A," 16, 10 and 18 sq. ft. re- 
spectively. Other specifications are prac- 
tically the same as in Model "A." 



SLOANE TRACTOR BIPLANE 



The Sloane "E-2" Tractor Biplane 
has been developed to meet the leading 
military specifications. 

This model can also be furnished as 
a hydroaeroplane. 

This model is arranged for pilot and 
observer seated in tandem and is equip- 
ped with either double or single control. 
It is equipped with 80 H.P. Gyro motor. 
It has a flying range of from 40 to just 
over 75 miles an hour. Its guaranteed 



climbing speed with full load is 4,000 
feet in 10 minutes. 

The planes are similar in design and 
construction to monoplane wings. The 
frame-work is built up of ash and 
spruce ; the front main beams measur- 
ing 2fs in. deep by lfS in. thick. Ribs 
close together, joints securely mortised 
and fastened ; internally braced with 
heavy wire ; unbleached linen treated 
with Naiad aero varnish ; spread is 36 



ft. 6 in, chord 5 ft. 6 in., the supporting 
surfaces being 400 sq. ft. Bottom set 
of planes are attached directly to the 
fuselage ; upper planes are attached to 
short uprights mounted on top of 
fuselage. 

The fuselage is of rectangular sec- 
tion, 30 in. wide by 35 in. deep ; cockpit 
tapering longitudinally to a flat hori- 
zontal pointed section 15 in. wide at 
the rear. Ash longitudinals 1J4 in- 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 9 



square in front, tapering to 1 in. at 
rear. Braced by 8 sets of uprights, 
joined and fastened by special clamps 
without weakening longitudinals. 

Strongly cross wired and braced with 
additional wooden diagonals at points 
of greatest stress. Streamline effect of 
fuselage is preserved by enclosing the 
whole nose, with motor, and mounting 
in a round streamline aluminum cowl. 
Additional streamline wind shields pro- 
tect cockpits. 



The Gyro motor is mounted in spe- 
cial ball-bearing brackets in extreme 
nose, partly covered by oil shield, read- 
ily detachable for inspection or removal 
of motor. 

Landing chassis consists simply of 
two pairs of struts arranged V fashion 
carrying two 26 in. by 3 in. streamline 
disc wheels mounted on opposite ends 
of a tubular axle, together with a single 
wheel located well forward and similar- 



ly supported. Wheels attached by rub- 
ber band shock absorbers. Tail is sup- 
ported by an ash skid sprung on with 
rubber shock absorbers. 

Control is the regulation Deperdussin 
wheel and foot bar type, which operates 
by a turning of the wheel the ailerons, 
by a fore and aft movement of the ele- 
vator and by foot bar the rudder. 

The drawing to scale shows dimen- 
sions of various parts. 




SLOANE TARCTOR BIPLANE 



WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT. 

The new suit of The Wright Company 
against the Curtiss Aeroplane Company 
is not yet set down for hearing on the 
motion for preliminary injunction. The 
answering affidavits of The Wright Com- 
pany are not yet filed, and when they 
are the date of hearing is to be agreed 
upon. A month or two may elapse be- 
fore the case comes to hearing. 

The defendant has filed in court a 
number of affidavits in opposition to 
the granting of a preliminary injunction 
by the court. These affidavits cover: 

A denial of infringement, somewhat 
of a repetition of the same defense that 
was made in the former suit, and a state- 
ment about the old Langley machine of 
1903, which the defendant claims flew 
in 1914. 

The plaintiff will claim that the Lang- 




MOUNTING A GYRO MOTOR 



ley machine in 1914 was not the Langley 
machine of 1903. 

The rebuttal affidavits on behalf of 
The Wright Company will be duly filed 
in the near future, after which the 
hearing will be had on the injunction 
motion. 



MOUNTING A GYRO MOTOR 

The drawing shown herewith shows 
the mounting scheme for tractor bi- 
planes, using the 90 H.P. Gyro Duplex 
Motor, Model "K," 4V 2 in. by 6 in. 
bore and stroke, 7 cylinders, 215 lbs. 
The diameter of this motor is 3S$i in. 

The next higher power model is the 
"L," 110 H.P., 9 cylinders, same bore 
and stroke, weight 270 lbs., 37 l A in. in 
diameter. 



Page 10 



AERONAUTICS 



TWO NEW ROBERTS MOTORS 



The Roberts Motor Manufacturing 
Company, of Sandusky, Ohio, announces 



simply giving it plenty of gasoline." 
As in all Roberts two-cycle motors, 




two new models to supplant the SO h.p. 
and 75 h.p. models formerly made and 
meet the present demand for higher 
power. 

A new departure for this company is 
the use of iron cylinders instead of 
aerolite. The 100 h.p. is known as the 
"1915 6-X" model. The six cylinders are 
5x5 in., iron, with aerolite base and 
manifolds. The weight is 340 lbs. Two 
2-in. Kingston carburetors are used and 
any make of magneto desired. For the 
motor a speed variation of from 200 to 
2600 is claimed. The normal speed is 
1400 to 1600. At 2000 r.p.m. the load 
curve drops to 6 per cent, and the full 
horsepower is obtained at 1400 to 1600. 
"In our recent tests the motor showed 
absolutely no vibration and ran for 10 
hours without any attention whatever, 



the oil is mixed with the gasoline. The 
gasoline consumption was found to be .8 



of a pint per horsepower hour. The 
motor is guaranteed to stand more abuse 
or heavy work with less attention than 
any other motor on the market. Every 
motor is given a 10-hour test. It is 
claimed that the motor can be taken 
apart and fully reassembled in one hour's 
time. The timing system is so simple 
that it can be entirely removed and re- 
placed in one minute. The Roberts plant 
has a capacity of 50 motors per month 
for the next 60 days. This model sells 
at $1250. 

The 200 h.p. motor is of the same de- 
sign, but the bore and stroke are &/ 2 and 
6 in. respectively. This motor weighs 
690 lbs. It is known as the "1915 6-XX," 
and sells at $1850. 

These prices include carburetor, mag- 
neto, grease cups, spark plugs and nec- 
essary wire. 




COLT AUTOMATIC GUN. 

The Colt automatic seems to be the 
only gun on the market in the United 
States suitable for mounting on aero- 
planes, land or water. The Benet-Mer- 
cier gun, shown in the issue dated Oc- 
tober 30, 1914, on the latest Burgess- 
Dunne, was built by the Colt people to 
U. S. Government specifications. The 
Ordnance Department of the Govern- 
ment is known to be working along this 
line and has been conducting tests re- 
cently at Sandy Hook. 

"I do not know of any trials of the 
Colt automatic gun on aeroplanes, for 
there is no reason why they should be 
used for this purpose, that is, unless you 
want an automatic gun on an aeroplane. 
Such information as we have received 
seems to point to the fact that guns 
mounted on an aeroplane are not con- 
sidered desirable abroad in this war, 
and the aviators use rifles and revolvers 
by preference. Of course, such news at 
the present time is not to be depended 
on entirely." advises a high naval air- 
craft authority. 

The Colt consists of a detachable bar- 
rel connected with a breech casing in 
which the mechanism for charging, fir- 
ing and ejecting is contained. 

The cartridges, of any caliber desired, 
are automatically fed to the gun by 
means of belts from left to right. The 
belt containing 250 cartridges lies in a 



quick detachable box attached to the 
breech casing. 

The automatic action of the gun is 
effected by means of the pressure of the 
powder gases in the barrel. To operate, 
the feed belt is entered ; the lever is 
thrown downward and rearward once 
(by hand) as far as it will go; this 
opens the breech and feeds the first 
cartridge from the belt to the carrier ; 
the lever is then released, and the spring 
causes it to swing forward, close the 
vent and transfer the cartridge from the 
carrier to the barrel ; also cocking the 
hammer, closing and locking the breech. 




On pulling the trigger the cartridge is 
fired. After the bullet has passed the 
vent and before its exit from the muzzle, 
the powder gases expand through the 
vent upon the piston and gas lever, which 
in turn act on the breech mechanism, 
opening the breech, ejecting the shell and 
feeding to the carrier another cartridge. 
The gas lever, returning, under the ac- 
tion of the retractor spring, forces the 
cartridge into the chamber, closing and 
locking the breech. If, instead of re- 
leasing the trigger, it is held back, the 
same operation will be repeated as long 
as cartridges are supplied, producing a 
continuous fire at the rate of four hun- 
dred shots or more per minute. 

Changes of elevation are made by 
means of the worm gear, which engages 
in the teeth of the arc, and is operated 
by means of the hand wheel. The gun 
may be secured at any desired eleva- 
tion by the arc clamp. 

The gun weighs about 35 lbs., the 
mount weighs about 28 lbs. At 200 yards 
for accuracy, 100 consecutive hits were 
made in 16 seconds. 

This gun will swing horizontally 
through a complete circle of 360°. The 
muzzle may be depressed 39° and ele- 
vated 31°, giving a vertical range of 70°. 
By changing position of mount, the gun 
can shoot almost perpendicularly down- 
ward. 

The length of barrel is 28 in. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 11 



NEW 

AIRCRAFT IN WAR. By Eric Stuart 
Bruce, M.A. 12mo. cloth, 177 pp.. 
illustrated. Published by George H. 
Doran Company, New York ; or ob- 
tainable through Aeronautics. Price, 
50 cents. 
Here is an absorbing little book cov- 
ering the development of aircraft, the 
types of modern airships in various prin- 
cipal countries, the German airship fleet, 
advantages and disadvantages of air- 
ships, types of aeroplanes in the big 
armies of the world, Germany's aero- 
plane equipment, the first use of the 
aeroplane in war, the new arm in Arma- 
geddon and the present deficiencies and 
future possibilities of the military aero- 
plane. 



BOOKS. 

THE FLYING BOOK; The Aviation 
World. Who's Who and Industrial 
Directory. Small 8vo, paper, 173 
pp., illustrated. Published by Long- 
man's, Green & Co., New York; or 
obtainable through Aeronautics. 
Price, 60 cents. 
This little book, besides two articles 
of interest, contains drawings and prin- 
cipal details of the best known aeroplanes 
and motors of every country, a trade 
directory of principal firms all over the 
world dealing in aeronautical material, 
a "who's who" of prominent aviators and 
some notes on the organization of mili- 
tary aviation in the armies and navies of 
some of the principal countries. 




THE FIRST JOINT CONFERENCE ON AVIATION. 

United States Navy, and William J. Hammer, 
the Aeronautical Society and the American So- 
ciety of Electrical Engineers. 

The conference was opened by Acting-Presi- 
dent F. W. Barker, of the Aeronautical Society, 
and organization was effected with Prof. Arthur 
Gordon Webster as permanent Chairman. 

The members of the Technical Board pre- 
sented the following inventions to the con- 
ference for consideration, a number of the 
inventors being present with models for demon- 
tration: 

Henry Morse, pendulum device for stabilizing. 

Theodore Gibon, indirect pendulum device for 
stabilizing. 

Thomas L. White, air velocity device (Ven- 
turi tube) for stabilizing. 

J. M. Davis, inherently stable design of aero- 
plane. 

John Roche, . 

George Bold, universally mounted aileron, 
pendulum controlled. 

Theodore Windell, pressure plates to offset 
banking. 

E. Ebbinghaus, general design and pendulum 
device. 

M. E. Clark, collapsible vane stabilizer, com- 
pressed air control. 

R. R. Grant, utilizing side wind gusts to alter 
wing curvature for stabilizing. 

Prof. Allila Pedery, mercury damped pendu- 
lum device. 

Walter H. Phipps, hinged aileron. 

H. L. Coakley, rudder at an angle to offset 
banking, manually controlled. 

Louis R. Adams, trussed framework for aero- 
plane. 

Charles Colhona, device for varying lift of 
dirigible balloons by compression of the hydro- 
gen. 

David H. Coles, device for utilizing exhaust 
gas of engine, in dirigible balloons. 

!'. A. Peterson, propelling wings with feather- 
ing device. 

The principles of these inventions were thor- 
oughly and ably discussed by the delegates and 
it is believed that the several recommendations 
made by the conference will assist materially 
in the perfection of practical and commercial 
stabilizers. 

Stabilization by means of devices controlled 
or actuated by free pendulums was exhaustively 
sed and it seemed to be the concensus of 
opinion that the free or undamped pendulum 
was a totally unreliable means for the purpose. 
The conference was fortunate in having present 
a delegate who had experimented exhaustively 
with the free pendulum and found it could not 
be relied upon to do what was desired, but, on 
the contrary, would invariably do what was 
not desired. 

The Venturi tube principle in combination 
with ^ervo motors was debated at length and 
doubt was expressed that as this is a constant 
speed device it might fail to produce the de- 
sired effect, and while no strong objection was 
made to the principle it seemed to be the opin- 
ion of most of the delegates that it would have 
to be more thoroughly tested to ascertain its 
true worth. 

The principle of presenting normally nega- 
tive angles of incidence in devices for stabil- 



OF AMERICA 

29 West 39th Street. New York 

OFFICIAL BULLETIN 

President T. R. MacMechen, who recentlv 
returned from England for a short visit has 
given some highly interesting talks at the Regu- 
lar Thursday Evening Round Table Meetings, 
at which he described the work upon which he 
is engaged, and also generally reviewed the 
operations of aeroplanes and dirigibles in Eu- 
rope, affording the members in this manner 
an . insight concerning actual aeronautical con- 
ditions in warfare such as has not been obtain- 
able through published accounts. 

At the meeting on February 11th Mr. E. C. 
Mulligan described and invited discussion on 
the uniflow steam engine with relation to its 
possibilities for aeronautical use, and with a 
view to the co-operation of aeronautical engi- 
neers in adapting this type of steam engine for 
the piopulsion of aircraft. 

Among other subjects that have so far had 
some preliminary discussion at the Round Table 
Talks are the Senrab Kerosene Carburetor and 
the Acme Slide Valve Internal Combustion En- 
gine, to which devices further consideration 
will be given at future meetings. 

The Aeronautical Engineers Society, which is 
the engineering branch of the A. S. of A., will 
hold its first business meeting, for the purpose 
of electing officers, on Thursday evening, the 
4th of March, at S o'clock, or just before the 
opening of the Round Table Talk. 

New members who have been dulv elected, 
subj ect to the Rules of the By-taws, are 
A. J. Spain and George A. Black. 

The First Joint Conference on Aviation was 
called to meet on February 5th and 6th in New 
York at the Aeronautical Society of America's 
rooms in the Engineering Societies Building, 
29 West 39th Street, through the initiative of 
the Technical Board of the Aeronautical So- 
ciety of America. 

The delegates present were: Leon Goldmer- 
stein, Lewis R. Compton, Earle Atkinson and 
Charles W. Howell, representing the Technical 
Board of the Aeronautical Society; Prof. Arthur 
Gordon Webster (Clark LTniversity), American 
Mathematical Society and American Phvsical 
Society: Prof. E. V. Huntington (Harvard 
University), American Mathematical Society: 
Dr. Edgar Buckingham (Bureau of Standards), 
American Physical Society; Elmer A. Sperry 
(Honorary Vice-President), American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers; Lieut. Commander 
P. B. Dongan and Lieut. C. A. Blakely, the 



ization was considered inefficient owing to its 
speed reducing feature. 

Permanently fixed vertical vanes, or vanes 
normally presenting an actuating surface for 
the purpose of preventing side slip or overhang- 
ing on turns, were considered as introducing 
such a dangerous element as to call forth 
unanimous condemnation. 

The following resolutions of a general tech- 
nical nature were adopted: 

"That it be recorded as the opinion of the 
Conference that a free pendulum stabilizing 
device is not practical. 

"That it is the opinion of the Conference 
that any stabilizing device which would reduce 
the speed of the machine either permanently 
or when in action is not to be approved of. 

"That it is the opinion of the Conference 
that vertical vane actuated devices introduced 
to counteract side slip or overhanging on turns 
is likely to produce exactly the wrong result 
when acted upon by side gusts. 

"That the Conference warn inventors against 
injudicious deduction from the action of small 
paper models of the behavior of a full size ma- 
chine. 

"That the Conference expressly abstains from 
endorsing or condemning any individual in- 
vention presented before it. 

"That the Conference recommends the calling 
of a similar conference next year, by the Aero- 
nautical Society of America, the program for 
such conference to be established during the 
intervening period. 

Resolutions of thanks to the Aeronautical 
Society of America and especially to Mr. Leon 
Goldmerstein, Chairman of the Technical Board, 
for their pains taken in the organization of the 
Conference ; to Mr. Elmer A. Sperry for his 
courtesy in showing the Conference the ex- 
tremely interesting work being done at his plant 
in Brooklyn ; to Mr. E. D. Anderson for his 
kindly placing automobiles at the services of 
the Conference and for his arranging the spe- 
cial Choralcello Concert, and to Mr. Louis R. 
Adams for his procuring the services of the 
moving picture photographer. 

After the meeting on the 5th, the Conference 
inspected Mr, Hammer's noted collection, show- 
ing historically the development of the incan- 
descent lamp. Luncheon was served in the 
Society's rooms and the delegates, on leav- 
ing the building, were photographed by a mov- 
ing picture operator. The Conference then vis- 
ited the Sperry Gyroscope factory in Brooklyn, 
where many scientific devices were inspected 
and their manufacture witnessed. In the even- 
ing the Conference attended a dinner tendered 
by the Aeronautical Society and a concert at 
the Choralcello Studio. 

An exhibition of books on aeronautics and 
kindred subjects was arranged by Mr. W. C. 
Cutter, Librarian of the Engineering Societies, 
and was inspected by the Conference on the 6th. 

TROUBLES OF AN EDITOR. 

To the Editor: 

The writer, who although associated with the 
aeronautical industry for the past four years as 
sales manager of the * * aeroplane and 

motor company, and later as sales manager of 
the * * 'plane and motor company, while 

never having the pleasure of meeting you per- 
sonally, is undoubtedly known to you through 
his former connections. 

Since severing my connection with the (lat- 
ter) company, last November, * * I have 
been in touch with a number of motors com- 
panies and at the present time am negotiating 
with two well known motor manufacturers with 
the view to interesting them in the aeronautical 
field, and it is with reference to this matter 
I am writing you. 

Personally the writer believes that the present 
time, owing to the European War, and also to 
the lack of high class American aviation mo- 
tors, offers exceptional opportunities to the 
motor manufacturer who can produce a high 
class motor suitable for aeronautical use which 
is really fit to be called an aviation motor. 
We all know that there is a dearth of high class 
aviation motors on the American market, and 
what motors we do produce in general do not 
compare very favorably with the European 
makes. 

It is true that the * * motor has done 

some very good work, but it is not exactly 
satisfactory as it gives considerable trouble, 
and besides does not deliver the power it 
should for its size. The writer also under- 
stands that the * * * are not satisfied with 



Page 12 



AERONAUTICS 



the * J ' * motor and are looking for some- 
thing better. 

The * * '* motor is a good motor and, by 
many, is considered the best American aviation 
motor; but it also has its troubles. These 
troubles, however, could be eliminated if there 
were sufficient capital behind the motor and 
with proper management undoubtedly would 
come to the fore. But as long as the motor 
remains in the present hands it will not become 
a serious contender in American aeronautics. 

As to the * * * , the old * * * did 
good work and was a satisfactory motor, but 
the * * * gave a lot of trouble; and as to 
the new * * there is not much known 

as yet. Although the writer understands that 
it is doing some good work, it is still an 
uncertainty and must be proven before it can 
receive serious consideration. 

The * * is a motor which appeals to 

amateurs because of its low price, but it will 
hardly receive serious consideration from the 
better class of aviators or the Government in 
its present form because of its inability to stand 
up under service. 

The * ' * motor, as far as the writer 
knows, has never been sold to any but * * * 
and besides it is too small a motor for the average 
plane. 

The * * * motor, while a very good mo- 
tor, has not become very popular undoubtedly 
because it is a type which does not permit the 



highest efficiency in motor construction and 
therefor does not appeal to the aeronautical 
world. 

The * * * motor has done some very 
good work of late but it is still somewhat of an 
experiment. Its scope also is limited in that 
air-cooled motors made in sizes over 100 H. P. 
have not exactly proven satisfactory owing to 
difficulties in cooling. The general tendency 
is towards larger, higher powered motors, and 
when it comes to this type the water-cooled 
motor seems more desirable. I also understand 
that the Government is not favorably inclined 
towards (this type of) motor. 

The * ° * motor is a newcomer and, 
therefore, must be proven before it will re- 
ceive serious consideration. Being an air- 
cooled motor its scope like the * is 

also limited. 

********** 

If the market is as I believe and the Ameri- 
can aviation motor situation as I stated, it 
seems to me that there really is a need for 
another high class aviation motor with a very 
good market for a motor that will do the work 
and stand up under service. 

Both of the parties with whom I am negotiat- 
ing have been very successful in the automo- 
bile racing game, the one party producing 
nothing but racing motors, and either one, I 
believe, with what assistance I can give them, 
is capable of producing a high class aviation 



motor. Their entering this field, however, de- 
pends upon my ability to convince them of the 
possibilities of this industry and the demand for 
such a motor, and this is the reason I am writ- 
ing you. 

In order to substantiate my views, and also 
to assist me in convincing my parties that there 
really is a demand for a high class aviation 
motor. I would like to have an expression from 
you giving your views of the American avia- 
tion motor situation. I would also like to have 
you advise me as to what type, style and size 
motor you believe to be the most desirable and 
best suited to meet all the requirements; in fact 
any suggestions or recommendations you care 
to make will be gratefully received. 

I have appointments with both of my parties 
during the Chicago Automobile Show, which 
opens in about a week, so would consider it a 
great favor if you would let me hear from 
you at an early date as I would like to have 
what information you see fit to give me to 
use in trying to win my parties to the cause of 
aviation. 

Thanking you in advance for your kindness 
and hoping to be able to reciprocate in the near 
future in the way 01 advertising, etc., I am. 
Yours very truly, 



Now, what would you answer this gen- 
tleman; and how? 



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INSTRUMENTS 

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WANTED— 50 to 60 H.P. aeronautical 
motor in good condition ; no junk. Arch. 
Irwin. General Delivery, Topeka, Kans. 
(4x) 

A BEGINNER in aeronautics wishes 
to buy a second hand aero motor for my 
own made monoplane of approximately 
50 H.P. It must be reasonable and in 
good working order. G. Muller, 1633 
N. 15th st., Philadelphia, Pa. 



WANT TO BUY an 80 H.P. Gnome 
or an 80 or 90 H.P. Curtiss. Address 
John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics. (3x) 



FOR SALE — On account of sickness, 
aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade 
for anything of value. E. M., 1522 Nor- 
wood av., Toledo, O. 



MUST SELL— Practically new 30 
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AERONAUTICS 



Page 13 



PATENTS 

SECURED or FEE RETURNED 
VICTOR J. EVANS & COMPANY 



Send sketch or model for FREE opinion as to Patent- 
ability. Write for our Guide Boolu and Wb»t to IiTent with 
valuable Liit of Inventions Wsnled sent Free. Send for our 
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Offered in Prizes for Airships. We are Experts in 
Aeronautic! and have a special Aeronautical Department. 
Copies of Patents in Airships. 10 cents each. 

Main Offices: 771 NINTH STREET, N W 
WASHINGTON. D. C. 



PATENTS 



Manufacturers want me to send 
them patents on useful inven- 
tions. Send me at once drawing 
and description of your invention and I will give you an honest 
report as to securing a patent and whether I can 'assist you in 
selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. 
Personal attention in all cases. 

WM. N. MOORE 
Loan and Trust Building 



Washington, D. C. 




DON'T write us " nles " 

v * * you are inter- 
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build. Four sizes. 
Reasonable Prices 

Kemp Machine Works 
Muncie. Ind. 




Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, 
Rattan and Split Bamboo for models. Tonka Rattan 
for Skids lH diameter and under any length. 

J. DELTOUR. Inc. ""StiSTT 81 



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AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS 

AEROPLANE COMPANY 



Factor// and Office 

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PATENTS 

C. L. PARKER 

Bx -member Examining Corpi, V . 8. Pacant Olfioa 

Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents 

American and foreign patents secured promptly and 

with special regard to the complete legal protection of 

the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request, 

30 McGiU Bide:. WASHINGTON. D. C, 



PATENTS 

THAT PROTECT AND PAY C n r r 
BOOKS. ADVICE AND SEARCHES rKLt 

Send sketch or model for search. Highest References 
Best Results. Promptness Assured. 

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 

624 F Street, N. W. Washington. D. C. 



BALLOONS 



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THE U. S. NAVY USES | 

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AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md. 

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Booklet on Request 



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AERONAUTICS 

2S0W. 54 St.. New York 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 14 



AERONAUTICS 



PEOLI HEADS NEW 
COMPANY 

Joseph P. Day, with several New 
York men of means, has formed the 
Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, and it has 
now built an armored war aeroplane in 
Washington, D. C. Cecil Peoli, the con- 
structor, promises a sensational long 
distance flight soon. A motor hitherto 
unknown on the aero market is to be 
used. 

Among the stockholders are Nicholas 
F. Brady, son of the late Anthony N. 
Brady, and president of the New York 
Edison Company ; Hugh L. Cooper, a 
consulting engineer of 101 Park ave- 
nue : J. Clarence Davies, a real estate 
dealer of 156 Broadway, and Harold 
Roberts, president of the American Real 
Estate Company, 527 Fifth avenue. 

Peoli is a graduate of "Captain Tom" 
Baldwin's famous school for fledgeling 
man-birds — and one who reflects honor 
on his tutor. 

BUSINESS TROUBLES. 

Notices are being sent out for a meet- 
ing of creditors of the Moisant Interna- 
tional Aviators to be held March 9, 1915, 
at the office of Charles A. Tipling, 1 
Bridge Plaza, L. I. City, N. Y. This 
company was adjudged bankrupt on 
February 18, 1915. 

AEROPLANE INSURANCE. 

It will be welcome news to owners of 
aeroplanes and aeroplane manufacturers 
to know that insurance can be written 
on aeroplanes stored and in course of 
manufacture. 

This fact has come out in connection 
with the fire sustained November 21, 
1914. by Mrs. Eva M. Shneider, at 
Hempstead, L. I., when some aeroplanes 
and tools, comprising all the contents 
of the Shneider shed, were destroyed. 
It has developed that these machines, 
parts and tools were insured for a period 
of two months by the Century Insurance 
Company, the face of the two policies 
being $2500 each. The insurance was to 
have expired naturally on November 
25th. The loss claimed by Mrs. Shneider 
was $7028.35. Mrs. Shneider is alleged 
to own the machines with which busi- 
ness is done under the name of "Fred 
Shneider," with an address at 1020 East 
178th Street, New York, after a bill of 
sale involving $5000 was executed by 
Fred Shneider to his wife, March 25, 
1912, in consideration of the sum of $1 
paid Shneider by his wife, according to 
a sworn statement of Shneider's in sup- 
plementary proceedings. 

NAVAL AIR APPROPRIA- 
TION $1,000,000 

The air appropriation for the Navy 
has again been set back to the $1,000,000 
mark and this amount is now assured 
for Naval Aeronautics. 

Proposals will be issued shortly in- 
viting bids for dirigibles. 



DROPPING MESSAGES 

A considerable number of ways have 
been suggested for an aviator to signal 
his side when on reconnaisance flights 
or in directing fire ; wireless telegraphy, 
and various systems of optical tele- 
graphy, such as the Means Smoke Signal 
Service, have been experimented with. 

Additional difficulties are met in de- 
livering messages with sketch maps 




showing the position of the enemy's 
troops, guns, etc. This can be done by 
returning to the base and alight for the 
purpose of delivering the same, but oft- 
times it may be desirable to save valu- 
able time by dropping messages or maps 
without alighting. 

A weighted pouch is often used, but 
a more elaborate apparatus is illustrated 
in the accompanying sketches from 
Flight. French aviator, Paul Fugairon, 
has invented and tested the same with 
good results near Brest. It consists of a 
hollow cylinder pointed towards the 
lower end and fitted at the top with a 
lantern-shaped cap. Into the lower, 
pointed end of the cylinder has been 
poured an amount of lead through a 
passage in which passes the needle, T. 
The top of the needle is connected_to_a 
small crank lever, which engages with 
collar, E., on the firing pin, B. The coil 



FROM AEROPLANES. 

spring, R, retains the firing pin, B, in 
its position, the two brackets, S, serving 
as guides. Over the top of cylinder is 
fitted a cap, L, the top of which is 
formed lantern-shaped with four open 
windows, C. Held by four clamps in- 
side the cap are materials for a Bengal 
fire, which is ignited by the explosion 
of a cap of mercury fulminate placed 





in the outer end of the bent tube, U. 
The needle. T, striking the ground, is 
forced up against the action of the 
spring, thus pulling down the firing pin, 
B, by means of the crank lever resting 
on the collar. E. The crank lever, hav- 
ing moved down sufficiently, releases 
the firing pin, B, which driven upwards 
by spring, R, strikes and ignites the cap 
of mercury fulminate, from which the 
fire is transmitted to materials for the 
Bengal fire through the bent tube, U. 

The result is a bright Bengal fire which 
is visible not only at night but in the 
day time as well, which burns long 
enough to enable a soldier on the look- 
out to locate its position. 

There might be attached to the cylin- 
der some form of parachute to retard 
the fall enough to render the dropping 
cylinder harmless to those beneath, yet 
allow sufficient forcible contact to op- 
erate the needle, T. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

"HOW TO RUN AND INSTALL 
GASOLINE ENGINES" 

By C. Von Culin. 

The instructions given in this book will 
enable any person to properly install, 
care for and operate his own engine. 
The book contains much valuable in- 
formation and is sold for 25 cents by 
The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co, 
132 Nassau St., New York. 



SPAIN NEW AIR MARKET. 

A military aviation camp will shortly 
be established on municipal property at 
Tabladilla, about a mile outside the city 
limits of Seville, Spain. 

It is suggested that manufacturers of 
aeroplanes and motors send copies of 
their catalogues, terms, prices, etc., to 
the American consulate at Seville in 
duplicate; one copy will be kept on file 
and the other sent to the parties in- 
terested. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 15 







100 H.P. 
200 H.P. 



340 lbs. - $1,250 
690 lbs. - $1,850 

A "Q-D" Motor — Simple — No Vibration — 10-Hour Test for Every 
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Less Attention than Any Other Motor. 

All it Wants is Gasoline and Spark. 
Send for New Circular 

Roberts Motor Manufacturing Company 

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ROBERTS Motors 



AERONAUTICAL 
RADIATORS 

Built in capacities and types for standard 
and special aviation motors 

Write for prices on standard makes. Send your 
specifications for special designs 



EL ARCO RADIATOR COMPANY 

64th St. & Weit End Are., New York City 



Also Manufactarerj of Automobile Radiators of all types 



WIRE 

We make an extra high grade 

plated finish wire for 

aviators' use. 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS 

John A. Roebling's Sons Co. 

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Builders as well as Aviators are 

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FOR FLYING BOATS USE 

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proofing' the canvas covering: of flying boats. It not only waterproofs and preserves the canvas 
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fe W. FERDINAND & CO. 201 South Street, Boston, Ma... U. S. A. 



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Page 16 



AERONAUTICS 




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COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS ON REQUEST 



B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY 



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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



VOL. XVI. No. 2 



MARCH 30, 1915 



15 Cents 




ERONfluTIC 



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Page 18 



AERONAUTICS 




4 



The 

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Uses 

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We also make aeroplane tires in any size — 
two new sizes, 26x4 inches and 26x5 inches. 




rOOD/pYEAR 



AKRON. OHIO 



Rubberized Balloon Fabric 
and Accessories 



Ask questions — No obligation 

If you have balloon problems, consult with the 
Goodyear experts. This is no obligation to you. 
Write us, giving specifications, and we will send 
complete information and prices. 

Address Balloon Desk, 136. 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company 

AKRON, OHIO 

Makers of Goodyear Automobile Tires 
New York Branch, 1972 Broadway 



The Ball-bearing 
Motor 




MODEL A8V 110-120 H. P. 

SIMPLICITY 
and PRICE 

THE MAXIMOTOR has 

always been sold at a price 
that put it within the reach 
of all. 

WE have been enabled to 
give Sterling Worth at Maxi- 
motor Prices because of the 
simplicity of design, and the 
ease and rapidity with which 
these motors can be built. 

MANUFACTURING in 
Detroit, the home of the gas 
engine, has played no small 
part in reducing the cost of 
production. 

Let Us Send You Our Catalogue 
and Prices 

DETROIT 

1530 Jefferson Ave. Michigan 



In anszvering advertisements please mention this magazin 



Published semi-monthly in the best interests 

of Aeronautics by 

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 

250 West 54th St.. New York 

Telephone. Circle 2289 

Cable, Aeronautics. New York 



Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22.1908. under the Act o 
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ERNEST L. JONES Editor 

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NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS 

With the preceding issue was begun 
Vol. XI 'I, with No. 1. The issues for 
each six months have, heretofore, formed 
one volume. There should have been 12 



issues for Vol. XV, instead of the 8 with the issue of March 15, 1915. 

winch have been published. Instead of All unexpired subscriptions are set 

continuing to name future issues con- ahead four months so that every sub- 

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an anachronism, a new start was made of issues due him. 



RESISTANCE OF BODIES IN MOTION IN A FLUID 

Different Regimes. — By M. B. Sellers 



It may be remembered that M. Ria- 
bouchinski,* in comparing various "wind 
tunnels," refers to the fact that M. 
Rateau, Prof. Prandtl and Prof. Mallock 
found that between 30° and 40° incli- 
nation, the pressure on a plate exposed 
to a current of air was subject to more 
or less violent fluctuations, now high, 
now low : and that these investigators 
attributed this condition to different 
types of eddies formed behind the plate. 

In his own wind tunnel M. Riabouch- 
inski found no such pronounced fluctua- 
tions, but in a model of the Prandtl 
tunnel, where the rod supporting the 
plate was bent and joined to the plateat 
its middle, so as not to interfere with 
the flow around the edges, the same 
fluctuations were observed as reported 
by Prof. Prandtl ; but with the rod at- 
tached to the edge of the plate they did 
not occur. When the return portion of 
the Prandtl tunnel was removed no 
fluctuations were observed. M. Ria- 
bouchinsjri's conclusion was that the 
current in the Prandtl tunnel was stead- 
ier and thus the eddies or vortices 
formed about the plate were longer pre- 
served. 

This brings to mind that M. Rateau, t 
in determining the centre of pressure on 
a plate found, in the neighborhood of 
40°, two positions of equilibrium for the 
same position of the axis. 

Captain Jules Constanzi,** using a 
cylindrical vertical tube (21.7 mm. diam.) 
partly submerged, to a depth of 385 mm., 
in water, finds two sets of resistance 
values for speeds of translation from 
to 5 m. p. s. : the plotted values ar- 
ranging themselves along two divergent 
curves, having their common origin at 
zero speed and pressure. These curves 
represent two regimes of resistance, 
which we may call the lower and higher 
regimes. 

If we take K = _iL_ and find and plot 
SV 
K for these values of R. then the values 
of K will be grouped along two ap- 
proximately horizontal and parallel 
lines ; that is, for each regime the re- 
sistance is about proportional to the 
square of the speed. 



With a tube of elongated section 23.5 
by 75 mm. the two regimes were not 
continuous, but instead, there seemed to 
be a transition from the lower to the 
higher regime between 3 and 4 m. p. s., 
the higher regime of this tube blending 
with the lower regime of the other. 

The resistance in water of a tube of 
lenticular section being determined and 
the values of K plotted (resistance on 
speed) K was found to decrease rapidly 
between 2 and 4 m. p. s., showing pre- 
sumably a passage from a higher to a 
lower regime. M. Eiffel found a similar 
condition for streamline aeroplane 
struts ; and Capt. Constanzi, in his small 
wind tunnel, finds that a tube of fusi- 
form section shows K decreasing (with- 
in the range of the experiment) ; where- 
as for a round tube, he finds K con- 
stant. Capt. Constanzi concludes that 
the change in value of K corresponds 
to the passage from one regime to an- 
other, which occurs also in air. but at 
a higher speed; the relation being that 
between the viscosities of the fluids. 

Capt. Constanzi tested two spheres ; 
one 10 cm., the other 20 cm. diameter. 
The larger showed a change from a 
higher to a lower regime at about 1.35 
m. p. s.. the smaller at about 2.75 m. p. s. ; 
outside this region of change K was 
nearly constant These two speeds are 
in inverse ratio to the diameter of the 
spheres. For the same speed, the co- 
efficient of the smaller sphere is higher 
than that of the larger sphere, as is also 
the case with wires and dirigible bodies. 

M. Eiffel,*** experimenting with 
spheres in air observed similar phe- 
nomena. Lord Rayleigh.tf basing his 
conclusions on M. Eiffel's experiments, 
has shown that the change of regime 
occurs at corresponding speeds follow- 
ing the law of similitude of Osborne 
and Raynolds. If we plot the values of 
K on VD as abscissas (D = diameter), 
the curves will almost superpose. 

Capt. Constanzi's experiments confirm 
this deduction, as also those of M. 
Maurin at the Institute of St. Cyr, with 
eight spheres ranging from 17 mm. to 
98" mm. radius. The roughness of the 



surface and the character of the support 
are not without influence. 

Finally, Capt. Constanzi refers to ex- 
periments on the resistance of wires, 
made in the Goettingen laboratory and 
in the National Physical Laboratory. 
The points representing the co-efficients 
of resistance of the different wires, in 
function of speed, are scattered over 
the diagram without appearance of 
order. But it suffices to dispose them in 
function of "I'D" to have them range 
themselves along a curve, at first de- 
scending, later becoming horizontal ; the 
descending portion corresponding to the 
change of regime. 

Capt. Constanzi concludes from what 
precedes that the descending part of the 
curve of K corresponds to the passage 
from one regime to another, which oc- 
curs following the law of Osborne and 
Raynolds at different speeds — that is, 
the smaller the model the higher the 
speed. 

"There exists, therefore, for several 
forms, spheres, tubes, wires and 'carenes' 
a double regime of resistance, and we 
pass from one regime to the other at 
different speeds, which depend on the 
dimensions of the bodies and on the 
density of the fluid. Probably the two 
regimes follow the quadratic law as has 
been shown in certain particular in- 
stances.'' 

"Therefore, in experimenting with mod- 
els it is important to know whether one 
is in the first or second regime. In the 
first regime the phenomena are not 
comparable to those which occur in full 
sized apparatus, unless the law of Ray- 
nolds is not yet proven. Finally this, 
double regime wdiich at lower speeds 
depends on viscosity, is encountered 
again at high (ballistic) speeds: in which 
case, compressibility is the preponder- 
ant disturbing phenomenon." 

•Bulletin de l'lnstitute de Koutchino, Pt. 

IV, 113. 

tAerophile. Aug. 1st. 1909. 

""Rendiconti" of the Italian Military 
Aeronautic Laboratory. Vol. I; also Technique 
Aeronautique. Aim 1st, 1914. 

***G. Eiffel. ('. R. Acad. Sc, Dec. 30. 1912. 

ttLord Ravleigh, C. R. Acad. Sc. Tune 13th, 
1913. 



Page 20 



AERONAUTICS 



NAVY DIRIGIBLE SPECIFICATIONS 



With $1,000,000 appropriated by Con- 
gress for naval aeronautics, with addi- 
tional funds which can be drawn on in 
the same manner as has been done in the 
past to provide money for the work 
that already has been acomplished, the 
navy is now in a. position to carry a 
good part of the plan framed by the 
Naval Board of Aeronautics, and first 
published in full in Aeronautics for 
October 30, 1914, p. 122, and January 
31, 1914. p. 19. 

The first proposals issued aie for two 
non-rigid dirigibles, "vedette" type, com- 
plete with necessary power plant, equip- 
ment and outfit, in accordance with 
specifications, inflated at Pensacola, Fla. 

Bids are desired on the following 
basis : 

1. Dirigible — Includes the dirigible 
proper, with car stabilizers, controls, 
control surfaces and leads, blowers and 
fittings, engine covers, cockpit covers, 
etc., with crates. 

2. Power Plant — Includes motor, 
propeller, radiator, gasoline and oil 
tanks, piping, controls, gasoline and oil 
gauges, power transmission system, 
crates. 

3. Instruments — Includes instrument 
board complete, chart holder, gauges, 
etc. 

4. Automatic stabilizers, if proposed. 

Dirigibles having characteristics dif- 
fering from those specified will be con- 
sidered. Decision as to merit of design 
will be based on extent to which pro- 
posed designs conform to or exceed the 
requirements and in this respect the fol- 
lowing points are considered of import- 



ance in the order given : Completeness 
with which detail information asked for 
is furnished, staunchness of design, use- 
ful load, speed, altitude attainable, rate 
of ascent, descent and directional sta- 
bility. Merits of power plant will be 
considered from the viewpoint of suit- 
ability for purpose, propeller efficiency, 
fuel consumption, weight and compact- 
ness in the order given. 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. 

Dimensions not to exceed 17S ft. by 
50 ft. high by 35 ft. wide, useful load 
2,000 lbs. or more. Composed as fol- 
lows : Crew, 1,450 lbs.; tool kit, fire 
extinguisher, rations, 50 lbs.; fuel, oil 
and water for 2 hours, 100 lbs.; air and 
ballast, 400 lbs. With full load— to be 
capable of ascent to at least 3,000 ft. 
without casting ballast, descending at a 
rate of at least 6 ft. per second from 
above altitude ; speed, 25 m. p. h. or 
more ; duration, 2 hours or more, full 
speed; car capacity. 8; enclosed body; 
car to be of such form and buoyancy to 
allow resting on or mov-ng through 
water; 2 balloonets, with means of 
"trimming" by their use, to act in con- 
junction with the pitching controls; twin 
screws, swivelling; at least 1 ripping 
panel at bow and at stern ; substantial 
means for mooring by nose to mooring 
mast in a wind 50 per cent, greater than 
the speed ; gas leakage limited to 1 per 
cent, in 24 hours in shed, normal condi- 
tions. 

POWER PLANT. 

Two motors, light as practicable con- 
sistent with reliability, economy and 
service. To obtain quick delivery stand- 



ard aeroplane motors accepted, provide 
mountings, insure absence of vibration. 
Transmission to provide for swivelling 
proppellers to assist in ascending, de- 
scending or maneuvering. Propellers to 
be more than 70 per cent, efficient at full 
speed. 

There are also requirements covering 
protection from weather and moisture 
by paints, varnishes, etc., covers, color 
scheme, make of fabric used, its strength, 
coating, etc. 

Complete plans, specifications and de- 
scriptive matter are required covering : 
General arrangement plans, principal 
dimensions, performance; envelope 
(strength of cloth, seams, color, perme- 
ability ; stabilizers and rudders ; gas 
valves, operating means, capacity) ; bal- 
loonets (cloth, strength, seams, etc.) ; 
ignition, lubrication and all other details 
of motor and performance; transmis- 
sion, blowers, propellers (no, pitch, 
diameter, etc.), fuel supplies, car and 
suspension, equipment, weight schedule. 

In the original plans as formulated by 
the Navy Aeronautic Board $85,000 was 
figured as the probable cost of these two 
airships. 

NO ARMY AVIATION PARK. 

Congress cut the army s appropr : ation 
down to $300,000 and refused to give 
the money asked for the purchase of 
an aviation site in the vicinity of San 
Diego. No more aircraft will be pur- 
chased other than those at present under 
construction during the balance of the 
present fiscal year, as there are prac- 
tically no funds available for this pur- 
pose. 



MAXIMOTOR MODEL A8V 110-120 H. P. 



In building the "Maximotor," Max 
Dingfelder has followed standard prac- 
tice in design, but has cut down weight 
by elimination and combination of parts. 
Ball-bearings have been adopted for the 
crank and cam-shafts. 

The latest model to be added to the 
line of 4s and 6s is an 8 cyl. "V" of 110- 
120 h.p. The construction details of this 
motor follow: 

The crank shaft is cut from a solid 
billet of chrome vanadium. 2Js in. in 
dia., and hollow bored. Connecting rods 
are drop forged from 3 1/3 in. nickel 
steel; 9 l A in. centers. The crankcase is 
of the barrel, or single piece, type, cast 
from the finest grade aluminum alloy, 
and well webbed. Cast in pairs, the 
cylinders are from the very finest, close- 
grained semi-steel. Water jackets are 
very long, of welded pressed steel. 
Nickel steel tubing is used for the cam- 
shaft, with cams pinned by 3 nickel steel 
taper pins. Pistons are of the same 
material as cylinders, accurately ma- 
chined with convex head, strong 
and light. Intake valves are 2^J in.; 
exhaust. l" x in. Cast iron head fused 
tu nickel steel stem by patented process. 
A gear-type pump placed in deepened 



front of crankcase runs in oil fed from moved, complete with cams, by remov- 

service tank. Riming at engine speed, ing 5 set screws. All small parts have 

oil is forced through the hollow crank- been reduced to the minimum to facil- 

sbaft under high pressure. A supple- itate replacement of parts. Finish: 




OR - 



mentary system sprays the cyinders and 
pistons with lubricant. Ignition is by 
Bosch magneto, of course. The water 
pump is of a centrifugal type of large 
capacity with double outlet, insuring 
perfect cooling. 

Crank-shaft and cam-shaft run in 
ball-bearings. This latter can be re- 



Nickel plated and highly polished. 

The cylinder bore is A l A in. and the 
stroke 5 in. The net weight is 400 lbs. 
Speed, 200-1600 r.p.m. Crank-shaft 
length, 4S in. Thrust with 8 ft. by 6 ft. 
Paragon flexing propeller, 700 lbs. Con- 
sumption, 8 gals, gasoline ; oil, 3 qts. 
hourly. 



AERONAUTICS 



Paee 21 



HEINRICH MILITARY TRACTOR BIPLANE 



This machine has been designed 
especially to meet the 1914 specifications 
and requirements of the United States 
Army and the foreign governments. It 
has been developed to meet the severe 
requirements of a machine for military 
purposes where a machine is called upon 
for very fast dying speed combined 
with a low landing speed, a speed varia- 
tion of better than SO per cent, high 
climbing speed, good gliding angle, a 
large degree of natural stability, econ- 
omy in power. It will arise from the 
land in a very small and confined space 
and has a very clear and wide range of 
vision for pilot and observer. The land- 



a climbing speed of 800 feet per minute, 
and with a passenger and pilot and fuel 
for four hours it has a guaranteed 
climbing speed of 4,000 feet in 10 min- 
utes, and a living speed of 80 m.p.h. 
Flying light it has an extreme speed of 
90" m.p.h. 

The motor mentioned in these speci- 
fications is a 8 cyl. 110-h.p. Gyro rotary- 
motor. The gasoline consumption of 
this motor is 10 gals, per hour, and the 
oil consumption is 1J4 gals, castor oil. 
Weight of motor 270 lbs. Weight with 
easoline and oil for a four hours' run 
570 lbs. 

The wings of this machine are of the 



deep at the rudder. The longerons are 
of ash l'_> in. square at the front, taper- 
ing to 1 in. at the rudder. The fuselage 
is corner braced with seven sets of ash 
struts double channelled, and then cross 
wired, making a box-girder of the 
whole. The second and third struts are 
made extra large to take the extensions 
to the upper plane, the lower ends being 
slotted to take the lower plane beam 
ends. The top of the fuselage is stream- 
lined oft" from the back of the pilot's 
seat to the tail plane. The stream line 
effect is preserved by enclosing the 
motor under an aluminum hood allow- 
ing just the bottoms of the cylinders 




ing chassis combined with very little re- 
sistance is compact and robust. The 
machine is easily handled and quickly 
dismantled with simple, efficient and ef- 
fective controls, and capable of making 
a 500-mile-cross-country flight with a 
passenger. 

The seats are arranged in tandem for 
pilot and passenger with ample room 
allowed in front cockpit for two pas- 
sengers if necessary. The controls are 
placed in duplicate for military work. 
With a 110-h.p. Gyro motor this ma- 
chine has a guaranteed speed range of 
from 45 to 80 m.p.h. Flying light it has 



one-piece type. The wing sections are 
I beam with ash center and spruce 
straps, these are reinforced under the 
upright stanchions and where the cross- 
wire come in inside of wing. The front 
and rear beams are also I beam section 
with ash centers and spruce straps. The 
wing tips are laminated ash 4 ply. The 
covering is Irish linen, unbleached, 
thoroughly coated with a special coating 
and gray varnish. The total lifting area 
in main planes is 285 square feet. 

The fuselage is rectangular in sec- 
tion, 40^ in. wide by 33 in. deep in the 
front tapering to 13 in. wide by 2 in. 



to project for cooling, slots are made in 
the hood on either side of the propeller 
allowing air to enter and circulate 
around the motor. The hood is carried 
back to the pilot's seat, carrying out 
the stream-line effect and protecting the 
pilot and passenger from the wind and 
shielding the dash board upon which 
are mounted the instruments. The en- 
tire fuselage back of the passenger seat 
is covered with Irish linen and treated 
the same as the wings, forward of the 
seat the machine is covered with alumi- 
num. 

The rotary motor is mounted with 



Page 22 



AERONAUTICS 



both front and rear mountings, the 
struts taking the rear mounting, being 
extra large and unchannelled, 2 in. by 
3 in. The front and rear mountings 
are of 3-32 in. reinforced steel. The 
motor is direct connected to an 8 ft. by 
6 ft. propeller. 

The gasoline and oil is fed to the 
motor from a gravity feed tank in front 
of the passenger seat, this tank holds 
10 gals, castor oil and 15 gals, gasoline. 
The gasoline tank is further supplied by 
a combination pressure and hand feed 
pump system. The hand pump only be- 
case the pressure feed fails. 



This gasoline is supplied from a 25-gal. 
tank under the passenger seat. 

The landing chassis is of the wheel 
and skid type, two struts of ash 1% in. 
by 3 in. support the fuselage on either 
side and are fastened to the skid on the 
bottom by a 1-16 in. steel fastening. The 
skid is of laminated hickory, 5 ply, 2^4 
in. deep by 2 in. wide and 4 ft. 6 in. long, 
turned up in front and projecting far 
enough out to protect the propeller. The 
wheels are stream-lined 26 in. by 4 in. 
attached to the skid with rubber rope 
shock absorbers. The whole is then 
cross braced with two steel tubes and 



ing used in __ 

V CHRISTOFFERSON FLYING 



cross-wired. 

The tail skid is also of hickory and is 
hung on rubber rope shock absorbers. 

Lateral balance is maintained by ail- 
erons attached to the trailing edge of 
the upper plane. The vertical rudder is 
of the balanced type with 10 sq. ft. of 
surface. The elevators have 16 sq. ft. 
of surface. The fixed tail plane, or sta- 
bilizer, has 28 sq. ft. of surface. All 
control wires are in duplicate. Either 
the "Three in one" or the "Deperdus- 
sin" control is provided with these ma- 
chines. The weight loaded is 1,430 lbs. ; 
empty, 8S0 lbs. The price is $7,500. 



The Christofferson flying boat, so far 
as the surfaces, control areas, etc., are 
concerned, follow identically the con- 
struction and workmanship of the trac- 
tor biplane. 

The hull is especially designed for 
rough water work, and follows closely 
the fuselage construction of the military 
tractor biplane. The hull length over all 
is 26 ft. 2 in., and the greatest depth 2 ft. 
10 in. : breadth amidships 2 ft. 10 in. 
The bottom is flat and is fitted with 
runners, which make possible alighting 
upon a frozen surface. On this account, 
also, the boat may be driven at a great 
rate of speed from the water up onto 



the beach. The speed range, when fitted 
with a 100-h.p. motor, is 45 to 75 miles 
per hour. The boat carries three per- 
sons besides the pilot, and has a climb- 
ing speed almost equal to that of the 
tractor. 

The top plane proper measures 23 ft. 
9 in., for each section, of which there 
are two (47 ft. 7 in. total). The sec- 
tions are attached to special steel tub- 
ing supports by means of steel pins, 
which can be quickly removed. The 
outer ends of the top section curve to- 
ward the back beam from the last strut 
out. 

The ailerons are a continuation of the 



BOAT 

plane and are attached to the rear beam 
of the plane by special steel hinges. 

The two sections of the bottom plane 
each measure 17 ft. 2 in. in spread, and 
are attached to the fuselage by means 
of quick detachable steel sockets. 

The upper and lower planes are sepa- 
rated 5 ft. 9 in. by means of laminated 
stream-line struts, which fit into special 
patented sockets that serve as a support 
for the guy wires. These sockets are 
so constructed as to allow the top and 
lower planes to be folded together. This 
arrangement makes it possible to set up 
the machine very quickly, as there is 




cHRPTOFFE.R-soN' 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 23 



no "lining up" necessary. This latter 
feature is accomplished by the use of 
patented quick detachable turnbuckles 
constructed of chrome nickel steel and 
tobin bronze. These turnbuckles are so 
constructed that by pulling back a metal 
sleeve a lever is released which in turn 
releases the guy wire. This lever is so 
constructed as to automatically tighten 
the wire as it is pulled back into place 
upon reassembling. 

The beams or spars of the main planes 
are of the "I-beam" type, built up of 
laminated spruce. These beams are 
spaced 3 ft. 6 in. apart. 

The ribs are spaced according to their 
relative location to the fuselage, those 
up close being nearer together and those 
away from the fuselage being further 
separated. The ribs are constructed of 
selected Oregon spruce and basswood, 
and are also of the "I-beam" type. 

The entering edges of the planes are 
fitted with strips of walnut so made that 
a neat, sharp, efficient nose is obtained. 
The planes are interbraced by means of 
wooden rods, both laterally and cross- 
wise. This wood bracing is glued to 
each rib it passes through, and makes 
practically a solid mass in point of 



BEACHEY KILLED. 

Lincoln Beachey, known by sight to 
hundreds of thousands of people all 
over the country and by reputation to 
the whole world, met death in one of 
his hair-raising "dips to death" at the 
exposition at San Francisco on March 
14th. 

He began the steep dive several thou- 
sand feet up and when he straightened 
out his monoplane it gave way under the 
strain and Beachey, strapped to his ma- 
chine, fell entangled in fthe remnants 
into San Francisco Bay. 

Beachey had had built for him a new 
monoplane and this was the machine he 
used in the fatal flight. 

A diver from the U. S. S. Oregon lo- 
cated the wrecked machine and it was 
hauled to the surface of the water. An 
examination by a surgeon showed that 
Beachey "was still alive when he struck 
the water and had sustained no major 
injury as a result of the fall, except a 
broken leg." There were evidences of 
a struggle to free himself from the mesh 
of twisted wires and parts and the di- 
rect cause of death was drowning. 

Lincoln Beachey's loss is felt keenly 
by the vast circle of acquaintances who 
admired him and his exploits. He was 
universally acclaimed at least one of the 
greatest aviators who ever lived. No 
one will question his right to the palm 
aiming American flyers. He began his 
career with one of Captain Baldwin's air- 
ship- at Oakland. Cal.. in 1905. and. up 
to the Winter of 1910-1911. followed the 
airship "game." He then went to Ham- 
mondsport and, with some difficulty, 
learned to fly a Curtiss machine and 
joined the Curtiss exhibition flyers. 
Later he branched out for himself and 
formed a team with Barney Oldfield. 
He had often talked of looping the loop 
and when Pegoud was said to have done 
it Beachey started in to out- Pegoud 



strength and durability. The cross sec- 
tion of the surfaces is especially shaped 
to obtain the highest possible speed, 
greatest lift, and least drift. 

The entering edge turns up slightly, as 
also does the controlling edge. The sec- 
tion is set at an angle of incidence of 
two degrees, which gives a rise of 43/i 
in. from the controlling edge to the 
entering edge. The planes are set at a 
positive dihedral angle of \ l A degrees. 

The wire bracing used is Roebling's 
steel cable, 2,300 to 4,000 pounds tensile 
strength. Where the wire passes around 
turnbuckles and through sockets it is 
protected by a copper sleeve. 

The surfaces are covered with a very 
high grade of Irish linen, heavy weight, 
tested as to strength and treated. 

The elevator flaps are 9 ft. in spread, 
3 ft. 2 in. from front to back, with an 
area of about 22 sq. ft. It is constructed 
in the same manner as the main planes, 
with I-beam ribs, beams and cross trim- 
mings. The corners are rounded. 

The rudder is somewhat oval in shape, 
3 ft. 8 in. long. 3 ft. 6 in. high, and is 
constructed in the same manner as the 
elevating planes. The stabilizer is built 
in one piece, and attached to the fuselage 



Pegoud — and he did. Beachey sailed his 
airship around the Capitol in 1906, and 
over Manhattan Island ; he flew his 
aeroplane from Bridgeport to New 
Haven and over Niagara Falls; won the 
race from New York to Philadelphia 
and made a new height record in the 
course of his career. 

"In May, 1913. he gave up flying but 
renewed his activity in the Fall after 
having a new miniature Curtiss ma- 
chine built, fitted with a 80 h.p. Gnome 
motor. The trial of this machine re- 
sulted in the death of a young lady who 
was observing his capers from the top 
of the navy's tent at Hammondsport. 

DEATH OF FRANK STITES. 

I os Vngeles, March 16. — Frank Stites, 
an aviator employed by the Universal 
Film Company, lost control of his bi- 
plane this afternoon and fell to his 
death. 

The accident occurred during the mak- 
ing of a motion picture of a supposed 
battle in the air between two aeroplanes. 
According to the most coherent version 
of the accident a premature explosion of 
a bomb in an anchored aeroplane just as 
Stites flew over it caused his machine 
to somersault earthward. 

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS. 

The exports for January show the 
effect of the war on prices. $14,263 is 
the average price for the machines 
shipped to" the Allies (?) during this 
month. The mean valuation for 1914 
was $6,337.47 each. 

IMPORTS. 

January, 1915 none 

Same period 1914, parts only. . . $5,643 
7 mos. ending Jan.. 1915, parts 

only 2,239 

Same period, 1914. parts only.. 20.233 



by means of special clips. In packing 
it comes off in one piece with the ele- 
vating plane. The vertical fin, attached 
in the same way as the stabilizer, is 
taken off in one piece with the rudder. 

The ailerons operate together and by 
means of a special lever device which 
enables all control wires to pass along 
the lower beam, thus facilitating inspec- 
tion. The ailerons are attached to the 
main planes by special steel hinges. The 
construction of the ailerons follows gen- 
erally the main plane construction, ex- 
cept that a steel tube is used as the 
front beam. The ribs are set into steel 
sockets brazed to this tube, thus making 
a very strong structure. 

POWER INSTALLATION. 

The motor is a Curtiss 100 h.p. The 
climbing speed with 100-h.p. (with full 
load, consisting of pilot, observer, fuel 
for five hours, and 150 pounds additional 
weight), is four to five hundred feet per 
minute. The speed range is from ap- 
proximately 45 miles per hour, minimum 
speed, to 85 miles per hours maximum 
speed. 

The type of control is left to the se- 
lection of the purchaser, and any desired 
system will be installed. 



Same period. 1913. 12 aeroplanes 
($50,020) and parts ($1,776), 

total 51,796 

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 
January, 1915, 5 aeroplane ($71,- 

315), parts ($21,878) 93,193 

Same period, 1914, 2 aeroplanes 

($12,500), parts ($2,614), total 15,114 
7 mos. ending ]an., 1915, 23 aero- 
planes ($1761915), parts ($143,- 

630). total 320,545 

Same period, 1914, 14 aero- 
planes ($53,525). parts ($15,- 

594), total 69.119 

Same period, 1913, 22 aeroplanes 

($61.450 ). parts ($17,703), total 79,153 
EXPORTS OF FOREIGN. 

January. 1915 none 

Same period. 1914 none 

7 mos. ending Jan.. 1915 none 

Same period. 1914. 1 aeroplane 

($4,049), parts ($900) 4.949 

IN WAREHOUSE JANUARY 31. 

1915, 1 aeroplane 1,856 

1914 none 

Mr. Fay, of Thomas Bros. Aeroplane 
Company, has been at the B. F. Sturte- 
vant Company's plant at Hyde Park 
witnessing tests on the new eight-cylin- 
der 140 h.p. Sturtevant aeronautical 

motor. 

, t 

C. A. Coey, of Chicago, is about to 
receive from Captain Bumbaugh. of In- 
dianapolis, "what I believe to be the 
smallest passenger-carrying balloon in 
the world: you probably are aware of 
the fact that I own the largest one in 
the world — 'The Chicago.' 

"The new balloon will hold ^.OOO cubic 
feet and I am having a private aero- 
drome built on my farm near Chicago 
and I expect to have a great deal of 
fun this summer taking short trips. I 
believe it is the only private aerodrome 
in this country." 



Page 24 



AERONAUTICS 



FREDRICKSON TWO-CYCLE ROTARY MOTOR 



While the two-cycle motor has al- 
most passed out of existence, save for 
the one or two notable makes which 
have been very practical, there are still 
many believers in it through the absence 
of valves, cams, springs, gears, push 
rods, etc., and the doubled number of 
impulses to a revolution of the crank- 
shaft. 

C. E. Fredrickson has conceived the 
idea of placing a valve in the crank- 
case at the base of the cylinder and util- 
i ing the lower part of the cylinder as 
a compression chamber, doing away 
with crank case compression. 

The world rights of this motor have 
been acquired by the Worlds Motor Co.. 
which proposes to manufacture aviation 
motors. 

This aviation motor is of the rotating 
cylinder or revolving type and is to be 
manufactured in three, five and ten- 
cylinder models. 

In the three and five-cylinder 
models the body of the crank case 
is in one casting, including the valve 
and cylinder seats. The cylinder 
seats rise slightly from the crank case 
and in these are machined the valve 
seats and they also have the neces- 
sary clearance for the valves to op- 
erate, leaving the cylinders free of 
any attachments except their anchor- 
ing bolts. The two ends of the crank 
case are formed of two steel plates 
held together by five bolts passing 
through the entire case with a nut on 
each end. These bolts also reinforce 
the crank case for the cylinder anchor 
bolts, which are not threaded in case, 
but are threaded into a 3 r 4 per cent, 
nickel steel lug at an angle, making 
a four-point anchorage per cylinder 
with one-half the usual number of 
parts. These anchor bolts pass 
through lugs of ample size cast in the 
head of the cylinder with castellated 
nuts screwed down against the cylin- 
der head. 

The cylinders are of the usual two- 
cycle type, of cast iron with cooling 
fins. The pistons are also of the 
usual type with the regular type of 
baffle plate or peak. 

The valves are of a sliding or oscil- 
lating type. The seat is above the 
valve and all valves and seats are 
ground to fit. The valves are held in 
position by guide plates below them 
and. as the motor is of the revolving 
type, centrifugal force seals the valves 
against the seats at 875 r.p.m. 

The gases are taken into the crank 
case through a hollow crank shaft in 
the usual manner, and at the lowest 
point of the piston stroke are ad- 
mitted under the piston through the 
valve which slides on its seat as the 
connecting rod changes its angle. 
This valve remains open until the pis- 
ton completes its outward travel, 
when it closes, imprisoning the gases 
between piston and valve, thus re- 
lieving the crank case of any com- 



pression when the piston starts its 
down or back stroke. The piston in 
its backward travel now compresses 
the gas in the rear of the cylinder 
and, at the proper time, releases it. 
through the by pass chamber into the 
combustion chamber, as is customary 
in two-cycle practice. 

The mixture in the crank case is 
always uniform and as the valves ad- 
mit an exact amount at each opening, 
each cylinder receives the same com- 
bination in both character and vol- 
ume. The gas i- carried practically 



to cylinders. The crank case is only 
seven inches wide and the motor re- 
volves in a space of two feet and ten 
inches. 

SOME PRACTICAL HINTS 

The manufacturers of aviation motors 
during the past year have been greatly 
handicapped, due to the fact that there 
were very few purchasers for exhibition 
flyers, and the Government business has 
not been very clearly defined. 

Our motors have been sold to several 
foreign governments during this year 




a complete revolution in the warm 
cylinder. 

Ignition is by means of a single 
distributor, high tension magneto, the 
high tension current being carried by 
a single cable to a brush which 
presses against a circular distributor 
bolted to the crank case. This dis- 
tributor is of fibre with one brass seg- 
ment per cylinder. From these seg- 
ments are taken the ignition wires 
which go direct to the spark plugs. 

For lubrication the oil is mixed 
with the gasoline and an auxiliary 
force feed oiler, gear driven, is 
mounted on the frame. This oiler 
forces jets of oil to the connecting 
rod bearing at the crank shaft, from 
whence it escapes through the con- 
necting rod collars into the crank 
case. 

The five-cylinder motor with a 
bore of 4 T < in. and a stroke of 4^4 in. 
weighs 192 pounds with cast iron 
cylinders. Including all bolts, nuts 
and screws, there are only 204 pieces. 
The entire engine runs on two an- 
nular ball-bearings. 

Every advantage has been taken of 
centrifugal force. It is utilized to 
seat the valves and aid the gases and 
oil in their passage from crank case 



and in every case a severe and closely 
watched test has been run pending the 
purchase. Perhaps the most rigid test 
was run for the Norwegian navy. They 
required our Type A-4, 100 h.p. motor 
to develop not less than 130 brake test 
horsepower continuously for three hours 
and a half. This motor had to turn at 
a speed not less than 1,480 r.p.m. dur- 
ing the entire time. This was done, 
after which the motor was disassembled 
and carefully inspected, showing every- 
thing to be in perfect shape. 

It is our belief that both the United 
States army and navy (provided they 
wish a more efficient power plant sup- 
ply them) should induce manufacturers 
to participate in tests both on block and 
in the air. In this way the manufac- 
turer could be brought into personal 
contact with just what is required. 

This could be done as foreign govern- 
ments have done — offer a cash prize for 
the motor winning certain tests, either 
installed in a plane or on the block. 

At any rate the United States army 
and navy must co-operate to a greater 
degree and offer more inducements to 
the American manufacturer in order to 
obtain motors that are more reliable and 
suitable to their needs than the ones 
they are now using. — Hall-Scott Motor 
Car Company 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 25 



THE HUNTINGTON PASSENGER BIPLANE 



The first machine produced by Howard 
Huntington, of his contemplated series, 
has, during March, had its first trials 
on Long Island under the guidance of 
Harold Kantner, the well-known Moi- 
sant monoplane pilot. 

In this, biplane wings have been com- 
bined with a Nieuport type of fuselage, 
which has been refined considerably. The 
framework is so put together by the use 
of special sockets that U-bolts and their 
protruding nuts and ends are done away 
with. There is no tendency displayed to 
swing around when landing. The Nieu- 
port landing gear has been modified so 



The ailerons are placed between the 
main surfaces and are actuated down- 
ward only. They are returned to nor- 
mal position by fabric-covered strong- 
elastic bands. One single wire runs 
from each aileron to the modified Dep 
control. Later on, the lateral stability 
will be handled by flaps cut out of the 
main wing for comparison with the 
present arrangement. 

Four different makes of propellers are 
being tried, all of the same diameter and 
pitch, 8 and 6 ft. respectively, among 
these being Paragon, Curtiss and Sim- 
mons. 




that it is more practical. It enables the 
machine to land straight on rough 
ground and the wing-tips do not hit. 
There are very heavy coiled springs in 
tubular telescoping absorbers running 
down to the ends of the axles, which 
prevent side rocking on rough ground. 

The machine was designed for 70 
miles an hour; and, although climbing 
and circular timed trials have not been 
made, the performance seems to fulfill 
the expectations. The engine is an 80- 
h.p. Gyro. The weight was figured to be 
965 lbs., and the actual weight, empty, 
came to 925 lbs. 

The total supporting surface is 352 sq. 
ft. and it is expected that 8 lbs. to the 
square foot can be carried. The fuel 
and oil capacity has been arranged for 
five hours' flying. The machine spreads 
36 ft., 5-ft. chord. The gap is unusual 
for this chord, being 6 ft. To this fact 
is attributed its claimed increased effi- 
ciency. The planes are staggered 14 in. 
The angle of attack is 4 deg. on the up- 
per wing and 2JS deg. on the lower. In 
flight, the lower wing is neutral. The 
elevator measures 7 ft. by 22 in. ; the 
rudder 2 ft. 4 in. by 3 ft. 9 in. The 
fuselage measures 22 ft from tip to tip 
thereof. 



Another machine is in course of con- 
struction, to be fitted with a 110-h.p. 
Gyro motor. 

These machines are soon to be placed 
on sale. Mr. Huntington, who is secre- 
tary of the Aero Club of America, is 
taking, in general, standard designs and 
incorporating minor changes and ideas 
with a view to great efficiency. It may 
be that later on this construction work 
will be turned into commercial channels. 

Recently an inquiry to Aeronautics as 
to the facilities of the aeroplane fac- 
tories of this country for the production 
of 1.000 aeroplanes caused some little 
stir among those manufacturers who 
were in a position to start wurk on such 
an estimate. Doubt was expressed as to 
the ability of the existing manufacturers 
to fulfil such an order on short notice. 
An optimist much given to statistics 
proved that SOO aeroplanes were built in 
this country in 1912. This was encour- 
aging news until some crapehanger sug- 
gested that a foreign order for 1.000 
aeroplanes meant 1.000 aeroplanes capa- 
ble of being flown upon completion. 



The Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of 
America, Inc.. of 220 West 42d Street. 
New York, is about to make trials of its 



new machine. This is a unique mono- 
plane, as there are two propellers and 
two rotary motors, the propellers being 
at the front and rear end of a large 
tube approximately the same diameter 
and driven by chain from the motors, 
which are set in the open bottom of the 
tubular structure. The four-wheeled 
chassis, with riders' seats, is below the 
motors. A triangular, in cross-section, 
open fuselage extends rearward and 
supports a standard type of tail. 

STATUS OF CAPTURED AVI- 
ATORS IN WAR 

If the aviators belonging to the forces 
of one belligerent are captured, they 
have the status of prisoners of war, pro- 
vided, of course, they belong to the mili- 
tary or naval establishments. Under the 
interpretation of the agreements at the 
second conference at the Hague, avia- 
tors are to be considered solely as pris- 
oners of war, and whether they have 
dropped explosives or fired from aircraft 
is not considered in fixing their status. 

The death rate among the English 
aviators in the front is 2 per cent. Xo 
data are available on the other belliger- 
ents 1 hi t the percentage, doubtless, runs 
about the same. 

NEW COMPANIES 

Curtiss Aeroplanes & Motors, Ltd., 
Toronto. Can., $50,000. 

Huntington Aircraft Co., 18 E. 41st 
st.. New York. 

Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of 
America. 220 W. 42d St., New York, 
$100,000. R. Ebie, John J. Byrne, Wil- 
liam Swain. 

Fanning Aircraft Destroying Gun Co., 
Davenport. la., $1,000,000. C. E. Fan- 
ning. 

Aviauto Mfg. Co., $5,000. Bernard A. 
Law. Martin Baier. Sidney F. Miller, 
James E. Fingan, 154 Nassau St., New 
York. 

FRENCH AEROPLANES 
MADE 10,000 FLIGHTS. 

Paris, March 7. — The following note 
is appended to tonight's official com- 
munique : 

"Statistics covering the aerial opera- 
tions from the beginning of the mobili- 
zation to January 31 of this year show 
the following : 

"During these six months the aerial 
squadrons made about 10,000 reconnoi- 
t r i 1 1 Lf flights, corresponding to more than 
18.000 hours of flight. These flights 
represent a distance covered of 1,080,000 
kilometers ( 1.125.000 miles), or, in other 
words, twenty-five times around the 
world. 

"These remarkable results were not 
obtained without sorrowful losses, which 
were at least equal to and in many 
cases heavier than those suffered by 
other branches of the army so far as 
the dead, wounded and missing are con- 
cerned."— 77n- Sun, 



Page 26 



AERONAUTICS 




THE SCHOBER GLIDER-By Harry Shultz, Model Editor 



Some time ago the Aero Science Club 
held a series of model glider contests. 
Those who have never witnessed a con- 
test of this kind cannot realize the en- 
tertainment to be found there. To see 
these miniature machines glide onward 
for a hundred yards or so on level 
ground seemingly without propulsive 
power is rather weird to those not un- 
derstanding the principles of aero- 
nautics. At the recent Aero Science 
Club contest, generally five or six of 
these models, all thirty inches in span, 
were in the air at once, and <he spec- 



wind. Flights of over ninety seconds 
have been made in this manner. 

One of the best known glider en- 
thusiasts of the Aero Science Club is 
Mr. Frank Schober. The model herein 
described is one of the first constructed 
by him, and was one of the finest speci- 
mens of model making we have seen. 

The writer had the pleasure of wit- 
nessing the first trials of this glider at 
Forest Park, Brooklyn, N. Y., last 
Winter. The snow was about a foot 
deep at that time and only one with a 
great amount of enthusiasm could be 




■Jide. jtleuaiio/L.. 



^c%oj6e7*Cfofes: 






tator had a rather difficult time keeping 
watcli on all at the same time. 

The correct method of flying model 
gliders is down a slope or hill, the glider 
being headed into the wind, which 
should preferably be coming up the hill. 
The glider is generally weighted at the 
nose to keep the head down into the 



persuaded to flounder about in it. Never- 
theless, we mounted to the top of one 
of the numerous hills there and to our 
dismay then found that the wind was 
blowing down the hill instead of up. 
Mr. Schober tested the glider with the 
wind behind it and it made some won- 
derful flights. Sometimes it would land 



witli a thud on the frozen ground at the 
foot of the hill, bounce off and sail 
away for ISO feet more. An end was 
put to the sport, however, when the 
glider came into severe contact with a 
huge tree trunk, the skids and the front 
portion of the fuselage being damaged. 

The fuselage is built up of % in. 
square spruce, the joints being made by 
tiny pins and then glued. The fuselage 
is .i-l ins. in length and 3 ins. in width 
and 3 ins. in depth at its widest part 
which is 5 ins. from the front of the 
fuselage. In the front of the fuselage 
is mounted a piece of lead, the same 
being shaped to conform to the contour 
of the body. This weight acts to keep 
the nose of the glider down into the 
wind and also strengthens the front of 
the fuselage. Secured to the rear end 
of the fuselage is a strip of metal, pre- 
ferably aluminum, which acts as a bear- 
ing for the pivoting rod of the rudder. 
This rod is a dowel, or the like, and 
turns stiffly in the bearing so that the 
rudder remains in any position in which 
it is placed. The ruder is 4 ins. by 4 
ins., and is made of two strips of spruce, 
the encircling strip forming the edge 
being of flat rattan. 

The planes measure as follows : Main 
plane 34-in. span, chord at center 7 ins., 
chord at tips 6 ins., tail plane 10-in. 
span at front edge, 6y 2 -\n. chord and 
13-in. span at rear edge. Both planes 
have double ribs of spruce Y\ in. wide 
by 1/32 in. in thickness, the front or 
main plane having 21 ribs, the ribs being 
spaced approximately 154 ins. apart, and 
the tail plane having 6 ribs, the edges of 
both planes are of fiat rattan. The 
planes, rudder and fuselage were covered 
with a strong red silk and treated with 
varnish, the planes and rudder being 
double surfaced. The front or main 
plane is placed approximately 7 ins. 
from the front of the fuselage. 

The skid arrangement at the front 
end of the fuselage is made from heavy 
umbrella ribs, the portion of the ribs 
where secured to the fuselage being 
flattened, drilled and nailed to the fusel- 
age, underneath the covering. 



BRITISH PILOTS WANTED. 
The secretary of the Governor-Gen- 
eral of Canada is making a campaign to 
ascertain the names of British born 
aeronautic pilots and mechanics living 
in the United States who might be 
willing to serve with the Royal Flying 
Corps during the term of the present 
war. Those applying must be British 
born or have British nationality. They 
must be medically (it and have normal 
vision. 



AERONAUTICS 



BALDWIN 



lrjg Balloons Kg 

S&j Dirigibles J^ 

Sgjj Fabrics $S$ 

Motors j§| S§ 

Box 78. Madison Sq. P.O.. New York K83 §?ej) 



PATENTS 



Manufacturers want me to send 
them patents on useful inven- 
tions. Send me at once drawing 
and description of your invention and I will give you an honest 
report as to securing a patent and whether I can assist you in 
selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. 
Personal attention in all cases. 

WM. N. MOORE 
Loan and Trust Building 



Washington, D. C. 




DON'T Wli,e U! v nless 

you are inter- 
ested in a reliable, efficient 
ndeconomical power plant, 
rat is the only kind we 
build. Four sizes. 
Reasonable Prices 

Kemp Machine Works 

Muncie, Ind. 



WE ARE HEADQUARTERS 

for model aeroplanes, accessories and supplies 
Very complete catalog free on request 

Wading River Mfg. Co. 

Wading River. N. Y. 



MODELS 



< BENOIST «c 

AEROPLANES FLYING BOATS 

AEROPLANE COMPANY 

(Incorporated) 

Chicago, Ills. 



factory and Office 

341 S. St. Louis Ave 



Page 27 



SLOANE AEROPLANES 



will now be built 
exclusively by 
a reorganization 



Full particulars of our St* 
Motors and Acce 



The Aircraft Co., Inc. 

The Sloane Aeroplane Co. 
•opla ne& 



idard Sloane Ae 
lories on request 
THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc., Sole Manufacturers of 
1733 Broadway, New York Sloane Aeroplanes 



AT E N T S 

C. L. PARKER 

Ex-member Examining Corpa, U. 8. Patent OKioa 

Attomey-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents 

American and foreign patents secured promptly and 
with special regard to the complete legal protection of 
the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request. 
?n McC.;!1 Bid*. WASHINGTON, D. C. 

PATENTS 

THAT PROTECT AND PAY rnrr 
BOOKS, ADVICE AND SEARCHES fKLL 

Send sketch or model for search. Highest References 
Best Results, Promptness Assured. 

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 
624 F Street, N. W. Washington. D. C. 



BALLOONS 



Airships, Aeroplanes. Gas Generators, Safety Packs. 
Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, 
Aeroplanes and Airships. Stevens' balloons used by 
85% of American and Canadian clubs. 

AERONAUT 

Madison Sq. 
Box 181,NewYork 



LEO STEVENS 




BALLOONS 
DIRIGIBLES 

Records prove we build the best Bal- 
Iooub in America. Nine 1st prizes. 
Throe 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of 
fourteen World-wide Contests. 

Write for prices and particulars. 

HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 
4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo. 



THE U. S. NAVY USES 

•I Because they are the best by a large measure and Proved Best by test and official report. 
^Others use Plain Paragons because they are not only best but also cheapest. <1 For Efficiency— 
For Economy, investigate Paragons. No charge for information — No pay but for results. 
•I We have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock, tjuick shipments. 

AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 East Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md. 

I PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY 



Antony Jannus Roger Jannus 

JANNUS BROTHERS 

NEW 120 H. P. FIVE PASSENCER FLY- 
ING BOAT now being tested. Design based 
on nearly 200,000 miles of pioneer flying. 
Roger Jannus and Knox Martin at New Southern 
Hotel, San Diego, Calif. Continuous Passen- 
ger Carrying and School Work with two Flying 
Boats. Florida course announced later. 
NEW FACTORY 

Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Booklet on Request 



PATFNT^ Frederick W. Barker 

1 -TV I l_il 1 I %J Attorney and Expert in 
PATENTS. TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS 
28 Years in Practice 



Cast's prepared <in<l prosecuted 
with the greatest care <n<<t 
thoroughness, i<< ensure broad 
scope ciinl validity 



Direct Connections in all 
Foreign Countries 



P. O. Box 139. Times Square Station, New York City 




ALL AERO BOOKS 
FOR SALE BY 

AERONAUTICS 

250 W. 54 St., New York 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 28 



AERONAUTICS 





OF AMERICA 
29 West 39th Street, New York 

OFFICIAL BULLETIN 

ANNUAL MEETING HELD 

The annual meeting of the Aeronautical 
Society of America was held on Thursday 
evening, March 25, when the following officers 
and directors were elected to serve for the 
ensuing year: President, T. R. MacMechen; 
first vice-president, Frederick W. Barker; sec- 
ond vice-president; William J. Hammer; third 
vice-president, E. D. Anderson ; fourth vice- 
president, C. W. Howell, Jr.; fifth vice-presi- 
dent, Louis R. Adams; secretary, Edward Du- 
rant; treasurer, Lewis R. Compton; counsel, 
Walter L. Post. Directors: Louis R. Adams, 
Lee S. Burridge, Capt. T. S. Baldwin, William 
J. Hammer, Thomas A. Hill, Leon Goldmer- 
stein, Earle Atkinson, C. W. Wurster, E. L. 
Jones, Capt. W. I. Chambers, U. S. N., T. R. 
MacMechen, Rudolph Hanau, Ernest D. Ander- 
son, A. Leo Stevens, Matthew B. Sellers, Lewis 
R. Compton. Frederick W. Barker, Oscar Her- 
manson, Rudolph R. Grant, E. P. Hopkins, 
Walter V. Kamp, Merrill E. Clark, Edward 
Durant, Charles W. Howell. Jr., Archibald 
Hart. 

At this meeting, also, the organization of 
the Aeronautical Engineers' Society was ap- 
proved and formally ratified by the members of 
the parent body, the Aeronautical Society of 
America. 

The creation of branches of the Society in 
various large cities throughout the country was 
discussed at length, the purpose being to pro- 
vide different centers in places distant from 
New York, where men interested in aeronau- 
tics could gather to consider matters connected 
with air-craft, to be submitted, with the find- 
ings of the branch, to the headquarters of the 
Society in New York. Authority was given 
the directors to formulate and carry out plans 
for the establishment of branches where desir- 
able. 

President Thomas Rutherford MacMechen 
gave an address on "Air-craft in the War," 
with a comparison of the present condition of 
aeronautics in the United States. 

Mr. MacMechen said in part: 

HOW APPROPRIATIONS FOR AERONAU- 
TICS WASTE THE PUBLIC MONEY. 

"Congressional appropriations in the interest 
of aeronautics — that is to say, for the estab- 
lishment of aeronautical branches for the army 
and navy — are entirely thrown away if the 
authorities who have the matter in their hands 
are devoted to experimental machines, especial- 
ly in this day of advanced development. 

"Investing money in machines that do not 
possess practical endurance, for the avowed 
purpose of learning to handle big machines by 
handling small machines, is folly. 

"It is, in fact, established by aeronautical 
development that a small machine of whatever 
type will not act like a big machine; that the 
operation of two sizes calls, in many cases, for 
radically different handling. Yet we have the 
spectacle of aeronautical boards of the army 
and navy advocating the foregoing plan of 
'feeling their way' in a field which they admit 
by their plan to be unfamiliar to them 

"This waste of public money applies espe- 
cially to the dirigible, which in any size is a 
much more expensive craft than the aeroplane. 
Whatever may be the popular notion of the use- 
fulness of dirigibles for military operations, 
military experience amongst those governments 
having the greatest actual experience with diri- 



gibles have very clearly demonstrated the exact 
value of certain types of the dirigible for speci- 
fic work, and this knowledge explains the con- 
tinued investment of great sums of money in 
the dirigible. Confirmation of this statement is 
indeed found in the fact that the naval board 
of the U. S. had invited bids for the building 
of two baby dirigibles of a type long since ex- 
perimented with and practically discarded by 
the power that has had the most experience 
with the dirigible. If this is not true, what 
excuse can the U. S. authorities offer for in- 
vesting in dirigibles at all? 

"It is generally said that the proposed in- 
vestment in baby dirigibles is based on the as- 
sumption that they are conserving public money 
and learning to handle the dirigible in its 
smallest size, a size now demonstrated to be 
entirely impractical for any useful purpose, and 
woefully inefficient as an instrument from 
which to learn how to operate the large and 
rea 1 1 y use f ul airsh i p. 

"No baby dirigible gives its operator the 
slightest clue of the involved technique of the 
large machine. Consequently the investment of 
the L T nited States in such dirigibles is an abso- 
lute waste of public money. 

"This type of dirigible is well known. It is 
so small that it can carry engine power suffi- 
cient to manage them only in the slightest 
winds. They cannot be driven excepting at 
very slow speed, a speed at which no dirigible 
can really be a practical machine, as the 
science has fully demonstrated. If it were pos- 
sible to carry sufficient engine power a mere 
gas bag cannot be taken against the air at any 
practical speed because its body will buckle in 
the air. Its skin, or balloon cloth, must be 
kept so light that it cannot protect its gas 
from constant fluctuations caused by atmos- 
pheric changes. This is the law on the subject 
as demonstrated by the engineering science. 
Yet an aeronautical board in this country flies 
in the face of precedent and wastes the public 
money. 

"It is demonstrated practice that the thicker 
the envelope of a non-rigid dirigible is, a thing 
only made possible by size and carrying capac- 
ity, the better is the gas protected against 
atmospheric changes. It is only necessary to 
add that the double skin, outer covering and 
inner balloonetts of the rigid dirigible most 
adequately protect the gas against atmospheric 
changes, which consequently explains the rigid 
airship's greater endurance and incomparably 
superior radius of action, not to speak of the 
certainty which these great ships afford in the 
matter of carrying great loads over immense 
distances and reach the objective point. There- 
fore the adoption by the German government 
of the rigid airship as the only all-around prac- 
tical weight carrier of the air. 

"Now what have the Zeppelins done which 
justifies the present investment by the German 
government of more than 30 million dollars in 
a fleet of such machines? Newspaper accounts 
of what the Zeppelins have been doing and the 
popular conception of the value of their flights 
do not give either a reasonable or a true pic- 
ture of the Zeppelin's work. 

"I will now refer to some of the actual les- 
sons gained by the Zeppelins' operations, and I 
shall ask you to fix your minds upon the points 
about to be impressed. . . ." 

Members are reminded that the Round Table 
talks held every Thursday evening are always 
intensely interesting and should not be missed. 
Matters of technical and general aeronautical 
interest are brought up and considered each 
week, and every member should make a point 
of attending if possible in order to keep 
abreast of the times, for undoubtedly progress 
is now being made in the art of aviation, and 
the Society is taking its full share in the 
activities. 

New members who have been elected are: 
Hans Nordman and Henry L. Coakley. 

Aeronautical Engineer's Society 

On Wednesday evening, March 17, at the 
rooms of the Aeronautical Society of America, 
29 West 39th Street, there was held the foun- 
dation meeting of a body which is to be known 



as the Aeronautical Engineers' Society, A. S. 
of A., the last letters being the initials of the 
present society, the Aeronautical Society of 
America. 

Under the rules of the Aeronautical Engi- 
i ers' Society, A. S. of A., none but members 
of t he Aeronautical Society of America are 
eligible for membership. Among its charter 
members are: Lee S. Burridge, president of 
the Sun Typewriter Company; Thomas R. Mac- 
Mehon and Walter V. Kamp, inventors of the 
Zeppelin-destroying dirigible now building in 
England; Leon Goldmerstein, inventor, engi- 
neer and editor; Frederick W. Barker, acting 
president of the Aeronautical Society of Amer- 
ica; A. Leo Stevens, the balloonist, and Adolph 
D. Wittemann of Wittemann Brothers, the 
well-known builders of aeroplanes. 

The principal object of the Aeronautcial En- 
gineers' Society is to create in this country 
as high a grade of design of aerial machinery 
as the stress of war has developed in Europe. 
As stated in its by-laws, the purposes of the 
society are: "(1) To constitute a body for 
the promotion of the science and art of aerial 
navigation and branches of engineering kin- 
dred to it; (2) To create and promote an 
intercourse between persons earnestly interest- 
ed in the above referred to fields of endeavor; 
(3) To create a body which, by the constitution 
of its membership and achievement should be 
entitled to represent the interests of aeronau- 
tical engineering before proper bodies in this 
country and in international intercourse." 

The officers of the Aeronautical Engineers* 
Society, A. S. of A., are: Charles W. How- 
ell, Jr., chairman; Leon Goldmerstein. first 
vice chairman; Walter V. Kamp, second vice- 
chairman: and Lewis R Compton, secretary 
and treasurer. 

There is no entrance fee, and the annual 
dues arc $25. Only engineers and persons of 
aeronautical prominence are acceptable for 
membership. 

Aero Science Club of America Bulletin 

On Lincoln's Birthday a number of trials 
were made by the members of both the New 
York and the Long Island sections of the Aero 
Science Club at the Liberty Heights Field for 
Tractor Duration Records. On the 2 1st and 
also on the 22nd of that month these tractor 
trials were repeated at that field with the re- 
sult that two new American Tractor Records 
were established as follows : 
Single Tractor Monoplane Duration. ... 27 sec. 

Single Biplane Tractor Duration 21 sec. 

The first being made by Mr. L. Ness: the bi- 
plane record by Mr. C. V. Obst. Pres't of the 
Club. 

At Van Cortlandt Park, a demonstration of 
the practical value of negative and plain wing 
tips was given by Mr. A. K. Barker and Mr. 
Frank Broomfield, both of the Aero Science 
Club. This demonsration was the result of a 
debate on that subject held about a month be- 
fire, in which discussion neither of the afore- 
mentioned model flyers was able to gain the 
advantage over his adversary. Three judges 
were present to witness the trials, and the gen- 
eral results were declared to be very satisfac- 
tory. At this interesting demonstration James 
Barker, one of New York's most promising 
young amateur flyers, made some very remark- 
able flights with his small single-propelled trac- 
tor and had the satisfaction of nearly equalling 
the records held by more expert flyers. 

Louis Fenouillet, one of the oldest model 
flyers in America, and a most active model ex- 
perimenter and worker in the line of man- 
carrying gliders, lost his well-made original 
type biplane glider His brother, who was uy- 
ing the apparatus at the time, escaped injury. 
The accident is said to have been due to the 
inexperience of the young enthusiasts wdio 
were towing the glider at the time of the fall. 
Mr. Fenouillet has had special hydro floats 
made for the purpose of an over-water flight 
in this machine from Bath Beach, Brooklyn, 
to the aeronautical field at Oakwood Heights. 
Staten Island, and his chances of making a 
world's record by this feat were regarded as 
Continued on Page 3 ' 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 29 



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The Thomas 

Continues to 
Make Records 

On February 27, at Ithaca, N. Y., 
the Thomas Tractor Biplane, 

with three men and four hours' 
fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 
min. Average speed— 81-1 m.p.h. 
Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. 
Showed high degree of inherent 
stability. 

Thomas School 

Offers exceptional facilities — 
land and water. Best of instruc- 
tors and equipment. 
Write/or "Opportunity" Booklet No. 12. 

THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO., inc.. Ithaca, N.Y. 



NEW WORLD RECORDS. 

Lieut. Byron Jones, of the U. S. Sig- 
nal Corps, on Marcli 12 made a new 
world endurance record by flying 7 hours 
S minutes with two passengers. 

The machine used was a Burgess 
tractor with a 75-h.p. Renault motor re- 
constructed by Grover Cleveland Loen- 
ing, the S. C. aeronautical engineer. 

It lias recently been necessary for the 
Aircraft Co.. Inc., New York, to double 
its forces on account of the increased 
amount of work. They find the pros- 
pects for the coming season very good 
for a large output. They have a very 
expert corps of men at work now and 
will probably make another addition to 
the force in the verv near future. 



The Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Co., 
Ithaca. X. Y., has just issued a handsome 
little catalogue of their 1915 machines. 
Send for one of these — and don't for- 
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WANTED, immediately, three expert 
draftsmen, having experience in the de- 
sign of aeroplanes or m the detailing of 
aeroplane parts. Box A, c/o AERO- 
NAUTICS. 

ATTENTION : Young man, 21 years 
French, studied aviation several years, 
five years' experience in auto factory as 
repairer, motor and road tester and as- 



sembler, now with Splitdrof company, 
seeks position with aviator or areoplane 
manufacturer for general service to 
learn that line of business; reference of 
highest character. J. II. Yelle, Y. M. C. 
A., Newark, N. J. 

FOR SALE — On account of sickness, 
aeroplane, very cheap for cash, or trade 
for anything of value. E. M., 1522 Nor- 
wood ave., Toledo, O. 

WANT TO BUY an 80 h.p. Gnome 
or an 80 or 90 h.p. Curtiss. Address 
John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics, (lx) 

WANTED— 50 to 60 h.p. aeronautical 
motor in good condition; no junk. Arch. 
Irwin, General Delivery, Topeka, Kans. 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 30 



AERONAUTICS 



Page. 

78- 91 

120 

105 

78 

105 

1-106 



.K 



-126 
30 



9-74 
3S 
69 
10-1 
90 
24 
21 
45 
13 
67 
70 
106 
56 



INDEX TO VOLUME XV. 

Note. — Volume I started with the first issue, 
that of July, 1907; Volume II started with the 
issue of January, 1908; Volume III, with the 
Inly. 1908, issue: Volume IV, with the Janu- 
ary. 1909, number; Volume V, with the July, 

1909, number; Volume VI, with the January, 

1910. issue; Volume VII, with the July, 1910, 
issue; Volume VIII, with the January, 1911, 
number; Volume IX, with the July, 1911, is- 
sue; Volume X, with Tanuary, 1912; Volume 
XI, with- lulv. 1912; Volume XII, with Janu- 
ary. 1913; Volume XIII, with July, 1913; 
Volume XIV, with Tanuary 15, 1914, and 
Volume XV, with July 15. 1914. 

There are only eight numbers in Volume 
XV. as explained in the issue of March 15, 
1915. , vt 

Only principal articles are n dexed. News 
notes Hi general and smaller mentions are not 
indexed. 
Accidents, Fatal: 

Cooke, Weldon 1! 

Gerstner, Lieut. Fred'k J 

Hill, Thomas J 

Picelltr, William 

Terrell, Frank P 

Aero Club of Pennsylvania Bulletin 
Aeronautical Society Bulletins. 

28-58-76-92-1 

Aeroplane Speedometer ( Morell) 

Aeroplanes: 

Burgess-i>unne 24-88-101-116-ri7-119 

Army Competition for Constructors 

Contrabrand, Arc 

Curtiss Model J . 

Curtiss Model N 

Martin, Glenn 

Schmitt, Paul 

Sellers Ouadroplane 

Signalling to 

Sperry Wins Stability Prize 

Stability of 

"Steco" 

Thomas Military Tractor 

Transmission Gear for 

Aero Science Club Bulletin. 23-5S-S9-92-10S-126 
Aircraft in the Early Part of the Euro- 
pean War 36-55-73 

Aircraft Industry, the : 

In France 5 

In Germany and Other Countries... 31 

Air Fleets of Foreign Countries 22-106 

Anemo-Tachometer. Morell 30 

Army Aeronautics, U. S. : 

Anti-Aircraft Gun 120 

Burgess-Dunne 25-88-117-119 

Bomb-Dropping Tests (Scott) 74 

Buys Martin Tractor 16 

Cmnpetition for Constructors 9-74 

Flying Statistics 

Mackay Trophy Competition 

New Duration Record 

Resume of Progress in Signal Corps. 

Aviaphone, The Turner 

Articles, Principal : 

Accessible Circle, The 

Aerial Bombs and Projectiles 

Aerodynamical Laboratories 

Aircraft in War, the Plague, and, 

by Arthur K. Kuhn 

Aircraft in War, by Brig. -Gen. Geo. 

P. Scriven 

Airhole at Landing 

A Suggestion for the Power Plant 
of an Aeroplane, by Prof. David 

L. Gallup 

Carburetors from a Functional Stand- 
point, by Ralph S. Barnaby 

Converse Automatic Stabilizer, the . . 

Hydroaeroplane in Coast Defence 

Reconnaisance, the, by Capt. V. E. 

Clark * 

How to Find the Way Across the 

Ocean, by Leon Goldmerstein 

International Code of Aerial Law. . . . 
Law of Similitude, the, by M. I'.. 

Sellers 

Leonardo da Vinci, by Chas. Beecher 

Bunnell 

Measuring Horsepower in the Air . . 
Measuring Tension of Stavs in Full 

Flight 

Naval Aeroplanes at Sea 

Review of Aeronautical Progress, by 

John J. Long 

Signalling to Aeroplanes 

ng Flight, by O. Chanute 

Some Experiment- with Biplanes, by 

A. A. Merrill 

Stability of Aeroplanes, by Orville 
W right 



23 
120 
91-116 

102 

41 
94 



35 



19 



115 
39 



67 



Wireless as Connected with Aero- 
nautics, by William Dubilier, R.S.A., 

A.A.I. E.E 5 

Velocity of Rise and Lifting Power 

of Balloons 44 

Authors: 

Barnaby, Ralph S 115 

Bunnell, Chas. Beecher 35 

Chanute, Octave 53 

Clark, Capt. V. E 9* 

Dubilier, William 5 

Gallup, David L 19 

Goldmerstein, Leon 3 

Kuhn, Arthur K 35 

Long, John J 51 

Merrill, Albert A 83 

Scriven, Brig.-Gen. George P 67 

Sellers, Matthew B 7 

Wright, Orville 67 

Balloons: 

I [oney well's New Company and 

Records 91 

National Race Won by Goodyear..,. 12 

Beating Wing Machine, The 110 

Denine Glider 27 

Deposition of Metal on Wood 110 

Flying Boats: 

De Villers Convicted 119 

J annus 105 

Sloane 8 

Curtiss' Transatlantic "America". .3-22-57-71 

Fox-Philiipps Skimmer 41 

German Commercial Airship Lines 39 

Germany Protests Curtiss Machines.... 126 

Heinrich in N. Y. Race 8 

Hydroaeroplanes : 

Burgess-Dunne 24-88-101 

Ruled as Motor Boats 104 

The Hydroaeroplane in Coast Defence 99 

U. S. Licenses Granted 122 

Who Invented— Curtiss and Jannin 

Patents 126 

International Code of Law, The 20 

Kantner Wins N. Y. Race 8 

King, Samuel A.— Death of 94 

Leonardo da Vinci, by Charles Beecher 

Bunnell : • 35 

Measuring the Tension of Stays in 

Full Flight 47 

Model Aeroplanes, Harry Schultz, 
Editor: 

A. B. C. Self-Rising 26 

Construction Details 124 

Funk Speed Model 89 

Obst Flying Boat 59 

Schultz Speed Model 89 

Motors: 

Aslimusen 12-cyl. 105-H.P 124 

Demont 300-H.P 47 

Kemp 75-H.P 72 

Maximotor 100-H.P 24 

Naval Aeroplanes at Sea 40 

Navy, United States: 

Aeronautic Service 118 

Aeroplanes, To Buy 1 18 

Appropriation Passed 

$5,000,000 Recommended for 101 

Burgess-Dunne 24-101 

Dirigibles, To Buv 101 

May Get $1 ,1S7,600 122 

Plans for Work, 1915 123 

To Have Constructors 1 Competition.. US 

Tests Hydroplane 118 

Aeronautic Service 118 

Propellers: 

Maximum Speed of 25 

Width of Blades of 42 

On the "America" 57 

Records, American : 

Jones, Lt. Byron G.— Duration 116 

"Martin's Passenger Duration 90 

Capt. Muller's (Lt.) Altitude Record 91 
W. C. Robinson M'akes Distance 

Record 91 

Thompson, De Lloyd— . .Altitude 42-72 

Schmitt Monoplane in N. Y. Race 

Scott (Riley E.) Bomb Dropping 74-121 

Sperry Wins Stability Prize 12 

Stability : 

Automatic, Converse System 39 

Automatic, Selenium Cell for 25 

Carey System 71 

Of Aeroplanes, by O. Wright 67 

Pendulum Systems HO 

Tables: 

Airhole on Landing 15 

Aerial Bombs and Projectiles 94 

Accessible Circle, The 41 

Kilograms in Eng. Lbs. and Cwt 44 

Measuring H.P. m the Air 23 

Speed Table 102 

Velocity of Rise and Lifting Power 

of Balloons 44 



Transmission Gear for Aeroplanes.. 
Wright: 

England Acquires Patent Rights.. 

Starts New Infringement Suit 

Curtiss 

Zeppelin's ''Failure of" in the War. , 



56 
90 



100 
119 



Aero Science Club of America Bulletin 

Continued from page 28 
being very good indeed. Unfortunately, unless 
he is able to construct another machine very 
shortly this flight will have to be cancelled 
and the arrangements for towing by a racing 
motor boat stopped. 

Mr. J. J, Curran, an aviator of the Aero- 
nautical Society of America, has very kindly 
offered to allow the members of the Aero 
Science Club to have the use of his machine 
at Oak wood Heights for "grass-cutting" prac- 
tice flights. The machine is a 30-horsepower 
Anzani -motored Bleriot monoplane of excellent 
workmanship and finish. 

< hi the evening of the 6th, Mr. Frank Schoe- 
ber of this club demonstrated very satisfac- 
torily to his fellow members the new three- 
cylinder rotary compressed air and steam en- 
gine, on which he has been working for the 
past few months, in conjunction with Mr. 
Rudie Funk. 

The machine is a flash boiler type, using 
gasoline for fuel and having a reciprocating 
pump of special design and very light con- 
struction for keeping the boiler furnished with 
water Total weight of the engine is 5 J / 2 
ounces, having a bore and stroke of %i in 
Crankcase is of machined cast aluminum, cylin- 
ders of phosphor-bronze machined from solid 
castings and fitted with special quick-detachable 
devices, enabling them to be inserted or re- 
moved entirely in a few seconds without any 
bolts, threads or other standard means. Pis- 
tons are of special aluminum alloy, connecting 
rods of brass, fastened to the hollow crank- 
shaft to move without friction. The total 
weight of the complete machine ready for in- 
stallation is but one pound and ten ounces, 
with water and gas for a two or three-minute 
run. With a 20-inch propeller of high pitch a 
speed of over 3,000 R.P.M*. has been obtained, 
and a very high thrust given by the hand- 
made propeller. 

Plans for a canard-type monoplane have 
been completed and work started on this six- 
foct model, which will weigh complete with 
engine installation appromixately 3 l / 2 pounds 
These two experimenters have made rapid prog- 
ress with their motor experiments, and al- 
though it is but their second machine, it has 
In < n more successful than any other similar 
mechanism so far produced in this country. 

From their past performances in model fly- 
ing it is safe to judge that when this model is 
in working order more than a few of the 
official American model records will go in 
rapid succession to these enthusiastic young 
experimenters. 

For information and particulars address the 
Secretary, 29 West 39th St.. N. Y. City, care of 
the Aeronautical Society of America. 

MODEL AEROPLANE MEET 

A series of model aeroplane contests will be 
held at Concord, Mass., during the spring of 
1915, the events being held on the following 
dates: 

March 13, distance, launched from the hand; 
March 27, duration, launched from the hand; 
April 24, distance, rising off the ground; May 
S. duration, rising off the ground; May 22, 
duration, rising off the water. 

The competitions will last from 2.15 to 5 
p. m., and each contestant may have as many 
trials as he wants during that time. 

The contests are open to any model driven 
by rubber bands, and the models need not be 
constructed by the entrant himself. 

At each meet there will be a silver medal 
awarded to the winner, and a bronze medal for 
the best record by a boy under sixteen years 
of age. using a model constructed entirely by 
himself. Several cups also will be given to 
those securing the greatest total number of 
points in the four contests in which he makes 
the best showing; that is, those who compete 
in all five contests will have their worst score 
omitted. Points will be given to every com- 
petitor on a percentage basis. 

The entry fee will be twenty-five cents for a 
single contest, or fifty cents for the whole 
series, provided entry is made before March 1. 
Further information may be secured from, and 
entries should be sent to 

Eowakd P. Warner, Concord. Mass. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 31 




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Herewith is a list of some of the patented features 
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Pa°e 32 



AERONAUTICS 




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VOL. XVI. No. 3 



APRIL 15, 1915 



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Hold the Principal American Records as Follows: 

Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. 
Altitude, with one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. 
Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron O. Jones, U.S. A., 8 hrs. 53min. 
Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N., 6 hrs. lOmin. 

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Page 34 



AERONAUTICS 



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Published semi-monthly in the best interests 

oi Aeronautics by 

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 

250 West 54th St.. New York 

Telephone. Circle 2289 

Cable. Aeronautics. New York 




ERNEST L. JUNES Editor 

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor 

HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor 

FRANK CASH Ass't Editor 



Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22. 190S. under the Act of 
March 3. 1879. $3.00 a year. 15 cents a copy. 

Postage free in the United States. Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 
25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries. 

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subscription is to be continued. 



THE FUTURE OF THE AEROPLANE INDUSTRY 

By Leon Goldmerstein, Associate Editor A. S. M. E. Journal, Chairman Technical Board the Aeronautical Society of America 



I have been asked several times, by 
several financiers on one hand, and by 
aeronautical engineers on the other, as 
to the probable demand for flying ma- 
chines after the war is over, and the 
type that would find the readiest market. 
The following briefly gives an answer 
to these questions. 

For quite a time to come yet, govern- 
ments will continue to be the chief pur- 
chasers. In the present war the aero- 
plane has made good only in one of two 
possible directions, and still proved to be 
invaluable. 

AT PRESENT PRINCIPALLY SCOUTING 
MACHINES. 

As a scouting machine, the aeroplane 
has not only entirely displaced cavalry 
but has changed the entire method of 
warfare. With the present extensive 
use of motor cars and tractors for the 
transport of troops, which permits the 
shift, in one night, of some 50,000 men 
from one place to another, 40 miles dis- 
tant, the aeroplane reconnaissance is the 
only thing that protects an army against 
being surprised by superior forces of the 
enemy, and one without a sufficient sup- 
ply of air scouts feels the lack of th^m 
most keenly. 

THE AEROPLANE THUS FAR A FAILURE IN 
OFFENSE. 

On the other hand, as a method of 
offense the aeroplane has, thus far, 
proved to be a failure. Brilliant dashes 
have been made, especially by British 
aviators, but in no case has anything 
been achieved that is of real and de- 
cisive importance. A couple of Zeppe- 
lins have been destroyed, a submarine 
base partly wrecked, an ammunition 
train blown up; not much to show after 
seven months of war. 

Why this is so is due mainly to the 
flying capacity of the present-day ma- 
chine. It has really (i. e., barring ex- 
ceptionally daring exploits) an econom- 
ical radius of but about 100 miles, which 
is sufficient for scouting purposes in as 
far as they cover what is known as 
tactical reconnaissance. 

PRACTICAL BOMB-THROWING. 

On the other hand, bomb-throwing is 
efficient only when the number of bombs 
thrown is so large that a few misses do 



not materially affect the results, and 
that is exactly what the present-day ma- 
chine is unable to do. If it is to be 
used as a bomb-thrower at all, it must 
be able to reach the vital spots far in 
the rear of the enemy's army, say 50 to 
100 miles behind the actual battlefront 
line, and, of course, must have enough 
fuel to get back to within its own lines. 
That means 100 to 200 miles of flight 
which is, in its turn, equivalent to a 
maximum of 100 lbs. in projectiles. 
Well, nowadays, 100 pounds in projec- 
tiles, even with high explosives, means 
good newspaper stuff but rather indif- 
ferent actual results. 

Nevertheless, the armies on both sides 
have used, as one may estimate from 
available data, since the beginning of 
the war, something like 10.000 to 12,000 
machines, of which probably three-quar- 
ters are already out of business. 

THE OFFENSIVE AEROPLANE. 

What is required now is a large ma- 
chine capable of carrying at least two 
men, fuel for a journey of 500 miles at 
70 miles an hour, and in addition to that, 
about half a ton of useful load. It must 
be able to fly at a speed ranging from 
40 to — at least for a short period — 90 
miles an hour; the main requirements, 
however, being an ability to fly for a 
long time at a moderate speed of, say, 
70 miles an hour. Such a machine must 
be either inherently stable, or have some 
stabilizing device so as to relieve the 
pilot of the constant and intense stress 
on his attention. On the other hand, 
however, it is not necessary that the 
machine be absolutely foolproof as it 
will be always in the hands of an ex- 
pert. 

Of the engine, one thing above all 
must be required, and that is reliability 
in flight. No particular lightness is re- 
quired as the machine must be able to 
stand some rough usage, but what mu'^t 
be made absolutely certain is that after 
the engine has started it will go through 
high and low, mist, snow and cold. The 
aeroplane engine of today is designed 
somewhat along the lines of that of a 
racing automobile. The proper example 
to follow for the military machine is 
the heavy duty engine of a fishing boat 
on Lake Michigan or Superior. 



THE FUTURE DEMAND. 

It is naturally difficult to say what the 
future demand for such machines when 
available may be, but some idea may be 
formed already. The basis on which 
the French artillery programme is es- 
tablished today is that of being able to 
discharge 200.000 shrapnel shells a day. 
Some data indicate that approximately 
5,000 shells have been hurled by the Ger- 
mans at the Russian fortress of Osso- 
wetz without having reduced it. These 
two figures show that in order to make 
aerial bombardment effective it must be 
done in huge quantities and a capacity 
of 10.000 shells a day is hardly too much. 
Now, 10,000 shells at 30 pounds per 
shell, mean .300,000 pounds, or 300 ma- 
chines of large size. Considering that 
a flight of 400 to 500 miles in one trip 
in all kinds of weather is very hard on 
a machine, and that after each such 
trip it will have to go back to the shop 
to be overhauled and tuned up, one may 
safely assume that an engine will make 
not more than two such trips a month, 
which means that the army will have to 
have about 12 times as many machines, 
or 3,600 in all. Since, however, the con- 
dition of war service are extremely 
rough, a reserve of at least 50 per cent, 
will have to be maintained, bringing up 
the total to about 5.000 machines, apart 
from the small scouting aeroplanes and 
dirigibles of special service. 

A large machine of the type described 
would cost about $25,000. Five thousand 
such machines will represent a market 
of $125,000,000 for an army of the size 
of the French: or for the entire Europe, 
close to a billion dollars. 

Is there any need to say more about 
the financial possibilities of the new 
industry? 

NEW TREBERT ENGINE. 

A novelty in rotative motors is to be 
on the market soon — the Trebert 8-cyl- 
inder revolving, connecting-rodless en- 
gine, air-cooled, of course. 



Smile awhile ; while you smile, 
Another smile, and soon there's 

Miles and miles of smiles ; 
And life's worth while — 

If you'll but smile. 



Page 36 



AERONAUTICS 



NATIONAL NAVAL MILITIA AERO CORPS 



Capt. Mark L. Bristol, Director of 
Aeronautics, Navy Department, is or- 
ganizing in the Naval Militia an aero- 
nautic service that will reinforce the 
regular service in time of an emer- 
gency. The equipping, training and de- 
velopment of this service will as far as 
possihle he along the same lines as the 
regular Naval Aeronautic Service. 

It is recommended that each Naval 
Militia organization consider at once 
the possibility of establishing an "Aero- 
nautic Corps." For the present the 
"Aeronautic Corps" of the Naval Militia 
will he confined to the use of aeroplanes, 
although the establishment of dirigible 
and balloon divisions in the future 
should be collaterally considered. 

The smallest tactical units for an 
aerial fleet are considered to be a section 
of two aeroplanes, with spares and ap- 
purtenances, and this fact should be 



considered in the formation of an "Aero- 
nautic Corps." 

The crew for each aeroplane will con- 
sist of two officers and six mechanicians, 
and an additional officer should be in 
command of each section. 

In establishing such an "Aeronautic 
Corps" it is believed that the first step 
should be to interest those officers and 
men who are already fliers, or who have 
had previous experience in aeronautics, 
and to enroll these members of the 
Naval Militia in the Aeronautic Service; 
also to enlist officers and men for this 
service who are experienced in handling 
aeroplanes. 

The course of instructions and train- 
ing in aeronautics will be in general ac- 
cordance with that prescribed for the 
regular Navy. 

The Office of Naval Aeronautics, 
Navy Deartment, will co-operate in 
drawing up a course of instruction and 



training for any "Aeronautic Corps" 
that may be established as a part of any 
Naval Militia organization. 

It is requested that this subject re- 
ceive the earliest possible consideration, 
and that the Division of Naval Militia 
Affairs he informed of any steps taken, 
or that will be taken, toward the es- 
tablishment of an "Aeronautic Corps." 

Captain Bristol is very much pleased 
at the response from the country at 
large. Its primary object is, of course, 
to form a reserve for the Navy, but this 
service should also stimulate interest 
in Naval Militia, give a number of men 
who are interested in aviation a chance 
thus to gratify their interest and at the 
same time serve their country, the latter 
being the desire of every one who has 
the national spirit. 

There are 22 States and the District 
of Columbia that have Naval Militia or- 
ganizations. 



NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS 



The Naval Appropriation Act. ap- 
proved March 3. 1915. provided for 
and established a National Advisory 
Committee for Aeronautics, the Pres- 
ident to appoint not to exceed twelve 
members, to consist of two members 
from the War Department, from the 
office in charge of military aeronautics: 
two members from the Navy Depart- 
ment, from the office in charge of naval 
aeronautics; a representative each of 
the Smithsonian Institution, of the 
United Slates Weather Bureau, and of 
the United States Bureau of Standards ; 
together with not more than five addi- 
tional persons who shall be acquainted 
with the needs of aeronautical science, 
either civil or military, or skilled in 
aeronautical engineering or its allied 
sciences. The members of the Advisory 
Committee for Aeronautics, as such, 
shall serve without compensation. It 
shall be the duty of the Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics to supervise and 
direct the scientific study of the prob- 
lems of flight, with a view to their prac- 
tical solution, and to determine the prob- 
lems which should be experimentally at- 
tacked, and to discuss their solution 
and their application to practical ques- 
tions. In the event of a laboratory or 
laboratories, either in whole or in part, 
being placed under the direction of the 
committee, the committee may direct and 
conduct research and experiment in 
aeronautics in such laboratory or lab- 
oratories. Rules and regulations For 
the conduct of the work of the commit- 
tee shall be formulated by the commit- 
tee and approved by the President. 

_The sum of $5,000 a year, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary, for live 
years is appropriated, out of any money 
in the Treasury not otherwise appro- 
priated to be immediately available, for 



experimental work and investigations 
undertaken by the committee, clerical ex- 
penses and supplies, and necessary ex- 
penses of members of the committee in 
going to, returning from, and while at- 
tending, meetings of the committee. An 
annual report to the Congress shall be 
submitted through the President, includ- 
ing an itemized statement of expendi- 
tures. 

Here is the committee : 

Gen. George P. Scriven, Chief Signal 
Officer and Lieut-Col. Samuel Reber, 
aviation section. Signal Corps, repre- 
senting the Army ; Capt. Mark L. Bris- 
tol, Director of Aeronautics, Navy De- 
partment, and Naval Constructor Hold- 
en C. Richardson for the Navy; Dr. 
Charles D. Walcott, secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution; Charles L. 
Marvin. Chief of the Weather Bureau-, 
Dr. S. W. Stratton. Chief of the Bureau 
of Standards. Assistant Secretary of 
the Treasury Byron R. Newton, Prof. 
W. F. Durand, Stanford University; 
Prof. Michael I. Pupin. Columbia Uni- 
versity; Prof. John F. Hayford, North- 
western University, and Prof. Joseph 
Ames, Johns Hopkins University, rep- 
resent the contingent of "additional per- 
sons who shall be acquainted with the 
needs of aeronautical science, or skilled 
in aeronautical engineering or its allied 
sciences." 

Dr. A. F. Zahm is Recorder of the 
Advisory Committee. 



FLYING AT SAN DIEGO 

The summary of the flights at San 
Diego January 1st to March 13th, is as 
follows: Flights, 627; time in air, 227 
hours am! .^2 minutes; passengers car- 
ried. 376. 



The fiscal year of the government 
begins on July 1st and the Army Appro- 
priation Bill carrying the appropriation 
of $300,000 for aviation purposes is not 
effective until that date. The present 
fiscal year ends June 30th. 

NO AEROPLANES FOR 
COAST GUARD 

It is regrettable to state that there 
are no plans in contemplation at the 
present time for the use of land or water 
aeroplanes in connection with the Coast 
Guard, because there is no appropriation 
available for this purpose. 

NAVY INTER-AEROPLANE 
'PHONE 

The Navy is experimenting with 
some instruments at the present time 
for communicating between the opera- 
tors of an aeroplane when in flight. It 
is not yet decided as to the value of 
these instruments. 



The Hague. March 29. — Herr Hoog- 
straen, the noted bird trainer of Delft, 
solemnly assured newspaper correspond- 
ents to-day that he is training a great 
flock of pelicans to attack military aero- 
planes. 

"The experiments have been proceed- 
ing ever since the war broke out," said 
Herr Hoogstraen. "The pelicans fear 
a German Taube no more than a fish. 
They are exceptionally clever. With 
their sharp, pointed beaks they will con- 
stitute a real menace to air pilots." — The 
Sun. 

The helican! 

"I have received an astonishing num- 
ber of replies from your readers and 
feel that my ad. is worth the reasona- 
ble rates you charge for it." — Aeroplane 
Advertiser, April, 1915. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 37 



CHRISTOFFERSON MILITARY BIPLANE 



Silas Christofferson has been making 
rapid strides on the Pacific Coast and 
his machines have made some corking 
flights. 

In the 1915 military tractor the fusel- 
age is divided into two sections, the 
front section being 10 ft. 6 in. in length 
and the rear one 9 ft. 6 in. The rear 
portion is oval in shape, while the front 
it square, gradually rounding off at the 
rear end to correspond with the rear 
section. The rear section is solidly 
braced with wooden truss membqrs, 
while the front is solidly braced with 
wire trussing. The entire fuselage, with 
the exception of the motor section, is 
covered with a thin veneering of wood, 
which retains the streamline shape and 
greatly increases the strength. 

The motor section is fitted with sheet- 
metal covering similar to that of an 
automobile hood. The occupants' cock- 
pits, oval in form, are 20 in. in width. 
The passenger's cockpit is 27 in. from 
front to back, while the pilot's is 24 
inches. There is a 2 ft. space between 
the pilot's cockpit and the observer's, 
which could be utilized for wireless in- 
struments, bomb-dropping apparatus. 



photographic apparatus or reserve tanks. 
From the passenger's cockpit to the en- 
gine hood there is an 18 in. space wdiich 
could be utilized for a reserve oil tank. 

The fuselage conforms to the latest 
ideas in regard to streamline shape. The 
bottom portion of the fuselage, under- 
neath the engine, is used for the radia- 
tor, which conforms in shape with the 
fuselage, thus doing away with a large 
amount of head resistance. 

The main gasoline tank is located 
underneath the observer's seat. The 
gasoline is forced by air pressure to a 
"gravity" tank, which supplies the car- 
buretor. 

Where the two sections of the fuse- 
lage join special fittings are used, which 
facilitate rapid assemblage. 

The top plane proper measures 22 ft. 
6 in. for each section, of which there 
are two (47 ft. 10 in. total). The sec- 
tions are attached to special steel tubing 
supports by means of steel pins, which 
can be quickly removed. The outer ends 
of the top section curve toward the back 
beam from the last strut out. 

The ailerons are a continuation of the 



plane and are attached to the rear 
beam of the plane by special steel 
hinges. 

The two sections of the bottom plane 
each measure 15 ft. 3 in. in spread, and 
are attached to the fuselage by means 
of quick-detachable steel sockets. 

The upper and lower planes are sepa- 
rated 5 ft. 9 in. by means of laminated 
streamline struts, which tit into special 
patented sockets that serve as a support 
for the guy wires. These sockets are 
so constructed as to allow the top and 
lower planes to be folded together. This 
arrangement makes it possible to set up 
the machine very quickly, as there is no 
"lining up" necessary. This latter fea- 
ture is accomplished by the use of pat- 
ented quick detachable turnbuckles con- 
structed of chrome nickel steel and 
tobin bronze. These turnbuckles are so 
constructed that by pulling back a metal 
sleeve a lever is released, which in turn 
releases the guy wire. This lever is so 
constructed as to automatically tighten 
the wire as it is pulled back into place 
upon reassembling. 

The beams or spars of the main 
planes are of the "I-beam" type, built 




CMKloTOFf Eft50N - TRftCTfjR'ftf&fttfE. 



Page 38 



AERONAUTICS 



up of laminated spruce. These beams 
are spaced 3 ft. 6 in. apart. 

The ribs are spaced according to their 
relative location to the fuselage, those 
up close being nearer together and those 
away from the fuselage being further 
separated. The ribs are constructed of 
selected Oregon spruce and basswood. 
and are also of the "I-beam" type. 

The entering edges of the planes are 
fitted with strips of walnut, so made 
that a neat, sharp, efficient nose is ob- 
tained. The planes are interbraced by 
means of wooden rods, both laterally 
and crosswise. This wood bracing is 
glued to each rib it passes through, and 
makes practically a solid mass in point 
of strength and durability. The cross 
section of the surfaces is especially 
shaped to obtain the highest possible 
speed, greatest lift and least drift. 

The entering edge turns up slightly, 
as also does the controlling edge. The 
section is set at an angle of incidence of 
two degrees, which gives a rise of 
4">s in. from the controlling edge to 
the entering edge. The planes are set 
at a positive dihedral angle of 1 1/20°. 

The wire bracing used is Roebling's 
steel cable, 2,300 to 4,000 pounds tensile 
strength. Where the wire passes around 
turnbuckles and through sockets it is 
protected by a copper sleeve. 

The surfaces are covered with a very 
high grade of Irish linen, heavy weight, 
tested as to strength and treated. 

The elevator flaps are 9 ft. 6 in. 
spread, 2 ft. 7 in. from front to back, 



LONDON RAID SURE. 

Paris, April 13. — Count Zeppelin's sec- 
retary is said to have stated : 

"Our air fleet now comprises 1,366 
units, of which 36 are dirigibles. We 
have had far heavier losses than anti- 
cipated, nine dirigibles having been put 
out of action since the beginning of the 
war. But the destroyed units have been 
replaced by new types, armed with long- 
range cannon and mitrailleuses. 

"By July 15th we are to deliver fifteen 
airships of a greatly perfected type, each 
being armored aand capable of carrying 
two tons of explosives. With these we 
shall be able to undertake safely the 
London expeditions in the thickest fogs 
and on the blackest nights. 

"We shall employ a new process of 
causing atmospheric perturbations, which 
will make it impossible for enemy ma- 
chines to cross German lines without 
dropping like flies." 

PEOLI IS KILLED IN NEW 
BIPLANE TRIAL. 

Washington. April 12.— Cecil M. Peoli 
was killed at College Park, Md., to-day 
when a biplane of which he was the de- 
signer fell a distance of about 100 feet 
in a trial flight. He had been expecting 
to demonstrate his machine by flying 
from Washington to New York. 

Peoli, but 21 years old, was at the 
head of the Peoli Aeroplane Corpora- 
tion, which had its main office at 31 
Nassau street, New York. The com- 
pany was formed last January to back 
Peoli in the building of aeroplanes of 



with an area of about 22 sq. ft. It is 
constructed in the same manner as the 
main planes, witli I-beam ribs, beams 
and cross trussings. The corners are 
rounded. 

The rudder is somewhat oval in shape, 
3 ft. 8 in. long. 3 ft. A]/ 2 in. high, and is 
constructed in the same manner as the 
elevating planes. The stabilizer is built 
in one piece, and attached to the fuse- 
lage by means of special clips. In pack- 
ing it comes off in one piece with the 
elevating plane. The vertical fin, at- 
tached in the same way as the stabil- 
izer, is taken off in one piece with the 
rudder. 

The ailerons operate together and by 
means of a special lever device, which 
enables all control wires to pass along 
the lower beam, thus facilitating in- 
spection. The ailerons are attached t<> 
the main planes by special steel hinges. 
The construction of the ailerons fol- 
lows generally the main plane construc- 
tion, except that a steel tube is used as 
the front beam. The ribs are set into 
steel sockets brazed to this tube, thus 
making a very strong structure. 

The landing gear is of an improved 
type, consisting of three wheels, one in 
front under the motor, and two back a 
short distance behind the center of 
gravity. 

The rear wheels are 26 in. in diam- 
eter, and fitted with 4-in. aeroplane 
tires, and are spaced S ft. apart. The 
spokes of all of the wheels are encased 
in a metal covering, which tends .to cut 



his own design. The company was a 
bidder under the recent navy specifi- 
cations. 

Among the principal stockholders were 
Joseph P. Day, real estate dealer ; 
Nicholas F. Brady, son of the late 
Antony N. Brady and president of the 
New York Edison Company; Hugh L. 
Cooper, consulting engineer, of 101 Park 
avenue ; J. Clarence Davies, real estate 
dealer, of 156 Broadway, and Harold 
Roberts, president of the American 
Real Estate Co., 527 Fifth avenue. 

Peoli, a former model flyer, induced 
Captain Baldwin to teach him to fly, 
and under Baldwin's management made 
many exhibition flights in this country 
and Canada with invariable success. His 
loss is keenly felt by all who knew him. 

NEW COMPANIES. 

The Cooper Aircraft Company has 
been formed and is now located at 
Bridgeport, Conn. The officers are 
John D. Cooper, president ; J. H. Cross- 
ley, vice-president, and R. N. Blakeslee, 
secretary-treasurer. John D. Cooper 
will be remembered as foreign repre- 
sentative for the Curtiss Aeroplane 
Company and Blakeslee is another pilot 
of note, hailing from the Pacific slopes. 
The company sets out to manufacture 
seaplanes, submarine destroyers and mil- 
itary tractors. The first machine will be 
completed about the first of May. 



down the head resistance. The back 
wheels are equipped with spring shock 
absorbers of special design, and are sup- 
ported by a "U" shaped wood structure, 
very strong and solid. This wood frame 
is laminated. The front wheel is 20 in. 
in diameter, fitted witli a 4-in. tire. It 
is braced to the rear "U" frame by 
means of wooden beams and to the 
fuselage also by means of wooden 
beams. 

The motor is a Curtiss 100 h.p. The 
radiation system is very efficient in cool- 
ing and reduction of head resistance. 
The radiator takes the place of the 
bottom of the fuselage under the en- 
gine. There is a reserve tank for a 
large amount of water. 

The climbing speed with 100 h.p. 
( with full load, consisting of pilot, ob- 
server, fuel for five hours, and 150 lbs. 
additional weight) is 400 to 500 ft. per 
minute. The speed range is from ap- 
proximately 45 miles per hour, minimum 
speed, to 85 miles per hour, maximum 
speed. 

The type of control is left to the se- 
lection of the purchaser, and any de- 
sired system will be installed. 



During the year 1914 H. E. Honey- 
well made seven ascensions, using two 
balloons and 400,000 cu. ft. of gas. One 
ascension was made with oil gas. 
Twenty-two passengers were carried. 
On November 1 he made his 204th as- 
cent. Honeywell states "things look 
pretty good for the new year." 



Standard Ordinance Corporation, arm- 
ament, munitions of war, armored cars, 
boats, aeroplanes, food supplies, com- 



mission, brokerage; $50,000; S. L. 
Cohen, R. O'Rourke, M. Sundheimer, 
31 Nassau street. 

AT ITHACA, N. Y. 

Practically established in their new 
factory at Ithaca, N. Y., the Thomas 
Bros. Aeroplane Co. are showing con- 
siderable activity. 

The new Military Tractor, under the 
skillful pilotage of Frank H. Burnside, 
has to its credit some very remarkable 
performances ; climbing with pilot and 
passenger 700 feet in one minute. Fully 
loaded with gasoline and oil for four 
hours' flying (280 pounds), and with 
three people aboard, the climb was 4,000 
feet in ten minutes. Speed range was 
from 38 to 81.1 miles per hour. 

During the week ending March 26th 
Burnside put the machine through some 
very rigorous tests, carrying a passenger 
on each flight ; incidentally giving the 
students their first instruction in the 
tractor type. 

Col. B. M. Brower, of the Cornell 
University Cadet Corps, was taken up 
several thousand feet for reconnais- 
sance, the Corps at that time being out 
on field duty. 

Despite the cold weather, training has 
been carried out on the frozen surface 
of Cayuga Lake, and considerable 
progress has been made. Lawrence 
Lyon, William S. Brock, B. C. Harring- 
ton, Stanley S. Boxhall and Frank King 
all show exceptional ability in handling 
the Thomas control and should be ready 
to fly for their pilot's license soon. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 39 



"HOLES IN THE AIR" 

By W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D. 



"The bucking and balking, the rearing, 
plunging, and other evidences of the mulish 
nature of the modern Pegasus," rhetorically 
states W. J. Humphreys, Ph.D., of the U. S. 
Weather Bureau in the Smithsonian Report, 
"soon inspired aerial jockeys to invent pic- 
turesque terms." "Holes in the air" is one of 
these. This expression covers real conditions 
met but an actual hole in the air is impossible 
for, did this occur, the surrounding air would 
rush to fill this space at a rate of 750 miles an 
hour so that an aviator could scarcely be ex- 
pected to get into the hole. The claim that 
there are spots where the density is less than 
the surrounding air, on encountering which 
the aeroplane drops suddenly, the "half-hole," 
is likewise held to be a friction. "Along with 
these two impossibles, the hole and the half- 
hole, the vacuum and the half vacuum, should 
be consigned to oblivion that other pictur- 
esque fiction, the 'pocket of noxious gas' " 
which one of our foremost pilots claims 
overcame him temporarily while flying. 

Aerial Fountains. If a mass of air becomes 
warmer than the surrounding air at the same 
level, an upward current is at once started, 
sometimes at a velocity of even 10 feet a 
second. These vertical current occur prin- 
cipally in warm, clear weather. The long 
columns of smoke from chimneys is an il- 
lustration. Crossing such a column with one 
wing, with the other in stationary air, lateral 
stability is affected and shocks felt on en- 
tering and leaving. On squarely entering the 
column, the angle of attack is suddenly in- 
creased, the pressure on the wing and the 
angle of ascent. On suddenly leaving the 
column there is an instantaneous decrease in 
supporting power. If the elevator is oper- 
ated in the column to prevent the machine 
rising to higher levels, there is a rapid de- 
scent on leaving and "the half hole is met. 
This is not necessarily harmful. Probably 
the real danger arises from over adjust- 
ments" in too hasty attempts to correct for 
the abrupt changes. "Such an adjustment 
might well cause a fall so sudden as to 
strongly suggest an actual hole in the air." 
An evidence of these columns which attain 
greater heights is the rolls and billows of 
the cumulous clouds they produce. 

Aerial Cataracts. One kind of cataract is 
a counterpart of the aerial fountain, likely to 
occur at the same time, but in the opposite 
direction from that of the rising column. 
Another kind is a flow of a heavy surface 
layer of air up and over a precipice and 
found among barren mountains in high lati- 
tudes where, cooled by the snow, these cata- 
racts "rush down the lee side of steep moun- 
tains with the roar and force of a hurri- 
cane. Where such conditions prevail the 
aviator should keep well above the drifting 
snow and avoid any attempt to land within 
the cataract itself." 

Aerial Cascades. This term is applied to 
winds which, following the surface contour, 
sweep down to the lee of a hill but at a con- 
siderable elevation, with frequently a counter 
current at the ground. This might lead a 



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AERONAUTICS 

prints all the articles 
space allows for the 
benefit of readers. No 
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it is not advertised. 
Reading notices — or 
the absence of them 
— are not used to force 
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AERONAUTICS 

maintains a free ser- 
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of all — subscribers, 
advertisers, or not. 
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AERONAUTICS 

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—established 1907. 



pilot to think of another hole but these Pro- 
fessor Humphreys considers harmless if the 
pilot keeps his machine well above the sur- 
face. 

Wind Layers. Layers of air differ in in- 
tensity and glide one over the other as air 
flows over water, with the same wave-pro- 
ducing effect. Gliding down, with power shut 
off, from one layer to another, say into a 
layer moving in the same direction as the ma- 
chine and with the same velocity, instantly 
dynamical support ceases, power of guid- 
ance is lost and a drop for some distance 
is inevitable. The machine "must inevitably 
fall to ruin unless rare skill in balancing, or, 
possibly, mere chance should bring about a 
new glide after additional velocity had been 
acquired as the result of a considerable fall. 
Warping of wings, turning of ailerons, dip- 
ping and twisting of rudders, would be ut- 
terly useless at first, totally without effect so 
long as wind and machine have same velocity. 
A skilful pilot may secure a new glide with 
a properly constructed machine, and, finally, 
if high enough, make a safe landing." How- 
ever, this is an extreme case and of rare oc- 
currence but none the less it may be met 
with. If the new layer is in the opposite di- 
rection an increase, instead of a decrease, in 
the lift is found. Ordinarily these layers 
flow more or less across each other and the 
pilot has to contend with abrupt changes and 
experiences a "choppy aerial sea, in which his 
equilibrium is by no means secure — 'in which 
'holes' seem to abound everywhere." When 
fine weather, if changing for a storm, beware 
of these conditions and always land head-on 
in the surface wind. 

Wind Billows are caused by layers of air 
of different density and these billows are set 
up between the layers. Meeting these sud- 
den changes in velocity and direction of wind 
more "holes in the air" are encountered. 
There is risk passing from one layer to the 
other. 

At the surface the wind is tumuluous due 
to friction and obstacles and there are swirls 
and gusts. If violent it is difficult and dan- 
gerous to fly but the turmoil decreases with 
altitude and the pilot should fly the higher 
the windier it is. In strong winds the pilot 
should not land on the lee sides of or close 
to steep mountains and hills or even large 
buildings. Land in an open place a distance 
away or on top of the hill itself. If landing 
on the hill is necessary, take the windward 
side. If necessary on the lee side, head into 
the axis of the eddy. On clear, still nights 
there are cool currents flowing down val- 
leys and in landing one must head up the 
valley. 

All these sources of danger are less ef- 
fective as the speed of the aeroplane in- 
creases. 



The experiences of the Turks in the Balkan 
War proved the sensibility of wooden aero- 
planes to the influences of the weather, mak- 
ing necessary steel machines for military pur- 
poses. 



Page 40 



AERONAUTICS 




RUMPLER MONOPLANE 



The world's record for altitude made 
by Linnekogel on a Rumpler monoplane 
attracted wide attention to this new ma- 
chine, the construction of which shows 
the recent progress made in aviation in 
Germany ; now these machines are being 
used in the war. 

For a long time the Rumpler estab- 
lishment lias championed the type "pig- 
eon," which offers the great advtantage 
of a stability almost automatic, due to 
the special form of the wings (Xanonia- 
form, so-called) : on the other hand, the 
superabundance of bracing (notably the 
girder under the wings) offered too 
much resistance to advance to the extent 
that the speed hardly exceeded 100 
kiloms. per hour (62 m. p. h.). 

In the monoplone type of 1914 the 
classic form of the wings has been re- 



tained while reducing the bracing to 
what was strictly necessary, viz., four 
cables above and four below for each 
wing. At the same time, the flexible 
ends of the wings and tail have been 
replaced by flaps of the ordinary type. 
The wing surface of the new mono- 
plane is 29 sq. m. ; its weight empty, 
650 k. g. 

The incidence of the wings diminishes 
from root to tip, which attacks the air 
at a decidedly negative angle. The lateral 
balance is definitely assured by ailerons 
having 1.40 sq. m. surface each. Their 
operation is such as to give only a re- 
action downward and not upward, so 
that the additional resistance is always 
on the side of the higher wing. The 
lower braces are fastened to bracing 
post entirely independent of the chassis. 



The fuselage of rectangular section 
has a length of 9 m. at largest part, 
giving plenty of room for the pilot's seat 
and that of the observer, as well as for 
all the instruments needed. 

The empennage comprises a fixed tri- 
angular surface, terminated by an ele- 
vator in two parts, a vertical keel and 
rudder. 

The motor group comprises a 6 cyl- 
inder Mercedes motor, water cooled, of 
115 h. p. at 1400 r. p. m.. driving a 
Reschke propeller 2.70 m. diam., 1.48 m. 
pitch. The cylinders are of cast steel 
with autogenous-welded water jacket. 
Cooling is by radiator, system Wind- 
hoff. 

This radiator of aluminum tubes is 
fastened directly to the motor so that 
the water in the cylinders is always 




AERONAUTICS 



Page 41 



under pressure which prevents pockets 
of vapor; and, further, in case of leak- 
age of water there remains always water 
in the cylinders. 

The landing gear is formed by two 
lateral triangles of steam-line section 
steel tubes, to which are attached by 
means of elastic, an axle carrying two 
disc wheel (whee'j with spokes covered 
with cloth). A powerful brake fastened 
to the anxle, permits landing in 50 metres 
or so. 

The controls are of the military type, 
the elevator is operated by fore and aft 
motion of lever, lateral balance by rota- 
tion of wheels, and direction by pedals. 
All the control cables are carefully guid- 
ed by bronze pullevs in fibre blocks. 

The chief materials used in this ma- 
chine are ash and American white pine 
for the framework of wings and fuselage 
steel in form of pressed sheets, formed 
tubes, and cables, and cast aluminum 



LODGE WANTS AIRSHIPS TO 
BE DIRIGIBLE. 

Senator Lodge, complaining of the 
lack of aeroplanes, says: 

"I refer, of course, to what are gen- 
erally called air craft, or, more specifi- 
cally, aeroplanes and hydroplanes, (sic.) 
* * * * In the army we have at 
this moment thirteen aeroplanes and no 
Zeppelins or dirigible airships, (sic.) 

"The money appropriated for this 
branch of the service in the navy. I am 
informed, has not been expended, and it 
is stated that the delay has been owing 
to the failure of the American manu- 
facturers to furnish aeroplanes, to the 
differences of the experts as to the best 
type, and to the fact that we are waiting 
to get some aeroplanes from abroad in 
order to test them." 

Naturally, we desire our airships to be 
dirigible but we have not yet heard of 
any hydroplanes in full flight. Evidently 
Senator Lodge got his technical knowl- 
edge from the Arm-Chair Aviators' 
Home Companion. 

FREE AERONAUTICAL 
PAMPHLETS. 

Among the publications of Smithson- 
ian Institution are a number devoted to 
aeronautics. These following may lie 
had free upon application to Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington. D. C. ( for other 
aeronautical works see the book cata- 
logue published by Aeronautics) : 
Recent Progress in Aviation. By Oc- 
tave Chanute (1910). 
Traveling at High Speei^ on the Sur- 
face of the Earth and Above It. 
By H. S. Hele-Shaw (1911). 
Aviation in France. By Pierre-Roger 

Jourdain (1908). 
International Air Map and Aeronau- 
tical Marks. By Ch. Lallemand 
(1911). 
Lanclev Aerodynamical Laboratory. 
Advisory Committee on the (1913). 
Research and Experiments in Aerial 
Navigation. Bv Samuel P. Langley 
(1897, 1900. 1901, 1904). 
What Constitutes Superiority in an 
Airship. By Commandant Paul 
Renard (1909). 



for the support of controls. Autogenous 
welding was employed for all pieces 
which are not subject to tension. 

This monoolane has eiven the fol- 
lowing results: With full military load, 
comprising fuel for 4 hours' flight be- 
sides 200 kg. useful load, it climbs 800 
m. in 6 ruin. The maximum heisht at- 
tained was 6300 m. for the oilot alone 
and 5500 m. with passenger. The normal 
speed is 120 kiloms. an hour. 

finally it was endeavored in the mode 
of construction to facilitate dismounting 
and erecting. 

RUMPLER BIPLANE. 

The machine on which Basser estab- 
lished the world's record of duration 
witli IS h. 12 min., is the first biplane put 
out by the Rumpler establishment. In 
construction it shows much similarity 
to the monoplane type 1914: thus, the 
fuselage, the tail, the moto-propulser 



Hyuromechanic Experiments with 
Flying Boat Hulls. By Naval 
Constructor H. C. Richardson 
(1914). Price, 10 cents. 

The Flying Apparatuis of the Blow- 
fly. By Wolfgang Ritter (1911). 

The Exploration of the Free Air by 
Mi \\s of Kites at Blue Hill Ob- 
servatory. Bv A. Lawrence Rotch 
(1898). 

The Greatest Flying Creature. By S. 
P. Langley (1901). 

Relation of Wing Surface to Weight. 
By R. Von Lendenfeld (1904i. 

The Present Status of Military Aero- 
nautics. By Dr. George O. Squier, 
Major, Signal Corps, U. S. Army 
(1908). 

Review of Applied Mechanics. By L. 
Lecornu (1912). 

Holes ix the Air. By W. J. Humphreys, 
Ph.D. (1912). 

Report on European Aeronautical 
Laboratories. Bv A. F. Zahm, Ph.D. 
(1914). 

Experiments with the Langley Aero- 
drome. By S. P. Langley (1904). 

Samuel Pierpont Langley. Memorial 
Meeting (1906). 

Count von Zeppelin's Dirigible Air- 
ship (1899). 



The American airman Wright was 
tin first in the whole world to build an 
aeroplane which would actually fly, and 
ever since that time we have been ex- 
perimenting and inspecting and report- 
ing and contracting and considering; 
in fact we have been doing everything 
except building aeroplanes. On July 1 
last France owned 1,400 aeroplanes, 
while Uncle Sam owned 23, all of them 
out of date. However, we recently or- 
dered from abroad an up to date French 
aeroplane with two Salmson motors 
and an up to date German aeroplane 
with two Mercedes motors. We were 
in hopes that at last we were in a fair 
way to establish a little brood of air- 
craft; but just then the European war 
broke out. Wicked foreigners com- 
mandeered our purchases, so here we 
are again just where we started. — Repre- 
sentative Augustus P. Gardner. 



group and the body are identical with 
the corresponding parts of the mono- 
plane. 

The principal cell presents the char- 
acteristics of the "Arrow" biplane : the 
V horizontal and the vertical dihedral 
angle are both 3°. The incidence of the 
wings diminishes progressively toward 
the tips (extremities). The lateral bal- 
ance is assured bv ailerons controlled 
(or operated) in both directions. 

The characteristics are as follows : 
Surface, 38 sq. metres; spread, 13 m. ; 
height, 3 m.: total length, 8.65 m. : 6 cyl- 
inder Mercedes motor, 105 h. p. ; hourly 
fuel consumption. 38 litres, oil 2 kg. 
Chauvier propeller. 2.7 m. diam. by 1.48 
m. pitch. Fixed empennage, 2.8 sq. m.; 
elevator, 1.4 sq. m. ; vertical keel, 1.3 
sq. m.; rudder. 8 sq. m. ; ailerons, 2.4 
sq. m. ; vt. empty, 650 kg. ; speed normal, 
105 k. p. h. ; climbing rate (11 minutes, 
full load), 800 m. Useful load, 740 kg. 



Lieut. Saufley. LT. S. Navy, has been 
on duty at the works of the Sperry 
Gyroscope Company to study the theory 
and construction of the Sperry stabil- 
izer and observe any trials of this de- 
vice the manufacturers desired to make 
for their own purposes in getting it 
ready fi >r the tests that will be carried 
out at Pensacola. 



Almost any arms manufacturer in this 
country could build guns for aeroplanes 
if they were given the plans. The Navy 
has not yet decided on the type of gun 
for this use. In fact, confidential in- 
formation from abroad points to great 
difference of opinion amongst the na- 
tions of Europe using guns in aero- 
planes. 



■ There are now at the Aeronautic Sta- 
tion. Pensacola. eight officers of the new 
class of student air pilots, and during 
cur' week 1.133 miles of flight were cov- 
ered by the different machines. The 
longest continuous flight during the 
week was 3 hours and 5 minutes. 

Aeroplanes were detailed to take part 
in the festivities at Pensacola and Mo- 
bile in connection with Mardi Gras. 
Aeroplane AB3, with Lieutenant Bel- 
linger in charge, and Ensign Bronson 
as observer, made the flight to Mobile 
on February 13th and remained there, 
returning on the 18th. Exhibition flights 
were made during the stay at Mobile 
and people taken up. There were over 
1,200 miles flown in 24 hours of flying, 
not counting the Mobile flight. 



"Billy" Robinson, the bird-man, has 
put Grinnell on the map in the aviation 
line and spread the name of the Grin- 
nell Aviation Company by his flight of 
375 miles from Des Moines, la., to 
Kentland, Ind. At a recent meeting of 
the stockholders of the company it was 
decided to increase the capital from 
$10,000 to $50,000. 



Page 42 



AERONAUTICS 



r 



o 




o 



o 



DATA 
SHEET 



No. 1 



GUY WIRE AND CABLE DATA. 

Aeronautical cord consists of a number (usually \9) 
of fine wires of great strength stranded together. It 
is furnished in five diameters, with a minimum thick- 
ness of 1/32" and a maximum of 1/8". The strengths 
of the different sizes run, approximately from 200 tc 
2,300 pounds. 

For steering gear a more flexible cord is provided. 
This is composed of six strands of seven wires each, 
with a center of either cotton or wire, as ordered. 
The cord with the cotton center is considered more 
pliable than that with the center composed of wire. 

The standard sizes for the flexible cord are 1/16", 
3/32" and 1/8", other sizes being made to order. 

Wire differs from cord in that it consists of a single 
wire instead of a number of wires twisted together. 
Like the wires in the cord, it is made from the highest 
grade of steel and given a plated finish that secures 
best results in soldering. This wire is made in 12 
sizes. Care should be taken by users to make good 
connections, so that the entire strength of the steel 
can be developed. The following tables (Roebling) 
give information as to strength and weights: 



GALVANIZED AVIATOR CORD 



Diameter. 


No. of 
Wires. 


Approximate 

breaking 

strength in 

pounds. 


Weight in 

pounds per 

100 leet. 


X" 


19 


8,300 


13.80 


%e" 


19 


3,500 


7.20 


%2" 


19 


3,000 


5.50 


V," 


19 


2,300 


3.61) 


Voi" 


19 


1,465 


2.80 


%2" 


19 


800 


2.00 


Me" 


19 


500 


0.96 


V32" 


7 


200 


0.35 



EXTRA FLEXIBLE GALVANIZED 
AVIATOR CORD 

6x7 Cotton Center. 



Size. 


Approximate 
breaking 
strength in 
pounds. 


Weight in 

pounds per 

100 feet. 


3 /l 6 " 
% 2 " 

Vie" 


3,000 

1,015 

780 

420 


5.35 

2.35 
1.50 

.84 



TO FLY FOR VILLA. 

W. Leonard Bonney has left for 
Mexico to be chief of General Villa's 
aviation corps. Bonney has recently 
been flying at Hempstead. Bonney is 
well known in aviation circles. 

Charles S. Niles, a friend of Bonney, 
is chief of General Carranza's aviation 
corps and has under him several mono- 
plane fliers, most of whom learned at 
the old Moisant school at Hempstead. 
The success of Carranza's fliers in bomb 
dropping and scouting recently induced 
General Villa to buy six Wright bi- 
planes. 



DENINE CLAIMS AUTOSTA- 
BLE MACHINE. 

The Denine-Deuther Aeroplane Com- 
pany, of Spokane, Wash., has been ex- 
perimenting with an inherently stable 
monoplane which has been patented in 
the United States in monoplane, biplane 
and multiplane forms. Construction was 
commenced on the monoplane in the 
spring of 1914 by Martin A. Denine and 
Harold C. Deuther, and tried out dur- 
ing the months of August and Septem- 
ber on the Parkwater aviation field, 
Spokane, Wash., with complete success. 
H C. Deuther, the aviator, states at no 



time was he troubled with either fore- 
and-aft or lateral stability; in fact, dur- 
ing the last few flights he released the 
controls altogether, only taking control 
on leaving and making landing. There 
is said to be an entire absence of roll- 
ing and pitching of this plane during 
gusty weather. 

The Denine-Deuther Aeroplane Com- 
pany will manufacture both single and 
passenger carrying machines of both 
monoplane and biplane types, and do ex- 
hibition work during the season of 1915 
and thereafter. 

The planes cant forward from body 
for the first part of the spread and then 
cant back for the balance of the spread, 
terminating in the flexible portion or 
aileron. The wings are attached to the 
body by sockets, which can be shifted 
to change the angle of incidence. 



"Only the most careful diplomatic pro- 
cedures have kept the United States a 
neutral nation. With the palpable efforts 
that grow greater each day it may be 
but a question of time before this coun- 
try is compelled to take up arms. It is 
conceded that the aeroplane has made 
surprise attacks impossible. It has made 
necessary a readjustment of military tac- 
tics. Where would the United States 
be if plunged into war? What is the 
total production of our factories? What 
is the number of efficient and capable 
military aviators? A hundred aeroplanes 
and aviators would be but a drop in the 
sea should we become involved in war. 
Neither aeroplanes nor aviators are made 
in a day, or a week." 



Charles B. Kirkham, who has been 
identified with the aviation motor in- 
dustry in this country since 1910, is now 
connected with the Curtiss Motor Co., 
at Hammondsport, as chief engineer. 



CORRECTION. 

In our issue of March 30 the Burgess 
Company's advertisement reads : "Bur- 
gess-Dunne Three Delivered to U. S. 
Army, San Diego, December 30." 

It should be Burgess-Dunne No. 3. 

AERO MART COLUMN. 

GET world's largest aeronautical cat- 
alogue, 6 red stamps, or our aeronautical 
motor catalogue just off the press, 4 
red stamps. Blue prints $1.75, all stand- 
ard aeroplanes. "Heath" propellers for 
air, water and land represent the sur- 
vival of the fittest. Six years' propeller 
production proves perfection. 3 red 
stamps for propeller catalogue. Heath 
Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago. 

WILL sacrifice latest flying boat, $775. 
Completely equipped. Also 30-h.p. 
Water-Cooled Curtiss Motor, $250. 
Heath Aerial Vehicle Co., Chicago. 

WANT TO BUY an 80-h.p. Gnome 
or an 80 or 90-h.p. Curtiss. Address 
John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics. 

FOR SALE— Roberts 50 h.p. motor, 
almost new. Oscar Solbrig, 707 W. 
7th, Davenport, Iowa. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 43 



ON THE DEATH OF 
BEACHEY. 

Our representative witnessed the last 
twi i flights made by Beachey. and is 
thereore well acquainted with the real 
facts of the great aviators death. His 
report did not reach us in time for the 
previous issue. 

I was very interested in Beachey's 
flights at the Exposition, and upon learn- 
ing that Warren Eaton had constructed 
a small monoplane for Beachey, took 
a great deal of interest in the first 
flights. Beachey had flown this mono- 
plane four or five mornings at the 
Beach, some five or six miles from the 
Expositon Grounds. This was done by 
Beachey flying from the Exposition 
Grounds to the Beach after his exhibi- 
tion was finished. He took out the bi- 
plane's Gnome and installed it in the 
monoplane for each flight. 

The monoplane had but 20 feet spread, 
was an excellent job, and one of the 
neatest 'planes I have ever seen. It 
was staunch in every detail, and the 
whole thing weighed but a little over 
400 pounds. The 80 Gnome drove this 
plane more than 95 miles an hour. 
Beachey. being confident of his ability to 
drive this monoplane after his trials at 
the Beach, decided to fly it instead of 
the biplane at the Fair Grounds where 
he was under contract. This was done 
safely one day previous to the Sunday 
he met his death. During this first ex- 
hibition flight, no special stunts were 
tried, but simply a beautiful straight 
away flight. 

Sunday. Beachey's first flight was 
started off poorly. The Gnome did not 
work very well, and when his start was 
made, stopped with him in the air just 
after he had crossed a pile of lumber 
that was thrown on the turf from where 
he started. He glided down safely and 
ordered the machine to be taken back 
for re-start. This was done some 
twenty minutes later, and he shot 
straight up into the air, climbing to 
about 5,000 feet before leveling off. He 
made a trip over San Francisco, then 
turned around and crossed the Bay to 
Sausalito. after which he made three or 
four excellent loops, and glided down 
to the Grounds at a slow angle and 
landed safely. The monoplane was a 
beautiful sight in the air, having grace- 
ful lines, and very fast. His last flight 
was started half an hour or so later, in 
which Beachey went up approximately 
4.000 feet, made several loops, and then 
circled up until he had gained approx- 
imately 5,000 or 6.000 feet altitude, made 
another loop and then started for the 
ground perpendicularly. Lots of people 
state Beachey's engine stopped on him 
and prefired, but this is incorrect in 
every way. The actual cause of Beachey's 
death is due solely to the aviator's in- 
experience in flying such a light mono- 
plane. As you know, this was the first 
time that Beachey had ever been back 
of the motor, concealed entirely except- 
ing his head, so that the wind could not 
blow against him and give him an idea 



as to how fast he was dropping. The 
machine dropped at the rate of fully 
250 to 300 miles an hour, and it was a 
wonder that the wings did not collapse 
nearer the first of the drop. When 
Beachey started to level out, approx- 
imately 500 feet from the ground, one 
winy simply folded straight back and 
exploded like a prefire of the motor. 
It was not long before the other did 
the same thing. Luckily, the machine 
dropped along the side of United States 
transports in a little harbor not over 
100 feet wide. It was fully two hours 
before the plane was found by a diver 
from the battleship Oregon, being lo- 
cated by the gasoline that came to the 
surface. It was hoisted in shreds, 
Beachey taken out and placed in a 
naval bearing sack and hoisted to a 
waiting ambulance. 

Beachey appeared to have excellent 
control over the monoplane, and flew it 
wonderfully well, but being covered up 
as he was, and his not being allowed to 
feel or see how fast he was really 
dropping, was the direct cause of his 
death. In my mind no monoplane or 
biplane built could have withstood the 
strain of such a tremendous falling 
force through the air. 

INVISIBLE RAYS TO DE- 
STROY ZEPPELINS. 

"Since the war began, there have been 
many important developments in aerial 
defense and offense. Recently the dis- 
covery of a combination of infra red 
and electric waves shot from a mica 
tube in the form of a gun have, on actual 
tests, proved to be such a certain means 
of causing all forms of balloons to ex- 
plode," says William Russell, "that the 
British, French and German Govern- 
ments have, under the threat of severest 
punishment, forbidden any news of the 
experiments to be published. 

"Through an accidental observation of 
a press representative, news of these ex- 
periments have reached this country, and 
several of the papers have published ac- 
counts stating that the invention has 
been confirmed by high military officials. 

"For several years many scientists 
have been conducting experiments in the 
radiation of infra red and electric waves 
of various kinds for causing destructive 
effects on submarines and air-craft and 
have found that, under the proper con- 
ditions, destructive effects of greater 
power than any other method known 
could be caused by these rays which 
have such terrific force that if they are 
perfected to a degree that will be capable 
of liberating their full force in a beam 
of energy that can be controlled with 
the accuracy and certainty of gun fire 
we will have a means of destruction far 
more appalling than the great German 
siege guns. 

"To people unfamiliar with science, 
the statement that an invisible radiation 
of electric waves similar to wireless 
waves could possess more destructive 
power than gunpowder charges which 
hurl enormous missives of steel weigh- 



ing many hundreds of pounds appears 
incredible. 

"The study of periodic law shows that 
all of the invisible forces in electric 
wave form possess great energy and 
the study of radio activity has proved 
that all forms of matter, even to the 
smallest particle conceivable, contains an 
amount of force which, if it could be 
liberated in an explosive discharge sim- 
ilar to the explosion of dynamite, etc., 
would greatly exceed in power many 
pounds of the most powerful explosive 
known to us. 

"The most salient point in the ef- 
fective use of this silent, invisible, de- 
structive force is that it can be used 
without detection no matter how near a 
person might be to it; for being invisi- 
ble and absolutely noiseless it cannot 
be detected by our senses even though 
we were to stand alongside of it as it 
is shot forth on its errand of destruc- 
tion." 

William Russell, formerly chief of the 
Wireless Division, Seventh Regiment, 
New York National Guard, has been 
conducting experiments in these destruc- 
tive electric radiation and expects soon 
to give a demonstration of the prac- 
tical reality of this form of energy. 

A military authority states : "I know 
nothing more on the subject than the 
various newspaper yarns which have 
appeared from time to time for the last 
three years about the ultra some kind of 
ray which is alleged to possess marvel- 
ous destructive properties. There has 
been no record of any such discovery in 
any of the scientific journals, and I am 
inclined to believe the existence of these 
rays is a myth of the same character as 
the alleged wonderful gas many times 
lighter than hydrogen said to have been 
discovered and used by the Germans in 
filling Zeppelins, when we know that 
they are using hydrogen for this pur- 
pose." 

couldn't even fly straight. 

After doing the dip, the spiral glide 
and al! the stunts that were Beachey's 
delight, and landing he heard a sneering 
voice at his side. 

"Say, are you Beachey?" a tough 
looking guy asked. 

"Yes," was the reply, "Why?" 

"Gee !" laughed the fellow. "I t'ought 
youse was some crack flyer. Say, dese 
odder guys has got it all over yous^ 
when it comes to flyin'. Why, youse 
can't even fly straight." 

LANDED AT THE INSANE ASYLUM. 

One day Beachey was compelled to 
land quickly and he decided on a nice 
flat field, surrounded with a fine wall 
and enclosing some imposing looking 
buildings. He miscalculated and came 
to earth just outside the wall and in 
front of a large iron gate. A lot of non- 
descript looking people came running 
down to the gate and as Beachey dusted 
himself off one old fellow, grinning 
broadly, exclaimed mockingly: 

"Say, you feller ! Ye lit on the wrong 
side o' the fence, didn' ye?" 



Page 44 



AERONAUTICS 



AIRCRAFT AND PEACE TREATIES 

Neutrality and Trade in Contraband 



Referring to the recent German pro- 
test to our Government regarding the 
exportation of hydroaeroplanes on the 
ground that such are construed, by Ger- 
many, to be vessels, and the reply by 
the Secretary of State that "both the 
hydroaeroplane and the aeroplane are 
essentially aircraft; as an aid in mili- 
tary operations they can only be used 
in the air : the fact that one starts its 
flight from the surface of the sea and 
the other from the land is a mere inci- 
dent which in no way affects their aerial 
character," and that, consequently, this 
Government does not regard the obli- 
gations imposed by treaties or the ac- 
cepted rules of international law as ap- 
plicable to aircraft of any kind, it may 
be of interest to call attention to the 
article published in the August IS, 1914. 
issue of Aeronautics relative to the 
discontinuance of the prohibition ac- 
cepted by the Powers after the first 
Peace Conference against the throwing 
of explosives from aircraft. 

The first Peace Conference passed the 
above resolution and it was accepted. 
The five-year period expired July 28, 
1904. At the second Hague Conference, 
concluded October IS, 1907. the declara- 
tion was passed in the same terms as 
that of the first conference. Great Brit- 
ain. Austria and the United States, 
among others, ratified this. The period 
for ratification expired June 30. 1908, 
and seventeen other nations failed to 
give assent, among whom were Ger- 
many. France, Japan. Italy. Mexico and 
Russia. In the absence of no prohibi- 
tion, aerial warfare would seem a legiti- 
mate operation of war. 

Aircraft appears on the German. 
French and English lists of contraband 
material. 

Germany sought to construe hydro- 



aeroplanes as vessels so as to bring 
them under the provisions of Article 8 
of the Thirteenth Convention Concern- 
ing the Rights and Duties of Neutral 
Powers in Naval War. which provides 
as follows : 

"A neutral Government is bound to 
employ the means at its disposal to pre- 
vent the fitting out or arming of any 
vessel within its jurisdiction which it 
has reason to believe is intended to 
cruise, or engage in hostile operations 
against a Power with which that Gov- 
ernment is at peace. It is also bound 
to display the same vigilance to prevent 
the departure from its jurisdiction of 
any vessel intended to cruise, or engage 
in hostile operations, which has been 
adapted entirely or partly within the 
said jurisdiction for use in war." 

Aeroplanes, land and water, arms, 
etc., however, may- be sold to belligerents 
without hindrance. 

In the first place it should be under- 
stood that, generally speaking, a citizen 
of the United States can sell to a belli- 
gerent Government or its agent any 
article of commerce which he pleases. 
He is not prohibited from doing this by 
any rule of international law. by any 
treaty provisions, or by any statute of 
the United States. It makes no differ- 
ence whether the articles sold are ex- 
clusively for war purposes, such as fire- 
arms, explosives, etc.. or are foodstuffs, 
clothing, horses, etc., for the use of the 
army or navy of the belligerent. 

Furthermore, a neutral Government 
is not compelled by international law, 
by treaty, or by statute to prevent these 
sales to a belligerent. Such sales, there- 
fore, by American citizens do not in the 
least affect the neutrality of the United 
States. 



It is true that such articles as those 
mentioned are considered contraband 
and are, outside the territorial jurisdic- 
tion of a neutral nation, subject to seiz- 
ure by an enemy of the purchasing Gov- 
ernment, but it is the enemy's duty to 
prevent the articles reaching their des- 
tination, not the duty of the nation 
whose citizens have sold them. If the 
enemy of the purchasing nation happens 
for the time to be unable to do this that 
is for him one of the misfortunes of 
war; the inability, however, imposes on 
the neutral Government no obligation 
to prevent the sale. 

Neither the President nor any execu- 
tive department of the Government pos- 
sesses the legal authority to interfere in 
any way with trade between the people 
of this country and the territory of a 
belligerent. There is no act of Congress 
conferring such authority or prohibiting 
traffic of this sort with European na- 
tions, although in the case of neighbor- 
ing American Republics Congress has 
given the President power to proclaim 
an embargo on arms and ammunition 
when in his judgment it would tend to 
prevent civil strife. 

For the Government of the United 
States itself to sell to a belligerent na- 
tion would be an unneutral act, but for 
a private individual to sell to a belli- 
gerent any product of the United States 
is neither unlawful nor unneutral, nor 
within the power of the Executive to 
prevent or control. 

The foregoing remarks, however, do 
not apply to the outfitting or furnishing 
of vessels in American ports or of mili- 
tary expeditions on American soil in aid 
of a belligerent. These acts are pro- 
hibited by the neutrality laws of the 
United States. 



WIRE 

We make an extra high grade 

plated finish wire for 

aviators' use. 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS 

John A. Roebling's Sons Co. 

TRENTON, N. J. 




The Thomas 

Continues to 
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On February 27, at Ithaca, N. Y., 
the Thomas Tractor Biplane, 

with three men and four hours' 
fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 
min. Average speed— 81-1 m.p.h. 
Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. 
Showed high degree of inherent 
stability. 

Thomas School 

Offers exceptional facilities — 
land and water. Best of instruc- 
tors and equipment. 
Wrttefor "Opportunity" Booklet No. 12. 
THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO., Inc.. Ithaca, N.Y. 



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AERONAUTICS 



Page 45 



THE AERONAUTICAL BOOKSHELF 



Epitome of the Aeronautical 

AnnUal By JAMES MEANS 

In one volume is contained the principal articles from 
the three annuals of 1895, 1896 and 1897, published by Mr. 
Means. Contains the theories and experiments of Cayley. 
Wenham, Lilienthal, Maxim, Langley and others, written 
by themselves. Fundamental facts are given. One of the 
absolutely necessary volumes. IlL, 224 pp., $1.12 

The Problem of Flight 

By HERBERT CHATLEY 

A strictly technical book for the engineer. 

111.. 119 pp., $3.50 

The Conquest of the Air 

By the Late Prof. A. LAWRENCE ROTCH 

A popular hut authoritative book on 
the Ocean of Air, History of Aero- 
station, Dirigible Balloon, Flying 
Machine, The Future of Aerial Navi- 
gation. HI., $1.10 

Aerial Navigation 

By DR. ALBERT F. ZAHM 

In popular terms Dr. Zahm portrays 
the progress of aeronautics.leaving out 
unproductive experiments. The pilots 
of today know little of the history of 
the machine they use daily. The per- 
centage of those who are familiar with 
progress is small. Dr. Zahm writes an 
absorbing volume which must take its 
place on every bookshelf. 

III., 486 pp., $3.00 

Art of Aviation 

By ROBERT W. A. BREWER 

One of the best handbooks on avia- 
tion. Semi-technical. A really valuable book for the 
amateur, experimentor and pilot. 111., 266 pp., $3.50 

Langley Memoir on Mechan 
ical Flight 



Indispensable Books 



Langley's "MEMOIR" 

Langley's "EXPERIMENTS" 

Maxim's "ARTIFICIAL AND 
NATURAL FLIGHT" 

Loening's "MONOPLANES 
AND BIPLANES" 

Mean.' "EPITOME" 

Brewer's "ART OF AVIA- 
TION" 

Hay ward's "PRACTICAL" 
AERONAUTICS 



Bird-flight as the Basis of 

Aviation By GUSTAV LILIENTHAL 

Covers the gliding work of O. and O. Lilienthal. 

III.. 166 pp.. $2.50 

The Aeroplane in War 

By C. GRAHAME WHITE and H. HARPER 

A book with prophecies of the future. III.. $3.00 

Experiments in Aero- 
dynamics By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY 

This with the other Langley hook forms the keystone 
of the aeronautical library. Purely technical. Details of 
the experimental machines of Professor Langley. The 
indispensable book. III. $1.50 

Artificial and 
Natural Flight 

By SIR HIRAM MAXIM 

Concise history of development of 
flying: machines and Maxim's own ex- 
perimental work. There are but few 
worth-while technical books on avia- 
tion. This is one. Ills., 172 pp., $1.75 



Monoplanes and 
Biplanes 



By Prof. S. P. LANGLEY 
and CHARLES M. MANLY 

In this ponderous volume is found additions to Professor 
Langley's previous work and contains wonderful photo- 
graphs and scale drawings of all of the models and the 
engine* constructed and tested by Langley and his 
assistant, Mr. Manly. The mathematician will delight 
in the formulae and the practical man will find avast 
amount of data. One of the scant dozen "best books." 

Handsomely ill., 4to, 320 pp., $2.50 

Curtiss Aviation Book 

By GLENN H. CURTISS and AUGUSTUS POST 

A popular book. Describes Curtiss' flights, his early 
life, how he planned and worked out his machine— close 
view of the man. Other chapters by Lt. Paul Beck. Lt. 
Ellyson and Hugh Robinson. III., 307 pp., $1.49 



By GROVER 
C- LOENING 

Covers design, construction and 
operation. The author has taken the 
work of the best known ex peri men tors 
and analyzed the results, comparing 
them and averaging. Another nec- 
essary book. III., 345 pp., $2.50 

How to Build an Aeroplane 

By ROBERT PETIT 

A handbook for the young: man in school, or beginning 
building for amusement. A semi-technical book, simply 
written. III.. 131 pp., $1.50 

Building and Flying an 
Aeroplane By chas. b. hayward 

A practical handbook, covering construction of models, 
gliders and power machines. 111., 160 pp., $1.00 

Practical Aeronautics 

By CHAS. B. HAYWARD 

Treatise on Dirigibles. Aeroplanes, Motors, Propellers, 
Practice, Future, etc. Ill- 800 pp., $3.50 



AERONAUTICS, 250 W. 54th St., New York 



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Pase 46 



AERONAUTICS 



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AERO CLUB OF PENNSYL- 
VANIA. 

A stated meeting of the Aero Club of 
Pennsylvania was held at the Bellevue- 
Stratford Friday evening, April 16, 1915. 
Tickets for the Sperry lecture, on April 
23rd, will be mailed in a few days. 



Messrs. J. C. Pepin, W. T. Banning, 
and J. J. Kelley, of the Lorain Hydro 
and Aero Company, visited the Roberts 
plant a few days since and left their 
order for two of the new 100 h.p. six- 



cylinder Roberts aviation motors, de- 
scribed in Aeronautics of March 15th. 
The engines are to be shipped to the 
Benoist Aeroplane Company for instal- 
lation in two outfits which the Lorain 
Company will put into service early this 
season. ■ 

IN AIRSHIP DAYS. 

The wooden-legged cap'n of the air- 
ship Wilbur Third 

Comes a-steppin' down the ladder 
like a limpin' lulu bird. 

And reporters from the papers 
crowded round him thick as bees 




OF AMERICA 
29 West 39th Street. Niw York 

OFFICIAL BULLETIN 

It is noted with respectful and deep regret 
that Mr. Lee S. Burridge, Founder and Past 
President of the Society, has through sick- 
ness been absent from the meetings the last 
few weeks. Mr. Burridge had not previously 
missed a single meeting of the Society since 
the time of its organization in 1909, and all 
members join in the sincere hope that he may 
soon be restored to good health and again 
appear in their midst. 

ROUND TABLE TALKS 

Mr. A. M. Herring gave an interesting talk 
on the peculiar manifestation in aero-dynamics 
known as the Two-Foot Constant "K" or Vor- 
tex effect, which cfominates when peripheral 
speed of a propeller is approximately 1,100 
feet per second. He also indicated a method 
for readily determining the efficiency of a 
propeller. 

Mr. Charles B. Brewer exhibited an elec- 
trically treated cloth, under a process invented 
by Mr. A. VV. Carroll, which is impervious to 
water while being permeable by air. This, it 
is thought, may prove of value in the manu- 
facture of dirigibles, because less than one 
per cent, of weight is added to the material 
in the process of treatment. 

Mr. P. A. Peterson exhibited a large variety 
of insects, having weights attached which they 
had carried in flight, proving that, as a gen- 
eral rule, insects are capable of carrying loads 
greater than their own weights. 

Mr. H. L. Coakley explained a stabilizing 
device of his own invention, showing a model 
thereof patterned after a dove. With this de- 
vice a vertical keel is provided at the rear. 

The new Technical Board has been appointed 
and held its organization meeting on Monday, 
April 11. It is composd of: Rudolph R. 
'.rant. Chairman; Earle Atkinson, William T. 
Hammer, Rudolph Hanau, C. W. Wurster, 
Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin, Henry L. Coakley, 
M. B. Sellers, Chas. R. Wittemann. A. Leo 
Stevens, Capt. W. I. Chambers, U. S. N. 

The Society deeply deplores the death by 
accident in flight on April 11 of its member, 
Cecil Peoli, who fell at College Park, Md., 
while making a trial of his new machine. Suit- 
able action will be taken at the meeting on 
April 16 to express the sense of bereavement 
felt by the members and their sympathy with 
his relatives. 

But he waves 'm off, impatient, and 

he says in tones that freeze: 
"There is simply nothin' doin' in the 

intervie- in' line. 
Though I'll own up I'm loaded with 

some dope that's right down fine; 
I'll admit that we've been cruisin' 

jest above the Polar Sea, 
But nary hint, reporters, will you 

git of it from me. 
"I will merely pause to mention 

that we found a brand new race. 
That never seen an airship nor a 

bloomin' white man's face — 
That we found the Borealis, and 

it's nowt but striped cheese, 
But not a word I'll give you, so 

just ask no questions, please. 
"And furder, I could tell you, if I 

only up and chose, 
That we anchored to the North 

Pole till our wings was nearly 

froze; 
But you'll waste your breath with 
^ questions is all I've got to say, 
So trot along, reporters — jest be 

movin' on your way." 
And when the city papers had ten 

columns each next morn 
This most secretive captain's hair 

in wrath was sadly torn; 
"Some one has been a-peachin' on 

this airship Wilbur Third: 
They didn't git it out of me — I 

never said a word!!! 

— Denver Republican. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 47 




^ 






T\/I X 



CURTISS FACILITIES 

This shows one section of the new steel factory. It is 300 ft. 
long and 100 ft. wide. Another section of equal size is now | 
under construction. Curtiss Aeroplanes of tractor and pusher 
type for land and water are built here under ideal conditions. 





he Curtiss Aeroplane Ca 

Buffalo, New York 





The 

Wright 

Company 



(The 

Wright 

Patents) 




THE NEW WRIGHT 
AEROPLANES 

For sport, exhibition or 
military use, over land or 
water now embody the im- 
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suggested by the experiments 
quietly conducted during the 
past ten years. 



The Wright Company 

DAYTON. OHIO New York Office: 1! Pioe St. 




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(REG. U. S. PAT. OFF.) 

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is the most powerful motor in the country that is thoroughly Sn] 
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U. S. Army and Navy and all the leading aeroplane builders. JU£7 

ruL. \ 4-cylinder, 50 H. P. 

Other »,zes j 6 _ cylinder , 80 H . P. ^ 

Specifications upon request sS 

B. F. STURTEVANT COMPANY Hyde Park, Boston, Mass. 

I) am/ ,;// principal cities of the world 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 48 



AERONAUTICS 



BALDWIN 



JSB Balloons 
S§S Dirigibles 
KjS Fabrics 

Motors 



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PATENTS 



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Our New Military Tractor also was demonstrated successfully 
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THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York 

Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes 




Special grades of Bamboo for Aeronautic Work. Reed, 
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BALLOONS 



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AERONAUTICS 



New and Enlarged Edition, Commencing January, 1914 ^ 



The Leading British Monthly 
Journal Devoted to the Technique 
and Industry of Aeronautics 

(FOUNDED 1907) 

Yearly Subscription One Dollar 

Eighty-five Cents : Post Free 

I M'mey Orders Only) 

lM^f-A* A specimen copy will be mailed 

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ALL AERO BOOKS 
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VOL. XVI. No. 4 



APRIL 30, 1915 



15 Cents 




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Altitude, without passenger, Capt. H. LeRoy Muller, U.S.A., 17,185 feet. 
Altitude, with "one passenger, Lieut. J. C. Carberry, U.S.A., 11,690 feet. 
Duration, Military Tractor, Lieut. Byron O. Jones, U. S. A., 8 hrs. 53 min. 
Duration, Hydroaeroplane, Lieut. J. H. Towers, U.S.N.,6hrs. lOmin. 

Motors Ready for Delivery 



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8-CYL. 160 H. P. 



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21 LAKE STREET 
HAMMONDSPORT. N. Y. 



I 




Page 50 



AERONAUTICS 



QoooJ^i 




U.S. Government Uses 
Goodyear Balloons 

Every balloon purchased by the 
Government in the last three years 
has been Goodyear-made. A Good- 
year balloon won the American 

National Elimination Race out of Kansas City 
in 1913, the International Race out of Paris 
in 1913, and the American National Elimi- 
nation Race out of St. Louis in 1914. 
Such successes have given to Goodyear an 
International reputation for the quality and 
dependability of Goodyear balloons. 

Balloon Bags — Any Size 

Goodyear makes dirigible balloon bags in sizes 
from 75,000 cubic feet capacity up to 500,000 
cubic feet. Also complete spherical balloons, 
any size, for captive or free flights. Goodyear 
balloon fabric is thoroughly impregnated with rubber, 
not merely coated. That keeps dampness away from 
the fibre and adds to its strength and gas tightness. 

Aeroplane Tires 

Aeroplanes have been built larger and heavier the past 
few years to carry increased loads. Goodyear has met 
the need for stronger tires with two new sizes, 26x4 
inch and 26x5 inch. 



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and Accessories 



Let Us Help You Solve Your Balloon Problems 

The Goodyear organization includes men thoroughly experienced 
in the manufacture and handling of balloons. We build balloons 
to your specifications or design them ourselves. We design fabric 
for unusual conditions. 

If you have balloon problems write us. We gladly answer all your 
questions, without obligation to you. 

Address Balloon Desk, 136. 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company 

AKRON, OHIO 

Makers of Goodyear Automobile Tires 
New York Branch, 1972 Broadway 



The Ball-bearing 
Motor 




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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 51 



THE ELEMENTS OF A GYROCOPTER— By Emile Berliner 



The Gyrocopter is a variation of the 
helicopter operated by a rotary motor. 
Its special feature is a small anti-torque 
propeller, taking the place of the usual 
second lifting propeller, which in the 
past it was found necessary to provide 
in order to counteract the torque move- 
ment of the machine. 

The following are the elements of the 
Gyrocopter: 1, lifting propeller, L; 2, 



able joints until the torque of L is coun- 
terbalanced. Any slight difference is 
neutralized by an ordinary rudder, not 
shown in the drawing. 

Another method of regulating the anti- 
torque pressure of T would consist in a 
movable shield directly in front or be- 
hind it, which would reduce the lattcr's 
efficiency by making the access of the 
air to this propeller. This device could 




motor, M; 3, anti-torque propeller, T; 
4, frame work with platform, P. 

The propeller T is located 10 feet or 
more from the mainshaft S, and its effi- 
ciency is approximately calculated to be 
equal to a pressure obtained by dividing 
the torque of propeller L with the dis- 
tance a. b. The wings of propeller T 
can be shortened or lengthened by mov- 



be used as a rudder to the apparatus. 

The Gyrocopter is propelled forward 
by tilting it. To do this the operator 
steps forward on the platform P and 
the apparatus will then move in the di- 
rection of the tilt. A tilt of 10 degrees 
will reduce the lifting power of L about 
\]/2 per cent, and impart to the whole 
machine a forward pressure equal to 



about 17/100 of the total lifting power. 
Supposing the latter be 1,000 pounds, 
then with a tilt of 10 degrees the loss in 
lift will be 15 pounds and the forward 
pressure will be 172 pounds. With a tilt 
of 25 degrees the loss in lifting is about 
10 per cent, and the forward pressure 
44 per cent, of the total lift, and with a 
tilt of 45 degrees the loss in lifting will 
be about 30 per cent, and the. forward 
pressure 70 per cent, of the lifting pres- 
sure. 

From this it can be seen that by step- 
ping forward or backward, the operator 
can keep such a machine moving com- 
fortably at any level, provided that the 
surplus lifting" power (meaning total 
lifting power, less weight of machine 
and operator) does not exceed about 
one-fifth of the weight of the apparatus. 
Within this limit the operator will have 
a tilting between, say, 10 to 40 degrees 
for navigating the machine. It also be- 
comes clear that the propeller L is to be 
designed for lift and not for speed, as 
the latter develops from the tilting of an 
apparatus having small head resistance, 
which can be reduced still more by a 
streamline enclosure. 

The Gyrocopter is intended in its pri- 
mary stages lo fly close to the water and 
to float on it when at rest. Two hollow 
aluminum cylinders F F act as floats. 
Collapsible planes or parachutes might 
be added for modifying a fall from 
greater heights. 

Preliminary experiments with a full- 
sized apparatus anchored to the ground 
by ropes were begun over two years ago, 
but were interrupted by work on the 
Gyro motor. It is the intention of the 
writer to resume experiments at an early 
date. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 



AEROPLANE MANUFACTURERS. 

The Aircraft Co.— 1737 Broadway, 
New York City. 

Benoist Aeroplane Co. — 341 S. St. 
Louis Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

The Burgess Company — Marblehead, 
Mass. Sole builders under the Dunne 
patents in America. 

The Curtiss Aeroplane Company — 
Buffalo, New York. 

Jannus Brothers — Battery Avenue and 
Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Parisano Aerial Navigation Co. of 
America. Inc. — 220 West 42d Street, Xew 
York City. 

Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Com- 
pany — Ithaca, New York. 

The Wright Company — Dayton, Ohio. 

MOTOR MANUFACTURERS. 

The Curtiss Motor Co. — Hammonds- 
port. New York. 

The Gyro Motor Company — 774 Girard 
Street, Washington, D. C. New York 
office, 331 Madison Avenue. 

Kemp Machine Works — Muncie, Ind. 

Maximotor Makers — Detroit. Mich. 

Roberts Motor Manufacturing Com- 
pany — Sandusky, Ohio, U. S. A. 



B. F. Sturtevant Company — Hyde 
Park, Boston, Mass. 

The Wright Company — Dayton, Ohio. 

The Herfurth Engine Co. — Alexandria. 
Va., makers of "Emerson" motors. 
BAMBOO. 

J. Deltour— 804 Jefferson Street, Ho- 
boken. N. T. 

GLUE. 

L. W. Ferdinand & Co.— 201 South 
Street, Boston, Mass. 

MAGNETOS. 

Bosch Magneto Company — 201 West 
46th Street, New York. Makers of 
Bosch magnetos 

\ERONAUTICAL CLOTH AND 
VARNISH 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.— 
Akron, Ohio. 

The C. E. Conover Co.— 101 Franklin 
Street, New York City. 

BALLOONS AND DIRIGIBLES. 

T. S. Baldwin— Box 78. Madison 
Sauare P. O., New York 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. — 
Akron, Ohio. 

Honeywell Balloon Co. — 4460 Chou- 
teau, St. Louis, Mo. 



A. Leo Stevens — Madison Square Box 
181, New York. 

PROPELLERS. 

American Propeller Co. — 243-249 East 
Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md. 

The Aircraft Company— 1737 Broad- 
way, Xew York City. 

PATENT LAWYERS. 

Watson E. Coleman— 624 F Street, N. 
VV„ Washington, D. C. 

Frederick W. Barker— P. O. Box 139, 
Times Square Station, N. Y. 

C C. Parker— 30 McGill Bldg., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Victor J. Evans & Company — 771 
Ninth Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

W'm. N. Moore — Loan and Trust Bldg.. 
Washington, D. C. 

WIRE AND CABLE. 

John A. Roebling's Sons Co. — Tren- 
ton, N. T. 

MODELS. 
Wading River Mfg. Co. — Wading 
River, N. Y. 

RADIATORS. 
El Arco Radiator Company — 64th 
Street and West End Avenue, New York. 



Page 52 



AERONAUTICS 



THE STORY OF FLIGHT 



By Wilbur Wright 

The "inside story" of the experiments 
of Wilbur and Orvillc Wright has never 
before been published to the world. 
Just how they came to fly is as interest- 
ing as the fact that they did. 

Bicycle makers of Dayton, Ohio, they 
took up the subject of dynamic flight 
in 1899 as a pastime. 



They wanted something to occupy 
their minds, and they turned to the fly- 
ing machine as something worthy of their 
seal. 

By common consent men had adopted 
human flight as the standard of impos- 
sibility. II' hen a man said: "It can't be 
done; a man might as well try to fly" 
he was understood as expressing the final 



limit of impossibility. The science of 
flight was a paper science. Flying pro- 
posals were legion; flying dogma, contra- 
dictory, impossible, plausible, zt'as rife; 
but of ART, there was nothing — only a 
long, unbroken, barren field, with not a 
surviving usable thing to mark the way. 
nothing saz/e here and /here a broken 
wreck of failure. 



My brother and I became seriously in- 
terested in the problem of flight in 1899. 
Some three years before this the death of 
Lilienthal, which was mentioned in the 
newspapers of that time, had brought the 
subject to our attention and led us to 
make some inquiry for books relating to 
flight. But the only serious books we 
found were by Professor Marey, and 
these related to the mechanism of bird 
flight rather than human flight. As our 
interest at that time was mere curiosity 
as to what had been done, we did not 
pursue the subject further when we 
failed to find books relating to human 
flight 

Several years later, while reading a 
book on ornithology, we became inter- 
ested in studying the appearances and 
habits of birds, and it occurred to us that 
the really interesting thing about birds 
was their power of flight. This was a 
power which seemed almost in contradic- 
tion to laws of nature. The birds per- 
formed such wonderful feats, feats ap- 
parently many times more difficult than 
ordinary flight, and we could not help 
wondering why it was that men could not 
imitate at least the more simple maneu- 
vers. 

Our own growing belief that men 
might nevertheless learn to fly was 
based on the idea that while thousands 
of creatures of the most dissimilar bod- 
ily structures, such as insects, fishes, rep- 
tiles, birds and mammals, were every 
day flying through the air at pleasure, 
it was reasonable to suppose that men 
also might fly. Of course, there might 
be, and doubtless would be, many seri- 
ous difficulties to be overcome, but we 
thought that by learning what these dif- 
ficulties were and finding methods of 
overcoming them, the problem of hu- 
man flight might be solved, and we 
thought that probably the cheapest and 
best way to take up the subject would 
be to acquaint ourselves with the trou- 
bles which others had met in attempt- 
ing to solve the problem. We accord- 
ingly decided to write to the Smithso- 
nian Institution and inquire for the best 
books relating to the subject. We had 
heard that the Smithsonian was inter- 
ested in matters relating to human flight. 
In response to our inquiry we received 
a reply recommending Langley's "Ex- 
periments in Aerodynamics," Chanute's 
^'Progress in Flying Machines," and the 
"Aeronautical Annual" of 1895, 1896 and 
1897. These last were yearly publica- 
tions, edited by James Means, giving 



from year to year reports of efforts be- 
ing made to solve the flying problem. 
The Smithsonian also sent a few pamph- 
lets extracted from their annual re- 
ports, containing a reprint of Mouillard's 
"Empire of the Air," Langley "s "Story 
of Experiments in Mechanical Flight," 
and_a couple of papers by Lilienthal, re- 
lating to experiments in soaring. 

When we came to examine these books 
we were astonished to learn what an 
immense amount of time and money had 
been expended in futile attempts to 
solve the problem of human flight. Con- 
trary to our previous impression we 
found that men of the very highest 
standing in professions of science and 
invention had attempted the problem. 
Among them were such men as Leonar- 
do Da Vinci, the greatest universal 
genius the world has ever known; Sir 
George Cayley, one of the first men to 
suggest the idea of the explosion motor ; 
Professor Langley, Secretary and head 
of Smithsonian Institution; Dr. A. Gra- 
ham Bell, inventor of the telephone; Sir 
Hiram Maxim, inventor of the automatic 
gun ; O. Chanute, the past president of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers ; 
Dr. Charles Parsons, inventor of the 
steam turbine; Thomas A. Edison; Herr 
Lilienthal, M. Ader, Phillips, and a host 
of others. 

The period from 1889 to 1897 we found 
had been one of exceptional activity, dur- 
ing which Langley, Lilienthal, Chanute, 
Maxim and Phillips had been feverishly 
at work, each hoping to win the honor 
of having solved the problem ; but one 
by one they had been compelled to con- 
fess themselves beaten and had discon- 
tinued their efforts. In studying their 
failures we found many points of inter- 
est to us. At that time there was no 
flying art in the proper sense of the word, 
but only a flying problem. Thousands of 
men had thought about flying machines 
and a few even built machines which 
they called flying machines, but these ma- 
chines were guilty of almost everything 
except flying. Thousands of pages have 
been written on the so-called science of 
flying, but for most part the ideas set 
forth, like designs for machines, were 
mere speculation and probably 90 per cent 
was false. 

Consequently, those who tried to study 
the science of aerodynamics knew not 
what to believe, and what not to believe. 
Things which seemed reasonable were 
very often found to be untrue, and things 
which seemed unreasonable were some- 



times true. Under this condition of af- 
fairs students were accustomed to pay 
little attention to things that they had 
not personally tested. 

The condition which Professor Lang- 
ley found in respect to aeronautical sci- 
ence was even more true as regards what 
had been written regarding proposals for 
the conversion of speculation into actual 
machines. 

Only a slight examination of Mr. Cha- 
nute's book, which contained hundreds of 
these speculative proposals, spread over 
several thousand years of time, was nec- 
essary to convince us that the only things 
in the literature of the subject which 
would be of any value to us were the 
accounts of actual experiments by men 
of recognized ability, like Langley, Lilien- 
thal. .Maxim, Chanute, etc. From the 
writings of these men we obtained the 
best knowledge we could of the laws of 
aerodynamics, but as we went on we 
found that many things which we at first 
supposed to be true were really untrue; 
that other things were partly true and 
partly untrue, and that a few things were 
really true. 

As to the state of experimental knowl- 
edge at the time we began our experi- 
ments, we reached the conclusion that the 
problem of constructing wings sufficiently 
strong to carry the weight of the machine 
itself along with that ot the motor and of 
the aviator and also that of constructing 
sufficiently light motors were sufficiently 
worked out to present no serious diffi- 
culty; but that the problem of equilib- 
rium had been the real stumbling block 
in all serious attempts to solve the prob- 
lem of human flight ; and that this prob- 
lem of equilibrium, in reality, constituted 
the problem of flight itself. 

We, therefore, decided to give our 
special attention to inventing means of 
retaining equilibrium, and as this was a 
field where mere speculation was of no 
value at all, we made a careful study 
of the state of experimental knowledge. 
We found that prior to Lilienthal no one 
had made any serious attempt to leave 
the ground in a flying machine. All ex- 
periments in the air had resulted in such 
immediate disaster that the first trial was 
not usually followed up. But Lilienthal 
constructed several motorless apparati 
and with them began a study of the 
problem by actual experiments in the air. 
By this means he studied the carrying 
capacity of wings, and investigated the 
various disturbances of equilibrium to 
which machines in the air are subjected, 
both as regard to disturbances due to 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 53 



the direction and speed of the motion of 
the machine through the air and also the 
disturbances produced by variations in 
the direction and speed of the wind 
itself. 

The studies were continued for several 
years, but he met with a fatal accident 
and was killed before having found the 
solution. * * * His example, in 
adopting this (his) method of experi- 
mentation, was followed by Mr. Chanute 
and his assistants, and by Mr. Pilcher. 
After the death of Lilienthal, in 1896, 
Mr. Chanute discontinued his experi- 
ments, and, after a time, Mr. Pilcher fell 
and was killed. The efforts of Mr. Max- 
im. Mr. Phillips and Mr. Ader, the lat- 
ter with the financial assistance of the 
French government, to construct motor- 
driven aeroplanes had resulted in the 
abandonment of the experiment swithout 
flight having been attained. So that the 
period of unexampled activity, which ex- 
tended from 1889 to 1897, was followed 
by one of complete collapse and despair, 
during which the attention of the world 
was turned entirely to dirigible balloons, 
which at this time were being brought 
into prominence by Santos Dumont. 

During the "boom" period fully a half- 
million dollars had been expended urder 
the direction of some of the ablest men 
in the world and two lives had been lost. 
When one studied the story of loss of 
life, financial disaster and final failure 
which had accompanied all attempts to 
solve this problem of human flight, we 
understood more clearly than before the 
immensity and the difficulties of the 
problem which we had taken up. 

But as we studied the story of these 
troubles and considered how and why 
they failed, we could not help thinking 
that manv of the troubles might have 
been avoided and that others might have 
been overcome by the adoption of more 
adequate methods. We began to study 
the flight of birds to see whether they 
really used the methods of maintaining 
equilibrium which Chanute and Mouil- 
lard had represented the birds as using. 
They had represented that the birds 
maintained fore and aft balance by mov- 
ing the wings forward and backward so 
as to bring the centre of pressure of 
the wings to the front or to the rear of 
the center of gravity, and thus tilt the 
bird upward in front or upward at the 
rear, as occasion required. They repre- 
sented that lateral balance was main- 
tained by drawing inward one wing so 
as to reduce its area as compared with 
the wing on the other side, so as to re- 
duce the lift on the side which tended to 
rise. They also said that the bird some- 
times rocked its body over toward the 
high side in order that the increase of 
weieht on that side might help bring the 
high wing down. But, in watching the 
flight of some pigeons one day, we no- 
ticed one of the birds oscillate rapidly 
from side to side; that is, it tilted so 
that one wing was elevated above its 
normal position and the other depressed 
below its normal position, and then tilt- 
ed in the opposite direction. These lat- 



eral tiltings, first one way and then the 
other, were repeated four or five times 
very rapidly; so rapidly, in fact, as to 
indicate that some other force than grav- 
ity was at work. The method of draw- 
ing in one wing or the other as described 
by Chanute and Mouillard. was, of 
course, dependent in principle on the 
action of gravity, but it seemed certain 
that these alternate tiltings of the pigeon 
were more rapid than gravity could 
cause, especially in view of the fact that 
we could not detect any drawing-in first 
of one wing and then of the other. 

In considering possible explanation of 
the method used by the bird in this in- 
stance, the thought came that possibly it 
had adjusted the tips of its wings about 
a lateral transverse axis so as to present 
one tip at a positive angle and the other 
at a negative angle, thus, for the mo- 
ment, turning itself into an animated 
windmill, and that when its body had 
revolved on a longitudinal axis as far 
as it wished, it reversed the process and 
started to turning the other way. Thus, 
the balance was controlled by utilizing 
dynamic reactions of the air instead of 
shifting weight. So far as fore and aft 
balance is concerned, this seemed to be 
accounted for by fore and aft move- 
ments of the wings, as claimed by Cha- 
nute. 

Tn speculating on possible methods of 
constructing a flying machine to carry a 
man, we hit on the idea of providing a 
structure consisting of superposed sur- 
faces rigidly trussed along their front 
and rear margins, somewhat after the 
general style of the Chanute "double- 
decker." but not trussed from front to 
rear. The connections of the uprights 
ioining the two surfaces were to be 
hinged so that the upper surface could 
be moved forward or backward, with 
reference to the lower surface. This 
would have an effect on fore and aft 
balance similar to that produced by the 
fore and aft movement of the wings of 
birds. I refer, of course, to the slight 
fore and aft movement of the wings of 
a soaring bird, like the buzzards and 
hawks, made for the purpose of bal- 
ancing. It is an entirely distinct thing 
from up and down flapping. It was de- 
signed to move either end of the upper 
surface forward or backward by a sep- 
arate lever, one controlling one tip and 
the other, the other. If both levers were 
nressed forward the upper surface would 
be moved bodily forward and the ma- 
chine would turn upward, but if one 
lever were thrown forward and the other 
backward, one tip of the upper surface 
would move forward and the other back- 
ward. Thus there would be no change 
in the general position of the upper sur- 
face to the front or rear of its normal 
position, but the entire structure, consist- 
ing of both the upper and lower surface 
would be given a warp. We reasoned 
that by imparting such warp we could 
control lateral balance of the machine, 
either for the purpose of balancing or 
steering, as we had noticed that when 
the birds were tilted they circled around 



the depressed wing. In this design it was 
not intended to use either vertical or 
horizontal vanes or rudders of any kind. 
We reasoned that all the evolutions of 
flight could be obtained by the various 
combinations of movement of the two 
levers controlling the two ends of the 
upper surface. 

This speculation was very interesting 
from a theoretical standpoint, but when 
we came to consider it from the stand- 
point of practical invention we were 
convinced that without any supplement- 
ary horizontal surface the machine 
would be too erratic to be controlled by 
an aviator and, besides that, it would call 
for an exertion of strength much beyond 
that possessed by a human being, both 
during flight and in landing. 

Before attempting to construct a glider 
on this general principle, we worked out 
the construction of the supporting planes 
and a mode of flexing a forward horizon- 
tal rudder. The horizontal rudder was 
placed at the front. There was no tail 
of any kind either vertical or horizontal. 

With machines of this description we 
made experiments in the years 1900 and 
1901 on the seashore near Kitty Hawk. 
It was our idea that the method of ex- 
perimentation by gliding had been so die- 
credited by the deaths of Lilienthal and 
Pilcher that we intended to practice with 
this apparatus by attaching it to a short 
horizontal rope and letting it float in a 
strong wind a few feet from the ground 
while we practiced the manipulation of 
the horizontal front rudder and the 
warping of the wings to maintain the 
apparatus in balance. But we found that 
a stronger wind than the scientific cal- 
culations of other experimenters indi- 
cated was necessary in order to sustain 
this machine. It was. therefore, neces- 
sary to resort to gliding in order to at 
tain a relative wind strong enough to 
sustain this apparatus. We experimented 
first with the warping wires fastened 
tight and used the front rudder only. We 
feared that if we attempted to control 
both, we would not properly control 
either, as we were without any training. 
We. therefore, glided down a slope, con- 
trolling our up and down movement and 
balance by adjustments of the horizontal 
front rudder. If the machine attempted 
to turn over sidewise, we brought it to 
the ground. The flights were made at 
first at a height only of one or two feet. 

We found that a flexible front rudder 
was very efficient in controlling the fore 
and aft balance. We also found that 
frequently we could make glides of IS 
to 20 seconds without being tilted later- 
ally sufficiently to necessitate landing. If 
the tilting were bad, we immediately 
brought the machine down. After we 
had acquired some skill in handling the 
horizontal front rudder, we loosened the 
warping wires and attempted to control 
the lateral balance also, but when we did 
this we found ourselves completely non- 
plussed. 

The apparatus did not act at all as we 
expected. At first we were not able tg 
' Continued on page 62) 



Paee 54 



AERONAUTICS 







1915 J ANNUS FLYING BOAT 



The accompanying photo of the Jan- 
nus flying hoat will serve to tell the 
story of the new and efficient design. 
For rough water, ready assembly and 
disassembly, inherent stability, wide 
range of flying speed, waterproof con- 
struction of wings, enormous margin 
of safety, comfort for pilot and three 
passengers, and a dry, clean place for 
them to sit, this new model is ideal. 

The rough water ability is obtained 
in two principal ways: first, by the 



factor made it impossible to assemble 
all at once. All the wing attachments 
are independent of the motor and pro- 
peller shaft, so that any punishment of 
one is not transmitted to the other. No 
matter what rough seas may strain the 
wings the motor and propeller shaft do 
not change their alignment. No matter 
how severe the missing of the motor or 
other trouble that might occur the flying 
equipment cannot be wrecked thereby. 
The strut construction and other con- 




great freeboard and other points in the 
design of the hull; and. second, the low 
center of gravity. Of special interest 
are the tapering end floats that are nice- 
ly designed and never pound or jerk the 
wings. These taper from three inches 
wide across the bottom to a foot across 
the top. The taper has the advantage of 
reducing the planing surface, which at 
high speed would be sufficient to pound 
the wings badly, but when called upon 
as floats are quickly displacing water at 
an increased rate, easily combating the 
heaviest side lurching or listing or yaw- 
ing tendency. 

The removability of the tail for ship- 
ment has many advantages in construc- 
tion and in simplicity of shipment for 
compactness. The motor remains in the 
front half of the hull with all controls 
intact. The control cables going to the 
tail and rudder all pass through indi- 
vidual leads in a conduit that is made 
of heavy steel as a protection against 
the propeller breaking or throwing any- 
thing with sufficient force to sever them. 
Between the conduit and the controls 
the cables are supplied with the Jannus 
type sister hook, which locks the cables 
together in a permanent fashion quickly, 
and without additional safety wire or 
other auxiliary being necessary. 

The wings are assembled in their en- 
tirety before being attached to the hull 
and, when on, cannot fail to align prop- 
erly if reasonable care is taken. Where 
desirable they can be put on half at a 
time, but this would only be of advan- 
tage if hangar space or other limiting 



siderations for clean lines and reduced 
head resistance have resulted in a flyin 
boat operable on very low power. To 
date the best record shows a total load 
of 2.200 lbs. carried in flight at 22-55 
m.h.p. with an indicated 60 h.p. With 
full power it will lie easy to exceed the 
useful load specifications for this model. 

Tests in the lee of large vessels, along 
windward shores and in other extreme 
conditions of gusty wind and treacher- 
ous obstacles prove that the new struts 
and the staggered planes are serious 
contenders for the inherent stability 
honors. The pilots reported that in no 
case was there any rapid inequality de- 
veloped nor did the machine make any 
appreciable variation from its course 
due to these unfavorable conditions. 

The tests have been very thoroughly 
conducted by Mr. Fritz G. Ericson and 
Mr. Antony Jannus. To Mr. Ericson 
the Jannus Brothers' Company are very 
deeply indebted both for the encourag- 
ing way in which he learned to fly last 
fall, while a pupil of Roger Jannus, and 
for the way in which he has been able 
to apply his highly developed training 
as a designer and inventor to this par- 
ticular science. Mr. Ericson is a friend 
of the late Max Lilly, having attended 
school with him in Stockholm. At home 
he is noted for his early connection 
with motor boats and later automobiles 
and ice boats. As the inventor of the 
Ericson four-cycle reversible motor, the 
first heavy duty marine gasoline engine 
to spring into use in the world, he rates 
back rather far in the evolution of the 



applications of internal combustion. 
During the entire winter, with both the 
Jannus Brothers rather active in other 
parts of the country than Baltimore. Mr. 
Ericson has produced the desired re- 
sult. 

The designers did not stagger the 
planes in this model for other than 
structural advantage, although this prac- 
tice is credited with considerable im- 
proving effect. The design is intended 
to produce inherent stability through the 
proper construction and distribution of 
weights and surface and the results am- 
ply testify to the effectiveness of this 
effort. Such is the result that in gusty 
winds and when flying in any evolution 
there is practically no use of the aile- 
rons. 

The internal construction of the wing 
is free from ordinary glue and is amply 
strong without any adhesives, although 
liquid marine glue is used in all joints 
to maintain rigidity under severe stress 
and to prevent rotting. All bolts go on 
each side of the beams, through end 
grain blocks that are brass covered out- 
side of the fabric. The upper and lower 
wings sections of the opposite sides are 
alike reducing the number of extras to a 
minimum. 

The pilot is seated in front, leaving a 
seat behind for three large passengers 
as in the stern sheets of a cat boat. The 
ample foot space is well above the ribs 
of the bottom and made in the form of 
a grating that is removable for cleaning 
the bilge scuppers or any other purpose. 
The motor compartment is segregated 
from all other parts of the boat, so 
that no oil or grease can be distributed. 
As a result the passenger compartment 
is as clean as a new pin and is easy 
to maintain so. 

The ample sheer of the sides of the 
hull, the great width, the bow shape, 
and all other considerations make a dry, 
clean hull. The public demands this for 
commercial passenger carrying, and it is 
good business to follow the motto, "The 
public be served." 

THE GOUPY THREE-PASSEN- 
GER BIPLANE 

The Goupy biplane, type 1914-B, re- 
sembles in general construction other 
machines of this firm. The cell is com- 
posed of two staggered planes of un- 
equal length: chord 1.6 m.. top plane 
19.75 m. long, lower one 10.35 m. long. 
The cell is rigid and lateral balance is 
obtained by powerful conjoined ailerons. 
The fuselage is of quadrangular section. 
The monoplane tail is slightly lifting and 
approximately rectangular, terminated 
by a flap 3.1 by .7 m., serving as an ele- 
vator. The quadrangular rudder, above 
the tail, is partly balanced and in front 
of it is a small vertical fin. The 100 
H. P. Gnome supported between two 
bearings turns a 2.8 m. propeller, the 
axis being 1.8 m. above the ground. The 
chassis is of the usual type, skids and 
wheels ; the wheels are far enough for- 
ward to prevent "capotage." The skids, 
however, do not seem sufficient to pro- 
tect the propeller in a bad landing on 
rough ground. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 55 



THE BRISTOL MILITARY BIPLANE 




This is a tractor biplane having its 
upper and lower planes equal, directly 
superposed, and connected by 6 struts. 
The front struts are rigidly braced by 
cables ; the rear ones free for warping. 
The fuselage is of quadrangular section. 
The chassis, which has four wheels, is 




explode. Rut when the bomb is released 
the rotation of propeller unlocks the 
firing device after the bomb has trav- 
elled 200 m. 

This machine spreads 11.3 m., its 
length is 9.05 m. and supporting area 
40 sq. m. Motor is Gnome 80 H. P. ; 
speed about 100 K. P. H. 

THE ABC AEROPLANE 
COMING 

A machine of true design and excel- 
lent construction, to be known as the 
ABC Military Biplane (pusher), will 
make its debut shortly. The rationale 
of the name, A B C, is, firstly, that it 



contains the initials of those associated 
in the development of the machine ; and, 
secondly, that it expresses the construc- 
tional simplicity, which is a prominent 
feature of the machine. 

Mr. Robert S. Anient, a well-known 
newspaper artist, will direct the exploi- 
tation, and Messrs. John Carisi and Vin- 
cent J. Buranelli are responsible for the 
design and construction of the machine. 
Same is designed to especially facilitate 
quick assembling, and many original de- 
tails are embodied to effect that end. 
The machine, being a pusher, has a 
splendid range of vision, and for mili- 
tary work gives the gunner a sweep of 
180 deg. 

The machine is a two-seater, seats ar- 
ranged side by side, and double controls 
are provided. The fuselage is very 
roomy and is covered entirely with du- 
ralumin. The color of entire machine 
is gray, and fuselage has motor car 
finish. Landing chasis has four wheels, 
two in front, to facilitate running over 
rough ground. 

The machine is of the deck and a 
half type, the top wing warps from the 
end uprights out, similar to a mono- 
plane. The removal of extension con- 
siderably reduces spread, permitting the 
apparatus to be towed along a road 
much more easily, a valuable military 
asset. 

The power plant will consist of a 100- 
h.p. specially built ABC aviation mo- 
tor, which during tests flew a large hy- 
droaeroplane. Messrs. Carisi and Bura- 
nelli expect to do some coursing during 
the summer. 

Aside from the machine under con- 
struction, designs are complete for a 
tractor biplane to lie equipped with a 
special variable speed device and a mon- 
oplane flying boat, which, in so far as 
the boat is concerned, seems to be in a 
class by itself. 



of the Gabriel Voisin design. The two 
rear wheels are nearly under the center 
of gravity and the others are placed 
well out in front to prevent "capolage." 
When the tail is down it is supported 
by a small skid, which also acts as a 
brake. 

The bomb-dropping device has a ro- 
tating barrel holding 12 bombs, which 
can be fired in succession. A strong 
spring gives each bomb a forward im- 
pulse when fired, so that its speed is 
greater than that of the aeroplane. By 
an ingenious device a hard steel blade, 
operated by the marksman, cuts the 
metal fastening which holds the bomb 
to the revolving barrel. 

The Coanda bomb is fusiform, hav- 
ing a cross-shaped guide vein at its 
rear, and a small propeller which is 
rotated by its motion through the air 
when falling. At the start the firing 
device is locked and the bomb can not 




Page 56 



AERONAUTICS 





OF AMERICA 
29 WeBt 39th Street, New York 

OFFICIAL BULLETIN 

At the weekly Round Table Talks in the lat- 
ter part of April a variety of interesting sub- 
jects have received attention, notably among 
these being an address by Mr. Rudolph R. 
Grant on a novel, economical form of cylin- 
der construction, of which an account will be 
printed in a subsequent issue. Also Mr. Mil- 
lard L. Dunham explained to the members at 
the meeting on April 29th. the construction and 
operation of his new twin piston ring, show- 
ing it to possess the characteristic of exerting 
truly concentric outward tension, which he 
described as of a spiral nature, whereby these 
rings are said to form gas tight packings, 
thus increasing the cylinder power. 

It has been decided to change the regular 
meeting night for the Round Table Talks to 
Tuesday in each week, instead of Thursday, 
as heretofore. The change will begin the sec- 
ond week in May, so that the meeting will be 
on Thursday, May 4, the first week in May, 
and following that, the next meeting will be 
on Tuesday, May 1 1th, the succeeding meet- 
ings to be all on Tuesdays. 

The change was made by resolution, unani- 
mously adopted, for the reason that Thursday 
evenings are used for meetings by other kin- 
dred societies, and it is desired that the dates 
of meetings do not conflict, that all members 
may be able to attend. 

THE PENDULUM STABILIZER 

March 23, 1915. 

With the meeting of the "First Joint Con- 
ference on Aviation" a decided advance was 
made toward the systematic solution of aero- 
nautical problems. It is to be hoped that a 
full account of the discussion of the various 
types of stabilizer will be published, as without 
it the deductions and resolutions are rather 
vague. 

I am glad to see the pendulum device's fal- 
lacy as a stabilizer brought to light in forcible, 
if not strictly accurate, manner. Not accurate, 
because, if a device were controlled by a pen- 
dulum which, as the delegate was quoted, 
"would invariably do what was not desired," 
all that would be necessary would be to reverse 



the connections to the pendulum to have the 
device invariably right. Of course, what was 
meant was that one could not tell whether it 
would do the right or the wrong thing. This 
element of uncertainty bars it from stabilizing 
devices. 

Whether or not a device which reduces the 
speed — i. e., increases the resistance either per- 
manently or while in action — is or is not per- 
missible is a matter of question. No matter 
what the type of stabilizer, the balancing of a 
machine can only be accomplished by the exer- 
tion of a force. If no automatic device is 
used, the aviator must exert this force; if some 
device which presents a retarding element to 
the speed is used, the motor must do it. Does 
it not seem advisable, in the long run, to give 
the motor enough power to make up for any 
small loss in speed incurred and ease up a bit 
on the man at the wheel? 

At the present time I cannot think of any 
device, automatic or otherwise, which does not 
actuate with a corresponding change in re- 
sistance and consequently speed, except a slid- 
ing weight, which is not practical for many 
reasons. In fact any stabilizer employing the 
air as a medium from which to obtain the 
force necessary to tip the machine one way 
or another must be accompanied by a change 
in resistance. I say "change in resistance" 
rather than "increase in resistance" because in 
some cases, such as normally negative flaps, 
there is a resistance when not in action which 
is reduced on one side or the other to produce 
the desired effect. As the air and gravity are 
the only two sources of forces that we can 
resort to, with the possible exception of a 
built-in gyroscope, and as the use of gravity 
by means of a shifting center of gravity (which 
is the only possible way) is mechanically un- 
equal to the work, it seems to me that the 
statement of the conference should be modi- 
tied. 

[f the aeroplane must be balanced by the 
reaction from the air, the best device will be 
that one which will accomplish the desired 
result with the least added resistance, either 
as a constant value or as a momentary value 
while in operation. 

The warning against the placing of undue 
confidence in the action of small models is es- 
pecially important. Much waste of time and 
money would be prevented if many of the 
would-be inventors would pay more heed to it. 
It is not. however, to be assumed that models 
are useless for experimental work, for they 
have a field, and if judiciously used may be 
of great aid. 

In closing let me say that the importance of 
a completely automatically stabilized or so- 
called fool-proof machine has been greatly over- 
estimated. In the aeroplane we have three 
axes of rotation: the vertical, controlled by the 
rudder; the axis coincident with the line of 
flight, controlled by what is called the lateral 



STURTEVANT NEWS 

The present activities at the works of 
the B. F. Sturtevant Company of Boston, 
Mass.. indicates the most prosperous sea- 
son according to Mr. Noble Foss, mana- 
ger of the Aeronautical Department. He 
states that the present volume of orders 
for the eight-cylinder 140-H. P. aronau- 
tical motors is the largest in the history 
of the department. 

In order to insure early deliveries it 
has been necessary to greatly enlarge the 
Aeronautical Department ; many new ma- 
chines and tools are being installed, and 
additional men have been employed for 
the manufacture of the engines. The 
production will be at the rate of one mo- 
tor per day in a short time. 



NEW COMPANIES 

The Texas School of Aviation, Dal- 
las ; capital stock, $8,f)00. Incorporators : 
Lester E. Miller, Paul Van de Velde, 
Currie McCutcheon. Purpose, to sup- 
port the education and training of men 
and women in the science of flying in 
the air. 

ASTOR'S FLYING BOAT 

Vincent Astor witnessed the first two 
flights of his new Burgess flying boat at 
Marblehead on April 27. 

It is said that Mr. Astor will pay 
$14,000 for the machine and he intends 
to remain until he can run it himself. 

Clifford L. Webster demonstrated the 
flying boat. 



stabilizer; and the transverse, controlled by the 
elevator. In some cases the first two are com- 
bined and controlled by one device, as these 
two are more closely related to one another, a 
rotation about either of them being accom- 
panied by a rotation about the other. If an 
automatic device will look after any two of 
these three axes, leaving only one for the avia- 
tor, preferably that controlled by the rudder, 
the operation will be brought to the level of the 
automobile or boat, as far as ease of control is 
concerned. In the case mentioned, where the 
lateral balancing and rudder actions were com- 
bined, only one of the two functions need to 
be automatically performed to reach this level, 
he climbed 6,200 feet. 

Nothing is fool-proof — even the innocent 
hammer may become dangerous if not used 
properly — so let us not try to design an aero- 
plane for the fool, but for people of average 
intelligence, so that they may, with a reason- 
able degree of safety, enjoy the pleasures of air 
travel. Ralph S. Barnaby, 

A.S.M.E., Columbia Section. 



p^RO Club 



^nnsylva^ 



OFFICIAL BULLETIN 

The following was adopted at the stated 
meeting of the Aero Club of Pennsylvania on 
April 16th, 1915: 

It is with profound sorrow, and with the 
most heartfelt regret, that the Aero Club of 
Pennsylvania has learned of the unexpected 
death on April 15th of its first President, Mr. 
Arthur L. Atherholt. 

As one of the founders of the club, and its 
President for two successive terms, he was 
most active in its organization, and worked 
indefatigably for its interests and progress. 
After his voluntary retirement from the presi- 
dency he continued as a member of the Board 
of Directors, and was at all times active and 
enthusiastic in its work. At the meeting of 
the club in March he outlined the plans for 
a balloon race to be held by the club early 
in May, and which was planned to be the 
greatest ballooning event ever held in Phila- 
delphia. 

The navigation of the upper air in the free 
balloon was his specialty and his greatest de- 
light. He was the first Pennsylvania to ob- 
tain from the Aero Club of America a balloon 
pilot's license, and took part in many nation- 
al and international contests, either as pilot or 
as aide. He was skillful in the handling of 
balloons, and always held that ballooning is 
one of the best and most exhilarating of sports. 

His open, genial and wholesouled manner 
won for him a large circle of devoted friends 
to whom the news of his sudden death at the 
early age of forty -eight comes as a most 
sorrowful surprise. Alas that we shall see his 
face on earth no more. 

NEW RECORD FLIGHT 

PENSACOLA, Fla., April 24.— A new 
world's record altitude flight of 10,000 feet in 
a hydroaeroplane was made at the Navy Sta- 
tion at Pensacola on April 24th, by Lieutenant 
P. N. L, Bellinger. 

In one hour and twenty minutes Lieuten- 
ant Bellinger made his ascent, which so far 
as official data shows, never has been equaled, 
and he took sixteen minutes gliding back to 
earth. On June 13, 1913, Lieutenant Bellinger 
made the best previous record for an altitude 
flight in a hydroaeroplane at Annapolis, when 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 57 



cA 



E 



R 



O 



o7W • A • R 



YOUNG MAN desires to dispose of 
the patent rights to the following in- 
ventions : 

(1) A device whereby the camber of 
the supporting plane can be readily 
changed from deep to flat during flight, 
this device being at all times under the 
control of the pilot ; enabling landing 
at comparatively low speed. (2) An 
automatically adjusting tail device for 
maintaining longitudinal stability by 
automatically decreasing the angle of 
incidence on a sudden increase of wind 
velocity: means being provided to pre- 
vent this device causing the aeroplane 
to stall in climbing. (3) A connection 
between an automatic device for main- 
taining stability and the usual manual 
control means so that banking or other 
manouvres can be effected without in- 
terfering with the action of such auto- 
matic device. (4) A means for obtain- 
ing lateral balance without any change 
in the angle of incidence of the sup- 



porting planes. (5) A compact form 
of mounting for the supporting planes 
of an aeroplane whereby such planes are 
given resiliency while at the same time 
securing the utmost strength. (6) A 
means for getting an aeroplane into the 
air with a very short initial run with- 
out external assistance. (7) A device 
for giving a differential movement to 
the ailerons, or wing extremities, on 
opposite sides of an aeroplane. By 
tliis means the ailerons can be adjusted 
in unison to equal degrees or either 
aileron can be given any desired ad- 
justment greater than the other one. 
(8) A means for rendering the opera- 
tion of ailerons or warping wings easier 
so that large machines can be more 
easilv controlled. 



WANT TO BUY an SO-h.p. Gnome 
or an 80 or 90-h.p. Curtiss. Address 
John Weaver, c/o Aeronautics. 



FOR SALE— Roberts 50-h.p. motor, 
almost new. Oscar Solbrig. 707 W. 7th, 
Davenport, Iowa. 

6-CYLINDER 80-h.p. Maximotor in 
line condition. Complete with Mea mag- 
neto and propeller hub. $525.00. taken in 
trade on a new Roberts. Address R, 
c/o Aeronautics. 2t 

4-CYLINDER 50-h.p. Roberts with 
propeller hub and Bosch magneto, 
$450.00. thoroughly overhauled and guar- 
anteed. Address R, c/o Aeronautics. 2t 

Yeggs Get $1000 from Chicago News- 
paper Office. — Headline. 

Upon investigation, find the sufferer 
was not Aero and Hydro. 



"All things come to him who waits !" 
"Yes; especially if he's waiting in a 
trench !" — Puck. 




DON'T w "' e U! un '"* 

**^^*' * you are inter- 
ested in a reliable, efficient 
andeconomical power plant. 
That is uSe only kind we 
build. Four sizes. 
Reasonable Prices 

Kemp Machine Works 
Muncie, lnd. 



WIRE 

We make an extra high grade 

plated finish wire for 

aviators' use. 



FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS 

John A. Roebling's Sons Co. 

TRENTON, N. J. 




The Thomas 

Continues to 
Make Records 

On February 27, at Ithaca, N. Y., 
the Thomas Tractor Biplane, 

with three men and four hours' 
fuel aboard, climbed 4,000 ft. in 10 
min. Average speed— 81-1 m.p.h. 
Slow speed down to 38 m.p.h. 
Showed high degree of inherent 
stability. 

Thomas School 

Offers exceptional facilities — 
land and water. Best of instruc- 
tors and equipment. 
Write for "Oppoi tunity" Booklet Xo. 12. 

THOMAS BROS. AEROPLANE CO., inc.. Ithaca.N.Y. 



Safest and Most Practical 

THE PARAPLANE 



A few of its patented (U. S. and 
foreign! features: — Inherent Sta- 
bility, Dual Motors. Controls and 
Propellers which can be worked 
independent of each other. Propellers and Control so arranged that 
machine will fly just as readily with a single Propeller, Greater Lifting 
Power. Changeable Angle of Incidence. 

Especially Designed for Governmental and Private Use 

Literature on request 

PARISANO AERIAL NAVIGATION CO. OF AMERICA, INC. 

220 West 42nd Street New York City 



aillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllM 




The 

Wright 

Company 



(The 

Wright 

Patents) 



THE NEW WRIGHT 
AEROPLANES 

For sport, exhibition or military use, over land or 
water now embody the improvements that have 
been suggested by the experiments quietly conduct- 
ed during the past ten years. 

THE WRIGHT FLYING 
SCHOOL 

Located at Dayton opens May 1st, for the season 
of 1915. Tuition $250. No other charges of any kind 
Enroll now. Booklet on request. 



The Wright Company 

DAYTON, OHIO New York Office: 11 Pi>« Si. 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 58 



AERONAUTICS 



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NAVY AWARDS 

"The first contract for hydroaeroplanes 
since the appropriation by Congress, 
upon the recommendation of Secretary 
Daniels of a million dollars for avia- 
tion, and provision for the organization 
of a Navy Aeronautic Advisory Com- 
mittee, will be awarded to the Burgess 
Company. Bids for these hydroaero- 
planes were received February 27 of this 
year. (See Aeronautics, March IS. for 
full specifications and bids.) It has been 
decided to place a contract for three 



J 



THREE ORDERS 

machines. The proposals were invited 
upon supplying three or six machines. 
The specifications stated that the award 
of contract would he based upon the 
completeness of the proposals received 
as regards the data furnished and the 
extent to which the designs conform to 
or exceeded the requirements. 

"The data furnished by the Burgess 
Company is complete, and the design 
conforms nearer to the requirements 
than in any other of the proposals sub- 



mitted. A tractor aeroplane is not as 
well suited for naval purposes as a 
pusher type. It was hoped that the re- 
quirements of the specifications for these 
hydroaeroplanes would be exceeded by 
the bidders. They represent a type in 
advance, but are not equal to what is 
considered desirable in the light of de- 
velopments due to the war in Europe. 
A machine is required having a speed 
of eighty miles an hour or better, with 
a radius of action of at least seven 
hours, and ability to climb with full load 
sixty-five hundred (6500) feet in twen- 
ty minutes. Thus it was considered in- 
advisable to buy more than three hydro- 
aeroplanes in this lot. It is recognized 
that the development of the aeroplane 
in this country is retarded by the back- 
ward development of aeroplane motors. 
It is hoped that this advertisement and 
purchase of hydroaeroplanes will tend to 
encourage the designers and manufac- 
turers of aeroplanes and aeroplane mo- 
tors to further development to meet the 
immediate needs of the Navy. Pro- 
posals will be issued in the near future 
for more hydroaeroplanes." 

The unit price bid by The Burgess 
Company for the hydroaeroplane, motor 
and instruments was $11,005. 

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 

IMPORTS. 

February. 1915 : parts $52 

Same period 1914 None 

8 mos. ending Feb., 1915; parts 

only $ 2,291 

Same period, 1914; parts only... 26,233 
Same period. 1913; 12 aero- 
planes (50.020) and parts 
(1,776); total 51,796 

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 
Februarv. 1915; 2 aeroplanes 

(6,000), parts (24,093); total.. 30,093 
Same period, 1914: 4 aeroplanes 

(20,000), parts (1.466); total.. 21.466 
8 mos. ending Feb., 1915 ; 25 

'planes (182,915), parts (167,- 

723) ; total 350.638 

Same period, 1914; 18 'planes 

(73,525). parts (17,060) ; total. . 90,585 
Same period, 1913 ; 23 'planes 

(66,950), parts (22.147); total. 89,097 

EXPORTS OF FOREIGN. 

February. 1915 None 

8 mos. ending Feb., 1915 None 

Same period, 1914; 1 aeroplane 

(4,049), parts (900); total.... 4,949 

IN WAREHOUSE FEBRUARY 28. 

1915. 1 aeroplane 1,856 

1914 None 



DEFENCELESS AMERICA, by 
Hudson Maxim. Here is a new and 
absorbing book which appeals to every 
red blooded citizen. Tt is written to 
arouse American people to the imminent 
danger in unpreparedness. If only the 
people will read it the work will be 
accomplished, except where the book may 
fall into the hands of some "dub of 
peace" whose pacifism has gotten to the 
last and hopeless stage. Sold for $2 
by Hearst's International Library Com- 
pany, 119 West 40th Street, New York. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 59 



m^m 



? r ' 



CURTISS FACILITIES 

This shows one section of the new steel factory. It is 300 ft. 
long and 100 ft. wide. Another section of equal size is now 
under construction. Curtiss Aeroplanes of tractor and pusher ^^ 
type for land and water are built here under ideal conditions. ",« 



INFORMATION ON REQUEST 






Curtiss Aeroplane Ca 

Buffalo, New York 



. --" - 




J| THE COAST LINE TO <J&. 

mMACKINACjfe 

DETROIT, A TOLEDO, 

CLEVELAND, BUFFALO, TPT. HURON, ALPENA, 
NIAGARA FALLS. I ST. IGNACE. 



r 



A LAKE TRIP FOR REST AND RECREATION 

Have a real vacation on the Great Lakes, the most en- 
joyable and economical outing in America. The cool 
like breezes, the ever-changing scenes along the shore, 
and the luxurious steamers of the D. 6c C. Line are pos- 
itive guarantees that you ■will enjoy every minute of your 
trip, and return home refreshed and glad you went. 
Daily service between Detroit and Cleveland and De- 
troit and Buffalo. Four trips weekly from Toledo and 
Detroit to Mackinac Island and way ports. Two trips 
weekly, special steamer, Cleveland to Mackinac Island, 
no stops enroute except Detroit and Alpena. Special day 
trips between Detroit and Cleveland during July and 
August. Daily service between Toledo and Put-in-Bay. 
RAILROAD TICKETS AVAILABLE FOR TRANS 
PORTATION on D. & C. Steamers between Detroit and 
Buffalo or Detroit and Cleveland either direction. 
Send two-cent stamp for illustrated pamphlet and Great 
Lakes map. Address L. G. Lewis, G.P.A..Detroit,Mich. 

Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company 
Philip H. McMillan. Prea., A. A. Schantz, V.P. & G.M. 
All Steamers arrive and depart, Third Ave. wharf, Det. 




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+ Sample Book A 6, Data and Prices on Request T 

+ 



| The C. E. Conover Co. | 

J MANUFACTURERS + 

% 101 Franklin Street, New York f 
*+♦♦++++++++++++++++++++♦♦++++ 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 60 



AERONAUTICS 



AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET 



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THE NAVY'S NEW AIRCRAFT 



Bids for the dirigibles for the Navy 
were opened at the Navy Department on 
April 20th. This marks another step 
in the development of our Air Navy. 
The Office of Naval Aeronautics consid- 
ers that the dirigible is to be the king- 
fisher of the submarine. The aeroplane 
rapidly scouting the seas off our har- 
bors and around our fleet discovers the 
enemy's submarines lying in wait for 
innocent merchant ships or attempting to 
creep up on our fighting ships. The 



dirigibles from the shore stations or 
from the dirigible ships of the fleet thus 
warned by the aeroplane scouts pro- 
ceed to the attack of the submarines, 
dropping on them heavy bombs fitted 
with fuses to explode on hitting or after 
sinking to a certain depth. A fifty pound 
bomb successfully hitting a submarine 
or exploding under water near one will 
destroy these underwater craft. The 
dirigibles will also in a similar manner 
countermine the mine fields of an 



enemy. Our destroyers and scouts must 
protect the dirigible from the anti-air- 
craft guns of the enemy's ships; also 
our aeroplanes must fight off the enemy's 
aircraft that wants to attack our dirig- 
ible. These two first dirigibles are of 
the smallest size that will be serviceable 
for training and experiment to develop 
officers and men for this service and 
obtain the necessary experience to pro- 
duce a large fleet dirigible. These small 
dirigibles will also develop the manu- 
facture of modern dirigibles in this 
country, which is a new departure for 
our aircraft designers and manufactur- 
ers. 

The bids for dirigibles opened were 
requested on the basis of furnishing 
one or two dirigibles, the right being 
reserved by the Government to accept 
bids on either basis. The general speci- 
fications required that the dirigibles 
should be of the non-rigid type and 
should be about 175 feet long by 50 feet 
high and 35 feet wide, with a useful 
load of about 2,000 pounds. It is 
specified that the dirigibles must have 
a speed of 25 miles per hour or more, 
and to be capable of rising 3,000 feet 
without disposing of ballast. 

The following bids were received : 

Stanley Yale Beach. 125 East 23rd St., 
New York, N. Y.— One machine, $29,- 
876; two machines, $58,552. (This bid 
was submitted without a guarantee.) 

American Dirigible Balloon Syndicate, 
Inc., 299 Madison Ave., New York, 
N. Y.— One machine. $41,000; one ma- 
chine (larger). $45,000. 

The Connecticut Aircraft Company, 
42 Church St., New Haven, Conn. — One 
machine, $45,636.25 ; two machines, $82.- 
215.12. 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Com- 
pany. Akron, Ohio. — One machine, $200,- 
000. (This hid is subject to a reduction 
which will make the total cost to the 
Government equal to the cost of the 
machine to the Goodyear Tire & Rubber 
Company plus 50 per cent. The amount 
entered as the bid is the maximum to 
be charged under any condition.) 

See issue of March 30th for full 
specifications. 



After a great many experiments, it 
has been found that cedar is the one 
wood which conforms most nearly to 
the requirements of flying boat work, 
owing to its extreme lightness, its pliabil- 
ity and toughness, as well as its ability 
to hold its shape both in and out of the 
water, and the fact that it absorbs prac- 
tically no moisture, makes it an ideal 
wood for this work. 

The large demand for flying ma- 
chines, that are adapted for both land 
and water service, which has been 
created by the present war, demonstrates 
very plainly that cedar is more desirable 
than any other wood for this work. 

This can be supplied by Jordan Bros. 
Lumber Company, Norfolk, Va. 



Robert N. Wilson, Port Jefferson, _N. 
Y., has renewed activity in the building 
line and has on hand one flying boat 
ready for the power plant. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 61 



PATENTS 

THAT PROTECT AND PAY 

Books and Advice Free 

Send sketch or model for search. Highest references. 
Best Results. Promptness Assured. 

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer 

624 F Street, N. W. Washington, D. C. 

Manufacturers want me to send 
them patents on useful inven- 
tions. Send me at once drawing 
and description of your invention and I will give you an honest 
report as to securing a patent and whether 1 can assist you in 
selling the patent. Highest references. Established 25 years. 
Personal attention in all cases. 

WM. N. MOORE 
Loan and Trust Building Washington, D. C. 



PATENTS 



BALDWIN 



Balloons 
Dirigibles 
Fabrics 
Motors 



889 IS 

Box 78, Madiion Sq. P.O.. New York 583 Sjtjj 



Antony Jannus Roger Jannus 

JANNUS BROTHERS 

NEW 120 H. P. FIVE PASSENGER FLY- 
ING BOAT now being tested. Design based 
on nearly 200,000 miles of pioneer flying. 
Roger Jannus and Knox Martin at New Southern 
Hotel, San Diego, Calif. Continuous Passen- 
ger Carrying and School Work with two Flying 
Boats. Florida course announced later. 
NEW FACTORY 

Battery Avenue and Hamburg Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Booklet on Request 



AERONAUTICS 



New tod Ealarfed Edition, Commeoeinj January. 1914 

The Leading British Monthly 
Journal Devoted to the Technique 
and Industry of Aeronautics 

(FOUNDED 1907) 
Yearly Subscription One Dollar 
Eighty-five Cents Post Free 

(Money Orders Only) 
)M_»_. A •pacimtn copy^ wi]I be maiUd 



free on receipt of IS cents 
• Head Offict: 



170 Fleet Street - London, E. C. 

American Office: 2S0 Weil S4th Street, New York 



DATPWTC Frederick W. Barker 

A •*» 1 dLlll I kj Attorney and Expert in 
PATENTS, TRADE MARKS AND DESIGNS 

Cases prepared and prosecuted I 28 Years in Practice 
icith the greatest care and 

thoroug?tness, to ensure broad Direct Connections id all 

scope and validity Foreign Countries 

P. O. Box 139, Times Square Station, New York City 

PATENTS 

C. L. PARKER 

Ex-member Examining Corps, U. S. Pel-cot OHU« 

Attorney-at-Law and Solicitor of Patents 

American and foreign patents secured promptly and 
with special regard to the complete legal protection o! 
the invention. Handbook for inventors sent upon request, 
30 McGiU Bld 8 . WASHINGTON. D. C. 



SLOANE AEROPLANES 

Military and Naval Types 

Our New Military Tractor also was demonstrated successfully 

the very first time it was taken out for trial. 
THE AIRCRAFT CO., Inc. 1733 Broadway, New York 

Sole Manufacturers of Sloane Aeroplanes 



BALLOONS 



Airships, Aeroplanes, Gas Generators, Safety Packs, 
Parachutes. Exhibitions furnished with Balloons, 
Aeroplanes and Airships. Steven*' balloons used by 
95% of American and Canadian clubs. 

AERONAUT 

Madison Sq. 
Box 181, New York 



LEO STEVENS 




BALLOONS 
DIRIGIBLES 

Records prove we build the best Bal- 
loons in America. Nine let prizes. 
Three 2nd, and Two 3rd prizes out of 
fourteen World-wide Contests. 

Write for prices and particulars. 

HONEYWELL BALLOON CO. 
4460 Chouteau St. Louis, Mo. 



- < BEN01ST 



AEROPLANES 
FLYING BOATS 



Factory and Office 

341 S. St. Louis Avenue - - Chicago, 111. 

AEROPLANE COMPANY 

______..— INCORPORATED - 



THE U. S. NAVY USES 

4 Because they are the best by a large measure f^ Pr^B„t by test and offic^eport. 
^Oth.r. use Plain Paragon, because they are not only best but also cheap- . «J For Hfi™«y 
For Economy, investigate Paraxon.. No charge for information- No pa y but for rc.lt.. 
«]\Ve have the only propeller factory in America. Large stock. Quick shipments. 
AMERICAN PROPELLER CO., 243-249 Ea»t Hamburg St., Baltimore, Md. 

PARAGON PROPELLERS EXCLUSIVELY 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



Page 62 



AERONAUTICS 



AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 5 



O 



o 



o 



(Flying Boats.) 



TRADE DIRECTORY 

AEROPLANES 

Aeromarlne Plane & Motor Co., Avondale, N. J. 

Aircraft Co., 1737 Broadway, New York. (Sloane.) 

Baldwin, Thomas S.. P. O. Box 7S, Madison Sq. P. O., New 
York. 

Benoist Aeroplane Co., 341 S. St. Louis Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Burgess Co., The, Marblehead, Mass. 

Christofferson Aviation Co., 1417 Van Ness Ave., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Connecticut Aircraft Co., New Haven, Conn. 

Cooper Aircraft Co., Bridgeport, Conn. 

Curtiss Aeroplane Co., 1200 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Gallaudet Co., The, Norwich, Conn. 

Grinnell Aeroplane Co., Grinnell. Iowa. 

Heath, E. B., Aerial Vehicle Co., 1227 School St.. Chicago, 111. 

Heinrich Aeroplane Co., 331 Madison Ave.. New York. 

Huntington Aircraft Co., IS E. 41st St., New York. 

Jannus Brothers, Battery Ave. and Hamburg St., Baltimore, 
Md. 

Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, 
Cal. 

Parisano Aerial Navigation Co., Inc., 220' W. 4 2d St., New 
York. 

Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, 31 Nassau St., New Y'ork. 

Sehmitt, M., Aeroplane Co., 96 Dale Ave., Paterson, N. J. 

Thomas Brothers Aeroplane Co., Ithaca. X. Y. 

Washington Aeroplane Co., 809 Water St. S.W., Washington, 
D. C. 

Wilson. Robert N., Port Jefferson, N. Y. 

Wright Co., The, Dayton, O. 
ATTORNEYS (PATENT) 

Barker. F. W.. Box 139, Times Sq. P. O., New York. 

Coleman, Watson E., 624 F St. X.W., Washington, D. C. 

Dieterich. F. G.. & Co., S03 Ourav Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Evans, Victor J., 771 Ninth St. X.W., Washington, D. C. 

Hill. Thomas A.. Woolworth Bldg.. New York. 

Moore, William N., Loan & Trust Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Parker, C. L., 30 McGill Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Robb & Robb, Southern Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Seifert, Jno. O., 50 Church St., New York. 

Shoemaker, George C. 918 F St., Washington, D. C. 

Woodward, Horace L., N.W. cor. Ninth and G Sts., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
AXLES 

Aircraft Co., The, 1737 Broadway, New York. 

Curtiss Aeroplane Co., 1200 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, 
Cal. 

BALLOONS AND DIRIGIBLES 

Baldwin, Capt. Thomas S., P. O. Box 7S, Madison Sq. P. O., 
New Y'ork. 

Connecticut Aircraft Co., New Haven. Conn. 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, O. 

Honeywell Balloon Co., 4460 Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Stevens, A. Leo, 282 Ninth Ave., New York. 
BALL BEARINGS (BALL AND ROLLER) 

Bretz, J. S., Co., 250 W. 54th St., New York. (F. & S.) 

Marburg Bros., 1790 Broadway, New Y'ork. (S. R. O.) 

New Departure Mfg. Co., Bristol, Conn. (New Departure.) 

R. I. V. Co.. 254 W. 57th St., New York 

Hess-Bright Mfg. Co., Front St. and Erie Ave., Philadelphia. 
Pa. 

S. K. F. Ball Bearing Co., 50 Church St, New York. 

Standard Roller Bearing Co., 50th and Lancester, Philadel- 
phia. Pa. 
Timken Roller Bearing Co., Canton, O. 



THE STORY OF FLIGHT 



( Continued 

determine exactly what it did do, but it 
was clear enough that it was not what 
we wanted in all respects. We repeated 
the trials for the purpose of determining, 
if possible, exactly what happened, but 
found this no easy task. To the person 
who has never attempted to control an 
uncontrollable flying machine in the air, 
this may seem somewhat strange, but the 
operator on the machine is so busy ma- 
nipulating rudder and looking for a soft 
place to alight that his ideas of what ac- 



from page 53) 

lually happens are very hazy. It is much 
nicer to sit before a pleasant fire and 
speculate than to work out, at the risk 
of life and limb the constructions neces- 
sary to reduce speculation to practical in- 
vention. 

We repeated this experiment time and 
again and several times barely escaped 
disaster. We found that if we jerked 
the warping cradle back and forth rap- 
idly, the machine would make its way 
down the hill, but if we persisted in the 



movement long enough to determine its 
real effect, the machine quickly acquired 
such a peculiar feeling of instability that 
we were compelled to instantly seek the 
ground. After repeated experiments we 
began to perceive that in landing the ma- 
chine was skidding somewhat toward the 
wing having the smaller angle and was 
facing somewhat toward the wing having 
the greater angle, and the wing having 
the greater angle seems to touch first. 

As our season was at a close, we were 
compelled to leave the problem in this 
condition. 

These experiments constituted the first 
instance in the history of the world that 
wings adjustable to different angles of 
incidence on the right and left sides had 
been used in attempting to control the 
balance of an aeroplane. We had func- 
tionally used them both when flying at 
the end of a rope and also in free flight. 

When we left Kitty Hawk at the end 
of 1901 we doubted that we would ever 
resume our experiments. Although we 
had broken the record for distance in 
gliding, so far as any actual figures had 
been published, and although Mr. Cha- 
nute, who was present part of the time, 
assured us that our results were better 
than had ever before been attained, yet 
when we looked at the time and money 
which we had expended and considered 
the progress made and the distance yet to 
go, we considered our experiments a fail- 
ure. At this time I made the prediction 
that men would sometimes fly, but that it 
would not be within our lifetime. 

In view of our own experience, and in 
view of the experience of men like Lang- 
ley, Lilienthal, Maxim, Chanute and 
Ader. men almost ideally fitted in men- 
tal equipment and training for such work, 
and having at their command hundreds 
oi thousands of dollars, all of whom, like 
ourselves had found the results attained 
too small for the effort and money ex- 
pended, and who had, one by one, aban- 
doned the task before we had taken it up, 
we felt that similar conditions would 
probably prevail for a long time, as the 
problem of stability, which had caused 
all these men to drop the problem, was 
vet seemingly untouched so far as the 
practical solution was concerned. 

After our return home we could not 
keep our minds off the puzzling things 
we had observed, nor keep from studying 
possible solutions of our difficulties, and 
l>c fore long we were as deeply interested 
as before. In studying our troubles re- 
lating to lateral balance, we reasoned that 
possibly the trouble might be due to the 
fact that the wing to which an increased 
angle of incidence had been imparted 
would receive not only an increased lift, 
but also an increased backward pressure, or 
resistance and that this might so decrease 
the speed of that wing that its lift would 
be reduced sufficiently from this cause 
to wipe out the increase in lift, due to 
its greater angle of incidence. It is a 
well known law of aerodynamics that the 
lifting pressure varies as the square of 
the speed at which the aeroplane and 
wind strike each other so that if the 
wing of the greater angle lagged behind 
while the other wing gradually forged 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 63 



ahead one wing would be moving at a 
different speed from the other and by 
reason of this speed would have a differ- 
ent lift; the slower wing of course hav- 
ing the lesser lift. We reasoned that if 
the speeds of the right and left wing 
could be controlled the advantage of the 
increased angle of incidence of one wing 
and the decreased angle of the other 
could be utilized as we had originally 
intended. Two ways of controlling the 
relative speeds of the wing tips were 
open to us ; one consisting in providing 
means for creating variable resistance a; 
the wing tips at the will of the operate, 
so that the wing which tends to forge 
ahead could be retarded ; the other con- 
sisted in providing a surface at the rear 
with which a torque about a vertical axis 
could be created to counterbalance that 
produced by the difference in resistance 
of the wing tips. We decided to use a 
surface at the rear on account of its 
greater dynamic efficiency since every 
pound of push in the propeller while 
with the surface at the rear exposed 
almost edgewise eight or ten pounds of 
turning power could be obtained at an 
expenditure of one pound backward re- 
sistance or one pound of propeller thrust. 
And for the sake of simplicity we de- 
cided to use a fixed vertical vane as we 
reasoned that if the machine attempted to 
turn on a vertical axis the vane at the 
rear would be exposed more and more 
to the wind and would stop further turn- 
ing of the machine as soon as the vane 
was exposed enough to receive a turn- 
ing pressure equal to that produced in 
the opposite direction by the difference 
in the resistance of the wing tips when 
adjusted to different angles of incidence. 
Thus the vane would be exposed to the 
wind on the side towards the wing hav- 
ing the smaller angle of incidence. In 
the fall of 1902 we returned to Kifty 
Hawk with an apparatus fitted with a 
fixed vertical vane at the rear. When 
we tried the apparatus we found that 
under favorable conditions the apparatus 
performed as we had expected, so that 
we could control lateral balance or steer 
to the right or left by the manipulation 
of the wing tips. This was the first 
time in the history of the world that 
lateral balance had been achieved by ad- 
justing wing tips to respectively differ- 
ent angles of incidence on the right and 
left sides. It was also the first time 
that a vertical vane had been used in 
combination with wing tips adjustable to 
respectively different angles of inci- 
dence, in balancing and steering an aero- 
plane. But, as we proceeded with our 
experiments, we found that the ex- 
pected results were not always attained. 
Sometimes the machine would turn up 
sidewise and come sliding to the ground 
in spite of all the warp that could be 
imparted to the wing tips. This seemed 
very strange. The apparatus would 
sometimes perform perfectly and at 
other times, without any apparent rea- 
son, would not perform at all. Every 
now and then it would come tumbling to 
the ground and make such a rough land- 
ing that we often considered ourselves 



o 



o 



o 



Hoboken, N. .1. 



Evans Co., 517 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



AERONAUTICS' DATA SHEET No. 6 

TRADE DIRECTORY 

BAMBOO 

Deltour, J., 804 Jefferson St., 
BATTERIES 

Apple Electric Co.. Dayton. O. (Storage ) 

H.W. Johns-Manville Co., 41st St. and Madison Ave., New 

) ork. 
Vesta Accumulator Co., 2100 Indiana Ave. Chicago, III. 

(Storage.) 
Willard Storage Battery Co., 5716 Euclid Ave.. Cleveland, O. 

(Storage.) 

BEARINGS (PLAIN) AND BUSHINGS 

American Bronze Co., Berwyn, Pa. ( "Non-Gran" bronze.) 

Atkinson Co., The. 575 Lyell Ave., Rochester, N Y (Su- 
perior babbitt.) 

Cramp, William, & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., The, 
Beech and Ball Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fahrig Metal Co., 34 Commerce St., New York 

Levett, Walker M., Co., 10th Ave. and 36th St., New York. 
("Polar ' metal.) 

Magnolia Metal Co., 113 Bank St., New York 

Martin, Glenn L., Co., 943 S. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, 
Cal. 

Merchant & 
BRAKES 

Aircraft Co., The, 1737 Broadwav, New York 

t'urtiss Aeroplane Co., 1200 Niagara St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
BRASS, BRONZE AND COFFER 

American Brass Co., Waterbury, Conn. (Brass, copper, Ger- 
man silver; sheet, wire, rods and tubes.) 

Bridgeport Brass Co., 106 Crescent Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. 
(Sheet, tube and wire.) 

National Tube Co., Frick Bldg.. Pittsburgh, Pa. (Brass 
fittings.) 

Randolph-Clowes Co.. Waterbury, Conn. (Sheet, rod, tubing.) 
BRAZING AND WELDING 

A-Z Co., 527 W. 56th St., New York. 

American Tube & Stamping Co., Bridgeport, Conn 

Boston Brazing & Welding Co., 782 Eighth Ave., New York. 
(Oxy-acetylene.) 

Crosby Co., The, 171 Pratt St., 

Fore River Ship Building Co., 

National Welding & Mfg. Co., 527 W. Jackson Blvd., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Smith, William R., & Co., 306 W. 52d St., New Y'ork. 

Springfield Brazing & Welding Co., 10 Willow St., Spring- 
field, Mass. 
BUMPERS 

Goodrich, B. F., Akron, O. 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, O. 
CARBURETERS 

Breeze Carbureter Co., 250 South St., Newark. N. J. (Breeze; 
also air hose, flexible shafting, tire inflating tubing, check 
valves and connections, carbureter tubing and push and 
pull coils.) 

Byrne-Kingston & Co., Kokomo, Ind. (Kingston.) 

Findeisen & Kropf Mfg. Co., 2100 S. Rockwell St., Chicago, 
111. (Rayfield.) 

G. & A. Carbureter Co.. 142 E. 14th St., New York. (G. i A > 

Holley Bros. Co., 131 Rowena St., Detroit, Mich. (Holley.) 

Holtzer-Cabot Electric Co., 14 Station St., Brookline, Mass. 
(Newcomb.) 

Master Carbureter Co.. 944 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Mich. 
(Master.) 

Wheeler & Schebler, Indianapolis, Ind. (Schebler.) 

Zenith Carbureter Co., foot of Vanda Ave., Detroit Mich 
(Zenith.) 

( To be Continued) 



Buffalo. N. Y. 
Quincy, Mass. 
527 W. Jackson Blvd.. 



lucky to escape unhurt. By taking the 
chance over and over we finally began 
to notice the conditions under which 
the difficulty was liable to occur. It 
seemed that when the machine was tilt- 
ed laterally it began to slide sidewise 
while advancing, in accordance with the 
well-known law of gravitation, just as a 
sled slides down hill or a ball rolls down 
an inclined plane, the speed increasing 
in an accelerated ratio. If the tilt hap- 
pened to be a little worse than usual. 
or if the operator was a little, slow in 



getting the balance corrected, the ma- 
chine slid sidewise so fast that the side- 
wise movement of the machine caused 
the vertical vane to strike the wind on 
the side toward the low wing, instead of 
on the side toward the high wing, as it 
should have done. Tn this state of af- 
fairs, the vertical vane instead of coun- 
teracting the turning of the machine 
about a vertical axis, as a result of the 
difference of resistance of the warpea 
wings on the right and left sides, on the 
(To be Continued) 



Page 64 



AERONAUTICS 



HEINRICH 

ARMORED 

MILITARY 

BIPLANE 




EQUIPMENT 

110 H. P. 

GYRO- 

"DUPLEX" 



Gyro -"Duplex" Motor 

ADOPTED BY LEADING CONSTRUCTORS 

110 H. P. Gyro, 9 cylinders, weight 270 pounds 
90 H.P. Gyro, 7 cylinders, weight 215 pounds 

GYRO MOTOR COMPANY 



N. Y. Office: 331 Madison Avenue 



774 Girard Street, Washington, D. C. 



aiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiu'iiiiiiiiiiN 



BURGESS- Military Aeroplane 

DUNNE 



Furnished to 

United States 
Great Britain 
Russia 

Self-balancing 
Self-steering 
and 
Non-capsizable 

Form of wing gives 
an unprecedented 
arc of fire and range 
of observation. 




Par excellence the 
weight and gun- 
carrying aeroplane 
of the World. 

Tail-less and folding. 

Enclosed nacelle 
with armored cock- 
pit. 

Speed range 40-80 
miles per hour. 

Climb 400 feet per 
minute. 



Burgen- Dunne No. 3 Delivered to U. S. Army at Saa Diefo, December 30 



THE BURGESS COMPANY, Marblehead, Mass. 



Sole licensees of the American-Dunne Patents 



IllllllllllllllllllllllllllllilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllW 



In answering advertisements please mention tliis magazine. 



VOL. XVI. No. 5 



MAY 15, 1915 



15 Cents 




BMBIWMBBBlMBMBnBMBB 1 



ERONtfUTIC 



UK 





H 

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P 
SB 



H 

135 



160 H. P. Model 



The output of this model is sold 
for some weeks to come. Those 
desiring motors of this type should 
communicate with the factory at 
Hammondsport for the necessary 
arrangements for future deliveries. 

All the important American 
records are held by the Cur- 
tiss Motor. 



Modern factory methods and large 
facilities have developed Curtiss 
Motors to the highest degree of 
efficiency. 

Simplicity of design and con- 
struction permit overhauling or re- 
pairing by any good mechanic, no 
special knowledge being required. 

Light in weight, yet not so light 
that durability and strength are 
sacrificed. The factor of safety is 
large in Curtiss Motors. 



Curtiss Motor Co. 

HAMMONDSPORT 
NEW YORK 




Page 66 AERONAUTICS 



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AERONAUTICS 



Page 67 



Published semi-monthly in the best interests 

of Aeronautics by 

AERONAUTICS PRESS INC. 

250 West 54th St., New York 

Telephone. Circle 2289 


Cable. Aeronautics. New York 




ERNEST L. JONES Editor 

M. B. SELLERS Technical Editor 

HARRY SCHULTZ Model Editor 

FRANK CASH Ass't Editor 



Entered as Second Class Mail Matter. September 22, 1908, under the Act of 
March 3. 1S79. $3.00 a year, 15 cents a copy. 

Postage free in the United States, Hawaii, the Philippines and Porto Rico. 
25 Cents extra for Canada and Mexico. 50 Cents extra for all other countries. 

Make all checks and monev orders free of exchange and payable to AERO- 
NAUTICS PRESS. 



The magazine is issued on the 15th and 30th of each month. All copy must 
be received 6 days before date of publication. If proof is to be shown, allow- 
ance must be made for receipt and return. 



Subscribers will kindly notify this office if discontinuance is desired at the 
end of their subscription period, otherwise it will be assumed that their 
subscription is to be continued. 



TECHNICAL TALKS-By M. B. Sellers 

OFFSET PLANES; CONSTANTIN PROFILE 



M. Eiffel found.* for two planes 
directly superposed, that the unit lift 
was less than for a single plane, the 
difference being" small for small angles of 
attack, and increasing with the angle 
up to about 6 degrees. Between 6 and 
10 degrees the reduction in lift is max- 
imum and almost independent of the 
angle. For a cambered biplane with the 
gap equal to the chord, the loss is 
23 per cent. The loss is greater fur 
flat than for cambered surfaces. 

The unit drift is approximately the 
same for two superposed planes as for a 
single plane. 

In a later experiment M. Eiffel found 
that the loss in lift was almost entirely 
in the lower plane, and this has led some to 
the conclusion that if the lotver plane 
were advanced (offset forward), the 
lift of the combination would be in- 
creased. 

But experiment seems to show that 
this is not the case. M. Eiffel experi- 
mented with two planes, set at various 
distances apart vertically, and offset 
both forward and backward,! and 
found that when the top plane was 
offset forward the highest lift was ob- 



*Resistance de I'Air ct I'Aviation, p. 69. 
^Resistance de I'Air ct I'Aviation, p. 179. 



served and when set back the lowest 
lift was shown. Very little difference 
in lift and efficiency was observed for 
the three positions, and he concludes 
that offsetting is of small advantage. 

In the report of the British Advisory 
Committee for 1912, p. 73. it is stated 
that there was slight gain. 5 per cent, 
in setting the top plane forward, and a 
loss in setting it back. 

In 1903 I made experiments with off- 
set planes in my 3- foot wind tunnel, and 
repeated them in 1906 in my 30-inch 
tunnel : the results were however not 
published till 1910 (Aeronautics, Feb. 
1910, p. 42). Here also the greatest lift 
was with the higher plane set forward. 
I also tried three planes superposed and 
offset with similar results, except that 
the loss in lift was greater than with 
two. 

My attention has been called to a 
communication in Britisli Aeronautics. 
Sept., 1913, by A. Tcherschersky. who 
states that with models he obtained the 
greatest lift with the top plane set back; 
but that with the top plane set forward 
he got the best gliding angle, that is, 
more efficiency. It seems that these 
experiments were made with flying or 
gliding models, and if that is so, they 



could hardly be classed with the other 
experiments as to accuracy. The com- 
munication does not state how the tests 
were made. 

Referring now to another matter 
which may be of interest, the Constan- 
ts Wing Profile, it will be remembered 
that M. Constantin advocated a con- 
cavity on the upper side of the leading 
edge, intended to deflect the air upward, 
so as to increase the rarifaction above 
the wing and thus augment the lift. M. 
Consantin reported a very considerable 
gain in lift and efficiency due to this 
form of leading edge, but some other 
experimenters and manufacturers, ac- 
cording to reports, have had discourag- 
ing results, and have it seems, aban- 
doned its use. 

In his recent work of 1914, M. Eiffel 
gives results of experiments with this 
device (p. 119) which show an improve- 
ment in lift and efficiency, especially 
with thick wing sections. With some 
wings tested there was very little gain, 
and, in case of the wing No. 35 at least, 
it seems to me that just as much im- 
provement could be had by merely 
sharpening the leading edge in the 
usual way. Considering all information 
at hand it would seem that the Constan- 
tin profile has not fulfilled expectations. 



A WING PROFILE OF GREAT UNIT LIFT 



M, Kauffman in Aerophile (Jan. 1, 
1915) publishes the data of a curve 
giving a high lift together with a mod- 
erate drift. The upper camber is 1/10 
of' the chord and the maximum thick- 
ness is 1/15 of the chord. 

Its section is shown in Fig 1. The 
center of pressure curve has the usual 
trend ; at 1 degree the c. of p. is at 
the center of the wing; at 6 degrees it 
is 37 per cent from the leading edge ; 
and it reaches its forward limit at 12 
degrees, where it is 33 per cent from 
the leading edge. 

It is seen that the maximum lift-drift 
ratio is nearly 14/ (for a lift of .05) ; 
the maximum lift is nearly .08 in metric 
units which is greater than the pressure 




0" 
2° 
6° 
9° 
12° 



Fig. 1. 
KAUFFMANN PROFILE 



Lift-drift- and drift-ratio 



0.0028 
0.0036 
0.0055 
0.0075 
0.0098 



K„ 



0.0305 
0.0483 
0.0604 
00673 
0.0726 



Fig. 2 



_5l 



0.092 
0.075 
0.091 
0.111 
0.135 



on a normal plane, which is about .068. 
Figure 2 gives the lift-drift and drift- 
ratios. 



This wing is, therefore, suitable for 
machines designed to carry great weight 
per square foot. 



Paoe 68 



AERONAUTICS 



CLEMENT-BAYARD ARMORED MONOPLANE 



This monoplane, intended chiefly for 
the needs of the cavalry and artillery, is 
so constructed as to be quickly assem- 
bled and taken down, the wings being 
arranged to fold back along the fuselage. 

The fuselage is of steel tubing, pen- 
tagonal forward and triangular aft. All 
the forv\ ird portion comprising engine, 
etc., is protected by an armor 1 milli- 
mei thick (about 1/25 of an inch ). 

The wings are very strongly con- 
structed ; the spars are pressed from a 
single piece of sheet nickel steel. The 
ribs alone are of wood. The chassis 
comprises a pair of struts on each side 
of the fuselage placed V shape, and held 
apart at their bottom by two horizontal 
tubes. Between these tubes is the axle, 
jointed at its middle, and held at its 
ends by rubber shock absorbing bands, 
thus permitting the wheels to yield in- 
dependently. 

There is no fixed empennage, but only 
a balanced elevator. All controls are in- 
stinctive; control wires are flexible steel 
cables. 

To permit the wings to fold back the 
forward upper and lower wing guys are 
respectively attached to a piece rigidly 
fastened to the fuselage by the tighten- 
ing of a screw. The loosening of these 



two screws permits the folding back of 
the wings without affecting the adjust- 
ment of the guys. The motor, in front 



of fuselage, is fed by a small gravity 
tank, supplied by air pressure from the 
main tank. 




-CLEME.NT-" 
1WARD 



NIEUPORT ARMORED MONOPLANE 



This Nieuport is provided on the left 
side with an armor i l / 2 mm. thick. 
(This one sided protection complies with 
the requirements specified for armored 
aeroplanes. ) < )n the same side on the 
upper longitudinal of the fuselage is 
mounted a rapid lire gun. The motor is 
also protected by a strong hood. 



The ensemble of the machine is simi- 
lar in every way to the current type; 
same chassis, similar fuselage, empen- 
nage and wings. The propeller is pro- 
vided with a beak in the form of a 
spherical cap; this carries blades so con- 
stituated as to project air into the hood 
to cool the motor. 




PEOLI COMPANY 

TO MARKET MOTOR 

Owing to the death of Cecil Peoli. the 
Peoli Aeroplane Corporation, of 31 Nas- 
sau street, New York, will cease the 
manufacturing of aeroplanes and ex- 
pects to handle the selling of the Raus- 
enberger motor through the Import and 
Exporting Trading Company, of the 
above address. It is expected that a 
thorough test of the latest motor de- 
signed by Rausenberger, a 12-cylinder, 
140-h.p. affair, will be made at the Auto- 
mobile Club of America's testing plant. 
This is the motor which Peoli has last 
been using. 

Note of this change should be made 
in the Trade Directory Data Sheets. 



The Thomas Bros. Aeroplane Co. of 
Ithaca, N. Y., has recently received an 
order for 12 machines for foreign ship- 
ment and other orders are expected. 



Sperry fined for speeding. — Headline. 

Better stick to the air. The aerial 
cops do not have to make arrests to 
hold their jobs. 



"Too Proud to Fight." — President 
Wilson. 

That might sound all right if we had 
a small army, something better in the 
way of a navy and a few aeroplanes. 
There may be a time when it won't be a 
matter of pride, but one of necessity. 
Less grape juice and more grape! 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 69 



THE 



STORY OF FLIGHT 

By WILBUR WRIGHT 



contrary assisted in its turning move- 
ment and the result was worse than 
when the vertical vane was absent. We 
felt that if this were a true explana- 
tion, it would he necessary to make the 
vertical vane movable, in order that the 
pressure on the side toward the low 
wing might be relieved and the pressure 
brought to bear on the side toward the 
high wing. We spent several days in ex- 
perimenting to make sure this was the 
real cause of the difficulty. Meanwhile, 
my brother, in thinking about the matter, 
noted that a particular relation existed 
in the desired pressures on the rudder 
no matter whether the troubles were 
due to difference of resistance of the 
wing tips or whether they were due to 
sliding. In either case it was desirable 
to get rid of the pressure on the side to- 
ward the low wing to which a greater 
angle of incidence must be imparted, in 
restoring lateral balance, and brought to 
bear on the side of the vertical tail 
which is toward the high wing to which 
the reduced angle of incidence must be 
imparted in such case. For the sake of 
simplicity we, therefore, decided to at- 
tach the wires controlling the vertical 
tail to the wires warping the wing, so 
that the operator instead of having to 
control three things at once, would have 
to attend to only the forward horizon- 
tal rudder and the wing-warping mech- 
anism ; and only the latter, alone, would 
be needed for controlling lateral bal- 
ance. We now had the structure in the 
form pictured and described in the 
drawings and specifications of the patent 
(lately) in suit. With this apparatus 
we made nearly 70 glides in the two or 
three weeks following. We flew it in 
calms and we flew it in winds as high 
as thirty-five miles an hour. We steered 
it to right, or left, and performed all 
the evolutions necessary for flight. This 
was the first time in the history of the 
world that a movable vertical tail had 
been used in controlling the direction or 
the balance of a flying machine. It was 
also the first time that a movable ver- 
tical tail had been used, in combination 
with wings adjustable to different an- 
gles of incidence, in controlling the bal- 
ance and direction of an aeroplane. We 
were the first to functionally employ a 
movable vertical tail in a flying aero- 
plane. We were the first to employ 
wings adjustable to respectively differ- 
ent angles of incidence in a flying earo- 
plane. We were the first to use the two 
in combination in a flying aeroplane. 
! (The Wright brothers now felt that the 
problem of human flight was solved and 
work was started on the application for 
a patent and design of a motor driven 
aeroplane with a 12 H. P., 200-pound 
gasoline motor, which, like the aero- 
plane, was made by the Wrights them- 
selves. This was assembled at Kitty 
Hawk the latter end of 1903 and on the 
17th of December four successful 
flights were made, the last having a 



*Besun in the April 30th Issue 



duration of 59 seconds, flying a distance 
.if 850 feet against a 20-mile wind.) 

The operator controlled the front hori- 
zontal rudder ( elevator ) with his hands 
and simultaneously controlled the ad- 
justment of the wings and the adjust- 
ment of the vertical tail, or rudder, by 
a single movement of the cradle in 
which his hips rested (the operator ly- 
ing" prone), flic vertical tail wires and 
the wing warping wires were intercon- 
nected, as in the patent specification, 
and neither could he moved without the 
other. 

While our patent application was pur- 
suing its slow course through the Patent 
Office, we built a second machine and 
flew it in a field near the city of Dayton, 
Ohio, in the summer and autumn of 
1904. When we had familiarized our- 
selves with the operation of the machine 
in more or less straight flights, we de- 
cided to try a complete circle. At first 
we did not know just how much move- 
ment to give in order to make a circle 
of a given size. On the first three trials 
we Eound that we had started a circle on 
too large a radius to keep within the 
boundaries of the small held in which 
we wi re operating. Accordingly, a land- 
ing was made each time, without acci- 
dent, merely to avoid passing beyond 
the boundaries of the field. On the 
fourth trial, made the 20th of Septem- 
ber, a complete circle was made, and 
the machine was brought safely to rest 
after having passed the starting point. 
Thereafter we repeatedly made circles 
and on the 9th of November made four 
circles of the field in a flight lasting a 
few seconds over 5 minutes. In all these 
flights the warping wires and the wires 
controlling the rudder were intercon- 
nected. 

In order to circle to the left, we 
moved the cradle slightly to the left 
thus turning the nil slightly t i the left 
and imparting an increased angle to the 
right wing and a smaller angle to the 
left wing. This caused the machine to 
tilt so that the left wing was lower than 
the right wing, which, of course, in turn 
caused the machine to slide somewhat to 
the left. This side movement of the 
machine tended to cause the vertical 
rudder to strike the air at a greater an- 
gle than was necessary to compensate 
for the difference in resistance of the 
right and left wings. This tendency 
caused the tail to lag behind in this 
lateral movement just as the feather of 
an arrow causes the feathered end to lag 
behind when the arrow is dropped side- 
wise. Thus, the lateral movement of 
the main aeroplane sideways, as the re- 
sult of tipping, became combined with 
the rotary movement about its vertical 
axis, due'to the vane-like action of the 
tail, and the machine proceeded on a cir- 
cular course. But as the speed of the 
outside wing increased, and that of the 
inside wing decreased by reason of the 
fact that the inner wing was traveling 
in a smaller circle than the outside wing, 
there was tendency to tilt too much and 



this was corrected by gradually moving 
the cradle toward the high wing, thus 
increasing the angle on the low wing 
and decreasing the angle of the high 
wing and also setting the rudder over 
toward the high wing. This was done 
gradually and only sufficiently to pre- 
vent the" low wing from sinking lower 
and not enough to bring it back n>the level. 

The machine then continued to circle 
to the left, with the vertical tail set 
over somewhat to the right, so that the 
machine turned in the opposite direction 
to that in which a ship would have 
turned with the ship's rudder set over 
t.i the right. When it was desired to stop 
circling, a sudden movement of the 
cradle toward the high side gave the 
wings an increased warp and brought 
the machine up to the level. Then, on 
setting the cradle hack to its central 
position, thus restoring the wings and 
tad to their central positions, the ma- 
chine proceeded in a straight line, with 
the wings level. 

With this machine we made approx- 
imated a hundred flights in the year 
1904. L sually the machine responded 
promptly when we applied the control 
for restoring lateral balance, but on a 
few occasions the machine did not re- 
spond promptly and the machine came 
to the ground in a somewhat tilted posi- 
tion. The cause of the difficulty proved 
. very obscure and the season of 
1904 closed without any solution of the 
puzzle. 

In 1905 we built another machine and 
resumed experiments in the same field 
near Dayton. Ohio. Our particular ob- 
ject was to clear up the mystery which 
we had encountered on a few occasions 
during the preceding year. During all 
the flights we had made up to this time 
we kept close to the ground, usually 
within ten feet of the ground, in order 
that in case we met any new and myste- 
rious phenomena we could make a sate 
landing. With only one life to spend 
we did not consider it advisable to at- 
tempt to explore mysteries at such great 
height from the ground that a fall would 
put an end to our investigations and 
leave the mystery unsolved. 

The machine had reached the ground, 
in the peculiar cases I have mentioned, 
too soon for us to determine whether 
the trouble was due to slowness of the 
correction or whether it was due to a 
change of conditions, which would have 
increased in intensity, if it had contin- 
ued, until the machine would have been 
entirely overturned and quite beyond 
the control of the operator. Consequent- 
ly, it was necessary, or at least advis- 
able, to discover the exact cause of the 
phenomena before attempting any high 
flights. 

For a long time we were unable to 
determine the peculiar conditions under 
which this trouble was to be expected. 
But as time passed we began to note that 
it usually occurred when we were turn- 
ing a rather short circle. We therefore, 
(.Continued on page 79) 



Page 70 



AERONAUTICS 



A ROMANCE OF AVIATION— By Hamlet Pantalone 

A Springtime Idyll in Five Acts 



DRAMATIS PERSONAE 

An aeronautical magazine 
Another one 

Chorus of advertisers, subscribers, creditors and other 
hoi polloi 

Time: Act I, II, III and IV, present; Act V, indefinite future 

ACT I 

The First Revelation of Love 

' . . . Evidently there is a large, double-acting sledge 
hammer working overtime up on Madison Avenue. . . ." 

— ****** Aeroplane Company. 

ACT II 

The First Kiss 

' . . . But you will be interested in knowing that FLY- 
ING is the only aeronautical magazine published. . . ." 

— Excerpt from letter to one of the 
largest advertising agencies in 
this country ■written by one of 
the Dramatis Pcrsonae. 



ACT III 

The Lovers Are United 



.:,,■',, *.!,.. till 



Jflping 



art ft 

Arro (filub of Ainrrira ffiullrtut 

29T flla&ifimi Aornur 

Ncm flork CDily 

March 3, 

Aeroplane Co. 



Gentlemen; 

Yoq have probably read that 
I have aoquired the mailing liet of the defunct 
aeronautical weekly "AERO & HYDRO". 

AS the general opinion is 
that we need a weekly, end there is oertalnly some 
important work for it to do. I have arranged to 
resume the publication of the weekly under the 
neme of "AERIAL AGE" - the name of the month " 
published in 1912, which. 
in 1913. 



I regret exceedingly that I have been unable 
to make a combination including "AIRCRAFT" and "AERO- 
NAUTICS," as I waa asked to do by moat of the oonstruot- 
ore. While "AIRCRAFT" has a oiroulation of only 1000, 
including the newa-stand sales, and ie run ae a side pro- 
position In the office of a small Bales oonoern, I oould 
not effeot an arrangement. The debts of that magazine 
amount to $10,000; and the stockholders number over one 
dozen. I oould not assume that liability. "AERONAUTICS" 
is four months behind and having a oiroulation of only 
500 is not worth the amonnt of obligations to be met in 
taking it up. Considering all this I deoided that it 
would be best to invest the resources at my dlBpoBal 
to turn out a good weekly. 

With best regards and wishes I remain, 

Youre very oordially. 



ACT IV 

The First Quarrel 



PERCY G B. MORRISS 

722-724 CONSUMERS BUILDING 

CHICAGO 



March 11. 1915. 



Mr. Henry Uoodhouse, 
Kew York City. 



Dear Clr: 



(Copy) 



Ky attention haB been called to your cir- 
cular letter of March third in which you state that 
you have acquired the mailing Hot of AERO AND HYDRO. 

A3 a creditor of Noel & Company, ownera of 
AERO AND HYER0, I have an interest in any of the assets 
of this company and anyone at all acquainted knows that 
the mailing liet of a magazine represents a cor.siderable 
asset . 

Since the receipt of your letter of March 
third, I and other creditors have instituted a careful 
investigation to find out how this mailing liBt got out 
of the AERO AND HYDRO office and we are satisfied that 
if this list is out it has been stolen, as no one had 
authority to sell or give you this asset. 

The Court will be asked to take charge of thle 
business and at the same time the creditors will ask the 
Court to take cognizance of the fact that part of the 
assets have been hypothecated. 

It is not my intention to say whether or not 
you should go ahead and use thia list in view of the 
above facts, but the creditors will certainly insist 
that you make restitution for the use of the mailing 
Hat. 

A word from you as to whether or not you ex- 
pect to reimburse the creditors for this asset will be 
appreciated. 

Yours very truly, 

PGBM.HO 




ACT V 
And They Lived Happy Forever Thereafter 

While meandering about seeking inspiration, the author 
unfortunately fell into Salt Creek. Owing to this melancholy 
accident, a year's subscription to the Armchair Aviator's 
Revue will be awarded for the best MS. completing this 
moving heart story. 



— Letter sent to advertising patrons 
of Aeronautics. 



Criminal Libel Defined— Punishment 

A malicious publication, by writing, printing * * * * or 
otherwise than by mere speech * * * * which has a tendency 
to injure any person, corporation ^-fc^ + in**** business 
or occupation, is a libel. — Section 1340 t Penal Code. 

A person who publishes a libel, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

—Section 1341 } Penal Code. 

The punishment for a misdemeanor is $500 fine or a year 
in prison, or both. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 71 





OF AMERICA 
29 West 39th Street. New York 

OFFICIAL BULLETIN 



E3 



LEE S. BURRIDGE 
An Appreciation 

In the formative period of practical 
aero-dynamics, when a significant tap- 
ping of the forehead invariably accom- 
panied the slightest disclosure of an in-. 
terest in "flying machines." it required 
the application of more than ordinary- 
moral courage to become not only iden- 
tified with, but a leader in, a movement 
hitherto treated solely with ridicule and 
derision. 

Realizing that mechanical flight had 
been proven and its fundamental prin- 
ciples established, Lee S. Burridge en- 
tered into the aeronautical art in his 
characteristically whole-hearted way 
with the firm conviction that the time 
had come to reduce the movement to a 
practical basis and until his passing 
away was unswerving in his fealty to 
this purpose. Possessing the rare com- 
bination of inventor and successful bus- 
iness man, he also had a keen insight 
into the future and contributed both 
his time and money to the introduction 
of the aeroplane as a commercial propo- 
sition at a time when the future of aero- 
nautics was exceedingly dark. 

It has been my privilege to have been 
associated with Mr. Burridge for many 
years, both in business and in the aero- 
nautical movement, and retrospect brings 
into review a multitude of kindly acts, 
innumerable instances of financial as- 
sistance to inventors, many personal 
sacrifices and the knowledge that all 
were blended into a real and sincere de- 
sire to foster the art of aviation and not 
for personal aggrandizement or profit. 
There was a predominant note of sin- 
cerity in all his gifts to aeronautics, 
which were not advertised, but given in 
the true spirit of philanthropy, more 
often secretly than merely hidden from 
view. 

In 1908. when the world at large still 
received the stories of the Wright 
brothers' flights with doubt and sceptic- 
ism, and even aero clubs then in vogue 
refused to lend their support to aviation, 
Mr. Burridge became one of a coterie of 
enthusiasts who had faith in the future 
which brought about the organization of 
the Aeronautical Society of which he 
was the first president. 



The organization of this society and 
its distinctive purpose very quickly 
changed the attitude of the public 
toward aerial things and ridicule and 
derision became a thing of the past 
when a flying field was obtained and the 
first Curtiss aeroplane ever built was 
purchased by a small syndicate formed 
by Mr. Burridge among the members of 
the society. With characteristic gen- 
erosity, Mr. Burridge contributed the 
major portion of the money necessary 
to purchase this machine, which was 
sent oh tour throughout the United 
States and Canada under the auspices 
of the Aeronautical Society to show the 
public that the flying machine was a fact 
and not the dream of mentally unbal- 
anced inventors. 

This tour unquestionably brought 
about the start of a very important and 
rapidly growing industry which bids fair 
to make radical changes in transporta- 
tion methods. 

History in the making is very often 
overlooked by those who are identified 
with it and it therefore may be well to 
note here that the commission to build 
this machine was given to Glenn H. 
Curtiss before a practical aeroplane had 
been built for public sale and that it was 
due to the success of this machine that 
a duplicate was built which enabled Cur- 
tiss to win the first Gordon-Bennett In- 
ternational Race from Bleriot. who later 
became famous in aeroplane work. 

When this first aeroplane had fulfilled 
its mission of education it was sold, and 
it is known by very few that Mr. Bur- 
ridge donated his share of the proceeds 
in such a way that those associated with 
him never knew that he assumed a large 
loss. 

When the practical early stage of the 
art of flying in America is chronicled, 
the personali