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I T \ I 



4ER0NAUTICS 



July, igii 




Whirling Table of Worcester Polytechnic Institute 



PROPELLER TESTING DEVICE 



By Professor David !■. Gallup, M.E., 

OF WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE. 



REALIZING the importance of aviation in 
the development of engineering and ap- 
preciating its special privileges for in- 
vestigation, the Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute has taken definite steps toward the 
solution of the problems confronting the de- 
signers of aeroplanes and their engines. On 
account of the unusual lack of authentic data 
concerning experiments with aeroplane sur- 
faces and propellers, most of the attention so 
far has been given to these two, leaving the 
engine development for separate consideration. 
Probably little is known concerning the experi- 
ments which have been going on, so that a 
brief description will be given: 

The purpose of the investigation is to de- 
termine if possible the proper design of a pro- 
peller to give most efficient results, taking into 
consideration the varying factors, such as 
speed, pitch and diameter. Since whatever 
tests have been made up to the present have 
been of the "stationary" kind, our own experi- 
ments are to include this method, so that a 
I comparison may be made between such tests 
and those made under "moving" conditions. 

Bv stationary is meant operating the pro- 
peller on a stationary stand. The moving tests 
consist of placing the propeller on the end of 
a long arm or boom whicli rotates about a 
center in a relatively quiet atmosphere. The 
arm may be rotated at various speeds from 
up to any number of miles per hour desired. 
The propeller at the same time may also be 
operated at various speeds of revolution and 
suflicient drag offered to the arm so that vari- 
ous pulls may be obtained. It must not be 
understood by the above that the stationary 
type of test is considered of mucli value, for it 
is very evident that the conditions existing, 
such as circulating over and over a given 
quantity of atmosphere, are very different from 
those met with by a propeller on an aeroplane 
which is going through the air. It is merely 
for the sake of comparison with the proper 
method of testing an aeroplane propeller — the 
moving test — that the stationary test is to be 
made. In the tests which have so far been 
made, the horse-power input to the propeller 
is determined, also the effective thrust and the 



speed, from which curves may be obtained 
showing these relations. Some very interest- 
ing results have been obtained in these tests, 
as would naturally be indicated by the use of 
smoke, ribbons and Pitot tubes for showing 
the quality and direction of the various air 
currents set up by the different portions of the 
propeller. Since details of these observations 
are to be left for a special paper to be given 
before the engineering societies, it is not 
deemed necessary to give them here. It is 
sufficient to say, however, that the results as 
obtained are somewhat disconcerting to the 
average designer of the present. 

In the moving tests which are to be made 
of the propellers, a 75-horse-power railway mo- 
tor is used in driving the propellers. These 
will be mounted on the end of the boom, turn- 
ing in a hundred foot circle about the center 
of a small lake which is the property of the 
Institute. Tests will be run and observations 
taken early in the morning to obviate the ex- 
istence of air currents which would be present 
later in the dav. The thrust and speed are to 
be measured by delicate mechanisms, so that 
there will be no measurable error. It is an- 
ticipated that the results of these tests will 
show a very interesting relation to those tests 
made under the stationary conditions. 

The moving tests are to be made during the 
month of Julv, 1911, and many engineers and 
others interested in aviation are to be present 
as observers. It is expected that the i-esiilts 
of these experiments will give valuable data 
concerning the proper relations between pitcli, 
rotation, speed and propeller diameter, some- 
thing which at present is very indefinite as 
will be readily appreciated by an exammation 
of the various types of propellers used by the 
present aviators. The two propellers, large 
diameter, slow speed, and moderately high 
pitch used by the Wright Bros., are a direct 
contradiction to the high speed, small pitcli 
propellers used by the various other aviators. 
While it mav be admitted that each has its 
particular field, let us hope that this field will 
be more definitely outlined when the results of 
these tests at the Worcester Polytechnic In- 
stitute are completed. A very important Ime 



UiRONAUTICS 



July, igi 





il-RONAUTICS 



July, j(j] r 



t work is to be taken up in the near future 
itli reference to the proper shape of aero- 
la nc surfaces determined by means of special 
|il'.iratus, tlie lifting power and resistance of- 
ii <1 by various sliape surfaces. Pitot tubes 
ill Ije applied at every available spot in tlie 
iiiiace of tlie plane to determine tlie above 

ata. 

M is hoped that any interested in the devel- 
imicnt of the aeroplane will take advantage 
f the opportunity to visit tlie testing plant 
ny time, and especially during the time of 
hese tests, which will undoubtedly be con- 
inued througliout the summer. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF PROPELLERS. 

Jumber. Diam. Pitch. 

1 7 ft. in. 4 ft. in. 

2 7 ft. in. S ft. in. 

3 7 ft. in. 4 ft. in. 

4 7 ft. in. 4 ft. in. 

5 7 ft. in. 4 ft. in. 

6 6 ft. in. 5 ft. in. 

7 6 ft. 6 in. 44 in. 

8 6 ft. in. 41/2 ft. to 5 ft. (at diam.) 

9 6 ft. 3 in. 3 ft. .5 in. to 5 ft. 6 in. 



From the Ijeginning of successful e.xperi- 
nents in operating aeroplanes, it has suggested 
tself to many people that some adaptation of 
lie parachute could be used to protect avia- 
ors in case of accident. A recent adaptation 
ind successful experiment with a paracliute 
ittaclied to an aeroplane frameworli has ex- 
cited considerable interest. 

Tlie paracliute was carefully folded up, 
ashed to a section of framework of an aero- 
ilane, and a life-size dummy fastened in the 
iviator's seat and the apparatus launched from 
i section of the Eiffel Tower. In spite of ap- 
larently numerous mechanical difficulties, the 
Darachute opened quickly, reducing tlie speed 



of fall to that found by experience to afford a 
safe landing for a human being, and the whole 
experiment was a great success. The para- 
chute measured 8 metres in diameter, giving 
a surface of 50 square metres, and weighed 16 
liilograms, althougli this could be reduced to 
10 kilograms by using silk instead of cotton. 
The parachute was enclosed in an envelope 
1 6-10 metres long by 8 centrimetres high and 
50 centimetres wide. 



The Queen Aeroplane Co., of Fort George, 
New Yorli City, has under construction four 
biplanes equipped with Gnome motors for the 
McCurdy-Willard Co. One of these biplanes is 
to have a 100-h.p. Gnome, and is expected to 
render an excellent account in the speed con- 
tests in the Chicago meet for which it is being 
especially built. 



A racing monoplane, costing $10,000, designed 
by Willis McCornick, has been equipped with 
two 50-li.p. Gnome motors and two 8-ft. iiro- 
pellers, one pushing and the other pulling on 
the central longitudinal axis of the monoplane, 
and is now at the grounds of the Aero Club of 
New York at Nassau Boulevard. Tlie trials 
are being watched with great interest by ex- 
perts who are especially interested in the ques- 
tion as to whether two rotary motors revolv- 
ing in the opposite direction will do away with 
the gyroscopic action of a single rotary motor. 
Mr. JMcCornick is the newly-elected president 
of the Aeronautical Society of New York and 
the treasurer of the Queen Aeroplane Co. He 
is one of tlie firm of McCornick Bros., bankers 
and brokers, members of the New York Stock 
Exchange, the owner of the Norman, a 100-ft. 
steam yaclit, and an all-around sportsman, ami 
is devoting the best of his skill and business 
knowledge to aviation. 




Machine for Measuring Static Thrust 
3 



AERONAUTICS 



July, IQIT 



TESTS OF W^ O O D E N STRUTS 
MADE FOR THE LABORATORY COMMITTEE OF 
THE AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN 

By Professor D. A. Iiow. 



THE Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, 
the first organization of its Icind in the 
world, founded in 1866, has rendered 
lasting services to aeronautics through 
the researches of its members and committees. 

Builders of aeroplanes have longed for data 
on strengths of woods. Professor Low has 
conducted at the University of London an 
exhaustive series of tests for the Society's 
Laboratory Committee with tlie object of de- 
termining the strengths of comparatively slen- 
der wood struts and to find, if possible, the 
most suitable kind of wood to use for struts 
in aeroplanes, having regard to strength and 
lightness. 

Each strut tested was of uniform cross sec- 
tion throughout its length, the section being 
rectangular, about 2 in. wide and about 1 in. 
tliick. Seven of the struts were about 32 in. 
long, one was about 30 in. long, and the re- 
maining 15 were 24 in. long. The exact dimen- 
sions are given in Table I. 

The struts were tested in a 50-ton Wick- 
steed testing machine. The ends were rounded 
and fitted into grooves in iron blocks. Each 
strut was placed truly vertical and the load, 
applied vertically, was put on gradually until 
the strut buckled or crippled. The crippling 
load was quite definite in every case and was 
the maximum load which the strut would 
carry, any pushing of the ends of the strut 
nearer to one another by working the pump 
simply bent the strut more and more without 
any increase in the load. 

It was assumed that the Euler formula 
for struts with hinged ends was the most 
suitable for these struts. The formula is 
P= (3.1416)2BI 



P 
where P is the crippling load, E the modulus 
of elasticity of the material, I the least mo- 
ment of inertia of the cross section, and 1 the 
length of the strut. 

The crippling loads P are given in Table I. 
The values of E were calculated by the Euler 
formula already given. But the values of 
E calculated in this way were, in almost every 
case, high, and were in fact, on the average, 
about double the values which were obtained 
by direct experiment on the elastic deflection 
of the struts tested as beams. 

It would seem, therefore, that the resist- 
ance to buckling due to the friction at the 
ends of the strut had the effect of fixing the 
ends to a certain extent, so that using the 
actual value of E from the elastic deflection 
experiments the formula would be 
P=2 (3.1416)=EI 



P 
which is the Euler formula for a strut fixed 
at one end and free at the other, but guided 
in the direction of the load. The formula 
P=2 (3.1416)=EI 



P 
will therefore be used as applying to these 
tests. 

The following notes refer to the condition 
of the various specimens when the crippling 
load was reached. 

Specimens 1, 2, 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18 and 
23 were bent but not fractured. 

In 3 there were signs of fracture on the 
conipreKsif>n side. In 7, 10 and 14, fracture 
started on the compression side. In 16, 17 and 
1!) tliere was decided fracture on the com- 
pression side. In 6 fracture took place on the 
tension side after the load was continued. 
In 20 and 21 fracture took place on the ten- 
sion side. In 8 and 9 fracture took place 



in tension and in compression. In 22 fracture 
started in tension and in compression. 

Crusliing tests were made on pieces about 
2 in. long cut from the ends of certain of 
the specimens after they had been tested for 
tlie crippling load. The pieces so tested were 
in no way injured by the previous test for the 
crippling load. The crushing load was applied 
in the direction of the grain of the wood. 
The results are given in Table II. The num- 
ber of the specimens given in column 1 of 
Table II are the same as the numbers of 
the specimens in Table I from which they 
were cut. The crushing load in each case was 
quite definite. 

The various struts were carefully weighed 
and their volumes computed, and from these 
the density or weight W in pounds per cubic 
inch was calculated. The results are given in 
Table IIL 

In order to compare the suitability of the 
various kinds of wood tested for struts foi- 
aeroplanes, the results of the tests have 
been used to calculate the dimensions fur 
struts of each kind of wood 30 in. long tn 
carry a crippling load of three tons. The 
results are given in Table IV. The struts 
are placed in order of their weights W in 
pounds. The cross sections of tlie struts have 
been made symmetrical, of breadth b and 
thickness d, b being equal to 2d in each case. 
The last column gives the number of test 
struts upon which the 'results are based, 
the values of E and w being the means from 
that number of specimens. 

The foregoing tests seem to indicate tliat 
whitewood (American poplar), basswood, 
spruce and mahogany are the most suitable 
woods for the struts of aeroplanes. Hickory is 
a very tough wood and may be bent to a 
considerable extent without fracturing, but 
it will be noted that it is the heaviest of all 
the woods tested. 

It would, of course, be more satisfactory 
if a larger number of tests could be made 
with specimens of the kinds of wood whiih 
on account of tlieir strength and lightness are 
obviously most suitable. 

Table V gives the Euler formula in its sim- 
plified form for use in designing struts of the 
more suitable of the materials tested, the 
constants being derived from the results of 
the tests made. It must be understood, how- 
ever, that the formulas here given are fur 
struts loaded as in the tests here described. 
As has been indicated the conditions of the 
tests seem to be equivalent to that of a 
strut fixed at one end and free at the otlier, 
but guided in the direction of the load. The 
Euler formula for this case being 
P=2(3.1416)=E I 



In an aeroplane the condition of a strut is 
probably that of one fixed at one end and free 
at the other, but not guided in tlie direction 
of the load. For this case the Euler formula is 
(3.1416)=E I 



4xP 
Hence, for aeroplane struts the expression.'; 
given for P in Table V should be divide.l 
by 8. 

If n is tlie factor of safety then the safe 
working load will be 



The cross section of an aeroplane strut will, 
of course, not gonorally be a rectangle, but 
whatever its form its least moment of inertia 
I must be computed and substituted in the 
formula for determining the crippling load. 



AERONAUTICS 



July, igiT 



TABLE I. 
N=: number of specimen. 1 r= length of strut in inches, 

b =: width of strut in inches. d ^ thiclvness of strut in inches. 

1 
I =: least moment of inertia of section in inch units =r= — bd^ 

12 
P=: crippling load in tons. 
E=: modulus of elasticity in tons per square inch, calculated from the Euler formula. 

2(3.1416)2EI 
P-— 

12 

N. Material.** 1 b d I P E 

1. American ash 31.9 2.024 1.073 0.209 2.44 604 

2. American ash 24.0 2.038 0i.843 0.102 2.14 612 

3. Basswood 29.87 1.862 0.866 0.101 1.88 843 

4. Hickory 24.0 1.975 0.938 0.136 3.63 780 

5. Hickory 24.0 1.956 0.980 0.154 4.29 818 

6. Hickory 24.0 1.966 0.997 0.163 5.19 918 

7. Honduras mahogany 32.0 2.025 1.042 0.191 2.78 756 

8. Honduras mahogany 24.0 2.062 1.002 0.173 3.85 650 

S. Honduras mahogany 24.0 2.073 0.971 0.159 3.69 682 

10. Parang* 32.0 2.060 0.919 0.133 3.19 1,242 

11. Parang* 24.0 2.192 0.780 0.087 2.48 832 

12. Parang* 24.0 2.180 0.765 0.081 2.80 1,009 

13. Spruce 31.9 1.950 1.104 0.219 2.95 696 

14. Spruce 32.0 1.992 0.955 0.145 2.62 904 

15. Spruce 32.0 1.897 0.990 0.154 1.85 1,073 

16. Spruce 24.0 1.965 1.208 0.289 4.81 486 

1 7. Spruce 24.0 1.957 1.206 0.286 4.83 493 

18. Spruce 24.0 1.967 0.925 0.130 2.06 463 

19. Spruce 24.0 1.969 0.972 0.151 2.24 433 

20. American walnut 24.0 1.861 1.060 0.185 4.61 727 

21. American walnut 24.0 1.818 0.928 0.121 3.21 775 

22. Walnut 24.0 1.882 1.0^26 0.169 3.96 684 

23. tWhitewood 31.9 1.866 0.842 0.093 1.66 922 

*Parang is a hybrid wood from Eastern Asia. In appearance it resembles mahogany. 

tAmerican poplar. 

**There were three kinds of spruce amongst the samples Nos. 13 to 19. No. 13 is best 
Quebec spruce, but this is ruled out for aeroplanes, as it cannot now be obtained perfect in 
sufficient lengtlis. Nos. 14, 16 and 17 are silver spruce. This wood cannot be obtained 
perfect in very long lengths, but it is fairly constant in quality. Nos. 15, 18 and 19 come 
from different parts of America. This wood differs considerably, and only a few planks out 
of a big parcel are perfect. Planks often have a large number of small knots. 

We are not sure that the Parang was perfectly seasoned. 

Basswood is often confused with American wliitewood (No. 23). 



TABLE II. 

frzzerushing stress in tons per square inch. 

X. Material. f 

1 Ash 2.92 

2 Ash (American ) Vi 

.■{ Basswood 2.98 

4 Hickory 3.33 

7 Honduras mahosany 2.53 

5 Honduras mahogany 2.41 

I (J Parang 4.12 

I I Parang 2.97 

V.\ Spruce 2.41 

14 Spruce 2.46 

1 5 Spruce 2.24 

IG Spruce 2.62 

18 Spruce 2.08 

20 Walnut (American* 4.15 

23 Whitewood 2.65 

Specimens 8, ^^^. 14, 10 and 18 gave way by 
crushing. Specimens 1. 2. .". 4, 7, 10. 11. 15, 20 
and 23 gave way by shearing. 



T.VBLE III. 

N. Material. w. 

1 Ash 0.020 

2 American ash 0.020 

o Basswood 0.018 

4 Hickory 0.028 

5 Hickory 0.026 

6 Hickory 0.028 

7 Honduras mahogany 0.018 

8 Honduras maho^^any 0.017 

9 Honduras mahogany . . .• 0.017 

10 Parang 0.024 

11 Parang 0.022 

12 Parang 0.022 

13 Spruce 0.016 

14 Spruce 0.015 

15 Spruce 0-014 

16 Spruce 0.018 

17 Spruce 0.017 

18 Spruce 0.015 

19 Spruce 0.015 

20 American walnut 0.022 

21 American walnut 0.023 

22 American walnut 0.020 

23 Whitewood 0.018 



T.VBLE IV. No. Of 

Material. b d E w W Tests. 

Whitewood 1.94 0.97 922 0.018 1.02 1 

Basswood 1.98 0.99 843 0.018 1.06 1 

Spruce 2.12 1.06 650 0.016 1.08 7 

Honduras mahoganv 2.08 1.04 696 0.017 1.10 3 

Parang 1.90 0.95 1.028 0.023 1.25 3 

Walnut 2.06 1.03 729 0.021 1.34 3 

.\sh 2.16 1.08 608 0.020 1.40 2 

Hickory 1 .98 0.99 839 0.027 1.59 3 



(.Continued on page 20) 



AERONAUTICS 



July, igiT 



THE TESTING OF AEROPLANE ENGINES 



TIIK first official test of an aeroplane en- 
gine in this country was made by the 
Technical Committee of the Automobile 
Club of America on May 11, 1911. The 
motor tested was a Leigh ton two-cycle 4- 
cvlinder motor. This test was not made as a 
part of the Automobile Club's competition, but 
was a private test for the Motor Sales & 
Engineering Co., of 250 West 54th street, 
agents for this motor. 

The results of the test are given below. 

NO ENTRIES FOR $1,000 PRIZE. 

Up to the time of going to press, no 
aeronautical motor manufacturer has entered 
the lists in the club's $1,000 prize competi- 
tion, and entries close July 1. 

This is a rather remarkable situation and 
one must admit it does not reflect very cred- 
itably on the enthusiasm of the motor makers. 

Here was not only the chance of winning 
the prize, but of also showing tliat America 



can produce as good an aeronautical motor 
as any foreign country. 

The Automobile Club has given makers an 
opportunity of publishing to llie world their 
genius at motor building, and this opportunity, 
it is possible, will not be seized. "Oppor- 
tunity knocks once at every man's door," but 
it is nowhere stated that she carries a repeat- 
ing alarm clock. 

DETAILS OP LEIGHTON TEST. 

The motor ran continuously for a period of 
three hours at an average speed of 1,117 
revolutions per minute, developing an average 
torque (at 3 ft. radius) of 57.3 pounds, witli 
a resultant average brake-horsepower of 36.4. 
During tliis interval the total amount of 
gasoline used was 104.8 pounds, making an 
average consumption of 0.96 pounds per brake- 
liorsepower-liour. The variations occurring in 
tliese factors are shown in the accompanying 
table. No excessive heating was evident dur- 
ing or at the end of tlie test. 











Temperature 


Rate of 


Fuel Con- 


Time from Revolutions 


Torque 


Brake 


Range of 


sumption 


per Brake 


Start 


Per 


at 


Horse 


Cooling 


Horse Power Hour. 


Minutes Minute. 


3. ft. Radius. Power. 


Water. F" 


Pounds. 


Pints. 


4 


1114 


56.0 


35-6 


22. 






13 


1118 


55-9 


35-6 


32 


0.91 


1.21 


17 


1 105 


55-9 


35-2 


32 






22 


1112 


56.0 


35-5 


32 




... .*, 


27 


1098 


56.0 


35-0 


34 


0.89 


I'.is 


32 


1092 


55-9 


34-8 


33 






37 


1 100 


56.3 


35-3 


32 






42 


1099 


56.5 


35-4 


31 




. . . 


47 


1123 


56.6 


36.2 


32 






52 


1113 


56.8 


36.0 


31 






57 


1122 


56.5 


36.2 


32 


0.89 


1.18 


60 


1112 


57-0 


36.2 


32 






67 


nil 


56.9 


36.1 


32 






72 


1115 


57-1 


36.3 


31 


0.92 


1.22 


77 


1119 


57-3 


36.5 


31 






82 


1 1 29 


57-4 


36.9 


31 


0.93 


1.24 


87 


1132 


57-4 


37-0 


32 






97 


1131 


57-9 


37-3 


30 






102 


1118 


57-9 


36.9 


31 


0.91 


1.21 


107 


1 104 


57-9 


364 


33 






112 


1097 


58.6 


36.7 


32 






122 


mo 


58.4 


36.9 


32 


0.99 


1.32 


127 


1 118 


58.1 


37-6 


31 






132 


1117 


58.1. 


37-0 


31 






137 


1109 


58.6 


37-0 


31 


0.96 


l'.28 


142 


1 123 


57-6 


36.9 


30 






147 


1123 


57-8 


37-0 


30 






152 


1 1 28 


s8.o 


37-2 


31 


1. 01 


1-34 


^57 


1 126 


58.0 


37-2 


32 






162 


IT 13 


58.2 


36-9 


30 






167 


III7 


57-9 


36.8 


30 


1.04 


i'.38 


172 


113 I 


57-2 


36.9 


30 


1.07 


1.42 


177 


1 1 30 


57-6 


37-1 


29 






180 


TI54 


57-7 


3?-9 


29 






Average 


1117 


57-3 


36.4 


31 


0.96 


1.27 


"mz 


















Readingfs 


Taken During- 
6 


Test. 







AERONAUTICS 



July, igii 



Lubrication of tlie motor tluring the test 
was accomplislied by mixing the oil with tlie 
gasoline in the proportion of 1 part oil to 
14.5 parts gasoline, by weight. 7.2 pounds of 
oil were- added to tlie gasoline during the 
three-liour run. Beside this, approximately 
0.8 pounds were added from a liand-operated 
meclianical oiler. 

The throttles were kept wide open during 
the run, the position of tlie spark being varied 
slightly from time to time. Near the end of 
the second liour the mixture was richened 
slightly by opening the needle valves. Tlie 
only other adjustment was tlie replacement 
of a cotter pin which held the inlet valve 
spring waslier in position. During this re- 
placement the speed of tlie motor fell mo- 
mentarily three times to 850 r. p. m., but no 
stop was made. 

The motor is of tlie two-cycle type, having 
four cylinders of 5-incli bore. The stroke is 



4 5 inches. Automatic inlet valves are used 
between the carburetor and crank-case, and 
a third port also between the carburetor and 
crank-case is opened by the piston when same 
IS at the top af the stroke. Tlie compression 
rf the charge is effected in the crank-case 
as in conventional two-cycle motors. The 
transfer ports register with ports in the piston 
walls, through which the charge leaves the 
crank-case in passing to the cylinders. 

The weight of the motor with two car- 
buretors, timers and its operating levers, plugs 
and their wires, water pump and connections 
thereto, and balancing counter weight (no 
flywheel) was 276 pounds. A flywheel (weight 
88.5 pounds), an exhaust header (weiglit 24.5 
pounds), and an auxiliary hand operated oiler 
(weight with piping and brackets 5.5 pounds) 
were used during the test, but are not a part 
of the standard equipment. 



ARMY AND NAVY AVIATION 



THE Curtiss aeroplane lately attached to 
tlie Manoeuvre Division at San Antonio 
has been shipped to College Park, Md.. 
where it was sliipped the latter part of 
June. There will be on duty here five offlcers 
and a detacliinent of fifteen enlisted men of tlie 
Signal Corps. A summer's course of instruc- 
tion in aeronautical work is being entered 
upon. Within a short time it is expected to 
have three machines at this field with two 
officers assigned to each macliine. 

A new Wright machine arrived on June 19. 
Capt. Chas. DeF. Chandler has charge of the 
College Park field. 

The Army aeroplanes now total as follows: 

Two Wright machines, one at San Antonio 
in charge of Lieut. B. D. Foulois. and one to 
be delivered shortly at College Park, IMd. 

One Burgess biplane, to be delivered at Col- 
lege Park in charge of Capt. Chas. DeF. 
Chandler, Lieuts. IMilling, Arnold and Kirtland. 

One Curtiss at College Park under the di- 



rection of Lieut. Paul W. Beck and Lieut. 
John C. Walker, Jr. 

The Wright machine, loaned the Government 
by Robert J. Collier, has been returned. The 
first Wright machine sold the Government, in 
1908, Is to go to Smithsonian Institute. 

NEWS OF THE NAVY. 

The United States Navy has now contracted 
for three machines. 

One of these will be a Wright machine of 
standard type, the others a Curtiss water ma- 
chine called the "Triad," and a Curtiss 4- 
cylinder machine for instruction purposes only. 
On .July 1st the naval appropriation becomes 
available, but delivery will not actually be 
made until the aerodrome at Annapolis is 
ready. Preliminary work has been somewhat 
de'ayed by the absence of Capt. W. Irving 
Chambers, who has charge of all aeronautical 
work in the Navy. 



TABLE OF AMERICAN AERONAUTIC MOTORS 



Compiled by £. !■. Jones and S. Y. Beach. 



THE accompanying schedule covers, it is 
firmly believed, every motor made in 
America, with the exception of the 
Brooke, a notice of whicii appears in 
this issue. Details of this were not obtainable 
at the time the motor table was compiled. 

Several of the motors in this schedule cannot 
claim actual presence on the market, as but 
two or three motors have been made to date 
and they are still in the experimental stage. 
Some even are still on paper. It was decided 
to include every motor known in America 
expected to be eventually on the market. 

In the blanks sent manufacturers, request 
was made to state the weight as including 
"all essential parts, including carburetor, igni- 
tion system, lubricator, radiator, ready for 
fuel and oil to start. Proofs of the schedule 
were sent each maker and many additions 
and corrections were made, but it may be said 
that the weigiits in many cases are obviously 
erroneous; evidently the bare engine weight 
has been given in the first instance and left 
uncorrected on the proofs. 

The figures printed are those given us under 
this condition. 

Blanks — Dotted lines are used where in- 
formation has been requested and not supplied. 

A. L. A. M. Rating — The A. L. A. M. formula 
is bore squared, times the number of cylinders, 
divided by 2.5. The result times 1% gives 
one rating, used above, for 2-cycle engines. 



*Rotating motors. tThe Elbridge Company 
niak; s siv :dzes as does the (General Ma- 
chinery Company, makers of the Smalley. 
ttThis is also made in 50, 70 and 100 horse- 
power sizes. 4:;Made also in 50, 70, 100 and 
150 horsepower sizes. 

ttOther sizes are 40 and 60 horsepower. The 
same sizes are also made in four-cycle engines. 

At the last moment it has been found tlib 
Goblin motor has been omitted. Following are 
tlie details: 4%x5, manufacturers rating 50 
h.p., A. L. A. M. rating 51 h.p., 6 cylinders, 
radial, automatic intake valves, variable com- 
pression, ball-bearing connecting . rods and 
crankshaft. Church carburetor, air cooled (ro- 
tar>), 4-cycIe, oiling by oil in the gas, Bosch, 
magneto, cast-iron pistons and cylinders, ISO 
lbs. weight. 



C. P. Rodgers & Co., 2:5 (^ambi-idge Building, 
Cincinnati, O., have entered the exhiliition busi- 
ness with a Wright headle-ss, the first Wright 
machine to give exhibitions by owners otlier 
than the Wright Company itself. C. P. Rodgers. 
who will be the aviator, learned at Daytorj. 
His cousin, Lieut. Rodgers. U. S. Navy, liaB 
also learned to operate a Wright machine ana 
will undoubtedly fly the one just purchased by 
the Navy Department, 



AERONAUTICS 



July, iQj I 



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AERONAUTICS My, /p// 

THE VALKYRIE MONOPLANE 



THE "Valkyrie" machines, as built by the 
Aeronautical Syndicate. Ltd., are of more 
than usual interest, as they are of dis- 
tinctive design and have many well- 
worked-out details of construction. Three 
types are put out by tliis comjiany: T.vpe "A" 
being a single passenger machine, Type "B" a 
cross country racing model, and Type "C" the 
passenger-carrying machine. The Type "B" 
machine, wliich is the one illustrated, is fitted 
with a "Gnome" engine, driving an 8-foot 
propeller. *. 

In order to impart a certain amount of 
automatic stability the main planes have been 
given a pronounced diliedral angle. There 
is also a longitudinal dihedral angle between 
the main planes and the forward fixed plane 
the former being set at an angle of nine de- 
grees and the latter at an angle of tliir'ieen 
degrees. 

The main planes are in three sections, the 
center one having a sliorter chord than those 
at the ends to allow room to swing the pro- 
peller. The planes are single surfaced and 
are built up in the same way as the Henry 
Farman. 

The front fixed plane is situated 11 ft. 9 in. 
in front of the main planes. The angle of this 
plane may be changed in order to correct for 
any change in the loading. 

The elevator, whicli is below and to the 
rear of the front surface, is on this machine 
characterized by a slightly upturned trailing 
edge. 

Lateral stability is secured by the use of 
flaps at the extremities of the wings, but 
wing warping can be used. 

The rudders are situated some three feet 
from the rear of the main planes. It has been 
found necessary to fit blinkers at the front 
of the skids, as without them when making 
a short turn the machine was likely to turn 
completely about its radius of gyration and 
come down in a heap. 

The details of construction have been carried 
out in a most thorough and workmanlike 
manner. A great number of special castings 
are used. Sketch No. 1 illustrates the neat 
way in which the stay wires are attached to 
the front and rear wing spars. By means of 
the small oblique lug, all bends in the wire 
are obviated. Special long nuts and the fine 
cut thread on the wire result in the strength 
of the wire being unimpaired. Fig. 2 shows 
the joint used at the junction of tlie longi- 
tudinal and vertical members of the fuselage. 
The stay wires are accommodated in a similar 
manner to tliat of the wing stays, the wire 
passing through the castings both top and 
bottom. Fig. 3 sliows the device for altering 
the angle of the front fixed plane. It also 
shows the position of the blinker, which sim- 
ply consists in covering in the nose of the 
fuselage with fabric. The elevator is operated 
in a novel manner, as illustrated in Fig. 4. 
All danger of slipping of the lower crank is 
obviated by the coupling up to the front edge 
of the plane. 

In Fig. 5. the adoption of the Farman run- 
ning-gear is shown. Instead of the rigid 
radius rods being employed, flexible steel 
ropes are used. This allows the wheels to act 
as true casters, relieving the axles of a good 
measure of strain. Fig. 6 shows the arrange- 
ment of the seat and control gear. These 
are arranged as on the Henry Farman ma- 
chines, the fore and aft movement operating 
the elevator and sidewise the ailerons. Fig. 7 
shows the arrangement of the joint of the 
main planes and fuselage, and the employment 
of special castings. Fig. 8 illustrates the cane 
fender under tlie rear end of the skid. 

A considerable business has been worked 
up at the English flying grounds taking up 
passengers. The Valkyrie people will take up 




The new Type B Cross 
nttea with 



Country Valkyrie Racer, 
Gnome Engrine. 



lERONAUTICS 



July, iQii 





10 



AERONAUTICS 



July, igii 



1006 




V'^f"': 



r.j2. 



passengers ut $iu il liead for a sliort fliglit 
of about 21^ miles; "a longer and higher flight 
$^5; an extended flight, considerably higher 
and finishing with the famous 'volplane,' or 
descent with engine stopped, $50; cross country 
flights by arrangement." This is the only 



io..Lt;rn known that has thus far attempted 
passenger carrying on this basis. 

The Aeronautical Syndicate has been estab- 
lished since 1909 and was among the first in 
England to take up practical work. The sum- 
mer of 1910 saw their first really successful 
fliglits with the present type of machine. 



BALLOON ASCENSIONS 
Wireless Received in Balloon 

FORT OMAHA, Neb., May 24. — Captain Chas. 
DeF. Chandler and four other officers to Wood- 
bine, Iowa, 35 miles. Duration 50 minutes. 
The balloon cont.nually received wireless mes- 
sages from the Fort Omaha station during the 
trip. Balloon wireless is not new, as the Sig- 
nal Corps used it during the summer of 1908 
on a trip from Washington, D. C. 

To Church by Balloon 

LOWELL, Mass., May 28. — Charles J. Glid- 
den and J. J. Van Valkenburg in the "Boston 
11" to Topsfleld, Mass., landing near a church, 
where they attended the services. 

ST. LOUIS, Mo., June 10. — J. M. O'Reilly, 
Lieut. John D. Hart and Corp. L. Schmidt made 
a night ascent, landing 3 1/^ hours later at 
Springfield, 111. 

HAMILTON, O., June 15. — Albert Holz, pilot; 
Charles Troutman and E. Guggenheimer in 
"Tlie Drifter." Duration 1 h., 25 min.; distance 
about 5 miles. 

LOWELL. Mass., June 17. — H. H. Clayton, 
pilot, with J. r. Haworth and Harold H. Brown 
m the "Boston II" to Hamilton, Mass. Dura- 
tion 1 h., 45 mln. 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., May 19. — A. T. Ath- 
erholt, Clarence Wynne and Wm. Shed wick in 
the "Penn. I" to Haverford. Pa. For three 
hours the balloon followed a circuitous course 
over and around the environs of the city. 



STOCKTON, Cal., May 13.— Dr. B. F. Walker, 
Bernard Glick, John Morrissey and Thomas 
Cook to near Bellota. 

FORT OMAHA, Neb., May 7.— Lieut. Hart 
and two other officers in an Army balloon to 
Springfield, 111. Duration 7% hours. 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., June 3. — Dr. T. E. 
Eldridge, Edw. Pyle, R. L. Barrett and D. H. 
Simmermann, a four-year-old boy, in the "Phil- 
adelphia II." 

inti:rcoi.Iix:giati: bai.i.oon race. 

Three colleges were represented in the first 
intercollegiate balloon race, starting from 
North Adams on the afternoon of June 3rd. 
The University of Pennsylvania entered the 
balloon "Philadelphia II," with A. T. Atherholt, 
pilot, and Geo. A. Richardson, aid. 

Dartmouth entered the balloon "Boston," 
with J. B. Barton, pilot, and J. W. Pearson, 
aid. Williams entered the "Stevens 27," with 
H. P. Shearman, pilot, and K. T. Price as aid. 

The balloon "Philadelphia II" covered 115 
miles in about 7 hours, landing near West 
Peabody, Mass., winning the cups for duration 
and distance. Tlie "Stevens 27" landed at 
Paxton, Mass., after having covered 66 miles in 
4 hrs. 40 min. The "Boston" landed at West 
Pelham, Mass., after being in the air 3 hrs. 25 
min., and covering 41 miles. 

These figures are only approximate, as the 
A. C. A. had received no report up to the time 
of going to press. 



11 



AERONAUTICS 



July, 191 1 



FRENCH COURT FAVORS WRIGHTS 



THE recent decision of tlie French court 
liolds the Wriglits have made good their 
claim, not only so far as the use of 
wing-warping in conjunction with the 
vertical rudder, luit to the use of either of 
these systems separately. The latter is the 
crucial point contested by other manufac- 
turers. 

HISTORY OF THE SUIT. 

In France the Compagnie Genfirale de Navi- 
gation A6rienne, the sole French concession- 
naires of the Wright patents, brought actions 
against the following manufacturers: Santos- 
Dumont, Bleriot, Farman, Antoinette, Esnault- 
Pelterie, Koechlin, Clement-Bayard, Fernandez, 
and the Ateliers Vosgiens. Judgment in these 
actions has been delivered by the Tribunal 
Civil de la Seine (April 29). Santos-Dumont 
alone withdrew all defence and, curiously 
enough, he is the only defendant in whose 
favor judgment was given, on the score that 
his aeroplane was not built for purposes of 
trade or private gain. In all the other cases 
judgment was practically given in favor of the 
Compagnie Generate. 

At the same time the court appointed a 
committee consisting of M. L6aut6, Major Paul 
Renard, and M. Marcel Deprez to determine 
whether the Wright patent (March 22, 1904) 
had been anticipated, etc. (See last para- 
graph). 

Although the case is not, therefore, finally 
settled, it is evident, nevertheless, that the 
French courts are prepared to recognize the 
whole extent of the Wright Company's claims. 

TYPES INVOLVED 

The types of aeroplanes involved in the liti- 
gation were the Antoinette and Bleriot mono- 
planes with warping wings, the Farman with 
ailerons, or "flaps," at tlie rear lateral mar- 
gins of the planes, and the Hautier-Vendome 
with ailerons at the front of the wings. A 
large part of the decision relates to matters 
In the French law which render patents in- 
valid under certain circumstances, such as 
failure to work an invention within three years 
of the time of applying for the patent, and 
the revelation of an invention before patent- 
ing it. Following are the main particulars of 
the case. 

CLAIMS OF THE PLAINTIFF. 

The decision sets forth the claims of the 
plaintiff as follows: "The Compagnie G6n6rale 
de Navigation Aerienne, licensees of the 
Wright patents, lays claim that the patent of 
March 22, 1904. gives them the right to claim 
as being its personal property not only the 
joint and separate action of the mechanism of 
the rear direction rudder and the variation 
of the angles of incidence (to wit, the combina- 
tion), but sepaiately each of the elements of 
this combination in so far as it is employed 
for the result ])rovided for; that is to say, for 
the recstaljlishment of the lateral equilibrium 
and maintaining the direction." 

POINTS OF THE DEFENSE. 

The main points of defense presented to the 
Court by the defendants in the case were: 
(1) That the Wright patent of March 22, 1904, 
was not valid because (a) the Wrights had 
revealed their invention before applying for 
patent; (1>) they had not worked tlieir inven- 
tion in France within tliree years after taking 
the patent; (c) the invention was known in 
the art prior to the time of tlie patent; (2) 
that the French manufacturers did not In- 
fringe the Wright patent, which gives thf 
Compagnie Gi'^nfirale de Navigation ASrienne 
the property of the combination employed by 
the Wrights and not tlie distinct elements 
which are employed •separately and Independ- 
ently to permit obtaining the reestabllshment 
of equilibrium elements which they assert are 
jiublic iiroperty." 



The claims of forfeiture were rejected by 
the court. 

ARGUMENTS PRESENTED. 

After the evidence on both sides had been 
presented and the case argued, M. Piede- 
lievre, a substitute judge, sitting as advisor 
on technical matters, advised the Court (1) 
that the combination claimed in the Wright 
patent of March 22, 1904, was patentable; (2) 
that in an invention of this nature it would 
be impossible to entirely keep the invention 
secret, and that the descriptions and photo- 
graplis published of the machine were not 
sufficient to render the patent invalid; (3) that 
the Wrights were the first to fly (Some of the 
defendants had claimed that a flight had been 
made in France in 1898), and that they had in- 
vented the system of control that had made 
it possible for man to fly; (4) that the patent 
had been worked in France as soon as was 
possible under the circumstances; (5) that the 
patent was valid; (6) that the Independent 
operation of the wings and rudder, as used by 
the French, was not sufficiently claimed In the 
Wright patent, and that therefore the French 
machines were not infringments of the patent. 

One month later, on the 29th day of April, 
the Court, composed of three other judges, 
rendered its decision. It held (1) that the 
combination described in the patent of March 
22, 1904, was patentable; (4) that the patent 
had been worked within a reasonable time; 
(2) that the photographs and descriptions of 
the machine prior to the application for patent 
were not sufficient to invalidate the patent; 
(6) that, while the independent operation of 
the wings and rudder were not specifically 
claimed, in the words of the patent, yet the 
independent operation of the parts could not 
be considered as a new invention, but simply 
as an improvement of detail of the original in- 
vention, and that the patentees of the original 
invention were entitled to tlie benefits to be 
derived from it. 

The words of the opinion follow: 

"Considering the point once established 
that the separation of the two elements 
claimed is a type of improvement, this 
separation ought to be considered as an 
appurtenance of the patent of 1904, that 
the Improvement is a natural development 
of the primitive invention from wliich it 
can not be separated, and that proceeding 
from the master idea which is tlie genera- 
tor of it, the patentees should have the 
right to profit by it. Of what little im- 
portance, tlien, is it, that in 1907 the 
Wright brotliers took out two other pat- 
ents in which the independence of the 
warping and of the directing rudder was 
expressly provided, except that the com- 
bination of the two elements could be, 
if desired, effected by tlie hand; ad- 
mitting that these two patents of 1907 re- 
peat in certain parts tlie things which 
can be found in tlie patent of 1904 and 
that even these improvements in detail 
which were then meant to be patented 
were without importance, they would not 
have in them, to say the least, any utility 
as patents of extension." 

It will be noted that the Court reversed the 
opinion of the "substitute" on the only point 
on which he found in favor of the defendants. 
In reversing this point, that the independent 
operation of the wings and rudder circum- 
vented the patent, the Court said: 

"In the patent of 1904 the connection of 
tlie warping device with (he rudder is so 
minutely described that it can be under- 
stood and applied b>- engineers and con- 
structors of aeroplanes; there is no reason 
to believe that the Wright brothers should 
have made a more general claim and 
sliould have claimed each of the elements, 



13 



AERONAUTICS 



July, ipii 



taken separately, but they should be con- 
fined to the limits which they have de- 
scribed in tlie patent. 

"After the patent of 1904 the invention 
consisted in a metliod of maintaining or 
reestablishing the equilibrium of the aero- 
nautic apparatus and of guiding the ma- 
cliine in a vertical or horizontal direction. 
Among other elements the patent provides 
(1) the existence of two horizontal sur- 
faces or wings, consisting of a frame on 
which fabric is spread, and connected one 
to the other by means of posts and articu- 
lations, which permit of movements of 
tortion and flection of the ends of the 
wings in opposite directions; (2) of a ver- 
tical rear rudder, connected to the cables 
that produce the tortion of the ends of 
the wings. 

"The combination of the two elements 
is well within the scope of the patent. 
It says in lines 14 to 19, page three: 

"'By this meaiis of attnclnnent the same move- 
vient of the cables which actuate the ends of 1 tie 
wings also presents to the wind that side of the 
vertical rudder which is turned toward the end 
having the smaller (ingle of incidence.' 

"In vain tlie suing company cites two 
other passages of the description. The 
passage from the 34tli line to the 43rd 
line of the third page does not say that 
the rudder can be independent: nor is the 
passage from the 45th line to the 57th 
line more explicit: 

'"This invention is not limited to the construc- 
tion and attachment of the rear rudder herein 
described, nor to this particular construction of 
surfaces or wings, for one can employ this combi- 
nation in the use of any moveable rear rudder 
operated in covjuiction with any wings capable 
of being presented at dilYerent angles of incidence 
at their opposite ends, for the purpose of restoring 
the lateral balance of a Hying machine and of 
guiding the machine to right or left.' 

"The words, 'actuate at the same time, 
about which so much has been argued, 
can be interpreted only in the sense that 
there is a device which permits of the 
movement of the two commands at the 
same time. This point once established, 
the disassociation of the elements claimed 
is a type of Improvement. 

"This disassociation must in principle be 
considered as a dependent of the patent 
of 1904, since this improvement is a 
natural development of the primitive in- 
vention, proceeding from the master idea 
in which it had its origin, and from which 
it can not be separated. The patentees 
alone have the right to profit by it." 



The Court, before pronouncing final judg- 
ment, has given the defendants another oppor- 
tunity to look for a machine that prior to the 
time of tlie Wright invention contained the 
same combination of parts. In the opinion of 
the "substitute" the defendants failed to pro- 
duce anything that could be considered an an- 
ticipation of the Wright patent. The Court 
has also given to tlie defendants an oppor- 
tunity of demonstrating before the Commis- 
sion of Experts appointed by the Court that 
the combination of parts used in the French 
machines is used for a different purpose from 
that of the combination of the patent of 1904. 
The Tribunal evidently did not wish to 
pass final judgment and declare the defend- 
ants infringing, for they expressed in the fol- 
lowing terms the desire to have a knothole 
through which they might later find it ex- 
pedient, or otherwise, to crawl: 

"The science of aviation which, since 
the superb fliglit of tlie great white bird 
above the camp of Auvours makes each 
day some necessary progress and does not 
cease to astonish tlie entire world by 
the prowess and tlie audacity of aviators 
who, at tlie risk of their lives, search for 
the definite formula for the conquest of 
the air, it is a science still so new that 
it should be unwise not to turn for the 
solution of the two questions in litigation 
to men wliose judgment is not to be 
questioned. 

"If the action in pursuit of a claim is 
established in principle, it is subordinated 
to the double question of knowing if there 
has not been one or more priorities of all 
the parts opposed to tlie patent of 1904, 
and if, on the other hand, it will not be 
fovmd void as against certain of the de- 
fendants as they may have made an en- 
tirely new adaptation of the mechanical 
means pointed out by the Wriglits for 
the reestablishment of the lateral equilib- 
rium, and of which they shall have con- 
ceived a structural means constituting in 
connection with the patented invention an 
invention entirely new and original." 
"The mission given to the experts is singu- 
larly limited, and does not allow the defend- 
ants any hope of emerging victorious from the 
contest. So one should not be astonished that 
many of the defendants are already express- 
ing an intention of appealing from a judgment 
which they consider disastrous to them." 

This is the opinion of M. J. Imbreco as 
given in the offlcial organ of the Aero Club 
r.f France, 



U. S. CALENDAR 



June 24-25 — Flying at Kinloch Park, St. 
Louis. 

.June 29-July 4 — Detroit, Moisant aviators. 

July 1 — Gordon Bennett aviation race, Eng- 
land. 

July 10 — Gordon Bennett balloon elimina- 
tion, Kansas City. 

July 12-21 — Winnipeg, Man., Wright exhibi- 
tion. 

July 20-22 — Saratoga Springs, N. Y., Wright 
exhibition. 

July Rochester, N. Y., Moisant avia- 
tors. Captain Baldwin, and Curtiss aviators. 

July 25-29 — Grand Forks, N. D., Wright ex- 
hibition. 

August 2-4 — Colorado Springs, Col., Wright 
exhibition. 

August 12-20 — Grant Park. Chicago, Interna- 
tional Meet. 

August 26-September 4 — Boston, meet of 
Harvard A. S. 

September 29-October 7 — Springfield, 111., 
Wright exhibition. 



October 5 — Gordon Bennett balloon race, 
Kansas City. 

October Macon, Ga., Wright exhibition. 

January 10-20, 1912 — Los Angeles, aviation 
and arrangements not certain. 

Lincoln, Neb., Wright exhibition. 

Des IMoines, la., Wright exhibition. 

July 3-4 — Battle Creek, Mich., Wright exhibi- 
tion. 

July 4 — Zanesville, O., Curtiss aviators. 

September 30-October 8 — St. Louis, Mo., 
meet. 

July 3-4— Corpus Christi, Tex., Wriglit ex- 
hibition. 

July 3-4 — Clearfield, Pa., Wright exhibition. 

Julv 3-4 — Meridian, Miss., Wright exhibition. 

July 3-4 — Troy, N. Y., Wright exhibition. 

Julv 3-4 — Princeton, 111., Wright exhibition. 



Frank W. Goodale sailed his dirigible from 
Palisade Park down over New York as far as 
Forty-second street the night of June 9 and 
back without mishap. 



13 



AERONAUTICS 



JlllW IQTI 



CONSTRUCTION AIDS XVIII 




AERONAUTICS 



July, ipii 





C(Q)iyJHT]llV 



J 



IiATEST CURTISS "TRIAD." 

Glenn H. Curtiss has been experimenting at 
Hammondsport with a still further improved 
type of water macliine. It will be noted from 
the photograpli tliat some changes have been 
made. Tlie elevator is placed very low; in 
fact, just above the bow end of tlie pontoons. 
There is also a small liydro-surface just 
forward and below the bow end. A standard 
eight-cylinder, 50 H. P. motor is installed, and 
tlie speed obtained is between 45 and 50 miles 
an hour over the water. Lieutenant Ellyson, 
United States Navy, has been a passenger. 

It will also be seen from the pliotograph 
tliat there are but two wheels, the front wheel 
having been done away witli. Tliese rear 
wheels are pulled up out of the way after the 
machine is in tlie water by means of a hinged 
brace which runs from the wheel hub to the 
front beam. 

SMALL MACHINE CARRIES PASSENGERS. 

A four-cylinder machine is being used as a 
teaclier in wliich tlie surface has been in- 
creased by about 50 sq. ft. It lias been possible 
to carry a passenger with this on account of 
the increased surface. It will be noted tliat 
the planes are not cut out for the propeller, 
whicli is mounted on a long shaft. At tlie rear 
end of the engine bed is a Hess-Briglit ball 
bearing. Tliis supports the long shaft. Four 
by twenty incli Pennsylvania tires are being 
used in the rear and 214-in. in tlie front. 



The school is in operation right along, the 
pupils flying about five days out of the week. 
The location is very favorable for a school, as 
tlie weather is calm in tlie morning and even- 
ing. The pupils at present are: Lieutenant 
Ellyson, United States Navy; Roland B. 
Middleton, Beckwitli Havens; Cliarles Russell, 
Frank Paine and two men from Ohio. 

ri-YING AT SQUANTUM, MASS. 

The Burgess Conipan\- and Curtis P'lying 
School opened formally Tuesday, May 30, at 
Squantum, Instructor Harry N. Atwood giving 
his first lessons on that date. Previous to the 
formal opening, INIr. W. Starling Burgess, presi- 
dent of the company, liad made trial flights 
with tlie first school Burgess-Wright and two 
other Burgess-Wriglit aeroplanes sold to Mr. 
Charles K. Hamilton and others. The prelimi- 
nary flights by Mr. Burgess had covered about 
42 miles, on one-third of wliicli he liad taken 
INIr. Hamilton as pupil, and on two of wliicli 
he liad carried John W. Meyers, anotlier pupil. 

On May 30 Instructor Atwood made 16 
flights, covering a distance of 104 miles, while 
Mr. Burgess in three flights flew 13 miles. On 
tills date Messrs. Albert Adams Merrill, of 
Brookline; Eugene Heth. of Mempliis. and 
Doctor Percy L. Reynolds, of Amlierst, began 
their lessons, the pupils being carried a total 
of 60 miles. In addition five guests were taken 
uii as passengers for a distance aggregating 
29 miles. 




Curtiss and Lt. Ellyson Iieaving the Water. 
15 



AERONAUTICS 



July, ipii 



PROPELLER ..-giFs^co PERFECTION I 





PATENTED MARCH 



OTH2R PATENTS PENDING 



Douglas, Arizona, April 20, 1911 



Maroh 21. 1911. 



Ai!i«rioan Propeller Company, 

Washington. D. C. 
"•entloraen; 

Beg to adviae you that I received the 7' 9* 
propeller which you sent me and that the results obtain- 
ed with the same are most gratifying. 

To anyone contemplating the purchase of a pro- 
peller you may quote me as saying thit I consider "Paragon" 
in propellers the synonym of perfection in propeller con- 
struction at this date. You may rest assured that I will 
give you the order for the two propellers on the passenger 
machine which I am now building. 

Thanking you again for the courteous attention 
and promptness with which you have made deliveries, I beg 
to remain. 

Sincerely 



Anerican Propeller Co 
Washington, 



D.C.. 



Dear Sirs: 

In regard to the propeller you mexle for me, a week 
ago I mounted it on my machine, Elbrldge four. la took th» 
thrust and speed of engine accurate; at 940 r. p. a. develop- 
ed thrust of SOO Ibo. I flew at first atteapt, as clipping 
will show. di miles at about 50 miles per hr.) On ny fourth 
attempt I got causht in a gust and fell about eighty fost, 
smashed up the machine a little and shittered the blade. Rusk 
me another eane pitch and diameter, all spruce. I guess you 
have a copy of blade you furnished ne. Didler Uasson was har« 
with a machine but could not leave ground In this altitude 
equipped with ••:;•-••••• Engine and Blade, thrust at 1100 r.p.B. 
340 lbs. I hops ycur new blade sill be as gcod as the last. 
Tourc truly. 



0lUi:sea^ 



^ir^^^U^tZ^,*^^^^:;^ 



Mr. Williams has since purchased another Paragni 
Propeller and reports that it gives even better results. H^ 
has ordered a third. 



He 

J 

>♦• 
>f 

♦ 



Mr, G. Van Arsdalen, Vice-President 
of the Mathewson Aeroplane Co., of Denver, 
Colorado, wrote us as follows: 

"Sometime ago you advised us to use a Paragon Propeller similar to that which jou 
furnished Mr. C. F. Willard. In the the meantime we were talked into getting a propeller 
of another make. Now then we are .5,280 ft. above sea level. Altogether, wc have had 
ten propellers of this other make, some of which are quite freakish no two of them 
measuring up the same or developing the same thrust at the same engine speed. We are 
only getting ^2'M) from our best propeller the rest falling down to 180. I believe your 
propeller will fly this machine, if our engine can handle it, and you know whether it can 
or not. My success lies in what you can do for me." 

On June I9th, Mr. Van Arsdalen sent the following telegram: 

"The seven foot nine inch Paragon Propeller which you furnished us is giving entire 
satisfaction. At nine hundred fifty turns we received three hundred pounds thrust with 
Elbridge 1.0-60 Aero Special. On May »th, Thompson made his first cross-country flight 
of twenty-two miles using a Paragon"'. 

Mr. Van Ar.sdalen's case is typical of many others who have written us. 

MR. WILLARD TELEGRAPHS— "Standing thrust 890 poundsat 1100 revolutions, 
hard wood screw on Gnome engine {li feet diameter by 5.70 foot pitch)"'. 

The ROBERTS MOTOR CO. TELEGRAPHS— ""Tlie eight foot Paragon Propeller 
with five foot pitch gave a thrust of four hundred pounds on our forty horsepower motor when 
running at only nine hundred revolutions per minute. We consider this a remarkable showing." 

The GYRO MOTOR CO. obtained a thrust of 440 pounds on several tests with one 
of our eight-foot propellers 4.4 ft. pitch at 1100 r.p.m. on their 7-cy!inder revolving motor. 

Using a Paragon Propeller, Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss won the great speed contest at Los Angeles in 
1910, defeating Radley (Bleriot), Ely (Curtiss), Parmelee (Wright), and Latham (Antoinette). 

We have sold thousands of dollars worth of propellers with the remarkable record of 
not a single dissatisfied customer, and only one exchange for a ditferent size or pitch ever 
being recpiired. 

The most successful aviators in America use and recommend PARAGON PROPELLERS. 

We will si'iul price list aiul printed form for inforuiation about your machine so we 
can advise you just what propeller to use. 



AMERICAN PROPELLER CO. 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



* 
If 



••••••••••••^•.^•^T^r.^^.^^.^^^.^.^.^.^.^.^^.^.^.^^^^^.^^.^.^.^.^^.^.^.^.^,^.^.^.^.^^.^.^.^.^ 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



July, 10 T I 



50 
Horse 
Power 




170 
Pounds 
Weight 



DESIGN 



Revolving cylinders 
Mechanical intake valves 
Variable compression 
Double exhaust system 



Large ball bearings throughout 

Positive lubrication 

Gyro fuel inspirator 

Standard Magneto, tachometer, etc. 



.Easy starting device 
Aviator starts motor from his seat without priming 

MATERIALS 

Cylinders, Connecting Rods, Gears, etc. — 3} per cent, forged nickel steel 

Cranks — Chrome nickel steel, treated. Crank-cases — Vanadium steel 

Valves 30 per cent, nickel steel 

PERFORMANCE 

400 to 450 pounds thrust with 8 ft. Paragon Propeller 
All motors furnished with PARAGON PROPELLERS to suit the aeroplane 

THE GYRO MOTOR COMPANY 

774 GIRARD STREET :: :: :: WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The original pioneers in light-weight revolving cylinder motors 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



July, 191 1 



High winds interfered witli the progress of 
lessons during the remainder of the week, only 
60 miles being flown by the pupils, though In- 
structor Atwood succeeded in flying 122 miles, 
including two or three flights for altitude, 
while two guests were each given flve-mile 
flights. Mr. Burgess covered 11 miles. 

In the course of the week ending June 10, 
flying was practicable upon every day except 
Tuesday. During the week Instructor Atwood 
flew 385 miles; Mr. Burgess, 48 miles, and five 
pupils covered a total of 310 miles, in addi- 
tion to five guests who were carried 63 miles. 

In the course of the week Instructor Atwood 
took Charles K. Hamilton, first on Wednesday, 
on a flight to Nantasket Beach and return, fol- 
lowed the same evening by an over-sea and 
cross-countrv trip crossing several promontories 
of Boston, flying lengthwise of East Boston 
and Revere, crossing inside of Nahant while 
skirting Lynn, and on to the Tedesco Club at 
the further boundary of Swampscott. The next 
dav, after an exhibition of skilfuU flying by 
Mr. Atwood at the Tedesco Club, he carried 
Mr. Hamilton back to Squantum in a wind 
which gave them a speed considerably faster 
than a mile a minute. Two days later Aviator 
Atwood carried Mr. Heth, another pupil, across 
country to Franklin Field, in Dorchester, where 
his exhibition of fancy flying added to the cele- 
bration of Dorchester Day. Owing to the un- 
controllable crowds, Mr. Atwood was obliged to 
leave his passenger on the fleld, returning with 
a special message from the mayor by a fast 
flight to the Squantum fleld. 

On the same date Mr. Hamilton, having 
familiarized himself with the new type of con- 
trol, took charge for the first time of another 
Burgess- Wright biplane, carrying passengers 
on flights about the fleld. 

Thus in the last 12 flying days the four 
Burgess-Wright biplanes used for school pur- 
poses at Squantum have been flown by In- 
structors Atwood and Burgess 611 and 81 
miles, respectively, while the flve pupils and 
guests have covered the following distances: 

Miles. 

Charles K. Hamilton 200 

Albert Adams Merrill... 47 

Dr. Percv L. Reynolds 67 

John W. Meyers 28 

Eugene Heth 105 

Guests 102 

Mr. J. V. Martin at the Waltham meet flew 
the " Grahame-White Baby," designed and built 
by Burgess Company and Curlis, while Mrs. 
Martin has been provided with a full size 
Burgess-Parman delivered from the Marble- 
head factory. Earl Ovington, the third aviator 
of note at "VS^altham, is negotiating ^wlth the 
Burgess Company for a Gnome motor to re- 
place his own motor which was recently dis- 
abled. 

WRIGHT SCHOOI. NOW AT BEIiMONT. 

A. L. Welcli, aviator, arrived at Belmont tlie 
middle of June with three Wriglit headless 
machines, one of which is a regular exhibition 





i 




\ 




/^^-^i^t^ 


/7?^5<^'z 




Nt 


-^ --^ 





Wrig-ht Flexible Running- G-ear. 



macliine, while the other two are highly finished 
aeroplanes for delivery to customers. Tliree 
purchasers are taking lessons now under the 
instruction of Mr. Welch. These are supposed 
to be William C. Beers, of New Haven, and 
Richard Gallagher and William Crosby. 

Turnbuckles are now being used on some of 
the wires in the center section. All metal parts 
are nickel plated, even the guy wires. The 
cloth wliich has been used on all Wright ma- 
cliines is now especially treated by the Good- 
year Rubber Company. Even the Goodyear 
tires liave "Wright Flyer" moulded in the 
rubber. Each link of the nickel-plated chains 
which go over the control pulleys is now com- 
posed of three-clieek pieces instead of two as 
in ordinary chains. 

The Goodyear rubber springs as used on the 
Wright machines measure 2V» in- outside diam. 
by 11/4 in. inside diam., 2-in. face. These iiave 
a strength of 500 lbs. and an ultimate stretch 
of 10 in., and the cost is but 75 cents eacli. 
Goodyear single-tube tires 20 by 2-in. are used. 
Tlie Wriglit running gear is very flexible and 
there is no danger of tearing off tires or 
wheels by "side swipes," the rubber bands tak- 
ing all the strain. 

One of the two new machines belongs to 
Alexander S. Cochran, the yachtsman, who is 
now in Europe. 

IiEWKOWICZ FIiIES HOUR. 

The Aero Club of New York's grounds at 
Nassau Boulevard, L. I., saw on Saturday, June 
24, tlie greatest amount of flying yet seen in 
one afternoon in the East outside of meets and 
exhibitions. More than a thousand people were 
present, by invitation, to see Tom Sopwith 
carry passengers in his Howard W'riglit. His 
were the only promised flights, and he kept 
busy all the afternoon. 

Lewkowicz, who has started a school here, 
flew his 5-cylinder Anzani-engined Bleriot for 
an hour, and was so high during the whole of 
his flight that he could be made out with diffl- 
culty bv the naked eve. He estimated his own 
height at 5,000 to 6,000 feet. Hammond, a 
student of Captain Baldwin, made several fine 
circles of the field on his nintli flight. Mars 
and McCurdy, as well as Captain Baldwin, all 
made fliglits in the Baldwin machine. A. L. 
Welch flew his Wright over from Belmont 
with a young man by the name of Beattie, 
who is about to purchase a Wright, and after 
making some short circles and swoops landed 
on the field. At the close of the afternoon 
Welch and his passenger flew back and Ham- 
mond took the Baldwin machine over to Min- 
eola to its slied. 

HAMII.TON FI.i:W OVER NEW BRITAIN. 

Charles K. Hamilton made his debut in his 
new Burgess-Wright biplane last month, and 
after a half hour's practice had the new con- 
trol well in hand. He said he <lid not find it 
very hard to change off from the Curtiss ma- 
chine to the Wright. He made his practice 
flights at Squantum, Mass. There, witii At~ 
wood, one of the most latest gradual ?s from 
the Wright school, Hamilton made a great 
many cross-country flights; the longest was 
when the two aviators flew from Squantum to 
tlie Tedesco Club, about 30 miles away. 

On June 14, Hamilton towed his big biplane 
from Boston to New Britain, Conn., behind hi."i 
automobile. He had to have his aeroi)hine in 
New Britain on June 15 and could not trust to 
the trains, so hauled it down himself. On June 
15, Hamilton made a splendid flight witli his 
Wright over his home town, circling around 
the cliurch steeples and landing, after twenty 
minutes in tlie air, at Walnut Hill Park. Again 
on June 19, he flew from New Britain to Hart- 
ford, circled over the buildings and started to 
fly towards Springfleld, Conn., but had to re- 
turn because his gasoline supply was ex- 
hausted. 



16 



'ERONAUTICS 



July, 10 1 1 



$200,000 FOR CHICAGO MEET. 

Two liundretl thousand dollars will be avail- 
able to carry out the plans of the Aero Club 
of Illinois for its meet at Grant Park, in tlie 
heart of Chicago, August 12-20. 

A new system of awarding money is to be 
inaugurated. Each aviator will receive $2 for 
every minute he flies during flying hours. If 
the total due each aviator under tliis basis is 
bigger than the amount of prizes he has earned, 
he will receive the larger amount. Tlie prizes 
total $80,000, and $100,000 has been raised al- 
ready. The only arrangement in the way of a 
guarantee is an offer of $500 to each entrant, 
which would merely cover about the actual 
cost of transportation. 

The Wright Company is being ignored in the 
arrangements for the meet, no license fee hav- 
ing been paid them nor any arrangement made 
for entry of any of their machines. Moisant 
and Curtiss have been practically signed. 

NEW UNOFFICIAL SPEED RECORD BY 
BALDWIN. 

Captain Baldwin took the Morsehouse-Mar- 
tens Cup at the Columlnis flight exhibition. 
May 29-June 3, for the fastest 5 miles around 
the track, wliich he made in 5:32. One lap of 
a mile was done in 59 seconds, representing a 
speed of 61 miles per hour, which is a big ad- 
vertisement for his Hall-Scott motor. This 
was around a course with no watchers at thtj 
corners. 

Parmalee and Sopwith contested in a slow 
race which was for 3 miles, Parmalee winning 
by going it as slow as 5:51, while Sopwith took 
but 5:49, quite a shave at that. Parmalee's 
slowest lap was 2:02, an average of 29 miles 
per hour. Parinalee also secured Governor 
Harmon's and ex-Governor Herrick's silver 
cups for excellency in bomb dropping and quick 
start contests, which were held on all four 
days of the meet. 

Parmalee's Wright was equipped with a 
Horton wireless outfit, and successful mes- 
sages were sent froin tlie aeroplane. 

AT THE MOISANT SCHOOL. 

There are now, or will lie. rather, about the 
end of June six jNIoisant monoplanes in use at 
the school at Hempstead Plains, four of them 
of 30-h.p. and two of them of 50-h.p. Of the 
four 30-h.p. machines one is made heavy and 
is intended only for the use of beginners, so 
that they cannot possibly get off the ground 
with it. The other three 30-h.p. machines are 
lighter and all of them fly. Tlie five fireproof 
concrete hangars, which are being erected, will 
be completed by the 10th of July, and it is 
hoped to start immediately thereafter on the 
construction of a concrete club house for the 
use of the school pupils, and of a grandstand 
for the school aerodome, so that exhibitions 
and meets may be held there. Tlie ground.s 
have been rolled and are thoroughly prepared 
for flying now, with V)oth a 21/2 and a 5-kilo- 
meter course surveyed and laid out. It is ex- 
pected that before the 15th of .July at least 
three of the present Moisant pupils will be 
prepared to ciualify for their pilot's licenses. 
Included in this list is Miss Harriet Quimby, 
the dramatic editor of Leslie's Weekly, the 
first American woinan aviator. 

The MoLsant aviators have entered in the 
open Detroit aviation tournament, which starts 
on June 29 and closes on July 4 — Rene Simon. 
Rene Barrier. .lohn J. Frisbie, St. Croix John- 
stone, A. Raygorodsky, a Russian biplane flyer, 
and another aviator. It is the Moisant policy 
to compete for prizes rather than for guaran- 
tees, and to place aviation in the United States 
on a competitive sporting basis rather than a 
series of circus performances. 

"Unless this method is adopted by every 
aviator in the business, everyone in the United 
States will tire of hippodrome performances 
with the splendid vehicle wliich cannot possi- 
bly take its place among accepted conveyances 
unless its merits are established by competi- 



tion and clean sportsmanship," says A. S. Le 
Vino, press representative. 

Roland Garros and Edmond Audemars mav 
return to the United States at the end of the 
present Paris-London tour, provided cross- 
country prizes sufficient to warrant their com- 
ing here at that time are posted. In the event 
that no prizes are put up in this country before 
July 15, Garros and Audemars will stay abroad 
to (ly under the Moisant management in Moi- 
sant machines for the rich prizes that are 
posted in Europe. The JMoisant Companv is 
prepared to bring Garros to the United States 
as soon as a cross-country prize commensurate 
with the distance to be flown is posted, and it 
is suggested that a long cross-country race of 
1,000 or 1,500 miles for prizes aggregating 
$100,000 be arranged. For such a race at least 
two Moisant aviators are promised, one of them 
to be Roland G. Garros. Unless the foreign 
competitions keep him too busy, Garros will 
be here to fly in the Chicago tournament in 
Avigust. 

GOULD PRIZE EXTENDED. 

As only one machine was promised to be 
ready on July 4 for the contest for the $15,000 
Edwin Gould prize, offered "for the most per- 
fect and practicable heavier-than-air flying ma- 
chine, designed and demonstrated in this coun- 
try, and equipped with two or more complete 
power plants (separate motors and propellers), 
so constructed that any power plant may be 
operated independently, or that they may be 
used together," the offer has been repeated for 
another year. 

PLY OVER BOSTON. 

The Waltham aviation meet was opened on 
June 15 with flights by Earle L. Ovington and 
Harry N. At wood over the city of Boston. 
Ovington dropped a message to the Boston 
"Journal" from an elevation of 3,000 feet dur- 
ing a sensational flight over the city from the 
Waltham field, lasting more than half an hour. 

Less than an hour after Ovington's flight. 
Atwood left the field on the Squantum marshes, 
passing over South Boston and Dorchester, he 
circled the State House and continued to the 
field at Waltham. 

James V. Martin, vice-president of the Har- 
vard Aeronautical Society, and hailed about 
the sheds as "the man who came back," also 
flew in this meet, flying a Grahame-White bi- 
plane built by the Burgess Co. & Curtis. 

Early in the day Atwood made a cross-coun- 
try flight with Dr. Percy L. Reynolds from the 
Squantum field, covering a distance of 45 miles. 
Dr. Re> nolds is one of the pupils at the Bur- 
gess school in which Mr. Atwood is instructor. 

Charles K. Hamilton and Harry X. Atwood 
inade a cross-country flight on June 7 in the 
Burgess- Wright machine owned by Hamilton 
from the field at Squantum to the Todesco 
Country Club. The distance covered was ap- 
proximately 30 miles. As the machine is fitted 
with duplicate control both aviators took turns 
in handling the machine. The flight was filled 
with many stunts, racing with trains, etc. 



The new Mathewson headless biplane at Den- 
ver was given a very successful trial on June 
13. With George Thomson as aviator, the ma- 
chine was sent out in a stiff breeze and at once 
demonstrated its ability to negotiate a high 
wind better than any machine heretofore tried 
out at this altitude. Thomson flew for 22 min- 
utes, attaining an altitude of several hundred 
feet. The machine proved so successful that 
this type will be used in future in all the ex- 
hibition flights of the Mathewson aviators. 
The headless machine is equipped with an 101- 
bridge Aero Special, 40-60 h.p. 



The Kansas City Aviation School has a real 
French aviator for instructor at the training 
camp at Overland Park. They have secured 
Henri De la Roche, formerly of the Bleriot 
school, to teach the students how to fly and 
how to land safely. 



17 



AERONAUTICS 



July, ipii 




The Aerodrome at Garden City Estates. 



NOT a shed is to be had at any of the 
grounds near New York. Mineola, the 
home of the Aero Club of America and 
tlie Aeronautical Society, Nassau Boule- 
vard, where Is situated the new Aero Club of 
New York, and Belmont Park, where the 
twenty sheds erected for the meet last fall are 
filled, are seeing daily flying by experienced 
aviators as well as by amateurs. 

Next to Belmont, Nassau Boulevard has the 
biggest aggregation in its ten sheds, and ten 
more sheds liave already been started. The 
field, while a little small in one direction for 
learners, has been rolled very smooth, and the 
cafe in the club liouse, to which the members 
of the Aero Club of New York and their 
friends have access, is a great boon to would- 
be and "is" aviators who find flying dry 
sport. 

On June 10 the club had a formal "opening," 
with flying by Baldwin, Shriver, Russell and 
Lewkowicz. 

AT NASSAU BOULEVARD 

Ladis Lewkowicz, who is conducting a school 
with a Bleriot machine, has been making short 
flights, tuning up his new 5-cylinder Anzani. 

A 4-cylinder Curtiss is in the next shed, 
belonging to George Russell. A novice, Mr. 
Moore, has a Curtiss-type machine with which 
he has made some excellent short flights. The 
third time out he made a circle, flying over 
the sheds. Alexander Williams has a machine 
and engine of his own make. A sort of gate 
control operates his stability device. The ele- 
vators, similar to that of a Bleriot XI, may 
be moved either in conjunction or in opposite 
direction. 

Harry M. Horton now owns the old Wilcox 
'plane, which is being rebuilt and fitted with 
an 80-horsepower Hall-Scott motor. A new 
Parman-type landing gear is to be put under 
it, with 4 by 20 in. Goodyear tires. 

Sopwith, "Tom," comes after Horton, wilh a 
Howard Wright, which he wrecked at the 
Columbus affair. He has made no flights here 
as yet. 

The Aerial Exhibition Co., of 1777 Broadway 
New York, has a Curtiss-type fitted with "a 
6-cylinder Kirkham nearly completed. 

A new monoplane, of beautiful construction, 
along the general lines of a Bleriot, with a 
modified landing gear, fitted witli a 7-cylinder 
rotary engine of his own make, is being assem- 
bled for its designer, W. Irving Twomblv of 
220 Kast 41st street. New York. 

The Church Aeroplane Co. has just completed 



a Curtiss-type for A. N. Ridgely. This fol- 
lows the late Cvirtiss, with shortened front 
outriggers, single elevator and fan tail, fitted 
with a 6-cylinder Kirkham. 

Howard Dietz, of Mill Road, Hempstead, L. 
I., has a monoplane over which is fitted a 
hollow mast containing a parachute. 

A Bleriot copy, built by the Queen Aeroplane 
Co., is laid up with a broken gear in the 
3-cylinder Anzani. 

A new stunt in running gear has been 
brougtit out by the Aerial Exhibition Co. and 
A. Williams. Instead of two wheels eacli side 
of a skid, as in the usual Farman device, 
there are two skids and a single wheel is 
placed between, with the ordinary rubber 
sliock absorbers employed in the usual fasliion. 

THE MINEOLA FIELDS 

Hadley & Blood have been cutting down 
their big Farman-type with the Roberts motor. 

A number of students have been taking 
lessons from Capt. Baldwin, who returned from 
Columbus on June S with liis smashed ma- 
chine. It was put in shape in one day by 
tlie Wittemann Brothers, who made the 'plane, 
and on the lOtli he flew over to Nassau Boule- 
vard, along with Tod Shriver, who has just 
returned from the Orient, and both made 
flights on that day before a tliousand invited 
guests and members of the Aero Club of New 
York wlio came down to see the grounds and 
some flying on this, the opening day. Lew- 
kowicz got his 5-cylinder Anzani-engined 
Bleriot going after a while, but did not get 
a quarter mile before his motor stopped and 
lie made a very flat glide to earth in a nearby 
street newly cut through. Russell also en- 
tertained the crowd with a fliglit or two. Both 
Baldwin and Sliriver flew back to tlieir Min- 
eola sheds after the affair was concluded. The 
Sliriver machine is the ordinary Curtiss type 
with Hall-Scott 60-horsepower motor, witli 
which tlie Baldwin machine is also equipped. 

One of Baldwin's students. Hammond, has 
already made some fine fliglits. 

Dr. H. W. Walden is building another mono- 
plane of the same type, with a 4-cylinder Hall- 
Scott motor. 

The Curtiss-type built by students of the 
Aeronautic School of Engineers is still being 
repaired. 

Walter T.,. Fairchild has made some changes 
in tlie monoplane, bringing the bottom of the 
frame closer to the ground. No flights have 
yet been made tliis month. 

18 



AERONAUTICS 



July, ipii 



Two Antoinettes of Harry S. Harkness are 
now reposing peacefully in their shed. 

St. Croix Johnstone has been making great 
llit;hts and has acquired a whole lot of ex- 
lit'iience since he attached himself to the 
.Moisant company. During the international 
polo game lie flew over tlie field at Westbury 
and dropped some carnations during an Inter- 
mission in tlie game. Teaching is going on 
early every morning at tlie Moisant school. 

BELMONT FLYERS 

Arthur Stone has been doing good flying 
with the Bleriot copies made by tlie Queen 
Aeroplane Co., of Fort George, N. Y. On the 
18th he made a 26-minute flight with an 
Anzani engine — an American duration record 
for this motor. 

Earle Ovington, who has a shed here, has 
been away flying some dates. 



A. B. Salliger has a big headless biplane, 
with a 100-horsepower Emerson engine, spread- 
ing 36 ft. by 61/2 ft. by 6 ft. between planes. 
The engine, witli Mea magneto, pulls to the 
limit of the scale, which is 500 pounds. Tlie 
tail is a biplane, with the elevator hinged to 
tlie rear tliereof. Steering and operating 
ailerons is done by one universally mounted 
lever. The fittings are of light cast bronze. 
Tiie landing gear is unique and very heavy. 

A nicely built miniature Farman type has 
been built by tlie Moroli Aeroplane Co., of 
303 Fifth avenue, New York, with a 4-cylinder 
water-cooled V-sliaped Anzani 30-horsepower 
motor, G. and A. carburetor. Ailerons are 
fitted to upper wings only. All struts are of 
Honduras maiiogany, the planes are covered 
one side only witli Naiad fabric, wliile Good- 
year wlieels and shock absorbers are used. 
Chrome leather is used for hinges for ailerons 
and rudder instead of metal. 

Fred Shneider lias two Curtiss-types, witli 
Elbridge engines. One of these lias been doing 
sliort flights with Tony Castellano as aviator, 
who lias purcliased the macliine. Twin El 
Arco radiators are noted on one of tliese and 
tlie usual Curtiss style landing gear has been 
changed for a shock absorbing arrangement 
very similar to the Farman. Hartford tires 
are standard, with Gibson propellers and 
Bosch magneto. 




Elevator on Salligper Headless Biplane. 

W. J. Diefenbach and Harry Bachand liave 
a well-built Farman copy, with a 6-cylinder 
Kirkham. Tlie tail is a single surface, with 
the rear part acting as an elevator in connec- 
tion with tlie front one. Bacliand spent two 
weeks at tlie Kirkham factory to rusli along 
his motor, witli wliich he is greatly pleased. 

John H. Davis, agent for tlie Hall-Scott 
engine, has a monoplane of novel construction. 
Everything about the fuselage is triangulated. 

A large passenger-carrying Farman copy is 
in course of construction by Dr. William 
Greene. 

Anotlier shed is occupied by Joseph Novo- 
selsky. 




Horton Turnbuckle Iiock. 

Romaine Berger is still at work on a Bleriot- 
type, and a man named Charles Silversteine, 
of 70 East Fourth street. New York, has a 
curious machine, resembling notliing else so 
much as a turtle. Another experimenter has a 
monoplane shaped like a triangle as to the 
plan view.- 



Morok Uses Leather for Hingres. 



A beautiful little monoplane has been built 
bv the Johnson brothers, who came to Bel- 
rriont from San Francisco. The fuselage re- 
sembles that of the Bleriot XI closely, while 
the landing gear is like that in the Hanriot, 
with 4 by 20 in. Pennsylvania wheels. The 
wings are single covered, wntli a varnished 
linen. The power plant is a 3-cylinder Anzani 
with G. and A. carburetor. 

The tail-less biplane of Wilbur R. Kimball, 
twin propellers, is ready for trial. The vertical 
rudders are placed between the planes at 
the end, hinged to the front strut. They 
can swing inward toward the center of the 
machine bv pulling the control wires or by 
the force of the air if a change in direction 
is made during flight. They can not swmg 
outward for they are prevented by the cross 
guyins between the outer front and rear struts The 
steering gear for these vertical rudders is 
unique. Two-foot levers are pivoted at a 
central point. To turn to right, one pushes 
outward on the left foot, and vice versa. 
A coiled spring attaching the cable to the 
rudder pulls it back into stream lines after 
the foot pressure is taken off. The ailerons 
are positivelv operated downward only, the 
air pressure "lifting them, as in the Farman. 
A stop is arranged, however, to prevent their 
pulling down too far or hitting the ground. 
Goodyear tires ^nd shock absorbers are fitted. 



10. 



AERONAUTICS 



July, ipii 



AROUND ST. LOUIS. 

The Benoist school at Kinloch Park, Mo., is 
as Inisv as a bee. An ever-increasing number 
of pupils are being enrolled and many are 
making successful llights. One of the students 
is a Denver woman. Two sheds are occupied 
by the Aeronautic Supply Co. with Mr. Ben- 
oisfs machines, with American-British and 
Roberts motors. 

The Goodrich Brothers, of St. Louis, have a 
Farman-tvpe and has shown itself to be a suc- 
cessful flyer. Charles Kuhno has his seventh 
machine at the same place, a Farman-type, 
with a 4-cvlinder Hall-Scott motor. C. I. 
Sweinhai-dt has a Curtiss-type with a Maxl- 
motor. H. A. Robinson has the Curtiss ma- 
chine he bought, with the 8-cylinder Curtiss 
motor. L. L. Prince has the Bleriot copy he 
built, with Boulevard engine. A monoplane 
has been built by C. O. Prouse, with Elbridge 
engine. 

On June 19 the first circular flight of Charles 
A. Zorne's new Elbridge-engined biplane was 
made in public by Hugh Robinson. Mr. Robin- 
son made a couple of straightaway flights to 
test the machine, and then circled the field a 
couple of times. The machine is equipped with 
an Elbridge "Featherweight" engine, taken 
from Zorne's last year's machine. 

Otlier machines here include a Demoiselle- 
type and two disassembled machines. 




At East St. Louis, 111., are located .1. N. 
Sparling witli his school, and J. W. Curzon, 
who was the first Amei-ican to bring a Farman 
to this country, the Michelin winner of 1909. 
Both machines have been doing flying during 
the inonth past. 

CHICAGO FLYING. 

The permanent aviation field located in 
Cicero, neaf Chicago, is now open and in full 
swing. Every shed is filled and there is but 
one macliine on the ground that has not Vjeen 
in the air. Cicero, although not yet a part of 
("liicago, is almost surrounded by the city and 
tlie new field is but a short distance from the 
old Hawthorne race track, wliere the Chicago 
novices practiced most of the winter. Several 
short flights liave been made at tlie new field 
lately and there was also a notable cross- 
country flight by Harry Cowling, instructor in 
the Chicago School of Aviation. 

Cowling was invited to dinner in Cicero on 
.Tune 9 and flew tlie 7 miles over from Haw- 
thorne with his lOlbridge-engined biplane. On 
.lune IS he made another flight of nearly 1 .'> 
miles over the city of Benton Harbor, Mich., 
and surrounding towns. 

I.,enard, the builder of a baby headless bi- 
plane and :i 4-cylinder air-cooled motor used 
in driving it, had tlie flrst accident since the 



B^fKi srn/p 



' PERU ott Top or^ PLa^e. 
5_^ ^'^'■OTH TOP oVLy 







The Johnson Brothers' Control and Skid. 

field opening while trying to fly in a higii wind 
a day or so ago. The outrigging and a Para- 
gon propeller were smashed, but the driver was 
uninjured. Otto W. Brodie was out the same 
day for several flights in his Gnome-eQuipped Farman. 

The following men are at the new field: 
Haiold McCormick, monoplane. Gnome engine, 
I';uMgon propellers; Young-Hearne biplane, 
Hall-Scott engine. Young propellers: Franco- 
American Aviation Company, Otto W. Brodie, 
aviator, Gnome-engined Farman, Paragon and 
Requa-Gibson propellers: Lenard, headless baby 
biplane, with Lenard air-cooled motor. Paragon 
propellers: Aeronautical League monoplane, 
Valkyrie type, no engine: D. Kr«amer, Curtiss- 
type biplane. 50-h.p. Harriman engine and pro- 
peller; D. Kreamer, Curtiss-type. Boulevard 
motor, Paragon propeller: International Aero- 
plane Manufacturing Company, Curtiss-type, 
Roberts engine. Paragon propeller; Aeronauti- 
cal League, biplane, no engine; William Mat- 
tery, Curtiss-type, Harroun engine. Paragon 
propeller. 

The Modern Scliool of Aviation and the In- 
ternational Aeroplane Manufacturing Company 
have merged and are now known as the Mod- 
ern and International Schools of Aviation, 
CoinI)inod. 

IN AND ABOUT SAN FRANCISCO. 

Activity in aviation has been more or less 
hindered in the near vicinity of San Francisco 
by reason of the lack of suitable grounds or 
practice fields, such as Minco'a or Doniinguez. 



*=^ 






iii'jii 



A Iiockingf Wire Tightener made by Wittemann 
Bros, for Capt. Baldwin and others, 



20 



lERONAUTICS 



July, iQii 



Selfridge Field, used for the San Francisco 
meet, was cliosen by persons wlio l^new noth- 
ing of aviation and could not be told. This un- 
fortunate selection was tlie cause of the nu- 
merous accidents to botli professionals and 
novices. Witli very few exceptions, experi- 
menters have had to go some little distance 
out of the city for suitable grounds. 

Fred. Wiseman, the best l<nown of local fly- 
ing men, served his apprenticesliip at Petaluma 
and Santa Rosa; Clarence Walker at Palo 
Alto; Ivy Baldwin at Alameda. Prof. J. J. 
Montgomery, of Santa Clara College, wlio has 
international fame as one of tlie pioneers in 
aviation, is expected to resume experimenta- 
tion in aeronautics sliortly. Eugene Ely, the 
aviator, is a well-known San Franciscan. 

Among the novices wlio have liad some de- 
gree of success miglit be mentioned Young, 
Smith, Fortney, Case, Free, O'Brien, Crosby, 
Clarke. Loose, Hagen of San Francisco, Peters 
of Santa Rosa, MeyerhofCer of Oroville, Kerns 
of Clilco, Hall of l''resno, Brewer and Guey of 
Oakland, Timothy of San Mateo, Gordon of 
Bostonia, St. Henry of San Diego. A note on 
tlie macliines used by the above appears below. 

Clarence Walker, a professional aviator, is 
touring Australia with an 8-cylinder Curtiss 
machine. 

Fred. Wiseman, using a Farman-type ma- 
chine of his own make, with a Hall-Scott 8- 
cylinder motor, is touring tlie Northwest. 

Touring California is Ivy Baldwin, profes- 
sional aviator, witli a Curtiss-type machine of 
his own make. 



^- -I- , - 

"Camasco" All-Steel Strut and Beam Connector. 

Frank Johnson, who flew a 4-c>iinder Cur- 
tiss, has retired from the profession. 

R. St. Henry is on an exhibition tour with a 
genuine Curtiss machine. Re.x Young is prac- 
ticing short flights with a 4-cylinder Curtiss. 
S. Smitli has made some sliort fliglits with a 
Curtiss, equipped witli 4-cylinder Curtiss mo- 
tor and Gibson propeller. 

J. Clarke has made some short fliglits witli 
a Farman-type machine of his own, fitted witli 
a 4-cylinder Elbridge engine and Gibson pro- 
peller. Orver Meyerhoffer is making sliort 
flights with an original triplane made by tlie 
"Camasco" people and fitted with a 6-cylinder 
Elbridge engine, Gibson propeller. G. H. 
I.iOose, wliile making some short flights re- 
cently, wrecked his Farman-type machine. 

The I''arnian-type of C. O'Brien, equipped 
with an 8-cylinder motor, lias been wrecked. 
T. Kerns lias been practicing short fliglits and 
turns witli his home-made Curtiss-type ma- 
chine, using a 4-cylinder Elbridge motor and 
Gibson propeller. 

Roy Brewer damaged liis Farman-type ma- 
chine, wliich had an automobile motor and pro- 
peller of his own design, while making some 
short flights. 

The Farman-type macliine of C E. Hagen, 
fitted with an automobile engine and propeller 
of own design, was wrecked while some short 
flights were being attemyited. The sliort fliglits 
of Fung Joe Guey. in his Curtiss-type macliine, 
have not been publicly observed. Louis Fort- 



ney wrecked his Antoinette-type machine, 
equipped with an automobile motor and pro- 
peller of own design, trying to make some short 
flights. S. R. Timothy is practicing short 
flights with liis Antoinette-type machine of 
local make, equipped with an S-cylinder Cur- 
tiss air-cooled motor. 

Several short flights have been made by I>. 
H. Gordon in his Curtiss-type machine, fitted 
with 4-cylinder Curtiss engine and own pro- 
peller. On account of lack of power, W. C. 
Wheeler has not been able to fly with his 
Bleriot-type machine, which has an automo- 
liile engine and propeller of own design. J. W. 
Hudson is building, a new engine for his 
Bleriot-type machine, and will use a Gibson 
propeller. T. R. Goth has an original hydro- 
aeroplane which is equipped with a local en- 
gine and will be fitted with his own propeller. 





The Berg'er Monoplane Has a Brake and a New 
Tumbackle. 

The original multiplane of C. E. Lambreuth, 
which has an autoinobile motor and local pro- 
peller, has been poorly designed. 

George AVagner is now building an original 
multiplane which will liave two Adams-Far- 
well revolving motors and Paragon propellers. 
A machine of the Demoiselle type is now being 
built by M. P. Desmet, and is to have a De- 
troit "aeromotor" and propeller. 

Tlie Bleriot-type machine of John W. Ham- 
ilton, which has an Elbridge "Aero Special" of 
4 cylinders and Gibson propeller, shows every 
possibility of proving a success. P. L. Criblet 
is building a Curtiss-type machine and will use 
a 4-cylinder Elbridge engine and Gibson pro- 
peller. A Curtiss-type machine is now being 
built by the Diamond Aeroplane Co., and will 
be fitted with a 4-cylinder Elbridge engine and 
Gibson propeller. Ed. Dony is building an 
original monoplane and will use an automobile 
engine. An original monoplane is being built 
by S. Doi which will be equipped with a 3-cyl- 
i rider Elbridge engine and Gibson propeller. 

J. A. Froberg is building an original mono- 
plane. W^. A. Merralls is constructing an orig- 
inal biplane and will use his own propeller, as 
is E. H. Morton. E. L. Reidling is construct- 
ing an original monoplane. IMr. Stewart is an- 
other who has an original biplane, not yet 
tried. Leever's original biplane, fitted with a 
Holmes rotary motor, has not yet been put to 
a test. 

The Curtiss machine of P. J. Butler, the 
Demoiselle of Siefert & Rybitcki, fitted with an 
automobile ensrgine and Gibson propeller, the 
Bleriot-type of P. F. Gillette, the Demoiselle 
of Sullivan & Erickson, the original biplane of 
Frederickson. which will have a power plant 
of own design, and the original monoplane of 
the California Aero Manufacturing & Supply 
Co., which will liave an Aero Special motor and 
Gibson propeller, to be used for experimental 
work only, have not yet been tried out. 

Knieling it Pillsbiiry ai-e building an original 
biplane to be fitted witli power plant of own 



!l 




RB 

BACK 

ELBF 



CHAS. F. WALSH, Los Angeles 



T 



HE only real test of an aviation engine that is cone t 
Engines have been used in more successful amate 

successful flig i 




Back 

View 

4 Cyl. 

"Aero 

Special" 



cally every p ] 
titudes, andui j 

d We gu I 
Engines wi i 
type of M( 1 
size and w 



C Write for cat. 
Aviation" or cal 



GEORGE SCHMITT, Mineola, N. Y. 




ELBRIDGE 

10 Culver 1 1 

Jas. M. Wait Co. 
Chicago 

Mathewson Auto Co. 
Denver 

Cal. Aero Supply & Mfg. 
San Francisco 




In aiisK'criiifr advcrliscmcnts please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



July, ipil 




IGHTS 
^IMS FOR 

ENGINES 




MATHEWSON BIPLANE, Denver 



il flight. "Elbridge Featherweight" and "Aero Special" 
lights, in the United States, than any other, and these 
lade in practi-- ^^^^^ .^, \ A A 

View 
4Cyl. 



iry, in all al- 
:ier conditions. 



• of these 
J, standard 
, of proper 



"Feather- 
weight 



lerican Amateur 

V 

COMPANY 

ler, N. Y. 

e Engine Supply Co. 
Los Angeles 

arman & Bowes 
Philadelphia 

A. P. Homer 
Boston 




WM. EVANS, Kansas City 





In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



July, igii 



design. P. Takahashi is constructing an orig- 
inal biplane. 

A "dirigible helicopter-aeroplane" of own de- 
sign is being built by one Murray, and will 
have three auto engines and three propellers. 

A Wright-type machine is being built by 
Sutro & Kierulf which will be fitted with an 
automobile engine. 

A Curtiss-type machine is being built by the 
California Aero Manufacturing & Supply Co. 
which will have an Elbridge "Aero Special" 
motor and Gibson propeller, and used for pro- 
fessional work. In this machine a change in 
metal strut socket and beam connection has 
been evolved. The piece of steel "A" in sketch 
is bent double and inserted in a slot in the 
strut. A ferrule keeps the end of the strut 
from splitting. The "insert" being rectangular 
In section, the strut is prevented from turning 
round as it would if it were a round pin. This 
does away with cast socket-, is neater in ap- 
pearance and saves the v.z2 of a bolt through 
the beam. 

Sprague & Lekas, of San Francisco, are build- 
ing a Bleriot-type machine, spread 30 ft. fore 
and aft, 27 ft, 3 in. The machine is of some- 
what crude construction and parts will un- 
doubtedly have to be changed, as they are con- 
structionally weak. The square fuselage is 
very rigid and strongly built, but is probably 
too narrow for the aviator's comfort or engine 
setting. 







(liiiiii([(|(/(l(f(/'% 



*-^^i. /C07 



Kimball Budder System. 

The planes: cliord 7 ft. 6 in., camber 6i/4 in., 
37 Vi In. back from entering edge. Have five 
wing bars or beams, tlie first being %x2% in.; 
second, %x2%; third. 2y8xy8; fourth, 78x1%; 
fifth, %xiy8. The planes, unlike most of the 
rest of the machine, as can be seen from the 
foregoing, are quite strong enough. Ribs about 
15 in. apart. Tlie rear construction, or em- 
penage, differs from the Bleriot in that it is 
much larger and that tlie center section is 
movable and constitutes tlie elevator, while the 
ends are used for lateral balance, moving in 
opposite directions. This scheme, to the writer, 
is very doubtful even if the frame were wider 
and properly cross-braced. The torsion would 
be very perceptible and would cause excessive 
twisting stresses on the fuselage, and, aside 
from this, it is improbable that it would work 
properly. 

An odd feature in the running gear is the 
use of solid iron connections to the wheels, 
which are 20 in. in diameter. Tlie size, %x%. 
Is very heavy, and it is doubtful if it has the 
strength of the usual tubing. 

Jolin W. Hamilton, of San Francisco, is put- 
ting the fini.shing touches to his Bleriot-type 
machine in tlie shop of the California Aero 
Manufacturing & Supply Co., the machine be- 
ing practically a duplicate of the original 
Bleriot cross-channel type. An Elbridge Aero 
Special is installed. 

S. R. Timothy, of Palo Alto, made a short 
flight on his big monoplane, purchased from 
the California Aero Manufacturing & Supply 
Co. recently. He rose to a height of about 
15 feet and flew steadily for about 600 feet. 
This was Mr. Timothy's first attempt at flight. 



Charles W. Walsh is flying in Portland, Ore. 
Mr. Walsh has been doing some very fine fly- 
ing and is making a hit. He has left for Vic- 
toria, B. C, for a two days' exhibition, thence 
to Seattle. 

Jack De Pries, who is connected with the 
Manning Bros., is now practicing, and as soon 
as proficient will start on the road with Mr. 
Walsh. Mr. Walsh stays up for 15 minutes at 
a time, and makes very good landings. He is 
not particular about the country he flies over, 
as he is doing a lot over mountains and for- 
ests. In one flight his rudder cable slipped off 
the pulley and got jammed, making steering 
impossible with the rudder. He was able to 
pull it enough to one side to enable him to 
make a very large turn, wliich took him sev- 
eral miles out of his way, and by using liis 
ailerons as a lielp in steering, lie managed to 
return to the enclosure and land safely. 

IiOS ANOEI-ES BOOMINa. 

Aviation is booming in tlie neighborhood of 
Los Angeles. Great progress has been made 
since the meet last December. There are at 
present more than a dozen amateurs who have 
made successful flights. 

Clias. P. Walsh has graduated to the pro- 
fessional ranks and is now touring Oregon. 
Beryl Williams and Edward Loudinclos have a 
splendidly-built Curtiss-type machine of their 
own construction, with which Williams has 
been making some very good fliglits. Earle 
Remington has Radley's Bleriot. He has had 
several smashes in trying to learn its tricks. 
William Stevens has a steel monoplane of his 
own construction which will be tried out in 
the near future. Remington has anotiier small 
inonoplane somewhat on the order of the 
Bleriot, fitted with a 5-cylinder motor, built 
by C. H. Day, a local man. This machine is 
used for short practice flights. 

C. M. Crosson is making successful flights 
with a large Farman-type machine, and hopes 
to try for his pilot license in tlie near future. 
Harry Holmes has been flying a monoplane of 
unique design which was constructed by 
Charles Skoglund for Harry V. Schiller. Bob 
Greer has a monoplane equipped with a 40-h.p. 
automobile engine. So far only short flights 
have been made. J. Gage has ordered a more 
powerful engine for his machine, as the oM 
one was too small. This machine is very well 
and solidly built, and it is Mr. Gage's intention 
to start an aeronautical school. Bernard Bir- 
nie, of Long Beach, has a machine of his own 
design and construction. The most noticeable 
feature is the employment of metal ribs. 

J. J. Slavin's machine has made several short 
flights. This machine is equipped with an au- 
tomatic lateral stability control, which has not 
as yet been thoroughly tested on account of 
the motor being too small to keep the machine 
up on the turns. 

The death of Mattie Hartle was the first 
tragedy in the local colony. 



The Aerial Construction Co., of New York is 
another instance of an automobile concern 
launching out into the fleld of aeronautics. 

F. T. Sanford, the president of the F. T. San- 
ford Automobile Company, is the leading spirit 
in the new Aerial Construction Co., which has 
taken a lease upon an additional building in 
West Forty-third street to be devoted exclu- 
sively to aeronautical work. 

For the past six months Mr. Sanford has 
been turning out propellers which have shown 
up well in comparative tests for design, con- 
struction and finish. 

From a visit to the works the new concern 
evidently means business, and with well-estab- 
lished reputation for thoroughness and atten- 
tion to details, one may predict a prosperous 
future for the tompany. 



1 



AERONAUTICS 



July, igii 



Htj^r^^H^ 



NEW COMPANIES ORGANIZED. 

Moisant Company $1,000,000 Concern. 

The Moisant International Aviators was in- 
corporated under tlie laws of the State of New 
York in November. 1910, as the International 
Aviators. Its capital stock at that time was 
$250,000. all paid in. Permission has been 
secured from tlie secretary of state, of New 
York, to cliange the name of that corporation 
from tlie International Aviators to the IMoisant 
International Aviators, and to increase the 
capitalization to $1,000,000, of which $,'^00,000 
is 7 per cent cumulative preferred and $500,000 
common stock. The increased capital is to be 
used for the erection of a tiioroughly up-to- 
the-minute factory, wherein they can make 
their aeroplanes from propeller to tail, includ- 
ing propellers, motors and everything that 
goes into an aeroplane except the fabric. It is 
quite possible that they will manufacture the 
wing and tail fabric as well. Manufacturing 
riglits of several aeroplane power plants have 
been acquired, and tlie best of tliese will be 
developed and manufactured by the Moisant 
factory. It is planned also to increase the 
number of aviation schools to ten, exactly 
similar in appointment, course of instruction, 
etc., to the present scliool at Hempstead Plains. 

The board of directors of the Moisant In- 
ternational Aviators has been increased from 
three to seven as follows: 

Alfred J. Moisant, president and treasurer; 
Adolph E. Wupperman, secretary and general 
manager; W. .1. Taylor, capitalist. No. 3 Broad 
street. New York City; H. W. Jacobs, assistant 
superintendent of motive power, Atcliison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, Topeka. Kans. ; 
Edwin E. Bush, assistant general traffic mana- 
ger, American E.xpress Company. No. 65 Broad- 
way, New York City; James S. Herrman, trus- 
tee of the Union Dime & Savings Bank, No. 
407 West Fourteentli street. New York City; 
Cliristopher J. Lake, vice-president of the Lake 
Torpedo Boat Companj-, Bridgeport. Conn. 

At a meeting of tlie directors, held June 16, 
it was unanimously decided to increase the 
manufacturing and school facilities of the 
company, and to devote their energy to the 
manufacturing and sale of Moisant aeroplanes, 
the directors authorizing a progressive pro- 
gram for the next 12 months. 

McCurdy-Willard Partnership. 

J. A. D. McCiirdy, one of the original mem- 
bers of the Aerial Experiment Association, 
who. at its dissolution, took up exhibition fly- 
ing for Glenn H. Curtiss for the purpose of 
securing greater experience on tlie actual op- 
eration of macliines, has joined liands with 
Charles F. Willard, the first man in this coun- 
try to give exliibitions of flying, and they 
have formed a company called the McCurdy- 
Willard Aeroplane Company, at No. 1780 
Broadway, New York City. 

This company will conduct exhibitions for a 
while on a large scale, making tliem more in 
the nature of real meets, and will have as- 
sociated witli tliem four other aviators of 
reputation who are now flying exhibitions. 

C. F. Willard & Co. and the McCurdy Aero- 
plane Company have also been formed to 
manufacture aeroplanes from designs of 
Messrs. Willard and McCurdy. The McCurdy 
machine will be of tlie headless biplane type, 
with a direct connected propeller in the rear. 
The elevator will be placed just forward of 



the rudder, and there will be no fixed tail 
surface. The macliine will spread 25% ft. 
The first macliine is promised for the middle 
of July, and is now being built in the shops 
of tlie Queen Aeroplane Company, at Fort 
George. No ailerons or plane warping will be 
used for stability, but the ribs will extend 
back of the rear beams considerably and will 
be warped. 

The Willard company will build a biplane de- 
signed by Willard of the headless type with 
two sliaft and gear-driven propellers in front. 
There will be no shoulder control on this, all 
stability and control movement being obtained 
by a universally mounted steering post. This 
machine will be ready .luly 1. They will be 
built in two sizes for one and tliree men, re- 
spectively. Botli machines will be fitted with 
Gnome engines. 

OTHER NEW CONCERNS. 

Eagle Aeroplane Company, Brunswick, Ga.; 
$100,000. Incorporators, John M. Biggs, P. J. 
B. Morris, C. A. Lincoln, J. H. Worden and 
Lieut. Edward Shelnutt. 

International Aviation Meet Association, No. 
64 East Congress street, Chicago, 111.; for the 
purpose of conducting an international meet on 
August 12-20, 1911. 

Aerial Construction Companv, No. 44 West 
Forty-third street. New York City. F. T. San- 
ford, proprietor. 

Brooke-Kuhnert Company. No. ,321 South 
Wabash avenue, Chicago, 111.; motor manufac- 
turers. 

American Motors and Aviation Companv, 206 
McPhee building, Denver, Colo.; $100,000; to 
make aeroplanes, motors, etc. Incorporators, 
M. F. Murray. W. J. Aujand, M. C. Dolan, E. L. 
Aujand, Joe Murray, H. V. Kennedy and P. 
Devault. 

H. Angus Conners Aviation Company, Bos- 
ton, Mass.; $50,000. Incorporators, Frank S. 
Corlew and H. A. Conners. 

Morok Aeroplane Company, No. 303 Fifth 
avenue. New York City. 

The Mercury Aviation E.xhibition Company, 
$20,000, Brooklyn, N. Y. Directors: R. A. Mac- 
Gregor, of Brooklyn; James E. O'Brien and 
William A. Walirow, of Manliattan. 

Wildwood Aero Company, Wildwood, N. J., 
to promote tlie building of a compound biplane 
invented by Aviator Bowman. Officers include 
.1. Thompson Baker, president; Robert Kay, 
secretary; Wilbur Young, treasurer; O. I. 
Blackwell, solicitor. 

The Bachclder Aeroplane Company. Cleveland, 
Ohio. $20,000. J. E. Bachelder, B. J. Guthery, 
W. C. Malin. G. E. Mann and E. R. White. 

Kays Exhibition Aviators Companv, 140 
Broadway, New York City, $100,000. 

Pacific Aeroplane Company, San Francisco, 
Cal., $50,000. Incorporators include F. H. How- 
ard, A. Knieling, E. C. Fabe and R. G. Reylard. 

VANIMAN TO CROSS THE OCEAN. 

It has been definitely announced that Melvin 
Vaniman. chief engineer of tlie "America," in 
wliich Walter Wellman first essayed to reach 
the North Pole, and wliicli later lost when he 
attempted to cross the Atlantic Ocean in It, 
will again attempt to sail across the ocean, 
and this time in a ..sliip which is being built 
according to his own ideas. Tlie total expense 
of the venture will be approximately $150,000. 

His non-rigid dirigil)Ie, tlie parts of wliic'i 
are already being built, will be equipped with 
two 105-h.p. sleeve-valve Knight engines, and 



93 



AERONAUTICS 



July, igii 



will measure 268 ft. long by 47 ft. wide, ap- 
proximately the size of "America," winch was 
abandoned in midocean by the members of the 
Wellman expedition last October. Its gas ca- 
pacity will be 350,000 cu. ft., and it will be 
capable of lifting 25,000 lbs. 

"The crew will include myself," said Mr. 
Vaniman, "a wireless operator, a navigator, 
two mechanics, a cook and the cat which ac- 
companied us on the previous attempt. Tlie 
balloon will be completed on August 1, after 
which time several trial trips will be made at 
Atlantic City. The real start will be made in 
October." 

The Vaniman expedition, which is to cross 
the Atlantic Ocean in a dirigible balloon, is 
being financed by Frank A. Seiberling, presi- 
dent of the Chamber of Commerce of Akron, 
O., and of the Goodyear Rubber Company. 
Besides being a capitalist and philanthropist he 
is himself an inventor of distinction and has 
long taken an interest in aeronautics. 

Mr. Seiberling early became interested in 
the rubber industry and he invented and 
patented the quick-detachable rim for pneu- 
matic tires which has done so much to make 
automobiling pleasant and popular. Ever since 
aviation became a practical reality instead of 
a theory he has closely followed the develop- 
ment of both the aeroplane and the dirigible. 
He imported special machines for the manu- 
facture of rubberized fabric especially for the 
Vaniman dirigible and suitable for the wings 
of gasless machines and for the envelopes of 
balloons. 

Naturally, Goodyear cloth is to be used in 
the new Vaniman dirigible; of two different 
kinds of fabric — one for the balonette, and 
the other for the outer envelope. The balonette 
cloth will be two-ply, and the other ' three- 
ply. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

NOTE — Any of these books may be obtained 
directly from' AERONAUTICS, 250 West Fifty- 
fourth street. New York. 

THE AEROPLANE, by Claude Grahame- 
White and Harry Harper: Hvo., clotli. .519 pases, fully 
illustrated, published at $.i..")0 by the J. B. Lippincott 
Company. Philadelphia, I'a. To the miin who knows 
nothing about aeronautics from a technicnl st,nndpoint 
but, at the same time, has heard of "WHiite as 
one of the world-famous aviators, this book 
will be extremely interesting, both on account 
of its text and the beautiful illustrations, and 
will, in addition, not have his mind at all dis- 
abused of the greatness of "Grimy" Wliite. 
The 87 illustrations are the finest that have 
appeared in any recent book, and of these more 
than one-third are of Mr. White, of his ma- 
chine, or of both. Why the book should have 
White as author is not readily apparent, as 
all the articles but three are by other men 
such as Col. J. E. Capper, Louis Bleriot, Henry 
Farman, Howard Wright, Holt Thomas. Louis 
Paulhan, C. G. Grey and C. G. Grunhold. 

What would have been a valuable section 
of the book is a more or less complete list of 
aviators, but apparently no serious attempt 
whatever has been made to have this accurate. 
One learns from this that Xiieut. Paul Beck 
flies a Wright aeroplane, and that some "Mr. 
Humphry" recently took up Colonel Roose- 
velt. A man named "Kimball" is another 
Wright pilot, while "S. .1." Moisant flies a 
Bleriot. The fame of Ralph Jolinstone, Capt. Thonu-is S. 
Baldwin, W. Starhng Burircss, William Hilliard. Karlc 
Ovington and others has apparentlj' not 
reached Messrs. White and Harper. 

WHITE MOTLEY, by Max Pemberton; 8vo., 
cloth, 314 pages. Published by Sturgis & 
Walton Co., 31 East Twenty-seventh street. 
New York City, at $1.30 net. An absorbing 
novel, with an aeroplane of 1913 type, the 
vehicle of the hero in a hair-raising flight over 
the Alps. 



ROTATIONS FLUGMOTOREN, by Friedrich 
Hansen. Pamphlet of 30 pages, with 27 pic- 
tures, bound in paper; published at 40 cents 
by C. .J. E. Volckmann Nachf. G.m.b.H., Ber- 
lin W. 62, Germany. Special attention is given 
the Gnome, of which photographs are shown 
of every part. Other (principally German) 
rotating motors are naentioned. 

PEITT-ON VOLAR SANS AILES, par Paul 
CoUiard. Eight vol., paper, 108 pages, with 
diagrams. Published at 3 francs by Librairie 
Aeronautique, 32 rue Madame, Paris. 

Les accidents d'aviation si nombreux, et 
souvent mortels, qui viennent d'assombrir la 
fin de I'annee, appellent I'attention du public et 
surtout des specialistes de I'aviation sur le 
nouvel ouvrage qui vient de paraitre: "Peut-on 
voler sans ailes?" 

L'auteur etudie les differents modes de 
sustentation d'un corps pesant dans I'air et 
demontre la possibilite de realiser ce qu'il 
appelle: La sustentation en vitesse. 

Cet ouvrage donne lieu a un debat scienti- 
flque interessant, et tous ceux qui s'occupent 
d'aviation voudront le lire, pour prendre parti 
pour ou contre la theorie de I'Aerolet. 

FLYING APPARATUS OF THE BLOW- 
FLY, by Dr. Wolfgang Ritter. Published by 
the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D. C, 
from the Hodgkins Fund. This is the latest 
of the many free publications on aeronautical 
matters issued by the Institution; that is, a 
contribution to the morphology and physiology 
of the organs of flight in insects. It is 
illustrated with many diagrams and plates. 

BIRDFLIGHT AS THE BASIS OF AVIA- 
TION, compiled from the experiments of Otto 
Lilienthal, by Gustav Lilienthal. Large Svo., 
cloth, illustrations and plates; $2.50 net, from 
Longmans, Green & Co., Fourth avenue and 
Thirtieth street. New York City, . or from 
AERONAUTICS. Contents include: Evolution, 
introduction, the fundamental principles of 
free flight, the art of flight and dynamics, the 
force which lifts the bird in flight, general 
remarks on air resistance, the wings considered 
as levers, the energy required for wing mo- 
tion, the actual path of the wings and the 
sensible wing velocity, apparent effort of birds, 
the over-estimation of the energy requisite for 
flight, the work required for various kinds of 
flight, the foundations of flight technique, the 
air pressure on a plane surface moved per- 
pendicularly and uniformly, air pressure on a 
plane rotating surface, the center of pressure 
on the wing during the down stroke, increas- 
ing the air resistance by beating movements, 
economy in energy due to accelerated wing 
lift, the expenditure of energy for flight with- 
out locomotion (hovering), the resistance of 
the oblique movement of a plane surface, the 
energy required in forward flight with plane 
wings, the superiority of natural wings over 
plane wing surfaces, the determination of the 
wing shapes, the most favorable wing section, 
the advantages of curved wings over plane 
surfaces, the difference between plane and 
curved surfaces as regards air resistance, the 
influence of wing outlines, the determination 
of the air pressure on birds' wing surfaces, 
the air pressure on birds' wings determined 
on rotating surfaces, comparison of the direc- 
tion of the air pressures, the work necessary 
for forward flight with curved wings, birds 
and wind, the air pressure on a bird's wing 
measured in the wind, the increase of lifting 
effect due to wind, air pressure on the bird's 
wing in calm air deduced from measurements 
in wind, the energy required for flight on calm 
air as deduced from the wind experiments, 
surprising phenomena observed when experi- 
menting with curved surfaces in the wind, the 
possibility of sailing flight, the bird as our 
model, the balloon as an obstacle, calculations 
of the work required for flight, the construc- 
tion of flying apparatus, concluding remarks, 
addendum and index. 



I 



21 



AERONAUTICS 



July, igii 




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New York City 



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Published by 

AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc 

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ER«ST L. JONES, Editor J. C. BURKHART, Ass't Editor 

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ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVES: 

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No. 48 J U L Y . 1 9 1 1 Vol. 9, No. 1 

COPYRIGHT. 1811. AERONAUTICS PRESS, INC. 

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice 
New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

C AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month 
All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertis- 
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AGENTS rOR "AERONAUTICS." 

NEW YORK — American News Co., 15 Park PL; 
Brentano's, 5th Ave. and 27th St. 

ST. LOUIS — Aeronautic Supply Co., 3932 Olive 
St.; H. F. Mardorf, 4068 Olive St. 

JERSEY CITY — A. W. Castellanos, 231 Vir- 
ginia Ave. 

BOSTON— I. N. Chappell, 26 Court St.; J. F. 
Murphy, South Terminal Station. 

SAN FRANCISCO — Foster & Orear, Ferry 
Bldg. ; San Francisco Stationery Co., 20 
Geary St.; California Aero Mfg. «& Supply 
Co., 441 Goldengate Ave. 

CINCINNATI — J. R. Hawley News Co., 11 Ar- 

MEMPHIS— R. M. Mansford, 26 S. Main St. 
CHICAGO — P. O. News Co., 178 Dearborn St.; 

H. S. Renton, 49 Wabash Ave. 
BOISE — Rawl's, 917 Main St. 
PORTLAND, ORE. — S. S. Rich, 267 Morrison 

St. 
SALT LAKE CITY — Sheppard, the Magazine 

Man. 
DALLAS — S. W. Aeronautic Supply Co., 214 

Main St. 
LOS ANGELES — Wlialen'.s News Agency, 233 

S. Spring St. 
WASHINGTON — Brentano's. 
BERLIN — W. H. Kuhl, 82 Koniggratzerstr., 

S.W. 
PARIS — Brentano's, Place de I'Opera. 
LONDON — Aeronautics, 27 Chancery Lane: Cieo. 

H. Scragg, 12 Newgate St., London, E. C. 
BERNE — A. Francke's Sortiment. 

Frank A. Krause, 21 years old, of 4325 East 
Eighteenth avenue, Denver, Col., is building a 
big machine, similar to the Wright, he saf.'s, 
with a a wing spread of 32 ft. The planes will 
be 6 ft. the other way. It will be equipped 
with a 40-60-h.p. Elbridge engine. 



Frank Fitzsimons, who has been flyin.g witli 
an Elbridge "Featherweight" at Mineola during 
the pa.st month, has two new machine. Both 
are biplanes of the Curtiss type, equipped with 
Elbridge Aero Special engines. 



WHAT IS THE MATTER 
WITH AMERICA? 



WHAT is the matter with aviation in 
America? 
That there is something seriously the 
matter no one who will take the trouble 
to compare the indifferent state of affairs here 
with the brilliant achievements in Europe can 
deny. Americans returning from abroad have 
expressed themselves as astounded at the 
progress and activity there; while foreigners, 
coming here, can scarcely understand our 
lukewarm interest and lack of progress. In 
1908. the epoch-making flights of the Wright 
brothers in France and at Fort Myer electri- 
fied the world, but, in the short space of 
three years, we have changed places from 
the head to the foot of the procession. In the 
present year of grace, 1911, progress seems 
to be at a standstill in this country and not 
one first-class event is scheduled for the pres- 
ent summer. What is the matter? 

A diagnosis of this interesting case would 
seem to point to one of three ailments, or, 
possibly, a complication of these. 

The first symptom that attracts our atten- 
tion is that of a frigid condition of the pedal 
extremities, commonly called "cold feet." 

"What!" you say, "impossible that America, 
the mother of the aeroplane and foster-mother 
of the automobile, should suffer from such a 
malady!" 

Well, let's see. Of course, you, hot-blooded 
young would-be aviator, who have just spent 
your last two bits for a copy of this invalu- 
able magazine, cannot understand such a con- 
dition, but let's put it to the test. Drop in 
at your aero club or aeronautical society to- 
night, being careful to wear a wrist watch, 
propeller scarf pin or any other article that 
will indicate that you are a "bug." If your 
club is of the "common, or garden variety," 
there will probably be, among the assembled 
"enthusiasts," several men of means; maybe 
one or more millionaires. Do not "butt in" on 
any of the learned discussions on "centers 
of pressure" or "cyclonic swirls," but, biding 
your time, innocently ask one of the afore- 
said gentlemen of means what style of plane 
he drives. Do not show your surprise when 
he tells you that he considers aeroplaning al- 
together too dangerous at the present time, 
but that he expects to "get into the game 
when aeroplanes are a little bit safer." 

After having satisfied your curiosity bj- 
further questions, quietly slip out and blow 
yourself to a beer. While pensively sipping 
the same, you will begin to wonder why these 
gentlemen who take no active interest in 
aviation belong to aero clubs at all. Do not 
rush back to the club, but wait until to-mor- 
row morning, buy a copy of the morning paper, 
read about the clvib meeting, observe the 
names that are mentioned and your question 
will be answered. 

The second symptom that we notice is an 
extremely nervous condition of the trousers 
pocket. In other words, aviation, outside of 
the exhibition business, does not seem to be 
sufficiently profitable to attract the attention 
and interest of men of capital. They do not 
see in it a sufficient future, from a business 
point of view, to warrant their encouragement 
by offering prizes and inaugurating contests. 
As a sport — well, as a spoi-f, aviation must 
rise to the high level of other sports in this 
country — automobile racing, for instance — and 
show substantial returns in the form of gate 
receipts, otherwise it may be neglected. Has 
anyone noticed any strenuous efforts being 
made in this country to build a machine that 
will give us a ghost of a show to win this 
year's Coupe Tnternationate <l'Arintion? 

In fact, the interest shown was so slight 
that the elimination contests had to be dis- 
pensed with. Why? Surely not because our 
sportsmen and men of wealth have had to 



25 



AERONAUTICS 



July, iQii 



spend too much for fizz water and furbelows 
at the coronation, doncherknow! Surely not 
because aviators and builders over here could 
not spare the time from exhibitions at county 
fairs to take part in this contest of pure 
sport! Oh, dear, no! 

The third and probably most pronounced 
symptom seems to be a species of klepto- 
mania. It is a known fact tiiat America did 
not take hold of the automobile seriously until 
it had been developed in Europe, and then we 
appropriated wliat we needed. It is barely 
possible that the same high purpose has had 
some effect in producing the deplorable state 
of affairs that now obtains in tliis country 
with respect to aviation. Our army, or Con- 
gress, at least, seems to hold this view, for 
the opinion has frequently been expressed by 
high officials that it is advisable to wait and 
see what foreign nations do before "wasting 
money on aeroplanes." A very economical, if 
rather unsafe, policy, indeed; but suppose that 
we get caught napping sometime? Suppose 
that one of our diplomatic toes — the Monroe 
Doctrine, the Philippines, Panama — and they 
all have corns on them — gets badly trodden 
upon? What are we going to do? "Oli," you 
say, "we have Fifteen Thousand (capitals, 
please) soldiers down in Texas and — three 
aeroplanes!" Ahem! So we have! I had 
quite forgotten them for the moment. 

Well, these are the symptoms. What shall 
the remedy be? What shall those who are 
genuinely interested in aeronautics do to put 
America abreast of the times? Surely the 



relatively few recent disasters in Europe have 
not given us "cold feet"; neither are we such 
poor sportsmen that the almighty dollar will 
be allowed to overshadow this new sport! 
Then lefs wake up and do something! 

Til ere are several dozen aero clubs in this 
country whose members number several thou- 
sand. These clubs have been formed for the 
advancement of aeronautics — at least their 
constitutions and by-laws say so. Cannot tiiese 
clubs, working separately or together, organize 
cross country and inter-city flights with 
prizes sufficiently large to induce keen compe- 
tition? Are we so poor or parsimonious that 
we can't get up fifty or a hundred tliousand 
dollars in prizes for a race between New York 
and Chicago, New York and St. Louis, New 
York and Atlanta, New York and Washing- 
ton, or even between New York and Atlantic 
City? Or, better still, a circuit including sev- 
eral large cities? 

Tell us not in mournful numbers that the 
Summer and Fall are to pass without some 
big aviation event in America! Let our pub- 
lic-spirited citizens, backed by our public- 
spirited newspaper and aero clubs, get together 
and show the world that America is not "tak- 
ing the count," aeronautlcally speaking, but 
intends to wear the championship belt again. 

As the country woman said when she saw 
her husband hugging the hired girl, "Some- 
thing must be did!" 

R. E. SCOTT. 



DETROIT CLUB'S MEMBERS TOURNAMENT 



THE first aero club in America to take an 
active part in arousing interest among 
its members, is the Aero Club of Michi- 
gan, located at Detroit. In a most prac- 
tical way this club took a definite step in ad- 
vance when it obtained a Wright aeroplane for 
the use of its members during the three days 
of June 19-21, with Frank Coffyn as pilot. The 
machine has been purchased by a syndicate 
headed by Russell A. Alger, and two other 
combinations of the same nature are now or- 
ganizing to purchase two other Wright ma- 
chines for purely sporting purposes. 

45 Flig-hts Without Incident. 

Mr. Coffyn made 45 flights, ranging from 21 
to 5 minutes each, and took up 41 passengers. 
Many nationally prominent men and women 
had trips at this first club flying tournament, 
among whom were, naturally, Mr. and Mrs. 
Russell A. Alger, Mr. and Mrs. Fred M. Alger, 
S. D. Waldon, officer of the Packard Motor 
Co., Mary Mannering Wadsworth, her husband 
and their three children, aged 5, 12 and 15, 
and C. H. Taylor, a well-known automobile en- 
gineer. C. B. DuCharme, secretary of the club, 
E. W. Lewis, secretary of the Timken-Detroit 
Axle Co., R. D. Chapin, a famous automobile 
designer; Wm. E. Metzger and Howard E. 
Coffyn, motor car manufacturers, were some 
of the others who enjoyed flights from the golf 
grounds of the Grosse Pointe Country Club. 
A most beautiful flight was made out over the 
lake in front of the club by Aviator Coffyn 
alone, a demonstration of the capabilities of 
the machine in spectacular flying. 

Offers were made some time ago by the 
Wriglit Company to various aero clubs 
throughout the land offering tliem the use of a 
Wright machine and the services of an aviator 
for the taking up of club members in the hope 
of arousing a greater interest among the 
people who have the means to buy aeroplanes 
for sporting purposes only, but outside of the 
Aero Club of Michigan not a single club took 



advantage of the offer or saw its way clear to 
attempting anytliing similar under club aus- 
pices. 

The aero clubs of the country, it is regret- 
table, though unnecessary, to mention, liave 
been quite too fond of parlor aviation, and that 
condition still obtains. It is barely possible, 
however, that the experience of tiie Detroit 
club will result in a mild sort of enthusiasm 
here and there. Nothing very startling, how- 
ever, may be looked for. 

The congratulations of Aeronautics are ex- 
tended to the Aero Club of Micliigan and its 
members and guests wlio were privileged to 

fly. 



TESTS OF WOOD STRUTS 

(Continued from page '') 

TABLE V. 

. No. of 
Material. Formula. Tests. 

Whitewood P ^ 18,209 — 1 

Basswood P = 16,864 — 1 

Spruce P = 12,832 — 7 

Honduras mahogany P = l.S,848 — 3 

Parana; P = 20,350 — 3 

Walnut P = 14,393 — 3 

Ash P = 11,007 — 2 

Hickory P = 16,864 — 3 

12 



36 



AERONAUTICS 



July, igii 



HOW TO BUILD A CURTISS-TYPE BIPLANE 



By G. H. Godloy. 



(.Continued from May number) 



NOTE. An error lios been noticed in the draic- 
inr; on page 101 o/ the March, 1011, number of 
(I cross section of the struts. The front of the 
stmt is marked 1 inch "radius." This should 
rend 1 inch ••diameter.'' 



However, as air Is so unsubstantial an ele- 
ment, a propeller work in it has considerable 
"slip"; that is, it does not actually advance 
its full rated pitch at each turn, but onlv a 
more or less great per cent, of it. The bet- 
ter the propeller, the less the slip. 



SOINIE advice on tlie selection of a motor 
was given in the first article, wliich ap- 
peared in the February number. It was 
there stated tliat any fairly liglit auto- 
mobile motor which would actually develop 
30-horsepower at 1,000 revolutions per minute 
would fly the machine, and that the total 
weight of the power plant should not exceed 
400 pounds. Considerable weight may be 
saved on an automobile engine by removing 
the exhaust manifold and tne fly wheel, the 
propeller taking the place of the latter. A 
lightweight aeronautic radiator should be 
used in preference to the automobile type. 

When placing the engine in position, it 
should be remembered that the complete ma- 
chine, with operator on board, should bal- 
ance on a point about 1 14 feet back of the 
front edge of the plane. As the operator and 
motor represent much the larger part of the 
total weight, the balance may easily be regu- 
lated by moving them forward or back slightly, 
as the case may require. Of course, the en- 
gine should be far enough back to let the pro- 
peller swing clear of the planes. 

The installation of the engine should have 
no difliculties for anyone who has had experi- 
ence in automobile work. The engine rests 
on the two engine beams, just as on the frame 
of an automobile; the propeller takes the place 
of the fly wheel. Just in front of the engine 
is the best place for the gasoline tank, which 
is often cylindrical in shape and should hold 
about ten gallons. A cigar-shaped motorcycle 
tank might be used, suspended from the upper 
plane. Be sure there is a fair amount of drop 
to the pioe before it reaches the carburetor. 
In front of the tank is the radiator. The El 
Arco people make a twin radiator, each half 
being placed on either side of the operator 
to assist in cooling. 

Controls can be arranged to suit the pref- 
erences of the operator. Usually the magneto 
or battery switch is on the steering column, 
just below the wheel; there may be also an 
additional one of the "knife" variety placed on 
the seat. The throttle and spark advance may 
be by pedals or by levers at the side of the 
seat. Another pedal should work a brake on 
the front wheel. The brake shoe is a strip of 
sheet .steel, hinged or pivoted at one end 
to the front end of the skid, and pressed 
ag-ainst the wheel by a bamboo rod running 
dfrect to pedal. An emergency brake can also 
be made by loosely bolting a stout bar of steel 
on the skid near the rear end; one end of the 
bar is connected to a lever near the seat, so 
that when this lever is pulled back the other 
end of the bar is forced to dig into the ground. 

DESIGXIXG THE PROPELLER. 
The propeller deserves careful consideration; 
it is as important in an aeroplane as in a 
high speed boat. The terms used to describe 
aeroplane propellers are the same as those 
for boat propellers. The pitch is the dis- 
tance the propeller theoretically forces the 
aeroplane ahead at each revolution. The pro- 
peller cuts through the air just as a screw 
cuts through wood. At each turn a screw 
advances the distances between adjacent 
threads, called the pitch. The pitch of a pro- 
peller is harder to measure, as the propeller 
blades are only narrow sectors of the com- 
plete screw thread; but it is still a very 
definite quantity. 




The aeroplane should have a sneed of 35 to 
40 miles an hour, at say, 1,200 revolutions; 
with these figures it is easy to work out the 
proper pitch for the propeller. 

40x5,280x100 „,, • * , 

— „ , ' ^ ^ — ;r-=:3i^ approximately. 
60x1, 200x 85 

Explanation: 40 (miles an hour) times 5,280 
(feet in one mile) divided by 60 (minutes in one 
hour) gives the speed of the aeroplane in 
feet per minute, dividing this by 1,200 (rev- 
olutions per minute) gives the number of feet 
advance for each revolution. The 100/85 
allows for 15 per cent. slip. The result, for 
this particular case, is a pitch of about 3*4 
feet. P'ortv miles an hour is the maximum 
speed to be expected; the number of revolu- 
tions of the engine should be that at which 
it works to the best advantage. 



37 



AERONAUTICS 



July, iQii 



For a machine of this .size and power the 
propeller should be 6 feet in diameter. There 
are a number of makes of propellers on the 
market, but as the prices average $50. many 
amateurs will prefer to make their own. 

FINDING THE PITv;H ANGLE. 

Obviously a point near the tip of a propeller 
moves faster than a point nearer the hub — • 
just as in rounding a curve, the outer wheel 
of an automobile goes farther than the inner 
wheel. Therefore, if these two parts of the 
blade are to advance through the air equally, 
the inner part must be set -at a greater angle 
than the outer "art. 

Each part of the blade must be set at such 
an angle that at each revolution it will move 
forward through the air a distance equal to 
the pitch. The pitch divided by the circum- 
ference of the circle described by any part 
of the blade will give a quantity known as 
the "tangent" of an angle for that particular 
part. The angle corresponding to that tan- 
gent can be found in a book of trigonometrical 
tables. 

For example, take. that part of the blade of a 
31/^-foot pitch propeller, which is 6 inches 
from the center of tlie hub. 

-?^^^^^i|=^=1.1141, tangent of 48°5' 
6 X 2Pi 

Here, i^xl2 reduces the pitch to inches; 
6x2 Pi. (Pi^.3.1416) is the circumference of the 
circle described by the point 6 inches from the 
center of the liub. . 

However, in order to give the propeller blade 
a grip on the air, it must be set at an angle 
slightly greater than these figures would indi- 
cate; that is, it is given an "angle of inci- 
dence," just like tlie main planes of the ma- 
chine. This additional angle runs from 2°30' 
to 4°, depending on the speed at which that 
part of the blade travels; the greater the 
speed the less the angle. 

Here is the complete set of figures for a 
blade of 31/2 -foot pitch, the aivgles being 
worked out for sections of the blade 3 inches 
apart: 

Pitch 
angle. 

4S°.5' 

36°36' 

29°7' 

24°!' 

20°24' 

17°40' 

15°40' 

13°54' 

12°40' 

11°27' 

These angles are used in the accompanying 
drawing, .showing one blade of the propeller 
and its cross-sections. 

It should be understood that these calcu- 
lations apply only to that type of propeller 
known as tlie "true" pitch, as distinguished 
from tlie "variable" pitch. Tlie variable pitch 
nropeller has advantages when properly made, 
but there are only aljout three men in the 
United States who know how to make them 



lad.. 


Tan- 


ins. 


gent. 


6 


1.1141 


9 


.7427 


12 


.5571 


1.5 


.4457 


18 


.3719 


21, 


.3183 


24 


.2785 


27 


.2476 


30 


.2228 


33 


.2025 





Final 


Add. 


angle. 





48° 





37° 


3°13' 


32°20' 


3°9' 


27°10' 


3°6' 


23°30' 


3°0' 


20°40' 


2°50' 


18°30' 


2°46' 


16°40' 


2°45' 


15°25' 


2°43' 


14°10' 



matter of per- 
rdly capable of 



properly. Their design is a 
sonal skill and experience, h; 
jexoression in a formula. 

The laminated blocks of wood from which 
the propeller is carved is l)uilt up of eight 
:boards, four of tliem of spruce y?-incli thicli, 
and four of maple 14-incli tliick. Otlier woods 
are fi'e<iuently used. 

Spruce is tlie strongest wood known in pro- 
portion of its weight, Init is soft and cracks 
easily. IMaple is tough and hard; the two outer 
layers make a good backing for tne steel 
flanges at the liub, and the rear layer extends 
the full length of tli(> tliin rear edges of tlie 
•blades. 

The hoards sliould l)e (> inches wide and 6 
feet 1 inch long. They must be glued together 
with great care. The glue must be of even 
consistency and smoothly applied, and the 
boards must tlien be clamiied under great pres- 
sure to a solid block of wood, so that tliey can- 
not assume a curve. For tliis purpose the rib 
press described in a former issue will come in 



handy. The blocks are laid together and used 
as a liase, and the boards clamped down on 
top of tliem. After the glue is thoroughly 
dried the laminated block may be cut out to 
the outline of tlie propeller on a power saw. 

ACCURACY BY USE OF TEMPLATES. 

The rest of the work must be done by hand, 
witli spokesliave, plane and gouge. For finish- 
ing, pieces of 1)roken glass ^re often used to 
scrape the wood to a smootn surface, followed 
by sandpaper. Templates .sliould be made from 
the drawings to use in finishing the work 
accurately. Draw the sections out full size 
on sheets of cardboard or tin and cut out along 
the curves, finally dividing the sheet into two 
parts, one for the upper side and one for the 
lower side. Care should be taken to get the 
sides of the templates square, and when the 
templates are used the propeller should be 
laid on a perfectly flat and true bleck. Each 
template should be carefully marked to indi- 
cate what part of the blade it fits. 

The hulj should be of the same diameter as 
the flange on the engine crank shaft to which 
the fly wheel was bolted, and should have its 
bolt holes drilled to correspond. In case the 
fly wheel of the engine is keyed to the shaft, 
some other expedient must be found. It may 
be possible to cut out the hub of the fly wheel 
and bolt the propeller to its web or spokes. 

The drawing shows the rear (concave) side 
of the propeller. From the viewpoint of a 
man standing in its wind and facing forward, 
it turns to the left, or anti-clockwise. On 
many of the propellers on the market the 
curved edges goes first; this type may have 
advantages, but the straight front edge is 
easier for the ainateur to make. 

The engine is started by swinging the pro- 
peller, and this is an operation requiring far 
more caution than ordinary cranking. The 
man who is doing the cranking should be care- 
ful to keep both hands on the same blade .and 
always to pull the blades downward — never 
upward. With the switch off, first turn the 
propeller over several times to fill the cylin- 
ders with gas, leaving it just ahead of dead 
center of one of the cylinders and with one 
blade extending upward and to the left at 
about 45°. After the switch has been put on, 
take the left blade with both hands and swing 
it downward, getting out of the way of the 
following blade as ciuickly as possible with 
dual or battery ignition alone it is possible to 
start by merely "cranking" and then closing 
the switch. 

TESTING FOR SPEED AND THRUST. 

The first thing to be done after the propeller 
is finished and mounted on the engine is to 
test the combination for speed and thrust. 
From these two quantities can be figured the 
power that the engine is delivering. The in- 
struments necessary are a spring balance that 
will read to 300 pounds or over; a revolution 
counter, such as may be had for a dollar or so, 
and a watch. One end of the spring balance is 
fastened to the front end of the skid and the 
other to a stake firmly driven in the ground a 
couple of feet back. The wlieels should be set 
on boards so that they will not offer any re- 
sistance to the forward thrust. When the 
engine is started the spring balance will show 
the forward thrust of the propeller. 

At the same time the thrust is being read 
another man should be counting the number 
of revolutions the engine is turning per min- 
ute. A small hole should have jireviously 
been countersunk in the center of the pro- 
peller hub, to receive the rubber tip of the 
revolution counter. The observer stands be- 
hind the propeller, watch 'in one hand and with the 
other firmly pressiiifr the counter afrainst the propeller. 
The horsepower delivered is liRiired as follows a.s.suni- 
ing for the example a thrust of >M pounds at l.iOO 
revolution*: 
'i.-)0 X 1^00 X sjx 100 
;M,000 X 8.i" 

As before the 10()/8.j makes allowance for the slip of the 
propeller. The :W.00( is the niunber of foot-pounds per 
minute oiiual to one hor.sepower, and the 3^ is the pitch 
of the propeller. 



37 H. P. 



28 



AERONAUTICS My, igii 

FLOCK OF BIRDMEN CIRCLE EUROPE 



900 MIIiSS POB $90,000. 

AS the magazine goes to press more than a 
dozen daring men are speeding against 
^time around a 917-mile circuit over tlie 
whole of Europe in the biggest of the 
five wonderful cross-country contests that have 
been held this year from Prance and Germany. 

Imagine fifty actual starters, leaving one 
after the other like homing pigeons, biplanes 
and monoplanes, piloted by the world's best 
flyers, on a tour comparable to an automobile 
road race from New York to Chicago, witli 
"controls" at various points along the way! 

There aie nine stages to the circuit, besides 
a number of compulsory stops, as follows: 

Paris-Liege, Belgium, 212 miles. 

Liege-Spa-Liege, 37V2 miles. 

Spa-Utrecht, Holland, 112 Va miles. 

Utrecht-Brussels, Belgium, 93% miles. 

Brussels-Roubaix, Prance, SGV-i miles. 

Roubaix-Calais, France, 621/2 miles. 

Calais-London, England, 93 Y^ miles. 

London-Calais, 93i/4 miles. 

Calais to Paris, 156 1/4 miles. 

The total of prizes in the race, organized by 
the Paris Journal, London Standard and Brus- 
sels Petit Bleu, and for which these papers 
offer munificent prizes, as well as do municipal- 
ities along the route, is more than $91,000. 

On June IS the race started and seven 
reached Liege the saine day, despite the furious 
winds. Many dropped by the wayside to coine 
on later or to return disconsolate to that dear 
Paris. Eleven arrived the following day. 

On the 21st fifteen flew the Spa-Liege stage 
and seven got to Utrecht on the next day, 
where they rested and made exhibition flights 
until the 26th, when they started for Brussels, 
where seven arrived safely by the time the 
control closed. The best time was made by 
Naval Lieut. Jean Conneau (Bleriot). 37 hours, 
21 minutes. This is not the actual time, but 
the elapsed time figured, since the official start 
and considering the controls. 

Fatalities Mark the Start. 

Three fatalities and a number of otlier avia- 
tors were injured the first day in landing at 
various points. 

THE DEAD. 

CAPTAIN PKIN'CETAU — Planes caught fire just 
as he got in the air. Before he could unstrap 
himself he was burned and fell d' ad to the 
ground. He was one of 12 officers in the 
race. 

THEODORE LE MARTIN — Fell in the high 
wind at the very start and dropped in a 
clump of trees. The steering gear of his 
• Bleriot was blamed. 

LANDRON — His Pischoff machine cauglit fire 
in the air and the gasoline tank exploded. 
Enveloped in flames, the aviator jumped and 
was burned to death on the ground lielow. 

MAinr OTHER AVIATORS KIIiliED. 

HAVANA, Cuba, June 5. — Marcel Penot died 
of injuries received in making a landing with 
his Curtiss-copy biplane at San Antonio de los 
Banos, near Havana, a few days before. He 
apparently was gliding all right, but the ma- 
chine struck on the front elevator and one of 
Penot's ribs punctured his lung. Only the 
front outriggers and elevator were broken. He 
was filling an exhibition contract for P. 
Brauner & Company. Louis Rosenbaum took 
his place after repairing the machine. The 
Hall-Scott engine was not damaged. 

JOHANNISTHAL, Germany, June 9. — Georg 
Schendel and his passenger. Chief Mechanic 
Voss, of tlie Dorner factory, were killed by 
losing control, consensus of opinion by experts 
states, of the Uorner monoplane in a high wind 
while up after the 2-man altitude record. Hi.s 
barograpli sliowed he had broken the record 
with 5,800 feet. 



ST. PETERSBURG, May 17.— An aviator 
named Vladimir Smith died in a hospital from 
injuries received in a fall from a height of 120 
feet in giving an exhibition with a Sommer 
biplane. 

VOGHERA, Italy, May 28. — Ciro Cirri, an 
Italian aviator, died from injuries received dur- 
ing a flight. 

STRASBURG, Germany, May 23. — Carl 
Laemmlin was killed by falling from his aero- 
plane when it hit the tree tops after he made 
a turn over the crowd to avoid another ma- 
chine. 

ROME, Italy, June 8. — Marra was killed by 
striking a high power electric wire in making 
a turn and was killed by shock, one report has 
it. Another is to the eft'ect that a strong wind 
overturned the machine. 

WIENER - NEUSTADT, Austria. — Vincenz 
Wiesenbach was killed by his own built mono- 
plane, which doubled up at a height of 50 feet. 

NICE, France, June 5. — Lieut. Bague, the 
French aviator, who holds the over-sea flight 
record, left Nice on a flight to Corsica. No 
news has ever been received of the airman, 
and it is feared that he may have fallen into 
the sea. 

Torpedo boats have been sent out from Nice 
and Corsica to search for him. The distance 
from the French inainland to the island of 
Corsica is about 130 miles. 

He expected to continue from here and fly 
across the Mediterranean to Tunis. 

l,166-MIi;i: GERMAN CIRCUIT. 

An aeroplane race, 1,166 miles, around Ger- 
many for $25,000 prize, offered by a Berlin 
newspaper, and other prizes aggregating $106,- 
250, was interesting enough to have 25 entries. 

Seven actually started on June 11 from Ber- 
lin, five of which carried passengers. 

Lindpaintner (Farman) was only one to get 
tlii-ough the first stage, to Magdeburg, 140 kil., 
in 2 \\., 11 m., the same day, thougli the second 
and third days saw two more reach here. 

The following day four more started from 
Berlin, all with passengers, and these reached 
IMagdeburg. One man who started on the 11th 
got to Magdeburg on the 12th, though not in 
time to start with the four. Another got there 
on the 13th. 

On the 13th five left for Schwerin, all of 
whom reached this place. 182 kil. 

The remaining stages were to Hamburg (120 
kil.), Kiel (110 kil.), Luneburg (153 kil), Han- 
over (115 kil.), Munster (180 kil.), Cologne 
(168 kil.), Dortmund (140 kil.). Cassel (153 
kil.), Nordhausen (102 kil.), Halberstadt (112 
kil.), back to Berlin (203 kil.). 

Various stops of several days having inter- 
vened at each place, in June 26 six aviators left 
Hanover for Munster, though two of these only 
have made all the sclieduled flights, each stage 
to this point having totaled 396 miles. 

If some aero club should get up a race like 
tliis in America the surprise would be so great 
that a large number would succumb to the 
shock. 

NINE HUNDRED MII.ES IN POUR DAYS. 

The Paris-Rome-Tiirin Race. 

This race was organized by the "Petit 
Parisien," of Paris, and was for prizes amount- 
ing to $100,000. The aviators were permitted 
to land as often as they pleased, they having 
from Mav 28 to June 15 in wliich to cover the 
distance of 1,300 miles. Tlie race was in three 
stages, the first from Paris to Nice being a 
distance of 538 miles witli recording stations 
established at Dijon. Lyons and Avignon. The 
second stage, Nice to Rome, was 372 miles, the 
recording stations being at Genoa and Pisa. 
In the last stage the aviators expected to re- 
trace part of their course and reach Turin by 
way of Florence and Bologna, the distance of 
this stage being 391 milps. 



29 



AERONAUTICS 



July, ipii 



Of the twenty-one entrants only twelve 
faced the line. Vedrines, the winner of the 
Paris-Madrid race, had not returned in time 
for the start. 

The Race. 

The first stage of the race began at 6 A. M. 
on the morning of Sunday, May 28, when 
Garros (Bleriot, 50 Gnome) crossed the line 
closely followed bv Lieut. Conneau (Bleriot, 
50 Gnome). Lieut. Conneau flew under the 
name of Beaumont in the Paris-Madrid race. 
They were followed in the following order 
by the other ten starters: Vidart, (Deperdus- 
sin, 50 Gnome); Kimmerling, (Sommer, 50 
Gnome); Manissero, (Bleriot, 50 Gnome); Frey, 
(Morane, 50 Gnome); Weymann, (Nieuport, 
70 Gnome); Level, (Savary, 70 Labor); Gaget. 
(Morane, 50 Gnome); Bathalt (Sommer, 50 
Gnome) ; Bielovucic, (Voisin, 70 Gnome) and 
Molla, (Sommer, 50 Gnome). 

Lieut. Conneau and Garros alternated in the 
lead all the way. They were the only ones 
to reach Avignon the first day, Conneau tak- 
ing 12 hrs, 43 min., 51 sec. and Garros 13 hr., 
38 min., 32 sec. 

Of the twelve starters four reached Nice 
(538 miles), the rest abandoning the race as 
the results of accidents. Lieut. Conneau was 
first in 37 hr., 19 min., 51 sec; Garros second 
in 37 hr., 57 min., 50 sec; Frey third in 50 hr.. 
2 min., 19 sec, and Vidart fourth in 76 hr., 9 
min., 36 sec Onlv Conneau and Garros ar- 
rived the following day, the 29th. The other 
two followed later. 

Lieut. Conneau increased his lead in the 
stage from Nice to Rome (372 miles), arriving 
there May 31, after changing his motor. His 
total time was 82 hr., 5 min.; Garros was sec- 
ond, 106 hr., 16 min.; Frey third, 132 hr., 41 
min.; and Vidart fourth in 171 hi'., 13 min. 

Bad weatlier kept the aviators in Rome for 
some time; finally Frey started out on Monday 
morning, June 12, but returned on account of 
the fog. The next day he started again in 
spite of warnings. After landing at Casti- 
glione to inquire his way, he was not heard of 
for some time until he was found in the woods 
where he had fallen, near Ronciglione. Both 
his arms and legs were broken. Tiie other 
aviators were forced to abandon the idea of 
completing the circuit. 

FlilES 80 MIIiES AN HOUR. 
Gordon Bennett Entries. 

Flying in the French elimination trials to 
select the Gordon Bennett team, Alfred Le- 
blanc, with a 100-h.p. Bleriot, called the 
"Bleriot 23," beat all speed records up to 150 
kiloms. Five kiloms. were covered in 2 min., 
24 sec, a speed of 125 k.p.h., the speed record 
for the world. This was on June 12, at 
Etampes. 



The supporting surface totals but 9 sq. 
meters; weight ready to ily, 315 kilos.; spread, 
9 meters. The propeller is 2.3 meters pitch by 
2.5 meters diam., turning at 1,100. 
The new records are as follows: 

5 kiloms 2 m. 24 s. 

10 kiloms 4 m. 51 s. 

20 kiloms 9 m. 46.2 s. 

30 kiloms 14 m. 42 s. 

40 kiloms...". 19 m. 37 s. 

50 kiloms 24 m. 30.8 s. 

100 kiloms 48 m. 58.2 s. 

150 kiloms 1 h. 13 m. 35 s. 

Fastest speed, 125 k.p.h. [77.6 m.p.h.] 
It is expected that there will be thirteen 
aeroplanes in the Gordon Bennett aviation race 
to be held July 1 at Eastchurch, on the Isle of 
Sheppey. These are as follows: 
France — • 

Alfred Leblanc (100-h.p. Bleriot). 
E. Nieuport (70-h.p. Nieuport). 
L. Chevalier (70-h.p. Nieuport). 
Emile Aubrun is substitute with a Deper- 
dussin. Nieuport, on June 16, flew a distance 
of 145 kilometers at the rate of 80 miles an 
hour. Leblanc's best speed in the 1910 Gordon 
Bennett was 67.8 m.p.h. 

Germany — The names of the German entries 
have not been given out. Lindpaintner is pos- 
sibly the best man, and he has been flying a 
Sommer monoplane, as well as Farman bi- 
planes. 
England — • 

Alec Ogilvie (30-h.p. "Baby" Wright). 
G. Hamel (100-h.p. Bleriot). 
A third representative is to be named yet. 
Austria — But one man has been selected out 
of the three, Yosef Flesch. 

New 2-Man Record. 

On June 12 Nieuport, and a friend, beat his 
own world's passenger speed records at 
Chalons, as follows; 

5 kil 2 m. 52.8 s. 

10 kil 5 m. 44.8 s. 

20 kil 11 m. 23.2 s. 

30 kil 17 m. 2.4 s. 

40 kil 22 m. 35.8 s. 

50 kil 28 m. 9.8 s. 

100 kil 1 h. 6 m. 47.8 s. 

150 kil 1 h. 28 m. 24.8 s. 

Fastest speed, 108 k.p.li. [67 m.p.h.] 

New 2-Man Altitude Record. 

Helmut Hirtli, in a Rumpler-Etrich mono- 
plane, established on June 6 tlie new 2-man 
world altitude recoi-d of 1.600 meters. This is 
the third time he has made a world passenger 
height record. His machine has a Bosch- 
equipped Daimler motor of 65 horsepower, 4 
cylinders, vertically arranged. 



Maximotor makers, Detroit, have tripled their 
capacity in the last two months and are put- 
ting on more men every week. Their present 
program calls for the building of 300 motors 
this season. 

They are now specializing on their 40-50-h.p. 
4-cylinder, 5-in. bore by 5-in. stroke, and their 
60-75-h.p., 6-cylinder, 5-in. bore by 5-in. stroke. 

Their present quarters are too small for tlie 
work, in spite of the fact tliat they have given 
up building marine speed engines to devote^ 
themselves to aerial motors. Plans are now 
being arranged for the building of a new fac- 
tory. . 

While Louisville may not be the actual cen- 
ter of the aeroplane manufacturing industry in 
the United States, it by no means is on the ex- 
treme outer rim, for already the enterprising 
young firm of R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., scarcely 
three years old, has had to enlarge its quarter^ 
to accommodate the rapidly increasing busi- 
ness that is coming its way. This firm, which 
has been manufacturing aeroplanes and aero- 
nautical supplies since its birth, has just leased 
another three-story building two doors north 
of its present location which will be used ex- 
clusively for the assembling of aeroplanes. 



The new addition increases their floor space to 
more than 20,000 square feet, all of which is 
badly needed, as ordei-s are coming in rapidly 
for their machine, the Gray Eagle. 

This firm also lately has leased a smooth 
tract of land embracing 93 acres for an avia- 
tion camp. Three purchasers of Gray Eagle 
biplanes are now being taught to operate their 
machines tliere and several other builders of 
aeroplanes are expecting to bring their craft 
for trials at an early date. 



Everything from a nut to a complete power 
plant, or a complete machine, is listed in the 
catalogue of the E. J. Willis Co., 85 Chambers 
street. New York. Tliis was the first eastern 
concern to carry a line of aeronautical supplies, 
to which they have kept adding as the state 
of the art advanced, so that now they are in 
a position to fill orders for anything one could 
imagine in their line. 

That tills has been no little task is well 
understood by those wlio have followed the 
rapid progress in the art of aviation closely. 
To those who have not, it will be a revela- 
tion to see this progress so clearly indicated 
as it is in this catalogue. 



30 



AERONAUTICS 



July, iQil 




AERO CI.UB HAS OWN HOME. 




Aero Club of America— The formal opening 
of the new Aero Club of America's home oc- 
curred on June 14. attended by more than 100 
members and gviests. 

This was the first occasion that most of the 
memliers had had to see tlie new clubhouse, 
and it was very seriously inspected from cellar 
to garret. A collation was served, and there 
was music by an orchestra. In the absence 
of the president and first vice-president of the 
club, Dave Hennen Morris, second vice-presi- 
dent, acted as toastmaster and called upon T. 
O. M. Sopwith, Clifford B. Harmon, Thomas A. 
Hill, James K. Duffy and Alan R. Hawley to 
reply. Everyone, including the speechmakers, 
made public acknowledgment and complimented 
highly the committee which has certainly 
labored very industriously in outfitting the 
club. The success of the committee was due 
to no small extent to the strenuous efforts of 
James A. Blair, Jr., who, on this evening, 
turned over the building to the club. 

This is the only aero club, so far as known, 
whicli has an entire clubhouse of its own. It 
was recently realized that to a large extent 
the future success of the club depended upon 
having suitable quarters, and a number in- 
terested themselves actively in looking around 
for the right kind of a building. A private 
house at 297 Madison avenue, corner of Forty- 
first street, owned by a wealthy New York 
man, was leased for a period oif two years. 
Little change was necessary, principally in the 
furnishings. The liouse shows a lavish dis- 
play on the part of the original owner in the 



way of elaborate wood mantels, carved leather 
wall hangings, stained-glass windows and 
chandeliers. On the first floor is the grill- 
room and main reception hall. Here it is 
possible to have simple meals, and members 
can arrange dinner parties. Out-of-town visi- 
tors may secure lodging. On the second floor 
is found the reading room, library and secre- 
tary's office. On the floors above are card, 
lounging rooms and bedrooms. 

The Intercollegiate Aeronautical Association 
cf America has l)een incorporated with George 
.4twell Richardson, University of Pennsylvania, 
nresident; Cyrus McConnick, Princeton; R. n! 
Bird, University of Virginia; Elmer Rae, 
Cornell; Prof. David Todd, Amherst; James R. 
McConnell, James K. Duffy and Fred J. Dol- 
linger. 

The Nashville Aero Club has been organized 
at Nasliville. Tenn., with Charles H. Dezevallos 
as president. It conducted an exhibition by 
Curtiss aviators on April 27-29. 

The Aero Club of California has appointed 
the following standing coinmittees through its 
president, George B. Harrison, for the ensuing 
12 months: 

Membership — Raymond I. Blakeslee, Los 
Angeles; E. Roger Stearns, Los Angeles; Ed. 
R. Maier, Los Angeles; Leon Escallier. Los 
.\ngeles; William Stevens, Los Angeles; Glenn 
L. Martin, Santa Ana; Frank T. Searight, San 
Diego: E. H. Earle, Poniona; James R. Ricketts, 
Long Beach; Harvej- H. Hinde, Riverside; 
Louis Mortimer, Los Angeles; James R. 
Townsend, Los Angeles, and E. J. Campbell, 
Pasadena. 

House — Charles F. Walsh, M. C. Tunison, 
Mrs. H. La V. Twining, R. S. Stratton and 
Charles Forman. 

Entertainment — L. P. Barrett, Earle Reming- 
ton, C. H. Temple, L. K. Freeman and F. G. 
Calkins. 

Technical and Contest — H. La V. Twining, 
H. S. Dosh, AV. S. Eaton, Charles Rilliet and 
Buel H. Green. 

Financial and Auditing — J. J. Slavin, W. H. 
Leonard. M. H. Gallagher, Chas. Skoglund. 

Investigating — R. C. Hamlin, C. H. Dav. W. 
B. Cannon, W. H. B. Kilner. Alfred Solano. 

Member National Council of Aero Clubs of 
America — Earle Remington; alternate mem- 
ber, Ernest L. Jones. 

New York Representative Committee — E. L. 
Jones, T. A. Hill and F. E. Moskovics. 

Foreign Representatives — London, R. J. H. 
Hope; Paris, Louis Paulhan. 

The Illinois Aeroplane Club, 2Sr)2 North 
• 'lark street. Chicago, is endeavoring to sell a 
$1.00 stock certificate to ."lO.OOO Illinoisans for 
the purpose of building a dirigible balloon. 

The Aeronautical Society's annual election, 
wliich should have been held in April, and 
which was somewhat belated owing to tlie 
amount of work required in the preparation of 
the banquet, took place on June S at the club 
rooms, 250 West ]''if ty-fourtli street. New York. 
The following officers and directors were 
elected through the votes cast by those present, 
there having been no proxies used: 

President. Willis McCornick: past presidents, 
Lee S .Burridge and Hudson INIaxim ; vice-presi- 
dents, Thomas A. Hill, James M. Beck, Dr. John 
Henry McCracken, Roger B. Whitman. Capt. 
W. I. Chambers; Board of Directors. Willis JIc- 
Cornick. Lieut. F. W. Humphries, Senator J. F. 
Duhamel, Col. E. A. Havers, Geo. F. Camobell 
Wood, Francis T. Sanford, Carlog cleZafra, 



31 



AERONAUTICS 



July, iQU 



Thomas A. Hill, Hiram P. Maxim, James M. 
Beck, Capt. Thos. S. Baldwin, John H. Mc- 
Cracken, Lee S. Burridge, Hudson Maxim, Roger 
B. Whitman, Arnold Kruckman. W. Irving 
Twombly, William J. Hammer, Hugo C. Gib- 
son, Louis R. Adams. C. Wesley Howell, Geo. 
S. Bradt, Wilbur R. Kimball, H. A. Wise Wood, 
Capt. W. I. Chambers; treasurer, Geo. S. Bradt; 
general secretary, Arnold Kruckman; recording 
secretary, Raymond Beck; technical board, 
Hugo C'. Gibson, chairman; William J. Ham- 
mer, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Prof. Dwight 
W. Hering, Prof. David Todd, A. Leo Stevens, 
Earl Atkinson, W. L. Fairchild, Prof. John J. 
Montgomery, Greely S. Curtis, Capt. W. I. 
Chambers, Prof. Herschel C. Parker, J. Bernard 
Walker, M. B. Sellers, W. Irving Twombly, 
Carlos de Zafra, Ernest V. Lallier, Prof. C. P. 
Bliss, Prof. D. L. Gallup, Prof. Wm. Hallock, 
Wilbur R. Kimball, Lewis R. Compton, Harry 
R. Burt, Earle L. Ovington. 

Many committees were also elected. 

The plan of voting for members of commit- 
tees was done with a view of putting some re- 
sponsibility on these various committees and 
particularly the chaii-men, and was intended as 
a recommendation for the coming president, 
who duly confirmed all the committees at a 
following meeting on June 15. when a meeting 
of the new directorate was held and new plans 
of activity were formulated, and the commit- 
tees are now meeting to make recommendations 
in every department so as to increase the use- 
fulness of the organization. 

While the election was going on. Col. E. A. 
Havers, the noted lecturer, gave the most en- 
livening talk on his impressions of the possi- 
bilities of the art and described a fanciful trip 
to Europe in a vivid manner. 

Mr. Thomas A. Hill moved the following res- 
olutions concerning the bill going through the 
Legislature at Albany, which were adopted. 
The bill provides for the establishment of a 
State "Aviation License Board": 

Whereas, Many serious accidents from 
flying machines can be prevented if badly 
constructed machines are not permitted to 
be flown and if incompetent persons are 
prevented from Hying machines in public 
places, and 

"Whereas. Those attending aeronautical 
meets, exhibitions, shows or contests will 
have better protection if due provision is 
made for proper safeguards. 

Therefore be it resolved. That the bill 
before the New York State Legislature en- 
titled "An act to amend the State Boards 
and Commissions Law, in relation to estab- 
lishing an Aviation License Board" is for 
the best interests of the science of aero- 
nautics and is essential for safeguarding 
life and property within this State, and 

Be it further resolved. That the Secre- 
tary of the Aeronautical Society forthwith 



send a copy of these resolutions to the 
members of the Senate and Assembly of 
the State of New York. 

At the regular meeting of the society, June 
22 (general meetings being held on the second 
and fourth Thursday of each month), a small 
attendance was present owing to the heavy 
storm. Mr. Jolin B. IVIaus, of the Goodyear 
Tire & Rubber Co., spoke of the advisability of 
tlie members using extreme care in the selec- 
tion of their cloth and the danger of what 
could happen should it slirink or stretch with 
dampness as some cloth does, and the great 
care used at their factory to make all the 
manufactured product impervious to weather 
changes. A great deal of money was being 
spent to make tlieir cloth now fireproof, v/hich 
was the next great desideratum in view of the* 
recent unfortunate accidents in France in which 
tlie aviators lost their lives through the planes 
catching fire. Mr. Maus also referred to the 
president of the company, Mr. Seiberling, who 
was magnanimously financing a new expedition 
of JNIr. Melvin Vaniman to cross the Atlantic 
this fall in a dirigible airship to be built on 
new lines from the "America," which failed 
last year. This would cost from $150,000 to 
$250,000, and was to be expended by Mr. Seiber- 
ling purely through public spirit to keep the 
United States in the fore of world aeronautic 
efforts. 

Mr. Wilson S. Howell, Jr., Mr. J. Marschucci, 
and Mr. William File each described new in- 
ventions of their own, illustrated by working 
models, which were examined with much care 
and interest. 

Mr. Hugo C. Gibson related his experiences 
in hydroplaning at the Polytechnic Institute 
in Worcester, Mass., where a rotating boom is 
employed to test propellers through electric 
current, and his experiments were made in a 
flat bottom dory attached to the end of the 
boom which he was carried at tlie rate of 
40 miles an hour, and could lean to one side to 
have the boat skim over the water very suc- 
cessfully till he was finally thrown uncere- 
moniously into the water. 

Detroit Club Has Fligrlits. 

Tlie Aero Club of Micliig'an is active in De- 
troit. l'"rank Coit".\ n was here June 19-21 and 
made 45 flights, on 41 of which passengers 
were carried. Among these were many club 
members and their wives and female friends. 
On tlie 23 Augustus Post lectured before the 
club. Leo Stevens will be on hand .luly 20 for 
some balloon trips. From June 29 to July 5 
an aviation meet is to be held for prizes in 
the neighborhood of $25,000. This club is the 
first to arrange aeroplane flights for members 
in this country. 

The Aero Club of California at its annual 
meeting elected the following: President. Geo. 
B. Harrison; first vice-president, L. P. Barrett j 
second vice-president, H. S. Dosli; secretary. 
Van M. Griffith; treasurer. H. LaV. Twining; 
directors, Chas. E. Rilliet, W. S. Eaton. 



NATIONAI. BAI.I.OON RACE. 

Seven balloons are expected to be in the 
race July 10 to select the Gordon Bennett bal- 
loon team. The last two are still but tenative 
entries. 

Kansas City Aero Club — ^"Kansas City," H. E. 
Honeywell, pilot. 

— — ■ — "Million Population Club," with John 
Berry, pilot, and Paul McCullough. 

"Buckeye," J. H. Wade, Jr. 

Aero Club of St. Louis — "St. Louis IV," Lieut. 
F. P. Lahm, pilot, and Lieut. J. P. Hart. 

Aero Club of St. Louis — "Miss Sophia," Wm. 
F. Assmanii, 

Aero Club, of America — "New York," Clifford 
B. Harmon. 

Western Aero Association — "Topeka II," by 
a Mr. Jacobs. 



The German entrants in the Gordon Bennett 
balloon race have been selected by an elimina- 
tion race, as follows: Hans Gericke, Lieut. Vogt 
and Baron de Polt. The two former were con- 
testants in 1910. 



The American Aeroplane Suppl.v House, 266 
l'"'ranklin street. Hempstead, L. I., has just 
conii)Ieted a duplicate of the 1911 cross-country 
Kloriot 70, similar to the one Earle L. Oving- 
ton has been flying. This duplicate is for Wil- 
liam Haupt. who has been flying the Wana- 
inaker Bleriot XI, and a Roberts motor has 
been installed. A two-seated machine is also 
being built, with the same engine, for J. Albert 
Brackett, of Boston, and a one-seater for A. C. 
Mengis, of Mempliis. This will have a Gnome 
70 engine. The concern now has facilities for 
turning out a machine a \\eek in the new quar- 
ters. 



8S 



AERONAUTICS 



July, ipii 



AMONG THE MAKERS 





/«>// 



■J 



Assembling" iSooiii 



Calif. Aero Mfg". and Supply Co. 



New Pedersen Iiiibricator. 

The accompanying drawing shows a new 
multiple feed rotary pump lubricator brought 
out by the Pedersen Lubricator Co.. 644 First 
avenue. New York. A novel feature of this 
lubricator is its extreme simplicity. Anotlier 
feature is that it allows for a wide I'ange of 
attachment to a motor. 




Front View 



This pump comprises a casing and cover, 
tlie casing having a cylindrical end bore with 
inlet and discharge openings. Witliin the cas- 
ing there is a rotating shaft, witli head and 
stem fitting the bore of same, and with the 
end of the head wearing against the under 
surface of the cover. This liead is recessed in 
its outer face and transversely slotted, witli a 
sliding piston fitting in same, this piston 
being also recessed, forming at one end a 
head and at the middle a pin or stud. Fas- 
tened in and projecting from the under side 
of tlie cover are one or more studs, according 
to the number of feeds required. Equally 
spaced between the fixed studs in tlie cover 
and passing tlirough same are adjusting screws 
having tapered ends. Tliese act upon the neck 




Side'.View 



of the piston, vvliich is of a correspondmg 
t;ii)er. This action takes place when the piston 
is in line with the outlet port. The amount 
of discharge can be varied by means of the 
taper ended screw, as when same is at its 
extreme inward position it gives the piston 
its greatest movement, consequently discharg- 
ing more oil, and vice versa when at its out- 
ward position. 

In the face of tlie casing is a circular 
recess having openings leading to the circular 
bore, forming inlet or suction ports. Equally 
spaced between tliese are the discharge ports, 
communicating direct from the bore to the 
outlet connections. The operation of tlie pump 
is as follows: By rotating the shaft the 
piston is given a transverse movement oppo- 
site the inlet port. This draws in the oil 
which is confined between the casing and the 
piston until opposite the outlet, when tlie pis- 
ton is again acted upon by the tapered screw 
and the oil discharged. 



33 



AERONAUTICS 



July, iQii 



The Brooke "Non-Gyro" Motor. 

The principal feature of the Brooke "non- 
gyro" motor, as manufactured by the Broolce- 
Kuhnert Company, 320 South Wabash avenue, 
Chicago, III., is the absence of any gyroscopic 
effect. This effect is claimed by the builders 
of this engine to be a very serious menace to 
the safety of aviators. In the Brooke motor 




Brooke Motor on Testinif Frame. 

this force has been entirely eliminated, the 
motor may be sustained by a single chain and 
operated at top speed, and may be turned in 
any direction by a slitrht touch of the finger. 
The style "E" niotdr, wliidi sells for ?2,500, is 




No Vibration Can be Noticed. 

of 10 cylinders arranged in two sets of fives, 
which may be run either independently or to- 
gether. The cylinders, which are 414 by 4^ 
bore and stroke, are offset slightly. The makers' 
rating is 75-S5 H.P. The feature of operating 
either one or both sections is very desirable in 
long cross-country flights, as, in case of acci- 



dent to one set, the other can be easily and 
quickly brouglit Into action. The lubrication is 
positive, a nine-tube forced feed oiler being 
ised. Two Stromberg carburettors are used, one 
for eacla unit. Bearings are of phosphor bronze, 
of liberal proportions. The intake valve is 
situated in the piston head, tlie exhaust head 
being in the cylinder head. The cylinders are 
air cooled, as is usual with all rotary engines. 
There are no springs in operation to weaken 
or break. This should be an advantageous 
point, as the best of springs will break. There 
are a set of light springs employed to hold 
the valves in place while the motor is at rest, 
but these are not necessary when it is running. 
A Boscli 2-cylinder magneto is used with only 
12 inches of high-tensioned cable in tlie entire 
motor, there being no contact between the 
stationary and revolving parts. This makes 
a very simple and positive electric system, 
which is a point that will be appreciated by 
all who have had trouble witli complicated 
wiring systems. 

The G & A. Carburettor. 

The great object in the design of carburet- 
tors is to obtain a perfect mixture at all 
engine speeds under all atmospheric condi- 
tions. That tliis is hard of attainment can 
readily be seen by tlie number of carburettors 
on tlie market. Most of tliem require more 
or less complicated adjustments for difference 
in altitude as well as for differences in atmo- 
spheric conditions. 



Hoi Water Jacket , 
lo insure Even. Proper 
Temperature 
Hot Water Outlet 
Hot Water Inlet 




iWheii More Air 
isNeeded lo. 
Meet Changes 
ofTeiTiDeratureor 
V 5peed. Additional 
\Air li Supplied by 
[/ ^ Means otltie Ball - 
J^ Cage G as Ex- 
Y pbined intheBody of 
this Advertisement. 



Gas Enters at. . 

Passes Needle Valve B , 
Tlien Up Through 5pray Nozzle C 
Into theVenturi Tube D> 



mio me vemuri luDe U' • n^ j ^ 

Where it is Picked Up by Ihe Inrushitw Air From the Mam Air Take E-* I 
The Mixture of Air ar\d OasThen Passes Through the Upper 7 
End of the Venturi Tube Into the Mixing Chamber F i ^ 

Grouvelle and Arguembourg have spent 25 
years in the study of the problem of obtain- 
ing a carburettor which would positively make 
all tlie changes for different conditions auto- 
matically. The result of this labor is shown 
in the present G & A carburettor. This is 
made so there are no adjustments for the 
operator to make. Every carburettor is fitted 
to its particular engine, and is so calculated 
that it will deliver the proper mixture to the 
engine at all times. The three features of 
construction which enable the G & A carburet- 
tor to perform these functions are, first, the 
location of the spray nozzle in the Venturi 
tube. The second point is the uniform tem- 
perature maintained in the mixing chamber, 
resulting in the supplying of the mixture at 
the right temperature. The third feature is 



l:: 



M 



AERONAUTICS 



July, ipii 



the use of a cage of balls of varying sizes and 
weiglits to automatically regulate tlie auxiliary 
air intake. It is tliis feature that allows the 
carburettor to meet all the varying conditions 
of temperature, moisture and speed. That 
tliese carburettors do meet all requirements is 
shown by their employment by Panliard, Le- 
vassor, Delauney-Belleville, Otto Gas Engine 
Company, Humber, of England, and other well- 
known automobile firms. They are also fitted 
to the Clement-Bayard engine, the well-known 
Anzani, the Gnome and other aeronautical 
engines. 



N O T I 



E 



R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., importers, jobbers 
and makers, of Louisville, Ky., have put out 
a catalogue which can be studied with profit 
by those who are contemplating the construc- 
tion of a macliine. In it are listed not only 
the usual assortment of parts and accessories, 
but a large line of motors, including their own 
make. "Gray Eagle." Sets of complete parts 
for machines are listed for tliose who wish 
to build their own 'plane. These parts are 
cut out and semi-finished and are accom- 
panied with complete sets of blue prints, thus 
enabling the novice to do tlie work himself 
and save the greatest item of expense. 

The ten cents asked for this catalogue will 
be well expended, as tliere are a great number 
of cuts and line drawings whicli give a much 
better idea of the articles than mere descrip- 
tion. 



The new six-cylinder Kirkliam motor is 
being used with success by Aviator Howard 
LeVan in the Chas. .J. Strobel's biplane. The 
motor used in this 'plane is the very first one of the 
new Kirkham motors to be built, ard Strobel has placed 
his order for two more, to be delivered just 
as soon as possible. 

Chas. B. Kirkliam is now located in a new 
plant at Savona, N. Y., where a large force 
is working day and night and the size of the 
factory is being increased. 



Many sales have been made of the new 
Roberts engine to the International Aeroplane 
Mfg. Co., of Chicago; Aeronautic Supply Co., 
of St. Louis; J. N. Sparling, of E. St. Louis, 
and John C. Kirby, of Houston, Te.x., all for 
Curtiss-type machines. There was one sold in 
Chicago whicli has already been installed and 
flown a macliine. 



The International Aeroplane Mfg. Company 
is conducting a scliool of aviation at 2025 
Michigan avenue, Chicago. Iv. M. Driver is 
instructor on construction. Associated with 
him is S. D. Dixon. Lester W. Bratton is 
their meclianical engineer. S. D. Dixon has 
been making successful flights with one of 
their aeroplanes in wliicli they have one of 
the Roberts motors. Tliey speak very higlily 
of the motor and say that it will do even 
more tlian tlie Roberts Co. claim for it. 



The Bosch Magneto Co. lias added to its 
facilities by taking tlie building at 154 West 
'54th street. New York, for use as a garage 
and for its publicity office. Mr. Alfred H. 
Bartsch, advertising manager, is now located 
at the new address. 



It is possible that C. F. Willard will at- 
tempt a new American duration record for 
the purpose of testing out the new "Gyro" 
motor made by the Gyro Motor Co., 774 Girard 
street, Washington, D. C. He lias been to 
Washington to inspect the engine and just as 
soon as one or two arrangements are made it 
is probable tliat lie will make tlie attempt. 



W. .1. Jackman, author of the book, "Flying 
Machines," has withdrawn liis connection from 
the Chicago School of Aviation. His address 
at present is 633 Plvmoutli Court, Chicago, 
111. 



ENGINES FOR SAIiZ!. 

ENGINE FOR SALE — A. Harrinian, 30- 
H.P. engine; Eisemann magneto; late model; 
bargain at $400. Address Harriman, care 
AERONAUTICS. 

RINEK ENGINE FOR SALE— A Rinek S- 
cylinder engine, 1910 model; just completely 
overhauled by factorj-; in perfect condition; 
complete witli El Arco radiator, magneto and 
gasoline tanks; $600. Address Rinek, care 
AERONAUTICS. 

FOR SALE — One 50-H.P., 4-cylinder. 4-cycle, 
Harriman engine. We bought this engine for a 
monoplane, but the plane was a failure and 
was never completed, the reason we are sell- 
ing. Harriman Co. is selling this engine for 
$1,650; our price with propeller, $700. LeBron 
Adams Aeroplane Co., Omaha, Nebr. 

FOR SALE — 50-h.p. H. F. or Harriman avia- 
tion engine; new; $500. This is the same size 
engine that tlie Harriman Motor Works are 
charging $1,675 for. Address "Box 3, Girard, 
Kans." TF 

Aeroplanes for Sale. 

AMATEUR AIRMEN — Full size monoplane 
read.v for power; $75 one-passenger; fine flyer; 
2-cent stamp for particulars; send now. E. C. 
Minert Aero Co., 1122 ^\^ Locust St., Daven- 
port, la. 

FOR SALE — Hydro-aeroplane, guaranteed to 
fly from land or water; the finest construction 
of any macliine in tlie world. Intending purchas- 
ers must call in person or send representative, 
and will teach you to fly from water first, as it 
is the only safe method. We only have one 
machine for delivery. You liad better telegraph 
me you are coming. The price is $5,000 com- 
plete, with Emerson 4-cyl., 2-cycle motor. The 
Brown Aeroplane Co., 3813 Roland Ave., Balti- 
more, Md. 

Aeroplanes Wanted. 

BIPLANE, new or second-hand: send de- 
scription and best price; with or without 
engine. Breeze, care AERONAUTICS. 

Capital VTanted. 

IMONOPLANE — Experienced man wants $3,- 
500 to build machine in (luiet way; $10,000 can 
be made this season; exceptional machine; en- 
dorsed by leading engineers. Address S, care 
AERONAUTICS. 

Business Cards. 
J. ED. SHERIFF, MECHANICAL ENGI- 
NEER AND INVENTOR. ORIGINAL DE- 
SIGNS A SPECIALTY. 125 WATTS ST., NEW 
YORK. 

Positions Wanted. 

YOUNG man desires position as aeroplane 

operator; has had seven years' experience at 
steam and electrical engineering; 28 years old; 

can give best of references as to character, 

etc. Address J. P. Allison, care AERO- 
NAUTICS. 

EQUILIBRIST, SLACK WIRE WALKER, 
well educated, good business training in office, 
experienced in sliop work, four seasons operat- 
ing own automobiles, wislies to associate witti 
manufacturer to give flying exhibitions, train 
others and prosecute business generally. Ex- 
cellent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care 
"AERONAUTICS." Sep. 



Back Numbers Wanted. 
JANUARY, I'Jll, wanted by J. J. 
Brown University, Providence, R. I, 



Long, 



35 



AERONAUTICS 



July, ipii 



UNITED STATES PATENTS ABSTRACTED 



Jean M. AUeas, Boston. Mass., 001,680. May 
9. 1911, filed Oct. 21, 1900. HELICOPTER. 

Max Dingfelder, Detroit, Mich., 991,770, May 
'.). 1011. filed Dec. 2. 1009. Novelty in PLANE 
(•(INSTRUCTION. Stability and steering rudders. 

Daniel P. McLaughlin. Chicago. 111., 901,794. 
May 9, 1911, filed June 30, 1909. HELICOPTER. 

Sevvall A. Witherspoon. St. Louis. Mo., 991.811, 
May 0. 1911, filed Jan. 26, 1910. Flying-machine 
osp'ecially designed to act as a parachute in case 
of fall. 

Otto Haselau, New York, N. Y., 991,846, May 9, 
1911, filed May 3, 1909, renewed Oct. 21. 1010. 
Flying-machine with special arrangements for au- 
tomatic stability. 

Charles Lakeman Tweedale. Weston, near Otley, 
England. 992.086, May 9, 1011. filed Oct. 30, 1900. 
P,OX KITE with propeller actuated by means of a 
string. 

John Zimmerli, Providence, R. I., 992,099, May 
9. 1911. filed April 23, 1910. Combined HELI- 
COPTER and AEROPLANE. 

Edward J. Elsas, Kansas City, Mo.. 992.410-, 
May 16. 1911, filed Oct. 5, 1910. AEROPLANE 
in which there are two motors, to run separately 
or together. 

Edward L. Ault. lola. Kans, 902.470. May 16, 
1911, filed Dec. 23, 1910. Biplane with ailerons 
hinged to horizontal bars connecting front struts, 
to act as resistance means for turning or to pre- 
serve transverse STABILITY. In front of oacl* 
of these two ailerons is a propeller. A third 
propeller is at the rear of the machine, in usual 
position. Engine placed below lower plane. 

Charles N. Newcomb, West Palm Beach, Fla., 
902. .570. Mav 16. 1911. filed Ausr. 5, 1908. OR- 
NITHOPTER of which the wings are capable 
of change in conformation. 

Valentime M. Kutscha. Scotch Plains, N. Y., 
002,678, May 16, 1011, filed Jan. 0, 1911. Mono- 
plane in which the SUPPORTING PLANE is 
pivotally suspended from vortical masts, with 
means for rcaoring the plane automatically to 
normal position. 

Edwin Lyman Madden, Ingersoll, Okla., 992,726, 
Mav 16, 1911, filed May 19, 1910. HELICOP- 
TER. 

Willi, -n F. Smith, Roodhouse, 111., 992,816, 
Mav 23,. 1911. Filed Aug. 22, 1910. Aeroplane, 
with means for TILTING SUPPORTING 
SURFACE. 

Frank W. Jatunn, Los Angeles, Cal., 992,874, 
May 23, 1911. Filed Feb. 21, 1910. Plurality 
of FEATHERING PADDLE WHEELS. 

.lohann Schutte, Langfuhr, near Danzig, 
Germany, 992,909, Mav 23, 1911. Filed Dec. 
29. 1910. Means for STIFFENING AIRSHIP 
FRAMES. 

Robert Ernest Heath, Yorkville, S. C, 993,063, 
May 23, 1911. Filed Feb. 3. 1910. Triplane 
with lower PLANES capable of being TILTED 
on axes transversely as well as parallel to 
tlip line of flight. 

Thomas Rhoades. Hanna, Utah, 993,108 INIay 
23. 1911. Filed May 7, 1910. Aeroplane with 
pivotally suspended frame, propeller capable 
of being turned through an arc of 180 degrees, 
automatically operated stabilizing planes. 

Timothy Henry Konrad, San Mateo, Cal., 
993,2.'-,fi. May 23. 1911. Filed April 20. 1910. 
ST KF RING DEVICE and tubular body for fly- 
ing macliines. 

Robert P. Hall, Searchlight, Nev., 993.297, 
May 23, 1911. Filed April 9, 1910. AIRSHIP 
witli series of gas tanks. 

Henry Bernegger, West New York, N. J., 
!^93,948, May 30, 1911. Filed Feb. 25, 1910. 
BALLOON. 

John T. Rydberg, Garwood, N. J., 993,623, 
May 30, 1911. Filed March 22, 1909. FLYING- 
MACHINE combination of fixed and adjustable 
propellers and tillable supporting surface. 



Oliver G. Simmons, Washington, D. C, as- 
signor of one-half to Kenneth L. Kintzel, 
Tamaqua, Pa., 993,724, May 30, 1911. Filed 
Aug. 13, 1910. AILERONS operated by shafts 
and gears by sideways movement of operator's 
seat. 

W^illiam Kriedter and William Henry Bour- 
don. New York, N. Y., 993,842, May 30, 1911. 
Filed Feb. 23, 1910. WaNG SURFACE with 
a box or cell at outer extremities. 

John W. Harrison, St. Louis, Mo., 993,987, 
May 30, 1911. Filed Nov. 12, 1910. Aero- 
plane. 

•Victor P. Fleiss, Lakewood, N. J., 994,072, 
May 30, 1911. Filed April 27, 1910. Aeroplane 
witli plurality of superimposed supporting sur- 
faces, which increase in length from the bot- 
tom one to the topmast. 

W^illiam Charles Hurst, New York, N. Y., 
991,104, May 30, 1911. Filed Dec. 1, 1909. 
MOVABLE GROUPED AILERONS. 

William Boyd Alexander, Montreal, Que., 
Can., 994,106, June 6, 1911. Filed Feb. 10, 
1911. Aeroplane in which FRAME (fuselage) 
is triangular in cross section, inverted, with 
baffle flanges" extending on either sicie later- 
ally from the top edges thereof. 

Henrv P. Rhett, Hempstead, N. Y.. 994,197, 
June 6, 1911. Filed June 11, 1910. Triangular 
supporting planes pivotally mounted at enter- 
ing edge, for purposes of AUTOMATIC STA- 
BILITY. 

Henry P. Rhett, Hempstead, N. Y., 994,198, 
June 6, 1911. Filed June 11, 1910. Rectangu- 
lar planes, pivotally mounted at entering edge, 
one operating opposite to tlie other, by action 
of unequal pressure, for purposes of AUTO- 
MATIC STABILITY. The previous patent is 
tlie same in operation. 

Gustav Scheel, New York, N. Y., 994,202, 
June 6, 1911. Filed June 17, 1910. AIRSHIP. 

Paul Seller, San Francisco, Cal., 994,339, 
June 6. 1911. Filed June 13, 1910. OSCIL- 
LATING WINGS. 

Nathaniel L. Mahew, Beaumont Tex., 994,- 
417, June 6, 1911. Filed July 15, 1910. Heli- 
copter witli plane surface, composed of flaps, 
capable of being used to lessen speed of de- 
scent in case of failure of propellers. 

Maurice E. Wright, San Diego, Cal.. 994.490, 
June 6, 1911. Filed April 5, 1911. TOY 
PARACHUTE. 

George Kunicke, New York. N. Y., 994,757, 
June 13, 1911. Filed Nov. 4, 1910. Flying 
machine, with plurality of propellers pivotally 
mounted for purpose of STEERING. 

Robert Paton, Carrington, N. ID., assignor of 
one-third to Lucas K. Silvertson and one-third 
to Thomas N. Putnam, both of Carrington, 
N. D., 994,782, June 13, 1911. Filed Dec. 
14. 1910. Pendulum device for STABILITY. 

David A. Albright, Gainesville, Fla., 994,897, 
June 13, 1911. Filed Jan. 22, 1910. Com- 
liined aeroplane, helicopter and ornithopter. 

James W. Woodington. Folcroft, Pa.. 994.966, 
June 13, 1911. Filed Nov. 14, 1910. Helicopter. 

Georges Barbaudv, Marseilles. France, 994.968, 
June 13, 1911. Filed June 4. 1910. SUPPORT- 
ING SURFACE in which lateral extremities 
form a more or less complete cone. 

John A. Hoffman. San Francisco, Cal., 995,- 
004, June 13, 1911. Filed Nov. 21, 1910. Means 
for tilting the supporting plane fore and aft, 
at the same time tilling it transversely. 

Earl M. Ralls. Sacramento, Cal., 995.033. 
June 13, 1911. Filed Feb. 12, 1910. AIRSHIP, 
rectangular in cross section, with plurality 
of gas bag units, laterally extending planes at 
the sides. 

Emile Losse, Villeneuve-St. -Georges, l<"'rance, 
995,361, June 13. 1911. Filed Marcli 22. 1910. 
AEROPLANE witli semi-c>'lindrical body, two 
lateral surfaces consisting of revoluble discs 
having blades. 



39 



AERONAUTICS 



August, igii 




HUGH L. WILLOUGHBY 



IN the lonely Southern beaches 
Where the frigate-bird is seen, 
He has studied out perfection 

In a gas-propelled machine 
There the buzzaids told their secrets 

To the aeroplanist wise, 
And he learned from them the action 
Of their pinions in the skies. 



He has sailed beneath the ocean, 

He has raced in auto cars. 
But it's now his pet aml)ition 

To explore the distant stars; 
And if something like a comet 

Shoots along at close of day, 
'Twill be Willoughby the fearless, 

Spinning down the Milky Way. 



37 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 




BBACHE^Y'S PERILOUS DIP. 
OVER NIAGARA FAl^L^S, UNDBR THE 
SUSPENSION BRIDGB AND DOWN THBGORGC — 
BOSCH — EQUIPPED OE COURSE 

JUNE. 27Iil 1911 





hi ansiverin^ advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS August, 1911 

SCIENTIFIC DEVICE FOR BOMB-DROPPING 
FROM AEROPLANES 



THE great number of bomb-throwing experi- 
ments made by aviators at contests and 
exhibitions has shown the utter impossibility 
of liitting a target from considerable alti- 
tudes without the employment of some scientitic 
method. The hand-and-eye method, without instru- 
ments of any sort, ha.s given indifferent results at 
heights of a few hundred feet, and the consensus 
of opinion of aviators who have made experiments 
along this line is, that from a safe height of, say 
:;.iMH» ft. or more, it would be foolish to attempt 
ti> drop bombs in this manner with any expecta- 
tion of hitting a target. An occasional hit migkt 
lie scored, but such hits would be without method 
and the result of accident, 

1 >espite the thought put upon the subject by 
military men all over the world since it became 
evident that the aeroplane would be used for 
military purposes, it has remained for an American, 
IJeiit. Riley E. Scott, a graduate of West Point, 
to evolve a scientific method for launching bombs 
from aeroplanes. This method is based upon the 
laws of mechanics, and talies into consideration 
thi' velocity of flight of the aeroplane with refer- 
ence to the ground, the acceleration due to gravity, 
and makes corrections for atmospheric resistance 
ami wind-drift. 

In an illustrated lecture before the Aeronautical 
Siicii'ty. on the evening of July 13, Lieut. Scott 
di'scrilii'd in detail the principles of his device and 
his method of accurately determining the speed of 
an aci-oplane with respect to the ground. Until 
Worked out by Lieut. Scott, there has been no 
known method by which an aviator, or his pas- 
senger, could determine the velocity of an aero- 
lilane except by the use of the anemometer, wliich, 
at best, is an inaccurate instrument and only 
mi'asures speed through the air and not with re- 
spect to the ground. The method employed by the 
inventor is so remarkably simple that it seems 
almost incredible that it was not developed before. 

3 SBEE^B-BHSCf 1 




FIG. 1 



The device employed by Lieut. Scott, which has 
been patented in this country and for which 
liatents have been applied for in foreign countries. 
consists essentially of a series of movable rings, 
universally mounted (that is, mounted on gimbals 
placed at right angles to each other), in such 
:i manner that the center of gravity being below 
tile plane of mounting, the inner ring assumes 
a horizontal position in the same way that the 
compass of a ship retains a horizontal position. 



At the centeL' of this inner ring is mounted a 
suitable telescope in such manner that the line 
of collimation describes a plane at right angles 
to the plane of the inner ring when the telescope 
is revolved. The telescope is provided with a 
graduated arc and vernier so that the telescope 
may be set at any angle in the vertical plane 
containing the line of flight. This inner hori- 
zontal ring, also, usually bears the projectiles, in 
order that they may be carried in a fixed position 
with respect to the ground. Figure 1 is a certain 
modification of this device suitable for dirigibles, 
showing the universal mountings, the telescope 
and the projectiles carried bv the inner ring. 



B-^^E 




FIG. 2. 



Figure 2 shows the condition of fall of a body 
dropped from a moving air craft. Considered in 
vacuo, the path, or trajectory, of such a body 
would be a parabola, the form of which is de- 
termined entirely by the height of fall and the 
velocity of the aeroplane with respect to the 
ground. The line of sight in this figure is the 
prolonged axis of the telescope, and it is evident 
that if this axis be in a vertical plane containing 
the target and be set at a suitable angle, the 
projectile will strike the target if launched at 
the moment that the line of sight intersects the 
target. In order to determine the trajectory and, 
consequently, the angle at which the telescope 
must be set, it is necessary to know the height 
and the speed of the aeroplane with respect to 




AB = AC when ingle ^ » aafle c = "iS" 

M& - &0 -SC - AC 

FIG. 3 



the earth. Lieut. Scott's method of determining 
this speed is simple and ingenious and may be 
understood from Figure :!. 



39 



AERONAUTICS 



August J ipii 



To find the speed relative to the ground, the 
aeroplane is headed for some prominent object 
and is maintained at a fixed height during the 
time of calculation. With the aid of the device 
the machine may also be kept in a vertical plane 
containing the object sighted. The telescope is set 
at 45 degrees, and, consulting Figure 3, it is 
evident that the horizontal distance in front of 
the object is equal to the height above the ground, 
since the legs AB and AC of the triangle BAG 
are equal. When the image of the object is inter- 
sected by the cross wires, a stop watch is started 
and the telescope is changed to zero reading ; that 
is, vertical. A straight line of flight being main- 
tained, the image of the object will again be 
intersected by the cross wires, at which instant 
the watch is stopped. It is evident that, by divid- 
ing the height above the ground in metres by 
the number of seconds recorded by the watch, a 



practical combinations of height and speed. There- 
fore, knowing height and speed, it is only neces- 
sary to look in the table and find the angle at 
which the telescope must be set in order to release 
the projectiles at the proper moment. In addition, 
there are correction tables for atmospheric re- 
sistance and winds. 

AX EXAMPLE WORKED OUT. 
Flying at a height of 500 metres, it is found 
that it takes 29 seconds to describe the 45 degree 
triangle, as shown in Figure 3. Consulting Table 
I, it is seen that the speed is 17.2 metres per 
second. Now, consulting Table II for that speed 
at a height of 500- metres, it is seen that the 
angle at which the telescope must be set. in order 
that the projectile may be released at the proper 
instant, is 18° 57'. In this table, speed is shown 
in full mietres per second. An auxiliary table of 
differences will be used so that fractions of metres 





Altitudes in iletree |' 


Alt. 

in 


Speed in meters per second {| 


Seconds 


300 


350 


400 


450 


500 


550 


:jo 


12- 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


12 


25 















300 


17° 22' 


13° 42' 


20° 06' 


21° 22' 


22° 40' 


23° 58' 


25° 10' 


13 


23.1 


27 












350 


16-9' 


IT 24' 


lb° 40' 


19° 54' 


21° 06' 


22° 18' 




14 


21.4 


25 












400 


15° 12' 


16° 23' 


17° 33* 


18° 44' 


19° 53' 


21° ^1' 


22° 07' 


15 


20 


23.3 


26 . 6 










450 


14' 19' 


15" 27' 


16° 35' 


17° 41' 


18° 47" 


19° 53' 

18° 57' 




16 


18.7 


21.8 


25 










500 


13° 38' 


14- 43' 


15° 47* 


1G° 51' 


17° 55' 


19° 59' 


17 


17.6 


20.6 


23.5 


26.5 








550 


13° 03' 


14° OG' 


15° 08* 


16° 10' 


17° 11' 


18° 11' 
17° 26' 




18 


16.7 


19.4 


22.2 


25 








500 


12° 30' 


13° 30- 


14° 30' 


15° 30' 


16° 29' 




19 


15.3 


IS. 4 


21 


23.7 


2G.3 






650 


11° 59' 


12" 58- 


13° 56; 


14*54' 


15° 51' 


16° 47* 




20 


15 


17.5 


20 


22.5 


25 






700 


11° 33' 


12° 30' 


13° 26 


14° 21' 


15° 16' 


16° 10' 




HI 
22 


14.3 
13.6 


15.6 
16 


19 
18.2 


21.4 
20.4 


23.8 
22.7 


26.2 
25 


27 . 2 


750 


11° li 


12° 06' 


13° 


13° 53' 


14° 47' 


15° 39' 


16° 32' 




23 


13 


15.2 


17.4 


19.6 


2±.8 


23.9 


26.1 


These readings are angles of sight xn degrees and min- 


24 


12.5 


14.6 


16.6 


18.7 


20. S 


22.9 


25 


utes. The upper horizontal column gives velocity m 


25 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


22 


24. 


metres per second. The o.ltitude and velocity columns | 


26 




13.4 


15.4 


17.3 


19.2 


21 . 2 


23.1 


are to be continued indefinitely. 


27 




12.9 


14.8 


16.7 


18.5 


20.4 


22.2 




28 




12.5 


14.3 


16.1 


17.8 


19.6 


21.4 


In Table I, the figures in the columns represent speed 


29 




12.1 


13.8 


15.5 


17.2 


19 


20.6 


in metres per second. The distance traversed in a 


30 






13.3 


15 


16.7 


18.3 


20 


given time is eaual to the r.ltitude at which the nach- 


31 






12.9 


14.5 


16.1 


17.8 


19 


ine is flying. If the height is 400 meters and the 


••**• 


•* *••*•' 




••**♦' 




*»«.»< 


»«»*.. 


«.««» 


time taken is 18 seconds, the machine obviously has 


35 








12.3 


14.3 


15.7 


17.1 


traveled 400 metres vrith re snoot to the ground in that 


«»••» 


♦**♦*** 




••***' 


»•»»»» 


***•*' 




*•'-■• 


time. Reference to the table shows a speed over the 


39 










12.8 


14.1 


15.4 


ground of 22.2 metres per second. I^etres per second 
is used as a standard vr.lue throughout the calculations 


The 


altitLides can he continued indefinitely, 


as 


nell as the seconds column, depending utj- 




on 


the .-Tjood of the aeroplane employed. 





TA 3 L E I 

speed in metres ])er second will be found. For 
convenience, all possible speeds are tabulated, as 
shown in Table I. 

.\nother table, here shown as Table II, gives the 
angles at which the telescope must be set for all 



T ABLE JI 



/030 



will be taken care of. From Figure 2 it is evi- 
dent that the telescope being set at 18° 57'. if 
the projectile were released when the image of the 
target is intersected by the cross wires of the 
telescope, the projectile will strike the target. 



Now the county fair officials in the Middle 
West have begun to get busy with their premium 
books and advertising for the greatest and only 
county fair in that part of the State, and they 
want aeroplanes this year. Balloons, automobile 
races or a calf with six legs will not attract the 
patrons this year. What they want is an aero- 
plane exhibition, and lots of them. Since the 
International aviators came tlirough the Middle 
West and gave exhibitions at the larger cities, all 
the smaller cities want to see the bird men fly. 
There are in the States of Iowa. Missouri, Kansas, 
Nebraska and Oklahoma over 80 county fair as- 
sociations of financial standing that can afford 
or will put up l);i.50() each for an aeroplane 
exhibition during their county fair dates. Mr. 
(J. S. B(>nnett, secretary of the Kansas City 
.\viation School, stated that from the inquirieV; 
he had received it would n(H'(l 50 outfits to fill 
the rei)uests for exhll>illon llighls from the countv 
fair mianagers of the Middle West. What tli'e 
people of the West want is to get up close and 
see a real biplane or monoplane. They want lo 
see how it is built, how tlie power is produced 
and how the avialor g(^ts started. They want to 
see how the darned thing Is woi-ked and tliey have 
money enough to spare this year to buy one or 
two if they wanted them. Out in Missouri they 
say "Show me" ; in Kansas. "Let nic feel of it" ; 
in Oklahoma they say "Tut it in my hand" ; in 



Arkansas, "Let me bite it," .1. G. Rompel has 
completed his third biplane. This last one is on 
Curtiss type lines, and is now installing a new 
type of engine, which was made for him at 
tMiicago. Mr. Rompel will make his tryout about 
.Vug. ], 

It is reported here that (Juy Morgan, a well- 
known automoliile salesman of this city, has pur- 
chased the "Banshee" of Charles Willard and will 
bring the ■i)lane to this city. 



Miss Kalhnrine Stinson of Hot Springs, .\il;.. 
is one of till' newest enrollments at the Kansns 
Cltv .\\iMtlon Sclidol. 



Clulevs and liijilanes ;ire now being built for tlie 
trade at Olathe, Kan. L. C. Herman has his 
uiaehinery Installed and will build a stock glider 
;ind biplane to order. 



The Payne & Neighliors Co, of Sedalia. Mo., 
rei)ort business is good for propellers, especially 
orders from the East. 



40 



AERONAUTICS 



August, iQii 



THE MAKING OF A PROPELLER 



The novice aviator frequently wants to make 
his own propeller, in order to exercise perspnal 
ingenuity. AERONAUTICS has previously had 
articles on propeller design and the laying out 
of propellers from known figures of diameter and 
pitch. In the following notes it is attempted to 
show the amateur how to make a propeller of 
uniform pitch (P) of a jriven diameter (Di. He 
perhaps has been flying with a certain propeller 
and wants to make another of his own style ; 
using the same &voa. but shaping the blade dif- 
ferently, or oven increasing or diminishing the 
area. 



as B, C. etc., set off the blade widths from the 
corresponding section of the development on to the 
pitch lines as at EF. Then the vertical projec- 
tions of E and F would s-ive O and II. which are 
points on blade outline in side elevation. Other 
points are obtained in like manner. There being 
six laminations : they will show in side elevation 
in six parallel divisions. 

To obtain the outline of the blade in end ele- 
vation at any sections, as GH, take the horizontal 
projection of EF, which is EG plus HF. shown 
in end elevation as ef. 




DEVELOPED HRER 



SIDE ELEV/^TION 

Iiay-out of a Propeller Blade. 



END ELtVf^TlON 



The sketch showing "developed area" illustrates 
tlie shape of a propeller blade which would be 
obtained by laying a sheet of paper on a pro- 
peller blade, cutting it out and then laying the 
paper flat on a drawing board and marking around 
the pattern thus made. In other words, this 
sketch shows the true widths of the blade at any 
point laid in the plane of the paper without the 
holicoidal twist. 

THE METHOD OF SETTING OUT THE DR.\WIXG. 

Lay out to any convenient scale the developed 
surface of the blade, which shall contain the re- 
quired area, and be of the desired shane. Set off 
the line AD, equal to one-half the diameter D, 
and DX at right angles to AD and equal to 
P -^ 2 X 3.14. The angle XAD is the pitch 
angle at the circumference, and the pitch angle 
for any other point upon the line .AD may be 
determined by drawing a line from that point to 
the point X. 

We will suppose, as an example, that the blade 
is to be formed of six strips. From any points. 



To obtain the lines 1, 2, .S, 4, 5 in end eleva- 
tion, take the horizontal projections of IJ and XL, 
which are JK and LM respectively. These set off 
in end elevation as the distances ik and im. Con- 
nect these points with the center of the hub as 
shown. 

The sections of the blade at any point may be 
obtained by marking off the distance IN and CO. 
etc., from their corresi)ond!ng points on the end 
elevation. Any shape or form of blade may be 
set up in like manner. 

GLUING vv. 

This is rather a simple process, but should be 
carefully done, as a poorly glued propeller is dan- 
gerous, to say the least. The hard glue as used 
by cabinet makers is usually used, and this is 
applied hot. The boards should also be hot. to 
prevent the glue from chilling before the press 
can be tightened up properly. Heating the boards 
is rathpr troul>Iesome to the amateur, as it is 
best (lone in a catiinet heated by steam coils. 



41 



.AERONAUTICS 



AlKJllSt, TQII 



However, the boards may be set around a Kood 
hot stove, where bv frequent turning they may 
be well warmed. The cooler the boards are, the 
faster one must work to prevent the glue from 
chilling. The press should be very stiff and rigid 
and the screws should be heavy and strong enough 
to stand all the pressure one can put on. 

The sketch shows one of the frames for a press. 
If these are spaced about a foot apart and well 
set up and the glue and boards are hot to start 
with, the joints in the resulting .iob will show as 
a very fine line, which is as it should be. The 
block should be allowed to set about 48 hours 
before being removed from the press. 

SHAPING THE BLOCK 

Lay off the end elevation on the block and cut 
it out. Then turn the block on edge and at the 
various sections; lay off the distances fromi the 
face to obtain the outline of the side elevation. 
These distances may be obtained from the drawing 
of the side elevation. We now have the leading 
and following edges of the face of the blade and 
can work it down with gouge and plane. After 
the faces of both blades are finished alike, finish 
off the back, using a caliper to determine when 
the required thickness has been reached at the 
diflferent sections. 

After both blades have been worked down and 
well sandpapered, the propeller should be bal- 
anced. This is a very delicate operation and 
great care should be exercised to get both blades 
exactl.v the same. A hole is drilled in the center 
of the hub and the propeller mounted on a man- 
drel, which should be suspended between centers. 
The blades are then touched up until the pro- 
peller will remain in any position, showing that 
the weights of the blades are the same. 

POLISHING. 

After the propeller has been balanced and well 
smoothed and sandpapered, it may be given several 
coats of thin shellac, each coat being rubbed down 
with steel wool. Then a coat or two of varnish 
may be added to give a finish and make the blade 
waterproof. 




Press for Gluingr Iiaminations. 



TO riND THE KORSEFOWEB OF AN EN- 
GIITE. 

THE formula for finding the horsepower of 
an engine in u.se most extensively in 
this country at the present time is 
known as the A. L. A. M. formula, and 
is as follows: 

D X D X N _4_ 2.5. 

D is the diameter of the cylinder in inches. 
N Is the nujTiber of cylinders. 
2.5 is a constant based on the average per- 
formance of four-cycle motors at one thousand 
feet per minute piston speed. 

If, however, one wishes to determine the 
actual horsepower of an engine, the only way 
is to run a brake test. The sketch .shows a 
simple way to make and apply a prony brake. 
The weight W is used as shown in order to 
balance the weight of the arm. 
2 X 3.14 X I X Rx T 
H.P.=z 

33000 
— in which 

I is the radius of the brake arm. 
T is the pull at the end of the brake arm in 
pounds. 

R is the R. P. M. 

Example: Suppose the engine speed is 1,200 
R. P. M., and the pull on the spring is 50 
pounds, the radius 1 being taken as 4 feet; 
then, 

= 45 H.P. 
2 x-3.14 x4 X1200 x 50 
H.P.= 

33000 
I'm- long runs it is desirable to cool the 
brake in some manner. This is most easily 
done l)y employing a special flv wheel, as 



shown in the sketch in cross section. A pipe 
can be arranged to deliver a small stream of 
water to the trough, and another so as to 
scoop it out. The feed water can be regulated 
so as to keep the trough nearly full. 



Prony Brake 




Ji 



Section '/ FJy Wfiecl. 



The formula for Kasolino engines, given be- 
low, will serve to apjiroximate the power 
which may be expected from an engine: 
D S N 

HP=: C 

D := diameter of cylinder in inches. 

S=: stroke in inches. 

N ^ total number of explosions per minute. 

0=10,000 to 13,000 for 2-cycle engines and 
7.000 to S.OOOi for 4-cycle, depending on cir- 
cumstances. Fair avei'age values would be 
12,000 and 7,500. 



42 



AERONAUTICS 



August, igii 



GLIDING AS A SPORT AND AS AN AID TO FLIGHT 



By T. W. K. Clarke. 



THE motions and sensations of gliding are, 
in the opinion of ttiose wlio liave operated 
maclaines with and without power, very 
similar to those in the power-driven ma- 
chine, except that in the former, owing to the 
smaller weight in proportion to tlie surface, and 
also to the fact that it keeps closer to the 
ground, the motions are more exaggerated than 




In Full Gliding- Flig-ht — Note Wing- Warp 

in the latter, so that after practice in a glider 
the power machine is an easier matter and the 
possibility of damage due to inexperience with 
its attendant expense is greatly reduced. 

The kind of glider to get depends on the 
ultimate object in view. If one wishes to learn 
to operate a specific power machine, then the 
larger machine will give more nearly the actual 
conditions and practice re- 
quired, but if for general ex- r 

perience or sport, the smaller j , 
machines will be found very \ 
useful and cheaper. The ' 
choice lies between a compara- i 
tively small machine of about 
20-ft. span with no chassis, 
and by various stages up to 
one of oO-ft. span or over, on 
which one is seated and 
started by means of a rail, 
tower and weight. 

Whatever type or kind is 
selected it should be well 
made, of good materials, and 
by someone who knows how ; 
these points add to the ex- 
pense, but it will be cheapest 
in tlie end. A glider has to 
stand a great deal of rough 
usage and weathering and 
these will soon pick out the 
weak points. 

Gliding is a side of flight 
that is a little apt to be 
neglected in the present rush 
to achieve the higher art : but 
it is a useful side neverthe- 
less. 

Experimenters have, it is '-^. 
true, shown that the stepping- 
stone used by tlie Brothers 
Wright is not necessary in all 

cases, but, all the same, we are not at all sure 
that gliding may not teach a lot even to the flying man. 

The glider which Messrs. Ogilvie and Searight 
had built for them is to all intents and purposes 
a copy of the machine used by the Wrights in 
1902, 'and the work has been admirably executed. 
It is. of course, a biplane, and has an elevator 
in front with a vertical tail behind. The elevator, 
however, is constructed according to the design 
shown in the Wright patent, having flexible planes 
instead of simple pivoted planes. The tail at the 
rear consists of a single vertical plane, in which 
respect it is in agreement with the Wright glider, 
but differs from the Wright flyer, which has a 
double rudder. On the other hand, the main decks 



are double surfaced on the machines which Messrs. 
Clarke have constructed, whereas the gliders used 
by the Wright Brothers were, we believe, invari- 
ably only single surfaced. 

The material from which the glider was con- 
structed: is for the most part silver spruce. In 
one or two places, where bent woodwork is re- 
quired, American elm is used. The decks are dou- 
ble surfaced with a special fabric 
rendered waterproof by a celluloid treat- 
ment. The weight of this fabric is one 
pound to 36 sq. ft. The seams in the 
complete covering are diagonal, and each 
half of a deck, from an extremity to the 
center, is practically enclosed in a kind 
of fabric bag ; the edges of adjacent bags 
are laced together in the center, while at 
intervals the fabric is tacked down to 
the supporting ribs. In order to prevent 
the fabric being torn, a thin strip of 
wood is placed betworn the fabric and 
the heads of the nails. 

The framework on which the fabric is 
stretched consists of a pair of transverse 
spars. 1 in. by 1% in., of spruce. At 
the ends these spars are joined together by a 
piece of bent elm, a scarf being made between 
the two timbers. I'he ribs, which are spaced 
every foot, are of spruce, the solid ones being 
i in. by § in., the ordinary ones being i in. by 
.•!/l(i in. and are built up of these strips separated by 
distance pieces at intervals. The camber is 3 in. at the 
maximum versine. The method of fastening the 
ribs to the front spar by screws so that it vir- 
tually belongs to that member and. as it were, 
forms a supporting tongue for the bottom and 
top members of the rib proper. 

Cuusidered as a unit, the framework of the two 




Just Leavingr the Rail at Start. 

decks taken together, forms an example of the 
usual' lattice girder work which has been com- 
monly adopted on bip anes. In "^''■'^i-^^^'^ce^^Vi"^ 
the Wright system, the machine belongs to the 
flexible type :" non-rigid joints are employed as 
fastenings between the main spars and the struts 
which separate them. of*.,,,. 

These joints are carried out somewhat aftei 
the manner devised by the Wrights, but a stee 
plate has been substituted for the wire eye umhI 
n the Wright machine. The struts have a savN- 
cut taken down their extremities tor an inch qi 
so and into this is let the steel plate winch is 
pegged and bound in place. The Pi'oje<'/'°g ,f." | 
of the steel is drilled to receive a hook, %vhicU 



43 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 




£'?"- 




ElevaHny P/o/res / /■^']' I " 
38sf./t / s pruce 




A 




spruce 



1013 




Scale Drawing's of Clarke Glider. 
44 



/"■■' /" Rudder 

7^ ^^- 





4-6' 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 



in this case consists of a steel U-bo!t wliicli 
passes tlirougli tlie main spar and is secured on 
botti sides by nuts. The same steel plate also 
provides an anchorage for the wire ties. 

The elevator is constructed according to the 
Wright patent. The two planes are so mounted 
that they flex or warp instead of merely pivoting 
when a change is made in their angle of inci- 
dence. The framework of each plane of the ele- 
vator is built up on a single transverse spar, 
situated about 9 in. from the leading edge, the 
full chord being 2 ft. (> in. The method of 
operation will be understood by a glance at the 
sketch. 

The tail, which is controlled by a fore and aft 
movement of the right hand lever, consists of a 
single plane mounted between two outriggers as 
shown. These spars are hinged to the rear trans- 
verse spars and the diagonal tie wire is fitted with 
a length of strong elastic so the rudder m'ay swing 
ui) and not be broken should it hit the ground. 

The machine as a whole is mounted upon two 
runners which commence a short distance behind 
the main decks and extend forward with a gradual 
curve which is ultimately increased in a sharp 
bend where they .loin on the upright supports 
for the elevator. The runners are stayed to the 
front spar of the upper main deck by a set of 
oblique struts. The lower deck is supported a 
little above the rudders by a lattice work bracing. 

The pilot is accommodated in an extremely light 
but fairly comfortable chair — in which respect 
the machine differs from the original Wright 
gliders, where the operator took the air lying 
prone on the lower deck. 

On each side of the pilot is a vertical lever. 
That on the left moves to and fro only, and works 
the elevator in the manner already described. 
That on the right can move either to and fro or 
sideways. The to and fro movement works the 
rudder] and the sideways motion warps the main 
decks. This warping of the main decks is carried 
out by means of wires, which pass through short 
lengths of Bowden wire. It may here be men- 
tioned while on the subject of wire bracing, that 
the main wire diagonals are not fitted with any 
tightening device, being merely drawn hand-tight 
and fastened by simple brass bands, the ends of 
the wire being turned back over the bands to 
prevent them from slipping. 

The lateral control of a Wright glider, or flying 
machine, by a single lever which warps the wings 
and moves the rudder, is the most interesting and 
characteristic feature of the Wright system, but its 
action is apt to be a little difllcult to grasp unless 
each movement is taken in sequence. The lever 
is situated on the pilot's right : it normally stands 
in a vertical position when the machine moves 
straight ahead on an even keel. The connections 
are such that — 

(II If the lever is moved forward, the rudder 
puts the prow to the left. 

(2) If the k'ver is moved to the right, the left 
hand extremities of the main decks have their rear 
edges warped downwards so as to increase the 
angle of incidence. 

The next point to take into consideration is the 
primary result which accompanies each of the 
above movements made independently. 

(1) From steering to the left, the increased 
relative velocity of the right wing tip will cant the 
machine so that the right wing rises. 

(2) The first effect of increasing the angle of 
incidence of the left-hand extremities of the main 
deck is to increase the resistance of fli<rht on that 
side of the machine, which consequently tends to 
slow up. or in other words tends to put the prow 
of the machine to the left. 

If. on the other hand, the course is kept strai'j:ht 
by using the rudder, then the effect of increasing 
the angle on that side of the machine is to raise 
the left extremity of the main decks and so cant 
the machine over while it proceeds straight ahead. 
This manoeuvre may either be performed for the 
purpose of restoring equilibrium from an accident- 
ally canted position or to establish a cant artifi- 
cially for the purpose of banking when taking a 
sharp turn. 

It will be observed from the foregoing brief de- 
scription that the to and fro and sideways move- 
ments of the lever have results which are closely 
related to one another and from which it is a 
simple matter to deduce that — 



(li If it is desired to restore equilibrium from 
an accidental cant which has depressed the right 
hand extremity of the main decks, then the lever 
must be drawn towards the pilot — i. e., to the left 
— in order to increase the angle of incidence of 
the right hand extremities of the main decks which 
it is desired to lift and at the sinne time the lever 
must be pushed forward so as to steer to the left 
in order that the initial effect of warping described 
above shall not turn the machine from its straight 
course. 

The result of making, or rather trying to make, 
simultaneous movements of the lever along axes 
at right angles to each other is to follow a diag- 
onal path : from this fact may be deduced the fol- 
lowing very important fact : 

(li Equilibrium and a straight course with thf 
Wright flyer are maintained by a diagonal move- 
ment of the lever, in which 

(n) It is moved obliquely forward and towards 
the pilot, in order to rectify an accidental canting 
of the right-hand extremities of the main decks 
downwards, or 

(b) The lever is moved obliquely backwards 
away from the pilot, in order to check a cant 
which has depressed the left wing. 

This oblique neutral line, represented in one of 
our diagrams, is the normal path of travel for the 
pilot's right hand, while he keeps the machine on 
a straight course. Anv movement of the hand 
awav from this line must result in a curved course, 
because the rudder or the warping effect pre- 
ponderates. ,.. ,. xt. 

The precise nature of the movement which the 
pilot would perform in order to steer, say, to the 
left depends on the manner in which he wishes is 
to carrv out the operation, which in turn is gov- 
erned bv the sharpness of the curve, his speed of 
flight and other considerations. In general, how- 
ever, it mav be said that the pilot's hand for 
such a manoeuvre moves through an oval path 
starting and finishing in the neutral vertical posi- 
tion : this oval path is the result of a perfectly 
performed sequence of very short straight move- 
ments each of which has resulting in a combina- 
tion of warping and rudder action. Needless to 
sav such perfection is not immediately withm 
roach of the novice, the movements of whose hand 
would be more than likely to show up the straight 
line components of the curve. 

It should perhaps be mentioned here that the 
reason whv the rudder and the warping of the 
planes has' to take place simultaneously is pri- 
marilv due to the fact that the Wrights warp 
the niain decks of the machine instead of employ- 
ing independent balancing planes. When the main 
decks of a glider or flier are wai-ped it is not 
possible to warp one extremity up and the other 
extremity down to an enual extent considered from 
the point of view of effectiveness. To all intents 
and purposes only that extremity which has its 
trailing edge warped downwards need be taken into 
consideration, because while that undoubtedly does 
exert a powerful lift, the corresponding warping 
of the other extremity does not result in an enual 
amount of depressing action because the resultant 
curvature of the decks at that end of the machine 
is such that their angle of incidence is dimin- 
ished but not effectively reversed. On the one 
side of the machine, therefore, an active force 
is in oneration. whilst at the other extremity the 
conditions are rather of the passive order. The 
resistance of that extremity which has an in- 
creased angle of incidence^ given to it makes itself 
felt, and there is no corresponding resistance at 
the opposite end of the flying machine to neutralize 
the swerving effect which it induces: on the con- 
trarv. the resistance there is less than in the 
norrhal condition of straight line flight, so that the 
swerving effect is outside. Hence the need for 
iisinT Ihe rudder. 

From Ihe side elevation it will be seen that the 
startin-^ rail itself is about 00 ft. long, while the 
derrick is 15 ft. high. The actual arrangiunent 
shown was that constructed for Mr. Ogilvie's 
glider at Camber, and there the derrick was made 
from such timber as was availnlile on the spot, 
and the starting weight originally consisted of a 
bag containing the earth excavated from below the 
derrick. Later this was chansed to a number of 
metal discs un to a total w(>ight of 2."0 pounds. 
The rail itself, consisting of "T" iron in l-'><'.^- 
lengths mounted on long wooden blocks, was laid 



45 



AEROXAUTICS 



August, 1911 




(MOVEMENT- ^ |_^ 
— ~~~o S ~ 



fiimcrion of fli^^t. 



Details of Clarke Glider. 
46 



i-.RONAUTICS 



August, igii 



111 a slope of about one in ten. and to compensate 
la- the irregularity of the hillside a clearance of 
' t in. was allowed at the joints. Owing to the 
■ iim- grass present in this particular case, it was 
Jiiuud necessary to put additional wood blocks 6 
ns. deep under the sleepers. The actual details 
if construction are clearly shown in the three 
^niall sketches, while the precise arrangement of 
till- starting rope can be followed from the side 
_'lt\ation. 

In launching, the glider is placed in position 
•lose up to the derrick (as shown in the drawing), 
uith its two small grooved trolley wheels resting 
in the "T" iron rail ; the 250 pounds weight is 
tluii raised by hauling ou the free end of the rope, 
wliich terminates in an iron ring: this is then 
slipped over a downwards-pointing iron hook, car- 
ried on the end of a wooden bar fixed in front 
between the skids of the machine. At first a 
Manila rope, about I14 ins. circumference, was em- 
ployed, but a wire cable has since been substituted. 

The glider is balanced laterally on the mono- 
rail by hand on each side (when in motion this 
is effected by the action of the wing-warping 
lever), and is held back by hand against the pull 
of the rope. As soon as the pilot is ready the 
machine is released, the weight falls, and the 
glider is shot forward along the starting rail. 

When there is a good wind, the machine usually 
vises into the air after traversing only about 
30 ft. of the rail. 

By gradually closing up the points of support 
to a single point, both the above motions can be 
practised together. When sufficiently proficient 
try some short free glides from a part of the hill 
about one in six. If it is a large machine about 
four helpers will take hold of the bottom spar by 
a short end of rope if necessary, and run you and 
the m^achine down hill facing the wind, when 
the speed is sufficient the machine will be com- 
pletely air-borne and the helpers should then let 
go simultaneously and dodge away : a few such 
trials, and then if there is a starting rail, this 
may be used and will be found a great help. 

Always face the wind direct : never leave the 
machine by itself on a windy day or it will be 
struck by a gust and overturned. One man is 
enough to hold it if the elevator is kept de- 
pressed and he be ready to "sit on its head." If 
the machine should be overturned don't pull it 
over against the wind but manoeuvre it so that 
the wind returns it back. 



If a side gust strikes a machine, unless the 
machine can give with it, it will up-end side- 
ways ; this is a danger with long chutes methods 
of launching and certain forms of captive gliders, 
and] also necessitates a very heavy weight when 
using a launching rail. 

It is better to have the center of gravity too 
far ahead than too far back. 

Don't let the bracing of a machine get flabby. 

If a hill has a very steep slope suddenly chang- 
ing to a gentle one, the wind is apt to flow over 
this and leave a calm pocket near the change of 
slope. 

WHERE AND HOW TO GLIDE 

Choose a hill with slopes in as many directions 
as possible. The hill should, if possible, have a 
long slope of about, say, 1 in 8, rising to 1 in 4 
or 5, at the steepest part, and be free from ob- 
structions, such as trees, ditches, etc., as well as 
other hills in front. Such hills are best found 
by studying a contour map of the locality. 

Having found a suitable shed, or erected a tent 
in a sheltered! and convenient spot, it will be well 
to start by practicing each control (longitudinal 
and transverse) separately. For this puiijose it 
will be best to enlist the sei'vices of two friends 
(for a small machine), or four if it is a 
large one (a few miore will be useful if they are 
of the right sort). Choose a day with the wind 
blowing up one of the slopes (or this can be 
done on the level) with a velocity sufficient to 
take the major part of the weight, say, about 12 
to 15 miles per hour. Keep the machine facing 
the wind, take your place in the machine and let 
the two friends hold the ends of the wings on a 
line about a foot or less in advance of the center 
of gravity of the machine when loaded. In the 
case of most biplanes this will moan holding the 
machine at the front edge, then lift up the 
machine and pilot ; the machine is now capable 
of a pitching motion, but not of sideways rolling, 
and the pilot can devote his whole energies to 
mastering the movements of the elevating lever 
in order to keep the machine on a level keel ; 
when this is mastered, the machine should be 
placed on a plank or planks placed across other 
planks edge up, so that it can see-saw sideways 
(in the case where a starting rail is used, balance 
the machine on the rail), transverse balance (by 
warping or other means) can then be practiced un- 
til it becomes instinctive. 



Siag-ram 2, of which the small rectangle at 
the centre represents the rigrht-hand control- 
lever, shows in plan how the two movements 
capable of being- g-iven to this lever result in 
a third oblique line of movement, along" which 
the aviator's hand passes to and fro to pre- 
serve the bilateral equilibrium during" flight. 
rig"ure 2 shows the central portion of lower 
plane, with aviator's seat and the lever-control 
system of the glider. It will be observed that 
the right-hand lever can be moved sideways as 
well as forwards and backwards. Figure 3 il- 
lustrates the flexible elevator Figure 4 is a 



side elevation of starting derrick and rail for 
full-size glider. Details of mounting the rails 
and joining the sleepers are shown in Figure 5. 
Scale Drawings of Wright-Clarke glider, with 
sketch of the flexible-joint connecting the ver- 
tical struts to the main decks. A slight notch 
is made at the lower end of the XJ bolt to keep 
the eye of the strut central. The other sketch 
shows that instead of pulleys where the warp- 
ing-wires leave the decks, short lengths of 
Bowden wire sheatli are used clamped to the 
rear spars, as shown above. 



TO SPUCE SHORT BAMBOOS 

H. C. Cooke, of 128 West 65th street. New 
York, who has been flying last summer at 
Mineola, has advised us of his method of join- 
ing short lengths of bamboos. Often while of 
same outside diameter, the hole inside one 
bamboo is larger than that in the other. Drill 
both holes exact size of dowel sticks on the 
market. Bore 4 in. deep each end. Cut dowels 
not over 8 in., and measure depths of holes so 
that bamboos will come together. Use steel 
sleeve 6 in. long and bolt it on one bamboo 3 
in. Tighten up the two nuts on that end of 
the sleeve. Then glue dowel and push in — do 
not drive or bamboo will split. Then take 
other bamboo and slip on over protruding 



dowel and tighten up second two bolts on the 
other side. Drill notes through sleeve and 
bamboo on each end, fasten with stove bolts. 
If guy wires are used, the turnbuckles can be 
fastened to the stove bolts. 



.1. G. Stewart of Cincinnati has purchased a 
Grav Eagle biplane, equipped with a Roberts 
motor, and has contracted with a Curtiss flyer to 
exhibit the machine. The Rubel company has sold 
Gray Eagle motors the past week to R. C. .Jen- 
nings, Unionport, Ta. : Kyle Smith of Wheeling, 
W. Va.. and II. H. Klein, .Jr., Hartford, Conn. 
The Rubel concei-n has adopted the policy of tak- 
ing back all Gray Eagle motors where customers 
are dissatisfied. 



47 



AEROW^UTICS 



August, iQii 



THE WILLARD HEADLESS BIPLANE 



CE. WILLARD has completed the construc- 
tion of a biplane with the propeller in 
• front, and all steering surfaces In the 
rear. This will be taken to Canada, 
where future work will be conducted. His partner 
in the McCurdv-Willard Aeroplane Co., J. A. D. 
McCurdv, is also having machines built to his 
design in New York City. Whatever machines are 
marketed bv Messrs. Willard and McCurdy will 
be as individuals, while the McCurdy-Willard 
Aeroplane Co. will confine itself solely to exhibi- 
tions. 

Results of flights will be watched with interest, 
as but one or two biplanes, like the Breguet and 
the Roe. have ever successfully flown with the 
propeller in front, and none but these has ever 
made any big name for itself. This may not be 
due to the placing of the propeller alone, but to 
defects in the design. The principle is theo- 
retically less efficient, pai-ticularly with a biplane, 
than the placing of the propeller in the rear of 
the main planes. Following is a description of Mr. 
Willard's novel machine : 

Main Planes. These are each in five demount- 
able sections, the lateral beams being joined by 
steel plates, top and bottom of beams, and bolted 
through. The main beams have three laminations, 
spruce and ash. The guy wires are Roebling 
flexible cable. 7/64 and o/:!2 in., and are tight- 
ened by turnbuckles, each with a locking device to 
keep the wire from loosening up through vibra- 
tion. The struts are fish shaped, solid spruce, 
and fit in steel tube sockets. On the end of the 
strut is a brass ferrule to keep the strut from 
swelling in the socket. Continental cloth is used 
both sides and tacked on with copper tacks. 

Bodji. A novelty has been introduced in the 
construction of the rear half of the machine. 
Instead of outriggers, as usual with biplanes, a 
triangular body is employed, made of bamboo en- 
tirely, even to the diagonal braces, with the base 
of the triangle at the top. At tlie rear end is 



the elevator and rudder. The manner of attach- 
ment of the diagonal bamboos to the main members 
is by steel tubing. This fuselage is divided in two 
sections, midway the length, the after one being 
capable of being slipped inside the forward one 
for purposes of shipment. The fuselage will be 
entirely enclosed with fabric. 

Running Gear. A central skid is used in com- 
bination with four wheels. The two center. 20 in. 
by 3 in. wheels, support the machine and are 
flexibly mounted with Goodyear rubber springs 
in the usual manner. Fore and aft respectively is 
a 16-in. wheel, which normally is 2 in. off the 
ground. In landing, the two center wheels take 
the first shock, letting the machine down easily 
on the remaining ones. The 'skid does not 
come in contact with the ground at all. 

Power Plant. Not settled upon. Two Gnomes 
are already owned by him and it is possible he 
will take delivery of a couple of rotary Indians, 
on which he has a call. The placing of the gaso- 
line tank depends on what engine is used. A 6- 
cylinder Anzani is also a prospect. In any case, 
a shield will be built up at the rear of the motor 
to protect the operator from oil. which the Gnomes 
particularly have a habit of throwing in one's 
face without any discretion whatever. The spark 
advance and throttle are located on the steering 
post and are controlled by Bowden wire, with 
copper tubing wherever there are bends. 

Staiiliti/. Ailerons are used, fastened with or- 
dinary brass hinges to the rear beams, but are 
positively operated in both up and down direc- 
tions in such a manner as to give equal resistance 
on both sides of the machine to avoid any turning 
tendency from the operation of the ailerons. 

Controls. .Ml steering and operating of ailerons 
are by one steering post and wheel, universall.v 
mounted. Pushing forward steers down, and vice 
versa. Turning the wheel steers right or left. 
while swinging the whole affair to left or right 
operates the ailerons. 



A PRESSURE EQUALIZER FOR AILERONS 



TIIK accompanying sketch shows two views of 
a differential device for securing and main- 
taining at all times an equal pressure on 
the ailerons on the opposite sides of a 
machine. 



Referring to Fig. 1 it will be seen that the gear- 
A and B are secured to shafts on which are tli> 
pulleys G and H, around which are wound thi^ 
cables that operate the ailerons. Gears A and R 
Li gaiic the gear C. which is mounted in tlie ring E 




/^^. 




lose 



Pressure Equalizing' Device for Ailerons. 
48 



ERONAUTICS 



August, iQii 




'Vvillard Headless Biplane. 



Fig. 2 is a cross section on tlie line XX. It 
•ill 1)6 seen that if the control lever is held 
tationary the wheel F and the gear C, which are 
oth secured to the same cross shaft, cannot re- 
olve, but should there be any difference of pres- 
ure on the ailerons, the ring E will revolve in 
he mounting D. 

The operation of the control lever will revolve 
he gear C, which will operate the ailerons in 
'Pposite directions, but the ring E will be free at 
lU times to revolve and equalize the pressure. 



Many sales have been made of the Roberts 
motor in the short time it has been on the 
market. T. W. Benoist, of St. Louis, has been 
making flights in one of his Curtiss-types with it 
at Kinloch Park and S. D. Dixon and H. W. 
Powers are flving at Cliicago. Ilaupt has it in 
his B16riot-copy and Ualpli Cole, of Norwalk. 
O., has been making some sensational novice 
flights in a machine of his own design. 



Aviation fans bow may have a new sensation. 
Sveryone wants to know how high the aero- 
)lane is. Just sight along a special walking 
itick and look at a table in your vest pocket, and 
"ou know, providedl you know what machine it 
s that's flying, and one isn't a "fan" unless he 
mows theru all afar off. The Metroscope Manu- 
acturing Co. of Springfield, O., has produced in 
I cane the homely but characteristic altitude 
neasuring device of the Wright Brothers, de- 
scribed some time since in AERONAUTICS. 



/ have found a great many interesting ihini/ii in 
your magazine and am sure it is uell north the 
price. — Geo. J. Ferguson. 

/ found your magazine very satisfactory and in- 
structive and the best on the market. — All.\x W. 
Carpenter. 

/ would like to praise Aeron.\utics through its 
editor for its noble work, which no doubt has 
improved to the delight of its subscribers, and 
those who perchance come across a stray copy. — 
R. P. D.u'iES. 



49 



AERONAUTICS August, ipii 

KIRKBRIDE BUILDS ALL STEEL BIPLANE 



STEEL construction is beginning to come more 
and more into favor. Sevei'al steel machines 
have been built in this country, and judg- 
ing from the way they withstand the wear 
and tear and tumbles" it would seem as if the 
steel construction were superior to wood in a 
good many ways. 

The machine Illustrated was designed and con- 
structed by William Klrkbride, of Detroit, Mich. 
Steel tubing has been, used almost exclusively, the 
only wood being in the skids and the engine 
and seat foundations and control levers. 

Main Planes. The upper plane has a span of 
30 ft., being two feet longer than the bottom 
one. The lateral main beams, both front and 
rear, are of 1%-in. 20 gauge tubing, reinforced 
in the center by slipping another tubing inside. 
This gives more strength where it is needed and 
does not Increase the size of the spars. The 
ribs are also of tubing, the light ones being % in. 
20 gauge and the heavy ones in way of uprights 
% in. ; they are all joined to the spars by braz- 
ing, the joints being flush. Contrary to usual 
practice, the ribs do not pass either over or 
under the rear spars, but butt against it and 
are brazed. Quarter inch tubing forms the rear 
edge of the planes, to which is brazed the ends of 
the ribs. 

A novel feature of the construction is the doing 
away with all strut sockets, guy wires and turn- 
buckles in the main plane. This is done by braz- 
ing the struts to the main spars, and by using 
%-in. 20 gauge tubing in place of wire. The 
small tubing is cut about 1/16 in. sliort and 
heated and brazed in place ; when the tubing cools 
it comes to a good tension. If it were not for 
heating these diagonals they would be slack after 
the brazing. They are also brazed where they 
cross. The struts' are 1-in. 20 gauge tubing and 
are round instead of oval. The cloth is stitched 
by hand and covers both sides. 

Steering. The outriggers are of %-in. 20 gauge 
tubing. They can be detached from the planes 
by taking out four bolts ; the mam spars having 
clips brazed on and the outrigger spars are fitted 
with an eye, making a very simple and strong 



joint. The elevators and rudder are constructed 
in the same manner as the main planes. 

Conlrols. The control is of the Farman type, 
fore and aft movement of the lever manipulates 
the elevator and sideways the ailerons. The 
rudder is controlled by a foot lever. 

The power plant consists of a Model 2 Maxi- 
motor, weighing 225 pounds. 

This is equipped with a Detroit radiator. Moa 
magneto and Schebler carburettor. The propeller 
is of 7-ft. diameter by 4Vj-ft pitch and gives 
from 275 to 315 pounds thrust at from 1,000 to 
1,200 R. P. M. 

Running Gear. The running gear consists of 
two skids and wheels. The wheels, which are 
2 in. by 20 in. Hartford, are mounted on a long 
axle, which is suspended by rubber springs. 

All the control wires are 3/32-in. Roebling 
flexible cable, running over pulleys wherever it 
is required to turn corners with the wire. 

The weight of the complete machine, without 
the operator, is 595 pounds. 



Gray Eagle aero motors have recently been 
supplied' to the following parties : 

P. .T. Butler, Vallejo. Cal. ; H. H. Hoover, Mem- 
phis, Tenn. ; D. D. Huddleston, Salem, Ore. 

D. L. Dennis, of Franklin, Ind.. has been making 
daily flights with his Curtiss type biplane equipped 
witli a Gray Eagle motor, and Earl Slaick of In- 
dianapolis, Ind.. has been making many flights 
with his Curtiss biplane equipped with a Gray 
Eagle motor. 

Hoover is also making daily flights with his 
Gray Eagle biplane at the Louisville aviation field. 

R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., since Mr. Rubel pur- 
chased his partner's interest in the business, is 
devoting most of its enei'gies to the sales of Gray 
Eagle motors and propellers, though a new model 
biplane will be brought out for 1912. A six- 
cylinder, 60 h. p. V-motor. two-cycle type, with 
open crankcase and no carburetor, is being de- 
veloped. The first motor has already been satis- 
factorily tested out on the block. 




50 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 




Kirkbride All-steel Biplane. 



NEW^ YORK-CHICAGO FLIGHT 



Urbana, O., July 10, 1911. 

Editor of AERONAUTICS. 

Dear Sir : I have just read the article by R. E. 
Scott, "What's the Matter With America." and 
I am impressed with his view of the case. 

The "Scientific American" in a recent number 
asks, "Why is Europe ahead of America?" in 
primary inventions, and answers much in the 
same wav. 

If mechanical flight is to stop where it is as 
to development and usefulness, then it may as 
well stop at once : but all thinking people arc 
agreed that it will not stop ; then let us on 
this side have a hand in the development. 

I propose to post this challenge — that I will 
build a 'plane that will cover the distance be- 
tween New York and Chicago in the light of a 
single day carrying two persons, and without a 
.'itop, for .$25,000, 40 per cent down with con- 
tract, balance when the machine is accepted, and 



If it fails to do as claimed I will at once refund 
tho advance payment. Or I will organize a com- 
r.any and sell .$100,000 worth of stock for .$2o.00O 
and" guarantee to make it worth par m one j'ear 
or rel"und the money paid by subscribers. 

It seems to me that there should be someone 
Interested in the advancement of the gentle art 
of flving that would be willing to stake the use 
of the money long enough to prove this claim and 
that is all that would be lost, for you can refer 
to anv of the banks named on my card and find 
that I am able to do as I offer. 

Tho offer of largo prizes is not a very satis- 
factory wav of advancing the cause, as the con- 
testants are compelled to build cheaply for fear 
of failure. ,, , . 

If you will post my challenge in your nest 
number you will be helping the advancement of 
.\merican aeronautics. 

Respectfully, 

(Signed) C. M. WANZER. 



51 



AERONAUTICS August, 1911 

CONSTRUCTTOM AIDS XIX 




elder 



Co'^sTift/c-r'«f>/ /4*AJ *■/•>{ 



'008 and N«il Stay Sinnd Fa>t«i 



AERONAUTICS 



August, igii 




iKnr fmm 

©mUMTmY 



T~l 




FLIES FROM BOSTON TO WASHINGTON 



Atwood's Time Table. 

Miles. 

BOSTON 0.00 

NEW LONDON O.i.OO 

NEW YORK n L'.4o 

ASBURY PARK :'.L'.4."i 

ATLANTIC CITY 0.'..l.j 

HALTIMORE 122.40 

WASHINGTON 35.20 

Total 401.20 



ATWOOD MAK£S FIVE CENTURY FI.IGHT. 

THE biggest flight ever made in this country, 
more than four times as long as any previous 
attempt, was successfully accomplished by 
Harry N. Atwood after not more than six 
Wf'ok.s of aviation experience. He learned to 
fly at till' Wright camp at Dayton and then went 
with the r.urgoss Company and Curtis, flying their 
Burgess-Wright machines. 

On June 30, while at breakfast, the suggestion 
was evolved in his mind that he fly to New Lon- 
don and see the Y'ale-Harvard boat races from 
aloft. He did it. When he arrived there a news- 
paper man asked him why he didn't fly to New 
Yt)rk. He did. Then he thought he might as 
well go on to Washington and demonstrate there 
the new Burgess army aeroplane which had been 
sent by train. And he did that, too. All this 
without any prize or profit, save a cup given by 
a local newspaper after he started and a small 
purse raised by Atlantic City. The Chamber of 
Commerce in Washington was expected to re- 
ward the flight in a financial way, but. after it 
was made, the seeming necessity for a prize dimin- 
ished daily, and the purse was finally not made 
up. 

The Aero Club of Washington, however, did 
give him its gold medal and he was introduced 
to President Taft, who made the presentation. 
This was on July 14. He flew into Washington, 
landing in Potomac Park, and had luncheon and 
then flew right into the White House grounds. 
This was a very ticklish job, as well as the 
getting out, for he had to dodge trees, shrubbery, 
fences and walks. After the presentation, he 
turned his machine and flew out of the grounds 
and back to College Pork. 

The Burgess-Wright machine is made by the 
Burgess Company and Curtis, of Marblehead, 
Mass., licensees under the Wright patents. The 
power plant is made by the Wright Company it- 
self, at Dayton ; the woodwork, other construction 
and assembling is Burgess-Curtis. Products of 
other manufacturers entering into the whole are : 
wheels, shock absorbers and cloth, of Goodyear 
Tiro and Rubber Co., Diamond Chain Co., Mea 
magneto. 



^ 




Atwood Hying Around the JSinger building 

Courtesy N^. Y. World 

THE FLIGHT DAY BY DAT. 

June .".O. Flew from Squantum field, near Bos- 
ton, with his mechanic, James Fleet, as passen- 
ger at 7 a. ra., to a field near New London, 
arriving at 9 :10. The mayor quickly came to 
the spot with police and flew with Atwood over 
the course while the college crews were racing. 
The flight took 2 hours and 10 minutes to New 
London. 

July 1. Flew alone from New London, 7 -.Oi] 
a. m., to New York City, stopping 38 minutes .for 
gas just across the East River, at Astoria, L. L. 
directly over the East River bridges and across 
the skyscraper district of New York around the 
Singer "Building and down to Governor's Island, 



53 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 




Atwood's Iiongr riijht Mapped. 

in the bay, 10:20 a. m. lie followed the Now 
Havon railroad tracl<s all tlie way down the 
Connofticut shore to the upper end of Manhattan 
Island, where he swung out over the East River to 
Astoria. 

.Tuly :i. Flew around Governor's Island and the 
hay, and! toolt Lieut. Fickel around the Statue of 
Liberty. A hundred miles in all wore flown here, 
it was figured. While up over Brooklyn at a 
height of 2,200 ft. his gas ran forward in the 
tank away from the feed pipe to the engine 
and he glided down fo the island. 

July 4. Started at 8 SiO a. m. and arrived at 
.Mlantic City alone, at 2 :;{2 p. ni.. after stopping 
at Asbviry I'ark, and at Sea (jirt on the way for 
oil. and at Tuckerton for gas. This stage took a 
long time for ho had to buck head winds all the 
way. Asbury Park was mistaken for Atlantic 
City and. he had to go twice the distance again 
to reach tile latter place. 

.Tuly .5-0. Made passenger flights at Atlantic 
City, taking up Chas. K. Hamilton and various 
local people. Here Hamilton was Invited to fly 
with .\twood to Washington, and acc(M)ted. 

.July 7. Hamilton and Atwood started, but a 
dog got in the way of a iii-oijoller iiiid was neatly 



dissected. A second start was unfortunate for 
the machine did not raise well and they had to 
land in water. The waves broke the planes and 
got in the engine. 

July 8. Hamilton had his own Burgess-Wright 
towed behind an automobile all the way from 
New Britain, Conn., taking 20 hours on the road 
without sleep, and this way used the rest of the 
day. 

July 9. Made a start but had to land a quarter 
of a mile away on Captain Hugh L. Willoughby's 
grounds and injured the machine, which did not 
seem to lift. 

July 10. At 5 :04 in the morning another start 
was made and a landing made then at Farnhurst, 
Del., at 6 :45, where gas was obtained. Start- 
ing again at 7 :;riO, another landing was again 
made at Stemmer's Run. Md., at :25. All along 
the machine was flying close to the ground and 
it seemed impossible to get it to lift. The ex- 
treme heat was charged' with this. Just before 
reaching Stemmer's Run tliey passed close over a 
moving train and the hot air and smoke from 
the engine boosted them up in the air enough 
to clear the telegraph wires and make a landing 
in a nearby field. 

July 11. Despite the very long grass, a start 
was made, still with Hamilton, at 4 :40 a. m.. 
landing at 5 :50 a. m. at College Park, which At- 
wood thought was really in the city of Washing- 
ton instead of nine miles away. As he planned 
to fly to Washington itself he was still not satis- 
fled until he completed his journey to the Capitol. 
After going into town for breakfast he took out 
the Burgess-Wright government machine for its 
demonstration but broke it up. 

July 12. Meets the President and announces an 
early flight from Chicago to New York. 

July 13. He buys Hamilton's machine, which 
has been used from Atlantic City, and flies over 
the city of Washington for half "an hour, circling 
the dome of the Capitol Itself, landing back at 
College Park. 

July 14. Flies to the White House grounds and 
is presented with the gold medal. 

July 21. A bad wind storm took the machine, 
which was out of the shed at College Park, blew 
it up in the air and dropped it back to earth, 
completely wrecking it. 

JOHNSTONE BREAKS DURATION RECORD. 

St". Croix Johnstone, of the Moisant Company, 
flying a Moisant-Bleriot, broke the American dura- 
tion and) distance records over a measured course 
on July 27 at Mineola, L. I., in a flight lasting 
4 hours 1 minute 5:} 4/5 seconds, circling the 
course 39 times and a fraction for a distance of 
176 miles, 1,254 feet, officially observed by repre- 
sentatives of the Aero Club. 

He started very early in the morning, just as 
the sun was coming up over the eastern horizon 
and finished his flight over a four-mile 2,699-foot 
course shortly after 9 :00 o'clock. The machine 
was loaded down with 25 gallons of gas and 11 
gallons of castor oil. A small leak in tne extra 
gas tank prevented a- longer flight. 

The new figures to be added to the list of 
.Vmerican records are as follows : 

2 RECORDS BROKEN, EST.\BLISHED. 

Duration, 4 hr. 1 min. 53 4/5 sec. 

Distance, 176 m. 1,254 ft. 

150 kil. in 2 hrs. 8 min. 1/5 sec. 

2(HI kil. in 2 hrs. 49 min. 52 1/5 sec. 

25(» kil. in 3 hrs. 32 min. 5(> 3/5 sec. 

Two hours. 88 m. 1.13!) ft. 

Three hours, 13:! m. 1.729 ft. 

Four hours. 1 7(i m. 1.254 ft. 

The records that were beaten follow : — 

Duration. ."> hr. .■!9 min. 40.5 sec. P. O. Parme- 
lee (Wright). San Francisco. Jan. 22. 1011. 

Distance, 101 m. .-.S'.i fi., Knljih Johnstone 
(Wright), Boston, Sept. 10, lOKi. 

BEACHEVS ri.IGHT OVER NIAGARA. 

l'"or spectacular (iarin.i; .-uul accniuplished tlyiiig. 
no one lias "anytliing on" Lincoln Boachey. His 
flight of June 27 back and foi'th over the Niagaia 
lUver and down the liorge will be remembered 
for some time. 



I 



54 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 



Beachey was the principal feature of an in- 
ternational carnival under the auspices of the 
twin cities Niagara Falls, N. Y., and Niagara Falls, 
Can. The start of his flight was from a baseball 
park on the American side of the river. From 
here he circled round and flew across the Niagara 
River and Goat Island and back of the Horse- 
shoe Falls to the Canadian side. Without stop- 
ping he turned in below the Falls at the beginning 
of the Gorge and flew along its course and over 
the big steel bridge. Then he turned again and 
flew back up the Canadian side nearly to the 
Falls. At this jjoint he repeated his flight down 
the Gorge but made it more sensational. Drop- 
ping close to the boiling Rapids, he shot along, 
this time passing under the central arch of the 
bridge. 

On previous days he hadi made a series of 
spectacular flights over the Niagara River in the 
wind and rain with his Curtiss machine which 
he now flies without a fi-ont elevator. .Tust a 
few days before, Beachey. McCurdy and Wittmer 
gave an exhibition at tlie famous Fort Erie race 
track, across the lake from Buffalo. Here a 
number of sensational flights were made by all 
three and on one day, in a stiff wind. Beachey 
flew across the river and over the business dis- 
trict of Buffalo. 

ri^IGHT OVER NEW VOBK. 

Following the sensational flight of Atwood over 
the peaks and canyons of lower Manhattan, Ladis 
Lewkowicz, in his flve-cylinder Anzani-enginod 
Bleriot on July 8 left Nassau Boulevard and flew 
high over the other end of Manhattan Island, 
attaining an altitude of over 6,000 ft. As he 
crossed East River and was about over East looth 
Street he noticed his oil giving out and he de- 
liberately shut his engine off and began to glide 
the long distance across the Hudson River and 
the Palisades to Leonia, N. J., a distance of at 
least three or four miles in an air line. In land- 
ing he caught his wheels in the long tough grass 
of the salt meadows and turned the machine 
over, l)reaking its back. 

DOUBIiE ENGINE MONOFI.ANE FAIIiS. 

The Queen Aeroplane Company's double Gnome- 
engined monoplane came to grief and the aviator. 
Stone, had a narrow escape. 

This comi)any. which is building fine copies 
of the Bleriot at Fort George, New York City, 
built a speed machine with two engines, mounted 
one in front as usual and one directly behind 
the aviator, turning in opposite directions. In- 
stead of the usual rectangular body in Bleriot 
machines, three hollow outriggers, separated at 



the front far enough for the rear propeller to 
swing, extended back to a point where a rather 
small vertical rudder was hinged. A four-wheeled 
chassis was used to support the whole. It was 
expected that the machine would develop phenom- 
enal speed but it did not fly far enough to get 
much of an idea as to what it might do. It 
jumped off the ground like a scared rabbit and 
almost Immediately keeled over on one side and 
Stone was unable to right it. If it had been higher 
that might have been possible but it was acknowl- 
edged that the vertical rudder was entirely too 
small. 

NEW McCUBDY MACHINE. 

The new McCurdy aeroplane has started on the 
road) before anyone had a chance to see it. It 
was taken to Nassau for one short hop to try 
the balance and shipped to Hamilton, Ont., where 
an exhibition is to be given. From here it goes 
to Toronto and on to Chicago for the meet. 

H. F. Kearney is making flights at Creve Coeur 
andi is to try out pontoons on his biplane. Sev- 
eral other novices are about to move over from 
Kinloch, as the former is a more favored flying 
ground. 

NAVAIi MACHINE HAS NEW FEATURES. 

Lieut. Theodore G. Ellyson, the navy's qualified 
aviator, has been flying all the month at Ham- 
mondsport with the hydroaeroplane bought by 
the Navy Department of the United States Gov- 
ernment. On many of his flights he has carried 
passengers, among whom was Capt. W. I. Cham- 
bers, head of the aeronautical work of the navy, 
who was taken up Keuka Lake to its end and 
back, a distance of about 40 miles. 

The naval student, Lieut. .T. H. Towers, has also 
l)een a passenger to Penn Y'an and back. Penn 
Yan is at one end of the lake and Hammondsport 
at the other. Over a measured course the ma- 
chine covered 10 miles in 18 minutes, carrying 
the two officers. On the return trip fromi Penn 
I'an the machine circled the little steamer that 
plies between the two towns for the express bene- 
fit of Lieut. Paul W. Beck, the army aviator, who 
was known to be a passenger, and the navy took 
this occasion to show the army what a naval 
aeroplane was like. 

The end of July. Lieutenant Beck was taken 
as a passenger in the machine. 

At the present time four military officers are 
training at the Curtiss factory — Lieutenants Beck. 
Ellyson^ Towers and J. W. McClaskey, the latter 
of the United States marine coi-ps. Beck and 
Ellyson are qualified pilots. 

The other navy machine is a four-cylinder land 
aeroplane, of the" usual Curtiss typo. 




The Navy's Hydro-aero-plane 

55 



'ONAUTICS 



August, ipii 



INNOVATIONS IN HYDROAKROPLANE. 

The naval hydroaeroplane is two-seated, each 
being equipped with an individual shoulder brace 
for the operating of the ailerons. These can be 
connected together or disconnected at will. The 
passenger must, if they are connected, allow him- 
self to sway with any movement of the braces 
caused by the aviator. The passenger is free to 
draw or make notes, or can at once take over the 
control of the entire machine. 

The steering post is hinged on an axis fore and 
aft, so that the wheel can be taken by either of 
the occupants and full control of the machine 
Instantly shifted from one to the other of the 
people. In case of accident to the driver, the 
passenger can grasp control without chance of 
losing balance of the machine. The possible 
danger of two men trying to operate the machine 
at the same time is avoided. The elevator is 
tilted by a horizontal rod running forward from 
the lower end of the steering post. A patent has 
been applied for on this hinged steering column. 

The diagonal stay wires in the three center sec- 
tions of the machine are doubled and the motor is 
one of the new 70-h.p. eight-cylinder motors, just 
completed. 

The aileron-operating cables run from the shoul- 
der brace over the two large pulleys on the front 
struts, as shown in the photograph, crossing above 
the aviator to pulleys at the extremities of the 
ujjper plane and down to the ailerons. Prom each 
aileron a cable runs over a pulley at the outer 
extremity of the lower plant in to the shoulder 
brace again. 

NEW WRIGHT MODEI.. 

A new model Wright machine has been pro- 
duced, of 32-ft. spread, a one-man machine, de- 
signed particularly for use in restricted grounds. 
It flies faster than the two-man model B, is a fast 
climber, but not so speedy as the Baby Wright. 

The navy's machine, a model B, the third Wright 
machine purchased by the government, was de- 
livered on July 19, after an hour's demonstration 
by Orville Wright. After this flight he took up 
Capt. W. I. Chambers, head of aeronautics in the 
navy, for 23 minutes. While he was aboard, Mr. 
Wright made a beautiful glide of about three 
miles at reduced power, and as he approached the 
earth he started up the engine and immediately 
ascended. 

II. II. Brown of Boston has received a model B 
and he will complete his training at Nassau 
boulevard. George Frederick Norton and Professor 
Keynolds are the latest students at the last place, 
while Mr. George W. Beatty is rapidly becoming 
proficient in the machine bought by Walter B. 
Davis. 

At Dayton, O. G. Simmons is learning to drive 
for Robert J. Collier. Messrs. H. V. Hills of Mil- 
waukee, and J. C. Henning, who is learning to fly 
to give exhibitions in a machine bought for him by 
a syndicate, are now students here. Mr. Hills 
will place himself at the disposal of any firm 
that needs a man to demonstrate machines. Louis 
Mitchell, who owns a Burgess-Wright, has also 
l)ought a Wright model B and is learning to fly it. 
Twenty-four men have been trained this year, and 
10 machines have been delivered. Othen pupils 
trained by the Wright company are awaiting de- 
li vi-rirs. five of which are promised by Aug. ](). 



A new aileron scheme has been employed by 
James B. Slinn. of Chillicothe, 111., in his mono- 
plane. The ailerons are situated on the upper 
rear edge of the main planes and are operated 
by a shoulder brace, in. one direction only. 

The trailing edge of the elevator, 15 ft. by 
21/2 ft., is directly al)ove the leading edge of the 
main plane. This is operated through the bell 
crank and link by tilting the steering column /ore 
andi aft. The cross-bar operates the rudder. The 
main plane is 27 ft. spread and 5 ft. chord. 



Clarence H. Walker of Salt Lake City, who pur- 
chased a Curtiss machine last year, is now giving 
exhibitions in Australia. Masson and Addosides 
are also there with a Bleriot. 



Charles K. Hamilton will soon be flying for the 
Curtiss Exhibition Co. again, his financial differ- 
ences with the company evidently having been 
patched up. 

The race to be flown Aug. 5 between New York 
and Philadelphia by the Curtiss aviators, Hamil- 
ton, who has just joined with Curtiss again, 
Beachey and Robinson, has aroused no little 
comment. Robinson is coming East after making 
numerous hydroaeroplane flights at Seattle. Tlie 
Moisant management has written to Gimbol 
Brothers suggesting making of the race an open 
affair, in order that Moisant flyers. Johnstone, Bar- 
rier, Simion or any one or all of them, or more, 
can take part. A. Leo Stevens, who is booking 
Henry N. Atwood, is anxious that he be given a 
chance at the $5,000 prize. There are still others, 
independent aviators, who are anxious to try. 
The Curtiss oflice looks upon it as a business 
proposition, and one which anyone else had the 
same privilege of arranging. 



With over a quarter million ignition outfits in 
use in the United States, the Bosch Magneto Co. 
is now introducing throughout the country an ex- 
tensive service system through which users of 
their apparatus wherever they may be located will 
be able to secure prompt and skilled assistance in 
case of need. 

The scheme adopted is very far reaching and 
should prove of great value and assistance to those 
employing Bosch products. The plan includes 
the appointment throughout the country of official 
distributers, who will have a complete stock of 
repair and spare parts for Bosch apparatus, as 
well as a completely equipped repair shop in charge 
of a mechanic especially trained for the work. 

The distributers will furthermore be in a posi- 
tion to handle sales of Bosch products to the local 
trade. Close co-operation is planned between the 
Bosch Magneto Co. and the distributers, which 
will give the latter the benefit of special pub- 
licity, circularizing, etc., as well as the necessary 
technical assistance. 

Each distributer as appointed will be furnished 
with an enameled sign featuring the Bosch mag- 
neto, reserved' entirely for official Bosch dis- 
tributers, and are to be displayed by the estab- 
lishments designated in this way. 

Distributers are now being appointed, and it is 
expected before many months have passed they 
will be operating in all of the localities of the 
T'nited States and Canada where automoliiles, 
motorboats, motorcycles, etc., are in surticient use 
to vnr'Tit tbo anpointment. 



I 




SUnn Aileron Scheme. 

56 



AERONAUTICS 



August, igii 



]Sft-6^i^Tal^ 



WRIGHT COMPANY TO START WHOIiI!- 
SAI.Z: SUITS. 

Within the next 30 days infringomont suits will 
be started by the Wright company against manu- 
facturers and aviators in this country who are 
mianufacturing and exhibiting alleged infringing 
aeroplanes. 

This is not the legal procedure originally in- 
tended by the company, but one that has been 
more or less forced upon it by public censure. The 
plan was to bring infringement suits against manu- 
facturers or users of the main types of machines, 
such as Curtiss, Farman and Bleriot only, and to 
obtain as early an adjudication as possible for the 
benefit of the art and industry, for not until final 
confirmation or dismissal of the Wright claims 
would capital be likely to invest in aviation, nor 
would the public buy machines of types in suit. 

Suits were brought against I'aulhan, using the 
Farman ; against Curtiss, and against White, 
using a Bleriot and Farman, and injunctions 
asked for. In the first two cases, that of Curtiss 
and Paulhan, the injunctions granted by the 
Circuit Court were set aside on an appeal, and 
the next step was to wait for the trial of the 
infringement suit. White's lawyers obtained a 
delay and advised him that the makers of his 
machines should defray at least a part of the 
suits, but White could not induce either Farman 
or Bleriot to even pay a share of the costs of 
fighting, as they had their own cases to fight in 
France. The White suit is up for trial in Oc- 
tober, as is the I'aulhan. It is possible that judg- 
ments may be obtained by the Wright company 
against both, but it is not at all certain that dam- 
ages can be collected so long as both defendants 
stay abroad, at least not in France. It is quite 
probable that English courts would review favor- 
able judgment in this country and make White 
pay up. 

Curtiss must have his evidence in in September 
for the trial of the action in October. Both the 
Wrights and Curtiss have been collecting evidence 
and taking testimony during the past six months. 

THE WHOLESALE SUITS. 

Criticism was quite general of the action of the 
Wrights in the alleged selection of these few to 
l)e the "goats," and people wondered why the 
Moisant aviators were not prosecuted, why Sop- 
with was allowed to come over without molesta- 
tion, why Ovington, Baldwin, Willard and the 
large number of lesser lights who are killing the 
chances for future meets or exhibitions all over 
the country by failing to satisfy the public or 
even fly at all in many cases, were left to fly as 
they pleased. 

Now suits are to be started against all who are 
doing anything at all in the way of manufac- 
turing, exhibition or contest Hying where there is 
financial reward. No doubt the public will criti- 
cise this move also, and not without I'eason, for 
consistency was never a virtue with the dear 
pulilic. 

Sopwith has already been served with legal 
documents, as has Barrier. Simon, Audeniars, 
Frisbie and two managers of the recent Moisant 
n.oet at Detroit. 

F. II. Russell, manager of the W^right company, 
has stated : "Our first desire was not to bother 
the general public until it could be informed as 
to the legal status of the Wright patent, but with 
such rapid developments in this country, and with 
the coming over of foreigners who are not inter- 
ested in development, excepting in so far as they 
would make money to take away from the coun- 
try, we were becomdng criticised for the very 
policy which we considered most broad and: lib- 
eral. Then, too, by refraining from these further 
suits, we might be considered as acquiescing, to 
the detriment of our legal position. 



"Another reason, quite as impoi'tant as the 
popular feeling (above expressed) which has al- 
tered our policy, is the fact that manufacturers 
and licensees in these exhibitions who have rec- 
ognized our patents and paid our royalties arc 
very rightly requesting the protection in their 
business which they feel the patents should insure, 
and which they have paid for." 

WniGHT SUITS IN OTHER COUNTRIES. 

In France the court rendered the opinion, printed 
in the July number, which opinion acknowledged 
the validity of the Wright patent as a combina- 
tion, and the present system as sufficiently de- 
scribed in the patent specifications, but which 
allowed the commission appointed opportunity 
within the next year to discover prior claims. 

The German company, which owns the German 
rights, won its first case against infringers. 

AUTOMOBIIiE CI.UB MOTOR PRIZE. 

It is much satisfaction to note that 15 entries 
have been received for the Automobile Club of 
America's $1,000' motor prize, of which full par- 
ticulars have previously been published in AERO- 
NAUTICS, just before the closing of the entries 
on July 1, when it seemed likely that not a single 
entry would be received. 

When the July issue went to press two days 
before we were informed that none had been 
received. 

The time for closing has now been extended 
to Sept. 1 to give certain manufacturers more time 
to enter or prepare their product for the test. 

The 15 entries are as follows : 

Albatross (six-cylinder), entered by Albatross 
Engine Corporation. 

Albatross (two-cylinder), entered by Albatross 
Engine Corporation. 

Anzani. entered by Aerial Equipment Co. 

Cooke Revolving, entered by W. C. Cooke. 

Gnome, entered by Aeromotion Co. of America. 

Ilarriman Aero, entered by Harriman Motor Co. 

Ithaca, entered by Ithaca Motor Co. 

Kirkham, entered by Charles B. Kirkhami. 

Maximotor, entered by Maximotor Co. 

Renault, entered by Aerial Equipment Co. 

Requa, entered by Requa Motor Co. 

Roberts, entered by Roberts Motor Co. 

Springfield Aviation, entered by Springfield Gas 
Engine -Co. 

Willard, entered by H. J. Willard. 

Wright Aero Motor, entered by the Wright Co. 

OBJECTS TO EXTENSION. 

C. B. Kirkham writes as follows : 

In your last issue you stated that up to the 
time you went to press there were no entries to 
the aeronautical motor competition to be held by 
the Automobile Club of America, and as you evi- 
dently went to press after the 1st of July, I will 
have to take issue with you on this Doint, as the 
Kirkham motor was entered previous to this tim(\ 
and I have since learned that the date of enti-y 
of this competition has been postponed to Sejit. 
1. It seems to me very strange that the time 
of entry should be extended in order to favor 
manufacturers who had not confidence enough in 
their motors to get in at the time originally set. 
It looks very unsportsmanlike to me, and it should 
not be. for 'if they have not confidence enough in 
their motor to make entry at the date originally 
specified, especially after the competition had been 
advertised as long as it has, then it seems to me 
that they should have been left out. and had I 
not gotten my entry in. I would most certainly 
have expected to stay out entirely. My entry and 
specifications are in and they will not be changed, 
for if I cannot win this competition with a stock 
motor, I would rather not win it at all." 



U 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 



BACE TKOM NEW YORK TO PHIILY. 

Throuiih tho $r..(i(io pri/.o of Gimbel Brothers, 
a large departmient store firm of New York and 
riuladelphia, the first American cross-country aero- 
phme race will be fiown from New York to Phila- 
delphia on Saturday. Aug. 5, and the aviators 
competing will be Lincoln Beachey, the Califor- 
nian who a few weeks ago made his daring flight 
in a Curtiss aeroplane over Niagara Falls and 
through the gorge ; Chas. K. Hamilton and II. A. 
Kobinson, expert and experienced fliers. 

The contestants will start from Governor's 
Island, New York Bay, and fly up the Hud.son 
River to the Gimbel store, Broadway and Thirty- 
third St., each aviator passing over the store, 
which will be considered the official starting point 
of the race. 

After being oflBcially timed for the start, the 
aeroplanes will set out on a course from New 
York to Philadelphia. 74 miles, following in a 
general way the tracks of the I'ennsylvania Rail- 
road as far as Trenton, where they may take up 
the course of the Delaware River to Market St., 
I'liiladelphia. Each aeroplane will pass over the 
(Jimliel store in that city, thus completing the 
oflicial time of the race. The aviators will then 
fly up the Schuylkill River to a landing place in 
Fairmount Park. 



THE AEKOPLANE IN FOIiAB EXPLORA- 
TION. 

For the first time a newspaper man has ob- 
tained an interview while flying as a passenger. 
During the last month the British representative 
of the American journal of aerial locomotion, 
AERONAUTICS, George II. Scraggs, flew for an 
hour with Lieut. Hugh E. Watkins at Brooklands 
motordrome in the lieutenant's Howard Wright bi- 
plane. The arrangement of the exhaust in this 
machine muffles the engine considerably, and it is 
not difficult to converse. During the flight Lieu- 
tenant Watkins was asked with regard to his 
proposed use of an aeroplane on his Antarctic 
trip. "We are using one of the new R. E. P. 
monoplanes," said he, "which will be equipped 
with a shield, covering the aviator as much as 
possible, in order to protect him against the se- 
vere cold. The machine will be used for scouting 
and locating open fields of ice that can safely be 
traveled by the exploration party. I do not con- 
sider an exploration outfit complete to-day without 
an aeroplane." 

During the whole hour's duration of the flight 
conversation was easily carried on and pictures 
were taken while aloft. Lieutenant Watkins has a 
fine record as an aviator, and is the twenty-fifth 
man to secure a pilot license from the Royal 
Aero Club. 



THE CHICACrO MEET. 

Tho strictly competitive Chicago meet, under 
the auspices of the Aero Club of Illinois, will 
start Aug. 12 and last 10 days. Forty-nine dif- 
ferent events are scheduled in order that the 
$80,000 in prizes may be earned. The totalization 
of duration prize alone is $10,000, while daily 
prizes of .$1,000 for the same feat are offered. 

For the first time no guarantees are paid to 
insure attendance of certain aviators. All are 
free to enter or stay away, and every dollar won 
will be caraed through flights. 

Garros, who has been flying in the wonderful 
cross-country races, and Audcmars. who flics three 
dilTerent machines, are expected back l)y the Moi- 
sant company to take part with Simon. Barrier, 
Frisbie, Raygorodsky and another "dark horse" in 
the meet. The Curtiss company will bo repre- 
sented by several flyers. Soi)witli. Beatty, .lames 
V. Martin, Ladis Lewkowicz and Ovington are ex- 
pected. Chicago itself has a number of novice 
flyers who will not make the affair any less inter- 
esting. 

The Wright company may also enter a full com- 
plement of machines if the prizes they are cer- 
tain of winning total as nnuch as may " be earned 
elsewhere in the same period. 

Charles F. Walsh is coming from the Coast. 
and Willard and McCurdy will be on li.nnl with 
their two new machines. 



EARI.E OVINGTON TO PLY THE CURTISS. 

Earle L. Ovington will have charge of the train- 
ing school to be established by the Curtiss Aero- 
plane Co. at Nassau Boulevard. The flrst machine 
will be on hand for flights by Aug. 1. Under Mr. 
Ovington students will have the best theoretical 
as well as practical instruction, for he is an expert 
on engines, a most coni|tctcnt aviator, an engineer 
graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology and a thoroughly good fellow, particularly 
well fltted for such work. Cromwell Dixon, who 
was a mere boy when he sailed his first dirigible, 
which his mother and he built in the back yard, 
will be the first pupil. 

NEW COMPANIES. 

The Pioneer .Vcroidane and Exhibition Co. has 
been incorporated in St. Louis for .$12,000 and 
has secured Andrew Drew, formerly manager of 
the Kinlocn and Creve Coeur aviation fields, as 
aviator. He is now at Dayton, Ohio, taking les- 
sons on a Wright aeroi)lane which has been pur- 
chased by the company. A school will be con- 
ducted at one of the two St. Louis fields. 

Sharp Aeroplane Co., Cleveland, O., .$10,000. 
.Tames G. Reyant, K. C. Morris, Amiel Radtke, 
John Sharp and Hattie Sharp. 

Tacoma Aeroplane ISIfg. Co., Tacoma, Wash., 
.$50,000. G. W. Stoomer, W. F. Longmire and 
J. A. Anderson. 

Wildwood Aeroplane Co., Wildwood, N. J. A 
Bowman and T. S. Goslin. 

U. S. Aerial Navigation Co., So. Dakota, $225,- 
000. 

Washington .\eronautic Co.. Seattle, Wash., 
$50,000. Jos. A. Kelly, A. B. Roberts. 

Western Aviation Co., San Francisco, Cal., $10,- 
000. H. E. Ruggles, F. J. Crisp and James 
Leach. 

Utah Aviation Association, $25,000, Salt Lake 
City. J. A. Kaufman. W. E. Palmer, E. M. Coop- 
er, Peter Clegg, William R. Smith, William S. 
Marks, William Soelburg and Philip Aljets. 

The Bridgeport Aeronautical Co., Portland, 
$100,000. C. E. Eaton, T. L. Croteau. 

Chicago Aeroplane Mfg. Co., of Chicago, $100,- 
000. 

McCurdy Aeroplane Co.. J. A. D. McCurdy, 
$5,000, 1780 Broadway, New York. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

THE PRINCII'LES OF AEROPLANE CON- 
STRUCTION, by Rankin Kennedy, C. E. Cloth, 
8 vo., 145 pp., 51 diagrams. Published by D. Van 
Nostrand & Co., 23 Murray St., New York, at 
$1.50. 

Contents : Elementary Mechanics and Physics, 
Principles of Inclined Planes. Air and Its Prop- 
erties, Principles of the Aeroplane, The Curve of 
the Aeroplane, Centers of Gravity, Balancing and 
Steering, The Propeller, The Helicopter, The Wing 
Propeller, The Engine, The Future of the Aero- 
plane. 

There is absolutely nothing new in the book in 
the way of experiments ; no new or original ideas 
of any kind. 

One gets the idea that the author was not so 
very sure of the subject with which he deals. 
This comes from tlie very indefinite way in which 
a great miany of the subjects are handled, as well 
as the fact that there are some inaccuracies. 

The book belongs to that rapidly increasing class, 
which starts with notliing and ends with not much 
more, and contains no real information ; they 
have not even the merit of being ))leasant reading. 

CHARTS OF THE AT.MOSPHERE FOR AERO- 
NAUTS AND AVI.VTORS, by Prof. A. Lawrence 
Rotch. founder and director of Blue Hill Meteoro- 
logical Observatory, and .Vndrew II. I'almer, re- 
search assistant : published bv John Wiley and 
Sons, 43 E. I'.Mh St.. New York. $2.00 net. 

It is a handsome cloth-bound book of nearly 
one hundred printed ])ages measuring nine by 
eleven inches, and illustrated by twenty-four full 
jiage cliarts rei)resentiiig a great variety of physi- 
cal ))roi)erties and conditions of the atmosphere, 
sometimes at ii height of a few hundred feet, again 
at all depths from the ocean face to the moun- 
tain tops. Among the data graphically portrayed 



1 



5S 



AERONAUTICS 



All (just, IQIt 



in the charts are the atmospheric density, pres- 
sure and temperature, the wind velocity, direc- 
tion and impactual pressure. Some of these re- 
late to the general ocean of air, others to par- 
ticular localities, and more especially to that of 
the Blue Hill Observatory. A large portion of the 
data are taken from original observations made at 
the Blue Kill Observatory and in the four ex- 
peditions sent in 1905-1907 by Messrs. Teisserenc 
de Bort and Rotch on the steam yacht "Otaria" 
to explore the atmosphere in the intertropical 
regions of the Atlantic Ocean, both in winter and 
in summer. 

Interesting features of the work are the 
observations charted and the conclusions derived 
from them, in the last three parts of the book. 
These show the wind speeds and directions in the 
northeast trade region of the Atlantic Ocean, and 
their applicability to aerial navigation over that 
part of the sea. Aerial summer routes across the 
north Atlantic from America to Europe and re- 
turn are outlined, over which it is declared to be 
Ijossible to cross the ocean in either direction in 
one or two days less time than by the fastest 
steamship, in a dirigible balloon capable of sus- 
taining a speed of 25 miles an hour, and of re- 
maining four days at an elevation of half a mile. 
The eastward route extends from Boston to Lon- 
don at a height of 3,300 ft., and is estimated to 
require 32 hours covering a distance of 3.300 
miles ; the westward route extends from Lisl)on 
to the Lesser Antilles, a distance of 3, GOO miles, 
and is estimated at 50' hours, the voyage being 
made near the sea level. 

The work is a timely contribution to the science 
of aerogeography, and a convenient reference book 
of aeronautical meteorology. Coming from in- 
vestigators of so much experience, it should be 
heartily welcomed by aeronauts and aviators who 
have need of practical statistics of the atmos- 
phere so concisely summarized and elegantly dia- 
grammed. 

LES LOIS EXPERIMENTALS DE L'AVIA- 
TION, par Alexandre See. ancien eleve de I'Ecole 
Polytechnique. Paper, 348 pp., with diagrams. 
Price, 7 fr. 50, from la Librairie Aeronautique, 
40, rue de Seine, Paris. 

Table des Matieres : Generalites sur le probleme 
du vol. Les lois de la resistance de I'air. 
Theorie de I'aeroplane. Le vol des oiseaux. Le 
vol a voile. L'helice au point flxe. L'helicoptere. 
L'helice propulsive. La stabilite. 

FLYING MACHINES TO-DAY, by William D. 
Ennis, M. E.. Professor of Mechanical Engineer- 
ing, Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn. 12mo., 
cloth, 218 pp.. 123 illustrations. Published by 
D. Van Nostrand & Co., 23 Murray St., New York, 
at $1.50. 

Contents : The Delights and Dangers of Fly- 
ing ; Soaring Flight by Man ; Turning Corners ; 
Air and the Wind; Gas and Ballast; Dirigible 
Balloons and Other Kinds : Question of Power ; 
Getting Up and Down ; Models and Gliders ; Aero- 
plane Details ; Some Aeroplanes ; Some Accom- 
plishments ; The Possibilities in Aviation ; Aerial 
Warfare. 

The book gives in a very readable form a 
chronicle of the contemporaneous accomplishments 
in the air ; it makes no pretence of doing more 
than point out the general principles of the aero- 
plane and lighter-than-air apparatus. 

It is a book that is intended for the lay reader, 
who cannot but appreciate the different points 
as they are touched upon, so simply and clearly 
are they dealt with. 

TSCEVT AERO CI>UB IiICENSES. 

.\viators' licenses havi> lieen issued by the Aero 
Club of America to the following : 

Lieut. Thomas deW. Milling (Wright). No. 30. 

Lieut. Harold H. Arnold (Wright), No. 29. 

Howard W. Gill (Wright), No. 31. 

Edson F. Gallaudet (Wright), No. 32. 

Lincoln Beachey (Curtiss), No. 27. 

Harry N. Atwood (Burgess-Wright). 

Lieut. Theodore G. Ellyson (Curtiss hydroaero- 
plane), No. 28. 

Others who will try shortly are Messrs. Geo. W. 
Beatty, William C. Beers, W. Redmond Cross and 
Lee Hammond. 

Balloon pilot license No. 41 has been issued to 
Frank M. .lacobs of Topeka, Kan. 



AVIATION INSURANC-:.. 

The cost of aero accident insurance, as 
scheduled by the Glascow .-issurance Corpora- 
tion, Ltd., is of particular interest at this time 
in view of the refusal of American companies 
to write accident insurance for aviators and 
aeronauts, even attaching- clauses to ordinary 
life policies held by the general public, practi- 
cally cancelling most of the face value of the 
policy in case of death in aeroplanes, balloons 
or airships. Such shortsighted policv, in the 
presence of competent data, further illustrates 
the backward state of the art in America. 

Following we give a list of the benefits: The 
premium to insure the whole of the above bene- 
fits for one quarter is just about $30. We 
have changed the pounds to dollars in round 
numbers in the following schedule: 

$1,250 in event of death by any other than 
aerial accident. 

$625 in event of death by aerial accident. 

$750 for loss of both hands, or for both feet 
or for both eyes. 

$500 for either loss of one hand or one 
foot or one eye. 

Double, half or quarter benefits are written 
at proportionate rates. The above schedule is 
about one-fourth as great in amount for the 
same injuries as allowed in the average Amer- 
ican accident policy and the annual rate is 
about nine times as much or nine times the 
premium for one-fourth the insurance. As- 
suredly, th.s is better than no insurance at all, 
and cancellation of ordinary life insurance. 

Here is a sample of imbecility on the part 
of one American accident insurance concern. A 
man engaged in, for instance, publishing an 
aeronautical journal applies for an accident 
policy, $2,500 face value, premium $12.50 
yearly. He is classed as "special" and an 
endorsement is attached to the policy, which 
states that if "performing any work or serv- 
ices on or connected with any airship or bal- 
loon, the company's liability under tliis policy 
shall not exceed $250 on account of the as- 
sured's death resulting from such injuries, and 
the company's liability under any other pro- 
vision or provisions of the policy shall not 
exceed $50." 

The holder might be sitting in the grand- 
stand, according to the wording of this clause, 
noting down the operations of an airship over 
a course and taking time, and in case of death 
from heart failure the beneficiary would re- 
ceive but $250. This is a bright example of 
actuarial ingenuity. In the evident desire to 
play safe, the statistician overlooked the fact 
that aeroplanes had been invented and the 
clause mentions only airships and balloons. 
Now, an airship certainly is not an aeroplane, 
despite frequent newspaper usage. 

Since the above was written and set in type, 
W. H. Markham & Co.. Pierce Bldg., St. Louis, 
Mo., are now prepared to cover aviators and 
aeronauts against death from accidents up to 
)i!5,000 through Lloyds. The premiums for bal- 
loonists are as follows : One day, 1 per cent. ; 
two days, iy-> per cent. ; seven days, 214 per cent. ; 
one month, 5 per cent. ; twelve months, 10VL> per 
cent. For aviators the above rates are doubled. 
To insure an aviator's life for a year in a $5,000 
policy would cost $1,050. 



Messrs. Fichtoi & Sachs, Schweinfurt, Germany, 
the makers of the well-known F. & S. annular 
ball bearings, and whoso American representa- 
tives are the .1. S. Brctz Co.. have begun an action 
against the R. I. V. Co.. the importers of the 
R. I. V. bearing, for infringoinont of the side 
entrance slot filling patents which they own. 

The value of those patents and others used in 
coml)inatiou with themi consists in their per- 
mitting the use of balls of the largest diameter, 
also the use of more balls in a given size bearing. 
and consequently maximum load-carrying capacity. 



59 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 




'^^fe 



An Elbridge Equipped Curtiss Type Biplane i 

and the "Aero Special" in four and six cylinders, from te: 
as light in weight as anything of equal power. Another thing 

since passed the experiment. 

power plants for the man wl 

If you will send us a 
together with weight, dime 
to advise you, to the best 
power plant. 

If you have not alread)/ 
our 1911 catalog and book 
Amateur Aviation," write fc 
They are free for the asking 

Single Cylinder "Featherweight" 
Weight 60 Lbs. 10 H. P. 




ELBRIDGE ENGINE COMPANY, lo cuWer Road, 



JAS. M. WAIT CO. 
CHICAGO 

CARMAN & BOWES 
PHILADELPHIA 



■^^^— ^-^— Representatives — 

CALIF. AERO MFG. & SUPPLY CO. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

MARINE ENGINE & SUPPLY CO. 
LOS ANGELESj 



MATHEWS 



In answering advertisements please mention this niaaazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 



IDGE AERO ENGINES 

ide in Different Sizes so that You 
iet Just the Proper Elbridge for 
our Particular Requirements 

R you have a monoplane, biplane or just an experimental 
:here is just the right Elbridge Engine to suit you. The 
tierweight" is made in one, two, three, four and six cylinders 
power, and 
es have long 
eal practical 



your 'plane 
will be glad 
le right size 



Elbridge Equipped Bleriot Type Monoplane. Baker Aviation Co. , Billings, Mcnt. 




M*' 



■^'^^ jr. _.it^' ■ 



|I3\J 




Pig 



IMi^ 






In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



August, iQii 




ARMY PLYING. 

During the past month the army Wright ma- 
chines have been l^opt busy. No less than 127 
flights were made up to July 20. during which 56 
passengers were carried. Flights over Washing- 
ton from College Park occurred twice during the 
month by army aviators. Below is a synopsis of 
the work accomplished. That there are absolutely 
no frills to the story is obvious. It illustrates 
the miatter-of-fact method of a Government re- 
port, its conciseness and accuracy : 

During the past month the following were the 
principal incidents in the course of instruction at 
the Signal Corps Aviation School, College Park, 
Md. : 

July 6, 1911, Lieutenant Milling, when trying 
for pilot's license, landed five feet from point 
marked as starting and landing point. July 7, 
1911, altitude of 3,260 feet made by Lieutenant 
Arnold ; Lieutenant Milling, with Lieutenant Kirt- 
land as a passenger, flew to Washington Barracks, 
D. C, landed and flew back : highest altitude, 2,200 
ft.; average altitude, 1,400 ft. July 10, 1911, 
Lieutenant Arnold, with Lieutenant Kirtland as 
a passenger, drove to Washington. D. C, and re- 
turned without landing ; time. 40 minutes ; high- 
est altitude, 2,400 ft, July 18, 1911. Lieutenant 
Arnold during a flight of 27 minutes and 35 sec- 
onds' duration reached an. altitude of 4,167 ft. To 
July 20, 1911, 127 flights have been made, during 
56 of which passengers were carried. 

The following officers are on duty at the Signal 
Corps Aviation School : Capt. C. DeF. Chandler, 
commanding; Capt. Paul ^V. Beck, Lieut. It. C. 
Kirtland, Lieut. II. II. Arnold, Lieut. T. DeW. 
Milling. 

AT I.OS ANGELES. 

The future is liriglil for a vial ion in and around 
Los Angch's. Tlie amateurs are gaining groimd. 
Since the last meet Beryl Williams has come 
forward with a home-made Curtiss which he is 
flying successfully. With G. li. Martin he has 
been filling exhibition engagements. Charles F. 
Walsh is filling engagements along the North 
I'acilic with a l)ig machine, using a 60-h. p. Hall- 
Scott engine. Messrs. Gage, Crosson and Stites 
are making short flights every week at the Do- 
minguez field. 

Katon Brothers & Co. have established an avia- 
tion field at Ilyde Park, which is a new i)lace 
witliin a 10-cent fan- from the city, and bids 
fair to liecome an ideal field. Jack Cannon is in- 
structor in the school tliey have established. The 
Katon boys have made several very credital)lo 
Curtiss type machin(>s, and with Dwiglit Pauld- 
ing as aviator are filling engagements. 

Earle Remington and William Stevens are labor- 
ing hard at Dominguez to fly the two Bleriots 



which Remington purchased of James Radley. 
Remington has had bad luck and has smashed the 
Bleriot twice himiself. The last smash was engi- 
neered by Frank Campion, who got up easily 
enough, but was unable to shut off the Gnome 
engine in attempting to get back down again. He 
landed head on, plowing up the ground with the 
propeller and badly injuring the engine. 

The following year will see numerous flyers 
develop from the local bunch of amateurs strug- 
gling toward success. 

The 4th of July saw amateur meets and exhi- 
bitions all over the country. At Riverside, Los 
Angeles, one straight-away flight was made by 
Beryl Williams. On attempting the second one, 
he broke the running gear. 

At Santa Barbara, Jack Cannon in a short flight, 
landed in a haystack and broke his machine, and 
Dwight Paulding in a short flight ran into a fence 
and smashed his machine. 

AT MINE OLA. 

Nine pupils- are taking instruction at the Mol- 
sant school at Mineola. Miss Harriet Quimby, 
dramatic editor of "Leslie's," ^liss Mathilde Moi- 
sant and F. de Murias will try in a few days for 
pilot licenses. Miss Moisant has taken up avia- 
tion solely for the sake of the sport and is not 
going to give exhibitions — but she Is determined 
to fly. 

The concrete sheds which are being erected 
on the permanent grounds over on the Westbury 
side of the Hempstead Plains will be finished the 
Lst of August. The walls are up and the rolling 
iron curtains, which will be used in place of 
heavy wooden doors, are only waiting to be in- 
stalled. In the meantime instruction and flying 
have been conducted at the old sheds put up by 
the Aero Club of America at Mineola. 

Capt. George W. MacKay of the signal corps, 
Michigan National Guard, has been detailed' to 
take up flying at the Moisant school and took up 
his work the last week in Jul-y. He is the first 
National (Juard officer to be taught to fly. He 
was assigned to this study through Adjutant- 
General Cox by Governor Osborn. whose mind was 
focused on the sub.iect during the recent Moisant 
exhibition in Detroit. 

Miss Harriet Quimby is doing good work, circling 
the entire field and staying up as long as the 
motor will stay cool. She soon graduates to one 
of the (inome-engined machines, under the instruc- 
tion, of IIoui)ert. Two men students are grass- 
cutting and niBiking short hops, and De Murias is 
flying very well. 

Cai)tain Baldwin has gathered together quite a 
galaxy of novice stars. Three of his steel ma- 
chines are kept busy and he is building a racer 



60 



AERONAUTICS 



August, TQii 



for his graduate, Leo Hammond, to have an 80-h. p. 
Hall-Scott motor. Blanche Scott has been flying 
every day for the past month, and now "flies like 
a man." And she makes .iust as nice a looking 
flight as does the genial Captain himself. Ham- 
mond rapidly left the student stage and is now 
an exi>ert instructor. William Evans, who dug 
his own flying knowledge out of the Kansas air 
all by himself a couple of years ago, has now 
received his Lovelace monoplane, which will also 
have one of Baldwin's six Hall-Scotts ; with all 
of whom, and Mars, another tour of the Orient 
is planned. 

T. T. Tuttle. press agent for Captain B.. de- 
cided he knew about all that was necessary about 
flying, as he had seen several machines make 
many flights, and essayed an aerial feature him- 
self. Scared so that his feet pushed the throttle 
wide open, he shot up and down, down and up, 
in a series of beautiful wave-like undulations, 
until he neglected to straighten out and the 
machine started tunneling to China. The P. A. 
is iiretty tough, anyway, so a week in the hos- 
pital brought him around all right again, fit as a 
fiddle, save for a cut and busted ankle and 
numerous sore spots, et cetera. The steel con- 
struction saved the machine, and after straight- 
ening out the beams to the front wheel, flights 
with the machine were resumed. 

William Haupt, who learned to fly the Wana- 
maker Bleriot, has had built by the American 
Supply House a copy of Ovington's 70-h.p. Bleriot 
and fitted it with a Roberts motor. It made a 
good sustained flight the moment it was finished, 
and he took it out for exhibitions at Altoona. 
I'a., and other places. A two-seater is being 
built for A. J. Brackett of Boston, Mass. This 
machine also has the reverse curve tail and hood 
over the Roberts engine and tanks. Another order 
has been received from A. C. Menges of Marion. 
Ind., for a duplicate of Haupt's machine, to be 
e(iuipped with a 70-h. p. Gnome. A St. Louis man 
has sent in a 100 h. p. Emerson to be installed 
in another monoplane, of combination type, espe- 
cially designed by the purchaser. 

The illustration shows a fine piece of work in 
file way of a monoplane of the Bleriot order. 

F. E. Boland of Rahway, N. J., is now at 
Mineola with a tailless biplane, similar, in a way, 
to the Valkyrie. This seems to fly even faster than 
Baldwin's "Red Devil," but the controls seem very 
delicate and Boland makes a very wavy flight. A 
little more practice and there will be some real 
flying. There is no vertical rudder, steering being 
done by means of triangular vertical panels be- 
tween the planes and the outermost struts. This 
has an eight-cylinder engine of his own make, 



which is finely designed and develops real power, 
although it was made more than two years ago. 

Another Curtiss type is at Mineola with a 
SmiiTlley engine. 

Walter L. Fairchild is trying propellers and is 
ready to fly his second machine again as soon as 
he has his engine tuned up. 

Iir. Henry W. Walden has been more or less of 
a sensation at Mineola. With a machine but 
little larger than a Demoiselle, the smallest in the 
world, he has been making real flights. Dr. 
Walden has been, building one machine or an- 
other for three years, and has finally adopted the 
monoplane, which has earned for him much laugh- 
ing comment in the past. The man who departs 
from ('sfal)lished custom usually gets criticised 
.iust because his construction is "freakish." This 
was true of "Doc." But he has made good in fine 
shape. He has changed his baby air-cooled en- 
gine for a real motor, a 40 h. p. four-cylinder 
Hall-Scott, and only the other day flew to Hicks- 
ville cross-country and back again, and was lip 
for 80' miinutes. The same flight was repeated 
the next day. 

A description of the W^alden monoplane was 
previously published in AERONAUTICS. 

AT JStASSAV. 

There are now .30 sheds erected at the Nassau 
Bo\ilevard. L. I., grounds, 20 of which are all 
occupied. Weekly flight matinees are held every 
Saturday and one is assured of seeing fine flying 
between Sopwith ; Welch. Wright tutor; William 
C. Beers, Edson F. Gallaudet. W. R. Cross and 
Geo. W. Beatty, Wright graduates ; Earle Oving- 
ton. Lewkowicz, and Arthur Stone, the Queen 
company's pilot. Then, too, usually either Caj)- 
tain Baldwin or his pupil, Lee Hammond, flies 
over from Mineola. and sometimes Houpert. the 
Moisant teacher. On July 22 Hammond tried for 
his pilot license, and made good in a very sensa- 
tional manner with the fast Bal'dwin machine. 

One must add to the list published in the .July 
number the name of Hamiilton & Ileilprin, who 
have an untried monoplane equipped with a Maxi- 
motor engine. 

W. Irving Twombly has the framework com- 
pleted for a finely built monoplane, and the en- 
gine, which he has designed himself, will shortly 
be tested out and installed. 

A. N. Ridgely. with his six-cylinder. Kirkhara- 
engined Curtiss type, made one rapid ,iumi) in the 
air on his first trial and the machine sustained 
a severe attack of general nervous breakdown. 




Haupt's 'Well-made Bleriot Copy. 
Gl 



AERONAUTICS 



August, jpii 



BEAUMONT FLIES 2,993 MILES— WINS FORTUNE 
IN THREE CROSS-COUNTRY RACES 



CIRCUIT 07 BRITISH ISItE. 

ANDRE BEAUMONT, French military avia- 
tor, won the 1,010-mile race around 
?^ngland, ending July 26. after an excit- 
ing neck and neck finish with Vedrinos, 
whii was but 31 minutes behind him in point 
of time, and his winnings in the three big races 
total more than $100,000. Beaumont's time 
was 22 hrs. 28 min. and Vedrine's, 22 hrs. 
5S min. and 55 sec. 

The British race for the "Daily Mail's" $50,- 
000 prize was witliout question the most inter- 
esting and exciting of the three big circuits, 
as there were no stops along the way to give 
exhibition flights, nor rests in between the 
stages. It was a bruising contest from the 
outset. The stage from Bristol to Brooklands, 
264 miles, was thrilling. Starting but two 
minutes apart Vedrines and Beaumont (Lieut. 
Conneau), who had a lead of about 22 minutes, 
raced with nerves strained to the utmost, 
knowinp' that one of them only could win, and 
they arrived at Exeter but two minutes apart. 
Vedrines was given a special prize by the 
"Mail" of $1,000. 

The three consecutive victories of Beau- 
mont (Paris-Rome race, 910 miles; European 
Circuit, 1,073 miles; British race, 1,010 miles) 
are a testimonial of iron nerves and a brave 
heart. Imagine the terrific strain of flying 
steadily, day after day, with scarcely a re- 
spite, from one race to another, totalling 2,993 
miles. The Paris-Rome flight was made in 
four days, and the British race in five days. 
The European Circuit consumed 20 days. 
Beaumont also started in the Paris-Madrid 
race but retired the first day when he broke 
a wing. 



THE EUROPEAN CIRCUIT. 

The 1,730 kilometer (1,07.3 miles) circuit of 
Europe was most successful. In view of past 
performances in long distance cross country 
flights it did not appear that many would get 
through. Wliere Bleriot's first crossing of the 
channel was heralded the world wide as a most 
stupendous flight, here 11 crossed in going 
and nine on the home run quite as a matter 
of course. This race has done a world of good 
in showing the vast number of skeptics that 
tlie aeroplane is likely to become "really prac- 
tical." 

Out of 52 entrants for this race around 
Europe, which started June 18 and ended, 
again at Paris, on July 7, 40 actually started 
off the ground. Eighteen got through the first 
day's journey and nine were given a place at 
the end, though of these only seven actually 
flew every stage. The last two skipped some 
of the sections of the flight. One monoplane, 
an R. E. P. of Gibert's, and two Maurice Far- 
man biplanes, those of Renaux and Barra, fin- 
ished without replacements or changes in 
mnuiits, tliough Barra skipped two stages. Tlie 
oilier competitors changed mounts or made re- 
I)airs at various points. Sometimes new ma- 
chines, all ready to start, were waiting along 
tlie line. 

Renaux carried a passenger every foot of 
the way. 

The figures are from the official report of 
tlie committee in charge. 

A total of $91,500 was to have been dis- 
tril)ute(l in prizes, of wliich $40,000 was offered 
liy the Paris "Jovirnal" foi- tlie complete course 
winner, $12,500 by the I^ondon "Standard" for 
the winnei- of the stage from Paris to London 
and $4,000 by the ".lournal" for another sec- 
tion. Additional prizes were offered for the 
various stages and in these many shared, as 
freciuently aviators who do not figure as hav- 



ing completed the course, made fastest time 
in the stages here and there. The stage-prizes 
have been divided as follows: 

"Beaumont," who is Lieut. Conneau in real 
life, won $21,244, Garros $8,466, Vidart $3,311, 
Vedrines $2,217, Gibert $1,555, Kimmerling 
$1,155, Renaux $1,122, and Barra $922. 

COMPETITORS WHO FINISHED TOTAL 
DISTANCE. 

hr. min. sec. 

Beaumont (Bleriot). time 58 38 00 

Garros (Bleriot), time 62 17 16 

Vidart (Deperdussin), time 73 32 57 

Vedrines (Morane), time 86 34 02 

Gibert (R.E.P.), time 89 42 34 

*Kimmerling (Sommer), time... 93 10 24 
*Renaux (M. Farman), time 110 44 05 

*Biplanes. 

Renaux used a Renault engine of 60 h.p. and 
Gibert a 60 h.p. R.E.P., the balance using 
(Jnomes with Rosch ignition. Propellers varied 
between ("hauviiH'e, Xormale, Rapid and Regy. 
F. & S. hearings are used in all Gnome engines. 

THE GERMAN FI.IGHT CIRCUIT. 

The first prize in the German inter-city race, 
which began at P>erlin, June 11, and ended at the 
same city, July 9, was won by Konig (Albatross 
biplane), who flew a total of 1,506 kils. Vollmull- 
er (Rumpler-Etrich monoplane) was second with 
1.470 kils.. and Buchner (Aviatik), 1,091 kils., 
third. Lindpaintner (II. Farman) came fourth 
with 978 kils.; Wittenstein (M. Farman) 840 kils., 
Wiencziers (Morane) 651 .kils., Schauenburg 
(\yright) 585.5 kils., Laiteh (.Vlbatross) 458, 
Thelen (Modified Gnome-Wright) 497 kils., 
MuUer (own biplane) 143 kils., Jahnow (Har- 
lan monoplane) 83 kils. Helmuth Hirth, one 
of the star performers in competitions along 
the route, did better than the race contestants, 
for lie won tlie $10,000 prize for a flight from 
Munich to Berlin within 36 hours. 

One, two and three day meets were held at 
flve of the cities which made the race last 
longer than it otherwise would. Twenty-six 
aviators either flew part or all of the course 
or entered into the meets. All eight prize- 
winners, save Wiencziers, carried passengers 
along, mileage being added at the rate of 
25 per cent, as a bonus. 

Konig won $10,000, out of a total of $25,000 
offered by the Berlin "Zeitung am Mittag." 
The money was divided on a percentage basis, 
one of the conditions increasing possible win- 
nings where German built machines were used. 

WINNINGS OF MANUFACTURERS. 

The European Circuit, the British Circuit, 
the German inter-city race, Cattaneo's long 
flight, the Gordon Bennett and Johnstone's 
American record flight, are all wins for the 
makers of Gnome engines and their acces- 
sories, Bosch magnetos and F. & S. bearings. 
Hirth, in his long flight, used a 70 h.p. Daim- 
ler-Mercedes motor, and Bosch ignition. 

Two I^ongr Cross Country Pligrhts. 

Berlin. .lune .".(K- HClnuitb Hirth (Kfrieli- 
Rumpler monoplane) finished to-day a flight of 
335 miles, from Munich, which city he left the 
night before at 7 p.m. with a passenger. A 
stop overnight was made at Nuremlierg and 
another landing at Leipsic which were re- 
quired by the conditions. His actual flying 
time was 5:51. He won a prize of $10,000. 

Buenos Ayres. June 25. — Cattaneo (Bh^riot) 
flew from Rosario to Buenos Ayres. non-stop, 
250 miles, in six hours, made a new non-stop 
cross-country record, and won a $3,000 trophy. 



I 



63 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 




Map of Tliree Bigr European Races. 



Iioug* Iiist of Broken Becords. 



NEW WOULD 



DISTAXCK AX1» 
RECORDS. 



DURATION 



Mourmelon. France, July 21. — M. Loridan, the 
aviatoi", piloting a small "ll. Farman biplane at 
the aerodrome here to-day. covered 405% miles, 
remaining in. the air H hours and 45 minutes. 

WORLD DISTANCE RECORD BEATEN. 

Brussels, July 17. — The Belgian aviator, 
.Tean Olieslagers, in a Bleriot monoplane to-day 
made a flight of 635.2 kilometers (394 miles), 
at the aerodrome here without a stop. His 
time was 7 hr. 18 min. 20 sec. 

NEW WORLD SPEED RECORD. 
Nieuporfs speed in the Gordon Bennett was 
slower than his time in the elimination trials 



on June 16. when he made the following wor'.d 

records. His fastest 5 kilometers was made 
lust under 81 miles an hour: 

5 kil 2 m. 18.4 s. 

10 kil 4 m. 37.2 s. 

20 kil 9 m. 14.6 s. 

30 kil 13 m. 53.8 s. 

40 kil 18 m. 31.6 s. 

50 kil -'.T m. 10. a s. 

100 kil 16 m. 27.4 s. 



NEW WORLD DIRIGir.LE ALTITL^DE 
RECORD. 

Soissons, France, June 19. — The "Adjudant- 
Vincenot," made bv Clement-Bayard, with 6 
men on board, attained the height of 2,000 
metres. 



63 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipit 




Garros, Who was Second in the European Circuit; 
A. G. Moisant, His Chief, and Audemars. 

NEW WORLD ALTITUDE RECORD. 

July 8. — Loridan (racing, H. Farman) made 
a new world altitude record of 3,280 metres 
(10,758 ft.). 
NEW SPEED AND DISTANCE RECORDS. 

Chartres, France, July 9. — Level (Savary bi- 
plane with 70 h.p. Labor motor), made new 
two-man speed and distance records over a 
closed circuit as follows: 

200 kil 2 h. 38 m. 26.4 s. 

The Growing' Death Iiist. 

FATAL ACCIDENT TO PAILLOLE. 

While testing his machine on the Maison 
Carree race course near Algiers, before at- 
tempting to fly to the military ground where 
tlie troons were being reviewed by Gen. Baiel- 
loud, the Frenchman Paillole had his machine 
cansized in a gust of wind and was killed on 
the spot. 
WOMAN AVIATOR REPORTED KILLED. 

Btampes, France, July 21. — Mme. Deniz 
Moore was killed at the aerodrome here to- 
night bv a fall in an aeroplane. 

Mme. Moore had already made several fine 
ascents and was about to make a high flght. 
When about one liundred and fifty feet in the 
air her biplane was caught by a gust of wind 
and capsized. It fell straight to the earth, and 
she was crushed beneath it. 

Mrae. Moore was a French woman, about 25 
years old. She had hoped to obtain a pilot's 
license next week. 

MILITARY STUDENT KILLED. 

Chalons-Sur-Marnc, France, June 29. — Lieut. 
Truchon was mortally injured to-day while 
making his first trip alone in a small H. Far- 
man IjipUmc. II(> came down with the motor 
running and in trying to shut it off moved the 
elevator lever and lie was thrown out. 

PASSENGER KILLED. 

St. Petersburg, July 25. — Tlie aeroplane 
piloted by M. Slusarenkos in the St. Peters- 
burg-Moscow race fell near Tsarskoe-Selo to- 
day. 

The airman's passenger, M. Shimansky, was 
killed, and M. Slusarenkos was badly injured, 
both legs being broken. The race covers a 



distance of 400 miles. Prizes aggregating $50,- 
000 are offered. 

Death of Kreamer. 

Dan A. Kreamer, one of the steadiest flyers on 
the field of the Aero Club of Illinois, was killed 
July 13 while making au attempt in a Curtiss 
type biplane with a 50 h. p. motor to win his 
aviation pilot license under the observation of 
(irover P. Sexton, representative in Illinois of the 
Aero Club of America. He attempted to make too 
short a turn. 

Kreamer was making a turn and seemed to 
slide toward the center of the circle. He tilted 
the machine downward to gain speed but he was 
too close to the ground and the aeroplane struck 
on its nose. The machine was a Curtiss-type, of 
last year's vintage. 

He was well known as a bicycle racer, took part 
in several six-day contests and had traveled all 
over the world, racing. At the time of his death 
he was on leave of absence from the Illinois Cen- 
tral R. R., on which he was employed as an 
engineer. 

CALENDAR OF EVENTS. 

-Colorado Springs, Col., Wright 



-Belgian Circuit race. 
— Grant Park, Chicago, Inter- 
Astoria, Ore., Cur- 



August 2-4.- 
exliibition. 

August 6-20.— 

August 12-20. 
national meet. 

August 20-September 9. 
tiss aviators. 

August 26-September 4. — Boston, meet of 
Harvard a. S. 

August 26-September 4. — Montreal, McCurdy, 
Willard and Curtiss flyers. 

August 28-31. — Des Moines, la., Wright ex- 
hibition. 

Seotember 4-8. — Nebraska State Fair, Wright 
aviators. 

September 20-21. — Clarinda, la., Curtiss avi- 
ators. 

September 23-24. — Fond du Lac, Wis., Cur- 
tiss aviators. 

September 24. — Berlin aviation meet. 

September 25-30. — Helena, Mont., Curtiss 
aviators. 

Sentember 29-October 7. — Springfield, 111., 
Wright exhibition. 

October 5. — Gordon-Bennett balloon race, 
Kansas City, Mo. 

October — . — Macon, Ga., Wright exhibition. 

January 10-20, 1912. — Los Ange'.es, aviation 
and arrangements not certain. 

September — . — Iowa State Fair, Wright 
aviators. 

September — . — Minneapolis, IMinn., Wright 
aviators. 



ASCENSIONS 

{Continued from page U7) 

latest t.vpp, more or less popularized by He la 
Vaiilx. 

Il<)lmcsl>urg. Pa., June 2,". — A. T. .Mhcrholt. 
pilot. Clarence P. Wynne and II. II. Kuerr in the 
"Penn. I," to Blue Bell, Pa., after a :j Mi-hour 
journey. , ,, 

Los Angeles. July 9. — Albert Carter and L. 
Unger in a dirigible sailed around for four hours, 
after cdllidiiii; with the roof of a house at the 
start and breaking the framework in two. There 
was no engine in llie airship and it floated around 
just like a free balloon of spherical type. Land- 
ing was finally made at Saugus, Calif. 

St. Louis. July 4. — Lieut. Frank P. Lahm and 
Jolui r. Hart in the "Missouri" to Cranite Cily. 
111. The ascension was made to study the ex- 
pansion of the gas in extremely hot weather and 
an all night trip was planned but which had to 
he foregoiu". Tlie temperature on leaving the 
ground was 114 deg. Fahr. 



64 



AERONAUTICS a, , 

August, IQII 

THE GORDON BENNETT RACE 

By Georg-e H. Scrag-g-. 



The Contestants' Standing*. 

1. Cr-S. T. WKVMAXX, America (100 
h. p. Gnome-Xieuport), 1:11:36.2, speed 78 
miles per hour. 

2. ALFRED LEBLANC, France (100 
h. p. Gnome-Bleriot), 1:13:40.2, speed 75.8 
miles per hour. 

3. EDOUARD NIEUPORT. France (70 
h. p. Gnome-Nieiiport), 1 :14 :37.4. speed 
74.8 miles per hour. 

4. ALEC OGILVIE, England (50 h. p. 
N. E. C.-Wright), 1:49:10.4, speed 51.2 
miles per hour. Deducting for time lost in 
getting gas his speed would be 53 miles 
per hour. 

5. M. CHEVALIER, France (28 h. p. 2- 
c.vlinder Nieuport-Nieuport), 37:56.4. Com- 
pleted partial course only, due to engine 
trouble. Speed 58.9 miles per hour. 

6. G. HAMEL, England (100 h. p. 
Gnome-Bleriot), fell on first lap in making 
turn. 

The distance was 150 kilometers (93.15 
miles) ; raced at Eastchurch, England, 
July 1. 

PREVIOUS CONTESTS. 

1009 — ^Rheims, France, won by Curtiss ; 
20 kils. in 15 m. 50.4 s., mean speed 47 
miles per hour. 

1910^ — Belmont Park, won by White (100 
h. p. Gnome-Bleriot) ; 100 kil. in 1 h. m. 
47.6 s.. mean speed of 61 miles per hour. 



OF course, you know by cable that the cup 
goes back to America, and Weymann, our 
solitary entrant, is responsible for it. The 
victory, however, is not so thrilling as it 
might have been, considering Weymann is a Ilay- 
tian by birth, lives, and has done all his flying 
in Europe, and pilots a French machine. Last 
year I felt that (ireat Britain and White received 
more attention than was due, considering it was 
Bleriofs brain and experience that built the win- 
ning machine: and so the same may be said this 
year of Weymann. Of course, at the present 
stage of aviation, when the man is 20 per cent, 
factor and the machine 80, we must not under- 
estimate Ml-. Weymann's feat, but surely we would 
all be m»re pleased if each country were repre- 
sented, not only bv a native aviator, but also by 
a home-built machine, as AERONAUTICS has so 
often suggested. 

As I was the only American correspondent of 
an American aeronautical paper, I was the sub- 
ject of sympathy — not expressed, to be sure, but 
I read the glances thrown me by fellow press 
men. "You poor fellow, what chance have you?" 
However, I had not forgotten that the same 
glances were bestowed upon me at the London 
Stadium at the Olympic games three years ago. 
when .Tohnny Hayes broke the tape first and Old 
Glory ran to the top of the flag pole, and I held 
my peace and hoped. 

My eyes were fixed on two things : First, Wey- 
mann. as our representative, and secondly, the 
Wright machine, tlie only American machine in 
the race. When I heard that Weymann had been 
set to represent us on a Nieuport, I pinned my 
hope on him and picked him' for the winner, and 
the result shows my judgment was not at fault. 
In fact, I do not see how anyone else could 
have been picked, barring accidents and all other 
things being equal. 

The past performances of the Nieuport with but 
28 h. p. had proved it the fastest machine in 
the world, and now with 100 h. p. I felt sure 
it would hold its own, especially in the hands of 
a skilled pilot like Weymann. 

The other two Nieuports entered, driven by 
Nieuport himself and by Chevalier, were only 70 
and 28 h. p. respectively, so they were not to 
be feared. 

The Gnome engine, of course, was a question. 
Most of the good work done by them — take the 



Madrid and Rome races, for instance— were the 50 
h p., with o d model valve springs. The new engines 
have more than once failed at a critical momentfand 
so as the weather was a bit rough I kept my 
eye also on Ogilvie, whose machine is much 
fitter to tackle a big wind than any of the 
others. And Ogilvie could save time sticking to 
corners, as only the Wright machine can. Ogilvie 
had been practicing quietly for weeks, assisted bv 
\\ilbur Wright, at tuning up the "Baby" with an 
N. E. C. engine. 

The race began badly. After a gusty morning 
which even made the big Bristol biplane rock and 
roll, the sun came out and the sky cleared and 
.Hist before 3 oclock Mr, Hamel's (England)" ma- 
chine, a .special Bleriot, in the tests of the morn- 
ing had proven itself slower than the Nieuports 
so he decided to clip two ribs off each wing' 
Bleriot, however, advised him against such "a 
course, as he figured the machine had as little 
surface as it could afford and in case of engine 
trouble the descent would be hasty and it would 
be diflicult to make a safe landing. Mr. Hamel 
however, persisted, and this no doubt lost him at 
least a place in the race. On his first circuit, 
in taking a corner his machine skidded and hi.s 
left wing tip caught the ground. He was thrown 
out, rolled over and over and lay still. When 
a.ssistance came to his aid thev found him bleeding 
profusely from injuries to his face and legs 
though declining assistance. He was suffering 
from slight concussion and was much bruised but 
is doing well. 

M. Chevalier was second on the field, but his 
machine was little faster than the Wright but 
then he only had a 28 h. p. Nieuport motor. He 
only flew 10 circuits when he came down rather 
abruptly with engine trouble. He tried again 
later with another machine, but came down. 

Meanwhile. Weymann had flown off at a great 
pace. He did his first five laps in 2 m. 46 s . 
which works out at 83.5 miles per hour. His 
speed after tils decreased slightly, but he suc- 
ceeded in doing the 150 kil. in 1 ti. 11 m. 36 1/3 
s., which averages 78 miles per hour; and the 
Nieuport is a bigger area machine than the 
Bleriot. 

The crowd enthusiastically applauded at the 
termination of his fine performance. T said little, 
but returned some of the glances that I had re- 
ceived earlier in the day. Then Ogilvie (England) 
went up on the Wright. 

Ogilvie did not put up the show I expected of 
him and certainly nothing eoual to Brookins' 
speed last year at Belmont on the "Baby." This, 
no doubt, was due to the engine. He only aver- 
aged a little over 51 miles an hour. Stopping 
• for oil cut the speed down from 53 miles an hour. 
He did better than this last year at Belmont with 
a 30 h. p. Wright engine. 

This left England out of the running, as no 
third competitor turned up to champion England. 
(irahame-White was on the field and in answer 
to auestions said he had no fast machine. I 
wonder what has become of the 100 h. p. Bleriot 
he won the tropliy with last year? It has not 
seen much use, if any at all, since his return from 
America. 

The day was not ended and I have learned the 
lesson well not to count my chickens prematurely. 
His time was good and he had finisln^d safely, so 
I was more than hopeful. Leblanc was the only 
competitor that worried me, but I hardly thought 
the Bleriot, with its greater head resistance, could 
compete with the Nieuport, thougli I had taken 
into consideration the great skill of Leblanc. 

At 5.30 Nieuport, and Leblanc with his wings 
clipped, got under way, and thougli tlu^v both put 
up fine performances, they faibnl to wrest the 
trophy for France. Nieuport completed the course 
in 1 h. 14 m. 37.4 s. Leblanc was several min- 
utes bevond Weymann's time for twenty laps, and 
then it became apparent that America had won. 
It was a good clean race, the winner being but 
two minutes ahead of Leblanc. who in turn bad 
but a minute the best of Nieuport. 



65 



AERONAUTICS 



The cup, plus .$3,000, was presented to Weymann 
at an informal banquet on the grounds the same 
evening. 

While being overjoyed with the result, I could 
not help Imt feel sorry for France, which has 
done so much in the development of the speed 
marvels and has as yet never had her hands upon 
the cup. Another tale would have been told had 
each country entered its own machines. Glenn 
H. Curtiss is the only man yet that has taken the 
cup with a machine and engine made in the coun- 
try which he represented. Let us hope now that 
we have the cup again, that next year when our 
visitors trudge across the ocean that we will have 
a man, an engine, and a machine, all American, 
to defend the trophy and to be equal to the task 
of keeping it. 

"It was amusing to find the 'American' winner 
compelled to reply in French. lie is a native 
of Ilavti, who has lived on the Continent and 
done most of his flying there — on French ma- 
chines, of course. The victory is, nevertheless, 
sure to be hailed with great delight in the States, 
and it will doubtless prove gratifying to the donor 
of the trophy," says "The Car." 

In connection with the Gordon Bennett race, 
the Aero Club sent its members a bulletin which 
included the report of its special committee. 

SECONDS THE PLEA OF "AERONAUTICS." 

For the first time the club has expressed the 
suggestion that it might be appi'opriate for Amer- 
ica to be represented in aeronautics by American 
designed and built machines with American motors. 
This is a really and truly good spirit to show, 
even overlooking the past. The two international 
balloon and aviation trophies are rather jokes : 
they are put up by a man who prefers to spend 
his "time in Europe! they are first competed for in 
Europe, and the representatives of America, most 
of whom happen to also live in Europe, use ap- 
paratus built in Europe. 

The cups might well go uncontested for by 
America, and with honor, rather than to win them 
under the above conditions. 

The bulletin goes on to state that the Wrights 
could not be induced to enter on account of lack 
of time to build an engine ; that Curtiss was too 
busy ; and that — 

"SUFERIOIilTY ' OF FOREIGN MACHINES. 

"A diligent search of the field in this country 
failed to reveal anyone else who was competent 
to construct a suitably fast machine ; so it be- 
came necessary for your committee to turn to 
foreign makers, and to such Americans abroad 
as were competent to fly speedy foreign machines. 
Early in the year Mr. Campbell Wood particularly, 
and "others o"f us who had carefully noted the 
progress of flying abroad, became convinced of the 
superiority of the Nieuport monoplane, at least 
so far as speed was conccn-ned, and also of the- 
jirowess of Charles T. Weymann. the American. 
as a clever track flyer. Through Mr. Campbell. 
Wood, your committee thereupon got in touch 
with Mr. Weymann. who appeared to favor the 
Morane monoplane, and succeeded in inducing him 
to ('<iuip himself with a Nieuport of the power 
which we deemed necessary for the race, and to 
undertake the race on behalf of the Aero Club 
of America. 

".Tames Martin, who was flying a Burgess-Cur- 
tiss "Baby" Grahame-White biplane in England, was 
the only other flyer abroad who seemed worth 
consideration : but, his machine not having sufli- 
cient speed, he was not chosen as a member of 
our team. 

"Earle Ovington. who had been flying a 70 h. p. 
Bleriot in this country, was considered but was not 
put on the team for the reason given in Mr. 
Martin's case." 

CURTISS TO COMPETE IN 1011. 

Glenn H. Curtiss will build a sjiecial machine 
to compete in the next contest for the grand 
aviation prize which Henry Weymann recently 
won in England and will bring to this country. 
Mr. Curtiss miade this announcement a few days 
ago. He 1)e]ieves that .\merican aeroplane builders 
will be al)le to hold the prize in this country, 
cbiiming that th(>y can build machines that are 
quite as speedy and much s:ifrr than the French 
monoplanes, which have had the Held to them- 
selves recently as regards speed. 



Anqnst, IQII 






250 West 54th Street 
New York City 



Cable: Aeronautic. New York 

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Published by 

AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc 
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advertising REPRESENTATIVES: 

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No. 49 AUGUST, 1911 Vol. 9, No. 2 

COPYRIGHT, 1011, AERONAUTICS PRESS, INC. 

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice 

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AGENTS FOB "AERONAUTICS." 

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ST. L,OUIS — Aeronautic Supply Co., 3932 Olive 
St.; H. F. Mardorf, 4068 Olive St. 

JERSEY CITY — A. W. Castellanos, 231 Vir- 
ginia Ave. 

BOSTON— I. N. Chappell, 26 Court St.; J. F. 
Murphy, South Terminal Station. 

SAN FRANCISCO — Foster & Orear, Ferry 
Bldg. ; San Francisco Stationery Co., 20 
Geary St.; California Aero Mfg. & Supply 
Co., 441 Goldengate Ave. 

CINCINNATI — J. R. Hawley News Co., 11 Ar- 
cade. 

MEMPHIS— R. M. Mansford, 26 S. Main St. 

CHICAGO — P. O. News Co., 178 Dearborn St.; 
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WA SHINGTON — Brentano's. 

BERLIN — W. H. Kuhl, 82 Koniggratzerstr., 
S.W, 

PARIS — Brentano's, Place de I'Opera. 

LONDON — Aeronautics. 12 Ncwsrato St., London. 
E. C. Georao II. Scragg. Mgr. ; also at the 
offlcp of British .Voronautics, SO Chancery 
Lano, London. 

BERNE — A. Franclie's Sortiment. 



AERONAUTICS' BRITISH OFFICE. 

On account of the increased European circula- 
tion and tho necessity for an exclusive reprosenta- 
tivo abroad, it is with pleasure that wo announce 
the open in;: of a London office at 12 Newgate St., 
under the nuanagement of Mr. (Joorgo II. Scragg. 
.\t this address, the center of aviation in Ensrland, 
piiUlishin'r "Who's Who in Aviation." "The .\via- 
tiim World." etc., visitors will he welcome. Those 
going to England can use this othce for their 
mall, sending it in care of AERONAUTICS. 



CO 



AERONAUTICS 



August, IQTI 



ST. LOUIS WINS BALLOON ELIMINATION 



TlIK East's represeutativo, the "Xew York," 
of Harmon and Post, in the elimination 
race for the selection of the Americau 
teami in the international balloon race at 
Kansas City. Oct. 5, was badly beaten by the 
six other balloons which competed on July io. 

Alan R Hawley. who won the big race in 1910, 
has, of course, the privilege of being one of the 
three. The other two, or all three if Hawley 
does not go this year, are supposed to be those 
who finished best in this elimination race. 

Eight balloons in all went up, but the "Mis- 
souri," of J. C. Hulbert and Henry Weber, was 
not a contestant. 

Following is the official standing of the balloons : 

1. ST. LOUIS IV. (Honeywell). Lieut. F. P. 
Lahm, U. S. A., and Lieut. J. F. Hart, to La Paz, 
Ind. Dur., 22 hrs. 26 min. : dist.. 480 miles. 

2. MILLION POPULATION CLUB (Honey- 
well), John Berry and P. J. McCullough, to La 
Crosse, Ind. Dur., 20 hrs. 49 min. ; dist., 445 
miles. 

3. MISS SOPHIA (Honeywell). Wm. F. 
Assmann and J. M. O'Reilly, to Franklin Park, 
111. Dur., 16 hrs. 20 min. : dist.. 415 miles. 

4. BUCKEYE (Stevens). James H. Wade. Jr., 
and Reuben Hitchcock, to New Holland, 111. Dur., 
21 hrs. 32 min. : dist., 2S8 miles. 

5. TOPEKA II. (Honeywell). Frank M. Jacobs 
and Raflfe Emerson, to La Harpe, 111. Dur., 14 
hrs. 42 min. ; dist.. 210 miles. 

6. KANSAS CITY 11. (Honeywell). H. E. 
Honeywell and Jon Watts, to Packwood, Iowa. 
Dur.." 8 hrs. 5 m. ; dist.. 193 miles. 

7. NEW YORK (Baldwin!. C. B. Harmon and 
Augustus Post, to Fremont, la. Dur., 8 hrs. 58 
min. : dist.. 186 miles. 

Non-Contestant, Missouri (Honeywell), J. C. 
Hulbert and Henry Weber, to Des Moines, la.. 170 
miles. 

A lot of credit is due George M. Myers, presi- 
dent of the Kansas City Aero Club, and his board 
of governors, for making possible one of the most 
successful contests held in this country. The nat- 
ural gas was very good, being reduced by Mr. 
Showers' hard labor to a specific gravity of .38. 
and was delivered to the balloons in record time 
of 40.000 cu. ft. in 4V2 minutes, but due to in- 
experienced labor used in handling the sand bags 
2Vi hours we're consumed in getting away. 

The French-American Balloon Co. products to- 
talled five out of seven balloons in the race, as 
well as the "Missouri" which Hulbert used. The 
Topeka balloon carried three people. 

OTHER ASCENSIONS. 

The first skyscraper to lie used as an aero- 
nautical (station, despite a/11 the press agent 
stories each time a new building is laid out on 
paper, has really and truly been established and 
put in use in New Y'ork City in July. 

Using the roof of one of the two John Wana- 
niaker store buildings, each of which occupies an 
entire block, A. Leo Stevens piloted Rodman 
Wanamaker in his newly purchased 65.000 cu. ft. 
Lachambre balloon, the "Wanamaker I." for which 
Mr. Stevens is the American agent, to Nyack. N. 
Y.. on its initial trip. 

From the Wanamaker store the balloon crossed 
the Hudson River and traveled over Newark and 
Paterson. Here the balloon was sent up to 7.000 
ft., and a counter-current was met. which carried 
it back over Forty-second St.. New Y'ork, toward 
Long Island. As the Sound was reached the bal- 
loon was dropped to a lower altitude and the re- 
turn made over Youkers and up the Hudson River, 
following along with one of the Albany boats. As 
it neared Nyack, which is some twenty miles up 
the Hudson, the balloon was dropped still lower, 
and it turned inland to the west. One of the 
residents of Nyack who saw the balloon come close 
to the ground near his house, with the assistance 
of the neighbors, caught the drag rope and the 
balloon was eased to the ground by letting out gas. 
The trip consumed 3 hours 23 minutes. 




67 



The Wanamaker Balloon Leaving' the Eoof. 

A hydrogen gas plant has been installed on the 
roof of the Wanamaker building, whicli is now 
available to anyone desiring to make an ascent. 
The cost for making the gas for a small balloon 
of 18.000 cu. ft., which will carry two people, is 
around $150. It is planned before long to make 
a dirigible ascension from the same building. 

Hamilton. O.. July 16. — Dr. L. E. Custer in the 
"Luzern." to Waynesville, O., 40 miles. Dur. 2 
hours. 

Lowell. Mass., July 1. — John J. Van Valken- 
burgh. alone, in a balloon, Boston to East Dan- 
vers. Mass. Duration. 1 hour 45 minutes ; dis- 
tance. 22 miles : altitude. 3.800 ft. Ascent was 
made alone to qualify as pilot. 

Philadelphia. Pa.. June 27. — Dr. Thomas E. El- 
dridge. Miss Maude Johnson. .\nna Nittinger. Dr. 
(J. H. Simmerman and Dr. T. F. Herbert in the 
"Philadelphia II." up to beat Miss Ridgway's 
record for the Simmerman cup. .\fter a cir- 
cuitous trip thev landed at Hartford, N. J., after 
2 hours. Altitude. 7.050 ft. 

Chicago, 111.. Julv 4. — Herman Mossner, up 
alone, landing on the outskirts of Chicago. 

DIRIGIBLE ASCENT. 

Saunderstown. R. I., June 30.— Stewart Davis 
and his pa.ssenger, James J. Scott, made an ex- 
tended ascent from here over Newport and .Nar- 
ragansett. landing at Wickford. in a dirigible 
balloon im-iortcd for Mr. Davis by Leo Stevens 
from the Zodiac builders in Pans, and is of the 
(Cmtinufd on page I'W) 



AERONAUTICS 



Ah (/list, iQii 



IN THE MANUFACTURING FIELD 



The Hall-Scott £ng-ine. 

The Hall-Scott engines, made by the Uall-Scott 
Motor Car Co., Crocker Building, San Francisco, 
though placed on the market but last Fall have 
created very favorable impression and are now 
being used by some of the best known flyers 
in this country. 

Three sizes are being made, of 40, 60 and 80 
horsepower, the two latter eight-cylinder ma- 
chines. The first and third have cylinders 4 by o 
and the 60 horsepower cylinders are 4 by 4 inches. 

A special advantage is claimed by the makers 
in cooling the oil used for lubrication. Oil is 
forced by gear pump, through an oil jacket in the 
carburetor manifold, which operation serves two 
purposes, of heating the manifold and cooling the 
oil before it passes into the end of the hollow 
cam shaft and distributes to the main case, ex- 
cess draining into the sump from which it is 
again pumped through the strainer and so around. 

The following description is of the four-cylinder 
40-horsepower motor. The eights are exactly the 
efficiency. Valve seats 1% in. diameter. Valve 



stems % in. Valves operated by single cam shaft 
and individual push rods and rocker arms. 

Cam shaft of steel tubing, with cams of ma- 
chine steel hardened and ground to size, secured 
in place with two taper pins, riveted over. Par- 
ticular attention is called to the crank shaft size 
with its 1% in. bearing. Cut and machined from 
one solid hand forged andi heat treated block of 
special nickel steel. Main and connecting rod 
bearings lined with highest grade of Wm. Cramp's 
Parsons wliite brass. Main bearing caps cut from 
solid steel blocks. Connecting rods machined from 
hand forged heat treated nickel steel. Crank 
cases, water and oil pump casings, etc.. of 
the best aluminum alloy. Oil sump cast integral 
with lower case, provided with sight oil glasses at 
either end. 

Ignition is by means of Mea high-tension mag- 
neto, with connection to Bosch spark plugs. The 
motor may be started as easily with this system 
as with battery and coil, and with magneto in 
retarded position, so that there is no danger of 
back kick. 




I 



Hall-Scott 4 cyl. 40 H. P. Motor 



same construction, except there are more cylinders 
and they are arranged "V" shape. 

Type A-1 is of the four-cylinder vertical, four- 
cycle, water-cooled, type, with cylinders measur- 
ing 4 in. bore by 5 in. stroke. ' Cylinder walls, 
pistons and heads are mad(> of special cast iron. 
Cylinder walls are machined inside and out, which 
absolutely insures even expansion. Steel water 
jackets, press fit, placed on cylinders, then cylin- 
der inside ground to size. Heads are cast with 
water jacket integral, a by-pass between head and 
cylinder prevents any danger of water leak into 
cylinder. Circulating water system is ami)le, with 
large capacity centrifugal pump in connection. 
Copper asbestos gaskets placed between heads and 
cylinders, and the assembly held in place by means 
of rods running through crank case and bolted 
through heads, with castellated nuts, cotter pinned 
at head end. Pistons carry three cast-iron snap 
rings, pinned in position. Pistons supi)orted at 
connecting rod end in bronze bushing with hard- 



ened steel pin. absolutely secured in position, so 
there is no danger of side play with consequent 
scoring of cylinder wall. Valves of chrome nickel 
steel, all in one piece, seated directly in heads 
without the use of cages. This valve position, 
together with the fact that heads are machined 
upon inside, is known to give maximum power and 

A special aluminum Stroniberg glass bowl car- 
buretor is used, with connection to the oil-jacketed 
manifold. 

Type A-1 power plant complete, consisting of 
Type A-1 motor, coniiilete with carburetor, mag- 
neto, water and oil pumps; a 7-ft. diameter, 
■iVj-tt. pitch propeller, special light weight radia- 



68 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 



tor. 3-gallon copper gasoline tank with tiller cap 
and outlet flange, and all necessary hose and cop- 
per pipe connections, crated ready for shipment, 
$1,650 f. 0. b.. San Francisco. California. 

Two New Cartiss Motors. 

Two new Curtiss engines have been produced, 
of 40 and TO h. p. respectively, four and eight 
cylindprs, 4 by 5 in. bore and stroke. The other 
two motors which have been produced for the 
past two years are rated at 30 h. p. and 60 h. p. 

In the new motors the method of lubrication 
has been slightly changed, the four-gallon oil 
reservoir being cast in the lower lialf of the crank- 
case, from which a submerged rotary pump forces 
the oil direct to all bearings via tlie hollow cam 
and crankshafts. The connecting rods are made 
hollow and oil is also forced through them to the 
piston pin bearings and cylinder walls. The ex- 
cess oil falls into the splash pan and thence 
through the overflow pipes back into the reservoir. 
An Increase of oil is supplied the engine as it 
speeds up. 




New Curtiss 70 li. p. Motor. 

The base of the new cylinders is now round 
and attached to the case by 12 bolts, and the 
bearings are much larger all around. The long 
case now incloses the thrust bearing, and par- 
ticular pains have been taken to make the motor 
oil-tight, which is often very difficult, as oil is 
apt to find its way out where the cylinders .ioin 
the base or be pumped out by tlie suction of the 
push rods. A slightly different t.ype of manifold 
is also adopted. 

The weight of the large four-cylinder power 
plant complete is ISO pounds; that of the large 
eight is 275 pounds. These weights include El 
Arco radiator, Curtiss propeller, Bosch magneto, 
Schebler carburetor and fuel tank. The eight- 
cylinder motor shows 500 pounds thrust at 1,200 
r. p. m. with an S-ft. diamieter 7-ft. pitch pro- 
peller, while the four develops 315 pounds at 900 
r. p. m. with a propeller a foot less both ways. 
The pitch speed of the eight-cylinder motor on 
the navy machine is 90 miles an hour. 

The fuel consumption on these motors is quite 
remarkalile. During the two-hour test run made 
in behalf of tlie navy, the eight-cylinder consumed 
but four gallons of gasoline and one gallon of oil 
per hour. 

German Monoplane Ag-ency in the United States. 

The Grade monoplane, which was one of the 
very first aeroplanes in Germany to make notable 
flights, is being represented in the States by a 
firm of young men. Griffith & Meixner of 405 
Delaware Ave.. Buffalo. N. Y. 

The machine, more or less known here through 
the aeronautical magazines, is a monoplane of its 
own type, fitted with a two-cycle, air-cooled, four- 
cylinder motor, designed and made solely by Hans 
Grade. Several types are manufactured. For 
the 16-24 h. p. engine but 1.7 to 2 gallons of 
gasoline are used per hour, witli the oil consump- 
tion 0.4 gallons. 



From one to five people can he carried, ac- 
cording to type, with motors from 16 to 45 h. p. 
.\ principal feature of the machine is that the 
aviator and his passengers sit lielow the wings 
and can see the whole of the ground at all times 
One lever operates the rudder and elevator at the 
same time it is used for warping the wings. 

The aviator, Schall, during one of the German 
meets, attained 7,000 ft. altitude in 23 minutes, 
with the 16-24 motor. During a cross-country 
flight of 37 miles Grade himself, as pilot, took 
-second prize fromi competitors of much higher 
power. 

Wrig-ht Motors for Sale. 

Wright motors are now available to the gen- 
eral public from two sources. The 35 h. p.. four- 
cylinder and the 70 h. p., eight cylinder motors, 
complete with magneto, water and oil pumps, 
weight 193 pounds for the 35 h. p., power guar- 
anteed, may be obtained from Du Mois Aero- 
nautique. 17 Rue Casette, Paris (VIei, France. 

The Wright Company in .\merica is selling 
American-made motors at $1,500. 

H. T. Gratz. a former Louisville man. who was 
connected with the automobile business in this 
city, made four short flights on .Tuly 4 without 
accident at Urban Park. 111., before "a crowd of 
2.5(Hi people. Gi'atz is flying a Gray Eagle bi- 
plane for the Gray Eagle Aviation Co.. a Louis- 
ville corporation, and with his apparent skill in 
flying a new machine he shows promises of be- 
coming an aviator of the first rank. 



The Maximotor Makers, Detroit, report a strong 
demand for their aero engines. Another 60-75- 
li.p. engine was shipped to Isaburo Yamada in 
.lapan for his dirigible and a number have been 
sent to novice aeroplane builders throughout this 
country. Among those who have purchased mo- 
tors are : Thomas Longo, Danville, Ky. ; Hamil- 
ton & Heilprin, Nassau Boulevard ; A. M. Nassr, 
I'ensacola. Fla. ; Horace S. Kemmerle. I'pland, 
I'a. : .1. N. Sparling. East St. Louis, 111., and 
Theodore Krasting, New Britain, Ct. 



The Sparling Aviation School, at Washington 
Park. Mo., is progressing nicely and weather is 
ideal. Park has finished his course and is now 
flying in the West. H. E. Maier of Denver has 
been making straightaway flights for the last 
week and is going to tackle the turns in a few 
days. Students handle the straight flights in 
winds up to 15 miles per hour before attempting 
the turns. A heavy low-powered machine is used 
by beginners and not until they are familiar 
with all the workings of the machine in low 
straight flights are they given a real flyer. 

During the past week the following pupils en- 
rolled : H. .\. Signor of Meadville. Pa., who made 
good straightaway flights the third day in the 
machine, and promises to make a good cool-headed 
flyer : FA Neimiller. East St. Louis, and Harry 
Kelley, Colorado Springs, Colo. 



The Thomas Brothers of Bath. N. Y.. have com- 
pleted another headless machine with a six-cyl- 
inder Kirkham motor. It is a fast flier and a rapid 
climber. Walter .Johnson promises to make still 
better records for himself. 



The postotlice authorities have brought to ac- 
count an alleged aviation school. A certain self- 
stvled "lieutenant" was a strong bidder for stu- 
fients. representing that he was head of the aero- 
nautic work of the United States army and was 
connected with the school temporarily for the 
purpose of securing a nucleus for his aviation 
squad in the army. Advertising of the school has 
l)een accepted right along by magazhies and papers 
of all classes. AERON.VUTICS conducted an in- 
vestigation of its own at the outset and cancelled 
further advertising. 



I hare rcnil your ediiorUil note lor Jitln irilh 
admiration and enVnisiasm. and note iioiir splendid 
adrertisinf/ patronatie. and its loj/ical nature. Your 
peri'idiral' lias been as complete i norhl-nide) and 
ncarhi as ironderful as the triumph of Orrille and 
Williiir Writ/ht. — .Ioii.n McGovekn. 



69 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 



UNITED STATES PATENTS ABSTRACTED 



Henry J. Casanova, Chicago, 111., 9!)5,43T, 
June 20. 1011. Filed Aug. 9, 1910. FRAME 
CONSTRUCTION. 

Jolin O. Wrenn. Portland, Ore., 995,512, June 
20. 1911. Filed July 26, 1909. FEATHERING 
BLADE PROPELLER. 

' George Francis Myers, Columbus, O., 995,550, 
June 20, 1911. Continuation of application filed 
Jan. 29, 1897. This application filed May 31, 
1904. AN ANNULAR AEROPLANE. 

Lincoln Winters and Samuel Hofstetter, Free- 
port, 111.. 99r>.750. June 20. 1911. Filed Dec. 30. 

1910. HELICOPTER. 

James Lester Walker, Eagle Point. Ore., 995,819, 
June 20. 1911. Filed Aug. 26, 1910. Aeroplane 
with AUTOMATICALLY OPERATED AILERONS 
for securing lateral and longitudinal STABILITY. 

John Burns, Los Angeles, Cal., 996,058. June 
27, 1911. Filed Dec. 27, 1910. PARACHUTE. 

Thomas Wigston Kinglake Clarke, Surbiton, Eng- 
land. 996,061, June 27, 1911. Filed July 11, 1908. 
ADJUSTABLE FOLLOWING SURFACE AERO- 
PLANE. 

De Witt Clinton McCallum, Los Angeles, Cal., 
906.105. June 27. 1911. Filed June 3, 1910. 
Aeroplane with REVOLVABLE SERIES of ELE- 
VATING PLANES. 

Guy Snow, Kaufman, Tex., 996.153, June 27, 

1911. Filed May 12. 1910. Comibined HELI- 
COPTER and ORTHOPTER. 

Ernest Peter Vincent, New Y'ork. N. Y., 996,171. 
June 27. 1911. Filed May 28. 1910. Triplane 
with middle surface having greater depth than the 
other two. 

Albert Hugo Friedel, Baltimore, Md.. 996,233, 
June 27. 1911. Filed Jan. 31, 1910. Aeroplane 
with extensible CURTAINS for the purpose of 
STEERING. 

John J. Rectenwald, Pittsburg, Pa.. 996,361. 
June 27, 1911. Filed June 7, 1910. Device for 
utilizing the balloonets of a dirigible as LIFE 
SAVERS in case of accident. 

John J. Rectenwald. Mt. Oliver Borough, Pa., 
996.362. June 27, 1911. Filed Aug. 13. 1910. 
INFLATABLE BAGS to keep aeroplane afloat in 
water. 

John J. Rectenwald, Pittsburg, Pa., 996.303, 
June 27. 1011. Filed Nov. 3. 1910. Aeroplane 
with FOLDABLE PLANES and device for apply- 
ing powiH- to wheels. 



Walter W. Roberts, Seattle. Wash., 996,366, 
June 27, 1911. Filed Sept. 16, 1910. HELI- 
COPTER. 

Attilio Pusterla, Bath Beach, N. Y., assignor 
of one-half to Samuel Schenkein, New York, N. Y., 
996,425. June 27, 1911. Filed July 9, 1909. HELI- 
COPTER. 

Julius Christiansen, New York, N. Y., 996,456, 
June 27, 1911. Filed Oct. 27, 1909. MULTI- 
PLANE having air-confinin'^ side pieces. 

Richard Wilcke, Friedenau, near Berlin, Ger- 
many, 996.547, June 27, 1911. Filed Sept. 19, 

1910. PROPELLER for aerial vehicles. 
Cassius E. Lamburth, San Francisco, Cal., 

996,592, June 27, 1911. Filed Dec. 12, 1910. 
Aeroplanes having pointed flaps for preserving 
EQUILIBRIUM. 

Victor Camal, Paris, France, 996,613, July 4, 

1911. Filed March 17, 1910. Machine in which 
vertical lift is obtained by a set of RECIPRO- 
CATING SAILS. 

Francis M. Eggert, Lansing, Mich.. 996.627, July 
4, 1911. Filed March 31, 1911. LIFTING and 
PROPELLING mechanism. 

Preston Tugman Moodv. LaCrosse, Wash., 
996,659, July 4. 1911. Filed March 16, 1911. 
Hinged lateral planes swinging in a vertical di- 
rection and interconnected so as to preserve 
LATERAL EQUILIBRIUM. 

John A. Renniee. New York. N. Y., 996.728. July 
4, 1911. Filed Feb. 23, 1910. PROPELLING 
and balancing apparatus for airships. 

Weslev Wait, Newburgh, N. Y.. 996.815. July 4, 
1911. Filed Sept. 9, 1908. HELICOPTER. 

William Krierlter and William Bourdon, New 
York, N. Y.. 996.863, Julv 4. 1911. Filed May 
27, 1910. UNIVERSAL RUDDER for flying ma- 
chines?. 

Robert Leidorf, Cleveland, O., 996.932, July 4, 
1911. Filed Nov. 7. 1910. Aeroplane having sev- 
ei-al sets of rotatable wings to preserve STA- 
BILITY. 

George A. Owen and George A. Bates, Hartford, 
Conn., 997,001. July 4. 1911. Filed Oct. 17. 1910. 
Variable height of CENTER of GRAVITY, also 
method of precipitating tlie engine from the ma- 
chine and landing as a parachute. 

Otto A. Fenn, New York, N. Y^. 997,122, .July 
4. 1911. Filed Mav 16, 1010. Flying machine 
with plurality of STEPPED supporting SUR- 
FACES. 



AERO 



MART 



Engines for Sale. 

ENGINE FOR SALE — A. Harriman, 30-H.P. 
engine ; Eisemann magneto ; late model ; bargain 
at $400. Address Harriman, care AERONAUT- 
ICS. TF 

RINEK ENGINE FOR SALE — A Rinek 8-cvl- 
inder engine. 1910 model ; just completely over- 
hauled by factory; in perfect condition"; com- 
plete with El .\rco radiator, magneto and gaso- 
line tanks ; $600. Address Rinek, care AERO- 
NAUTICS. TF 

FOR SALE — One 2-cylinder double opposed, 
weight 125 lbs. ; price $90.00. One 4-cylinder up- 
right, weight 120 lbs.; price $140.00. Both in 
first-class condition. Address X. Y. Z., c/o AERO- 
NAUTICS. Aug. 

FOR SALE— 50-h.p. H. F. or Harriman avia- 
tion engine ; new ; .$500. This is the same size 
engine that the Harriman Motor Works are 
charging $1,075 for. Address "Box 3, Girard, 
Kans." XF 

FOR S.\LE— 40 to 00-h.p. Elbridge .\ero Spe- 
cial, 1911. Complote with Bosch magneto. Abso- 
lutely new ; guaranteed just as received from fac- 
tory. Cost $1,350; will sell for $850. Aug. 
M. F. H. GOUVERNEUR, 

Wilmington, N. C. 

FOR SALE — Two motors for aeroplanes. 
30 and 60 h.p. Weight 130 and 180 lbs. re- 
spectively. Price low. Address Fred Suellv, 
R.P.D. 2, Bridgeport, Ct. — Aug " 



Business Cards. 

J. ED. SHERIFF. MECHANICAL ENGINEER 
AND INVENTOR. ORIGINAL DESIGNS A SPE- 
CIALTY. 125 WATTS ST., NEW YORK. Dec. 

Aeroplanes for Sale. 

AMATEUR AIRMEN— Full size MONOPLANE, 
ready for power, $75.00; one passenger, fine flyer; 
2c. stamp for particulars. SEND now. E. C. 
MINERT AERO CO.. 1122 W. Locust St., Daven- 
port, Iowa. Aug. 
Positions Wanted. 

EQUILIBRIST, SLACK WIRE WALKER, 

well educated, good business training in office, 
experienced in shop work, four seasons operat- 
ing own automobiles, wishes to associate with 
manufacturer to give flying exhibitions, train 
others and prosecute business genorall.v. Excel- 
lent reputation. Address "Equilibrist," care "AERO- 
NAUTICS." Sep. 

I AM desirous of entering the services of a re- 
liable aeroplane manufacturing firm ; have served 
4V) years building high-speed gasoline motors, un- 
derstand aeroplane construction thoroughly ; all 
types of miotors ; at present am in naval service; 
will consider anything to learn. Address B. II. D., 
care "AERONAUTICS." Aug. 

AVIATOR — Trained at Wright Flying 
School, Dayton, Ohio. Now open for position. 
Address H.V.H.. 323 Newport Ave., Milwaukee, 
Wis. — -A.ug. 



70 



AERONAUTICS 



August, iQii 




CHICAGO CI.UB HAS GROUNDS. 

The Aero Club of Illinois formally opened 
its ISD-aero flying fleld, .iust without the city 
limits of Chicago. July 4. with a series of amateur 
flights in aeroplanes and a balloon ascension, all 
of which would have done credit to professionals. 

The club fleld is the largest and best private 
club grounds in the world, being as level as a lawn 
and having space for a mile course 350 ft. wide, 
ample rcwm in any direction for a 500-metre 
straightaway course such as is required in taking 
the tests for an aviation pilot license, and it has 
room to hangar 250 aeroplanes if the time should 
come when that many are owned by memibers of 
the club. 

In addition there is ample room to seat 40,000 
persons and still have considerable space for 
automobile parking. To the west extends 350 miles 
of unbroken Illinois prairie, and the club easily 
could establish a 10-kiIometer course of ground 
absolutely satisfactory to airmen. Fifteen ma- 
chines already are on the grounds, and at least 
four more will be taken out directly. 

The grounds are reached in 23 minutes for a 
5-cent fare from the "Loop"' district or business 
center of Chicago by means of the Douglas Park 
branch of the Metropolitan elevated railroad. This 
railroad has built a special station for the club, 
and has put in turnstiles capable of checking 
22.000 persons per hour into this Held, and check- 
ing more than that number back onto the railroad 
after events. The fleld is fenced in. and has a 
beginners' runway 700 ft. wide and 15,000 ft. 
long that has been scalped and rolled, and is 
perfect for testing machines. 

July 4 the flying events were arranged, four 
of the amiateur aviators — Dan .V. Kreamer, H. W. 
Powers. Otto W. Brodie and Allan Lougheed — 
sharing in the prize money. In addition there 
were short jumps and the hangars were thrown 
open to the pultlic. 

Flying matinees are planned to be given weekly 
through the year, including winter events. 

The officers of the club are : James E. Plew. 
president : Harold F. McCormick and T. Edward 
Wilder, vice-presidents : Grover F. Sexton, secre- 
tary ; Charles E. Hartley, treasurer, and James 
S. Stephens, consulting engineer. 

The Aero Club of America has added to its 
aftiliated clubs the recently formed Aero Club of 
New York, located at Nassau Boulevard, Garden 
City. L. I., which has nearly 200 members. Ar- 
rangements have been made for the use of the 
Aero Club of New York grounds by the members 
of the Aero Club of Amierica. The clubhouse, 
which heretofore has been used by the residents 
of Nassau boulevard, has been turned over by 
the real estate company which controls the 
grounds to the Aero Club of New York. A joint 
grounds committee has been appointed, with 
members from both the Aero Club of America 
and the .\ero Club of New York. 

The Aeronautical Society continues to hold 
its regular bi-monthly public lecture and weekly 
members' meetings. 

On July 13 Lieut. K. E. Scott described his 
bomb-dropping device for aeroplanes and dirigibles, 
the calculating of speed over the ground, etc., 
an article on which subject is printed in this 
issue. S. Y. Beach told his troubles with a mono- 
plane at the high altitude of Denver and Dr. 
Mcllvry, of the Hall-Scott motor concern, told 
of their habit of sending out propellers of steeper 
pitch for high altitude flying. On July 27 A. J. 
Thompson honored the society with a most valu- 
able illustrated lecture on "Vanadium and Its Re- 
lation to Machine Design, and Its Uses in Gen- 
eral." 



COMMUNICATIONS 



Criticizes Article on Soaringf. 

Dear Sir : — 

I read the article in the May issue of .\ERO- 
N.VT'TICS of "Some Facts About Soaring Flight." 
by E. F. Andrews, in which I think I can help 
toward the advancement of same. 

The planes must be thicker at the forward edge, 
as I have always said to myself. 

I do not know the exact distance that the 
thickest part should be from the forward edge, 
but I should judge about one-quarter the length 
of the rib. And the thickness of rib at the 
thickest place should be 1 in. to every foot in 
length. The thickness depends upon the speed 
of the craft. The front upper part of plane 
should be rather abrupt, but rounded, and the 
lower forward part should be a little more than 
level. As you know, the forward part of a plane 
surface will lift more than the rear, thus over- 
coming what little down pressure there would be 
on the upper front side. 

Most 'planes made nowadays, especially the 
biplanes made in this country, are a true or 
"nearly true" parabolic curve, alike on both sides ; 
this leaves a heavy luickward and down suction 
under the forward part of plane. This. I think, is 
what brought Hoxsey to his death, when the rear 
elevator was not sutticient to overcome the same. 
The said elevator being rounded or parabolic on 
the top, as a rounding surface will not pull much, 
so I think a small elevator close up to the planes 
in front would help on any aeroplane in addition 
to the one in the rear. If the planes were set at a 
steep angle to overcome the suction, the rounding 
upper paVt would not be of any account. 



n/flU BERMS 




^Qfi£f\TEST 



Regarding soarins flisht. I think the wmgs or 
planes must be about level, so that the forward 
part points downward. This, when starting to 
fall will start forward. Thus the rounding upper 
surface will turn the air upward and make the 
air rarefied on the top. producing a lift. I may 
not be right in mv views, but that is 'perhaps 
a possible way of rising and soaring without 
power or an upward moving air current. 

Ovington's talk on pa-e 184 will convince you 
to some extent in this idea of having the planes 
thick at the forward edge. 

I am building an aeroplane of the monoplane 
tvpe along mv own original ideas, of which T 
will let vou know more when I make my tir.st 
flit'hts or trv-out. It has these special designed 
planes, of whicli I herewith show sketch of end 
section. 

If an aeroplane or soaring machine were to be 
made the aviator and motor would have to be 
located within a flsh-like body to overcome the 
head resistance and the suction on the backs of 
same. The struts and other parts of framework 
would have to be made In like manner, so that 
the aeroplane would move forward easily. 

R.W.MOND \V. G.\RNEU. 

R. R. 5. Box 31, Davenport. la. 



71 



AERONAUTICS 



August, igii 



SUBSCRIBERS' FORUM AND EXCHANGE 



MIGHT BE USED AS A "WIND WAGON." 

327 Orange Street. 
Newark, N. J., Dec. 29, 1910. 
Dear Sir: — 

Having read with great interest, in your De- 
cember issue, tlie description of a "glider' 
actuated bv "bicycle movement," I thought per- 
haps my experiments along similar lines might 
be interesting, if not useful, to some of your 
many readers. I have not reached the point 
of making an actual trial at flying with my 
own power, but hope to do so in the near fu- 
ture. I am enclosing a photo of my device in 
order to make tre description more clear. 

In the construction of my device I have used 
bicycle parts and spruce, the only special 
metal work on the machine is a 6-in. roller 
pin bearing on which the propeller turns. 



interesting to vou, and believing some day I 
will be able to fly with my own power, I am. 
Respectfully yours. 

A. N. PIERMAN. 




The propeller is 6 ft. long and 5 in. wide, 
cut out of a solid piece of spruce, the blades 
are straight and slightly concaved on the face, 
the back is finished oval, forming sharp edges. 

The propeller is driven by means of an extra 
grooved pulley attached to spokes of rear 
bicycle wheel, over which a belt passes by way 
of idler pulleys to the grooved pulley on the 
propeller. 

The highest speed I have been able to ob- 
tain with a leather belt is 3 25 r. p. m., owing 
to the slip of the belt, but at this speed I 
maintained a steady pull of 9 lbs. for nearly 
two minutes; the test was inade with a good 
spring scale, attached to the rear of the ma- 
chine, the driving wheel being lifted clear of 
the floor by suspension from al)ove, the front 
wheels resting on the floor. A second test was 
made with a weight attached to machine by 
means of a cord and pulley with the same 
result. 

I am about to substitute a chain and sprocket 
drive in place of the belt, in order to stop the 
loss of power by the slip of the belt, and I 
believe the gain in pull will more than com- 
pensate for the added weight of the chain. 
The machine is of the biplane type, except 
that no front elevator is used, the control be- 
ing by the rear tail plane. The main planes 
have a supporting surface of 152 sq. ft., the 
tail plane 15 sq. ft. 

The weight of device shown in the picture is 
46 lbs. The total weight of the machine com- 
plete is a little less tlian 100 His. The ratio 
of the gearing is 5 to 1. 

Hoping this small contrilnition will prove 



Wants Hearst Conditions Easier. 

Editor AEROXAUTICS: 

Sir: Although, the copy was merely sent to 
you for vour information and co-operation, I 
felt that "the promptness with which you gave 
a couple of pages of your valuable fend 
crowded magazine to my letter to Mr. Hearst 
in vour December number was extremely flat- 
tering and kind. However, you are like the 
cow that gave all the good milk — and then 
kicked over the pail. It happens that I did 
not read it in print until a moment ago, and 
I find that you have made two interpolations 
which took the snapper off the end of my 
lash and might affect the result which my 
letter was expected to accomplish. To give 
serious recognition to the Hearst prize in its 
present condition will undo all the earnest 
work of years in soliciting prizes to encourage 
the accomplishment of possible achievements. 
While it is entirely legitimate for Mr. Hearst 
to achieve publicity by offering a prize for a 
stunt, which, if at all possible (and this in- 
volves besides the aeroplane performance and 
the endurance of the aviator, a sequence of 
720 hours of perfect meteorological conditions 
throughout this continent and at altitudes up 
to some 10,00iO feet, if not actually through 
unexplored regions), we should not let the 
magnitude of the prize on paper bewilder us 
in interpreting its terms to Mr. Hearst him- 
self. If, as we have no reason to doubt, this 
prize is offered in the snirit, for example, in 
which M. Deutsch of Paris gave prizes of 
similar magnitude for flights of a few kilo- 
metres, Mr. Hearst will no doubt be influenced 
by the opinions of the aeronautical societies 
and engineers into amelioration of his terms. 

Now. the first of your interpolations stated 
that Prof. Simon Xewcomb "seemed to argue 
that flight was impossible at a time when the 
Wrights were actually flying." I have care- 
fully reread both papers and find nothing on 
which you might base your statement. On 
the contrary, in the first of Newcomb's papers 
he states that "both the "Wrights and Farman 
have had success." In his second, "The Prob- 
lem of Aerial Navigation." he starts out with 
"The recent construction of machines on which 
for the first time in history men have flown 
through the air." etc. A.gain "The vital ques- 
tion is not whether aerial navigation is prac- 
ticable, for that has been settled in the affirma- 
tive; now it is proved in the best of all ways, 
that of actual trial, that a man can fly through 
the air on an aeroplane." In your second 
interpolation of my argument that flight would 
be impossible in a 70-mile wind, you state: "As 
a matter of fact, an aeroplane does not lose 
lifting force going with the wind, owing to 
increased speed." which does not affect my 
argument, but might give an impression that 
I had not been aware of it. 

Air in motion is not to be depended on for 
dynamic flight. The helicopter "gets into the 
air" on still air, but descends immediately be- 
cause it sets UP a descending current and 
churns up the air. To illustrate the absence 
of sustaining force in a gale, the stream lines 
of the churned air must be referred to, and in 
the sketch herewith a condition is shown which 
would readily solve the mystery of poor 
Hoxey's fall. Langley said: "Wind cannot 
be compared to the flow of a river," but that 
it consists of infinitely complex internal .gyra- 
tions. In my sketcli the resultant of these 
would be a sustaining force of nothing, al- 
though it is not a "hole in the air" or rarified 
section, but a compressed swirl. 

A 70-mile wind is classified as a liurricane 
and its navigation, whicli would be perilous 
even if it flowed like a river, would be im- 
possible because of these swirls. 

C. W. SIRCH. 

Los Angeles, March 31. 1011. 



AERONAUTICS 



August, TO I J 



Rochester had more than its share of flying 
during July. The aero club there secured Simon, 
Barrier ant. Frisbie, Moisant aviators, whose 
flights were appreciated by thousands, most of 
whom sat outside the field and saw the show 
for nothing. Three days later, Beacney and Rob- 
inson, of the Curtiss Co., flew under the auspices 
of a newspaper at other grounds and drew large 
paying crowds. The rival flyers attended the 
second meeting and saw for the first time Beachey 
do his sensational stunts and Beachey did not cut 
anything oft" the program because of the presence 
of " his peaceful adversaries. 

Wants Capital for Novel Monoplane. 

Dear Sir: 

Thinking that my worl< or patents would be 
of use to your valuable journal, thought that 
I would send vou a drawing showing the gen- 
eral construction of the monoplane that I 
would like to construct or get someone to fur- 
nish me the capital to do so. I have several 
patents pending on this machine. 

As I have three or four different warping 
devices, with the one showing, which is oper- 



A Iiaboratory Sug-gestion. 

Editor "AERONAUTICS," 

IS'ew York. 
Dear Sir; 

The writer has a suggestion to make to ex- 
perimenters in aerodynamics by means of 
which all the principles underlying bird flight 
could likely be discovered, as our knowledge 
along these lines is admitted by all to be quite 
defective, and there is much to be revealed 
concerning Nature's secrets in the fliglit of 
birds, bats and other creatures, and especially 
the soaring of many birds without perceptible 
wing movements, which mystifies the closest 
students of this phenomenon. Witness also 
that the condor, for instance, sustains 395 
pounds per horse power, while the most effi- 
cient man-made flying machine lifts less than 
50 pounds for each horse power used. 

My suggestion is to take very rapid moving 
pictures of a large bird or bat flying through 
a column of smoke, or in a smoky room, and 
then reproduce these pictures as slowly as 
possible to make a continuous picture. Extra- 
rapid moving pictures — up to many tliousands 
a second — have already been taken of insects' 
flight, but sui bono? Such pictures of the 
larger flying creatures' movements could be 
much more easily studied, the wings being 
larger and the movements slower. If they 
could not be taken by tlie same method — a 




Jctph Pici 



Acnofilju 



ated bv gears, arms, etc., I also have patents 
on a safetv device which is used only when 
an accident happens when in the air. The whole 
monoplane is made of steel tubing, the beams 
in the wings are also steel tubing and are re- 
inforced inside by a process of my own to give 
the added strength so as not to cause them 
to buckle, as there are no wires whatever used 
on the above. 

I will give vou an idea as to how the mono- 
plane acts when the safety device is used. 
When the above is flying I have a small lever 
near one of my hands that, just as soon as I 
pull same, the wings are unlocked from posi- 
tion and are caused to turn; just as soon as 
wings are starting to turn and wings are un- 
locked, mv weight causes the frame to drop 
down backward in a vertical position to the 
wav it flies; as the seat is loose on the frame 
so ks it mav slide down the frame for about 15 
feet, so as I may act as a pendelum to the 
wings as soon as frame is in this position the 
wings are locked automatically. 

The warping device acts automatically, as 
the seat which I sit in acts as a pendulum 
for the above: the steering is operated by turn- 
ing wheel right or left, the same as an auto- 
mobile. The elevating is done by the same 
wheel by pushing backward or forward. 

Of course, these things, such as engine, etc., 
are balanced so as to make the safety work 
quicklv and in the right way. There are also 
two springs right on the second beam from the 
front, so as to help turn tlie frame. 

JOSEPH PIERCE, 
2713 N. Warnock St., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



DtV.« .NO A>.TOM,t.C WAOpiNC DtV.l. . 

continuouslv moving film and electric spark 
for light — two or more biograph machines 
could be arranged into one, taking pictures 
alternatel^■. or in succession, and reproducing 
likewise, isut slowly. The object of the smoke 
mentioned is to make the movements of the 
air visible — something absolutely essential be- 
fore we can fullv understand the principles of 
natural flight. Then by applying the prin- 
ciples thus discovered to propellers and planes 
we can equal, perhaps excel. Nature, as we 
have done with the bicycle. 

Yours faitlifully. 

ELMER G. STILL, 
Editor Livermore (Calif.) "Echo." 

Kdifor of AKROX.M'TICS. New York City. 
Dear Sir : 

I have read with interest the article in May 
.\ERONAITTlCS bv Mr. K. I- .\ndrews. entitled 
"Some Facts Alwut Soaring Flight." I have 
never had anv practical experience in gliding, but 
I have had a whole lot of it in watching and 
photograi)hing the flight of birds, and these have 
included gulls, terns, shearwaters, ospreys, eagles 
and vullnres all along the coast from Maine to 
Florida and thrnuuh Cuba. I have never seen any- 
thing to indicate that any bird can rise and ad- 
vance against the wind without motion on his 
part or the aid of currents. . 

Mr Andrews is first in error in stating that 
there are three kinds of vultures in our south- 
eastern states. There are but two species, the 
turkey vulture and the black vulture. The latter 
is a "shorter bird, with less expanse than the 
former, but is heavier, consequently it cannot sail 
or glide as easily. 



73 



AERONAUTICS 



August, ipii 



The comparing of a soaring bird to a tacking 
Iioat is a fallacy. The wind strilcing the sail of a 
close-hauled boat exerts its force in two direc- 
tions — to carry the boat along with it and to 
propel the boat forward, tlie former of which is 
combatted by the resistance of the water on the 
keel and broadside of the boat. The wind against 
the wings of a soaring bird also exerts a force in 
two directions — one upwards and the other back- 
wards, but none with which to make forward 
motion against the wind ; the resistance of the air 
not being sufficient to overcome the backward 
thrust of the wind, the bird will be carried back- 
wards iinless he has the assistance of rising cur- 
rents or exerts some force himself. 

It is more than probable — it is almost certain — • 
that if a bird is progressing against a wind with- 
out flapping and in a flat or ascending plane, that 
bird is propelling itself even if the motion of the 
wings be imperceptible. Gulls or vultures never 
sail with no movement of the wings or body ; the 
body may rock, one wing may tilt a trifle — move- 
ments scarcely perceptible to the eye, but every 
one calculated to maintain balance and to propel 
in the direction desired. 

Birds cannot exceed aeroplanes in speed, but 
they are past masters in the art of flying; they 
know just exactly what to do and when to do it. 
Perpetual motion is no more of a dream than is 
the theory that a bird or anything else can pro- 
gress against a wind, in an ascending plane, by 
the sole use of an adverse wind and gravity. 

Chester A. Reed^ S. B. 

Worcester, Mass.. May 12, 1911. 



FOR SALE— A perfect Santos Dumont monoplane, thirty- 
horsepower, fitted witb pontoons for water and wheels for 
land. Guaranteed to fly. Just the thing: tor an amateur. 
Will demonstrate to purchaser or send photo while in flight. 
Reason for sellinK buying two-passenger machine. Price at 
Akron, O., 8800.00. J. R GAMMETER, Akron, O, —Aug. 

AEROPLANP: for sale— Genuine imported French 
Aeroplane, monoplane type, French motor, 3(>h.p..4 cycle 
opposed 5x5 cylinders, water cooled with French radia- 
tor, G. & A. Carburettor, French Magneto, Chauviere 
Propeller, for $800.00, complete ready to fly. The power 
plant is high-class in every way and is worth more than 
what we oflfer the complete outfit for. 

LANIER & DRIESBACH MFG. CO. 
248 Butler St., Cincinnati, O. —Aug. 



/ tcish to express my hearty appreciation of 
Aeronautics ; tt contains more useful information 
than any other publication I know of. — Harry R. 

KlESSIG. 



Please continue to send the magazine, as I 
icouM not he without it for three times the cost. — • 
Prof. U. Sorenson. 



Anyone interested in aeronautics can ill afford to 
he without Aeronautics. — Dr. A. S. Rowe. 



Your magazine is an ahsolute necessity. — B. J. 
Pre.ssey. 



ENGLAND BUYS FOUR BIPLANES 



By Geo. H. Scrag-gf. 



The recent announcement in the House of 
Commons that the British War Office liad pur- 
chased four '"Bristol" biplanes naturally at- 
tracts a great deal of attention to this machine. 
The military machines now being constructed 
are an improvement on the type of macliine 
wliich took part in the army manuevers on 
Salisbury Plain last September. The appear- 
ance of the biplane at once conveys the idea of 
immense strengtli and power. The spread of 
the planes, including the extensions, is 51 ft. 
3 in., the length overall is 39 ft., and the height 
11 ft. 10 in. P^itted with a 70-h.p. Gnome en- 
gine tlie total weight is 855 pounds. 

The planes, after a great deal of experiment, 
have been so shaped tliat under normal condi- 
tions of flight a considerable amount of lifting 
power is always in reserve, and have been con- 
structed especially with a view of facilitating 
rapid repairs. At each end of the upper plane 
Is fitted an extension, wliich can be demounted 
in a moment, saving considerable storage room. 
Tlie machine can be flown without the exten- 
sions mounted, tliough, of course, in that case 
the weight carrying capacity would be some- 
what reduced. 

The chassis is so constructed that it is ex- 
tremely difficult to buckle the wheels, an im- 
portant part in a machine whicli may be re- 
quired to land on rough ground, and combines 
the advantage of the skid landing gear and a 
wheel chassis without tlie defects of either. 
Here, as in every other part of the macliine, 
the importance of effecting renewals and re- 
pairs very rapidly has been borne in mind, and 
in case of breakage renewals can be made 
easily and quickly. The total supporting area 
of the machine is 62 square meters, and it is 
fitted with three comfortable upholstered seats 
set in a gracefully shai)ed body, the pilot's 
seat in front and the passengers' seats abreast 
behind. 

The control is by a vertical column pivoted 
at the bottom to work fore and aft for eleva- 
tion, at the top of which is mounted a wheel 
rotating in a vertical i)lane for lateral stabiliz- 
ing. For steering, three rudders are fitted, and 



are worked by means of a lever, pivoted cen- 
trally and working in a liorizontal plane, op- 
erated by the feet. This method of control is 
a considerable improvement on the old, as it is 
much less fatiguing for long distance fliglits. 
The projieller is of the "Bristol" type, made of 
laminated walnut, and is exceptionally strong 
and powerful. Altogether, one cannot but feel 
that our military aviators will be mounted on 
the best machine possible for military purposes. 

The "Bristol" Racing Biplane, which was 
also shown at the recent British show, is a 
very speedy looking machine, with a fuselage 
rather on the lines of that of a monoplane, and 
is almost a midget compared with the military 
biplane just described. The weight has been 
cut down to the lowest possible limit, and this 
little racer, complete with engine, w^eighs only 
570 pounds. The widtii of span is 8.2 meters, 
the length overall 7.6 meters, and the heiglit 
2.9 meters. The planes are specially con- 
structed to give the maximum of lift with tha 
minimum of drift, and the stanchions are so 
shaiied as to give the least possilile head re- 
sistance. The engine fitted is a 50-h.p. Gnome 
engine with "Bristol" propeller, and the con- 
trol is practically identical with that of the 
military type. There is, however, only one 
ruddei'. 

The "Bristol" Monoplane, which was also 
shown, is an exceedingly graceful and swift- 
looking machine. It has a span of 10.2 meters, 
a length overall of 9.6 meters, and a height of 
2.8 meters, and the total weight is 580 pounrs. 
The wings are supported by three separate 
wires in parallel instead of tlie usual steel rib- 
lion, as in the opinion of the "Bristol" manu- 
facturers the latter system is very treacherous. 
The chassis is a combination of skid landing 
gear and wheel chassis, but where speed is tlie 
only desideratum, as in racing, the skid jjortion 
of the chassis can be entirely removed, con- 
siderably lessening the dead weight and head 
resistance. The control is a modification of 
that already described in connection with the 
other types, and pei-niits of long flights with- 
out discomfort. The engine is a 50-h.p. Gnome. 



74 



AEROXAUTICS 



September, 1011 



WHAT'S THE MATTER V/ITH AVIATION? 



PRINCIPAL manufacturers of aeroplanes 
and supplies, motors and accessories 
have been asked to contribute their 
views on the subject of Progress of 
Aviation in the United States. 

These articles will be printed in the order 
of their receipt. Some of them will be found 
below. 

The Chicago meet seems to have renewed 
hope in the breasts of those who, but a short 
time ago, were more or less pessimistic. In 
making- the request for contributions to this 
symposium several items were mentioned: — 
the lack of prizes for the stimulation of in- 
dividual effort or research, the losses sus- 
tained at meets, the harmful effect of inex- 
perienced aviators attempting- to give ex- 



By HUGO C. GIBSON, 

A. M. I. E., CHAIRMAN TECHNICAL BOARD 
AERONAUTICAL SOCIETY. 

Principally, that the whole industry is bred 
and fed upon Hot Air, and such support as it 
gets is obtained upon tlie basis of the pros- 
pects of unreasonable profits from tlie spec- 
tacular and death-invoking antics of untu- 
tored fledglings fired by the lust of desired 
approbation and unusual monetary reward; or, 
unusual, at least, for the class, who, in 
America, are mainly attracted to the new 
occupation. 

Profits are being made by some concerns 
engaged in the show, and perhaps in the 
accessory business; and such concerns are 
liable to be satisfied and say that aviation 
is a success here, but unprejudiced observers 
must confess to the really slight advance- 
ment that is being made. 

Aviation is a science, and for its advance- 
ment requires an army of scientific workers, 
not nerveless incompetents, nor high-strung, 
nerve-wracked scatterbi'ains; it is a serious 
business, and when tackled by serious minded 
engineers, who know how to select their de- 
signs, forms, material, methods and labor, and 
who are relieved from the necessity of pros- 
tituting their product by parsimonious econ- 
omy, it will become a standard money-mak- 
ing business in the provision of the many 
thousands of machines which will be used 
by sportsmen on land and water, by 
the farmers on the plains of the west, and 
eventually, as time becomes more precious, 
bv everyone who appreciates Euclid's defini- 
tion of a line, "The shortest distance between 
any two points." 

How will this be accomplished? Reg:ret fully 
I would predict that the method will be sim- 
ilar to that second-handed one which was nec- 
essary to give America its place in the auto- 
mobile industry— to copy the best product of 
the European continent. This will be done, 
of course. In fact, it is being done, but it is 
a precarious method, because the operator 
probably will not know why he does these 
things— he will just copy. At least, if copymg 
is to be done, let it be plain copying— no 
tassels on it. There are probably fifteen so- 
called copies of the Gnome engine being messed 
with in the States today. In each case the 
copyist's stock In trade wherewith he secured 
the necessary capital was "improvement," 
"double the horsepower," or some similar 
inordinate claim; quite unnecessary if the job 
is just copying. It might be thought from 
this that America has not the necessary initia- 
tive. That is not so. There is all the 
inventive and investigative initiation neces- 
sarv, but there is not the support nor encour- 
agement for the man of service, the man who 
would make two blades of grass grow where 
one grew before. The most lamentable in- 
.stance of this in late years is found m the 
futile efforts of the American inventor of the 
Knight engine, who was turned down cold all 
over America. Made a stupendous success ot 



hibitions contracted for by ambitious book- 
ing - agents and the obvious attempts at 
fraud, misleading advertisers, the scarcity of 
aeroplanes in the hands of amateur sports- 
men, the aeroplane-less aviation schools, 
stock-schemes, the scarcity of capital avail- 
able for investment, the great amounts of 
bad debts on the books due to over en- 
thusiasm and downright fraud on the part 
of buyers and unreasonable credit by sellers 
the general "tightness of money," and so 
^nn,7 .v,^^. ^^? ""'^^ suggested, parentheti- 
ifii ' I perhaps "you do not agree in the 

lack of progress and feel that we are moving 
as rapidly as can be expected." 

That some did not "agree" is evident. 



in England, it is now presented to American 
nened^'fh' ^' *'^^ greatest thing that evei hap- 
pened, the argument being based on the rep- 
tation ot its English backers, and the won- 
derful success they have made of it That 

liT^iSi^^hSt" '^"^" ^'""'^^"^^^ - ^---^ to 

Positively, the situation in America is con- 
tinuously made worse by the habit of finan- 
cial men relying solely on the word of the 
inventor, instead of consulting an engineer of 
broad experience, with the object of having 
the flaws in the story pointed out clearly and 
put up for discussion. Then again, mo.st in- 
ventors seem to find it necessary to represent 
their invention as a bonanza or get-rich- 
quick proposition. It practically never is. but 
the average American investor seems to need 
either a grilt-edKed security, or a 90-per-cent 
profit world-beater, and the inventor, misled 
by the scareheads of yellow journalism in ref- 
erence to "wizards of this or that," tries to 
live up to the situation, forgetting that our 
greatest scarehead wizard, Edison, makes his 
most impressive manifestations in investigat- 
ing and commercializing the inventions of 
others. 

That is the point. Get down to brass tacks 
by knowing what to do and how it is done. 
Be satisfied with reasonable returns. Don't 
spoil the ship for a haporth of tea. Make a 
reasonable investment and don't expect big re- 
turns in the first few months. 

My opinion is that the greatest cause of the 
present state of aviation in the United States 
is that Hot Air replaces basic knowledge. 

BY E. W. ROBERTS, 
V. P. ROBERTS MOTOR CO. 

Delay in aeronautical progress in the United 
States is due in a great measure to the in- 
ability of the aviator or builder who is just 
starting in the game to appreciate just what 
is needed to ensure successful flying. It has 
been my privilege to visit some of the great 
aviation fields of the country within the last 
few months as well as to view the Chicago 
Meet in its entirety. I have seen, as well, 
a number of amateur attempts of many 
curious kinds. 

One of the greatest mistakes made by the 
amateur, is in the clioice of his power plant. 
Like many a beginner in automobiles, his clioice 
is based more on price than on what the motor 
has really done. He installs one of these bar- 
gain-counter outfits and by the time he finds 
that he has been stung, he is out of funds and 
his friends are so di-sgusted at his attempts 
to fly that thev will lend him no aid. The 
number of American built motors tliat have 
really flown a dozen different aeroplanes can 
be counted on the fingers of one hand, and I 
doubt if all of the.-^e could be depended upon 
for a half-hour flight. 

Another cause of delay is the fact that many 
amateurs actuallv make contracts for exhibi- 
tions when their macliines are incomplete and 
neither they nor the machines have ever been 
in the aii\ They appear on the field, and 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



either get "cold feet" and fail to get off the 
ground, or meet with disaster. 

All these things delay progress, and fill 
the papers with exaggerated accounts of the 
"danger" of tlie aeroplane. As a matter of 
fact, Iiad there been a nine days' series of 
automobile racing similar to the Chicago Avia- 
tion Meet, it is likely that the death roll 
would have been at letust ten instead of two. 
It is a fact that there are few automobile ac- 
cidents that result in serious injury to the 
car itself without injury to occupants. Com- 
pare tills with accidents to aeroplanes. 

By Lyman J. Seely. 
PRES. ELBRIDGE ENGINE CO. 

Replying to your letter of the 2.5tli: It seems 
to me you have pretty nearly outlined the an- 
swer in your inquiry. 

There seems to be very little sporting in- 
terest in aviation in America. Except in very 
rare instances the machines are being built by 
men of little means wlio expect to reap a 
harvest from flying. As few of them have real- 
ly well-built machines, nor the time and money 
to properly learn to fly, they don't make any 
money; consequently they cannot pay those 
who have trusted them for materials or money. 
The great American "Bug-a-boo" is un- 
doubtedly the unsatisfactory status of the 
Wright patents. That keeps money out of the 
proposition. People are afraid to make invest- 
ments of any size. 

So far as juvenile interest is concerned, there 
is plenty of It. Rochester did practically no- 
thing last year because we had no flying 
field. This year the Aero Club secured a fair 
field and now there are eight of ten fairly 
good machines in almost daily use. By and 
by men with money may get interested and 
then we shall see something like Europe is 
seeing at the present moment. 

From the business standpoint the proposi- 
tion is paralleled by the tiny dog who has 
a large litter of pui^pies. She simply hasn't 
milk enough to nourish all of them. Some 
of them have to die off for lack of nutrition. 
Too many concerns are trying to make a big 
thing out of aviation in America. It isn't a 
big field as yet, so some of them are bound 
to get left. The business won't go 'round. 

The exhibition business is too frankly one of 
exploitation. The press-work and promises 
are overdone. The public has been led to ex- 
pect too much, and in consequence are dis- 
appointed and don't go a second time. 

Just the same, the game is a comer. The 
mushrooms will die off and a real business 
spring up. 

By Alfred J. Moisant. 
PRESIDENT THE MIJISANT INTERNA- 
TIONAL AVIATORS. 

The status of aviation in the United States 
has changed so rapidly in the last month 
that, whereas four weeks ago a great deal 
could have been written about "What's the 
matter with American aviation?", now one may 
truthfully answer that question with the one 
word, "Nothing." I have been in liusiness for 
thirty-five years and I cannot recall any time 
in my experience when any business or in- 
dustry made so complete a revolution from 
torpor to activity, from an indifferent condi- 
tion to one whose present presages a wonder- 
ful future, as has aviation in the United States 
in the past month. 

The one thing which has helped, perhaps 
most of all, to cretite this new situation is 
the Chicago meet. Organized on a sportsman- 
ship basis and carried out strictly on that line 
the support of the public and tlu' activities 
of the aviators competing there would seem 
to show that competition on a purely sport- 
ing basis, without guarantees of any kind, 



stimulates interest in the flying machine as 
no other means of exhibition can. Three or 
four meets more of the same high calibre and 
on the same non-guarantee basis as the Chi- 
cago meet, if they are held in this country 
between the present time and next summer, 
will do more to put aviation in the United 
States on the same high level as it is in Eu- 
rope than anything I know of. Clean com- 
petition always produces the best results, and 
only in non-guarantee meets can clean compe- 
tition be assured both to aviators and to spec- 
tators. 

I naturally take a great deal of pride in 
the fact that four licensed pilots have now- 
been graduated from the Moisant Aviation 
School at Garden City. With the exception of 
the Pau, Mourmelon, Buc, and Hendon schools 
in Europe, the Moisant institution has already 
turned out more pilots than anv other school 
in the world, although it has been in active 
operation for only two months. We have grad- 
uated four pilots this month and with good 
luck we shall have two more before the first 
of September. Now that there is in the United 
States a well-established and successful avia- 
tion school where anybody who desires to do 
so can learn how to fly, I believe the American 
public will very quickly take advantage of such 
an opportunity. 

Aviation in this country has been held back 
because there was, until our institution was 
formed, no place where the public could go 
to learn how to fly. We intend to establish in 
the very near future six more schools ex- 
actly like the one at Hempstead Plains, and 
I am now completing arrangements for four 
of these. 

To my mind there is nothing now the matter 
with American aviation. I could not have 
said that truthfully a month ago, but, as I 
have said, things have so changed in the last 
four weeks that I am glad not to be able to 
make such an answer correctly and sincerely. 



Eug'iue Horsei»o«er Tests. 

There seems to be rather a peculiar im- 
pression amongst some people engaged in 
the manufacture of motors in regard to the 
horsepovi^er of their product. In one case 
the "horsepower" is obtained by mounting 
the motor on a carriage and letting a pro- 
peller drag it along. The horsepower is 
then calculated by taking the thrust of the 
propeller multiplied by the R. P. M. and by 
the pitch of the propeller, all divided by 
33,000. That this gives the real horsepower 
is a matter for investigation, for there are 
so many losses that the power calculated in 
this way may be higher than the actual 
by as much as 20%. The power may be 
measured correctly, however, using a pro- 
peller. It would be necessary to measure 
the torque of the propeller. This times 
the R. P. M. divided by 33,000, will give the 
true power. 



Charles F. Walsh, one of California's first 
aviators, filling his first engagement under the 
direction of the Curtiss company, flew 37 min- 
utes at Sterling, 111. He is well booked up 
through Nebraska and western territory. He 
has discarded his old machine and is using 
a regular Curtiss exhibition machine as used by 
all the other aviators of the Curtiss Exbition 
Co. Twelve flyers are now busy filling dates: 
Lincoln Beacliey, James J. Ward, Hugh Roliin- 
son, C. C. Witmer, R. St. Henry, Beckwith 
Havens, Cromwell Dixon, l^lugene ICly. C^harles 
K. Hamilton, Charles P. Walsh, Earle L. 
Ovinglon. 



I do not know what I would do if It 
never came. Other aero magazines can not 
take the place of AERONAUTICS. 

H. L. Worley. 



76 



RRONAUTICS 



September, 1011 



DOES COLOR AFFECT AEROPLANES? 

By R. F. Patterson. 



THE effect of oolor upon the flight of 
aeroplanes is a subject which is never 
spoken of by constructors. Is it pos- 
sible that some of the builders con- 
sider color of such importance that their 
machines are turned out, one after another, 
all with the same colored material? Or 
is it just a matter of fancy, unconsidered 
as a factor aside from that? 

Most, if not all, of the foreign machines, 
and those of the Wright Brothers are white, 
or nearly so. The Wrights have gone 
even further, by not only using white sur- 
faces but by giving every uncovered part 
a bright aluminum finish. In the foreign 
machines the woodwork is generally given 
a coat of varnish or shellac which preserves 
the natural light color of the wood. 

It appears that the Wrights have taken 
color as quite an item, as their machines 
show. And have they not good reasons for 
this? 

Color seems a trifling matter but in these 
days of more or less experimenting with 
gasless machines, it is considered by all 



blacked sides, causing resistance and the fan 
is propelled away from the rays. Walk up to 
the window and allow your shadow to fall on 
this little instrument and it will immediately 
slow down and perhaps cease to revolve 
altogether. This is but one of the many 
ways of showing the resistance caused by 
the rays of the sun. This illustration is 
given for I constructed an apparatus after 
this principle in an effort to discover, if 
possible, the exact difference in resistance 
on black and on white surfaces. Unfor- 
tunately, the air currents (which are very 
numerous and almost continuous in Cali- 
fornia) interfered with my efforts and I 
am, therefore, unable to state definitely 
what the difference is in figures, though 
through these little experiments I was able 
to find quite a variation between the two 
surfaces. 

The contrivance consisted of a three-foot 
square surface fastened on a stick seven 
feet long by l^A inches thick. One side was 
covered with white cloth and the other side 



3-0 




///•/'/•/ '/'/'/' /• 7^ 



y / / / / / /■' /• >' 7^-7^ 



5C4L&5TO -Snov tf^p-E-CT Of^ 
SUM'S RjAY3 OHAURrACE-S 



/04^ 



that advantage must be taken of every 
possible assistance to get into and remain 
in the air with the least effort. 

All are endeavoring to cut down weight, 
or to add more surface, or to use material 
shaped to offer the least resistance to the 
air. Why not consider the sun"s rays, 
which, when resisted by a large surface, 
offer a proportionate repelling power? 

As a general rule, one will observe in an 
optician's window a small device, known 
as a "radiometer," which is used more to 
attract attention than anything else. It 
is composed of either a two- or four-bladed 
fan, placed on a needle point in a vacuum 
bulb; the blades on one side are usually 
quick-silvered and on the other, lamp- 
blacked. When this little device is placed 
in the sunlight it revolves very rapidly 
because of the sun's rays striking the lamp- 



with black fabric. Tnio was pivoted one- 
foot away from the square and was counter- 
balanced three feet further out by a pail 
of sand. After turning the white surface 
to the sun for some ten to fifteen minutes, 
and filling the pail with sand sutticiently to 
balance, the plane was then reversed and 
the black side faced the sun. At first it 
balanced perfectly but after some three or 
four minutes I was forced to either move 
the pail or put in more sand. 

Even on so small surface, the difference 
after fifteen minutes was either a whole 
handful of sand or a movement of the pail 
% of an inch towards the end of the stick. 

One could barely hold his hand on the black 
surface while the white surface retained its 
original cool temperature. One was able 
to see the heated air shimmering above the 
black side. For this reason preference is 



77 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1011 



given to white garments in tropical climates. 

The whole apparatus was rough and crude, 
yet even with this in a still atmosphere 
considerable data could be obtained by one 
so interested. 

It is a known fact that aeroplanes fly 
more easily on a dull day, even in a light 
rain, or early in the morning and in the 
dusk of the evening, than when the sun is 
shining brightly. It is a mistaken belief 
that air is heavier during rain. If such were 
true, why does the mercury drop in a baro- 
meter and force the liquid in the other tube 
upward, had it the usual counterweight or 
heavy atmosphere? This is a simple form 
of expressing the difference. 

High altitudes, thus far, have been ac- 
complished in "white" aeroplanes, even 
though some of them have had less power- 
ful engines to drive them upwards than 
the faster colored machines, and therefore, 
were simply "nursed along" until the atmos- 
phere became so cold that the discomfort 
of the aviators forced them to descend, or 
because of the possibility of the engines' 
freezing, as the machines were still capable 
of climbing higher. 



The question is, can a dark 'plane with 
the same construction throughout do as well 
on a sunny day? 

Another test! Place a black and white 
cloth side by side on the snow in the sun. 
No matter how cold the day, the snow will 
melt slowly around the edges of the white 
clotii and if left long enough a pile of snow 
would be left standing the shape of the 
cloth. The black cloth will gradually sink 
into the snow and eventually all the snow 
underneath will melt, leaving a hole the 
size of the cloth. Small pieces of soot will 
do likewise, owing to its blackness. 

Someone will probably suggest that all 
birds are not white. It is probable that Na- 
ture seeks rather protection from foes than 
aljsolute efficiency of movements. The 
chameleon changes its color to that on which 
it rests, making it almost impossible of de- 
tection by its natural foes. Nevertheless, 
most of the arctic and antarctic birds and 
animals are snow^-white. 

Believing, however, that color is a factor 
to be considered with aeroplanes, the writer 
humbly submits this subject to those inter- 
ested in the hope that others may experi- 
ment in the effort to advance aviation and 
make it safer, surer and more popular. 



STRESSES DUE TO DIVING OR SWOOPING 



IN view of recent accidents frequently as- 
cribed to the overstraining of the 
machine by the sudden dips and swoops 
that are practiced by some aviators, it 
might be well to call attention to the con- 
ditions of overload that exist. 

The following table has been computed 
by Dr. A. F. Zahm, in order to show clearly 
the stresses that are set up in an aeroplane 
while doing these spectacular stunts. 

It is obvious that the greatest stress in the 
machine occurs at the bottom of a swoop, if 



Velocit.v V, 

of the 

Aeroplane. 




Kadius of Curvature, R. 



ion Ft. 


200 Ft. 


300 Ft. 


400 Ft. 


500 Ft. 


Weight. 


Weight. 


Weight 


Weiglit. 


Weight. 


0.41 


0.20 


0.14 


0.10 


0.08 


0.73 


0.36 


0.24 


0.18 


0.15 


1.14 


0.Q7 


0.38 


0.28 


0.23 


1.64 


l!ll 


0.55 


0.41 


0.33 


2.23 


0.74 


0.56 


0.45 


2.91 


1.45 


0.97 


0.73 


0.58 


3.68 


1.84 


1.23 


0.92 


0.74 


4.5.5 


2.27 


1.52 


1.J4 


0.91 



the machine be made to rebound on a sharp 
curve. The total force acting on the planes 
may be found from the table, if V and R be 
known, by adding unity to the figures given, 
then multiplying by the weight of the ma- 
chine. For example, with a speed on the 
swift descent of 60 miles per hour, and a 
radius of curvature 200 feet at the end of 
the descent, the total force on the sustaining 
surface would be 1.82 times the weight of the 
machine. 



there might be mentioned the Argus, made 
in 50 and 100 horse-power types; the Daim- 
ler, whicli lias made a big name for itself 
through the prize winnings of Helmut Hirth, 
in his Rumpler-Etrich: and the rotary motor 
Hoffnaan, largely used at the moment, in 
50, 100 and 120 h. p. sizes. 

Flying in Germany is under the control 
of the great federation of aero clubs and 
scientific organizations devoted to aero- 
nautics, numbering thousands of members. 
The most prominent club is the Frankfort 
Aviation Club, which own two flying ma- 
chines largely used by the members. 



Tlie performances of Hugli A. Robinson's 
hydro- aeroplane, was one of the big sen- 
sations of the meet. Rising from the aviation 
field Robinson woukl .soar in the air. ali^'lit in tlie 
water, skim along its surface and mount again 
to the clouds in a most thrilling manner. He 
takes absolutely no regard as to wliether liis 
wings are wet or dry, wlietlier they are ex- 
posed to the sun or wind, or to what effect the 
elements may have on them. This is because 
the Goodyear fabric is so made that under no 
conditions will it warp, crack or lose its shape. 
Witliout such a material a hydro-aeroplane 
would be no better than a butterfly, fit only for 
one or two flights, for water, sun and wind 
would quickly ruin an ordinary rubber cloth. 



Aeroplanes Calculated 

and Designed 



Aviation in Germany is making rapid 
strides. Within the past year a number of 
big cross country events have been held, 
as well as many flying meetings and con- 
tests. It is possible that Germany may 
soon overtake France in this spoi-t and 
science. Aviation has interested the very 
best of German engineers and mechanics 
and in the building of motors have notable 
advances been made. At the present time 



PATENTS INVESTIGATED 

Grover Cleveland Loening, b.sc, a.m., c.e. 

Consulting Engineer on Aviation 
ADDRESS 

82 East 77th Street - - New York 



7? 



AI'RONAUTICS September, 1911 

THE BURGESS-CURTIS "BABY" 



IN the " Baby " or Model E. biplane built 
by the Burgess Company and Curtis, 
of Marblehead, Mass., for C. Grahame- 
White, though in general appearance 
resenabling closely a Farnian, there are 
many structural features, and those of de- 
sign, also, which vary from its larger 
prototype. ' 

It has become noted for its fine construc- 
tion and for the speed developed by it in 
flights made w^ith it first in England by 
James V. Martin and C. G. White, who or- 
dered six of them during his visit to Amer- 
ica last fall. Martin has made a number of 
fast cross country flights with it and was 
entered in the European Circuit race, when 
he decided to return to this country. He 
brought baclv with him a Burgess Baby and 
flew it at Nassau before taking it to the 
Chicago meet. 

Main Supportinf/ Planes. These are built In 
three sections, the two outer ones being 
easily detachable at the points where the 
elevator and tail spars join the main lat- 
eral beams. Extensions of the upper plane 
are provided which increase the spread to 
36 ft. 10 inches, which enables the carrying 
of a passenger. The rib curve has a depth 
of 2%", located 1' 5" back from the front 
edge. On the ground the angle of inci- 
dence is 12° 20'; the flying angle, 6° 50'. 
The ribs are screwed to the lateral spars, 
which vary in cross-section, both upper and 
lower. Those in front are rectangular 
(cross-section), measuring 11/2" deep by IVz" 
thick in way of engine and seat; li/4" by 
1%" in the middle body section and 1" by IVi 
In the wings. The rear spars are 1%" by 1%" 
in the middle and 1" by I14 for the wings. 
All are solid spruce, the three lengths being 
connected by ferrules. 

The struts are fish-shaped, of solid spruce, 
attached to the main spars by steel sockets. 

Roebling solid plated "Aviator" wire, Nos. 
10, 12, 14 and 16 is used for staying the 
cells. These guy wires are attached by eyes 
to eyebolts and are tightened by means of 
turnbuckles attached to eyes in the wires, 
which are secured by small copper sleeves. 

Goodyear No. 6 aeroplane fabric is used in 
a single layer and attached to the spars by 
pockets in the cloth. 

Elevators. Single plane, double covered ele- 
vators are front and rear, as usual, working 
in conjunction. The elevators have their 
uppei- surfaces curved, the under, fiat. A 
single lever, moved forward or backward 
operates these, or the Burgess "gate con- 
trol" may be used, as originally fitted to 
the machine. Instead of a single vertical 
lever to control both the elevators and the 
ailerons, the pilot holds a horizontal wooden 
link which connects two vertical levers, one 
each of the boat-shaped body in which he 
sits. This allows him to be protected from 
the wind and there is little opportunity for 
fouling the control cables. Another advan- 
tage, either hand may be used. This boat- 
shaped body is covered with fabric and is 
provided with a seat for a passenger. 

Rudders. These are similar to the regular 
Farman, hinged to the struts of the biplane 
tail. The operating wires run to a steel 
tube yoke which forms, also, a foot rest. 

Supplementary Fixed Surfaces. A fixed bi- 
plane lifting tail is employed, at upper rear 
edge of which is hinged the rear elevator. 



For passenger carrying, extensions are fitted 
to the outer extremities of the upper main 
supporting surface, each held rigid by four 
stay-wires, two of which are connected to 
tops of two masts erected on the outer- 
most box rib of the upper surface, and the 
other two are attached to eyebolts at the 
extremities of the lower wing proper. 




Burgess " Baby' 



79 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 




BURG 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 





J 









,- 1 ^ 










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- 


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- 










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HK^ 




E>U"R,SEi5^-GUFa-TlSi i O -4 O 



(PLANE 



81 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



StahiUfii. This is secured by ailerons 
hinged to the rear lateral beams, of both 
planes, and they are operated by a lateral 
movement of the gate control. These ailerons 
extend out beyond the rear edge of the 
planes. Where the operating wire turns 



beams. A rear skid supports the tail and 
is supplied with a flexible joint and rubber 
spring. 

Poner Plani. Bosch-equipped Gnome en- 
gines have thus far been used, with the 
propeller between the engine and the mount- 





e# OP- ■ -- ■■ R 1 fc 







TnDOu&n ^^ 

E>tnT COPPER- PIPE: VJMlCri 
13 Bi:v;ZtD O/M-STftL PLATCt 



rof^e 



corners, it goes through copper tubings. The 
ribs of the ailerons are light, solid, box and 
"T," covered in same manner as the main 
surfaces. 

Uunninij Oear. Usual Parman type. The 
lower plane is much nearer the ground than 
in the big machine, which is made possible 
by placing the propeller high up. The skids 
ai;e of ash, with ash struts running froin 
the steel sockets up to the main lateral 



ing, placed midway between the planes, giv- 
ing a liigh center of thrust. The Chauviere 
propeller is used turning at 1,200 R.P.M. 

General Information. Spruce has been em- 
ployed almost entirely throughout the ma- 
chine, ash being used only for tlie skids and 
their struts and the struts of the central cell 
of the planes. Sheet steel sockets ai-e used 
all over the machine. 



MAY CROSS ATLANTIC. 



Hugh A. Robinson, one of Curtiss' star 
aviators, has announced his intention of at- 
tempting a tran.satlantic flight with one of 
the Curtiss hydroaeroplanes, in the Spring 
of 1912. Arrangements are being made for 
the financing of the trip and for boats to 
be stationed along the route with supplies 
of gasoline and oil, and a duplicate engine. 

Flights with the "triad" recently at Se- 
attle, in very rough water, says Mr. Rob- 
inson, assures a creditable possibility of 
success during favorable ocean weather. 
The present triad can carry oil and gas for 
eight or ten hours' straight flying and even 
might carry another ;. viator along with 
whom to alternate while resting or taking 
food. 

Robinson had a thrilling experience at 



the anniversary cfh-l)rat i<ui of the founding 
of Astoria, Ore., on Aug 24th, with the Cur- 
tiss hydroaeroplane. Robinson made sev- 
eral beautiful flights the day before and 
was just starting out again in very rough 
water when his propeller struck a large 
wave and broke. One piece of it cut a large 
hole in the float which partially filled with 
water and the aei-oplane turned over back- 
wards and floated upside down. Robinson 
refused to leave his machine and, perched 
on top of the upturned float, directed the 
towing of the disabled craft to the side of 
the launching barge. It was finally raised 
out of the water and found to be in good 
shape, but he had not enough extra parts 
and could not continue flights. The acci- 
dent occurred directly in front of the grand 
stand and aroused great excitement. 



83 



AERONAUTICS 

AVIATION 



September, 1911 

SCHOOLS'' 



By G rover F. Sextou. 

SECRETARY, AERO CLUB OP ILLINOIS. 



Aviation " Expert " Arraigned — 

"E. Maynard Harrison, who says he is 
an army officer, and who was arrest- 
ed in Detroit by federal agents, 
charged witli swindling would-be 
aviators by a mail scheme, was 
brought to Chicago yesterday. He 
was arraigned before United States 
Commissioner Marl< A. Foote and 
waived examination. His bond was 
fixed at $1,000." 

Press Clipping. 



THAT many aeroplane "schools" give to 
students nowhere near what they ad- 
vertise and promise is the much modi- 
fied substance of a very strong remark 
recently made by a man who had conducted 
more than a casual investigation into the 
aero school situation. How far was he from 
the truth? 

The answer in some instances is found in 
the files of the United States secret service 
bureau of the department of justice and in 
the records of postal officials. Here and 
there a school, so-called, has sprung up 
with wide acclaim (paid for at space rates) 
— but its demise and disappearance never 
is recorded. 

An investigation by the writer into tnt 
aeroplane school situation has convinced him 
that one of the first and gi'eatest aids aero- 
nautical bodies could extend to the world 
of aviation would be to clean out the fraud- 
ulent institutions, whether they be defraud- 
ing through malice or ignorantly. These 
work chiefly by advertising what they can- 
not deliver and taking froin hundreds of 
clerks, bell-boys, young mechanics and far- 
mers' sons their hard-earned funds, which 
the latter have invested believing they 
would be placed upon the golden highway 
of fortune supposed to be traversed by all 
aeroplane pilots. 

I found schools advertising a correspond- 
ence course to teach a man to fly; all hold- 
ing out alluring lists of prizes said to be 
offered, naost of which now are mythical; 
several arranging "booking courses" for 
their "graduates;" all advertising "shop 
courses" and immediate flying lessons; at 
least one of these latter did this without 
having a machine: one advised students they 
would be helped by an "inside influence" to 
get a job in a new department of Uncle 
Sam's army. 

Advertisements tell the neophite he should 
start at once, learn by the correspondence 
course how to fly and then come on, learn 
how to build a machine in the shops and 
get practical flying. The shop course 
attempts in a month to inake of clerks, 
bell-boys, etc., finished carpenters and ex- 
pert builders in an art in which the leaders 
openly admit tlieir advances have been only 
in the genesis. The school, by the way, 
plans to sell the machines the boys have 
paid to learn how to build. 

Usually students have not been given 
prompt flying lessons in the field — some have 
been given none. Most of the students have 
waited weeks and months and then many of 
them have come to oiir office and asked 
what they could do, and how they could 
actually learn to fly. No less than fifty 
such inquiries have been received. 

One school, so-called, until the federal 
authorities arrested the alleged imposter, ad- 
vertised as a member of its staff, a "lieuten- 



ant in the United States army," who would 
help students into the army in fine posi- 
tions if they finished in this school. This 
man had a pilot license issued to another 
man, and with his name w,.itten- under- 
neath it. The "lieutenant" is under arrest. 

One school owner admitted he was inno- 
cently defrauding students. 

"I can't give them what I advertised," he 
said; "I thought I could. This shop course 
stuff is all rot. The plan is wrong. I want 
to get out, clean up, sell what I have got, 
pay the boys back who have been hit, and 
stay away from it." 

The investigation leads the writer to two 
conclusions, for work for the aeronautical 
world: 

First, clean up the fraudulent schools — 
drive them out of business by federal pro- 
secutions and publicity. 

Second, encourage actual flying schools 
along an intelligent method of doing what 
the name implies — teaching flying. 

Along this last line, I submit for consid- 
eration the conclusion I have reached for a 
successful school: 

Divide the work into three parts: corres- 
pondence, handiwork and flying depart- 
ments. 

Advertise the correspondence course for 
just what it is — simply a plan to teach the 
learner why an aeroplane flies and some- 
thing of the principle of the cambered wing 
and propeller: the laws of the air as to re- 
sistance; all this w'ith the clear understand- 
ing it will not tell him how to fly, but why 
a machine does fly. 

The handiwork course at the school should 
devote a couple of days to teaching the 
student how to assemble and take apart 
a machine; how to inake sound wire splices 
and joints, little handy things in the way 
of adjustment, etc. A day might be used 
in going over arrangement of stresses, etc., 
and how to stretch fabric and pt^tch it. Ten 
days more, finishing the course, should be 
devoted to instruction in the "art" of run- 
ning a gasoline motor, till the student is 
sick of the words, "poppet valve, carbure- 
tion," and the like. 

The field course? One machine, built heavy 
and strong against serious breakage, good 
for 1,000 feet jumps and one turn ONLY, 
will take cai-e of twenty students, each 
worked five to ten minutes every morning, 
going ahead slowly, and starting with a 
fiight as a passenger for several trips in 
every instance. By degrees they will learn 
to turn to right and left. 

Equipment ought to be bought outright. 
A "school" that cannot afford this hasn't 
much back of it. If the school desires to 
operate a light flyer for tests for aviation 
pilot licenses, that could next be taken up. 

When it has worked its students through 
the course suggested, they will not know 
how to build an aeroplane, probably, but 
they will know why it flies and how to fly- 
it, and that is all they want to know to 
start in pursuit of that golden reward. 

Above all, the school should be absolutely 
frank and aboveboard with its students. A 
modest beginning will not militate against 
it in getting students if it tells them just 
what they can get and gives it to them, 
and soon it will leave behind its blatant 
"competitors." 

If it is desired to build aeroplanes — build 
them, but do it with skilled workmen, not 
boys and clerks. 

In conclusion, I would like to suggest 
that persons contemplating' taking up a 
course in aviation make inquiry of former 
pupils it has in mind, and compare its plan 
with this I have suggested. This, I think, 
will be the most effective in putting an end 
to the frauds being perpetrated daily. 



83 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 




View of Army Sheds at College Park. The Wright machine is shown at the left, the Bur- 
gess-Wright next and the Curtiss third. Cop/iriijlit hy G. ^'. Buck, Wushingluu, D. C. 

MILITARY AVIATION 



The U. S. Army Aviation Squad at College 
Park has settled down more or less to a 
matter of routine. The aviators so far are 
Lieut. T. de W. Milling, handling the Bur- 
gess-Wright; Lieut. Harry N. Arnold, the 
straight Wright. Both these men were trained 
at the Wright factory. They have in turn 
trained Capt. Chas. de Forest Chandler, and 
Lieut. R. C. Kirtland. Capt. Chandler is now 
at the Wright camp at Dayton officially, to 
inspect aeroplanes and for further training. 

The longest cross country Hight that has 
been made from the camp, is to Frederick, Md., 
by Arnold and Chandler, 41 miles air line, 
to visit the National Guard camp there. Re- 
turning that night. Chandler broke up the ma- 
chine, landing at Gaithersburg. It has been 
repaired. 

Capt. Paul W. Beck is flying an eight cyl- 
inder Curt-iss. He attended the Chicago meet 
on furlough. Lieut. Frank M. Kennedy, 10th 
Inf., is to be the first Curtiss pupil. Of course, 
there is a g-ood deal of rivalry between the 
Wright and Curtiss men. 

The two Navy aeroplanes, one Curtiss "triad" 
and one Wright machine are expected at An- 
napolis by September l.st. The work of the 
Navy in aeronautics, under the charge of 
Captain W. I. Chambers, is entirely indepen- 
dent of the fleet operations, despite the news- 
paper stories to the effect of aeroplanes to 
be tried out at the fleet maneouvres at Prov- 
incetown during August. However, Captain 
Chambers hopes to sandwich in some stunts 
when the opportunity offers. The assembled 
fleet has been doing target practice at kites 
and the Board of Ordnance has been urged 
to conduct an investigation in the subject of 
guns for repelling aerial attacks or frustrat- 
ing aeroplane reconnoitering. This is still 
in the experimental stage. 

The ol)ject aimed at by Captain Chambers, 
is the development of the naval aeroplane 
to the position of ship equipment and tlien 
assign one or two aeroplanes to cacli ship, 
just as life boats are part and parcel of the 
outfit. 

NEW U. S. AEROPLANE GUN. 

The Bureau of Ordnance, Navy Department, 
for some time has been experimenting with 
a gun capable of being sighted thrt)UKh an 



extreme number of degrees for high angle 
firing. The first photograph is herewith shown 
of the new gun, just tested at the Indian Head 
Proving Ground. 



. c 







The Navy's High Angle Aero Gun 



Tlie gun used was an ordnance service one- 
pounder, on a mount especially designed to 
permit of firing at liigh angles without dam- 
age to the mount due to the excessive recoil. 
The cylinder seen on top of the gun is the 
recoil cylinder which is ordinarily carried under 
tile gun, but was in this case placed on top 
so that it would not interfere with giving 
liigh angles of elevation to tlie gun. The 
remaining parts of the mount sliown in the 



84 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



photograph, aie those ordinarily used witli a 
tliree inch gun. 

Tlie recent experiments at Indian Head were 
purely for the purpose of determining whether 
the mount as designed was sufflciently strong 



to withstand the shock of vertical firing. The 
experiments were entirely successful and the 
infoimation gained from them will be used 
in the further development of the service gun 
of this type, and, perhaps, in bringing out 
three and four-pounders. 



NEW 2-MAN AMERICAN ALTITUDE 
RECORD. 

The American 2-man altitude record of 3,0S0 
ft. made by George W. Beatty, in his new 
Wright biplane on August 5, was the first re- 
cord to be established at the grounds of the 
Aero Club of New York. Beatty had only just 
finished a two-weeks' course with A. L. Welsh, 
the veteran Wright instructor, who taught W. 
Redmond, Cross, Edson P. Gallaudet, Wm. C. 
Beers, the first of America's long hoped for 
amateur sportsmen flyers. 

On Aug. 6, Beatty made his second cross- 
country flight, over to Long Beach with a 
young lady, Miss O'Hagen. Here he landed 
on the sand of the beach. Taking up another 
passenger for a flight over the ocean, he ex- 
perienced considerable trouble in starting and 
had to run along the wet sand close to the edge 
of the water, narrowly escaping the wetting of 
his planes. This was repeated, though he wet 
his tail in getting off, wiien he started back to 
Nassau with Miss O'Hagen. The night before 
he flew with a passenger to Long Beacli and 
out over the ocean returning in the dark. The 
trip lasted l^A hours. This was the flight in 
which he made the new 2-man altitude record. 

A goodly number have gained pilot certificates 
at Nassau, whose names are given elsewhere 
in this issue. 

The weekly matinees of the A. C. of N. Y., 
have been omitted of late as the aviators there 
have lieen flying at Chicago and Boston. 
NEW McCURDY AEROPLANE 

J. A. D. McCurdy, is back from Chicago with 
a new machine illustrated herewith: 

A detailed description of this will shortly ap- 
pear in AERONAUTICS. Its speed is over 51 
miles an hour on a circular course. 

This is the same type of machine that Mr. 
McCurdy used in the Chicago meet, one of 
which was burned when it came in contact with 
a live wire and was built to Mr. McCurdy's desisu by 
the Queen Aeroplane Co. 

Dock Wildman, one of the new finds of the 
McCurdy-AYillard Company, gives promise of 
becoming one of America's foremost aviators. 
His performance at Nassau Boulevard recently, 
in the rain, with this new machine was nothing 
short of marvellous. J. A. D. McCurdy and 
Dock Wildman have entered two of these ma- 
chines in the Louisville Aero Derby. 



GORDON BENNETT BALLOON RACE. 

The following teams are expected to start 
from Kansas City, on October 5th in the 
international balloon race: 

Germany- — Ing. Hans Gericke, Lieut. Vogt, 
both contestants in the last race held in 
this country, and Freiherr von Pohl. 

Prance — Alfred Leblanc, Emile Dubonnet 
and Welby Jourdan. 

United States — Lieut. Prank P. Lahm, 
John Berry and Wm. P. Assmann. 

The Aero Club of America has made it 
obligatory that the American team be pro- 
vided with rubberized fabric balloons, by 
reason of the fact that the trophy, if won 
by the home team this year, will remain 
forever in the United States, as the property 
of the Aero Club, as it has been already 
won twice in succession by representatives 
of tlie United States. 

Lieut. Lahm has been awarded the Aero 
Ciub's gold medal, in recognition of his 
victory in 1906, whereas, all subsequent 
winners have been awarded medals here- 
tofore. 

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION CUP. 

Henry A. W. Wood has been named a 
committee of one to take up with American 
manufacturers the subject of the defense 
of this cup, in 1912 and "will be pleased 
to hear at any time from those already 
thinking of building machines for next 
year's race. Let it be hoped that his efforts 
to induce American builders to compete 
may be directed in such lines as to bring 
results this time. 

$100,000 FOR 2867-IVIILE FLIGHT— MAYBE? 

President Collier, of the San Diego (Cal.) 
Elxposition in 1913, and president of the 
San Diego Aero Club, with John D. Sprec- 
kle.s, the Californian sugar king, both the 
"whole show" in the exposition, is endeav- 
oring to raise a fund of $100,000 for the 
first aeroplane flight from the Panama Canai 
to San Diego after the opening of the 
exposition. It is planned that the aero- 
plane carry a photograph of the first vessel 
to navigate the canal, which photogaph 
would be sold at a high figure to a Pa- 
cific Coast newspaper. A prize of $10,000 




New McCurdy Headless Biplane 
8i5 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



has been offei-ed by the exposition company 
and negotiations are in progress with Mex- 
ico and Central American countries, with 
the expectation of bringing the amount up 
to $75,000 or $100,000. The distance in a 
direct airline is at least 2867 miles, over 
the snow-clad peaks of IMexico's old vol- 
canoes and the Sierra Madre range of sky- 
puncturing ridges. 

A route Ijnight be followed along the 
coast, which would increase the mileage tre- 
mendously. However, the prize can not be 
taken seriously as yet, for like all other 
aero club presidents, with two or three 
exceptions, Mr. Collier is not up on aero- 
nautics, either aerostation or aviation. 

NEW PILOTS. 

There are now 57 pilots who liave regis- 
tered witli the Aero Club of America, and the 
latest who have obtained certificates are given 
below, with place and date of final test. Num- 
bers are not assigned until license fee, photo- 
graph, and details as to birth, etc., have been 
furnislied. 

33 Harry N. Atwood (Burgess-Wright, Gov- 

ernors Island, July 3rd and College Park, 
Md July 13th, 1911. 

34 Lee Hammond (Baldwin), Nassau Boule- 

vard, L. I., July 24th. 

35 W. Redmond Cross (Wright), Nassau Boule- 

vard, L. I July 27th. 

36 William Badger (Baldwin), Mineola, L. I., 

July 30th. 

37 Harriet Quimby (Moisant), Mineola, L. I., 

August 1st. 

38 Ferdinand B. de Murias (Moisant), Mineola, 

L. I., August 1st. 

39 Capt. Paul W. Beck (Curtiss), College Park, 

Md August 3rd. 

40 William C. Beers (Wright), Nassau Boule- 

vard, L. I August 4th. 

41 George W. Beatty (Wright), Nassau Boule- 

vard, L. I., August 4th. 

42 Hugh Robinson (Curtiss), Nassau Boulevard, 

L. I., August 4th. 

43 Cromwell Dixon (Curtiss), Nassau Boule- 

vard, L. I August 6th. 

44 Matilde Eleanor Moisant (Moisanj;), Mineo- 

la, N. Y., August 13th. 

45 Lieut. Roy Carrington Kirtland (Wright), 

College Park, Md., August 10th. 

46 Oscar Allen Brindley (Wright), Dayton, O., 

August 3rd. 

47 Leonard Warden Bonney (Wright), Dayton, 

Ohio August 3rd. 

48 Lieut. John Rodgers (Wright), Dayton, O., 

August 3rd. 

49 C. P. Rodgers (Wright), Dayton, C, 

August 7th. 

50 Andrew Drew (Wright), Dayton, O., 

August 8th. 

51 Louie Mitchell (Wright), DaytoU: O., 

August 8th. 

52 James J. Ward (Curtiss), Chicago, 111., 

August 11th. 

53 Charles C. Witmer (Curtiss), Chicago, 111., 

August 15th. 

54 Shakir S. Jerwan (Moisant), Mineola, N. Y., 

August 26th. 

55 Norman Prince (flying name: Geo. W. Man- 

ner), (Wright-Burgess), Boston, Mass., 
August 29th. 

56 Glenn L. Martin (Curtiss), Los Angeles, Cal., 

57 Paul Peck (Rex Smith), AVashington, D. C. 
Capt. Charles De F. Chandler, IT. S. Army, 

and Chailes F. Walsh, of California, will both 
shortly undertake the tests. 

Beryl Joseph Williams, of Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia, wishes to pass his license tests at 
Santa Ana. Eugene Heth (Wright) has also 
applied for a license. H. H. Brown (Wright) 
and Beckwith Havens (Curtiss) also are ready 
for their tests. 



THE BOSTON MEET. 

The Boston Meet, Aug. 26. — Sept. 4, met 
with bad weather after the first day, and fly- 
ing had to be postponed to Sept. 1. C. G. 
white (Nieuport and Farman) took most of 
the money the opening day. His Nieuport, 
the first to be seen in the States, attracted 
a lot of attention. 

Very little interest has been shown in the 
affair. White, Sopwith, Coffyn and Atwood 
are taking up passengers at $50 a flight. 

The following aviators are present: — 

C. G. White (Nieuport and Farman); T. O. 
M. Sopwith (Wright and Bleriot) ; Geo. W. 
Beatty (Wright); Eugene Ely (Curtiss); 
Lincoln Beachey (Curtiss); Arthur Stone 
(Queen); J. V. Martin (Burgess "Baby"); H. 
W. Gill (Burgess-Wright) ; F. T. Coffyn (Bur- 
gess-Wright) ; H. N. Atwood (Burgess- 
Wright); Earle L. Ovington (Curtiss & 
Bleriot). 

CALLS ON CURTISS BY 'PLANE. 

Walter Johnson, who has been quietly do- 
ing some exhibition work the past year with 
one of the headless biplanes made by the 
Thomas Brothers, of Bath, N. Y., made a fly- 
ing trip, cross-country the first part of 
August and called on Glenn Curtiss at Ham- 
mondsport. 

He wasn't exactly expected at the Curtiss 
factory, but like the flea, he got there just 
the same. Starting from the Kirkham factory 
at Savona, some 18 miles to the southward, 
by route, where a new 6 cylinder 50 li. p. 
Kirkham engine has been installed, he flew 
along the railroad to Bath, where he turned 
north. Here he picked up the little single 
track railroad, over which a train makes fre- 
quent trips — every time a new Curtiss aero- 
plane is shipped — and followed its winding 
course between the vineyard clad hills to the 
shore of Lake Keuka. For five miles of the 
route there is nothing to land upon but a 
rocky creek, the railroad and thousands of 
poles with clinging grapevines. Two days 
later he flew back with the wind behind him 
at 70 miles an hour. 

The Hammondsport county is the Rheims 
of Ainerica. Like the Rheims of France, it 
is a champagne center as well as an aviation 
center; in fact, there is even a little town 
nearby called Rheims. What's that? Oh, is 
it on the map? Yes indeed! (You bet!) Cur- 
tiss and Kirkham have made it excell in avia- 
tion as their forefathers did in the revivi- 
scence of spirits. 



BOY MISSING 

Donald Renwick disappeared 
from Conesus Lake, N. Y., Tues- 
day night, August 8th. He is 16 
years old, weighs about 118 lbs., 
5 feet 6 inches tall, of slender 
build, has light hair which he 
brushed straight back, high 
forehead, blue eyes and dark 
eyebrows; was deeply tanned. 
In conversation uses excellent 
English. 

He is intensely interested in 
aeronautics, and is conversant 
on this subject. When last seen 
he wore long yellow khaki 
trousers, a swimming shirt, and 
was without coat or hat. 

Any information regarding the 
whereabouts of this boy, or 
which may lead to his recovery, 
should be communicated by wire 
to his father, 

C. J. RENWICK, 
508 Prudential Building, 

Buffalo N. Y. 



Received sample copy and like noiir niai/a.ziite 
very much. Inclosed find M. O. for a year's sub- 
scription. — W. W. Swan. 



/ could not do uitliout your )iia!;a.:iue. — Kucexe 

G. RlGGS. 



86 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 




AERONAUTICAL, MANUFACTURERS 
ASSOCIATION 

Meeting September 18. 

Members of the Aeronautical Manufac- 
turers Association, representatives and non- 
members are requested to attend Its second 
general meeting to be held, St-pteniber 18, Satiir'iay 
niaht, at the Hotel Cumberl uid. Broadway and altii 
Str.et, New York, at 8 o'clock, P. M. 

Now that vacations are over, cool weather 
is forecasted with usual Weather Bureau 
accuracy and aviation concerns and those 
concerned in aviation are getting back to 
earth, members are being urged to buckle 
down to work. During the summer the by- 
laws have been printed and distributed and a 
m.ajority of the business houses have been in- 
vited to join. Many have already accepteA 
and it is hoped that the coming meeting will 
have a goodly attendance, in order that the 
work may be prosecuted by those best fitted. 
Owing to the short notice, many were unable 
to attend the organization meeting. Out-of- 
town manufacturers and dealers are re- 
quested to make a special effort to come to 
New York on this date. 

WESTERN ASSOCIATION FORMED. 

The magazine "Aviation" has been able to 
form a concrete body on the Coast under the 
name Western Aeronautical Association. Its 
members include the Hall-Scott Motor Car 
Co., Eames Tricycle Co., Shaffer Aviation Co., 
Eaton Brothers, Gage Aviation School, Dosh 
Aeroplane Co. and the Aeronautical Society of 
California. Meetings have been scheduled in 
Los Angeles and San Francisco. This or- 
ganization will co-operate with the Eastern 
body in the establishment of aviation at a 
fixed angle, in the elimination of frauds and 
fraudulent concerns, in the standardization of 
certain material, and in maintenance of rea- 
sonable prices. 

The meeting, as stated before, is at the 
Hotel Cumberland. New York. September 18. Please 
put this on your calendar. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

VEHICLES OF THE AIR, Third Edition, 
by Victor Lougheed, 500 pp., 270 ills., 8 vo., 
cloth, published by Reilly & Britton, at 
$2.75 postpaid. Subjects treated in this 
new enlarged and revised edition are: The 
Atmosphere, Properties and Characteristic&, 
At Rest, In Motion, Meteorology, Winds, 
etc. ;^Dirigible Balloons, with draw^ings 
and photographs illustrating every type, 
their construction and all matters relat- 
ing thereto; — Flying Machines of the va- 
rious classes, with a history of the devel- 
opment of aviation; — Aeroplane Details, 
covering the various types of aeroplanes, 
taking up in careful detail the arrange- 
ment of surfaces, sustentation, balancing, 
steering and controlling, with full sketches 
and halftones of principal systems, scale 
drawings of the best known machines, and 
their details; — Propulsion, with thirty pages 
of data on propellers, mounting, efficiency, 
forms, etc.; — Power Plants, taking up the 
mounting, cooling, ignition, carburetion, 
and smaller details, as well as the subject 
of the transmission of the power; — Bear- 
ings is another chapter which covers thor- 
oughly the subject of engine bearings; — 
Lubrication is the next important item 
to be discussed and this subject is exhaust- 
ively gone into;- — Starting and Alighting is 
a chapter which takes up the actual flying 



of the machine, while Materials and Con- 
struction . and Accessories are covered in 
further sections of the work. A tabulated 
chronological history of aviation tSkes up 
a number of pages, beginning with the re- 
ported flights of the Middle "Ages through 
fw., "'■''* fledgling attempts of the twen- 
tieth century to the present period of 
astounding accomplishments in aerial loco- 
motion. Lougheed's book was the first of i?s 
kind to be brought to the attention of the 
aeronautical field, and has held since a po- 
sition m aeronautics comparable to Kent 
in engineering. This new edition, just fin- 
ished, can be secured from the office of 

^o^rra^^^^T?^' 250 West 54fh sl^^Ww 
I oik, at $2.75 postpaid. 

CALENDAR OE EVENTS. 

■2 — Eagle Grove, Nebr., Curtiss 
aviators. 

4— Louisville, Ky., McCurdv- Willard 
aviators. 

4— Little Falls, N. Y., C. F. Willard. 

b — Lewiston, Me., Curtiss aviators 

8— Wheeling, W. Va., Curtiss aviators. 

8 — Olean, N. Y., Curtiss aviators. 

8— Providence, R. I., Curtiss aviators. 

8 — Lincoln, Neb., Wright aviators. 

8— Wheeling, W. Va., Curtiss aviators. 

9— Hamline, Minn., Wright aviators. 

8 — Smith Center, Kan., Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

8 — Marion, Ills., C. A. Zornes. 

6 — Corning, N. Y., Curtiss aviators. 

7 — Fremont, Nebr., Curtiss aviators 

7— Rome, N. Y., Chas. F. Willard and 
Baldwin flyers. 

8 — Morrison, Ills., Curtiss aviators. 

8 — Bloomfleld, Nebr., Curtiss aviators. 

8 — Clay Center, Kans., Curtiss 
and Wrifjht aviators. 

9 — Yankton, S. D., Curtiss aviators. 

9 — Cincinnati, O., McCurdy- Willard 
flyers. 

-15 — Grand Rapids. Mich., Wright 
flyers. 
12 — Moscow, N. Y.. Curtiss aviators. 
12 — Marshalltown, la., Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

-13 — St. Johnsbiiry. Vt., Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

-15 — Huron, S. D., Curtiss aviators. 

-16 — Milwaukee, Wise, Curtiss avia- 
tors. 
13 — Red Lodge, Mont., Curtiss avia- 
tors. 
13 — Winfield, la., Curtiss aviators. 

-14 — Ashland, Wise, Curtiss aviators. 

-14 — Mandan, N. D., Curtiss aviators. 

-15 — Chadron, Nebr. 
14 — Emporia, Pa., Curtiss aviators. 
14 — Youngstown, ().. Wright avia- 
tors. 

-15 — Lancaster, Wis. 

-16 — McAlester, Okla. 
18 — Noonan, N. D.. Curtiss aviators. 
19 — Ogdensburg, N. Y., Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

-21 — Oneonta, N. Y.. Curtiss aviators. 

-22 — Aledo, Ills.. J. C. Mars. 

-22 — Chippewa Falls, Wise. Wriyht and 
Curtiss aviators. 

-21 — Clarinda, la., Curtiss aviators. 

-21 — Riverhead, L. I.. Curtiss aviators. 

-22 — ^^'illiston, Mont., Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

-22 — White River Jet.. Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

-22 — Billings, Mont., Curtiss aviators. 

-22 — Ithaca, N. "Y., Curtiss aviators. 

-22 — Chanute, Kans., Curtiss aviators. 

-30 — Nassau Blvd., N. Y., open meet. 
24 — Carmen, Okla., Curtiss aviators. 
24^Berlin. Gei-many, aviation meet. 

-30 — Helena, Mont., Curtiss aviators. 

-29 — Rochester, N H., Curtiss aviators. 

-28 — Houerliton, Mich.. Curtiss aviators. 

29 — Carlisle, Pa., Curtiss aviators. 

■ 29 — Canton, Ohio, open meet. 
(Continued on page 111.) 



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87 



AERONAUTICS 



September, lull 



LEARN to FLY 



In California this winter 
at famous Dominguez 
Aviation Field, Los 
Angeles. 

Aviation School of the 
Aeronautical Society of 
California offers prac- 
tical instruction, either 
monoplane or biplane. 

Directed by Licensed 
Aviators. 

Finest Flying Field in 
America. 

Impossible to find a 
better course of instruc- 
tion anywhere else. 

For rates and other in- 
formation, address 

Aeronautical Society ot 
California, Los Angeles 



The location of the Western office of the J S 
Bretz Company of New York, has changed to 
504 Ford Building, Detroit, Michigan, where J 
\V. Hertzler, their Western representative, will 
mal<e his liead<iuarters. A full sample line of 
F. & S. imported ball liearings, German steel 
balls, Star ball retainers. U. & H. master mag- 
netos. Bowden wire mechanism. Hartford uni- 
versal joints and clutches, and drop forgings 
will be displayed there for the convenience of 
the Western trade. 

During the past month the following parties 
purchased Gray Eagle Motors: Raymond W 
Garner of Davenport, la., Lincoln Aviation Co.[ 
of Lincoln, 111., H. H. Hoover of Memphis. Tenn 
Jesse Cooke of Fort Worth. Tex., United Aero- 
plane Aviation Co. of Chicago. 111., H. G. Baker 
of Harland. la. 

The apparent demand for a reliable motor, 
selling at a reasonable price, shows evidence 
of what the aspiring aviators want from this 
list of recent purchasers. 

Albert Elton, Youngstown, Ohio, Cadillac 
dealer for northeastern Ohio, has bought a 
model B Wright plane and will install his 
recently purchased Ma.ximotor. He finished his 
aviation course at Dayton. 

On August 14th, Maximotor Makers booked 
orders for nine Maximotors. They report recent 
receipts of from two to four orders a day. 



The envelope for the Vaniman dirigible has 
been completed by the Goodyear company and 
shipped to Atlantic City, where the airship is 
being assembled for its trans-atlantic trip. 

Lieut. Conneau (Beaumont) has won this 
year some $102,330, heading the list. Vedrines 
won, in the Paris-Madrid race and others, a 
total of .$40,000. while Garros and Vidart have 
earned .$30,000 and $20,000 respectively 



A new exhibit has been added to those on 
view at the office of AERONAUTICS bv the 
New York Aeronautical Supply Co., which is 
in good standing with the landlord at 50 
Broadway, New York. It covers a complete 
line of strut sockets, beam connections, wire 
strainers, and parts. Ribs and struts are 
treated with a waterproof solution before 
the varnish is applied. Laminated work is 
guaranteed not to open up. The company 
has its own metal and wood-working shop 
and is shipping promptly. To visit the office 
is to be astounded at the number of stand- 
ard type machines w^hich must be build- 
ing all over the country and in South America 
and the Argentine. If motor and aeroplane 
makers are complaining- of hard times, the 
parts and supplies merchants certainly have 
no cause to grumble. 

That there is a verdant field in Cuba and 
South America evidently is the opinion of 
this house, for it is printing a catalogue in 
Spanish. 

P. S. The publishing business might be 
better, too. 

Daffydills. 

If Wilbur Wright has an ivory dome, has 
Henry A. Wise Wood? 

If the Burgess machine is pretty, is the 
Curtiss aero — plane? 



I tint iiiDrc (iKsistance from the paffe.t of .Vero- 
.N.vrrics tlidii (inii one indiridual cn'uhl f/ive me. 
'I'liraiii/h .VKltoN'AT'TK'S mil iiiroitions Iiiirr been 
iiiipriircil tenfold. — .ToK W. N.mi>k. 



f citiihl >i(>t do iiithoiit Hour m(i<iaii)ir. — Kri;K\B 
(J. Uii;(;s. 



/ (iliciitis tool: forinud rinjcrlii for cocli xm-crcd- 
iiKi i.txiir. I otiJii Irish .\i:i!ON.vrTi(s i-iiiiir oftnirr. 
■•It's It loiiii tiiiir hrlirt-i-ii dri iil:.f .'" .1. I. I.. 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



THE 



CHICAGO 



MEET 



NEW WORLD RECORDS 

World AltitiKle — 11.(342 ft., Aug. 20, 
Lincoln Beachey (Curtiss 50). 

^Vo^lfl Tivo-man Duration — 3 hrs. 42 
min., 22 1/5 sec, Aug. 19, G. W. 
Beatty (Wright 30). 

World Climbins Speed — 500 meters in 
3' 35", T. O. M. Sopwith (Bleriot 70) 
and Rene Simon ( Bleiiot 50), tied, 
August 19tli. 

NEW A>IERI(AX REt'ORDS 

Altitude — 11.642 ft., Aug. 20, Lincoln 

Beacliey (see above). 10,837 ft., Aug. 

18, P. O. rarmelee (Wright 30). 
Two-man Speed for 10 km. — 7 min. 50 

sec, T. O. M. Sopwith (Bleriot 70), 

Aug. 17, 1911. 
Three-mau Speed for 7i km. — 6 min. 

56 2/5 sec, T. O. M. Sopwith 

(Wright), Aug. 15. 
Fastest Two-man Speed in M. P. H. — 

57.785 m. p. h., T. O. M. Sopwith 

(Bleriot 70), Aug. 17. 
Fastest Three-man Speed in M. P. H.^ 

34. 6 m. p. h., T. O. M. Sopwith 

(Wright 30), Aug. 15. 
Two-man Duration — 3 h., 42 m., 22 1/5 

s., G. W. Beatty (Wright), Aug. 19. 

2 h., 11 m., 35 s., G. W. Beatty 

(Wright 30), Aug. 12. 2 h., 4 m., 

A. L. Welch (Wright 30), Aug. 12. 
Tbree-man Duration — 1 h., 18 m., 22 s.. 

G. W. Beatty (Wright 30), Aug. 13. 

1 h., 10 m., 26 s., T. O. M. Sopwith 

(Wright 30), Aug. 13. h., 4 m., 20 s., 

P. T. Cottyn (Wright 30), Aug. 12. 
One-man t'limliin;; — See under "World 

Records." 
\VeiKht Carrying — 458 lbs., P. O. Par- 
melee ( Wright), Aug. 19. 
Two-man Altitude — 3080 ft., Geo. W. 

Beatty (Wiight), Nassau Boulevard, 

Aug. 5. 



TWO men lost their lives, 3 new world 
records were made, 300,000 people 
were present and aviators received 
$101,114.87 at Chicago, Aug. 12-20, the 
second big meet which has been held in this 
country; one which outshone the other at 
Belmont last fall. The Wright Company won 
$16,029 and received royalties of $100 a day 
from Rodgers, Beatty, Sopwith, Brindley and 
Drew, independent Wright fivers. Curtiss" 
men got $27,291, Moisant $8,143. The largest 
single winner was Sopwith who drew down 
from the paying teller $14,020, while the 
smallest was poor Lewkowicz who, with his 
Queen Monoplane, won 60 cents in a flight 
of 18 seconds, plus 250 expenses for having 
his machine on the grounds. The expenses 
of the meet were approximately $195,000 and 
the total receipts were $142,901 leaving a 
deficit of over $50,000 for the promoters to 
face. 

The Chicago Club produced one of the 
world's best exhibitions of flight without 
drawing in the least upon foreign talent. 
Every contestant, except Mestach, was al- 
ready either an American or one who had 
been in the country, flying, for the past 
few^ months. 

There were no accidents to aviators be- 
,vond the two fatal ones, but many acci- 
dents to machines occurred and an auto 
truck was kept fairly busy carting machines 
to sheds, minus wheels, or skids, parts of 
wings, etc. 

The Aero Club of Illinois is the first club 
In the world to conduct a meet on a purely 



.sporting basis, in the same manner, practi- 
cally, as horse-racing is carried on. En- 
trants, except the big exhibition companies, 
had to put up a $1,000 bond to insure then- 
attendance. When their machines arrived 
each received $250 in cash and another $250 
after a flight of 5 minutes had been mide. 
The exhibition companies had to take their 
chances on winning enough to make their 
entries pay. How well they succeeded is 
shown by the figures. In the case of the 
Wright aviators, the policy of no-Sunday 
flying lost for them considerable of the total 
duration money. The independent flyers of 
Wright machines, Beatty, Rodgers and 
Brindley ran their duration up to top-notch 
figures, Rodgers within four hours of the 
greatest possible obtainable. 

A year ago such a meeting would have 
been impossible, for guarantees were de- 
manded by all aviators and none had the 
stamina before to start purely sporting 
events. 

The field was very small, indeed, right on 
the edge of Lake INIichigan, a spot always 
known as windy — and isn't Chicago called 
by those who do not live there, the "Windy 
City?" On soine days, starts had to be 
made with the wind blowing straight out 
over the lake, as there was no room to 
start against the wind. The Wright com- 
pany would not allow its men to take any 
chances of failing to get off and dropping 
in the lake, and the machines could not 
get off running along with the wind from 
the side. 

The turbulent air currents came down 
from over the roofs of the skyscrapers lin- 
ing one side of the field and blew down 
on the aeroplanes as they tried to rise. 

The nine Curtiss machines went through 
the meet without accidents other than the 
smashing of propellers, due to careless- 
ness. Beachey and Ely flew on one day 
when the other machines could not get 
off the ground and demonstrated that they 
could fight out any wind. 

Beachey's flying with his 'headless ma- 
rhine put him decisively at the extreme 
pinnacle, both figuratively and literally. He 
flew himself to fame greater than ever be- 
fore and won more money than any other 
aviator using one make of machine. In the 
free-for-all race on the 16th he beat Oving- 
ton, in his 70-horsepower Bleriot in 12 miles. 

His world altitude record was a feat which 
may stand unbroken for a long while. He 
started on his 2-mile climb knowing that 
he might fail because of the small capacity 
of his fuel tank, even expressing doubts of 
the result. He kept on, however, until he 
had drained the tank dry and then glided 
down every foot of the way. Beachey act- 
ually was in the air two hours when he had 
gas " enough for but an hour and three- 
quarters. 

The barograph showed that he climbed steadi- 
ly and came down steadily at a sharper angle. 
■The line on the record sheet goes straight up 
to its highest point, and then directly down 
at an angle still more nearly the perpendicular. 
He took about 1 hour and 48 minutes to go up 
and 12 minutes to come down. 

The best flving of the meet was done by 
Beachev, Ovington and AVelsh. The most 
interesting events were the races over the 
lake to a crib some four miles out, and b-ack, 
in which Ovington and Sopwith with their 
70 Bleriots had it touch-and-go. In the 
straightaways the 70 Bleriots had a little 
the best of it over Beachey, Ely and Ward, 
but the latter made up considerable on the 
turns. Beachey carried a pa.ssengfr 8 miles 
in 10. min. 19.87 sec. 

The Wright company had four sizes of ma- 
chines ^t the meet, the standard 39-foot ma- 
chine, the 32-foot and the two smaller ones. 
The 8 cvlinder engine, seen at the Belmont 
meet last vear, was installed in one of the 



89 



AERONAUTICS 



Sc/'tcinbcr, 1011 






'**u»it?i>is* iifl4i»su4ij*ai^^ 





The Chicago Aviation Field on the edge of Lake Michigan. 

escorted by Brindley (right). 



Atwood (left) is arriving. 



big- machines for weight carrying' and quick 
starts but was cliscai-ded. Parmelee used 
the 32-foot machine in making his altitude 
record. 

The Curtiss hydro-aeroplane, a special 
feature, attracted a deal of attention flying- 
above the boats on the lake, over the 
grounds, and back to the lake again. Rob- 
inson flew out to the Johnstone machine 
when it fell in the water and was ready to 
assist in the rescue work. The use of this 
craft for rescue work was demonstrated 
effectively. Robinson could get to the scene 
at a rate of a mile a minute and could always 
land within but a few feet of the desired 
spot. 

When Rene Simon, of the Moisant flyers, 
fell into the lake with his monoplane, 
Robinson alighted within a few yards and 
drove his hydro-aeroplane up until the little 
French aviator could touch it with his hand. 
Robinson wanted to take Simon off his 
wrecked monoplane, but the Frenchman re- 
fused to leave it until a tugboat arrived and 
fastened lines to his machine for the purpose 
oT towing it ashore. 

Again, when St. Croix Johnstone fell in his 
monoplane and sank in at least 40 feet of 
water, Robinson, who was in the air at the 
time well out over the lake, flew to the spot 
where Johnstone sank, alighted on the water 
and cruised about for ten minutes, hoping 
that the unfortunate aviator would rise to 
the surface so that he might rescue him. 
Johnstone, however, was fairly trapped in 
his machine and never rose to the surface. 
Robinson stood by the wreck until dredgers 
and motor boats arrived on the scene and 
located the body of Johnstone. 

George W. Beatty, although a novice flyer, 
one might say, having received his pilot certifi- 
cate at Nassau Boulevard only a few days be- 
fore leaving for Chicago, was one of the briglit 
stars t)f the meet. He flew the Wright model 
B owned by Walter H. Davis, of New York, 
the same one as used at Nassau Boulevard on 
August 5th when he made the new American 



two-man altitude record of 3,080 feet. He 
finished second with tlie total number of hours 
in the air. 

Sopwith, who was the biggest single winner, 
used both a 70 h. p. Bleriot and a Wright which 
he purchased from William C. Beers at Nassau 
Boulevard just before tlie meet. This lie altered 
and fitted the Farman universal control lever, 
with foot-yoke for 'the rudder. 

The several Queen monoplanes met witli dis- 
aster and Lewkowicz got but one chance to 
fly and that lasted just IS seconds. The 100 
h. p. Queen was not tried. Mestach was not 
very experienced with his Morane, the first to 
be seen in this country, and landed only two 
prizes. Cummings did not fly at all and loaned 
his 50 Bleriot to Ovington, wlio used it three 
days of the meet. Frisbie came to life at Chicago 
with his Gnome-engined Curtiss-type and did 
good flying. 

Baldwin had bad luck witli his own three ma- 
chines. Hammond dropped tlie SO h. p. Hall 
Scott-engined Baldwin 3 miles out in the lake, 
then broke tlie propeller of a second through 
a pliers having been left on the plane. This 
was the old Baldwin school machine. Badger 
broke up the third and Mars did his flying on 
Baldwin's old Curtiss 50. The new McCurdy 
machine hit a live wire and burnt up. 

On August 7, papers were served upon officers 
of tlie International Aviation Meet Association, 
in a suit brought by tlie Wright Company, 
which alleges that the machines competing are 
infringements of the Wright patent. A share of 
the profits and damages are asked. 

Each aviator was allowed "expenses" of $500 
after he had flown for 5 minutes. Two dollars 
was paid for every 60 seconds an aviator wa.s 
in the air, in addition to all prize money won 
in cr)ntests provided that the sum thus eained 
exceeded his prize winnings alone, in which 
case he was given the difference between the 
prize winnings and the total at the $2 a min- 
ute rate. Where no prizes were won the .$2 a 
minute rate was applied. 



90 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



The totalization of duration prize originall>' 
was $10,000 but as the unearned prizes amounted 
to $6,000, this amount was added to the orig- 
inal $10,000, divided according to the ratio of 
the division of the first amount. These figures 
give the money received, whether as prizes, at 
$2 a minute, both, and the expense money al- 
lowed. 

Four days before the meet opened, Rene 
Barrier (Moisant) made one evening flight high 
above the field and over the lake but this was 
his only one as his doctor forbade him to fly. 

The meet closed officially on the 20th but on 
the following day a benefit performance was 
given by all the aviators for the widow of St. 
Croix Johnstone. 

Correct List, Contestants and Results. 



Totalization of Duration. Total mo 
Rodgers, C. P., (Wright 30) . .27:00:16 
Beatty, G. W., (Wright 30) . .24:21:58 
Brindley, O. A., (Wright 30). 23:44:54 

Ward, J. J., (Curtiss 50) 20:36:34 

Welsh, A. L., (Wright 30) ... 19:49:46 

Beachey, L., (Curtiss 50) 14:33:05 

Simon, (Bleriot, 50 Gnome).. 9:55:47 
Sopwith, T. O. M., (Bleriot, 

70 Gnome & Wright 30) 9:14:56 

Ely, Eugene, (Curtis 70) 7:28:13 

Ovington. Earle L., (Curtiss 

50 & Bleriot, 70 Gnome) 5:04:49 
Parmelee, P. O., (Wright 30) 5:04:08 
Turpin, J. C, (Wright 30)... 4:21:07 
Mestach, Geo., (Morane, 50 

Gnome) 3:53:48 

Gill, H. W., (Wright Baby 30) 3:45:17 
McCurdy, J. A. D., (McCurdy, 

50 Gnome) 

Frisbie, .1. J., (Curtiss-type, 

50 Gnome) 

Mars, J C, (Curtiss 50) 

Martin, J. V., (Burgess 

"Baby," 50 Gnome) 

Brookins, W., (Wright 30).. 2:38:11 
Hammond, Lee, (Baldwin, 80 

H-Scott) 

Beck, Paul W., (Curtiss 50). 
Stone, Arthur, (Queen, 50 

Gnome) 

Coffyn, F. T., (Wright 30).. 
Robinson, H. A., (Curtiss 70) 
Baldwin, Capt. T. S., (Bald- 
win, 60 Hall-Scott) 

Drew, Andrew, (Wright 30). 
Witmer, C. C. (Curtiss 50).. 
Bonney, L. W., (Wright 30). 
Lewkowicz, L., (Queen, 50 

Gnome) 

.lames Cummings (Bleriot, 50 

Gnome) Did not fly 

. Johnstone, St. Croix, (Moisant 

50 Gnome) 4:56:36 

Badger, W. R., (Baldwin 60 

Hall-Scott) 2:28:00 

At wood, Harry N., ( Burgess - 

Wriglit) 

For Curtiss Hydro -aeroplane 



2:55:55 



2:49:43 
2:44:08 



2:03:43 



1:51:46 
1:03:53 

1:01:28 
58:56 
55:51 

28:02 
17:13 
13:38 
09:19 

:18 



ney Rec'd 
$11,285.00 
7,125.00 
3,351.00 
3,413.00 
6,121.00 
11,667.00 
5,050.00 

14,020.00 
4,672.00 

5,900.00 
4,451.00 
1,022.23 

967.60 
2,450.00 

2,400.00 

2,000.00 

828.27 

750.00 
816.37 

1,050.00 
900.00 

622.93 
650.00 
611.70 

556.07 
650.00 
527.27 
518.63 

250.60 

250.00 

1,093.20 

900.00 

1,000.00 
3,500.00 



Total.- 



.206:31:18 $101,364.87 



THE CANTON MEET. 



The Aero Club of Ohio, in conjunction 
with the Business Men's Association and 
the Stark County Agricultural Society will 
hold an aviation meet at Canton, Septem- 
ber 27-29, and propose to spend $50,000 on 
the affair. Negotiations are pending for the 
aviators who have been flying at Chicago, 
and it is expected that three women mono- 
plane drivers will also enter. 



I am taking several other papers now, but 
I will subscribe as soon as they expire, aa 
I would rather have your paper than 
all the •ithf'i-s put together. 

Xewton lAimm. 



BEACHEY WON INTER-CITY RACE. 

The first American inter-city race, flown be- 
tween New York and Philadelphia, on August 
5th, was won by Lincoln Beachey with Hugh 
Robinson a close second. Hamilton, who was 
an added starter to take the place of Eugene 
Ely (who first planned to be one of the three), 
at the last moment resigned his chance to Ely 
again, who flew after all, according to the first 
plan.s, though he was totally unprepared for the 
trip. 

Starting from Governor's Island, a United 
States military post situate in New York Bay, 
all three flew theii- machines up the Hudson 
River several miles, then turned diagonally east 
directly over the great transatlantic docks and 
ferry-slips, the tenements and factories to .above 
the Gimbel department store, at 33rd Street and 
Broadway, the center of the shopping district 
of New York, keeping at a height of 2000 feet. 
They were timed here officially for the start of 
the flight, which ended officially at the Gimbel 
store in Philadelphia, a distance of 82.8 miles 
in straight lines from Gimbels to Trenton, 
to Gimbels. 

Beachey was the first to start and the first 
to arrive over the Philadelphia crowds. After 
passing- the line he started in to give the 
Quaker City a free show, flying around William 
Penn's statute on the City Hall, before he flew 
off to the final landing place in Fairmount Park 
where thousands of people were worrying the 
mobilized police of the Sleepy City into, for the 
time being, unwonted activity. Here Beachey 
made his machine do the tricks of a bronco in 
the throes of being "broke." It was nearly a 
half hour later before Robinson arrived. He 
had lost his way just before reaching Trenton, 
N. J., and made a wide detour, stopping once at 
New Brunswick. Both aviators stopped at 
Trenton for gasoline. 

Ely and Beachey were pretty close together 
at Rahway but over Princeton Junction a 
plugged feed, so it is said, caused Ely to descend. 
Both Beachey and Robinson ran into a rain- 
storm and were soaked to the skin. The 
three flyers encountered a 15 mile head wind 
all the wav to Philadelphia. 

The total duration of Beachey's time was 2 
hours, minutes: that of Robinson. 2 hours, 
56 minutes. Counting only actual flying time, or 
time in the air, from one Gimbel store to the 
other, the figures are as foHows: 

Beachev 1 hr. 50 min. 1-8 sec. 

Robinson 2 hrs. S min. 47 sec. 

Ely descended after 56 minutes flight ap- 
proximately, not counting 2 stops at Prince- 
ton Jet., and New Brunswick. 
Beachey's average flying speed ..45 miles 
per hour. . 

Robinson's average flying speed ...J8 miles 
per hour. 

Gimbel Brothers donated a prize of $5,000 and 
arrangements were made with the Curtiss Ex- 
hibition Company for the race. Luncheons to 
the newspaper men, and friends, were given at 
the Gimbel stores on Thursday and Friday 
preceding the contest. 

Beachev used his headless machine and Rob- 
inson one of the late type standard Curtiss ma- 
chines as did Ely, who flew a new one direct 
from the factory. All were fitted with Curtiss 
8 cvlinder 50 h. p. motors. Naiad cloth is used 
for' covering the surfaces. El Arco radiators 
cool the water from the droning motors which 
are kept running by the sparks from Bosch 
magnetos. 

FuUMKU RniNl) Titir ui' H.VMii.rnN 
On June 13, 1910, Charles K. Hamilton made 
the trip to Philadelphia and return, making no 
stop on the way to Philadelphia. He covered 
this 74.31 miles in 103 minutes. On the return 
trip he made a landing at South Amboy, which 
increased the distance to 5:{.12 miles returning 
and the flying time by one minute. His average 
speed for the 149.541 miles covered was 43.34 
miles an hour. 



91 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 10 IJ 



DEATH OF BADGER AND JOHNSTONE 



Tlie fourth day of the Chicago meet saw 
tlie fatal accidents to William R. Badger, 
of Pittsburg, and St. Croix Jolinstone, of Chi- 
cago, a Moisant flyer of a year's experience. 
Badger was little more than a novice, having 
only gained his pilot certificate two weeks be- 
fore the meet opened. Badger was making a 
sensational slide downward in his Baldwin 
biplane, with the full power of the big Hall- 
Scott engine behind him, the terrific 
strain upon the machine in "leveling up" sud- 
denly exceeded the limit and the 'plane 
collapsed. The builders of the Baldwin machine 
assert that the stay wires must have given way 
under the sudden pull. The machine was 
reduced to a mass of wreckage. Although the 
poor aviator was rushed to a hospital he died 
after a few moments. No official report has 
been made by the Aero Club of Illinois, nor has 
an investigation been made into the death of 
.Tohnstone, who, with his machine, dropped 
beneath the surface of Lake Michigan. 

Badger came to Chicago direct from Mineola 
where he had been learning to fly under the 
tutelage of the veteran Captain Thomas S. 
Baldwin, known everywhere for his extreme 
caution. "Uncle Tom" has always found it 
difficult to keep his enthusiastic young pro- 
teges, Hammond, Badger and Mars, from being 
a mite what you might call reckless. His first 
public exhibition, Badger was a little inclined 
to "show off." He wanted what all want, the 
plaudits of the multitude, however reckless or 
foolish it might be in its demands for sensa- 
tions. Many an aviator and automobile race 
driver has taken one chance too many in order 
to please or appease the wanton spectator. The 
demands of the excitement seeker are alike, 
whether in the bull rings of Spain and Mexico, 
the saucer tracks of the bicycle race, the 
hurdles of Longchamps or Belmont, the prize 
ring, the lightning-fast Brooklands and Indian- 
apolis, or the aerodromes of an aviation "meet:" 
a secret desire that "something will happen." 
The showman's realization of this is his stock 
in trade. The power-driven dives and spiral 
shoots are to the aviator the loop-the-loops and 
flying rings of the former. 

Before the horror of this catastrophe had 
begun to pall upon the enormous crowd, 
Johnstone plunged into the lake about a 
mile out. Robinson, who was in the air 
nearby on his hydro-aeroplane when it 
occtired, flew to the spot, but nothing was to 
be seen but the tail, the propeller and some 
sticks of wood floating upon the water. The 
fast motor boats which came up managed after 

'me time to recover the body from the tangled 
wires and sticks. Doctors tried to resuscitate 
.lohnstone, but gave it up after nearly an hour's 
efforts. It was the opinion of one of the doctors 
considering the small amount of water which 
came from the lungs and a severe cut, that 
the aviator sustained his immediate death by 
being hit by a portion of the aeroplane rather 
than by drowning. 

Hugh Robinson describes the accident as 
follows: — ■ 

"High above me I could see .lohnstone wing- 
ing in the clouds. He was 2,500 feet in the air 
and traveling slowly. Fully two miles out from 
land I saw him change his course and start 
downward. He came with terrific speed. I 
thought at first he was merely 'sliding' to ob- 
tain a different air stratum. 

"When he was 500 feet from the water I saw 
he was in trouble. His planes were not work- 
ing right. Down it shot toward the water at 
a sickening speed. 

"I didn't think of .Johnstone dying at that 
minute. 1 thought, 'Now I'll get to him and 
save him.' I started my hydro-aeroplane and 



gave it full speed. I was fully a mile away, 
but I made the distance in not more than a 
minute. 

"I could see Johnstone every second from 
the time the monoplane collapsed until he 
struck the water. Johnstone was standing up 
in the cockpit when the aeroplane started down, 
and he was still standing when it struck the 
water. I can see him now standing there, help- 
less, his arms in the air, seemingly frantically 
trying to balance the mass of wreckage. 

"As the waters closed over him he went in 
feet first. I doubt if he thought of death. He 
was too busy thinking of righting the shred of 
a machine. 

"It couldn't have been more than ninety 
seconds from the time he hit the water until 
I was landing near the wreckage and hunting 
for him, although it seemed an hour. I was 
almost crying, because it seemed to me that 
machine of mine wouldn't get up enough speed. 
I pulled every bit of power out of it it had. 

"When I reached the wreckage the ripples 
were still on the water. Alcove the water the 
tail of the macliine was sticking and for feet 
around were bits of wood and canvas. The 
machine had been torn to pieces by the fall. 

"I worked the hydro-aeroplane into the 
wreckage and then scouted all around. I cut in 
circles, hoping that John.stone had started 
swimming. I knew if I found him I could carry 
him on my planes until the launches came. 

"I couldn't get sight of him, however. It 
was fully ten minutes before the launches and 
pleasure boats arrived. I was satisfied by that 
time that Johnstone was dead beneath the 
wreckage." 

RUSSIAN ARMY AIRMAN KILLED. 

ST. PETERSBURG, Aug. 29.— Lieut. Zolot- 
nehin, a Russian military aviator, fell with 
his aeroplane while making a flight here to- 
day and was killed. 

FRISBIK KILLED. 

NOkTON, Kan., Sept. 1. — J. J. Frisbie was 
killed by a fall in a Curtiss biplane at the 
Norton County Fair. He met with an acci- 
dent the day before, and went into the air 
again only when driven to it by the taunts 
and jeers of the crowd. He lived for about 
an hour. 

Frisbie, an old parachute jumper, was fly- 
ing for the Curtis.s Company. He began in 
1910 with a machine he built himself. 

FRENCH AVI.VTOR BURNED IN MIDAIR. 

TROYES, France, September 2. — Lieutenant 
de Grailly, of the Eighth Cuirassiers, was 
burned to death in midair. 

The disaster probably was caused by the 
explosion of the fuel tank, the burning fluid 
being scattered all over the machine. The 
blazing aeroplane fell with its pilot at Rigny- 
la-Nonneuse, about twenty-five miles from 
this city, and he was completely incinerated. 

ANOTHER ARMY OFFICER KILLED. 

NANGIS, France, September 2. — Captain 
de Camine, one of the most experienced avia- 
tors in the French army, fell with his mono- 
plane while flying here today and was kil^bd 
instantly. 

ENGUSH AVIATOR KILLED. 

LONDON. August 2. Geiald Napier, a young 
English aviator, met death last evening while 
flying with a passenger at BrooKlands, in a 
Bristol biplane. Napier was driving a biplane 
and a sudden gust of wind dashed the machine 
to the ground, killing him instantly. His com- 
panion was thrown clear of the wreckage and 
escapeil uninjured. 

ANOTHER DEATH. 

.TUVISY. France, July 23. Charles July, in a 
70 h.p. Voisin biplane, was killed. 



92 



AEROXAUTICS 



September. I'Jll 




The Model B Wright, with "Blinder" Modified, at Chicego Meet. 



THE WRIGHT BIPLANE, MODEL 



B 



THE first thing that strikes an observer on 
seeing one of the new Model B machines 
that are being delivered to customers of 
the Wright Co. is the neat appearance of the 
entire machine. This is due not only to the 
finishing of the parts, but in a great measure to 
the harmony of the entire design. A cursory 
glance at the machine does not at once reveal 
such strength and solidity as a closer examina- 
tion makes evident. A study of all the various 
details of construction brings one to realize that 
every part has been thought over and carefully 
designed for its particular use and position. 

Unlike most of the other machines on the 
market this one is not intended to be com- 
pletely taken down for shipment. The front 
portions of the skids are so hinged that they 
can be folded back parallel to the main planes, 
and the foot rest folds up out of the way. The 
rear outrigger to tail taken off complete, slid 
between the main planes from one end. and tied 
to the struts, the machine may be put in an end- 
opening box car. Of course, the assembling 
takes a very short while, which is a desideratum 
for military as well as private use, and there 
is no danger of the planes being poorly set up. 

The machine is highly finished in every part. 
Exposed strut-sockets and connections, wires, 
hinges, straps, planes, etc., are nickel plated. 
The woodwork is of bright aluminum finish. 
This is obtained by dusting aluminum powder 
on a specially prepared wet varnish, giving a 
harder coat than a covering of varnish alone. 
This is rubbed down and the final finish is like 
that of a piano. 

About sixty men are now employed at the 
Wright factory at Dayton, turning out dupli- 
cates of this model. Russell A. Alger, Robert 
J. Collier, Redmond Cross, Wm. C. Beers, Edson 
Gallaudet, A. S. Cochrane and other wealthy 
amateurs are recent purchasers. A number 
have also been sold for exhibition work, on a 
royalty basis. George W. Beatty used a Model 
B at Chicago, where he made a new world 2- 
man record. C. P. Rodgers took first prize for 
totalization of duration at the Chicago meet 
with standard Model B. 

OTHER MODELS. 
The older machines, as will be remembered, 
had a biplane elevator out in front and no rear 



elevator. The machine Wilbur Wright first fiew 
in France, and the first Government aeroplane 
was of this type. Following these two in 1910 a 
rear elevator was attached and worked in com- 
bination with tlie front elevator. At the Asbury 
Park exhibition, 1910, the headless machine 
made its first appearance. This was one of the 
same machines as then standard, with the front 
elevator merely removed. With slight increase 
in the size of the rear elevator, the machines 
from that time on were headless, and as new 
machines were built, the outriggers formerly 
used to support the front elevator were left 
off. In the Model B, put out in 1911, the front 
construction was shortened up, and the "blin- 
ders" at the front end of the skids were made 
a little larger. In July the new machines of this 
model had in addition, a pair of rectangular 
blinders under the upper surface in the middle 
section. 

Starting was formerly accomplished on a rail; 
first with a falling weight, and later without. 
The first headless machine was equipped with 
a running gear, the same as in use today, and 
this got off the ground, no matter how rough, 
without the use of any outside assistance. 
Starting rails have not been used with the 
Wright aeroplane for over a year. 

Model R, the "roadster," was first shown at 
Belmont meet, in the fall of 1910. Of these, 
the only one in the hands of sportsmen is that 
of Alec' Ogilvie, in England. This spreads 26»^ 
feet, planes 3 feet 7 inches fore and aft and 
weighs 585 lbs., equipped with the standard 30 
h p. motor. This type was used by Johnstone 
when he broke the world altitude record at 
Belmont, making 9714 ft. It is without doubt, 
for the horsepower the fastest climbing ma- 
chine in existence, according to times and 
altitudes measured at Belmont meet. Ogilvie 
made a speed of 52 miles an hour in the 1910 
Gordon-Bennett race with 30 horsepower. 

A special racer was built for the Belmont 
meet with but 22 ft. spread, with a special 8 
cylinder 60 h.p. motor, but this, unfortunately, 
was smashed before it crossed the line in the 
Gordon-Bennett. A 32-foot machine, one pas- 
senger, has also been built for exhibition work 
where the grounds are small. 



93 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 





DETAILS OF MODEL B. 

Main I'lanc-s. These have a spread of 39 ft. 
ami a chord of 6 feet 2 inches, and are each 
built up in three sections. The cloth, which is 
prepared by the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., is 
laid diagonally, being attached to each section 
separately and the sections laced together. The 
cloth covers both sides of the planes. Tiie main 
spars are of spruce, as is the most of the wood- 
work, 134" by 1^4". the greatest dimension 
being vertical in the front spar and horizontal 
in the rear spar. Tliey are larger in the middle 
section of the lower plane, being 1%" by 2'/^" 
for the front and li^" by 2'/^" for the rear where 
ash is used. There are 34 ribs to each plane, 
spaced a foot apart in the center and wider 
toward the lateral extremities of the planes. 
The ribs which come near struts are solid be- 
tween the main spars. The others are built up 
of an upper and lower strip, with blocks spaced 
about six inches as distance pieces. The two 
ribs that svipport the engine and the two seat 
ribs are the only ones lietween the spars of the 
lower plane for the center six feet. 

Thei'e are nine pairs of uprights of various 
sizes, the outer two sets on each end being se- 
( ured to the planes by the familiar flexible joint. 
the remainder by a sort of socket joint, both 
being illustrated herewith. It is noticed that 
a few turnbuckles have made their appearance 
in the center section. This is doubtless in order 
to be able to replace the engine or other parts 
with greater ease. All the steel piano wires 
not fitted with turnbuckles are cut to length 
and are interchangeable. When setting up the 
planes the wires are attached and the struts are 
then sprung in place. These guy wires are cut 
and the loop bent by a special tool at the fac- 
tory. As the wire used has a breaking strength 
of from 800 to 2400 lbs., according to size, it can 
be seen that once the plane is set up there will 
136 no occasion for further adjustment through 
the stretching of the wires. 

The curve of the planes is 1 in 20, the greatest 
deptli being two-fifths back from the front 
edge. The aspect ratio is 6.25. 

Siil)ijh'nieiit(tr!i Fixed l^iirfacci^. The little semi- 
circular blinkers in the 1910 machines have 
given place to two sets on the latest machines. 
This is due to the fact that greater area is 
required, now that the skids have been short- 
ened up. The shape and location of these are 
shown in the drawings. 

YTticdl RudiJcr. This is, in general, of the 
same construction as in the early models, 
although somewhat smaller. The rudder is 
operated by the combination warping and direc- 
tion level', as shown in the sketches. As shown, 
tills lever also warps the wings. By "break- 
ing" the top section "B" either to the left or 
the right alone, (without moving the balance of 
the lever from its normal or other position), tlie 
ruddei- only is moved to steer left or right, re- 
spectively. In making flat turns, without bank- 
ing, this top section only of the lever is used. 
The movement is entirely a natural or instinc- 
tive one. 

This separate movement of tlie rudder is ob- 
tained by having tlie sector "D," movably 
mounted, capable of individual action with re- 
spect to lever section "A," through the steel 
tube actuated by the section "B" of the lever. 
The wire which goes over tlie top of sector 
"D" must go to the left side of the rudder cross- 
bar. 

Klvnthir. The front third of this surface is 
held rigid while the rear two-thirds is flexible. 
This is operated by forward and back move- 
ment of the elevator lever, as shown in the 
drawings; the wires being crossed so th;it 
pushing out on the lever steers down and pull- 
ing toward the operator steers the machine 
up. The cloth is laid on diagonally ("on the 
bias") and only one thickness is used, the 
rilis iind spars running thriiugh pockets in the 
( Icth. 

There is a second elevator lever, which can 
be used by a student passenger, who would 
then do the warping (and rudder) with hi? riglit 



94 



AERO. ,^J>U 



:s 



September, 1911 



hand. Some of the Wright aviators use the 
seat next the engine, witli the warping lever 
at the left. Others, taught Viy these, sit on the 
outside seat. This second elevator lever has a 
disc ttaclied, encompas'-'ed on its periphery 
by a flat steel friction band to liold the lever 
in any set position. 

T)yin.iverse Control. While the control of the 
machine does not appear to be instinctive, it 
certainly is easy to learn, and after liaving been 
once firmly impressed on the mind, seems to be 
very satisfactory. It would seem that the exer- 
tion of moving the warping lever fore and aft 
is a great deal less than if it were arranged to 
move sideways as in some other machines. 

The warping is done by tiie lever "A". Pushing- 
forward, raises the left wing and depresses the 
right. Tlie same movement turns the rudder 
to the left — the side having the lesser angle of 
incidence, when the lever as a whole is used, not 
being broken at the joint "C" 

The wiring for the warping is shown in the 
diagrammatic sketch. The rear spars of the 
two end sections of the planes are hinged to 
those of the center section, so that warping 
may be acconiplished without tlexing the spar. 

The lever arrangements have varied on many 
of the machines. Some are flown with the 
aviator using the left hand for warping. Stu- 
dents taught by these, use the right hand for 
warping, as a rule. This is now the practice 
in "breaking in"' flyers, in order that any pas- 
senger or other weight they may carry will 
occupy a central position on tlie machine and 
retain the balance. However, one or two ma- 
chines have been put out witli 2 warping and 
L' elevator levers, for those who desired to fly 
together and who had both learned the use 
of the same hand for wai'ping. 

THE MAKING OF SPIRALS. 

Referring to the sketch of the combination 
warping and rudder lever, the wooden lever "A" 
is jointed, or hinged, at the top. The short 
sectior. "B" turns left or risht on the axi.s "C 
for independent rudder action. The lever as a 
whole moved forward warps the left wing up 
and the right wing down, at the same time 
turning the rudder towards the left (to offer 
resistance to the side having the lesser angle 
of incidence). The elevator is also warped 
down to enable the aviator to gain speed, and 
the machine has begun to bank, the right side 
being the higher. 

Ne.xt, this combination lever as a whole is 
gradually brought V)ack to normal position, as 
the 'plane is now half way to being "on end." 
At this stage, with this lever (as one) normal, 
and the wings straightened out, the top sec- 
tion of the lever is "broken" over to tlie left 
which turns the rudder only to this side. This 
operation is gone through in making the short 
circles, or spirals, for which the Wright ma- 
chine is so famous. The operation for turning 
to the left has been given. For right spirals the 
reverse must be done. 

Care must be taken to straighten out before 
the machine has banked at so steep an angle as 
to make recovery impossible. In the sketch the 
Section B is broken to the left, turning the 
i-udder only to the left. 

fuller Plant. The 4 cycliiider, vertical, motor 
Is lated as 30-35, and the brake horsepowei- 
inns, on test, in conformity with the rating. 
Frerjuently the brake horsepower is more. Thr 
engine in Beatty's machine has shown 42 
horsepower on the block. The c>'linders are 
A\ inches bore, liy 4-inch stroke, rated by the 
A.Ij.A.M. at 30.6 horsepower. The gray iion 
cylinders are cast separate and have aluminum 
water jackets held in place by steel rings 
shrunk on. The nickel steel crankshaft is cut 
from a solid block, as is the camshaft. A cam- 
shaft within the crankcase operates overhead 
valves by ineans of rocker arms. The connect- 
ing rods are of hollow steel, "T" shaped ends, 
on bronze and white bronze bearings. For 
shutting the motor off the exhaust valves are 




MOQEL R/(9I0 




95 



AERONAUTICS 



Scp'iemb. 



I 



E-RRULE2; 





-TO RIGHT V(in6 



PING crtoiN 

TOi/Er &C'LT5 



TO RUDDtR. 
oi i_ SPRING 



LUM. CASTING 
WARPING 

TORUDDtft ^"'^^T 



TritvyARPin6 6^:- RUbbtf^ L^VE-R- 



WR/O^T IQ1-Z. 



lifted, when a wire over the liead of the 
operator is pulled. A cut-out is used when de- 
sired, to short-circuit the Mea magneto which 
is driven off the camshaft through steel gears 
on the outside of the crank case. Gasoline is 
fed directly into the cylinders by a gear pump 
placed on the right side of the engine, the 
gasoline entering a vertical tube through a jet 
orifice. This pump controls the amount of gas- 
oline fed the engine in direct ratio with the 
engine speed. This vertical tube leads to the 
center of a simple horizontal equalizing mani- 
fold wliich opens direct to the inlet valves. 
The only method of controlling the engine speed 
is by advancing or retarding the spark. In the 
Mea high tension magneto the spark is of the 
same fatness at any advance, through its man- 
ner of construction. A foot lever pushed out 
against a spring retards the spark for starting 
the propellers. There is a catch on the mag- 
neto to hold it in retarded position so that the 
operator may start his own machine, without 
danger of its running off before he gets in the 
seat. Oiling is effected by a gear pump inside 
\ the base, with a glass sight which shows the 
\ level of oil in the reservoir from which the oil 
is pumped to the trough under each cylinder. 

The cylinder head and valve cases are not 
water jacketed, but are made very heavy. The 
Inlet valves are automatic, with light springs. 
The weight of the bare engine is 180 lbs. 
' Cooling is through a vertical tube radiator 
which has a capacity of three gallons, sufflcient 
for 6 hours' running. The tubes of this radia- 



tor are now made fish-shape, instead of rect- 
angular as before. Circulation is by centrifu- 
gal pump. 

The gasoline consumption is about four gal- 
lons per hour, the 12-gallon tank carrying suf- 
ficient for three hours' flying. A gauge on the 
gasoline tank sliows at all times the relative 
amount of gas remaining in the tank. 

The engine is mounted at either end of the 
base on cross-members which in turn rest on 
the engine foundation ribs, which are solid. 
Duplicate sprockets screwed and locked to the 
crank shaft back of the flywheel, drive through 
specially made Diamond nickel steel roller 
chains "the two propellers, the gearing being in 
the ratio of 11 to 34. At an engine speed of 
1,325 revolutions, which the engine turns up 
during flight, the propeller speed is 42S revo- 
lutions, with a flying thrust of about 250 lbs. 
The mounting of the propellers on their short 
chrome nickel steel shafts is shown in the draw- 
ings. Hess- Bright ball bearings are used. The 
chain can be tightened by means of the ad- 
justable stay. 

The early engines were 4" by 4", then 4V4" 
by 4" and now 4%" by 4". 

In starting, the propellers are turned (with 
the compression "off") to fill the cylinders with 
gas. Then the compression rod is pushed in, 
the magneto retarded and the propellers given a 
(luick pull. 

In gliding down, or preparing to land, the 
compression is released and the propellers rotate 
solely by their impetus or by reason of the air 



96 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



C--4-,:^sr' 





,^- TORWARD on LCVtR 'A'TURMS RUCibtR Lt^l AHti WftRPJ RlGliT 
Wlh6 tbOWH AHD LtriV/IIiG UP. "BREAMriG" ^t6TlOM "B" TO LtrT. 
WITH LOWtR -5tCTI0N /lORHAL, TURHS RUbbER OriLY-TO Lfcp-T 

DIAGRAMnATIC VIEW WRIGHT CONTROL SYSTEH 



ci'jirents, without any braking effect of the pis- 
tons. Compression may be obtained again dur- 
ing fliglit by pushing back the rod mentioned 
above. 

Landinci Gear. Wheels are used in combina- 
tion with the usual skid arrangement. There 
being no need for tlie skids extending so far 
forward, after having done away with the 
front elevator, the skids have been shortened 
until they are only long enough to make the 
likelihood of tripping tlie machine rather re- 
mote. The exact mounting of tliese wheels is 
illustrated herewith. 

Weight. The machine weighs, with operator, 
and passenger, ready to fly, in the neighborhood 
of 1250 lbs. The weight thus carried per horse- 
power is about 40 lbs. The weight carried per 
square foot of supporting surface, on the above 
basis, figures out at 2V2 lbs. Lancaster gives 
the Wright machine an efficiency of 63%, after 
deducting 5% for loss in the chains. The new 
book by Eiffel, just published, makes the re- 
markable statement, in view of the known facts, 
that it takes 30 horsepower to fly the Wright 
machine, which is obviously an erroneous con- 
clusion. 

THE WRIGHT MACHINE BY YEARS. 
For the first time is given a complete series 
of pictures showing the Wright aeroplane in 
each stage of its development. In the early 



power machines of 1903 to 1905, the aviator was 
flat on Ills stomach and the engine, even, was 
laid on its side. In 1905 the rudders and eleva- 
tor were placed further from the main planes. 







Wright Running Gear. 



In the spring of 1908, after a period of three 
years devoted to business negotiations and ex- 
periment, flights were renewed at Kitty Hawk, 
N. C, the scene of the early glides and power 




AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



DCT^IbS Of PROPet-LCR BRACKET 




98 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 




AERONAUTICS 



September, 1011 




Left Side of Wright Engine 

flights, and the world "sat up and took notice" 
for the first time. Later in the year, Wilbur 
Wright went to France with one machine, shown 
in the Illustration, while his brother, Orville, 
demonstrated the Government machine at 
Washington. After creating untold interest in 
Europe, Wilbur returned to this country. In 
the meantime the unfortunate accident occurred 
at Washington and a year later a new machine 
was demonstrated to the Army officials and 
accepted. Then, Ihe experiment was made by Wilbur 
Wright at College Prirk of taking off the upper surface of 
the front biplane elevator and attaching it rigidly to the 




The Mea Magneto used in all Wright Machines 

tail, at the rear of the rudder. Next, this rear 
stabilizer was made movable and connected 
with the elevator lever, working in conjunction 
with the front elevator, which was generally 
used as a biplane. 

In the summer of 1910, after a number of 
exhibitions had been given throughout various 
cities of the United States by a corps of avia- 
tors who were taught to fly at Dayton, a ma- 
chine made it.s appearance at Asbury Park's 
exhibition, minus the front elevator altogether. 
It was just merely left off, the usual supporting 
struts remaining. From tliat time on, all ma- 
chines were made headless and the two diago- 
nal struts which stuck out were sawn off and 
small "blinders" were put on. Next, the front 
outriggers were shortened up, as we have ex- 
plained in previous paragraphs. 





^WRLornT PLAHTv 



nOTOP3DE-PT 5 



1 P C^KXir-P-_5f 't''« WQOT5V'ORig/l<< DE-pf 2- CYU/1DE«_o 



TO FLY FOR HEARST PRIZE. 

Robert C Fowler, a dark horse aviator, with 
a staV)le of four Wright's is to start before the 
middle of September, from Los Angeles for the 
Hearst $50,000 coast-to-coast prize. A weal by 
(^alifornian is backing the endeavor, which will 
cost any contestant, according to the estimate.s 



tiguied out bv well known aviators, anyw here 
from $30,000 to $50,000 to carry tlirough. 

Burton H. Dreyer, of Toledo, is now at Nas- 
sau Boulevard with a 70 horsepower Gnome 
engine. Bleriot copy, made by the Brooks peo- 
ple of Saginaw, Mich. Dreyer will start during 
September and ll.\' West. 



lOO 



AERONAUTICS 



September. 1911 



ATW^OOD MAKES NEW 

W^ORLD DISTANCE 

FLIGHT 



1,'MH 3Iiles in 12 Day.s. 
Suniniitry of the Flight. 

Distance by path 1,266 miles 

Distance, straigiit line, from town 

to town 1,155 miles 

Duration of flight .12 days 

Actual time in the air 28 hrs. 53 min. 

Mean speed 43.9 miles per hr. 

Mean daily flying- time. 2 hrs. 27 min. 

Mean daily mileage 105.5 miles 

Started from St. Loui.s, Aug. 14 

Landed New York, Aug. 25 

Walking record for same dis- 
tance 22 days 



HARRY N. ATWOOD, an aviator of but 
three months' experience, who made 
a new American cross-country record 
by flying from Boston to Washing- 
ton, 461 miles in straight lines, June 30 to 
July 10, between the days of August 14th 
and 25th began and concluded another flight 
which beats by nearly a hundred miles the 
best previous cross-country flight, the Cir- 
cuit of Europe, which took 19 days and 
which distance was 1,073 miles, measured in 
straight lines from town to town. Atwood's 
flight, carrying a message fi'om the St. Louis 
Pont-Disi)(it<h to the New York World, meas- 
uied from stop to stop, totals 1,155.62 miles 
from the point of start at St. Louis, ;Mo., to 
the point of landing at Governors' Island, 
New York. The distance measured by the 
railroad, which Atwood followed pretty gen- 
erally all of the way, has been figured up 
at 1,266 miles. No official attention has been 
paid the flight, unfortunately, by any club 
and no figures that can be ver-ified ai'e avail- 
able of the exact time of flight, nor of the 
distance. As Atwood veered even from the 
railroad course at times to fly over some 
town, his distance undoubtedly considerably 
exceeded even the 1,266 miles. 

In recording this wonderful flight among 
the annals of aviation history, mention must 
be made of the fact that no repairs were 
made throughout the entire distance to the 
Burgess-Wright aeroplane, beyond re-bab- 
bitting two bearings at Nyack, within twen- 
ty-five miles of New York. And this was 
the same machine used in Atwood's flight 
from Boston to Atlantic City. Although two 
complete machines followed the intrepid 
aviator by express, they were not touched. 
Aside from the personal victory, manufac- 
turers of the Goodyear fabric and tires, the 
Roebling wire and Mea magneto will come 
for their share of the glory. 

Using the greater mileage as a basis, the 
daily average is 105 miles. Not a day In- 
tervened between any two stages — the daily 
grind was accomplished irrespective of wind 
or rain. 

Very little money came the way of the 
aviator, despite his wonderful achievemem. 
About $5,000 were the net proceeds. Victor 
J. Evans, patent attornev of Washington, of- 
fered a prize of $10,000 for the flight if it 
could be done between the dates of xVugust 
14 and 27. It was attempted to secure prizes 
from the cities along the route, stops to be 
made in those cities which hung up a purse. 
This scheme was only partially successful 
and at Lyons, N. Y., Atwood broke away 
from this arrangement by the payment of 
some $4,000 and continued his flight to New 
York according to his own desires. On the 
evening of the 25th Mr. Evans presented the 
prize to Atwood at the Hotel Knickerbocker. 




101 



AERONAUTICS 



September, lull 





Atwood starting from the top of the Palisades at Nyack. IMote the wing warp and the air tanks. 



Atwood carried with him on the machine 
a suit case, with some clean clothing and a 
few tools. No passengers were carried, 
though an attempt was made to take up 
Leo Stevens for the stage from Elkhart. It 
was, however, found Impossible to get off 
the ground In the small field. A pair of 
cylindrical copper tanks, 9 ft. long, 10 ins. 
in diameter, were attached to the inachine 
at Castleton for the flight down the Hudson 
River. The wire stays used in this machine 
were made 2 gauges heavier than usual and 
ferrules were used at strut ends at those 
points where they are wrapped with twine 
in the Wright machines. Where plates come 
together and are generally riveted, welding 
is done to inake doubly sure. All ribs were 
"box." 

In 1910 two prizes were open for cross 
country flights: one of the N. Y. Times of 
$25,000 for a flight from Chicago to New 
York and the other of the N. Y. World and 
St. Louis Post-Dlspach, $30,000 for a flight 
between St. Louis and New York. Neither 
were contested for. 

Both prize offers expired by the end of the 
year. The World offer was open for six 
months, the Times prize was for a race 
starting a set day. 

There is no prize open for 1911, save the 
Hearst coast-to-coast flight. 

XOTE : — The first column of fi</iir''s- niiresent 
rnihoiut »m7p.s ,• the xcroiul, miles in stnti<jht line; 
llir tliird. fUlin;/ lime. 

The FIlKhi Day I»y Day. 

Al'C. 14. 



. . .84.96. . . 


.. .2:29 


. . .90.72. . . 


. . .1:53 


. . .84.24. .. 


. . .1:50 



ST. LOUIS 

SFIUNGFIELU, ILLS.. 98 

PONTIAC, ILLS 97. 

CHICAGO. ILLS 91. 



283 259.92 6:12 

This was the longest day's flight of any. 

Passed through two rain storms. Averaged 



46 miles an hour. At Pontiac a supply of 
gasoline and oil was obtained and dinnei 
was had at Springfield. The landing in 
Chicago was at the aviation field on the 
third day of the meet there. Further than 
the rain, the weather was fine and Atwood 
took it easy. 

AUG. 15. 

CHICAGO 

ELKHART, IND., 101 89.87 .2:16 

AUG. 16. 
ELKHART 

PETTISVILLE, O., ..97 92.55 2:06 

TOLEDO, 37 37.28 35 

134 130.13 2:41 

Getting into Toledo, Atwood flew with the 
wind which increased his speed to 65 miles an 
hour. Atwood had railroad time tables with 
him and at towns swooped down low to read 
the name on the stations. His speed for 
this day's flight was 50 miles an hour. 

AUG. 17. 

TOLEDO 

VENICE, O 55 41.60 :59 

SANDUSKY 3 2.24 :05 

CLEVELAND 65 53.92 1:26 

123 97.76 2:30 

Average speed 45 miles an hour. From 
Toledo all the way to Buffalo, Atwood had 
the wind sideways off Lake Brie. The wind 
was especially bothersome from Toledo to 
Cleveland. 

AUG. 18. 

CLEVELAND, O 

SWANVILLE, PA 84 87.68 2.07 

Froni Cleveland the speed dropped to 39 
miles an hour. The start was made from 
Cleveland on a narrow strip of sandy beach, 
narrowly skimming the lake. Puffy side 
winds all the way. The course followed 
along the edge of Lake Erie. 



103 



AERONAUTICS 



September, IVll 




JCof^neto 



ST. LOUIS-NEW YORK 



WHAT 



ATWOOD 

HAS TO SAY 



AUG. 19. f^Jff^^^'^^^^^^^^^^^^i^^^^^^^^^^^'^'^ 

SWANVILLE * 

ERIE 11 8.00 :14 % 

BUFFALO 88 81.28 2:09 * 

99 89.28 2:23 * 

At Swanville the start was made in a 4" 

strong wind. Arriving at Erie one new •i* 

sparliing plug w^as inserted, tlie first mis- 4* 

hap of any kind, if such it may be called. 4" 

* 

AUG. 20. 

BUFFALO 

LYONS 104 96.00 2:11 ^ 

* 

AUG. 21. * 

•i" 

LYONS 4> 

AUBURN 22.88 :56 * 

BELLE ISLE 40 15.68 :32 || 

38.56 1:28 | BOSTON-WASHINGTON 

AUG. 22. J^ 

BELLE ISLE || 

FORT PLAIN 95 83.84 2:10 4> 

4* 

Averaging 44 miles an hour, with the air j^ 

so calm that Atwood either flew with his j^ 

hands in his pockets or became absorbed in J^ 

the doings of the hero in the railroad time- J^ 

table. Fort Plain was reached without inci- <!• 

dent, where he was entliusiastically received 4* 

by Ginseng Bill. * 

* 

AUG. 23. * 

J, 

FORT PLAIN 4, 

CASTLETON 66 53.44 1:32 * 

* 

From Fort Plain, Atwood followed the «|» 

Mohawk River for a way then cut off be- * 

low Albany to the Hudson River, which he •!• 

followed to Castleton, where he changed his 4" 

second spark plug. He stopped 15 minutes 4" 

at a small town named Glen for gasoline. J 

AUG. 24. * 

+ 

CASTLETON * 

GARRISON 86 80.64 2:05 J 

NYACK 23 20.80 :32 4. 

+ 

109 101.44 2:37 * 

At times flying here was 60 miles an houi, ,|i 

the fastest speed that has ever been made j^ 

on, under or above the waters of the Rhine •!• 

of America, first navigated by power when •!• 

Fulton sailed to Albany in the Clermont. •!• 

Since then the Hudson has seen Wilbur + 

Wright fly over its lower end, and Curtiss + 

flew its distance in 1910. Before crossing + 

the river to land on the east bank at Gar- T 

rison, Atwood circled over the parade ground J 

at West Point, in the expectation of land- T 

ing, but the air currents which are always T 

bad at this narrow and crooked part of the 21 

river, made him finally go further. ^ 

•I* 

AUG. 25. 4. 

NYACK J 

NEW YORK 28 28.00 :46 4. 

GRAND TOTALS .1.266 1,155.62 28:53 * 

4* 

Finding something wrong with the engine, j, 

a landing was made necessary at Nyack, on ju 

the top of the high hills which a little lower 4. 

down the river form the Palisades. Here 4. 

two bearings were found to be burnt out. 4. 

These were babbitted again over night, 4> 

and in the dense fog of the next day, the 41 

25th, flew down the rest of the way to 4« 

Governor's Island, where he was cordially 4» , , . . . j.j. 

greeted by the officers of the military post. 4.+4i+4'+*+4'++++++**++*+++4'4"i"i"l'** 



BURGESS COMPANY and CURTIS 

Marblehead, Mass., Aug. ^8, 1911. 
Messrs. Marburg Bros., 
Broadway and 58th St., 
New York, N. Y. 
Gentlemen : — 

Allow me to contrratulate you upon 
the high qunlity of the Mea mngiieto which 
served so well on my fiiBlits from Boston to 
Washington and from St. Louis to New York. 
It mHy interest you to know that Ihe 
only control over the motor was llirougli the 
retardation of the spark as no thiotlle or 
other control of the gasolene supply i-* pro- 
vided. The metliod of control through the 
spark has given satisfactory results in all of 
my long distance flights. 

Yours very truly, 
(Signed) HARRY N. ATWOOD. 



USED BY 



WRIGHT 

BURGESS-WRIGHT 
AUSTRIAN FIAT 



SIMPLEX 
MERCEDES 



MAXIMOTOR 

ASK FOR CATALOG 

No. 9 



MARBURG BROS. 



4> 

* 
* 

* 
* 

I 
HALL-SCOTT * 

* 

* 

+ 
+ 
+ 

«. % 



1777 BROADWAY 
-NEW YORK 



103 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



GARROS MAKES N E W^ ALTITUDE 



PARAME, France. Sept. 4. — FlyiiiK over 
the sea here to-day, Garros broke the 
J world's aeroplane altitude record by 
ascending; 13.»40. 

The Z Man Altitude Record. 
It wa.s reported fi-om Enf^land that Comte 
de Montalent and passeng-ei- tlew up to 2,200 
meters (7,21fi ft.) in his P.reguet biplane at 
Brooklands, Aus'. 9. Confirmation of this 
will be awaited witti interest. 

1-Man Altitude 

ETAMPl-S, France, Aug. 5.— Capt. Felix 
director of the Military Aviation School, as- 
cended .3350 metres in his Bleriot, (10,9S8 feet) 
breaking the aeroplane record for heiglit. Tlie 
ascent was made in 59 minute.s, and the avia- 
tor planed down in 6 minutes. The flight lasted 
in all 1 liour 1.5 minute.s. 

The official record for altitude had been held 
by Legagneux, who at Pau, France, last Dec- 
ember rose to a height of 10,168 feet. 

The late Archie Hoxsey reached an unofflcial 
height of 11,474 feet at Los Angeles, Dec. 26. 

Vedrines Flies 496 Miles. 

PARIS, Aug. 9. .Jules Ved'ines (Mo ane) the 
French aviator, broke the record for a long- 
distance flight over a closed circuit in compet- 
ing for the Michelin Cup. He covered 811.2 kil- 
ometers (504 miles) in 10 hours 56 minutes and 
42 seconds beating Loridan's mark. 

Vedrines flew over a measured course of 
101 kilometers. In tlie third round he stopped 
22 minutes for gas and oil, and 50 minutes in 
the 6th and 7th. His official record stands at 
800 kilometers for this prize. His average fly- 
ing speed was 93 kilometers per hour. The 
10 hours 56 minutes includes the 50 minute stops. 
He used the same machine wliich covered the 
1010 mile British circuit. His actual flying 
time was 8 hrs. 54 min. 45 sec. 



Cody Finishes 1010-Mile Race. 

BROOKLANDS, England. Aug. 5.— Capt. F. S. 
C^dy limped back to Brooklands today, two 
weeks after his departuie on the 1010 mile 
Circuit of Great Britain. His French rivals 
Beaumont who won, and Vedrines, completed 
the course in four days. 

With the arrival of Capt. Cody the com e- 
tition, in which only four men out of nineteen 
finished, is ended. The otlier man to finish the 
entire course, placed third, was J. Valentine, 
who reached home the night before. These two 
though badly beaten by the Frenchmen, made 
it a point to show that all British aviators and 
machines could start if given time enough. 

Vedrines, after finishing second in the big 
race, flew home to Issy, near Paris, on Aug. 4, 
using the same machine. He stopped once at 
Dieppe, after crossing the Channel. He cov- 
ered 290 kilometers in 2 hours 35 minutes. 
New Michelin Trial. 

SAINT CYR, France, Aug. 7. Eugene Re- 
nau.K (M. Farman) came near to Loridan's 
(H. Farman) Michelin Cup record made .July 
21, 700 kilometer, when he covered 657 kilo- 
meters (418 miles) in 11 hours of actual flying: time for 
stops not counted. 

New 2-Man Distance Record. 

CHARTRES, France, .July 30.— Level (Sav- 
ary Jjiplane) beat the two-m.ml oi tance record h\ 
doing 241.79 kilometers. His time was:} hours l.Smiiuite- 
3.5.8 seconds. The duration record up to the time of the 
Chicago meet, was held by Amerigo. 3 hours 19 minutes. 

Levels other records made, July 9, are: — - 

2 hrs 151 kil. 

3 hrs 224.85 kil. 

200 kil 2 hrs. 38 min. 26.4 sec. 

Beats Vedrine's Recoro. 
MOURMELON, France, Aug. 26— M. Helles, a 
\-oung French aviator, has broken Jules Ved- 
rine's long flight record in competition for the 
Michelin (bup. He covered 860 kilometers. 



AERO 



MART 



Engines fur .Sale. 

ENGINE F(JR SALE. — A. Harriman, 30-H. 
P. engine; Eisemann magneto; late model; 
bargain at $400. Address Harriman, care 
AERONAUTICS. TF 



FOR SALE — One 50 H. I'. 4 cvlinder, 4 
cycle, Harriman engine. We bought this 
engine for a biplane, but the plane was a 
failure and was never completed, the reason 
we are selling. Harriman Co. selling this 
engine for $1,650, our price with two pro- 
pellers, $700. 

LE BRON-ADAMS AEROPLANE CO., 

313 So. 12th St., Omaha, Neb.— Sep. 



F(JR SALE — .\n 8 cylinder "V Type," 
aviation engine, 30-40 H. P., in perfect con- 
dition. Very little used. 270 lbs. thrust 
driving. 7' 6" dia., 4" pitch propeller. De- 
monstration to prospective purchaser. $560 
complete, including brand new Bosch mag- 
neto and propeller. Address "X," c/o AERO- 
NAUTICS.— Sept. 



FOR SALE AT A SACRIFICE.— Five brand 
new four throw crank shafts, finest vanadium 
steel made by P. H. Gill, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Suitable for 25-30 H. P. engine. Reason for 
selling, we are no longer building engines of 
this size. For price, .specifications, etc., ad- 
dress fjuick, 

ENGINE BUILDERS, 
Care Aeronautics, Sep. 



I'dNitions AVanted. 

E(^UILIBRIST, SLACK WIRE WALKER, 
well educated, good business training in 
office, experienced in shop work, four sea- 
sons operating own automobiles, wishes to 
associate with manufacturer to give flying 
exhibitions, train others and prosecute busi- 
ness generally. Excellent reputation. Ad- 
dress "Equilibiist," care "AERONAUTICS." 

Sejj. 

Carliiiretor KiKht.s for .Sale. 

FOR S.\I>E — The J. .M. Automatic Carbu)-- 
etor for sale. Rights sell for $2.00 or 20'o 
in same to manufacturers. John McDonald, 
Jr., Point Prim. P.E.I. , Can. Sep. 

llu.sineMM Cards. 

J. ED. SHEFilFF, MECH.\NICAL EN- 
GINEER AND 1NVENT(JR. ORIGINAL DE- 
SIGNS A SPECIALTY. 125 WATTS ST.. 
NEW YOl^K. Dec. 

Xeroplnne.s for Sale. 

AMATEUR AlJtMEX: — Full size MuNO- 
PLANE I'eady for power, $75.ihi. One pas- 
senger; fine flyer. Four cent stamp for \>a.v- 
ticulars. Send now. E. C. ."Ml.N'ERT .AERO 
CO., 1122 West Locust St., Davenport, Iowa. 

.Sep. 

FOK .SAI.K CMF.Ar— Curtiss (Tvp.) Hiplano. IciiL'th 
:« ft .width .)0x:. ft., 1:5,50.0(1. .50 H. 1'. U.K. .WIATION 
MOTOR Al condition, with two 7 ft. I'ropellcrs.r J''4 and 
5-''4 ft. pitcli. one ti-jrallon Gasolene Tank and one :J-galloii 
Radiator. .$.500.00. TENT Al condition, loxfio ft., loft. 
wall, $175.00. First come, lirst served. 

LOUIS G. EKICKSON. 
872 Liberty St.. Sprinf-'tield, Mass.| —Sept 



104 



AERONAUTICS 



SclHember, 1911 




THE Aeronautical Society in its 
promotion uf aeronautics iias made good 
progress in the past month in the way of 
affoiding facilities for member's' benefit. 
Its regular semi-montlily lectures and discus- 
sions iiave been iiarticularly good. 

Mr. Alfied Thompson, a noted scientist and 
authority on Vanadium, gave an interesting lec- 
ture, illustrated with lantern slides, showing 
the compai'itive merits of Vanadium steel with 
other steels. The Society is publishing this 
lecture in full detail in bulletin form, showing 
tables and cuts used, which will be forwarded 
to its members and to the interested public 
upon request. 

Thursday evening, August 10th, was very in- 
teresting, the discussions for the evening being 
devoted to Interrral Combustion Motors, pre- 
sented on all sides by the following speakers: 

R. B. Whitman, "Gas Engine PrincriJles," 

Lewis R. Compton, "The Two cycle Kirgine", 

Jas. G. Dudley, "The Two Cycle Errgine". 

Hugo C. Gibson, "The Four Cycle Engine and 
Common Misunderstandings", 

George S. Bradt, "General Faults in Motors", 

Ernest A. Von Muffling. "The Six Cycle 
Motor". 

Members in general at the meeting joined in 
the discussion on the merits of tlie two and four 
cycle motors, and infornration of considerable 
value was brought to light. 

Thursday evening, August 21st, was the eve- 
ning devoted by the Society to a general dis- 
cussion and a special talk by Mr. Arthur R. 
Mosler on "Spark Plugs and Their Construc- 
tion in General". Mr. Mosler exhibited num- 
erous models and samples of Spit Fire plugs 
and explained their operation and advantages. 

Mr. R. E. Sabin gave an interesting talk and 
special information on "Air Holes", with de- 
monstrations on blackboard. 

The Society will continue to hold informal 
meetings every Thursday evening at its Club 
Rooms, 250 West 54th street, while the Enter- 
tainment Committee has arranged a series of 
notably interesting lectures and talks for the 
Pall and Winter-, which will be held on the 
General Meeting nights — the 2nd and 4th 
Thursdays of each month. 

It should be noted that the Technical Board 
of the Society, composed of twenty-five emin- 
ent men from all sections of the country, is 
doing exceedingly valuable work. This Board 
is sub-divided in the following committees: 
Standardization Committee, 
Research Committee, 
Record Committee, 
Construction Committee. 

Each of these committees is at the special 
service of members seeking advice, co-operation 
or assistance in advancing the particular work 
the menrljer may have irr view. 

The Aero Club of California, Lns 

Angeles, has changed its rocjms to '.'A'.) Soutir 
Hill street. The club is also taking steps to 
acquire new grounds nearer the city. 

The Eaton Brothers and Co., have established 
a flying ground at Hyde Park, a suburb of Los 
Angeles. They are manufacturing biplanes at 
present. They have a maclrlne of their own 
make, a Curtiss model, but modified as to the 
running gear, which is partially a Sommer. 

They have two engines, a Hall-Scott 60 h. p. 
and a Ford automobile engine. This engine 
(Ford a 22 h. p.) has been tuned up until it 
gives between 30 and ?,:^ h. p. and Warren S. 
Eaton is making daily flights with it. 

In fact, the engine works so well that he is 
able to take up a passenger. Mr. Eaton is one 
of our old club members. Though young in 
years, being but 19, we expect to see him de- 



velop into one of our ci-ack fivers in the near 
future. He is a graduate of the Los Angeles 
Polytechnrc High School, wher-e he received his 
mechanical training. 

Frank Champion, a Long Beach boy, in a 
Blerrot belonging to Earl Remington, (50 h. p. 
Gnome), made a cross-country flight fr-om Dom- 
rnguez field to Long Beach and return on July 
oOth. This is his fir-st flight in this country. 
A year ago he went to London and took lessons 
in flying. I am infoi-med that the Aeronautical 
Society of California, has secured Dominguez 
field for its flying gr-ound. This flight lasted 
about 45 mrnutes and the course lay partly 
over the ocean. 

II. La V. TWINING 

The Trenton Aeroplane Club, Trenton, N. .1., 
has been incor-poi-ated. 

Mechanics' Aeronautical Association is the 
name of a new club at Rochester, N. Y. Offlcers 
are as follows: President, George Boulton; 
vrce-president, Fred Dengler; corresponding 
secr-etary, H. H. Simms; treasurer, Howard 
B. Nurse: governors, Fred Robinson, Charles 
Riek and Glen Atkins. Communications will 
reach the club in care of Mr. Nurse, 304 Cut- 
ler Building. 

The Continental Aero Club has been for-med 
at Richmond, Ky. ; Capital $1,000. Incorpor- 
ators: W. F. Higgins, W. J. Newson, H. R. 
Tevis and S. ,E. Norman. 

Aeronautical Research Club of the Y. M. C. A. 

Buffalo, N. y., formed during August. The 
officers elected are: President, N. E. (^orrin; 
Vice-President, James Steller; Treasurer, N. 
E. Marks; Secretary, H. C. Myers; Consulting 
Engineer-, C. L. White. 

The Aero Club of Oalifurnla, with Earle 
Remington as president, has been established 
as a sort of combination business and club 
arrangement and bids fair to survive its birth. 
The Society has secured Dominguez Field for 
its f1\ing gr-ounds. 

Author of "VelilfU'.s of the .Mr" Ite-signN 
ChioiiKo <'lul>, 

Chicago, August 12th, lyil. 
Mr. Gr-over F. Sexton, 

Secr-etary Aero Club of Illinois, 
Auditorium Hotel, 
Chicago. 

My dear Mr. Sexton: — 

1 am surr-endoring herewith my member- 
ship cai-d, and with it tender my resigna- 
tion in the Aero Club of Illinois, the same 
to take effect immediately. 

Feeling that many of my friends in the 
club may expect and are entitled to some 
explanation, I am herein stating my rea- 
sons for this action. 

When I enlisted in the formation of the 
club, it was then clearly intended that its 
organization was for the effective and in- 
telligent promotion of aviation progress In 
this locality, and it was anything but my 
understanding that it was to be utilized 
iir any way as a vehicle for the furtherance 
of personal interests or social ambitions 
on the part of any portion of its member- 
ship. Assuring him of this view, I pre- 
vailed thi-ough personal friendship upon Mr. 
Octave Chanute to lend his great prestige 



105 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



to the infant club, by becoming its first 
president — an office that he most reluct- 
antly agreed to accept, and then only with 
the "distinct stipulation that the example 
of a well-known and much-criticised east- 
ern aero club, which had degenerated into 
an association of millionaire balloonists, 
was the type of thing- to be avoided at all 
costs. 

The outcome I regret to state, has been 
anything but what was hoped, and certain 
aspects of the present International Avia- 
tion Meet enterprise compel the realization 
that The Aero Club of Illinois no longer of- 
fers any opportunity w^hatever for men not 
bulwarked by money, nor rated in society 
to contribute to the progress of aviation. 
Instead, there has come into being a sordid 
self-seeking on the part of individuals — an 
almost complete subordination of practical 
and personal interest in aviation to a chief- 
ly academic regard for and a social patron- 
age of its possibilities. 

One of the principal purposes behind the 
organization of The Aero Club of Illinois 
was that of casting off the domination or 
the Aero Club of America, an essentially 
local New York Club, which because of its 
early formation, usurped and has sought 
to maintain control of aviation sport 
throughout the country, and has thus suc- 
ceeded in constituting itself a clog upon 
rather than a help to flight development. 
At one time, when a secession of western 
clubs from the Aero Club of America was 
led in New York by the writer and other 
members of The Aero Club of Illinois, it 
appeared as if the democratization of the 
sport was really in prospect, but since then 
everything accomplished has been practi- 
cally nullified by almost a complete acqui- 
escence in almost every imposition of the 
eastern club— even to the extent that the 
superserviceable secretary of the Aero Club 
of America has been employed to define 
and dictate the rules of the present Chi- 
cago competition. 

The meet itself, under the guise of a non- 
profit-paying corporation, has been turned 
into a salary-disbursing business organiza- 
tion, and its management vested in the 
hands of a man with the tact of a Mis- 
souri mule, whose only claim to the spe- 
cial knowledge desirable for the place in- 
heres in the fact that he has a ejuII with 
the city administration and was a notori- 
ous local politician out of a job. 

Concerning the question of passes and 
admissions, which it has been attempted 
to magnify into the reason for the fast- 
growing criticisms of the meet and its man- 
agement, this has been left arbitrarily in 
the hands of favored officials, who have 
utilized their authority to favor their 
friends and antagonize others. Already 
this question has become a sore subject 
with almost every working newspaper man 
or other person having legitimate a business 
at the fields or hangars, and already there 
are many representatives of the press who 
have paid admissions or missed news rather 
than waste time in the continued attempt 
to secure that to which every tradition of 
their profession and every interest of the 
meet legitimately entitles them. And yet 
it was a matter of general consent Satur- 
day afternoon that while everyone with 
proper business instead of a special pull 
was bullied away from the hangar enclos- 
ure — a place of undoubted danger if over- 
ctowded — this place was packed with from 
one to two thousand friends, and friends 
of friends of ceitain meet officials — a stripe 
of petty grafting that naturally excited 
criticism. 

As for the quality of the exhibition that 
is furnished, while this is certain to prove 
vastly attractive to the numerous local 
population whose interest has been hereto- 
fore almost unsatisfied by Chicago's un- 
paralleled and wholl.v unnecessary back- 
wardness in aviation, every expert In this 



field of engineering knows that it is any- 
thing but what so important and populous 
a community has a right to expect at this 
time for the amount of money expended. In- 
deed, Chicago is being made to pay heavily 
for a show that is not even as good as can 
be seen for nothing at almost any time, at 
any of the European aviation grounds, or 
even at the grounds of the Wright company 
in this country. Yet there should have 
been no difficulty, for the same expenditure, 
in bringing to Chicago, for the time at least, 
practically every world's aeroplane record, 
thus making the most constitute an epochal 
point in the history of aviation. Instead 
there is billed simply a hippodrome exploita- 
tion of such aviation progress as had been 
made up to about a year and a half ago, at 
which time there were plenty of fiyers cap- 
able of doing everything that is going to be 
seen at this meet. 

This condition has resulted largely from 
the patently ill-advised policy of refusing 
bonuses and guarantees to the great flyers 
of the world, whose claim for special finan- 
cial consideration has been recognized at 
all other meets and is most legitimately 
based upon the fact that they are the men 
who have spent their money and risked their 
lives for the experimenting and the manu- 
facturing that have afforded the most im- 
portant results. The effect upon the quality 
of the meet as a result of this no-guarantee 
policy is readily discoverable in an analysis 
of the entries, which have shrunken from 
the much-touted list of fifty to the actual 
appearance of sixteen, the eliminations in- 
cluding most of those from whom really 
notable results were reasonably to have been 
expected. Those left include little of nov- 
elty aside from Curtiss' interesting hydro- 
aeroplane and a lone Morane that is one of 
the first of its type to reach this country. 
The rest are a few Curtiss machines, one 
antiquated Bleriot, three or four American 
counterfeits of ancient Bleriots, and a con- 
siderable number of Wright biplanes, which 
can be depended upon to carry away the 
lion's' share of the prize money. And had it 
not been for the Wright's fortunate 
eleventh-hour decision to forget for the 
time their own serious differences with the 
meet management, this most considerable 
portion of the show would not be in evi- 
dence — with the eftect, for example, that 
the eight machines in flight at once on 
Saturday would have been reduced to three. 

It is evident to all who know that from 
such an aggregation of slow and obsolete 
aeroplanes there can be little hope of new 
records coming — unless by the process of 
claiming them instead of making them, as 
was done in the case of the passenger flight 
of Welsh on Saturday, which despite the 
misstatements to the contrary, does not sup- 
plant the three hour and nineteen minute 
flight made by Amerigo abroad, nor the 
one made in France on July 1, by 
Level in a Savary machine, M. Junquet as 
a passenger. Similarly mediocre, and 
equally significant of what is to be ex- 
pected here, was yesterday's flfty-mile-an- 
hour speed record when compared with the 
world's official speed record of eighty miles 
an hour, and numerous unofficial records 
abroad in excess of one hundred miles an 
hour. 

The time is fast approaching when there 
will be room in Chicago for an aero club 
that will concern itself with the problem of 
flight and the advancement of flight, rather 
than with circus exploitation and society 
patronage of the men who are doing things 
in this field of engineering. And such a 
club will depend for its strength not upon 
wealth lavished upon the spectacular end 
of a hobby, but upon a membership of the 
men who are building and improving aero- 
planes and flying them. 

I am. 

Sincerely, 
VICTOR LOUGH BED. 



I 



106 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 




anyone will credit us with chars;ing- fake 
against Ovington, Baldwin and' Willard 
whose names were mentioned, but several 
minds, who obviously must be quite dense 
have endeavored to make it appear that 
we have classed these gentlemen, friends, 
with those referred to above in quotation 
marks. We hope that this paragraph will 
make it clear to all. 



Cable: Aeronautic. New York 
'Phone 4833 Columbus 



A. V. JONES, Pres't 
ERNEST L. JONES. Editor 



E. L. JONES. Treas'r-Sec'y 
J. C. BURKHART. Ass't Editor 



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advertising REPRESENTATIVES: 

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No. 50 SEPTEMBER, 1911 Vol. 9, No. 3 

COPYRIGHT. 1B11. AERONAUTICS PRESS. INC. 

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice 

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WHOLESALE WRIGHT SUITS. 

Attention has been called to the wordins 
of a sentence which appeared under this 
caption, in the fifth paragraph, in the Aug- 
ust number. While the sentence perhaps 
is a little bit obscure as to meaning, it was 
certainly intended to make a distinction 
between those well-known aviators who 
were specifically mentioned, and "the large 
number of lesser lights who are killing the 
chances for future meets or exhibitions 
all over the country, by failing to satisfy 
the public, or even fly at all in many cases." 
It does not seem possible to believe that 



COMMENDABLE, BUT INCONSISTENT. 

In a recent bulletin issued by the Aero Club of 
America, tlie following resolution occurs: "RE- 
bOLVED that the Aero Club of America 
sti-ongly deprecates the practice of flying over 
large cities at this stage of the development of 
aeronautics; that this practice presents in many 
cases danger to the public and offers no parti- 
cular good or utility, from a scientific or any 
other standpoint, and that any accident brought 
about thereby at this time would greatly dis- 
courage the progress of the Art by arousing 
popular prejudice against it." 

This is but following in the wake of foreign 
clubs, some of which have suspended pilots for 
flying over thickly populated districts. It is 
undoubtedly a step in the right direction, and, 
if consistently followed up, will tend to de- 
crease ci'oss-city flying, which certainly pre- 
sents features of a dangerous nature at the 
present stage of the art. 

Resolutions, however, are of little use when 
not consistently backed up by a judicious exer- 
cise of authority; and, in this case as in many 
others that we might mention, the Aero Club 
has painfully demonstrated the truth of the old 
saying, "Consistency, thou art a jewel!" In 
short, just a few days after the issue of the 
aforesaid interesting bulletin, a cross-country 
contest was officially conducted under the 
auspices of a club affiliated with the A. C. A., 
which contest involved flying over the most 
thickly populated parts of at least two cities. 
New York and Philadelphia. Moreover, at least 
one of the machines in this contest was new 
and untried and an aviator of wide reputation 
refused to take the risk of flying it without trial. 

LTp to the present writing, we have not heard 
of the Aero Club rising up in righteous indigna- 
tion on account of this flagrant disregard for 
its "resolutions," nor have any of the aviators 
concerned been threatened with excommunica- 
tion, so far as we know. All of which causes us 
to remark, with tears in our voice, "Consis- 
tency, old top, cheer up; the worst is yet to 
come!" 



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107 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



IN THE MANUFACTURING FIELD 

Description of the New 712 H. P. Adams-Farwell Aviatiou ,>Iotor. 



The Adams Company, Dubuque, Iowa, who 
in 1S98 built the first revolving cylinder 
motor that actually ran, and since 1903 have 
been building the Adams-Parwell car, 
driven by a motor of this type, are now 
turning their attention seriously to the 
production of high-powered aviation motors, 
and have brought out a 72 h.p. motor, re- 
volving vertically, as shown by photograph 
herewith. 

Since most of the laurels won by heavier 
than air flyers have gone to motors of the 
revolving cylinder type, this new motor, by 
the world's first builders of that type, is 
of especial interest. In addition to building 
Adams-Farwell motors and cars, the Adams 
Co. are large manufacturers of machine 
tools and hardware specialties, so have not 
found it necessary to market an aviation 
motoi- in the expei'imental stage. 




In some respects this motor is very sim- 
ilar to the five cylinder revolving motors 
used in the Adams-Parwell automobile, hav- 
ing the same number of cylinders, the same 
single throw crank, the same positive oiler 
and the same crank construction. In other 
respects, however, it is quite different, be- 
ing designed from the ground up solely 
for aviation purposes, and revolving in a 
vertical plane, so that it may be direct 
connected to propeller shaft or have pro- 
peller mounted directly upon the motor for 
aeroplane work. 

The most interesting improvement found 
on this motor and no doubt, the most im- 
portant advance made in the consti-uction 
of aviation motors since the introduction 
of the revolving cylinder type, is the 
elimination of the carburetor and employ- 
ment of injection with a means for abso- 
lutely regulating the amount of gasoline 
injected into each cylinder, and insuring 
that all cylinders will receive exactly the 
same mixture. This also makes it pos- 
sible to do away with the inlet valve, and 
employ one valve for both inlet and ex- 
haust, as only air is drawn in by the suc- 
tion stroke of the piston, while the gasoline 
is sprayed within the cylinder where it is 
mixed with the charge of air before com- 
pression. Having but one valve in the 
head of the cylinder, it can be made amply 
large to insure a full charge and a fiee 
exhaust. 



In order to relieve the cam controlling 
the action of all five valves from the heavy 
load of opening a large valve against the 
high pressure at the time exhaust takes 
place, the cylinders are provided with aux- 
iliary exhaust ports, which are uncovered 
by the piston on its downward stroke. No 
check valves are required over these aux- 
iliary ports, as on the suction stroke, 
pure air and not a mixture of gas is drawn 
in, so what air is drawn in through the 
auxiliary ports on the suction stroke be- 
comes a part of the explosive mixture in 
the cylinder, and being a constant quant- 
ity does not affect the operation of tlie 
motor. 

The control of the motor is entirelv 
taken care of by regulating the amount of 
gasoline used, and the only adjustment that 
might be construed as belonging to the 
carburetion system, is the valve by means 
of which this control is accomplished. The 
motor IS not sensitive to adjustment, and 
the speed may be regulated through quite 
a wide range by this simple means. 

The lubrication system above mentioned 
consists of an oiling device covered by one 
of Mr. F. O. Farwell's patents. This oiler 
consists of a single rotary member much 
resembling in form the cylinder of a re- 
volver, with longitudinal chambers bored 
therein. Bach of these chambers carries 
a plunger which, as the cylinder revolves 
is driven from end to end by two station- 
ary cams, causing a small amount of oil 
to be drawn in to each of the chambers 
at the bottom and ejected into a corres- 
ponding tube at the top. 

This oiler supplies cylinder oil of an ex- 
tra heavy grade to the various bearings 
and to the cylinders, doing away with the 
necessity for splash lubrication which 
calls for the flooding of other revolving cyl- 
inder motors with a great quantity of oil 
which gums up the valves and soots up the 
spark plugs. 

There are two spark plugs in each cyl- 
inder of this motor, and two independent 
ignition systems are employed, so that 
either or both of the set of plugs may be 
used, thus insuring against the accidental 
stoppage of the motor frona a broken wire. 

Something" over ten years ago, the Adams 
Coinpany conducted a series of experiments 
to determine the action of the air in cir- 
culating about the cylinder of a revolving 
cylinder motor, and as a result, established 
beyond question the fact that longitudinal 
ribs are much more efficient than the cir- 
cular type. The air coming in contact with 
the cylinder walls is thrown off radiall.v, 
circulating lengthwise of the' cylinders, so 
the only logical arrangement of cooling 
ribs is lengthwise of the cylinders. The 
placing of ribs in this way has the further 
advantage of strengthening the cylinder 
against tensile strain caused by the action 
of centrifugal force, and the explosion. 

This new motor operates satisfactorily on 
any grade of gasoline, using ordinary stove 
gasoline or naphtha with pert'ect success, 
but when these grades are employed, it 
is desirable to have a small tank of higher 
grade gasoline to facilitate starting. 

In designing this motor, reliability has 
been considered above extreme light weight, 
as evidenced by the large bearings on the 
connecting rods, and crank shaft, and the 
fact that four rings are employed on the 
pistons where some builders of aviation 
motors are using only a single ring. 

The materials employed are, of course, of 
the highest class, and Vanadium Chrome 
Nickel Steel is used wherever practicable. 

Having a bore of six inches and stroke 
the same, this motor is rated at 72 h. p. 
by the A. L. A. M. formula (square the 



\ 



\ 



108 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



bore, multiply by the number of cylinders 
and divide by two and one-half), and on 
actual propeller tests, has delivered more 
power than this. It di'ives a 9 ft. 6 in. pro- 
peller of 6-ft. pitch at 900 to 1,000 r. p. m. 
developing a thrust of 440 to 460 lbs., which 
pull can be maintained indefinitely without 
overheating motor. 

Probably 72 h. p. is more than the aver- 
age aviator requires at present, but as com- 
petition in this line becomes more keen 
and greater records must be set to interest 
government officials and other prospective 
purchasers of heavier than air machines, 
this additional power will be required and 
as machines, of greater stability and larger 
carrying capacity are built, tiie high power 
will be found essential. Another point to 
be remembered is that while a motor of 
small power may be able to fly when prop- 
erly tuned up, it is necessary to have a 
motor of larger power if one is to be sure 
of flying under all conditions and rising 
from the ground quickly, where there is 
not room for a long run in starting. 

Those who have seen tiiis motor on the 
testing stand, declare that it is the ideal 
motor for aviation purposes and will, no 
doubt, be the future power plant of many 
record breaking machines. 

The J. M, Carburetor 

John McDonald, Jr., of Point Prim, P. & 
E. Island, Canada, has sent us the follow- 
ing description of a carburetor of his own 
design, which he is desirous of putting on 




-Cap 



CARBURETOR- 

&UCKLE- or- 
tJAio. r^hon- 

ALb, Point P-r'im 
Pfc Islarni Cdn. 



^CZZZZ, 



^10 




iQ^^ 



the market. This is intended to fill all re- 
quirements, and to run perfectly at speeds 
from 50 to 1,200 r. p. m. No adjustments 
of any kind are to be made. Tlie illustra- 
tion shows the arrangement and operation. 
Gas enters at A and passes through needle 
valve B, which is actuated by the float, 
keeping the gasoline at the same height 
as the nozzle C. The main air intake is at 



DD. The piston B, driven by the cog from 
the engine power, compresses the air and 
gas, forcing it up into the mixing chamber 
F, from which the engine receives it. For 
high engine speeds there is an auxiliary 
air intake provided in the ball cage GG. 
The mixing chamber has a hot water jacket 
to assure an even temperature at all times. 
The piston of the compressor is oiled by 
splash from the base of the carburetor. 

"Curtiss-Type" Aeroplanes. 

The use of the words "Curtiss-type" in 
advertisements of aeroplanes built by 
others than the Curtiss Aeroplane Co. has 
caused the statement which appears below, 
to be sent out from the Curtiss office. 

One concern which operated in New York 
and carried big advertisements in some of 
the other aeronautical papers and automo- 
bile journals boldly promised to deliver 
"Curtiss" aeroplanes without motors, at 
around five hundred dollars. The word 
"type" was not even used. Statements, 
though not in advertisements, were even 
made by this company that their machines 
were actually made at the Curtiss factory. 
Anyone who purchased a machine on such 
a condition from this five-hundred-dollar 
concern were certainly defrauded. 

For the purpose of quickly telling the 
general appearance of some newly built 
aeroplane, the use of "Curtiss-type" has 
something to commend it. 

Farman produced an aeroplane with cer- 
tain more or less easily distinguishable fea- 
tures and machines made by others, which 
resembled the Farman original were called 
"Parman-types" for the purpose of giving 
at once a general idea of their forms and 
principal characteristics. Curtiss produced 
another pattern with easily distinguishable 
characteristics, and copies of this, or ma- 
chines resembling' the Curtiss in a general 
way, were also described by saying "Cur- 
tiss-type." 

This manner of nomenclature has been 
adopted universally. To describe the gen- 
eral appearance of an aeroplane without 
using such an expression as above, would 
necessitate the use of a photograph every 
time a certain not-well-known machine 
were mentioned, or would entail a lengthy, 
dry description, which would be worthless 
save to convey to the mind of a reader all 
that is simply set forth in the two words 
in question. 

It is claimed that such an expression as 
this lays the user thereof open to prose- 
cution where it is used to induce the sale 
of aeroplanes, on the ground that a name 
is an asset and no other manufacturer has 
the right to derive profit from its use. 
The Curtiss Company says: — 

"Because of the dependability and popu- 
larity of the Curtiss biplane, numerous at- 
tempts have been made to copy it. Through- 
out the country alleged aeroplanes, repre- 
senting nothing more than fhe efforts of 
local carpenters and blacksmiths have been 
brought forth. Because in these struc- 
tures, endeavors had been made to repro- 
duce Curtiss ideas and achievements, these 
'machines,' as defective in many instances 
that they couldn't be fiown under any cir- 
cumstances, have been called 'Curtiss' or 
'Curtiss-tvpe' biplanes. In attempting to 
flv these imitation aeroplanes many would- 
be aviators have come to grief. They have 
injured themselves physically and finan- 
cially. Out of pocket always and in the 
hosp'ital usually, they learned by sad ex- 
perience that something more than a two 
dollar blue-print was required to insure 
the construction of an efficient aeroplane. 

"Occasionally, in a machine more or less 
rudely copied from a Curtiss model, an am- 
ateur has succeeded in making straight- 
away flights for short distances. But all 
the 'achievements with 'home-made imita- 
tion Curtiss biplanes' amount to scarcely 
more than this. Several persons, having 
more known hardihood than ability, have 
advertised themselves, in an entirely^ un- 
authorized manner, as 'Curtiss aviators. 



109 



AERONAUTICS 



Aeroplanes at $90. 

Aeroplanes are getting: to be cheaper than 
automobiles. Here is a concern, the Wol- 
verine Aeronautic Co., of Albion, Mich., sup- 
plying all the parts for a biplane, save the 
cloth, motor and wheels, ready to be bolted 
tog-ether, for ninety dollars. The biplanes 
are even guaranteed to fly and replace- 
ments from defects are replaced free of 
charge for a year. The same machine set 
up, clothed and in its right mind, except 
for power plant, sells for $400. The first 
of these was bought by T. Tanner, in Cleve- 
land, O., who put in a Roberts motor and 
flew it first shot without any trouble at all. 
There is no excuse now for anyone staying 
on the ground, except that of cold feet. 
All aviation editors will now have machines 
of their own, no doubt. 

Two-Seater Ameriean-Built Monoplane. 

Willie Haupt wants to make a flight over 
New York or around Manhattan Island in 
the new monoplane, copied after the late 
70 h. p. Bleriot, which he bought from the 
American Aeroplane Supply House, of 
Hempstead, fitted with a Roberts two-cycle 
motor. A new machine with the same kind 
of a motor has been completed for Judge 
J. A. Brackett, of Boston. This in a two- 



Septemher, 1911 



M£i>r-aBgf 




seater and is probably the only one of Its 
kind as yet in this country. This was dem- 
onstrated the first of August, by Haupt, 
who circled the Mineola Field for 15 min- 
utes with a passenger. A. V. Reyburn, of 
St. Louis, is another purchaser of one of 
these monoplanes, to be fitted with a 100 
h. p. Emerson. 

A visit to the factory of this concern, 
at 266 Main street, in Hempstead, L. I., was 
rather of a surprise. The workmen are 
doing overtime on the monoplanes in order 
to meet the urgent demands of the cus- 
tomers who want to break them up or fly 
them before snow falls. All the woodwork 
is done right in the one building, the cov- 
ering of the planes, the brazing of the 
metal parts like tubing. Even the Bes- 
semer "U" bolts, of the varying sizes, are 
bent and threaded here. The workman- 
ship displayed on these machines is excel- 
lent and fully up to the original. 

Application of Clutch to Aeroplanes. 

With progress rapidly being made in the 
maneouvering and construction of aeroplane.'^, 
refinement of details are occupying the minds 
of designers and engineers who have become 
interested in aviation. Pilots are being com- 
fortably shielded from the elements, and in- 
struments of precision and maps are already 
a part of the equipment of the present-day 
'planes — non-magnetic compasses, revolution 
counters, anemometers, gasoline and oil sights, 
barometers, pressure gauges, inclinometers, 
etc. For a long time dirigibles have been as 
completely outfitted proportionately as the 
latest ocean liner. 

The one thing that, after the invention of 
the motor, made tine automobile of today pos- 
sible, the clutch, has been applied to the Zo- 




diac dirigililes, those of the Astra company 
and tlie new Zeppelins, and even to the aero- 
plane. 

The modern aviator starts his motor with 
a crank, the same way as he starts that of 
Ills automobile, with which he has come to 
tlie aerodrome. The staiting of the engine 
by turning over the propeller against the com- 
pression, with its attendant possibility of a 
"kick," ever a source of danger and an ac- 
complishment that has already caused the in- 
jury and death of several mechanics, is soon 
to be a thing of the past. 

To design an aeroplane clutch with a proper 
friction surface, and without too great weight, 
has been a problem, apparently solved in the 
new Hele-Shaw clutch marketed by the Mer- 
chant & lilvans Company, of Philadephia. To 
obtain small friction surface and not too great 
spring tension, a novel method has been 
adopted. 

In spite of the vei'y small encumbrance ot 
the device, the undulated discs offer,' never- 
theless, a relatively large friction surface, 
they also produce a final wedging, requiring 
only one-third of the pressure necessary for 
any other system. An annular V being raised 
in these discs, the latter are extremely rigid 
and can sustain enormous pressures without 
losing shape. 

To allow the aviator to increase the pres- 
sure on the discs from to 300 and 400 kilos, 
the system of starting has been combined with 
an effort not exceeding 10 kilos and that, too, 
without exerting any axial push or tension. 
Consequently, one need have no fear in mount- 
ing the clutch on motors of the lightest con- 
struction. 

This result has been obtained by applying 
the pressure between two ball bearings of 
which one is stationary and the other ad- 
vances to compress the discs B and C. On 
tlie aeroplane models the pressure is applied 
by means of a non-reversible screw. 

The aeroplane clutch is composed of a 
drum with its muff A containing bi-onze discs 
B and steel discs C that glide alternately in 
the grooves of the diuni and core 1 >. Tiiis 
core is forged with the spindle E. Thus, when 
there is no pressure on the discs, tlu->- all 
turn on each other and the drum can turn 
while the spindle remains immovable. 



110 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



As soon as the pilot presses on the discs 
there is immediately produced a slight fric- 
tion, which carries along- the steel discs and 
with them the spindle E. This rotating in- 
creases with the pressure up to the moment 
when the two series of discs bound together 
and the spindle turns at the same speed as 
the drum. 

The two ball bearings F are contained in 
two concentric cages, one slipping into the 
other. 

The bearing C presses against the roller 
J, which is itself held in place by the screw 
K, into which is fitted tlie roller L,' forming the 
support of the spindle. 

The cage I is fixed to the chassis by the 
shoulder M and this cage is lengthened on 
each side by a support N for tlie lever O. 
This lever, whose axis is in P, is joined with 
the cage H by the rods Q. Consequently, 
when the lever O is inoved forward the rods 
Q push the cage and the bearing F and also 
the rods R and the compressor plate S which 
compresses the discs. 

As soon as the lever O is released the mov- 
able parts of the starting gear come back- 



O. When the discs pile up the pointer comes 
down a notch to maintain the pressure. 

For the clutches of which the power ex- 
ceeds 100 h. p., the starting gear is generally 
made by a helicoidal rise acting between the 
two ball bearings; this rise being operated 
by a fly wheel and worm. 

This system is in use on the dirigible bal- 
loons Zodiac, Astra, etc., and on the new 
Zeppelins. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS. 

{Continued from page S7.) 

Sept. 28 — Evansville, Ind., Curtiss hydro- 

aeroplane. 

Sept. 28-29 — Dubuque, la., Curtiss aviators. 

Sept. 28-29 — Beach, N. D., Curtiss aviators. 

Sept. 28-29 — Binghamton, N. Y., Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

Sept. 29-Oct. 7 — Springfield, 111., Wright ex- 
hibition. 

Sept. 30-Oct. 7 — St. Louis, Mo., open meet, not 
definite. 




fG"J 'kY 



ward under pressure of tlie springs around 
tlie rods R. 

After this description, one notes that the 
lever takes its point of support on the bear- 
ing G to advance the bearing F and that there 
is no axial push. The pressure on the discs 
is only limited by the load that these bearings 
,can stand. On the clutches for aeroplanes, 
the pressure is limited to 350 kilos. There 
is no loss of power as a consequence of the 
work of the bearings. 

So as to be able to limit this pressure and 
increase the lever arm, the apparatus is pro- 
vided with a pointer T. in which is placed a 
spring (sized) so that the end of the pointer 
can leave its cage when the pressure de- 
termined on has been exceeded. On the axis 
U of the pointer T, is keyed a lever V, whose 
length of 340 mm. allows the exertion of a 
pressure on the discs up to 350 kilos with an 
effort of 10 kilograms. 

To prevent any disengaging on account of 
the vibrations, the end of the pointer T is 
engaged in a series of notches on the lever 



Oct. 2 — Walterborough, S. C, Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

Oct. 2 — Beatrice, Neb., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 2-7— Cedar Rapids. la., Wrigrht aviators. 

Oct. 2-7 — Spokane, Wash., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. .i-ti — Conway. Kan , Wright aviators. 

Oct. 4-5 — Bad Axe, Mich., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 5 — Gordon-Bennett balloon race, Kan- 
sas City, Mo. 

Oct. 5-8 — Peoria, 111., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 9-12 — Lewiston, Idaho, Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 9-12 — Muskogee, Okla., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 10-20— Macon, Ga.. Wright aviators. 

Oct. 11-14 — Albuquerque, N. M., Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

Oct. 12-18 — Macon, Ga., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 17-19 — Raleigh, N. C. Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 18-20 — Garden City, Kans., Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

Oct. 19 — Hatehez, Miss., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 25-30 — Turin, Italy, 5th Congress, Per- 
manent Internat'l Aeronautical 
Committee. 

Jan. 10-12, 1912 — Los Angeles, Cal., open 
meet, arrangements not certain. 



Ill 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



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It guarantees that in workmanship, strength of parts, beauty of finish 
and in superior materials employed that the product of its factory equals 
or surpasses the finest aeroplanes manufactured in this country or abroad. 
The Company has an aviation school on Long Island for the instruction 
of purchasers or others; and the ability and skill to gain an aviator's 
pilot license from the Aero Club of America is guaranteed to pupils. 



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to $8,000, ready to fly and can be delivered at once. 



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EXHIBITION FLIGHTS ARRANGED FOR. 



TERMS UPON APPLICATION 



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feet, at the Mineola Aviation Field, in one of our duplicates of the 

1911 CROSS-COUNTRY TYPE BLERIOT MONOPLANE 

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In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



'AERONAUTICS September, 1911 

U. S. PATENTS ABSTRACTED 



Copies of these patents may be obtained 
for five cents each, by addressing tlie "Com- 
missioner of Patents, Washington, D. C." 

Grover C. Younggreen, Los Angeles, GaJ., 
997,354, July 11, 1911. Filed Feb. 15, 1911. 
PARACHUTE applied to aeroplanes. 

John Travis, Cascade, Mont., 997,521, July 
11, 1911. Filed March 7, 1911. ORTHOPTER. 

Johann Schutte, Langfuhr, Near Danzig, 
Germany, 997,419, July 11, 1911. Filed July 
14, 1909. Steering, stabilizing and lifting- 
apparatus for DIRIGIBLES. 

John Hafelv, Boston, Mass., 997,496, Julv 
11, 1911. Filed June 18, 1910. Screw-propelled 
channeled DIRIGIBLE BALLOON. 

Ferdinand Lischtiak, Eggenberg, near 
Gratz, Austria-Hungary, 997,455, July Id, 
1911. Filed March 2, 1911. Foldable KITE. 

Charles Alfred Swenson, INIedford, Mass., 
Assignor of one-half to Otto E. Kuehl, Med- 
ford, Mass., 997,587, July 11, 1911. Filed Sept. 
17, 1909. PROPELLER with adjustable 
blades having projecting curved ribs. 

Halvor Gaara, Bo, Norway, 997,612, July 
11, 1911. Filed August 17, 1910. Steering de- 
vice for aeroplanes, in ^vhich the rudders 
are assisted in manual operation by the 
force of the wind tui-ning a propeller (with 
blades angularly adjustable by a lever) 
which rotates a shaft on which wind the 
control cables of the rudders. 

Charles Winston, Topeka, Kansas, 997,- 
727, July 11, 1911. Filed Sept. 20, 1909. Aero- 
planes with PLANES MOVABLY CON- 
NECTED with the frame. 

Pius Beidl, Vienna, Austria-Hungary, 
997,733, July 11, 1911. Filed October 26, 1909. 
Device for manual and automatic STEER- 
ING of aeroplanes. 

Max Goehler, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, 997,- 
804, July 11, 1911. Filed June 28, 1910. 
Pivotallv mounted, vertical, oscillating 
BLADES TO PROPEL aeroplanes, acting 
similar to the sculling of a rowboat. 



aeroplanes arranged in stepped form, means 
supporting said aeroplanes at their from 
portions, yielding means supporting the rear 
edges of said aeroplanes and adapted to 
permit the same to be depressed at their 
rear edges, a rudder, a steering means, con- 
nections between said steering means and 
the rudder, and connections between the 
steering means and the rear edges of the 
aeroplanes. Combination wheel and runnei 
chassis, with means for automatically or 
otherwise releasing the wheel of the ma- 
chine after it has left the ground. 

The present patent is for improvements in 
the machine of the former patent, incidental 
to its use as a power machine and especially 
for the combination of the wheels and runners, 
tlie wheels alone being used for starting and 
runners alone for finishing a llight. The 

wheels are adapted to be automatically raised 
or released after leaving the ground in Hight. 
The claims also cover the steering device in 
form of a handle bar; lateral balance and 
elevation being effected by depressing the rear , 
of tlie planes. In the machine flown by Mr. 
Sellers, the front and upper plane is used 
for both elevation and for lateral control. 

Daniel D. Wells, Jacksonville, Fla., 997,- 
884, July 11, 1911. Filed August 5, 1909. 
Reversible and adjustable pitch propeller. 

Christopher John Lake, Bridgeport, Conn., 
998,295, July 18, 1911. A flying machine 
having a series of SUPERPOSED CON- 
CAVE SUSTAINING SURFACES of a gener- 
ally triangular and forwardly pointed shape 
and a propeller located in front of said 
series, each of said sustaining surfaces 
being larger and extending beyond the 
edges of the one below. 

Frederick Farmer, Worcester, Mass., as- 
signor of one-half to Matthew P. Whittall, 
998,333, Julv 18. Filed July 12, 1910. AU- 
TOMATIC STABILITY. On each of two 
vertical shafts mounted at the outer front 
struts is a triangular balancing plane In 
the form of a quarter-section of a screw 
(said plane having two rearwardly extend- 



998,33-3. 




Charles Obediah Rowland, Chicago, Ills., 
997.856, July 11, 1911. Filed December 27, 
1909. AIRSHIP comprising a body provided 
with a closed front end, an open rear end 
and a longitudinal opening in the under side 
of the body and a framework suspended 
from the body, adjustable planes mounted 
on the said framework on both sides of the 
said body, means for adjusting the said 
planes, a horizontally disposed plane se- 
cured to the said framework beneath the 
said body, exhaust fans in the said body, 
for drawing air into the body through tlie 
said opening and exhausting the said aii- 
rearwardly out of the said rear end of the 
said body, and means secured to the said 
framework for operating the said fans. 

Matthew B. Sellers, Baltimore, Md., 997,- 
860, July 11, 1911. Filed April 28, 1909. 
STEPPED AEROI'LANE with two or more 



ing edges at ;in angle to ench other, the 
outer one of said edges being liigher than 
the inner one), which can be swung by ca- 
bles over pulleys, one inwardly and the other 
outwardly, automatically operated from a 
pendulous weisht, .so that the balancing piano on the 
lower side of a laterally tipping nijuliine would swing 
out and the other one in. Vertical vanes are provided, 
also,, which automatically swing to prevent the natural 
turning movement of the machine caused by the above 
operation of the balancing surfaces. 



112 



AERONAUTICS 



September, I'-iU 



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AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



A POPULAR SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATION OF THE 

MOTIVES OF THE GYROSCOPE AND ITS 

APPLICATION IN AVIATION. 



By Emil Buergln. 



THE number of applications of the gyro- 
scope in mechanics has grown enor- 
mously during late years, while the 
comprehension of its real motive of 
action has not kept step in proportion. This 
is due to the lacl-c of literature concerning 
the theory of the gyroscope. The few books 
pertaining to the subject display svich a col- 
lection of higher mathematical formulae that 
even technically educated men are not prone 
to tacltle them. There is, however, a possi- 
bility of explaining in a more comprehensive 
way the peculiar action of the gyroscope. 
By applying only the fundamental law^s of 
dynamics, omitting mathematical formulae, 
it is still sufficient to judge the effect of the 
gyroscope in any case in which it is applied. 
The aeronautical bureau of a flrst-class 
newspaper exhibits an electrically driven gy- 
roscope to the eager spectator. Instead of 
explaining, liow-ever, the laws of its motion, 
it hides them under a cover of mystery. It 
suggests that the gyroscope ignores the laws 
of gravity by demonstrating it, lifting a 
weight without any counterbalance. But the 
comprehension of the motives of the gyro- 



to the former one and goes through the axis 
X. (Fig. 2). 

But we find that according to the laws 
of dynamics there is still another power act- 
ing on the gyroscope. If a particle of mass 
moving in a certain direction is to change 
its direction even within a small angle, this 
has to be originated by a force acting ver- 
tically to the former. We observe that daily. 
An element of a fly wheel may have at a 
certain moment a velocity in direction d 
(Pig. 3). The next moment it has the direc- 
tion d. The tendency of this element to keep 
in its initial direction is called centrifugal 
force. Its reaction is the force that changes 
this direction and is equal to the strain on 
tiie different parts of the rim of the wheel. 
If the wheel bursts this reaction ceases. As 
nothing is preventing the detached pieces 
from follow^ing the course they have at that 
moment, they fly away tangentially but not 
radially. It is similar w-ith the gyroscope 
where the centrifugal forces compensate each 
other within the fly wlieel proper. But if 
the gyroscope is making said revolutions 
around axis Y, all elements of the wheel 




scope will make it easy to look into these 
mysteries and find their origin. 

In Fig. 1, ABCD shall represent the ring of 
a gyroscope revolving around a spindle Z. X 
and Y are two axes at a right angle to each 
other and lying in the plane of the ring. If 
we turn the spinning gyroscope slowly but 
steadily around the axis Y, each of the parti- 
cles of the ring will receive an additional 
velocity but vertical to the plane. Near A 
and C it will be the greatest and zero in B 
and D. Representing these velocities by 
arrows, the connecting line of their points 
will be an ellipse lying in a plane through 
the axis Y. Hence a revolving particle of 
the ring will endure on its way from A to B 
a reduction of speed produced by turning the 
gyroscope around the axis Y. It will be zero 
in B and reversed in C; then diminishing and 
changing its direction in D to have again 
the original velocity in A. To do this the 
particles have to receive accelerations down- 
wards on the way from A to C and upwards 
from C to A, which necessarily produce a 
reaction in the opposite direction; that is, 
from A to C upwards and from C to A down- 
wards. It is the strongest in the points B 
nd D. Representing each element of reac- 
tion by an arrow in pi'oportion to its force 
and of the same direction, we again receive 
an ellipse by connecting their terminals. 
This ellipse is, however, turned at 90 degrees 



perform this same angular rotation around 
axis Y. By this an element parting from 
point B intending to follow the circular 
course, w^ill suffer a change of direction. It 
is brought downward by a force vertical to 
it which produces a reaction upwards but 
of the same magnitude. There is a similar 
one in point D in opposite direction. On 
both sides of B and D the forces decrease and 
are zero in A and C, these vectors of velocity 
being only removed parallel. The total re- 
action produces again a moment of torsion 
around axis X and is of the same direction 
and proportion as the one that resulted in 
the beginning. 

These reflections show that the resistance 
of a gyroscope to any change of the di- 
rection of its axis depends only on the weight 
and the velocity of the rim of the wheel. 
Further, the moment of torsion acts per- 
pendicularly to the direction in which the 
gyroscope receives its inclination and there- 
fore it cannot oppose this motion. 

Now those having experience with the 
gyroscope will find this latter result entirely 
contrary to their observations. They shall, 
however, not be reproached for this, for 
even in scientific literature one can read 
about the stable axis of the gyroscope which 
resists to every change of direction. All 
applications, however, that were based on 
tils assumption proved to be a failure. 



113 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 191 1 



Let us see how the gyroscope will act 
according to these stated facts. The in- 
clination around the axis Y creates a moment 
or torsion about the axis X which makes 
the gyroscope turn around axis X within 
the same angle as the original movement 
around Y. This second motion creates, how- 
ever, again a perpendicular moment which 
has Y as axis and this one opposes the 
original motion. 

If we hold a revolving gyroscope in our 
hands and want to turn it we have indeed 
the impression that the axis is stable. It is 
because we do not realize the small per- 
pendicular moment to which we yield and 
which induces the reaction in the first di- 
rection. If, however, we fasten the gyro- 
scope in an apparatus which prevents any 
moving of the gyroscope sideways, the turn- 
ing in the first direction will be just as easy 
as if the gyroscope were not running. These 
results also show that the gyroscope does 
not ignore gravity. A gyroscope in hori- 
zontal position, the axis of which is only 
supported on one end, will not drop but it 
will begin to rotate slowly around its point 
of support. In the first moment it intends 
to follow the force of gravity, but this angu- 
lar movement will induce perpendicular 
forces to it, producing a similar movement 
horizontally, which again compensates the 
influence of gravity. The higher the number 
of revolutions of the fly wheel, the greater 
are the induced forces, and the slower, there- 
fore, the gyroscope can rotate around its sup- 
port in order to counteract the influence of 
gravity. This horizontal motion of the 
gyroscope around its support is called pre- 
cession. If we increase it the gyroscope will 
rise and if we prevent it the gyroscope will 
drop as if it were not spinning. 

These are the laws the gyroscope is sub- 
jected to and their comprehension enables 
us to consider where and how gyroscopical 
forces are acting. 

The interest in the qualities of the gyro- 
scope has become more general since the de- 
velopment of the aeroplane. It was hoped 
that this apparatus, resisting practically to 
every turning motion, might give the float- 
ing aviator a point of support in order to 
keep his machine in a voluntary direction 
as a compensation for the one he cannot have 
from the earth. Up to this present day, how- 
ever, we are glad to succeed in eliminating 
or counterbalancing the existing gyroscopic 
influences on an aeroplane. 

To steady an aeroplane by means of a 
gyroscope we can consider three possible 
ways: 

(1) Entirely stable, 

(2) Entirely free, and 

(3) Half free. 

(1) The entirely stable suspension has 
been tried the most. While this method 
proves very successful with torpedoes, it 
cannot be applied to aeroplanes. There it 
would have the same effect as the gyro- 
scopic forces of the propeller and the rotary 
motor, twisting the aeroplane and producing 
great strain in the frame work. 

(2) The entirely free suspension. This 
method is applied in the Whitehead torpedo. 
The gyroscope is supported by two rings 
which can swing at a right angle to each 
other, by this permitting the gyroscope to 
swing in any direction. 

If the torpedo, installed in this way, makes 
a turn, the gyroscope will keep its original 
direction. A lever hinged to one of the two 
rings will act on the valve motion of a 
pneumatic servo motor which changes the 
position of the rudder. But even this small 
resistance changes gradually the original 
direction of the gyroscope, and therefore also 
influences the torpedo in its course. 

Although with the flying machine wo do 
not ask for so exact governing, this system 
is not applicable to it because we wish to 
change our course voluntarily. 

(3) The half free suspension. The gyro- 
scope is built in such a manner into the 
framework that it is obliged to follow the 



motion it is to correct, but can swing in a 
direction vertical to it. It only should be 
powerful enough that the secondary motion 
can easily overcome the resistance in govern- 
ing a servo rnotor. 

With the flying machine there are three 
directions, perpendicular to each other, in 
which we desire to prevent an involuntary 
turning. To do this we need for each direc- 
tion a gyroscope for itself. It is the most 
important to prevent the aeroplane from de 
scending suddenly; that is, from an involun- 
tary turning around the horizontal axis 
through the planes, which would produce 
sudden falls. For this purpose the gyroscope 
can be placed either with its rotating shaft 
in the direction of the course of the aero- 
plane, allowing it to swing horizontally, or 
it may be suspended vertically, allowing it 
to swing in a vertical plane, which is, how- 
ever, perpendicular to the direction of the 
motion of the aeroplane. 

If we wish to ascend or descend we simply 
change the angle of the plane in which the 
gyroscope can move in relation to the aero- 
plane. Thus the gyroscope will influence the 
servo motor and by this the rudder until we 
have the desired direction. 

Any other turning motion of the aero- 
plane will be of no influence on this gyro- 
scope, the friction of the governor being 
sufficient to keep it in the same position 
relative to the framework. The reason is 
that the gyroscope is stable in the direction 
perpendicular to this motion and therefore 
cannot produce any gyroscopic reaction. This 
was proved above. 

A second gyroscope can be used for keep- 
ing the lateral equilibrium. This gyroscope 
acts similarly to the first one upon a servo 
motor. It has to follow the lateral swaying 
of the aeroplane but can swing liberally in 
the longitudinal direction. 

The control of the vertical rudder in the 
rear may be left to the aviator. 

It might still' be desirable to limit the 
speed of the aeroplane in ascending or de- 
scending. Ascending at too steep an incline, 
the power of the machine will not be suffi- 
cient to produce the necessary speed to sup- 
port the aeroplane and it will drop back- 
wards. 

Descending too rapidly, the framework 
cannot resist the air pressure. If, however, 
we connect the gyroscope which controls the 
rudder for steering up and down with a 
transverse vertical plane pivoted to a hori- 
zontal shaft, the increased or decreased air 
pressure upon this plane will change the 
inclination of the gyroscope to the axis of 
the aeroplane and so influence its course. 

All these installations do not diminish, 
however, the demands regarding the facul- 
ties and skill of the aviator, for this 
mechanism is liable to break down and has 
then to be substituted by individual steering. 



At Topeka, Kan., A. H. Longren, a machin- 
ist employed in the railroad shops, flew in a 
homemade plane from a farm seven miles 
south-east of Topeka, across the center of 
the city and landed on the Washburn College 
campus without damage to self or machine. 
His flight including detours was more than 
ten miles. Longren never navigated an aero- 
plane until he made this trial flight. 



DiiriniE: the prcst-nt season the C ur t i s s E x- 
hibition Company has contracted for, and 
carried out, exhibitions at thirteen state 
fairs, viz. — South Dakota, Vermont, Montana, 
West Virginia, Wisconsin, Missouri, Maine, 
Alabama, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utaii, 
Georgia and North Carolina. Contracts are 
coming in to the Company's office every day 
from secretaries of state fairs throughout 
the country, particulaily fairs in the southern 
states. 



114 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



DOUTRE LONGITUDINAL STABILIZER 



THIS apparatus, which was designed and 
patented in France by M. Doutre for 
the automatic maintenance of equilib- 
rium of aeroplanes, is composed es- 
sentiaUy of three members: (1) an anemo- 
meter, (2) an accelerometer, (3) a relay 
cylinder. 

The anemometer is composed of a plate 
which normally receives the relative wind. 
This plate is balanced by two springs R' in 
such manner that when the relative speed is 
sufficient for the proper control of the aero- 
plane it rests upon a stop. 

As soon as the relative wind diminishes, 
the springs R^ press the plate, which, by 
means of the relay cylinder, places the 
equilibrator at descent. When the relative 
speed of the wind is again sufficient for con- 
trol, the plate is gradually brought back to 
its oi'iginal position. 




A view inside the Doutre Device. 



The accelerometer is composed of two 
movable weights M, each upon a rod placed 
in the direction of the flight, and capable of 
shifting as soon as positive or negative 
acceleration is produced. They are both 
kept in place by two springs R situated in 
front and behind. The purpose of these 
springs is to restore the weights to their 
original position as soon as the aeroplane 
regains uniform speed, and they also pre- 
vent all movement of the weights, when, 
without acceleration, the appai-atus is in- 
clined, either forward or at the rear. 

l!v shifting, the weights set in motion the 
slide vaUu> of the relay cylinder controlling 
the rudder, and by means of the latter, 
equalize the effect of inertia upon the aero- 
plane. 



When a shock to which the aeroplane is 
subjected causes it to lift its nose, the 
rudder is set for ascent, and, inversely, for 
descent when the shock tends to cause the 
aeropkine to fall. 

The weights are subject to exactly the 
same effects of inertia as the aeroplane it- 
self, instantaneously registering the direc« 
tion, the duration and the intensity of thf 
shock. 

The control, therefore, is instantaneous, 
and accompanies the shock; or in othei 
words, it is the shock itself, which at thi 
same time as it produces a disturbance of 
the equilibrium, also produces a compensat- 
ing movement of the rudder. 

Since the anemometer and the accelero 
meter have a common purpose they are com 
bined in a single device capable of correct 
ing all trouble which may arise. 

To this end the anemometer and the ac- 
celerometer act upon a single rod controlling 
the slide valve of the relay cylinder; thei» 
movements are algebraically combined upon 
this rod, so that the couple of correction ob- 
tained is equal to the sum of the couples 
necessary to maintain the equilibrium of 
the apparatus or to aid it to regain a cor- 
rect position. 

This algebraic addition of the movements 
of the anemometer and the accelerometer is 
effected as follows; 

The plate, when shifting, carries with it 
the rods A, and consequently the weights 
niounted thereon and retained in position by 
tlie springs R. The weights are, in their 
turn, movable upon these rods on which they 
shift whenever they are subjected to a 
shock of such a nature as to overconie the 
resistance of the springs R. By the rods 
E they are rendered rigid with the slide 
valve of the relaj' cylinder. 

The single resultant of the indications 
given is registered by the shifting of a 
single rod, and hence the movement of the 
rudder and its intensity and duration are 
measured with precision. Every variation 
in the angle of attack necessarily bringing 
about a corresponding variation in the speed 
of displacement of the aeroplane, the 
stabilizer, by means of its accelerometer, cor- 
lects the effect of its own rudder's movement 
at the same time as the apparatus obeys that 
movement. This control effect is extremely 
interesting and important, and constitutes 
one of the essential characteristics of the 
stabilizer. 

No delay is possible since the apparatus 
registers, not the disturbance, but the dis- 
turbing causes themselves. 

The purpose of the relay cylinder is to 
transmit with sufficient force to the horizon- 
tal rudder, the indication given by the plate 
and the weights. In its construction it re- 
calls the device employed for the first 
torpedo. 

As is well known, in this latter apparatus 
every displacement of the slide valve 
causes a corresponding displacement of the 
piston, exactly as if the slide valve and the 
piston formed part of a rigid whole. 

The stabilizer, composed of its three mem- 
bers, anemometer, accelerometer and relay 
cylinder, is clearly illustrated in the figure 
showing a section of the apparatus. 

In this figure will be seen the plate 
mounted on the tubes A which slide with 
little friction in the aluminum case F, the 
action of the air on this plate is balanced 
by the springs K' wound upon these tubes 
between the collars; the weights M can 
shift on the tubes A. The springs R render 
the weights rigid with these tubes when 
the plate recedes or advances under the 
varying pressure of the wind, but neverthe- 
less permit them to move along these tubes 
under the force of inertia. 

115 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



The rods E, rigid with the weights, are 
rigidly assembled on the rod T of the slide 
valve of the relay cylinder. This slide valve 
is arranged in the rod itself of the cylinder 
C- the compressed air is admitted into the 
chamber D of this cylinder and is distributed 
into the chambers I or H, according to the 
direction in which the rod T is shifted, the 

I bars K or L covering or uncovering tlie en- 

trances of the passages N and O. Depres- 
sions provided upon the rod T permit the 



40 kilogrammes, which is entirely sufficient 
in all cases. 

A small pump operated by the aeroplane 
motor furnishes the compressed air to the 
relay cylinder, and a reservoir is provided 
which makes it possible to have a sufficient 
reserve supply in case the motor stops. 

This stabilizer was tested by the inventor 
at the Juvisy aerodrome during the months 
of February, March and April, 1911, on a 
biplane of the Henri Farman type. Then in 



" t Z 3. i . i ,: a . ( t 



L 




f^i ' ^«m ' V , o j, T^- - 







. ^a B,o«, o -a 



^f ^it ' i' u J B U U B ' J r, B ^ 




m^A'Mm'ffM 



Plan view of Stabilizer. 



11 compressed air to escape from the chamber 

H through the orilices S, when the air is 
admitted into the chamber I and vice versa. 
All the movements of the slide valve T are 
thus instantaneously followed by a move- 
ment of the piston B in the same direction. 
The piston B is connected by suitable con- 
trolling members to the rudders. 



May last it was installed on a Maurice 
Farman aeroplane of the military type. 
With this apparatus the pilot made flights 
from Juvisy to Bug and back; Juvisy to 
Villacoublay and from there to the plateau 
de Milly and return. 

A demonstration took place on July 21st, 







Doutre Stabilizer on an M. Farman Biplane. 



A force of 100 grammes at the most is before General Roques. who made a fifteen 

necessary to shift the rod T, and the piston, minute (light over the lield. General Jioques, 

according to the pressure of the compressed upon alighting, declared that the operation 

air, can exert a working force of from 10 to of the stabilizer had been perfect. 



116 



AERONAUTICS 

THE TWO-PLACE 




October, 1911 

DEPERDUSSIN MONOPLANE 



MEbbRb u. M Dyott and Captain P. 
Hamilton, of 50 Church St., New York. 
have brought to this country the first 
l^eperdussin machines seen here- one '>- 
place machine with a 6-cylinder, 50-60 h n 
Anzani motor, and the other a single flyer 
with a 3-cylinder, 30-35 h. p. engine of the 
same make. These engines are the verv 
latest put out by the manufacturer and are 
.giving perfect satisfaction, even in their un- 
tried condition. Both machines were flown 
over from IMineola to the Nassau field the 
hrst time the engines were run in flight 
Apparently over-heating has been gotten 
away from in the newer engines. The one- 
man machine is almost exactly a smaller 
replica of the 2-place "plane. 

The first flights made with these machines 
over here were from Belmont and Mineola to 
Nassau and around and in some of the con- 
tests of the Nassau meet. About half the 
time the management failed to provide shed 
room. The motors had not been tuned up 
before leaving the factory, owing to need 
for rush delivery, and one or two little bits 
of accidents, like short-circuiting a magneto 
or failing to turn on oil just robbed the new 
machines of a place in the prize list, which 
was small an\way. 

These "planes remind one of Antoinette's in 
flight through their outlines: they fly at a 
speed of about 60 miles an hour' and land 
and rise beautifully. The lunning gear is 
very staunch, as has already been proven. 

The Deperdussin first made its appearance 
at the Paris Show in the Winter of 1910 
Since that time the factory has pursued 
vigorous methods and it is now almost im- 
possible to obtain prompt deliveries. Avia- 
tion schools have been establislied and many 
have learned to fly this machine. The smaller 
machine, with a 30-h. p. Anzani motor can be 
bad in America for .$4,000, whil.> the 2-place 
machine will run up to $8,000. 
_ A military type, one-place machine, with 
.50-h. p. (Jnome: a two-seater with either 60- 
h. p. Anzani or 50-h. p. Gnome; a 70-h. p. 
Gnome two-i)lace and a 3-seater 100-h. p. 
(.nome military type are other models. The 
military types are used by every European 
government save En.gland. 

The Deperdussin holds many world records: 
In fact all speed, duration and distance 
records for -I and 5 men, up to 50 kilometers. 

SiipportiiiK' IMniio. Tlu^ wings offer verv 
ample lifting surface for the weight. Great 
stiength is imparted to their construction 
by the two staunch inasts erected at the 
front of the fuselage. These are of large 
size at their base and accommodate the ends 
ot tile front lateral wing spars. The gu\s to 
ttie front main spars are large straiided 
cables. On the Nieuport one notices also 
tlie use of heavy cal)les for guying. The 
wing construction is of conventional tvpe. 
riie ribs, like those of the Bloriot, aie of 
■"I" cross section, merely a web with top and 
liottom chords tacked and glued. The enter- 
ing edge is an oval strij) of wood against 
wliich the rib ends l)ult. Of course, the cloth 
is put on both sides. A preparation called 
'"lOmaillite" rendei-s the fabric moisture proof 
niil iiearl.x- oil )>roof. This same varnish is 
used to cover all fabi-ic on the liiachine. The 
Trailing edge of the cloth is laced to each 
rib-end throu.gh eyelets in tlie fabric. A strip 
of wiiod runs along about an incli from the 
baclv edge between llir upper and lower 
cliorils of the I'ibs. 

•Metal plates are placed under the metal 
connections on the wings tt) wliicli the gu\- 
and warping cables run. to prevent abrasioii 
i>r tlie fabric. 

'I'lie wing curve flattens out sliglitly near 
the tips. There is a small diliedial angle to 
the wings on the 2-place machine. On the 
single i)liine there is practically none. The 



ii': 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



h-'l- 





OE-Z«-« Oi_/Ji/r^ 



Scale Drawings of Deperdussln. 
118 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



-enter of gravity is about one-third back 
"rom front edge. Tiie gliding angle is 5 deg. 
:o 7 deg. 

Cuutrol.o. The warping and rudder action 
s instinctive. Pushing forward on the in- 
/erted U-shaped yoke steers down through 
■rossed cables to the elevator at the rear 
^nd of the fuselage. Turning a hand wheel, 
nounted in the center of the yoke, to the 
ligh side lifts the low, or down, wing, and 



sided square steel socket about S inches long. 
At this point these spars aie cLose to 1 
Inch square. They taper from 1 14 inch 
square at front end of the fuselage to % 
Inch squaie at the rear end. Fabric is used 
on all four sides of the rectangular (cross- 
section) fuselage: tacked on the bottom and 
lower edge of sides. Top edges of sides have 
grommets inserted and lace over the longi- 
tudinal spars to the panel on the top side of 




^ice-versa. A foot-yoke steers right and left, 
tie ludtier cables running straight. The e!e- 
'■ntor wires are good heavy cab'es running 
)yer pulleys and through copper leads packed 
vith grease. The cables from the warping" 
vheel lead over pulleys in the angles of the 
'U" down to a rocking lever attiched to 
he rear cross-member of the chassis. From 
lere the cpbles run over pulleys on the skids 
o wire-thimbles, from which each branches 
nto three heavy steel wires with tighteners 
o different points on the re:ir spar, as shown 
n the drawings. The elevator cables are Vs 
nch diameter and run bick on eich side of 
;he fuselage to the two masts on the 
levator. 

Puselase. The Spruce fuselage comes 
ipart just back of the pilot's seat. The 
ongitudinal spars butt together in an open- 



the fuselage. The diagonal stay-wiring of 
the fuselage is similar to Bleriot's method. 
A "belly" of lamin^ited veneering e-xtends 
from the front of the fuselage to a little 
aft of the pilot's seat. The pas.senger sits in 
fiont of the pilot, just forwai-d of the le ir 
lateral wing spar. Both ai-e protected from 
oil and wind by a hi'4h aluminum winlshield, 
just aft of the gravity gasoline tmk. The 
sides of the front end of the fuselige are 
covered with aluminum sheeting, fitted with 
doors to give access to the magneto, oil 
pump, piping, etc. 

Po^vep Plant. A six-cylinder stationary 
Anz>ni air cooled motor drives direct anti- 
clockwise a "Rapid" propeller of 2.44 meters 
di-1 meter by 1.3 meters pitch. Bosch ignition 
and G. iS: A. carburetor, with ;iiivi]iqry air 
adjustment, are part of the equipment, as is 



110 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



a revolution counter. The combined gas and 
oil tanli, gravity, is mounted in front of the 
passenger's seat ahead of the two masts and 
supply. Another reserve gas tank, torpedo- 
gauges are fitted to show at all times the 
shaped, is attached just under the belly, from 
which gas may be forced up into the gravity 
tank bv a hand pump at the pilot's right, 
fastened to the fuselage spar. The front end 
of the fuselage is covered with a steel cap, 
or plate, to which is bolted the crankcase of 
the motor. The mixture is drawn from the 
carbuietor into the rear compartment of 



rigidity being obtained by two diagonal 
wooden struts in compression. These struts 
extend in front of the chassis proper and are 
curved up to give protection to the propeller. 
Shocks occasioned by rough landings are 
distributed over as much fuselage area as 
possible by means of stranded cables which 
pass under the belly of the fuselage and over 
grooves at the top of the chassis struts, thus 
forming a kind of cradle or sling suspension. 
A simple skid pivoted from a V-brace of 
tubing at its center with elastic bands at 
the front end supports the tail. 




the crankcase, from which it is distrihuied to 
the different cylinders by short lengths of 
tubing. This compartment thus acts as a 
manifold and reservoir for gasoline vapor. 

RunuiiiK (iear. The landing chassis is a 
very neat, strong and light wheel and ash 
skid combination, the axle being cai'ried by 
conventional radius I'ods and elastic shock 
absorbers. The latter consist of many wraps 
of round elastic bands covered with woven 
fabric. The cross-members of the chassis are 
of large steel tubing. The four main oval 
struts are covered with fabric, laid in with 
varnish. Verv little wire bracing is used. 



l<'i.v«Ml >iiri:i<-«'. A Hat surface starts fron 
just back of the pilot's seat and spreads out- 
ward to the spar which forms the pivo^ 
for the elevator. A good deal of wire guying 
is used on this surface, which is composed 
of fore and aft and transverse strips covered 
on both sides with fabric. A small tri- 
angular vertical fin runs from the rudder 
pivot forward to a point on the top of the 
fuselage. 

VVeislit. With oil and gas, without oper- 
ator, 780 lbs. Gas and oil for 5 hours flying 
are carried. Speed is 62 miles an hour. The 
mileage per gallon runs from 15 to IS miles. 



After successfully filling an engagement 
ut Ocean Beach, Frank L. Champion, the 
aviator, flew from that place to his home 
in I^ong- Beach, a distance of 62 miles, in 55 
minutes, on Sept. 6th. Mr. Champion had in- 
tended to send the machine home by rail, 
but on getting up. the idea of getting home 
for breakfast struck him, and the morning 
being ideal, he wheeled his Bleriot out and 
was off before anyone was aware of his 
plan. The entire distance was made over 
the water, although he was close to the land 
at all times. The trip v/as made without 
incident and after landing on the beach, the 
aviator walked home, arriving there in time 
ro surprise his wife and baby at l>reakfast. 



Tlie Wrigiit C'ompany, Frencli, inaugurated a 
new ))ig aerodrome to ranl< with Mourmelon and 
Issy, when Count de T.iambert, WiH)ur Wriglifs 
ttrst pupil discovered Villacoublay two years 
ago. It' is nearer Paris than Mourmeldn, only 
10 kilometers and only a couple of kilometers 
fram the military aero park of Chalais Meudon. 

Nieuport has established a branch here, as 
lias Breguet. The Wright sheds are lighted In- 



electricity, complete electi'ic plant being one of 
the features. The French War Office has three 
tents here, where experiments are conducted 
and various tests made. Lacnapelle, who was 
one of the first of the Wright exhibition aviators 
in America, gave up flying last summer, and 
is now manager of the Villa coubla.\- field. 



NO AERO BILL IN MASSACHUSETTS. 

The Aero Bill which caused so many 
press items has failed to materialize in 
Massachusetts. The House passed a reso- 
lution calling for an investigation of tlie 
subject but this was "held up" by the Sen- 
ate for some time and finallx' rejected by 
that branch. 

The New 'lurk state Idll will come ui> 
in September. It was still "in committee" 
when the legislature adjourned for the sum- 
mei-. The bill iiroposed by the Aei-o Club 
of I'ennsylvania failed to pass the legis- 
lature; nothing ever came of California's 
bill and fortunately the fool law of Mis- 
souri nev'er came to pass. Connecticut is 
the only state h;i\iiig- legislatinn on the 
books. 



120 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



NAVAL HYDROAEROPLANE EXPERIMENT 



A SUCCESSFUL experiment of great im- 
portance to the aeronautical depart- 
ment of tile Navy was carried out at 
the Curtiss factory and experimental 
grounds at Hammondsport, N. Y., Sept. 7. 

This was the launching' of the Navy's new 
Curtiss hydro-aeroplane from a wire cable 
stretched from a platform erected 150 feet 
from the shore of Lake Keuka to the water. 

The experiment wsls organized and directed 
successfully by Lieut. T. G. Ellyson, of the 
Navy, who was the first member of that 
branch of the military service to become a 
qualified aviator. 

The object of this unique method of launch- 
ing an aeroplane was, as stated by Lieut. 
Ellyson, to produce further evidence of the 
practicability of the hydro-aeroplane for use 
on vessels of navies. 

By Lieut. Ellyson's methods a hydro-aero- 
plane may be launched at sea under any con- 
ditions, without the loss of time in putting 
it overboard to arise from the water and 
without delay because of rough sea. Under 
the new method it will only be necessary to 
stretch a wire cable from the boat deck of 
a battleship to the bow, down which incline 
the hydro-aeroplane can slide. It is main- 
tained in balance on the main cable by two 
auxiliary wires, one stretched on either side, 
parallel to the central cable. These two 
auxiliary wires support the right and left 
wings until the machine gets up sufficient 
headway to maintain its own balance by 
means of its balancing planes. 

The rigging for launching the hydro-aero- 
plane does not interfere in any way with the 
armament of the ship. It will not be neces- 
sary even to remove this rigging. It can be 
left standing for immediate use, or it can 
be taken down and stowed away in a few 
minutes. 

This system enables the machine to be 
launched when a high sea would make it 
impossible to arise directly from the surface 
of the water after being lowered over the 
side of the ship. Previous experiments car- 
ried out at San Diego, Calif., last winter in 
connection with the U. S. S. Pennsylvania 
showed that the hydro-aeroplane could be 
landed alongside and hoisted aboard ship 
in a wind of 10 knots and when a 4-knot 
tide was running with sea conditions too 
rough for successful launching. Lieut. Ellyson 
regarded the getting away from the ship as 
being by far the most important point in the 
practical use of the aeroplane in the navy, 
since the loss of the machine after the de- 
sired information had been secured would be 
of minor importance. 

With the new method it is also possible 
for the ship to steam ahead into the wind at 
any desired speed, and thus readily secure 



the necessary condition of wind for quick 
launching 

The machine used by Lieut. Ellyson was the 
regular type of two-passenger navy hydro- 
aeroplane, built by Curtiss, with 75 h. p. 
engine, fitted with a double control system, 
so that the operation of the machine can be 
shifted from one occupant to the other while 
in the air. The total weight is 1,200 pounds. 

The hydro-aeroplane was launched fi-om a 
platform and rose froni the wire cable in 150 
feet, after attaining a speed of 30 miles 
against a wind of about 10 miles. The 
launching apparatus is very simple, consist- 
ing merely of a wire cable 250 feet long and 
% of an inch in diameter, which was made 
fast to a pile 75 feet from shore driven down 
in the water far enough to allow^ the hydro- 
aeroplane to pass over it. The wire cable 
passes over a pair of shears 16 feet high, 
fitted with a platform upon whch to stand 
when starting the motor. The bottom of the 
pontoon under the hydro-aeroplane is fitted 
with a groove one inch wide and 1% inches 
deep, lined at the ends with tin and rein- 
forced at the bow and stern with band iron 
to protect the bearing surface. Each wing 
is fitted with a light iron, forming a bear- 
ing surface to engage the balancing wires 
strung on each side of the main supporting- 
cable. 

The grade was about 10 per cent. The 
wind blew about 10 miles an hour, slightly 
quartering against the line of flight. The 
machine was first floated in the lake and then 
pulled up on the cable. 

The releasing device consists of a short 
piece of rope fast to the bow of the pontoon 
and fitted with an eye through which passes 
a toggle pin connecting this short piece with 
a rope made fast to the legs of the shears. 
Bv a sharp pull on this toggle pin the hydro- 
aeroplane is released and quickly gathers 
headway under the impulse from the motor 
and the slight angle at which the cable is 
placed. Two men held small lines running 
to each wing to make sure that the machine 
would keep its balance until full headway 
had been gained, but their assistance was 
not required. Lieut. Ellyson and Lieut. J. H. 
Towers, who are in charge of the Govern- 
ment work at Hammondsport, N. Y., have 
been practicing since the first of May with 
the hydro-aeroplane, flying out over the lake 
nearlv every day, in order to become tho- 
roughly accustomed to the machine and to be 
able to handle it under all possible conditions. 
The Navy's hydro-aeroplane has been taken 
to Annapolis, Md., where the Navy training 
school has been established, and it is hoped 
to try the method of launching it from an 
aerial cable on board a battleship this fall. 



300,000 MZIiES BY AEBOFIiANi:. 

Some almost startling figures showing the 
progress of aviation in France Iiave been pub- 
lished by M. Georges Besancon, tlie secretary 
of the Aero Club of France. In reply to in- 
quiries made by his club among the French 
constructors seventeen firms sent in their fig- 
ures. 

These seventeen firms between them have 
turned out over 1,300 aeroplanes. The horse- 
power fitted to tliese macliines totals up the 
enormous figure of 60,000. The passengers ac- 
tually accounted for as being carried by the 
machines turned out by these firms number 
nearly 5.000. M. Besancon has calculated that 
the cross-country trips exceeding 10 kilometers 
in length made on these machines number over 
3,000, or 30,000 kilometers, equal to about 18,- 
000 miles. Besides these he computes that the 
flights actually logged in the form of flights 
around aerodromes total about 500,000 kilo- 



meters, or more than 300,000 miles. These 
represent approximately 8,300 hours spent In 
the air, which means nearly a year off the 
ground. . , , . .,, 

One year ago cross-country flights in France 
were a rarity, and any trip lasting over an 
hour was worthy of special mention, and the 
figures show the marvelous progress made by 
F'rance in aeronautics. 



'•My check for three dollars enclosed. 1 am 
getting mv copies regularly: if I didn't you 
would hea'r from me right off. I certainly 
have no criticism to offer. 1 often remark 
that little AERONAUTICS contains more 
brainy matter than any of the big weeklies 
I happen to read. I consider you an excellent 
editor, and wish you much success in the 
futuj-e." „ , ^^, „. 

Fred \\ . Kiser. 



121 




1. — The Curtiss hydro-aeroplane before being drawn up the 350-foot cable. A pile Is dnvci. 
in the lake and sawed off several feet below water line. From this cable is carried in- 
land o\er a Jack and hauled taut by block and tackle. 2. — Taking the 'plane up the 
cable. Note light wires AA, which were used to steady the machine, and tube bridges un- 



122 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 191 1 



NEW MOISANT BIPLANE 



THE Molsant Company has recently built 
a passenger carrying biplane at their 
Hempstead shop, of which gieat things 
are expected. The general outline and 
appearance of the machine is similar to that 
of the Harry Farman Michelin Cup type. 
The consti'uction work has been carried out 
in an e.Kcellent manner, the muchine being 
up to the high standard set by this Company 
with its monoplanes. 

Main ^u^tllc•e.s. The size of the main spars, 
sizes and method of construction of the ribs, 
also the rib curvature, are nearly the same 
as in the Wright machines. The chord of 
the rib is 6 ft. 9 in., the depth of the curves 
being 1/20 of the chord. 

The coveiing, which is Goodyear fabric, is 
laid on both sides of the plane and is tacked 
to the ribs top and bottom. The lower plane 
of the center section looks a little odd. 
having: a hole cut 3 ft. by 1* ft. 4 in., just 
ahead of the rear spar. This is done to 
accomodate a Bleriot Gnome, as no biplane 
Gnome was available. 

The tiussing of the three sections at the 
center of the machine is all double wire. 
Those wires in the vicinity of the engine and 
propeller are wiapped with string to keep 
them from flying into the propeller should 
they become broken. 

Running' Gear. The standard Parman type 
running gear is used, the wheels and rubber 
shock absorbeis being Goodyear make. 

Coutruls. The standard Farman control is 
used, one lever operating the elevator and 
the ailerons. The steering is done by a 
foot yoke. 

Control wires to ailerons, elevator and 
rudder are all double. 

The machine proved itself a success from 
the first time out, with aviator Ragorodsky 
in charge. The machine rose nicely after a 
run of about a hundred feet and a four-mile 
cross-country flight was made in fine style. 
Some trouble has been had with the engine, 
which has been sent away to be repaired. 
For this reason the machine has not been 
seen in action since its first trial. 

The maximum carrying capacity of the 
machine is, according to the constructors, 
1,120 pounds, which in addition to the 920 
pounds weight of the machine gives a total 
weight of 2,040 pounds. This is supposed to 
be carried at 40 miles per hour, using the 
Gnome 50. As this would be over 40 pounds 



per horse-power it is rather doubtful if much 
more than short flights can be made with this 
load. The total supporting surface is 510 
sq. ft. The machine is very easy to take 
apart in sections. 

The Hempstead Plains Aviation Company 
is a subsidiary company of the Moisant Inter- 
national Aviators, which has, during the past 
year, made an exhibition tour of the United 
States, Mexico and Cuba, as is well known. 
The exhibition work is considered an adver- 
tising or publicity department of the business, 
which is really the manufacturing of ma- 
chines and the conduct ot a school. A new 
factory has been located in I^ong Island City, 
while the school has its quarters at the 
Mineola field under the careful tutelage of 
Andre Houpert and Albert C. Triaca. A 
laige number of pupils have graduated and 
obtained their licenses. Some of the 
graduates have attached themselves to other 
builders of monoplanes as aviators; some have 
attained fame through their flying at meets 
and exhibitions. Miss Harriet Quimby, one 
of the editors of Leslie's Weekly, made a 
great success of her lessons and has been 
doing great flying. She flew at the Nassau 
meet and at an exhibition on Staten Island 
recently. Miss Matilde Moisant, sister of the 
late John B. Moisant, is another woman flyer 
who has done exceptionally fine work. 

Miss Matilde Moisant is as accomplished 
a flyer as one could wish for. There are 
plenty of the male sex who would give their 
right hand to do as well. Wind is nothing 
to her, for she has shown her ability in the 
Long Island breezes in her cross-country 
flights to Nassau, Westbury, 'round and 
about the little villages that scatter them- 
selves on the borders of the Plains. Miss 
Quimby, too, must come in for praise, for 
she too, has earned her pilot certificate and 
the new rules see to it that one is pretty 
fairly conversant with such things as rud- 
ders and warping and ailerons. 

Three school machines are kept busy night 
and morning. The people of Mineola have 
become accustomed to the flying and do not 
even bother to look up any more, so frequent 
are the flights of the Moisant pupils. Near 
the school sheds is a group of buildings in 
which the construction and repair work has 
been conducted and where the theoretical 
part of the flying course is given. 




Some Moisant Details. 
123 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 






N^^^^^Ay^ 1. 




The Moisant Biplane, Scale Drawings. 
124 



AERONAUTICS October, 1911 

THE QUEEN MONOPLANE 




The Ovington-Queen 'Plane 



SOME modifications and improvements 
have been made upon the Queen mono- 
planes which have been put in readi- 
ness for Earle L. Ovington's coast-to- 
coast flight, which he announces he will defi- 
nitely attempt. These changes are only in 
the size and arrangement of gasoline and 
oil tanks, the use of a door in the aluminum 
sheeting at the forward end of the fuselage 
for ready access to the motor, substitution of 
bronze for aluminum castings in the running 
gear, reinforcements in the framing, and 
spacers on the wheel forks. 

The new Tndi'in rotary motor is employed 
in each of the three machines which comprise 
Ovington's "stable." The standard Queen 
machines have heretofore been fitted with 
Anzani and Gnome engines. 

While the Queen machines have the general 
dimensions about the same as Bleriot mono- 
planes, and to the casual observer appear the 
same, there are many differences which can 
be considered as improvements. Eighty-five 
men are being employed by this company 
in the factory and on the field. Arthur Stone 
and Ignace Semeniouk are flying the ma- 
chines as instructors and in exhibitions and 
meets. The plant at the old amusement park 
of Port George, New York City, is fully 
equipped with machine and woodworking 
tools and apparatus of modern tyne, bought 
especially for the w"'-v ir- hqnd. The build- 
ings which are of extremely large size were 
peculiarly adapted to tne company's needs. 



The main assembling building, for instance, 
was formerly used as a skating rink. Con- 
siderable outside work has been taken in. 
J. A. D. McCurdy had his six biplanes built 
there and others have had their repairing 
done at the place. 

The Crane concern, builders of the Dixie 
engines, are now at work getting out a 
special engine to be installed in future 
Queens to take the place of those of foreign 
manufac are, 

A new type biplane has just been put out 
and has been at the Long Island fields for 
some days awaiting trial, a long design made 
by James V. Martin. The main cell is of Par- 
man type, with a 100 horsepower, 14 cylinder 
engine mounted in front of the main cell. 
Instead of outriggers to the tail of the usual 
type a "fuselage" or body of a monoplane 
extends back to the tall, which comprises a 
fixed surface, rudder and a pair of elevators. 
The aviator sits in this body just under the 
rear edge of the upper plane of the main cell. 

Pollowing is a description of the Queen 
monoplane, with the slight alterations made 
for Ovington's contemplated trip. Ovington 
has already become familiar with the Queen 
machine, using it, with the Indian motor, in 
his mail carrying at the Nassau meet. Here 
he gave the new American motor the hardest 
kind of work which his experience has taught 
him an engine is ever called upon to do, 
with the most satisfactory results. 



125 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 




Scale Drawing Queen Monoplane. 



Supporting Planes. The wings are of extra 
strong construction, the ribs being spaced 
closer together than common in Bleriots. 
There is a truss bracing of wire between the 
ribs to stiffen the wing. Aluminum sheeting 
is not used for an entering edge, a half-round 
wood strip being employed instead. The 
Goodyear cloth goes on both sides and is held 
taut by strips of rattan along the ribs. There 
are two extra stays to the underside of each 
wing, one extra cable for warping and one 
extra metal strip. The ends of the front 
main lateral spars butt against a steel tube 
and held rigid by two wide straps, brazed 
to the steel tube, which bolt on each side of 
the spar. These short tubes then slip in 
the tube of larger diameter which runs across 
the end of the fuselage. The angle of inci- 
dence can be altered by raising the rear of 
the wings, by means of an adjustable socket 
in which the rear m;iin lateral spar fits. The 
curve is 3% inches deep, 2 feet from the front 
edge. The wings are 2% inches thick at the 
greatest thicliness. The angle of incidence 
is f> degrees. 



In the rear is a fixed surface, practically 
the same as that of the Bleriot, 2 inches 
thick. 

Fuselage. This is of ash and elm through- 
out, of usual Bleriot type, with similar 
manner of connecting struts to spars. 

Running Oear. Considerable changes in de- 
tails have been made here from its Bleriot 
prototype. The "sill," or lower horizontal 
member of the chassis framing, has been 
made heavier. Rubber band shock absorbers 
have been replaced by steel coil springs. A 
brace has been introduced, running from each 
end of the sill diagonally to the fuselage. 
A novel skid is used to support the tail. 

Controls, The elevator is similar to that 
of a Bleriot. There are two vertical levers 
operating the elevator instead of one, 
mounted on the axis of same. Roebling Wire 
cables run from each of these to the steeringf 
column, so that in addition to having a 
double chance on the wires there is doubled 
safety in the two levers. The stability is 
controlled by warping cables in the usual 



126 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



manner. Instead of a bell-shaped metal 
affair from which the control' cables go down 
to the cross-piece, brackets are used for 
warping and for elevating. The rudder is 
operated by the usual foot-yoke, this is rein- 
forced by steel plates on both sides. It also 
Is guided on a track. The warping cables 
are doubled for safety. 

Power Plant. This consists of a 7 cylinder 
rotary Indian motor, rated at 50 horsepower. 
As with the "vvell-known French rotary en- 
gine of similar appearance the gasoline is 
taken in through the hollow crankshaft. To 
avoid the chance of setting fire to the 
gasoline which, as in the Gnome, drips con- 
tinually from the carburettor when the gas 
is turned on and the engine is not running, 
the floor of the fuselage in this part of the 
machine is made gasoline tight. Directly 
under the carburettor the floor is bellied 
down, with a hole in the depression. Under 
this hole is an apron which shoots any sur- 
plus gasoline on the ground. The cause of 
this dripping of gasoline is the non-use of a 
float in the carburettor. The aluminum 
sheeting on the side of the fuselage at the 
forward end has a door, which can quickly 
be opened to inake any adjustinents to the 
carburettor, piping, etc., from the ground, 
without climbing into the machine and 
squeezing in under the hood or windshield. 
A Bosch magneto furnishes ignition. The 
Indian motor has P & S ball bearings, the 
same make as used in the Gnome, but has 
three additional. There are but three engines 
made today with ball bearing connecting 
rods: Indian, Gnome and the Merkel motor- 
cycle engine, all of which use these bearings. 
The propeller used is a Gibson, 8'-3" diameter. 

A Hopkins electric revolution counter 
shows on a dial at all times the speed of 
the engine. 

Gas and air levers are on steering column, 
magneto spark is fixed, a cut-out is provided, 
also. 

Weight. The weight including 240 lbs. of 
gas and oil, is 740 lbs. without aviator. Five 
gallons of oil and gas combined are used an 
hour and a speed of 60 miles an hour is ob- 
tained. 

Thirteen gallons of castor oil is carried, 
and 27 gallons of gas. which is gravity fed. 
The aspect ratio is 4.5 approximately. 

The Queen monoplanes sell for $2,900 with 
Anzani 3-cylinder motor, and $5,500 with the 
Gnome engine. The Ovington-Queen. with 
Indian, may be had for $4,500. 



At the last moment when Ovington ex- 
pected to start for the Pacific Coast, it was 
found necessary to lighten the machine and 
to put on the skid from his own Bleriot in 
place of the standard Queen skid. The front 
half of the fuselage is of hickory while the 
rear half is asli. Some of the struts are 
maple. The large fuel and oil tanks shown 
in the scale ' drawing have had to be re- 
placed, also. With a Chauviere propeller of 
2.5 meters diam. by 1.6 m. pitch, a test was 
made at the Indian factory at 1150 revolu- 
tions and the standing thrust obtained was 
352 lbs. In the air the engine turns another 
hundred revolutions. Forty-five actual horse- 
power, brake, was shown. The cylinders are 
a shade larger than those of the Gnome, be- 
ing 4% bore by 4% inch stroke. 

The dashboard carries a barograph, revo- 
lution counter and automobile clock while at 
the right hand side on the fuselage is an 
inclinometer to show the angle of ascent or 
descent, near the oil sights. A stout leather 
strap to go around the aviator is fastened 
to the seat. 

QUEEN-MARTIN BIPLANE. 

"The Queen Company's hundred horsepower 
Martin biplane" is the official title of the 
newest 'plane to make its appearance at 
the Nassau field. It has been built by the 
Queen Aeroplane Co., to designs of James 
V. Martin, formerly manager of the Harvard 
Aeronautical Society and instructor in a 
British flying school. 

The first week in October it had its first 
try-outs, with entire success, piloted by, Mr. 
Martin. A novelty has been introduced in 
the stabilizing. The ailerons, which are 
hinged to the rear beam of the upper plane 
act in opposite directions accor._ing to the 
system inaugurated by Curtiss, are hooked 
up with the elevator fiaps which operate in 
conjunction, though not to the same degree. 
These flaps have but a sixth of the range of 
the ailerons proper. At the same time, also, 
they act as true elevators by forward or 
backward motion of the gate control of 
Burgess type. The aileron cables which run 
to the control have a certain amount or slack 
to permit the ailerons to take a stream-line 
position when not operated to avoid unequal 
resistance. 

I^ooking at the picture, the operating cable 
luns from the top of the gate control to a 
pullev between the two outer rear struts up 




QL;een Martin Biplane. 
127 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



to the rear edge of the aileron. From the 
top of the mast, which is not at the axial 
line but to the rear thereof for a definite 
purpose, a cable continues to a pulley on 
top of the plane at the front edge. From 
here it goes along the edge to a pulley on the 
other side of the machine, back to the other 
aileron and from thence to the control. The 
ailerons do not normally hang down as in 
Farman machines but act positively in both 
directions. 

The rudder is operated by the usual foot 
yoke. The machine is stated by Mr. Martin 
to fly at no angle of incidence, lifting from 
the ground on the wing chamber. The tail 
is non-lifting at full speed. 

As will be noted, the 100 h. p. Gnome is in- 
stalled in the front end of a monoplane type 
of fuselage. A Gibson propeller of 8 ft. 6 in. 
diam., by 7 ft. 6 in. pitch is used at the 
present time. Ignition is by Bosch magneto. 
The fabric is Goodyear. 

The two gas tanks hold total 45 gallons 
and 17 gallons of oil. The auxiliary tank 
under the seat holds gas which is forced 
by pressure to the gravity tank when needed. 

The speed in flight was estimated between 
70 and 75 miles an hour. An official' test will 
shortly be made. Detailed description may 
be expected in the next issue. 

THE ROTARY INDIAN 

The new Indian motor is of the rotary, 
air cooled, 4-c}'li nit»r type, having seven 
cylinders of 4% inches bore and 4% inches 
stroke, developing 50 horse power at 1,000 
revolutions per minute. Nickel steel is 
largely used in the construction of the motor. 
F. & S. ball bearings are used throughout. 
The motor complete weighs 185 pounds, and 
its outside diameter is 36 inches. 

The crpnk case and cylinders are made from 
heavy nickle steel forgings which are 
machined uuwn tu a very lignt werght, and 
each cylinder is made of exactly the same 
weight, to insure a perfect balance and 




smooth running without vibration. In the 
same way, all valves, connecting rods and 
other parts are made to correspond in weight 
so that the distribution of material shall be 
accurately equal and symmetrical. 

The inlet valves of the automatic type, 
placed in the heads of the pistons, and bal- 
anced to counteract centrifugal action. The 
exhaust valves are mechanically operated, 
and, as in the case of these, centrifugal action 
assists in their closing, only very light 
springs are required. 

The exhaust valve operating gear is of 
a new and greater simplified form that in- 
sures smooth action and perfect opei'ation, 
and this is facilitated by a system of counter- 



balancing the operating rods and levers to 
counteract centrifugal action, a matter of 
considerable importance in alL rotary motors. 

In mounting a rotary motor, the nickel 
steel crank shaft is rigidly fixed in a suit- 
able frame so that it cannot revolve. The 
crank case, carrying with it the cylinders 
and accompanying parts, revolves on the 
crank shaft, and to the forward part of tne 
crank case is attached the propeller. It will 
be seen from this that when the crank case 
and cylinders revolve they perform the func- 
tions of a fly wheel, and as all of the parts 
are carefully balanced by weighing, and the 
material is symmetrically and equally dis- 
tributed, the rotation of the motor is abso- 
lutely smooth and without vibration. 

To assist in the mounting of the motor, a 
large supporting plate is fixed on the crank 
shaft, at the i-ear of the motor, and upon this 
are placed the magneto and lubricating 
pumps, which are driven by a gear on the 
rotating motor base. 

The ignition is by a Bosch high tension 
magneto, w^hich feeds its current to a dis- 
tributing disc carried by the motor base, and 
properly connected up to the several spark 
plugs in the cylinders. 

For these motors, water white castor oil is 
recommended. This oil is forced by me- 
chanically operated pumps to sight feed lub- 
ricators suitably located so they can be ob- 
served at all times. From the lubricators 
the oil is conducted by pipes to the main 
bearings, and also to the parts within the 
motor that require lubrication. 

The carbureter is of extremely simple con- 
struction, and is attached to the rear end of 
the fixed, hollow crank shaft, through which 
the mixture is conducted to the interior of 
the motor base, and from thence distributed 
to the various c'linders through the inlet 
valves placed in the head of each piston. The 
adjustment of mixture is accomplished by the 
setting of a small needle valve, and the regu- 
lation of the extra air shutter, and when the 
proper mixture has been secured at starting, 
very little further attention is required. 

A feature of excellence in the construction 
of the Indian is its extreme simplicity, and 
the ease with which all necessary inspection 
and adjustments can be made. 

To inspect ihe valves of a cylinder, the 
head can be taken off in one minute, and 
carries with it the exhaust valve complete. 
This is accomplished by unscrewing a single 
castellated ring, which is quickly and easily 
done with a special spanner. When the head 
of the cylinder has been removed, the inlet 
valve, fixed in the head of the piston, is ex- 
posed to view for inspection; and if it is 
desired to remove the inlet valve, this can 
be done directly without disturbing any other 
part. 

A piston can as readily and as quickly be 
taken out for the renewal of a compression 
ring, without disturbing the cylinder; and all 
can be as quickly replaced ready for start- 
ing up the motor. 

These motors list at $2,000. 



R. O. Rubel, Jr. & Co. have just published 
a little circular for "all victims of aero- 
planitis," telling who have purchased Gray. 
Eagle motors, with pictur-es of the 'planes 
they went in and what they did, together 
with facsimile affidavits of actual flights. 



Mr. Harry N. Atwood 

on his record hre 'king cro'^s-oountry flights was enabled 
to su pa-s liis in -ny riviils botli in Kuropc and America 
by llie rcl alilo pcif- rniance of liis 

BURGESS AEROPLANE 

Built only by 

BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass. 



128 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



THE REX SMITH BIPLANE 



THE second biplane built by the Rex 
Smith Aeroplane Co., of Washington, 
IS described in the following article. 
Since Antony Jannus conducted the ex- 
perimental flights with the previous machine, 
taking up a number of prominent Washington 
people and giving a number of exhibition 
flight series at Potomac Park, several avia- 
tors have been employed, none of whom have 
made any great success, until Paul Peck flew 
himself into the lists of competent flyers. 
Peck started in on July 20th and nine days 
later was a bona flde pilot. On August 6th 
he flew from College Park to the city of 
Washington, circled the dome of the Capitol, 
down Pennsylvania Avenue, around Wash- 
ington Monument, over into Virginia and back 
to the speedway in Washington in a half hour 
flight. The next morning he flew back to 
College Park. Since then he has been making 
almost daily flights at the Park and short 
trips into the surrounding country. 

Mr. Smith was an amateur trick bicycle 
rider in Washington in the old days, and 
played bicycle polo with Will Robinson about 
1885. That seems a million years ago but 
many remember seeing him. He won national 
repute by being the first man to ride a bicycle 
down the steps of the Capitol. 

He commenced building a flying machine 
about a year and a half ago and last Novem- 
ber completed his first. It was a single 
surfaced, headless biplane with ailerons and 
general Curtiss type of control except that it 
lacked the front elevator. This machine was 
flown a number of times by Antony Jannus. 
He used an Emerson 100 horsepower engine. 

This spring he completed a second machine. 
This was one with a slight dihedral angle 
on the lower plane and a diminishing curve 
from the centre to the ends of the main 



planes. The feature of this machine was that 
instead of using straight ailerons between 
the ends of the planes, he substituted flexible 
tips at the end of the upper planes. These 
worked up and down just like ailerons and 
were controlled by the regular shoulder yoke. 
Their seeming advantage is that he puts 
them where he gets the most advantage from 
the leverage and since they are very flexible, 
they seem automatically responsive to a side 
gust. They seem a little more effective in 
lateral balancing than straight ailerons. Paul 
Peck, who flies this machine, says that they 
made the machine very easy to control and 
that the balance is practically automatic. 

A third machine has been finished and is to 
be tried out soon. This is a duplicate in 
most respects of the second machine. The 
differences are that it is double surfaced, the 
slight dihedral angle is wanting in the lower 
plane. The depth of the lifting curve varies 
not at all from the centre to the ends of 
the plane and the pianos are the same width 
from entering edge to rear at the outer ends 
as they are at the engine. They are using 
a 60 h.p. HaH-Scott on the third machine 
while they used an 80 on the second. The 
second machine is now on the road with 
Peck in exhibition ■work. 

Mavt, Planes. The span of the entire mach- 
ine is 40 feet. The main planes having a span 
of 32 feet. The chord length of the surfaces 
varies, as shown on the drawings. The depth 
of curvature is 4 inches maximum, situated 2 
feet back from the front edge. The ribs are 
all the same, except that those on the nar- 
rower portions of the planes are off on front 
ends, giving a lesser degree of curvature at 
the outer ends. The planes are covered with 
heavy Naiad cloth, laid on top of the planes. 




i^l^^^^. 







REX OJMITH- CR03S-.OOUriTRY MODE^L 



/o5/ 



129 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 191 1 ' 



• 4-0" -+ 



6-0 



e'-o" — +• 



-40-0 3fran 

a'-o" ^ 




ffyxa^.M IOA.7 



Scale Drawings Rcx £>muii oit-laiie 

ICO 



lERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



111 ribs are laminated spruce, %-in. by %- 
R ii in section, and are fastened to the spars 
> steel straps. Tiie spars are oval in shape 
•- in. by 2 in. and aie 4 feet 6 inches apart. 

For convenience in sliipping, the planes are 
uilt up in sections, the spars being joined by 
leeves of steel tubing'. The clotn is laced 
ugeiher at tnese joints. The entire plane 
1 ly be quickly dissembled, the longcot sec- 
ion being- the center one, which is 8 feet. 

The upper plane is perfectly straight trans- 
.erbely, the lower one, howevei-, ri^es from 
he middle to the tips some six inches. The 
epaiatiun of the planes in the middle is 6 
eet and at the ends 5 feet 6 in. 

The angle of incidence of the main planes 
'? stated to be 7 degrees both on the ground 
nd in flight. 

The struts, 16 in number, are of stream line 
ection 1 '/i inches by 'ZVz inches. These are 
f solid spruce and are attached to the main 
pars by being pinned to a socket which 
ermits their easy removal. Roebling wire 
i used in staying. This has a breaking strain 
f 2,100 pounds. The wires are cut to length 
nd the stiuts sprung into place. No turn- 
uckles are used. 

Elevator. The biplane tail situated in the 
ear acts as the elevator, the trailing edges 
eing made flexible for this purpose. The 
onstruction of the elevator and the aileions 
i the same, there being a fixed front portion, 
/hite hickory ribs extending back as shown 
1 the drawing. 

Rudder. Some changes are being made in 
he position and number of the rudders. They 
re, however, of the same type of construc- 
ion as the ailerons and elevators; that is, 
here is a fixed front portion, in this case 
/ithout any curve, and a flexible after por- 
ion. 

Stability. The ailerons, 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 
nches, are situated at the ends of only the 
op planes. The operation is by means of the 
amiliar shoulder brace. Double Roebling 
/32 inch cable is used on all the controls, 
'ulleys are used wherever it is necessary to 
hange the direction of wires instead of fair- 
eads. The coveiing of the ailerons and rud- 
ers is double, the flexible portions having 
'Ockets sewed for the ribs. 

Runninr) Gear. This- is of the Wright type 
k^ith four wheels. 20:^ Pennsylvania tires are 
•eing used at present. The axle is situated 
inches back from the front of the plane. 
?he skids are of spruce with a hickory shoe 



% inch thick on the bottom. The length is 
12 feet and the section 2x2 inches. 

PoKcr Plant. The power plant comprises a 
Hall-Scott bO h.p. engine, and radi.tor. The 
propeller is one furnished by the Detachable 
and Adjustable Propeller Co., 8 feet in dia- 
meter, by 6 feet pitch turning at 1200 r.p.m. 
The radiatoi, which is located in front of the 
engine, is the standard one supplied with 
this size engine. It holds three gallons 
of water. Stromberg carburetor and Mea 
magneto are standard equijim°-'t. The fuel 






CUT-OUT 

FOP. 




CToy^TROL Of Fi&X -^niTH 



tank, which has a capacity of 8 gallons, is 
situated just under the upper plane. 

The total weight of the machine with gas, 
oil, and operator ready for flight is 1,000 
pounds. The weight per square foot of sur- 
face is three pounds, the weight lifted per 
h. p. being estimated at 15 pounds. Tne 
speed at which the machine leaves the ground 
is 35 miles per hour and in flight the speed 
is said to be 55 miles per hour. Three hun- 
dred pounds of passengers or freight are 
capable of being carried. 

The center of pressure is said to be 1/3 of 
the chord from the front of the plane, the 
center of gravity being situated 1/3 of the 
chord from the rear of the plane. 



A renewal of experiments is to be m^de by 
he Wright*^rothers at Kitty H:j»vVk this 
Vinter along the line of the possibility or 
oaring. Mr. Chai 
t was entirely pc 
i^ithout using th< 

larts of the world where there were ascend- 
ng currents, notably in the great deseits. 



le line ui iiie possiuiiity ui 
anute frequently- stated that 
jossible to sc^r'all day Igng 
he engine power in certain 



The Pairchild monoplane has proven steel 
ubing construction. After mnking a num- 
ler of flights of several miles in length, Har- 
'Id Kantner, a graduate of the Moisnnt 
chool, landed the machine in the power wires 
f a local traction company at Mineola, des- 
roying one wwig, the propeller and pulling 
he spokes out of one wheel without its de- 
lating the Goodyear tire fitted. After hitting 
he wires head on. the michine dropped 
traight about thirty feet. Not a stay of 
he fuselage or nny^of the tubing was so 
auch as bent. The re*^snn for encountering 
he wires was engine trouble, the power h v- 
ng fallen rapidly off due to too weak valve 
prings. The machine flew on even keel 
ven after power began to drop, until it 
rot "50 low that the wires cduld not be 
voided. 



The 20th. Century Motor Car Supply Co. 
of South Bend, Ind., is to put on the market 
a patented five cylinder, two cycle, revolv- 
ing type of motor but which is not ready as 
yet to give a detailed desciiption. 



Aeronautical editors visiting the great me- 
tropolis should take the pie Ige of sobiiety, 
at least before accepting New York hospi- 
tality. Instances h've been known where 
the afores-^id, in consequence of not being 
fortified with a double riveted and br zed 
resolution, have succumbed in a wholly un- 
dignified manner to the libnions incident to 
the pi oper worship of the Goddess of Flight. 



"I wouldn't b^ without AERONAUTICS if 
I could possibly scrape the pidce together." 
. .-, George A. Dunlap. 



Three v-oun^ men of J 
the Wetzi-g- Ri-os. nrfid .James McCnrty. h-ve 
returned here from St. Louis where they 
le-i) ned "to aviate. They h-ve leased the 
bfr.eb-ill park and are assembling a new 
-,l}i.plane. 



131. ^. 



AERONAUTICS 



Oclober, 1911 



BUEL HURNDON GREEN 



M. E 




The Late Buel H. Green 



THOSE who would know tlu' meaning of 
a certain passage to be found in 
Moedebeek's Handbook will find 
enlightenment in Lhe passing of Buel 
Hurndon Green, M. E., on August 27th. 

I cannot quote the passage as I am pen- 
ning these lines by the side of a noisesome 
torrent high up in the Rockies, far from any 
book. But poor Moedebeck speaks there of 
the real tragedies and heroism that is to 
be found in the lives of the inventors and 
engineers who failed to materialize the aero- 
nautical projects they had planned. Buel 
Green died at the age of 29, yet he had com- 
pleted works which would do credit to a life 
of three score years. Graduated from the 
University of Southern California, he gave 
evidence at an early age of rare inventive 
genius, and was granted several patents 
relating to controlling devices for the auto- 
mobile. He was appointed second designing- 
engineer at the Tourist automobile factory, a 
position from which he resigned after one 
year to become associated with Lanchester 
in England. Abroad he spent much time in 
the shops of foreign manufacturers. He was 
a charter member and was elected secretary 
of the Aero Club of California. At the inter- 
national aviation meets at Los Angeles he 
acted as interpreter for the French aviators. 
These distinctions may soon be forgotten 
but Mr. Green has to his credit those achieve- 
ments in aeronautical invention which will 
live. 

There are a trigonometrical' manual double 
control for aeroplanes which will greatly 



increase the safety of this art, an engine and 
a turnbuckle. 

All these inventions are of a high order 
mechanically, but his engine, when it wiU 
be possible to publish its details, will be 
a sensation. It may be stated here that his 
second engine of 200 horsepower is now 
almost completed, and weighs only 350 lbs. 
witli magneto and carburetor. It will be 
almost free from vibration and totally with- 
out gyroscopic action. He had completed 
his first engine, and, while it is to 
be regretted that he could not live to hear 
the plaudits of the multitude, he was not of 
a nature to have cared for that. To an 
engineer it is fruition to have completed 
the plans on paper. We visualize all plans 
and indeed it often happens that we take 
little or no interest in the metals in which 
they are executed afterwards. Yet Mr. Green 
had progressed further than this. He had 
incorporated the "Lamson Aeroplane Com- 
pany," and had the pleasure of seeing the 
first machine well under way before he 
succumbed to the valvular heart trouble 
against which for many years he had made 
a heroic fight. 

Inspired by his singular Christian life, 
in this materialistic age, the Aero Club of 
California was moved to draft a resolution 
which may be termed a classic. 

Re.solution of the Aero Club o£ California. 

At a meeting of the Directors of the Aero 
Club of California, held in the Club Rooms. 
August 28, 1911, the following preamble and 
resolutions were unanimously adopted: 

Whereas: Almighty God, in the exercise 
of His divine will, has removed from this 
world and the busy cares of life, BUEL H. 
GREEN, of Los Angeles, California, 

THEREFORE: We, the Directors of the 
Aero Club of California, have assembled here 
tonight to pay our last sad tribute to the 
inemory of the departed, and to express our 
deep appreciation of the many and lasting 
obligations that we, as fellow workers, owe 
to him and by Tvords and tokens to express 
our sincere sorrow for the loss Science has 
sustained by his death. 

The work in this Club of our late fellow- 
worker commenced on the night of its organi- 
zation when he as a charter member gave 
many and valuable suggestions for its future 
guidance. That ceaseless labor has born 
full and truthful evidence of the warm 
affection in which he was held, and as officer, 
"director and chairman of various important 
committees the club honored itself by honor- 
ing him. It is a great thing to say of any 
man. that he is crowned with the love and 
admiration — after his grave is closed — of 
all those who knew him. Such men are not 
born to die out of the memory of their 
associates. They were born to live in our 
affections, and the day will not come in the 
history of the Aero Club of California when 
mention the name of Buel H. Green will not | 
recall to every member's heai't an honest 
sense of pride that such a man lived and 
labored among us as a poineer in the field of 
Aviation. 

RESOLVED : That we take this occasion 
to express the hope that the Hand of Genius 
may in the near future cull from the collec- 
tion of material wealth he has left behind 
him what he would have most desired to be 
that shall stand as the best monument to 
thus preserved, and the constructor thereof 
find in his labor an embarrassment of riclie.'. 
the memory of our lamented scientist and in-| 
ventor. | 

RESOLVED: That the Secretary be in- j 
structed to spread upon the minutes a copy 
of this preamble and resolutions, and thi't af 
copy be sent to those who were nearest and! 



izz 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



dearest to him, his son-owing' family, as a 
token of our lespect for the deceased, one 
who was, in evei y way, worthy of our deep- 
est respect and highest regard. 

Van M. Griffith, Geo. B. Harrison, 

• Secretary. President. 

A SCORE OF DEATHS 

CHARTRES, France, Sept. 2.— The French 
aviator M^irron was killea. 

LIMA, Peru, Sept. 7. — The Peruvian avia- 
tor, Carlos Tenaud, died to-day as a result 
of injuries received making' a flight last 
February. 

LONDON, Sept. 17. — While flying' at a high 
altitude at Hendon, Ijieutenant R. A. Cam- 
mell's Valkyrie military aeroplane collapsed. 

MULHAUSEN, Germany, Sept. 7.— Lieut. 
Neumann, with his. passeng'er, M. LeComte, 
were killed. 

KARLSRUHE, Germany, Sept. 7. — Paul 
Senge fell with his aeiopLane. 

ESSINGEN, Germany, Sept. 9. — Raimund 
Eyring was flying in the dark and collided 
with a mast marking the limits of the field. 

BUG, France, Sept. 2. — Capt. de Gamine fell 
from a great height and instantly killed. 
Lieut. Jaques de Grailly was burned to death 
when his machine took fire in midair near 
Tjoyes. The cause is given as explosion of the 
fuel tank. The right wing of Capt. Gamine's 
machine became detached. With six other 
Army flyers they weie on their way to mili- 
tary manoeuvers at Ghalons. 

PARIS, Sept. 12. — Lieut. Chotard, a pupil of 
the Military Aviation School, killed while 
making a flight at Villecoublay. 

DEWITT, la., Sept. 20. — Louis Rosenbaum, 
a young man who has spent his time since 
1908 building biplanes and finally flying, was 
killed giving an exhibition. After flying 
several miles away and back he was about 
275 feet high over the center of the field when 
the machine plunged sharply down, righted, 
and then dived again. The coroner's jury 
rendeied a verdict that the cause of his 
death was not due to faulty construction. He 
w^as filling a date for the International Aero- 
plane Co., of Chicago, in a biplane made by 
that concern after the style of a Curtiss. 
Louis Rosenbaum was a member of the 
Aeronautical Society and began liis building 
back in 190' A"-^tho^ vi-tor '^ent out by this 
company refused to fly In the old machine 
and Rosenu^uiii ct^me ^n. cne scene to fly it. 
He made an unsuccessful effort but after 
tinkering with it and fixing it up, finally 
succeeded. 

ST. LOUIS, Mo., Sept. 22. — A young Russian 
mechanic, Ray J. Raymond, was struck by the 
propeller, which he was cranking, of A. V. 
Reyburn's monoplane and died the following 
day in the hospital. 

MANSFIELD, Pa., Sept. 22. — Tony Castel- 
lane fell to his death a short distance from 
the field where he was giving an exhibition 
in a biplane copied after the Curtiss. 

BERLIN, Germany, Sept. 29. — Capt. Engel- 
hardt, one of the pioneer aviators of Ger- 
many, the first Wright flyer and who was 
taught by Orville Wright himself, was killed 
during a meet. He had with him at the 
time Herr Sedylmayer as passenger. The 
latter sustained severe injuries but his death 
has not been reported. 

NEW YORK, Sept. 25. — Dr. C. B. Clark, an 
oldtime trick bicycle rider, was killed in his 
monoplane during the aviation meet at Nas- 
sau Boulevard. He was a pupil of Arthur 
Stone, the Queen Company's instructor-, and 
had only graduated from the Anzani to the 
Gnome engine. Directly over the parked 
automobiles he made a sharp right turn, 
banked up at a startling angle. He made a 
complete spiral of a diameter scarcely more 
than the spread of the machine and landed 
head-on just a few feet from the motor cars. 
The direct cause of his death is attributed to 



making too sharp a turn to the right banked 
at an impossible angle With the probability 
that lie either could not recover or still kept 
his rudder turned to the riglit which con- 
tinued the spiral. Dr-. Clark was well-known 
on the vaudeville stage in his motorcycle act, 
the "globe of death." 

TROY, O., Sept. 23. — In making his last 
flight closing his exhibition at the local fair, 
Frank H. Miller, flying another Curtiss-copy 
built by Charles J. Strobel, of airship fame, 
was burned to death in the fire resulting 
from a headlong dive to the ground, or was 
killed by the fall itself. He was descending 
from an altitude of about 200 feet when the 
'plane suddenly turned its nose directly down 
and took fire. Miller was from Cleveland. 
Miller could be seen frantically trying to 
right the machine. Other witnesses state 
that the machine was afire before it started 
its headlong flight. "' ' '^i 

SPOKANE, Wash., Oct. 2.— The . ,. A' of 
Cromwell Dixon while making an exhibition 
flight is particularly heartrending because of 
his youth. He was but 19 years of age and 
had only recently learned to fly a Curtiss 
aeroplane for the Curtiss oompany. He had 
to fly in dangerous grounds and was making 
a turn, steeply banked over a deep railroad 
cut when an unlooked for air current struck 
the machine, which he was unable to right. On 
Sept. 30 he was flying at Helena, Mont., where 
he rose 6,000 feet and crossed the Rocky 
Mountain divide to a town 18 miles away, 
ilanding and returning to Helena. Cromwell 
Dixon in 1907 built a little dirigible, for which 
his mother made the envelope. Later he went 
on the road with a larger one. 

Edouaril IVleuport Dea«l 

The death of the designer of the fastest 
machine in the world, Edouard Nieuport, in an 
accident to his own machine at Verdum is one 
of tire greatest losses the aviation world has 
met. On September 13 he was flying in the 
presence of the military authorities, giving a 
course of instructions. He flew to Chalons in 
a violent wind. He took to the air again and 
executed some wonderful turns, in the course 
of one of which, steeply banked and headed 
down, a down current caught a wing and 
the machine dove. The following day he 
passed away in the hospital. 

ALDERSHOT, Eng., Aug. 18. — Lieut. Theo- 
dore Ridge was killed while attempting a 
short turn. 



Edwin J. Bachman, Jr., of Catasauqua, Pa., 
suggests the use of two curved plates of 
thin steel, running longitudinal under the 
central section of an aeroplane, these sheets 
joining at their lower edges so as to form 
a V-shaped keel to deflect from the power 
■plant and the aviator any bullets from rifles 
in the hands of sharpshooters. 



"Claude Grahame-White, the famous Eng- 
lish aviator-, predicts that in twenty years 
regular aeroplane service will be in operation 
across the ocean. 'The machines used,' says 
White, 'will be 1,000 feet long, with steel 
planes, and will carry 1,000 passengers. The 
motors driving these huge craft will develop 
75,000 horsepower, and the speed attained 
will be close to 200 miles an hour.' " — So says 
the Club Journal. "Pull the string." 



Mr. Thomas Sopwith 

after trying other aeroplanes won hi.s many prizes at 
llic Nas'sau Binilevard Meet on his 

BURGESS BIPLANE 

\\ illi Oiiomo nintor, l)uilt l)y • 



BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass. 



133 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



THE 



NASSAU 



MEET 



New World Record 

Three-man Duration, 1:54:42 2/5. Lt. De 
Milling (Burgess), Sept. 26. 

New American Record 

Duration for Women, 1:04:57 2/5, Mile. Du- 
trieu (Farman), Sept. 30. 

Flyers and Winnings 

Ovington (Queen and Bleriot) .... 

Atwood (Burgesfe) $350 

Lt. Arnold (Burgess) 350 

Lt. Beck (Curtiss) 1150 

Beatty (Wright) 950 

Lt. Ellyson (Curtiss) 700 

Ely "purtiss) 1400 
V\ < (Nieuport and Burgess Baby) 3950 

HI . !ond (Baldwin) 500 

Milling (Burgess) 2550 

Miss Quimby (Moisant) 600 

Sopwith (Bleriot and Burgess) 5200 

Disbrow (automobile) 600 

McCurdy (McCurdy) .... 

Mile. Dutrieu (Farman) 2500 

Walden (Walden) 100 
Miss Moisant (Moisant) No award. 

Geo. M. Dyott (Deperdussin). .... 

Present A'wards Protested 

Lt. Ellyson 600 

White 300 

Sopwith 700 

Ely 100 

Lt. Arnold 300 

$22,900 

THE establishment of the first aerial 
mail service in the United States as 
one of the features of the Nassau 
Boulevard meet Sept. 23-30, caused 
more interest, perhaps, than the actuaL eon- 
tests, such as they were. Everyone who at- 



tended could mail postal cards t» their 
friends to their heart's desire. 

To Earle Ovington belongs the distinction 
of having been the first duly appointed aerial 
mail carrier, covering a set route from a 
regularly established post office for a period 
of nine days. 

In the evening of the opening a large 
canvas sack, which contained exactly 640 
letters and 1280 postcards, was handed Oving- 
ton by A. H. Bartsch, advertising manager for 
the Bosch Magneto company. It was an un- 
wieldy Load as owing to the construction of 
his Bleriot he had to carry the bag on his 
knees and, consequently, was hampered con- 
siderably in his control. Nevertheless, he 
had no trouble througnout the entire meet, 
flying from the canvas tent serving as a 
post office at Nassau Boulevard over to Mine- 
ola, where the bags were dropped in the 
field to be picked up by the postmaster of 
that place. 

Postmaster General Frank Hitchcock ar- 
ranged a municipal collection system on the 
grounds. Twenty regulation boxes and two 
sub-stations were set up in the spaces alloted 
to spectators. A mail carrier collected the 
messages at regular intervals and Post Office 
Inspector M. H. Boyle saw to the canceling 
in the tent main post office. 

On one day Captain Paul W. Beck, U. S. 
A., took Postmaster General Hitchcock, in 
his military Curtiss, who carried a sack of 
mail on his knees, over to Mineola. Mr. 
Hitchcock dropping the bag at the proper 
spot. Ovington followed along with another 
bag. In all, 32,415 postcards, 3,993 letters and 
1,062 circulars were carried by aeroplane 
during the meet. The relay race was very 
interesting. Each aviator was handed a 
packet of mail; he had to run to his machine, 
jump in, fly to INIineola, land, get receipt 
from the postmaster there and return. 







Sopwith in Gnome-engined Burgess. 
134 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 




-m ■■■■■■iiiiiiiiiiirB^^ 4 

The Walden Monoplane just before it was Wrecked by the "Wash."' 



Lieut. Milling-, who, with the other Army 
and Navy officers flew in the meet on le^ive 
of absence, took up George C. Wilson, wire- 
less operator who sent messages to a re- 
ceiving station on the ground in charge of 
Oscar Roesen. The Curtiss and Burgess com- 
panies supplied ma'chines for the military 
aviators. 

The flights of Miss Quimby, Miss Moisant 
and Ml'e. Dutrieu in the latest Farnian were 
especially inteiesting. They were flights as 
good as any man could do and the spice of 
femininity added to the zest of the entertain- 
ment. Miss Moisant received the Wanamiker 
trophy for altitude and Miss Quimby had no 
competition in the cross-country race. 

A number of new machines were seen: the 
two Deperdussins of Dyott and Captain 
Hamilton, the Burgess "Baby" flown by White 
and the latter's Nieuport, the new military 
type Curtiss, the Walden monopline. Mile. 
Dutrieu's new little Farman and the McCurdy. 
The alley in front of the shed held 
swarms of fans who talked knowingly of 
all the things they didn't know about flying 
machines. 

Considerable interest was taken in Beatty's 
Wright machine which could trim Sopwith's 
Gnome-engined Burgess-Wright and the 
standard Burgess-Wright of Lieut. Milling. 
Beatty had h^d a new pair of propellers 
m-sde by the Gibson Propeller Co., and his 
claim of five miles more an hour speed was 
borne out by the record. These gave 238 
lbs. thrust on the ground at 447 r. p. m. 
Beatty broke a crankcase of one engine and 
blew out a cylinder of another and it may be 
that the new propellers speeded the engine 
up to a greater degree than consistent with 
good policy. 

If the m inagement had been more kind to the 
press, the former might have been better 
pleased with results. To get any information 
as to what was going on was a catch-as- 
catch-cnn proposition with the megaphone 
man. Photographers were not allowed on the 
field, though lady friends of the officers had 
no difficulty on that score. The obtiining of 
pictures was a matter of prime interest to 
those interested in aviation and a club meet 
is supposed to be run for the advancement of 
the sport and scierce. No one, however, will 
accuse the Nassau management of being over 
keen on the scientific side. A ludicrous sight 
was the repeated chasing given the photoe:- 
raphers by alleged cops on horseback, with 
the Ex. -Lieut. Governor Woodfuff cheering 
the gallant horsemen on to the fray. One 



smashed aeroplane and numerous narrow es- 
capes were caused by these pink tea police- 
men getting in the way. 

Those who attended the Chicago meet 
missed the hourly duration, and the altitude 
contests. The absence of the duration prizes 
cut down the amount of flying to the 
minimum. 

A license fee of $5,000 was paid the Wright 
Company by the corporation which financed 
the meet. 

GNOME-ENGINED BURGESS-WRIGHT. 

While a Gnome engine has been used 
abroad in a Fiench Wright, the Burgess 
Company and Curtis, of Marblehead, Mass., 
have taken the initiative heie in using a 
rotary engine in their Model F machines, 
the first one of which thus fitted was sup- 
plied to Sopwith and used by him in his 
fights at the meet on Long Island, Sept. 23 — 
Oct. 1. As is well known, the Burgess com- 
pany is manufacturing under license from 
the Wright and uses in their standard Model 
F machines the Wright power plant. The 
latter machine is the type which Atwood 
flew in his 1,265-mile flight from St. Louis 
to New York, and in his flight from Boston 
to Washington, 461 miles. Atwood's success 
in making Long distance flights is .ne more 
remarkable when one considers the other 
attempts made in cross country flying. 

The rotary engine has more power than a 
4 cylinder engine and runs with greater 
smoothness. The Farman type of control 
was substituted for the Wright type as Sop- 
with is used to the former system. In 
place of the usual seats, those of the deep 
bucket pattern were put on so that the 
aviator might have a firmer hold from which 
to meet the side thrust of his control lever. 

In starting the motor there is a noticeable 
absence of vibration which is conspicuous in 
the vertical engine until it is up to speed. 

The rudder is operated by a foot yoke. 

It will be noticed that the engine is mount- 
ed to the left of the aviator-, instead of to 
his right as in m-^chines using the standard 
Wright engine. This was done to keep the 
direction of rotation of the propellers the 
same as in the standard machine; the Gnome 
revolving in the opposite direction from the 
Wright engine. 

The tank to the left of the picture is 
used for the castor oil. 

The guving has been sMghtly altered in 
the section where the aviator sits, thus do- 



135 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



ing away with the contortions one used to 
have to go through to get into the machine. 
The gearing of the propellers is at present 
12 to 34. Sopwith is not satisfied with this 
and has ordered a 14-tooth gear for the 
engine shaft, which may increase his speed. 
The gearing on standard Wright machines 
is 11-34. 



BOSTON MEET. 

Prize Winners. 

Ovington (Bleriot) $11,782 

Lieut. Milling ( Burgess- Wright) . . 6,200 

Sopwith (Wright) 6,022 

White (Nieuport) 5,224 

Beachey (Curtiss) 3,630 

Stone (Queen) 1,000 

Gill (Burgess-Wright) 534 

Beatty (Wright) 482 

Atwood (Burgess-Wright) 296 

Coffyn " " 200 

Ely (Curtiss) 150 



$32,520 



To these amounts must be added expense 
money allowed. 



Ovington Won 160-Mile Tri-state Race. 

The first cross-country race inaugurated 
in America in connection with an aviation 
meeting was held from Boston to Nashua, 
N. H., Worcester, Mass., Providence, R. I., 
and back to Boston, covering corners of 
three states, on Sep. 4 in connection with 
the second Harvard Meet, so-called, Aug. 26- 
Sep. 6. The distance is reckoned as 160 miles. 
Landings had to be made at each place, where 
thousands were gathered to view for the 
first time a monoplane in flight. 

Earle L. Ovins-ton. in a 70 Bleriot, covered 
the course in the flyingr time of 3:6:22-1/5. 
Lieut. Miiiing, ii\ ^ uurgesrf-Wright, took 
5:22:37. Arthur Stone (Queen monoplane) 
and Harry Atwood (Burgess-Wright) also 
started. Both failed to get further than 
Medford, Mass. Atwood started with his 
father and he flew back alone from Medford. 
White, Beachey, Ely and other flyers refused 
to enter the race, claiming the course too 
dangerous, no good landing places, et cetera. 
Besides that, it was a purely snorting offer, 
the $10,000 prize of the Boston Globe, and one 
of the flyers thought it not worth while 
unless something were guaranteed on ac- 
count. Other troubles were had with the 
management. It was alleged that White 
had been promised a guarantee while others 
had not. "Ply" says : "Those who are aware 
of Grahame-White's avidity for the clinking 
of silver and gold, as well as the yellow 
certificates of large denominations issued 
by the United States Government, insinuate 
that the Englishman never came to Squantum 
without a substantial guarantee." 

The attendance was poor save on two days. 
Weather delayed the meet also. Even the 
30-mile flights out over the ocean to Boston 
Light failed to draw the populace. Beachey 
set a record in sensational flying that others 
will have to match or lose out as a drawing 
attraction. On Sep. 2, Beachey and Ovington 
flew the Boston Light race in a wind of 26-28 
miles an hour and Beachey did the flight 
to Blue Hill and back, 15 miles, when "the 
other aviators stayed on the ground. On 
August 28, the flight to Boston Light was 
cancelled, though Beachey and Ely protested. 
Beachey and Ely flew anyway just for the 
sport of it, and were the only ones to fly 
that day. Ovington's flying in the Tri-state 
race was most consistent, covering each 40- 
mile leg without not more than five minutes 
difference in times. Ely was unfortunate, 
losing two contests purely on technicalities. 



The ovations the Tri-state flyers received 
were tremndous. A hundred thousand people 
were at the State Fair in Worcester to wit- 
ness the spectacle. Two days later Stone 
made flights in Worcester. After a flight on 
Sept. 6 the machine made a complete somer- 
sault in landing burying him underneath. 
He had a marvelous escape. 

WALDEN MONOPIiANE MAKES FINE 
FLIGHTS. 

The original monoplane of Dr. Henry W. 
Walden has, after three years of experiment- 
ing and flying, proven itself as a flier. All 
during the month he has been flying at Mine- 
ola. At the series of exhibition flights made 
under the auspices of Walter B. Davis by 
Beatty, Sopwith, White, Ely and Atwood, Dr. 
W^alden made his first real public bow. 
Although not a pilot or really an expert 
flier he made circle after circle of the field, 
fiying over the trolley wires and the houses 
of Coney Island. When he landed he found 
he had not flown the requisite time demanded 
by his contract. Scarcely waiting for people 
to get out of the way of his wings he started 
up again and flew more than was necessary. 
At the Nassau meet he had agreed to fly but 
the first day he got in the w^ash of a Burgess- 
Wright and broke up a wing. As he was 
about to land, Lieut. Milling started off the 
ground and rose right in front of Walden, 
who cleared his tail but a couple of feet. 
Dr. Walden was compelled to turn sharply 
so as not to strike the other machine and 
the stream of air caught him and dashed 
him about forty feet to the ground. The 
picture shows the ailerons in position to 
balance up when the "wash" struck him. An 
instant after the picture was taken the 
machine was a wreck. 

The day before he tried for his pilot license 
and met with all the requirements, save as 
to altitude. Though the observers vouch for 
1,500 feet, the club's representative failed to 
furnish a barograph and he has no pilot 
license as yet. 

Two more machines are now being built, 
all to be equipped, like the present one, with 
Hall-Scott engines. 

Many flights have been made from the 
Mineola sheds over to Nassau and back. His 
flight over on the opening day of the meet 
when no one was expecting him and no shed 
prepared at Nassau, was a sensation. 

Although not a pilot, Dr. Walden flew in 
a sanctioned meet under contract and was 
entered on the program. When he was carted 
to the hospital in an ambulance, he had to 
pay $2 for the ride; he also got a bill for 
taking his wrecked aeroplane off the field. 
It would be hard for an aviator to be broke 
and have to go without the luxury of an 
ambulance. But, then, all aviators are sup- 
posed to be wealthy, so what's the use of 
worrying. The earth-worms can still ride 
free in ambulances. 

TO "HUMBLE INQUIRER." 

We have received a letter asking further 
information on the pressure equalizer de- 
scribed in a recent issue of this publication. 
The letter was signed "A Humble Inquirer." 

We are always glad to answer all inquiries; 
but it is out of the question to expect reply 
when no name or address is given. Will he 
please supply it? 



Mr. Grahame-White 

having' studied llio w'lrld's lit^'^t .ai-roplaiies regularly flies 
one Nieuport iiKinoplaiic and two specially de.signed 

BURGESS BIPLANES 



(lesiciu'<l .111(1 Iriilt !)>• 



BURGESS COMPANY AND CURTIS, Marblehead, Mass. 



136 



RONAUTICS 



October, 19 J I 



rHAT'S THE MATTER V/ITH AVIATION 



AST issue we began a series of articles 

under this heading, treating of the 

status of avijtion in this country at 

the present time. At least, that is 

t we requested. In our letters we point- 

jinit several items which were not en- 

ly favorable to rapid progress and to the 

istiy. Some evidently believe thit avia- 

is flourishing. We do not wish to confine 

symposium entirely to aviation. It 

iM be interesting to bring in the sport 

jallooning, and the piloting of dirigibles, 

ny are ever to be used for sporting pur- 

33 in this country. 

"The Aero Club of 

is now without gas and 
there is nothing doing." 
Signed by club's president. 
he aero clubs who aie doing anything of 
practical value can be counted on one 
d, with perhaps a finger or so to spare — 
way, a thumb. 

ontributions from every one who has 

lething worth while to say are solicited 

this series, provided they are brief, and 

not "trade puffs." 

THE EDITOR 

By Jerome S. Fanciulli, 

Manager Curtiss Exh bition Co. 

would say that progress in aviation is 
isfactnry as far as this Company is con- 
ned. We note a gradual widening interest 
oughout the U. S., both in exhibition and 
ctical sides of the business. I believe 
t the numerous exhibitions which we have 
en and are still giving throughout the 
S., will do moie than anything else to 
nonstrate the increasing practicability 
i reli-^bility of the aeroplane. 

regard the Chicago Meet held in August 
. greatest demonstration of the art of 
ng that has ever taken place in this or 
/ other country. Its beneficial effects ai e 
jnd to be widespread. Already we have 
a evidence of the aroused interest re- 
ting from the Chicago Meet. , , . , 
t is true that the U. S. is far behind 
ne parts of Europe, France in particular, 
the mUter of offering prizes for cross 
jntry flights. However, there have been 
/eral such prizes put up in this country 



CLUB NEWS 

The Aero Club Itnliana S. U. A. has been 
rmed with Albert C. Triaca, president; 
aneesco Grutter, Secretary, Saverio A. 
iscia, Treasurer; prominent New York 
ilians complete the board of directors. 1 he 
nee is at 403 Park Avenue, New York, ine 
jb has been started by Mr. Triaca, who 
ill be remembered by all who followed 
iation from its rise in this country through 
s school. This lost a pot of simoleons 
iparently because people thought they 
uld copy well-known types from descrip- 
ms and pictures in AERONAUTICS and save 
e trouble of leLirning the principles and 
isigning their own. They evidently did. 
The Trenton Aero Club has been incor- 
)rt.ted at Trenton, N. J., with the following 
fleers: P. F. De Marco, President; Stephen 
ack, Vice-President; John Falcey, Secre- 
ry; Frederick Gebert, Treasuier; James 
enton, Ass't Treasurer. 

strong effort was made to secure the co- 
lerati'n of the business men of Trenton 
Jt without success. It was planned to es- 
blish a real club with grounds for experi- 
ental flights. 

Chas. F. Willard is having a new Curtiss 
lachine built, two passenger type, with 
nome engine. The passenger will sen to 
le side and to the rear of the pilot. Other- 
ise, this will be a standard Curtiss. The 
evating surface is slightly increased, for 



recently, notably the one of Gimbel Bros, for 
a race of three Curtis aviators between New 
York and Philadelphia, which was success- 
fully cariied out on August 5th. I look for 
a great deal of cross country flying next 
year, for which there will be adequate pi-izes 
ofiered. I also expect to see aeroplane racing 
made a featuie of all the big meets held in 
the U. S. next year. 

All things taken into consideration, I re- 
gai d the progress in aviation in this country 
as slow but steady with good prospects for 
the immediate future. While few machines 
have been sold for sporting purposes, thus 
far, I believe that the hydroaeroplane will 
do more to stimulate interest in this direction 
than anything else that has been developed 
in the brief history of heavier than air 
machines. With the advent of aeroplane 
racing I look for inany wealthy men to 
enter the game, possibly not as operators of 
their own aeroplanes, but for the sport of 
having the fastest machine with a hired 
aviator, the same as one would put an auto- 
mobile 01 a motor boat in races to be run 
by employed experts. 

I have no complaint to make in regard to 
the exhibition business, as we shall have 
filled engagements calling for more than 350 
flying days by the end of the season. I have 
absolute faith in the future of aviation, and 
believe that next year will bring rapid de- 
velopment. 

By J. T. Patterson, 

Sec'y Maxi.miitok M.vkers. 

We have industriously tried to find some- 
thing the matter with aviation and failed. 

Aviation is very young yet. 

In compaiison with it the beginnings of 
the automobile industry, etc., etc., were in- 
significant and slow. 

ifou, of course, remember the time a few 
years ago when it was an achievement for 
an American built auto to make a non-stop 
run around a block — when automobiling was 
the butt of eveiybody's jo.ke. 

Certainly aviation is rapidly passing from 
a circus to an industiial basis. 

We are hopeful your diagnosis will in- 
dicate the most serious "matter with avia- 
tion" is "growing pains." 



his rear elevator will have the same surface 
as that in Beachey's headless and the front 
elevator will increase the whole surface by 
its area. 



H. F. Keiirney. of St. Louis, will undoiib'edly fly wi'h 
H.il-Scott Equ'ipmint at the Si. Luis in el. Kearii. y 
is recov.Med fr..ni his ImM of :i month a'.' , at wlii h time 
hr rtrw ;?.T miles cr sscountrv lo Kniloch ' iel<i, an I tlieii 
niKliii hard l.-Midin^- .n acct unt of Ins n oior siopping 
due lo liisfTMs tank uiirii' k dr> . Tli mas McOo •> , who 
purchased a 6J Mall S(->lt power pi in alter se inir ilie 
resul so I'MUi rl Horn H II S<olt eciuipme'l in Baldw n 
planes at the Chit^ffo mee'. has been making more tlian 
good in anU ar. und Giand Forks. 



Daily flights are being made at Nassau 
Boulevard with the Shneider Biplane. Three 
hangars are occupied at present, and the 
fourth machine will be shipped there within 
a few days. Great activity is shown in his 
school, the students are progressing very 
rapidly and making successful flights. Mr. 
Shneider himself has been trying out a Gyro 
motor in one of his machines. The Shneider 
factorv has several machines under con- 
struction. Recently one was sold and dem- 
onstrated to Mr. N. Lapadat, of Johnstown, 
Ohio. 

Yoii have so far auccecjlcfl in your efforls to publish 
a rem inlereniiiu/ niid Icdrncd joiirntil, atul you 
Khali have giji mihscripUon as lotiy as you publish. 

— CHAS. HiLL.MAN. 



13? 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 19 



GERMAN BALLOON WINS INTERNATIONAL RACl 



THE international balloon race wiiich 
started from Kansas City, on October 
5th was won for the second time by 
Germany. Official reports have not 
been received at the Aero Club or 
America as vet and the distances given here 
are measured on large scale maps. 

The record distance in competition tor 
this trophy, 1172 miles, made last year, is 
far from being beaten. ^^ t i, r^,.r. 

Three balloons entered for the Lahm Cup 
but failed to get close enough to the old 
mark. Following are unofficial results. — 

International Race 

Berlin II, Lt. Hans Gericke and J. O. Bun- 
ker, at Holcomb, Wis., 450 miles. , t w 

Buckeye, Lt. Frank P. Lahm and J. H. 
Wade, Jr., at Sparta, Wis.,^ 364 6 miles 

Berlin I, Lt. Leopold Vogt and Lt. M. 
Schoeller. at Austin, Minn., 301 ^i es. 

America II, John Berry and Paul McCul- 
lough, at Emmettsburg, la., 275 miles. 

Million Pou, Club, Wm. F. Assmann and 
J C Hm-lbert, at Mason City, la., 265.5 miles. 

Condor, Emile Dubonnet and Pierre Du- 
pont, at Mingo, la., 172.8 miles. 

L.alini Cup 

Kau.sa!4 City II, Capt. H. E. Honeywell and 
John Watts, at Kennan, Wis., 486 miles 

Toiieka II. Frank M. Jacobs and W. ^^ . 
Webb, at Dunnell, Minn., 302 miles. 

Pennsylvania II, A. T. Atherholt and BR. 
Hunnewell, at Buffalo Centre, la., 293.6 miles. 

OTHER ASCENSIONS 

Salt I.aUe City. Sept. 4 HE. Honeywell, 
R N. Campbell, Lewis B. McCormick and J. 
Frank Judge were the aeronauts to christen 
the Salt Lake Aero Club's new Honeywell bal- 
loon "Salt Lake City." The strong wind did 
not deter the passengers and, of couise, 
Honeywell didn't mind it a bit. Aftei sail- 
ing around over the salt lake and the hills 
the balloon was dropped to a low adtitude 
and it followed the foothills in the dire_c- 
tion of Ogden, landing "^ar Utah The 
party packed up and returned to bait l^aKe 
from Ogden. 

Two other ascensions were made before 
Captain Honeywell left the. city after a 
week's instruction m ballooning. The last 
two were made over the Wasatch Mountains 
at a high altitude. 

Kansas City, Aug. 31.— -.he Kansas city 
Aero Club has purchased a new balloon of 
80,000 cubic feet from H. E Honeywell of 
St. Louis, and on August 31 made a tiial 
trip, carrying nine people all told, of wliich 
Ave were ladies. The rest of the party was 
composed of members of the press and aero 
club officials, including president George M. 
Mvers They were not all taken up at once 
but in relays, five different ascents being 
made from the one inflation. Friends ot 
the aeronauts followed in automobiles. 

PittsfieUl. Sept. 11.— H. Percy Shearman, 
president of the Williams College Aero- 
nautical Society left alone in the Spring- 
field" on an attempt to make a new record 
to Canada. He was discovered the follow- 
ing morning in a field in an exhausted con- 
dition near Auburn, Me., by a farmer who 
started to investigate the presence of a bal- 
loon on his property. Shearman could give 
no more than his name. When he arrived 
at the hospital he sank into a stupor. He 
had passed through a severe rain and hail 
storm, followed by cold weather. He had 
climbed in the rigging, ripped the bag, fall- 
ing back unconscious in the basket. Uis- 
tance 190 miles. ■,., t., i ^ 

l>hila., Aug. 25. — Dr. Thomas E. Eldredge. 
John Noggle, Frank Middleton and a 9-year 
old boy, Mears Noggle, ascended in the 
"Philadelphia II". The landing was at Ar- 
neytown, N. J., after a trip of two hours. 



Pittsfleld, Sept. 17.— J. J. Van Valkenburi 
William Van Sleet, and Jay B. Benton a; 
cended in the "Springfield" a few momen 
before midnight. Morning found them ovc 
Long Island Sound and a landing was mac 
in Auburndale, L. I. The duration of tl 
trip was 5:25 and the distance 109 mile 
This was Valkenburg's 10th trip ar 
his second as pilot. 

Atchison, Kans., Sept. 4 — W. C. Jacob 
John Cain and Will Harburger ascended i 
the "Topeka I" and landed at Wathen^ 
Kansas. 

Pittsfleld, Oct. 8. Wm. Van Sleet an 
Jay B. Benton, in the "Boston" to Lakewoo 
N. J. The trip was begun 15 minutes aft( 
midnight of the 7th with a full moon an 
beautiful weather. 

A Hudson River Steamer discovered th 
balloon with its searchlight. 

The landing was made 8 A. M. Sunda 
morning. 

Pittsfield. — Sept. 23. Ernest G. Schmolcl 
Mr. and Mrs. St. J. C. Wood and Malcom « 
Ludlam in the "Springfield" to Cheshire. 

SPRINGFIELD, ILLS., July 17-18. John Ben 
and Roy F. Donaldson in the "Million Popuk 
tion Club" to La Place, Piatt Co., Ills, on a tri 
lasting from 7:30 o'clock Monday evening ti 
10:30 Tuesday a. m. Two other landings wei 
made earlier in the morning at Kirksville ai 
Bethany. 

KANSAS CITY, MO., July 14. H. E. Honej 
well, pilot, and four newspaper men in tf 
"Kansas City" at 4 p. m. At 8:32 p. m. lane 
ing was made about 8 miles from the star 
having drifted back and forth about the city 
aerial section. 

SAN DIEGO, CAL., Aug. 13. In an attemj 
to reach San Bernardino, Gene Savage, C. 1 
Hunt, T. Henning and Stanley Schultz, en: 
ployees of the gas company, were caugiit in a, 
unexpected cross current of air, swept south 
west over San Diego Bay and finally alighte 
on Table Mountain below Tia Juana in Lowf 
California. Their experience was terrible, a 
the wind was sweeping them rapidly out t 
sea, which meant sure death unless a currer 
caught the bag and drove it back over the lan( 
Sam McGovney, owner of the ballon, named th 
"Globe," followed it in an automobile. 

The daring young men had expected to reac 
San "Bernardino in about three hours. Tb 
wind was just right, until they reached a heigl 
of 600 feet. When they were caught in a gal 
and swept towards the sea. Besides the fou 
occupants, the balloon today carried 1110 pound 
ballast, thirty pounds of drag rope, 500 feet c 
inch cord, water, food and an anchor. 

PITTSFIELD, MASS, July 22. Alan R. Haw 
ley, Harrington Emerson and Richard F. Da 
in the "Springfield." 

PITTSFIELD, MASS., Aug. 13. Wm. Van Slee 
and J. J. Van Valkenburgh in the "Pittsfield 
to Coltsville, a short distance from the starl 
The start was at midnight and the landing a 
1 a. m. ^ „ 

ST. LOUIS, MO., Aug. 12. St. ,Ino. P. Har 
and Sergt. Joseph O'Reilly, of the Mo. N. G., a 
7:45 p. m., to Black Jack, Mo., at 8:30. DistanC' 
15 miles. 

PARIS, July, 19. Ernest O. Schmolk, quah 
fying for French license, sailed over I'aris ii 
the balloon Ariane. 



Lieut.T.D. Milling, U.S.A 

having won llio i)rin«i|)al biplanf prize-; at the Bosto^ 
Meet (in a | 

BURGESS BIPLAME | 

lia< o>;lal>lisli<'cl a icw World's Record, <arr> ingTwt , 
Passengersal Nassau li.inlcvanl on llu'sauu-aiT oplai'* ' 

BURGESS COMPANY ANDCURTis, Marblehead. Mass 



138 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 191 1 



HtU^t^n^ 



FL.Y WITH TWO MOTOKS. 

Reports from Eastchurch aviation field, in 
England, state that the Short biplane with 
two engines flew an hour on September 23, 
changing from one motor to the other while 
in the air. 

Aviation is "on the blink" in England. 
There is very little doing. Our sympathies! 
Same here, old man. 

VAIVIMAN TO START SOON. 

From a standpoint of novelty the airship 
Akron, in which the Sieberling-Vaniman ex- 
pedition will attempt to cross the Atlantic 
ocean the latter part of October, is perhaps the 
most remarkable ever constructed. 

The gas bag itself is 258 feet long and 47 
feet in diameter. Most of the other dirigi- 
bles constructed in Europe have had greater 
diameter and less length, but Mr. Melvin 
Vaniman, who has a number of new ideas 
embodied in the latest of airships, believes 
more in length of a gas bag than in breadth. 
Thus the "Akron" bag is built along the lines 
of a slim racer and the dirigible will have a 
speed of from thirty to thirty-five miles an 
hour. 

The bag was. manufactured in the factory 
of Frank A. Seiberling of Akron, O., who 
is financing the present expedition. It con- 
sists of Goodyear material embodying seven 
thicknesses, four of rubber and three of 
cloth or fabric, rendering the bag practical- 
ly impervious to weather conditions. The 
bag weighs 4,400 pounds and when it leaves 
on the voyage to Europe it w^ill contain 
approximately 400,000 cubic feet of hydrogen 
gas. 

The upper two-thirds of the Akron's en- 
velope is made of fabric built up by sand- 
wiching three layers of the finest cotton 
cloth between four layers of rubber. This 
makes a fabric that will stand a tensile 
strain of 160 pounds per inch. The cloth was 
all specially made for this balloon and more 
than 2,200 pieces were sewed together with 
a double seam and then bound with tape on 
both sides. Laboratory tests have showed 
that this seam will stand a strain of 100 
per cent, both as to strength and leakage. In 
other words the seams are as strong and 
tight as the rest of the envelope. As the 
under side of the bag will have a minimum 
strain it is of lighter material than the upper 
part. 

The entire weight of the engines, car and 
whatever cargo the ship carries will be borne 
by the upper half of the envelope as the car 
is swung from long loops of fabric running 
almost the full length of the bag. These 
loops are of heavy fabric and are sewed and 
cemented to the bag itself. The outer coat 
of the balloon is a bright yellow to protect 
the inner coats of rubber from the ultra- 
violet sun rays. These rays, so scientists 
claim, cause rubber to become brittle and 
crack but passing through a yellow medium 
they are robbed of this power. The "Akron" 
contains two ballonets, one in the forward 
end of the bag and the other toward the 
rear, both connected w^ith air pumps and by 



inflating them with air to a greater or less 
degree, Mr. Vaniman declares he will be able 
to maintain an even pressure in the envelope 
at all times. 

The hydrogen gas is being made right at 
the hangar in Atlantic City. No one but the 
initiated would know that this gas is being 
made with such stuff as old rusty barrel 
hoops, lathe turnings and other scraps of 
the machine shop, acted upon by sulphuric 
acid. Nearly 80 tons of scrap iron and 100 
tons of sulphuric acid is necessary to manu- 
facture the gas with which to inflate the 
"Akron" bag. An equal quantity of coal gas 
would supply an ordinary five-foot burner for 
more than 10 years. 

The car of the Akron is 185 feet long and 
consists of a framework of steel tubing, con- 
structed in the lightest possible manner, at- 
tached to the long, torpedo-shaped gasoline 
tank on which the four engines of the dirigi- 
ble will. rest. The top of the gasoline tank 
will form the floor of the car. This tank is 
made in compartments of reinforced gal- 
vanized steel and will carry over 8,000 pounds 
of gasoline. The car will weigh 6,000 pounds. 
The car will be enclosed with waterproof 
fabric. 

The four engines of the dirigible are the 
best that Mr. Vaniman could secure in this 
country and Europe. Two of them are of 
110 horse power each, one of 80 horse power, 
and the other of 17 horse power. The two 
powerful engines are of American make 
while the others are French and English. 

The six propellers, three on each side of 
the dirigible, were especially constructed in 
France. The two forward propellers will 
be of the ordinary type, while those in the 
rear will be movably mounted so as to either 
slant the ship upward, downward, or steer it 
in a horizontal plane. This device is the in- 
vention of Mr. Vaniman, upon which a patent 
was recently obtained, illustrated and des- 
cribed in AERONAUTICS. 

Beneath the" car will be suspended the life- 
boat, which is 27 feet long-. It has air-tight 
compartments, and is non-capsizable. 

In this boat will be cari-ied the wireless ap- 
paratus and provisions for a fifteen day 
voyage. Five days' provisions will be car- 
ried in the car. Members of the crew when 
not on duty will sleep in the lifeboat. Vani- 
man intends that his crew shall have plenty 
of good things to eat on the voyage and he 
has fitted up two of the engines' exhaust 
pipes with frying pans and all sorts of ham 
and eggs and tempting dishes are to be part 
of the menu. 

The substitute which Vaniman has invent- 
ed for the old equilibrator tliat last year en- 
cumbered the America is being kept secret 
for the present. But upon this invention the 
airship will depend a great deal for success. 
It is not revealing any secrets, however, to 
say that the method of maintaining equili- 
brium has something to do with the taking 
water from the sea. Mr. Vaniman is con- 
fident it will be successful, as is also his 
backer, Mr. Seiberling. 



139 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



MICHEIilN PRIZE FOR DROPPING 
PROJECTILES. 

In order to encourage the development of 
the aeroplane as an offensive implement of 
war. M. Michelin has offered a prize of 
$30,000 for the competition of French pilots, 
either civil or military. This sum is to be 
divided into lour prizes. 

The first one, of $10,000, is to be given to 
the pilot who by Aug. 15, 1912, from an alti- 
tude of greater than 200 meters, places th«i 
greatest number of projectiles in a circle of 
10 meters diameter. Five projectiles must be 
carried, each weighing not less than 44 lbs., 
and be dropped one at a time. Another prize 
of $5,000 is to be given for dropping projec- 
tiles from the height of 1,000 meters, into a 
rectangle 100 meters long by 10 meters wide. 

These two oi'izes are for competition up 
to and including Aug. 15, 1912; the award of 
the balance of the money is to be arranged 
later, and is to remain open till Aug. 15, 
1913. 

The prizes are known as the "Michelin 
Aero T„.o^- 1-. ...c„. 

SCOTT UOMB DROPPER SUCCESS 

A first trial was made October 10, under 
adverse conditions, with Lieut. Riley E. 
Scott's apparatus for dropping projectiles 
with scientific accuracy in, the Army's Wright 
biplane at College Park, Md. The two pro- 
jectiles were dropped within 6 feet of a 
target and 6 inches apart, from an elevation 
of one thous; nd feet. 

Lieut. Scott's invention is the only method 
thus far suggested anywhere in the world 
for the determination of speed relative to 
the earth and for the launching of projectiles 
with the same mathematical accuracy with 
which any gun is sighted. 

AVILLOUGHBY WATER 'PLANE. 

Capt. Hugh L. Willoughby has had so much 
encoui agement from his experiment in New- 
port HaiDor during the last Summer that he 
is to start a factoi-y at Sewall's Point, Fla., 
to build duplicates of his machine "Pelican." 
The hydro-t-eroplane has caught the general 
fancy and the concensus of opinion is that it 
will be the machine of the future, tor so 
many obvious reasons. Safet.v is an important 
reason; faster than a motorboat, cheaper on 
a speed basis. 

Captain Willoughby's machine spreads 30 
ft., with a weight of 575 lbs. without wheels 
for land use, or the brass-sheathed floats, 
which weigh 103 lbs. A Curtiss 30 horsepower 
motor drives a piopeller in the front of the 
machine. Tho f rrt nci rear elevat'^r"^ •'• ■ ''■ 



in conjunction, in the same manner as in 
use in Farman, Curtiess and other machines, 
under Capt. Willoughby's patent. He has 
also patented an engine control which, in 
case of h-ird landing, will shut off the power 
with certainty through the natural move- 
ment of the body. 

PLIES RUDDERLESS M.-VCHINE 

Frank E. Boland has been making good 
flights with his ruddeiless machine, wnich 
is, perhaps, still in the experimental stage. 
Though even tailless at fii'st, one had now 
been added but the rudders are still absent, 
K. Lei-. 1 sietTiiig Oeing o.ccompiifcheu by tii- 
angular oblique fins at the outer extremi- 
ties of the biplane cell. These likewise 
se' ve to PccompM^h l"tp»-""l pt- bii.jty. 

Kermerly has been making flights at Mine- 
ola with a Curtiss copy equipped with a 
INIiXimotor engine. tioi/na L..eo his own 
design 8 cylinder 60 horsepower engine. 
Antony Jannus has been flying the old 
Weeks Curtiss-type machine, after taking off 
the front elevator. This is equipped with a 
4 cylinder Emerson. Both Jannus, and Dr. 
Wnlden have exhibition dates in the South. 
Kennerly is taking his machine home in 
Kentucky for the Winter. 

C. O. Hadley now h is Joe Seymour's old 
original Curtiss, with the elevator way out 
ft-r-nt "nd h^.'? mide Pf^me real good flights 
with his Roberts engine, for which he is 
agent. 

Fred H. Medrick has a heavy, old Curtiss- 
type, with Roberts engine, flew clear to 
Westbury and back the second time he tried 
to fly, a distance of about 10 miles alto- 
gether. Joe Stevenson has bought a 60 Hall- 
Scott engine and put it in his Curtiss-type 
but he smashed up several times after flights. 
Francois Raische has a new Curtiss-type 
out with a Smalley engine. Clyde, with a 
bipl'-ne of his own m ;ke, has been trying 
to fly with Hall-Scott, but h-^s not done 
much in the way of flying. Wilbur R. Kim- 
b"'l h".« '^pen m"kin<2r hTtp-with his "^-nro- 
peller tailless biplane with an auto engine. 
All tbese rt.vers re located in the Aeronaut- 
ical Society's sheds, at Mineola. 

AVIATOR ELTON PLIES i;44 MILES 

Albert Elt^n. who h-^d just learned to fly 
a Wright biplane at Dayton, flew from there 
to Youngstown. O., in the three days, Sept. 
distance of about 70 miles. The next day 
he flew to Pickerington, Newark, Wakato- 
mica to Trinway, 64 miles, making stops at 
these places. The third day's trip took him 
"f» town. Y ""n-Ptown. 1!.^ miles on 




The Willoughby yd/ o-aerOf,lane. 
140 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 19/1 




.:i^Mi*iL':?-..iKtt;"i"i .:Jf 



the way. A. I^. AN'olsh. ihe AVriyht instruc- 
tor, was his passenger throughout the flight. 
This was the first long distance tow-man flight 
in America. 

AR3IY'S AERO GUN. 

Not to be outdone by the Navy, the Ord- 
nance Department of the U. S. Army has 
built and is to test out a high-angle aero- 
plane gun. The department will not release 
any photographs of it, nor will it give any 
details beyond the fact that it is a 6-pounder 
high velocity gun mounted upon a specially 
designed mount for use in the attack of aero- 
planes and dirigibles. 

A JAPANKSE DIRIGIBLE. 

The Japanese dirigible of Isaburo Yamada 
some time ago completed a series of success- 
ful trials and the populace is enthusiastic 
over the thoughts of a Japanese airship. 
Yamada began in 19()it and is reported to be 
building in behalf of the Government. Japan 
is not suitable for aeroplanes, such open 
spaces as there are being controlled by the 
Government. Port Arthur is apparently the 
best place. The airship is of the non-rigid 
type, fitted with a new Maximotor engine, of 
60-75 h.p., replacing a smaller engine of the 
same make. 

NEW AIR IMLOTS 

There are now sixty-three registered avia- 
tion pilots. The latest who have met the 
requirements are as follows, the place and 
date of the tests being given: 

58 Harold H. Brown (Wright), Nassau, 

Sept. 7. 

59 Capt. Chas. De P. Chandler. U. S. A., 

(Wright), Washington, D. C. 
Sept. 20. 

60 John r>. Cooper (Curtiss-type), St. 

Louis, Aug. 30. 

61 A. R. Lambert (Wright), St. Louis, 

Sept. 20. 

62 Lieut. J. H. Towers, U. S. N., (Cur- 

tiss), HaiTimondsport, Sept. 14. 



63 L. K. Holt. Los Angeles. Aug. 31. 

Spherical balloon cei'tificate number 
32 has been given to George B. 
Harrison, dated I..os Angeles, 
Aug. 31. 



\VVAIi OFFICER INVENTS AERIAL, 
TORPEDO. 

The aeroplane itself has now become an 
engine of destruction to foes. First, we 
had the areoplane as a scouting vehicle, then 
through the invention of I.,ieut. R. E. Scott, 
as a carrier of missiles. Paul K. Chaniber- 
lin, an officer in the U. S. Marine Corps, has 
patented in the U. S. means for employing the 
aeroplane as a missile. (1,004,367, Sept. 26, 
1911.) 

A specially designed one-man monoplane 
is used, Avith a light and powerful engine. 
In the extreme front of the mncliine is a 
projectile or explosive bomb. The seat for 
tlie aviator is mounted on a platform which 
can be tripped at any time to allow the 
aviator, who must be a nervy man, to drop 
himself through the bottom of the aeroplane, 
opening a parachute as he goes. An inex- 
pensive engine can be employed, as no long 
flights are demanded. The cooling system 
can be done away with altogether, possibly 
and the fuel and oil carried will be but little. 
The toi-pedo is made of armor steel and 
heavy enough to pierce tlie sides and decks 
of vessels. It is intended to carry about ISO 
pounds of wet gun cotton and to be supplied 
with a!i explosive means — for instance a 
combinatiiMi time and percussion fuse. 

When tlie aviator is ready to direct his 
attack and take leave of his machine, he pulls 
a level-, which simultaneously diov)s Iiim 
thi-ough the floor and ignites the fuse. The 
wings are so arranged that at this instant 
they will fold up vertically because of the 
pressure of the wind. The length of the fuse 
is to be determined before launching the 
machine on its death-dealing mission in 
order that the torpedo may explode at the 
proper moment. 



141 



AERONAUTICS 



October. 191} 



Provided the aviator does not strike the 
object aimed at at the same time the aero- 
plane does, the scheme would be all right. 

It may be assumed that the engine keeps 
on running until the fuel is exhausted, for 
no mention is made of what the motor is to 
do. Leaving this out of it, the forward speed 
of the machine at the moment the attack 
is started, combined with the pull of gravity, 
will force the apparatus to follow a parabolic 
path. The aviator is moving with the aero- 
plane when he lets go and will follow closely 
the same path, nicht wahr? 

Another little drawback might be men- 
tioned. No provision is made for the timing 
of the drop the proper distance before reach- 
ing the object aimed at. Perhaps he will . 
use Scott's patented method of determining 
his height, his speed, his path and the instant 
for action. 

Will the aeroplane keep on an even keel 
or will it turn over and over, this way and 
that, with the sudden change in weight dis- 
tribution, center of pressure, center of grav- 
ity, and a few other little items which keep 
aeroplanes in the air? Perhaps the extin- 
guished editor of Ply can answer this. If 
this last sentence is not clear address H. B. 
H., c/o "Fly," Philadelphia. 

NEW CONCERNS. 

The Aeronautical Society of California, Los 

Angeles, Capital $;;00,000, of which $1,600 is 
subscribed. The incorporators are Earle Rem- 
ington, Roy L. Blakeslee, J. M. Bloom, L. S. 
Emerson, Sidney Clifton, Thomas K. Kase and 
Walter Home. 

Trenton Aeroplane Club, Trenton, N. J. 
The Lindsay Hopkins Aviation Company, of 
Greensboro, N. C, to manufacture and sell 
flying machines, etc.: authorized capital. $30,- 
000; paid in, $300, by Lindsey Hookins, Thorn- 
well H. Andrews and Thomas S. Beall. 
Continental Aero Ciub, Richmond, Ky. 
Smith Aero Engine Co., Traverse City, Mich., 
capital $100,000. 

Reimers-IVIair Biplane Co., Chicago; name 
changed to Standard Aviation Company. 

Rochester Aerial Company, Rochester, N. Y. 
capital $10,000. The directors are George 
Mutch, R. Edward Smith and William Searle 
Hutchings, of this city, and Stuart M. Wol- 
verton, of Canandaigua. 

The Snyder Aeroplane Company, Osborn, O., 
capital $5,000. Charles B. Snyder, Al. Stim- 
mel, Frank Semler, Frank Esterline, Horace 
Pence and Williain Semler, incorporators. 

American Nieuport Aeroplane Company., New 
York. Capital $50,000. Incorporators: Allan A. 
Ryan, Ignatius V. McGlone, K. R. Howard, all 
of 32 Liberty Street, New York. 

The Gray Eagle Aviation Company, Louis- 
ville, Ky., capital $5,000. The incorporators, 
with their holdings are: Ernest Orndorff, Mat- 
toon, III., E. L. Grey, Ora Gratz, and R. O. 
Rubel, Jr. 

Bleriot Monoplane Co., New York City. cap. 
$150,000. Incorporators: R. A. Burkhard, G. E. 
Marcus, S. M. Marcus, New York City. 

Pioneer Aeroplane and Exhibition Company, 
July 11, St. Lous, Mo., to deal in aeroplanes and 
give exhibitions. Capital $12,000, half paid. In- 
corporators: M. Lellie, C. J. Shea, F. P. Meyer, 
E. W. O'Brien and Andrew Drew. 

The Aero Exhibition Company, Canton, O., to 
book evhibitions. Capital, $15,000. Incorpora- 
tors, William H. Clark, J. J. Piper, J. M. Blake, 
Elwood Salisbury and J. P. Fawcett. 

Sather-Phillips Aeroplane Co., Chattanooga, 
Tenn., capital $10,000. Paul Andress, J. E. 
Gross, T. W. Hagan, T. P. House and Lawrence 
H. Smith. 

Harvard Aviation Association, Boston, cap- 
ital $40,000; Leonard 1). .Mil, Adams D. Claflin, 
Raymond L. Whitman. 

The Wilson Aero Co., formed for the pur- 
pose of exhibition flying. First flights have 
been made by Charles Mink in their own 
make of biplane with a Maximotor engine. 
Capital, $100,000. Incorporators: John Wil- 
son, Jr., 715 Prospect Avenue, John P. Ab- 
bott, 705 D. S. M. Bldg., Geo. J. Rohmer, 835 
Niagara Street, all of Buffalo, N. Y. 



International Aeroplane Co., 104 Second 
Ave. South, Minneapolis, Minn. Capital, 
$50,000. Incorporators: William V. Bloom- 
field, Gustav H. Sachs and Sigvard Quam, 
all of Minneapolis. 

Gibson Piopeller Co., Fort George, New 
York. Capital, $20,000. Incorporators: 

Robt. L. Moffet, 52 William St., Nathan A. 
Egbert, 52 William St., Theo. S. Williamson, 
71 Broadway, all of New York City. 

Sather-Phillips Aeroplane Company, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn., capital of $10,000. Incorpor- 
ators are Paul Andress, J. E. Gross, T. W. 
Hogan, T. F. House and Lawrence T. Smith. 

New England Aviation Co., organized at 
Kittery, $1,000,000 capital stock, ef which 
nothing is paid in. Oflficers: President, Leon 
G. Chase of Boston, Mass.; treasurer, A. Ing- 
ham Bicknell of Boston, Mass. 

American Paraplane Company, Chicago, 
111., the business of which is to manufac- 
ture, sell and deal in paraplanes, aeroplanes 
and dirigible balloons. The incorporators 
are: C. A. Pease, Chicago, 111.; T. C. Corwin 
and M. A. Noble, of New York City. The 
capital stock is $1,000,000. 

Kimball Aeroplane Co., Lynn, Mass., 130,- 
000, by A. G. Kimball. 

The Mercurial Aeroplane and Entertain- 
ment Company, New York, to manufacture 
and deal in aeroplanes, to employ aviators 
and birdmen to give exhibitions and lecture 
upon the subject of aviation and to act as 
theatrical proprietors and managers. 

Capitalized at $10,000. Directors: Oscar 
Gabrial, William Gabrial and Charlotte 
Gabrial of New York City. 

American Aviation Company of New York 
City was incorporated today for the purpose 
of promoting and conducting aviation meets, 
race contests and speed trials, also to manu- 
facture and deal generally in airships of all 
kinds. 

Capital, $2,000. Directors : Walter B. Davis, 
Juliu-s Gottlieb and Edward Dolan of New 
York. 

Nassau Aviation Corporation, 334 Fifth 
Ave., New York, to finance meet. 

Aeroplane Mfg. Co. (G. W. Strommer), 
South Tacoma, Wash., for the building of 
aeroplanes. 

ABRO CALENDAR. 

Oct. 11 — Wilmington, Ind., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 9-15 — Birmingham, Ala., Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

Oct. 11-14 — Albuquerque, N. M., Curtiss 
aviators. 

Oct. 12-13— Sturgis, Mich.. C. F. Willard. 

Oct. 12-13 — Atlantic City, N. J., Curtiss avi- 
ators. 

Oct. 12 — Salem, N. H., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 12-14 — Seneca, Kan., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 12-14 — Peoria, 111., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 12-18 — Macon, Ga., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 14-21 — St. Louis, Mo., Wright aviators. 

Oct. 16 — Broken Bow, Neb., Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

Oct. 17-19 — Raleigh, N. C, Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. IS — Belvidere, 111., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 19 — Natchez, Miss., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 20-21 — Raton, N. M., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 25-27 — Garden City, Kans., Curtiss 
aviators. 

Oct. 26-28 — Norfolk, Va., Curtiss aviators. 

Oct. 25-30— Turin, Italy, 5th Congress Per- 
manent International Aeronautical Commit- 
tee. 

Nov. 14-19 — Houston, Tex., Curtiss aviators. 

Nov. 22-23 — Newburn, N. C, Curtiss avia- 
tors. 

Dec. 7-12 — San Juan, Porto Rico, Curtiss 
aviators. 

Jan. 10-12, 1912 — Los Angeles, Cal., open 
meet; arrangements not certain. 

— Dallas, Tex., J. A. D. McCurdy. 
— Shieveport. La., J. A. D. McCurdy. 



142 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



BOOKS RKCEIVED. 

AERIAL, NAVIGATION by Albert F. Zahm, 
A. M., M. E., Ph. D. 8 vo., cloth, 500 pp., pub- 
lished at $3 net by D. Appleton & Co. Copies 
may be had direct from AERONAUTICS. 
Fully illustrated with 74 half-tone pictures 
and 58 other illustrations. While the book 
is a popular treatise on all branches of aero- 
nautics, it is a distinct pleasure to read it, 
with the consciousness that one may i eLy 
upon what is read. It deals mainly with 
leading- facts and principles, in a clear and 
simple style. 

Contents are as follows: Model Flying 
Machine; Nineteenth Century Man-Flyers; 
Aeroplanes of Adequate Stability and Pow- 
er; Advent of Public Flying-; Strenuous Com- 
petitive Flying-; Forcing the Art; Early Hist- 
ory of Passive Balloons; Practical Develop- 
ment of Passive Balloons; Early Histoiy of 
Power Balloons; Introduction of Gasoline- 
Driven Dirigibles; Practical Development of 
Non-Rigid Dirigibles; Development of Rigid 
Dirigibles; General Properties of Free Air; 
General Distribution of Heat and Pressure; 
Permanent and Periodic Winds; Cyclones, 
Tornadoes, Waterspouts, Thunderstorms, 
Wind Gusts. 

THE AVIATION WORLD, or Who's Who 
and Industrial Directory, small Svo., 319 pp. 
cl-oth, illustrated, published at 2/6 net by 
Aviation Woild Publishing Co., 12 Newgate 
St., London, E. C. In addition to containing 
a business directory of manufacturers of 
aeroplanes, motors and accessories, list of 
aviators in all countries, records, prizes, club 
lists, conversion tables, certified pilots' names, 
terminology, etc., there aie given the records 
and past performances of the principal pero- 
plt nes, description of the well-knawn engines, 
and articles on aviation, patenting of inven- 
tions, etc. 

BIRD CONSTRUCTION COMMITTEE'S RE- 
PORT, of Aeronautical Society of Great 
Britain, compiled by Colonel J. D. Fullerton. 
Published by the Aeronautical Society of 
Great Britain, 53 Victoria St., S. W., London, 
at 10s. 6d. net. To the student of bird-flight, 
here is a work of remarkable value. The 
weights of muscles, speed of wings, and other 
data is given on no less than 459 different 
species of bird life in addition to the text. 

THE L.A^V OF MOTOR VEHICLES, by 

Berkeley Davis, of the District of Columbia 
Bar. 775 pp., 8vo., cloth, published by Edward 
Thompson Company, Northport, Long Island, 
N. Y., at $5.00. 

The chapter dealing with the Law of Avia- 
tion is, so far as we are awaie, the only ex- 
tensive and complete review of this topic of 
the law. 

The various headings in this chapter are as 
follows; Status of Aerial Law; "Value of 
Early Rules and Observations; Status of 
Space Superjacent to Land or Water; National 
Ownership and Control of Space; Private 
Ownership of Space; Rights of Aviators to 
Pass over Piivate Property; Nature, Extent, 
and Incidents of Right of Passage; Regula- 
tion of Use of Aerovehicles; Power of Cong- 
ress to Regulate; Civil Liability of Aviators; 
Liabildty Arising from Negligence; Vis Major 
and Inevitable Accidents; Liability Arising 
from Nuisance; Alighting on Private Land; 
Guille V. Swan; Articles Falling from Aero- 
vehicles; Jurisdiction of Crimes and Torts 
Committed on Aerovehicles: .lurisdiction of 
Federal and State Courts; Aerial Warfare. 

It will be seen from the above that the 
subject has been covered in a very complete 
manner and that there is a great deal of in- 
formation that an aviator might find useful 
on occasion. 

Copies of the Aerovehicle Bills introduced 
in the Legislatures of California and Con- 
necticut are given in the Appendix. 

LANGLEY MEMOIR ON MECHANICAL 
PLIGHT. Smithsonian Institution, Washing- 
ton, D. C. Edited by Charles M. Manly. Price 
$2.50 in cloth and $2.25 in paper. Large 



quarto volume, 320 pp., fully illustrated with 
beautiful halftones and line drawings. 

The present work, as planned by the late 
Prof. S. P. Langley, follows his publication 
on "Experiments in Aerodynamics" and "In- 
ternal Work of the World" printed in 1891 
and 1893 respectively. 

This Memoir was in preparation at the time 
of Ml-. Langiey's death in 1906, and Part 1., 
recording expeiiments from 1887 to ls96, 
was written by him, detailing the work up 
to the close of the experimental period when 
the fir-st steam-di-iven model was flown. 
Part II., on experiments from 1897 to 1903, 
was written by Mr. Manly. 

A third part of the present memoir is yet 
to be published, to consist lai-gely of the 
extensive technical data of tests of the work- 
ing of various types of curved surfaces, pro- 
pellers, and other apparatus. 

The work is rather technical and is of 
great interest to the student of aei-ial de- 
velopment, containing as it does so much 
Valuable data relative to a great number of 
models and engines, both small and large. 
Probably no other present-day work will be 
found to compare with this in value to the 
experimenter. The book can be had direct 
from AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54th St., New 
York. 

PROGRESS IN CALIFORNIA. 

California is an earnest rival of New York 
state in the number of aviators and flying 
fields. No less than three aviation schools 
are located near Los Angeles. The old Dom- 
inguez field, the scene of two big meets, is 
under the management of Will L. Frew and 
is controlled by the Aeronautical Society of 
California, with Earl Remington, who flies 
the Bleriot brought over by James Radley, 
as president. The Society is formed for the 
conduct of a school and for financing aero- 
nautical enterprises. 

The Gage aviation field is located to the 
east of the city, and the Hyde Park field and 
and school to the west. At Dominguez are 
Holt, Champion and Remington. The Gage 
school is at its own field. At the Hyde Park 
field are Beryl J. Williams, Warren Eaton 
and the Aero Club of California. Under the 
observation of Professor H. La V. Twining, 
several aviators have now become pilots: 
Glenn L. Martin, who flew for his certificate 
at Santa Ana on Aug. 9; E. L. Holt at Dom- 
inguez on Aug. 23, and Beryl J. Williams at 
Hyde Park on August 26. These three are 
members of the A. C. of Calif., and others 
will be fiying soon. 

Eaton Bros. & Co., at Hyde Park, have 
four machines, of Curtis and Farmm types, 
with a couple of their design. They also 
have three pupils. 

Professor Twining, ex-president of the A. 
C. of Calif., and his son Sidney have built a 
shed at Hyde Park and have installed their 
machine. An amateur meet will be held in 
October and an international affair in 
January. 

At Santa Ana is another aviation field and 
school, conducted by Glenn L. Martin. Mar- 
tin has made a name for himself in avratron 
as one of the early novices to get into the 
air and do real flying And there are others 
on the Coast who have done the like. 

The flying season is starting in again in 
earnest on the coast, and training schools 
are getting in shape to take care of the 
large number of pupils already anrolled. 
Glenn L. Martin, Beryl Willi-^ms, E. L. Holt, 
and Fred De Kor have been making excellent 
flights, ninnv times of over an hour's dura- 
tion De Kor recently flew from Santa Ana 
to Dominguez field, a distance of 35 miles- 
This is quite remarkable as he has only had 
a month's practice in flying. He will shortly 
go out for his pilot's license, and when he 
obtains it will be the fourth flyer in the 
vicinltv of Los Angeles obtnininar a license 
with Hall-Scott equipment. E. L. Holt rs fly- 
ing with Hall-Scott 40 motor, installed in the 



143 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 19/1 



old "Walsh 'plane, rebuilt. It shows some 
speed however, as he has been able to win 
out a number of times against the interurban 
electric cars that run near Dominguez Field. 
The Jay Gag-e School of Aviation, with a 
beautiful flying- field located within four 
miles of Los Angeles, has turned out a num- 
ber of successful airmen. They have been 
using Hall-Scott 40 power plants in the Gage 
headless bl-plane, a machine that has excel- 
lent efficiency, and that has carried two 
passengers at a tim*^. They now have a 60 
oower plant in addition to the 40, and are 
already trying it out with the throttle so ar- 
ranged that it will be impossible to get more 
than half the power of the engine. The 
Aeronautical Society of California will have 
their training school at Dominguez, and have 
already established their shops, hangars, and 
other quai'ters. They have licensed French 
pilots for Instructors, and operate with both 
monoplanes and biplanes. They have already 
enrolled a number of students for winter 
flying, and the five Hall-Scott power plants 
they have ordered will undoubtedly be kept 
busy. 



"Ideal" Model Catalogue. 

The new catalogue of the Ideal Aeroplane 
& Supply Co., 82 West Broadway, New York, 
provides an interesting few moments even to 
aviation bugs themselves. Without intimate 
knowledge of the enormous demand for 
models and model supplies one is very prone 
to underestimate this branch of aviation. 
To the boy who had to work out his own 
propellers, pow^er plant, and other parts from 
pictures but a short Tvhile ago, it must mean 
a w^orld of pleasure to be able to buy pro- 
pellers all beautifully made, thrust bearings, 
silken fabric, multiple gearing, shafts, minia- 
ture rubber-tired wheels, corer brackets, 
sockets, minute turnbuckles, etc. For the 
advanced or the inodel expert there come 
propellers in the block to be cut out to suit 
individual tastes and knowledge. Think of 
the fun of running a "Baby" engine in a 
model flyer of half horsepower. Even the 
old boys can learn something from this. This 
is a 2-cycle air cooled motor which turns an 
18 inch propeller at 2,300 revolutions, stays 
cool and weighs but four pounds. 



AERO 



MART 



I'oNltions Wanted. 



POSITIOrW 'W^\IVTED by an all around 
Hying machine man as assistant constructor 
or Aviator. R. C. care Aeronautics. Oct. 

Business Cards. 



J. ED. SHERIFF, MECHANICAL ENGINEER 
AND INVENTOR. ORIGINAL DESIGNS A 
SPECIALTY. 125 WATTS ST., NEW YORK. Dec. 

AERO PHOTO COLLECTORS, Send 25c. for 
set No. 1-A, six photographs of the leading 
aviators and macliines. 

Inter-National Photo Specialty Co. 
Revere, Mass. 

WARNING. All Aviators and Owners of Aero- 
planes! Beware of Cadillac, Michigan! Owing 
to poor condition of Fair Grounds which 
the Committee refused to remedy, and failure 
of engine at last moment, making it impos- 
sible to make a flight, the Fair Association 
seized and are now holding a Curtiss biplane 
keeping the aviator from making a living. 
Should you be approached for a date at this 
city at any future time, take warning 
from the experience of a brother aviator. 
Mart Gairens McCormack, Aviator and Owner. 

AEROLAIME OF THE FUTURE. Partner 
wanted, to invest in manufacturing of aero- 
planes with plurality of gradiently arranged 
supporting surfaces, the fundamental idea 
patented in U. S. p. 876,125. Further patents 
pending. Will also sell my patent. Good 
chance for aeroplane manufacturer. Address 
F. Wondra. Box 83 4, Schenect ady, N. Y. 

Power Plants For Sale. 

ANZANI MOTOR, ^12 h. p. 2 cylinder, air 
cooled, weight 65 lbs., complete with car- 
buretor and coil, $150. Mack, 571 Fortv- 
tifth St., Brooklyn. N. Y. o6t. 

MOTOR, exceptionally fine, almost new, 8 
cylinders, V type, 60-80 h. p., light but strong. 
Built this summer by well known concern. 
Will make price right and give tei'ms if sold 
at once. W. "W. Simmons, Dayton. O. Oct. 

PROPELLER FOR SALE: Best grade Chel- 
sea Aero Co. Walnut piopeller. 8 ft. 6 in. 
Diam., 6 ft. 6 in. pitch. Practically new, 
having been used only six hours testing- 
engine thrust. Write for particulars. Will 
accept any reasonable offer. A. V. Revburn, 
■Jr., 5305 Delmar P.oul., St. Louis. Mo. Oct. 

Farman Type Illplane, Rebuilt. 

Pine condition and without motor. Nassau, 
c/o "Aeronautics." 



ANZANI 6 cylinder, 50-60 for sale. Lists 
here $2,800. Will sell at $1,600 cash. Never 
flown. Only run few moments. Perfect con- 
dition. Absolutely new. Good reasons for 
selling. Address, AERONAUTICS, 250 M^est 
54th Street, New York. 

BLERIOT XI monoplane for sale at $3,000, 
complete with 30-35 V^iall engine. Demon- 
stration and instruction free. Same machine 
that M. Lewkowicz flew^ over New Cork. Per- 
fect condition. Newly covered -with Good- 
year fabric. Address Bleriot, care AERO- 
NAUTICS. 



En^aK-ement.s W^anted — 



Sep. 



BOOKINGS WANTED. Amedee V. Rey- 
burn, Jr., with 100 h.p. Bleriot monoplane is 
now booking engagements for exhibition 
flights. Apply to 5305 Delmar Avenue, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Instruction. 

THE EAGLE AEROPLANE COMPANY, In- 
corporated, Capital Stock $100,000. Teach 
Aviation and Aero-Wireless Telegraphy. 
Pilots, Mechanics and Motor Experts Wanted. 
Factory and Training Ground. P. O. Box 
1174, Atlanta, Ga. Branches in Florida and 
California. 

FRENCH motor, new, 4-cylinder, for sale. 
Good for biplane. Make offer. Queen Aero- 
plane Co., 197 St. & Amsterdam Av., New 
York. T.F. 

Help Wanted. 

FLYERS W^ANTED. Manufacturer booked 
for winter wants few men to train for avia- 
tors, $100 to $350 required. Gates, 227 
Englewood Ave., Chicago, 111. 



Aeroplane For Sale. 

WRIGHT BIPLANE for sale. Model B. 
In A-1 condition. Best of reasons for selling. 
Demonstration to genuinely interested party. 
Neither machine nor owner is broke. Apply 
to W. V. 1).. Box 475, Patchogue. L. I.. N. Y. 

Oct. 



144 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 191 I 




Cable; Aeronautic. New York 
'Phone 4833 Columbus 



k. V. JONES, Pres't — 

ERNEST L. JOiiES, Editor 



E. L. JONES, Treas'r-See'y 
J. C. BURKHART, Ass t Editor 



subscription rates 
United States. $3.00 Foreign, $3.50 

AOVERrlSING REPRESENTATIVES: 

e. f. ingraham aov. co.. 116 nassau st., new york 
Clifford W Bean, S park So., Boston. Mass. 

HoTsi OCTOBER, 1911 Vol. 9, No. 4 

COPVRIGHT. loll, ACRONAUTiCS PRESS. iNC 

Entered as second-iljss matter September 22, 1908, at the Postotfice 
New Yorl<, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

f\ AERONAUTICS is issued on tile 30th of each month 
^^ All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertis- 
ng pages close on the 25th. :: :: :: :; 

#T Make all chpcks or money orders free of exchange 
^^ and p->vnble to AKRONAUTICS. Do not send 
currency. No foreign stamps accepted. :: :: :: 



AGEirrS FOR "AERONAUTICS." 

NEW YORK — American News Co., 15 Park PL; 
Brentaiio's, 5tli Ave. and 27th St. 

ST. LOUIS — Aeronautic Supply Co., 3932 Olive 
St.; H. F. Mardorf, 4068 Olive St. 

JERSEY CITY— A. W. Castellanos, 231 Vir- 
ginia Ave. 

BOSTON— I. N. Chappell, 26 Court St.; J. F. 
Murphy, South Terminal Station. 

SAN FRANCISCO — Foster & Orear, Ferry 
Bldg. ; San Francisco Stationery Co., 20 
Geary St.; Ck-ve T. SliHtfer, ;W1 0.t..viaSt. 

CINCINNATI — J. R. Hawley News Co., 11 Ar- 
cade. 

MEMPHIS — R. M. Mansford. 26 S. Main St. 

CHICAGO — P. O. News Co.. 178 Dearborn St.; 
H. S. Renton, 49 Wabash Ave. 

BOISE— Rawl's. 917 Main St. 

PORTLAND, ORE. — S. S. Rich. 267 Morrison 
St. 

SALT LAKE CITY — Sheppard, the Magazine 
Man. 

DALLAS — S. W. Aeronautic Supply Co., 214 

Main St. 
LOS ANGELES — Wlialen's News Agency, 233 

S. Spring St. 
WASHINGTON — Brentano's. 
BERLIN— W. H. Kuhl, 82 Koniggratzerstr., 

S.W. 
PARIS — Brentano's, Place de I'Opera. 
LONDON — .\eionniitios, ^^2 Npwa:;ite St., London, 

E. C. (Jeor-ri' II. Scrasg. M.^t. ; also at the 

office of British Aeronautics, 89 Chancery 

I.anc London. 
BERNE — A. Francke's Sortiment. 



PLE.VSE READ. 

If anyone who reads this knows the present 
whereabouts of one A. C. Grant, he will con- 
fer a favor if he will forward us this man's 
address, or information as to where same 
may be secured, or where Grant may be 
found. 

AERONAUTICS, 250 West 54 St., New York. 



A BO.\RD OF INQUIRY. 

The lack of foresight and the inability to 
learn by hindsight is still a prominent at- 
tribute of nero clubs in this country. The 
fatal accident to the student Clark in a mono- 
plane should have been made the subject of 
diligent inquiry by a board consisting- of men 
qualified to act in such a capacity. Of course, 
it would be necessary to obtain the services 
of non-members but a fair-minded body 
ought to have no objection to getting at facts 
wheiever they may be found. The cause of 
accidents is an important matter. A rigid 
investigation might save manv lives. 

The wreck of Clark's m ichlne was carted 
away at the same time the ambulmce took 
the body. No one was allowed to even photo- 
graph the aeroplane in its smished condi- 
tion. Once moved, the possibility for any- 
thing like an investigation with the ex- 
pectation of results is gone. 



GENUINE I 

* 

* 

+ 

+ 

* ^ 

I 4 CYLINDER 

* 

* Complete, 

* 

I PERFECT 

* First 



CURTISS 



AEROPLANEI 



No 



t 



Restrictions * 

* 

t 

+ 
* 

+ 

CONDFriON I 

DEMONSTRATION | 

* 

order, * 



$1450 



money wired. 



* ^>^"k draft or certitied check J 
+ h' Ids machine for demon- * 

* 

♦ 

4> 



^ st rat ion. 
* 

J Also Genuine Bleriot, 6 cylinder * 

X Anzani Engine, 20 H. P. Con- ^ 

± tinental .*. .'. .'. .*. * 

+ + 

I USED 'PLANE DEPT. | 

I AERONAUTICS I 

I 250 W. 54th St., New York | 
♦ mi l I ■! 1 11 1 1 1 1 ♦ ♦ ♦'i "H ' »* n 1 1 1 » ' ♦ 



145 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



U. S. PATENTS ABSTRACTED 



Copies of nil iiatentN iiiuy he obtained for 

five oents enoh, l»y adilreNNin;; the 

"Coniniis.sioner of I'atents, 

Wa.shinjfton, D. C." 

Manuel B. Saavedra, Habana, Cuba., 998,- 
402, July 18, 1911. Filed Sept. 24, 1910, AU- 
TOMATIC STABILITY by means of a pen- 
dulum mounted in tlie center of gravity of 
the machine, operating through gear and 
pinion arms on containing' frame, which arms 
are connected to the elevators and ailerons, 
with arrangement for manually operating 
the rudders and ailerons, if desired. 

William N. Searcy, Silverton. Colo., 998,- 
408, July 18, 1911. Filed March 30, 1910. 
SUPPORTING STRUCTURE of hollow tri- 
angular prisms, open at ends in line of 
flight, means for closing ends to convert 
device into parachute, vertical mast sup- 
porting cai- and power plant, gas bag in 
central prism. 

Paul Lehmaiin, Schoneberg, near Berlin, 
Germany, 998,538. Julv 18, 1911. Filed Feb- 
ruary 7, 1910. BALLOON OR DIRIGIBLE 
pNVELOPE of rigid exterior and non-rigid 
laner chamber, one of said chambers to 
contain the gas and means for forcing 
air into or exhausting it from the other 
chamber, whereby interior dimensions of the 
rigid chamber may be changed Avithout 
varying external dimensions. 

John C. Schleicher, Mt. Vernon, N. Y., 998,- 
.553, July 18. 1911. Filed February 28, 1910. 
Flying-machine, comprising balloon and 
means whereby same, propellers and aero- 
plane maybe tilted up or down, etc. 

John C. Schleicher, Mt. Vernon, N. Y., 998,- 
554, July 18, 1911. Filed March 12, 1910. 
Flying-machine, combination of gas bag and 
superposed planes. 

J. W. Fawkes. Burbank. Calif., 998,683. 
July 25, 1911. Filed Sept. 28, 1909. Flying 
machine consis-ting of hollow spherical body, 
vv'ith propellers top and bottom in horizon- 
tal plane, and front and rear in vertical 
plane. 

Allen L. McKeeth, Los Angeles. Cal.. as- 
signor of one-half to Willet B. McKeeth, of 
same place. 998,791, July 25, 1911. Filed 
^larch 22, 1910. A flying machine embody- 
ing a supporting aeroplane, a basket de- 
pending from the supporting aeroplane and 
mounted to swing from side to side, a 
bracket extending upwardly above the pivot 
of the swinging basket, a tail plane mounted 
with its main rib extending through a bear- 
ing in the bracket, and a mast extending 
upvv^ardly from the forward end of the 
swinging basket, above the pivot and con- 
nected to the foiward end of said tail plane 
rib, so that wlien the basket swings one way 
the tail plane will swing the other way. 

John M'. Boughton, Phila., assignors to 
the Boughton Flying-machine Co., 998,834, 
July 25. Filed Nov. 13, 1909. 

Johan R. Froberg, Goldfield, Nevada. 998.- 
844, Julv 25. Filed Oct. 4, 1909. DIRIGI- 
BLE BALLOON, with retainer for com- 
pressed gas, to be let into envelope as de- 
sired, means for heating the gas. 

Ernest A. Norris, .\lbanv, N. Y., 998,978. 
July 25. Filed Oct. 12, 1908. TANDEM 
.-VEROI'L.ANE, with wings capable of being 
tilted relatively to each other for the pur- 
pose of restoring equilibrium. The 32 claims 
in this ptaent preclude a short synopsis. 

Joseph Danziger, Chicago, 999,012, July 25. 
Piled Mar. 18, 1910. AUTOMATIC STA- 
I^ILITY device, comprising movable sur- 
faces, operated by electric curi-ent, contacts 
with magnetic coil.<5 being made through a 
movable electric conductor. 

Hans von der Oelsnitz, Pittsburg. Pa., 
999.068. Julv 25, 1911. Filed May 5, 1910. 



"GAS-AEROPLANE MOTOR-AIRSHIP." Di- 
rigible balloon with planes for guidance and 
equilibrium, longitudinally extending ball- 
loonets. 

Henry Flanagan, Ft. "Worth, Tex., 999,105, 
July 25. Filed Apr. 19, 1911. 

An aerial navigating apparatus compris- 
ing a frame, a longitudinally disposed open- 
ended shell mounted thereon, an upright 
shell projecting from said longitudinally 
disposed shell at a point between the ends 
thereof, said upright shell being open at its 
upper end and communicating with said 
longitudinally disposed shell at its lower 
end, a parachute aeroplane arranged before 
the upper end of said upright shell, a wind 
gate arranged within the longitudinally dis- 
posed shell at a point in rear of the point 
in communication of the upright shell there- 
with for controlling the amount of air flow- 
ing to said upright shell, and means for 
adjusting said gate. 

Geo. P. N. Sadler, Attica. Ind.. 999,125. 
Julv 25, 1911. Filed Aug. 29, 1910. SWING- 
ING WEIGHT for biplanes. 

JUSTIN P. C. Bouscal, San Francisco, Cal.. 
999,149. July 25. Filed Aug. 16, 1909. HY- 
DROAEROPLANE. 

Kalman, Leon, Washington, D. C, 999,- 
170, July 25. Filed May 4, 1911. PARA- 
CHUTE attachment for flying machines. 

)f Battersea 
Filed Juno 




21, 1910. Applied to main, subsidiary or bal- 
ancing SURFACES, means for their automa- 
tically assuming variable c-urvatures. 
Claims cover fixed front edge, pockets in 
fabric for ribs, pockets for fi'ont spar and 
stiffening strip at rear edge and means for 
elastically connecting the rear edge to a 
rear main spar. 

C. W. Waller. Chicago, Ills.. 999,278. Aug. 
1. Filed Oct. 6. 1910. FLYING MACHINE 
with an upper and lower plane longitudin- 
ally troughed. with subjacent planes of like 
foimation. balancing planes at side and pon- 
toons. 

Wassilv Rebikuff. St. Petersburg. Russia, 
999,337, Aug. 1. Filed March 9. 1907. VER- 
TICAL LIFT machine, with substantially 
horizontal vibrating members and propeller 
in a vertical iilane. 

William W. Green. Niles. Mich.. 999.44S 
Aug. 1. Filed Jan. 16. 1911. BIPLANE- 
PARACHUTE combination. Upper plane has 
an open bottomed tapering dome with nor- 
mally folded extension, or paiachnte. at tin- 
top. 



146 



AERONAUTICS 



Johann Schutte, Langfuhr, near Danzig- 
Germany, 999,469, Aug. 1. Filed Julv 2, 1909 
DIRIGIBLE ENVELOPE. Claims cover the 
form thereof. 

George H. Sherwood, Denver, Colo., 999,- 
471, Aug-. 1. Filed Nov. 12, 1910. So-called 
AIRSHIP which consists of a cigar-shaped 
rigid hull supported by hollow rubber ribs 
containing air under pressure, with oscillat- 
ing wings at the sides. 

Armin Heifer, New York, 999,560, Aug. 1 
Filed May 6, 1910. FLYING MACHINE com- 
prising a plurality of rotating frames, with 
series of rotating planes within each frame 
having planetary motion about the axis of 
the frames, revolving- at slower speed than 
the frames. 

Hans Gundersen, Fredrikshald, Norway, 
999,715, Aug. 1. Filed May 31, 1911. A fly- 
ing machine having attached by hinges to 
a body portion, oscillating wings, the apices 
of which describe an "S" during the up- 
stroke and a reversed "S" on the down 
stroke, making- a complete figure "8" during 
a complete upward and downward movement 
of one wing. 

Julius C. Christiansen, New York, 999,959, 
Aug. 8, 1911. Filed June 22, 1910. DOUBLE- 
ACTING RUDDERS. Front and rear eleva- 
tors are mounted in a yoke which can turn 
on its longitudinal axis through an arc of 
180 degrees. Wires from the operating lever 
are crossed to one elevator. Movement of 
lever forward oi- backward steers up or 
down, while if turned left or right at the 
same time tilts the elevating planes later- 
ally at any desired angle from an imaginary 
horizontal line drawn at right angle to the 
line of flight. 

Oscar P. Ostergren, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1,000,- 
035. Aug. 8. Filed Mar. 7, 1911. HEAD- 
LESS BIPLANE in which lower plane is de- 
pressed at the central portion and hollow, 
constituting a hydroplane. The two eleva- 
tions of the lower plane are connected by 
inclined portions. Elevators and vertical 
rudder at rear of longitudinal framework, 
with balancing plane above the framework 
at the rear end, capable of adjustment to 
various angles of incidence. 

Wm. H. Stebbins and Louis Geynet, Nor- 
wich, Ct., 1,000,127, Aug. 8. Filed Oct. 20, 
1910. STEERING DEVICE for aeroplanes, 
consisting of a shaft, and gears, which can 
be rotated by turning the hand-wheel, which 
can be rocked fore and aft, or can be rocked 
sideways and can do any or all of these 
movements at the same time, as -well as 
steering- the front wheel of the aeroplane 
while the latter is on the ground. It is de- 
signed for use in a machine in -which the 
elevator (in fi-ont) is in two sections, later- 
ally, which sections can be tilted at opposite 
angles for correcting lateral instability, or 
operated simultaneously up and down, and 
in connection with the usual vertical rudder. 

Robert F. Gardnei-. Vallejo, Calif., 1,000,- 
252, Aug. 8. Filed Oct. 19, 1910. AERO- 
PLANE in which the supporting surface is 
described as disposed in the direction of the 
line of flight, tapering from the front to the 
rear of the machine, said supporting sur- 
face curving transversely which curvature 
constantly increased from the front to the 
rear. Claim covered elevators, front and 
rear, and vertical rudder. 

Henry C. Lobnitz, Cowes, Eng., 1,000,273, 
Aug. 8. Filed Oct. 8, 1909. PENDULUM 
device, swinging fore and aft and laterally, 
liquid filled cylinders for preventing too 
quick movement. Provision for substitution 
of platfornn for weight. 

Dorus W. Moore, Fultonville, N. Y., 1,000,- 
283, Aug. 8. Filed July 23, 1910. STEERING 
DEVICE. Front horizontal rudder composed 
of vertical and horizontal planes, jointed at 
forward end to frame, vertically arranged 
steering wheel to which rear end of said 
rudder if universally jointed eccentric to 
the axis of said wheel. Rear rudder com- 
posed of vertical and horizontal surfaces, 
capable of yielding to air pressure against 
a coiled spring, for the purpose of limiting 
deflection of machine from its course. 



October, 191/ 

Adolphe Clement, Levallois-Perret France 
1,000,494, Aug. 15. Filed Feb 6 m9' 
SHOCK ABSORBING DEVICE FOR MOTORS 
to save frames from vibration, comprising 

A. CLEMENT. 

ENGINE MODNTING FOR AIRSHIPS. 




spring mounting for motor and arm from 
motor acting- on a buffer. 

1 n'^n^APr^^A^^®''^??*' Levallois-Perret, France, 
RTOT'^T^i^ '"^"Z- 1^- ^^^^^ Feb. 6, 1909. DI- 
RIGIBLE of the semi-flexible type, with 
claims covering attachment of special 
framework and balloonet compartments, 
co^^^?'"* "^- ^Lockwood, Chicago, 111., 1,000- 
PT^vA^if- ^hu F'^^'^ J"l>' 28. 1910. PRO- 
PELLER with series of blades bolted to 
a circular flange on the propeller shaft, 
each blade being stayed with brace rods 
to a collar around the shaft. 

Edwin H. Skinner, Arrochar, NY 1 - 
000,560, Aug 15. Filed Apr. 4, 1910. STA- 
BILITY DEVICE for aeroplanes, consist- 
ing of series of planes pivoted about axes 
parallel to the line of flight; these series 
being located in outer sections of the lower 
plane of a biplane, which outer sections 
are upwardly and outwardly inclined. 
These small planes are held in their normal 
position by springs and may be operated 
to close and present an increased surface on 
the side of the aeroplane, which has been 
tiled downward, and to open further and 
decrease the area of the high side, by a 
lever, or automatically by a pendulum. 

Ernest Ebbinghaus, New York, 1,000,592 
Aug. 15. Filed Feb. 28, 1911. AEROPLANE 
comprising plurality of wings at forward 
end of a frame, plurality of inclined planes 
carried on the underside of the frame, 
means for moving said auxiliary planes on 
their pivots, tail pivotally mounted at rear 
of the frame adapted to automatically oper- 
ate the same when machine changes from 
horizontal course by means of pivoted 
weight. 

Paul Schmitt, Paris, France, 1.000,697, 
Aug. 15. Filed Sept. 22. 1909. LONGITUD- 
INAL STABILITY DEVICE, in which the 
motors, propellers, controlling- apparatus, 
running gear, aviator and passengers, etc., 
all but the planes themselves practically, 
are carried on a frame pivoted within the 
aeroplane, whL^h system is intended to al- 
ways keep the centre of gravity coincident 
vertically with the centre of pressure, with- 
out recourse to a tail or elevator. 

William D. Burr, Willow Grove, Pa., 1.- 
000,711, Aug. 15. Filed May 13, 1911. The 
object of this invention is to so mount the 
power plant that the propeller or propel- 
lers may be inclined at various angles to 
gupposedly assist in rising. 

Walter H. Campkin, Fort Gaines, Ga., 1,- 
000,714, Aug. 15. Filed May 20, 1911. DIR- 
IGIBLE with longitudinally disposed tunnel 
in the gas chamber, auxiliary gas cham- 
bers parallel to the main chamber, series 
of air actuated ballasting devices, strata 
producing- planes in tunnel, propelling 
means in tunnel, steering means in tunnel, 
etc. 



147 



AERONAUTICS 



October, 1911 



Licon A. Hewitt, Livermore, la., assignor 
of one-half to Franklin E. Collins, 1,000,- 
808, Aug-. 15, 1911. Filed May 25, 1910. 

A flying- machine comprising- a frame 
formed of vertical and horizontal triangu- 
lar portions, said triangular portions hav- 
ing a common base piece, front wheels jour- 
naled on said base piece, braces connecting 
the vertex of the horizontal triangular por- 
tion with the arms of the vertical triangular 
portion below the vertex thereof, a trail 
wheel, a horizontal balancing and steering 
plane universally joined with the wheel to 
the vertex of the horizontal triangular por- 
tion, means for vertically swinging and 
laterally tilting said plane, a supporting 
plane mounted upon the braces, a motor 
also mounted upon said braces, and a pro- 
peller driven by said motor. 

Romeo Wankmuller, Charlottenburg, Ger- 
many, assignor to Luftverkehrs-Gesell- 
schaft m. b. H., 1,000,865, Aug. 15. Filed 
Feb 9 1911. DIRIGIBLE, comprising com- 
bination of main car and auxiliary cars 
suspended from body of balloon, means for 
varying height of auxiliary cars as regards 
that of the main car, rigid link connecting 
the auxiliary cars to the main car. 

Thomas M. Crepar, Dilworth, Minn., 1,- 
000,897, Aug. 15. Filed June 21, 1910. AERO- 
PLANE whose planes have a plan view in 
the shape of a fish, with central openings 
in the planes, and series of vanes disposed 
in the openings. 

998,295, July 18, Christopher John Lake. 
Superposed wedge shaped SURFACES. 

1 000,999. Aug. 22, O. A. Danielson & L. R 
Jones. PROPELLER .attachment to shaft. 

1 001 14,"?, Aug. 22. O. Kattenhorn, Flexible 
OSCILLATING, WINGS. 

1,001,120, Aug. 22, J. A. Bloedin. Vertical 
STABILIZING PLANES. 

1,001,123, Aug. 22, A. M. Collins, SWINGING 
SEAT to operate ailerons. 

1,001,160, Aug. 22. P. A. Otto. Combination 

monoplane-helicoptp::r. 

1,001,185, Aug. 22, A. M. Zimmer. SUPPORT- 
ING SURFACE which absorbs shocks from 
gusts of wind. 

1,001,223, Aug. 22, P. Schneider. 

VIBRATORY SUPPORTING SURFACES. 

1,001,291, Aug. 22, A. McKenzie. Flexible- 
bladed PROPELLER. 

1,001,309, Aug. 22, Y. Rolland. AUTOMATIC 
STABILITY device consisting of sliding shut- 
ters to vary the areas of surfaces automati- 
cally through valves and pistons actuated by 
a sliding weight. 

1,001,332, Aug. 22, V. C. De Ybarrondo. 
PROPELLER mounting on universal joint. 

1,001,721, Aug. 29, S. D. Wheeler. AIRSHIP 
propelling device. 

1,001,849, Aug. 29, P. C. Hopkins. HELICOP- 
TER, with propellers movable in various 
planes. 

1,001,918, Aug. 29, F. L. Bartelt. PROPUL- 
SION device of parallel rotating surfaces 
winded with collapsible air pockets. 

1,001,941, Aug. 29, V. P. Pleiss. Front and 
rear ELEVATORS working in combination. 

1,001,956, Aug. 29, A. B. Holson. Combina- 
tion of two PROPELLERS to avoid affect of 
torque. 

•1,001,995, Aug. 29, J. Schutte. Inflatable 
elements of an AIRSHIP. 

1,002,002, Aug. 29, H. L., A. E. & H. O. 
Short. Resisting surfaces on front edge of 
supporting planes, capable of movement 
about a pivot to alter the lifting effect of 
either side to obtain LATERAL BALANCE. 
Various forms of the device are claimed. 

1,002,067, Aug. 29, A. F. W. Macmanus. 
AUTOMATIC STAP.ILITY device, comprising 
propellers in a horizontal plane under wing- 
tips, and elsewhere, set in motion or stopped 
automatically by making and breaking of 
electric circuits through the action of a pen- 
dulum. 

1,002,093, Aug. 29. H. Thndvii. Flying 
machine with FLAI'PING SHUTTIOItS. 

1,002,111, Aug. 29, B. R. AlexaiKler. Four 
superposed supporting surfaces hinged at 
entering edge and capable of CHANGE in 
ANGLE of incidence during flight at will. 



H. L., A. E. & H. 0. SHORT, 

v7//////y//////. 




1,002,138, Aug. .^.>, W. C. Culbertson. 
AUTOMATIC STABILITY device in which 
engine, operator, etc., are below the support- 
ing planes in a i)ivotallv hung car. 

1.002,171, Aug. 29, J. D. Mills. TOY. 

1,002,203, Aug. 29, B. T. B. Hyde & A. Gaul, 
Jr. Vertical keels for STABILITY. 

1,002,323, Sept. 5, J. C. Schleicher. RUDDERS. 

1,002,516, Sept. 5, W. C. Henderson. Plur- 
ality of rotating FEATHERING blades. 

1,002,528, Sept. 5, N. R. Lamb. HELICOP- 
TER. 

1,002,532, Sept. 5, W. D. Lindsley. Flying 
machine. 

1.002,674, Sept. 5, J. A. Goodwin. LATERAL 
BALANCE device. Swinging panels in sup- 
porting surfaces and in vertical panels at 
each side of the main cell. 

1,002,682, Sept. 5, A. Haidin. AIRSHIP. 

1,002,703, Sept. 5, H. A. King, PROPEL- 
LERS, turning in ojjposite direction. 

1,002,724, Sept. 5, G. F. A; McDougall 
Novel MONOPLANE. 

1,002,908, Sept. 12, O. L. Dunton. Sustain- 
ing surfaces adapted to be deflected in oppo- 
site directions by inequalities in air move- 
ments or manually so operated. 

1.003,162, Sept. 12, A. O. Paulson. The use 
of Box Kite formation for SUSTAINING SUR- 
FACES. 

1,003,459, Sept. 19, L. B. Holland. Means 
for swinging- the vertical surfaces of 
machines of Voisin type about a diagonal 
axisjn turning so as to assist in banking. 

I RODGERS BREAKS ALL RECORDS 

> Bei\^s Atwood Record 

Ne-w York. October 13. — Cal I'. KiHlijirs has reached Kaii" 
sas City. Mo., on liis attiMiiptcd tiiirlit from New -^ork to 
the racitic Coast. lie loft on Soptemhcr 17 in a new S.' 
foot \\\ one-man \Vrifj:lit biplane, with extra larjie fuel 
;iik1 oil tanks, lie has l)roken every oxistiiisr record for 
Ions <listanee <-oiitinued tiyiner. His distance to this 
pl.icc measured in strais'lit lines from place to place 
totals 13U miles. His actual route was considerably 
lontrer. 

Koliert (i. Fowler started from the Coast on September 
IT andKot only as far as Colfax, Cal.. I-'imiles by tin- 3:^(1. 
wliere he is still located. Kowler used a standard Model 
li Wrifrht, with extra larjii' tanks, .lames ,1. W.iid. 
in a Curtiss. st.arted from New -^'ork on Septcmlu'r I.iand 
srot to Addison, N. \ .. a distance of .'.'l miles in straifrhl 
lines, w lieri' he i;ave up the trip. 

All started for the Hearst $,")0,(i(iO prize under the iiii- 
pression that il was only necessary to start tu'fore Oct. 
10 and tinisli in :l(i (lay.<!. with compulsory stop at Chica- 
MKi. Howt>ver. alter the\ started it was made plain that 
the trip must be linislied by the Kllh of October so after 
.ill the competitors h.ul ;roni- to all the trouble of starting' 
tlu'y learni'il tlie\ li.ul uoehanei'. 



f 



148 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



WHAT'S THE MATTER WITH AVIATION? 



By Cleve T. Shaffer. 

IT isn't wliat is the matter with aviation, 
its rather wliat is hindering aviation. 
It isn't aviation that has tlie hoolv worm, 
its those from whom aviation should 
get its natural support, namely the capitalist 
or investor, and the wealthy young man. I 
think this should be transposed: the w^ealthy 
young man being placed first, because if the 
spoitive young tellow who has the means to 
gratify his desires in automobiles, polo ponies, 
motor boats, etc., would show enough interest 
in this most glorious sport to relieve the sus- 
picion that his courage is wanting by order- 
ing an aeroplane, the business so derived 
would embolden the timid investor and the 
consequent competition in the manufacture of 
aeroplane and engines would stop the pres- 
ent profit of three or four hundred per cent, 
being made particularly in motors, and bring 
tile price down to a proper level. 

The high price of motors is the greatest factor against 
the development of aviation. 

With motors at a figure whei'e a legitimate 
profit is made, thousands of people now inter- 
ested will' build or buy machines for the sport 
that is now denied them. Who can doubt 
that with thousands r -^'-e minds at work 
tabulating results from cneir own active ex- 
perience, improvements and safeguards will 
ue developea which in turn wall lure hundreds 
of thousands of the more timid to tlie delights 
of the sport. 

I'utalic apatliy and distrust, one of tlie hin- 
derances, is due to a number of causes, pri- 
marily however, to the featuring by the news- 
papers of every death as an inherent lault 
of aviation, rather than a mechanical acci- 
dent liable to happen in any mechanism, or 
as a result of attempting foolhardy stunts, 
which if tried in a corresponding manner any 
other sport would end likewise. 

Pake stock companies, immature inventors 
with freak ideas of absolute impracticability 
(note nine-tenths of patents granted); half 
baked "aviators" attempted exhibitions, and 
poorly managed "meets" have taken so much 
money from the public purse that aviation 
investments, however well presented or legit- 
imate, are looked upon askance. 

The lack of proper standards, difference of 
opinion among so-called experts, and absence 
of authentic and reliable text books is con- 
fusing to tlie layman as is the puerile and 
aimless copy in some of the aero magazines. 

Lastly if all those in the "game" would stop 
knocking there would be no need to ask the 
above question. 

THE CURE FOR AVIATION 
By Anthony H. Jauuus 

IN view of the many courteous explanations, 
apologies and huzzas published under the 
head of "What's the Matter with Aviation," 
I am prompted to contribute the foUowing 
as my estimation of the present situation 
from a manufacturing standpoint. 

Nearly every experimental machine pro- 
duced in this country has been the result of 
a "gleam of light" entering the builder's 
brain, and he has set about building a full- 
sized, very expensive, and usually unsuccess- 
ful model, or muddle. Obviously the thing 
most needed was exact knowledge. This 
would construe that the present methods are 
unscientific and that is exactly what I mean. 
The best evidence of this is that ninety-nine 
of every hundred builders of "first machines" 
do not know how to fly their machines after 
they are completed. 

Nevertheless, many of tliese builders have 
survived and ai-e now earning money by 
giving exhibitions oi' by catering to the ever- 
increasing crop of fledglings who ai-e impreg- 
nated with the same germ w'hich infected us 
all. Still others are teaching pupils, and for 
these there is much hope. But let me offi- 



ciate as a cost expert and ask a few questions, 
or rather suggest some questions wliich the 
indulgent reader will ask himself. 

Let us consider upon what the profits in 
the exhibition business depend. Alas! upon 
what one or two definite things does this 
depend'.' One should secure good grounds, a 
good contract price, easy contract require- 
ments and then burn incense to the weather 
God. This is the province of the booking 
agent. The manufacturer should have a good 
flying aeroplane, with a careful aviator and 
good mechanicians. And here arises the ques- 
tion — what is a good machine'.' How niucn 
does it represent as an investment to be 
risked in attempting to fill the contract'.' 
How much does it cost to take it apart, pack 
it, transport it to the aviation field, and as- 
semble it'.' Many exhibitors have been star- 
ing at a loss when this point had been 
reached. 

In the exhibition profits to come saving in 
these bills will determine a profit or a loss 
and, with competition increasing, this part 
of the situation must be even more and more 
keenly studied. The mere ability to fly is 
no longer any recommendation. It has been 
the writer's experience that great numbers 
of machines, built by ignorant builders 
would fly when completely manned. Ob- 
viously, ready crating and assembly are 
necessary, and they go hand in hand with 
ease of repair and replacement. 

With the above observation granted it 
becomes evident that standardization is now 
imminent. That which facilitates exhibition 
profits does likewise for profits in teaching, 
manufacturing, and the sale of parts. An 
aeroplane manufactured of standardized parts 
could be catalogued in a four-page booklet 
with every part photographed and priced. 
With such a catalogue to refer to, customers 
would hardly trouble to have the village car- 
penter help him rebuild a damaged 'plane; 
it would be too expensive. Nor does stand- 
ardization confine itself to one type, size, 
power-plant, running-gear, carrying-capa- 
city, control or number of planes. 

I have worked out on the drawing-board, 
first a biplane, which reveals positively the 
simplicity and facility of standardization. 
Were I to build a single machine, in a hurry, 
this system would be the best. Nothing is 
sacrificed; everything gained. I venture to 
say that not one in every hundred of the 
"types" produced in this country has been 
completely drafted before the machine has 
been finished. 

Such methods are unpardonable in the face 
of the growing competition; in fact, suicidal, 
for he who first produces machines that are 
simple and built-up of a few standard units 
will have the trade, once his product is dem- 
onstrated satisfactorily. Furthermore, the 
old saving "an hour on the drawing board 
saves a week in the shop" is just as applica- 
ble to aeroplanes as to any other engineering 
problem in the world. 



The Maximotor Makers, Detroit, report 
their 1911 engine product sold out. The 1912 
engine will be ready after some little time. 



American capital is either headlong and 
lisdirected or is absolutely uninterested. 
James V. Martin. 



Leo Stevens has bought the Wright biplane 
of Harold H. Brown. 



/ read monthlies concerning acroniiittics in Ger- 
iiKin and French, but I find yours the most inter- 
ciitinf/ and iip-to-diitc. — Fra.nk Thalman. 

Your muf/azine is a veritable mine of informa- 
tion to anyone interested in aerial navigation. — ■ 
Keg. Hunt. 



149 



AERONAUTICS 



November y 191 



THE EFFECT 



OF COLOR ON 

By Prof. H. L.aV. Twining. 



AEROPLANES 



IN THE September number of A E R O - 
NAUTICS, Mr. R. F. Patterson had an 
interesting article upon the effect of 
color on aeroplanes. His observations 
and surmises there are scientifically correct. 
The only question that we need to raise is 
as to whether the effect observed is of any 
practical consequence. Mr. Patterson states 
that he had to remove a whole nandful of 
sand after fifteen minutes to restore the 
equilibrium occasioned by the heating effect 
upon three-foot square or upon nine square 
feet of surface. This experiment was con- 
ducted in still air. A large handful of san'd 
will weigh about .17 pounds. 

In an uidlnary Ourtlss biplane there would 
be in the neighborhood of three hundred 
square feet. This will give a reaction of 55 
pounds. If the aeroplane were made of black 
cloth, and the sun were shining directly 
upon all of this surface a downward reac- 
tion of 55 pounds would be developed upon 
the upper surfaces of the biplane, provided 
the machine were standing still in still air. 
In practice neither of these conditions are 
realized. 

On account of the high speed with which 
the aeroplane is driven through the air the 
surfaces would be kept cool. Probably only 
a little more than half of the surface would 
be exposed to the sun and the maximum 
reaction would be reduced to 30 pounds at 
least on this account, and this 30 pound 
reaction due to heating effect of the sun 
would be reduced to practically zero on 
account of the motion of the aeroplane 
through the air. 

The vanes of the radiometer are caused 
to revolve by the reaction of the molecules 
of rarefied air in the bulb. The vanes are 
mounted upon frictionless bearings in a 
glass bulb from which the air has been 
pumped, leaving a vacuum. The light strik- 
ing on the blackened sides of the vanes 
heats them, but white sides of the vanes 
reflect the light and remain cool. The 
molecules of air that still remain in the 
vacuum acquire motion when they strike the 
black side, but do not acquire any more 
motion, when they rebound from the white 
side, than they had before striking. The 
molecules that rebound from the black side 
get their additional motion from the heated 
black material. It must be remembered that 



heat is a molecular motion. The molecules 
in rebounding from the black side thus kick 
back against the vane harder than the ones 
that rebound from the white side and hence 
the vanes are driven away from the black 
side. The rays do not cause resistance, but 
they cause a greater reaction on one side 
than on the other. If the air be all pumped 
out of the bulb, the vanes will remain station- 
ary when immersed in the light. If no air 
be pumped out they will not run owing to 
the great resistance of the air. 

In the heat of the day, the air is very 
much expanded owing to the heat of the sun, 
but early in the niorning or late in the 
evening, the air is denser and consequently 
heavier. This has nothing to do with the 
moisture in the air. On a clear day in a hot 
sun the air may be saturated with mois- 
ture. It will then be heavier than on a 
damp, cool day, because the moisture is 
dissolved in the air and it is then a part of 
the air. On a cool damp day the moisture 
is not dissolved in the air but on the con- 
trary it is a state of suspension. The air is 
thus lighter on a dull day so far as its press- 
ure on the barometer is concerned, because 
the water is in suspension instead of being 
dissolved. The water when dissolved adds 
the pressures due to its molecular motions 
to the pressure of the atmosphere, and the 
contrary is true when in a state of suspen- 
sion. 

Thus on a cool-cloudy day the air is 
lighter so far as the effect of moisture is 
concerned and heavier so far as the absence 
of heat is concerned. The resultant weight 
is a combination of these two factors. 

The rise and fall of the barometer is thus 
effected by both of these factors, and the 
ease with which an aeroplane can obtain its 
reactions will aso be affected by them. 

In conclusion we are safe in assuming that 
anything that keeps the planes cool will 
prevent this reaction, and the rapid move- 
ment of the machine through the air, con- 
stantly bringing fresh air in contact with 
the plane, will keep it cool. The effect 
observed on the stationary surface is an 
accumulated effect, because it takes time 
for the black surface to heat. In the case of 
the moving machine the heat will be removed 
as fast as formed. 



FLIGHTS TOO MANY TO RECORD 



Hundreds of flights are being made every 
day all over the country, from short hops 
to little cross-country flights of flve and 
ten and even more miles. It is obviously 
impossible to chronicle these; and it woulu 
serve no good purpose to do so. We. do 
not get up at daybreak now to see a short 
straightaway flight as we did in 1909. 

The centers of flying, like the Hempstead 
Plains in the East, St. Louis and Chicago 
in the Middle West, Los Angeles and San 
Francisco on the I'acific Coast, are the scenes 
of flights far too numerous to keep track of. 
It is a humiliating observation to make 
that most of the machines that are flying 
are copies of two or three well-known types 
of such lines as to make more or less im- 
perfect duplicates look like the real thing. 
Few original 'planes of any make are in 
the hands of private owners or doing ex- 
hibitions, save by the makers themselves. 
There is all the chance in the world to work 
on original lines. 

There are sixty or more licensed pilots in 
the country now and a modest estimate of 
flyers entitled by virtue of accomplishments 
would be not less than a hundi-ed. Out- 
side of machines furnished by m.'mufacturers 
to their own aviators, one wo ild be safe 



in saying there are not a dozen American 
made aeroplanes in the hands of sportsmen 
or exhibition flyers. 

The Curtiss, Wright, Moisant, INIcCurdy- 
Willard, and the smaller concerns that have 
sprung into being are daily filling the air 
with the buzz and roar of engines, filling 
the hundreds of contracts at fairs, festivals, 
exhibitions and the like. There are no 
less than thirty or forty fliers filling "dates" 
this Fall in every country of the United 
States and still there seems to be a field. 
The remuneration has dropped very much 
from last year but there is still profit, un- 
less an aviator smashes up, can not get a 
machine quickly, and has to cancel a long 
string of dates. The Curtiss Company, to 
illustrate the demand, is continually turn- 
ing down contracts even with half a score 
of aviators, or turning them over to some- 
one else. 

The daily papers now mention nothing but 
deaths — God knows there are too many — 
and extraordinary feats. One must not get 
the impression because he sees little about 
flying in the papers and aeronautical journ- 
als that there is none being done. There's 
too much to print. 



150 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 



DEATH OF PROFESSOR JOHN J. MONTGOMERY 



THE deatli of Professor John J. Mont- 
gomery during- a series of gliding- ex- 
periments on October 31, 1911, was a 
distinct blow to a large number of 
people who anticipated some very interest- 
ing developments within the near future. 
It took three hours to get a doctor to him 
and he breathed his last as the physician 
came in sight over the hills of Evergreen, 
Calif., where the flights were being made. 
At the top of a hill a runway had been con- 
structed of grooved tracks in which the 
wheels of a monoplane glider ran. Tlie re- 
port is that a little whirlwind cauglit the 
machine and dashed it head-on to the 
ground. Professor Montgomery landed on his 
right hip and head. He did not believe him- 
self seriously hurt and talked with his year- 
old bride in the tent. He complained of 
pains in his back and continued to grow 
worse until he died. 

During the past year he had associated 
with him Victor Liougheed and James E. 
Plew, of Chicago, and was expecting shortly 
to bring out a power machine. A wonderful 
engine has been in course of construction 
for many months under the eye of the 
author Lougheed. All work was being kept 
very secret and no one has even seen any- 
thing of the machine in course of construc- 
tion. Up to hi.s death and for a great i^nany 
years he had been an instructor at Santa 
Clara College, Santa Clara, Calif. 

In view of Professor Montgomery's claim 
to the use of warped surfaces between 1883 
and 18S6 and the building of his present ma- 
chine to demonstrate his theories, it may be 
of interest to know what his claims are, as 
stated by himself at a talk given before The 
Aeronautical Society last April. His talk 
was taken in shorthand at the time by this 
magazine exclusively and afterward cor- 
rected by Professor Montgomery himself. 

His remarks are published below for the 
first time. 

BY PROF. JOHX J. MONTGOMERY. 

"My first practical experiments commenced 
about 1883 and were continued until 1886. 
The first machines wliich I attempted to 
build were of the flapping order, hoping to 
rise from the ground by some flapping move- 
ment. I built three of these inachines with- 
out any indication of success with man 
power. 

"Giving- this up for the time, I turned my 
attention to the study of gliding, hoping to 
solve some of the mysteries of the phenom- 
enon of soaring. 

"The first machine that was constructed 
was modeled after the gull's wing — follo^v- 
ing it blindly, going against my reason in the 
matter but following- Nature. The wings of 
birds, as you know, are curved and if prop- 
erly placed at a small angle to the wind, 
or to the direction of movement, the front 
surface is inclined down. This was a stumb- 
ling block to me.* 

"The first experii-nents with this crude de- 
vice ^\'ere a success. The apparatus meas- 
ured 20 feet spread and an average depth, 
fore and aft, of 4% feet. I took this appara- 
tus to the top of a hill, facing a gentle 
wind. There was a little run and a jump 
and I found myself launched in the air. I 
proceeded against the wind, gliding down 
hill for a distance of about 600 feet. In this 
experience I was able to direct my course 
at will. 

SENSATIONS OP SOARING. 

"A peculiar sensation came over me. The 
first in placing myself at the mercy of the 
wind, was that of fear. Immediately after 
came a feeling of security when I realized 
the solid support given by the wing surface — • 
and the support was of a very peculiar 
nature. There w^as a cushiony softness 
about it. yet it was firm. When I found the 



♦See AERONAUTICS, October 1908 to Janu- 
ary 1909. 



machine would follow my movements in the 
seat for balancing, I felt I was self-buoyant. 
"This experience led to what is now a 
very important question, one that is agitating 
the whole country, the question of wing- 
warping. 

THE BIRTH OP WARPING. 

"Wing-warping was born at this moment. 
I say this, because it is important in the 
study of aeronautics to have the problems 
thoroughly fixed. I commenced then to study 
the question of control of the machine. You 
will notice from what I have said that the 
first machine I made was successful as a 
glider. That is, it had great power because 
I blindly followed the surface provided by 
Nature. It was defective in its equilibrium 
or control. I went to Nature to study the 
principle of control. I watched the move- 
ments of the vultures and detected in their 
actions the twisting of the wing. That gave 
the solution. Then I resumed my work. I 
was not able to build the wing as the bird's 
is built, so resorted to the first simple device. 
But, also, while I followed the principle of 
equilibrium as presented in Nature, I departed 
from the form of surface because it seemed 
unreasonable that the wing should be inclined 
downward at the front. 

"Therefore, the second machine was made 
with flat surfaces. In 1885 I built the second 
machine, somewhat larger than the one pre- 
vious and to afford side equilibrium each 
wing was hinged diagonally. This diagonal 
hinge allowed the 'flaps' thus formed to yield) 
to undue pressure on either side. These flaps 
were held by springs in a normal position. 
If the wind pressure became excessive on one 
side, the flap of that wing would yield up a 
little. 

"But, in addition to the spring, I had a 
saddle which was so constructed that by 
leaning to one side or the other the rear 
portion of the wing would yield on the re- 
spective side (the saddle had an upright 
piece and tliis was attached by wires run- 
ning to the rear portions of the wing). If 
a gust of wind came from the left and I 
wished to relieve that side my only inclination 
would be to lean to the left, and vice versa. 

"I found that when I took that machine 
and faced the wind that its equilibrium was 
perfect, that is, I found no conditions under 
which I could not control it so it would not 
upset me, a thing I could not do with the first 
i-nachine. When I attempted to glide I 
found its power of gliding was far inferior 
to that of the first. Immediately I concluded 
I had not found the riglit surface. 

"Then I built the third machine. In this 
machine, in a way, I copied Nature in regard 
to surface and, in a way, I departed from it. 
The wings were formed more or less like 
those of the soaring vulture, with this excep- 
tion. I could not bring myself to the belief 
that the surface curved down in the front 
was the proper surface. Therefore, I com- 
promised by turning the front edge up a little 
and the rest of the wing was more or less 
like that of the vulture. The two wings were 
placed at a dihedral angle. 

WARPING IN A DIFFERENT WAY. 

"Now in this machine I carried out the 
warping principle in a different way. There 
was a lateral beani along the front of the 
wings. These two beams were capalile of be- 
ing rotated in a socket in the frame extending 
backward to the tail. Wires from the rear 
of each wing ran to lovers, one for each 
wing, placed at the right and loft hands of 
the operator, who sat on a seat as in the 
other machines. By these levers I could 
bring both wings down together, or indepen- 
dently. That machine was perfect in control. 
Whether the wind was regular or gusty I 
had the machine under control by changing 
the angles of the wings. This had larger 
surface even than the second but was inferior 
in lifting power. 



151 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



tmfw^mi 



/094- 



A VIEW OF THE AEROPLANE JUST AS THE HOT AIR 
BALLOON WAS CUT LOOSE. TO GET THE BEST IDEA, 
HOLD THIS ILLUSTRATION OVER THE HEAD AND LOOK 
UPWARD. 



The half circle noticed on the machine is 

MOVABLE horizontal SURFACE WITH FIXED VERTICAL 
FIN. 

Taken in May, 1905, and reproduced from the 
January, 1909, issue of "Aeronautics." 



"Immediately I found I did not have the 
proper form of surface as it did not have the 
same lifting power under the same conditions 
as the first machine. 

"The account I have just given I gave to 
the Chicago Congress in 1893 and is more 
briefly stated in Mr. Chanute's book 'Progress 
in Plying Machines.' He describes the experi- 
ments and the machines. From this you Yf\\\ 
see that warping of surfaces is not a new 
question. 

"But I was not at all satisfied with my 
work because 1 was floundering in the dark- 
ness, didn't know whei-e to turn in order to 
determine a true surface. It was all mystery 
to me. 

I concluded we knew little or nothing of 
aerodynamics, for I had searched the books 
and read magazines and papers for sugges- 
tions. 



"I took tlie macliine apart and commenced 
at the bottom to study if possible the laws of 
aerodynamics and determine tlie proper form 
of surface to give such phenomena as the 
soaring of birds. 

"In 1885 or 1886, I constructed a whirling 
table. This consisted of a couple of rails 
fastened together and mounted on a pivot. 
On the end of this I fastened surfaces of 
different forms and whirled the table so as 
to study the movements of the.^o .surfaces. 
I no sooner had commenced than 1 detected a 
peculiar phenomenon whicii .suggested tliere 
was something taking place in advance of the 
surface. In order to test tliis I resorted to 
a number of exv)eriments, particularly one 
which I described to the Chicago (.\)ngress in 
1893. I had my brother scatter thistle-down 
in the wind so as to detect the direction of 
the wind. Having done this I took a large 



152 



AERONAUTICS 

barn door and set it on the ground at an 
angle of about ten degrees. Immediately 
I noticed a reaction on the wind in front. 
Instead of the wind coming- in a straight 
line it came in a gradual curve and rose 
to strike the surface, indicating that the 
surface had an action on the wind in front 
of it. Then I readily saw the reason for 
the curving of the surface of a bird's wing. 
I made this known to the Chicago Congress 
and also a series of studies relative to the 
forms of bird's wings, the ratio between 
weight carried and the curvature of a bird's 
wing. Mr. Chanute and Dr. Zahm were much 
interested in my work and gave me such 
encouragement that I continued and complet- 
ed the whole series, but owing to various 
circumstances was not able to publish the 
results. 

"In 1903 I was able to commence my inves- 
tigations again and having discovered some of 
the fundamental laws I was able to put them 
into practice in the machines which I built 

"These were built strictly on the lines of 
science. 1 simply studied my own figures and 
made the first model. These were tested in 
various ways. I stretched a cable between 
two hills so tiiat it was 150 ft. high above 
the valley. With cords I would elevate 
these models and liberate them in all possible 
ways, upside down, tail down, and every con- 
ceivable manner. They would glide safely to 
the ground no matter how thev were libera- 
ted. In these I simply used the warping idea 
which I had developed in 1885 and 1886. 

"After I found these models were perfect 
in their equilibrium and would follow any 
direction that I chos'.^ by giving them the 
proper warping, I built a large machine pat- 
terned exactly after them. I did not change 
one iota from the plans which I had drawn 
after studying my own papei-s following out 
the theory. 

"In order to make the test practical with 
the large machines, in 1904 I took them down 
to the mountains about 100 miles below Santa 
Clara to San Juan and with the assistance of 
three cowboy friends I performed a series o*" 
experiments. I elevated these between poles 



November, 191! 

on a cable and dropped them with and with- 
out weight. Finding them perfect I got in 
and with a running jump glided down the 
hill A peculiar thing I found was that it 
would respond very rapidly to a change of the 
wind. I discovered this very unexpectedly. 
The long hill which I was in the habit of 
using had at its base a sort of canyon or a 
swale. At the top of the hill the wind came 
in the direction that I faced. Below it blew 
up the canyon directly at right angles to the 
wind above. I was gliding down the hill 
when quick as a flash I was whirled at right 
angles to the first wind but was not upset 

"Then I attempted to give a series of exhi- 
bitions and develop the machine further. For 
that purpose I secured a hot air balloon man 
and parachute jumper. I was anxious to 
commence the experiments of raising a man 
in the air and dropping him short distances 
tor the first flights. But my parachute jump- 
er had his own ideas. He insisted upon being- 
raised at least 1,000 ft. high the first time. 
It was an ordeal for me. But there was 
nothing left for me to do. I either had to 
give up or let him go up.; So I made the 
adjustments with my machine in such a way 
that it was impossible for him to get control 
of the machine and make a mistake and hurt 
himself. There was certain clamps that con- 
trolled the tail and wings that gave him 
limited action. 

GLIDING FROM 1,000 FEET HEIGHT. 
"So he went up a thousand feet, cut loose 
and made the first time a very beautiCul glide. 
Then the second time I gave him a little more 
liberty and he made probably one of the finest 
glides I ever saw. 

GLIDES FROM 3,000 FEET. 
"He went up about 3,000 ft. in the mountain 
regions of Santa Cruz. As he cut loose from 
the machine, he lost his direction. We told 
him to come back to the starting point. He 
started to fly towards a distant citv. In five 
or six minutes he detected his mistake, turned 
round and started to fly towards us, and in 
coming towards us he passed through two 




The Montgomery glider, showing the stirrups or cross-bar w.xrpi.vg, suspended 
stretched between poles, for e.xperiments in gliding. 

153 



FROM A C.\BLE 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 



or three clouds. This was a beautiful sight. 
Finally, he came back near the point of start- 
ing-. He could not make the exact point for 
he had lost a great deal of elevation in mak- 
ing his flights and there was an intervening 
forest of tall trees which h.e did not like to 
try crossing without good headway, so he 
made a circle and came to the earth. 

"After that I continued my experiments at 
Santa Clara." 

DEATH OP MALONBY. 

"In 1905, one of my riders (Maloney) was 
killed. Hot air balloons rise very quickly 
and it was necessary to provide some means 
for retarding the upward rush. This was 
effected by ropes running through rings. In 
Malonev's last flight, one of these ropes 
caught in part of the machine. We called out 
to Malonev that the aeroplane was broken 
but evidently he did not hear. When he got 
up about 3,000 ft. high he cut loose, the ma- 
chine turned ovei- and he descended with the 
machine upside down. He did not seem to 
be going any faster than a man dropping in 
a parachute. When we got to him the ma- 
chine was broken and he was senseless. Six 
physicians examined him; found no mark on 
him except a scratch on the head from a wire. 
The physicians concluded he had heart trouble. 
There "was no blood and no bones broken. 

"I continued to build other aeroplanes giv- 
ing other exhibitions until the San Francisco 
earthquake. This wrought such a disaster 
that I had to turn my attention to other 
subjects and let the aeroplane rest for a 

Montgomery's patent, filed in 1905 and 
granted" 1906. number 831,173 may be had 
upon application to the Commissioner of 
Patents, Washington. D. C. 



The Alpine death roll for 1911 
shows 115 persons killed and 37 
injured. 

Aviation can not claim this in 
all its history. 



Death of Eugene Kly. 

Eugene B. Elv, one of the very best Ameri- 
can flyers was killed in an exhibition flight 
at the Macon (Ga.), fair on October 19th in 
making one of his sensational dives under 
power. He had always been known as a 
very conservative flyer and only lately had 
taken up sensational "stunts." 

Ely started flying one of the very first 
Curtiss machines ever put out, the one sold 



to Henry Wemme, of Portland, Ore. After 
making a number of exhibition flights with 
his machine, he joined the Curtiss Exhibition 
Company and has flown in every part of the 
United States. In November, 1910, he flew 
from the deck of the cruiser Birmingham, 
in Norfolk, Va., to the land. In January 
last, he flew from the aviation field at San 
Francisco to the deck of a battleship, landing 
on an inclined platform. He flew from this 
platform on his return trip to the field. Ely 
demonstrated the Army's Curtiss aeroplane 
during his maneouvres at San Antonio, Tex. 
Ely was 26 years old. He leaves a young 
widow, a native of San Francisco. 

Ely w^as using a headless Curtiss, with the 
rear elevator increased in size over the nor- 
mal when both front and rear ones are used 
in combination. Though there is plenty of 
control without the front elevator for ordi- 
nary purposes, the elevator of a headless 
does not respond so quickly as the two and 
it is possible that either Ely waited too long 
before straightening out or that the wind 
velocity changed close to the ground and he 
dropped further than he expected. Curtiss 
flyers are doing nearly all the exhibition 
flying this fall in this country; the machines 
are fast and particularly adapted to spectacu- 
lar work; and aviators will get reckless. By 
sticking to "straight flj'lng" Ely's death 
would have been avoided. Cromwell Dixon 
started his flight from a place utterly unsuit- 
able for flying in his endeavor to "make 
good" regardless of conditions. "Avoidable" 
might be applied in both these instances. 

The Aero Club of California paid its tri- 
bute to the memory of Eugene Ely in a reso- 
lution of its Board of Directors on October 
24th. 

DEATHS ABROAD. 

Rheims, Oct. 14. R. Level (Savary Biplane) 
was killed. 

Hamburg, Germany, Oct. 21. H. Tacks 
(Tacks monoplane) was mortally injured and 
died a few hours later. 

Berne, Switzerland, Oct. 14. Captain Jean 
Scluiiidt (Bleriot), a Swiss army officer, killed 
in meet. 

Rheims, Prance, Oct. 27. Jean Desharmet 
was killed flying a military machine. 



After looking over your piihlicatiou, it seems to 
VIC that tliis magazine stiould he of great value to 
anyone nishing to keep informed on developments 
along this line. — James G. Hunt. 



AERO CL,UB EXPOSITION. 

An international aeronautic exposition will 
be held by the A. C. A. the week of May 9th 
in the new Grand Central Palace, New York. 
An agreement has been reached with the 
owners of the Palace for a term of five years, 
during which time the club has the exclusive 
use of this building for aeroplane shows. An 
emissary has been to Europe to obtain the 
exhibits of representative foreign manufac- 
turers and will be in position to offer entry 
free of duty, the Palace people having 
arranged for blanket bonding. 

It is the idea of the club to foster the in- 
dustry by means of shows until such time as 
the trade is organized and capable of con- 
duc-ting its own expositions. 



Charles J. Yunk and Nathan Linder have 
been conducting a correspondence school 
known as the National Academy of Aviation 
at Detroit, Mich. Albert P. Butlerfleld, desir- 
ous of learning the art of flying, matricu- 
lated in the school. He is still unable to soar 
through space and asks the local Justice for 
the return of $275.50 he claims he has coining. 

The entire student body of the "school" 
was on hand as witnesses. 

One of them said he had spent much time 
in the school nights when he should have 
been at home with his wife. According to 
witnesses, students were to be taught the 



construction of the machines, which, when 
completed, were to be used in the first lessons 
in flying. Testimony was adduced to show 
that the first lessons were not given because 
the students never finished a machine. 

Butterfield asks in addition to the return 
of his tuition fees a salary of $20 per week 
for time spent in the school as an assistant 
professor of aviation. He claims he was 
guaranteed a position at the close of his 
college career. — Detroit News. 

AERO C.VL,END.\R. 

-Houston, Tex., Curtiss aviators 
Atlanta, Ga., Curtiss aviators 
Austin, Tex.. Curtiss aviators 
-Salisbury, N. C, 1 aviator 
New Bern, N. C, Curtiss aviator 
Chattanooga, Tenn., Curtiss avi- 
ators 
•Savannah, Ga., Curtiss aviators 
-Rome, Ga., Curtiss aviator 
Spartenburg. S. C, 2 aviators 
-Winston-Salem, N. C, 2 aviators 
-San Juan, V. R., Curtiss .\viator 
— IjOS Angeles, .X.C.C. meet 
ity, Moisant aviators at presiden- 
ration; later touring Central Am- 



Nov. 



14-19- 
" 16-18- 
" 21-22- 
" 21-22- 

22-23- 
" 24-25- 

" 24-25- 

25- 

" 29-30- 

30- 

Dec. 7-12 

Jan. 

Mexico C 
tial inaugu 
erica. 

1912- 
May. 9-15 
Palace, Aer 



-International Exposition, Vienna 
1912 — Show at Grand Central 
) Club of America. 



154 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 
November y 191 




COL.L.IKH HEADS A. C. A. 

The Aero Club o£ America held its annual 
election Nov. 13th, Robert J. Collier was 
elected president to succeed Allan A. Ryan, 
with J. A. Blair, Jr., Maj. Samuel Reber, 
Harold P. McCormick and H. A. W. Wood 
vice-presidents in the order named. 

The number of directors has been increased 
from 20 to 24, to include sixteen non-resi- 
dent governors and eight resident or non- 
resident. The sixteen governors have been 
made up from presidents of affiliated aero 
clubs since the National Council, whicli was 
headed by Robert J. Collier, has become lost, 
strayed or stolen. 

A new section has been added to the By- 
Laws by which the failure four times in suc- 
cession of any of the eight "Class A" direc- 
tors to attend directors' meetings without per- 
mission is considered as resignation. Tiais is 
designed to limit these eight to live ones 
and eliminate the drones. Tlie office of Con- 
sulting Engineer has been abolished and a 
fourth vice-presidency takes its place. The 
active work of the directors will now be 
done by an Executive Committee of seven 
members, which has all the powers of the 
board of directors, when the board is not 
in session. 

The club-year is the most successful and 
prosperous the Club has ever known. Dur- 
ing its course the individual membership has 
grown from 390 to 540, say an increase in a 
single twelvemontli of nearly 40%. The affili- 
ated clubs now number twenty-four and have 
shown greater activity and a more earnest 
support of the Club than in any previous 
year. The number of aviation pilot's cer- 
tigcates granted by the Club is now 74 as 
against 26 on October 31st, 1910. 

The acquisition of the Club-house, the 
finest aero-club-house in existence and the 
only affording its members living rooins 
and restaurant service has" proved an un- 
qualified success, fully justifying the opin- 
ion of those members who urged it for some 
time past. The attendance is increasing- al- 
most daily. 

The granting of aviation pilot's certificates 
has been systemized so that applicants can 
pass their tests all over the country under the 
supervision of the A. E. C. A.'s special dele- 
gates. 

The Club proposes to hold an aeronautic 
show in the near future, fashioned after 
the successful Paris salons and has already 
entered into negotiations in the matter. 

Monday nights have been set aside as "club 
nights" and "members are beginning to meet 
at the club for dinner and inforTnal talks. 
On November 1st a semi-formal dinner was 
held, attended by a hundred members and 
guests, inaugurating a series of monthly 
dinners. 

The Aero Club of Connecticut during the 
past month gave its members and their friends 
the opiiortunity of a short flight with avia- 
tor A. L. "Welsh, of the "Wright company, at 
the Lake Aerodrome in Bridgeport. A Wright 
model B machine was put at the disposal of 
the club for the sum of $1500, which was 
guaranteed by the club. The members were 
charged $30 a flight and some twenty-seven 
flights were made with entire success. This 
is the second club in the country to attempt 
to have its members become familiar with 
aviation to the extent of making it possible 
for them to obtain rides, the other instance 
being the club in Detroit. 

The Salt Lake City Aero Club is in process 
of organization. Four men, Robert N. Camp- 
bell, .1. Frank .Judge, Lewis B. McCornick 
and G. Ray Walker are prime movers. The 
six ascensions made in the big balloon bought 



from the French-American Balloon Company 
have stirred up a lot of interest and it is 
planned to keep the balloon in use taking 
up members* parties. Correspondence may 
be addressed to Mr. Campbell, Walker Bank 
Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania listened to 
president A. T. Atlierholt's description of his 
trip in the international balloon race at a 
meeting held October 20. 

The Aer<»nautical Society continues to hold 
well attended bi-monthly meetings. The 

October 12th meeting was made very inter- 
esting by the short but vivid experiences of 
Messrs. Dyott and Martin. F. C. Dawson, 
president of the company handling duralu- 
min, told of the properties of the new Mght 
metal and the purposes for which it is adapt- 
ed, giving each member as a souvenir a 
paper-cutter made of this material. John J. 
Cutter, lately returned from Europe, told of 
the "wonderful activity abroad. Basil "V. 
Szabo told of the gliding work of Lilienthal 
from his store of intimate knowledge of 
Lilienthal's machines and practices. 

At the meeting of October 26th, when the 
attendance filled the rooms, Jerome S. Fanciul- 
li. of the Curtiss company, spoke on Ely's death 
and the development of the hydro-aeroplane 
for naval purposes, illustrated with lantern 
slides. George F. Campbell Wood, secretary 
of the Aero Club, addressed the Society on 
late developments, with slides. Both talks 
■were highly appreciated and earned great en- 
thusiasm. An exposition of "Cupror," a new 
metal, was given by Fred W. Barker, of the 
Non-Corroding Metal Co. 

On November 9th, Mr. Prank W. Walton 
delivered an address upon "The Development 
of Aeronautics ai"nong School Boys, and its 
effect upon their mental activity." He spoke 
froi'n a store of interesting observations and 
experiences from his connection with public 
school work. Mr. G. Curtis Gillespie spoke 
upon "Untouched Subjects of Aeronautics," 
in which he brought out a number of predic- 
tions based upon observations of the present 
development. Percy Pierce of model fame 
gave an illustrated talk upon "The History 
of Model Plying- in America." 

RAVIATIONS. 
By Antony Jannus. 

If Tillinghast said he flew for many hours 
in the night, did Ely? 

If aeronautical publications are always 
short of money, how much does Aero? 

If a Wright machine flew over a mining 
town would it be Or(e)ville? 

If the Wrights win their suit against Cur- 
tiss how much will Bleriot? 

If Bleriot, Santos-Dumont, Paulham and the 
other constructors should decide to take an 
outing, would it be Wright for them to 
Somer at Nieuport? 

If Paul Peck bumped into the Washington 
monument would it Rex Smith? 

If a buzzard can fly without power, do you 
think Capt. WiMoughby's Pelican? 

If Ovington flew across the continent do 
you think Atwood? 

When Atwood left Grand Park, did Chic- 
ago? 

If rve bread is nearly black is Grahame- 
White? 

If Beachey had not been at Chicago who 
would we have had to defeat Sopwith? 

If the Chicago cops w^ere handcuffing reck- 
less aviators would there be a Lincoln 
Beachey? 

If Miss Moisant bought a blue aviation 
suit, what would Miss Quimby? 

— Quick, boys, the life net; he's falling! 



155 



AEROj\AU1 ICS November, 1911 

THE BOLAND TAIL-LESS BIPLANE 




The Roland Taii.-less Hiplane. The "jibs'' on the RUiHT of the photograph is pulled in to steer 

AVIATORS LEFT, OR TO DEPRESS THAT SIDE. 



AFTER experimenting with power ma- 
chines since 1908, flyinj?, sinashing, 
altering, with the one object in view 
of proving that rudders as generally 
used are unneccessary, that ailerons and 
warping wings are only two methods of 
keeping right side up. Prank E. Boland, of 
Rahway, N. J., has demonstrated during the 
past Summer that he can fly as well as any- 
one. Some exhibition flights were made on 
October 21st for the benefit of a number of 
interested persons who had assembled for 
the purpose of seeing the machine in flight. 
Boland's flights all along have attracted a 
lot of attention among the flying colony on 
Long Island but little information has spread 
abroad. Nothing now startles aviation 
"fans." There is no grandstand play about 
?ioland's flying. He just gets in the machine 
und off he goes turning as he leaves the 
ground, if he likes, which no other aviator 
thinks of doing. He just imagines himself 
in an automobile and drives accordingly. He 
says he never bothers about lateral balance 
or other minor things like that. His seat, 
with stirrups for his feet, is so secure that 
nothing c^an throw him out. He just turns 
his steering wheel to go to the right or left 
and pushes or pulls it to go up or down. If 
one side of the machine does get too low 
he just turns his wheel to the opposite side 
and he is level again. He put a tail on one 
day, found it did not fly as well, and took it 
off, all without re-balancing. 

Boland uses his own engine which never 
fails him. No attempt has been made to re- 
fine the machine, to have nii'cly finished 
woodwork, or neat sockets and turnbuckles. 
The cloth is rusty from the weather and has 
been on for about a year, part of the time 
no shed being provided for the machine at 
all — he just leaves it out like a lazy farmer 
would his plow. Some ribs have one curve, 
some anothei-; sometimes they are flat, due 
to weather conditions, Out under the eleva- 



tor hang four sash weights which sorpe 
time in the past aided the housewife to raise 
her kitchen window. All Boland wants to do 
is fly and he doesn't care a hang for looks. 

He w^as one of the original members of 
The Aeronautical Society at Morris Park. 
He bought Dr. William Greene's first ma- 
chine and took off its tail. This he flew, 
smashed and flew, in a little two-by-foui* 
field in Jersey until he built the present ma- 
chine, about a year ago. Soon Boland Flyers 
will be on the market. 

Main Planeis. The span is 29 ft. 6 in., the 
chord and separation of the planes being 
5 ft. 6 in. The central section is built up 
as a unit, the uprights running from the 
skids to the top plane. The wing spars of 
the outer sections butt against these struts 
and are secured thereto by clips of sheet 
steel. The covering of the planes is single, 
the ribs running in pockets sewed on the 
upper side. The main spars are also run in 
pockets, the ribs being attached to the top 
of the front spar and to the bottom of the 
rear, as in the Farman machine. The curva- 
ture of the ribs is very slight, only M> in. 
deep about half way between the spars. The 
trailing edges of the ribs are straight as 
originally bent, but they are very flexible. 
V2 by 1 inch solid ash, tapering to a point at 
the rear. Here they probably take some ,. 
reserve curve due to the pressure of the air. 1 
The plane flies as it stands on the ground 
■with scarcely any angle of incidence, the 
ends of both front and rear spai-s being the 
same height from the ground. 

Klevator. The elevator, pivoted 14 feet in 
fi-ont of the main plane, has a sjian of 13 
feet 2 in. and a chord of 3 feet. It is singb^ 
covered and has a very pronounced curve 
2V2 inches. When in horizontal flight thi- 
is held at a very flat angle. The surface i^ 
strongly stayed by \vires running from thi 
two steel tube masts to which the wires 
from the steering frame are run. The from 



156 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 






Thk Boland Machine. 
157 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 19i 



spar is formed of a piece of % inch tubing, 
the rear being of spruce. 

Controls. The main point of this machine, 
and tlie one which gives it its claim to at- 
tention, is the absence of both rudder and 
ailerons. To take the place of them a pair 
of "jibs" is used and these are situated at 
each lateral end of the machine. Each 
works in one direction only and both are 



ing resistance on that side. A throttle lever 
is operated by hand. 

The seating of the aviator is novel. The 
feet are not used for any purpose whatever 
and are inserted in "stirrups," or loops made 
of wire in the guying of the outrigger fram- 
ing so that the man sits in much the same 
position, with the knees high, as the driver 
of a racing automobile. In case of a rough 




7/Wif B 



i'NORIHL 



H/N6£ A 



/090 



controlled from the hand wheel on the steer- 
ing column. According to Mr. Boland, the 
operation of the machine is the same as that 
of an automobile, with the exception of the 
elevator which works in the accepted man- 
ner. In order to turn to the left the wheel 
is turned to the left, the machine swinging 
around easily and banking itself properl.y. 
When the turn is complete the wheel is 
brought back to center and "that's all there 



landing, it is almost impossible for the aviator 
to be thrown forward on his face, nor can 
he fall forward on his steering column pre- 
venting him from pulling back on his eleva- 
tor. A picture taken of the late Louis 
Rosenbaum shows him leaned so far forward 
on his steering column that the elevator is 
depressed and he has nothing to push 
against to regain an upright position in his 
seat. 

Running Gear. A combination of four 
wheels and skids is used. The wheels are 
naounted, one on each end of a long axle. 
The rear set is placed near the rear end of 
the skids and are 2 by 26 inch wheels, these 
are supported by rubber shock absorbers. 



CO/L ^pff/A'O 



nmnnnim^ 




-.1? '*■•. , ^^^ •>'*"* ^''® triangular in shape 
with a balancing portion, and are pivoted at 
the points A and B as shown in ths sketch 
the wire C from the wheel goinc; to the 
lower corner. When the wheel is ti:i n"d, the 
lower corner of the jib is pulled in, thus pre- 
senting an obliquely inclined surface, offer- 



/OSi 
The other set is situated about 4 feet in 
front of the planes and are flexiblv mounted 
by means of cable running over pulleys and 
back to coil springs attached to the" skids. 
The wheels of tlio forward set are 2 by 20 in. 
INmvop IMinit. An 8 cylinder "V" motor of 
Mr. Poland's own make is used. This has 
stood the test and runs right along with very 
little tinkering. The cylinders are 4" bv 4", 
brass water jacketed on the sides, the heads 
not being jacketed. The valves are concen- 



158 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



trie and are located in the cylinder head, 
only the exhaust valve is mechanically oper- 
ated. The oiling- system is a combination of 
force feed and splash, with oil well in the 
base. 

Unique construction is noticed in the nickel 
steel crankshaft. This is "built up" of five 
members. One connecting rod is forked at 
its bearing, the other one working between 
the forks of the other, and are thus concen- 
tric. The cylinders and connecting rods are 



forced into the connecting- rods and line 
bearings, then splashing the cylinders. The 
one-piece connecting rods are hollow chrome 
nickel steel, cut from solid forging. There 
are oil pits under each connecting rod so 
thaVany change in the level of the machine 
wiljp not drain oil away from the high end of 
the engine. The cam shaft is mounted on 
R.I.V. ball bearings and a big bearing of the 
same make is used for the center bearing of 
the crankslmft. The other crankshaft bear- 




not staggered in this method. The special 
system of connecting rod beai-ings allow both 
rods of a pair to get full advantage of a 
wide bearing, 2% inches. The cranks are 
steel discs, bored for lightness. The weight 
of engine complete, with carburetor, mag- 
neto and oiler is 230 lbs. The crankshaft 
alone is 34 lbs. 

Ignition is by a Bosch motorcycle magneto, 
delivering current to a separate eight cylin- 
der distributor, placed at the rear of the 
motor and run by the oil pump shaft. The 
magneto runs at twice engine speed. The 
engine runs normally at 1200, giving 60 b.h.p. 

The oil enters the hollow crankshaft, is 



;d Knc.ink. 

ings are solid bronze, slipped over the ends. 
There is no provision for take-up on these, 
as very little wear has thus far been dis- 
covered. They are larger than usual and a 
better pit is secured by being solid. A ball 
thrust bearing is used on the propeller shaft. 
This is tapered and a special hub is keyed to 
it. The propeller is bolted to a flange on 
this hub. Cooling by a Livingston radiator. 

The pistons have three cast iron rings, 
with a large oil groove in line with the pis- 
ton pin. The cylinders do not carbonize. 

Weight. The weight is given as 800 lbs., 
without operator, and the speed is estimated 
at fifty or more miles an hour. 



THE KANSAS CITY INTERNATIONAL CONTEST 



By Lieut. H. K. Honeywell 



Lieut. Honeywell piloted his balloon the 
"Kansas Citv II," with two other balloons 
entered for the Lahm Cup. As his balloon 
was not one of rubberized fabric, it was not 
permitted in the international contest. How- 
ever, it beat bv 30 miles the winner of the 
international, the "Berlin II," of Germany. 

OUR experience in the contest held in 
Kansas City, Mo., Oct. 5th, proved 
a strenuous one. All the balloons 
<5ncountered similar stormy conditions 
which were very unusual at this time of year. 
The weather map looked uninviting from the 
start, and right here I wish to state that in 
all future contests an elastic date should be 
enforced, suitable to atmospheric conditions. 
The race was pulled off without a hitch, all 
contestants having an even break, that is, 
given no advantage in time of start, with 
cloudy weather and an even temperature. In 
the presence of 40,000 people a perfect get- 
away of all balloons was made. 

All experienced fine weather until near mid- 
night, when a very cold drenching rain and 
snow storm began. Those not prepared were 
wet to the skin and suffered. 

We in the "Kansas City II," John Watts 
and myself, tried to get above the tempest 
for our basket rocked from time to time due 
to cyclonic conditions. After fighting our 
way up to 10,700 feet at 2 a.m., the tempera- 
ture dropped to 5 degrees above zero and still 
snowing very hard. Five and six sacks of 
ballast were cut away at one time to force 
the balloon through the storm, only to find 
ourselves descending the next minute, due to 
lower temperature and contracted gas. We 
were nearly frozen, our feet and clothes were 
stiff — icicles galore. We could not stand it 
longer, and let her drop gradually to about 
five thousand feet where she checked and 



struck an equilibrium the rest of the night 
without throwing ballast. Our statoscope 
was out of commission and the aneroid near- 
ly so, due to water in them. 
" At daybreak we noticed through a break 
in clouds below a long streak of coast line 
which afterward proved to be Lake Superior. 
We thought we were in Canada as the lake 
vanished to our rear. Feeling satisfied that 
we were going N. E. at a great rate, decided 
to investigate no further, as clouds had 
blanketed the earth once more. At 9 a.m. we 
decided to drop below the blanket and get 
bearings. We hailed a man to learn what 
part of Canada we were in. Imagine our 
surprise when he answered "Wisconsin." We 
immediately consulted our compass, we 
thought it had gone wrong, a second com- 
pass said the same thing — course Southwest, 
speed 30 to 40 miles per hour. The upper 
strata of clouds were becalmed as previous 
observations proved. 

In order to lose no more distance we 
valved a hasty descent, landing in a garden 
patch at 9.20 a.m. to avoid possible damage to 
balloon in a dense forest. In doing so one 
end of the basket struck a stone fence, my 
hands being high above my head pulling the 
rip cord, knees bent to avoid jolt, the upper 
edge of basket caught me in short ribs, frac- 
turing one — the first injury in 164 ascensions. 
We could have prolonged our trip possibly 
through a second night had our course been 
true. Much discouraged, the balloon was 
packed and shipped back to Kansas City, not 
knowing that we had whipped the entire field 
of international rubber flyers. By doing so 
the varnished balloons proved again superior 
over all other makes. . , „ „ 

In the last national race they came in 1, 2, 3, 
for distance and endurance, they have always 
made good in prior contests. 



159 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 



McCURDY HEADLESS BIPLANE 



THE machine illustrated is one of six that 
were built to Mr. McCurdy's design by 
the Queen Aeropl<ine Co. They were 
used by him at the Chicago and Nassau 
meets and in exhibitions in various parts of 
the country. The machine is a fine flier, has 
a good turn of speed, and seems to handle 
well. 

One has gotten rather used to finding most 
machines constructed principally of spruce, 
so it is rather a novelty to find in this ma- 
chine that the only spruce used is in the two 
struts running from the upper plane to the 
front of the skids; all other woodwork being 
ash. 

.J. A, D. McCurdy was one of the members 
of the Aerial Experiment Association. At 
its disbandonment in 1909, Mr. McCurdy and 
P. W. Baldwin, another member of the As- 
sociation, formed the Canadian Aerodrome 
Company at I>r. Alexander Graham Bell's 
place at Baddock, Nova Scotia, building there 
several machines. When, in 1910, Baldwin 
left with Dr. Bell for a trip around the world, 
McCurdy joined with Glen Curtiss in exhibi- 
tions. In the Summer of 1911 he associated 
with Charles F. Willard in forming the Mc- 
Curdy- Willard Company to give exhibitions 
and market machines, with headquarters at 
1780 Broadway. In October, Messrs McCurdy 
and Willard both again joined with the Cur- 
tiss Company. 

Main Planett. These are built in three sec- 
tions, joining at the points where the skids 
are attached. The Goodyear fabric is laid 
and tacked on top and bottom of the ribs 
and to the front beam. Instead of the cus- 
tom^ary wire along the trailing edge of the 
ribs a light batten is used as in the Curtiss 
machines. The curvature of the ribs is 3" 
maximum, situated about 1/3 of the chord 
from the forward edge. The angle in flight 
is apijroximately 4 degrees. 

The ribs as well as the main beams and 
all struts are of ash. The struts are fish 
shaped and are attached to the main beams 
by the combination of an aluminum socket 
and the "U" bolt familiar in the Bleriot. 
This "U" bolt is used only as an anchor for 
the guys and the struts, turnbuckles being 
used to tighten the wires. 

EleTHtor. The elevator is hinged, as shown 
in the drawings, at the rear of a fixed sur- 
face. Neither the elevator nor the fixed sur- 
face are given camber, the fixed surface be- 
ing set at a very slight angle which may be 
changed as desired by clamps on the strut 
at the forward edge. The elevator is con- 



trolled by tilting the steering column. The 
controlling wires are doubled for safety. 

Rndder. A single rudder, with a notch cut 
for the fixed surface, is used. It is operated 
by turning the wheel on the steering column, 
from which the flexible wire runs through 
Bowden wire down the center of the column 
to the pivot and to skid struts where copper 
tubing is used for fair leads. 

.Stability. This is secured by the use of 
ailerons hinged to the rear main beams of 
both planes. The operation is by means of 
the well known shoulder brace. The ailerons 
are really a continuation of the main sur- 
faces, and when not in use are not at all no- 
ticeable. 

Ranning- Gear. Usual wheel and skid com- 
bination. The skids are of ash as are the 
struts. The connections of skids and struts 
and of the struts and the main spars is by 
means of special aluminum castings. There 
are also oblique struts of 1" steel tube run- 
ning from the skids to the main spars under 
the engine foundation. 




Power Plant. A 50 h.p Gnome is used, the 
propeller being mounted behind the engine. 
The gas and air control levers are mounted 
on the steering column, liberal use being 
made of Bowden wire. The globe valve for 
closing off the gasolene supply and the mag- 
neto cut-out are conveniently located at the 
pilot's right on the curved piece which ex- 
tends to form the foot rest. 

AVeiglit. The weight of the apparatus is 
.56.5 pounds, without gas or oil. The speed is 
51 miles per hour over a circular course. 




The McCukDV Headless Bipla.ne. 
160 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 





Scale Drawings McCirdy ^[Ac^^^^'F. 

161 



AERONAUTICS November, 1911 

THOMAS HEADLESS BIPLANE 




W.vi/rKi! .JtiHNsox, Flying Thomas Headless 



THE Thomas Brothers, of Bath, N. Y., have 
neen building and flying biplanes fcr the 
past two years in a quiet sort of way. 
Little publicity has come their way for 
they are not located near centers of flying. 

Walter E. Johnson, of Rochester, has been do- 
ing some exhibition work with the machine the 
past season, eighteen successful engagements 
having been flown. In a recent number we 
told of his flying to Hammondsport and back. 
The Kirkham motor factory at Savona is about 
eight miles and when he gets a short circuit in 
his gasoline tank or a leak in his propeller he 
just flies over and gets the motor maker him- 
self to set him right. On October 20 he visited 
several towns in that part of the state, chang- 
ing a magneto to Bosch at the Kirkham factory. 
The day before he Hew about the villages for 
a circuit of 20 miles. 

His Kirkham six cylinder is doing excellent 
work, he says, and the experience with these 
several machines has led the Thomas brothers 
to start work on a speed machine. A mono- 
plane with hydroplane attachment will be an- 
other machine. The designer is William T. 
Thomas. 

Main Planes. These spread 311/2 ft, 5% ft. 
chord and spaced 4' 5" apart. The depth of the 
curve is W at 2' back. The planes are double 
covered with treated sailcloth, tacked on. The 
fiont beam is 2" by l^A", the rear the same 
dimensions, 15" forward from the rear edge. 
The rectangular in cross section ribs, spaced 
14"' apart, size 1V4" by %", are fastened to the 
beams by iron strips. The 1%" by 1%" struts 
fit in sockets or tubing. Wire is used for guy- 
iiig, 1/16 and 3/32" diameter, tightened by 
locking turnbuckles. 

J-Ucvator. The design and bracing of the ele- 
vator plane is novel, in combination with the 
four rudders. The elevator is hinged to the 
rear beam of a fixed surface, 18 ft. back from 
the front beam of the main planes. The ele- 
vator measures 10' by 3' 2" and the area is 
2734 sq. ft. 

HuddoK. Of these there are four, pivoted 
IS' back from the front of the main planes. 
Each measure IVa' by 2'. These are operated 
by the turning of the steering wheel through 
1/16" Roebling cable over pulleys where turns 
are made. 

titahiUty. Ailerons at the rear of both planes 
are used for keeping lateral equilibrium. Each 



of these four measure 66" by 15". These are 
operated in the manner first adopted by Cur- 
tiss, by means of a shoulder brace. Cable 1/16" 
diameter is used. 

Power Plant. A 50 h.p. 6 cyclinder Kirk- 
ham motor, weighing 230 lbs., is now used, 
driving a 7' by 6V2' pitch propeller at 1,100 
rpm. The cylinders in this engine are 4%" by 
i%", valves in the head. The radiator is an 
A-Z and Bosch magneto. The propeller is made 
by the Thomas Brothers. The engine is 
mounted centrally between the planes. A 
trust of 350 lbs. is obtained. 

Running Gear. The four-wheel running gear 
has been a feature with each of the Thomas 
machines. Each wheel is spring mounted. 
These wheels, 20" by 2*4 l>iamond, are used in 
combination with 10' skids, 2" by 2" cross 
section, braced with tubing. The track of the 
wheels is 8'. 



The Aerial Construction Co. of New York re- 
port having taken a lease on additional premises 
to take care of the continued demand for their 
product. The "Sanford Special" propellers are 
in great demand, especially in the middle west 
and on the Pacific coast, where they have been 
having success during the past summer. 

To keep its force of experienced workmen em- 
ployed during the quiet winter months this con- 
cern is quoting low rates for its usual high 
standard construction work. 



A. C. Menges, of Memphis, Tenn., has re- 
ceived delivery of another monoplane from 
the American Aeroplane Supply House, of 
Hempstead, L. I. This was tried out Oct. 6 
by Andre Houpert, instructor of the Moisant 
school, who made a ten-minute flight. This 
is a single-seater 1911 Bleriot-copy, with a 
70 h.p. Gnome engine. 

The Republica Dominicana, through its 
state engineer, Z. H. Garcia, has placed an 
or<rer and w^ork has been commenced. This 
will be equipped with a Roberts. 

Tlic fifth monoplane tuined out by the Ameri- 
can Aeroplane Supply House at Hempstead, L. 
I., has been sold to R. .1. Mai'Iey, of Sumner, 
Miss., after successful trials were made by 
Andre Houpert, instructor of the Moisant school 
at Nassau Boulevard. The flight covered about 
fifteen miles. A 70 Gnome is used. These two- 
seaters are finely built and all have llown at 
once. 



162 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 





Thomas Biplane 

igil Model 



■\. 



ir^ 



Scale Drawing Thomas Bipi-ane 
163 



AERONAUTICS November, 191 

CONSTRUCTION AIDS, XX 



Joint of ^c/Tr/gge'' Jps 




riore R.oe oetaili 



ERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



THE RATING OF GASOLINE MOTORS 



THE problem of deriving a satisfactory 
formula for the determination of the 
bralve horsepower of a gasoline motor 
is one that has caused a great deal of 
iiscussion, and many formulae have been 
3volved. Some have been too complicated, 
uid others, on account of their simplicity, 
^vere rendered unsuitable. 

The formula known as the A. L. A. M. 
rorinula, (diam. squared x no. cylinders-h2%) 
lias been widely used, but is at the best 
rather unsatisfactory. 



Marshall formula. In order to illustrate the 
method of using- it, we have taken the case 
of the Wright engine — 4%" bore by 4" stroke. 
Enter at the bottom of the measurement for 
stroke, and run up until the correct revolu- 
tion line is reached — in this case 1,300 — then 
to the right and take the curved line which 
starts at the part of arrival, between two 
lines in this case, and follow it until just 
under the diameter 4%"; then run across to 
the right where you arrive at 32 h. p. 

It might be worth while to point out that 

















Cylinde 


c d 


iaraeter 


in 


Inches and Millimeters 
















2 


70 bO 5)U HJl» IIU ro) loU 140 150 

.5 1 3 1 ;15! |4 1 4.5 1 5 1 5.5 | 


HORSE POWER 
No. of Cyliuders 
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Comprehensive chart showing the horsepower for various motors which can be read off 
at a glance, taking bore, stroke and engine speed into consideration. 



Mr. C. F. D. Marshall in The Automobile 
has advanced the formula 



d'nsv 



or 



d'nsv 



12,000 200,000,000 

according to whether the dimensions are 
expressed in inches or millimeters. In this 
formula d is the diameter, n the number of 
cylinders, s the stroke and v the revolutions 
per minute. It is derived from the "PLAN" 
of steam practice, and assumes the mean 
effective pressure corresponding to the brake 
horsepower to be 84 pounds per square inch. 
Results given by this formula have been 
compared with the brake tests on a goodly 
number of engines, and have been found to be 
a very good approximation when the engine 
was not being overdriven. As the power 
curve of an engine sags off when the engine 
is overdriven, the results given by the form- 
ula are then too high. This is, however, a 
fault common to all other formulae as well. 
The chart gives the horsepower by the 



the exact equivalent for the constant 12,000 
when millimeters are used is 196,634,000. The 
effect of taking the round number 200,000. 
000 gives a result 1% per cent, lower, which 
is near enough for all practical purposes, 
considering that an approximation is all we 
can aim at when using a formula. 



This is only One of Many. 

"I believe I wrote you that I had received 
'How to Build an Aeroplane.' So com- 
pletely does your magazine cover the subject, 
that I have thus far found very little in the 
book that has not been dealt with some- 
where in the nineteen copies of AERONAU- 
TICS that I have read. The book is a sort 
of condensation of all the essential points 
that vou have already published. 

With delightful anticipation of the feast 
I shall have when the September number of 
AERONAUTICS arrives, 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) H. B. Newton." 

165 



AERONAUTICS November, 1911 

P^R P GRESS IN_HYDRO-AEROPLANES 



WHEN W. Starling- Burgess first became 
interested in aviation and began to 
forsake the yachting field in which 
he had met with such eminent suc- 
cess, following in the footsteps of his father, 
his many friends wondered how long it 
would be before his experience and skill as 
a designer of yachts would solve the problem 
of the hydro-aeroplane. It is said that it 
was with great difficulty that Mr. Burgess 
refrained from interesting himself in this 
development while designing and perfecting 
the Burgess Biplane, which has been so 
successful wherever it has been used this 
year, takirif? (iJ% of the biplane prizes at tlie last 
important meet, at Nassau Boulevard when 
competing with aeroplanes of five other 
makes. 

This success, with the very excellent cross 
country wftrk which has been accomplished 
by a number of aviators on the Burgess dur- 
ing the season has proved the machine to be 
second to none as an aeroplane and Mr. Bur- 
gess at once devoted his attention to the 
even more attractive opportunity of devel- 
oping the hydro-aeroplane. 

The hydroplanes, which are made with a 
large factor of safety, are so designed as to 
meet the water at an angle without the pos- 
sibility of strain, are two boats about 14 
feet long, 2 feet wide and a main draft of 
about ten inches of the single step hydro- 
plane type, heavily trussed and reinforced. 

On the morning of October 25 Mr. Burgess 
launched the new hydro-aeroplane from the 
sheerlegs just as for years he has been 
launching the yachts that have made a name 
for him all over the world. The first demon- 
stration consisted of a fifteen minute run 
among the yachts that were moored in the 
harbm-. His expectations were entirely ful- 
filled in finding the hydro-aeroplane a sea- 



worthy craft, as easily steered as a fast mo- 
tor boat. Whil'e he had assured his friends 
that he would not leave the water, the temp- 
tation after a few minutes became too great 
and one or two short jumps showed that the 
aeroplane had ample power to lift the boats 
without difficulty on the first pulling of 
the elevator. 



From that flight on for one week all of 
the aviators in the Burgess Company flew 
the hydro-aeroplane, on one day carrying 
Mrs. F. G. Macomber, Jr., the first woman to 
ride in a hydro-aeroplane over the Atlantic 
Ocean. A number of other passengers were 
given flights. The machine was flown in 
varying weather conditions from a calm to 
a 25 mile wind and it was gratifying to note 
that the winds which would bother a skilled 
aviator in his machine over the uneven 
ground gave the novice no difficulty in the 
new hydro-aeroplane over the water. No 
adjustments have been necessary and not a 
repair has been required since launching. 

Both H. N. Atwood and C. W. Webster ex- 
pressed themselves as highly delighted with 
the new machine and were enthusiastic in 
their comparison of the joys of flying over 
the water as compared with flying over the 
land. 

This new development has a deeper sig- 
nificance for aviation than is at first appre- 
ciated. One of the greatest difficulties that 
both the manufacturer and the teacher has 
had is to impress upon the untrained, and 
very often upon those skilled in the art, the 
necessity of flying only in favorable weather. 
Most of the unfortunate accidents that have 
occurred during the last year can be traced 
to an over anxiety on the part of the opera- 
tor to fly when conditions were not satisfac- 
tory. 




'Ime I!i!h<;es.s Water 'Pi.a.ne Ju.st "Leaving the Ground.' 

166 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 1 



The hydro-aeroplane automatically solves 
this problem, as while it can be operated 
in higher winds on account of their being' 
more regular over the water, still a limit 
is reached when the sea prevents the satis- 
factory planing- of the boats, so that the 
unwise or too reckless aviator is virevented 
from flying when the londitions are unfa- 
vorable. 

It is reported that the conipany has taken 
steps for the immediate construction of a 
number of hydro-aeroplanes to attach to its 
machines that are now in use, and the Gov- 
ernment is already interested in the devel- 
opment for its own equipment. 



they shut oft" the motor and alighted on the 
water. When a suitable v>laee was found 
to get ashore, the motor was started up 
again and the "plane run a.ground. 

The double control system was emplo.ved 
and each of the others relieved the other 
from time to time, the jointed control lever 
being- shifted from one to the other without 
any dilticulty whatever. The details of this 
were published in the Au.gust number, page 
56. A self-startin.g- device has been added. 
A lever at the side of the aviator works 
a ratchet gear on the propeller shaft, ,iust 
forward of the propeller. 

During- the following week the return tiip 




The Curtiss Hvdro-.^eropl.\ne. 



MAW HYDHO- VEROI'I^ANKS III ILI)1\'G. 

The hydro-aei-oplane has "caught on" all 
over the world since Curtiss hrst made real 
flights a year ago in California. Numerous 
expei-iments ai-e being- conducted abroad but 
none of the machines there has reached the 
present stage of those in tliis country. One 
or two ai-e bus.\' givin.g exhibitions, the Navy's 
machine has just flown u\> and down the 
Atlantic Coast and Robinson down the Miss- 
issippi River. 

The Queen Aeroplane Co. is trying' out 
a n^(>nov)lane equipped with a boat. 

Tlie early part of October Prank Coffyn 
attached floats to a Wri.ght machine and 
ma<le a large number of flights at Detroit. 

Hugh \j. Willoughb.v v)ron\ises to have an 
aciuatic aeroplane on the market this coming 
spring. Some tiights have been made in 
Baltimore with K. K. Urown's biplane and 
there are other private experimentors widely 
scattered who are getting' active in this 
direction. 

Curtiss is experimenting with another \ari- 
ation of the water machine line, with the 
engine high up in the top plane and the 
flyer low down on the boat. 

NAVY OFFICERS MAKE NEW UECOHO 

The U. S. naval officers l.,ieut. Theodore C 
Ellyson and Rieut. J. G. Towers on October 
25th established a non-stop hydroaeroplane 
record b.\- fl.\ing' from Annapolis, Md., to 
Muckroe l!eacli, near Fortress Monroe, Va., 
a distance of 1SS.2 miles in the C'urtiss hydro- 
aeroplane recentl.v i)urchased b.v the Cap- 
tain W. Irving' Chambers, head of aero- 
nautical work in the Navy, which machine 
is the onl.v successful water 'plane of any 
government to date. The distance was 

made in 2 hours 27 minutes, -vvhich avera- 
ges 5(!.4 miles an hour. 

When the aviators sighted the point of 
land at the entrance to Hampton Roads 



was made. \\u\\ two stops, due to nu)tor 
trouble. 

RETURN TRIP. 

On October 30, the Navy aviators started 
for the return flight and got as far as tUou- 
cester Point, on the Yoi-lv River, Va.. when 
a landing- -was made on account of a broken 
pump sliaft. The following- day they reached 
Smith Point, 84 miles on tlie way back when 
the water pump broke. Here a landing was 
made and tlie Nav>- l>epartment ^vired of the 
situation from Reedville, Va. In response to 
offer of a tu.g. Rieut EUyst>n telegraphed 
"Tug- tiot needed. Machine in line shape. 
Waiting' in weather." 

The followin.g' days were very cold and the 
aviators endiii-ed marty hardshiv>s. as their 
resources were poor for suV>sistence and com- 
fort in their determination to make a practi- 
cal test out of the fli.ght and to gret alon.g 
as well as possible without outside assis- 
tance. 

ICllyson and Towers completed the return 
llight li> .\nnapolis on November 3 in a bitin.g, 
strong, iiortliwest wind. The>- were nearly 
frozen stil"f but cheerful and happy in having 
"stuck to it." The machine was in flne con- 
dition. 

Pieutenant l<"ll.\-son, in writing to Glenn 
H. Curtiss, .gave tlie following intorestingr in- 
cidents about the flights : — 

"I steered for the first half hour and then 
Towers, for the same len.gth of time. At the 
end of an hour the water connections on tov> 
of the radiator began to leak and water went 
on the magneto, causin.g the engine to miss. 
Towers climbed and repaired the leak the best 
he could and had to ludd the wafer-pipe in 
place, which he did for over an hour while 
I drove. 

After two hours tlying, the oilguage seemed 
to be .getting- low and we decided to land. 
This we accomplished in a six foot surf with 
a twenty mile wind behind us. I ran the ma- 

167 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



Mr. Reader! 



I WHY ARE YOU 

Interested in 

AVIATION? 

t Tell Us Your Reasons 

I And We Will 

I Mail to You 

I FREE OF CHARGE 



I An Artistic 

i Autographed Photo of 
I GLENN H. CURTISS 




Like above cut 



This photograph is 5 x 7 inches, suitable for framing. 
It is an excellent likeness of Mr. Curtiss and is a work of art. 
This offer is made because 

We Want to Know 

The extent of the interest in aviation and the 
opinions of those interested in the future 
development of the Aeroplane Industry. 
If you are pessimistic regarding the 
progress of aviation, state your 
views on the accompanying 
coupon or in a letter. If 
you are optimistic, say so! 

Fill in the Coupon and Mail it to 



I THE CURTISS EXHIBITION CO. 

JEROME FANCIULLI. General Manager 
1737 Broadway, New York 



-N- 







Sales Agents and Foreign Representatives 
for 

The Curtiss Aeroplane Co. 
Hammondsport, N. Y. 



A^ 




'^ •• >\^ N? ^^ ^° <=^c;^" ••■ •• 

.^ .-^ -y "*\^^ * -»• .V ^ •• .•■ •■ 



-iv .1^ fCw H^ 



4»i^4•4^4■^4>4••l•44•4•4•4••f4•4•4•4•W4•4'4•4•4•4••^4•4•4•4•4••^•I••^'^4•4•4••^4•4•4•4>4•4•4•4•4•4>4•4•i••^4••^4••^•^ 

In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 1 



QUEEN 



LEARN TO FLY 



AT THE 

QUEEN AEROPLANE COMPANY'S 
SCHOOL OF AVIATION 

which will open its Winter Quarters at 

LOS ANGELES, CAL, November 15th, 1911 

with Six Queen Aeroplanes, fitted with Gnome and Anzani Motors, 
under the personal management ot Ladis Lewkowicz, licensed pilot of 
The Aero Club of France, the only aviator who ever flew over New York 
Cit}' with a monoplane. CSchool to be conducted strictly on French 
principles, and contract being the same. 

Special Inducements: For the first twelve pupils enrolled a Com- 
plete Course will be given until license is granted, for only $250.00. 

The Queen Monoplane has flown at Nassau Boulevard, Belmont Park, At- 
lantic City,Chicago and Boston International Meets. For full particulars. 

Address: The QUEEN AEROPLANE COMPANY 

Attention of MR. LADIS LEWKOWICZ, c/o Aero Club of California. Los Angeles, Cal. 

Queen Aeroplane Company 

Manufactures a 

QUEEN MONOPLANE, fitted 
with 30 H. P. Anzani Engine 

QUEEN MONOPLANE, Racing Type 
fitted with 50 H. P. Gnome Engine 

QUEEN MONOPLANE, Passenger Carry, 
ingy fitted with 50 H. P. Gnome Engine 

Each machine is delivered njier a trial flight, and the purchaser 
is allowed half of the tuition fee on the price of the machine. 

For full particulars apply 

QUEEN AEROPLANE CO., 197th St. and Amsterdam Ave., N. Y. C. 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



chine hiah on the beach, coming- in at full 
speed, just touching the crests of the waves. 
Much to our surprise the boat was not in- 
jured in the least." 

PREVIOUS ATTEMPT GOOD 

On October 11, Lieut. T. G. EUyson with 
Lieut. Towers as passenger in the Navy's 
Curtiss, started from Annapolis, Md., to visit 
the fleet in Hampton Roads, Va., but trouble 
developed and a landing had to be made on 
the beach at Smith's Point, Va., at the mouth 
of the Potomac River, where they found a 
burnt bearing and had to tel-egraph for a 
boat to bring them back. During the trip 
thev flew about 500 feet high and kept close 
to the shore line. The distance covered was 
75 miles, in 1 hr. 20 m. 

HYDRO-'PLANE'S LONGEST FLIGHT 

In his flight from Minneapolis, Minn, to 
Rock Island, Oct. 17-21, Robinson set some 
new records in the aviation world, and, as 
his manager says, made "some history." He 
covered 314 miles in three flying days, al- 
ways flying directly over the river, in a 
machine in which it would be impossible to 
alight on land. He carried mail a greater 
distance than ever before in an aeroplane, 
Robinson carried 25 pounds of mail and he 
delivered numerous letters to Rock Island 
people from friends and relatives at Minne- 
apolis and St. Paul. 

The record of his flight was as follows: 
Left Lake Calhoun, Minneapolis, Tuesday 
morning at 9:11. 

Landed at Whitman, Minn, at 10:39, having 
covered 104 miles at rate of 76 miles an hour. 
In alighting in the river he struck a wing 
dam which tore a hole in one of his pon- 
toons. He was towed into Winona at 3 :45 
Tuesday afternoon, the 17th. 

Flight was resumed at 8:19 Thursday 
morning. 

Reached La Crosse at 8:45 making 24 miles 
in 26 minutes. 

Left La Crosse at 9:30 and passed Lansing 
at 10.30, 32 miles. 

Reached Prairie du Chien after short ex- 
hibition, at 1:02 p. m., 22 miles. 

Reached Guttenberg at 1:30 where he gave 
brief exhibition without alighting, 17 miles. 
Reached Dubuque 2 p. m. Thursday, 30 
miles. 

Left Dubuque at 9:18 a. m. Friday. 
Arrived at Bellevue at 9:40 a. m., 22 miles. 
Left Bellevue at 12 :15 p. m. 
Arrived at Clinton at 1:50 p. m., 33 miles. 
Left Clinton at 3:07 p. m. 
Appeared over tri-cities at 3:48 p. m. 
I.,anded at Rock Island at 3:52 p. m., Friday, 
30 miles. 

When Robinson was finally sighted up 
the river at 3 ,40, the Rock Island levee was 
thronged, and there was a goodly crowd on 
the Darenport shore. The machine came on 
at a high rate of speed. When he approached 
Moline, Robinson became somewhat confused 
as to the bridges, and he was not certain as 
to his place for landing. He circled over 
the river, and in a pretty descent, alighted 
on the watei- about 200 feet from the shore. 
He was greeted with a salute from the whis- 
tles of the ferry and other boats, and the 
cheers of the big crowd of spectators. 

At Rock Island Robinson decided to call 
off all of his i)lans and to abandon his flight 
at this point. The I'eason for the decision 
was that cities wliich originally pi-omised 
financial assistance in the undertaking took 
advantage of the fact that, because of wea- 
ther conditions, Rol)inson was unable to 
start his fliglit at Minneapolis on the date 
scheduled. A heavy storm prevented his 
starting on the day set, but the people of 
Minneapolis wei-e satisfied with the arrange- 
ments that were made, though tliey were 
the heaviest contributors toward tlie fund for 

168 



the flight. They gave Robinson a check for 
$3,000 before he started. 

SCHOOLS MOVE AVEST FOR WINTER 

As soon as cold ■weather arrives in earnest 
at tlie Hempstead Plains the Moisant school 
removes to California, opening in December. 
Another will be started up in Florida with 
two monoplanes and a biplane, while the 
California school will have five monoplanes 
and two biplanes. Pupils may select either 
type. "Captain Patrick," (Capt. P. Hamil- 
ton) and George M. Dyott have associated 
themselves with the IMoisant interests, fly- 
ing the two Deperdussin machines recently 
brought over by them. Capt. Hamilton is 
a British army officer attached to a company 
in India, now on leave of absence. 

The Curtiss training school is again loca- 
ted at San Diego and is now in operation 
under Lieut. J. W. McClaskey, late of the 
U. S. Marine Corps. A number of pupils 
went along from Hammondsport with the 
machines. Mr. Curtiss liimself will follow 
in November and takes up some further ex- 
periments which he has in mind. Lieut. 
McClaskey became acquainted with Mr. Cur- 
tiss on the Coast last year and this summer 
resigned from naval services to permanently 
connect himself with the Curtiss company. 
Having learned to fly and exhibited splen- 
did ability in many ways, Mr. Curtiss has 
made him official instructor of the school'. 
Tlie course costs $500 and one is not limited 
to any definite time. 

The Queen company opens its Los Angeles 
schools next month under the management 
of Ladis Lewkowicz, the man who flew over 
New York city and glided some four miles 
when his French air cooled engine got hot 
to landing in the state of New Jersey, 
crossing the Hudson River on his soaring 
way. 

The Queen school will be conducted on 
entirely French lines, and the terms of tuition 
are very reasonable. 

The course costs but $250, tuition continu- 
ing until a license is obtained. The deposit 
for breakages is $300. 

Ward Fisher, of Rochester, N. Y., is the 
business manager of the Curtiss school this 
season. The pupils this season are to be 
trained in flying the hydroaeroplane, as well 
as the standard Curtiss cross-country and 
military biplane. 

BLAZE BURNS OUT BENOIST. 

The Benoist school in St. Louis will con- 
tinue right along as though nothing Like 
a flre had happened. On October 19 the 
aeroplane factory of the Benoist Aircraft 
Co., at 6664 Delniar Blvd., St. Louis, burnt 
up, including three perfectly good aero- 
planes, tools, supplies and uncompleted ma- 
terial. Despite a total loss the company 
is on the job and going ahead witli tlie well 
known school, as we said before, "as though 
nothing had happened." So much for spirit! 
Aeroplanes make fairly good combustibles 
and the fire was just as progressive as Mr. 
Benoist himself, ■which is quite complimentary 
to the fire. 

R. O. Rubel, Jr., & Co., of Louisville, Ky., 
are preparing to open an outdoor scliool and 
has leased for five years a tract of land 
outside of that city. Frederick Morlan will 
be instructor. Three biplanes, three mono- 
planes, a wind wagon and a hydroplane con- 
stitute present equipment. The biplanes have 
Hall-Scott, Maximotor and Gray Eagle mo- 
tors. The monoplanes include a Bleriot, an 
imported Demoiselle and a copy. Tlie water 
machine is nearly completed and will be used 
on the Ohio River. Board may be secured 
on the grounds. The date of opening has 
been set for December 1st. A two-propeller 
biplane is being built by the Rubel company 
for Messrs. Huff and Maris, of Columbus. 



7'/)C cniistnirtioii of .\f,roxautics. and its con- 
icnls shoir 1o me that ynu are purveying only the 
best material. — T. Ciialmkus Fultox. 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 




Map of Rodgers" Flight. 



Miles 
Total Distance measured in 

straight lines between towns. . 3390 
Air line, New York-Pasadena. . 2540 

Stops 
Number of stops including start 

and end 68 

Miles 
Longest single flight, Stovall to 

Imperial Jet 133 

Longest day's journey, Kansas 

City to Vinita 174 

Days 
Days consumed (Sept. 17 — Nov. 5) 59 

Best Previous Records. 

Miles 
H. N. Atwood, St. Louis-New 

York 1155 

German Flight Circuit 1096 

British Circuit 1010 

European Circuit 1073 



KOD'iERS MAKES TR ANSCO>TINENT.\l. 
FLIGHT. 

IT is extremel-y unlikely that the flight of 
Calbraith P. Rodgers in his Model B 
Wright aeroplane will be beaten before 
the end of this year, nor perhaps for 
another year. He has tripled the longest 
continuous flight, or series of flights, yet 
made in the history of aviation in the world. 
He started from New York on September 
17 and finished at Pasadena, California, on 
the Pacific Coast, on November 5th. a dis- 
tance measured as the crow flies, from town 
to town, of 3390 miles. This has been meas- 
ured by AERONAUTICS on state maps and 
checked on a very large national map. The 
airline distance from New York to Pasadena 
is 2540 miles. 



As will be noted by the map, the most 
direct course ■was not taken. J'here were 
no doubt, particular reasons why certain 
towns were "made". The trip was conducted 
throughout as an advertising campaign of 
a new soft drink, at the same time having 
in niind the Hearst $50,000 prize for a flight 
across the country in thirty days. He figured 
he had until October 17 in which to complete 
the distance to be eligible for the prize but 
on that day he was at McAlester, Tex. A spe- 
cial car accompanied him, ■with a store of 
spare parts. The Mea Magneto was used throu?;hout. 

At the present time, the flight must be 
considered as a wonderful feat in many 
respects. Compared with an automobile trip, 
the latter has the better of it, for the coast- 
to-coast trip has been made in 15 days, with 
two crews. A record of some years back 
for a one-man trip was something like 41 
days, as we remember it. Two weeks total 
of Rodgers' tii"ne was spent waiting for bad 
■weather to pass over or in making repairs. 

From Texas Rodgers followed the line of 
the Soutliern Pacific railroad and climbed 
steadily from Del Rio on the Mexican bor- 
der through Alpine, Marfa, Sierra Blanca to 
El Paso, which towns run from 2000 to 4600 
feet above sea level. From here the alti- 
tudes gradually dropped until he got to 
Pasadena. 

Fowler Ou ^Vay East. 

At Tucson Rodgers met Robert G. Fowler 
on his way east. Fowler started his second 
attempt to' cross the country from Los Ange- 
les on October 18; also in a Wright Model B, 
fitted with a windshield. His previous at- 
tempt started from San Francisco on Sept. 
11, when he reached Colfax, Calif. By Nov. 
5 Fowler had gotten as far as Mastodon, N. M., 
about 760 miles. 

IVE\V CROSS COUNTRY RECORD. 

Fowler cai-ne within an ace of beating Gill's 
new duration record when, on October 29, 
he was up for 4 hours 26 minutes, unofficially, 
flying cross country miles from Yuma, 

Ariz, to Maricopa. 



169 



AERONAUTICS November, 1911 

THE Q U E E N - M A RT I N BIPLANE 




The Queen Martin Biplane. 



THE Queen Aeroplane Company's new 
hundred horse biplane-monoplane, built 
to designs of James V. Martin, has had 
its successful trials at the hands of 
Mr. Martin at the Nassau Boulevard aero- 
drome during- the month of October, and its 
entrance as a new machine into tlie world's 
catalogue of aeroplanes is accomplished. It 
is the second machine in this country to 
attempt the combination of standard mono- 
plane and biplane construction. This new 
machine is l-arger and, perhaps represents a 
more ambitious effort. It is capable of carry- 
ing passengers and has double the power. It 
is a most substantial machine and finely 
built. 

Main Plaues. The spread is 30 feet, with 
a chord of 5 ft. 1 in., single surfaced, with 
the ribs slipped in sewed pockets in the 
fabric. The planes are spaced 5 ft. apart, 
struts held in brazed steel sockets, double 
guyed with Roebling nickel plated wire. The 
front beam is lV^"xli4" except on the main 
section, under fuselage, which is 1% sq. 
section ash, the rear beam being 1%" :s.l\i", 
the edges merely rounded off not to cut the 
cloth. The ribs screw on top the front beam 
and to the under side of the rear one. There 
aie three sections to each plane. The ribs at 
the joining points are square box construc- 
tion intervening ribs solid rectangular in 
cross section. Near the center of the sections 
is a "T" rib of usual Parman type, while the 
very outermost ones at the extrem ties of the 
planes are of "L" design. Spruce is used for 
struts (except center section) and small ribs; 
the box ribs are elm. The cloth is tacked on, 
with strips of Vz round rattan. Section are 
laced. 

Over the top of the rear beam is a strip 
of cloth sewed to the fabric of the planes to 
house the rear beam. The sections are joined 
by lengths of square steel tubing fitting over 
the ends of the beams and bolted. The box 
ribs to real- of rear beam consists of but 
the lower member, tapered. The wliole re- 
maining surface back of the beam is more or 
le.s.s flexible. A wire runs along the rear edge 
in a pocket of the cloth. 



Fiiselag-C', This is in two sections, joined 
by square steel sleeves. The longitudinal 
members in the front half are ash; in the rear 
half elm; the struts are spruce. Tlie front 
end curves upward to get the propeller axis 
nearer the center between the planes. The 
joining of the longitudinal members and ver- 
tical and horizontal struts is by steel angle 
plates bolted with eye-bolts, into which the 
diagonal guys hook in the usual mannei'. 
tightened by Bleriot-type turnbuckles. The 
operator sits in the fuselage just over the 
trailing edge of the plane. Under his seat 
is a big supplementary gasolene tank from 
which fuel is pumped to the gravity tank 
just in front of him. The operator has to 
look over the tank to see straight forward, 
as he would in a monoplane. 

Control. Positive acting ailerons hinged 
to the rear upper beam are employed for 
preserving lateral stability through the gate 
control introduced by the Burgess compmy. 
Either hand may be used to rest the other. 
A sideways movement pulls one aileron 
down and lifts the other by means of a com- 
pensating wire (connecting ailerons over top 
of upper plane through 2 aluminum pulleys 
and along the leading edge). The elevator 
is in two parts and each half operates in 
conjunction with the ailerons on the same 
side, though in the proportion of but one to 
six. The tiilerons cables have a cert- in :'m'iunt 
of slack to avoid any turning movement of 
the aeroplane or to avoid unequal pressures 
on tlie ailerons. The vertical members of 
this gate control are universally pivoted to 
allow for use also as a means of working 
the elevator as an elevator pure and simple. 

Klevator. Hinged to the rear edge of a 
perfectly flat fixed surface, semi-circular in 
sh:'pe. are the 2 elevators. These -'re <nier-ited 
simultaneously by a fore and aft motion of 
the gate control through crossed cables. The 
elevators themselves consist of semi-circu- 
lar flat surfaces, double surfaced, separated 
by the fuselage. 

Itiidder. The rudder, of course, double sur- 
faced, is operated by a foot yoke. The rud- 
der cable run outside the fuselage in guides 
on the struts. 



170 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



This machine has inherent stability and in 
ordinary weather he does not use the ailerons 
for lateral stability. And by switching off 
engine the machine assumes its gliding angle 
of about 5 degrees. It is only necessary to 
apply full power and machine climbs very 
rapid. This of course controls the longitudi- 
nal stability. 



for auxiliary air and throttle. Here Bowden 
wire is used. 

Ruuuing' Gear. Long and stout ash skids 
are used in combination with the usual rub- 
bered suspended twin wheels with stay tubes. 
The axles, however, are reinforced by tubes of 
larger diameter sweated over. The tail is 
supported by an hickory skid pivotally 




Power Plant. Fourteen cylinder, 100 h.p. 
Gnome, driving a Gibson propeller 8 ft. 3 in. 
diameter, 7 ft. 6 in. pitch. A large combina- 
tion oil and gas tank divided fore and att 
is just in front of the aviator. On one side 
is the gas and on the other the castor oil. 
In a vertical recess at the rear are two glass 
gauges to show the level of the oil and gas. 
At the right hand is a pump which draws 
the gas from the auxiliary tank under the 
seat and forces it into the gravity tank. 
To the left are two short circuit switches 
to shut off either set of seven cylinders. At 
the right hand are two levers on sectors 



mounted at the middle, with rubber shock 
absorbers at the top. 

Number 10 Am. gauge Roebling wire is 
used in the main section and where the 
heavy strains are. -, , , 

Miscellaneous. The main cell is double 
wired throughout each wire with turnbuckles. 
All control wires are Roebling stranded cable. 
The weight is 950 lbs. with oil and gas. Fuel 
is carried sufficient for Ave hours' flying. 
The machine is stated to fly at no angle of 
incidence, depending for its lift entirely on 
camber of the surfaces, which is very slight — 
about 21/2 inches. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

THE SECOND BOYS' BOOK OF MODEL 
AEROPLANES, by Francis A. Collins. 12mo., 
267 pp., cloth, handsomely iUustrated, $1.20 
net, The Century Co. That model flying is 
more indulged in than actual aeroplane fly- 
ing will be the opinion of the laity after 
reading this book. There are photographs 
and scale drawings of successful .long dis- 
tance models built by American men and boys. 
There is particular interest in reading about 
the accomplishments of one's own acquain- 
tances seen through the eyes of another. The 
builders of manv of the models described are 
known personally to hundreds of model en- 
thusiasts. 

LE VOL DES OISEAUX, by Maurice Gaudil- 
lot, published by Gauthier Villars Imprimeur 
T>ibrairie, Paris. 8vo., paper, 30pp., illustra- 



ted bv charts and diagrams. The author ad- 
vances a new theory of dynamic air pres- 
sure, especially with reference to inckned 
plants and beating wings, assuming that 
the impact of the air sets up a series of 
waves of compression and rarefaction sim- 
iliar to sound waves and like them having a 
velocitv of 340 m. p. s. Using this quan- 
tity in 'a formula he obtains a pressure many 
times greater than that in accepted formu- 
lae He also uses a coefficient to represent 
the efflciencv under any given conditions as 
compared with the ideal value obtained in the 
above mentioned formula; this coefficient be- 
ing greater where the air next to the surface 
is continuously renewed, as in the case ot a 
plane inclined at a small angle. Whil« it 
is difficult to prove experimentally such a 
theory, the author's exposition of it is worthy 
attention. 



171 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



MmriN BIPLfiNE 

DL5IGNED BY J/iS. V M/^RTIN 
DRam BY CHflS.E.MULLER 




172 



SCAt.E OrAWI 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 




173 



AERONAUTICS 

NEWS IN 



November, 19 



GENER AL 




MANIFACTURERS ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Seiberl'ing-, head of the Goodyear com- 
pany, has consented to be second vice presi- 
dent of the Aeronautical Manufacturers' As- 
sociation, which has formed recently. Mem- 
bership in this body will be a very valuable 
asset before long and it is urged upon re- 
putable concerns that they apply and assist 
in the work contemplated. Communications 
should be addressed to the association at the 
office of the Secretary, F. D. Wood, 1737 
Broadway, New York. 

An endeavor is being made to conduct tests 
of wood, fabric and other materials marketed 
by members for the purpose of aiding the 
development of more suitable parts, standard- 
ization, etc. It is hoped that it will be possi- 
ble to issue a more or less regular bulletin 
with the results of experiments and tests. 



stead For one hour and seventeen minutes 
he kept on flying steadily, at times reaching 
an altitude of 7,000 feet. He gave his new 
monoplane a complete trial test in every 
manner, dipping, volplaning, etc. ., ^ , , 

When at last he landed it was pitch dark. 
He said that never before had he flown an 
aeroplane for long duration on its trial flight, 
and that usually when trying a new machine, 
he was obliged to come down after a few 
minutes flying to adjust one thing or an- 
other, but that everything worked so per- 
fectly that he could not prevail upon himself 
to come down sooner than he was actually 
forced to do so by the complete darkness. 

He used Gnome engine and Gibson propeller. 

DE KOR FLIES HOUR. 

Fred De Kor, of Los Angeles, who recently 
purchased a biplane from Glen H. Martin of 
Santa Ana, Cal., has been making long cross- 
countrv trips, a thing of almost daily oc- 
currence in the vicinity of Los Angeles and 
Santa Ana, flying over the towns and out to 
the ocean over the beaches and leturning, 
one flight being of one hour and five minutes 
duration. He recently flew from the Martin 
school grounds at Santa Ana to the Domin- 
guez Aviation Field, a distance of about 35 
miles in 55 minutes, against a strong wind, 
which accounts for the slow time. 

Having a date at Anacheim, a town about 
the same distance away De Kor wings his 




Ladis Lewkowicz in' his Queen at Nassau. 



l.EVVKOVVICy- KI-JES OVER HOUR. 

On October 25tli, Ladis Lewkowicz started 
from the Nassau Loulevard Aerodiome to try 
his Queen Monoplane and made a flight which 
was one "f the best ever seen on Ijong 
Island. Taking his machine out of the hangar 
at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, he first tried 
his engine to see how it worked, and finding 
that everything was satisfactory he began 
his flight. Following his customary proce- 
dure, he climbed upward immediately, and 
the first circle he made of the aerodrome saw 
him at an altitude of 3,500 feet. Then he 
headed for Belmont Park. Coming back he 
passed over the Nassau Boulevard Aerodrome 
and continued on over to Mineola. On his 
return from Mineola he flew all over that 
section of Long Island, going to Jamaica 
and back, and thence to Hicksville and Hemp- 



way over to fill it, making a high flight, th- 
sensation of looking down on the cloud 
being a novel and beautiful sight, he claimt 
The machine used, a modified Curtisa typf 
is almost a duplicate of the one Martin i 
now using in the middle west, tho' somewha 
heavier; extensions on the upper plane ar 
supported by tubing diagonals, and tubin 
stays are used between all the struts, in 
outriggers of quite large sized bamboo ar 
very rigid, and the writer recommends thei 
adoption in lieu of the smaller size generall 
used, the latter being so flimsy that unleE 
a large number of wires and struts are ai 
tached, proper strength is not obtained an 
"trueing-up" is a difficult matter. An ff 
cylinder Hall-Scott is giving excellent ref 
siilts. 



174 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



WRIGHT AND OGILVIE GLIDING. 

During October Messrs. Orville Wright and 
Alec. Ogilvie, the English Wright flyer, have 
been at the old Wright gliding camp near 
Kitty Hawk, N. C, experimenting with a 
glider made up of planes very much the size 
of the "Baby" Wright, with a rear rudder 
from this machine. 




The Wright Glider in North Cakolina. 

A single seat is provided, very low skids, 
usual control. Various experiments were 
made. The rudder surface was altered, a 
vertical keel placed in front of the machine 
and a bag of sand attached way out in front 
on the end of a pole. One flight is. reported 
of 9 minutes in a gale of wind. 

FLIE.S WITH SEARCHLIGHT 

The two-place Deperdussin monoplane of 
Messrs. Dyott and Hamilton has flown in 
the pitch dark, by the aid of a searchlight 
fastened to the front distance rod which 
separates the two skids. A Vesta lamp 
was used in connection with a storage bat- 
tery of the usual' automobile type, weighing 
about 34 pounds. The light was set at a 
proper angle to show the ground when the 
machine is slanted down in landing and a 
switch was placed in front of the passenger, 
who w^as Captain Hamilton. The battery 
was stored under the passenger's seat. The 
sight of an enorinous light up in the air, 
the aeroplane unseen and its motor unheard, 
was weird. Two fights were made about 
the aerodrome near Garden City, success- 
ful landing being made each time. 

The last week of October, in which this 
flight occurred, was employed in packing up 
preparatory for the trip to Mexico. The pas- 



senger machine was flown back and forth 
from Nassau Boulevard to Hempstead and 
to Mineola gathering up spare parts and 
luggage which were all carried on the ma- 
chine to the assembling point at Mineola. 

At some date in the probable near future 
president Madero, of Mexico, will have his- 
inauguration. Miss Moisant, Miss Quimby, 
Houpert, Dyott and Captain "Patrick" will 
participate in a meeting to be held at that 
time for prizes totalling $100,000. From here 
other cities will be visited, such as Guada- 
lajara, which already has posted $^5,000. Last 
year flights were made by Moisant aviators 
at very high altitudes, Garros' flight reach- 
ing the highest altitude (above sea level) 
ever flown by an aeroplane up to that time 
12,789 feet. 

The Mexican government has purchased six 
Moisant monoplanes for its military avia- 
tion schools which is to be started. After 
Mexico, a tour of Central American coun- 
tries will be made by the Moisant aviators. 

NEAV AMERICAN ENDURANCE RECORD. 

Howard W. Gill, in a Wright biplane, made 
the new American duration record of 4 hrs. 
16 min. 35 sec, just beating the American 
record recently made by the late St. Croix 
Johnstone of 4 hrs. 1 min., during the joint 
meet of the Wright Company and the Pioneer 
Aviation Co. at St. Louis, Oct. 19. 

Mail carrying was the feature of the meet, 
Walter Brookins flying almost daily in very 
windy weather with the sacks from Kinloch 
to Fairgrounds Park. 

P. O. Parmalee with a Wright EX model 
did the altitude work, going up to 4,500 feet. 

George W. Beatty. who is remaining at St. 
Louis doing school and passenger -work, 
took up many people. The other fliers in- 
cluding, Albert Elton, Andrew Drew, Clifford 
Turpin, A. B. Lambert, all Wright flyers: W. 
H. Robinson, H. F. Kearney, Hill, Beachey, 
John D. Cooper, two Benoist flyers and Dr. 
H. W. Walden with his original monoplane. 

KANSAS STARTS AERIAL SIGNS. 

G. S. Bennett of the Kansas City Aviation 
School has submitted a recommendation to 
the Kansas City Aero. Club, which has merit. 

Mr. Bennett's plan is to have the United 
States divided into sections or zones and 
marked so as to enable an aviator to locate 
himself. For illustration, the Eastern coast 
fis fai- w^est as Buffalo should be kno'wni as 
Section "A"; from Buffalo to Chicago and 
from Canada to the Gulf to be the Section 
"B"; the territory west of the river as far 
as Denver and the mountains should be 
Section "C"; and the Paciflc coast would be 
Section "D". Let it be the work of the many 
aero clubs and the publicity clubs of all the 
larger cities to get out a series of signs 
on the large buildings, on the side of a 
mountain, on a hill, so that an aviator in 
the air could see where he was and how 
far from the city. For illustration, Kansas 
City would be "CI" as this city is on the 
main thoroughfare between the East and 
the West, and when an aviator ■would reach 
a zone within 50 miles of this city he ■would 
see on the top of a barn, on the side of a 
bluff or on the top of some flat building a 
large white arro'w pointing to a local field. 

A piece of white oil cloth 6 foot wide and 
60 foot long can be seen and read from 
1000 feet in the air. 

This clotli should be cut to represent an 
arrow and marked with black letters at least 
five foot in height, the district, station num- 
ber, direction and the registered number of 
miles. For example a sign like this 50 miles 
East of Kansas City should read "CI West 50" 
and the aviator would know by consulting 
his chart that Kansas City was 50 miles west 
and he was in the state of Missouri, where 
they show you. 

All towns, all states look alike to the 
aviator who is 1000 feet in the air, and this 
system will save a lot of time and cuss 
words to the aviator if he is instructed where 
he can find a safe landing ground and ga.so- 
lene. 



17.0 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



To start this light house or sign board 
plan the Kansas Aero Club of Overland Park 
and the Training School will this winter 
install these signs on barns and sheds within 
50 miles of this city, so that next season 
all aviators will be guided to a public hangar 
and landing ground. 



sistance in their same relation. This brings 
the radiator tops below the water jackets 
and necessitates the use of the peculiar 
shaped spouts or fillers shown in the photo, 
which bring the water' to the same level as 
in water jackets. 




The Hamilton Monoplane. 



THE J. \V. H.VMILTON BLERIOT TYPE. 

J. W. Hamilton's Bleriot No. 11 type mono- 
plane, remirl-cable not only for its fidelity 
to the original, but for its workmanlike con- 
struction, and attention paid to detail, has 
made a number of successful flights at Palo 
Alto. 

General dimensions are practically identical 
with the Bleriot No. 11. Mr. Hamilton's 
aini has been to construct a machine as 
nearly like the original as possible and the 
result is a machine he can well be proud of, 
both in construction and necessary flying 
qualities; as we have seen a number of ma- 
chines very neatly put together, which will 
no.t fly. 

The attention of the critical observer is 
first drawn to the twin radiators which 
are placed in front of the landing frame on 
either side and flush with the front cylin- 
der of the engine. A line di-awn through 
their centers bisects the crank shaft, tlius 
keeping the centers of effort and head re- 



The radiators are swung by steel straps 
from the upper longitudinal members, which 
project about an inch beyond the upper 
main cross piece they are also fastened at 
their centers, to engine base and main knee 
uprights. The El Aroo radiators being di- 
rectly in the propeller draft effectually cool 
the engine. A single radiator of the same 
size has now been put on and cools all right. 
This would naturally cut down head re- 
sistance, which is quite appreciable, consid- 
ering that much of the area in the propel- 
ler draft is now obstructed by the radiators. 
Of course, propeller thrust near the hub is 
comparatively small, but it must have its 
effect upon the speed. 

The center of tlirust, is somewhat lower 
than in the Gnome or Anzani Bleriot, owing 
to the vertical engine used, but as this is 
tail lifting type it is not entirely a bad fea- 
ture, outside of the fact that it gives less 
ground clearance for the propeller. The four 
longitudinal members of the fuselage are 



176 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 



of spruce of a little larger section than the 
original with taper towards the rear, hav- 
ins: the same relation: considering the weak- 
ness due to the number of holes necessary 
for the "U" bolts and the unusually severe 
strains encountered during noviate trials, 
this is a good feature. A very good addi- 
tion is a truss under the lower cross mem- 
ber of the landing frame. 

The slight additional weight and labor 
beins insignificant compared to the security 
obt;une;(. A strp of 1 16 x 1 inch flat steel 
similar to the diagonals, passes under two 
iDlocks, on the under side of the lower cross 
numbers whi-rh aie set directly beneath 
the main wooden upright or knee pieces. It 
is riveted at each end to oval steel plates 



which encircle the main tubing uprights 
underneath the lower cross member; to the 
other end of the oval plate are bolted the 
two steel ribbons or front wing guys. 

Instead of tubing usual in the links con- 
necting the wheels to the lower swivel collar 
1/4" xl" steel is used, bent to the proper 
curves. This seems a bit heavy and unneces- 
sary as tubing similar to the links connect- 
ing the wheels and upper sliding collars 
should do. Apropos of collars, Mr. Hamilton 
has made both stationary and sliding collars 
of steel instead of nlumirum or McAdamite, 
which is not only more dependable but al- 
most as light. The cost however is some- 
what greater, owing to the machine work. 
Bronze is now used for sliding collars. 




1. SnOWINkJ M.^IN SURFACES OF STANDARD CuRTISS 
AEROPLANE LOADED WITH 900 LBS. OF GR.WEL. SUR- 
FACES ARE UPSIDE DOWN AND SUPPORTED FROM THE 
ENGINt BED ON TWO HORSES. ThIS LOAD IS SOME- 
what in excess of the normal load in flight. 

2. Shows an instrument for measuring the 
tension of the wires. 

3. Shows regular panel of surface supported 

AT EACH corner, SAME POIN^- AT WHICH IT IS AT- 
tached to the posts and guy wires when assembled 
in the aeroplane. 

4. Shows this panel loaded with 300 lbs. of 
gravel without any noticeable change in its form. 

The NORMAL LOAD ON THE SURFACE IS 75 LBS. IN 
FLIGHT. 



The STRAIN ON THE DIAGONAL WIRE IN THE END 
PANEL REGISTERED 90 LBS. ThIS WIRE, OR CABLE, HAS 
A TENSILE STRENGTH OF 600 LBS. 

The SECOND panel showed a strain on the 

CABLE OF 176 LBS. ThERE ARE TWO OF THESE CABLES, 
EACH CAPABLE OF HOLDING 600 LBS. 

The ENGINE SECTION SHOWED 192 LBS. ON THE DIAG- 
onal wiring, of which there are two, and the 
same on the wire. which if the machine were 
completely assembled, would be from the skid to 
the bottom of the first post out. 

When the machine is assembled, the steel tube 

BRACING in the ENGINE SECTION IS SUFFICIENTLY 
STRONG TO SUPPORT SEVERAL THOUSAND POUNDS. 



177 



AERONAUTICS 




The Loose Biplane 



Controli is identical with the orig-inal, the 
bell or "cloche," is of McAdamite with a 
tubing post, steel universal joint and 8 wood- 
en wheel. The warping devices is well made, 
the lever of one eight inch stock. Warping 
pulleys are turned out of steel also, as is the 
free pulley for the inside guys, steel disks at 
either end of warping ensemble are riveted 
to the four tubes comprising the under mast. 
A wooden foot lever operates the rudder. A 
cast aluminum lever is fastened to the tubing 
of the rear elevator. 

Steel springs 1 14 inch give the proper 
resiliency and limit of sidewise play of the 
wheels, while four vertical rubbers on each 
side carry the weight and take vertical 
shocks. They are of pure rubber one inch 
round, about 12 inches long normally length- 
ening out under load to about eighteen inches. 
The sliding collais are about one inch wide 
but should be twice this, as unless made a 
very tight fit on main post, the play comes on 
the two clamps holding the upright links 
rigid. These latter clamps are not cast, being 
steel as per sketch. The distance rod between 
wheels is of steel tubing instead of wood 
with a neat ball and socket joint at each 
end. The front beams or wing bars are in- 
serted in » tube on the fuselage as usual, but 
rear beams are bolted directly to ash up- 
rights strut dispensing with the elaborate 
box or casting of aluminum. This is a simple 
and efficient method, when all parts are of 
proper size and reinforced with steel plates 
as on this machine. The tires are Goodvears. 

The rear skid is of 1" rattan fastened to 
tuf;elage with wire wrapping and then taped. 

The Planes have 6' 8" chord, camper 4 V, " 
very neatly made. Ribs of spruce are of I 
beam cross section. Beams are of ash. Good- 



year covering. 3/32" Cable is used for top 
guys and warping; solid wire for fuselage. 

A 40-60 Elbridge Aero Special is set in the 
fuselage ingeniously, taking into account the 
small compass of fuselage the height of the 
engine and the danger of a too low centre 
of thrust and propeller clearance from the 
ground. A length of angle iron is bolted at 
sides to center uprights. To angles on this 
are bolted the wooden engine bearers; 2x3 
pine, by the way, instead of heavy ash, oak 
or lamination. 

At the rear engine is suspended directly 
from tubing socket that holds the wing for 
ends. The thrust is taken by two diagonal 
tubes running from rear of engine bed to 
front uprights, and, of course, by the front 
angle iron. 

The carburetor is a G. & A., Bosch Magneto. 
Weight about 550 lbs. with fuel and water. 
Mr. Hamilton has made some very pretty 
flights straight away, with under "200 lbs. 
thrust, which is decidedly complimentary to 
both his constructive and flving ability. 

CLEVE T. SHAFFER. 

FLIES AVITH SMALL, POAVEIl 

The pictures show George I^oose. a San 
Franciscan aviator, flying his biplane with a 
25 horsepower two cylinder motor of local 
make. That so large a machine of this char- 
acter should fly with an engine of so little 
power is very creditable. Steel tubing has 
been used for the skid struts and one notices 
a novel system of bracing. During the San 
Francisco meet Loose tried out a new ma- 
chine and rather tlian run into the crowd 
which had encroached upon the course, de- 
liberately wrecked the aeroplane, with great 
peril to himself. 



178 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 I 




Lieut. Scott Preparing for a Bomb-Dropping 



SCOTT IIU.HIt DKOPPER TRIALS. 

A few unofficial trials made by Lieut. R. E. 
Scott at Washington of his bomb dropping- 
device during' the month of October proved 
fairly successful. It was impossible to get up 
to an altitude of more than 300 feet on ac- 
count of tlie weight of Scott, principally, and 



his bombs. According to his tables with 
which projectiles may be dropped with almost 
theoretically perfect accuracy — as perfect as 
gun flre — the element of possible inaccuracy 
is greater at such low altitudes. The short 
space of time g-iven the operator to consult 
his table and set his telescope at the correct 




The Scott Bomb Dropper. 
179 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 



;ingle at such an altitude is not sufficient to 
obtain from tlie device the results of which 
it should be capable. A thousand feet eleva- 
tion is the lowest at which it should be 
worked. Even at the 300-foot height, a 
square of canvas some four or five feet 
square used as a targ-et, the bombs came 
within ten feet of it. 

The trials were very much hurried and no 
great preparations were made. The opera- 
tor had to lie down on the Army's Wright 
machine between the aviator and the engine. 
In this crowded space he was hampered in 
the necessary movements for the working; of 
the device. A very full description of the 
apparatus was g-iven in the Aug-ust issue. 

NEW PILOTS. 

The following' are new aeroplane pilots 
whose certificates were g-ranted by the Aero 
Club of America on October 18: 

64 Jesse Seligman (Moisant), Mineola, Sept. 24. 

65 Harold Kant^per (Moisant), Mineola, Sept. 6. 

66 Mortimer F. Bates (Moisant), Mineola, Oct. 15. 

67 Capt. George W. McKay (Moisant), 

Mineola, Oct. 15. 

68 Phillips Ward Page (Wrig-ht), Oct. 10, 

Nassau Boulevard 

69 Clifford L. Webster (Wrig-ht), Oct. 10, 

Nassau Boulevard 

70 Claude Couturier (Wright), Nassau 

Boulevard 
Spherical baUoon certificate 43 has been 
granted to Major Samuel Reber. 

71 Beryl J. Williams (Curtiss Type), Aug. 26, 

Los Angeles^ Calif. 

72 Feed. De Kor (Curtiss Type), Oct. 14, 

Santa Ana^ Calif. 

73 Max T. Lillie (Wright Type), Oct. 28, 

St. Louis. 

74 Dr. II. W. Walden (Walden Monoplane), 

Sep. 22, Mineola^ N. y. 



!Ne^v Headyuarters for the I. O. C System. 

The International Oxygen Company has 
removed its New York headquarters from 
68 Nassau Street to 115 Broadway, where in- 
creased facilities have been secured for tran- 
sacting' its steadily g-rowing- business. 

The new location is especially well fitted 
for the company's needs and easy of access 
for parties coming into New York City who 
may want to investigate the methods of the 
I. O. C. system of oxygen and hydrogen 
manufacture for commercial purposes. 

The success of the I. O. C. system, since its 
introduction into this country a few months 
ago would indicate a continued increase in 
the company's business with still greater 
accommodations in the near future. 



From the Hall-Scott Factory. 

The Hall-Scott Company find business 
brisk, and are extremely busy at their 
factory. Their pay roll shows that they are 
now employing nearly forty men, and they 
have been running overtime for the past 
few months, and it looks as if they -would 
continue to do so for the next few months 
to come. 

This Company is now putting on the mar- 
ket a laminated propeller of selected mahog- 
any, and is finding a ready sale for it. It 
is hand polished and brought to a higher 
finish than even the French blades. To pro- 
tect propellers in shipment they are nicely 
fitted to a shipping box provided with hinged 
cover, lock and keys, and felt stockings are 
pulled over the ends of blades before boxing. 
These blades, of not over 8' diameter, boxed 
ready for shipment, sell for $75.00 f.o.b. 
San Francisco. The Company is also con- 
tinuing with their spruce blades, made up 
from the same templates, but not brought to 
such a high finish. These blades, crated 
for shipment are now selling for $50.00, 
f.o.b. San Francisco. 




A French Wright with Renault Motor. 
180 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 




Japanese Aviation "Fans." 



\E\V COMPANIES. 

Hudson Aviation Co., Cleveland. O., $5,000; 
Mark A. Copeland, Jos. A. Schlitz, W. S. 
Mitchell, G. B. Kennerdell, W. A. Greenland. 

Aipei-u-^ n iVieuiJOSt Aeioplane Co., 32 Lib- 
erty St., New York. Exclusive selling' rights 
for United States. Capital $50,000. Allan A. 
Ryan. I. V. McGlone, Kenneth R. Howard, M. 
F. Greggs, John Nordhouse. 

Hamilton Aeroiilane Co., Redlands, Calif., 
$25,000; W. G. T. Hamilton, George E. Henrv 
and J. W. Neblett. 

Froberg- Aeroplane Co., Richmond, Calif. 
$75,000. J. R. Fi-oberg, J. H. Edelen, J. R. 
Jones, B. E. Farrell, Frank W. Smith. 

Temple (Tex.), Aero Club. $5,000. Will 
buy an aeroplane to give flights to advertise 
that city. 

Western Aeroplane Co., Chicago, $1,200; J. 
J. Douglas, Chas. T. Bushong and AdoLph 
Katz. 

Sather-Phillips Aeroplane Co., Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn.. $10,000; G. J. Sather, Paul 
Andress, J. E. Gross and others. 

Wilson Aero Co., Buffalo, N. Y., $100,000; 
John A. Wilson, Geo. J. Rohmer and John P. 
Abbott. 

The Eagle Aerial Navigation Company, San 
Dieg-o, Cal. Capital, $50,000. Incorporators, 
Charle« R. Mitchell, Carl Johnson, Bertie 
Mitchell. 

Mid-West Aviation Company, Sioux Falls, 
la., to manufacture aeroplanes, ice-boats and 
tools. Capital, $25,000. 

Security Aircraft Company, Shreveport, La., 
to manufacture aircraft. Capital, $250,000. 
Incorporators, Dr. C. W. Lawrence, B. Cannon, 
J. J. Hudson, T. D. Coupland, Otis Williams' 
and E. M. Bramlette Company was oi-ga,niz.ed 
in Longview, Tex., but wall Oi.^. ^ »ii 
Shreveport. 

The Dean Manufacturing Company secured 
permission from the secretary of the State of 
Ohio, on October 5, to increase its capitaliza- 
tion from $100,000 to $150,000, in order to de- 
velop aeronautical motors. 



Timothy L. Woodruff, Allan Ryan, Chicago 
Aero Club and all other meet promoters 
would find a better field in Japan than in 
America. The picture shows part of the 
crowd which paid 400,000 admissions to see 
Captain Thomas S. Baldwin. "Bud" Mars and 
Tod Shriver fly at Osaka, Japan. The thought 
of this is enough to drive a fair manager to 
distraction, or destruction, w^hichever is cor- 
rect. If only a fortieth this number had paid 
to see the "scientific experiments" on Sundays 
Lnd the common, or garden, variety of flying 
on weekdays at the Nassau Meet what an 
encouragement it would have been to the 
Honorable Mr. Woodruff. 



The Wolvei-ine Aeronautic Co., of Albion, 
Mich., has completed a biplane for the Chi- 
nese revolutionary party. It is 30 ft. double 
surface, desi.gned to be taken from crate and 
set up for two passengers in two hours. At 
present the outfit includes both a Gray Eagle 
and a Roberts motor. A representative of 
the revolutionary party visited the East re- 
cently and was given a demonstration at the 
Hempstead fields by another concern and ap- 
parently the idea of using aeroplanes was 
given up at the time. 



The Curtiss aviator Charles F. Walsh who 
has been flying in the Territory of New 
Mexico for the past tvv^o weeks, has estab- 
lished a record by flying at Raton, New 
Mexico, which is situated at an altitude of 
7,000 feet above sea level. Heretofore avia- 
tors have had difficulty in flying at places 
where the altitude was more than 6,000 
feet because of the very rare atmosphere 
und the peculiarly dry climate. He ascended 
to a height of 1,500 feet above the earth. 



Nils Nelson, Bar Harbor, Me., has made a 
Curtiss-copy 'plane and equipped it with a 
Maximotor engine and is now flying it around 
his home town. 



181 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 




Cui.LEGE Park fkom the Army Aeroplane. 



BAIiliOON ASCK.XSIOIVS. 

Pittsfleld — A. Leo Stevens, W. D. Munn and 
Miss Mary Van Rensimer to Hawlev, Mass. 

Pittsfleld, Oct. 14. Jay B. Benton, H. H. 
Clayton and Prank Bowker in the "Boston" 
to Hart''ord, Ct. Dur. 2 hr. 

Salt Lake City, Sep. 2U. R. W. Campbell, 
and J. Prank Judge in the Salt Lake Aero 
Clubs new balloon "Salt Lake City" to Heber 
City, being up for 4 hrs. 15 min. 

Pittsfleld, Oct. 17. Wm. Van Sleet and 
Walter Richardson in the "Pittsfleld" to 
Glens Falls, N. Y. Dur. 3 Vs hrs.; dist. 64 
miles. 

Fort Omaha, Nebr., Oct. 20 Capt. Chas. 
De P. Chandler, U.S.A., took Major Samuel 
Reber and Major Russell of the Signal Corps 
up for four trips in the Signal Corps' balloon. 
After that. Major Reber made one ascent 
alone and has now completed requirements 
for pilot certificate. 

One other ascent was made this year in 
the "Signal Corps No. 11" (35,000 ft.), on 
May 15th, Captain Chandler and four other 
officers, landing neai- Woodbine, Iowa, a dis- 
tance of 34 miles. Up 50 minutes. Hydrogen 
gas is used in the Signal Corps balloons. 

ARMY DIRIGIBLE UP. 

Thi-ee ascents were also made by Captain 
Chandler in the Government Dirigible No. 1 
who returned to the College Park aviation 
school on October 20. 

Salt Lake, Oct. 13. R. N. Campbell, W. H. 
Young and Lieut. N. B. Green in the "Salt 
Lake City" to near Echo, Utah. Up 4 hrs. 
15 min. greatest attitude 14,160 feet "above 
sea level." 

Los Angeles, Oct. 10th. Balloon "Peoria" 
from Luna Park, TjOS Angeles, with Chas. 
B. Saundei-s and Albert Carter. Highest ele- 
vation 7,800 feet. Landed at 4.20 P. M. in 
buckthorn bi-ush in mountains back of 
Soldiers Home where Saunders got out and 



putting in ballast to make up for his weight. 
Carter rode the balloon across the mountains 
landing in San Fernando valley near Van 
Nuys an hour later. 

H()lmesl)urg. Pa., Nov. 4. A. T. Atherholt, 
P. T. Sharpless and H. L. Hess in the balloon 
of tiie Pennsylvania Aero Club to New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. Duration 4 hrs. They passed 
over the Princeton-Harvard football game, 
.lames H. Hare, piloted by Oscar Brindley 
in Collier's Wright flew over the game and 
photographed it from aloft. 

Pittsfleld, Mass., Oct. 23. Ernest G. 
Schmolck, Emile Dubonnet, Mme. Dubonnet 
and Mile. Vrasdi to Springfield in a two-hour 
trip. 

U. S. PATENTS ISSUED 

(Continued from page 1S8) 

Carl E. Ritter, Petaluma. Calif., 1,006,282, Oct. 
17, 1911. HELICOPTER. 

Samuel S. Yarrington, Wilmington, Del., 1,006,- 
335, Oct. 17, 1911. Combination AERO- 
PLANE and HELICOPTER with GYROS- 
COPE attachment. 

Peter Peterson, San Francisco, Calif., 1,006.592. 
Oct. 24, 1911. Aeroplane with TILTABLE 
PLANES. 

H. M. Benson, Crescent, Nev., 1,006,624. Oct. 24, 
1911. Combination AEROPLANE and BAL- 
LOON. 

Thomas F. Dunn, New York N. Y., 1,006,734, 
Oct. 24, 1911. DIRIGIBLE. 

Jame.s Havton. Salt Lake City, Utah, 1,006,846, 
Oct. 24, 1911. AEROPLANE with PLANES 
capable of ROTATION. 

Samuel B. McHenry. Chicago, IlKs., 1006,967, 
Oct. 24, 1911. PROPELLING MECHANISM. 

Robert E. Miller. Pittsburgh. Pa., 1.006.969, 
Oct. 24. 1911. Filed Mar. 3. 1911. CONTROL 
SYSTEM for AEROPL.VNES. 

Thomas F. Dunn. New York, N. Y., 1,006.998, 
Oct. 24, 1911. DIRIGIBLE. 



182 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 



Words Cannot Exprkss What I Woi lo Like to Say 

TO Those Who Failed to Re\d My Letter 

Opposite Page 13> of the October Number. 

— E. L. JONES, Editor. 




WOTC^ 



AERONAUTICS PRESS, inc. 

250 We.1 S4th St., New York 



Cable: Aeronautic. New York 

'Phone 4833 Columbus 

A. V. JONES, Pres't — — E. L. JONES, Treas'r-Sec'y 

ERNEST L, JONES, Editor — J. C. BURKHART, Ass't Editor 

subscription rates 
United States, $3.00 Foreign, $3.50 

ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVES: 

e. f. ingraham adv. co.. 116 nassau st , new york 

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No752 fTovYMyER, 1911 Vol. 9, No. 5 

COPYRIGHT , 1SI1. AERONAUTICS PRESS, INC. 

Entered as second-class matter September 22, 1908, at the Postoffice 

New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 
^ AERONAUTICS is issued on the 30th of each month 
^^ All copy must be received by the 20th. Advertis- 
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AGENTS FOB "AERONAUTICS." 

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Brentano's, 5th Ave. and 27th St. 

ST. LOUIS — Aeronautic Supply Co., 3932 Olive 
St.; H. F. Mardorf, 4068 Olive St. 

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ginia Ave. 

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Murphy, Soutli Terminal Station. 

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St. 

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Man. 

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Main St. 

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S. Spring St. 

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LONDON — Aeronautics, 12 Newgate St., London, 
E. C, George H. Scragg, Mgr. ; also at the 
office of British Aeronautics, 89 Chancery 
Lane, London. 

BERNE — A. Francke's Sortiment. 

FULLER ARGENTINE PACKAGE EX- 
PRESS, Defensa 127, Buenos Aires. 

CALL AVIATION ENGINE 

(Continued from Page IS-') 

Luljrieation is by a combination of splash and 
force feed, the oil being forced from a small 
gear pump to sight feeds in the cylinders over 
each piston and also to the crank case over 
every important bearing. 

Ig-nition is by Bosch or Mea magneto as pre- 
ferred supplemented by coil and batteries, two 
spark plugs being supplied to each cylinder so 
that both systems may be used together or in- 
dependently. 

The weight of the 50 h.p. is 185 lbs. and of 
the 100 h.p. 325 lbs. It will be seen that although 
tlie construction has not been slighted by cut- 
ting down parts, the weight is as small as that 
obtained in other engines of the same power. 



183 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



cylMONG MAKERS OF MOTORS 



THE NEW FRONTIER AERO MOTOR. 

The illustration herewitli submitted re- 
presents a remarkable development in aero- 
plane motors. It is shown mounted on test- 
ing block where it is run for a number of 
hours preparatory to a ten days' test with 
propeller and final inspection. When the 
picture was taken the motor was running 
with an 8 1/4 foot propeller by five foot pitch 
at a speed of 1100 r. p. m., mounted on testing- 



w 







frame which is clearly shown of light con- 
.struction. One feature is the absence of vi- 
bration which is indicated by the sharp lines 
of the engine. 

This engine model A-1, is the product of the 
Frontier Iron Works, Buffalo, N. Y., who have 
.spent the past two years developing and test- 
ing this motoi- for aerial purposes. It is of 
the V type, eight cylinder, four cycle. The 
makeis claim it is faultless in design, work- 
manship and efficiency. 

The c.\linders, pistons and rings are of a 
mixture and giade of iron that has made the 
company's reputation famous as a good wear- 
ing and non-oveiheating metal, being used by 
thousands yearly. The crank ca.se is alum- 
inum, box type and is ribbed and braced in 
such a manner as to give stability and to 
resist undue strain. 

The cam chamber is cast integral with the 
case and machined out to insure perfect align- 
ment with no danger of pai'ts loosening or 
becoming false timed. 

The crank shaft is made from Krupps 314 
chrome nickel steel, hollow, as is also the 
connecting rod and piston wrist pins, through 
which the lubi'icating system pumps a con- 
tinuous (low of oil from the rcseivoir, which 
is returned strained and continually used. All 
revolving shafts are run in imported annular 
ball bearings supported In specially designed 
housings with connections to the lubricating 
system. 



The valves are of special alloy and con- 
sti-uction which has been thoroughly tested 
to withstand long runs without adjustment or 
cleaning. The valve stems are operated 
through push rods adjustable for wear, they 
are hardened and run on steel balls, this feat- 
ure eliminates the improper timing of valves. 
The intake and water manifolds are of copper, 
well designed for strength and capacity. All 
bolts and nuts are provided with ample pro- 
tection against looseness through lock wash- 
ers, castle nuts and copper pins. 

This motor is equipped with carburetor, 
megneto, oil and gasolene tanks and radiator, 
this being the standard equipment. Pro- 
pellers are extra but can be furnished if de- 
sired at a reasonable price. 

In the design and manufacture of this 
motor the company had first in mind, re- 
gardless of expense to produce a power plant 
for aerial locomotion that could be relied 
upon for long runs and continual service and 
before offei-ing it to the public have put it 
through severe long run tests. With ten 
gallons gasolene supply at 1200 R. P. M. 
carrying an Slii x 5 foot pitch propeller the 
motor has run without a miss for four hours 
and part of the time in a heavy downpour 
of rain, without protection, the magneto 
only being covered. 

The company is now building these motors 
in dozens lots in their newly equipped factory. 

THE 1912 2-CVL,INDER DETROIT, 

Very recently the Detroit Aeroplane Com- 
pany announced their 1912 model. For three 
seasons it has been their practice to incor- 
porate the results of their improvements and 
research work in a new yearly model. While 
the chief difference between the 1910 and 
1911 models was noticeable fi-om their out- 
side appearance, the new 1912 model power 
plant distinguishes itself from its prede- 
cessor through constructional and internal 
changes. The new model has many advan- 
tages. The omission of cap screws by re- 
placing same with machined bolts locked with 
castle nuts and split key is decidedly an ad- 
vance. In the present type there is not a 
single nut that remains unsecured. Another 
constructional detail is the introduction of 
chrome nickel steel as crank shafts and steel 
alloy as connecting rod material. This change 
was made necessary through the additional 
power and speed gained by the use of higher 
compression. The additional heat developed 
by the more instantaneous combustion was 
compensated through arrangement of auxili- 
ary holes in the cylinder walls and the neces- 
sary change of the valve timing which is now 
slightly over-lapping. It is a well known 
fact that auxiliary holes have a certain un- 
welcome reaction on the lubrication and 
therefore one will find on the new model the 
necessary arrangement in form of an oil 
pump driven from the cam shaft and feed- 
ing the cylinder from a lubricating supply 
in the tank. 

The power plant itself develops, according 
to the manufacturers, 28 brake horse power 
and when equipped with a seven ft., 31,4 ft. 
propeller delivers a stationary thrust of 250 
to 260 lbs. at 1100 R.P.M. These propellers are 
copies of the Chauvier type and made by an 
automatic machine at the rate of four every 
3 V2 hours. The way in which they are made is 
most ingenious and deserves attention. The 
original propeller is cut in two and one half 
is cast in aluminum. This aluminum half 
acts as a master propeller and from it are 
made, first the right halves; then by turning 
it around 180 degrees the left halves of four 
pi'opellei-s at one time. Tiiis method in- 
sures absolute coi-rectness of both halves and 
when the propeller leaves the table it is 
mathematically balanced, provided the ma- 
terial is homogenous. 

The company is giving, during the winter 
months, exhibitions throughout the states 
and Canada. A demonstration during Novem- 
ber will be given in New York City, Boston, 
Baltimore, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. 



1S4 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 191 



JfEW ROBERTS MOTOR. 

The Roberts Motor Co., of Sandusky, Ohio, 
have added a six cylinder aeronautical motor 
to their output. It follows very closely after 
their four cylinder model; in fact, the same 
cylinders are used on a longer crank case. 
All the features that have given such good 
satisfaction on the four have been retained 
on the six. 

The [jower has been found to be in direct 



The cylinders are cast of a special allov 
known as Aerolite, having a tensile strength 
of 38,000 lbs. and a specific gravity of 2.7. 
The metal is very dense and the bore shows 
less wear than cast iron and there is no 
tendency to cut. The cooling is well taken 
care of, circulation by gear pump. 

The lubrication is by the use of grease cups 
on the main bearings and bv mixing oil 
with the eas. 








Roberts Six-Cylinder ]Motor. 



proportion to the number of cylinders, and 
according to the makers' tests the four gives 
50 h.p. at 1100 r.p.m. and the six 75 h.p. at 
the same speed. Speeds greater than 1200 
may be used with safety, the motors giving 
greater power at the higher speeds. 

The timing device on this niotor is worthy 
of special mention on account of its origi- 
nality and successful operation. The Bosch 
magneto used is of the fixed spark type, 
variation in the timing being secured by the 
use of a helical gear to drive the armature 
shaft. This gear is slidably mounted on 
tne shaft and is operated by a couple of 
fingers and a ^varm gear which in turn are 
operated by a cable controlled by the opera- 
tor. 

The feature that the makers claim the 
most for, is the entire absence of back firing. 
This is due in part to the use of a rotary 
distributor and in part to the use of a Cell- 
ular bipass which is a feature of alL Roberts 
motors. 



CALL, AVIATIOX EXGIXE. 

The Aerial Navigation Company of Girard, 
Kansas, the builders of the Call Aviation En- 
gine, have, in the design and construction of 
their 1912 engine, departed from the usual 
practice of cutting down the sizes of parts to 
the limit for the sake of lightness, and have 
made it their aim to produce an engine that 
would run all day at high speed and be free 
from breakage. 

Tlie engines are built in two sizes, a two cy- 
linder opposed 50 h.p. and a four cylinder 100 
h.p. The cylinders have a bore of 6 in. and 
a stroke of 5^/4 ins. They are intended to be 
run at speeds of from 1,200 to 1,700 r.p.m. 

The crank shaft is cut from a solid bar of 
cliroiiie-nickel vanadium steel and is solid 
throughout. The crank pin is cast of an alumi- 
num alloy and is of ample section. 

The cylinders and cylinders heads are casi 
separately of vanadium grey iron, and are re- 



Mr. J. T. Seely has recently been appointed 
Special Representative for The Roberts Motor 
Company of Sandusky Ohio. He may be 
reached at 781 Golden Gate Ave., San Fran- 
cisco, and will cover the three Pacific Coast 
States, California, Oregon and Washington. 

Mr. Seely is admirably fitted for his new 
work, having been connected with the El- 
bridge Engine Company of Rochester, N. Y. 
for the past three years as Secretary and 
Sales ^Manager. In this capacity he has had 
a great deal of valuable experience in avia- 
tion and marine work. 

He is representing the complete line of 
Roberts aviation, marine, automobile and 
stationary motors. He will be more than 
willing at all times to give anyone interested 
in the above lines, the benefit of his wide 
experience, in recommending a Roberts Motor 
most suitable for the particular installation 
at hand. 

Any inquiries addressed to INIr. Seely will 
receive his prompt attention. 



185 



inforced at points where special stress is en- 
countered. The cylinders are secured to the 
crank-case and the cylinder heads to the cy- 
linders by one dozen steel cap screws respec- 
tively. 

The water jackets are of aluminum % inch 
in thickness, and are set in asbestos packing 
in grooves turned in the cylinders. Inside of 
tliese jackets are spiral guides which conduct 
the cooling water four times around the cylin- 
der walls. The water jacket in the cylinder 
head is cored in, the valve seats being machined 
in the head, without valve cases, permitting 
tlie cooling water to come in direct contact with 
the valve seats. The water circulation is 
secured by the use of a large gear pump. 

Tlie valves are two inches in diameter and 
have a lift of 7/16 inch, both being mechanic- 
ally operated. There are auxiliary exhaust pons 
uncovered by the piston on its down stroke to 
relieve the pressure on the exhaust valve. 
(Coniinued on page JSS) 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



COMMUNICATIONS 



GIBSON PROPEIiLiERS ON WRIGHT. 

Please take pity on a poor editor! In re- 
lating some of the doings at the Nassau Meet 
in the October number, mentioning in par- 
ticular the extra speed made by Beatty after 
a change of propellers, the statement was 
made as follows: 

•'Beatty broke a crankcase of one engine 
and blew out the cylinder of another and it 
may be that the new propellers speeded the 
engine up to a greater degree than consis- 
tent with good policy." 

The fact is that the aeroplane made more 
speed for which the Gibson propeller com- 
pany claims credit. Mr. Gibson states that 
no change whatever was made in either pitch 
or diameter when making the new pro- 
pellers. We have received from him the fol- 
lowing letter: 

Klnloch, Mo., November 6, 1911. 
Dear Mr. Gibson: 

Referring to the notice on page 135 of 
"Aeronautics" for October in regard to your 
propellers on my Wright machine, I think it 
only proper that you should let that maga- 
zine know the true facts in the case, which 
are as follows : 

The Gibson propellers in question were 
intended to be stronger than the Wright 
and proved to be so. Being accurately made 
did not "fight" each other and the speed of 
the machine naturally increased though the 
engine ran at the same speed as formerly. 

After making several flights and breaking 
records for Wright machines, the engine 
broke the crank case, but not in any way 
as a result of the use of your propellers. It 
was a pure accident, and to prove very 
emphatically that the propellei-s were not at 
fault, on November 4th, while making a 
cross country flight, my engine broke in ex- 
actly the same place, only in this instance 
the machine was equipped with Wright pro- 
pellers which positively substantiates the 
above, and will be borne out by Mr. Albert 
Bond Lambert, president of the Aero Club 
of St. Louis. 

Now I wish to enlighten all those con- 
cerned as to the blowing out of the cylinder 
referi'ed to in. the saine article. The engine 
in question was the one with which Sopwith 
fell in the ocean at Brighton Beach and after 
being in the salt water naturally deterio- 
i-ated, which explains the weakness and ac- 
counts for its blowing out. 

As you are aware, this same thing hap- 
pened to Mr. Wilbur Wright at Governors 
Island and to Hodgers on his transcontinen- 
tal flight. 

Further, the CJibson propellers have stood 
the racket of all this engine trouble in a 
remarkable way. The back fires and bumps 
expei-iencod during that period would have 
wiecked three oi- four of the propellers usu- 
ally supplied with the machine, and finally, 
the Gibson propellers are flying the machine 
right along and are doing just as well as 
they did at the start and I stand ready to 
demonstrate the above. 

Wishing you every success in the new field 
I remain, 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) George W. Beatty. 

Novice TrliilN ami TribuIiitioiiH. 

To the Editor:— 

The boys have asked me to write you a 
letter about the 5 mile flight I made a few 
'lays ago over east Detroit and tell vou 
.something about our aviation camp. 

Five of us came to a school here last spring 
to study aviation and learn to fly; — Bill 
McRobbie, formerly of Alabama; Arch" Smith 
engineer and ex-ITnitod States soldier who 
came from ("alifornia; Tom Boss, athletic 
instructor and wrestler of British Columbia- 



Fred June, a Detroit engineer; and myself 
from Freemont, Ohio. We gave up a couple 
of hundred each for tuition and spent a lot 
of time. But we soon saw the "Professor" 
could not teach us to fly. Even if he knew 
how, he had neither plane nor engine. Of 
course we kicked ourselves for soft suckers. 
But we did not like to jump on the professor 
for he was in worse than we were. 

We took a field on Marshland boulevard, 
near the Chalmers Hudson and Lozier fac- 
tories and put up a tent. The tent was din- 
ing i-oom, sleeping room, work shop and 
hangar. Ross gave us the kind of cooking 
he learned wliile mining in Alaska. We stuck 
it through — camping out in the city for near- 
ly five months. 

Aftei' a good deal of preliminary work we 
built two Bleriot monoplanes, two Curtiss 
biplanes, and a Demoiselle monoplane. The 
engine that we got for the Demoiselle ran 
one minute and in that time travelled a 
block, turned the plane over and wrecked it 
without even getting off the ground. Smith 
risked his neck there. 

Another engine was bought for a Bleriot. 
We had to do some figuring and running 
around to get the plane properly balanced. 
By that time the engine got out of order 
and we had to send it back to the factory. 

Then we got a 50-horsepower Maximotor 
for one of the Curtiss planes. I was elected 
the "goat". After a day or two mowing dow^n 
weeds and rooting up the field generally I 
started up twice, shut my teeth and shook 
hands with myself; "It's good luck or good- 
by to Johnny". Both times it was pretty 
nearly "good-by". First the plane took a 
head dive and the landing gear sloughed off. 
Next time she flopped on her side and a wing 
crumpled, besides what happened to me. 

In a few days, as soon as I could stand 
up and sit down smoothly, I climbed in again. 
The roar of the engine brought around the 
usual swarm of our old friends, the automo- 
bile testers. 

The propeller was a 6-footer running nearly 
1400. It brought the plane into the air inside 
100 feet. Before I realized it I was away 
over the trees and out of the field. I must 
admit things felt a little wobbly at first. 

When I got up about 500 feet high over 
Jefferson the big pay-enter street cars looked 
like stubby caterpillars. I could hear the 
cheering from the cloud of specks below — 
crowds of people gathered from the cars and 
autos stopped to watch. I was told after- 
wards that they mistook me for Coffyn. 

After getting a good bird's eye view of the 
town I circled back toward camp. Easy? 
1 was just fisuriiiir whether I would start 
from New York or Boston on that little $50,- 
000 cross-country trip. 

The plane was coming down on the last 
glide over 70 foot poplar trees when it star- 
ted to slide down and forward on the left. I 
threw out the ailerons, shoved up the ele- 
vator with my last ounce and steered to the 
right, but — down, down she came in a half 
circle like a lame duck. Toppled over on her 
back. 

"He's gone suie". I heard the auto men say 
as they drove up to carry me away. 

I picked myself up — in pretty good shape 
considering everything. The plane looked 
like a wreck all right, but the motor upside 
down was tearing away with the stub of the 
propeller as if nothing had happened. 

Anvhow we were satisfied our planes would 
fiv. The accident. I believe, was caused by 
the eddy and up-current in the wind as it 
went over the trees. 

The season was nearly over and we had 
spent most of our money (some of us far 
over $1,000) so we decided to break up for 
the winter. Ross has gone baclv to British 
Columbia. A friend of his there already has 



186 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



a plane that has made short flights. He has 
arranged for a Maxiniotor from Detroit and 
will" attempt the first flght across Puget 
Sound from Victoria to Seattle. The rest of 
us are going into tlie automobile business 
for the winter and are storing the planes, etc. 
By spring we will have two hydroplanes 
ready for flights on the water. We are now 
arranging for a large aviation field fronting 
on the Detroit river bank. Everything will 
be prepared for building planes to sell and 
for testing them. 

Respectfully yours, 

JOHN C. KUCK. 

ON THE GYROSCOPE. 

New York, November 8, 1911. 
To the Editor of "Aeronautics," 
250 West 54th Street, 
New York City. 
Dear Sir:^ 

In reference to the article of the October 
issue on "A Popular Scientific Explanation 
of the Motives of the Gyroscope and Its 
Application in Aviation" by Mr. Emile Buer- 
gin, kindly allow me to express my opinion 
as to the correction of Mr. Beurgin's state- 
ments. 

It seems to me that the question of the 
gyroscope, also gyrostat, may be summed up 
in a few words. The Gyrostat is not a Gyro- 
scope. 

A gyrostat when in operation was sup- 
posed to point its axis forever toward any 
star or position in the universe not including 
the planets in our solar system. Lately, it 
has been shown by the Sperry Gyrostat com- 
pass now used in the United States Navy, 
that it does seek the true North Pole, be- 
cause it has been brought lately to a prac- 
tically perfect balance before spinning. 

The only true gyroscope is that which has 
a variable radius vector. It then is inimedi- 
ately transformed into another satellite or 



moon to the earth. That is, it precesses, 
nutates, perturbates, and performs all the 
functions of a moon or planet. 

When the true gyroscope (brought out by 
Mr. Edward Durant of New York City) spins, 
it continues forever in an elliptical orbit 
plane tangential to or paralled with the 
earth's surface. 

What we conceive of as weight, mass and 
gravity are all controlled from the center of 
the orbit of this gyroscope. That is to say, 
while it is spinning weight, mass and grav- 
ity are all cancelled from any universal 
proposition we may entertain. In other 
words, we may entertain gravity, weight 
and mass only when the gyroscope is not 
spinning. Then it is a local affair. 

It is also an electron model in accord with 
the electron theory advanced by Prof. J. J. 
Thomson, who received the Alfred B. Nobel 
$40,000.00 prize in 1906. 

The electrically operated gyroscope now 
on exhibition at the New York World Build- 
ing, is a new mechanical motion, and the 
fundamental law governing it has not been 
accepted by any scientific institution in au- 
thority. 

Now the fact is, scientists told us we could 
not fiy, and since we have flown, they are 
perfectly at sea as to the fundamental laws 
governing the correct gyroscope. 

Today it is utterly impossible to obtain in 
writing under their own signature, what any 
professor or scientist believes to be the 
basic or fundamental law governing the true 
gyroscope, and yet they pretend to know 
all about the gyroscope. 

My advice is for those interested in the 
subject, to see the electrically operated gyro- 
scopic moon in operation at the World before 
attempting to solve the problem of aero- 
gyroscopics. 

Yours truly, 

Samuel Wein. 

51 East 98 St., City. 



AERO 



MART 



WORK FOR NOTHING. High School Grad- 
uate would be glad to work for instruction 
in aviation. Want to study care, construc- 
tion, engines, with a chance to fly. Percy 
Williamson, 40 Holmes St., Providence, R. I. 

Nov. 

TRIPLANE — 32 ft. by 25 ft.-rear control 
(headless) without power, $200. Laminated 
propellers, any reasonable pitch up to SVz 
ft., $20. 20 ft. biplane gliders $30. 30 ft. 
Curtiss-tvpe biplanes without power $475. 
Address John Frier, 5833 Julian St., St. Louis, 
Mo. Nov. 

BLiERIOT XI monoplane for sale at $2200; 
complete with 30-35 Viall engine. Demon- 
stration and instruction free. Same machine 
that M. Lewkowicz flew over New York. Per- 
fect condition. Newly covered with Good- 
year fabric. Address Bleriot, care AERO- 
NAUTICS. 

HOOKIN<;S ^VANTED. Amedee V. Rey- 
burn. Jr., with lOU h.p. Bleriot monoplane is 
now booking engagements for exhibition 
flights. Apply to 5305 Delmar Avenue. St. 
Louis, Mo. Aug. 12. 

BLERIOT PARTS: — Will fit genuine Bler- 
iot 'Planes; ribs, rudders, castings, alighting- 
gears. Low prices, quick delivery. The West- 
ern Aeroplane Supply House, Sedalia, Mo. 

Nov. 

Rl BHERIKEU FABRIC: — Get a sample of 
our rubberized fabric before covering your 
planes. The Western Aeroplane Supply 
House, Sedalia, Mo. Nov. 



"WANTED — Partner with some capital to 
take interest in and management of aviation 
exhibition company. Apply to R. V. A., care 
AERONAUTICS. Nov. 

FRENCH motor, new, 4-cylinder, for sale. 
Good for biplane. Make offer. Queen Aero- 
plane Co., 197 St. & Amsterdam Av., New 
York. T. F. 

FOR SALE — Detroit 2-cylinder opposed 30 
h.p. motor, propeller, carburetor and mag- 
neto, 250 lbs. thrust. First draft $285 takes 
it. Address Herbert Doyle, 321 Lake St., 
Rochester. N. Y. Nov. 

J. ED. SHERIFF, Mechanical Engineer and 
Inventor. Original Designs a specialty. 125 
Watts St.. New York. Dec. 

FOR S.VLE: — Very slightly used 114-inch 
Schebler carburetor. Aluminum aviation 
model all complete. Address A. V. Reyburn, 
Jr., 5305 Delmar Blvd., St. Louis. Mo. Nov. 

SOPWITH'S. 70 n.p., two-seater Bleriot. 64 
m. p. h. speed. Racing wings and two sets 
touring wings. Duplicate parts of every- 
thing. Around $6,500. Address Sopwith, care 
Aeronautics. 250 West 54 Street. New York. 

x'OR SALE— A bargain. One De Chenne 50 
H. P. Power Plant complete with propeller, 
etc., with or without aeroplane for same. Has 
made only about 100 flights and good as new. 
Reason for selling, closing for season. Corre- 
spondence solicited. 

DeCHENNE MOTOR & AEROPLANE CO., 

AVIATOR— Do you want to back or omijloy an aviator? 
State your proposition with full particulars. .\ddress; 
Arg, care AERONAUTICS. 



187 



AERONAUTICS 



November, 1911 



u 



PATENTS 



ISSUED 



1,003,714, Sept. 19, J. W. Dolson. PARA- 
CHUTE for aeroplanes. 

1,003,721, Sept. 19, J. W. Dunne. London, 
Eng-land, assignor to Blair Athall Aeroplane 
Syndicate. Piled April 1, 1910. The object 
of the present invention is to obtain a form 
of aeroplane which by virtue solely of the 
arrangement and form of its SUPPORTING 
SURFACES possesses automatic stability in 
still air, and also, without requiring' any 
alteration of its center of gravity or of its 
surfaces, in very high winds. 

The invention consists in constructing each 
of the main supporting surfaces as a rear- 
wardly projecting- rigid wing-, the angle of 
incidence of which decreases from the center 
toward the tips and in some cases changes 
sign and compensating for the decreased 
lifting power of the tips by shaping the wing- 
so as to compress air between a positively 
inclined portion of the wing near the center 
and a negatively inclined portion in the 
region of the tip. 

The invention also consists in so construct- 
ing each wing- that the upper face may be 
defined as traced by a straight line traveling 
on two guide curves one of which may be 
infinitely small, so arranged that the result- 
ing surface swept out is convex toward its 
upper side in all sections taken fore and aft 
and laterally, the angle of incidence grad- 
ually decreasing from the center to the ends 
of the wings and in some cases changing 
sign, and the lower faces of the wings being 
preferably concave. See AERONAUTICS of 
March, 1911. 

1,003,530, Sept. 19, W. R. Smith. LATERAL 
STABILITY. 

1,003,411, Sept. 19, H. H. Bales. Auxiliary 
device to flv an aeroplane, consisting of a 
number of SKYROCKETS. 

1,003,670, Sept. 19, R. M. Thompson. Device 
to dampen oscillating of pendulum-operated 
STABILITY means. 

1,003,605, Sept. 19, L. B. Holland. RUN- 
NING GEAR in which wheels spring up above 
...kids when aeroplane leaves the ground. 




1,003,687, Sept. 19, E. H. Andrae. Novel 
PLYING MACHINE. 

1,003,756, Sept. 19, L. C. Kincannon. Im- 
provement to previous patent. 

1,003,782, Sept. 19, C. Ostermal. HELICOP- 
TER-PARACHUTE. 

1,003,851, Sept. 19, P. & L. Zampol. Novel 
AEROPLANE. 

1.003.858, Sept. 19, M. G. Adams. LONGI- 
TUDINAL STABILITY device comprising an 
elevator operated automatically through a 
controlling surface actuated by the wind. 

1.003.859, Sept. 19, M. G. Adams. Modifica- 
tion of the above. 

1,003,885, Sept. 19, J. J. Day. HELICOP- 
TER AEROPLANE. 

1,004,058, Sept. 26, W. H. McKeen. OSCIL- 
LATING WINGS. 



1,004,117, Sept. 26, De Witt C. Vought. 

AEROPLANE with car containing motor, etc, 

free to swing. 

1,004,367, Sept. 26, P. E. Chamberlin. 

A.ERIAL TORPEDO, the whole aeroplane con- 
taining explosive shell is directed toward the 

desired object, the aviator dropping first in 

a parachute. 

1,004.378, Sept. 26, W. A. Crawford-Frost. 

Novel AEROPLANE. 

Chas. H. Duncan, New York, N. Y., 1,004,558, 
Oct. 3, 1911. Novel AEROPLANE. 

Jhas. H. Duncan, New York, N. Y., 1,004,559, 
Oct. 3, 1911. AILERONS operated by the 
tilting of planes; also variable center of 
gravity. 

Charles A. Kuenzel, Buena Vista, Colo., 1,004,- 
662, October 3, 1911. DIRIGIBLE. 

Francisco Filiasi, Naples, Italy, 1,004,761, Oct. 
3, 1911. DEVICE TO KEEP AEROPLANES 
AFLOAT ON WATER. 

Mihaly Mihalyfi, New York, N. Y., 1,004, 805, 
Oct. 3, 1911. PROPELLER. 

Thomas Malcolm Walling, Tinton Falls, N. J., 
1,004,944, Oct. 3, 1911. Automatic trans- 
verse STABILITY. 

Robert P. Hall, Searchlight, Nev., 1,005,026, 
Oct. 3, 1911. Novel AEROPLANE. 

Michael H. Whalen, New York, N. Y., 1,005,089, 
Oct. 3, 1911, SUPPORTING SURFACES. 

Romeo Wankmuller, Berlin, Germany, 1,005,- 
097, Oct. 3, 1911. BALLOONS. 

Ernest Peter Vincent, New York, N. Y. ,1,005, - 
120, Oct. 3, 1911. RUDDER for Aeroplanes. 

Carl Hartmann, Woodside, N. Y., 1,005,205, 
Oct. 10, 1911. STEPPED AEROPLANE. 

Christian F. Kohlruss, Augusta, Ga., 1,005,232, 
Oct. 10, 1911. Flying-machine with cen- 
tral and side planes arched from side to 
side and a combination of rudders. 

Henry W. Mattoni, New York, N. Y., 1,005,258, 
Oct. 10, 1911. Foldable supplementary SUR- 
FACES. 

Chas. R. Mitchell, San Diego, Cal., 1,005,272, 
Oct. 10, 1911. HYDRO-AEROPLANE. 

john C. Schleicher, Mount Vernon, N. Y., 
1,005,327, Oct. 10, 1911. Novel AEROPLANE. 

Samuel Weber, Ossining, N. Y., 1,005,381, Oct. 
10, 1911. Combination BALLOON and AERO- 
PLANE. 

Auld Weinberg- de Meir, Providence, R. I., 
1,005,569, Oct. 10, 1911. SAFETY SUIT. 

William A. Crawford-Frost, Baltimore, Md., 
1,005,609, Oct. 10, 1911. Combination SUP- 
PORTING PLANE and PARACHUTE. 

Carl V. Johnson, Goldfield, Nev., 1,005,646, Oct. 
10, 1911. Flying machine with BALANCING 
TIPS pivoted to ends of planes. 

Willis I. Wood, Glenhaven, Wise, 1,005,759, 
Oct. 10, 1911. WINDSHIELD. 

Osmond T. Belcher, Los Angeles, Cal., 1,005,- 
127, Oct. 10, 1911. Supporting surface hav- 
ing end portions separate and movable 
about a pivot so as to preserve EQUI- 
LIBRIUM. 

Silas J. Conyne, Chicago, 111., 1,005,810, Oct. 
17, 1911. KITE. 

David Crockett, Birmingham, Ala., 1,005,812, 
Oct. 17, 1911. FEATHERING PROPELLER. 

Walter I. Pennock, Philadelphia, Pa., 1,005,871, 
Oct. 17, 1911. CAPTIVE BALLOON. 

Charles Michael Wanzer, Urbana, Ohio, 1,005, 
908, Oct. 17, 1911. Means for LAUNCHING 
AEROPLANES. 

Joseph C. Morris, Columbus, Ohio, 1,005,988, 
Oct. 17, 1911. Combination Aeroplane, Heli- 
copter, Balloon and Parachute. 

Edgar John Crawford, Seattle, Wash., 1,005,- 
941, Oct. 17, 1911. SAFETY DEVICES for 
Balloons. 

Thomas H. E. Folger, Corral, Idaho, 1,006,074, 
Oct. 17. 1911. PROPELLING MECHANISM. 

Leon Marie Joseph Clement Lavavasseui-, Pu- 
teaux, France, 1,006,106, Oct. 17, 1911. HELI- 
COIDAL DEFORMATION. 

Amos A. Wvckoff, Santa Cruz, CaUf., 1,006,171, 
Oct. 17, 1911. Combination BALLOON and 
AEROPLANE. 

(Continued on page 1S2) 



188 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 189 



December, 191 1 



Wood Finishing for Aeroplanes 

A Talk Before the Aeronautical Society 
By Professor A. H. SABIN 




i^T may be laid down as a fun- 
damental principle that a 
good and durable finish can- 
not be had without a proper 
foundation. Fortunately, 
the wood used in aeroplane 
construction is as a rule, 
quite dry; this is an essen- 
tial condition for proper fin- 
ishing. The surface of the 
w^ood should be exactly fin- 
ished to the correct shape; 
for while paint may hide minor defects, var- 
nish displays and magnifies them. You are 
all familiar with the use of the rasp, file and 
sandpaper, which should be carefully and 
faithfully used; it may be added that in most 
large towns glass-paper may also be had 
which for fine surfacing has some advantages 
over sandpaper. 

In using any kind of varnish or paint it is 
necessary to have each coat well dried before 
a following coat is applied. — It is not al- 
ways enough to have it appear so, but time 
must be allowed for hardening throughout. 
Perhaps the most common way of finishing 
woodwork of this class is with shellac var- 
nish, which is a solution of shellac resin 
(gum shellac) in alcohol. The solvent may 
be ordinary grain alcohol, the only objection 
to which is that it is expensive; denatured 
alcohol is also used but much of this contains 
kerosene, often as much as 20'; r and varnish 
made with such alcohol is slow to dry, and 
cannot be recommended for rapid work. 
Wood alcohol makes good shellac but its va- 
por is somewhat poisonous; however in 
large well ventilated rooms, such as are nec- 
essary for aeroplane building, the danger is 
slight, and when the amount of varnish used 
is small, as is commonly the case, it may be 
negligible. Shellac varnish appears to dry 
with extreme rapidity; but this is not al- 
together the fact. The first coat dries 
quickly, sinking into the wood; and a second 
coat may be applied two or three hours later; 
but at least a day should then elapse before 
another coat is applied, and after that two or 
three days should be allowed between coats. 
Otherwise, if several coats be applied in 
rapid succession, although each may seem 
dry to the touch, it will be found that the re- 
sult is a layer of a somewhat waxy consist- 
ency, which will not become quite hard for a 
long time, and is one of the most vexations 
and troublesome things imaginable. 

If you have several coats of this varnish, 
w^ell dried, you may, if you like, rub down 
the surface with pumice and cold water. 
For this you should have a felt pad, three or 



four inches square and half an inch or more 
in thickness. This may be had of dealers 
in painters' supplies. Wet this thoroughly 
with water, sprinkle on some finely powder- 
ed pumice stone, and rub the surface lightly 
but continuously until it has become smooth. 
Use plenty of cold water. Tlien wash it 
clean and dry it with a clean dry cloth or 
chamois leather. It is then, after air-drying 
for a time, in condition to receive more var- 
nish. The final surface may, after rubbing 
in this w^ay, be polished by rubbing with a 
polishing-powder, such as the finest rotten- 
stone, and may receive a finishing touch by 
rubbing with fine dry flour. 

Shellac is ordinary yellow or orange in 
color; but white shellac may also be had. 
This latter is made by bleaching the yellow 
shellac resin with chlorine. It is not as 
durable as the other, but is probably the var- 
nish which discolors the wood least of any 
which you can properly use. Shellac is not 
very durable when exposed to the weather, 
but neither are aeroplanes, and within doors 
it is durable. 

Other varnishes are made from linseed 
oil combined with certain resins, which are 
obtained from tropical countries. — The most 
important qualities of such varnishes natur- 
ally depend on the proportion of the oil and 
the resin. The more oil is used, the more 
elastic and durable will be the varnish; the 
more resin is used, the harder and more bril- 
liant it will be, and quicker to dry. 

Such are called oleoresinous varnishes, and 
of this sort are probably nine-tenths of all 
the varnishes used in this country for all 
purposes. 

A suitable oleoresinous varnish may be ap- 
plied directly to the wood, if desired, as was 
done with shellac; and in this way a founda- 
tion and finally a finish may be obtained. 
But it is more usual to prepare the wood by 
the use of a filler, as it is called; something 
to fill up the pores of the surface of the wood. 
This may be what is known as a paste filler, 
the best of which are composed of silica, that 
is, powdered quartz rock, ground to a fine 
powder and mixed with a little hand-drying 
varnish. This paste filler is thinned with 
turpentine and applied to the wood. When 
nearly dry it is rubbed hard with a stiff 
brush, or sometimes with a handful of curled 
hair, or excelsior, to rub it well into the 
pores of the wood, and to remove the excess. 
When this is quite dry, it may be lightly rub- 
bed with fine sandpaper, and then the var- 
nish may be applied. 

(Continued on page SSS) 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 190 



Deceuber, 1911 



Competition of Military Aeroplanes 

By Lieut. RILEY E. SCOTT, Foreign Representative 

Held under the Auspices of the French Ministry of War 



S^S^^S^^Ji^ t,li6 7th of November, 1910, 
^^^£il£il£(^i the French :\Iinister of War, 
2^ ^"^ 2!yc General Brun, issued a pro- 
^^ I 1 ^i gram for a competition of 
y^ ^_^ y^ military aeroplanes, to be- 
sSt S^St gin on the first day of 

j^i^^^li^ October, 1911, and to con- 
Si5S|^^KS|SSS^ tinue for at least one month, 
c^c^c^c^c^ Copies of this program were 
j^(^^^^j^§ furnished to constructors at 
that time, thus giving them 
nearly a year to prepare for this event. 

This great competition in which thirty-one 
aeroplanes were entered has just been com- 
pleted and the final classification announced. 
The severity of the tests and the value 
of the prizes make this the greatest event 
in the history of military aviation and dem- 
onstrate to the world that France is at the 
head of military aviation and intends to 
maintain that position. In fact, this com- 
petition proves conclusively, and onpe for 
all, that the aeroplane has become an im- 
portant factor in modern warfare, as the 
French call it, "the fourth arm," and that 
the nation which neglects the development 
of this arm does so at its peril. 

The general conditions to be fulfilled by 
all competing machines were the following: 

(a) To be constructed entirely in France 
with the greatest care and of the finest 
materials. 

(b) To be able to fly, without landing, 
over a closed circuit of 300 kilometers 
(186 miles). 

(c) To be able to carry over this course 
a useful load of 300 kilograms (G60 pounds), 
in addition to gasoline, oil, water, etc., 
necessary for the trip. 

(d) To be furnished with three seats, 
one each for the pilot, a mechanician and 
an observer. 

(e) To be able to maintain a mean speed 
of at least 60 kilometers per hour. 

(f) To be able to alight without accident 
on stubble ground, plowed ground, sowed 
and clover land, and to be able to arise 
■therefrom. 

(g) To be easily transi)orted, whether 
dismantled or not, by road and by rail, and 
to be easily and rapidly put together with- 
out minute adjustments. 

After having satisfied a committee that 
it was entitled to enter the competition, 
each machine had to go through a severe 
series of tests, known as elimination tests. 
Those machines fulfilling all of the elimina- 
tion tests were entitled to take part in 
the final test for classification. The elimina- 
tion tests were as follows: 



(a) The machine was weighed and all 
parts stamped. Any part could be replaced 
during the tests by an exact duplicate, but 
no modification was allowed, except in the 
case of propellers and wheels. It was 
necessary, however, to begin the tests over 
when a part was replaced. 

(b) Each constructor was required to 
declare the amount of gas and oil required 
for a flight of 300 kilometers. The tanks 
were then gauged, and this amount of gas 
and oil put in before each flight. 

(c) 1st flight, cross-country, carrying 300 
kilograms useful weight and landing on 
clover ground between two flags about 75 
meters apart. Each machine was then re- 
quired to rise from the same ground, circle 
and re-alight on the same ground. The 
machine was then dismantled and taken to 
the starting point by road. 

(d) Same as above except the ground 
for landing was stubble. 

(e) Same as (c) except the ground was 
plowed. 

(f) Speed trial, a round trip of 60 kilo- 
meters, which was also a test as to the 
amount of gasoline and oil declared for 
300 kilometers. In case there was a short- 
age of less than 10 per cent, it was necessary 
to recommence the trials. In case there 
was a shortage of more than 10 per cent., 
the machine was eliminated from the com- 
petition. 

(g) Height test, each machine required 
to attain height of 500 meters in 15 minutes 
or less, carrying load of 300 kilograms. 
This test to be duplicated. This concluded 
the elimination tests. 

The elimination tests had to be completed 
by October 31st, after which the proper 
committee designated the machines which, 
having satisfied all of the elimination tests, 
were to be admitted to the final test for 
classification. There was no appeal from 
the decision of this committee. The follow- 
ing machines, out of an entry of over thirty, 
were designated to take part in the final 
competition : 

1 Nieuport monoplane 

2 Deperdussin monoplanes 
2 Breguet biplanes 

1 H. Farman biplane 

2 M. Farman biplanes 
1 Savary biplane 

The final race over a course of 300 kilo- 
meters, known as the classification test, was 
as follows: "This test comprises a return- 
trip flight of a length of 300 kilometers, 
without alighting, carrying a useful load of 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 191 



December, 1911 



300 kilograms, the departures being given 
by tlie committee on a day fixed by it and 
at intervals of five minutes in the order 
previously determined by lot." Contestants 
were allowed three trials each. After one 
of the most interesting races in the history 
of aviation, in which eight out of the nine 
designated machines completed the pre- 
scribed circuit, the following classification 
was announced: 

1. Weyman (Nieuport monoplane, 100 
H.P. Gnome motor, Chauviere propeller, 
average speed, 11 G. 9 kilometers per hour.) 

2. Moineau (Breguet biplane, 140 H.P. 
Gnome Motor, Chauviere propeller average 
speed, 95 kilometers per hour.) 

3. Prevost (Deperdussin monoplane, 100 
H.P. Gnome motor, Chauviere propeller, 
average speed, ST. 5 kilometers per hour.) 

4. Bregi (Breguet biplane, 100 H.P. 
Gnome Motor, Chauviere propeller average 
speed, 87 kilometers per hour.) 

5. Fischer (H. Farman biplane, 100 
H.P. Gnome motor, Chauviere propeller, 
average speed, 84.4 kilometers per hour.) 

6. Barra (M. Farman biplane, 70 
H.P. Renault motor, Chauviere propeller, 
average speed, 76 kilometers per hour.) 

7. Renaux (M. Farman biplane, 70 
H.P. Renault motor, Chauviere propeller, 
average speed, 72.3 kilometers per hour.) 

8. Frantz (Savary biplane, 70 H.P. Labor- 
Aviation motor, Chauviere propeller, aver- 
age speed, 67 kilometers per hour.) 

According to the original program, the 
following rewards were to be given to the 
winners, although it is said that supplemen- 
tary orders will be given to those construc- 
tors who made a good showing but were 
not classed among the winners: 

To the constructor of the first machine, 
the sum of 100,000 fr. upon the delivery of 
the machine to the State; an order for ten 



machines at 40,000 fr. each, with a bonus 
on each machine of 500 fr. for each kilo- 
meter greater than 60 made by the winning 
machine. 

To the constructors of the machines 
classed second and third, orders for six and 
for four machines, respectively, for which 
the sum of 40,000 fr. each will be paid, with 
a bonus as mentioned above. 

It will thus be seen that the prizes, in 
the shape of orders, are as follows: 

NIEUPORT. 

For the winning machine $20,000 

10 machines, at 40,000 fr 80,000 

Bonus on 10 machines 56,900 

BREGUET. 

6 machines at 40,000 fr $48,000 

Bonus on 6 machines 35,000 

DEPERDUSSIN. 

4 machines at 40,000 fr $32,000 

Bonus on 4 machines 27,500 



(Jrand total $299,400 

Scale drawings and full details of the 

Deperdussin were published in the October 

issue. In the current number will be found 

some interesting data on the Nieuport. 



Geo. H. Sclimidt has just installed a model 2 
;\Iaximotor in the Bleriot he had built by the 
National Aero Co. of Woodhaven, N. Y. 

Reports fioni Honolulu indicate considerable 
activity by F. A. Schaefer of the well-known 
importing firm of G. E. Schaefer & Co., Ltd. 
His Maximotored plane is believed to be the 
sole aeroplane between San Francisco and Yoka- 
hama. 



When we can see these things ahead of us it 
amazes us to find an aero club boasting because 
its clubhouse is the finest in the land, and yet 
find its membership composed of men who ask 
if parachute attaclmients wouldn't be good.***** 
Soon we will have aero clubs as Droud of aero- 
planes as they are today of clubhouses, and 
then great things will come. 

Walter Brookins in N. Y. Times. 




\ ^ V < 



A view of the Etricli from Underneath. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 192 



Dtceinher, 1911 



The Etrich Monoplane VI -VIII 



By FRITZ EDELSTEIN 




/:k'k-w»-'-.w»-v)if*-'*iif*-'oi FOREMOST place amongst 
XjSJtxi-ix2-iX2i;t\SJC the great pioneers ot 
(^ - ^^ mechanical flight must be 
W^ /\ S*I5 given to Igo Etrich, who is 
*|^ jMt ^L tiie flrst Austrian aeroplane 
^^ ^^ builder. Not merely con- 

^*<S5^J^^^X'^) tent with constructing a 
machine that would only 
fly, he has pi'obed more 
deeply into this problem, in 
order to evolve an aero- 
plane naturally stable in a disturbed^ medi- 
um. From the flight pioneers Dunne and 
Weiss in England and Etrich in Austria, 
whose researches have all resulted in the 
discovery of the improvement of longitud- 
inal stability by the incorporation of the 
negatively-incident thrown-back wing tips, 
Etrich from the first has worked on inde- 
pendent lines. 

Like our greatest aviators, the famous 
Wright Bros., Igo Etrich commenced his 
experiments by the study of gliding and 
bird flight in the year 1898, when he acquir- 
ed the well-known Lilienthal-glider. Fur- 
ther he studied the propulsive organs of 
every kind of flying animal, — birds, insects, 
bats, flying fish, and even went to the extent 
of investigating the different species of 
flying seeds, those of sycamore and pine, for 
instance, which are so abundant in the 
vegetable kingdom. 

Experiments with a Zanonia-form glider, 
of his own design, commenced in 1904 at 
Trautenau and during the year glides of 
up to three-quarters of a mile in length 
were made by Ing. Wels. 

It was not until 1909, that a power-driven 
monoplane was evolved, which, piloted by 
lllner, soon captured all Austrian records. 
Since then it has undergone improvement 
after improvement, and to-day is universally 
ranked among the most successful and most 
scientifically designed of air-craft. 

Recently, Etrich has constructed three 
new types of his bird-winged monoplane, 
and we will describe first of all the type 
VI— VIII, called "The Dove". 

The most outstanding features are the 
Zamonia-formed bird wings (Sheet I) which 
merit a careful study. Reference to the ac- 
companying sketches and diagrams will 



facilitate description. The front part of 
each wing, is rigidly constructed of webbed 
ribs, built over three longitudinal spars, of 
which the forward one forms the leading 
edge. This section is double surfaced (i. e. 
on both sides) with Continental fabric. 
Behind the rear beam extend bamboo con- 
tinuations of the ribs, which, covered with 
a single surface of fabric, form a flexible 
trailing edge. 

The camber is very slight, even at the 
point where the wings are attached to the 
fuselage, together with the angle of inci- 
dence, towards the tip, which is flat and 
presents successive negative angle of inci- 
dence to the direction of flight. The flexible 
wing tips are within turned up at the rear 
and so give the ends of both wings an ef- 
fective negative angle of incidence. It is 
to this feature that the Etrich monoplane 
owes its pronounced degree of natural sta- 
bility. Lateral balance is maintained by 
raising either wing tip by means of a cable, 
which, passing over a pulley situated at the 
top of the king-post, divides up into eight 
wires connected to the flexible extremities 
of the wing. A cable passing over the 
lower end of the king-post lowers the op- 
posite tip a corresponding amount. Enor- 
mous strength is imparted to the wing by 
a bridge-like structure of steel tubing, which 
embraces the middle wing spar and is at- 
tached below the under surface-strength 
which renders them capable of withstand- 
ing strains many times in excess of those 
that they are likely to be called upon to 
bear in flight. 

A small wheel mounted at the lower ex- 
tremity of the king-post protects the wing- 
tip from contact with the ground. The bird- 
tail pivots in one unit about a horizontal 
axis. The rear portion is the elevator, con- 
trolled by warping the horizontal tail plane. 
Two small triangular vertical rudders, one 
above and the other below the horizontal 
tail plane, are hinged to the rear edges of 
two triangular stabilizing fins and are 
operated by means of pedals from driver's 
seat (Sheet II). Elevation and lateral bal- 
ance are controlled by a rotatable hand 
wheel, mounted at the top of a vertical 




AERONAUTICS 



Page 193 



December, 191 1 




Etrich Vl-VUI 



Scale Drawing of Etrich (Monoplane. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 194 



December, 1911 




Sheet V. — Detail of Wing Construction. Slieet VI. — View Through the Front of Fuselage, 
Landing Chassis and Wing Construction. 



-J 



h 



rlzf'^ 




niDDLE RIB 

mumm 



8'0" 



-S'6'- 



mwBs-""'^ ENDRI6 



■ 5'3' 



,' 5HEETHI 



1116 



Sheet VII. — IVliddle Section of the IVlain Plane and Rib Curves. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 195 



December, 1911 




column (Sheet III). In the matter of 
under-carriage the Etrich VI-VII monoplane 
has a Bleriot-type landing chassis witla a 
central-ash skid, which is movable in any 
direction together Avith the rudder by 
pedal operation. It is also possible to 
steer the machine, when turning on the 
ground. (Sheet II.) 

The body of Etrich VI-VIII monoplane is 
a fish-shaped structure of four wooden longi- 
tudinal spars, cross braced by wire. From 
the engine seat, which is mounted at its 
forward end, the body deepens and wi- 
dens in the vicinity of pilot's seat, from 
where, still preserving its triangular cross- 



section, gradually tapers away to the tail, 
where it terminates in a vertical line. To 
avoid internal disturbance in the air dis- 
charge, the body is covered in front with 
metal sheeting and aft with fabric. 

Very ingenious is the construction and 
disposition of the inverted "V" shaped radi- 
ator, which is mounted above the passen- 
ger's seat. 

In case when the water pump of the 
engine, refuses to worlv, then is a very 
effective circulation guaranteed of the hot 
water by thermosiphon action, which is 
favored by this disposition of the radiator. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 196 



December, 1911 



The manufacture of the Etrich mono- 
plane has been standardized into four types: 
a two seater touring machine (as here des- 
cribed) of 45/60 h.p. Bosch equipped Daim- 
ler engine, a single seater racer of similar 
power, a 120 h.p. three seater, touring 
machine, and a similarly engined racer to 
carry two. 

A few days ago Igo Etrich has at Trau- 
tenau completed a new wonderful stable- 
type "swallow", whose description we will 
give later. 



Three new world's records were establish- 
ed recently by Etrich aeroplanes in Austria. 

Lieut. Bier, flying in an Etrich monoplane, 
powered with :a Bosch-Equipped Daimler 
motor, flew with one passenger 155.25 miles 
on October 1st. On Oct (her 4th he flew with 
two passengers 69.55 miles, and on Septem- 
ber 28th he made an altitude record with 
two passengers, of 3937.2 feet. 



/ hope Aeronautics will continue as it hvijun 
in, qiialitu, and that its readers will steadily in- 
crease. — G. W. Holmes. 



The Hamilton Biplane 

By THOS. F. HAMILTON 



S^S^S^^^ NEW and original biplane 
k±j(ki!yt!i^xi<>^ is the product of the 
^ M ^u Hamilton Aero Mfg. Co., 
^ /\ ^ of Seattle, Wash. This 
c^ /Y Wd company perfected a 
2^ ^ hydroaeroplane this sum- 

^^^^^ ""'^'' ^^^^ -^^^'^ excellent 
^^^^N^N^N^ results, propelled by a 
1^^^^^ 6 cyl. 60-90 h. p. Elbridge. 
^^^i^i^j^i In working on the hydro 
^'^ " lines it was discovered 

that the ordinary aero propeller used was 
too weak to stand the spray in rough 
weather and after experimenting they de- 
veloped a strong hydroaeroplane propeller. 
Different fabric and metal covers were ap- 
plied in many different methods to protect 
the blades from the spray with results that 
developed the Hamilton hydroaero propel- 
ler to 'the extent that the makers believe 
they have a" most strong and efficient pro- 
peller for that use. 

The Hamilton factory has also produced 
a biplane of the general type which has 
given a good account of itself in the hands 
of Thos. F. Hamilton by making many suc- 
cessful flights with practically no accidents. 
This machine was destroyed by fire before 
any extended flights could be made. It was 
sold to be used for exhibition purposes in 
Canada. This was equipped with an Adams- 
Farwell rotary motor and a Hamilton pro- 
peller. Several more on the same lines are 
under construction being headless and have 
the same size and type of planes as the new 
Hamilton X. 

The following is a description of the new 
machine. The main supporting surface is 
composed of twelve sections: four heavy 
ones, four feet long; and eight light, six 
foot ones. The span is thirty-two ft. and 
the chord is five ft. having more than three 
hundred sq. ft. of supporting surface. The 
four foot sections comprise the centre 
planes and are built extra strong, the ribs 
being one foot apart. The outer six foot 
sections are lighter than the inner and the 
ribs are placed farther apart. The lateral 
beams are oval selected Oregon Spruce, as 



is most of the construction, except in the 
centre or where the stresses are great. 
Here ash, hickory, and steel tubing is em- 
ployed. The ribs are fastened to the top 
of the front beam by a small steel socket 
or ferrule and pass under the rear rnr^. 
there held in place by a fcrew. The 1 i. 
is held to the ribs by poc^-et.: and also 
covers the front beam. There is no lacing. 
There are ribs at the ends of all sections 
and each section is separate. They connect 
at the uprights by steel plates and are very 
easily demounted. A light and small steel 
tube is used to hold the ends of the outer 
ribs from bending in due to the strains of 
the cloth. Small hooks are used to fasten 
the end ribs of adjoining sections together. 
A wire passes over the tips of the ribs to 
keep the cloth from bagging. 

The uprights are four feet, ten inches long 
and fish-shaped at the middle, tapering to 
round at the ends on which are fastened a 
ferrule and a permanent lag-screw. This 
screw goes several inches into the upright 
and is very solid and will not work loose 
from vibration. The upright is held to the 
plate by this lag-screw which is threaded 
and has a lock washer to hold the nut from 
possibly coming loose. Between the end of 
the upright and the steel plate is placed the 
terminal to which is fastened the turn- 
buckles. The cable guys are firmly secured 
to the clip and soldered solid. The cables 
are wired and soldered together wherever 
they cross and each cable has a turn-buckle. 
The centre cell and other places subject to 
great strain are double cabled. Roebling's 
cable is used throughout the machine. The 
cable connections make packing convenient 
as they and the uprights are placed to- 
gether in a rack in the order that they are 
set in the plane so that the machine may 
be set up without loose cables to bother 
with. 

A portable extension plane is provided 
and can be easily attached to the upper 
plane for passenger carrying or duration 
flights where great weights are carried. 
They are attached to steel plates with a 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 197 



Decenber, 1911 







' ; 






- ■ \ 


%■ 


■'^''-'u 


^ 




■1 




./ - 










/" ■ , ■ 


■^^% 


■ 1 \ ,i 


■ ■^: 


t\ 


x^ 




Scale Drawing of Hamilton "X" Biplane. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 198 



December, 1911 



chrome-leather hinge. Two small light steel 
tubes, one to each beam are used to hold 
the plane land take either compression or 
tension strain. These tubes may be quickly 
detached and the extension planes folded 
against the uprights so that the aeroplane 
may be placed in a shed of limited size. 
These extensions are made in four or six 
foot lengths and add forty or sixty square 
feet to the supporting plane. They are 
usually set at a slight dihedral angle. 

The ribs, which are three laminations of 
spruce, are flexible at the rear and have a 
slight inverse curve on the theory that the 
angle of incidence automatically adjusts it- 
self according to the weight carried and the 
speed. This may also help to maintain sta- 
bility by absorbing the sudden gusts and 
puffs by their flexibility on the outer sec- 
tions. 

The construction of the fuselage is ash, 
hickory, spruce and steel. The rear 
section of the frame is made of spruce, 
the longitudinal members tapering 
slightly to the ends and meeting on the 
entering edge of 'the elevator and are well 
trussed by many upright members. The 
last foot is made solid by a piece of wood 
placed between the spars as they come to- 
gether. This is rigidly guyed with piano 
wire, each wire having a turn-buckle. There 
are not as many cross bars in the trail- 
frame as uprights. This section is joined to 
the forward section a little behind the 
pilot's cock-pit. Both sections are about the 
same length so that they may be packed in 
the same case without waste of space. The 
rear section is very easily detached to facili- 
tate storage in a small spiace. The front sec- 
tion is mostly covered by an aluminum hood. 
The "balance is enclosed by fabric. This 
hood may be detached as easily as an auto- 
mobile hood, from the frame members to 
give access to the motor, fuel tanks, and 
controls. It also forms a protection for the 
pilot, the cockpit being at the rear of the 
hood, provided with a pneumatic pad around 
the edges to protect the pilot in case of an 
accident or rough landing. The whole 
cock-pit is designed to preserve the safety 
and comfort of the pilot and passenger as 
much as possible. The foot rest is provided 
at 'the end of a slatted floor. A passenger 
or student would sit on one side of the 
control pillar and the pilot on the other. 
It may be operated by either person at will. 
This greatly facilitates teaching in a prac- 
tical manner. When no passenger is car- 
ried the pilot sits with the pillar between his 
legs. The cockpit is kept warm by the heat 
of the motor in a novel fashion that also pro- 
tects the pilot and fuel 'tanks shpuld the 
motor take flre. This protection is much 
neglected in most machines. 

A speed-indicator, revolution-counter, 
gasoline-gauge, oil-gauge, inclinometer, and 
lamp-carrier are before the pilot. 

The stabilizing planes start a little be- 
hind the cock-pit and gradually widen to the 



elevator. They are made of spruce and 
surfaced on both sides, being attached to 
the fuselage by light metal clamps and 
small steel tubes. No lacing. This surface 
is non-lifting, and may be slightly adjusted. 
These planes contain approximately forty 
square feet. 

The elevator is more than sixteen feet to 
the rear of the center of gravity and is 
secured to the stabilizer by eye bolt and 
chrome leather hinges. A mast to which 
the rudder is hinged supports the guy-wires 
and the control cable is attached to it. 
This plane, semi-elliptical in shape, is also 
double surfaced, as are all control planes, 
and contains about eighteen square feet. 
This surface has a slight inverse curve. 

To the mast that holds the elevator guy- 
wires is hinged the vertical rudder which is 
intersected below the center by the elevator 
and can be operated without coming in con- 
tact with it. The rudder surface is about 
seven square feet and may be operated re- 
gardless of the angle of the elevator as it 
moves with it. 

Lateral stability is maintained by the use 
of two biplane ailerons which are hinged to 
the rear uprights. Again chrome leather is 
used to hinge the small uprights between 
the ailerons, which are double controlled by 
two different independent systems. Both 
sets total about forty-five square feet, each 
plane being two by six feet. When one set 
depresses the other lifts. 

The controls are instinctive, all being gov- 
erned by hand from a single pillar. Steer- 
ing is accomplished by turning the wheel in 
the same manner as an auto or boat. The 
elevator is operated by moving the pillar 
fore and aft while the lateral stability is 
maintained by moving the pillar from side 
to side. The magneto cut-out is on the pil- 
lar and the advance and throttle are at 
the seat. A valve for shutting off the gaso- 
line is at the left hand. This should be 
done on a rotary motor before the switch 
is thrown in to make certain that the engine 
will not keep on running from the heat of 
the cylinders. All control wires are 
doubled and at the terminals are fastened 
by a snap hook as well as a turn-buckle. 

The chassis is of the shock-absorbing 
variety and is exceptionally strong. The 
two wheels are equipped with 24x3 detach- 
able tires and a combination rubber and 
steel spring device. This is well designed 
and braced with steel tubing of several 
times the necessary strength. There is a 
laminated ash skid in the center and when 
the machine is on the ground it rests on 
the rear end of this skid which is metal 
shod for two feet. It absorbs the sudden 
shocks of rough landings and distributes 
them over a great area. The terminals of 
the wheel forks at the longitudinals are 
braced to the fuselage by eight steel tubes 
for the same reason. This also greatly 
strengthens the fuselage. The skid projects 

{CoiitinMed on p(u/e :^04) 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 199 



December, 1911 



The Nieuport Monoplane 



E^' 




^1^^^?5^5S^S^HE designer of this machine 
^k*^ktA±^^ tlie late M. Edouard Nieu- 
^/ ^T^ ^^ port, has aimed to develop 
^i I ^j) ''' i^^^liii^6, the features of 
^^ A ^^ wliicli would be simplicity, 
x£it x£< efficiency and speed. That 

^l^l^^^li^ lie has been successful can 
S^S^S^SSS^iS^ Ijs seen by an examination of 
cSs^5c^c^c^ the machine, which is, per- 
^^^u^^^^^S haps, the simplest looking 
machine that has been pro- 
duced. Its efficiency, as compared with that 
of other machines, is vouched for by the 
fact that, at one time, one of these machines 
equipped with a 30 h.p. motor held the 
speed record, the speed itself being within 
two miles of that made by the winning 
machine at Belmont Park last year which 
was equipped with a 100 h.p. engine. The 
70 h.p. Nieuport made a speed of 74.8 
miles per hour in the last Gordon Bennett. 
Weyman's 100 h.p. Nieuport made 78 miles 
per hour. The 30 h.p. made 58.9 miles 



speed in the same race. The 1910 Gordon 
Bennett was won with a 100 h.p. Bleriot 
which made 61 miles per hour. 

The machine described herein was a 
50 h.p. Gnome engine, 2-place machine. 

The Main Planes are built upon two main 
spars of ash, the center lines of which are 
shown in the plan view. Between the spars 
are run three light battens merely to tie 
the ribs together. The ribs, which are 
spaced about 13 inches, are built up in the 
usual manner, being of "1" section, with the 
webs perforated for the sake of lightness. 
The box ribs are built up by using two 
webbs and wider top and bottom flanges. 
The rib curve varies in each rib, decreasing 
toward the wing tips, going down to a flat 
bow. The curve given in the sketch might 
be taken as the standard curve allowance 
being made for the different chord at various 
places, and also for the different thickness 
of the spar, which, by the way, tapers both 
ways from a straight central portion. It 




Running Gear of Nieuport. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 200 



December, 1911 



will be noticed that there is a slight re- 
verse curve on the under surface at the 
trailing edge, while it is very pronounced 
on the upper surface. Each wing is trussed 
with two heavy stranded cables top and 
bottom to each spar, and are set at a 
slight dihedral angle. 




The Fuselage longitudinals are of ash, 
rectangular in section and are channeled out 
between the struts for the sake of lightness. 
The struts are also of rectangular section, 
except those over the skid struts, which are 
steel tubing. The connections between the 
struts and longitudinal members are made 
by aluminum castings to which the wire 
bracing is anchored. The whole structure 
is inclosed in fabric. 

The control system is a little unusual, in 
that the warp is accomplished by the feet, 
while the elevator and the rudder are oper- 
ated by a hand lever, which is mounted by 



a swivel-joint on a short shaft that lies along 
the floor inside the body. A forward and 
backward movement of this lever operates 
the elevator by wires passing around pulleys 
mounted at the ends of the rock shaft. A 
lateral movement of the lever actuates the 
rudder wires by means of a crank, which is 
formed by the extension of the rear pulley 
sheave, and which is, of course, fixed per- 
manently to the rock shaft. The elevators 
are semi-circular in plan, and are con- 
structed of steel tubing frames covered with 
fabric on both sides. The construction of 
the fixed plane is also of steel tubing. 




The Running Gear is composed entirely 
of steel members, the central skid, leaf- 
spring axle and the oval skid struts being 
composed of this material. The "V" mem- 
bers are made up as a unit and can be 
slipped over the skid and put in place in 
a short time should repairs become neces- 
sary. 

A 50 h.p. Gnome is fitted, the propeller be- 
ing 8 feet by 4 inches in diameter. Weyman's 
Nieuport (100 h.p.) in the last military 
competition, made 72.6 miles an hour aver- 
age over a 186 mile course carrying two 
extra people. 




A photo of the Nieuport chassis. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 201 



December, 191 1 




Scale Drawing of Nieuport with Wing Data. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 202 



December, 1911 



Military Bleriot, Type XXI 



^^^^^^^^^^^^'^'^ models of the new 
^S^SA^S^^ Bleriot Type XXI have been 
S^ y--^ sSt delivered to the French 
^^ ^^^ ^^ army after very successful 
^^ y _|j rv4 trials, with prizes awarded 
SKi S^ for extra lifting capacity, 

^^^^^ economy in fuel, etc. 
^^^^^^($^^<S This type had already 
c^c^cr^c^c^ been tried out in France 
^^^^^ by Lieut. Yence and in 
England by the late Lieut. 
C'ammell who covered with it about 3000 
kilometres in two months just before his 
terrible fall where experimenting with an 
English Aeroplane. The aviation officers 
at Chalais who have driven it obtained 
with it a speed of 96 kilometres per hour. 
The driver has a very clear view, the seat 
being placed forward near the front edge 
of the planes. 

Th leading characteristics of the ma- 
chine are as follows: Motor, Gnome, 7 
cylinders, 70 h.p.; total length, 8 meters 
240; span across wings, 11 meters; carrying 
surface, 25.2 sq. meters; weight when 
empty, 330 kilograms; contents of gasoline 
tank under seat, 78 litres; Normal reserve 
supply 35 litres; contents of oil tank, 35 
litres; duration of run, about 3 hours; 
Speed, 90 kilometres. 

This apparatus, specially worked out for 
military needs, has two seats placed side 
by side covered by a hood which also 
covers the motor. The driving members of 
the apparatus are so arranged as to permit 
either one of the aviators to guide the ma- 
chine. For this purpose two pedals are pro- 
vided in front of the temporary driver and 
operate the direction rudder control. Ex- 



perience has shown that the member con- 
trolling the wing twisting as well as the 
ascent and descent can be easily operated 
by either of the occupants without exchang- 
ing places. A movable bar placed across the 
frame carries the instruments necessary for 
navigation, such as the map-holder, anemo- 
meter, altimeter, etc., these instruments 
being capable of sliding on said bar and of 
changing their relative positions at the will 
of the occupants of the machine. 

The rear part of the frame is completely 
covered with canvas and the lateral sur- 
faces present a form tapered toward the 
rear. The purpose of this feature is to di- 
minish the resistance of the tail to lateral 
gusts and, in a way, to balance it with the 
forward surfaces subjected to the same 
gusts. This gives the apparatus as a 
whole a very graceful form. 

The horizontal rudder is arranged at the 
rear of this surface and a little in front 
thereof is found the direction rudder 
arranged alone at the upper part of the 
frame. 

A landing runner, of supple wood and very 
long, completes the rear of the apparatus. 
The purpose of this exceedingly deep 
runner is to force the apparatus when at 
rest to be greatly inclined toward the rear, 
which increases the angle of incidence of 
the planes meeting the resistance to flight, 
the air acting as a brake upon landing, 
which is thus accomplished in an entirely 
normal manner and on a comparatively 
short run. 



Aeronautics is the finest magazine of its l;huT, 
and I tvish it ever)/ fnireess. — Louis R. Millee. 




AERONAUTICS 



Page 203 



December, 191 1 




D. C. De Hart in Eaton Biplane. 



The Eaton Brothers Biplane 

By CLEVE T. SHAFFER 



S^i^i^i^i^ BIPLANE of the Curtiss- 

x^Xij^^i^Xi^x^ Farman type that is doing 
(vv) (if*) 

JiaW A ^M good worlf IS the new 

^[ A\ ^! school machine of the 
^^ -*■ -^ S^ Eaton Brothers at their 
S^S^S^S^J^ S^o^i^*3s Jiear Los Angeles. 
c^c^c^c^c^ The machine, a large and 
Sl^ii^SWS^SM strongly built biplane, has 
^(^^^^ a number of novel features, 
which will become apparent 
upon close inspection of the photos. One's 
attention is first drawn to the long forward 
extension of the skids, and their large 
dimensions, 2"x2%"; a heavy strut runs 
from the leading edge of the upper plane to 
a point on the skid, an excellent combina- 
tion for a school machine, being well cal- 
culated to take the shock of a too s-teep 
landing. 

A noticeable feature which, however, is 
open to criticism, is the large-sized "blink- 
ers" used. It is doubtful if they perform 
much service in turning, inasmuch as the 
elevator has the usual vertical triangles, 
and so much surface (triangles and blink- 
ers) with such a leverage has a tendency to 
dampen the rudder effect and might prove 
somewhat difficult to manage in a side wind. 
That difficulty has been experienced from 
this cause can be seen by the large rudder 
employed; its dimensions are 4'8"x3'3". 
Aigain, the blinkers being so far below the 
center of gravity (unlike the Wright) might 
prove troublesome. 

The new Farman arrangement of pilot 
and passenger seat is here evident. The 
two beams carrying the seats are held in 
place at the front by wires which support 
their share of the weight, at the rear the 
beams are bolted to the leading edge of the 
lower plane. 

The running gear struts are entirely of 
steel tubing, the ends of which fit into sock- 
ets and are held in place with a cotter pin, 
a good feature allowing of quick disassemb- 



ling. A steel strap is placed diagonally 
between the skid struts. 

Control is by single lever and foot yoke as 
shown. The Farman flaps extend two sec- 
tions on the top plane and one section on 
the bottom, and are worked both up and 
down, upper and lower flaps being con- 
nected by wires, the control wires are at- 
tached to the masts. 

Spread is 35 feet. Planes are double cov- 
ered, the top and bottom surfaces of the 
plane are 2" apart at widest point. 

This shape of rib is claimed by the Batons 
to be very efficient, and is the result of con- 
siderable experiment. 

A Hall-Scott 60 h.p. A. 2 engine turns an 
Eaton propeller of 7'9" diameter — 4'6" 
pitch, blade 101/4" wide. 

The Eaton Bros, have made a number of 
successful machines, including one for Chas. 
F. Walsh, and have now turned their atten- 
tion to school work. One of their pupils, 
D. C. De Hart of Los Angeles, has made a 
number of good flights and will soon try for 
his license. 



On Nov. 4, 1911, D. C. De Hart left the 
aviation ground of the Eaton Bros. & Co., 
at Hyde Park, Cal. in an Eaton biplane, and 
made a cross country flight which raises 
him into the rank of a skilled aviator. 

He left the field about 9:30 a.m. and re- 
turned about 1:30 p.m. He had been mak- 
ing short flights into the surrounding coun- 
try before this. In these short flights he 
landed in some favorable place and after 
inspecting his machine returned to the 
field. 

On the morning in question he planned to 
fly to San Pedro and out over the harbor 
where the Pacific fieet lay at anchor. 

The program was carried out without a 
hitch. After leaving the field he headed 
straight for Dominguez field, at an altitude 
of about 1000 feet. He passed this field and 
continued on to San Pedro passing out over 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 204 



December, 1911 



the fleet. The sailors cheered him lustily 
as he flew over at an altitude of 1500 feet. 
He then continued on along the beach to 
Long Beach. He swung over this town 
and headed again for Dominguez field near 
which he landed in order to take on gaso- 
line. 



On his return to Hyde Park he had to 
face a heavy head wind which kept him 
busy, and on his arrival at the point of 
starting at about 1:30 he had acquired a 
sharp appetite for the dinner that was 
awaiting him. 




A Detail View of the Eaton Maclilne. 



The Hamilton Biplane 

(Continued from page 19S) 

five feet ahead of the wheels which prevents 
the machine from standing on its nose, and 
also protects the propeller. The wheels are 
placed well ahead of the center of gravity 
so as to prevent this tendency in steep de- 
scents or rough landings. It will also be 
noted that when the wheels absorb the 
shock they move forward thus moving the 
weight farther back. 

The motive power is furnished by a 50 
h.p. Gnome equipped with an eight foot 
Hamilton propeller. Sufficient fuel is car- 
ried for a four hour flight. Another tank 
may be easily placed with a pressure pump 
for the pilot to the gravity tanks, which 
are built with many compartments to pre- 
vent the fuel from rolling from side to side. 
It is expected that American motors will 
be tried in future machines according to the 
requirements of the customers. 



This type of machine will be fitted with 
a float and tried out early next spring. The 
price of this model equipped with a 50 h.p. 
Gnome is $4,500 and $3,500 for a 50 h.p. 
Anzani or Indian. Several of these ma- 
chines will be built for customers this 
winter and an attempt will be made to have 
machines for immediate delivery in the 
near future. 



In France, the number of machines delivereii 
for military purpose.s in 1911 is about 75,. 
states Louis Bleriot to AERONAUTICS, and 
has in addition orders for more than 100 new 
machines. 

In foreign countries, he has actually delivered! 
the following numoer of machines: 

Russia: 14 single and 10 2-place. 

Italy: 9 single and 1 two-place. 

Roumania: 3 single and 1 two-place. 

England: 2 two-place. 

Japan: 1 single seat. 

Austria: 1 single seat. 

Others have been sold through agents. The- 
number sold for civilian purposes is about 130. 



AU<UI\AUIIL:S December, 1911 



mm 



n 



QUEEN AEROPLANE CO. 

The possibilities of the 

HYDROAEROPLANE 

have a strong appeal at present, and we are there- 
fore perfecting the design of a new machine, 

The QUEEN "AEROBOAT" 



a combination aeroplane and boat rendering aero- 
planing safer and more reliable and boating more 
exhilarating. This machine is to be ready for the 
coming season. 



We have several Queen Bleriot type monoplanes, 
one and two passenger, 30 to 100 h. p., ready for 
quick delivery, at prices ranging from $3,500 up. 

QUEEN AEROPLANE CO. 

197th St. and Amsterdam Ave. 
NEW YORK CITY 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 206 



December, 1911 



The Ellsworth Lateral Stabilizer 



By CLEVE T. SHAFFER 



^^S^^S^HAS. F. Walsh, the well 

^±^Xi£-tx±-t>^^[ known Southern California 

^^ ^^ ^^ aviator, has just concluded 

S^ ■ W^ ^ series of successful ex- 

c^ \^^ ^5 periments with the Ells- 

2&/ ^[ worth Equilibrator, having 

S^^^^^ made up to the present, 

v^y^y^y^y^ thirty-oue flights in which 

(p/^^^^ the lateral balance of a 

^l^i^^^l^l *-'^^^^^^'tyP® aeroplane was 
left entirely to the auto- 
matic device, the usual shoulder forks be- 
ing disconnected. 

This device, the invention of a Portland, 
Ore., man, now being marketed by the Ells- 
worth Aviation Company of that city, is 
probably the first lateral stabilizer that has 
been actually tried out on an aeroplane with 
successful results; the Doutre being a longi- 
tudinal stabilizer. 



human agency. This I found by having the 
wires from the ailerons connected to my 
steering post, which was pulled from side 
to side by the action of the equilibrator in 
maintaining a balance before I was even 
aware that the balance had been disturbed." 
In turning corners the equilibrator banks 
the aeroplane automatically by having the 
mechanism connected to and controlled by 
the steering wheel, thereby banking the 
aeroplane at just the required angle for the 
turn. 

In the above statement it will be noted 
that in turning corners the equilibrator will 
automatically bank the machine at the right 
angle. A point not made clear, however, 
is that the amount of bank or angle is 
always at instant command of the operator 
should he desire it more or less. 

Some of the advantages claimed for the 



;i il 



^'1 \ T^ K W 





The Machinery of the Ellsworth Stabilizer. 



The e(iuilibrator tried by Walsh is a com- 
bination of pendulum and electric action; 
also rotary motion received from the engine 
crank shaft the pendulum, of course is used 
to denote variation from the horizontal: 
electricity is used in the intermittent trans- 
mission of pendulum action to an electro- 
magnetic clutch. 

In the illustration the equilibrator can be 
seen back of Walsh and under the Hall- 
Scott engine. 

In an interview Walsh stated: "In a series 
of tests with this device on a Curtiss-type 
biplane under varying conditions in every 
case the equilibrator responded instantly to 
the least variation from the horizontal far 
more quickly than it could be detected by 



device are as follows: — 

rt will hold an aeroplane level under all 
conditions unless the angle be deliberately 
changed by the operator. 

In banking an aeroplane, the automatic 
balance is not in any way interfered with. 
The angle at which it works is changed 
only. 

In circling to the right or left the equil 
ibrator is automatically adjusted, by the 
action of the rudder, to bank the aeroplane 
at exactly the required angle. 

Although the driving power of the equil- 
ibrator may be taken directly from the 
engine of an aeroplane yet it does not de- 
pend upon such driving power, for should 
the speed of the engine be reduced, an elec- 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 207 



December, 1911 




Charles F. Walsh In Machine Fitted with Stabilizer. The Apparatus Is Located in the 
Wooden Frame underneath the IVIotor. The Wires AA Run to the Ailerons. HUsworth is 
seen in his shirt sleeves. 



trically driven motor will automatically cut 
in and drive the equilibrator meclianism 
long enough for the operator to make a safe 
landing. 

It is obvious that electric motor and stor- 
age battery weight (if the latter is used), 
is not included in given weight of 18 lbs. 

Thouoh no information is at hand it is pos- 
sible that instead of a storage battery a 
small dynamo driven by a fan or fans utiliz- 
ing the aeroplanes, speed will be used. 

The construction and detail of this re- 
markable device is very interesting. Di- 
mensions are: length 16", width 9", height 
8", weight 18 pounds. The mechanism con- 
sists of two rotating electro-magnets driven 
in opposite directions by a gear pinion. An 
armature between the magnets is keyed to 
a drum shaft so that a rotation of the arm- 
ature causes a relative rotation of the 
drum. 

The drum carries the aileron cable. An 
electric circuit is completed by either arm of 
a pendulum dipping into a mercury cup, 
upon the listing of the aeroplane. One of 
the rotating magnets is then excited and 



grasps the armature, thereby revolving the 
drum. The drum shaft, however, termin- 
ates in a gear; the block containing the 
mercury cup is so attached to the gear 
wheel, that the rotation of the gear wheel 
will drop the cup away from the pendulum 
arm, breaking the circuit and leaving the 
ailerons set to right the aeroplane. As 
the aeroplane comes back to normal the 
operation of the equilibrator is reversed, 
thereby bringing the ailerons to a normal 
position. 

Means are provided, for rotating at will 
the block containing tlie mercury cups, thus 
causing contact to be made for banking the 
aeroplane to any required angle. A move- 
ment of the block does not cause any move- 
ment of the gear wheel, yet a movement of 
the gear wheel causes a relative movement 
of the block. This allows the operator to 
change his angles, laterally of course, at 
will without interfering in any way with 
the automatic control. 

The device can be applied to fore and 
aft control as well as lateral control. 



Capt. Hugh L. Willoughby, of Newport, R. I., 
and Sewalls Point, Fla., has recently received 
delivery of a 6 cylinder "Kirkhani" motor to 
be installed in his hydroaeroplane, tlie "Peli- 
can." Motors have also been delivered during 
the past month to Jas. V. Martin, and the 
Chicago Aeroplane Mfg. Co. 



On October 15, John Schwister, of Wau.sau, 
Wis., in a biplane of his own construction, 
equipped witli a "Kirkham" 6 cylinder power 
plant made a flight of 45 minutes over the city 
of Wausau and surrounding country, flying part 
of the time at a height of 2000 feet. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 208 



December, 1911 




By PERCY PIERCE, Model Editor 




ST is my aim, in writing this 
model page which will ap- 
pear every month in Aero- 
nautics, to aid and en- 
courage those who are in- 
terested in the art of model 
flying. This page will con- 
tain accounts of new model 
clubs, contests and de- 
scriptions of some of the 
best models here and 
abroad. 1 would like all those who belong 
to model clubs or have models which they 
believe can fly a considerable distance, to 
send me all information regarding same. 

Real model flying in America did not 
show itself until October of 1909, when the 
West Side Y. M. C. A., New York, held its 
first contest in the yard adjoining the As- 
sociation building. From that time on, 
model flying grew very rapid and now flights 
of over a quarter of a mile are being made. 
The New York Model Aero Club was or- 
ganized in Sept. 1910, and has grown con- 
siderably, not only in model flying, but in 
membership. Their new quarters are at the 
rooms of the Aeronautical Society. 250 West 
54th Street. The Stuyvesant Aeronautic 
Society, another of the early model clubs 
is still flourishing. This club meets in room 
201 of Stuyvesant High School. 




JHE model described in this 
issue was designed by 
Frederick Watkins, one of 
New York's enthusiastic 
model flyers. The unof- 
fical flight to its credit is 
considerable more than 
1600 feet; official, 1400 feet. 
It first made its appear- 
ance at Van Cortlandt 
Park, New York, in the 
early part of November, 1911, where it has 
since been making very long flights. The 
weight of the model ready for flying, is 2^^ 
ounces, and has a supporting area oi about 
48 square inches. 

The Frame. This is of bamboo taper- 
ing from % inch at the middle to l^ inch 
at the ends. All the joints are held to- 
gether by Ambroid (a waterproof glue) 
and thread. The fln at the front, enabling 
straight flight to be made, is of 34 gauge 
aluminum. The white pine propellers are 
7 inches long, % inch thick and have a pitch 
of about 13 inches. In most of the long 
flights this model has made, 1100 turns 
were used. No. 14 piano wire is used for 
the propeller shafts and front rubber 
anchorage. The power consists of 9 strands 
of flat rubber. 

The Planes. The framework of these is 
constructed of bamboo, the large one being 



RUBBER 




2' 

i2i- DETAIL OF FROnT 



ALUMinun nn 




BAMBCO 

ELEVATIOn 



nonOPLAHE I 



BACK ELEVATlOn 

COPPER WIRE 



TIPPED uprnD 



FASTEnincs 



PlAnO WIRE SHAFT 



^^^T^pV' bahboo 

mmy - ' ^ 




BOO 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 209 



December, 1911 



16 inches by 2^/^ inches, with eleven double 
ribs. The front one has but three. The 
planes are covered with rice paper, coated 
with varnisli, wliich makes an air tight, 
smooth surface. They are held on the 
frame by rubber, so that in case the planes 
strike a tree they are easily pushed aside. 
The ends of the planes are tipped up a 
little for stability. 

The model is wound up by attaching the 
rubber at the front to a double winder. The 
rubber is stretched about twice the length 
of the model as it is wound up, thus en- 
abling more turns to be had and conse- 
quently longer flights. 



This weekly contest held at Van Cort- 
landt Park, Nov. 7th, proved to be a great 
success. Eighteen contestants entered their 
models. Frederick Watkins, with a Watkins 
monoplane, came first with a flight of 1400 
feet, winning the "Second Boy's Book of 
Model Aeroplanes" offered by Mr. Edward 



Durant. Stuart Easter with his "Easter- 
plane," came -second with 1387 feet. The 
record of- 1691 feet, made by Cecil Peoli, 
has not yet been surpassed. 

English Duration Records. 

The English model records for duration 
show that America is far behind in the art 
of model flying. At one of the contests 
held at the sports ground. Crystal Palace, 
on June 7th last, the duration attained was 
146 2/.5 seconds, over two minutes. This is 
quite a good deal more than that of 48 3/5 
seconds (American record), which was made 
by Cecil Peoli. The result of the contest 
held at the sports ground is as follows: — 

First. C. B. Ridley, (Ridleyplane) 146 2/5 
sees. ■ . ■ 

Second. R. F. Mann, (Mann monoplane) 
112 sees. 

Third. C. K. Srarf, (Srarf monoplane) 77 
sees. 

Address all inqniries to PERCY W. PIERCE, 5907 Osage, Phila., Pa 





~^^y 


^^^^> - ,.-^ -^Mi^^^f- - 


^^ 




I ^Jp*3w^ 


CLUB NEWS i 


M'^y^^^^^m 



Tlie Aero Club of Long Island held its annual 
meeting December 7th. The following officers 
were elected for the ensuing year: Charles Wald, 
President: Charles D. Spence, 1st Vice-Presi- 
dent; William T. Newel!, 2nd Vice-President. 

Joseph K. Post, Secretar5^ and Henry I. 
Newell, Treasurer, were re-elected to their re- 
spective offices. 

There will be a change in the Board of Di- 
rectors owing to the expiration of the term of 
Howard C. Brown. Thomas Kramer was elect- 
ed to fill the vacancy. The Directorate for the 
ensuing year is as follows: Charles Wald, Chair- 
man, Francis C. Wiiison, John H. Lisle, Henry 
I. Newell, Jr., Thomas Kramer. 

The meetings of the Club are held on the first 
Thursday of each month. The secretary's ad- 
dress is 418 Oak St., Richmond Hill, N. Y. 

The Aero Club of California, at a meeting held 
November 7th, elected Charles E. Rilliet to the 
office of president in the place of George B. 
Harrison, whose office was declared vacant by 
the directors on account of his connection with 
the Aeronautical Society of California. 

The Aero Club of Pennsylvania is having regu- 
lar meetings now at the Bellevue Stratford, 
Philadelphia. On Dec. 15, E. R. Brown lectured 
on "The Development of the Hydro-aeroplane." 

At a well attended meeting of The Aero- 
nautial Society on November 23, Prof. A. H. 
Sabin gave an interesting talk upon wood fin- 
ishing, with particular reference to the aero- 
plane. Mr. R. F. McFie, a builder from England 
discussed his views on the automatic stability 
of machines of the Dunne type, giving as well, 
a review of the best English practice. The 
Ambroid Company sent their New York repre- 
sentative, Mr. G. H. Rohwedder to the meeting. 
He gave a description of Ambroid and its phy- 
sical characteristics. Edward Durant gave a 
talk upon local model flying. Dr. E. P. Beadle 
gave an intensely interesting demonstration of 
a two cylinder, four cycle gasoline motor that 
weighed," including ignition system, less than 
fourteen ounces. Mr. W. S. Howell, Jr., talked 
upon the automatic stability of his model. 

On December 14th, the well known author, 
Grover C. Loening, talked upon little understood 
problems in aerodynamics. Mr. George P. Van 
Wve described a new method for safely stor- 
ing gasoline. Mr. Robert A. Alberts of the C. 
B. Hewitt & Bros, described the proper use of 
glue in aeroplane construction. 



The Aero Club of America has made a spe- 
cial division in membership, the Fifth Class, 
for commissioned officers of the regular army 
of the United States, with initiation fee and 
dues but $10 each. 

The annual dinner is scheduled for January 
27, at which President William H. Taft has 
promised to be present. 

The Aero Club of New England held its an- 
nual banquet, Nov. 28. The discussion embraced 
ballooning, aviation and hydro-aeroplane and 
soaring without power, an interesting illus- 
trated lecture upon the latter subject being de- 
livered by A. A. Merrill. 

One of the surprises of the meeting was the 
introduction to the members of James Lewis, of 
Boston, who this year slipped away from his 
friends and took up the study of aviation in 
France, qualifying as a pilot on Oct. 6 last from 
the Voisin School. 

Mr. Lewis delivered an address upon his ex- 
periences in learning the art of aviation. 

Eugene P. Merlet of Paris, now a resident 
of Boston, gave a talk on "Aviation in France." 

Greeley S. Curtis of Marblehead spoke on 
"Hydro-Aeroplaning," H. H. Cummings de- 
scribed a new instrument to determine the 
speed of an aerostat. Jay B. Benton described 
a recent night trip from Pittsfleld over New 
York City, William Van Sleet, the pilot, made 
a short address, and Mr. Merrill concluded the 
meeting with a lecture, illusti-ated, on "Flight 
Without Power." 

Prior to the dinner these officers were elected: 
Jay B. Benton, president; Henry Howard, first 
vice-president: John J. Van Valkenburgh, sec- 
ond vice-president; A. R. Shrigley, secretary; 
William C. Hill, treasurer; Nathan L. Amster, 
T. E. Bvrnes. Jav B. Benton, H. Helm Clayton, 
J. Walter Flagg, Charles J. Glidden, Henry 
Howard, Harry C. Pollard, Griswold S. Hay- 
ward, A. R. Shrigley and John J. Van Valken- 
burgh, directors: Griswold S. Hayward and 
Charles J. Glidden, committee on foreign rela- 
tions; Charles J. Glidden, Jay B. B'enton and 
.7. Walter Flagg, committee on contests and 
balloons, and W. Starling Burgess, Harold W. 
Brown and Albert A. Merrill, committee on 
aeroplanes. 

It meets our best expectations. — G. H. Curtiss. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 210 



December, 1911 





O all my good friends who read "Aeronautics," who have sent me 
so many kind and complimentary letters, whose co-operation has 
made it possible to conduct this journal for a longer time than 
any other aeronautical publication free from club subsidies — 
Greeting ! 

Since the inception of this paper, time has not been a cheap 
^I^H^^^ commodity with me. All the days and most of the nights have 
been crowded with work. Never has it seemed possible for me 
to sit down and talk direct to you as I have wished. 

Each month since the beginning I have tried to give you all I possibly 
could in the way of interesting and valuable reading matter. From the letters 
continually received from some of you, I know that my purpose has been ac- 
complished to an appreciable extent. For this I am grateful and feel amply 
repaid for my efforts. 

But, surely I am not satisfied. From the beginning my one aim has 
been improvement. Improvement must continue. The magazine must grow^ 
in size, in amount of articles and data, in appearance and in value. 

To promise and to do are very different things. To keep in the advance, 
your co-operation is as essential now as before. I am not content w^ith slow^ 
progress. I want each issue to show a more decided improvement. 

I want five thousand new subscribers during the next six months. 

This is not an extraordinary demand. If each one of you would send in 
but one new subscriber my expectations w^ould be more than realized. 

This seems very simple. The point is here — Are you willing to try to 
get one new subscriber each? Some friend who is interested in aeronautics 
would be pleased with a subscriptions as a Xmas gift. 

On another page in this issue you W\\\ find a plan outlined by which you 
can be remunerated for your efforts. 

This request is not for my personal benefit — it is for the benefit of the 
magazine — for your benefit. 

From now on I am going to make a strong effort to devote more time 
to the producing of a still better magazine and I mean to take time to say a 
few things. 



^<^ 




AERONAUTICS 



Page 213 



December, 1911 




Curtiss Notifies Alleged Infringers 

Patent on Pressure Equalizer 

WSK^SJffiSS^g^ LEXN H. CURTISS has noti- 
S&t^&cS£*StJCS&t fled manufacturers of so- 
)KS /S^ called Curtiss-tjije aeroplanes, 

SSu ^''*\ S^ parts makers and other alleged 
fii^S M jKS users of his devices, warning 

Xi* M T X^ them against using his shoulder 
SS ^^^ S^ control and other devices of 
i&A. .v^^( which he is inventor and 

ffiSfi^SS^^jS^S^ which are being widely used 
C^«v^«v^^(v^y^ in this country. 
nSa^p)^p)^p)®p) Mr. Curtiss has applications 
>^<^^y^y^>^ pending, also, on a device for 
WvWjIWwJjIw^ equalizing the pressure on 
XuXXu^Xu^Vu.4Xu^ ailerons in order to avoid any 
possible turning movement of 
the machine about a vertical axis due to the use 
of ailerons, as well as applications covering 
shoulder control and hydro-aeroplane. Mr. 
Curtiss wishes to inform the public that he 
is not acquiescent in the genei'ul use of his in- 
ventions upon patents will eventually issue. 

One Patent Just Issued 

A United States' patent, 1,11,106, was issued 
on December 5, 1911, to Alexander Graham 
Bell, F. W. Baldwin, J. A. D. McCurdy, Glentn 
H. Curtiss and Edward A. Selfridge, adminis- 
trator of Lieut. Thos. E. Selfridge, deceased; 
all assignors to Charles J. Bell, trustee, of 
Washington, D. C. The application was filed 
April 8, 1909. 

The patent aims at the maintaining or 
restoration of lateral balance of machine having 
rigid supporting surfaces by means distinct 
from the supporting surfaces themselves. The 
patent claims that heretofore supporting sur- 



faces have been made flexible for the purpose 
of warping the extremities to preserve balance, 
which warping imparts a turning movement 
which must be corrected by a vertical rudder. 

The main claims of this patent cover the 
combination of supporting surfaces having a 
positive angle of incidence with a pair of lateral 
balancing rudders, or ailerons, which are ad- 
justed to equal and opposite positive and 
negative angles of incidence, normally at zero 
angle, connections to a controlling device which 
embraces the body and is operated by the 
movements of the aviator. There are twenty- 
eight claims covenng the placing of the ailerons 
outside the lateral margins of the supporting 
surfaces, in combination with multiple surfaces 
and other modification of the principal features. 

The patentees are those who, in 1908-1909, 
comprised the Aerial Experiment Association, 
which was formed to build aeroplanes for ex- 
perimental purposes. After building four ma- 
chines. Red Wing, White Wing, June Bug and 
Silver Dart, all of which flew, the Association 
was dissolved, after a year's time. It was 
financed by Mrs. Bell and was formed at her 
suggestion at a time when all these men 
happened to be together on some experimental 
work of Dr. Bell's at his Nova Scotia home. 

It is of interest to note that the Wright 
patent describes a cradle which was used to 
warp the wings of the Wright gliders. This 
embraced the body of the aviator and the 
body movements warped the wings. 



I think there are hut ttrn ma{!n::i)trs eomhiniti!^ 
the esxrntinls of their r/o.s.s — ii/-t'snitiii(j neirs, at 
once, timehi and aiithnritntire. and aliraiis "read- 
able." The which jii.^tifles their hcinfj called 
representative of their .'^uhjcct. in their respective 
continents a-d the icorld at larfje. Of course, I 
mean "I'Aerophile'' and Aeron.\utics. — Jos. A. 
Bloxdin. 




The Wittemann Stabilizing Experiment. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 214 



December, , 1911 



THE WITTEMANN AILERON SCHEME 

The brothers Adolph and Charles Wittemann, 
Staten Island, N. Y., builders of the Baldwin 
"Red Devils" and other machines, have applied 
for a patent on vertical vanes, which are curved 
upward and outward. Experiments have been 
made with these fastened to the lateral ex- 
tremities of the main planes and made both 
either rigid or movable as desired by the 
usual shoulder control but in the same 
direction. 

If one side 'of the machine drops one of the 
outwardly curved surfaces offers more lift than 
the other and tends to lift the low side. It 
is claimed by the Inventors that no turning 
movement of the aeroplane is caused. 

An aeroplane fitted with these was balanced 
on a pair of horses, as seen in the photograph. 
One side was pulled down so that the machine 
was overbalanced on one side. The gusts of 
wind against which the machine was headed 
invariably righted that side. The machine, 
without motor, was also run fast downhill, even 
getting off the ground for a few feet. It was 
found that the rocking felt in running over 
the ground was avoided. Trials were also 
made with cables attached between the shoulder 
control .and these auxiliary surfaces which 
were then manually operated. It was found 
that the operator could keep the machine 
balanced on the horses. These auxiliary planes 
are pivotall.v mounted on the axis AB, shown 
in the photograph. 

PROSPECTS IN THE NAVY. 

The $25,000 aeronautical appropriation in the 
U. S. Navy granted last summer has been 
largely reduced by the purchase of the Wright 
biplane and the Curtiss water 'plane and in- 
cidental expenses so that no new complete ma- 
chines will be bought until after June 30, 1912. 
The present Wright machine has been made into 
a hydro-aeroplane by the addition of pontoons 
from the Burgess company. 

Captain W. Irving Chambers, head of aero- 
nautical work in the Navy, was asked recently 
by Aeronautics a number of questions which are 
liere answered briefly. 

"In the range of subjects you wish me to touch 
I fear you are almost as impatient as I am to 
get on. The very things you want me to write 
about are of lea&'t importance in my estimation 
and can only be shown up clearly by time. Avia- 
tion is barely out of the crawling stage of in- 
fancy; although many would like us to assume 
that we must judge of the future by present 
performances. Some enthusiasts are over- 
sanguine, the knockers are too pessimisstic 
and everybody is too fond of sensation. 

"As to the likelihood of aeroplanes being shot 
down. Of course that will happen. Everybody 
and every machine engaging in war must con- 
template the risk of being shot. Aeroijlaiies will 
fight aeroplanes and those that are not over- 
burdened with missies intended for dropping 
will have the advantage. They will be useful 
auxiliaries in the war game everywhere, but 
don't for a moment entertain the idea that they 
are going to supplant armies on land or ships 
on the sea. That is an old, old story with which 
we have to contend when anything new ap- 
pears. It is fascinating for the overburdened 
taxpayer to think that .some new cheap and 
sneak device is going to revolutionize warfare 
and cheapen its cost and many misguided 
enthusiasts prey upon his credulity in order to 
force the development in the wrong way. It 
has alwavs been so and always will be so, but 
the net result in the end, is always to increase 
the cost of war, because it adds still another 
factor or complication to consider. As regards 
ships it simply requires increase of offensive 
and defensive powers even to the addition of 
the new devices as auxiliaries. Why, way back 
during the Revolutionary War, our doughty 
Admiral .Tohn Rodgers proclaimed that torpedo 
warfare was inhuman and ought to be suppres- 
sed by international agreement. You will doubt- 
less hear something of this sort concerning 
aviation ere long. Only a short time ago the 
French Navy almost dropped out of the run- 
ning through the campaign of an energetic 
newspaper fanatic who induced the administra- 
tion to devote its energies almost exclusively 
to the developmfent of torpedo warfare. 



"And now you ask me to compare aeroplanes 
with Scout Cruisers on a cost basis. My 
answer is that the Scout Cruisers will remain 
and the aeroplanes will be needed in addition." 
REMOVAL OF ARMY SCHOOL. 
The Signal Corps Aviation School departed 
from College Park, Md., the afternoon of. No- 
vember 28th, and arrived at Augusta, Ga., 
about midnight the 2Hth. Capt. C. Def\ Chand- 
ler, Lieut's. R. C. Kirtland, H. H. Arnold, T. 
BeW. Milling, Lieut. J. P. Kelley of the Medical 
Reserve Corps., and nineteen enlisted men of 
the Signal Corps made the trip in a special 
train of nine cars. 

Capt. Paul W. Beck was detained in Wash- 
ington on account of the death of his father, 
General Beck. Lieut. Kennedy remained in 
Washington for treatment at the Walter Reed 
General Hospital, but these officers are ex- 
pected to join the school shortly. 

The Wright, B'urgess-Wright and two Cur- 
tiss aeroplanes, and all other equipment per- 
taining to the school was taken along, includ- 
ing horses, wagons and mules. 

The new site for the Aviation School during 
the winter is on the Barnes farm near the east 
boundary of Augusta. There are several hun- 
dred acres of level land used only for raising 
hay; these fields afford ideal conditions for the 
instruction of beginners. The average wind 
velocity of Augusta during the winter months 
is very low, and it is expected that many aero- 
plane flights will be made practically every 
day. 

During the first week of December, the Avia- 
tion School got well started for the winter 
season. The Wright, Burgess-Wright and 8- 
cylinder Curtiss aeroplanes were assembled and 
flown. 

The flights of special interest were: one 
around the citv the 7th inst. at an altitude of 
2500 feet by Lieut. Kirtland and on the 9th both 
Lieuts. Kirtland and Arnold went around the 
city at an average altitude of 2500 feet. 

On the 8th. inst. Lieut. Arnold ascended to an 
altitude of 4100 feet. In addition to being an 
expert aviator with a Wright control, Lieut. 
Milling has been learning to fly the Curtiss 
type. His instruction began at College Park 
under direction of Captain Beck and now he is 
flying very successfully alone. 

PROHIBITION OF FLYING OVER GAMES. 
On November 13th the following resolution 
was passed by the Board of Governors of the 
Aero Club of America: — 

WHEREAS it has come to the notice of the 
Board of Governors of the Aero Club of America 
that the practice of flying over spectators and 
contestants in athletic sports and games is be- 
coming prevalent among aviators, and 

WHEREAS such flying unnecessarily en- 
dangers human life. 

BE IT THEREFORE RESOLVED that all 
aviators licensed by the Aero Club of America 
be and are hereby forbidden to fly over in the 
close vicinity of spectators or contestants in 
games or sports other than licensed aviation 
meets or exhibitions in which the flying is 
governed by the rules for the meet or exhibi- 
tion and 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Con- 
test Committee be and is hereby instructed to 
take cognizance of any violation of the above 
inhibition and supply such one of the jienalties 
set forth in Article 63 of the Regulations of the 
International Aeronautical Federation as it may 
deem expedient. 

PRESIDENT MADERO'S FLIGHT. 
President Madcro, the present president of 
Mexico, has attained the distinction of being 
the only head of a nation to go up in an aero- 
plane. George M. Dyott took him up in his 2- 
place Deperdussin, (described recently in AERO- 
NAUTICS) at Mexico City on November 30. 
Mr. Dyott writes there is some difference be- 
tween flying at S.OOO foet altitude and around 
New York. Some of tlie machines at the exhibi- 
tion in that city could not fly at all. In the 
mornings flying can be indulged in only by the 
most expert pilots. The air is very thin and 
treacherous; even though there inay be no wind. 
In this respect it is like Issy-les-Moulineaux. 
Mr. Dyott has been offered a post with the 
Mexican government as chief pilot. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 215 



December, 1911 



WHITE CAN NOT FLY IN U. S. A. 
Wright Company Gets Decision. 

Claude Grahame-White can not fly in 
the United States until the Wright Company 
says so, from now on. And if they do let him, 
lie will fly either a Wright machine or pay a 
royalty. Not only that, but the Wright Com- 
pany may be able to collect some part of his 
earnings for the past year, and, possibly, even 
before that. 

Judge Hand, of the United States Circuit 
Court, Southern Dist., handed down an opinion 
of prime importance to said White on Decem- 
ber 12 — just one day short of being the 13th, 
but it was bad luck anyhow. His opinion set- 
tles the validity of the Wright patent so far 
as Claude G. W. is concerned, though for the 
public the validity of the patent is not neces- 
sarily sustained. The question of amount of 
damages due the Wright Company from last 
November, 1910, when the present suit was 
started, until the present will be determined 
later. A new suit has been started for damages 
sustained by the plaintiff company from the 
time White began flying in this country up to 
November, 1910. 

The action ended by Judge Hand's opinion 
was a suit for infringement and accounting 
against the defendant by reason of his use of 
Farman and B'leriot aeroplanes, claims 3, 7, 9, 
14 and 15 of the Wright patent being in suit. 
The defendant did not present any proofs and 
the validity of the Wright patent was not seri- 
ously disputed. 

Judge Hand, among other things, states: 
"In the form in which the case arises 
there can not be any substantial doubt of 
the right of the complainant to an injunc- 
tion. The defendant has put in no proofs 
upon any of the issues raised in the an- 
swer and the patent is sustained by its 
own prima facie validity. I shall adopt the 
same interpretation which I put upon it in 
The Wright Company vs. Paulhan, and 
hold that the fixed connection between the 
rudder and the warping mechanism is not 
an essential feature of the claims, but 
that the only connection between the two 
may be made by the intermediation of a 
human body and a human will. The de- 
fendant, while not conceding the validity 
of the patent, does not seriously challenge 
it, or argue that his biplanes have not 
infringed it. I have, therefore, no alterna- 
tive but to grant an injunction." 



WRIGHT-CURTISS SUIT. 

The Wright-Curtiss suit will probably not 
come to trial at Buffalo until February or 
March, as additional time has been granted 
in which to take testimony. 

DEATH OF SHRIVER 

San Juan, Porto Rico, Dec. 2. "Tod" Shriver, 
pilot number nine of the Aero Club of America 
was killed flying an exhibition at Ponce. He 
"lost control in making a turn." With George 
Schmitt, of Rutland, Vt., he was flying a Curtiss 
type with a Hall-Scott engine, the outfit fur- 
nished them by Captain Baldwin. "Pete" 
McLaughlin, a hotel keeper of Mineola, was 
financing the tour. Shriver was 32 years old 
and was born in Manchester, O. Within the past 
year he broke one leg twice in aeroplane 
smashes. He was an old showman and went 
with Captain Baldwin many years ago, during 
the St. Louis world's fair. In 1907 he worked 
for Glenn H. Curtiss. In 1910 he interested a 
brother of the lamp manufacturer, Dietz, in the 
building of a machine and with that gave a 
number of exhibitions in the course of which 
he broke his leg. Shriver was known the United 
States over as "Slim," many knowing him by no 
other name than that. 

Municji, Germany, Dec. 3. An aviator by the 
name of Reeb was killed making a flight from 
Munich to Nuremberg. 

Berlin, Germany, Nov. 25. Lieut. Baron von 
Freytag Loringhoven, military aviator, was 
killed at the military field at Doeberitz. 

Berlin, Nov. 15. Herr Pletshcker (Albatross) 
was killed at Johannisthal field. 

London, Dec. 6. Hubert Oxley and his pas- 
senger Robert Weiss met death flying for the 
Blackburn aeroplane concern, makers of an 
Antoinette-type monoplane. 

Vienna, Dec. 1. An author, Mosca, was killed 
while flying as a passenger with Lieut. Nittnej 
at Wiener-Neustadt. 

Etampes, France. Dec. 13. Lieut. Chas. Lan- 
theaume fell 1500 feet and was instantly killed. 

Turin, Italy, Nov. 26. Humbert de Croce was 
killed practicing the dropping of bombs. < 

RODGERS REACHES PACIFIC OCEAN. 

On Dec. 10 C. P. Rodgers finally reached the 
Pacific. In the last issue we gave full details 
of his flight to Pasadena from New York, ar- 
riving at Pasadena Nov. 5. Many towns wanted 
the honor of seeing him actually loucn the 
ocean. The Long Beach's offer was finally ac- 
cepted and he started for that point on Nov. 12. 




Walter Johnson Flying the Thomas Biplane. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 216 



December, 1911 



Becoming confused he landed at Covina, but im- 
mediately reascended. On this next leg of his 
journey he was apparently taken ill while in the 
air and met with a serious accident, when he 
fell at Compton, where he was forced to re- 
main in the hospital for some time. 

Tlie flight from Pasadena to Long Beach add- 
ed 27 miles to his straight line distance, making 
the total, measured in straight lines between 
stops, 3,417 miles. 

In speaking of his fall afterwards Mr. Rodgers 
said: 

"AERO-ASPHYXIA MADE ME FALL,." 

"I lay this same thing blameworthy for the 
death of Arch Hoxsey, Ralph Johnstone, Eugene 
Ely and dozens of other aviators, who have 
come hurling to earth from great altitudes, 
after seemingly having lost control of their craft. 

"It was not, in my case, the rarifled air that 
overcame me. 

"There was no stifling sensation but I did 
notice a peculiar odor, a sleep-producing prop- 
erty, not entirely unlike chloroform. I knew I 
was falling, but did not lose consciousness until 
within a few feet of the ground. 

"Ethereal asphyxia, somnipathy, that is, 
something that lurks in pockets in the upper 
air strata, and creeps irresistibly upon the 
senses of an aviator, lulling him into dreamy 
unconsciousness, is what did this job. 

"The sense of drowsiness was first appar- 
ent shortly after I had passed over a small town 
south of Pasadena. I was up about 1.500 feet. 
I tried to sliake it off, but it increased. The 
desire to sleep was irresistible. Then I thought 
the machine could take care of itself. There 
was no pain, no noise in my ears. It was just 
a sweet, soothing feeling that I wanted to go to 
sleep. 

"Somehow I got a grip on myself and started 
on a long glide toward the earth. The nearer 
the ground I got, the sleepier I became. I re- 
member that I had righted my machine, and 
was looking for a place to land when I suddenly 
lost all consciousness. It was then that I fell. 
I don't know how far up I was right then, prob- 
ably 200 feet." 

WHAT FOWLER SAYS. 
"I have no doubt about Rodgers going to 
sleep." said Fowler, "It is mighty easy to go to 
sleep while flying. The air is in effect a perfect 
cushion. Your machine usually goes along 
without the least jar; the hum of your engine 
is like a lullaby, and sometimes a fellow has to 
fight to keep his head clear and his eyes open." 

OTHER THEORIES. 

J. Kauffman, a physician of Hazleton, Pa., 
claims auto-hypnotism. He says: — 

"The cause is, in my judgment, wholly psy- 
chological, absolutely independent of atmos- 
pheric conditions as to density and chemical 
composition. Any one familiar with hypnotism 
will readily see in the case of a man traveling 
through the air the most favorable conditions 
of the individual and his environment for the 
induction of the hypnotic state. I will not 
enumerate the various factors essential to the 
induction of hypnotism, but will simply submit 
as a very plausible theory for the irresistible 
sleepiness auto-hypnotism. If my theory is 
correct, a man who has once encountered that 
condition will meet with it again, and it would 
be suicidal for any aviator having once experi- 
enced the condition to continue the perilous 
sport." 

Dr. Thomas E. Eldridge, of Philadelphia, 
denies the hypnotic theory but states that he 
himself went to sleep in a lialloon for an hour 
but that this "sense of drowsiness has not been 
more so than had I been overworked at my desk 
or had I slept for a shorter time the night 
before." 

PREVIOUS INSTANCES. 
Not long ago some French scientists read a 
paper before the Academie des Sciences on this 
subject. They made numerous experiments, 
taking blood pressure of aviators after making 
various kinds of flights. 



After a long, swift glide the aviator's "face 
flushes," these investigators reported: — 

"His face flushes; his eyes smart; his heart 
beats violently. As he nears the ground a 
strange drowsiness seizes him. It is only with 
an effort that he keeps his eyes open. When at 
last he touches the grass he is more like a 
torpid, hibernating snake than a human being, 
so far as sensation is concerned. He steps out 
of the machine with the slow, awkward move- 
ments of a drunken man, who cares not whither 
he stumbles if he can only sleep." 

In the paper referred to, Drs. Cruchet and 
Moulinier cite the case of a young aviator who 
failed to return to his hangar. He was found 
seated in his machine in the open country, 
sound asleep. When he was awakened he could 
not explain how he came to light in the place 
where he was discovered. 

During one of his early experiments on Lake 
Bras d'Or, at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, J. A. D. 
McCurdy had a similar experience. After mak- 
ing a short flight over the ice he was seen to 
land and when picked up by his mechanics was 
found sound asleep some feet from the machine. 
In his flight from Key TV^est to Havana he had 
a somewhat similar experience. He afterwards 
said that it was only by exercise of great will 
power that he was able to keep awake. 

ATWOOD STARTS SCHOOL. 

Harry N. Atwood, who flew from Boston to 
Washington and from St. Louis to New York, 
has associated himself with the Clayton & 
Craig aviation school, Boston, Mass., and is 
now prepared to give flying lessons. His ad- 
dress is 161 Summer St. Instruction will be 
given in either land or water planes. 

GORDON BENNETT AVIATION RACE. 

The distance to be flown in this race, which 
will be held in America in 1912, has been in- 
creased from 150 to 200 kilometers (124 miles). 
It will be necessary to have a very large course 
so that turns will not cut down speed. 
Chicago has hopes for the holding of the con- 
test in the vicinity of that town. 

MASSON FLYING OVER 'FRISCO. 

On Dec. 2, Didier Masson, once of ZVIineola, 
flew over Market street in San Francisco and 
over Oakland with his Hall-Scott 'plane, cross- 
ing the bay on the route. 

PECK FLIES 1 HOUR, 42 MINUTES. 

The Gyro motor is still doing fine in flights 
of College Park and on tests. Two more large 
automatic machines have been put in and the 
company is getting out parts in quantities. 
Peck is making flights dvery few days at Col- 
lege Park. His longest flight was on Nov. 26th, 
one hour and 42 minutes. He says it is too 
cold to fly long now. 

Richter won his license the other day with 
the Tarbox- Schneider machine with Roberts 
engine and Paragon propeller. 

Rex Smith has bought a Roberts 4x and an- 
other Paragon to go on it. 

FRENCH TRIAL OF SCOTT BOMB DROPPER. 

Arrangements have lieen made by Lieut. K. K. 
Scott for the trial of his bomb-dropper in one 
of the Astra Company's- Wright machines in 
France. The Astra Company, which is building 
a magnificent machine which will lift noo kg. 
easily, Lieut. Scott states, has offered him all 
their facilities and it is expected to have some- 
one compete for the Michelin bomb prize. 



Person nil 1/. I consider Aeronautics of ihe ut- 
most value to anil experimentor to keep him up- 
to-date and. for the valuable information it eon- 
tains. It has hccn a- great help to nie. I reeom- 
mcnd AKiioNArTics to anii one loolcing for the best 
in aerial locomotion. — J. Benson Kryah. 



Your paper is ceriainlii the best published in the 
interests of aeronautics in this country. — G. B. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 217 



December, 1911 



FOWLER CROSSING CONTINENT TO EAST. 
Robert G. Fowler, in a Wiight model B, is 
still on his way across the American continent 
and has traveled 1679 miles, as measured In 
straight lines between stops on maps. He has 
been on his way 51 days, starting from Los 
Angeles, October IS. At Mastodon, N. M., a 
town which is not located on maps, he was 
stuck in the sand for a week. He finally got 
off the ground by placing his machine on a 
handcar on the railroad and was able to get 
up speed enough to leave the handcar and fly. 
Following is the route he covered: — 

Miles 
Oct. 18 Left Los Angeles 
18 Arr. Wilshire 

" 19 " Pasadena 7 

21 " Riverside 45 

23 " Banning 36 

25 " Yuma, Ariz 149 

30 " Maricopa 108 

30 " Tucson 84 

Nov. 2 " Benson, Ariz 48 

2 " Bisbee 42 

3 " Douglass 36 

" 5 " Mastodon, N. M. not on map 

Nov. 13 Arr. El Paso, Tex 168 

18 " Van Horn 110 

18 " Pecos 85 

" 18 " Pyote 18 

21 " Sweetwater 190 

21 " Abilene 40 

24 " Eastland 55 

" 24 " Ranger 5 

24 " Strawn 12 

26 " Thurker 5 

26 " Weatherford 40 

" 27 " Ft. Worth 25 

30 Arr. Josuha 20 

30 " Waxahachie 30 

30 " Ennis 15 

30 " Corsicana 18 

Dec. 1 " Mexia 30 

1 " Groesbeck 13 

1 " College Sta 65 

1 " Cvpress 60 

2 " Houston 20 

7 " Sheldon 15 

" .7 " Liberty 25 

" 7 " Beaumont 40 

7 " Orange 20 



Total 



1679 



JANNUS FLYING IN ST. LOUIS. 

Antony .Tannus has associated himself with 
the B'enoist factory and school in St. Louis and 
has been doing big stuff with the Benoist- 
Roberts 8 planes, getting his pilot certificate and 
taking up passenger for thirty minutes. 

NAVAL OFFICER FLIES HYDRO. 

Lieut. John Rodgers of the United States navy 
gave one of the new Burgess-Curtiss hydro- 
aeroplanes a test at Newport, R. I., last month, 
flying above and around the battleships with 
perfect ease. The machine was towed over the 
road from the factory of Burgess Co. & Curtiss, 
Marblehead, Mass., by automobile, and launched 
from the torpedo station. Later, it encircled 
the Missouri and came to rest alongside the Ohio, 
from which point it was hoisted on board that 
ship and taken outside the harbor for other 
trials. The experiments are said to have been 
a decided success. 

NEW COMPANIES. 

Midwest Aeroplane Co., Sioux Falls. Iowa. 

Western Aeroplane Mfg. Co., 2219 Cottage 
Grove Ave., Chicago, 111. $3,000, to manufacture 
aeroplanes and parts. Adolph Katz, Arthur J. 
Irion, Chas. F. Bushong and .lay J. Douglas. 
Fred. R. Colder, assistant manager. 

Am. Aeroplane Mfg. Co., Chicago, 111. 

The Sea Gull Aeroplane Co., New York. (.$100,- 
000: V. E. D'T^rso, G. Tomasulo, A. Scaturro. 

Sloane Aeroplane Co., 1777 Broadway, New 
York; capital, $30,000. J. E. Sloane, South 
Orange; A. A. Vantine, H. Vantine, New York 
city. 

Milwaukee School and College, capital stock. 
$50,000; incorporators, Eleanor Silverston, Henry 



Feldhus, Louis Jensen, Lester A. Loewenbach 
and A. Rudolph Silverston. 

National Aeroplane company, Chicago; capi- 
tal, $10,000: manufacturing and selling aero- 
planes, giving exhibitions and instructions, etc.; 
incorporators, Howard Linn, W. S. Linn, E. M. 
Spates. 

The State Department of Delaware issued 
certificates of incorporation to the Furtaw-Mc- 
Kay Monoplane Company to engage in the inanu- 
facture of flying machines and their acces- 
sories of all sizes and descriptions. The in- 
corporators are F. R. Hansel, of Philadelphia: 
George H. B. Martin and S. C. Seymour, of 
Camden, N. J. The capital stock is $100,000. 

The Eagle Aerial Manufacturing Company, 
St. Louis, to make a new type of aeroplane In- 
vented by Thomas H. Keppel of Indianapolis. 
The company has a capital stock of $100,000, 
half of which is subscribed, held as follows: 
Thomas H. Keppel, 1,579 shares; Robert F., 
Jesse and Jesse E. Keppel, 979 each; Joseph Van 
Raalte, 720; H. G. Lind, 259; Lionel Davis, 424. 

AERIAL EQUIPMENT CO.— Schedules in 
bankruptcy of the Aerial Equipment Co., of No. 
1743 Broadway, New York, show liabilities $13- 
467 and assets $141, in accounts. The company 
had oflice furniture $450 and pictures $6 which 
were sold by the sheriff. 

NEW PILOTS 

Four more aeroplane pilots qualified in No- 
vember and December, as follows:— 

7.5. Albert Elton (Wright), St. Louis, Oct. S. 

76. John H. Worden (Moisant), Mineola, Nov. 
14. 

Francisco Alvarez, 22 years old, a rich Mexi- 
can, born in Mexico City, whose father was a 
wealthy contractor and real estate operator of 
that place: and Clarance de Giers, 22 years old 
living at the St. James Hotel, New York, whose 
father is also a real estate operator; both flew 
for their licenses on Dec. 3. 

Jesse Seligman, son of the banker, of the firm 
of Seligman & Meyers, has left for Kingston, 
Jamaica, where he will exhibit, thence going 
to Colon to fly across the Isthmus of Panama; 
visiting subsequently other Spanish-American 
counti'ies. Seligman received his license last 
month. 

All three are graduates of the Moisant School. 

Spherical balloon certificate number 44 has 
been given to John J. Van Valkenburgh. 



In addition to their present staff, the Maxl- 
motor makers, Detroit, have engaged the serv- 
ices of a celebrated Detroit automobile designer 
whose cars are being turned out at the rate of 
over 800 weekly. This engineer has worked a 
number of years in Europe at the plants where 
the foremost light engines of the world are built. 
He is co-operating with the Maximotor designer, 
Mr. Dingfelder. 

Among the recent purchasers of Maximotor 
engines is Mr. Lewis Matthews, official and part 
owner of the Malleable Stove Works of South 
Bend, Ind., who has now resigned to invest in 
an aviation enterprise. 



Bombs dropped from an aeroplane created 
great havoc in an attack on Tripoli on Decem- 
ber 2 by Lee Hammond in a Baldwin "red 
devil." " Hammond was a star feature of a 
moving picture sketch, uniformed as an Italian 
aviator and the play was aeronautically staged 
at Mineola. About thirty passengers were 
carried by Hammond, whose machine has been 
fitted with a passenger's seat. 



THOMAS BROTHERS MARKET BIPLANE 

It is with a sense of satisfaction that the pro- 
spective buyer can cast about and occasionally 
find a manufacturer who has had the courage 
to follow out his ideas and stick to them. 

At the present time there are in this country 
but verv few American machines which bear the 
stamp of individuality. It is safe to say that 
95fr of the macliines actually flying in this 
countrv to-dav are copies of some well known 
make of Aeroplane, foreign or American. Among 
one of the few exceptions may be the machines 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 218 



December, 1911 



built by Thomas Bros., Bath, N. Y. The original 
machine built by them was conceived and built 
in 1909, and was equipped with a 4 cyl. standard 
type of automobile engine of bore and stroke, 
25 h.p., A.L.A.M. rating. E.xtensive experi- 
ments were carried on with this machine in the 
spring of 1909, wliich to some e.Ktent were dis- 
couraging. This will be realized when it is 
known that the machine failed to get off the 
ground at all for the first three months. In 
September circular flights were possible. 

The experimental work continued through the 
following winter, and by this time this same 
machine was perfected to such an extent that 
short passenger flights were made on several 
occasions. The heaviest passenger weighed 160 
pounds. 

Up to this time every kind of lateral and 
longitudinal control had been tried which was 
in use in this country and abroad. 

The old machine was sent out on exhibition 
work with a view of ascertaining the true con- 
ditions under which a machine had to operate. 

The spring of 1911 saw a machine which was 
distinctive in design from any American or 
foreign machine, and wliich was up-to-date In 
every sense of the word. A number of features 
of the original machine were retained, the re- 
tention of which were determined by actual ex- 
perience. The 1912 models are among the most 
up-to-date and scientifically built biplanes on 
the market to-day. The manufacturers have 
put out three models to meet the demand for 
special machines. These models take the form 
of a racer, a touring machine and a passenger 
machine. All machines are equipped with 50 h.p. 
"Kirkham" motors, other makes optional. 
Complete details were given in the November 
number. 

The touring machine is an exceptionally fast 
climber and will average 55 m.p.h. in ordinary 
weather. Speeds of 72 miles per hour have been 
made over a measured distance in light winds, 
th? makers state. 

The manufacturers made the statement some 
time ago, that they did not intend to market 
their machine until they were sure of what they 
were giving the public, and have always been 
conservative in their statements regarding the 
performances of their machines. The machines 
in operation can be seen at Bath, N. Y. 

LOS ANGELES MEET 

Los Angeles enthusiasts are earnestly looking 
forward to a meet there in January. The Aero 
Club of California, the official body, has made 
a contract with the lessees of the Donginuez 
field, the American Aeroplane Co., by which the 
Club receives 2% of the gross gate receipts for 
the use of its name and good will with the 
understanding that the meet in January will be 
held there under the auspices and sanction of 
the Aero Club of California. A meet on a gate 
receipt basis for the flyers as well as for the 
Club is assured. There are many local flvers, 
Dekor, DeHart, Champion, and C. P. Rogers is 
there. The Curtiss and Oueen schools are both 
nearby so that a meet can be run by local talent 
alone. 

MARTIN BIPLANE ANTEDATED 

F. Robinson, of 191 Caledonia Av., Rochester, 
N. Y., claims the distinction of being the first 
in this country to build a biplane with the en- 
gine and propeller in front. The machine was 
produced last September. Charles P. Willard, 
however, built rnd flew one along this line last 
summer, drawings of which were published in 
AERONAUTICS. No flghts were made with 
the Robinson machine on account of engine 
trouble, he states, but hopes to fly in the spring 
when the engine will have been put in shape. 

EARLE OVINGTON TO MANUFACTURE 

Karle L. Ovington will be in the manufactur- 
ing field next year with a machine both unique 
and different, not following any standard de- 
sign. Exhibition flying has been given up for 
good but aviation has not lost his aid. He has 
located at Newton Highlands, Mass. 

LIBERTY RACE GOES TO WHITE 

The donor of the $10,000 Statue of Liberty 
prize has not the money now. Neither has any 



of the three "winners;" although the interna- 
tional body has declared. White the successful 
one in the altercation, it is reported by cable, — 
as yet unconfirmed by letter to the Aero Club of 
America. 

John B. Moisant, in a macliine new to him, 
fifty horsepower, fiew in a direct line to the 
Statue and back at the Belmont meet last year 
and made the fastest time. White with a hun- 
dred horsepower engine was second, and De 
Lesseps third. Moisant was awarded the prize. 
White protested on the ground that the original 
rules for the contest provided that no one could 
compete unless he had flown for an hour previ- 
ously during the meet. The race had been post- 
poned and in the meantime the meet officials 
rescinded this clause and made it possible for 
Moisant to fly for the money, although he had 
not flown an official hour at any time during the 
meet. He did fly an hour, as a matter of fact, 
but the system of time keeping was so arranged 
that no record was made of unofficial flying. 
The hour clause wtis designed to keep inexperi- 
enced men from attempting the flight. Moisant 
iiad flown from Paris to London and was rainy 
well qualified, one would say, to compete with 
White and quite in the latter's class. 

White protested to the A. C. A. the award to 
Moisant on the basis of the hour condition; 
+hat the meet had no right to change published 
rules. The club sustained liis protest and award- 
ed the money to De Lesseps, the last man, on 
the gi'ound that White had fouled a pylon in 
starting on the contest and, of course, was not 
eligible. White protested this, was backed 
by his club and the matter taken to the Rome 
meeting of the federation which gives the money 
to White, as the American club did not prove 
the fouling and the federation evidently did not 
admit that the officials of the meet could change 
the rules thereof. 

The heirs of John B. Moisant have not yet de- 
cided what course to pursue. 

COLLIER TROPHY 

The address of president Robert J. Collier, of 
the Aero Club of America, on his election con- 
tains the statement that the trophy -which he 
proposed to award to the winner of the elimina- 
tion race for the selection of the Gordon Ben- 
nett team will be offered for the most sub- 
stantial achievement in the cause of aviation 
during 1912. The awarding of this would be left 
in the hands of a committee. 



Late in the afternoon of Nov. 5, W. F. Cline, 
in the A. N. Ridgely plane equipped with a 6- 
cylinder "Kirkham" motor, flew for 614 minutes 
at Nassau Blvd. Ascending in the fast ap- 
proaching darkness he flew on schedule ana 
descended only on being signalled down, and 
it was then so dark that it was necessary to 
burn a considerable quantity of gasoline on the 
field in order that he might safely alight. 

There has recently been a considerable in- 
crease in the demand for these motors and a 
large number of orders have been booked for 
future delivery. Indications point to a con- 
siderable activity in the sale of motors during 
the winter and spring months. 



The E. J. Willis Company stock of aeronauti- 
cal catalogues is entirely exhausted at the 
present time. A new edition will be ready very 
shortly and as soon as possible they will again 
be pleased to mail same Free to All Interested 
Parties. In the meantime they want to hear 
from tho-^ie'' jontemplating entering the aero- 
nautical field or at present engaged in building 
their own machines. If they can tender any 
assistance by advising in the constructional 
details of various type machines they are glad 
to do so and incidentally to quote prices on the 
ver.v many parts and fittings that they carry in 
stock in large quantities at all times. 

They have recenth- placed upon the market 
an extra large turnbuckle with locking <levice. 
preventing loosening of the turnbuckle and 
slacking of the cable around the engine sections 
of the biplanes which is expected to be a very 
popular seller. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 219 



December, 1911 



CURTISS HYDRO-AEROPLANE GOES TO 
RUSSIA. 

An order reached this city yesterday from tlie 
Russian Aerial League for a two seated Cur- 
tis liydro-aeroplane of the dual control type 
used by Lieutenants Bllyson and Towers in 
their recent successful llight from Annapolis to 
Fort Monroe. The order was placed by the Rus- 
sian Importing- Company of New York City. 

The Aerial League is said to have been 
organized to further a movement to develop 
Russia's military power in the air as a more 
practicable enterprise than the upbuilding of 
the lleet shattered in the war with Japan. 

The Curtiss Company has agreed to send an 
aviator to Russia to demonstrate the machine 
for the purchasers. Hugh Robinson, who made 
a notable flight in a hydro-aeroplane from St. 
Paul to Rock Island, is on his way here from 
the West and probably will go to Russia with 
Eugene Godet. 

The Curtis Company also has sold one of its 
machines to Dr. Charles S. Decker, of B'ing- 
hamton, President of the Aero Club of that city 
and also head of the Binghamton Automobile 
Club. 

Mrs. Lillian Janeway Atwater, forinerly 
widow of the late Senator Thoinas C. Piatt, 
now wife of William B. Atwater, has decided to 
study aviation at the Curtiss winter training 
grounds on North Island, San Diego, Cal. 

A large amount of equipment, in the shape of 
aeroplanes, parts, machinery and staff of em- 
ployees has been sent from the Curtiss aero- 
plane factory at Hammondsport, N. Y., to the 
Curtiss training ground and experimental sta- 
tion on North Island, near San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, within a few days. The Curtiss train- 
ing school is already open at San Diego with 
about a dozen pupils in attendance. Including 
one officer of the Greek army, and Mr. Curtiss 
will follow the equipment which he is sending 
to that point about the 1st of December. 

Mr. Curtiss is now building a hydro-aeroplane 
rescue boat of thirty horse power and equipped 
to carry twelve men. Should this latest device 
of the Hammondsport inventor prove success- 



ful, it will prove conclusively the great value 
ot the hydro-aeroplane in war as a means of 
lescue. 

A VISIT TO THE HALL-SCOTT FACTORY. 

In the perfection of the beautifully finished 
Hall-Scott engine, that is being installed in an 
ever increasing number of American aeroplanes 
may be seen the result of many years' experi- 
ment and study. A pioneer in the aeronautic 
industry and a successful builder of railway 
motor cars, and automobile engines, before 
the aeroplane's advent, this company, under the 
management of C. B. & L. C. Scott, and the 
clever designing of Al. Hall, has forged to the 
front, its engines are now to be seen in dally 
action at almost every aviation field in the 
country, and at every meet of any consequence 
their engines were prominent in the hands of 
Drofessional aviators. 

As a result of nersonal observations during 
a recent trip around the country in which a 
good opportunity was had to witness different 
makes of engines perform under varying con- 
ditions and in various machines, the writer 
determined to visit the Hall-Scott plant and 
see the actual manufacture and surrounding 
conditions which go to make such a uniformly 
successful engine. 

A short trip across the bay from San Fran- 
cisco lands one at West Berkeley where the 
factory is situated. A large new building is 
occupied, but the increasing business has 
already reached its limitations and plans for a 
large addition are now under way. 

One passes through a maze of busy planers, 
drills, turret lathes, grinders, etc., their squeaks 
and shrill protests seem strangely silent how- 
ever, in the popping roar of a large railway' 
motor being tested over in one corner. Mr. 
Scott, my guide, tells me that this engine 
is one of two which are to be installed in rail- 
way motor cars of exceptionally high speed. 
He gives a lot more interesting information but 
his words are lost in the noise. 

We visit the extensive stock room wherein a 
large number of parts are neatly arranged in 




Assembly Room of the Hall-Scott Motor Works 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 220 



December, 1911 




The Call Monoplane. 



bins. At least twenty-five complete power 
plants could be assembled from parts in this 
room alone, an insurance against delay in re- 
placement should breakages occur. 

Touring the main floor we stop and oversee 
development of various parts, such as the 
crankshaft, etc., from the rough to the finished 
and perfectly balanced article. 

Here a cylinder is being bored; a large pile 
of the grey iron castings on one side, Mv. 
Scott inforrhs me, are discards, owing to small 
defects which might ordinarily pass, but are 
not up to their standard; an average of two 
out of three being thrown away. 

Everywhere one is impressed with the 
swiftnes.s and economy of jig and template. 
The expenditure here for this most necessary 
equipment must amount to a large sum. 

Attention is called to a pile of aluminum alloy 
crank-cases neatly finished, polished and smooth 
inside and out, then to some connecting rods 
that are a joy to handle. 

In the busy pattern shop propellers and pat- 
terns in various stages of completion are spread 
about, seemingly in confusion, but really in 
well ordered array. The Hall- Scott propellers 
are made here, walnut now being used entirely 
for this purpose. Their latest model is a blade 
of neat design and high efficiency. A 71/2 ft. 
d., 41/2 ft. pt., turning 1200 R.P.M. with the 
60 h.p. A2, giving 400 lbs. thrust in the factory, 
tho 360 lbs. is all they claim. 

Adjoining the main building, in a well lighted 
addition, is the assembling room where are 
usually to be found five or six engines in vari- 
ous degrees of construction. A door at one end 
opens out to the testing stand. A car of suit- 
able design carrying the engine to be tested 
on tracks that run through tlie assembling room 
to the stand out doors where an elevated sup- 
port carries gas and water pipes, the whole 
being conveniently arranged and quite ingen- 
ious. 

It was the writer's intention to give some 
details about the engine itself but the Hall- 
Scott pamphlets A1, A 2, A3 give this in a more 
tliorough manner than space here would allow. 
A final impression gained was that the engine 
is worthy of the plant nr vice versa. 

CLEVE T. SHAFFER. 



CALL COMPANY BUILDS 'PLANE 

A monoplane has been built and flown 
by the Aerial Navigation Co., of Girard, 
Kans., makers of the unique Call two-cylin- 
der motors. The flight was short and sweet 
but it was of value. 

In the shop, the engine turned an 8'6" by 
5' propeller at 1300 r.p.m. It was then 
L-ought that the engine had power enough 
to turn a bigger blade so one of 6' pitch 
was put on which ran a 400-pound scale 
to the limit. Then the machine was run 
throttled around the field. After several 
trials like this, the machine w^as given its 
head up a hill with advance spark and wide 
open throttle. The novice in it had no idea 
it would jump in the air but it did, with the 
result as shown in the picture. The ma- 
chine weighs 800 lbs. without fuel or pilot 
and has 210 sq. ft. of surface. The 'plane 
rose right away and as it cleared the top 
for the hill the pilot made a disastrous land- 
ing after he shut off the power. 

The Call engine is the only 2 cylinder 
opposed motor of the equal of 50 h.p. that 
we know of. Its first appearance at the 
Belmont meet caused considerable interest 
on account of its uniqueness and beautiful 
finish. 



CALENDAR OF EVENTS 
Jan. 1928— Los Angeles, A.C.C. meet. 
— 1912— International Exposition, Vienna 

May. 9-lS, 1912— Show at Grand Central Palace, 

Aero Club of America. 



Aerox.m'tics is a rciii inxinictivc and interest- 
ing magazine. — Edw. E. Brown. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 221 



December, 191 1 




The Mormon Tabernacle, Temple and Utah Hotel at Salt Lake City taken by H E. 

Honeywell from his balloon. 



ASCENSIONS. 

Phila., Nov. 11. Dr. H. F. Pyfer and Dr. L. 
T. Ash, of the Norristown Asylum for tlie In^ 
sane, (no joke intended) in the "Penn. I." to 
Bound Brook, N. J., after a four and a half hour 
trip. 

DIRIGIBLE ASCENT. 

Atlantic City, N. J., Nov. 4. The first trial 
was made of the transatlantic airship "Akron." 
A landing was necessary in the water, which 
resulted in minor damages. 

DOUBLE ASCENSION. 

Dayton, Nov. 4. Dr. L. E. Custer in the 
"Luzerne" (22,000) and Dr. P. M. Crume in the 
"Hoosier" (80,000). The Hoosier carried as pas- 
sengers R. T. Louis, Joseph Light and Bert 
Klopfer. The Hoosier landed at North Lewis- 
burg after 1 hr., 27 min. Dr. Custer won the 
race by landing 12 miles farther on. The race 
was for a silver cup of the Dayton Aero Club. 

Redlands, Calif., Oct. 30. George B. Harrison, 
piloted Earl Remington, Miss IMyrtle Dennison, 
Fi-ank Champion and N. L. Stevens in the "All 
America II." Landings were made at Highlands 
and East Highlands where the trip to Los An- 
geles was abandoned as the balloon could not 
be gotten out of the valley. 

Pittsfield, Mass., Nov. 1.3. H. P. Shearman, 
pilot, H. R. Corner and J. A. Jones in the 
"Stevens I" to TTnity, N. H., landing in the tree- 
tops. They were rescued by farmers who cut 
away some smaller trees so the aernauts 
could slide down the anchor rope. 

Indianapolis, Ind., Nov. 19. G. L. Bumbaugh, 
pilot, and Walter Moffit, tried for the Lahm Cup 
record but got only 110 miles from here, landing 
at Monroeville, Ind., the following day. 

St. Louis, Nov. 26. John Berry, Joseph 
O'Reilly, Joseph A. Gerspracher, Hans J. Schus- 
ter and Edward Strassman in the "St. Louis 
IV" to Barnet, Ills. Up 3 hours. 

Dayton, Nov. 29. Warren Rasor and son .lef- 
ferson, ascended in the "Dayton," landing 
at Upper Sandusky 5 hours later. 



Fifteen balloon ascents have been made this 
year by one man alone, Captain H. E. Honey- 
well, of St. Louis, with himself as pilot. Among 
the passengers were many ladies, and as many 
as eight people have been taken up in one bal- 
loon. They were made in San Antonio, St. 
Louis, Kansas City and Salt Lake City. 



The "X Company," of Detroit, which re- 
cently offered a $25 prize for a word to 
replace "propeller," has awarded this sum 
to Raymond W. Garner, of Davenport, la., 
adopting the modification "spiron" of his 
suggestion. A propeller with the "trade 
name "Spiron" -will be put on the market 
by this concern in the spring. 



The New York Aeronautical Supply Co., of 
50 B'way; New York, report that in spite of 
the winter season, orders are coming in fast. 
A large percentage of the orders are for sup- 
plies for the machines which are to be built 
during the inclement weather and used in the 
Spring. A new addition to their line is the 
"Roberts" motor. They have these motors in 
stock for immediate delivery. This enterprising 
concern! will demonstrate their motors, next 
season, in a Curtiss-type hydro-aeroplane. The 
hydro-areoplane is now under construction in 
their factory. A new and elaborate catalogue 
is how being compiled and will be ready for dis- 
tribution about Jan. 1st. Mr. W. E. Watts, the 
president of the company, has just returned 
from a trip through New England and Canada 
tind reports the outlook for next season "very 
bright." 



/ find the magazine all that c.oiihl he dcxircd. 
It is filled icith iustntrtire and enlir/htrninri litera- 
ture. It is a compendium of useful knonlcdfic per- 
taining to the science of aviation. — A. E. 

HOSTELLEy. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 222 



December, 1911 



Questions and Answers 

Edited by M. B. SELLERS 




\\\ are glade at all times to answer 
any questions that lie within 
our power. Heretofore, we 
have been answering these by 
letter. In future we will, in 
addition, print the questions 
and their answers for the 
benefit of other readers. 

Not infrequently, the ques- 
/.-r |,,..r,i/.'r,v.-rn/.-rn tlous asked are such that they 
^IS^j/S^^'!^ entail a great deal of time, 
more than we feel in a position 
to devote. In future, we will 
advise inquirers to the best of 
our ability, as before; but, 
where the demands made are more than can be 
reasonably expected of us we will, with the per- 
mission of the author thereof, refer these to a 
competent engineer, whose services are avail- 
able. Mr. John C. Burkhart has arranged to 
devote whatever time and attention may be 
necessary to furnishing expert advice on de- 
sign, balancing, purchasing of motors or other 
supplies, etc. He may be addressed at 250 
West 54th St., New York. 

To the Editor: 

To date I have my power plant mounted and 
find that with the 4 cycle 4V4 by 414 engine, and 
7' diam. 3i^' pitch propeller I have made, 1 
am getting 200 lbs. standing thrust at 1100 rpm. 
Now, what I am after is to reduce head resis- 
tance to a minimum, as the sketch, which you 
were so kind to help me out on, shows a blunt 
leading edge. I also proposed to cover the 
under side only but I have now decided to cover 
the top and bottom and, in particular, do away 
with the blunt edge by keeping the spar from 
8" to 12" to rear of front edge and depending on 
tight wires for the front and rear edges. 

The point is now, will that change your idea 
of curvature (1) as originally shown in attached 
sketch. The machine is a headless biplane, 34 
by 6 ft., spaced 5 ft. apart, with a thrust of 180 
lbs. stationary thrust and weight of machine 
with operator being 700 lbs., what is most ad- 
vantageous cambre for planes to have at points 
indicated at A, B, C, etc., the question of speed 
not considered? (2) Where is the centre of 
lift of plane? (3) What should be the angle 
in flight of the points AG? (4) How much 
gross weight would 200 lbs. thrust sustain with 
this combination and 408 sq. ft. surface? 

L. G., Ft. Bliss, Tex. 

(1) Sharp or blunt leading edge: — If you 
cover both sides of wing, you will reduce re- 
sistance; but making the leading edge sharp 
has doubtful advantages. Experiments to date 
s£em to show that, on a double surfaced wing, 
a rounded front edge is at least equal in ef- 
ficiency to a sharp one; and a wire in leading 
edge instead of a spar is not as satisfactory in 
practice. The shape of rib shown is suitable 
for double surface and there is no reason for 
changing curvature when using sharp front 
edge. 

(2) The centre of pressure at iVz deg. will 
be about 28 inches from front edge. 

(3) 414 degrees. The trailing edge would be 
5V^ inches lower than the leading one. 

(4) The gross weight lifted with 200 lbs. 
thrust, above curve and 408 sq. ft. surface. 



would run from 750 to 800 lbs., depending on 
how well you eliminate resistance and also on 
the propeller; and how well the thrust holds 
up under headway. 

To the Editor: 

Being a subscriber of your magazine I would 
like to ask a few questions regarding rotary 
gas engines. 

H. W. D., Denver. 

(1) Why is it that 2 cycle and 4 cycle engines 
are in even and odd numbers of cylinders re- 
spectively? Answer. So that the interval be- 
tween firing times may be equal. Taking a 
four cylinder four cycle engine, with the 
cylinders arranged radially, the load on the 
bearings of a single crank shaft and crank pin 
may be kept very uniform, but, this arrange- 
ment makes it impossible to have the cylinders 
fire and exert their effort on the crank at uni- 
form intervals in the cycle. With an odd num- 
ber of cylinders, say five, they will explode in 
the order 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, 1, etc., or at equal inter- 
vals of 144 degrees. There is, therefore, a great 
advantage in smoothness of operation and uni- 
formity of torque of the engine through having 
the odd number of cylinders. The greater the 
number of cylinders, provided their number is 
odd, the more uniform the torque will be. 
With seven cylinders the uniform intervals be- 
tween explosions would be only 103 degrees. 

(2) Would this hold good if a 2 cycle engine 
did not rely on crank case compression for fuel 
injection if the above is true? Answer. The 
crank case is used merely to compress the 
charge in 2 cycle engines; it is a pump. This 
has nothing to do with firing sequence. 

(3) Exi^lain how the gas gaiivs entrance 
through the crank shaft to the cylinders of 
the Gnome engine? Answer. The gas is taken 
direct from the carburetor at the end of the 
hollow crank shaft, through the shaft into the 
crank chamber, which acts as a manifold. Each 
piston draws its mixture from thence into the 
cylinder through an automatic inlet valve in 
the middle of the piston head. 

(4) Are the main bearings on rotary engines 
all of the roller type, and is there any take-up 
in these? Answer. The Gnome uses F&S ball 
Bearings throughout. The same is true of all 
rotary engines we know of. There is no take- 
up OH these. 

(5) How does the Gnome connect all its 
connecting rods to the single throw crank 
shaft? Answer. One rod is made in one piece 
with a large double disc end forming the outer 
race of a ball bearing running on the crank- 
pin. At intervals of 511/^ ° around these discs, 
six attachment pins are held between webs or 
discs, thus dividing the points of attachment 
into seven equal angular intervals. The re- 
maining six connecting rods are attached to 
pins at these points. It is necessary to locate 
the big end disc to one of the rods to pievent 
it rocking on the crankpin. 

(6) Which are the most efficient fins for 
cooling: those running with or around the 
cylinders? We do not know that any one has 
ever experimented on this, except the Adams- 
Farwell people, who say the longitudinal fins 
are most efficient. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 223 



December, 1911 



To the Editor: 

Having read your paper for three 
years and finding it indispensable, I have not 
found any data or formulae to compute the 
center of pressure on a curved surface — that is, 
no accepted practical method. Now I am build- 
ing a biplane with a spread of 32 ft. by 5 ft. 4 in. 
chord. The camber is 3.2 ins., falling 2.6i ins. 
from front edge. Have designed machine to fly 
at 3''30'. Where do you think the center of 
pressure would fall? The curve is identical with 
the Wright, if you know their center of pressure. 

Hoping to hear from you and complimenting 
you on your success as an aeronautical editor, 
I am, 

Yours truly, 

E. A. R., Terre Haute. 

Answer — There is no general formula for find- 
ing the centre of pressure on an arched surface. 
The centre of pressure varies with the camber 
and section of the surface. According to 
M. Eiffel, the c. of p. on a Wright wing at iV2° 
is at 42% from front edge. For 5 ft. 4 in. chord, 
that is 27 ins. from front edge. 

To the Editor: — 

Will you please answer my questions refer- 
ring to a Demoiselle. How much thrust will it 
take to raise 350 lbs. and on the machine how 
much slanting must the wings have, or how 
high would the front edge have to be? C. R. 
Palestine. 

Answer. Your questions can not be answered 
without more ,data. Besides depen-ding on 
weight, the thrust and inclination of wing de- 
pends on the speed required, form and area of 
wing. The thrust depends also on propeller 
efficiency and head resistance of the inachine. 
Prom what you state we should say that about 
100 lbs. standing thrust and an inclination of 
1 in 12 would be right for 350 lbs. total weight. 

BOOKS RECEIVED 

THE LAW OF THE AIR, by Harold D. 
Hazeltine, LL.D. 8vo., cloth, 150 pp., $1.62 post- 
paid, from George H. Doran Co., 35 West 32nd 
St., New York. The contents of the book com- 
prises three lectures delivered at the University 
of London in 1910, put in book form. The first 
part takes up "The Fundamental Problem; the 
Rights of States in the Air-space;" the second 
"The Principles and Problems of National 
Law;" and the last, "The Principles and Prob- 
lems of Internationa! Law." One is startled 
by the amount of thought and consideration 
clearly given the subject of the aerial laws by 
various nations. Few know that this question 
was considered and rulings made as early as 
the Franco-Prussian war and by the first Hague 
Conference in 1899. 

RECENT PROGRESS IN AVIATION, by O. 
Chanute, from the Smitlisonian Ropoit for 1910, 
Smithsonian Institution, ^^ashington, D. C. 
This illustrated pamphlet, which may be had 
free from Smithsonian, gives a most interesting 
and concise history of power flight up to 1910, 
written hy the late Mr. Chanute, who certainly 
was the best ciualifled to review progress of any 
authority in the world. 



Chinese revolutionists, assembling a fleet of 13 
aeroplanes for an attack on Peking, have pur- 
chased one of the first three in Cleveland. 

Engines for the three have been shipped from 
the Roberts Motor Co. at Sandusky. 

Material for ten more has neen ortffered in 
part from the Goodyear Rubber Co. at Akron. 

Two machines, assembled, have been shipped 
from Albion, Mich. They were built by the 
Wolverine Co. 



"I take five aviation papers and I think 
AERONAUTICS is leading them all." 

(Signed) George Kane. 



BLERIOT type monoplane readv for power 
$125. Stickney, 240 7 6th Ave., Moline, 111. Dec. 

J. ED. SHERIFF, Mechanical Engineer and 
Inventor. Original Designs a specialty. 125 
Watts St., New York. Dec. 

FRENCH motor, new, 4-cvlinder, for sale. 
Good for biplane. Make oaer. Queen Aero- 
plane Co., 197 St. & Amsterdam Av., New York. 
T. F.- 

AVIATOR — Do you want to back or employ an 
aviator? State your proposition with full partic- 
ulars. Address; Arg, care AERONAUTICS. 
Dec. 

One Requa— Gibson propeller, 7 ft. dia- 
meter. 6 ft. pitch $35.00 

One French propeller, type 8.097 ft. 

diameter, 3.987 ft. pitch 50.00 

One French propeller, type 8.097 ft. 

diameter. 3.45 ft. pitch 50 00 

One Dean Mfg. Co. propeller type 6^ ft. 

diameter, 4% ft. pitch 50.00 

The above French propellers were made 
in France, are of the very best of 
material and workmanship. The price 
F. O. B. Paris is .$100.00 each. 

1-50 H.P. Harriman ( ngine 4 cylinder, 
4 cycle. This engine sells for $1650.00, 
our price $700.00. This includes a 
complete power plant. 

1-6 Cylinder, 2 cycle. 48 h.p. engine 
$775.00. This includes rediator pro- 
peller and high tension magneto. This 
engine sells for $150.00. 
We are closing out our business and must 

sell. 

LeBron-Adams Aeroplane Co., 
Omaha, Neb. 

"FACTORY wanted or small shop with facili- 
ties for light working in good manufacturing 
location. Middle West or near New York. Full 
particulars. Box 2476, Station G, Washington, 
D. C. 

MANAGER WANTED to finance and man- 
age a heavier-than-air flying machine that 
can fly with 20 horsepower motor in calm 
day. Can fly in 20 mile wind without motor. 
Can fly from 20-90 miles an hour. Can fly at 
night. All controls patented in 1904 and others 
on record. Apply to A. "V. Wilson, Bar Harbor, 
Me. 

FOR SALE— FTNIB BLERIOT MONO- 
PLANE, 100 H.P., TWO-SEATER. 
APPLY RUBER. % AERON- 
AUTICS, 250 W, 54 ST., NEIW YORK. 

MFG. CO. wants men for aviators, $100 re- 
quired. B. L. Gates. 227 P'ngelwood Ave., 
Chicago. 

FOR SALE 

NEW BLRRIOT MOXOPI^AXE, almost completed. $600 
First-class materials and workmanship used tliroiifrlioiit. 
Can he soon any time. Call or write M. W. L., 26 N. 
Franklin Street. Hempstead, X. V. 



FOR SALE 

FINE BLERIOT MONOPLANE 



Cheap 



More attention to stability, factor of safety, 
and practicability, and less to speed freaks will 
no doubt answer the question "What's the Mat- 
ter with Aviation?" 

HARVEY R. KIDNEY. 



Apply A. V. Reyburn, Jr., 5305 Delmar Boul., St. Louis, 
Mo. 

LOST— .\ young Aviator, height 5 ft. IVo in., 
weight 111 lbs. Was last seen purchasing two 
pairs of $3 silk socks at Broadway and 26th 
Street. Prior to this made a purchase of an 
$18 grip, carried a sad expression on his face 
after being stuck. The socks are of green and 
gold. He wears a number 5 shoe in tan, light 
for cold weather; light rain coat, soft hat when 
feeling bad, a black derby at late hours: usuallv 
found in a cafe after 11:30; will answei-, if 
coaxed, to the name of BVown. This suit case is 
marked B, Boston. Latest report, purchased 
tickets in Penn. Station for some point south, 
kindly address. A. L. S. c/o AERONAUTICS. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 224 



December, 1911 



U. S. Patents Abstracted 



Copies of any patent may be obtained for 
5 cents (casli) each, from Commissioner of 
Patents. Washington, D. C. 



Spencer Heath, Washington, D. C, 1,006,209, 
Oct. 17. PROPELLER. The claims cover a 
blade with variable pitch at different blade 
lengths, pitch ma.ximum beyond the half blade 
length from the a.xis and diminishing toward 
either extremity of the blade; pitch maximum 
at greater blade width; method of construction 
consisting of shaping the laminations to the 
plan form, putting holes in the same so that 
they will register when assembled, .securing 
same together by screws in the holes until 
grliip has set, reaming and inserting dowel pin«; 
tapering of lamination sand scarifying together 
to form hub; selection of laminations from ad- 
jacent portions of the same timber; variable 
pitch and blade width increasing at a dimin- 
ishing rate from peripheral ends toward mid- 
blade length. 

This is the third propeller patent of Mr. 
Heath. One, 998,897, July 25, covers interior 
and exterior laminations of hard and soft, or 
light and heav.v, woods in combination; the 
second, 41,244, Mar. 14, covers the design which 
is a feature of Paragon piopellers. 

Paul Meissner, West Hoboken, N. J., 1,007,225, 
Oct. 31, 1911. Piled Nov. 10, 1911. Novel 
PLYING MACHINE. 
Rudolph Wagner, of Stettin, and Carl von 
Radinger, of Wellingdorf, near Karl, Ger- 
many, 1,007,405, Oct. 31, 1911. A FRAME 
WORK for Airships, Balloons and Aero- 
planes. 
William A. Hutson, Philadelphia, Pa., 1,007,- 
445, Oct. 31,1911. AERODROME fitted with 
overhead track FOR TRAINING AVIATORS 
without danger. 
W. F. Mangels, New York, N. Y., 1,007,467. 
Oct. 31, 1911. MEANS FOR TEACHING 
AVIATION and Testing Aeroplanes. 
D. L. Moblev. Los Angeles, 1.007,789, Nov. 
7. SUPPORTING SURFACES of triangular plan 
view. 

T. A. Snyder. St. Louis, No. 1,007.810, Nov. 7. 
Combination AEROPLANIO HELICOPTER. 

R. R. Waterman, Upland, Cal., 1.007,827, Nov. 
7. Vertical STABILIZING SURFACE above and 
below main planes. 

Clarence E. Darrow, Fairbury, Neb., 
1,007,926, Nov. 7. AILERONS actuated by pen- 
dulum. 

Hugh L. Willoughbv, Newport, R. I., 1,008.096, 
Nov. 7. Filed June 24, 1909. ELEVATING 
RUDDERS front and rear operated in con- 
junction inversely with relation one to another, 
as in the Curtiss machine. 

A. O. Gardiner, Oakland. Cal.. 1,008,131, Nov. 
7. Aeroplane with gas filled bags attached to 
planes. 

Iskander Hourwich. Washington, D. C, 
1,008,152, Nov. 7. FIXED AILERONS at wing 
tips, curved and projecting upward and down- 
ward laterally in series. 

A. S. Greenamver and Alfred Hallett, Los 
Angeles, 1.008,258, Nov. 7. SUPPORTING SUR- 
FACES. Top plane of biplane bent down in a 
"V" to level of lower plane at middle position: 
lower plane bent likewise, containing power 
plant in the .space thus made. 

Edward William Young, Tvtherlev. Wimborne, 
England, 1,008,402, Nov, 14. PROPELLER hav- 
ing shaft, hub rigid thereon, hub with free 
longitudinal and circumferential movement with 
respect to shaft, etc., to allow blade to vary in- 
clination with respect to shaft axis. 

William C. Lawson, Roanoke. Va,, 1,008,417, 
Nov. 14. HELICOPTER. 

Edmund Soelie. Berlin, Germany, 1,008,437, 
Nov. 14. AERONAT. 

Christopher .1. Lake. Bridgeport, Conn., 
1,008,479, Nov. 14. AEROPLANE with stepped, 
triangular surfaces. 



Harry Wilbur Du Puy, Pittsburgh, Penn., 
1,008,630, Nov. 14, assignor to Pennsylvania 
Rubber Co. SUPPORTING SURFACE. A 
double covered wing of usual type with the 
fabric of the concave side of the wing contain- 
ing perforations to release the pressure and 
allow the air to enter the inside of the wing 
to prevent distortion of the cloth. 

Rufus Clayton White, Los Angeles, Cal., 1,008,- 
761, Nov. 14, HELICOPTER and gas bag. 

Francis Erwin Borkenhagen, Caldwell, Idaho, 

1.008.887, Nov. 14, FLYING-MACHINE; impos- 
sible to classify. 

Francis E. Borkenhagen, Caldwell, Idaho, 

1.008.888, Nov. 14. "BALANCING DEVICE for 
Lifting Biplanes." 

Aladar de Bajza, London. Eng., 1,009,010, Nov. 
14. AIRSHIP. 

Louis Bleriot, Neuilly-Sur-Seind, France, 1,009, 
017, Nov. 14. BALANCING an dSTEERING AI'- 
PARATUS. Universally mounted control lever. 

Peter F. Carmichael, Dahlonega, Ga., 1,009,- 
048, Nov. 21. HELICOPTER. 

Konstantin Ziolkowski, Kalouga, Russia, 1,009, 
126, Nov. 21. METALLIC ENVELOPE for 

Dirigible Aerostats and other purposes. 

George Lehberger, Newark, N. J., 1,009,157. 
Nov. 21. FLYING-:iMACHINE. 

Wallace E. Tillinghast, Worcester, Mass., 
1,009,200, Nov. 21, STABILITY DEVICE. Aux- 
iliary planes pivotally mounted back from ad- 
vancing edge, above each lateral end of main 
plane, and means for changing simultaneously 
the angle of incidence of both in opposite di- 
rections. 

John C. Ayling, Springfield, II!., 1,009,274, 
Nov. 21. KITE. 

Francis A. Craig, Carmichaels, Penn., 1,009,- 
384, Nov. 21. AUTOMATIC LATERAL-STABIL- 
IZING MECHANISM. Ailerons hinged on a 
fore and aft axis at lateral ends of main planes, 
connected by chain and cable. Aileron on high 
side automatically hinges up, decreasing area 
on that side, and pulling one on low side down 
to increase area there. 

Rene Louis Riout, Paris, France, 1,009,692, 
Nov. 21. FLAPPING WINGS. 

Louis Bcauclerc Goldman, Downsleigh, Hay- 
wards Heath, England, 1,009,736, Nov. 28. 
AUTOMATIC STABILITY device: Planes rotat- 
able about longitudinal axis of machine by air 
pressure, restricted by weights. 

Aceph B'. Maves, Houston, Texas, 1,009,766, 
Nov. 28. PARACHUTE. 

Colin B. McKenzie, Chicago. 111., 1.009,770, 
Nov. 28. SUPPORTING SURFACES which in- 
crease angle of incidence when moved forward 
from a pivot point. 

Pehr A. Nil.son. Philadelphia, Pa., 1,009,780, 
Nov. 28. FLYING-MACHINE. 

Attilio Pusterla, Fort Wadsworth, N. Y.. 
1.009,855, Nov. 28. AUTOM.XTIC STABILITY 
device: ailerons at lateral extremities of wings,' 
movable on axis parallel with the longitudinal 
axis of the machine, operated by swinging seat. 

Arthur McLean, New York, N. Y.. 1.009.915. 
Nov. 28. HELICOPTER using turbines to pro-, 
duce "a column of air pressure and climb up 
on it." 

George Rifflard. New York. N. Y., 1,009.996. 
Nov. 28. FRAMEWORK system to avoid holes 
in spars, using yoke-bolts and plates, etc. 

Joseph Rosenberg and Rudolph (^.labanznya, 
Chicago, 111., 1.010,076, Nov. 28. AIRSHIP. 

A. F. W. Macmanus. San Antonio. Tex., 
1,010.286, Nov. 28. EQUILIBRIUM DEVICE: 
panels or valves in lateral extremities of wings, 
pivoted on fore and aft axis, swinging weight 
attached to each. High side of aeroplane causes 
valve that side to oren. 

Josiah Sparks, Universitv Place. Nebraska., 
1.010.324. Nov. 28. FLYING MACHINE, with 
pivotally mounted wings, front, rear and top 
propellers, parachute, etc. 

Hugo Kardos. New York, N. Y.. Assignor of 
one-half to A. J. Moisant, of New York, N. Y.. 
1.010.374 Nov. 28. HALF AEROPLANE. HALT!' 
OSCILLATING WING MACHINE with llap 
valves in the wings. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 225 



December, 1911 



THE USE OF MAGNALIUM CYLINDERS 

The question of weight in aeroplanes has 
ever been one of importance. In order to 
reduce the weight it has been necessary to 
use the very best grade of material and to 
carefully aesign everything in such a way 
that only sufficient material is used to give 
the requisite strength. The heaviest part 
of a flying machine is perhaps the power 
plant, and, therefore the efforts made to- 
ward reducing weight, have been mainly 
centered upon reducing the weight of the 
motor. Aluminum or aluminum alloys have 
been used wherever it was possible to sub- 
stitute these alloys for heavier metals, such 
as iron. Several concerns have been suc- 
cessful in the use of an aluminum alloy 
for cylinders. The attempt to use alumi- 
num or alloys thereof for gasolene engine 
cylinders is not new, but for years it has 
been unsuccessful. 

Within the last year Magnalium, an alloy 
of Aluminum, which is manufactured in 
Germany, and which is composed princi- 
pally of aluminum alloyed with a small 
proportion of magnesium, has been success- 
fully used for aeroplane engine cylinders. 
The metal is not only lighter than aluminum 
castings, but lighter even than pure Alu- 
minum, because of its containing the metal 
magnesium, which is considerably lighter 
that aluminum, weighing about 1/3 what 
iron weighs, and its use has demonstrated 
the fact that a magnalium cylinder seems 
to give better wear than an iron cylinder 
under Ihe same conditions. After a few 
hours, running the bore of a magnalium 
cylinder seems to take on a very high 
mirror polish. 



A very interesting fact in connection with 
the use of this metal for cylinders is that 
there are instances on record of where a 
cylinder was not bored carefully enough, 
the engine was assembled and run, and in- 
stead of the cylinder being scored, it was 
the piston and the piston rings, which were 
scored so badly that they had to be replaced 
after the inside of the cylinder had been 
burnished. The burnishing of the inside of 
the cylinder seems to be a very desirable 
feature in connection with the use of this 
metal. 

The castings of magnalium are denser 
than those of any aluminum alloy and the 
result is that there is no question about 
their holding the pressure produced in the 
cylinder. 

The metal is about 121/.% lighter than 
castings of #12 aluminum, assuming that 
this grade is true to analysis 93% alumi- 
num and 7% copper, in which case it 
will have a specific gravity of 2.82. The 
metal is also considerably stronger than 
castings of this alloy. 

Another very interesting fact in connec- 
tion with the use of this metal in cylinders 
is that the thermal conductivity of magna- 
lium is from 7 to 8 times that of iron. 
This helps the cooling problem, especially 
in the case of air cooled engines. 

On account of the toughness and strength 
of the metal, it is being used not only for 
cylinders but also for crank cases, water 
pumps, in-take manifolds, and the various 
other things connected with the manufac- 
ture of an engine, which could admit of 
the use of castings of any kind. 



Wood Finishing for Aeroplanes 

Con tinned fro m page ISO 

You will perhaps hear of liquid fillers; 
have nothing to do with them; they are a 
source of trouble. The only liquid that may 
be used as a filler is shellac varnish, which 
is not without merit for work which is not 
to be exposed much to the weather. 

For your uses, there are two classes of 
oleoresinous varnish; rubbing varnish which 
can be used in the manner already described 
for shellac, rubbing it down to a fine surface 
with pumice and water, after the application 
of a sufficient number of coats; this is to 
make a foundation for the finishing coat. 
Rubbing varnish contains little oil and much 
resin; finishing varnish, much oil and less 
resin. For your work, suitable finishing var- 
nish is sold under two names; spar varnish, 
isuch as is used by yacht builders, and what 
is called wearing body varnish, used by car- 
iriage painters. Rubbing varnishes are worth 
'$3 to $4 per gallon; spar $4 to $4.50, and 
jwearing body varnish about $6.00. Avoid 



using any cheaper varnishes than these; they 
are not cheap in the end. 

The finishing coat of varnish should not be 
rubbed, but left with a natural gloss, which 
is far more dtirable than an artificially 
polished surface. 

Fine, transparent varnishes display good 
workmanship; but if the latter is not up to 
the mark, it may be to some extent concealed 
by paint. Aluminum paint may be regarded 
as in a way intermediate between varnish 
and common paint. It is made of metallic 
aluminun powder, mixed with pyroxylin var- 
nish. This latter is a solution of pyroxylin, 
a sort of gun-cotton, in amyl acetate, a liquid 
having an odor suggesting bananas, and 
often called banana oil. This makes the best 
quality; inferior sorts have some cheap var- 
nish as the liquid part and are much less 
durable. 



I am a constant reader of your magazine, and 
I think it the- leadincj journal of its kind in 
America. You are to lie congratulated on the 
painstaking care uith which iiou give any informa- 
tion published. — Edward II. Young. 



AERONAUTICS 



Page 226 



December, 191 1 



Index for Volume IX 



Note. — Volume I started with the first issue, 
that of July, 1907. Volume II started with the 
issue of January, 1908. Volume III started with 
tlie July, 1908, issue. Volume IV started with 
tlie January, 1909, number. Volume V started 
with the July, 1909, number. Volume VI started 
with tlie January, 1910, issue, and Volume VII 
started with the July, 1910, issue. Volume VIII 
started with the January, 1911, number. Volume 
IX with the July, 1911, issue. 

Only principal articles are indexed. News notes 
in general, and smaller mentions are not in- 
dexed. 

JULY, 1911. 

Page 
Propeller Testing- Device, By Prof. David 

L. Gallup, M. E 1 

Tests of Wooden Struts, By Prof. D. A. Low. 4 
Testing of Aei'oplane Engines (Leigh ton 

Motor) 6 

Army and Navy Aviation 7 

Table of American Aeronautic Motois (Com- 
piled by E. L. Jones & S. Y. Beach) 7 

Valkvrie Monoplane, Scale Drawings 9 

Intercollegiate Balloon Race and Ascensions. 11 

Frencli Court Favois Wrights 12 

Construction Aids, XVIII 14 

Curtiss "Triad" 15 

Synopsis of U. S. Aerodromes and Flyers.... 18 
What's the Matter with America? By R. B. 

Scott 25 

Detroit Club Members' Tournament 26 

How to Build a Curtiss-type Biplane. By G. 

H. Godley 27 

European Cross-Country Circuits 29 

Fatalities 29 

Club News 31 

National Balloon Race 32 

New Pedersen Lubricator Brooke "Non- 
Gyro" Motor, G. & A. Carburettor 33-34 

Patents 36 

AUGUST, 1911. 

Scott Device for B'omb-Dropping from Aero- 

jilanes 39 

Making of a Propeller 41 

Formula for Horsepower of an Engine 42 

Gliding as a Sport and as an Aid to Flight. 

Bv T. W. K. Clarke, with Scale Drawings. 43 
Wiliard Headless Biplane, with Scale Draw- 
ings 48 

Pressure Equalizer for Ailerons 48 

Kirkbride Biplane, with Scale Drawings 50 

Construction Aids, XIX 52 

Atwood's Flight from B'oston to Washington. 53 

Johnstone Breaks Duration Record 54 

Beachey's Flight Over Niagara 54 

Navy Curtiss Hydro-aeroplane 55 

Automobile Club Motor Prize 57 

New Pilots 59 

Aviation Insurance 59 

Reports on European Circuits 62 

List of Broken Records 63 

Fatalities 64 

Gordon Bennet Race. By George H. Scragg. 65 

National Balloon Race and Ascensions 67 

Hall Scott and Curtiss Motors 69 

Patents 70 

Club News 71 

Subscribers' Fonmi and ICxchange 72 

SEPTEMBER, 1911. 

What's the Matter with Aviation, Sympo- 
sium 75 

Does Color Affect Aeroplanes? By R. F. Pat- 
terson 77 

Stresses due to Diving or Swooping 78 

Burgess-Curtiss "Baby" with Scale Drawings 79 

-Vviation "Schools," by Grover F. Sexton.... 83 

Militarv Aviation and U. S. Aero Guns 84 

New Pilots 86 

Aeronautical Manufacturers Association.... 87 

The Chicago Meet 89 

New York-Philadelphia liace 91 

Death of Badger and Johnstone and other 

Fatalities 92 

Wright Biplane, Model "B," witli Complete 

Drawings 93 



Vage 

Atwood P'light, St. Louis-New York lul 

Garros Makes New Altitude and Other Rec- 
ords 104 

Club News 10.5 

Adams-Farwell Motor 108 

Hele-Shaw Clutch 110 

Patents 112 

OCTOBER, 191 I. 

A Popular Scientific Explanation of the Mo- 
tives of the Gyroscope and its Application 

in Aviation. By Emil Buergin 113 

Doutre Longitudina IStabilizer 115 

Two-Place Deperdussin Monoplane, with 

Scale Drawings 117 

Naval Curtiss H.vdroaeroplane Experiment. .121 

New Moisant Biplane, Scale Drawings 123 

Queen Monoplane, with Scale Drawings 125 

Rotary Indian Motor 128 

Rex Smith Biplane with Scale Drawings 12i) 

Death of Buel Hurndon Green, M.E., and 

Others 132 

The Nassau Meet 134 

Gnome-Engined Burgess- Wright 135 

Boston Meet and Cross Country Race 136 

What's the Matter with Aviation? Sym- 

posiuin 137 

Club News 137 

International Race and Ascensions 138 

Vaniman Dirigible "Akron" 139 

New Pilots 141 

Patents 146 

NOVEMBER, 1911. 

What's the Mattel- with Aviation? Sym- 

posiuin 149 

The Effect of Color on Aeroplanes. By Prof. 

H. LaV. Twining 150 

Death of Prof. John J. Montgomery with 

Article by Him 151 

Death of Eugene Ely and Other Fatalities. .154 

Club News 155 

Poland Tail-less Biplane, with Scale Draw- 
ings 156 

Kansas City International Contest. By Lieut. 

H. E. Honeywell 159 

McCurdy Headless Biplane, Scale Drawings. .160 
Thomas Headless Biplane with Scale Draw- 
ings 162-163 

Construction Aids, XX 164 

Rating of Gasoline Motors 165 

Progress in Hydroaeroplanes, Burgess, Cur- 
tiss, etc 166 

Longest Flight of Hydroaeroplanes 168 

Rogers' Transcontinental Flight 169 

Queen-Martin Biplane with Scale Draw- 
ings 170-172 

Aeronautical Manufacturers Association 174 

Scott Bomb-Dropper Trials 179 

New Pilots ISO 

Balloon Ascensions 1^2 

Frontier, Detroit, Roberts and Call Motors... 184 
Patents ISS 

DECEMBER, 1911. 

Wood Finishing for Aeroplanes. By Prof. A 

H. Sabin 189 

Competition Military Aeroplanes in Krani-o, by 

R. E. Scott 190 

Etrich Monoplane. By Fritz Edelstein 192 

Hamilton Biplane 196 

Tlie Nieuport Monoplane 199 

Bleriot, XXI 202 

KaUm Biplane. By Cleve T. Shaffer 203 

p::ilswortli Stabilizer. By Cleve T. Shaffer. . . 206 

Model Notes. By Percy W. Pierce 208 

Patents 209 

The Fourth Milibiry Arm, By General .lames Allen.. 212 

Wittcmann Stabilizer 2l;> 

Curtiss Notifies Infringers 211 

Deaths 21". 

Fowler's Trans-Continental Flight 217 

New Pilots 217 

Ascensions 221 

Questions and .\nswers. Bv M. B. Sellers... 222 

Club News 224 




Vol. IX, No. 1. 



JULY, 1911 



Serial No 48 




PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

AERONAUTICS PRESS, Inc. 

250 West 54th St., New York 

Subscriptions in the U. S. A. and possessions, $3.00 
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SINGLE NUMBERS 25 CENTS 




Eiementary Aeronautics REVISED TO JUNE 1st, 1911 

Vehicles of the Air 



THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF 
AERIAL MACHINES 



ALBERT P. THURSTON, B.Sc.(Lond.) 

ate Engineer to Sir Hiram Maxim; Lecturer in Aeronautics, 

East London College (University of London) : Afentber 

of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain 



a^ 



This little volume is of the greatest interest to all who 
re interested in aviation. The many recent develop- 
lents in this science and the many new problems which 
onfront aviators render imperative the appearance of a 
•ork like the present in which all recent discoveries and 
neir principles are collated and explained. The great aim 
f the author has been to present to the reader a simple 
nd concise account of the action of air upon moving 
lanes, aerocurves, propellers, bars, and the like, and the 
pplication of these principles to practice. The volume is 
ilendidly illustrated by many photographs and diagrams 
hich elucidate the subject matter of the text. The book 
ill be highly welcome to all aeronauts and also to every 
udent of aeronautics, as it contains a vast amount of 
[formation of the highest value. 



S\- VEHiaESoFTHEAIR 



A POPULAR EXPOSITION OF 
MODERN AERONAUTICS 
with' working DRAWINCS 



Cloth 8vo. 



126 Illustrations, 
by mail, $1.33 



51.25 net; 



By 
Victor Lougheed 

TMember of the Aeronautic Society. Founder Member Society of 
Automobile Engineers. Consulting- Engineer of the Aero Club 

of Illinois. 

Tliisbook is known the 
World over as "The 
Aeronautical Bible." It 
is absolutely reliable, up- 
to-date, and concise, yet 
comprehensive. Noth- 
ing has been omitted. 
The only book that act- 
ually shows you how to 
construct, operate and 
repair all types of suc- 
cessful machines. Over 
500 subjects. Over 200 
aeronautical terms de- 
" fined. 275 illustrations, 

including- detailed working drawings and parts. 

140 half-tone views. Tabulated list of flights to 

date, both long distance and hourly, fatalities, 

etc. 

Price $2.50 net. Postage 25 cents extra. 
Printed in Cloth, ,>,">() i)a^fS, ii.-indsDiiu-Iy .stamped. 



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AERONAUTICS 

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NEW YORK 



JUL 27 



AERONAUTICS 



July, 1911 



DON'T Be Disappointed 

but get enough power 
to fly and not ^^cut grass ^^ 

#TT Profit by the experiences of others. 

ol The Engine that stands up to the 

w^ork and is the "last word" in engine 

building. :: :: :: :: :: :: 




OVER 100 FLIGHTS BY 

ANTONY JANNUS and REX SMITH at 
Washington, D. C, without a single accident. 
<iA record unequalled by^ the best of flyers. 

Be "Wise" and get our Information 

The Emerson Engine Co., Inc. 

ALEXANDRIA, VA., U.S.A. 
New York Office: 1737 Broadway 

(Buick Building) 
J. R. Westerfield Telephone 782 Columbus 



!h answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 





Vol ix, No. 2. AUGUST, 1911 



Serial No. 49 





EVERYTHING IN AN AERO MOTOR 



? Power, Strength, Compactness and Dependability 



^ight Design 
^ight Material 
^ight Workmanship 
^ight Price 

TWO TYPES, viz: 

. cyl., 60 H. P., 225 lbs. 
cyl, 100H.P.,300 1bs. 




A Biplane Installation 



A record of 300 successful flights without mishap by Antony 
annus and Rex Smith was made possible by a reliable EMERSON. 

]Vrite to-day for literature! 

Q M CRSON ENGINE CO. ALEXANDRIA VA. 

NEW YORK office: 17^7 BROADWAY 



AERONAUTICS 



August, iQii 



.^.»^^i^i. ^ ^■■^■■^■■ ^ ■■ ^ . ^ «^«^4^^'^^'■^'^^^'»^^^M''l^•i'4^^^^■•^'l^^ ^ ^l^^l^^^ ^ ^^^'^^^^^^^^i^^^^^^^^'^^^l^ ^ ^ ^ •^^ 



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Achievements of Curtiss Aeroplanes 
Are Arguments That Convince 

A DEPENDABLE MACHINE MINIMIZES THE RISK 
THAT THE AVIATOR ORDINARILY TAKES 



THE CURTISS BIPLANE— 

By constant striving for improvement, 
lias been made the aeroplane of most ad- 
vantageous possibilities. In the develop- 
ment of the aeroplane Curtiss has been 
eminently praetieal ; all of his ability and 
skill, the knowledge gained from numerous 
and famous flights, years of patient ex- 
perimentation in the factory and on the 
aviation field have been devoted to the 
construction of swift, safe and efficient 
aeroplanes. 
THE CURTISS SYSTEM of construction 
enables the biplane to be made much 
stronger, more dependable and powerful 
than other machines of the same weight. 
Aeroplane manipulation is an acquired 
art and not an acrobatic accomplishment 
or the result of natural instinct. But the 
aviator who uses the Curtiss machine has 
the special assistance, the additional as- 
surance contained in a system of instinctive 
controls for balancing, elevating and 
steering. 



THE CUR TISS H YDRO-AEROPLANE- 

Robs aviation of half its dangers; multi- 
plies the pleasure of flying. Air, water and 
land alike may be traversed by the new 
( urtiss machine. The hydro-aeroplane can 
fly 60 miles an hour ; driven over the sur- 
face of the water, the hy tiro-aeroplane 
will run away from the fastest motor boat; 
it responds to its rudder more quickly 
than any water craft afloat. It arises 
from, and alights on, water as well as on 
land. The U.S. Army and Navy officers 
have recommended theCnrtiss Hydroaero- 
plane in the highest terms. It has flown 
from a rough sea and from the surface 
of Salt Lake, Utah, to an altitude of 
nearly 5000 feet above the sea. After 
repeated tests had proved the efficiencj' 
and entire dependability of the machine, 
a Curtiss hydro-aeroplane was purchased 
by the U. S. navy department. This type 
of machine carries a passenger and is 
capable of transporting the most blase to 
the heights of enthusiasm. 



AVIATORS THOROUGHLY INSTRUCTED AND TRAINED 

The well established Curtiss policy, thorough reliability and correctness in every detail, 
characterizes the Curtiss training school for aviators now open at Nassau Boulevard, L. 1., 
Earle L. Ovington, the chief instructor, is a trained engineer as well as a licensed pilot. 

This is the only school where complete and proper theoretical instruction is given in 
addition to the most practical training, real study and work combined to the very best 
advantage. 

Immediate advantage must be taken of this opportunity as the number of students 
will be limited. 

Address CURTISS AEROPLANE COMPANY, 1737 Broadway, New York. 

MOTOR RELIABILITY DEMONSTRATED BEYOND QUESTION 

^'ou can't have if it isn't a Curtis*. 
There's a reason for it. 

Acquaintance Develops Confidence 

Why Not Start Right? 

.'10 H. v. i cylinder Power Plant 
40 H. P. 4 cylinder Power Plant 
60 H. P. 8 cylinder Power Plant 
70 H. F*. « cylinder Power Plant 

One Of These You Will Eventually Buy 

Get our proposition now Prompt Deliveries 



^ Did Beachy have confidence in his 



CURTISS MOTOR 

When he flew over 

NIAGARA FALLS AND UNDER 
THE BRIDGE? 

h'verybody knows he must have had 
Absolute Confidence. A re You going to have 
as much conlidcncc? in tin- motor You are 

Going to Install in Your Aeroplane ? 



Aeroplanes now offered for unrestricted use. Early delivery of all models can be made 

AddrcMs The Curtiss Aeroplane Company^ 



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HAMMONDSPORT, N. Y. 
New York Office, 1737 Broadway 



«t|>«~l^+<l>4>+4*+4>4*+4>4>4^++4''i'4'4>'i'++4''l*4>4>4>'i*4*'I-'{*4'4'4--l''i'4'4-4>'{*4*4''{'4>4'4>4'4'+'i>4>4>4>+^4'« 



hi ansiiciiiio udi'dlisriiiciils [^Icasc mention this iiHujazine. 





Vol. IX, No. 3. SEPTEMBER, 1911 Serial No. 50 





Skill and Experience Combined 
Produce in the Emerson the Ideal Aero Motor 




4 cyl.. 60 H. P.. 225 lbs. 6 cyl.. 100 H. P., 300 lbs. 

YOU will make no mistake intrusting your power problem to specialists in light, powerful, high 
speed motors — motors that have more speed championships to their credit than any other single 
American competitor. Write to-day for literature. 

EMERSON ENGINE CO. ALEXANDRIA VA. 



NEW YORK office: 



1737 BROADWAY 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 




«3C 



)(%)(3»»»»»»»(%9»»(%3»(%3(%3»0»(%9(3»»(%)»(9»^^ 



Mobiloil 



Endorsed by 

GLENN H. CURTISS 




VACUUM OIL COMPANY, 

No. 29 Broadway, New York. 
Gentlemen : — 

I am again pleased to report the 
success I have met with in the use of Mobiloil 
for the lubrication of the engines in my aero- 
planes. I have used this oil for the past three 
years, and I am greatly pleased in having found 
such a good oil for my aeronautical work. 
Yours very truly, 




Are You Using the Right Oil on Your Car? 

THE most important thing left entirel}'^ to the judgment of 
the owner in the operation of his automobile or aeroplane 
is the selection of a lubricant. The discriminating car 
owner selects the grade of MOHILOII^ especially suited to his 
tyi)e of motor — a grade for each type. 

Is it not significant that aviators generally, in this country 
and Europe, use MOBILOIL on their motors exclusively ( 



Vacuum Oil Company 

Rochester, U. S. A. 

TiiK Largest Rkfiners ok Automohii.k Oils in America 
New York Office -------- '21) Broadway 

In answering advertisements please ntention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



September, 1911 



HALL- 
SCOTT 

AVIATION POWER PLANTS MEAN PROFESSIONAL SUCCESS 



They are earning thousands of dollars for the many users through- 
out the United States and the Orient. 

They can be depended upon to operate successfully under most try- 
ing conditions, and require the least amount of adjustment, care and 
attention of any aviation power plant built. 

Hall-Scott power plants are being generally purchased by amateurs 
and professionals who have not been able to obtain results with other 
makes, among these the following: 

MATHEWSON AEROPLANE CO., 
HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR CO., Denver, Colorado, July 8th, 1911. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Gentlemen: — Your valued favor of June 27tli, received on my return from a trip in 
Wyoming, where we jjave a two days Aeroplane exhibition with one of our headless bi-planes. 
We made a five-minute flight at (lillette on Sunday which was considered a very successful 
one on account of the condition of the ^roimd, wind, etc. In trying out the motor Sunday, 
preparatory to a Hight Mondaj', the ***** went wrong with the ***** and we were 
up against it with that motor. We wired into the General Aviation People here, for their 
Hall-Scott motor, received it Monday night at ten o'clock, and by nine the next morning had 
it properly installed and the machine balanced up. Gillette, Wyoming, is a very rough 
country in more ways than one, and it was up to us to fly at ten o'clock, wind or no 
wind, as per advertisement. The machine rose out of the sage brush with a run of less than 
75 feet and crossed over to the top of the foothills which were at least 800 feet high and less 
than a mile from where we started. The wind must have been blowing better than twenty 
miles an hour and full of eddies. The thermometer registered lOi degrees. The altituile at 
Gillette is a little better than ,5,000 feet. Everything being considered it was anything but 
an ideal place to fly. The machine remained in the air about seven minutes, making three 
large circles at an altitude of 500 feet. Several times Thompson ran into air holes and whirl- 
winds which would have certainly smashed him if we had been using our old motor. 

At 7:30 the same evening after the wind had died down he made another flight, rising 
with a start of (il feet from a small baseball ground, circling over town several times at an 
altitude of over 1,000 feet, made several long dives, and, in fact did everything that any 
aviator in a machine could have done. We fully realize that without the Hall-Scott motor 
both of these flights would have been impossible. 

Very truly yours, 
THE MATHEWSON AEROPLANE CO., 

Slg?i('d : E. L. Mathewson, Pres. and Treas. 

This is one of many instances where Hall-Scott motors have proved 
their worth. For details of other flights made, and power plant details. 



Address 



Hali-Scott Motor Car Co., San Francisco, California 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS September, 1911 



ROBERTS MOTORS 



WE HAVE FULFILLED EVERY PROMISE 



Don't Buy Motors on Manufacturers 
"GUARANTEE" alone 



} 



I HERE ARE THE RESULTS : J 

♦ _ _ - - ♦ 



J 40 motors sold outright in 4 months j 

J J 

J Not one has failed to fly \ 

J Not one has ever missed j 

I Not one has ever back-fired j 

I Not one dissatisfied customer % 



i 

J We would gladly refer you to every single one of our J 

X forty customers, and will forward names and addresses on % 
request. WRITE US TO-DAY. CATALOG FREE. } 

\ 
THE ROBERTS MOTOR CO. \ 

\ 1430 COLUMBUS AVE., - - SANDUSKY, OHIO J 

* ♦ 
♦ 

ARE GOOD MOTORS I 

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••^•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••* 



In answering advertisements please mention this magazine. 



AERONAUTICS 



Aiigiisf, 'iQii 



HALL 



COTT 

AVIATION MOTORS 





Type A-2 
60 H. P., 400 lbs 
flying thrust 



C As a positive guarantee of their excellence, reliability and efficiency have 
some successful airman tell you about the HALL - SCOTT, or write for 
information direct to 



HALL-SCOTT MOTOR CAR COMPANY, 



San Franci