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THE AFFINITY 



THE HEBREW LANGUAGE 



THE CELTIC: 



A COMPARISON BETWEEN HEBREW AND THE GAELIC LANGUAGE, 

OR THE CELTIC OF SCOTLAND. 



THOMAS STEATTON, M.D. Edin. 
E.iV. 

Third Edition. 




EDINBURGH : 

MACLACHAN AND STEWART, SOUTH BRIDGE. 

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO. 

PLYMOUTH: W. BRENDON AND SON. 

1872. 



Price Two Shillings. 



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THE AFFINITY 

BETWEEN 

THE HEBREW LANGUAGE 

AND 

THE CELTIC: 

BEINO 

A COMPARISON BETWEEN HEBREW AND THE GAELIC LANGUAGE, 

OR THE CELTIC OF SCOTLAND. 



THOMAS STKATTON, M.D. Edin., 

Dep. Inspector-Gen., R.N. 

Third Edition. 




EDINBURGH: 
MACLACHAN AND STEWART, SOUTH BRIDGE. 

LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO. 

PLYMOUTH : W. BR.ENDON AND SON. 

1872. 



; 



SIR ALEXANDER ARMSTRONG, K.C.B., 

M.D. Edin., 

HONORARY PHYSICIAN TO THE QUEEN, 



Sir, 

As that branch of Medicine called Physiology includes 
an account of the different races of mankind, and as a description of 
the various divisions of the human family has to he illustrated chiefly 
by referring to the languages spoken by them, there is some reason 
for saying that the affinity of languages is a subject within the wide 
area of Medical Inquiry. 

In 1833 I drew up a short Comparative Vocabulary of Hebrew and 
Gaelic. In 1810 this was printed at the end of my Comparative 
Vocabulary of Greek and Gaelic. In 1870 it was reprinted without 
any alteration. After 1833 or 1840 I did not look into the subject 
again till November, 1871, when, after a few days, I made the discovery 
that by taking away the first part of many Hebrew words the next 
syllable, or the next two syllables, resembled in sound and meaning a 
word in Gaelic. The words which, treated in this way, give this result 
number about four hundred and fifty. 

At first I intended waiting till I had time to re-arrange the matter 
of my other essays relating to Gaelic {Celtic Origin of Greek and Latin 
and of Classical Proper Names), but on second thoughts, it seemed to 
me that the subject was of so much interest and novelty, that the 
Essay was worthy of being published at once, and also of being 
inscribed to one who, some years ago, was selected to be the Head of 
an important Department of the Public Service. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

THOMAS ST11ATTON, M.D., 

IÌ.X. 
May, 1S72. 



PREFACE. 



Of those who may take up this short Essay relating to Gaelic, it 
occurs to me that some may wish to know what local opportunities 
the writer has had of being practically acquainted with that language. 

As, every ten or twenty years, the number of those who speak 
Gaelic is somewhat less, it is as well to make some reference to dates. 

Although it is said that egotism should be avoided, let me mention 
that, born in the town of Perth (1816), I remained there for about 
eight years. 

I then lived, for about five years, fifteen miles north-west from 
Perth, at Dunkeld, which is on the Gaelic border, and has been called 
the mouth of the Highlands. Being the mouth of the Highlands, it 
has been said of it that it ought to speak Gaelic. Every day I heard 
a good deal of Gaelic spoken, but I did not pay any attention to it. 

The next four years, from 1829 to 1833, 1 spent in Northumberland. 
In 1831 a strong feeling of nationality — which I have always had on 
all subjects — took the particular bent of a wish to learn Gaelic. At 
the age of fifteen I procured Stewart's Gaelic Grammar, Macleod and 
Dewar's Gaelic Dictionary, and a few other books; and in the course 
of two or three months, without any help, taught myself the language. 

The next four years, from November, 1833, to August, 1837, I was 
in Scotland, attending medical classes at college, and had no time for 
any except professional studies. 

In July, 1840, the Affinity of Latin to the Celtic was published ; in 
September, 1810, the Celtic Origin of Greek (at the end of this was 
given a short Comparative Vocabulary of Hebrew and Gaelic) ; and, 
in 1815, the Celtic Origin of Classical Proper Names. 

In 1870 a second edition was issued of all the above. 

I have been about twenty-six years in full-pay in the Navy, of 
which about ten years in different parts of Canada, and after that 
about ten years and a half in Prince Edward Island, near Nova Scotia 
— in the winter at Prince Edward Island, and in the summer about 



6 PREFACE. 

Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, &c. In various localities 
in Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, and Prince Edward Island, there is a 
good deal of Gaelic spoken ; but I was not in these particular districts. 
For eighteen years (1849 to 1867) I was not once in Scotland. To 
Dunkeld and its vicinity four or five visits of a few weeks each have 
of late been all the opportunity I have had of hearing Gaelic spoken. 

As to the area over which Gaelic is or has been spoken, and the- 
degree of its use therein, some information may be found in the three 
following publications : — 

The Statistical Account of Scotland, in twenty- one volumes, pub- 
lished between 1791 and 1799, was drawn up from the communications 
of the ministers of the different parishes. 

The Nctr Statistical Account of Scotland, in fifteen volumes, octavo, 
published about 1817. This is on a better plan than the former, as 
each county is in a separate volume, and may be purchased separately. 

For a great many years Messrs. Oliver and Boyd have published 
the Edinburgh Almanac, a yearly volume containing copious infor- 
mation on most subjects relating to Scotland : it notes the churches 
where the service is either wholly or partially in Gaelic. The year 
18 1J was the one when it began to denote this. It is to be hoped that 
it will ever continue to do so. 

Every time that the decennial census is taken, it would be very 
desirable in the Highlands and Hebrides to ascertain — 1. The number 
c-f persons who speak Gaelic only. 2. Number who speak Gaelic and 
English. 3. Total number speaking Gaelic. 4. Number able to read 
Gaelic, o. Proportion per cent, of Gaelic -speaking persons, and the 
total population of each parish and county. These few columns being 
added to the tables would not be much additional trouble to the 
enumerators. It was in 1801 that they began the regular system of 
taking the census every ten years. Foreigners will hardly believe 
that a matter so important and interesting has alwa} r s been neglected. 
During the year 1870, from various bodies and individuals, letters 
were sent urging that the results of the census of 1871 should contain 
this information ; but Highlanders and enthusiastic Gaelic scholars 
were again disappointed. If at each census these language-statistics 
were ascertained and published, they would in after times bo looked 
upon as a valuable historical record. It is very sad that the census of 
1871 should have this defect or omission: perhaps the General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland might request the minister of 
each parish in the Highlands and Hebrides to draw up the number of 
the Gaelic-speaking inhabitants, &c. 



PREFACE. 7 

The same steps ought to he taken at each census in Ireland, Wales, 
and the Isle of Man. In Wales the matter was always neglected till 
1871. In the Isle of Man it has always heen neglected. In Ireland 
it was neglected till 1851. In that year it was taken, and also in 1861, 
and, I suppose, in 1871. They who manage the census in Ireland 
deserve great credit for what they have done, and they make Ireland 
contrast most favourably with the other Celtic -speaking parts of the 
United Kingdom. 

I do not make the slightest pretence of being a Hebrew scholar ; 
in the case of nine or ten words, perhaps some who are Hebrew 
scholars may see that these might more correctly be referred to other 
words in Hebrew, instead of trying to find distant cousins for them in 
Celtic. 

It is unnecessary to observe, that the plan of cutting off the first 
part of Hebrew words may be used for the purpose of comparing 
Hebrew with other tongues besides the Celtic. 

As possibly these pages may be again printed, I shall be glad to 
receive, addressed to myself, any corrections or suggestions that may 
occur to my readers. 

Any published criticisms, good-natured or otherwise, will be care- 
fully attended to. 



U, Valletort Terrace, 

Stoke, 

Deionport, 

May, m-2. 



THE AFFINITY 



THE HEBREW AND THE CELTIC. 



Early in the year 1833 I drew up a short Comparative Vocabulary 
of Hebrew and Gaelic. In 1840 this was printed at the end of my 
Comparative Greek and Gaelic Vocabulary. In 1870 this was re- 
printed without any alteration. After 1833 or 1810 I did not look into 
the subject again till November, 1871, when I made many additions 
to my former list. On this occasion (1872) the manner of spelling 
Hebrew words in English letters, is the one followed by Aaron Pick in 
that work of great ability and industry, The Bible-Student's Concordance. 
(London: Hamilton, Adams & Co. 1845. Pp. 590.) 

In comparing one language with another, there are two questions 
to be considered; first, the grammar of the two languages; and, 
secondly, the separate words of each. 

In Hebrew the prepositions are incorporated with the personal 
pronouns ; the same is done in Gaelic : aig (at) and other fifteen 
prepositions are incorporated with the personal pronouns. This was 
pointed out by Stewart in his Gaelic Grammar. (Edinburgh, 1801; 
and second edition, 1812, page 129.) 

Of Hebrew nouns a plural termination is im or eem ; this is like 
the Gaelic Mo, more. 

After 1833 or 1840 I did not look into the subject again till 
November, 1871. After a few days I made a discovery that gave me 
a key to word -analogies I had not previously noticed. I found that, 
after taking away the first part of a Hebrew word, the next syllable, 
or the next two syllables, resembled a word in Gaelic. In this word- 
dissection there is taken away either — 

1 . An initial vowel, or 

2. An initial vowel-sound, or 

3. An initial consonant, or 

4. An initial consonant followed by a vowel-sound. 



10 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

There are about four hundred and fifty-two Hebrew words which, 
after being treated in this way, are like Gaelic words. Under the 
letter aleph, there are thirty- nine words ; under beth, eight ; under 
gimel, fourteen ; under daleth, twelve ; under he, fifteen ; under vov, 
none ; under zain, nineteen ; under kheth, twenty-seven ; under teth, 
five ; under yod, twenty-nine ; under kaph, thirteen ; under lamed, 
ten ; under mem, sixty-one ; under nun, forty-three ; under zamech, 
twenty-eight ; under ayin, twenty- two; under pe, six; under tsade 
(ts prefixed), fourteen; under tsade (t prefixed), six; under koph, 
fifteen ; under resh, two ; under shin or sin, fifty-nine ; and under the 
letter tov, fifteen words. 

As the prefixing of a vowel, or of a vowel-sound, is not as distinct 
as the prefixing of a consonant, I show separately the number of 
words (having a prefix) beginning with — aleph, thirty-nine words; 
he, fifteen ; yod, twenty-nine ; ayin, twenty-two; in all one hundred 
and five; leaving three hundred and forty-seven words beginning 
with a prefixed consonant. It saves repetition to speak of the Hebrew 
prefixing without always adding or the Gaelic omitting. 

In the following pages there are given about twelve hundred and 
seventy Hebrew words, which in meaning and sound are like words 
in Gaelic. This is four hundred and fifty-two words having a non- 
Celtic prefix, and eight hundred and twenty other words. 

I have not reckoned the whole number of words in Hebrew (to be 
found in the Hebrew Old Testament) ; it is only a random guess that 
the twelve hundred and seventy Hebrew words akin to Gaelic are 
perhaps about one-fourth, or it may be one-third, of all the words in 
the Hebrew language. 

In 1833 I noted several words with a syllable prefixed; so that I 
was then nearly making the discovery which I did not make till 1871. 
In 1833 I gave but a very cursory attention to the subject, being then 
about to attend medical classes. 

In this comparison of Hebrew with the Celtic, only one branch of 
the Celtic is referred to ; namely, the Gaelic, now spoken in the 
Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland. The words quoted may be 
found in the Gaelic Dictionary by Macleod and Dewar. (Glasgow, 
1831; and, second edition, Edinburgh, 1833.) Any remarks here 
about the Gaelic or Scoto-Celtic apply equally to the Irish language, 
and to the Manx. By referring to the Welsh, Cornish, or Armoric, it 
is likely that other proofs of Hebrew-Celtic linguistic kinship would 



HEBREW AND GAELIC. 11 

tie found, as words which one Celtic dialect may have lost may he 
preserved in another; and words now in use in one dialect may he 
capable of being referred to roots extant only in another. 

A derivation or a case of word -affinity is sometimes like a riddle : 
it is very easy after it is explained. 

The Celtic language has never received the attention its antiquity 
and importance merit. Ignorance of Celtic has always characterised 
nearly the whole of the Greek and Latin scholars of Great Britain 
and Ireland : this ignorance dates so far back that it may be called 
traditional.* I fancy the same remark may be made respecting the 
Hebrew scholars of the United Kingdom. Some writers pass over 
the subject of early languages without any reference to the Celtic; 
and others seem unwilling to admit its rights, its just and reasonable 
claims to consideration. When they come to speak of the Celtic, from 
what they say, it is clear that names, some of considerable learning, 
some of great learning, have not been able to extricate their minds 
from the prejudices in which they were brought up. 

The reader unacquainted with Gaelic is requested to notice that bh 
and mh are sounded like the English v ; ph like/: c andy are always 
hard like k. On some occasions en and gn are sounded cr and gr. At 
the end of a word ch is like eh in loch, as the Scotch pronounce it ; 
d and t when followed by h are generally silent : in some cases d and 
t are retained because formerly they were sounded ; and h is added to 
show that now they are not pronounced. These few remarks are 
sufficient for the purpose of derivation or word-comparison : more 
minute rules are to be found in Stewart's Gaelic Grammar, and in 
Macalpine's Gaelic Pronouncing Dictionary. 

In the case of the words when at the beginning of the word a 
syllable is either added in Hebrew or omitted in Gaelic, a hyphen is 
occasionally used in an arbitrary way, that the theory offered for the 
consideration of the reader may catch the eye more readily : it would 
have been more complete to have used the hyphen in all the cases. 
The Hebrew words are given first in the line, and in small capitals ; 
the Gaelic words are given in Roman letters. 

* There is no allusion here to the ministers of parishes in the Highlands and 
Hebrides, or other clergymen who have occasion to use Gaelic in their churches. 



HEBREW AND GAELIC. 



ALEPH. 



Aleph, the first Hebrew letter. The first Gaelic letter is called 
Ailm, the elm. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that either the Hebrew prefixes a vowel-sound, or the Gaelic 
omits an initial vowel : of this there are about thirty-eight instances. 

A conjectural affinity is offered for the consideration of the reader : 
some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that an initial consonant is either omitted in Hebrew, or added 
in Gaelic. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Hebrew words beginning with a vowel, or a vowel-sound, and Gaelic 

words beginning with a vowel : 
Ail, God ; compare with Gaelic Ailt, high. 
Ail, mighty; elouheem, superior; aliyoh, an upper room ; al, upon; 

ail, an arch over a door: Ailt, high. 
Alouph, a head, a chief : Alp, high. 
Armotjn, a royal citadel : Ard, high; monadh, a hill. 
Argoz, a coffer, a box : Aire, a chest. 
Omain, amen, so be it : Amhuil, amh-uil, like. 
Omar, omor, say : Ahair, say. 
Ov, av, a father, ancestor : Ab (obs.), a father. 
Aid, mist : Ad (obs.), water; or dubh, dark. 
Okhuz, possession : Aig, in possession. 
Akh, but : Ach, but. 
Ameeth, an associate: Amhuil, amh-uil, like; or comh, together; 

c omitted. 
Apheek, a stream : Abh, water. 

Agom, a pond : ag like aig in Aigeal, a pool, and aigeann, a pool. 
Akzor, cruel : Aicear, cruel. 
Eleel, an idol; aileem, images: like the second syllable of Amhuil, 

amh-uil, like. 
Oor, to lighten, to illuminate ; our, oor, light: Ear, the east (break of 

day) ; also like brath, fire ; b omitted. 
Oukheem, howling animals : Eigh, a ciy/. 
Ee, an island : I, an island. 
Olakh, corrupted : Olc, wicked. 
Olaph, to teach: Ollamh, a learned person. 



ALEPH. 13 

Othoh, to come : Uidhe, a step, a journey. 

Okh, alas; ee, mourning : Och, alas. Gaelic is very partial to the 
sound ch at the end of a word when apparently it might be 
dispensed with, as tula, a hill, which also appears in the form 
tulach. 

Umlal, to languish : Umhal, meek. 

Eshed, a torrent : esh like Uisge, uis-ge, water. 

Areeth (Chaldee), earth; erets, artsouth, land, earth, country: Uir, 
earth. Also like the Gaelic ruadh, red. The Gaelic word for 
earth is akin to the word for redness. See under adomoh. 

Akhar, after ; akhourai, the hinder parts; akhotjraneeth, back 
again; akhareeth, latter, last; akhair, another, from akhar, 
after : Iar, after ; kh prefixed ; and then a prefixed. 

Ovav, unripe : Amh, crude, raw. 

second group. 
Either a vowel-sound prefixed in Hebrew, or an initial vowel omitted 

in Gaelic. 
Arbeer, mighty : abeer, a-beer, might, like the Gaelic Mor, great. 
Aph, anger ; aivoh, enmity : Fuath, hatred. 
Aipher, ashes : Brath, fire. 
Aiphailoh, th ick darkness : Feile, a covering. 
Ad, to, unto : Do, to. 

Ain, not; ayin, not; oyin, not : Neo, not. 
Attoh, thou : Du, thou. 
Ashair, to arrange : Sreath, a row. 
Agvoh, affection ; the gv like Caomh, beloved. 
Aithox, stubborn, irresistible : Dian, vehement, violent. 
Atil, a stone side-post : perhaps like Lia, a stone. 
Agol, a round drop (see under Gol) : Calbh, a head ; the idea is some- 
thing round. 
Egrouph, a fist : Cior (obs.), a hand. 
Evroh, wrath : Fearg, anger. 
Idrai (Chaldee), an earthen floor : Tir, earth. 
Ovod, lose: Bho, from (the preposition turned into a verb). 
Odoun, a lord, a master : Tanaiste, tan-aiste, a lord, a thane. 
Ophoh, to bake: Biadh, food. 
Omeer, foliage : Barr, the top (say of a tree). 
Ogav, to fall in love with : Caomh, beloved. 

Otjv, a spirit of divination ; v like Faidh, a prophet ; ou prefixed. 
Ovail, waste ground : Falamh, empty; hence the word fallow. 



14 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Orakh, to lengthen; erekh, long: Ruig, extend. 

Okhal, to devour, eat up : perhaps akin to Caol, narrow (whence perhaps 

a name for the gullet). 
Ouphel, thick darkness : Feile, a covering. 
Ashoor, a course, an open space : Srath, a valley through which a river 

runs, any low-lying- country along a river, a strath, as Strathtay, &c. 
Ikkar, a ploughman ; kar like Gearr, cut; cut through the ground. 
Okhain, surely so; akin to Hebrew koon, to fix, to erect; kan, a basis, 

a jiedestal; konas, konash, to gather into a place of security (under 

the letter kaph) : under the letter koph, see kan, a nest; konan, 

to make a nest: under the letter kheth, see khonoh, to encamp; 

under the letter shin, see shekhan, a resting-place: also see 

makhaneh, a camp ; MEK.HOUNOH, a foundation ; gan, a garden; 

gonan, to enclose; tekhouxoh, establishment, estate, property; 

nokhoun, certain, fixed; hokain, established. All these Hebrew 

words are akin to each other, and to the Gaelic Comhnuidh, 

comhn-uidh, a dwelling: an comhnuidh, continually. 
Emounoh, e-moun-oh,^r»?; aimun, a.i-mun, faith, belief, truth: Bun, 

foundation; b to in. 
Ogar, to lay up a store, as of provisions : Cuir, set, place ; or Cro, 

a hut, a house, an enclosure. 
Erez, cedar, a red wood: perhaps akin to Ruadh, red. 
Agartol (Chaldee), a basin, a-gar-tol: Cro, anything round. 
Aid, calamity; c? like Dith, want, destruction; ai prefixed. 
Even, a stone : perhaps akin to Ban, white. In Gaelic, lia is a stone, 

and lia, liath, is grey : the name for stones applied to the colour, 

or the name for the colour applied to stones. 
Agereth (Chaldee), a letter: Sgriob, a line; sgriobh, write; these 

two words from garbh, rough. 
Aikh, how: Ce, who; cia, what; ai prefixed. 
Agoudoh, a bunch : Cath, a company. 

third group. 

An initial consonant is either omitted in Hebrew, or added in Gaelic : 
this is a conjecture offered for the consideration of the reader. 
See the third group under the letter he, the third group under the 
letter ayin, and the second group under the letter yod. 

Othoh, to become: perhaps like Bi, bith, to be; b omitted. 

Oxiyoh, a ship : Long, a ship ; I omitted. 

Oloh, to denounce: Beul, the mouth; b omitted. 

Olats, to compel: Buail, strike ; b omitted. 



ALEPH. 15 

Oor, our, light : Brath, afire; b omitted. 

Ouloji, a porch : perhaps like Beul, mouth (the mouth of the house) ; 
b omitted. 

Osar, to fetter : perhaps like Cos, afoot; c omitted. 

Onak, to sigh : Caoin, lament; c omitted. 

Orav, to lie in wait : Cruh, crouch ; c omitted. 

Ahavoh, love; ohav, to love; ivvoh, to desire: Caomh, beloved; 
c omitted. 

Aniyoh, suffering pain : Caoin, lament, groan ; c omitted. 

Eelox (Chaldee), a tree; ailoun, a grove of oaks: Coille, wood; 
c omitted. 

Onoosh, helpless, feeble : Faoin, idle, unavailing ; /omitted. 

Aits, a tree, wood; oe (Chaldee), wood, timber; oo (Syriac), timber; 
Fiodh, wood; /omitted. 

Arbeh, ar-beh, a grasshopper ; ar like Feur, grass; /omitted. 

Ouhel, a tent: Feile, a covering ; /omitted. 

Aith, a coulter; ait, an iron pen : perhaps akin to Gath, a dart, &c. 
(the idea is cutting) ; g omitted. 

Okh, a brother; akhouth, a sister : perhaps akin to Mac, a son ; 
m omitted. A group who are brothers to each other, are the sons 
of one person ; and a group of the sons of one man, are each 
other's brothers. In a very early state of society the ideas about 
relationship, and the names for it, were not very clear. See Sir 
John Lubbock's Origin of Civilization, 1870, page 50. 

Aimoh, dread : Tioma, afraid; t omitted. 

Aisu, fire; aizaih (Syriac), heat: Teas, heat; t omitted. 

Odom, earthy, name of the first man (Adam); adomoh, red earth; 
admoh, earthy; orDEM, a ruby ; perhaps od like Ruadh, red; 
r omitted. 

Onoo, we : Sinn, us ; s omitted. 

Adai, ever; ad, for ever : Sith, continually ; s omitted. 

FOURTH GROUP. 

Almoxoh, al-monoh, a widow: perhaps like Mnaoi, a woman. 
Albeen, to be whiter : Ban, white. 

BETH. 

Beth is the second Hebrew letter : there is an idea that it received 
its name from Beth or bayith, a house, representing a tent, the 
primitive house of early tribes, its form being like the shape of a 
tent. Hebrew Bayith, a house, is like Gaelic Buth, a pavilion, booth ; 



16 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Lowland- Scotch, bothy. The second Gaelic letter is called Beith, the 
birch tree. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that an initial b is either added in Hebrew or omitted in Gaelic ; 
either b, or b followed by a vowel-sound. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that either the Hebrew omits an initial vowel-sound, or the 
Gaelic prefixes a vowel. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words which begin with b in both languages. 

Boash, to corrupt, to rot ; akin to Bas, death. 

Beoudee, existing : Bith, to be. 

Bolak, to lay waste : Buail, smite. 

Bolag, to stir up : Buail, strike. 

Baal, a master; bohal, to terrify; belyial, belial, a wicked person: 
perhaps akin to Beal, the god Belus, or Bel. 

Ben, a structure, a building; Bonoh, to build: Bun, a foundation. 

Bayith, a house : Buth, a tent, a pavilion, a bothy. 

Beeroh, the residence of royalty: Buth, a house; righ, a king. 

Betouv, in good spirits : Buidheach, well pleased. 

Baar, ignorant, stupid; vaar, an ignorant man : Borb, savage. 

Bola, to swallow; boleel, a mixture of fodder : Beul, the mouth. 

Botsaik, dough; bot like Biaih, food. 

Beroush, on, at the head of: Barr, top. 

Boro, to create: Beir, to bring forth, to produce. 

Bar, a son: Bar (obs.), a son, like the Gaelic beir. 

Beair, a well, a cavity : Bior (obs.), a well, a fountain; water. 

Bour, a pit; boar, to dear away, to extirpate; beraikhoh, a pool of 
water : Bior, also like bruid, dig. 

Boar, to destroy: Bruth, bruise, crush; or brath, ^re. 

Bouhen, a thumb ; akin to Bonn, the sole of the foot. 

Compare with Latin penes, in one's hand, or possession. The Latin 
words penes, pinna, penna, sculponea (scul-ponea), and manus 
(here b to m) are akin to the Gaelic bonn. Speaking anatomi- 
cally, hands (or arms and hands), feet (or legs and feet), wings, 
and fins, are the equivalents of each other. 

Bath, a measure of liquids : Bath, quench, drown. 

Bad, a long branch, a pole : Bat, a staff. 

Bittoh, to speak unadvisedly : Baoth, foolish. 

Borakh, to run : Bruchd, to rush forth. 



BETH. 17 

Basam, a spice; bas like Bus, the mouth. 

Bef.roniyouth (Chaldee), castles : Barr, a height; beam, a hill. 

Voxouth, daughters : Bean, a woman. 

Veain, without : Hho, from. 

Botsa, to gain, to profit ; betsa, gain, profit : Buadh, gain, success, 

victory. 
Beephes, without measure ; like Bho, from ; meas, estimation. 
Boair, a blaze, aflame ; biair, to clear up, to consume; boar, to blaze, to 

flame; bohar, to brighten; borar, to purify ; boroor, pure; 

boroh, pure; bar, pure; borak, to glitter; voor, purity ; borok., 

lightning; boreketh, a glittering stone; beree, brightness; 

bahareth, a bright spot : Br&th, fire. 
Bokhoh, to bewail : Beuc, an outcry. 

Barzel, iron ; perhaps from being prepared by fire : Brath, fire. 
Bokhoun, a watch-tower : Beachd, vision; oun like dun (in composition 

un), a hill. 
Bakoshoh, a petition, hence bakshish ; bikhaish, to request : Beuc, 

beuchd, an outcry, a clamour (beuc like focal, foc-al, a word). 

second group. 
An initial b is either added in Hebrew or omitted in Gaelic ; either b, 

or b followed by a vowel-sound. 
Bokor, bo-kor, horned cattle ; like Crodh, cattle ; also like bo, an ox; 

corn, a horn. 
Bokhar, bo-khar, to choose; perhaps like Cior (obs.), the hand (to take). 
Bikhroh, b-ikh-roh, a dromedary: ikh like Each, a horse; roh like 

ruith, to run (a swift horse). 
Bolam, bo-lam, to restrain : Lamh, the hand (suppose to hold). 
Bou, to come, to enter ; bo, to come : Uidhe, a step. 
Boo (Syriac), to petition : Eigh, earnest entreaty. 
Bots\r, b-ot-sar, to heap up earth or stones : At, a swelling, a heap. 
Beten, b-et-en, the abdomen : At, a prominence. 

third group. 
Bereeth, a covenant; biair, to define: Abair, say; a omitted. The 

Gaelic bard, a poet, akin to abair. 
Borod, hail : Fuar, cold; f to b. 

Bozaz, to plunder; bouzaiz, a plunderer : Fas, to lay waste ; /to b. 
Bogad, to be faithless, bog-ad: Fag, to leave; /to b. 
Balot, wrapped up: Fill, fold ; feile, a covering ; /to b. 
Bitto, to pronounce : Faidh, a prophet ; /to b. 



18 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Beoud, as long : Fad, long; /to b. 
Beenoh, under -standing : Mein, mind; m to b. 
Bain, between: Meadhon, middle; m to b. 

Bollal, to mix, to confuse; boloh, to wear out: Moil, grind; m to b. 
Boosh, shame : Masladh, mas-ladh, shame ; m to b. 
Booz, contempt: Masladh, reproach; m to b. 

Boos, to tread upon ; voos, to tread upon : like Greek pous, Latin pet 
afoot; like Gaelic Cos, afoot; c top. 



GIMEL. 

The third Hehrcw letter. From a fancied resemblance to the 
figure of a camel, it is thought that this letter derived its name from 
Gomol, a camel. The Gaelic carnal, a camel, is derived from cam, 
crooked ; al, horse. 

Some Hebrew and Celtic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that either the Hebrew prefixes g, or the Celtic omits initial 
c or g ; either g, or g followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words which begin with g in Hebrew, and with c or g in Gaelic. 

Gan, a garden ; gonan, to enclose, fence, protect. Under the letter kheth, 
see khonoh, to encamp: under the letter kaph, see koon, to erect ; 
kan, a basis : konas, konash, to gather into a place of security : 
under the letter koph, see kan, a nest : konan, to make a nest : 
also see makhaneh, a camp. Of all these, the idea is an enclosure. 
Also see tekhocnoh, establishment, estate, property; tikhoun, 
established: shekhan, a resting-place : mekhounoh, a foundation, 
a base. All these Hebrew words are akin to each other, and to 
the Gaelic Comhnuidh, comhn-uidh, a dwelling. 

Goou, to dwell; gair, a sojourner; gairootii, a temporary dwelling: 
Cro, a hut, a cottage. 

Gook, to frighten: Crith, shake with fear. 

Geres, to grind: Croc, beat, pound. 

Goloh, to discover, to reveal: Glaodh, to call (also like sgeul, a tale; 
s omitted). 

Gooh, to bellow : Guth, a voice. 

Goram, to break to pieces; gora, to clip, to diminish; goraz, to hew 
dou-n ; gorar, to saw; garzen, a small axe, a hatchet: Gearr, cut. 

Gab, a back, convex surface, eminence; givoul, risen in body, ripe : Cab, 
a head. 



GIMEL. 19 

Gevoul, a border of territory; goval, to border, to partition (the idea is 
something raised); from Hebrew gab; also like Gaelic Balla, 
a wall ; ge prefixed. 

Govoh, a hill; govoh, to heighten; govah, high; gaavoh. pride; 
GETOUHA, high; gibbaix, a humpback : Cab, a head 

Gibbour, a mighty one, a giant: Cab, a head; our like fear (in com- 
position — ear), a man. 

Goulee, a captive; golooth, captivity; goloh, to drive captive: Gille, 
a lad, a servant, a gilly (the g hard), a ghilly. 

Geer, chalk; geero (Syriac), plaster : Cre, earth. 

Geesh, a clod; perhaps like Ce, earth. 

Gav, vaulted, arched: Cam, bent. 

Gouv, a den; like Hebrew gav; also like Gaelic Uamh, a cave; 
g prefixed. 

Geve, a cistern; like Hebrew gav; also like Gaelic Gabh, take, receive. 

Gouveem, diggers, husbandmen : Ce, the ground. 

Gorar, to stir up, to provoke : Geur, sharp. 

Gorad, to scratch : Gearr, cut; geur, sharp; garhh, rough. 

Gorov, scurvy: perhaps like Garbh, rough. 

Goroun, the throat: perhaps like Garbh, rough, hard. 

Geled, a covering : Cleidh, hide, conceal. 

Gomol, a camel: Carnal, a camel ; cam, crooked; al (obs.), a horse. The 
fitting-in of two Gaelic words to form carnal is perhaps accidental. 

Golal, to roll; gilgol, the globe, a wheel; gullah, a bowl; golam, to 
fold up; ogeel, a ring; gulgoi/letii, a skull; gulloii, a cup; 
gilyouneem, a head-dress ; agoleem, round drops; golam, a large 
loose garment round the person ; gol, a heap of stones : with all 
these there is connected the idea of roundness, like Gaelic Calbh, 
a head. 

Godah, to cut down ; in meaning a little like Gath, a sting, a dart, &c, 
the idea being something penetrating. 

Gedoud, a troop : Cath, a company of soldiers. 

Gomo, to sup up : Gabh, take, receive. 

Gaviah, a cup: Cub, bend (the idea being something hollow). 

SECOND GROUP. 

An initial g is either added in Hebrew or omitted in Gaelic ; either g 

or g followed by a vowel-sound : about fourteen instances. 
Gohar, g-ohar, to breathe : Athar, air. 
Gov a, g-ova, to waste away, to dissolve: Abh, water. 
Gephex, ge-phen, a vine : Fion, wine. 



20 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Golakh, go-lakh, to share (the idea is to make smooth) : Leae, a flat 

stone (hence cromlech). 
Geyooroh, ge-vooroh, great strength ; gever, ge-ver, a man of strength ; 

gevereth, ge-vereth, a female in power : Mor, great; or barr, top. 
Goraph, go-raph, to carry off, to seize : Reub, tear. 
Gozar, go-zar, to cut; gezairoh, cut off, separated : Searr, cut. 
Godal, go-dal, to elevate; godoul, great, tall; goudel, gou-del, 

greatness: Tula, a hill. 
Gouv, g-ouv (Chaldee), a den: Uamh, a cave. 

third group. 
An initial s is either omitted in Hebrew or added in Gaelic. 
Goloh, to discover, to reveal: like Glaodh, call; but also like Sgeul, 
a tale. Under the letter kaph, see Hebrew konoph, kon-oph, like 
Gaelic Sgiathan. Under the letter koph, see Hebrew koot, like 
Gaelic Sgeith ; Hebrew kee, like Gaelic Sgeith ; Hebrew kain, 
like Gaelic Sgian : instances where s is similarly treated. 



DALETH. 

The fourth Hebrew letter. It was so named from being in shape 
like the opening into a tent (akin to Gaelic Toll, a hole). Irom deleth 
comes delta, the name of the fourth Greek letter : the shape of this 
is exactly that of the opening into a tent ) 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that an initial d is either added in Hebrew or omitted in Gaelic ; 
either d or d followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words which begin with d in Hebrew, and with d or t in Gaelic. 

Daleth, the name of the fourth Hebrew letter; deleth, the opening into 
a tent; and then applied to the door itself; a lid : Toll, a hole. 

Doom, to be silent, to be dumb; domam, to be silent; domoh, to silence; 
domee, quietness: Tamh, rest, quietness. From the Celtic Tamh, 
the rivers Tay, Thames, Tamar, Tavy, and other streams take 
their name, the idea being a smoothly- flowing river. 

Domoh, to silence; metaphorically to cut off, to slag. It may be the 
same word as the above, but also like Teum, cut, cut off. 

Dkyou, ink: Dubh, ink. 

Dovak, to cleave to : perhaps like Do, to (the preposition turned into a 
verb). 



HE. 21 

Derekh, a way: Dircaeh, straight; or rach, go; d prefixed. 

Deshen, ashes; doshan, to cleanse from ashes: Teas, heat. 

Doth, an edict; doth (Chaldee), law: Dith, condemn. 

Dol, exhausted, poor; dalloh, exhaustion: Duile, a mournful, helpless 

creature. 
Dolakh, to disturb, to trouble : Diulich, difficult. 
Doyaik, a wooden turret or shed used in besieging towns, and under which 

the besiegers were able to approach the walls : Tigh, teach, a house. 

second group. 
An initial d is either added in Hebrew or omitted in Gaelic ; either d, 

or d followed by a vowel-sound. 
Dad, a nipple, a teat : At, a swelling, a prominence. 
Dibbair, d-ibbair, to speak; dovor, a word: Abair, say. 
Domoh, to compare; demooth, likeness: Amhuil, amh-uil, like. 
Doag, to be troubled, anxious; DOKHAL(Syriac), to fear ; daagoh, anxiety: 

Eagal, fear. 
Douver, dou-ver, a pasture: Feur, grass. 
Dogar, do-gar, to cherish : Gradh, lore. 
Dokar, do-kar, to thrust through: Gearr, cut. 
Dorakh, do-rakh, to tread: Each, go. 
Derour, de-rour, flowing : Ruith, flow. 

THIRDLY. 

Dolaph, dol-aph, to drop like water, like Latin stillo, which like 
Sil, drop. 

HE. 

The fifth Hebrew letter. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that an initial h is either added in Hebrew or omitted in Gaelic ; 
either h, or h followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST GROUP. 

An initial h is either added in Hebrew or omitted in Gaelic. 
Hoo, he: E, he. 
Hee, she : I, she. 
Hai, the: A, the. 

Hoh, an exclamation : Eigh, a shout, a cry. 

Houee, alas; hoee, alas ; hoh, alas; hee, woe: Och, alas. Gaelic is 
partial to the sound ch, as is seen in tulach, a hill, from tula, a hill. 



•11 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Hillail, to praise: AlLadh, praise, renown. 

Houlail, mad, raging : Alluidh, wild. 

Heeloh, to bring up: Al, nourish. 

Horag, to kill: Ar, kill. 

Hogoh, to utter ; hegeh, utterance: Eigh, a shout, or guth, a voice. 

Hohaim, the same, like : Amhuil, amh-uil, like. 

Horas, to throw down ; perhaps like Uir, the ground. 

Haireem, raise up: Ard, high; or beir, support; b omitted. 

Horizouth, a pregnant woman; horoh, to conceive; perhaps Ard; or 

beir, to take hold. 
Hor, a mount, a mountain; like Ard, high; ord, a hill. 
Haisheev, to bring back : Ais, back, backwards ; aisig, return. 
Hooseeph, to add to, to increase: Ais (obs.), a hill. 
Haiaiz, to strengthen: Ais (obs.), a stronghold. 

second group. 

An initial he is either added in Hebrew or omitted in Gaelic. 
Hophair, ho-phair, to destroy: Bruth, bruise; or hraih., fire. 
Hocar, ho-car, to be perverse : Car, a turn. 
Hokhain, ho-khain, established: Comhnuidh, a dwelling. 
Hikhoth, bi-khoth, to strike, to smite: Gath, a dart. 
Ho veen, bo-veen, to cause to understand : Mein, mind. 
Haikol, hai-kol, a temple ; kol perhaps akin to Cladh, a mound, a dyke 

a trench; also perhaps akin to clacban, a village. 
Haskail, ha-skail, prudence; hiskeel hi-skeel, to be prudent: Ciall, 

sense; s prefixed; ha prefixed. 

THIRD GROUP. 

An initial consonant is either omitted in Hebrew or added in Gaelic ; 
this is a conjecture offered for the consideration of the reader. See 
the third group under the letter aleph, the third group under the 
letter ayin, and the second group under the letter yod. 

Hoyoh, to be: perhaps Bi, bith, to be; b omitted. 

Holam, to strike : Buail, strike; b omitted. 

Holam, to place at a distance: Buail, throw ; b omitted. 

Horas, to break down: Bris, break; b omitted. 

Homoh, to make a noise: Fuaim, noise; /omitted. 

Hounoh, to defraud: Faoin, vain, empty; /omitted. 

Holakh, h-ol-akh, to walk: Falbh, go ; /omitted. 

Hovoh, to give: Gabh, take; g omitted. 

Hodad, to shout; hod like Guth, a voice; g omitted. 

Haresah, a ruinous place : Garbh, rough, rugged; g omitted. 



VAU— ZAIN. 23 

VOV or VAU. 
The sixth Hehrew letter. 

V as a vowel, as U, again ; like Gaelic Ath, again. The Gaelic ath, 
again, perhaps akin to Gaelic da, two. 

ZAIN. 

The seventh Hebrew letter. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that either the Hebrew prefixes z, or the Gaelic omits this sound 
at the beginning of a word ; either z, or z followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Hebrew words beginning with z, and Gaelic words beginning 
with s. 
Zonov, a tail: perhaps like Sin, extend. 
Zeroua, an arm; Zoroh, to scatter, spread abroad: Sreath, a row, 

a line. 
Zeh, this: So, this. 
Zor, strange, excluded: perhaps like As, out, out of. 

SECOND GROUP. 

Either initial z is added in Hebrew, or a similar sound is omitted in 

Gaelic ; either z, or z followed by a vowel-sound. 
Zokar, to remember: Cridhe (pronounced cri), the heart: the heart 

figuratively supposed to be the seat of the mind. 
Zoak, to erg out : Eigh, a shout. 
Zoram, to overflow: Ruith,^ow. 
Zov, flowing, running : Abb, water. 
Zood, to seethe: Ad (obs.), water. 
Zooh, sweat: O (obs.), water; z prefixed. 
Zokaph, to raise up : Gabh, take. 
Zorakh, to rise as the sun: Eirich, rise. 
Zaaph, violent rage; zoaph, to enrage; za prefixed, perhaps like 

Fuath, rage. 
Zeekouth, sparks: Gath, a rag of light. 
Zomar, to chant; z prefixed: omar like Abair, sag (the Gaelic can 

signifies to sag, to sing; hence Latin cano). 
Zokain, zo-kain, an old man: perhaps like Can (obs), white; or like 

Sean, old; a k or c lost in Celtic. 



24 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Zokh, clear; zokhoh, to make clean, to wash; zokhoo, purity; zokak, 
to cleanse; zeekhooketh, crystal, glass; zoakh, to extinguish, 
suppose to pour water over; z prefixed: okh like aig in Gaelic 
Aigeann, the sea, and aigeal, a pool (hence Latin aqua). 

KHETH. 

The eighth Hehrew letter. In sound like the Greek chi, or like ch 
in loch as the Scotch pronounce it. Like ch hard. Here represented 
by kh. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that either the Hebrew prefixes kh, or the Gaelic omits c or g 
at the beginning of a word. Hebrew is partial to this sound at the 
beginning of a word, and Gaelic at the end of a word. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Hebrew words beginning with kh, and Gaelic words beginning with 
c or g. 

Khonoh, to encamp; khanu youth, places of rest. Under the letter 
kaph, see koon, to erect; kan, a basis, a pedestal ; konas, konash, 
to gather into a place of security : under the letter koph, see kan, 
a nest; konan, to make a nest : under the letter shin, see shekhan, 
a resting-place: also see makhaneh, a camp; gan, a garden; 
gonan, to enclose; mekhounoh, a foundation, a base; nokhoun, 
certain, fixed ; hokhain, established; okhain, surely so. 
Of khonoh, konas, gonan, and konan, the idea is an enclosure. 
All these Hebrew words are akin to each other, and to the Gaelic 
Comhnuidh, comhn-uidh, a dwelling : An comhnuidh, habitually. 

Khorad, to tremble : Crith, shake. 

Khorag, to force, to drive out part of it, like khoram, to devote for good 
or evil : Cuir, set, place. 

Khorats, move quickly : Grad, more quickly. 

Khoog, a circle; khakoh, a fish-hook ; khokh, a ring to put in an 
animal's nose; kiiogag, to move in a circle; khagouroh, a girdle, 
a belt; khaik, the bosom; khogar, to gird about; khaikh, the 
palate; khokak, to impress, to engrave (the idea is something 
hollowed as a cup is) : of all these the idea is roundness, or 
hollowness, or both: like Gaelic Cuach, a cup; the basin in the 
hollow of a hill; a curl. 

Khartsoov, torment : Cruaidh, painful. 

Khoroh, fierce; khoroh, to be kindled (applied to anger); Geur, 
fierce. 



KHETH. To 

Khomak, to linger ; khocmer, clay; potter's clay; mortar for building ; 

khoumer, a homer, a measure of capacity ; khoomoz, a buckle: 

Cum, hold, withhold. 
Kholoots, drawn back, rescued: Cul, behind. 
Khait, a sin; a little like Ciont, a sin. 
Khovat, to beat off : Caob, strike. 
Khilloh, to supplicate: Cli, humble. 

Khoraph, to reproach, to slander: perhaps like Gaoir, noise. 
Khomad, to desire eagerly, to covet: Caomh, dear. 
Khool, to be sorrowful : Gul, lament. 
Khorad, care: perhaps like Curam, care. 
Khorash, to grave; to plough; to cut out; to fabricate; khouraish, 

an artificer, as in wood; kheret, a graving-tool, an iron pen; 

khoroots, sharp; khorooth, to engrave; khorool, a thorn-bush; 

kherev, a sword, a weapon; khermais, kher-mais, a sickle, a 

scythe: Gearr, cut; geur, sharp. 
Khalloh, a cake, if round, perhaps from its shape ; khalakhoth, 

a caldron, from its round shape : Calbh, a head. 
Khaits, an arrow; kheedoh, sharp; khidouth, sharp sayings, riddles; 

khaddoh, sharp; khoots, a thorn; khedek, khed-ek, a brier; 

khotav, to cut wood ; khotoh, to cast out ; khotsav, to hew out of 

a rock; khotsoh, to divide; khouter, a twig, a shoot, a rod: 

of all these the idea is sharp, penetrating, cutting : like Gaelic 

Gath, a sting, a dart, a javelin, an arrow. 
Khonan, to implore : Caoin, to lameni. 
Khain, favour ; khon an, to be gracious : Caoin, pleasant. 
Khour, a holt : Cro, anything round. 
Khoor, ivhite, pale ; khouroe, white linen; khori, a nobleman dressed 

in white : Ciar, grey. 
Khonag, to strangle, to choke : Cuing, a yoke. 

Khopho, to cover over; khupoh, a canopy, cover, protection: Cab, a head. 
Khalee, a jewel for the neck : perhaps akin to Caol, small, narrow 

(might be applied to the neck: from caol comes Latin columna). 
Khaneeth, a javelin : Guin, wound, pierce. 
Khoyo, to hide : Cub, bend the body, crouch. 
Kholov, milk ; khol like Goal, white. 
Khophats, to desire; khaiphets, delight: Gabh, take; conceive; 

kindle. 
Khail, a fortification, a bulwark ; khelkoh, a portion of ground; 

KHAiLEK, a portion, an inheritance : Cladh, a trench, a dyke, a 

stone-wall, a mound. 



26 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Khodal, to cease, to forbear : perhaps akin to Codal, sleep. 

Khalomeesh,_/?sm£ : Clach, a stone. 

Kholal, to wound, to kill : perhaps akin to Gaelic Clach, a stone, as 
stones were used in attack (hoth by themselves and in slings), 
and stoning was a form of judicial execution. Also like lia, 
a stone ; kh prefixed. 

Khaireem, enclosed in a net : Car, a turn. 

Khouver, a waste place : Garhh, rough, rugged. 

Khovair, a companion : Comh, together ; fear, a man. 

Khovereth, a joining : Comh, together ; heir, bear. 

Khoshav, to think, to reckon : Cuis, a matter ; a cause; a reason. 

Khaleetsouth, change of dresses : perhaps like Cleidh, hide, conceal. 

Khotath, to make anxious : Guidh, beseech. 

Kholeel, a tube, a hollow instrument ; kholel, a player on a wind- 
instrument : Cuilc, a cane, a reed. 

Khalatz, the loin ; khalotseen, loins : perhaps like Cul, the back. 

Khaloun, khal-oun, a window (see khavveen) : perhaps akin to Geal, 
white. 

Khoulaik, a partner (see kaloh, a spouse): Ceile, a spouse; a husband; 
ceile akin to gaol, love. 

SECOND GROUP. 

Either the Hebrew prefixes kh, or the Gaelic omits initial c or g. 
Khevel, a rope, a cord; khouvail, a cable; khovel, a ship-man, 

a sailor ; from using ropes much : Ball, a cable. 
Khavveen, kha-vveen (Syriac), a window : perhaps akin to Ban, white 

(see khaloun). 
Khophar, kho-phar, to blush : Broth, fire. 
Khavoleem, spoilers; vol like Buail, smite. 
Khabooroh, a boil ; boor like Barr, a swelling ; or hrath, fire. 
Khaburouth, swellings, bloivs ; like Barr, a height, a swelling ; or caob, 

strike. 
Khoroh, to contend: Ar, fight. 

Kiiolok, smooth: Leac, aflat stone (cromlech is partly from this). 
Khamman, an image : Amhuil, amh-uil, like. 
Khitto, to cleanse (suppose to wash) : Ad (obs.), water. 
Khuk, khouk, a decree, a statute (suppose a proclamation) : Eigh, 

a shout. 
Khodoh, to rejoice: Ait, joyful. 
Khaseen, khousen, strength; khousen, khozak, strong; khozak, to 

strengthen ; Ais (obs.), a stronghold. 



TETH. 27 

Khozek, a breast; khoushen, a breast-plate : Ais (obs.), a hill. 

Khoval, to twist : Fill, fold. 

Khoumoh, a circumvallation ivall : Uim, around. 

Khayil, an army. Under the letter kaph, see kol, all; koloh, to 

complete; kohol, an assembly; kohal, to assemble; koul, all 

tilings, everything : under the letter koph, see kohol, an assembly; 

kohal, to assemble : all these Hebrew words are akin to each 

other, and to the Gaelic Uile, all. 
Akhar, after; akhourai, the hinder parts ; akhouraxeetii, back again; 

akhareeth, latter, last ; akhair, another, from akhar, after (these 

are given also under the letter aleph) : Iar, after; kh prefixed! 

and then a prefixed. 
Khoushekh, khou-shekh, dark ; khashaikoh, darkness : Sgiath, a shade. 

TETH. 
Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that an initial t is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic ; 
either t, or t followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Hebrew words beginning with t, and Gaelic words beginning with 

d or t. 
Teeroh, a castle, a tower : Tur, a tower ; torr, a hill. 
Toor (Chaldee and Syriac), a mount : Torr, a hill. 
Toan, to load: perhaps like Dun, a hill (a heap). 
Tomam, to cover over : Tom, a hill (a* heap). 
Tooh, to err : Taobh, a side. 

Tokhan, to grind, to make small : a little like Tana, thin. 
Toam, to taste, to eat a little : Teum, bite. 
Torakh, to weary : Teirig, waste. 

Tohar, to cleanse (suppose to wash) ; tohoor, clean : Doir, water. 
Teeroh, a castle, a tower : Tur, a tower ; torr, a hill. 
Touar, of a fine form ; akin to teeroh. 

SECOND GROUP. 

An initial t is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic ; either t, 

or t followed by a vowel-sound. 
Taam, manner; the m like Modh, manner. 
Tova, t-ova, to sink; toval, t-oval, to dip : Abh (obs.), water. 
Touv, tou-v, good; the v like Ba (obs.), good; b changed to v. See 
under Hebrew yotav, to make good. 



28 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Terkm, te-rem, before : Roi, before. 

Toov, a row : perhaps like Sreath, a row ; s omitted ; t prefixed. See 
under the letter tov, tout, a row. 

YOD. 

The tenth Hebrew letter. 
Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that either the Hebrew prefixes y, or the Gaelic omits this 
sound at the beginning of a word. 

FIRST GROUP. 

An initial y either added in Hebrew, or this sound omitted in Gaelic ; 

either y, or y followed by a vowel-sound : about twenty-nine 

instances. 
Yabeleth, a wen, a swelling; bel like Ball, a round object. 
Yaish, existence : Is, am. 
Yotso, to go out : Uidhe, a step. 
Yoda, to know : Aithnich, aith-nich, know. 
Yoro, to saturate; yeour, a river : Ruith, flow. 

Yodd, to appoint, to assemble; yatseev (Syimc), fixed : Aite, a place. 
Yelel, a babe; yfled, a child; yolad, to beget; yeldoh, a girl: 

Al, young; young of any kind; a brood; a generation: alaich, 

bring forth. 
Yosar, to chastise : perhaps like Ais, behind. 
Youm, a day : Am, time. 
Yithmarmor, yith-mar-mor, to embitter ; yith prefixed; mar like Muir, 

the sea ; mar repeated. 
Yesoud, foundation ; yosad, to found ; yoshav, to sit: Suidh, sit, place. 
Yorash, to inherit, to succeed : perhaps like Tar, after. 
Yoheer, superb : Ard, high. 
Yoshpaih, a jasper ; precious stones of different colours; yosh like Hebrew 

aish, _/?>•«, like Gaelic Teas, heat. 
Yerakh, a month : Re, the moon. 

Yom, the sea ; yaimeem, springs of water: Abh, water ; bh to m. 
Yoshon, old; yoshan, to grow old : Sean, old. 
Yoshan, yo-shan, to sleep : Suain, sleep. 
Yorat, to hinder, to keep back : perhaps like Iar, behind. 
Yosuor, straight, just : Sreath, a row, a line. 
Yogoh, to grieve ; Och, alas. 
Yoga, to exert, to work : Achd, do. 
Yovash, to dry up, to wither: Fas, lay waste. 



YOD-KAPH. 29 

Yogar, to fear : Crith, tremble. 

Yotav, to amend, to improve, make good; yo prefixed; t prefixed; the 

v like Ba (obs.), good. See under Hebrew touv, good. 
In all the above an initial y is either added in Hebrew, or omitted 

in Gaelic. 

SECOND GROUP. 

A conjectural affinity is offered for the consideration of the reader : 
perhaps an initial consonant either omitted in Hebrew, or added 
in Gaelic. The instances where / is either omitted or added 
are very clear, and if one consonant be so treated, why not an- 
other P See the third group under the letter aleph ; the third group 
under the letter he ; and the third group under the letter ayin. 

Yoro, to fear: Crith, tremble; c omitted. 

Yodoh, to throw : Gath, a dart ; g omitted. 

Yohav, give : Gabh, take ; g omitted. 

Youreh, rain: Doir, water; d omitted. 

Yekev, a wine-vault, a cellar ; ye prefixed ; k prefixed ; ev like Gaelic 
TTamh, a cave. 
In the next ten words, an initial / either omitted in Hebrew, or 
added in Gaelic. 

Yayin, wine : Fion, wine. 

Yerek, green; yerokoun, green, greenish; yariokoun, pale green: 
Feur, grass. 

Yaar, a forest : Fridh, a forest. 

Yosaph, to increase : Fas, to grow. 

Yoxoh, to defraud: Faoin, foolish, idle. 

Yaaneh, with great noise : Fonn, an air, a tune, a sound. 

Yidounee, a prognostication ; yid like Faidh, a prophet. 

Yolakh, y-ol-ak, to walk (see holakh) : Falbh, go. 

KAPH. 

The eleventh Hebrew letter — kaph or coph. Sometimes represented 
by e ; sometimes by k ; it is here represented by k. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that either the Hebrew prefixes k, or the Gaelic omits this sound 
at the beginning of a word ; either k, or k followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words which begin with k in Hebrew, and with c or g in Gaelic. 

Kouhain, a priest : perhaps from the Hebrew word to perform duty. 

Also like Gaelic Can (obs.), white (he wore white vestments). 



30 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Kouhain, a priest ; kehounoh, the priestly office; from koon, to fix ; 
from his performing fixed duties. See under koon, to fix ; akin 
to Comhnuidh, a dwelling, a fixed abode. 

Koon, to fix, erect ; kan, a basis, a pedestal ; konas, konash (Chaldee), 
to gather into a place of security. Under the letter koph, see kan, 
a nest ; konan, to make a nest : under the letter kheth, see khonoh, 
to encamp: also see makhaneh, a camp; gan, a garden; gonan, 
to enclose. Of all these, the idea is an enclosure. Also see 
tekhoonoh, establishment, estate, property; tikhotjn, established; 
mekhounoh, a foundation, a base; shekhan, a resting-place. All 
these Hebrew words are akin to each other, and to the Gaelic 
Comhnuidh, comhn-uidh, a dwelling. 

Kinnoh, to name : Cinneach, a surname. 

Kool, to hold up : Gabhail, take. 

Kelouv, a basket : Cliabh, a basket. 

Kephottr, a large cup : Gabh, take, receive. 

Kikhaish, to deceive : Caog, wink, connive. 

Koloh, dim; Ceil, hide, shelter. 

Kophan, to decline : Cub, bend. 

Kophath (Syriac), to fetter : perhaps like Cub, bend. 

Kora, to kneel, to bend : Car, a turn, a twist. 

Keroov, a cherub ; ker perhaps like Gradh, favour, love. 

Kool, to comprehend : Ciall, sense, reason. 

Korath, to make agreement; koraz (Syriac), an edict: Gaoir, noise 
(suppose a proclamation). 

Kouhain, a chief person : Ceann, a head. 

Kolo, to confine, constrain : Cul, back ; culaig, an impediment. 

Kidoun, a lance, a spear : Gath, a dart, a Javelin. 

Keedoudeem, sparks of fire : Gath, a ray of light. 

Kona, to humble : Caoin, to lament. 

Kouva, a helmet; kovood, stately : Cab, a head. 

Kour, a certain measure : perhaps like Cro, anything round. 

Koshal, to stumble : perhaps like Cos, afoot. 

Kaph, the palm of the hand ; the sole of the foot (the idea is something 
hollow) : Cub, bend. 

Koroh, to prepare a banquet : Cuirm, a feast. 

Kelev, a dog ; ke like Cu, a dog. 

Korath, to cut; kouraith, a feller, a cutter; karkar, to root out; 
koro (Chaldee), to pierce ; koras, to devour; karkar, to root out 
{kar repeated) : Gearr, cut ; geur, sharp. 



KAPH. 31 

Kaloh, a bride; kelooloh, bridal state (see khoulaik, a partner) : 

Ceile, a spouse ; ceile is akin to gaol, love. 
Korah, a beam of wood ; a little like Crann, a beam. 
Kethouveth, a writing ; see Hebrew ait, an iron pen : perhaps like 

Gath, a dart, &c. (the idea being something pointed) . 
Keetour, a basin; kikor, a loaf (from its shape?): Cro, ant/thing 

round. 
Kayoh, to extinguish : Cab, a head (the idea is putting something 

over it). 
Keryah, a place for cattle : Cro, an enclosure; a sheep-cote; a wattled 

fold. 
Kephel, a couple, two : Cupall, a couple, a pair (perhaps cupall is not 

good Gaelic). 
Keed (Arabic), a misfortune : perhaps like Gath, a sting. 
Kilyah, a kidney : perhaps akin to Cul, back (placed at the back). 

second group. 

An initial k is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic ; either 
k, or k followed by a vowel-sound. 

Kol, all; koloh, to complete; kohal, to assemble; kohol, an assembly ; 
koul, all things, everything. Under the letter kheth, see khayil, 
an army; under the letter koph, kohal, to assemble; kohol, an 
assembly. All these Hebrew words are akin to each other, and to 
the Gaelic Uile, all. 

Kissai, a chair, a throne : Suidh, sit. 

Kar, a man in power : Ard, high. 

Kether, a crown; with ther is the idea of roundness, as in Gaelic 
Tur, a tower. 

Kabbeer, valiant; beer like kovar, to make great : Mor, great, mighty; 
m to b. 

Kephuar, hoar-frost : Fuar, cold. 

Komar, to shrivel from heat; mar like Brath, fire. 

Kalkail, a sustainer, a nourisher : Al, to nourish. 

Kippair, to purify : Brath, fire. 

Kikor, ki-kor, a level tract of country, surrounded ivith hills ; ki prefixed ; 
kor like Gaelic Cars, a level fertile tract of country, as the Carse of 
Gowrie, Carse of Stirling, &c. The idea is a tract through which 
a river runs, and somewhat level as compared with the adjacent 
hills: this is a very interesting word. See meeshour, me-shour, 
like the Gaelic srath, a strath. 



32 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

THIRD GROUP. 

An initial s is either omitted in Hebrew, or added in Gaelic. 
Konoph, a wing : Sgiathan, a little wing; s omitted. Under the letter 
koph, see Hebrew koot like Gaelic sgeith: Hebrew kee like 
Gaelic sgeith ; Hebrew kain like Gaelic sgian : also see Hebrew 
goloh like Gaelic sgeul : instances where * is similarly treated. 

Kee, but : Ach, but; a omitted. 

LAMED. 

The twelfth Hebrew letter. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that an initial I is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in 
Gaelic ; either I, or I followed by a vowel-sound. 

Some Hebrew words beginning with I are in meaning and sound 
like Gaelic words, except that the Gaelic words begin with c or g ; an 
initial c ot g either omitted in Hebrew, or added in Gaelic. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words which begin with I in both languages. 

Loakh, a tablet of stone {also a tablet of wood or metal ) ; lekhee, a 
cheek (perhaps the idea is a flat surface) ; lekhem, bread (perhaps 
from its shape ; flat cakes ?) ; Leac, a flat stone (as in cromlech). 

Leshem, an agate, a whitish stone : perhaps like Lia, grey. 

Lovat, to stumble : Lub, crouch, bend. 

Lophath, to shrink, to contract : Lub, bend 

second group. 
An initial I is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic ; either I, 

or I followed by a vowel-sound. 
Lemaaloh, high : Meall, a hill. 

Leshoraith, to minister to, to serve : Saothair, work, labour. 
Lovan, to whiten ; livnoh, whiteness ; livnoh, a poplar (a whitish 

tree) ; levonoh, the moon ; all these like Gaelic Ban, white. 
Levonoh, the moon ; luan, the moon. The Hebrew for moon is akin to 

the Hebrew for white. In livnoh, li prefixed ; vn like Gaelic 

Ban, white. In Gaelic, gealach is the moon, and goal is white. 
Levainoh, a brick, like Hebrew even, a stone; which see: Hebrew 

even akin to Gaelic Ban, white. 
Leoomath, agreeable, corresponding to : Amhuil, amh-uil, like. 
La, no, not, none, nothing: perhaps like Cha (pronounced ha), not ; 

I prefixed. 



MEM. 33 

THIRD GUOUP. 

At the beginning of a word, c or g is either omitted in Hebrew, or 
added in Gaelic. 

Lahav, a blade, the glittering part of a sword; a flame; flaming; 
lapeed, aflame; lappeed, a torch, aflame; in lap-eed, lap like 
lahav, the v changed to p: Claidheamh, a sword (the French 
glaive and Scotch claymore). 

Lovoh, to join: Ceile, a spouse; a husband. 

Loat, to conceal; loot, to wrap up: Cleidh, hide, conceal. 

Levoosh, garments, clothing ; le like Cleidh, hide, cover. 

Lokakh, to take ; lokad, to take by force, to conquer ; lokat, to collect, 
to pick up; lokash, to glean; lokak, to lap, to lick (that is, to 
take) ; lokhakh, to clear away, to eat up entirely; lokhats, to 
oppress : all these like Gaelic Glac, to take ; g omitted. 

Lothath, to cry out : Glaodh, to call. 

Loua, the gullet, the throat : Caol, narrow. 

Laoiz, a strange language: Gall, a loivlander ; a foreigner : one ignorant 
of the Gaelic i 



MEM. 

The thirteenth Hebrew letter. As the wavy appearance of the top 
of the letter is like the ripples on the surface of water, there is an 
idea that Mem received its name from Mayim, waters, plural of 
mabuah, a stream ; this like Gaelic Abh, water ; m prefixed. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that an initial m is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in 
Gaelic ; either m, or m followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words which begin with m in both languages. 
Maaloii, a height, a cliff; maal, above ; maaloh, a degree, a step : 

Meall, a hill ; maol, a promontory, a mull (as in Mull of Cantire, 

Mull of Galloway). 
Melekh, a king; malkoh, a queen; molakh, to reign: perhaps akin 

to Hebrew maal, above, like Meall, a hill. 
Moad, a place of assembly : Mod, an assembly. 
Mooh, bowels ; meouhee (Syriac), entrails : a little like Mionach, 

bowels. 
Melokhoh, labour, ivork : Meil, grind. 
Mook, to mock : Mag, to mock (is mag good Gaelic ?) 



34 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Meoud, exceedingly : Mo, more. 

Moroum. high, hfty; like Mor, gnat ; or ard, high (m prefixed). 

Mosakh, to mingle liquids: Measg, to mix. 

Mokhor, to-morrow: Maireach, to-morrow. 

Minda (Chaldee), intelligence : Mem, mind. 

Mokho, to smite together, to squeeze: Much, squeeze. 

Maiseem, consideration : Meas, esteem. 

Meoud, exceedingly : Mo, more. 

Mohar, to embitter; marmar, to embitter; mar repeated: Muir, the sea. 

Morats, to be vehement : perhaps like Mor, great, mighty ; or brath, 

fire (excited). 
Mooth, to die : Meath, fade, decay. 

Mithanneh, irritating himself: Miami, desire, strong will. 
Maitav, mai-tav, best ; mat like Mo, more. See under tav : in tav the 

v like Ba (obs.), good; ta prefixed. 

SECOND GROUP. 

Words beginning with in, where an initial m is either added in 
Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic; either m, or m followed by a 
vowel-sound. 

MtitRO, reading (if reading aloud) : Gaoir, a noise. 

Moouz, a strong protection : Ais (obs.), a stronghold. 

Moroum, height : Ard, high. 

Megooroh, a stone-house ■ meiuiek, a fixed place, a habitation : Cro, 

a hut. 
Maakeii, a battlement : Ach, a bank, a mound. 
Misneh, repetition : Ais, back, back again. 
Moi'Tso, a pouring : Ad (obs.), water. 
Maakosh, to prevent : perhaps like Au aghaidh, against. 
Mikhroh, mi-khroh, a mine: perhaps akin to Gearr, cut; cutting 

into the ground. 
Mogex, mo-gen, a potentate, a head : Ceann, a head. 
Maiiuah, m-abuah, a stream: Abh (obs.), water. 
Mokour, a spring, a fountain ; kour perhaps akin to Cro, any thing 

round (which a spring is). 
Makiiarosh, a cutting instrument ; megerah, a saw, a harrow : Gearr, 

cut. 
Mikro, a convocation : Gaoir, a noise, a call. 
Mageed, a declarer, a reporter : Guth, a voice. 
Mekhaleleem, piping ; klud like Cuilc, a cane, a reed. 



MEM. 35 

Moog, to dissolve; mokak, to dissolve; oog like aig, in Aigeal, aig-eal, 

a pool ; aigean, the sea. 
Mokhah, mo-khar, to sell ; mekheer, me-kheer, the price : Creic, sell ; 

reic, sell. 
Makhaneh, a camp; mokhoun, an establishment. Under the letter 

kheth, see khonoh, to encamp : under the letter kaph, see koon, 

to erect ; kan, a basis ; konas, konash, to gather into a place of 

security : under the letter koph, see kan, a nest ; konan, to make 

a nest : also see gan, a garden ; gonan, to enclose. Of all these the 

idea is an enclosure. Also see mekhounoh, a foundation, a base ; 

TEKHOUNOH, establishment, estate, property; tikhoux, established. 

All these Hebrew words are akin to each other, and to the Gaelic 

Comhnuidh, comhn-uidh, a dwelling. 
Moulad, bringing forth ; mouledeth, nativity : Al, brood; young of 

any kind ; alaich, bring forth. 
Moroh, to rebel: At, fight. 
Moain, to refuse; m prefixed; n like Gaelic Neo, not (the preposition 

turned into a verb). 
Motor, slight rain; tor like Doir, water. 
Mevakaish, requesting ; vak like Focal, foc-al, a word ; also like beuc, 

utter a sound. 
Mourash, a possessor : perhaps like Uir, land. 
Mahamor, m-aham-or, a flowing, a torrent ; m prefixed ; am like Abh, 

water ; our like ruith, flow ; or mor (in composition or), great. 
Mosas, to dissolve ; maisheev, to refresh, revive; mishka, sunken, 

muddy; maskey, drink, moisture; mashkeh, a moist fertile place; 

mesheg, an overflow; m prefixed; os like Gaelic Uisge, uis-ge, 

water. The Hebrew maskey is like whiskey, which is from 

Gaelic uisge; m to b; b to v ; v to u; u to w. 
Maishoreem, uprightness ; meeshour, straight: Sreath, a line, a row. 
Moshol, a. proverb, a parable: Sgeul, a tale. 
Medeenoh, a province; akin to Hebrew adounee, a lord, a governor ; 

like Gaelic Tanaiste, a thane. 
Merootsoh, a race; mairoots, a race; mock, myrrh (runs from the 

tree) : Ruith, run, flow. 
Molai,/«W; millai, to fill, fulfil, satisfy, complete: Uile, all. 
Mareh, sight, countenance : Roi, before ; m prefixed. 
Makhahai, ma-khab-ai, to lurk: Cub, crouch. 
Mazrkeah, ma-zreeah, seeding : Sreath, a row. 
Masiikeeth, ma-skheeth, a destroyer, spoiler: Sgath, cut off. 
Mkshoraith, me-shoraitb, a minister, attendant : Saothair, labour, work. 



36 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Mestjkhoh, me-sukhoh, protection, shelter; mesookhoh, me-sookhoh, 
a covering : Sgiath, a shade, shelter. 

Mishkol, mish-kol, a weight (see shokal) : Clach, a stone. 

Maaleh, m-aaleh, a step, a stair : Meall, a hill. 

Mokhats, mo-khats, to wound: makhoh, ma-khoh, a stroke, a blow : 
Gath, a dart, a javelin. 

Meneged, m-eneged, in the presence of: An aghaidh, against, opposite. 

Maiveen, mai-veen, understanding : Mein, mind; m to v. 

Massour, ma-ssour, a saw : Searr, cut. 

Medooroh, me-dooroh, a pile, a heap : Torr, a hill. 

Meeshour, mee-shour, level ground : Srath, a strath, or valley. Strath 
occurs in many names of places, as Strathtay, Strathbraan, &c. 
A strath is the ground on each side of a river ; it is comparatively 
level as contrasted -with the hills which border it. This and 
Hebrew kikor, ki-kor, a level fertile tract like the Gaelic Cars, 
a carse, as the Carse of Gowrie, Carse of Stirling, &c, are very 
interesting words. 

Mibaith, mi-baith, within, inside, in the house : Buth, a booth, pavilion, 
Lowland-Scotch bothy. 

Moutso, m-out-so, a spring : perhaps like Ad (obs.), water. 



THIRD group. 

The initial letter is in in Hebrew, and I in Gaelic. 

M, from (prefixed to a substantive) ; mem, sini. from. out of: Bho, from. 
Maileets, an interpreter ; milloh, a word; millail, to converse : Beul, 

the mouth. 
Mizeh, from this; m like Bho, from; zeh like so, this. 
Milkhomoh, a battle, perhaps like malkouakh, booty ; mahalumah, 

mahal-umah, a beating : Buail, strike. 
Malokh, a messenger, angel: Buail, throw (send). 
Morak, tnpolish: Brath,^?^. 
Mereerai, bitter destruction ; morakii, to bruise; mourag, a thrashing 

instrument : Bruth, bruise. 
Mookh, to reduce to poverty; mook.ii, poor; makhsour, want: Bochd, 

poor. 
Mokii, a wasting ; mekhitoii, dashing to pieces : Beag, small. 
Mogar, to cast out : perhaps Bho, from; cuir, to place. 
Man, to appoint, constitute; menukhoh, rest; mooun, a habitation; 

mankee (Syriac), to set, appoint : Bun, a foundation. 
Miyocm, from the day : Bho, from; am, time. 



MEM. 37 

Maioulom, from everlasting; m like Bho, from; aiovl like uile, all; 

om like am, time. 
Meoroh, a cavern : Bruth, a cave. 
Moxa, to avoid, keep back : perhaps like Bho, from. 
Meooroh, fiery ; marbekhkth, fried : Brath, fire. 
Maireem, to raise up : Beir, to carry ; or ard, high ; m prefixed. 
Makail, a walking-stick : Bachall, a staff. 
Matteh, a staff; mout, a staff, a pole : Bat, a staff. 
Maayon, a fountain ; like Hebrew ain, a fountain : Buinne, a pool in 

a. river (hence Latin fons). 

FOURTH GROUP. 

Tho initial letter is m in Hebrew, and /in Gaelic. 

Maa.veh, an answer, a reply : Fonn, an air, a tune. 

Malhoosh, raiment; meeel, a mantle; meulepheth, covered: Feile, 

a covering. 
Meshissoh, spoil; mashkeeth, a spoiler; mozoh, to dry up (if land): 

Fas, lay tcaste. 
Maazeh, work : perhaps like Fas, grow, increase. 
Mozouk, food, nourishment : Fas, grow. 
Moas, to abhor : Fiuith, hatred, aversion; fuathas, a fright. 
Maueh, pasture : Feur, grass. 
Mabool, a flood; bool like Fluich, wet. 
Moto (Syriac), stretched out ; mothakh, tostietch out; muiad, tocjclcnd: 

Fad, long. 
Matto, a plantation : Fiodh, wood. 

FIFTH GROUP. 

Maizai (Syriac), to heat; like Hebrew aish, fire; like Gaelic Teas, 

heat. 
Maskeel, skilful; ma prefixed; s prefixed; keel like Ciall, sense. 
Mensgain, a player, a singer ; gain like Can, say, sing. 
Maisheev, a restorer, perhaps like Ais, back, back again; shecv like 

gabh, take. See the third group under the letter sameeli. 
Migrosh, suburbs; mi like Uira, around; grosh like cathair (the t 

silent), a city. 
Maisav, a circular seat : Uim, around ; suidh, sit. 
Migdol, a tower ; dol like Tula, a hill. 
Medeevoh, dissolving, melting; ed like Ad (obs.), water; or eev like 

abh, water. 



38 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

NUN. 

The fourteenth Hebrew letter. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that an initial n is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in 
Gaelic ; either n, or n followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words which begin with n in both languages. 
Neetam, obscured ; like Nochd, night. 
Nekaivoh, a female: Nighean, a daughter. 
Niaih, to reject : Neo, not. 

Noso, to lift up : Nios, a top, a summit ; a nios, up. 
Nozem, a nose-ring : Nios, a top, a summit. 

It would be a mistake to suppose that nios was bad Gaelic and a 
foreign word ; the adverb a nios, up, is a proof of this. 

SECOND GROUP. 

An initial n is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic. 
Noshakh, to bite : Sgath, cut, bite; n prefixed; s omitted before #. 
Noud, a leather-bottle : perhaps like At, a swelling, a bulging. 
Naid, a mound : At, a swelling, a prominence. 
Nohak, to brag : Eigh, a erg. 

Noaph, to be excited, roused ; noa prefixed ; ph like Fuath, anger. 
Nooph, to sprinkle: Abh, water. 
No, half-boiled : Amh, unboiled. 
Nova, to flow: Abh, water. 
Novee, a prophet; nevoo, prophecy ; nibro, to prophesy; ree liko 

Faidh, a prophet. 
Novveh, beautiful; veh like Boidheach, pretty. 
Nakhath, rest ; kath perhaps like Codal, cod-al, sleep. 
Novat, to investigate, look into : Beachd, vision. 

Noukeph, a beating, knocking; nooaph, to hurt, to thrust: Caob, strike. 
Novoun, full of understanding : Mein, mind; m to v. 
Nokhoun, certain, fixed: Comhnuidh, a habitation. See Hebrew 

makhaneh, a camp. 
Nekhaioh, painful ; Gath, a sting. 
Nog A, to reach, to touch : Aig, at. 

Nothan, to give, to place ; than perhaps like Daignich, establish. 
Nehee, lamenting : Och, alas. 
Nogah, to shine, to illuminate : Gath, a ray of light. 



SAMECH. 3!) 

Nohor, a river : B.uith,fiotv. 

Nouzleem, running uatcrs ; n prefixed; ouz like Uisge, uis-ge, water. 

Noveh, a habitation ; veh like Both, a hut. 

Neokoh, groaning : Eigh, a cry ; earnest, entreaty. 

Nokav, an excavation ; n prefixed; k prefixed; av like IJamh, a cave. 

Nevel, a drum : Buail, strike. 

Nohar, to brighten; like Hebrew oor, to illuminate; like Gaelic Brath, 

fire; b omitted. 
Nolo, to accomplish : Uile, all. 
Nokhoun, correct : Eagnaidh, correct. 

Nigas, to exact; nougais, persecution; Cis, a tax (is cis good Gaelic ?). 
Novakh, to bark ; va\h like Focal, foc-al, a word. 
Nikhmor, shrivelled by fire ; wo>- like Brath,/>-£. 
Nogad, to declare : Guth, a voice. 
Nogain, to sing; xogax, to play upon an instrument; negeenou, 

melody : Can, say, sing (hence Latin cano). 
Nokhaii, no-khar, to discern : Cridhe, the heart (figuratively for the 

seat of mind). 
Nokhath, no-khath, to penetrate : Gath, a dart. 
Nomas, n-omas, to melt, to dissolve ; om like Abh, water ; bh to m. 
Naar, a youth, a lad; naaroh, a damsel: Ur, young. 

THIRD GROUP. 

Negdee, before me ; neged, to reject : An aghaidh, opposite, against. 
Noiiam, to bellow : perhaps like Fuaim, a noise; n prefixed; /omitted. 



SAMECH. 

The fifteenth Hebrew letter. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that an initial s is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in 
Gaelic ; either s, or * followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words which begin with s in both languages. 

Soor, to separate : Sreath, a row (to place in rows). 

Siryoun, a coat of mail: Sreath, a row (material in rows). 

Sookoh, sukkoh, sukoh, a booth, shelter, tabernacle ; sikooth, shelter ; 

sokhakh, to protect; sikhooth, a protection; sookhoh, an awning; 

soiuiakii, sokakii, to enclose, protect : Sgiath, a wing; a projection; 

shelter ; a shield. 



40 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Sakhroh, sotjkhairoh, property, merchandise ; perhaps from being in 
sacks (compare with the rude word bagman) : Sac, a sack, a bag. 

Soukhair, a merchant, from sakhroh, merchandise ; sakh or soukh like 
Gaelic Sac ; air like fear (in composition — ar), a man. 

Sekhee, sweepings ; perhaps like Sguab, sweep. 

Seder, system, regularity : Sreath, a row. 

Sela, a cleft in a rock : perhaps like Sgoilt, cleave. 

SECOND GROUP. 

An initial * is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic ; either s, 
or * followed by a vowel-sound. 

Sophar, to cypher; to number ; to relate; sippair, to account: Abair, 

say. 
Sevokh, a thicket ; se prefixed; vo like Fiodh, wood. 
Sooth, a vesture : Eid, to clothe. 
Sooo, to turn back: perhaps like Ais, back. 
Saiphel, a bowl : perhaps like Ubhall, an apple (in both there is the 

idea of roundness) . 
Sotar, to hide : perhaps Tir, earth (suppose to cover with earth). 
Sokhav, to drag away : Gabh, take. 
Souph, the hinder end: Ais, behind. 

Soval, to burden; saivel, burden; el like Uallach, uall-ach, a burden. 
Soor, to depart : Ruith, run. 
Sekharkhar, to beat quickly, as the heart : se prefixed ; khar repeated : 

khar like Crith, shake ; also like cridhe, the heart. 
Salokh, to pardon : Logh, pardon. 
Seaith, a swelling : At, a swelling. 
Solal, to be raised up; soloh, to elevate; solool, a raised pathway ; 

souleloh, a rampart; soulom, a ladder : Ailt, high. 
Sokhal, to become viise : Ciall, sense. 

Sokhal, to act foolishly : perhaps As, out of; ciall, sense. 
Sar, a ruler; sorar, to rule: perhaps Ard, high; or sreath, a rank, 

a row ; sreathaich, arrange. 
Soroh, rebelliously : perhaps At, fight. 

Sovav, to surround ; s prefixed; ov like Uim, around ; m to v. 
Sokhor, so-khor, a place for traffic; Creic, sell. 
Solaph, so-laph, to bend : Lub, bend. 
Sela, se-la, a rock : Lia, a stone. 
Sokal, so-kal, to stone, to remove stones ; sokal, so-kal, to stone, to pelt : 

Clach, a stone. 



AYIN. 41 

THIRD GROUP. 

A conjecture is offered for the consideration of the reader. Is Hebrew 
initial s sometimes interchangeable or commutable with Celtic 
initial c or g? See the fourth group under the letter shin. I 
have looked under the letter zain for similar instances, hut none 
have occurred to me. See the fourth group under the letter tsade. 

Sela, a rock: perhaps akin to Clach, a stone; or lia, a stone ; se 
prefixed. 

Somakh, som-akh, to support : Cum, hold. 

Seer, a pot, a pan : Cro, anything round. 



AYIN. 

The sixteenth Hebrew letter. The sound of this letter is not 
known with certainty. It has sometimes been represented by g ; 
sometimes at the beginning of a word by gn, and at the end of a word 
by ng. In some works, in writing Hebrew in English letters, it is 
passed over altogether. In some works, where Hebrew is given in 
English letters, this letter is given in the Hebrew character. The way 
of representing it here is that followed by Aaron Pick in his Bible- 
Student's Concordance; it is hero represented sometimes by o, sometimes 
by a, or i, e, or u. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words which in Hebrew begin with ayin, and in Gaelic with a vowel. 

Oor, to start quickly, to awake : Eirich, eir-ich, rise. 

Olou, to ascend; olouth, ascending; alleeyoh, an ascent; alliyoh, 

an upper room; olaz, to exult, to rejoice; AL,upon; ouloh, ascension 

(a burnt-offering) : Ailt, high. 
Edai (Syriac), odath (Syriac), odoh (Chaldee), to pass away: Uidhe, 

a step. 
Oud, again : Ath, again. 
Ool, an infant; elem, a lad; oulail, offspring ; odlailoh, a small 

grape, not full grown: Al, a brood ; young of any kind. 
Oulom, everlasting ; like Uile, all; am, time. 
Avoor, old corn : Arbhar, corn. 

Aroogoh, a raised bed in a garden : perhaps Ard, high. 
Ouneg, delight ; onag, to delight oneself ; Aoibhneach, pleasant. 
Oul, a burden: Uallach, a burden. 

Ivvaid, to surround ; ivv like Uim, around; aid like uidhe, a step. 
Ummath, corresponding to, like: Amhuil, amh-uil, like. 



42 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

SECOND GROUP. 

An initial vowel-sound is either added in Hebrew, or an initial vowel 

is omitted in Gaelic. 
Aiyer, ai-ver, over, beyond ; ovar, o-var ; ibrar, to pass over : Barr, top. 
Ophor, o-phor, dust : Bruth, bruise. 
Ovoor, o-voor, a grain of corn, produce : Beir, produce. 
Oman, oman, to trust : perhaps like Bun, a foundation. 
Okov, o-kov, crooked ; okaiv, the heel, from okov; or okov from okaiv; 

okotjv, o-kouv, unlevelled; okav, to supplant (suppose to trip up) ; 

okav, to detain, restrain : Cub, bend. 
Okhas, o-khas, a tinkling ornament for the feet: perhaps like Cos, afoot. 
Ophi, o-phi, a bough : Fiodh, wood. 
Ouphel, ou-phel, a hill, a mount; orHAL, o-phal, to sivell : Meall, 

a hill ; m to ph. 
Agvoh, affection ; the gv like Caomh, dear. 
Omol, o-mol, weariness : Meil, grind. 
Ooph, to Jig; the ph like /in Fogair, expel. 
Ad, unto: Do, to. 

Aider, eder, e-der, a herd : Treud, a herd. 
Okar, o-kar, to root out, to disable : Gearr, cut. 
Otoh, o-toh, to veil, to cover : Tigh, a house (hence Latin tego). 
Oogol, oo-gol, round: Calbh, a head. 
Ovad, to serve; ayoudoh, service: Fo, under ; the preposition turned 

into a verb. 

THIRD GROUP. 

Perhaps at the beginning of the word, a consonant is either omitted in 
Hebrew, or added in Gaelic. This is a conjecture offered for the 
consideration of the reader. See the third group under the letter 
aleph, the third group under the letter he, and the second group 
under the letter yod. 

Oleii, a leaf: Bileach, bil-each, a leaf; b omitted. 

Ain, a fountain; see Hebrev/ maayon, a fountain : Buinne, a pool in a 
river ; b omitted. 

Oroh, to strip, to bare : Creach, a raid, a foray ; c omitted. 

Orats, to dread : Crith, to tremble; c omitted. 

Onee, poor, afflicted : Caoin, lament ; c omitted. 

Eer, a city : Cathair (the t silent), a city ; c omitted. 

Osas, to tread down : Cos, afoot; c omitted. 

Ovoh, to be bent down : Cub, bend; c omitted. 

Oroom, cunning, subtle : Crom, crooked; c omitted. 



PE. 43 

Innoii, to afflict: Guin, wound; g omitted. 

ObaHj a bare place ; Garbh, rough, rugged ; g omitted. 

Egloh, a calf: Laogh, a calf; g omitted ; e prefixed. 

Onoh, to answer, to express ; ounoh, a testimony ; onok, to answer : 
Fonn, an air, a tune; f omitted. 

Aits, a tree, wood, a piece of wood; ait, a reed-pen: Fiodh, wood; 
f omitted. 

Olam, concealed : Feile, a covering ; f omitted. 

Eeh (Syriac), a watcher: Faire, a watch, a guard; f omitted. 

Osoh, to make, let grow, to do : Faa, grow ; f omitted. 

Ain, ayin, the eye. A fanciful conjecture is offered for the consideration 
of the reader. I connect ain, the eye, with ain, a fountain, a spring, 
as on a hill-side a round spring may be likened to the eye of the 
hill. Ain, a fountain, is akin to the Gaelic JBuinne, a pool in a 
stream; b omitted. Hence Latin fons. 

Okakh, to prepare, arrange : Sreath, a row; s omitted. 

FOURTH GROUP. 

Egloh, a calf: perhaps like Gaelic Laogh, a calf ; g prefixed ; e pre- 
fixed. Laogh is said to be the most difficult word in Gaelic for a 
non-Gael to pronounce. 

Arophei., thick darkness ; aro like Ciar, dark ; c omitted ; phel like 
feile, a covering. 

Am, a people : Aiteam, a people, a tribe. 

PE. 

The seventeenth Hebrew letter. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that an initial p is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in 
Gaelic; either^, or p followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST group. 

AVords which begin with p in both languages. 

Porash, to distinguish, to divide; porau, to part, to separate ; poroshoh, 

a separate sum: Pairt, a part (is pairt good Gaelic?). 
Potsoh, to open, to release; pithkhoun, a full opening ; pothak, to open, 
to engrave ; pithgom, a decree; pithuk, an engraving ; Pit, a hollow. 
Petseeroh, a fie; pouthouth, the socket in ivhich the hinge moves 
(in all these the idea is something hollow, as the sunk line on 
engraved metal) ; like Gaelic Pit, a hollow. 



44 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

SECOND GROUr. 

An initial p is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic. 
Paam, time, a time ; Am, time. 
Polat, to deliver ; ol like Al, young of any hind. 
Poga, pogash, to meet, to come to : Aig, at (the preposition turned into 

a verb) ; or SLgaiAh, face. 
Peneemee, inside : Ann, in. 
Potiiar, to interpret : perhaps Eadar, between. 
Pkkhor, pe-khor (Syriac), a potter ; Cre, earth. 

THIRD GROUP. 

Words which begin with p in Hebrew, and with b in Gaelic. 
Phorv.kh, harshness, severity: perhaps like Barr, top (overbearing). 
Porats, to break forth ; porakh, to throw out or shoot : Bruchd, burst 

forth. 
Porosh, a rider ; perhaps like puroh, a branch; pekis, a claw : Beir, 

carry. 
Pethen, an asp ; pe like Beach, a bee. 
Poroor, a swelling, increasing as water boils over : Barr, top ; or mor, 

great. 
Paiair, an ornamental head-dress; partaimeem (Chaldce) chiefs: Barr, 

top. 
Poor, to break asunder, to disannul ; pooroh, a wine-press : Brnth, 

bruise, crush. 
Peair, comely; poar, to beautify: Briadha, pretty; Lowland-Scotch, 

braw. 
Poar, to be praiseworthy : perhaps like Mor, great. 
Penninah, a coral : perhaps like Ban, white. 
Pateesh, an iron-hammer : Bat, strike. 
Pokoh, a cow; po like Bo, an ox. 
Pii.laid, to decide : Beul, the month. 
Porour, an iron pot : the Hebrew for iron like Gaelic Brath,y?*-e; as 

fire was used in procuring or working iron. 
Pinniaii, a battlement: Beinn. a hill. 
Poal, to work; in sound like Buail, smite, thrash. 
Peuazah, a town : Barr, a height (and applied to towns as these for 

security were built on heights). 
Path, a bit, a piece, a morsel; like Hebrew pe, a mouth; like Gaelic 

Bid (obs.), nip, pinch; bideag, a morsel. 
Pokakh, to see; ) okad, to review : Beachd, vision. 



TSADE. 45 

FOURTH GROCr. 

Words which begin with p in Hebrew, and with / in Gaelic. 
Pothal, to spin, to twist: ~Fi\\,fold. 
Paamon, a bell : perhaps like Fuaim, noise. 
Posoh, to spread itself, to increase : Fas, grow. 
Poshat, posh-at, to strip, to plunder : Fas, lay waste. 

fifth group. 

Words which begin with p in Hebrew, and with m in Gaelic. 
Polakh, to grind, to powder : Meil, grind. 
Pele, phele, wonderful ; polo, to be wondered at; peleeoh, a wonder : 

Miorbhuil, a wonder, from meur, finger ; and Beal, the god Belus, 

or Bel. 

sixth group. 
Pe, the mouth; a little like Beul, the mouth. 
Poar, to open the mouth wide ; like Hebrew pe ; pe like Gaelic Abair, 

a-bai-r, speak : also like aber, the month of a river. 
Pardais, paradise, ornamental pleasure-ground : perhaps like Briadha, 

pretty ; ais (obs.), a covert. 
Is it the case that Hebrew initial p sometimes corresponds to Celtic 

initial t, as in the three following ? 
Ponoh, to turn : Tionndaidh, tionn-daidh, turn. 
Poon, to pine away : Tana, thin. 
Par, a bull ■ Tarbh, a bull. 

TSADE. 

The eighteenth Hebrew letter. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that either the Hebrew prefixes ts, or the Gaelic omits ts at the 
beginning of a word ; either ts, or ts followed by a vowel-sound. 

.Some Hebrew words beginning with ts are like Gaelic words 
beginning with t. 

Some Hebrew words beginning with ts are like Gaelic words 
beginning with s. 

first group. 

In Hebrew the word begins with ts, and in Gaelic with t or d. 
Tsooth, to set on fire; tsiyoh, a dry waste or barren place : Teas, heat ; 

teo, teodh, hot. 
Tsoraph, to refine, purify (suppose to wash) ; the or perhaps like Doir, 

water. 



46 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Tsour, tsoor, a rock, a stone, a Jlint ; tseer, an image of stone: Torr, 
a hill; or sgor, a rock. 

SECOND GROUP. 

At the beginning of a word, ts is either added in Hebrew, or omitted 

in Gaelic ; either ts, or ts followed by a vowel-sound : about 

fourteen instances. 
Tsolakh, ts-ol-akh, to advance, to prosper; ol like Al, nourish, grow ; 

or ailt, high. 
Tsophan, tso-phan, to conceal : Bun, a foundation. 
Tsaueek, tsa-deek, just, righteous; tsedekh, tse-dekh, righteousness: 

Deagh, good. 
Tsovar, tso-var, to heap up : Barr, top ; or beir, carry. 
Tsoak, ts-oak, to call out; tseokoh, ts-eokoh, a loud cry ; tsokhakii, 

ts-okh-akh, to laugh incredulously : Eigh, a cry, a shout. 
Tsohal, to shout for joy : Iolach, a shout. 
Tsoeer, ts-oeer, young, small: Ur, young. 
Tseer, tsee-r, an express; the r like liuith, run. 
Tsoad, ts-oad, to march, to step ; tsaad, a step ; tsoou, to hunt, to 

pursue ; tsoyid, venison, game: Uidhe, a step, a journey. 
Tsouphar, tsou-phar, morning (early) : Brath, fire ; the fire in the east. 

THIRD GROUP. 

In Hebrew the word begins with ts, and in Gaelic with s ; the sound 

of an initial t is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic : 

six instances. 
Tsorar, to oppress; tsoroh, oppression; tsourair, an oppressor: 

Saraich, sar-aich, oppress. 
Tsourair, tsour-air, an oppressor, from tsoroh; tsour like Saraick, 

sar-aich, oppress; air like fear (in composition ar), a man. 
Tsail, a projection : Sail, a heel. 
Tseer, fashion, fashioned : Sreath, a row, a line. 
Tsekheeakh, exposed to the sun : Soar, dry. 

FOURTH GROUP. 

Some Hebrew words beginning with ts are like Gaelic words beginning 
with sg. Is this a case when Hebrew s is commutable with Celtic 
g ? See the third group under the letter samech. 

Tsail, a shade ; tsolal, shaded; tsblem, a shadow : Sgail, a shade. 

Tsour, tsoor, a rock, a stone, a Jlint; tsoraath, leprosy; tsorooa, 
leprous (from the roughness of the skin) ; TSBBB, an image of stone : 
Sgor, a rock ; also like torr, a hill. 



KOPII. 47 

FIFTH GROUP. 

A conjecture is offered for the consideration of the reader. Is it the 
case that at the beginning of a word, Hebrew ts sometimes corre- 
sponds to Gaelic initial c or g, as in the following ? 

Tseets, a shining plate of metal: Gath, a ray of light. 

Tsohar, an aperture for light : Cro, the eye of a needle. 

Tsomeed, tsom-eed, a fastening : Cum, hold. 

Tsippoh, to overlay, to cover : Cab, a head. 

Also see the third group under the letter tov. 

KOPII. 

Tho nineteenth Hebrew letter — koph or quoph. Sometimes repre- 
sented by q or qu ; here represented by k. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that either the Hebrew prefixes k, or the Gaelic omits an initial 
c or g ; either k, or k followed by a vowel-sound. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that an initial * is either omitted in Hebrew, or added in Gaelic ; 
as Hebrew koot, kee, like Gaelic sgeith; Hebrew kain like Gaelic 
sgian. 

first group. 

Words which begin with k in Hebrew, and with c or g in Gaelic. 
Koom, to establish ; koumets, a handful : Cum, hold, withhold ; hold as 

in the hand. 
Killail, to esteem lightly ; kolal, to lighten: perhaps Caol, little, small. 
Koon, to lament : Caoin, lament. 
Koro, to cull ; koho, to be called, named ; korats, to taunt; kerueem, 

the invited : Gaoir, noise. 
Korats, to nip, to pinch : perhaps Gearr, cut. 

Koul, a voice, noise ; koulovtii, a loud voice, thunder : Glaodh, call. 
Keren, a horn; keren, a projecting corner ; a corner; karno (Chaldee), 

a flute, cornet, horn ; Corn, a horn, a trumpet; corr, a horn; corran, 

a point of land reaching far into the sea. 
Korav, to bring near : perhaps like Cior (obs.), the hand. 
Koshav, to attend : perhaps like Cos, afoot. 
Kardoun, an axe; kora, to rend asunder : Gearr, cut. 
Karkar, to root out ; kar repeated : Gearr, cut. 
Kouroh, a beam of a house; a little like Crann, a beam. 
Kuroh, the stomach : perhaps like Gabh, receive (the receptacle). 
Kourakh, bold: Garbh, harsh, haughty. 



48 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Konoh, to buy ; kinyox, a purchase ; Ceannaich, to buy. 

Keoroh, a dish; kaaroh, a deep dish: Cro, anything round; coire, 
a hollow. 

Keer, a well : Cro, a circle. 

Koram, to cover, skin over ; a little like Croic, the skin. 

Kotsar, to shorten; hot like Cutach, cut-acli, short; eutaich, to shorten; 
Lowland-Scotch, cutty. 

Kerev, inside, within : Cridhe, the heart. 

Kova, to demand with authority: Gabh, take. 

Kov, a measuring -line : Caball, cab-all, a rope. 

Kokas, to bend : Car, a turn. 

Kouts, a thorn : Gath, a sting. 

Kotseh, an end, a corner : perhaps like Gath, a sting, a point. 

Koi.oun, contempt : perhaps like Cul, the back. 

Kan, a nest; kuxan, to make a nest. See gan, a garden; gonan, to 
enclose. Under the letter kheth, see khonoh, to encamp : under 
the letter kaph, see koon, to erect, to establish; kas, a basis; 
koxas, konash, to gather into a place of security. Also see 
makhaneh, a camp. Of all these the idea is an enclosure. Also 
see tekhoo.voh, establishment, estate, property; tikhain, to ordain ; 
TiKHouv, established. All these Hebrew words are akin to each 
other, and to the Gaelic Combnuidh, comhn-uidh, a dwelliny ; 
an comhnuidh, continually. 

SECOND GROUP. 

An initial k, or this sound is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in 
Gaelic ; either /;, or k followed by a vowel-sound. 

Kohal, to assemble; kohol, an assembly; kouheleth, a collector. 
Under the letter kaph, see kohal, to assemble; kohol, an assembly ; 
K.0UL, all things, everything ; kol, all; koloh, to complete: under 
the letter kheth, see khail, an army. All these Hebrew words 
are akin to each other, and to the Gaelic Uile, all. 

Koor, to cause to spring up : Eirich, eir-ich, rise. 

Ivor, cold; kerakh, a clear stone; ice: Eeodh, freeze. 

Kodar, to darken ; kitreex, obscure things ; koudair, obscure : Dorch, 
dark. 

Koton, little : Tana, thin, small. 

Kino, envy : Tnu, envy. 

Kovar, to bury ; var like Barr, a top (a heap). 

Koshav, to attend : Ais, behind. 

Korouv, near, at hand : Roi, before. 



EESH. 49 

THIRD GROUP. 

An initial s is either omitted in Hebrew, or added in Gaelic. 

Koot, to loathe; kee, to vomit: Sgeith, to vomit. 

Kain, a weapon with a long handle : Sgian, a knife. Under the letter 
kaph, see Hebrew kohoh, dim, like Gaelic sgiath, a shade; Hebrew 
koxoph, kon-oph, a wing, like Gaelic sgiathan, a little wing : also 
see Hebrew goloh, to reveal, like Gaelic sgeul, a tale; instances 
where s is similarly treated. 

EESH. 

The twentieth Hebrew letter. Gaelic r is called rius, the alder-tree. 

Some Hebrew words beginning with r are in meaning and sound 
like Gaelic words beginning with c or g ; an initial c or g, or this sound, 
being either omitted in Hebrew, or added in Gaelic ; either c or g, or 
one of these followed by a vowel. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words which begin with r in both languages. 
Eoka, to beat out, to extend, to expand; rokak, to draw forth : Euig, 

reach, extend. 
Eotoh, to satiate with moisture, or by watering the ground ; roots, to 
run; rots, a runner; rohat, a trough, a channel; rodaph, to 
pursue; reer, saliva; reer, juice, fluid ; rouk, saliva; rohakh, 
to spit : Euith, run, flow. 
Eeshoun,./?^; roush, a chief ', a head ; uxv,achief; rozoun, a prince : 

Eoi, before. 
Einnoh, a shout; ronan, to sing ; ronoh, to sound, to sing ; ronnan, 

to shout : Eann, a poem ; oran, a song. 
Eov, much ; ray, abundance; rokhav, to enlarge; rovov, rovav, to 

multiply ; rovoh, satiety, fulness : Eo, very, much, exceedingly. 
Eovoh, satiety, fulness; ro like Eo, much; voh like biadh, food. 
Eabbeem, a multitude, many : Eo, much. Hebrew am, people : perhaps 
like Gaelic Aiteam, people. 

second group. 
An initial r either added in Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic. 
Eedeed, a robe : Eid, clothe. 
Ear, but : Ach, but. 

third group. 
A conjectural affinity is offered for the consideration of the reader : 
an initial c or g, or this sound, is either omitted in Hebrew, or 
in Gaelic. 



50 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

Eoal, to be giddy, to stagger; rogaz, to tremble; rotsats, to chatter ; 

raash, trembling; an earthquake; road, raad, trembling; rogash, 

to rage, to storm (to shake with rage) ; rokhaph, to flutter ; roash, 

to bluster, to shake; raayoun, intentions, thoughts: Cridhe, the 

heart (figuratively the seat of mind). 
Rovats, to crouch down; rophats, to tread down : Crub, crouch. 
Resheth, a net ; rukamtee, embroidered ; Car, a turn. 
Raia, raiah, a friend; reooth, a companion; roa, to be social; raioh, 

to befriend: Car, a friend; car, friendly. 
Reek, empty; reek, to empty; raikom, empty, in vain; rokakh, to 

empty : Creach, plunder, pillage. 
Root, hunger : Ocras, hunger; c omitted, o omitted. 
Rotsoh, to be willing ; rotsoun, acceptance, will; reooth (Chaldee), 

pleasure : Gradh, affection. 
Rom, great : Garbh, large ; g omitted ; bh to b ; b to m. 
Revooth, greatness : Garbh, huge, &c. 
Rosham, to note ; the r perhaps like Gearr, cut; or garbh, rough; or 

sgriobh, write; g omitted. 
If any one were to say that Gaelic sgriobh was the daughter of 

Latin scribo, he might be told that scribo was the daughter of 

Gaelic garbh. It is not here admitted that sgriobh is from scribo. 
Rooa, to shout : Gaoir, noise. 

FOURTH GROUP. 

An initial letter is either omitted in Hebrew, or added in Gaelic. 

Reet, to contend; reev, an opponent; reev, a controversy : At, fight ; 
a omitted. 

Roa, to break in pieces; reseeseem, ruins: Bris, break; b omitted. 

Rokhash, to rush; rekhesh, a swift animal, a dromedary; eakiiov, 
a swift rider, a chariot-driver ; rokad, to dance, jump ; rekhev, 
a chariot; rekhev, the upper mill-stone (the rider); reek, to 
empty, to pour out abundantly : Bruchd, rush forth; b omitted. 

Rokhav, breath; rooakh, spirit, breath, wind: perhaps akin to 
Bruchd, rush forth, belch; b omitted. 

Rokav, to rot; a little like Breoth, to rot. 

In the four words below, an initial / either omitted in Hebrew, or 

added in Gaelic. 
Rooh, to feed; roueh, a feeder of a flock : Feur, grass. 
Roupha, a physician, a healer : perhaps r like Fearr, better. 
Rogash, to rage; rougez, anger : Fearg, anger; or crith, shake (with 

rage). 



SHIN or SIN. 51 

Eogaz, to shake with rage : Fearg, anger ; f omitted ; or crith, shake 

(with rage). 
Ro, rooh, roua, evil; rooa, to do evil; rosho, a bad man ; rosha, to 
act wickedly: Droch, bad; d omitted in Hebrew, or added in 
Gaelic. 

SHIN or SIN. 
The twenty-first Hebrew letter. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that either the Hebrew prefixes shin or sin, or the Gaelic omits 
an initial * ; either s, or * followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words which begin with sh or s in Hebrew, and with s in Gaelic. 
Shooth, sheeth, to set, to place ; shuth, a foundation : Suidh, sit ; 

suidhich, set, place. 
Sheveth, a seat; she like Suidh, sit. 

Shokoh, to quiet, to still : Socraich, soc-raich, appease, assuage. 
Shiryoun, a coat of mail: Sreath, a row (pieces of metal in rows). 
Sourarhath, a display: Sreath, spread. 
Sereekouth, combed : Sreath, a row. 

Serod, a covering : Sreath, spread (the idea is something spread). 
Shogo, to wander : Seachran, seach-ran, to wander. 
Shakhath, destruction ; shorhat, to slay as a sacrifice : Sgath, consume, 

destroy. 
Sukkah, a covering, a tabernacle; sourhoh, a bough; sokhakh, to 

protect, to enclose : Sgiath, a wing, shelter, protection, shade. 
Sakeen, a knife : Sgian, a knife. 

Shoroh (Syriac), to let loose ; sorad, to escape: Saor,/m. 
Shainoh, sleep : Suain, sleep. 
Shaish, six : Se, six. 

Shaireeth, service ; shorath, to minister, to attend : Saothair, work. 
Sak, a sack : Sac, a sack. 
Shekets, shikoots, a detestable thing ; shokats, to detest (see kee, root) : 

Sgeith, to vomit. 
Shelarh, a dart ; perhaps akin to Sealg, to hunt. 

THIRD GROUP. 

An initial sh or * is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic ; 

either *, or s followed by a vowel-sound ; about fifty-nine instances. 

Shekhan, a resting-place; shokhan, to rest, to dwell ; shokhain, an 

inhabitant. See makhaneh, a camp. Under the letter kheth, see 



52 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

khonoh, to encamp : under the letter kaph, see koon, to erect; 
kan, a basis ; konas, konash, to gather into a place of security : 
under the letter koph, see kan, a nest; konan, to make a nest. 
Also see gan, a garden ; gonan, to enclose ; mekhounoh, a foun- 
dation, abase; tekhounosh, establishment, estate, property ; tikhoun, 
established. Of khonoh, mekhaneh, konan, and gonan, the idea 
is an enclosure. All these Hebrew words are akin to each other, 
and to the Gaelic Comhnuidh, comhn-uidh, a dwelling; an 
comhnuidh, continually. 

Shorats, to creep : perhaps like Ruith, run. 

Shoveh, sh-ov-eh, alike, equal ; ov like Amhuil, amh-uil, like. 

Sholat, sh-ol-at, to rule; ol like Ailt, high. 

Seeer, seee-r, mist, vapour, small rain : Ruith, flow, run. 

Seer, see-r, hoar-frost ; the r like Reodh, freeze. 

Sogav, so-gav, to exalt : Cab, head. 

Shovar, sho-var, to break, to break forth ; var like Bruth, bruise, break; 
or bruchd, burst forth. 

Shever, she-ver, a shivering, a breaking ; Bruth, braise, break. 

Sho-vakh, to applaud : Beuc, utter a sound. 

Shokhour, sho-khour, black : Ciar, black. 

Shoal, sh-oal, to ask; sheailoh, a petition : Iolach, iol-ach, a shout. 

Shokhav, sho-khav, to lie, to repose : Cub, bend. 

Shekokeem, she-khok-eem, skies: perhaps like Cuach, a cup; the cup 
inverted. 

Saikhel, intelligence ; sokhal, to act prudently ; sikail, to act discreetly ; 
khel like Ciall, sense. 

Shokhal, sho-khal, to deprive : Caill, lose. 

Sheger, she-ger, offspring, increase of cattle; ger like Greigh, a herd. 

Sovo, so-vo, to satisfy with food; vo like Biadh, food. 

Shomeer, sho-meer, a diamond or other precious stone ; meer like Brath, 
fire (from its sparkling). 

Shaivet, shai-vet, a staff, a sceptre ; vet like Bat, a staff. 

Shaphreer, sha-phreer, a cover i>/g for a throne; phreer like Baxx, 
top. 

Shophakh, sho-phakh, to pour out : perhaps like Beuc, roar, bellow 
(pour out sound). 

Shailoh, sh-ailoh, a descendant, offspring : Al, the young of any animal. 

Sokal, so-kal, to stone, to pelt; sokal, so-kal, to stone, to remove stones; 
cal like Clach, a stone. 

Seaith, s-eaith, a swelling : At, a swelling. 

Shdmar, sh-oniar, to observe ; oinar like Amhairc, see. 



SHIN ok SIN. 53 

-eor, a remnant; shoar, to cause to remain; soreed, remainder; 

8HAIAIR, a remnant : Iar, behind. 
Shotaph, sh-ot-aph, to overflow; ot like Ad (obs.), water. 
Shad, sh-ad, refreshing moisture; ad like Ad, water. 
Sar, a ruler : perhaps like Aid, high. 
Soton, a hinderer, Satan: perhaps like Ais, back, backward; ton like 

duine, a man. 
Sooakh, to utter : seeakh, utterance; seeakh, to speak; shooa, a cry 

for help ; shoag, to roar; shooh, to make a noise : Eigh, a cry. 
Shetai, she-tai, both : Da, two. 

Shever, she-ver, false; ver like Fiar, wicked, perverse. 
Shoov, shoo-v, to revoke; shoo either sh prefixed simply, or like Gaelic 

Ais, back; v like focal, foc-al, a word; also like beuc, utter a sound 

(like Latin voco). 
Souvokh, sou-vo-kh, a thicket; vo like Fiodh, wood. 
Shovar, sho-var, to bargain, to sell: perhaps like Margadh, mar-gadh, 

a market. 
Shotak, sho-tak, to still, to quiet : Tachd, choke. 
Sotoh, so-toh, to deviate, to go aside : Taobh, a side. 
Shoushan, sh-oush-an, a rose, perhaps a red rose ; oush like Hebrew 

aish, fire ; like Gaelic Teas, heat. 
Shouham, an onyx stone ; a carbuncle; a glittering stone ; like Hebrew 

aish., fire; ai omitted; like Teas, heat; teo, hot. 
Shozaph, sh-oz-aph, to shine; oz like Hebrew aish, fire; like Gaelic 

Teas, heat. 
Sholaim, sh-olai-m, whole; sholam, sh-ola-m, to complete ; shillaim, 

sh-illai-m, to complete : Uile, all. 
Shouvch, sh-ouv-ch, to balance, to equal ; ouv like Amhuil, amh-uil, 

like. 
Shaatoh, sh-aatoh, progressing : Uidhe, a step. 
Sotoh, s-otoh, to go astray; to avoid: Taobh, a ride; or uidhe, a 

step. 
Shonoh, to repeat: perhaps like Ais, back; fonn (in composition onn), 

a tune, an air. 
Shephel, she-phel, an elevated place : phel like Meall, a hill ; m to ph. 

FOURTH GROUP. 

A conjectural affinity is offered for the consideration of the reader. 
Some Hebrew words are in meaning and sound like Gaelic words, 
except that in Hebrew the initial letter is shin or sin, and in 
Gaelic c or g. See the third group under the letter samech. I 



54 HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

have looked under the letter zain for similar instances, but none 
have occurred to me. See the fourth group under the letter tsade. 

Shophal, shoph-al, to debase : Cab, head. 

Soom, to set, to place ; somakh, to support: Cum, hold. 

Shoov, to turn, to return : Cam, bent. 

Shoor, to watch : Caithris, a watching. 

Sorakh, to interweave, to traverse : Car, a turn. 

Shephoh, abundance : Cob, plenty. 

Shoop, to crush : Caob, strike with clods. 

Shoor, an ox : Crodh, cattle. 

Shoulayim, the skirts of a garment : Cul, behind. 

Shovoh, to capture : Gabh, take. 

Saph, a basin : Gabh, take, receive. 

Shain, a tooth : perhaps akin to Geinn, a wedge. 

Sheer, a song ; singing ; shor, a singer : Gaoir, noise. 

Saior, hair ; soeer, a hairy, rough goat: Garbh, rough. 

Shaarooroh, horrible : Garbh, rough, boisterous ; the sound repeated. 

Shokal, sho-kal, to weigh : perhaps like Clach, a stone. (See mishkol.) 

Shorov, a dry place, a barren spot : Garbh, rough, wild, not cultivated. 

TOV. 

The twenty-second Hebrew letter. 

Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that either an initial t is added in Hebrew, or omitted in 
Gaelic ; either t, or t followed by a vowel-sound. 

FIRST GROUP. 

Words beginning with t in Hebrew, and with d or t in Gaelic. 
Tail, a hill, a mount ; toloul, raised up ; tail, a heap of ruins (a heap) ; 

toloh, to hang : Tula, a hill. 
Tanoor, a furnace : Teine, fire. 
Tor, an ox : Tarbh, a bull. 

Tanneen, a serpent : perhaps Tana, thin, slim, slender. 
Tom, tomeem, perfect; tomam, to make perfect : Teoma, correct. 
Takhtecho, under it : Tigh, a house. 
Touar, form, shape : Dreach, form, shape. 

Tikvoh, hope ; toukheleth, hope ; tik like Dochas, doch-as, hope. 
Tarbeeth, increase : Toradh, fruit. 

Touren, a mast; a steeple; like Torr, a hill (the idea being something 
high). 



TOV. 55 

Teroomoh, an oblation : perhaps like Thoir, give. 

Tenoooh, determination: Teann, firm. 

Thou, a buffalo : Damh, an ox. 

To, a chamber : Tigh, a house. 

Tehoum, profound, deep: Tarah, rest, quiet. From tamh come these 

river-names — Tay, Thames, Tavy, Tamar; the idea being a 

smoothly-flowing river. 
Tour, to reconnoitre, explore, search : Dearc, see. 
Teoumeem, twins : Da, two. 
Tooh, to wander, to go astray : perhaps like Taobh, a side. 

SECOND GROUP. 

An initial t is either added in Hebrew, or omitted in Gaelic ; either t, 
or t followed by a vowel-sound. 

Tifhereth, ti-phereth, comely : Briadha, pretty ; hence Lowland- 
Scotch braw. 

Tevel, te-vel, confusion : perhaps like Buail, strike, smite. 

Tevoonoh, te-voon-oh, understanding ; voon like Mein, mind. 

Taanoug, t-aanoug, delight : Aoibhneach, pleasant. 

Tigroh, ti-groh, an attack : perhaps like Gearr, cut. 

Tevoosoth, te-voos-oth, treading dozen ; voos like Greek pous ; Latin 
pes; Gaelic Cos, afoot ; c to p and v. 

Toka, to-ka, to blow a horn or trumpet ; ka like Guth, a voice. 

Tehilloh, t-ehilloh, praise : Iolach, iol-ach, a shout. 

Tephilloh, te-philloh, prayer : perhaps like Beul, the mouth. 

Tenoooh, a prohibition : Neo, not. 

Temoonoh, t-em-oonoh, a resemblance : perhaps em like Amhuil, amh- 
uil, like. 

Totyah, a going out : Uidhe, a step. 

Thakhanouneem, supplication ; akh like Eigh, a cry, earnest entreaty. 

Tekhoonoh, establishment, eUab, property ; tikhoun, established. See 
makhaneh, a camp. Under the letter kheth, see khonoh, to 
encamp: under the letter kaph, see koon, to erect; kan, a basis; 
konas, konash, to gather into a place of security: under the letter 
koph, see kan, a nest; konan, to make a nest. Also see gan, 
a garden ; gonan, to enclose. Also see shekhan, a resting-place ; 
shokhan, to rest; shokhain, an inhabitant. Of khonoh, kan, and 
gan, the idea is an enclosure. All these Hebrew words are akin 
to each other, and to the Gaelic Comhnuidh, comhn-uidh, 
a dwelling ; an comhnuidh, continually. 



HEBREW AND GAELIC. 

, th-eer-oush, new wine: Ur, new; uisge, water; from 
uisge comes whiskey. 

THIRD GROUP. 

A conjectural affinity is offered for the consideration of the reader. 
Some Hebrew and Gaelic words are alike in meaning and sound, 
except that in Hebrew the initial letter is t ; in Gaelic, c or g. 

Tour, a turn : Car, a turn. 

Taavoh, an object of desire : Caomh, dear. 

Toy, a mark; tovoh, to mark; Tabaath, a seal, a ring; touph, 
a tabret, drum, timbrel : Caob, strike. 

Teoloh, a conduit, a trench : Caol, narrow. 

Tomakh, to support, to sustain ; Cum, hold. 

Teriph, an image : Cre, earth. 

Taalumouth, hidden things : Ceil, hide. 

Tophas, to lay hold of : Gabh, take. 

Teroooh, a sound of a trumpet : Gaoir, noise. 

Thaar, a sharp instrument, a razor : Gearr, cut. 

Also see the fifth group of words under the letter tsade. As a young 
child learning to speak often uses t instead of c, as I tome for 
I come, some would be inclined to say that the people who used c 
instead of t were more advanced in mental culture, and in the use 
of the faculty of speech. 

Tour, a row (see under the letter teth, toor, a row : perhaps like 
Sreath, a row ; s omitted ; t prefixed. 



OMITTED. 



In page 9. In Hebrew and Gaelic the verb has no present tense. 
The only Gaelic verb that has one is the verb Bi, to be. (Stewart.) 
In Hebrew and Gaelic there are only two genders, masculine and 
feminine ; no neuter gender. 
Aleph. This letter is here represented by a, e, o, or u. 
Okhoo, a pasture, a meadow : like the Gaelic Acha, a plain. 

(Acha is an important word, and enters into the composition of 
many names of places, as Auchinleck, &c.) 



HEBREW- CELTIC AFFINITY. 57 

To the great relief of the reader, I now come to the end of this Essay. 
Although it is much larger than it was in 1840 and 1870, 1 venture to 
call this the Third Edition. In noting these signs of similarity, or 
supposed similarity, between the Hebrew and the Gaelic, I have not 
received any help from any quarter — printed or written matter, or 
conversation. 

Hebrew has a way of prefixing a letter or a syllable to Hebrew 
words ; thus koon or khoxoh appear as tikhoun and shekhan. 

Has Gaelic a way of prefixing a letter or a syllable to Gaelic 
words? This exists to a very small extent. In thirty- six instances 
(or more), Gaelic prefixes a letter to a Gaelic word; in five cases (or 
more), Gaelic prefixes a syllable to a Gaelic word. Of the following 
pairs of Gaelic words the meaning is either the same, or somewhat 
similar: — Abh, tabh : abair, labhair : acha, faich : ar (kill), gearr : 
ar (plough), gearr: aom, cam: ais (a stronghold), caise (steepness): 
aig — as in aigeal, aigeann is like deoch : bun, spion : brigh, apart: 
ceil, sgail : corrach, sgorrach : eirich, dirich : fal, speal : glaodh, sgal : 
glaodh, sgeul : geinn, sgain : garbh, sgriob : garbh, sgriobh : Ian, slan : 
lar (a floor), blar (a level surface, a field): luchd (people), sliochd 
(a race, descendants), perhaps sliochd from siol (seed, progeny) and 
luchd; the oclul being a collective affix, from luchd: loch, slochd: mein, 
smuain : oileamh, foghluim : ros, gnos (pronounced gros) : ruith, sruit : 
ruith, sruth : reic, creic : rann, oran ; rann, cronan : tarbh, storr : 
torr, stor : tir (earth), stur (dust, in Lowland-Scotch stour) : uile (all), 
buileach (thoroughly). 

The five cases where Gaelic prefixes a syllable to a Gaelic word 
are: — Falbh (go), siubhal, siu-bhal (travel): leus, solus: saighead, 
sai-ghead (an arrow), gath (an arrow, a dart) : ruith (to flow, to run), 
gearrach (a flux) : glaodh (call), focal, fo-cal (a word). 

With reference to the above, some would be inclined to say that ar 
(to kill), and ar (to plough), need not be supposed to be akin to gearr. 
On the whole, it is to an extremely small extent that Gaelic has a way 
of prefixing a letter or a syllable to a Gaelic word. Within the last 
hundred years or so, any foreign words that have crept into the 
language never have any prefix given them : any tendency to change 
is in the direction of pronouncing indistinctly the last syllable of 
some words : in this way, a d or a t that ought to be sounded is made 
silent, and h is placed after it to show this. 

Stewart, writing in the year 1801, complains that in some parts of 
the Highlands, from laziness, some words were pronounced not dis- 



58 HEBREW- CELTIC AFFINITY. 

tinctly enough, and not as full as they were in other parts. {Gaelic 
Grammar, page 16.) 

If some readers wish it, we may leave out the conjectural cases, 
and attend only to the others, and then even the most timid etymologist 
must admit that there is a wonderful amount of affinity between the 
Hebrew and the Celtic, or Keltic. The next consideration is, how to 
apply this to any historical purpose. Various questions may be asked, 
and it is much easier to ask them than to answer them. Are Hebrew 
and Celtic of equal antiquity ? If not of equal antiquity, which is 
the more ancient? I do not know enough of the subject to be able to 
answer this. Some may say that the grammatical structure of Celtic 
is more elaborate and less simple than that of Hebrew, and that 
therefore Hebrew looks more ancient. But, on the other hand, it is 
impossible to say what its grammatical development might have been, 
if Hebrew had continued to be a spoken language till now, instead 
of ceasing * to be a living tongue perhaps twenty-four centuries ago. 

If there was no direct connection between Hebrew and Celtic, did 
one link, that is, some other language, come in between ? Or were 
there five or six links between, that is, as many languages? These 
inquiries I am glad to leave to be settled by others. 

For the sake of some inquirers, it may be mentioned that interesting 
matter on philology may be found in Monboddo's Origin of Language, 
Brodie on Articulate Sounds, Barclay's Sequel to the Diversions of 
Purley, Prichard's Physical History of Mankind (1837), and Mr. 
Gladstone's Juventus Mundi (1869). 

The darkness of early history may in some cases be lessened by 
the light of etymological research. " The similitude and derivation 
of languages afford the most indubitable proof of the traduction of 
nations, and the genealogy of mankind. They often add physical 
certainty to historical evidence, and often supply the only evidence of 
ancient migrations, and of the revolutions of ages, which left no 
written monuments behind them." (Dr. Sam. Johnson in a Letter to 
William Drummond, Life by Boawell, vol ii., page 3S.) 

* Hebrew appears to have varied but little in a period of one thousand years from 
Moses to Malaehi. The old Hebrew became extinct as a living language about 500 
b.c; a thousand year- afterwards, the Masoretie points were added to assist in its 
pronunciation. The Chaldee had superseded the Hebrew at the time of the captivity, 
and was gradually converted into the Syro-Ohahhiir, whir li i called Hebrew in the 
New Testament. Thomas Young, m.i>., in Article ' Lan^ua^i ,' .supplement to the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1824 ; and Miscellaneou Worl i 55), vol iii.,pageS2] 



HEBREW- CELTIC AFFINITY. 59 

It is observed by Quintilian that : — Grammatice est ars, necessaria 
pueris, jucunda senibus, dulcis eecretorum comes, et quae vel sola 
omni studiorum genere plus habet operis, quam ostentationis. Ne 
quis tanquam parva, fastidiat grammatices elementa, quia interiora 
velut sacri hujus adeuntibus, apparebit multa rerum subtilitas qua? 
non modo acuere ingenia puerilia, sed exercere altissimam quoque 
eruditionem ac scientiam possit. (Institutes of Oratory, i. 4.) 

The relationship of the different branches of the human family is 
a part of Physiology (or Biology in the most correct meaning of this 
word), and so may be claimed to be within the wide area of Medical 
Investigation or Inquiry ; and this relationship has to be traced by an 
examination of their languages. 

The assertions of those who disbelieve the Bible account of the 
creation of man, have been in part answered by writers like Dr. 
Prichard and others, who have traced the links of language through 
the chain of the world's inhabitants. 

The present attempt also is, as far as it goes, a small contribution 
towards the same end. 



HEBREW- CELTIC AFFINITY. 



NOTE TO FAGE 59. 

In the Affinity of the Lathi to the Celtic (1840), I referred to what, 
about that time, was thought in some quarters, on that subject. 
Lieut.-Col. Vans Kennedy, it. e. i.e. 8. (afterwards Major-General), had 
resided many years in India, and had occasion there to give much 
attention to the subject of languages. He wrote, On the Origin and 
Affinity of Languages (London: Longmans. 1827. Quarto). Also, 
On Ancient and Hindoo Mythology (London : Longmans. Quarto). 

I have not the works to refer to, to be able to give the number of 
pages, but the reader will see that they are of considerable size, as 
each is published at two guineas and a half. In the former work, Vans 
Kennedy says that Greek and Latin have no affinity to the Celtic. 
My Essay was, as far as I know, the first attempt to inquire at any 
length into the subject. I gave proofs that there was affinity, and also 
that this affinity existed to a very considerable extent. 

On this occasion (1872), on looking to see if anything has been 
said about any affinity between Hebrew and Celtic, I find (April, 
1872) some remarks in Professor Max Miiller's Chips from a German 
Workshop (London: Longmans. 1867. Vol. i., page 22). In com- 
mon, I suppose, with all other persons, I have a great opinion of the 
talents and learning of Max Miiller, although, when he refers to the 
Celtic, I am not always able to see the correctness of his views. (I 
here allude to an article on Cornish Antiquities in Chips from a German 
Workshop, vol. iii. (1870), page 267. There is not room in this place 
to quote it at length, but it seems to me to show a most transparent 
want of fairness when he is referring certain specimens of language 
and buildings to their source, whether Celtic, Roman, Saxon, or 
Norman.) 

Max Miiller speaks of the way of arranging the languages of the 
world in four divisions. 

In the Indo-European division are Sanskrit, Persian, Celtic, 
Slavonic, Greek, Latin (and the four daughters of Latin, Italian, 
French, Spanish, and Portuguese) ; all the Teutonic languages of 
Europe; and English. "All these languages together form one 
" family, one whole, in which every member shares certain features in 
" common with all the rest, and is at the same time distinguished from 
" the rest by certain features peculiarly its own. 

" The same applies to the Semitic family, which comprises, as its 
"most important members, the Hebrew of the Old Testament, the 
"Arabic of the Koran, and the ancient languages on the monuments 
" of Phenicia and Carthage, of Babylon and Assyria. These languages 
"again form a compact family, and differ entirely from the other 
" family, which we called Aryan or Indo-European." [Chips, i. p. 22.) 

The reader is asked to compare the opinion given in the above 
extract, with the proofs here given of the existence of a very great 
affinity between Hebrew and Celtic. 
May, 1872. 



APPENDIX. 



ESSAYS BY DE. 8TRATT0N. 



1. Illustrations of the Affinity of Latin to the Gaelic Language, 
or the Celtic of Scotland. Toronto, Upper Canada. Hugh Scobio. 
Printed by Hugh Scobie, at the office of the British Colonist News- 
paper. 1840. 

Two hundred and fifty copies printed. Published in July, 1840. 

(Extracts, six or eight inches long, from the above were printed 
in twenty- nine successive numbers of the Cuairtear nan Coillte 
(Tourist of the Woods), a Gaelic weekly newspaper published at 
Kingston, Upper Canada, in 1841 and 1842. The Cuairtear began in 
December, 1840, and was continued for at least two years.) 

2. Proofs of the Celtic Origin of a great part of the Greek 
Language ; being a comparison of Greek with the Gaelic Language, 
or the Celtic of Scotland. Kingston, Upper Canada. Printed by John 
Creighton, at the office of the Chronicle and Gazette Newspaper. 
1840. 

Two hundred and thirty copies printed. Published in September, 
1840. Although not mentioned in the title-page, at the end was given 
a short comparative vocabulary of Hebrew and Gaelic. The above 
two were published at Is. 6d. 

3. The Derivation of many Classical Proper Names from the Gaelic 
Language, or the Celtic of Scotland ; being Part Third of an Inquiry 
into the Partly- Celtic Origin of the Greeks and Eomans. Edinburgh : 
Adam and Charles Black ; and Longman & Co., London. 1845. 
Printed at the University Press, Thistle Street, Edinburgh, by 
Stevenson & Co. Pp. 47. Price Is. 6d. 

Two hundred and fifty copies printed. 

4. The Celtic Origin of a Great Part of the Greek and Latin 
Languages, and of many Classical Proper Names ; being a comparison 



62 APPENDIX. 

•of Greek and Latin with the Gaelic Language. Second Edition. 
Edinburgh : Maclachlan and Stewart ; and Simpkin, Marshall, & Co., 
London. Printed by John Smith, Treville Street, Plymouth. 1870. 
Pp. 100. Three hundred and fifty copies printed. This was a second 
edition of the three essays mentioned above. The comparative vocabu- 
lary of Hebrew and Gaelic was printed as in 1840, and without any 
alteration. Price 2s. 6d. 

5. On the Necessity for the Formation of the Scottish National 
Association for the Vindication of Scottish Rights. This was published 
in Hasmrd's Gazette (a weekly newspaper, Prince-Edward Island), of 
30 November, 1853. 

Forty copies struck off in pamphlet-form. 

Also in the Islander (a weekly newspaper, Prince-Edward Island), 
of 9 December, 1853. One hundred copies struck off in pamphlet- 
form (seven pages). 

Also in the Toronto Neivs of the Week, of about 17 January, 1854. 

In 1853 there was great need for the Scottish Rights Association ; 
there is nearly as much in 1872. Some persons may ask, What con- 
nection is there between the Scottish Rights Association and Celtic 
matters ? If the Society had continued its proceedings, it is likely 
that the Scotch Census of 1861 and 1871 would have been taken in a 
proper manner. 



THE HIGHLAND SOCIETY OF CANADA 
Is a Branch of the Highland Society of London. In 1844, it held 
its meetings at the town of Cornwall, on the left bank of the St. 
Lawrence, eighty-two miles above Montreal. The number of its 
honorary members was limited to twelve. On account of the Celtic 
Origin of Greek and Latin the Society, in 1844, made me an honorary 
member. An account of the Society, by Archibald John Macdonncll, 
of Greenfield, Canada, was published, in 1844, by Messrs. Armour 
and Ramsay, Montreal. 



THE CENSUS OE SCOTLAND. 1871. 



An Act of Parliament respecting the Census to be held in April is 
passed in the year previous. The wording of the Act is the same for 
the three divisions of the United Kingdom. In 1870 and 1871 the 
Home-Secretary was the Eight Hon. Henry A. Bruce ; the Lord 
Advocate, the Right Hon. George Young; the Registrar-General of 
Scotland, William Pitt Dundas, Esq. In the three Acts passed in 
1870, there is no mention made of the Gaelic, Welsh, or Irish 
languages. Each Census-return is in the form of a Report addressed 
to the Home-Secretary. If the Welsh-language statistics had been 
omitted, some might have attributed this, and the omission of the 
Gaelic-language statistics, to some action, or want of action, on the 
part of the Home-Secretary. But as the Welsh-speaking inhabitants 
were numbered in 1871, there does not seem to be altogether a 
sufficient reason for this notion, and apparently those interested in 
Gaelic must attribute their disappointment (in the Gaelic-speaking 
inhabitants not being enumerated) to the Registrar-General at 
Edinburgh. Some persons then said that the language-statistics ought 
to be taken by themselves, and the expense of doing so deducted from 
the salary of the Scotch Registrar-General. In the Acts of Parliament 
ordering the Census, there ought to be distinct mention of the Gaelic, 
Welsh, Irish, and Manx languages. It is a matter too important to be 
left to chance, and to the caprice or indifference of whatever officials 
may happen to be in office at the time. 

As it is the country that is at the expense of the Census being 
taken, the country has a right to require that it be taken in a proper 
manner. In May, 1870, the following was sent to the Home-Secretary : 
" To the Right Hon Henry A. Bruce, Secretary of State for the Home 
J lipai'tment. The Memorial of the Committee of the General 
Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland, for the Highlands and 
Hebrides, Sheweth — That it is desirable, in taking the Census in 1871, 
that care should be tuken to secure the accurate enumeration of tho 
Gaelic-speaking population of Scotland ; that many important pur- 
poses, botli social and educational, would be served by having such an 
enumeration; that this was done in the case of the Irish -speaking 
population of Ireland in the last Census ; and that reasons equally 
weighty exist for having the same done in the case of Scotland. That 
one column in the Census-Schedule would secure the object, which 
should bo to ascertain the number that can speak Gaelic. May it 
please Eer Majesty's Government to take steps for the above purpose. 
In name ami by authority of the Committee, (Signed,) Thomas 
Haclai chlan, Convent i ." 



CENSUS OF ENGLAND AND WALES. 1871. 



Registrar-General, George Graham, Esq. 
Medical Superintendent of Statistics, William Farr, M.D. 



THE WELSH LANGUAGE. 

The Preliminary Report on the Census states, that in 1871 they issued 
for Wales some schedules in Welsh. It is not mentioned how many 
in Welsh, and how many in English, nor how many Welsh schedules 
were used. The writer adds, that in 1881 they will perhaps not 
require to issue any schedules in Welsh. The Welsh Census, besides 
North and South Wales, includes the county of Monmouth, which in 
local situation, in race, and in language, is a part of Wales. There 
are about thirty Welsh periodical publications in Wales, America, and 
Australia. Remarks on the language and literature of Wales may be 
found in Fraser's Magazine for August, 1870, and for January, March, 
April, and June, 1871. If they had always noted the Welsh-language 
statistics at each Census since 1801, we should now have been able to 
see at one view, its condition at the eight ten-yearly periods. The 
results ascertained in 1871 have not yet (May, 1872) been published, 
otherwise they would have been given here. 

THE MANX LANGUAGE. 

The Secretary to the Governor has the superintendence of the 
Census. It is much to be regretted that the language-statistics have 
always been neglected. There are two churches where, once a month, 
the service is in Manx. As Man is seventeen miles distant from 
Scotland, twenty- eight miles from England, and twenty- eight miles 
from Ireland, the island geographically belongs to Scotland. It is 
likely that the first inhabitants of Man went to it from Scotland. 

Man received its name from Mainus, a son of Fergus the First, 
who ascended the throne of Scotland 290 B.C. The island belonged to 
Scotland from at least 290 B.C. to a.d. 395, or 6S5 years. Also from 
the year 581 to 611, or thirty years. Also from the year 12'36 to 1344, 
or seventy-ei^ht years. These three periods make 793 years. In 1603, 
James VI. of Scotland became also king of England : previous to 1603, 
Man for 793 years belonged to Scotland. The southern isles of the 
Hebrides were put in a group with Man, and hence arose the name 
Sodor and Man. (There is not only an inaccuracy, but something 
more, in the Bishop of Man being styled of Sodor.) For some time 
the Duke of Athol (by marriage with one of the Stanley family, the 
family of the Earl of Derby) was titular Kin? of Man. As Europe 
was peopled from east to west, perhaps emigrants from Scotland 
passed over Id Man, and thence to Ireland. Portpatrick, in Scotland, 
is only twenty-two miles distant from Ireland. 



CENSUS OF IRELAND. 1871. 



Registrar- General, William Donelly, Esq. 

Superintendent of Medical Statistics, William M. Burke, Esq. 

— Wilkie, Esq., Secretary to the Census Commissioners. 



NUMBER OF THE IRISH- SPEAKING POPULATION. 







In 1851. 


f 




In 1861. 




Province of 


"Who 
spoke 
Irish 
only. 


Who 

spoke 

Irish & 

English. 


Total 
Persons 
speaking 

Irish. 


Who 
spoke 
Irish 
only. 


Who 

spoke 

Irish & 

English. 


Total 
Persons 
speaking 

Irish. 


Leinster ... 


200 


58,976 


59,176 


238 


35,466 


35,704 


Ulster 


146,336 


669,449 


815,785 


62,039 


483,492 


545,531 


Munster ... 


35,783 


100,693 


136,476 


23,180 


91,639 


114,819 


Connaught. 


137,283 


375,566 


512,849 


77,818 


331,664 


409,482 


Whole of 
Ireland... 


319,602 


1,204,684 


1,524,286 


163,275 


942,261 


1.105,536 



Proportion 

per cent, of 

Persons 

speaking 

Irish 

to the whole 

Population. 



363 
GO 
44-9 



The reader will observe that in ten years, the percentage of Irish- 
speaking persons to the whole population fell from twenty-three to 
nineteen. The year 18-51 was the first time that the Irish-language 
statistics were taken. The results for 1871 have not yet (May, 1872) 
been published, otherwise they would have been given here. The 
intelligent way in which, since 1851, the Irish Census has been taken 
deserves the greatest praise, and ought to be imitated by the other 
three Celtic-speaking parts of the United Kingdon. 



ESSAYS AND PAPEKS 



THOMAS STRATTON, 

M.D. of the University of Edinburgh, 1 August, 1837 ; 

Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, 18 April, 1837 ; 

Staff-Surgeon, Royal Navy, IS May, 1859; 

Deputy Inspector-General of Hospitals and Fleets, 5 June, 18G7. 



PUBLISHED IN THE EDINBURGH MEDICAL & SURGICAL JOURNAL. 



1. Case of Anthracosis, or Black Infiltration of the whole Lungs. 

Number for April, 1838. 

2. On the Lake Fever of Canada. April, 1841. 

3. On the Winter-Hydrophobia of Canada. April, 1842. 

4. An Account of Twenty-two Cases of Gun-shot Wounds received 

in Canada in 1838. October, 1842. 

5. On the Comparative Frequency of the Morning and Evening 

Pulse. January, 1843. 

6. On the Existence of Entozoa in the Shut Cavities of Living 

Animals; with a Case. July, 1843. 

7. On the Employment of Belladonna in Trismus and Hydrophobia. 

July, 1843. 

8. On Glossitis and Delirium Tremens. October, 1843. 

9. Case of Asthmatic Ague. October, 1843. 

10. Proposal of a New Scale for the Graduating of Thermometers. 

January, 1844. 

11. On the Rate of Mortality in the Medical Department of the British 

Navy for Twenty-five Years, from 1817 to 1841. 

January, 1844. 

12. On Quotidian Intermittent Fever. April, 1844. 

13. Additional Notes on a Proposed New Thermometric Scale. 

July, 1844. 



APPENDIX— ESSAYS AND PAPERS. 67 

14. On Tertian Intermittent Fever. April, 1845. 

15. jXotice of an Epidemic of Scarlet Fever and Scarlet Sore Throat 

which prevailed in 1843-44. April, 1845. 

16. On Malarial Fevers, as observed in Canada from 1838 to 1845. 

Part I. On Malarial Continued Fever. July, 1845 

17. Case of Gun-shot Wound, and Excision of the Head of the 

Humerus : the result a useful Arm. January, 1846. 

18. On Malarial Fevers, as observed in Canada from 1838 to 1846. 

Part II. Analysis of Repeated Attacks in the same Individual. 

July, 1846. 

19. Meteorological Observations in Canada in 1843 and 1844. 

January, 1847. 

20. Meteorological Observations in Canada in 1845. July, 1847. 

21 . On the Comparative Deodorizing Powers of tho Disinfecting Fluids 

of Sir William Burnett and of Mr. Ledoyen. January, 1843. 

22. Meteorological Observations in Canada in 1846 and 1847. 

January, 1S48. 

23. Remarks on the Sickness and Mortality among the Emigrants to 

Canada in 1847, and Suggestions for an improved Method of 
Regulating Future Emigration. (Ten pages.) July, 1848. 

24. Remarks on Antiseption, Deodorization, and Disinfection, and on 

Sir William Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid, the Solution of the 
Chloride of Zinc. (Eleven pages.) October, 1848. 

25. Cases of Recovery from Poisoning with Chloride of Zinc, and the 

Proposal of an Antidote for this Poison: (The Antidote is 
Carbonate of Soda, or Carbonato of Potash, or Soap.) 

October, 1848. 

26. Additional Notes on the Sickness and Mortality among the 

Emigrants to Canada in 1847. January, 1849. 

27. Contribution to an Account of the Diseases of the North American 

Indians. April, 1819. 

28. On the Comparative Therapeutic Powers of Quinine and Bebeerine. 

October, 1849. 

29. Medical Remarks on Emigrant Ships to North America. 

January, 1850. 

30. History of the Epidemic Cholera in Chatham and Rochester in 

1849. (Forty-four pages.) April, 1851. 

31. Notice of the Chatham and Rochester Leper Hospital. July, 1851. 

32. On the British Naval Medical Department, and that of the United 

States. January, 1852. 

h 2 



68 APPENDIX— ESSAYS AND PAPERS. 

33. On the Employment of a Long, Flexible Stethoscope for Self- 

auscultation. January, 18.52. 

34. On the Mortality in the Medical Department of the Navy for the 

Ten Years ending in 1851. January, 1853. 

35. Meteorological Observations in Prince-Edward Island in 1851. 

April, 1853. 

36. Statistics of Shipwreck-Mortality in the British Navy for Fifty- 

seven Years. July, 1853. 

37. On Poisoning with Chloride of Zinc, and on a lately- published 

Case thereof; with Notes of Eight Cases. July, 1854. 

38. On the Bate of Mortality in the Medical Department of the Navy 

for the Nine Years ending in 1860. March, 1861. 

39. On the Eate of Mortality in the Medical Department of the Navy 

for the Ten Years ending in December, 1870. March, 1871. 

Likewise other Communications in the Numbers for July, 1843 ; 
January, 1849; April, 1850; and April, 1852. 

OF THE ABOVE PAPERS:— 

No. 17 appeared also in the Montreal British American Medical Journal, 
1846. 

No. 21 appeared also in the British American Medical Journal, 1848. 

No. 23 appeared also in the British American Medical Journal, April, 
1848. Also in pamphlet-form; eighteen pages; fifty copies 
printed. This Paper was inserted at full-length in three Mon- 
treal newspapers, of 7th and 8th April, 1848, and in Simmonds' 
Colonial Magazine (London), June, 1848. 

No. 24 appeared also in the British American Medical Journal, June, 
1848. Also in pamphlet- form; sixteen pages; one hundred 
copies printed. 

No. 25 appeared also in the British American Medical Journal, Decem- 
ber, 1848. 

No. 30 appeared also in pamphlet - form ; forty- four pages: one 
hundred copies printed. 






> 



APPENDIX— BIBLIOGEAPHY 



Bibliotheca Scoto-Celtica; or, an Account of all the Books that have 

been printed in the Gaelic Language. By John Reid. Glasgow, 

1832. Pp. 72 and 178. 12s. It is much to be desired that we 

had an edition brought down to the present time. 
Ossian's Poems. Translated by James Macpherson. There have been 

numerous editions; the smaller ones omit the notes. In Mac- 

millan's Magazine, June, 1871, is an article on Ossian by 

Principal Shairp of St. Andrew's. He believes that the poems 

are genuine. I believe that they are genuine, of great antiquity, 

and composed by Ossian. 
Fingal ; a Poem of Ossian. Translated by James Macpherson, and 

rendered into Verse by Ewen Cameron. Warrington, 1776. 

4to. Pp. 419. 
Ossian's Poems in Gaelic, with a Latin Translation by Robert Mac- 

farlan, an Essay by Sir John Sinclair, Bart., and Notes by John 

Macarthur, ll d. Published by the Highland Society of London. 

London, 1807. 3 vols., 8vo. 42s. 
Some of Ossian's Lesser Poems rendered into Verse, with an Essay by 

Archibald Macdonald. Liverpool and London, 1805. Pp.284. 
The Highland Society's Report on Ossian. 1805. 
Darthula ; a Poem of Ossian rendered into Blank Verse by — Burke. 
Darthula ; a Poem of Ossian translated into Greek by the Hon. and 

Rev. William Herbert, Dean of Manchester. 
Ossian's Remains. Edited by Patrick Macgregor. London, 1841. 12s. 
Ossian's Poems in Gaelic, with a metrical translation by the Rev. 

Archibald Clerk. Edinburgh, 1871. 2 vols., Svo. 31s. 6d. 

This beautiful edition owes its publication to the generosity of 

the Marquis of Bute. 
In all these works relating to Ossian, there is in the essays and 

notes much information respecting Gaelic. 
Historical Proofs respecting the Gael of Albyn, and the Highlanders 

of Scotland. By Colonel James A. Robertson. Second Edition. 

Edinburgh, 1856. Pp.642. 6s. This is a most interesting work. 
The Gaelic Topography of Scotland. By Colonel James A. Robertson. 

Edinburgh, 1859. Pp. 544. 7s. 6d. The author deserves well 

of all Highlanders. 
Words and Places. By the Rev. Isaac Taylor, a.m. London, 1864. 

2 vols. This admirable work was first seen by me in Jan., 1869. 
The Gaelic Language ; its Classical Affinities and Distinctive Character. 

A Lecture by John Stuart Blaikie, Professor of Greek in the 

University of Edinburgh. Edinburgh : Edmonston & Douglas, 

1864. Pp. 32. 



70 APPENDIX— BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

A Lecture on the Gaelic Language. By Professor Blaikie. Delivered 
at Oban, in September, 1870. May be found in the third 
number of the Gael (1871), a Gaelic monthly magazine (with a 
supplement in English). 

The Gael ; a Gaelic monthly magazine (with a supplement in English). 
Octavo. The first three numbers were printed in Toronto, 
Canada ; the fourth number in Glasgow. It will in future be 
printed in Glasgow. For twelve numbers, to all parts of the 
United Kingdom ami North America, 5s. sterling, and 6d. 
postage ; to Australia, New Zealand, &c, 6s., and Is. postage. 
Nicolson & Co., 74, Argyle Street, Glasgow. No. 4 is for June, 
1872. 

Articles on Celtic subjects are to be found in the Dublin University 
Magazine for October and December, 18G9, and January, 1870 ; 
and in the Broadway for July and August, 1871 (a London 
monthly magazine, published at 14, York Street, Covent Garden). 

Macalpine'8 Pronouncing Gaelic-English Dictionary. Fifth Edition. 
Edinburgh, 1866. 5s. 

Macalpine's English-Gaelic Dictionary. 5s. 

"We ought to be very grateful to Mr. Neil Macalpine for his Pro- 
nouncing Dictionary. As far as I know, no other Celtic 
language possesses a pronouncing dictionary. Mr. Macalpine 
died in 1 80 7 or 1868, in North Perthshire. 

The Bible-Student's Concordance. By Aaron Pick, Professor of 
Hebrew and Chaldce, from the University of Prague. London : 
Hamilton, Adams, & Co. Printed by Macintosh, London. 
1845. Quarto. Pp.590. 35s. This is a Concordance to the 
Old Testament only. The alphabetical arrangement is according 
to the English translation. Each word is followed by its 
meaning in Hebrew in Hebrew characters, and then in Hebrew 
in English letters. The work has long been out of print. It is 
strange that it has not been reprinted. 
For the use of this work, and other books relating to Hebrew, I am 
indebted to the kindness of the Rev. John M. Charlton, m.a., 
Western College, Mannamead, Plymouth. 

A Glossary of Cornish Names. By the Rev. John Bannister, ll.d. 
London : Williams and Norgate. 1871. Pp.212. 12s. 

The Nomenclature of Cornwall. By Dr. Bannister. [In preparation.) 
Dr. Bannister deserves great praise for the attention he gives to the 
remains of the Celtic of Cornwall. 

The Physical History of Mankind. By James Oowles Prichard, m d. 
London, 1837. 3 vols., 8vo. 

Obermiiller's German-Celtic Historical and Geographical Dictionary; 
or, Deutsch-Keltisches Wòrterbuch. Leipzig : Ludwig Denicke. 
London: Williams and Norgate. 1867- 

Stuart Glennie's Arthurian Localities in Scotland. London: Macmil- 
l.m. 1869. 7s. Od. (Also see Macmillan's Magazine, Dec, 1867.) 

Edmunds' Names of Places in England and Wales. New Edition. 
London, 1872. 6s. 



APPENDIX. 71 

Joyce's Irish Names of Places. Third Edition. Dublin, 1871. 7s. 6<1. 

On the Study of Celtic Literature. By Matthew Arnold. 1867- 8s. 6d. 
The last five works I have not yet had an opportunity of seeing. 
Messrs. Maclachlan and Stewart, South Bridge, Edinburgh, 
issue a list of Gaelic Books, Grammars, Dictionaries, and works 
relating to Gaelic literature ; and to this list I beg to refer any 
young student of the old language of Scotland. 



THE GRAMPIAN CLUB (OF LONDON) 

"Was founded in the autumn of 1868, for the purpose of printing 
manuscripts and works relating to Scottish literature, history, and 
antiquities. The works issued have been Dr. Rogers' Scotland, Social 
and Domestic; Mr. Oliphant's Jacobite Lairds of Gask ; Dr. Rogers' 
Scottish Monuments (first volume). In April, 1872, each member 
received as a gift from the Marquis of Bute (a member of the G. C.) 
the Cartulary of Cambuskenneth Abbey. This is a splendid quarto of 
438 pages, with many engravings. 

The Rev. Charles Rogers, ll.d., is the honorary secretary. The 
honorary treasurer is Alfred Gliddon, Esq., City Bank, 159, Tottenham- 
Court Road, London. The expenses are limited to postages and 
stationery. There is no entry-money. One guinea is the yearly 
payment, due in January. In April, 1872, the number of members 
was two hundred and eight. Of course, the more members a Printing 
Club has, the more it is able to publish. There is no limit to the 
ni.mber of members. As one of them, I take this opportunity of 
helping to make known the excellent objects the Club has in view. 



OMITTED. 

In Page 56, third line from the foot. 

For Acha, a plain, read Acha, afield, a plain, a meadow : hence Low- 
land-Scotch haugh, level ground on a river-side, as the Haugh of 
Meiklour ; the gh sounded like ch in loch. 




W. Brendon and Son, 1 rinter?, Ph mouth. 



LIST OF GAELIC BOOKS 

And Works on the Highlands 



PUBLISHED AND SOLD BY 



MACLACHLAN & STEWART, 

BOOKSELLERS TO THE UNIVERSITY, 

64 SOUTH BRIDGE, EDINBURGH. 



A liberal discount allowed on orders for exportation 
or for private circulation. 



GAELIC DICTIONARIES. 
Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary, 4to, half calf , ... 30 
Highland Society's Gaelic Dictionary, 2 vols. 4to, bds. 70 
M 'Alpine's Gaelic and English Pronouncing Dic- 
tionary, with Grammar, 12mo, cloth, 9 
... Ditto ditto half bound calf , 10 6 
... Gaelic and English, separately, cloth, ... 5 
English and Gaelic, separately, cloth, ... 5 
M'Leod and Dewar's Gaelic Dictionary, 8vo, cloth, 10 6 

Alleine's Saint's Pocket-Book, cloth, Is. sewed, 6 

Alarm, 18mo, cloth, 1 6 

Almanac for 1872, in Gaelic, 3 

Assurance of Salvation, 18mo, sewed, 6 

Baxter's Call to the Unconverted, 18mo, cloth, ... 1 6 

Saint's Rest, translated by Rev. J. Forbes, 2 6 

Beith's Catechism on Baptism, 18mo, sewed ... j0 1 

Bible in Gaelic, 8vo, strongly bound in calf, ... 7 6 

Do. Quarto edition of 1826, calf ... 25 

Boston's Fourfold State, 12mo, cloth, 4 

Bonar's (Rev. Dr H.) Christ is All, l8mo, sewed, 3 
Buchannan (Dugald) of Rannoch's Life and Con- 
version, with his Hymns, 18mo, cloth, ... 2 
... The Hymns, separately, 18mo, sewed, ... 3 



64 South Bridge, Edinburgh. 



Gaelic Books Sold by Maclacldan and Stewart. 

s. d. 

Bunyan's Come and Welcome, 18mo, cloth, ... 2 

... World to Come, or Visions from Hell, cloth, 1 6 

... Grace Abounding, 18mo, cloth, 2 

... Pilgrim's Progress, (three parts) cloth, ... 2 6 

Do. do. (two parts) 12mo, 1840, 2 

... Water of Life, 18mo, cloth 1 

... Sighs from Hell, 18mo, cloth, 2 

... Heavenly Footman, l8mo, cloth, 1 

... Holy War, 18mo, cloth, 2 6 

Burder's Village Sermons, 18mo, cloth, 1 6 

Campbell (Donald) on the Language, Poetry, and 

Music of the Highland Clans, with Music, 7 6 

Catechism, Shorter, Id. Gaelic and English, 2 

Mother's, Id. Gaelic and English, 2 

Shorter, with Proofs, H 

Brown's Shorter, for Young Children, 1 

Confession of Faith, fcap. 8vo, cloth, 2 6 

Dewar's (Rev. Dr.) The Gaelic Preacher, 8vo, ... 4 

Doctrine and Manner of the Church of Rome, ... 3 

Doddridge's Rise and Progress, 12mo, cloth, ... 3 

Dyer's Christ's Famous Titles, 18mo, cloth, ... 2 6 

Earle's Sacramental Exercises, l8mo, cloth, ... 1 6 

Edwards' (Rev. Jonathan) Sermon, sewed, ... 2 
English Poems, with Gaelic Translations, arranged 

on opposite pages, 12mo, cloth, 3 6 

Farquharson's (A.) Address to Highlanders respecting 

their Native Gaelic (in English), 8vo, sewed, 6 
Finlayson (Rev. K.) Brief Sketch of the Life of, 

by Rev. J. Macpherson, 18mo, cloth, ... 1 

Flavel's Token for Mourners, 18mo, cloth, ... 1 
Forbes' (Rev. J.) Gaelic Grammar, 12mo, 4s. for 2 6 

... Baptism and the Lord's Supper, 4 

... AnLochran: Dialogues regarding the Church, 6 

... LongGheal:TheWhiteShip;aSpiritualPoem,0 4 

Gaelic First Book, 18mo, 2d.; Second do. ... 4 

Gaelic Spelling-Book, 18mo, cloth, 6 

Gaelic Tracts, 50 different kinds, sorted, for ... 2 6 • 



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Guthrie's Christian's Great Interest, 18mo, cloth, 

Hall's (Newman) Come to Jesus, 

Harp of Caledonia, Gaelic Songs, 32mo, sewed, 

History of Animals Named in the Bible, 

History of Prince Charles, fcap. 8vo, cloth, 
itto ditto cheap edition, sewed, 
Jacobite Songs, with Portrait of Prince Charles, 

James 1 Anxious Enquirer, 12mo. sewed , 

Joseph, Life of, by Macfarlane, 18mo, cloth, 

Joseph, History of, 18mo, sewed, 

Laoidhean Eadar-Theangaichte o'n Bheurla,12mo.d. 
Lessons on the Shorter Catechism and the Holy 

Scriptures, by Forbes, l8mo, 

MCallum's History of the Church of Christ, 8vo, 

... The Catholic or Universal Church, 

Maccoll's Mountain Minstrel, Glareach Nam Beann, 

18mo, cloth, Is. 6d. The same, English, ... 
Macdonald's (Rev. Dr) Gaelic Poems, 18mo, cloth, 

Hymns, 18mo, sewed, 

M'Farlane's Manual of Devotion, 12mo, bound, 
M'Gregor's (Rev. Dr) Gaelic Poems, 18mo, cloth, 
M'Intyre's (Duncan Ban) Poems and Songs, 18mo, 
M'Intyre (Rev. D.) on the Antiquity of the Gaelic 

Language (in English), 

Mackay's (Rob Donn^) Songs and Poems, 18mo, 
Mackenzie's (A.) History of Scotland, Eachdraidh 

na H-Alba, 12mo, cloth, 

Mackenzie's Beauties of Gaelic Poetry, rl. 8vo. ... 

Gaelic Melodist, 32mo, 

Macleod, Rev. Dr., Sermon on the Life of the late, 

by Rev. John Darroch, 8vo, sewed, Is. for 6 
M'Lauchlan's (Rev. Dr) Celtic Gleanings, or 

Notices of the History and Literature of the 

Scottish Gael (in English), fcap, 8vo, cloth, 2 6 
M'Naughton (Peter) on the Authenticity of the 

Poems of Ossian (in English), 8vo, 6 



*. 


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1 


6 


2 


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a 


(J 


6 


3 


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1 


6 





9 


1 





1 


6 





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1.0 


6 





4 


4 


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6 


2 


6 


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8 


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4 



64 South Bridge, Edinburgh. 



Gaelic Boohs Sold by Maclachlan and Stewart. 



Wacpherson's " Duanaire," a New Collection of 

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Menzies' Collection of Gaelic Songs, 8vo, cloth, 6 
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Selected Gaelic Songs, sewed, 6d ; per dozen, 4 6 

Munro's Gaelic Grammar, 18mo, bound, 4 

Gaelic Primer and Vocabulary, 12mo, ... 2 

Selection of Gaelic Songs, 32mo, 4 

Ossian's Poems, revised by Dr M'Lauchlan, cloth, 3 0> 

Peden's Two Sermons and Letters, 18mo, sewed, 6 
Philipps' Seven Common Faults, translated by Rev. 

H. Maccoll. 12mo, 1 6- 

Prayers and Admonitions, (series of six, large type,) 

in packets of 2 dozen, sorted, 6 

Psalm Book, (General Assembly's Version), large 

type, 18mo, bound, 2 6 

Do. do. 18mo, cloth, 1 

Do. Smith's or Ross's, large type, 18mo, bd. 2 

Do. Gaelic and English, on one page, ... 1 6 

Ross's Shorter Catechism, Id ; per dozen, 9 

Ross's (William) Gaelic Songs, 18mo, cloth, ... 1 6 

Sinner's (The) Friend, 12mo, sewed, 3 

Sixteen Short Sermons, 12mo, sewed, 2 

Stewart's Gaelic Grammar, 8vo, clvth, 4 

Stratton on the Celtic Origin of Greek and Latin, cl. 2 6 

Sum of Saving Knowledge, 12mo, sewed 4 

Thomson's (Dr) Sacramental Catechism, l8mo, sewed, 2 

Watts' Divine Songs, with Cuts, 2 

Whitfield's Sermons, 18mo, sewed, 1 

Willison's Sacramental Catechism, 12mo, sewed, 8 

New Testament for Schools, 12mo, bound, ... 1 

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