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Full text of "Affixes in Their Origin & Application: Exhibiting the Etymologic Structure of English Words"

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AFFIXES 



THEIR ORIGIN AND APPLICATION, 



ETYMOLOGIC STRUCTURE 



ENGLISH WORDS. 



S. S. HALDEMAN, A.M. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
PUBLISHED BY E. H. BUTLER & CO. 



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id bj L. Jthtiu« Bf Ci., Phltad'Iphla. 



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PREFATORY 



The number of English nionosjllables is about 3200, and 
as many of these are not primitives, but have a prefix, a 
sufEs, or both, it is evident that the affixes must be concerned 
in the formation of the greatest part of the vast vocabulary 
of English words; and that an accurate knowledge of these 
is to be acquired through a distinct appreciation of the modes 
used to vary them in form and meaning, according to the exi- 
gencies of thought and speech. 

Some languages, as Greek and Welsh, have their etymolo- 
gio material within themselves, and moat of their words may 
he analysed independently of other languages; but if this is 
attempted with a composite language like English, the result- 
ing knowledge will be imperfect, as in supposing aque to 
mean water in the word aqueduct, where e js th*" t,enitn o 
case sign of iQvi water, aqvae of water, the a h ii ing been 
lost in aqueduct. (See § 7.) If therefoio we iguoie Latiu 
forms in words derived from Latin, our aiialjsis will be unie- 
liable, and the force of the derivatives may be obscured rather 
than elucidated. 

Unless we know, not only the affixes as they appear in 
English, but their etymology also, it will not be apparent that 
the c of the suffix -cy may be due to an i, a (, an t, or an 
original c (cay;) and we may mistake one foira for another, 
as -y for -ly after -1, as in oil-y, and idly, or un- in un-loose 
for the negative un- in un-fix. For such lea^ons it was de- 
termined that this volume should be strictly etymologic, and 
that collateral forma should be cited where they might be 
useful, as in determining whether the supinal to m 'to lue' 
is the ordinary preposition to. Languages not akin to Engli&h 



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have beea sparingly quoted, but more to exhibit accidental 
coincidences and occasional borrowed forms, than to claim 
them as indicating a closer relationship. (See Obs. 2, under 
n 1' p 141 nd n noun pluril p 14° ) 
I mm fllFJP alEqhbl 

yfhPhll IS jfLd md 

h m J f h 1 dm 1 1 

mghmhdd fm Im Vus 

I p sag h b dd 1 1 1 ly 

whhwldh b mdm pm d dhd 

bfhdftiulyf Img ^ 

ftadd brslkSlkp dMlti tw 

■ndfhAl Spp h rail 

hwdtiw i IfrmPpwfid 

11 Am d (b k 7 1 92 J 

whilst in tbe London edition of 1716 the line stands— 

In like manner, a spurious edition of Young has the word 
'sprightly' towards the end of Night 1, which, in "A New 
Edition Corrected by the Author." 1776, is thus given in a 
more etymologic form — 

Except in the Introduction, illustrative extracts from au- 
thors as late as the year 1800, are printed in old style type, 
to distinguish earlier writers from those of the present cen- 
tury, even when a modem edition like Wright's Chaucer, is 
quoted. A few estracte have been taken from the dictionary 
of Richardson, an author who is not always consistent, since 
he occasionally gives tlie same passage differently, as in quo- 
ting Beattie under dedentition and feeie, — "for falling 

teeth." "for falling the teeth, &c." Under aloes and 

BIAS he thus quot«s Holland's Plinie — 

" of the BBS, onion, bnl it is blegor, . - . groM and &t, cliajaferod sjid channelloil"— 



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PREFATORY 7 

As the etymology of a woid is independent of tte modes 
of spelling it, it tas not been deemed pioper to follow the 
practice of those who give urthographii, rules m treatises on 
the subject What la commonly called etymologic spelling 
would require the rejection of English w, th, gh, y, i-h, and 
in many cahes of th , it would require •itahle as a noun to be 
spelt stabul, and as an adjective stabil, the letter I to 
have i, place in writing ao, to he rejected from tould, and 
doubled in idolatty and traiiqaU , n. to be placed m •mill aa it 
is in 7dhh; the e to be retained in line hut not vapine; and 
g removed from mvereign to be placed in noble. 

An etymologic orthography would reqnire an indication of 
long and short o in words from the Greek. Anliphoni/ would 
have to be given up for antvphony, because the former would 
mean ' an avenging of (jpovif) murder,' and the latter ' a reply- 
ing,' from ipiay^ voice. By shortening the i of liturgy we 
virtually refer it to htopj-ioi, ' to speak with malice,' instead 
of ^eirapj-^oi, ' to perform public service;' and Calliope {Kak- 
iX6r.yi) 'she who has a fine voice,' with o lengthened would 
mean 'she who has a fine eye.' 

As etymologic orthography is assumed to be the spelling 
of words as their cognates or cognate parts are spelt in other 
languages, examples would appear in bwgcllyedr for huchler, 
cllyedheamhor for claymore,' o^ax (Russian ll,apii) for tsar, 

' 'a the following lines (Trevelyan Prize Essay, § 14,) of 
'l, with the words as they stand in ot 



The stereotyping of this work was commenced in February 
1864, and It was expected to be before the publ e at latest n 
September, but in the meantime Webster e D ct onaiy ap 
peared in the autumn of 1864, renderit " for exa j le tl e 
not* on 'nesa (page 13) inappUcable, tli uffix 1 e n^ cor 
reotly given by Dr. Mahn. 



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8 PBBFATORT 

Althougli Dr Mihn etymol ^ es d ffer from some of those 
here g ven t w U pr bably be t nd that neitter author is 
r ght n 11 eases and that a numbe of those here given will 
bear the test of myest gatioo as bullock page 196, charlock 
18 cro p 51 leooy 56 flannel t)7 foray (maraud, por- 
beagle) 254 hanger 147 ho len 143, Leatria 232. Dr. 
Mahn refers laudanum to I bla which we had abandoned 

as iinsat afactory Baocoon s not der ved from the French 
aUr but from an abo g nal has 8 and we regard reamer and 
its verb as due to Uerman jj (w th the same meaning) 

rather than to r o i 

These lemirks are not ntende 1 to detract from the great 
mer t of tl d t ng shed scholir the etymology of a lan- 
guajj-e be ng bejon 1 the p wers of a s ngle inquirer, and the 
science o e of those where i c n lision apparently well 
founded mav be d s| r ved by a c tat on from an obscure or 
unwT tfen d aleet The affixes alone present many difficul- 
t e-* a d the present attempt trt eluc date them is sent forth 
w th the h le th t tie subject y receive the attention 
neees ary to espl n the po nts wh ch still remain ansettled. 

Columbia, Penbsylvania, 



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INTRODUCTION 



Bnomsh is not a language which teaehes itaelf T)y mere unreBecting 
usage. It can only be mastered, in all its weallli, in all its power, by 
oonfieioBB, persiatant labor; and, therefore, nhen all the world is awaking 
to the value of general pbilologicnl science, it would ill become us to be 
Blow in reoogninlne the speoial impartanoe of our own tongue.— (?fO. P. 
Marsi, LcoturoB on the English Language, 1680. 

§ 1 In this work tie Affixes, hoth Prefixes and SufBxes, 
are given in their etjmologio connections. For eiample, tlie 
Latia o8n or co, and Greek byn or sy are referred to the 
aame original, the former having the c and the ktter the s of 
Sbv (csyn) with; hence cwJi-si-ant and s^-si(ematic) have 
essentially the same prefix and root. Depriving sy-etem of 



ifa prefix, it appears as s 


t e m, from the idea of standing, a 


sy-stem being ( 


I setting or 


■ standing with each Other, of things 


which have qualities in ci 


smmon. 


2 Affixes ar. 


i here separated from words commonly treated 


as primitives, i 


ta the p ii 


n yel-p, cro.p, ras-p, which are pri- 


marily nouns. 


formed from the verbs >/eU, grow, and raze, 


but used as nei 


T verbs as 


the language instinct disappears. 


Some do not eoi 


isider words 


like per-me-ata, per-for-ate, peregrin-ate. 


Con-tam-in-ate mi 


't-om-p'-yoh- 


o-is ali-m-ate da-mur con fer re fer in far 


b gm m B E 


Id Ith 


dm d n t w d J um 


mg th t th u: fli 


tt 


t t si p t f th p mit w d 


th t th t 1 


p t d 


t 1 1 le p t w d B gl h 


Itia tat d ih 


I6th dit 


d and mp d f th E gl h 


Q mm f R b 


rt S Ik 


LLDTCDtht Apmt wd 


an t b d 


i ta^ed 1 


« impl w d th 1 g g M 


m g 1 ^«u 




d re bl 


b b 


ar h 1 


b J d p mt 1th gh 


f th I. t 


(I h Id) 





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INTEODUCTION 



gives bitt-ar, do-te, dee-d, fie-s {fis) ond Bigh-t aa "pHtnitice worda or 
i-Doii" and its autlior espoots tlia nninatruoted pupil to dotermine 
whether words like ru-n, tur-n, nigL-t, gloo-m-j, nn-fi-t, undor-atima, 
gol-dBD, fore-Lea-d, ool-d-neas, are radioJil or derivative, eTidently cod- 
aidoring nigkt, gloom, mid, and Jit, as uoderived words. Another suthor 
EtnteB that/ame and senss "are primitive words, beeauee they eon be 
redueed to no fewer IMere," (compare /oniooB and ienrible) "and ooavey 
a, distinot idea of eaob thing speoified." Aooordmg to this, eaiworioi and 



( «. )! 



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11 

Greek are perverted to make them resemble tte English 
derived from them, as in referring equal to SQvtis a horee, 
instead of to ^qvds equal. 

8 Certain common, hut improbabio or impossible deriva- 
tions are rejected, sueh as syntax from the nonradical present 
tense zdutriu (I place,) which cannot account for the cay of 
syn-tac-s (present in the participle ra^d/iEyo^ etc.)— escape 
from the French ichapper, instead of the Provensal escapar ; 
— hide (a skin) from the &erniau AmK;— crept from 
creep; — gave from jfi'ue;— and would from will— 



9 The relation of deluge to dilOvium is not obvious 
to the beginner; the reference of city to clvls (citizen) 
d t t f th { W (I b d) d t t 
fthpfdpt BSM(r3)fth3 

g U pi d p t 1 k th d t t 

mts gdtthm TO dtalbk 

A 1 th p p 1 t I rfi 1 k wl d 

dfitclea dl hbtflgu dth ht 

wh 1 h 18 1 k ly t t h ^h 1 f 

10 A th tjm 1 y t m w da 1 1 d 
t d w th t m k 1 Ig f th t fit 

wli h tl y f 11 w th fit ar g h h h 

th g t t mfi tl f m f E 1 h w d 

11 T d mm h ti mb f h d dtp 

p tit J t m f tat haa b d pt 1 pi 

m II t 1 tt ft 1 1 t f tl 

f to tl L t ffi 10 d th 1 tte t Z J 

f tl If th y h Id b [ d 

12Athfrmf twllpd p thmdfyg 

p rt th t f k 1 1 f 1 t tur d 

Iwlidpd gtig P S hi-i f 

d I t mod/i/1 g J affi wmybblto 



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affi ar d 



d G k t ym 



by the ffi 



a a Lat 



dir tad t the Btjmoiogio t 
A n hil te— b eek p, drive away, reduoe, < 
A 1— ab 1 i dr a off, out off, demolisb. 
B t ra t ■ — p t t, put an end to, dcore 
E d t — k II t guiah, aboot, radiate. 



semplified in the followinj 
of a claaa who bad beei 
bnt witbout having theii 
if their Btndios. 



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INTEODUCTION 13 

Anodyne— aomething to oause aleep, medicine. See an-. 
Desperata — furious, fierce, wild, sarage, feroQions, mad, anoontrollable, 
not to be trifled nlth. See de If 2. 
Ligament — einew, tendon, musole. 
Prevail — ooal, aek, bog, eompal, attack. 
Ruminating — roaming, oarrjing bardona, useful, domestio. 
Immense — great, large, Terj large, roat. See in- not 
Protect^-defend, guard, take care oi; keep from. See tego. 
Eluoidate— esplain, deaoribe minutely. 

Kegnlate — ^put in order, put in plaoe. 
Definite — partioular, [me. 
BltaBj— joy, delight, escitemeat 
Dooile— gentle. See -iLe. 

16 The parsing of a word in its syntactic relations is very 
different from its analysis with a view to ascertain its origin, 
the value of its coniponeat parts, and the history of ite 
meanings. Thus better is the grammatic but not the 
etymologic comparative of good. Whiter is both a gram- 
matio and an etymologic comparative. A false orthography 
(like that which places 'gh' in the derivative 'might' which 
is not represented in its primitive 'may,') and a word formed 
on false principles (like 'spaamodic' instead of spastic^ ate 
offenses a^nst etymology, but not against grammar. 

17 A book of this kind has been a desideratum in the 
Anal^iis of Words, and as an Introchclton to English Lexi- 
cograpki/, definitional and etymologic — the meagre outlines 
given in dictionaries and graanmara presenting nothing ap- 
proaching to completeness.* 

18 We are of the opinion that there are not 300 roots in 
any language, and if this view is correct, a knowledge of the 
affixes which give form and meaning to 100,000 English 
words must be of extreme value, greatly diminishing the 



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14 



INTRODUOTION 



time devoted to the dictionary, and giving the inquirer the 
means of conaulting it understandingly. 

19 Most of the Jiew! loords which figure in the successive 
editions of English Dictionaries, are old forms with the com- 
moner affixes, aa un-, in-, -Ij, and -ness, in un-forgetable 
Prof. Geo. Wihon; in-culpative Sydney Smith 1802; 
semieiroular-Iy Btdwer 1841 ; branched-neaa Jioyle 1675. 
Webster is said to have added 12,000 words to Todd's 
Johnson ; Ogilvie added perhaps 20,000 more in his Im- 
perial Dictionary, Glasgow 1850, and Supplement of 1855 ; 
and Worcester* claims about 104,000 for his quarto of 1860. 
Set, a portion of the memoranda of words met with in our 
own reading furnishes under the prefix; un-, the following 
one hundred omitted words from as many authorities, each 
authority being restricted to a single example. 



nnabnndBnt Prof. Geo. WUsoi 



nn-anllqne W. H. Leeds 
iil.»ppeal«a Democratic Ka.. 1838 
nnarduons W. Jl. Hurbert 
nnartlsllo Ed. Ret.; AtL Mn)?; 



anattoBetiveums Onoe a Wt 
nnaxlcnl Penny Oyo. 1841 
nnbleucliiug/ly I" Litbaro 1357 
nnblauaevInB ferrand Speno 

1688 
anttadouced Mrs E, B. Browning 
anCBll ^. i. Robert!, Colloetana 

Cambrkfl 1811 



ncatalOKned Murroy's 
ictaaiiKablUly (eic) J. A 



.neheiraltle Dr Kitohinsi 
inconformeaiy Jn Pbill 
Cjo. 1839 
incouteniplatlve Bulne 
nnctfu^lutbl^ 



iroabj 1839 



5 ami. Wood worth 



ounoed TToDllr) baa m^lamud Ifnm Ash, but not imiisiied (be 
1,) taibelieii^tmis, JiKdioi^Ti, wiretimtigable, mauimd, wbioh 
■. AhIi baa tmbud^Bied, valnmdled, vnerinikkd, Mmtoidted, jm- 



BlebHdson (Diet. 1887) omllB ibhIk«V and tmrhymfyig, aUbo the formra ta nMd by 
himself a( D.Ball, and the latter o«m« in a pasaasB quoted fi^m Byrom at DOHKlia. 



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IHTEO DUCT ION 



15 



nndeTOti«naIi^ H. W. Bellon-s 
nndl8fl£ar«d Brando's Diet. IS 43 
undlNtrest W. WDrdsnoTlli 



Qd. Soonmst 1857 



ceptloDslly 0. W. Holm 



nnfitUacioas A 



5. JohDBOQ 1! 



nnflnlsh n. U. Ks. OalL Forti'aita 

1835; K. N. "Woraum. 
nnforsl vlnsuesB F.W.I'&berlSaS 
niigandyMQOte,Bi'itish£'ama1849 
nngreneroalty Loud. RegisUt 1960 

nn^ravltatiuK Biiauaaque 1E3B 
nnhaUowedly Wm. Honitt 1833 

nnbartlneiae Joha Coakbnrn ITSS 
■umei'alded Sthrn Q.R, 1851 
DnbesUatinsiiesH N. F. Willis 
miliovseinanBhlp Loud. Nottb 
■tnldead (sic) ' n'sireuiimn' 
unldeallaed Q. Bei.; -Ised Mrs 

Ellet IS&S 
nulmmedlate Sentham 1S2S 
nulndoctrluated N. Br. BaT. 
nnlnterfeitd H. T. Tuolierman 
nuissaed Am, Railw. Rer. 
onllclicncd Rusliio 
QDiDatbematlcal FhiL Mag. 
nnmercui'lallzcd J. W. Draper 



1S49 
onmolestlng 



Phjsit 



aiiin«tiTed J. Am. Or. Son. 
unmammied Bjron 1S2» 
onnl^^r v. Sir Fr. Hnad 1851 
un«bsolet« Leigh Hunt 
nuflbatrnctaMe Kniukrb. M. 1S54 
Duoi^aulzabie Wstm. Eev. 1859 
unpartaben ' Fetar'a Letters to 

his Kinsfolk' 1320 
nupletnregqueneas Home Jour, 

1857 
niipopolarlso Earl Ellemere 
unpntlseable Albert Smith 
nnproceedliig: Thos. l^ajLor 1S34 
unppoleBlaiit H. Harbangh IS 50 
uupoFltau Thoe. Haneoek IS 59 
unqnakerly Ch£is. Ms,cka; 1S50 
unqnAlable 'Fuuah' 
unrefraetlns eilfillau IS 50 
anscabbarded Sir W. Scott 
ansciHltlvc Atlitt. Mnthi. 1959 
nnswciallty Wxo. Hanlitt 
■mspellable Lend. Sport, M. 
unBtlallUK Jaa. Sh, Enewles 1839 
unstrap MissLesliBlS53-pedSat. 

Miso, 185i 
unstrjped fibres Dr ^os. Le^d; 

nnstnccoed 111. G-side to London 
umsocceedlng Boyle 16 JS 
nnsf]|(tbl«d Motherwell 
nnsympathlsed Mnthl, Bepos. 
notaeticnl 111. Load. Nens 
milampered Aytoun 1S5& 
nntkon^htedly H. W. Becohar 
nntrophled Mie, Sigouitiej 1S34 
ununlfortnd Th, S. EIriaikS 

nnvaiTlnely FraJser's Mag. 

nnnardable 'Dow Jr.' 

■mwastnbl« (aio] Literary Churoh- 
ma.n 1859 

nnwelghuble Hsld. Wrds 
Lnnors(«a Robert Walpole 
iatzooLog;ival Blkw. Mag, 1857 



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16 INTRODUCTION 

§ 20 The extent to which words are formed and modifi 
by the aid of affixes is bIiowb by the number of words belor 
ing to the richest prefises, suffixes, and roots, as in the foUo 
ing approximations : — 



Fr^xet 



^ JOfOtS. J 

Qflust, fiiM '^iOf 

Bduidt/ din 

pmritioa 300 

Uv*»pIiio 200 

\'^H^o^ 200 

ply ^ 200 

^capable 190 

•>"« y™ 

detain Vyiso 
i^admlt y ire 



22,21)0 3,050 11,6110 

21 Without special inquiry we (.an have but httle idea of 
the comparative frequency of aflise'!, ■ind in constiucting tliia 
table we had at first included a ab , abs , whioii modify but 
800 English words, and excluded di , dis , which enter intn 
1800. 

22 The use of affixes in building «p wordi is shown in the 
following examples based upon the root fao (make) — 

I*«-t (-ion) ef-&co ef-ac-aoi-oua 

fea-t (-ure) pro-fi-l in-de-fe»-a-ibil-ity 



2S TU Tsaoln- wi72 obsemt. tliat 
others are added without esplsantio 
inapeation, as cord-age, whilst othe' 



ijBB of whioh COD ba solved by 

s bsdin-age, oannot be deter' 

These ate given as examples 



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INTaODUOTION 17 

manj of theee (aB de-preaa, de-grnde) wil! be found in the Vocabulary at 
the end of the Suffliaa. 

24 rSs eollal^-alform. of tte preflyee are often given to show tliat they 
are widely diffused; bnt whilst it is not naeessary to lesru, for esampla 
that un- is aqually un- in HindoosUneo, and aa- in Welsh and Irish, it 
ia of importanoe to know that langnagea so disaimiiar may have featuroa 
in oommon, derived from a oommon anoestry in remote antiqnity, 

35 ConMniionoi Latin is often pcononnoed in a mode which leaaens its 
ntility for etymologio purposes, because etymology, besides showing the 
msmJicmcf between words, ezhibits the degree of variation to which they 
have been aubjeoted. Henoe if Latin Cay in Ioer or Icp.is (keen, bold,) 
ia pronounced like « in a "Latin" reoitation, it should, in an etymoiogic 
recitWion, have its Latm power, or its darin-ative e^er wUl be an older 
word,ajai(orooj(aound being older than an » aound in cognate words,- 
foe /l is bo! tte huers, but the toand, used ht speech, which /arni,h the 
material/or etgmologg. The French bagage ia different from the Bngliah 
baggage {or iojase,) bnt identic with the Polish bagid. 

26 As tie anelent ia beginning to replaoe the empiric pronunaiation of 
Latin in our colleges, it is the more neceaaary that the pupils should be 
Oflqnaintad with it, whether they use it or not. Although na a Zaiia 
a (™tT^p) haa a genuine oay, an s (as in sard) aud the dip! 



thong in niiU, it nocd not be ] 



jx Ikglith dis- 



■orda whioh acoord with the laws of modern b}. 

perverted to aooommodate the orthography, prenunoiation, or meaning, 
of the oognato word in other langnagea -.—Ihin must remain thm, althoueh 
it is d U n n in ftorman aud tek&is in Latin. 

27 As the Greek affiles are given in Roman typography, and as they 
are not numerous, a knowledge of the Groek lettera is not essential; 
neverthelaaa, as an etymologic dictionary oannot bo used without them^ 
and as they are much used in matbematios and astronomy, the Greek 
alphabet should be aoqnired. This can be done in two or three Jeaaona 
or by using the alphabet as a key to Isarn the Greek words as they occur' 

23 The alphabetio arrangement made it neoeaaarj to indicate affinities 
by refercncea from one head to another, and when this is to later portions 
of the book, the pupil need not be requu-ad to follow the reference ■ nor 
need he search for the valne of -io, should heflnd a word like ohimer-lc-al 
nnder the head -*l, until he passes through the book the second time. 

29 The Uadier will determine what parts aie to be known thoroughly, 
and what may he merely read over, or omitted, whether in the Introduo- 
«on, the Affiles, or the Vocabulary. In general, a knowledge of from on* 
to tie exam pica under each head wUI be-anffioient. The words to be learned 
should he pointed out, and several additional eiampUs asked for under 
heads like ah, con-, de-, di-, sub, re-, un, -ant. -er, -ful, -ile, -ing, -ous, 



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I AlPHABET 



LATIN ALPHABET. 

§ 30 The Latin Alphabet is composed of the following 
twenty letters— A BCDEF&HILMN0PQU8T 
V X ; and of these, nine had the same power as in English, 
namely, BDFHNPQTX. 

C and G- (named my and gay hy the Eomans) were always 
pure, as in car, celt, sceptic, scheme, get, give-, and never cor- 
rupt, as in cent, gem: 

I when a vowel, aa in field; when a consonant, aa iu 
collier, or y in year, but the latter is diatiagnisted in most 
modern books by having the base of the character turned to 
the left 'J.' 

■ 31 M as in English, except ae a final, when it nasalises the 
preceding vowel, as in its derivatives in the Portuguese bom, 
(good) or French now, (name.) 



ilitj with 



N has two powers, the first in no, the second in angle. 
The latter oeenra in all oases before C, G-, X, Q. 

Q is a duplicate of C and indicates that the V (oo) which 
follows it has the consonant power of v) in well, and not the 
Towel power in 



Heneo 


in Latin poetr 


pnra vo 


b1 and elided 


IHEEMS 


a great wEic,) re 


tune,) b 


read FOanm' 


printed 


IB In BELLD", 


use » slight tR, whish Is 


English 


«?. 



Ereqni 



o be trilled. 



8 has its Spanish power, as in hiu, not as in rose, miser, 

T alwa^ as in tea, na-tI-0 (nS-tee-o, nation.) 
32 V tafi a vowel power as in rule, and a consonant power 
Eis in ^art. 



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LATIN ALPHABET 19 

tl' ia oommonlj (but not alwaye] used for the former, und 'V for the 
latter, aa in Angkanion. 

" L is the only Latin letter about the power of which there ia doubt, and 
to this the anoieul grammarian Priao'lan aaaigns.three poweia, the flrrt 
being heard in ille (he,) the second in flavBb (jellow,) and the third in 
tK-OTtB (a bed.) 

33 Latin, like Italian, has oonsonanta doubled, mm in 
CONNECTO being pronounced as in one ■aame, U in ALLloo- 
■rIX as in aU-loving, mm in immoetalIs as in some man, 
di"am-major, and other English compounds. 

34 The vowels have eaoh a long (") a atort (-) or a eoin- 
mon (" long or short) quantity, the last being often left un- 
marked. A long vowel (or syllable) is twice the length of a 
short one, and has the same quality, as in English o, which 
is long in nien, oh, and short in oath, ohey, without falling 
into the vowel of moth, object. A syllable is commonly 
" long by position" when a vowel is followed by two con- 
sonants. We often mark such a vowel with a dot, A vowel 
before another is commonlj short. Diphthongs are long. 

35 The power and name of the Latin vowels are ds in 
the following English words — 

A ia hng in arm, ehorf in Srt, never as in at 

E " they, " Sight, " ebb 

I " field, " deceit, " it 

' oh " obfy, " ox 

U ' foul " full " iip 

3r The diphthongs ire (ombinitions uf two sounds each 

of which, accoidmg to Piiio''ian, must be pronounced. The 

first letter (as A m AE or M, .ind in OK or (E) has its 

ordinary Latin power, whilst the 'leoond must have such a 

modification as to -Jlow the combtnition to form a single 

syllable Thus cloy ha^., and cla/m y hab not a diphthong ; 

and if ihowni and i-laypy were monosyllables, they would 

contain the Lntin (E and EI or EJ M and (E occur in 

the Portuguese pae (a stick) and oeto or oito (eight;) and 



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20 GREEK ALPHABET 

Shangbae (-high) is a Portuguese orthography. EI occurs 
id the SpaDish ley (law,) and AV in the Danish havn (a 
haven, rhyming with tovm,') and German hraun (brown,) 
h.nB(hoo.e,)mi.u.(ino»...) 

37 The following detached lines are from " Living Latin," 
London, 1847— 



" The Lalln dlphthoni 



My rhyme will ild j! 



38 The accent of Latin falls upon the second and third 
syjlables from the end, in dissyllables always od the former, 
and in words of three or more syllables on the latter, unlesa 
the seoond from the end is long, when that takes the accent. 



39 GREEK ALPHABET. 




b iay 


e e 3 esra th 


there 
fhin 


d deW 
S epaom 
b Jarm 


I . ™r» i 

A A SJ,.6fo 1 


Hog 
iamb 



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ua^is 


Figure. 


v^ 


o-tej 


'I.* V> 


*E 


pim. 


XX 


X'i 


Irh -Welsh,] 


*V 


4,T 


seek 


nu 


up 


ICWBV 







40 ' SPieItCs XspSr (rough breathing) b placed as in d 
(read ho) the, o5 (read /i5-w or hoo) where. The ' splElsiJs 
LBNis (smooth breathing) indicates the absence of the initial 
rough breathing, as in the English owe. Some authors omit 
it. These and the accent marks are placed over the second 
letter of the diphthongs. 

As zd has a single character C, so its cognate si is often 
written with ?-, as in S^pun or S/rrpov (astron) a star. 

The chai'aeter a is initial and medial, mid ? final, aa in 
azdai z Ji rm,nes3. 

The oliaracters E, H, P, X, have not the same power in 
Greek and Latin. 

r, Y, r, before y, x, f, ■(, has the power of ng in sinff, as in 
Srmh^ curved, Latin SNGi!iiiU8 angle. In these pages this 
power will be represented bj /". 

/",/, p, is the trilled Latin R; ^ the whispered aspirate 
Welsh rh. 

0, ip, phi is not F, being made by the contact of both lips, 



Y, T, 0, is G-erman u and French «, a sound between Latin 
U and I. It was not thus pinched in the Aeolic dialect, nor 
aa the last element of the diphthongs. 

X, ;[, is the German (Latin) Polish &o. cS. 

41 Diphthongs — at as in aisle; oi nearly like lyi in going, 
ovie-ing, <o( the same, but longer; jji nearly as in clayey; et 
like 1)1 but with the vowel of get, or aa e and y ia get-ye; art 
like ow in hrown; ou, a properly like o-w in no-wonder, but 
it was corrupted at an early day to Latin U, French ou, Eng- 



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22 GRAMMAR 

lish 00 in too, its power in Modern Greek. The former diph- 
thongal power (for which the apelliog was made) ia the best, 
and it aids etymology, as in fioD; ox, Lalin genitive Bov-Ie 
of an ox,, where u correspoads with V {qo, English w,) as in 
vau-c, NiV-I8 ship. 

42 G-reek accent is of three kinds, the acute (') which is 
the principal, the grave (^) and the circumflex (**), the 
differences not heing well understood. The marks showwhat 
syllable ia to be accented — and that a final syllable may be 
accented, wherein it differs from Latiu. Circumfiexed vowels 



GRAMMAR 



43 Conjugatwn is the inflexion of verba. Most Latin 
verbs end in -o (Greek -m) in the first person singular num- 
ber of the indicative mood present tense, as Xmo / love, of 
which the root is Am. The infinitive mood to love adds -Rl 
to the stem AMA, forming the infinitive iM5BE to Jove. The 
infinitive sign of the 1st conjugation is -5-, of the 2d -E-, of 
the 3d -E-, and of the 4th -!-. 

44 The Latin dictionaries ^ve tbe present tense, as iMO 
I love (often loosely defined by to love,) and with it, either 
the infinitive, or a numeral, 1, 2, 3, or 4, to indicate the con- 
jugation to which the verb belongs. To these are added the 
perfect tense, as amavi 1 have loved, and the verbial noun 
called the first supine, as aMATUM to love (in order to love.) 
Other inflexions must be looked for in the grammar, as the 
second supine Smatu to be loved; the participles, present 
Smans loving, future amXttoCs about to he loving; amatus 
loved; Xmandits to be loved; gerund (a kind of noun) 
XmXndum loving, iMiNDl of loving, as — ctjpIdCs amandi 
desirous of loving. 



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GRAMMAR 23 

§ 45 The four conjugations are ttua distinguislied — 

Cbi^Tigatiimi, 12 3 4 

Infinitive, -Ire -Eag -erb -Ies 

Perfect, -iyi -Evi -I -ivi 

PaiL paseive, -iTua -etBs -itCs -itus 

pStEr Xmans a loving father ; pItEr XmStCeus a. fatlmr 
about to lie loving; sv" AMATUKUS / am to love; Sua" 
AMATURUS / was to love. DICIT he Says, ME me, Smaee to 
love — DIGIT ME AMARE he says (thai) Hove, he asserts me to 
love. Here the verb dicit gOYeiDs the accusative (objective) 
case ME, and ego I cannot be used as in English, where / is 
considered a nominative case to the verb love. The English 
sentence contains the assertion I love (which may not be 
true,) from which the Latin is free. 

46 PossC" amarE J can (am able to) love; venIo Xma- 
tC" I come to love (in order to love.) In the expressioa "I 
can love," (German, ieh kann lieh-en; Danish, jeg kan 
elsk-e,) love is an infinitive; in "I am able to love," to love 
is a supine. In the following examples (commencing with 
an interrogative adverb,) "can blind lead blind," both forms 
of "blind" (bhnd-person) are in the singular number, and 
had is in the infinitive mood, in Grothic, Gfreek, and Latin — 

ibai mag blinds blindana, tiuhan. 

ran the-blind ' tlie-blind ^ kad? £«e. 6 ;39, 

Forms like the following are due to grammatie inflexion — 

Immorgo inunereB ooncnr fliscoureB rofiind infuae dsfiioe defeat Infect 

47 Three cases are assigned to English, as exhibited in 
the pronouns — 









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24 GRAMMAR 

§ 48 The posaeaaive oorreaponds with the Latin genitive, 
and the objective with the acoisative. Latin has also a da- 
tive case, as SKRMOnT (to a speech;) and an ablative, aa ser- 
mSnS (with a speech,) the nominative being slaMO a speech, 
and the accusative sermone"", 

\ie case, as dSuincs a lord^ dQuitib 



49 The cases which differ from the nominative are called 
oblique oaaes. The English sermon may be called an oblique 
case of SERMO, because it is not derived from the Latin nomi- 
native, nor from any single oblique case. 

50 Aa the Latin cases vary considerably, they are divided 
into five declensions, distinguished by the termination of the 
genitive case siagular number, as follows — 



51 In English derivations from Latin nouns (adjectives, 
participles,) it is often necessirj to know the 'ciude torm," 
which is generally present in an oblique cate, and the dic- 



tionary j 



i the nominative ind genitive, as i 



-6e1s, bodi/, whence corporeal, fioi 



underlying 
is implied by 



the crude form corpor 
;he genitive case corpOr Ife (of the body,) which 
.QrIs. The following are similarly denied — 



larld-aiy, Llp-ff 
IWiiil^ fk5n-3, -t 



;H-is, blood. 



in Gothic, Betman, Anglish (AngloaBion,) and 
.die,) wiU he given under the auffis -mor. 
d, H, of palver-ise, milil-arg, fraud, tanguine, &c. occur in 
3, they will he termed R deolenfiiona], &o. especially as thaj 
m pact of the base, or erude form. 

52 As most English nouns borrowed from Latin happened 
to be of the second and third declensions, the i of their geni- 



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25 

tive case has become the connecting vowel with. nouDs of the 
first declension, as in penuiform (not peanaefoi-jn) from 
PlNM-A, -AH (a feather.) Primigenous (first born) is formed 
from the adjective PRiM-tts, -I (first,) and primogeniture from 
the adverb PhImo (at first.) 

53 0, a common connective in words of Greek origin, 
may be due to the crude form, or to the noun and adjective 
termination -oq of the nominative case, with t; dropped, as ia 
philo-eophy, auto-bio-graphy. of a genitive case is present 
ia phraseo-Iogy {fpda-t';, -swq,') cynos-ure (xOiov dog, gen. 
iov-dc,) aer-o-naut, aer-o-Iite, from dijp (air) genitive dipoq; 
but aer-ial is from the Latin form aer, gen, AiSnIs. 

54 Phos-phorus preserves the g of the nominative poi; 
(light,) whilst the genitive tpwTiq is used in photo-phorus, 
photo-graph. 

55 Other connecting vowels appear in strata-gem, penta- 
gon, arehi-tect, lexi-con, patri-arch, pan-e-gyric from i^Sv (all) 
ayupd (assembly;) where Trai^ is the neuter of iraj, as in paa- 
i-graphy, genitive xd^roq, as in panto-graphy. 

56 The t in ego-t-ism and n in tobacco-n-ist are connect- 
ives, and ff has slipped iuto poly-g-archy, for poly-arehy (rule 
of many) by the induction or influence of olig-archy, the rule 
of (dXiyoq) few, 

57 A connecting element may be no part either of the 
base-word or the affix, as ( in ego-t-ism and i in penn-i-form- 
— it may belong to the base-word, as in gan-d-er (B^" -m,) 
asthma-t-ic; to the affix, as a of -ary in milit-ary, because 
(§ 51) MiL-ES, gen. mIlit-is has no «;— or to both base-word 
and affix, as in mating formul-a-ry from formula and -ary; 
but as then of formui-a was originally short, and that of -ary 
long, the sufiix has the better claim to the a of formulary 
subterr-anean, and others. 

58 The connecting element is often added to the suffix, as 
a in -ATe, -ATi5a, where the etymology, and forms like 
SBLEC-TiJS show that the participial portion is not -at, but 



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26 GRAMMAR 

-T, whieii may be preceded by any of the Latin vowels, the a 
of -AT being due to the fii-st conjugation (§ 46) as in adv5- 
caeS (to advocate,) advoc-atSs. Nevertheless, as -atus 
occurs in words underived from verbs, aa hSm-Atub (hamate, 
hooked,) the heading -Aie is given. Similarly, -ax, -ex, &c. 
might have been placed under -x j -ant, -ent, under -ht, &c. 
59 In Greek there are three declensions and five cases, 
which bear some resemblauoe to the Latin cases. In the 
Latin lag aud Greek ydXa (milk,) little resemblance is appa- 
rent until we take an oblique case, as the genitive ydAAKToq, 
LACTlS. Compare— 



oioos hehb s, tootb, 
oiinai DENTIS of a. tooth, 
•Xspii grace, ■sApiroi of grace. 



whenoB pnea 

Lri-p o d, p e d-al 



dent-al, mon-odoi 



60 Mfiectimial elements are such as are used in grammatic 
inflexions, ag the participial t in tons. Mutational elements 
are such as interchange, as d, t, in spelledf, speli. Deden- 
^anal elements occur in declensions, as n in sermon, which is 
the crude form (g 51) of seeMO a speech. Formative ele- 
ments aroused in mikmgfoims of words, as ^ in forming the 
noun ras-p from the verb raze. 

61 The characteristic part of a derivative word is often to 
be looked for in the inflexions of the verb. Thus the Greek 
^pd-Zio, in the Doric dialect 0pdSS/o (I speak) gives phrase, 
and the perfect tense ni^paKa (I have spoken) is akin to the 
Latin PRECOB (to pray,) German fragen (to ask,) and Eng- 
lish prec-atory, pray. 

62 Latin inflexions are much used in the law, as man da- 
mns we command; capias you may take; affidavit he 
(she) baa made faith to; sci-licSt to wit, that is to say, 
(SCI-RE to know, LIOEI it ia lawful;) vide-licSt to wit, 
namely, (viDEaE to see, — it is easy to see, — it may be seen;) 

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AFFIXES 27 

mittimus we aead; eHveat let him beware; certiorari 
to have notice given. 

63 Gender. Many English forms depend upon the varia- 
tions in the originals indicative of gender. The name Maxi- 
muB {greatest, primarily an adjective,) indicates a male, of 
which the feminine would be Masi-ma, and the neuter maxi- 
mum. But there arc exceptions to such indications of gen- 
der, la Greek, canon is masculine, chaos and drama are 
neuter, and exodus is feminine; and in Latin, QVKRCtis (an 
oak) is feminine, and GENiJa yivo'; neuter. 

JttireaKns, Feminine, Ntuter. 

Antoni-nu3 Antoni-nn tympa-mim 



64 The Islaudie adjectives of the three genders have the 
following forms — 



glOd 


gUtt 


blind 


blint 



AFFIXES 

65 Affixes are additions to roots stems and words, serving 
to modify their meaning ind use. They are of two kinds, 
prefixes, those at the heginnmg, and swffi,xes, those at the end 
of the word-hases to which they are affixed. Several affixes 
occur in long words like m com pi e-hojt-s-ih-il4t-i/, which has 
three prefixes and five suffixes. 



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§ 66 A root is' a word or part of a word without affix, some- 
times having and sometimes wanting a distinctive meaning. 
A (in arm,) is the root of a-ir and a-sthnia; it has not the 
definite meaning of a noun or yerh, but signifies hhto in a 
general way, without being a part of speech. 

G7 Eat- is, and cd is not a word, but both are stents in eat- 
able or ed-jble, and derived from the root AD,— but roots and 
stems cannot be distinguished in all cases. Sia is the root of 
sta-nd, sta-tion, and its cognate sii is the stem of con-sti-t^ut-ion. 

68 Irk, the stem of vi-ork and irksome, is disguised in 
07^-an, lit-wy-y, cu-erg-y, su-rtz-ery; and work is disguised 
under wrigh-t. Beauty (from helle) is equally the stem of 
beaitti-ful and heaute-ous, for Etymology pertains to language 
and not to orthography. 

69 Etymology lakes oogDisanoe of the relation of proof, prove (proor,) 
and requires tie latter to have final c, whioh, with final i, j, and doubla 
P, 3, e, k, Bxe forbiadon by English apalling. The English luid Germans 
oall iouse (bana) by the earoe name, so that each has font elements and 
closes witb a consonant. SimilEirly orb-s, pea-aa, oloth-ea, beau-jt, have 
the same plural element, and the last never had an etymulogic letter ex^ 
but in old PrenohyertioalBoript, the final's' with the tail thrown forward 

resembled 'j;,' whioh printers used for it In dialects of old English, the 

was pronounced with th in thin, and spelt with the Anglosaxon letter y, for 
whioh. 'y' was used by printers who wanted the type or mistook the letter, 
HJid this typographic error leads 3ome to fancy that the waa formerly pro- 
nounced witb English y. 

70 It cannot always be determined whether derivative 
words are compound, or formed with aii affis. This doubt 
appears in overreach, undersecretary, magnificent. 
The following are compound — astro-logy, atmo-sphere, 
eeno-taph, demo-crat, hemo-rrhage, hjdr-aulic, hy- 
dro-gen, leth-argy, lit-urgy, mel-ody, olig-aroh, 
mon-arch, cham-o-mjle, strat-agem, kal-eido-scope. 

71 The force of affixes being variable and often evanescent, 
care must be taken to accept the definitions of them in a, 
general sense; and when their force is known, it need not be 



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1-eoalled in analysing a word, except where it eeems to 
strictly appiteablc. On account of their occasional indefini 
urn, some of the affixes are left undefined, and in some t 
the definition of the examples does not quite correspond 
that first given. 

73 The prefix un- ia a variation of in- (not,) yet un. 
nificant me&m not stffnificani, md insignificant means 
trifling; pertinent is to tkepwrpose, impertinent imo~ 
lent; and not famms yiojAA be an inaccurate definition of 
infamous. Compare disposition and indisposition, 
delicate and indelicate. 

73 Although the Latin prefix sue (sue-, sua-, &e.) means 
under, it also means /j-om beneath, in, at, towards, somewhat. 
Thus Stjfi-VEHO means, I carry up; sug-gSeo I put under, 
bring, annex, supply, si>^gest; cedo I go, suc-cedo I go 
under, submit, ascend, belong to, follow after, prosper, smc- 
veed. PR^-TlNBO I stretch forward,, place before, prefix, 
exhibit, pretend: 

74 IN-Duco I lead in, clothe, exhibit, deceive (take in,) 
overlay, annul, put on (as shoes,) induce. 

75 IN-FOEMO I form, show, instruct, inform. de-f6kmo I 
form, describe, design, beautify, disfigure. In means in or 
on, and aisTO I place, whence im-sisto I step towards, come, 
etop, pursue,, press upon, (used figuratively in the English) 
insist 

76 The primary sense of 'ascribe' is iumte to, but it means 
to attribute, which is composed of to and give. The original 
sense of attribute is evident in tribute and contribu- 
tion, whilst in retribution it has a more figurative exten- 
sion. 

77 Composed means placed together, decomposed 
means e^arated in regard to a previous union, and although 
undecomposed is a negative of decomposed, it is not 
quite equivalent to composed. 

iDVEEsOs turned towards, fronting, adverse, hostile. 



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dEjIcio I throw under, expose, substitute, falsify, throw- 
upwards, add, reply, hint, give, cast down, overthrow. 

convinobrS (oQmvinotO"') tfl conquer, disprove, prove, 
convict of crime, whence convince, conaict and cdnvict. 

78 In the course of time the force of some words with an 
affis has hecome identic with that of their simple form, as 
sever dissever, loose unloose, sport for disport, 
encounter rencounter, ornament adornment, to 
adorn to ornament. 

79 The Latin mendX (a fault) has produeed mend (to 
repair) by the loss of the prefixes (ab-, ex-,) of a-mend and 
e-mend, implying removal of the fault. 

80 In add and aid the prefix ad- is all that is left of 
Sd-do and 1d-jBvo; eul! is the prefix con- of col-lect; 
trance is the Latin TRANS-lriJS (a going beyond,) reduced 
to its prefix; enter is the prefix iuTER, intbS. deprived of 
the verbial termination observed in inteXre (to go in;) 

81 Eenoounter is composed of re-in- contra. Hipped 
is the prefix and suffix hyp— od of hypochondriaaised, 
with a dozen silent letters; in-super-able is composed of 
three affixes, dis-a(d)v-ant-age-ous-ly of six, and supr- 
eme and prae-tor of two, the latter being for pr^e-I-tSe a 
fore-go-er or leader, having lost its root I of Ire (to go.) 
8ur-pr-ise has lost the* root' hend (take) of eom-pre- 
hend. 

82 The prefis re- implies hack or again, but it is used in 
re-mark without re-gard to the first speaker, or to the re- 
plying one; and something is re-ferred (borne back) to a 
person who re-ceives it for the first time. A nation is re- 
duced (led back) to subjection which had previously been 
free, and a man is re-duoed to poverty who had never been 
poor. 

3 Here the prefis has ceased to have a separate aignifiea- 
Uon. It is verbal, indicating that in prafltiee, r emark is a 
word independent of its constituents. 



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AFFIXES 



81 



§84 A recluse is one shut back or re-tired, although 
be-clOdo means to unclose, bring out, expose. 

85 The al- of al-cove is verbal, meaning nothing as a 
prefis, and there is a tendenoj to consider inter-medjate 
as a verhal form — 



■.Kialyl,urm,ii 



M of the uplUtine 



86 Affixes may be defiaitive, bemg uieJ to limit the words 
to which they are applied, to bomo Ti=e to which the base-word 
would he equally appli cable, ^sopirating tran'iitiye from in- 
transitive, and figurative from ladital meiniagH at m the fol- 
lowing examples. 



} I fix, mako tirm, thrust ii 
10 I mark, eiprese, paint, sea. 



! plunge plant, strike, 
lark denote sketch ont. 



fill to make fall. 

Mj™ I speak, ool- 

ohoose, reckon u 



LAMOl 


make=e 


eeehe 


ifll to 


fill a pu. 


.pu=e. 


i-Asj^ ] 


[ select, 


choose, 




-ke a lisi 


! (of nan 


ailltary 


duty.) 




ekilla 


to aapai 


rate, scv, 



87 In PRAVDO, DEpRAVDO (I cheat, deceive,) de- might 
be regarded as intensive, but it is better to consider it re- 
strictive to verbial forms, the derivatives (as fraudulent) 
being formed without the prefix, ou the noun basis pravs, 
genitive peavd-Is. So the adjective peavus (crooked, per- 
verted,) instead of having a verb pravo (I crook,) has de- 
PrSvo v. t. I vitiate, deprave. 

88 In dElIb!6ro (I weigh, consider,) tte prefix restricia 
or defines the word as ttat derived from ubrS (a balance,) 



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thus distinguishing it from a different word, lIbeIIO I make 
(libbk) free; and re- dissociates re-member froin member 
to associate it with memory, wliioh does not require it. 

89 hOdo, denudo (I make l^are, despoil, disclose,) have 
ahout the same meaning; and if we divide words in de- into 
sections according to the force of this prefix, de-nude may 
occupy several places. It may he considered a verbal (§ 82) 
form of n u d e — an intensive — a restrictive to a particular ob- 
jeot — and privitive or separative in regard to something re- 
moved, as in — 



90 Some words are never Used without an af&i, as the 
Latin coN-sirfB'" coua-sel; ex-emplu" es-ample; con-tSm- 
PLOR I con-template; and the English be-neath, neth-er, con- 
dign, dign-ity, in-fer, sub-sist, cou-vict, con-nect, re-jcct, 
as-sume, in-dignation, but Spanish has both dignadon and 
indignation. 

91 As forms like 'Jeviate' and 'lieve' cannot be used, they 
must be replaced by al-leviate and rc-lieve (to lighten again.) 
This may render a word figurative, and cause the power of 
the affix to be so much enfeebled, that an auxiliary preposi- 
tion might be required (independently of its use before an 
objective caae,) in the locutions ai-lude to; i/e-lude with; 
di?-pend from, upon; rfe-sceud _/m>i, vp<m, info; re-, im-pose 
upon; su6-mit to; re-, ap-ply to; sup-ply mlk; o£-jeot to; 
eo»-fer on, with. 

92 The sign of the infinitive mood being identic with the 
preposition to, this double use of the same a ocable causes to 
to lose its force as a preposition and to be transferred to the 
condition of a prefix, as in several of the locutions folbwmg 
— tZisposed-to work, indisposed to-work ^Kcllned to do it m 
clined-to it; — which induce the forms — (ver'ie to such a 
c;ourse; d/sin clined-to it, (fiVinelined to-do it 



Hcssdb, Google 



id become ACqnainlcd ti 



93 Attempts are sometimes made to secure the conjoint 
action of prefix and preposition, by forms like — liisinolined 
from, ayerse fmm, — the use of which embarrasses the lan- 
guage by assigning to partloles a greater force than the cor- 



Btc>u!tn,rojwrciva!Bverae/r.m life.. 
ncflallon ./ vice . . . (Lch ^n ^^Roa /™» 
n, 1674. Butning for pleasure, nol oseu 



94 JVo wii/orm nde is adopted in admitting foreign words 
into a language. Some words become naturalised, whilst 
others similarly formed, and equally good, or bad, are avoided, 
or if proposed, do not come into use. Thus English has from 
Latin, ' emolument' ^ro/ii, but not 'emoliment' trouble — 

trBii3.imt " jwff- pro-nut 
b- le- n ofr. per pro- 

'cum voIfs ** ;u&-tv2?v 



Google 



<iQ Ma J f are 7osf in E h w d f 

IS m 9 L QV D us fern LIQVId X n L Q D U 



BaLLICITUD) Buhl- till 

peknI pen 

nSttiiX Lerb 

97 There a)f 'm.ani/ hihnd w n En^, lah w 

to Latin or othi,r stem a flu dn g 



alogist, naturfaOiBt, joumal i 
most of those in ism are con 
Greek and the '.uf&s Latin, ir 
and the auffis Latin 

98 As comjjound hibnds ar 
the etymologist must not resor 
found that one language is no 
ciLioS (a military shoe,) n 



d h J li dn te 1 



f d to he G k 



laB? (handsome) and Latin gulS (neck); nor penteoost, 
Tcsi-Trjxoat^ theJi/Heih (day after Easter,) to irii^s (five,) and 
cosT^ (ribs.) Cosmo-polite means world- citizen, not 
world-polite.f 



ouna and Mcent betwaon fho Latin and Eogliali 
itoHiologj as Hail, have been (umiBlied " Bj Ai 
NewTorfe^ inabmill on IdjurloUH IniMls, I) 
liQgle example, Notifiptilua (from uiiiioi lofl, a 



Hcssdb, Google 



AiTIXES 35 

§ 99 Care must he taken to determine how muoh of a word 
constitutes the stem and affix. The prefix aubter- ia sub- 
ter-fuge does not occur iu a ub torr aa ean, where the 
prefix ia sub- and the stom teer of tbrrX the earth; nor 
does sub- occur in subulate, from SuextlS an awl, and 
this from suo I sew. 

100 Trans- is the prefix and form the stem of trans- 
form; whilst in exude and transude, the stem ia suda^ 
(to sweat,) and the prefix ec'-, tran'-, with the first « absorbed 
by the second. If trInsItus a passing over, were impro- 
perly divided, it would mean (slTua) situated over. 

101 As re- means bach, and retro- hachoards, a re-trac- 
tion or drawing back, might be converted into retr-action 
an acHng! backwards; and abs-tain to hold from, might be 
taken for ab-s tain to sfaniZ from. 

102 The English word angelio and Anglish angelic 
are far removed from each other, the latter being an-ge-lic 
a-lihe; and in Danish, unytte is in-ut-ilitj, as if from Latin 
CTiia I me; but the prefix ia u- not, and the stem is cog- 
nate with the German natz projii. The Danish vandrende 
is both a loanderer and a water-pipe, in the former sense from 
vandre to wander, and in the latter from vand luafer and 
rende a channel, 

103 The Latin pisc-It-Ce and Welsh pyag-otwr (fisher- 
man) are from the cognates Pisc-Is, p jsg (fish,) and seem to 
correspond in all their parts ; but at in the Latin is partici- 
pial, and Welsh -ot is for the plural sign -nd of pysg-od 
(fiah-es,) and -wr is for gwr (man,) so that the Latin word 
means afish-er, and the Welsh a man (ai) fish-es. 

104 The Romans often omitted s after ex-, as in expecto 
for ESSPlcTO Jecpeci. Hence expSlio, to ^ofisA o/, scrape, 
(from polIo, to polish,) may staod for Ex-sporfo, from spS- 
ilo, to strip, spoil. If extinct, extirpate, exult, exile, had 
retMned an etymologic forni, they would have tho forms of 
exslinct, exstw'pate, exsult, exiile. 



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§ 105 In Greek, ampmi is a star, vd/iot law, and ovoiia name, 
HO that if aatro-nomy (the law or science of the stars) were 
divided into astr-onomy, it would mean star-naming. 

106 The position of an affi^ is seldom changed (as in mis- 
take, rewH«s) altho it may happen that a prefix in one language 
may be a suffix in another.* Gernian has ah-brennen, an- 
haJten, and Danish af-brtende, an-holde, where Englisii has 
hurn off, hold on. English has ful-fll and mirth-ful; an off- 
set and a set-off; an off-cut and a cut-off; to up-hold and 
hold up; to over-look and look over; an out-hreaking and a 
breaking out. 

107 If the iame affix were used both as a prefix and suffix, 
tlie listener eould not in many eases determine whether an 
affix between two words should belong as a sufiix to the first, 
or a prefix to the second, aa in — 

Hii leslh all (hslteied, ™A jnmiisd w h b ai—Ff Odjd y iS II 

The Anglish tosettan to set to wis n^t continue 1 inEngNh 
because the use of the infinitive sign t6 would cau e an awk 
ward alliteration, as in to-to-set 

108 ^s long as the constituent parts of a word remain 
there is no difficulty in detecting them, if the ldngu\(,e to 
which they belong is known; but the case is different when 
the significanoy of the fragmenta ceases to be i erceived 

109 If the prefix es- (ecs) had berime extinct the r la 
tiou between the e of e-duce, an 1 the of s pend could not 
be determined, and were there two words spen 1 ind pend 
(nip snip, plash splash,) of the same signification, it mould be 
difficult to determine whether ^end was the original and pend 
a mutilated form, or this the stem afid s a prefix. Id a 

• As in tbs lanpiage of Goocsla (" Gm^staJi,) -where Hu s t an i is a gardm, and 



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MARKS AND ABBREVIATIONS ol 

a pair of words like lone and alone would 
present tte same difficulty. 

110 In WelBb, r s (ardenss aa a noun, txtsts &3 tt verb,) is a common 
jntenaive prefli— used alao hy indnotion in introdQoed words, by prefixing 
j^beforo, aainjsgolfoistar; jsgarlad, (soioolmastBr, soarlat.) Its 
force appeara in the following Welsli aiamplas— 

pig a point, pike, iaak jspig « >-pike, t-piue 

par o gtrm, a i-pear yapar a't-ptar, Uouhs 

plan a i-oy, a »Aooi jsplan s-plmid!d 

llac loose ya'ao e-loBh 

taen a tpritiMing ystaen a s-tain 

paid quiet yapaid cesMliox 

porth airf yeportk .Tijfennnce 



MARKS AND ABBEEVIATIONS. 

¥ords hyphened like mot-hod, hyp-hen, to indicate their etymoloEj. 
ore not to be thus prononnoBd. 

I ABBimilntion, aa when ad- beoomea af-. In af-feetj. 

■f Ohaolole, diauaod, or supposed forms, aa +tbmpj.or, which doea not 
exist, bnt is inferred from onN-TEHPLBa I con-iemplate. 

C&e, refers principally to the Vocabnlarj. 
grave aceantBal ia naed for long accented ejUablaa, and the aouta 
for short onea, as in depSaa, dapSsit, deposition. 

1 Indicalas that a word is not under its ongmal form, as ^.ritiM, which 
ia not the original of shone, aa io^DO (I cut) is nawcr than its apparent 

— Tbe dash aeparatea forma like "temperature — ancloaure," tha former 

bemg regularly deduced from Latin, and tha latter not. It also separates 

Greek from Latin forma. 

A word printed like voy-twe is explained under -bsb. _ 

Bduoad alomenta are represented aa in number, numer-ons, where IB 

^ The AnS (AngloBalon,) Gothic, and-Jforse, Nordisll (old lalandic,) 

ebaraoters for A in «i™ will ba represenESd by Grack B English = >a 

sometimes represented hy S, and s* by r, and i in azure by j. Tha old 

Bnglish oharaotar i in 1 11, page 41, is not a z (a letl 

used for it,) but a representative, aooordmg to the dial 

word, of «, o, and oh. , . . 

.. Indicate (with italics) loat or "siUut" elaments, as in oounterfei.-t, 
whiohhaslostthocof coUEterflrt; may.., misit,&c. 

A sinzlo dot ( ■ ) ia sometimea used to indicate tho length of a ayllable 
bv oosition 1? 34,1 as in oiTTUH, where the vowel ia naturally abort, whilst 
ta^lCnVfhel^! ia long indapo'ndently of the consonants which follow. 

A few Sanacrit words quoted, are in Latin orthograpby, the character 
corroBponding to English w being repraacntfld 'by t; "J "^ ^^^3!,?'^ ■" ' 
—eh in cWp by Tf, and g oomipt in gem by Dj. B la a kind of untnlled r. 



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MAKKS AND ABBREVIATIONS 



vowel, and is lon» ami short. 6 is used for a liimi of h whicli beoomeB a 
in Oreek imd Latin. 

§ and S ate n paonliar e and ( (termed careiiral,) formed by turning tho 
tongne back. Tlieir fonnaljon need not be attempted. PH, th, Ac. are 
pronouDoed as in i^hiild, pothook. Banscrit aliort yowelB ate oommouly 
numarked. Bee the aathor'B Analytio Ortliogrophj (TreTelyan Priae 
Baaay,) Phiindelphia, J. B. Lippinoott & Co,, 18B0. 

a and T represent Arabio sSd and ta, Hebrew sadai (nliioli is »o( ts,) Mid 
teth. They are formed witli the flat of the tongue. Q ia naed for Arabic 
qaf and Hebrew quph, a deeper sound tiian k. 

Sa. Sanserll! &. or Get. ffeiwin; D. or Dan. Sanieh; IsL M<mdic,- B. 
Belgifl, the language of Holland (oommonly oallad Dutch) inelnding 
Flemish; Oo. Q'llhic (ie. Mieao-gothiaO W. Wdsh; Ir. Irish; It. lulia^,- 
Sp. ^aniiS; Port; Porlaguese,- Fr. Fremh,- Gr. Greek; L. or Lat Lalia, 
bat theBB are seldom oead, the Latin being in IJ.TIN or eapital letters, and 
Greek obaraotets are well known. 

Heb. Rebrem, generally giran in Zalin lattara, so that j ie English 1/, y 
Bngliah 10, io. In a few oaaea it was oonvenient to represent Hebrew and 
other lunguages in Greek typography. Ohg. old high German. 

Ang. Avgiish (Anglosaxon;) Sai. Saxoa (ot Plattdeutaoh,) a living Jan- 
gu^a. It is a grave error to use t&a-tenn Saxua toi Anglosaxou. 

Pronounce Anglish 0, g, v as in Latin, y like Danish j/, French u, Gr. v; 
and K as in fat. (Compare oimel kernel, broeen broken, vul loooJ, vfflgn 
Mogon.) 'S is th in then, iilhia thin, but B is used for this, and the Latin 
V for ita Anglish form p. 

T. vefb; adv. adverb; n. noan (or a. mbeta'-Uim;) m. masculine; t./emi- 
. «£««; neut. nsiiiw,- pi. plural; a. (or adj.) adjeelim; dim. dimmutival. 

In headinga like A- AB, the hyphen is omitted when the prefii can be 
naed as a separate word, like the prepositions. Latin preflxea ore printed 
like ABS-, Gi'eek like SYN, and aO others, including true English fomiB, 
and modifications of Latin, like be-, -ness. -N-oUS ahowa that o doea 
not belong to the Latin form, which ia -K-US. 

Silent letteta are often in a different type, and in some ciBea they have 
no etymologio value, as the e in apooalypse compared with that in 

Wocda which form eseeptions are frequently in italics. 

belongs to -tract and TBAHO, and "from" to the prefis aba-. Many of tbe 
words with Latin prefixes ooobc in Latin, so that abs-lracl might have 
been referred to abs-tr4B0j abstain to abs-iineo, &c. 

As THABO means atrictly, / dram; and tbIhSbe Io draw, a word and its 
deflnition are sepaiated by a comma point when they do not quite oorre'- 
Bpond, thaa trAho, (0 drmo. 

Old English Mus pronounced mostly like the European languages, with 
e in theg, &b. as In Chsuoer'a bifore be/ore, diociae diotese, gret gi-ml, sice 
eUty, her-ea haira, goo go, stoon atone, hoom home, goat ffoat, 



n three syllables, accented on the second. The rhythm 
it and syllabioation, aa in the following esamples— 



i''w1f5^Ew' 



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[a- is a fragniBiit derived from several originala. It oommonly indi- 
eafee adverbs, and is appiied to prepositions ((tb-ore,) adjectiras (a-iin,) 
nouns (a-piooe,) and verts (a-rise.)] 

Tte heterogeneous nature of a- appears in the following 
examples— 



«8:ainst Ang. 


■ Ang, it 


■ngean, agea 


ge-mang, 
.n, agen. 
n, iGtfora. 


OldE. 
n, v.e-f 


le- 


bi-nion 




B, 


raffles hid II 


l^nc a kmgM 


,.h^.-'JC, 


r^g -(--.ft 


">■. 


■.6J4. 


»loii^ 


Ang. ( 


^nlenge, , 


.mb-long, a 


ndlang; 


em-.„ 


eti. 


^™i. 



TT 2. in, on, &o. 
a- is partly due to the Anglish on, an, meaning on, m, un-j 
and partly to old Frisian and lalandio a on, in, at. 

onbiEa (lalandio a bak) abaci; onbsdippan to dip in/ onleaan ta make 
Toosc (unloose;) anhidan In aSirfsy anvadan ta iavade,- Snveg a«raj,- 
adoys Ang. andieges; on handa, old Eng. anhond, onhajide, old Prisiaa 
a hand, o« or i» hand; anbflgan to ob^g (bow te;) ana;lan (o anneal (a;lan 
(o 6un^ lahe.) 

Old English has forms like on sleeps, in slepe anhep; on side aside,- on 



.f 3. Position. 
amidst (Ang, on middan,) in the middle. 



Hcssdb, Google 



40 PKEPIXES 

aboard on board, (Nordish a bor«i, Fr. h, bord (^f 9,) Ger. 
am (for an dem) borde, Ban. om bord. astcru at, towards or 
behind the stern, aground on or at the ground or bottom. 

oMp abed ashore ale« asIAo apeak al>aft '''ataorse 
'''Udoors nfielil abigb 

Ab- 
along. 



IT 4. Condition. 
asuuder in a divided condition. (Ang. on sundran; 

old Ger. besunder.) adrift in a drifting condition. 

aga'te, aga'd on the (Sw. gata, old Eng. gate) way, road, 
abroad from home. (Nordish abraut/oj-^i; brautaroad, 

travel, region.) agog on the lookout. (Ger. gueken to look.) 

at>art afloat a]>laze oUtp awabe asleep asllr agape 
~>«new a&eali— ^afeared or aAfaid (^ 13.) 



TJ 5. Direction. 
athtrart across. (Aug. on Sveorh; old Ger. in dngran.) 
aback towards the back, abreast opposite, or towards 
bhe breast, abead in advance of the head; in front. 
alength (on, at,) in the direction of the length. 

aslant across askURC& — avry afkir aabew — above abaft 

My berd Ihal haiigcth long i.ioaa.—aiam,r. 

T[ 9. Manner. 
astride in the manner (or condition) of striding. 
atilt in the manner of tilting; in a tilting position. 
afoot by means of the feet; on the feet. 
aslug like, in the manner of a slug. 
aloud in a loud manner. 



Hcssdb, Google 



A- PEEHXBS 41 

I 7. For off. 
adotvn (Ang. of dune,) down, downwarda, towards the 
gruund. 

H 8. lor «/. 
aislianaed, made tlie subject of sliame. (OH Eng. 
ofctamed; Anglish verb of-sceamiun.) 

anew in the new. (Old English of new.) 

\ 9. For ad-. 
[Er. a at, to. Seo AD-.] 

agree to be on good terms, (gratia favor, good terms.) 
appoint, Fr. i point; Ital. a punto. 
assets, old Fr, assez, Lat. satis enough. 

apiece apart alert adlen amort n^ropos avast aver 
atTront avnO nvon "^n^reve aUDOy (uDoii^, Chaucer] abash 
al>ato ttbroacb abandon ameliorate alarm alloy a«l>ieve 

head; bgcauee Englieb 



Obs. Thf 


1 Hd- 


of aff 


ront, appoint 


, tactlbe, a-i 


jeeoli does 


LSpei 


rfectly 
admit 


aa o« has, in 
of doubled . 

flO, 


nHde 
. For 


. or at il 
aanta. 


around, 


.Ft, 


enron 


d; rtal. in n 


™da. 




aiTanK«, Pr 


.™ra 


ng, au rang; 


a«b 


eing for 








H 11. For 


i-e-. 


See 0- 


abuck 


arlelit 


aware alike 


adriHt 






; fifclicf! 


1 iv=r radi s n 




. . (S. 




H«; 


i=;r.i . 









f 12. Sc-, iy, period. 

anigbt (Chaucer,) by night, during the night. 

anights noTvadays afore aforesaid aforetime 

f 13. For »-, 

amend, (for emend) to remove (menba) a fault. 
anni-d the sentence of an arbitrator. (Old Er. i 
; eawardeur, an inspector.) 



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12 PEEFIXES A 

afVaid impressed with fear, (Fr. effrayer to frighten.') 

Therwoll firUe annnden and be^n.— Ciounr. 



1[ 14. For ah, oh. 
nlas (tliMk, esciiuuatione of aoirow. 

Tf 15. Verbal, or redundant. 
aUg;lit awabe arJ 

Alone is composed of all and cin«, with tho old apelling and pronun 



A-, AB, ADS- from. 

[Ldt. At Ib, Ibs /j-om; Sanaorit atA, ip-, ATA /ary "liri, liir-, i**-, a- 
/j-oiM," Ruaaian, Polish, Bohamiiui ob-; Irish as; (Aitac aocidental,) Iriah, 
Gielio a-; Welah af- (ncgatiTB,) a frim, aw a fioK,- eb, wff morion /rem 
or o«(; ob a going from, if Ifial is impelled; wy rta( jji-ocferfs /rom. 
Gothio af, abu; German ttb; Angliah af-, of-, a-; Engliah of, off-.^San- 

abB-tra«t (tkaso) to draw or take from; an abridgment. 

aba-tain (tEneo) to hold from; to forbear or refrain. 

abject (jIctO") thrown awayj mean; worthless. 

nbjure (jtJRO) to swear from; to renounce on oath. 

abrnpt (rumpo, RCPTti") broken off. 

abs-ent being away, (esse to be; ens, gen. ent-Is being.) 

a-vert (vSaTO) ta turn aside, from, or away; to prevent. 

ab-use to use improperly; to maltreat; to revile. 

abs-cond (Oohdo) to hide from, whence e-ooundrel, with 
aba- reduced to s. ablntion a washing off (luo I lave.) 

abbreviate and abridge (^/Joy^V bkbvIs brief) to 
shorten, abridgment a synofsis or compendium. 

advance and advantage, avant-, belong here as hetero- 
nyms of the French av-ancer, av-antage,^from AB, and Snte 
before. The old English authors give the true forms. 



Hcssdb, Google 



PREFIXES 



Ohs. I. s-cout is frcnn SyscBlto I listen, ivs fo!: atris the oar, and 
COLO (CCLTU^) to praotioB. 

2. By the loss of 6, abs- maj become as-, as in IspflarlBB to carry off; 
isPELLBRE to diiro awaj; and ab- ia at- diphthong in avpSro I boar 
awaji iVFUaio I fij from. 

3. It ia doubtful whether nb- or ad- ia the prefli in ahbreviale and 

apo-calypse (?MMj7:Ta> I cover,) a revelation or uncovering, 
apo'cope {x6i:Ta} I out,) a cutting off. 
aph-elion a planet's most distant position from (ffAiu^) 
the mn. a-podal footless. 

A- without. See AN-. 
a-daniant or diamond (aSa'/io.!:, a- not, da(id«i I 
subdue, whence lame,') that (mineral) which is anconquerable. 

TKe ion wu ail of aUiamiDl eltrae^Cia.Hr. 

AT) to. 

[ad, Welsh at, idd n>) i 
oBi Isl. ad, at. Gaelic a 
Welsh sth, a. what is in motion i add, s. a laying «pott,- idd to, inlo; eta 
yft, also; Or. Irl jei. Akin to 8a. at'hI and; Ang. anl, an and; Lat. at 
but; ET and; Bng. and, at, j-bI, to.] 

a- ac- ad- af- ag- al- an- ap- as- at- ar- 
adapt (Srro) to fit to. a^Uiei^ (HiGREo) to stick to. 
admire (mTeoe) to wonder at. adore (oBO) to pray to. 
aeceptt (oapIo) to take to. accede (oedo) to give to. 
alDxt (fIgo) to fis to. affluent (fluens) flowing to. 
aggr^atej: (a. anE-x) flock together. 
aggression (v. GrXdIor, a. grbssus) a stepping towards, 
agglatinatet''(s. glCtSn) glued together. 



Hcssdb, Google 



44 PSEFIXES AL, EL 

alleviate (LEVo) to give comfort to. 

alloqayt (v. loquok) a speaking to. 

annex (NECTo) to tie to. 

aiuiotatloiit (notatio) a noting to. 

announce (nuncio) to bring news to. 

anniMlatei to reduce to (nihil) notWng. 

annulj: (nulliJ" nothing) to make void; reduce to notiiing. 

apparcnti (pJeSo) to be present to. 

append (pbndeo) to hang to. 

appositioii agti>ir«l<enil appro vo apply appropriale 
applaud t^pittslmate. 

asslgnt (siGNO) to inscribe, commit to. 

asaovlate (sSclo) to join. to. 

a'Scend (bcIndo) to climb up. 

a-8cribe to attribute to (in writing.) 

attractt (tkXiio) to draw to. 

attri.li>nf« (trIbCo) to ascribe to. 

axTogatet to claim to (one's self.) 

arrest (itESTO) to bring to a stop. 

a-1-c-r-t, Pr. alerte (a- for ad-, see a- ^f 9; 1- for the 
French article la the,') at the e-Kec-T, on guard. (Lat. 
e-rIg-SbS, E-KE'C-t-O"", to erect, animate, take courage.) 

Oba. Tho flental vocables ad-, ans-, ante, and, at, in, on, &a. may he 
regarded aa akin. 

a], el the. 

[TLe Arabic artiole al (ar-, aa-, nd-,) el. The Spanish article el (Ital. 
il. Port, o,) ia different, being derivea from the Latin pronoun li.LE he,] 

alcove the vault, the arch; Arab, qubbah, Hcb. qiibiih. 
ar-roI>a the fourtlx (of 100 lbs.) 

alcanna the henna, a kind of plant used in djeing red. 
al«ald (qaid) the c&di. alcoran (al qoriin) the reading. 
FomalliaDt (al hiit the fish, fam mouth,') the name of a star, 
Aldelxaj-an (ad dabar&n.) 1-nte a kind of guitar, alqali 

Alpherat alehemy a1«otinl n^rctora el-lxir a-thiiDoi' 
a-prleot arliclioke adinir-ul fis-sdgaj-' (-gay as in guide.) 



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AMBO PEEi-ixBs 4! 

Al-ligator, Port, o lagarto, Sp. el iagarto, the Uiard, Lat. LlclitTua 
with as t, whioh aooounts for tie pars g (gaj.) Elecampane is fo 

ALL- 
[a*0[; 1l!0s othsy, nmther. ALiis oihennise. IlibI eUeahere.\ 

all-egopy AXX--^yop(a a speaking differently (conveying s 
sense different from the natural meaning.) dyupsuai I speak 
in public, par-all-el, p3u>all-ax see FASA. 

alien-tite aliquot alter alternate 

AMBI, AMPHI around, on both sides. 



nmb; Ger. urn around; Lat, iMBi, ahb-, am-, ih-J, aa in an-qviRO / seek 
carefully. Ss. root is, AMH to moiie. See AB.] 

amb-i-eat swroundhi^. (go, 1-sS,, i-Ti5'°, to go.) 

ambitions, am-pn-tate (puTo) to cut ronad or off. 

ampliitheatre (Sea'o/iat, to see) a theatre with the 
view from all sides. 

ampltibrach a poetic foot ( ') with a (/Spaxh-;)- 

short syllable on each side of a long one. 

ab-ont (Ang. ymb-, ymhe-, embe-, emb-utan) round the 
outside. 

AMBO hoth. 

■oot Bmbh fo heap -up. The 

amphl-bi«u8 {6l'o<; life) living in air and water. 

amphis-bsena (So.i-y-ia I go) a geBUS of serpents with 
the head and tail very much alike, and thought capable of 
moving in either direction. 

am'-pliora (ipipm I bear) a vessel with a handle on 
each aide, antb-lguous (Xao I move) dubious, moving 
on both sides, ambidexter ainbi'logy ambi'loquy 



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AN'-, A- without. See in-, un-. 

a-bf»s {SoTnuq the bottom) a bottomlesa pit; immeflsity. 

a-cUroinatic without (j;/i5/i») color. 

a-marautt> (a/idpavTO';) unfading. 

am-ltrosiat \a.p.lipoaia.) the food of the gods; Ap-SpAaio';, 
&^poTog, &l3poTO=: immortal; gpor&g mortal. (The m is due 
to the b.') »-c«pliaIous headless, an-omalj' (a^miiUia) 
irregularity, not (d/W^?) re-sem-hling. an-onymaus with- 
out name, an-odyne (ai--) without (dS^'^^) pain; whence 
(using v^- without,) NaiSv-Aa, n., NiaSvvov, adj. whence the 
corrupt Latinised form laadanum, a medicine which re- 
licYes pain. 

ap«f«l««8 aBymmetric an-eedote nphyUous a^ym-ptote 
H-sylum »-tom awic »«►»« an-JesUicttc a«ar«liy atonic 



ann-cal to temper by means of heat. (Ang. au-sslan, for 
on in, selan to hum, hake.} 

ann-eal (aneal, anele, Ang. sel oU) to anoint. 

Vnhfi°"r, ri&p"poinl=d"™n^=lJ.-'H™'='' Act I, Sc. J. 15<A 
Aiwint is a corrupt form of ««gnmt, but Chaucer uses cn-ojnt (also 
anoynt,) as if to aeaooiate it with French eu-, Latiu in- 

JJVJ. Eac/i, i«p, again. 

[Ss. AND on, <./'«■'■ ar. fli-S tnot, 4o., S™ «),Mt.rrfs; Gotliic ana up, 
on in ■ Ger. anj Eng. on. Sa. root Sn to mime.'] 

«~iiW.l« (iJ -«; ;) > loOBing laot, an undoing, nnmolling, 
or explanation, analyst analytic 

-anapest (W» I rtrilce, « b.oli) > pooBo tool, lie 
a'nSpeat, used in Greelc and Latin verae. 

on.ea.l«m a disease of the arteries. (.5fiiV» to i.late, 
swell «n, broaden om(.) 

an»'-««imou. running up, said of sea fi.b whek aseend 



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ANTI PKEFIXE3 47 

rivers, anadem a chaplet, (&va-Moi to bind up or around.) 
analogue something with a paraUdum, or correspondence 
with something else, ana'logons ana'logy 

anamorphosis a forming anew, or over again. 

anatreptie ooefturning, upsetting, subversive. 

an-clioret one who retires, goes away, goes hack; from 
■(wplu) I go, give way. 

ana-tomf dissection, a catting up, ttrough, or apart. 

anabaptist one who baptises offain. 

anacbi-ouism a transposition of periods of (^-^pAnoq) time. 

anoKi'iuu (uiastoma'Bls ana-glyptle anii-lectlc 

AH-O adv. above, up. 
ano^stoiEia a genus of snails in which the (nTd/ia) mouth 
or ajierture of the shell is turned upward. 

ANTE, AJSfT" be/ore. 

[Ss. ATI besond, ANK BgaCiisl; Gr. Sna, nm- n^,ai)«(, ic/o^y Lat. abtE, 
ANTI-, Oaeon antek i<i/o«j' Ital. iinte-, nnti-, anai; Rnaa. ot-i Go. anda, 
and-; Ang. euda-, and-, nt-, at-. Sanaorit root at or ah to mofe.] 

ante-, anti-, ant-, an-, -aunt, -ance, anci- 

antecedent (cedo 1 go) going before. 
an-eestor for antecessor or anfcessor. 
antedate antemeridian antedUuvias anti-cipale 
an-ti-que iuiei-«iit adi-ance advaiitoge uvauut 

'^AlfTI, ANT-, ANTII- against. See ante. 
ant-ugonist he who has ('o^dii') a contest against some one. 
ant-ai-ctic opposite to the arctic region or circle. 
antii-eDmintie (iliuvi^ a worm) a medicine given to 
expel tape-worms, &c. anti'patbif adverse (jaffog) feeling. 
an-swer (swear, Ang. andsvarian,) to speak in return. 
a-long (Aug, andlang, ondlong,) at length, lengthwise. 

antispnsmodlc nntibilioiiB anlicfaamber ant-»cld 
ant^ecian antb-em antidote ^anti'iMid-eB antl'thesis 



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APO, AP-, APS- from. See AB-. 

apogee a point in the orbit of tlie moon (and sun) most 
distant (Swo) from (j-^) tlie eartb. 

apologue (Xoyoi; a discourse) a fable with a moral mean- 
ing apart from the narration, apology vindication, eseuse. 

apoplexy {AxoizXrfiia.) a striking down. Adj. apoplectic. 

apoHlntpEie ap«staay apocalypse aith-elion aph-orism 
apfa-ie'resiB ap-8s;oKe apa>slle agtolb^iu a|)othe'»!us 

AR- 

[An obsolete Latin preposition in In-iiiT-aR, aBBimilated to ag- in as- 
ag-ger-ate, and present in Sboebso (froquentatiTe of ciBO / tall,) I sum- 
mon, HCMHis, rejjeoi. Iriali and Welali ar upon, henee Armoriaa a oounlry 
o» (mor) th^ ,ea.-\ 

arbiter (bIto I go) one who goes near; a looker on; an 
umpire, ai'bitrator arbitration arbitrary arbitrate 

exaggerate to heightea by representation. (a-GbEro I 
heap up, add; exa-GgEro Ilieap up much, magnify.) 

AUTO- self 

autograpb (ntJTiJ? one's self, ypi-fii a writing) a person's 
handwriting. 

anto'maton Qj-olm to feel an impulse,) a self-moving 
mechanism, autocrat (xpa'-roq rule) one who rules alone. 

rate it with design of euatii^om- aimlratton both of Us gallantry and nit.— IFesi- 

anth-entic self-authoritative; avOs^riio, to have authority 
or independent power; from the second aoriat participle stf, 
gen. &To;, of iijiii to be (or to put) in motion. EUenic 
(Modern Greek) adefy-ni^, pronounced a^Ohdi^ (with r as 
English (7,) a master of his own actions, a proprietor, whence 
the Turkish effendl Sir., a title of respect. Reis effeaOi 
chief effendi; Arabic rais a pLief. 

Author is ftom 8®" Svgeo. 



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avant hefora. See A-, ab. 
avantGOuricr (cuero I run) one wlio runs (Inte) before. 

B-, P-, F-, V-, W-, J1I-, be- hy ; to •mihe, &c. 

[HeliraB e-; Sjriao, Bthiopio Di at, hj, in. Arabia, Persian TA- (wn^) 
by, mith, Para, hi-. Go. bi; old Eng. bo-, Li-, by- ; old Ftisiim bi-, be-, 
b-; old Ger. bi, pi, pe, be, pa, hs,; old Saion bi-; Ger. bo-; Ang. be, ti, 
big, b-, oa in b-innan wiilhm,- Balg. bij ; Dan., Swod. be-, bi-. Sansotit 
tEHi iy, on, API near, 0". Pers. ba, aba ailh; 6c. ^r', on. SnnBerit labial 
coots Tl, vi, AB to moM. Welsh u'f thai i> over or diffmed, aw a flow, af 
a going forward, ib that i-h«< forward, £fy aptaesa to mave. Attn to J®- 
AB, 0B-, AMBI-, and ifldiaating approaeh, junetion. It Bometimoa Beeves to 
locate the aot, and sometimes intensifies.] 

beset (Ang. biaettaii) to set on, make an onset. 

besiege to sit by, to inveat with an army. 

benumb (Ang. benuman) to make (cause to be) numb. 

bemire to make miry, or cover with mire, § 86. 

bebead to deprive of the head. (Ang. bihedfdiaa.) 

r-la..me {(p-Uy-p-a, P^LAMMXt) f-ltckei-, ni-:^id, 
b-leacb,' b-iaii«b, bliuk, blank, ^ bleab, blacb, 
bligbt, blaze, please, placid, flaBb,j;Latin lBcEo, to 
gUtterj f-Xfy-oj, F-LSoao, to burn.) 

b-lof (lIno, LlTti",) to bedaub, p-tecation rog-ation. 

p-linth, p-late, f-lat, B®' lAtus broad. 

b-i-ave Welsh rhab, old Ger. raw. 

w-aste euSia, to eat, waste. 

flap, blab, lip, lobe, AsTri; AottIs a scale, breab wreck 
flavons livid 

be^ln, old Eng. biginnen, I3W); bigan, 1280. hi gets. Bob. GlonooB- 
tec. Itefliouglil. bithOHto, 12g0. bylaw, Ang. bdagu. a-b-ore, Ang. 
b-nian. a-brfitt, Ang- besftan. 

becalm bedim bedeek bcdi'op become befiil betray 
bdoii betneeu before beside 

dep-rive be-reave plaud taud flag: lag 

block lock plnmp lump blithe litlie 

brim rim IVlgld rigid flaccid Sia( lax 



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50 PREFIXES 



BIS 



woi-li irk, co-erce. b-eali, b-ea«-oii see under -iV. 
m-orn :^ orior. 

b-ootli W. twth, from wtL that expands, f-oo-d see D-. 

m-axlUiHT m-ncwmata ni-eii«Po m-agnify b-ig m-ioroaeope 
T-ex v^lee v-lciiiii v-asront vicinity vigor 

tioular object, behind, in tho posterior position; it may bo tatennve, as 

Obs. 2. In Welsh lamoa, B, P (for ai, o;.) maans son, a,B in Pnco (ap 
Rhys.) Pugh, Parry, Biirry, Bevan, Boners, 

Obs. 3. In old books are found tho forma bibolde, biheidD, Wore (old 
Gor biforii ) bisvona. Ihon Fra,mpton ISJT, uses bioauso; R. of Branne 
Sme, bi^ougH biforh.ndi Wiolif bibolde; and Chano.r (born 1328) 
beblotto, begiled, bcrained, bimene (moan,) biwopen (weep,) biliere. 

Oba.4. In German gral>oniB(orf;3,besraben « tu>-j,- halUn (» 
i.ld, bebalten t. h.^, yerbalten to retai., klagen to ^mp^™". 
bsklagen t,, pity, anklagen to accuses langen «. ™a.i ("S as m 
Bint-Of ) verlangen to d.9ire, balangen to altmi,, whence M^ng. 

ObB. a, Polish lewy kf-t, {^ as English .,) wle«o on ih. lo/l An 
accidental leBomblanoe ocoura in tlie Caffre amba to oatch, pambft io 
hold J'vst. 

BINI too 6y too. See bis. 

bin-ocalai- pertaining to, or liaving two eyes; pertaining 
to a telescope or otter optical instrument, adapted to vision 
with both eyes simultaneously. 

binairr combliialloii liln»xld 

BIS, DIS- m two, twicn. 

zS^ri'isl^'^i-rWelah dis-, di-. Gr. im in t^o ^a.j>; 6ra^ {Ionic 
J,f^, Attio iirrds) doubU; *»- Ihrottgh. Sansorit root no or nyis lo ™i, 

bi-Be«t dis-sect (SECO, SECTti") to cut in two. 
biscnlt twice baked bicornouB having two horns. 
ba-lBKce BILANX (LANX a disli) a pair of scales. 

biangular bivalve biped bl8-sextlle 

Biology is a (Adj-o?) discourse on (tff'05) life- 



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bu- augmentative. 
[floS, often referred to gi-k am oi, but Eicbhoff refers it to Sanscrit 

ballmj' (fio'iXZuta.) morbid insatiable (Itn&q) hanger. 

Ell- means ox in bugloas (oitoDgue,) buoolic, bueentaur, bncraiiia. 

*-! 8-j ff-! »- much, perfectly J he-. 
[Gothic gn-; Gar., Ang. g«-; old Ger. ga-, gi-, kn-, oa-, ki-, gia-, 
oha-, ba-; old Siuson gi-; Swed., Dan. ge-; old Prisiim gi-, i-, je-, is-, e-, 
i-j B-i Gr. £-, y-, K-, OS in Mfii; and yA/jjuj JJearednef*,- XMu / take, n-Xiir-™ 
/sieoJ. Old Bng.i-,y-; English a.; Welah o-,g-; Celtioh-. Aim to 
the Greek and Latin gHttuval reduplioatioD of the perfeoi tense. Its in- 
tanBivB power is seen in the Welsh wrdd impahe, gwrdd tehemenl; Ss. nlr 
(m if raah) to riag, CEUC to i-es^ia^id. As intenaivea and testrictiveB, ge- 
and.be- are allied, and the following are Anglish examples of their use 

fjllan to fill, befjUao to Jilt «j., gefyllan to fulji!. 

healdaii to hold, behealdan (o beheld, gehealdan (o preterm.] 

«-roop a disease of the throat accompanied by a peculiar 
cough; Belgian roepen (oe aa in shoe) to call; geroep a cry. 

a-ware (Ger. v. gewahreii,) having a perception of. 

g>leajii (Aii'/tjTui) to shine much. 

cli-lor-iiio a gas of a greenish color. (yXapfir; green; 
(i«!|0-5; pale, (whence lily}) luh-Id-Os lui-id.) 

in-c-Iinc, as if in^c-lean, xll'-jw I bend. . 

q-uabe, q-nog-mire, wag. g;-uile, wile, c-recp kepo. 

a-mong Ang. gemang, mseng-an {ng as in singer) to mix. 
a-bacb Ang. gebsec. e-nough Ang. gen<ih. y-ore Aog. 
ge&ra, ser, or time. y-ond-er Ang. geond. clammy 
loam, lime. cloud Aug. hlidan to cover, c-lump lump. 
«-runipte rumple, ga-llop <!-lip leap. c-Hflf Jekci^ a rook. 

e4Hi, g-ral>, g^rlpc, rob. g>niiiitile g-Iance 8;-laIie c-rnde 
A-Ilhe a-rlght a-iruke n-Iong a-w«nry a-Mtt ''agvn y-eleped 
■*JSOii '■ydom Jeo-pardr oready, aredj', QotMc garaide. 

it oMglii ynough luffife 

Fi.E houre> for lo Dcpc upon a ul6hl.-JJ. 



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€ATA, CAT- CATS- against, down. 

cataplasm (TtXaa/rio I smear) a medioinal plaster. 

eat-ccliise, ^x^<a I echo, utter, xt.rrixi''' I sound abroad, 
teach (with the Toice.) 

cataract a falling or dashing down. 

^atastroplie a turning over, or upside-down. 

eHt-a«oinI) an underground structure for the repose of 
the dead. (xara-xot^iiZia to set xutA down to sleep.) 

catacliresis, (xP'l'^"0 ^^ C**^ ^ word, xara) against its 
proper sense, as in calling a camel a 'ship.' 

catalogue has the prefix restrictive; the word meant 
according to account or selection, having heen applied to the 
list of persons se-lec-ted for military duty. See under § 86. 

catalepsy, a disease in which sensation and motion sud- 
denly cease: Xaftfidviu, to take, seise, (and with xara-) to 
seize /)'m?y, the prefix being intensive and restrictive. 

cath-olic pertaining to, or including (E^o;) all; goncral; 
universal. 

[%;., i67i- 



CAT-0 adv. Mow. 
cato'stoma, a genus of American fishes (known as 
suckers) in which the (orofio.) mouth is (xdroi) below, 

CIRCUM around, about. 

[Lat. ciKoSs, eiRcfJLua a eirelej yHf-is car-ved, gyr-ate. Sa. loot or a 
tu ciiciose.] 

clrcamanibulate to walk around. 
cireninnaTigate to sail round. 
cifcunipolnr about the poles. 

ribe •vallatlon -ambient ■locDtlan >flex -Bpe«t 



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CIS on tlm suit. 

[ei-B, a Latin preposition formed of tho indioational element C, and the 
idForbial auflii -s in bis, twi-oo.] 

«isH]piue on thi-s (the Roman) side of the A1|b. 
■J cisatlantic on this (the Bitropfian) side of the Atlantic. 

C-L' oontinuative. 
The root of ech-o (and ic-riis a blow,) gives the following — 

oiaeK (laugh 1-iok) click dock cludi cinug: cliuk 

00-, CON-, SYN with, together. 



; co-ad-, co-al-, co-ap-; 
connic-: con-suh-: cou 



■ e-] 



r (CUKRO I run) to agree in opinion. 

' rwiigi-csate (grex a flock) to assemble together. 

conn-sel coNalLrC" eonsultatjon, advice. (consBlo, to 
COD suit, advise.) 

coun-eil concIlIC" an assembly summoued by authority, 
(cZlo ajid cXtO I oall.) 

comlt-raBtion (8^" Olio,) h is educed from m, which is 
assimilated from n before the labial vowel. 

cu-stonn, Lat. COnSueTUdineM. cn-aoli COi.lOCo 
I put in place, lodge, enr-py to dress leather; Ital. cor- 
redare, old Fr. conroyer to dress or prepare. (H. Wedgwood.') 

4,a-asb, old French esquachier to crush; Latin co-SctOs 
a constraining. (^Dip.z.') 

constnict convene conduce coiidisn ro-gnate co-opernfe 
v»eqn»l c«C3tist. co-st conn-tenan<w compose! compress 

sjincBBi-oiinKS (jpovoi; time) simultaneous. 
sj'oonLj'inotis (Svona name) identity of meaning. 



Hcssdb, Google 



54 PREFIXES CONTRA 

system ("r>TTj)//(, to set) a Betting tog th to f math y 

systole (trrWAiu I aend,) tLo cont a t n of th h 
which sends the hlood forward; the rev e f dia t 1 

syllable (Xaiifidvto I taie) a taking to th ( n h 
of a word as oan he pronounced at an imp I ) 

sym-ptoinj (arirrw, to fall) that wh h h pp I) / 

something else; a concomitant sign or Jnd at n 

symmetpy (jihpu/ measure) regular p p ti n 

sympathy (wttCo; feeling) fellow f 1 n 

»y-»ysy (^^r'*'"- ^ yke) a joining together. 

Obs. syn- becomes bj- before areak Z beoanse this being «rf (in nisdom,) 
the n of Bjn- nould be brought before *, which would not be a Greek 
sequent. But if Gceelt Z were d» (as soma euppoae) it would be possible, 
nd being a Greek aequHit, as in oin-asXtia joint-servitude; a^'a mHnhood. 



[In Sanacrit, the root r 
BiN-t SA,4 toUh, wbioh Hii 
Latin CUM, Gr. Byu. (fImI) » 



going (cCm) with, accompanying. 



CONTRA agaimt, opposite to. 

co%tra-st (STO) to stand against, or in opposition to. 
coHDtei-niBrcli to march in an opposite direction, 
eonnterlialancc to balance witt an opposite weight, 

contrary conti-avene contradlstlnBulsh tjonlradict 



EOiitr»>vert ei>uiit«r KHiiileract -sig 

eountry-dance, in which the dancers stand opposite 
each other. A heteronym.* 

eont-vol, aa if counter-roll, a check-hook — it-s primary 
■; restraint; v. to restrwn; to direct. 



Hcssdb, Google 



CONTRO- agaimt 



coDti-orert (veBTO V. a. I tiirn, otange, overthrow) to 
turn an argument against an opponent; to dispute. 

C-R', G-R' 

[IntenaiTB Lind imUitive, and ooivimonly inaicativo of noise. See C-L'.] 

croak (crBC-1o, i^xpdi^iu,) to cry as a raTen. 
crack the noise of striking or breaking, (xplxui, to strike, 
to sound from striking.) cricliet a noisy inacct. 



D-, T-, L-, N- intensive, frequentative. 

[Oreak inlsnsiTe i.-, in-, (BoiemiaH do-,) us in Ai-mrroi iwy thadj/, (com- 
paTfl du-flk-y;) ^a-ji^iToi v&-y rich; i-^-ta I reap; r-pi^-w 1 Tub; A-pvif-Tia I 
(ear,- S-f6t-m I brtak. 3toh a aovnd, the eai-; feS clamor,- tlji ecioj A-imu, 
to aoimd like bi-eaMtigj- A-iyu, to speak. Lnt L-ooffaTl a grasshopper (a 
noisr inaeot;) L-BqvSB 7 ipfoft, pLSoIto / rffmanrf,- D-ico / say; n-BcSo 
/ l-encft; R-000 / OJt; lA-h-yni (Je seat of the voice. .Welall frequenta- 
tive dy-, as in yw that eiieti, t-wy (o live, b-wy-d f-oo-d, liifyta to eat, 
dy-fwyta to 4e fHiinj' o/r«n; Itjsli d-lighe iaw,] 

d-letal« diction doclor or Maeber— l-<^c dial-t^nc dialect 
apology— locution loqnneity locust o-I-ack c-l-ang f-l•I■g^■ltI• 
ona-ness— d-rnm t-runipet runi"ble rumor 8t^rep-eroua~-l-alEe, 
iix^fOi [^9- tango] tangible touch ta<!t technical dignity 
d-ecens ind<loate d-exti«ns pand-eet dactyl tit-ing— 1-lcIi a 
blow, Lat. Ictus; ico / itrihe; N-gco / hill, l-ribalation diatribe 
t-rouble tli-roh d-m(j, (r-prir-rSp a pestle.) d-rlve pl-agne kn-ock 
n-ndge kn-nekle— n-oadoiis inn-ocent n-^ht 

d-nindle wane d-arn (Welsli a patch, from arn a ffo^ent.) 

d>eei), W. wf aBow, a glide, that is liquid; dwfn oHsiii, Qiedeep. 

t-wirl whirl t-poll t>rill trip trainp ti^pc trap 

de, d- of. See dE. 

[Frenoh de. d' of. ] 

dandelion Ft. dent de lion lion's tooth. 



Hcssdb, Google 



56 pKEriXEs DE 

dalftodll Fr. fieur d'asphodSle asphodel Jlovyer. 

diagier figured linen (d'Yprea) of Tpres in Flanders. 
(In the language of Holland and Flanders, y or ij has the 
power of English y in hy.) louis d'or moidoi-e 

(A' duck,') 

d-rak« tho male of fhe ISnIs, gan. I'nITis, Ital. anaTlta, Oer. enTS, 
Ban. anD,) duok. (Gor, ent-r-ioli, Dan. and-r-tfc a rfratc.) In old Bng- 
liali, drahe is also a form of dragnn, as mfire drake a meteor. 

de-coy a luro or SDare (originaHj, to taho duolis;) y, t. to lead into 
danger. (Elomish eend a dimk, booi a aahin, eendekool a looality oon- 
tiived for taking wild-dncka.) 

decoyman lie who deooja wild fowl. (Flemish kooiman, the no BS in 
floor.) The e of decoy is to be sought in the plaral eendsn, rather than 
in eende l}ie dative singular. 

DE- 



vl[ 1. doiBIt, dovininard. 

depend (pendEo) to bang down from. 

depose (8®" vGno) to put down, from, aside, off, away. 

d«p«Dcnt deposit depoBitlMi depot depo^uMry 

dejected. (jScIo) cast down; disheartened; discouraged. 
despise, despite (,^* SpSclo) to look down on. 
destitute (statBo) placed or fixed down; forsaken. 
decoction (B®" coQvo; DicoQVo to boil down or away.) 
degenerate grown worse, or from its kind, ^ 2. 
decurrent running downward. 

decadence, decidnons (cSdo) a falling down, or from. 
debate (Fr. battre) to beat down (with argument.) 

depress dcK'H^e debase deerewse deterionite dcpreclaM 
decline dei^vily descend devolve decumbent de^|ude 
dc mnlc ent defluxlon demerslAn dey^^ltj' demise '■'demil; 

Oba. Aa he shortens into Ua, Um, so de- 13 mostly di- in prnniinoiation, 
nhenee the spelling forms di.(for ae-)minutive and diifilU; and 
dhauaer's distraetion. 



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DB 



57 



Dec-ussate (dece" (en,) having cross lines in the direction 
of those of the numeral sign X. 

Den^aHus (deni ten by ten,) a silver coin equal to ten ases. 
See Matthew 20 :2, 23 :19, etc. where it is wrongly trans- 
lated penny. It was worth about eight pence English. 

f 2. from, away, aside. 

detail! (tEnSo) to hold from or hack; to hinder. 
'despair (B@°- spero I hope,) removal from hope, 
deduce (8@" duco) to draw from; infer, (deduco I 
draw or bring down, from, out, with, in, back.) 
deflect to bend aside. 

deviate to go aside, from, or out of the (via) way. 
deambnlBte to walk abroad. 

decease to die. (deoedo I go away, depart, subside.) 
dellqn^ce to (dissolve, separate by liquefiiction. 
debar to shut out, keep from. 

deltnd to fence out or in, ward off, keep away, repel. 
deport to carry away, -ment carriage;, behavior. 
detriment (S@- teeo, to rub, wear,) damage by nse. 
detri'tus material worn away, particularly from rocks. 
defray to remove or discharge (Pr. frais) expenses, 
detraetion a drawing away, detergrent cleansing away. 
devoid void by taking something away. 
destitute poor, in want of, (as food, virtue, &c.) destI- 
Tiro I fix or fasten down, abandon, run away from, desert. 
„ de-gen^^rate removed from its ancestral kin-d. ^ 1. 

deeamp d«bnrh depart deter (desert^ de horl . If 4) 
detain dednct desist d efraud deforce defidca te deprive 
deceive decide der<^ate des'ultory (decay If 1) detach 
detail deter depurate d eput ation dQt|^^e detrnnsate 
dt^^mie defile E. d eligh t delectable d^Ui^as d etart 
d«laar detract derive~^dsjac5e Mecem devest or divest 

I Mi-iUty iB from nBBiLis feeble; Hai, to nood. 



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58 



DE 



^ 3. PrivatiTfl. 
Separative of an object, and based mostly on B'mns 
dccortocate to deprive of, rsmon'', or t,f]jarat' the 
(oOrtex) bark, deodorise to deprive of odor 
desulphurate to deprive of (suLFtJB) sulphur 
depilatory a preparation for removing (pilB&; pile or hair. 
dem^ited deprived of mad 

riMuirlMinlse df intpula ie deoapitale demornlise denat- 



: di^m^n 



1ifjn.rp. piobably belongs to dis , Lat, dif-i'aho, to speak 



\ i. Negative, oppositive, 
EcVflrslvB of, or oppnBitWe to an net, and basfid on verba. The negtxtm 
of eompoaed ia unoompoaad, hat its n^jjo-iiiite is decomposed. 

de'snetnde want of practice; disuse; not (svEsco, 
svetB",) in the habit of. 

destruetion (STRtto I buOd, construct,) the aet of pull- 
ing down, iiwfising, rfmrranging; the reverse or oppodte of 
construction, as develop ia the reverse of envelop. ^ . 

deTapopatton the changing of vapor into wateriirtf'f'^'^ 

demolish (molIor, to build,) to wnhuild; pull down. 

d«;hort to advise to the contrary; to dissuade. 

detain to uJiform; to deprive of form; to disfigure. 

deplete (oompleo I fill up, make full,) to render loss full. 

detect (TEOO, te'CtC" to cover,) to mbcovot, t^Mcover, 
expose, decrease to grow less. 

de'sert an uncultivated waste. (sekO, satC", to sow, 
plant; DESERO to cease to sow; to leave uncultivated.) 

dese'rt to abandon in contravention to a compact. (SEUO, 
SE-KTtJ", sipiu, to bind, join.) 

decompose to separate what was composed; to decay. 



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dei^cttve, defl«ient not fullj or j^irfectly made; having 
a part unmade. 

defeat to undo; to overthrow; to frustrate. 



di-s^ gyel to have or put the hair in disorder, (Fr. d&- 
oheveler; from chevcu hair.) 

Demer it may he placed here, but in Latin it would heiong 
to 16. 

desecTBle del^aslble defecUon dci'«£a)« detiicta 



are spelt Tvitli di-, and Chaucer hns fcrm 



Sfack, etitirfti/. Based npon verba, and perflslect, oonclueive, or oom- 
pl«ti.e. 

detonate to burn with a sudden explosion; t6no to 
sound, to thunder; detono to thunder; to finish thundering. 

deflagrate to burn violently. 

depredate, despoil U> plunder much. 

devastate to lay waste much, or entiroly. 

decide (caedo) to cut short; to determine. 

declare to make very clear, to maintain. 

deltiscent gaping wide, depatise, delegate to give 
in special charge, to intrust with a particular businesa. ^ 7. 

decrepitate to split with continued crackling, or to the 
utmost, aa salts in the fire. (DKCRErlTfls^osf making noise.^ 

decrepit completely shattered. 

desolate entirely (solus) alone. 

dereliction an entire re-linq-uiahment. 

desiccate to make thoroughly (slccils) dry. 

dcftanct (iCngSr to perform,) entirely done, performed, 
or gone through with. 

aepnMnre d«pnnporat« dCTOiir desiderate (Ie»ire 
liHl<^fitllg;aIile iies|i»nil 



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giving B hope; it may he an imensine; and by assooiating the prefix with 
de- of deject, despair, it may in this plane have the sense of dowa or from. 
Similarly, deArone may mean to depose, f 1 ; to drive fr<m, % 2, or de- 
prive of a throne, f 3; and to unthrone, as tha oppoaite of enthrone, ^ 4, 
Theeo oiamplea show that in some oases the same word may be plaood 
Duder different heads aooording to tho shades of meaning with which it is 
'acEOoiated. gee g| 86-39. 

^ 6. Causative. 

deprave to make or cause to be (pravOs) crooked or per- 
verse. deppaTCrtvitiated; distorted, depravity perversity. 

destine to canse to stand; to appoint, assign, determine. 

detei*inine to fix a (TERMiNTJs) limit; establish; adjust. 

^ 7. Locative. 

dedicate to wiscribe or ossign to a particular person or 
purpose, devote (devoat,) to consecrate to a special use. 
(vSvEo I vow.) dei-ide (rTdeo, rIsB") to laugh at a par- 
ticular object, deplore to lament, etc, dclinqucacy a 
leaving or departure /rem a duty; an omission. 

depict to paint or draw from an object. 

demonstrate to point out, ea^plain something. 

deprecate to pray (earnestly, ^ 5,) against something. 

detestation (testoR, to aver,) imprecation against. 

denunciation a threatening announcement; a declara- 
tion against. 

delineate tloscrlbe deflne determine dosig^nato d«n«t« 
denominate delude dellrlnna defitult delUciMioii demand 
demur deny ^ S, 8. 



^ 9. For DI-, DIS-. 

Defsr, is differ accented on the second syllable. Befi/, 

Ital, dis-fidare, to break fiuth. Belay, for dilay, DlLiTlo a 



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putting off. DeVage, Lat. DI-LUvIum. Device, devise, are 
from the root of divide. Device, device, are from the root of 
divide. 

Obs. Spelling and etjmalogy have hat tlttla dounexiou, and an Sngliah 
word may or may not follow a French originaL The deoejitive form 
'plithieic' ia supposed to be as mucli Qreck as thetie, atttiaugti tbo prouun- 
eiation and the form indicate the contraiyj the Greefc word being f8:<tit 
(phthisis,) Frensh pbthisie, Italian tbica. and Spanish Cisica. Bishop 
Wilkins wrote 'tissiok' in 1683, and Milton 'tiaiio' about (be same lima, 
'phtbieio' being apparently a later form, wbereas, drop'ij and jtn'uuy are 
regularly deriTed.from 'bydtopisy' and ' equinancy,' which !iad prnceded 

The following ara examples of variation batwean Frenoli and English 
words. 



matiage 


^..rri«i„ 


messager 




prSambole 




pretention 


prete,,Ei<„ 


preprints 


pr'^psriy 






tapport 


repoi-f 


aym^triqna 


iffm«ulri, 



demi- half. 

[dBo (WO,- DficlDi5% Fr. demi a lialf. See bis-.] 

■lemigod alemlqimver demilune denilgoi-g:e demitiiit 

Demiurge a subordinate creator; Sijiuupyo'; a maker, a 
chief Dorian magistrate; Sij/iZoq public; e^o^-oi- a work, s 



des- separative; intensive. 
[Freaeli i^s-, a, form of dis-, oonfused with de.] 
des-cry (dE-oerno,) to perceive distinctly; to discover. 
des-cant de-can tIre to sing or repeat often. 
despatcli, Sp. despachar, to do or send immediately. 
dis-, des-habille (Pr. d&^bill^) an informal dress. 
desse'rt the last course of a repast. 



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DIA through. See bis. 

diameter (Sta p.izpoy) measure througli. 

di-seresiH (a.lpio> I take,) a taking apart (the two ele- 
ments of a diphtkong, aa in saying claw-y for c%.) 

diffitvibe a continuous disoourse (dia-r-pt^Ti a rubb-iog, a 
lecture, a dispute.) diadem (^lo-Siiu I bind around.) 

dlulogne (A(l;-o^) discourse between (several persons.) 

dca^con Sidxovn^ an attendant; (xovig dust; xoviw I run 
rapidly, raise dust, be active, serve.) 

diapbauonB dli^/onul dlag^ram dlaMnic de-vil +dlsel 



DI-, BIS- apart, -un^. 

[Separative, djs-, nl; It, di-, dis-, a-; Sp. di^, dis-, de-, das-; Fc. di-, 
die-, dS-, dea-. See BIS.] 

Tfi. 

diverge (vlKGO) to incline apart. 

dislocate to put out of (Locfris) place, 

disqaisitiOn (QV^ao I seek) inquiry into part-iculars, 
or separate parts, digress (.^^ ge5b15r) to step aside. 

discuss (QVJiTlo, QVAseo", to shake, heat, quanh, con- 
cMss,) to shake apartj — used in its primary sense in surgery, 
as,to discuss pimples. Compare debate, de, ^f 1. 

dispel to drive apart, distract t« drarW apart. 
disjoin to unjoin, place apart, separate. 
dimini^It to lessen by separation of a part. 
discourse a passing from one thing to another. 
disperse (a@" bpaego) to scatter widely. 
dl-stant stand-ing apart, direct to regulate, arrange. 
dispose (B©" PONo) to distribute, arrange, adjust. 

dlB-c«m dis-tlngolsli dlsoriioina** ■ 4liS8»lve dispose 
dlMfer dlfltise display, splay disport, sport dilate 
dllapldal« dUnto digest delnee divide, devise, device 



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DYS- PREFIXES 63 

112. 

Dia- has a separative and negative or reversing force, as in 
disagree not to agree. disEionest not honest, difficult 
Tin-fac-ile, not easy, dtslieai-ten to deprive of heart or 
coTir-age. deiWne (diffamo,) to spread an evil report of 



Tjs. 
In diiBcult discolor dis«uiiii>>rt disease discord 
disat^ter the idea of dis- is allied to that of 8v^- iU, badly. 

Oba. I. Diaease ia based on ease like Bahem. nediik (Eiobnesa) OD its 
(not) and diii (to thrive.) 

Obs. 2. The dis in diac-jplo (bIsco I learn ] and disc oidal fonn part of 
tho root. In di-Bhevel, s belong t th t yll bl S b-, 1" i. 

Oba. 3. Dia- is used for da- ( tt tw f d) d sguiso, dis- 

dain, distress, disarm (de-Skha b ) d b ( Fr. d^s-, Sp, 

des-,) disscTor. Oosson {167B) d fer (d pi ) nd Cliauoer 

dUcerU (deaoent,) and dispise. 

Otis. 4. AlthoUEh CEFERO (I rry a ) L t w d defer and 

differ are from (dia-) niFFERo I p d tl D f d f me (f 2; ne, 
V 3,) derange, deform (Pr. diffocmer,) maj be plaeod here ajao. 

DUO, DU- two. See bis. 



DTS- bad, hadly. 

\ifs-l Sa. DDg, BtiK bad, badlg, as in nusMANis, Gr. &v<hcs!s «i-jiiHded, 
kattils; H/t, misfortune; Ruas. diSrao badly. 8s. root dd, DtJs to harm. 
Gothic tU3 - and Irish do- (implying diffimlly) probably belong here.] 

ilyspepsy duiTKei/'la bad digestion, (ir^irriu to eook, digest.) 
dysopsy dimness of sight. (&(p eje, look.) dys«nf«rf 
dyspnoea difficulty of breathing, (irvci^ air, breath.) 
dysphagy difficulty ia swallowing, (^aysiy to eat.) 



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C'lope Belg. ont-loopen, Gor. ent-laufen, to run away, 
eseapej loopen, laufen to run. 

e- prosthetic. 

[This e- is without meaning. In Spanish, initial S is not followed by 
certain consonaDts, aa eay and p; but as esc-, esp-, &o. are initial nombi- 
BatioBB, there ia a fooling that initial S in forms like so-, ep- ought to 
make a diatinot ajllable, a, feeling which is realised by prefixing e-, which 
oauaed scflEPiON-is and spbcjke to booome eeaorpioit and especie. French 
has thia feature toaloas extent.— Snirf. Analytic Orthography g 213-20.] 

e-squire or squire scOtIoEr (scuTtJ" a shield, gero I 
bear,) the armor-bearer of a knight; one legally entitled to 
use armorial ensigns; a justice of the peace. 

opniilette «scalaUc eHcutcheun esdicw espalier vspy 
etiquette 

EN in. 

[h, -in, on, „ers; i)--!, iX-I, if-t, eto. See IN.] 

eiigrnTe (jpafio) to write or cut in. enallosanriam 

pertaining to a (eaupd) lizard living (ii'') in the (uAtj sea. 



[The French form of J^~ in, em-l, am-,t an-.] 

eaelose to close in. am-busb, am-busc-ade, old Eng. 
emboyssement, abuohyment, Ital. imboscata, Fr. embiiohe, 
{as if) in-bush-ed, in the bushes. 

embraccl: (brSchIO™ the arm,) to claap in the arms. 

encircle enlbld entitle endure entail entice enmity 
«mlM»dyt eniponer emperor embalm eiubollislJi engine 

Obi. En- is preferable to in-, inasmuch aa it haa a nniforra meaning. 



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EQUI PBEnxEs 65 

ENDO-, E]>rTO-, TNDI-, WD- 'udthln. 

^ endocai-p (io.p-d^ fruit,) tile hard lining or stone of fruit 
like the peach, or cherry, 

eiido'geuon^i, CDdogcncs plants growing within the 
trunk, and not by external layers like the exogeces. 

lodi-genous produced within; native to a country. 

iDd-lg;eiit in want, (egeo I want, need; Eqens needy.) 

entOEOn {Zwov ac animal, pi. Zoia) animals (worms) living 
in other animals. 

enter- 8ee inter 
enterprise aft undertaking, entertainment eutersolo 



[W, At-, U-, often intensiye or detorminatirc] 

epide'rmis the cuticle or outer skin, tlat (ij:!) on or 
over the true (Sippa) akin. 

epi-Hc«p-ai having the super-vision of a bi-shop. 

epilrapli au inscription on a (ra'f.og) tomh, 

epi'plianr {im^S.yia,') a festival conimemoratiye of the 
appearance of our Lord; ij!t.^ac\a> (see -n- intensive,) to 
shine upon, to come forth (on an occasion.) 

epi-stle l!!taTai^ (armm I Bend,) something sent, as in- 
telligence, a despatch, or a letter (by a messenger.) 

eph-einernJ pertaining to {r,tiipa) a day. 

ep-e'n-tliesis the (eicK) placing of an element or sylla- 
ble (1^1, h,) in a word, as in saying Tartar for Tatar. 

eqal- equal. 

eqni-val-cnt of equal val-ue. eqninox the period 

when the (nox) night is (.^QviSs, gen. «Qvt) equal to the day. 

equilibrium (l!bra a balance,) of equal weight. 

equidtelant equlnnKnlUF cqnlty eqn-anlnillf equality 



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EU, EV-, well, good. 

id iae}l, very; 8a. S¥ forcihli/, well) Sa. foot sS to product; ri™ 
1 throw, rfrfce.] 

onpbonj' (fo/'jij voice,) good or agreeable enuaciation. 
eulosj* a formal (_X6yoi;~) discourse speaking ineU of some one. 
ev-aiBgel-ist an aDnouneer of good; S/y^Xo^ a messenger; 
aJ/(XXtu (a>^a-jys?.Xoi) I report. cncliarist eupliemism 

EX, EC-, E- out, out of, from. 

[Laf. E-, EX-! Hal. e-, ex-, es-, e-, eg-; ii-, i*-; Ss. vahis; Pcr. as; 
Gaolio as; IVelsli es- and the noun Joh thai is ml, and preps, o, oo, odd 
/rim, onl -if.} 

except 8®° cSrIo, to take out. 

exclaim fi©" clamo, to call out. 

eclogoe (Xiya/'j a culling out. eiccntpic out of t!io centre. 

effigyt eIngo, to faskion out. 

ec-lipse, el-llpsJB (Jeotiu to leave,) a.leaving out. 

effliix:t 8©" flOo, to flow out. educe J3^° Duco, to 
lead out. elect LEGO, to oull out; to select by vote. 

c-normous out of, or beyond (normX) rule. 

e-radi«ate (B©" kadIx a root,) to root out. 

expostulate to urge, demand as a rigkt, complain earn- 
eatly. (postitlo, to demand, require, aiTaign.) 

explode to drive out, condemn (as a false theory;) to 
burst with noise. (4.PI.AVD0, to applaud with clappings; 
BXPLODO, to drive off by clapping and hissing; to condemn.) 

. , . water refulIlDg from Ihe e x p L ofn r t of hydroeen and rammoi. air, . . . —Prifflj. 

extenuate (tenuis thin,) to thin out, mitigate, excuse. 
extirpate (stIrps a stem, a race.) 

vsterminaM express expire extant exhale exit explain 
expose extcna extract eerwss elude emonale emit educe 

s-trango is formed from eXtkSnICs (foreign) hy eliding 
ec and converting E (through J) to English/ 



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P- PEEPIXES 67 

ls8-ne V. to proceed, pass out; n. progeny, result. (ex-IeE 
to go out; old IV. iss-ir, participle masc. issu, fern, issue.) 

The prefix is ec- or eg- ia execute (for ex-secute,) exult, 
eseerate, expire, expect, 

s-campcT (campus a field,) to hurry away through fear. 

s-carce, the same as es-cerpt, from cakpo I select. 

a-poil s-trlgi (drnpe) cs-copo esumplo and sample espiiud 
end sitan cs(ur dii«)|>cnd and spend 

Ei- is intanaive in exnit cs»g;goi-a(e extenuate oxbilai-ate 
es-tabllsit es-planailc 8-|ieoial 

Ehgy is from the exolamation t alas e,ai Uyo, I apealt. 
Obs. Astonish, stun, astound, are usually referred to ad (at-toko, Ac.) 



EX'O &d.Y. outward. 
exi>A-t»ic (T participial) iStunxdq coming from abroad. 
exu-sheletun a skeleton (e?i«) on the outside, as in insects. 
exogen a plant whoso stem grows hy means of external 
layers. B®" GENua, s'jvjJOgenoas. 

EXTRA be>/ond. 

[Lat. ixTHA, Osoan ehtbad. Et giyes the adj m ei:teii nr Sxterub 
t. EKTBilA external, nhenea the fem ab a a Oiise EXTBA nsed a a 
preposition and an adsorb. S m a j f mod a r-i ra nth supra 

extravagant (vXgSns) wan lenng beyon 1 wasteful 
eti-aoge (IxtranSBs) extrane us fore ^d surpr s ag 
The positive form ExTiKUfl f,!ves the con \ drat o extE 
KiOR, and the superlative exthl s ext e ne utmost 

f- prosthetic. 
r-lannel or f-lannen (Welsh gwlanen) a loosely woven 
woollen fabrio, Lat. lSnX, W. gwlan wool, o wlan of wool 



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[CompoBed of E- and L-; f, A; and of P- preeading L of tho toot. 
See under B-, D-.] 

fly fleet flow flnsli awtU^r flurry flleher flngrnut 
flare flnmc fltrt Hash nuunt filiich fling: nipginiit 
flagitlons flounce noniuleir flnveid flag^Ilnte inflict inflect 

Obs. blow blast belong here, but bl- pi- are muoh rarer in thia 
soDBo Ihan fl-, tihieh is preferred on acconnt of the greater' oontinuous- 



fi>r- le,/rmn, affaimt, entirely. See PER. 

[Aug. for-, as in for-loren; Ger, (d aa f) Tcrlorcn, Dan. foi-loren, Sti. 
fiirlorad foT-lor-n, loa-L Bo. fiiir-, fftnr-, fra-; Ohg. iar-, for-, fir-, 
for-, fur-.] 

forbid (Go, feur-biudan; Ang, for-be<idaii; Ger, ver- 
bietenjj to bid against. 

foredo to ruin; Lat. do I give, put, do; per-do (old 
Bog. for-do,) / r\dn, destroy, -waste, i.e. put through, whence 
perdition, fore-go (forgo, 1250.) forefond 



forsabe seek, forgive. Go. fragiban, Aug. forgifan, 

Ibrswenr furbear foi^et Rtreshorten foredo forel^ 



foivf he/ore. See PEO. 



[Ang. fore-, for-, foran; a 
forehmd. Go. faura, faur-; 



fareknow toresisbt forward Ang. 
ire^uliiK 0>relana foreman forehead 



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ilU-LU- PREFIXES 69 

B»re- out. 

[Lat. fSrIs, Gr. flSpnSs oul of doori; Fonis a doo,-, gatt; Wp-,, Doric 
^rlpd; Ger. thai, Ang. dur, Eng. door. Akin to per.] 

foivclose (clQdo,) to sbut out. (Old Pr. foreclore, to 
forbid entraneo,) forfeit 

F-R'. See b-, e-. 

IMgld b-eeze fl-aeture frequent frictiau ftvcble 
ri-itt«i- fry ftray 

PrigLt lias the/.' of /eon 

ft-O- from. 

frovard refractory, going from (the proper direction.) 
gain- against. 

[Ang. geaQ, on-ge-gon; Ger. gegen, Dan. gjen- against.] 

gainsay to say against, contradict, controvert, deny. 

G--R' intensive or imitative. See c-r'. 
«rake, grachle imitative names of noisy birds; from 
the root of ech-o. 

BEMI half. See semi-. 
hemi'Sphere half a {aipaipZoJ) sphere. 

HE TEE 0- other, cMfferent. 

[ikafas other, digereiii, strange; CEIBB-ts, -i, 5"".] 

hctorogeiicons of a different (genBs) kind. 
ffOLO; SOL-. 



holocaust aburntofferingthewAofeof which was consumed. 
bolograpti a writing of which the whole (the body aa 
well as ,the signature) is written by its author. 



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70 PBEnxEs HTPSI- 

soll-citnde sollI-cItudo great anxiety; (cieo to move, 
excite,) wheace also solicit to put in motion, tempt, urge. 

sol-emn ceremonial; sacred; reverential. (sollemnIs 
celebrated every (ShnCs) year. — KcUUchmidl.') 

EOM-, SIM- like. See COM-. 

{to^i, V'»s; eiMlLia lilct, the som-e/ fy^ (cu") wiih, airioL together.^ 

liomageneons of a like, or of the same (gbnCs) kind. 
simul-taneous occurring at the same time. 

bomonyin homologous bomeo-patlilc itimllar snnie 

HYPER heymd, over. See suPEE. 

hypercritical beyond, or exceeding (just) criticism; 
over-critical, hyperbol-e a carrying (of speech) beyond 
strict truth. (jSdJ,loi I throw, cast.) 

byperboroan far (Jiapiaq) north. 

RYPO under. See sns. 

tiypogcne (yiviu, to produce,) produced beneath, as cer- 
tain rocks. 

hypothesis (8hX'; a laying down,) that which underlies 
an argument; a supposition. 

hypothecate (ib.) to deposit under a pledge. 

hyph-en (^vfh, b-nd h under-one,) a mark uniting the 
letters of a written word into one group. 

RTPSI- k!gh. 

[t&p! abme, 6K height, 6/ntMj high. See OB.] 

hypBometry the art of measuring heights, (jxirpov a 
measure.) 

Hypsiprymnius a genus of kangaroos with the (Tzpu/im) 
mmp elevated. 



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[S3., Ze-cA, AN-, a; a«-, d-. 'Welsh an-,- Gaelic ana; IriEk an-, ain-. 
Get. ohn-, oLne without. (Coptic an; Heb., Arab,, ])« ((.ajjM) nothing, 
not, have a doubtful place hero.) Boheni., Rubb. ne-; Pol. nia-. Sothic, 
Saaon, GeoBBnun-; Swed. 0-; Dan. a-; Belg. on-; Ang. un-, on-, an-, 
in-; Bng. un-, in- no(. u>eu (to wbich Schellec refers hIne,) dv, d- mth~ 

IS-; Er. in-, im-; (and by accident, Aatco a-, an-.) Ss. root us to 
diminisii. In- is used with adjeotirea, adverbs, participles and nouns.] 

un- or in -cons taut iwl ooDstant; without or waviing oon- 
stariey, un-crowucd adj. not crowned, without a crown; 
(pa,rt,) deprived of a crown. 

«n-(or in-)conceivabl« -conclusive -constant •compact 
-pi^per 

immense]: (mensits; J@" metior to measure,) not 
measurable. nncoEored not colored; witliout color. 

i-gDoble not ynoble. (NOBtcxs, *GNSBrLis; gnSsco I 
know.) 

en-emy TnimicBs unfriendly. (Xmicus a. friend.) 

i-Knumlny l-ynti-i^aiit immodest! lllcKOll Irpcvereiicet 



iti(o, ta,) unromorseloaafuntU. 

ObB. 2. In some words un- Iiaa displaced the Latin in-, aa in unambi- 
tious, uagonial, unliumbled, unnumbered, unfortunate. In- is used where 
assimilation is i^uired, as un- is never assimilated. 

Obs. 3. "There can be little doubt that in, on, mi, arn, are ali from eno 
stock." — Webster. 

Oba. i. Un- is the preferable form, nsed almost exclusively in Anglish, 
as m uBtemed wilamed. Latin has a bad feature in the uso of in-, not 
only for iiilo (aa in indoco to lead m.) hat negatively, as in fHcoiiSTiNS 
not oonatant; ravficlTUS called upon, and not oaJled upon; immOtItub 
cLnnged and unohanged ;— and intensively, as in isj;qyo, to make level; 
iHisifHlEiLia lien/ estimable; inseuo, to groan; ispnsoo, to snlly. 

Altho the definite Germanic Un- ia naturalised in the English iio-, there 
is a tendency to retuQ ths indefinite in-, which leads to the use of dis- 
crepanoioa like •iiieqsal and inequality; un/aiUny and iB/oiKi/e,— oauses 
the toleration of forms like iiwalaable, apparently used by Bp. Taylor for 
not valiutbte, or not able to be vahted; and (as if ironically) by quacks in 



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Alrooily the Eichmond papers indnlgo *» ij^nafcs erimlnntlone . . , — PhiladelphiB 
"Press," Jei. 1863. 

In B word, sU good oud erery 111 ore in amumm among them, and all work tc^tJier 
(b harmoniom union for the good and dsteace of the whole.— Mrs. A. If. Eorsts- 

SinnerB seek (Or dellglitB only in serwble tiiDg^.— id. 

It iB ivritten throughout with great power aad (n liamumions language .... 
—Penny C jc, 3, 4S1. 

A Chrlflliii'i wit i! Ia,f.«^vi Ughi, 

A beam Itil aids but never Brlcvca Ijie fighl.— Com/*', born 17)1. 

The contents of the sheath aie composed of a series of globules, lurajigod yery 
regulMly, Uieir coniaxitieB causing the sheath to prfljeol i1 d-^nile lines.— Wj/num, 
LecturM on Comparative Physiology, 1349. 

corpiie, I mutteroi, 'Are you really ^ead, Eosango!'- .iiufci-ssm's OkaTanga Klyer. 

... the astonished spoclatDrfl begin to believe thai it lias been trained to dance in 
M^'fcl tlnie,— Ulustiated Magazine of Art, 1863. 

The entire maoliine was now in actton, every Boperata wiae! was revolving .... 
—Ben. WUlitaa Kirbs. 

IN m; upon; very. 

[Sb. as, a at; Hi, Para, nl- m; i', hi; Lut, Jn in; Irish in-, an- in, very; 
Welsh en (intonsive) yn n. a sioie 0/ being ™, prep. in. Ang. an, on, in 
in; Go., Ger., Eng., Be!g., in. Don. J, ind, inde; Sw. i, in. Fr. en, em-, 
in-, Euss., Pol., Bohem. na-. Se. root AN to move. Akin to ANA.^ 

include IN-CLUDO to shut m; to contain; to comprehend. 
il-luininet to throw (LUMEN) light upon. Ulumination 
Incite to rouse «^, on, against. (oiEO, crrtl", to call, incite.) 
empbasist (^i', pS'trf; assertion,) stress of voice on 
particular words in sentences. 

energy active vigor, (^fiyitv work.) engrave, see EN. 
The prefix is intensive in infringe, infraction, infiame, ensign. 

Inftisc Infcr Inculcate ln<lue« Ird'aptlnnt Irritate 
U-Ind«t inh1ill>et imi>«I Improve embalm em- or lm>body 
In. OF en-itnlf -clase -quire -snre -dorse -dite >sue 



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IND-, INDI- ■withitt. See ENGO-. 
INJPRA be!ow. 

[Lat. IkphI adv, fVoin iraEBes, 1-, C"; adj. compar. lHF3BiaB.] 

Infl-aorbital below the orbit (of the eye.) 
inlter-nal pertaining to the lower regions. 

INTER between. 
[Lat i-NTEtt; Se. antIe; Zend (Ann. Pota.) aotwi Pors. ondflr, 
endfltoji; Oaelio eader; Go. undar,' Ger. fintfir; Ohg. untat, intar, undar, 
Uttdor, undir; Eng. ander, inner. &r. tci^, nr-, f»J-, w''*"'. Sea in.] 

interpose (pono,) to place between, fnterposition 

intermls lUne fpih« prupt -cept -sect -veno -Inde 
-mnrFy ■.jection liit«i>lor InMn-nal tnittntaia enterprise 

entr-alls site/jw internal psrts, (inflHenced by -IL-IA.) 
INTRA within, inwards. 

[Lat. adv. rsTnS on (Se inside. See i-ntEk.] 

tntraTert to turn iawards, Inti-amargtrntl inside of 
the margin, iotraianral withia walls; inside of a city. 

INTRO within. 

[iBTEo adv. into a place, withiii.' Seo i'ntbb, estrI.] 

Introdneo to lead in. introTersion a turning inwards. 
introit (lo, iTO" to go,) an entering (psalm.) 

is- in. 

is-ag«gl« d<T-a)'a/ycx6g elementary, introductory to a sci- 
ence or art. (&i-i"}^ a leading, a method or system.) 

eso-te'ric more inward; abstruse or aecret. (^ttoM-e/io;, 
the comparative degree of etnu, eiirio ■within.') ep-ls-ode. 

JUXTA near, next. 

[jesTi, fVom JCNOO I join.] 

Juxtaposition contiguity of position. 



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[Etcaoli article mase. le, fom. l-i, Oiej Lat. pronounB Ille he, illI efte.] 
a-I-e-pt ^ at-(Ae-erqct. See under 4i>. 
l-oover or l-onvre (French I'ouvert the opening,) a 
kind of steeple or ventilator for tho esit of smoke. 
l-one is for al-one, all one. 

M-. Sees- 

[Weleh my (y as in iiijrrli,J Ikat is, that ii'to agmeg; mn ahat ia pro- 
dacsd,- mw that ia /oi-ward or nioui.] 

juasli (commonly apelt 'm^h,') W. masg (mysB-g) that 
ie intenimim, lattice worle, an interstice of a -aet. From as a 
parlMe, asg a ^Hnter; whence also b-asg a plaiting of 
splinters, hasged a basket; and fflasg, fflasged a wicker vessel, 
whence fl-ask, fl-asket. 

W. ma what is produced, ma-g the act of reariiig, ma^ 
a principle of generation, magiod, (a collective plural,) 
ma-^-ote. W. ma-d what proceeds, madr adj. heeomepw, 
jnadredd putrefactive ma-lter. W. mus (from mw that is for- 
ward, and W8 that is impulsive,) that starts out, an efflumitm, 
hence mu-s-b and mn-s-tai^, tardd issue. 



madam and madoDna my (dQmIna, ItaJ. donna, Fr. 
dame) lady. 

(MAL-, MALE had, hacUy.) 

[Lat. jiXt.e badly; uIlus bnd.l 

malaria bad (Ital, aria) air; poisonous air of marshes. 
malaar (ApTSa soiaed, adapted,) dis-eaae; indisposition, 
nial-a-pro-po-s Fr. (Lat. MAL-, Xd, pkO, pQsItu" 
placed,) put forward badly, or at the wrong time o 



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META with, beyond, after. 

metapbxane (fpdan aa explanation,) a version with 
eacli word translated. 

mctapb-Oir, fupd a carrying, ipipiav carrying (a word 
beyond ite meaning.) 

metautarpus the bones Zie^ojirf or after (cSEPue) the wrist. 

nieta'-thesis a change in words by the ft'omsposition of 
parts, as LeaF compared with FoiL, or cURdle with cRUddle. 

met-em.-psycb-o-sis the passing of the (<pv-(ii) breath or 
soul (em-) into another body after death, a doctrine taught 
by Pythagoras. 

■aetanto'rphosis a changing to a different (/lo/iy^) form, 
or beyond the proper form. 

metbod (jJcJa? a way, an art,) a mode constructed with 
skill, or according to rule; order; systematic arrangement. 

witJiin inside of. withal with the rest. williAut 
outside of. See under witb-, 

mlB- wrongly, ill. 

[So. missa,-, mias-, evil, mfei-mt; old Sordish 3, mia aUnnateln 

Oar. misa- or misa-i 8w., laL miss-; old Frisian, AoE^ Bolg., Dan., Eng., 
mie-; Bng. \ti mias. Ital. mie-; Fr. mes-, me-. Gr. (cfinit, ^o- fto(iW; 
It. ineiB bad; Welsh mEtli a failure; Sa. urr'aji fahel;/ Be. root mr'a 
1» move. Thora aie probabiy two distinot roots tore.] 

misdeed, a deed done wrongly; an evil deed. (Go. 
missa-deds, G-er. misse-that.) mispeadiDg a false reading: 

mtegiiMe -caU -Inntrm -ftertnne -apply -judge -print 
-co'nduct •demeanor -g:overn -adventnre -luiderstaiHIJng 

Ohs. 1. The G 



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»Infs leas. mlsprlBlon, old Fr mc^ptiiion Ft m£] ns (contempt, 
despising, undetralaing,) Laf, pbehevsIo phkhsio (a talsing ) a or me 
nenr, but below or less than a. capital oDsnse mlH^iuiGe >ld Tr 
mesclieiuitie. mlsehler, old Fr. mssohief 



IT 0S88 mis (ill, aJdisB,— oilBBS being io fail,) ee In mifcheft (mlafortune.) 
■rt (to diatribute wionglyj mifde (un-OBS-inoM.) mifgie (to miegui-de,) mi/Bied 
d (mlsguid-ed,) milbotn (nilab^BTea,) milgo mllledc mifliye mlflike, &e. 



JfO-iV-, MONO; UNI- <m«. 

[Gr. (rfwc, CnSts, one. W. mfln an iBdinidMo/. Ir. man soUtarinan.'l 

monopetaloas having a single petal, 
moii-arch. tliD ('ap](yf) rale, of one person. 

rnvnolauy monolt^ue monad moDOChromMle monh 

niiiliteral of one letter, uulcornous having one horn. 
uuiforiulty univalve aniverse «ne-«yed oiieue^i 



MTJLTI-, POLY- many. 



[An otosis (error of the ear,) aa in saying « neg i 

n-ewt an eft; a salamandet or Hzard. 



N-, NB, NEC, NBG-, NO, NON mt. 

[S& KA no(; Lat. Ng, HI-, NEC, NEG- tiot; SEQTE ani «o(, (qYE, rai nnrf,) 
Eobem. ne-, Pol. nio-; Persian ni-, n-j Welsh na. Hi ?io(.' Altin lo in-.] 

ne-nter not (GtSr) either, ne-ut-r'al-ltj' neutralise 

ne-eessapy that cannot be (cedo, cessu",) ceded, given 
away, or dispensed with. 

neg-otiate (oTifl" ease, NEG-OTitJ" business,) t<i traific. 



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OB PREFIXES 77 

nn-bi-Ions cloudy. Sa. na-bhas, vi-(poq nObes a cloud; 
tlaat which does not (bha) shine. 

neforiuus not to be (plBl) uttered; wicked. 
deny, (NEGO, NE not, 5jo I say, — KoZtschmidt.) 

n^^ative neK«tion any nonessential nonentity n-Tilllly 
an-n-ul n>ever n-oue n-angbt n-eltber no n-or no-tblng 

Mo-t (n-auglit) ja the German nieht, (n-ichts nothing,) 
the stem of which is akin to the G-erman SichtSn to regard, 
to value; Scht genuine, real, (Ss. ics to see,) as if something 
seen. (Chaucer niges not for ne wot know not.) 

The prefix of Jieg-lect, (lSgo to lay together, pick up,) is 
considered by Prof. Key as identic with the Gforman naob 
(after, at, by,) as in nach-laaeen (to leave behind.) 

(NUN"-) 

an-nnn-cl-atlon, an-nonn-ce-ment the delivery of a 
message. (NtJN-cI-Us a messenger, from movum new, and 
CiSo I call.) 

nan-cup-at-ive (nomEn name, cXp-io I take,) mention- 
ing by name; pertaining to a verbal declaration. 

OB agaiTtst, upoa^ 

[Lat. OB; Oshan op, iiv. Gr. a!' upon, &/'f high. Btig. up, abovs; 
Ban., Belg. op; Bw. npp; Qo.-afM over; Ger. ob nftouc, anf on. "ffdah 
wp a, state of being oui or 15). Bnss. po dloi^, heyond. Ss. iPi towards, 
DFi 6j, nsar; Sa. root ub'h to heap up.] 

obje'ct (8®" jScIo,) to throw or place against. 

obstinate (,^" STO, STSns) standing against, or (0B8- 
tIno,) holding against, ob-ey (^g* avdIo,) to give ear to. 

oblige (fi©" lIgo,) to bind upon; to constrain; to favor. 

oblitei-ate (littIra a pen mark,) to blot out; efeee. 

obvious in the (^9* vIX) way; easily seen; distinct. 

obconic inversely conic, o-mit not (JS^ mItto,) to send. 

oc-casiont CB®° cJdo, ClsC",) a falling upon; a hap- 
pening, offeri (S®° pEro,) to bring before; to present. 



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78 



OUT 



ofllcious (jm- fXoIo I make,) acting against, or con- 
trary; iutermeddliiig. oppress!: (prEmo,) to press upon. 
oppose (PONO,) to place against. 
os-tentatlon (S®" rlNDO, to stretch,) a showing out. 

npright {Ang. iipriht) optti™ iiiwlart nplaud npo'ii 
npnnrd u|iroot upset uphold opUft upbUl uprlgM 

Obs. TUe a in obs-oeno is from OBS-. 

off from. 
[Go. af; Gcr. ab. See A-, AB.] 
oflE^boot a shoot from, oabpringr oflftei offliand o«&l 



[Ss. Ann; Gr. 'iit^ «)>. Go. ana, at; Ger. in; Ang. on; Be!g. aan. 
Rnaa., PoL, Bohem. nn. See in, '<«'-■'] 

onset onslauglit onwaxd— aKny alonB: &oe a- ^ 1. 

■OMNI- oM. 
omniscient all-knowing, (fl®" scio I know.) omnific 

omulpolenee omnippeaent oamlTOrons omnibus 

or- for over 

or-lop a kind of deck, or an additional deck. (Eelg. 
loop a walk, a run.) 

(OR-, OEI-) 
[See under SriSR, on-T-us, (o W«e.] orient orii«in ab^rl-lTe 

out See EX. 

[Sa., Ang!., IbI,, Sw., old Frisian ut; Don. Dd; Gothio us, ut. Eusa., 
Pol. oti Bohem. od. Gcr. ans; Eng, ont. In Ang!. ut le oul, and 08- 
from tint of, as in oBberstan to barat otii; oOhJdaji to hide from; oBstaodan 
(0 Etaad oi«. 8s. ut, ud abooe, oirf,] 

outburst a bursting from, or from within. 

outside the exterior side. 

outcast one east off or away, outlandisli foreign. 

aa'twoi^ n. onl«r ntl«r nttermost ulmost oiitnunt 



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PARA- lEEFIXES 70 

ont- beyond. See ULTRA. 
«at-l»id. to bid beyond, outlive outdrluh untln^t 
outr-aig« 

os- 

[ForoDS- See under OB.] 

os-teutation a showing off. (o'STENTO I present to 
view, make a show of.) 

PASA hq/ond, beside. See per. 

par-allel hi/, beside, or near one-another; equidistant. 
(j:apa beside, oXXtjXwv one-another, reduplication of oU^oc 
oi/ier.) 

parallax change of position from being viewed from dif- 
ferent points. (aXXa'<7<ria I ehange, dJ.Xd?io I will change,) 

parasite Greek priests who collected grain for the sacri- 
fices; afterwards, a hanger on. Qrapa by, ajTrog grain.) 

paraphrase a version beyond the text 

parody i^Mij an ode,) an altered version. 

paradox a (collateral or') false opinion. 

parhelion a mock sun. (itapd near, ^-Ifo? the sun.) 

pa-lsf (for paralysis,) loss of voluntary motion. 

pray (prEcob,) Trap- and sux^j a prayer, as in nap-T/jf-iio, 
to imitate a sound; Trap-^yop^o, to exhort, soothe, relieve; 
whence par^orie, a medicine which relieves pain. 

para-, par- 

[Frenoli, from Latin PiniiiM lo eontriiif, pre-pm-e, Ac Ital. parare 
tojiarry.] 

pava-sol a defense from the (sol) sun. 
parachute a defense from a (Fr. chute) fall. 
parapet a protecting wall as high aa the (Ital, petto, 
Lat. pectOs) breast. 

T-am-par-t (re-, in-) a parrying or defensive wall. 

Par-affine is from the Latin adv. plR-n" but little, and a-ffIhIs allied, 
Par-ity ^®" pab equal. 



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EKHFIXES 



PAJJTN" again, hacTewards. 
palln' drome (izaXiy-dpoftia a running back,) aword o: 
tence which may he read backwards without variation, a: 



pajiin-psesti: (ipdm, to rah,') a parchment from which the 
first writing hi. lee (nearljj olhteiat^d and lejlaeed by a 
second. Tho remims of the earlier wnting often afford 
valuable literary material and some of the produeti n 
Cicero have been recovered by a careful study of p 

PAS, pan; pant- all. 

[Greek roaEc. -ra^ (gen. m^r»f,) fern. «!-;«, neut. xa^ (rl. xfo™,) all, H-ery.] 

paBigrapby universal (j-paipij) writing. 
panto-logj' universal (W^-oj) science, 
pantbeist one who believes creation to be (tfe^?) Grod. 
pantbcon (irovflsHt) an ancient temple devoted to all the 
heathen deities, dia-pas-on see -ON, S. 

panace'a {dxioiiai, to heal,) a universal remedy. 

Panax a genus of plants, all-heal, ginseng. 

puioruina pan^yrlc pandieniODiuin panoply pantajp-aph 

PEN- almoit. 
peninsula (p^ne) almost (lN8i5i.A) an island. 
penultimate next to the last, penumbra 



[Ss. PiRA Bcroee, against; pSbS,; Tflpfl', iripa heyond, :rip- veri/. Lst. 
fgn; lioheni. pro through; Span, por, Fr. ponr /or. Old high Ger. far-, 
for-, ter-, fir-, furi-, fiar. yer- (b aa /,-) Bng. for-, far, fr-om, forth, frith 
or ilrtii, to fare. Or. "dpa to pieree; vspi'a, to traverse, pencirale. Lat. 
pBbo, Io bore. Ss. root pon io advance,] 

per-fop-ate (Foao,) to bore through, 

perfect (8^" FAOio to make,) finished, thoroughly made. 



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PERI PBEFIXE3 81 

pecorafiAn the close of a speech. 

pvrlsli (B@° So, IrS) to go, through its course. 

pereniiial (SnnOs the year,) lasting. 

perjure (JURO,) to swear, le^ond the trnth. 

pcrlldions past (fIdSs) faith. 

per-p-lex (pleoto,) to involve, miich. 

pervert v. tr. to turn aside. 

peraplcuons (spEoio to see,) very evident. 

pU'gFiin a wanderer abroad, or through the (Xg£r field, 
or) country. pellucftU: shining through, transparent. 

pnr-sne (Fr. poursuivre) and persecute, (pe-bseqvor, 
PE-BslcuTes to follow up or after.) 

par-dun (dono,) to give (forgive) entirely; but the Ro- 
mans used CONDONO I present, remit. 

para-mount (Fr. ujouter) to rise ahove; superior. 

Per- is intensive in pcracut« very sharp,' permnM to chango en- 
tirel;! pemoade to exhort much. 

For-isintensivainforfcia fbrlom forgive 

For- is negntire in fvrbesr (to bear fr-om,) flirKfit forsnear 
fiirauke (seek,) as in tho Oerman liaufen to buy, verkaufen to sell. 



Obs. 1. i and r are 
peregrine, and FrBnoh 

Oba. 3. Although 

belongs to ^g-vlRFs 

Per agrees with /ur 


akin and i 

0O-lOD«l 

per and i 
! truD. 
in tho phi 


mbJBot to intoi 
, pronoHBoed ( 
i.«ry agree ia 

'ase pgu UB lI 


■ohanee, as in 
:urnl in Engli 
their elemcn 

cSt for me it 


pilgri. 
sh. 
ts, the 1 

ia lawful. 


a for 
atter 






PEUI around. 








IGr.«pfi S«.PAR. 


M PER.] 


a iD fl.p to hold, pIhjaptIS, 


m/xihrrfv. 


Lat. 



peMeardium the membrane around the (xapSi'a) heart. 

period (liWj a way,) a circuit; the year of a planet, &c. 

perihelion the point where a heavenly body passes 
round (and nearest to) the sun. 

periphery and periphrase from the Greek, correspond 
with cirmm/eretice and ciratmbcuHov. from the Latin. 

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PEESIXES POST 



POLY- 



inany. 



[Gr. iroXS';. Akin to ^S" rtiis nwi-e, ^!^ PLENus/uI^.und probalily 

polftechnli! (Ti-^vyj art,) pertaining to many arts. 
Polynesia polys«n |>olyglot polysyllable poIyg:<>>>><"<» 

polyp 

POE- Ufore. Sec PEO-. 
[Lat. pOnna, ^ffia, Bog. far, lie-foi-e.] 

por-rc«t (roR-KiGO, -aEOTU",) st-retch-icg or reaching 
before pwp-teu<l, -tent, a showing before, a foreboding. 

purtraje, purtreiture, purve ye, parfil (perfaot,) parfourme (poiforio,) etc. 

P08- SeeB-. 

[Lat. in poa-aliiEo, poa-aEssO'", fo have, own, eiyoy. Rusi), po hij, 

pos-scss to own. (Ang. besitten, Ger. besitzen. 
sEdSo, SE'SStJ", fo sit, %tay, dweU.') 

possession that one owns, as land which one has acquired 
the right to settle on. 

Po-mep-aiiia a eountrj hy or along (Russ. more, Lat. 
mXrE, Fr. mer) the sea,* 

P-rnssia (formerly a SlaYonic country,) along Russia. 

POST after. 

[Lat, POST, allied to poso (positC",) tapiuM, Persinn irt; a/<=j-.] 
postpone to put after; defer, postscript written after. 
pa-nf, Fr. puis n&, Lat. POST SlTifs after-born; inferior. 

Obe. The Romans often rednced POST to po-, as in post- or PB- 
MEKlEiSNUs, after (HEDliis, ^iw;) mid- (l>lEs) day. 



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PEO- PHEPixES 83 

PEE-, PE^ iefors. 

[Lat. PH^, piiE-i Ital., Sp. pre-, pri-; Er. pr6-, pre-, pri- See PRO-.] 

pi-ecetle (pk^cedo) to go before, prcjndico judgment 
beforeband. premise pi-setor or |>relor fl@= £o. 

prison, PRgHENsio a tuking. See -xon. 

pPOTOSt a@" PONO. 

The Latin ptiji- bacomes pre- in English, as in preilpsliiie jir«flx: 
ppesKle pirei'»fl gireveiit pi'ejudicp |u-eelud« pivfhce 
preamble piocijiltaCe itrvcocions predict prefer pi-ea..cli 

PRiETER he/ore, past. See pb^. 
.piv!ter-it (B®- £o, itB'" to go,) a past tense implying an 
action finisLed; the perfect tense. 
pi^ternKtHi-al beyond nature. 
pi^terpei^cl, a past tense. 

PEO- he/ore. See PEE. 

[Sa. PUBA, PEi; Zend fba; Gr. if6 (Eolio itjmI, Lat. pr^;} Rnse. 
pred-, Bohem. pfed; (fo. faur, hefo,-e. ^t earlg, .pwn,( first. Lat. pbS, 
PKE, FBI-, ppji, pRiiJa ie/are; pR«rBB beyond; PB.iua& Jlrsi,- piir-ST-iwOs, 
Ss. PRATANA6 au^ient. Hielio roi; Ger. vSr before. Eng. J^ for- 
^^- fore-, for-mer, for-ward. Welsh noun maEe. pri oHgin. See PER.] 

promote (MdvEO, mOtti'") to move, forward. 

pvoeeed (cbdo) to go forward, pi-ovident (vtdEo) to 
see or look, before, provoke (vfico) to call fortb. 

pro-d-igal (Xgo to act,) squandering away. 

procrastinate (ORAS tomorrow) to defer. 

procnre (ctJRl a care) to get in adTanoej to have in care 
for (some one.) 

pro-ph-et (>pS.'m I tell) be wbo foretells. 

prostyle a colonnade in front. 

prologue protract and portrait prior pri-me ^^ -me, 

^~ two- torwBid fortb fiir mi-fbest fii-st 

Pro- meoiia insleail af in pronoun, )ti'q>co»sul. 

The preQxes are intenaive in pracure prolis (lIxus loose,) pi'e- 



Hcssdb, Google 



dnct (cThbo, to bind, surroHiid,) as in tie Latin paapBTlBB very power- 
fill. kCpBe neiflj, lalelj, pnOKDPJER very lately; pHjiCLSHns very clear. 



iginal form of pro-, be-, 
ihaio Latin ablative case 
. whore it would aot aa a 
Tore ooDtrud, ebUad. 



[Or. Tfi[ to, vpon, in addition, lowardi, near, etc, See PER.] 

proselyte one who (eomes towards or) adopts some view 
or system. (iXeodiu I draw aear, approach..) 

prosodf TzposifiSia, (a>dTj a song, an ode,) the laws of 
Tersifi cation, over and above those of prose. 

pros'-thesis an addition to the ho^nning of a word, (the 
reverse of apliBereais,) aa 'espy* for spy (see under e-,) 
' squencli' for quench — 



PRO TO- first See pro-. 
prototype the Srst or earliest type or model. 
prot-oxid the first or lowest degree of oxidation. 
proto-martyr (St. Stephen.) protho-notary 

pur- See pro-. 

[Pr. ponr, Sp. por for, para. Lat. pro b^ore, oonfnfiad with p£b 
throv^h,'] 

purpose (prS-pSsItu",) to set before; to intend. 

pnrref to supply; to procure. (A form of pro-vide.) 

pni-sne, Fr. poursuivre, Lat. PROsStlvoR or persSqvor 
(PE-RSECtJTSs,) to follow after. 

purchase (per-,) Fr. pourchasser to follow ardently, as a 
deer or an employment, — from cSptSrS to cateh at, strive to 



Hcssdb, Google 



PREFIXES 



obtain; through the false fomi CApTJare, whence e 
catch. 



[Akin to S, and Uonsmuteble witb L. Gaolic ro very; Lat. r-Ibijb, 
Gr. i^Bia, iMre, (Sw. W. rhatioi/orocs onicorrf,- rha« sm/i moiioi,, uc/i<«; 
rhy excess, very."] 

r-osation supplication. ni>r-agat« to make undue 
claims, (rood I ask. See under d- and c-a'.) r-eoent 
Im-p-r-ec-ate to invoke evil on auj otie. (palcoK I p-r-ay.) 
r-aaher, W. rhasg a slice; from rhy, and asg a piece 
sliced off. 

o-r-vw, r-ook, «>iveab, break, axe partlj imitative. 

itE-, RED- hack, again, down. 

[L(it. R-, nS-, Kins Sp. KE-; Ital. Ri.., -he; Pr. r^-, re, r-; Irish a-. 
Sa. root § to jo, to ^eacA.] 

ra-m-; re-ab-; re-ad- (-af-, -an-, -ap-, -ar-, -as-;) re-con- 
(-com-, -co-, -col-;) re-de-; red-in; re-dia-; re-e-, re-ez-; re-en- 
(-em-, -in-, -inter-, -intro-;) re-n-; -re-re-; re-sur-; re-sus-. 

re-sur-rec-tioD a rising again, (ke-, stJB, nfioo; S®" 
stlEQO.) recede (fl@' CedO,) to go hack, veeline (olTno,) 
to lean back, red-eem (rIdimo ; S^ emo,) to buy hack. 

repeat to mentiou again, revolve to turn over. 

red-ouDd (8®* UNDO,) to run over, recall to call hack. 

red'undant running over. ra-ia-psir-t,t see para^. 

re-pose a lying down, remote moved aieay. 

repel to drive back or off. redraft n. a second draft. 

re-ci>I-l«ct re-ad-a|>t rcnov.^to or rcn«w renig« r«-dnce 
e-pr«-sent-ed I'espect revise 
refer m^^out 



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rent (with ii ednoed from d,} which lire essentiallj formod from the pi 
fix. Spanoe (1886) writes rijtex, rifleetion. 



EBTEO bachwofds, hack, again. See re-, bed-. 
jpvtpospe«t (sPEOio,) to look backwards. 
retrocession (cedo I cede,) a ceding back. 

arrcnr AD hb'tgQ. retrt^'Pade retrngression relrupulstve 



S- miich, veiy, 

E-pSI-itl to bitn\ up. Gr. u-jitinf and fitXoJ bfndaeed; a-iiiKpdi imd /u«j% 
amatl; ir-rfhiifjcj and TjKaaa I turn, whence s-tirophe and Iropej a-np-tis, 
uCn-us fills, tatid; o-i-ij™, tego / amer; Iqo, to mow, drice, a-iQV-iSB to 
foUow; s-sBTO, togaard, prepenl, 8^p*e, ijiS'-o/i"', ID word off, protect, 
ramam; ypa'ifta, s-ohIdo, to write, Bng. 8-cvlbe, 8-cribWe; ^(rJooi i" 
s-mlle (rf to I, or I fcequontalive;) itM-fnjii and rr-t.ci-ia to 3 ontt-er. W. 
J3 that M, that isaues, thai is aetive.'] 

s-pade, s-pnd, s-patula, (wiraXm) petal, jjaddle. 

s-pa«e, (pSteo,) to extend, fi®" rSNDO. 

B-Iiul-fe, CELO I cover, hide; W. eel shelter, oel-c cod- 
ceal-ment; Ir. coal con-oeal-ing, ceal-g treachery, a cceilg 
in ambush. 

sbad » fish like a herring, which swims in herds. W. cad 
a reach or spread out, cadw a herd, ysgadan herrings. 

smelt V. /ifXfa melt spread broad sleiiiler lea,n 

spare v. pIuobkb HplnsSi plush scroll cutl 

spunse FDHfiBs scrutiny critic sl«IW dull 

splice ply scold call snap nah 

sarsf. irk sf^lff eup snip nip 

snirl whirl slat lath sc«ur8;e correct 

scratcli grate smoke Sec M- spllie peg 



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SIT PREFIXES 87 

Hplgat peg Btorm turbo swing' wing 

spur bur, Ir. bior a «;)!( aqneak quack spit v, pit-uitous. 

spar bar swnb wipe sctntlllute kindle 

Bonld ciLTDCa sniusfa masli scoop cup 

Bpnrrow FAEna spine pin snay wag 

silme lImue Btuii din stin-g7 ten-aoious 

slab lap, lobe smut mote (Webster.) sqneuch quench 

sla«k lax Blig:lit light stir tut-n 

aaeexc, anore, snarl, nose. s<|iiiasli, quaah, sUck v. swash 
snell scai'tie slough strew sprig skirmish sh.tdaw 
scrape scud small SQ.u«eze spanli scow snipe siuu-« snow 
Oba. S-ombte belongs to BiiB-i a-ooroh (ea-oortio-ata) s-oroen, to 
^~ ex; and a-ooundrol to abb-. 

The following are Welsh examples— 

aeth a pi'ioWe, aaeth a. dart. 

enyd time, senyd, ysenyd a while. 

Jff a tendency out, ayfag what spreads out. 

Ud the side of tlie head, a iad the top of the skull. 

sans without. See sine. 

sanaculotte (Fr. culotte breecties,) a ragged fellow; a 

radical republican. First applied to the poorest class of the 

people but assumed as a title of honor by tbe adhereDtfl of 

the Fi-euch constitution of 1793. {Gattel, 1803.) 

B thousand joMBi . . . — WMtminster Barlew, 18ST. 
Tho spirit of modem saatcaloUe-itia . . . — Democratic Beview, 1838. 

S-C, sq-, Sh.- 
[Indioative of action, sound, and intensity.! 

8c-vatcli rake ratchet, sc-raw..! (hepo I creep.) 
scream a ahrill outcry. (Old Eng. reme, Ang. hreman.) 
squeak (yagIo,) voo-atiye, q-uack, of Vfhich sq-ual.,I, 
sq-uea..l ( cuter- )wau..l are frei^ueutatiTes, with the guttural 
elided, sh-rcd a piece torn off. (kado I sc-rape, rub.) 

sc-riib scrabble scamble sc.ril>e screw stsreain screech 
or shriek shrill seramhie scranch slirlvel rivel, ruffle. 
shrink wrink-ie squabble squib squirt squash 



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SF 

SE- ande, apart. 

[Lot. SE-, SED-, 5-6-. Sanscrit toot sS lofiaish.^ 

se«lude (^claVDO,) to shut apart, select (lEgo,) to 
gather apart, segregate (grex a flock,) to se-parate. 
sccerB s-creen (cerno, xplrta I sift, separate ) 
so-lTC (SO-lBo,) to wash apart; to remove difficulties, 
s-ober, (BBRitJS drunk.) secede sbtcp separable 

Oba. Ss-care, without (cdhI) oara, may hare SE- from sine withiml. 
SedUim is BommoBlj referred to se-, with d (300 T) coaneotivo and 
J^' so, but Prof. Key thinks it may bo connected with Dmo powor. 

SEMI-, HEMI- half, somewhat. 

[Sa. alMi; Lat. semi; !^r half. Ang. sam- half, aamod together. Saa- 
acritroot saai: to place togetker.] 

semiannual half yearly, semilnnar half-moon shaped. 
semifluid somewhat fluid, semi-vitreous somewhat 
vitrified, sin-ciput (sbmicaput) the front of tKe head. 
semitone or liemitone a half a t«ne. 

Heml-bitutninouB hemlcytl* megrim (for hemioraninm.) 

SESQU-, SESQTJI one and a half. 
sesqnichlorid a compound of three parts of chlorine 
and two of a hase. 

SINE without. 

[Lat. sine; si if, nI nat. Sp. sin; Ital. eenza; old Fr. sens; Pr. aans.] 

slneenrc (an office) without care. 

sin-cere without mixture, (xep a'la I mix.) — Kaltscliimdi. 

8-L' intensity. 

sllnS Bins slack Sleleftt BliBht slap 

S-P' motion, intensity, 
sp-ic-ule (So-EO to he sharp,) a small'sp-ike. 
sp-rink-le ir-rig-ate sp-eak ech-o 



Hcssdb, Google 



bua PREFIXES 

sp-lice (pLico I fold, lIgo I tJe.) 

spirt sprout spray spill spUt splHsb spit 
spew speed spray sprcy Hpring- sprig spruc« 



S-T" muchj very, 

st-roU roll. slwMIi, streak reaoh. strip rob, rip. strali^ltt or 
strict right, raot-ify. strand, 6er. rand (a margin.) stf-lltc, st-lek, 
»t.lng (icTUS a blow.) st-iiik y. ordx-... (I go, stalk.) BlrneRle wriggle! 
stoke sUeb string strong; sljrive slivct streaui streperous 

SUB, HYPO under, somewhat, after. 

[Sonsorit UPA; 'iW; Lai. Ena; Go. uf unrfer. See OB.] 

submariDd uniZer tlie sea. subacid somewhat acid. 

snbangularMea!-;^ angular, subrotund somewhat round. 

suffix to place after or under, re-sur-rec-tion. See RE-. 

snbscribe f o wi'ite a signatTire after or under a document. 

snccor Fr. secourir to aid. (Lat. cuaRERE to run, sub- 
or succubrSrb to go near, hasten to.) 

s-care to startle witli fright. (su-cctJt£re (qvXtIo I 
shake,) Pr. seoouer to ahale violentlj.) 

s-Iip to slide on a surface. (suelSbSr to go to ruin 
glide away, aa ' relapse' to slide back.) 

snb-di-TJIde (pIndo, to split,) to divide /ar(7(er, or again. 

snpplicatct (PLlCo, to fold,) to kneel down; to pray 
earnestly. snr-rep-titlous ia a sneaking, dishonest man- 
ner, (rkpo I cr-eep.) s-ombre under (umdrX) shade. 

snbjHBnle snccceA sncctnct snfliclent suffer snggestt' 
sum-mont ('raon' as in ad-mon-isb.) suppress snrn^atet 

Sub- is much used in natural history for somewhat, as in 



Hcssdb, Google 



90 PKEIIXES SUll 

"black, Bubnigulose, subsulcated, sidea convex, angles sub- 
Sub- is verbal, or it bas lost its force in so-Jnupia, aud 

sap-pie (plIco to fold or bend,) often pronounced soople in 

accordance with its Frenob original sovple. 

Tbe adverb su'BtEr is used in subterfuge (evssiou,) and 

su'BTi5a (Fr. sous,) is observed in subs-traetioii. 

Su-rrender is tbe Frencb 'se readre' to render one's soil'; 

Ital. rendere, witb n educed from tbe d of Latin alDDgaE. 



SUPER aiove, beyond. 



snpevpose (J^" PONO,) to place above or over. 
supernatural btyond z\s,Uire; spiritual. 

siiper-iib-iindiuit snpei^im-comh-ent -nne -scribe -sedo 
snper-t«r snper-b — hypercritical hypochondrin h jiMicvite 

soTeTe?\/ii supreme. (Ital, sovrano; Lat. sOpernCs.) 

ovcr-dow -shadon •reaeh -uct -arch -plHS •load -wl>«lin 



Bur over, heyimd. See super. 

surmise (mItto, mTSSO" to send,) to pass over (mentally.) 
survey to look over; inspect. (viderS to see, to view.') 
suPTive to live beyond (some event or contingency.) 
surbnse the part above tbe base, 

surnume or siraame a name besides tbe personal name; 
a man's real name, or that with which he is born. 
surpass to pass beyond, surplus overplus. 

snr-pr-lse surtont surDkce surfeit sunanitut 

Obs. Bur-reptitioua and Bur-rogate belong to sub-; and eur-geoa is 



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1- PREFIXES 91 

SUS- 8U- wp, above. See super. 

sus-pend (PENDBO,) to hang up; to interrupt; to delay. 

Bii8'«eptible taking up; readily subject to an influence 
or affection. (cSpio, cattu", to take.) 

re-sns-oi-t-ate (t intensive,) strs-ciTO to rouse, raJse up, 
cause to rise (again.) 

sustain (teneo,) to hold, up. 

aa-splc-inn, su-spic-ioas looking upwards, or with 
mistrust; distrustful. 

Obs. SuE-pioion mnj be from auh-, under the form e\ibt-, as in aba 



SY-, SYL-, STN, SYM- idth. See con. 
quinsy or snuinancy a disease of the throat; — corrupted 
forms of aui'dfy'rj, from u^iu to suffocate. 



T- intensive. See D-. 

t>rite worn out. (Lat T-RlT-i58 bruised, rubbed; eSdo I 
shave, bodo I gnaw. Compare ir-rit-ate.) 

t-racliyte a rough lava, (r/itt;^ S'j, rough, /oVof, fiafuKq 
a rag, wrinkle.) 

t'Winb wink t-wiiige wince 

Obs. Compare Irish baladh a scent, do-bhaladh a rank scent; dealbh 
the eamitenaase, doi-dhealbhaoh iU-featm-ed ,■ faghail (o proowe, do- 
fhftghida ran, htrd to he found; blasda lavorj/, do-niblasda iaiipid. 

t- repetitive. 

[Angllsh ed-, oB-, ad-, Eet- agam, n-, as in odgifan to gwe agam, 
edaoelneB a recoaling. Gothio id-, as in idreigon (o re-form, cfm-oeri; Ohg. 
Ion wages, ition re-pagment; old Saion idnt again. Irish ath-, aith-, 4a 
in cogadh «H,r, athohogadh re-bellioii; beSdhaim (0 enHveu, aithbiiodhaim 
(0 rei-ive. Welsh ad-^ at-, dy-, aa in byw alive, adfyw '^-mved; bod la 
Is, atfod (0 re-mo;; ore a crj, djehte o cawing. Lat. eo (itu"',) M go, 



Hcssdb, Google 



PEEPIXE3 



t-wit to reproach bj citing faults. (Ang, edyitan to 
reproach, vitan to blame.) 



T-awdry, Saint Awdrj (Ethelred,) from a fair hearing hia 



T- this. 

[The indicativo dental oonsonant of the, this, there Gor. da there, liere; 
flroek neutar article ri; Ger. plur. and fem. eing- die iSe.] 

t-auto-logr repetition in speaking, (ahto it, r-autd the 
vert/ same, liyoi I speak.) See auto-. 

to separative. 

[Gothic dis- (differing fcoro latin ma-, according to DiefenbBoli 2,629 ;) 
Olig. lar-; German ler-, witli a eeparative and dBetractive force (as in 

to- at Ac. Gothic du-, as in duginnan to letjin; s^ugann iaiEUE' 
qiflan' Jet!U%an to-90j.—Jfa(l. 11 iT; duganauD .... raupjan 
ahBa <%-isja» (o-yi«c4 eom— Jfai-D 2 :23.] 

to-torn torn apart; to-broke (Ger. aerlirochen) bvoken to pieces,- to-heweQ 

The helmes Iht; lo-hcmo ini lo-lhrcde 

For which Almachini did him M.bele 
Wilh whip of led— Oluknir. 
So they nn loeclhcr thil Sir GtlflcU Cfert aU lo Ihcvcrcii.— 'King Arthur.' iSj*. 
And 1 certain woman call a pitcs of a millBone upon Abimclcch's heii, and aU lo ! 

[Gothic du, lo, at, hy, i'-j old Snson te; Ang. tB; Obg. za, ae, te, ti; 
Ger. an W, 9.1, at lAe.] 

tomorrow, Go. du maurginaj old high (xer. in morgan, 
te (ti, zi, ze) morgane; Islandic a morgan; Ang. to morgen, 
on morgen. tonight, Ang. to-niht. today, Ang. to-dscg. 



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togetbef, Ang. to-gedore against, Ang. to-genes. Ang, 
to-middes in the midst. *tofi>re, heretofore formerly. 

In parla of England tojeur (tu-jera of Chauoer,) is naed for lAis </ear, 
and HalliwaU has tj-month, to-mcdis (in the midst,) to-B-hCs (whilst.) 

to supinfil. See to at. 

haben, Danish at haye, Swedish att hafra lo katie; Gaelio du 
oan da veva to li^e. In 
and in Albaniiin mo mih. 



T-R' dr. tbr- motion. 

[Composed of r- or D- preceding E- or r. W. rholyn a roll, trolyn a 
nller, rhef and drof n bundle.-] 

Ip^inble (rpHj, jp^cj.) dream trepidation tramp (rape 
toBI-cl trend trot trip intmde thr-nst trend tmndle 
trodgre trUI te»ll drive lUrive throw Uirub strike 

TRANS beyond. 

[Lat. TEAsa, TRiN-, TBA-, as in TiiiBSLirifa or TKlLjTiis; tkInbmItto 

or TKiHiTT ; TBiNSsDo OF TttiNstio / stm tliroK'jh. Welsh tra o«sc. 

traosinlt {t^^ mitto,) to send beyond, or forward. 

tra-vestr (vestIo,) to dress bejondj to disguise (Fr. 
traveatir, aa a, man in female attire;) to mako a ridiculous 
translation, transmontane beyond the mountains, north 
of f.he Alps, unltalian. 

transfer trans-It ti'sn-scond tran-nKrOm tren-pass tra-Ject 
tra-v«rs« /trn-vail or travel^ tnr-moll 

ULTRA hcyond. 



ult-, ulter-, ultra-, iit>, outr-. 

Hcssdb, Google 



94 PBEFIXES UN- 

iiltraiiioiit»ii« beyond the moiantairfe, south of the Alps, 
Italian. ultraSst one who goes to extremes. 

ult-imate extreme, ull-imo tie (month) preceding. 

IJt-reelit (uLTRS-TBAJECTiSs.) 

ontr-n^e (aqeeS) to act beyond (propriety,) old French 
oultrager, (and also ostiaige.) 

Hn- not; without; -less. See IN-. 
unfit not fit, witlioiit fitness; v. t. to deprive of fitnras. 
nnArnitfta not producing fruit; fruitless; unproductive. 

points of court etiquette. — Mrs- Jam^smi. 

Burlie's pbrosa, nsi-ectheleas, muat He ftllowod to ba ioflnllilr more unphflosophl- 
eil, Immocd, irreligious, unciiil, Impolitic, luhima.!, and InBolent tJinn either.— 
Mm Adaim, Wotfes, 6,413. 

Young (Niglit 7, London 1771),) uses — un-absarfl nnast'd 
■muvoidable nultclief niibi Dueling unlMirn unlioundea 

niiaebaiicht nndvslgnM uauarawn undreiv on-pmlnltered 
DnespeFtea uiiDidlnK wnfeitliftil niifii«Bii«ii'(l nnfedr'd 
uiiltlSii><l nnt^lt niuDt«Uig«nt uiilticit iiiin>ad«' iiiiniiuiii'd 
Dumarr'd imnM.wifiil iinmlxt nng>aid importioird 
anprecedentcil iiii«n< npli't nnrofuiidine owreqiieslfld 
nnrCMltJ'nble iinrMille nnniXMi-d unrwll'd unsound 
[n-^ubilu'd untiiuKDil nnlio untlll'd un- 
innllllnK uiiwiselj unwiBtl unwroi^Iit 
' illullrious martcr i! a name n,,*™™.-; 



[Gothio nnd- lo, unto, agamsi; old TriBian ont unfl 1 11 ] 

until to a certain time. (Old Frisian ont, und ((7?, to, 
Swedish till to, UU, at, ly; Danish til to, foTrMd\, m, as in 
tildeele mi ^art; tilforn he/ore, formerly , ind m, as in ind 
hegne fo Ae^e m; indfroaaenyj-ozera «pj mdtil tiniiJ ) 



H JL Goo^k 



PREFIXES 



unloose to make loose; to loosen, unrip unsti'lg> 

nnto to, implying motion towards, or onwards, ( To, with- 

■^ao bungeircd hungry; the subject of hunger. 



[nito to join into one. disnnJtedlj' 
nnian unitMipu uuif«nn iinlvei'sal mi-Btiininus unit 
unique triune nulgon nniviilve anivalvulnr 

under heneaih, less thorn,. See INTER. 
unaleB'S'ate to rate at less than the true value. 
MiiKleffliiBg an inferior agent, underhand clandestine. 

uiittnTcgiri-ent -cleric -sell -g^ivntBi -tvuujl -falue -nealb 

Used figurativclj in undachand, undergo, undei'stanfl. 



uphuM npset upstai't upland upright upvoar uproot 



; Pare, di;) perhaps akin to B 



i-e-st-ige a footstep; (rr-sfj^-iu Igo, st-alk. in-ve-st-ig-ate. 
I'o-stlbule an antiohamber. (sTABULtJ" a standing place.) 



[Sa., Zend vT, Pers. Bi- .™iSn.<(. Latin, as in veoorB ^tlout (keort or) 
laind. Rnssian, Polisli, Bohemian boa icilSoirf.] 

veh-e-mont, Lat. temens (and v£h1m1ns Tehement, 
inoonsiderate. — Eichhoff.') Sa. vl; and man to think, whence 
also ntan and mmd. 



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ni-dow, Lat. viDxiX; Sansc. vidhava, from. dhXv55 a, 
husband, (root DHtJ to move, direct.) 

Tice instead of. 

[Lat, vMa B, (u™ or thaiit/e; vice, its ablatava case, a diasyllablo pro- 
nounced as a monoajllalile ip English.] 

vi*eroy one who governs in the name of (old Fr. roy) a king. 
vicegerent (gekeNS ruling,) exercising delegate power. 
Tic-ar a suhatitute. vis-count one next ia rank to a count. 
Ticiss-itude regular change. 

Obs. This ptofix ought to he pronouiioed via- to prevent confusion with 
screw. Vioinitj, vIciNiis noar. Vicenniul, vicenary, vicEsi tnonty. 
With- Jrmn. 

[Sa. root TIDH loa^arate. Goth, viflra; Aug. vi'^cr-, viM-i Ger. wider 
againel; widtig mntrary; widerlioh reptynani. Dan. niod; Sw. mot 
againsl, mota to Mndei:^ 

witlidraw to retire, recall, witliltoia to hold hack. 
wltlistAud to stand agaiust. uotwlthstaiidiiig 

wbltwItcU (in Devonshire,) one employed to counteract 
witchcraft. 

To weathe*" a storm, Ang. viffrian to resist. 

with with. 

[Ang. viO, old 

ntiUe; Lat. uur-i: 

wllbln, Aug. 



HO,. db, Google 



LIST OP THE PREFIXES 



LIST OF THE PREFIXES 



AJfA- ag, 

ANO up 
ANT- 
ANTH- 
ASTI 



APO ) 

ap-pend Jgg- AD 



nb-out ^S- AMBI 
HC-copt JS" AD 
AD to 



«f-faot ^S' AD 
ag^greesivi 
al-loquj J 

ALL- othe 
am-bneh ^ 



AD 



} ..,/ 



AUTO- 
■•■aT-aiitii^o J®~ A 
avamt before 



AM- 



AMBO 
AM-phora 
AMPHI a 



bi-siop ^m~ SPI 



Hcssdb, Google 



LIST 0¥ THE PREFIXES 



OAT- ■» 
CATA \ 
GA.TS- j 
aiBCU- 
CIBCUM 
CIS ™ thi 
CL' contir 



} "- 



COM- icith 
CON «>iih 
CONTRA 1 
CONTRO- ' 



CE' 

6u-stom I ^^^ 

eup-ry J " 

lu 

dcttMion ^S- DIA 
deo-nasate .^g- DE, Obs 
d«.vil ^S- SIA 
de-fiune JS" fl/- f 3 
denil> half 
den-arins _^- DE, Oba. 

dea-ce ^g- DUO 

D/- J^" BIS 
dl-3til ^' DB 
I>?J. throngh 
DIS- ,^- BIS 



DU- 

DUO 


l«.p 


flr5 


udly 


e-lope 




e- pro 


thetio 


e-nough ^~ 0- 






««. 


J^EX 


ef. i 




ef-fcnd 


, ^^CTO- 


el-ixir 


^al 


el-lip» 


3 ^ EX 



enter-tain ^S- IHTER 
EN TO- .^r- ENDO- 
entr-nilB j^ INTER 



EQU-, EQtri- equal 



EX a™ 
EXTRA be 



Hcssdb, Google 



LIST or THE PREFIXES 



g- ^^ c- 

Kain- agaimi 

GK'- ^S- OR'- iiitensi™ 

MEMI half 
SETEBO- diffenat 
SOLO kjAoJb 
SOM-, Iuuae« Uke 
BYPER leyond 
HYPO- under 
ETPSI- «p, above 



MAL- 

JiALE 



JIIET- 
META \ a/ta- 
METH- J 
mis- «,™„j;j, 
mis-olianco _^§* n 



badln 

SBHI- 



Im-biha J 



" IN i, 



IN- 1 

IN 4) 

IND-, INDI. ^^ ENDO- 

IHPBE) 

infra/ *"'"" 

ESTER 1 
INTEL-; *'""^" 
INTRA ttiUiB 
INTRO- wiiiin 



ir-regnlar J 



- IN- 



Ir-raplion ^®- IN 



L- J®- D- 



OMNI «;; 

op-press ^» 

OR-, ORI- Jeji 
OS- ^^- OB 



Hcssdb, Google 



LIST OP THE PREFIXES 



- PER 



PALIN, PALIM-\ ngnin 
pa-la J ^~ PARA 
PAN, FAST ^ PAS alt 
PAR- PARA hey<md 
I>ar- pant- proMcd'oH 
pftT-affine ^®" pEura, Olja, 
par.don l 

IMura-mount / 
PAS, PASI- all 
PBL-luoid ^^- PEE 
PEff- atowK 
PER throaglt 
PERI arovi^ 
l>ll-grim _^' PER 
pol-lute J^- PBE, 
FOZr«uiny 
Po-merania ^^- POS- 
POa- bf/an 
POS- 6y, near 
POST o/ier 



snvo-reign ^^ SUPBK- 



sD- ^^^ SO'- 

ZT } — 

Sft.journ ^* SUB 
SO-lTB .^^ SE 
SOL- ^~ HOLO- 
s-care ^~ SUB 
B-port ^g- DIS- 



PR^TBR 1 , 
preter | ''^"'^ 



:}.., 



PRI- 
PRO 
PEOD- 
PEOS near, tc. 
PH.OTO- 
prothO" 
pn-D7 ^^~ POST 
qn-aah ^@- CO- 
RE- I iaoS 
BED- ) 
EETRO haekmaTds 
stm» J!^- SIKE 
s-trango .^^ EX 
S- miuJt, verg 
s-omlirB .^^- SUB 
S-connd(6l J^- ABS 



snr-pass ^S- SUPER 
80-rrender «ei/ (^8- STJ, 



}- 



SYL- 
SYJf- 
STN 



T-, T-AUTO- thi) 



Hcssdb, Google 



LIST OF SHE PREFIXES 



twl.w> / -^ 

ULT- Ul-reolit 

OLTSA 

un- ^^- IH- 

VS- \ 
UMI- / ""^ 
up _^- OB 



I hegon 



wealli-er v. ^S' wiUi- 

wi-dow ^^- BIS !i. 
mlilt-Hitch 



}/■■" 



HO,. db, Google 



HO,. db, Google 



SUFFIXES 

-A. adverbial. 



[iS. Formed on the al>la- 



-A, -E, n. ihat which. 

[Gr. -a," -ij;'> Lat. -S, rnrely -B. Sanscrit -S, -a5j Bohem. -a. Honns, 
mostly feminine. POETlj)oe(iEmBaoulino; PiHidcrBAj)arrioirfe is common.] 

idea tliat which ia seen or Icuown mentally. (tSstv to see, 
to know "I plethora fulness, repletion. {See -Tn-.) 

aslh-m if) iss gm ( 4) taye-nn man-In 

naphUia n use ra h phere {mpattn) — ac-mo 

zone (S/atn) rap p ( e DIA) )iyp«rbole 

Obs. 1 ffi in BJfiora-a poem-a. 

eophiam-a mncS.) epoeli-a orown 

(oORaiiS,) ) ( IT A,) fame (i-ama.) 

Oba. 2. M da ( s epftome ratlior tlian 
epitomSe,) gi nglisli plural form, aa 
epitomes r an ; and as singularity i9 
ta be aToi rm od sahflras, tiian dog- 
mata, tsan r' 'njlilutl 

Latin— ga ( ) h io»l vna ureiis 

argillnce «« ra m <«ni ra catj-iia coiwll'i 

causative cer« n U t» c us ousfat e i 

cor«nal ilpa p fl Fl format furmnla 

ftortunat b l> ra liu lanilna linear 

■iiiiar ar lyra m te nebula palmatQ 

pernnia p pe m ra rota saliia Boapuln 

silvan S ta la testaoeous U1>la 

(crnu^ue T II — ve j 

banal so 4rab o ojltan v th 

a in arm. sa m va tIbIi "Viltt Kara 

jcvho and t om tbe d fE il y 



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, 1. -M 

on. cabala (qabbalali) epbab i 



-I-A, -T-A, n. pi. 
Pol., Bohom., Gothic 



phenonicna g)rolEg;oiii«na csantbemats aixwryptaa a 
IMU-apbemoliu synonyma civdenda (see -ASU) data n 
effluvia slfata errata geueru lustra mllltla sta 



-able, -nble, 'ibie, a. See -ble. 

In aome, badly formed moilem worils, -able has the power o( fait, na ' 
veritable 'iniikful; toiaible forceful,- ohatitable fall of chai-itt/j 
Booiftble tampamonls; profitable /«K of profit. Oapablo, inatoad 
of being applicable to an object Ihat may (or is worthy to) he taken, means 
one liaving tbe power of taking. Althongb honorable, favorable, 
Honsible, have Latin originals, they are not ii3od quite in their original 
sense, for the first means— lAnl procures ionor; the Bcoond — in favor, 
popular; and the third — peroeplihlc ly the semes. 



-AC, -IC, adj., n. haviaig; pertaimng to. 

[Ur. -a«%, -"^, -MWi Lat. -AO-cs, -So-ua, -ic-oa, Iqvrra, -KO-. Er. 
-aqne, -ique. Welsh -awg, -og, -ig; Irish, Gaelio -aoh. Norse -ag-r, -iSg, 
-ag-t. Sanacrit -oiS (preceded by a towbI,) and nouns in -oj, -oi. .Gt. 
Ix-c'o; Goth. aig-Mi to have; Ger. eig-en oion. Sb. 4-if to yossess.] 

alemoiiitU! having, pertaining to, or possessed hy a (Sai/tiov) 
demon. 

maiiia« affected }y (p-'j^) the moon; one moon-atnicfc. 

dldnctic employed in, qualified f(r>; or adapted to (3/5«f i?) 
inBtruotion. 

bnmectato made moist, (hum-eo-to, to make (utJM- 
iDUs) moist.) 

elegrlttc paralylic nretie nseetie stjim-ncli inon^acfa-lsiu 



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AC-eoua suffixes 105 

pplsnuttlo dramatic alhletio tipic nngellc coule cad-uc-oos 
prosaic pnbllc «4M»n«mic generic toiMwiilrir fubilc Civile 
antique nnlqne op-nque zodiae [see B ] mnsio loslo 
inatiieniBtlcs pbyBlo clei^k clerical Tem-acular or-ii«ular 
medical lettuce lIctucI loricate tnnlcats TeHication nrtication 
Obs 1 Masic&r, (m5-tc4, adj ^nl rniun fern ) 'itgfd onginally for the 
Oba. 2. The suffis of yaciyjc, wpedfla, Itarrijle, is flOERE to make. 



ILat -iT^Ieii," as in palatIB" a palace; -It-Io,'' -iT-iX/] 

prefoee'' (p5rI to speak,) something said (pEjE) fc 
a preliminary disoourse, 

sola«e° cond6!ence. (solOe I condole.) 



(MlN-Sa*" I threaten.) 
bnlla«e ('bolaa' in Chaucer,) a sort of plum or sloe. 

t«rrace (written 'terras' by Sir Wm. Temple, Lat. tehhI the earth, 
Er. tetraaae, ItaL torraao, Sp. terrado.) palace ('paleia' in Chaucer,) 
Hpace" grace" Bnr-pltce ('aurplis' in Chauoer.) 

-AX. pinnace, sea >iiss. 

AC-eous, AC-ious, adj. of, like, having. 

[Lat. -Ic-eHs,» -fc-SuB," -rc-ras,» (-it-ifs.) -ai,« -ox," -Ex,r is;;! 
Gr. -a£, Russ. -ok. ItaJ. -aoeo, -aoe. Jr. -aco, -bo6, -oco. Sa. -ca6 
(,-rA5) as in Ad-aca6 (Lat. ed-ax) voracious; suTfACi5 (Lat. sIgax) 
sagaciom. St. root ir to hane. . See -AC, -AX. Commonly, words in 
-lOEira (-aoeoua) are from nonns, and those in ix, -aoloua from rorba.] 

arena«eons' of, like, or having (SbenX) sand. 
crnstacnnus having a crust; crust-Hke. 
aavcnt-jtlous" (-icms) coming by chance. 
capacious^ (capax, from fl@°- capIo, to take,) having 
capacity, ai--gil]-a«-eoua composed of clay; clayey. 
pugnacioas" prone to (pugnX) strife. 



Hcssdb, Google 



106 SUFFIXES -ACLE 

pertlnacloiH'i milai^lon^d vivacious^ pniraclouB<< tena- 
«i«ns^ aiida^ionsi (AiDtj I darr ) IttqnanoiiHd ( ^^ i Qvon i 
lapai'lous'' voraoloiM^ mendacious'^ ati'»ciauB° fenieloii^ 
and nerce (fero-i Fr f^roi.e ) verl^si nutrlllonB I i ntj 
propitious ( iTiiJs) coriaceous" and cuirass (iuki " leather) 
feU-e>it;B radical' ftasnclous roMu^nu^* caprlcfous ttetaccons 
aetaeemia cretaceous llUoceoua alUaceoDS prcdaceons 

Obfl. To -aoeons belong 



-AO-I-Ty -IC-I-Ty -OC-I-Tj. See -AO-eoua. 

audacity pertinacity Teracity mendacity voracity 
rapacity capacity ppgnacity loquacity sagacity— ttUcity 
simplicity duplicity clcctHclty— atruclty Ceroclty velocity 



■acle -lc]e, i 






[Latin nonna ia -icnLCH,* (Ital. -acolo,) -ipclCm,*' -cnLCM," (chu™, 
-BDLU™, -tJLii'", -TBfi", -sTuc™,) MS deriyed chiefly *Vom rerba, and 
indioate the ag-ent, implemeDt, or place, of the ao-tion of the rerb. See 
-AC, aod -L f 3.] 

or-aclo" (ORO I speak, pray,) the person who announces; 
a, prophetic announcement; and the place whence made. 

spiracle' a breathing aperture. 

cubicle" a place in which (ctjbo,) to lie down. 

iiitrn«Ie'' something at which {mirSr) to wonder, or 
which causes wonder. 

spectacle' something (spficTo,) to see. 

ob-st-acle and st-able (ST-o I stand.) 

peril (periculO") a trial, es-peri-ment. 

oper-culiiiii° (OpBKio I cover.) 

rcceptacle> eurrlenlnm curricle vehicle'' 

Obs. pinnacle' may be an aug-mentative of penni a feather, pissl 
tt fln, oc piNCS a pins; oc it may be named from some resemblance to 
lain for (hSbus) the hand. pebticS a 



Hcssdb, Google 



-AC-UL-AE 

op-ac<ul-ar pertaining to (OKAcOLtJ") an Oracle. See 
-acle, -de, -L. ^ 3. 

^ vei-DacuIar (vegna a home-born slave,) home-born, in- 
digenousj a vernacular language, that spoken at home. 



-AC-y, n. state of being; -ing; -twn. 

[Gr. -BK-tU or m-U;' -ic-iii' -aj. See ACeona.] 

con-tum-a«y' (tCmeo, to swell,) a state of being puffed 
ap; a swelling up or inflaiiore. 
fiillae}- (PlLLO I fail,) a deeeptioD. 
p]ianna«j''' the application or preparation of (fdp/iaxvy) 

1 rprnp-lv 



By I ana a vowel, tha i taking the power of *, through tho influence of 
elidod I.} 

ob-stin-aer" a (stans) standing (ob-) against. 
<lemo-ci-ac7° (xpi'ro^) rule, by the (dt^iiog) people. 
theocracy (Oedq Gfod,) divine ride. 
tu-i»<ta«ra«}' (3.'pi:aTo<; best, bravest) 
celibacy" the state of being (celebs) an unmarried 
person. 

piracy" policy, giolicf! and pftlStyi accuracyi. conspiracyi> 
masistracy^ (Fr. magistttttura.) 

Obs. This suffii is mostly taken ftom the Frenet, aa m supreraatie 
aupremaey; intimit6 intimacji legitimitg legitimaoy; opiaoopat 
'"' i oSlibat oelibaoy. The followmg aro not Frenah nor olassi- 



eoJ Latin forma 

rfosy belong to 



.', Innacy, seoreoy, privacy (or privity) decern 
■aoy," legacy (legatO"',) delic! 



! 'SIS. 



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-AD, -arte, -ID, n. relating to. 

[Gr«ak adjeetives and nonns with a bass in J- (-r-, -A-) Norn. -«, 

gen. -ri-of (-cr-a, and -0^7-0;;) -.;, gen. -^-«; Lat. -as, gen, -au-is. Bnt 

i;il>,; ffrade, ipvtj bird, and &,...^: worm, have »i()Cr-=i, ip..B-« und '#."8-=! 

in the genitive.] 

dryad {SpUq, gen. dpudUo^) perUining to forests, {ppdq 
an oak, a tree, whence tree-.') 

decade pertaining to (3ex5V, gen. Se^xa'So?,) the num- 
ber ten. sporadic {anop-cL;;, gen. •ncopaSo'; dispersed,) ap- 
plied to scattered eases of disease. 

Iliad (a poem) pertaining to (ItlXs, -adIs,) Troy. 

Kere^Mes (yTjpTji'S^z, pi- of i^/)et;,) njmplis of the sea 
and daughters of (y^f^hi;) Ne-reus. (yvjpk wet; yiio I swim ; 
Nerlta a genus of sea snails.) 

dram-ed-ary (dhSwXs, gen. -IdJs;) Ip^^ii {-i'Ao;) running, ip> I 
run, perfect middle Ji-Jjnp'- 

pleiiul (ttAeiS's, pi. TAc.a'jEi.) Plelftdes HyAties "iSks Aeneifl 
Naiad monad triad myriad chiliad hebdomadal Jcremi«d 
pyramid cai-o'tid i^iEfo'tld hl'brid pedagoguo omiUiftlogy 
ttclmtntliology lihavlty 

iiit y6v,;, gen. sJr-rfe. iris, pi. irideE. lepas, pi. I«pade^. ebrjaiJis, 
pi. chrysalides, adj. -id, -idan. 



-JE, -AE, n. plural. 

[The Latin plural of nouQs in -i is on added -B, ivhioli wo 
oi'dental in Hebrew 3U gqb ioo««(, 'a^J QOB.e 'o™''*.] ' 

. 8trtB« more than one stria or streak. 

larvao tracheae areac or areas vertebrae 

Cornucopiie (horn 0/ plenty,) is a genitiye ease singular. 

-ade, -ado^ -ada, -ata, n. 



Hcssdb, Google 



See -ATe.] 

brocade something (as silk or laoe,) ornamented by 
means of a (brocca Ital) wooden needle. Whence also 
brocket (or pricket) a young deer wHh tapering un- 
branched horns; also called a 'spittei-' for the same reason. 

arcade something (Skcu-Ztus -5tX -atu") arcuate or 
arched, coloniuule a columned (way;) a row of columns. 

parade a prepared show. (pabatCs appai-atus, equipage, 
p5ro I prepare.) 

lemonade (as if limoniatus) lemoned, endued with the 
quality of lemons; water and lemon-juice sweetened. 

esplanade something (explanatus) spread out; (an- 
other form of es-plain-ed.) A term in fortification. 

armada an armed (fleet.) pintado a painted (fowl.) 

bai'plcadc bloehade stockade pallsud« cnisiUle brigade 
cnvalende i>r«iiieiuule Hmbuscadc ciuinonade moskerade 
serenade «ti»H»ide tlratle gasconHde rodomonfade bravado 
tnmado |Huiiul« or puiiada basllnado deapcmdo cantaUi 

focAade is for the ProDoh eooarda. 



Li.at. -*T-io-us, -AT-jo-u"','' (-aTio,=) Ital. -aggio,* -eggio; old Pr, 
-fldge; St. -age; Sp. -age. The suffix -age has been oonfoundod with the 
heterogensoiis terminationfl of TESTlGrfln veiHye, collEgiS" college, 
PRivlfLBGID™ privHege.'l 



Toyagc a traveling (by sea.) Lat. vIatioB" provision for 
a journey, (Port, viafge, Sp. viage.) 

ambrage, Lat. &mbb1t1cCs in the shade, retired; um- 
brAtIo a shading; umbrSculu" a shady place, a retreat. 

savage wild, uncultivated. (Lat. siLVlrici^e, from siLvX, 
a forest.) 



Hcssdb, Google 



110 eumxES -AGO 

mileage traveling espeuses allowed according to the dis- 
tance traversed. 

wbttrfage charge for the use of a wharf. 

eellau-a£e available space in a cellar. 

leverage the power of a lever. 

parentage the condition of a parent. 

verbiage mere woidiness plninage featliera collectively, 

Toliage leaves collectively. (foliatIo foliation.) 

courage* constitutional bravery, or that which depends 
upon (cor) the heart, mind, or temperament. 

forHKre^ hottK^^^ vlaiig;ei3 persoma^^ langiiag«^ beverng^^ 
assc<n]l>litfi« vii?lnHg;c eolnai^ tonnnse baiiilagc bondage 
cordBge lineage nsoKe bndlnnee cimiBgv dnmiige humagje 
>ne!»n)[e odvanlage (see A-) miUTlage laostage miuiago v. 

may be enforeod hj IqbhE to act. Socage means not of age. Primlcgc 
(lex law.) Sj'ffi-age (sBb, fbInoo I break.) Presage (alaio I peroeive.} 
JffeBiarr&age {/iiiiS blood, ^^yrviil to burst.) Carti-id'je, Ft. eartouohe. 
Appendage is akiu to appcadix. 

Obs. 2. Image, muoliflge, and oartilage belons to -aqo. Collage may 



-AGO, -UGO, -IGO, n 

baps akin to -C-.] 

plumbago a mineral like or rcsemiling (plumbB") lead. 
Solidago golden-rod, a plant like the (t>OL, gen. solIs) sun. 
plantain PL5NTAG0 a weed like a (plSntX) young plant. 
Tnssilago tussI-l-ago a plant aa if for (tQbsIs) a cough. 



Hcssdb, Google 



-AL BUFiiXEs 

serpigo a serp-ent-like tetter. 

Iiiml>ag« rlieumatiam of the (lCmbus) loin. 

Tci'tlgo* a sensation of turning. 

lentigo a lens-like frecklj eruption. 

llstilago a genua of parasitic fungi infesting maize. 

albugo an oye disease, (albGs white.) Inuige, as if frnm ii 



a-im-ilar. 



inii«tla(^ [ 



vlra«o (pin a msD.) ^rrago a misluro (h-Ln whejit.) ■ 

Obs. 1. Indigo is SiJaniah, for indioCe Indian, eolm- being nnaetstood. 
Fuetigate see -lo-, 

Obs. 2. The oorr«aponding adje«tiv«s are formed on the genitive ease, 
as.plnmbaginonE, plnntaginoQa, lentiginoua, ferruginous, rnbiginous, 
aflruginoua, oartaaginoua, -gin- being tlie base, or crude form. 



-AL, adj. relating to, like, capable of being — . 

[Lat. adj. m., f. -Il-Is" (neut. -IlE,) -el-is," -h.-ia" {neut. -IL-S.) Gr. 
'\ii, -H- Ital. -ale. Pr. -al, -ale, -el, -elle. Gaelio -ail. Welsh -anl. 
OM Bng. -^1, -ell, -oil. Words in -Ah are derived from nouns or adjeo- 



-al, -al-ic, -eJ, -eel, -il, -1-e, -l-iaa, -1-ity, -1-ism, -I-ist, -1-istic, 
-I-ity, -l-nes8, -1-ty. 

austral relating to or pertaining to (Ivster) the south. 
libni-al having the quaiitT/ of one (liber) free, 
social /iis(aOcre8)acompanion; compa.aiouai/e; adapted 
to companiooship. 

flnviul pertaining to (flOvI^s) a river. 
in-imlcal not like (amicOs) a friend; like an en-emy. 
tractile^ that may be (or capable of being) drawn out. 
cruel" (OKUDELlsj OKUDtfs rough,) inhuman. 
doeile" that may he instructed; easily taught. 

From nouns and adjeotiyeB— dual puuctoal grailual vocal or 
TOwel JnvenUe infiuitlle bustlle civU= g«ntil«, genUe and 



Hcssdb, Google 



113 SUFFIXES -AN 

ecnteel carnal and chamel Sdelity'' annnal annalist lnl«ral 
cel«8t>f-al niart-i-nl jndielal otber-e-ali triumpbal natural 
naval liumility ntilit; 

Prom Terba— ntcnsll ferllle v*i«-W-llity a-en-Uitj nqble" 
focllit; fossil AprU rrH)file or trail superficial potential 

InlbtuIiDns, . , . PraOlcUl, BIhyeall, CEcumenicalL, »nd PolUicaU.— ^ati.i, 1641. 

Obs. 1. This anfBs hiis been extended to a, few Lntio and many English 
nouns, aa in L. amimIl having (aniha) breath; cInbelI a oandlo, from 

capital the head of a coiuniD; principal; chief. 
ratlo-n-£le^ n. the reason or explanation of a phenome- 
non, (nav-ale a ship-yard, ciSB-lLS a couch.) 

bospiMl and liutel ^neral cardinal mortal signal 
canal and channel cutheilrul — apoci-j'iihal choral — vassal 
Irlal reprisal proposal reversal denial renotval burla) 
nonpareil 

Obs. 2. Entiidl-a, rietnal-s, leprigal-B, bto formed b; the adjectlTe ool- 

ObB. 3. CoTporal, n. ia a Latalonjm of Er. CBporal, ItaL eaporalei 



-AL-IA, n. pi. 
regalia ornamente pertaining to a (rex) king, 
penetralia the inmost parts (of a temple, &c.) 

paraphernalia Bacchanalia Cerealia Fereidln 



-AL-ITy, -Il-ITy, n. 
brntalitj' the quality of being (-al) lite a brute. 

legality formallly ftugalltr principality plurnlltr 
fhellity docility ngUity humility servility ductility 



.-AN, -IAN, -EN, 
-ain, •ane, •can, -en, -ene, -Ine, -ane, -ne, • 

adj. of, like, perfaining to; n. one who, k 

[Ss. -ANA5, -INA, -IN, -T-iKA5. Gr. -flPit, -n<^, -J'ki -f"K) 



HO,. db, Google 



Sa. TALlLi .(,■««,, PA,.lLiHi>ii of Si™.. Bat (sBa -e«) -r.ii, -E«es, 

Aftican o/ Africa. Protean like, Proteus. 

Alexandrine {hl^^a.vSpivn';) pertaining to Alcsandria. 

veteran one who Las become (vEtBs, gen. vItee-is) old. 

opporlano coavenient to an occasion. (portCs atartor, 
an asjlum.) nllen of (ali-us) another (place.) 

pristine most ancient, (t educed from s of Paius he/ore, 
tlie adverb of pro.) 

lEltehen (cCqvinX) a place for cooking, (cCqvo I cootj 
cBqvInBs pertaining to cooking.) 

flnorine an element found in fluor spar. 

dnms-ou and damasc-eoo the Damascus plum. 

Toveiga (Fr. forain, foraino,) exterior; alien; irrelevant. 
(FORls out of doors.) 



sylvan (sIivInus) hnnuin and Etaniaoe urban and urbane 
christian benlg-n ger-m-ano {geho I bi^nr) meridian f«ri-ene 
serene coronal colonial tribune illvlne serpentine feUue 
canine marine peregfine or pilgrim 

The fnliowiag are IVom Latin feminino nouns in -Ina, -Ina, &<;. 

ftortnue pertaining to (poas) luck. 
saline (saiInCs salty, sXlInJ a salt work.) 
c6l-5kus a farmer, from ci5L0. to oultivato, wlienee colonj- 
eoloDist. ■vfiN-lNO" (a neuter noun,) whence Tcnom. 
ete^ian (S-og year ) periodical (v. iods ) 

medicine dlselpllne doctrine celnnibino membrane 
mpine lesln jTiin iiuarfin captain or cliicltiln titiz-cn 

(..IvlTis a i,tj 1 (ertfllu chuplHin barbarian liintoiliu iie 
formed from Bnppoaabla ndjoct vaa m >anns quatrain cm tain 
train {tbIhere to draw ) JacoMn Ir m -InHsi ind mountain 
fonntain from others in -naeus 



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con-H-ln is the adjectiye and noun forms COnSobrlN-us, -a, or without 
the prefix oon-, the nouns s5BIliH-5s, -4. sliasfWen ia probably from 
an adjective term clBOHlRlNna of cabohSrus (whence) ahark, from 
xofXfp's rough, enappish. 

Obs. I. KesioDB meama both ravaical and mmiciaa (sbb -AC, Obe. 2,) so 
that -ian in 'phjsieian' is an adaptation of the Latin -ianns, fotmed fvum 
the genitive ease of a noun or adjective, witli -anus added, aa in fhvsIcOs, 
gen. pBYSloI, phyaioi-an-us, muaioi-an-ns, politioian-us, rhetorioian-us, 
magician-US, Ao. whiah are not Latin words. 

Gangreae, yayypnii'a, from ypow and ypai-v-u I gnaw. 

Profaa-e not aaorad. (panu"' a temple.) Anodyne, aee AN-. 

In Persian geograpbical namea, -an is part of -8tSn (country, region,) 
as Bagistan the place of Tinoe; Dagbeatan {gh guttural) land 
ofmonntadns; HindnatSn oonntry of Hindoos. 

In Hebrew there are nouns in -an, Ac. aa qorbiin (an offering, Mark 
1 ill;) leviathan (Job 41.) 

-ANA, ti. pi. sayings, &c. of. See -an. 

Of our BogliBh Ana, by fsr tho moat celabralediB tlie Waljoilana, beJng a collection 
of the HinveraaHoosl remarks of Horace Walpolo, logetlier with a good many ftag- 
jDButH copl^ from hlB papera.— Penny Ojclopffidiflj 1333. 

-ance, -»ncr, -enee, -encj', n. 

quali^ of (being — ;) (Ae act of; the remit of; am — ing. 

[Lat. ABT-il,' -ENT-iIi'> Itdl. -anKa, -enia (i aa tt,-) Sp. -anoia, -ansa, 
-Bneio, -enoiai Fr. -a°oe, -e^oe. Formed from present participles by add- 
ing tho fern, noun termination (^S' -A} to the genitive oaae, aa in 
PBO-vinEO I foreaee, pro-vide; PBoyiDBsa (genitive i'KOvIdEmtis) provi- 
dent; PBOviUKNTii providence or prudence.] 

prOTidence the quality or the act of foreseeing, or of 
being prudent; a foreseeiH^. 

abundance the quality of abounding; an abounding. 

defiance the act of defying. 

elegance, elegancy the quality of being elegant. 

silence (sIlentiu") the result (consequence, effect,) of 
being silent. 

continence conntenanee'' (coNtinBbti*) ohediene* and 
obeisance'' semblance (dIs-Simulaktia) observanee difference 
efflorescence audience Impatience science 



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espcrt«nc« indals^nce vonslsncy si^nUlcanoy' rcpi^nniicy 
decency Ailgency i'er»ls%nc« clemeiiey psMncy urgency 

HindraiKc 19 u hoteronjm of tlio Belgiau hindernis, bob -ness. 

-AND, -ANDUM n,, a. somethiDg io he —ed. 

[Lat. -AND-Bs (-1, -ij"';) EKD-UB (-A, -D";) the fntnre jjarldoiple of the 
passive Toioe of tha verb, used as nouaa in Englisli. Ital. -ondo, -Bnda, 
-ends. Obs. 1. The neuter forms in the genitive, acnusative, and abla- 
tivo oasBB, oonatitute the gerund, which are sometimes uaod as English 
nouns. Oba. 2. The N is that of the present partiei]jle (see -AHT,) and 
the D oorresponda with the past participles and adjectives in -tus. 
Sec ■»!«.] 

multipllc-and sometliing to be muItipHed. 
memopandnm something to be reraembered. 
deoduDd to be given (rEtfa, dative case deo) to God. 
reverend one to be revered; wortby of reverence. 
i something to be read. 

Jlowance, (phjibeo, to allow.) "Provende cr rent, or 
dignilB."— Oiatiuer, who uses 'provendro' for a prebendary, 
second sgoennns adj. foilowine. (See aEQvOii.) 
viand (viVEBDus; vivo I live,) an agreeable article of food. 

Foond ROTBKDns a,, aa if 'rotandus' to be rolhd; roto I roll, h5tX a 
nhoel. innaendo by hinting; the ablative case of the gornnd of 
ia-suo I nod, hint. 

Obs. 3. The meanings of 'prebend' and 'dividend' hare been changed. 

Oba. 4. 'Tremendous' and 'stupendous' are adjectives formed like the 

participle i ~ 



-and participial. 
[The old English preaent participle. Sea under -inBj 

Eftfoonta himfelfe in glitlcrand limes ht di|hl, . . .—SfK, 

■ANDA, -BNDA, n. pi. 

[The plnral of -isn-o", -flND-u". See -AND.] 

memoranda things to be remembered. 
corrigenda things to be corrected. 



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-ANeous, a. See -an, -oua. 
cntaneous pevtaining to (cuTia) tlie skin. 

subl«rr»ueunB spontaiieoas extrnncops or sii-iuu« 

-AN-ITy, -EN-ITy, -IN-ITy 
urbanity tlie quality of one (^an) pertaioiDg to (ukb-s) 
a eity; the politeneaa of a oity. 

-ANT, -BNT, a. qualilf/ of — ing; n, iJiaf which, one wk). 

[Latin present partioiple, -ins, -6ns (gen. -Ura-is, -bnt-is;) Gr. -wi',® 
gen. -onof. Itiil- -ante, -entei 'Wallmsliian -nd. Welsh, -iad. Lat. infini- 
tive £S9i to be, EHH, Or. £1" beiun, scitti^. 8a. prea. part, -at {-inii) 
Zend -Rns; Lithuanian -ana; Go. -anda; Qer. -end. Welah noun en a 
living printiple, a spinC; enor an, inUlUfienee; Gr. 'S'hl< (gen. d-lf^i;,) « 
mas. Sa. B'BiaAr hearing; •plpi^, Lat. piiiEMS and pIitESus; Ft. portast 
(from POBTO I earry,) Bng. im-portant.] 

-ntable, -ntlite, -ntless, -ntly, -ntiation, -ntial-ly. 

provident aod prudent hi\ l•a^ tlie f|i ility of foresee- 
ing; tlie being or existing of toies ^^t 

absorbent a. having tlie qualitj of absorbing; n. that 
which absorbs, assailant one who aaaails 

servant and Serjeant one (bERVIBNs") serving. 

mereltant one selling student one that studies. 

fi«n€l G)thio pMiiQiple pre'sent fianda frim fian, fijan to hale. 

president l«nanl (tir tonent) opponent inhabitant 
f^si slant vngnint infant qnailFiint alb>ew-«nt ar-rOK""* 
nrgent inn(MM>nt defiant elegiuit mminanta n. consonant 
expectant observant absent abstinent excellent resident 
a., n adhsrcnt sulheitnt >«l-uiiti.ry nntlitntw (s&sAUTO~.) 

Tl-oi-ent pesl-il-ent op-ul-ent trne-ul-ent frand-ul-eut 

• Ab In SouXriiiu I adTlae, oonanlt; SowArf-uv (gen. -ojrm,) advlafng! «av\£v0-cls 
(gen. -^erroi,) bang adilsed; firfXEu-ir.i (see -S-IS) thrj ar± of oonaultation ; 
SovXEii-jia (see -MA,) the ranit of dellbarflWoni SovX-tli (see -j 1 IJ the fimclimi 



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AR- 



SUPFIXES 117 



(soo -ul-ent.) valiant grunil stand bUnd blunt 8i>liut 
S^iilut pHs^ant truant sprpvnt brigand t-ravcn 

Obs. I. Ths genitive oaee of soma Latin nonna in -na, -s, girea English 
noHDs in -at, -nd, as sextIns (gen, sSktIntis,) the sixtli pact; OBlantj 
quadrant (equally derivable from a Terb,) «EKa (gen. Mimis,) mind. 

Obs. 2. lynmi ia a heteronjm, Pr. tyra", lat. lYHlHuea, Gr. 



-ANT, n. Oiat which. 

[aroek nouns in -at, gon. -Suroi; Latin -is, gen. -aktis. See -AS.^ 

giant GiGls r^'r^^, a large man fiibled to have sprang 
from ()-^) the earth. 

SriKantic elepbant >ine, -fasis. adamaiM and dlom-und see A- 
AOontic see -AS. 

merophaM and egcojihiM nro from ^f™ I show, mtU S intensive, and 

T of -7T,;, T-EH. 

-AS, n. 

[Breek, as in AtSp wciar, l^xe'fi' a teaHli, an escinr.] 
sugar ia from aji Enat Indian original, but as a European word it ia 
from the Arabic sakkar (sookkar,) and with the article as-sukkar 
when oe ttie Spanish azfioar. (Greek oiinap, ontx^/jr; Latin sACoaAiiC"' 
""-ic{(fe:«Pn,- Albanian and Turkis: 



j«SS»*y a onarae unrefined (Tamil jakarai, Malay jagara) sugar- 
also sugar from palm jnioe. ' 



fine nectar; nectarine «scbitr scar llara 

the juice titflarsou!. aOd tlie h»lmv /.„ . 



A false spoUlBg of -^r, in friar b^gar Uar vin^ar ('Tinogre,' 
'yinegBr,'ffi,i(anrf, 16S5) dollar plUar ('piier,' Okamer, 'piller,' HoU 
land, 'pillour,' Spensei-.) 



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,18 SUFFIXES -AEy 

In poplar (Fr. peaplier) -ar meana l,-ee. oa Prenoii amaado iiu 



-AE, -AEI-, AEj, a., n. relatvng to. 

[Lilt. adj. m. ana f. -ar-Ss, neut. -Je-E; akin to -al-is, and asii 
ehieflj to avuid the ropatition of L.] 

mJlitaiT pertaining to (mIl-bS, gen. -jtIs,) a soldier. 

aiixiliarj' affording (SvxIliu") aid. 

regular according to a (rIg-OlS) rule. 

salutary conducing to (sXl-Cs, gen. utIs,) safety or healtli. 

collar (cSllare) a band for (c5llu") the neck, 

tabular (Umlll-iiritj slmll-arly iwrpenfliciilai- joe-ol-ar 
par-t-lc-ul-ar circRlap polar tutlar luiuu- spblunary slelltti- 
eonsolnr globular popular angnlar Bcliolar colnnuiar 

-AH-, -OR-. See -it- formative, and -arj. 
vloai- (vICAEIUs) one supplying the placi; of another. 
cellar (cELiARiu") an undergroiiud apartment. 

-ARy, -AEI-, -ORy, -OEI-, a., n. relating to. 

[Lat. adj, -In-iFS, (fera. -il, neut, -iBm,) flR-ina. Ital, -ario, -orio. 
Fr. -aira, -oir. See -R- formatire, and I formaUva.] 

mUitarf soldier-like. amUlary affording aid. 

gregaviouB living in (grex, pi. greges) flocks. 

honorary conferring honor. consolatory aff'ording 
consolation, lllnsorj- tending to, or promoting illusion. 

aniilversary arbitrary hereditory testomentary volunlary 
tributary legionary EOntemporary Judiciary primary 
secondary salary 

transitory dilatory censorious meritorious territory 

Latin adjectives in -AEItrs -omus were aomatimes used as nouns, aa in 
InTRaSARios oppositej and an athersary; STXTSiRjus, ACTni-Krus, ueh- 
CBNiitiDB, kBtakidb, SflvSiiiBa, ooBHSMTlitfcB Mid cOhmbbtSkIOm. 



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-AEy 



119 



antlQuupf he who studies antiquities. 

di-omedtu-j' (adj, SpoijA'; running, see -AD, genitive 
dpoiia'So';,') a running (eamd;) one swift of foot. 

statmni^ n. he who makes atatuea; a, fit for statues, as 
'statuary niarhle.' 

sos-cer-er (with a double suffix ) old Fr aorcier, ■sOutI 
AR-iiJs, he who practises divination by (sobs, pi iortbs) lota 

^Tannni'y Felti^iarf nnnlvei-snry DremlPr nn 1 p 
vontcmiKirai-y seoi^tarj- staUouary esmnwutarf 

Tho suffix of ouaer (ooovtier, oavalie, ) may be considered as ftom 
-ariuB, a* if 'cultelliuina,' ftom c5i,tbli,us a small ( Oltei!) knife 

Tt. this haad belong vienr, mountaineei', engmoor ^enaliei traaanrer 
bursar or purser, equcrrj, oordwainer; anct peihnps archer and tinner 
(stIbhIbius,) but not weaver, drinker, &o. 

-ARy, -ERy, -ORy, n. of place; that which. 

[Gr, -Apiov," -ifiovf' -lH-iDii,= ebiCm,^ -obYOm," -SnE.r Ital., Bp. -ar, 
-ario, -eria, -orio; Fr. -oir, -oire. Dan. -tiei Ger. -erei, -olei Hindoo- 
atauoB -ar, as in Ion aaU, lon-ar a aalt pit. See -AR- formative, and T 
formative.] 

cemetery' xot/iTj-njpiov a sleeping place. (xoifi3,'v/ I put 
to sleep, I calm; xi-ra-xoi/^a'a,, to set (xard) down to sleep; 
whence e»ta«omih. See CATa-.') 

emporium"' " a place of deposit, (nopsva, I transport.) 

mysteiTc'^ ■■ something kept concealed; ftv'<u to shut up; 
fi-vlitt, (future liUTJaiu,) to instruct in hidden kaowledge; 
fioaviip (see -lOR) a mystic, eauter y" see -S-. 

aviary," a place for (2 vis, pi. aves) birds. 

magistery and ma..8tepy' the place or power of a 
master; hut ImperIO" makes empire. 

altar/ L. noun altaeE, agreeing with a neutor adjective 
fowa; from altBs high. (See coEIai', under -ab, a., n.) 

beFbapiiim aquarlnm calend-ni'^ Itbrni-j- ngilary gpaimry 
and gi-wng/e ilormlLoi-y dispensiu^ altnonpy cad ambi-y 
i-C-rc«t«Fy confectioiiRi^ dicMonHry Klossary itinpmr.v 
dlitry CHtuBpy prumonlAi 
reserv-oir |M)rI-Dr orat 



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120 SUFFIXES -ARD 

Oha. Its uae is eitended to nurserj, browory, tolUery, dower, refineiy, 
ohafeij, foundiy, smithery or smithy, fiehsry, sauUery, buttery, pillory, 
lottery, hostelry, quarry, &o. 

Oaravaiiaarj) 13 a beteronym of tho Poraian and Arabic 'oarwEn' » 
traveling body, and 'eara' a bouao. Inori/, Lat. ee6b, gBQ. bbQbi-s. 



-ard, n. one who; that which. 

[Its,!, -ardoi Sp. -arde, -arte, -ardoi Port, -art, -arde; Fr. -ard, -ardc. 
G-er. (-hart,) -art, -ert; Eelg. -aatd. Oer. art, Bolg. aard a kind; akin to 
Latin IBS (gon. aetis,) art, faeultg, 91.0%. Old higli Ger. adj. hart 
hard; adv. harto, harte, miMii, nary, vehementln; as in the proper namos 
Adelhart (or -hard) one who ia vaiy noble; Brhart, one wilh much 
honor; Reginhart, whenoe Reinhart and reynard, from regin counsel 
The masouline sufSx -er, as in hunt-er, has been oonfounded with -art and 
-hart, as in (the Gcrmon reioh Hok, whence the names) Ecioher, Reiohert, 
Reiohhard; or in atand-ard (for atand-er] as distinguished from etiindara 
a Conner, derived from eatmd. Shnilarly, Belgian -er, -oar, aji inhuMlani, 
has taken -d in Spaujaard a native of^ain; English lanyard, Pr. laniSro 

dmnkapd one who has the hahit of heing drunk. 

placBi-d, T^XA'S a plate, Belg. plakken to stick up, 
plakkaat a proelaniation. halliard, from 'haul.' 

gurnard, as if horn-ard, from Uie bony head. (Welsh 
pengernjn hoTn-Iiead.') 

billiards a play with halls. (Fr. hille an ivory hall; Flem- 
ish ' bikkel' a small bone, or die, used in the play of ' cockles.') 

coward, (L. CAVda, Ital. coda, Fr. queue a tail;) first 
applied to timorous dogs, which indicate fear by drawing in 
the tail, baznrd, old Fr. Lazart a dicer. 

cochado (Fr. cocarde) an ornament originaOy like a 
cock's comb. 

liibbard or Inbber, Belg. looper a runner, a vagabond; 
hence landlubber, a contemptuous f«rm for a landsman. 

dullard staodnMl dotard slug;f;aTd ufgsnrd wizard 
buzzard bra^art hae:g:Brd mallnrd pilchard vaiupart 
pollard s«abbai-d p^uiard Iiayai-d lanyni-d balyard 

Exceptions: hnatard mustard orchard liiard leopard apilicnard 



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Obs, 1. Mustard is commonly referred to MDSTU" AliDBHS, but see M. 

ObB. 2. In old high German, the name hart ia a woody mounts 
(whonoo Hartai Hara rfsm,) as in Lindhart linden-woad; Spehte 
hart, Ger. Speseart tcoodpecker-fofest; Bng. +apeight a woodpecker, 



-AS, -IS, n. 
[Sr. -<■!, --I. IriEh -as, -se. See -AB.] 

BoreEis (Soplo,^, gee. -oD,) the north wind, 
Dipsas (SiipSi<; gen. -dSoq,) a genus of serpents, 
pancreas (gen. -aroq) Atlas (gen. -oi'toc) 
erysipelas (gen. -aroq) canvas (xdwafii^ hemp.) 
These give the adjective forms pancreatic, Atlantic, 

and erysipelatous. 

Xiphias (f i'^ta?) the generic name of the sword-fish. 

(f ("V^ "• sword, ^ita, Suiu to scrape.) 

Huge li ffiUB, whom marlDers efchsw . . . 
And greedy rotaarinesf »]lh vifages Jefeme i 

£iM is proba,blj from oBlIqvUS oblique.— J'. Thomsm. 
Reafoi, .he hya. .urns ftom good lo ill, 
And N=ro r=lE"> ' Tltm, if 1,= Avill.-fo^. 

..4Ka» (otherwise,) » Latin ndTorb. 

Capias (you may take,) a Latin Terb of the second person singular 
number, need as an English noun. 



dai'dd what is of base ^owth. 

t Sea-borseB. The gloBwry does cot explain slffiaH and roi 
Richardson quotes the latter line In llliiitration at Uie plant rosemar. 



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122 BuifFiXES -ATe 



cntlass, Italian ooltellaecio (a large or bad knife,) from 
tte Latin cBltIllOs a small (cultEr) knife or 'coulter.' 

crevasse (Fr.) a large break, (ckepo, to break, burst; 
Itai. crepaccio (-accia) a large break or opening.) 

matrass a chemical vessel shaped like (matara) a Gallic 
javelin, cniross see -ACeous and Oba. 

pinnace, Fr. pinasse, Ital. pinaccia, Sp. piiiaza, from 
PINUS a fir tree, a ship. — Diez. 

mattreM moroBS embarrass calabash (Fr. caleba.9se.) 



•ASM, n. See -ISM. 
Hpasm an abnormal contraction of the muscles, ("ffjraut I 
draw, pull.) 

-AS-T, n. -AS-T-IC, -S-T-IO, a. 

[See -S- inflBCtiona], -t-eh, Ohs. 1, -IS-M, -IS-T:] 

en-eomi-ast he who gives (iJiiiiiuov) praiBe, or commends. 

el-astlc springing back. (iXauyoi to move, extend.) 

«au-»itic see -S-. my-stic see -3-. 

enthusiastic see -ic. 

dom-estic pertaining to (dSmPs Uixnq) a house or a home. 

Iconoclaslic periphrastic ecclesiastic BareasUe plastlD 
plenuastle timtastlc eymnastic pro-Kno-sllc eabalislic 

■AT- See -AS, -at-Ic; -ma. 

-ATe, -AT-, a. qualify/ of; like; n. ikeper&mt or thing that; 
V. to tna&e, &c. 

[LaUa adjectives, pust partioiplea, and supines. -It-Ss,' (-1, -!i">,) 
-KT-nB," -rr-Ba,° -i5T-cs,* &r-cs,» -t-ds/ -8-cs;! Ital. -to, -ta. Walla- 
ebiiiii -at, -nt, -it; Pr. -at-, -ata, -ite, -t6, -t4a. Gothio -9a. Islandie 
■dut, -tur. Welsh -t, -d, -aid, -aJdd; Irish -ta, -te, -th, -the, -dha, -de, 
-t. English -ade, -ate, -et, -ote, -ite, -at, -ul«. -ad, -id, -d, -t, -to, -ly. 
See T ander -ade.] 



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The SiDscrit fomis of -rng are -ta5, -taS (with tho otlg'nal vowb!,) 

DA Li) jift, J)JttI6 i/iiien, Lat. DiTirs wbenoe dale. 

Tip to Aeai,. tapt15 heated, " tefidGs tepid. 

tS-!C to a^paar, lomitaS iucid, " LCciDua Iveid. 

STABHtOjSiC, STUBDHAfi Sjlf, rfK(7, " STflpiDUa sirijJirf.] 

atdToeate' oalW (Xd) to; one called to plead ii cauise. 
p]i«at« plie-c? or fold-e(?; v. to make folds or plications. 
lanreat, -ate" decked with laurel, as if laurel'd. 
mc-t' anything (fa-ctO°) done, se-lec-t oliosen (si-) 
apart. R»te what is spoken (bj the gods.) 

Tote^ (that which is vow'dj) choice hy suffrage. 
armed, Fr. arni6. army, Fr, arm^e, an armed (force.) 

Used us adjectives — asMH!iat« dupIicaM ornate striate lunate 
roseate ovate <wnlal« discrete «IH!te>> eoiniilete nlisolete 
qni-et requlsllo polite' remote^ acute" nstute nilnate 
morose^ abstcusee strlc-t jus-t lione»-t modes-t esenip-t 
abrap>t eree-t abjec-t b«ref-t ri|;l>-t 



Used as nosne — amnclate dupli<!at« reptvbate advocnte 
date rate cerUSeate luaudnte consulate l^ifaie mai^istFate 
trluniTlrate a^ereKate cerate vegyetate site diiiint di^lt 
gran-lte^ trlb-nte statute deposit and depol verdict relict 
«onatet sect Inaeet district nsslgmee^ itisees Fr. fus^e 
Jett-y Fr. jet6o irnurantee aud warranty 

Used as verbs — associate duplicate reprobate advocate 
date rate medicate consolidate eonflscate regalate 
elucltlate gyrate tabulate circulate stagnate veg-etato 
inOcc-t llf-t 



Choovlate is the Mesionn ohooollatL 
Termite a. Lat. TEHMB3 (pi. TEiiMiTES, inaeots yulgarlj 
lints,) la farmed irregulait; from the Latio plutid. 

Oils. 1. As tho first Latin supine resembles (he neuter 
adjectives and pBitioiples in n™, words derived from anj c 
plaoed under tho BamB lieaii, as deht, which is equallj cc 
partioiple DEBiriJa, (ind the supine nEniTn"', from debbO 1 1 



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124 SUFFIXES -ATe 

Obs. 2. Poems like defrauded, derided, deluded, enrronndcd, grounded, 
have indtioed the vulgar form drown-d-od, whose Iterative enflix ia present 
in English, the -d of lon-d being that of loan-d. Henco len-d-ed is 
etjmologloiy equivalent to loan-d-ed, oompao-t-ed to compHok-ed-ed, 
oon-ooa-t-ed to con-eooked-od, dedne-t-ed to deduoed-ed, protec-t-ed to 
pro-deeied-od, and gir-t-ed or gir-d-ed to gyr-ata-ats or gy-ed-ed. 

learned society. Predealinate, Rom. 8 :30i predestinated, Ephel. 1 :11. 

A bDi where t*sst! compacted lie— G«. if.rSffi, born 1591- 



Their purple eujla oonttac-t-od.— SiiiiWfy. 
Oba. 3, Tho older writers were mora obaorrant of the etyniologiodiffer- 
inoe betweBQ verbs and portieiplas, as Chancer, who npas the verbial forms 
lorrige (tu oorroof,) corrumpeth, eorrumpabte, delibere, disaimula, onoor- 
poring— but he also ules enfecta and cndito as verbs. 

HBbccimefo confuCe, ht Eonnelli not loke.— 'PLcrs Plouhman. 



The wifdroi of Ihofe am . , . is degencrale into chlldilh fophinryr-flarra, ifaS. 

With head uplift above the wave.— Mdro, P. LoK, I ilgj. 
How complio.le, how wonderful it mia.— rimg. 
Inuiged llie aopreme beauty uncreete.— (Weritfec 
To glad andfortilisB the subject pliJnB.— id. 
Ibeir fortuuea are compact with mine ;—^(9uii. 

Obs. 4. Tlia following have been fonned nearly thua; (but sea Obs. 2 
nnder -tb.) 

havB (hav'd) ha think (thinh't) tho't 

do (do-ed) did may (may'd) mi't 

will (will-ed) wou'd shall (ahal'd) shou'd 

bring (bring-ed) bro't owe (ow'd) 5'd, awt 



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-AX suiTixES 125 

-AT-IO-, ET-IC, -OT-IC, -AD-IO, a.., n. 

[See -AS, -MA, T" declenaionaJ, T" partJsipial, and -AC] 

pancreatic* pertaining to tbe pancreas. See -AS. 
dramatic" see -MA. prophetic" athletic" see t-eb. 

energetic" see T participial, sporadic see -AI). 

asce'tlc pertaining to (aff);ijr^g see T-ER,) oae wto prac- 
lices any exercise. (Aaxim to perform a work with care, to 
train, to practice devotion.) 

narcotic producing (ydp^nj) torpor. 

bypuotic producing {3-yoq') sleep. 

AT ILe, AT IL T-IL-, a. 1. capable of -^nff; 
2 J ertaining to. 

[ATe»nd AL as m m f , si>f-Ir-iL-ia, ne„t. hIm-at-Il-e Jfic or 
mih a (HiUDs) Uok HAM It iis h<,ahed. tehs-atilib qj,( ,„ torn, tha% 

vibratile that m^y (vi-beo,) vibrate. 

fluTiatile peitaining to (jLuviiJs, pi. flCvii) rivers. 

contractu ty duetUe i olatUiaatioB nmbralUe versatUe 

floe I 1" for dociblB 



beau (QKLLus) beaoty portmanteau bai««n flamlieaii 

-AX, -EX, -IX, -OX-, -TX, -X, n. 

[Latin and Greek nouns (TOmBtimes diminutivea) in -X, -J, deriy«d 

from Tflrba, and inflecting io -C-, -Q-. See -ACeoua, -IX Obs. 2.] 

elinaax olimao-terio ealjc ca> ined 

■ «pe»; apio-al calys caljc ulate 

Index indio-ato codex eodicil 

varix Taric-oae telix helical 

vertex TCrtlc-al cicatrix oioalnoB 

tarter vortio-osa sllex, j^a'Xrj, ,Aviio,a 
Il» 



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onyx onyoMlB 

plil«s pMogistio 

sphin-x pi. -laa, -ges append-ii pi. -iaes, -iioB 

ctaaUce pamlce or ponnec Jarch lSrih Up:^ tbamx ftij™; 
boracic moustache or mnatash joioraj mystSx nutr-icaiion 
mbrival« enrUcaL radlca.1 
Borax, ftom the Arabio, haa been adapted to those. 
Sy-tos!, (for syntaiis) belongs to -SIS, and porarf™ (-fJn) to -STA. 

Obs. In Bome oaaea the -o is pmt of the root aa in paradox (-ji'i,) 



-B-, -P-, -V-, -F, -X7-, (-M.) 

rSa. Bnn lo he bom, to exUt; 0S'-u, to produce, havf, get; Lat. r!-0, to 
be, FU-I / 7i«™ been. Welsh -p, -f, -ff, b, as in gel-i o alKoUag oul, ool-p 
(Swed. kol-f ) a darl. Bohem. hon-iti to hwl, hon-ba Ike ehase,- ata-U lo 
,(a-«d, ata-w a >ta«d; kri-ti lo oot^r, kr-ow a roo/; aitt (o si"", Bitba 
(Coptio sit) eeed. They appeal in tliB Latin perfect and future iadloative, 
as iMiVi / have loved, ImIBo I wilt love; and in -BDa,» -pea," -vua," 

mor-Ii-id (mOebds disease, m6e!£6r I die,) diseased, 
tending towards death. 

Imp (Welsh,) a shoot, a scion, (im that is exireme.) Welsh 
gwy a fluid; gwy-f that yields, draws out; gwy-f-r wi..re 

«hir-p a chirring sound, sa.-lfe, s5l08 n., SA-LVUS a. 

gnl-r, x6X-7!o^ a gulf, a deep holi-ow; xoii-oi; hollow, deep. 

gulp, coLLtJ" the neck, cifll.i the gu!l-et. 

corpse," coRPiJs a hody. 

cnrvD semnt cnrb superb" ncerb' garb giurbage 
eadn-Teroua crabapple berb na-v-lg-al-ton linrp svolp 
Bbeir BbelTB oUvB saliva lava Calrary Calylii enlf 
belTe Hemp crisp" pul-v-er-ul-ent plebeian bulb bleb 
globe glebe grtef belp yelp »aap er«p sn-bulato 
v-oea-bularj vestibule vibrato motive captive grave u. 
con-splc-Dous con-tlg-nons oefaive Octnvips effluvium 
le-f-thandcd" 

Obe. 1. In limb (limbds a border,) olamp, cramp, b, p, mny be ednoed 



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SUFFIXES 



Oba. 2. From the affinity betwei 
M mo J belong bare, 

Tu-b, a. vessel with two handlcS; 



Ss. bhK to beae, hut more probably -D-, am 

-br-ious, -br-ious-ness, -br-ity, -br-ate, -br-at-ion, -br-ie-ate, 
-br-ic-at-ion. 

salu'br'ious bringing (SALtJs) health. 
vertebra (or Tcrteber) plural Tertebrte, the bones of 
the spinal coliiinn. (vertehe to turn.) 

fo-br-i€.ate (rSclal) to make, as a (F5..BEa) workman. 
Terebra a genus of shells. 

InKUbrlons celebrity Incabralc fibre or fiber 



. 1. September seventh, Novembat al^th. Deoember leaih (mouth 
understood,) are Toferred by Bopp to tbe SiuiEorit vaka pe>;od, 
lid Hordiah thcis-Tar thriee. HindooBtauee (from Persian) bar, 

e of SeplfnibfT, &a. the Wallaohian 

-BIL-ITj, n. See -We, -Ty. 

-tole, -EIL-, a. 1. tJiat may he — ed; 2. worthy of) 
3. capable of; i.fiiU of; 5. causing. 
[See -AL. Lat. oAj. m., f. -la-ii-is" (neat. -AB-ri,-E;) -eBitiS'ti 
-Ybilib;" -bilis;^ (Ip-nLD3»n.; -bulX' n.; bulomS n.; -pBlOhI' n.) Sp. 
-able; Er. -able; Ital. -bile, -evolo. L is tic adjeotirB element, -is tho 
auffii for oasa-inaeoaon, and gender, (see -US;) and -AB llie eharaoter- 
istic portion, oliservable in HiaiLis Jit, hSbeo / have, Sbbb full. Bausorit 
rootip to hold. K Id aome oasoa the b of -hie oannot he diatinguiehed 

root PU. Words in -ble are mostly based on verba.] 
flexible' 1, that may he (FLEXtiS) bent. 

Hcssdb, Google 



128 sumxKS -liOR 

credible" 2, worthy of credit. 

legible" (legMS to read,) 3, capable of being read; 
that may be read. 

forcible 4, full of force. tcDi'Ible" 5, causing terror. 

tolerable 1, that may be borae. 

stable' 3, (si'a-bilis firm, 8T0 I stand.) 

stable,' (STO,) a standing place; a building for cattle. 

notable' and noble'' 2, worthy to be (NO-Tifs) known. 

landoblG' 2. sobELble" 1. rfslble 5. commentlable 2. in-satl- 
nblo (siTis enough,) not to be satis-flad horrible" S. movable 1. 
mlHerable' 2. cnliinble' 2. matnble' 1, 4. TeneFBbIe> 2. 
memorable"- S. mutable' I, S, 4. illsciplo" ho nho is (diboerb) to 
iearn. fitble^ BomBthinE (Pi-Bl) to tell. 
. Amiable (ijtiniLis,) ia a falm form. 

Oba. 1. This anffix is teduoed to E wten -Ij follows, aa in nredi-b-ly, 
to!erQ.-b-ly, rema,rhably. 

Obs. 2. The vowel which has disappeared from the unaoooatcd ayllable 
-ble, hns been retained by tha accent in floxi-bil-ity, oredi-hil-itj. 

Oba. 3. For ramlilc, orumble, &B. sea -L fraqucntutive. Foe double, 
treble, see -pie. 

Oba. 4, Miatakable, remarkable, and others, are hlbrids. 



[Persian -tar (o bs Bug. w;) Hebrew (from the Peraian) -bah, as in 
iizBlR a (rea«oT)7 Qr. from ano. Pers. yifa o treaivre. Gar., Dan., Swed. 
bar, Iriah caraig a rook, oreagmhar craggy,— mi as English v.] 

bulver the holly, a tree of the genus tbtx. cSlCbSr a 
jeiiiis of serpents; originally, a house snake, (cIlla a hut, a 
iell.) 

Sulphur, cinnabar, ainoper, caliber, are doubtful, or heteronjmio. 
Neighbor one living nighi Ger. naelihar, old high Glernian nahkipnro; 
)ur a dwelling, bau-en to build. 



HO,. db, Google 



candela brum the bea er or support of a (cSmdela) 
candle; a u c t 1 Ira I ed candlestick. 

cerebEum ! e pr u [ 1 j wt of the brain as distinguished 
from the e ebellum 

-B-DND. See -B, -and. 
morllbnnd about to (m:5bI6r) die; a dying person. 

-C-, -G--, -CIN-, -GEN-, genetic, 
prodiicmg, Jiaving. 
[Hr. yeu^S lo loprotbuie, to beanae; yh-as, Lnt. hEk-Bs a irfji-d.] 

i-nbi-c-und having (rCb-igo) redness, 

Tcre-c-und diffident out of respect, (vereor to revere.) 

fiL-c-nnd eloquent, (fok I speak, 'eXbI tfl speak.) 

ludi-c-r-ons, litdIcSr or iCdickCs (see -br, -r, a.) pro- 
ducing (LtlDUS) sport. 

medlo-c-re occupying (medW") th^ middle; ablative 
case m£dI6 in tho middle. 

ratio-«in-ate to produce (rStIo) reason. 

T»ti-«in-ate to perform the function of a (v^tes) propbet. 

Vatican a celebrated palace, library, and museum at Home. 

halln-cin-ation a mental impression ('3J.?.o>;, IjAvs) 
other than tho correct one. par-ge to make (furus) pure. 

bfdrogea producing (Silap) water. 

OKjgcu producing (iJJv ?) sour, 

nitrogen a gas produced from nitre (nitrate of potash.) 

sepul-chi-e SEPtJLCRU". lar-ceay latrOcimiu'". 



-C- diminutive. 

, -k-m.] 



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130 SUFFIXES -CH 

-C- agentiai. 

[Lat. loo Ida, act; -o-ate, and -oa-tioD. See -IG-.] 

iibl-«-atloii the state of being somewtere, (xjbI where.) 
clandicatlon the act of halting or limping. 
Telli«ation a pulling out, as tair. (vello I pluck; 
VltLlco I twitch, jerk out.) 

fittirlcKtlon alMrcatlon commuulcate Tociciise 

Oba. 1. In vootttiiJE, location, plioalion, raoation, and others, c is part 



-ce, ■«}■; n. See -ace, -a«y, -ance, -ty. 

poll-ee, poH-cy, poli-tf aomething pertaining to {nS\ii) a cit; 
{7,o\fr„i) ft oitiian. (mAfrtia a pnlitical aociely.) 

Din-cy aee -S-IA. uettroiuiuiey see -MANcj. prophecy xp 
see -^r. solstice aBLSTiTiir". potency poTsmil. niece h 



percb a pole for fowls. (pert-Icaj akin to pario, jero, 
.0 bear.} See -AC. larcli larix Mpi$. 



Hcs ad b, Google 



-C-LE stJpnsBS 131 

sepnl-Kshre (sepulcrS"") a place in which (sepelio,) to 
bury. See -o-r-. 

■C-le, -eel, -col-, -cnle, -cil, -cilc, n. dim. 

-oMBh=, Ss. -ca, -Ci6, -co5. Pera. -ao; Hindooatanae -k, -Jl. Polish 
-ik, .ak, -ka; Bohem. -ik, -ek, -ka, -ko; Ruaa. -ko, -ka. Swed. -nnge. 
Weiah -ig, -og; Gaalio -ag, -ach; Itiab -ag, -og, as in bille-og a amall 
(pSlI-d") («<(/■— (oaol small) Gr. -Ofii, -a£, -iJl, -'/^, as in 65^™: a 
iutiHi/, flO^vnf a tittte (mmj; ofViJ^ « pipe, whence Syrini, Syrmga,, 
syringe, from oo'pm / draw; lyni X6/"f, fVom ^riiu / see. If The re- 
sembtaDco of the TuTkiah -dshik and -dshiq is probably acoideatal.] 

arti-ele^ a, little (artus) joint; a clause; an agreement. 

anrieula, aui^cle, a small (ayris) ear; a plant; a shell. 

per..il, pSrIcBlB" a trial, an es-per-iment; danger. 

nto-nber' a beast shaped like a man. (iiOMUNcttLCB and 
H<5Mt)Nc![o (c as k,) a small homo, gen. n5MlN-le, man.) 

ciu-bun«I.e* a amall (cSrbo, gen. cSsbon'-Is) coal. 

uncle', AvtJNCUL(!s, from XvCsf an ancestor. 

domicile' (DOMiis a house,) a habitation, a place of abode. 

peduncle, pedicle, and less properly pedicel the foot- 
stalk of a plant or flower, (pedo, gou.PEDONis, broad-footed.) 

Tiolon-eelto often called cello (tshello,) a bass viol much 
larger than a violin or tenor, but smaller than the violono or 
double bass. 

pai^litle fosclcle folllele tnitlcle pencil^ codicil' damsel 
Bnliiudcale roniinculus reticule cnrpos-ciile, -de, -cuLiiu. 
ossicle, -cuLDx nnKUi-eul-ale fenuel p 



Obs. 1. Iciole,iVe, and Ang. gical(oaa J,) Ger. kegel a (cog) (aper- 
ing body, aa a wadgs or cone. 

Obs. 2. In mah, (Lat. MlscutiiB a. from His a male,) tlie sense ii 



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132 SUFPIXBB -D 

-C-OBS, a. guality. See -AC. 
cadncons (CADO I fall,) haying the quality of falling. 
ftestn«ous like (rISTDOi) straw. Inbrieons slippery. 

-C-E- 

[Lat. Jionna in -c-nn", -P-EE; aajectirea in -ceh, -onus, -oris, with 
-c- getietio and -Ett agential.] 

in-volu-ci'uin or involucre, involucret or iuTQlncel, 

involving flower organs like bracts. 

ludicrous (ludIcSr, LtJDioB&s,) causing (ludOs) sport. 

Hepnlehre pulchritude mcfliwore (HEniBcitis) medloerity 

-C-UL-. Sec -acle. 
e8.«.ul-enl fit to be eaten, (ed-o, Es-u", to eat; bs-C-X 
food.) 

-C-UND, a. See -c-, -and. 
-rt, -t, n. thai which (is.) 

[See -ATe, -««l, -t. Irish -de, aa in air omr, air-de height; -t, aa 

gwj u liquid, gwyo to fiovi, gwae-d blood, gwj-th a cSnime!.] 

flodd (Wood) that which flows, deed that which ia dnno. aeed sow 
cold cool gold jell-ow iiiead(-ow) mow lliird three lend v. loan 
cod, quid ehcw gleed glow giW give* head Ang. heafod weft 
weave blast blow 

bud stnd sound thread nod buUd r. wield t. weald 
or wold shield yield guild beard sward swaithy sword 
Hhade, shadow (.«rs') Med and tiKbt fiiei, eounterfelt, and 
feat set pact «a*m««t tract, treat aspect prefcet sect 
Beeret duct and conduit circuit Plot raft craft left and 
lift thrift shrift rift cleft theft tuft sraft draught 
draft drift shaft hnft heft hilt float fleet sheet 
slight bright pliglit flight Itight myrlit siK^t fight 

* Similwly no (I e^ve) producea da te a givm {point of time,) Peraian di-d a gif-t. 

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-DEN 



suppixEa 133 



■lejg'ht Wight welsbt freight yacht thong'tat drought 
pleat plait biscuit credit deceit receipt exploit salt 
fruit malt cobalt itelt wcit bolt holt qnaliit saint 
point hart quavt request mist 



tnist post frost thirst 






locust prOTust host trust gust thrust 

bluster spout sprout salt silt start state sod sptt v. 

OphiclHd, a musical instrament of the (i^t) Borpent kind, provided 
with («Xsi!, piaral KMitt) lieys. 

-D-, diminutive. 

zo-di-ti« a zone in the heavens marked by certain animal 
constellations. (i:<u-5[ov a little ZSm animal.) See, Observa- 
tion under -let. 

ophidian pertaining to serpents; a serpent. (dfZ'Siov a 
small ofi^, genitive SfXo^ serpen t.) 

-D-, declension al. 

[piiATS fraud, gen. FHAVD-ia of fraud, ain the ™r= or Ssar-i, cObd-Ys 
of the heart. This d is part of the ba^e or o'rude form. See -AD-.-] 

fraud laud lapidaiy foot pedal custody hercditai-y 
cordial pedagogue, an instruotor of youth. (ir«r; a boj, gun. ^«iUs; 
'3yia I oondnet; 2d aorist tiyayar,) 



dor a holder, darl Jurisdiction. 
[Puraian words in oommoii nse in India.] 

zemlnda'r a superiotendont or holder of (Persiaji aamln) land. 
zemindarl or scemindary the jurisdiction of a aemiBdar. (Pro- 
« like 00.) 
proTinoe. 

ir roujdar 



burden, bnrtb«tt (ipcpzlov fardel,) formed from 'bear" 
like growth from grow, with -en diminutiTe. 
garden, a diminutive of hor-t-ub. 



Hcsedb, Google 



134 SUFFIXES -DEE 



B«IdeD, a- -en maiU of, -d ttal loAicl it, gol— (lat. olLTfia, Sax. gel,) 
yell-oa. (Welsh gole splendor,- Oaelio galU brishOteie; ^-iii tie sub; 
WX-!J jaH, a joUoff SBoretion. J^" 90i_) 

iinifc™ is probably a plural. 



and -or is that of -tee, a, 

binder, (posterior,) is fron 
-s advarbial. (Bopp regards 
sign.) 






[The participial and gerundive -iNn, with (lie noun suffis -Eii, giving 

uhloh this form Iiaa boon extended, ofton by the eduction o! d from a. 
This -der is not a Latin suffix.] 

«Dllender an implement mth which (c5l1ii8) to strain. 
lavender an aromatic plant used aa a cosmetic (tXv- 
Sndo) iu washing. 

KHttinder, ^®- tTngo, TraoTn", to stain, detalnder, JS§~ teneo, 
te-ntS'", to hold, provender, see vi-AND. pemnliidep re-Joinder, 
jnwGO -inKcTU™, to join, rndder row. chevender a chub, slionldor, 
akin to aeal-e. Bander, see -m. 

mnrder, Ss. MR, Lat. hoh-ior, Pers. mur-dcn* lo die; Gor. mor-den 
(0 murderj Goth. manrSr, Fr. meurtre mm-der; Sa. mikaS, Gt. iiHiits (see 
jnaraaMUS,) Lat. mBks, Bohem. s-mrt denlL^ ^ 

Germavder is a helflronym, from onXir.«DRYa, a low onft-leaved plant, 
Xif;!!!! o» Ihe earth, ipS( oah. 

Hrf«-{treo,) German bolder, holunder, old high German holan- 
tar hoUov! tree. For c</lmder, see -N- intensive. 

Obs, In Greek naroea, -andor is from Si-flp a man, genitire d^SpUt, as in 
Aloiondor, defending man. In botany it is equivalent to atamen or 
anther, as in 'licsander' a plant with sis: atamona or six anthers. 



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-DO, -DIN-, u. 

[Latin femmines in -do, gen, -din-is, nom. pi. , 
Akin to -T- participial, with -S deolensional.] 



-din-ao-e-ou8, -din-ari-an, -din-arj, -din-ate, -din-ous. 

^ tSre'do (z€/ni3<h>. fem., from np^o,, to bore,) that which 
pierces; a boring shell-fish known aa the ship-worm, 

torpe'do a fish which causes torpor or numbness ia those 
who touch it; a contrivance for blowing up ships, 

ore'do a blight, (tJEO, to burn, infest,) a genus of minute 
parasitic fungi infesting living cereal plants, and known as 
'mst' Uredo rubigo, and 'smut' Uredo eegotum. 

festn'ilo that which has (testa) a shell; a genus of land 
tortoises; in antiquity, a defence made by joining shields. 

Tale-t-ad-inni^, -auri-an pertaining to (valetudo) 
health, or disease. (VXt-EO, to be well.) 

aiucedo t«stu-dlii-ii4« mnltlta-dln.ons apun-dlu-ac-e-oiiB 






n. domain of; condition of; act of. 



[Ang., old Frisian, Belg., Swed., Dan., -dom; Gsr. -tinm, old Qer. 
-torn. Ger. tiam j,tdg,nmt, Bag. doom. Grimm refers it to Lettish 
nu-d6m-at (0 discrimmaUf Littmanie dumS deliberatimi, opiaim. In old 
higii Gorman it was rarolj used as a profis, as in tomphaffo prieu-dom.'\ 

Clirlstendoin hingilom dakedom mitrtfrdoni 

Wiadnm is tlie domain of (wit) linowledge, and flrceaom of Iha froB. 

Ukraldom tie condition of (Anglish Bra;!) a slave. 



Tlgerdom, donkeydom, sunk into flnnkeydom.— ' Fundi.' 

-dor-, -aore, -door, n. 

[-dor is the Spaniah form of Latin -tok.] 

cori-idor a covered passage way. (curberS to run.) 
matador a slayer. (Sp. matar, L. mSotaeS to slay.) 



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136 

battledoor, Sp. batidor a striker. 
ambiiissador, Spanish, from the Arabic. 
stevedore he who stows a cargo ; from the root of stuff, 
Lat. STiPO I pack, cram, 

-DOT- 
sttcer-dot-al pertainiDg to (sXce-r-dos) a priest. See 
sacSr. 

-E, imperative. 

[Latin imperative of fhe seeond person singular, as in yiDe lie; dElE 
Itol out; vli^ farewelll 

Tal-e-di«-t-ory a bidding farewell; a farewell oration. 
(dico, DlcrO", to saj.) 



due a. owed; that should be rendered. (deberS, Fr. de- 
voir to owe; participle masculine dfl, feminine due ov)ed.^ 

is8-u-e V. to proceed, emit, result; n. a passing forth, 
result, offspring, point in dispute. (bx-i-Rb to go out; old 
French iaa-ir, participle laau, feminine issue, the -u being 
a participial remnaat, of the Latin -tum.) 



avenn« toellc earte-blnnche gaiizo j«n<tnille parole 
me prude proKitunme (and progcam) clique hue (outi^ry) 
one and queue value valve Bbre — dialogue Uiesliv luci-e 

7>rq/i!8 ia tkB Prenoh raaaealine nenn profil, with i prra on need. Eye 
was formerly a disajllable. Ax ia preferable to oajc. Qlve is for Eroneh 
glu, andpuZse is for ponla, German puis. 

Oba. Written English ia anljjeot to the frenlis of lipogrammatism, in 



Hcssdb, Google 



forbidding oertain letters to ocoupy their pjgper place. Thus 'v' must 
not be doubled {aieopt latterly io nawi/, a uaiiigatioa or oanal workman,) 
nor muat it occur final in spelling words like believe, eloave, heave, leave, 
woaYs, sleeve, give, live, sieve, miasive, ealve, solve, yina! 'u' (formerly 
coBfused with 'v') is also avoided, as in trae, blue, g!u9, pursue, arguB. 



[Primarily neuter adjaotives in -F„ with the maseulino and femiui 
n -IS. See -AL.] 
ratlon>itl-« n. sim-il-e n. Omlie a. mobile a. voliilile 



-E, adv. -k/. 

[Latin adverbial -B, aa in bSbb well, male badly.l 

J»eii-»-TOlcot kindly wiahiDg; disposed to do good. 
int>l-e>v»l«nt mal-e-dletton ben-e-fiutop benefit benellclarj' 

-E-, -I-, -y, formative. 



Eorop-e'-an (evropa-E-US, ^bpmnoA-oq, e&paTnog, ehpiaiz- 
. s-oc) pertMning to Europe; a native of Europe. 

Athen-l-an (dSijva-?-Hg) pertaining to Athens, or to dftjaa 
Minarva. Athen-e-um a building devoted to literature. 

Epicure^aa (iT:ixi/p-ei-oi) pertaining to Epicurus. 

master-y, MSoi'STBB-I-ti'" tte function or condition of a 
master; superior power or skill. 

nausea, vova-t-a sickness from the motion of (tou?) a ship. 

vitrcons compMed of (viTRfJ") glass; glassy. 

Oba. This -I- cannot always be separated from I genitive. 



Hcsedb, Google 



cum see -«iiia Sj^rln oiapia mania traehea aculcnie 
1 «l«^^-y miser-y pmseiiy pkogeb-i-es series ca»scri««i 
e rpajcaio! spondee a^wkic; apog:ee dmyiior 



-cd, -d, -t, pp., a. m«(?e; having; did; was, ko. 

[See -ATe, -A, -t. Latin -ATns; old Fr. -ad; Ang. -t, -d, -ed, -id, 
-od (as in lufod or gelufod loved, aocod naked, dypt dipped.) Old Eng. 
-ed, -d, -t, >te, -de, -yd, -jdo, -id, -jt-, -nd. Get. -at, -t; Dan. -de, -(. 
French partioiple past -tl, -Ue, -6, -6b, -i, -ie. Irisli -the, -dha, as in 
airg-im to nptjilj airg-the spoiled, atrg-the-iuih a epoilar; afiT air, aer-dha 
airy. Welsh Terb oedd aias, did exUt. Probably flonniwtod with Eng. 
do, (Sa. BH to move,) of which di-d may be a rednpIioatioE, and done the 
old German gBdOan {from duan (o do,) deprived of its prefis,] 

gronnded made round, bearded having a beard, 
ruined in tKe condition of a ruin. 
prepared (pXbatu", Welsh parod,) made ready. 
watered supplied with water. 
pressed was under pressure. 

borned (L. COKNOtiSs) whence liart (a doer, i.e.) a 
horned animal, 

shod supplied with shoes, cold, gelid made eool, 

mild wild old bald made staid laid right just fit 
apt r»st Celt (pronounced kelt) glided or gilt gird 

A btim ethereal, rml/M, and abforptr 

Obe, When past time ia not in liow, words in -en, -ed, may he regarded 
as adjaotireB, aa in hidd-on faults; Innd-ed property! one poaaesa-ad. — 
-ed is also used to indioala past time in yerba^ 

Then pirased, and look'd, and tnm'd, and esom'a to iratcL.— Sjmm. 

-ee, -ey, -y, n. one who; iJiat which. 



Hcssdb, Google 



-EL SUFFIXES 139 

(frailty,) fomininitee (womaoliood, ) anotoritee. But -^e is not always femi- 
nine in Frenoh, pygmfie a dwarf is maaonline, and solidity is femicina.] 

grantee one to wliom something is granted. 

guarantee, (Fr. participle past gai n n ti ^narrant-cd,) the 
person who warrants; — sometimes used for the warranly. 

trastec one specially trusted, jnry, Ft. jnr^ swor-n. 

canseway a heteronjm of causey, Fr. chaiissfie. 

tbsae (fodio, Foasii", to dig,) a diteh, especially in forti- 
fication. (Fr. foss^; but fosse (a pit or grave) is eom- 
moaly given.) 

absentee I^atee F«fii)v«e referee aaslKDee patentee 
lessee legatee committee fricassee repartee ni^Me soiree 
morlgngee coiig'! resume expose levy dory aUey volley 

Jonrney, origiaally a day's work or a da/e tratel, (as jouraae in 
Cliaaoer;) Ital. giornata, Sp. jnrnada (j nearly as %,) Fr. joarn^Bi Lat, 
DIBS das, filDBinrs done 6y tJay. The moaning being modified in English, 
the phrase 'a day's jonrney' (really—a day's day's work) is proper. 
Similarly, 'journeyman' has censed to mean a worker by the day. 

Fuiee (of a watoh,) p*aFS a spindle. Ftiiee (a portfire,) Fr. fusif, 
Ital. fooile, diminulive of Latin pBciis a hearth, a fire. 

Orandee, Sp. grande, (a dissyllable.) Decree, decrbtu". Trochee, 
epondee, and apogee belong to E formative. 

Srahman-ee (BEimiiNi, with h pronounaad, a as in far,) a female 



Obs. Hebrew has proper names in -SI, as IsiSEl (Soldier of God; 
MahalalSSl (Praise of God;) Mchctabel (Bleat of God ;) lahmael (Whoi 



Hcssdb, Google 



140 

-EL, n. dim. See -L, T[ 1. 
kernel a small corn, laurel & small 



tureen, for terrene, (originallj) an earthen vessel. 



-eer, -ier, n. See -AEy, Tf. 

engineer one who contrives and adapts engines, originally 
those of war. An engine-driver is not an engineer, for the 
same reason that an organ-blower is not an organist. 

fiirrier a shoer of horses; a veterinarian. (pSKBiRifia 
a. occupied with perru" iron,) 

mniinlaliieer auctioneer mnleteer moslieteer prlvnteer 
puiu|tlilele«r volnnleer gaxetttrer cliarloleci' bomlinrdler 
grenailler briKadI«r flnaiuiler eavalicr ur elievaller (French; 
Ital. caraliSrS) chandelier coui'Iei' premier harrier larrier 
or tenrler rapier grazier glazier elothier garreteer 

Obs. This anffii is to aomo extent contused with -er, as in currier, 
furrier, terrier, courtier, collier, drov(i)ar, barrier (Fr. barriSre,! career 
(carriSre,) ttdaaurer (Lat. THEBlTBlRius,) compeer (Lat. pIra equal.) 
ChantioleBT, the clear Binger. In mld-iei- the saffii iE for Welsh gwr a 
mftn. DomineeTf aee -er, v. ia£nitive. 



-en, part, present. See -ing. 

jtymologie form of the English participle present, which 



barr-en, Ang, un-ber-cnde (Luo 1 :T,) Gothic tern, participle 
)air-aadei un/ndt/iit, not bearing. 

flrl-end, Goth, fri-jon to Iotc, fri-jonds loving, o friend. 



Hcssdb, Google 



caftben made of earth; ezirtli)' Having the qualities of 
oartii; eaptlily lite (pertaining to, taving the accidents of) 
earth, crimson (Ttal. cremesino) of kermes. 

gvlileu wuollon fluseii lea(her-ii oaken hempen silken 
beeclMtn oaten nbenten braxcn leaden waxen wooden 

Obs. 1. The nouns lititn, satin, robin and iron probably belong hero. 

Oba. 2. The re^emblanoe is accidental in Turkiah, as is lAJi^ (iLtosIi) 
firs/ -jA«ol (ateshin) of fire, belottging (o jSrf, where 'in' i« the geni- 
tive oaae'sign. Sob note under N adTerbia!. 



Og g 




lagggG TPn N 




-a, DaE. e have lost the ji,) (rnsh im.) Old English -en, 


, .„, ... 


and -e,) as in to wondr-en, to tell-cn, to tiden, to berin, to doen. 


used by 


Chauoor, but ivhioli must not be confounded with the old verbit 


>1 plural. 


BS in tlie following esample— 





Infinitiva mood signs akm to -ANT.] 

war-n to cause to he- ware; to make a- ware. 
ear-n, Ang. erian to plow. 

dead-en to cause to become dead. (Flemish — een menach 
dooden, to-kill a mail.') 

moar-n, Lat. ii(er-eo. b-nr-n, Lat. €ao, coM-nirso. e>Iee-n g-low, 
g-Iea-m, ^du 1 Eee. lear-n (lerin Oha^csr.) happen listen dlzen 
shun Oann ynwn (see -sp) . BiHU spawn drown tnm own 



Bnglisli forme loan, le 



HO,. db, Google 



142 SUFFIXES -EN 

^ In the following, -en is used to form vorbs from nouns and adjec- 
tives, tint tliBj are not atrictly JnQnitiTea. 

strengtben Co make BtroQg, to add streDgth, 
bolrtpii nlilMn fasl«n foUen madden moisteti lengtben 
llgblen frtghten heiglilen h«arl«u gladden thivaleii 
cb«aitcn deepen darken recb-on (veken Chaueerj beck-on 



-en, participle past. 
[Anglish -en, -n; Gar. -en. Sanscrit past part, passive -naS, fem. 

of Grimm's eironj oonjngation, in which the preterit is formed bj a Towel 
ohanga, as in biota, (preterit hkw,) Uoton, where the form of ti.e weak 
eoujugation would be blotoedf groitredt leaked, cleaved, £o.] 

driven w«v«ii 8niltl«n cloven shaken taken hidden 
broken tdiosen fon(«t(«n driven Okllcn forsaken slEtt-n 
tor>ra bce-n dg-ne go-na bor-ne lor-n — benven leaven 



[Lat. -iNii Ital. -in 
lionn a, Mil, dionnan a 
an. Heb. -Sn.] 

kitten a young oat. chicken a, youDg chick. 
(Wbin, Welsh, cabau, a small (Welsh ea-b) hut. 
patten garden Jcpken (jerliln) mivnin cordon carinnta 
sreen, cXkIn! a keel 



hyph-en (^v^h/, ind h under-one,) a mark uniting the 
letters of a written or printed word into one group. 



Hcssdb, Google 



-END 

0/ com; ffa beam, fflfln a ison. This ttcoounta for -en in boia-en; and 
in Derw-en-1^ from derw oah trees, dSr a mate oalc—whsaee Barbg, often 
Bpelt 'Derby,' but pronounoed proparlj. W. gwlan wool, gwlanen 
Jiantitl, culled nannen in some imiis of England and the United States. 
Por goblin see -Un.] 

bll-D, W. 00, cw, a rounding, a cononWtj, cwl whut surrounds, a 
liiln, oylyu a eingle kiln.. 

aspen, W. aotinvjdden, from aeth o ^oin*, gwjdd treei. 

-EN -IN-, D. 

pect-in-atecomti-like, as the gills of fishes, (pecten a card 
or eomb, Trixai to pick off wool, to oard or comb ; Lat. pe-c-t-o, 
T intensive.) p«llen dust from the stamens of plants. 

ungnent, ungven and ungventu"' (t participial) some- 
thing with whioh (Cngo, ungvo,) to anoint. 

Ladu' atBraii (061.1.I glne,- y>jii-dt clammy,) whenoa gint-ln-ons. 
The primary idea of glue was genera!, of i/hitai epeoial, as between a 
eiajatay and an adheeive eubstaiLOe. 

-en, -in, n. pi. 

[Anglish (of tlie 3d deolension) -an; German and oid Englisli -sn. Per- 
sian -an for liTing objoote, 09 peder father, pederSn fatherr. Welsli 
-on, -ion. Irish, as in oeasd a quest-ion, pi. aoa,3dan. The cesem- 
bianoB io Aramaic, Chaldee and Syriac -ijn, -in, and Chippenay -an is 
acoidental.] 



Obs. 1. Chiid-r-BO ia a surplural. The plural childi- is sometimes teard 
imong old people. 

Obs. 2. The f nal -n of many English nonna lannot be distinguished 
fom tlie adjeotive forms -an -en, participial -en, and -en diminutive. 

-END, -ENDous, See -and. 



Hcssdb, Google 



B pertaining to the (tberS) earth. 
tui-een originally a vessel made of (TEaaS) earth. Fr. 
terrine an earthen vessel. 

Damascene a native of Damascus. 

Ciecsesciies Oartareiies Masareues- 



[ChJefty due to -gar with ti induced by the d of oorrnpt g or dth, as in 
iellangor for St. Loger.] 

«er the bearer of a message. (French messager.) 
igcr (Fr. paasae^r-) P«*tiii!(«r and potager (Pr. potager.) 
'pollenger +niiireiiBer Iiarbtug:ep wbnrlingep 



-ENS, participle present. See -ant. 
nt-ens-il something that may be used; an implement. 
(UT-OR to Tise; UT-BNS Ttsing.) 

-ENSic, a. pertaining to. 

[The Latin suffix -ebsIs is confounded with otliers in English.] 

Atrenslc (fSrensis) pertaining to the foru" or court. 
castrensian belonging to (cabtra) a eamp. 
athInIensIs, cakthaginIensis, pertaining to Athens, to 
Carthage. 

-E-ons, a,, formed hi/; made of; Uhe; -y-. 

[E formative, and -ona. leased on nouns.] 

vhnlceoas of or like {^'^Xxiq) brass. 
Igneous, iONStJs formed by (IgnIs) fire. Lava (an igne- 
ous rock) is due to igneous agency, i.e. the agency of fire. 
Ugneons formed of (LiGNtJ") wood; woody. 
terreouts of earth, oclirc^us of the nature of ochre. 



Hcssdb, Google 



vili-eous iu|ur«us 
u-oous grramlnewuH 

Oba. pleniaous, baaufaoua, oourteous, piteous, bounteons, &o. are falsa 
forms in -ods. Bighteoat belongs to -najs. 

-er, T. frequentative. 

[Hetaroajmio, partly akin to fraquentatire -L in irranelei wriggle, 
gabble, gibber, (often used to prevant its repetifion, as in bewilder, wtioh 
has fllreaaj an I, anip-allle, wbioh has an r,) and pa,rtljr to -ep iniJQitive. 
Some eiamples cannot be disoriminatad from tbe latter; nor from nouns 
in -EK used as verba.] 

wander wand scntter J. shed waver ware 

bBttev beat stn^Ker staik fhller fail 

jratler pa6 clainber alimb welf«r wallov 

IliigePlong blcRer piok s1uial>er elacp 

IbenlMer wild <!hattei> ehat flicker 4. j; 

flutl«r wblsper stiumnei- flounder wblmpev slmiiep 
slnuner shndder tnltler spatter sputter sn-l-utter slipper; 
Obs. In Norse, -r indicalad the Hominative caae masouline gender of 
nonna and adjeotiyaa, as in dagr rfay, dair dale, algr dk, kalfr calf, rettr 
right, atormr slorm, siKtr eweet, koldr cold, diupr deep, enskr En^liah, 
Mix /nil. 

-er, v. infinitive. 

[Latin utflni^TS aign of tbe let conjugation -I-si; Sd -B-nfi; 3d 
-a-Eg; 4tb -I-re; old Pr. -bb; Fr. si-, -m, ItaL -are, -ere (mostly short,) 
-ire. Wallaohian -are, -ere. German -ir-on.] 



smotlicr flat(«r iKmler 
inder cower 

jonsid-ar, reoup-er-afe, belong to -n- formstiva. 



-ER, -E, adjectival. 




[Adjaotives in -er, -h, -r-us, -Ria, -w, -^m, -p.(. 


Sanaorit -Bi6. 


Akin to -us.] 




eov-er, vin^ar, ae-r-id; Lat. Zc-eb (c aa .!:,) or Ii 


,nU sharp, Itaen, 




KOSPEK poo..r 


F^TPEK >us-l-ere anatenty. See -RDtT8. 





HO,. db, Google 



lender Blender limber Integer or cnU..rc n«ut>er or 
n-eltb-er otb-er vesper asper «elel>-rated al«€>ritj eclcrity 
Ealnbrity liberty eqnestrian Ind-ie-roas ilex-t-i>on5 sac-red 
— bllliep thliliep wlMitlior — inner outer upper »ver after 



al, -ius, -!3n. Sanscrit -ijis (J as Engliali !(-) Ang. -er, -ere, -ar, 
-ir, -or, -ur, -yr; Dan. -are; Ohg. -or, os in fer far, ferrOr forther, 



smaller 



■lia. Ttye oompurative sign was originally S, aa ii 



-ER-, -0E-, n., a. declensional. 

[Lat. -EE-is," -Bb-13,'' -eB-is," geniUve oaae signs in the 3d declension. 
?eo -B declensional.] 

itin-er-ary, IT-Sa a going, gen. l-rtNEiJs. S@" So. 
pulT-ei^ul-ent," ptJLvIs dust, gea. putv-Bnls of dust. 
In-cin-er-ate, cin-er-arj, cind-er, cjSnis" ashes. 

cueumber, cCctJMis'. federate, ECBciis' a compact. 
flowcv, flo-r-al, flOs." telluric, tellOs" the earth. 
Itemoi^l, rSMUR" the thigh, gea. iemSeIs or femikIs. 

.-EI 

[Lat. -ER," 



Obs. Engl 
ODuntCT, bam 



HO,. db, Google 



-4jJi SDFFIXES 147 

when distinguished from pe^-sone, os ruler, soraper, roller, atanjpcr, digger, 
boiler, rubber, piercer, Bkimmer, feeder, plunger, slider, pounder, wringor. 

compiler he vilio compiles. 

Etn the abridgcr, compiler, and Iianflalor, though their labours cannot be ranked with 
£r. yiinion, Rambler, Augull 6, 17;!. 

a-ir, aerial that which blows. {So/, to blow.) 
etiier, aiOijp the bright upper sky, from its supposed 
quality of burning. {a'Ov/, to burn.) 

gore, y\ gwy a h ^ui 1 gwj ar (hat flows gore 

coiilt«r cCltbr ohambpr i t,RA.i anriior A otti f jm) 
pei>per(i putin'tp) sulphur eulpuh or solpur) copp<>r ( upiiu™) 
Srntt«Ta,l° ani gwllre fnlgnrat on In l«g>er vesper luclfer 
arbiMr nectar U up martyr ^ jnvp e oeger te" Kteratt^ 
agriculture' Diurmui^ Kratee nemvorate"- Iter t o* taber> 
OBilaveruns' arbor nl'> minister a "- e]>.nb(>raacc revepben c* 
viper^ figure liJ>-p-a an liljert; ««ner c» and gen ep 
«ancer> and conker parr le femoral —rudder pllclier coBer 
w«atlier shower leatfaep Itothor udder ledg:«p girder adder 
salamnnder conger e^tii4,or keaiep otter clover badger 



Obs. 2. The fo low ng are oder fal o pe gs— ar hegirar pillar 

flarpoB. Seo-ar n 

Obs. 3. ^onle f thewi nro equal t n uinanlvelis as plunder cumber 

Obs. 4. In Belgian -er (Ang. -ere) is maaeuline, and -ster {Aug. -etre) 
feminine, as in spinner spinster, langer zangater. The German hock en 
to squat, to sit about, to take upon the back, gives tho English (mascu- 
line) forms iowier and {feminine) hueksier; nlso, to ialch, to sit on tho 
(bauueh-ea or) hunfi:-ers, namely, lite a huckster beside her wares; and 
e wlio keeps sitting in the same place; hence, i 



politioian who will not desert established pri 


nciples. 








Obs. 5. The Semitic languaj 


;ea have an 


analogous 


sufEi, as 


in I 


[eh 


nitit, Arab, nasr, Syriac nfi 


■or a, Ethiop' 


io nasiri. 


an eagle. 


At: 


ibi 


kbandjar a large knife, whence hai^ge^ a 


kind of s 




ally 


bu 
















oommonly i 


;onaidered 


of the m 




lin. 


gender when applied to persons, 


. but it is BOE 


uetimes us. 


Ed for both se. 





HO,. db, Google 



SUFFIXES -BRN 

swinger (sho wlio swinge, Speotator, Sep- 



Larder nnd tmey belong to -ary, n. 

Sau: r dtnier, pnraer, and perhaps taher, belong to -AR.* 

J 9per ie for iaHpis. 

Oaader la regnlarly foimed from »i'' a goos^, rf being eduoad, and the 

Yo Itr la the Belgian jonker, jonklieer, composed ot jong and Seer, 
squiTulent to young gentleman. 

leenunergeli* the vulture of tte Alps. (German lamm 



mcv lambs; gei 
«li.ild-r-on, see -eo pi., Obs. 1. 



«at-«]--waal tte (sq)ueal or howl of (Belgian and Ger- 
man kater) a male cat. 

-eruj a. tovKurd or in. 

[This anffis is ossontially due to the use ot boti -r and -n, aa obaerved 
JD tlie Korae norBr the north, narthtmrd,- norBan of, or from the 
north; DaniBh Bst east; Hater, adr. eastward; osten, adj. eastern Old 
high Oerman has sund, sundert, sundar, aundan, the touth, eouth, 
sundrOni ths aauth miiul; sundirlD (Angliali suBern) coulAdm.] 
eRBlern nesMm norUient s»nU>cm 



-ERN, n. 

[Latin n., a. -er-nus,» fom. -EiiNi;'' GTeek -£pt.] 

cav-ern'' a place (cAviJs) hollow or escarated. 

la(ii)t«ni'' anb-iilMrn* eistem'' tovcni tahernacle^ m 
psstem Blnttecii quartern bitt«m blcltern 

govern v. eDBEBBO, xi^ipyaia, (priumriiy) to guide a (KT^iBii) oi 



HO,. db, Google 



SUFFIXES 

-ERNIiy n. See 



-ei-y, II. See -Any, 

cd by -AKj, -ER)-, n., and iii: 



-ES, n, singdar. 



ewra-gep-I-cs, a mass formed by bringing together its com- 
ponent parts. (CONGERO I bring together.) 

ser-i-es a row or line the parts of which ai-e in connection 
or succession, (sSko I conaect.) iso-sceIe», adj. herpes 

spec-D-es, (spBC-io I see.) deriuestes, see T-ES. caries 



-ES, n. plural. See -a. 
apices, pi. of apex, plcisgdes, see -An. aphides, pi. 
of aphis, epliemei-idcs, pi. of ephemeris, apsides, pi. of 
apsis, cantharides, pi. of cantharis. irides, pi. of iris. 

The foJJowmg havo tlia singular in -is. axes fhsv«s b»s«s crises 
Plspes tJlcses ellipses amtuiuenHC 
syuibescN einiiluiscs ] 



ESCe, V. to become. -ESC-ent, a. hecomiag. 

ESO-ence, n. Uate of becoming. 

[Qr. -Bfif-, Ac Lat. -asc-, -esd-, -isc-, -sc-. The foroo of these in. 



S^o, to totter, 


[lbIo, to be wliite; 


jObmIo, to sleepi 


rio, tognps, open; 



deliquesce (lIqvesco) to become liquid. (lIqveo to 
bo liquid.) 



Hcssdb, Google 



150 SUFFIXES 



-ESS 



deliquescence incipient liquidity; the state of becoming 
liquiii. 

(maJescent conTalcscenoa ooaaleaceDOO eftentsce incan- 
aescent evaneaeent int.Hneseent crescent dclUsceu* 
adolescence jnvencscence remlnlBcenee irascible lai anger. 

nlsreaceut nigeb blsck. 

If 1. feTerlst having some fever, blwisli somewhat 
blue, sweetish aomewhat sweet, modlsli in the mode, 
f 2. foolisb like (in the manner of) a fool. 

fflendlsta tbieTisIi wolllsli scUlsli dnnrasli sli^gish 

Obs. 1. The -CSS- in Faoiisso I «ansc, ftom pacio I make, seems to bo 

Obfl. 2. -iso has become -isli (Euss. -akj) as in Plcm-ia!i, Soott-ish or 
Soot-uh, Pol-isb, Welsli, So. Latin tevtISCbs, Ital. ted-csc-o, Sp. 
tudesoo, Er. tudeaque, Go. motiak, olfl high German thmdisk, Aug. 
floodiac, Dan. tydak, Ealg. dnitsoh, Ger. deutsoh, Bng. 'Dutch,' ie. 
(eMl-onic or German, from diot jwopfe. Ang. dSniac Daniah; deEisoa, 

Obs. 3. The suifii -ish (Ger. -iaoh) ia partly due to -lo, as in hispI-vI- 
cBa Span- ish. 

Obs. i. In Ilussian geographical Dsmea, -sk indicates place, as in 
ErfianflbOrak, from krSBnS red, bOr forest. Smolensk, from smOli' pitch. 

-ese, a. pertaining to; n. a, native of. 

[Ital. -ese. Akin to -eaoe, Obs. 2; and to -emsis the Latin Bufflx of 
place.] 

Mallcse Tyrolese Chinese Fortacucse nuanese 

-esque, a., n. manner, like. 

[The French spelling of -bbo, Ital. -eaco. See -eacc, Obs. X] 

moresque or morisco in the Moorish manner. 

pictni-esque like a,picture. 

arabcaqae grotesque bnrlesqne romaoeBqno 



Hcssdb, Google 



151 

; 5f*^ a iera, fiptSIaaH and 
w. Bohem. -asi,] 

nbbesH princess emppess laundFesB hcii^ss tlg:re9a . 
pl-alce p-LAT-Essi a f-lat flsh. 

Talbot Buggcsta tliat dormouie ma.j bo from tho Ereneh la dotm-ouao 



BargeM, Jr. bnligciseaoli, bmlg^is, ttoia bnig a Inmn. 

Ot». In mattreaa, buttreas, trelliB, the saSx is hetsrogeueoaa. 



-est, a. most. 

[Ssnaorit -ISTHA5 (-a, -a,;) -wras, (-0, -w.) Anglieh -ast, -aBte, -^st, 
-eat, -iat, -ost, -ust, -yat. The Bign of the superlative degreej aa in 
jxy-uTTCj iiqg-eat, fiar-mto!. So. baliets, Aug. betst bs-»t. The original sign 
of the oomparatiTe degree being 9, the euperlatire waa formed by adding 
t. The I nhiob aftenrards fell into r waa (Engliah) 2 in Oothic, aa in 
aldiza, older, autiza swcetsr.-] 

Soma of the positive, oomparatire, and Biiperlatire forma of *nigh' are 
as foUowa, the English haiing the greateat resemblanoe ia the North 
Fiiesian — being ideutio in Uib poaitiye and comparative. 



Anglieh 


neah 


ne-ar 


nehat 






naerri 


naeatr 


Old Frisian 


ni 


i,iar 


nest 


ffwfil Friesia 


n nai 


najer 


nuat 


EnglUh 


nigh 


nijJer 


nifftaat 



ie tte vowel of the former 



HO,. db, Google 



152 

Ihe diphthong of the latter. The EnperlatiTe is niarfil, mghest, nco:(, tte 
laat from a form allied to uigb.'vitb a distinct guttural. The Zend (an- 
cient Persian) form of nii/iea( is nazdiata, showing the loaa of the gut- 
tural as Bnrlj as 1500 years before the Christian era. Chancer uses h e s t 
for highest, shuwing the preaenoa of a iray— 

Which ygiowHh unLo jou i.«i. 

first as if fore-est, advanced Inefore all otters. (Danisli 
forat, Ang. fyrst, Persian firiat, Gr fiptaTii<; and !.p<l>- 
Tiaroi;. Norse fiarr far, firri farther, fii 



naerst nearest. 




TVhitvst luird«st fnllest sooneBt 


ntni-ost mo-sI v«r-at 


The wotf. Md moft dsngcro,!, IhinB c^ciy w. 


ij Ihal can be in all Ihe CDiule of 




. .2, cn. s,, i6,j. 


ObB. 1. In German, first ia Erst, fron 


, 5h 6f/or= (with 4 silent,) 


ehor/o™e!-;j, Hhence 'ere' and 'erat,' bnl 


-. not e'er eoer. The German 


Fflrst is a Prince, whence perhaps the propel 


■ name Forest may be in part 


derived; and Forester from Vorstehcr {h \ 


iilent, V as /, reaUy a fore- 


atand6r,)aWorden. 




Obs. 2. The aee of -cat with pclyajllables 


is inelegant, as in fugitlTesC, 


TBhcmontest, violentest, used by Boyla, 1675. 





-EST, a., n. See -d, -t, -ty. 

[Lat. -Es-T-iJa" adj.; -Es-T-is'' n. ; -Ss-T-k-ffs adj. t participial.] 

est-ic, -ic-ally, -ic-ate, -ic-at-ion, -ic-at-or, -ic-it-j, -u-ous, -ly. 

moilest* accorijing to (mSdOs) mode or propriety. 
honest' according to (honor, h6n5s,) honor. 
dnmcstie pertaining to tlie (domEts) house or home. 

tempesf' honea^'' innJeBtyl> («Hicrlstj- amnesty InlerEBt) 

ffaiTcrf, (lid Ger. horpiat; -t.-iwiTm, to o.illeet ((..fm^) (rail.— Grimm. 
E-miesI, Welsh er n« impulse faniiard; ern, m. ir,An( tenes lo drive 



Hcsedb, Google 



-ET, -ETE, -ITE, -IT, -OT, -T, n. 
he wiio; that which. 

[The agent or actor, -rrn^f -et2, -itI, -itas; -im," neat. -mi-. Ir, 
-6te. See T-OR, -ITE, and T participial.] 

prophet" lie who foretells, (^am I tell.) izpoipr,TX^ a 
prophetess, acrobat a rope-dancer. 

poet idiot despot athlcM ancboret hermtt coioeV 
planet dietJt'ai'o. epithet ETrr'flsrci'. 



-et, -ett«, -etto, -etta, -otte, -t, n. smaU. 

[Pr. -et, -ettBj ItoJ. -utto, -etta, -ita; Sp. -eta, -ita.] 

bnllet, pellet, a small ball, pnllet a small (Fr. poule) 
hen. poultry tnrret a small tower. 

mignonette a little (Pr. mignonne) favorit (flower.) 

locket 4rasl[et fiieet mallet laacet liatehet par-t rosott« 
violet l8-l-et «yc-l-ct stylet ^fl«» pnppct cruet croteliet 
Inppet leveret cygmet signet cabinet coronet slilllet 
backet {-iet) bonqnei bndg^t gullet plammet nallet 
mnl-et-eer sonn-ett-eer palette Innette gazette Harriet 
Benri-etta borletta €bai-|.otte slil-etto palm-ctt« eatetto 
Cibbet belmet target garret minaet banquot paroqnet 



freshet a flood in a river, crlchet a, noisy insect. 

mnsket bi^onet triplet K^rg^t brocket pricket snet 
ftrret bomet racket russet velvet sareenet carpet 

Thicket, German diokicht, dicltigt, belongB to -IC, and T partioipial. 
It is not ftom thicTcsd as Kiohardaon has jt. 
Trioet is a form of tripod. 

OwM is from Pr. ftnlotte, which is applied to a largo spaoiea. 
Dahet is from cOlcis sweet, ditlcedo aweetnosa. 
Banket, see M-. fiusset, eee -t. Market, garnet, t participial. 



Obe. The •( of Tnl-e( (vassal-et) and bonqi 
e rione remiuiiB as tlie r«pMaBnta«Te of -et. 



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-ET-IC, a. See -AT-IG. 
pro-ph-etic pertainiog to one who foretells. 
paillette athletic perlpaletlc emellc enerB;etlc he'retlc 



-ET-UM, n. a place for or with. 
rosetnm (kosetO") a garden or plot for roses. 
m-boretuin a plaDtation of omaJneotal trees. 



niEi8«'uiu (/iBiTEiov) ft temple of the muHes, 

lyce^um ().uiewv) Aristotle's school Dear the temple of the 

J.yoKan Apollo. 

'sypos*'"'"*' {'n ^^^ earth,) the underground parts of a 

building, mausole^um collse^nm colosse^nm 



[A French form of -OR, -EK, Ac] 

grandeur hauteur connaisseur omalear fhrceur 

-FEKooB, a, hearing. 
[-yEtt-DB ; fap-6s. ^®~ FEBO I beai-] 

laci-fter-ons bearing (lux) light. 
pbos-plaorus bearing (foi;) light. 

pestiferous melallU'erouai anrifcroiM stelliferous 



-FIC, a. making, cawdng. 

[-Fio-na, .^-Flq-!o(FA-CT5'°;)-"o-io(»EOiD";)-r'ico,<o7nnJc. no 
ifi™ to hecume, lo happen, la he made. -Fioin", n. winlis made, done, io. 

piuiiiic making (pax) peace. liori^li« causing horror, 
terpllic calorlflc morblSo unlfic soporlSc masnlfieon 



HO,. db, Google 



-GEON sumxEs 155 

■lice, n. that which is made, doiie, &c. See -fic. 

as^ilice something done with art. artificer a mechanic. 

benefice ediliee office aaitsrtS»M opiQco 



painCul deisettful fiuiejfnl wllAil mlrlliriil youftaful 

Obs. 1. It is nsed as a prefix in flill-tnned, fuU-otbed, &,a. 
Obs. 2. lafnls'nss, 'tul' is lie old form ol fujiL 

(-fy, V. to make, &c. See -FIc) 
stapif^r to make (cause to he) stupid. 
ftirtifV to make (roKTrs) strong, to strengthen. 
nullify to reader null, classiry to arrange in classes. 

dni-uy verify purify folsify aiupUfy versify ponti-ff 

■S, -fc, -sh, n. See -AO. 
See under M for masb (or mesh) busbet flask Nmnke ina£g«t 

-goir, he who. 
[A Tama termination used in Indiii,] 

oavelgajr a watchman. luonigar a surveyor, manager. 



[Parl]y derived from I (sometimes of a genitive 
ag« grants oi'angc delnse bln^ h 



HO,. db, Google 



-H 

pigeon PiPiO, gen. PIpIONis. tiiturgeoD, Ital. storione. 
gudgeon GOBIO xioSi&i; a fish with a large (CAPUT) head. 
dungeon, Irish daingean a/or! or tower ; daingion secm/re. 

Surgeon (ohirurgeoo, Xf'p hand, Ipyou work,) a iiadlj focmod word, 
;cfpsp)™» being hand-work, and Taipepy^s hand-operator. 



IN-, pertainwiff io ; like. See -AGO. 

verdigriii, prorfitging (iis, gea, 
Mais.) i™™.] 

Itermginons like iron ore. aernginons hrassy. 
oleaginous Uke an (SlSX) ohve; or giving (SlSC") oil. 
imagiit-ar;, -at-ive, -at-ion. lUiglnous sooty. 
Sot margin, virgin, sea N deolensional. 

'gUo, n. 

[Italian; the silent j indioatea that i has the power of Bngliahf^.] 

imbroglio (the noun of emhroil,) an embroiling. 
intaglio olio punctilio seraglio 

-go, U. 
em-bar-go (Sp.) a bar or prohibition against passing. 
cargo the load or charge of a ship, (cakrus a wagon.) 

pha. Latin hna -go in haro-o (gen. -InIs,) a margin. See nnder -GIN-. 

-By, n. 
elergy, Latin CLericus, perverted from the plural clerio!, 
Obe. The g is radical in energy, liturgy, eulogy, effigy, prodigy, foggy. 



Denoting an aspiration in words from the Hebrew, as ShekinSh, ephah, 
Uessiah, Shilob, Jonah (Yonah,) where it ia not a mark ausiliaiy to tie 
rowel It ia also usod tu indicate ths Sceek aspirates 9 tk, ^ ph, x cA. 



HO,. db, Google 



-head, -hood, n. conditimt 

[Ang. -had, hade; old Eog. -bed, -heoa, -hedo, - 
Belg. -heidi old rrisian, old Seh., Dan. -bed. Ger. 
Gor. -ol. Go. liajdus kind, mods; old Ger. hald, hai 
eondiUon, aa ia dhiu ander heit, ihe other pemiin. 
■wheiioe fteali™.] 



Chaucer also uses wikkedhede, psneifeiied pensineHeea, lustihed mirth, 
aiBtikede dai-kness, f^tehede beaittj/, lowljhede htnnilitjfy oDhed^ onehed 
Hii'ij, knigbtbode khIoi; gtethed grief, humblebede, obapmanbeds. 

Spenser has bountjhed, iolljhend, dieiihsdd, dronsibedd, goodljhead 
todlinesB, luatjhed ^igor, Uvelyhed limlweti. 

lA^ielih'Md is a hatei-onjm of lifiade, life-lode, as if Ufe-leading. 



-I, genitive. 

[Latin gcnitiro -I of lie 3d deolenaion, aa in ciiNrM wedge, gen. cunbI, 
in cimBi-form; JLain field, gen. Idr!, in agri-oalturo; siHNC" 6^1, gun. 
sTasI, in signi-fj.] 

horticulture the culture of n (hOrt-Cs) gatd-cn. 
■ fabricate to work like (pXbIe) aa artificer, or witli artifice. 
auTiferous bearing (avru") gold. 

[Latin genitive -IS of the 3d deelenaion, as in fhater hroths,; gen. 
PBATitis; EBX hhtg, gen. regis; pI^s. peace, gen. pacjs; :svDsyi jftdge, 
gen, JUDicia; ifiu air, gen. Ieris; ak3 h>-(, gen. Iniis,] 



-I, n. plural. 

[Gr.-o.; Lat.-i; Unsf , Boh™., Welsh, Itol. -■ 
IDOS n iord, ADONiJ (lords) T/ie iurd.] 

geinlnl radlt f««l triumviri deiitel 
14 



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I-, diniinutwe. 

[Akin to -I- formative, and used with -on, -uh, for diminutiToa, as in 
HopOXi-i-o" a imall {firipiiiM) ierj/l. Assooialed with J) diminutivo in 
ixOv'itnp alittl8(ft:fli5)flali; '((.flrtifot a small mantle.] 

cyniBt-i-nm xv/idTtoi/ a small {*D^a, gea. -arw?) wave; a 
waved moulding of a (3orDiee. 

Icbtliidion, Imatidlam, genera of coleopterous iosects. 
Ceri-th-i-om ;a genus of mollueca. (7o«-^ cuNlctJLUS. 

-I-, connective. Sco §§ 52, 55. 



-I-, formative. 

[Eng. -i-ous, -i-an. A dj entires derive a from nouns. See -B- fonnativa.] 
region (alx king,) pertaining to the sovereign. 



COFintJt-i-an pert^niug to Corinth. 



-I, advethial. 
alibi XlibI elsewhere, ibidem IeIde" in the same plac 



-I-A, n. singular. 

, [-.a; Lat., Ital. -ia; Fr. -ie. I formative and 
I formative. II is used tor modem 
djscoveror Taaman.] 

Etitlopia the land of the Ethiop. 

Australia the country which is (avSTBSlIs) south. 

Abyssinia Boeotln Ionia Folynestw Toamimia Ii 
Arabla>n Alexandria Victoria Asia 



-I-A, n. plural. 

[The plnral -A preoedad bj I formatire,] 

regalia eEOavia parspbemalta penclralls salumiilia 



Hcssdb, Google 



ibh ■ 


■ig- 






3-al, 


-ic-al-it^'. 


-oy. 


-gji 


■ -J- 



-10 SUFFIXES 

-IC, a. relatuig to; Wee; made. of. See -AC. 

[-«-it; -iP-Ss, -iQTtisi Ital., Sp., -ioo; Br. -iqne, -io- Eelg. 
Dan, -ig; Oermiui -ig, -iseh, -ioh, -ioht, -igt, 
Eng. -ic, -ioe, -iah, -k, -j, -ioli, -ique.] 

•io-aliil-ity, -ic-abie, -io-able-ness, -ic-a 
-ic-al-ness, -io-allj, -ice, -ic-itj, 

propb-et-ie relating to propteoy. See -et. 

I<eTlt-l«-n8 the Book relating to the Levites oi 

metallic like metal, made of metal. 

despotic iu the matiner of a despot. 

cutliusiastic full of (due to, proceeding from) ei 

prosaic like (in the manner of) prose. 

clu-onic produced by, or due to (;f/"^K>5) time. 

liistoric pertaining to history. (Chaucer uses hiatorial.) 

nantio pertaining to (ymq) a ship. 

critique the act or work of a critic. 

antique (SNTiQviJs) ancient; a remain of ancient art, 

dev-k, K\ei>gy, for olei^lc piracy pfBATiOA, a., n. en-ei%-«t-i« 
|}ro-gao-8-(-ic ined-lc-In-al dv-tc paUi« siilpburlc uttriv 

See under -esco for Judaic or Jewieli, ProDlt or Frenob. 

Such ndjectivo forniB may beoome nouns, as <!rltlc ho who ia able 
W.^) to discern, logic (for, tlie %ic an. Ins lSgToI;) ptietorlc,. 
arithmetic, panic, piiyBlt;, ecliptic, and names of ecioncea in the 
plural, as physics PHrsicl, matbemntifta, hydrostatics, politics, 
pneumatics, mnemonics, liydranllcs, tactiea, oerostatlea. 
Phytic of Melaphrfii; begs defence. 

See M)rftcry ID Muhematics liyi 

[n vainl they giie, Inrn giddy, nve, and die. 

gra«sy full of grass, glassy like glass, glossj' having 
gloss, asliy of the nature of ashes. Ger. asch-ig, .-icht, see -y. 

wiDdy ivitty merry dreioy melancholy holy loamy 



see C a] 



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Fi>etry, In the hi 
mawkish thing, Uia 
, . . books Mid trt 



-IC-A, n. See -AC, 

r-t-ie-ac«ons like (u-rtica) a nettle. 
-11. lumbi'ical like (ltjmer-Ic-us) a wc 
iB-icii-tc ves-lca-lary 



-ICal, a. -lOally, adv. 



-ice, n. condition; quality/ if heing, &c. 

-ieia; Ital. -izio, -igio, -ioio, isin, Abstraot nouna derived chiefly from 
adjeotlvea. See -T-, -ae-y.] 

pollee," policy, polity (politIX, ■KolXrda^ the condition 
of a eitlaen; the pursuits of a statesman. (i:6iX^ a city, a. 
state.) 

service" tte condition of (slRVtSs) one who serves. (Fr. 
service, Ital. servlzio, aervigio, Sp. servicio.) 

justice'' the quality of heing (jubtOs) just. 

militia the aggregate of the soldiery. 

malice" the quality of heing (malus) bad; malevolence. 

notice'' amity AMloiTii avarice'^ novice'' 



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Obs. 1. Modifioations of thia euffix appear in penl-taoQse "originally 
pentlce, ftom Fr. apentiuhe a sloping shutter, Ital. jisnilicc tho slope of a 
hill." — JT. Wedgwoail, promise mercbandise fi'snchlse finesse 
proness largess distress ricbes wH^es 

Obs. 2. Tho anffixea of IvIiilTII or ivAnlTiEg, myEKsITAs, and 
elegaNTia, (-io«, -ity, -anoe are akin.) 

Obs. 3. Ae-oom-pliOB, plYoItiis folded. Senli-fHce, dens, gen. dEktIs, 
tooth; FRiclRB to rub. Edi-Jics (jedes a. hoaae,) and 0/-Jics, facio I 
make. Lica-ritre, yXiiKv'.^^iiS aweet-root. 
Obs. i. For lattice, peliase, surplieo, aee -AC-eoua, Obs, 1. 



-IC-i-an, n. lie who. Sco -AC, -an. 

rtaetorieJBn mnsittlan mevIiaulclRn phj'slcIaD pnt 



-IC-UL-AE, -0-UI.-AII See -0-le, -l. 
retieulai- lile, ur peitainiag to (RETicttie") a Biaall 
(rete) uet Ti-rmjeulai- like a iittle (VERMis) worm. 

ciilar eorpuscalai' viisviilar 



I-C-UL-ATe, a., v., -I-C-UL-AT-ION, n. 
artlciilate formed of little (artus, n. pi.) joints or divi- 
sions; an insect or .similar animal; to utter speech. 

gcstlculafo mattlcnlaM psrliculate in-osciilate ■«ticnlBl« 

Oba. Tho is part of tho root in spic-nlate, oaljo-ulato. 



ridiculous RiDlcfiLPs causing lauglitcr; worthy to le 
laughed at. (eIdeo I laugh.) 



3d b, Google 



162 sui'PiXES -IG- 

-ID, a. quality (in a high degree.) 

[-IB-ITS. Akin to- ST-DE. See -ATe, -adc, -ed. Adjeotives, innstly 
baa oil upon verbs.] 

aeid having the quality of sharpness, (aobo, to he souv.) 
solid firm; compact; valid; (on the SOL-U" soil, bottom, 
sole.) Ttsdd giiititioua; like (viscu") birdlime. 

col-d, as if eool'Cd or j(cl-id pole for pall-id ai-id sgtlendld 
livia bumld vuUd tepid florid rigid trigia stupid lucid 
rapid sordid liquid timid placid turgid tumid ntrpid 

-ide, n. Sec -id, 

A modem oheroio anfEs, used as in oslde {or bettor— oxld, like iwid) 
of iron, a, compound substanne formed of oiygeo and iron. 
■ulpblde lodido chloride biarido 

-XDBS, B. pi. 

vantlia'rtdCH, the plural of cantharih, a blistering fly. 
earratidcs statues of women, used as supports in archi- 
tectnre. 

-IDI-oua 

ihatldloas eiiaily disgustBd; minatoly oritisal. See -T- inlfinsive. 



Old English, as in lady«. eeutaurle an iierb. {Ciiou 
oyry (pronounoed air-y.) Scotch lassie, lasslek a little 1 



je, -ig-ate, -ig-ation, -ig-ating, -ig-at-ive, -ig-at-or, -ig-at-ory. 
navig-ate to conduct (navis) a ship. 



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-TLe- sornxEs 163 

lili-jg-at« to eauae (lis, gea. lItis) etrife. 
itiim-ig-iite to imbuG with (fumCs) smoke. 
pur-ge to make (pubCs) pure. 
mitigate to make (mItis) mild, tranquil. 
flistigate to use a (fustIs) cudgel. 
castigate to punish with (oe-stOs) a strap, or (c^stds) 
a hexing glove. 

Vertigo, fulieinons, indigo aee -AGO. Invoadgata see VE-. Oliligate 



*,tG-N-, a. acting, 
[-iG-N-tis. For -N-, oompiire ESTKi! and EXTEBHus. Seo -TG-, N-US.] 

-%aancy, -ignant, -ignantlj, -igiter, -ignitj, -ignly. 

benign, benignant acting (eEnb) well. 
malignaut actiDg (mSle) hadly. 



-ILe-, JLI-, -IL-, a., n. See -al. 
that may be — ; qualily, Uhe. 

nss-ile that may be (rfsstjs) split; readily split. 
missile that may be thrown. 
rtragile or ffli-a..i» easily broken; apt to break. 
pncrlle in the manner of (pttfiR) a hoy; boyish. 

int^ntUe mtvcantile civil scurr-llous mix-iliary, see - 

Ots. 1. -ile niaj be in part derivad fVoiu -ible by tho loss of b, as 
Latin 1ih3 both DSniniLra and DficiLiB (neut -e, doeibie, docile ) ea. 
taught. 

Obs. 2. The nonns t™«J, (dtiis a dog,) and fudl n /mm (pooii 
hearth, a fins, dim. focBi.Os,) ate falsa forme. 

Oba. 3. In domialc (ofliius lionse,) the -ail- of DOMielLium may hel. 
to -CLb. In conntil and exile, il is part of the root. 

Oba. 4. Brittle or brickie nmj be referred to fragile. 



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164 SUFFIXES -IM 

-ILL-ATe, v., -ILL-AT-ION, n. See -l, ^ 1. 

scintillate to sparkle. (s-cInt-Tlla a spark, c5.nd-Eo 
I shine, burn.) scintillation a sparkling. 

-fm, -ime, -imo, -IM-US, -IM-A, -IM-UM, a. most. 

[Superlative adjeotive forms. -Cmus, -emds, -ia-ua (fern. -1; neut. -u"; 
neut. pi. -ii) ablatira aing. -imo. Sanaorit -M45, -t-ImI5 (fem. -t-amS, 
neut. -T-AMi^.) Lappish -uiuus. Lat. E-xTiuirs, Ss. cttamaS Mlreine, 
utmott. M is tbe superlative element.] 

-im, -im-acy, -im-al, -im-ari-ly, -im-ary, -im-at«, -im-ate-!y, 
-im-at-ing, -im-at-ion, -im-ate-ness, -im-at-ive, -ime, -im-er, 
-im-ism, -im-ist, -im-it-ive, -im-ity, -im.-o. 

maxim a principle or saying esteemed t bp f the gi itest 
authority, (fl^ ma-gnus great, maximus gieatesi i 
maxliniuin the greatest amount in a gi\en c; se 
optim-ism the doctrine that every th ng liappeas for 
(SptImOs) the best, altimate final, farthest 
pen-ultima the (syllable) nest to the finil one 
prime moat pri-or. Lat. PRO befoie PEim previous; 
palMTJs, fem. PRIMA, Sanscrit PBAr'HAH45 (pba lat pro 
before,) Lithuanic pirmas, Coordisli her Jir^f The ma of 
primS may be present in magnify, muoh, nwte, most. 

mari-t-ime (-T- participial) at or on the very (mXeS, 
genitive mXrIs,) sea. 

■nlulm mlnlninin proximate pi^ximo nltimo Haslmns 
primate primnry premier prliu«r pi-imordiul prlnee 



-IM, adv. 

[Latin adverbs, sometimea preceded bj participial or declensional' T.] 

verbatim word for word, seriatim in regular series. 
pnuctaatlm llteralim ibidi^rn quondam interim item 



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-™, n. pi, 
[Hebrew plural imusouline, pronoun eeii -oem.] 
teraphim household gods, rodanim Khodiana. 
Hetnpblni ctaerubini Dodanlin Fliiltofiiu BhltlJiii 
SanliedTim is b. hebraised form of aiiKdpiuv (an assembly,) 
from toy together, and sSfia a seat, a sitting. 

Miiraim (Egypt) is not a plural tut a dual, 
-IN- 
^ T^j. s'e* -N- intenriva.] 

op-in-lon OpInIo what each holds (mentally;) judgment; 
belief, (Perhaps akin to I'jtiu to t^e oare of; ops, genitive 
opis, wealth, power.) 

It-in-erary is from the genitive taae itjneris, of itek a joumej. 

Dest-ine— aTANB Btandiog (from J®- STO,) seams to be nfod in 
iJE-ai-fN-o I (oauae to atand,) destine. 

Pro-era-3-t-in-ate to defer tQl (cRAS) tomorrow 
morrow. See -S adverbial, -T- participial, and -N- 



-IN, 



origin virgin opillnal vnrdinal MniUnous p«c 

-INA, -In, -ine, small. See -en, dim. 
bStInX a small (bete) net or curtain (of the eye.) 
ISminX a thin plate, violin a small viol. 
tamborine a small (Fr. tambour) drum. 
nnbbiii (knob) a small ear of maize. 
bulletin basin curtain coralline 



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-mjE, n. pi. See N-ua. 
fiilcoiiiiiffi the subfamily of the falcons. 

-INe, a. pertaining to, &e. See -en, a. 
tiirp«>it'»« Tspe^iv9-inoq terEbInthinIjs pertMning to 
rhe Tspipi^Ouq tErebinthCs terebinth tree. 
fluorine aa element obtained from floor spar. 

. Eleaaiman pettainrag to {Btaait or i>£vaXv, genitiya ifeiot™;,) Elousis. 
For doctrine doCTbInS, (with long I) see -AN. 



-INe, n. fem. 

t-ima, -n«>j, >""i, -"m. Lit., Ital. -ra^i Fr. -innc. Ger. -in; Angliah, 
Teutonio -en, -in; Hindoostanee -in; "Welsh -en.] 

lasadgravime the wife of a landgrave. 
qu-eCD, Bclg. koning-in a female king. 
earlin a female oarl or churl; (but the Norse form is 
kerlings.) Tiseo a female fox. heroine hekoina ^poiui. 



-ing, n. that which; act of; state of; 'tion. 

[Otg. -finga, -Una, -ino; Ger., Angl. -tng; Old Eng. -ungc, -inge, 

-jng {130?) -jnge; Belg. -ing; Swiss -igi— aa in Ohg. reohnnunga; Qer- 

Anglish f«orm-an ta /arm, noun fem. faormnng nod faorming aformmg.j 

reckoniag that -which 19 Tei>k.oned ; a oaleulafiora; the aci 
or remit of calculation. elot!>!ng; clothes in the aggregate, 
meaning the ac( or .sioieo/ the mind; that which is meant. 
bagging material for bags. 

feeling MnflinB pnddtas utalillns elearing moralng: 
■ nllb-r blo-e, Anglish (c us i) ejning, oing, omgo. 

id Kalmln, henoe 



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SUFFIXES 167 

-Ing, participle. 

dio -andii Dankli -nde; Anglieh 
-ENS, gen. -ENTIB. Liauanio -ant, 
■anti. Wallaohian -nd. Sanscrit -am, -at. See -en, participial.] 

baving continuing to have. 

mablng giving^ going say lag ILvias norkiiig eating 



. — CharUa Kivffsiej/, OlancuH. 

reatllng, tugging, tagging, klcliLnB, pushing, striking 

Oba. 1. Tbo sense of ing is not limited to time preeent, as maj be 
obsenod in — ioo>, i>, or mil 6t. go mg, hat laq goue uboiit to 6b go mg 

Obs. 2. The departure from the originiil form may hare arisen frnni 
a eonfmionof idea, in Jl'tmsmahiHg tho partioiple from tte nonni 
imd a coa/iisioH of ipeeeh, m Baymg 'f>.elin for the noun leeUiq, anij 
'hav-in' for a form of the Angliah paitioiple habbondo, German habend 

Obs. 3. Norman Frenoli entered Bngloiid in tlio llth eentuiy, and tho . 
partioipittl -ing, -jng, ooenrs in Old English of tho 13th oentuty, (ani 
-ande in the 16tli.) The ignorance of each nation, of the langnage of the 
other, and the eonfliaioii which both may havo made between the English 
-ng and the Frenoh nasal Towels, would be safEoiant to produoe or oonfirm 
the error. The following BngliEh and French forma may be compared, 
tho final 't' of the latter being sQent. 

daring dnraiii pending; pendcnl regni^ng rcgardaul nllliug; 
touIbu'. 

Obs. 4. Angl. Bffigon a aayan'; green {grow-on',) brown (bum, brand,) 
and own, arc participial in form, eioept when used as infinitives. 

Obs. 5. Participial forms arc used in the following nonna— 

tlclien (for ticking) heaven leaven dunn borden 



-log, n dim 

[Akin to -ing, n. German and 4ngli=h inj ] 
iUrtli-iiig a fourth part ("of a penny ) 
pennf, Ohg, pfennink, G-er pfenni.;, Aug. pening. 

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■inge, -INX, n. 
syringe {a vp i /?) ii pipe for throwing water. 
syrinx a shepherd's pipe, See - rjVX, 



-ION, n. act of; state of being; that which; -ing. 

[-10, -liJ", -T-io (e™- -tIOk-iSj) -sio. -sio. Italian -iOnei Sp. -i5n, 
-e-ion; Pott. -So, -fl-ao'; Fr. -tio" (t as .,] -aio". -rrj, -g-ur. Bnnsorit -rib. 
-t^ion, a-ion have t partioipial, 3 mutational and inaeotional, i formative, 
-0 nominative, and K deolonaional, -ion indicates the action of tho root 
verb.] 

vision (s nmtational,) the act ox poieer of seeinff. (8©" 
vIdEo I see.) 

exiiibitioii the act of showing; the state of being shown; 
a ehowiog; that which is shown. (IxhIbEo I show.) 

question the act of inquiring. 

potion and poison that which is (to be) cirunk. (;p5to 
I drink.) menncc mInatto. ■ 

pris-on a place of confinement. (pkEhensIo or paSivsto, 
gen. PRENsIoNis, a taking.) 

venis-on vf.NAtcio the cJtase; 2. the game; 3. venison. 



^ 2. Passive nouns. 

obllTion rei^ion dominion iMnnrann-l»n complexion 
repletion connexion niiuislan vision emulsion sewiion 



pai-isli-lon-er one wlio belongs to a pariah. (French 



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paroiaaien m., paroissienne fern., from paroisse parish. The 
-ion is for -ian of musician, with -er added.) 



[Prenot -ia (a silent.) See under -ess, -Ice.] 
abatla debris glnols 



[Greek and Latin nuuns, as iiiXii {gen.Tittojt) ci!j,- JtX^r', (gen. U^Xms) 
dolphin; ii'ypr! (gen. riypil^j tiger. Sanscrit iOiS or ahi5, ix<s, Latin 
Snavia a seipent Saiisorit aosaS a wheel, a centre; Latin iiis. See 
-AS, -Ja] 

Cle'-ma-t-is aiij/iorlg (t declensional,) a genus of wind- 
ing plants. (xX^u-a, gen. -oto;, a twig, a vine hraneh; iddto 
I break, break off, prune.) 

metropolis ohrysalls epidermis ephemerls ba-sls 
KCue-SI^ pIilbl-£7^ pbloc-s (-x) teK-ls iris pro-bosc^is 
pelTlB PELVIS pist PESTfa vest TESTIS nl-ece HlPTia worm 
TERM13 oi-b OebIs com-lce, corn-ish, oorn-lciie, mpmwt n top, a 
peak. Treltia THiUHiLl a bower, with -L, If 3. 



-IS, genitive. 



[Latin -Ys, genitiTi 
thetitif, genitive joit-i 



jnrisdiction legal authority. (DiCO, DICTS", to say, 
affirm, determine.) 

Gratis (ohatIs without recompense,) is an ablative plural of aaSTE" & 



-Is-ation, n. See -ise, ^ 



HO,. db, Google 



-ise, -iae, v. to make; give; practice, &c, 

[The fullowing are aUied, as far aa ,, r, and Belg. (Eng.) = we ooa- 
cerned. Fr. -iaer, Ital. -izzaro, Sp. -iy.ar, Port. -iaar. Belg. -icien; Ger. 
iren. Lat. -inE. Gr. -i£« (-isdo,) Dorio.-iEio.] 

apologise to make or give an apology, 
Bermonise to give in tte manner of a sermon. 
tyrannise to practice tyranny; to act as a-tjrant. 
crystallse to become a crystal; to take the crystalline form. 

jliiU!an, Spcdamr, Sepi, 16, 17 

criticise oreaniip ba mon se n IhmU mo opoUse 

eat«cl]ise liapllBe sjnabo s« econon Is ofelae — v ise 



'-iie,' although lao ana m h m Eg h 

'-iie' should lequira ' izin 1 I) A 

WreB, as in fiaimia (baptiado) I baptioe, Sa^ri ojio, haptism, and aa un greek 
words liiia moraaiso, brutaliea, S6naualise{-iat, -ism,) are used, the apallmg 
'-iia' need not be letamod. 

Oba. 2. The Westminater Heriew for July, 1331, has reooeniaed (p. 
310,) and reoogniisd (p- 242.) "It is a pity men aio moat inolined to 
saiirise that of which thej linow tho moat." id. ib. The Illustrated ton- 
don News nacs -ise, aa in indiTidualiae, Ac. "Sardinia cannot be held 
blameleaa for her dreftms of ambition and aggrandisement." July IB, 1S59. 

Eatemporiie, tantalise (Xi. Hood.) Conohologizing (Kingsley.) Ethy- 
mologiso (Chaucer.) Sermonising {Brit. Q.Ber.) Volatilized (Geologist,) 
Analyse, ejmpathiaa, moraliae, monopolising (Sir T. N. Talfourd.) Indi- 
vidualise, oiviliaation, equalisation (Mrs. Jamoaon.) 

Bserclae exEhcito. Supervise, _^- vinSo. Com -pro-mi aa, sur-miao, 



-Ise, n. See -ice, Obs. 1. 

ncd from fraot-ate. TBl-ise, Sp, haj-ija, Ital, valigia. 



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[Latin Infinitive, ohieflj -Iee, as in fInIbm, Fr. finir, Eng. fin-ish, but 
modifiBd by m of the French partiolple flnissant fiiiishiiu,, and other ia- 
fleotinns. In Cbaueer the verb emleUinh is embelise, and the same 3 re- 
establish stSbIlIsS to make stable, 
diminisli to make less, admonisli to give waTtiing, 
nonrish, nurse, Fr, nourrlr, Lat. NDTniDR. cberish replenish 
fitmlsh tnrniBh bauish flonrisli furnlsli publish prnilsh 
giirnisli alKtllHli deinolEsh polish fui-bish finisb rush 
loi^nish Tnnqulsh extiu^ulsh 

Obs, 1, The i- is preserved in (domihare to) domioeer; and lost in ally. 
Bally, rally, dally, tally. 

Obs, 2. Tbe final -eh, -r, -e, in relish, sever, offer, caress, belong to 



[-Isc-. Aug, -iso; old Eng, -issche; Ger. -iach, Bohem, -sbj-, as in 
nebe heavsn, nebeakj), Pol. niebieeki heavenly. 6o. bam a child; bsraisks 
childish; bamiski childhood; h^niEkei ckildiahjiesB. gee -ESCe.] 

wliitish somewLat wbite. latish somewhat late. 
thievish given to thieving, foolish senseless, unwise. 
donnish like (in the manner of) a clown; rnde, ill-bred. 

Cba. -ish occurs in a few nouns, as gibberish, blemish, parish, rslisb. 



-ISK, n. dim. small. 

l-!i7K0s, i""!, -KKOp; -iso-ns. Polish -jako.] 

asterisk a little (astek) star. 
obelisk a little (dSsXAij spit. 

meniscus a little {iJ-T/i'-ii) moon; a concavo-convex lens. 
basilisb a snjall {Saifdebq) king; the Regulus or gold 
svested wren; a kind of lizard, 
discos, disk, dish, desk, *iifiai I throw. 



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-IS-M, n. condition; act; idiom; doctrine. 

[^hk-P-b;, -napa; -wpss, -'"!•"■ -iSMua, -ASiii; -isuvB, -jsmA; ItaL Sp. 
Port, -isrno; Fr. -isme. See -S, -m, -M.] 

barbarism the condition (also the act and idiom) of a 
barbarian, gallicism an idiom of (gallU) France. 
eatltolidsm the doctrine of catliolics. 

fianbuun fi'rTiniie paposysm na/m^itis enUinslosm prism 
see -m. chasm see -m. schtsni sophism despi>tl<«ii heroism 
aaterism sylli^isiii apboriam Holecism I^tinisni Judaism 

Hibrids — pagiuii^iu wittioism deism fmiatioism nepotism attorney ism 
(Carlyle) favoritism 



■IS-T, 


n. an 


ageni 


l; Ital., Sp. ■ 


■iala. 


Fr. -i!l 


8 of a verb. 


as ;i 


1 dram 


S- infieotiona 


1, and 


^ET.] 



monopolist he who monopolises. 

anatomist epltomlst cnteebist sophist «i-ganist— florist 
annalist Ilngnlst pugilist plagiavist magaEinist plaulst 

-is-terial, -is-tering, -is-tr-ar, -is-trar-y, -is-tra^tion, -ia-try. 
re-gi-s-t-er, (s mutat., T particip.) low Latin registrum 
for rege'StO", from re-gero I carry back, transcribe. 

etaorlst«r palmlater barrister s»pblBl«r canister see 

■S'tI3iK minteler see T-EB 



sophistic pertaining to one who is (seemingly 'Tnpd<;) wise. 

antagonlstio tthairaclerlstic euphemistic — linguistic 



-IT-, -T-, -S-, often, much. 

[!t-Kko / repeat; iTEii a going; So, Ike, itu" la go. Sa. root Ti 



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to move. See under t- repetitive. Iteratives or fraquentativ. 

JiC-EBB to throw; JAC-T-InK to throw ahoiU: JAO-T-lT-ARE to so 



atedly. fIo-ii 



iA'.lTiKH to sirtg fordibly; Ci-NTIlAEE t- 

■mSo T do eagerly.] 



(plLPO I touch; PALPITO I throb.) 
(jrdiu I drink; p5to I drink, tipple.) 
AGITO, / do often,. 
tread under the (calx) heel; Cal- 



ptUpitate to throb. 
po-t-able drinkable. 
ngilAte, Xqo I d 
CHlcltrat«, CALCO 1 
cItro I tick, calcitrate. 

visit felicitate hesitate cogitste dictate dnbltative 
slaiig;li-t-ep inc««»»ant, iHCEsao T attack; incedo I go, I fall npon. 

Oba. T and 8 participial oocnr in oonaul-t abrnp-t aeo-t-arj «ur-a-orj 
ver-a-fttile and porhaps in dio-t-ate. Fng-it-ive (ruaYo, fco-it-d" to flee,) 
may he equally referred to T pHTtioipinl, and to Ihis T iterative in fBu-Yt-o, 

-IT, n. See ST. 

orbit orbItS the track of a heavenly body; originally the 

track of (orbIs) a wheel, summit the top or highest point. 

-IT, verbial. 

audit to examine accounts officially. (8®" avd-it he 
hears; AVDiTE hear ye.) 

plaudit an action indicating applause. (Lat. he applauds; 
PlavdItE ajjplaud ye.) 

deficit (Lat. it iUils,) deficiency in an account or an in- 
come, caret (Lat. it la waating.) 

'ITE, -IT, n. he who; thai wUck. gee -ET. 

bylMKtrUe onehaclte eremite levlte aconite cenoblUc 

Pornriie, see PABA. The suffix in Sliunainni-ite indicates a Hebrew 
(nv, -13e,) noun feminine, of mhich the maaculina form is rDHAUuir. 



-ITe, -IT-, a. See -ATe. 
requisite retnuis-it-ion polite recondite — elite 



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174 soppiXEs -1 

-IT-ial, -ici-flns, a. See -ice, n. 

aolsl-ltial mal-iclouH-ly, -oess 

-ITIous, a. -ITIously, adv. ITIate, n. See -it- 
flagltions pertaining to (flSgitiu") a base action. 
natritious (nutrTtius) affording nutriment. 
fitctiClouB ficUtlonB noviUat« aoibitloiis seditions 

AdeealilwKi belongs to -dC-eoaB. 

-ITIS, n. disease. 

nine adjeot 

pressed it understood. Often (and oorreatly) pronouncad arlheelxi, Ac] 

arthritis apOptTXi; disease in {ap6pov) a joint ; goat. 
plirenitis ippEvIn^ disease of {fpTjv) the mind; delirium; 
inflammation of the brain. 

nepbrilis vs^p'irC'; inflammation of {utippb';') the Itidney. 

-ito, n. dim. 
■nusqulto, Sp. mosquito, a small (MusoX) fly. 

-IVe, -IV-, a. having the qualiti/ of; n. that which. 

[-Iv-Bs (-X, -e",) -v-6s, -D-Bs, ao^TB forms (-ile teing passive.) San- 
scrit -T-i6 (-i, -n,.) *-»;(.«,-=..) li-iyo; Fr.-if(ma3=.,)-iyB{fotn.,) 
tier. -iv. Derived in nearly ererj gbso from participles, and tlierefore pre- 
eeded by participial -B, -T. Sanaorit -vi, as in ^agr aicake, 4jS^i utoke- 
fid. See-B-.] 

-iv-ahle, -iv-al, -iv-ate, -iv-at-ion, -iv-atring, -iv-at-or, -iTe-ly, 
-ive-ness, -iv-ity. 

delusive having the qaality of deluding; tending (having 
theyowei-) to delude. 

expansive having the power of expansibility. 



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■120 SUFFIXES 175 

prim-lt-lve haviog the quality of being or going (peImCs) 
pertainiDg to (c1r-v-Cs, gen. cer-vi,) a deer or 



har-t. 

active d« 

captive or cait-Sff (oA'PTlviJs) he who is taken. 
nig-it-ive he who, or that which (fitgIt) flies. 
loconiotiTe a steam ear. 

luotlve mlssivo dlssuaslvo prerogativa relntlvs luyectlve 
laOB-o-Bse statne statuS i«sid-u<ptn— bust-y (ard-y teaUy 

reilyl Ihcy were, and luBj for lo p\eye;~Chm<-7; i. 4001. 



■IV-AL. 

tbmt-iv-al, formed from fest-iv' and fest-al; FBSTivtJs 
pertaining to a icast or solemnity. 

adjectival pertaining to adjectives, estival of summer. 



-IX, n. fern. See -ax, -ess. 

[-IX with oay lost in -mro, but prBsent In the feminine rXtiij,n[ /bx, 
and abeent from the Lalin feminine form tSuSs. Compare English /ox 
and Belg. voa.] 

directrix she who directs. 

executrix l«slatrix meOidtrix administratrix matrix 

Oba. I. The feminines cioatrii, calyj, appendix, iiei, maj belong to 
this head. 

Obs. 2. -X la aometimos an abbreviation (see under -ACeous,) as in 
T5lToii)o,inSansorit4.YATriai Greek rf^^ToS and riivZ yoked together. 



Spanish uieiit-lzo a person of (mIxtCs) mixed European 
and Amerioatt Indian race, (Also mmtee or mestee.) 



b, Google 



K C G ;f See -la-, -C-. 
h m d c of breohing, making, nugiDcnting, 

c ^ ing K ™, to hold, gestutei Tetiu birth, race; 

earth fc d p d c on, frni(€!)t, likanesa. It appeara in 
-0 k ig. Gay la intsnEive in {rf^ light,J 

Q nd n h ha k-ea.] 



[Among aoveral poTrerB, this -k forms rorba and adjeotivea. In !an-k 
it may be diminutive [aee-ock, -C-1e,) and in atar-k augmentative. See 
-AC, -IC, -g. Lat. FEK-o / bea,; FUR-ci a fw~k. Polish, Busa. wid 
w8-fon (with English «,) widok the thing seen, (Ruaa. the seer.) Hindoo- 

s-cul>h, CELO, eon-cealj Ban. skiule to hide,'abscond. 
wal'K, wal-fz, G-er. wall-ea, to move irregularly, ramble, 
«a-g a small hooped vessel, (Welsh caw-g a bowl, caw 

talli talc, tell, Itaek laver-ock (dim.) 

bnlk boll. diark char, 

erooli. our-va. Blar-k, stofcb, arcp-tii firm. 

siulp-cb amear. hark hoar. 



■b-et, n. 

bpts-ket the breas-t of an animal, Dan. brnsk, bryske, 
the breast-gristle. 

bu-cliet (pi-tcber, ba-sio,) ;r6<u I drink, perfect rU-Tzwra. 



AontiKS a small animal of a dun color. 



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-Jj SUFFIXES 177 

lE-in, u. dim, 

[Persian -bin; Belgian -keni aerman -chen {as in kats-oheQ i-iltm, 
mad-ohen moiden.) Gualio -aoh-an, -ag-an, as in sgaitb a broom, a twab, 
dim. aguabaohan. Lat. -cio, -dbculus. A aurdiminative. See -C-le.] 

naphin a small (Fr. nappe) tablecloth. 
pumpkin a small pomplon. 

pipkin pipe flrhin fiiur mannikin lambkin iHidkln 
dottkln kilderkin muskin gherkin Slmpkln 



[I. -5l-es (-1, -O",) -ILL-DS, -SLL-i 

Ital. -illo, -olo, -Ola, -elle, -ella, -roll 
-nXXjf, -vXXo, -jAAd, -0X15, -uAo?, -t}^, Ac. 



-ail, -al, -el, -ellum, -il, -ile, -ilia, -illo, -1, -le, -ol, -ul, 
-ule, -jl, — alia, -ilate, -iloid, -leus, -ular, -ularj, -ulation, 
-uline, -ulum. 

TT 1. Diminutive, 
idyl siS6?.itov a small picture or poem; elSo^ a figure. 
nantilas i-uj'rt^as a little (yad';) ship; a shellfish fabled 
to sail, kernel a small corn, nuclens a small (nux) nut. 
sqniri-el a small scIOrOb. satchel a small sack. 
pistil, pestle, pistIllO"; pinso, pisTti"" to pound. 
flail elIsSllu"'. spile a spicula or small (spicS) spike. 
vea-l viTXTLtis 'i:TS.Xd<;, Sanscrit vatsIla5 a calf. 
noExle a small nose or projecting snout, 

Btrmnla bottle spguig:Io ripple randle liiirdle gravel 
tmstlo jDg;-nl-ar fiddle feble libel kettle tile title 
circle radicle cudeel cog swlvd pommel sandal powel 
castle citadel kovel seal c«wl rill snail naU bnckle 
BCnleale ocular ami-ail-Ulo peccadillo flotilla cuppel 
trowel asphodel bai^telle chapl-ei: (fur -el) calc-ul-us, -ate 
patella uvula ecreb-ellum hi-U g:rlll r. quadrille freckle 



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Jonqnille (lOKC-fis a rash, fSiIO" a leaf,) tie rash-lasTed daffodil. 
DiBhabille (French noun maao. d63hahill6,) a negligent or informal 
dress of a nomaa. 

^ 2. Frequentative. 
nibble to nip little or often, 
ramble to roini flei o continuously 
querulons h I itaallj con pld ;, 
sbuffle t cont iiue to ah e 
p»qt-ul^te po CO I ask for pd^tulo I denai d 

ul nl srBtulate trifla tu)i8l piirvl fri^al rtawdl 

bnUlp (rniel driiel tickle tnckl tra k hustle ri ,tle 
biislle toddlo gamble e;rapple prallle tittle tnttla btttle 
trammel bubble trail o di-agglo Jostle straggle sti-HgKl ay 
gobbl HnfctolB wa a Iioblii tipple tApple wlilttle nlilstl 
nliirl (linicl Hpitnl serinl ei-anl sqnall kneel Hinil<> 
f«n!l mil II tlintttl stranKl *t-»i-«l Mumble rumble 
fuiubl riumble nvstl nrestl dazzl chuckle groiel 



Tf 3. Agent, subject, implement. 

style (TTvhK; a column, &c., otvoi I erect,) that which ia 
erected, sty-let, sti-l-etto. chyme, (x'Joi I pour, see -m.) 

cymbal a kind of musical instrument. (xO/i^ai.ov, from 
xu,'j.Sri a hollow vessel.) 

tn-t-el-ar pertaining to (tO-t-ela) a safeguard. (tB£5r, 
to tiike care of; T participial.) beetle a beater. 

spindle an implement for spinning, thimble thumb. 

sorrel that (plant) which is sour. 

liiiuille stopple Indie ttuini^I saddle {^Me> muscle 
morsel staple girdle beetle shovel Hliuttle scuttle bundle 
fitrdle needle nettle siclile chisel am-l rail ang'le nnklo 
scalpel cupel Idol (fee -0[D) peilal treddle poodle teasel 
towel epistle apostle specaliim clirysalis — shekel cumcl 

Welsh rta that forces onward, gra what Ehoots, graid heat, 
greidell a g-r-idd-le. 



HO,. db, Google 



-LESS suppixES 179 

[Wedgwooi refers it to like. Sea -ly.] 

knowledge that which is defiDitely known. 

a-ckoon-ledgo freelage 

Obs. In old English knowlaohe waa used fur the verb ofljtnoic(e*(e. 



-L-ENT, a. See -ul-ent. 
fraudDlent Gorpulent vlral^nS esculent violent 



less, a. leitkout. 

[Old PriBiiD -laa; Belg., Ger. -Joa,- Dan., Swed. liia; Angliah -los, Iks, 
-Ubs; Go. -lans; lal. -lauB. Old Enelish -les, -less, -Ifsse; English -less, 
(leaa-lj, -lesa-maa,) loose, ioae, Iobb. Go. lins-an to loic; pe^f. indio. lauB.] 
worttalcsa mercileHa senseless careless licedleBS helitlesa 
bin )l«s n less n anin less nam les a tless n Ih less 

B b thl d thl d tl h 1 f 1 h Iml 

I 1 11 tun 1 t d I h r 1 

I 1 h rtl U 1 fl 

t bl fl hi t 1 th kl 
dl f dl 1 1 wl les 

XQf rtl aa\ m t 1 h Id! ss 

- dl « 1 h pi h 1 

I k 1 p 1 bj tl ] pU 

? IS H d (P 1851 ) m 

d w 
b dl b thl (d d j 1 h Idl 



e ui 


a 


1 


1 


q hi 


t 






C thl 


h p I 

h m 






m tohl 








tl 




1 


T If 




1 


1 



HO,. db, Google 



180 SUFFIXES -LIO 

endlosa fatherieaa friendless fwEtlesa {impudont,) fruitless restless rajloss 
gQiltleas headless lifeless penniless powerless reckless relentless rnthleaa 
senseless alijrelesa sleepless sinilelesa st^nless thankless worthless. 



-let, n, dim. 

[A doable or Bordiminutive.] 

rlTuIet a small stream. (HiViJs a stream, BrvutOa.) 

flageolet, for flnfelet. (Low Latin Jiaufeolus a small 
flute. FS.6, FLATS", to blow; flator a piper.) 

driblet, di-oplct a small drop, stunlet a young salmon. 

bracelet, a band or ornament for the wriat or arm. (Ital. 
bracciale, braccialetto. Gr. Spaxiv/y the arm. Iriali braccaile, 
a sleeve or bracelet; brae arm, cal covering.) ■ 

streamlet luarUet bamlet fi^ntlet gaonUet cbaplet 
cntlet ringlet circlet eyelet goblet drlWet corselet 
rundlet ^ ^qpillot, +popel«te, +p»pelot, '''popelet a puppet. 

Cotli-ineat, a surdiminutive in N eni L, Lat. cocoiis a kind of softrlet 
inEeot. 

Analet, a ring worn abore the elboir, so IbuTllX; adj. IituiLi:lTS9 
wearing an armilla. 

Oomrlet baa -let for LiCTUS a bed, and aa the word will not be luioepted 
as a diminutive, it has to some eitent become the heteronym meerlid. 

Aisalel is from the Arabic. 

Oba. Diminutives are frequently repreacnted by dentals as in iTn95'- 
Neo", gmSi'Aigi' a small (gr^^it) breast ; zotHiao see -iJ-, hamlet, kitten, 
radicle. 

-Uc, n. 

[Turkish -lio, -IJq, as in Bji good, Sjilio goorfness; sagh safe, Bagh-ljq 
be ihiraty, BiUamSq to loaier, gim to drink, sftlamnaq io be watered, lo Zeaft.] 

pasliawllc (pafayq) the jurisdiction of a (UiLj) pasbaw. 

Frolio sue -ly. Garlic see -loch. 



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[Ohg<'-lin, -lean; Gor. .lein. Porhiips a surdiminutiTe (-L, -en,) inBu- 
eooed bj the adj. k-lean, cb-lln, k-lcin Huh. The Turkish diminutive 
Euffis,-lm t»a an aooidcntal refiemblanoe.] 

dunlin a small snipe of a brownish color. 

javelin a tsmall gatf. (Gaelic gabhla a spear, gabhlam to 
sboot out.) 

goblin, Welsli cw a quick motion, c8b a thump, coblyn 
(n. dim.) a thumper, rapper, fiend. 

.... husj and hobgoblings—ffoH-nJ, plinie, i6j5. 

Obfl. -lie has been oonfonndad nith -ling liy pervartiag -ing to -in (as 
in sajing 'feelLns' Soi feelings,) and (in restoring the proper auund) 
mating a new pertereion of -in to -ing, as in snymg 'oapting' for cap- 
bim. See -Ingr. It is probable tharafore that a diminutive foi'm like 
Sieling is for goslin. 

The G.//.lin Eniearaiu-y lo do Tlial wo i-V EJIra^g^, Fable ccssn, 1691. 



•liog, n. a person or thing that. 

[Ger,, Belg., Angl. -l-mg (as in Ang. irOling a/armer.) Danish -l-ing, 
-n-ing. Ohg. -ling, -line, -linoh. A double suffix akin to -ing, n.] 

nnderling a person under the authority of another. 
nitling one who imitates a wit. fitpllng a petty fop. 
svantling a narrow piece of timber, 
gosling, Dan. gsesling, a young goose. 
darling, Ang. doorling, one that is dear. 

nestling gronndlins sMcIlnic fiiUiiiK Ibaralllns firslllns 

ObB. 1. Oennan hiia forms like 'kBmmerling' a ohsmbariain; 'lianpt- 
ling' aohiaftain; 'fremdling' aforelgner; and 'fiuchtling' a fugitive. 

Obs. 2. As a person /oisnci or nnrted is more likely to be a ohild than an 
nd-alt,fovndUni), imrdmg (and some others) have aoquired a diminutival 
BensB. Sapling, a trea with maoh aap-wood, aequiras the saeondary 
meaning of a young tree. 

TJiofe Jpoylefall PiOs, and Cwnminz Eaflnlingj, 



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posti'Iiou, French postilion. pavl'Uon, French payillon. 

-lock, n. aplant. 

[\ax-i'av pol-herhs; LBB-UMEN peas, beant, Ae.; lic-TDCi ie-ituce, 
Belg. look, Eng. leek.] 

Cher-lock a plant which is (Welsh chwerw) bitter. 
Called also hedlock, kedlack, Welsh ceden what sticks 
together, shaggy hair; ceddw mustard; cedjs faggots, 
bundles, whence CMdis, caddis or caddice. 

jbemlocb a plant or weed of tho genus cSniOm. 

gar-lie, as if spear-leek, Irish carr a spear. 



(LOGy, n. a discourse; science.') 

Jterpetologj the science of rep-tiles, as serp-enta and 
lizards. (lpi:sT-&<; creeping; ip7:io, SBKPO, REPO, to c-reep.) 

Si (-n, -K.) Sopsci'it L-iS (-i, -X,.) See 



glandulous pertaining to glands. 

credulous prone or ready (credeue) to believe. 

angrulouH stylos, see -L, f 3. sedulous tremulous nubllous 
pendulous scroAilous IVlvoIous bcIoIous fou-l ^niXo; 

-L-US, m., -L-A, f, -L-UM, neut. 



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-ly, a. like; ady. manner. 
[-Xut-o; (-n, -w.} -Lic-ua (-1, -C".) Siuibc LAcg iiAe, Gothio ga-leiks 
lihf, ga-leik-on to compare, ga^leik-a aimilaritg. Aug. -lio, -lioe, -li, 
ge-lio; Ohg. -lih; GBrman -lioh, g-leioh; lal. lik, lig, alik, giik; Sw. lit; 
DsD. lig; Belg. -IJk, ge-Iijki old Eng. -lik, -liob, -lioh, -Ijeli, -liete, -lio, 
-li; Bug. likB similar, -lio (in fro-lio,) -ly, -li-, -ch (in au-oh, Hlii-eh.) 
Ss. root LIB to appmaeh, join,} 

fpiendl}' like (in the manner of) a friend. 
lieartilf in a hearty manner; with the heart enga<red, 

inasterlj' verily ti-uly homely eid«rly treely openly 
richly advlseilly boldly nortlicriy duly love-li-ly sur-li-Iy 

. , . derelye, frelye, rjngulerljc aod hooly . . . — Fab^at, died 1511, 
oilers conceive thai ihofe Conniries did noi al firft ptrftftly receJue ihs Latin ftom lh= 
Rimani, bm did o n e ly make ufe of the moil principal rarflMi a>rd,,~a'illim, 166B. 
I am not writing Insoientl j, bnt as ahorll j and clearly as I aia.—SusUi, born 1S19. 

Oba. 1. In daily, yearly, Ao. -ly ia frequentittiTB. 

Obs. 2. In Bdniira.blr, forcibly, Ao, tha sufBs ia -ble nnd -y. 

ObB. 3. Iq nobly, the auffin ia not -ly, bnt -y attached to -il of sobilis. 

ObB. i. -ly may be partly dne to Daniah -tedas, as in ligeledeB likewitej 
aaa so, aaaledes Ihua. 

Obs. 5. Chanoflr uaes oostlewe (eostly,) and dronkelaw (glren to drink.) 



-M, intensive. 
tremble, rpiui and Tpi-/i-a>. thermai, 0i/i-oi, to warm; 
dip-fi-iiitai to become warm. 

drea-m, dai-mant, DOR-Mlolsleep; Ss.root dhai tos&ep. 



■M-, participial. 

[Sanaorit partioiplo -mIb-a5 (i, -X,.) -if,su-«t (-a, ^^.) Tbh perfaot 
paa5i7B and participial -M- jndioatea tlie action of tha verb. It ia also 
followed by the pattioiple present -t^v,^ need substantively.] 

pheDo-m-eoon an appearing. (8^ ^atvoi, to appear.) 
gno-m-nii" that whieh enables one ("p'Sio,) to k-now. 
iciinenuioit'' an animal which Q^vsv-m,) tracks. 



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184 SUFFIXES -M 

demon'' one that (SaC-vi,) allots; destiny; a good or bad 

clcemiisyiiary, see -SYNE. CPemallon al-um-nus Hntmnn 
column, eoc -MIN. 

Obs. II (like t, b, sk,) is a Strang then ing element, as in ola-m-or-oua ; 
OLAMO I shout, from ciLO, unKhji I call; perfect passive iri<An(ia.. i^ii'm, Ic 
Bhiae, ijiiiMV to bring to lightj to sa;, whence ea-pbe-m-ism (^EKu tc 



-M-, superlative. 

See ppime, untler -im moBi; and -mer, Oba. 



-m, -me, -MA, -ME, -MEN, -MIN-, -MON, -ment, n. 
that which, that which is. 

[-/in' (gen. -juiir-ot; Lot. -uA, gen. -mat-is,) -^•'' -/""it" -("«'* -Wi' -i"",' 
-forfi -fjDBjj. Latin -men'' (gen. -min-is,) -mentuu' (( ednoed,) -uo'" (gen. 

-HA,. They indioa1« the result, effect, or objeot of the verb. Bee the 
footnnte at -ANT; and -M- partioipiol,] 



bloom that which blows, gleam that which giowa. 

worm that which (vlR-TO,) turns; a contorting animal. 

stem that which (sT-o,) stands, sham show, deception. 

brim ^brow seam sow team tug qualm c|i]ail 
s-eream cry 

palm the inside of the hand. (Welsh pa what forms a 
contmuiti/; pal a fiat Ijody, a ^ade; palm a spread, a 
fiag ; palf a blade, pav>, palm. See -B-. Latin palX a 
spade.) 

blossom boom beam roant fatli«in claim gloom 
looming loam flam lime slime blame flatno spume 

prism Ttpl'aita. something sawn; a prism, (jtpz'io I 
saw; perfect passive jr^-jrpiff^at I have been sawn.) 

clia«m an abyss. (*x'^"'i to stand open; ya'-Ziu, to clear a 
place; perfect passive ■ti-y.aap.-at; perfect middle xs-xnvS-a. 
ya.l-v-vi, to open, gape, utter; y_avSa% (3 educed from v,) gaping 



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■M SUFFIXES 185 

wide; XV" ^ gati-der; xe-pjuoTiq gapers, fools; whence «a- 
chinn-ation a fooVs laugh.') 

psalm ipaXjiu';. (Perfect passive l(paXixai, of ipdkkai, to 
play a stringed instrument.) 

plume sometliing with wLicli to (rMio, ttJo™, r.'A&iu,) sail. 

nune a speaking of. (pIrT to speak.) 

haa--iii-OD}' ^appiifi'a. (ipno^ai to join, to tnne; Spjia 
linn V^ to adjust) 

- \lia X tt-rmj ra i weather See M partio ] i] i^ " -OK. 1 'i. 

Xciii Hir MS w Dtcr wealter Sajisor t Hiui — vthenco a o fliy-mp, 
cbj->le gn-sta ) 

foramen an aperture, the result or effect of boring. 
(¥0B0 I hoie) 

panorama a view on ill oide^ (tqu ill Sfatu'L see; 
perfect passu e c(u, a a ) 

drania-t'ic that which is acted, (opaoi to do, act; per- 
fect passive Sh^paixai,") 

dog-ma-t-ic that which seems true. (Sox-iui, to thinit, 
eeeni; perfect passive W-ii'o^-;(af.) 

dram, Spa-(HTj a certain coin; a handful, (dpay/iig a 
pinch; Spdaao/iai, to grasp; perfect passive Sidpaynai.) 

diadem' (c!^(u,totie; perfect passive S^iJs;iai; Sia across,) 

stratagem* (aTpaTbr; an army; f/^io/iac I lead.) 

axiom a^iiuita an admitted or established principle. S®" 
dffiiui. Idiom iSltu!ia something, as a form of expression 
i~t:,„) peouliT. 

dllemina diploma «nigma=° Bllgma aiH>ina mlnsniB 
Bsthma eoinma' numismatio^ tbemeo sclicnie'' rliciiins 
BCliism'C'") phlegm (^Xej^oj.^) tenn'u alum'' at-mospliero 
an-lmoslt^ diut^rami' symptom" phanlasm' probleiii<' . 
poem" emblem' acme'> spasmodle' epldei'mts^ Kiiomoii^ 
Ichneumon' sec -M-, pnenmanja etymon? tliy-me°: cal-amus 
clematis see -IS. 

na-me no>niin*al Lat. nO-mEk Sansc. naman 

slj^aw striuuln>eaus " ktramEk 



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186 SUFFIXES -M 

tegument'^ that which covers, — is made to coYer; the 
ineana of covering. (B@" rSao, to cover.) 

gcrmt' a bad. (g£k-o, to hear.) 

TOlumei> something rolled up, as an ancient book; a 
modern book; a mass of smoke, &c. (VOLV-O, to roll.) 

regimen, ^- bego I regulats. cbnrm oiiiMEW o song, 

acn'men, icSo I slmtpen. exnnicn examine sitecimen 
abdomen bitumen albumen IceumlnOHs" diacrlminntoi' 
eerminjite'' seminary'' documentf testament nntriment 
ormtraent nuiuuinent movement moment aUmenf, ^- 
ALO. Judgment tsrment t«slln>any Tletim' 

salnion" a fish of {aA?) the sea. (sSl-lo, Siia/jtai, to 
spring up, rush, throb; Hebrew salah to raise up.) 

Aiom S'-rtfi-oi JndiviBlble. (rffuw I out.) 

Sermon, pulmon-ars. See -N deolensioniil. Simoom, Coptic <fimom. 

Oba. 1. The -od- in BpaBm-od-io may be due to the adverbial form 

ObB. 2. A part lemoved is indicated in 'Begmont' from seco I cut; 
'fragment' the part brok-en off: 'oement' (from CSDO I out,) primarily, 
bull ding- stone; 23, rnbbiali for BUing apaoee; 3d, clay, mortar. 

Obe. 3. Cinnnmon Kinvapay is fi-oin tho Hebrew qjnnSmSn, fron. qSnrh 



-ni, dative. 

[An old singular and plural dative case sign. See >iuer, -oni, adv.] 
Oba. Tho obsolete dativo oooura in the espresaion "I gave him food," 
IS compared with the objective "I gave him away." 

talm nliaiii them Beldom '''wbllom 



■M, accusative, 
r^'qaiem repose. (An accusative of the 5th declenaion.) 



■m, n. diminutive. 
film a thin fell (pell-Is) or skin. 
enlm coal in small fragments. 



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-M, adverbial. See -im. 
idem idem the same. Ibidem Ibidem in tlie same 
place. (iBi there.) Item (Item,) is a noun ia English. 

(-JZ-iiVcj, n. divination.) 

Ipay-T-ilS diTiDHtioni poioo^ai, to rant; iiap-T-!; a diviiur; iiiii-Va mad- 
BM». Not prt^^rlj a suffii.] 

cheiromancy palmistry; divination from the ix^ip) hand. 
lUantis a genus of insects of singular appearance. 
necvomuncf divination bj questioning the (ysxpbi;) dead. 



-MA-T-, -MA-T-IO, -MA-Te. See -JU, T declensional. 

ttll-mate pris-maljc dra-ma-t-ic, see -m. 



-M-ATe, a. 

[ThE auperlatira -IM-U8, with -ATe.] 
pr«x<liii>al« ultimate lntiiaat« primate 

-me, -mo, a. most. See -IMUS. 
supreme, (stipgR over, supgRlOR higher,) su-PRbmus 
uppermost, extreme most external. 



-MEN, -ment, n. See - 



-most, 'most. 



Iw. as in narmare nearer, nSrmaBt nearest,- Angliah (-tner waaUng) 
t, -moBt. The m is due to the old dative oaae singnlM, as in 



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188 SUFFIXES -MONy 



Nom. god-3 gBM-r gut-er god good. 

Gen. god-ia goH-s gut-es god-es o/ good. 

Dat. god-amma goS-um gnt-em ggd-um lo, /or, iciVft jooit 

AcoQS. god-iuia gos-an gut-en god-no joorf. 

From Anglisll ut out wo may iafov utum to Ike <mt, jtemeat nt-m-ost oul 
(to the) fflosl; but tko Gothic ntana le^ontl, onUnoX; innana wiH.n; 
ttftann /'om ieiinrf, simulate the aoo^sati™, or a different form of the 
datiye.] 

inmost farthest in. (G-o. innuma; Ang. inaema, innemest.) 
aftermost (G-o.aftuma,aftuinists; Aug. aftema,Kftemest.) 

for-m-er fmre-m-ost iiBr-th<eF-inoro IbrtheFmust 

Obs. I. Although the auffii -most has heen confused with moit from 
BiMcft, the two are nauallj distinguished in pronuKoiation. 

Oha. 3. Fortnef may be duo to pri-me-er, or to foremoBt, and this to the 
Buperlatives Gothia froma and frumists, Saneo. PKAiniUAS, Lat. PBmiJs, 
fem. prTmS first, equivalent to primest at fon-m-est. See -Im, a. 

Oha. 3. In Swedish, ut oiit, and om o^er, form utom tejonii, wilhoul. 



-MIN, -BIN. See -MA. 

[-MIS-US, fom. -HiN-I; -WH-fis, fem, -Mis-I. -M- and -N- partidpia!.] 

nlumnns, fem. alnmna, one who is (fl@" J[-.o, XlitC",) 
cherislied. autumn the soasOD of (AVC-T-tts) increase. 
column colOmna, from columen a prop, coL-oa a staff, 
terminus TERMiNua a houudary; a limit; an end. 



-MONy, -MONI- 






Akin tfl -> 



moni-al, -moni-al-ly moaiona -monioufly 

acrimony' that irhich is in hued with the qa Iity of a 
terity or liarshness. (ArnR si arp gen IcElfa ) 

sancti-mony -monious oercmonv' nionial testinioi 
patrimony'' alimony'' matrimony'' parsi 



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-M-UL- 



sti-m-nl-us tliat which goads (stick-s) o 
cnmiilale (d^i-ao^ai) to heap together. 



-M-US, -M-A, -M-UM, 



The noun Bnffii -Ss preoedtd by -H-. See -MA.} 

bippo-pofamas the river horse. ("rTDro? horse, TtoTa/io^ 
river, freskwater stream ; t:6iu I drink; TtS-rtj/ia a drinkj irdri- 
fio^ pot-able.) 

IsthmiiB a neck of land. (sJfu 1 go; infinitive UnQai.') 

marasntas a kind of oonsumption. (jiapaivio I wither; 
Attic perfect tense iis-iidpaiy-iiac.') 

anl-mnB anl-moa-lty cSwys-sntbe-iniaDi {-laii] golden Howered. 
calamus clLAwna nH'^U^iii, 8a. calSiiIS a roed; r/fkanit .itraw, whence 
balm, sbawm, caliunet. meseinbryanftacinnin ^^~ medtus. 
LQ. tenesnbns sli'idilsmiuf balaium Sakrafum 



[Latin verbs of tte lat persUD plural, prei 



mittimus we send, maudamas ne command. 



[A strengthening element, iis in ailfw and ofijfl'Nu, to mereaee, a«g- 
meni. Akin to the adjectiTe sufEs -JV-o;, -N-¥a, and partioiple present 
-wN, -aNs. Sea -ANT.] 

do-n-ate to give, present, (do I give, grant; dOnC" the 
thing give-n; do-k-0 I give, bestow.) eSgo I reg-ulate, 
RB'G-N-o I reig-n. 

diaphanous to give light (dla) throagh. (jfa'io, to make 
clear, appear; S^" ^aivai.) 

epiphany appearance. See BPI, 



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190 SUIFIXES -N 

tnnny a kind of fish. (66vvoq, fem. Btivvi]; float, to rush; 
OOwv rushing; Oi'vio to rush furioualj.) 

vylioder, xvilvdpo'; a roller. (xuXt'ia, xvk:\Soj, to 
roll; B educed from n.) 

Stephen azifS.iiO'; a crown, (azipot I wreathe, encircle.) 

spurn (iTKsipw I drive, sperno I disdain.) 

yawn, ga-n-dcr, cactal-nifate. See -m, CIIAINO. 

bleroi>lia-n-t sycopboiit plia>n-l«in fitntaatic tymimnum 
macblue tcclinlc stag;iiato pro-orH-s-(-in-ate con>tam-in-ate 
sl^n run contemn eonslcrnatiiiii 

Obs. 1. » ia part of the stem in itain, explain, stun, remain, and others. 
Ganqre-n-e, see -AN. 







-N 


n. decieasional 






[The 


sign of the 


base, or 


ornde fo 


m of Latin nouns 


(of tbo third do- 


olenBion 




Tisifo 


d, gen. 8 


ABHVIB-ia of Mood 




peeok. 


BaKM5N 


g 0/ a spe 


ih; pu 


HO the 


imjs, gen. rti-HO 


-JS; TEND 


(gen. 


tEndIh- 


a,) a t^dc 


; oKrO 


Mh go 


n. cA'EN-!a,- TtriiB 


a top, ge 


n. TiiB- 


siH-iB. 


Greek no 






in <Ti^ (gen. .r 


*»»i,) a 


nplio«! 


Latin bIpho, gen. alPn5M-is 


Qreek 


Krrtj a comb, gen. 


Tc.6i; ^Xa 


black. 


gen.j<fl= 


-=.] 













f^ngtii-iiary sermo-n piilmonarj tendon tur1>ln(LE4> 
carnage niai^n carbon session option motion origin 
sn-spicion vii^n Ic^ioii gu<lg«ou pigeon falcon ratio-n-al 
optional cardinal Ciceronisn centurion ardi-n-al onion 
oeeaslonal provisional— sipbon icon ctenoid melo-n-cboly 
Olis. 1. dolphin is botli deX^rV and isX^rV, gen. *i*r™t, 
bnmane has botb this -s, and that of -nans. 
. Famine (kImes, gon. PAMis,) and order {ordo, gen. SRD&iiB,) 

. Qipjrf (ccplDO,) and soap (sAPO,) have lost thoc 

-n, infinitive. See -eo, v. 

-n, diminutive. See -en, n. 
lainpei>-ii a small lamprey. «Itl«r->i a small guitar. 



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-N, adverbial. 

[ADgl)sh-an, -OD, molion fi-oia a place, aa noraMi/™ni Ihenonk; feor- 
laa from far; Gar. fer-n /ar, Daniah adverbial and prepoaitional Bitffii 
-en, as in ud oni, uden vnthoat (deprived of,-) nsd doma, neden behw, 
Bohemian podoba iiheneia, podobnj limiUa: Welsh gwaith In™, time; 
weith-on this time, noic. Greek dubitative particle &v. Latin is behold; 
DBiM (ieBj- inlerrogative partiola Is ahetker T ; con-, aif loiti, Gr. tw, n, 
(Ger. nnn) new; /lin tmly, gee; oZr thai; fiaic-pUl'r far; nipan isyonrf,- irpoii" 
enWj, 7T0! r before, TO™!" formerly. Ss. Silfi o year, BAJliNi aniiuaiij.s] 

when tlipii taonce lM^-IliI■Il even often fhnn yon soon 
again non- Miutlier-n e^en ^beforen -'beroi'ii 'mithonten 

Oba 1 The alem of whe n <■ tippoira in ir« tliitter; jtS how; ™f 
whithor, rniu, inie where, ir t sujjieii>w, irfOfN whence; irinr when; nSaoi 
how mneh, (lonxo ^fco;, aee Obs 1,) Latin qVO whithor, qVI who; 
qVAndo, Got wann, Eng when Get wo where, wie how. Bug. who, 
we, why, wha t &e 

Obs. 2. The stem of tfco-n-OB appears in Bng. the, thee, thou, thy, 
thus, this, those, them, there, that, Qer, die the; da hei-e, there; dann 
the-n. Gr. t! any, rl what?; neuter article to the, tbia. Latin tu" then; 
Sic thaa (Eug. so.) Ss. TAT that. 

Obs. 3. The stem of tae-n-ce appears in Eng. he, how, he-re; in the 
Gr. ma*), article i, fern, li the; i? how; i, oS where; ik, SJt, Latin HIo, 

Obs. 4. TTien and Then have no corresponding form for ffm-oe, but-it 
appears in tba Danish hen thither, and German hin toward, along; 
English be-hin-0, hinder, with d oduoecl. 

-iV n. masculine. 

psean a song of deliverance. (/Zaidu Apollo as the god of 

physio; a deliverer from sickness or danger; a hymn to 

AjioUo; a triumphal song, irautu I restrain, cause to cease, 

relieve.) peiwu peon-y 

• Accidaotid reflemblaacM appear in Jiiliutisch |Yaoooti9h) i J-n day, kyn-yn 

frmn ttHT; a word which la thus analyaed by Br. F. L.O. Itce]iiig>— j Buii, Jer 
(witii latin J,)j)lflM, Abo from; bat inpotHng theac together the vowels moat be 
bannonlsed according to a peculiar law, making o j ar d a n, Hum which the J must 
be excluded (Daraan) anfl ar tranapoaed (oradanj whence ordan Hienct. 
JSs.b<i. a father, bnhiian fmm a father,- babsler/aMfirs, batalerdan JV™ 
fathers. Turkish is withont native jrfpoaltlona in the EngliBh sense, pnstpoaitions 
boing "Bed Instead, and It Is supposed that the Oreck and Latin casefligna are Ike 

mii-bt be replaced wilkpcrfitoii. 



(i> Google 



-N-, participial. See -N-ua. 

-n; n. 

[-PC. --n, 'fi^l, Ao. -m, -i*", -«"!"', -"■^. -"■ See -EN, n.] 

sel-en-ite a sLining mineral. (irsJ:5n; the moon. See-O/C) 

oreim, %-oMt. (spy-oir tt w-ork.) resin, ^Firl'i-n. (^ao, to flow.) 

ter-a, rrifiii, irrcpi!, akin to thj^i' a illume, a w 
Bspond.) cnm-ln a kind of plant, dfan-lja p ■» l«lp» > 

Beae-on— WelahigwliatisBliarpj p-igai 
a cona, turret, beacon. 

Obs. 1. In German and Danish, .en ia a enffii d 

of nhioliBro formed from verbs, AkintotheBo I «i t 

haven ItiWIien oven puffin raven si i 1 m*i n 

ObB. 2. Hebrew haa proper names in -n, at 
36 :29i) dIboOn (Bara 2 :&fl,) from dIbai L ri 

Abadd-on satSh. 

-N-AL, a, quality- 

paternal fraMmal vernal infernal Internal supernal 

Obs. For optional, rational, 4c., see -N declensional, 

-oe, -n, n. See -Jf, S-UB. 

grain oranC" the seed of cereal plants; a particle. 
prune PRCNtJ" a plum, (irpoupvoq, -npovvq, PRtJwDs a 
plum-tree.) tlirone 6p6vo<; a ohair of state. {6pdiu I ait.) 
doctrine do'CTrIha that which is taught JJ®- doceo. 



-uel, n. 

grap-n-el a small anchor. (A Burdiminutive, Fr. grap-in, 
grap-ill, fier. krapfen a hook.) 

dar-n-el an injurious weed, (Ang. derian to injure.) 

ctaar-n-el, with -N declensional, 

colonel the commander of a (column or) regiment 



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partner one who takes part with another. 
vintner one who deals in wine. 



-nessi, n. guality of being; that tehtch. 

[Ang. -nesse, -nes, -nis, -nys; old Bng. -nisse, -nesse, -nesj old high 

being infleetional, as in ibn-aasus Fnemiess, equity! iBkols, (Eng. leeoh) a 
phi/iician, lekinon (u cure, Iskmaasus o curl«!f; vans laeMng, vanan to 
loci, ran-ains won-i, vaninaBBoB the q^aHly of loaalingj ffluda peopU, 
fliudttDB a Mag (i.e. the i-aliag,) ffindinon to rule, fliudinasEOS rule.'] 



tn.asp0t6acy may easily (la^norato into flimHiness . , . spirit AOfi detmuees of loi 

qnicldy ma into hardQC«Bi and soitness into woollin&es and want of preoieioD 

John Offit, 1807. 

Obs. 1. -nosG forms abBtraot nouna, from nouna and adjectivea, 
Obs. 2. The Qarmonio -Eess'ie used for -ty in words of Latin orig 

forming hibiida lilje planBiblBEOSB for plausibility, oorruptible — , (rac 

ble— , orediblc — , rabid — , torpid^; and oddtit/ is used for oddness. 
Oba. 3. In some geographioal names, -ness (Sanscrit and Islandie Di 

Ang. neae; Saxon nes; Irish -nas, -niai Polish noa; Eng. Boae,) meani 

oape or promontory, &s in Shaerness and StromnoSiB- 



17 



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-N-ITy, n. See -AH-iry. 

[-N-ous;" -N- intensiTBi" -N doolenaional."] 

im-pop-tn-n-ity" that which is (im-) not opportTinej or 
which is introduced unseasonably; he nee, vexatious sohcita- 
tion. (-T- intensiye of por-to I hear, carry.) 

op-portnnitf fitness, the right moment. 

vicinity" vIcInItas nearness, neighhorhood. (vIoCs a 
Tillage, a quarter; vTclNUS similar, neighboring.) 

Trinity' &«»*nilty» diiiolty" indemnity" consanKnintty" 

N is part of the root in vanity, lenity. 



-N-oUS, -NE-oUS, a., n. pertaining to; quality. See n-us. 

membraaons made of, or resembling membrane. 

tdie-n pertaining to another place. (Slids Silo-; other.) 

alter-n-»te, siib-altei>n, altSr one of two, other. 

sub-terra-neons under (terea) the ground. 

rninons tending to (rCina) destruction. (bBo I rush or 
fall down, am overthrown.) 

ple-ni-t-ude fulness, (plentjs full.) 

reign regktj"'. jon»~'ney diOk-nus. r«sin«iis, see -N. 



I -AGO; Bcknite 



-N-US, m. -NA, f. -NUM, nent, n. 

[Sa. -N-A5 (fern. -A, neut. -A„) -giS. -via (-,, ■<,";) -N-5s {-1, -n=.) 
Gothio -eina. AilJBativeB, partioiples and nonna (mostly passive,) akin to 
ji-T,s,'-ty, and appearing in the participial -(■(«»( (given under -M- patti- 
eipial) and -N- pattioipial of -AN, -AHeoua, -N-AL. -ans the morB oor- 
reot form of -nons, is preaerved in proper names.] 

tc'fniins ecIii'nDS ala-m-nus AfMca'ous Ijnca'nnn 
SUva'nnB Sile'nns Meptunns Tulcnniu Tnlcan volcano 
tyriuit ripami dilmney «0(.^i^ are'nn farina re Un» aluinns 
inaria'na Antonina hye'na — niadona tympannin, see -UM. 
EkreandJ Interr^^nom lolKlanaDl — landanuai 



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[A Greek (-a) and Laiin adverbial aigns, a in ES-o oaiKordaj ax-o 
aloee,vp! CJT-obdmm Ihteo within; i^etko backwards; PBiuO ot Jirsl. 
Gothic -0. Russian -o.] 



This ooours In oompoundfi lilie serio-comic, cnmulo-atratoa, Syro- 
ohaldaic, glossy-logy, psycb-o-logy, ([e-o-grapliy. See J 53. 



-0, declensional. 

Italian and Spanish have this form; or, Latin -us, -o" hara recedad 

Bol« alUt portico nnnclo stndio fVesco virtuoso canto 
Intaglio ponctilio motto bmvo negro nialaltA mestizo 
Inznrelto incognito ditto pi-eslo manir«sto peccndillo 
agio sli^cco stncco buHklo calico rotundo mezzotinto 

Gratia {from orypt, i(pwmi( hidden,) is a mistaie fur Italian grotta, 
French grotte. Old French orota, oroule, erote, orot— 

Tmvi un= crate Mi lerre.-Roman d'Al/1. 
^btmd a grot wtda- groand. 



-0, I 

[A Latin and Greek nominativo case sign, as in ^ ScHo edo.'] 
Halo tiro umbo pi. umbones torpedo raUo Erato ipSra 
Bero is for Sfuit HBBOa, embryo for embryon, and eH«go for Erynginin. 

-0, genitive. See § 53. 

-0, ablative. 

In-nn-endo an oblique hint, (in at; nBo I nod; nPendo 
by nodding.) proviso a clause pi-o-vid-ed or seen to before- 
hand. (vIdeo I see.) 

folio, the ablative ease of fQiTO" a leaf, stands for in folio. 

quarto octavo duodecimo Umbo 



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SUFFIXES -OCK 

-0, imperative. 



-o«k, n. small. See -C-le. 

blllocb a small hill, hninmoch a small hump. 

pinnocb a small bird with a (pbnna) tuft; the titmouse. 

shami--o«k, Irish seamrdg a small (seamar) clover. 

l>ullo«h a young ox; Irish bo a hovine animal, hoi a cow, 
bolog a heifer, of which the masculine fona is holdn, Halli- 
well says "A hullook is, properly speaking, a calf in the 
second year." 

baddoch:, Irish cud-dg, from codh head, hut prohahly 
equivalent to a small cod-fish, i.e. head-fish. 

rnddock the ndhiaast. larb oi lavCFoek bnrroclc banuofib 
tarrock (a gull) nhliUMli: bntlock 

ffammoejt ia of doubtful origin; Belg. haQgemaok aad hangmatt (aa 
if Aang and mat;) old Snediah Lama to caver; BmaiUau bumaeoa 
(Maregrave, 1848,) but probably not native. 



gii-roob a Iiu^e (gar) fish. 

paddoc a large (Ang. pada, Belg. padde, Sw. padda) toad. 

pollocic a fish named from its large head or poll. 

tussock a large (Fr. tasse) toft of grass, as tass-el (tossel) 
is a small tuft, puttock a large (btSteo) hawk; the kite. 

'''waddofik a large piece. — MalliweU. 

Obs. Tbere is muoh difficulty in distributing words in -oet properly. 
Thus laddoch ia botli a fiah and a bird, and as a bird (a gnll,) it is larg»p 
tjian tbo tarrook, and Bmaller than aevoral otber Britjah gulla. KillocMae 
is.a name of -tho blaok oook, the ouiions tail of whioh may huvo recalled 
MllBck (a amall anohor,) bnt such guesses ace deceptive. 



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-om 



197 



-ock, n. verbal. 
finnock, pliinoek a kind of Scottish trout from twelve 

to sJsteeQ iDches long, whiter than the alhed kinds, and with 

white ventral fins. (Irish finn white.) 

eammoc the herb rest-harrow, (W. cam crooked, bent.) 
havoc deetruction. (Welsh haf that is apt to spread; 

hafog a spreading about; devastation.) 

h»wk a bird of prey. (Welshhebog; h o f that hovers.) 
mattock a kind of hoe. (Welsh matog.) 



(0Z>, n.) 

[Gr. !^s a looj, Mcde,jom-nes,- Latiu -ODUS. Not proparly a suffi*.] 

met-hod a mode or ajstem (/ieto ) according to rule. 
srnod (avv with,) a meeting, exodus a going (^5) 
period (ffE/tt' around, } a complete circuit. 
ep-ls-ode (^jtT on, eii; in,) an incident added in the course 
of a story. (This is distinct from liSri an ode, whence mon-ody.) 



-OTD, -ITE, -ITES, a., n. s, 

[-uOk, -'iTK, -<S6^s, -^*(; from clAt; form, quality; ^S- vYnio, K'i&i 
see. SanaorjJ; tIeh to disliagaiiL] 

deltoid shaped somewhat like the Greek letter Aiira. 

bclemnites a fossil shell shaped like a (g(Xs/anv) dart. 

CBlamites a fossil plant like a (xa'Aa/io^') reed. 

snipliite a chemical combination between sulphurous acid 
and a base, as lime, forming sulphite of lime. 

pyrites (originally flint, from -Kup fire,) sulphuret of iron 
and other minerals with a brassy lustre. 

spheroid conoldal cycI«M ethmofa arachnoid pellold 
sigmoid varioloid typhoid g:e-ode meteorite ammonile 
tbomsonlte sieiiite eyanite^ boracite'< miracite^ ciUorite 



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198 SUFFIXES -OMA 

Oba. I. In miDerttlogJ. -'its (X.-fl"; a stone,) and -ite are used indiffar- 
antlj, and when tha stein ends with I, they are not diatinguishahle, as in 
apophyllite, argUlite, petalito, arendalita. -lite appears in ohryaoiila 
[Wrttodf gold,) Le. gold-stona; oolita (<^ai' an egg,) from its reBemhlanoe to 
flah ro8. litho-graphj Ijtho-logio lith-i-um. 

Oba. 2. Sreal! and Latin family names in -iOM, -mffi belong here, snoh 
a9 Daidanidre, Romulidas, Aenoodte, Druidre, Danaidse J«mM« children 
of Danaus; Greeks. Pelaiidea son of Poleus. Hespevides daughters of 
Hespems. Oceanides daughters of BceIubb. 

-oir, n. See -EH, agency, 
f-oir, -eur, -re, ato Erenoh forms.] 



1 stip-building, a streagthening timber bear- 
ing some resemblance to a bench. (transteOm a bench for 
rowers; a cross beam. Greek epdai I sit; n. dim. dpavtarpov, 
of dpayo<; a bench (the uppermost of three) for rowers;— a 
projecting head of a beam.) 

venom vSnenu" poison, bane, axiwm, idiom, see -m. 

I^ntom, (fl^ ipahoi, to appear,) French fantSme, from 
PHAKTAS-Ma; old French enifentosmer to bewitch, — Diex. 

iktlioin a measure of six feet. (Old G-erman fadum a 
thread, Sanscrit badh, ba°dh to bind, tie.) 

besom bottam bOBom. Bcmsom is a fortu of ledemption. 



Ang. seld rare, aeldoa rarely; Ger. sellan (and seltaain, witb 
Bng. selden; dialect of Somerset aaltimes, whioh aooounte for 
ilom, Ang. hTile time, dative plural hviliim at times. 

high &er. rand edga, eitremity ; old Bng. rand on 
d Tr. randir to rush on, a, ran don at a blow, immediately. 



-OMA, 11. See -m. 
» SfWii-a the flavor of spicea. glaucSma ylm%a>y.a 
a disease of the eye giving it a {ylasixbi) bluish color. 



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■ON, n. 

[-0 nominative imd -N deolanaiooal. See nnder -ION.] 

potion carbon SiJcon Bcoi^ion histrloaic mueroiia 



-OJ^, n. that which, &c. 

[Ifl. -™n.; Ss.-A,i Lut.u". 1[ 2. -™ iinrt. prea. % 3. -urgen.pl. 
V 4. -or n. H 5. -»r neut. adj. K 0. -™., -=. aiij. oomp.] 

K 1. canon siphon <Mitylcdon scorpion myrmidon lion 
KOrgon Crangon cbamelMMi Amplii'on Ixi'ou Endymion 

f 2. borizon that which (d^oC'C-oi,) bounds; the bound- 
ing line separating earth and sky. dragon dpaxiov; part. 
Bpaiibv seeing (well,) of dip/.<ii I see, glanee; sApaxov I saw. 
archon a ruler, (apxio I eommand.) icbneu-m-oii, gao- 
m-oii, de-m-on, see -m. 

bttlcyon architect diixtrucrar Phae-th-an Pblege-tli-on 

But Phlegelon ii fount of Herebui and Nighl . . , —SpiKur. 

f 3. diapason, (Sia through, na? every, gen. pi. fern. 
jTBffcii' of all,) through all, from a note to its octave, dia- 
tessaron through the fourth, antazon Partlinnon 

1 4. colon a member (of a sentence;) a point indicating 
such a member. 

Mnniunon ety-m-on lesiGOn melon cborlon pantheon 
aeholion eriterlon Kang;Iion pneumonia omphlctiou 

Tf 5. auto^ma-t-on self-aoting, see AUTO- sbeleton a 
dry (body;) the bones pertaining to a body. 

ealholicou bBsilicon oc(»hedran oxymoron asyndeton 

1[ 6. ple-onasm Trksoy-aandq overplus. (^Xioy, neuter com- 
paratiYe of ■KoXhi many, much.) . 

Oba. 1. Greek nenter nouna in -oy uaaally take the Latin form, as nrlp- 
Oba. 2. In many English words, -on waa not the final of the originals. 



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SUrFIXES 

, n. deteriorative. 



scullionapersoninchargeof ascullery. cnllioD calyon 
carrion decaying (car-o) flesh. Old English caroigne, 



-on, -one, -oon, n. augmentative. 

[Ital. -5n6; Span, -on, -ona; Freneh -o° (oompai'e telnn, tetasse, tEtin, 
tetine.) Gl-. -m.-, as «|li»lj head; <e<jiiK-tM biy-headed. Latin -OwBfl, -BnI. 
See -AN.] 

button a large hud. selon a large (setX bristle,) thread. 
piston a large pea-t-Je. balloon a large hall. 
saloon a large (Fr, salle, Ital. e&Iu) hall. 
bassoon a large instrument for the base. 
trombone a large (Ital. tromha) trumpet. 
an apron, Ft. naperon, North of Eug. nappero, a large 
(Fr. nappe) cloth, as napkin is a small one. 
Bellona the goddess of (bIllu") war. 

Salle-on medallton squadron gnbioii bastion Iialon or 
batonn cannon champion falcblon tampion tanipoon 
biilfoon barrnrMOn cartoon cardoon stvoon Iiarpoon 
doubloon tri^atoaa fcsloon lampoon spontoon tnlon 
trnncheon million latl«n grlffln patron matron 



Ob?, 


1. Perh. 


ip3 bludseon, dudgc 


lOn, guerdon, plun 




in, gnrri-i 


icn belong here. 




oils. 


2. The 


orrnpt form 'miishrf 


lom' belongs here, 


for tlie > 


mlgar foi 


■m musharoon, of the 




Bahr. 


.0.1 con™i 


rts the French nasal ■ 


i" of babouin into - 



-on, n. diminutiYe. 

[Frraob diminutive 0",] 

cocoon a small (Fr. coque) shell, flagon a small flask. 



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-OS SUFFIXES 201 

cordon a small (BV. corde.) 

e'chalon something arraoged like the steps of (^clielle) 

mnslietoon a short musket. (A dlminutiTe in French, 
and an augmentative in Italian.) 

Cushion is for the Frenoh duuintitive souesi". 



-OE, B, u quaii^, mg, -Hfiss. 

[Latin -OR, -Ri Span or Italiim oro, Er enr. Boh 
Saelio (i.e. Gallio,) -air oir break Up, -a^, -ot Sanaorit 

Qreek i&f^ cli/me, Lat hfuup or convert" Latin jntrona 
(paaaive) nouas of thmga, as -t-ob converts tliem into {ex 
persons. See -BK agential. Akin to -US.] 



error the quali^ of erring, an erring. 
fl»TOr kindness. (FivEO to he kind.) 
odor that which (^Co»,) yields scent. 
valor, vXlSo, to he strong. 

cltun«r tremor tiiinor splendor vIg;or rlg«p Atvor 
fervur vandor squalor stupor torpor liopror fiiror 
liquor caloriSo— savor tenor mirror hIrItoriO"' — g:rand-ear 

Oba. 1. Soma nouns in -or cannot be referrei to Latin verbs, as honor. 



-ORI-, -OEy, a., n. -%, &c. See -AEy. 

[Lat. maac, -ORins,' fam. -oKii,'' nant. -ORIUM." Bee I formative.] 

ti.-aiislt«rj'° passing, dilator j'* dUating (aa it were) time. 
Tictoryi' Iiiatory'' promontory" consistory'' no-1-ori-ons-ly 

■ OS, n. 

[Gr. -OS, indicating the action of the root rerb. See -US.] 

ebaos, Bee -m. patJios bathos epos asbest«s -os aeanthns 



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202 BUFHXES -OT 

-OSe, -OS-, -OuS, a. full; like; having, &e. 

[53-n3;» Italian -oso; French -eus, -anse. florman -os, iis. Akin to 
•DS," wilh nliiob it is oonfuundeii in Englisli and Jftanoh.] 

Tillons, villose viLLOsOs full of (vill-us) wool or 
dowu. globose like a globe, studious' dilif^eut in study. 
malicious MALiTiOstJs having or bearing malice. 
perilous full of peril, jocose' given to joking. 

mvrose ladiPlmoBe plnmoso oitcittse verlmse gibltosc 
vicious viTiBsus senCeutiuns i>oiid«i'oiut laJmrlnus vinuuH 
npmerauB cavernous noslous^ lnK«R<«us procltg/ious 
eitllous portentous moiintrous olilivious"'' ambitious 
generoBltj suspicions liicflous cBdaveranB tumultuous 
ominous luminous sinuous sumptuous egrceions'' nutri- 
lions^ fictitious'' testa<!eoDs'> oqnoous'' billons vajrleose 

Oba. Tlia noit oiaraplea are not from reoogniscd Latin fornis.- 
clamorous (cl3.m6b noise, cLitrosus) noiaj', illustpious, a false form 
of iLLUSTitis. vigorous rigorous ettutious plenteous 



[Tte Italisu fonn of -OSe.] vlituos 

-OSI-Ty. See -OSe. 
verbositj' the quality of being full of words; wordiness. 

pomposity dubiosat^- curiosity nnimoslty monstrosity 

For fetooitj, procooity, verattitj, rapaoitj, vorooity, So. see -AC-aous. 



-oBy. 

leprosy a, scaly and pustulous disease of the skin. (Ai-apa, 
from Xii:p&q scaly; .Jsrels a scale. A badly formed word.) 



Ihgot a bundle of stieka. (W. ffag what unites together 
ffagl a blaze; ffagod a fagot,) maggot, see M-. 

spigot, W. ig wtat is sharp; p-ig a point, p-ike, be-ak 
yspig a Bpine, a-p-ike; yspigawd a spindle, a spigot. 



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-ot, -<itt«, n. dim. 
[Pranoh -otta; Spanish -ota. Akin to -et, -et«e, n. dim.] 
ballot a small ball; a closed paper used in votbg. 
cbai'iot a small oav or chair. 
cal«tt« a kind of cap. 



-ot, n. augnjentative. 

bakot a large hake, a voraoioua fish of the genua Mer-lu- 
ciua or sea-pike. (German heoh-t a pike; akin to hooh and 
heckle.') 

baked a large pike, (Anglish hacod.) owlet, bowlet a 
large owl. (Fr. hulotte.) Baii«i-cul-oit« 



-OT, n. 

See 'ET, -T-ER, T pi 



-OT-IG, a., n. See -AT-IO. 
nai-cotic vapxwnxo^ producing (ydpxij) torpor, exotic 



A Hebrew feminins plural as id sabnoth {aaSa^ff) hosts or urmies 
behenMtti beaats, llie plural aa a more dignified form being applied ti 
the hippoptitainus. B^erolli (welle,) the name of a oity. Joshua 9 :17 
mftizOrolb the (signs of the) zodiac. Job 3S ■.%2. 



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-oucb, -Idgc, n. 

[Ital. diminutive -Moio, -uooia; Fr. -ouclie; Sp. -noto.] 

cartunelt an architectural ornament like a labql or scroll. 
cartridge a small (jft^/inji) paper containing a charge for 
a gun. 

Obfl. Italian has the enormons number of two liundred auffiiLal dimi- 
nntiveB, inaluding formfl like ear-uncula, oar-unoulotto/beBti-uoluooia, 
pagli-ucclina, bott-onoelliuo, barn-ooeolino, gall-ozzoletta, Inc-ignolino, 
oass-ettoQOino, abirr-aoohinolo, u-ooellinnoeio. 



It h uld b 

th E li Thi 

f th p t 



b ghb b Sp B t F h has nr 

h nlnr dllE hliaBSdeuTvll Prbli 

6 HylllNmFrahplrol fOtb IStli 

1 Sa b b a ab t haa h nr mf nnr p t m 

at nf f & lldBgbbasm 

min (m ) t h nr ( h t) t (b aal ) B b d 

nr (gam t ] Cb d barj b fa«lo m E Sp 1686 

Spenser uses treaohuur, pillonr, favour, mirrbonr, raooor, labor, bouor and 
honour, horror and honour, humor and humour, arbor and aibonr. 

Thoae who wish to use -our etymologiejy, must diatinguiah between 
words got from old Frenoh, and tbose talsen directly from Latm, before 
they can spoil words like splendor, ranoor, HC[uttlor, torpor, stupor, vigor, 
&a. Riobardsou uses -our, but he does iwt oile the old Frineh aatlontiea 
for bis etymologies, so that there is no ovidenoe that he is aoonrato in bis 
spellings of aplendoar, squalor, torpoar, stupor, vigour aud vigorous, 
rancour and ranooroua, honour and honourablo. He refore 'splendour' 
to 'spleudBur,' and the unlatin word 'muror' to the modern Frenoh 

duoing no etymologio authority for either 'splendour' or 'mirror.' 

The following old French forma show that there was no uniform ety- 
mologio basis in that language. 



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Eontcop he who i 



■ow 

4letracl«ani 



bnjit4Hlonr singer coiilor ooior 

conqnereup congueror mncBier mastfr 

soldiipleur aoldier estlnler esguire 

-oUS, a. having; -inff. 

-US n., and -ER n.] 

o'dorons (Sdorus) liaviDg odor. 

gibbons (aiBBiie and gIbbSk) haviDg a convesity. 

ampbiMouii having (Stoi;) life (aii^f) toth on land and 
in water; as toads, the tadpoles of which live under water. 

Indigenous pertaining to one in- (qenItO") bora ; origi- 
nating in the region or country. 

conterminous touching at the (tbrmintjs) boundary. 

Btrenaons arduAns barbapaus anxious obvious pious 
devious noxious innocuous pidiciiloiis cinereous curious 
amblgiions si^llaccous Kalliuiiceans souopaus deciduous 
snpepflnons conscious berbaeeous — mischievous boisterous 

Obs. The anffis ia lost in rigid RfQinGa Talid honest robust auatero 
just rigbt direst beatifio innate oompiuit. 



artlj derived from Qoimajiio 

shallow that which ia shoal. 

tallow that which is (Q-othic tulgus) solid. (Islandic 
tolga to solidify, congeal.) 

ttellow, formerly fielaw, a companion. ("Isl. fela^, from 
fe monej/, and lag community/." H. Wedfftoood. Aug. fylgean 
to follow. Skinner.') 

callow without feathers. (cSLViJs bald.) 

J. spearsj Lat. plRiia, Go. a-parwa, Ger. s-perling. 



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206 SUFFIXES -POD 

sbadon shado f«nae, Ger. felge hnrrow burj hollow (liolwe, 
Chauoar) hole barrow bear swallow, Ang. svclg-an snallon (a 
bitd,) Anglish svaleve, German soliwalbe bellows (belauH, Chaucer) 
KallowH* (galnea, Chaucer) fullow, Anglbh Taleve, fealo sorrow' 
morrow' follow" borrow^ fnrrow minnow yellow billow 
willow (sallow) barrow marri 



despot dsirK&-ni<; a tyrant. (S infiectional, T participial. 
Sanscrit japati, Benf(^. Sanscrit d^sa a slave, Pott. Siia I 
bind, restrain.) 

-PLe, -bic, -PLBX, &.fold, times. 

[-PLET, -PLIC-; PLIC-O / /oirf, Jl^J.] 

Uoable two-fold, triple, treble tLree-p!y, three-fold. 

qundruple dnpUcit; tri-pllc-ate complex complication 

Oba. In tempU, example, p is eduoed from m. Diseiple, see -ble.' 



-POD, -PED, -PUS, n., a., foot, feet. 

[mSs foot, gen, "oJ-^, nom. pL ■t'Wo. pes, geo. pehis, nom. pi. pfinla. 
Eng. pace, foot. Diminntiyendjaj', -pomuM. Saneo. pSdIS /ooi. Bohom. 
pod- below.] 

polypus, polyp, poulp an animal with (noXv\) many 
feet, pwlypodium, polypody a fern with many stems. 
octo'pns a cuttlefish with (dxrii) eight feet or arms. 
decapoda Crustacea with (Sixa) ten feet. 
apoda without feet, hexapod with six feet, as inseota. 

qnadruped biped and dipas tripod and (riTCt centlped 
niill^ped soUpcd palmiped pedal pcdat« cap-a-plc Apns 

Por-paa is for pork-fish, and the allied gramp-uK is IVom ypfi/i^ot, b-ceSfa 
a sow, the form and motions of the small oatacoa being aomewhat liks 
those of flwlne. "Bxwil^ grcaid poiiitm b. 'lacgo fish,' is oommonlj given. 



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-R SUFFIXES 207 

-P-UL. See -B-, -l, dim. 
manlpulato to perform small work with (manus) the 
hands. 

-R-, formative. 

[Akin to -L-, whioli is also formative. lU function is peroeived in the 

lead, brin^; dytipa, to oMeiHSJe. TOLLO I raise, lift, bear; t6l-er-o I beat 
(in a particular manner,) tndure, tol-er-ate. It occurs iQ -tij, -cc, -or, 

.B.U3 (-B-A, -R-UM,) -B-OUS, -rj, -TRUM.] 

nee-ro-logj' an aoeount of one (vex-pd^) deacl. 

cle-r-gy (origiuallj) a hodj choseo by (jcXiipaq') lot. 

the-or-cni e^d/pTjiia a proposition in mathematics, (dedw- 
liai, to behold, contemplate.) 

pu-re PU-R-Os, Ss. PU to chan. 

pylorus, see -n-os. gla-re <sIeH-r, see o-tA-K-ts. sepulchn 
BefCloru'". consM-ec tlesl-re recup-erate f-gn<>->''Bi>t fie-r4i 

Obs. The r of experience is part of tlie root. 



B, declensional. 

[A base with S in tha notninative, as Mia (gen. mIk-is') a ™a!e,- flos 
(gen. i>L0E-!ai>) flower; moS (gen. won-isi') manner; -Bs, gen, -on-ia," gen. 
-BB-isi^ pcLVis (gen, pclveb-is") dual; mC.i {gen, MiJB-ia) mouse. Sea 
-EE, OR deolenaional ] 

mnrry" floraP oral'' marat^ temporal' pectoral' decorous" 
oorporatr" ltag«riiii.= opsrite^ ulcer^ funeral^ eenerai* 
lateral'^ remunerate^ oneruus'' ponderousd leteran' sidereal^ 
vulnerary'' cincrarj " purulent' Jury' murina' rnralt (rustic) 

Obs 09 a bone, gen ossia, givoa obi fy 

-R, permutative. 

[A permutation of S, asin spes hope, spsro Umpe; Tlajjoioer, TIB o man,] 
injure jus-t inspire Tims 



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bear char 



Uieir onr ta«r 



-R, adv., prep, 
[flr. as in 'ihrlp, Lit. sup-eh, Eng, ov-er; sBi 



titr neap onder after never yonder onl«r nbere 

01)9. The question mere? ia made vifk a labial root, and ils answer 
witli the glottal H, when the direition is lovarJa the "peakor, ODd with 
the dental T, &c. whoa it 1? /ii-m him Thi" appeal" m ths following 
Greek, Latin, German, and Bngliih ev.iJnplafl— 

noS qVO wo war where when whonoa what whitlier 
m-ic Hi(0) hie hier hero hen" hence hiJ* hither 

T4 TSu da dar there then Chenoe that thither 



[See -BR agential; -0-K-; -chre; -T-E-UM.] 

acre nisencro massacre anstorc, see -E-oUS specWe 

Sbre firrI lucre snbra centre Involucre sepalchre 

Sire is for aeni-or. Fire and aphero have the i- radical. 



hand-i'ed, Ohg. hunt, hundert; old Frisian hunderd; 
Belg. honderd; old Saxon hundcrod; Latin centOm; Alba- 
nian kint; Welsh cant. Akin to hand, and com-pre-hend. 

hind-red, ^hinredo relations by birth or marriage. (The 
first d ia educed from n of kin. Swedish reda order; Welsh 
cenedl kindred,) liatved ill-will, malevolence. 



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[Diminutive or doprociative -1, following the suffix -r.] 

picherel a email pike. 

timbrel a kind of small (Fr. tamliouT) drum. 
doi^ei^l bad poetry. (German diehter a poet.) 
spaudrel ehitptPel maiHlrel Mndrll g:ainbr«l lamlircl 
>ng:rel bt^eerel cockerel costrcl 

,„j 1„ — , „[j„ absconds from the roll or 

!l belong to -AL. 



•ren, n. pi. 
olilldren (Ang. cin'r-en,) and bretbren are double plu- 
rals fonned by adding the -n of oa^en to tlie old English plu- 
rals childre and broihre, Ang. brothm. 

Oba. The -r plural iu thildren and tie German l-iiider la probably a 
the 9 of tho genitive singular, tor in Anglish, emiBaE is both eraijAs and 



rlc, a. jurisdicfio 
m. Anglish rio-e, -ric; 

bisbopric the jurisdiction of a bisbop. 



[RiG-NU™ a bingdom. Anglish rio-e, -ric; 6ir. ribs; 
English roign, rich,] 



enlp-ri-t, kKS-tus u., the condition of one arraigned, for 
a (cuLPAj fault; a crbaiual. — Sullivan. 

-R-oUS, a. gualily. 

t-B-Bs {-I, -u".) -(1-1%. Ss, -H-15. Soa -OB ti., -WUB, -EUS.] 

an-s-t-ere having the quality of parching, (avsterijs, 
oxiaTijpiq harsh; ou-oj, to parch.) 
18» 



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BUPrixES -Ry 

s eovetoTia. (av£o I covet.) 
sonorous soundiDg. (sOno I sound.) 
canorous vocally melodious, (cano I sing.) 

odorous odOuOs vigorous rig^rons tral-l-or.«a8 SEe-are 
iKcfiRus aolorons elHUioroiis llmorous bninorous raptnrons 

Obe. These words are mostly derived from verbs, and do not include 
'orms lilie eameroaa, utceraus, vmrdeivva, ontrous, nor thoso in -/eroua. 



-R-US, n. m., -S^A, n, f., -R-UM, n. neut. 

[-BDB is the more correct form of -ronfl. It is preserved otiiefly in 
proper names. See -R-oua, -T-RUM.] 

pylorus the (tto^ij) passage, from the stomaeli. 
Thoo-doriis, (Siopoii') a gift, from God. Apolio-dorus 
Helio-dorus hydra an animal living in (oSwp) water. 
fblernm aouietliing with which (fdlc-Io,) to prop. 
plethorn izl-Qdi&pa fulnesa, repletion. {tzUoj, TzXtieiii, to fill.) 



cnmem decorum 

Aret--ariia, tlie {tifoit tailj of the (opt™,-) bear. 
©Horum of irhom ; the genitive plural of evi who. 

■By, -ERy, n. 1. aggregate of; 2. practice of. 

[Adj. maac. -ARins; nom. fern. sing, and nent. pi. -abiS. Dan,, Sw- 
-eri; Ger. -erei,- Belg. -erij. Sea -ARj.] 

artfllerf , (gen. artis of art,) Port, artilh. fortification; 
old Fr. artilieux aa-tful; artillier to fortify, artillorie, old Port, 
artilhaiia tkrowivg engines; Ital. arti^lieria, French artillerie 
cannon in the aggregate — Du^ 

cavalry soldiery yvoattaary infimtry orchery bribery 
carpentry tliteverj bravery perfumery pastrr imagery 
laereerv trumppry soreery sui^^pry bntcbert broidery 
rivalry revelry eonferiioner^ stationery grocery fbuiulry 

T euavrt/ ftjua i*. belong to R01 



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-s, -es, -ee, -x, -so, n. plural. 

[8e. -lb; Latin -es, Greek -« in aome nonna, aa nopaj, cokax rouen, pi, 
i«ips«f c3bac-K3; hAu^, pi. TrXtioifc Pleiadaj QvjisTio gKetlioB, pL qy^es- 
TJONESj Sfiituo a «^e«c^, pi. sIrhQnSs; conbdi. nonatU, pL cShsitlSs; 
h6n6b, pL nfiHOBKS. Islanflio -n. Anglish lat declenaion -as, oor- 
ruplly -es; Gotbio -3, -eia, -oa," -jus; oia Bnglish -cB, -ia, -ja, -as. Bee 
under -AS and -AX.1 



ai^es boxes buttresses dice pence I 






a tendency to avoid ii pliirol fon 
wcnty Tool on higtiU . . . 



Oba. 2. The following are botli singular and plural Latin forms— siwteB 
species Hnperfifdes congeries; but efflsles proKenles fitciCB have 
been natoraliaed under the forms ^jy, progenn, /ace, in the sinijular 
numboi. There is a teudencj to oonsider the adjeotive auffis of FortU' 
gne-ae, Chine-ae a, phira,l, anfl Milton (Par. Loat, 3,) uaea Ohmeses. Athena 
(rffls™) and Thabea (flWdi) were mtended to follow their original plural 
form. 

Oba, 3, The following, although ^tymologicly^of the singular number, 
BTB commonly assumed to bo plural, from whioh a singular ia formed by 
dropping -a or -eai^bolemniteB, basaltea, stalactitea, ammonites, &c. 

Obs, i. Jfane>, (remuns of the dead, a gbnst,) is of tho einE»i1ar 
number in Latin, but singular or plural in English. Jlichei (Fieiioh 
rioheaao,) alma (EAfjiMoEu'vij,) and icoyes were 'originally of tho ainjpi- 

Obs. 5. Idea ia for the Latin plnral IDUS, which wants the singular. 



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Obs. t. The drug JllCiSs is properly singolar, from the Freoofa noun si 
galar iiloSs, with s pronouDced, which distinguishen it ftom Iloe a gen 
of plaut!!. Butler, altho n atliolar, uses double plurals in — 



[G-enitives, as in yicu/ipj kaa-wledge, gen. jrri/iij-j; rfrl», pJiBb father, 
gen. narpis, Pi'TK-iB f'lthsr'i; &er, Tatera. Old Eng. -es, -ie. Angliah of 
tliB lat deol. fling, -oa. See under -mer.] 



0T)S. 1. Locutions like— The book of Bdward— The hair of the bead- 
ate !30 more examples of a possessiTe oasa Vaan — Edward owns the book 
— Tbe hair on the bead. 

O'bs. 2. The apostrophe indicates tbe loss of a Towel^ from the old 
English form, as in 



iren's tojB. In Angllsh, Ibe posaeiisiTe of plurals was 



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-S, adverbial. 

[-M(, -I, as in »? how, w"! lomehoio; rpl's lArice; ai bacU, &}> baakward!, 

hom often; Saasorit Dvia, flraak St, Latin Blfa (mice; sllfa etumgh; Ylx 
aiamely; is oat of,- Ib-s /rom; jsTiis mtUn. Welsh ni, ni-a not. Gotliio 
■b; Anglisli -es, us in feat fast, festes /ii-mjj; old English than-B then-te. 
Old Frenoh enTSrs, jamais, alore, dana, sans, ana {frSm ahtB, 8p. ante-s) 
trheiice adi-an-ce.] 

else (els in Spenaar) since (sithons in Spenser) »,.b (als in Spenser) 
perhnpn toH»rdB needs besides •wards thus nnanares 
whence '''wliennes bcnce (henne, iienEm, hennes, hense, liens, in 
Chauoer) thence *thenB once ''^onls, *ones, *onse, ■''oonya 
twice +twS9e always noways sidewiiys straiKlitniiys 
lengtbways likewise ye-s ;oa ont-adnora amld-sbips 
betimes now-adoys aatisf; ma-s-l-eF aniglils ''^amornings 
(Swed. i morgena.) 



Oha. 1. Forth (from /ore) haa th. 

Oba. 2. The aimilarity between adverbial -S, and tiio aigns of the 
plural, and possessive aingntar of nouns, has cansed aome nouna to be 
transferred to tho adverbs. That botimo-a ia not a plural is shown by the 
German, where mal doea not talie ita plnral -e in dreimal three-times, 
tontiBia formerly. 

Oha. 3. This -s Is sometimes strengthened by T, as In whilst, against, 
amongat, alongat, amidat {amiddes m Spenser,) Icat. In vulgar diaoonrae, 

for time — "Onoe-t upon a time;" and when govorned by at, aa in "at 
OQOe-t," whioh may be an old objeotive case govorned by a preposition. 

. . . mder the mWa iherof. ... in ihe midll of Winlcr.— ffii/ani'i Plinic, 16J5. 



-S-, repetitive. See -it-. 
pnlsation, PELIO, PtJtBC", to drive; rCLSO I beat, beat 



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respond response degrade digress Scent 

auEpeud suspense provide proviso mete 

sedentary aeBsila introda intrusivB revEr 

persuade peraunsiTe delade delusive depoi 

elide elision ' divider divisor luihei 

cadence casual remit remiss incini 

-S-, participial. 

[See under -T-, -D-, -S-, participial French -is, -Be 
esfur-s-ion repnl-s-lve impre-ss-lve 

In remls-s percnB^ion ttie penult s is a mutation c 
In ci>ner«s-s poBses-s absc«s-8 (better abees, 1 



-S-, inflectional. 

[ipxisim I dance; flituro djrtSEo/ioi / v>iU dance; iBt aorist middle il/npi- 
E%B / danced; WSSrpa the place of the daweri. -S-IA, -S-IS, -ISM, 
-S- TME, ha,vB lliis -S] 

cau-s-t-ic burning, corroding, (xdm, to burn; future 
wjuffoj.) my-s-tcry, see -arj. spa-s-m, clia-s-gn, see -m. 

A-8-ia, as if, iJie country of dry winds, {^ata, to blow; 
a£ia, to dry.) a-s-th-ma, see -TH- formative. 

In a-t-mo-spliere, t represents the s of Aa-ia. 

mlnsm crisis orclieBtra hypnerisy pbase panse draslJc 
Bmnesty estasy genesis masnetisai Mneiuosyne, 3co -S- YNE. 



•San, n. one who; a. pertaining to. See -an. 
parmesan pertaining to Parma, partisan a party man. 
artisan one who follows a mechanic (aBS, gen. aEtIs,) art. 



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-se, V. to tnahe. 
cleanse, Ang. clEEiisiaii to make (cl^ne) cleaD. 
mince to cut into bits; to make (Belg. min less, Sw. 
SI is fit) smallest. 

rinse, Sw. renaa, Dan. rense to mate (Sw. ren) pure. 
parse (pars a part,) to resolve or analyse a sentence, 

■se, n., a., v. 

[-B-IFS, akin to -T-iJB, T-ous, -US. 8e6 -8- participial.] 

cdnr-se OUE-Sus, (ourko I run,) that which is ran. 
l»pse verse pulse obtnae profnse reelnse Immecfle 

terse disperse 

Phraaa, phase, tolong to -S-IS. 

■sel. 

[Partly German -ael, -fa!, due (a -1 with an interposed or preceding s, 
aa in stop-sel a atrrppsr or etirpphj rStA-ael something (ratA-en) to gueig, 
whenoe riddle. The folloniiig ssx dituiDutivea.] 

elael tinsel larsel asle i 

ChUil and morael have -S- mul 
Damsel, see -Cle. 



-set, u. dint. 

marmoset a small 'marmot,' a kind of monkey. 

Oba. In French, marmot means a kind of moniey. 



C-Sll.) 
[Moatlj duo to a guttural root element; also to s and its affinities.] 
Uiresh, ttirash, do. Sriskan. flasb f.^iy-iu, to bum, ^S" lDcei 

nisb, Anglish viscon. dlsb disk, posh, Fiench pousscr. 

Frencli angoisse. 



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i-Ship, n. affgregaie of; offi.ce. 

[Aug. -sejpa, -aoipsi oM English as in frondahyppe, felaushepe, lord- 
aohip. Dan., Sw., -akap! Belg. -sohap; Ohg. -sonf, (from the lOth cen- 
tury -soaft;) Ser. -aohaft. Tho 8 is a prefis. Sa. jabh to iraiVs, iajoin.] 

lordsbip the aggregate of the duties, rights, and office 



S-IC-ian, n. See -S-, -IC, -AN. 

mu-siciait, -an one who praetiees, -ic, what pertains to, 
-S- that which, mu inspires, (jiavi, to feel an impulse.) 

nfa-n-t-is (a diviner; a genus of insects,) is from the 
same root, with -N- intensive and -r- participial, — also anto'- 
ma-ton, see AUTO-. 

-S-IM-, ordinal. 

[Latin ordinals, as in oebt-esihBs (-1, -5™) the JiindiWii.] 

qna«li*age8iina the first Sunday in Lent, and about the 
fortieth day after Easter. (qvadeaoInta forty.) 

centesimal septaagesimul Infiullesimal 



-S-ION, -T-ION, n. See -lOU. 
[8 pitrMoipisI, mnC&tionaJ, and infleoUonal, T paitieipial, and N do- 
clenaioDal.] 



S-IS, -S-IA, -T-IS, n. thai which; 4ng. 



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a-dis; Lat. sil-T-ns 
an^l, aad the noan ei 
ii-b. Seo foot-note a) 

genesis a be-gin 



IS. It indicii 
■ANT,] 



ig, generation, (j-svudw, to produce; 
yiv^m^ the act of creation; ^ivv^jjua the result of creation; 
progeny,) 

dose something (that which is) given. {dSoi I give.) 

phthisis (pdi'/rXq a disease whioh (p fl '''",) eonaumea. 
(tisie, is the same, with an adjective BufSx.) 

eachexy" a (fem. xaxif) bad (^f 15) condition of hody or 
mind. Asia,'' see -S. 

Idio-syn-cpa-sy'' a peculiar temperament; aov with, 
'^Slo^ one's own, upaet^ a mixing. 

a-mbrosta, eee AN-, apoplei^y rlAm->^^m, see J PO. 

pleurisy" fantasy, fiiney ^ani-nm'ri para-nouin-sla euttamiBsta 
cystlUs ellipsis tt>«sls phrase" phase'' syuopsls mauUs 
crisis praxis basis «yntas Elensis 



-S-IYe, a. 

[S participial, as io disour-s-ive; and mutational, as in delu-s-ive.] 

-SM, n. 
[See -S- infleotiona!, in, and -ISM.-] 
prf-am <dui-siii spa-sm bLnlasm svhisiii sarcasm laiiuiin 

-Home, a. having the quaZily or habit of; causing. 

[Oer. -Bom; Belg. -saam; Ang. -som, -snm; old FriEiBU -aam; Danish 
Bom. Gothic aama like. Ohg, earn, eama like, aa in^Sie liihtat Earn da 
OQna !( UghU lihe the fan. Eng. eame, -Boma. litn-ow;, sim-ilis like; saa 
lEMihalf. &s. ilK ha place to'jetker.-\ 

troublesome having the quality or habit of troubling; 
iausing trouble. 



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ns surnxES -ST 

meddlesome addicted to roeddliDg. 
nhulesome causing (or consistent with) health. 
lonesome the ciuality of being alone; solitary. 
mettlesome having mettle, noisome nos-ious, hurt&l. 
Teotnrcsome having the hahit of venturing, 

loatlisfmie (lothaom in Spenser) qnarrelsom? lallsome (tuilsum 
□ Spcnsei) cnmbersmiie bnrdensoine EroUcsaiue aft&tune 

lit Diyi Jn a Ha\c,—L' Enraagi, Fatile PfiKZ, 1651. 

Ferrand Spence (Miseellanea, 1686,) writes iaiidaoBi, tircsom, ionium. 

-son, n. See -ion, -t-ion. 

eompavison, a form of com-par-at-ion. 
season (BATio a sowing or planting.) 

polHOB venlsvn prison benlson orison rotson lesson 



-sp, n., v. 

ga-sp to open the moutli for breath. Cx""'' * 
open; Hio, to ja-wn, ga-pe.) 

crisp cur-led or cur-¥ed, in gyr-ations or eir-cles. 
grasp to hold tightly. (Akia to grapple.) 



rohnst robustBs having (robur) strength. 
enthusiast, see -T-er, Obs. 2. 



[T participial added to a stem with S, uhioh may be -S-' infleotioi 
la in cxior^ uplit; nxc^w tQ Bplbt.\ 



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-8TEK strmxES 219 

east the region of the (2oic, Ionic ijtu;, Doric &ui^') dawn. 
See Asia, iiDder -S-. 

west the region of mist, moisture;. (jerd? rain; German 
wasser water. 

cau-st-lc hurning. (xaitu, to hurn, future xaufriu.) 

tbirst, toast, Ss. tars; Latin toreEo, tostC", to dry, 
parch, post that which is put. (B@" pono.) 

omne-st-y ametbyst inon-B(-er ItMnist vest sest blast 
forest nnlst nest mast (aoorna, io.) host g-uest Christ" 
schist" dfaOHty" gbast gost gplst ywist twist hu»t 
tvost trust tbrast rest (remainder) 

Most (repose] and co-sl are from STO I stand. 

Sum (from dare,) is pacUj fot dvr/t, Anglish 9orfi«. 



-st, adv. 

ia added to intenaifj the adverbial ferae of -s; or to gire it to 
1 of speech, as in les-t. The old English agens, ayena, ia now 
ihe German ein-st is ■once,' often prononnced with -t; and old 
ilant is Bnglisk whil-at. See -8 adv., Oba. 2.] 



-«t. See -est, most. 



-stead, n. 

[stO (si^tC",) Io stand. German statt; Angliah and Saion stede.] 

bedstead, as if, a hed stand. 

bomestead the place of a home, in stead in place of 



It appears in steady, stedlhst. 



■stev, -str-ess, n. the person who. 

[Originallj -ater was feminine, aa in Belg. voedster she wka feea 



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330 SUFFIXES -f 

nurse; whence fpBler— sHccessivelj a DUUn, on ailjestive, a 

songster songstress spinster dabster tapster 
punster gamester lobster yauii£Sl«r 

Wel>st«r and Brewster formerly meant a female weaver i 
When tlie meaning of -ster waa forgotten, forms like seom- 



-S-T-ER, -S-TKI- pertainmg to. 

equestrian" pertaining to (eqvus a horse,) SqvEs a 

Sylvester pertaining to (sIlva) a wood. (sIlvis in 
woods.) 

fencstral pertaining to (pENESTaS, old French fenestr) 

B»di8ter a genus of coleoptovous running insects. (j9a- 
SinTijq a pedestrian; fiadKui , I walk. The s is inflectional.) 

coeleistlal^ terrestrlul" sequester" sinister* minister* 
pedestrieu' 

Obs, 1. The following are nonn forme— pilaster,* a square (pIlI) 
column, oleaster* the wild olive trea. trans-om,^ see -em. ean- 
Isteri" alubusteri't plaster^ mouster* — eloister dexterity 

Obs, ?. S!a-e-t-er, lAori-a-t-er, &0. belong t.o t-ebi and roi-s-t^er, 
bli-s-t-er, biu-a-l^er, to -er, t. inf. Register, sea -is-tcr. 



-stri-an, a,, n. See -s-ter. 
pedestrian going on foot. (PES, gen. pedis, a foot; 
pEdester a. on foot.) 



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-S-URc, -T-UE«, -D-UEe, n. that kImK is —ed. 

[-T-," -D- and -S-l> partioipial, -S-" mutational, and -UE-.] 

measure,*" (s®" Metior I mete,) a meticg, or esti- 
mation of quantity. 

flesore" the act of bonding, (flecto I bend,) 

erasure"" (fi®" rado, eXsB", to scrape,) a scraping out. 

en-eIoHnre° the act of enclosing, 

vei-diire the greenness of vegetation. (viREO, to grow, 
grow green.) 

literature the results of literary labor. 

texture a web, that which is woven, (texo I weave.) 

pasture that which is browsed upon, (pascor, to 
feed, browse.) 

capture" the aot of taking bj force. (IJ@- capio I take.) 

ligature that with which something is tied, (lioo I tie.) 

pi-esBure fissure cloHiii-c toiisure espoeiu>-« fixtoFe 
Incisure' cie«Knra ci-enlurc scripture sculpture ftucture 

C^na^iure kdiinsfi, (»:S uv dog, geo. xmih; oifh tail,) tks Uttio hoar. 



[Sa. -S-A5 (-1, -A. :) Lot. -s-0a (-1, -ni.,) aa in Monsfis a bile, -oo, (-„,, 
-00^,) -ftj. -S- inQectlonal or parlieipial. Akin to -T-US.] 

tarsus the instep and heel, (rapab'; a hurdle (for di-ying 
fruit;) the blade of an oar; a wing; the foot between the 
toes and the heel. S^ tSrbeo to dry up.) 

ntu-cissuB (properly, with e as Je,) vdpxtaao^, (vdpx^ numb- 
ness, st.upor;) named from its supposed narcotic power. 

NareiHSB abscissa i»rlli»-graphj,^g^ Diiion. «l»-cse ob-e-s-lly 



Idio-sjn-«ra-S9', syn- vnth, Uiot; apeculiar, x/ 
perum&nt. See -S-IS. tansj' &8o,vaaia sypss I 



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-S-YNE, n. fens. 

lHn«inoBfne /iiflj/ioo-iJiTj remerabranoe. (/i^do/iat, perfect 
MiMvtjii.ai, to remember; iiv^iiTj memory.) 

En-phro-8-yn-e tufpoauvrj gaiety. (eSfpiav gay; sZ well; 
tppijv the mind.) 

Sophrosyne awippoah'jyj discretion, {amippiuv of sound 
intellect; aSis; sa-ne; <ppTiv mind.) 

eleemosynary and alms, (ihiia, passive iXUiiat, to pity; 
iXtripMii merciful; Usspjiirwij mercy.) 

-T-, -D-, -8-, participial. See -t, -d, -se, -T-ous. 

[Indiontjng oompletanBasj an aot finished; tho actor, quality (aa acuto 
oc acid,) fitoeaa, attribute. It OMurs in esTta, -T-ous, -Ty, -T-ive, -aTo, 
-eD, -T-EH, -T-ic, -T-iotr, &a. LntiQ maao. adj. dSmiTds, fern. 1)6h!tj. 
nent. dOmItS" tain-fd; Sansorit damiTaS, damitI, damita,; (Jothie tam- 
ifla, tamifla, tamlfl (also taraida.} SaJiaorit neut, partioipla future +damiTS, 
Latin dOmiTBk-ub abo-ai to tame. 

Banaorit (with g cormpt, in gem,) djnI (o ftflom,- djnIS, djlNiT in- 
fimcleti; djnSTr ymniip, Latin *gnoToh oi hiow-er. Sanacrit jdota, 
Latin jdnotI, Engliah yoked, joined, JHnot, joint. 

Sanaorit or (Lat. cb-ho) to create; ch-t (Lat. obeahs,) crerait; cr-t-aS 
(Lat. OBSATca) crealedj ug-T-ia (Lat. crbatio) creation; cAR-T-n erealot: 

Greek f iX-iu / lave/ adj. piinris loved,- ^Xfinuj), ^iX^m a fotwi-.] 

«n-crg-et-ic iv-epy-rjT-tx-di energetic, efficacious. (Spyon 
aw-ork; i/ij-rf-T-Jj; a worker, irk-er.) 

concoui-se a running (con) together. (OBRRO I run.) 
fi-ui-.t feCctCs that which is enjoyed. (pRtfSR I enjoy.) 

vl-t-al in>danit-t'able vln-t-ner fol-se morose rcsolnte 

Obs. T may he considered the esrUest of the dentals. Its easy formtt- 
tiiin by the end of the tongue, hns made it the moat common, important, 
and varied in ita nae, of all the eoneonanta. 



[Latin past partioiplea and adjeotives in -tcs; anplnes (Terbi^ n 
ind nouna in -tu", which agreea with the Sanaorit preaent infinitivo 



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(and nonna in -ta, -ti,) Eass., Bohern. -t. • Lithuania -ti; Gaello -ai!h. 
Welsh -t, -ed, &o. See -Ale, -ed, -d.] 

rent a rotitrn for borrowed property, (reddo, eedditIJ"', 
to restore.) flood, see -d. 

gns8-et, Welsh cwjsed, from owjs a furrow. 

fcent lent lost bereft past, point nel^hit mtsht Ught 
sight Hg;lit sift lift I>i!lt stilt b.|».t we-t suite flu>« 



-T-, -D-, -TS-, i 

[Alriii to T pavtioipial and S infleotional. Bohora. -ot inteneiTe.] 

dic-t-ate to aaj or order with awttoritj. (dIco I say; 
DicTo I commaad, dictat*.) 

Ibsti'd'lons readily disgusted. (fastidio I dislike, 
loathj i'SstBs disdain,) ple-tli-ora, see -R-ua. 

Plilege-th-on (iu mythology,) a river in the infernal re- 
gions. (fXiyiu and ph)-^-0-io, to burn.) 

in-spec-t to look at carefully. (8@° splcio, spSotA", to 
see; SpecTo,specTatu'", tolookat; spec-It-o, to view often.) 

-T-, repetitive. See -it-. 



T, declensional. 

[Latin oinde fonns or genitirs case eigiis, with the nominative in -S,' 
B8 io pIrb (gen. part-is,) part; sli.fiB (gen. e1iBt-is,) lenii/i. Glreek 
nom. in -p, as Srop (gen. Bprnr-of,) ihe Krer; -i, as in x^'p's grace, gen. 
Xipir-o;, whence chari-t-y; -a, as in nXT'iia (gen. sAijiHT-ot) cUiaale, Son 
-MA, -AD, -AS, and -D- declensional.] 

satellite a companion. (bStellSs, f^n. sStellitis.) 

part mind mental dental monnt monnd fi«nt fonnt, 
font creAnt g;entile^ g;enll3 el^uent nepotism^ bospltal 



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224 suppiXES -TE 

s«Pt litiente {t.Is strife, genitive t.itib,) salute niglit cljmnt« 
chramatv li«patic driuualjc pWlagogue clematis, see -IS. 

Tbe Lrtm nominative ia -es and the genitive -tr-is, in military, satel- 
lite; but quiet svIeb has -itT-is, and interpreter isterpres has -et-1s. 



-T-, connective. 
es-t-eem (ms monej, bmo I gain.) ego-t-ism (ego I,) 



-T-, mutational. 

[Aliin to -T-, -D-, -S- partioipial] 

cbao-t'ic in tte condition of (^S'l?) chaos. 
gene-*-ic pertaining to genesis (see -S-IS) or origin. 
syntac-t-ic pertaining to syntax. 



), -T. Latin -d; &othio -t 



-T, adverbial. 

ginally adverbial in tlie adjeotire allqoot. 



hereditary (-D- declensional, -T- participial.) proprietary (-T- 
)attioipial.) military (-T- deelenaional.) cemetery, 9ee -ARy. 



-te, n. See -T-ER, -T-es. 
pirate -Kstpar-iiz one who robs at sea. (seipdio I try, try 



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II Iega-(-ee, pal«n-l- 



-T-EE, -TK-, -T-OR, -S-OR, u. A« m>7w; agtw^y. 



-T^^.p Irish -teoir, -thoir, -doir. Wallaehian -torra. Polisb -tiira; 
Boham. -taf. Albaniaa -tfc See T piirt., -OB q., -Brn.] 

seetor'' he wio, or that which (see sSco, se'CTU",) cats, 
monitor" he who (mQnEo, mAnitu",) admonishes. 
«or-8Bir CURSOR a runner, (B@* CtJRRO I run.) 
equator agitator') aaaitor'' minla-ter^ -ligation ttrblter* 
arbltp-ur; magisterial" master vlsllep au-tlior'' fEicl«r 
exlnrteif'' dig^eatep incisor' cenHap° ext«D80r° successor* 

athlete/' aOUu) I toil, comhat. 
eerastes' a horned viper. (xipa<^ a horn.) 

myslorj"! tsharactcr' despot' see -P- pmpliet< see -ET 
martj^ii patriot hermit or eremitei KoalotA nectnr i-Hrsp 
crater' plaster" plillter° <!entpe'> obstructor or obstrncter 
— fiiUier (») mother (^) brotlicr (') sister daaghter 

Auoestnr (anleocsaor, antoeasorj has both 3 and T. 

DO.t, ths comparative degree 

Obs. 1. Thia suffix is -eb, -ob, preceded by t partioipiiil, as in dSceo I 
teao-b, DO-o-T-ua taugh-t, do-c-t-Se (as if temih't-er) a taaoher. The 
Bnglish word 'teacher' is more abstract than 'dootor,' impljing oiijwho 
teaohes or may teach, whilst the Latin word is asaooiatcd with an adjao- 
■ tiVB form, and implies a person by wbom anything is tangh-t. The Eng- 
lish word is an index of ag-enoy, the Latin one an indioa-t-or of perfeo-t 
tto-t-ion. The differenee is that batween explorator and expUret, nume- 
rator numterer, aoonsator fxccuser, declMBStor decloAmer, inqaest injairj, 
dednot rfeduce, (injepaetion (sas)pi«on. 

Obs. 2. Greek has many verbs in -1^ (iado,) and when -ns follows one 
of them (the rerbial u being dropped) d (of isdtes) is absorbed by t, or 
ad becomes st (ist-tea,) and -rim (whenee -ist) rosulta, as in SoiriiM I bap- 
tise; fioiriM'Js bapti-Bt, he who boptises. This infleotional s and partici- 
pial T oconr in enthusla-st caustie, see -S. elastic, aee -AS-T. 

Obs. 3. Artist, Borist, chimist, algebraist, ie. are indQotive forms. 



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Oba. i. The I of Arnant or Arnaout {prononnoed ain-out) belongs 
lere. This word is from nptfavrr,; (Albanian) and is formed bj metathesis 
ind the mutation of ba to o«. Zeiiimd&r (with Englisli a,) see -dar. 



[A Teutonic auffii formed of T repetitive, participial, (or declensional,) 
and -er freiluentative, or substantive.] 

slaugbter slajing Id the aggregate. (G-er. sohlagen to 
slay, schlachten to slaughter.) rarter a roof timber. 

laashlep ■nui'-der, jioiiion, to die. 

-tev, V. frequentative. 
Bwelter to be overcome with heat. (Middle higli German 
swellen to suffocate; Ang. sveian to bum.) 
ivellfi- waJlOH bluster blow e:lltl«p glow faltor fcil 

-TER, -TEEIOE, -iter, a. 

[-TBR-Bs, -TER-i5Ri -rtp-a:; Banec. -TAR-i6i Pera. -ter. A sign of the 
comparative degree, which haa lost moat of its force in English. From 
the Sanscrit root rgl, to step or place heyimd, and seemingly preaant in 
TR-ANS, ier-mination, pene-tra-te, i-b-tha-bI, i-TBB-n" ngain, cE-teb-5b 

other (ri-r^jlJlf, CI-S, Ci-TBA,) 4'L-TBR Olher, N-fiV-xSR, I'N-TER, PR4E-TEK, 

SCB-TBR, EX-TER. — St^p, Comparative Grammar.] 

exterior farther out, on the outside. See extra, ultra. 
eso-ter-I« pertaining to that which is (i^riarspoq) interior. 

other, Ger, an-der; old Ger. andher; old Sax, Cdhar; Qotblc au-flar; 
Ruaa. inoi; Sa. ab-ja, oompar. an-tab-a oiher. 

Imtter, Persian bib <j>iod, bihter ie/!er, bihterln list, (Jo. bats 
good, batiia hettcr, batists bent. Bng. better; Ang. beterej German 
besaer; 8w. bSttere; Qt. SsK-'cfh bbA ipip-'cfa;. 

nl<«ri«r alt«i^nB(e aenter nculral lleral« whe-tber 
either farther dexlerona slnistci' — liys-ter-ic 



-tei", prepositional. 



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SUFFIXES 

-TER-ION, n. See 



-T'ES, n. 

[See -T-ER, -7^,1 and T partioipial.] 

der-m-es-t-es a genus of insects which eat skins and 
other animal matter. {Sipm I flay, Blp-fia a akin, iaOiiu I eat,) 

pyri'tes Ttvpi'Triq (from TzZp fire,) several species of 
mineral with a metallic lustre, and composed of sulphur and 
iron, copper, &o. 

-T-ER. pirate, see -t«. prophet, sis -ET. 



•th, -t, n. that which is; -ness, -ing. 

[-T-is; Sa. -Tl, -TVi, B,B in prtbu hroad, rgTBF-TA or -TVi frrendlJ. 
Gothio, as in diupiSa rfiJplA, gabaxirts birth, danBn? death, £na0v& jiy, and 
participial -6s. Sw. -da, -te, -d, -t; Dan, -de, -le; Ohg. -ida; Belg. -de, 
-to, BS in lengfe length, vrengde/oy. Ger. -ath, -at, -ot, -te, -d, as in beim 
home, hflimoti native place; arm poor, armnti ponerlg; breit broad, breitB 
ireadlh; tod death. Ang. -S, -»ft, as in fiEciui io fiih, fisooB a Jithinti. 
Irish gesl iniiie, geoladh vihiienemj beirim to hear, breith bearing, bairt re 
iurdeii, boirthe birth; bt, boo JiiiiHji, bitb, biotb life; beit tolA. WelsU 
-dd, -d, -Ox, as in du blaelc, du-edd blatkness; pedwar /our, pedwaradd 
fovrth; gallnog elron^, galluedd alresgth; tor a irea&, toiiad a breaking. 
See ^, -Ty,] 



yontB 


young 


heolUi hale 


BlOlll 


slow 




breiUill: 


1 broad 


growtUgrow 


Blealth 


steal 


mm <do)Sle 


tilUl 


tiU 
bear 


brotll brew 
<leaU. die 



mirth m 
fourlli Fo 

herd hoard tcttrden hearth eurth gdrth lath shealh 

Obs. 1. Th beoame T to prevent the oononrrenoe of tB, eS, x9, as in 
the^i, thir«( {see -d,) iitSmna, veaght, Ughl (Cbaooer,) or Mgbli (Milton,) 



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228 SUFFIXES -TII- 

Aroagkt or drourt (drooth,) thouj/ii, viigM.* Dijiitftong and napMhs, ean- 
not beoome di/(Aong and na/iAa in genuine Bngliahi and for a similar 
ronson, old Engliah lias Aft. siirt, &o. instead of 'flfth ' and 'sixtli.' This 
is a question of speoeh and etjmology, independent of tlie accidenla of 
spelling. 

Obs. 2. If 'stealth' tad been derived from lUal, it wonid probably 
haTo been 'stilth,' aa till makes 'tilth.' But there is no reoession from the 
vowel I to I, the Anglish stelan or Belg. atelen (with o in they,) being 
the precursor both of steal and stealth. 'Widtb' ia not from mrfe 
but from Ang.Vid; 'wealth' not from Hjeai but Aug. Vela; and 'would' 
not from will but from Latin vQlo, German woUen, old English well, 
Seotoh wnll, ie. ^ 8. 

Obs. 3. The ordinal sign -tb, (Aug. -oSe, Gr. -m, Gcr. -te,) ia also used 
for partltivea, aa in 'a fourth part,' in German vior-tel, with -1 diminutive 
added to the ordinal form. 



-TR-, formative. 

[A future and aorist passive participle, and present ia Greek infleotions 
of the pasaivo votoe. Compare the present aotive infinitive Siihi-iiv to 
admae, passive fii)iAru-£o9ai ii> be advieed; subjunctive aorist afitiye SomXhI-™ 
/ may adiiise, 4e. passive SouXiu-fti / mag be advised, &c. of wbioh the 
partioiple is fiouAEo-Siij being advised.'] 

a'S-th-m-a a disease accompaEied by difficulty of breath- 
ing. (.*^io, Sv}iu, to blow; with S infleetionaJ, and -MA.) 

»ri-th-in-ct-ie the science of numbers. Qapt-e/idz num- 
ber; 'apui I adapt.) 

opU-th-aLmic (-ic) pertaining to (Stpdak/iAq) the eye. 
(SnTo/iat, to see; 1st aorist indicative passive &<p87jv; 1st 
future indicative passive dpdtjaoiia!.) 

oi-tlio-epy right pronunciation, (d/iffd? erect, right; ^opoi, 
to move, arise; perfect passive infinitive Spdac to be raised.) 

cyathiform goblet-shaped, (xiim, to contain; xvaOoq 
and x68iuv a cup; diminutive xud$-i-ov a goblet.) 

Pba«ttinii a proper name. (ipMOm the shining.) 

Plethora (see -K-US) is placed under T intensive, because 6 is in the 
intensified form. 

* See colltttsrel facts by Oueat in the Proceed, Pliilol. Soc. vol. 2, 190. 1!!!!. 



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-TS', mutational. 
[Th is a mutation of S, lua io Jjwis a bird, gen. i|ii'CftJs.] 
orni-th-o-logf the Bcience of birds. 
lielinliitliology tlie science of worms. (See -AD.') 

But T replaoea TIi by dissimilutica in anlltelmln.l-lc (a med 
'.ttX' against wonna,] to prevent the repetition of the lisp. 
Oba. -til is a fominiue saSix in the Ilebreti Elath, tic 



■th, adverbial. 

{Dani8hliid(Sw. hitjMrt-er, and did (Sw. dit) (4f(i-er, seem to in- 
dioate that this -th- is adTerhial, with adjectival -er in Bnglieh. Go. -d- 
in kvadre ahilher; -6- in flaflro ihenee. Sansorit in ta-t-ka (Aere,- ta-t-ab 
theace. Old English in eath, rath, sith; English in forth. Seo Obs. under 
-E adverbial.] 

ffer. Ooihie Ohg. SioedisJi. 

n-hi-th-er, wo hva-r whm, hwaiDt hvart whUa: 
U-Ui-er, hia he-r here, herBt hit hilhei: 

tht>lh-ep, da fla-r tlierc, darOt dit ihither. 



-T-IC, a. 
plastic that may be moulded. QiXdaav) I mould. T part.) 
i^Hti« pertaining to (eBs, gen. bCe-Is,) the country, or 
rural affairs. (See t eonueotive.) 

lanatic influenced by (lCnX) the moon (t participial.) 
pnqptaetlo, see -IC, T part, ppis-ma-t^ie, see •m, I deolensionat. 



(-tide, time.') 

nBiltsuntide sbrovelide spring^de 



-T-ILE, a. See -at-ile. 
Jter-t-ile capable of bearing, (fl©" fbko I bear, carry.) 



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-T-ION 
-T-IM-, adv. 
[From nouns and verba. See T participial, and 'IM adverbial.] 

-T-IM, n., ». 

[T and M participial.] 

Tic-tim vIctImS an animal bound and sacrificed, (vlN- 
cio, viNCTu" to bind.) 

mari-ttme pertaining to (mXb£, gen. mXrIs,) the sea. 

-T-IM-, superlative. 

[Adj. anpatl. -im, preceded by T or S participial or intenflive.] 

e (oa for 3.) 



-T-IN-, -T-INe. 

[Sanao. -TiNi5; Latin as in caia'Efjius pertaining to (cras) tomorrow. 
T participial.] 

pro-cras-tlit-ate to defer until (cras) tomorrow, (s ad- 
verbial.) Tespertine pertaining to the evening. 

pri-B-l-lne (S adverbial, T partioipial, -INe a,, ass PRO.) 
e (I'HT^a ivithin,) 



p.«tiii -tTo (gan. tYOkis ;) Ital. -tione, -lione; Span, -cion; Port, -900; 
Praneh -tion (pronounoed aI-o°.) In old Eng, -Won, -oioun, Ac were dia- 
Bjllabi*. Sea T participial, and -ION.] 

-tion-ary, -tion-ate -ly, -tion-ate-neBS, -tion-ed, -tion-er, 
-tion-ist. 

van-t-ion a taking care; watchfulness, (caveo, to take 
oare, beware,) 



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-T-IV-, -a?-IVe, a. 

[-T-rv-uS (-1, -5".) Sanacrit -tatj-a5 (-i, -I,.) -«-«[ (■=, -=^.) See T 
participial, -IVe.] 

nir-tlTe ftstiTe Inventive proffreaalvfl active— talkative 



simplelon a senseless person. (Akin to the Italian aug- 
mentative semplicione a dolt.) 

nanton wandering; unrestrained. (W. gwa ttat throws 
from; gwan a diTiding; gwant that divides; gwanton 
that is apt to separate or run off; adj. fickle, v>anton.') 



[See T participial, T daeleDsional, and nina.] 

Iiga>meii-t-«ns having the quality of a ligament. 
par-eu-eby-tno-t-oiui momenMua calamlMos fellcltons 



-T-K.. 

[T participial and R formative. See -TRUM.] 

pene-ti^ftte to pierce, advance (pekitijs) inwards. 



[In etymologio and phonetic pointa of Tiew, -tro and -ter, like -pie and 
pel, are equally erroneous, the last ajllable of tkfatr and apl being nith- 
rat a Towal. The analogy of thea(rt is that of Wttle, and of tliealer that 
,f lit(.r.] 

thenlre spectre s«e|>tre metre centre lustre nitre 



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-T-R-IX, -tr«ss, n. fern. 

[-T-B-IY. W. -dres. JFr. -trice, -tresse, -tteuaa; Ital. -trioe; ( 
?ort, -U'n. The fem. form of -i-oa, -t-e-um. Sob -IX.] 

directrix, directress she who directs. 



-T-E-UM, -T-E-A, n. that which; agency. 

[Neuiflra t-b-um, a shortened form of -ter-Idm; SaJiao. -mi,; Gr. 

^Tpni', -Sfou, -rnpiar. Jem.— Sa. -trI; Lat. -tH4, -tehia, -TOHii; Gr. -rpa, 
-$pa, -TCipa, -TTfpin, -r/aa, -rpi!, -Tr(, Maae. — -rpo;. T paitioipial and R 
fiirmntive. See -S-TEE.] 

Bpectrmn., spectre something to he seen; an image. 
(spScIo, spe ctC", to see.) 

rostrum a beat; something with which (kodo,) to gnaw. 

plectnim something with which {*T^i^y'",') to strike (the 
strings of a lyre.) 

Py'rctlirnm (Trup fire,) a plant named from its pungency; 
the plant harton. 

XiestrlB 3 genua of gulls. (Ajjijt/iIj a femaJe rohber; i.s{a 
booty.) 

orchestra i!;n;ij3rpa mystery -fau ttentre -riai exceatrldtj 
tbeaire 'i]»t canLiter -rpoir alal>asl«p -rpo; elaMrlum 



-t-ry. 
ponltry fowls in the aggregate. (Old French poulet a 
young fowl, a pullet. ' See -et, -ry.) 

8«nUT (T aeolenBional) pantry peltry sentry psigeantry 



-TU-AL, a. 

[-T-US {T partioipial) and -At.] 



eBbetnal splrltnsl punctuality eventually 



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-T-UDe, n. 

[-t-Sdo, gen. -TCDiN-is (see -DO;) Fi. -tude,- Sp. -tadj Ita]. -tudine. 
Akin to T partieipiuJ, -ud-, and -ria, gen. -Tii-fa.] 

solitude the state of being (solus) alone; loneliness. 
plenitDde fulness. (plenOs full.) 

amplitude Inqniotude almllltude vtclgsitude turpitude 
mult-l-tud-ln-ons longltDde liaMtude uiagultnde gratitude 

Obd. 1. The iioouBtttiye oaBB COkSveTUdiheM givea 'cHatom' and 
'costarae,' unleaa, ae Dies euggosta, the Italian 'cDstuma' may be from 
OOMavBTua acttistomed, with -udin- r^ectecl for -umen. 

Oba. 2. Although there is award SEiiTiTnno,— 'Bervitnde' may bo from 
SEBTiTDB tereiee, gen. aSBViT¥T-lB. 

Obs. 3. The airailaritj of -Tnno and -Tis, gen. -tIt-is, ia ahown by the 
nass; Ital. quietudino and 



'T-UEe, that which in to be. See B-tJee. 

[The Latin future participle, aa in ImI-thbEs hSok( to love.J 

rntare that which is to be. (pm I hart he-en ; rl-o, fvai, 
to he.) rentare something (vSnIo, VETfTU") to come. 
judicature about to (judIcSrS) gi?e judgment. 



-T-A, n. f. -T-XTM, i 



a-slie-s-t-us, a mineral which resists fire. (air/Se<irog 
unestinguishable ; VjS^oi, to quench.) 

Eflei.— G«i*'l<, Geography, 1795. 

albata an alloy resembling silver. (SlbCs white.) 
stra-t-nin (Ss. strta^) that which is spread; pi, strata. 
hiatus apparatus status imi>etii9 dletam asphaltum 
nunnentiiiii ulttmatuiu fitetatam aorta— InfSiota 



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-Ty, -TI-, -ITy, n. -ness; quality; power. 

[T partioipittl. -t-« (gen. -i-nr-«;) -flos. -tIs (gan. -tIt-Ib.) Sp. -dad; 
Port. -dade. Provenaal -tat. Ger. -tat) Belg. -teit, ItaL -tij Fr. -te. 
Old Eng. -te, -tee (pronounaed as in French.) Woleh -did, -dawd. It ia 
oommonlj preceded bj I, oftan of n genitiye cbbd, but this beoomaB E 
when tha concurrence of H ia to be aroided.] 

Bonltf sanItSs saneness or soundness (of mind.) (sSNfis 
healthful.) teculty power of doing. (eIo-Il-Is what can 
he (FA'C-Ttj") done.) 

equity the quality of justice, or of heing just. 

secarity the state or condition of being secure. 

polRfity the state or condition of heing polar. 

majesty aviaily timidly vnlldity agUltr atrocity 
diversity flaidity felicity verncHy ra^>ai!lty pugnacity 
sagBClty— anxiety piety verity variety sobriety— liberty- 
poverty fetu-My vacuity— cl..ly summit., bounty surety 

Obs. 1. -ej (for -ay) Is a form of .ty, 1 baving beoome s, as in polity 
polioy, privity privacy. 

Obs, '2. Odd^'tff and probably laiti/ (XSS; the people,) are tibrida. For 
polity, dynaaty, sea -y, n. % 1. 

ObB. 3, Amity is from AMIciTIi, Fr. amitS. (Sus% ia from ORanl- 
lItIs, but it beara Bome reaamblanoe Ui the German graueltiat an ont- 
ragoons (tAat) deed. 

ObB. i. -ty in twenty, thirty, &o. is for (en. 



to L/dS"" 



-T-YL. 
I -L «[ 3.] dactyl 

-U-, formative. 



Festuca, fesene a genus of grasses, fiestncous 

ead-nc-ons subject (cXdShe) to fall. 



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-UL- sDFPEBJEa 286 

-UD-, -UT-, B. 

[Lat. n. -Ss, gen, -dd-Ts, ut-is. Akin to -n;, gen. -Ailo!. See 'AD, anfl 
D dculensional.] 

pal-ud-al relating to (PAtus) a marali. 

paludina a freshwater SDail. 

sal-nt-iu-y pertaining to (siLOs) safety, health. 

-ue, -n, participial. 

[Frenoli partioipiid nonna, mostly masculine in -n," faminino in -ae.'} 

reTCnne" return or income from investments or taxation. 
(Fr. revcDH, from revenir, Lat. Rfi-VENio, to return.) 

Hvenne' battnef doa"" retinue ¥v. retenuef value' ipesldne"' 
residua,] tissue™ virtue Fr. rertuf vlrtnonH virtu' Ital. virta' 
vlrtu-osn, fem. vlrtn-osa vendue venue akin to yieiu-age Issue' 

-ue, caeographie. 

calalogne Ken&nY-iis pedagDRuo prorogue leagno, Fr. ligue, ^S~ 
tJGO I bind, opaftue opacus grotesque snUqno oftUque pique 

-UGO, -UUIN-. See .qin-, -ago. 
albugo (albCs white,) a speck on the eye. 
lan-ngin-ous haying (lana) wool or down; downy. 

-U-IT-ous, a, mannc-r. 
fortnitous hy (pons) chance, 
gratuitoas in the manner of (gratu") a favor. 
pitD'it-ons like, or producing phlegm. 
iD-lqn-it-ous in a wicked manner. 

Cireu-it-otai liaa -it- of So, itv", to go. 
CTiju-it-oiw going or being eTerywhere. 

-TJL-, -0L-, -Hj-, -L-, plelive. See -dl-BNT. 

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236 SUFFIXES -TJL-ENT 

-UL-, -CL-A, -UL-UM, -ule, n. dimimitive; implemental. 

[Bl-fs a. maso., -iJL-X n. fem., uL-uMt n. neut.; Gr. -a)jop. Ital. -oio, 
Ola, -ello, -ello. Seo under -L, -L-tIS, -C-le, -aclc] 

-ul-ar, -ul-ate, -ul-at-ion, -ul-at-ory, -ule, -ul-iat, 
-ul-os-ity, -ul-ous. 

s-pat-ula (and epa-ol-et,) a Bmall spade. 

nebula a small (nubes) cloud, nodnle a little knot. 

r-ulc and rail, re&ula, an implemeat with wtjch (8@~ 
rEgo,) to rule. 

eir-cingle'' a band for girding; a girdle. (ciNaOLiis, 
oIngdlS, cinoCluhj cIngo I gird.) 

Tlnc-alnm something with which (vincio,) to hind. 

globnle c«)lule gran-ut-ous <H!iil-ar vitriol spberule 
schednle scapula nvula fibula apecnlum tenaciilnm— 
gondnla cupola vanilla arm-od-Ola peccwllllo punc-t~lli« 



-UL-AR, -XIL-AR-Ly, -UL-ARI-Ty. See -ic-ul-ar. 
capsular pertaining to, or like a small (cSpsS) chest. 
perpendtculair vertical. (pERPBNDiCoi.ii'" a plninb-line.) 

circu>l-ai>ly circo-l-ari-ty e«lliilar regnlarly angnlarity 

-UL-ENT, a. JkU of. 

[-„r,-. -01.-, -IL. -L-; uL-ENT-ns, -qlentfs; -Cleks, -olens, -ilens. 
Formed from nouns. Aim to -it, i. being the sigBifloant element. See 
-0L-, -ANT.] 

virnlent Ml of (vIrCs) poison. 
pestilent full of (pestIs) contagion. 
violent viClens and violehtSs full of (vie) force. 
escnlent adapted for (esca) food. 

corpulent oitiilent trncnient tupbulent frantlulent 
finccal<M>t 90mnulent pumlcnt vlol-ence -ftic, -ation, -cntly 



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-UM sunrxEs 237 

■UL-oUS, a. inclination to. 
garvnlons inclined to (gIrbIo,) prate. 
queriilous ready (qvEeSe,) to complain, tremulous 

-UL-T, u. -UL-TXI-oUS, a. 
tnmult,, TTJMESCO, to begin (tumerI) to swell or fermeat. 
adult grown up. SdOlIsco, Idu-ltu", to grow up; Xlo 
(alitO" and altu" ) I feed, increase, whence co-allte. 

Mcsttit, inauli, reeiief are from sIleo, to leap. 

-UM, n. Suit 'Which: 

[Ss. -A,; Lat. -t"°; Gr, -», -lot; as in Sa. vali„ Lat. tIli-d"" o viall. 
Sa. MADHJA,, Lat. HEDiD", Gr. pamv the midiiie. Sa. p'hulla,, Lat. poi.ju", 
Gv. ^i'Ki.m. a leaf. Nenter nonna. Bee -OiV, Obs. L] 

tfiii'pBDnm the drum of the ear. (rfj^iKarav a dnun; 
TUTTTui I strike; mitp-a a hlow.) 

Hdiollnm trape'zluin asy'Ium elrstum plectpum aspbaltnin 
Latin— tafOiuta tedium t.ediO'^ delirium comiiendlnm 
stlpendinm esordlnm. addendnm inod-l<!-uta milleuulum 
serum premium piuiMrtJ"' atrium seufwrlum equilibrium 
allnvlnm eflluvlum menstrpnm Ilxlvluni opprobriuin 
forum, opus-cul.uni ^psnm albnm minium lnl«rvalkia 
petr-oleum spectrum rostrum— vellani venom, aee -am. 
Obe. !. Tho suffix -nm is lost in monument, dooumont, parohment. 
Oba. 2. Bfgam (Turliish, e aa in theij, properly begam,) a lady of high 
rank, a prinoesa. The fominina form of Beg, bey aprinte. 

-UM, genitive plural. 

nostrnm (of us;) a quack medicine which is claimed as 
a discovery known only to the maker. 

qnoram (of whom; QVl who; the first word formerly 
used in commissions to justices of the peace;") the numher of 
persons necessary to transact business legally, in a board of 
directors or other deliberative body. 



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SUFFIXES 



-UND, a. UNB-ITy, 

rotuna rutnndlty Jocaiid>ily i 



-UNe, UN-ITy See -an. 

Siii>iM>rt-un-ity furtnn« tribnue J«jni 



-UoUS, -UI-, -HUM, a., n. 

3 (-1, -Cm,) n form of -tcs. See -IVe.J 

-u«ns haying the quality of injuring. (nocSo, to hurt.) 



-U&; -UEe, -URy, n. 
-iiiff; that which is, a state of being. 

[-CbS n. (Ital., Sp., Port, -ura, Fr. -ure;) oommonly added tu the stem 
of a supine, participial, or adjoctivo form, aa juHao/joi'jiy jcNOiCa joincii/ 
jUBOTTio tte ac( of joining, junoHon; jnKOTunl the result of joimng, o/unc- 
iure ot seoBi. Tha n is formative, and the E is t&at of -t-eb. See S-URb.] 

-nr-able, -ur-ago, -ur-al, -ur-ate, -ur-ation, -ur-ed, ur-er, 
-ur-esque, -ur-ioua. 

fignre a make, shape, form; that which is the result of 
making. (pIngo, fIotu", to make, shape.) 

censure a condemnatory criticism (censSo I juclge.) 

tennre a holding; the condition by which a tenant holds. 
(tIneo I hold.) 

nature that which (nascob, NSTtfs est) is horn or pro- 
duced aperture and overtupe an opening. 

su-t-nre a state of heing sewn; a seam, (stto I sew.) 

posture i-SaTTiiitX nsory {jslthI t-iean'ra fissnre exprnure 
Icclnro sepnitnre plctnie Bdtture ices-t^ure saturate 
trl-t-ur-at-lon sti^cture pnn<!tiire measare, see -S-TJIt« 



it always observed betwaan -ion and -ure, as 

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[A modern enffis used chiefly in mineralogy.] 

sulphuret phosphnret srsenluret cliloraret cyonuret 



X7EI-, -TJRy, n. 

century centOria that contains (cEntC") a huniired, 
mmonly a hundred years. 

centurion (-N declens.) the leader of a hundred men. 
dec-nrion the leader of (dEc-e") ten men. 



-UEI-ENT, a. ready to. 

JRio {Gt. -otioj,) formed on -dbBh of the 



esurient (participle of EdSrS to eat,) readj to eat. 
partnrient ready (pIrIo,) to produce, saturieut 



-UR-N- 

[See under -ERN, -ER a., N-oub, and -Tj.] 

noc-t-nrn-al in the (nox, gen. noct-Is,) night. 
diurnal and jonrnal, from (8@" dIe8,) day to day. 
yesterday (hesternus a.,) the day preceding the pre- 

etemity ^TgRNlTis, as if for .ffiviTEENiTAH ; ^vu'" 
duration, .evItSs age. 

tiwUiiniity illutnmity— ex-l-er^n-al (nMrusI paternity 



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suFriXES 



-TIEy, -UKI-, n. See -er, n. 
peunry PfiNtlRii want, scaroity. (jzhsm, to be poor.) 



-US, n. t/iat which. 

[-Bs" (-X, -D";) -IS, -ES. Gr, -at, -K," -"i- Go, -a. Sanao, -AS, -f5, -at. 
Used chieflj for masouline nouns (and a^eotires,) aa -A, -a are used for 
Eemininaa, and -u", -or tor neuters. TUey aleo indicate the nominative 
ease. With -at-, Ac. they form double suffisea, as may be obaerved under 
-ate, -ade, -tous, -arj, -reus, -an, -noua, -ulous, -tons, -mue, Ao. Sanaerit 
bArbhaS a form. Latin ookpus (gen. ooapSRis,) a iody, whsnoe oorp-B, 
oorp-ao, corporeal. Sanao. pioaS, Lat. pIcdb, Bng. wood-peoker. Sanaa. 
CALAHA5 areed, nfi'Xtl^ot, cIlamhs. Sanaerit jo to comiiiis,_give3 j5-6, 
Lat. JU-9 hrotli, Eng. juiae. Saneo. tab to love, ptefra-, t|tiB' escellenee, 
Lat. TiRTUa, Bng. virtue, worlh. Sa. stAmBSaS, Lat. btipeS, Bng. Btipe, 
Btani, stul), Sa. HABHAs, uitfos, Lat. iriiBSs a eland. Ss. ati5, Lat. fivla a 
sheep. Sa. ruKAS, Lat. CANia o dog. Ss. coOii^S, Lat. cifoSi.aa a cucSoo. 
Bobem. chud' pouee^, ohud'as apa^iper.'] 

hiatus a ga-p or openifl^. (hio I ga-pe, jaw-n. See vbas-in.) 
es»<Ia8>> on. aiaca^ eln>nisi> Euriia*> nraH" ealamus'' 
polfaatlinsi' ctimmb'' na»ciB-S-US» ce9tua>i circus Aingns, 
Bpange, Bpnnk. nnole-ns cale-ul-HS slims s«nns'> Tims 
renins psdlns fwcos tarsus Impetus Incubus apparatus 
aOlatns Hespems" syllabmsi' acanlbua'' seope'>-^rampns 

Obs. The suffix -UB ia'omitted in splendid florid tumid long just 
.honeat pals-e eiod-e. It ia replaced by -ne in vir-t-ue, Ital. Tjpta, Latin 
ti-rtOs (u long, but not aooentad,) gen. viRTiJTia. Sea -uc participial. 

Sebtie a riddle given in pictuies. (Latin by things, the ablative plural 
of RES a thing.) 

-US-T-, See -st. 
ang-i^-t-ate narrowed, (a^w, ango I throttle.) 



-VEE, n. See -B-. 
ca4lB-Ter-oa8 pertaining to a (cXnlvlR) dead body. 
(See cXdo I fall, die.) culver tte European wild pigeon. 



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-T SUFFIXES 241 

-Hard, ire the direction of. 

[Gothio vairCa; Lat. vkrsttb; Ang. -vard, -veard, -vord, -veardss! old 
Sas. -Bard, -werd; old Nordisii adj. verdr; Belg. -waards. Ss. toot vbt 
to go, to lum. An adrorbial -s is Bometimea added, and Ohg. had an ad- 
rerbial -sun, as in dar lAere, datasnn thiiher.'] 

Innaiil AtrnBrd afterward bonieiritrd soathward 



-ways, -wise, adv, 

[See vinSo, tIbd", 'rJttv lap^ceiee; Ss, yidh to disHriguish. Dan. riis, 
Sw. Tie, Sbt. weiso manner. Sec -old.] 

lengtli-naya OF -wise erass-wlse of -ways likewise nowise 
MrBlgfatnaj'B 

Eii/huous (Ang. rihtvis) ia a heteroaym inflnencBd by -oua. Chauoer 



-XILLAry, a., n. dim. 
maxlllarj' pertaining to the (mSxIlla) jaw. (mXiX 
tiie cheek-bone, cheek; mIndo, to chew.) 



-xt, adverbial. 
betwixt between. (Akin to -s adverbial, with -t, and fol- 
lowing g of Aug. tvegen twain.') 



. . . w, m^fi Diji^gmlh hital^s N^aril and M.r../ Affions.— i-EjIranj., 

-y, n. condition; facvlt^; subject'. 

[If 1. -Oi, see -US. f 2. -". -i, -e, -es, -is, -at, -if, .,. f 3. -fa, 
&a., sea E formative. ^ 4. -loo, -id", sbb B formative. If 5. Sea 
If 6. Miaeellaneous.] 



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242 SUFFIXES -T 

necramanv}' fortune-telling by means of departed epirits. 
(/ifCTei'd diviuatioQ; fs^pi?- dead.) 

memory mEmSrIX the faculty or quality of remembering. 
(MEMoa mindful.) 

^ 1. tnnnj'; see -N- intene. i^lilniiiey Kd jicvo; treasury Os^na^pii 
lelliargy XMif>>^. 

f 2. pigmy irowiil tlia fist, a onliit. cntHBtcopbe pantdy melwly 
monody — giUaxy -Cii typanny rfJpdv>'EV dropsy {idpci^ iiydiloi's 
- heresy nlpflrft H*:BEais caehesiy -rj phrenzy -piisHtii — botiiny 6»ro- 
wii) (SoriiVij an horb.) Hilary hilSbIs oheerfuj, money iiOMETi 
mary CEtiiil progeny FitoaEiiIEs pyrot«chuy -rfj^ii. 

^ 3- tansy a plant vitik durable flowara. (Low Latin tanaeetum, ^m 
iBStMa immortal.— Baton's Botany, 1836; Talbot's Etymologies, 18i7.) 
«Iegy i^-cia, Hiyda/ polity, police imXrHio, see -ice dyiinsty -sia 
anttpaOiy diTiird'Scia irony -£ia litany -fin agony I« fantasy 
-in ..dPOplezy itawXnf fa astronomy -fa astroli^y-fa melancholy 
-in pliarma«y -sla idiocy iilrureia gei^raphy -fa. 

-u, colony misery modesty history contumely calumny 
repugn-ancy ceremony harmony scnmmony l-gnomioy 

1 4, mystery najrlipiiir, see -ABy. (^anopy Kmvawtior a gau'e net for 
protection against gnats, {laliiiiti' a, gnat.) trophy TpSrtaioi'. augury -lu™. 
larceny latbBcinId'", (lStbo a thief.) stndy sTiJniu" testimony 
scrutiny 

% 5. See -ee. Icv-y dor-y all-ey TOlI-ey jury warranty 
pansy country medley destiny puny 

\ 6. Miseetlamoua. penny, Aug. pening, Ohg. pending, that which 
ia atiuob. (Ss. bIdh to atrike.) fitlty. Vs. folie, W. ffolineb. thievery, 
3er. tlieberei b«r-l-ey,W. ari^on,- bilF Ike top, a ut/t; By that extends 
out; ja ihal ueues out,- barlya bread earn, ruby, rucbds red. lunacy, 
j.^Ni.T)oS9. balcony, Ital. baloone- ivory ferry cherry sbea'ry 

anclioT]', Spanish anohova, a kind of fisb usually dried, 
(Basque antzua, anchua dv^. — Mahn, 1864,) 

Normaudf, Ang. normand-ige, the isle of the Normans. 

[A Augment mostly of •Itu, n, diminutiro.] 

b»by a little babe, Scotch lassie (and lassick) a little lass. 
puppy goody Sally cranny pony ninny 

Althongh lall^i agrees with vSllis, it is probably formed on the dimi- 
nutive VI1.I.ECULA, Br. valine. 



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-y, -ey, ■»-, adj. 

[Ang., Belg., Ger. -igi Ohg. -ao, -ag, -eo, -io; Qothio -aga, -eigs, -aiie, 
-ugs; old Eds- -ie. See -JC] 

bloody imbued or covered with, blood. (Aig') Dan, blodig, 
old Fris. blodiet, Olig. blotag, G-er. blutig.) 

bangrry tbirsty rusty (weary Bundy Einiry mlght-I-l}' 
Slormy sbady Iniupy stumpy many auy clay-ey every 



Bultl 


h- liccdfil boiciMi. limnEly fcnh dl 


dflrc«;li 


Hisl 


,raw.iie«me!,=ndaUhl5bBU=l 


arainc-J,™, 


The ground marl 


bo eilher musay, sanfly, wesdj, gi 


ravellj, Btoily 


anlmnlB inhsbitipg 


eacli kind ot gronud wUl be tbun< 




it.-m«,p^im. 







San. mgrke savory, 
Fr. enTorenx II«Brty, Ger. berillch balmy, Otei. bnleamisch slilny 
sLiDiDg, Ger. scheineDd busby, Ger. bnsohiaht natery, Ger. niiESe- 
raioh, wssaerig, rtaaericlit worthy, Ang. vurBc, Ger. wurdig rlgblly 
adr. Ang. ribte, Oo. raibtnba basty, testy, guilty, old rrenob, and in 
Chauoei^-haetif, Ceetif, giltif, from -IVs. See also -IC, -AEy, -ee, and -ly. 



[See -ly, tbe 1 of nbiob is confuaad witb tbat of -ble.] 

abl-f in an able manner. Bociably in a sociable way. 

-y, V. See -Ish, v. 
sally soil tally sally rally dally parley bray — mntlny 

-y-er, n. he who. 

[The same as -ER and -AEy, with y interposed.] 

saiv-y-er lawyer iwlller parlor eonrtler premier 



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-TNX, n. See -iNx, -ax. 
lav'jnx Aa'pvfS the cavity at the top of the trachea, 
syrinx avplf^ a shepherd's or pandean pipe, (avpia 
I draw; aipiaaw I pipe, whistle.) 
syrlnga a genua of plants; lilae. 
Sfr-liig« lynx 



[Italian, fonoea out of Latin T tefore I or E and a, aeoond yowe!.] 
plHzzB iXaTEin plXtbi, Spanish plusa, German platz, English place. 
stanza, Latin stans standing. 



[A consonant beooming sonant to indioato a verh.] 

graze gra^ss braxe braea use use abuse abuse — bceathe breath 



-zen, n. one who. See -san. 
citizen oae who inhabits a (civitasJ citj. denizen 



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ASALYSIS OF WORDS. 



fo-t-al-i't-j' 

fit spewft, decree; -t /ore, as indicating paa-t time in an 
ac-t-ion 6msh-ed or comple-te; th-t decree-d (as fae-t is equi- 
valent to ma-de;} ibte the decree; -al relating to; fttal 
relating or pertaining to that which is decreed; -i the nomi- 
native ease sign of ¥Si?Sl-Is ; -t agen-cy, power, a repetition 
of the former t participial, used in a, substantive sense, -y 
being the remnant of its gender and case sign aa a noun. 
Hence the word fiitality was constructed to express, TAc^ower 
which has the quality of beir^ decreed; Qv, The power relating 
to that which is decreed. 

To the same root belong pro-ph-et (see -ET;) and in-ef-fii- 
b-Ie (see in- wA, ex-, -ble.) 



an -sy m-p ntb-is-ab-il-i - t-y 
-ity (as before,) tlte agemy of; nn- not; -ise V. heing; 
abll (hXbSo I have, use, do,) ab-h; to (implied in the verb 
suf&s -ise;) patli/ee2; sym (sym-l) iniih. Or, an- without; 
-ity the power of; ab having; -il the quality; patli-ise 
to-feel; syn- ■with. But in the actual English word, the 
force of -ia-ab-il may be considered lost. 



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ANALYSIS or 1 



Greek (infinitiTe Xfj-v to desire estrnestly;) xJi'v-m / lean, 
ia-c-line; x-lT/ia (gen. xXiixaro^,) that which inclines, a region, 
a clime, in regard to its polar inclination; -t tte genitive case 
sign of -ma that which, e- (as it were) 5e- If h-ans, or leana 
much; climate, that which, by its incliaation towards the 



vlima-c-t-e 



Akin to Climate. See -AX, -t-br, -ic. xXl/taS, -tao^, a 
ladder; xXi/iaxrijp the step of a ladder, everj/ seventh yp.ar of 
human life, particularly the 63d year, which the Greeks sup- 
posed to be a critical period. 



(mm ioT gm,.') lux light; (c-A^j'-w, to blaze, burn; fUypa, 
PLSMMlt flame — -ma that which is; in- veri/; b-1 capable 
of; f-l» b-laz-ing or bAiming. 



(See under D-.) ^j^^ clamor; l-iyoi I speak; ff-^-^;^^ a 
bleat, whine; G-er. flnoh-en to swear; -It frequentative (with 
a connecting vowel I;) f-, with the force of be- in be-rate, or 
oh- in ob-loquy; plagito I demand often, I dun. 

-ness the quality of being; -ons (for -ose) fill of; -iti 
frequent; f-l-ag c-i-ack. 

snp -er-e-r-og-at-op-y 

r-og akin to I-ag in f-lag-itious; d-Ioo I say; r-5q-o I 
ask; c- out of; -y the case termination; brQgo I intreat, 
pay out; erog-at (the thing) demand-ed, pai-d. 

op-y relating to; -at that which is; SDp-er beyond; 
e-rog- demand. Relating to (supererogation) over-payment. ~ 



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WORD 8 247 

C-ta-t-or-i-all-y 

The root is akin to the preceding. See under B-, and T 



con-Bt-lt-u-t-io-n-al 

■, ST-AT-u", to stand; (but the supine varies with a 
, giving) coN-STo, con-st-It-u", to stand with; this 
! Btem of a new verb con-st-It-C-o I dispose, 
settle, determine, agree upon; oon-st-It-C-t-Io (with t parti- 
cipial,) that which is constitute, settled, or determined, or 
agreed upon. The u is that of the supine, and the second n 
a genitive case sign. 

-Kl pertaining lo; io-n that which is; (ST stand, st-it to 
stand,) BT-iT-U-T- sloo-d; con together; or, leas strictly — 
Consistent with that which has been mutuaUy estahlished. 



Bu-b-ul-at« 

BTJO I sew; SubulX an awl. 

-ate ina~de like; -ul the smaU; -b thing with which; sa- 
oseio; hence sabulate 



a<Iv -ant-age 

adT- for Xb /roM, confused with Xd to; ant- (ant£) be- 
fore; -ase thai (condition or aggregate of conditions) which 
places one before, or in, adv-anee of others. See A-; and 



Welst hw terror, &c.; bwg a unre-crow; cled sheltering; 
cledr a fiat body, a hoard; hwcoled a securi^ against dan- 
ger; bwccledr a buckler; c-I-ed is the prefix c-, with ll-ed 
iintith, compounded of Ilj that extnids out, and ed what has 
apfnest to act, the sense being thus made active, (not passive, 



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as when one is protected hy a rook or other immoyable de- 
fense;) -r that which. Boekler, a body vddming out as a 
protecti/m agavrtU danger. 

c- la J -more 

a great sword: Gaelic and Irish mot great; Gael, claidhamh, 
Ir. claidheamh, Welsh cledd-yf a, sword, e-led-r a fioi body, 
U-ed breadth; Lat. b^'latus, w-Aor-ii? wi'c^c; Irish leith-ead 
ireadih; leithe the shoulder blade. 



A small portable fishing boat made of wicker-work and 
covered with leather or canvas. 

Welsh CO a, rounding; or that is outward, an edge; oo-r a 
circle, close, crib; ow-r a periphery, a shin; cwrwg a "round 
body or vessel; owrwgl, eorwgl, Irish cwrach. 



Welsh ca holding; ca-r a friend; aw an impulse; aw-1 
praise; car-awl a love song. 

groan grumble 

Welsh grw that is littered imperfectly; rhw what breaks 
(or grows) out; grwn a groan; grwm a grumble. 



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VOCABULAEY 



VOCABULARY 



LATIN AND GREEK ORIGINALS, OF ENGLISH 
DERIVATIVES AND THEIR COL- 
LATERAL FORMS. 

Sc-So, to be sharp; Ic-iio, to sharpen, ao-id a«-et-ous ac- 

et-io ac-er-b-ity or-abbod iio-r-id aariMONj acnto ache 'owij edge 
aonmen a,am<i i-t/i/i oxidiffO'v oxalio oiytone oxygon par-oijam 

.aiQVUS, gen. jbqvi, eq'o-al. equity equinos equator equi- 

diBtaat ad-eqnatB oquilibrium equiTalent cqai-t-able io-iqui-ty 

MVV'', ^sa. MVT, an age. age ev-er co-eval primeval e-ter- 

nal, see -UR-N iDBg-avity oo-e-taneous 
Xao, -Igo (A'OTU") to do, (^ayai) drive, lead, ag-ent act 
arob-ig-uoufl eo-g-ent eiigenoy outrage nav-igate ag-it-ate — pSr- 
agoge synagogue demagogue 

XlICs, All-, aXXo^^ Other; altee the other. alias aiieti 

J.ZZ6gorj'> par-all-el'' alt«r-nato sub-altera 

ALO, (XtlTu") to nourish, cherish. aluMNus coalESCe 

aliment alimony 

SsImX breath, life (*«a', to Uqw, see under S,') anim-al 

Snimus mind, nn-anim-ons equ-animity anim-advert 
ARCS- (ap^o) I take the lead, govern; &px^'^j ^W"""' Sanscrit 

ARBiB a ohitf, from SaoBorit ina to ftove yower.) arohon arohangel 
arohbiahop anarcliy monarchy arohit«ot 

asg (Welsh, see M-, k-,) a piece split off. r-ash-er m-^h 

(or m-esh, of a net,) b-aak-et il-aak-et 

ivnio (avditu") tohear; avdit he hears, audible aud-i1>or 

ob-ey ob-ed'ient 

AVGEO (XvcTU") aSSoi, to aug-ment. auction au-.-thor — 



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250 VOCABULARY 

AIXOO, djidiu, to admit, talee for gramted. axiom -atic 
BREVis, S pi.j(v<z short, brief brevitj abridge (y and 5 beiDg 

Eilent.) 

OADO, -cId- (OasB") to fall; cXsiis a falling, cadence 

in-eidenla! oadaVBRoua— decay 

O^DO, -OlD- (c^St)",) to cut, kill, concise excision incisor 

decide parci-cide 

ClLO, itakioi, CLSmo, to call, (see -M-, Oba.) clamor claim 

pro-, re-, es-elaim — oall hailoo yell yelp 
cSp-io, -cEp-, -cIp-, -cup (oa ptu" ) to takt accept capt iTe 

capt-or oapaojoua (Bsa AO-eoua) 00 onp j reoipient reeene concei. t 
a»,.tcii ehase purchase 

cJp-ItT (-ITIS ) h h Old ipe capital chief chapter jie 

oipit-aie SITS h be cob gablo eephal e 

cXvOs hollo a e cavi cODCaie oambei cup mpel 

a-kiff i-i* m oop hoop haven coffin coffer cap 

euff coif p t t m cibin chapel chimney hovel g"iioe 
0^0 gove gu a 

cEdo (oESstJ ,) to ifteM, to go. cede accede cesaion piooess 

proceed recede exceed concede 

CELO, to hide, con-ceal cell cellar xinXaq hoUoio, deep, calyx 

ehalice hole hollow bell n^hios gulf gCl-a gnll-et 

■ cSntC" a Aimd-red. cent centuvj centennial centi-pede 
CERno (CRETti",) xfii'va>,to sifi. dis-cer-n con-cern crisis 
CHAINO, (*;fB<", see -m,) j^or'-v-iu, Hlo I ga-pe; chars-m hiatus 

ohoos Chama gander caohianntion yawn a-cho-n-ium- 

OEARTES x'^P"!'^ paper, chart charter card cartel cart-oon 
CMB0N03 xpo-jo'i time, chron-to, chron-icle chronometer 

i^S" jiETion) ana-ohroniam 

c-la-bAs c-lea-r; ^suoi tosh'ne-W \la tcfifft is rhar ; Hewer 

light, clarify {^~ LnoEO) glow g or 

cSqvo {cecTtJ"",) to cook coi cjct deccetion — co k :'o! 

cake kitohen 

ctJBO, ouMBO, -isltJ-ai t I hi- Te(,n hent s le:' i 

oubation cubit kimbo coma ( ethargv n ubu wer 



Hcssdb, Google 



VOCABULARY 251 

OCea care, ae-eurate care cuiato procure procurator or 

proctor proeuraoy or proxy 

cueho (cCasC",) to run. course courier career concur cur- 
tent ouraory corsair, see -T-BB 
CHRVO, Yvp6m, to hend. curve coronal coroner erown gyre 

gjratioD girMol oord gird curl 

oOtIs a skinf tr-xorog a skin, a whip, leather, an^tkinff of 

leather; iritUr a skin; rfl'o, to contamj mttJ a thadoa,- oitil't a 
tevi; acDTD" (dim. SCOtClC",) a ihield; aonruLi a diih. oot-iole 

Bki-n sou-m Bhu-ok soutiform floutellate skull eoale shell ahoo 
shield shcuth shade ahed shelter eknlk (ooal-)3<iuttle skillet 
scoUary kettle eotyledoa cuttle-gsh {from its stioking oups.) 

d1u8 dsd:; God. deity deify div-ine lu-piter (d lost) theology 
d5, (DiTtJ"", -DiT-,') DO-N-0, di'SwiiH, to give, date edict 

reoondita don-ate, -ation ad-, tra-, oon-dit-ioD-al addendum deo- 
dau-d pnr-doD endow dower dotai Hntidotfl does 

s£ge™, 3ha, ten. dccad decimal decimate decennial decagon 
doonsmte, sea -DE, f 1. From the root of tango, 

dIes a day; Saioi, to light up. diary meri-dian (mSdICs) 
diUHNal journal qwoti-dian dial 

dScSo (do-ctu"',) to teach; dico {^iCTp",) to say, tell, do- 
cile doelrine dootoc teacher, see -T-BK diot-ate, -ion -ary, pre-, 
oontta-, inter-diat 

DRYS Spuq an oak. dryJO druid tree 

dOco (DtJCTU",) to had. ad-, re-, in-, con-, tra-duce conduct 

or eondui-.t aqueduct duke dogo tug toir 
Btio two; duo-decimo duel dou-ble deuce dou-bt twin twain 

twine twice twe-he to-b twi-lling {a doable web, as dri-lUng is a 
triple one,) 
Biao (E'MPtC",) to buy. red-eem exempt peremptory red-, 

ex-, pre-«nip1jon pro-mpt 

EO (ItO",) mfi to go. ex-it amb-i-ent circu-it in-iti-al ob- 

itu-ary tranB-il-ory pre-t-or preterit it-ic-er-ary periaJi 
EROOS e'pYiiv work, toil; ^pj-dai I work, irksome w-ork en- 
erg-y lit-erg-y g«-org-ie. ipxia I defend; lactM I reitrain, viard off. 

SasS to he; SC" 1 am-; ens (ent-,) being, ent-ity abs-ent 

participial.) 



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252 VOCABULARY 

Ficlo, -FEO-, -Pio- (plCTU",) to make. See -fic, -fice, -fj. 

faot fea,.t perfect ooQntBrfei..t refit oerti-fj fi-at office beaelioa 
bene-fic-ant ponti-f faahion haoianda fig-ur-at-ire feign 

v^O I carri/. in-, pre-, re-, de dif auf- of- trans confer 

farrj fer-T-ILB -FEB-oua ben M 

TIDES tmst. oon-fid-ent diffide infi 

I'LO / blow; ELATUS a bhmii fl ul fl fl 

geolet blon bla^t 

' FLUO (PLUxtJ",) to flow, re-, fl ffl fl 

flnanoe euperiuity fluctuota 

Foa, f^-iiH', ya-T-l'Zvj, to spe' m 

fa-cB in-fa-nt em-plia-ais 

FORTIs strong, fort forte re-e rt m 

I-EiNGO -paiNO-, (PRAOTU",) fr 

fragile or frail infringe re-frac 

pCndo (lfls:|^-,) lopow, to me an 

dif-, fua-6 -ion refund foundry 

OE Y^ the earth, geometry ge ga g 

qEl-id-6s col-d; chOly con-ge g 
G^Ni-iJg (-eeIs,) Yi\/oz race, / 

ersNO Igenitu", ) to pro dti'x. gen 

homogeneous ooBmegony hydc 

jaunty gentile — kin kind 

OOIflA yaivla an a'ltgle. tri-, te pta ta 

noni^, daea-, polygon goni-o- 

OrXdIoe, to go; gkessus ag g g 

di-, pro-grcse -ion 

GSAPHO Ypafoi, S-ORIbo 7 ai 

gra-m graphic geo-graphj g 
pro-, tran-, aupor-ecribe grave 
Bomb eorobbla aeramble 
HEPTA iTTZa BEPTE"', Seven; 
ary September 

SEX' Ef SEX six ; hesagon he ul ry 

RETEBOS irepoq different. Ii te te g 

HOBOS iddz a way. peri-od met-liod exodus synod ep-is-ode 

HUMEO, to be wet; hBmCs the ground; ;^ifiai on the ground. 



Hcssdb, Google 



VOCABOLAEY 253 

humor hnmid In-, ei-liains hnuiiliate humble ohaine>1eon camo- 
mile (as if earth-oppin fi^Xok, from ils fragriuioe.) 

BYDQR "vdiap, "vdiop water; hydrogen, hydraulics (ahXiiq a 

pipe) lijdrometer hjdroatatio hydropliobia dr-opay hjdra otter 

ISO- 'TatK; equal, isochronal iBodynamic isothermal 

ijXc^, to lie. adjacent oiroumjacent 

ildto -flo-, (jIctC" 4rS0T-.',) Ip throw. ■ ah-, e-, ob-, de-, 

Bub-, in-, pro-jeoC -ion o^njocturs projeatilo JD..t Jctaon 
. . . tSieCe IK of Ibrcc hni, cilher round on the flreame Raamg, ind then ire ciUed 

jBgO" a yoke, subjugate conjugal yoke Jlnoo / uiiite 

join Joint jnne-tion, -tnie 
Jt!s {gen, JuiUis,) right, laio; jubo / tahf oath, ju dico / 

declare Judgment, ftd-, un-just jnBt>ieB juat ifj injur e t loua 
jurisdiction ab-,oon-, per-jure juror jury judf,e judu, al adjadieiite 
pr^udioe 

lXoIo, DE-iiioio / entice, de-lec-t-ahle dolicious delightful 
LiTUS Ti-kaz-vq wide; lXt-Cs {-ErIsJ the side latitude 

di-lBte p-Iftla b-lade f-lat p-lot plaice see A', p Imtll flnt 
p-Tat p-l»titude Plotmius plane-tree o loth Uth leather oqni , 
ool-, qundri-latoral (and from tho affinitj botwecn I and r— J b road 
flp-read— buckler olaymora 

LiEti", to carry, bear, trans-, re-, e-, col-, pro-, oh-late di- 
latory pralato logia-lat-or 

LlGO (tEGSifl™,) to depute, bequeath. de-legate legation 

leg-acy, -utee eoUeagiie college allege 
ifidO (lEctC",) -UG-, i-iyo), to lay together, to read; LEX 
(gen. LEaYa,) a Ime. ool-leot di-lig-ent dialect B-, Eo-, neg-lect in- 
tel-lectt intelligent ool-, se-, e-loction religion legion lexicon leesan 
legible lecture — leg-al legia-lature legitimate illicit priri-lege sor- 
ti-lego Ian loyal alloy 

lIgo, (ligatO",) to bind, ligature a]-ligation league oblige 

allegiance— -ally alli-ance 

LlNQVO Ileaiie. de-Iinqnent re-lic-t re-Iinqu-ish 

LOCO (iiCclTif",) toplace. (Akin to lego.) local locat-e -ion 

lieu lieulenaut, fio^-tenant or ic/-tenant, hftenaunt in tbe Bible of 
11151; lieutenav,l in Shakspere (nho usee n and y indiseriminately, aa 
in diaiol«ei) and lie/tenant in Ooles'a English Dictionary of 1701. 
23 



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254 VOCABULARY 

I^Q-vSa Uyii) i^ LEOO,) to s^eah; Xdyo^ a word; -logy a 
diseaans. loquuoity elocution b c[nj 1 e U8t— „eol „j e 1 gy 
piologne logio 

LlJcEo, to shine, lucid e-lucidate pell e d look 1 "t t 1 nk 

(a torch) b leach b leak h link b ank jh loK lo na Inna 

MA GNiis |^a xpoq /xi/'a'! I^f'- MAxiMTis ffreate ma iste 

jesty mai n big macro oosm mega h urn 

MAR^ the o marine mariner na lul fray \r m r ea 

por beagle (a Bhark whicli hantH m pack 
MEDI us jdo o<; mid lie (Ital mezzo ^ ran el n id ) 
mid n^mid-st meddle medium mezsotin med oor ty mSd ul ary 
intar-medi-atfl meri-dian meao tho as mea emb anthe mum n d 
day-fitmer (Sf^a day, Si*?, irBcji fi } 

METiOK [ierpiio, to measure; mkn&ibX a mea g ire mete 

meter inetiB im-menae dimeos n me on oh u me 

tif.Ktm ii.va'oii at, to re-memVer memento memory able 

-iae, -ial-lae mention mQemonio a mnefltj HfiNS (gen mbHtib ) the 

mOneo fMONiTu",) to ad-mon <ih monitor rnonnn ent sum 

illCRO- pixpdq little, microscoi e m cromete in o Ohm 
mOvSo (motO",) to moY-e; e com 1 co jro iiot n mo 

tive — mob 
MiNfio, to project, haiig over, e-, im-, pre-, super-e-, pro- 

mInOo (minutTI'",) iiXv.i'Bio, to di-min-iah; minus minor 

MITTO (mibbS",), (o seThd. ad-, re-, com-, e-, o-, sub-, per-, 



MTJN-Cs (-Sbis,) office, duty, favor. muDi-fle-ent re-muner- 
mCto (MtJTATU",) to move, change, com-, im-, per-, trans-, 

mut-able transmutation 

4.nasc5r, to he (NATTJs) horn, nat-al, -iv-ity, -ure, -ion in- 
nate Baacoat. Originally GK-iSCOH, HN-iTFS, whence oo-gn-ate im- 

havIb vnO; a ship, nausea nav-y, -al, -ig-ate nautical navvy 



Hcssdb, Google 



VOCABTJLAEY 255 

Inom-en (■TnIs,) Svo/iS.; a Dam-e; noun nfnnenelature Bomi- 

nOve" ^I'l'^o nine; nona-gon ennea^gon 

NBvtts vio^ new; novelty innovate novice neo-phyte 

OCTO oxrdi eight; octagon octavo October octu-ple 

6oOLi5s eye; oeular in-ocul-ate ocell-ate ogle 

OLEO, to emit a smeU. olid ol-factory red-olent 

OLEO Xd-OlIsco (Xdultu"",) to grow ; from alo, to nourish, 

caine (0 grow, ad-oleao-eat ad-nlt ab-ol-ish— ali-ment oOKleeoe 

OPO Sttoi 3jrT(u, to see; OPro / look at, wish, choose, optics 

ejal-ops option adopt 
SrIoe (o-BtOs) Zfio-fxai, to rise; Sp86io (aee -TS-,) to erect, 

make i-iglil, ilraighlenj osD-0 (-1ms) a rank, cm order, orient ori-gin 

-al-itj ab-ortive or-deaJ ere erst emly m-or-n— ortho-grapliy— 

order ord^n ordinul disordered 

OvO™ diii' an egg. ov-al, -ate, -oid ovi-paro«s — oii-lite orflogy 
PARDO (P58St)™,) Ttsrao), to spread; PATEO, to he open. 
eipansion expand a-paa pan patent patulous pet-al paddle 
B-pat-ula B-pathB s-pado s-pud feath-arj irirpa. a rook; petrify 
petr-olenm rQck-oii Peter petrel f-ern (see -N.) b-pIt-Hj" extent, 
inUtttal, delay, space spnoions eipatiata r6-5pito 

PAOTtt" (wi agreement; pax (gen, pac-Is,) peace; pact cdm- 

pnct paol-ty, -6o appease 

pSngo (pSctd™,) to set, fix. oomp&ct impact 

PAB equal, par disparage pwr compare peer-lees impair 

par-ity imparisjllabio 

pSro (paratu",) to provide, furnish; i-m-PEBO, to order, 

jovfj-B. parade apparatus prepare repair ap-pai^ se-parato sever 
em-peror empire 

p5bs (gen. PARTIS,) apart; particle parcel part-y, -isan, -ia], 

-ner, parse portion 

plLLO (PULSU",) to move, drive, expel ex-, ap-, com-, re- 

pnlsion, pulse push 

■PENDEO (PENSD",) to hang, pend-ant, -ent, -alum, -uIoub, 

pensile BuEpend "per-pend-io-nl-ar. PEsno (pensB-,) (o weigh, 

pBbd-5s (-ebis,) weight, ponderous pound poise 
/■SJViTB jr^iTE QVINQVS five; pentagon pentecost (a«'T)?;toirro? 



Hcssdb, Google 



256 VOOABULAKY 

fiftieth) pingster— qninary quinquelobate firalobed fivefold— puDch 
(a liquor.) 

Sx-plai6B (IxpIrtOs,) to try, teat, expert experiment, 
expcriiD enter, -al 

p£to (pStitu"',) to ieg, des^e, strive, assault, petition re- 
peat repetition propitiatfl appetite oompet-e -ence, -itor, compati- 
ble impetus 

PSAINO ipaivio (see -N-,) to shine, show, escpose, accuse; tpaiD, 

to yaakecUar, la appear, pha-ae (eee-iS-) em-pha-eis dia-pha-H-ou8 
fant-osm, -Batic, -asy fknoy phenoMonoQ epiphany. ^^S (o soy 
(ffS- roB, -M- Obs.) fame eu-phemiBHi pro-ph .Sr blas-pbema 

PSABO ^a'fiu leat. ichthyophagouB ZxOv\ afish. anthro- 

popbag-j, -i, -ouB 
pIkgo (pictC",) to pain..t; pigment picture depict 
PLACED I please; placid displeasure com-placeiit pleasant 

oom-ply. PLlco I appease, implaoable 
PLlNtis Ttlia:; full; TcX-^eio CSM-PlEo (-PLllU",) to JUL 
ple-n-ty, -ary repleniab da-, com-, replete im-, aup-, oom-plement 
ao-oom-pli-eS com-, anp-ply — pletboia (see -K-US) ple-Off-asm 
(irXiiwj' more.} noXS't many! polygon polyayllable. irdXij o eity; 
pol-ioe, -i^, -ioy 

PLIc-0 (-iTtJ",) to fold; PLE-OTO, xkixio, to pleat, oom-plex 

im-, aup-, du-, oom-, es-plie-ate, -ation suppliant pliant mnlfi-, 
im-, ap-plj dia-play ac-com-pli-ee (see -PLe.) 

PLUS (plOrIs) more. (Akin to s®"- plenus.) OTer-, non-, 

,Bar-plua plu-perfeot plur-ality 

PONO {posiTt}",) to set, place, de-, Com-, de-oom-, dia-, dis- 

oom-, ex-, im-, euper-im-, inter-, op-, pro-, re-, aup-, pre-sup-, trana- 
poee poetpoue deponent deposit-ory depOl post irapoa-t, -ition 
es-, pro-, com-pound posture proFost (PB«-POSiTns) pat 

pbpiJLCs a multitude, people de-populate ua-popu!ar pub- 

lio-ation publisb republie 

PORTO / carry. (Akin to Ffiiio.) bear com-, de-, ex-, im-, 

re-, aup-, trans-port porterage portfolio 

VB.%(iliR I invoke, de-, im-precate pray 

PRE-HENDO (-hEnsC™,) (o take, ap-, com-, re-prebend siir-, 

com-, enter-priBo prize reprisal prison 

pr£mo (pRESsti",) to press; com-, de-, ex-, Im-, op-, re-, sup- 
press print! 



HO,. db, Google 



VOOABtlLAItY a57 

PeStIO" valva, reward, ap-, de-preciate praise price pre- 

oions appraise, -rneut appraiser 

PElMBs^rsf; PRIQr for-mer. prime primer primrose pri- 
mate priinogenilare prietino prince prior-ity 

PrObo I prove, probe proof prove prob-ahle, -ity probate 
teprob-ate, -ation 

prSpB near; proxImOs very near, nearest, prop-inquity 

prosim-ate, -itj approach 

PEOTO-, TipwTOi first, prototype protoxid 

FSEUDO', false; tfisdSoi falsehood, pseudovolcanic pseudo- 

PULLlfa a yovmg animal, a bud. pullet poult poultry foal 

pullulate 
pOngo (ptTNOTfl",) to stitwf. Welsh ig what is sharp; pig a 

pomied end,- a pike, a beak. panet-nCB, -Ulite, -uol-ity pungent 
Bompanction Fagnrus pungar poigonDt point punoli pike poke 
pick peak beak bickfir peg s-pigot spicule a-pikc s-pokc 

pOn-Io (-ItCj) to punish, punitive pain fiae (a pen-alty.) 
pCto Isai/, think; (tzsIBih I advise; akin to I'OR.) de-, dis-, 

im-, re-pnt-e, -ation compnte or count 

QV^RO (QV^BiTti",) to UAk, &eek, get. query question in-, 
re-c[uest in-, re-, ac-quire in-, oo-, re-, ilis-quisition exquisite ao- 
quira oonqner 

QVXtCOr Tlaaapeq -rirpa- fonr; QVADRiis s-quare; QVAKTUS 
tbefonrtb; tessera aijum-e. qufttcmarj qundr-Bnglo, -ant, -ate, 
>atio, -atuve, qnaflru-psd, -pie quart-cr-lj a-qanilr-on squad aquara 
qBBr-nntino (Fi-eneh quaranto for-tj) tetragon totrastjle tesseral 

qv5t as numy as. quota quotient quotidian 

bXbIes madness, rabid rave rage 

rSdix (-icis,) ^IXS. root; e-radioate radical radicle rhizo- 

phagous lico-rice [yhWi aaeet.) 

rSdo (RiaO",) to scrape, ab-rad-e abrasion raaorial erase 

raie razor raice raa-p rasberrj. nBDO (bOsC"',) to gnaw, ar-, cor-, 

r5pio (rA'PTU", REPT-,) to take away, plwnder, liwry. ra- 
pine capacious surreptitious rapture rapid rapier bareare ravage 
robber rover robe reap 

eSgo (eIctO",) to set righ't, reg-ulatc. cor-, di-, e-, in-cor-, 



Hcssdb, Google 



258 VOCABULARY 

in-dl-reot reot-ify, -hiieIbi -or reign (but not Boveraign, seo siJpfiR-) 
reg-a,l, -eat, -Ion tu..le bisboprlo lid a-l-n-r.. ..t {see Au) 

kSgo (rogatu",) (o ask, beg. ah-, de-, inter-rogate arrogant 

prorogue rogation ^^^ p-becoh. 

bQiI a wheel, rotate, -ary, -atioD, -und -o ro..und (aee -AND) 

rota rut route (pronounced roof) routine towel ro..ll ro..le rae.-l 

RUMpo (RUPTtJ",) to break, ah-, cor-, ir-, dis-, inter-, e-rupt, 
SAC-ER C-Ri,) "a^-(Of holi/. saoeF-dot-al sacr-ed eon-, ex-, de- 

eecTBita a^crainent saorifioe sauristiin or seston — hngiograpb; 

s5l (gen. sSlIb,) aAi (gen. 'aJ5f,) sal-tj sal-ine salLferous — 

hHlo-goDo Bulad G^u.-eage snuee 
sSl-Io, -S^^^BSLTtJ", -SULT-,) ^ &«p. salient asswl con., 

sSlvus sound, well, salu-tarj, -brious, -ute salvation sa..fe 

aaye Balye 

SATIS enough; sStCr fall, sate aatis-fy insatiate satur-ate 
soiNDO (scissO'",) ffjfi'Ca', to cut, Tend, ab-, ex-, re-acind 

abscissa seliism seiasora 

sclo Iknow. sciolist science conscious omni-scient 
SOOPEO axoitiai I spy, olserve. scope episcopal microscope 
sSco (sE-CTti",) to cut. sect bi-, in-, inter-, dia-seot, -ion 

segment saw secTOR 
SBDBO (SESSU") to sit; OON-SIDO I sit down. assess assize 

aaaiduoua BBduloufl siege insidious po-sseas subaide subsidy ra- 

sid-e, -uum, -enoe 
SENtIo (sensO",) to feel, think, con-, re-, dia-sent acent 

sens-e, -ibie, -ory sentient sentcnoe 
SEQvoa (sEctJTBs,) to follow, attend, aeqn-ent, -el ob-sequi- 

ous conaScntiTB second perseoate (see peb-) oonsequenee sue en-, 

sErvIo (sbrvItO",) to serv-e; de-, mis-, sub-serve service 

aBrritndB. SEtiro (sEEvlTii",) lo save, heep. pre^ eon-, ob-, re-aerv-e, 

SEX SS sis; sexennial bis-sextile senary hexagon sixfold 
slQNU™ a mark, token sign-a!, -ature, -ify, as*, con-, de-, re-, 

en-aign sigU or aea 1 

SIMIIJS 6fiS.Xuq HI'- "imilai ity r 



Hcssdb, Google 



259 
SiSTO I plaoe, set, stop, as-, con-, es-, in-, per-, re-, sub-sist, 

s5l ^Koq the sun, aiXa^ lustre^ ssX-tjmij the moon, solar sol- 
stice — peri-heli-oa Hel-en Bl-eotra — sel-eno-grapLy aelenite ^S- 
tGrbbo, 

sSLiJs (done aole soli-tude, -tary desolate 

SOLVO (sSLUTii",) U) loose, to free, to mdt. ab-, re-, dia-, 
aolT-e, -able solo-tion 

sOmus rdvo? a sound, a noise, son-orona, -net ab-, die-, eon-, 

re-aonant sound — ton-e, -io da-tonata mono-tonouB tune dia 
thunder 
sSp5ll, BOMnCs, u-moq sleep. sopori-fic somni-fic somn- 
olence, -ambuliam — Ljpnotio 

spSrgo (sparSu™, -SPBK8-,) to scatter, sparse as-, dis-, inter- 
sPECio (SPECTU",) to see. Spy spee-nlum, -tram, -taele, -tre, 

-imon, -ies, -it^, -ulate, -ious per-Bpic-ueua perspecUve as-, eircum-, 
ex-, in-, pro-, re-, Eu-spoct speck despise despite spite 

spSro I hope, de-spair de-sper-ate, -ation pro-sper-ons, -ity 
BPiao (sPlEiTB™,) to breathe, blow, live, as-, con-, in-, re-, 
per-, SU-, trsn-apir-e, -ation spirit sprite sprigttly 

SPONDEO (spoHStJ",) to speak, promise. re-8pond respoas-o, 

-ible sponsor sponsal spouse cor-re-, despond 
S-POLiu" a skin, booty; PellIs a skin, spoliate spoil fell 

pal! palt-ry pallicla polissa. pIlds o loi>,- tSllus a_/!eecp,- TiLLua 
a tuft; yELuu a veil; fIuiSu a mantle; pull palli-ate, -ation pile 
pilose Tillous fleece wool pe«l pillago 

STEBEOS dT^pedi; Jirm, solid, stereo-type, -scope, -ometry 

STINGVO, -STIGO (STINCTU",) j.orE'C^Hj, tO mark, sting; stick 
stttch stock stoker distinct instigate ex-, oontra-, dis-tiBguish 
Bti.m-ulus, -ulate stig-mn-t-ise 

8T0 (sTlTtJ",) (frdui, i<Tn;iit, to Stand, place, stay station -ary 

stand state stat-ne, -uIa sub-stanea co-st sta-ble establish de- 
ati-ne — meto-slaais hydro-atatios estasy s j-stem stamen style 
stadium 
STElNGO (steTctO",) to touch, to bind, string stricture eon-, 

re-, dis-trict re-, oon-Btringe OOH-, ro-str(ii..n coa-strain-t strai..t 

smijo (sTBUCTtJ",) to build, constru-e destroy con-, ob-, 



Hcssdb, Google 



ZbO VOCABULARY 

SUMO (sUMPTtJ",) to take, use, wear out. as-, re-, con-, pre- 
Bum-e presumption 

sBrgo (suRRE'CTtJ"; SUB and B®- a£ao,) to raise, to rise. 

TSNGO (tactu'",) St'y-a/, Six„;mi, to tak-e, touch; in-, con- 
tact contngion contingent in-t«g-er or entire attai..n index in- 
dio-ate dexterity daotjl digitate dog (the laker) tiling think 
thank dignity (digbBs worthy) condign deign disdai..n tc..n 

t5xo Irate, value, tax taxation taste 

TEOO (te-ctS»,) ff-T^;-(u, to cover, hide, defend. de-, pro- 

teot-ion toga toggary tegument hedeok tfafttch deck daok (liuen) 
ticking ti..le — s-teganography 

TEMP-US (-oals,) time; tempor-al, -ary, -ise estemporaneous 

TEN-DO (-sC", -TU™,) Tsbm, to stre tch, tend tent at-, con-, 
dis-, ex-, ob-, por-, pre-, eub-len-d, -t, -ion in-, ex-tenaive. tenSis 
thin 1 tonuitj thinnEBB attenuate — tonio peri-toneum. u-raidi nar- 
row, stenography 

tEnEo (TB-NTti"',) to hold, abs-, at-, eon-, de-, enter-, ob-, 

par-, ap-per-, re-, ana-tain dia-con-tent oon-tin-uo, -ent conn-te- 
nanoe ten-ure, -ant, -or detainder 

TMRMlNtra ripjia, a limit, term contevminouB determine 

exterminate 

TERO (tbitu",) Tilpo), to rub. at-, con-, de-tritioa detriment 

TERRi the earth, terr-ene tur-een in-ter-ment terrace ter- 

terrEo I frighten, terror terri-fy do-ter 
TESTOR / witness, declare; OON-TESTOR I call to witness; 
be-t1bt8r / deprecate, teat, -ify, -ator, -ament intestate at-, con-, 

TITHESil T^d-qixZ, to place. theme anti-, hypd-, par-^n-, 

ajn-, prSa-thesia, -tiftio 

TiNGO, TiNGVO (timctC",) TiJ^ai, to wet, to dye. dia-ting- 

uish tiact-uro ottsindBr— tinge distain a-tain a-tenoil 
TORREO (tostB",) mpu), elpaio, esip^iu, to parch; tOrrens 
hnrmnr,, nisMnj. torrid toast tar-S-US torront—rlier-m-id thcr- 
nnS-meter — Siriua sear ecro thir-at dr-y dr-ug — sip, I.Xfos, Lat. sOl, 



HO,. db, Google 



Bnglleli Bun; solar hel-i'aoal — iip^ (>r-(7p;j»() dry, serodes a dry (iimor. 
See jol-k joll-ow gol-den nndec -don 

TORNO, to turn (in a lathe.) turn-er de-, con-tour tornado 
TORQVEO (tSrtB",) to twist. OOB-, dis-, re-, ex-tort, -ion 

tor-ment dossil (torsel) tor-tion, -eion, -tuie tortoise (muT Da eroofccii, 
from iy feat,) turtle (tortla) TortugM (a PortugueBo plural,) tOMh 
trass trousers 

TeXho (tractB",) to draw, drag; abs-, at-, con-, de-, dis-, 

es-, pro-, re-, eub-, Iraot, -ion, -Iva at-trah-ent traok traoe dray 
dredge drudge— trudge draggle drai..l trai..l drawl portray trait 
trotttr-y treat-ise 
TREOHO '^pix">i Tpoyaio I run, zpiyog a race course, -rpox^z o, 
viheel, rpncttia a toller. TrooSus a genus of shelU with a winding 
epire, Trochilus a genua of kumminghiriii, from its mifineaa. troctae 
troobentei: troahlaa-r troebe troohoid tiuok (on tvhaela) truoklB-bed 

tbSmo Tpiiuo Itrem-hle,/ear, tiem-or, -ulous, -endous tre- 
pidation in-trep-id-ity 
Tal- TRls TjocT; Tpfa Tpi- dpi- three; tri-ad, -angle, -dent, 

-foliate, -pie, -ne, -nitj, -vet, trey treble trefoil trasUa dri-Uing 

TBiO^ impediments, in-, ex-tricate in-trigue trickery treach- 
ery (But see Diei, p. 353 at n-cccare.) 

TRUdo (TBtJstr",) to push, in-, ob-, es-, pro-trade, -trna-ion, 

-ive thrust tread 

TTJMKO, to svieU, be inflated, tum-or, -id, -efy tuber, -ous, 

-ale eontumaoy tomb 

tCmdo (tusu°,) to heat, oon-, ob-, per-, re-tus-e, -ion 
TtJasi Tiip^ ffOp^i) confusion, -uproar. tiirb-id, -ulent dis-, 

par-turb trouble 

und2 a wave; UNDO, to surge, he fuM. undulate inundate 

ab-, rad-undojit ab-, red-ound 

UR-o (trsTti",) to b-ur-n; comb-us-tion tJKT-icX the nettle, 



ut6r, to use; ts6a use; ut^ensil ut-il-it-ari-an tool ab-use 

usage uau-ry, -al usurp (rSpiO /roi.) 

vXcOtis erivpiy. vao-uum, -uity, -ant, -ate, -ation, -aney 

vXoiLLO, to wa-eev. wag vacillate fickle boggle 
vXdo (vASfl",) to go. e-, in-, per-vade wade waddle 



Hcssdb, Google 



262 VOCABULARY 

VALEO, to he Strong, well val-id, -or, -iant, -ue; pre-, a-, 

countor-vail invalid 
"VAllOs a palisade; VALLtJ" a rampart; PAlUs a stake. 
in-teryol oirauiava!la,tion wall pale palisade 

VASTiJa desert, immense, waata vast devastate 

vEho (vbctC",) to carry, in-veigh vehe-ment vehicle 

KBigbc 
VENIO (VENTtJ"',) to come, go, happen, swit, Jit. ad-, con-, 

a-vonuo covenant venture inventory 

VEBTO (VERSlJ",) to twm. a-, ad-, cob-, contro-, de-, e-, in-, 

Intro-, ob-, per-, re-, retro-, sub-vert a-, ad-, con-, dU, in-, ob-, per-, 
nni-, re-vers-e, -ion dl-voree vortex vett-ei, -igo, -ioid e-wer-ve 
t-wir-1 wor-m 

VERtts true, ver-aoibj, -ify, -diet very aver. Akin to pure 

viS a road, pa faje way de viit-e ion devious pre un 

viola a change, vice in kanje alternation \ie ar iou8 
yio-jaaitude via-connt rioo regent roy 

vlDpO (vlsC" ) ddioi, to see, to ftnojo Wit Wise Via ible, 

-u»!, -iige, or ard ion it ta pr vid ent n- prulent or pur 
Tey(ant) e vid-ent ante rev Be pion-o survey view in vid 
iou9 01- eo-vi oua advise adiioe"— dea idol OID 

vIgIl watchfd vigil ant, amee waie watch 

vlNdO (VlCTU"") ie Ji^uei, evcd con o pro ymce e 

oon-viot, ;ioD viotory mvinoible varniu ih 
yito (viCTU",) 6t6io,joJi3iB re , eui vive viv iil ify a^ity 

yi-and vital viotaala 

voijo (vOoStC",) Jo j;aS. vocal voice vow. .el vouch vooi- 

VOtVO' (vSlOtTJ"',) slUay slUvf dkbm iliOa,, to roll, wind. 

volu-tion, -te, -ma, -ble con-, 0-, in-, re-volve re-volt valve wallow 

waltz weel wheel willow or Ballow (siLix) 
VtJLGDS, 7rdA;^o^ a crowd, di-vulg-e pro-mulg-ate vulgar vul- 

gate folli flook 



HO,. db, Google 



LIST or THE SUrFIXBS 



LIST OF THE SUFFIXES 



-Ada n. ^^ -ade 

«de n. ^®- -AD 

AS-IO B. ^- AT-IO 
a. ^JS" -ade 

[ n. 

I. oolleotive 

■Ninons a. ^~ -6IH- 
-AGO n. 

-»h .^3- -a n. Heb. 
•»lc« ^S° -e^ n. fern. 



-ALB n. y^- -! 
-AL-IA n. plura 
-AL-ITj n. 



ANDA n. pi. 
AND -1 
ANDUM 1 "■' 


one ^ -AN 
ANeoua a. 


AN-ITy n. 
ANT a., n. 



AJi n. 

■AR, -AKI-, -ARj a., n. (iH-Ts) 
-AB,-^^- -AR- formative 
-ARITIS ^S- -ARy a. 
•ARIUM _^- -ARj n. 
■ARy, -ARI- a., n. (Sr-ifs) 
-ARy n. (1k-!Bm) 



AS-ir n. ^ .L<i-M 
A3-T, -AS-T-IO 



Hcssdb, Google 



LIST OP THE SUFFIXES 



■BIL-ITy ^^- hie 

:;} 

Ic ^®" -pie 

1-y .^" -ble 

BRUM n. 
B-UND 

C~ genetic 
C- diminutive 
;6ntial-| 
-CATION ; 

-«c n. pi. ^^" -a pL 



-C-Ie a. dim. 


-ele ^' -acle 


-C-ODS 


-0-R- 


-crocy J®- -ac-T 


-C-UL- n. 


-cale, -cul*!-, &( 



-D deolensionn] 




-D-^- 


-T- inlensiT 




-D-.^- 


-T- particip 


al 


■dar n. - 


darl n. 




<l«o/ 






^e.^S- 


-ea B, 




■den D., 












-d«r n 






DIN 1 







HO,. db, Google 



-EN -I 
-en I "' 



-END ^m- -AND 
-ENDA. ^^' -ANDA 
-ENDO 

ons ,^- -AND 
-BNDUM ^ff- -AND 



-BN-ITy ,^- -AN-ITy 
-ENS part. pres. 
-ENS-IC 1 



■cr T. frequentativi 



-EE- deolon 
L 1. agantial 
n. plnral 



iO-ent n, [■ 



■est a. sHperlatire 
-EST a„ n, 

.T-IC.^--EST, -i.S'-r 
■esty ^^ -EST 



•BT; -ETE he who 



■etUt -J 

-et ^S- .ado 

-et (caret) j^ -IT rerbial 
-£^7'-/0 a. 
-BTUM n. 

■ear ^^ -OR 
-EX ^S- -AX 
-ey- J^" -ee q. 

-ey ,^^--y a. 



Hcssdb, Google 



LIST OF THE SUFFIXES 



■(re n. 

- GEN i 



-ICS,^- 
-lO-UL-A 
■lO-UL-A 
-IC-DL-A' 
-IC-UL-Oi 
-ID adj. 



:»I-ou3 



LL-ATe, -AT-ION 



m-, INe 3^- -AN 


•IN n. 


in ^- -en n. pL 


INiB n. plural 




INe n. fern. 


loK □' 


-Ing n. dim. 


-ing parL prea. 


-inffe n. 


-In^r ^- -enser n. 


-IN-ITj ^ -AN-ITj 


-7jVX^^S--inee 



HO,. db, Google 



LIST OF THE STiFFIXES 



is^don n ^^- ise T. 


-less a. 


Hco m- em«e 


■Ivt D. diminutire 


lae V 


-li- ^ -ly 






ush T 




isli a 


■Ungn. 


1*1. 7^ 13 


-Ito n. ^r sMa 


Ml m- bscb 




7SA n diminutiTB 


-II .^ -L f 1 


/^ i/n 


-lock n. a j>iant 


iwe ^ Ac eoD9 


LOGy 


1& Tn 


-lot .^ -let 


l8l-«r n. 


L-US, -A, -UM 


-IS-T-IO a. 


-Ij- Kie, manner 


-IT n. 




-IT- q/t™ 


-M intensive 


-IT varbial (audit) 


■ -M- partioipial 


'IT. -ITE n. 




-IT, -IT« .^ -ATe 


•m dative 


-/ra, -iTES ^m- -OW 




-IT-ial 


-M odvprbial 


-ITIate 1 
-ITIously i 


-M n. .^" -B- 


'7lA } "■ 


-ITIS n. A-™se 


.ito n, diminutiye 


-3/J-Vcy 


-ITj^-Ty . 


■™* } "■ ^^ ■"» 


-mo } "■ 


-IV-AL 


-IX n. feminmo 


-MBjV^^-.m 


-l»p^-lseT. 


-ment ^^- -m 


-i!B» n. (meatizo) 






-MIN- ^~ .n. 


K 

-k D. 


-MINI 
-MN-; 


-net n. 


-■n« ^- -me a, 




-MON jm- -m 


-kin n. dlminutivo 


-MONj, -MONI- n. 



-le ^9" -L, -AL 
•UOse a. (knax-tedge) 
-L-BNT ^^ UL-BNT 



Hcssdb, Google 



LIST or THE SUFFIXES 



-most &. ^^ -mer 

MUL 

MLS A OM n. 

MUb a, _^- me 

K nteiiB SB 
N doclone gna! 
n nfln ^3~ enr. 
n E d m untiTD 

N al orb al 

NpaUpal, 

iV n. maeculiue 

■S neuter ,^^- -Off If 6 



■ -N-US 



■-ffn, 



■N-ITy 

■nbey ^S- C-l« 

N-oUS 

,. ^- -AHT 
N-US, -A, -UM 

•0- ndFCrbial 



OC-I-Ty i^- -AC- 
-ocb n. snia!2 

-OCIt- J^- -0-K- 

-0.0 11. 

-OCB n. (ge-oie) J 



-ol (yitri-ol) 

-OL-ENT J 
-OL-IC a. 



a, _^^ -AND, -UEJD 

■OR- ,^^- -BR dcelensional 
-OS- n. ^^- -BR- agoncj 
■OB a. ^- -er more 

1^- -B- formatiye. 
-ORj, -ORI-1 
-»rio [■ ^^- -ARy n. 

ORIUM ■• 
■05' n. 

OSe, -OS- a. 
■OS-ITy 

Q^ (lepr-oay) 



■oncb n, diminL 



HO,. db, Google 



LIST OF THE SUFFIXES 



-ow ti., a., V, 


-P ^^' -B- 


-PED ^ -POD 


-PLe 1 
-PLEX / "■ 


-POD 


-P-UL 


PUS ^' -POD 


-■&- formatiTe 






•r y. freq. ^T" -e 



-R-IX ^9- -T-BIX 
-R-oUS 0. 

-E-OuS a. ,^- -OSb 
-R-US, -A, -UM 



-S- mutational 
-S- inflBotional 
-S- J^- -T- partioipial 



S-IA B 


.^ -s--/^ 


S-IC-i 




SIM- 


rdinal 


SIM- ^P- .T-IM 


S-ION 




^-iSn 




^8-IVo 




-SMt,. 




-some 


a. 






S-OE ^r- T-EK 


sp n. 





Hcssdb, Google 



27 


LIST OS THE SUFFIXES 


-T- faotitiTO 


-T-IV- ■> 
-T-IVe ) "■ 


-T- intcnaivo 






T partioipial 


-T-OR ^ -T-BR n. 


■t dim. ^ ^t 


-T-0H3 a. 


■t neuter 


-TR- ^ T-BR 


-T- aonnootivo 


-T-BA ^S- -T-R-mi a. 


-T ^ -IT verbial 


•tre J^- IT-R-UM n. 


-y- mutational 


■iTix }"■'•"■ 


-T ym- -ET n. 


-t D. i^ -tn 


-T-R-UM n. 


-T adTorbial 


-t-ry n. 


-TA n. pL .^- -A 


-TU-AL a. 


^T-AN-EoBB .^- T participial 


-T-UDe n. 


-T-AB, a. 


-T-URb d. 


-(« 


-T-URe ^ -S-TJRb 


-T-ee .^^- -ATe 


-T-U8, -A, -HM 


-T-BR n. 


-I^J 


-ler n. 


-r-yi (dactji) 


-ter V. freqHentatiyB 




-TBR t 
-TERIORJ °" 




-U- J^ -E- 


-Wf prepositional 


-nble ^@- -Me 


-TES-ION n. 


UC- ^- -AC 


-T-ER-N .^ -UR-K 


-UC-OUB ^- -AC 


.r-B.? n. 


UD-, -UDe n. -1 _^ ^ „ 


-TS^ ^^~ 1 inteuaive 


-fll n. 


-UDO n. ^^~ -DO 


-th adverbial 


-ne _p@- IT participial 


-flier jm' -TER a. 


0e (stat-ne) ^T" -IVb 


-THO-^&-VS 


.iic.^"-U8, Oba. 


-fliop n. J^ -T-ER n. 


-UGIN- ^r- -U80 


-THRUM .^- -TRUM 


-UGO n. 


-TI- 0^ -Ty 


-m- J®- UoUS 


-T-IC 


-U-IT-oua 


-tide 


-UL- pletive 


-T-IL-, -TILb 


-UL-A n. dim. 


-T 


IM- adv. 


-UL-AR -ITj, -UL-AR-Ly 


-T 


IM-n. 


, .ule_^--U-LA 


-T 


IM GuperlatiTB 


-UL-ENce _^- -UL-BNT 


-T 


S;} 


-Ul-BNT 


-T 


-UL-oUS 


-T 


ION n. 


-UL-T. -U-oUS. 


-r 


IS ^ -S-IS 


-0L-UM ^m^ -DL-A 



HO,. db, Google 



LI8T or T 

UM n. 

urn n. fern. ^§- -UM n. Obs. 2 

UM geailivo plural 
•U-Me, -U-MEN ^~ -MA. 
•UM-N I 
•UMNAL I ^^ 
UHOle -I 



■ -MN- 



UHC-UL-Ua 
■UND •> 

DND-ITy J ^ 
■UNe, -UN-ITy 0^" ■ 
UoUS 

B& agency 
UEe, -UR- n. 

R-oUS 
URb a., n. J^- T-DI 



DRI- 

URI-BHT 

UR-N 

UBy, -UM- : 



■AND 



■X n. ^^ -J 
■X n, pi. ^m' 
XILLAEy 



-y n. 



^^ B form! 
^S- -Ing n. 

■y a. 

■y adr. ^®" -ly 



YB y^- -EK n. 

■YX r^- -AX 



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HO,. db, Google 



CATALOGUE 



^pfrtrki St^oo! imb Cirlltje itri-§tri 

PUBLISHES BY E. H. BUTLEE & CO., 
137 Sonth Fourth Street, PhUadelphia. 



Goodrich's Pictorial History of the United States. 






Goodrich's American Child's Pictorial History of 



Goodrich's Pictorial History of England. A Pic- 
torial Hialorj of England. Bj S. G. Goodbioh, author of " Pictorial Hiatorj of ILt 

Goodrich's Pictorial History of Kome. A Pictorial 



FublUhea b7 E. E, BUTLEB & CO., Fhnadelphia. 



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HO,. db, Google