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My object in writing this book has been to give an 
^count of Finnish sufficient to enable any one to under- 
stand the grammatical stinicture of the written language, 
and also to place before the student of philology an account 
of the chief phenomena it presents. In this latter respect 
I am conscious that my treatment is very inadequate on 
account of my inability to make myself acquainted with the 
many dialects spoken by the peasantry in various parts, the 
importance of which for the scientific history of the language 
cannot be overrated. I trust, however, that I may meet 
with indulgence, as the present work is, to the best of my 
belief, the only grammar of Finnish in English, and the 
only syntax (except brief sketches) in any language more 
generally accessible than Swedish. 

The Finnish language is still in so unsettled and fluid a 
condition, as regards both forms and style, that it is often 
hard to say what is correct and what not. A foreigner 
naturally cannot venture to decide what ought or ought not 
to be, and I have merely endeavoured to give an account of the 
forms and constructions found in existence. The examples 
are taken chiefly from the Kalevala and Bible (which are 
generally cited by references), from the Suomen Kansan 



Sananlaskuja of Ahlqwist, from various modern works, and 
some from the dictionaries of Lonnrot and Greitlin. The 
remainder have all been approved by natives, and will, 
hence, I trust, be found idiomatic. 

I must acknowledge my obligations to the grammars of 
Genetz and H^m^inen, to the Finska Spr^kets Satslara 
of Jahnsson, and especially to the excellent Suomen Eielen 
Lauseoppi of SetalS. 

But more than to all of these I am indebted to the con- 
stant assistance and collaboration of my friend Mr. Putro 
of the Finnish School in St. Petersburg, to whose thorough 
knowledge of the language this work owes whatever ac- 
curacy it may possess. I have also to thank Mr. J. Marshall 
for several philological suggestions. 

C. N. E. ELIOT. 

March 20, 1890. 









Ik this book I have endeavoured to give a simple and clear 
account of the Finnish language, chiefly of that form of it 
which is now recognised as the ordinary vehicle of literary 
composition, and have thought it better to set aside as far 
as possible scientific disquisitions. I now proceed to briefly 
discuss from a purely theoretical point of view some of the 
phenomena presented by this curious tongue, in doing which 
I must express my special obligations to the various works 
of Professors Donner and Setala, and also to the account of 
Die Sprachen der Uralischen Volker in the second volume of 
Dr. Friedrich Muller's Qrundriss der Sprachwissenschaft. 

The phonetic system of Finnish is characterized by a great 
paucity of consonants and a correspondingly great development 
of vowels. The alphabet has but thirteen of the former : d, g, 
h, j, k, 1, m, n, p, r, s, t, v. Of these it must be observed that 
d is in modern times only a literary invention, though as it 
exists in Esthonian and other cognate languages there is no 
reason to object to its use. It always represents a t which has 
been weakened by phonetic laws, but in the mouths of the 
peasantry the sound is either entirely omitted, or else replaced 
by a cerebral letter (represented in writing by 1 or r) or by 
V or j. G also is only found in the combination ng, which has 


exactly the same sound as in English. The letter h is ap- 
parently never original in the middle of words. It appears to 
me to have really two sounds — as an initial or between vowels, 
it is simply the English h, but before t and k, it is x* '^he 
other consonants ofiEer no remarkable peculiarities ; v appears 
to be pronounced as in English (labio-dental), and not to be a 
labio-labial (modem Greek /3). 

The simple consonants are pronounced much more lightly than 
in English. T and k in the middle of a word when pronounced 
naturally by a native, who is not trying to speak distinctly to a 
foreigner, often seem almost inaudible, and it is noticeable that 
in foreign words, with which the language is overrun, German 
and Swedish k, t, p (when not initial) are always represented 
by kk, tt, pp. It is highly probable that Finnish (like 
Esthonian) once had the sounds b, d, g. In Agricola are found 
such forms as naghe for nae,'virdhat for virrat. On the other 
hand, everything points to the fact that the original tongue 
from which the Finno-Ugric languages were developed had 
only ten or eleven consonants : k, t, p, s, j, r, 1, n, m, v, and 
perhaps h or x- ^ov the many curious sounds found in Lapp, 
Syrjenian, Ostiak, etc., all look as if they were degenerations 
from a simpler original. 

Finnish has eight simple vowels : a, a, e, i, o, 6, u, y (ii) 
All of these can be either short, or long, and in the latter case 
the letter is written double. These doubled letters appear to be 
genuine long vowels, and to contain no diphthongal element 
There are no triphthongs, but sixteen diphthongs, though on the 
whole Finnish has more simple vowels than other languages ol 
the same group, particularly Lappish. 

Though no difference is made in writing between the differem 


values of the vowel i, it appears that there really is a distinction 
between its value in words like otti, or oil, where the vowels 
are hard, and in words like naki where they are soft. The 
hard sound comes very near the Eussian M and the Turkish i 


in such a word as jijol^JU-a-l achmaliyidiniz. 

The vocalization of words is governed by three laws. The 
first is well known under the name of vowel harmony. The 
essence of this is that the hard (a, o, u) and soft (a, 6, y) vowels 
cannot coexist in the same word. Not only the Finno-Ugric 
languages, but also Samoyede, Turkish, Mongolian, and Manchu, 
have this law at least in the rudimentary form that a root does 
not contain both hard and soft vowels; but there is much 
variety as to the degree in which the vowels of the suffixes are 
assimilated to those of the root to which they are added. The 
most highly developed form of the law is found in the Turkish 
dialects (particularly in Yakut), where the vowels of the root 
and suffix must not only not be discordant, but are as much as 
possible assimilated to one another. Thus jx^ju> is pronounced 
pederiniz, your father ^ \mi Jx::^^^ dostunuz, your friend. The 
same principle appears to prevail in Samoyede, from which are 
cited such forms as marg-an, tob-on, ug-iin, tlel-en. The 
other extreme, where the harmony prevails only between the 
vowels of the root hxii not between those of the root and the 
suffixes, is found in nearly all the Finno-Ugric languages except 
Finnish and Hungarian. In some languages (e. g. Mordviuian) 
the harmony is not rigorously observed even in the root. It is 
doubtful if such languages really represent a more primitive pho- 
netic system than Finnish. They may have become affected owing 
to Eussian influence by an inability to accurately distinguish the 
hard and soft vowels, particularly a and a, for, though it is very 


probable that originally the vowel of the suffix was not neces- 
sarily the same as that of the root, one would expect those 
languages which retain the primitive system to distinguish the 
suffix more clearly than the others from the root, which does 
not seem to be the case. Finnish in this respect holds a midway 
position. The vowels of the suffixes are not assimilated, as 
in Turkish, but they are always of the same quality as those of 
the root. The sufBx a — ^n or h — ^n, however, found in the 
illative and passive, seems to show an approach to the Turkish 
S3rstem, as its vowel is always the same as that which precedes 
it : kotihin, ty5h5zi, tdihin, kylahan, talohon, Baa(d)alian, 
saatihin, saatanehen, saatalsihin. 

The second vocalic law of Finnish is the exact opposite of 
the vowel harmony — viz. vowel differentiation. The occur- 
rence of incongruous vowels in one word is discordant, but the 
excessive repetition of the same vowel is disagreeably mo- 
notonous. To avoid this a is often changed into o in words 
where a is the dominant vowel (pp. 9, 10 for the details), 
patoja for pataja, annoin for annain; but otin, sotia for 
ota-in, 80ta-ia. So also in the Eastern dialect kaloa for 
kalaa. On the same principle a and a change to e in com- 
paratives and passives, and thus we have vanhempana and 
tapetaan instead of such monotonous forms as vanhampana 
and tapataan. Also two fs meeting generally become ei. 

The third rule relates to the disappearance of final or medial 
e, and the consequent shortening of words. The chief accent 
of Finnish, as now pronounced, is on the first syllable of a word, 
and it is therefore very natural that final vowels should be 
omitted. In the dialect spoken about S. Petersburg this phe* 
nomenon is very frequent and such forms as miss for missa, 

• •• 


yks, kaks for yksi and kaksi ar^ common in the mouths of 
the peasantry. This may, however, be due to the influence of 
Esthonian and Eussian. In correct Finnish final e is omitted 
only in the nominative singular of polysyllabic stems, the con- 
sonantal groups which remain being simplified if the laws 
of euphony require it : so sisare, tantere, kysymykse become 
sisar, taxmer, and kysymys. In the middle of words the final 
6 of a stem disappears before nominal suffixes beginning with t 
(and sometimes n) and before verbal suffixes beginning with k 
or n, and this rule applies to dissyllables also. Now one would 
suppose on a priori grounds that the invariable accent on the 
first syllable is not original, but has replaced some older and 
less simple system, just as the variable accentuation of Bussian 
is older than the stereotyped system of Polish. Even in modem 
Finnish I doubt if the rule that every word is accented on 
the first syllable is really true. An educated Finn will always 
maintain that in a word like revitaan the main accent is on 
the first syllable, but to my ear it appears to be distinctly on 
the last (-taan), indeed, it is hard to see how this long syllable 
could be pronounced without an accent. What is undoubtedly 
true is that no syllables are slurred over as in Bussian and 
English. There is, as far as I know, no historical proof that 
some of the suffixes were accented in Finnish ; but it is highly 
probable on general grounds and explains many phenomena 
presented by both vowel and consonantal changes. For instance, 
the termination of the first infinitive, ta (representing an original 
tak or takse), when added to the stem tule, produces tulla, 
which is quite natural if the original form was tuletd, as the 
light vowel would drop out before the accented syllable ; similarly 
97dk8en6n becomes sydsnen for sydksnen. Sometimes a whole 


syllable is omitted, e. g. alenetd becomes aleta. For some reason 
the e is generally not omitted if it is preceded by k, p, v, or m. 
This is not an absolute rule, as one finds forms like tointa 
(st. toime), nahda, tehda (st. nahe, teke), but it is hard to see 
why if tvle-tk becomes tulla, luket^ should not become luhda. 
The length of the first vowel has nothing to do with the matter, 
as nouse makes nousta. A and a occasionally disappear in 
much the same way. Thus vieras stands for vierasa, Idynnyt, 
tiennyt are formed from Idyta, tieta ; and superlatives regularly 
lose final a ; suurin, for suurimpa. 

The rules for the changes of consonants fall into three main 
groups. Firstly only n, r, s, or t are admitted as finals and only 
a few simple combinations occur in the middle of words. When 
the loss of a vowel produces groups which are euphonically 
disagreeable, they are simplified; veitsta, kolmant, suurimp, 
sakenoitsta become veista, kolmas, suurin, sakenoita. 

The second group of changes concerns the letters t, k, s, h. 
The group ti has always a tendency to become si in syllables 
which never had the accent. The letter h, which is suspected 
of never being original when a medial, represents t, k, and s. 
S between two vowels immediately before a termination always 
becomes h. Vierasa makes in the nominative vieras, a being 
lost owing to the accent being on the first syllable. But the 
genitive vierasan becomes vierahan, and in the ordinary 
language this is contracted to vieraan. So too t becomes li 
under similar circumstances, perhaps having passed through s. 
The nominatives kevat, terve, and vene appear to represent 
stems kevata, tervete, and venete (for the partitives are ke- 
vatta, tervetta, venetta) and form the genitives kevahan, 
venehen, tervehen. The same change appears in the de- 


clension of past participles ending in -nyt or -nut. Again, kt 
before a termination which was presumably once accented 
becomes ht — a combination, of which the language is very fond. 
Thus the roots, haakte, ykte, kakte produce such forms as 
haaJiden, yhta, kahtena, in all of which the first syllable was 
probably not accented. But in the nominative the first syllable 
was accented and the words became first haakti., ykti, kakti 
(rule 15), and then haaksi, yksi, kaksi (rule 37). 

The third rule is the most important and singular. It 
requires the softening in some way of the three hard consonants 
k, t, p, when they occur at the beginning of a short open 
syllable which becomes closed. It is stated in detail on pp. 
13, 14, 15. These conventional rules are of great practical 
utility, for they are of almost universal application and can 
be used with perfect certainty in building up the most com- 
plicated forms. On the other hand, if one tries to explain them, 
they remain unique and mysterious, if considered only in re- 
ference to the closed syllable. Now there is one exception to 
their action : the addition of the pronominal suffixes produces 
no change in the consonants of a noun. But there are a good 
many cases where consonants are softened without the syllable 
being closed. Some of these cases (e. g. infinitives and negative 
verbs) are justly treated as closed syllables because a final 
consonant has been lost. But (i ) we find forms like auringoita, 
palkinnoita from aurinko, palkinto ; (2) many forms seem to 
waver between p and v, e. g. pi or vl in the 3rd sing, of verbs ; 
pa or va in the participle. 

In Esthonian, where an almost identical rule is found, it is 
obvious that in the present state of the language at any rate 
the theory of the closed syllable does not apply at all. 


It has been already seen that, though there is no actual proof 
that terminations in Finnish received the accent, the supposition 
that they once did so is not only agreeable to analogy, but 
explains many phenomena in the phonetics of the language. 
On this principle the rule about the closed syllable might be 
restated in the form that when a syllable received the accent, 
owing to the addition of a suffix \ the consonant at the beginning 
of that syllable was weakened. Thus atirinko remains with nk, 
aurinkdn becomes auringon, but aurinkond remains. The 
pronominal suffixes produce no change, because they are merely 
enclitic pronouns and have no accent. Auringoita can be 
easily explained by the tendency to accent a syllable con- 
taining a formative element and a diphthong. The advantage 
of this explanation of the weakening as due to change of 
accent is that, if true, it enables us to compare the phenomena 
presented by Finnish with laws accepted as prevailing in other 
languages, particularly with what is known in Teutonic philology 
as Werner's law affecting non-initial soft spirants. By this law 
when X) ]>> ^} 8 dos© the syllable bearing the chief accent they 
remain; in all other cases they pass into the corresponding 
sonants 5, tS, 15, z. Thus an original w6rj)e produces war]>, but 
an original (we)wurj)m6 produces wurtStim. 

All Finnish accidence is concerned with the addition of suffixes 
to roots, subject to the above rules for the change of vowels and 
consonants. In the present state of the language these roots are 
mostly dissyllabic, though there are also plenty of monosyllables. 
There is reason to believe, however, that these dissyllabic roots 
are mostly the result of the combination of a monosyllable with 

^ This applies not only to case or personal suffixes, but to any formatiYe 


very primitive suffixes, and it is probable that the original roots 
were of the form consonant + the vowel a + consonant. The 
root was differentiated in various ways by changing a to o, u, i, e, 
etc., by raising it to a diphthong or long vowel, or by altering 
the consonants within certain limits. Examples of this develop- 
ment of roots are contained in Donner's Vergleichendes W5rter- 
buch der Finno-Ugrischen Sprachen. 

Finnish, like all the cognate languages, has no distinctions of 
gender. It possesses two numbers, the singular and plural, all 
ti'aces of the jdual which exists in Ostiak and Vogul having been 
lost. Three elements are used to form the plural — ^t, i, and lol. 
Of these t is found only in the nominative and genitive plural, 
in which latter case it appears variously as tt, d, or, like the t 
of the partitive and infinitive, is omitted. This suffix appears 
also in Esthonian (as d), Mordvinian, and Ostiak (tl). Vogul, 
Syrjenian, and Cheremissian have quite different suffixes, while 
Lappish and Hungarian employ the letter k, apparently identical 
with the g which characterises the dual in Ostiak and Vogul. 
It has been suggested that as k cannot be a final in Finnish, it 
has been changed to t ; but Mordvinian, which has no objection 
to final k, also has t as a plural sign. The vowel i is used in 
all the cases except the nominative and genitive to mark the 
plural, being inserted immediately before the case termination. 
It is similarly used in Esthonian and Lappish, and there are 
traces of it in Hungarian. It has been explained as represent- 
ing k weakened to j. In the Kalevala and many dialects (e. g. 
that of Savo) a^suffix loi is found before the plural termination, 
chiefly in the partitive, essive, and translative : maliti-loi-ta, 
pilvi-loi-ksi, tahti-16i-na. It is never found in the nominative, 
nor, for euphonic reasons, in the cases which othei'wise contain 
^ b 


1. The i is evidently the ordinary plural sign, and as pata + i 
+ na becomes patoina, it is probable that this loi represents 
la+i. Ostiak has a suffix tl in the plural (but this appears 
to represent simple t), Cheremissian adds vlja or vHa, and 
in Samoyede la appears to be used indifferently with t as a 
plural sign. The syllable la is used in Finnish to denote a 
place : e. g. setala, uncles house, from seta, and lo is a diminu- 
tive termination. Possibly these forms should be treated as 
diminutives, but the analogy with Samoyede is curious. It is 
noticeable that according to our ideas the plural is not used 
very strictly; thus the numerals take a singular noun, the 
partitive when signifying many people likewise takes a singular 
verb ; the verb on is used with the nominative plural, and in 
poems, proverbs, etc., a plural noun has as often as not a 
singular verb. On the other hand, the plural is often used 
where there seems to be no real idea of plurality. For instance, 
we find expressions like olla kylmilla, to he in the cold ; omin 
luvin, of on^8 oton accord. The instructive, prolative, and 
comitative are generally used in the plural, even when one 
definite person is described, and there is no distinction between 
the singular and plural suffixes for the third person. Now, in 
some languages which appear to present the least developed 
type of the agglutinative principle, as for instance Manchu, the 
plural is not regularly distinguished from the singular, and 
though Finnish has advanced enormously beyond this stage, it 
appears to have developed a less acute sense of number than the 
Aryan languages. It is therefoi*e very possible that some of 
the plural suffixes were in their origin not strictly plural. 
The t might thus be identical with that of the determinate 
accusative of pronouns (minut, etc.) and with the t or te, which 


characterises the definite declension in Mordvinian. Fossihly 
the k of the other languages of the group may be connected 
with the suffixes -kko, -kkaha, which have an idea of quantity. 
Nearly all the cases had originally a local meaning. On 
pp. 1 3 1- 1 33 will be found some account of their relation to one 
another, and the development of their significations. As is 
there shown, there are three groups of cases which more or less 
correspond, the so-called interior and exterior groups, and 
another composed of the partitive, the essive, and the transla- 
tive. These latter have simple suffixes, ta, na, and ksi. In 
the other groups another element is added to the suffix, in the 
interior cases a (supposed to represent sisa), and in the exterior 
1 (supposed to represent luo). The terminations of the inessive 
(ssa), the elative (sta), the adessive (lla), and the ablative 
(ita) clearly stand for s+na, s+ta, l + na, 1 + ta, The com- 
bination n+ta is also used sporadically (p. 23) to form a case 
analogous to the elative and ablative. The relation of the three 
cases indicative of motion to is, however, less obvious. The 
termination of the translative is ksi (or kse), that of the illative 
sen or h-n (with the vowel of the previous syllable between 
the two consonants), and that of the allative -lie, sometimes 
pronounced lien. Now, Finnish contains clear traces of a dative 
in -ne or -nek (pp. 24 and 128). The illative shows a suffix 
-sen, but dialects give forms which represent he-sen or se-sen 
(which are supported by the analogy of other languages), which 
may be explained as the characteristic of the internal cases plus 
a case termination. The allative -lle(n) may therefore be 
explained as l+hen, though it can equally well represent 1+ne. 
The termination sen, which is weakened to h-n, or merely n 
preceded by a long vowel, is perhaps for ksen, for the termina- 



tion of the translative has a great tendency to be weakened and 
even disappear (alas, tdos, taa, 17*0, ist infinitives, etc.). We 
thus get three groups exactly corresponding : (i) na, ta, kae ; 
(2) s+na, s+ta, s + ksen; (3) 1+na, 1 + ta, l+kse. 

The prolative, ending in -tse, is not often used and is perhaps 
identical with the termination -ten, found in some adverbs 
(taten, miten, siten, etc.). The caritive has regularly the 
termination -tta, but in adverbs this sinks to -ti (aanetiy 
huoleti). Dialectically are found tak, tah., and ta, and a com- 
parison of the cognate languages leaves no doubt that taka or 
taxa was the original form. It is quite clear that this ending 
is closely connected with the caritive adjectival suffix -ttoma, 
which has much the same form in all the cognate languages, 
except Ostiak, where it is wanting. In Mordvinian we have 
vtomo or ftima, and in Lappish tabme or tebme. Otherwise 
the suffix seems to represent an original tama. Perhaps the 
f or V of Mordvinian may represent some element (e. g. k) added 
to the stem before the suffix, which has produced in Finnish tt. 
The termination of the abessive has been explained as the word 
taka, hack. But if this is so, what becomes of the caritive 
adjective, which shows no trace of this syllable ka I The con- 
clusion that the element denoting absence or negation is ta — 
perhaps with some other consonant before it — seems inevitable. 
Ta is used to denote motion from (the original meaning of the 
partitive), and the connection between this idea and absence is 
not impossible. 

There remain several cases characterised by the letter n, with 
or without a vowel. We have (i) a genitive, with the termina- 
tion n in the singular, and taking t as well in the plural ; (2) 
an accusative, found only in the singular and identical in form 


with the genitive ; (3) an instructive identical in the singular 
with the genitive, but without the element t in the plural ; (4) 
a comitative, formed with the syllable ne. This last may be 
explained as a local case, related to the syllable na of the essive 
or locative as the ta of the ist infinitive is to the te of the 
second. The instructive termination is probably in reality the 
same as that of the genitive. It does not seem unnatural that 
a case denoting relation should be used adverbially to denote 
the manner in which an action is performed. The case is used 
chiefly in the plural, in which it does not take the element t, 
doubtless to distinguish it from the genitive. The genitive 
seems either to have or to have had the termination n in all the 
Finno-Ugric languages. It is noticeable that it is stricly a case 
representing relation, and does not denote origin. Its regular 
place is before the word which depends on it. It is probably 
akin to the dative ending in -ne. The accusative ending in n 
plays only a very small part in Finnish, as it is never used 
except to denote the total object in the singular of a finite verb. 
The partial object (p. 126) is always in the partitive, whether 
singular or plural ; the total object plural is in the nominative, 
and the total object singular of an imperative or impersonal 
(so-called passive) verb is also in the nominative. Usage with 
regard to the object of an infinitive is fluctuating, but the 
primitive rule seems to be that it was in the partitive or 
nominative. It would seem that when the agent is not defined 
(imperative, passive, infinitive) the simple nominative was 
regarded as sufficient, as there could be no confusion between 
the subject and object. But when the subject is expressed by 
a word or termination, it was felt necessary to emphasise the 
object by some termination. T in the plural was apparently 


enough, but in the singular we find n, which might be identified 
with the suffix of the genitive, but for the fact that Ostiak, Chere- 
missian, and Yog^l have m of me, and Lappish m, b, p, or 
w pointing to an original m. 

There is also a termination t occurring in the accusatives of 
the personal pronouns in Finnish, and found also in Hungarian, 
Mordvinian, and Syrjenian, which marks the determinate 
accusative. This is perhaps identical with the t of the plural. 
The nominative, as such, has no termination. In the plural it 
has the simple plural sign t ; in the singular it is identical with 
the root, unless altered (as is often the case) by purely phonetic 

The Finnish adjective is not distinguished from the noun, but 
it presents this peculiarity that contrary to the usage of the 
cognate languages it agrees with its substantive in number and 
case. This is probably due to Aryan influences, and has on the 
whole been a misfortune, for as soon as it is possible to con- 
struct sentences in which the connection of adjectives and 
substantives, far removed from one another in place, can be 
indicated by similar teiminations, it is inevitable that authors 
should construct complicated phrases of the German or 
Greek type, which so much disfigure contemporary Finnish' 

Finnish possesses a comparative and superlative, both having 
the termination mpa, the comparative being distinguished by 
the addition of the letter i before this suffix. This i might 
possibly be identified with that which marks the oblique cases 
of the plural, on the supposition that it is a determinative 
element which gradually acquired a plural signification in 
nouns. The comparative ending is also found in the pronouns > 


jompi, kumpi, and molempi. Though the present numerals 
of the Finno-Ugric languages are based on a decimal system, it 
is clear that the original base was seven. For in all the 
languages the numbers from one to seven are obviously identical, 
whereas the words for eight, nine, ten are different. Finnish, 
with the Baltic dialects, and Mordvinian, represent! ten by 
kynunenen, kiunme, or kemen ; Lappish, Cheremissian, and 
Vogulian give lokke (or loye)? lu, lau, which signify simply 
number (Finn. luku). Ostiak has jon, which recalls the Tur- 
kish on and Yakut uon, but which has also been explained as 
]jon (=luku). Cheremissian has das, which looks as if it had 
been borrowed from the Kussian ^ecjiTB, though this explana- 
tion can hardly be extended to the Magyar tiz. The numbers 
eight and nine clearly contain in most of the languages the 
numbers two and one, so that they must mean ten minus two, 
and ten minus one, but the element denoting ten is not clear : 
Fii\nish, kahdehsan, yhdeksan ; Lappish, kaktse, aktse 
(kuekte, two ; akte, one) ; Syrjenian kdkja-mis, ok-mis (Idk, 
two ; otik, OTie) ; Mordvinian, kafksa, vehksa (kafta, two ; 
ifka, one) ; Cheremissian, kandexcde, index&lje (kok, two ; ik-ta, 
one). The Magyar, Ostiak, and Vogul for eight (nyolc, nji- 
gedlax, njSlirlu) seems related, but not the words for nine. 
The word for a hundred is the same in all the languages. 

The personal pronouns are declined almost exactly like nouns. 
Mina, sina, han appear to represent original forms mi-na, 
ti-na, sa-na (? for ta-na). The oblique cases in the singular of 
the ist and 2nd person are formed either from the stems minu 
and sinu (which have been adopted by the literary language), 
or mu, 811. The plural stems are me, te, he, apparently 
strengthened fprms of mi, ti, hi, which take i in the oblique 


cases, but which (like the demonstrative pronouns) do not take 
t in the nominative. 

The genitive of the personal pronoun is supplied by the 
pronominal affixes, which are added to nouns. They are for 
the singular ni, si, nsa; for the plural mme, nne, nsa. 
The 1st person singular ni is difficult to explain, for the 
pronominal root is mi. Probably final m was changed to n (cf. 
tlie verbs), and the i was a later addition. So too the 2nd person 
singular varies between si and s. It is clear that in the 3rd 
singular and all the persons of the plural an element, perhaps 
the n of the genitive, is added to the noun, so that nsa, nune, 
nne stand for n-sa, n-me, n-te. It is noticeable, however, that 
in Ostiak and Yogul the 2nd person is distinguished by the 
element n, and not t, in all three numbers : sing, nan, nan ; 
plur. nan, nan ; dual nin. These suffixes are added to the 
declined noun, after the case termination, whereas in Hungarian 
the case terminations are added after the pronominal a^x. 
In Cheremissian either combination seems possible. It is a 
remarkable fact that when the pronominal affixes cause a 
syllable to be closed, the initial consonant of that syllable is 
not weakened as in other cases. Tapa+mme and tapa + nsa 
do not become tavamma, tavansa, but tapamme, tapansa. 
The explanation of this is very easy if the principles suggested 
above are correct. The pronominal affixes are enclitics, and 
hence tdpa-nsa does not change its accent, while tapa-Ua 
becomes tav^-lla. But what is much more curious is that 
while the simple genitive singular and nominative plural 
are tavan and tavat, the same cases with suffixes appear as 
tapamme or tapansa. If these forms are not due to analogy 
they must be explained on a principle which seems to prevail in 


Finnish, that it is unnecessary to add more than one suffix defining 
the relations of words, unless there is a question of local 
position. Thus in the plural the sign of number is considered 
a sufficient mark both of the nominative and accusative. 

The other pronouns call for little comment, but it is notice- 
able that the relative pronouns and adverbs are fully developed, 
so that, although many phrases which we should render by 
temporal and relative clauses are expressed by infinitives and 
participles (as in Turkish), they can also be expressed by 
sentences like those of Aryan languages. All the Finno-Ugric 
languages show an attempt to differentiate the verb from the 
noun, which is least successful in the Eastern languages, and 
most ftdly realized in Finnish. Yet here one can at once dis- 
card a mass of forms — the so-called infinitives and participles — 
which are simple substantives. Their use is explained on pp. 
184-202. The infinitives are formed with two suffixes, ta and 
ma. The first appears in the ist infinitive as ta, da, or a, and 
in the 2nd infinitive, in a weakened form, as te, de, or e. The 
second suffix ma appears in the 3rd infinitive in its proper 
form, and as a diminutive in the fourth and fifth infinitives, of 
which the latter is used only in one case. The present participle, 
active and passive, is formed by adding va, a common adjectival 
termination, to the simple or to the passive stem. The past 
participle active is formed by adding -nehe (nom. nut or nyt) 
to the stem (cf. such nominal stems as venehe, hoat ; puhehe, 
conversation), while the past participle passive is a simple noun 
with the suffix u or y, and identical with such forms as luku, 
itku, maksu (p. 45), except that it has the t which characterises 
the passive. 

Setting aside these forms we have the finite verb, which 


shows two distinct formations, indicating two separate modes of 
thought. The ist and 2nd persons singular and plural take 
suffixes obviously identical in origin with the pronominal 
affixes, while the 3rd person, singular and plural, is a simple 
predicate. The affixes for the verb are ist sing, n, 2nd sing, t, 
ist plur. mme, 2nd plur. tte. In as far as these are not 
absolutely the same as the suffixes added to nouns, they show 
an attempt to differentiate the verb, but n is clearly the same 
as -ni ; t is a more original form of the 2nd singular, which 
was once ti, and mme is the same in nouns and verbs. The 
2nd person plur. in nouns nne has been already explained as 
n-te ; in the verb mm^e and tte perhaps represent k + m.e, 
k+te. Thus it is only in the ist person plural that the 
nominal and verbal suffixes absolutely coincide. Toivonune 
means either we hope or our ho2)e. 

The formation of the 3rd persons is quite different. The 
plural termination is vat. In modem Finnish the singular, as a 
rule, takes no termination, but merely lengthens the final vowel, 
if not already long or a diphthong. But (as stated on pp. 62 
and 63) the termination pi, which is found in monosyllabic 
verbs, and in the weakened form vi in others, is frequent in 
dialects, and used sometimes in the literary language. This 
suffix appears in all the Baltic dialects in the forms b, p for the 
singular, and vat, ba, va for the plural. In Lappish it does 
not occur in the 3rd person sing, or plur., but in the ist person 
plural (p , be, or p), in the 2nd dual (batte, ppe, bet, vette) 
and plural (battet, ppet, bet, vetteS), and in the 3rd dual 
(ba, van, v). It also occurs sporadically in Cheremissian 
as the sign of the 3rd person. Now it is quite plain that the 
Finnish -va-t is the plural form of pi or vi. An analogy for 


final a sinking to i can be found in the nominative and com- 
paratives (suurempi for Buurempa), and it is therefore likely 
that the 3rd person singular and plural ended in pa and vat 
(p. 15). No doubt this pa or va is identical with the suffix of 
the present participle. In the plural indeed the two forms are 
absolutely identical even in the modern language: tuovat, 
antavat, tulevat are either the 3rd person plural present or 
nominative plural of the participle present. The 3rd person is 
thus simply a predicate, the verb substantive being, as often, 
omitted. Pa or va would thus be in its origin a suffix of the 
present : pi or vi does not appear in any of the other moods or 
tenses, but vat is the universal termination of the plural. 
Perhaps it was not original in any tense but the present, as 
Setala quotes from old writers and dialects such forms as sanoit 
(sanoivat), naghitt (naklvat), olisit (olisivat), etc. But it 
must be remembered that the termination va has not a marked 
temporal signification, as it is used to form simple adjectives 
like lihava, fat ; terava, sharp. If then we regard saavat as a 
simple adjective from the root saa, denoting taking, there is no 
reason why saivat, saanevat, etc. should not be adjectives from 
sai, saane, which express modifications of that root. But this 
is a question of chronology, and it is more probable that when 
those stems were formed vat was accepted as a suffix of the 3rd 
plural. In Esthonian the va is sometimes added to the active 
past participle (tulnuva), and similar forms are quoted from 
Agricola. In modem Finnish the 3rd person singular generally 
ends simply in a long vowel, perhaps the remains of a diphthong 
ending in xl, which occurs in some dialects. 

Besides the personal terminations already discussed, we find 
in reflexive verbs (in some of which however the reflexive mean- 


ing is not very clear) me as the suffix of the ist singular 
annoime, luome, siirrime^), te for the 2nd person (weaite, 
Beisotaite, tungeite), keen, kse, ihe for the srd person. These 
latter forms are carefully discussed by Setala (Suom. Ug. Seuran 
Aikakauskirja, No. II, 1887, p. 33 ff.), and he seems to prove 
satisfactorily that they represent k+sen, of which the first 
element is a present suffix, found also in the imperative and 
negative, and the second the pronoun of the 3rd person, found 
also in the optative, passive, and other forms. The terminations 
me and te might be explained as the original forms, seeing that 
the roots of the ist and 2nd personal pronouns are probably mi 
and ti, but they are more likely to be due to false analogy, the 
real meaning of he (=8en) in the 3rd person having been 

We have thus for terminations indicative of person the 
following :— 

Sing. Plur. 

1. n (me) m+me 

2. t (te) t+te 

3. (a) pi, vi, long vowel vat or simple t. 
(b) sen, hen, se, he. 

We have now to consider what are the other formative 
elements used in the Finnish verb, in doing which it is best to 
take first the finite affirmative conjugation, leaving aside the 
negative and passive forms. We may also leave aside the 
compound tenses which have doubtless arisen under foreign 
influences (cf. the Magyar forms). 

We have seen that in nouns the possessive affixes n-sa, m-me, 
n-ne pointed to the fact that another element besides the strictly 

^ Kalevala. 3 painos. 1887. Johdanto. p. zv. 


pronominal affix was added to the stem. The mme and tie of 
the plural verb are also best explained as k+me, k+te. 
This k occurs in many other verbal forms, and is of rather 
uncertain meaning, but apparently originally used in the present 
tense. It occurs in most of the cognate languages, particularly 
Lappish. The moods and tenses of the Finnish verb are veiy 
simple. The indicative has but two simple tenses (as in most of 
the cognate languages), a durative, which answers to both our 
present and future, and an aorist. There are three other 
moods, the potential or concessive, which represents an action 
as possible but not actual, the conditional, and the imperative, 
with which the optative may be taken to form one tense. 

The present indicative adds the personal endings direct to 
the stem ; the other forms add some element between the stem 
and terminations, which are the same as in the present (n, t, 
mme, tte, vat), except that the 3rd singular never takes pi 
or vi. 

The past tense (generally called imperfect) is formed by 
adding the vowel i to the stem, which generally causes euphonic 
changes. Saa, to receive ; sain, / received ; anta, to give ; 
annom, / gave ; tule, to come ; tulin, / came. This suffix is 
used in Lappish in the forms je, ie, i, and traces of it occur in 
Magyar, Mordvinian, Cheremissian, Syrjenian, and Vogul. 
Ostiak is peculiar in using the simple stem for the past, and 
adding de to mark the present. The suffix i or je is perhaps 
the same as ja used to form nouns expressing the agent 
(e.g. kalastaja, a fiahermarC). Another termination used 
extensively in all the Baltic dialects is -si. This is quite 
regular in verbs whose root ends in ta, for lupat(a)i becomes 
naturally lupasi, and pyyt(a)i pyysi (v. p. 16 for detailed 


rules). But in Estbonian and the South Western dialect of 
Finnish this termination is added to a great many words which 
have no t in the stem. E. g. Esthonian : stem palu, pres. palun, 
pret. palusin; stem puhki, pres. piihin, pret. puhkizis. 
These forms are perhaps the result of analogy, which was 
particularly easy on account of the contracted verbs. A com- 
parison of the present lupaan (from which t has been lost) and 
the imperfect lupasin naturally suggests that si is the 
characteristic suffix of the latter. On the other hand, Mord- 
vinian, Cheremissian, Yogul, and some forms of Ostiak (as well 
as the Samoyede languages) all have s or I as a sign of the 
preterite, so that si may possibly contain another tense element 
distinct from i. 

The concessive is characterised by the syllable ne, or some- 
times no in dialects. A conjunctive formed with this element 
occurs in most of Baltic dialects, Cheremissian, Yogul, and 

The conditional has in Finnish a double suffix i+sL The 
i is doubtless identical with that of the imperfect. The syllable 
si is no doubt for ksi, for the Esthonian conditional is regularly 
formed with this suffix. Falu, wiska, piihki, sd form paluksin, 
wiskaksin, piihiksin, sdksin. Esthonian generally has this 
suffix without i, but the other Baltic dialects employ the Finnish 
form. Lappish also has a subjunctive showing the syllable kei, 
c^i, or 6i, but the form is unknown in the Eastern languages. 
It is noticeable that both ne and se are found in dialects doubled 
(myysisin from myy, to sell', tullenen, for tulnenen, from 
tulla, to come), and also combined in the form neisi, which 
occurs several times in the Kalevala (e.g. xxiii. 219, 220. 
Tuosta sulho suuttuneisi Mies nuori nuristiizieiBi). 


The imperative consists of a 2nd person singular, which in 
literary Finnish is merely the root in a closed form (anna, ota 
from anta, otta), hut which in dialects is found ending in k 
(annak, otak, etc.), and of a ist and 2nd plural ending in 
kaamme, kaatte (or kaa) in the literary language, though 
kama, kamme, katte are also found. A 3rd person singular in 
kaan also occurs, hut rarely. The optative consists of a 2nd 
person singular ending in os, of a 3rd person singular in koon, 
and a 3rd person plural in koot. These forms have heen 
generally explained as weakenings of suffixes kasa (kaha) and 
koso (koho), and as representing kasamme, kasatte, koso, 
koson, and kosot. It appears to me that the evidence hrought 
forward by Setala (p. 1 1 1 ff.) disproves this theory. He points 
out (i) that the forms kaha, koho never occur in those dialects 
which otherwise preserve h between vowels, e. g. in the illative 
and passive ; (2) that the Eastern dialects change the kaa or 
kaa of the imperative into koa, kea, which change never occurs 
when an h has heen lost. Besides no particular explanation 
has ever been offered of the suffixes kasa, koso. The proper 
suffixes then of the imperative and optative are ka, ko, which 
are obviously related (cf. ne, dialect no, in the concessive). 
These suffixes appear in Esthonian as g& {dial) and gu, and a 
suffix ka, k, or traces of it, occurs not only in the Baltic 
languages, but in all the other members of the group. It seems 
to be identical with the k which appears in the negative con- 
jugation and elsewhere, and which is the least definite in 
signification of suffixes merely indicating the verbal character of 
the root. Thus the 2nd person singular of the imperative is an 
elementary verbal form without a personal termination. The 
forms kaamme^ kaatte have evidently added to this suffix the 


personal termination. The long vowel appears to be an inven- 
tion of the modem literary dialect. In poetry and dialects we 
find the forms kamme, kame, and kate. 

The termination os of the optative is doubtless for ko + a 
where s represents the 2nd person singular. In Kalevala 
xxxiii. 257-8 we find a form in kosi, Kun on kuoUet kuol- 
kosipa, kaotkosi kun kaonnet, cf. Kanteletar (p. 14, 2nd ed., 
1884) TehkoB liito lintuseni. The 3rd person singular ending 
in koon is undoubtedly for kohon, where the second element 
represents the 3rd personal pronoun han or sen. The assimila- 
tion of the vowel to the o of ko resembles the phenomena 
presented by the illative. The plural koot is similarly for 
kohot, where the second element represents het or set, that is 
the 3rd personal pronoun with the plural suffix. The terminal 
tions kaan and kaat, which occur dialectically, show similar 
formations with the ka of the imperative. 

Besides the forms of the finite active verb discussed above, 
Finnish also possesses what is called a passive, but is no doubt 
really an impersonal verb, used in all the tenses but the im- 
perative. From the root tuo come the present tuodahan, 
imperf. tuotahin, concessive tuotanehen, conditional tuotaisi- 
hin. But the root ending in a short vowel like repi makes 
revitahan, revittiliin, revittanehen, revittaiedhin. In all 
these forms the last element is obviously a termination h-n, 
which is vocalized analogously to the illative. This is probably 
the 3rd personal pronoun han or sen. Besides this termination 
there is added to the root the element tta after a shoi-t vowel, 
and ta after a long one. This suffix is probably identical 
with the causal and transitive terminations ta, tta (p. no). 
Thus the passive forms are really causal verbs used impersonally 
in the 3rd person singular. 


It is noticeable that while the imperfects and other tenses are 
tuotihin, sanotihini, etc., the present has tuodahan, sanotahan, 
etc. This points to the syllable tta or ta having being closed 
originally by some element which has disappeared. Now the 
passive present in Esthonian is formed regularly with the 
syllable kse which is doubtless the present suffix k and the 
pronoun se. Thus the roots palu, wiska, and puhki form the 
passives palutakse, wizatakse, puhitakse corresponding very 
closely to an original Finnish sane + ta+k + sen which becomes 
sanota'ben and then sanotaan. Personal, neuter, or passive 
verbs are formed by the addition of the vowels u or y, with or 
without the addition of t, nt, or p (p. iii). Such verbs, 
however, are not counted as part of the regular conjugation, 
as they cannot be formed from all verbal stems. 

On the same footing as these reflexive verbs stand the various 
derivative forms described p. no ff. Some of them — e. g. the 
causal suffixes — ^have so distinct a meaning and are used so 
frequently that they might almost be given among the regular 
forms of the verb; others are only added to comparatively 
few verbs and vary in their signification. Some of them are 
the same suffixes which occur in the regular conjugation ; ksi, 
a frequentative or diminutive, is no doubt identical with the si 
of the conditional : ne, and perhaps the n of nta, is the suffix 
of the concessive ; ele, or le, used in Finnish only to form 
frequentatives and diminutives, appears in Lappish as a sign of 
the subjunctive mood (Set. p. 158). It is thus clear that the ver- 
bal forms consist of a root (that is to say, a form which may be 
considered as a root for Finnish, without prejudice to the question 
how far it is absolutely primitive), to which are added certain 
formative affixes and a termination indicating person. Some 


of these formative affixes have been accepted as definitely indi- 
cating mood or tense, others have not been so accepted and have 
a vagner signification. Thus anta+i+ai + n is described as 
the ist person singular of the conditional of anta, to give, isi 
being indicative of the mood, but kaaramdittelee, which 
represents kaara + ma + i + tta + ele, is not regarded as having 
any modal or temporal suffix. 

In Finnish, as in most of the cognate languages except 
Hungarian and Ostiak (where however there are traces of 
another system) there is no simple negative particle, and negation 
can only be expressed by means of the negative verb, en, et, ei, 
emme, ette, eivat, which is prefixed to the closed form of the 
root. There is no doubt that this form has lost a final k, and 
is therefore identical with the second person singular of the 
imperative, and is the simplest verbal form. In the past, the 
past participle is used with the negative verb, and in the other 
moods the tense stem. The imperative and optative add ko 
to the stem and the negative particle is formed from the root 
al or el which is obviously closely akin to such forms as 
ellen (p. 69) and perhaps is the negative root combined with 
the suffix le. 

Although the common opinion about Finnish is that it is 
hopelessly unlike any European language, it must be admitted 
by all who have studied it that it represents a very close 
approximation to the Aryan type, due no doubt to the strong 
and consistent foreign influence to which it has been subjected. 
As is well known, the vocabularly is overrun with German or 
Scandinavian words, often the equivalents of the simplest ideas, 
which have been borrowed, not lately, but before the earliest 
period of which we have any record. In the structure of the 


language itself this approximation is not less striking. It 
manifests itself in two ways — negatively and positively. As 
for the first, Finnish has abandoned many constructions 
which are found in the other languages of the group, hut 
which are unknown to Aryan grammar. Thus we find no 
traces of the object being incorporated with the verb, or of the 
verb taking possessive as well as predicative suffixes. On the 
other hand, the positive resemblances^ are very numerous. It 
cannot be denied that the declensions, whatever be their origin, 
are in their present form very similar to those of Latin and 
Greek. The case suffix forms a whole with the noun ; it in- 
fluences the vowels and consonants of the latter ; the pronominal 
suffixes must be added after it, and not between it and the stem. 
The only difference between Finnish and Greek or Latin de- 
clension is that the former is much more regular and trans- 
parent in its character, though, even here, some cases, as the 
partitive singular and genitive plural, show considerable 
diversity. The adjective is fully declined, agrees with its 
substantive, and takes degrees of comparison. The verb is 
clearly distinguished from the noun, and the scanty supply of 
primitive tenses has been supplemented by a number of forms 
combined with the auxiliary verb after the analogy of German 
or Sweedish. There are a great many infinitival and partici- 
pial constractions, which recall the Turkish'; but, on the other 
hand, the relative pronouns and particles are fully developed. 
On the whole, it may be fairly said that Finnish really presents 
no great differences from Aryan languages except in its euphonic 
laws, the use of the pronominal suffixes, the infinitives and 
participles, and some syntactical peculiarities. Compared with 
such a language as Ostiak (or even Magyar) it shows the 

c 2 


clearest traces of foreign influence, and of non-Aryan material 
recast in a western and Aiyan mould. 

On the other hand, it must be remembered that agglutinative 
languages represent a stage through which Aryan languages 
have doubtless past. The real difference between the forms 
presented by Finnish, and those of Latin, Greek, or Sanskrit, is 
that while the former has but a limited number of suffixes^ and 
uses them regularly in the same sense, the latter had a super- 
fluously rich store, and used sometimes one, sometimes another 
to express the same idea. Hence it is that we find different case 
endings for nouns, adjectives, and pronouns ; and several ways of 
inflecting verbs and nouns. 

The tendency to advance from the primitive forms and 
constructions of the Ugro- Altaic languages to a mode of ex- 
pression more in harmony with western thought reaches its 
height in the modem literary Finnish. It is no reproach to 
this language to say that it is artificial. Nearly all modem 
languages have the same origin. Out of a mass of dialects 
one is selected by circumstances as representative, and becomes 
a language while the others remain dialects. A number of such 
dialects are spoken in Finland, and no doubt if any of them had 
received an independent literary development, it might have 
produced a language almost as different from written Finnish as is 
Esthonian. Neither can one be surprised at the number of 
newly invented words in Finnish. All the languages of modern 
Europe have borrowed the vocabulary of mediaeval Latin, 
either by taking the words as they found them, or by trans- 
lating the component parts of them into equivalents supplied 
from their own grammar. English has generally adopted the 
former, German the latter method. Finnish has followed 


boldly in the same track, and endeavoured to find native equiva- 
lents for the chief modern ideas. It is perhaps presumptuous 
for a foreigner to judge whether the result is successful. One 
is inclined to think that the change has been a little too 
sudden. Finnish is an admirable vehicle for such poetry as 
the Kalevala or for simple narrative. It had not advanced at all 
beyond this state when it was used to represent the most compli- 
cated forms of European thought, and, as it still keeps its homely 
native character, the combination sometimes appears rather odd. 
Besides, as there is no authority to determine exactly what are the 
accepted phrases for the literary dialect, or the proper equiva- 
lents of foreign words, a good deal of confusion reigns, and 
even natives have occasionally some difficulty in understanding 
modem authors. It is a great pity that writers do not adopt a 
simpler style. As it is, they have chosen German models, and 
the combination of exceedingly involved phrases with manifold 
inflectional forms distinguished only by slight differences pro- 
duces sentences which rival in difficulty ancient Greek, a 
language which was generally obscure except in the hand 
of a master. Yet though Finnish deserves its undesirable 
reputation of being the most difficult language spoken in 
Europe, except perhaps Basque, it seems to be an undoubted 
fact that the area over which it is spoken is being, enlarged at 
the expense of Eussian and Swedish. 

The group of languages to which Finnish belongs is at 
present spoken by tribes scattered over the more northern parts 
of European Russia and immediately to the east of the Ural. 
In Siberia we have Ostiak, spoken by tribes about the river 
Obi (for the Ostiak of the Yenisei appears to be a different 
language), and Vogul, spoken by scattered tribes on either side 


tA lit^r I TrAl. With them kojOfoagcs k totmeeted MagTmr, though 
ffwinf( iff iifft^^ ittflneaeeB mad iU great Ihenrj derelopnMnt 
^^^fmp^rHi^ (m\y io ihiA of Ymniih^ it p y wciit g maiij peculiarities. 
't\um0i hfAh ihe grafmiiar and Toeabolarj of these languages 
imr^, Wf d/ntbi of their relation to the rest of the group, thej 
diffi^ ff(fm them in nianj points of detaiL The case tennina- 
iuftm ^ffttmnti few resembhinees ; Yognl and Ostiak hare a dual, 
Aft/1 tb#fy all more or less employ constroctions rejected hy most 
iff tlie other languages^ soeh as the incorporaticm of the object 
ill iiw verb, ilie distinetion between predicatiye and possessiye 
Muffix<;M in the verb, etc. Also it is remarkable that they have 
tufi <h5Velope(l fnlly the peculiar negative constructions of 
Fiiitiinh and the more western languages. 

Kt%ni of the Voguls dwell a race called Syryenians or Zyrjenians 
(lluMNtan 3iiipiiHe)f whose head quarters are at the town of 
JMhtiuiy on the Pechora ; south of these again are the Votiaks, 
inoNily in tlie government of Viatka. On the north bank of the 
V<)l)|ti, to tho west of Kazan, live the Cheremissians, speaking 
two (liiileotM, some scattered settlements of whom are found 
l*ui*thcr east, while to the south of these again, mostly about the 
rivdm Oka and Sura, are numerous scattered settlements of 
Mordviuians, who have likewise two dialects. None of these 
art) literary languages. Besides them we have Lappish, in 
ilut^ diiUiH)ts spoken in the northern parts of Finland, Sweden, 
and K\)ii»ia, and the various Baltic idioms, vrith Suomi or 

Tht> r^latiim of these languages to one another have been 
aWy d^^>rilHHl in Dr» Donner*8 work, * Die gegenseitige Ver- 
wtMu)»\'haft^ dor Finnish^Ugrischen Sprachen.' He divides the 
whv^W group into two divisions, the first called Ugric,.and com- 


prising only Ostiak, Vogul, and Magyar; the second called 
Finnish, including all the other languages. This second or 
Finnish division is divided into two groups, the Permian and 
Volga-Baltic, the former including only the Syrjenians, Permians, 
and Votiaks, the latter again in two sub-divisions, the Volga 
group or Mordvinian and Cheremissian, and the West Finnish 
group including Lappish, Esthonian, and Finnish. 

This classification may be represented thus in a table : — 

d / /I. Ostiak. 

8) A. Ugrian. J 2. Vogul. 
s VA. Macfvi 



3. Magyar. 

(\ Permian l®y^'®'*^*^'^®'™^*°8» 
/I. renman jvotiaks. 

B. Finnish, h 

^ -TT I (Cheremissian, 

a.Volgagtoup JMonlyinian. 

ti. Volg» Baltic -I ( '• ^PP**- , ... 

3. Finnish. 

All these languages have a certain common vocabulary, and 
a common grammatical substratum, though many of them 
possess constructions unknown to the others. The pronouns, 
numerals, and in a less obvious degree the pronominal affixes of 
nouns and verbs are also identical. The Ugrian languages, 
however, seem to have parted company with the rest before a 
system of declension had been fixed. Their nominal suffixes 
seem to be mostly later formations, though we find t, tl, or k for 
the plural, and traces of 1 as a local element. Corresponding 
phenomena appear in the conjugation of verbs, as noticed 

The remaining languages — or Finnish group — have not 
developed any striking differences from the Ugric division, but 
they show greater resemblance to one another in details. They 


all have local cases characterised hy the letter b (unknown 
in the Ugric group), others characterised by 1, an abessive 
ending in ta or tak, and negative adjectives characterised by 
the syllable tern or torn. They mostly agree in having a 
peculiar form for the n^ative conjugation. The present of the 
positive coi^jugation has p (or v) regularly or sporadically in 
certain persons, and the remaining verbal forms, though far 
from agreeing absolutely, show a sufficient resemblance to 
warrant us in regarding them as the results of a common 

From the accounts given of Syrjenian and Votiak it would 
seem that they were the first to cease to participate in this 
common development. They appear to be characterised by few 
striking peculiarities, but to show a less degree of conformity 
to a common standard than the remaining languages. The 
phonetic system of Syrjenian seems to be much the same as that 
of Cheremissian or Mordvinian, except that it has a great 
fondness for the sound of i. The pronouns of both numbers, 
and the pronominal affixes of the singular, show much more 
resemblance to the Finnish than to the Ugrian, but the pro- 
nominal affixes of the plural (nim, nld, nis) are curious, and 
obviously represent the singular affixes in combination with a 
syllable ni, which may perhaps be akin to the Finnish plural 
demonstrative ne. In the verb, the ist person singular has no 
personal termination. In the plural we find m, nid, nis, as in 
nouns. Generally Syrjenian seems to be more thoroughly 
agglutinative, as opposed to inflected, than the Finnish language. 
In this it mrfy be compared with Cheremissian, where the plural 
is formed by the syllable vlja (or vlla) added between the stem 
and case termination, just like jas in Syrjenian. The Permian 


languages have some close analogies in detail with the Ugrian 
group. Thus twenty is Ms in Syrjenian, kos or x^s in Ostiak, 
husB in Magyar ; the reflexive pronoun is as or ats in Syrjenian 
and Yotiak, at in Ostiak. 

Of the remaining languages Mordvinian is in many ways the 
most remarkable. Though generally admitted to be nearly akin 
to Cheremissian, it has many constructions peculiar to itself. 
Thus it has a fully developed object conjugation and two forms 
of declension, the definite and indefinite. It has a great fond- 
ness for the letter f. On the other hand, such phenomena as 
the suffix n-za for the 3rd person, the word kemen, ten, the 
regular formation of the imperfect with i, infinitives in ma, and 
participles in f (Finn, va) show a near approach to Finnish. 
Cheremissian has also developed some new singular negative 
forms, by which the verbal root is negatived (in the preterite) 
by a suffix t^ + 1, after which the personal suffixes are added. 

The connection of the West Finnish languages is m.uch more 
striking than that of those which have already been discussed. 
The resemblance of Lappish to Finnish and Esthonian is a little 
disguised owing to the elaborate phonetic system of this language, 
which has an extraordinary fondness for diphthongs, and also a 
very extensive provision of consonants, including some (e. g. y, 
0, '%) which do not occur in any of the cognate languages. 
The nominal declension is very similar to that of Finnish. 
Compare the singular forms tSalme, tSalmen, tSalmesn, 
tialmest, tialmetaka with silnia, silmana, silmasBa, silmasta, 
silmatta. In the singular the genitive and partitive have lost 
their termination (cf. the Esthonian forms, nom. sihn, gen. and 
part, silnia). The analogy in the plural is still closer; the 
nominative ends in h or k, but the other cases are characterised 


by the insertion of i, tialmeh or tfialmek, tfialmiti, tilalmi, 
t&almin, tfiahnisne, t^almist, tSalmitaya corresx)onding to 
sllmat, silmia, silmien, silmina, silmissa, silmlBta) silmitta. 
There are also forms in 1, le, It, or Id. The partitive case 
appears to be peculiar to the West Finnish languages. The 
pronouns of Lappish point the other way, and are all but 
identical with those of Mordvinian, men, ton or don, son, mi, 
ti or di, si ; Mordvinian men, son, ton, min, sin, tin. The 
singular afi&xes are m, d, s (Mordv. n, t, nza), but those of the 
plural take the characteristic k (mek, dek, sek). There are 
also dual forms. The verb is peculiar in using different affixes 
for the present and preterite. Otherwise it is much the same 
as the Finnish forms. We have b or p as a sign of the present, 
je or i for the preterite, ket, kus, etc. in the imperative ; 
comparatives formed with f5-, k6-, 8- (ksi), or le. The negative 
conjugation also shows close analogies. Lappish has thus a 
great resemblance to Finnish, but is much nearer than the 
remaining western languages to Cheremissian and Mordvinian, 
thus connecting these latter with Finnish and the Esthonian 

There is no need to insist on the close connection of Livish, 
Votish, Yepsish, and Esthonian with Finnish. The grammatical 
structure and vocabulary of these languages is so alike that the 
fact is obvious not only to a philologist, but to the most casual 
learner. Esthonian is now far the most important of these 
languages, and has a certain amount of literary culture. It has 
two chief dialects, that of Revel and that of Dorpat *. 

In a few cases Esthonian shows older forms than Finnish, 

^ The following sketch of Esthonian is taken mainly from Wiedemann's 
Grammatik der Estnischen Sprache.' Petersburg, 1875. 


but pn the whole it is less primitive.' Besides the Finnish 
consonants it possesses b, g, z, and n. The accent is on the 
first syllable, and has led to weakening or loss of final syllables. 
The vowel harmony is known only in the Dorpat dialect, and 
there not perfectly. Consonants are weakened in much the 
same way as in Finnish, pp, tt, kk are reduced to single con- 
sonants; p, t, k, 8 become b, d, g, z; b becomes w or dis- 
appears, and d, g, z disappear. These changes, however, do 
not in the present state of the language take place only when 
syllables are closed, although the original form generally ended 
with a consonant. Thus tib, urk, rind, toit, rid form the 
genitives tiwa, urga, rinna, toidu, riu ; and the verbs piihkinia, 
uflkuma, prukima, hoidma form piihin, uziin, prtigin, hoian. 
The noun has only eleven cases, the six local (exterior and 
interior) the genitive, partitive, abessive, and translative, all 
almost identical in foinn with Finnish, except that the genitive 
has lost the n of the termination, and the other cases the final 
vowel. The plural takes d in the nominative and i in the 
other cases. The pronouns resemble Finnish, but the 3rd 
person singular and plural is the demonstrative tema or nema 
in Esthonian, Livonian, and Votish, but Vepsish has han, ho. 
Esthonian has almost lost the pronominal affixes, which are 
used only in adverbial forms, and replaced in most cases by the 
genitive of the personal pronoun. 

The affirmative verb closely resembles Finnish, except that the 
concessive formed with ne has, except in the Dorpat dialect, 
been almost entirely lost. The 3rd person singular present 
ends regularly in b, and the 3rd plural in "wad. The preterite 
is sometimes formed with simple i, but generally with si, and 
the conditional with ksi. The imperative 2nd singular has no 


termination, but as in Finnish the root is weakened. The 
other persons are characterised by gu or ge. The passive is 
formed by affixing ta+k+se in the present, and ta + i (ti.) in 
the preterite. The negative verb for the imperative is ara, 
argu, arge, but in the other forms Esthonian does not affix 
personal endings to the negative, but uses ei with all persons. 
Similarly Livish has ab or ab for all persons except the second, 
where ad is sometimes used. Votish and Yepsish follow 
Finnish. It will thus be seen that Esthonian, closely allied as 
it is to Finnish, has lost many peculiarities which it once no 
doubt possessed, but occasionally (e.g. the passive present in 
takse and the conditional in kse) preserves forms which in 
Finnish have been weakened or disguised. 

It is easier to discuss the relations of the Finno-TJgric 
languages to one another than to decide what are their affinities 
with other groups. They are generally considered . to be 
connected with the Samoyede, Turkish, Mandchu, and Mongolian 
languages, that is to say, the ancestor of each of these groups 
was related to the ancestor of the Finno-Ugrian languages. 
When, however, identity of vocabulary cannot be proved, it is 
dangerous to make comparisons on the ground of general 
grammatical resemblances, because the grammar of agglutinative 
languages offers few striking peculiarities, and represents a stage 
of development through which may other languages, certainly 
the Aryan, have passed. The only general description which 
can be given of the Finno-Ugric group is that they are languages 
without gender, whose grammatical structure consists entirely in 
appending suffixes. To these characteristics is generally added 
another, the vowel harmony, but this exists very partially in 
the Finnish group. Now without denying the possible relation- 


ship of Turkish, Mongol, and Mandchu to Finnish, it must be 
admitted that they have only a very general resemblance, and 
very many and precise differences. Mandchu and Mongol, with 
their uninflected verbs, would have been put into quite another 
class were they not UQdoubtedly akin to languages with a more 
developed system. And why should Japanese be excluded? 
It presents no phenomena incongruous with the grammar of the 
languages above cited, and the want of vowel harmony cannot 
be alleged as a difficulty. 

If, however, we turn to the Samoyede languages the case is 
very different. They are usually mentioned as if they stood no 
nearer to the Finno-Ugric group than Turkish or Mandchu, 
and yet the resemblances in detail are numerous and striking. 

They possess the vowel harmony, and apparently a law for 
the weakening of consonants analogous to that of Finnish and 
Esthonian, e. g. kinta, kindan ; mat, maden ; sok, sogon. The 
noun is strikingly like Finnish. We find a genitive in n, an 
accusative in m or p (cf. Lappish), a dative in ni or n, a locative 
in nan (cf. Finnish na), and an instrumental in se. There are 
three numbers, the dual is characterised by g or ha (cf. gen. in 
Ostiak, ag in Yogul), and the plural is formed with la or t (d). 
The pronouns show a good deal of variety, and it is evident that 
some forms (e. g. pudar, thm ; puda, hi) are not real pronouns 
but substantives used as pronouns. Still we find a general 
consensus for man as the ist person singular, and some form of 
the same word for the plural ; tan for the second singular, and 
te, ten, or ii for the plural (cf. Lappish, Cheremissian, Syrjenian, 
and Mordvinian). The 3rd person exists in several forms, tep, 
seta, di, etc., which may perhaps be compared with the Ostiak 
ten, Cheremissian tida, and Syrjenian sia. The pronominal 


afi&xes are also extraordinarily numerous and varied, but they 
seem to include m for the ist singular, t or d for the 2nd, jea 
(cf. Magyar ja) for the 3rd; mu or met for the ist plural, and 
ta or tet for the 2nd. The interrogative pronouns are kuto, 
hiibea, koke, etc., who, and ma, mi, whaJb, The verb and noun 
are not sharply distinguished. The verb takes two sets of pro- 
nominal suffixes, the predicative, with which an intransitive 
verb is always conjugated, and the possessive, which are used with 
both transitive and intransitive verbs. The preterite is formed 
by adding b, which occurs as a preterite suffix in Cheremissian, 
Mordvinian, Vogul, and Ostiak. The conjunctive is formed 
with nji, ne, na (cf. the Finnish ne). The imperative is 
formed with the syllable kar, gar, har (cf. Finnish ka). 
There is also an optative with the suffix rava, so perhaps kar 
is ka-ra. 

Besides this similarity of grammatical forms there is a large 
common vocabulary. The following examples are taken at 
haphazard out of Castren's lexicon : — River, jaha, joha (Finn, 
joki) ; hUly pirda (Finn, vuori) ; dark, paebi, paevuda 
(pimea) ; to blow, pu u (puhua) ; half, pealea, fealla (puoli) ; 
good, sava, sova (kyva) ; fire, tu (tuli) ; fish, kole, hale (kala) ; 
tree, po, pe, pea (puu) ; hear, korg, kuerg (karhu) ; earth, 
men (maa) ; narrow, small, t|jea (tyl^a, empty) ; to place, 
puenan (panna) ; live, jileadm (elea) ; come, ttl'am, toak 
(tulla) ^ 

On the other hand, the Samoyede languages differ in many 
ways from the TJgro-Altaic group. The numbers are entirely 
different. The Ostiak Samoyede dker, one, shows a faint 

* Bonner's ' Vergleichendes Worterbuch der Finnish-XJgrischen Sprachen' 
also contains many comparisons with Samoyede. 


resemblance to yhte, and sidea, or sede, two^ has been compared 
with kahte, but such analogies are doubtful. Only the number 
senen^ sin, Eoelde, cdaibua shows a resemblance with the 
Finno-Ugric forms. But it is clear that the Samoyede num- 
bers represent very primitive attempts at numeration (e.g. 
Jurak. h&sava-ju, Samoyede big rvamher^ for nine, lutsa-ju, 
Russian big wwmher for ten), and that in many cases Turkish 
numbers have been borrowed (cf. (jet, tet, /oiw, with Yakut 
tiiort and kamass, khera 40, ilix 50, althon 60, with Turkish 
kirk, elli, altmish). Samoyede is also more like the Turkish 
than the Finno-Ugric language in its power of adding predica- 
tive and temporal suffixes to nouns (which implies a want of 
distinction between the verb and noun). Thus lutsa means a 
Riissian; Ititsam, I am a Russian ; lutsams^ / was a Russian, 
The above sketch of Samoyede has no pretence to be 
exhaustive, and may be charged with inaccuracy, inasmuch as 
words and forms are cited indifferently from all the dialects. 
For a proper investigation of the question it is no doubt 
necessary to thoroughly study the relations of the Samoyede 
languages to one another, to establish the original forms, and in 
particular to determine the influence of foreign languages, 
whether Turkish or Finno-Ugric, on the Samoyede vocabulary. 
But unless there is something strangely misleading in the 
superficial character of these dialects, it appears to me that they 
undoubtedly stand far nearer to Finno-Ugric than do Turkish 
or Mongolian, and should indeed be classed as outlying members 
of the Finno-Ugric group. The want of similarity in the 
numbers is certainly very strange, but the other resemblances 
in vocabulary seem to me to be conclusive, unless all the words 
in question are borrowed. 




The Finnish Alphabet consists of 2 1 letters, viz. : a, d, e, g, 
h, i, j, k, 1, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u, v (or w), y, a, 6. 
. German characters are sometimes used, in which case vo always^ 
represents the v sound. In the Eoman character v and w are 
used indifferently to express the sound of the English v. 

The pronunciation of the consonants offers little difficulty* 
Most of them have the same sounds as in English. 

D. In true Finnish words this letter is never found at the 
beginning or end, and in the middle always represents a 
softened t {vide changes of consonants p. 13). Even in this 
position it is hardly ever heard in the language as spoken by 
peasants, but replaced in the West Finnish dialect by a sound 
between r and 1, and in the Eastern dialect entirely omitted. 
Educated people, however, pronounce it as in English, Thus the 
educated pronunciation of the genitive case of sota is sodan; 
but in dialects the forms soran, solan, or scan are found. 
The letter d is always omitted in the Kalevala, which is written 
in the Karelian dialect, 

G, except in a few foreign words, is only found in the com- 
bination ng, representing an original nk, pronounced as in 
English. In the neighbourhood of St. Petersburg this letter is 
never used, k taking its place. 



H is a stronger aspirate than in English, and is almost the 
Bussian x or German ch. It is heard very distinctly at the end 
of syllables, e. g. in tehda. 

J is the English y in yes or yard. 

The remaining letters of the Boman Alphabet 5, e, f, q, Xj «, 
and the Swedish d (pronounced o) are sometimes met with in 
foreign words, but an uneducated Finn will always pronounce 
b and f as p and v, and is also incapable of producing such 
sounds as the English ch and shy which when occurring in 
Bussian names are generally represented in a Finnish mouth by 
simple 8. 

There is also a slight aspiration found at the end of some 
words, as veneS a hoat^ syod&S to eat. It is not usually written, 
and hardly heard except in some dialects, though it has a 
grammatical importance, and in some educational works is 
marked, as above, by an inverted commsu 

It will be seen that there is a great paucity of consonants in 
the Finnish language; the alphabet contains but 13, and of 
these g and d are never found at the beginning of native words. 
Further no word can begin with two consonants, and foreign 
words, commencing with such combinations, always lose one or 
more letters , for instance the Swedish words strand {shore)^ 
and spel (game), appear as ranta, peli. 

On the other hand there is an extraordinary wealth of vowel . 
sounds, and it is of capital importance to learn the exact pro- : 
nunciation of them alL 

The simple sounds are eight in number. 

A is the Italian a (English a in rather or faiher), but pro- 
nounced quicker. It is always short. ^ 

E is the English e in met. 
I is the English t in bit, 
O is the English in hot. 


U is the English u in hvXi, 

Y is the German ii in iiher, 

A, which must he carefully distinguished from A, is the short 
English a heard in l^t, or tra'p^ and must not he pronounced as 
the English a in late. Thus han, A6, is pronounced exactly 
like Jkand without the final d. At the end of words (e.g. tyota) 
a is more difficult for an Englishman to pronounce, as the sound 
is not found in English as a final. 

O is like the French ea. 

It is very important to observe that the simple vowels are all 
ahxyrt sounds. The corresponding long sounds are written, by 
doubling the vowel. 

Aa is a long Italian a, like the a in rather^ whereas the sound 
of simple a is shorter than that which we (generally) give to the 
vowel in this word. 

£e is like the English a in />a2e, ^fe. 

Ii is the English ee in heen,^ three. 

Oo is the English o in h(ype, ' 

IJu is the English oo in hooU 

Yy is the German ily pronounced long. 

Aa is the a in had, but long. It is a rather difficult sound, 
but can be obtained by lingering over the vowel of hxd or mem, 
taking care not to change its quality. 

Oo is the sound of the simple 6 lengthened. 

Besides these simple and double vowels there are also i6 
diphthongs, in which both vowels should be sounded but so 
rapidly and continuously as to form one syllable. They may be 
divided into two classes. 


(i) Those in which the stress is on the second vowel, uo, 
yd, ie, e. g. tuo, this, tie, a loay, yd, night. 

B 2 


(2) Those in which the stress is on the first TOweL Of these 
there are — 

(a) Four ending in 11. au, ou, iu, eu. SZauppa, sale, koulu, 
school, hiukka, a grain, leuka, chin, 

(6) Two ending in y: ay, 6y. Vayla, river bed, hdyhen, 

(c) Seven ending in i: ai, oi, tii, ei, ai, 51, yi. E.g. nai) he 
married, koi, a math, pui, Tie threashed, vei, Tie led, paiva, day, 
lot. Tie struck, myi, Tie sold. 

These diphthongs, with the exception of those ending in i, are 
found only in the first syllable of words, otherwise the two ^ 
vowels form two syllables : e. g. tapa-us, not tapaus, kope-ns, 
not kopeuB, but talkoissa, papeilla. 

The pronunciation of these diphthongs offers no difficulties 
when that of the simple vowels has been mastered. It must 
be remembered that they are real diphthongs where both vowels 
sounds are heard, but pronounced rapidly, so that au, though 
very near the 010 in the English Tiow, is not quite like it, The 
pronunciation of ay and oy requires attention, but is, like that 
of all the diphthongs, merely the result of pronouncing the 
simple vowels rapidly. 

The chief accent in Finnish is always on the first syllable of 
every word. Tdlo, mlna, pdrempi, kivettA. 

There is a secondary accent, generally on the third, fifth, . . , 
syllables, but occasionally on the fourth, sixth, . . . e. g. op-pi- 
mdt-to-ni^u-deB-6dn-sa {in his ability to learn). 

But o-pet-ta-mdt-to-muu-des-Bdn-sa {in his ignoraTice), 

But in no case is the second or last syllable accented, so that 
such sounds as Tww&ver, deldy, are impossible. 

The pronunciation of Finnish is generally described as easy, 
but this is by no means the case. It is true that the language 
contains no sound which is really difficult for an Englishman^ \ 


but on the other hand extreme care is necessary to pronounce 
even the simplest words correctly. For instance, in the word 
menenune (we come), three things are to be observed. The 
accent is on the first syllable, the n is single and not double^ 
and the m is doubled. An Englishman, who has not learned 
how to pronounce, will in all probability say not menemme, 
but menneme. This is because he finds it natural to double 
the n after the accented syllable and hard to double the m, 
without accenting the second syllable. It must be observed, 
that : — 

(i) The simple consonants are pronounced very lightly ; tuli, 
Jire, nearly rhymes to the English fuMi/, but the 1 is lighter. 

(2) The double consonants must be pronounced distinctly 
twice, as in Italian. EZuk-ka, Jlower, kyl-la, encmgh, pap-pi, 

(3) The simple vowels are very short, the long vowels are to 
be dwelt on, but the length of a vowel has nothing to do with 
the accent. Ftihuu must not be pronounced as if it were 
Fiihtiu, or putihu. 

The observance of these rules is necessary, not only to insure 
a correct pronunciation, but to prevent absolute confusion, for 
the paucity of consonants in Finnish results in the existence of 
a mass of words, which though very distinct to a native, are 
liable to be confounded by a stranger, and the natural tendency 
of an Englishman or Russian to slur over unaccented syllables 
results in complete unintelligibility. For instance, tuli is a 
fire, or, he came, tulli, a tax, tulla, to come (infinitive), tule, 
come (imperative and root), tulee, he combes : tullee, the conces- 
sive of the same verb, tuuli, a wind, tuulla, to blow. Kyla is 
a village, but kylla, enough. Fitaa, to hold, pyyta^, to ask, 
peittaa, to cover, peite, a covering, poyta, a table. 



Of the Formation of Syllables and Wobds. 

A syllable ending in a simple vowel or diphthong is called 
open : one ending in a consonant or the aspiration is called 
closed. E. g. I-sa, fcUher, tno-da, to bring, consist of open 
syllables : kis-sat, ecUs, kir-jat, hooks, of closed. 

As already stated, a word cannot begin or end with more 
than one consonant. 

If a doable consonant occurs in the middle of a word the first 
letter must be pronounced with the preceding vowel and the 
second with the succeeding, e.g. pal-lo, not pall-o. 

1. (i) At the end of the first syllable of a word two conson£|,nts 
are tolerated, provided the first be 1, r, n, or m, and the second 
k, t, p, or 8. Filk-ku, a spot, kent-ta, a field, simp-sukka, 
pearl : otherwise one of the consonants must be rejected. 

2. (2) At the end of the second or succeeding syllables may 
stand only one consonant, and every word must end with a 
vowel or one of the consonants n, r, s, t, 1 (rare), or the aspiration. 

If the grammatical changes cause an agglomeration of con- 
sonants which does not come under these rules, the consonants 
must be simplified or changed ; syoks-ta becomes sydsta : avaim 
(for avaime^ becomes avain. 

One of the most characteristic features of the Finnish lan- 
guage is what is called the Harmony of the vowels. Besides the 
division of the vowels according to length, there is another by 
which they are classified according to their quality as follows : — 

Hard . . a, o, u. 
Sofb . .' a, 6, y. 
Neutral . . e, i. 

Long vowels and diphthongs belong to the same class as their 
component elements, which can never be discordant, that is to 
say, ay or au are impossible combinations. 



The first syllable of a word may contai)n any of these vowels. 
The formation of the remaining syllables is determined by the 
following rules : — 

(i) If the first sylhible contains a hard vowel, the vowels in 
the other syllables must be either hard or neutral, but not soft, 
Eala, a fish : ablative, kalalta. Ansaita, to deserve, ansaitsevat, 
thei/ deserve, 

(2) If the vowel in the first syllable is soft, then the vowels 
of all the other syllables must be soft or neutral, but not 
hard. ToUi, a cottage, tdllissa^ in the cottage; katkein, 

(3) If the vowel in the first syllable is neutral, two cases 

(a) If the vowel of the second syllable is hard, as in the 
word vieras, the succeeding vowels must be either hard or 
neutral : vierahaksi (transitive case). 

{b) If the vowel of the second syllable is either soft or neidral, 
all the other vowels must be soft or neutral, but not hard. 
Betki, a jov/mey^ partitive case, retki-a; sirppi, sickle, 

It will thus be seen that there are two forms of every ter- 
mination in Finnish, one containing hard and the other a soft 
vowel. Thus the ablative ends in -Ita or -Ita : maa, maalta, 
but tyo, tyolta. 

The hard and soft vowels are never found coexisting in any 
simple Finnish word, but there is no objection to such a com- 
pound as kirkko-vaki, kirkko-isa. 

This principle of vowel harmony is really extremely natural, 
and facilitates pronunciation, as will be seen by the example of 
French. An Englishman pronouncing such combinations as 
voulu, or du tout has, if not accustomed to the language, a 


tendency to say vouUm, du tut, making the two vowels the same, 
because tlie sudden change in the position of the pronouncing 
organs required to say u or ou, or vice versa, is a matter of some 
difficulty* It is th^cousciousness of this difficulty which has 
led Finnish and other j^nguages to adopt the rule that the 
vowels of a word must be of the same character, so that no rude 
change may be necessary for their pronunciation. 

This vowel harmony is not found in all the Finno-Ugric 
languages. In its fully developed form it exists {v. Dr. Donner, 
die gegenseitige Verwandschafb der Finnish-ugrischen Spraxjhen, 
p. 9) only in Finnish, the Dorpat dialect of Esthonian, Hungarian, 
one dialect of Tcheremissian and one of Yogulian. In many 
others of these languages it is found in an incomplete form, 
whence some think that it is an original characteristic of the 
Finno-Ugric group, which has been lost by some tribes whose 
phonetic sense was not keen. Some authorities hold that in the 
Finno-Ugric language there are two kinds of vowel harmony : 
firstly, that prevailipg between the different syllables of a stem, 
which is characteristic of all the tongues included in this group, 
and secondly that which assimilates the vowels of suffixes to 
those of the stem — i. e. that which obliges us to say repinyt 
and not repinut. This latter species of vowel harmony is not 
primitive, but has been gradually developed, perfectly in Finnish 
and Hungarian, and imperfectly in the other languages. This 
view seems very reasonable. 


All Finnish words consist of a root to which certain suffixes 
have been attached, but the addition of these latter often causes 
certain changes in the final vowel and consonants of the original 
root. In order to inflect words correctly it is necessary to know 
these changes. 


A. Changes of Vowds, 
I. The LoNa Vowels and Diphthongs. 

The long vowels are always shortened when followed by i, 3. 
that is to say, the vowel is written once and not twice. Thus 
maa, earth, which takes an i in all the cases in the plural except 
the nominative, forms maita, maitten, maiksiy etc., not maaita ; 
puu, treSy puita, puiden, puiksi. 

The diphthongs with the accent on the second vowel, uo, yd, 4. 
ie, when followed by i, reject the first vowel, and thus form a 
new diphthong — ^tyo, work, becomes in the plural toista, toissa, 
toiksi, etc. ; vien, / Uady vein (vie-in), / led ; luo, he creates, 
loisi (luo-iai), h^ wovJd create. 

Diphthongs ending in i reject this i if another 1 follows, uin, 5. 
/ smm, uin (for ni-in), / swam. 

In the root kay, to go, y is changed into v before a vowel — 
e. g. kay-in becomes kavin. 

II. Shobt Vowels. 

The simple vowels o, o, u, y are invariable, but a, a, e, i are 
subject to certain changes in the last syllable of a root. 

A. A. 

When the vowels A and A at the end of a root are followed 
by the i characteristic of the imperfect tense, or plural, they 
undergo the following changes : — 

(i) A is always rejected in disyllables — e.g. heitan, / th/rowy 6. 
heitin, / threw. 

(2) A at the end of disyllabic roots is rejected before i, if the 7. 
vowel of the first syllable is o, u, uu, ou, uo, oi, or vd : but is 
changed into o if that vowel is a, e, 1, aa, 11, al, au, el, eu, le, 
or lu. Thus ottavat, they take, past ottivat (for ottalvat); 


nuora, a cord, nuorilla, mth cords ; tupa, a h/ut, tuvissa, in Tiids, 
But on the other hand, kala, a fish, kaloikcd ; axman, / givCj 
annoin, / gave ; kannan, / carry, kannoin, / carried} 

Disyllabic verbs, where the final a is preceded by t, can change 
it into o, but generally reject it, ahtoi or ahti : kaartoi or kaarti. 

8. Derivatives of verbs in ma, ja, va, always reject the a : 
sanova, sanovia ; ottaja, ottajia ; puhuva, puhuvia. 

9. (3) Polysyllabic verbs always reject a and a in the imperfect. 
Odotan, / wait, odotin, / vxiited, etc. The rejection also takes 
place in polysyllabic substantives ending in -mpa, -mpa, and 
derivatives in va, va, sa, sa, and those where h or any vowel 
but i precedes the final a, e. g. vanhempa, vanhemmille ; 
sanova, sanovina ; vieraha, vierahille ; kapea, kapeita. But 
should the final a be preceded by two consonants, or the 
penultimate syllable contain the vowel i, a and a become respec- 
tively o and o ; asia, a thing, asioissa ; karitsa, a lamh, karit- 
Boita ; kynttila, a candle, kynttildit&, candles. But the words 
isanta, emanta always reject i, isannille, emannille. 

10. (4) In cases which come under none of these heieuls, e. g. such 
a word as peruna, potatoe, a, a can be either dropped or changed 
to o, o, perunia or perunoita, partitive case plural. 

11. (5) a and a change to e before the comparative suffix -mpa 
in disyllabic words, and before the suffix ta, tta, of the passive. 
Vanha, old, comparative vanhempi; i8tutan,/^7a9i^,iBtutetaan, 

12. (6) The nominative sing, of superlatives (stem -impa), and of 
caritive adjectives (stem -toma), drops a: kovimpa becomes 
kovin (by rules 24, 46) ; and viattoma, imiocent, viaton (46). 

13. (7) a, a become i in the nominative sing, of comparatives, 
stem kovempa, nominative kovempl 

^ But suola, salt, and puola, bilberry, cliange the final a into o to dis- 
tingaish them from suoli, an intestine, and puoli, half» 



(i) E is always rejected before i. Kive-illa becomes kivill&, 14, 
with stones ; Mere-ilia, Merillft. 

(2) Dissyllables ending in e always change that vowel to i 16, 
in the nominative singular. Stems, mere, seay tuule, windf 
nominatives, meri, tuuli. 

The only important exceptions to this rule are the words itse, 
sdf^ and kolme, three. I^ukke, a doll, is also found, and sine, 
blii£, is used as well as sini. 

The stem miehe, man, makes mies in the nominative sing. 

(3) Polysyllabic stems ending in e reject it in the mominative 16. 
sing. Stem, Bisare ; nominative, sisar, a sister, 

(4) The final e of a disyllabic stem disappears in nouns 17. 
before terminations commencing with t, and in verbs before 
terminations beginning with k or n, provided that e is preceded 
by any simple consonant but k, p, v, m, or by a double con- 
sonant of which the last letter is t or s (except ht). Thus from 
the stem une {sleep), vuore {mountain), vete {water) (nomina- 
tive, vesi), come the forms unta, vuorta, vetta, and from the 
verbal stems tule {come), mene {go), such forms as tulkaa, 
tullut (for tulnut), menkaa. Iiapse, a child, forms lasta, for 
lapsta ; veitse, a knife, veista for veitsta. 

But e remains in the verbs potea, to fall iU, tuntea, to know, 
and in itse, self, sxiksi, snowshoe, saaksi, a gnat, ripsi, an eye- 
lash, viiksi, a moustache, which form their partitives in itsea, 
Buksea, etc. 

But in disyllabic words e is not rejected if preceded by k, 18. 
p, V, or m. Thus the stems joke, river, lape, a hole, kive, 
stone, Suome, Finland, form their partitives Jokea, lapea, kivea, 

Likewise e remains in disyllables where it is preceded by 19. 


ht, or by any two consonants of which the last is not t or s : 
tahte, star, and lehte, leaf^ form tahtea and lehtea. Onne, 
fortune, and hanhe, goosty onnea and hanhea. 

But yksi, one, and kaksi, two (roots yhte and kahte), form 
yhta and kahta for yhtta, kahtta. Iiumi, snow, is also an 
exception and forms lunta. Also the verbal stems teke and 
nake : infinitive, tehda, nahda. 

20. In polysyllabic words the ^ is always suppressed : root kysy- 
mykse, a question, partitive case, kysymysta for kyaymyksta. 


21. (i) When i at the end of substantives meets the i of the 
plural, the« first i changes into e, risti, cross, risteissa. This 
rule is however not always observed, and forms like riatissa are 
used for the plural. But in other cases, when two i*s meet, the 
first falls out, pres. etaivat, imp. etsivat, not etaiivat. In old 
Finnish, words like etaeivat are found. 

22. (2) When i (generally owing to the dropping of a consonant) 
is found between two vowels it becomes j. Elaloia becomes 

23. All these four vowels, a, a, e, and 1, are rejected before the -i 
of the terminations of the superlative : vanha, old, aelkea, 
bright, suure, great, auli, liberal, make in the superlative 
vanhin, aelkein, auurin, aulin. 

B. Changes of Consonants, 

24. A word cannot end with more than one consonant. If the 
rejection of a final vowel leaves two consonants at the end of a 
word, one is rejected^ usually the first, e. g. «Iiupaukse, a 
promise. By rule 16, e is rejected in the nominative sing., and 
there remains lupauka, which becomes lupaua. But if the 
second consonant is not one of those allowed to end a Word by 


tule 2, it is rejected and the first only kept. Buurimpi be- 
comes 8U\irimp, and as p is not a possible final letter, m is 
kept, and by rule 46 (below) becomes n, suiirin. 

The SoFTBNiNa of the Habd Consonaitts K, T, P. 

General, rule : Whenever one of the three hard consonants, 
k, t, p, is found at the beginning of a naturally short and open 
syllable (that is, one ending in a. simple vowel) which becomes 
closed (that is, ends in a consonant) owing to the addition of a 
suffix, then the hard consonant is softened or rejected ^ 

It must be observed that some syllables which are apparently 
open are treated in grammar as being closed, because they end 
with the aspiration. This aspiration, though hardly heard ex- 
cept in dialects, generally represents an original consonant (y^ 
the rules respecting the formation of the Imperative, Infinitives 
I and II, and passive). 

This curious rule of the softening of consonants pervades the. 
whole Finnish language and is one of its distinguishing features. 
The addition of a final letter to a syllable necessitates a certain 
effort in order to sound it accurately, and in order to compen- 
sate for the difficulty thus added at the end the pronunciation 
of the first letter is made easier. It is indeed clear that it is 
easier to say kukan than kukkan, if both k's are carefully 
pronounciBd ; but an English mouth does not find it easier to say 
revin than repin. But it must be remembered that the Finnish 
language is extraordinarily susceptible in regard to consonants. 
Mouths which are incapable of pronouncing two consonants at 
the beginning of a word must have to struggle with difficulties 
in pronunciation which we are quite incapable of understanding. 
It must also be remembered that simple consonants are pro- 

1 It is noticeable tliat this rule does not apply in the rare case of 2k 
monosyllabic root ending in a short open vowel becoming closed. "Kn, 
the root of the pronoun kuka, forms kun not gun. 



nouDced exceedingly lightly, so that their disappearance is 
easier than it would be, were they sounded as strongly as in our 


25. (i) kk becomes k. That is to say, when the final syllable 
of kukka, flower, becomes closed by the addition of n, one of 
the k's is dropped, and we have kukan for kukkan. So 
kirkko, kirkoasa. 

26. (2) nk becomes ng. Aurinko, sun, forms the genitive 
aiuingon. Kaupunki, town, kaupung^ 

27. (3) Ik, rk become simply 1, r, but if followed by e, Ij, ij. 
For example, jalka, a foot, genitive jalan ; markil, toet, genitive 
mS,ran; kulke, leave, kuljen, / leave] sarke, hreaJc, saxjen, 
/ break, 

hk generally becomes simply h, but may remain unchanged, 
tuhka, ash, genitive tuhan, but sometimes tuhkan; sahko, 
electricity, genitive s&hon. In old Finnish such foims as tuhvan 
are found. 

28. (4) Between two vowels k generally is lost altogether when 
the syllable is closed ; take, forge, taon, / forge ; vika, a favU, 
genitive vian. 

If the k is preceded by a diphthong ending in i or by simple 
i, a j is developed when k falls out : thus aika, tirM, poika, hoy, 
ika, life, make igan, pojan, ijan. Similarly when k falls out 
between two u's or two y's, a v is developed, at any rate in 
pronunciation. The orthography varies between uu and uvu, but 
the latter is generally adopted when there is any ambiguity, e. g, 
puvun, from puku, clothes^ not puon, because this is liable to 
be confused with puun, the genitive of puu, a tree ; suvun from 
Buku, a family ; but auun from suu, a month ; luvun from 
luku, a number, but luun from luxi, a bone. 

29. (5) sk, tk remain unchanged, lasku, laakun, itku, itkun. 


(i) tt becomes t, opetta, teachy opetan, / teach, * 30. 

(2) It, rt, nt become U, rr, xm. VeltOy fiddy pellon; parta, 31. 
heard^ parran ; kauta, base, kannan. 

(3) After a vowel or h, t becomes d. Fata, pot, pada]i;32. 
tahto, wiahy tahdon^ 


(i) pp becomes p. Fappi, priest, papin. 33. 

(2) mp becomes mm, stem kovempa, harder, kovemman. 34. 

(3) In other cases p becomes v. Iiepo, rest, levon ; repi, 35. 
tear, revin; halpa, cheap, halvan. 

N.B. — This softening of k, t, p, takes place if in a polysyllabic 36. 
radical one of them is the first letter of a syllable whose vowel 
forms a diphthong with the i of the plural. Harakka, magpie^ 
harakoita; aurlnko, auringoita, sfim] palkinto, palkinnoita, 

These rules for the weakening of consonants are rigorously 
observed throughout the language, with the one exception 
that the addition of the pronominal suffixes produces no change 
in a word. Though tapa+n becomes tavan, tapa+zuMb 
remains tapansa. 

Otheb CHANaBS OP Consonants. 

T, meeting with the vowel i, under certain circumstances 
becomes s. 

T in the last syllable of a word, when preceded by a vowel or 37. 

^ In the Ealevala dialect t always disappears instead of becoming d, 
and some traces of this remain in ordinary Finnish, (a) In the declen- 
nons of such roots as lyhyte, short ; gen. lyhyen, and in some contracted 
snbstantiyes. (5) In the loss of t in the syllable ta used to form infini- 
tiYes and partitives* 


by 1, n, r, becomes b when a final e is rejected or changed into i. 
E.g. in the nominative of the root vete, woder, the final e 
becomes i by role, and t changes to s, forming vesi. Similarly 
when the final e of hyvyyte, goodmess, is rejected t becomes s, 
forming the nominative hyvyya ; so also jalte becomes jalsi, and 
varte, varsi. 

38. T also becomes b before i in the plural of ordinal numbers 
whose stem ends in -nte. E.g. the essive singular of stem 
neUante, fourth^ is neUantena ; in the plural the corresponding 
case is neUanaina, for ne^antina. 

39. The plural of stems ending in ;ute, -yte, forms the essive and 
other analogous cases from a stem ending in -ksi. Suuruus, 
greatness, has for the sing, the stem suuruute (e.g. essive 
Buuruutena), but forms in the plur. auuruuksina, etc. So also 
from hyvyyte, goodness , comes from the sing, hyvyytena, and 
the plur. hyvyyksina. 

40. T in the last syllable of a verb, preceded by a double vowel 
or 1, n, r, changes to b before the i of the imperf., the vowels 
a, a being suppressed. Thus from pyytaa, to ask, comes pyysl 
(forpyytai); fromtaitaa, can, taiai. But pitaa, to hold, makes 
piti, because this vowel is simple. 

IN'ousee, he arises, forms the imperfect nouai, but noutaa, he 
brings, makes nouti, to distinguish it from the other. Similarly 
kyntaa, to plough, generally forms its imperfect kynti, to dis- 
tinguish it from the same tense of kynsia, to scratch. 

In poetry forms like Melti, for kielai, are found, and in the 
ordinary language a number of verbs which should by the above 
rule form the imperfect in si, either keep ti, as hoiti (hoitaa, to 
look after), jouti (joutaa, to have time), or have alternative 
forms, haati or haasi (haataa, to keep off), saati or saasi 
(saataa, to place), kiiti or kiiai (from kiitaa, to hasten), hyyti or 
hyysi (hyytaa, to freeze), ayyti or ayysi (syytaa, throw otU)^ 
Bieti or aiesi (sietaa, to bear), jaytl or jaysi (j^^ytaa, to gnaw). 



T always becomes b in the imperfect of contracted verbs, 
lupata, to promise, pres. lupaan, impf. lupasin. 

The combination ts is pronounced in dialects as tt or ht; 
e.g. metsa, a forest, appears as metta or mehta. 

E before t, d, n becomes h. E.g. from the root teke, whose 41. 
final vowel is liable to be rejected, come tehtiin, tehdaan, 
tehnen, and also tehkaa. 

But h before a becomes k. Thus the stems ylite, one, kahte, 42. 
two, haahte, a ship, form the nominatives yksi, kaksi, haaksi, 
te becoming si by the rules previoudy given, and h changing 
to k. 

In contracted words {v, page 18) h, when left as a final 43. 
letter, becomes s, t, or the aspiration. Stem vieraha, nominative 
vieras, for vierali; stem kevaha, nominative kevat, for 
kevaha ; stem venehe, nominative vene', for venehe. 

Though the above rules are given as being convenient for 
grammatical purposes, there is no doubt that in all these cases 
h is a weakening of some other letter ; indeed, there is reason 
to think it is never original in Finnish* Vieras represents an 
original vierasa, and the genitive vierasan is weakened into 
vierahan and vieraan. Similarly in yksi, yhden, the k is 
more primitive. 

TSf, after 1, li, s, is frequently, though not always, assimilated, 44. 
especially in verbs. Thus tul-nut, pur-nut, pes-nyt, become 
tullut, purrut, pessyt. 

In polysyllabic verbs n becomes t before k and t. Thus root 45. 
pakene makes in the imperative paetkaa (for pakenkaa, which 
becomes first paketkaa) and infinitive pacta. (The steps are 
pakenetaS pakenta^ paketta', paettaS paeta.) 

M, at the end of a word, always becomes n. Stem avaime, 46. 
a Jcey^ nominative avain, for avaim. Similar is the formation 
of the nominatives of superlatives : kovimpi becomes kovimp . 



by rejection of the final vowely and then kovim (rule 24), which 
changes to kovin. 

47. M also becomes n before terminations beginning with t or n. 
Thus the stem rahattoma, moneyless, shortened to rahatom, 
makes rahatonta and rahatonna in the partitive and essive 


"When two vowels are found together from the loss of 
a consonant or other causes, they frequently become a long 
vowel or a diphthong. This phenomenon is called Contraction, 
and occurs frequently in Finnish. It can, like the loss of final 
vowels, be easily accounted for on phonetic grounds, if it be 
remembered that the tonic accent of a word is alwa3rs on the 
first syllable, so that there is a natural tendency to drop or 
pronounce quickly syllables at the end of words. 

This contraction is of two kinds : — 

48. I. The first kind takes place when the vowels of the two 
final syllables of a word are the same, and the consonant between 
them (h in nouns or t in verbs) falls out. Thus, vierahan 
becomes vierluUi (two syllables) ; lupatan, lupluUi ; tervehen, 

This form of contraction is universally employed in certain 
classes of nouns and verbs, the uncontracted forms being only 
found in poetry and the Karelian dialect. 

49. II* The second kind is when the vowels of the last and 
penultimate syllables of a word meet, the last vowel being a or 
a. Under these circumstances the assimilation of the second 
vowel to the first, and contraction of the two into one long 
vowel is admissible, but not obligatory, though it usually takes 
place if the first vowel is o, e, or 6, Thus lankean (/ faU)^ 
kokoan (/ collect), become lankeen, kokoon. But the contrac- 
tion of ia or ua to ii, uu is rare. 

NOUNS. 19 

Forms like silee, ainoo for silea, ainoa are found in poetry. 
In prose this form of contraction is confined to verbs. 

The contraction of two vowels into one long vowel or diph- 
thong also occurs in adding the case suffixes : — 

(i) The a or a of the partitive sing, with the final vowel of 
roots ending in a or a forms a long vowel, e.g. jalka-a, leipa-a 
become Jalk^fk, leipaa. 

(2) When the e of a termination becomes i after the final 
vowel of a root, this i forms a diphthong with that vowel, e. g. 
korvaen becomes korvain ; and when the i of the plural meets 
with the final vowel of a root it forms a diphthong with it. 

The point in all these cases is that, though no change takes 
place in writing, the two vowels form one syllable instead 
of two. 

Vowels which meet from the disappearance of k are often 
contracted in pronunciation : teen, nain from token, nakin, are 
pronounced as one syllable. 


Finnish is called an agglutinative language ; that is to say, 
the words, as they appear used in a sentence, are formed of 
roots, to which have been added certain terminations : thus 
taloiltansa, meaning from his JhrmSy is made up from the root 
talo, and the suffixes i (a sign of the plural), -Ita (giving the 
idea of from), and -nsa (his)* 
" Every root in Finnish ends in a vowel or a diphthong. 

In adding suffixes to a root the rules for the changes of 
letters must be carefully observed. The result of applying 
them is that from the original full root there may be produced 
three modifications : — 

(i) The closed form. Boot veto, water, closed form veden» 

c 2 


(2) The shortened form, paimen for paimene. 

(3) A form both closed and shortened, tantere, nominatiYe 


The Finnish noun is declined by adding suffixes to the root, 
which undergoes any modifications required by the rules of 

There are fifteen cases, which, with the exception of the 
nominative, may be regarded as the noun followed by a 
preposition, or rather postposition. The Finnish word maalta 
corresponds to the English from land, only the from is put 
after land, and the two are written as one word. maalta 
is analogous to such an expression as the Greek y^f air6, only 
that in this case we have both a case-form and a postposition. 
Most of the terminations have two forms, one with a hard, one 
with a soft vowel. Boots with hard vowels take the hard ter- 
mination, those with soft, the soft ones. Thus we find maa-ssa, 
but tyo-Bsa. 

These fifteen cases are as follow : — 

(i) The Twminative has no suffix, though it does not always 
represent the pure root. In maa, Icmd, the two are identical, 
but the roots kate, vete, vieraha produce the nominatives kasi, 
vesi, vieras. 

(2) The jpartitive is formed by the suffix ta, ta or a, a. 
It may be roughly described as answering to a noun preceded 
in English by the word some, or in French by the partitive 
article. Iisipaa, some bread, du jpain\ vetta, some water, 
de Veau, 

(3) The genitive is formed by the suffix n. Puun, of the tree. 

The Finnish genitive reaUy represents two cases, the genitive 
and accusative, which have become confused in one form. 

NOUNS. 21 

(4) The inessive expresses the place, in which anything 
takes place, and is formed with the suffix -ssa, -88&. Missa, 
where {in what) ; kirkoasa^ in the chwrch, 

(5) The elative expresses the place from which motion takes 
place, and is formed with the suffix -ata, -stS.. Mista, whence 
{from what); kirkosta, from the church; talosta, fivm the 

(6) The illative is formed by adding to the root the consonants 
h — n, between'^hich is inserted the last vowel of the root, or, 
if it ends in a diphthong, the second vowel in that diphthong. 
Talo, talohon ; metsa, metsahan ; tyo, tyohon. Generally 
the termination is shortened by the omission of h, and we 
have forms like taloon, metsaan. It expresses the place into 
which motion takes place. 

(7) The adessive is formed with the suffix -11a, -11a, and 
signifies the place on which, or the object with which, anything 
is done. IiattiaUa, on the floor ; kcidell&, vnth the hand. 

(8) The ablative is formed with the suffix -Ita, -Ita, and 
expresses motion from. Maalta, from the land ; poydalta, from 
the table. 

(9) The oMative expresses motion towards, and is formed 
with the suffix -Ue. Fellolle, to the field ; rannalle, to the 

(10) The ahessive is formed with the suffix -tta. It expresses 
the absence of something ; rahatta, tvithout m^oney, 

(11) The jprolative is formed by adding the syllable -tse, and 
expresses motion along ; talotse, along the farm. In modern 
Finnish it is rarely used in the singular. Maitse, meritse, 
by land, by sea. 

(12) The translative is formed with the suffix -ksi. It 
generally is used to express some change in the form of existence. 
Han tuli sotamieheksi, he became a soldier. 


(13) Whereas the eaBive, formed by adding -na or -n& to the 
root, expresses a state of being regarded as continuous. Iiapsena., 
as a child. 

(14) The comitative is formed with the syllable -ne, and is 
generally used in the plural, and with a possessive affix, 
liapsine (or oftener lapsinensa), with his children. 

(15) The instructive is formed by simply adding the letter 
n to a root, and expresses the means by which anything is done. 
Kasin, with the hands. The singular of the instructive is only 
used in poetry. 

There are two numbers in Finnish, the singular and plural. 
For the singular, the suffixes are added directly to the root : to 
form the plural other letters are also added. 

A. The nominative plural is formed by adding t to the root, 
e.g. root and nominative sing, maa, nominative plur. maat; 
root and nominative sing, pata, nominative plur. (by rule 31) 
padat ; root vieraha, nominative sing, vieras, nominative plur. 
vierahat ; root veto, nominative sing, vesi, nominative plur. 

B. The other cases, with the exceptions below mentioned, 
simply add i to the root, which suffers the necessary phonetic 
changes, and then take the same suffixes as the sing. Maa, 
inessive sing, maassa, inessive plur. maissa (3) ; pata, illative 
sing, patahan or pataan, illative plur. patoihin (7) ; vieraha, 
translative sing, vierahakai or vieraaksi, translative plur. 
vierahiksi or vieraiksi (11). 

C. But the genitive plural is formed with the suffix -ite 
(apparently a combination of the two suffixes i and t(e) above 
mentioned), placed before the case suffix -n. 

This suffix is found in three forms : — 

(i) ite+n becomes regularly -iden, maiden. 

(2) Monosyllabic roots and polysyllabic roots ending with 

NOUNS. 23 

a long vowel have a strengthened form, -Itte-n, often found 
alternating with -ide-n, e. g. maitten, vierahitten. 

(3) The t drops out and the suffix becomes simply -le-n, 
e. g. jalka-iten becomes (rule 7) jalko-iten, then jalko-ien, 
then (rule 21) jalkojen; aiti-iten becomes aititen, and then 
aitien. Sometimes the i or j drops out between two vowels ; 
e. g. Mrkkoen. 

Most of the cases above enumerated are common to nearly 
all the Finno-Ugric languages, though the same suffixes are 
used with rather different meanings. 

The suffix -na, called here essive, is used in most other 
languages of the family as a locative, and a few traces of this 
use are preserved in Finnish, e. g. kotona, at home^ ulkona, out 
of doors, (olla) lasna, to he ^present, takana, behind, tana 
pana, tanaan, to-day. 

No accusative is usually given in Finnish grammars, because 
this case coincides with the genitive in the sing., and with the 
nominative in the plural. The accusative sing, is, however, 
etymologically a distinct formation, with the termination m or 
ma, as is proved by a comparison of the other languages of the 
family (Ostiak and Yogulian ma, me, or m ; Tcheremissian 
and Syrjenian m). As m cannot be a final in Finnish, it 
becomes n, and the case is indistinguishable from the genitive. 

There is also an accusative in -t, found in the pronominal 
declensions of Finnish, Ostiak, Syrjenian, and Mordvinian. 
It is supposed to represent the demonstrative pronoun ta 
suffixed to a word, and perhaps stands for -nt. 

Another case which occurs sporadically, though not usually 
given in grammars, is the Excessive, ending in -nta. This 
termination is much used in the dialect spoken about St. 
Petersburg, and is even employed by some writers. It ex- 
presses departure either from a place or a state ; e. g. kotonta, 
from home \ hanjai palveiyanta, he gave up being a servant. 


Han muutti paimenenta rengiksi, he became a farm-lahowreT 
instead of a shepherd. It is also found in some adverbial forms, 
e. g. siinta, luonta, takanta. 

Another sporadic case is an allative or dative ending in 
-nne, -ne, or -n. Its original form seems to have been -nek, 
for in the Savo-dialect we find tuonnek, tannek instead of 
the ordinary tuonne, tanne, thither, hither. In written Finnish 
this termination is only used in a few adverbs, as sinne, 
thither, muuanne, to ano^ier jplace. Alle, paalle, and ylle are 
also apparently for al-ne^ paal-ne, yl-ne. In the expression 
Jumalan kiitos, thanks be to God, Jumalan appears to be 
really this case, and similar strange uses of an apparent genitive 
in old writings are no doubt to be explained the same way. 

It will be observed that the local cases are arranged in two 
sets of three, one characterised by the presence of b, the other 
by that of 1. 

We haye : — 

Inessive s-sa (for s-na) Adessive 1-la (for 1-na) 

Elative s-ta Ablative 1-ta 

Illative sen or h-n. Allative 1-le (for Men) 

The Essive in na and Excessive in n-ta are parts of a similar 

The case called adessive (-Ua) is also used as an instrumental, 
and probably represents two original cases. 

The primitive form of the abessive appears to have been 
taka or taha, which is considered by some as identical with 
the word taka, back. Besides the regular termination in 
-tta, the forms -ta and -t are found in dialects, and -ti in some 
adverbs ; aaneti, silently ; huoleti, carelessly. Closely con- 
nected with the abessive are the caritive adjectives ending in 
. The prolative, though generally counted as one of the 


regular eases, is really very seldom employed, and camiot be 
formed from the majority of nouns. 

The plur. inflection of the Finno-Ugric languages, gives 
three suffixes, t, k, and i, of which t and i are found in Finnish. 
It has been suggested that the t and k are really identical, k 
not being allowable as a final letter. It is not improbable 
that i may be the remains of a k weakened to j (cf. 26, 27). 

There are no genders in Finnish. 

The simplest way of dividing the declensions is by the form 
of the Partitive case. 

The first declension has the partitive ending in ta or ta, 
after a long vowel or diphthong. 

The second has the partitive ending in a or a, after a short 

The third has the partitive in ta or ta, after a consonant. 

The First Declension. 

This declension includes all words ending in a long vowel or 
a diphthong. 

It has the following characteristics : — 

(i) The partitive sing, has the suffix ta or ta, after a long 
vowel or diphthong. 

(2) The nominative sing, is the same as the root. 

(3) No c]iange of consonants takes place in the root. 

(4) The genitive plur. is found ending in -iden or -itten, 
before which the last vowel of the root is rejected by rule 
3 or 4. 

(5) Monosyllabic roots form the illative in h-n, the last vowel 
of the root being between the two consonants: tai, taihin; 
jaa, j&ahan. But dissyllables ending in a long vowel, e. g. 
harmaa, ehtoo, have the illative sing, in -sen and the illative 



plur. in -sin or -hin. Sing. harmaa49eny plor. haxmaisln or 

Example of a noun of first declension with a hard vowel 
Puu, a tree : — 
































puiden or puitteu 













There is nothing to be remarked on the declension of this 
word, except that in the plur. the diphthong uu is shortened to u 
before the vowel i ; puissa, etc., and not puuissa. 

The declension of a noun with a soft vowel, e. g. tyo, iwrky is 
exactly analogous, except that the suffixes have the soft forms 
-ssa, -sta, etc. 

























toitten, or tOiden 








NOUNS. 27 

l^ing, Plur, 

Prol. [tydtse] tOitse 

Transl. tyOksi tOiksi 

Ess, tyOna tOina 

Com, [tyOne] tOine 

Insir, [tyOn] tOin 

According to rule 4 before the i of the plural the vowel y is 

rejected from the diphthong yd. So sue, yd, tie form in the 
plural Boissa, oilla, tein. 

The Second Declension, 

The second declension has the following characteristics : — 

(i) The partitive sing, ends in -a or -a (-ta, -ta) after a short 
vowel. (Polysyllables have often -ta, -ta.) 

(2) The nominative has the same number of vowels as the 
root, ^d generally preserves those vowels unaltered except that 
the final a or a of comparatives and final e become 1. 

(3) The illative sing, ends in the last vowel of the root 
doubled with n suffixed ; kirkkoon, not kirkohon. 

(4) The genitive plur. generally ends in -jen or -en, as 
described above. In the ordinary language this -en is further 
weakened to -in after the vowel of the root, unless that vowel 
is itself i. 

(5) Hard consonants at the beginning of the last syllable are 
of course softened by rules 24-35, when the syllable becomes 

This declension comprises — 

A. Boots ending in the vowels o, 6, ii, y, which never 


Example : — Atuinko, the sun. 

8ing. Tlwr. 

Nom, aurinko auringot 

Part, aurinkoa atirinkoja, auringoita 

Gen. auringon aurinkoen, aurinkoin 

aurinkojen or auringoiden 

In. auringossa auringoissa 

El. auringosta auringoista 

H. aurinkoon aurinkoihin 

Ad. auringolla auringoilla 

Abl. auringolta auringoilta 

All. auringoUe auringoille 

Abes, auringotta anringoitta 

Frol. [auringotse] auringoitse 

Tranal. auringoksi auringoiksi 

JSss. aufinkona aurinkoina 

Com. [aurinkone] aurinkoine 

Instr. [auringon] auringoin 

Here in the majority of cases the k is weakened to g, because 
the syllable which it commences becomes closed containing a 
single vowel or a diphthong formed by that vowel with the i of 
the plural ; but the k remains in such places as the illative, 
where the syllables remain* open. The original form of the geni- 
tive plur. would be aurinkoiten. This is weakened to aurin- 
goiden. Then the d dropping out we have aurmkojen, aurin- 
koen, or aurinkoin. 

Iiuettu (past participle), meaning recid, is thus declined: — 

Sinff. Plur, 

Nom. luettu luetut 

Part, luettua luettuja or luetuita 

Gen. luetun luetuitten, luituiden ) 

luetttijen or luettuin ( 

In. luetussa luetuissa 

El, luetusta luetuista 

n. luettuun luettuihin 

Ad. luetulla luetnilla- 

Abl. luetuita luetuilta 

All, luetulle luetuille 



Abet, luetatta 


Transl, luetuksi 
Ess, luettuna 

Com, — ' 





Here tt is weakened to t when the syllable becomes closed (rule 
30), and the partitive and genitive plur. either take or reject t. 

The declension of words vdth soft vowels is precisely similar, 
except that the suffixes have soft vowels. Elaimisto, animal 
kingdom, lydty, struck. 

Nom. elaixnistO 
Part. elaimistOa 
Gen. elaimistOn 

In. el&imistOssa 

JSl. elaimistdsta 

H. elaimistOOzL 

Ad. elaiznistOlla 

AM. elaimistOlta 

All. elaimist5Ue 

Abes. elaimistOtta 

Transl. elaiinistOksi 

Sss. elaimistOna 

Nom. lyOty 
Part. lyOtya 
€hn. lyOdyn 

In. lyOdyssa 

M. lyOdysta 

II. lyOtyyn 

Ad. ly6dyUa 

Abl. lyddylta 

All. ly5dyUe 

elaimistOjen \ 
elaimistOen > 
elaimistOln ) 

lyOtyjen 1 
lyOtyen > 
lyOtyin J 



Sing. Plur, 

Abes, lyddytta lyOdyitta 

Transl, lyOdyksi lyddyiksi 

Ess, lyOtyna lyOtyina 

Here the t of lyoty is weakened when the Byllable is closed, 
but the t of eladmisto remains, being preceded by s and conse- 
quently unchangeable. 

B. All roots ending in a, &, except superlatives for adjectives, 
e. g. pata, a poU In this declension the final a frequently becomes 
o in the plural by rule 7. Dissyllabic words reject t in the 
partitive both sing, and plur., and in the genitive plur. ; but 
polysyllabic words optionaQy preserve it in these cases. 

Norn, pata 
Part, pataa 
Gen, padan 

In. padassa 
M. padasta 
H. pataan 
Ad, padalla 
Abl. padalta 
All, padalle 
Abes, padatta 
Prol, [padatse] 
Transl. padaksi 
Ess. patana 
Com. [patane] 
Instr, [padan] 




patojen, [pataeu] 


Such words as sota, war, korva, the ear, do not change the 

final a to o in the plural. 

Stn^f, Plur, 

Nom, sota sodat (30) 

Part, sotaa sotia 

Gen, sedan sotain or sotieu 

In, sodassa sodissa 

n, sotaan sotiin 

etc etc. 



Polysyllabic nouns are declined as follows : — 


Norn, korkea 
Part, korkeata) 
korkeaa ) 
Gen. korkean 

In. korkeassa 
II. korkeaan 


Norn, harakka 
Part, harakkata 
Gen. harakan 

In. harakassa 
lU. harakkaan 


korkeita ) 
korkeoita ) 

korkeiden (-eoiden) ) 
korkeitten (-eoitten) ) 


harakat (25) 

harakoitten, harakkojen 

Similarly, Isanta, a father of a family, makes isantaa, isan- 
nan (t becoming n by rule 31), isannassa. Thia word in the 
plur. loses its final vowel, and does not change it to o. Isannat, 
iaantia, isantien (-ain), isannissH, etc. 

Comparatives whose root ends in -mpa, -mpa, change the 
final vowel to i in the nominative sing. ; e. g. parempa, better. 
Nominative parempi, partitive paxempaa or parempata, 
genitive paremman (by rule 34), innessive paremmassa, etc. 
Plur. nominative paremmat, partitive parempia, genitive 
par^mpien, parempaen, or parempain, inessive parenunissa, 
illative parempiin, etc. All comparatives reject the final a 
before the 1 of the plural. 

C, All roots ending in -i 

The root of the plural ends in the diphthong ei or short i, 
e. g. kaupuinki, a town^ 




Nom, kauptmki 

Pcirt, kaupunkia \rarely 

Gen. kaupungin 

In, kaupungissa 
El. kauptmgista 
n. kaupunkiin 
Ad, kaupnngilla 
Ahl. kaupungilta 
All, kaupungille 
Ahes, kaupungitta 
JProl, kaupungitse 
Transl. kaupungikai 
Ess. kaupunkina 
Com, [kaupnnkine] 
Instr, [kaupttngin] 


kaupiinkeja or kauptingeita 

or kaupunkia 
kaupungeiden, kauptuokein, 

or kaupunkien 

Here k becomes g when the syllable is closed, and ii in the 
plur. ei (26 and 21). 

D. Dissyllables ending in the vowel e, preceded by k, p, v, a 
doubled consonant, or two consonants of which the last is h, j, 
or m ; that is to say, roots like reke, nukke, hanhe, kolme, 
pilve, etc. 

A few words coming under none of these heads also belong to 
this declension. 

a. With a few exceptions the final e becomes i in the nomi- 
native sing. 

h. The plur. stem ends in simple i (14), but in speaking ei 
is sometimes used in order to distinguish the sing, and plur. 

Laps, a hole. 

Sing. * Plur, 

Nom, lapi lavet 

Fart, lapea l&pi& 

Gen, laven l&pien > 

lapein ) 




In. lavessa 


El. l&vesta 


n, lapeen 


Ad, laveUa 


Ahl. lavelta 


All, lavelle 


Ahes. lavetta 


Prol, (lavetse) 


Tranal, l&veksi 


Ess, lapena 


Com. (lapene) 


Imtr. (laven) 



P is weakened to v in the closed syllables (d5)» 
Beke, a sledge. 

Sing, Plur, 

Nom, reki reet 

Part, rekea rekia 

Gen, reezL rekien, or rekein 

In. fee88& reissa 

HI, rekeen rekiin 

Ess, rekenft rekina 
etc, etc. 

K is dropped by rule 28. Notice that the word takes the 
soft terminations* 

The Third Declension, 

The third declension has the following characteristics : — 

(1) The partitive sing, ends in ta or ta after a consonant. 

(2) The nonunative sing, is never the same as the root. 

(3) The root is closed in the partitive sing, and first form of 
the genitive plur., and sometimes in the nominative and essive 

The nouns belonging to this declension may be classed under 
two divisions. 



First Division, 

This comprises all words belonging to this declension which 
have the illative sing, ending in a doubled vowel and n. 

To this class belong — 

I. Dissyllabic roots ending in e preceded by h, 1, n, r, a, t, It, 
nt, or rt, and all roots ending in -hte, -kse, -pse, -tse. 

£. g. Vete, loater. 

Stuff, Plur, 

Nom, vesi vedet 

Part, vetta vesia 

Q-en, veden vetten or vesien 

In, vedessa veflissa 

El, vedesta vesista 

H, veteen vesiin 

Ad, vedella vesilla 

Abl, vedelta vesUta 

All. vedelle vesille 

Abes, vedetta vesitta 

Frol, [vedetse] vesitse 

Transl. vedeksi vesiksi 

Ess. vetena vesina 

Com. (vetene) vesine 

Irtstr, (veden) vesin 

In the nominative sing, te becomes si by rule 37. The parti- 
tive sing, and first genitive plur. are formed from the closed 
root. In the majority of the cases of the sing, vete becomes 
vede when the root is closed by the addition of a suffix, while 
in the plur. te + i becomes ti, which changes to si by the rule 
above quoted. 

The stem miehe, man, forms the nominative miss, partitive 
miesta, genitive miehen, inessive miehessa, etc. Plur. miehet, 
genitive miesten, partitive miehia, inessive miehissa, etc. 



Toise, second. 

Nom, toinen 
Part, toista 
Gen, toisen 
In. toisessa 
El. toisesta 
HI. toiseen 
Ad. toisella 
Abl. toiselta 
All. toiselle 
Ahes. toisetta 
Prol. [toisetse] 




toisten, or toisieu 













Transl. toiseksi 

Ess. toisena, or toisna 
Com. (toisene) 
Instr. (toisen) 

Boots ending in se change this termination in the nominative 
nen. Thus kiijase, a little book, veual&iae, EuadaUy iloise, 
Had, vihoUiBe, hostile, form in the nominative klxjanen, vena- 
ainen, iloinen, vihollinen. In all such words the partitive 
ing. and first genitive plur. are formed from the closed root and 
he essive sing, has two forms. 

n. All words of more than one syllable ending in -e. 
E. g. Eoot : — Kolmante, third. 


Nom. kolmas 
Part, kolmatta 
Gen. kolmannen 
In. kolxnannessa 
El. kolmannesta 
H. kolmanteen 
Ad. kolmannella 
Ahl. kolmannelta 
AU. kolxnannelle 
Ahes. kolmannetta 
Prol. [kolmannetse] 
Transl. kolmanneksi 


I> 2 




E»8, kolmaiitena 


Com. [kolmantene] 


Inetr, [kolmsxmen] 


Here (i) the e is rejected in the nominative (rule 16), and 
kolmant becomes kolmas (24 and 37). (2) The partitive also is 
formed from the shortened root (kolmajit), and kolmantta 
becomes kolmatta. (3) The cases of the singular and nominative 
plural, where the last syllable of the root is closed, change nt to 
nn (rule 31). (4) The essive sing, in the form taken from the 
full root preserves the root entire, kolmanna is not used. All 
the cases of the plural which take -i reject the final e before 
that letter, and change nt to ns (rule 37). 

Similarly kannukse, a spur, makes in the nominative kannus 
(rules 16 and 24). The root remains unaltered in the genitive, 
etc., kannnksen, while the partitive is kannusta for kannuksta. 
Similarly in the plural we have kannukset, genitive kannuk- 
sien or kannusten, partitive kanniiksia. 

Ealleute, deamesSj makes in the nominative sing, kalleus 
(24 and 37), partitive kalleut-ta, illative kalleuteen, geni- 
tive kalleuden, etc. ; plur. nominative kalleudet, first genitive 
kalleutten, but the second genitive is kallenksien, and all the 
remaining cases are of the same type (partitive kalleuksia, 
illative kalleuksiin, etc.), being formed exactly as if the root 
was kalleiikse. 

Adjectives like lyhyte, short, ohute, thin, drop the t altogether 
between two vowels. E.g. nominative sing, lyhyt, partitive 
lyhytta. But the genitive lyhyte-n becomes lyhyen, the illative 
lyhyteen, lyhyeen, etc.; plur. lyhyet, genitive lyhyitten, 
lyhytten, partitive lyhyita (or lyhyvia for lyhyia). 

III. All superlatives in -mpa or -mpa, and all negative 
adjectives in -ttoma. 



The termination -mpa is shortened to n (24 and 46) in 
the nominative, partitive, and genitive plur. (first form), and of 
course becomes -mma when the last pliable is closed in the 
other cases (34) ; -ttoma becomes -ton in the nominative sing., 
partitive sing., and first form of genitive plur. (46). 

E. g. suurimpa, very large : — 

Nom. suurin 

Part, suurimpata^ sunrinta 

Getim sunriminan 

In, suuriminassa 
M. suuximmasta 
H, suiirimpaan 
Ad, suurimmalla 
AU, suurimmalta 
AU. suuriinznalle 
Abes, suurimmatta 
Prol. [suurimmatse] 
Transl, suurimmaksi 
Ess. sxLurimpana, or ) 
suuriniia ) 

Cam. [suurimpane] 
Instr. [suurimman] 




suurimpain, suarinten, or 




In the plural the final a is lost before the i (0). 

So also viattoma, guiltleas (the termination -ttoma corre- 
sponds to the English termination -less, or the prefixes tm-, inr-). 
In Nom. viaton, a being lost, m becomes n, and the syllable 
being thus closed tt becomes t. Partitive from the same shortened 
root viatonta. Genitive, etc. viattoman, etc., nominative plur. 
viattomat, genitive viatonten, viattomain or viattomien, parti- 
tive viattomia, etc. 



Second Division. 

(i) The illative sing, ends in -sen, the illative plur. in sin, 
or hin. 

(2) The shortened form of the root is always employed in the 
nominative sing., which ends in a, t, or the aspiration. 

(3) The plural is formed from the shortened root, and the 
stem ends in a long diphthong of which the last letter is i. 

(4) The partitive plur. after this diphthong has the termina- 
tion -ta, -ta. 

(5) The second genitive plur. ends in -den (-tten). 

This class is composed of what are called contracted nouns 
(rule 47). 


Nom. uroB 
Part. uTosta 
Gen. turoon 
In. uroossa 
M. uTooBta 
II. uroosen 
Ad. uroolla 
Ahl. uToolta 
All. uroolle 
Ahee. iirootta 
Transl. ' urooksi 
Prol, [urootse] 
£88. uroona or urosna. 
Com. [uToone] 
Inetr. [uroon] 


Nom. vleras 
Part, vierasta 
Gen. vieraan 

ln» vieraassa 

m. vieraasia 

II. vieraasen 




urosten, uroiden, uroitten 



uroihin, uroisin 













vierasten, vieraiden, 

vieraihin, vieiraisin 





Ad, vieraalla 

Ahl, vieraalta 

AU, vieraalle 
Abes, vieraatta 
Transl. vieraaksi 
Prol. [vieraatse] 

E88, vieraana or vierasna 
C(ym, [vieraane] 
Instr, [vieraan] 

In poetry we also find a declension : uros, vieras, genitive 
iirohon, vieraJian, etc., illative urohosen, vierahasen, plur. 
uroliDt, vierahat, urohissa, vierahissa, etc., so that it is clear 
the roots are uroso, vierasa, being weakened. 

Analogously are declined such words as terve, healthy, 

kevat, spring. 

Sing, Flur, 

Nam, terve terveet 

JPart, tervetta terveita 

Gen, terveen tervetten, terveiden 

H, terveesen terveisin w texveihin 

Sing, Plur, 

Nom, kevat kevaat 

PaH. kevatta kevaita 

Gen, kev&an kevatten, kevaiden 

II, kevaasen kevaisiii» or kevaihin 

Stems ikehe, a yoke, okaha, jpoint or prickle. 

Nom. ies or ijes 
Part, iesta, or ijesta 
Gen. ikeeu 
In. ikeessa 
,U. ikeesen 
Ess. iesna, ikeena 

Nom. oas (rule 27) 
Pari, casta 
Gen, okaan 




iesten, ikeiden^ ikeitten 


ikeisin, or ikeihin 





oasten, okaideny okaitten 



In, t>kaa88a 
lU, okaasen 
Ess, oasna, okaana 


okaisin^ or okaihin 

Vapaa^ free, koree, beautiful (for korea). 

Nom, vapaa 
Fart, vapaata 
Gen, vapaan 
In, vapaassa 
II, vapaasen 
Ess, vapaana 
Nom, koree 
Pwt, koreeta 
Gen, koreen 
In, koreessa 
27. koreesen 
Ess, koreena 


vapaiden^ vapaitten 

vapaisin, vapaihin 

koreiden, koreitten 

koreisin, koreihin 

Participles whose nominative ends in nut or nyt (that is 
past active participles), like oppinut, lydnyt, form the geni- 
tive, inessive, etc., from a root ending in nehe, contracted nee ; 
but the nominative and partitive sing., and one form of the 
essive sing, and genitive plur. are formed from a root ending 
in ute, yte, which loses its final vowel. ' 


Nom, oppinut 
"^^Part, oppinutta 
Oen, oppineen 
In, oppineessa 
El, oppineesta 
II, oppineoBen 
Ad, oppineella 
Ahl, oppineelta 
All, oppineelle 
Ahes, oppineetta 
Prol, oppineetse 
Transl, oppineeksi 



oppinutten, oppineiden 










NOUNS. 41 

Sing. Plur, 

JBss, oppineena or oppintmna oppineina 

Com, (oppineene) oppineine 

Insir, (oppineen) oppinein 

So also lyonsrt, partitive lyonytta^ genitive lyoneen, inessive 
lyoneessa, essive lyoneena, or lyonynna; plur. nominative 
lyoneet, partitive lyoneita, genitive lyonytten or lyoneiden, 

Compound Noti/ns, 

Finnish, especially the modem literary dialect, abounds in 
compound nouns, in which the last word of the compound is 
defined by that which precedes it, so that the first word is 
practically an adjective. Thus in paakaupiinki, a capital^ 
IcaupunM means a town, and the word paa, a head, describes 
what sort of town is intended. So also rautatie, a railway, 
from rauta, iron, and tie, a road; tullihuone, a ciistom house ; 
puutarha, a garden (puu, a tree, tarha, an emloswre), kirkko- 
tarha, a chv/rchyard (kirkko, ch/wrch, tarha, enclosuri). Some- 
times the first word is an adjective, as omatunto, conadence^ 
from oma, own, and tunto, feding. This is written as one 
word, because omatunto conveys a different meaning from the 
separate words oma and tunto. 

When a compound is made up of more than two words, all 
but the last may be regarded as a single word qualifying the 
last, and then be decomposed in their turn. For instance 
in ylioppilaakiijasto. University stvdents* library, kiijasto, 
library, is qualified by ylioppilas, describing what kind of 
a library is meant, and in this word ylioppilas, oppilas, stu- 
dent, is particularised by the addition of yli. Similarly 
isanmaaTirakkaTiB, jpatriotism, is composed of isannxaa, /a^Aer- 
land, and rakkans, love, and iaanmaa again is composed of 
iaa,^^^^, and maa, land. 


Generally the first word of a compound is used in the 
nominative case. Sairashuone, a hospital (stem sairaha). 
Frequently, however, it is in the genitive, this case being 
either (a) descriptive^ as in maantie, highroad, literally road 
of the land : talonpoika, peasant, literally son of a farm ; (5) 
subjective, that is to say, if the compound were developed into 
a phrase the word in the genitive would become the subject, as 
kuunvalo, moonlight \ (c) objective, that is to say, if the 
compound were developed into a phrase the word in the 
genitive would become the object, hatuntekya, a hatmaker. 

More rarely other cases are used, as toimeentulo, auhsistence, 
kuntoonpano, arrangement, accomplishment. 

As a rul^, only the last word of a compound is declined, the 
preceding member remaining unaffected by inflection. But if 
the first member is an adjective, then both parts of the word 
receive inflections, e.g. vieraamies, a stranger, forms the 
genitive vieraanmielien, inessive vieraassamiehessa, etc. 
But vierasmiehen is not wrong. 


Adjectives are declined exactly like substantives, and like 
them have no gender. 

Besides declension they are susceptible of inflections in- 
dicating the comparative and superlative degrees. 

I. The Comparative is formed by adding to the root of the 
positive -mpa or -mpa. Huono, had, huonompa, worse; 
pakBu, fat, paksumpa, fatter, Eioot, iloise, gay (nominative 
of positive iloinen), comparative iloiaempa. 

If a dissyllabic root end in a or a, that vowel becomes e 
before the termination mpa. Vanha, old, vanhempa (13). 


It is important to note that the sufi&x -mpa is added to the 
root, and not to the nominative of the positive. 

The stem thus formed is declined with the usual suffixes, after 
the models given above : mpa in the nominative sing, becomes 
mpi, and in the cases where the syllable is closed mma. 

n. The Superlative is formed by adding to the root of the 
positive the suffix impa. Before this suffix the vowels a, 
&, 6, i are rejected, and aa, aa, ee, become ai, ai, ei. Thus 
iso, great^ isoimpa: huono, had^ huonoinipa; but koyha, 
kdyhimpa, valkea, valkeimpa, etc. 

The root thus obtained is declined after the third declension. 
Notice the difference in the declension of comparatives and 
superlatives. In the comparative the final a becomes i in the 
nominative sing., in the superlative it is lost and mp becomes n 
by rule 2. 

Comparative stem suurempa. Superlative stem suiirimpa. 


Nom, suurempi suurin 

Gen, suuremznan suurimman 

Part, suurempaa (ta) suurimpaa, suurinta 

III, suurempaan suurimpaan 

Ess, suurempana 8uurimpana» suurinna 
etc. etc. 

Nom, suuremmat suurixnmat 

Gen, [suurempaen] 8uiirempai& suurinten, suurimpain 

Fart, suurempia suurixnpia 

etc. etc. 

Examples of the formation of the comparative and super- 




vanlia, old 

vanhempi (11) 


raaka, rato 

raaempi (28, 9) 

raain (28) 












kdyha, poor 

kdyhempi (U) 


terava, shcMrp 



suruinen, aorrowfkd 



lyhyt, short 



aulis, liberal 



paksu, fat 



mleto, mild 

miedompi (32) 


rikas, rich 



kaunis, beautiful 


kauniin, kaunein 

oppinut, learned 



The following words are irregular, the comparative and 

superlative being formed from different roots to the positive. 

Positive. Comparative, Superlative, 

hyva, good parempi paras, parhain 

(root paraa) 
paljo, much enempi enin 

pitka, long pitempi pisin (as if firom 

root pita) 
moni, many useampi usein 

Molemmatj both, is an isolated comparative form. 

The following adjectives are not decHned or compared, but 
remain invariable in all cases. — Aika, strongs aimo, good] 
kelpo, worthy ; eri, differerU ; koko, oM ; ensi, next ; viime, 
last ; pikku, little. iTaiirTn'^ all, is not usually changed in the 
nominative plural, but otherwise is declined. 


Some substantives and adjectives are primitive — that is to say, 
they consist of roots which cannot be further analysed, and to 
which the case suffixes are directly attached. But a great 
number of words are not mere roots, but roots with ad- 
ditional syllables which modify the meaning of the original root. 

The following are the principal syllables so added to roots to 
form nouns and adjectives. 



I. The following sufiixes are used to form substantiyes from 

-ja. A factitiye suffix, that is to say, denoting the doer 
of the action denoted by the root. Ijuoja, the creator (luo, to 
crecUe), Elalastaja, a fisherman. When a root ends in e this 
letter is generally changed to i before the suffix -ja. Teke, 
to make, tek^a, a maJcer ; luke, to read, lukga, a reader. This 
suffix is also found in the forms -jame (nominatiye -Jan or -jain), 
-jaise (-jainen), -jaa* 

-ri has the same meaning as -ja : myllari, a miller, juomari, 
a dnmkard, petturi, a deceiver, (This is really a foreign 
termination from the Swedish -re.) 

-ma (the termination of the third infinitiye) expresses an 
action or the result of an action. Sanoma, report ("a 
speaking ''), elama, life, kuolema, death. 

-miae (nominatiye minen, the termination of the fourth 
infinitiye) expresses a continuous action, or an action in an 
abstract sense. Ijaulaminen, singing, elaminen, living, 

-nto, -nta (chiefly poetical), -nti (added to monosyllabic roots) 
express an action or a state arising from an action. ljuonto, 
nature (from luo, to 4sreate), iiskonto, religion ('* belieying," 
from iiskoa, to believe), tuonti, bringing to, or imjportation, 
yienti, bringing away, from or ex2)ortation, laulanta, singing, 

o (6) and u (y) (before which the last yowel of the root is 
rejected) form abstract nouns denoting action. Muisto, memory, 
makso, paymenty^ tulo, arrival, lahtd, departure, luku, reading, 
itku, weeping, maksu, payment. 

-okse or -ukse (nominatiye -os or -us) also form abstract 
nouns expressing an action, and are specially added to tri- 
syllabic yerbs ending in -ta. Valmistus, preparation, bar- 


joitUB, practice, va49taiiB, ansu)er. The same suffix is sometimes 
found in combination with -ma (-ma + tik8e=miik8e) juoptunus, 

-ID has the same meaning. Huomio, aitenttany paUddo, a 

-ee (original stem ehe, closed form e') expresses action or the 
product of action : puhe, converaaiion, kanne, a4:cu8ation, 

-ime (nominative -in) expresses the instrument Mdth which 
an action is performed. Avain, a hey (' the opener '), uistin, 
a fishhoohy viskain, anything used to throw things away^ e. g. 
a bucket ; viskin is also found. 

II. The following suffixes are used to form derivative nouns 
from other nouns. 

-86, -ise (nominative -nen, -inen) are used to form family 
names, like the Eussian terminations -OBij -esi, Feltonen, 
Eoskinen, Earhunen, etc. 

-ttare (nominative -tar) is a similar affix for feminine names. 
Earhutar, Ilmatar (dav^hter of the air), Manalatar {daughi&r 
of death), 

-laise (nominative -lainen) is used to form designations of 
nationality. Suomalainen, a Fiwn\ Buptsalainen, a Swede; 
Venalainen, a Russian ; Snglantilainen, an Englishman, 

The following suffixes are used to form diminutives — 
-86 (nominative -nen), or ise (nominative -inen). Eiijanen, 
emonen, poikanen. 

-lo. Purtiloj kotelo. 

-ue, ye (originally ute, yte ; nominative -ut -yt). Foiut, 
kuuhut, paivyt, paahyt. 

-kka, -kaise (nominative kainen). -kkee (original form 
-kkehe, nominative ke'). A.n-nikka,, mullikka, lapsukainen, 


The following terminations have a local significance — 

-kko or -ikko indicates a place where anything is found in a 
quantity ; rapakko, a vmiddy pUiee ; kivikko, a heap of atones ; 
koivikko, a birchtvood; TsMueikko, firwood, 

-la, added to the name of a person, expresses the place where 
that person lives; pappila, a priest's house] setala, Mmde's 
house ; tuonela, the house of death, 

-nko or -nte is used to form local suhstantives. Alanko, 
a lotu-lying plaee (Alankomaat, the Netherlands), ylanko, a 
height ; tasanko, a plane. 

Suffixes denoting a collection of objects are — 

-sto, generally used of inanimate objects ; kiijasto^ a library ; 
laivasto, a fleet ; hongisto, pinewood, 

-uee (original form uehe, nominative -ue*), generally used of 
animate objects ; matkue, laivue, seurue. 

m. Names of abstract qualities are formed from adjectives 
with the suffix -ute, -yte (nominative -us, -ys). Before this 
suffix a, a, 6 are changed to u or y, and form a long vowel ; 
hyvyys, virtue (hyva) ; rakkaus (from stem rakkaa) ; arkuus, 
cowardice ; turhuus, vanity. If a root ends in i or ii this 
vowel generally becomes e in dissyllabic roots, and u in poly- 
syllabic. KalleuB, but naapuruus, kumppanuus. 


The commonest adjectival suffix is -ise (nominative -Inen), 
which is added usually to nouns. Aamu, morning, aa.niuinen, 
early ; kulta, gold ; kultainen, golden. This suffix is sometimes 
added to cases, especially the essive ; yksinainen, ominainen, 
luonteinen. Similarly the very common suffix -llise (nominative 
-llinen) is the result of adding iae to the adessive or aUative 
— maallinen, rahallinen, vihollinen. 


-ttoma (nominatiye ton) is a caritive suffix signifying without 
or deprived of (cf. the English -leai) ; isaton, fiuherlesa ; rahaton, 
moneyless. It is frequently added to the third infinitive of verbs, 
e.g. kuolematon, immortal, 

-kkalia (nominative -kkas) is the exact contrary of this last 
suffix, and signifies progressing or provided with; rahakas, 
having m/ueh money ; voimakas, strong. 

-isa and -va have much the same meaning as -kkaha ; 
kuuluisa, glorious ; kalaisa, rich in fish ; lihava, fai ; terava, 

-86, -kaise, and -hka, -hko are used to form adjectival 
diminutives ; lyhykainen, short (Russian KopoTeHBKift), pit- 
kahko, longish. 

The suffix -mainen forms adjectives meaning like, o rather ; 
English 'ish ; lapsimainen, childish ; poikamainen, boyish \ 
hyvamainen, jpretty good. 


The following are the numerals, cardinal and ordinal, giveA 
in the nominative sing. 

Card, Ord, 

1. yksi ensimainen or ensimmaineit 

2. kaksi toinen 

3. kolme kolmas 

4. nelja neljas 

5. viisi viides 

6. kuusi kuudes 

7. seitseman seitsemas 

8. kahdeksan kahdeksas 
7. yhdeksan yhdeksas 

10. kymmenen kymmenes 

The numbers from 11 to 20 are formed by adding toista, 
that is the partitive of toinen, to the corresponding number 
below 10. 



I J. yksitoista 

12. kaksitoista 

13. kolmetoiflta 

14. neljatoista 

15. viisitoista 

16. kuusitoista 

17. seitsemantoista 

18. kahdeksantoista 

19. yhdeksantoista 

20. kaksikymxneiita 


(that is, two tens). 

The numbers between twenty and thirty are formed analo- 
usly to those between 10 and 20, that is to say, the numbers 
> to one, two, three, etc., are prefixed to the partitive case of 


21. yksikolmatta 

22. kaksikolmatta 

23. kolmekolmatta 

24. neljakolxnatta 

25. viisikolmatta 

etc., till 
30. kolmekymmenta 

d then as before the numerals 
rtitive of neljas, fowrih, e. g. 

36. kuxLsineljatta 

37. seitsemanneljatta 

38. kahdeksanneljatta 

39. yhdeksanneljatta 

40. neljakymmenta 

41. yksiviidetta 

d 80 on till 

50. viisikymxnenta 

51. yksikuudetta 

60. kuusikymmenta 
65. viisiseitsematta 
70. seitsemankymmenta 







up to ten prefixed to the 


seitsemasnelj atta 








Card. Ord. 

75. viisikahdeksatta viideskahdeksatta 

80. kahdeksankymmenta kahdeksaskymmenes 

85. viisiyhdeksatta Tiidesyhdeksatta 

90. yhdeksankynunenta yhdeksaskymmenes 

100. sata sfidas 

200. kaksi sataa kahdes sadas 

300. kolme sataa kolmas sadas 

400. nelja sataa neljas sadas 

500. viisi sataa riides sadas 

600. kuusisataa kuudes sadaa 

700. seitseman sataa seitsemas sadas 

800. kahdeksan sataa kahdeksas sadas 

900. yhdeksan sataa yhdeksas sadas 

1000. tiihat tuhannes 

2000. kaksi tuhatta kahdestulianiies 
etc. etc. 

1,000,000. miljona miljonas 

2,000,000. kaksimiljonaa kahdesmiljonas 

The numbers between the hundreds are formed simply by 
placing the required number after sata, e. g. 

loi satayksi, satayhdes; 221 kaksi sataa yksikolmatta, 
and similarly 4872 will be neljatuhatta kahdeksan sataa kaksi- 

The Finnish system of numbers, though apparently difficult 
to understand, is really very simple when the principle is 
once grasped. Starting with the ten simple numbers, all the 
numbers up to a hundred which are multiples of ten are 
expressed in the form two tens, three tens, etc., kaksikymnienta, 
kolmekynunenta. The word kymmenen is put in the parti- 
tive, because, as will be seen in the syntax, a number requires 
this case after it. The interval between 10 and 20 is regarded 
as a set of ten, and 11 is i of the second set of ten ^ (the first set 
being from i to 10), similarly from 20 to 30 is the third set of 

^ In the Bible and old Finnish are found such forms as kaksitoista- 


ten, and 27 is 7 of the third set of ten. Accordingly theee 
intermediate numbers are expressed by a unit followed by the 
partitive case of an ordinal number, viisiyhdeksatta, j^ of the 
ninth (set of ten), that is, 85. An exactly similar way of 
calculating can be traced in the Russian method of computing 
time, e. g. ten minutes past six is represented by 
JecflTb BiHHyTB ce?p»Maro. Ten minutes of the seventh (hour). 

The system of numeration just explained is at present giving 
way to another form borrowed from Russian and Swedish, 
where the numbers above twenty are formed exactly as in 
ordinary European languages. 21 is kaksikymmenta yksi, 
37 kohnekymmenta seitseman, 74 seitsemankyinmenta nelja, 
and so on with all the others. Though the older method is still 
employed in the interior of Finland, the other is almost univer- 
sally employed where the Finns come much into contact with 
strangers, which is not wonderful, for such forms as yksil^ol- 
matta, though more primitive in Finnish than kaksikynunenta 
yksi, and agreeable to the genius of the language, are difficult 
for foreigners to understand, without a good deal of explanation. 

The numbers up to ten are declined exactly like substantives. 

irksi has its root yhte. Partitive yhte, genitive yhden (31), 
inessive yhdessa, etc., essive yhtena. 

Kaksi, root kahte, partitive kahta, genitive kahden (31), 
inessive kahdessa, etc., essive kahtena. 

Eolme, root and nominative (N.B. — Nominative is not 
kolmt) kolmea, genitive kolmen, kolmessa, etc. 

Il'eU&, partitive neljaa, genitive nelijan, etc. 

Viifli, root viite, partitive viitta, genitive viiden (31), 
inessive viidessa, etc., essive viitena. 

Euusi, root kuute, partitive kuutta, genitive kuuden (31), 

Seitseman, partitive seitsenta, seitsemaa, genitive seitse- 
man, inessive seitsemassa. 

X 2 


Eahdeksan, partitive kahdeksaa, genitive kahdeksan, in- 
essive kahdeksassa. 

Thdeksan, partitive yhdeksaa, genitive yhdeksan, inessive 

Ksnnmenan, kymmenen, partitive kynunenaa, kymmenta; 
genitive kymmenan, kymmenen ; inessive kymmenassa, 

The ordinals are also declined exactly as substantives. 

Ensimainen, root ensimaise, partitive ensimaista, genitive 
ensimaisen, etc. 

Toinen, root toise, partitive toista, genitive toisen, etc. 

Kolmas, root kolmante, partitive kolmatta, genitive kol- 
mannen (SO). 

IfeUas, neljante, partitive neljattil, genitive neljannen. 

Viides, viidente, partitive viidetta, genitive viidennen. 

Kuudes, root kuudente, partitive kuudetta, genitive kuu- 

Seitsemas, root seitsemante, partitive seitsematta, geni- 
tive seitsemannen. 

Kahdeksan, root kahdeksante, partitive kahdeksatta, 
genitive kahdeksannen. 

Thdeksan, root yhdeksante, partitive yhdeksatta, genitive 

In the composite forms ensimainen and toinen are replaced 
by yhdes and kahdes. 

Sata is declined like any other noun in a ; tuhat comes from 
the stem tuhante, and makes genitive sing, tuhannen, genitive 
plur. tuhansien, partitive sing, tuhatta, partitive plur. tu- 

In both ordinal and cardinal numbers expressing any multiple 
often, e. g. 70, 120, 2000, all the words forming the expression 
are declined quite regularly except the nominative of cardinals, 
where the partitive is employed in the second number, e.g. 


Viisi sataa 500 (here the word sataa is in the partitive), 
partitive viitta sataa, genitive viiden sadan, inessive viidessa 
sadassa, etc. 

Kuudes-Tuhannes, 6000th. Partitive kuudetta tuhatta, 
genitive kuudennen tuhannenen. 

But in words designating numbers between the tens, and con- 
sisting of a simple number and a number in the partitive case 
only, the first number is declined and the second remains in 
the partitive, e.g. yksitoista, makes yhdentoista, yhdella- 
toista, and similarly the others. 

The fractional numbers (with the exception of puoli, a half) 
are formed by adding -kse to the corresponding ordinal ; the 
noun is then declined like number. 

^ puoli, ^kolmannes, ^ neljannes, \ viidennes, ^ kuudennes, 
\ seitsemannes, ^ kahdeksannes, ^ yhdeksannes, ^ kymme- 
nennes, ^ kaksikynunentayhdennes, y^ sadannes, etc. So 
also f kaksi kolmannesta, f kolme seitsemannesta. These 
numbers can also be formed with the ordinals, and the word osa, 
a part. Nelj&a osa, the fourth part, or ^. Numbers like i i, 2 J, 
are expressed as a half of the second, a half of the third, etc., 
puoli-toista, puoli-kolmatta. 

The distributive numbers are yksittain, one by one; kak- 
sittain, two by two ; kolmittain, etc. 

Yksinainen, simple \ kaksinainen, double ; kolminainen, 
triple ; nelinainen, fourfold, etc. 


The personal pronouns are declined almost exactly like 

First person mina; the singular is formed from the root 
mlnu, the plural from the root me. 


Sing, Plur. 

Nom, xnina me 

Part, minus meita 

Qen, mlnnn meidan 

In, minussa meissa 

EL miniuta meista 

H. minuun meihin 

Ad, minulla meilla 

Ahl, miniilta meilta 

AH, mlnulle meille 

Ahes, minutta mieitta 

Transl. minuksl meiksi 

Ess. miinuiia meina 

The oilier cases are not used. 

Second person, sina, root in idng. sinu, in plur. te. 

Sing, Plur, 

Nom, sina te 

Part, sinua teita 

Oen, sinun teidan 

In, sinussa teissa 

El, sinusta teista 

7^ sinuim teihin 

Ad, sinulla teilla 

Ahl, sinulta teilta 

AU. siniille teille 

Ahes, sinutta teitta 

Ih-ansl, sinitksi teiksi 

Ess, sinmia teina 

Third person h&n, he, she, or it, there being no distinction of 
genders. Eoot in sing, hane, in plur. he. 

Sing, Plur, 

Nom, han he 

Part, hanta heita 

Gen, hanen heidan 

In. hanessa heissa 

El, hanesta heista 

II, haneen heihin 

Ad. hanella heilla 

Ahl. hanelta heilta 




All. hanelle 


Ahe^. hanetta 


Transl. haneksi 


Ess. hanena 



There are also found accusatival forms ending in -t : minut^ 
plur. meidat, sinut, plur. teidat, lianet, plur. heidat. The 
forms in -n are also used as accusatiyes. 

In poetry and some dialects shortened forms are also found : 
first person nominatiye ma or ma, partitive mua, genitive mun 
adessive mulla, ablative multa, allative mulle. Second, 
person sa or sa, sun, sua, sulla, sulta, sulle. Third person 
halla, halta, halle. For the part, minuta, sinuta are found in 
the Bible, and milma, silma in poetry. 

Mie, sie, ha, are used in the Wiburg dialect. 

Possessive Pronouns. 

The possessive pronouns are usually expressed by suffixes 

added to nouns. 

These suffixes are : — 

Sing, Plur. 

1st pers. -ni -mme 

2nd „ -si^ -xme 

3rd „ -nsa or -nsa -nsa or nsa 

(i) To form the nominative sing, of a noun with a possessive 

suffix the suffix is added to the root. Kasi, a hand, but kateni, 

my hand; kysymys, a question, kysymyksesi, thy question, 

because the roots are kate, kysymykse. 

(2) In the other cases the suffix is added after the termination, 
but should a case end in a consonant, that consonant is rejected 
before the suffix. Veljeni, my brothers, because veljetni is 
euphonically disagreeable. 

(3) The possessive suffix does not cause the consonants of the 

^ This suffix frequently loses its vowel and becomes simple s. 



root to be weakened : e, g. pelto, genitive pellon, but with suffix 
peltomme, etc. Kirkko, chv/rch, kirkon, but kirkkonsa. 

But d in the genitive plur. remains and does not become t : 
e.g, maidensa. 

(4) The term of the translative before a^pronoun-suflBx is 
-kse not -ksi. 

E, g. TaiMb, with suffix -ni. 


Nom. tapani 
Fart, tapaani 
Gen. tapani 
In. tavassani 
H. tapaani 
Ad. tavaUani. 

and BO the allative, etc. 
Transl. tavakseni 
Ess. tapanani 



jtapojeni or tapaini 

tapojani (7) 

tavoissani (7, 35, 36) 



etc., etc. 



Here the genitive sing, tapani is for tavanni, the nominative 
sing, for tavatni, tapaani in the illative for tapaanni. The p 
is weakened to v only where the case inflexion requires it. 
The declension of the second person sing, is exactly analogous, 
only -si is affixed instead of -ni. 




tapojesi or tapaisi 








































For the declension of the first person plur. -mme is suffixed 
to all the cases. 



Norn, tapamine 


Part, tapaamme 


Gen. tapamme 

tapojenune, tapaimme 

In. tavassamme 


El. tavastamine 

tavoistamm e 

HI. tapaamme 


Ad. tavallamme 


Ahl, tavaltamme 


All. tavallemme 


Ahes. tavattamme 


Trand, tavaksemme 


Ess. tapanATnme 


Com, tapanemme 


The second person is declined exactly like the above, only 
-nne and not -mme is suffixed. 

The third person of the sing, and plur. alike takes the suffix 
-nsa (-nsa), which in all the cases except the nominative, geni- 
tive, and partitive is optionally shortened to n, before which 
the preceding vowel is doubled. 


Nom, tapansa 

Pcvrt, tapaansa 

Oen, tapansa 

In. tavassansa, tavassaan 
El. tavastansa, tavastaan 
II, tapaansa, [tapahaan] 
Ad. tavallansa, tavallaan 
Ahl. tavaltansa, tavaltaan 
All, tavallensa, tavalleen 
Ahes. tavattansa, tavattaan 
Transl. tavaksensa, tavakseen 
Ess. tapanansa, tapanaan 
Com. tapanensa, tapaneen 



tapojansa, tapojaan 
tapojensa, tapojeen, tapainsa 
tavoissansa, tavoissaan 
tavoistansa, tavoistaan 
tapoihinsa, [tapoihiin] 
tavoillansa, tavoillaan 
tavoiltansa, tavoiltaan 
tavoillensa, tavoilleen 
tavoittansa, tavoittaan 
tavoiksensa, tavoikseen 
tapoinansa, tapoinaan 
tapoinensa, tapoineen 



Demonstrative Priynov/na, 

The demonstrative pronouns are t&ma, this, tuo, that, and se, 
it or that. The corresponding plur. roots are nama, nuo or 
noi, and ne. 

Tama: — 

Sinff, Plur. 

Nom, tama namat or nama 

Part, tata naita 

Qen. taman naiden, naitten 

In. t&8sa naissa 

El. tasta naista 

H. tahan naihin 

Ad. taUa naiUa 

Ahl. talta nailta 

All. taUe naiUe 

Ahes. tatta naitta 

Transl. taksi naiksi 

^88. tana naina 

Instr. taman nain 

Tuo: — 



























nuot or nuo 


noiden, noitten 











In poetry are found such forms as taa for tama, naa for 
nama, taan or tan for taman. 

Be. — The nominative, genitive, and instructive sing, are 
formed from the root se, the remaining cases of the singular 


from si, except tlie inessive and elatlve wbicli are irregalar. 
The nominative plor. is ne. The remaining cases from the 
root nii. 

Sing. Plur, 

Norn. 86 nBor net 

Part, sita niita 

Gen. sen niiden, niitten 

In. siina niissa 

El. siita niista 

H. siihen uiihin 

Ad. siUa niiUa 

Ahl. sUta niilta 

All. siUe niiUe 

Abes, sitta niitta 

Transl. siksi niiksi 

Ess. sina niina 

Instr, sen niin 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

The interrogative pronouns are kuka, ken, who, mika, wkai, 
kampi, which or what of two. 

The root of kuka is ku, the syllable ka being added to the 

former which would otherwise be monosyllabic. The plural is 

not much used. 

Sing. Plur, 

Nom. kaka kntka 

Part, kuta kuita 

Gen. kunka kuiden, kuitten 

In. kussa kuissa 

II, kuhun kiiista 

Instr. kuin or koinka 

etc. etc. 

In poetry are found ku (nominative sing.), kut (nominative 
plur.), knn (genitive sing.). 

The root of ken is kene, but in the partitive sing, and nomi- 
native plur. this is shortened to ke, and the same form is op- 


tionally used for the other cases. The root of the plural except 
in the nominative is kei. 

Sing, Flur. 

Nom. ken ketka 

Fart, keta keita 

Oen. kenen keiden, keitten 

In, kessa or kenessa keissa 
U. kenehen or kehen 

etc., etc. etc., etc. 

Mika is declined like kuka : the plur. root is mi. 

Sinff. Plur, 

Nom. mika mitka 

Part, xnita mita 

Gen. minka [miden or mitten] 

In, missa missa 

Instr. min min 
etc. etc. 

In poetry are found mi (nominative) and min (accusative). 
Kumpi is declined like a comparative. 

Relative Pron&uns, 

The relative pronouns are joka, who or which, jompi, which 
of two. 

Joka is declined on the same principle as kuka, jompi like 
a comparative. 

Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur, 

Nom, jbka jotka jompi jommat 

Part, jota joita jompaa jompia 

Gen. jonka joiden jomman jompien 
joitten jompain 

In. jossa joissa jommassa joxnmissa 
etc. etc. 


Indefinite Pronov/ns, 

The indefinite pronouns are joku, some onei Jompi-kunipi, (me 
of two ; both the component parts are declined. 

Nominative Joku, jompikumpi, genitive jonkun^ jonunan- 
kumman, inessive jossakussa, jommassa-kummassa, etc. 

Jokin, something, kuMn, each, mikin, anyone or anything^ 
kmnpi-kin, one or other of two : decline only the first part. 

Kukaan, mikaan, kenkaan, kumpikaan, kumpainenkaan, 
meaning anyone, anything, etc., are used only in negative sen- 
tences or in questions which are virtually negative ; the suflix 
-kaan, -kaan, is not declined. 

Joka, any or every, is not declined. Joka mies, any man 
you like. 

Ee/lean/ve Pronoun, 

The reflexive pronoun is itse, self It is declined. Genitive 
itsen, partitive itsea, etc. It always takes a pronominal suffix 
to define its meaning : itseasi (partitive) thyself, itseksensa 
(translative) himself 

Among pronouns may also be reckoned the following : — 

Muu, another (muuta, muun, etc., plur. muut). 

Muutama or eras, som^ one, 

Molempi, plur. molemniat, both, 

TCaikki, plur. kaikki, all, Koko, indeclinable, all, 

Moni, many, 

Sama, the sam^e, or samainen. 

Oma, one's own. 



The verbs in Finnish, as in other languages, are transitive or 
intransitive, and have an active and passive voice. It is 
fnrther to be noticed that the negative verb is conjugated quite 
differently to the affirmative. 

The verb may be considered to have seven moods : — ^the indica- 
tive, the concessive, the conditional, the optative, the imperative, 
the verbal substantive, and the verbal adjective. 

Before giving an example of the conjugation of a verb it will 
be well to examine the formation of these moods and their 
various tenses. At first only the simple tenses will be considered, 
that is to say those formed by the addition of suffixes to a 
verbal root. The compound tenses are formed by combining 
certain verbal forms with parts of the verb ' to be.' 

Formation of the Moods and Tenses of an Affirmatwe 


. All parts of the finite verb, except the optative and impera- 
tive, mark the person by the following terminations :— 



I. -n 

I. -mme 

2. -t 

a. -tte. 

3. (-pi, -vi) or none 

3. -vat, -vat 

In ordinary Finnish the third person singular receives no ter- 
mination, but the final vowel of the root is lengthened in the pre- 
sent indicative, if not already a long vowel or diphthong. Thus, 
the roots anta, repi, tuo form the third person sing, present, 
antaa, repii, tuo. On the same principle the third person sing, 
of the concessive ends in -nee, the tense stem ending in -ne. In 
the imperfect and conditional the tense stem is used unaltered. 

Monosyllabic verbs sometimes receive the termination -pi in 


the third person present, e. g. saapi, tuopi for saa, tuo. 
Another variety of this termination is in -vi, used very fre- 
quently in the Ealevala and the Karelian dialect. 

This termination pi or vi is obviously primitive and is akin 
to the plur. -vat which has the plur. suffix t. It is found in aU 
the Baltic dialects in the form of b, p, or v, and sporadically 
in Cheremissian, but not apparently in the other languages of 
the Finno-Ugric group. 

The indicative mood has two simple tenses, the present (also 
used as a future) and the imperfect. 

The present indicative has no tense terminations, and is formed 
by adding the personal terminations to the root ; the third sing, 
having no termination, is of course the simple root, and always 
ends in a double vowel or diphthong, except in the verb substan- 
tive on, he is. Thus, taking the root repi and adding to it the 
present terminations given above, we get for the present infinitive 
revi-n (by rule 35), revi-t, repii, revi-mme, revi-tte, repi-vat. 

The stem of the imperfect indicative is formed by adding to 
the root the vowel i, before which the last vowel of the root is 
changed or lost according to rules 3-9, 14, 21. To the stem thus 
formed are added the personal terminations. Thus on adding to 
the root saa the termination i, we get sai, and this forms sain, 
salt, sai, sainime, saitte, saivat. Similarly the root tuo with 
the suffix i becomes toi, and the imperfect toin, toit, etc. ; antaa 
forms antoi (annoin, 31, annbit, etc.). 

The concessive mood is formed by adding to the root the syllable 
-ne, and then suffixing to this the personal terminations. It has 
only one tense. Sometimes the suffix -ne becomes assimilated 
to the preceding consonant. Boot saa, conditional-stem saane ; 
I. saanen ; 2. saanet ; 3. saanee. i. saanemme ; 2. saa-nette ; 
3. saanevat. But nonsne becomes nonsse; noussen, nousset, 
nouBsee, etc., the shortened root of nouse being nous. 

The conditional has also only one simple tense formed by 


placing the syllable -isi after the root and suffixing the personal 
terminations. The final vowel of the root is lost or altered 
before the termination -isi according to the rules given, but 
a and a remain unchanged except in monosyllabic verbs. 
Boot saa, stem of conditional saisi; i. saisin; 2. saisit ; 
3. saisi. I. saisinune; 2. saisitte; 3. saisivat. 

This suffix -isi is perhaps akin to the formative suffix -kse 
(i?. page 112). 

The im2)erative is characterized by the addition of ka, ka to 
the stem, the only persons used being the second sing, and 
first and second plur. The first person sing, is altogether 
wanting, and the third person sing, and plur. are supplied by the 

The second person sing, is the root, but in a closed form. 
Thus the roots lyo, take, otta, anta, pyrki, take form the 
imperatives lyo, tao (28), ota (30), anna (31), pyri (27), tee 
(28). This person had no doubt once the syllable ka (ka) 
suffixed, which became reduced to -k, and thus closed the 
syllable. In dialects are found such forms as annak, otak, 
clearly showing the origin of the form. 

The first and second persons plur. are formed by suffixing 
kaamme (or kamme), and kaatte (or katte) to the root. 
In the second person the suffix tte is usually omitted, and 
the form ends simply in -kaa. Thus from the roots above 
cited we have lyokaaninie, lyokaa ; takokaamme, takokaa ; 
ottakaamme, ottakaa, antakaamme, antakaa; pyrkikaamme, 
pyrkikaa ; tehk&amme (this root undergoes special changes), 

The ojptativef which in some ways may be regarded as 
forming one complete tense with the imperative, is characterized 
by the addition of ko,.kd to the root. 

The second person sing, ends in os (e. g. lukeos, antaos), 
apparently ko with the affix of the second person; 


Inkekos, which has perhaps lost a final Towel, becomes lukeos 
by rule 28. 

The third person sing, ends in koon for kohon, and the 
third plur. in koot for kohot ; antakoon, antakoot ; pyrki- 
kd5n, pyrkikddt. 

When owing to the loss of a vowel tiiis k follows immediately 
after 1, r, or n, it becomes assimilated to those letters, tulles 
for tulkoB ; purros for piirkos ; mennds for menkds. 

The infinitive in Finnish is a real substantive, that is to 
say, just as from a verbal root can be derived, by the addition 
of suffixes, forms expressing person, time, and modality, so 
by the addition of other suffixes to the same root can be 
formed nouns, which can take the ordinary case termin- 
ations and also the pronominal suffixes. 

These infinitives are five in number. Their signification and 
use, which constitute one of the great difficulties of the Finnish 
language, will be explained in the Syntax. 

I. The termination of the first infinitive is -ta* (-ta), e. g. 
saada (rule 32) ; root nous (for noose), nousta ; root tul 
(tulee), tulla. Between two simple vowels this t drops out 
and the termination is simply a (a) ; sano-ta, sanoa' ; repita, 
repia. N.B. — The syllable ta (ta) or a (a) is closed with the 

This infinitive has only one case, the translative, which is 
used with the personal suffixes, e. g. juo, to drink, juo-da-kse- 
ni, for my drinking^ lukeaksesi, for thy reading. 

n. The stem of the second infinitive is formed by adding -te* 
to the root, the syllable being closed. This te becomes e 
between two simple vowels like the ta of the first infinitive. 
It has as a rule only two cases, the inessive and instructive 
(though some verbs have more), to which the personal suffixes 
can be added, e. g. saa, saade, saadessa, saadessani {in my 
receiving) \ instructive saaden. Tula, shortened root tul, in- 


finitiTe 11 tulle, inessiye tulleBsansa, instructive tullen; 
repi, infinitive repie, repiessa, repien.^ 

m. The third infinitive is formed by adding ma (mft) to 
the root. There is nothing irregular in its formation or de- 
clension. It is used in most of the cases of the sing., but 
only occasionally takes the personal sufi&xes, e. g. sano, infinitive 
III sanoma, genitive sanoman, saTiomalla, sanomatta, etc^ 
exactly like a noun. 

lY. The fourth infinitive is formed by adding mise to the 
root. It has two cases, the nominative which ends in xninen, 
and the partitive in mista. Sano, sanominen, sanomista; 
take, tekeminen, tekemiata, tekemistiuiBa, etc. 

V. The fifth infinitive, which is not much used except in poetry, 
and may be regarded as a diminutive derived from infinitive 
lU, is formed by adding maise to the root. It is used only 
in the adessive plural, and always with a personal su£fix. 
Nouse, to rise, nouse-mais-i-lla-nsa ; tule, tulemaiBillani. 

There are two particijUea or verbal adjectives in Finnish. 
They are simply adjectives formed from a verbal root by the 
addition of a suffix. 

r. The first verbal adjective is formed by adding va (va) to 
the root. (Sometimes this suffix is found in the form of pa, 
pa.) The adjective so formed is declined in the ordinary way. 

II. The stem of the second participle is formed by adding nehe 
(shortened nee) to the root. This termination (as explained p. 40) 
becomes nut or nyt in the nominative, e.g. oppi, to learn, 
oppinehe, nominative oppinut, genitive oppinehen (or neen), 

^ The closing of the root and omission or weakening of t in. the first 
and second forms of the infinitive is no doubt due to the extremely frequent 
use of the forms with suflQxes. Thus saadakseni firom saata is grammati- 
cally correct, as is also lukeakseni from luketa, according to the euphonic 
rules of the Kalevala or Old Karelian dialect. Such forms as saada are 
probably not nominativecf, but shortened translatives. 


oppineella, etc., partitive, oppinutta, essive oppineena or 
oppinunna, illative oppineesen, plur. oppineet, genitive 
oppinutten, oppineiden, partitive oppineita, etc. 

Tlv& F<i88we, 

All the forms of the finite passive verb in Finnish are 
impersonaJ, e. g. tuodaan means *]people bring, or ' there is a 
bringing' in French * on apporte ;' but there are no personal 
forms like the Latin or Greek passives. 

The root of the passive is formed by adding ta or ta to the verb. 
The same changes are made as for the infinitive I active ; but, 

A. If the t of the passive termination comes between two 
simple vowels it is doubled, e. g. leipo, leivotta (35). 

B. Simple a and a become e before the t, which is then 
doubled, kaiva, kaivetta ; heitta, heitetta. 

The root thus formed receives a termination analogous to the 
illative, that is to say h. — ^n with the same vowel between them 
as precedes the h. In the passive the h drops out, and the n 
is preceded by a long vowel. The syllable ta in the present is 
closed with the aspiration. 

For instance: — 8aa makes saadaan, that is saa + ta' + han, 
the h. dropping out and the t being softened ; syd, syddaan for 
syd-ta'-han. So too side, sidotta, sidotahan, which becomes sido- 
taan ; mene (which is shortened to men) becomes mennaan; 
kaiva, kaivetta, kaivetaan. It is to be noticed that in verbs 
ending in a long vowel or diphthong, the passive present has the 
form daan, the t being softened. But where the t is doubled 
after a short vowel the present passive ends in taan. 

The imperfect tense is formed as in the active by adding i 
to ilie stem, but the consonants are not softened, because the 
syllable ti does not end with the aspiration, e.g. the present 
passive is formed by adding ta' (with the aspiration) to the root : 
saa-ta' which becomes saada, and then with the terminatioB 

F 2 


saadaan. But the imperfect has the stem saati, which gives 
Baatiin. So we have root side, present sidotaan, but imperfect 
sidottiin; repi, present revitaan, imperfect revittiin; tule 
(shortened tul), present tullaan, imperfect tultiin. 

The concessive passive is formed by adding to the passive 
root in ta, the modal termination ne, and the usual sufi&x, 
saata + ne + hen = saataneen. The consonants are not weakened, 
e. g. tultaneen, sidottaneen. The final n is frequently omitted, 
e. g. saatanee. 

The conditional is formed by placing isi after the syllable ta, 
and suffixing the termination hin saata + isi + hin ; saataisiin ; 
till (tule), tulta, tultaisiin. 

In the optative the termination ko is added between ta and 
the suffix hon, saata-ko-hon, saatakoon. 

The imperative is not used. 

Theoretically of course all the five injmitivea can be formed 
for the passive as well as the active verb, but practically only 
two are ever used : (a) The inessive sing, of the infinitive 11. 
The root is of the form saatate, which becomes saatae, and we 
have such forms as saataessa, noustaessa. (b) The instructive 
of infinitive III formed by adding ma to the root ending in ta 
and suffixing n, saataman, luvattaman.^ 

There are two jpartidples. 

I. Formed as in the active by adding va or va after ta, ta; 
saatava, revittava. 

n. Formed by adding u or y after ta or ta, before which 
vowels a, a always fall out; saata +u, saatu; revitta+y, 

The Negative Conjvgation. 
The conjugation of the negative verb is entirely different from 
that of the positive. 

^ The first infinitive is occasionally found in the Bible, e. g. Psalm zliv. 
•I a Sina annat meita syOtaa niinkuln lampaita. 


In FinniBh there is no word exactly corresponding to the 
English words * not/ * no.' Instead there is a negative verb, 
consisting of a root combined with the personal terminations, 
and which may be literally translated ' not I,' ' not thou,' ' not 
it/ etc. 

The root of this verb in the present is e or ei, and it is con- 
jugated as below. 

I. en emxne 

a. et ette 

3. ei eivat 

The forms for the imperative are formed from the root al 

Sing, Plur, 

I. alkaamme, elkaamme 

2. ala, ela alk&atte, elkaatte, or alkaa, 


The optative is formed similarly. 

Sing, Plur, 

2, all68 or ell68 

3. alkOOn or elkOOn alkOOt or elkOOt 

There is also a form used in dubitative or conditional sen- 

^tfi^. Flur, 

I. ellen ellemxne 

a. ellet ellette 

3. ellei elleivat 

This form is used in composition with the present or con- 
ditional: mina tulen, ellei paha lima esta, / will come if the 
bad weather does not stop me, Elleivat olisi kotona, in case 
they are not at hom>e. 

The negative present of an active verb is formed by prefixing 
this verb to the root, which is always closed by the aeration. 


Boot tuo, to bring. 

Sing. Plur, 

en tuo, I do not bring emme tuo, ice do not bring 

et tuo, thou dott not bring ette tuo, ye do not bring 

ei tuo, he does not bring eiv&t tuo, they do not bring 

But the root repl makes — 

Sing. Plur. 

en revi emme revi 

et revi ette revi 

ei revi eivat revi 

the root being closed by the aspiration, and consequently becom- 
ing revi by rule 35. 

• The negative imjperfect is formed by prefixing the verb en, 
etc., to the nominative of participle II active. The participle 

takes the plur. inflexions in the plur. 

Sing. Plur. 

1. en tuonut emme tuoneet 

2. et tuonut ette tuoneet 

3. ei tuonut eivat tuoneet 

Or from the root repi — 

Sing. Plur, 

1. en repinyt emme repineet 

2. et repinyt ette repineet 

3. ei repinyt eivat repineet 

The negative of the concessive is formed in the same way by 
prefixing the negative verb to the root, to which is added the 
syllable -ne. 

8aa, to receive; root for the concessive, saane, negative 


Sing. Plur. 

1. en saane emme saane 

2. et saane ette saane 

3. ei saane eivat saane 

In an exactly similar manner the conditional is formed by 
adding isi to the root, and prefixing the negative verb. 

Sing. Plur. 

1. en saisi emme saisi 

2. et saisi ette saisi 

3. ei saiai eiv&t saisi 


The negative imperaJbive is formed by prefixing to the root 
of the verb (closed by the aspiration in the singular) the im- 
perative forms of the negative verb given above. In the 
plur. ko (ko) is suffixed, to the root of the verb to be 

Sing, Plur, 

I. — - aUcaamme saako 

a. ala saa alkaatte saako 

Similarly — 

Sing, Plur, 

1. ' alkaamme repikO 

2. ala revi alkaatte repikO 

The negative optative is formed by suffixing ko, k5, to the 
root, and employing before it the negative forms of the optative 
verb. The use of the suffix ko in the negative imperative shows 
how closely the two forms are allied. 

Sing. PUtr, 
2, alios saako 

3. alkOOn saako alkOOt saako 

The negative of the passive is similarly formed by prefixing 
the verb ei to the passive root — that is, to the root of the verb 
with the syllable ta (ta) added, but without the termination 
which characterises the affirmative passive. This root is closed 
by the aspiration, but the imperfect is formed with participle II, 
passive, e,g, roots saa, repi, tiile (tul), passive roots saada, 
revita, tulla. 

Pres, ei saada, ei revit&, ei tulla 

Imp, ei saatu, ei revitty, ei tultu 
Cone, ei saatane, ei revittane, ei tultane 
Cond, ei saataisi, ei revittaisi, ei tultaisi 

Opt, alkOOn saatako, alk06n revittakO, alk06n tultako 

Imperative not used. 



The Auxiliary Verb. 

The conjugation of the positive auxiliary verb oUa, to 66, is as 
follows : — 






Sing. Plur. 

I. olen 


I. olin olimxne 

2. olet 


a. out oUtte 

3- on 


3. oli olivat 





Sing. Plur. 

I. lienen 


I. olisin oliflimme 

2. lienet 


2. olifdt olisitte 

3. lienee 


3. olisi oliaJvat 




I. ollen 


a. ollet 


3. ollee 





I- - ol 



Sing, Plur. 

a. ole olkaa or oUcaatte 3. olkoon olkoot. 


I. Part. oUa III. &en. oleman 

Transl. oUakse (ni) In. olemassa, etc. 

II. In. ollessa IV. Nom. olexninen 

Instr, ollen Part, olemista 

V. Ad. olemaisillani 

Pres. oleva • Perf. ollut 

Fassive forma, — Indicative. 

Pres. ollaan Perf. on oltu 

Jmp. oltiin Pluj^. oli oltu 


Coneemve. GandiHondL 

Simp, oltaneen Simp, oltaisiin 

Comp, lienee oltu Camp, olisi oltu 

OptaMve, In/mitive, 

oltakoon II. In, oltaessa 

III. Qen, oltaman 

Prea, oltava Perf, oltu. 

In poetry are found various contracted forms, mostly produced 
by the omission of 1 from the root. Present indicative i. con, 
2. cot; plur. I. oomme, 2, ootte. Conditional: oisin, oisit, 
oisi, oisimme, oisitte, oisivat. Concessive: lien, liet, lie. 
Passive form: liedaan. 

With the aid of this auxiliary and certain participles are 
formed the compound tenses of the Finnish verb. These are : — 

(i) The perfect, formed with the present of the auxiliary and 
the. nominative of participle 11, which in the plur. takes the plural 
terminations, as is the case in all the other tenses : olen, olet, on 
aaanut ; olenime, olette, ovat saaneet, /, thou, he has received, 

(2) The pluperfect, formed by prefixing the imperfect of the 
auxiliary to the same participle : olin, olit, oil saanut j olimme, 
olitte, olivat saaneet, / had received, etc. 

(3) The compound concessive, formed by adding the con- 
ditional of the auxiliary to the same participle : lienen, lienet, 
lienee saanut ; lienemme, lienette, lienevat saaneet, / may 
have received {U ae jpefot qvs fat repw), 

(4) The compound conditional, formed by prefixing the con- 
ditional of the auxiliary to the same participle : olisin, olisit, 
olisi saanut ; olisimme, olisitte, olisivat saaneet, / shovM 
have received, etc. 

When these four tenses of the verb *to be' are combined 



with participle I, they form a future, of which there may be four 
varieties : — 

(i) Olen, etc., saava, / ahaU receive ; (2) olin, etc., saava, / 
was about to receive ; (3) lienen saava, perhaps I shall receive ; 
(4) olisin saava, / might have received. 

Though the plur. of these forms should graimnatically be 
olenuue saavat, which forms are employed in the literary lan- 
guage, yet in the spoken language the participle does not take 
the plural termination. 

The compound tenses of the passive are formed by adding 
the tense of the verb oUa to participle II, passive. 

Perf. on saatu 
Camp, Cone, lienee saatu 

Plupf. oli saatu 
Comp, Cond. olisi saatu 

The negative forms for these tenses are formed by putting the 
auxiliary verb in the negative form, and keeping the participle 
as before. The negative forms of the auxiliary verb are : — 




I. en ole 

emme ole 

a. et ole 

ette ole 

3. ei ole 


eivat ole 



I. en ollut 

emme oUeet 

2. et ollut 

ette olleet 

3. ei ollut 


eivat oUeet 



I. en liene 

emme liene 

2. et liene 

ette liene 

3. ei liene 

eivat liene 


Sing, Plur, 

I. en olisi emzne olisi 

a. et olisi ette olisi 

3. ei olisi eivat olisi 

It is hoped that with the aid of the foregoing explanations 
the conjugation of a Finnish verb will be perfectly clear. 
The verbs may be divided into three conjugations. 

First Conjugation, 
The characteristics of this conjugation are as follow : — 
(a) The root always ends in a long vowel. 
{b) There is no change of consonants. 

(c) The third person sing, of the present tense is the simple 

(d) The last vowel of the root is liable to changes before the 
1 of the past tense and conditional. 

(e) In the present passive, and in infinitive I the termina- 
tion ta becomes da. 

This conjugation includes : — 

1. All monosyllabic roots. In participle I active they take 
either va (va) or pa (pa). 

2. Trisyllabic roots ending in oi or 6i, These have only va 
(v&) in the participle I. 

Monosyllabic verbs occasionally take the termination pi in 
the third person sing, present indicative, e.g. lyopi, saapi. This 
is especially frequent in the dialect spoken about St. Petersburg. 

The trisyllabic verbs ending in oi, 51, also frequently form 
their infinitive in ta, that is to say, the root also exists in a form 
ending in -tae. Haravoida is the infinitive from the root 
haravoi ; haravoita, the infinitive from the derived root of the 
same meaning haravoitse* 



Examples : saa, to receive ; tuo, to bring. 

Active Voice. Indicative Mood. 

Present. Affi/rnuUive. 



1. saan 


a. saat 


3< saa 





I. ensaa 

emme saa 

2. et saa 

ette saa 

3. eisaa 

eivat saa 




I. sain (3) 


a. salt 


3* sai 





I. en saanut 

emme saaneet 

2. et saanut 


ette saaneet 

3. ei saanut 

eivat saaneet 


I. olen saanut 


olemme saaneet 

2. olet saanut 

olette saaneet 

3. on saanut 

ovat saaneet 

I. en ole saanut 


emme ole saaneet 

2. et ole saanut 

ette ole saaneet 

3. ei ole saanut 

eivat ole saaneet 

1. olin saanut 



olimme saaneet 

2. olit saanut 

olitte saaneet 

3. oil saanut 

olivat saaneet 







en ollut saanut 

emme oUeet saaneet 


et ollut saanut 

ette oUeet saaneet 


ei ollut saanut 

eiyat ollet saaneet 

Simple Conceesive. 


















emme saane 


et saane 

ette saane 


ei saane 

eivat saane 

Compou/nd Concessive. 





lienen saanut 

lienemme saaneet 


lienet saanut 

lienette saanet 


lienee saanut 


lienevat saaneet 




en liene saanut 

emme liene saaneet 


et liene saanut 

ette liene saaneet 


ei liene saanut 

eivat liene saaneet 

Simple Conditional. 

















en saisi 

emme saisi 


et saisi 

ette saisi 


ei saisi 

eivat saisi 



Compound CondkionaJ. AffirmcOive, 

Sing. Plur. 

I. olisin saannt olisiinine saaneet 

3. olUdt aaaaut olisitte saaneet 

3. oliai saannt olisivat saaneet 


Sing, Flur. 

1. en olisi saanut enime olisi saaneet 

2. et olisi sannut ette olisi saaneet 

3. ei olisi saanut eivat olisi saaneet 

First FtUv/re, Affirmative. 
Sing, Plur, 

I. olen saava (saapa) olemme saava or saavat (pa) 

3. olet saava (pa) olette saava or saavat (pa) 

3. on saava (pa) ovat saava (pa) 

Such forms as ovat saavat are avoided on account of the 
repetition of vat. 

Sing, Plur, 

I. en ole saava, or saapa emme ole saava, or saavat 
a. et ole saava ette ole saava 

3. ei ole saava eivat ole saava 

The other futures olin saava, lienen saava, and olisi saava 
are conjugated exactly similarly. 

Im^perative, Affirmative, 
Sing, Plur, 

I. saakaamme 

a. saa saakaa(tte) 

Sing. Plur, 

I. alk&amme saako 

a. &lasaa alkaa saako 

OjptcUive, Affirmative. 


2, saa'os 

3. saakoon saakoot 



3. all68 saako 
3. alkOOn soako 



alkOOt saako 

I. saada 

Transl, saadakse (ni)' 
II. Iness. saadessa 
Inatr. saaden 

III. saama, used in nearly aU the cases 

IV. NoM, saaminen 
Part, saamista 

y. Adess. Plur, saamaisilla (ni), {altoaye with suffix). 

I. saapa or saava 
n. saanut 







Concess. Comp, 


Cond. Comp. 


Passive Voice, 

Aff, saadaan 

Neg, ei saada 

Aff. saatiin 

Neg, ei saatu 

Aff on saatu 
Neg. ei ole saatu 

Aff,' oli saatu 
Neg. ei oltu saatu, or, ei oUut saatu 

Aff. saataneen 
Neg, ei saatane 

Aff lienee saatu 
Neg, ei liene saatu 

Aff. saataisiin 
Neg. ei saataisi 
Aff olisi saatu 
Neg. ei olisi saatu 
Aff, saatakoon 
N^. ftlkOOn saatako 

Infimtive* The only forms used are — 

II. Iness, saataessa 

III. Jfw#r. saatamaa 



Active Voice. 

Indicative Mood, 





I. tuon 

tuomme ■ 

a. tuot 


3. tuo 





I. en tuo 


emme tuo 

2, ettuo 

ette tuo 

3. ei tuo 

eivat tuo 





I. toin (4) 


2. toit 


3. toi 





I. en tuonut 


emme tuoneet 

2. et tuonut 

ette tuoneet * 

3. ei tuonut 

eivat tuoneet 





T. olen tuonut 

olemme tuoneet 

2. olet tuonut 

olette tuoneet 

3. on tuonut 

ovat tuoneet 




I. enole tuonut 

emme ole tuoneet 

2. et ole tuonut 

ette ole tuoneet 

3. ei ole tuonut 

eivat ole tuoneet 






I. olln tuonut 

olimme tuoneet 

2. olit tuonut 

olitte tuoneet 

3. oli tuonut 

olivat tuoneet 





1. en ollut tuonut 

2. et ollut tuonut 

3. ei ollut tuonut 

Simjple Concessive, 

I. tuonen 
a. tuonet 
3. tuonee 

emme olleet tuoneet 
ette olleet tuoneet 
eivat olleet tuojieet 



1. en tuone 

2. et tuone 

3. ei tuone 

Compound Concessive. 

1. lienen tuonut 

2. lienet tuonut 

3. lienee tuonut 


1. en liene tuonut 

2. et liene tuonut 

3. ei liene tuonut 

emme tuone 
ette tuone 
eivat tuone 


lienemme tuoneet 
lienette tuoneet 
lienevat tuoneet 

emme liene tuoneet 
ette liene tuoneet 
eivat liene tuoneet 

Simple Conditional.' Affirmative, 
Sing, Plur. 

1. toifiin (4) I. toisimme 

2. toisit 2. toisitte 

3. toifii 3. toisivat 



1. entoisi 

2. et toisi 

3. ei toifii 


1. emme toisi 

2. ette toisi 

3 eivat toisi 


Gonvpownd CoThditiovud, Affirmative. 

Sing. FImv. 

I. olisin taonnt oUsimine taoneet 

3. olUit taonnt oUsitte tnoneet 

< 3. olisi tnonnt oliaiTat tnoneet 

Sing, Plwr. 

1. en olioi tnonnt emme olisi tnoneet 

2. et olisi tnonnt ette olisi tnoneet 

3. ei olisi tnonnt eivat olisi taoneet 

First FiAwre. AffirmaHve. 
Sing. Plwr, 

I. olen tnova (tnopa) olemme tnova or tnovat (pa) 

1, olet tnova (pa) olette tnova or tnovat (pa) 

3. on tnova (pa) ovat tnova (pa) 


Sing, Plwr, 

1, en ole tnova or tnopa emme ole tnova or tnovat 

a. et ole tnova ette ole tnova 

3. ei ole tnova eiv&t ole tnova 

Imperaiwe. Affi/muUive. 











alkaamme tnoko 


&la tno 

alka& tnoko 


ive. Affirmative. 












alios tuoko 


alkOOn tnoko 

&lkMt tnoko 



I. tuoda' 

Tran«Z. tuodakse (ni) 
n. luie^. tnodessa 
Imtr. tuoden 
III. tuoma u%ed in, nearly all the cases 
TV, NoTTL tuominen 

Part, tnoxnista 
y. Adess. Plur. tuomaiailla (ni) (always icith sviffix) 


I. tuopa^r tuova 
II. taonut 

Fasaim Voice. 

Aff. tuodaan 
" Neg, ei tuoda 
Aff, tuotiin 
l^eg, ei tuotu 
Aff. on tuotu 
l^eg, ei ole tuotu 
Aff. oli tuotu 

"Neg. ei oltu tuotu, or ei ollut tuotu 
Aff. tuotaneen 
2^ eg. ei tuotane 
Aff. lienee tuotu 
"Neg, ei liene tuotu 
Aff. tuotaisiin 
2^ eg. ei tuotaisi 
Aff. olisi tuotu 
"Ntg. ei olisi tuotu 
Aff. tuotakoon 
l^eg. alk66n tuotako 

Infinitive, The only forms used are — 

n. Iness. tuotaessa 

ni. Instr, tuotaman 






Concess. Cmwp. 


Cond. Comp, 


L saatava, tuotava 
IL saatu , tuotu 


G 2 


Similarly lyo, to strike, makes in the present lyon, lyot, lyo, 
lydmrne, lyotte, lyovat ; imperfect Idin (by rule 4) ; concessive 
lyonen ; conditional loisin (4) ; imperative lyo, lydkaamme, 
lyokaa ; infinitives lydda, lyddessa, lyoman, lydminen, 
lyomaisillani ; participles lydva and lydnyt ; passive lyodaan, 

So also satuloi, saddle, forms present indicative satuloin, 
satuloit, satuloi, satuloinune, satuloitte, satuloivat ; imperfect 
satuloin (5); concessive satuloinen; conditional satuloisin; 
imperative satuloi ; optative satuloi'os ; infinitives satuloida, 
satuloidessa, satuloiman, satuloiminen, satuloimalBlIlani ; 
participles satuloiva, satuloinut ; passive satuloidaan. 

Second Conjugation. 

The second conjugation has the following characteristics : — 
(i) The root ends in a short vowel. 

(2) The consonant at the beginning of the last syllable is 
liable to the usual changes, when that syllable becomes closed. 

(3) In the third person sing, present indicative the final 
vowel is lengthened. 

(4) The first infinitive has the termination a (a). 

(5) The root of the passive ends in tta (tta), and hence 
the present passive in taan. 

(6) The first participle active always ends in va (va). 
To this conjugation belong : — 

A. All roots ending in o, 5, ul, y. 

B. All dissyllables ending in a, a, and polysyllables ending 
in ta (ta) after h, 1, n, r, s, t ; heitta, to throw ; tappa, to kill ; 
armahta, to pity ; sivalta, to strike ; ynunarta, to understand, 

(i) In these verbs a or a is always changed to e before the 
termination of the passive, kaata, kaadetaan. 


(2) Before the i of the imperfect, polysyllables always reject 
a or a^ pelasta, pelasti, etc. 

Dissyllabic verbs vary in their treatment of a, though a is 
cHwaya rejected. If the vowel of the first syllable is o or u ; 
then a is generally rejected. Otta, take, imperfect otti; 
muista, muisti. But if the vowel of the first syllable is a or e, 
the a of the last syllable generally becomes o ; laula, lauloi, 
mig] anta, antoi, give. But a great number of verbs 
ending in ta, and having a in the first syllable, use both forms ; 
ahtoi or ahti, blow, karttoi or kartti, to avoid] saattoi or 
saatti, to lead. 

If a verb ending in Ita, nta, or rta (or the corresponding 
forms in a) elides the vowel before i, then t becomes s ; kielta, 
to deny, kielsi ; kumarta, to adore, kumarsi, etc.^ The same 
change occurs after a long vowel in the forms loysi, fownd] 
tiesi, Tmew] taisi, hrvew how to) pyysi, ashed; kaasi, threw 
down ; huuai, shouted. Most verbs of this type, however, take 
ti, though some have double forms. 

C. All verbs ending in 1. 

D. All dissyllables ending in ke, te, pe ; e. g. luke, to read ; 
lahte, go away ; kylpe, to bath. 

This e is elided before i, and t is sometimes changed to s ; 
tunte, to feel, tunsi. 

In infinitive II either the e of the root or that of the termin- 
ation is changed to i, generally that of the root ; lukiessa or 
lukeissa, but never lukeessa. 

Examples of conjugation II : — Roots repi, to tear ; luke, to 
read. The p of repi becomes v in a closed syllable, and the 
k of luke drops out (by rules 34 and 27). 

Present, Affirmative, 
Sing, Plur, 

1. revin revimme 

2. revit revitte 

3. repii repivat 



Negative, (The root closed by the aspiration.) 
Sing, Plvr. 

I. en revi 

emme revi 

a. et revi 

ette revi 

3. ei revi 

eivat revi 





1. revin 


a. revit 


3. repi 





I. enrepinyt 

emme repineet 

a. et repinyt 

ette repineet 

3. ei repinyt 

eiv&t repineet 





I. olen repinyt 

olemme repineet 

a. olet repinyt 

olette repineet 

3. on repinyt 

ovat repineet 




I. en ole repinyt 

emme ole repineet 

a. et ole repinyt 

ette ole repineet 

3. ei ole repinyt 

eivat ole repineet 





I. olin repinyt 

olimme repineet 

a. olit repinyt 

olitte repineet 

3. oli repinyt 

olivat repineet 




I. en oUut repinyt 

emme olleet repineet 

a. et ollnt repinyt 

ette olleet repineet 

3. ei ollnt repinyt 

eivat olleet repineet 


Coneessive. Afftrvnaitve. 



I. repinen 


a. repinet 


3. repinee 





I. en repine 

emme repine 

3. et repine 

ette repine 

3. ei repine 

eivat repine 


Compoimd GonditionoH, Affirmative, 
I. lienen repinyt lienemme repineet 

|The formation of the remaining persons will now be clear.) 

Gcmpound Conditional, Negative, 

Sing, Plur. 


en liene repinyt emme liene repineet 

Conditional. Affirmative, 

Sing. Flur. 


repifldn repisimme 


repisit repisitte 


repisi repisiT&t 



en repisi emme repisi 

Compoimd Conditional, Ajffirmatwe, 

Sing, Plur. 


olisin repinyt olisimme repineet 


Sing. Plur. 

en olisi repinyt emme olisi repineet 

Imjperative. Affirmative, 

Sing. Plur. 

I. repikaamme 

2. revi repikaa 



Sing. Flur. 

I. slkaanune repikd 

3. ala revi ftlkaa repik6 

Optative. Ajffvrmative. 

Sing, Plur. 
3. repi'Os 

3. repik66n repikOOt 


Sing. PUtr. 

3. alios repikO 

3. alkOOn repikd alkOOt repikd 

I. repiv& 
II. repinyt 

I. repia 

Transl, repiaksi 

IL Ines. repiessa 
Instr. repien 

III. repima, etc. 

lY. Nom. repimiuen 
Part, repimista 

V. Adess. repimai8illa(ni) 

Present Aff, revitaan 

Neg. ei revita 
Imperfect Aff, revittiin 

Neg. ei revitty 
PerfeiA Aff. on revitty 

Neg, ei ole revitty 
Pluperfect Aff. oli revitty 

Neg. ei ollut revitty, or ei oltu revitty, etc 
Concceesive Aff revittaneen 

Neg. ei revittane 
Comp. Concess. Aff lienee revitty 

Neg. ei liene revitty 


Conditiondl Affi revittSisiin 

Neg. ei revittaisi 
Comp.Cond, Aff, olisirevitty 

Neg, ei olisi revitty 
Optative Aff, revittakd6n 

Neg, alk66n revittakd 

Infin. IL Iness, revittaessa 


I. revitt&vft 

II. revitty 

Present. Affirmative. 
Sing, Plur, 

1. luen (28) luemme 

2. luet luette 

3. lukee lukevat 

NegcUive. (The root closed by the aspiration.) 
Svng, Plur, 


I. en lue 


2. et lue 


3. eilue 

eivat lue 





I. luin 


2. luit 


3. luki 





I. en lukenut 

emme lukeneet 

2. et lukenut 

ette lukeneet 

3. ei lukenut 

eivat lukeneet 





I. olen Itikenut 

olemme lukeneet 

2. olet lukenut 

olette lukeneet 

3. on lukenut 

ovat lukeneet 



I. en ole lukenut 
3. et ole lukenut 
3. ei ole lukenut 



1. olin lukenut 

2. olit lukenut 

3. oli lukenut 



1. en ollut lukenut 

2. et ollut lukenut 

3. ei ollut lukenut 

emme ole lukeneet 
ette ole lukeneet 
eivat ole lukeneet 

olimme lukeneet 
olitte lukeneet 
olivat lukeneet 

emme olleet lukeneet 
ette olleet lukeneet 
eivat olleet lukeneet 


1. lukenen 

2. lukenet 

3. lukenee 





1. en lukene 

2. et lukene 

3. ei lukene 

emme lukene 
ette lukene 
eivat lukene 

lienemme lukeneet 

Compound Concessive, 
I. lienen lukenut 
(The formation of the remaining persons will now be clear.) 


I. en liene liikenut 

emme liene lukeneet 

Conditional, Ajffmnatvoe. 

Sing. Plur. 

1. Iuki8in(14) lukisimme 

2. lukisit lukisitte 

3. lukisi lukisivat 



Sing, PUir, 

I. en luldisi, etc. emme lukisi, etc. 

CompouTid Condttionah Affirmative. 
Sing. Plur. 

I. olisin lukenut, etc. olisimme lukeneeti etc. 

Sing. Plur. 

en olisi lukenut, etc. emme olisi lukeneet, etc. 

Imperative. Affi/tmative. 
Sing. Plur. 

I. lukekaamme 

a. lue lukekaa 


Sing. Plur. 

I. alkaamme lukeko 

a. ala lue alkaa lukeko 

Optative. Affirm^ative. 
Sing. Plur. 

al luke'os 

3. lukekoon lukekoot 


Sing. Plw. 

a. all68 lukeko i^— 

3. alkOdn lukeko alkOOt lukeko 

I. lukeva 
II. lukenut 

I. lukea 

Trand. lukeaksi 
n. Jnes. lukiessa 
Instr. lukien 

III. lukema, etc. 

IV. ^0771. lukeminen 
Part, lukemista, etc. 

V. Adess. Iukemai8illa(ni) 



Present Aff. luetaan 

Ntg, ei lueta 
Imperfect Aff, Inettiin 

^e^. ei luetta 
Perfect Aff, on luetta 

Neg. ei ole luettu 
Pluperfect Aff. oli luettu 

Neg, ei ollut luettu 
ConcesHve Aff luettaneen 

Neg, ei luettane 
Comp, Cond. Aff lienee luettu 

Neg. ei liene luettu 
Conditional Aff, luettaisiin 

Neg, ei luettaisi 
Comp, Cond, Aff olisi luetta 

Neff. ei olisi luettu 
Optative Aff luettakoon 

Neg, alk66n luettako 
Infin. II. Iness. luettaessa 


I. luettava 
n. luettu 

Similarly tako, to forge, makes the present taon, taot, takoo, 
taomme, taotte, takovat (k being lost by 28) ; imperfect taoin, 
taoit, takoi, taoimme, taoitte, takoivat ; concessive takonen ; 
conditional takoisin; imperative tao, takokaa; optative 
tako^OB, takokoon; infinitives takoa» takoessa, takoman, 
takominen, takomaisillani ; participles takova, takonut; 
passive taotaan, etc. 

Otta, to take; present otan (30), otat, ottaa, otamme, 
otatte, ottavat; imperfect otin, otit, otti, etc.; concessive 
ottanen; conditional ottaisin; imperative ota, ottakaamme; 
optative ottaos, ottakoon; infinitive ottaa, ottaessa, ottaman, 
ottaminen, ottamaisillaiLi ; participles ottava^ ottanut ; passive 
otetaan, etc. 


Bakenta, to huUd, has in the present rakennan (31), rakennat, 
rakentaa, rakenn amine, rakennatte, rakentavat ; imperfect 
rakensin, rakensit, rakensi, etc. ; passive rakennetaan, etc. 

Ymmarta, to understand, has similarly present (31) ym<* 
marran, ymmarrat, ymmartaa, etc.; imperfect ymmarsin; 
passive ynunarretaan. 

Pyrki, to strive, makes in the present pyrin, pyrit, pyrkli, 
pyrimme, pyritte, pyrkivat; imperfect pyrin; concessive 
pyrkinen; conditional pyrkisin; imperative pyri, pyrkikaa ; 
infinitive pyrkia, etc. ; passive pyrita&n, etc. 

Tappa, to hid ; present tapan, tapat, tappaa, etc. ; imperfect 
tapoin, tapoit, tappoi, (7); concessive tappanen; condi- 
tional tappaisin; imperative tapa, tappakaamme ; infinitive 
tappaa, tappaessa, tappaman, tappaminen, tappamaisillani ; 
passive tapetaan (11). 

Hii/rd Cor^iigation. 

This conjugation comprises all verbs where the radical is 
liable to become closed by the loss of the final vowel, from 
which results a variety of consonantal changes. The verbs which 
are conjugated in this way fall into two classes. 

I. Dissyllabic roots ending in le, ne, re, se, and all polysyllabic 
roots ending in the vowel e. 

These verbs have the following characteristics. 

A. The root is closed — 

(i) Before t in infinitive I and II and in the passive verb ; 

(2) Before n in the conditional and participle II active; 

(3) Before k in the imperative. 

B. The root may then be further changed by assimilation — 

(i) Before t in the infinitive. The roots tule, mene, pure 
make their infinitives tulta, menta, purta, which become tulla^ 


menn&, purra. But roots ending in se, like nouse, keep the 
infinitiTe in sta, — ^nousta ; for st is not a group liable to as- 
similation. Farther simplifications of consonantal groups may 
take place ; for example, root sydkse, to throw down, shortened to 
flyoks, infinitive sydksta, becomes sydata; root sakenoitse, 
infinitive sakendits-ta becomes aakenoita. 

(2) The 1, r, or t at the end of the closed root always 
assimilates the n of the conditional and of participle II active. 
The final a sometimes assimilates n ; frequently in participle II, 
rarely in the conditional.- 

E, g. The roots tula, pure, kaitse, which in their closed forms 
become tul, pur, kait, form the conditionals tullee, purree, 
kainnae, and the participles tullut, purrut, kainnut. 19'ouse 
forms nousnee, rarely nousaee and participle 11 nousnut or 


C. A strong consonant at the beginning of the penultimate 
syllable in polysyllabic words is also liable to softening in forms 
derived from the closed root, but not in forms derived from the 
lull root. Boot rohkene, to dare ; infinitive I rol^eta. 

D. The final e is dropped in the imperfect. 

E. The third sing, present has ee. 

F. Trisyllabic roots in ne change n to t in the imperative, 
and have the infinitive I ending in ta preceded by a vowel so 
that ne is altogether lost; e.g. alene; imperative aletkoon; 
infinitive aleta. 

G. The participle I active ends in va, va. 

In the verbs nake and teke k becomes h when the root 
loses its final vowel. 

n. The second division of this conjugation comprises all 
trisyllabic roots ending in ta, ta preceded by a short voweL 
Such are lupata, to promise ; hakkata, to strike ; pelkata, to 
fsar, etc. 


In these verbs the following changes occur : — 

A. In the present the t of the syllable ta (ta) is lost, and if 
the preceding vowel is a or a, a long vowel is formed. That 
is; lupata, pelkata become lupaa, pelkaa. If the preceding 
vowel is o, o, or e, the vowels may be assimilated into one long 
vowel or remain as they are. Putota, putoa, or putoo ; kerketa, 
kerkea, or kerkee ; but if the vowel of the penultimate syllable 
is u, y, or i, such assimilation rarely occurs. 

B. In the imperfect the final vowel is lost and t becomes s 
before the i which characterizes this tense; lupasin, etc. 

C. The root is dosed in the concessive, and the final 
t assimilated to the n; lupata-nen becomes luvat-nen (34), 
and then luvannen (30). 

D. In the conditional the last syllable of the root is generally 
completely lost ; lupaisi for lupata-isi ; but a trace of it 
remains in such forms as kokoaisi (alternative for kokoisi) 
representing kokotaisi* 

V. Similarly infinitives 1, 11, and the passive are formed from 
the closed root, and as the formative syllable ta is closed by the 
breathing, tt becomes t; that is to say, the full root lupata 
becomes the closed root luvat ; to this is added the closed 
syllable ta^ and luvatta' becomes luvata. Similarly the passive 


Division I. Boots tule, to come', closed form tul. iN'ouse, 
to rise ; closed form nous. 

Present. Affmnatwe. 
Sing, Plwr, 

I. tulen tulemxne 

3. tulet tulette 

3* tulee tuldirat 





1. en tule 

2. et tule 

3. eitole 

emme tnle 
ette tule 
eivat tale 

Imperfect, Affirmative, 

I. tulin 
a. tout 
3. tuU 

I. en tullut 
3. et ttillut 
3. ei tullut 



emme tulleet 
ette tulleet 
eivat tulleet 

Perfect, Affi/rmative, 
I. olen tullut, etc. 

I. en ole tullut, etc. 

Pluperfect, AffirmcUive. 
I. olin tullut, etc. 

I. en ollut tullut, etc. 

Concessive, Affirmative, 

Sing. Plur, 

1. tullen tullemme, 

a. tullet tullette 

3. tullee tullevat 

I. en tulle, etc. 

Comp, Concess, Affirrnative, 
I. lienen tullut 

I. en liene tullut 


Conditional. Affirmative. 
Sing. Flur. 

1. tiilisin tulisimme 

2. tulisit tulisiitte 

3. tulisi tulisivat 

I. en tulisi, etc. 

Compoimd Conditional. Affirmative. 
I. olisin tullut, etc. 

I. en olisi tullut, etc. 

Imperative. Affirmaiive. 
Sing. Plur. 

1. tulkaame 

2. tule tulkaa 

Sing. Plur. 

1. alkaamme 

2. ala tule alkaa tulko 

Optative, Affirmative. 

Sing. Plur. 

2. tullos 

3. tulkoon tulkoot 

Sing. Plur. 

2. alios tulko 

3. alkOOn tulko alkOOt tulko 

I. tulla 
Transl. tullakse(ni) 
II. tulle 
Ines. tullessa 
Itutr. tulldn 
III. tuleman 
IV. Nom. tuleminen 
Part, tulemista 

y. tulemaisilla(ni) 










Pres, Aff. 



ei tulla 

Impf. Aff. 



ei tultu 

Cone, Aff 



ei tidtane 

Comp. Cone. Aff 

lienee tultu 


ei liene tultu 

Cond. Aff 



ei tultaisi 

Cond. Comp. Aff, 

olisi tultu 


ei olisi tultu 

Opt. Aff. 



alkOOn tultako 


I. tultava 

II. tultu 

Present. Affirmative. 

Sing. Plur, 

1. nousen nousemme 

2. nouset nousette 

3. nousee nousevat 



1. en nouse 

2. et nouse 

3. ei nouse 



1. nousin 

2. nousit 

3. nousi 

enune nouse 
ette nouse 
eivat nouse 




Sing, Plur. 

1. en noiisnut or noussut^ emme nousneet 

2. et nousnut ette nousneet 

3. ei noiisnut eivat nousneet 

Perfect, Affi/rmative, 
I . olen nousnut, or noussut, etc. 

I . en ole nousnut or noussut, etc. 

Plwperfect, Affirmative, 
I. olin nousnut or noussut, etc 

I. en oUut nousnut or noussut, etc. 

Concessive, Affirmative, 

1. nousnen or noussen nousnemme or noussemme 

2. nousnet or nousset nousnette or noussette 

3. nousnee or noussee - nousnevat or noussevat 

I. en nousne or nousse, etc. 

Compound Concessive, Affi/rmative, 
I. lienen nousnut or noussut, etc. 

I. en liene nousnut or noussut, etc. 

Conditional, Affirmative, 
Sing, Plur, 

1. nousisin nousisimme 

2. nousisit nousisitte 

3. nousisi nousisivat 

I. en nousisi, etc. 

^ The participle is nousnut or nouAsut. 

H 2 


Compound Conditional. Affirmative. 
I. oliflin nousnut or noussut, etc. 

I . en olisi nousnut or noussut, etc. 

Imperative. Affirmative. 

Sing. Plur, 

1. nonskaamine 

2. nouse notiskaa 

Sing. Plur. 

I.. alkaamme nousko 

2. ala nouse alkaa nousko 

Optative, Affirmative, 
Sing. Plur. 

2. nouseos 

3. nouskoo nouskoot 


Sing. Plur. 

2. alios nousko 

3. alk60n nousko alkOOt nousko 


I. nousta 
Transl. noustakse(ni) 

II. nouste 
Ines. noustessa 

Instr, nousten 
III. nouseman, etc. 
IV. Nom. nouseminen 
Part, nousemista 
y. nouseniaisilla(ni) 


I. nouseva 
II. nousnut, or noussut 

• « 



Pres. Aff. noustaan 
Neg, ei noiista 
Impf, Aff, noustiin 
Neg. ei noustu 
Cone. Aff, noustaneen 
Neg, ei noustane 
Comp, Cone, Aff, lienee noustu 
Neg, ei liene noustu 
Coiid, Aff. noustaisiin 
Neg, ei noustaisi 
Cond. Comp, Aff. olisi noustu 

Neg. ei olisi noustu 
Imp. Aff. noustakoon 

Neg, alkOOn noustako 

I. noustava II. noustu 

Eoots lupata, to promise ; kokota, to collect. 
Present Indicative. Affirmative. 

Sing. Flur. 

1. lupaan lupaamme 

2. lupaat lupaatte 

3. lupaa lupaavat 



1. en lupaa 

2. et lupaa, etc. 

Imperfect, Affirmative, 

Sing. Flur. 

1. lupasin lupasimme 

2. lupasit lupasitte 

3. lupasi lupasivat 

I. en.luvannut» etc. 


Concessive. Affirmative, 

Sing. Plur, 

1. luvannen luvannemme 

2. luvaiinet luvannette 

3. luvannee luvaiineYat 

I. en luvanne, etc. 

Conditional. Affirmative. 
Sing. Plur. 

1. lupaisin lupaisimme 

2. lupaisit lupaisitte 

3. lupaisi lupaisivat 

Compov/nd tenses. 

Perfod. Affirmative, 
I . olen luvannut, etc. 

I. en ole luvannut, etc. 

Tlwperfect. Affirmative. 
I. olin luvannut, etc. 

I . en ollut luvannut, etc. 

Concessive. Affirm>ative. 
1. lienen luvannut, etc. 

I. en liene luvannut, etc. 

Conditional. Affirmative. 
I. olisin luvannut, etc. 

1. en olisi luvannut, etc. 

THE VERB. 103 

FvXures, Affirmative. 
I. olen lupaava 
II. olin lupaava 

III, lienen lupaava 

IV. olisin lupaava 

en ole lupaava, etc. 

Imiperative, Affirmative, 

Sing, Plur, 

1. luvatkaamme 

2. lupaa luvatkaa 

Negative, • 
Sing, Plur. 

1. alkaamme luvatko 

2, ala lupaa alkaa luvatko 

02>tative, Affirmative. 
Sing. Plur. 

1. luvatkoon 

2. luvatkos luvatkoot 

Sing, Plur, 

1. alkOOn luvatko 

2. alios luvatko alkOOt luvatko 

I. luvata 

II. luvatessa 
III. lupaama, etc. 
lY. lupaaminen 
V. lupaamaisilla 




Passive. Affirmative. 

Ind.Pres. Aff. luvataan 

Neg, ei luvata 

Imfp, Aff. luvattiin 

2^ eg, ei luvattu 

Cone. Aff. luvattaneen 

l^eg. ei luvattane 

Cond. Aff. lavattaisiin 

2ieg. ei luvattaisi 

Imp. Aff luvattakaan 

Neg. alkaan luvattako 
Oft. Aff luvattakoon 

Neg. alkOOn luvattako 


II. luvattesa 
III. luvattaman 

Present luvattava 
Past luvattu 

Present Indicative, AffimuUive, 
Sing. Plur, 

1 . kokoan or kokoon kokoamme or kokoomme 

2. kokoat or kokoot kokoatte or kokootte 

3. kokoaa or kokoo kokoavat or kokoovat 


1. en kokoa or en kokoo 

2. et kokoa or et kokoo 

3. ei kokoa 

Imperfect, Affirmative, 
Sing, Plur. 

1. kokosin kokosimme 

2. kokosit kokositte 

3. kokosi kokosivat 

I. en koonnut, etc. 

THE VERB. 105 

Concessive, Affirmative, 

Sing, Plur, 

1. kooxmen (28) koonnemme 

2. koonnet koozinette 

3. koonnee koozinevat 

I. en koonne, etc. ' 

Conditional, Affirmative, 
Sing. Plur, 

1 . kokoaisin or kokoisin kokoaisimme or kokoisimme 

2. kokoaisit or kokoisit kokoaisitte or kokoisitte 

3. kokoaisi, or kokoisi kokoaisivat or kokoisivat 

I. en kokoaisi or en kokoisi, etc. 

Comjpovmd tenses. 

Perfect, Affirmative. 
I. olen koonnut (28), etc. 

I. en ole koonnut, etc. 

Pluperfect, Affirmative, 
I . olin koonnut, etc. 

I. en ollut koonnut, etc. 

Concessive, Affirvnative. 
I. lienen koonnut, etc. 

I. en liene koonnut, etc. 

Conditional, Affirmative, 
I. olisin koonnut, etc. 

I en olisi koonnut, etc. 


FvJtwres. Affi/rmaUve. 

I. olen kokoava 
II. olin kokoava 

III. lienen kokoava 

IV. olisin kokoava 

Imperative, Affirmative, 
Sing, Plur, 

1. kootkaamme 

2. kokoa or kokoo kootkaa 

Sing. riur, 

1. alkaamme kootko 

2. ala kokoa or kokoo alkaa kootko 

Optative. Affirmative. 
Sing. Plur. 

1. kootkoon 

2. kootkos kootkoot 

Sing. Plur. 

1. alkOOn kootko 

2. alios kootko alkOOt kootko 

I. koota 

II. kootessa 

III. kokoama or kokooma, etc. 

IV. kokoaxninen or kokoominen 
kokoamista or kokoomista 

v. kokoamaisilla or kokoomaisilla 

Present kokoava or kokoova 
Past koonnut 

Indie, Pres. Aff, kootaan 
meg, ei koota 

THE VERB. 107 

Im'pf. Aff. koottiin 
Neg. ei koottu 
Cone. Aff. koottaneen 
Neg. ei koottane 
Cond. Aff, koottaisiin 
Neg. ei koottaisi 
Imp. Aff. koottakaan 
Opt. Jiff, koottakoon 
^e^. alkOOn koottako 


II. koottaessa 
III. koottaman 


Present koottava 
PcLBt koottu 

Other examples : root rohkene, to dare. 

Pres. rohkenen, rohkenet, rohkenee 
Impf, rohkenin 
Cone, rohjennen, rohjennet 
Cond, rohkenisin 
Imp. rohkene, rohjetkaa (45) 
Inf. rohjeta, rohjete, rohkenema, robkenexnisen, 
Part, rohkeneva, rohjennut 
Pass, rohjetaan 

Boot alene, to sink, 

Pres. alenen 
Impf. alenin 
Cone, alexmen 
Cond. alenisin 
Imp. alene, aletkaa (45) 

Inf. aleta, alete, alenema, aleneminen, alenemaisellani 
Pass, aletaan 

Boot syokse, to cast. 

Pres. syOksen • 
Imp. syOksin 
Cone. syOsnen (I) 


Cond. syOksisin 

Imp. syOkse, syOskaa 

Inf. syOsta (1), syOste, syOksema, syOkseminen, 

Part. syOkseva, syOsnyt 
Pass. syOstaan 

Root sakenditse, to glitter, 

Pres. sakenOitsen 
Imp. sakenOitsin 
Cone. sakenOinneii (1 & 44) 
Cond. sakenOitsisin 
Imp. sOkenOitse, sakenOitkaa 
Inf. sakenOita (1), sakinOite, sakinOitsema, 
sakenOitseminen, sakenOitsemaisillani. 
Part. sakenOitseva, sakenOinnyt 
Pass. sakenOitaan. 

Eoot nake, to see. 

Pres. naen (28), naet, nakee, naemme, naette, nakevat 
Inf. nain, nait, naki, naimme, naitte, nakivat 

Cone, nahnen (41) 

Cond. nakisin 
Imp. nae (28), nahkaa (41) 
Inf. nahda, nahde, nakema, nakeminen, nakemaisillani 

Part, nakeva, nahnyt 

Pass, nahdaan ' Part, nahty 

Reflexive Verbs, 

Under this name are comprised a great number of verbal 
forms, formed by adding certain suffixes to the simple transitive 
root, many of which are not used in ordinary written and 
spoken Finnish, 

A. Reflexive verbs are formed by adding to the root the 
suffixes utu, yty, or iintu, ynty. For instance, anta, to give, 
makes antautua or antaiintua; teke, to do, tekeytya or 
tekeyntya. The u or y may be assimilated to the last vowel of 
the root, which gives us forms like antaantua^ tekeentya. 
These verbs are conjugated quite regularly. 

THE VERB. 109 

B. This suffix is also found in the shorter form u, y. 

Antaa, antauta; loytaa, to find^ loytya, to he fownd ; muut- 

taa, io change {act), muuttua, to change oneself. 

These verbs generally present some peculiarities in their 

(i) They usually have the old ending pi in the 3d sing. 

indicative present ; antauupi, but antau is also found. 

(2) The imperfect ends in si ; antausin, antausit, antausi, 
etc. This a is the remains of an original t, showing that the 
termination u is only short for utu. 

(3) The same t is preserved in the infinitive and passive — 
antauta, antautaan. 

C. In the Kalevala and the Karelian dialect are found a great 
quantity of more or less irregular reflexive forms, which are often 
explained by supposing that the reflexive pronoun itse is added 
to the verb, and then weakened in various ways to ihe, ite, ik, 
k, etc. But this explanation is very doubtful. 

For example. From muuttaa, to change, comes the form 
muuttain, / change myself. 

Sing, Plur. 

I. muuttain xuuuttaimme 

^ 2. muuttait xuuttaitte 

3. muuttaikse, or muuttaihe xuuuttaivat 

The termination kse or ihe for the third person sing, is 
characteristic of these verbs. We also find the termination me 
for the first person sing., te for the second, and se or set for 
the third. 

The concessive is muuttainnen, and the conditional is 
muuttaisisin, etc. The imperative and optative muuttait- 
kaan, muuttaitkoon ^ 

* These forms are ably discussed by Mr. Setala, in vol. II of the Journal 
de la Soci^td Finne-Ugrienne, p, 29 flp. He endeavours to prove [and 
it seems to me with success] that k is a suffix of the present tense, and se a 
pronominal affix. 


The Formation of Verbs, 

Verbs are either primitive, that is to say, they consist of 
a simple root, to which are added the various modal and 
personal terminations, or they are derivative, that is to say, 
besides these terminations some formative syllable is added to 
the root, such as ta, ele, aise. It is not easy to assign a precise 
meaning to all of these terminations, particularly to the 
commoner, which are used in many and not very definite 

Simple roots are either transitive or intransitive in their 

Derivative transitive verbs are formed with ^ the following 
suffixes, which, however, are sometimes also found in verbs of 
neuter signification. 

(i) ta, ta, which must not be confounded with the ta of the 
first infinitive, is added to verbal roots ending in e, which is 

paastaa, to let go, but paasta, intransitive. (N.B. The 
first verb is for paastata, the second for paaseta, so that the 
t of the latter belongs to the termination of the infinitive, but 
the t of the latter to the stem). Faksuntaa, to thicken, but 
paksuta, to grow thick ; peljattaa, to frighten, but peljata, to 
fear ; viertaa, to roll down, transitive or intransitive, but 
vierra only intransitive. 

(2) tta, tta, is added cliiefly to roots ending in u or y 
which are not rejected. Juottaa, to give to drink (juoda, to 
drink) ; kayttaa, to use (from kayda) ; menettaa, to cause to go 
or lose (menna, to go) ; nayttaa, to show (nahda, to see) ; tuottaa, 
fo cause to hring, to get (tuoda, to bring) ; kuolettaa, to kill 
(kuolla, to die), 

(3) utta, ytta, is added mostly to polysyllabic roots: 
kavelyttaa, to make walk; epailyttaa, to make dovht\ huo-^ 


mauttaa, to make chserved ; liikuttaa, to move, trans, (liikkua, 

Reflexive neuter verbs (vide p. 109) are formed with the 
following suffixes : — 

(i) u or y, added chiefly to dissyllabic roots ending in a and 
e, which are rejected, and to polysyllables in ta and oitse : — 
loytya, to he fiyumd, to exist (loytaa, to find) ; tuntua, to he felt 
(tuntea, to feel) ; muuttua, to change, intransitive (muuttaa, to 
change, trans.) ; taytya, to he sufficient or necessary (tayttaa, 
transitive) ; rakastua, to he in love vrith (rakastaa, to love, 
transitive) ; kuulua, to he heard (kuulla, to hear). 

(2) iintu, ynty, shortened into utu, yty : — antauntua, 
antautua, or antauta, to give oneself up (antaa, to give) ; 
jakauntua, jakaantua, jakautua, or jakauta, to he divided 
(jakaa, to divide) ; kaariytya, to he involved (kaaria) ; vetaytya, 
to retire (vetaa). 

There is also a suflix pu, py, used to form a few words 
of intransitive signification : — joupua, to get drunk (juoda, to 
drink) ; syopya, to eaJt ones fill (sydda, to eat) ; jaapya, to 
remain hehind (jaada, to remain)', saapua, to arrive (from 
saada, cf. ' se rendre '). Iiuopua, vaipua, and viipya seem to 
be formed with the same suffix. 

Frequentative verbs are formed with the suffixes ele, ksi, 
and nta, either separately or combined. It is often hard to 
determine the exact force of these suffixes. Sometimes they 
signify a repeated or prolonged action, sometimes they form 
a kind of verbal diminutive, expressing an action slightly or 
gently performed, sometimes there is no real difference between 
the meanings of the original and derived verbs. 

(i) ele is added mostly to dissyllabic roots ending in a, 
which is lost before the suffix. The first infinitive ends in 
ella, and the verb is conjugated after the third conjugation, 
e. g. kysella, to ask often (Kussian cnpamHBaTB), from kysya, 


to ask (KuEsian cnpocHTb) ; katsella, to observe, or regard, 
from katsoa, to look) ellella, to live, from elaa; hypella, to 
jumjp (nonpHTHBaTB), from hypata (npBiraTfc). 

(2) ksi is added to the dissyllabic roots, especially to those 
ending in e. a and a become e before this suffix, kuljeksia, to 
wander, from kulkea, to go ; eleksia, to live, from elaa; anneksia, 
from antaa, to give. 

The termination nta is rarely found alone,but k8enta,k8entele, 
and ntele occur, and ksele is a frequentative form. Kayskella, 
to wander, from kayda, to go ; saneskella (noroBopHTb) from 
sanoa, kuljeskella^ from kulkea. 

Instantaneous or semelfactive verbs. These, when they have 
their strict significance, denote an action done once or suddenly, 
and correspond to Eussian forms in -Hyxb. The terminations 
which have this sense are — 

(i) ahta, added to dissyllabic verbs which lose their last 
vowel. Kiljjahtaa, to give a cry (BOCiLiHKHyTii) ; lilkahtaa 
(liikkua), to make a movement (^HHyTbCJi) ; elahtaa, to come, 
to life (but also to live, to grow old), 

(2) aise, added to dissyllables in e, i, o, and u, which fall out 
before the termination, kiljaista, to give a cry ; puraista, to 
give a bite (purra, to bite) ; haJkaista, to split. 

Verbal suffixes are also added to nouns, adjectives, and 
adverbs, the verbs so formed having various meanings which 
can be easily illustrated from English, where verbs are often 
formed from substantives or adjectives with or without a suffix 
being added. In Finnish such derived verbs have been divided 
into a variety of categories; such as — (i) Instructive, which 
imply the provision of something with the object denoted by the 
noun, cf. the English to butter, to arm. (2) Factive, denoting 
the conversion of something into the object or quality denoted 
by the original word, cf. English to blacken. (3) Operative, 
implying the use or action of the substantive, cf. English to 


d/rop^ to hoot. (4) Essive, denoting the existence or activity of 
something in the capacity of the noun, cf. English to idle. 

These classes of verbs are not denoted by special suffixes, but 
the syllables ta, i, itse, tta, crta are added to form verbs 
which may have any of these significations. 

Ta is added to monosyllables And roots which are susceptible 
of being closed, likewise to trisyllables ending in ra, la, na. 
Many of the verbs formed with this affix end in sta ; but the s 
belongs to the root, not to the suffix. Examples — perustaa, to 
found (perus, a foundation), vaatettaa, to clothe (vaate-); 
veistaa, to cut (veitse, a knife) ; poistaa, to drive away (pois) ; 
yltaa, to reach (yli) ; kumartaa, to how (kumara) ; kiirehtaa, to 
hwrry (kiire) ; sairastaa, to he ill (sairas). 

This termination sometimes becomes a, the t being lost, e. g. 
hajjata, to comb ; kullata, to gild. Here the ta is of course the 
termination of the infinitive. 

Eoots ending in e' with the aspiration generally suffix ti and 
not ta, though sometimes both forms are found. The aspiration 
becomes h before the t, vaatehtia, to clothe ; kiirehtia, to hurry ; 
tervehtia, to sahUe, etc. 

The termination i is added to dissyllables ending in cl, e, i, 
and also to such dissyllables ending in a as have o or u as their 
first vowel, whereas dissyllables in a with a, e, or i for their first 
vowel, suffix o. This rule is analogous to no. 7, and is prompted 
by a desire to avoid the repetition of the same in succeeding 
syllables. In all cases the final vowel of the stem is elided before 
the termination. Examples — ^kukkia, to flower (kukka) ; sotia, to 
fight (seta) ; munia, to lay eggs (muna) ; huolia, to care (huoli) ; 
but sanoa, to speak (sana) ; neuloa, to sew (neula) ; leipoa, to 
hake (leipa). 

The termination itse is added chiefiy to trisyllabic roots, 
but also to dissyllables. In trisyllabic words the final a and a 
of stems always become o and before i ; in dissyllables the 



final Yowel sometimes imdergoes this change and is sometimes 
rejectecL The verbs so £ormied are conjugated according to 
conjugation HI, so that the infinitive ends in oita for oitse. 
This terxninatlon is closely r^ted to the termination i, so much 
so that almost all the words formed with it have double fornm* 
For example^ from satula, a saddle, is formed either the verbal 
stem satuloi; infinitive satuloida; present satuloin; or the 
stem satuloitse ; infinitive satuloita ; present satuloitsen. 

Examples of verbs : iloita, to be glad (ilo) ; hedelmdlta, 
to give fruit (hedeUna) ; askaroita, to work (aal^^re) ; jumaloita 
(jumala)^ to deify ; palmikoita, to tyHne (palmlkko). 

tta, itta. These terminations are^ added to monosyllables, to 
dissyllables ending in i, o (d), and u (y), and trjayllables in 
a (a) (which always changes to o) and e. Dissyllabic and 
polysyllabic words prefer the termination- without i. This 
suffix is the same as that used to form transitive verbs from 
intransitive, and a large proportion of the verbs which are 
derived from nouns by its addition are factitive. Paattaa, to 
finish (paattya, to end, intransitive); jaattaa, to freeze; 
kiijoittaa, to write ; lahjoittaa, to make a present ; hyvittaa, 
to vse loell ; syyttaa, to accuse ; kunnioittaa, to honov/r, 

sta or ista is added generally to dissyllabic stems, whose 
final vowel is lost before i, though a sometimes becon^es o. 
Metsastaa, to hv/rvt ; kaijeataa, to sharpen ; kalaetaa, to fish ; 
ylistaa, to extol ; yhdistaa, to vmite ; a&nestaa, to eapr^ss an 
opinion, to vote, 

• Another class of verbs are called translative, and express 
a change ta the state denoted by the noun from which the verb 
is formed. 

Such are formed with the following terminations : — 
(i) ne is added chiefly to dissyllables, also to trisyllables in 
ea (ea), whose final a (a), and sometimes o, changes to e. The 
verb so formed is conjugated according to the third oonjugajbion, 


and the syllable ne altogetaber dleappeailt in the infinitiye, which 
ends in eta. Aleta (present a^enen) to nrJc down ; musteta, 
to become black ; lahet&, to draw near ; ptmeta, to grow dark, 

(2) a or a is added mostly to dissyllabic roots ending in i, 
which changes to e ; if added to roots ending in a, this vowel 
generally becomes o. It is also added to trisyllabes in ea (ea). 
Soeta, to become blind (sokea). 

A small number of verbs are formed from adjectives by the 
addition of the suffix ksi or ksu, before which a and a are 
often changed to e. These verbs, sometimes called censitive, 
express the light in which something is regarded. Halveksia, 
to hold cheap (halpa) j hyvekaia or hyvaksya, to find good, to 
apjprove ; pahaksua or i>ali6kBla, to find bad, to be angry at ; 
vaheksia or vahaksya, to find small or despise, 


The place of prepositions in other languages is supplied by 
postpositions, that is to say, by words which follow a substantive 
(mostly in the genitive or partitive case). These words are not, 
however, really analogous to the indeclinable prepositions of 
other languages ; they are cases of substantives, some of which 
are found used in the nominative case. For instance, all (not 
used as a substantive) means a place under something else. 
From this are formed the cases alia, alle, alta, etc., which 
are used as prepositions, e. g. kissa on pdydan alia, the cai is 
in the place tmder the table, that is, v/nder the table ; kissa 
meni pdydan alle, the cat went to the 2>l<'^^ wnder the table, 
that is, wnjdefT the table ; kissa tuli pdydan alta, the cat came 
frmm the pUice wnder the table, or from, under the table, A 
list oi thcBC substantives, which are mostly fragmentary in 
their declensions, is given in the Syntax. A few of them 
precede the substantive which they govern and can hence be 

I 2 


called prepositions. Such words mostly require that the 8ub« 
stantive which they govern should be in the partitive, whereas 
postpositions follow a word in the genitive. 

In these words we may distinguish two classes : — 

A. Those which are used as postpositions only in one case, 
and which have become more or less petrified. Such are 
ennen, before ; ilman, without ; kanssa, with ; varten, for, 

B. Those which are used in several cases. Some of these are 
ordinary substantives used in the nominative and other cases. 
The postpositional usage of such words corresponds to such 
English phrases * as in the middle of.' Such are joiikko, a 
crowd) (joukossa, joukkoon) ; jalki, a footstep (jalessa, jalest&, 
jalkeen); kohta, a jplace (kohdalla, kohdalta, kohdalle, 
kohtaan) ; puoli, a AaZ/(puoles8a, puolesta, puolella, puolelta, 
puoleen) ; paa, a head (paassa, paasta, paahan, paalla, paalle, 

Others, though clearly substantives in their form, are not 
used except as particles : — yli, ylitse, ylla, ylle, ylta ; ympari, 
ymparilla, ymparilta, ymparille; alia, alta, alle; edessa, 
edesta, eteen, edella, edelta, edelle; luota, luona, luo; 
ohessa, ohesta, oheen, ohitse; mydta, myoten, and others. 


There are two classes of adverbs in Finnish : (i) Inde- 
pendent adverbs, (2) Adverbial suffixes. 

The independent adverbs are often cases of nouns which differ 
from postpositions only in this, that they are used absolutely, 
and not in connection with another word. Thus in kayda kau- 
pungin ympari, to go round the town, ympari may be described 
as a postposition, while in kayda ympari, where it stands 
alone and absolute, it is an adverb. Similarly in kulkea 


puutarhan ohitse, to pass by the garden, ohitse is a postposition, 
but in plan se menee ohitse, it wtU soon he over, it is an 

These independent adverbs are formed in different ways :- — 

A. Some are primitive words, whose grammatical formation 
is not clear, e.g. nyt, now, heti, soon; aina, always; viela, 
yet ; koska, when. 

B. A second class is formed by the addition of certain 

(i) Adverbs are formed from adjectives by the addition of 
Bti, perhaps related to the suffix of the elative, sta, e. g. 
hywa, goodf hy^vasti, well ; tietty, hnown ; tletysti, certainly. 
Iti is also found (cf. ablative Ita) ; laajalti, widely, e. g. se on 
laajalti tiumettu, he is widely hnown; paksulta, nmch or 
thickly; syvalta, deeply, 

(2) ten or ti (cf. prolative tse) is added to pronouns. 
T&ten, so ; miten, how ; siten, so ; muuten, otherwise ; perati, 

(3) isin (instructive) is added to nouns. Maisin, by land ; 
takaisin, hack. 

(4) nne is added to pronouns, and forms adverbs of direc- 
tion. Sinne, thither ; tanne, hither ; minne, whither ; jonne- 
kunne, to somewhere or other. 

(5) tusten, tuksin, ksuttain, kkain, are used to form adverbs 
expressing a mutual relation. Binnatusten, side hy side ; 
kasityksin, hand in hand; peraksyttain or perakkain, one 
behind the other. 

(6) oin, or sometimes ain (probably from ajoin, aika, time), 
is added to the adessive case of pronouns to form temporal 
adverbs. Silloin, then ; milloin, when ; mxdnoin, formerly. 

C. Various cases of nouns are used as adverbs : — 
Nominative — E. g. kohta, soon ; kylla, en^ough. 


Accu8diive or genitive^^'kauajijlong^; paUon^ imtch. 

Fartitiv&'^VLlkosk, otUnde ; salaa, secretly. 

Inesdve — ^tassa, here; missa, where] yhdoBsa, together) 
pystsrsi^a, straight^ ujprigkt. 

Elative — ^tasta, hence ; mista, whence ; ainoastaan or aino- 
astansa, only. 

Illative — yhteen, together ; tarkkaan, a^cv/rately. 

Adessive — tuolla, siella, there; kaikkialla, everywhere. 

Ablative — kalkkialta, from all sides ; muualta, firom anotlier 

AUative — uudelleen, anew ; verkalleen, gradually, 

Essive — ^ulkona, outside ; kotona, at home ; huomenna, 
to-morrow, kaukana, /ar. 

Translative, where kse is generally abbreviated to s, — alas, 
below ; ulos, without ; myos, also. 

AbessivCi wbere tta becomes ti, — aaneti, silently; huoleti, 
without care. 

Instructive — niin, so\ kuin, how; tosin, truly; harvoin, 
rarely ; kaksittain, two at a time. 

The second infinitive is also used adverbially in the instructive, 
nimittain (for en), that is to say. 

Adverbs are also found in the comparative and superlative 
degree, and are then in the essive, partitive, and translative 
cases, or adessive, ablative, and allative. The termination ksi 
of the translative often sinks to s, or merely the aspirate. 
Iiikempana, nea/rer; likempaa, likemmaksi (-mni&s or -mma'), 
likemmalla, likemmalta, etc. 

The adverbial suffixes are added to the end of other words. 
The principal are— 

Ko, k5, which gives an interrogative meaning to the word to 
which it is affixed, like xti in Eussian. 

Han, han, pa, pa, have a strengthening or affirmative force. 

Ki, kin, have a copulative sense, — mlnakin, / too. 



According to their signification conjunctions may be divided 
into — 

(a) Copvlative — ja,. ynn&, and seka, also; seka . . . etta, 
both . . . and ; ka, ka (enclitic), and, 

(6) DisQunctive — eli, tahi, tai, taikka, or\ joko . . . tai, 
either , . . or, 

(c) Adversative — mutta, vaan, htU; kuitenkin^ toki, how- 

(d) Inferential — sentahden, siksl, therefore ; siis, niin- 
muodoin, conseqriently ; niin, so, accordingly, 

(e) Causal — siUa, for ; kun, koska, because, 

(/) Comparative — kuin, than ; ikaankiiin, as, if, • 

(g) Temjporal — ^kun, when\ jahka, heti kuin, as soon as] 
ennenkuin, before tJuxt ; sittenkuin, after that, 

(A) Final and Consecutive — etta, jotta, that. 

(i) Conditional — job, if, 

{j) Concessive — ^vaikka, jos, kohta, even if, 

(k) Interrogative — ko, ko (enclitic), tokko, josko, vai, is 
it . , . or (like the Latin ' utrum ' . . . * an '). 

It will be noticed that these conjunctions are in great part 
merely cases of pronouns or adjectives, e. g. sentahden, kuin, 
silla. Tnna appears to be a contracted essive from yksi ; and 
ja and toki to be borrowed words. 



1. Of joy — aha, ahaa, hei. 

2. Laughter — haha, hihi. 

3. Grief — ai, aiai, vol, oi, voivoi. 

4. Moch&ry—ahA, Icutti, piti, piti-piti. 

5. Astonishment — no^ noh, ha, kah, kas. 

6. Disgust — hyi, hyihyl, ui, uiui. 


Finnish sentences are formed of the same elements as those 
fomid in other European languages — subjects, predicates, objects, 
attributes, etc. ; but, as the simplest phrases offer certain 
peculiarties, it is well, before analysing the use of the various 
forms, to give some general rules. 

The Subject, 

I. The Subject is in the nominative case ii^ it is total, that is 
to say, if something is predicated of the whole of the subject. 
Thus, ihmiset kuolevat, men die, because the verb applies to 
the whole race of men ; lapset tulevat, the children come, that 
is to say, all the children in question. Personal pronouns and a 
substantive in the singular always are in the nominative, when 
subject to a sentence. In other words, the subject is put in the 
nominative, (i) when the proposition is universal. Ihniiset 
kuolevat, men die ; linnut lentavat, birds fly, (2) When it is 
preceded by the definite article or other determinative adjective 
in English. Sotamiehet lakedvat, the soldiers set out ; namat 
I>ojat olevat ahkerat, these boys are indvMrious. (3) When 
the subject is a single definite substantive or pronoun, which is 
really the same as the case of an universal proposition. 

n. But the subject is put in the partitive case, if something 
is predicated, not of its whole extent, but of part of it. Thus, one 
says viini on hyvaa, wine is good; viini on pdydalla, the wine 
is on the table ; but viinia on pdydalla, there is some wine on 
the table. Similarly, miehet tulevat, the m^ are coming ; but 
miehia tulee, some VMn are coming. 


It is to be noticed — 

(i) That in negative phrases, where the verb is ei ole, ei 
nay, ei kuiQu, ei tunnu, etc. (which are generally rendered in 
English by such phrases as * there is no/ or ' there is not '), the 
subject is always in the partitive, e.g. siella ei ole ketaan, 
there is nobody there ; tassa joessa ei ole kaloja, there are no 
fish in this river, 

(2) The partitive can obly be the subject to an intransitive 
verb, because the mere fact of any word being the subject to 
a transitive verb implies that the whole or a definite part of the 
subject is regarded as acting. Thus, one can say, varkaita tuli 
talooni, some thieves ccume into my house ; but some thieves stole 
my things must be rendered by varkaat (or jotkut varkaat) 
varastivat tavarani. 

The subject can be altogether omitted if it is a pronoun of the 
first or second person, and also in certain impersonal expres- 
sions, like tuulee, it is tvindy. In such sentences as on 
mahdotonta tehda sita, it is impossible to do this, the verbal 
noun is to be regarded as the subject. 

Such sentences as one says, or people say, where the subject 
is indefinite, are expressed in Finnish either by the passive verb 
{v, p. 181), or by the third person plural, no noun or pronoun 
being employed to represent the subject. Sanovat paaskysten 
jo tulleen, they say the swaUows have already come ; Ven^alla 
hakkaavat paJjo metsaa, they cut a great deal of wood in Rtissia, 

The third person sing, is also used in this sense : kesalla elaa 
vaikka ilmalla, in siimmer one cam, live easily (literally, on air)\ 
tekee minkan jaksaa, one does as much work as one can. 

The second person sing, is also used in this impersonal sense, 
much as in Eussian. Kavelet kadulla, et nae mitaan, mutta 
yht'akkia putoat kuopaan, one walks along the street, sees 
nothing, and suddenly tv/mbUs into a hole. 


The Predicate. 

The verb of a sentence usually agrees in number with the 
subject, if the latter is in the nominative. But 

(i) If the subject is in the partitive, either sing. or. plural, 
the verb is always in the sing. The real subject of the verb in 
such cases is not the partitive itself, but such a word as joukko, 
paljo, or vahU understood before it. 

(2) If the subject is a noun with a numeral (which in Finnish 
requires the partitive after it), the verb is also in the singular. 

(3) When the verb olla is used with the adessive in the con- 
struction rendered by the verb ' have * in English, it always 
remains in the 3rd sing., no matter what tiie subject may be. 

(4) In proverbs, the Kalevala, and popular speech generally, 
a singular verb is very frequently found with a plur. nominative; 
Such an irregularity is clearly rendered much easier and less 
glaring by the analogy of the cases quoted above. 

The verb olla, to be^ is sometimes omitted, especially in pro- 
verbial phrases. 

Oma maa mansikka, muu maa nmstikka, ones own land is 
a strawberry, foreign lands are only blackberries, Ei i^yyssa 
kahden jakoa, a partridge is not enottghfor two. 

If the predicate takes the form of an auxiliary with a noun or 
adjective, this latter may be put in several cases. 

I. In the nominative, when the complement expresses a 
quality inherent in the subject, without any reference to other 

II. But it is put in the partitive if the subject is regarded as 
referred to a class in oommon with which the subject shares the 
quality in question. 

Thus, veitset ovat terevat means these hnives, or the kmves 
are ^larp ; but veitset ovat teravia means knives are sharp, or 


belong to the class of sharp things, Eivi on kova, the stone is 
hardy i.e. not a soft stone ; kivi on kovaa, stone is a hard 

It is noticeable that — 

(a) If the subject is in the sing., and denotes a living being, 
the complement must be in the nominative; one must say 
ihminen on kuolevainen, not kuolevaista. 

(6) If the subject denotes a part of the body, the complement 
must be also in the nominative : Hiukset ovat mustat, the 
hair is black, Eadet ovat tarpeelliset, hands are necessary, 

in. The complement is put in the essive if it denotes the 
state in which a thing is at a given time. Thus, isani on 
kipeana, my father is {now) ill ; isani on kipea, my fatTier is 
an invalid, Han on pappi, he is a clergyman ; but han on 
Jo kauan ollut pappina, he has long been a clergyman. Suo- 
menmaa on osa Venc^an valtakuntaa, Finland is a part of the 
Russian empire ; but tahan vuosisataan asti Suomenmaa oli 
osana Buotsin valtakunnasta, till the beginning of this century 
Finland form^ part of the kingdom of Sweden. Often there is 
little difference between the nominative and essive. Thus one 
can say either sydan on suruja taysi, or taynna, the heart is 
full of woe ; but taynna gives a more precise ahd literad idea of 
fullness than taysi. 

IV. With the other auxiliaries, signifying to become, or pass 
into a state (tulla, niveta, muuttua, etc.), the complement is put 
in the translative. lima muuttuu lampimaksi, the weather 
grows warm, Poika rupesi palveljjaksi, the boy began to be a 
servant. XTkko kay heikoksi, the old man gets weak, Han 
joutui tydmieheksi, he became a workman. 

Such sentences as it is impossible to go, or it is necessary for 
you to go, may be rendered in Finnish as mahdotonta on menna, 
or tarpeellista on etta menette ; but in both cases the real 


subject is the infiDitiYe, or the sentence with etta which 
replaces it. 

In such sentences the adjective, combined with the verb olla, 
can be put either in the partitive or in the nominative ; but it is 
very hard, not only to give rules for the employment of the 
two cases, but even to state the exact difference of meaning 
between them. As has been seen above, kivi on kova means 
the stone is hard, but kivi on kovaa, the stone belongs to the class 
of hard things. The same distinction appears to prevail in the 
case under consideration, but, as the difference is very subtle, it is 
not surprising that it is often hard to trace. On the whole, the 
partitive is more usual, because the use of the nominative 
implies, strictly speaking, that the subject and the complement 
are co-extensive. But the nominative is more definite, inasmuch 
as it vaguely implies the existence of particular personal or 
temporal conditions. Thus, parasta on menna is the equivalent 
of it is best to go ; and it is perfectly logical to use the partitive, 
as clearly it is not meant that the terms going and best are 
co-extensive. But paras on menna means rather the best thing 
for us under the drcvmistcmces is to go; and in this case the use 
of the nominative is also logical, because the two terms are 
co-extensive. It can be easily imagined that with so slight 
a distinction the nominative and partitive are used almost 
indifferently in most cases. Thus, it is equally correct to say 
on surkea nahda sinuA tuossa tilassa, or on surkeata, it is 
sad to see you in this position. But it is noticeable that — 

(i) Parempi and hsrva are always used in the nominative. 
Parempi on odottaa, it is better to wait, Hyva on oUa 
terveena, it is good to be healthy. In the case of parempi, at 
any rate, this is quite natural, as there can hardly be said to be 
a class of better things without reference to particular circum- 
stances. But this point cannot be pressed, as other compara- 
tives are used in the partitive. 


(2) In such phrases as on nuUidotonta, t^ ia impassible ; osko 
luvallistra, is it allowdhle ; onko mahdoUista, is it possible f the 
purtitiye is nearly always used. 

The Object. 

The object, like the subject, can be either total or partial. 
It is regarded as total when the whole of the object is repre- 
sented as affected by the action of a transitive verb, and partial 
when only a part of it is affected by such action. Thus in 
mies ampui linnut, the mem shot the birds, the object is total ; 
but in mies ampui lintuja, the mjcm sjiot some birds, it is 
partial, because in the first case no birds are thought of except 
those shot, who all come under the action of the verb, whereas 
in the second there is a vague reference to all existing birds, of 
which some only have been shot. Further, the object is re- 
garded as partial whenever the action of the verb is continuous 
or incomplete, because the action is, so to speak, extending over 
the object, but has not yet embraced the whole of it. Thus, in 
min& kiijoltan kiijetta, / am writing a letter, the object is 
regarded as partial; but in mina olen kiijoittanut kiijeen, 
/ have written a letter, it is total. The object of a negative 
verb is always in the partitive. 

The object may be put — 

1. In the accusative ; 

2. In the partitive ; 

3. In the nominative. 

By accusative is meant that case which corresponds in the 
singular with the genitive, and in the plural with the nomina- 

I. The total object of an active finite verb, in any mood but 
the imperative, is put in the accusative, unless it is a cardinal 


Han myi hevosen, K& sold the horse, Veljeni panee rpLhot 
taskuiin, my brother pui^ the money in hie pocket, Ammuia 
pyyt metsassa, / ehot the partridges in the wood ; but aniTn^lTi 
viisi pyyta, I shot Jhe partridges, 

n. The Object is put in the partitive if it is partial, what- 
eyer the verb may be. From what has bee4 said above it will 
be seen that this implies that the partitive must be used :-^ 

(i) When the object is strictly speaking partial and denotes 
a part <^ something, not a whole. Antakaa minulle maitoa, 
teeita, etc., give ms some milk, some tea, etc. Han sdi leipaill ja 
voita, he ate some bread andbtUter, Isa antoi rahaa pojalle, 
tJie father gave the boy some m,oney, 

(2) When the verb is negative. En saajiut kiijaa, / did not 
receive the book. Me emme tunne ystavaasi, we do not know 
yoi4r friend, Ala revi kiijaa, donH tear the book, ILasta ei 
rakasteta, the child is not loved, 

(3) When the action of the verb is continuous and not 
finished. Han lukee kiijaa, he is reading the book, Seppa 
takoo rautaa, the smith is hammering the iron, Han juuri 
toimittaa sita asiat^, he is just now doing the business. Often 
there is a difference in the meaning of a verb, according as it 
is followed by the accusative or partitive ; the former denoting 
that the action is more complete. Han loi koiraa, he struck 
the dog; but han loi koiran, he killed the dog, Han repi 
kiijaa, he tore the book ; but repi kiijan, he tore the book to 
pieces. A great many verbs never take a total object, because 
from the nature of their signification, their action cannot be 
definite and complete, but must be regarded as continuous. 
This is especially the case with verbs expressing a feeling. 
ITiin rakasti Jumala maailmaa, so God loved the world, 
IfeUToin ystavaani olemaan menematta, / advised my friend 
not to go, Odotin hanta kaksi tuntia, / waited two hours 


for him. Seurasin hanta Helsinkiin asti, / fallowed him 
to Helsingfara, Vihatkaatte pahaa, haie evil, 

III. The object is also put in the nominative — 

(i) If it is the total object of an imperative. Anna leipa 
pojalle, give the hoy the bread. Vie hevonen taUiin, take 
ike horse to the stable. 

(2) If it is the total object of an infinitive, which depends 
on an imperative, and sometimes in other cases (vide p. 185). 
Easke tuoda ruoka pydtaan, order the faod to be put on the 
table. Antakaa lahettaa sahkosanonia, have a telegram sent. 

(3) If it is a cardinal number. Maksoin kolme ruplaa, 
I paid three rvhles. 

(4) As has already been stated, the so-called passive is an 
impersonal verb with its total object in the nominative and its 
partial object in the partitive. For a detailed explanation, 
vide p. 181. 

An intransitive verb can sometimes take an accusative after 
it to express the result of its action. Aiti makasi lapsensa 
kuoliaaksi, the mother lay on her child and killed it (lit. 
slept her child dead). Juoksi itsensar vasykaiin, he ran 
himself tired. Han joi itsensa siaksi, he d/rank himself siUy, 
Fuhui eniiinsa puhtaaksi, he spoke out his mind. 

Of the Agreement of Svhstanlives and Adjectives 

tvith one another. 

As a rule, an adjective agrees with a noun in case and 

Hyva mies, a good man ; hyvat miehet, good men. Kaissa 
Buurissa kaupiingeissa, in these large totjons. Eoyhille lapsille; 
to the poor children. 

There are, however, a considerable number of exceptions 
to this rule. 


(i) Adjectives, as well as substantives, from wHch they can 
hardly be distinguished, enter very readily into composition as 
the first member of a compound word, and then are not declined, 
e. g. muBtameri, the Black Sea. Isokyro, Vahakyrd, names of 
villages. Cf. such expressions as mennyt viionna, raifkka 
sateella, tuiskusaalla, pakkasilmalla. 

(2) Some adjectives are never declined : aika, kelpa, oiva, 
ensi, viime, eri, joka, koko, nyky, pikku. 

Ensi maanantaina, on next Monday, Kelpo miehelle, to 
the good man. Eri osat, separate parts, Jdka, paikassa, in 
every place, 

(3) A certain number of adjectives and pronouns, instead of 
following the regular construction, take after them an instruc- 
tive plur. or a partitive sing., e.g. olla pahoilla mielin, to be 
in a good temper; tulla hyville mielin, to get into a good 
temper, Sam all a ajoin, at the same time, Kaikissa paikoin, 
everywhere, Omilla korvin or silmin, with one's own eyes or ears, 
iN'ailla seuduin, in this pa/rt of the world, 

(4) The words kulta, dear] parka, raiska, raukka, riepu, 
poor, wretched ; vaivainen, poor ; vainaja, dead ; paha, paha- 
nen, polo, polonen, poor, though written separately, form a 
sort of compound with a substantive, which they may either 
precede or follow. Only the last of the two words is declined. 
Thus, poika polosella oli kiire, or polo pojaUa, the poor hoy 
had to hwrry, Ala suututa aiti kultaani, or kulta aitiani, do 
not anger my dear mother, Mina en nahnyt lapsi parkaani, 
/ have not seefii my poor child, Woi minua mies parkaa, woe 
is «ie, poor man. 

As wiU be perceived from the rules given above (p. 124), an 
adjective predicated of a substantive does not always agree with 
the latter, but may be in the partitive, essive, or translative, 
when the substantive is in the nominative. 



A Bubstantiye in apposition to another is usually in the same 

It is to be noted that in such expressions as tlie town of 
Petershwrg, the Emperor Alexander, the Finnish idiom conforms 
to the English in this respect, that if the object is inanimate, 
the proper name is put in the genitive. Helsingin kaupunki, 
the town of Helsingfora. Suomenmaa, Finland. In the case of 
a river either the nominative or genitive can be used. ISTevan 
joki or ISTeva joki, the river Neva. 

But if the proper name denotes an animate object, or a ship, 
it is put in the nominative, and remains in that case, even 
though the word in apposition to it is inflected. Eeisari 
Suuriruhtinas Georg Alekaandrovitsohin kanssa, the Emjyeror 
with the Grcmi Duke George AUxandrovitch. Frofessori Al- 
quistin kuolema on suuri vahinko Suomelle, the death of 
Professor Alquist is a great blow to Finland. 

*When a word in apposition denotes the state of the subject at 
a given time, and not « general characteristic, it is put in the 
essive case. Foikana han oli sairas, as a hoy he was iU. 

The Article. 

There is no article in Finnish. Sometimes ykai (one) is used 
to represent the indefinite article, and in poetry the definite 
article is frequently expressed by a pronoun, such as tuo 
or se. 

The rules given above will have made it clear, however, that 
under some circumstances Finnish can mark by the use of 
the cases the same distinction which we mark by the article. 
It may be said roughly that the nominative generally represents 
a substantive y^th the definite article in English (this would be 
still more true of French), and the partitive a substantive with- 
out an article. Thus, linnut ovat puiussa means the birds are 


in the tree ; but lintuja on puxuasa, tJiere are birds in the tree. 
Ammuin lintuja is / shot some birds ; ammnlTi linnut, / shot 
the birds. So, too, Mvet ovat kovat means the stones are hard ; 
while kivet ovat kcvia means rather stones are hard. It would, 
however, be misleading to state such rules too dogmatically, as 
doubtless many instances could be found where the use of the 
nominative and partitive would not correspond to that of the 
article in English. Naturally, a language which has no articles 
and no gender is obliged to construct sentences differently from 
tongues which have these distinctions, and Finnish sentences, 
particularly in the older and simpler literature, are generally 
more precise than ours. 


The majority of the cases of the Finnish noun have, at any 
rate in their origin, a local meaning. Of these local cases two 
obvious groups are found, one called the interior local cases 
(inessive, elative, and illative), the other the exterior cases (the 
adessive, ablative, and allative). Another group is formed by 
the essive, partitive, and tmnslative, which, however, do not 
hang together so closely as the cases above cited, inasmuch as 
the primary local meaning has in all of them been obscured 
by metaphorical uses. In all these groups the first member 
(inessive, adessive, essive) denotes originally rest in a position ; 
the second (elative, ablative, partitive) motion from ; the third 
(illative, allative, translative) motion to. From the original 
local meaning, all the cases, except the allative, come to indicate 
time. It may be roughly said that the first member denotes 
present time, the second past time, and the third future time. 
They are also used in a metaphorical sense, in which case the 


first members of the groups denote the state in which anything 
is, the second the state from which anything passes, and the 
third the state into which anything passes. In the first and 
second groups there is a close correspondence in the metaphorical 
use of the various members of the group : that is to say, if 
one member can be used metaphorically to express existence in 
a state, the others can be used to express a transition from or 
to it. Most of the cases have, however, in addition to these 
common uses, others which are peculiar to themselves and are 
not shared by the other members of the group. 

The usage of the first and second group also shows many 
coincidences. It is generally said that the first group denotes 
local position with regard to the interior, and the second with 
regard to the exterior of the object. In the present state of 
the language, however, the distinction in this form is not very 
clearly observed, as will be seen by the examples given. The 
second group has a tendency to denote persons rather than 
things, whereas the first is used more of inanimate objects. The 
third i^oup is mainly used in metaphorical senses. It is 
noticeable that there are many coincidences between the uses of 
the partitive and the elative. 

Most of the other cases call for little comment. The in- 
structive is used mostly adverbially, but plays a considerable 
part in the construction of sentences, and is likely to be trouble- 
some to a beginner on account of its resemblance to the genitive 
in form. The prolative is rarely used. The comitative and 
abessive express respectively the presence and absence of an 
object. The foriner is not much used, but the peculiarities 
of the Finnish construction have caused the latter to in some 
ways take the place of a negative. 

As has already been stated in the Accidence, it would appear 
that in some of the cases two forms have been merged in one. 
Thus it appears that the adessive represents (i) a local case. 


(2) an instrumental. So, too, the genitive represents (i) a case 
denoting the relation existing between objects, (2) a dative. 
The nominative is also used (i) as a real nominative, (2) as an 
accusative, having perhaps lost the termination in this latter 

To understand Finnish syntax it is of the greatest 
importance to remember that there is no real distinction 
between nouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, infini- 
tives, and participles. In fact, all the words of a sentence, 
except the forms of a finite verb (and a few particles 
-^hich have become petrified) are nouns, and as such are 
Lsceptible of declension, so that the significance of the 
les has an importance extending over almost the entire 


lost of the uses of the nominative have already been 

I. It is employed as the subject of a sentence if the subject is 
lA/tal. The subject of a transitive verb is always considered 
as total {yide p. 122). Ihniiset kuolevat, men are mortal, 
Sepp& _myl hevosen, the srrdth sold^th^Jiorse. Mita sjjat 
maksavat P what do the places cost ? 

II. It also is used in the predicate, under the conditions 
mentioned, page 123. Silta on levea, the bridge is wide, Tata- 
vuni tytar on seitseman vuotias, my friend* s daughter is seven 
years old, 

m. It is used as the direct object after an imperative, 
or an infinitive depending on an imperative {vide p. 128). 
Ijydkanime kasi katehen (Kal.L 21). Faasta piika pinte- 
hesta (Kal. i. 173). Kun solmit ystawyytta, tee aina umpi- 
Bolmu, when you tie the knot of friendship, make it hard to untie, 
Tuokaa minuUe kahvi, givejne the coffee. Fankaa tama kiije 
postiin, post this letter. 





IV. When the passive form of the verb is used, the subject 
(or more properly object) is put in the nominative, if it is total. 
Han saatetaan kotia, he is conducted home {vide p. 182). 

V. The nominative is used as the vocative. Oi iikko yl|ju- 
mala ! Well kulta, weikkoseni, kaiinis kasvinkumppalini I 

YI. The nominative absolute is frequently used. Kal. xvi. 
192-3. Tuonen hattu hartioilla, Manan kintahat kaessa, 
the hat of death on thy Tiead, and the gloves of death on thy hands. 
Ei vahinko tule kello kaulaesa, 'misfortune does not come 
with a beU round his neck, Harvoin on se mies piippu poissa 
Buusta, this man is rarely without a ^ipe in his mouth, Han 
makaa ulkona paa paljaana, he sleeps out of doors with his 
head hare. 

The Partitive Case. 

The original meaning of this case seems to have been motion 
from a place, and traces of this signification are found in the 
forms kotoa, ulkoa, kaukaa, takaa, tykoa, and luota. Tulla 
ulkoa, to corns from out of doors ; nahda kaukaa, to see from far. 
The partitive is also apparently used locally in such expressions 
as tulkaa tata tieta, corns this way ; mina kayn tieta, I goby 
the road; he kulkivat matkaansa, they went on their way. 
Perhaps, however, these might be explained by supposing that 
the intransitive verbs tulla, kayda, etc. take a cognate object. 
The use of the partitive of the participle passive (p. 198) to 
denote ' after * is noticeable. 

Hence the case passes not unnaturally to mean what is taken 
from, or forms part of a thing. 

I. A substantive preceded by words which express a quantity 
or measure is put in the partitive. Joukko i hmisi a, a crowd 
of men ; naula lihaa, a pound of meat ; paJjo rahaa, miich 
money ; vaha voita, a little butter. 


Similarly a cardinal number, if it is the subject of a sentence, 
is followed by the partitive sing, of the word which it qualifies. 
Kolme poikaa, three hoy$\ Beitaeman veyea, seven brothers, v 
In the same way we have, kaksi kymmenta, two tens or 
twenty. But if the word qualified by the numeral would not 
be in the nominative in ordinary European languages, the two 
agree in case {vide p. 172). 

II. The word expressing quantity is omitted and the partitive 
stands alone as the subject of the sentence. This construction 
can often, though not always, be rendered by the word ' some ' 
in English, or by 'de' with the article in French. ILeipaa 
on poydalla, there is some bread on the table {U y a ckt> pain sur 
la table). It is to be noticed that in this construction the 
verb of which the partitive is the subject must be intransitive, 
and is always in the singular, though the subject should be in 
the plural. Onko t^lla vaatteita P have you any clothes ? 

The subject of a negative sentence is put in the partitive, in 
cases where we should say in English, — * There is not ' or * there 
is no.' Ei ole taalla IhTnlsia, there are no men here. In such 
a sentence as en ole merilohia, syvan aallon ahvenia (Kal v. 
122), / am not a salmon, the partitive must be explained as 
indicating a class, / am not one of the saimons. In ordinary 
Finnish the partitive is only used in this way with determining 
adjectives. Thus one says, Sn ole vaimo, / am not a woman ; 
but En ole niita valmoja jotka unhottavat miehensa, / am 
not one of the women who forget their hiisbands. 

m. The object is put in the partitive whenever it is not total 
{vide rules given above, p. 127). Juoda kahvia, to drink some 
coffee; polka lukee kiijaa, the boy is reading the booh. 
The object of a negative verb is always regarded as partial. 
Foika ei antanut kixjaa, the boy did not give the book, 
Hevonen ei jaksanut vetaa kuormaa, the horse cotdd not carry 
the load. 




V. As stated in the rules given p. 123, the complement of 
a sentence is put in the partitive when it expresses a whole 
of which the subject is a part. The partitive is particularly 
used to express the substance of which a thing is made. Sormus 
on TsxjltBOi^ythe Ting isjgold, Sieli on lihaa ja lianipaa4^ ovat 
luuta, tits tongue is flesh, and the teeth are hone, 

VI. In a sentence expressing comparison the word kuin 
(than) can be omitted, and the word which follows the com- 
parative be put in the partitive. Euu on pienempi kuin 
aurinko, or kuu on pienempi anrinkoa, the moon is smaller 
than the sun. Fietarl on suurempi Helsinkia, St. Feterslmrg 
is larger than Hdsingfors, Eiko Abanan ja Fharpharan 
wirrat Damaskussa ole kaikkia Israelin vesia paremmat P 
Are not Aba/na and FltarjoiTiar, rivers 0/ l)am,ascuSf better than all 
the waters 0/ Israel ? 

VII. Adjectives expressing height or size require the parti- 
tive. Kirkon tomi on kaksi sataa jalkaa korkea, the church 
tower is 200 feet high. Joki on kakslkymmenta jalkaa S3rva, 
the river is 200 feet de&p. Silta on puolta virstaa pitka, the 
bridge is half a verst long. 

VUI. The partitive is used in salutations, exclamations, etc., 
where it is to be explained by the omission of some word. 
Hyvaa lltaa, hyvaa huomenta (/ toish you) good morning; 
kiitoksia, thanks ; terveisia, my comjoliments ; mahclotonta ! 
impossible I kauheaa, horrible ! So too in such expressions as 
vol paivianL 


I. The direct object of a finite active verb, if not in the 
imperative, is put in the accusative, when the action of the 
verb is regarded as total {vide p. 126). Isa ostaa kiijan pojalle, 
the father buys the book for the boy. Kauppamies saa rahat, 
the merchant receives the money. 


II. The accusative is also used to denote duration of time. 
Viivyn paivan, viikon, muutamat viikkokaudet. ItM illat, 
itki aamut, ydhyet ennemmin itki, Kal. v. 7, 8. It is also 
used in answer to the question, how many times, or which time. 
Mina olen taalla ensimaisen kerran^ ^J^^ here for the first 
time, Mina olen ollut Helsingissa muutamat (useat, monet) 
kerrat, / have been many times at ffelsingjbrs. 

But expressions with joka, such as joka kerta, joka paiva, 
are used in the nominative. Olen joka kerta matkustanut 
meritse, / have several times travelled by sea, Han on minun 
nahnyt harva kerta, he has rarely seen me, Mina ratsastan 
joka paiva, / ride every day. 


I. The genitive in Finnish is used with nouns — 

(i) As the subjective genitive. Alqwistin teokset, the 
works ofAlquist ; kaupungin kadut, the streets of the touon. 

(2) As the objective genitive. Vanhempain rakkaus, love 
for one's parerUs ; jumalan pelko, fear of God, 

(3) As the determinative genitive. Helsing^in kaupunki, 
the town of Helsingfors) kunnon mies, kunnon valkea, a 
good man^ a goodjvre, 

II. Adjectives ending in -inen, which express age, measure, 
character, etc., take the genitive. Vanha, old^ follows the same 
rule. Sen muotoinen, of this kind ; sormen pituinen, of a 
finger's length ; venalaiTOnJLuontoinen, a Russian in character, 
Pullo on kohnen lasin vetoinen, the bottle holds three glasses, 
Susi on koiran nakdinen, a wolf looks like a dog, Miehen 
peukalon pituinen, waimon waakaan korkeuinen (Kal.ii. 115). 
If the word in the genitive is an adjective, numeral, or pro- 




noun, it is written as one word with the word on which it 
d^)end8. Fahankurinen, ill-behaved; hyvantapainen, toeli- 

III. The genitive is also used — 

(i) With certain impersonal verbs, such as taytyy, pitaa, 
tulee, kaskee, sopii, kelpaa, tarvitaee, and with the verb oUa, 
when this latter is used with certain adjectives. MinnTi pitaa 
V / jahtea Tjlkomaane, j must ^0 abroad, Hanen sopii viipya 
taalla. SubjeetisaiiazL tulee olla nominativissa tai parti- 
tivissa, the subject must he in the nominative or jpartitive. 
Farempi mlnun olisi, parempi olisi oUut, better had it been 
for me. Ei hanen ollut vaikea paasta ulos, he had no difflcylty 
in getting out. 


(2) A good many words expressing some state or feeling 
are used with the verb olla, and a genitive of the person who 
feels. Jff^Ti^Ti on janp, Ijam thirsty ; minun on nalka, / am 
hu/ngry ; minun on tarve, / m/ast. Hanen on aika menna, 
it is time for him, to go. Similarly, Bikkaiden on velvolisuus 
antaa koyhille, it is the duty of the rich to give to the poor. 
Sotamiehen on pakko menna vaaraan, it is the duty of a 
soldier to go into danger. In these latter sentences the genitive 
seems quite natural in our idiom, but they are really closely 
analogous to the phrases given above. In the dialect spoken 
about St. Petersburg it is usual to say mlnulla (not miniin) on 
jano, nalka. 

Some of the examples quoted above support the idea {v. p. 24), 
that there is an old dative in Finnish ending in n, which has 
become confused with the genitive. It is hardly possible to 
explain otherwise such expressions as Jumalan kiitos, thank 
God ; Anna minun olla rauhassa, leave me in peace. 

IV. The genitive is used with the infinitives and participles 


to denote the agent. Examples of this use will be found in the 
description of the use of those parts of the yerb (p. 184, ff.). 

This use is also found after caritive adjectives. Miekan 
miehen kaym&tdnta (Kal. xxviii. 257), v/ifU<yu4ihed by the sword 
of man, ■ 

The Internal Cases — Inessive, Elative, and Illative. 

The inessive, elative, and illative are sometimes called the 
interior cases, because they express existence in and motion 
from or to the interior of an object. The adessive, ablative, 
and allative, on the other hand, are called the external cases, 
because they indicate rest on and motion from or into the 
exterior surface of an object. However, this distinction is not 
always kept up in the use of the cases, and the choice of the 
interior or exterior case in a given phrase seems often to be 
regulated by idiom or caprice, rather than by a reference to the 
original meaning. 



I. The proper meaning of this case is existence in an object. 
Mies istmjtavias^^thejnum Farempi kala 

Buussa kuin haava paassa, a fish in the numth is better than a 
wownd in the head. Vane kulkee vedessa, the boat moves in the 
waier. Here the inessive is used, because, though motion is 
indicated, it is motion within a given space, and not to or from 
a given point. 

There is much irregularity as to the use of the exterior and in- 
terior cases of local proper names, (i) Names ending in la always 
take the interior cases for euphony. Uijalassa, not Uij alalia. 
(2) Names of countries not ending in maa^ and foreign names 
generally take the interior cases ; but the word Venl^cl, RtLSsia, 

■ ^ 


is always used in the forms Venajalla, -Ita, -lie. (3) Names 
of countries ending in maa are generally used in the exterior 
cases, but the interior cases are used in speaking of things being 
found in the country. Olin Saksanmaalla, / was in Germany^ 
but Saksamaassa on paJjo sotamiehia, there are many soldiers 
in Germany. But Suomenmaa, Finland^ is always used in the 
interior cases. 

Besides this strict use, the inessive is employed in a variety of 
expressions either metaphorically or in a loose local sense. 
Most of such phrases are quite obvious, and can be rendered in 
English by the preposition ' in.' 

II. It is used to express the time within which anything 
occurs. Viidessa viikosBa^ tn Jive weeks. Valmistuuko tyo 
kahdessa paivassa, finish the work in Pwo days. FietarlBta 
Hatsinaan vol matkustaa puolessa toista tunnissa, one can go 
from Petersburg to Gatchina in an hour and a half. 

III. From expressing the place in which the subject is, it is 
used by a natural transition to express the sulroundings, state, 
or condition of anything. Thus it is employed in speaking of 
the weather. Olin ulkona tuulessa ja sateessa, / wa^ out in 
the wind and rain. Mina ajoln hevosella lumessa ja tuiskussa, 
/ drove in a snow storm. 

Also in a number of metaphorical expressions. Olla eksyk- 
sissa, to he in error; olla hyvassa kunnossa, to he in good 
condition; olla hyvassa turvassa, to he safe; oUa hjrvissa 
voimissa, to he prosperous. Te olette olkeassa ja mlna olen 
vaarassa, you are right and I am wrong. Olen oUut pari tuntia 
kovassa paankivistyksessa, / had a violent headache for a 
couple of hours. Kello on epajaijestyksessa, the watch is out 
of order. Siina tapauksessa, in that case. Kaikki on mieli 
melkeassa, Aj&tukset arvoisessa (Kal. v. 177). 


rV. In a number of expressions the inessive is used where the 
adessive would seem more natural to express close connection 
between two objects, particularly in the case of one thing being 
fixed or hung on another. Eala on ongessa, the fish is on the 
hook. Takki on naulassa, the coat is hwng on the nail. Pita- 
kaa hattu paassa, keep your hat on your head* Hanella ei 
ollut saappaita jalassa, he had no hoots on his feet 

Y. It also expresses the occupation in which one is engaged. 
Foika on tyossa, the hoy is at work. Cf. OUa pidoissa, 
^&Ssa7Tp he at a tanquetor marriage. Notice such idiomatic 
phrases as oU a kala ssa, to he fishing ; oUa heinassa, to he making 
hay ; olla maijassa, to collect herries. It is noticeable that the 
verb kayda, to go to, or freqicent, is generally followed by the 
inessire. Kayda kirkossa, to go to church; kayda katso- 
xnassa, to go to sea. 

VI. It is also used to express that an object is covered or 
soiled with some liquid. ^Kenansa, on veressa, his nose is, 
blee ding. Silmat ovat vesissa, tlis eyes are fvKl of tears} 
Sinun otsas hiessa pitaa sinun sydman leipaa, in the sweat of 
thy face shali thou eat hread. Cf. also the expression Jarvi on 
jaassa, the lake is frozen. 

VII. It is used to express that certain qualities reside in a 
man. Hanessa on jaloutta, he is nohle {nohility is in him). 
Sinussapa jo onkin koko mies, you are a man worth the name. 
£i ole lapsessa heinan niittajata, a child carmot he a haycutt&r. 
Teissa on kuume, you are feverish. 


As the inessive expresses properly rest in something, so the 
elative expresses motion from the interior of something. Many 
of its uses correspond to those of the inessive already described. 





I. The strict literal use is to denote motion firom an interior. 
'X ] Mies lahti tuvasta, ihs Tnan toent out qfJh&Jusd. Jjohi hyppasi 

meresta, the salmon leapt ovJt of the sea, Metsastaja tuli kotia 
metsasta, the huntsmxin came home from the forest. Kaatakaa 
olut pulloBta lasiin, pour the beer out of the bottle into the 

II. In expressing time, the elative is used to denote the 
beginning of a period — that is to say, the period is regarded as 
setting forth from a given date. Faasiaisesta on seitseman 
viikkoa Helluntaihin, from Hasted' to Whitsuntide is seven 
weeks. Eilisesta illasta alkaen, since last night. Me lak- 
simme matkaan aamuata, toe set out in the morning (beginning 
from the morning). En ole nahnyt hanta Joulusta saakka, / 
have not seen him since Christmas, Siita hetkesta, from thai 

III. IV, V, VI. In all such ^pressions as those quoted under 
these headings for the inessive, the elative can be used when 
cessation from an occupation or condition, or purification from 
any defilement is to be expressed. Tulin kotiin tuiskusta ja 
tuulesta, / came horns from the snow and wind. Kadota silmista, 
naksrvista, to disappear from view, Faasta pulasta, to get out 
of difficulties. Polka oti lakin paastansa, the bog took the cap 
off' his head. Fese nenasi veresta, wash the blood off your 
nose, Pyyhl silmasi kynelista, dry your eyes, jarvi lahti 
j&asta, the lake became free of ice. Tulla pels tydn teosta, 
kalasta, to cease working or fishing. 

VIl. The elative is also used by a natural transition to 
express separation or difference from. lynmiTi on vaikea 
paasta virasta vapaakai, it is hard for me to get away from my 
work, Mies ei saa luopua vaimostansa, a man can/not be 
separated from his wife, Iiatin Mali on kokonaan eroavainea 


Suoxnen Idelesta, tht Lettish language is jperfectly different from 

Besides these uses, which are parallel with those of the 
inessive, the elative has a variety of other significations. These 
mostly arise in a quite intelligible manner, from the idea of 
motion from, taken in a metaphorical sense. 

VIII. In many phrases the elative is used almost like the 
partitive, that is to say, it denotes one or more persons or 
things taken or selected from a number. Kuorin veljista, ths 
yov/ngest of the brothers. IJrhoollisin sotilaista, the bravest of 
the warriors. Iiaatokka on suurin Europan jarvista, Ladoga 
is the largest lake in Europe. Ylsai naista vaimoista, one of 
these women. 

There is, however, a slight difference in the meaning of the 
elative and partitive in such expressions, inasmuch as the 
former always implies a certain part of a given quantity which 
is in the mind of the speaker. Thus one says kolme sisarta, 
three sisters, a merely numerical expression. But kolme 
sisaristani means three of my sisters. So naula voita means 
a 2^ound of butter ; but naula voista, a pound of the butter, 
referring to a particular kind or mass of butter. 

IX. From denoting the starting-point, the elative is used to 
express the origin or cause of anything, or tlie material from 
which a thing is made. Kuolla myrkysta^ to die of poison. \ 
Han puhisi vlhasta, Ae snorted from anger. Polka oli kyl- 
masta kontistyneena, the boy was numb with cold. Tyhjasta loi 
Jumala maoilnian, God created the world from Chaos. Hanesta 
ttdi kelpo sotilas, he made a good soldier. El lapsesta laula- , 
jaksi, a child carCt be a singer (proverb). Han on hyvasta 
perheesta, he is of^^od family. Sanasta sana syntyy, 
kypenesta maa kytee, one word gives birth to an/other, and the 
world caiehes fire from a spark. SormuB on tehty kullasta, 




the ring is made of gold, Mtman kuori on kovaata aineesta, 
the shell of an egg is of a hard substance. Venajan valtio on 
kokoonpantu monenlaisiBta kanaalliBuukBiBta, the Russian 
empire is composed of many nationalities. 

In tliis sense it is often used to denote the object, particularly 
with words denoting speaking or some feeling. For instance, 
puhua a8ia8ta,;<o S2)€ak of a thing ^ the thing being regarded as 
the point from which a conversation is started. Kiitoksia kysy- 
mastanne, thanks for yowr question. Siita voitte olla varma, 
you may he sure of it, Mita pidatte Suomen kielesta P How 
do you like Finnish ? En valita kenestakaan, / dont care for 
anybody. Alkaa surko huomisesta paivasta, take no thought 
for the m^yrrow. 

N.B. — There is a curious use of minusta so denote * in my 
opinion, as far as I am concerned.' 

X. Somewhat similar is the use of the elative in expressions 
denoting price. The Finnish idiom is to say nidin kiijaii 
markasta, / sold the hook for a mark ; ostin kiijan markasta, 
/ bought the book for a mark\ and sain markan kiijasta, / 
received a mxirkfor the book. That is to say, *I bought a book from 
a mark,' the price being regarded as the origin of the transaction. 
Mita tahdotte viikossa tasta huoneesta P how much do you 
want per week for this room ? Silma silmasta ja hanunas 
hampaasta, an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. Kaup- 
pamies on mydnyt tavaransa kalliista, the merchant sold his 
goods dea/n. 

XI. The elative is used to express the object in which 
any one is rich or poor. Bikag rahasta^^ijcA in money, that is to 
say, money Js regarded as the cause of the x icbes. Kaivo on 
ty^ja vedesta, the wdl is empty of water. Huoneet olivat 
taydet vaesta, the rooms were full of people. 


XII. The elative is also used in a variety of expressions, in 
which the cause or commencement of an action is emphasized 
hy an idiom different to our own Thus one says, not to seize 
hy the ear, but from the ear, pitaa korvasta ; sidottu kasista 
ja jaloista, &oi£nc^ Immd and foot Damokleen miekka riippui 
hivuskarvasta, the sword of Damocles hung by a hair, and 
metaphorically, saada kiini rikoksesta, to convict of crime. 
Sanasta miesta, sarvesta harkaa (proverb), a man is held hy 
his words and an ox hy the horns. 

By an idiom of the language verbs denoting to find, or seek, 
and also often verbs of seeing and hearing, are followed by an 
elative where we should use an expression implying rest in 
a place. Mista hanen 15ysit P where did you find him ? 
Milloin hyvansa tuli huoneesen, tapasi hanen aina lukemasta, 
whenever one went into the room, one always found him reading. 

The elative comes to be used much as the accusative of 
respect in Latin, to mark the part in which anything is affected. 
Mies on kipea silmistansa, the man is ill from his eyes. Han 
on kdmpeld kasista, he is clumsy with his hands. Baukea 
J£tloista, foot-sore, Koivu on tuuhea latvasta, the hirch has 
spreading branches at the top, Veitsi on terava karesta, the 
knife has a sharp edge. 


The original meaning of the illative is motion into the 
interior of an object, from which it passes into the general 
sense of motion to. Most of its uses are parallel to those of the 
inessive and elative. Menna kouluun, kirkoon, to go to school 
or to chv/rch. Iiahtea Amerikaan, Sipiriaan, to go a journey to 
America, to Siberia. Merimies putosi laivalta veteen, the ; 
sailor feU from the ship into Vie water, ^^ 

It must, however, be noticed that a good many actions are 
regarded as implying motion to, in Finnish, which by our 



idiom are followed by prepositions signifying rest in. Thus one 
says, Hevoset Beisalituiv^at pihaan, the ?iorses stopped in the 
court, Sananlennatin tolpat ovat pystytetyt tien viereen, 
the telegraph wires are' laid along the road. Me perpBtamme 
kouliin kaupunkiiii, we fovnded a school in the toton. 

The most singular instance of this is, that the verbs signifying 
to remain or to leave invariably take this case, or the allative. 
To stay at home is jaada kotiin, the original meaning of the verb 
having apparently been to go to a place and stay there. 
Similarly jattaa, to leave behind, and unhottaa, when it is used 
in the same sense, take the illative. Jatin hattuni teaatteriin, 
/ left my hat in the theatre. Unhotin rahakakkaxoni kotiin, 
/ left my pv/rse at home. 

n. The iUative is used in two ways to denote time. 

A. It denotes the end towards which a period is regarded as 
advancing, and can be translated by wrmi or to. Faasiaiaesta on 
seitseman viikkoa Helluntaihin, it is seven weeks from Easter 
to Whitsimtide. Kuu kiurosta kesaan, it is a month from the 
time when the la/rk sings to summer (proverb). Vielakd on 
pitkalta Jouloon P is it stiU long tid Christmas ? 

It this sense it is often used with the preposition hamaan, or 
the postpositions asti and saakka. Tahan paivaan saakka, 
up till that day ; mydhaan ydhon saakka, till late at night ; 
hamaan viimeiseen paivaan asti, tiU the day of one* s death. 

B. The illative is also used idiomatically to express the space 
of time during which anything has not ta^en place. En ole 
nahnyt hanta kahteen vuoteen, / have not seen hint for two 
years. Eii ole sydnyt kunnolleen kolme^^ii paivaan, / have 
not eaten properly for three days. Ei de ollut nain kaimista 
syksya miesmuistiin, there has not been such a fine OAJti/wmn in 
the numory of man. 


C. It is also used to express the period of time in which an 
action is performed. Ansaitsee viicd ruplaa viikkoonsa, A« 
ecumafioe rovhlea a week. In this use the suffix is nearly always 
added to the case, but the words aikaan, aikoihin, and puoleen 
(in compounds), and seutuun are used in expressing time 
loosely. Siihen aikaan, or nalhin aikoihin, at that time. 
Joulun seutuun, about Christmas time. Talven puoleen, in 
winter time. 

in, rV, V, VI. Like the inessive and elative, the illative is 
used in a variety of metaphorical expressions, when entrance into 
a state or condition is denoted. Joutua ekayksiin, to go into 
erroTy to go ctstray, Tulla toimeen, to get on, manage satis- 
factorily, Ei se kay laatuun, that is impossible, Joutua 
hukkaan, to perish, Ajoi hevosen uuvuksiin, he rode his horse 
tin it was tired. So also it is used in speaking : — 

(i) Of occupations, which are begun. Han meni tyohdn, lie 
went to his work ; and also such expressions as menna kalaan, 
to go fishing ; menna mazjaan, to go berry gathering. 

(2) Of the place on which anything is put. Upseeri pani hat- 
tunsa naulaan, the officer hung his hat on the peg, Veda 
sappaat jalkaan, to put on one's hoots. 

(3) Of liquids. Han 151 nenansa vereen, he gave him a 
bloody nose, Jarvi meni j&ahan, the lake froze, 

Vll. The illative also expresses the use to which anything is 
put, or the purposes for which it is capable of being used. The 
origin of this sense of the case is clearly shown by the deriva- 
tion of the verb to use, kaytt&a, which is the causal form of 
kayda, to go, and means to make a thing go in a certain direction. 
Han kaytti rahansa hyviin tarkoitukedln, he employed his 
nwney for good pa/rposes, Tuhlasi aikansa turhuuteen, he 
wasted his time. So also Han sopii kaikkeen, Ite can do every^ 

L 2 

'/ J 


thing, Ijappalaiset ovat kykenemattamia sotapalvelukBeeii) 
the Laps are not fitted for military service, Mustalainen el 
pysty tydhdn, a gipsy is not a good worker. Han on valmis 
kaikkeen hnlluuteen, he is ready for any foUy, 

YIII. Somewhat similar is the use of the illative to express 
the object or desired goal of an action. Isa^ehoittaapoikaa 
aJikeruuteen, <A6j?ip(A^r e^fifl^ hoy to hedAMgerU. Similarly 
kehoitta iloon, etc. Kasvattakaa lapsenne Jumalan pelkoon 
ja hyviin tapoihin, bring uj) yov/r children to fear God cmd 
behave properly. Mina neuvoin ystavaani karvaUisyyteen, 
malttavaisuuteen, / advised my friend to he patient, or 2^rudefU. 
Kenraali innostutti sotamiehet nrhouteen, the general exhorted 
his soldiers to bravery. 

IX. The illative is further used with verbs expressing feeling, 
chiefly those formed with u or y, the idea being apparently that 
the feeling passes from the subject to the object. For instance, 
olla rakastunut johonkin, to be in love with some one. Cf. the 
Eussian idiom oh-b b^b nee BJao6jeHB. Olen kyllastynyt 
naihin riitoihin, / am weary of these qiuirrels. Siihen voitte 
luottaa, you may be sure of this. Han ei mielistynyt heidan 
neuvoonsa ja tekoonsa, he was not 2^eased with their advice and 
doings. Tyydytko siihen P ao'e you, satisfied with this ? 

X. There is a curious idiom by which in certain phrases the 
illative seems to be used to express the agent or cause of an 
action. Kuolla nalkaan, to die of hunger ; kuolla veteen, to 
be d/rowned. I^ukkui nuoret, nukkui vanhat Wainamdisen 
soitantohon, old and young were thrown into sleep by the songs 
of Wdinmnoinen. Murehisin murtumatta, huolihin katoa- 
znatta (Kal. v. 216-7). 

The idea in these phrases seems to be that the subject of the 
verb passes into the power of whatever is denoted by the 


XI. The illatiYe is also used to express likeness. This is 
qnite natural with such a verb as verrata, to compare, E. g. 
Verrattuna meihin, on han onnellinen, compared to us, he is 
happy. The verb vivahtaa, to be like, also takes this case: 
vivahtaa veljeensa, he is like his brother; but the original 
meaning of the word is apparently physical motion, to glance 
quickly by or into. By a similar idiom the verb tulla, to come, 
with the illative means to resemble. Han tulee isaansa, he is / ^i 
like his father. The use of the simple verb olla, to be, with this ^ 
case to express likeness is however truly singular, and is appa- 
rently to be explained only by analogy. Iiapsi on isaansa, the 
child is like its faiher. It is, however, exactly parallel to 
the Russian expression oH^b Wh OTi|a, Bb MaTB. Cf. Vesa 
kasvaa kantohonsa, the young sproiU grows like the parent 
stem (proverb). 

XI. The illative expresses the limit which a number reaches. 
Xiuku nousi kahteen-sataan, the number reached two hundred, 
Siella oli lapsia viiteenkynuneneen, there were as many as 
fifty children. 

From this use the illative is also used to denote price. Myyda 
halpaan hintaan, to sell cheap ; myyda kaUiisen hintaan, to 
sell dear, Tassa on omenoita kymmeneen kopekkaan, here 
are apples for ten copecks. 

The External Cases — Adessive, Ablative, and 


The external cases correspond in tl^eir general significance 
and employment to the internal cases already described, only 
while these latter denote rest within and motion to or from the 
interior of an object, the former in their strict meaning imply 
rest on and motion to or from the surface of an object. But as 






may be seen by the examples this distinction is not always very 
strictly observed. The external cases have a tendency to denote 
animate objects. 

I. The adessiye primarily denotes the place on which an 

action takes place. Foika istuu lattialla, th» hay sits on the 

floor, Tuskin voin oUa jaloillani, / can hardly startd on 

my legs. Han asuu talla kadulla, he lives in this street, Milla 
. paikoilla P whereabouts ? ^^ksan maaUa kasvaa hjrviaTi^- 
^ rypaleita, in Germcmy good grapes ^row, Kivet laikkui 
y lainehilla, Somerot vesilla souti (Kal. xliv. 261, 2). 

II. The adessive is also used to mark time, when the period 
is not definitely specified by a cardinal number or otherwise. 
Faivalla».i9^^ day, by day ; yolla, by night ; kevaaUa, in 
jT/mn^^J^esalla, ih summer; syksylla, in a/utimi/n; talvella, in 
winter] (but viim^. kesana, last spring, because the time is 
determined by the a^ctive). 

Kalat tarpaavat kesalla, JC^^ bite in sprmq^. AsxOivXiASJii 
varahln, very ea^ly in the morning (Kal. iv. 303). Eysyi tyota 
iltaisella, he asked for the work in the enemmg (Kal. xxxii. 6). 

III. like the inessive the adessive is used in a loose or meta- 
phorical sense to denote the external circumstances under which 
anything takes place. Thus it is used of the weather, ^uivalla 
saalla, in d/ry weather; tuulella, in windy weather. Mina 
palasin kotiin sateella, / retwmed home in the rain. Joka 
tyynella makaa, se tuulella soutaa (proverb), he who sleeps in 
a calm, rows in a wind, 

OUa hereella or valveella, to be awake. On tulolla sade, it 
is going to rain. Olen menolla, / am going. 

And in some cases where according to our ideas the circum- 
stances denoted are distinctly internal, e.g. oUa hyvalla tai 


pahalla xnielella, to he in a good or bad humour, OUa hyv&ll& 
paalla, to feel cowrcigeoua, Cf. Eal. xliv. 269, 270. Ifuoret 
naiset naunisuulla, Emannat ilolla mielin. 

In particular it is thus used with verbal nouns to express that 
an action is being undertaken. Kixjan kaannds on tekeella {or 
tokeilla), ^ tranalation of the hook is heing metde, Kangaa on /^^ -7 
kuteella, the cloth is heing woven, 

IV. By a closely analogous use the adessive signifies the 
occupation in which any one is engaged (cf. the use of the 
inessive in this sense). OUa ongella, nuotalla, to he engaged in 

fishing with a hook or net. 

This use is particularly frequent in the case of games or 
meals. OUa paivaUisella, to he ai dinmj&r ; oUa aamiaisella, to 
he ai breakfast; olla koppiedlla, to he jplaying hall, Ijapset 
ovat puloisiUa, the chUd/ren are ^^laying hide and seek, 

V. The adessive is also used to signify with, near, or in the 
house of (French chez), Poika on meilla, le gar^on est chez 
nous, Hanella on vieraita, he has guests staying with him, 
Vietin kolme paivaa eraaUa ruotsalaiseUa herralla maaUa, / 
spent three days with a Swedish gentlem>an in the country. 

From an extension of this use it comes to denote possession, 
and in combination with the olla replaces the verb to have, 
which does not exist in Finnish. JCinuUa^on Jsirisky I have a { 
hook, Hanella on luiinkolotus, he has the rhetmiatism, Mik& 
este sinuUa oU P what hindered you f 

In this idiom the verb is always in the third person sing., 
even though the substantive is in the nominative plur. Isalla 
on harmaat hiukset, the faJLh&r has white liair, Onko teUla 
saksia P have you a imir of scissors f Hevonen on rengUla, 
the man has the horse, HyvaUa on nimia pajjo, pahalla 
tapcda paljo, good has man/y names and evil mam/g shapes, 
Jumalalla on onnen olijat, IiuqjaUa lykjni avaimet (proverb), 


God has the reins of fortijme, the Creator has the keys of hide, 
Cf. Kal. xliii. 337. Jumalall' on ilman wiitta, Iiuojalla avai- 
met onnen. 

VI. It also denotes the price at which a thing is bought or 
sold. Mina ostin Mijan kahdella markalla, / bought a hook 
for two marks. Kauppamies mdi kaikki tavaransa suurella 
voitolla, the merchant sold all his goods at a great proJU, Ostin 
matot huokeammalla (hinnalla), kuin niiden arvo on, / bought 
these carpets for less than they are worth, 

VII. Besides these various significations which can be deduced 
from the primary meaning of rest on, the adessive has quite 
another use, viz. as an instrumental to denote the means or the 
object by which an action is accomplished. It would seem that 
two originally distinct forms have been confused in the case as it 
at present exists in Finnish, though it might be possible to derive 
this instrumental meaning from the metaphorical uses quoted 
under III. Kain sen omilla sUmillani, / saw it with my oum 
eyes, Oilla paivat jatketaan, virsilla vahat oluet (proverb), 
the days are lengthened by the nights, and a little beer goes fu/rther 
if one sings, Ela koukulla kohenna, karryksella kaannyttele 
(Kal. xxiii. 401-2) — Kansalla karhukin kaadetcutn (proverb). 

VIII. From this use is derived another, signifying the way in 
which an3rthing is done. HolL&fJoiifiiMy, MoneUa tavalla, in 
many ways ; ei millaan tavalla, in no way <xt all. Sen teen 
mielellani, / do it with pleaswre. 


I. The ablative expresses motion from the surface of an3rthing. 
IiapsJLputosi pdydalta, the child fell from the tcMt^ Ei koyha 
korkealta kaadu, luudan paaltk lattialle, the poor can/not have a 
great fall : only as high as a besom from the floor (proverb). 



Korkealta kakko lenti . . . A lilt aalloilta syvilta, Joutsenet 
sulilta soilta, the eagle flew from high, the wUd dv>ck from the 
deep waves, the swans from the watery marshes, 

n. It is also used in various expressions denoting time. 

A. In such sentences as * year after year/ * day after day/ In 
Finnish the first word is put in the nominative and the second 

in the ablative, j'aiva paival tajian tulee kipe ammak si^ day ( -^ ^ 
hy day he gets worse. Myrsky kiihtyy hetki hetkelta, the storm 
grows strongs every hour, Odotan hanta tunti tunnilta, / 
expect him every hour. 

B. In sentences expressing money earned in a given time. 
Han saa kaksituliatta markkaa vuodelta, J^^J^^^y^^ ^y^ 
thousand m/a/rhsa^year, "l^Iaksavat rengiUe viisitoista ruplaa 
ku1lkaudeltc^~l^^lf6r^;a9^^ is paid fifteen ronhles a month. 

C. The time from which any;khing begins. Kaupunki on 
viime vuosisadalta, the house dates from the last centv/ry. 
IN'iinkuin asetus tammikuun viidennelta paivalta maaraa, 
according to the provisions of the decree of January 5. 

Similarly — Kello kuudelta aamulla nousin tydta tekemaan, 
/ hegin to work at (that is, heginmng from) six o'clock in the 
mxyming. Tulee pimea jo kello neljalta, it gets dark at four 

m. It is used analogously to the adessive (No. IV), to express 
cessation from an occupation, game, or meal. Miehet tulivat 
ongelta, the vrien came home from fishing. Tulinune paival- 
liselta, we cams from dinner. Iiapset lakkasivat sokkosilta, 
the children 8top2>ed playing blind mean's huff. 

IV. The ablative denotes motion from a person or from his 
house. Vierahat tulivat teilta, the strangers came from you. 
Falvelija tuli isannalta, the servant cams from his master. 


Gf. Ostin tavaroita kauppamiehelta, / haught some goods ofth 
merchant. So also Mina sain &idilt&iii kiijeen, / received a 
letter from my mother, Kyoyiv&t hanelt&, they asked of him, 

y. From the idea of separation the ablative comes to denote 
the person who loses anything or from whom anything is hidden, 
defended, etc. It becomes in fact very nearly what is called the 
* dativus incommodi ' in Latin Grammar. Jg&ne]Lta^knoli aiti, 
Hsjnother died {died from him). £1 Jumala kiella lapsiltansa 
ilea, God does not forbid joy to his children, Ei tytar salaa 
aidiltansa mitaan, the daughter hides nothing from her mother. 

VI. The cause which prevents an action is put in the 
ablative. Tytto ei p&assyt kotoa astiain pesulta, the maid 
could not leave the house because she had to wash the things. En 
jouda kesaisilta kiirehilta, / cannot corns on account of the 
work that has to be done in swmmer. En voinu t nuhfa ia koiran 
^^y haukunnalta, / could n^t sleep^joof^-accoy^ 

^ VII. The ablative is also used to denote the part or quality 

with respect to which anything is predicated of an object. Han 
on hyva tavoiltansa, he has a good disposition. Munat ovat 
v&rilt&an ja sunruudeltaan erilaisia, eggs are of differerU 
colou/rs and sizes. Foika on ialtaan jo kymmenvuotias, the 
boy is ten years old {in his life). Tyttd on solakka varreltaan, 
the girl has a graceful figure. Ukko on viela kettera jalalta, 
the old man is still quick-footed. Tiinnen hanen nadlta, I know 
him by sight. Mies on Matti nimelta, the man is MaUhew by 

VIII. It is apparently to this use that must be traced such 
c. expressions as maistua hyvalta, karvaalta, to taste good or 

^ hitter. ^ ^ ^-^ " 

Verbs which express the impression made by an object on the 
senses are generally followed by an adjective in the ablative 
describing the nature of the sensation. If it is remembered that 




the distinction between the adjective and substantive is very 
slight, we may explain such a phrase as xiayttaa kauniilta as 
locks with regard to beauty^ that is, hoka beautiful. 

Examples — Han n&yti Saksalaiselta, he looked like a German, 
ISMXa nyt tuntuu P how do you fed now ? ManBikka maistuu 
makealta, stratvberries taste sweet, Se nayttaa luonnollisem- 
malta, U seems more nattMral, 


I. The allative expresses motion on to or into the neighbour- 
hood of an object. Iiapsi putosi lattialle, the child feU on to 
thefJo or. Tahdotteko vieda minun Uudelle Kadulle P will you 
show Tne the way to New Street ? Iiahen Pol\|olan tuville, Iiapin 
lasten tanterille, / go to the dwellings of the North, to the plains 
of the Laplanders, 

II. It expresses also the external circumstances of an action 
when those circumstances are regarded as not already existing, 
but as to be entered on. Koska saatte tydnne alkeille P when 
will yowr work be begun ? Mina panen kankaan kuteille, / p^U 
the stuff' to be woven, 

m. Like the adessive aud ablative it is used of occupations, 
games, or meals, in which one engages, but always with the 
idea of entering on or beginning. Menkaanune ongelle, let us 
go and fish. Emanta on k&akenyt ruoalle, the mistress of the 
house has €utked us to dinner, Olen kutsuttu kahville, / am 
invited to take coffee, Iiapset rupeevat piilosille, the chUd/refn 
begin to play hide and seek. 

IV. From meaning motion into the neighbourhood of an 
object or to the house of anyone (e. g. Meille tuli vieraita, 
guests came to see us), it comes to be used as a dative to express 
the remote object of an action. _Aiti antoi kiijan x>ojaIlen8a, ^ '^ 
the mother gamabook to her son, Jumala on laupias syntisille, 


God 18 merciful to sinners, Olen kiitollinen teille, / am 
obliged to you ; olen ottanut itselleni vapauden, / have taken 
[for myself) the liberty. Minun on mahdoton maarata aikaa 
takaisin tulolleni, / cannot fix the date of my return. 

V. The allative is sometimes, though rarely, used in the way 
described under the ablative IX. lima nayttaa kauniille, the 
weather looks fine. Cf. Kal. xli. 23. Jo kavi ilo ilolle, Biemu 
riemulle remahti, Tuntui soito soitannalle, etc. 


The abessive expresses the absence of anything. 

Joka syytta suuttuu, 

Se lal^atta leppyy, 

He who is angry without a cav^e is reconciled tuithotU a reward 


Joka kuritta kasvaa, 

Se kunniatta kuolee, 

He who grows up without education dies withovi honour (proverb), 

Olkaa huoletta, don*t trouble yourself {be without ca/re). Ela 

suihki sutsunatta,Elakaraami ratsinatta,Sila liiku liinaisetta 

(Kal. xxiii. 215), go not tidthout raimerUy wander not without a 

shirt, stray not without a kerchief. Vanhempien tiedotta, 

\ toithout the knowledge of one's parents. Muitten avutta, without 

^, Jhehelp of others. ^^ 

For emphasis the particle ilman is placed before the abessive. 

nman tau'in tappamatta, 

Ottamatta oivan surman, 

Without being slain by disease or taken by a natwral death 

(Kal. xvi. 178, 9). 

The use of the abessive of the third infinitive is particularly 

frequent, see below, p. 193. 



I. The original use of the essive is locative, but this only 
survives in some adverbial expressions : ulkona, out of doors ; 
kaukana, far ; luona, near ; takana, behind ; kotona, at home ; 
lasna olla, to be jxreaent ; kokonansa, altogether {in its entirety) ; 
keskenanne, keskenanaa, etc., between you, them ; and such ex- 
pressions as olla rannempana, to be near shore ; olla sisempana, 
to be inside, 

II. From this use comes that denoting a definite period of 
time during which something happens; tanapana, to-day, 
huomenna, to-m^nrow ; Maanantaina, Tiistaina, etc., on Mon- 
day, Tuesday y etc. En ole maannut kolmena viimeisena yona, 
/ have not slejyt there the last three nights. Ihniiset kayvat 
pyhana kirkossa, people go to church on a Saint* s day, Eip' 
on toiste ttOlutkana, Ei toiste sina ikana, She never came again j 
Never again in this life (Kal. v. 138). Jopaivana muutamana, 
huomenna moniahana (Kal. v. 53). 

III. From a metaphorical use of this local meaning the essive 
comes to denote the character or state in which the subject of a 
sentence is. It is used thus — 

(i) As the predicate. Isani on pappina, my father is a 


Taivas kdyhan kattona, 
Maantie permantona (proverb), 

27ie sky is the roof of the poor man cmd the high road his floor, 

Mika on asiana P wha£s the m^atter ? 
(2) As the appositional case. 

Minka nuorena oppii 

Sen vanhana muistaa (proverb), 

What one learns young one remembers when old, IM'uoma vitsa 

vaannettava, one should bend the bough while it*s yowny 

(proverb). Foikana mina en tuntenut hanta, as a boy I never 

knew him. 



I. The originaal meaning of the translative, like that of the 
illative and allative, seems to be motion to ; but this only sur- 
vives in a few adverbs. Ulos, otU of doors (* foras ') ; luoksi or 
luo', to; taakse or taa', haektoarda; elBemmaked, vnwa/rde; 
rannemmaksi, nearer shore, 

II. In a temporal sense the translative is used to express the 
time in which a thing is to he (not was) accomplished. Poika 
rupesi palvelukseen vuodeksi, the hoy entered service for a 
year, Han jai meille ydksi, he stayed with us for the night 
(the event, though in the past, is regarded from the point of view 
when it was future). 

It also expresses a limit of time : t&m& kiija valmistuu Jou- 
luksi, the hook will he ready hy Christmas, Voinko saada ne 
'l^ ensi maaxLantaiksi P can I have them hy n^tj£an§a^ ? 

It is also used to express place in numerical order. Ensiksi, 
first, in the first place ; toiseksi, in the second place, 

III. The' most frequent signification of the translative is 
metaphorical, viz. the state into which anyone or anything 
passes. It can be used thus after transitive and intransitive 
verbs. Tulla kdyhaksi, to hecome poor, ILma ei muutu selke- 
aksi, the weather does not hecome clearer, Ne tulevat valmiiksi, 
they will he ready, Myrsky kay raivoisaksi, the storm grows 
high, Emanta leipoi jauhot leiviksi, the housewife haked the 
flowr into hread, Itse tuon sanoiksi virkkoi, (frequent phrase 

in Kalevala), himsdf thus ptU this into words. Ka npimk i 
paloi tuhaksi, jf^ town was htMrntJa^joshes. 

It Ts also used as a complement after verbs of naming, 
calling, considering, perceiving, etc. {v, p. 201), the idea being 
that in consequence of the action of such verbs the object passes 
into a new state. Eutsutte minun mestariksi Ja Herraksi, ye 
caU m>e m>aster and Lord, Nakivat hanen kuolleeksi, they saw 




he was dead. iLlk&& paliaksi panko, d(yn!t take it amiss, 
Tiinnen itseni hsrvin sairaaksi, I fed very Hi, The verb pitaa 
is peculiar in always taking the essive, and not translative, after 
it. E. g. Pitaa jotakin hapeana, to think a thing a shame, 

lY. It also expresses the purpose or use for which anything 
serves. H&n kelpaa opettcjaksi, he is Jit for a schoolm>aster, 
HUta, vein tehda palveXukseksenne P whai cam, I do for you ( for 
yowr service) 9 Olkoon tama teille opiksi, let this be a lesson to 
you, Thtid lasten suojelemiseksi, a society for protecting 
children. Juon v iinia terveydekseni, I drink wine for * my 
healthy Juoda onneksi, to dfwJc to some one's health. 

By an extension of this use the translative is used almost like 
the essive (cf. the dative of the complement in Latin). 8e on 
hanelle hapeaksi, he ought to be asTumied of it {it is for a shame 
to him). Compare also miksi P why ? 

The translative can be used idiomatically in such phrases as 
He sjpeaks Finnish well for a foreigner, or considering that he is 
a foreigner, han puhuu suomea hyvin ulkomaalaiseksi. So 
too, Iiaiva on purreksi hyva kulkemaan, the ship goes uxill/or 
a sailing-boat. Polka on liian viisas ikaiaeksensa, the boy is 
very clever for his age. A good example of this use is found in 
Kal. V. 63 ff. Sileahk' on siikaseksi, Euleahka kupjaseksi, 
Evat5in emakalaksi, Ihala imehnoksiki, Paa-rivatoin neito- 
seksi, Vyotoin veen on tyttoseksi, Eorvitoin kotikanaksi. 

VI. This use is analogous to the adverbial use of the trans- 
lative, which is frequent. For instance, pahaksi (or kovaksi), 
hyvaksi onneksi, fortunately, unfortunately. Osaksi, partly. 
XHaa herroiksi, to live en gra/nd seign/eur. 

With this may be compared its use to express the language 
in which anything is written. Kiija on kaannetty suomeksi, 
the book is 1/ransloUed_in Fiamish, So Saksaksi, in Germmi ; 
Kuotsiksi, in Swedish; Venl^aksi, in Russian. 


-^:€^ , 





I. The comitative is used to express the person in whose com- 
pany, or the object in connection with which an action takes 
place. It is always used in spoken Finnish in the plural, even 
if only one person or object is referred to, but in the old 
language and in printed books the singular is sometimes found. 
It nearly always takes a pronominal affix. Mies meni pots 
YedmoinenBa^ the man w&nl away with^i£iAi&ifa. Vetivat 
verkon kaloinensa, they drew in the net with the fish, Otti 
lapsen aitinensa, he took the child with its mother. Kesa on 
tiillut ihanine ilmoinensa, the simhmer is come with beautiful 
toeather, Sata miesta miekkoinensa, a hvmdred men with their 
swords (Kal. xi. lOo). 

When the comitative is combined with an attribute, the latter 
frequently ends in n, not ne. For instance, jarvet saoin 
saarinensa, lakes with a hundred islands (Kal. xxiy. 459). Ei^ 
hanen sovi ttilla tanne tuhmin tapoinensa^ he ought not to come 
here with his foolish ways* Ala tule sisaan likaisin jalkoinesi, 
doWt come in with yowr dirty feet. 

Copious examples of this case will be found in Kalevala, xxiv. 
444-462. Jaa nyt pirtti terveheksi, Pirtti lautakattonesi, 


I. The instructive is used to express the instrument or the 
manner in which an action is performed. The instructive of sub- 
stantives is chiefly used of parts of the body and in modem 
Finnish always in the plural. Faljain jaloin, with hare legs, 
barelegged, Poika meni ulkos paljain pain, the boy went ovi 
, , bareheaded, Omin kasin, with one's own hands ; omin silmin, 

} ' '' with one*s own eyes. Bistissa kasin, with^h ands crossed . 
TCalkkl huonekalut ovat sikin sokiny aU the fwmitwre is 


topsy-turvy. Kulkea jalan, to ge on f cot. AUa pain, with (me'M 
hanging down (KaL. iii. 501 and foUowing lines). On meiUii 
Yalta omin luvin tuUa huonoMenne, toe have authority to 
come into yowr roam without asking have. Kahdon ynxia> both 
together ; yksin miolin, with one aoeord ; yksin lyntyi W&ina- 
moineny Wdindmoinen was horn alone. 

It is noticeable that generally when this case is used, either a 
noun with an adjective is foond or two nouns both in the instruo- 
tive. Thus one can say kissa repi OTea kyn^bi hampain, 
whereas if only one word were used it would be better to use 
kynsilla or hampaiUa. 

The instructive rarely takes pronominal suflixes. Kal. ix. 
507, 509, En liiku omin lihoini . . . En vailsy omin vakini. 

II. The instructive of adjectives is frequently used adverbi- 
ally to express manner. 

(i) The instructive singular of an adjective is used adverbially 
to qualify another adjective or adverb in the positive. Tavat- 
toman kaunis, exceedingly beaiUiful; kauhean ruma, horribly 
ugly ; hyvinhyira, vefry good ; tama yd oli hirvean pitka, the 
night was terribly long. 

(2) The instrumental ^u/ral of adjectives in the comparative 
or superlative is used to define verbs. Puhu nopeammin, 
»peak quicker; aurinko paistaa k1rkkaa.mTniTT, th£ suri shines 


m. The instructive plural is also used in a temporal sense, 
and denotes an indefinite or recurring period of time. Thus 
linnut laulavat illoin, aamuin, the birds sing in the morning, 
m the evening (whereas if a definite morning or evening is meant 
tiie essive must be used). In this sense the termination Bin is 
often used, which is really the instructive phiral of an adjective 
with a nominative nen formed from the noun. Thus ma 





^yyjH alamme tyon aamuisin kello Icalidftlrgftgtta., ^yy, higja to work at 
eight in tJiemofnvnJ^, Utaisin rupeaxnine aikaiseminin maata, 
we go to bed earlier in the evening. Han tekee talvisin kaup- 
pamatkoja, he makes business jowmeys in the winter. Onko 
teilla tapa valvoa disin P are you in the habit of not sleeping at 
night ? 

This same ending is added to substantives in a sense some- 
what analogous to the prolative. Mina menen rautateisin, / 
go by rail. Sotavaki matkusti osaksi maisin osaksi merisln, 
the troops travelled partly by land, partly by sea. 


This case is rarely used, and in fact has no sense when 
formed from any but substantives expressing some kind of 
local position. It expresses motion by or over anything, and 
is chiefly employed in adverbial expressions, and generally in 
i the plural. ^Culla^eritse tai maitee, to come by ^a or lan d. 

Jarven ranatse, along the shore of the lake, STlemen nenitse, 
rownd the promontory. Aalloitse, by sea, Mina kylvan kyy- 
hattelen Iiuojan sormien lomitse, / sow by the finger of God 
(lit. through the interval of the fingers). Kal. ii. 297 (Mehi- 
lainen lent!) Otavaisten olkapaitse, Seitsentahtyen selitse, 
{the bee flew) over the shoulder of the great bear, over the back of 
the seven stars. 


Most of the peculiarities of the Finnish Adjective have been 
already noticed. The various rules for its concord with a 
substantive have been given on p. 128 f., and rules for the cases 
used after comparatives and superlatives on pp. 1 36 & 1 43. With 



reference, however, to this latter subject, it may be as well to 
recapitulate the rules. 

Comparative, After an adjective in the comparative can 
be used : — 

I. The word kuin, followed by the substantive in the proper 
case. Oletkos sina suurempi l[uin meid&n is&mme Abraham ? 
art thou greater than our father Abraham ? 

H. Or else the word kuin is omitted and the substantive is 
put in the partitive. The sentence quoted above from the 
Bible might have been equally well written — Oletkos sina 
suurempi meidan isaamme Abrahamia P 

III. Such expressions as 'it is better to/ and the like, are 
rendered by parempi on (or olisi), with the first infinitive. 
Farempi on noyrana olla, it is better to be humble. 

The superlative can be used either absolutely, or with some 
word depending on it in such phrases as * the greatest of kings! 
Such a word is put either in the partitive or in the elative, 
with very little difference in the meaning. The elative, how- 
ever, implies reference to a more definite class than the partitive. 
Suurin kuninkaita is greaUst oj Tdngs ; but suurin kunin- 
kaista, the greatest of the kings. 

Not only are adjectives and substantives declined in exactly 
the same manner, but the distinction between them is very 
slight. The same form is sometimes used both as a noun and an 
adjective .e. g. lysti, ikava, or adjectives are used in cases which 
seem to imply that they have a substantival meaning; Olla 
liuassa, to be firm; olla kylmilla, to be cold. Some substantives 
can be compared, as if they were adjectives. Bannempi, nearer 
sTiore, mielellaniniin, more agreeably ; so too syijempi (syija), 
taivempana, kevaampana, popular expressions for later in 
winter or spring, Mina jatan illemmaksi, / have it till later 
in the evening, 

M 2 



Personal Fronouna. 

The personal pronouns are always employed when there 
is any emphasis on them in English ; otherwise, they are mostly 
omitted, the termination of the verb indicating the person with 
sufficient clearness. Thus one says, Mina olen sen tehnyt, et 
sina, / did it, not you ; but Tahtoisin l&hte& huomenna, jos 
ette pane vastaan, / should like to leave to-morrow if you have 
no objection. 

If the subject of both a principal and subordinate sentence is 
a pronoun of the first or second person, it is always omitted in 
the subordinate sentence. Ottakaa niit& tahdotte, take what 
you like, H&n sanoi ettei tiume tata mieBUk, he said he did 
not know the man, 

Sina and Te are used with much the same distinction as ^u 
and @ie in German, that is to say, the plural is used out of 
politeness when speaking with anyone but inferiors or intimate 

, Possessive Pronouns, 

There are no pronominal adjectives in Finnish corresponding 
to my, thy, etc. There place is supplied (a) by the genitive of 
the personal pronoun, (6) more frequently by the pronominal 

When the possessive pronoun is emphatic, both the genitive 
and the affix are used, and in the Bible this construction is 
frequent, even when there is no particular emphasis. As a rule, 
however, the affix alone is sufficient in the ist and 2nd persons. 

The affix of the 3rd person, however, is used alone only when 
it refers to the subject of the principal verb ; for instance, Han 
ei nahnyt vaimoansa, he has not seen his wife; but Sttekd 


nahneet hanen vaimoanBa P have you not seen his wife ? Simi- 
larly, He has not seen his (another person's) toife must be 
rendered, Han ei nahnyt hanen vaimoansa. 

Such a sentence as that is rrdne is rendered by 8e on 
minun. Ei miniin oppini ole minun, my doctrine is not 

It is I is rendered by mina olen. 

The affixes ni, si, nsa, etc. have a simple possessive sense 
when added to nouns, but they are added to a variety of other 
words under circumstances which render it impossible to trans- 
late them by the possessive pronoun in English. It would 
appear that they simply denote that the pronoun which they 
represent is to be taken in connection with the word to which 
they are added. When the two ideas of House and I are taken 
together this naturally means * my house,' but other combinations 
have to be rendered in a different manner. 

I. In old Finnish, particularly in the Bible, they are added to 
the cases of the personal pronouns for emphasis. Tutkikaat 
raamatuita, silla niissa te luulette teillenne jjankaikMsen 
elaman olevan, search the Scriptures for in them ye think ye 
have eternal life (S. John v. 39). Puhnkaan itse hanestansa, 
let him speak for himself {S, John ix. 21). Etta te rakastaisitte 
teitanne keskenanne, that ye might love one another (S. John 
xiii. 34). This use is found chiefly in the western dialect of 

II. They are similarly added to various adjectives. En mina 
ole yksinani, / am not alone. Cf. the use of hyvansa with 
pronouns. Similarly in such phrases as rakastakaa toinen 
toistanne, etc. {vide p. 171). Olkoon sinansa, let it be; oUa 
BemmoiBenansa, to he like it or him; jattaii tyo siksensa, to 
leave one's work as it is. Han on suorastansa hullu, he is a 
perfect fool. Qi. mieleiseni, agreeable to me. 


in. They are very commonly added to postpositions (yide p. 
203 ff.), or to adverbs (which however are mostly cases of nouns 
or adjectives). Ainoastansa, kokonansa ; yhtenaan, yleensa. 

IV. They are also added to infinitives and participles in 
many constructions {yide pp. 184-200). 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

The demonstrative pronouns are as follows : — 
Tama, thia^ is used of both persons and things. IM'ania talot 
ovat mlnun, these houses are mine, Talla mlehella ei ole 
rahaa, this man has w> money, Tud, that^ is also used of both 
persons and things. Tuo tyttd on kaunis, thai girl is good- 
looking. Tug ei ole oikein, that is not correct. 

Be is used of the third person if anything but a human being 
is spoken of. Missa on koira P Se ei ole huoneessa^ where is the 
dog ? He^s not in the room. Ke kalat ovat pienet, these fish 
are small, Mita pidatte siita, what do you think of it? 
In popular language and in the Kalevala it is also used as the 
equivalent of han. Se puhuu totta, he speaks the truth, Se 
mies joka paikkansa pitaa (proverb), he is a man who keeps 
his place. It is also used adjectively to emphasize a word, and 
often corresponds to our article. Se koira vinkasi johon 
kalikka kavi, the dog who is hit howls (proverb). 

Reflexive Pronouns, 

The reflexive pronoun in Finnish is supplied by the oblique 
cases of Itae, self^ always with the addition of the proper 
possessive affix. The genitive, however, is rarely used, and only 
with prepositions. Ostin itselleni hatun, / bought myself a 
hat, Itsestansa paha pappi saamaa (proverb), a had priest 
preaches about himself, Tunne itsecd, know thyself, Auta 
itseasi ja jumala ainiia auttaa, A«Z/> yoursdfand God vnU help 
you. Vide below (p. 170) for other uses of this word itse. 


The genitive of the reflexive pronoun is supplied by the 
adjective oma, ovm, corresponding to the Kussian CBoft. The 
noun qualified by this adjective takes the proper pronominal 
«ffix. Mina otin Oman osani, ja han ei sinun osaacd ottanut 
Taan oman osansa, / took my share, and he did not take you/r 
share, Imt his own share. Oma has not always the reflexive 
meaning, but is used simply for emphasis as * my own,' etc. in 
English. Tama on minun oma taloni, this is my own cottage, 
Omat on virret oppimani, omat saamani sanaiset. It is also 
used without reference to a definite subject to mean * one's own.' 

Omat maat makuisimmat 
Omat metsat mieluisimmat. 

One^s own lands are m^ore pleasant and one's otvn forests 
sweeter (than those of others). 

Interrogative Pronouns, - 

(i) Enka is a substantive. The nominative singular and 
plural means who ? and is only used of persons. The re- 
maining cases kussa, kusta, knhnn or kiinne, kuin, kun, etc., 
are mostly used as particles. Enka luulisi hanta niin 
viekkaaksi P Who would have thought him so clever ? Eutka 
tuolta tulevat P Who come from there ? 

(2) Een is identical in meaning with kuka, being also a 
substantive and only used of persons. The nominative is rarely 
used, but the oblique cases supply those of kuka. Eenen 
kiija tama on P Whose book is this ? Eenellahan olisi 
rahaa P Who is likely to have any money ? 

(3) Mika has two uses : (i) when applied to persons it is 
always used adjectively. Mika mies tuo onP what man is 
that ? Mi sina olet miehiasi P (Kal. ii. 134.) what mmmer of 
man art thou 9 (2) When applied to things it can be used 
either adjectively or substantively. It will be noticed that this 


is exactly dmilar to the use of what in English. Mika on 
nimesif vJuU is your name? Mita makaoitteP what did 
you ponj 9 Mill& kadnlla aautte P toktU street do you live in f 
(4) Euxniii is either a substantiTe or an adjectiye, and means 
toMeh of two. Kumpi teistft (or teita) tnlee P Which of you 
is coming § Kompaa viinia paxesnjoain. rakastatte, punaistako 
vain valkoista P Whieh wine do you prefw, red or white f 
Han eaapui Turkaun, joaaa kaupnngiBBa Tiipyi kaksi viikkoa, 

he arrived at Abo, in which town he remained two weeks, 

BeUUive PronowM. 

Joka, who or which, is a substantive, and sometimes an adjec- 
tive. Joka myllyyn menee se tomuun tulee, he who goes to 
the mill gets dusty (proverb). Polka, jolle annoitte kiijan, on 
veUeni, the boy to whom you gave the book is my brother. 

Jompi, which hf two, is not frequently used : Ota naista 
kiijoista jomman tahdot, take which of these books you like. 
Fata kattilata soimaa : musta kylki kummallakin, the pot 
abuses the kettle ; bvJt both are black, Kuka, kumpi, and mika, 
are also used as relatives. Sn tieda kuka se on, / do not know 
what is, Jos tietaisin mita tahdotto, niin antaisin, if I knew 
what you wanted I would give it you. N.B. The word kuin, 
meaning as, is sometimes used as a relative pronoun. 

Indefinite Pronowas. 

I. One kind of indefinite pronoun is formed by the union of the 
relative and interrogative in their shortened form. Joku, some 
one, some one or other ; jompikumpi, (me or other of two, Joku 
kolkuttaa, some one is kiwcking, Tuli Joitakuita miehia, some 
men cams. Sano Jommalle kummalle, tell one or other of them, 

II. The relative and interrogative pronouns when combined 
with the suffix kin-^jokin, kukin, mikin, kumpikin or kum* 


Xiainenldii — are used as indefinite pronouns in affirmative sen- 
tences. The same pronouns combined with kaan — ^kukaan, 
TcftTilcftaTi, mik&an, kiunpikaan — are used only in negative 
phrases or dubitstive questions, and then mean, no one, ncme^ 
nothing y and neUher. Menkodn jokin hanen jalkeen, let some 
one go after Mm, Ei kukaan tieda mihin han meni, no one 
hrbowa where he went, Oletteko kuulleet Jotakin uutta P have 
you heard something new ? En mitakaan, nothing. £i johtunut 
kenenk&aiL^l^^jL, no one rfmjwph^rpA (it came into nobody's 
mind), Kelpaako n&ista kompikaan P wiU either 0/ these do $ 
Under many circumstances the interogative and relative pro- 
nouns are used as indefinite. 

(i) In sentences meaning 'some do one thing, some another/ 
Cf. the use of kto in Eussian. Mik& itkee, mika nauraa, one 
toeeps and another laughs, Euka uskoo, kuka ei, some believe, 
and some don't, Keta ndlatt&&, keta janottaa, one is hungry, 
and a/M)ther thirsty. 

(2) When two interrogatives or relatives are combined together 
and one takes the suffix kin in such expressions as vieraita tuli 
knika mlntakin, strangers com^ some from one side some from 
another (Lat. alii alitmde), Haastelivat Tninkan Tnit<i.TriTi^ they 
talked of different subjects, Tekivat tuttavuutta kuka kunkin 
k, they Tnade acqumntances one with arwther. 

(3) Interrogatives and relatives are turned into indefinite pro- 
nouns by the addition of the words hyvansa, tahtonsa, tahansa, 
ikanansa, ikina, corresponding to the Latin, ctmique, libet, vis, 
and such English expressions as who you like, who you wUl, 
or ever. Sen taitaa kuka hyvansa tehda, anyone can do 
that ; missa ik&nansa olette, wherever you are ; tulkoon kuka 
tahtonsa or tahansa, whoever comes ; kuka ikina sen loytaa, 
whoever finds it. 



(4) The use of the simple interrogatiye for the indefinite pro^ 
noun is peculiarly frequent in phrases beginning with vaikka. 
Tulkoon vaikka kuka, cofns who may. Maksoi vaikka mita, 
whatever it cost. Oli han waikka kuka, whoe/ver he may he. Cf. 
vaikka koska^ whenever ; vaikka missa, wherever. 

Various Pronominal Adjectives, 

I. Eras, muutama and muudan or muuan, all mean some^ 
a certain, Eraana aamuna, one morning, Muutamia 
mi^hia astui huoneesen, several men came into the room. 
Oli kerran muudan ukko, there was once an old man, 

II. Itse. This word, which means self, is used as a reflex- 
ive pronoun, as described above, p. 166. It is also used simply 
for emphasis. Mina itse, I myself; han on itse hjrvyys, he is 
goodness' itself. When itse is used with a substantive it can 
either precede, in which case it is not declined and takes no 
pronominal suffix, or else follow, in which case it is put in the 
same case as the substantive and has a suffix. Itse asiassa se 
ei mitaan tee, as a matt&r of fact that makes no difference. 
Euulin kerran ukon itsensS puhuvan, I once heard the eld 
man himself say. 

When itse is used with postpositions it often remains un- 
changed while the postposition takes the pronominal suffix. 
Itse puolestani olen tyytyvainen, for my part I am content, 
Han on itse kauttansa rikastunut, he has grown rich by his 
own exertions {through himself). En siita huolisi itse tahteni, 
I shotdd not trouble about it on my oum account, 

III. Kalkki, aU, every, is the Latin orrmis, Eoko, aU or the 
whole, is totus. This latter word is properly a substantive 
meaning collection, and it is not declined when used as an 
adjective. Eaikki is declined, but its accusative singular is 


either kaikki or kaiken. The nominative and accusative plural 
are also generally kaikki, but kaiket is used in the sense of 
koko. N.6. Han on minulle kaikki kaikessa, he is all in all 
to me. 

lY. Moni is generally used in the singular, moni mies, 
many a man. When it is used as the subject of a sentence, the 
partitive monta is generally employed. Monta miesta, monta 
mielta, m>any m>en, many opinions (proverb). 

The plural monet has generally the sense of various. Monet 
venajan kansat elavat kalastuksella, many races in Russia 
live hy fishing. 

V. The word toinen, another or second^ is used with the 
pronominal suffixes as a reciprocal pronoun. In this case 
either the oblique case may be used alone with the suffix, or 
the nominative, without the suffix be added. He rakastavat 
toisiansa, they love one another^ or He rakastavat toinen toi-^ 

Muu means other or another, whereas toinen usually 
means the other, or at any rate refers to a definite person. Thus 
Ifaista miehesta toinen on venalainen, toinen saksalainen, 
one of these men is a Russian, the other a German, Be ei ole 
kukaan muu kuin kuningas itse, this is no other than the king 
him^f. Ovatko toiset tulleet P are the others com>e ? Onko 
ketaan muita tiillut ? Has anyone else come ? 

The adverbial forms muualla, muualta, muualle seem de- 
rived from a stem muuka, which is not found in the nominative. 
Miehet ovat muualta ttOleet, the men have come from another 

YI. The indeclinable adjective joka has much the same 
meaning as jokainen, namely each or every. Joka vuosi, every 

^ Cf. kaikkialla, toisialla, kuusialla. Some consider these forms as 
compounds of the pronominal stem with the word ala, so that muualla 
stands for muu + ala + Ua. 


year, 8e nahda&n joka aika, that is always seen, Annoin 
rahaa joka miehelle, / gave every man eome money, Joka 
toinen, kolmas, neljas, etc., every second^ thirdy fpurth, etc 
Joka toisena paivana, every other day. 


The use of the numhers presents some peculiarities. 

A. Yksi, 07U, is an adjective which agrees with the suh- 
stantive it qualifies. Han aina puhuu yhta asiaa, he always 
talks on one svhject, Olla yhdessa neuvossa, to he concerned in 
a plan, 

B. The other numhers require that the word they qualify 
should he in the partitive singular, if the nwmber is in the 
nominative. Under these circumstances the verh is the singular. 
Kolme poikaa on talossa, three hoys are in the Jiouse, Viisi 
tuhatta mioBta, 5000 m/en, Seitseman kalaa, seven fishes. 

But with words that have no singular, hoth the numeral and 
suhstantive are put in the nominative. Yhdet, kahdet haat, 
one, two marriages, Vildet sakset, fAje pairs of scissors, 
Kahdeksat sukat, eight pairs of stockings. 

C. If the numeral is in an oblique case, then the substantive 
is put in the same case also, hiU in the singular. Viidelle pojalle, 
to five hoys, Kolmelle kymmenelle miehelle, to thirty-six 

But in the Kalevala, one finds such expressions as Idyti 
kuiLsia jyvia, Seitsemia siemenia. 

D. If the number and substantive have a pronoun or adjec- 
tive agreeing with them, this latter is put in the plural and in 
the same case as the number. But the substantive obeys the 
preceding rules. If the attribute is in the nominative plural. 


the verb is also in the plural. XST&mat viisi poikaa tuliTat 
kotia, these five hoys come home, Anna lelpaa naiUe viidelle 
pojalle, give some bread to these fi^^e hoys, 

N.6. In all the numbers except yksi the accusative is the 
same as the nominative. ISTain kaksi miesta, / saw two men. 
Ampul viisi lintyja ; he shot five birds; but ISTain yhden miehen, 
/ saw fine man, 

Exfpression of a date. 

I. To express the year the word Tuosi is employed, and 
a cardinal number after it. If vuosi is used in the local or in 
the essive case this number is not inflected. Vuonna tuhatta 
(or tuhat) kahdeksan sataa kahdeksankymmenta yhdeksan, 
in the year 1889. 

But if the genitive of vuosi is used, then the number is also 
put in the genitive. Vuoden tuhatta kahdeksan sataa 
kahdeksankynunent& viiden sate, the harvest of 1885. 

II. The day of the month is expressed in two ways. 

(i) First comes the name of the month in the genitive, then 
an ordinal number in the essive, and the word paivana. Maalis- 
kuun kolmantena paivana, March 3. 

(2) Or the numeral and paivana come first, and are 
followed by the name of the month in the partitive. Kolman- 
tena pilivana Maaliskuuta. 

III. The hour expressed by he word kello, which remains 
under all circumstances invariable, followed by a cardinal 
numeral which can be inflected. Kello on kuiisi, it is six 
o'clock. ITousen kello neljalta, I get v^ at five o^clodc 

The half hours are expressed in much the same way as in 
Qerman or Russian. Hdifjpast fawt, puoli viisi ; half 'past five^ 
puoli kuusi ; half 'past six, puoli aeitseman, etc. A quarter pa8t 


five is expressed by se on neUanneksen yli viisi {five plus 
a quarter)^ and a quarter to six by se on i^eljanneBta vailla 
kuuai (six fninus a quarter). 

The naiuQ9 of the days of the week and months are as 
follows : — 

Sunday Sunnuntai. 

Monday Maanantai. 

Tuesday Tiistai. 

Wednesday Keskiviikko. 

Thursday Torstai. 

Friday Feijantai. 

Saturday Iiauantai. 


























The moods and tenses of the Finite verb in Finnish are very 

The present and imperfect with the compound tenses called 
perfect and pluperfect form the entire indicative mood« 

THE VERB. 175 

I. The present indicates — 

(i) An habitual action, or on action which is going on at the 
present time. Joka paiva han lukee sanomalehden alusta 
loppuun saakka, efvery day he reads the newspaper through from 
one end to the other, Mihin menette P Menemme metsaan, 
where are you going ? we are going to the wood. When it is 
desired to emphasise the fact that some one is engaged in an 
action at the present time, such phrases as he ovat kalastamas- 
6a, they are fishing, may be used (1;. p. 191). 

(2) A future action, as we say ' he comes to-morrow.' Some 
distinction is made between these two uses by the fact that 
while a verb representing an action as going on always takes an 
object in the partitive, a verb which represents an action as to 
be completed in the future takes an object in the genitive. 
Kiijoitan kiijetta, / am writing a letter ; huomenna kiijoitan 
kiijeen, / shall write a letter to-m^orrow. Kun saan tietaa missa 
asuu, niin menen hanen luo, when I know where he lives I 
shaM go and see him. 

(3) In a few expressions the present indicative is used in a 
concessive sense. Maksaa mita maksaa, cost what it may. 
Banc xuita sanot, say what you wiU. 

n. The imperfect is used in two senses :— 

(i) It denotes an action in past time, either habitual or 
isolated, either continuous or momentary; it thus corresponds 
to several past tenses in other languages. Seuraavana paivana 
tuli nuori rouva aamiais-pdytaan, kun muut olivat lopetta- 
neet, next day the yowng lady came down to breakfast when the 
rest had fimished. Tapasitko sisartaniP did you Tneet my 
sister ? JBn taTaxmut, / did not m>eet her. Joka paiva lahti 
han kavelemaan paakadulle, every day he took a walk in the 
principal street. Iiohi loimahti merehen, the salmon jumped 


into the sea. Itki ydta kaksi kdme, he wept two or three 

(2) It is also used like the present in a eoncessire sense, but 
much more frequently than that tense. KaTi miten kavi, asiaan 
on ryhtyttava, corne what may^ the business tn/uat be begun. Oil 
kumpi hyvansa, whichever of the ttoo it is. Cf. such expres- 
sions as kuka niita kaikkia xntiistiP Iiempo niita yxnmarsi. 

It is noticeable that in the narrative porticms of the Kalevala 
tmd other poems the present and imperfect are used almost ist* 
differently {v. extracts at end of book). Perhaps the sound of 
the terminations pi and vi, which, like the imperfect, end in 
i, made the confusion easier. 

III. The perfect corresponds pretty nearly to the tense formed 
with the auxiliary have in English. Olemme maanneet 
v&han aikaa niin lahdemme jarvelle koko ydksi, toe have 
slept a little and are going out on the lake for the whole night. 
Oletteko ennen kuttlleet sita laulua P have you heard that song 
before ? En ole nahnyt hanta moneen aikaan, / have not seen 
him for a long time. 

IV. The pluperfect expresses an action finished in past time, 
and may be rendered by had in English. Kun h&n sen 
sanonut oli, meni han taas ulos, when he had said this he toent 
out again. Oliko han ehka saanut tiedon asiasta P had he by 
any chance heard of the m,atter ? 

It will be observed that there is no real future tense in Fin- 
nish. Its want is supplied in several ways. 

A. By the present tense as described above. 

B. By a periphrastic conjugation consisting of Hie present par« 
ticiple and the present or imperfect of ollii. This corresp<^di 
to the Russian future with 6y^, and denotes a future actioii 
the time of which is not specified. Bmienkuin pftivat tulervt 

THE VERB. 177 

koskas olet sanova . . . , htfort the days come in which thou 
shalt say . . . (Eccl. xii. i). Han on vapahtava kansansa 
heidan synneistansa, He shall save His people from their sins, 

C. By the concessive. This tense is frequently used to imply 
something probable or doubtful in the future. Ostanevat 
kaupungista kiijat ja tuonevat ne jo huomenna kotia, they 
unU probably buy new books and bring them home to-morrow, 
Tappaneeko han itsensa P (S. John viii. 2 2) wiU he Mil himself ? 

D. By the conditional, especially in conditional sentences. 
Tulisin huomenna, jos ehtisin, / shall corns to-morrow, if I 
have tims, Isanta ei palkitsisi sinua ennenkuin olisit tyosi 
lopottanut, your master will not pay you before you finish your 

E. Various periphrases are used, particularly when there is 
any idea of necessity or obligation in the future. The following 
examples taken from the translation of the Bible will show this. 
Mina saan nahda hanen, mutta en nyt, / shall see him, but not 
now (Num. xxiv. 17, but the passage continues mina katselen 
hanta waan en lasta). Teidan pitaa minua etsiman, ye shall 
seek me (S. John vii. 34). Silla ei sita pida iinhotettaman hei- 
dan siemenensa suiissa, for it shall not be forgotten oiU of the 
mouths of their seed (Deut. xxxi. 21). Autuaat ovat siviat 
silla he saavat maan peria, blessed are the meek for they shall 
inherit the earth (S. Matt, v, 5). 

The Concessive. 

This mood represents an action as possible, and is particularly 
used in questions, or in sentences introduced by such particles 
as ehka, which imply a doubt or question. 

It has two tenses. 

I. The present, implying a potential action in the present or 



future. Lieneekd totta mita sanotaan P is it likdy thai what 
peo2yle say is true ? Han sen parhaiten tietanee, he probably 
knows best, Jos et tuostana totelle, if thou tvillst not obey that. 
Osannet palkan ottaa, osaa tyokin tehda, wovldst thou know 
how to receive the reward, learn how to do the work. Sureneeko 
Jumala harkia P doth God care for oxen ? Ei suattane sinua 
Saaren suurehen sukuhun, they are not likely to tolerate your 
alliance with the great family of the island (Kal. xi. 71). 

II. The past, implying a potential action in past time. Han 
lienee luullut minua toiseksi, he jprobahly thought I was some 
one else, Ei liene sinua luotu Ison tanunen taittajaksi (Kal. 
ii. 145), thou art probably not created to break the mighty oak, 
Iiieneekd han arvanuut keta puhutteliP did he know with 
whom he spoke ? 

The Conditional, . 

The conditional mood has two tenses, the present and past, 
which denote an action dependent on certain conditions in 
present or past time. 

It is used : — 

(i) In conditional, comparative, and concessive sentences, 
both in the protasis and apodosis. When used in the sentence 
introduced by jos, or some similar particle, the present implies 
that the condition is not yet realised, and the past that it has 
not been. But this distinction is not always observed, the 
present being used of a condition not realized in the past. 
Jos menisitte tassa myrskyssa jarvelle niin hukkuisitte, 
if you were to go on the lake in this storm you would be droumed. 
Farempi olisi ollut Ilman impena elea, it would have been 
better to live as the virgin of the air (Kal. i. 161). Jos 
varani myontaisivat niin matkustaisin ulkomaille, if my 
msans allowed m6 / should go abroad, Kukapa .... kakia 

THE VERB. 179 

kukutteleisi, Lintusia lanlattaisi, Jos mina menlBin muunne, 
Saisin maija muille maille. Jos tama kana katoisi, Tama 
hanhi hairahtaisi, etc. (Kal. x. 441 ff.). 

The word jos is sometimes omitted and replaced by the inter- 
rogative suffix -ko after the verb. Kal. xi. 95 : — XSTauraisitko 
Saaren naiset, Fitaisit pyhaiset piiat, Ifiin siita tora tulisi, 
Sota suuri lankeaisi, were you to seduce the maidens of the 
island a quarrel would come of it and a great war fall on us, 

(2) In final sentences to express the object of an action, 
nmoittakaat minulle etta minakin tulisin Ja kununartaisin 
banta (S. Matt. ii. 8), bring me word that I may corns and worship 
him also, Eiijoitan hanelle etta ban toimittaisi sen asian, 
/ am writing to him that he may undertake the affair, Olkaa 
hlljaa, lapset, etta saisin rauhassa tyoskennella, he quiet, chil- 
d/ren, that I may work in peace, Ava suusi suuremmaksi . . . 
paasisin mahasta maalle (Kal. xvii. 5 83), o/>en thy mouth . . . 
that I may corns forth from thy stomach, 

(3) In temporal and relative sentences when the temporal 
particle or relative involves some idea of purpose, capacity, etc. 
En tahtonut ruveta kiijoittamaan ennenkuin saisin varman 
tiedon asiasta, / did not wish to write before I received certain 
news of the affair, Faatin lakkauttaa kauppaliikkeeni kunnes 
igat paranisivat, / determined to close my buMness till the times 
should be better. Sen ma mieheksi sanoisin, Urohoksi arvelei- 
sin, Joka jouseni vetaisi, Kiverani kiinnittaisi. (Kal. xxvi. 
357). N.B. The conditional is used only if the principal verb 
is in a past tense or conditional. 

(4) In Oratio Obliqua. 

a. After verbs of wishing, asking, commanding, etc. Easke 
etta palvelija valjastaisi hevosen, tell the servant to get the 
horse harnessed, Tahdotko etta se heti tehtaisiin P do you unsh 
it to be done ai once ? 

N 2, 


h, Ta represent the imperative in the OntiQ recta. Isaata 
sanoi etta rengit menisivat pellolle, thA master told the 
servants to go to the fields^ Han viitasi etta he ▼aikeniaivat, 
he motioned to them to be silent. 

(5) As a polite form of statement, request, or question, from 
which, as mentioned above, it often comes to be used as a 
future. Min& lunlisin etta han ostaisi talonne, / skovld think 
he would bu^ j/our house, Voisitteko k^rtoa minulle P can you 
tell me ? Tahtoisin puhua kansaanne, / shovld like to talk to 
you, XSTayttaisitte minulle, please show me, Enko saisi . . . P 
can I have , , , ? Menisitte noutamaan yhdet hyyryvaunut, 
please go and call a cab, 

(6) To express a wish with suth particles as job, jospa, 
kunhan, etc. Jospa ban tulisi ! if he voovM only come I 
Jospa olisin tietanyt ! Juxd I only knoum I Kunhan tuttuni 
tuliai ! if my friend would hut come ! 

Imperative and Optative, 

Though these moods are given as two in the Accidence on 
account of the slight difference in their form, they may be 
treated as one syntactically, as they supply one another's de- 
ficiencies, the imperative being only used in the 2nd sing. 
and 1st and 2nd persons plur., and the optative only in the 
2nd sing, and the 3rd person singular and plural. In poetry a 
2nd pers. plur. optative ending in otte is occasionally found. 
There is no difference between the meaning of the two in 2nd 
person singular. 

The imperative expresses : — 

I. A command or request. Iiahe nyt kanssa laulamahan, 
com>e to sing with me (Kal. i. 14). Toki tullos toinen kerta, 
come again (Kal. v. 137). Kay plan valehen jouu, go 
quickly and finish the lousiness (Kal. 1. 211). Ellda menkd 

THE VERB. l8i 

poikasemi Parempihin itse&Bi, as^irt not, my son, to those that 
are better than thyself (Kal. xi. 69). 

n. A condition. Sano mita sanot, en siita kuitenkaaoi 
valitS,, you moAf say what you like, hut I dont care. Teen mina 
sen vaikka han kielt&kddnkin, / shall do it, even though he 
forbid it. 

The Passive. 

The passiye, as has already heen mentioned in the Accidence, 
is impersonal. KaTtetaan means there is a using, or one uses, 
people use. The clearest proof of the real character of the form 
16 to be' found in the fact that the verb substantive olla, to be, 
has a so-called passive. 

Exsonples : — ISTlin kohta kun ollaan tultu, as soon as 2)eople 
come, Ennen oltiin terveempia, people were healthier formerly, 
Siilien oltaneen tyytyvaisia, this will prchably prove satisfactory 
{people ujUI be satisfied with this), Jarvella oltaessa tuuli 
kovasti, while they were on the lake, the wind blew violently, 

(i) The passive of ordinary verbs is used absolutely ; that is 
to say, no noun is connected with it as subject or object. Kou- 
lussa kiijoitetaan ja Inetaan, they read and write in the school, 
Helsingissa huvitellaan pajjo talven aikoina, there is rmich 
am/usement in Helsingfors in winter time, .Suomen jarvl8s& ja 
joissa kalastetaan, people fish (or there is fishing) in the lakes 
and rivers of Finland, 

(2) As the above examples show, the passive represents the 
action of a verb without designating the agent. It is not 
unnatural that such forms should be used in an imperative or 
optative sense, for the second singular of the imperative is 
simply the root of the verb. It is true that the imperative 
is the closed root, due to the loss of k, but like the passive it 
has no sign of person. 


This use of the passive for the imperative is particularly 
common in dialects, though it is also found in the literary 
language. Its usual meaning is * Let v^^ Mennaah sisaan, 
let vs go in. Iiuetaan, let vs read, or tt*8 time to read. Lahde- 
taan kotia, ' tve ought to go home, Mennaankd jalan vain 
ajetaanko hevosella P Shall we go on foot, or take a carriage ? 

(3) This use of the passive for the imperative is important as 
explaining the common use of the form with a nominative case. 
Such a phrase as mies tunnetaan can be correctly translated as 
the man is known ; but there is no doubt that the nominative is 
really the object of an impersonal verb, which naturally remains 
invariable, whatever the noun is. Now the object of the 
imperative is also put in the nominative and not in the accusa- 
tive, though both in the case of the imperative and the passive 
it may be put in the partitive, if partial. It would seem that 
in these forms of the verbs, where the agent is not denoted by 
any suffix, it was felt that the sense was sufficiently clear 
without adding any termination to the noun to mark its exact 
relation to the verb. 

The object of the passive, as above stated, can be either in the 
nominative, if total, or in the partitive, if partial. 

a. Nominative. Koira ajetaan huoneesta ulos, the dog is 
sent out of the room. Falvelija lahetetaan viemaan kiijetta 
postiin, t?ie servant is sent to take a letter to the post, Hevoset 
vaJjastetaan, tJie horses are being harnessed. Buis kylvetaan 
syksylla, rye is sovm in the autv/mn. Keskella ydta sammute- 
taan tulet, the lights are put out at midnight. Tassa sodassa 
tapettiin viisikymmenta tuhatta miesta, ffty thmisand Tnen 
were killed in this war. 

h. Partitive. Miksi sanotaan sita Englannin kielella? 
What is that called in English ? Jos ei aleta varhain, niin el 
tyota saada aikanansa valmiiksi, the work wont be ready 

THE VERB. 183 

in time if not begun early. Poikaa ei viela pantu kouluun, 
the hoy was no longer sent to school, Ei viela ollut uutta 
kirkkoa rakennettu, the new chwrch had not yet been built, 
Ei kynttilata sytjrteta ja panna wakan ala, neither do men 
light a candle and jput it under a bushel ^ S. Matt. v. 15. 

When the personal pronouns are used with the verb, it 
is commoner, particularly in speaking, to put them in the 
accusative ending in t, e.g. minut, sinut, hanet nahdaan, 
is more usual than mina, sina, han nahdaan. But the form 
with the nominative is not only grammatically correct, but 
found in writing, especially in the Bible, e. g. Rom. viii. 36, 
Sinun tahtes me kuoletetaan yli paivaa: me pidetaan 
TiilnkiilTi teurastettavat lampaat, for thy sake vye are killed all 
the day long : we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter. 
Similarly 2 Cor. xi. 36, Kuka pahoitetaan ja en mina pala P 
Who is offended and I bv/m not. Silla he ravitaan, for they 
shall be filled, S. Matt. v. 6. Etta te heilta nahtaisiin, that 
ye may be seen of them, S. Matt. vi. i ^. 

The conjugation of a passive form contains not only the 
strictly impersonal forms, like luetaan, people read, luettiin, 
jyeople did read, but also compound tenses formed with the past 
passive participle which stand grammatically upon a different 
footing. For the participle in question is a simple adjective 
(or substantive), and such phrases as kiija on luettu, kiijat ovat 
luetut are exactly analogous to kiija on hyva and kiijat ovat 
hyvat. In some cases, however, double constructions are 
possible : one can say either kiijat eivat ole loydetyt, the books 
have not been fovmd, which is a simple adjectival construction ; 
or kiijoja ei ole loydetty, in which the construction with the 
participle is assimilated to that with the other forms of the verb. 

^ It is noticeable that peasants frequently use the passive with the 
pronoun of the first person plural, as if it were a personal form. Jokohan 
mekin tuo lehma myOtaisiin P Shall we not sell this cow too 1 


If a participle of oUa is employed in a compound tense in this 
construction it must be the passive participle. Kiijaa ei oltu 
loydetty, the hook vxis not found. 


The five infinitives of the Finnish verb play a great part 
in the syntax, and are often used to express the subordinate 
sentences (temporal, final, etc.) of oilier languages. The simplest 
way to understand their many uses is to recollect that they are 
equivalent to an English verbal ending in ing^ such as cuUing. 
Now a word like this is a noun, but it can also have an object, 
e.g. cvMing the wood, and it can be also combined with a 
substantive or pronoun indicating the agent, e.g. my cutting 
the wood or the man's ctUting the wood. Such expressions as 
my cvitting the wood is unavoidable^ during my cutting the 
wood, or without my catting the wood are intelligible in 
English, though not idiomatic ; but they are the literal transla- 
tion of the Finnish idiom. In other words, the infinitive is 
a noun capable of declension in certain cases and of being 
combined with a genitive or personal affix to mark the agent. 
As it is also a verbal noun, it is likewise capable of being 
combined with a second substantive to mark the object of the 
action. Thus nahdessansa Tnimin p&ivani is literally ^in his 
seeing my day,' that is when lie saw. The use of the fourth infini- 
tive is slightly different. In the phrase Mlmin on tama kiija 
lukeminen, / should read this book, it will be observed that the 
object is in the nominative. This is because the literal meaning 
seems to be, This book is a reading for me, though it must 
be admitted that the negative form Ei ole Tniniin tata kiijaa 
lukemista does not lend itself to this explanation, and can 
only be explained by supposing it is due to analogy. The 
object of the other infinitives is mostly put in the partitive. 

THE VERB. 185 

partly perhaps because, as the genitive and accusative are 
identical in form in the singular, the subject and object might 
be confused if the latter were in the accusative. The object is, 
however, often put in the nominative. The rule generally given 
is that this is only right if the infinitive depends on an 
imperative or a verb implying necessity, as minim pitaa. 
ostaman hevonen, / vaust huy^ a horse. But this rule is not 
always observed in the Kalevala, or even in modem books. 
E. g. Kal. xi. 1 2 7, Onko saarella sioa minun leikki lydakseni P 

Infinitive I, 

The first infinitive has two forms, one wi£h the translative 
termination and always used with a prominal suffix ; the other 
with no case termination and used without a pronominal suffix. 

A. The longer form with the suffix is used to express the 
purpose of the action of the main verb, and is rendered in 
English by in order to or by a simple infinitive. Antakaa 
vetta juodakseni, give me water to d/rink. This is of course 
literally give me water for my drinking, and is exactly 
analogous to the use of the same case of a noun in the sentence, 
Juon vetta terveydekseni, / drink water for my health. It is 
important to notice that the pronominal suffix always indicates 
the subject of the action denoted by the infinitive, and not the 
object, though in translation it is often necessary to invert the 
sentence. For instance in S. John vii. 19 and 20 the questions 
' Why go ye about to kiU me ? Who goeth about to kill thee ? * 
are rendered Miksi te etcdtte minua tappaaksenne P Kuka 
sinua etsii tapaaksensa P literally Why seek ye me for yov/r 
ktlling ? Who seeks thee for his killing ? Me pyysimme venetta 
soutaaksenune, we asked for a boat to row in. Menkaamme 
tuolle Tuorelle katsellaksemme jarvea, let us go up that hiU to 
have a view of the lake. Tahdon lukea laskun nahdakseni onko 


kalkki oikein, / want to read the hill to see if everything is right 
Oli pajjon matknstellut ulkomailla taydentaakseen sivistys- 
taan, he had travelled rrmch abroad to complete his edtuxUion. 
The distinction between the uses of the longer and shorter forms 
of the infinitive is not always observed in dialects and poetry. 
Thus the longer form is used with impersonal verbs, e. g. 
Sinun taytyy mennaksesi, you must go, where menna would 
now be used. So too Ala pelkaa ottaaksesi, fear not to take. 
Kal. i. 165, Wilu taall' on ollakseni, Waiva waijatellakseni, 
AalloisBa asiiakseni, Weessa wieriellakseni, it is cold for me 
to be here, painful to stay, to dvjeU in the waves, to roll in tJu 
water. Cf. Kal. xliii. 401, and xvii. 507. 

B. The fact that the last syllable of the shorter form of the 
first infinitive is closed shows that it has undoubtedly lost 
a letter or syllable. It is probable therefore that the short 
form is not really the nominative from which the translative is 
derived, but a translative which has lost its termination. Cf. 
luo, taa for luoksi, taaksi. The employment of the form is 
also agreeable to its origin, for its manifold uses, as given 
in grammars, may be summed up in the formula that it defines 
the meaning of verbs, adjectives, and substantives; that is to say, 
it expresses that towards which an action tends, which is one 
of the uses of the translative (p. 159). Such phrases as vein, 
tahdon, tiedan lukea, / can read, wish to read, or know how to 
read might be expressed as / have power, will, or knowledge for 

In some cases the use of the translative and this infinitive are 
obviously analogous. Bi sovi suuttua, it is not fitting to he 
angry. Han sopii sotamieheksi, he is fit for a soldier. £i 
mi-nn Ti kelpaa juoda vetta, it does not suit roe to drink water, 
can be also expressed in the form. Vest ei kelpaa minulle 
juotavaksi (or juomaksi). 

The short form of this infinitive never takes suffixes in 

THE VERB. 187 

ordinary Finnish, though it does occasionally in the Kalevala ; 
e.g. the first lines Mieleni minun tekevi, Aivoni ajattelevi, 
Lahteani laulamahan, Saa'cmi sanelemahaii. Onko saarella 
sloa . . . Minun laulut laulellcmi, is these a 'place on, the island 
forvneto sing my song (Kal. xxix. 137)* Cf. Onpa saarella 
sioa . . . Sinun laulut lauleUasi (t&. 147). 

The subject of the infinitive, which in the longer form is 
denoted by a suffix, is in the case of the shorter form either not 
expressed at all in such a phrase as Isa antoi kiijan pojalle 
lukea, the father gave the hoy the hook to read ; or it is put in 
the genitive, Isa toi kiijan pojan lukea, the father houghs the 
hook for the hoy to read, literally for the hoys reading. 

The short form of the infinitive is used : — 

(i) As the subject of impersonal verbs like taytyy, tulee, 

Faha koira tarvitsee tappaa, one ought to kill a had dog. 
Taytyy kdyhan karsia, pitaa kiittaa paalliseksi, the poor 
must endure and give thanks into the hargain (proverbs). 
Sinun tulee puhua totta, you must sjyeak the truth. 

In this use two constructions are possible. One can say 
either talossa pitaa olla isanta, the master must he in the house, 
or Isannan pitaa olla talossa. In this latter case the fact of 
the obligation affecting the person is emphasized, while the 
sentence with the nominative means rather, the master* s heing in 
the house is necessary, 

(2) As the complement of the verb olla combined with an 
adjective or substantive. Se kiija on hyodyllinen pojan lukea, 
this hook is useful for the hoy to read, Ei ole aikaa lahtea, it 
is not time to go, Pyyntosi on mahdoton kenenkaan tayttaa, 
your prayer is impossihle for anyone to fulfil, Tama kuorma 
on raskas sinun kantaa, this hurden is hard for you to hear. 
On vaikea sanoa, it is hard to say. 


(3) It is used to define the meaning of verbs. Talon miee 
ei osaa Inkea, ih£ farm servant does net know how to write, 
Alkaa sataa, it begins to rain. TAisTra lapsi ei tahdo oppia, a 
lazy chdJd does not uxmt4o learn, Han ei ymmarra piihna,A0 
does no know how to speak. XSn vol tulla, / cannot come, 
Han saa odottaa, he can wait, Aiotico viipya taalla, do yovk 
mean, to stay here, Sallitteko wilnnn menna P do you allow 
me to go? Klaus lahtea lupasi, Klaus promised to go {Kantt- 

(4) It is used much like the longer form to express the 
object of an action. Tno kala muidenldn katsella, bring the 
fish for otlwrs to see. Fanen maata, / am going to bed. Onko 
teilla hevosta mydda P ho/ve you a horse to seU ? Arvelevi 
mitea oUa kuin elea, he considered what he shovM do, how he 
should live. 

There is another use of this infinitive, when it is employed 
with a verb of kindred meaning in an adverbial sense. This 
use is very frequent in the Kalevala and poetry and occasionally 
found in prose. It is to be noted, however, that the infinitive 
generally represents what would be the principal verb in 
ordinary language^ while the verb in the indicative indicates the 
manner in which the action is performed. Thus such a 
phrase as astua taputtelevi, means walking he jsUmiped or h> 
stomiped as he walked, Harka kaya kallerdittl (Kal. xx. 43), 
equivalent to astui keveasti ; cf. Astua lykyttelevi, Kaya kul- 
leroittelevi (Kal. ii. 165). Waka vauiha Wainamdinen AJo^ 
karittelevi (Kal. viii. 18). Soutoa melastelevi (Kal. v. 41). 
Astua ajattelevi, Kaya kaaparoittelevi. Folttaa tuprutteli 

The first infinitive is hardly ever used in the passive form, 
but the active form may be used with a passive verb or in 
sentences where our idiom would use the passive infinitive. 
Bautatie aiotaan rakentaa, the railway is meant to be built or 

THE VERB. 189 

thare is an inUntton to build the railway. Unnoitos iroidftan 
ottaa, the fortresa can he taken. 

The infinitive cannot be used with a negative on account of 
the peculiai* character of the Finnish negative verb. For the 
various devices used to overcome this difficulty vide pages 193 
and 219. 

Infirdtive II. 

This infinitive is only employed in two cases, the inessive and 
the instructive. 

(i) The inessive expresses an action coincident in time 
with the action of the principal verb, and must be rendered in 
English by a temporal sentence, the subject of which appears in 
Finnish as a genitive, but where the subject of the principal and 
subordinate sentences are the same in English, the infinitive 
takes a pronominal suffix. Falvelijan tidlessa kotiin, isanta 
laksi metsaan, when the servant came home^ the master went into 
the woody or literally ^ on the coming home of the servant* 
Abraham teidan isanne iloitsi nahdessansa miTiiin paivaani 
(S. John viii. 56), you/r father Abraham rejoiced to see {when he 
saw) my day. Ollessani teidan kanssanne, when I was with 
you, Astuessansa ahoa, Salovierta vierressansa kuuli 
(Kal. xliv. 77]), as he went throtigh the desert jplace, as he walked 
near the wood he heard. 

This infinitive is frequently used in the passive. Kaskea 
poltettaessa, while the forest was burning, Kotiin tultaessa ei 
ollut ketakaan, on coming home, there was no one. Kal. iii. 245, 
Siika lie sinua nahty. . . . Tata maata saataessa, Ilmoa 
Buettaessa, etc. 

The active infinitive is also used impersonally. Aika menee 
arvellessa, paiva paata kaannellessa, time passes while one 
thinks, and the day while one turns one's head (proverb). 


As the Finnish negative, owing to its peculiar character, 
cannot be used with the infinitive, a negative temporal pro- 
position is rendered by the abessive or infinitive III, and the 
inessive of infinitive 11. Lukematta istuessani, when I was not 
i^Boding ; literally, in my sitting without reading. 

(2) The instructive of infinitive II is used to express the 
manner in which an action is performed, and is generally 
rendered by a participle in English. If the subject of the 
infinitive is expressed (in which case it must be rendered 
otherwise than by a participle) it is put in the genitive. This 
form is not used in the passive. 

Astui huollen huokaellen, he walked sorrowing and groaning 
(Kal. V. 1 3). Muu seura vaikeni, jattaen heidat kahden kesken 
sanaotteluun, the rest of the company was silent^ leaving them 
to argue it out between themselves. Toisinaan sydamellisesti 
syleillen erosivat, after again heartily embracing they parted, 
Han ei ollut ollenkaan ruma nuonikainen, he was not at aU 
a bad looking young ma/n (literally, was not in his being). 

A few words, chiefly denoting perception, add suffixes to this 
infinitive. Sanoin sen heidan kuultensa, / said it in their 
hearing. Han teki sen rikoksen teidan tietenne, he committed 
this crim>e with your knowledge. 

Irifinitive III. 

The substantival nature of the Finnish infinitives is most 
apparent in this form, for it is frequently used as a noun with- 
out any verbal signification, e. g. kuolema, death ; elama, life ; 
sanoma, speakings or report. Such a sentence as kuvat ovat 
maalarin tekemat, which may be rendered either the pictures 
are the work of the painter, or, are mude by the painter, shows 
the connection between the purely substantival and verbal uses 
of this infinitive. 

THE VERB. 191 

Its other uses are very various. 

I. It is used as a past passive participle. Tama kiija on 
isan antama, this hook has been given by my father^ or, is the 
giving of my father. Mina luen isan antamaa kiijaa, / read 
the hook given by my father. As there is no real distinction be- 
tween the noun and the adjective, this use of a verbal sub- 
stantive as a participle is not unnatural. Kiijoittamassansa 
kiijeessa han el ollut puhunut mitaan tasta, in the letter he 
wrote he did not say a word about it, Omat on virret oppi- 
mani, Omat saamani sanaiset. 

This infinitive is as a rule only used as a past participle when 
the agent is indicated, but in the Kalevala it is found used as 
simple past participle without a genitive or afiix. Kal. i. 51, 
Viel' on muitaki sanoja, Ongelmoita oppimia, Tieohesta 
tempomia, Kanervoista katkomia, Bisukoista riipomia, 
Vesoista vetelemia, Faasta heinan Meromia, Baitiolta 

II. Most of the other cases of this infinitive are found used in 
a verbal signification. 

A. The case ending in n (which is considered by some 
grammarians as a genitive, and by others, with greater 
probability, as an instructive) is used with the impersonal 
verb pitaa. £1 sinun pida tappaman, thou shalt do no murder, 
Hanen pitaa oleman ankara, he should he firm. This form 
is also used in the passive. Iiapset pitaa otettaman mukaan, 
one should take onis children with one, Tydt pitaa saataman 
aikanansa valmiiksi, the work should he got ready in time, 

B. The inessive expresses the action in which anyone is 
engaged. He ovat oleet jo kauan kalastamassa, they have long 
been fishing, ^an on lintuja ampumassa, he is out shooting, 
Bupean kaymaan usein lukemassa englantilaisia sanoma- 
lehtia, / shall often read the English jpafters. 


C. The elative expresses an action from which anyone ceases, 
or which is forbidden. He tulivat kotia kalaatamasta, they 
came home from fisMng, Milloin hyvansa tuli huoneeaen 
tapasi hanen aina lukemasta, wkefrwoer one werU ivUo her room 
one dkoaya found her reading (i?. p. 145). Han kielsi lapsia 
riitelemasta, he forbade the children to qtiarrd. Jiunala pelasti 
miehen hukkumasta, God preserved the man from d/rownvn^g, 

D. The illative is used : — 

(i) After verbs, adjectives, and participles, which imply 
either literally or figuratively motion to perform an action (t?. 
the uses of the illative given above). Mies meni jarvelle 
kalastamaan, the man has gone to fish on the lake, 19'euvon 
teita kaantymaan Herra V: n puoleen, / advise you to apply to 
Mr, V. Buvennee tulemaan lunta, it will probably snow. 
Koko talc rupeaa palamaan, the whole house takes fire, Han 
el ole tottunut saastelemaan, he was not accu^stom^ed to live 
economically, Minua kaskettiin menemaan pois, / was 
ordered to leave. 

(2) From such uses the illative passes naturally into an 
infinitive of purpose. Tulin kysymaan, / have come to ask. 
Iiahettivat palvelijat hanta ottamaan kiini, they sent servants 
to take him, Meni puhdistamaan itseansa, he went to purify 
himself, Menemme puutarhaan juomaan kahvia, let us goto 
take coffee in the garden. 

E. The adessive has two meanings, corresponding to the two 
uses of that case in nouns. 

(i) With the verb olla it denotes an action which one is on 
the point of performing. The infinitive always takes a pro- 
nominal suffix in this use. Olen juuri lahtemallani, / am just 
going, literally, / am on my departing, Oli^ tekemallani 
tuhmuuden, / was on the point of committing a folly, 

(2) It expresses the means by which an action is performed. 

THE VERB. 193 

Ostamalla kaikkia saapi, om gets everything hy buying, 
Hanskempaa on kalastaa onklmalTa kidn tarpomalla, it is 
more agreeable to catch Jish by angling than by netting, Felasti 
henkensa iiimalla, he saved his life by swimming, Viittomalla 
osoiti han meille tien, he showed us the vxi/y by waving his hand, 

F. The abessive expresses an action without which the action 
of the principal verb takes place. It is very largely used in 
Finnish to express what is represented by negative sentences in 
other languages, on account of the restrictions on the use of the 
negative words en, et, ei, etc. It can take the pronominal 
suffixes. Viivyttam&tta, vjithoui delay, Mies meni pois 
kenenka&n huomaamatta, the man wemJt away withtmt any one 
remarking it. Sen asian timnen sanomattasikin, / know that 
without your saying a word, Hanen hyv^MBydaminen isansa 
ei voinut olla hanelle antamatta tulevaa i>erintddsuutta, her 
good-natured father coiUd not help giving her the part of her in- 
heritance due to her. 

In examples like this the abessive of this infinitive (often 
with the verb olla) serves as a negative form of the other 
infinitives. Tahtoisin tulla, / should like to come ; but Tahtoi- 
sin olla tulematta, / should like not to come (to be without com- 
ing). Han laksi minun nahteni, he went out while I was 
looking, Han laksi minun nakemattani, he went out without 
my seeing. 

This infinitive is also used in a passive sense, though not in a 
passive form. Ty5 on viela tekematta, the work is not yet done 
(lit. is without doing). In this sense it serves as a negative of 
the past passive participle. 

This case of the infinitive III is very common in the Kalevala. 
E. g. iv. 217, Farempi minun olisi, Farempi oUsi ollut Synty- 
xnatta, kasvamatta, Suureksi sukeumatta, which is equivalent 
to, better had it been for me not to have been bom, xliii. 417, 
Vihoin paivan paistamatta, Vihoin kuun kumottamatta, etc, 



Infinitive IV, 

The fourth infinitive, like the third, is used as a simple 
substantive. Se on parhain keino sen oppimiseen, that is the 
best means for the stvdy of it, Viipymisesi on sinua paljo 
vahingoitanut, yoiur delay has greatly injured you. 

There is also a use of this infinitive analogous to that of in- 
finitive I mentioned above, p. 1 88. In order to express a con- 
tinued action the verb is repeated in the partitive of infinitive 
IV with the pronominal suffix. Vaheta vahenemistaan, to 
grow less and less, Aiti kiivastui kiivastumistaan tyttarensa 
itsepintaisuudesta, the mother grew rnore and m>ore furious at 
her daughter's obstinacy, Faiva alenee alenemistaan, the sun 
sinks lotver and lower. 

The fourth infinitive is used verbally in two cases : — 

(i) In the nominative, as the subject to the verb olla in 
affirmative sentences. It then denotes the necessity or pro- 
priety of performing an action, the subject of which is put in 
the genitive. Minun on tama kiija lukeminen, / ought to read 
this book, or literally, this book is a reading for me. Meidan on 
tottuminen siihen, we must get used to it, Tehty kauppa 
kiittaminen, tekematdn tietaminen, one should praise a bar- 
gain which is made, but enquire into one which is not yet made 
(pro v.). Copious examples can be found in Kal. xxiii. 6i, Tapa 
on uusi ottaminen, Entinen unol}.taniinen, etc. 

(2) The partitive is, agi*eeably to general rules, used in a 
similar sense in negative sentences, or interrogative sentences 
implying a negative. Ei ole minun tata kiijaa lukemista, / 
need not read this book. Ei koiraa karvoihin kat8onli8tfi^ ons 
mnist not judge a dog by his coat. Ei pojan isaansa opetta- 
mista, a son should not teach his father. 

THE VERB. 195 

In such phrases as mintilla on viela paljo sanomiata, / have 
gtUl 'much to aay, the partitive depends on the word paljo, just 
as it does in such a sentence as paljo rahaa, much money. 

Infinitive V, 

This infinitive is only a diminutive form derived from infini- 
tive m. As a rule, it is only used in one case, the adessive 
plural, to denote an action on the point of taking place (cf. in- 
finitive in, E. i). It always takes the pronominal suffix. Olin 
tydta alottamaisillaTii, / was on the point of beginning to work, 
Juna on juuri lahtemaisillansa, the train is just going. 
Aurinko oil katoamaisillaan, the sun was just going to set, 
Yhtid on muodostumaisillaan, the company is on the point of 
being formed, Mies oli kaatamaisillaan puuta, the man was 
on the point offeUing the tree, 


The participles may be called verbal adjectives, just as the 
infinitives are verbal substantives. But, as has already been 
observed, there is no clear distinction between adjectives and 
substantives in the Finnish language, and the participles are 
used substantively in many constructions, just as the third in- 
finitive is used adjectively. They sometimes lose all temporal 
signification and become mere adjectives, as oppinnt, learned) 
vasynyt, tired; madannyt, rotten. 

When used with a verbal meaning the present participles 
(part. I) indicate an action beginning or continuing, and the 
past participles (part. II) an action which is completed. The 
temporal signification is not very marked. It is noticeable 
that the passive participles have two distinct meanings, one 
impersonal like the rest of the so-caUed passive verb, the other 
distinctly passive. 

O % 


All the participles can be used — 

(i) As attributes or predicates. 

(2) To form the compound tenses of verbs in conjunction 
with the verb olla, after the manner already explained. 

Participle I — Active, 

This participle denotes an action taking place or which is to 
take place in the future, just as the present indicative repre- 
sents both a present and future tense. Lentava lintu saa 
jotakin, istuva ei mitaan, the bird who flies catches something: 
the bird who sits still nothing, Ei tyota tekeva nalkaan kuole, 
the man who works does not die of hunger, Kysyva ei Helta 
eksy, he who asks does not lose his way, Hukkuva oljen 
korteenkin tarttuu, a drowning man catches at a straw (provs.). 

In the combination with the verb olla it has a future signifi- 
cation (v, p. 176). 

The essive of this participle is used with the verb olla to 
signify something pretended by the subjeet. In this sense it is 
often in the plural, though the subject itself is singular. Han 
on olevinansa {or olevanansa) oppinut, he pretends to be 
leovmed. Han on paljonkin tietavinansa, he thinks he kTwws a 
great deal, Han oli lahtevanansa eilen, mutta ei mennyt, ht 
pretended he was starting yesterday, hui did not go. So also it is 
used in speaking of dreams and hallucinations. Mina olin 
nakevinani, / thought I saw. Gen. xxxvii. 7, Elatso, me 
olinime sitovajoamme jalallisia wainiolla (of a dream)] cf. 
Gen. xlL 1 7, Unessani olin mina seisovana. 

Words ending in ja as a rule correspond to English forms in 
^. E. g. rakentaja, a builder ; that is to say they denote an 
action, like the present participle, but do not define the time in 
any way. Sometimes, however, they are used exactly like the 
present participle, e.g. Kal. xvi. 169, Se oli poukkujen pesia 

THE VERB. 197 

Bapahien rHimyttdja, which means, not sh^ toaa a wcLsher^ 
woman, but she was washing clothes. Similarly, Fappi oli 
riat^ana, the priest toas christening a child. Cf. Eal. x. iii, 
Miesten syojille sioille. 

Fartieijole II — Active, 


The past active participle expresses an action which has 
taken place at any past time. Ei ole vuoksen voittanutta, 
Tli kaynytta Imatran (KaL iii. 182), there is no {waterfall) 
that has conquered the Vuoksa or surjpassed Ivnatra, Aija on 
tanne tullehia, Ei paljo palannehia (Kal. xvi. 270), there are 
many who have come down here, not many who have gone hack. 
Alkaa hairitkd nukkunutta, wake not the sleeper. 

The translative singular of this participle is used in connec- 
tion with the verb tulla to denote an incidental or chance 
action. Han tuli sanoneeksi, kertoneekai . . . , he happened to 
say in the course of conversation. . . . Mennessaan kaupunkiin 
tuli nahneeksi . . . , ashe went to the town he happened to see, . ^ 
Puodissa kaydessaan tuli ostaneeksi uuden maton, in going 
round the shops he happened to buy a new carpet, Cf. Kal. ii. 
149, Sai toki sanoneheksi, scarce had he said it. Olkoon 
menneeksi, it does not matter, or let that pass. 

Participle I — Passive. 

This participle has not a simple temporal signification, but 
has always an idea of desirability, or necessity. Kunnioitettava 
Herra, a man to he honoured. In combination with the verb 
oUa it can be used either as a simple adjective, e. g. se on 
koijattava, that shovM he corrected, or as a part of the imper- 
sonal passive verb, sit& on koijattava. It is sometimes used 
with a genitive of the agent like the infinitive. Sentahden oli 
etsittava kalidenkeskista yksinaisyytt^, on this account it toas 


necessary to seek far a tke-drtite interview, Sanokaa, mita tieta 
mimm on mentava, teU me what road I should take. Tama 
asia on meidan mielessanune pidettava, toe must keep that in 

The translative singular of this participle is used exactly like 
the illative of the third infinitive, but with a passive significa- 
tion. Seta toi kiijoja lasten luettavaksi, tlie uncle brought 
books far the children to read {far the reading of the children). 
Han antoi veitsen luottavaksi, he gave the knifa to he 

Participle II — Passive. 

This participle is really a substantive expressing the result of 
the verb's action. From this it passes easily to an adjectival 
meaning, For instance, tyd on tehty, the work is a thing donCj 
is much the same as the work is done. In combination with olla 
it is used to form tenses of the passive impersonal verb, and as 
such, can take an object, otherwise it has the same signification 
as the past passive paiticiple in other languages. Fuhuttu 
puhe animuttu nuoli, a word once spoken is an arrow shot forth. 
XJnhotettu maksettu velka, a debt paid is forgotten (proverbs). 
Jos mun tuttuni tulisi, if one known by me were to come. 

It is noticeable that when used in this sense the past passive 
participle does not as a rule take the pronominal suffix. * Thus 
one says, ostettu kiija, the book that has been bought, but by 
preference, ostamani kiija, the book that has been bought by me. 

Part. II passive is also used substantively in the partitive 
singular to express an action antecedent to the action of the 
principal verb. As the original meaning of the partitive is 
motion from, this is very analogous to the use of the elative of 
infinitive III. like other expressions of the same nature (e. g. 
the inessive of infinitive II) this use is rendered in English by a 
temporal iientence. The subject of that sentence is represented 

THE VERB, 199 

in Finnish by a genitive, or by a pronominal suffix, if the 
subjects of the principal and temporal sentence are the same. 

Jopa tuonne tultuansa, Matkan paahan paastyansa (Kal. 
xlii. 25), after he had come thither and reached the end of 
his jou/mey, Muutaman paivan kuluttua, after a few days, 
Luettuaan sanomaJehtia ja sydtyaan aamiaisen, after he had 
read his paper and eaten his breaJefast, Kavelyltaan palattuaan, 
after returning from his walk, Juotuaan kolme, nelja lasia 
teeta, after drinking three or fowr glasses of tea, Sotamiehen 
kotiin palattua, when the soldier had come hmne, Faivan 
laskettua, when the sun had set. 

As however this participle denotes a completed rather than a 
past action, it is sometimes used in cases where we have to 
translate it by a present participle. Kal. xvii. 593, Hyvin 
laait tultuasi, thou hast done well in coming, xlvi. 284, Terve, 
terve tultuasi (terve tuloa is a common expression), hail to thee 
in thy coming. These two examples show clearly the substan- 
tival character of the participle. 

Use of FarticipUs in Oblique Oration, 

The participles have another use in Finnish— viz. they 
correspond to the construction known in Latin grammar as the 
accusative and infinitive in subordinate sentences. 

In other words, a subordinate sentence which in English 
begins with the word that (and some others), and which might in 
Finnish be represented by a similar sentence beginning with 
etta, can be put in a shorter and more idiomatic form by : (i) 
omitting the word etta ; (2) replacing the finite verb by the 
genitive singular of the participle ; (3) representing the subject 
by a genitive, partitive, or pronominal affix. Thus se luulee 
etta han tekee Jumalalle palveluksen, he thinketh that he doeth 
God service becomes se luulee tekevansa Jumalalle palve* 


The participKle present is used in this constraction when the 
action of the subordinate sentence is coincident with that of the 
principal sentence or ^ture to it, and the past participle when 
the action of the subordinate sentence is anterior. He thinks he 
will receive the book, luulee kiijan saavansa. He thinks he has 
received the book, luulee kiijan BaaneenBa. Notice that a 
past tense does not require necessarily the past participle. Han 
luuli lintuja olevan metsassa, he thought there were birds in 
the wood. Here the present participle is used because the 
action of the two v^bs is contemporaneous. 

The noun or pronoun which is the subject in the expanded 
sentence is put in the genitive when total, in the partitive when 
partial, and represented by the pronominal suffix when the 
subjects of the two sentences are the same. The participle 
remains in the genitive sing, whatever be the case or number of 
the subject. 

This use is more frequent in affirmative than in negative 
sentences, but there is no objection to such sentences as En 
luule voivani tulla, / do not think I can come, where the 
principal verb is negatived. It is however very rarely used 
when the verb of the subordinate sentence is negatived (vide 
p. 220 for some curious irregularities in this respect). 

Examples :— Kuin han siis kuuli hanen sairastavan, 
when he heard he was ill. Iiuuletteko olevan mita vaaraa ? 
do you think there is any danger ? Mina paivana toivotte 
saapuvanne perille ? on what day do you expect to arrive. En 
UBko hanta nakevani, / don't believe I shaM see him. Mina 
luulen sotamiesten jo saapuneen leiriin, / think the soldiers 
have already gone to the camp. En usko palvelijan varastaneen 
rahoja, / do not believe that the servant has stolen the money. 
Tiedan vieraita tulevan, / know that some strangers have come. 
Nain vetta satavan, / see that it is raining, Kuulhi laivQJa 
tidleen, / heard that some ships had arrived. 

THE VERB. aoi 

When the verb oUa is used in this constraction, its comple- 
ment remains in the same case as it would be in an expanded 
sentence, if it is im, any case hut the nominative singular. 

f vesi on hyvaa, 

Luulen etta I poika on teryeena, 

I syytetyt ovat tuomitut kuolemaan. 

( veden olevan hyvaa 

LuiQen 'i pojan olevan terveena 

^ syytettyjen olevan tuomitut kuolemaan. 

But if the complement is a nominative singular it appears as 
a genitive singular when the subject is put in that case. 

Iiuulen etta polka on ahkera becomes Luulen pojan olsevan 

It is possible to still more abridge the proposition by rejecting 
olevan and putting the complement in the translative. IiUulen 
pojan ahkeraksi. Tiesl hetkensa tulleeksi, he knew that his 
hour had come, Huomasin hanen menneeksi, / noticed he was 
gone, Kertoi veneen kaatuneeksi, he related that the boat had 
been upset {y, page 158). 

If the predicate of the subordinate sentence in the expanded 
form is a passive verb, the passive participle can be used in the 
genitive singular. The subject of such a proposition is always 
in the partitive. As a rule only part. I passive is used in the 
genitive, part. II being generally in the translative according to 
the construction mentioned above. 

Tiedan hanta odotettavan, / know they are waiting for him, 
Nain karhua anunuttavan, / see the bear is being shot at ; but 
Epailen karhua tappetuksi, / douht if the bear has been 
kiUed. Uskon metsaa hakattavan, / think the forest is being 
cut down ; but TJakon metsan hakatuksi, I think the forest 
has been cut down. 

These participal constructions are also employed when the 


verb introducing the subordinate sentence is in the passive 
form. Under such circumstances the subject of the subordinate 
sentence may either remain in the nominatiye or pass into the 

Siina makasiinissa kuulutaan saatavan oikeata Tdinalaista 
teeta, this shop ia said to receive real Chinese tea. Sanotaan 
varustettavan sotaretkea, it is said that an eocpedition is being 
armed. Ijuultiin ihmisia kuoUeen, it was thought the men 
were dead. 

The intransitive verbs nakya, to he seen ; nayttaa, to appear ; 
tuntua, to fed ; kuulua, to he heard, also take the genitive of 
the participle. 

Han kuuluu eronneen miehestaan ja lahteneen Pietariin, 
she is said to he divorced from her husband and to have left for 
St. Petershu/rg. Et nay tuntevan vanhaa ystavaasi, you don't 
seem to hnow your old friend. Ei kuulu saadun kaloja, it is 
said no fish have been caiLght^. 


As has been already explained in the Accidence the greater 
number of these words in Finnish are declinable substantives, 
and take the various cases under just the same rules as an 
ordinary noun. With the exception of a certain number of 
petrified and isolated forms, they may be compared to the word 
midst in English. We say he cams from, the midst, went into 

^ Analogy has no doabt played a great part in the development of 
these constructions, but they clearly have their origin in the use of the 
participle as a substantive, just like the infinitive. Compare Mina toivon 
saada rahoja with Mina luulen saavani rahoja and Miehet naytta- 
vat tulevan with Miehet taitavat tulla. Compare such Turkish con« 

structions asjSjJL) ^^^«J>ojJlS geldiyimi bUdiniz, ifou knew I had come. 


the midst, or stood in the midst. In the language of Finnish 
grammarians such forms would be considered as adverbs. 
Whereas in such expressions as in the midst, or from the midst 
of the crowd, they would be called postpositions or prepositions. 
This practice of declining adverbs and postpositions is, however, 
carried to lengths for which no analogy can be found in English. 
Thus myoha, is iate (an adjective), but to coTne late is rendered 
by tulla mydhaan, on account of the idea of motion in the verb. 
To watch late into the night is valvoa mydhalle ydta, and such 
an expression as later on (of a date) is rendered by the essive 

Most, but not all, postpositions, are capable of taking the 
pronominal affixes, with or without a genitive of the personal 
pronoun before them. 

The subjoined list of prepositions and postpositions gives all 
the words considered as falling under these categories by ordinary 
grammars. As a matter of fact, it might very well be either 
enlarged or curtailed, which last would be better, as some of the 
words are substantives in ordinary use. But I have thought it 
better to adhere to the conventional list. 

I. Postpositions and Prepositions used in only one case. 

(i) Ennen (instrumental of ensi). Preposition followed by 
partitive. Before, Ennen Slristuksen syntymaa, before the 
birth of Christ, Ennen aikojansa, before on^s time ; too soon, 
Ennen tuloani, before I came. 

(2) Halki, across. Preposition followed by genitive. Halki 
metsan, through the wood, Ijenti kokko lialM taivon. (Kal. ii. 

(3) Ilman (instrumental of ilma), without, preposition with 
partitive. Ilman apua, vnthout help, 11 man rahaa, vnthovit 
m,oney, 11 man sita, besides. Also used with the abessive. 
Uman muiden avutta, without the help of others, Han otti 


rahat vastaan ilman lukematta, he received the money tmthout 
cov/rUing it, Bman maan alistamatta, nman kasken kaata- 
matta (Kal. ii. 254). 

(4) EAiiBsa, with. Postposition with the genitive. Fojan 
kanssa, with the hoy, Isansa kanasa, with his father. Kanftfta 
takes the pronominal suffixes Miniin kanssani, sinim kansassi, 
hanen kanssansa, etc. Han kulki kanssani koko matkan, he 
went aU the way with me. Fiihiiiko han kanssasi P did he 
speak to you ? 

(5) Kautta (partitive of kausi). Postposition after the 
genitive, through, or by the help of; like kanssa it takes the 
pronominal suffixes. Minim kauttani, by my help. Han on 
tiinnetu isansa kautta, he is known on account of his father. 
Also used as a preposition in the sense of all over. Huhu 
leviaa kautta kaiken kaupungin, th^ rumour spreading over 
the whole city. Kavelimme kylien kautta, toe went through 
the villages. 

(6) Faitsi, besides. Preposition with the partitive. Paitsi 
sinua ei ole minulla yhtaan ystavaa, / have no friend but you. 
Paitsi sita, besides this. Paitsi veljensa apua olisi han 
joutunut hukkaan, he would have been ruined vnthout his 
brother's help. 

(7) Pitkin, along. Preposition with the partitive. Kayda 
pitkin tieta, to go along a road. iLapset juoksentelevat pitkin 
pihpja, th^ children run about in the cov/rts, 

(8) Poikki. Postposition or preposition with genitiVe, across. 
Kulkea joen poikki, to cross the river. Janis juoksi poikki 
tien, the hare ran across the road. 

(9) Puhki. Preposition or postposition, across. iLuoti meni 
puhki lasin, the bvUet came through the glass. 

(10) Suhteen (illative of suhde), postposition with genitive, 
in relation to, compared with. Waha tarpeen suhteen, am^xll for 


one's wants, Falkan suhteen oli tyytyvainen, he was satisfied 
with the rermmeration, 

(11) Takia ( 

m f* ) postposition with genitive, 

- f f^ ^^ *^^ ^^ /^» *^ consequence of, 

Ala miniin tahdeni vaivaa nae, c?o tio^ trouble on my accotmi. 
Kipean jalkani tautta en voi astua, / can't stand on accotmt of 
my bad leg, Nalan tahden, yrom himger, Kauppamies viipyi 
pari paivaa asiansa takia, the merchant waited a couple of days 
for affairs, 

(12) Varten. Preposition with partitive. For, for the use 
of, Isa osti vaatteita lapsiansa varten, the father bov>ght 
clothes for his children, Kouliua varten, for the use of schools, 
Mita varten sina itket P why do you weejp ? 

(13) Vuoksi,/or the sake of for (much the same as tahden). 
Postposition with the genitive. Bahan vuoksi, for money, 
Mina lueskelen huvin vuoksi, / read for pleasure, 

II. Postpositions and Prepositions which are declined in 
several cases. 

(i) The following words, usually considered as cases of a 
nominative ali which is not found, are used as postpositions with 
the genitive to express rest or motion under an object. 

a. Alia, rest under. Fdydan alia, under the table, Faljaan 
taiviraan alia, under the 02)en heaven. Also metaphorically, 
Hanella on suuret maat allansa, large countries are wnd&r 
his dominion, Johdon alia, under the direction of. Oven 
suussa orren alia, Kal. 

h, Alta, motion from under. Koira tuli poydan alta, the 
dog cam>e from u/nder the table, Itse altansa, of oneself Han 
on mies itse altansa, he is a self-made man, Karhu nousi 
petajan alta, the bear got up from under the fir tree. 

c. Alle, motion to the place under an object. Kolra juoksi 


p5ydan alle, the dog rah vmder the UMe, Antaa asia toisten 
tuomion alle, to leave a thing to anotJt^r person* 8 discretion, 
Kala ui sillan alle, the fish swam, vmder the bridge. 

d. Alitse or alatse, expressing motion across a space under 
an object. Iiintu lensi auringon alatse, a bird fisw vmder (or 
across) the svm,, Tli kuun, alitse paivan, above the moon, hvJt 
below the sun» 

(2) From the nominative asen, plaice, come asemessa and 
asemesta, postpositions with genitive, in the place ofi instead of. 
Miehen asemesta, leivan asemesta, instead of a man, bread, 
etc. Talon pojat suorittavat veronsa rahan asemesta vil- 
jassa, th^e peasants pay their ta/xes in com instead of money, 

(3) From esi, the space before an object, are formed the 
following postpositions which require the genitive before them. 

a, Edessa, rest before. Hevonen on reen edessa, the horse 
is {harnessed) in front of the sledge, Ala seise edessani, do not 
stand before me, Filvet ovat kuun edessa, there are clouds 
over the moon, 

b, Edesta, motion from before. Siirtya jonkun edesta, to 
move from before some one, to get out of the way, Edesta is also 
used somewhat loosely to. express for, instead of, etc.; e.g. 
EIristus kuoli meidan synteinune edesta, Christ died for our 
sins. Tee se minun edestani, do it instead ofm£, for me, 

c, Eteen, the illative, expresses motion into the space before 
an object. Wiholliset seisahtuivat leirin eteen, the enemy 
marched up to the camp and halted. When used metaphorically^ 
like edesta, it means for, Isa tekee tyota lastensa eteen, 
the father works for his children, Katsoa eteensa, to look before 
or take care, 

d, Edella expresses rest on a space before an object, and is 
nearly the same as edessa, the only difference being that 
between the inessive and adessive cases. He kavivat minun 


edellani, they walked before me, Frepositionit kaytetaan 
partitivin edella, prepositions are used before the partitive. 

e. Edelle expresses motion into a place before anything. 
Han ajoi hevosensa koko joukon edelle, he drove his horse on 
to a place before all the people, Kmiingas asetti johtajat 
kanBan edelle, the king appointed leaders for the people. 

f. Similarly edelta expresses motion from a place in front of 
anything. Mies laksi toisten edelta, he went from before the 

(3) Joukko, a crowd, nv/mber. 

a. Joukossa, in the crowd or among. Postposition with the 
genitive. Maa ihmisten joukossa, to live among men. Ala 
istu pilkkai^ain joukossa, be not anwng the scornful, 

b. Joukkoon expresses motion into or with. Katosi 
kansan joukkoon, he was lost in this crowd. 

(4) Jalkl, footstep or trace, is used in several cases to mean 
behind, chiefly of motion. 

a. Jalessa, behind, Menna jonkun jalessa, to walk behind 
anyone. Faimen kulkee laumansa jalessa, the shepherd goes 
behind his flock. Tuli minun jalessani, he waJIced behind me. 

b. Jalesta, behind or after, with the idea of motion from. 
Jumalten jalesta ovat ihmiset, men come next to gods. Han 
tuli minun jalestani, he came later than I. Also used in 
exactly the same sense as jalessa. Sen jalesta on iso joki, 
behind it is a big river. 

c. Jalkeen means simply after, the force of the illative case 
having been lost. Kristuksen syntyman jalkeen, after the 
birth of Christ. Minun luuloni jalkeen, according to my 
opinion, KeUo kolmen jalkeen, after three o'clock. Mina 
kiijoiton sanainne jalkeen, / write from yov/r 'dictation. 


(5) BZera, meaning company or society, is used as a poet- 
position with the genitive in the nominative, adessive, and 
allative, in the signification of vnth, or beside, 

a, Kara : — Sen kera, therewith, Istuin isaanan kera, / sat 
toith the master of the house. 

h, Keralla: — Mina menin hanen kerallansa, / went with 
him, Kenenka keralla olette oUeet P with whom were you ? 

c. Keralla : — Tule keralleni, com>e with me. 

(6) Keski, the middle. From this are forme4 the follow- 

a, Kesken. 

i. Preposition with the partitive, or rarely with the genitive, 
in the midst of, Han pysahtyi kesken puhettansa, he stopjped 
in the middle of his speech, Foika itki kesken lauloansa, the 
boy wept in the midst of his song, 

ii. More commonly as a postposition with the genitive. 
Heidan kesken syntyi riita, a controversy arose between them, 
Kahden kesken, tete-h-tete, Olkoon se sanottu kahden kesken, 
let this be between ourselves, Asia on sovittu miesten kesken, 
the matter ha^ been arranged among the men. 

b, Keskena, literally, in the midst, is used with the pro- 
nominal suffixes in a reflexive sense which closely resembles the 
Latin inter se. He pitavat vihaa keskenansa, they hate one 
another. Me sovinune keskenamme, loe became reconciled, 
Filatus ja Herodes tulivat yataviksi keskenansa, FHate and 
Herod were reconciled, 

c, Keskella (dial. Kesella). Preposition with the partitive, 
or postposition with the genitive, in the midst of, Keskella 
kaupunkia or kaupungin keskella, in the middle of the town, 
Keskella virtaa, in the middle of the stream,, Keskella kesaa, 


talvea, y5t&, p&iv&a, in the middle ofmmvfner, winter, the night, 
the day, 

d, Keskelta, from the midst. Preposition with the partitive, 
or, more usually, postposition with the genitive. TuUa keskelt& 
peltoa or pellon keskelta, to corns from tlie middle of the field. 
En nahnyt miesta keskelta huonetta, / did not see the man 
from the middle of the room, 

(7) Kohta, a place {or kohti) gives the following fonns : — 

a. Kohdalla, kohdalta, and kohdalle, denote rest in, or 
motion from and to a place in the vicinity of something else, 
and are postpositions with the genitive. Talc on kirkon 
kohdalla, the hovse is near the church, Ota pois tuolit ikkuTian 
kohdalta, take the chairs away from the window, Katu on 
laaistu talon kohdalta. 

h. Kohtaan, the illative postposition with the partitive, 
means far or in respect of Han on hjrva ystaviansa kohtaan, 
he is good to his friends, Bakkaus Jumalaa kohtaan, love of 
God, Ijapset ovat ndyrat isaansa kohtaan, the children are 
humble before their father, 

c, Kohti, or kohden, postpositions with the partitive. 
Tulla kaupunkia kohti or kohden, to come to the town, Han 
kiilki kotia kohti. Maksetaan viisi markkaa paivassa miesta 

(8) Ijiki. The nominative, adessive, allative, and ablative are 
used to mean near, 

a, Iiiki, preposition with partitive. Talc on liki kaupunkia, 
the house is near the town, Beppana on liki lakea, the sm^oke 
hole is near the roof, 

h, Iiikella \ are used either as prepositions with the 

c, IiikeUe > partitive, or as postpositions with the geni- 

d, Iiikelta / tive. 



Mina asiin kaupungin likella, or better ^ likella kaupunkia, I 
live near the town. And Bimilarly the other two cases are used 
to express motion towards or from the neighbourhood of an 

(9) Ijahi, neighbourhood, is used in the adessive, allative, 
and ablative in exactly the same sense as liki, either as a pre- 
position with the partitive, or as a postposition with the 
genitive. Elirkon lahella or lahella kirkkoa, near the cku/rch, 
etc. Bannan lahella {or lahella rantaa) kasvavat kaihlat. 
Mixia anunuin i^Tmnn aivan laheltani, / shot a bird guUe 
near me, 

(10) Iiuo, which is not found as a substantive in the nomina- 
tive, is used in the essive, partitive, and translative as a post- 
position with the genitive. 

a. The essive, luona, means vnth or at the house of (French 
chez), Ijapset asuivat setanaa luona, the children lived with 
their uncle, 

b. The translative, luoksi, is used to express motion to the 
house or presence of a person. Milloin tulette mlmm. luok- 
seni P when are you coming to see me? Keiscuri kaski ruhti- 
naan tulla hanen luoksensa, the emjperor ordered the prince to 
appear before him, 

c. There is a form luo, no doubt shortened from luoksi and 
really a translative, which is used in the same sense as luoksi. 
Mina menen tuttujeni luo, / am going to see my acquaintances. 

d. The partitive luota denotes motion from the house or 
presence of a person. Iiahettilas tuli keisarin luota, the am- 
bassador cams from the emperor, Milloin laksit hanen luo- 
tansa P when did you leave him ? 

(11) iLapi, lavitse (lapitse), mean across, Iiapi means 
literally a hole. 



a. Iiapi is either a postposition with the genitive, or a pre- 
position with the same case. Kuula meni ^irVmift ii lapi, the 
htUlet came th/r<yugh the window. Aurinko paistaa lapi ikku- 
nan, the sun shines through the window^ Katosi lapi kasien^ 
it fdl through his hands and was lost, 

h, Iiapitse or lavitse, the prolative, is used in much the same 
sense, expressing a motion along and through an object. Nuoli 
tunkesi seinan lapitse, the arrow passed through the wall. Ei 
puhalla tuuli turkin lavitse, the wind does not pierce th/rough 
a fur. 

(12) Muka, nearness or likeness. 

a. Miiassa, unth. Postposition with genitive. Kulkea 
muiden muassa, to journey in company with others. Ei 
minulla oUut rahoja muassani, / had no money about me. 

h. The essive mukana is also used in the same sense. Kuka 
on siniin mnkanasi P who is with you ? 

c. Mukaan, postposition with the genitive, means with, or 
according to, agreeably to, after, I^ahtea toisten mukaan, to go 
with the others. Tehkaa kaskyn mukaan, do as you are bid. 
Keuvon mukaan, according to the admce. ljuonnon mukaan, 
naturally. Tapansa mukaan, according to his custom. Koetti 
han kasvattaa itsensa Turgenjevin naistyyppien mukaan, she 
tried to form herself aft^r Tv/rgenieff's female types. 

(13) a, MjdtA, postposition with genitive, meaning ujith. 
Onko rahoja miesten mydta P have the men money with them ? 
Han ei ottanut aseita mydtansa, he did not take the arms with 

b. Mydten, postposition with partitive, meaning along or 

according to. Kayda tieta myoten, to follow a road. Tahtoasi 

mydten, as you wish. Virta paisui ayraitansa myoten, the 

river flowed by its batiks. 

P a 



(14) Ohi, ride^ forms the following postpositions with the 

a. Ohessa, at the side of. Isttd tien ohessa, he mt hytkt 
wayside, Mutui ohessa puhui, among other things he said, 

h, Ohesta, from the side, rarely used. Kousi tien ohesta, ht 
rose from the way side. 

* J Similarly ohella {or ohilla), ohelta, and oheen in 
I much the same sense, hy the side ofov with. 

Han kulM minnn ohellani, he cam^ with me. Aani kuului tien 
ohelta, a noise was heard from the road. Iso kivi on peUon 
ohella, there is a big stone hy the field. Istautui tien oheen, he 
sat down hy the wayside, 

f. Ohitse or ohi expresses motion along or by the side of any- 
thing. Kulkea jonkun ohitse, to pass a person. Me ajoimme 
heidan ohitsensa {or ohi), we drove hy them. Amnmin Hmmi-n 
ohitse, / missed {shot heside) the bird, 

(15) Fera, the exi/reme or hinder part of anything, forms post- 
positions with the genitive. 

a, Ferassa, hehind. iLapsi kay isan perassa, tJie child toalks 
hehind the father. Sairaswaunut kulkevat sotajoiikon perassS, 
the amhukmce goes hehind the army. 

h. Ferasta, hehind or after, generally implying that the 
second object depends on the first, which is thus a point 
of departure. Sen perasta, afterwards. Toinen toisensa 
per&sta, one after another. Kolmen wuoden perasta, after 
three years. 

c. Feraan, after, implying motion. Menna Jonkun pera&n, 
to go to look for some one, Eatsoa lapsen peralbi, to look after 
the children. Miksi ette lahettaneet miniin peraani P why did 
you not send for me? 


(16) The local cases of Fuoli, a half or side, are used as post- 
positions with the genitive. 

a. Puolessa, at or rUar. Tiirun puolessa, rowid Twrku 
{Abo). Fohjan, idan puolessa, in the North, in the East. 

h. Fuolesta, from the side of or for, on behalf of Fuhua 
itsensa puolesta, to ejpeak for oneself Se tapahtukoon minun 
puotestaniy it can be done as far as I am concerned. Sen 
puolesta, etta . . . , for this reason, that .... Han nousi 
maansa puolesta, he rose up for his fatherland. 

c. PuoleUa, on the side of. Tuuli on idan puolella, the wind 
is in the East. Olla kuninJkaan puolella, to be on the king's 
side, N.£. tolsella puolella followed by partitive. Toisella 
puolella jarvea, on the other side of the lake, 

d. Fuolelta» from the side of, from. Tull syttyi tuulen 
puolelta, thefwe bwmt in the side when the wind blew. 

e. Fuolelle, to the side of, to, Monna wihoUisten puolelle, 
to go over to the ensmy, 

f. Puoleen, to the side of, to, Katsoa jonkun puoleen, to 
look towards a person, Kenenka puoleen minun olisi k&annyt- 
tava P to whom shall I tfwm ? 

(17) Fa&, the head or eoctremity, forms postpositions with the 

a. Faassa 

b. Faasta \ are used to express a distance or limit in space. 

c. Faahan 

Kuula menee kahden vlrstan paahan, the bvMet carries two 
miles, Suomen raja on jonkun penikulman paassa Fietarlsta, 
the Finnish frontier is some miles from Petersbwrg, Mina tunsin 
tulijan vliden kymmenen sylen p&asta, / recognised the new 
comer from several yards^ distance. Viholllnen on vlrstan 
paassa, the enemy is a mile off, Fa&st& is also used of time. 
Viikon paasta, after a week. 



d, Faalla 'v x* i j. j.» r i. 

I express respectively rest on, motion from above 

I or into the space above an object. 

Olla veden paalla, to float. Tuuli on meren paalta, the wind 
comes from the sea, Iientaa katon paalle, to fly on to the roof. 
On sadekaapu palttoon paalla, there is a cape on the great 

(18) Binta, breast or side, forms postpositions with the 

a, Binnalla ) , • > i • i /• 

V expressing rest by, or motion to the side of. 
0. Hinnalle J 

Foika istuu isansa rinnalla, the hoy sits by his father's side. 

Iiaskea joku jonkun rinnalle, to jovt soms one by som^ one else, 

i. e. to compare. Ala pyri hanen rinnallensa, strive not to he 

like him, 

Jos arrossa ma oisin 

Ja rikkahitten rinnalla. — Popular song, 

(19) Seka, a mixture or collection^ forms postpositions with 
the genitive. 

a. seassa \ SZiiltaa kolta rikkojenkiii seasta, gold glitters 
h, seasta > in what one throws away, Fanna inretta wii- 
c. sekaan / nin sekaan, to mix water vnth vnne, Ihrnisten 
seassa, arrumg m^en, Seassamme, hetween us. 

(20) Sisa, the interior, is used as a postposition in all the 
local cases. 

a SisassA \ 

Oletko oUut taman huoneen sisassa, have 

h, Sisasta 

c. Sisaan 

d. Sisalla 

e. Sisalta 
/. Sisalle ^ 

you been in this room f Karme tuli puun 

. sisasta, the snake cams out of the tree. Onko 

kirkon sisalla paljo vakea, are there many 
people in the church ? 


(21) Taka, meaning ^Ae apace behind anything, forms post- 
positions with the genitive. 

a. Takaa (partitive), from behind or after, Han tuli oven 
takaa, he came from behind the door. Iso honka nakyy 
koivyjen takaa, there is a great fir behind the beeches, Wuoden 
takaa, after a year. It means also according to, Woimansa 
takaa, according to one's power ; with all one's might, 

b. Takana (essive), behind, Kayda jonkiin takana, to go 
behind or follow any one. Seisoa seinan takana, to stand 
behind the wall, Bahat on takanani, the money is in my kee})^ 
ing, Olla turvan takana, to be under the protection of 

e. Translative — taaksi, taakse, taa, back, backwards, or 
across, Katsoa taaksensa, to look backwards, Ijahtea meren 
taaksi (or taa), to go across the sea, Aurinko laskeutuu 
vuorten taa^ the sun sets behind the mountains, 

(22) Sisapuoli, interior, is used in the adessive, ablative, and 

a, Sisapuolella Suomalaiset kanssaheimot eivat asU 
Traiirlri suomen rajain sisapuolella, all the Finnish tribes do 
not live within the Finnish frontier. 

b, Kuuluiko aani huoneen sisapuolelta P was the voice 
heard within the room f 

c, Palm en ajoi lampaat aitauksen sisapuolelle, the shepherd 
drove the sheep into the sheepfold, 

(23) Tykd, nearness, forms postpositions with the genitive 
which have exactly the same meaning as the corresponding cases 
of luo. Tykoa, from ; tyd, to (e. g. mina tulen miehen tyd) ; 
tykona, at or with. The form tyd is due to the fact that a 
termination, probably that of the translative, has been lost. It 
is only used dialectically. 


(24) Ulkopuoli (cf. siaapuoli), the exterior^ is used in the 
adeesive, allative, and ablative as either a preposition with the 
partitive or a postposition with the genitive. Kaupungin ulko- 
puolella or ulkopuolella kaupunkia, outside the town> Simi- 
larly are employed the other cases to e?q>res8 motion to ch: from 
the outside of anything. 

(25) Vasta, the place opposite anything, 

a, Vastassa, postposition with the genitive, means opposite^ 
famng. H&nen vastassansa, opposite him. Toistensa vastassa 
olevat kaupnngit, the cities lie facmg each other. 

h. Vastaan, postposition with the genitive, has the same 
meaning with the idea of motion towards added, which how- 
ever seems to disappear in many metaphoiical uses. Menna 
isan vastaan, to meet ones father. Mina en ole edta vastaan, 
/ am not against that. Tehda kaskya vastaan, to disobey a 
command, Sita vastaan, on the other hand. 

c. Vastoin (instructive plural) is a preposition with the 
partitive, meaning against or contrary to. Vastoin virtaa, 
tuiilta, against the river, the vnnd. Vastoin tahtoani, against 
my wish, Alkaa pakoittako tyttarianne vastoin mielta, d^ 
not compel your da/ughters against their wiU. Vastoin lakia, 
against the law. 

d, Vasten ^ (instructive singular from a form vasti), preposi- 
tion or postposition with the partitive, is used in much the same 
sense as vastoin, but means also (i) ahov;ty towards. E.g. ala 
1yd poikaA vasten silmia, dont hit the hoy about the eyes, Han 
sai vasten silmansa, he got one in the eye ; (2) as a postposition 
with the genitive it means for, on a^icouM of, Moni tekee 
tydta ainoastansa omaa hydtyansa vasten, many work only 
for their own profit. But varten is better in this sense. 

^ Vasiten or vaseten occurs in dialects. 


e, Vaatapaata is nsed in the meaning of opposite or via-h^s, 
as a preposition with the partitive. Kirkko on rakennettu 
vastapaata raastupaa, the chwrch is opposite the court-hotMe, 

(26) Vali, the midst, forms postpositions with the genitive. 
All the local cases are used : V&liBsa, valistft, v&liin, valilla, 
valille, valitse. Klrkon ja pappilan v&lilla on maantie, there 
is a road between the church and the parsonage. Kansan valitse, 
through the midst of the people. Sane hanelle suoraan edlmien 
valiin, teU him to his face, 

(27) Yli; meaning the place ahove anything, is nsed in various 
forms as a preposition or a postposition with the genitive. 

a. ITli (i) as a preposition with the genitive expresses exist- 
ence above an object; e.g. Pilvet liitavat yli meren, yli 
maan, the clouds glide over land and sea, Yli paamme on 
kirkas taivas, the bright heaven is above i^. We also find 
expressions like kello on yli viiden, it is after Jive 0* clock. It 
also expresses metaphorically pre-eminence. Han on kunnioi- 
tettava yli muiden, he is more honourable than the rest. It is 
used metaphorically in such expressions as yli wuoden, more 
than a year ; maata yli aikansa, to sleep too long, Yli sen mita 
ennen on maksettu, what has been paid in addition to previous 

(2) Yli is also used as a postposition with the genitive, and as 
such expresses motion over a thing, so that the object moving 
remains temporally above it. Matto on levitetty koko lattian 
yli, the carpet is spread over all the floor, Han tuli wahan yli 
puoliwaliin matkaa, he came a little over half way. Han 
katseli olan yli, he looked over his shoulders, 

b. Ylitse (prolative) expresses motion over and across an 
object. Fuijehtia meren ylitse, to sail across the sea, Kiin 
p&asisi taman raskaan ajan ylitse, wJien one has got over these 
hard times. 


c. Y11& \ literally expressing rest on, and motion from or to 

d. Tlta V the space above an object, are used as postpositions 

e. Ylle / with the genitive to express the wearing, putting 
on or taking off of clothes. Pojan ylla on uusi takki, the hoy 
has a new coat on, Hanella on waatteet yllansa, he has clothes 
on, Biisua waatteet yltansa, to take off one's clothes. Panna, 
pukea yllensa ; to put on clothes, Cf. oli loassa ylta paalta 
(adverb), to he dirty from head to foot, 

(28) Tmpari, the space surrounding, gives the following forms. 

a. Tmpari is used as ^ postposition with the genitive Iiaiva 
puijehti maan ympari, the ship sailed round the land. It is 
also used as a preposition with the genitive or partitive in much 
the same sense. Riittiko oma leipa ympari vuoden P is your 
own com ewmghfor the year f 

h. ITmparllla \ are postpositions with the genitive expressing 
c, Tmparilta > rest in, motion from or to the space round an 
d, TmpariUe / object. 
Kuori on puiin ymparilla, the tree has hark round it, Panna 
sontaa puun ymparille, to manure a tree, Metsat ovat kadon- 
neet kaupungin ymparilta, the forests have heen cut down rotmd 
the town, Miksi on kaare sormesi ymparilla P why have you 
a handage on yov/r Jmger ? Ota huivi kaulan ymperilta, take 
the handkerchief from round your neck, 


As has been explained, the negative in Finnish only exists in 
combination with the personal pronouns as a negative verb, and 
there is no word corresponding to no or not. This peculiarity 
naturally makes the structure of negative sentences different 
from that of other languages. 

(i) The answer * no ' to a question must be rendered by the 
proper person of the negative verb, with or without the root of 


the verb negative. To the questioa TulettekoP are you 
coming 9 the negative answer is en tule or en, if one person is 
referred to, but emme tule or emme, if more than one. 
Similarly, to tulevatko lapset P are the children coming ? the 
negative reply must be eivat tule or eivat. 

(2) If a sentence contains such words as never ^ no one^ 
nothing, nowhere, etc., they are expressed by using the proper 
person of the negative verb, with the proper case of the inter- 
rogative pronoun or the interrogative adverb, which receive the 
termination kaan or kaan, sometimes shortened into aan or 
aan. Emme ole nahneet ketakaan or ketaan, we have seen no 
one, Missa olette kayneet P !Bn missakaan, where have you 
been ? Nowhere, Onko han koska ollut Helsingissa P El 
koskaan {or El miUoinkaan) has he ever been to HeUmgfors f 
No, never, 

(3) It is clear that as the negative is always joined to a per- 
sonal pronoun, sentences where it qualifies an infinitive in most 
languages (for instance, it wovM be better not to go) cannot by 
any means be rendered literally in Finnish. Such sentences are 
turned quite differently, the chief device being to use the 
abessive of inf. Ill ; for instance, 1 advise you not to go, mina 
kehoitan teita, alkaa menko, or olemaan menematta. Olisi 
parempi olla kiijoittamatta, it would be better not to write. 
The house is not sold, talc on mydmatta (but ei ole myoty is 
also possible). The present is not given, lahja on antamatta 
(or ei ole annettu). You need not go, ei sinun pida menna 
(where ei negatives pida not menna), or sinun pitaa o^a 
menematta. You will have to go away and not see your sister, 
teidan pitaa matkustaa pois sisartanne nakematta. 

Sentences are occasionally found where ei apparently nega^ 
tives an infinitive. E. g. S. John vii. 34, Teidan pitaa minua 
etsiman ja ei Idytaman, ye shall seek me and not find me. 


But this construction is really elliptical for ja ei pida Idy- 

Neyertheless this use of the negative verb with an infinitive 
or participle is occasionallj found, even in the Kalevala ; e. g. 
xxviii. 262, Sie vanno valat ikuiaet . . . . ei sotia kayakseai, 
swear eternal oaths .... tluU thou willst not go to war. And 
immediately afterwards, Vannon mie valat vakaiset En 
kesana ensinmiaisna .... Saa'a suurihin sotihin, / swear 
firm oaths that in the first summer .... 7 vnU not go to war. 
Here kayakaesi and saa'a (for kaydaksesi and aaada) are 
infinitives constructed with ei and en. In the first passage et 
would have seemed more natural. So again in xliii. 237, 
Sanoit et kayvasi sotoa, thou, saidst thou wouldst not go to 
war. As these constructions do not seem capable of being 
explained by the principles of Finnish syntax, they are probably 
due to the influence of foreign languages. 


If an interrogative sentence does not contain an interrogative 
pronoun or adverb, its character is ma;rked by adding the par- 
ticle ko or kd to some word in the sentence. Thus one says 
menetteko kotiinP are you going horns 9 But in such sen- 
tences as mihin menette P or kuka menee P it is unnecessary 
to use ko, as the sentence already contains a word which makes 
its interrogative character clear. It will be noticed that this use 
of ko is exactly similar to that of jh in Russian. 

The termination ko, kd is added to the word on which the 
chief interrogative stress is laid. 

Tiedatteko mihin han on lahtenyt P do you know where 
he is gone ? Isakd sen sanoi P was it the fiuher who said so f 
Meritseko aiotte matkustaa P are you thinking of going by 
sea ? 


In a negative question the termination ko is always attached 
to the negative verb. Ettekd ole nahneet h&nta P Aave ywi 
not seen him ? Eiko jo laTrkn^ satamaata P hasn't it stopped 
raining yet ? 

In a disjunctive question the particle ko, ko is attached to 
the first alternative which is connected with the second by the 
word vad. Poikako se on vai tjrttd P is that a hoy or a girl 9 

But if there are two verbs in the sentence ko or kd is added 
to each. Onko han viela kotona vai laksikd P is he stiU at 
home or has he sta/rted 9 

In such a sentence as, Are you coming or not 9 one can Bay 
either Ihiletteko vai ette P or, tuletteko vai ettekd tule P 

The manner of giving a negative reply has been described 
above. Though there are two words, ja and niin (instr. plural 
of se), which can be used for ' yes,' the usual way of giving an 
affirmative reply is, to repeat the word which in the question 
has ko attached to it. Tuliko pappi P has the priest corns 9 
Tuli, yes. 


Causal, temporal and consecutative sentences offer no special 
peculiarities, being introduced by the conjunctions given in the 
accidence and having the verb in the indicative mood. The 
particle etta is generally combined with the negative verb: 
etten, ettet, ettei, etc. 

Concessive sentences, introduced by vaikka, vaikkapa, or 
jos kohta, have the verb in either the indicative or the con- 
ditional. Han oli niin kdyha ettei ollut mita syoda, he was 
so poor that he had nothing to eat.^ Vaikka nain hanta usein, 
kun olin Pietarissa (or Fietarissa olessani), emme kuitenkaan 
ole tutut, though I often saw him when I was at Petersburg, we 
were not well acqvmnted. Vaikka han vannoisi en sittekaan 
uskoisi, though he should swear I would not believe him. 


The first member of a conditional sentence is introduced by 
JOB, or, if negative, by Jollen, ellen (jollet, jollei, etc., ellet, 
ellei, etc.). The second is often introduced by niin. In such 
sentences as if 7 go, he will come, where the realization of the 
condition is considered as certain, the indicative is used — Jos 
menen niin ban tulee. But where the realization is doubtfol 
the conditional present is employed, and where it is no longer 
possible the conditional past. If I were to go, he wovM comty 
jos menisin, niin ban tulisi. If I had gone, he would have 
come, JOB mina olisin mennyt, niin ban olisi tullut. 

Final sentences are introduced by etta or Jotta, or in the 
negative form by etten, ettet, ettei, etc. The verb is in the 
conditional. As has been described above (pp. 192 and 198) 
final sentences can also be rendered by infinitives and participles, 
nmoittakaat minulle etta minakln tulisin Ja kumartaiBin 
hanta (S. Matt. ii. 8), tell me, that I may come and worship 
him. Han kavelee ettei viluBtuiBi, he walks that he may not 
catch cold, 


A sentence in oratio obliqua can be rendered by the parti- 
cipial constructions above described, or by a sentence beginning 
with etta, that. In this latter case the sentence is constructed 
exactly as in English. 

Han sanoi ettei se ole varma, mutta etta koettaiai tiedustaa 
tarkemmin, he said it was not certain, btU that he would 
endeavour to obtain m>ore accurate information, Mina kysyin 
hanelta oliko han kuullut etta yBtavani oli kuollut ja pyysin 
etta han kiijoittaisi, / asked him if Tie had hea/rd that my 
friend was dead, and begged him to lorite. 

The word muka is often used to denote that a statement rests 
not on the authority of the speaker but of some one else. 

Han ei tahtonut viipya : oli muka kovin vasykBissa, he did 


910^ wavi to wait, saying he wa^ very tired, Luulevat hanen 
veljensa tiilevan : han oli muka kiijoittanut JollekuUe, people 
think his brother is coming : it is said he has toritten to some one. 
Han eroitti palvelijansa se kun oli muka varas, he dismissed 
his servant because he was a thief (according to his master's 


There are two main dialects of Finnish, the Western, which 
has produced the modem literary language, and the Eastern, 
in which the Kalevala is written. There are also many 
others of which perhaps the most important is that called 
the Savolaks dialect, which is hardly a literary language, though 
in the *Lbnrotin Albumi,' p. 286, there is a story called 
' Keisarin tuttu' written in it. It appears to be characterized 
by a great fondness for the sound of i, which is added to other 
vowels ; e. g. tialla for taalla, hian for han. On the other hand 
i is often apparently shortened to a semivowel, merely modify- 
ing the previous consonant ; e, g. olj for oil. The letter d does 
not occur, but is represented by j or v, meijanni for meidankin, 
kayva for kayda. The dialect would seem to be generally 
characterized by a soft and rather thick utterance. Olen 
becomes oun and olotte, outta. V is frequently doubled ; e. g. 
hywee paivee, and o is often used for a ; e, g. mokomoo for 
mokomaa. So also we have forms like soatanoo for saatanee, 
pankoo for pankaa. The root of verbs has the letter k added 
in the negative and imperative forms : en annak, arrnak. 

On the Eastern frontier of Finland and in the adjoining parts 
of the Bussian Government of Olonetz is spoken a dialect called 
Karelian, which in its present form is much corrupted by the 


influence of Bnssia. The Kalevala, however, which was mostly 
collected in this part of the world, is written in a pure Finnish 
dialect, which has come to he accepted as the ordinary language 
of poetical composition. 

The chief peculiarities of the dialect of the Kalevala are as 
follows ^ : — 

I. The letter d does not exist. T disappears altogether in 
the cases where in the ordinary dialect it is softened to d. 
For instance — saa'a (saada), poyan (poydan), tiean (tiedan), 
tahon (tahdon), kahen (kahden), yhen (yhden), puhas 
(puhdas), ouoiUe (oudoiUe), eella, eessa (edella, edessa), sio 

II. Similarly the letter k is dropped altogether when in 
literary Finnish it either becomes j or remains unchanged. 

(i) Ik, rk in a closed syllable become simple 1 and r, not 
Ij, ij : e. g. Jalen for jaljen (jaUd), kulen for kuljen. 

(2) sk and tk, which are not subject to softening in 
ordinary Finnish, become s and t in closed syllables : kosen for 
kosken, kaaelle for kaskelle, ltettav& for itkettava. 

ni. rt, It are not assimilated in the infinitive of verbs of 
conj. 3 : kuulta, surten for kuulla, surren^ 

ly. The pronominal affixes do not always prevent consonants 
being softened as in ordinary Finnish : i^ansa for aikansa, 
ianl for ikanl. 

V. Where long vowels and diphthongs are the result of con- 
traction, the Kalevala employs dissyllabic forms. These con- 
tracted forms in ordinary Finnish may be divided into two 

^ I should say that in this account I am deeply indebted to the 
Finnish introduction to the edition of the Kalevala, published in 1887 
at Helsingfors. 


(o) The long vowel is the result of the omission of h (repre- 
senting an original 8 or other consonant) between the two com- 
ponent vowels. In such cases the Kalevala always employs 
the fuller and more primitive forms with h. So we have 
vierahan for the literary vleraan, kotihin for kotiin, kayahan 
for kaydaan (d omitted). 

(6) But there are a number of cases where the long vowels 
aa and aa in ordinary literary Finnish are not the result of 
the omission of h. Under these circumstances the Kalevala 
has oa instead of aa and ea instead of aa. Thus the partitive 
singular of kala is formed by suffixing a — that is kala-a. In 
ordinary Finnish this gives kalaa (dissyllabic)^ but in the Kale- 
vala we .find kaloa. This form may be compared with the 
partitive plural, kaloja, where a becomes o in ordinary Finnish. 
It is to be noted however that the change to oa occurs in the 
Kalevala even when the vowel of the first syllable is a — oroa 
for oraa. 

The instances of this change fall under three categories : 

(i) Partitive cases of nouns and adjectives : aikoa for adkaa) 
ilmoa for ilmaa, luutoa for tuutaa, palvea for paivaa, terea 
for teraa. 

(2) The first infinitive of verbs : ajoa for ajaa, elea for elaa, 
lentea for lentaa, pitea for pitaa. 

(3) Contracted verbs of class 3 : arvoan for arvaan, lupoan 
for lupaan, lepeamatta for lepaamatta. 

VI. The plural (except the nom.) is sometimes formed with 
the suffix -lol, before the case suffix. This form is used chiefly 
in words ending in o, 6, u, y, i, and e; e.g. rekiloita, 
ristiloita, lukkololta, mahtiloita. 

VII. The style of the Kalevala is characterized by the fre- 
quent use of derivative forms from nouns ending in o, nen (or 



onen), yt (or ut), and jkainen. These fprms have «. diminu- 
tive or ^ndeari^g gignificwci^. They are mostly quite incapable 
of translation i^to EngU^, but correspond to the Russian 
diminutives. E.g. j^om emU are formed emo, emonen, and 
emyt : from ina^ iso, iaonen, and ii^ : from kaunis, kauno, 
kaunokainen or kaunukainen ; from k^sa, kesoiieii and keayt : 
from meri, meronen and meryt : from neiti, neitinen, neito, 
neitonen, xieiyt, and neityinen: from puu, puuhut: from 
paiva, paivdnen and paivyt: frt)m veli, velo, vello, veljyt, 
vejjo, veito, veitpnen, veikko, and veikkonen. 

We also find a great quantity of derivative verbs ending in 
ella, skella, al^ta, alta, etc., in which the exact force of the 
syllable added is often obscure. 

VIII. In verbs the 3rd person sing, of the present is formed 
with the suffix vi, a weakening of the original pi used in mono- 
syllables. E. g. tekevi, ajattelevi, sanovl, ajavl, kaatelovi. 
But in monosyllablea pi is always used, uipi, saapi. 

IX. Some verbal stems ending in a or a reject this vowel 
before t, k, n, and are conjugated as if they belonged to the third 
class. Thus loytaa forms the past participle Idynnyt for 
Idytanyt: tietaa forms concessive tiennen and past part, 
tiennyt. So seista, seiskaamme, seissut from seise. 

X. In the formation of the passive many verbs ending in ta, 
ta reject this syllable and also the consonant n, if it precedes. 
Ijdytaa makes the passive stem loytta instead of loydetta : 
rakentaa, raketta for rakennetta : kuumentaa, kuumetta for 

XL The conjugation of the reflexive verbs (as already men- 
tioned) offers a mass of forms unknown to literary Finnish, which 
sometimes also occur in verbs which are not strictly reflexive. 

The chief terminations found in these verbs are : — 

Indicative present J 

Sing. I. me or ime— luome, kaivaime. 

2. tet, Itet, or te-*pi8tcltet. 

3. kse, ikse, or ksen — astuikse, istuikBe, astoiksen/ 


Sing. I. ime-^annoime, siirrime, Biirraime. 

2. ihet or ihit — ^astelihet, suorihet. 

3. ike or iin — i^oihe, loihe, vetihe, pistihe, rikkolhe, 

The termination ime is also found in the ist pers. sing, of 
the conditional and ihe in the 3rd sing, of the concessive and 
conditional. The 2nd sing, of the Imper. often ends in te or 
ite — veaite (veda itsesi), laskeite, paneite. The inf. of such 
verbs generally ends in ita ; e. g. vetalta. Barely are found 
such forms as kuolkosl, kaotkosi for kaoUos, etc. 

XTT. The negative verb frequently follows instead of pre- 
ceding the root which it negatives ; e. g. oisi en paljo pitanyt, 
maha et lausua lapiksi. 

Xin. The style of the Ealevala is characterized by a general 
absence of conjunctions and connecting particles, but on the other 
hand abounds in syllables used merely to give emphasis or quite 
pleonastlcally. Such are the suffixes pa, pa, han, han, kana. 
The word on is used in the same way ; e. g. juop' on vanha 
Wainamdinen. Tuop' on Pol\jalan emanta sanan virkkol. 
Enpa anna tyttdani. 

XTV. A number of other differences from the literary dialect 
occur, some of which may be classified as follows : — 

(i) Contracted essives, where the ordinary language prefers 


the full form : lasna for lapsena ; nuorra for nuorena ; suurra 
for suurena. 

(2) In pronouns ma, ma, or mie for mina ; sa, sa, sie for 
sina ; milma, silma for minua, fdnua ; miosta for minxusta ; 
siulle for sinulle, ka or ken for knka, mi for mika. 

(3) From the verb olla are found 00 for ole ; oisi for olisi ; 
lie, liet for lienee, lienet ; liekkd for lieneeko. 

(4) The imperf. ends in ti where in ordinary Finnish it is 
softened to si: kjrnti, Idyti, kaati, pyyti for kyncd, Idysi, 
kaasi, pyysi. 

XV. The syntax of the Kalevala is marked by extreme sim- 
plicity in its main features. This is natural in popular poetry, 
and, besides, the system of versification (short lines of eight 
syllables generally containing a complete sentence) and the 
tendency to parallelism and repetition, were all unfavourable to 
the growth of long and involved phrases. On the other hand, 
the sentences of the Kalevala are often difficult to understand 
on account of their irregularity. Not only are the boldest in- 
versions and omissions permitted (e. g. Emo tuosta itkemahan 
for rupeed itkemahan), but words are frequently strung together 
in so loose a manner that, though the thought is plain, it is 
almost impossible to analyse the sentence grammatically. For 
instance, xl. 401, Anna luoja, sue Jumala, Anna onni oUak- 
semme, Hyvin ain' eleaksemme, kunnialla kuollakBemme. 
This clearly means, grcmt that we may he ^osperous, live well 
and die gloriously, but it is almost impossible to explain it 
grammatically. Such a tendency to be more careful of the 
general sense than of the separate words and their correct 
relation to one another, is very natural in a poem whose authors 
were ignorant of grammar and had' probably no written litera- 
ture before them. It is accompanied in the Kalevala by a 
habit of repeating the same idea under immerous synonyms 


for the sake of emphasis and of creating new words for the 
sake of parallelism or alliteration, which have sometimes a 
meaning and bear testimony to the flexibility and fecundity of 
the language, but sometimes are absolutely unmeaning. Thus 
in Kal. xi. 55 we have Enk& lahe Inkerelle, Penkerelle, pan- 
kerelle. Here pankerelle means nothing at all, but is simply 
a kind of repetition of penkerelle. Similarly Kal. xlviii. 100, 
Ihvenia, ahvonia, Tuimenia, taimenia. Ihvenia and Tui- 
menia are meaningless words. 





1. Alussa ^ oli ' Sana '^ ja * se ' Sana ' oli ' Jumalan ^ tykon'a ' 
ja * Jumala * oli * se * Sana '. 

2. Tama ® oli ' aluBsa * Jumalan ''* tykona ''. 

3. Kaikki'ovat'^ sen " kautta " tehdyt " jaMlman" sita" 
ei ^« ole ^« mitaan " tehty ^« joka " tehty " on ". 

4. Hanessa ^ oli * elama '* ja * elama ** oli * ihmisten ^ 
valkeus '^ 

5. Ja* se' valkeus*' pimeydessa^* paistaa**^ jota^ ei^' 
pimeys ** kasittanyt ^, 

6. Yksi ^ mies «« oU «« lahetetty '<» Jumalalta «' jonka »« nimi '' 
oli ' Johannes '*. 

N.B. When a rule is cited by a number, this refers to the nombered 
phonetic rules from page 6 to page x8. 

1 Inessive sing, of alkn, formed with sufi&x a (p. 45) ; verb alkaa, to 
be^in ; alkussa becomes alussa by rule 27. ^ 3rd pers. sing, imperf. 

of olla, to he (p. 73). ^ Nom. sing, identical with stem ; cf. verb 

sanoa, to speak, * Conjunction borrowed from the Swedish, and. 

^ Nominative of demonstr. pron. (p. 59) used almost like article (p. 166). 
« Jumala, gen. Jumalan, God, ^ Essive sing, of tykd ; postposition 

governing Jumalan (p. 215). ' Nominative sing, of demonstr. pron. 

(p. 58). • Nominative plur, vdthout term. (pp. 61 and 170). *® 3rd 
pers. plur. pros, of olla (p. 7a). ^^ Ge». sing, of demonstr. se (p. 59). 

^^ Kautta, postposition governing gen« sen (p. 204). ^' tehty, past 

part. pass, of root teke (rule 41) ; nominative plur. tehdjrt (rule 32). 
Here the participle is used in combination with ovat to form perf. passive 
(P» 74)« '* Preposition governing the partitive sita (p. 203). 

" Partitive sing, of demonstr. pron. se. ^ ei ole tehty, negative perf. 

passive of root teke (p. 74). ^^ Partitive sing, of mika with suffix 



1. In-the-beginning was the-Word, and the Word was with 
Ood, and the Word was God. 

2. That was in-the-beginning with God. 

3. All were made through Him, and without Him was not 
anything made which was made. 

4. In-Him was life, and the-life was the-light of-men. 

5. And that light shineth in-the-darkness, which the-dark- 
ness comprehended not. 

6. A man was sent from-God whose name was John. 

an (pp. 61 and 219). For explanation of use of partitive here v, p. 183. 
" Nom. sing, of rel. pron. ^" 3rd pers. sing. pres. of oUa. ** Iness. 

sing, of personal pron. han. '^ Nom. sing, formed from root ela with 

suffix ma (p. 45). '^ Gen. plur. of ihminen declined like toinen 

(P' 35)« ^ Stem valkeute (nominative -ns, p. 36) formed by adding 

affix ute to root valke (cf. valkea, white or fire, and valjeta). ^ Stem 
pimeyte, nominative pimeys ; substantive formed from pimea, dark, 
analogous to valkeus, but with soft termination ; pimeydessa is inessive 
sing. ^ 3rd pers. sing. pres. of root paista. '* Jota, part. sing, 

of relative pron. object of negative verb (p. 127). " 3rd sing, negative 
imperf. (p. 70) of verbal root kasita, to grasp or understand (exact equiva- 
lent of comprehendere). *' Yksi, onBy here used as the indefinite article, 
p. 51. •* Nominative sing, of stem miehe, man, ^ Plupf. 

passive of lahettaa, to send; pres. passive lahetetaan, past part, -etty 
(p. 67). *^ Ablative sing, of Jnmala, God. '* Genitive sing, of 

relative pron. joka. ^ Nominative sing, of stem nime. ^* Nomi- 

native sing, of stem Johannekse (p. 36). 


7. 8e»« tuli»« siita" valkeudesta '« todistamaan '• etta^' 
kaikki ^ nskoisivat ^^ hanen ^^ kauttansa ^. 

8. Ei** haii« oUut** se» valkeus** mutta" han*» oli'« lah- 
etetty '® valkeudesta *• todistamaan '•. 

9. Sc*" oli' totinen*' valkeus" joka** valiataa** kaikki* 
ihmiset *• jotka ^ maailmaan ** tulevat "'. 

10. Se*" oli* maailmassa " ja* maailma^ on*' hanen *^ 
kauttansa ^ tehty *' ja * ei " maailma •* hanta "• tnntenut **. 

1 1 . Hiin *" tuli ^ omillensa *' ja * ei •* hanen *' omansa ^ hanta ** 
ottaneet *® vastaan "'. 

12. Mutta** niille", jotka*® hanen *^ ottivat®^ vastaan*', 
antoi*^ han*" voiman** Jumalan * lapsiksi** tulla** jotka*® 
uskovat ^ hanen ^' nimensa ^ paalle •* ; 

13. Jotka*® ei''® veresta*" eika^® lihan'* tahdosta*^ ei^® m/ds^* 
miehen '^* tahdosta "^^ mutta ** Jumalalta '* syntyneet ^ ovat^. 

^ Dem. pron. used as pen. pron. (p. 166). ** 3rd edng. iiiq)erf. of foot 

tule, p. 95. ^"^ Elative sing, of pron. se. ^ Elative sing, of noinma- 
tive valkeus, for use of case, r. p. 144. ^* Illative of 3rd infin. of verbal 
stem todista, ist infin. todistaa, for constr. v. p. 194. ^ Particle used 
here with conditional, v. for constr. p. 179. ^^ 3rd pers. plur. ccMliditioDal 
of tukoa, to believe. *^ lianen, gen. sing, of 3rd pers. pron. depending 

upon ** the postposition kautta with the affix of the 3rd person. 
Notice that throughout this extract (w. 10, la, 14) the genitive of 
the pers. pron. is used as well as the suffix, v. p« 164. ^ 3rd 

sing. impf. negative of olUk ^^ Nominative sing. 3rd pers. pr<m. 

** conjunction but. *^ Nom. sing, of stem totise (p. 35) formed with 

adjectival ending iae from stem tote, nom. toai. ^ 3rd sing. pres. of 

root valista (ist inf. -taa), io Ught, ^^ Ace. plur. of stem ihmiae, 

nom. sing, ihikiiiien, man. '® Nom. plur. of rel. pron. joka. 

®^ maailmaan, illative sing, of maailma, universe (maa, ilma), denoting 
motion into after tulevat. ^^ 3rd plur. pres. of root tale (ist in£ 

tulla) to come (p. 95). ** Inessive sing. ** Nom. sing. ** 3rd 

pers. sing, imperf. negative of tuntea. ** Partitive sing, of 3rd pers. 

pron. after negative verb (p. 127). *^ Allative plur. of oma, oiwi, 

with the suffix of the 3rd pers. om-i-lle-naa. ^ Negative imperf. of 

ottaa, to take. '* Illative sing, of vasta, meaning literally, what 

is opposite. The combination ottaa vastaan, is used to mean receive. 

ST. JOHN, L 7-13. %j^ 

7. He came to^beftr-wihieds oMhai light, that all might- 
believe throtxgh Him. 

8. He was not that light, but He was sent to-hear-witness 

9. That was the-true light which lighteth all men who come 

10. He was in-the-world, and the- world was made by Him, 
and the-world knew Him not. 

11. He came to-His-own, and His own received Him not. 

12. But to-them who received Him, He gave power to-be- 
come the-children of-Qod, who believe on His name, 

13. Who were not bom of-blood, not of-the-will of-the-flesh, 
also not of-the-will of-men, but of God. 

^ Nom. plur. of oma with saff. of 3rd pen. pron. (p. 57). As omanss ia 
subject to the verb, the latter ahonld strictly be eiv&t ottaneet, but v. 
pitge 123. ^ Allative plu^. of demons, pron. se, nom.plur. ne. ^ 3rd 
pers. plur. imperf. of ottaa, io take, ^ 3rd pers. sing, imperf. of antaa, 
to ffioe^ pres. anzuui. For difference of form in otti, antoi v, page 85. 
** Aco. ring, of Toima, power , formed with suffix ma from root vol (ist 
inf. voida), io he able. ^ Transl. plur. of lapse, a ehUd, v. p. 158. 

** ist inf. from root tule, io eome, here used as auxiliary meaning to 
heeome or enier on a ttate, and taking the translatiye case. ^ 3id pers. 
plur. pres. of uskoa, to believe, ** Genitive sing, of nimi (stem iiinie) 

with pronom. affix of 3rd perer. ** Allativesing. of paa, a Ae(t^, governing 
the genitive nixnenaft. The local cases of p&a are used in a variety of 
metaphorieal expressiona. ^* Sika is the negative verb with the ad- 

verbial suffix kft, and ; as in verse 11, the singular of the negative verb is 
used for the plur. ; syntyneet must be understood with the negatiye. 
^^ Elative sing, of rexi (stem rere), hlood, for use v. p. 143. ^' Geni- 

tive sing, of "^hB, flesh, depending on tahdosta. ^ Elative sing, 

of tahto, will, used as a nominal and verbal stem (tahtoa, to wish), 
"** Particle, aI$o, connected with mydta and mydten. '' Genitive 

sing, of mies (stem miehe), man, depending on talidoata. ^* Elative 

sing, of Jumala, Ood. ^ 3rd pers. plur. of the perf. of syntya, to he 

horn, composed of auxiliary and nom. plur. of partitive syntynyt, v, p. 73. 


14. Ja* Sana ' tuli ^* lihaksi"^® ja * asui ^ meidan ^^ seassamme ^ 
(ja* me** naimme" hanen^* kunniansa^^ niinkuin* ainoan*^ 
Pojan ^ kunnian ^ Isasta ^) taynna •* armoa ** ja * totuutta **. 

KALEVALA, XXXVI. 319-34^. 

. KuUervo Kalervon poika 
320 Tempasi^ teravan* miekan', 

Eatselevi kaantelevi, 
Kyselevi tietelevi*; 
Kysyi^ mielta® miekaltansa ^ 
Tokko ^ tuon * tekisi • mieli ® 

^" For form r. No. 36. Here used as auxiliary became and followed by 
translative, v. Nob. 65 and 66 above. ''^ Translat. sing, of UhAj flesh. 

^ 3rd pers. sing, imperf. of asua, to dwell. ^^ Genitive plar. of ist 

pers. pron. depending on postposition seassamme. ^ Postposition in 

inessive following genitive and taking possessive afi&x of ist pers. plur., 
V, p. 214. ® Nom. plnr. of ist pers, pron. " ist pers. plur. impeif. 
of root nake (inf. nahda, v, p. 108), nake-i-mme becomes naimme hf 
rules 14 and 28. ^ Ace. sing, of kunnia, glory, with the pron. affix 

of 3rd pers. ^ So as, compound adverb formed of niin, instr. plur. 

of 88 and kuin, instr. plur. of root ku (nom. kuka). ^ Genitive sing, 

of ainoa, only, agreeing with Pojan. ^ Genitive sing, of Poika, 

son, for form ». rule 28. ®* Accus. sing, of kunnia, glory, governing 

the genitive amoan Pojan. "® Elative sing, of Isa, Father. The 

elative is no doubt used to prevent the confusion arising from too many 
genitives and accusatives coming together. *^ Essive sing, of stem 

tayte, in apposition to sana (v. p. 157. iii). Modem Finnish makes 
taytena, but here the e is dropped and taytna becomes taynna, of. 
ynna for yhtena from yksi. In nom. tayte forms taysi by rule 37> 


14. And the- word became flesh, and dwelt in-our-midst (and 
we saw his glory, as the-glory of-the-only Son of-the Father) full 
of-grace and of- truth. 

[Kullervo, the hero of Kalevala zxxi-xxxvi, is represented as a child of 
misfortune, who by no possible means could do good. After a series of 
crimes and disasters, rivalling the history of Oedipus, he determines to 
kill himself.] 

Kullervo the son of Kalervo 
320 Grasped the sharp sword, 
Looked (at it), turned (it). 
Asked, inquired: 
Asked of his sword its mind, 
If it were minded, 

^ Part. sing, of stem armo, grace or mercy \ for use of part, after 
taynna v. p. 136. •' Part. sing, of stem totuute (p. 36), which 

rejects e before ta of part. ; for formation from root tote, v, p. 47. iii. 

^ 3rd sing, imperf. of stem tempata, ist inf. temmata, conjugated like 
lupata, pp. 95 and lOi. ^ Ace. sing, of adj. terava, sharp, formed 

&om tera, edge, with affix va. ^ Ace* sing, of miekka, sword ; kk 

becomes k in closed syllable (rule 25) ; in 1. 323, occurs the ablative sing, 
with affix of 3rd pers* pron. ^ These four verbs are all formed 

with the affix ele (v. p. iii) from the simple forms katsoa, kaantaa, 
kysya, tietaa. The vi is the termination of the 3rd. pers. sing. pres. 
(p. 62). • 3rd sing, imperf. of kysya, followed by ablative, to ask of 

(P* 154)* ^ Part. sing, of miele, nom. mieli, genitive mielen, etc. ; 

6 lost before ta by rule 17. ^ Particle, whether, ® Ace. of 

demonstr. pron. tuo. * 3rd pers. sing, conditional of root teke, 

inf. tehda, of 3rd conjugation. The phrase mieli tekee followed by 
an accusative (here tuon) means his mind drives him to, or he has a 
mind to, Cf. the first lines of the Kalevala Mieleni minnn tekevi 
. , , lahteani laulamahon, my mind incites me to begin singing. 


325 Syba" syyllista" lihoa,^* 

Viallista*' verta" juoa". 
Miekka ' mietti '* miehen " mielen •. 
Arvasi** uron*® pakiiian*^, 
Vastasi** sanalla** tuolla*: 

330 'Miks** en** sbisi** mielellani ^^ 

Soisi ** syyllista, " lihoa ^*, 
Viallista** verta** joisi**? 
Syon^® lihoa" syyttomanki, *^ 
Juon" verta" viattomanH *•/ 

335 KuUei-vo Kalervon poika, 

Siniaukka^' aijon'^ lapsi'^ 
Faan'* on** peltohon" sysa8i'^ 
Peran*^ painoi*'' kankahasen '^ 
Karen'® kaanti*® rintahansa**, 

340 Itse** iskihe" kareUe**, 

" « sydda (p. 224) I8t inf. of root syO (pres indie. 8y6n), depending on 
phrase mieli tekisi (p. 188). " Part. sing, (object of syda) of 

syyllinen, gwlty, formed from syy, cause or guUty with affix liise 
(p. 47). " = lihaa (p. 225), part. sing, of VOiAy flesh, " Part 

sing, of viallinen, formed from vika, faulU like syyllinen, k lost by 
rule 28. ^* Part. sing, of vere (nom. veri) ; cf. mielta for 

form. " =:jaoda (p. 224), ist inf. of juo, pres, jnon. " 3rd 

sing, imperf. of miettia (2nd conj.) to think over, here meaning under- 
stand, ^^ Genitive sing, of stem miehe (nom. mies). ^^ 3rd 
sing, imperf. of arvata ; pres. indie, arvaan, to think, understand, con- 
jugated like root lupata, p. loi. ^* Genitive sing, of uro, hero, 
which is more usual in the form uros (stem uroho, uroo). ^^ Aocusa- 
tive sing, (object of arvasi) of pakina, speech. ^ Vastasi, 3rd sing. 
imperf. of vastata, conjugated like root lupata. ^ Adessive sing, of 
sana, u>ord, used here in instrum. signification (p. 152). ^ Tran8l< 
sing, of mika, used adverbially to mean why (p. 159). ^ Negative 
conditional of syO, composed of 1st pers. sing, of neg. verb, and stem of 
conditional (p. 70). By rule 4 8y6 + isi becomes sOisi. ^ Adessive 
sing, of xnieli (v. No. 6) with affix of ist pers. sing, frith my nUnd, i. e. 

. * « * - 


325 To eat guilty flesh, 

To drink sinful blood. 

The sword understood the mind of the man, 

Followed the speech of the hero, 

Answered with this word : 
330 *Why should I not eat to my pleasure, 

Eat guilty flesh, 

Drink sinful blood? 

I eat the flesh of the guiltless, 

I drink the blood of the sinless/ 
335 Kullervo the son of Kalervo, 

The old man's child with blue stockings, 

Drove the hilt into the ground, 

Fixed the end in the plain. 

Turned the point to his breast 
340 Himself fell on the point. 

vMh pleasure. *• Juo + isi becomes joisi (v. No. 15). " ki is 

an adverbial affix (p. 118) meaning even ; syyttOman is the genitive sing, 
of syyt6n, gwiltlesa (stem syyttOma), a caritive adjective formed from syy, 
with suffix ttoma, just as syyllinen is formed with suffix llise (v. pp. 47 
and 37). ^ Genitive sing, of caritive adjective viaton, formed from vika. 
^ Blue-stockinged, a compd. of sini, hlue, and sukka, stocking. ^ Gen. 
sing, of aijO (r=aija), cm old m<m. ^^ Nom. sing, of stem lapse, child. 

'' Accusative sing, of paa, head, here the hilt of a award, ^ Particle 

of emphasis frequently used in Kalevala, and not the verb substantive. 
** = peltoon (p. 225), illative sing, of pelto, fidd or ground. '* 3rd 

pen. sing, of sysata, to drive, conj. like luvata. ^ Accusative sing, 

of pera^ end. '^ 3rd pers. sing. impf. of painaa, to force doton or into. 

^ s kankaasen (p. 225), illative sing, of stem kankaha, nom, kancas 
(p. 38 and rule 26), a hare plain. ^ Accusative sing, of stem karke, 
nom. karki, here the point of the sword. ^ 3rd sing. impf. of kaantaa, 
to turn, «. p. 16. *^ =i rintaansa, illative sing, of rinta, hreast, with 

suffix of 3rd pers. pron. *^ Nominative sing, of pronoun. *^ 3rd 

pers. sing, reflex, impf. of iskea, to strike. For form v. pp. 109 and 227. 
** AIL sing, of karki {v. No. 38). 


Siihen** surmansa^ sukesi*^ 
Kuolemansa^ kohtaeli*^ 

Se oli surma *• nuoren ^ miehen *^, 
Kuolo" kullervo-urohon ''', 
345 Loppu*"* ainakin** urosta"* 

Kuolema^ kova-osaista '^. 

KALEVALA, XVI. 151 ff. 

Laksi^ Tuonelta^ sanoja^ 
Manalalta^ mahtiloita '^ ; 
Astua taputtelevi ®, 
Kavi' viikon* vitsikkoa", 
155 Viikon' toisen^^ tuomikkoa^ 

Kolmannen" katajikkoa^ 
Jo" nakyi*^ Manalan* saari", 
Tuonen* kumpu" kuumottavi ". 

^ Xllatiye sing, of pron. se, but here the force of the illative is 
lost; literally to this, up till now, ^ Aoc. sing, of surma, /ate, 

with pron. aff. of 3rd pen. *"* 3rd sing, imperf. of root suketa, 

ist infin. sueta, to make, or preparey conjugated like Invata. ^ Ac- 

cusative sing, of kuolema, death (pp. 45 and 190). *' 3rd sing, 

imperf. of kohtaella, to meet (one's fate) ; cf. kohtalo,ya^e. ^ Grenitive 
sing, of nuori (stem nuore), yovmg, ^ Nominative sing, —kuolema, 

but formed with suffix o (p. 45). ^^ Compound of proper name Kul- 

lervo and uros, "hero (stem uroho). ^ Nominative sing, emd, genitive 

loptm ; cf. loppiia, to end, intrans., lopettaa trans. ^ Adv. aina, alwatfs, 
with suffix kin. Lbnnrot explains this word as &tmin8tone, visst; it 
seems here almost pleonastic, and cannot be rendered /or ever. " Par- 

titive sing, of UTOS (stem uroho), hero, used here as the genitive; 
^"^ Partitive sing, of compound adj. formed from kova hard and osainen 
(stem -se) fated ; adjective of osa, share, 

^ 3rd sing, imperf. of lahtea (rule 40); lahti is also found. The lit. mean- 


Thus he sought his fate, 
Met his death. 

This was the fate of the young man, 
The death of the hero Kullervo, 
345 The end of the hero, 

The death of the ill-fated one. 

(Yaimdinen journeys to the plaoe of the dead to find his lost spells.) 

He set out to fetch words from Tuoni 
(Words of) power from Manala; 
Going he stepped firmly, 
Went a week through forests of young trees, 
155 A second week through bird cherries, 

A third week through jumpers : 
Already appeared the island of Manala, 
The hill of Tuoni loomed. 

ing of this word is to set out, but it is used sometimes with an object to 
mean to go after, to fetch. ' Ablative sing, of tuoni, death. Mana is 

a synonym. ' Part. plur. of sana, word (rule 7), obj. of laksi. 

* Ablative sing, of Manala^ abode of death {y, p. 47 for the suffix). 
^ Fart. plur. of mahti, power, obj. of laksi ; for suffix loi, v, p. 225. 
« For constr. v, p. 188; astua^ ist infin., to step; taputtelevi, 3rd pers. 
sing. pres. (p. 228) of taputella, to tread heavUy or Jimdy. "^ 3rd 

ung. imperf. of kayda (rule 5, p. 9), ^0 go or traverse. ^ Accusative 

sing, of wiikko, week, denoting duration (y. p. 137). * These three 

words are formed with the suffix kko (p. 47) from the words witsa, smalt 
tree or shoot ; tuomi, hird'cherry, Swedish hagg ; and kataja, juniper. 
^^ Accusative sing, of toinen (p. 35). ^ Accusative sing, of kolnuts 

(P* 35)' ^* Adv. now or already. ^' 3rd. SLOg. imperf. of nakya, 

neut. form of nahda, to see (p. 109). ^* Nominative sing, of stem 

saari, an island. ^' Nominative sing, a hill. ^' 3rd sing. pres. 

of kuiimottaa, to loom or be seen indistinctly. 



Vaka^^ vanha" Vainambinen 
i6o Jo" huhuta" huikahutti *^ 

Tuossa Tuonelan*^ joessa^, ^ 

Manalan^ alaDtehessa ^ : 

'Tuo»* Venetians Tuonen* tytti^ 

Lauttoa" Manalan* lapsi**, 
165 Yli*' salmen'® saa'akseni ^\ 

Joen^ poikki** paastakseni ^ I ' 
Lyhykainen ** Tuonen^ tytti**, 

Matala^ Manalan^ neiti^ 

Tuo oli poukkujen'^ pesia**, 
170 Eapahien^® raimyttaja *® 

Tuonen^ mustassa^^ joessa*^, 

Manalan* alusve'essa ** ; 

Sanan* virkki*^, noin** niniesi *°, 

Itse lausui *® ja pakisi *'' : 
175 'Vene^* t'aalta** tuotanehe*®, 

Kuni*® syy" sanottanehe "^ 

^^ This is a constant epithet of 'WainamOinen, meaning literally 
firm, and then used to denote a kind of steady prudence, which 
is a natural characteristic of the Finns, and (like Scotch canniness) 
untranslatable, though more frivolous iidi^ions might render it by 
stolid. ^^ Adj. old^ also a constant epithet. ^* istinfin. ; 

for constr. v. p. 188. ^ 3rd sing, imperf. of huikahuttaa. Like 

the last word this is onomatopoeic. ^ Genitive sing, of Tuonela, 

place of Tuoni {v, p. 47). ^ Inessive sing, of joki, o river (rule 28). 

^ Inessive sing, of alanne, lowland or depth (stem alantehe). ^ 2nd 
sing, imper. of tuoda (p. 80). ^* Part. sing, of vene, a boat ; stem 

venehe (cf. terve, p. 39), obj. of tuo. * «=tytt6, diminutive, nom. 

sing. ^ Bslauttaa (p. 225), part. sing, of lautta, ship. ^ Nomina- 
tive sing, of stem lapsi, child. ^ Preposition with gen. (v. p. 217) 
across. ^" Genitive sing, of salmi, creek, depending on yli (p. 217). 
^^ ssaadakseni, longer form of ist iniin. of root saa (here used intransi- 
tively) with BuSax of ist pers. pron. For constr. v. p. 185. ^^ Post- 
position (p. 204) governing the genitive joen. ^ Longer form of 


The prudent old Wainambineu 
160 I Now shouting cried loudly 

In the river of Tuoni 

In the lowland of Manala. 

'Bring a boat, daughter of Tuoni, 

A ship, child of Manala, 
165 For my going over this creek, 

For my crossing over the river.' 
The dwarfish daughter of Tuoni, 

The stunted maiden of Manala, 
' She was washing dirty linen, 
170 Beating clothes, 

In the black river of Tuoni, 

In the marsh- water ^ of Manala; 

Spoke a word, thus uttered, 

Herself talked and conversed: 
175 *The boat will be brought 

When the reason shall be told, 

^ The word seems to imply low-lying marshy places. 

paasta (root paase) with suffix of ist pers. ^ Nominative sing, 

dimin. adj. from lyhyt (p. 48). ^ Nominative sing, fcw, dwarfish, 

^ Nominative sing, a maiden. ^ Genitive plur. of poukku, dirty 

linen, ^ =pe8ija, washef, v. p. 196. ^* Genitive plur. of ravas 

(stem rapaha), ra^. ^ Nominative sing, a beater ; cf. raimata, to 

heat. ** Inessive sing, of musta, "black, *' Inessive sing, of 

compound noun alusvesi (p. 34). *^ 3rd sing, imperf. (the form 

varies between virkki and virkkoi) from virkkaa, to speak, ** Instr. 

plur. of tuo, thus, ** 3rd sing, imperf. of nimeta, literally to name. 

*• 3rd sing, imperf. of lausua, to call. *^ 3rd sing, imperf. of pakista, to 
talk or speak, ^^ Adv. thence ; abl. of tama, this ; taalla, taalta are 

written with two a*s when used adverbially. *" *= tuotaneen, concessive 
passive of tuoda, to bear. The final n of the passive is omitted. For constr. 
V, pp. 177 and 182. ^ =kun, when. " Nominative sing, a cause, 

^ Conditional passive of sanoa, to speak ( = 8anottaneen). 

R 2 


Mi ^ dnun Manalle * saattoi "* 
Uman'"' tau'in"* tappamatta '^^y 
Ottamatta"* oivan" surman*®, 
i8o Muun*^ surman*^ musertamatta ^.' 

Vaka^^ vanha" Vainambinen 
Sanan' virkkoi** noin*^ nimesi": 
*Tuoni^ minun tanne*^ tuotti", 
Mana^ mailtani'" veteli"/ 

«. 167, 168. I Lyhykainen Tuonen tytti, 
/ Matala Manalan neiti 

Tuonpa*^^ hau saaoiksi^^ virkki*^; * 

* Jopa ^* keksin •* kielastajan "^^ ! 

Kunp'" on" Tuoni^ tanne*» toisi^^ 
190 Mana mailta^'^ siirteleisi ^^ 

Tuoni toisi'* tullessansa ''^j 

Manalainen ''^ matkaseansa ''^j 

Tuonen hattu"^® hartioilla '^ 

Manan kintahat^^ kaessa^^; 
195 Sano®^ totta^ Viiinambinen, 

Mi*^ sinun Manalle saattoi"*?' 

^ a mika. ^ 3rd sing, in^rf. of saattaa, cauaati-ve farm of saada 

(p. no), to came to come or bring; for form t;. rule 7. " Prep, with the 
abesBive (p. 203) : used also as adverb. Apparently genitive of ilma, air, 
but connection of meaning is obscure. ^ "''^ Abessive of the 3rd infin. of 
tappaa, to kill (p. 193). ^ » taudin, gen. sing, of tsuti, di^eaee, constr. 
with tappamatta (p. 184). ^ Abessive of 3rd infin. of ottaa, to take. 

* Genitive sing, of oiva, riff At or proper, ^ Grenitive sing, of surma, 

fate; a right fate ib a natural death. For constr. v. p. 184. ^ Genitive 
sing, of muu, other ; another fate means one other than a natural death. 
'^ Abessive of 3rd infin. of musertaa, to break. ^ Adv. hitherf v. 

p. 24. ** 3rd sing, imperf. from tuottaa, causal of tuoda, to bear. 

" Ablative plur. of maa, land, with affix of ist person. ^ 3rd sing, 

imperf. from vedella, formed from vetaa, to carry, '^ Accusative sing, 

of pron. tuo, with adverbial suffix pa. ^ Transl. plur. of sana after 

virkki, spoke this into words (p. 158). ^ ist sing. pros, of keksia, to 


What brought thee to Mana, 

Without slaying by disease 

Without taking by a natural death 
180 Without breaking by another death.* 

The prudent old Wainamoinen, 

Spoke a word, thus uttered : 

*Tuoni brought me hither, 

Mana brought me from my lands/ 
185 The dwarfish daughter of death, 

The stunted maiden of Manala 

Spoke this in words : 

* Now I recognize the liar. 

Had Tuoni brought (thee) hither, 
190 Mana removed from the earth, 

Tuoni would have brought (thee) in his coming, 

Manalainen in his journeying, 

The hat of death on (thy) head (lit. necks). 

The gloves of death on (thy) hand ^ j 
195 Speak the truth, Wainamoinen: 

What brought thee to Manala?' 

^ This is apparently a reference to some kind of costume in which a 
corpse was dressed. 

find or detect. ^° Accusative sing, of kielastaja (from kieli, tongue). 

One who is ready with his tongue, hence a liar. The Finns are a silent 
race. ^^ kun, if, with adv. suffix pa. ^ On, a particle of 

emphasiS) not the verb substantive. ^^ 3rd sing, conditional of tuoda, 

to bring. "^^ 3rd sing, conditional of siirtella, deriv. verb from 

siirtaa. ''^ Inessive of 2nd infin. of tulla, to come, with pron. affix 

of 3rd person. ''• Adjectival form from Manala (y. p. 46). "" Inessive 
of matka, a journey, ^' Nominative sing, a hat. For the constr. of 

nominative absolute v. p. 134. ^" Adessive plur. of hartia, neck or 

shoulders. ^ Nominative plur. of kinnas, a glovCy stem kintaha 

(p* 38)' ^^ s=kadessa, inessive of kasi, a hand (stem kate), for use 

V. p. 141. ^ 2nd sing, imper. of sanoa) to speak. ^ Part. sing, 

of tosi, truth (stem tote, r. p. 34). 


Vaka" vanha^* Vainamoinen 
Jo^* tuossa" sanoiksi*® virkki*': 
'Kauta^*^ mun^ Manalle* saattoi", 
200 Teras®^ tempoi*® Tuonelahan ^'.' 

iLyhykainen Tuonen tytti, 
Matala Manalan neiti 
Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi: 
*Tuosta^® tunnen*^' kielastajan ^^ ! 
205 Kun''^ rauta^ Manalle^ saisi®^, 

Teras^"^ toisi" Tuonelahan '^ 
Verin^ vaattehet*' valuisi**, 
Hurmehin®* hurahteleisi ** ; 
p. 195. Sano totta YainamoiDeii; 

210 Sano totta toinen^® kerta'^!* 

Vaka" vanha^* Vainamoinen 
Itse virkki*', noin** nimesi**: 
*Vesi*® sai^^ minun Manalle^ 
Aalto»» toi'» on''* Tuooelahan ^^Z 

ILyhykainen Tuonen tytti, 
Matala Manalan neiti 
Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi: 
*Ymmarran^°* valehtelian ^^* ! 
Jos^^'^ vesi®* Manalle* saisi®^ 
220 Aalto'* toisi'^' Tuonelahan ", 

Vesin^°* vaattehet®' valuisi®*, 

** Inessive of tuo, fAcre or iherevi/pon, ^* Nominatiye sing, 

(gen. raudan, rauan), trow. " = minim, me, *^ Nominatiye 

Bing. of stem terakse, steel. ^ 3rd sing, imperf. of tempoa, 

cf. temmata *• Elative sing, of tuo, from this, ** ist sing, 

pres. of tuntea. "^ 3rd sing, conditional of saada, meaning here to 

convey (cf. reflex, saapua). N.B. Pres. cond. used here with past signif. 
^^ Instr. plur. of veri (stem vere), blood. ^ Nominative plur. of vaate 
(stem vaattehe), garment, •* 3rd pers. sing. cond. (though with plur. 


The prudent old Wainamoinen 
Hereupon spoke in words : 
'Iron brought me to Mana, 
200 Steel sped me to Tuonela.' 

The dwarfish daughter of Tuoni, 
The stunted child of Manala, 
Spoke a word, thus uttered: 

* From this I know the liar I 
205 If iron had sent (thee) to Mana 

Steel brought (thee) to Tuonela: 

(Thy) clothes would drip with blood, 

Would trickle with gore. 

Speak the truth, Wainamoinen, 
210 Speak the truth a second time/ 

The prudent old Wainamoinen 

Himself spoke, thus uttered : 

'Water sent me to Mana, 

The wave brought (me) to Tuonela/ 
215 The dwarfish daughter of Tuoni 

The stunted maiden of Manala, 

Framed a word, thus uttered : 

* I detect the liar. 

If water had sent (thee) to Mana, 
220 The wave brought (thee) to Tuonela, 

(Thy) clothes would drip with water 

subject) of valua, to drip. •' Instr. plur. of hurme, gore (stem 

hurmehe). ^^ 3rd sing, (for plural) cond. of hurahdella. ""^ Nom. 

sing. (gen. kerran) time ; for use of nom. v» p. 137. In 1. 224 the accusa- 
tive is used in same constr. "" Nominative sing, of stem veto, p. 34. 

^ Nominative sing. (gen. aallon), billow, ^^ ist pers. sing. pred. of 

srmxnarfcaa, p. 93. ^^^ Accusative sing, of valehtelia (or valhetelija), 

a liaVy V. No. 129. *** CJonj. if. 


Helmasi^®' herahteleisi *^ ; 
Sano «» tarkkoja ^*« toda *<>•, 
Mi** fiinun Manalle' saattoi^l' 

225 Tuossa" vanha" Vainamoinen 

Viera^*^ kerran^** kielastavi ^<>» : 
*TuH"<> toi'' mun«« Tuonelahan «», 
Valkea^^' Manalle^ saattoi'^; 
\ Lyhykainen Tuonen tytti, 

^.^167, 168, iMatala Manalan neiti 

J Hanpa tuon sanoiksi virkki : 

'Arvoan*** valehtelian ^^ I 

Jos^^ tuli"° ManaUe* toisi^, 

Valkeainen "'^ TaoDelahan ^, 
235 ^ Oisi"* kutrit"*^ karventynna ^^^ 

Partaki^" pahoin^" palanut"*/ 
*0i^^° sie^*^ vanha" Vainamoinen, 

Jos^°" tahot^*» venetta^^ taalta« 

Sano «* tarkkoja '°« tosia ^<», 
240 Valehia^*^ viimeisia ^^*, 

Mitenka"» tulit^^e ManaUe'" 

illman tau'in tappamatta, 
Ottamatta oivan snrman, 
Muun Burman murentamatta ^*^.' 
245 Sanoi** vanha'® Vainamoinen: 

^^ Nominative sing, with aflSx of 2nd person. '®* 3rd pers. sing, (for 
plur.) of herahdella, identical with hurahdella above. ^^^ Part. plur. of 
tarkka, exact. *°* Part. plur. of stem tote (nom. tosia), truth. ^^ Adv. 
once more. ^* Accusative sing, of kerta, cf. No. 97. ^^ 3rd sing. pres. of 
kielestaa, v. No. 70. ^^® Nominative sing, of tule, fire, ^^^ Nomina- 
tive sing. ; has two meanings, (i) white or bright ^ (2) flwrne ; so here. 
"2 Ksarvaan, ist sing. pres. of arvata, to think or perceive, coi^jugated 
like luvata. "* Adj. from valkea (p. 47), the flaming one, i. e, fire. 

!!♦ Bolisi, here used for olisivat. ^^* Npminative plur. of kutri, 

a lock. ^^^ B^karventyneena, essive sing, of past part, act of 


Thy boBom would flow. 

Speak the exact truth: 

What brought thee to Mana % ' 
225 Hereupon the old Wainamoinen 

lied again a time. 

*Fire brought me to Tuonela, 

Flame sent me to Mana/ 

The dwarfish daughter of Tuoni, 
330 The stunted maiden of Manala, 

She spoke this in words. 

*I detect the liar. 

If fire had brought thee to Mana, 

Flame to Tuonela, 
235 (Thy) ringlets would be singed, 

And (thy) beard be badly burnt. 
O thou old Wainamoinen, 

If thou desirest the boat from here, 

Speak the exact truth, 
243 Last lies. 

Why thou hast come to Mana, 

Without slaying by disease, 

Without taking by natural deaths 

Without destroying by another death.' 
245 Said the old Wainamoinen: 

karventya, neuter form of karventaa, to hum. "' Nominative 

parta, hetjtrd (gen. parran), with adverbial affix ki. "* Instrum. 

plur. of paha, bad, used adverbially (p. 161). ^* Nominative sing, 

past part. act. of palaa, to hum (intrans.). ^^ An interjection. 

"* ssina. ^ =talidot, 2nd pers. sing. pres. of tahtoa, to wish, 

^^ Part. plur. of walhe, a lie (the cases and derivatives of this word are 
written either walhe or waleh). ^" Part. plur. of viimeinen (stem 

sen), last, often employed in indeclinable form viime. ^^ Adv. fr 

pron. stem mi. ^ 2nd sing, imperf. of tulla, to come. *^ Ab- 

essive of 3rd infin. of mnrentaa, to crush or hreak. 


'Jos^"' vahan'» yalehtelinki ^» 
Kerran^®* toisen^* kielastelin ^*^, 
Toki'«> ma^ sanon** toetki^**. 

Tein"» tieoUa"* venetta^, 
2IO Laain*^ purtta^^ laulamalla *^, 

Lauloin^'® paivan"', lauloin toisen*^ 

Niin^*^ paivalla^'^ kolmannella **^ 

Rikkoihe^*2 reki"» runoilta^**, 

JalaB"*^ taittm"« lausehilta ^*^ ; 
255 Laksin^ Tuonelta* oroa^**, 

Manalalta^ vaantiata"* 

Rekosen "^^ rakentoani ^", 

Laulukorjan ^^ laatiani "' ; 

Tuopa^* nyt^** venoista"' tanne«<^, 

260 Laita^^ mulle^*'' lauttoasi^"' 

fYli salmen saa'akseni, 
V. 165, 166. < .11. 1 . » 

( Joen poikki paastaksem I 

Kylla"« Tuonetar"® toruvi^^^, 

Manan ^ neiti ^' riitelevi *** : 

^'^ Instr. of vaha, little^ used adverbially. **• ist sing, imperf. of 

valehdella, with suffix JeL *^ Adv. yc<, ^^* =inina. "^ =todet, 
accusative plur. of stem tote, nominative tosi, truih. ^^^ ist sing, 

imperf. of tehda, stem take. "^^ =tiedolla, adessive sing, of tieto, 

Tcnowledge^ used instrumentally, 17. p. 152. '^' =laadin, ist pers. 

imperf. of laatia, to fashion, ^^ Part. sing, of pursi (stem purte\ 

ship ; part, is used because action was not completed, v. p. 127. ^^ Ad- 
essive of 3rd infin. of laulaa, to sing (p. 193). ^^ ist sing, imperf. of 
same verb (p. 85). ^^ Accusative sing, of paiva, day (p. 137). 
^*® Instr. plur. of se, used adverbially. ^** Adessive sing, of kolmas 
(p. 35) ; the essive would be more usual as a definite date is mentioned 
(p. 150). **^ 3rd sing, imperf. of rikkoa, to hreuJc (v, p. 227). 
**' Nominative sing, sledge (p. 33). "* Ablative plur. of runo, verse 
(p. 154). 1" Nominative sing, of stem jalakse (fr. jala, /oo^, the foot or 
end of a sledge, '** 3rd sing, imperf. from taittua, to hend, reflex, 
form of taittaa (p. 109). ^" Ablative plur. of lause (stem laiuehe). 


' If I lied a little, 

Told an untruth a second time, 

Yet (now) I speak tlie truth: 

I was making a boat with skill, 
250 Constructing a ship with singing: 

I sang a day, I sang a second, 

Now on the third day 

The sledge broke from my verses, 

The foot-piece broke from my speech. 
255 I set forth to obtain an auger from Tuoni, 

A gimlet from Manala, 

For my building the sledge, 

For my arranging the basket-sledge of song ^ 

So bring the boat here, 
260 Prepare for me thy ship, 

For my going over this creek. 

For my crossing over the river.* 
Greatly Tuonetar was wroth 

The maiden of Mana was angry : 

^ This passage seems a little confused. Wainamoinen was building a 
boat by means of magic spells, of whose efficacy so much is said in the 
Kalevala. During this process he lost (apparently forgot) three words 
which were necessary. The language in 350 ff. is metaphorical : the sledge 
of his song was broken, i. e. the spells did not run smoothly. 

i<8 soraa, part. sing, of ora, a gimlet. ^** Part. sing, of vaantia, 

an auger. ^^ Accusative sing, of rekonen, dim. £r. reke, a sledge. 

151 =rakentaa (p. 93) ist infin. with affix of ist person (p. 187). ^'^ Ac- 
cusative sing, compound word formed from laulu, song^ and korja, a 
basket sledge (Swedish korgslade). ^*^ v. No. 135, ist infin. with 

suffix of 1st person. ^** Adv. now. **' Part. sing, of venoinen, 

dim. of vene, hoat. ^^ 2nd sing, imperf. of laittaa, to make ready. 

'57 srminulle. ^^ kylla, adv. much\ originally a subst. meaning 

plenty, '^' Nominative sing, of tuonettare, from stem tuone, with 

affix ttare (p. 46). ^®® 3rd sing. pres. of torua, to chide, *•* 3rd 

sing. pres. of riidella (stem riitele), to quarrel or he angry ^ 


265 * Oi "« on ■" hullu i<« hullnuttasi i«», 

Mies^" on^* mielesi^** vahyytta"*! 

Tulet "« syytta ^^ Tuonelahan ^\ 

Tauitta*^ Manan* majoille *'* ; 

Parempi^*® sinon olisi*''®. 
270 Palata"^ omille^" maille*"; 

Aija"* on tanne« tuUehia^^, 

Ei paljo"' palannehia *^.' 
Sanoi yanha Yainiskmbinen : 

*Akka^^« tielta"» kaantykohbn ^«<>, 
275 Eip' on'* mies^®* pahempikana *^, 

Uros*^ untelompikana ^'^ ; 

Tuo" venetta*" Tuonen* tytti*^, 

Lauttoa ^ Manalan * lapsi ^ ! ' 

Vei^** venehen^ Tuonen^ tytti*, 
280 Silla^** vanhan" Yainambisen 

Yli^ salmen«« saattelevi 1*^, 

Joen^ poikki** paastelevi *®^ 

Itse tuon*' sanoiksi'* virkki**: 

*Voi"° sinua Vainamoinen, 
285 Lakeit^ surmatta^ Manalle^ 

Kuolematta '«• Tuonelahan ^M ' 
Tuonetar"* hyva'*' emanta^^, 

* Nominative sing., a fool. ^^ Part. sing, with affix of 2nd per*, of stem 
hxOliivLte.follfff derived from hullu (p. 47) ; for use of part, after oi, 1?. p. 1 36. 
i«* Nominative sing, of stem miehe. ^•* Gren. sing, of mieli, with 

affix of 2nd pers. sing. ^" Part. sing, of stem vahyyte (after oi), 

formed like hnlluus, above, from vaha, little, ^*^ Abessive sing, of 

syy, cause; tauitta (from tauti) is same case. ^^ Allative sing, (after 

tulet) from maja, a habitation, **• Nominative of stem parempa, comp. 
of hyva, good. *^® For constr. v, p. 138. "^ ist infin. and root to 

retv/rn, conjugated like luvata. *" Adessive plur. of oma^ own. 

*^' Adessive plur. of maa, land. "* Adv. and adj. much, "* Part, 

plur. of stem tullehe (nominative sing, tullut, p. 40), and part. act. of tulla, 


265 'Alas, fool, for thy folly, 

Man, for the smallneBS of thy sense. 

Thou comest without a cauBe to Tuonela, 

Without sickness to the dwellings of Mana: 

Better were it for thee 
270 To return to thy own lands. 

Many are they who come hither. 

Not many they who return,' 
Said the old Wainamoinen — 

'Let an old woman turn from the path, 
275 Not even a worse man, 

Not a duller hero. 

Bring the hoat, daughter of Taoni, 

The ship, child of Manala.' 

The daughter of Tuoni brought the boat, 
280 "With it the old Wainamoinen 

Across the creek she carried. 

Conveyed over the river. 

Herself she spoke this in words. 

*Woe to thee, Wainamoinen, 
285 Thou hast come without death to Mana, 

Without dying to Tuonela.' 
Tuonetar, the good hostess, 

to come. ^^* Adv. much, "^ v. 175; this is oorresponding fonn from 
palata, to return, ^^^ Nominative eing., an old woman. ^^ Ablative 
dng. tie, a way, ^^ -ikaantykOOn, 3rd sing. opt. of kaantya, reflex, 

form of kaantaa, to turn. ^^^ Nominative of oompar. of paha, had 

(p. 42), with adv. affix kana. N.B. As ei is indie, and not imper. the 
line must mean 'the meanest man uyill not.* ^^ Nominative sing, 

stem uroho (p. 38). ^^ Nominative of oompar. of untelo, sleepy or 

dull J from untua, to he sleepy. ^^ 3rd sing, imperf. of vieda (rule 4). 

^^ saatella, paastella are derivative forms from saada, paasta (p. iii). 
** Abessive of 3rd infin. of kuolla, to die. ^^ Nominative sing. good. 

^^ Nominative sing. (gen. exnannan), mistress or hostess. 


Manalatar vaimo^** vanba" 
Toip'^» on" tuopiUa*" olutta^»<», 

290 Kantoi"* kaksikorvaisella *•*, 

r. 283. Itse tuon sanoiksi virkki: 

* Juop' ^'^ on '^ yanha " Viiinamoinen ! ' 

Vaka" vanha^' Vainamoinen 
Katsoi^'* pitkin^^ tuoppiansa **•, 

295 Sammakot *•• kuti^*^ sisiilla^^, 

Maot"» laioilla2<» lateU*>^; 
Siita"** tuon*^ sanoiksi^ virkki": 
*En ma^^ tanne<» tullutkana"' 
Juomahan*^ Manalan^ maljat^°*, 

300 Tuonen* tuopit^*° lakkimahan '°* I 

Juopuvat^°* oluen^'** juojat*°', 
Kannun^' appajat*®^ katoovat*^.' 
Sanoi^^ Tuonelan** emanta*^: 
'Oi^° on"^ vanha" Vainamoinen, 

305 Mita^o' sie^^ tulit^^e Manalle, 

Kuta^o Tuonelan^ tuvUle^^i 
Ennen^w Tuonen* tahtomatta 2", 
Manan" mailta*^* kutsumatta ^'^ T 

^^ AdesBive sing, of tuoppi. The inessive would seem more natural. 
*"* Part, fling, of olut, beer, stem clue ; cf. kevat, p. 39 ; for part. 
«?. p. 135. ^^ 3rd sing, of kantaa, to hear. "* Adesaive sing, 

of kaksikorvainen, formed of kaksi, two; konra, ear, with adj. 
ending inen, two-eared or two-hatidled. ^*^ 2nd sing, imperf. 

of juoda, to drink, ^^^ 3rd sing, imperf. of katsoa, to look. 

"* Prep, 'governing partitive tuoppiansa (p. 204). ^^ Nominative 

plur. of sammakko, frog. ^^ 3rd sing, (for plural) imperf. of kutea. 

"® Adessive sing, of sisa, interior (cf. p. 214). ^"* =madot, nominative 
plur. of mato, worm. ^^ — laidoilla, adessive plur. of laita, side. 

201 ssmateli (which perhaps should be read), imperf. of madella (sing, for 
plur.), to creep (connected mate). **^ Accusative plur. of malja^ a 

cup. ^^ Illative of 3rd in fin. of lakkia. For the construction of this 

and of juomahan, «?. p, 192. ^•* 3rd pers. plur. pres. of juopua 


Manalatar the old woman ^ 
Brought beer in a cup, 
290 Bore (it) in a two-handled vessel. 

Herself framed this in words : 

* Drink old Wainamoinen.' 

Prudent old Wainamoinen 

Looked up and down over his cup. 
295 Frogs were wriggling in the inside, 

Worms crawled at the edges. 

Then he framed this in words: 

'I came not here at all 

To drink the pots of Manala, 
300 To empty the cups of Tuoni. 

The drinkers of beer get drunk, 

The drainers of the cup fall.' 
The hostess of Tuonela said: 

* O old Wainamoinen, 

305 Why hast thou come to Mana, 

To the dwellings of Tuonela 
Before the bidding of Tuoni, 
The calling of Mana from the earth ] ' 

* It would seem that this is not the same personage as the ' dwarfish 
daughter of Tuoni ' (also called Tuonetar in 263). But who this ^ew 
character is, is not explained. 

(p. III). 205 Nominative plur. of juoja (p. 45). ^^ Genitive 

sing, of kannu, a cup, or can, *^ Nominative plur. of appaja, formed 

from appaa, to eat or drink greedily, ^^ 3rd plur. pres. of stem 

katota, 1st infin. kadota, conjugated like koota (p. 104). ^^ Part, 

of mita, used adverbially, why. *^® Part, of kuka, here used like 

mika. ^^ Allative plur. (after tulit) of tupa, house. 212 ^.dv. 

htfore. ^^ Abessive of 3rd infin. of tahtoa, to wish. There is here a 

confusion of two ideas, without the will of Tuoni and before the bid(j[ing of 
Tuoni. ^" Ablative plur. of maa, land. ^^^ Abessive of 3rd 

infin. of kutsua, to call. 


Sanoi ^ vanha " Vainiimoinen : 
310 * Veistaessani '^* venoista***, 

Uutta*^^ purtta^** puuhatessa*^ 

Uuvuin*^* kolmea*^ sanoa^ 

Peripaata'^ paatellessa^ 

Kokkoa^ kohottaessa *" ; 
315 Kun'^ en*^« noita^'« saanutkana ^^ 

Mailta^" ilmoilta*^ tavannut^**, 

Hti^ tulla"« Trwnelahan^ 

Lahtea^ Manan* majoille^*^ 

Saamahan ^'° sanoja^ noita^, 
320 Ongelmoita *'* oppimahan ^^/ 

Tuopa*^ Tuonelan*^ emanta^®* 

Sanan^ virkkoi*'*, noin** nimesi*^: 

*Ei*« Tuoni^ sanoja' anna^', 

Mana mahtia'^ jakele*'*, 
335 Etka^*^ taalta*^ paasnekana *»« 

Sin'a'^® ilmoisna ^^"^ ikana*^ 

Kotiliisi289 kulkemahan «*^ 

Maillesi ^^ matelemahan ^*\* 

^^* Inessive of 2nd infin. of veistaa, to cut, from veitsi, ft knife, 
V. p. 189. ^"^ Part. sing, of uiisi (stem uute), new; part, because 

action was not complete. ^^ Inessive of 2nd infin. of puuhata, 

like luvata. ^* ist pers. sing, of uupua, to fall asleep , to 

lose ; cf. No. 243. ^** Part, of kolme, threey followed by part. sing, 

of Sana (p. 172). ^ ssperapaa, lit. end-heady i. e. extreme part. 

^ Inessive of 2nd infin. of paatella, derived from paattaa, to JinUh. 
^^ ^kokkaa, part. sing, of kokka, profo. ^^ Inessive of 2nd infin. 

of kohottaa, transitive form of kohota, to swell or rise. ^^ ist sing, 

imperf. neg. of saada, with adv. affix kana. ^^ Part. plur. of tno 

nsed after negative. ^^ Ablative plur. of ilma, air. maailma {earthy 

air) means universe, and the present expression, in which the two elements 
are declined, has much the same force. ^ Nominative sing. 2nd part 

active of tavata (root tapata), conjugated like luvata ; en must be under- 
stood with this participle. ^ 3rd sing, imperf. of pitaa (here im- 


Old Wainamoinen said: 
310 'In my hewing a boat, 

In fashioning a new ship, 

I lost three words, 

In finishing the end-piece, 

In building up a structure of wood. 
315 Since I have not found them. 

Or met in the wide world, 

It was necessary to come to Tuonela, 

To set out for the habitations of Mana, 

In order to find those words, 
320 To learn dark sayings/ 

The hostess of Tuoni, 

Spoke a word, thus uttered: 

'Tuoni does not give words, 

(Nor) Mana distribute (words of) power, 
325 And thou wilt not get free from here 

In all this life 

To go to thy home, 

To return to thy land/ 

personal, oportere), *** niatiye of 3rd infin. of saada. N3. This 

infin. does not depend on piti, but denotes the purpose of the action ; 
to, p. 192. ^^ Part. plur. of ongelmo (derived from onki), a crooked 

saying^ a riddle. ^^ Illative of 3rd infin. of oppia, to learn* 

**' 3rd. sing. pres. neg. of antaa, to give (p. 69). ^ Negative form 

(understand ei) of jaella, derived from jakaa, to divide or distribute. 
^^ 2nd pers. sing, concessive negative of paasta (like nousta). 
*** Essive of se. ^^ Essive sing, of ilmoinen, derived from ilma 

{the open space or air) and apparently meaning long. ^ Essive of 

ika, life. For temporal meaning of essive, v, p. 157. The whole ex- 
pression apparently means in this long life, i.e. as long as you live, 
^^ Illative plur. of koti, home, with affix of 2nd pers. pron. **** Illative 
of 3rd infin. of kulkea, to go. ^^ Allative plur. of maa, land, with 

affix of 2nd pers. ^^ Illative of 3rd infin. of xnadella. 




Uuvutti^' unehen^** miehen^**, 
330 Pani'** maata"** matkalaisen ^^ 

Tuonen" taljavuotehelle *** ; 

Siina mies^** makaelevi ^'j 

Uros i«2 unta 2«> ottelevi ^\ 

Mies^" makasi^, yaate«^ valvoi^-. 
335 Oli akka"® Tuonelassa*^ 

Akka^^^ vanha^® kajkkaleuka 

HautarilimaD^'' kehreaja 

VaskHankojen*^* valaja^^ 

Kehrasi^^* sataisen"' nuotan^e*, 
340 Tuhantisen^ tuuritteli*" 

Yona*'^ yhtena*^ kesaisna"', 

Yhella^ vesikivella^^. 
Oli ukko*^ Tuonelassa*', 

Se on ukko^ kolmisonni *^, 
345 Rautaverkkojen ^ kutoja^, 

Vaskinuotan *•* valmistaja ^^'j 

Se kutoi*^ sataisen**' nuotan^, 

Tuhantisen««« tuikutteH'^ 

^^ 3rd ring, imper f. of uuvuttaa, to tire or throw to sleep, *** = uneen, 
illative sing, of tini, sleep ; the illative is used on account of the idea of 
change of state in uuvutti. ^ 3rd sing. imp. of panna (like tiilla), to 

put. '^ ist infin. of root makata (like lupata), to sleep. The 

expresrion panna maata is generally used in an intransitive sense, to 
go to bed, ^^ Ace. sing, of matkalainen, a traveller, deriv. from 

matka, journey. ^^ Allative sing, (on account of motion in lying 

down unto) of compound noun composed of talja and vuode, both meaning 
shin or fur. ^ 3rdsing.pres. of makaella, derivative verb from maata. 

'^ Part. sing, of uni. ^ Derivative verb from ottaa, to take. 

^^ ^ 3rd sing, imperf. of valvoa, to watch. The expression is a proverb, and 
means he slept with one eye open. ^ ^ Nominative sing, of compound adj. 
formed of kaykka, prominent t and leuka, chin. ^ ^ Genitive sing, of 

compound substantive formed of rauta, iron^ and rihma, thread. ^^ ^ Noun 
of agency formed with affix ja from, kehrata, to spin. ^ « Genitive plur. 


She made the man sink into slumber, 
330 Laid the traveller to sleep, 

On to the skin rugs of Tuoni. 

Then the man slept, 

The hero took slumber, 

The man slept, the clothes watched. 
335 There was a hag in Tuonela, 

An old hag with a sharp chin, 

A spinner of iron threads, 

A caster of brass threads. 

She spun a hundred fold net, 
340 Wrought one of a thousand fold 

In one summer night 

On one water-stone. 

There was an old man in Tuonela, 

He is an old man with three fingers, 
345 A weaver of iron nets, 

A preparer of brass nets. 

He wove a hundred-fold net, 

Forged one of a thousand-fold 

of vaskilanka, compound of vaski, hrcMi, and laz^La, twine. ^^^ Ij^oun 

of agency from valaa, to pour or make by casting, ^^ Accusative 

sing, of satainen, hundred-fold, here meaning complicated or large. 
'-'** Accusative sing, of nuotta, a large net. ** Accusative sing, of 

tuhantinen ; v. satainen, above, ^^ 3rd sing, imperf. of tuuritella, 

to knit (from tuurittaa). ^"^ Essive sing, of y6, night (p. 157). 

^'* Essive sing, of yksi. ^^ Essive sing, of kesainen, adj. from 

kesa, mmmer', kesaisena, contracted to kesaisna. ^ s=yhdella 

(p- 51). ^^ Adessive sing, of compound subst. formed of vesi, waier, 

and kivi, stone. ^ Nominative sing, am, old man. ** Nominative 

sing, compound of kolme, three (N.B. in compounds the e becomes i), and 
sormi, a finger. ** Genitive plur. of rautaverkko, compound of 

rauta, iron, and verkko, a net. ^^ Noun of agency &om kutoa, to 

weave. ^ Genitive sing, of vaskinuotta; v, Nos. 251 and 254. 

'•*^ Noun of agency from valxnistaa, to make ready. ^•^ 3rd sing, 

imperf. of kutoa. ^'^ 3rd sing, imperfl of tuikutella. 

S 2 


Samana^° kesaisna^* ybna^*^ 
350 Samalla*'^^ vesikiveUa^. 

Tuonen' poika*^ koukkusormi ^'^, 
Koukkusonni ^'^j rautanappi *^', 
Se veti*^* sataisen^" nuotan^"* 
Poikki ^ Tuonelan ^i joesta ^', 
355 Seka «• poikki »2, jotta ^« pitkin ^^ 

Jotta «^« vielaki '<^ vitahan »", 
Jott"'* ei paasta'^^ Vainamoisen, 
Selvita*^* Uvantolaisen 
Sina^^ ilmoisna^'' ikana^'S 
360 Kuuna*^ kullan*®* valkeana^^* 

Tuolta*" Tuonelan 21 koista^*, 
Manalan ^ ikimajoista ^^. 

Vaka" vanha" Vainamoinen 
17.173. Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi: 

365 * Joko ^2 He «» tuhoni 28« tnllut ^^, 

Hatapaiva^ paalle^»« paasnyt^s^ 
Nailla Tuonelan'^ tuviUa"", 
Manalan* majantehiila ^*® 1 ' 
Plan 2^ muuksi «»^ muuttelihe 2»^, 

^® EsRive of sama, ihe same, ^ Nominative sing. (gen. pojan), a hoy. 
^* Compound adj. koukku, a hook, sormi, a finger. "^ Compound 

adj. rauta, iron, nappi, finger tip, ^* 3rd sing, imperf. of vetaa, to 

draw or spread. "' Elative sing, of joki, river ; alatse, lapi, poilcki, 

yli, sometimes take the elative instead of partitive in the Kalevala. 
^^" seka . . . jotta = both . . . (md, but the third iotta introduces a final 
sentence with the verb in the indicative, not in the subjunctive, as 
is more usual. "^ Illative sing, of vita, crosswise. ^^ Nega- 

tive pres. of paastaa, to let go. ^* Negative pres. of selvittaa, 

to liberate (from selva, free or clear). ^^ Essive of kun, moon. 

'-^^ Genitive sing, of kulta, gold. ^ Essive of walkea, bright. The 

meaning of these three words is clearly as long as the moon shines, bat 
their exact relation to each other is a little obscure. Kiillan is apparently' 


In the same summer night 
350 On the same water stone. 

Tuoni's son with crooked fingers, 

With crooked fingers, with iron nails. 

He spread the hundred fold net 

Across the. river of Tuoni, 
355 Both across and along, 

And also slantwise. 

That it might not let pass Wainamoinen 

(Or) free Uvantolainen, 
. In all this life, 
360 While the golden moon shines. 

From there, from the homes of Tuoni, 

From the eternal dwellings of Mana. 
Prudent old Wainamoinen 

Spoke a word, thus uttered: 
365 * Can my doom have already come, 

The day of misfortune have lighted on my head, 

In these dwellings of Tuonela, 

In the abodes of Manala/ 

Suddenly he changed himself to another shape, 

an attributive genitive belonging to kuun, and the essive is to be taken in 
a temporal sense. Literally, in the moon of gold shining. Of. XLIX. 
116. Faiva-kullan paistamalian. ^^^ Elative plur. of koti, 

home. ^ Elative plur. of ikimaja, compound of iki, always, and 

maja, dwelling. ^' Compound concessive of tulla ; lie^^lienee. For 
use of the concessive in questions, «. p. 177. ** Nominative sing, 

with affix of 1st person. ^^ Compound of hata, straits or danger, 

and paiva, day. ^^ Allative sing, of paa, head. ^ Adessive 

plur. of majanne (stem -tehe) formed from maja (p. 47), a poor dwelling. 
^^ Genitive of pika, swiftness, used adverbially. **^ Translative sing, 

of muu, other ; for use of the case here and in toiseksi after verbs denoting 
change {v. p. 158). ** 3rd pers. sing, imperf. (v. p. 109) of muutella, 

derived from muuttaa, to make other (muu), or change* 


370 Ruton**' toiseksi" rupesi^*, 

Meni*" mustana^^ merehen***, 

Sarvana ''^ saraikkohon ^'®, 

Matoi ^^® rautaisna *^ matona ^^, 

Kulki^^ kyisna'^^ kaannehena «^ 
375 Poikki^^ Tuonelan*^ joesta*'', 

Lapi »°' Tuonen » verkkoloista ^*. 
Tuonen' poika*" koukkusormi ^^ 

Koukkusormi ^^, rautanappi ^^y 

Kavi^ aamulla»°» varahin~« 
380 Verkkojansa '®* katsomahan ^*', 

Sa'an^°^ saapi'^ taimenia*^, 

Tuhaf ° emon alvehia'", 

Eip'808 on" saanut»«« Vainamoista «>S 

Ukkoa^ TJvantolaista »i«. 

^ Genitive of rutto, rapid y used adverbially. ^* 3rd sing, imperf. of 

ruveta, to begin or become, ^^ 3rd sing, imperf. of menna, to go. 

*•" Illative of meri, sea. ^ Essive of sarva (or saarva), an otter. For 
the case of this and mustana, etc., v. p. 157. ^^ Illative sing, of 

saraikko, formed from sara, sedge ; cf. No. 9. ^*^ 3rd sing, imperf. 

of xnatoa, to creep. ^^ Essive sing, of rautainen, iron, ^^ Essive 

of kyinen (stem se) adj. from kyy, a viper. ^^ Essive of kaarme 

(stem kaarmehe), a serpent ^^ Preposition with elat. v. No. 280. 


370 Swiftly he became other, 

Went black into the water, 

As an otter into the reedy place, 

Crept like an iron worm. 

Moved like a viper snake 
375 Across the river of Tuonela, 

Through the nets of Tuoni. 

Tuoni's son with crooked fingers, 

With crooked fingers and iron nails. 

Went in the morning early. 
380 To look at his nets, 

Catches a hundred small fish 

A thousand fry. 

Did not catch Wainamoinen 

The old Uvantolaiiien. 

^* Part. plur. of verkko, net ; cf. No. 5. **' Adesedve of aamu, 

morning (p. 150). *'• =varhain, adv. early, ^ =8adan, accu- 

sative of sata, hundred. ** 3rd sing. pres. of saa. '^ Part, 

plur. of taiznen (stem taimene), a hind of fish {salmo fario or trutta, 
Lonnrot). ^'^ a thousand, p. 52. ^^^ Emon is gen. of emo 

(=enia), mother; alvehia, part. plur. of alve (stem alpehe, a young 
fish). The phrase seems to mean/ry that follow their mother. '** Part, 
cases of VainamOinen and Uvantolainen, after negative verb. 


KALEVALA XL. 113 ff. 

[While Vamamoinen, Lemminkalnen, and Ilmarinen are Bailing to 
Pohjola, the ihip goes aground. Vainamoinen asks Lemminkainen to 
find out what is the matter.] 

Se on'^* lieto'^ Lemminkainen ^^^ 

Pyorahtihe '^* katsomahan *^, 
/15 Katsovi^*^ venosen^** alle '^^ 

o. xyi. 182. Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi : 

' Ei ole veno '" kivella ^^ 

Ei kivella, ei haolla"'', 

Vene'* on hauin^^* hartioilla '^ 
1 30 Ve'en »« koiran «" konkkaluilla '^o/ 

«. xvi. 151. \ Vaka vanba Vainamoinen 
^^2. J Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi: 

* Jotaki ^'^ joessa ^ onpi ^^^, 

Hakojaki^', haukiaki '^^ ; 
125 Kun «> Ue ^^^ hauin '^« hartioilla ^, 

V, 1. 120. Ye'en koiran konkkaluilla, 

Vea '** miekalla '^ vetehen *®, 

Katkaise «2« kala ^'^ kaheksi "^ ! ' 
17. 1. 113. Se on lieto Lemminkainen, 

si3 Nominative sing. adj. originally muddAf ; thence soft or lighJt ; explained 
as meaning here kevytmielinen, Ught-minded, ^^* Also called Ahti 

and Eaukomieli. The most fascinating and adventurous of the heroes of 
the Kalevala, but sadly deficient in moral sense. He was much attached 
to female society, which led to his being killed, apparently very thoroughly, 
in book xiv., but in xv. his mother resuscitates him ; he did not, however, 
learn wisdom. Books xxvi. and xxvii. recount his struggle with the people 
of Pohjola, with whom he was on bad terms owing to his not being invited 
to the marriage of Ilmarinen, and in xxix. he had to fly to Saari, whence 
however he was expelled (owing to his light conduct with a thousand 
brides and a hundred widows), and has further adventures in xxx. In the 



The gay Lemminkainen 

Turned himself to see, 
115 Looked under the boat, 

Spoke a word, thus spoke : 

'The boat is not on a stone, 

Not on a stone, not on timber, 

The boat is on the neck of a pike, 
120 On the hip bones of a water dog.' 

The prudent old Vainamoinen, 

Spoke a word, thus said : 

' There are all sorts of things in a river, 

Timber, pikes: 
125 If it be on the neck of a pike, 

On the hips of a water-dog. 

Smite with the sword into the water. 

Cut the fish in two.' 
The gay Lemminkainen, 

rest of the Kalevala he plays rather a secondary part. ^^^ 3rd pers. 

sing, imperf. (p. 227) from pyOrahtaa, to turn (pyOra, wheel or circle), 
^** Postposition governing venosen ; the allative is used because motion is 
implied. ^" Adessive sing, of hako, timber floating in water. 

^^^ Genitive sing, of hauki, pike, ^^^ Genitive sing, of koira, dog. 

^*^ Adessive plur. of konkka-luu, compound noun. ^ Part. plur. 

of joki, various. '^ =on. ^^ Part. plur. of hako, r. 317. 

32* =veda, 2nd pers. sing, imperat. of vetaa, to draw, ^** Adessive 

(p. 152) sing, of miekka, sword. ^^ 2nd sing, imperf. of katkaista, to 

break or sever, stem katkaise. ^^ Nominative sing, a fish, direct object of 
katkaise (p. 128). ^^ =kahdeksi, trans. of kaksi, two (forcase, v.p. 158). 


130 Poika*'^ veitikka'*' vereva*'® 

Miekan'^** vyoltansa'*^ vetavi^^, 

Luunpurian *** puoleltansa ^^' ; 

Veti'^ miekalla^^ merytta*^, 

Alta «»» laian ^^ laskettavi «^«, 
135 Itse vierahti*''' vetehen**, 

Kourin'** aaltohon*' kohahti'^'. 
Siita'*® seppo'*^ Ilmarinen '^^ 

Tarttui"' tukkahan^** u^osta»*^ 

Nostalti»*« meresta^ miehen'", 
V. xvi. 283. Itse tuon sanoiksi virkki : 

*Kaikki8*^ on mieheksi^^* kyhatty«*^ 

Pantu'*' parran^" kantajaksi ^*^, 

Lisaksi8*« satalu'uUe '*^ 

Tuhannelle »" taytteheksi ^^V 
V. line 131. Miekan vyoltansa vetavi, 

Tupestansa ^"^ tuiman ^^ rauan ^, 

Jolla «" kalhaisi »« kaloa 5^, 

'*• Nominative sing. adj. merry. ^^ Adj. formed from stem vere, 

blood. f with suffix va (p. 48), vigorous or youthful. ^^ Ablative 

sing, of vyO, a girdle, with affix of 3rd pers. **" Ace. sing, of 

compound subst. with first member (luu, hone) in gen. and second 
noun of agency, formed from purra, fo bite. '^ Ablative sing, of 
puoli, side, with affix of 3rd pers. ''* Part. sing, of meryt (stem merye), 
dimin. of meri, sea. ^^ Preposition governing laian, though gene- 

rally a postposition. ^^* 3rd sing. pres. of laskettaa (trans, form of 

laskea), to smite. ^^ 3rd sing, imperf. of vieraht&a, deriv. verb 

(p. 112) from vierra, to roll down. ^^ Instr. plur. of "kovatk, paltti of 
the hand. ^^ 3rd pers. imperf. of kohahtaa, onomatopoeic verb represent- 
ing noise of bubbling water. ^*® Elative sing, of se, used adverbially, 
then. '^^ seppo or seppa, nominative sing, a smith. ^^ The 
magic smith of Kalevala and forger of the Sampo ; after many trials he 
married the maiden of Pohja (xix.), and the marriage is described in 
xx-xxv., but in xxxiii. she is killed. Ilmarinen then forged himself a wife 
of gold and silver (xxxvii.), who did not prove entirely satisfactory in 
all respects. ^ 3rd sing, imperf. of tarttua, to stick or cling to- 



130 The bright lively youth, 

Draws the sword from his girdle, 

The bone biter from his side; 

Struck the sea with the sword, 

Stirs under the side (of the ship). 
135 Himself rolled into the water, 

Fell splash into the billow hands foremost. 
Then the smith Ilmarinen, 

Clung on to the hair of the hero, 

Eaised the man from the sea. 
140 Himself spoke this in words : 

* Every-one is formed to be a man, 

Made to be a bearer of a beard, 

To be a supplement to the number of a hundred, 

To complete a tliousand^.' 
145 He draws the sword from his girdle. 

The cruel iron from his sheath, 

With which he smote the fish, 

^ This rather obscure remark appears to be a taunt. ' Every body is a 
man, in the sense of adding to the male population. But one wants a 
good deal more to really deserve the name.* 

>^ Blayve sing, of tukka, havr. ^' Part. sing, of uros, used as 

genitive. This use (which is hardly found in prose) is chiefly used of things 
which form part of something else. ^ 3rd sing, of nostaltaa, deriv. 

verb from nostaa, to raise, '**' Nominative sing, all (p. 170). 

'^ 2nd part, passive of kyhata, to form ; this word and pantu are followed 
by translatives to indicate the end for which a thing is made (p. 159). 
^*^ Trans, sing, of lisa, an addition, '^ Allative sing, of satalnku, 

hundred number (luvulle is now the usual orthography, p. 14). 
^^^ Allative sing, of tuhat (stem tuhante), a thousand. '^ Trans, 

sing, of tayte (stem tayttehe), a complement or supplement (tHjaitfull). 
MS Elative sing, of tuppi, sheath, with aflftx of 3rd person. •** Accusa- 
tive sing, of tuimA, fierce. ^ Adessive (p. 152) of joka, here used in 
sense and with it. ^ <=koUiaisti or kolkkaisti, 3rd sing, imperf. of 
kalhaista, to strike or split. 


Alta "^"^ laian ^^ laimahytti ^ ; 

Miekka'^ murskaksi *** mureni '**•, 
150 Eipa hauki'*® tiennytkana '•®. 

V. xvi. 197, ( Vaka vanha Yainamoinen 
198. "l Tuossa tuon sanoiksi virkki : 

*Ei ole teissa^" puolta'^ miesta^", 

Ei urosta"^ kolmannesta ^ ^ 
155 Kun*^ konsa'" tulevi"^ tarve»", 

Miehen ^** mielta ^^ yaaitahan ^, 

Silloin'*^ mieli^«» melk'eassa »««, 

Kaikki^*^ toimi'«» toisialla^V 
Itse miekkansa^ vealti'^^ 
V. zxxvi. 326. Tempasi teravan rauan, 

Tybnti"* miekkansa^ merehen*®*, 

AUe«« laian »^8 langetteli^^ 

Kalahauin '*''* hartioihin "^^ 
V. line lao. Ye'en koiran konkkaluihin. 

165 Miekka^^ luottihe^" lujahan^', 

Kitasihin^^ kiinnittihe ^'^^ ; 

Siita'^° vanha Yainamoinen 

Nostalti^^ kaloa^^ tuota*^, 

Yeti »2* haukia "» ve'esta *« : 
170 Hauki^^ katkesi^'' kaheksi*^, 

^^^ 3rd sing, imperf. of laimahyttaa (deriv. of laimata), to smite. 
^* Trans, sing, of miirska, a fragment (p. 158). N.B. The word is not 
in the plural and is almost adverbial, piecemeal, ^^ 3rd sing, imperf. 

of mureta, to break (stem murene, p. 94 f and 107). ^^ =tietanyt 
(p. 226, ix), 2nd part. act. of tietaa, to perceive or know, with adv. affix 
kana. ^* v. p. 141, vii. ^ Part. sing, of puoli, half {y. 34); 

for use of part. v. p. 122. ^•^ Part. sing, of kolmannes (stem -ekse), 

a third part, ^^ Adv. when, used with kun to mean as soon as. 

3*5 Nominative sing, (stem tarpehe), need. ^ ^s vaaditaau, passive of 

vaatia, to demand. ^ Adv. then, ** Inessive sing, of 

melkea, moderate (? Russian MeJKiJI) ; for use of inessive v, p. 140, iii. 
The expression seems ironical, is in a very moderate state. ^^ Nominative 


Struck below the side (of the ship). 

The sword broke into pieces, 
150 The pike did not even perceive. 

Prudent old Vainamoinen 

On this spoke this in words : 

* There is not in you half a man, 

Not the third part of a hero, 
155 When need comes. 

The mind of a man is wanted, 

Then (your) mind fails, 

All (your) sense is away.' 
He himself drew his sword, 
160 Seized the sharp iron 

Struck his sword into the sea, 

Smote below the side (of the ship) 

On-to the neck of the pike fish, 

On to the hip bones of the water dog. 
165 The sword was driven home into the firm (flesh), 

Fixed in the gills ; 

Then old Vainamoinen ^ 

Brought up that fish, 

Drew the pike from the water; 
170 The pike fell in two; 

sing, htisiness, duty, capacity ; cf. for use here ei ole hanella tointa. 
^^ Adessive of toisia, another place ; cf. muualla, and our expression to 
he all (ibroad. '"^ 3rd sing, imperf. of vedaltaa, deriv. verb from 

vetaa. ^^ 3rd sing, imperf. of tyOntaa, to thrust or smite, ^' 3rd 

sing, imperf. of langetella, deriv. verb from langettaa, which is the 
causative form of langeta, to fall. ^* Compound of kala, Jish, and 

hauki, pike. The usual form would be haukikala (cf. valaskala, a 
whale). ^^ 3rd sing, imperf. reflexive (p. 227) of luottaa, to send 

through or drive, a factitive form from luoda, one of whose meanings is to 
cast (v. No. 496). ^^" Illative sing, of luja, firm, '^ Illative 

plur. of kitanen (stem •se, diminutive of kita), the gills of a fish. 
^^^ 3rd sing, imperf. reflex, of kiinnittaa, to fix, derived &om kiinni. 


Pursto**® pohjahan'" putosi'^, 
Paa*** kavahti^ karpahasen *". 

Jo ^* otti ^^ venonen ^ juosta ^, 
Faasi^ pursi'** puutoksesta '^^ ; 

175 Vaka vanha Yamamoinen 

Luotti'^ purren**® luotoselle ^^'j 
Kavahutti ^^^ rantasehen '^^, 

V, xxxvi. 321. Katselevi, kaantelevi 

Tuota*^ hauin"® paapaloa^*^, 

r, xvi. 283. Itse tuon sanoiksi virkki: 

*Ken''''* on vanhin*® sulholoista '***, 
Sepa haiiki halkomahan '^j 
Kala ^^ viploin ^^ yiiltamahan '^^, 
Paa **® paloiksi *^ pahkomahan '^ ! ' 

185 Miehet"* purresta"' puhuvat^'\ 

Vaimot '^^^ lausui ** laitasilta *^ : 
* Saajanpa *°^ kaet ®* sulimmat **^, 
Sonnet^ pyytajan*«» pyhimmat *^*/ 
Vaka yanha Yainamoinen 

190 Veti^^* veitsen*^* huotrastansa *^, 

^^^ 3rd sing, imperf. of katketa, to break or fall asunder ; cf. 326. 
^^ B=pyT8tO, nominative sing, a tail, ^ Illative sing, of pohja, 

bottom or shore, ^^ 3rd sing, imperf. of pudota (like luvataX ^^ 

fall, ^^ 3rd sing, imperf. of kavahtaa, to leap forth or fall. 

^^ Illative sing, of karvas (cf. oas, p. 40), a small boat, ^^ 3rd 

sing, imperf. of ottaa, here used intransitively, to start or begin. ^^ ist 
sing, of stem juokse (cf. sy6kae, p. 107), to run or speed, ^^ Mative 

sing, of puutos, a hindrance (puuttaa, to hold or fasten), ^^ 3rd 

sing, imperf. act of luottaa, v, 375. ^ Allative sing, of luotonen, 

dimin. of luoto, island or shore, ^^ 3rd sing, imperf. of ravahuttM, 

fact, form of ravahtaa, wliich is itself a deriv. of ravata» to move quickly ; 
cf. ravakka, quick, ^'^ Illative sing, of rantanen, dimin. of ranta, 

shore. ^^ Part. sing. (p. 127) of paapala, compound of paa, head, 

and pala, a piece, ^' Int. pron. (p. 60), ^ Elative plur. of 



< The tail dropped to the bottom of the sea, 

The head rolled into the boat. 
Now the boat began to run, 

The vessel got free from the impediment. 
175 Prudent old Yainamoinen 

Brought the vessel near to shore, 

Drove her on to the strand, 

Looked at and turned 

That head-piece of the pike. 
180 Himself spoke this in words: 

*Who is the oldest of the youths, 

(Let him come) to cut up the pike, 

Divide the fish into pieces, 

Split the head into bits.' 
185 The men speak from the ship, 

The women cry from the shore: 

'The hands of the catcher are the purest, 

The fingers of the seeker are the holiest.' 
The prudent old Yainamoinen 
190 Drew a knife from his sheath, 

Bulho a young man ; for use of caBO, v, p. 143, viii. ^'^ lUative 

of 3rd infin. of halkoa (halki), to cleave. The verb on which the 
infinitive depends is omitted, but some such words as * let him come ' must 
be understood. ^^ Instr. plur. of vipla (or viipale), a strip. For the 

nom. hauki, v. p. 128, iii (2). ^^ Illaiive of 3rd infin. of viiltaa 

(fact, of viilla), to split open. '^^ niative 3rd infin. of pahkoa, to 

cleave. ^^ 3rd plur. pres. of pnliua, to speak (original meaning to 

Uow). ^ Ablative plur. of laitanen (stem -se), dimin. of laita, 

shore. ^^ Genitive of saaja, noun of agency, from saada, to taJce 

(P* 45)* ^ Nominative plur. of siilin, superlative of aula, flowing, 

active, or dexterous. *** Genitive sing, of pyytaja from pyytaa, to 

catch ; cf. No. 401. **^ Nominative plur. of pyhin, superl. of pyha, 

holy. *^ Accusative sing, of veitsi, knife, *^ Elative sing, of 

huotra, a sheath^ with afilx of 3rd person. 


Kyleltansa *^ kylman *°« rauan." 

JoUa'''"^ hauin^^^ halkaisevi ^% 

Pahkovi«^ kalan*" paloiksi'^^ 
V. xvi. 283. Itse tuon sanoiksi virkki : 

195 ^Ken**' on nuorin^" neitosista ^^^ 

Sepa hauki keittamahan 

Murkinaisiksi *" muruiksi *^", 

Kalaisiksi *'• lounahiksi *" r 
Kavi '' neiet »« keittamahan "', 
3CO Kavi "^ kilvan *^^ kymmenenki *** ; 

Siita'*^ hauki «^8 keitetaJian *«^ 

Murkinoiahan *^* muruina *^*, 

Jaipa*^ luita*^* luotoseUe'^ 

Kalanluita *** kalHoUe «^ 
305 Vaka vanha Vainamoinen 

Noita^® tuossa^ katselevi, 
V. xxxvi. 331. Katselevi, kaantelevi, 
V. xvi. 182. Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi : 

* Mika tuostaki «« tuUsi '^, 
210 Noista*^^ hauin*'^^ hampahista *^, 

Leveasta *^* leukaluusta *^^ 

Jos^®^ oisi"* sepon^*^ pajassa***, 

Luona ^^^ taitavan ^^' takojan *'*, 

Miehen,"* mahtavan ^^'^ kasissa " 1 ' 

*^ Ablatiye eing, of kylki, «M?e, with affix of 3rd person. ** Accusative 
sing, of kylma, cold. ^^ 3rd sing. pres. of halkaista (halki), to split 
*^° 3rd sing. pres. of No. 398. "* Nominative sing, superl. of nuori, 

young. ^^^ Elative plur. of neitonen (stem -se), dimin. of neito, 

woman. "^ Illative of 3rd infin. of keittaa, to cook ; v. No. 395. 

*^* Trans, plur. (p. 158) of murkinainen, adj. of murkina, th>e midday 
meal. *^* Trans, plur. of mura, fragment. *^* Trans, plur. of 

kalainen, adj. formed from kala» fish. ^^^ Trans, plur. of lounas, 

midday meal. "® Instr. sing, of kilpa, strife or rivalry. 

*" kymmen, ten, with affix ki. *» Pres. passive of keittaa. 


The cold iron from his side, 

With which he cuts up the pike, 

Splits the fish into pieces. 

Himself spoke this in words: — 
195 *Who is the youngest of the women, 

(Let her come) to cook the pike, 

Into morsels for dinner, 

Into a fish midday meal/ 
The women went to cook, 
200 Ten went in rivalry ; 

Then the pike is cooked. 

Pieces for dinner; 

The bones remained on the shore. 

The fish bones on the edge of the sea. 
205 The prudent old Vainamoinen 

Looked at them there. 

Looked, turned, 

Spoke a word, thus uttered : 

*What might come from this, 
2 TO From these teeth of the pike. 

From the broad jaw bone, 

If it were in the smithy of a smith, 

With a clever forger, 

In the hands of a cunning man % * 

421 _, 

— murkinoidaan, pFes. passive of murkinoita from murkina, break- 
fast. *" Essive plur. from muru, a hit. "' 3Td sing, imperf. of 
jaada, to remain, with affix pa, followed by allative (p. 156). *^* Part, 
plur. of luu, hone. ** Allative of kallio, rock. ** Elat. sing, of pron. 
tuo, with suffix ki. **' Elat. plur. of same. ** Elative plur. (p. 143, 
ix) of hammas (stem lia,m.'pah.&), tooth. ^^' Elative of levea, broad. 
*** Elative of leuka-luu, jaw-hone. *'^ Inessive of paja, « amithy. 
*** Essive of luo (p. 210), here prepos. with genitive. *'' Genitive 
of ist part. act. of taitaa,^o he able or skilful. *^ Genitive of takoja, 
forger, from takoa, to forge. *^ Genitive of mahtava, 'powerful. 



215 Sanoi^^ seppo'** Ilmarinen : 

' Ei tule ^''^ tyhjasta «« mitana *^, 

Kalan'^^^ ruotasta«» kalua"S 

Ei seponkana ^^^ pajassa, 
V. lines 213, ) Luona taitavan takojan, 
214- j Miehen mahtavan kasissa/ 

Yaka vanha Yainamoinen 
V. xvi. 283. Itse tuon sanoiksi virkki : 

' Naistapa '^^ toki tulisi ^^^ 

Kalanluinen *" kanteloinen ^^^, 
225 Kun''^ oisi"* osoajata**^, 

Soiton **2 luisen*24 laatiata*"/ 
Kun*"^ ei toista" tullutkana ^'^ 

Ei oUut osoajata**^, 
t?. line 226. Soiton luisen laatiata, 

230 Vaka vanha Vainainoinen 

Itse loihe^** laatiaksi **^, 

Tekiaksi *« teentelihe *^« ; 

Laati ^"^ soiton ^** hauinluisen *'**, 

Suoritti"^ ilon**® ikuisen**®. 
235 Kust'^o on koppa*^^ kanteletta ^^2 ^ 

Hauin ^^^ suuren *^ leukaluusta ^^ ; 

Kust'**^ on naulat^*^* kanteletta ^^^ ? 

Ne on hauin "^ hampahista *** ; 

Kusta"^ kielet*" kanteletta ^'^M 

*^ Elative of tyhja, void or emptiness. *" -mitaan, v. p. 219 

and 122. *38 Elative sing, of ruotta, mouth {of a fish) ; ruota 

or ruoto is the usual form. *^ Part. sing, of kalu, an instru- 

ment (p. 122). *^ Bimin. of kantelo—kantele, a hind of harp 

with Jive strings, *** = osaajaa, part, of osaaja, noun of agency, 

from osata, to know or he skilful. **'* Genitive sing, of soitto, a 

musical instrument, ^^' Part, of laatija, noun of agency from laatia, 

to make. The part, is used because the sentence is practically negative. 
*** 3rd sing, imperf. reflex, of luoda, to create or make, *** Translative 


215 Said the smith, Ilmarinen: — 

'There comes not anything from nothingness, 

No instrument from the mouth of a fish, 

Not even in the smithy of a smith, 

With a clever forger, 
220 In the hands of a cunning man/ 

Prudent old Vainamoinen 

Himself spoke this in words: 

* Yet from these might come 

A fish-bone harp, 
225 Were there but an artist, 

A maker of bone playing-instruments/ 
When there came no other, 

(When there) was not any artist, 

(No) maker of bone playing-instruments, 
230 Prudent old Vainamoinen 

Himself became a maker, 

Appeared as a fabricator: 

Made an instrument of pike-bone, 

Made ready an eternal joy. 
235 Of what is the body of the harp? 

Of the jaw-bone of the great pike. 

Of what are the pegs of the harp? 

They are the teeth of the pike. 

Of what are the strings of the harp ? 

(p. 158, iii) of tekija, noun of agency, from tehda, to make. *** 3rd 

sing, imperf. reflex, of teennella, deriv. of tehda (stem teke), to make. 
*" 3rd sing, imperf. of suorittaa (from suora), to 'prepare. **' Accusa- 
tive sing, of ilo, joy. ^^^ Accusative sing, of ikuinen, frotn ika, life. 
**° Elative sing, of kuka, meaning here from what (p. 144, ix). *^^ Nomi- 
native sing., the body or frame {of the harp). **^ Part. sing, of 
kantele (stem -lehe), harp ; for use of part. v. No. 345. *^ Genitive 
sing, of suuri, great. *^ Nominatives plur. of kieli, tortgue or 
string, and naula, a nail, 

T 2 


240 Hivuksista ^"^ Hiien*" ruunan*". 

Jo oli soitto*^' suorittuna *", 
Valmihina"* kanteloinen **^ 
Soitto*** suuri**^' hauinluinen *^S 
Kantelo **® kalanevainen ^. 


Hyvasli**^ kultaseni **^, hyvasti kultani, 

Mun»« lahtea* nyt^®^ taytyy*^ pois*®^ kotimaaltan *«'. 

Mun^ taytyvi*** nyt*®* menna^" merille^*^ kulkemaan ^^^ I 
Ja sinua en tiea**** jos*°^ naen*^ millonkaan *^. 

5 Lahella**® laiva*®^ pieni *'^° minua outtelee *''^; 
Se mulla *^^ kotimaani *^ ja tuttavani **^ lie *^. 
Se kotimaani *«« mulla *^2 j^ tuuli^^* kultani^^ 
Ja aalto *^ armahani ^'^^ tahikka ^'^^ surmani *^. 

Jo ^^ ennen *^^ monta *^® miesta "^* se meri '^^ petteli *'^, 
10 Ja monen*''^ kullan^^ silmat*®° vesille*" jatteli*^. 

*^' Elative plur. of hivus = liius (stem hiukse)» hair. **• =Hiiden, 

genitiVe sing, of Hiisi, ihe genius of evil. *^ Genitive Bing. of mima, 
poetical word for a horse. *^ Essive sing, of 2nd part, passive 

( <B suoritettuna) of suorittaa. ^ Essive sing, of valmis, ready 

(stem valmihi). **® Compound word; first member in genitive, 

second adj. formed from eva, a fin, 

*®' Adv. of hyva, good (p. 117), used to mean good-bye. *^ Dimin. 

of kulta, gold or darling, with afl&x of ist person. *^ Adv. now, 

*** Impers. verb it is necessary y followed by istinfin. (p. 187) ; taytyy and 
taytyviare identical (p. 226. viii). *** Adv. away, also used in inessive 
poissa. ^ Compound of koti, home, and maa, land; v. No. 65. 

*66<* = tied a, negative form of tietaa, to know. *^^ ist pers. sing, of 

nahda (p. 108). *^ =milloiiikaan (v. pp. 117, 169). *^ ^^lahdella, 
adessive sing, of lahti, bay. *'^* Nominative sing, a ship. *'® Nomi- 


240 Of the hairs of the courser of Hiisi. 

Now the instrument was prepared, 
The harp made ready, 
A great instrument of pike-bone, 
A harp of fish-fins. 

Farewell, dear love, farewell, my love. 
Now must I set forth from home. 

Now I must go to wander on the seas 
And know not if I shall ever see thee. 

5 A little ship awaits me in the bay: 
It will be my home and friend. 

It will be my home and the wind my love. 
And the wave my darling or my death. 

That sea has lured many men ere now, 
10 And filled many a lover's eyes with tears. 

native sing, little, *^* =odottelee, 3rd sing, pres, of odotella, 

deriv. from odottaa, to wait. ^^^ =ixiinulla; cf. inua=ininua. 

*^^ ist part, passive for tunnettava, from tuntea, to know. Here used as 
substantive with affix of ist pera., friend. *^* Nominative sing, vniid, 

*'^^ Nominative with suffix of 1st pers. from stem armaha (nom. axtuas), 
dear, *''• ^taikka, or. *^ Adv. (gen. of ensi), before. 

*^^ Part. sing, of moni, many, taking a partitive after it (p. 171, iv.). 
*^® 3rd sing, imperf, of peteUa, deriv. verb firom pettaa, to deceive, 
*'° Accusative plur. of silma, et/e, *^ Allative plur. of vesi, water. 

** 3rd sing, imperf. of jatella, derived from jattaa. For the use of this 
verb with the illative or allative, v, p. 156. The sentence means literally 
has abandoned the eyes of many a lover to waters; i.e. has filled with