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irdiag to a 

• * 



















30b . a . CJT. 





*The object of this ^wofk is to oflfer to beginners in tke stady of 

tlie French language a complete conrse of instrnction. In one 

Tolnme, so as to obriate the inconvenience arising from the 

use of a multiplicity of lx>6ks for the attainment of the desired 

proficiency. Thus^ in addition to a ^theoretical and practical 

Grammar^ it contains copionsTocabnlaries, numerous exercises^ 

and a series of rudimental lessons in reading, translations of 

which are given at the end of the book. The Grammar is 

divided into two parts, the first of which is in English, the 

second in French. These again have four subdivisions, — Pro- 

nmuaatioQ, Accidence, Syntaz^ and an Appendix. The two 

latter, or Partie /ranfoisef ore written in Frend^, for the^nr- 

pine of facititjiting the .acquisition of that finont utterance in 

^TOainr convenation, the comprehmsion of wluoh proves so 

difficult to English persons on their first arrival in France. 

The construction of sentences is Arranged according to a 

plan strictly commencing with the eiementB of the hmgnage. 

The pupils are first practised in Trench reading, parsing, 

tnau^iaaa into English (pa^es 38 and 416), and viod voee 

retranslation into French, previously to any attempt at writing 

in Fteaekk the translatifiai of the English phrases in the<exer- 

cise which immediately follows. This system, by JHdioioiisly 



delaying the writing of exercises in French*^ offers to teachers 
a great economy of labour, and is as encouraging as it is pro- 
fitable to beginners, who, comparatiyelj, have but little diffi- 
culty in reproducing orally impressions of language which they 
have correctly received by the ear. 

The rules on the structure of the French language, through- 
out the work, are founded on the recent decisions of the French 
Academy and the best writers of the present day. The Author's 
Method of Tuition and Plan for the periodical examination of 
pupiU in schools are given in the Appendix. An Etymological 
Index showing the grammatical connexion between the French 
and Latin languages, and Diagrams on pronunciation'^, princi- 
pally intended for students who are without the assistance of a 
master, are among the improvements which experience has 
suggested for this new edition. 

32 Ely Place, London. 

At the request of many parents who superintend the studies 
of their children, a Key to the Exercises of Delille's 
French Grammar has been published (in 12mo, price 3«.), 
and may be had of Messrs. Whittaker & Co., Ave-Maria-Lane, 

* The attempt to compose or write exercises in a language before being 
at all versed in its general construction, is like endeavouring to copy with- 
out a model, and is an undertaking which fatigues \he mind without pro- 
ducing any equivalent success. Imitation is natural to U8» and is a task 
easy and agreeable ; but we cannot imitate that which has not been in 
some shape presented to us, and to a certain extent become funiliar to 
the mind. 

t Extracted from the excellent works of Duuubskois, published by 
Dblalain, Paris* 




Emaoloffical Index ix 

Wordi of frequent oecurrence, with a 
compuattve table of Latin and 
French tenninations, and of 
Latin, Greek and Frendi pre- 




Definition of Lanmage, of Worda, 
of SyUaUet, of Letters l 

1—4. French Alphabet : Vowela ; 

Conacmants 1 

5—10. Aecents: the Acute, the Grave, 

the Cireumflez. , 3 

1 1— IS. The Aportrophe ; the Cedilla ; 
the Diflereaia ; the Hyphen ; the 
ngna of Punctuation 3 

16. Vowel aounda 5 

17, 18. Naaalaounda; Diphthonga 10— 12 
10,20. Vowda ailent in certain worda ib, 

21. Conaonanta 13 

22. On Accent or atreaa 16 

98, 24. Ezerdaea in pronunciation . . 17 

25—80. Union of Worda 17 

31. Elision of e unaccented 19 

32. Diviaion of worda into ayllablca . . 20 

Ezerdaea in pronundation 21 

Vocabula r y and Phraaea Of language 

in common uae: The Dapa of 
the Week; the Mentha j Namee 
o/FeaHoaia; Colourai Fhweras 
FnUta; the Houae and Fvmt- 
ture; Dreaaing and Apparel; 
Breakfast; Studiea; the Facul- 
Heaof the Soul; Virtuea; Vieea, 
etc, JUlaUioea} Proper Namea; 
the Toim; Pro/eaaiona and 
Tradea; the IHning'room; the 
Porta o/theBodif; theSeaaona; 
the Weather 25—36 

Bute Page 

33. PartaofSpeeeb 87 

34, 35. AsTiCLB ; conoord with the 

Noun 97 

36. Definite Article ; ita eliaion before 

vowela 88 

37—40. The Poaaeaaive caae; Inde- 
finite Article ; Partitive Artide. 99 

41—46. SuBSTANTiva : Gender ; 

Number 41 

47 — 54. Formation of tht Plural of 

Nouna 48 

55, 56. ADjracTiva; ita nature; con- 
cord with the Subatantive 45 

57—64. Formation of the Feminine of 
A^jectivea. — Plural of A4iee- 
tivea 45—48 

65,66. Of the Position of A4$eetivea.. 50 

67—69. Formation of the Degrees ot 

Compaiiaon 5S 

70—72. Of C(nnpariaon : superiority, 

inferiority, equality 54 

73 — 86. Numerals 55—68 

87* PaoNouN; ita nature and diffier- 

ent clnaaea 64 

88, 89. Personal Pronouna Comunctive 64 

90—93. Place of the Conjunctive Pro- 
nouna 65 

94, 95. Peraonal Pronouna Diqunc- 

tive, their uae 66 

96. Table showing the order in which 
Personal Pronouna are placed 
when there are two or three go- 
verned by the same Verb 67 

97—104. Possessive Pronouns Con- 
junctive, — Diqunctive ; their 
concord 69 

105—120. Relative and Interrogative 
Pronouns: qui, que, lequH, 
dont, quoi, ok 71 — ^74 

121 — 128. Demonstrative Pronouns; 
ee, ceei, ceta, eelui, etc 75 — 77 

129. Indefinite Pronouns 78 

130. Vbbb, its definition 79 

131 — 133. Cases of nouns or pronouna 

with regard to the verb 79 



Rule Page 

134—139. Verbs, Sitbttantioef Tran- 
eitive. Passive, Intransitive ; Re- 
flective and Unipenonal or Im- 
personal 80 

140, 141. Moods, Tenses, Numbers, 

and Persons 82 

142, 143. Co^j ugadon<tf Verbs ;VerVs 

Regular, Irregular^ Defective . 83 

144. Conjugation otavgir 84 

145. Gomugation of itre 89 

146. MeUiod of teaching verbs 93 

147—154. Of Verbs used Interroga- 
tively and with a Negation .... 94 

155, 156. Conjugation of avoir and 
Stre Neg^tivel]^, Interrogatively, 
and Interrogatively with a Nega- 
tion 96—103 

157, 158. Use of duy de la, des before 
Nouns, and of de before Adjec- 
tives ; De after beaucoup, com- 
ftien, peUf etc 108 

159, 100* 2^« in anegative phrase 106^108 

l(lt« Use of avoir and ^^re as aiudli- 

ariea 112 

IBS, 164. Regular Verbs: Model of 

the First Coigvgatkm, aihwr. . 1 13 

16^ 166. B«msriUr-o«i the OHhog ra- 

phy of Verbs lir- 119 

107—172. Modeisof'the Second Con- 
jugatMNi: AiCHBi sannBy ou- 
VRiR, TBMiBy with the vertis 
eoniugKted<Iihe them l90'-429 

17s. Model of tb»TbirdGonjiiga«iQn; 


174—179. Mod«l»oftileFowthG<m> 
jugation: RBifOBB> PAAAtntB, 
ooifDutBs, ovAxifOBa, With the 
verbs eoB||ug«ted like them 128^131- 

180, 18U Conjugation of Fhssive 

Verbs 133—137 

IBS, 188» Coi^ugatioorofNeater Verbs 137 

184, 18S. Conjugation of Reflective 
Verbs, affirmatively, interron* 
tively, and inteirogativdy with a 
negation 13»— 148 

186 — 190. Conjugation of Verbs Uni- 

personal or Impersonal 149 

191, 19s. Comparison between the 

Enslish verb must tcadftMoir. . 152 

193. Verbs, frequentiy used imperson* 

ally 162 

194 — ^201. General Rules for forming 

the Tenses 153 

202. ^noptio Table of the Termimu 

turns of Fren^ Verbs 155 

SOS— 213. Alphabetical List of all the 
Iiregolar and Defective Veibs 

214— Jt40. Illustrations of Moods and 
Tenses: use of the Inflnitive 
mood; useof ttie Indicative pre- 
Bent, imperfeet, preteipeneet, 
past indefinite, etc. ; use of the 
Conditional, Imperative and 
Subjunctive meeds 177—187 

Rule Page 

241—244. Rules on the Place of the 
Adverb, and other remarks for 
the composition of the exercises 

on verbs 191 

245—247. How to translate do, did, 
would, will, shotUd, shall, and 
Engli^ Passive verbs 215 

248. Participles, definition 219 

249. Undecuned parts of Speech: Ao- 

▼BBBB' 219 

290. Ai^eetives used adverbially .... 222 
25) . Classification of adverbs 222 

252. Plus, more, compared with da- 
vemtage, more 223 

253, 254. Pbbpobitions 225 

255, 256. Use of a, en and dans, with 

names of places 226 

257. Use of osrt and eiwers, towards 226 

258—260. Conjunctions 228 

201. Intbbjectionb 230 




Veritable grandeur 231 

lUsultat ib. 

R<$ponse haitUe ib, 

Laconisme ift. 

Proverbe ib. 

Assurance tfti 

Pr^cantiett « i&. 

Bonne axrentmB^ 332 

Frateraittf ifr. 

Bicheases ib. 

Augure ib, 

PoeteB ib. 

Acteur ib. 

j^ttre ib. 

La panille 3SS 

Le savant ib* 

IMsint^ressement i6. 

Dilemme , ib* 

Precision 284 

Ddesses Ift* 

Harangue t6« 

JevurnauK- ib. 

Grandeur 285 

Charity ib. 

L'enftntg&t< ib. 

Remarques d^taeh^ sor Putflit^ des 

languee 2S6 


Le premier honune raconte ses pre- 
nuers- nsowements, ses pranwies 
sensatiomi, ses premiers jugements 
a|nte laor^ation. — ^BuFPOir 238 





JDyto Page 

a6s. iMfinitiafa 242 

903 — 878. Bmplot et snpprenion de 

Partide 242—948 

377. BtnpIaidei'kurtielesTeeleanoins 
dt oontrto, de mpaxtua, de* 

prarmcet, etb 249 

V^i ^79- L^t f*h letvne la nomsqur 

cxpnmeittlepoidib, bnmavre, etc* sn* 
280—886. K^ime dea substantifii: 
noiBOie dw mihrtKntift pnpres 


dhUff 209'. Nuuu odUecttfi* 265 

289. Conatrnction : mibstantifa em- 
ploy^ comme co m pl fa nenti. . . . 266 

290—390. Accord de Pa^ectif 256 

2|ir^-S00. Co nyMnw it de» aB^eetM i' . 289* 
9D1) flOQw Jki^/mstitg qpk flKpriamnifc Ia 
flBiUBBni|. P^tondu dM-OQupav ■ 

etc 261 

2 i <i aa9. Omwemjfmwd&restdaB 


310« foi i B M n i m e aiiB Ibi 

ai J . iHm&> mxpniDQmw . > •« ...... 

Silr-324. FroaoDu peDKmnek: ibla 

NM^nlfH dm ynwnftiiMi 2ffft*- 

3SS* tie, la, on lea at zapportaiiAk.vB 

aulMtantif 269 

326. XigMgnManfcoefai «. 269 

327'~~'390. 9oi; IM, /tfW, |f.— Ate. . . . 270 
331, 332. La, la, lea,,e», k, et antra 
mota, eiL npport avec de& pico^ 

poaitiona inteirag|itlvfla 272 

330—336. De la fonnme iatenogative 

n*eai'Cepaaf etCf 374 

336—338. PronopM pnMfwiifi ; Snet 
Paxtide la, la, lea, employ^ poor 
aon^ aa, aea, leur, leura 375 

339. PBonnma-pnaatwifa r#>itiprft5«^«pft»> 

Partide 277 

340. Difference entre couper au doigt 

et couper le doigt 377 

341. 342. Eire d.»oi, d tei, d lui, etc. 278 
343 — 353. Pronoma rdatift, abadua et 

mtenogatifii : Qui, gve;— d 7111, 
miquel, i laquelle, etc. i—Dont, 
de qui, duquel, etc. ;r-^|tioi ; oit, 

etc. ;— lynvd, doni 279—281 

I. P ro uoiua d^m o na ttatifc; Ce, 
cela, compart aTec il. — Ce/tM, 
eeiur, pria abaolument. — Celui' 
ei, etiui-Ut, etc., ceci, cela, pa. — 
Cec#, ce aofU. — Ce devant le 
▼erbe^/re 282 

Rigle Page 

36D-— :V1 . Ptonoma et a^ieetift badi>- 
finis : On. — Quelque, . .que, 8*4* 
crit de troia mamSrea. — Aucum^ 
mil. — Tel. — Chaque, chacun, — 
CKacun auivi de son, aa,.aes, ou 
de leur, leura. — JIfaint. — Eer- 
aonne. — L*un r autre. Pun et 
V autre.— Autrui. — Tout.—Toua 
deux et toua lea deux.^-MSme. — 
Qui que ce aoit oufHt, quui qm 
ee aoU ou fit. — Quicoftque. — 
Queleonque 286—998 

392—396. Accord da verbe 295 

397—401. Bfanme on comptfmentdea 
▼erbes. verbea qui ont pour com- 
plement un autre veroe k Pin- 
nnitif. Verbea qpi exigent la 
proposition d— <fe, — d ou de, de- 
▼ant imautre.vedbe i^Pinfinitif 


403:— 404. Obaerrationaaurleaverbea 

tnunitifis ou intvaEnaitifll . . 300—303 

406—407. Widt et temp* d& ^norbo 
spx^ ai 308 

409— 4U. ModeindicatifetmodeaDb- 

jonctif 309, 304 

413—414. Cottcordbnce dfs temps de 
Pindicatif et de eats du oonA- 
tbnnd. Concordance des yeriies 
fi^parlacoiqonctionfiie. pen- 
CDrnnce dea tempa du aungonc-* 
ti£ 305, 306 

419 — ISO. Emploi da anfatjonctif 306^316 

436—408. Accord dea partidpea : par* 

tadpe prOaent 318 

439—463. ArtidpepaBae 319—385 

464—466. Adverbea: de I'Viaage dea 

eiqpxeaeiona n^gatirea 398 

467—483. Diff&ence entr^ paa et 
point; — onuaaion de paa et de 
point ;^«mploi de n« .... 329*— 399 

484—^87. Obaerratiana anr Pemploi 
db ploaienra adveibea : Aupara^ 
oani et atjant que, dttoantage et 
piua. — 9f, auaai, tant, auiani. — 
men, paa. — JIM parler, parler 
mal.~~De plua, d^aOUeura, outre 
cela. — Vite, tdt, promptement. 
—Ptua t6t, pMdt.—Auaai, non 
plua, — De auite, tout de auite. — 
Pariant, pourtant 333—336 

498. PrOpontiona : rOp^tion dea prO- 

pontions 338 

499—515. Observations sur Pemploi 



R»gle Page 

de plusienn pr^poaitions ; Avani^ 
dewmtf aupartufOHt. — Dans, en, 
—EtUre, jMormu—Depuiaf pen- 
dant,pour.'-Aupri$, oMprUe.— 
Prit il, prit de, pria de.—De.— 
Au iraven, d trmoere.—Nanob' 
stantj contre, nuUgr^.—Durantf 
pendant. — ^Tomber par terre, 
tomber d tem.—Quant d, quand, 
— Fif-il-tiw, en/oeet/aceit/aee. 
— Fbict, voiUt 338—342 

5 16. Note on the EngUeh word on, 
tued with date* 343 

517. Da pxt^poritions employ^ ab- 
■olument 343 

il8— 5S0. Conjonctions : emploi de 

que 844 

52) — 525. Remarques flur I'emploi de 
plusieun conjonctions: Et, m*. 
—Pendant que, tandie que. — 
Quand, toreque. — Quoique, quoi 
que.— Mais 347, 348 

526. ObeervationB sur diTenes inter- 
jections 340 

527. Onomatop^etmimologismee.. 350 


528. PrononcUtion de l'< mooillfe .. 351 

529. De la pnwodie: De Paceent,— 
De la quantUi. 361 

530. B^les de prosodie, donnto par 
I'abb^ d' Olivet 352 

531. Table d'homonymea 353 

532—534. Du genre des noma. Ob- 
servations Bor quelques aubstaa- 

' t^ des deux genres 354 — 301 

535—537. Formation irr^guliire du 

plurid 361 

538. rluiiel des substantift compost 362 
539—542. Des augmentatifii et des di- 

min irtjfk 36s — ^S05 

543—547. Place de l'a4)ectif. A^jec- 
tifii dont la signification change 
selon la place qu'ils ooeupent . . 366 

548. Dututoiement 367 

Exemples g^n^raux sur toutes Ics 
Kgles de la grammaire. Idio- 

tbmes 369-375 

Conversations famili^res : La ren- 
contre, LatfUUe, L'keure. Le 
premier jour del* an. Le voyage, 
L'^tude du firanpaie. Idiome, 
idiotiame. D\fficuUi» de la pro- 
nonciaMon. Cria dee animauM 
et leura partis communea, 

Monnaiea Jrancaiaea 375—381 

Tableau des mesures Ugales de France 381 

Rigle Page 

549. Etymologie des tapaaea employ6i 
dans la nomenclature des poids 

et mesures 384 

Mod^es de lettres, etc 384—389 


Correspondanceeommerdale! Lettres 
de change, promesses, quittances, 
etc 390 

Notices biographiques : Comdlle, Ba- 
dne, Mohi^, La Fontaine, Boileau, 
Cr^illon, DeshouUhes, Destonehes, 
RoUin, Marmcmtiel, Thomas, La 
Harpe, Voltaire, Barthflcmy, La 
Bruyire, F^nelon, Florira, Maanlr 
Ion. MonteM^uieu, Berquin S9t^ 

Pensees, maximes, et autres extraits 
de lalitt^rature anKlaiae, pour servir 
d'exorcices de tnufuctionenfraa9ua 395 

ReeapUulaied e»ereiaea to be trana- 
lated into French 4l6— 4S5> 


Sur lea thhnea de la syntaxe 455 

550. Faire suivi d'un verbe hl'inllnitif 459 

551. Emploi abusif des proDoma M, 
/eiir, poor le, fo* '*• 

552. Lui pour le, la, et leur pour fes. 4M 

553. j^tymdlogie du verbe #^ ib» 

554. FaiUir coqjugu6r^guSib«ment.. i^. 

555. Vari^t&i du verbe ^>xte «i ..... . 461 

556. Tenir employ^ imperaooxwUe- 
ment •*•« w» 

557. //, le ctauddMa comme prononi 


Pronondation et synthiae. Anah^ 
et traduction. Thames torits. ver- 
sions. Lecture h, haute voix et de- 
clamation. Conversation.... 463—467 

Extrait des statuts-constttutifi de la 
dasse de conversation francaise de 
1' Institution sdentifique et bttdraire 
de la Cite de Londres 467 

Siigets de oompontiona ou d'amplifi- 
cationa ^^ 


Questions g^nerales de grammaire . . 408 
Conversation sur des m^eta gbainax 
au moyen de questions propres a 
exeroer rintemgence des jeunes 
afeves ^7^ 



As the French language, at the epoch of its foimation, offers ele- 
ments which are mostly Latin ^ a knowledge of the formation of 
French words from their Latin originals will be of use to the scholar. 
According to grammatical rules, such words arc formed by 

** ApHjBRKsis^ or taking away from the beginning, 
Apoc6pb^ or cutting off from the end. 
SyncSpk*, or cutting out from the middle, 
Prothksis^ or augmentation at the beginning. 
Paragoge^ or augmentation at the end. 
Metathesis^ or transposition of letters. 
EpenthesiS®, or insertion.^' — ^T. K. Arnold. 

Apharesis, or taking away from the beginning. 

A|dam AS, AJDAMANTis, diamaut, diamond ; av|unculus^ oncle, 
uncle; GiB|BOsus,do«««, hump-backed; il|le, le, the, him; il|la, 
la, the, her; il|lorum, leur, to them, their; oIryza, riz, rice: 
PJTISANA, tisane, ptisan or diet-drink. 

^ A few of its elements are Greek: p\d^ (bkix), blaser, to ptdl, 
to surfeit, to stupefy \ pd9o9 {bathos), bas, low (en bas, down^; x^^^ 
(eholos), coLiKE, anger ; Kpefiaari^p {kremastir) from Kpefidia (kremaS), 
CRiMAiLLtREy pot'honger ; fivorai (musiax), moustaches, mustaehios; 
Xpintrreiv (ehrimptein) ? grimper, to climb, etc. Some are Teutonic ,and 
these refer chiefly to military, feudal and agricultural terms : war, guerre ; 
HBLM, heaume, helmet ; dbgen, dague, dagger ; wacht, guet, watch ; 
scHENKBN, ichonson, cup-bearer; scepen, echevin, alderman; mark, 
marche, marquis ; garten, Jardin, garden ; hamm, hameau, hamlet ; 
WASSER, gdcher, to temper (mortar, plaster) ; wazo, gazon, turf, etc. A 
few are Celtic : Alp, Alpes, Alps ; ard, ardoise, slate ; bat, bateau, boat ; 
CASNUS, cAekff, oak ; gwerid, gueret, field, etc. : — and a few are from the 
Arabic and other Oriental languages. 

' a0a(p€(ri9 {aphairesis), retrenchment, a^aipiut (aphaire^), I take-from. 

^ dTrb-KOTTTut {apO'koptiS), I cut-from. 

* ovyKoirrut {sugkoptd), I cut together, I cut up. 


Apocope, or cutting-offfrom the end, 

Ami|cus, ami, friend; an|nus, an, year; argbnt| um, ar^enf, 
silver; bon|us, bon, good; camp|us', camp; cap|ut, cap (de pied 
en cap), head; centjum, cent, hundred; col|lum, col (cou), neck; 
cru|dus, cru, raw; dbvot|us, d^ot, d^ou^, devotee, devoted; 
DOLJus, dol, deceit or cheat; don|um, don, gift; dur|us, dur, 
hard; fat|uus, fat, a fool, a coxcomh; fer|rum, fer, iron; 
filJum, Jil, thread; fin|i8, fin, end; fort|is, fort, strong; 
jument|um, jument, a mare; grand|is, grand, great; lac|u8, 
lac, lake; long|us, long; Mai|us, mai, May; mal|um, mal, 
evil; MANDAT|uM,ma»(;fa^, mandate; mbtal|lum, m^i^oZ; mol|lib, 
mol (mou), soft ; nid|us, nid, nest ; nom|bn, nom, name ; nul|lu8> 
nul, none; nud|us, {nud, then) nu, naked; pobc| us, \porc, pork,, 
hog; PORTJus, ^orf ; princb|ps, jirtnce; portJus, jior^, harbour; 
prompt|us, prompt ; pur|us, pur, pure ; auANDJo, quand, when ; 
sang|uis, sang, blood; sol|um, sol, soil; soh\iDVs\ sol {sou^) ; 
son|us, son, sound; supbrflu|us, stiperfu; van|nus, van, fan (in 
agriculture); vent|us, vent, wind; vin|um, vin, wine. 

Apocope appears also with some further change: — ^Aurum, or, 
gold; brachium, bras, arm; brevis, bref, short; cervus, cerf, 
stag; CHORUS, chosur, choir; circulus, cercU, circle; ccelum, 
del, heaven; bdigtum, 4dit, edict ; FRBNUM,yre«n, curb; Gr2bcus, 
^rrcc, Greek; mon strum, monstre, monster; ovum, CBttf, egg; 
ORACULUM, oracle; palatium, palais, palace; pallidus, pdle, 
pale; regnum, r^gne, reign; bigidus, rigide, rigid; signum, 
signe, sign; sInus, S€in,hosom ; truncus, tronc, tnmk; UNauAM, 
oncques, ever. 

Syncope, or cutting-out from the middle, 

Anima, dme, soul; consanguineus, cousin; corpus, corps, 
body; vvNjyvs, fonds, ground, land, soil; legbrb, lire, to read; 
MAGis, mais, but; nubbs, nue, cloud; pond us, poids, weight; 
sacrambntum, serment, oath. 

Syncope appears with various further changes, especiaUy those 
which result from the omission of final consonants, of syllables in 
the Latin words: auctor, auteur, author; dorsum, dos, back; 
FBNBSTRA,/cw^rc, wiudow ; INSULA, (Ic, island; magistbr, mtdtre, 
master ; masculus, mdle, male ; natalis'*, Noel, Christmas ; pas- 
CHA, Pdques, Easter; subjectum, sujet, subject; trajectum, 
irajet, passage. Observe in dme, f entire, (le, maitre, mdle, Pdques, 
the compensating circumflex accent (see page 3). 

Other changes resulting from the ejection of consonants are 
also frequent: cauda, queue, tail; grudelis, cruel; cultellus, 
couteau, knife ; glycyrrhiza {ykvKvs, glukus, sweet, piCa, rhiea, 
root), r^Zme, licorice ; lacrima, larme, tear; PLnyiA,|i2tMe, rain; 
FRiBDA, proie, prey ; vita, me, life. 

^ Champ, field. ^ A shilling. ' Halfpenny. ^ For Christi nataUa dies. 


Pbothksib^ or augmeutatiou at the beginmng. 

Prothesis is geBerally the prefixture of a letter for the sake of 
euphony : — G 6 oefore r : ranula, grenouiUe, frog ; rugirb, bnUre, 
to roar. H before o: oleum, huile, oil; ostrea, huttre, oyster. 
JS before sp, st, sc: spatium, espace, space; sperare, esp&er, 
to hope; spiritus, emrit, spirit; stomach us, ««fomac, stomach; 
SCANDALUM, esclanore, event that gives rise to scandal. The 
original s often disappears : strangulare, ^trangler, to strangle ; 
STUDERE, ^tudier, to study ; schola, ^cole, school ; spina, ^me, 
thorn; status, ^tat, state; stabulum, Stable, stable; SPissus, 
4'ai9, thick; scintilla, ^ftnc«Z2e, spark; spica, ^, ear of com. 

(To the above may be added estampe, a print, m>m the Italian 
stampare, or the German stamp/en ; and ^tendard, standard, from 
the old IVench standardum,) 

The prefixture of the article, for the sake of euphony, can be 
traced m several words ; thus, — From the Latin 


r rambriSf whence le lamirig. 

the waioiscot. 


has been 

U hierre, — le Iterre, 

the ivy-tree. 



VoitiTy — U lomr. 

the leisure. 


in old 

Foutre, — la loutre. 

the otter. 



Fwette — la htette, 

the uvula. 


^Vendemaxttj — le lendenuthif 

the morrow. 

(From the English 
hand-iron, — Vandier^ whence le laruHeTf the kitchen andiron.) 

Paragoge, or augmentation at the end, 

Sol, so^eily sun; par, par\eil, like. The added letter in the 
French word is often merely a final letter of the Latin root. 

Pars, part|is, par^te, part; mors, mort|is, mort, death; ac- 
tio, action|is, action, action; PRissBNS, pilssentJis, pr^ent, 
present. With further change, genus, G£Ns|ris, genre, kmd. 

Metathesis, or transposition, 

YiGiNTi, vingt, twent]^; heri, hier, yesterday; pun gens, ^ot- 
gnant; stagnum, ^tang, pond; vsrus (ver, voir, then), vros, true. 

YowEL change. 

A into at or e : clarus, clair, clear ; necessa&ius, n^essaire, 

necessary; familiaris, fanUlier, familiar; musa, muse; 

TESTA, tite^ head. 
B into at, ei, ie, oi : FLEBiLis,/a»d2e, feeble; plbnus, plein, full; 

BENE, lien, well ; lex, loi, law. 
I into e, ei : tristitia, tristesse, sadness ; consilium, eonaeil, 



o into au, eu, ou, ot, ui : cor^ cctur, heart ; flos, Jieur, flower ; 
AMOR, amour, love ; vox, voix, voice ; nox^ noctis, nuit, night. 

u into oi, ui, ou : nux, noix, nut ; traducere, traduire, to truis- 
kte; CURIA, cqur, court; curs us, cours, course; curtus> 
court, short; dulcis, doux, sweet; gustus, goUt, taste; lupu8> 
loup, wolf; suRDus, sourd, deaf; URSUS, ours, a bear. 

Frequently the added letter is an alteration of the Latin termina- 
tion or the accusative case from which the French word is derived : 
RES, REi, ace, REM, rieu, a thing. 

Consonant changes. 
Consonants may be thus subdivided : — 

Liquids. / ^ ^ Mutes. | C, Q, G, j! Sibilant. | j', Z. 
^^'^^' Ld, T. Aspirate. H. 

The changes of the mutes, properly understood, are among the 
principal auxiharies in et3rmology. 

Smooth. Middle. Atpirate. 

P sounds (labials) p b ph (/, v) 

C^K sounds (guttui'als) c=A:, q g ch 
T sounds (linguals) t d th. 

In the progress of language it has been observed that mutes of 
the same organ are frequently interchanged : 

p, b sounds into v : caper, chevreuil, roe-deer; FABA,/ere, abean; 
HABERE, avoir, to have. 

V into b : vervex, brebis, lamb. 

V into/: vivus, vif, lively. 

c, q into g, ch : acer, aigre, soiw; a qui la, aigle, eagle ; caballus, 

cheval, horse ; au^ERERE, chercher, to seek. 
i into d : paratus, parade, 
th into t : thesaurus, tr^or, treasure. 

Mutes of different organs, and consonants of different classes, 
undergo various changes : 

V into^: yes pa, ^tt^^, wasp; VA8TARE,^^cr, to spoil; cavea, cage, 
t into ss, s, c, z : potentia, puissance, power ; potio, poison ; 

GRATIA, grdce; ad-satis, assez, enough. 
n into gn : Campania, Champagne, Champaign ; castane a, chd" 
taigne, chestnut. 

Epenthesis, or insertion. 

b, t between ml, nr, with a vowel between them : humilis, humble ; 

canere, chanter, to sing. 
d before r : fulgur {fouldre, then), foudre, thunder. 

In the formation of the French language, as may be seen from the 


above^ the Latin words became for the most part contracted. Two or 
more Latin words are also found contracted into one French word : 
Dies dominica, dimanche, Sunday'. Septem mane, semaine, 
week. AntIe-natus, tdni, elder; pollice '];runcus, poUron, 

The conformity between French and Latin is found not only in the 
formation of words, as shown by the preceding rules and examples, 
but also in yarious figures of speech and idioms common to Doth 

CoRDi ID EST MiHi (I am pleased with that), fai eela h caur, I 

have that at heart. 
Desiderio MORI, mourir eTenvie, To be most anxious. 
Ungues arrodere, se ronger les angles (r^echir profondement). 

To meditate. 
Meo judicio, meI sententi^ d num sens, bi my opinion. 
Meo modo, a ma numihe, d mafantaisie. To my nmcy. 
Ad litteram, a la lettre. Literally, strictly. 
Est boni juDici8,t/ est eTunbonjuge. It i8(theduty)of a good judge. 
Habere pro certo, avoir pour certain. To know for certain. 
Amittere k coNSPECTU, perdre de vue. To lose sight of. 
Ben^, MAhk VELLE ALicui, vouloir du bieny du nud h quelqu'un. 

To bear another good-will, ill-will. 
Dso JuvANTE, PERAGAM, Dtetf oidont, je terminerai. With God's 

help, I shall finish it. 
Hoc FACTO, BFFUGiT, celafoit, U s'enfnit. That being done, he fled. 
Rediit horI dictI, il revint d Pheure dite. He returned at the 

appointed hour. 
Nescio ouid AQAU,je ne sais qvefaire, I know not what to do. 
Ubi loci res est 7 oiienest V affaire? How does the matter stand? 
ToRBA Ru^RE, unefoule d^hommes se pr^piterent, A host of men 

rushed on. 

(Other analogies will be found in their proper places in the Grammar.) 

1 The English names of the days of the week are borrowed from the 
names of idols, which the ancient Saxons chiefly worshipped on those days ; 
as on Sunday the idol of the sun was worshipped, on Monday the idol of 
the moon, etc. The analogy with the Latin names is remarkable : 

Monday {Moon day). Lundi {Lufut dies),dtiy of the moon. 

Tuesday (7Wwo'«d(iy),Tui8co was Mardi {Martis dies), day of Mars. 

the Mars of the Saxons. 

WsDNK8DAY(^o<toi'«diay),WoDEN, Mercrsdi {Mercurii dies), day of 

the Meretay of the Saxons. Mercury. 

Thursday (Thor's day), Thor, the Jeudi {/ovis dies), day of Jupiter. 

JvpUer of the Saxons. 

Friday {Friga*s day). Frig a, the Yendredi {Veneris dies), day of 

Venus of the Saxons. Yenns. 

Saturday {Seater's day), Ssater, Samedi {Satwmi dies), day of Sa- 

the Saltum of the Saxons. turn {Sabbati dies /). 




comparatite table of latin and french terminations, 
and of im.tin, greek and french prefixes. 


Lb, la, les, tbe; Ule, iUa, ittos, Du, des, of or from the; de 
LB, DB LBB. Au, AUX, to the ; a lb, a leb. Uk, une, 8, onc, 
mnu8, una. 

Terminations of Substantives. 

Latin or into fVench eur: honor, honneur; color, couleur, colour; 

PUDOR, pudeur, shame, modesty. 
Tio lo, turn on : mentio, mention ; opinio, opinion. 
MBNTUM, ment : honumentum, momunent ; alimentum, aliment. 
A, e: ROSA, rose; voBTVJf a, fortune; luna, lune, moon. 
lUM, e : PRiNCTPiUM, principe, beg;inning^; remedium, rem^, 

ITIUM iciUM, ice: vmuM, vice; auspicium', auspice. 


frage^ shipwreck. 
ORiUM, oire: PRiBTORiUM,/7r^{7fre; oratorium, or«/o»re, oratory. 
ITA8 BTA8, it44t4ti6\ YBRiTAB, vMti, tTuth; pf BTA8, 771^^, piety; 

SANiTAS, santiy health ; voluptas, nohtpt^t pleasore. 
ANTiA, ante'. BLB6ANTiA,i^Z^^raiMpe; MAONFFieBNTiA,ina^n|^eeiice. 
ITIA, tee: AVARiTi A, avarice ; jusTiTiA,yiw<iw. 
udo, iu2e: manbvbtudo> fiunww^tiMfe ; sobitudo^ «o2ihuib. 

Terminations of Adjectives. 

Latin undus into French oiui: RUBiauNDUfl^ rMcfmd\ furibujy- 

DUS,/tfrf6otti2,. fuiioua. 
idus, iie : cxjpidub, eupids, covetous ; bigidub^ rigide, rigid. 
iLis, le : HORRiBiLis, horrible ; gracilis, gr^le, slender. 
ax acis, ace : vorax voracis, vorace, voracious. 
ANUS lANus INUS, ain ien in : Romanus, romain, Roman; meri- 

DiANirs, mdridien, meridian ; divinus, divin, divine. 
ARiUB ARis, atre: necebsarius; nScessaire, necessary; saluta- 

Ris, salutaire, salutary, 
osus, eux: FRucTuosus,/r»c?fM«M:, fruitful ; PRETiosus,/>r^cictM?, 

ivuB vus, iff: APERiTivus or APERTivus, ap^itif, aperitive; 

Novus, neuf new. 
Tvs,te: INEPTUS, tnepfe, unfit ; JUSTUS,jtt5te, just. 
Lus LIB, I, and by a subsequent change, I into au u : novbllus> 

nouvel, nouveau, new ; mollis, mol, mou, soft. 

^ Avispicium, from avis, a bird, and tpeeere, to observe. Jutpieari, 
auipicatuB, to observe birds, to watch for tokens from the actions of birds. 




AncuNy AucwRf some one, any one, 


to whom, to which, A. Lxand oxau^ 

Autre, autrks, other, different, 

AuTRui, another, others, alter, geni' 
tive aUerim (Autre homme^ emtre* 
hum, aaire'Mu, then mUrui, ac- 
cording to Wet). 

Ca, that, it, a contraction of csla. 

Cx, this, that, it ; get, cbttb, this, 
that; cxs, these, those, Mcee, 
haece, hocee. 

CscT, this, CE and ci. 

Ckla, that, CE and i«a. 

Ckltti, this, that, he, cb and cut. 

CxuLE, this, that, she, ca and blle. 

Ceux, Jtw Ic^andEux. 
Celles, I ^1^^ ' I cE and slles. 

Chacux, chacune, each one^ ewary 

one, ^uisfStt-fBHif.. 
CHAom, each, every,. ^nan^iMi 

DESODBLfli, PEWQFWFB— , of OT ftom 

wiiicfa, DK lAfl mait anx&s. 
DoNT, of (or fiom, with, by, ahant) 

which OFwkom, de, uade. 
DvauEL, ot OB ttom wfaidi, m ix 

and auEL. 
Eu.B,ahe,her, it; E£i.Ea,they, them, 

iBaf iUat, 
£n, of, fimn or by me, tiiee, him, her, 

it, ns, yon, than or that ; tlience, 

iMnoe, some or any of it od of them. 

Evx, they, them, «t^ ao. 

Il, he, it ; ils, they, itte, 

Jb, I (Italian /o), a^o («7<^). 

La (the), her, it; 1 Les (the), them, 

LB(tbe)»him,it;/ iUe^ iOa, iliOB. 


ixsQfjWKLMSf. which, who, whom, 

that, LE and auEL. 
LxuR, iJSURS,tiieir,tfaein; LsirR,to 

them, iHorunu 
Lui, he, him, to him, her or it, HIL 
MA,my, flMo. 
Maint, many. (Origin Tentonie, 

whenoo thia Getinc numagef the 

German manieh, manehf. and the 

Eng^h word numy.) 
Me, me, to me, me. 
MImb, same, self, selves (Italian 

medenmo), met ipsissimue, 


mine, meue, 

Moi, I, me, to me, mei (jioC). 

MoN, 1 

jll rmy, meut, mea, meum, meos. 

"Notre, nos, our, 1 - 
Notre, nitres, ours, j *^^^' 
Noirs, we, ns, onrselves, to ns, nos, 
NuL, NVixE, no, none, null, nulbu. 
On, some one, somebody, homo. 
Pbrsonne, person, anylK)dy,/»er«oaa. 
Plusieurs, several, many, phtree. 
Que, whom, which, that, quern. 
QuEi., auELS, auEu:^, auELUss, 

what, which, whom, qualit. 
QRHjCfRNnix, whatever, any, gmdB»» 

QuELdUE, some, any, auBi. and q;ub» 
Qui, who^ whon^.whidl, that, quL 
QuicoNdUE, whoeiver; gmamque* 
Quoi, what, whiefa, quid, 
SA,.fai8, her,.ifB, one^s, smk 
Se, himself, berael^ itacil^ one's sei^ 

eadi other, thenuelves, to himself, 

Sbs, his, her, its, one's, siwv. 

SlEN, SIEN8, nBNNE, gOnrNES, lUS, 

hers, «tttw. 
Sox, himself, herself^ itself, one's ael^ 

each other, themselves, se, auL 
Son, hia, her, its, one's, suum», 
Ta, thy, tua. 

Te, thee, to thee, to thysd^ t». 
TtsL, TBLS) TEutK, teclbs, soch, Kke, 

same, sndi a one, sndi people, 

taUs. (Tel...que, ttdk...qiaUM.) 
Tes, thy, tuoB. 


thine, /«««. 
Toi, thon, thee, to tiiee, tu, tuL 
Ton, thy, tuus. 
Tout, tous, touts, toutxs, all, 

whole, entire, every, any, each, 

Tu, thon, tu. 



VVf UNB, one, ft or an ; uns, unes, 

some, toMif. 
VoTRE, T08, your, "! vester, 
YdTKS, vdTRES, yours, J fHw/er. 

Vovs, ye, you, yourself, youndvesi 

to you, etc., voi, 
T, to or in me, thee, him, her, it, us, 

you, them, that, t^t (Italian m,vi). 

— BRB — 

— ERE 

Tebminations of Verbs. 

The four Latin conjugations end in are, ere, ire and ire in their infinitive 
mood, and the French in er, ir, oir and re : 
Latin are into French er, amare, aimer, to love (see page 112). 

~ oir, (often) tidere, voir, to see ; debers, devoir^ 

to ovf e ; HABERE, avoir, to have. 
ir, re, oir, (often) reoere, r^^, to rule ; dicere, 
dire, to say ; bibbre, boire, to drinV ; perci- 
p^RE, pereevoir, to receive, and others in ohrf 
from ag^ere, 
ir (often), venire, tenir, to come ; FiNiRB,^ntrj 
to finish. 

Several French verbs are from the past participle or supine. Thus, 
osER, to dare, from aunu, past participle of audere. 


— IRE — 

AiLLEURS, elsewhere, aXonum {AUo 

loco, according to Wet). 
AiNsi, thus, m He. 
AuENTouR, around, a l' (endroit qui 

est) EN (le) TOUR. 

Alors, then, adittam horam. 

Arri^re, behind, A riIere, retro. 

AssEz, enough, ad eatie. 

Aujourd'hui, today, au jour de 
HUi, hujtu (diei or temporis). 

AupARAVANT, before, k par ayant. 

AupR^s, near, a le pr^s. 

Aussi, as, also, ad He. 

AussiT^, as soon, immediately, 
AUSSI rdr. 

AuTANT, as much, alterum tanium. 

AuTOUR, around, A. le tour. 

Autrefois, formerly, autrbs fois. 
Fois, tricM (turns, courses, changes). 

Beaucoup, much, bella copia, 

BiEN, well, bene. 

BiENTdr, soon, bien tot. 

CI, hither, ce lI. 

C^ANS, within, hie intus, 

Cependant, meanwhile, ce pen- 

Cbrtes, certainly, eertL 

Ci, here, kieee, 

Combibn, how much or many, 


CoMME, as, how, commbnt, how, 

D'aBORD, first, DE ABORD. 

D' AILLEURS, firom another cause, be- 
sides, moreover, de ailleurs. |^ 

Davantaoby more, de avantagb. ^ 

DbqI, on this side, de qk. 

Dedans, within, de dans. 

Dehors, outside, de hors. 

D6jA, akeady, dejam., 

DelA, on that side, beyond, db iX. 

Demain, tomorrow, de mane. 

Derechbf, again, db re chbf. 

DerriIere, behind, de retro. 

DfesoRMAis, henceforth (Old French 
DB8-ORES-MAis),i2e kdc kord magii. 

Dessous, underneath, de sub. 

Dessus, upon, dentper. 

Detant, before, de aiUe. 

Dor^navant, henceforth (Old 
French des-orbs-bn-ayant), de 
hde hard in anti. 

Encore, still (Italian aneora), hie 

Enfin, at last, in finem. 

Ensemble, together, in mitUl 

Ensuite, fliterwards, en suite. 

Environ, about, en viron (or 61- 
ron), m gyrwn. 

ExpRfts, on purpose, expret^. 



FoBT, \ery,fortis. 

Gv^RE, little, vortum or avare ? (Teu- 
tonic ware, caution, difficulty?). 

HiKB, yesterday, hen. 

Ici, herC} hicce. 

Impkotiste {k V), on a sudden, un- 
expectedly, improvigus. 

Jadis, formerly, ^am dini. 

Jamais, ever, (with ne expressed or 
understood) never, Jam magis, 

LA, there, ttttf. {In parte tUi.) 

Loin, far, kngi. 

LoNGTBMPS, a long time, Umgum 

Lobs, then, contraction of alobs. 

Maintenant, now, numu tenenie. 

Mal, hadly, mate. 

MAmb, even (mAmb, page xv). 

MiBUx, better, melius, 

MoiNs, less, mmus. 

Nagu^be, formerly, nb gu^be. 

Ne, not, ne. 

N^ANMoiNS, nevertheless (Italian 
nieniedimeno), nikilomimu. 

Nenni, no, lion ilbid. 

NoK, oo or not, nan. 

Od, where, ubu 

Qui, yes, koe iUud, then oil (as in 
ka^ve tPoil^). 

pABFOis, sometimes, pab F0is,trtce«. 

Pabtamt, consequently, pab tant. 

Pabtout, everywhere, pab tout. 

Pas (with ne expressed or under- 
stood), no not, paewus, 

PiLB-M^LE, in confusion, pab la 
MBSL^B (medley) or mAl^b. 

Pbu, little, paubte, 

pBUT-ihTBB, perhaps, pbut Atbb. 

Pis, worse, pe^. 

Plus, more, phu. 

Plutot, rather, plus tot. 

Point (with ne expressed or under- 
stood), no not, jtmnehMM. 

PouBTANT, however, pro tanto. 

pBBsauB, almost, pbIes aub. 

Pb&s, near, pressth. 

Pbochb, near, projeimus. 

Puis, then, j0on7»#. 

QuAND, when, gtumdb. 

QuBLdUBFOis, sometimes, qublques 
Fois, vices. 

Rbboubs (A), the wrong way, back- 
wards, re^»m»,aLatin word of the 
middle ages meaning rough, hispid. 

RiEN (with ne expressed or under- 
stood), nothing, res. 

St, so, sie. 

SiToT, so or as soon, si tot. 

SouDAiN, suddenly, subitaneus. 

SouvENT, often (Italian sovente),sub' 

SuRTouT, above all, sub tout. 

Tant, so much, tantum. 

Tantot, soon, tant t6t. 

Tard, late, tarde. 

Tbllement, so much, so, tel, talis, 
MBNT, menteK 

Tot, soon (Italian tosto), fostusQ), 
or eitd. 

Toujoubs, always, tous joubs. 

TouTBPois, yet, toutes fois, vices. 

Tbatbbs (A), across, through, trans 

TRts, very, tres. 

Trop, too much (Italian trcppo), 
turba (?). 

YiTE, qnidc. (Formed by onomato- 

Voire, even, nay, ver^. ' [poeiaK) 

VoLONTiERs, willingly, volenter. 

Y, there, ibi. 

X, to, at, ad. 
ApbIes, after, A PBis. 
Attbndu, considering, attendere. 
Ayant, before, ab ante. 


Atbc, with, ab usque cum. 
Chez, at (the house of), among, easa. 
CoNTRB, against, contra. 
Dans, in, de intus. 

1 Oui is also supposed to be a contraction of the old French lo voil, i. e. je 
U veux, I am willing, (hu, voil, vogUo, voUo, volo. Country people in many 
parts of France say even now voui, and in some provinces voutnU, for oui. 

' Mbnt, mente, from mens, is the termination of most adverbs formed 
from adjectives, agrMlement, sineerement, etc ' See page 350. 

• •• 


Dx, of or firam, de. 

J}KFuig, siBce, dejHmiim. 

jyts, from, naoe, de. 

Devsba, towards, j>k TSBft. 

DuRANT, during, oitbib. 

En, in, m. 

Entbb, between, mier. 

Enyers, towards, mx veba. 

£^8^ in the, en ubs, 

ExcBPrt, excopty mp agtim, 

HoRMis, HORS, except, fariaK 

brsTAR (JL l'inbtar DE)/in Uie ctyle 

of, kiitar (like). 
JuBQUB, as far as, UMgttk 
MALGRi, in spite of, maU graUu. 
MoTXNNANT, by means of, mediauus. 
NoNOBSTANT, notwithstanding, turn 

Oinna, besides, viMra. 


Par, by, per, 

PAjan, among, sar Miusir. 

Pendant, during, wusmaau 

Pour, for, pro. 

Quant A, as to, qutaUum ad. 

Sans, -without, <me. 

Sauf, except, udnu* 

Sblon, according to, 

tumdo heo ?). 
Soi?s, under, mft. 
SuivANT, acoardii^ to, 
SuR, upon, auper. 
TouGBANT, eoBcemingp, 
Vers, towards, vernu. 
Voici, here is; vom ici, see hem. 
VouA, there is ;-toi8 iA, «e them. 
Vis-1-vis, opposite, Mnir. 
Yu, cornddflEhig, vohu 


Car, because, for, qtid re (yap, gar ?) . 

Cependant, jet, however, ce pen- 

DoNC, then, therefore (Italian 
dunque), tune. 

Et, and, ei, 

LoRsauE, when, lors aus. 

'Mais, but, magis, 

Ni, nor, nee. 

Ob, now, hdc hord. 

Ou, or, mU, » 

Parce q,ue, because, far cb aux. 
PouRQuoi, whei>efore,/w«^iiOfi il 
PouRvu auE, provided, jvroeato^iMKf. 
PuisauE, since, jMMtto fue. 
Que, that, gu€. • 

QuoiauE, though, qwunqnam (?). 
Si, if, n. 

SiNON, otherwise, si non. 
Tandis auE, whilst, tarn dm que. 
TouTBKUB, yet, hoiwever, Toom 

FOI«, VtCiV. 

Latin and F&ench Prefixes. 

Ab, abs, from, away ; abfurer, to ab- 
jure ; abstenvr, to abstain. 

Ao, to, at (the d frequently suffers 
a consonant-change) ; amenerj to 
bring; ajg9or/«r, to bring. 

Amb (ambi), about, from side to side; 
anUngu\ ambiguous. 

Ante, before, ant4c4dent^. 

CiRCON, roundabout; dreotuertre, 
to circumseribe. 

Con, with ; eoneourir, to conew. 

Contra, against, near; eamiredire, 

to contradict. 
De, from ; d^art^, departure. 
Di, DIB, signifies asunder; dmiaer*, 

to divide. 
£, EX, out ; ^iendre, to extend. 
En, in ; enterrer'^, to bury. 
En, away ; s*envoler^, to fly away. 
Extra, beyond, out of, extfwntK" 

For, out of ; /mffnii^, crime. 

^ Maitre es arts, Master of arts. ^ Partio, I divide, I separate. 

^ Tout est perdu forsPhennewr {til ^ Dnido, formed of die and the 

is lost except honour), said Francis f . Etruscan verb iduo, I separate, 

after the battle of Pavia (in 1525). 7 Terra, the eartfh. ^ 

' Ambigo, I go about, I doubt. ^ Voh, I fly. 

4 CMo, lyieM. " Facto, I do. 



In, into ; ineorporert to incorporate. 

In, not, ineotutani» 

Inter, between; iniervenir, to in- 

Ob, in front of; <^ier\ to obviate. 

Pab, per, through, quite ; par/aii^, 
perfect, pertpectweK 

Pkb, before, preface. 

Pro, forth, forward, j9roce««>(m. 

He, again, back; re/tr«, to read again. 

Rbtro, back ; r^trogradery to retro- 

SfNE, without; sinicure, sinecure; 

Sub, sous, under; subjttguer^, to 

subdue ; soumetire, to submit. 
SuBTER, under, tubterjvge. 
Super, sur, above, tuperfinf mr- 

Trans, tra, over, beyond; tram- 

planter, to transplant; tranener^ 

to cross. 
Ultra, outre, beyond; tfi/ramon- 

tmn, ultramontane. 

Se, apart ; ^duvrey to seduce^. 

Greek and French Prefixes. 

A, a (a), witfaonti ubmne^, abyss. 

Amphi, andti {ampht^, both, amphibie^f amphibious. 

Ana, dvd. (ana), back, again, analyse^, analysis. 

Anti, dvTi {anii)y against, aniipathie^^, antijiathy. 

Apo, cltto (apo), from, Jtpoeryphe^\ Apocrypha. 

Cata, Kara (kata), against, •egtanirophe^^^ 

DiA, did (dia)f through,. across, diagomdeH. 

Epi, eiri {epi), upon, over, ^ridermcy epidermis K 

£u, €^ (eu)t well, good, emmgile^^ (good tidings), gospel. 

Hyhbr, inrep {huper), above, beyond, hsfperMe^^, 

Htfd, imb {hupo), under, hifpiatMMe^.. 

MwTAf ii€rd (flMte), bqnond, tn^ti^hyaigue^. 

Mono, fi6vo£ (monov), one, alone, moniAiffue^K 

Para, rrapd (jmra), side by .side, similar, par^Artue^. 

Penta, trivre (jpente)t fi\e, pentagone^K 

Peri, Tcepl (jvm), round about, /^er^iArflse*. 

Poly, voXvs (polus), wybtbI, polgsyUabe^^, 

PsBuiK), ^cv^qs (|}Mt(i^), false, piiudongme^, pseudonjjnDUS. 

Syn, (tvv (sunjf with, sympathie^^, 

M^s, Mi AND MI, French Prefixes. 

Mis, or m6, a prefix of Teutonic origin, m», signifying contrary to, wrong ; 

m^HntelUgencef misunderstanding ; m^eontent, dissatisfied. 
Mi- half, from the Latin medhta (mi-ao6t, middile of August). 

* Fw, vniy. ' Factum, deed. 
' S^cto, I see. 

* JhtcOf I lead. 

^ Sine plexu (sans plis), vnthout 

' Subjugo, I subdue. 

7 Pvaabi (bu8808), depth. 

8 Pion {bios), Ufe. 

^ \if(o llu6), I dissolve. 
*® ^dOos {pathos), feeling. 
" KpvTTTta {krupti), I hide. 
M OTpi^ia {strephS), I turn. 

13 ^i^via (^onta), an angle. 

^^ oep/ia ((iierma), the skin. 

^^ dyyeXXoi {angeM), I declare. 

^<> i3dXXa> (da2^), I throw. 

^^ Oetrcs {thesis), a position. 

^^ 0v(ris (/7A1MM), nature. 

'• XiJyos (%o«), a word or dis- 

^ 0pd(Tis {phrasis), a speech. 

21 <r^v (^*»)y with; XafiP&via 
{lambani), I take together. 

^ ovofca {onoma), a name. 


f». stands for masculine. 
/. — ^ /emmme, 
9, — itingular. 

pL stands for plural, 
h OT, — h mute, 
h asp, — h aerated. 

In the Ejcercises. — Art, or (the) between parentheses shows that the 
definite article is to be used in French. The words (qfthe) are also in a 
few instances between parentheses, and show that dut de la, de l\ or dee 
are to be used in French. With the exception of personal pronouns used 
with verbs in the imperative mood ; as, come (thou), have (ye), a eingle 
word between parentheses is to be translated, though uot used in English. 
In instances where several English words are inclosed in parentheses, they 
must be rendered by the word or words only which are placed under them. 

denotes that the English word is like the French. 

The figures between parentheses, thus (121.), refer to the rule applicable 
to the sentence. 

* under a word, shows that it is not to be expressed in French. 



Lanooaoe is properly defined to be the means of communicating 
ideas, and may be divided into oral and written, but the latter is 
merely symbolical of the former. 

The rules which by custom have obtained for the government of a 
language are properly the subject of grammar. 

As if by common consent of civilized mankind, all languages are 
subject to certain primary rules or principles ; and the French lan- 
guage, like every other, is governed as well by those general prin- 
ciples of grammar as by its own peculiar rules. 

[The mode of speaking ^cii/tor to a language is called the idhm (l^ios, 
idioi, peculiar) of that language. Thus, ** Is Mr. A. at home ?" is a phrase 
conformable to the idiom of the English language. If we translate this 
into French {Monsieur A. eei-il chez luiT)^ and retranslate the expression 
into English, we should say, ** Mr. A. is he at home ?'' This would be an 
English phrase, written according to the idiom of the French language.] 

Language consists of sentences, sentences consist of words, and 
words may be divided into syllables and letters. 

Words may either be composed of one or more syllables, hence 
the terms monosyllable, dissyllable, trisyllable, polysyllable. 

A syllable may be defined to he that portion of a word which is 
produced by a single articulation of the voice, and it may be com- 
posed of one or more letters. 

Letters then, the most elementary parts of written language, re- 
present also the elementary sounds of the language, the proper utter- 
ance of which constitutes a good accent. 


1. The French alphabet has twenty-five letters : 

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, 

R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z. 

These letters are named in French as follows : 

a, hi, eif dS, i, iffe, gS, ash, i,ji, ka, dlie, ^me, hme, o, pi, ku, erre, 

isse, tS, u, vS, ikce, i grec, zide. 

2. When the letters are named with the indefinite article, we say in 
French : Un a, un (bS) b, tut (ci) c, un (df) d, un 6, une (^e) f, un 
(gS) g, une (ash) h, un i, un (ji) ], un {ka) k, une {elle) 1, une {imme) 
m, une {inne) n, tin o, un {pS) p, un {ku) q, une {drre) r, une {esse) s, 
tin {tS) t, un u, un {vS) v, un {ikee) x, un i grec, un {»ide) z. 



They are also prononnced by modem grammarians :— 

a, be^ ke or ce, de^ e^fe^gue orge, he, t, Je, ke, le, me, ne, o, pe, he, re, 

se, te, u, ve, kse, i grec, ze. 

In the new pronunciation, e, after each consonant, is sounded as e in 
the English word battery. 

To these letters we may add to (double v), which is found in a few 
French words horrowed from other languages, as whist (pronounced 
ouiste), etc. We might also add ce, which is found in a few words, 
as coBur, heart ; sceur, sister ; (Edipe, etc. 

3. The vowelsy or simple emissions of the voice, are 
a, e, t, o, M, and y {i grec). 

4. The other letters are called consonants y being arti- 
culated with the assistance of vowels. 

The six vowels express only five sounds, t and y (after a consonant) 
being pronounced alike ; but as the French language has several other 
sounds, the deficiency of letters to convey them is partly supplied by 
marks called accents, and by various graphical combinations hereafter 


5. Accents generally denote the peculiar sounds of 
the vowels ; some^ however, serve to distinguish words 
spelt alike, but of different signification. 

6. There are three accents : the acute accent, Y accent 
aigu ( ^ ) ; the grave accent, V accent grave ( ^ ) ; and 
the circumflex accent, V accent drconjlexe {^). 

7. The acute is placed over the vowel e only, and gives 
it an acute or slender sound ; as v^rit^^ truth. 

8. The grave placed over e, generally gives that vowel 
a broad or open sound ; as pr^Sy near. 

9. The grave accent has also other uses ; it is placed over d, to, at ; 
Id, there ; oH, where, and des, as soon, to distinguish those words from 
a, has ; la, the, her or it ; ou, or, and des, some. It is placed over the 
penultimate e of certain words which end with e-e, separated by a 
single consonant, or by two consonants belonging to the last syllable, 
when the last e is imaccented ; as modUe, model ; zhU, zeal ; rhgle, 
rule. The grave accent is also used over the termination es, when s 
is an essential part of the word ; as in congrhs, congress ; apres, after ; 
trhs, very, to distinguish it from the accidental termination es, as in 
eongres (plural oicongre), congers, sea-eels ; noces, nuptials; iu paries, 
thou speakest; tu es, thou art; les, the; mes, my; te$^ thy, etc. 


10. The circtimjlex is found on a few vowels which 
have a hroad and open sound ; as grace, gracefulness ; 
temp^te, tempest ; m^me, same ; apdtrCy apostle. 

The circumflex accent indicates the suppression of a vowel, as in 
dge, rdle, roll ; bdiUer, to gape (which used to he written aage, roole, 
haaiUer), paiment, gaiment (paiementt gaiement), or of an «, as in 
tiU, head ; gite, home ; c6te, coast ; flute (formerly teste, gisie, cotte, 
flmte), . It is also used in many words derived from the Latin where 
a syllahle is cut off, as dme, anima (soul), and especially in verhs, as 
nous aimdmes, amavimus (we loved) ; vous aimates, amavistis (you 
loved), etc. 

The circumflex accent is likewise placed over mUr, ripe ; sdr, sure ; 
eril, grown*; and dd, due ; to distinguish those words from mur, wall ; 
ffir, sour; cm, believed; and du, of or from the. 

11. The apostrophe, F apostrophe (*), marks the eli- 
sion or suppression of the final vowel of a word placed 
before another word beginning with a vowel or an h 
mute ; as rami, the friend, for le ami ; Vdme, the soul, 
for la dme; Vhommey the man, for le homme, etc. 

The elision of the final vowel occurs in le, the, her, it; la, the, her, 
it; je, I; me, me; te, thee; ee, one's self; de, of, from; ce, that; 
ne, not; and que, that, when foUowed by a word beginning with a 
vowel or an A mute. The elision of i occurs in si, if, when followed 
by U, he, it; and ils, they : s*il vient, if he comes; s'ils g consentent, 
if they consent to it. 

But e and a do not suffer elision in ce, de, le, la, que, before ouaie, 
wadding ; ous, yes ; onze, eleven, and onsaime, eleventh ; la ouate ; 
le out ei le non ; le ouze du mois, the eleventh of the month. The 
elision of e and a in je, ce, le, la, does not likewise take place when 
these words come after a verb, as in ai-je eu des amis ? have I had 
friends? Est-ce un livre qu'il vom faut? Is it a book you want? 
Moyennant ce, il consentira. On that condition, he will consent. 
AmeneZ'le id, bring him here. Laissez-la en ces lieux, leave her in 
that place. 

The e of jusque, until, as far as, suffers elision before a vowel : 
jusqud Lyon, as far as Lyons ; jusqu*ici, as far as this place. Some- 
times jusque takes a final s for the sake of euphony : jusques h quand ? 
how long ? The e final of entre, between, suffers elision in the com- 
pound words : entr'acte, interval between the acts ; s*entr*aider, to 
assist each other ; entr'ouvrir, to half-open ; s*entr* accuser, to accuse 
each other ; s'entr'aimer, to love each other ; s'entr'kgorger, to kill 

* Je ertns, I grow, je erUa, T grew, are distinguished in the same manner 
fi:om/e erois, I believe, ^'ff ertu, I believed. See the verb er&itre, page 129. 



each other. But in all other cases entre does not suffer eliaioa, as 
may he seen in the following examples : Entre eux, hetween them; 
entre elles, hetween them (fem.); entre autres, among others; entre 
onze heures et midif hetween eleven o'clock and noon. Presque, al- 
most, loses its final e only in presgu^Ue, peninsula. We say preaque 
utSf almost worn out; presque achevi, almost finished. The e of 
lorsque, when ; puisque, since, and quoique, although, sixers elision 
before i/, elle, ilsj elles, un, une, a or an ; on, any one : lor«qu*on vous 
appeUera, when they call you ; puisqu'tls le veulent, since they will 
have it so ; quoiqu'il soitpauvre, although he is poor. We write without 
elision : Lorsque Alexandre vSnStra dans les Indes, when Alexander 
invaded India. Puisque aider les malheureux est un devoir, as it is 
a duty to help the unfortunate. Quoique amis, although friends. 
Quoique invisible Dieu nous voit, although invisible God sees us. The 
e final! of quelque, some, suffers elision only before un, une ; quelqu'un, 
quelqu'une, some one. We write : Quelque historien en aurait parli, 
some historian would have mentioned it. Adressez-votu d, quelque 
autre personne, apply to some one else. Quelque adroitement qu^U 
s'y prenne, however dexterously he may set about it. 

The elision of e occurs also in the word grande placed before a few 
substantives feminine, beginning with a consonant, such as grand^- 
mkre, grandmother ; granatante, great aunt, etc. 

12. The cedilla, la c^dille (5), placed under c gives 
that letter the sound of s before a^OyU; as leqon^ lesson ; 
il effaquj he effaced ; faqon^ fashion ; requ^ received. 

13. The diaeresis, le tn^ma (• •), denotes that the vowel 
over which it is placed is to be pronounced distinctly 
from the vowel preceding or following it ; as ndif^ can- 
did ; je hdiSy I hated ; paieriy pa^an ; bdionnette. 

14. The hyphen, le tiret or trait d'union (-), connects 
together two or more words : — 

It is used : 1. Between a verb and the pronouns je, mot, nous, tu, 
toi, vous, il, its, elles, le, la, les, lui, leur, y, en, ce, on, whenever those 
pronouns are used as nominatives to or are governed by that verb ; 
as airje ? have I ? parle-moi, speak to me ; donnez-le-lui, give it to 
him. But if any of these pronouns are governed by a verb which 
follows them, the hyphen is not used ; as, va lui parler, go and speak 
to him ; faites-moi lui parler, make me speak to him. 2. Between 
words so joined that they are collectively considered as one only ; as, 
arc-en-ciel, rainbow ; c^est-d-dire, that is to say, etc. Also to connect 
tr^, very, with the word which follows it; as, trh-vrai, very true'. 
Mime, self, is also connected by a hyphen with the personal pro- 
noun which precedes it, as lui-mime, himself; mot-mime, myself; 

Ltt guiUetneti { *> 


L'aeeolailt [ tbe brace 


nout-mimet, oaneiwea. The hjphen is used aJso before or after the 
wwda vi, here, and li, there, accompauying a BubsUntivc, a pronoun, 
a prepoditiaD or an adverb with whicli they are immediately con- 
nected, eelui-ci, thii one ; tel homme-ci, this man ; ci-detitu, above ; 
ti-haat, up there, etc. 3. The hyphen is uied between the numerals 
hoTa dix-4epl, ieventeen, to qualre-vingl-dijt-tiru/, ninety, inclusively; 
except when et is placed between the numbers, as in vingl el u>i,twenty- 
one ; Irenle et un, thirty-one, etc. ,' mixanie et anxe, aeventy-one, etc. 

15. The aigni of punctuation are : 
La virgiiJe ( j ) the comma. 
Le point rtvirgiA{i } tbe semicolon. 
La dfuxpaatlt ( \ ) ibe colon. 
LepeaU {•) the full atop or period- 
Ltpomi ffmiemgalion (?) tlie cote 

of inieTTOgatiDa. 
LepoinI d^tiebmetion ( I ) the 
of eidamation, 


16. The vowel sounds, or simple eniissions of the 
roice, are represented by one or more voweU : 

A, A, 1, E, EU, EU, i, E, i., Al, AIE, EAI, EI, I, Y, !, O, d, AU, 

EAU, OO, U, 0. 

A, k, A. 

Position of the mouth Tor the aound of a as in la, the ; ma, 

my; ftit thy; ami, friend; Parit. „ . . 

J , T J > —I i|.j|^ wood.cut reprcBCDta 

\ the vertical aection of a 
\ mouth ; the fignrei 1 and 2 
) indicate the arch of the 
te ; 3 and 4 the length 
of the tongue ; 5 ita \mt ; 
6 and 7 tbe lip>, and the 
capital letter the place 
where the vowel resoanda. 
The a a either short, as in 
the above examplea la, -ma, 
fa, ami, i'aru; intermediate, 
as iniapraaounijufne^-Ai, 
take it ; pa, hither ; or long 
(a OKfeW, broad or open), 
aa in pile, dough ; pSIre, 
shepherd. The a interme- 
diate requires an opening of 
the mouth greater than the opening repreaented in the wood-cut for the 
sound of Ibe a short, and the long a requires an opening still greater. (See 
the lineal diagram page S). 


E (unaccented) called B mttet", mute; and ed. 
Poai^on of the mouth for the sound of e (uDaccented) and 
eu a» in &, the;^, 1; me, me; le, thee; de, of; e«, that; ne, 
not ; gtte, that ; laxe, tax ; d^ ; ehaxae, chase ; portage, distri- 
bution ;—Jeum, young ; pevjiie, people ; hntre, hoM ; peur, 
fear; beurre, butter. 

To pronDimce the Towet c or m 

in the abov« eumpla, the tongne 

rest* lightly on the border of tbe 

lower teeth, and ii somewhat 

carred in order to let the sound 

^^ ,,y //,/,^,"^BBk-> flow on in its progress until it re. 

^ Mv II 'JT--. """"^ <"■ *= '«*''■ ■""= ''P* 

' Ax V ^KU j protrude a little, but without being 

%^ wKrr contracted. Eu in the diagram 

' ' denote* also the ■ of the above 


I nnsccented is short, as in tablt, <mie, friend ; n is generally long, as in 
pemr. The<un»ccent«dfin»lo( wotdsiaEalled afeminineterminaUont. 

EU, B& (unlike any English sound). 
Position of the mouth for tbe sound of bu, as in peu, little ; 
^eua:6^, blue eyes; deuxceufi, two eggs; mutre, neuter; 
creuser, to hollow ; Jeune, 

To pronoonce the vowel «• in 
the above examples, the tongue is 
in a downward direction, the teeth 
aie apart, the lipa project and be- 
come aomewhat rounded or carved. 
Tbe tound is uttered powerfully. 
and resounds between the teeth 
and tbe lipa. 

i>iii«r(, Ve/ierm/, I'e tmul, Ainii, 
le premier e eit ferme, le second Mt ouvert, et le (roisiSme est 

f It may be useful to observe that, wbether as 

aie anaccentedin any ayjlable of ft word, as in soitvbnance, rnnein&ranfe, 
this K is heard more distinctly in singing than in ordinary language : 

Ckim-bien j'ai 

Tk aou - vie 

la the lut lime eelU, with the vowel a following it, is pronounced ee la (31 .). 


ft (with an acute accent) called ifvrmi or close, 
& (followed by certain conBonants), ai. 
Poaition of the mouth for the »OQnd of £, e (followed by 
certain coDsonanta), or ai, aa in (^, dice; n^, born; ^, cum- 
mer ; c^ coffee ; tasU, taxed ; Sgi, aged ; chaui, chased ; 
partagi, distributed ; dighUvi, degenerated ; ripiU, repeated ; 
r6v6ri, revered ; t^WtriU ; — cfc^ key ; pkd, foot ; {e before r 
and « mute), aimer, to love ; venez, come ; — aigu, sharp ; jai, 
I have ; je parlai, I spoke ; je parlerai, I shall speak. 

To pronooDW the vowel / (or 

« fir/iu) or ai in the above ei- 

\ unple*, the Uryni is contracted, 

' the lungs emit but Utile air, the 

tip of the tongne touchei the lower 

teeth, the coniert of the lip* ire 

drawn back, «nd the vowel in s 

clear and rather sharp niaaneF re- 

■otmdi within the month on the 

nvula and the palate. £inthedia- 

gnun denotes alio the « ferm^ or 

01 of the ftbove eianiplei. 

Han. .'f baa the sound of /in the first person singular of the preterper- 

feet of verbs of theSntcoqjogationj uJtpmM; fallai,l went. Also in the 

first person siDgular of the ^toce of all verbs ; u,>ror'frrai;/irai, I thaQ go. 

t (witii a grave accent) ; £ (with a circumflex accent), 
called fc, ouvert or open; e (followed by certain con- 
sonante) ; ai, aib, bai, bi. 

Position of the mouth for the sound of i, i, e (followed by 
pertain consonants) ; ai, ate, eai, ei, as in trit, very ; proffret ; 
il diginire, he degenerates ; je r6pi.U, I repeat ; t^ tivere, he 
revere* t—file, feast ; honnile, honest ; — amer, bitter ; cher,' 
dear;^, iron ; — met, my; te», tby; let, the ; let, his, her or its ; 
ce», these or those; — maiwn, house; tnaitre, laajiier; je paTiait, 
I was speaking ;_^par^era», I should speak;— ^^te, wound; 
ib parknent, they were speaking ; iU parleraient, they would 
apeak ; — tit partageaient, they were dividing ; — reine, queen. 

To prononnce the vowel i (t 
ouMri), the tip of the tongue rests 
on the lower teeth, the tongue ii 
drawn baclt a little towards the 
bottom of the mouth, the teeth 
and the lipi are apart, and the 
vowel resounds at the bottom of 
the palate. & in the diagram de- 
notes also the «', e (< mnerf), oi, si 
««l, and <t of the above ei - '" 


Note, jfi, air or eat, Iutc the nuDd of ^ in the temiinationi ait, alt, 
aimi or mm, rail, eaiail, of the imperfect tni condilionil of •11 verba ; u, 
favait, 1 had i Ik ikiiiu, thou lui!>t ; it avail, he had ; ttt avaiait, they had. 
■Taurtai, I ihould have, etc. Jtparlau, etc. Jiparleraii, etc 

Cooip&rative opening of the mouth required for the pro* 
nunciation of the e mute, the 6 clow, and the e aud d broad : 

I, i, (y after a consonant). 
Position of the mouth for the souud of t, y (after a con- 
sonantj, (, as in ioi, here; 
MI, nor; timidity ; divisible; 
imiter, to imitate ; ttyle, syt- 
lobe, mjfttere, p/a/sigue ; gile, 

/and y in the above eiamplei 
are souDded like the English * in 
m<, or I in if ; S like the loag t in 

p between two vowels is sounded like two I'a, bb in moyen, meana j 
jouetix, )oyfo\ ; a^aat, having ; pronounced moi-ien,joi-ifutc, ai-ianl; 
— also in paj/i, country ; payaan, countryman ; passage, landscape ; 
pronounced pai-if, poi-i-»on, fai-i-iage. 

O, &, AU, EAU. 

Position of the mouth for the sound of o as in o^'co^ apricot: 
he a ia either abort, like the 
) Engliah o in not, aa in paaaiu, 
apple ; icoU, ichool ; notre, our ; 
voire, your; inCermedJBle like a 
in the example abricot, illustnileil 
by the wood-cut; or long, like o 
in pSk. The o intermediate re- 
quires an opening uf the moutli 
greater than the opening required 
for the short. To pronounce 
the long, the Up» protrude more than for the a intermediate, and the a 
rcaonnda lonirer on the palate and near the teeth ; aa in choM, thing ; row, 
groie (feminine of ym.) , big ; cSU, coaat ; fc ni-fr*, ours ; U vat», yew.. 
An, BAD are either sounded Uke d long, aa in paiwe ; htamne, helmet ; or 
like intermediate, as in on, to the i eau, water. 


u, (unlike any English sound). 
Poaition of the mouth for the sound of u tw in vertu, virtue ; 
tumuiU; md, uonei wbra; utile, useful; (/ue, duke; murmure. 
In >ouDd the v, the lipi pro- 
trude and BIB drawn together so 
as to fona a very gmaU opening ; 
the tongue ia eilended in the 
whole length of tbe month bo ai 
to let the sound Son on ontil it 
Mrikei the lips, between which it 
ia heard powerfully*. The lipa 
are more or leas protruded, ac- 
cordiDf u tbe K ia long or short : 
thua u a long mjt brSe, I bum ; 
ntuw, and abort in imaft, cloud. 
Ncrra. Ed is aoanded like ■> in gagtitn, wager ; ni, had ; /mi, I had ; 
/k nu, thou hadat ; i/ ml, he had ; noui timti.we hadi mmt edtr$, you 
had 1 ib eUTent, they had i gue fatue, that I might have i gve lu eutttt, 
that thou mighlst have ; qu'il rut, thai he might have ; que neut etut)o»t, 
that we might have; que cow eimie;, that you might have; ju'ilt riiinnf, 
that they might have. 


Position of tbe mouth for the sound of'<w aa in rotiffe ; clou, 
nul ; lout, all ; loujourt, always ; dottx, iweet ; moit, soft ; U 
loue, he praises. 

Note. The difference between u 
and OU should be Ihoronghlj un- 
derstood, and strictly observed in 

faui r hast Ihou al 

sary ? ib n turenl a lair lour, they 
were silent in their Cum ; fv dentttt, 
thou doublest ; doulet-tu ? dost 
thou doubt I la me, the street ; la roue, the wheel ; tujvrtt, thon swearest ; 
tmgBun, dways. 

NoTB. The ear should also became acctutomed to diatingniah rapidly 
between tbe various vowel sounds which approximate to each other in 
pronunciation ; aa in i^, of ; dan, two ; dotn, aweet ; da, of the ; ertalatr, 
creator ; erAilvn ; atauri, attire ; dowtei-mn daix kijA, give me two ens ; 
dauxt tmji, twelve eggs. 

* Like H in the Scotch word) gmie (good), or tobifa (school). 



17- The nasal soundt are emissions of the voice 
peculiar to the French language, and are generally re- 
presented by n or »n preceded by oqe or more vowels : 

EOS ; UN, CM, EUN (uolike an; English sounds). 


PoMtion of the mouth for the souud of an (eon, (!n, am or 
em), as in on, year ; rampant, creeping ; Jean, John ; entuUe, 
then ; laa^re, member; en entrant, in entering. 

To pronounce the n&sal lowel 
n, one of the moat difficult lounds 
/ of the French lu^uue, the month 
miut be quite open, the end of the 
topgue must rest on the root of the 
lower teelb, in orderthat the tongue 
may be raised up at the bottom of 
tbe mouth. That position of the 
toDgue forces the sound towards 
the bottom of the palate and in the 
DOK, where the vowel parti; re- 
sounds. The mouih must be kept 
ri until the sound is entirely expressed. An in the diagram denotes 
the ant, n>, am or em of the above examples. 
Non. Bn is nasal in nnHii, and its derivuives emtuj/er, etc. ; also in 
emuMfr, to ennoble. Ea is not nasal in mnnni, which is pronounced 
j-ami. En in iwiuh, no ; toleimil^ and its derivatives ; hemir, to neigh, 
■nd its derivatives, is pronounced a : ttani, toiaail^, Aanir. 


Position of the mouth for the sound of in (tm, ain, aim, yn 
or jm), as in tin, flax ; in^Mtsible ; pain, bread ;faim, hunger ; 
' 's, symphony. 

To pronounce the nasal vowels 
the month must be very open, and 
continue in that position until the 
sound is entirely expressed. Thnt 
to sound in the tip of the tongue 
rests firmly on the root of the lower 
teelh. The base of the tongue is 
raised up towards the uvula, the 
mouth is very open, and the vowel 
resounds forcibly on the palate and 
alittlein thenose. iNinthedia- 
aim, yn or ym, of the above examples. 

gran denotes alto the n 


Nnx. In WMdt where >• it followed bj a, and fmbym, or wbencTer in 
and tm ire fallowed b; ■ vowel or A mute, the prooaaeittioii U no longer 
niuL Thnj la ind m are not nual in 

innocent, mnoceiif, I iautile, UMeleu, 

immobile, limnaeable. \ imiter, to inuialt. 

In all other wordi in and in preaerre the nisal aouadj aa, 

incendie, conft^^ni/ioii. | importun, IroHileiomr. 

NOTB. En has the nasal lound of in in agnda, t memorandum-book ; 
t^ipendiet ; Benjamin ; Le Btngalt ; examen, examination ; Mentor ; and 
pattitM, ■ sehool-tuk. 


Position of the mouth for the sound on, om, or eont as in bmi, 
good ; ombrage, shade ; noiu mmtffeottg, ve eat ; miM, my ; 
tan, thy ; *on, his, her or its ; longtempt, a long time. 

To pronoQBCe on, the tip of the 
tongue rests on the lower teeth 
and the base of the tongue is rained 
up towards the uvula, vOe lips pro- 
trude and become somewhat cur- 
Ted. The vowel reaounda forcibly 
within the month and a little in 
the note. On in the diagram de- 
notei also tbe on w «m of the 
above examples. 


PositioD of the month for the sound un, um, eun, as in hnat, 
hrovn; humble; a jeun, fasting; un parfum cornmun. 

To prODOnnce mi, the tip of the 
) tongue reits on tlie border of the 
lower teeth, and the base of the 
tongue is * little raised up, Ihe lips 
and teeth are apart ; the vowel re- 
sounds forcibly within the month 
■ad a little in the nose. Ji aith 
aO natal votmU lie mouf A tntal 
remain c^>en unlil Ihe »oiBtd it m. 
lirelj/ exprttted, Vn in the dia- 
gram denotei also the ma or esos of tbe above eumplea. 

Additional eiatnplel of natal aonndt ; Vainguanl, conquering ; veinqvau, 
let us conquer. Prenam-entm, lei ns take one of them. De lempi en 
taupe, from time to time. Vent, wind ; ntn, wine; iii vani, they are going. 
Par kaHltute enfin, let enfanti en Jont *nw imitaliim patfute, finally, by 
habit children imitate them perfectly. 




Combinations of vowels are frequently called diphthongs 
(dis, disy double, and tpdoyyos, phthongos, a sound), and may 
consist of two or more vowels. Some of these combinations 
(in written language) sometimes represent simple sounds dif- 
fering from each of the elementary sounds from which they 
are supposed to have originated, such as ai, auy eu, ou*. Other 
combinations of vowels (in written language) represent a suc- 
cession of two or more vowel sounds, more or less blended with 
each other, as te in cielf heaven, iai in biaist slope, and some- 
times so distinct as in fact to form separate syllables, as i-ai 
in ni-aiSy simpleton. 

The diphthongs representing simple sounds are classed with 
the simple vowel sounds (16.). 

The (written) diphthongs representing compound vowel 
sounds are : 

ton ,.,viandet meat. 

ien%..,bien, well. 

ion ,»,nou9 etions, 
we were. 

uin ...JuiUy June. 

ouaut ouenf—jouant, 
playing; Rouen, 

oin ...poinffftit, 

ouin. . .mar^ottiit, por- 
poise, [to him. 

tit luif he, him, or 

ta, as in diamante dia- 

tat biauj slope. 

.Aie...pied, foot. 




V / te. ..cielf heaven. 
\ie.»,biere, beer. 

10 ./iolef vial. 

iu reliuret binding. 

oe tnoeiley marrow. 

oua ouatef wadding. 

oi ] jjj^g [wot, I, me. 

*ot f^^jA bourgeoiSt citizen. 

ot« j i^^ote, silk. 



oue8...ouesti west. 
ouet...fouetf whip. 
oiMit ouais/ (an inter- 
jection) Bless me ! 
out (like we),..ouit yes. 

ieu DieUf God. 

ton chiourtne (sing.), 


19. Note. — A is not sounded in aoUt, August, aoriste, Sa6ne, teum, ox-fly. ^t before 
a syllable beginning with « in the conjugation of the v&hfaire (page l65) has the sound 
of e unaccented. E is not sounded in Jean^ Caen. I is not sounded in poignard, 
dagger ; poignie^ handful ; poignet, wrist. O is not sounded in /oon, doe, Laony paon, 
peacock. U has the sound of o in alburn^ opium, minimum, triumvir. 

20. NoTx.— The termination ent of the third person plural of French verbs has the 
sound of e unaccented, as its aiment, they love ; its unirent, they united (26.). 

The following list of homonymous (Ofibs, ftomos, similar, and ovofta, onoma, name) 
expressions is intended to remove the difficulty attending several words which ai« written 
exactly like the third person plural of some verbs, but the last syllable of which is dif- 
ferently pronounced : 




adherent, adherent. 
coincident, coincident. 
content, contented. 
un convent, a convent. 
difiPerent, different. 
excellent, excellent. 
pr^c^dent, preceding. 
president, president. 
parent, relative. 
negligent, negligent. 
il pressent, he foresees. 
. il convient, he agrees. 

10 .S 


5 « 
• c 



' ils adherent, they adhere. 

ils coincident, they coincide, 

ils content, they relate. 

elles couvent, they brood. 

ils different, they differ. 

ils excellent, they excel. 

ils pr^cMent, they precede, 

ils president, tfiey preside. 

ils parent, they adorn. 

ils negligent, they neglect. 

ils pressent, they press. 
. ils convient, they invite. 

* Called by some grammarians ocular diphthongs, f Or wa in water, 
X ien\% sounded i-an in science^ patience, Orient, expedient, Emollient, 



21. The consonants, with the exception of r, f^ I, r, 
are almost always silent at the end of words*, unless 
joined to a finad e mute, as petit j petitCy little ; grand j 
grandgj great ; LowSy JLouise. 

e u mmded Hke t bcfioie a, a, «, as in ene, eeOir ; eainae; emm, tab. 

e it somded like # bcfioie e, 1,5: aiceeiy tliis; Cksartm, Qfrltpf. 

e u ak» wded like a win eeoonpanied by a cediDa (12.), ai in 
Jmemie^famti ftrfwm, bor; jercptt, I reodved. 

e iadd ii silent in ahmmmeki iiiiyr, white ; ^roe, jug; elerr, dak ; ctdc, 
hook ;neflrDe, rent; wAeet^ chess ; tmime f e rf aia r ; Jbme; mUmdiJame, 
reed ; Irene, tnink ; je wnMS^ I conquer; In nenet, U ncne. 

e is wmdwi like § in s w ea ^, mc sn rffe e f , t et^mdrr, etmr. 

dl is geneiallj sounded like die English cA, as in dhcl, cat ; dbnMi4 hone ; 

, w «.— ..^^..^ 9 •• h»w«.«» ■^^■■ n w 'm v ' f 

ardilnslK^; eAow, thiag; IficAd^ Miriiad ; Aekermu 
ek is sounded like t in cAnot, <vAe^ emekmrisiie, etein% dioir ; mrckmire, 
ewnfcenjr, mmmekorete^ mrekfomie, Ckmummm, Ackai. 

/"isnocsoundedinte^^, men; nn:/i,nerfes;«|^ eggs; but the/is 
pnmonneed in the singular : nn ten/^ «n no;/ (except neii/ de kmtf), nn 
«l^ On/, stag; drf, ker; ektf-dmwmn^ are pronounced ea-, elp, eA^- 

^ ii sounded haid bdbre n, o, v, as in f£fer,to^oil; f ofaie l / fmUmrmls 

is sounded f-i in aif uiffi ^ needle ; and in afl words fanned with the 
a^ieelitc eif , sharp, such as mi§mUkm, sdng; nifUMer, to wfaet. dnisalso 
pronounoedf-i in Gmim\laBmgmiUifme» ^CSfii^ hendo^ is pionounoed 

§ is soft, and is sounded like 7, before e, t, 5, as in ^eoryet; «ytr, to 


f is mote in Inpi, legacy; jpooif, list; >fanlMvy, suburb; eimtg^ pond ; 
rtn^, twentr; kmremg, hening; mmg, Uood ; aeimg, signature ; km§\ 

gm has n liquid sound, as in dkaa^pagme; gagimtr^ to gain; Bgme, line; 
npneen, lamb; Bamrgofme, Bugundy; aeoynHo, osstTnelioR, mmp^mit , 
im^rAfm e r, wmpregmmiiomt ma a g mii i f, mufgmeiifme. Except the following 
woids, in which fm is sounded hard: tieyeni, ragmieoie, tn ej yuynnAfe, 
% diasmoaiifmt^ agmat^ eogmmt. '.Sgmet is pronounced jmelL) 
A is eiOicr amle, as in rkmUi, the coat ; iea^J^emmemra (25.) ; ie §nmi^ 
f, the great man ; mmx^,^MnmikUea, to the swallows; or mt/MrmUdj 

* In Enfctish, on the oonuazy, consonants at the end of woids are 
sounded. Thus a is heard in Paria, Veiaia, pronounced as English woids, 
whilst it is aknt in French. In English an « is even added to certain pro. 
per names which have noinal letter of the kind in the original words from 
which ther are taken, as in Xfont, ManeiUea ; from the Fkendi Ltox (de- 
rived from the Latin Infdmnun), Mauskillb (from MmaaUi^). 


uvala* home, the hatred ; aeeabUde* honte, overwhelined with shame; 
ehetfeux* h&itsA, hair erect (bristling-up) ; dea* hurlemenis nffreux, 
frightfal howling. 

h is mute in more than half of the words beginning with that letter, and 
is aspirated in the remainder. 

The following are the words in which h is aspirated : — Ha ! hablenr {and 
it$ derivatives) t hache {and its derivatives), hagard, haha, hah^, haie, haie, 
la HaiCf haillon, haine, haineux, hair, haire, halage, halbran, halbren^, hfile, 
halener, haler, haler, haletant, hallage, halle, haUebarde, hallebreda, hallier, 
haloir, halot, halte, hamac, hameau, hampe, han, hanap, hanche, hangar, 
haiineton, hanse, hanscrit, hansiere, banter, hantise, happe, happelouride, 
happer, haquenee, haquet, harangne (and its derivatives)^ haras, harasser, 
harceler, harder, hardes, hardiesse {and its derivatives)^ harem, hareng, 
harengaison, harengere, hargneux, haricot, haridelle, hamacher, hamais, 
haro, harpailler, harpe, harper, harpie, harpin, harpon, harponner, hart, 
hasard {and its derivatives), base, h&te, h&ter {and its derivatives), haubans, 
haubert, hausse, hausse-col, hausser, hautain, haut, haute {and its deriva- 
tives), h&ve, havir, Havre, havresac, h^ ! heaume, h^er, hem 1 hennir, hen- 
nissement, Henri (m elevated style), h^raut, here, herisser, h^risson, hemie, 
hemieuz, h^ron, h^rosf, hersage, herse {and its derivatives), hStre, heart, 
heurter, heortoir, hibou, hie, hidensement, hideux, hie, hierarchic, hisser, 
ho 1 hobereau, hoc, hoche, hocher {and its derivatives), hoik ! Hollande 
{and its derivatives), homard, hongre, Hongrie, honnir, honte {and its de- 
rivatives), hoquet, hoqueton, horde, horion, hors, hors-d'oeuvret* hotte, 
Hottentot, houblon {emd its derivatives), hone, houille, houlette, houle, 
houppe, houppelande, honpper, hourdage, houret, houri, hourvari, housard, 
hussard, houspiller, houssage, houssaie, housse {and its derivatives) hous- 
sine, houssoir, houx, hoyau, huche, hucher, hnees {and its derivatives), 
Hugnenot, huit {and its derivatives), burner, hune, hunier, Huns (peuples), 
huppe {and its derivatives), hure, hurhau, horlement, hurler, hutte, 

J is articulated like s in the English word pleasure, as in Je, I ; joyeux, 

/ is generally sounded at the end of words, as in it, he \fll, thread ; aieul, 
ancestor ; seul, alone. 

/ final is not sounded infusU, gun ; harU, cask ; soureU, eyebrow ; <mtU, 
tool ; gentil, pretty ; nor mfils (pronounced >Sm), son. 

/ liquid, much resembling the gl'm the English word seraglio : soleil, sun ; 
feuille, leaf; d^ouille, spoil ; pAH; bail, lease ; ^cueU, ihotlipaiUe, straw ; 
btmteille, bottle ; ceil, eye ; famille, family. See page 351. 

/ is not liquid in the following words : fll, viUe, mil, mille, tranquiUe, 
imbiciUe, eamomille, eodieille, AehiUe, armiUaire, distiUer, idylle, pupille, 

* The h aspirated prevents the elision of the a, or e {Ih), or the union 
of the preceding consonant (25.). 

t In the derivatives of hAvs, such as h^dine, h4r(nque, h^otguement, 
and KMisme, the h is mute. 

t **H s'aspire dans hors-d'ceuvre, chose dont un ouvrage peut se passer ; 
mais elle ne s'aspire pas dans hors-d^ceuvre, terme de cuisine : On servit 
phuieurs hors-d'ceuvres', dites: pbisieurs-z'or-d'cnivres" — Malyin-Cazal. 


fj^lkaet-raeiOerf nAiU; nor in aU irards besuming irith iO, is Oldj^ilnm , 
l&Kt^fv, etc 

p is sounded in etgt ; eep, vine (except eep de vigne). 

p is not sonnded in corps, exempt, compter, indomptable, bapthne, tept, 
exen^ter, dompter, scu^ture, temps, changf, camp, drqp, kn^, wrop, ffalop, 
trop, coup ; nor the last p in prompt. 

ph is sounded like/, as in philoMphe, photphore ,» phare, lighthouse. 

q is sounded like it, as in quitter, to quit ; question ; quatorze, fourteen ; 
acquAHr, to acquire ; quaUti; quadrille, 

qua is sounded eoua in quadrupede, aquatique, Equation, ^quateur, 
loquacity, Uquation, quadrt^k, fourfold. 

que is sounded cue in ^questre, equestrian : quiia sounded eu^in Uqu^fler. 

qui is sounded cui in iquUatiral; Equitation, horsemanship ; iquiangle, 
udSquiste, Qmintuple is pronounced cu-iniuple, 

r is sounded as in rat ; route, road : also after a vowel, or at the end of 
words, as in art, gar f on, tour; finir, to finish ; voir, to see ; hier, yester- 
day ; fier, proud ; cher, dear ; tiers, third. 

r final is mute, — 1st, in verbs which have their infinitive mood ending 
in er; as avrner, to love; ,/8er, to trust; prier, to pray; except however 
when, in elevated style, the verbs in the infinitive mood are followed by a 
word beginning with a vowel, as AUer au combat, to go to battle ; — 2nd, in 
words of more than one syllable ending in ier, iers, cher, and ger ; as 
jardinier, gardener; volontiers, willingly; boueher, butcher; boukmger, 

s has two articulations, the first like s in the English word soldier ; as in 
sage ; s^our, abode ; sucre, sugar ; semaine, week ; m, if ; sooner, to ring ; 
sur, upon ; esthne, esteem ; parasol; cowoerser, to converse ; vrainmblanee, 
likdihood ; monosyliabe ; persister, to persist ; — ^the second like z, occurrinff 
generally when s is placed between two vowels*; as in user^ to use ; r^sumef 
summary; risible; trannt\f; rose ; misere, misery; v^sicatoire, blister. 

s final is silent in most words ; pas, bas, etc. ; in Christian names, Thomas, 
Nicolas; in names of cities, Paris, etc.: it is sounded in h^las; Jadis, for- 
merly; ffis, screw ; as, ace ; lis, lily ; gratis; atlas; est, east ; ouest, west ; 
also in certain proper names, as Lesbos, Joas, Gil-Bias, MMlas, Pdris (son 
of Priam). 

/ has also two articulations, the first as in the English word tact: tenta- 
tive, attempt ; totality, total ; amiti^, friendship ; nUmitie, enmity; bastion; 
indigestion; mixtion; partie, part ; soutien, support ; chdtier, to chastise ; — 
the second as in the French syllable ci: patient, partial, essentiel, perjec- 
tion, ration, Diocl^tien, Vinitien, minutie, dimocratie, sati^t^, initier; baU 
butier, to stutter. 

thf is always sounded like / .* th^, tea ; thUere, teapot ; th4dtre; themes 

exercise ; Jthenes, Pantheon, arithm^tique, Elisabeth, orthogrqphe, 

* In compound words the s beginning the second word has its first ar- 
ticulation, as may be seen in the words vraisemblance, monosgUabe, 

t The articulation tm, peculiar to the Greek and the English languages, 
has not been adopted in the French tongue. In France a child, learning 
tiie Greek alphabet, is taught to pronounce 9, t^ta : Oebi, tios. 

16 principj:.b8 of pronunciation. 

/ final is sounded in brut, unpolished ; but, aim ; tbtt dowry ; alerttjutt 
fop ; — et are sounded in tMt, exaei, direct^ correct, abject ; but the c only 
is sounded in aspect, nupect, circontpect, pronounced aspek, tutpek, cir- 

t final is sounded in frit (substantiye) and in mnt, be it so. Cett tot 
fait, it is a fact ; tot/ait remarquable. Votu le voulez, §oii, you wish it, be 
it so ; itnttje le veux bien, be it so, I consent. 

X has the five following different sounds : like 

ks, as in Alexandre, maxime, index, excute, extreme. 

gz, as in exerciee, examen, examination ; exorbitant, exact. 

s, as in Bruxellee, Auxerre, Aix-la-CheyfeUe, eoixante, sixty; rix; dix, ten. 

k, as in excepter, to except ; excellent, exces, exception. 

z, as in deuxieme, second ; rixikme, sixth* 


22. Accent, in reading or speaking, is an inflection 
of the voice, which gives to each syllable of a word its 
due pitch in respect of height or lowness. 

The stress on a particular syllable of a word is called 
by French grammarians accent tonique, and it generally 
takes place, in French, on the last syllable of a word, 
or on the penultimate if the last syllable ends with an e 
mute or unaccented. Thus in rose^ fierte^ pride, the 
accent takes place on roy and on tL 

The stress or accent tonique, according to modem orthoepists, takes 
place also on certidn syllables, formed of full-sounding or sonorous vowels, 
which may be the penultimate of dissyllables, or the antepenultimate of 
polysyllables, that end with a masculine termination (t. e. any termination 
of a word which is not the e mute or unaccented). Thus in the words 
Franfaii, ^lAation, the accent takes place on Jran, and on va. 

It should be observed, however, that the accent or stress of the voice on 
some particular syllable of a word is not so powerfully marked in French 
as it is in the English language. For instance, we have no example in 
French of the accent indicating, with so much precision, the difference in 
the meaning of words of similar orthography, as is expressed in the English 
words gallanf and gaJflant. In French these two words are pronounced 
alike — galant, according to the first general rule mentioned above, and the 
difference in the meaning can only be indicated by the context, or by the 
position of the word either before or after a substantive : thus, in the sen- 
tence va galant officier, the adjective gaUmt has the meaning of the English 
word pronounced gaVlant, and in un officier galant, the same word means 
gallanf, (Further remarks on the accent, and rules on quantity, will be 
found in the Appenoice, page 351.) 


Exercise in French Pronunciation, 

23. Note. Most words haTuig the foOowiog temdiiatioiis* are spelt 
alike in the French and the English languages : 

ege... collie, priril^e, sacril^e. 
ge ...doge, huge, refuge, yestige. 
ole ...^balet fbrmole, animalmle. 
He ...bile, dehile, duetile, agile, 
ine ...mine, carabine, fas^ie, faminr* 
ion . . .fraction, recapitalation. 
ant... constant, ^^ant, am^t. 
ent...accident, abs^t, compliment. 

al ...cardinal, prindpal, £itaL 
bk ...c^iabletf bible. donUe. 
ace ...ptrifiux, grimace, ^aoe. 
anee... chance, complaisance, 
cnce... continence, eloqaence. 
ice ...edifice, aospices, injustice, 
ade ...oradef, tabernacle, miracle, 
ade ...esplanade, cavalcade, brigade, 
age ...adage, bandage, dge, image. 

24. NoTB. Many French words, to become En^h, require only diaage 
of termination^ in the following mannir : 

aire into mj ...n^cessaire, militaire. 
oire — > ory ...g^oire, accessoire. 
oe — Of ...Constance, demence. 
te — iff ...beaote, temerite. 
eox — om ... danger euv,nebuleax. 

eur into onr^ or ...favenr, horrenr. 
in — me ...dandestin, divin. 
if — we ...attentif,expressif. 
rie — rf .. Jiorie, industrie. 


25. To prevent the hiatas which would be occasioned 
by the meeting of two vowels, the final consonant of a 
word is sounded with the initial vowel of the following 
word, whenever the two words are so connected with 
each other that there can be no pause between them : 

Les^^^amis, thefnewiM. P rt mmme e: le-zamis. 
Ton^.^jmiitie, iky fnemitHi^. — ton-namitie. 

n^^cst^^aimable, he is MmdoBle. — i-le-taimable. 

dnq^^^^Mn^Jhe yean, — dn-qans. 

26. At the end of a word, before a vowel, s and x hare the somid 
ofz;d has the sonnd of /, and jf that of k : 

Nons^^TOtts, we hone, Pnmom met : non>zafons. 
Six,^.^ardoises, jur dmiee. — si-zardoises. 

Grand^^onmie, greai Mfln. — gran-tomme. 

Bang:^_^deYe, eieiaied rami. — ran-keler^ 

P is sounded like r in meuf, nine, before a Towd or h mute : 
NeuC,.,^ans, ■»« yeort. Promou mee : neu-Tans. 

NeuC^Jheures, inae Aotw. — nen^TCures. 

* See the Etymologica] Index, page xir. 

t Ble, e2f , ire and similar terminations of French words, as in opaMr, 
Aible, oraeief centre^ are pronounced as they are written, and the pninl 
should be carefol to avoid saying bel, ieiy ier^ as with the English words 
agHMe^ i&le, oraeie and centre. 


27. General Rules, The union or junction in sound takes place, 

With the article and following substantive or adjective : 
Les^_/>avrages, the works ; un^^enfant, a child ; un^^aimable gar^on, 
an amiable boy. 

With adjectives preceding their substantives : 

Unimportant ^avantage, an important advantage \ dix,^eures, ten 
hours ; vingt^^ans, twenty years. 

With pronouns preceding their substantives or verbs : 

Son^^age, his age. Vous^^vez, you have. 

With verbs followed by, and immediately connected with, pronouns, 
adjectives, or participles : 

MangeZs^en, eat some. Nous sommeSs_^ttentifs, we are attentive. 
Pensez^y, think of it. II est^^^stime, he is esteemed. 

With adverbs followed by the adjectives or participles which they 
modify : Fort^nt^ressant, very interesting. 

With prepositions and conjunctions : 
Apres^^elle, after her. SanSv^spoir, without hope. 

Mais>^ parla, but he spoke. Puis^l partit, then he departed. 

28. But the final letter of the conjunction et, and, is never joined 
with the following vowel : 

U commence et il continue. He begins and continues. 
Gloire et immortality, Glory and immortality. 

Et conjunction is sounded /, and est verb is sounded e ; the articula- 
tion of the t in the former word does not take place, probably for the 
purpose of assisting the ear in distinguishing the difference which exists 
between the two words in examples like the following : 
Un vieil^^ami est^^un bon camarade, an old friend is a good companion. 
Un vieil^_^ami et un bon camarade, an old friend and a good companion. 

Note. The final consonant of a word is never joined to the initial o of 
the words ome and onzieme in examples like the following: Vers les 
onze^^Mures, towards eleven o'clock. 

General Examples of the Junction of TFords. 

Quand^^il^en^_^aura davantage. When he has more of them. 
On^^en^aura, We shall have some. 

Vous^^etes^^avide, You are greedy, 

Mais^^^^est^^^arriv^ sans^.^gent, But he came without money. 
AllonSv_^y ; prenez^^en, Let us go thither ; take some. 

Il^est^_^etourdi et inappliqu^. He is heedless and inattentive, 

29. In examples similar to the following, the junction of the final 
consonant with the initial vowel of the next word is more frequent in 
serious and elevated language than in familiar conversation : 

Tai cru remarquer entre elles^et lui. Ces dames sont-elles^^arriv^es t 
n me vit^^et vtCaima. Voire oncle du moins^tait dans la confidence. 
Quelle Joie vous mefaites^^eprouver! lis parvinrent^ me rassurer^^un 
peu. Ce secret ^^st pour vous seul. 


In familiar conversation too the janction of the final consonant does not 
take place in examples like the following: 

TV aimes a rire, tu ehantet a merveilley tu le demandes hmtilemeiU. 

The euphony of the language rejects also the union of the final con- 
sonant of substantives in the singular ; as, 

Le plomb et retain, un banc en pierre, un nid admirablement bien faitg 
une clqfen or, unjusil a deux coups, le camp ennemif un galop imp^tueux, 
un hup enrag^, un strop exguis, un berger attent\f. 

The ear also rejects the junction of the last consonant of words having a 
penultimate consonant articulated ; as, un babiUard importun, le tiers ^tat, 
a tort et a travers, Funivers entier, un discours Strange, unport excellent,, 
un cheval/brt et vigoureux,je sors aujourd'hui, il est mort hier. 

Except certain adjectives, prepositions and adverbs followed by the words 
to which they relate ; as, un court^^space de temps, vers^ieUe,fort^fuibile. 

30. Note. For the sake of euphony, as will be seen hereafter, certain 
consonants are sometimes introduced between words in order to prevent 
the hiatus or meeting of vowels. Thus we say, 

A-/-il ? has he ? Si Ton, if any one, Va«-y, go thither. 

This arrangement occurs when elisions cannot otherwise take place. 


31. In conversation and in familiar reading the ^un- 
accented is not heard, whenever the consonant before 
such e can be pronounced with the assistance of a vowel 
which may sometimes precede that consonant, and some- 
times come after it in the following word or syllable ; as. 


Si je Yous le donne, if I give it to you, sij voul donne. 

Un petit gar9on, a little boy, un pti gar9on. 

Petit k petit, little by little, pti tap ti. 

Voil^ le chemin de fer, there is the railway, voilal chmind fer. 

Grande 6poque, great epoch. gran d^poque. 

Jeune homme, young man, jeu nomme. 

Je veux bien, / am willing. jveuz bien. 

Ce n'est personne, it is nobody, cn'est personne. 

Venez nous voir, come to see us, vnez nous voir. 

Gardez-le aupr^s de vous, keep it near you, gardel aupr^d yous. 

Imite-le exactement, imitate it exactly, imitle* exactement. 

The application of the above rule is greatly modified by the euphony 
and clearness required in the language spoken, the omission of the e prin- 
cipally depending on the nature of the articulations counected with that 
letter. Firactice in conversation will be the best guide for the student. 

* ** L'e muet du pronom le se pronoDce devant une voyelle quand ce 
pronom suit un verbe dont la finale fait entendre un autre son que celui de 
IV femi6." — Malvin-Cazal. 



In the following examples the silent e is printed in italics : 

Qu'est-ce done? — Je ne veux rien 

Sachez que ce matin... Non yous 

Un pen de patience ! 
Est-ctf ma faute ? 
Rien de plus malheureux ! 
Enfin me direz-vous \e secret ? 
Je vous dis que c'est en vain. 

What is the matter f — I wiU not 

hear a word. 
KnoWf that^hia morning,,, No f I teli 

A littk patience ! 
I» it my fault t 
Nothing more unfortunate ! 
At last, win you tell me the secret t 
I teU you it is m vain. 

Note. The first syllable of the word monsieur is generally pro- 
nounced mCf and therefore it suffers the elision mentioned in the rule 
31, as, Out, monsieur , Yes, sir; JVion, monsieur ^ No, sir; Parlex-vous 
fran^ais ? Vn peu, monsieur, Do you speak French ? A little, sir ; 
Monsieur voire phre (103.)» your father; Monsieur Dumas et mon- 
sieur Andrieux ; which are pronounced ouim sieu, nonm sieu, un peu 
msieUf msieu vot phre, msieu Dumas et msieu Andrieux. 

Note. The r ot monsieur and of its plural messieurs is never sound* 
ed. Mofisieur le prSsident et messieurs ! Mr. Chairman and Gentle- 
men ! According to the rule 25, the final s o£ messieurs is pronounced 
before a vowel, Messieurs^^^et dames / 

[The junction of words (25.) and the elision of e unaccented (31.) 
should receive the attention of the pupil from the commencement of 
his studies. In order to assist his memory, he will do well to under^ 
line or otherwise mark, in his exercise book, the joined letters and 
the elision of e, as he carefully observes them t» the pronunciation of 
his tutor ; thus, 

Je ne te le redemande pas^^aujourd'hui. Tu es^^encorc 
blen^^^aise de ce que je ne te le redemaode pas.] 


A remarkable difference exists between the English and the French 
languages in the syllabic division of words, as may be seen by the follow- 
ing examples : 

English syllabic 










French sylla- 
bic division. 










English syllabic 










French syllabic 











The above examples show that in the syllables of English words a oon- 
aonant between two vowels, or merely preceded by a vowel, is frequently 
joined in pronunciation to that preceding vowel, and is always so when it 
belongs to the accented syllable, as crim in nidiseriminately (see the re- 
marks on accent or stress, pages 16 and 351) ; whereas in French words 
a consonant between two vowds is always joined to the following vowel 
or vowels, and the frequency of that kind of syllabic division causes the 
initial consonancy to predominate in French syllables, when compared to 
£nriish syllables, in pronunciation. 

When double consonants occur in French words the first is seldom pro- 
nounced, as 88 in as-sinna^ti-on; de8'8U8f upon; de8-80U8, under; r^^ser-rer, 
to tighten; res-aem-biant, resembling; re8'8ortf spring; // in at'ta-quer, 
to attack i U in vi^te-^te— pronounce acignaiion, defuSf deftmt, recerrer, 
recemblant, report, ataquer, vHage, 

When there are several consonants the first is joined to the preceding 
vowel, as in ac-teur, td-pha-bet. 

L and r after a consonant generally belong to the following vowel, as in 
ta-bleau, picture ; pa-trie, country. 

** AS words are divided to the eye as they divide in customary pronunci- 
ation to the ear'' (Smart's Grammar), their syllables do not always coin- 
cide with their etymological subdivisions. Thus episcopal, from the Greek 
evl (epi) upon, and vKoweia (skopeff) I see, is not divided into the syllables 
4''pu8co-pai, but according to pronunciation, ^-pit'Co-pal; deseendre, from 
the Latin descendere, formed of de and acandere, is not divided into the 
syllables de-8cen-4re, but also according to pronunciation, des-een-dre. 


Hie pupils imitating the ipeakmg of the Instroctor by simiiltaneovia repetitioii, 
■ceording to the method given at the e94 of the book. 

Words of one Syllable. 

Le feu et I'eau. Fire and water, 

Le chien et le loup. T?ie dog and the wolf. 

Le chat et le rat. The cat and the rat, 

Le vent et la pluie. The wind and the rain, 

Le roi et la loi. The king and the law. 

Words of one and two Syllables. 

Le jo-li 80-fa. The pretty sofa. 

II se-ra pu-ni. He will be punished. 

J'ai ^te i Pa-ris. / have been to Paris. 

La da-me a 6-t6 k Ro-me. The lady has been to Rome. 



Vous a-vez bu du ca-f(& You have drunk tome coffee. 

Mon pd-re a re-9U la let>tre. My father has received the letter. 

Nous au-roD8 con-g^. JVe shall have a holiday. 

Voi-ci un trou-peau de mou-tons. Here is ajlock of sheep. 

Le rh-gne de FraD-9ois pre-mier. The reign of Francis the First. 

Don-nez-moi des li-vres. Give me some books. 

One, twOj and 

Cet hom-me est a-va-re. 

I Al-lez k r^co-le. 

' Voi-Ule Da-nu-be. 
II est do-ci'le. 
U-ne bon-ne 6-tude. 
Quel beau na-vi-re I 
Ma soeuT est ap-pli-qu^e. 
Au-teurs tra-gi-ques fraD-9ais : 
Cor-neil-le, Ra-ci-ne, Vol-tai-re. 
Li-sez la nou-vel-le co-m^-die. 
Pro-noD-cez a-vec pu-ro-t^ : 
Cham-pa*gne, Bour-go-gne, 
En-sei-gne, Es-pa-gne, 
Gre-nouil-le, aue-nouil-le, 
Re-caeil-lir, V er-sail-les. 

three Syllables. 

That man is avaricious. 

Go to school. 

There is the Danube. 

He is docile, 

A good study. 

What a fine ship ! 

My sister is assiduous. 

French tragic authors' 

Comeillef jRactne, Foltairt. 

Read the new play. 

Pronounce with purity : 

Champagne, Burgundy, 

Signboard, Spain, ^ 

Frog, distaff, 

To gather, Versailles. 

Promiscuous Exercises. 

Mod ami ira au panorama. 
Son camarade a M r6compens6. 
J'ai vu Tare de triomphe. 
Avez-vous vu la bourse ? 
La boule roule sur le gazon. 
II viendra k Londres k la fin de 

Articulez distinctement : 
La gentille corbeille. 
Le soleil brille. 
II taillera la vigne. 
Le feu p6tille. 

II )ui conseille d'etre bienveillant. 
Avez-vous bien travaill6 ? 
Le zephyr agite le feuillage. 
Le phosphore brille sans briiler. 
Ecoutez cette sympbonie. 
Ourrez la porte. 

Les pauvres ont besoin d'ouvrage. 
U a plu ce matin, 11 pleuvra ce 

Adieu, mon ami I Bonjour, mon- 


My friend will go to the panorama. 
His comrade has been rewarded. 
J have seen the triumphal arch. 
Have you seen the exchange ? 
The bowl rolls on the green. 
He will come to London at the end 

of June. 
Articulate distinctly : 
The pretty basket. 
The sun shines. 
He will cut the vine. 
The fire crackles. 
He advises him to be benevolent. 
Have you worked well f 
2'he zephyr agitates the foliage. 
Phosphorus shines withoutbuming. 
Listen to this symphony. 
Open the door. 

Ihe poor want (have need of) work. 
It has rained this morning, it wUl 

rain this evening. 
Farewell, my friend! Ctood day, 




Mon oncle a 6erit aa ministre. 
Yoil^ mon bon ami. 
Je soigne mon jardin. 
J'o£fre une fleur k ma oonnne. 
Pronon9ons bien ensemble 
Lea mots terminus en eur : 
Terreur, horrenr, erreur, 
Labourenr, cr^atenr, doctenr. 
Le cbeval redoute r^peron. 
La moncbe redoute la froidnre. 
Le cbagrin altera la sant^. 
L'^cureoil est on joli animal. 

MyunelehiuwrUien to the mmkter. 
There is my good friend, 
I take eare tfmy garden, 
J offer a flower to my eovein. 
Let us pronounce weU together 
The words ending in ear : 
Terror f horror, error. 
Husbandman, creator, doctor. 
The horse dreads the spur. 
The fly dreads the cold. 
Sorrow impairs health, 
Hie squirrel is a pretty animal. 

La d-marche du cheval est noble. The walk of the horse is noble. 
La coarse da li^vre est rapide. The speed of the hare is rapid, 
Lanature invite k b^nir le Cr6atear. Nature invites to bless the Creator, 
Pr6f^re Futile k Tagr^ble. Prefer the useful to the agreeable. 

La frugality procure une sant6 to- FrugaUty gives robust and durable 

baste et durable. 
Donne-moi mon liTre. 
Une bonne ann6e. 
Mon oncle est alii k la yille. 
Sa parole est irrevocable. 
II a succidi k son colldgue. 

Give me my book, 
A good year, * 

My uncle is gone to town. 
His word is irreoocMe, 
He has succeeded his colleague. 

II m'a suggiri* une bonne id^. He suggested a good idea to me. 

Voules-Yous venir avee moi? 
Le temps est trop froid. 
L'tong est profond. 
Get homme est jaloux* 
L'ltalie est un beau pays. 
La bataille est perdue. 
Le loup burle aans le bois. 
Venez k holt heures. 
Le hibou est hideuz. 
La fendtre est ouverte. 
Ces pdches sont tr^belles. 
La gr^le ditroit la moisson. 

WUl you come with me ? 
Hie weather is too cold. 
The pond is deep. 
That man is jealous. 
Italy is aflne country. 
The battle is lost. 
The wolf howls in the wood. 
Come at eight (hours) o'clock. 
The owl is hideous. 
The window is open. 
Those peaches are veryflne. 
Hail destroys the harvest. 

Le ch£ne est I'omement des foi6tB.7^ oakisthe ornament oftheforests, 
L'aigle est le roi des oiseaux. T^e eagle is the king of birds. 
Donnez-moi de la monnaie. Give me some change. 

La jonquille est une fleur jaune. The jonquil is a yellow flower, 
II recueOle le fruit de son travaiL He reaps the fruit of his labour, 
Un kilogramme pte deux livres. A kilogramme^ weighs two pounds, 
Une aiguille fine; an canif luguisd Aflne needle; asharpenedpenknife. 
II g^le et il neige. Jt freezes and it snows. 

J'itudie la g^ograpbie. / study geography, 

J'avais an giiet rouge. 1 had a red waistcoat. 

* Si^g^ theflrst g hard, the second m^'—eugjiri. 
•¥ A Trench we^t. 


Ce joli bouquet de roses me plait 7%a< pretty notegay of rotes 

pleases me 

Mettez du c61eri dans la salade. Put some celery in the salad. 

Une le9on de math6matiques. A lesson in maihematics. 

Le fer est plus utile que Tor. Iron is more useful than gold, 

Un bon juge est impartial. A good judge is impartial, 
Ne condamnons pas sans entendre. Letus not condemn withouthearing. 

L'attention est essentielle. Attention is essential. 

Soyons charitables, sino^res, do* Let us becharitable, sincere, docile, 

Giles, modestes et patients. modest and patient, 

Turenne fut un grand capitaine. Turenne was a great captain, 

Adrien lit mieux que Julien, Adrian reads better than Julian, 

parce qu'il est trds-attentif. because he is very attentive, 

Lucien, voulez-vous lire ? Lucian, wUl you read f 

La sagesse est la vraie science. Wisdom is the true science, 

Les enfants jouent, (20.) rient, Children play, laugh, jump, speak, 

sautent, parlent, lisent et ^cri- read and write, 


Les chiens aboient Dogs bark, 

Les loups faurlent Wolves howl, 

Les lions rugissent. Lions roar. 

Les pigeons roucoulent. Pigeons cao, 

Vos parents vous aiment. Your relatives love you, 

lis vous r^compensent. They reward you, 

L'univers prouve 6videmment im The universe evidently proves (tbe 

cr^ateur. existence of) a creator, 

II connatt tous nos desseins. He knows all our designs. 

J'aime masceur de toutmon cceur. Hove my sister with aU my heart, 

L'ceillet a un parfum d^licieux. Tlie pink has a deUcious perfume, 

Le paon* est plein d'oigueil. The peacock is full of pride, 

Allons au musile. Let us go to the museum. 

Le geranium est une fleur rouge. The geranium is a red flower, 
Le canard est un oiseau aquatique. The duck is an aquatic bird. 

L'hydre est un animal fabuleux. The hydra is afabulotu animal. 

Le seul moyen d*fttre aim^, c'est The only means of being loved is to 

d'dtre aimable. be amiable, 

Soyez franc et loyal. Be frank and loyal. 

La Saxe est en AUemagne. Saxony ts in Germany, 

Le t3rran est inexorable. The tifrant is inexorable. 

Bruxelles est en Belgique. Brustels is in Belgium, ' 

Combien de francs ? How many francs f 

Soixante-six ou soixante-dix. Sixty-six or seventy. 

La eigne est un poison violent. Hemloqif is a violent poison. 

Ce fruit est excellent (20.). That fruit is excellent, 

Ces orateurs excellent sur tous les Those orators excel all others, \'. 

autres. ' 

lis sont diffhrents d'opinion. They differ in opinion, 

* Pronounce jt?an. 


C'est en cela qn'ils diferenL It is in that they differ, 

Demandez au prhident. Ask the chairman. 

Les plus anciensjTT^idien/. The elders preside. 

Get ll^ est le plus negligent de That pupil is the most careless of 

sa dasse. his clou. 

CcBoxxviiBnnigligent leva ouvrage. Those workmen neglect their work, 
lis parent leur maison. Iheg adorn their house. 

Vous 6te8 mon parent. You are my relative 

Vocabulaire et phrases de la langue usuelle. 
Vocabulary and phrases of language in common use. 

Mod ami, quel jour esUce au- My friend, what day is this (to- 

jourd'hui? day)? 

C'est aiijourdliui dimanche. This is (today) Sunday. 

£t demain ? — Ce sera lundL And tomorrow f — It will be Mon- 

£t apr^s lundi? — ^mardL And after Monday f — Tuesday. 

£t apr^ mardi ? — ^mercredi. And cqier Tuesday? — Wednesday. 

£t apr^s mercredi ? — jeudi. AndafterWednesdayf — Thursday. 

£t apr^ jeudi ?— vendredi. And after Thursday T — Friday, 

£t apr^ vendredi ? — samedL And after Friday f — Saturday. 

£t apres samedi ? — C'est dimanche And after Saturday? — {It is) Sun- 

qui reviendra. day (which) will return. 

Combien cela fait-il de jours? How many days do they make ? 
Compfcons : Let us reckon : 

Dimanche, un ; Sunday, one ; 

Lundi, deux ; Monday , two ; 

Mardi, trois; Tuesday, three; 

Mercredi, quatre; Wednesday, four ; 

Jeudi, cinq ; Thursday, five ; 

Vendredi, six ; Friday, sia ; 

Samedi, sept. Saturday, seven. 

Cela fait sept jours. Thsy make seven days. 

Ces sept jours font une semaine. Those seven days make a week, 
Combien de semaines £iut-il pour How many weeks are reqwred to 

fiure un mois ? vsake a month ? 

Quatre semaines enti^res et deux Four whole weeks and two or three 

on trois jours font un mois. days make a month. 

Quel quanti^me du mois avons- What is the day of the month? 

Void mon almanach; voyez. Here is my almanack ; see, 

Douze mois font un an. Ikoelve months make a year. 

Comment s'appellent les douze How are the twelve months named? 

Janvier, January. Mais, March. 

Fevrier, February, Ayril, ApriL 




Mai, M(»jf, 
Juin, June, 
Juillet, Juhf. 
Aoiit, Auguitn 

QiieUes sont let principales fUtes 
de rann^ ? 

NoSl, Christmas, 

Le jourde V an, Neto-^ear'sDay* 

Le jour des Rob, Twelfth Night. 

Pftques, Easter, 

L' Ascension, Ascension. 

Voici ouelque chose de noayeau. 
Regaraez ces jolies couleuxi. 

Voici le rouge, here is red 
I'orang^, orange, 
le jaune, yellow, 
le vert, green, 
le bleu, blue. 
le violet, violet, 

QueUes jolies fleun ! 

Voici des roses, here are roses, 
des marguerites, deunes, 
des anemones, anemones, 
des ceillets, pinks, 
du r6s6da, mignionetU, 
des pavoto, poppies, 
des soucis, marigolds,. 

Voulez-vous du fimit 1 

VoiU des i^mmesjthereare apples, 
des amandes, almonds, 
des cerises, cherries, 
un abricot, an apricot, 
des groseilles, currants, 
une p^he, a peach, 
des figues,^^^. 
un melon, a melon, 
des cbfttaignes, chestnuts, 
des framboises, raspberries, 
des oranges, oranges, 
des bnignons, nectonne*. 

Septembre, Septemher, 
Octobre, OcUmer, 
Novembre, November, 
D^embre, December, 

Which are the principal festwais in 
the year ? 

La Pentecdte, Whitsunday. 
La Saint- Jean, Midsummer, 
La Saint-Michel, Michaelmas, 
La Toussaint, AUsaisUs. 

ITere is something new. 
Look at these pretty colours, 

ricarlate, scarlet, 
le brun, brown, 
le pourpre, purple. 
le noir, black, 
le blanc, white. 
le gris, grey. 

What preUy flowers I 

des tulipes, tuUpt, 

desltt, U&es, 

une reuoucule, a ranuneubu. 

du jasmin, jaxmtfie. 

du chkyxe-i&uXiejhoneysuckle. 

des juliennes, rockets, 

des jacintbes, hyacinths. 

Will you have some fruit T 

des Ave^ne»j filberts, 

des nefles, medlars, 

des ananas, pine-apples, 

des citrons, lemons, 

des prunes, plums, 

du raisin, grapes, 

des marroDs, large chestnuts, 

des noix, walnuts. 

des fraises, strawberries, 

des poires, pears. 

des noisettes, hazel-nuts, 

des miires, mulberries. 


De la maiflon et de ses d^pendances^ menbles, etc 
Of the house and its offices, Jumiturey etc. 

Unc ifftiii"j « komte, Une pompc, a^ ^ 

1a ta/^ade, ike fromL Un jardin, a ^topnrfnt. 

Un baknn, « fta/lwy. Un ▼**>9e>9 <m orekartt. 

Lei fenton, dr lei cniifai^ iic Un pore, apark. 

wmiotn, Le Tesdbule, Iftf ibrill. 

Des petncnne^ FawfaMi MMi. Un escaUer, « jAuresie. 
Det TJtwi^ /wgf fl^^JMK, Les marches, <Ae j<^. 

La parte eochdre^ fAr^ate. Laiampe, Mil Miii^aA. 

Laportedelarae^lAeiArM!f-^bdr. Le can%, 1 t^ituufii^pfaee, 
Le penoD, ike Miepa, Le palier, / tiair-keai. 

Le ■!«»—, Og hwrilwr. Le paillM wn, <ig iImt wf . 

Le portier, 1 tAe dom*^beeper. La mmctte, IA« 60IZ. 
Le ooodage, J porter. Le cmdoo, <ir heJIfmH. 

La kge dn portier, tkm pofUr^M L'antichaoibfe, tke miUtt 

lodge. Le adon, lA^f -* '- 

Un tege, a Mtarfm Des faiiinuli^ 

Lei mnn, Ike «■&• Des diaises, duun. 

Le plancher, lAr/Soor. Un canap6, a eoncA, sofa, 

Le plafond, ilJhr eeUmf. Une pendule, a dsdfe. 

Le tmty lAtf fiD^. Une esosole, a eomtole, mm onut" 

La care, iftg ceflor. sieala/ «<afidL 

Le greniar, ike garret, Des tahlwnnr^ ptelay«i. 

Un ajmartonent, aa apwrtmemL Des lideans, cvftaaat. 

Une cnambniy a nwsk. Une cheounfe, afirepiate* 

Xhk cabinett a dowt, atedjjr. Un buftt, a jideioordL 

La InbHotb^ne, tke Gbrmnf. Une glace, a looking-glaee, 

Le petit salon, or lapetiteBidle,iAe Des lampes, lampe, 

hreakfasi-roam^ or <ft« parloar. Un histre, a In^, fiiaaddSer. 

LawlU* 4 ma ngcr ,rt<tfa a if f9o m, Un tapi% a carped. 

La ooor, tf« juar^ Une beigira^ aa aafy-cAair. 

La porte, tke door, Un sofr, a a^ 

La sernne, ike lock. Un carreao, a rasfa'an^ 

La def or el^lA«l«f. Un taboui^ a atooj. 

Les TerroQS, tke bake. Un tnimeau, a pier-gimi* 

Une chambvi k coodMr, a Aai^ Le mantean da ebemiadi^ the 

La coiaine, lAa UtdkeMm Le gaide-feo, tkeftmder. 

l/ei^tkekmiler'enom^ikeeer- Un tem, a/rv-MwaaL 
aaaif'AaflL Le aonfflct, /Ae Mfasw. 

Les offices, /Aepaa^ry, hmtierg, aCe. Le fomgaa, <i« poker. 
Un gaidennangar, a a^^ La peQe, tke Ameei* 

Les Scones, ike Mtablee. Les pincettes, M« loa^ 

La lanise, tke eoqek-kome. Dn bois, wood, 

Un patts, a veil. Dn charbon, coa/!ff. 




Un chandelier, a candlestick, 

Les mouchettes, the snufferM, 

Les Toiets, the shtOters. 

Les stores, the blindt. 

Un paravent, a screen, 

Un pupitre, a desk, 

Un portefeuiUe, a portfolio^ a 

Un encrier, an inkstand, 
Un secretaire, a bureau. 
Une plume, a pen. 
Un crayon, a pencil, 
Un Ht, a bed. 
Un oreiller, a pillow. 
Une taie d'oreiller, apillow-cau, 
Une paillasse, a straw maiiress, 
Un lit de plume, a featherbed. 
Un matelas, a mattress, 
Une courte-pointe, a counterpane, 
Une couverture, a blanket, 
Des draps, sheets, 
Une armoire, a closet. 
Un tiroir, a drawer, 
Une garde-robe, a wardrobe. 

VoiliL une tr^belle maison. 

Remarquez ces grandes fendtres. 

Ces beaux balcons en fer. 

Les fendtres sont gamies de per- 

Frappez k la porta. 

AdD^sez-vous au portier. 

Madame Morin demenre-t-elle id ? 

Oui, monsieur, au second 6tage. 

La premiere chambre k gaucne. 

Traversez la cour. 

Entrez dans le vestibule. 

Montez I'escalier. 

L'escalier est cir^. 

Ne tombez pas sur les marches. 

Tenez bien la rampe. 

Arrdtez-vous au second palier. 

Essuyez vos pieds au paillasson. 

Tirez le cordon de la sonnette. 

Entrez dans la chambre. 

Quelle chambre ? 

Les pi^es d'un appartement ont 
un nom. 

Une maHe, a trunk. 

Une commode, a chest of drawers, 

Un pot k I'eau, a water^yg, 

Une cuvette, a washhand basin. 

Un lavabo, a washhand stand, 

Du savon, soap, 

Un miroir, a looking-glass, 

Un peigne, a comb, 

Une cruche, a jug. 

La doison, the partition, 

Des lambris, waisucoting, 

Une chandelle, a candle. 

De la bougie, wax candles, 

De la cire, wax, 

Un 6teignoir, an extinguisher, 

Une bouteille, a bottle, 

Un verre, a glass, 

Un bouchon, a cork^ 

Une carafe, a decanter, 

Une tasse, a cup, 

Une soucoupe, a saucer, 

Une assiette, a phste, 

Un plat, a dish. 

De la porcelaine, cluna. 

There is a very fine house. 
Notice those large windows. 
Those fine iron bttlconies. 
The windows are provided with 

Venetian blinds. 
Knock at the door. 
Speak to the porter. 
Does Madam Morin reside here?' 
Yes, sir, on the second story. 
The first room on the left. 
Cross the yard. 
Go into the hall. 
Walk up stairs. 
The staircase is polished. 
Do not fall on the steps. 
Hold well the balustrade. 
Stop at the second landing-place, 
Rii your feet on the mat, 
PuU the beU. 
Walk into the room. 
Which room ? 
The rooms of a suite of apartments 

have each a name. 


Dans Fantidiambre. In the anteroom. 

Le domeiliqoe Tom i nlmduir a The seroani wUl mtrodmee jom 

dam le saum. inio the drawhuf-room, 

Ce nkm est Men meML TTusdrtnvm^-roomisweU/mnuiked. 

Ujm den ftntenfls eC des chaises. T&ere are annehairt and ehmrt. 
Un eaniqp^ one pendale. A gofa^ a dock. 

Des eoDMles, des taUeaiix. Omamenial tiands, pieinret, 

Des rideanz, one chemin^ Cnrtamt, ajhepiaee. 

Un tnimean, des lampes. A pier-yiasg^ Imps, 

Un tapis, nne bergito. A carpet^ an eaty-ehmr, 

Oorrex les fentoo. Open ike windomt. 

Void one des Mies Tuesde Pans. HereuoaeofikefinefnewtofParu. 
Regaidez k draite. Look to ike rigki. 

VoiU le palais des Tnileries. TTkereiMtkepaiaeeeftkeTnUenet. 

Quel est ce d6aie qne nous Toyons fFkai tf tkat dome we ue im the 

li-bss? distance f 

CestodnidellidteldesInTalides. /<srMa<^lA«H6teldesInva]ides. 
VoQs Toyex ansn la Qiamlire des Yon see also tke Ckamker of Do- 

D^pot^ pnOes. 

Etee premier bitimentiganche? AndtkatfirsthnUdingontkeUfif 
C'est rlnstitat de Fmee. It is tke InstUmU of lirt 

A qoi est ee M hAtel? Wkou mannon is tkatf 

Etoette sopcrbe maisonde cam- And tkat keamt^eanntrjf-seatT 


Passes dans ma bibfiodidqae. Walk into wuf Wfrary. 

Nous paiierons pins k noCie atse. We skaU apeak more at ease. 

De la txHlette. Of dressing. 

Ot min g na-n ops nn pen de notie Let ns devote a Utile attention to 

Un chapeany a kat or komneL Un mantean, a doak. 

Un bonnet a cap. Une redingote, a smrtomL 

Une dienDse^ « aUri. Une capote, l^ju^,,,^ 

Une cntate, « mMM. Unehoi^dande,/'^^^^^^* 

Des mancfaettei^ csfk. Des gants, gloves. 

Un eoDet, a eoOar. Un mondHnr de pocbe, a pockets 

Un col de ch e mi se , a tiir# fwffar, kandkerckkf. 

Un pantslon, tromeers. Une robei a gown, 

Des has, g l o c Hi yg . Un chiqiean de paiDe, a sttam 

Des chanssettes, vodts* bonnet. 

Des bottes, *ftoolff. Un iroile, a veiL 

Des sooliera, skoes, Un ridicnie, a retienle. 

Des panfeDdles, sSppert. Un cbAle, a skatsL 

Un gilet, a waitfeoat . Une montre, a watck, 

Une Teste, ajaekeL Un eollier, a nedUaee. 

Un habity a coat. Un parmol, a parasol 


Un parapluie, an umbrella. Un lorgnon, an ejfsgkut, 

Des besicMi^ > -^ De Ja dentelle, laee. 

Une iMigttC^ a rtN^. Une ^pin^, a pm, 

Un 6v)BDtail, «ya». Une aigiulie, medle. 

Habillez-voas tout de suite, Dreu ymtruJf immediately, 

Mettez ce gUet, et oette oavato. Put on this waietcoat, and 


Ces souliert me gSnent. Thoee shoettpmch me» 

Je mettrai mes bottes. / unll put on my hooU, 

Aimez-vouB oet habit? Do you like this coat ? 

Qui, je I'aime.beaucoup. Yes, I like it much* 

Lesmanefaeeensontunpen^troitec. The sleeves are roAer narrow. 
Oil eet mon chapeau ? Where is my hat ? 

U est dans la cluunbre. It is in the room, 

I^tez-aoi im pttap]uie» s'il yovt Lend me an muArtBa, ^ fom 

platt please, 

£n voici un, partez bien vite. Here is one, go qukhly. 

lie dejeuner, BreakfasL 

Le d^euner est pilt. Breakfast is ready, 

Voili du th6y there is soma tea, De la viande fiY>ide> cold meat* 

Du caM, coffee, Du pmlet^/amZ. 

Du chocolat, chocolate* Du jambon, Ham, 

Du lait, mUk. Un ceuf, an egg. 

De la crtoe, creams Das «nifS| eyge, 

Des tartines de beuTre, bread and Du sucre, sugar, 

butter, De fat cassonade, moist sugar* 

Ofirez du pain k oes meMWiin. OjfereamebreadUihose gentlemen. 
Voulez-vouf prendre du ea& ? 7Ft7/ you take some coffee ? 
J 'en prendrai volontiers. I will take some tcillingly, 

Mettez-y du suore et du lait. Put in it some sugar and milk. 

Vous servirai-je du jambon ? Shall I help you to some ham ? 

Une petite tranche, s'fl tous platt, A small slice, if you please, 
Voilit du tb^ excellent That is a^eeUent tea. 

Pr6f(^rez-vou8 le ehooolat? Do you prefer eJutcalate ? 

Oui, je k pr^f<ke. Yes, I do. 

Youlez-vous manger des OBufs? WiU you eat some eggs ? 
Je /yous remercie. / tharde you. 

Donnez-moi une tasse de lait on Give me a cup cf mUk or a little 

un peu de crdme. cream. 

Vous ofirirai-iede la viande froide? ShaU I offer you some cold meat ? 
Non, merci, j'ai bien d^eun^. No, thank you, I have made a 

hearty breakfast. 



Des ^des. Of studies. 

La KDtr^e des dasaes, the reopemr 

ing of sehooL, 
Le conn d'^tudes, school-time. 
L'^ole, the MchooL 
Une pensioii, ) a boarding^ 
Un pensioimat, / sehooL 
Un extemat, a day^chooL 
De rencre, ink. 
Da p^ier, paper. 
Da papier k lettre, letter-paper. 
Da papier broulUard, btottiag- 

Une r^le, a rv/^. 
Un dictionnairey a dutiamary. 

Mon ami a one bonne plume. 
ATez-vooB one grammaixe ? 
Ooiy j'en ai one. 
n a on dictionnaire latin. 
Fr^tez-mm votre crayon, all yons 

Prenez-le, toob le trouyerez dans 

mon papitre. 
Yoici one rdgle et nn cani£ 
Yoil^ de la gomme ^lasdqoe. 
Taillez cette plume. 
OiH est mon ardoise t 
Dans la biUiotfadque. 

Une granunaire, a grammar. 

Un canif, a pevjcmfe. 

Un portecrayon^ a pencil-caie. 

Une ardoise, a slate. 

De la gomme ^lastique, Indio' 

Un rayon, l 
Une tablette, la shelf. 
Une ^tag^e, J 
Un cahier, a copy-book. 
Le pr^au, the playground. 
Les vacances, the holidays^ 
Un cong^ a holiday. 
Un pensnm (pronoanced|iawom«), 

a task. 

My friend has a good pen. 

Have you a grammar ? 

Tes, I have one. 

He has a Latin Setionary. 

Lend me your pencil, if you please. 

Take it, you wiU find it in my 

Here is a ruler and m penknife., 
lltere is some ImSa-rubber. 
Mend this pen. 
Where is my slate ? 
In the library. 

Des &cult^8 de T&me^ des vertus^ des vices^ et^. 
Of the faculties of the soul, virtues, vices, etc. 

La aagesse, wisdom. 


La doidenr, grief 

L'amour, love. 

La liaine, hatred. 

La bont^, goodness. 

La douceur, mUdneu. 

La pi^, piety. 

La piti^ pity^ 

Le jugemen^ judgment 

L'esprit, talent, wit. 

La bdtise, stupidity. 

Le caractdre, temper. 

La reputation, charcieter. 

Le courage, courage. 

La col^, auger. 

Llionneur, honour. 

La honte, shame. 

L'ftme, the soul, 

Des moyens, MUHies. 

De llntelligence, understanAg. 

L'entfttement, obstinacy. 



Le meaaonge, faltehootL 

La v^rit^, trtttn. 

De l'einpre88einent,rea(7meM,xea/. 

La politesse, pohtenets. 

L'orgueU, prtde, 

Le m^pris, contempt. 

La raiilerie, raiUery. 

La m^chancet^, toiekednett. 

La nonchalance, careleunest, 

Le babil, hahhUng, 

Le caquet, prating. 

La l&cnet^y cowardice. 

La malhonn6tet6, rudenete, 

Le badinage, jpor/. 

Dee torts, wrongs, 

Un achat^ a purehate. 

Une vente, a «aie. 

Un gage, a pledge. 

Un d^p6t, a trust, 

Un march6, a bargain^ 

Une bassesse, fneoimecf. 

Un larcin, a fraud, a rMery» 

Un vol, a theft, 

L'ivresse, ehriety, 

Un serment, an oath. 

Un malhenr, a misfortune, 

Le bonheur, happiness, 

Une bagatelle, a trt/Ie* 

Un prix, a prize, 

Un don, a gift. 

Un prdty a loan, 

Une grftce, a favour. 

Get enfant a un bon caractire. . That child has a good dssporition^ 

II a des moyens. He has abilities. 

Cat bomme a de Torgueil. That man has pride, 

Ajex des ^ards et de la politesse. Have attentions and poUteness, 

Dites toigours la y^rit^. Always tell the truth. 

Quelle nonchalance ! What carelessness ! 

Quelles bagatelles ! What trifles ! 

Des degr^s de parent^, des noms^ etc« 
Of relatives^ namesy etc. 

La famille, the family, 

he p^re, the father. 

La m^e, the mother. 

Le fils, the son. 

La fille, the daughter. 

Le fr^re, the brother. 

La soeur, the sister, 

L'oncle, the uncle. 

La tante, the aunt. 

Le cousin, 1 .,' 

La courinU **« ""^ 

Le neveu, tne nephew, 

ha, ni^e, the niece, 

Le grand-p^re, the grantffather. 

La grand'mSre, the grandmother, 

he beau-p^re, the father-in-law. 

La belle-ra^re, the mother-in-law. 

he parrain, the godfather. 

La marraine, the godmother. 

La femuie, ) .. ^^ 
L'6pou.e, )'*«•"/«• 
Le tuteur, the guardian^ 
he pupille, the ward. 
Les enfants, the children, 
Guillaume, William, 
Jacques, James. 
Pierre, Peter, 
Etienne, Stephen, 
Jean, John. 
Louise, Louisa, 
Marie, Mary. 
Isabelle, Isabella, 
Henriette, Henrietta. 
Caroline, Caroline, 
Adelaide, Adelaide, 
Fran9oise, Frances, 




IVMiien; etwooBt 
Conmeiit se pofte moiHMiir 

Good WUfntMff, OMKt* 

How do you do ? 

Very treU; and you (kow are you) f 

Horn If yourftiker t 

FaJtet-hri mCT amittfg. 
Je n'j manqoerri pM. 
Mm eompUnicnte clies toiii. 



My eompUmenis at home. 

De la Tille. Des noma de professions et de m^ers, etc 
Of the town. Of names of professions and trades, etc* 

Une me, a sireeL 
Un frottoir, afootpaii^ 
Une ^gliae, a ekmrek. 
Le docher, lib« ^^frf' 
Lepoitail, ikefordL 

3ll6detm^ pkydeiaM, 
dunirgieu, suryeoum 
Flumiiacien, apoiheeary. 
Aroeat, barritier. 
Atoo^ attorney. 
Xoiaire, co ji p g jfigii d gr. 

BsDqiner, hamker. 
Haire, wtayor. 

Conseil mnnic^a], 

CcMiimii^ derk, 
CcNifftier de coiniiM?roCy hromer. 
Archerlqiie, areibukap. 
Ex^qaBy bkkop, 
Pritre, priett f ininiftre, 
Cur^ rector or 
Vicaire, curate. 

Mardumd, tradetwtau, 
SeaipteiaTf eeuiptor, 
Ihi^ccpletir, tutor. 

Teintmier, dyer. 
Orfhrre, yoldtmiik, 

Une anberge, an hm. 
La bonne, the exchange. 
La douane, the eustomhouMe. 
La baoqne, the bank. 
Lea BinbonigB, lAe Jii6i(r6». 

Hofloger, ehfek-^uaher. 
Aubeigiste, mnieeper, 
Bonlanger, baker ^ 
Boocher, buteker, 
juicier, yroeetm 
Pidssier, pastrycook, 
Vitrier, ylaxier. 
TuUear, tailor. 
Coidonnier, shoewuker. 
Bottler, bootmaker. 
QnincaiDier, ironmonger. 
ChapeKer, hatter. 
Drapier, draper. 

Libiaire, bookeeUer. 
Relienr, booi^inder. 
Papetier, Miationer. 
Cliarpentier, carpenter. 
Bonneder, koeier. 
Taillandier, 1 . . 
FeiUantier, f^"^' 

Jonniafier, 1 f_r_^„ 

•mg , yiaoourer. 

Mauoenvre, j 

Ma^on, fliatoii, brieUayer. 

SerruiieTj locktwuth. 

Mercier, haberdasher. 

Pelletier, felimonger. 




Moiuiour voire p^re est-il ftvocati 
Koix, monsieur, il est banquier. 
Boil onole eet-il m^eciii? 
Non, i] est chirui*gien. 
Avez-vous 6U k la douane ? 
Je viena de la banque. 
Je vais k la bourse. 

Is your father a horrUUrt 
No, nr^keiim banker. 
Is his uncle a physician f 
No, he is a surgeon. 
Have you been to the customkansef 
Tes, I have. 
■I come from the bank* 
I am going ta the exehaage. 

La salle k manger^ le dtner^ etc. 
The dining-room, dinner, etc. 

VoUk la table, there is the table, Un plateau, a tray. 

La nappe, the cloth, Une soupi^re, a soujhiureen, 

Une serviette, a napkin, Une sauci^re, a sameeboat, 

Un couteau, a knife, Une salite, a saUceUar, 

De Tar^enterie, silver-plate, Le sel, the salt, 

Une cmller, a spoon, Le poivre, the pepper, 

Une fourcbette, a fork, Le vinaigre, the vinegar, 

UnecuilleriFa^a&t,a^ii«yHp<NUi. Lliuile, the oiL 

Des verres k vm, wineglasses^ Un builier, an oU cruet, 

Un carafon, a ufater^tUe, Le vinaigrier, the vinegar cruet. 

Du boeuf, berf, 

Du veau, vetU, 

Du moutoui msiUfm. 

Un aloyau, a siriain, 

Un gigot, a leg ofmnUiam. 

Une longe de yewi^ • Iwn qf •«■/• 

Du pore, pork, 

Des cdtelettes, ehope, 

Des gnllades, sUaks, 

Des biftecks, beefsUakt. 

De la volaiUe, pauUry, 

Un canard, a duek, 

Une oie, a goose, 

Un dindon, a turkey, 

Un £usan, a pheasant, 

Une b^casse, a woodoock, 

Une b^assine, a snipe, 

Un coq de bniy^re, a grouse, 

Une perdrix, a partridge, 

De la Salade, salad. 

Des pommes de terra, potatoes, 

Des haricots, beans. 

Des navets, tumeps, 

Des carotteSf carrots, 

Des cbampignonst mushrooms. 

Des a^erges, asparagus. 

DvL 'poiaaon, fish, 

Du saumon, salmon, 

Ub mtrlaiii a whiting, 

Un 6perlan, a smelt, 

De I'anguille, eel. 

De k mflKue, eod, 

Une limande, a Dutch plaiee* 

Une sole, a sole. 

Da Mitteon, ^imI^ow. 

Un brocbet, a pike, 

Une truite, a trout, 

Des perches, perch. 

Des tanchesy tench. 

Des anchois, anchovies. 

Des chevrettes, xArunpf . 

Des salicoques, prawns, 

Un bomard^ a lobster, 

Du dessert, dessert, 

Du vin, c(;m«. 

Du vin de BordeauZi Bordeaux. 


Do. Tin de otmjgogBiCf Btuyuudjf^ 

Da TID dc JLsc^ SmJttJfm 

Thi TiD d'OpoEto, Pcrim 

Outs finer; 


DoonexHBunon peade 
Yoolez-Toas do poiooQ ? 
Noo, je voof raBCTCie. 
Je Yoos demanderai de* 
Ycnex-moi delabiefe, 
fioTcx on TcmB de via. 
Mcttez de HmOe et da 

Godftexdoac deeegigoL 

Aimez-voos le gibierf 
Yoos n'arez pas d'^p£dL 


Giee mu a Utile soap, 

Wm ff(m have tome Jukf 

No, liAemt ym. 


Pomr wu omttome hetr, 

Drimk a ^4an offsime^ 

Put wome mi aid mmeymr trnta the 

Do iasU ikk le§ of 
Do fom like ^aa§e T 
Tom have no appeiUe» 
I June dimedwdL 

Des parties dn corps. 


Le Tinge, /»*«»«««»,/««- 

Tn tftr^ fir hrmd 

he boat, Ikeforthtmi. 

Lei dtereoz, tie 

Le eerreaaiy 1 ^« 



Un ceOy aa eife* 

Lei jcnz, lAr €fn. 

La poopike, lie «yefid. 

Leaooicil, ihe 

Uoe oraDc^ am 


TAJaae^the eheei* 

JjemteaUm, the 

Ijt p*|jiTt fhf Tafatf 


Lalaogoe, thetomgme. 

Leideoti, theteetiL 

Paris of the body. 

Lagmge, iketkromL, 
La poitzine, the ckaL 
Leooeor, ihehearL 
T 'rffjommr, the ttmuifh 
Lei^ponlei, thetkaalden, 
Lebna, the anm. 
Leeoode, the elbow, 
1^ jfoigDH, the mmt, 
Le pools, thepmbe, 
Laoiaio, thekamd, 

LeiflBgles, lAe 
La jandbe, lAe ^. 
LemoUet, IA« 
Lepied, the foot. 
La eherille da pied, the 
Le eoo-de-pied, tfe 
Le taloD, lie heeL 
he doi, the haei. 



Les cdtes, the ribt. 
La peau, the skin» 
Les 08, the bonee, 

Ouvrez la bouche. 
Levez la t^te. 
Donnez-moi le bras. 
J'ai mal auz dentc. 
Cet enfant a le teint finis. 
Allez Yous laver les mains. 

Le sang, the blood. 
La voix, the voice. 
Le gosier, the windpipe^ 

Open your mouth. 

Look up, Ufi up your head. 

Give me your arm, 

I have the toothache. 

That child has afreeh complexion. 

Go and wash your hands. 

Les saisons, le temps^ etc. The seasons^ the weather ^ etc. 

Le printemps, spring, 

L'6t6, summer, 

L*automne, autumn, 

Lliiver, tointer. 

Beau iem^s, fine weather, 

Mauvais temps, had weather. 

Temps clair, clear weather, 

Le fi*oid, the cold. 

La chaleur, the heat, 

Le vent, the wind. 

La pluie, the rain. 

La grdle, the hail. 

La gel6e, the frost. 

La glace, the ice. 

La neige, the snow. 

La gelle blanche, hoar-frost, 

Le verglas, sleet, , 

Le d^gel, the thaw. 

Nous Yotci en hiver, il fait froid. 

Approchez-vous du feu. 

II tombe de la gr^le. 

Je crois qu'il va pleuvoir. 

Le froid diminue. 

La neige commence k fondre. 

Le temps est bumide, il d^gdle. 

II fait beau temps, le soleil luit. 

Ne pleut-ilpasf 

Ce n'est qu'une averse. 

Voilk raro-en-<cieL 

£ntendez-vous le tonnerre ? 

Oui, je Tentends. 

Maintenant il fait cbaud. 

Le ciel est sans nuages. 

Le brouillard, the fog, 

he tonnerre, the thunder. 

La foudre, the thunderbolt, 

Un coup de tonnerre, a clap of 

L'arc-en-ciel, the rainbow, 
Uneond6e,-[ j^ 
Une averse, J 
La ros^e, the dew, 
Le serein, evening air, 
Un courant d'air, a draught, 
Le jour, the day. 
La nuit, the night, 
Le soleil, the sun. 
La lune, the moon, 
Le clair de lune, moonshine, 
Les ^toiles, the stars. 

We are in winter, it is cold. 

Come near to the fire. 

It hails, 

I think it is going to rain. 

The cold diminishes. 

The snow begins to melt. 

The weather is damp^ it thaws. 

It is fine weather, the sun shines. 

Does it not rain ? 

It is but a shower. 

There is the rainbow. 

Do you hear the thunder t 

YeSy I do, ■ 

Now it is warm. 

The sky is cloudless. 


AcciDBNCB (from the Latin oeeidSere, to h^pen,) ii that part of gpram« 
mar which treats of the dremmtancen or changes by inflection incidental 
to ringle words. 

33. There are ten classes of words, called parts of 
speech^ six of which, namely, the article, the substantive 
or noun, the adjective, the pronoun, the verb, and the 
participle, are variable, that is, are liable to change of 
termination according to circumstances* 

The remaining four, namely, the adverb, the preposi- 
tion, the conjunction, and the interjection, are invari- 
able, that is, never change their terminations. 



34. An article is a word prefixed to a substantive to 
determine the extent of its signification. 

The article hj some French grammarians is called adjeeiif deternumattf. 

In the French language the article is chiefly used to 
denote to the ear either singleness or plurality in the 
following noun, with which it agrees in gender and 
number; as, 

Le laurier et la rose. The lawrd and the rote. 

Les laurieni et leg roses. The laurels and the roses. 

La science et I'^art C^^) '^^^^''^ ^'^ (the) art, 

Les scieDces et les arts. v*^^^) ^<^<^'s<'^ ^^ (the) arts. 

Z*homine est morteL (The) man is mortaL 

Les homines sent mortels. (The) men are mortaL 

* For t apoatraphey see paiagnph 11. 

in the siDgular 
^ number. 


35. There are three articles : the definite, the inde- 
finite, and the partitive. 

36. Definite jtrticle. 

The definite article is so called because it has a par- 
ticular and definite signification. The is the English 
definite article^ and it is rendered in French by 

U before a noun masculine beginning with a' 
consonant or h aspirated 

la before a noun feminine beginning with a 
consonant or h aspirated 

r (11.) before a noun of either gender be- 
ginning with a vowel or h mute • • • ^ 

hs before any noun T . in the plural. 


Le m^rite, (he merit La vertu, the virtue, 

L'esprit, the mind. Uhooneur, the hsmour. 

KoTB. The r is to be pronounced with the noun, as if forming with it 
one entire word : V^^etprit, V^^^Jumneur ; and not fe esprit ^ le honneur. 

Les plantes, the plants. . Les oiseaux, the birds. 

Les hiros, the heroes. Les hommes, the men. 

Read, translate, and parse*: 

Le gar9on, la fille. Les oncles, les neveux. Les saisons, 
le printemps, r6t6, Tautomne, Thiver. Le soleil, la lune, les 
6toiles. L'ann^e, le mois, le jour, Fheure, la promenade, les 
histoires, les harpes. 

Exercise. * 

The servanti the friend, the servants, the friends, the 

domestique m.f or f. ami nu domestiques amis 

child, the children, the brothers, the brother, the father, the fathers, 
enfant enfants freres fr^e pere pkres 

the herb, the herbs, the friendship, the honours, the hope, 
herhelim, herbes amitiS honneurshm, esp^ance 

the glory, the hero, the plant. 

gloiret. khosh asp,X plants t. 

* The English of the Exampkafor reading, translation and parsing^ 
given throughout the Accidence, ^Sll be found at the page .416, under 
the head RecaqrittUated exercises, 

t See the explanation of the signs and abbreviationa nied in the Exer- 
cises, facing page 1. 

X Tor words beginning with h aspirated see page 11. 


The Definite article joined with bjr, of or from j and 
A, to, is thud declined : 

Singular. Plunl. 


Before a consonant Before a vowel 
or h atpirated. or h mute, 
Mase, Fern, M. and F, 

with de : du^ de la, de V, des^ of or from the, 
with k: au^ k la, k V, taxx, to the. 

da if a eoniraeiion qf, and it Mted uuiead ^ de le. 

deB deles. 

an .* ,. ^le. 

anz lilM. 


Da matin au soir. From the morning to the evening. 

Au travail du gar9on. To the work of the bojf. 
Aux amis dee ^Idves. To iltke friends of the pupils. 

37. The English possessive or genitive case expressed by '#, 
as the ckUds hook^ having no literal equivalent in French, 
is rendered in an inverted manner : the hock of the chUdy le 
livre de I'enfant. 

38. Indefinite Article. 

The Indefinite article is so called because it has an 
indefinite signification. In English the indefinite ar- 
ticle is a or an, and it is render^ by * 

un before a noun masculine, and une before a noun femi- 


Un acte dliumaniti est toujours An act f^ humanity is always 
tsne action honorable. an honourable action. 

The French indefinite article is thus declined : 

Mase, Fern, 

tuithde: d'xm, d'une, of or from a. 

with A : a un, k une, to a. 

39. Partitive Article. 

'Some,' or 'any,* signifying a portion of anything, 
or ^ few, may be called the partitive article. It is 
rendered by du, de la, de /', or des (of the) ; but some 


or any is frequently understood in English, whereas du^ 
de lay de V^ or des must be expressed in French before 
every substantive taken in a partitive sense ) as^ 

DoDnez-moi du pain. Give me some hread, 

Prenez de la salade. Take some salad. 

Buvez de /'eau. Drink some water* 

Avez-vous des cerises, des Have you any cherries^ straw^ 
fraises, ou des framboises ^ berries, or raspberries f 

Note. The partitiTe article, in French, is merely the definite article with 
the preposition de ; and it denotes separation or partition of a part {vne 
parfie or une eertame qvumtiUy) from a whole ; wme^ or an equiTalent 
word, being understood before the article ; as donnez-moi du pom ; i. e, 
donnez'tnoi (nne partie or nne certaine quantity dupain. 

40. When a substantive taken in a partitive sense is 
preceded by an adjective, the preposition de is used 
without the article 3 as, 

De bon pain. (Some) good bread. 

De bonne viande. (Some^ good meat. 

De beaux fruits. (Some) fine fruits. 

Read, transkUe, and parse. 

Uamour de la vertu. Le bonheur de lliomme. Au prin- 
temps de la vie. De la pointe (or du point) du jour, au 
coucher du soleil. La sagesse est la sant6 de Tame. La vi- 
gueur de Tesprit et du corps. Agr^able h, la vue, a Touie, au 
gout, et au toucher. L'activit6 est la mere de la prosperity. 
L'instruction est un tr^or. Le fruit du travail est le plus 
doux des plaisirs. Voila une pomme et une poire. Voici du 
th6, du cbocolat, de la cr^me, du pain, du beurre, et des oeufs 
pour dejeuner. Voila du sucre et du lait Une ann6e, un 
mois, une semaine, un jour, une heure, une minute, une se- 
conde, mdme un instant,est une partie du temps aussi bien 
qu'un sidde* 


The harp of the child. The history of (the) man. The 

harpe{.h(up. enfant histoirehm. hommehm. 

love of (the) study* The glory of the hero. The sight of the 
amour Stude gUnre f. h^os h asp. vue f. 

moon and of the stars. The mind of the king. The happiness of 
lunef. itoiles esprit rot bonheur m 


(die) virtne. Hie chOdren of tbe hamlet. The harvest of the 

verUtf. enfantt hameaum.haip. rSeoUet 

fields. The light of the day. The courage of a soldier. To the 
eian^ banier&L m. Moldatm. 

health of the qaeen. To the enei*^ of the general. To the merit 
uaUi £ reme Snergie f. gSnSral tnlrUem. 

of the poet. A schoolboy's hooks: a dictionary and a grammar. 
poete ic(4ier(S7)axL dicUotmairevik. grammaireL 

In the foDowing phrases care must be taken to express du^de lOfde f, 
or da, bdofle every sabstantiTe nsed in a partitrre sense (39.). 

Give me bread, meat, water, and eggs. Here are figs, 
Doimex-mm pain m. mande t eau et mfi Foiei * fy^ 

oranges, i^ples, pears, apricots^ and peaches. Bring me some 

— po^UMspoires abrieots picket Jpportesrmm 

pens, ink, wax, and paper. Some beer and some wine. Take 
pibtmet encre eiret papier m. btkret otnm. Prenex 

some eider. Give him salt, pepper, and vinegar. Here are 
eidrem, Domtez-lui selm. pahrem. vinaigrenu Foiei * 

roaet, tulips, pinks, and violets. There are strawberries, cherries, 

tmiipes aUlete violettee F<M * fraasee eeriaee 

and gooseberries. Here are fine 

groeemet d maquereau, on grouee groueUee • heaux (40.) 

paintings and fine engravmgs. 
tMeauxjxk, heUea gramtretf. 


41. A substantive or noon is the name of a person^ 
place^ or thing; as^ 

Homme, num ; maison, koute ; Paris ; France ; esp^rance, 
ht^; bont^ kindness; vertu, virtue; doacenr, sweetness; 
travail, labour^ 

42. Noons are of two kinds, common and proper. 
The noun common is that which belongs to many 

persons or things of the same nature : homme, man ; 
cheval, horse, are nouns common, for the name man 
belongs to Peter, Paul, etc. 


The noun proper is that which particularly designates 
one person or thing ; as. Napoleon^ Paris, la Seine, etc. 

Of Gender. 

43. Gender is the relation of the nouns to what is 
male or female, or abusively considered as such. The 
French language has two genders, the masculine, as, le 
meillard, tiie old man; le^ls, the son; — and the femi- 
nine, as, la femmey the woman ; la JUle, the daughter. 
The French language does not admit the neuter gender 
with substantives, and consequratly the names of inani- 
mate objects, or diings without life, are either mascu- 
line or feminine ; as, 

Mase. Fmn» 

Le livre, the book. La plume, the pen, 

Ua arbre, a tree* Uiie prairie, a meadow, 

44. To determine the gender of nouns of inanimate objects, gramma^ 
nans generally lay down nimiflnras roles, and make ataU moie mmerons 
exceptions, attemptiag to imitate the Latin grammns by clasriiying the 
gender of nouns according to their termination, and concluding their re- 
marks with the cheering riioumelle: "We'mnst except such words as 
usage alone will teach." 

Being convinced that the ear and prmetice are the safest and moat oor* 
rect guides in this part of the grammar (rf the langnage, we xeoommend 
the student to notice attentively the genders of nouns of inanimate objects 
as he hears those nouns used in the phraseology of the language. The 
gender of any noun can, in most instances, be ascertained in a sentence 
by the termination of one of the accompanying words, such as an article, 
an adjective, a pronoun, or a participle : as, le murf the wall ; la vUkf the 
town ; de belles maisonsi fine houses; reacre avec laquelle vous avez ecrit, 
the ink with which you wrote ; Vequiteeat prodialepar F amour de lajus- 
ticef equity is produced by the love of justice, etc. 

45. To the Latin student we may remark, that those French nouns 
which are derived from the Latin generally follow the genders of their 
originals, the French masculine, with few exceptions, correspon^g to the 
neuter and masculine of the Latin, and the FreiK^h feminine similarly cor- 
responding to the Latin feminine. With words having terminations simi- 
lar to the following, this rule prevails to a considerable extent : — Loena, 
Heu; focQBf feu; jocus,^0tt; impunitas, mqnmiU\ Veritas, peritSi vsnitas, 
ffonitS; honor, Aoniiffur ; caput, chrf; caballus, cheval; liber, Uvre (book); 
libra, Uvre (pound), etc. 

The most remarkaUe wwda derived from the Latin whose gender has 
been changed, are dent, tooth ; finUaine, fountain, which are masodine in 
Latin {dens,fims^ and feminine in French. Likewise ar&re,tree; tuanre, 
ship ; angle f nail, which are feminine in Latin (arbor , mwis, vngukif) but 
masculine in French. See Appendicb, Du genre des noms. 

SDfiSTANTiyS. 43 

Of Number. 

46. Nouns have two numbers^ the singular^ denoting 
one object, as le portrait 'y and the plnral, denoting 
more than one, as les portraits. 

Formation of the Plural of Nouns, 

47> General Rule. The plural of substantives, and 
also of adjectives (55.), is formed by adding an ^ to the 
singular; as, 

Skiffuiar, PluraL 

lie bon enfant, the ffood child; les bons en&nta, the good chil- 
Un liwe utile, a useful booh; deux livres utilei^ two us^td 


48. Nan. fiome anChon omit the final i in liiepliinil of all words (rab- 
gtastires or a^jeetiveft) of more than one tjrUahle, ending in on/ or cn^and 
write fli/bnt, momenSf etc., but the French Andemy, the best modem 
grammarians, as weU as the principal printers in Paris, retain that letter. 
uideed there is no reason why it should be omitted, as it is preserved in 
monosyllables, as «m/, dtnt^ bnt, gaad^ godtf etc., and also in asimtiyOilr^t, 
en^frwUt etc Besides, the general rule for forming the jliaial of substan- 
tives and a4jectives by the mere addition of an « is then applicable to aU ; 
and the learner can more easily discriminate the final letter of the singular 
in soch words as dkmumt$, vit^rtmM, g4aint9, tynoM, TUwm, trUmU, iribut, 
and several others. 

49. Obs. 1. Substantives (and adjectives) ending in 
s, X, or z in the singular, do not vary in the plural ; 

Singular, Plund. 

Le h^ros, the hero ; les h^ros, the heroes. 

Une voix» a voice ; des voix, voices. 

Le nez, the nose ; les nez, the noses. 

50. Obs. 2« Those ending in eau, au, and eu take r 
in the plural ; as. 

Singular. PluraL 

Le chfileau, the castle; les chateaux, the casUes. 

Le bateau, the beat ; les bateaux, the boats. 

Un oiseauy a bird; des oiseaux, birds. 

Le jeu, the game \ les jeux, the games. 

Du feM^fire ; des teMS^ fires. 
Unbeautableau,a/&t€ptc^re; de beaux tableaux,^n«jpicfif res. 

Except hku, blue, and landau, a kind of carriage, which take « in the 
plnral, as, tks yeug Uaut, Une eyes; dss kmdmu. landaus. 


59. Adjectives ending in -el^ -eil, --ien, ^orij and ^ety 
form their feminine by doubling the final consonant and 
adding e mute; as^ 


















Con^letf ccneret, discretf mguietf tecret, replete make in the feminine, 
eon^lete, conerete, diMerkU, inqmiU, tteriUf repUt€. 

60. Adjectives ending m /, change this letter into ve ; 

3fii8C, rem, 

Bref, br^ve, thott. 

Naif, nalve^ ingemums* 

Neuf, neuve, new* 

61. Adjectives ending in x change x into ««; as, 

Mtuc, Fern, 

G6n^reux, g6n6reuse, generous. 

Vertueux, vertueuse, virtuous. 

Jaloux, jalouse, jeahus. 

Prijix makeiprefixe in the feminine. 

62. Adjectives ending in eur change eur into ettsey as, 

Masc. Fern. 

Flatteur, flatteuse, flaUering. 

Trompeur, trompeuse, deceitful. 

AwtMeuTt citAneuTt exterieWf infAieur, intMeury tnajeur^ mineur, 
meiUeur, postirieur, prieutf eup^neuTj ultMeyr, follow the general rule, 
that is, take e mate. A^ectives of this termination, rUmr, express an idea 
of comparison. 

The following change eur into eresse i 

Mate. Fern. 

Bailleur, bailleresse, lessor 

D6fendeur, d6fenderesse, defendant. 

Enchanteur, eochanteresse, enchanting^ charmer 

P^cfaeur, p^eherease, sinner. 

Vengeur, vengeresse, avenger. 



The following change eur into rice : 












Amhaasadear, ambassadrice. 









\ conservatrice. 






ex6cu trice. 

















Most of the abovB are used both as substantives and adjectives. 

The following a^ectives have two words to eiqiress the feminine : 




trnger, chantense and cantatrice. 


kmntmum, chasseuse and chasseresse. 

Debitenr, * 

' retailer f debiteuse. 
^debtor, debitrice. 


* he who asht, demandeuse. 
jtlamtif, demanderesse. 


seller^ vendeuse onJvenderesse (law). 

Note. D«9marv guesser, makes in tiie feminine deomeuse, and deom, 
diviner, conjnzer, devmeretee, Aoootding to several good writers aaudeur 
makes amatriee in the feminine. 

63. The following adjectives fonn their feminine irre- 
gularly : 

Beau or bel, 









benign, hnd, 

ML, ssmg, 




express f positive, 




franhj open, 
gende^ pretty 


no, none* 

64. Beau, fou, num, nouveau, and vieux are used before a 
noun masculine singular beginning with a consonant or h 
aspirated ; bel,fol, mol, nouvel, vtet7(and vieux occasionally), 
before a noun masculine singular beginning with a vowel or 
h mute ; as, un beau gar^on, a fine boy ; un bd homme, a fine 
man ; unfol espoir, a foolish or vain hope ; un nouvel acteur, 
a new actor ; un vieil habit, an old coat, etc. 

NoTB. The following nouni and adjectiTes undergo no change in the 
feminine : 

Chatain, nui-browni imposteur, tn^M/or; dispos, active, tumble; fat, 
coxcomb; sxxi&u, author ; peintre,/;atn/er; ecrivain, im/er ; poete^poe/; 
t^moin, witnett. 

Note. The plural of adjectives is formed by the same rules as those 
already given for the plural of suhstantiTes (47 — 53.). 







Fou or fol, 






















Mou or mol, 


Mat (pronounced w 

\dM), matte. 

Nouveau or nouvel. 




















Vieux or vieil. 




* Franc makes frangue, when it has reference to the nation called 
Francs ; as, la langwjranque. 


Ready trandaUy and pane. 

Mon cher ami, disait un sage pr^cepteur ^ son lllustre 
^leve, soyez doux, humain, accessible, affable, compatissant et 
lib^raL Imitez voire pdre. Souvenez-vous qu'il 6tait sup6- 
rieur aux autres par la noblesse de ses sentiments ; appliqu6, 
droit et ferme dans les n^gociations. 

Rien n'est beau que le irrai, le yrai seul est aimable. Boi- 
LEAU. — ^Les Tyriens sont industrieux, patients, laborieux, 
propres, sobres et managers. FiNSLON. — ^La langue fran^aise 
est parI6e en Europe par tous les hommes 6clair6&r — Un travail 
opiniatre et une necessit6 pressante triomphent des plus 
grandes difficult^s. 

Pronounce and write the foUcwing Adjectives in the 
Feminine : 

Pesant, peupI6, nicessaire, sage, juste, estim6, vermeil, clir6- ^ 
tien, bon, gras, muet, discret, actif, vif, blanc, franc, dangereux, ' 
jaloux, moqueur, menteur, vengeur. 

Ready trandate, and parse : 

Adjective mcuculine. Adjective feminine. 

Le plomb est^^luspesant que le fer. L'eau est plus pesante que I'air. 
Notre pays est ir^s-peuplL La France est plus peuplSe que 

L'air est nieeuaire k la vie. La chaleur est nicessaire au corps. 

Mon ami, sois sage et juste, Mon amie, sois sage et juste, 

Votre devoir n'est pas difficile. Voire t&che n'est pas difficile, 
Le pain est substantiel. La viande est substantielle. 

Nut monument n'est StemeL NuUe mode n'est HemeUe, 

Ce mur est ipais, Cette haie est ipaisse, 

Le Louvre est bien aneien, Etudiez Thistoire ancienne, 

Mon ills, sois bon etgentil. Ma fille, sois bonne et gentille. 

Le fat est souvent bien sot, C'est une sotte entreprise. 

Son discours est ambigu, Cette parole est ambtgu'e. 

YoUk un chapeau nei^, Yoici une pens^e neuve, 

Ne troublous pas rorore public, Le roinistre de I'lnstruction pu- 

blique est k Paris. 
Cet enfant est naif et franc, Sa soeur est naive etfranche, 

J'aime un caract^e/ratic. J'aime uner^ponse/rancAtf. 

Cet air est frais, Yoici de Teau fraiche, 

Ce cbemin est bien long. Ma le9on n'est pas tongue, 

C'est un espoir trompeur, C'est une promesse trompeute, 

Un t^moignage accusateur, Une parole accusatrice, 

Elle a un sourire enchanteur, Sa voix est enchanteresae, 

Cherchez un meilteur climat ' SoUidtez une meiUeure place. 

50 ▲9#BCTiyji. 

Adjective matetUim. AdfeeUve feminine, 

Ce penple est eourageux* Cettc femme est courageiue, 

Ne soyez jtaaaiajaloux, K'a^rez pas Vhumeurjahuse, 

Get homme est indiscret et (a- Cette demoiselle est in^screie et 

vard, havarde, 

n est (&<rate et Hourdi. EBe est di&tmU et ^«rdi«. 

Un chapeau de paille est Uger. La paflle est Ugh^. 

Adjective wngulw, A^eeUve phtrai. 

Mon fils, montre^oi docHe et at- Mes enfents, montrez-Yons doeUet 

tentif, et atfen/t^«. 

Sok dJtdfidUe et diecret, Soyez taxoMjldileM et diecreU, 

Nouvel an, fiouveatf plaisir. Nouveaux travaux, iioiio«^ joiii»- 


Le nord est un point cardinal. It y a qnatre points cor^attx. 

Ne sols ni omhrageux ni soumois. Ne soyez ni omhrageua ni foumois. 

Louise, sols prudente, Charles et Louise, soyez prudents. 

Le perroquet est bavard. Le merle et la pie sont bavards, . 

Le tigre est cruel. Le tigre et 1' hy^ne sont crueU, 

La vengeance est odietue. Les vengeances sont odieuses. 

Monsieur, soyez attentif. Messieurs, soyez attentifs. 

Mademoiselle, soyez attetUio9\, MesdemoiseDes, soyez attentives. 

La France eat fertile. La, France et I'ltalie sont/?r^i7ef. 

Mon ami, soyez charitable. Mes amis, soyez charitabtee. 

M& rille, soyez polie. Mes filles, soyez poliet, 

Mon enfant, soyez sage, Mes enfants, soyez sages. 

Of the Position of Adjectives* 

65. General Rule. Adjectives are in French gene- 
rally placed after the substantive to which they relate ; 

Un homme riclte, A rich man. 

Une pens^e morale. A moral thought. 

Una chambre obscure. A dark roo^i. 

Une table ronde. A round table* 

Un temps chaud. Warm weather. 

Un th^meJraTifais. A French exercise. 

66. Although many adjectives may be placed either before 
or after the noun at pleasure, as un homme habile^ or un habUe 
homme J a clever man, the best way to avoid mistakes in writing 
the exercises is to put them after the substantive, except the 
following, which usually precede : 

Beau^^fltf; bon, good; cher, dear (denoting affection); 


digue, wor^ ; grand, ^raof ; jeane, y&tm^ ; joli, pretty ; 
manTais, had; m^chant, wicked; meillear» better; moindre, 
lesg; petil, kUk; aaint, hofy ; tei, tmch; tovt, o/l; yieux, old^ 
vilaiD, 1^^ 

Tlie mwuBg of some idjectiTes, however, differs according to their 
pontftm befbre or t^ier tiie noun ; as, 

Un hoanete brauM, «» it mett man. Un homme honnete, a poSte mtn, 
Un giand horasie, a mam ff ^reo^ Un homnia grand, a toll amk 

Un brave homme, a worthy man. Un homme brave, a brave man. 

See Afpjckdics, Place de Vadjeei^m 


A young man. (An) important news. Agoodstody. An agreeable 
jeune nouveUef. Hudef. agreable 

amnaement. A vaihiable coneetion of old manuscripts. A cultivated 
m. pricieux f. manuscrits m. cuUwS(65) 

country is always admired. (The) idleness is fatal to (tiie) 

campaj/me^ eitUmfomn admiri parettef, — 

health. The Italian lai^iiiage is easy. The gods of the pagans 
saniiL itaiiem Im^fmet faeUe dieux patent 

were anmerous. I have a good sbare. Thtan fs a lieantttul 
itaieni nombreux •Tos portf, Foiid * beau 

meadow. The GredL language is studied. (The) wdves are 
prairie t, gree itudiS ioups eont 

bold and ferocious. The manners of those good countrymen are 
kardi firoee mceursf.'ph ces paysans sont 

simple. She is deceitful. They are (of the) deceitful promises. 
EUe trompeur Ce sont trompeur promesset 

A good orator, a good speech. They are troublesome. The 
oraieur discoursm. Us sont trnporiun 

door is open. Fear the avenging thunderbolt. That is your 
portef. ouvert Craignez vengeur /budref, Cestvotre 

favourite reading. This is for the public good. Have you a good 
favori lecture f. Cest pour btenm. Avez-aous 

pen ? The enchanting style of Bernardin de St. Pierre. The 
pUamei. . enchanteur — m. — — — — 

enchanting voice of that actress. The sublime conceptions 
enchanteur voixi. cette actrice pensSef. 

of Homer. The general officers of the army. The delightful 
d'Homhre yinSral offiders amUe charmani 



avenues of Versailles. The public authority. (The) jealousy is 
aUSet. atUoriiif, jahuiiet 

odious. Geotlemen, be attentive. That city is very populous. 
adieux Messieurs soyez attentif Cette viUet tru^eupU 

The soul is immortal. (The) ancient history is very interesting. 
dmef. immortel ancien histoiret tr^-inUressant 

A new coat. The grass is thick. Those boys are docile and 
neuf habit L*herbe{, Spais Ces sotU 


My friends, be faithful and discreet Young ladies, 

Mes soyez fidele discret Mesdemoiselles 

be polite. (The) tigers are cruel. A pretty little round box. 
soyez poll Ugresm.sont joU petit rondboUet. 

A large square room. A foolish undertaking. A protecting 
grand carri ehambref, sot entrepriset. protecteur 

hand. A mild temper. The new fashion. The paint is 
maint doux humeur f. nouveau modef. peinturef. 

dry. There is some white wax. (A) cold weather. An interesting 
sec Foild * blane cire f. froid temps m. intlressant 

and instructive study. The remarkable events of the Ro- 

instructifitudef. remarqwdfle evhiementsm.'pl, rO" 

man history. A plain, simple, and natural style. An ingenuous 
tnain histoire £. uni naturel — -m. tnghiu 

candour, an amiable simplicity, and a lively artlessness are the 
%:^udeurf. aimable simplicitSf. piquant natvetSf, sont 

aiann of (the) youth. 
eharme m. jeunesse f. 

67. Formation of the Degrees of Comparison. 

There are three degrees of comparison : 

1. The Positive^ or the adjective itself. 

2. The Comparative^ expressed by pluSy •\ 

more, or moins, less, tAsxcqA be- 

3. The Superlative, expressed by le, la, 1 f^j.^ ^1 

or les plus, ihit most, \ adjective. 

--— — — ^— or le, la, les motns, 

the least. 



PosiHve. Comparative, Superlative. 

Sage, wise ; Plus sage, wiser ; Le plus sage, wisest 

Instruit, learned; Moios instruit, less Le moins instruit, the 

learned; least learned, 

KoTE. In the superlatiTe degree the article le, la, or les is not used 
when a possessive pronoun precedes the noun, as mon phu cher ami, my 
dearest friend. 

Note. The French have no terminations similar to the er and est used 
to express the English comparative and superlative. 

68. The following are irregular : 

Bon, pooe?; Meilleur, better ; Le meilleur, the best. 

Mauvais, bad ; Pire (orplus mauvais), Le pire (or le plus mau« 

worse ; vais), the worst. 

Petit, little or Moindre (or plus petit), Le moindre (or le plus 
small ; less or smaUer ; petit), the least or the 


69. The comparative of these adjectives must not be 
mistaken for the comparative of the following adverbs : 

Bien, well; Mieux, b^ter ; Le mieux, the best, 

Mai, badfy ; Pis*, or plus mal, worse ; Le pis, or le plus maJ, the 

Peu, little; Moins, less; Le moins, the least, 

Adjectives. Adverbs. 

Un bon travail^ II travaille bien, 
A ffood work. He works well, 

Un meilleur travail, H travaille mieux, 
A better work. He works better, 

Le meilleur travail^ H travaille le mieux, 
The best work. He works best. 

Head, transhtey and parse: 

Londres est la plus belle des villes. Le meilleur ami. La 
plus belle comparaison. Mes plus jolies fleurs. Son meilleur 

* Pie JB also used as a comparative adjective, Cesf bien pis, it is much 
irone. 11 n'y a rien deptegue cela, there is nothing worse than that. ' 


ouvrage. La plus jeune de mes sceurs. Le moios sage de 
mes freres. Un meilleur lUisonnement. II raisonne mieux. 


Kicb, richer, richest. A pretty village, a prettiesr village, the 
Riche jolt m. 

prettiest village. Amiable, less amiable, the least amiable. Small, 


smaller, smallest. A good drawing, a better drawing. He drawB 

desnn in. II dewne 

well : his brother draws better. 



70. In a comparison of superiority, pltts^ mate, is 
placed before the adjective, and que, than, after it* 

plus que II est pltis savant que moi. 

more than He is mure learned than I. 


71 • In a comparison of inferiority, moinsy less, is 
placed before the a^ective, and que^ than, after it. 

moins que . II est mains rich e que vous. 

less than He is less rich than you. 


72. In a comparison of equality, aussi^ as, in affirma- 
tive, or siy so, in negative, phrases, is placed before the 
adjective, and que^ as, after it. 

aussi que. La tulipe est at/^^z belle que la rose. 

as as The tulip is as beautiful as ilie rose. 

si que. La tulipe n*est pas si belle que la rose. 

so as The tulip is not so beautiful as the rose. 

Note. Autsi is also used occasionally in negative sentences. 

Read, translate^ and parse: 
Homere me paralt plus sublime que tons les antres poetes 


^piques. La rose est plus belle que la violette. L'automne 
est moins vari^ que le printemps. Vons ttes moins instruit 
qse Yotre freie. II est aossi savant que moi. H n'est pas si 
igi que TOtre soeur. 

Nothing is more agreeable to the mind than the light of (the) 
Jlien u'egt amiable esprU lumieret 

tmth. William is leas attentire tlum his brother. He n as ridi 
vSritSt GttUlaume attentxf 9on II rieke 

as they. He is not so rich as thej. (The) shipwreck and (the) 
eux H n*e»t paa eux naufragt m. 

death are less fatal than the pleasures which attack (the) virtue. 
martt.wid fanette plaisin qui attaquent veriuf. 

My dear friend, be as good and as benevolent as your father. 
Man MOjfez hienveiUant voire 


Nameral adjectives indicate a reference to numbers. 
They are of two sorts, the cardinal and the ordinal. 

The cardinal arc the numbers which indicate quan- 
tity without markup die order, and the ordinal are the 
■umbers which serre to indicate the order in which 
tilings may be arraiu^. 

From the cardinal and ordinal numbers are derived 
other num er a l expressions, understood by tfarir de* 
nominations of collective, fractional and proportional 

Unm^nnef. 1 

D&a. {iL mvie) 2 

Trob (pronauneed tnrah) S 

Quatre {pnoft. katre) 4 

Cinq {q is sounded) 5 

Six (/mm. siss) 6 

Sept (proM. sett) 7 

Uwiit is smtnded) 8 

Iffenf (i is sommded) 9 

Dix (jwtMi. din) 10 

73. Cardinal Numbers. 

Ooze 11 

Douze (dooze) 12 

Treize ((fiese) 13 

Qaatorze (^o^orze) H 

Qimae(kinze) 15 

Seize (sei is broad) 16 

Dix-fiept (/mm. diss-sett). 17 

Dix-hait (/mm. diz-aitt).. 18 

IMx-iieuf(jEmm.diz-nettff) 19 

Vingt (gt ttiflf ) 20 



Non. The final oonsooant of deux, trm, eimq, tiXftq^t, Ml, iMi|^aiid 
dix is sounded when before a vowel or h mate ; as, 

Deux^^amit, two friends ; trotg^^ommes, three men ; troU^^et deux 
^^imt emqf three and two are five ; emq^^^^ardokeif five slat^ ; itx^^/riieauXf 
six birds; septy^/eut, seven crowns; htut^^ou netff, eight or nine, etc. 
(See page 17.) 

But it is mute when the following word begins with a consonant or h 
aspirated; as, 

Deux UvreSf two books ; troit hAxu, three heroes ; Hng fforfome, five 
boys ; les cinq pew eent^ the five per cent ; eix tableaux^ six pictures ; eepi 
chaiaetf seven chairs ; kmt /ranct, eight francs ; nenfteutf nine sous, t. e. 
fourpence-halfpenny ; deux centtf two hundred ; troit eeni»f three hun- 
dred, etc. 

Vingt et un, 
















Trente 80 

Trente et un 31 

Trente-deux 32 

Trente-trois S3 

Trente-quatre 34 

Trente-cinq 35 

Trente-8ix 96 

Trente-sept 37 

Trente-buit 38 

TreDte-neuf. 39 

Quannte (karante) 40 

Quarante et un 41 

Quarante-deux 42 

Quarante-trois 43 

Quaraote-quatre 44 

Quarante-cinq 45 

Quarante-six 46 

Quarante-sept 47 

Quarante-huit 48 

QuaraDte-neuf 49 

Cinquante (cinkante) 50 

Cinquante et un 51 

Cinquante-deux 52 

Cinquante-trois 53 

Cinquante-quatre 54 

Cinquante-cinq 55 

Cinquante-six 56 

Cinquante-sept 57 

Cinquaute-huit 58 

Cinquante-neuf 59 

Soixante (soassanie) 60 

Soixante et un 61 

Soixante-deux 62 

Soixante-trois 63 

Soixante-quatre 64 

Soixante-cioq 65 

Soixante-six 66 

Soixante-6ept 67 

Soixante-huit 68 

Soixante-neuf 69 

Soixante et dix 70 

Soixante et onze 71 

Soixante-douze 72 

Soixante-treize 73 

Soixante-quatorze 74 

Soixante-quinze 75 

Soixante-seize 76 

Soixante-dix-sept 77 

Soixante-dix-huit 78 

Soixante-dix-neuf 79 

Quatre-Tingts (ffts arel 
mute, anc^ gt in the > 80 

following also) J 

Quatre-vingt-un 81 

Quatre-vingt-deux 82' 



Qnatre-vingt-trois 83 | 

Quatre- viogt-quatre 84 

Quatre- vingt-cinq 85 

Quatre-viogt-six 86 

Quatre-vingt-sept 87 

Quatre-vingt-h uit 88 

Quatre- vingt-neuf. 89 

Quatre- viugt-dix 90 

Quatre- vingt-oDze 91 

Quatre-yingt-douze 92 

Quatre-yingt-treize 93 

Quatre-yiugt-quatorze ... 94 

Quatre-yingt-quioze 95 

Quatre-yingt-seize 96 

Quatre-yingtHiix-sept ... 97 

Quatre-yiogt-dix-huit ... 98 

Qoatre-yingt^ix-neuf ... 99 
Cent (t in cent is mute, 1 

and in the following > 100 

also) J 

Cent un, etc. 101 

Centyingt 120 

Cent yingt et un, etc. ... 121 

Cent trente, etc 130 

Deux cents 200 

Deux cent dix 210 

Trois cents 800 

Quatre cents 400 

Cinq cents 500 

Six cents 600 

Sept cents 700 

Huit cents 800 

Neuf cents 900 

Mille 1000 

DeuxmUle 2000 

Trois miUe 3000 

Quatre mille 4000 

Cinq mille, etc 5000 

Dix mille 10,000 

Vingt mille 20,000 

Trente mille 30,000 

Quarante mille 40,000 

Cinquante mille 50,000 

Cent mille 100,000 

Deux cent mille 200,000 

Cinq cent mille 500,000 

Un million 1,000,000 

Deux millions 2,000,000 

Cent millions,etc. 100,000,000 

74. Note. Formerly teptante, octantet and wmante were used instead 
of toixante et dixj quatre-vingtit and guatre-vinfft-dix. 

75. Cent takes an s when preceded by a number by which it is multi- 
plied, as deux eentSf deux eentt hommeif but cent is undeclined when fol- 
lowed by another number, with which it is numerally connected, deux cent 
dix homrnea ; cent is also undeclined in expressing a date, Van deux cent. 
Vingt also takes an t when preceded by a number by which it is multiplied, 
as guatre-vinfftSt cent quatre'Vmgttfi'anee, tix vingtt hommee (jrix vmgte is 
sometiiiies usied instead of eeni vmgt\ But vingt does not take t when fol- 
lowed by another number with which it is connected, as guatre^vingt'deux. 

76. llie conjunction and used in English after the word hundred when 
followed by another number, with which it is connected, is not expressed 
inRench; as, three hundred anif twenty, /roir em/ trtn^. Nor is the word 
one generally expressed before hundred or thoueand; as, one hundred and 
ten, cent dix ; one thousand eight hundred and forty years, mitte huit cent 
quarante an»» But we may say un eentf when speakinff of things which are 
sold by the number; as, un cent d*4pinglet^ a hundred pins. 

77. MiUCf a thousand, nerer takes f , as deux miUe^ dix mille ; it is spelt 
mil in expressing the date of the year, as Fan mil huit cent hUtf the year 
1808. MiUe, a mile, takes an « in the plural; as, dix mille millee, ten 
thousand miles. 




78. Ordinal Numbers. 


Second (-gond),., 
Deuxi^me (-ziime) 

























10* lOth 

!!• Uth 

12* 12/A 

13« ISih 

14« 14^A 

15* 15//* 

16« 16/A 

17* 17/A 

18« ISth 

Dix-neuvidme ... 19^ \9tk 

Vingtidme 20* 2(VA 

Viogt et unidme 21* 21^ 

Vingt-deuxieiDe,etc.22* 22nd 

Trentidme 30* 20th 

Quarantidme ... 40* 40^ 

Cinquantidme ... 50* 50^ 

Soixanti^me 60* GQth 

'°S.e^!. } ^ 70* 
Quatre-vingtidme 80* SOth 

^"cUSIrt } ^ «« 

Centidme 100* 100^ 

"^ «i«r!^- } ^^ ^^ 

Deux-centieme... 200* 200/A 

Millieme 1000*1000^ 

Millionidme, etc. 

The ordinal numbers become adverbs by adding emeni or 
ment; as, premierement, Istfy; secondemetit or deuxi^mement, 
2ndfy ; troisi^mement, Srdfyy etc. 

Examplet of the cardinal and ordinal numbers used with the 

word foiSy time. 

Une fois, once. 
Deux fois, ticice. 
Trois fois, thrice. 
Quatre fois,/ottr times. 
Cinq iioifjive times. 
Six fois, sis times. 
Sept fois, seven times. 

Hoit fois, eight times. 
Neuf fois, nine times. 
Dix fois, etc., ten timeSf etc. 
La premiere fois, the first time. 
La seconde fois, etc., the second 
time, etc. 

79. The following ordinal numbers are also used^ 
particularly in commercial language. 

Primo P 1st 

Secundo (pr. segondo) 2^ 2nd 

Tertio 8® Srd 

Quarto 4P 4<eh 

Quinto 5«» 5th 

Sexto 6« 6/A 

Septimo 7^ 7th 

Octavo S° 8ih 

Nono 9® 9i4 

Decimo lO^lOt/i 

etc. etc. 



80. Collective Numbers. 

Une ooople, a caupie. 

Un quatrain (keUriTi)^ a stanza 

of four verses, 
Un sixain (siziri), a stanza of 

six verses. 
Une douzaine — (de), a dozen. 
Une demi-douzaine, half a 

Une quinzaine about 15 

Une vingtaine about 

Une trentaine — 

Unequarantaine... -— 
Une cinquantaine.. — 
Une soixantaine ... — 

Une centaine — 

Un millier — 

Des milliers, thousands. 


81. Fractional Numbers. 

Demi, 1 

Demie, fhalf. 

Moitie, J 

Le tiers, Ike third part 

Le quart, the fourth. 

Les deux tiers, two thirds. 

Les trois quarts, three fourths. 

Un cinquieme, one fifth. 

Un sixieme, one sixth. 

Un s^i^me, one seventh ; and 
so on, like the ordinal num- 

92. Note. The indefinite article a used in English before the word half, 
preceded by a nnmeral adjectiye, is not expressed in French before the 
word demi or demie\ as, un mUSon et demi, a tmlUon and a half $ une Uvre 
et demie f a pound and a hall 

83. Proportional Numbers. 
Le double, the double* 

Le triple, 
Le quadruple, 
Le quintuple, 
Le centuple, etc. 

the treble, 



Jiepeat in French. 


Unit6 ...; 1 

Dizaine 10 

Centaine 100 

Mille 1,000 

Dizaine de mille 10,000 

Centaine de mille 100,000 

Million 1,000,000 

Dizaine de millions 10,000,000 

Centaine de millions 100,000,000 

Billion ou milliard 1,000,000,000 

Dizaine de billions ou milliards 10,000,000,000 

Centaine de billions ou milliards .... 100.000,000,000 



Note. The higher numerala are named in French, irUHmut fuadrH' 
lioM, etc. 

ExampUti 256,329,876,533,875,421. Detue emt dnfuante~tuf gwuirU- 
Uona, troig cent vinfft-neu/triltionti kuii cent eouMmte-tehe bUliont, cinq cent 
trtnte-trois miUUnUt huit cent eoixante-'qftmze miUef quaire cent vmgt et ten. 

987,654,321 ,987,654,321 . Neuf cent quatre^wngt-eept quadrilUong, six 
cent dnqwinte-quatre trilUonSf troie cent vingt et un biUknUf neuf cent quatre- 
vingt~9ept miUUmet «ur cent dnquante-quatre mUkt troie cent vinfft et un. 

123,456,789,123,456,789. Cent vingt-troiM quadrillions, quatre cent 
dnquante-six triisims, sept c^nt quatre-tnngt'neu/ bilUonSy cent vingt-trois 
millions, quatre cent cinquante'Six mttfe, sept cent quatre-vingt-neuf, 

[NoTA. — En fran9ais, toute la difficulte de la numeration se r^duit ^ 
enoncer et a ^ire un nombre compost de trois chiffi^s, en faisant atten- 
tion que de trois chiffires en trois chiff^, en allant de droite a gauche, la 
denomination change, que les unites deviennent des mille, les mille des 
millions, les millions des billions, les billions des trillions, les trillions des 
quadrillions, et ainsi de suite.] 

Read and unite the following in French : 

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9^ 10, 11, 12, IS, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 
19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, SO, SI, 82, 33, 34 
35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 
51, 52, 53, 54, 55y 56y 57, 58, 59, 60, 61. 62, 63, 64, 65y 66. 
67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 
83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 
99, 100, 101, 300, 1000, 10,000, 100,000, 1,000,000, 
10,000,000, 100,000,000. 







































1», 2«*, 8*~, 4**»% 5**°*, 6*«»*, 7**^, 8»^ S'**"^, lO**"*, 

llitoe^ Igitoe^ 1S»»«, etc. 

i«, 2°, 3«, 4«, 5«, 6«, 7S 8», 9«, 10«, etc. 
li, 21, SJ, 4f 6J, T^j, i, ft, tZj., jg, ^, ^jyj^, SSSSJI, 

4444J^ 5555^^, 6666|9, 7777fJ, 8888§f, 9999^^^, 
33,3S3|}|, etc., etc. 

Repeat in French : 


2 fois (times) 2 font (mc 

ike) 4^ 

5 fois (times) 8 font(ma*c) 40 

















— . 












— . 



— — 










— — 


— . 

















































— . 



— — 


— . 














— . 



— . 














— « 





— - 










— . 







— i. 
































— . 

























— — 












































































— . 




— ~ 




















— > 




3 et 7 font 10, et 10 font 20, et 9 font 29, et 7 font S6, et 
4 font 40, etc. 


Otez (take) 7 de (from) 10, reste (rematn^) 3 ; otez 9 tie 
16, reste 7 ; otez 13 de 19, reste 6, etc. 

84. Note. The French use the cardinal numbers when spealdng of sove- 
reignSy and of the day of the month : 

Louis quatorze, Louis the Fourteenth. 

Le onze Janvier, The lltk qf January. 

Except in mentioning theory/, or sometimes the second, when speaking 
of soyereigns, and ih.e first when speaking of the day of the month : 

Fran9ois premier, Francis the First. 

Georges second or Georges deux, George the Second. • 
Le premier mai or de mai, The 1st qfMay. 

Exanqtles of Bates. 

Paris, le 15 avril 1837, Paris, the Ibth qf April, 1837. 

Londres, le 12 septemhK 1839, London, the \2th of September, 1839. 

The following abbreviations are frequently used : 

7***, or sep*««, September. 
8**", or oct^**, October. 
B**", or nov**", November, 
x^^*, or d^c^", December. 
Le 18 du c^ (du mois courant), the 
ISth instant. 

Le 26 d" (du mois dernier), the 

26th uUimo. 
N° (numero) 33, number 33. 
0/0, pour cent, per cent ; as, les 

trois 0/0 consolides, the 3 per 

cent consols. 

85. Note. The expressions tL fortnight, and a week or sennight, are 
rendered by quinze jours and huit jours; as, 

This day fortnight^ Aujourd'hui en quinze. 

This day week, Aujourd'hui en huit. 

86. Note. In speaking of the hour, or subdivision of time, the portion 
of time mentioned as being wanted to complete any honr is preceded by 
the word moins, less ; as, . 

Huit heures moins dix (minutes 1 m • ^ ^ • i.^ 
U gen^eraUy u«dentJl), ] Tm m««aa to eight. 

Minuit moins un quart, A guarter to twelve (midnight). 

Examples of sentences used in mentioning the hour. 

Quelle heure est>il ? What o'clock is it ? 

n est midi, ' // is twelve o'clock (noon). 

II est midi et demi, // is half-past twehe. 

II est midi un quart, It is a quarter past twelve, 

II est midi trois quarts, 1 r^ • ^ *^ j 

II est une heure moins un quart, /'"* « ^t^"" '" '^- 

II est une heuie et demie, // is half-past one. 

n est deux heures moins un quart. It is a quarter to two. 

II est deux heures moins dix, It is ten minutes to two, 

n est deux heures moins cinq, It is Jive minutes to two. 

B est deax heures, // u two, 

n est deux heures et dnq minutw, l j ^ ^ ^ 

II est deux heures cinq (jamtbar), J "^ ^ 

n est deux heures et dix minutes, 1 ,. .. -^ «^„#^. ^/-^ ^,-,« 

n est deux heures dix C/bmtfiflr), r '"'«*"*"»«'*' ^''^ ''^^• 

n est deux heures et un quart, 1 ,. .^ ^ «„^»*^ „«./ *.«« 

n est deux heures un quit, }/* «a ^r/eri^iw/ hro. 

i?eae? amf translate : 

La bibliotheqne royale de Paris se composait de 910 volumes 
sous Charles V, de 1890 sous Fran9oi8 P', et de 16,746 sous 
Louis XIII. En .1684s eUe en poBS^ait 50,542 ; en 1775, 
prds de 150,000 volumes, et environ 200,000 en 1790. EUe 
contient aujourd*hui 600,000 volumes imprimis et 80,000 
manuscrits. La bibliothdque Mazarine se composait en 1684 
de 40,000 volumes, elle en a aujourdliui 90,000 imprimis el 
3437 manuscrits. La bibliothlque de TArsenal se compose 
de plus de 175,000 volumes, dont 6000 sont manuscrits. La 
bibliotheque de Sainte-Genevieve contient 160,000 volumes. 
Total, 1,111,937 volumes. 

La France est divis6e en 86 departements, 873 arrqndisse- 
ments, 2842 cantons, et 39,38] communes. Louis XII, 
Francois I", Henri II, Francois II. Charles IX, Henri III, 
Henri IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, et XVIII, 
Charles X, Louis-Philippe P'. 

Un trimestre, ou 3 mois. Un semestre, ou 6 mois. Une 
vingtaine de fois. Londres, le 1®' Janvier 1840. 

Un franc, ou 20 sous, ou 100 centimes. Vingt-cinq sous 
font un schellin^, et 25 francs* font une livre sterling. Cent 
livres sterling ront 2500 francs*. Mille livres sterling font 
25,000 francs*. 


The year one (76.) thousand eight hundred and (76.) thirty-seven. 
Ten thousand men. Five hundred /raTsc^. Three thousand volumes. 
One million and a (82.) half. The 7th inst. The 13th ult. 6 times 7 
are 42. William the Fourth. George the First. Nine hundred 

Guillaume Georges 

and (76.) eighty-seven million six hundred and fifly-four thousand 
three hundred and twenty-one. 

* For the sake of simplicity, no account is here taken of the rate of ex- 
change between England and France. A correct computation may be 
formed by knowing &at in France the English pound sterling, when at 
par, has the value of 25 francs 20,8 centimes. See in the Appendice, 
Tableau des mewrea l^ake. 



87* Pronouns are words used instead of nouns^ to 
avoid repetition. 

There are five sorts of pronouns : the personal, pos- 
sessivcy relative^ demonstrative^ and indefinite. 


88. Personal pronouns are used instead of the names 
of persons and things. 

The following are called conjunctive, from their being 
immediately united with verbs : 

Conjunctive Personal Pronouns. 

Subject^ or 

Objective cases. 


Nominative case( 131 .^Dative ( 1 33.). Accusative ( 1 32.). 

Je, /. Me, to me. Me, me. 

Tu, thou. Te, to thee. Te, thee. 

II, he or it. ^ . f to him, to her, Le, him or it 

Elle, slie or it. *' \ or to it. La, her or ^. 

Nous, we. Nous, to us. Nous, us. 

Vous, you. Vous, to yo«. Vous, you. 

Ji?j ^ <//€;^. Leur, to /Aem. Les, //i^m. 

Se (accusative and dative) is used in reflective verbs, for 
one^s self, himself, Iterself itself, t/iemselves, each other, one 
another, or to 07ie*s self, etc. 

Y, to m>e, thee, him, her, it, us, you, them, tJuU; to or in tJuU 
place ; there ; thitluer, etc. 

En, of or from me, tfiee, him. her, it, us, you, tfiem, that; of 
or from that place; thence, etc. 

89. Note. Tlie pronoun tu is mach more frequently used in French 
than its corresponcUng thou in GngUsh : in the latter, thou is rarely used 
except in the solemn style ; but in the former tu is common in fiuniliar 
language, as when parents address their children, and frequently children 
their parents, and generally when relatives or intimate friends speak or 
correspond with each other ; as, Maman, veux-tu venir avec moi 1 Mamma, 
wilt thou come with me ? — See Appendice, Du tutoiement. 


90. CanjimctiYepTaiiofims precede the verb (except in 
the instances mentioned in the roles 91« and 92.) ; as^ 

Je vans paries I speak to you. 

Tu me lemercles, Thoa tkaiiAese me* 

H me pri^ He prays me. 

JBBe te sert. She serves thfie. 

Nous le bd disoosy We idl it to him. 

Vbus me le ditesy Ton tdl it to me. 

lis mms les domteat. They give them to as. 

£Bes vons em, pailenHit» Thejwittspeak to yoa aboat it. 

91. In intern^;ations the pronoun nominatiye comes 
after the verb ; as, 

Ai^desamis? Harelfiriendsf 

Sni^je heareax? Am I happy f 

Faikz-mntf aOemand? J}o you ^xak German 9 

Vient-t/? Jshe coming f 

Le Yerriexrwnis ? Would jtm set khn f 

Lai arez-coKf ob& ? Have yoa 6beyed him f 

92. The amjnnctiye pronouns come also after the 
▼erb in the imperatiye mood used affirmatiyely (except 
me and te used without any other objectiTe pronoun*}; 

¥30^0^490, Speak to him. Aimons-fer, Zef ns lote them. 
Yoyez^B, iS^ehim. Yaiiez-leur, i^peoil to them. 

Tieaezrla, TakeiL 

Moi and iai are ased instead of me, lie, a^3!er Hfte v€r& ; as, 

Yjoetagaeirmoi, Teaek me. Donnez-md^ Give me (to me). 

93. But if the imperative be used n^ativdy, the 
conjunctive pronouns precede the verb ; as^ 

Ne hd pailez pas. Do not speak to him. 

Ne le voyez pes. Do not see him. 

Ne la pienez pas. Do not take it. 

Ne les aimoDS pas, Let us not love them. 

Ne Incr pari<ms pas. Let us not ^eak to them 

Ne ai'enseignez p8% Do not itaek me. 

Ne m^en donnez pas. Do not give me any of it. 

^ Sodi a *i'ffii,jNVffii,ele.9whidiiie placed after the inpentifenMd 

66 PBONO01IS. 

94. The foUowing are caUed DiBJiinctiTe Persixial 

Pronouns : 

Nominative^ Moi toi lui elle soL 

and >/ th(M he she 

Accusative. J Me thee him her 


Nominative') Nous yous eux dOes soL 

and > We you they ikeg -«^«e9. 

Accusative.} Us you thou Uiem. 

Disjunctive pronouns used with tite reficctine word mhoie^ 9df, 

Moi-mSme, miyseW. Nous-m^ioeSy mtrmkoe^ 

Toi-m^me, thysdf. Vous-mSmes, yourselves (Vous- 

Lui-m^me, Mmsetf' m^me, when gpeakbig of a 

£lle-meme, herself. single person). 

Soi-m^me, one^s ^ejC £ux-m6mes, themselves. ' 

Elles-m^mes, themselves. 

95. The disjunctive pronouns are used : 

1st, After c'est expressed or understood, and generally 
whenalontf or separated from the verb. In comparisons, 
after j«e, than ; or after om, or ; comme, as; m,nor; as. 

Cast moiy ItisL C'est nousy It is we. 

C'est toi, It is thou. Cast vous. It is you. 

C'est luiy It is he. Ce sont eux, It is they. 

C'est elle, It is she. Ce sont elles, It is they. 

Qui parle ? Moi. Who speaks f L 

Vous lisez mieux que lui, You read better than he. 

C'est vous ou moi. It is you or I. 

Faites comme eux. Do as they. 

Ni lui ni toi, Neither he nor thou. 

2nd, For the sake of emphasis ; as, 

Moi,^e suisEspagnol, I am a Spaniard. 

Toi, tu esFran9ais, Thou art a Frenchman, 

lui faire une chose pareille ! He do such a thing f 

3rd, After a preposition ; as, de moi, of or from me ; 
de toi, de lui, d'elle, de nous, de vous, Heux, d*ettes, i 
moi, etc. 

4th, When there is more than one subject to the 
verb; as, 

Lui et moi nous partons, He and 1 dqtart 





my en 




t'y en. 




s'y en. 

96, Table showing the order in which the Personal pronouns 
are to be placed when there are two or three governed by 
the same verb. 

Me le, mc la, me lea, me I'y, me les y, 

Le-moi*,la-moi*, le»-moi*, 

Te Ic, te k, te les, te I'y, te les y, 

Se le, se la, se les, se I'y, se les y, 

NouB le, nous la, nous les, nous Ty, nous les y, nous y, nous en, nous y en. 
Vous le, vous la, vous les, vous I'y, vous les y, vous y, vous en, vous y en. 
Le lui, la lui, les lui, I'y, Ten. 


lui en. 
Le kor, la leor, les lenr, le lenr y, ia leor y, lesleury, leur en, leur y en. 

N.B. — See the Syntax for fixrther rules on the personal pronouns. 
General Examples of the Pronouns, 

Je les connais, 

Je le Tois, 

J*en conclns, 

Je ne le bois pas, 

Jie ne les conduispas, 

Je n'en veux plus, 

Je TLy vais pas, 


Ten ris, 

Je ne Uur 6cris pas, 

Je ne le sais pas, 

Je ne lui dis pas, 

Jene le fais pas, 

Je ne le leur raconterai pas, 


Ne lui en donnez pas, 

Je nCy applique, 

Jene tele redemande pas, 

I hfuyw them. 

I see him. 

I conclude from it 

I do not drink it. 

I do not conduct them. 

I do not wish any more of it 

I am not going thither. 

JDoes it rain f 

I laugh (of) at it 

I do not write to them. 

I do not know it 

I do not teU him. 

1 do it not, 

I shall not relate it to thenL 

Give him some (of it). 

Do not give him any (of it). 

I ig^ply myself to it 

I do not ask it (U>) thee again. 

* In the imperative used aiBrmatiTely (92.) the pronoun in the aocnsative 
comes first, except y-moi, y-toif y^le ; as. 






Keep them for us. 
Send me thither. 
Taie a walk thither. 
TaJte^ma thither. 

It IS better, however, for the uke of euphony, to soy, JSbiv0y«i-moi Bp 


Ready translate^ and parse : 

Je travaille avec application. C'est moi qui ai toute la 
peine. C'est a toi que je parle. Fiez-vous ^ lui. Je lui en 
parlerai. Je le vois venir. £lle est aim6e parce qu*elle est 
bonne ; je veux la r^compenser. Ces jeunes 6Bves me plaisent, 
ils sont bien 61ev^. 

Exercise on the Personal Pronouns. 



I walk, thou speakest, he studies, we see, you think, they 
(SS.)marche paries itudie voyons pensez m. 

read, they sew. 
lisent f. consent 


I give him a book, he writes to you, she speaks to him^ we 
donne (90.) icrit parle 

yield to them, we show them the way. 
cidons montrons chemin m. 


I see it, I eat it, he loves me, we pity them, you briug 
vois mange aime plaignons apportez 

it, they strike him. 


I consent to it, (let us consent) to it. He is inclined to it. 
consens y consentons (92.) i/ est encUn (90.) 

We aim (at it). 1 (am going) thither. J speak of it. You speak 
visons y vais y parle en parlex 

of him. I have (some of them). We come (from that place) « 
ai en venons en 


Is it he? No, it is I. Speak to him, and not to her. Far 
Est-ce (94.) Non c*est Parlez ^ et non pas d Loin 

from thee. Go with him. Come without them. It is yourself. 
de Allez avec^ Venez sans Cest 

(Let us speak) ourselves. They write everything themselves. 
Parians ra. icrivent tout 



97* These pronouns denote possession. 

Tliere are two sorts of possessive pronouns^ the con- 
junctive and the disjunctive or relative. 

The confunctive possessive pronouns, (or pronouns 
adjective^ are so called from their being immediately 
joined to nouns. They are the following : 

Mate. Fern. 


Masc. and Fern, 


" ta, 




Msy her, its, or one's. 






98. Note. The personal pronoun leur, to them (88.), must not be eon- 
founded with the possessiTe leur, their. The fonner is connected with a 
verb, and never takes an « ; the latter always precedes a noun, and takes an 
s when the noun is in the plural ; as, 

Je le leur ai dit, / have told it to them. 

Leurt amis les protegeront, Thea/riendt will protect them. 

99. The following are called disjunctive or relative 
possessive pronouns^ and are used when the nouns to 
which they refer are understood : 

Singular. Plural. 

Mate. Fern. Masc, Fern. 

Le mien, la mienne, les miens, les miennes, mine. 

Le tien, la tienne, les tiens, les tiennes, thine. 

Le sien, la nenne, les siens, les siennes, his, hers, or its. 

Le n6tre, la ndtre, les notres, les notres, ours. 

Le votre, la votre, les votres, les votres, yours. 

Le leiir, la leur, les leurs, les leurs, tJmrs. 

The article le, la, les, which precedes these pronouns, when 
accompanied by de or a, becomes du, de la, des, and au, d la, 
aux; as, 

Du mien, de la mienne, des miens, des miennes, of mine, etc. 
Au mien, a la mienne, aux miens, aux miennes, to mine, etc. 

100. Possessive pronouns^ in French^ agree in gender 


and number with the object possessed, 9uid not with the 
possessor as in English ; as^ 

Son age, hisy her, or its age. Son frdre, his or her brother. 
Son man, her husbcauL Sa soeur, his or her sisier, 

Sa femme, his toife, 

101. To avoid the hiatus caused by the meeting of two 
vowels, monf ton, son are used instead of may ta, soj 
before a noun (or an adjective) feminine beginning with 
a vowel or an h mute ; as, 

Mon &me, my souL Ton spouse, thy wife. 

Ton humeur, thy temper. Son amiti6, his ox herfriendMp. 
Ton aimable soeur^ thy amiable sister, 

102. Conjunctive possessive pronouns are repeated 
before every noun to which they relate ; as, 

Mon p^re, ma m^re, at mes freres sont k Paris, 
My father y mother, and brothers are in Paris. 

108. NoTB. In addressing a person and inquiring abont liis relatknui 
it is generally the custom in Fnmce to use as a mark of respect one of tbe 
qualifications Monriew, meMMKrv; madamef mesdames; madem9U€tte, 
ine8demoi9eUe§f before the possessive adjective ; as, 

Monsieur votre pere est-il chez lui ? Is your father at home t — Ye»^ ttr, 

— Qui, monsieur, il y est. he is. 

M adaoBse votre mere est-efle k la It your mother m the cotmtry /—- 

campagne ? — Non, monsieur, elle No, eir, she hae returned^ 

est de retour. 

Comment se portent mesdemoiselles How are your sistert ? — Qmie well, 

vos soeurs ? — Parfaitement bien, je / thani you, 

vous remercie. 

In speaking of our own relatives the above forms are not used ; thus we 
must be careAil not to say Monsieur monph'e, madame ma mere, etc. 

104. Note. In speaking familiarly to our own relatives, observe that, in 
French, the possessive pronouns are generally used before the names of 
relationship. In English, these pronouns are frequently understood ; as, 

Viens ici, mon frSre ! Come hither, brother! 

Ma soeur, ou irons-nous ? Stster, whither shall we got 

Read, translate, and parse: 

Mon chapeau, ma bourse, mes gants, ton mouchoir, ta, 
cravate, tes souliers, son portefeuille, sa montre, ses bijoux. 
Son domeslique, son man, sa soenr, son adresse. Voilii sa 


maison. Voiei la mienne. Ce sont tdb livres ou les miens. 
Ce m'eet pas voire bien, e'est le ndtre. Son avis est meillettr 
que le mien. 


Her fttStker and mother. Her relativeg. Hib fiiendship. Oiir 
(100.) (102.) parent* (lOl. ) amitUf. 

books and pens. Their friend and their cousins. Tour gloves and 

ffanU m. 

mme. Your country and mine. His horses and thine. His age, 
(99.) pmys m. 6ge m. 

her age, its age. Her hrother, sister, and cousin. Your dedc 

^ pupiirem. 

and thein. My penknife and his. He speaks to your friends and to 

camfm, parle 

mine. From their garden to your house. His or her fitther. 

jardim m. 



The relative pronoun relates to a substantive or pro- 
noun which precedes^ and which is called its antecedent; 

Voila la personne qui tons There is the person who kRows 

connait, you^ . 

Yoili la personne que yoxl3 2%ere is the person frhom you 

connaissez, know. 

Le livre qui est sur la table, 77ie book which is on the table, 
Le livre queje vois sur la table, The book whichlsee on the table. 

The relative pronouns are : 

Qui (nominative^ who, which, that. 

De qui, or dont, of or from whom, whose, etc. ; de quoi, of 

what, etc 
A qui, to whom, to which ; a quoi, to what. 
Que (accusative), whom, whit^ that 
Lequel, m. s. ; laquelle,/ «. ; leaqaels, m.pL ; lesqHeUeSy/pI, 

ufka, whom or wUclL 
Duquel, de laquelle, desquels, desquelles, of or from whom or 

Auquel, a laquelle, auxquels, auxquelles, to whom or which. 
Od, where, in which place. 



Qui ? (nom, and ace.) who or whomf qui est-ce qui ? de qui ? 

^ qui ? etc 
Quoi? que? qu est-ce que ? what? dequoi? ^quoi? etc. 
Lequel, m.8. ; laquelle,/! s. ; lesquels, m./?/. ; lesquelles,/!/?/. ; 

which f Duquel? of which f etc.; Auquel? io which? etc 

107. The following interrogative pronouns are always 
used with a substantive : 

Quel, m. s,; quelle,/, s.; quels, m.pL; quelles,/./?/.; wluUf 

Examples of the Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. 

L'homme qui parle, The man who speaks, 

Uhonune dont^e parle, ITie man of whom I speak, 

L'enfant que je vois, . 7%e child whom / see, 

L'6tude a iaqueUe il 8*ap- 7^ «^iM^y to which he devotes 

plique, himself. 

La maison ou il demeure> 7^ Aoum in which he lives 

De ^uot parlez-vous ? What are yot< speaking off 

Qui est-ce qui parle ? Who speaJks f 

Qui aimez-vou8 ? Whom c2o ^ou love f 

Que dites-vous ? What do you say f 

Quoi 9 qu est-ce que c'est ? What ? what m it f 
En ^t/m vous ai-je ofFens6 ? /n what have I offended you f 
Lequel de ces tableaux pr6- Which of those pictures clo you 

f^rez-vous ? prefer f 

Quel li vre lisez-vous ? What 600& do you read 9 

QueUes id^esl quels ouvrages! What ideas/ what works! 

108. The relative pronouns qui for the nominative, 
and que for the accusative, are used for all nouns of both 
genders and numbers ; as, 

L'enfant qui ^tudie, The child who studies. 

La personne que^e vols, The person whom I see. 

La lettre qui est 6crite, The letter which is written, 

Les lemons qu£ vous avez ap- Tlie lessons which you have 
prises. learnt, 

109. Que meaning what or which thing is used after 
a pronoun or substantive followed by another pronoun 
or substantive which is the subject of the verb ^tre, to 
be; as, 

Voyez ce que c'est, See what it is. 


110. Qui as an interrogative pronoon refers to per- 
sons^ and que refers to things. 

Qui fait da bruit ? Whp makes a noise 9 

Qui aceusez-vous ? Whom do you accuse 9 

Qui est arri v6 ? Who has arrived 9 

Qtf*e8t-il arrive ? What has happened 9 

' »est-ce? Who Mi/? 

Qii*est-ce? What mi/? 

IIL Lequely laguelley lesguels, lesquelles ; duquel, 
tie laqueUe, desqueLsy desquelles ; auquely d laquellcy 
auxquels, auxquelleSy agree in gender and number with 
the nouns to which they refer ; as^ 

Les enfants avec iesquels (or qui) vous ^tes venu. 
The children with whom you came. 

112. Lequely duquel, auquely etc. apply to persons 
and things. Qui ^ter a preposition, as de qui, a qui^ 
etc., applies to persons only ; as, 

C'est un travail auquel (not d It is a labour which I cannot 

qui) je ne puis renoncer, relinquish, 

C*est un homme a qui (or It is a man to whom / 

auquef) j*ai parl^ spoke, 

113. Dont is used for both genders and numbers, 
and may apply to all nouns ; as, 

Le gar^on dont vous parlez, The boy of whom you speak. 

La chose dont vous parlez, TIte Hung of which you speak. 

La nature dont nous ignorons Nature^ whose secrets are un- 
les secrets, known to us. 

1 14. Quoij as a relative pronoun, is used with a pre- 
position, and is applied to things only ; as. 

La chose a quoi (or a laquelle) 7^ thing about which we 
Ton pense le plus, est souvent think the most, is often that 
celle dont on parle le moins, of which we speak the least, 

115. As an interrogative pronoun also, quoi is fre- 
quently used with a preposition^ and applies to things 
only; as, 

De quoi raccosez-vouB ? Of what do you accuse him 9 

74 paoNocKB. 

116- Qtud is likewise used in exclamations; as, 

Qtun de plus beau que la What is more heawHJtd ^tm 
vertu ! virtye / 

117. NoTB. In an interrogation formed with a verb which goTems an 
accusative case (132.), we uae que^ and not qwn\ as, 

Que dites-^ous ? What do you say ? 

Que veut-il ? What doet he wanif 

118. Note. On the contrary, in an interrogation formed with a verb 
which governs an oblique case (133.), we use quoi, and not que, according 
to the rule 115. mentioned above; as, 

De quoi parle-t-il ? Of what ie he tpeaking T 

119. Oh always refers to inanimate objects ; as, 

Le si^cle ou (or dans lequel) 2%e age in which we live. 

nous vivons, 

Les moyens par ou (or par les- The means by which you tvUl 

quels} vous r^ussirez, succeed. 

120. Relative pronouns must always be expressed in 
French; as, 

The book you see, Le livre que votis voyez. 

The lesson he learns, La le^on qM*ilapprend. 

Head^ translate^ and parse : 

C'est le soleil qui nous 6claire ; il 6chauffe la terre qui nous 
nourrit; il m(irit les fruits qui nous rafraichissent, et fait 
^clore les fleurs qui r^ouissent les yeux. C'est la dame que 
vous connaissez. Voici la boite que vous m'avez donn^e. 
Les papiers que vous m'avez confi6s« — Quelle est cette maison 
d*ou vous sortez? La maison de mon pere.^ — De ces bijoux, 
lequel pr6f6rez-vous ? Celui-ci. — De ces 6toffes, laquelle vous 
plait le plus? Celle-ci^ — ^Lesquels (de ces livres) vous appar- 
tiennent? Ceuz-ci. — Je connais les ^v^nements dcmt vous 
parlez, je m*en r6jouis. Un plaisir dont nous nous repentirions 
ne m^rite pas nos regrets. Heureux le peuple qui est conduit 
par un sage roi I il est dans Tabondance, il vit heureux, et aime 
celui d qui il doit tout son bonheur. 


The child who reads. The boy whom I see. The girl of whom I 
(1080 Ut (108.) wis (lid.) 


Speak. The hosse of which I speak. The house which I haye 
parU 013.) vl08.) fai 

bought. Who is there? To whom do yoa write? Whom 
aehetSe (110.) /a (112.) icritfez-wna (110.) 

do you love? What gentleman? What lady? What hooks? With 
atmesa-vouM (107.) monsieur Q.07.) dame (107.) 

what money? To what knives? The dicUonaTy with which I 
(107.)aryni^m. (107.) emdeaum. dieHouMoire m, (11:2.) 

tnmdate my lesson. Of those gentlemen, to which have you spoken ? 
traduis lefonf, mesekwe (111.) aoez-vmu parle 

Here are hooks, which will you read ? With what do you open 
Foki * (39.) (III.) voidez-'VOttM lire (115.) ouvrez-vous 

the door? Of what do you speak? What do yoa want? Whst 
(115.) parksMMM (117.) atOez-voue (117.) 

does he say? The errors into which he has iaBen. The 
diUU erreurt (119.) ett tombi 

money you bring. The child you love. 
(120.) apportez (120.) atifi«z 


121. The demonstrative pronouns serve to designate 
and point out objects. 

The following are placed before the noun^ and agree 
with it in gender and number. They are called pro- 
nouns adfective. 

Singular. Plural. 

f * ■ >^ ^ Masc. and Fern. 

Mate, Fem. CMg Cihese 

Ce (cet brfore a vowel or h ».). Cette, < or Ces, < or 

\jhaL Xjhoie. 


Mcuculine. Feminine, 

Ce gar^ony that boy. Cette fills, that girL 

C^ ouvrier, that workman. CetteonyneTe^thai workwoman. 
Ces gardens, those hoys. Ces filles, those girls. 
Ces ouvriersy those workmen, Ces oavri^resy those workwomen. 

122. Ce (it, that,) before the verb ^tre, to be, is used 



for the person or the thing we wish to designate or 
point out ; as. 

Ce n'est pas moi, It is not L 

Ce n'est pas vrai. It (that) is not true. 

See, in the Syntax, Ce, ce/a, compare avec t/. 

123. Ce is much used with a relative pronoun; as^ 

Ce qui nous plait, That which pleases us* 

Ce dontje me plains. That of which I complain. 

Ce d quoije m*applique, What / apply to. 

Ce que je vois, What / see, 

134. NoTK. — Ce gue is used before a substantive or a pronoun which is 
the subject of the verb itre. The rektive que (109.) sisnifying quelle 
choHj which thing ; as, 

Voila ce que c'est, Behold what it it, 

125. Ceci (this) and cela (that) refer to an object 
which is understood ; as^ 

Ceci est bien fait, This is weU done, 

Cela est mal fait. That is badly done, 

Donnez-moi cect. Give me this. 

Prenez celcty Take that 

126. Ci (here) and Id (there) are often adcled to the noun, 
to point it out more distinctly ; as 

Ce livre-ct, this book, Ce livre-i^ that book, 

Ces livres-cf, these books. Ces livres-^, those books, 

127. The following point out an object previously 
mentioned : 

Celui, m.f., ceWe, f.s., this^ t/uU, 
Ceux, m.pLy ce\\es,f,pl,, these, Hiose, 

Celui-ci, m, s, \ .,. r^^^\ Celui-la, fn,s,\.j., v 

Celle-ci,/.*. j'^^*(^^)- Celle-ia,/.*. j^^^^^C^)- 

Ceux-ci, m,pl, \ .,^^ Ceux-1^ m. pi, 1 ., 

Celles-ci,/. pL J ^"^ Celles-ia,/. pi. / '^'>"'- 


Men livre etcelui de mon frere, My booh and ihdXof my brother. 
Ma soeur et ceUe de mon cousin, My sister and that of my cousin, 
Ses crayons et ceux de Guil- His pencils and those of Wil- 
laume, liam. 


Voe plumes et edles de Jean, Your pens and those of John* 

Ce dictionnaire-ct et cdtu-ldy This dictionary and that one. 

Cette grammaire-ct et ceUe-ld^ This grammar and that one. 

Je pr^f^re ceUe-ld k ceUe-ci^ I prefer that one to this. 

Donnez-moi ceux-ci. Give me these. 

Prenez ceux-ldy Take those. 

128. Celuiy celle, ceux, celles^ are also used with a 
relative pronoun, in reference to a noun previously ex- 
pressed, and are applied to both persons and things. 


Celni qui . . • . he who, or thai which. 
Celle qui she who, or that which, 

C^Sw^^ui " " }<% «^> O' <*<«« ^^^ 


Celui que .... he wham, or thai which, 
Celle que . . . • ^ whom^ or thai which. 

cS^^^ue " \ tk^ whom, or Oose which. 


Cdui gut me voit. He who sees me, 

Oekti que je vois, * He whom / see. 

Quel livre? — 67e/ta ^ta est sur Which book? — That which is 

le pupitre, on the desk. 

Cdui que je vous montre, The one that I show you. 

Read, trandaUy and parse: 

Ce n*est pas la (or cela n'est pas) ce que vous m'aviez promts. 
Ce livre me plait. Ceci m^nte attention. Cette gravure n'est 
pas cello que vous m'aviez promise. — Que dites-vous de cela? 
Rien. — Cet enfant n*est pas celui que j'ai vu. Ces raisins sont 
bonsy mais oeuz-ci sont meilleurs. — Que dites-vous de ces 
jeunes personnes ? Celle-1^ est aimable, mais celle-ci me plait 
davantage. — Ceci est bon, cela est mauvws. 

This child. That general. Those gentlemen. This woman. That 
(121.) m. ffSuSral 

friendship. This hook or that one. I do not like that. This is for 

(126.) ou (127.) n'aimepasCl25.) (125.) 


you. That which pleases me. Give me tiib or that Of lereral 
(1230 P^^ Doruuz (125.) fhtnttirM 

hats, this one or that one, these or those. Of several pens, this one 
(127.) (127.) 

or that one, these or those. It Is you. It is usefuL 

(122.) (122.) utile 


129. Indefinite pronouns have a vague and general 
signification^ as. 

On, one, people, they, etc. Tout ce qui, 1 ^x^-^^-^ 

Flusieurs, several Tout ce que, J 

Nul (ne), ju> one. Qui que ce soit, itAoeifer. 

Autres, others. Quoi que ce soit, whatever. 

Autrui, other people. Qutconque, whoever. 

Chacun, every one. Quelconque, whatever, 

Personne (ne)) nobody. Quelque . . . .quei however. 

Quelqu'un, some one. L'un i'autre, one €meiier. 

Tel, such a one. L*un et Tautre, both. 

Tout, everything, aU. Uun ou Tautre, either. 

Tout le monde, everybody. Ni Tun ni Tautre, neither, 
Aucun, any \—^Mnth ne, none. 


On dit qu*il est malade, (One says) It is reported thai 

he is iU, 
Nul n*est content de sa for- No one iseatisfiedvnthhis.for^ 
tune, iuine. 

Read, translate, and parse : 

Quelqu'un m'a dit vous avoir vu. Ne faites pas k autrui 
ce que vous ne voudriez pas qu'on vous f ft. On dit que la 
paix est faite. Nul n'est exempt d'erreur. Quiconque passe 
par l^, doit payer tant. On frappe k la porte. Chacun pense 
k soi. On ne doit pas compter sur la prosperity. 


They say so. No one knows it Some one came. Every one 
{\29MedU ne soit /e(90.) vint 

Us ^hitf. Do good to odien. Onefikes to tpeA of one's 
m devairuk, Fmtadmhumi^ mme tt parler Je * 

sdC No one bas seen jonr fiidiar. Evoy one of job will speak 
M» if*c «» jMrfeno 

Fzencli. Each one bas Ins opimoo. ^ 
ffwmfms a- — 


130. The ¥erb is a word whoae fimction is to expreai 
cadstence, po w csrion^ actkm or paasioD^ either pteBeaty 
pasty or ^ture. 

Je sinsy /or. Aune, 

131. Whatever performs the act, or is in the state 
expressed by the rerb, is its nominatrre case, subject, 
or agent; as Js marches I walk; Jk suis estimi, 1 am 

132. Whatever the act imme£ately blls upon is 
called its accnsatire caae, object, or regimen {rigime 
ou complement direct^ ; as^ J^aime mon pere, I love 

133. When the noun or pronoun comes after a prepo•itiol^ 
either expressed or understood, it is said to be in an oblique 
case. The oblique cases are the genitrre {ghaiif)^ dative 
(datif), and ablative (abtatif). 

The genitive is the noun or pronoun after the preposition 
de, meami^ ef. It names the possessor of anoAer noan; as 
Lm mmwm vt, mov riiix. My &tlia'*8 hmim. 

The dative is the noun or pronoun after the prepositioB 
to or fir I 93t H ME le dit, he teUs it (to) me. It shows to 
iHiom or to what the thiog spoken of is directed ; as^ Envoyez 
ces ieUres a votre sceur. Send those letters to your ttgUr, 

The ablative names the penon or tiling fitmi which some- 
thing is taken away or received ; as» Tai rept ume liOre ms 
voTBE AMi» I have received a letter^ftwa yomr /rimd. it is 
also known by other piepoaitions expressed or underatood^ 
as tn, wiCft, ly, etc. 

80 VBRBS. 

The. oblique cases are called in French, regimes, cu com* 
pUments indif^ects, or rigimes ou complements de propositions. 

There is another case, called the vocative (voeaiif), which is used when- 
ever a person or thing is addressed hy name; as, Charksi viens Jouer, 
Charles 1 come and play. 

Examples of the cases. 

Nominatif, Je suis, I am. Je parle, I speak. 

Ginitif. C'est le Hvre de mon fr^rs, It is my brother's 

DaHf. Je lui donne la plume, I give (to) him ^pefi. 

AccusaHf. Je la vois, I see her (or it). 
Vocatif. Jules I viens ici. Julius! eomekitlur. 
Ablat^. J'ai re^u une lettre de mon f^rb, / luwe re- 

ceived a letter from my father. 

134. The verb 6tref as it expresses existence^ is 
called a verb suhstantive ; all other verbs, as they con- 
tain an attribute or quality, are called verbs attributive. 
These are divided into : 

Verbs active^ or transitive ; 

Verbs passive ; 

Verbs neuter, or intransitive ; 

Verbs reflective ; and 

Verbs unipersonal or impersonal. 

135. Active or transitive Verbs. — ^The action ex- 
pressed by the active or transitive verb passes directly 
to an object ; as, 

Je cueille une fleur, I gather a flower. 

J*6tudie la musique, / study music. 

Jestime mon pricepteur, I esteem my preceptor. 

136. Passive verbs are verbs which present the sub- 
ject as receiving the effect of an action produced by 
another subject ; as, 

Un enfant sage est aim6 de A good ckild is beloved by his 
ses parents, relatives. 

The subject producing the action is frequently under- 
stood ; as, 

Une fleur est cueillie, A flower is gathered. 

La musique est 6tudi6e, music is studied. 

Mon pr§cepteur est estim6, My preceptor is esteemed. 

verbs: 81 

137- The verb neuter^ or intrafisitivey expresses : 1st, 
A state of being ; as, Je reste, I remain : 2ndly, An 
action confined to the subject ; as, Je courSy I run : 
3rdly, An action passing to an object indirectly, that 
is, when the verb is followed by a dative or other 
oblique case ; as, // ob^t i son phrcy he is obedient to 
his father ; Cet aliment nuit h la sant^, that food is 
injurious to health. 

138. Reflective Verbs. — The original purpose of a 
reflective verb is to denote an action done to one's self; 

Je me coape> / cut myself, 

Tu te prepares, TTum preparest tkysdf. 

II se montre, He shows himself. 

Nons nous chauffons, We warm ourselves, 

Votts YOus lavez, You wash yourselves (or yourself). 

lis s'liabillent, They dress themselves. 

Frequently, however, a French verb is used reflectively in 
a figurative seuse : in this case, it is sometimes rendered in 
English by a passive verb ; as, 

Cette maison se loue trop cher, Thai house is let too dear. 

Cette 6toffe se vend ^ bon lluit cloth is sold cheap. 

march 6, 

Cette regie se trouve dans la ThcU rule is found in the 

grammaire, grammar. 

And sometimes it must be rendered in English by a neuter 
verb; as, 

Je me repens, I repent. Je m'abstiens, I abstain. 

139. A unipersonaly or impersonal^ verb is used in the 
third person singular only; as, 

II pleut, it rains. II grele, it hails. 

II g^le, a freezes. II faut, it is necessary. 

II neige, it snows. II sied, it becomes. 

II tonne, it t/iunders. II importe, it matters. 

II 6claire, it ligJUens. H y a, tJiere is or are ; etc. 

The terminations of verbs vary according to their 
moods, tenses, numbers, and persons* 

E B 



140. A verb has five moods^ or modes: 

1. The infinitive expresses action or state in an in- 
definite manner^ and without any relation to number or 
person ; as, alleVf to go. 

2. The indicative affirms ; as^ Je chantCj I sing ; nPai 
loti^, I have praised; JTe sortiraij I shall go out. 
2ndly, interrogates ; as, Suis-je heureuxf am I happy? 

S. The conditional affirms with a condition ; as^ 
tPScrirais si j'avais des plumes, I should write if I had 
pens. The conditional is also used interrogatively ; as^ 
Seriez'vous heureux si vous <tiez chez vous ? W^ould 
you be haj^y if you were at home ? 

4. The imperative commands, exhorts, requests ; as, 
Va^ go thou ; Allez^ go ye ; Revenezy return. 

5. The subjunctive is so called from its dependence 
upon, and subordination to, another verb to which it is 
united by a conjunction (2370 y ^^ 

Je souhaite que vous soyez / wi$h you may be happy. 


II veut que j'^crive, He wishes that I should write. 

Je d^ire que nous parlious / am desirous that we sJiotdd 

fran9ais, speak French. 

Je doute qu'il vienoe, / doubt wliether he will came. 

Permettez que je lise, Allow me to read. 

Je ne crois pas qu*il pleuve, / do not think that it rains. 

Croyez-vous qtt*il pleu ve ? Do you think that it rcUns f 

n faut que nous fassioDS des It is necessary that we tm- 

progrls, prove, 


141. The Tenses express the time. There are three 
principal tenses, the present^ the preterit or pasty and 
the fiiture. 

The Simple tenses are expressed by one word ; as, 
J'icrisy I write j •Pecrivaisy I was writing ; J'ecriviSy 
I wrote ; J'icriraiy I shall write, etc. 

The Compound tenses are so termed because they are 
formed with the verbs avoir^ to have, and ^tre^ to bet 

VERBS. 83 

which are then called auxiliary} as^ Sai lu^ I have 
read ; e/e* sttis aime, I am loved^ etc. 

For the defimtions of the Tsrions tenses, such as the mdieatwe prefent, 
the past indefinite t the in^erfectt the pb^erfect, the past defitute, the put 
amierior, the future, the/kture mnierior, and the' tenses of the conditional 
and snhjunctive moods, see the lUuttrations iff Moods and Tensasy given 
after the JJ^habetieal Ust of irregular verbs. 

Verbs have two Numbers, the singular^ which speaks 
of one^ as JL' enfant lit, the child reads ; and the plural^ 
which speaks of more than one^ as Les en/ants lisent, 
the children read. Each number has three Persons ; the 
^rst is the person speaking of himself, the second is the 
person spoken to^ the third is the person spoken of; as. 

Singular. Ist, Je park ; 3d, I\i paries ; 3d, II parte, 

FLural. Is^ NousparLms; 2d, Vausparkz; Sd, lis portent. 


To vary a verb so as to express all its changes of 
time, mood or mode, number, and person^ is to con- 
jugate it. 

To etn^ugatei — that is» to assemble all the forms of a Terb, to pot them, 
as it were, under one yoke {Jugum) or conjugal tie. 

142. French verbs are generally divided into four 
conjugations, which are distinguished by the termination 
of the infinitive mood : 

The 1st ends in rr, as, aim^r, to love* 

2nd — 7— iR, — agir, to aat* 

3rd oiR, — apercevotr, to perceive. 

4th RB, — rendre, to render. 

143. Verbs are ^ther regular, irregular, or defective. 
A verb is regular when it coincides in all its termi- 
nations with one of the four conjugations (194.). 

It is irr^olar when it deviates from the rules by 
which regular verbs are conjugated (194.). 

It is defective when it wantc some mood, tense, or 

aad Hrr, dioidd lie learnt fint, on aeoount of their vSSQaJsj m 



144. Coffftegation of the Active or Auxiliary Ferb 

Avoir, to have. 


Present. — Avoir, to have. 
Past. — Avoir eu, to have had. 


Present. — Ayant, having. 

Past. — £u, eue, eus, eues, had. Ayant eu, having had. 

Future. — Devant avoir, about to have. 



Simple Tenses. 

Compound Tenses. 


I have. 


J*ai eu, 
/ have had. 


Tu as eu, 
Thou hast had. 

He hat. 

11 a eu, 
He has had. 

One hat. 

On a eu, 
One has had. 

Mon frere a, 
My brother hat. 

Mon frere a eu, 
My brother hat had. 

She hat. 

Elle a en, 
She hat had. 

Ma soeur a, 
My meter hat. 

Ma sceur a eu. 
My titter hat had. 

Nous avons, 
We have. 

Nous avons eu, 
We have had. 

Vous avez, 
You have. 

Vous avez eu, 
You have had. 

lis or elles ont, 
They have. 

lis or elles out eu, 
They have had. 

* See the definition of the participle given hereafter. 

t The learner is recommended to repeat this third person of the verb, 
mth the indefinite pronoun on or Von, through all the tenses^ as it occurs 
very frequentlv in French conversation. 





I had. 

Tu avals, 

I'hou hadaL 

II or elle avait» 
He or she had. 

Nous avioos, 
We had. 

Vous aviezy 
You had. 

Us or elles avaient. 
They had. 



Tu eus. 
Thou hadtt. 

n or elle eut. 
He or «Ae Aaf/. 

Nous etunes, 
We had. 

Vous eiites, 
You had. 

lis or elles eurent, 
They had. 


J'avais eu, 
1 had had. 

Tu avals eu, 
Thou hadet had. 

n or elle avut en. 
He or «Atf Aai/ Aoii. 

Nous avlons eu. 
We had had. 

Vous avlez eu, 
You had had. 

lis or elles avaient eo. 
They had had. 


J*eus eu, 
/ had had. 

Tu eus eu, 
Thou hadst had. 

n or elle eut eu. 
He or the had had. 

Nous eiimes eu, 
We had had. 

Vous eiites eu, 
You had had. 

lis or elles eurent euy 
They had had. 


Past fust elapsed. 

Je viens d'avirir, 
Tu viens d'avoir, 
n, elle» or on vient d'avoir, 

Nous venous d'avoir, 

Vous venez d'avoir. 

Us or elles vienneot d'avoir, 

/ have just had. 

Thou hastjutt had. 

Hef $he, or one hatjuet had. 

We have just had. 
You have just had. 
They have just had. 

* Prononnce J^avif tu avi, U avi. (See the note, page 8.) 

t Prononnce fu^ tu «, U «, etc. 

X Pupils who commit the verbs to memory, may leave out the idiomatic 
tenses throughont the conjngations, in the comw of their first study. It 
Tnll, however, be advisable for them to learn these tenses immediately after 
having attained a competent knowledge of all the regnlar verbs. 

86 TRKBS. 

Peui definite anterior. 

Je venais d'aToir, / had Just had. 

Ta Tenais d'avoir, Thou hadttjuat had. 

n venait d'avoir, He had just had. 

Nous Tenions d'svoir, We had Just had. 

Yous veniez d'aToir, You had Just had. 

Jh yenaienC d'aivoir, 7%cy had Just had. 


J'aurai*, .Taurai eu, 

/ shall have. I shali have had. 

Tu auras, Tu auras eu, 

Thou wiU have. Thou wiU have had, 

n or elle aura, H or elle aura eu. 

Hi or she will have. He or she will have had, 


Nous auroDS, Nous aurons eu. 

We shall have. We shall have had. 

Vous aurez, Vous aurez eu, 

You wUl have. You will have had. 

lis or elles auront, Us or elles auront eu. 

They will have. They will have had. 


Future proximate or instant. 

Je yais avoir, / am going to have. 

Tu vas avoir, J^ou art going to have. 

n, elle, or on va avoir, Het she, or one is going to have. 

Nous aUons avoir, We ere going to hmve. 

Vous allez avoir. You are going to have. 

lis or elles vont avoir, They are going to have. 

Future positive indefinite. 

Je dois avoir, / am to have, 

Tu dois avoir, Thou art to have. 

n, elle, or on dent avoir, He^ she^ or one is to have. 

Nous devons avoir, We are to have. 

Vous devez avoir, You are to have. 

Us or elles doivent avoir, They are to have. 

Future imperfect^ anterior. 

J'allais avoir, / was going to have. 

Ta aDaii avoir, Thou wast going to h^ve. 

n iHail avoir, He was going to have. 

* Pranonnoe /'mct^. (See the notb, page 7.) 


Kous alfions ftvmr, We wgre gtiitff to ^ave. 

Tons alliez avoir, You were goififf to Amw. 

Us allaieiit avoir, Hkejf were gomg to have. 



•Tauraifl*, J^aurais or eoaee eu, 

/ should have. I should have had, 

Ta aurais, Tu aurais or eusses eu, 

Thou wouldtt have. Thorn wombkt have had, 

n or elle aarait, H or eUe aurait or eid eu, 

He or the would have. He or the would have had. 

Nous aurions, Nous aurions or eaasions eu* 

We ehould have. We should have had. 

VottB anriez, Vous auriez or eauHez eu, 

You would have. You would have had, 

Os or elles auiaient, Esor elles amraientorenasenteu, 

They would have. They would have had. 


CkKfdUwMd hnperfBcL 

Je denb avoir, I woe to have. 

Ta derais avoir, Tlum wast to have, 

II devut avdr. He was to have. 

Nous devions avoir, We were to have. ' 

Voos deviez avoir. You were to have. 

Us devaient avoir, 7%cy were to have, 


Je denais avair, I should or ought to have, 

1^ demis avoir, I%ou oughieei tv have, 

n devrait avoir. He ought to have. 

Nous devrions avoir, We ought to have. 

Tons devriez avoir. You ought to have. 

Us devnient avoir, Theg ought to have, 

ComHiiomal anterior, 

J'annis dft aroir, I should or ought to have had, 

Tn aanis d& avoir, Jhou oughiest ta have hoi, 

n anrut dA avoir, He ought to have had, 

NoQs aurions dii avoir, We ought to have had, 

Voos aoziez dA avoir. You ought to have had. 

Us aniaient du avoir, Theg ought to have had, 

* PraBoviiee J*amrit te aarif Umsri, (See tke koib, page 9,\ 




Let us have. 


Have (Motf). 

Qu'il or qu'elle ait, 
Lei him or her have. 

Have (ye), 

Qu*ils or qifelles aient» 
Let them have. 



Que j'aie. 
That I may have. 

Que tu aies, 

That thou maytt have. 

Qu*il or qu'dle ait, 
That he or she may have. 

Que nous ayons, 
That we may have. 

Que vous ayez. 
That you may have. 

Qu'ils or qu'elles aient, 
That they may have, 


Que j'eusse, 
That I might have. 

Que tu eusses, 

That thou mightst have, 

Qu'il or qu'elle eiit. 
That he or she might have. 

Que nous eussions, 
That we might have. 

Que vous eussiez, 
That you might have. 

Qu'ils or qu'elles eussent, 
That they might have. 


Que j'aie eu, 

That I may have had. 

Que tu ales eu, 

That thou mayst have had, 

Qu'il or qu*elle ait eu, 
l^at he or she may have had. 

Que nous ayons eu. 
That we may have had. 

Que vous ayez eu, 
That you may have had, 

Qu*ils or qu eiles aient eu. 
That they may have had. 


Que j'eusse eu, 
That I might have had. 

Que tu eusses eu, 

l^at thou mightst have had. 

Qu'il or qu'elle eut eu. 
That he or she might have had. 

Que nous eussions eu. 
That we might have had 

Que vous eussiez eu. 
That you might have had. 

Qu'ils or qu'elles eussent eu, 
That they might have had. 

The pupil is recommended to vnrite, from memory, through all its va- 
rious changes, each of the verhs separately, after having learnt it : more 



particnUtily tbe two auxiliaries avoir and if re, the models of tbe ngtAar 
conjagatioiis, and the irreginhur verhs of most frequent occmreoce. He 
'Will thns rapidly acquire not only a gpvat £euality in the use of the verbs 
generally, but also a correct orthography. 

^ 145. Conftigati(m of the Ferb Substantive or Atuciliary 

£tre9 A> be (553.). 


Present. — !£ltre, to be. 

Past. — Avoir H^ to have been, 


Presekt. — Etanty beiftg. 

Past. — £t6 (invariabui), been, Ayant ^^ having been* 

FuTURE«-*Deyant ^tre, about to be. 


Sin^ Tensee. 

Compound Tenses, 


I am. 


/ have been. 


Thou haet been. 

n or eHe est, 
He or the i$. 

Tl or elle a ^ 
He or «Af Aa« been. 

Nous sommesy 
We are. 

Nous avons ^, 
^(? have been. 



Vous avez ^t^ 
You have been. 

Us or elles sont. 
They are. 

Es or elles ont 6t6| 
TAey Aavtf been. 




•Tavais 6t§, 

Tu avais ^t^, 
7%mf ;iadk< been. 

n or eUe 6tait, 
ir« or eke woe. 

n or elle avait ft^ 
ITtf or «A« Aoi/ been* 


Nous itWDBy 

We were. 

Vous 6tiez, 
Tou were. 

Us or elles 6taieDty 
They were* 


Je fusy 
I to<u, 

Thou totuL 

n or elle fut, 
i7tf or she wot. 

Nous fKimeSy 

Vous fKiteSy 

Us or elles fureat. 

Nous aYKMis €t6f 
We had keen, 

Vous aviez 6t6, 
Tbtf Aa(f been. 

Us or elles avaient €t^ 
They had been. 


J*eus 6t6, 
/ A«4? been, 

^ Tu eus €t§, 
\^au hadst been, 

II or elle eut 6t6, 
J7tf or she had been. 

Nous edmes €t^ 
We had been, 

Vous e£ttes 6t^ 

Bb or elles eurent 6t6y 
They had be§n. 


Put Just elapsed. 

Je Tiens d'etre, 
Tu Tiens d'dtn, 
n Tient ^*^ 

I hmejfut been. 
Thou haetjutt 
He hoe put beetL 

Nous -moxyoM d'tere» We hacejuet been. 

Vous venez d'£tiey Tou havejuet been. 

Us Tiennent d'Stre, They havefutt been, 

PM d^niie anterior 

Je venais d'Stre» / hadjutt been. 

Tu Tensb d^bsn, Thau hadst Jmt been, 

n yenait d'^tre^ He had Just been. 

Nous venioas d'Stre^ We had just been, 

Vous Teniez d'Stre, You had Just been. 

Us yenaient d'etre, 7%cy had Just been. 


Je serai, 
/ shall be, 

Tu seras, 
Thou unit be, 

II ^r die sera, 
^e or «iil« will be. 


Jaurai 6t6, 

/ j^a// have been, 

Tu auras €t^ 
Thou wilt have been, 

II or die aura 6t6, 
^£ or she wiU have been* 

Nous seronsy Nous aurons ^t^ 

We shall be. We thall haoe been, 

Vous serez, Vous aurez 6t^ 

You wiU be, Tom wiU have been, 

Ds or eUes seront, Us or elles amoDt 6^ 

They wiU be. They mil haoe heetL 


Fuitare p n mma ie or nuianL 

Je ^lis etre, / am goimg to be, 

Tu ins gtre, 7%tm art gomg to he, 

n TE etie. He iegomg to be. 

Nous aUoiu etre. We are gom§ to he. 

Tons allez etre, Yoa are going to he, 

Ilft^CMitStre, Theg are gomg to he. 


Fulmrt p99kwe md^niUe. 

JedoUetre, I am to he. 

TadaUStre, Thoaarttobe, 

n doit are. He i» to be. 

Nous denMM tee, JFe are to he, 

Yoytdevcstoe, Foiiarefefe. 

Di daiTeat tee, J%cy ore «» te 

Fkdute iMjfCijcei, atiierioT. 

J'alUistee, I woe gomg to ho, 

Ta alUis etre. Thorn watt gomg to he* 

n allait etre. He wat gomg to he, 

Koos aDioiu tee. We were gomg to he. 

Tons alliez tee. Torn were gomg to he. 

Hi mUaient tee, They were gomg to be, 



Je serais, J*aurats or eusse 6t^ 

I ehamid he. I should heme been. 

Tu seraisy Ta aurais or eusses €t^ 

Thou woaldst be, T/iou wouldst have been, 

H or elle serait, H or die aurait or eut ^t^ 

He or she would be. He or she would have been. 

Nous serionsy Nous aurions or eoanoos fikj 

We should be. We should have been, 

Vous seriez, Vous auriez or enssies ^t^ 

Tou would be. Tou would have been, 

Bb or eUes senient, Ibor elles amaient or eu weat €t£^ 

Thaywouldbo. They would haoe been. 

92 TBBBS. 


Conditional imperfect, 

Je devais etre, / was to be. 

Tu devais ^re, Thou wast to be, 

II devait 6txe, He teas to be, 

Noas devions etre, We were to be. 

V0Q8 deriez etre, You were to be. 

lis deTaient etre, They were to be. 

Conditional future. 

Je devrais Stre, / ought to be. 

Tu devrais Stre, Thou oughtest to be. 

n devrait etre, He ought to be. 

Noos devrions etre, We ought to be. 

Yous deyriez etre. You ought to be. 

lis devndent Stre, They ought to be. 

Conditional anterior. 

J'anrais dCi Stre, / ought to have bee%, 

Tu aurais dik ^re, Thou oughteat to have beeiu 

II aurait dH dtre, He ought to have been. 

Nous aurions dft dtre, We ought to have been. 

Yous auriez dft Stre, You ought to htme beeu. 

Us auraient dCL dtre, 7%«y on^^ to Aove beem. 


Let ut be. 

Sois, Soyez, 

Be (thou). Be (ye). 

Qu'il or qu'elle soit, Qu'ils or qu'elles soient^ 

Let him or her be. Let them be. 



Que je soisy Que j*aie €16, 

That I may he. That I may have been. 

Que tu sois. Que tu aies 6t^ 

That thou maytt he. That thou mayet have been. 

Qu'il or qu'elle soity Qu*il or qu*e11e ait 6t6^ 

Thixt he or she may he. That he or she may have been* 

.V£RBS. 93 

Que nous soyons, Que nous ayons 616, 

That we may be. That we may have been. 

Que vous soyez, Que vous ayez €t^, 

That you may be. That you may have been, 

Qu'ib or qu*elles soient, Qu'ils or qu'elles aient 6t6, 
That they may be. That they may have been, 


Que je fusse, Que j'eusse §t6, 

That I might be. That 1 might have been. 

Que tu fusses. Que tu eusses 6t6, 

That thou mightst he. That thou mightst.have been. 

Qu'il or qu'elle fiit, Qu'il or qu'elle eut ^6, 

That he or she might be. That he or she might have been. 

Que nous fussions. Que nous eussions 6t^, 

nat we might be. That we might have been. 

Que vous fussiez, Que vous eussiez eti, 

That you might be. That you might hfitve been, 

Qu'ils or qu'elles fussent, Qu'ils or qu'elles eussent 6t6, 
That they 'might be. That they might have been. 

146. Note. Method qf Tuition : " On exercera chaque enfant a i^p^ter 
a haute Toix le verbe &re en y ajoutant un adjectif ou un participe, afin de 
former un sens complet. Le petit gar9on conjug^era ainsi : je suis obeis- 
santf tu es ob^tssant, eUe est Missaniej et de mSme au pluriel. La jeune 
iille snivra la marche inversei elle emploiera Tadjectif feminin aux deux 
premieres personnes, et le masculin a la troisieme ; elle dira : je suis ob/- 
issante, tu es obHssante^ U est ob^tssantf nous sommes ob^santeSf vous &es 
obeissantes, Us soni ob4issantSj etc. Ce systeme de conjuguer a le pr^eux 
avantage d'habituer les ^^ves a employer ra4)ectif aux deux genres et aux 
deux nombres.'' — ^Vanier, Dictionnaire grammatical. 

Nous ajoutons quelqnes a^jectifs k joindre au verbe Sire. Nous avons 
choisi de preference ceux qui conunencent par une voyelle, afin d'ex- 
ercer les eleves a prononcer la consonne finale du verbe dans les temps 
simples: obtigeantf insouciantt imprudent, inconstant, inteUigeni, impor- 
iant, extravagant, aetjf, attenttf, inacttf, inattenttf, enrhwn^, assovpi, ar- 
rid, intervenu, embarrass^, averti, qjgUgi^, humiU^, etc 

11 y a d'autres mots encore qu'on pourra judideusement employer afin 
de former un sens complet, non-seulement en conjuguant le verbe itre, 
mais aussi le verbe avoir. 

En voici quelques exemples : 
Jvoir avec un pronom personneL 

Je Tai, / have it. Nous Tavons, We have it. 

TuTas, 7%ouhasiit. YousTavez, You have it. 

ni'a, He has it. lis I'ont, etc. They have it, etc. 

Je les ai. etc.* / have them. etc. 

98 TJULBf. 

Nous n'edmes pas eu. Eiimes-nous ea? N'e{iiiBe8-B0ai pa* en? 

Vous n'e^tes pas ett. Eiites-vous eu? N'edtes-voQs pai enf 

lis n'eureBt pas en. Eurent-ils eu ? N'eurent-iis paa eul ' 

The idiomatic tenses have b«en omitted ia this and the following con- 
jugation, for the sake of brevity. The learner will supply the omission by 
fbUovnng the model, page 85 etseg., and by placing the n^;ativ6 Tie before 
the verb usdptu affcer it. Example : Je ne vietupas d*av9ir, etc; abo ia 
interrogations, by placing the pronoun after the verb, caveMly obseiTiag, 
however, the rules and observations, page 94, on verbs used intenoga- 


/ shall not have, etc. Shall I have ? etc. Shall I not have f etc. 

Je n'aurai pas. Aurai-je? N'aurai-je pas? 

Tu n'auras pas. Auras-tu? N'auras-tu pas? 

II n'aura pas. Aura-t-il T N'aura-t-il pas? 

Nous n'aurona pas. Aurons-nous? N'aurons-nous pas? 

Vous n'aurez pas. Aurez-vous ? N'aure^vous pas? 

lis n'auront pas. Auront-ila? N'auront-ils pas? 


Ishallnothavehad,etc, Shall I have had? etc. ShaUInothavehadfete, 

Je n'aurai pas eu. Aurai-je ira? N'aurai-je pas eu ? 

Tu n'auras pas eu. Auras-tu eu? N 'auras-tu pas em? 

II n'aura pas eu. Aura-t-il eu? N'aura-t-il pas eu ? 

Nous n'aurons pas eu. Aurons-noiu eu ? N'aurons-nous pas eu t 

Vous n'aurez pas eu. Aurez-vous eu? N'aure^-vous paa eu2 

lis n'auront pas eu. Aurontrils eu? N'auroBtriLi pas eu? 


/ should not have, etc. Should I have ? etc. Should I not have ? etc. 
Je n'aurais pas. Aurais-je? N'aurais-je pas ? 

Tu n 'aurais pas. Aurais-tu ? N 'aurais-ta pn ? 

II n'aurait pas. Aurait-il? N'aurait-Hpas? 

ne s'emploie pas intenrogativement. On dit tr^s-bieB, eutM fim mwat 
vous? e^Ues-^ous termmeks premiers? eurent-4is acheviii V4poquefim4e? 
eUtes-vtmsfait, eUtes-^mu rempli cette tdehe anaiU votre rwal? etc II eat 
vrai que tous les verbes ne peuvent pas, k ce temps, s'employer interroga- 

De plus il est necessaire de retablir le pass^ .ant^rieur sous cette forme, 
ne fOt-ce que pour I'application qu'on en fait dans une circonstance qui e 
quelque connexit^ avec la forme interrogative. En effet, apr^s d peine 11 
n'y a point de verbe qu'on ne puisse employer au passi^ aot^enr; et le 
verbe alors se montre, comme le verbe hiterrogatif, snivi du proPWiDi : d 
peine but-il parlz, que tout le monde fut convaineu ; ct peine eOtes-vous 
PAEU, que le calmest nt^iahHt* — ^Michave, Gpsmmmire stlem tAettdemie. 


Nous n'auzions pai. 
Vous n'lMiciez paa. 
lis n'auraieAt pas* 

I should not have hady 

Je n'aurais pas eu. 
Tu n'aurais pas eu. 

II n'aurait pas eu. 
Nous n'aurions pas eu. 
Vous n'auries pas eo. 
lis n'auraient pas en. 

Je n'eusse pas eu. 
Tu n'eusses pas eu. 
II n'e(it pas eu. 
Nous n'eussious pas eu. 
Vous n'eussiez pas eu. 
lis n'eussent pas eu. 

Auraient^ils ? 


Should I have had ? 

Aurais-je eu? 
Aurait-il eu ? 
AurioDs-Rous eu? 
Anraknt-ils eu t 


Euss^je eu? 
Eusses'-tu eu? 
EAt-il eu? 
Eussions-nous eu? 
Eussiez-vous eu? 
•£ti8sent-ils eu? 

N'aurions-nous pas? 
N'attriez-YOtts pas? 
N'auraient-ils pas? 

Should I not htwe had ? 

etc, ' 
N'aurais-je pas eu ? 
N'aurais~tu pas eu ? 
N'aurait-il pas eu ? 
N'aurioDs-nou3 pas eu ? 
N'auriez-vous pas eu? 
N'auraient-ils pas eu ? 

N'eus86-je pas eu? 
N'eusses-tu pas eu? 
N*eiit-il pas eu? 
N^eussioDs-nouspas eu? 
N'eussiez-vous pas eu? 
N'eussent-ils pas eu ? 



N'aie pas, 
Qttll n'ait pas^ 
N'ayons pas, 
N'ayez pas, 
Qu'ils n'aient pas, 

Have not {thou). 
Let him not have. 
Let us not have. 
Have not (ye). 
Let them not have. 



That I may not have, etc. 
Que j« n'aie pas. 
Que tu n'aies pas. 
Qu*il n*ait pas. * 
Que nous n^ayons pas. 
Que yous n'ayez pas. 
Qu'ila n'aient pas. 


That 1 might noi have, etc. 
Que je n'eusse pas. 
Que tu n'eusees paa. 
Qu'il a'eik paa. 


That I may not have had, etc. 

Que je n'aie p^ eu. 

Que tu n'aies pas eu. 

Qa'il n'ait pas eu. 

Que nous n'ayons pas eu. 

Que'Tous n'ayez pas eu. 

Quails n'aient pas eu. 


Thai I might not have had, etc. 
Que je B^eusse pas eu. 
Que tu n'eusses pas eu. 
Q«'il n'e&t pas eu. 




/ should not be, etc 
Je ne serais pas. 
Tu ne serais pas. 
II ne serait pas. 
Nous ne senons pas. 
Vous ne seriez pas. 
lis ne seraient pas. 


Should I be f etc. 






Seraient-ils ! 

Should I not be T ttot 
Ne serais-je pas? 
Ne serais-tu pas ? 
Ne serait-il pas? 
Ne aerions-nous pas? 
Ne aeriez-vous pas? 
Ne seraientrils pas? 

/ ehould not have been, 

etc, ' 
Je n'aurais pas M, 
Tu n'aurais pas 6t6. 
II n'aurait pas ^t^. 
Nous n'annons pas €t6. 
Vous n'aunez pas 4t^. 
lis n'anraient pas M. 


Should I have been f 

Aurais-je 6t6 ? 
Aurais-tu M ? 
Aurions-nous 6t£? 
Auriez-vous 6t6? 
Auraient-ils M ? 


Je n'eusse pas M. £uss6-je kik ? 

Tu n'ensses pas 4t6. Eusses-tu tstk ? 

II n'eiit pas ^t6. £(it-il 6t6 ? 

Nous n'eussionspas^tS. Eussions-noos 4t6? 

Vous n^eussiez pas ^6. Eussiez-vous 6t£? 

Us n'eossevt pas M, Eussent-ik ^t6? 

Should I not have been^ 

Vaurais-je pes Mf 
N^^urais-tu pas €t6 ? 
N'aurait-il pas M ? 
N'atirians-nous pasM? 
N'auiiez-vous pas £t£ ? 
N'aundent-ils pas M ? 

N'euss6-je pas M ? 
N'eusses-tu pas ^t^? 
N'eussiez-veias pas 6t6 ? 
N'enssent-ils pas M ? 



Ne sois pas, Be not (^Aoir). 

Qu'il ne soit pas, 
*Ne soyons pas, 
Ne soyez pas, 
Qu'ils ne soient pas, 

Let him not be. 
Let ue not be. 
Be not (ye). 
Let them not be. 



TViot 1 may not be, etc 
Que je ne sois pas. 
Que tu ne sois pas. 
Qu'il ne soit pas. 
Que nous ne soyons pas. 
Que vous ne soycz pas. 
Qu'ils ne soient pas. 


Th€a T nmy not have been, etCm 

Que je n'aie pas ^t6. 

Que tu nUiies pas Mk. 

Qu'il n'ait pas 6t6. 

Que nous n'ayons pas M, 

Que vons n'ayez pas 4t6, 

Qu'ils n'aient ^as 6t4. 


Tkmi Iwugkt not he, eie. Tkmilwiufhi not have heen, ete. 

One je B'«Me pv £«& 

Que In ne fusses pML Qae tn n'enaes pas ^l£. 

Qn'il ne f&t pas. Qn'il n'edt pas ete. 

Qae DGOs De Ibsaons pML Que nous n'eussions pas ete. 

Que TQOs ne fussiez pas. Que tods u'eussiez pas €t£. 

QaHs ne fnaent pas. Ctn'ils n'enssent pas etd 

Anjoaidlmi, maintenant, j*ai un livie, je suis attentif. Ce 
■niiii, tn aft ettdup1ai«r,tii as 6t€ content. Saconsinen'avait 
pas la lettre de son pere, elle 6tait tres-inqoiete. Nous croy- 
]<His qa'elle avait ea la fi^vre, qa'dle avait €te malade. Hier, 
mon ami eat nn mal de tMe, il fiit inoonmiodf. Nous par- 
times des que nous en eumes ea Fordre, des qae noos eumes 
ii€ habilles. Ilemain toos aarez an piix, tous serez beaieox. 
Demain a midi Yoas aorez ea an prix, Toas aaiez ^ie r^com- 
pensf. Si cda €tait pasdble, ils aaraient an maitre, ik seiaient 
instraits. ^ cela avait €te possible, elles auiaient ea ane in- 
stitatricey elles aaraient it€ inslniiles. Aie de Fattention, sob 
attentif. Ayons de Fattention, seyons attentifs. H est neces- 
aaire qae mes freres aientde Fajplicarion, qnHa aoientassidas. 
Voos ne croyez pas qae j'aie en da chagrin^ qae j'aie ete mal- 
beoieax. fi fiuHlniit qae toos eoasiez one biUiotbeqae, que 
Toos fossiez pos€ et tranqoiHe. H ne croyait pas qae Toas 
easaaez ea de la r^assite, qae tous eassies &e joyeoz. 

Exercise mt the verb avoir. 

157. In tiie ftOowing exerdses cne mnsi be taken to pilsee d^dekL, 
4kt, or da before evoy subslaBthe used inapartifiTe sense (39.) ; a^fmi 
4v fipTBi^ I baiic bodks ; HcdbaynBteaiArr, he. basnpe fruit. 

^WheDybowerer, tbesobslantive is preceded by aaai^ectiTe,dp or ^only 
is to be used ; as, /at de home Ueree, I hsTe good books (40.). 

15& Ko article is used before substantives pleeeded by an adveib of 
qnantitT, such as he ematmp, a great deal, a great many ; phee^ more ; jmv, 
Ihtle ; Moow, less ; trep, too much, too many; tami^ so many, etc, idien 
speaking in a genenl sense ; as, heomeemp de pMtkr, a great deal of pka- 
ane; ^terf'ayyen/,nMHenioncy;flUMn»ilf^p»K^ less trouble; perndTemie^ 
liev friends. 

Tbe advert) hiem is, bowercr, followed by the article ; as, Mnt dSet en- 
I, many oiemies. 

Nora.— Tbe artide is naed after advcris of quantity wben it is found 
to pardcnlanze the substantiTe ; as, heam e om p de fmyemt §m 
otez eppirt/, a great deal or mndiof tbe money yon brought. 

104 VERBS. 

Indicative paESENT.— I have pens. Thou hast pendlfl. He 

(I57,)plume crayon 

has ink. She has paper. We have copybooks. You have good 
encr€ papierm* cahier (40.) ten 

penknives. They have wax. They have wafers. 
canifm. m. ciref, f. pains h cacheUr 

Past indefinite. — I have had engravings. Thou hast had 


landscapes. He has had portraits. She has had pictures. We 
paytage — — — tableau 

have had copies. You have had pencil-cases. They have had 
modele porteerayon m. 

drawing-paper. They have had maps. 

papier d dessinerm. f. carte ySographique 

Imperfect. — I had pleasure. Thou hadst patience. He had 

plaitirm. t 

friendship. She had sincerity. We had courage. You had 
amitiif. einciritSf, — »-m. 

ambition. They had humanity. 
f. humaniU (h i».) 

Pluperfect. — I had had pears. Thou hadst had apples. He 

poWe pomme 

had had oranges. We had had cherries. You had had excellent 

'■ ceriie _ 

melons. They had had nosegays. 
m. bouquet 

Past definite. — At last I had a protector. Thou hadst friends. 

Enfin protecteur 

My sister had flowers. We had money. You had prudence. 

Jleur argent _.^— £ 

You had presents. They had harps. 
pritent f. harpe 

Past anterior. — I had had success. Thou hadst had rivals. 

riussUe f. rival (52.) 

He had had misfortunes. We had had irreproachable manners. 
malheur irr^ochable* moeura 

* Thronghont the Exercises observe the rales for the placing of adjec- 
tives (65.). 

VBBBS. 105 

Ton liad had respectable acquaintances. They had had assiduity. 
— — eonnaissance f, assididUf, 

Future. — I shall have a faithful dog. Thou wilt have a prize. 

Jidiie prix m. 

My brother wiH have the command of a ship. My sister 

eommandemerU m. viuueau m, 

will have a fine piano. We shall have unavailing cares. Yon 
heau m. inutile toinm, 

will have news from your relatives. My brother and my 
nouveiieM f. pL parenU 

cousin wOl have horses. Those ladies wHl have the choice of those 
— dame ehoix m. 

drawings. They will have a satisfiictory explanation. 
deumm, BOtufaieaiU expUeaUonL 

Future anterior. — I shall have had charming landscapes. Thou 

charmant paytage m. 

wilt have had a pretty seal. That gentleman will have had the 

joU cachet m. monsieur 

letter. That lady will have had the note. We shall have had 
leUref. biOetm. 

good counsels. You will have haH kindness. They will have had 
conseU m . bontS f* 

ready money. They will have had an answer. 
comptant argent m. f. rSpcnse f. 

Conditional present. — I should have many pupils. Thou 

heaucoup {15S,) eleve 

wouldst have faithful servants. He would have more perseverance. 

domesiique plug perseverance 

We should have less trouble. You would have few acquaintances. 

mains peine U pen connaissance 

Those men and those women would have patience and courage. 

f. m. 

They would have nuiny projects. 


Conditionai. fast. — ^I should have had many advantages over 

avantage sur 

them. Thou wouldst have had more opportunities of seeing the 
(94.) plus oeeanon de voir 


108 VBIIS6« 

curiosities of that fine city. My father would have had jnoch 
vuriosite ville f. heaucoup 

pleasure, if I had had the prize. We should hare had more 
plauir d faoau prixm. p^ 

prepossessing manners. You would have had great talents. They 
prSvefiant maniire f. " ■ nu 

would have had ridiculous whims. 

ridicule caprice m. 

Imperative. — Have a good servant Let us have a pretty garden. 

jardin ntf. 
Have (ye) politeness. 
poUteese f. 

(For exercises on the Subjunctive Mood and on the Idiomatic 
Tenses, see Regular and Irregular Verbs.) 

Negative sentences ivith the verb avoir. 

159. In a negative phrase, the preposition de or d\ 
vrithout the article le^ la^ or les^ is used before the sub- 
stantive taken in a general sense ; as^ 

Je n'ai pas de crayons, I have no pencils, 

n n*a pas ^*ardoise, He has no slate. 

Note. As will be seen in the syntu, the article is used when it is seb 
cessary to particularize the substantive. 


Indicative present. — I have no pens. We have no penknives. 


Past indefinite. — Thou hast had no lesson. You have had no 

le^on f. 

leisure. Those gentlemen have had no invitation. 
loisirva,, messieurs f. 

Imperfect. — She had no scissors. They had no needles. 

ciseaux m. f. aiguUle f. 

Pluperfect. — I had had no pledges. We had had no sale, 

gage m^ vente f. 

Past definite. — Thou hadst no answer to thy letter. Yea had 

repoTue f. lettre f. 

no wealth. The poor people had no work. 
bicH m. Les pauvres gem ouvrage m. 

VERBS. 107 

Pa4t AKTEftioR. — He had had no generosity. Hiey had had no 


Talonr. Those foreigners had had no assistance. 
hravauref. Stranger teantrsm. 

Future. — ^I shall not have any ahsurd ideas. We shall not have 

abtttrde ieUe f. 

honours. They will have no shame. 
iatmeur honte f. (h €up.) 

Future amterior. — ^Thoa wilt have had no feeling. You will 


have had no confidence. They will have had no excuse. 
eonfiameeL L 

CoNDiTioiTAL PRESENT. — He would havc no reward. They 


would have no taste. Those officers would have no pay. 

ga&t m. officier solde f. 

Conditional PA9T.^*They would have had no benevolence. 


i]frBRATivE.^Have &ou no impatience. Let ns not haive any 


idleness. Have ye no carelessness. 
pareue f. insouciance f. 

Interrogative mntences with the verb aroir ; aSy 

Avez-voos de la bont£ ? Have you any kindness f 

A'>t-il en de bons cooseik ? Has he had good advice f 


Indicative PRES8RT<<~He8t thou any brothers (39.)? Have yon 

any good reasons to give them ? Have they any ? 
(40.) raUonf, a dotmer ieur (90,) en 

Fast indefinite. — ^Have I had a purse? Have we had lace ? 

bowse f. denleUet. 

Imperfect. — Had he good tools ? Had they a carriage ? 

outil m. voitnre f. 

Pluperfect. — Had I had riches ? Had we had happiness t 

richesse f. bonheur m. 

108 VERBS. 

Fast definite. — Had he good clothes ? Had they good shoes f 

fiabitm. Soulier m. 

Had those artists any emulation ? 
argute (150.) emulation £, 

Past anterior. — Had I had a large house*? Had he had a 

grand maiton L 

spacious field ? Had they had any patterns? 
spaeieux champ m. echantiUon m. 

Future. — Shall I have a holiday? Shall we have merit? Will 

congi m. mMte m. 

they have any mistrust ? 
mefiance f. 

Future anterior. — Will he have had hatred ? Will they have 

haine f. 

had contempt? Will those teachers have had indulgence ? 
mepris m. prSeepteur ■ f. 

Conditional present. -Should I have a gun ? Should we have 

fusil m. 

pistols ? Would they have good merchandise? 
pisiolet m. marchaudise f. pi. 

Conditional past. — Wouldst thou have had jewels? Would you 

bijou m. 

have had diamonds ? 
diamant m« 

The verb avoir tised interrogatively with a negation. 

160. In negative interrogative sentences the preposi- 
tion (kj either with or without the article le^ lay or leSy 
is used before the substantive^ according to the partitive 
or negative sense we wish to convey ; as^ 

N'a-t-il pas de resprit^ du courage ? Has he not some wit^ some courage T 
N'avez'vous pas de livres ? Have you no hooks ? 

N'a-t-il pas J'argent ? Has he no moneg 7 

161. Sometimes the interrogative form is used figuratively, 
to express an affirmiition with emphasis ; as. 

Comment pouvez-vous etre si triste ? ^010 can you be so dull 7 Haoe you 

N'avez-voUs pas des liTies \ not hooks ! 

Comment peut-il etre pauvre ? N'a-t- How can he be poor 7 Has he not 

il pas de Targent ! money ! 

In these, and all similar instances, the partitive article duy 
delay deVy or des^ must be used with the substantive. 

* Yoyez la note, page 97. 


IxDicATiTB rBESEHT.~>IIaTe I DO Ktoorees? Hare we not 

acqnaiDtaoces? Hare they no menages to gire him? 
coimainamrr f. commtMsum a domner bd (90.) 

Past iVDEnsiTE. — "Haat dioo not had news? Hare yoo not had 


comclation? Hare they had no secnrities? 
f. garamiieL 

InrEBFECT. — ^Had he not pride ? Had they not good masters? 

o/ymeSm, wuAtrenu 

PLurEanxT. — ^Had I not had wealth? Had we not had 

snfiMnrings? Had they not had protectors? 
L fTifteeUmr 

Past defivite. — Hadst thoa not inattentive children ? Had you 

maUenitf m. 

no honoQzaUe reward? Had they no companions? 
reeompemu f. comfogmom 

[The ptui mderier of avoir is seldom used interrogsdlTdy with a ne- 

FuTCBE. — Shall I not have rest? Shall we not hare \ay%l 

repot m. jovjou m. 

Win diey not hare new gjtawnt 


FcTUEE AXTEBioB. — ^Will not those ladies hare had lashionahle 

a^O.) ilamodeZ 

dresKS? Will they not hare had the accoont? 
roftel wUwuireuk, 

CosDiTioxAL PEESEKT. — Woold they not hare Italian mnsic? 

iiaiieu mmnque f« 

CoKBiTioxAL rAST. — Shoold we not hare had good neighbonn? 

lid VEBBS. 

Exercise on Hie verb §tre. 

(Negative and interrogative sentences will henceforth be intermixed*) 

Indicative present^ — I am not obedient. Thou art not prodigal. 

obiissant prodigue 

He is not pleased. Is your friend here? Are we assiduous? 
content (150.) id assidu {56,) 

Are you unhappy? Are they thoughtful? Are these geDtkmen 
malheureux pensif (150.) 

in Paris ? Are your sisters at home ? 
d — » chez elles 

Past inoefimitjb.—- I hanre not been aealous. Thou hsat not been 


punctual. She has not been ready. We have not been careless. 
ponctuel prH insouciant 

You have not been steady. Those girls have been to school. Have 

pos6 d Vecole 

they been to school? Have those children been to school? Have 
f. (150.) 

they not been to school? 

Imperfect. — I was ambitions. Thou wast hasty. Was that man 

ambUieux prompt (150.) 

proud ? We were modest and reserved. You were not courageous. 
fier modeste rSservi courageux 

They were idle. Were they not punished? 
pareueux puni 

Pluperfect. — I had been just. Thou hadst been very happy. 

juste trh-heureux 

He had not been attentive. We had not been quiet. Had you 

aJttenUf iranquiUe 

been passionate ? Had your cousins been in Italy ? 
coiire — ^— en ItaUe 

Past definite. — I was angry. Thou wast industrious. He was 

fachS indusirieux 

too troublesome. We were ill. You were very honest. Those 
importun malade honnite 

little boys were very jo3rfu]. Were they not astonished ? 

joyeux itonnS 

WMtLBB. Ill 

Pait asteuok. — I bad been dksatisfied. Hum badst beea boane. 

meeonUnt emrotti 

He bad been stobbom. We bad been uneasy. You bad been 

emiitS mqmel 

■nehriL Tbey bad been ftndioai. 

wuitttonMite itudifur 

FiTTintE. — Shall I be rich ? Wilt Ibou be morose ? She wiQ be 

riche chagrin 

creddoiis. We diall be inflexible. Will yon be nnfiuthfiol? Will 
aridmU htfidele, 

Iboae ladies be imeasj ? 
(150.) mqmUt 

FuTUKE ASTEKioK. — Shall not I have been too hasty in that ai&ir ? 

v{f afaireL 

Thon wilt have been ciril and polite. He will have been distnutQiL 

hoHMite poli defiant 

We than bare been aeTen. Yon will have been obstinate. Will 

severe obstine 

not yonr friends bare been good and beneficent ? 
(150.) hietrfauani 

CoHDiTioKAL PKESEXT. — ^I sJionId be too bosy. Tboa wonldst be 


skiifid. He woold be awkward. We shooldnot be erednlons. Yoo 
adroU wudadnut eredmle 

woold not be tirad. Would not dioae tbings be wsden? Wanld 
faligue ckote L (150.) mniUe 

they not be snperflnoos ? 
C Muperfiu, 

CovoiTios&i. PASTw — ^I dioidd hare been gratefbl. Wonldst 


dioa hare been nngiatefiil ? He woald not hare been absent. Should 

ingrat . 

we have been aTaridoiis ? Yon wonld bare been stnmger than I. 
avare fort (^^O 

Woold not the rooms have been too large ? 
chxtabreL trop grand 

InpEaATrrE. — ^Be afiabk. Let us not be detained. Be ye 


discreet Do not be (in such a bony). 
discret siprt 

1 12 VERBS. 

162. Use o/ avoir and 6tre as Auxiliaries. 

The verb avoir is used in conjugating : 

1st, Its own compound tenses; as^ «/'at eu^ I have had. 

2nd, The compound tenses of ^/re; as, J^ai iti, I 
have been. 

3rd, The compound tenses of all active or transitive 
verbs ; as, *rai aimk, I have loved. 

4th, The compound tenses of neuter verbs ; as, «/'ai 
dormi, I have slept. Except a few conjugated with ^tre ; 
as, Je suis tombiy I have fallen. (See Neuter Verbs.) 

The verb ^tre is used to conjugate : 

1st, All passive verbs; as, Je suis aim^y I am loved. 

2nd, The compound tenses of all reflective verbs ; as, 
// s'estjlattey he has flattered himself. 



163. Model of the First Conjugation, Infinitive 

Mood ending in er. 

TYie first conjugation comprises the greater number of the 
verbs, including about 5000, whose terminations are alike 
through all their changes for mood, tense, number, and person. 
These terminations are the variable letters, which, for distinc- 
tion, are printed in italics in the models of the conjugations 
which follow. 

Note. The greater part of the French verbs ending in er in the infinitive 
are derived from Latin verbs ending in are in the same mood, or those of 
the first conjugation ; as, 

From the Latin 

Aimer, to Jove amare. 

Appeler, to call appellare. 

Gonsid^rer, to consider considerare. 
])^larer, to declare ... declarare. 

Dieter, to dictate dictare. 

Douter, to doubt dubitare. 

EdS&tTt to edify sdificare. 

From the Latin 

Esp^rer, to hope sperare. 

Humecter, to moisten. . . humectare. 

Laver, to wash lavare. 

"SarreTt to relate narrare. 

Porter, to carry portare. 

R^voquer, to revoke ... revocare. 
Triompher, to triumph, triumphare. 


Present. — Aimer, to love. 
Past. — Avoir aime, to liave loved. 




Present. — Ahnant^ loving* « 

Past. — Aim^, loved, Ayant aime, having loved* 
Future. — ^Devant aimer, about to love. 


Simple Tenses. Compound Tenses. 


J'aim^ J'ai aim^, 

Ilove, do love, or am loving. I have loved, 

Tu aivaes, Tu as aime. 

Thou lovett, etc. Thou hast loved. 

n aim^, II a aim^. 

He loves. He has loved. 

Nous ainum^, 

Vous axEoezy 
Tou love. 

Us aiment. 
They love, 



I was loving. 

Ta almais. 
Thou toast loving, 

II ainaait. 
He was loving. 

Nous aimions. 
We were loving. 

Vous atmiez. 
You were loving, 

fls abaaaient. 
They were loving. 

Nous aTons aime. 
We have loved. 

Vous avez aim^. 
You have loved. 

Jls out aim^y 
They have loved. 


J'avais aim^ 

I had loved. 

Tu avais aim^, 
Ihou hadst loved, 

II avait aim^, 
He had loved. 

Nous avions aim^ 
We had loved. 

Vous aviez aim^. 
You had loved. 

Us avaient aim^. 
They had loved. 

164. Note. The French form their simple tenses with one word only ; 
they have no emphatic amiUary like do or did, u Ido hve, I did Ume^ etc., 
and never nse the participle present as in the English expressions /am 
V> I was loving, etc. 





I loved, 

Thoti lovedsU 

II aima, 
He loved. 

Nous dAxndmes, 
We loved, 

Vous aima^9 
You loved, 

lis dXisiirenty 
They loved. 


J'eus alm^, 

I hadhved. 

Tu ens aim^, 
Thou badtt hved. 

II eut aim^, 
He had loved. 

Nous eumes aim^. 
We had loved, 

Vous edtes aim^, 
You had loved. 


lb eureot aim^*, 
l^ey had loved. 


Je viens d'aimer, I have just loved. 

Tu viens d'auner. Thou hast Just loved. 

U vient d'ajmer, He has Just loved. 

Nous Yenotas d'aimer. We have Just loved. 

Vous venez d'aimer, You have Just laved. 

lis Tiennent d'aimer, l^ey have Just laotd. 


Je venais d'aimer, / had Just loved, 

Tu yenais d'aimer, 7%ott hadstjust loved. 

H venait d'aimer. He had Just loved. 

Nous yenions d'aimer. We had Just loved, 

Vous veniez d'aimer, You had Just loved. 

Us yeuaient d*aimar, They had Just loved. 



I shall love. 

Tu aim^ro^, 
Thou wilt love, - 

II aimeroy ■ 
He will love. 

Nous aimerons. 
We shall love. 

Vous slmerezy 
You wUl love, 

lis aXmerantf 
They will love. 


J'aurai aim^, 
I shall have loved. 

Tu auras aim^, 
Thou wilt have loved. 

n aura aim^, 
H^ will have loved. 

Nous aurons aim^. 
We shall have loved, 

Vous aurez aim^, 
You will have loved. 

lis auront aim^, 
They will have loved. 

♦ There is another past tense, — J*aieuaim^, etc. ; but the occasions for 
using it rarely occur. See ISuStrations qf Moods and Tenses. 
t See note t} page 85. 




Je vais aimer* / am going to lotre. 

Tu TEs aimer, T%ou art going to bme. 

n TE aimer, He is going to loce. 

Nous allons aimery We are going to kwe, 

VoQS allez avser, You are going to hoe» 

lis Yont aimer, They are going to love. 


Je dois aiinery / am to love. 

Tu dois aimer. Thou art to kne. 

n doit aimer, He ia to love. 

NoRS demons aimer. We are to kme. 

VoRS devez aimer, You are to toee. 

Hb doiveRt aimer, They are to love. 


J'liDris aimer, / was going to bve. 

Ta allais aimer. Thou wast going to love, 

n aUait aimer. He was going to love. 

Nods affions amier. We were going to kme. 

y ous dfiez aimer. You were going to k/ve. 

Us allaient aimer, They were going to love. 



Taimerau, .Taurais or «o8se aim^, 

I should love. I should have loved. 

Tu ^Imeraisy. Tu aurais or eoasea aime, 

Thou wovldst love. Thou wouldst have loved. 

II sdmeraitf n aurait or eut aim^, 
He would love. He would have loved. 

Nous aimerftoiu, Nous aurions or eussioos aim^. 

We should love. We should hone loved. 

Voos aimerMszr, Vous auriez or euaaiez aim^y 

Toss would love. You would have loved. 

Us Bxmeraietil, Us aundent or eussent aim^ 

Theif would love. They would have loved. 

1 16 VERBS. 


Je devais aimer, / was to love. 

Tu devais aimer, Thau toast to lope, 

U devait aimer. He was to lave. 

Nous devions aimer, We were to love. 

Yous deviez aimer, You were to love. 

lis devaient aimer. They were to love. 


Je devrais aimer, / ought to love, 

Tu devrais aimer. Thou oughtest to hve. 

n devrait aimer. He ought to love. 

Nous derrions aimer, We ought to love. 

Vous derriez aimer, You ought to love. 

Us devraient aimer. They ought to love. 


J'aurais dii aimer, / ought to have loved. 

Tu aurais dii aimer, TTuni oughtest to'have hvedm 

U aurait dft aimer. He ought to have loved* 

Nous aurions dii aimer, We ought to have loved. 

Vous auiiez dd aimer, You ought to have loved. 

lis auraient dii aimer, They ought to have hved, 


Let us love. 

Alme, Aimezy 

Love thou. Love ye, 

Qu'il aime, Qu'ils sAmentf 

Let hm love. Let them love. 



Que j'aime, Que j'aie aim^, 

That I may love. That I may have loved. 

Que tu aimef, Que tu aies aimiy 

That thou mayst love. That thou mayst have loved, 

Qu'il aime, Qu'il ait aim^, 

That he may love. That he may have loved. 



Que nous aimionsy 
That we may love. 

Que V01U aimiezy 
That you may love. 

Qu'ils aiment. 
That they may love, 


Que j'ainuM^e, 
That I might love. 

Que tu samasteSf 
That thou miyhtst love. 

Qu 11 aimdi. 
That he might love. 

Que nous ahnasnongy 
27uU we might love. 

Que Tous aimassieZf 
That you might love. 

Qu'ils akiDosgenty 

That they might love. 

Que nous ayons aiiii^y 
That we may have loved. 

Que vous ayez aini^. 
That you may have loved. 

Qu'ils aient aime, 
That they may have loved. 


Que j'eusse aim^, 
I'hat I might have loved. 

Que tu eusses aime» 

That thou mig/Uit have loved. 

Qu'il eut aim^. 

That he might have loved. 

Que DOU5 eussions aim^, 
27uU we might have loved. 

Que Tous eussiez aime^ 
2'hat you might have loved. 

Qu'ib eussent aim^, 
That they might have loved. 


Conjugate the verb aimer interrogatively, negatively, and 
interrogatively with a negation, as in the following examples : 



Aim6-je ? 
Aimes-tu ? 
Aime-t-il ? 

Aimons-nous ? 
Aimez-vous ? 
Aiment-ils ? 


Do I lave? 
Dost Hum love f 
Does he love f 

Do we love ? 
. Do you love ? 
Do they love ? 

Ai-je um^ etc. 


J9are I loved? etc. (See page 96.) 

165. NoTB. "When a verb ending with e Heebie is followed by the pro- 
nounje, an acute accent b placed over the e final of the verb, in order to 
make it an 4{fermi) sharp : by so doing the hanhness which would re- 

118 TBBB8. 

suit from ih« soimd of twoleeble syllables following one toother it cvoided. 
Thus we say, ami-jef cuvri-je? and not aime-Jef owrt^ t Some modem 
girammarians use the graye accent : ahni-je? owtr^je? 




Je n*aime pas, / do not love. 

Tu n'aimes pas, Thou dost not love, 

II n'aime pas, ' He does not love. 

Nous n'aimons pas. We do not love. * 

Vous n'aimez pas. You do not love. 

Us n'aiment pas. They do not love, 


Je n'ai pas aim6, etc. / Jtave not lovedy etc, (See page 96.) 

Interrogatively with a negation. 



N'aim^-je pas ? Do I not love f 

N*aimes-tu pas ? Dost thou not love f 

N'aime-t-il pas ? Doesjie not love f 

N'aimons-nous pas ? Do we not love f 
N'aimez-vous pas ? Do you not love f 
N'aiment-ils pas ? Do they not love f 


N*ai-je pas aim6 ? etc. Have I not loved f etc. (See page 96.) 

166. Orthographical Remarks. 

1st, Verbs ending in the Infinitive in ger^ retain e before a 
and o, that the soft sound of ^ may be preserved : 9i&,jugeanty 
judging ; nigligeant^ neglecting ; mangeajUy eating ijejugeaif 
I judged ; nous mangeonsy we eat, etc. ; — £rom juger, to judge ; 
nigligevy to neglect ; manger^ to eat. 

2nd, When c is pronounced like s in the Infinitive, it takes 

a cedilla (c) before a, o, u^ to preserve its soil articulation : as, 

jepla<^ai, I placed; nous effa<^onSy we efface ; nous re<^umesy 

we received, etc. ; — from placer^ to place ; effacery to efi&ce ; 

recevoir^ to receive. 

Srdy Verbs which have y preceding the termination of the 
Infinitive or Participle present, generally change it into % before 

TBRB9. 119 

e^ es, and etti : as, jepaierai, I shall pay ; femphverai^ I shall 
employ ; il ennuie, he tires; ils traient*^ they mUk; ffueje vcie^y 
that I may see; fuetucroiesi*, that thou mayst believe, etc.; — 
from pcnfCTy lo pay ; emplot^erf to employ; enm^ery to weary; 
trai/antg milking ; volant, seeing ; croyanty believing. 

Note. The verbs rayer and enrayer preserve the y thronghont their 
conjugation; thns, je raye, etc. It should be remarked that the French 
Academy gives the preference to the y befose «, et and «ni, in all verbs 
ending in oyer in the Infinitive mood. Thus, on such authority, we may 
write, Je paye^ tu payeSf il paye ; ib payent, Je payerai, etc. Je ba- 
^ye, etc. 

• 4th, Verbs ending in the Infinitive in tier and otier require 
a diaeresis (tr^ma) on the t (t) of the first and second persona 
plural of the Imperfect Indicative and Present Subjunctive : 
as, 7UMS distribuionsy we were distributing ; nousjouionsy we 
were playing, etc ; — from dktnbuery to distribute ; jotUTy to 

5th, Verbs which have i (with an acute accent) or e mute 
in the Infinitive or Participle present, require a grave accent 
on it (e) before a consonant followed by an e mute or unac- 
centedf; as, 

Esp^rer, to hopcy — -j'espere, tu esperes, il espere, etc. 

Il6peter, to repeaty — ^il r^pete, il r^p^ra, etc. 

Mener, to lead, — je mene, tu menes, etc 

Acqu^rant*, (zcquirin^y — ils acquierent, que j'acquiere, etc 

6th, Verbs having e mute before the termination of the 
Infinitive ler and ter, generally double the / and t when fol- 
lowed by e mute ; as, 

Appeler, to call, — j'appel/e, j'appel/erais, etc 
Jeter, to throwy — ^il jet/ie, je jetferai. 

Except the following: JBourrelery congdevy ddcelery geler, 
harceleTy pelery redlery achetevy coUeter, coqueter, decolletery 
etiqueter, trompetevy which take a grave accent (^) over the e 
preceding the / or ^ ; as, geler, to freeze, — il gcle, it freezes ; 
acheter, to buy, — il achete, he buys. 

Conjugate like aimer : 
Aecompagner^ to accompainy, Approcher, to txpproach. 

Agr^er, to accepts 
Analyser, to analyse. 

ApproQvcr, to t^jprove* 
Assembler, to assemble. 

* See the diphabeiieal lut qfirregtUar verbs. 

t Except verbs ending in Sger; as, asneger, il asaiege. 



Attacher, to attach* 
Augmenter, to augment, 
Attaquer, to attack. 
Attribuer, to attribute. 
Autoris^r, to authorize. 
Commander, to command. 
ComplimeDter, to compliment. 
Condamn^r, to condemn. 
Conjuguer, to conjugate. 
ContempW, to contemplate, 
Daigner, to deign, 
Divelopper, to develop, 
Discern^r, to discern. 
Dispenser, to dispense with, 
Embarrasser, to embarrass, 
EfTectuer, to effect. 
Empecher, to prevent. 
Emprisonner, to imprison, 
Enseigner, to teach. 
Envier, to envy, 
Exceller, to excel. 
Flatter, to flatter, 
Frapper, to strike. 

Fr^uenter, tofrequenL 
Frotter, to rub. 
Habiller, to dress. 
Habituer, to accustom. 
Indemniser, to indemn^. 
Inventer, to invent. 
Laisser, to leave. 
Mendier, to beg. 
N6gocier, to negotiate. 
Nommer, to name, 
Offenser, to offend. 
Parler, to speak, 
Plaider, to plead. 
Raccommoder, to mend, 
R6coinpenser, to reward, 
Remercier, to thank. 
Rencontrer, to meet. 
Ressembler, to resemble, 
Sauter^ to jump, 
Solliciter, to solicit, 
Souffler, to blow. 
Supplier, to beseech, 
Tourmenter, to torment. 


If) 7. Models of Verbs of the Second Con/ugationy 
Infinitive Mood ending in ir. 

This conjugation is divided into four classes : 

to act, 
to feel, 
to open, 
to hold. 

Model of the 1st class^ ag?>, 

2nd senttr, 

3rd ouvnV, 

4th teniV, 

168. The First Class consists of about 300 verbs, which 
are conjugated like agir^ to act ; such as, 

Ch^nr, to cherish ', retentir, to resound) affermtr, to strengthen 'y 
avertir, to inform \ r^partir, to distribute \ assorttr, to match \ as- 
servtr, to enslave ; appauvrir, to impoverish ; terntr, to tarnish ; gar- 
nir, to gartdsh ; foumtr, to furnish ; bdotr, to bless ; hennir, to neigh; 
accomvlirf to accomplish ; adoucirf to soften ; rem-pUr, to fill ; bannsr, 
to banish] nonnirf to feed; embelltV, to embellish; muntV, to pro-- 
vide, etc. 



(Sentir, to feel.) 

Mentir, to lie. 
PartiVy to depart. 
SorttV, to go out. 

Dormir, to sleep. 

Scrvtr, to serve. 


r Consentir, 

< Pressentir, 

L Resseutir, 


r Redormir, 
i Endomifr, 

169« The Second Class comprises the following verbs, which 
are conjugated like sentir : 


to consent, 
to anticipate, 
to resent, 
to belie. 

to distribute, divide, 
to set out again, 
to go out again, 
to sleep again. 
to lull asleep, 
t Se reiidormtr, to fall asleep again. 
Desservir, to clear the table. 

Se repentir, to repent (see the conjugation of Reflective Verbs). 

170. The Third Class includes the following verbs, which 
are conjugated like auvrir. : 



Couvrir. to cover. {^I^^Z: 
Qfirir, to offer. M6soffii>, 

Souffirir, to suffer. 

171* The Fourth Class consists of the following verbs, which 
are conjugated like tenir : 

to open again, 
to haif open, 
to discover, 
to cover again, 
to underbid. 


(Tentr, to hold.) 

VentV, to come. •< 



to abstain, 
to belong, 
to contain, 
to detain, 
to keep up. 
to maintain, 
to obtain, 
to retaui. 
to uphold, 
to contravene, 
to happen, 
to agree. 
to become, 
to deny, 
to intervene 
to attain. 


* ReitortiTf meaning to belong tOt is conju^ted like ogiTf to act (168) : 
En France, ks tribunauK de premiere instance rbssortissent d kura court 
royalet respectivet. 




VentV, to come. ^ 


Se souvenir, 
JSe ressouventr, 

to warn, anticipate, 

to proceed. 

to come again. 


to relieve. 

to remember. 

to recollect 

Fentr, rfMiiir, /arvfntr, are conjugated in their compound tenses mth 
the auziliarf Hre. See Cot^ation qfmtuier verhi, 

Avenir is sn obioleie verb, used onj^ in the third person singular. See 
the lAat qfirr^fuiar &nd drfeetwe veiie, 

172. Noes. All the verbs of the second, third, and fourth classes of the 
second coigngation being contained in the above lists, any other varb end- 
ing in tr which the student may meet with in the exercises on the regidar 
verbs, belongs of course to the first dass, and is conjugated like agir. 



Class I. 
To act. 

Class II. Class III. 
to feel. to open, 
senttr. oavrir. 


Class IV. 
to hold. 

To have acted. 
Avoir agi. 

„,felt, ... opened 
... sentt. ... ouvert. 



... tentf. 


feeling. opening, 
sentant. oavrant. 




felt, opened. 
sentt. onver^. 


Having acted. 
Ayant agi. 

...felt. ...opened. 
...sentt. ...cavert, 


... held, 
... tentf. 

About to act, 
Devant agir. 

...jtel. ... open, 
...senttr. .. ouvrir. 

... hold. 
... tenir. 





Chtas I. 

ChkMtl II. 

Class III. 

CftAflS IV. 

J aeL 




r Mgu. 




Tu ^g». 




11 •«*. 




Nous agnvoi». 




Vons agiuez. 




lis Bgiuent 





I have acted. 


... opened. 

... held. 

J'ai agt, etc. 

••• senti* 

••• omur/. 

... tenv. 



/ vat acting. 


fpot opening 

wat holdhig. 

y mgasait. 




To agmai^. 




11 mpaaU. 




Noot agwnoi?#. 




Voiui agUsiez. 




Ik agiwaitffl/; 







••. opened. 

... held. 

J'avak agt^ etc. 

... senti. 

... ouTtfr^. 

.. tenw. 


I acted. 




r ag«. 




Tq agif. 




II agi^. 




Nous aglmtff. 




VoQS a^/e«. 




lis agiretU. 





I had acted. 


... opened. 

... held. 

J'eos agf, etc. 

••• senti. 

... cmv^r^ 

... tentt. 

To moid repetition, tbe Idiomatic icaees are not givmi m this conjiiga. 
tion, and only oocasioxially in the foUoioag. The pupil will sui^Iy the 
omission by forming them Imnself, from the model of the first conjogation 
(page 114 ei teg.): thus, instead of sayingf Je vtem tFakmr, «lc.y he will 
conjugate, Je vient ffagvr^ de tentir, <f otienV, de terdr, and so on in these 
and the sahseqnent conjugations. 





Class I. 

Class II. 

Class III. 

Class IV. 

/ shall act. 




y AgiraL 




Ta agiras. 




II agira. 




Nous sigirons. 




Vous agirez. 




lis agiront. 





I shall have acted. 


. opened. 

... held. 

J'aurai agi, etc. 

... seiici. • • 

. ouver/. 

... tenti. 

/ should act, 
J* agirais. 
Ttt agtrau. 
II agirai/. ^ 
Nous agirions. * 
Vous agiries. 
lis agiraient. 


















I should have acted. . . . felt. 
J'aurais or eusse agi, etc.... senti. 

... opened. 
... ouver^. 








... held. 
... tenti. 


Act (thou). 

Qu'il agisse. 


Qu'ils agissent. 














That I may act 
Quej' agisse. 
Que tu agisses. 
Qu*il agisse. 
Que nous agissions. 
Que vous agissiez. 
Qu'ils agissent. 


feel. open, 

aeiiie. ovlvtc. 

Bentes. ouvres. 

sente. ouvTff. 

sentsonx. ouvrions. 

sentiez. ouvnVz. 

aentent. ouvrent. 

















Class I. Class II. Class III. 

JTuU I may have acted, .,,felt ... opened. 

Que j 'aie ag i, etc. . . . sentt . . . . out^^ 

Class IV. 

... heldm 
... tentf. 

That I might act. 
Que j' aguM. 
Que tu agisses, 
Qu'il agU. 
Que nous agissions. 
Que vous agissiez. 
Qu'ils agissenf. 
























Thai I might have acted. . . . felt. 
Que j'eusse agt, etc. ... sentt. 

... opened. 
... ouver^ 


... held. 
... tentf. 

Conjugate like the above the verbs mentibned in pages I20f 
121 and 122 (168, 169, 170 and 171). 


173. Model of Verbs of the Third Conjugation^ 
Infinitive Mood ending in oir. 

This conjugation contains only seven regular verbs; 
namely, concevoir, to conceive; d^cevoir, to deceive*; 
devoir f, to owe; redevoivy to owe again; percevoir, (a 
law term,) to collect; recevoir, to receive; and aperce^ 
voir, to perceive, which serves as a model. The other 
verbs ending in oir, in the infinitive mood, are con- 
jugated hereafter in the list of irregular verbs. 


Present. — Aperccrotr, To perceive. 
Past. — Avoir aper9u, To have perceived. 

* D^eevoir is principally used in the compound tenses. The verb 
irongter supplies it in simple tenses. 

t Devoir has a drcmnflex accent on the tf of the past participle dH (10.), 
but the accent is not used when the participle dd is feminine or plural ; 
as, due, dui^ or duet. 




Present. — Aperceraw^, Perceiving. 

Past* — Aper^Ky Pereeived.^ — Ayant aper^tfi Havui^ 

Future.— Devant aperc^^wr. About to perceive. 



X aper9o»y 
Tu aper^ouy 
n aper^oi^, 
Nous apercevon^y 
Vous aperc^vez, 

I perceive. 
Thou perceivesL 
He perceives. 
We perceive. 
You perceive. 
Thej perceive. 



X apercssou^ 
Tu apercevaic, 
tt aperc0fw«f, 
Nous mptmevUmSy 
Voufl apercemeZf 

I va§ peraeiving. 
Thou wast perreiving. 
He was percernog. 
We were pevoOTiug. 
You. were perocaiHog. 
They were peccdidng* 


Xavais ajper9tf, etc, I had perceived. 


J' aper9tM, 
Tu aper^t^ 
II aper92^^, 
Nous aper9iSme^9 
Vous aper9ttfej, 
lis aper9ttre«4 

I perceived. 
Thou perceivedst. 
He perceived. 
We perceived. 
You perceived. 
They peroeived. 


J*eus aper9u> etc., I had perceived* 




Tu SLpercevraSy 
n SLpercevra, 
Nona ikper e^wrofM, 

Us a{>eic£oron4 

I shall perceiTB* 
Thou wilt perceive. 
He vill perceive. 
We shall perceive. 
You will perceive. 
They will perceive. 


Xauxai aper^it) etc^ I shall have perceived. 



J* apercet;ra2«, 
Tu apercevmt^y 
n apercetTrai^, 
Nous apercevnoTi^, 
Vous aperctftfrenr, 
lis A^cevraientj 

I should perceive. 
Thott weiildBt pereeif«. 
He would perceive. 
We should perceive. 
You would perceive. 
They would perceive. 

J*aurais or eusse aper^d, etc^ I should have peiceived^ 


Qu*il aper^oiVe, 
Qu*ils aper^oiVe^, 

Perceive (thou). 
Let him perceive. 
Let us perceive. 
Perceive (ye). 
Let them perceive. 



Que j* aper90M?c, That 

Que tu aper90ti;e^y That 

Qu'il aper^otve, That 

Que Dous apercerioR^y That 

Que vous Siperceviest, That 

Qtt'ils apei^veni; That 

I may perceive, 
thou mayst perceiveL 
he may perceive, 
we may perceive, 
you may perceive, 
they may perceive. 




Que j'aie aper^ti, etc^ That I may have perceived. 

I might perceive, 
thou mightst perceive, 
he might perceive, 
we might perceive, 
you might perceive, 
they might perceive. 


Que j*eusse aper9u, etc., That I might have perceived. 

Conjugate like apetcevoir the verbs given in page 125. 


Que tu 
Que nous 
Que voua 

aper9u«46, That 
aper^t^^eff, That 
aper9t(^, That 
\ ^peri^ussionsy That 
\ aperl^ussiez. That 
Kperf^ussenty Tiiat 


174. Models of Verbs of the Fourth Coiyugation, 
Infinitive Mood ending in rb. 

This conjugation has four classes : 

-andre, asy Repandrey 

Class I. ends in 

Class II. ends in 


r -aitre, 
••' \ -oitre. 
Class III. ends in ... -uire, 

f -aindre, 
Class IV. ends in ... < -eindre, 

L -oindre, 










to spilL 
to render, 
to answer, 
to lose, 
to bite, 
to appear, 
to grow, 
to conduct, 
to fear, 
to paint, 
to join. 

175. Note. The very distinct termination of the infinitive mood of 
verbs of the fourth conjugation, will enable the pupil to perceive with 
facility the model or class to which the verbs he may meet with m 
his.exercises belong. Thus, 

176. Class I. — Conjugate like rendre : 

Attendre, to expect, wait for; condescendre; descendie, to go 


dowm; confondre, to confound \ coirespondre; entendre, to hear, tm- 
derHtmd; ^tendre, to stretch out; fendre, to tpiii; fondre, tomeit; 
mordre, to bite; moifondre, to cause to become cold; pendre, tohaagi 
perdre, to lose; suspendre; refondre, to melt again, to cast; pii- 
tendre ; r^pan^, to spiU ; pondre, to lay eggs; lepondre, to answer; 
Tcndre, to sell; tondre, to shear, etc. 

177. Class IL — Conjugate like para!trb: 

Apparaitre ; disparaltre ; comparaitre. Connaitre, to know ; id6- 
oonnattre; reconnaitre. Crohre*, to grow; accrottre; d^crotbne; le- 

178. Class UL-^CoDJugate like conduirb : 

Reoondnire; cnire, to bake or cook; recnire; endtdre, topUuter; 
indmre, to nubtee, to lead; produire, to produce ; r^duire, to reduce ; 
a^mie, to seduce ; tradnire, to translate ; constmire, to construct, 
build; d^tmirej to destroy; d^duire, to deduct; introdoire, to tntfo- 

179- Class IV. — Conjugate like craindre : 

Afltreindre, to Ue down, to confine to; atteindre, to reach; aveuadrey 
to take out, fetch; ceindre, to gird; oontraindre, to compel; enceindre, 
to mdose; enfrdndre, to infringe; enjoindre, to enjoin; ^teindre, to 
extinguish ; feindre, to feign ; joindre, to join ; oindre, to anomt ; 
pein^, to paint ; plaindre, to pUy ; restreisdre, to Hunt ; teindse, 
to dye, 

* Aooordiiig to tlie dictionary of the Frendi Academy, the vcib eroUre 
takes the cSrcomflez accent on the f or 4, as ^Tcn in the following in- 

iMriNiriVK FBESENT. Croitre. PioiTiciFiJE PBKSKMT. Croissant. Pabti- 
cmf PAST. Crhmase.,ene,fiuu,craBmase.pLfCrQ!esfiuupL iNDiCATnrx 
PBKSKMT. Jeeroisytncrois, il crott; noos cnrissons,Ton8 cnnssezyib croissent. 
iMFcnncT. Je croissais, etc. Fast nKmnra. Je crds, ta criis, crut; 
nous crnmes, toos crates, ils cnnent. Fdtdbb. Je croitna, etc Condi- 
TioNAi. Je croitrsis, ete. Imfbratiyx. Grots, qnll cnrisse, croissons, 
croissez; ^^ croinenL Subjuhctivs pkbseiit. Que je croisse, etc 
iMPKurBCT. (^ je cmsse, qae tn crosses, qpi'il crfi.t ; qne noos cmssions, 
que toos cmssiez, q[a11s cnissent. 

Je erois,je eris, etc, of the verb eroi/iv, have the drcnmflez accent eri- 
dentily to be distingoishcMl finom Je erois, I believe ; je erus, I believed, etc 
(See note, page 4, and eroire in the list of irregnlar verbs.) In aecroitrt, 
dSereUrt, and r eerti U re ^ the drcmnflex accent, which is no longer retiaired 
as a maik of distinction, is only nsed in the tenses fonned from the In- 
finitive present (195.), and in the third person singnlsr of the Indicative 
present : II aeerott, il d^erott, il reeroit, according to the conjagation of 
par^trey which serves as a modeL 

G 5 



Class I. 

To render, 

INFINrriVB ]fOO0. 


Class II. Class III. 

to appear^ to amduet^ 



Class IV. 

to fear, 


Tohaverendered, ..•appeared, ,., condueied. ,,, feared, 
Avoir rendu. ... pairtf. •••conduit ... crain^. 




amdueUng. fearing. 
conduuon^. cnxgtMnt. 




Rendered, appeared, 

Eendtf. paru. 

Having rendered. .., appeared. ••• conducted. .^^ feared. 

Ayantrendir. ...parv. ...condai^. •••craMi. 


About to render, ... appear. ... conduct. 
Devant rendrf. ... para^^. — condjoifv. 



/ remdetm 
Je rendf* 
Tu rendf. 
n rend* 
Nous rendoiM. 
Yous rendea. 
lis Ttndeni. 




















I have rendered. ... appeared. „. conducted. ...feared. 
J*ai rendu, etc. .. pam. ... oondui^. ••. craiii^. 



Clam I. 

/ was rendering 
Je Ttndeus. 
Td rendotf. 
n readaU, 
Noni rendioiu. 
Vom rendiez. 

/ had rendered. 
J*a.mB rendu, etc. 

I rendered, 
Je rendiff. 
Td rendiff. 
n rendf/. 
Nods rendinef. 
y ous reodttef . 



Clam hi. 


Clam IV. 












eondmeUd ,,»fsared. 










I kad rendered. 
J'euA lendii^ etc. 

/ ekaU render. 

Je rendrot. 



Nom rendrow . 

Yous rendrez. 



appeared. ..« conducted ^.feared. 
••• oojodui/. 








TakdH have rendered. ••• appeared. ..xondueted. 
J'ainai rendv, etc ••• parv. •..conduit. 

,., feared. 

ctmMnTionAiM wood. 

/ should render, appear. 

Je rendratf. 
Ta wadrais. 
n reDdrak. 
Noni xeDdriom. 
Us rendraienlm 











eaodmraient, ctalndraieui 




Class I. Class II. Class III. Class IV. 

I $houid have rendered, „, appeared, ,„ conducted, ,., feared. 
J 'aurais or eusserendtiietc. ... parti. ... conduit. ••• crain^. 


Mender {thou), mppear. 

Rendf. rarat*. 

Qu*il rendtf. parattM. 

RendofM. ParotMoiM. 

RendM. ParaiMM. 

Qu'ils renden^. parasf«M^. 















That I may render. 
Que je rende. 
Que tu rendM. 
Qu'il rendtf. 
Que nous rendtoiM. 
Quevous rendttfs. 
Qu'ils rendeii^ 











eonduinofw. craiffnione, 
condxdnez, craiffniex. 
conduuen^. crai^en^. 

That I may Have rendered, . . .appeared, . . . conducted, ••• feared. 
Que j'aie rendti, etc. . . .parti. . . . conduit. . •• crain^. 

That I miyht render. 
Que je rendtMe. 
Que tu rendUset, 
Qu'il rend^^. 
Que nous rendusume. 
Que Tous rendiseiez. 
Qu'ils rendissent. 


appear. conduct, fear, 

partiMe. conduim«tf. craignUee, 

panuees, condui«iMf«. craiyniesee, 

j^axHt, conduitfi^. crai^nt^. 

part»«toii«. condui«w#t<m«.crai^w«20f?«. 

partiftftez. condui^tttiex. craignitsiez, 

paiuteent, condui«tMefi<. cxaignUtent. 


That I might have rendered, ... appeared, ... conducted, ...feared. 
Que j'eusse rendu, etc. ... parti. ... conduit. ... craSnt. 


Conjugate like the above the verbs given in pages 128 and 



180. A transitive verb (and a transitive verb only) 
may become passive, by adding its participle to every 
mood and tense of the auxiliary verb ^tre; and the par- 
ticiple, as an adjective, agrees in gender and number 
with the subject or nominative to which it relates ; as^ 

Je suis appeli or appel^ lam called. 

Tu es aim^ or aim6e, 7^<m art loved. 

II est estiin6, ffe is esteemed. 

EUe est estim^e, She is esteemed. 

Men pdre est r6v6r6, My fitter is revered. 

Ma mere fut toujours ch6rie, My mother was always beloved. 
Nous soinmes blames or -^s, We are blamed. 
Vous dtes lou6, -6e, -^s or -6es, You are praised. 
' Mes amis sent connus, My friends are known. 

Mes soeurs sont r6coinpens6es, My sisters are rewarded. 

I 181. Note. Two intransitive verbsi ob^ h and convenirdef may become 

[ passive ; as, ob^r au pr^eeptewry k pr^eepteur est obii ; eonvenir d*une 

• chose, cette chose est convenue. 


Conjugation of a Passive Verb. 


I Present. — fere aim6, to be loved. 

• Past. — Avoir 6t6 aimi, to Itave been loved. 


Present. — Etant aim6, beifig loved. 
Past. — Ayant et6 aim6, having been lotted. 
Future. — Devant ^tre aim6, cdwiU to be loved. 



Je suis aim6, / am loved. 

Tu es aim6, Tliou art loved. 

n est aim6, ffe is loved. 

£lle est aim^e, She is loved. 

Nous sommes aim^s, We are loved. 

Vous etes aim6s*, You are loved. 

lis sont aim6s or elles \ nn , , 

8ontaim6e8, } They are hved. 

* Or aime, in any tense, when the pronoun vout is used in addxessing 
a single person. 



Tu as 6t6 Bam€f 
H a 6ti ahn^, 
NooA avoDs ^ Bim6»i 
VouB avez ^6 aho/is, 
lis ont 6t6 aim69y 

Me has been loved^ 
We have been lovecL 
You have been loved. 
Hiey have been loved. 


«r6tais aim^, 
Tu 6tass aim6, 
H 6tait aim6, 
Nous 6tions aim^s, 
Vous ^tiez aim6s, 
lis itaient aim^, 

I was loved. 
Thou wast laved. 
He was loved. 
Wewere loved. 
You were loved. 
They wemloved. 


Xavais 6t6 aim6, 
Tu avals ^ti aim6» 
n avait eti aim§y 
Nous avions ^t6 aini^ 
Vous aviez 6t6 aim^ 
Us avaient 6t^ aimis, 

I hadbeen loved. 
Thou hadst been loved. 
He had been loved. 
We hadbeen loved 
You hadbeen loved. 
They had been loved. 


Je fus aimi, 
Tu fufl alm^i 
n fut aim6, 
Nous fClmes aim^ 
Vous fCltes aim6s, 
Ss furent aim^s^ 

/ was loved. 
Thou wast loved. 
He was loved. 
We were loved. 
You were loved. 
They were loved. 


Xeus 6t6 aimi, 
Tu eus 6t6 aim^ 
n eut 6t6 aim6, 
Nous eiimes ^ aim^ 
Vous edtes 6t6 aim6s, 
lis eurent ^t^ aim^iy 

/ had been loved 
Thou hadst been loved 
He had been loved. 
We had been loved. 
YoU' had been loved. 
27i^ had been loved 



le Tiens d'etre ahn^, etc., / Mnejutt hem hmif 0te, 


Je Tenais d'etre aim^, etc., / had just been lopedf etc, 


Je serai ainui, / shall be laved. 

Tu seras aim§, l^au wilt be laved. 

II sera aim6, He unU be laved. 

Nous serons aim^ We shall be laved, 

Yous serez aim^s, You tviU be laved. 

Ha seroDt aim^s, They will be loved, 


•Taurai 6t6 aim6, T shall have been loved, 

Tu auras M aiin6, Thou wiit have been loved, 

II aura 6t§ aiin6» He wHl have been loved. 
Nous aurons €t& umis, We shall have been loved, 

Vous aurez 6t6 aim^s, You wiU have been loved, 

lis auront €t€ aimis, They will have been hvedm 


Je Taift etn flim^, «ie.» I am gohiff U dt bmed, eiei 


Je dois Hre aam£, etc, lam to be loved, etc, 


J'aHau dtre aim^, etc., IwasgoiwffiOL^Iomt, eie. 



Je serais aim^ J should be loved* 

Tu strais aim^ • Thau wouldst be leved^ 

II serait aim6, i?e ircm/li 6e loved* 
Nous aerioBs aim^ FFe should be laved* 

Vous seriez aim^s, You would be loved* 

lis secaient aimes» They would be loved* 

136 VERBS. 


J'aunus or euBse 6t6 aim6, I should have been loved. 

Tu aurais or eusses 6t6 aim^^ TTiou wouldst have been loved. 

II aurait or eiit 6t§ aim6, JTe would have been loved. 

NouB aurions or eussions 6t6 PFe should have been loved. 


Vous auriez or eussiez 6t6 You wovM have been loved. 


lis auraient or eussent 6t6 They would have been loved. 



Je devais ^re aim^, etc., / was to he Ujved, etc. 


Je devrais dire aim£, etc., / ought to be kvedf etc. 


J'anrais dii Stre aim^, etc., / ouffht to have been lovedf etc. 


Sois aim6 or aim6e, Se thou loved, 

Qu'il soit aim6, Let him be loved. 

Qu'elle soit aim6e, Let her be loved. 

Soyons aim^s or aiin6es, Let us be loved. 

Soyez aim^s or aim^es, Se ye loved. 

Qu*ils soient aimls, \ t^a-l r j j 

Qu'eUes soient aimW ] ^^^^ ^^^ 



Que je sois aim6, That I may be loved. 

Que tu sois aim6, That thou mayet be loved. 

Qu'il soit aim6, That he may be loved. 

Que nous soyons aim^, That we may be loved. 

Que vous soyez aim6s, ITiat you may be loved. 

Qu*ils soient aim^s^ That they may be loved. 

IfBUTBft VBftBt. 137 

Que y^ iU mxai, nai I may katfe bem hoed. 

Que ta aies ete aim^ ThaiAommaytikavebeemltwei. 

QaH ait a^ aiiii^ That he mt^ kawe been ItweiL 

One nous ayons ^ aim^s, 7%af tse meof have been iotfetL 

Que Tons ajez ^ aim^ 7%af yew meqf have been hoed. 

QaHs aeBt a^ aim^ That Aeynu^haee been heed. 

Qoejeliitteaiiii^ nail mighi be heed. 

Que ta fiuKS aim^ TTiaiihom migkiet be heed. 

QnH flit aim€^ Thai he ndgM be heed. 

Que nous fbasioiis aSm^ 2%af tse an^A^ &e heed. 

Que Toos Ibsriex aim^ 2%a^yoir an^A^AelDoedL 

QnHs fnsKDt aim^ nctf £A^ an^A^ fe Itmed: 

QuefeuK^t^aim^ nai I mighi haee been heed. 

One ta eoflBes €t6 aim^ 

Que noiis enanoos ^ aim^ Jla^tsean^A^ilaivAaoi ItiwdL 
One Tous eoflsiez ^ aim^ T^afyewan^A^Aofw&aatAwedl 
Qnlb eoflBent ^ aiiii£i» . nctf£A^fln^A^Aaeefaail9miiL 

CoDJngate the paasiTe Yerbs ^Ifirv ehiriy to be cherished; ^bv 
tf^Mvpiy to be peroehred ; iire crauUt to be feared, etc 


182. The neater Teifw are oonjiigated like transitive 
teibs. Their compoond tenses are formed with the 
anziBary verb avoir, except the following^ which are 
conjogated with iirez 

ADer, to go. Momir, to Se. 

Arriver, to aniee. . Naitre, to be been. 

D^c^der, to die. Farwemtf to aUain. 

£dme» to bhwj to hakk. Berenir, to ame agam. 

Entrer, to enter. Yeniry to 

Interveniry 6> 



Je suis arriv^y / have arrived* 

Tu es arrivi, Thou hasi arrivecL 

II est arriv6, He has arrived. 

Nous sommes arriv^, etc^ We have arrived^ eie* 

Je suis venu» / have eome. 

Tu es venu, Hunt haM come* 

II est venu, etc., He has come, etc 


Conjugate the neater veitfi arriver^ eiBtrer^ venir^ revenir 
and parvenir. 

ISS. Some neuter verbs are conjugated mth both 
avoir and ^tre ; with avoir they express an action^ with 
^tre the state resulting from that action ; as^i 

n a deneor^ ^ I^r», He has remded at Paris 

\\ est demear^ en France, He remained m FvameB^ 

11 a rest6 dleux joctn i Lyon, He sespped iw^da^ at Lfom 

On rattendait ^ I^rts, mais He wt» eacpeiMt «w PkgnSy 
it est ««9t6 i Lyoir, he remamed ai iSyom. 

See Syntaxe des Verbea. 


184. Reflective verbs (138.) are conjugated in their 
simple tenses^ and according to the conjugation to which 
they may belong, like the regular verbs given as models* 
Two proiKMina are utfed ia t^eir ccmjugalion. Thef are 
je me, tu te^ il oc eUs se^ nous nmu^ vous nous, ih or 
elles se. 

In their compound tenses they tplie itrey asy 

Je me suis coup^ / have cut mysdf. 

This difference of construction from the English language ^^tSSl recpdre 
particular attention on the part of the pupiL 


Confugation of a Reflective Verb. 



Present.'^— Sliabiller, to dress one's self. 
Past. — S*^tre habill§, -^e, -6s or -668, to have dressed one's 


Fresent. — Sliabillant, dressing one*s self. 

Fast.*— Habill6, 6e, -^s or ^es, dressed. S'6tant habilli, -6e, 

-^8 or -iesy. having dressed one^ self. 
Future^— Devant sliabiller, dbovt to dress one's self. 


/— — 99l9f»e^; I do 

Je m*habille, 
Tu tliabiUes, 
n sliabiUe, . 

Elle sliabine, 

Nous nous babilloQSy 
Yous vous habillezy 
Hs ou elles sTxabillent, 


— myself; I em ay nmfmi^. 

I dress tnysdf. 
Thorn, dnssest Ay self. 
He dresses himsdf. 

She drtttet herte^f. 
One dreetet ont^t w^. 

We dress ourselves, 
They dress themHeheSm 



Je me suis habill^, 
Tu t'es habiH^ 
n s'est babill^, 

Mon frere s'est habille, 

Nous nous sommes habill^^ 
Vous Yous Stes habill^Sy 
Ds se sont habill^Sy 
Mes fireres se sont habill^, 

In tkgfemmme tee toy : 

Je me suis habill^ 
Tu t^tt liafaQlfe. 
SDe s'est hairing 
Ma maa s'est habOlfe. 

•ed myself. 

I have dressed mysdf. 
Thou hast dressed tl^se^. 
He has dressed himself. 

My brother has dreaed himself. 

We have dressed ourselves. 
You have drissed yourselves. 
They have dressed themselves. 
My brothers have dressed themsdtes. 

Nons nous sommes habUl^es. 
Yous TOis tes habOtteik 
Elles se soBii iMbiUte. 
Mes soeors se soni hsMBIlBi, 




I was i ng myself; I used to myself; 

Je m'habillais, 
Tu t'habillais, 
II s'habUlait, 
Nous nous habillions, 
Voos vous habilliez, 
Us s'habillaient, 

•^ myself, 

I was dressing myself 
Thou wast dressing thyself 
He was dressing himself 
We were dressing ourselves. 
You were dressing yoursehes. 
They were dressing themselves. 


/ had ed myself 

Je m'dtais habill^, 

Tu t'^tais habill§, 

U 8'6tait habiU^, 

Nous nous 6tions habill^, 

Vous vous 6tiez habill^, 

lis s'6taient habill^, 

/ had dressed myself 
Thou hadst dressed thyself. 
He had dressed himseyi 
We had dressed ourselves. 
You had dressed yourselves. 
They had dressed themselves. 


myself; I did myself 

Je m'habillai} 

Tu t'habillas, 

n sliabilla, 

Nous nous habillames, 

Vous vous habill&tes, 

lis sliabilldrent. 

/ dressed myself. 
Thou dressedst thyself 
He dressed himself 
We dressed ourselves. 
You dressed yourselves. 
They dressed themselves. 


/ had ed myself. 

Je me fus habill§, 

Tu te fus habiU6, 

II se fut habill6, 

Nous nous fiimes habill^s, 

Vous vous fute^ habill§s, 

lis se furent habill^, 

/ had dressed myself. 
Thou hcuist dressed thyself 
He had dressed himself. 
We had dressed ourselves. 
You had dressed yourselves. 
They had dressed themselves. 



Je viens de mHiabiller, 
Tu viens de t'habiller, 
II irient de sliabiller, 

/ have just dressed my 9^. 
Thou hast just dressed thys^. 
He has just dressed hims^. 



NoQS Tenons de nous habiller, We have just dressed oursehes. 
Vons yenez de vous habiller. You have Just dressed yourselves. 

Us Tiennent de sliabiller. They have just dressed themselves. 


Je venais de m'hablller, etc., / had just dressed myself, etc. 


/ shaU myself. 

Je mliabillerai, I shaU dress myself. 

Tu t'habilleras, Thou icilt dress thyself 

11 s'babillera, He unU dress himself 

Nous nous habillerons, We shall dress ourselves. 

Vous vous habillerez, You will dress yourselves. 

lis s'habilleroDt, They will dress themselves. 


/ shaU have ed myself 

Je me serai habill^, / shall have dressed myself, 

Tu te seras habill6, Thou wilt have dressed thyself 

II se sera habill^, He will have dressed himself 

Nous nous serons babill^, We shaU have dressed ourselves. 

Vous vous serez habill§s, You will have dressed yourselves. 

lis se seront habill^. They will have dressed themselves. 


Je yau mliabiller, etc, / am going to dress myse^, etc. 


Je dois mliabillery etc, / am to dress myseff, etc. 


J'allais mliaibiller, etc., / was going to dress myself, etc. 



/ should myself. 

Je m'habillerais, / should dress myself 

Tu t'habillerab, Thou wouldst dress thyself 

II s'babillerait, He would dress himself 

Nous nous habillerions, We should dress ourselves. 

Vous vous habilleriez, You would dress yourselves. 

lis s'habilleraienty They would dress themselves. 

142 VBBBS. 


/ should have ed myuHf. 

Je me serais or fusse habill6, / shaitid have dressed myself, 
Tu te serais or fusses habill6, Thou wouMst have dremd iky * 

II se serait or ihi habill6, He would have dressed himself 

Nous nous serious or fussious We should have dressed our^ 

habill§s, selves. 

Yous vous seriez or fussiez You would have dressed your^ 

habill^» selves. 

lis se seraient or fussent lia- They would have dressed them- 

bill^y selves. 


Je devais mliabiller, etc., I was to dress myself, etc. 


Je derrais mliabiUer, etc^ / sTiovld or ought to A^etfiflifwjf, etc. 


J^rands d& m'habiHer, etc., IshotMot ought to have dressed my' 

self, etc, 


J}o thou . 

Habille-toiy Dress thyself 

Qu'il s'habiUe» Let him dress himself. 

Qu'elle s'habille, Let her dress herself. 

Habillons*nous, Let us dress outtsekset* 

Habillez-vous, Dress yourself or yourselves. 

Qu'ils ou qu'elles s'habillent, Let them dress themselves. 



That I may myself ' 

Que je m'habille, That I mmy dregs myHUf. 

Que tu t'habilles, That thou ma^ cbrees thysej^. 

Qu'il s'habiUe, That he may drma i kja m^ . 

One nous nous iiabiHioiiSy That we manf dnu tnartdmet. 
One Toos tous faalHlliez, That you may dress yoursdves. 
QuHb sliabiSent, That they may dress dkmsehes. 

That I may have ed myself^ etc. 

Que je me sob habiU^ That I may have dressed mysi^. 

Qae tii te sm haUU^ Thai^oumaysthavedressedUiys^, 

Qu'il se soit habill^ That he may have dressed Jdmsdf. 

Que nous nous soyons That we may have dressed omr^ 

habiU^s, sdves. 

One Tons voos so jez Thai you may have dressed your- 

habifl^s, selves. 

Qa^ se soient habin6s, That they may have dressed them- 

Qae je mTiabiHasse, That I might dress mys^. 

Que ta fhabillasses, That thou wighJtst dress thyself. 

Qu'fl sliafaill^ That ke miyht dtem Aimse^. 

Que nous nous babiDasrieas, 7%ai we nuyht dress o ur se lv es . 
Que Tous TouB babSUassiez, That you might dress yoursehes. 
Qu'ils sliabillassent, That ihey might dress dkemsehes 

That I migkt hmvB ——^ myself. 

Que je me fusse babi]16. That I might have dressed myself. 

Que tu te fusses habU16, Thatthoumighisthavedressedthyself 

Qn^ se mt babiUe, That he mi^ have dressed hims^. 

Que nous nous fussions That we might have dressed our- 

babin^ wIhbs. 

Que Tons tous fussiez That you might have dressed your- 

halafl^s, sdves, 

Qu'iWfleluBKDtbabiU^ That tiey miyht kme dewsasd Oem- 



185. Models of Reflective Verbs conjugated negatively s 
interrogatively J and interrogatively with a nega- 




Ne pas se r^jouir, not I S'apercevoir*, to per' I Se perdre*, to^eofie'« 
io rejoice. ' ceive, I self. 


Ne pas s*6tre rejoui, 1 S'dtre aper9u, to have i S'etre perdu, to have 
not to have rejoiced, I perceived. I htt one*8 self. 



Ne se r6jouissant pas, I S'aperceyant, percei- Se ^rdant, losing one*8 
not rqoicing, I ving, self 


Rejoui, -ie, -is or -ies, 

Ne s'^tant pas r6joui, 

not having rejoiced. 

Ne devant pas se r^- 
jouir, not about to 

Aper9U, -ue, -us or 
-ues, perceived. 

S'^tant aper9U, having 


Devant s'apercevoir, 
about to perceive. 

Perdu, -ue, -us or -ues, 

S'etant perdu, having 

lost one's self. 

Devant se perdre, a- 
bout to lose one's 


/ do not rejoice, etc. 
Je ne me li^ouis pas. 

Tu ne te r^jouis pas. 
II ne se r^ouit pas. 


Do I perceive ? etc, 
M'aper9ois-je ? 

T'aper9ois-tu ? 

Interrog. toith a neg. 
Do I not lose myself ? 
£st-ce que je ne me 

perds pas ? 
Ne te perds-tu pas? 
Ne se perd-il pus ? 

* The infiaitiye not undergoing any change in interrogations, s^apercC"' 
voir and se perdre are given affirmatively in that mood, to serve as refer- 





Vous ne toos igoms- 

lb De le rtjoniwent 

V ons apetceresfr^oiis 

Sent me wm pas xe- 


To ne fa pas ^^^"^ 
n ne s'ert pM iqouL 



mot pssiO" 

Je ne me i^ j ouina is 


Nous fommcsHiOiis 

Se lontrib apergns? 

Tn ne te r^< 

Nous ne now 




^a» Ipereemmg ? 

Noos apeicevions' 

Voos apeiceviez- 


Je ne m'teif pas if- 

Tn ne t'teb pas 16- 

n ne s'teit pas r^ooL 
Noos ne noos Maoa 

Voos ne voos fciex 

pas r§|oois. 
Jb nes'ftaient pas rf- 


Had I pereeived? 

T^tais-tn ^er^? 

S'teift-il aperfo? 
Nods Mons-noos 

Voos ^tieZ'Toos 



Ne TOOS peioez-Toas 

Ne se podent-ib pasT 

Have I mai loti mtf- 

se^? etc 
Ne me vaatryt pas per* 

Ne f es-to pas peidn? 
Ne s'eslril pas perdn? 
Ne noos sommes-noos 

Ne Tons dtea^voos pas 

Ne se sont-ib pasper- 


WoM I not Itmmg mjf- 

self? eU. 
Ne me perdau-jepas? 

Ne te perda»-io pas? 

Ne se perdaifc-il pas? 

Ne TOOS peidicz-TODs 

Ne se perdaieni-ib 

Had I wot lott wKf- 
ulf? eU. 

Ne m'^Cais^epas per- 

Ne t'tob-ta pas per- 

Nes'ftait-3 paspetda? 

Ne noos ^dons-noos 

pas perdifs? 

Ne s*etaxeDt-]b pas 




/ did not rejoice, etc, 

Je ne me r^ouis pas. 
Ta ne te r^jouis pas. 
II ne se r^jouit pas. 
Nous ne nous r^jou- 

imes pas. 
Vous ne vous r^jouites 

lis ne se r6jouirent 


I had not rejokedy 

Je ne me fus pas ti- 

Tu ne te fus pas r6- 


II ne se fut pas r^joui. 
Nous ne nous filmes 

pas r^jouis. 
Vous ne vous fiites 

pas r^jouis. 
Us ne se furent pas 


/ shaU not rejoice , 

Je ne me rdjouirai pas. 
Tu ne te r^jouiras pas. 
n ne se r^oaira pas. 
Nous ne nous rljoui- 

Tons pas. 
Vous ne vous r^joui- 

rez pas. 
lis ne ser^ouiront pas. 

/ ihoM not have re- 
joiced, etc. 

Je ne me serai pas 

Tu ne te seras pas 

II ne se sera pas t6- 

Did I perceive? etc. 

T'apercus-tu ? 
Nous aperpiimes- 

Vous aper9iites-voas? 



Had I perceived t 

Me fiis-je aper^u? 

Te Ais-tu apercu? 

Se fut-il aper9U? 
Nous fdmes-notts 

Vous futes-vouB aper- 

Se furent-ils aper9U8 ? 


Shcdl I perceive ? 

M'apercevrai>je ? 
T'apercevras-tu ? 
Nous apercevrons- 

Vous apercevrez- 

S'apercevront>iIs ? 


Shall I have perceiv- 

ed, etc. 
Me serai-je aper9u ? 

Te seras-tu aper9U? 

Se sera-t-il aper9U? 

Did I not lose my- 

eelfr etc, 
Ne me perdis-je pas ? 
Ne te perdis>tu pas ? 
Ne se perdit-il pas ? 
Ne nous perdimes- 

Ne vous perdttes-vous 

Ne se perdirent-ils 

Had I not lost my- 

Ne me fiis-je pas per** 

Ne te fus-ta pas per- 

Ne se fut-il pas perdu? 

Ne nous f&mes-nous 
pas perdus ? 

Ne vousf&tes-vouspas 

Ne se furent-ils pas 

Shall I not lose my- 

self? etc, 
Neme perdrai-je pas? 
Ne te perdras-tu pas? 
Ne se perdra-t-il pas ? 
Ne nous perdrons- 

nous pas ? 
Ne vous perdrez^voua 

Ne seperdront-ilspaa? 

ShaU I not have lost 

myself? etc. 
Ne me serai-je pas 

perdu ? 
Ne te seras-tu pas 

perdu ? 
Ne se sera-t-il pas 

perdu ? 



Nons ne nous serons Nona serons-noiu | Ne nom serons-noiis 

pas perdus ? 
Ne vous serezrYOOS 

pas perdus? 
Ne ae serant-ik pas 

pas r^onis. 
Voos ne toos serez 

pas rgonis. 
lb ne se sennit pas 


Vous seres-Tons 

Se seront-ils s^per^ns? 


I should not rejoice, 

Je ne me r^ooirais 

Tnne te Ti^ooirais pas. 
n ne se Tgonirait pas. 
Nous ne nous ifjooi- 

nons pas. 
Vons ne toos r^ooi- 

Ss ne se r^ooiraient 

/ tkotdd wol ha9e re- 

joieedj eie, 
Je ne me serais pas 

I^ ne te sends pas 

n ne se aemit pas 

Nona ne nons serions 

pas r^ouis. 
Vous ne vons seriez 

Us ne se seraient pas 


Je ne me luase pas 

Tu ne te fanes pas 

n ne seflkt pasr^oni. 
Nons ne nons fiusions 

pas r^ocds. 
Yoos ne voos fussiez 

pas r^onis. 
fls ne se iussent pas 



Should I perceive f 

M 'aperceviais-je ? 

Tapercevrais-ta ? 
S'apercevrait-il ? 
Nous apeiceviions- 

Ydos ^erceYnez- 


S'apereerraient-ils ? 


Should I have per- 
ceived f etc. 
Me serais-je apercn? 

Te serais-tu apeiva? 

Seserait-il apercn? 

Nons serions-nous 

Vous seriez-Yoos 

Se 8eraient-3a s^per- 


Me fbss^je apercu ? 

Te fosaes-tn apercn? 

SefHt-il apercn? 
Nods fuasions-DOiis 

Voos fbssiez-Tous 

Sefussoil-ils apercos ? 

Should I not lose my- 

se^? etc 
Ne meperdiaia-je pas? 

Ne te perdrais-tn pas? 
Ne se perdrait-il jpaa? 
Ne nous perdnons- 

nous pas ? 
Ne Yous peidriez-Tons 

Ne se perdraient-ib 


\ Should I not have lost 

myself? etc. 
Ne me serais-je pas 

Ne te serua-tu pas 

Ne se serait-il pas 

Ne nous serions-nons 

pas perdus? 
Ne vous seriez-Yous 

pas perdus? 
Ne se seraient'ila pas 


Ne me fusse-je pas 

Ne te fussea-tu paa 

Ne se nkt-U pas perdu ? 
Ne nons fusnona-noos 

pas perdus? 
Ne YOUS fossiez-Yons 

pas perdus? 
Ne se fussentofls paa 






Do thou not rejoice, etc, 
Ne te r^jouis pas. 
Qu'il ne se r^jouisse pas. 



Let us not rejoice, etc. 

Ne nous r^ouissons pas. 
Ne vous r^ouissez pas. 
Qu'ils ne se r^jouissent pas. 



That I may not rejoice, etc. 
Que je ne me r^jouisse pas. 
Que tu ne te r^jouisses pas." 
Qu'il ne se r^jouisse pas. 
Que nous ne nous r^ouissions 

Que vous ne vous rejouissiez 

Qu'ils ne se r^joulssent pas. 


That I might not rejoice, etc. 
Que je ne me r^jouisse pas. 
Que tu ne te i^jouisses pas. 
Qu'il ne se r6jouit pas. 
Que nous ne nous r^jouissions 

Que vous ne vous rejouissiez 

Quils ne se r^jouissent pas. 


That I may not have rejoiced, etc. 
Que je ne me sois pas rdjoui. 
Que tu ne te sois pas r^oui. 
Qu'il ne se soit pas r^oui. 
Que nous ne nous soyons pas r^- 

Que vous ne vous soyez pas r6- 

Qu'ils ne se soient pas r^ouis. 


That Imight not have rejoiced,etc. 
Que je ne me fusse pas rejoui. 
Que tu ne te fusses pas rejoui. 
Qu'il ne se fdt pas rejoui. 
Que nous ne nous Aissions pas 

Que vous ne vous fussiez pas r^- 

Qu'ils ne se fussent pas r^jouis. 


Conjugate the following verbs affirmatively, negatively, in- 
terrogatively, and interrogatively with a negation : 

Se promener*, to walk, 
Se coucher, to go to bed, 
S'6tonner, to wonder, 
S'empresser, to he eager, 
S'enrhumer, to catch cold, 
Se baigner, to bathe. 

Se baisser, to stoop, 

S'accorder, to agree, 

Se d^p^cher, to make haste. 

Se vanter, to boasL 

Se iigurer, to fancy, 

S*emparer, to seize upon. 

S'attacher, to become attached, Se fier, to trust, 

* Se promener is to walk at leisure or for exercise or amusement. As it 
means literally to mxne forward^ it may be used with reference to various 
other exercises for recreation or pleasure. Thus we say, Se promener a 
cheval, to ride on horseback ; ee promener en bateau, to gib in a boat. 


Se d^er, io diatnuL S'endonmry tofaU adap. 

Se m€fier, to nuMtmsL S'abstenir, to tAttmn. 

Se reposer, to resL Se soaTenir, to remtmben 

Se ressoavenir, to remember. Se rependr, to repenL 

S'3ancer, to rush tq^m. S'eDtreteniTy to diseom'se. 

Se leturer, to retire. Se plaindre, to coM^dattu > 

S'eDiichir, to grow rick. S'abonner, to subscribe. t 

S'^vanooir, tofmsi away. S'emporter, to get ma pas^iom. 

S'lmagiiier, to imagme. Se facfaer, to get aMgry.jr 

S'eDYoleTy to fig awag. Se lever, to rise. ^ 


The impersonal verbs are also conjugated according 
to the ending of their Infinitive mood on one of the 
verbs of the preceding models. Thos^ neigerfto snow, 
is conjugated^ in the third person singular^ on aimer. 

186. Conjugation of Unipersonal or Impersonal 

Verbs (139.). 

T AVOIR, there to be ; 

an idiomatic verb, UteraUg there to have. 


Campomid Tenses. 


T avoiry T avoir en. 

There io he. There to hose heeu. 


T ayanty T ayant en. 

There hdmg. There haeimg beem. 



Ilya, Dyaeo, 

T%ere is or are. There has or have heem. 

iMFmarecT. pi.irFB&rBCT. 

n y avait, II y avait en, 

litre wn or were. There had been. 

* lim participle fnture Deoant y aveir,.. is an i^om wludi m^ hs 
tnmlaledbTtheirards^t/AcrvaBtofc... t (166.). 

150 VfiRBS. 


II J eut, II y eut eu, 

There was or were. There had been, 


II y aura, II y aura en. 

There will be. There will hone betmm 



II y aurait, H y aurait or eiit en, 

There would be. There would have been, 


Qu'il y ait, Qu'il y ait eu, 

That there may be. That there may have been. 


Qu'il y eiit, Qu'il y e(it eu, 

That there might be. That Mere might have been. 

187. Examples of the verb y avoir used neffoHvdy^ itUerroga- 

thefyf etc* 

Ya-t-a? Is there? N'y a-t-il pas ? Istfierenotf 
Iln'yapas, There is not. N'y aura-t-il pas? Will there not be f 

188. Note. II eat is often used with the meaning of II y a; as, 

Hett des malheurs qu'on ne peat sup- There are mitfortvnes which we eon 
porter que diffidlement, endure but with difficulty. 

189. Falloib^ To be necessary , must. 


Simple Tenses. Compound Tenses. 


Falloir, Avoir fallu, 

To be necessary. To have been necessary. 



{None.) Fallu, Ayant fallu, 

Been necessary. Having been necessary. 






It is nectsMory (it must), 



It was necessary. 



It was necessary. 

H faadi^ 

It wiil be necessary. 


II a fallu. 

It has been necessary. 


n avait {JBdlUy 

// had been necessary . 


n eat falla, 

It had been necessary, 


n aura fallu» 

It wiil have been necessary. 



It would be necessary. 


n anrait or eid falla, 

It would have been necessary. 



Qu'il faiUe, 

That it may be necessary. 

Qu'il hJkikt, 

That it miyht be necessary. 


Qu'U ait fallii. 

That it may have been necessary. 


Qn'a eut falla. 

That it miyht have been necessary. 

190. Note. The impenoiial Ye^/aUoir is often used with en and the 
pronouns Use, tail ienfaiU ; or it may hsTC for subject an adverb of quan- 
tity ; as peu t^enfaui. The different manners of using this yerfo may be 
con^ered as idioms having no literal equivalent in EngUsh, as will be seen 
in the following sentences (554.) : 

II s'en teft Uen qo^ soit instniit, He is far from btmg learned. 

Pea s'en tsX hXta qa'fl n'ait soe- He was very nearfaOkng. 


II ne s'en est pnaqioe lien tthiqa^ HewasasnearaspouihkbeimfkUkd. 

n'aH et^ tn^, 

Jenesois pas oontentde Tons, tant I am not satisfied with ycmtfer from 

s'en iaut, it. 

152 VERBS. 

191. Gomparison between the English verb must and 


The English verb must^ as / musty thou must^ he 
musty etc., is expressed by the impersonal verb falloir 
in two ways ; as, 

I must go, n faut que je parte, or il me faut partir. 
Thou must speoky II faut que tu paries, or il te faut parler. 
We must writBy II faut que nous ^crivions, or il nous faut 

You must study y II faut que vous ^udiiez, or il vous faut 


192. // me faut y il tefauty il luifauty il wmsfaut^ il 
vous faut y il leurfauty etc., with a substantive, imply 
need or want ; as, 

II me faut un dictionnaire, / want a dictionary. 

II lui faut de I'argent, He wants money, 

n nous faut de bons livres, We want good books. 

II leur faut des moyens, They want means. 

193. Many verbs are frequently used impersonally; 

II fait, it (makes) is. See fairs H se peut, it is possible. See 
(in the list of irregular verbs). pouvoir (irr.). 

II arrive, it haj^[>ens. II s'ensuit, it foUows. See 

II convient, it becomes. suivre (irr.). 

II sied, it is becoming. See IL pisAty itpleases. Seeplaire^ 

seoir (irr.). (!"*•)• 

Ilimporte,t7maAiav(See p.l67). II tient, it depends. 

II semble, it seems. H me souvient, / rememlkr. 

II parait, it appears. II me tarde, I long. 

II sufBt, U is enough. See suf II est permis, it is allowed. See 

fire (irr.). permettre (irr.). 

n s'agit, it importSy it is the II reste, there remains. 



II est arriv^ un accident. An accident has happened. 

11 parut cinq ou six soldats. Five or six soldiert appeared. 

11 me tarde de revoir ma patrie, / hng to see again my native land. 

Que vous reste-t-il ? What have you remaining f 

De quo! s'agit-il ? What it the matter f 

II ne tient qu'4 vous d'etre in- It depends only upon yourself <a 
struit become learned. 


n frift'bcn ttwof^ It isjbae (mrmtirr). 

II ftia Wm dniianiy Jt mil bejhu 

n &ii de Tongc^ li v slorvy. 

n fidt froia, cfcaod, etc:, // it eoU^ kot, tie. 

II mlmportait beaocoop de frire /f irav very hmpoHwtt Umi i 

tkomld take ikmi Miep. 
n ne voDS fled pas de eootmicr, Jt doet aol 

Voos lies eontent, soffit, Tiw errpteesfd^ i#iff «aMii9A. 

Que worn semble-t-a de ce tan ITia/ do yom ttimk tf thml 

D w pent que vobe pngeC i6»- Jif if potdUe ftmr profeet 

Ripoiides, s^ TODS plait, Amtmer^ if yam pUmMt, 

Yim pbii-O d'Hre de U pertie? Doa it smiymttohetf the party? 

YowcBaoimcnfe-aiiicD? Do yam remember H wtUr 

n s'cosmvit de gnunda mam, 6reaf ewUtfoBamed, 


194. The tenses of Terbs are dmded into prim ii we 
and derivative. The primiiive tenses are thciee niiidi^ 
by change of termination, senre to form adl others; 
thejr are the present of the in/btitive^ the partiaple 
present J the present of the indicative j and the past de^ 
finite. The participle past may also be called a primi- 

tive tense. It does not howerer form other tenses by 
change of termination, but by means of the anxiliauy 
▼erbs amnr and itre. The derivative tenses are those 
vhich are formed from the primitire. 

General rules for forming the Tenses, 

195. From the Infinitive present are formed: 

1st, Hie Futitre of the Indicatives^ by adding or, 
aSy a, ofiUj ezy ontf} as, mmer, — j'aimerot, tn aimenu, 
n aimera, noos aumerons, toos aimerer, ils aimenm/ ; 
ag»^, — j'agirot, tn agirof, il agim, nous agiroir^, roos 
agirez, ils agirmi/* 

2nd, The Conditional*, by the addition of air, ais, ait. 


tUsd eoaiagatioa; see pages 124 aad 127. 
t The e of Ae iiiiithe of tcriK of Ae fBOrtk 




ions, iezj aient*', as, timer, — j'aimera/^, tu aimerot^^ il 
aimerai'/, nous Bimerions, vous aimeriez, ils aimevaienti 
agtV, — j'agirat^, tu agirats^ il agirait, nous agirion^^ 
vous agiriesr, ils agiraient, 

196. From the Participle present are formed : 

1st, The three persons plural of the Present of the 
Indicative^, by changing the termination ant into 
ons, ez, ent; as, aiman^^ — ^nous aimons, vous aime^, ils 
ahnent; agissan^, — nous agisson^^ vous ag^ssez, ils 

2nd, The Imperfect of the Indicative, by changing 
4int into ais, aisy ait, ions, iez, and aient ; as, dlmant, 
— j'aimaifi, tu axmais, il aimatV, nous aimtoiw, vous 
dimiez, ils aimaten^ ; agissa^i^, — j'agissaM, tu agissai^, 
il agissatV, nous agissioTz^, vous agissie^, ils agissate^t^. 

3rd, The Present of the Subjunctive^, by changing 
ant into e, es, e, ions, iez, and ent ; as, aiman^, — que 
J'aime, que tu aime^, qu'il aime, que nous aimions, que 
vous aimte^;, qn'ils aimen^; agissara^, — que j'agisse, 
que tu agisse^, qu'il agiss^, que nous agissio7i5, que 
vous ag}S9iez, qu'ils agissenf. 

197. With the Participle pcust are formed all the 
compound tenses, by means of the auxiliary verbs avoir 
and ^tre. 

198. From the Present of the Indicative is formed : 
The Imperative, by omitting the pronouns used as 

subjects to the verb, such as tu, notes and vous. The 
imperative has no first person singular. The third per- 
sons are like those of the present Subjunctive. 

199. When the second person singular of the present of the 
indicative ends in es, the s is suppressed in the imperative ; as, 
tu aimeSf thou lovest ; — ^imperative, aimCy love thou : but when 
the imperative is followed by the pronoun en or y, the s is re- 
tained for the sake of euphony ; as, offres-en d ton ami, offer 
some to thy friend; apportes-y tes livres, bring thy books thither. 

. 200. Note. The enphonic 9 is not used before the preposition en ; as, 

* The e of the infinitive of verbs of the fourth conjogstion is omitted ; 
as, rendrct — je rendrai, je pendrint. 

t Except Terbs of Class IV. of the second ooqjngation, and verbs of the 
third conjugation; seepages 124 and 127. 


tqpporte en rnhne tengts um carte de France, bring at the same time a map 
of France. 

201. From the second person singular of the Past 
definite of the indicative is formed : 

The Imperfect of the Subjunctive, by adding se, ses, 

sionSy siezy and sent, except the third person singular^ 

which changes the final s into t, and has a circumflex 

accent on the preceding vowel (dty it^ uty int) ; as^ tu 

aimo^, — que j'aimo^^^^ que tu aimo^^^^^ qu'il aimd^^ que 

nous aimo^^toTz^^ que vous dkixxLassiez, qu'ils VLixxia^senti 

tu agw, — que j'agt^^e, que tu agisseSy qu'il agf^, que nous 

SLgissionSy que vous d^issiez, qu'ils agmen/. 

Note. The verbs which demte from the above ruleSi or from any of the 
following terminations, are given hereafter in the List qf irregular and 
defective verbs, 



To serve for reference in the formation of the Tenses of all 
Verbs f according to the preceding rules (194. et seq.). 



-er, -ir, -oir, -re. 



( ing.) 

-ant in all verbs* 


( erf.) 

-^, -i, -u, -s, -t- 


(/ , do , or am ing-) 


First pert. Second, Third, First pers. Second, Third. 

( Je, /.) (tu, thou.) (jl,hei elle,tAA) (jxous,Vfe.) (vous,y(m.) (ils or elles,/A«y.) 

"Cj "es. ™e. 

"Sj ""^J "V. 

-ds, -ds, -d. 

-X -X, -t. 

-ons, -ez, -ent. 




», toas inff, or used to 



FvTBt pen. Second, Third, Firttpen. Second. Third, 

(Je, /.) {tUfthou.) (il,Ae; eWe^he,) {no\is,we,) (yous^yotf.) (il8orelle8,/Acy.) 




-lons^ -lez^ 







-rais, *rais, 


(/ ed.) 

-a. -&mes, 

-it. -Imes, 

-ut. -iimes, 

-int. -Inmes, 


(IshaU ) 

-ra. -rons, 

(/should' ,) 
-rait. -rions, 

(Do thou , do ye 



No first r.e, -s, -ts,l 

person ■< / ' J >-e. -ons, 
ininilar. L"^S,-CS,-X, J 




(That I may .) 





-asse, -asses, 

-isse^ -isses, 

-usse, -usses, 

-insse, -insses, 


(ThatlmigJu .) 

-At. -assions^ -assiez. 












-riez, -raient. 







S03. In the following list, all the irregularities of the yerbs are giveii in 
fall ; bat, in general, when the tenses are regular, that is, formed according 
to the rules page 153, or the synoptic table page 155, the first person only 
is given ; thus, in absoudrb, from fabsohaiSt the first person of the im- 
perfect, form by the rules and table the remaining persons, tu absohtas, 
UabwhtAi, nous absolmoni, vans absolmez, its absohfdient ; from fabwudni, 
the first person of the future, form tu abtaudna, it absoudn, nous absou- 
droBBf vous absoudrez, Us absoudront, 

N.B. The tenses are placed in the following order: — ^The Infinitive 
Present — ^the Participle Present — Participle Past — the Indicative Present 
— Imperfect — Past Definite — Future — ^the Conditional Present — the Im- 
perative — the Subjunctive Present and Imperfect. 

Etre subjoined to the participle, signifies that the compound tenses are 
conjugated with that verb ; as, je suis alle. 

A verb preceded by an asterisk (*) is defective. 

Abattre, topuUdoton, Conjugated like battrey which see. 

204. Note. When a compound word, that is, a word compounded of a 
verb and of a preposition, such as Abattre^ occurs in the alphabetical order, 
reference is, in most instances, made to the simple verb from which it is 
derived; and like which it is conjugated. 

*Absoudr£, to absolve, Absolvant, absous (feminine ab- 
soute) — J*absous, tu absous, ii absout ; nous absolvons, 
vous absolvez, ils absolvent — J'absolvat; (203.) — (No 
past definite) — J'absoudrat — J*absoudraw — Absouf — 
Que j'absolve — (No imperfect of the subjunctive,) 

*Abstraire, to abstract. Like traire, 

Faxre abstraction de is usually preferred. 

AccovKiRy to run to. Like coun'r. (J'ui or je suis accouru.) 
♦Accroire. Only used in the infinitive toith faire, as faire 
accroire, to impose upotiy to make one believe ; as, vous 
voulez m*en faire accroire, you wish to deceive tne, 

AccuEiLLiR, to ioelcome. Like cueillir, 

Acquerir, to acquire, Acqu6rant, acquis — ^J'acquiers, tu 
acquiers. il acquiert ; nous acqu^rons, vous acqu^rez, ils 


acqui^rent — Jacqu^row — J*acqu» — J'acqueriYii — JTac* 
querrat; — Acquiers, qu'il acqui&«; acqu^rons, -ez, qu'ils 
acqui^reot — Que j'acquiere, -es, -e; que nous acquirions, 
-iezy qu'ils acquidrent — Que j'acqut5«e. 

205. Note. The double r in the future and the conditional must be 
sounded strongly, to distinguish between the pronunciation of faegu^U 
KDdfacguerrai or facguerrait (see note page 7). This observation ap- 
plies also to the verbs courir, to ruui and moMrtr, to diCi which see. 

Admettre, to admit. Like mettre. 

Aller, to go. Aliant, alle (itre) or avoir ^t6 — ^Je vais, 
tu vas, il va ; nous allons, vous allez, ils vont— >J'alkitf 
— J*allat — Yvrai — J*iraw — Va, qu'il aille; allons, allez, 
qu*iis aillent — Que j'aille, -es, -e ; que nous allions, que 
vous alliez, qu*ils aillent— Que j'alW«e. 

306. Note. We use both Hre aSi and atmr /U,—bs, Je tuh an/,fai 
4t4t etC| — ^for the compound tenses of this verb. Eire aiU means to be 
gone, and avoir 4t4 means to have been or returned. Thus, U ett aUi h 
Parte intimates that he is at Paris, or still on his journey thither, and 
Uaitiik Parte implies that he has been to Paris, or that he has dwelt there. 
Examples of this verb in the first person : 

.Si Ton vient me demander, dites Jfanyeneaekfarme^mjftkatltpn 

qaeje tuts aU4 a la bourse, gone to the Exchange. 

J^y ai 4U deux fois ce matin, / have been there twice thie morning. 

Etre alle, followed by another verb, is used in preference to avoir ete, 


n est all^ le voir k Paris, et il en ffe vfent to see him in Paris, and he 
est revenu, hoe returned. 

Modem grammarians give as a rule that itre alii is to be used when 
movement is principally implied, and avoir Ste when simply expressing a 
past state or existence ; as, 

Je suis all^ h. Paris en poste, I potted to Paris. 

J'ai et^ k Paris, / have been to Pane, 

207. Note. In the conjugation of aller there are three distinct roots, 
aller, va\s, and trai. The first of these, all, (as in allu, all6, etc,) is pro- 
bably derived from the Latin verb ambulare, to walk, hence the French 
words ambulant, ambler, etc. (Some grammarians consider the word 
aller derived from the Celtic, see Remarguee philologigties sur Vorigine de la 
langttefranqaiee in the Rxpsbtoibb littsraire, page xxiv.) The second, 
va, (je vais, tu vaB, il va, etc.,) is from the Latin verb, vadere, to ffo, (whence 
we have evader, to escape, evade,) and the third, ir, (j'trai, j trais, etc.,) 
from the Latin verb ire, to go (whence we have the compound words 
perir, to perish ; etibir, to undergo). 

208. Note. Aller is frequently used as a reflective verb with en ; thus, 
8*en aller, to go away. £xampl<» : 

S'en aller, to go away. S'en Stre alle, to have gone away. 

S'en aliant, going away. S'en ^tant alle, having gone away. 



Je m'en vik , 

Tu t'en TaSy 

II 8*eii va, 

Kom nous en aOoiis, 

Toils TfMu en allez, 

Us t'en Yont, 

Je m'en snis alle, 

Ta t'en es all^ 

n e'en est all^ 

Noofl nous en sommes aD^ 

Vous Tons en Stes all^, 

lis s'en sont aU^ 

Simple TViiMt. 

Je m'en allais, etc. 
Je m'en allai, etc. 
Je m'en irai, etc. 
Je m'en irais, etc. 
Que je m'en aille, eta 
Que je m'en allasse, etc 

Je ne m'en Tais pas, etc. 
Je ne m'en aUais pas, etc. 
Je ne m'en allai pas, etc 
Je ne m'en irai pas, etc 
Je ne m'en irais pas, etc 
Que je ne m'en ulle pas, etc. 
Que je ne m'en allasse pas, etc. 

J €m ffontff awt^m 
thou art gomg motofm 
he is going away, 
we are gdng away, 
you are going away, 
they are going away* 

I hate gone away, 
thtm hiet gone away, 
he ha» gone away, 
we have gone away, 
you have gone away, 
they have gone away. 

Compound Teneee. 

Je m'en etais alle, etc 
Je m'en fus alle, etc 
Je m'en serai alle, etc. 
Je m'en sersis all^ etc 
Que je m'en sois aO^, etc 
Que je m'en fiisse alli^, etc. 


Je ne m'en snis pas all^, etc 
Je ne m'en ^tais pas all^ etc. 
Je ne m'en fus pas all^, etc 
Je ne m'en serai pas all^, ete. 
Je ne m'en serais pas alle, etc 
Que je ne m'en sois pas all^, etc 
Que je ne m'en fiisse pas aI14 etc 

ExampleB of the Imperative, 
JJSrmativefy, Negatwdy. 

Va-t'en. Ne t'en va pas. 

Qu'il s'en aille. Qu'il ne s'en aille pas. 

Allons-nous-en. Ne nous en allons pas. 

Allez-Tons-en. Ne vous en allez pas. 

Qn'ils s'en aillent. Qu'ils ne s'en aillent pas. 

209. Note. The imperatiye va takes «, for the sake of euphony, when 
followed by y, thither ; as, vae-y^ go thither; but if jr be followed by a 
yerb in the infinitive connected with va, the 8 is not added ; as, va y 
mettre tout en ordre, go and arrange everything. Va also takes « when 
followed by the pronoun en ; as, vag en aavoir dee nouveUet, go and obtain 
some information about it (Acadkmeb). Va does not however take s when 
followed by the preposition as (200.). 

^Apparoir, to be evident A law tenn, used only in the infi- 
nitiTe, and in the indicative present Srd person singular, 
U.appert, it is evident. 
AppRBNDREy to learn. Like prendre. 
Ass AiLLiR, to assauU, AssaiUant» assaiUi — J'assaiiley -es, -e ; 
nous assaiUons, -ez, -ent — J'assailloi*— J' 


saillirat — J'assailliraM — Assailk — Que j'assaille— • Que 
AssEOiR (s*), to sit down. S'asseyant, assis (etre) — Je 
m*assieds, tu fassieds, il s'assied; dous nous asseyons, 
V0U8 vous asseyez, ils s'asseyent — Je m'asseyoti — Je 
m*a8stff — Je m'assi^rat or a&seyerat — Je m'aBsi^roM or 
taseyerais — Assieds-toi, qu'il s'asseye; asseyons-nous, 
asseyez-vous, qu'ils s*asseyent — Que je m'asseyci — Que 
je m'asswM. 

The reflective conjugation of the yerb asMotr is here given on aeoount of 
the frequency of its use. But the student should also practise its conjuga- 
tion as a transitive verb with a substantive, as in the following examples : 
asaeoir un et^ani, tuteoir un malade, — asseyez eet. enfant, ee malade; as- 
seyez4e sur. le gazon ; asseyez bien cette demoiselle h ehetaL 

*Attraire, to allure. Like traire. 

This verb is seldom used but in the infinitive. 
Attirer may supply the tenses wanting. 

*AvENiR (sometimes written advenir), to happen. Only 
used in the infinitive mood, the participles, and in the 
third persons. In those forms it is conjugated like venir 
or tenir^ page 122. 

lies choses 6tant en cet ^tat, il avint Matters being m that condition, it 
que. . . hcqtpened that. . . 

n en aviendra ce qui pourra, Htqtpen what may. 

On ne pent pas pi^voir tous les cas We cannot Jifresee all occurrences 
qui avien^nt, that may arise. 

Les choses qui sont avenues, The things which have happened. 

It is used chiefly in the fiuniliar style. 
Jvenant, avenu are also used as law terms : 

Avenant le d^ces de Tun des deux, In case either should die. 

Le cas avenant que... In the event of.., 

Acte nul et non avenu, Jet null and qfno effect. 

Avoir, to have. See page 84>. 

Battre, to beat. Battant, battu — Je bats, tu bats, il bat ; 
nous battons, -ez, -ent— Je hattais — Je battts — Je battrai 
— Je battraw — Bat* — Que je battc — Que je haXtisse. 

Benir, to bless. 

This verb is regular, and conjugated like aptr, but in speaking of things 
consecrated by the church, its participle is b^it, as dupain b6Ut. 

BoiRE, to drink. Buvant, bu — Je bois, tu bois, il boit; 
nous buvons, vous buvez, ils boivent — Je buvaw — Je bus 
— Je boirat — Je boirai* — Bois, qu'il boive; buvons, -ez,. 


qu'ik boivent — Que je boive, -es, -e; qae nous buvions, 
que Yous buviez, qu'ils boivent — Que je btcMe. 
B0UILLIR9 to boil. Bouill^nt, bouilli — Je bous, tu bous, il 
bout ; nous bouillons, -ez, -ent — Je bouilkiM— Je bouil- 
1m — ^Je bouillirai — Je bouilliraii — Bous, qu'il bouille; 
bouillons, bouillez, qu'ils bouiUent — Que je bouille — 
Que je bouilliMC. 

This Yorb in an aetwe sense is only nsed in the infinitiTe mood with 
/aire, to make ; as, J« /ai$ bonUMr de Veau, As an intransitiYe Terb it is 
frequentlj used figuratively ; 9A,je bous de eoUre, U bouiUait d^impatienee, 

*Braire, to bray. II brait ; ils braient — ^11 bralra ; ils brai- 
ront — n brairait ; ils brairaient. 

This verb is seldom used but in the infinitrre and the persons and tenses 
here given. ' 

*Bruire, to roar^ to rustle, Bruyant — Imperfect^ H bruyait; 
ils bruyaient. 

The following are examples of other tenses and new forms of this verb 
nsed by moderh writers : 
Le feuillage, Tinsecte, les vents, les flots irmseent. — ^Boiste. 
Les serpents k sonnette bruieeaieiU de tontes parts. — Chateaubriand. 
II n'y a pas on insecte qui bruUte sous llierbe immobile. — Nodxkb. 

^Chaloir, to care for. An obsolete verb, used only in the 
3rd pen. sing, of the pres. ind., chauty aspeu nien ehaui, 
for peu niimpoTte^ little do I care for it. 
''Choir, to faU. Used only in the iTtfinithe and participle 
past, Chu. 

CiRCOMCiRE, to circumcise. Circoncisaot, eirconcis — Je cir- 
concis, -8, -t; nous circoncisons, -ez, -ent — Je circoncisatf 
— Je circonc» — Je circoncirat — Je circoncimiff — Cir- 
conctff — Que je circoncise — Que je circonciMe. 

CiRCONSCRiRE, to circumscribc. Like icrire. 
*Clore, to close. Closant, dos — Je clos, tu clos, il cl6t 
(no plural) — Fut. je clorot — CoruL je cloniM — Imperai. 
clos — Sub;, pres. que je dostf. 

CoMRATTRE, to fight. Like baUre. 

CoMMETTRE, to commtL Like tneitre. 
^CoMPAROiR, to appear. A law term, used only in the infini- 
tive ; as assignation a eomparoir, itre assign^ d con^roir. . 

CoMPLAiRE, to please. lAkepkUre. 

CoMPRENDRE, to Comprehend. Like prendre. 

CoMPROMETTRE, to compromise, expose. Like mettre. 

CoNCLURE, to conclude. Concluant, conclu — Je concln^— 


Je conduotf (nous conduions, yous condniez) — Je 
condttf — Je condumt — ^Je conduraw — Condos, qu'il 
condae ; conduons, -ez, qa'iU conduent — Que je condoe 
(que nous conduions, que vous oonduiez) — Que je con- 

CoNCouRiRy to concur. Like courir. 
*CoNDOULOiR (se^t to condole. (Obsolete.) Found only in the 
present of the infinitive ; as, se oondouloir avec quelqu'tm. 

CoNFiRE, to preserve {fruit, etc.). Confisant, confit — Je 
eonfis, -s, -t; nous confisons, -ez, -ent The rest like dire^ 
except the 2nd person plural of the imperatiTe, configez^ 
*Conqu£riR) to conquer. Like aequerir^ but only used in the 
infinitive and the following tenses: Participles, Com^ 
queranty conquis — Past dei Je conquis — Subj. imperf. 
Que je conquisse. Also in the compound tenses, J*ai 
conquis, etc. 

CoNTREDiRE, to controdicL Like cftre, except that it makes 
vous comtredisez in the 2nd person plural of the pres. 
indicative, and contredisez in the imperative. 

CoNTREFAiRE, to cwMerfaJL LikeySitne. 

CoNVAiNCRE, to coHvinee. Like vainere. 

CoRROMPRE, to corrupt. Like rompre. 

CouDRB, to sew. Cousant, cousu — Je couds, tu couds, il 
coud ; nous cousons, -ez, -ent — Je oousow — Je cousw — 
Je coudrat — Je coudmif — Couds, qull couse ; cousons^ 
-ez, qu'ils cousent — Que je cou8« — Que je oousMse. 

CouRiR, to run. Courant, couru — Je cours, tu cours, il 

court ; nous courons, -ez, -ent — ^Je couRit»-^e coun»— 

Je coumai (205.) — Je courrais (205.)— Cours, qu'il 

coure; courons, courez, qu'ils courent — -Que je coure— 

Que je couTusse. 

Note. In speaking of races or hunting, coxtbre is sometimes used in- 
stead of eourir ; as, courre le eerfy U lUvre, le daim, etc 

Croirb, to believe. Croyant, cm — Je crois, tu crois, il croit ; 
nous croyons, -ez, ils croient — Je croyai* — Je cms — Je 
croirai — Je croiraw — Crois, qu'il croie ; croyons, croyez, 
qu'ils croient — Que je croie, que tu croies, qu'il croie ; 
que nouf croyions, que vous croy iez, qu'ils croient — Que 
je CTUsse. 

CuEiLLiR, to gather. Cueillant, cueilli — Je cueille, -es, -e; 
nous cueillons, -ez, -ent — Je cueillau — ^Je cueillw-— Je 
cueillerot — Je cueillerats — Cueille, qu'il cueille ; cueil- 
lons, -ez, qu'ils cueillent — Que je cueille — Que je cueilltiM. 


D^BATTBBy to debaie. Like baUre. 
^DicHois, to decay. {No pres, parL) deeka (avoir or iifty 
— Je d^chois» ta dechms, il dechoit; noias dechojonsy 
Tons d^chojez. Us deehoient — (Ab impaf^}-~5e, d^ducf 
— Je decherroi — Je deehemou^ — (No M^feraL) — Qoe 
je dechoie, que ta dechoies, qiill d^choie; que nous d^ 
choyions^ que toqs d^choyiez, qu'ils decboient — Que je 
^DicLORE, to unciose. Like ehre, 

Decoudre, to tmttw. Like condre. 

Decrire, to describe. Like icrire. 

Dedire, to disown. Like dire, except the 2nd pern pL ind. 
pres. and the 2nd pers. pL of the imperative, dlditez. 
*Deeaillir, to decay. Used in the past part., 'D^cdJOi% in the 
plural of the indicatiTe pr€&, No^u difmUans, -tz, "trnt^ 
the imp^ Je difaiUm, etc; the past definite, ./e d^ailks, 
etc.; and in the compound tenses, TaidifaiUi^ etc 


Dbeaire, to drfeai, umdo. Ukefa 
Dbfaire (se)y to gel rid if. JJiefiEtre. 
Dbmkttr^ to remove., I^ke wuUre. 
Demettrb (se), to rengm. Like mdbre* 
^DiMOVYOiR^toeaueeto desiaL (A lav tenn.) The iafinitiTe 
only IB used. 

D^pLAiRB, to ditpleaee. 
^D^pouRFOiR, to take away wkai is wasUed or 

Used in the infinitiTe, and participle past, d ipomvu i as, 
se depaureokr dargeni^ — U iesi d ipomw s de tomi fossr 
Hecer ses et^mis. 

Desapprevdrb, toforyeL like premdre. 

DBviriR, to tmdress. Like viiir. 

Dire, to teU. Disant, dit — ^Je dis^ tn dis^ il dit ; nous disons, 
▼cos dites, ils disent — Je disoit — Je d£s — Je din» — Je di- 
rais — Dis, qnH dise ; disons, dites^ qalls disent — Qoe je 

ThscoxTSLiaL^ to diaeourse. 
*Dis80udre» to dissoive. Like absoudre. 
*Distraire, to diverL Like tndre. 
^Dvinz^ to please. (Obsolete.) A familiar exprawon found in 

burlesque poetry, generadly in the third pers. fiug. of the 

pre9. indie: as, eaa ne voms dmitMpas f 


l^BATTRE (s*), to sport, to be merry. Like battre. 
Ebouillir, to boil away. Like bouiUir, 
This Terb is seldom used but in the infinitiTe, and participle ebtmiOL 
^EcHoiR, to expircy to be due, to happen. £ch6ant, 6chu — 

II 6choit pronounced and frequently loritten il 6chet; 

ils ichoient or ils 6ch6ent. — (No impeff.) — J'6ch«« — 

J*^herrat — J*6cherniw — (iVb imperat. nor subf. pres.) 

— Que y^chusse. 
The infinitiTe of this verb is often joined to the verb devoir ; as, 
Ces effets ont dil ^hoir, Tlkote biUt must have been due. 

♦EcLORE, to blow, to hatch. (No part. pres.), ^clos — 11 eclot, 
ik 6closent— (iVb imperf. nor past drf.) — II ^cldra, ils 
6cl6roQt — ^n 6cldrait, ils ^cloraieDt — Qu'il 6close, qu*ils 
6closent — (No imperf. sub;.) Used in the compound 
tenses; as, il est 6clos, elles sont ^closes. 

IScRiRE, to write. Ecrivant, 6crit — J'^cris, tu 6cris, il 6crit; 
nous 6crivons, -ez, -ent— njicrivai* — J'^crivM^-J*6crirB» 
— y^nrais — Ecris, qu'il ^rive; ^crivons, -ez, quils 
6ciivent — Que j*6crive — Que y^rivisse. 

Elire, to elect Like Ure. 

Emboire, to imbibe. (A term used in painting.) Like boire. 

^J^MOUDRE, to wheL Like moudre. 

Emouvoir, to stir. Like mouvoir. 

This Terb is seldom used except in the present of the infinitiTe, the past 
participle, the present of the indicatiTC, and in the oomponnd tenses. 

*Enclore, to inclose. Like clore. 

Encourir, to incur. Like courir. 

Enfuir (s'), to fly or flee. lAkefuir. 

Enquerir Ts*), to inquire. Like acguerir. 

Ensuivre (s'), to follow. (ImpersonaL) S'ensuivant, en- 
suivi — II s'ensui^ — II s'ensuivai^ — ^11 s'ensuivt^ — II s'en- 
suivro — H s'ensuivrat^ — Qu'il s'ensuive — Qu'il s'ensuivl^ 

This Terb is nsed in the third persons singular and plural with reference 
to things ; as, Un grand bien e^ensuivit, a great adTantage followed ; Le 
tribunal casta la procedure, et tout ee qui s'etait entuivi, the court annulled 
the suit and all that followed it ; Voyez lee erreure qui a^ensmvraient de 
cetie proposition, see the errors that would result from that proposition. 

Entre-luire, to glimmer or shine faintly. Like luire. 
Entremettre (s*), to mediate. Like mettre. 
Entre-nuire (s*), to injure one another. Like nt^tV^. 
Entreprendre, to undertake. Like prendre. 
Entrevoir, to have a glimpse of. Like voir. 
Envoyer, to send. Envoyant, envoy6 — J*envoie, -es, -e; 


nous envoyons, vous envoyez, ib envoient-^J'envoyati — 
J'envoyai— -J'enverroi — Tenverrais — Eovoie, qu'il en- 
voie; envoyons, -ez, qu'ils envoient — Que j'envoie, -es, -e; 
que nous en voy ions, -iez, qu'ils envoient — Que j'envoyoMe. 

Epremdre (s'), to be smiUen. lAke prendre. 

Seldom used except in the past part. ^ms. 

Kquivaloir, to be equivalenL Like vcUoir. 

£tre, to be. (See page 89.) 

ExcLURE, to exclude. Excluant, exclu or exdus. The rest 

like conclure. 
ExTRAiRE, to extract. Like traire. 

*Faillir, tofaU. Used in the participles, y!i»2ian£yyat22r; in 

the past definite of the indicative,/?yat2ti^, tufaUliSy etc.; 

and in the compound tensesyj^aifauliy etc (55^). 

The Dictionary of the Academy g;iTes all the tenses of the indicative, 
observing at the same time that they are htUe used. 

Fairs, to make. Faisant pronounced cmd frequently written 
fesant, fait — Je fais, tu fais, il fait; nous faisons pro- 
nounced and frequently written fesons, vous faites, lis 
font — ^Je faisais, tu faisais, il faisait ; nous faisions, vous 
faisiez, ils faisaient, pronounced and frequently written je 
fesais, tu fesais, il fesait ; nous fesions, vous fesiez, ib fe- 
saient — Je fw — Je ferat — Je ferat; — Fais, quil fasse; 
faisons pronounced and frequenUy written fesons, faites, 
qu'ib fassent — Que je fasse-— Que je fiswe. (550.). 

*Falloir, to be necessary. (See page 150.) 

*Ferir, to strike. Found only in the expression sans coup 
ferir, without striking a blow. The participle yeru b 
sometimes used. 
Fleurir, to blossom. Conjugated like the regular verb agir; 
but when it means toflourish^ as in speaking of the arts, 
sciences, empires, etc, its participle present isfinissant, 
and the third persons of the imperfect of the indicative 
wceflorissait andJhrissaienL 

Le eommene Jloristttit, Get azbre^Zevrttsoi/ an printemps, 

TVade was floorishing. 7%a/ tree blossomed m tprmg. 

L'emphe eaXflorismmt^ Voyez cm fleuriaaanteM prairies, 

The engrire it flourishing. Behold tiote fUmery meadowg, 

^Forclore, to ddnir. ParLpcut, forclos (a law term). No 
other tense used. 
This verb oflers another of the numerous instances of useful words in 


the l^rench langiuget which have become obsolete. ** Qu*on urrive^* says 
Voltaire, "auxportes d'tme viUeferm^; Ton ett — quoi? nout n^aooru pbu 
de mot pour exprimer cette ntuatUm; woui ditions autrtftna : fordos/' 

*FoRFAiREy toforfeiL Participle past only, Forfait 
*Frire, to fry. Participle past, Frit — Je fris, tu fris, il frit. 
In the plural we say nous faisons frire, vous faitesfrire, 
Usfontfrire, And iu all the other tenses also, — except the 
(uturejje frirai, tu friras, etc.; the conditional, /c yW- 
rais^ etc.; and the second pers. sing, of thein]perat.,/m» 
— it is conjugated with the verb faire and the infinitive 
fiire ; BS^je faisais frire, ^tf^jefisfrire, etc. Its com- 
pound tenses are regularly formed with the participle past, 
frit\ dAy fed fritffavais frit, eUi. 
FuiRy io fly or flee. Fuyant, fui — Je fuis, tu fuis, il fuit ; 
nous fuyonsi -ez, ils fuient — Je fuyais (nous fuyions) — 
Je fut«---Je fuirai — je fnirais — Fuis, qu*il fuie ; fuyons, 
-ez, qu'ils fuient — Que je fui« (que nous fuyions)— --Que 
je fuMse. 

The present and imperfect of the subjunctive of this verb are seldom 
used ; tiiey are supplied by quejeprenne lajuite, guejepri$se lafiUte, 

*G£siR, to lie. Gisant. Indicative present 3rd pers, sing,, 
il git ; nous gisons, vous gisez, ils gisent — Je gisais, -ais, 
-ait; nous gisions, -iez, -aient. In its other parts this 
verb is obsolete. Ci-git is used on monumentsd inscrip- 
tions for hicjacety here lies. 

Note. Gisant, giaoni, ffiaez, gisent ; je gimit, etc., are pronounced as if 
they were vmtten with a double « : gigaant, gisaotu, etc. 
Git is often used by the poets : 

Peuples, rois, vous mourez, et vous, villes aussi; 
La git Lacedemone, Athenes fut id. — ^L. Racine. 

Hair, to hate, Haissant, hai — ^Je hais, tu hais, il halt (pro- 
nounce^e Ae«, tu his, il hit); nous haissons, vous haissez, 
ils haissent — Je ha'issai^— Je haist, tu hais, il ha'it; nous 
haimes, vous haites, ils hairent— Je hairai— >Je hairais 
— Hai^ (pronounce his) — Que je bai'sse— Que je haisse, 
que tu haisses, quil halt ; que nous haissions, que vous 
halssiez, qu'ils haissent. 

t Such as meschie/, mischief; couardise, cowardice; te douhir, to la- 
ment ; condotUohr, to condole; confbrt, relief; confbrter, to oonaole, com- 

t The past definite of Mir is seldom used. It is not found in the dic- 
tionary of the French Academy. 


*Ilo'svinff to dishonour. (Obsolete.) The participle past, 
honni, is used familiarly. 

Honni soit qni mal y pense. — Motto qfthe Order of the Garter, 

^Importer, ix> he of consequence. 
Only vsed in the infinitiye and in the third persons singular and plural ; 

En quoi cela peat-illui importer ? Of what importance can that be to 

Ce sont des choses qui ne m'impor- Those thtnge are qf little consequence 
tent guere, to me. 

Importer is often used impersonally ; as, 

n lui importe beaucoup de faire ce It it very inqtortant for Mm to tm- 
Toyage, dertaie that jottmey. 

It is also used in a great number of phrases, chiefly negative or interro- 
gative, for the purpose of expressing the want of importance we attach to 
anything; as, 

Qa'importe la pnlssance, la gloire, Qfwhathiq>orianeei»power,(even) 
a. eUe ne rend point heureux ? fflorj/f ifitdoee notmaietu happy ? 

Qu'importent des critiques injustes ? Of what tti^fortance are unjust cri- 

N^mporte qni, n'importe quoi, n'importe lequel, etc. Que m'importe ? 
qne t'importe ? Que nous importe ? etc. 

The above verb Importer, to be of consequence, must not be mistaken 
for the verb importer, a commercial term meaning to import, or introduce 
fordgn productions or merchandises into a country. The latter is regu- 
larly conjugated like aimer i 

Cette Industrie fiit tn^ortie en France par un tel. 

Inscrirb, to inscribe. Like dcrire, 

Interdire, to forbid. Like dirCy except that it makes inter' 

disez in the 2nd pers. pi. of the indie, and imperative. 
Inter ROM PRE, to interrupt. Like rompre, 
*IssiR, to issue. Obsolete, except in the participle past, issu. 

Lire, to read, Lisant, lu — Je Us, tu lis, il lit ; nous lisons, 
-ez, -ent — Je lisow — Je ItM^—Je Mrai — Je Mrais — ^Lis, 
quil lise; lisons, lisez, qu'ils lisent — Queje Use — Que je 
*LuiRE, to shine, Luisant, lui — Je luis, tu luis, il luit ; nous 
luisons, vous luisez, ils luisent — Je luisat> — {No past 
def) — Je luirat — Je luiroi; — Lui« — Que je luise — {No 
imperf, subf.) 

t HonmTi de Tallemand honen, fait de hen, opprobre, honte.— Roque- 


^Malfaire, to do wrong. 
This verb is only used in the infinitive ; as, itre encUn d maffaire. 

Maudire, to curse, Maudissaot, maudit — ^Je maudi« — Je 
maudissow — Je maud» — Je maudirat — Je maudiroM — 
Maudif^ — Que je maudiss^— Que je maudi^^e. 

Me DIRE, to slander. Like dire, except that it makes m^- 

disez in the Sud pers. pi. of the indie, and imperative. 
*Mefaire, to do wrong. 

This verb is used only in the infinitive ; as, t7 ne /out ni mefairt m' 

Me PRENDRE (se), to mistake. Like prendre. 
^Messeoir, not to become. Like seoir. II ne Tnessied jaaais 
de faire une bonne action, it is never unbecoming to do a 
good action. 

Mettre, io put, Mettant, mis — Je mets, tu mets» il met; 
nous mettons, vous mettez, ils mettent — Je metUUs — ^Je 
mis — Je mettrai — Je mettrati — Mets, qu'il mette ; met- 
tons, mettez, qu'ils mettent — Que je mette — Que je misse. 

Moudre, to grind, Moulant, moulu — ^Je mouds, -ds, -d ; 
nous moulons, -ez, -ent — Je moulaif — Je moults — ^Je 
moudrai — ^Je moudrat> — Mouds, qu'il moule; moulons, 
-ez, -ent — Que je moule-^ue je moxxlusse, 

MouRiR, to die, Mourant, mort (elre) — Je meurs, tu meur5, 
il meurt ; nous mourons, -ez, ils meurent — Je mouroi^ — 
Je mouruf-^e mourrat (205.) — Je mourrats (205.) — 
Meurs, qu'il meure ; mourons, -ez, qu'ils meurent — Que je 
meure, -es, -e ; que nous mourions, -iez, qu*ils meurent — 
Que je mouiti^ffe. 

MouvoiR, to move, Mouvant, mu (mue, mus, mues) — Je 
mens, tu mens, il meut ; nous mouvons, -ez, ils meuvent 
— Je mouvai« — ^Je mus — Je mouvrat — ;Je uaouvrais — 
Mens, qu'il meuve ; mouvons, -ez, qu'ils meuvent — Que 
je meuve, -es, -e ; que nous mouvions, -iez, qu'ils meuvent 
— Que je musse. 

Several tenses of this verb are foond only in the didactic style. Remuer, 
to move, is the term in more general use. 

NaItre, to be bom, Naissant, n6 (etre) — Je nais, tu nais, il 
nait; nous naissons, -ez, -ent — Je naissai^ — Je naquis — 
Je nait^m — Je naitras; — Nais, qu'il naisse ; naissons, -ez, 
qu'ils naissent — Que je naisse — Que je naqui;^. 


NuiRE, A» kurt. ParL poMij NoL The rest r^;a]ar, like 
comdMire, page ISO. 

*OcciRE, to hUL (Obsolete.) ParLpast^ Occis. 
Omkttre, to cmiL Like mettre^ 

*OciB, to hear. Used only in the infinitive ; in the participle, 
oan; in the paist definite,yoa(u , etc. ; and in the imperfect 
aatgonctivey quejomssej etc Its chief use is in the com- 
pound tenses; as, oces-twacf cm dire eetie ntmcdUf 

Yormaij amir was oonjngatod in all moods and tenses; the IndicatiTe 
present, for instance, was /ott, iu oiu, U oit; moms flyoMt, voms oyer, iU 
oiemi. It is the second person plnzal of the impeiatiTe of this veib, oyer 
(hear ye !), tfaoogh cnrioosly angticisfd in its pronunciation into "O yes !" 
wfaidi still fimns the premonitoiy frriimarion of the paUic criers in En- 
gland, and in oomts of law on making proclamation, to command atten- 
tion. This word is a remnant of the andcnt British laws, which in the 
time of WiDiam the Conqueror were written in ftench ; as also is oyer, an 
anriqnited fann of the same vefb omr, and applied, in conjunction with 
iiimimu, to eomts of assize, as a " commission of nijfer and termmer" or 
to hear and detennine. 

Oyer is finmd in the £ibles of Lm Famiaiae: 

" n ne £uit jamais dire anx gens, 
' Econtez nn hon mot, ogfer une menreille.' " 

Pater, to pay. Payant, paye — ^Je paye, tu payes, il paye or 
il pale ; noos payons, vous payez, ils payent or ils paient 
— Je payoif — Je payot — ^Je payemt, or je paierot, or je 
pairoi — Je payermf, or je paierotf, or je pairaii — ^Faye, 
qu'il paye ; payons, payez, qu*ib payent--Qae je paye — 
Que je payooe. 

The Tob jMyer, although regular and conjugated like mmtr^ is given 
here on account of the vanedorthogrsphy of some of its tenses, sanctioned 
by the Fkench Academy. 

^Faitre, to graze. Pussant, puf {sddom tued) — Je pais, tu 
pais, il pait ; nous pniiwons, vous paissez, ils paissent--Je 
ipiaissais—(No past dif.) — Je paitroi — ^Je paitnuf — PaL«, 
qu'il paisse ; paissons, -ez, qu ils pai8sent---Que je paisse 
—(^yo imperf,) 

Parcourir, to run over. Like courir^ 

Parfaire, to oomplttt. (Obsolete.) Like^^nre. 

Permbttre, topermU. Lake metfre. 

Plaire, to pltaae. Flaisant, pin— Je {dais, to pbusy il plait ; 

t Pm n'ert mite qa'ca tennei de Anoonneiie. Vnfuem fid m ptu — 



nous plaisons, vous plaisez, ils plai«n1>-Je plaiBaM--Je 
p1m«— Je plairat— Je plaimtV— Plais, qu il plaise; plaisons, 

Pleuvoir, to rain. (Impersonal.) Ple^^.^^^^ ^ "^ S 
—II pieuvait-Il plut^Il pleuvra-Il pleuvrait— Qu'il 

pleuve — Qu*il pl(it. 
Pleuvoir is frequenUy used figurativ^lr. In'wbich instance it is foimd 
inSTpl^al; as?Ze, liens, les digmUs, fe»^"«^ «Jf ^ f*^. J« 
Bossuet, in aUuding to the immense goodness of the Most High, has 

"^Dieu ftot luire son soleU sur les bons et sur les manvais, fXpUui but le 
champ du juste comme sur celui du pecheur." 
♦FoiNDRE, to dawn. (Impersonal.) Used in th^ infinitive, 
and in the future, ilpoindra. 
PouRsuivRE, toi?Mr«w. Likewtwc. 
PouRVoiR, to pnmde. Pourvoyant, pourvu— Je pourvois, 
-s, -t; nous pourvoyons, -ez, ils pourvoient— Je pour- 
voyaii— Je pourvw— Je pourvoirwt-nje pourToiraw— 
' Pourvois, qu'il pourvoie ; pourvoyons, -ez, qu ils pour- 
voient— Que je pourvoie— Que je pourvM^^c 
♦PouvoiR, to he able. Pouvant, pu— Je puis or peux, tu peux, 
il peut ; nous pouvons, -ez, ils peuvent— Je pouvaw— 
Je pi«— Je pourrat— Je pourra«5— (iVb imperal.)'-Q^e 
je puisse— Que je ^usse. 
210. Note. In interrogations, for the sake of euphony, /mi* is to be 
used instead oipeux with the pronounce ; as, 

PuU'je y aUer ? May I go thither ? 
In the future iepottrrot and in the conditionalitf i»iirra*ff only one r is 
pronounced. , . i 

Prbdire, toftyretM. Like dire, except that it makes pre- 
disez in the 2nd pers. plural of the pres. indicative and 

Prendre! to teA«. Prenant, pris-^^e prends, -ds, -d ; nous 
prenons, vous prenez, ils prennent— Je prenaw— Je prw 
-Ije prendre— Je prendraw— Prends, qti'il prenne; 
prenons, prenez, qu'ils prennent^-Que je prenne, -es, -e ; 
que npus prenions, -iez, qu'ils prenncnt— Que je pnwe. 
Prescrire, to /we^crt^. Ukeicrire. 
Pr6valoir, to prevail. Like valoir, except the suiy.pres^ 
que je prevale, que tu pr6vales, qu'il pr^vale; que nous 
pr^valions, que vous pr6valiez, qu'ils pr^valoit 
TIaed BronominaUyi?r«ft?fltotr means to take advantage, to presume; as, 
L'toMie ne doit pas beaucoup sepr^aloir de sa raSson qra le trompe 


PRivoiR, toforeMee. Like vair^ exoq>t the fiaure^ je pi€- 
Toirai, tu pr^voiras, il prevoira; noos pr^voiroos, tous 
pr^oirez, iis pr^voiront ; and the amdidonaly je pr6- 
Toirais, tu privoiiaia, il prevoiiait; nous pr^yoirionsy 
▼ous prevoiriez, iis preyoiraient. 

Promettre, to jTnofltue. Like«iie£^re. 
^PromouvoiR) to/iromafe. like inoumitr. 

Tlds Tob IB seldom used exeept in the infinitive, and in the comp oui id 
teosei, as tic ^promM, he has been pramotod ; — wfoaeer maj rapply the 

Proscrire, topro9cribe» Like ^icrtre. 

*QoiRiR9 to fetch. \^9ed only in the infinitive after a2ier; 
envoyer, and t«mr ; as, o/Zesr me querir un id; je Vat 
envoy 6 querir; il nCett venu querir. 

Rabattre, to abate. Like baUre. 

Rapprendre, to learn again. Like prendre. 

Rasseoir (se), to sit down again. Like s'asgeoir. 
*Ravoib, to have again. VwA only in the infin. present 

Rebattre, to beat again. Like battrt. 

Reboire, to drink again. Like boire. 

REBOiriLLiRy to boil again. Like botdUir. 
^Reclure, to shut up. Used only in the present of the infi- 
nitire ; and in the compound tenses, asilesi reekts dans 
sa maisony he is shut up in his house. 

Recokquerir, to conquer again. Like acquifir. 

Recoudre, to sew again. Like coudre. 

Recourir, to run again^ to have recourse. Like courir. 

R^CRiREy to write again. Like 6crire. 

Recdeillir, to gaUier. Like cueilUr. 

REDiFAiRE, to undo again. Take /aire. 

Redire, to sag again. Like dire. 

Ret AIRE, to do again, hike f aire. 

Refleurir* to blossom again, to flourish again. UAa^fleurir. 

Relire, to read again. Like lire. 
^Reluire, to shine. Like hdre. 

Remettre, to put again. Like mettre. 

Remoudre, to grind again. 1 r •!. j^ 

RiMOUDRE, to whet again, ] ^^ '^'"'^ 
^RsNAiTRE, to be bom again. Like naiire. It has no parti- 
ciple pasty and therefore no compound tenses. 
^Revtraire, to dam. Like traire. 



Renvoyer, to send back» Like envoyer. 

RepaItre, to feed. Like paUre^ except past def.^ je repu^^ 
and imperf. sub., que je repusse, 

Reprendre, to take again. Like prendre. 

'Repromettre, to promise again, lAkemettre. 

Requerir, to require. Like ajcquerir. 

Resoudre, to resolve. R^oivant, r^olu — ^Je r6sous, tu r^- 
sous, il r6sout ; nous r6solvons, vous resolvez, ils r^l- 
vent — Je resolvau — ^Je lesxAus — Je resoudrat — Je r^ 
soudrat^ — R6sous, qu'il resolve ; r^solvons, -ez, qu'ils re- 
solvent — Que je resolve — Que je xesohisse, 

When r&oudre signifies to choaige a thing into another, its participle is 
r^umt, and it has no feminine ; as, drouOlard rAous enpkaet fog turned 
into rain. 

*Retrair£» to redeem. Like traire. 

Revaloir, to return like for like, to be even tvith one. Like 

RevStir, to invest. Like vitir. 
Revivre, to revive. Like vivre. 
Revoir, to see again. Like voir. 
Rire, to laugh. Riant, ri — Je ris, tu ris» il rit ; nous rions, 

vous riez, ils rient— Je riaw — Je m — Je rirai — Je rirais 

— Ris, qu'il lie ; rions, riez, qu'ils rient — Que je rie — ^Que 

je visse. 
RoMPRE, to break. Rompant, rompu — Je romps, tu romps, 

il rompt; nous rompons, -ez, -ent — Je rompau — ^Je rompt^ 

— Je romprot — Je romproif — Romp« — Que je rompe«— 

Que je romptW. 

*Saillir, to prqfect. Saillant, sailli — II saille, ils saillent — 

II saillait, ils saillaient — (No past def.) — II saillera, ils 

sailleront — II saillerait, ils sailleraient — Qu'il sailk — 

Qu il sailH^. 

SaiUir, to gush out, is regularly conjugated like agir; the verb jaittir, 
however, is used in preference. 

Satisfaire, to satisfy. "Likefaire. 

Savoir, to knofo. Sachant, su — Je sais, tu sais, il sait; nous 
savons, -ez, -ils savent — Je savat> — Je sm5— Je saurai — 
Je ssLurais — Sache, qu'il sache; sachons, sachez^ qu*ils 
sachent — Que je sache — Que je susse. 

Sll. Note. Je ne sache is an idiom frequently used at the heginuing of 
a sentence ioxje ne connais, I do not know. 
Je ne eaehe rien de ,plus attrayant I do not know anything mare at^ 

que r^tude de la nature, tractive than the study qf nature. 


212. Nor. Qaeje mdke » also «b iilwiinatic kwotion li eq u e uQ^ 
afttiiecBdof aBegatiicKBtcBee in order to OHkGfy oriestnct the ] 

nn'at point aOem la campagnefM He u 9oi gome mU tie emmifj to 

jemtief my knowledge. 

SstJl TOW qpidqa'nn? — ^Non pas Has amy ome called T — Xoi to my 

fmeje ancfte. knowledge. 

813L NoiK. Je nr anrait offers another idiom of this TCib osed in 
liar langnage forje nepmis, I cannot. It modifies or dimimshcs die abao- 
lote aense o!f the latter; as, /« ne wtBormM fmre ce que von diteg, I cannot 
do what Ton skw. The diffe i cn ce of meaning hetween je me marau and 
je mepmia is happflr explained in the foDowing period : 

"C^qn'onaeaanmiiyacre est difficile; oeqn'onne/wn/yhcrvest impos- 

Sbcourir, io hdp. like etmrir. 

*Sboir, to beeomej tofiU The following tenses are in use : 
Seyant — ^11 sied; ils si^nt — ^11 seyait; ils seyaient — ^11 
siera; ikseront — Ilsi6rait; ilssieraient. Examples: Cdt 
kabii voms sied buHj this coat fits you well ; eeg eonitmrs 
ne voms ntemiptUj those colours do not become jou. 

^Seoib,6» tiL Scanty siiimg^ amd sis, sitmaieti, only are in use. 

Ei*Bpfes: lepmrfeommt^mii Art rfwf • We Umutuie rt the p a ifiammt 
was then sitting at Westminster; a wdire, nne maiw rue rme St. Ihmm ti 
PmriOj to he aoU, a house sitnatcd, etc 

*SouDKE, to 9ohx. Used cmly in the infimtiTe ; as^ Somdre 

Scum BTTRE, to nAndL like nuttre. 
^SouRD&E, to ^frimg cmL Used only in the infimtiye, and the 
third persons of the present indicative, stmrd^ mmrdaU ; 
as, feme aouid de la tern, the water springs out of the 
earth ; cm dk qme It Rkm^ It Rkdme etlePo sourdent de 

So mrdr e is also used iguiatiid y in the infailii e mood; ai, 

CaftOB fisait qa'cn frapjpant dn pied oontre tcne, Q en fiEnit a wg d^ c des 

SouBiRE, to smilt. like me. 

SouscimtE, to smb^eribe. like ^erve. 
*SousTRAiR£, to nAtraeL like Anotre. 

SuFFiRE, to nffict. Su£Bsant, suffi — Je snffis, -is, -it ; nous 
suffisoDs, -ez, -ent — Je suffisoif — Je sufiu — Je suffinii — 
Je suffiftof — Suffis, qull suffise ; suffisons, -ez, qulls suf- 
fisent — Que je suffise-— Que je suffuie. 

Tdh is often used impeisonaDy : asv ■! M^, it is snfficiait. 


SxnvKEf toJbUow, Soifant, suiyi-^e auisf, tu fiuisy il suit; 
nous suivons, -ez, -ent-^e flaivat»-*Je suivw — Je 
suivrat — Je snivrais — Suis, qu'il suive; suivons, -ez, 
qu'ils suivent — Que je suiv« — Que je suivicse. 

Surf AIRE, to exact, lAkefQire. 
*SuRGiR, to land, arrive. Used in the infinitive only; as, 
surgir au port. 

Smyir is used figuratively, meaning to isme, to rise ; as, 

La discussion a fait suigir de nou- The diteuuion has gwen rise to new 
veUes difficult^, d^ffkmlties. 

SuRPRENDRE, to surpTtse. lAke prendre. 

SuRSEOiR, to supersede, put off*. (A law term.) Sursoyan^ 
sursis— Je sursois, tu sursois, il sursoit ; nous sursoyons, 
vous sursoyez, ils sursoient— Je sursoyoM — Je sursw — 
Je surseoira^— Je surseoirat^ — Suraoi^*— Que je sursoie 
— ^Que je suTsisse. 

SuRVivRE, to ouilive. Like vivre. 

Taire, to conceaL Taisant, tu — Je tais, tu tais, il tait; nous 
taisons, -ez, -ent — Je taisai^ — Je ius — Je taimt — Je tai- 
nziff— Tais, qu'il'taise ; taisons, ^ez, qu'ils taisent — Que 
jetaise — Que jettcsse. 
*Ttstre, to weave. Used only in the part. past, Tissu. 

Tisser, which is a synonyme of tistre, is regiikrly oonjugated tike mmer 

Tissu is firequently used fignsadvely : 

Des jeurs iissus d'or et de sole. 
TisBer is .used only in its liteial or proper sense. 

*Traire^ to -milk. Trayant, trait— Je trais, tutrais, il trait ; 
nous trayons, -ez, lis traient — Je traya» — (No past drf.) 
— Je trairai — Je trairat^ — Trais, qu'il traie; trayons, 
trayez, qu'ils traient — Que je traie — (iVb imp. subj.) 

Transcrire, to transcribe. like icrire. 

Transmettre, to convey. Like mettre. 

Tressaillir, to start. TreasaiUant, tressailli — ^Je tressaille, 

t The analogy hoth in pronnnciation and orthography between ^> <ttt«, 
I Ibllow, andjtf suis, I am, has occasioned the foUowing^etc de motsi 

'* Je suis ce que je suis, 
Je ne suis pas ce que je suis ; 
Car si j'^tais ce que je suis, 
Je ne serais pas ce que je auis." 

The mi at tiie end of the second and third lines means * follow,' as the 
words are supposed to be uttered by a groom riding behind his master. 


tu tressailles, il tressaille (some authors have written, for 
the sake of euphony, il tressaiUit) ; nous tressaillons, -ez, 
-ent. The rest like assaillir, 

Vaincre, to vcmquish, Vainquant, vaincu — ^Je vaincs, tu 
vaincs, 11 vainc ; nous vainquons, -ez, -ent — Je vainquati 
— ^Je vainquM — Je vaincrai — Je vaincrais — 'Vaincs, qu'il 
Yainque; vainquons, -ez, qu'ils vainquent^— Que je 
vainque — Que je vainqui^^e. 
*Valoir, to be worth. Valant, valu — Je vaux, tu vaux, il 
vaut ; nous valons, -ez, ils valent — Je yalais — Je ybIus — 
Je vaudrai — Je vajxdrais — (No imperative) — Que je 
vaille, que tu vailles, qu*il vaille ; que nous valions, que 
Yous vaiiez, qu*ils vaillent — Que je Ydlttsse. 

Most grammarians say that valoir has no imperative, yet we find voimt, 
wdezy in the last edition of the Dictionary of the French Academy. 

YStir, to dress. Y^nt, vktu — Je vets, tu v^ts, il vet ; nous 
T^tons, -ez, -ent— rje v^taw — Je vetw — Je v^tirai— Je 
vktif ais — ^V^ts, qu'il v^te; v^tons, -ez, qu'ils v^tent — 
Que je vite — Que je YiiUsse. 

ViVRE, to live. Vivant, vecu — Je vis, tu vis, il vit ; nous 
vivons, vous vivez, ils vivent — ^Je vivaw — rJe v6cm*— Je 
vivrat — Je vivra« — Vis, qu'il vive; vivons, -ez, qu'ils 
vivent — Que je viv« — Queje y^cusse. 

Voir, to ^see. Voyant, vu— Je vois, tu vois, il voit ; nous 
voyons, vous voyez, ils voient— Je \ojais — Je vw — Je 
verrai — Je verraw — ^Vois, qu'il voie; voyons, voyez, 
qu'ils voient — Que je voie, -es, -e; que nous voyions, 
-iez, qu'ils voient — ^Que je yisse. 

VouLoiR, to be vnlling. Voulant, voulu — Je veux, tu veux, 
•il veut ; nous voulons, -ez, ils veulent — ^Je voulai^ — Je 
voultt*— Je voudrai— Je voudraw-— Veuille, qu'il veuille; 
veuillez, qu'ils veuillent — Queje veuille, -es, -e;.que 
nous voulions, -iez, qu'ils veuillent — Que je voult^^e. 

The second person of the imperative is used in the sense of deigtit he so 
food Off be to kind as ; as,- veuillez me priter totre dietioanairef be so good 
as to lend me your dictionary. But when we command, we use tteux, 
mouloiu, voulez ; as, 

" Puisque cela depend de ta volont^, veux done, malheureux ! PQisqu*il 
ne faut que vooloir, voulons, voulez; voulons, et nous serons ob^." — 

** Faites un effort, votdez senlement : celul quidonne le bon vouloir vous 
donnera aussi de Taccomplir.'^ — L'abbe de La Mennais. 

176 VERBS. 

Conjugate the following verbs and repeat the sentences : 

Aller au jardin et cueillir des 7b go into the garden and 

fleurs, gather flowers. 

Aimer le trarail et acqu6rir To love work and acquire 

des connaissances, knowledge, 

Becevoir des nouvelles et s'en To receive news and refoiee 

^ r^jouir, {at it). 

Ecrire une lettre et y mettre To write a letter and direct it. 


Cacheter (166.) un billet et To seal a note and send it to 

Tenvoyer a la poste, the post-office. 

Faire une bonne action et se To do a good {ictum and re* 

taire, main silent. 

Secourir les malheureux et en To relieve the unfortunate and 

^prouver de la joie, .^^^ happy in consequence. 

Vouloir gagner le prix et s'ap- To wish to obtain the prizes 

pliquer avec zele, and to apply one's se^fwith 


Lire un poeme et Tapprendre To read a poem and learn it 

par coeur, by heart. 

Dechirer une robe et la re- To tear a gown and sew it 

coudre, again. 

Esquisser un paysage et en To sketch a landscape and 

faire un tableau, make a picture of it. 

Vivre a la campagne et s'y To Uve in tlte country and 

plaire, ^^^ ^^ agreeable. 

Croireen Dieu et esp6rer (1660> To believe in God and to hope. 

Comprendre ses devoirs et §tre To understand our duty and 

estim^y be esteemed. 

£tre sobre et vivre longtemps, To be sober and live long. 

Se formaliser d'une r^primande To feel offended cU a repri' 

et s'en repentir, mand and repent. 

Ch6rir sa patrie et la d^fendre, To cherish our country and 


S'asseoir sur ie gazon et s'en- To sit on the grass and take 

rhumer, cold. 

Savoir sa le^on et la dire cor- To know one's lesson and say 

rectement, it correctly. 

Employer (166.) bien son To employ well our time and 

temps et ne pas s'ennuyer not to feel weary. 



Unir la perseverance au tra- To unite perseverance to la^ 

vail et r§U8sir, hour and to succeed. 

Dire la \knt€ et hair le men- To speak the truth and hate 

soDge, falsehood, 

Faire le bien et 6viter le mal. To do good and avoid eviL 

Savoir le fran^ais, le parler et To understand the French 

r^crire, tongue^ to speak and write iL 

Conclure un traite et ensuite To conclude a treaty and thejfi 

le rompre, to break it off, 

P^^oir un malheur et s'armer To foresee a misfortune and to 

de courage, arm on£s self with courage. 

Bien r^fl^hir et ne pas faire To reflect toell and ftot to 

d'erreurs, commit errors. 

Se plaire au travail et etre To delight in work and he 

heureux, happy. 



(To .) 

214. The infinitive mood is either, 1st, The subject 
of a sentence ; 2nd, The latter of two verbs 5 or, 3rd, 
Used with any preposition except en ; as, 

^tudier est agr^ble. To study is agreeable. 
TravaiUer fortifie Tesprit et To work strengthens the mind 

le corps, and the body. 

Pardanner est digne d'un To Tpfurdon is worthy of a great 

grand coeur, heart. 

Hear est un tourment. To hate is a torment. 

Je Tentends chanter^ I hear him sing. 

Je I'ai entendu rire^ I have heard Mm laugh. 

Je Tentendrai lircy I shaU hear him read. 

SIS. Note. In French, the verb which immediately follows the prepo- 
ntionsdip,/Hnir, jMir, tantf awmt, and eqnrhf is always in the infinitive mood ; 
wbereas the corresponding English prepositions qfffoTf by, without^ befcref 
i{/7«r, require the present participle ; as, 

Aprds avoir tw, Aft^ having seen. 

Au lieu de songer, Instead <2^ thinking. 

A?ant d*icrirey Before writing. 



Je craiiis de vous wmer trop, lam afraid cf loving you too 


Loin ^Hre content, Farfiwn being pleased. 

n finira par itre attrap^, He wiUfinish hy being caught. 

Pour avoir r^ussi. For haying iwxeeded. 

Saaaprendre cong6, Without taking leave. 

Je croyais Vavoir entendUf I thought to have heard him. 

' 216. The present of the infinitive mood of the passive 
voice in English is frequently to be changed in French 
into the same mood and tense of the active voice ; as^ 

jft tf to be wished, II est k muhaker. 

That man w to be pitied, Cet homme est sLjdaindre. 

That house ti to be let, Cette maison est I lomer. 

217. NoTB. The English participle past used in sentences like ihe fol- 
lowing. The tyrant mdkes hinuelffemdf The kind master nuLke$ Mmg^ 
ietovedf is rendered in French by the infinitiTe mood : 2e tyran m fait 
craindre, le ban maitre te/ait aimer. 



Active, or Present. 

(- ^ing.) 

J'ai vu mes soeurs aUant a la / have seen my sisters going 

promenade, out to walk. 

Noos verrons bob amis en We shall see our friends as toe 

passant, pass. 

Une fenune chligeant tout le A uxmuzn obliging every one. 

Passive, or Past. 

( ed.) 

La vertu est souvent opprimie, Virtue is often oppressed. 

EUe a re^ la lettre que vons She has received ihe letter that 

avez icrite, you have written. 

EUe a icrit la lettre que vous She has written the letter that 

avez re^, you have received. 

Ayant icrit h. son amie, Having written to her friend. 


Devant icrire ce matin, Having (or about) to write 

this morning. 

* See the definition of the participle given hereafter, and also the roles 
on the participle in the Syntax. 


Preamt tense. 

(I y am ing, or do .) 

218. Tbe present of the indicative denotes the action 
at the time itself in which it is done ; as^ 
Je parley I speak. 

219. Note. In English there are three forms of the indicaihre present 
and the imperfect, whilst in French there is bat one: thus, Jb dis is eqfnallj 
nsed for / gay^ I am sayingt I do my ; and Js disais, for / nid, I W4U tay^ 
iny, I did my. (See note, page 113.) 

S20. Note. The present of the indicative is sometimes nsed instead of 
the future when speaking of actions which are to be done at a time proxi- 
mate or near ; as, 

^ous partons demain, We set off tomorrow. 

221. Idiomatic Present tense. 
Je suis a parlery I am speaking 

(I _ed, was ^ing, or used to — .) 

222. The imperfect is used to denote an action not 
concluded^ or going on while another took place ; as, 

Jepensais a vousquand yous / was thinking of you when 

Ites entr6, you came in, 

Je lisais quand il entra, /was reading when he came in. 

Note. The imperfect is called by many modem grammarians the nHM/- 
tmuou9 past, as it expresses an action nmultaneous with some other. 

223* It is used also to express an action habitual at 
a specified period ; as, 

n itudiait beaucoup quand il ffe studied (or used to study) 
^it jeune, much when he was young. 

Henri IV etait un grand roi, Henry IV. was a great htng^ 
et il amait son peuple, and he loved his people. 

224. After the conjunction si^ if, the imperfect is 
used to denote a condition or supposition; as. 

Si je partais maintenant, If I were to set off now. 
S*il aniwtit demain. Were he to arrive tomorrow. 

After the conjunction n, if, it may be said that the imperfect is nsed 
instead of the conditionaL — ^Boviface. (655.) 

225. The imperfect is also used to express the actions, in- 
clinations, or qualifications ; — ^tbe character, condition, or situ- 


ation of persons and things, at some particular time which is 
past* whether it be specified or not ; as, 

Lorsque ^itais en pleine When 1 was on the open sea, 

mer, et que je vl avals d autre having no other aspect hut the 

spectacle que le ciel et Teau, je sky and the water, I sometimes 

TDLomusais quelquefois d des- amused myself in sketching the 

siner les beaux nuages, sem- majestic clouds, Uke groups of 

blables k des groupes de mon- mountains, which fioated after 

tagnes, quiro^tMiten^alasuite eajch oUter in Ae azure of 

les uns des autres, sur Tazur heaven. 
des cieux. — B. de S. Pierre. 

Je ne savais pas cela. / did not know that. 

Past definite, or Preterperfect* 
(I ed.) 

22Q. The past definite always represents the act as 
done or completed at a time specified^ and entirely 
elapsed; as^ 

II leur 4crivit hier au soir, He wrote to them last night. 

3efis un voyage a Paris Tan- / made a journey to Paris Ictst 

n6e demiere, year. 

XaUai hier au spectacle, / went yesterday to the play 

II le tTt^ ^ Naples en 1789, He saw him at Naples in 1789. 

The expression of time may be understood ; as, 

Je sais qu'il leur icrivit, I know that he wrote to them. 

The past definite, being principally used in narrating events which oc- 
enrred at a time specked and entirely elapsed, may be called the historical 

Past indefinite, 


(I have ed.) 

227. The past indefinite is invariably used when we 
express a thing as having taken place without specifying 
when, or which has happened at a time not entirely past, 
as this day J this week, this month, this year, etc.; as, 

II a beaucoup voyag^. He has travelled much. 

J*ai eu la fidvre cette 'ann6e, ce / have had the fever this year, 
printerops, ce mois-ci, cette this spring, this month, this 
semaine, aujourd'hui> week, today. 

Je lui ai ecrit ce matin, / wrote to him this morning. 


228. It is frequently used to express what is about to take 
place; as, 

J'mfini dans un moment, / sliall have finished in an 


229. The definite and indefinite past tenses are often used 
iudifierently in familiar conversation, especially in speaking 
of the common events of life, though the time may be spe- 
cified and have entirely elapsed; Bs,je soupai or fai sotipi hiar 
au soir avec luiy I suppeu with him last night. 

230. Note. The stadent must be carefiil to remember that if the time 
specified is not entirely elapsed, the ptut indefimte is to be used (227.) » Uf 

Je Vai vu ce matin, / taw him this morning^ and not je le v», etc. 

Je lui at parU aujourdliui, / spoke to him today j and not je \mparlai, etc 

The use of i\iepast definite in the above and all similar examples would 
be ungrammaticaL 

Pa^ anterior^ 


(I had ed.) 

231. The past anterior is generally required after 
d^s que, aussitdt que, (as soon as,) and quaiid (when)^ 
and is used in speaking of a thing which happened im- 
mediately before an event that is past ; as, 

Quand yeus reconnu mon er- TV/ien I was sensible qf my 

reur, je fus honteux des error, I was ashamed of my 

mauvais proc6des que j'a- previous ill conduct totoards 

vais eus pour lui, him. 

232. When the action anterior to another occurred at a 
time which may still be going on, for instance, this day, this 
weehy etc., as in the past indefinite, we use the following for 
the past anterior : 

Quand j at eu ce matin appris When I had this morning 
la nouvelle de votre nomi- learnt the news of your op- 
nation, j'ai couru en faire pointment, I ran to tell our 
part £i nos amis. (See note*, friends. 
page 114.) 



(1 had ed.) 

233. The pluperfect tense is also generally required 

182 VfiBBS. 

after d^s qucy aussitdt que^ quand, etc., and is used in 
mentioning a thing habitual or repeated^ but which 
happened at a period prior to an event that is past; as^ 

Nous entrions dans sachambre We used to -go into his room 

d^s qu'il avaii Jini de s'ha- €U soontu he had dressed 

biller, himself, 

Tavais d^euni quand vous / had breakfasted when you 

vintes me demander, came to ask for me. 

The difference between the past anterior and the pfaiperfect is deariy 
marked in the following examples : 

Hier, quand nous eiimes pris Yesterday^ when we had taken 

le thi, nous alldmes au pare, tea^ we went to the park, 

L'6t6pass6,quandnousav{cm^ Last summery when we had 

pris le th4 nous allions or- taken teoy we generally went 

dinairement au pare, to theparh. 

234. j^fber the conjunction si, if, the pluperfect is used in- 
stead of the conditional past (224.); as, 

Si vous amez parli plus tot, If you had spoken sooner you 
vous auriez obtenu cette wouM have obtained that 
place, appointment. 

Idiomatic past tenses. 
Past just elapsed, 

Je viens de parler, / have just spohen, 

Je nefais que de parler, / have only just spoken. 

Past definite anterior. 

Je venais £f 6crire, / had just written, 

Je nefesais que cf 6ciire, / had only just written. 

Future absolute, 

( — shall or will — — -.) 

Nous tronj a Vienne r6t6 pro- We shall go to Vienna next 
chain, summei^, 

235. When shaU and wUl imply determination, they are 
rendered by vouloir ; as, 

Je veux le faire, / will do it. 

Je veux que tu le fasses, Thou shalt do it. 


( — shall or will have — ed.) 

Quand j'ntfnii^/SmiiiesaffiuicSy When I (shall) have finished 
je vous irai Yoir, my affairs, ttoiUgo and $ee 


Idiomatic tenses. 
Future proximate or instant. 
Je vais icrire^ I am going to write. 

Future podtive indefinite. 
Je i&>tf partir, 1 2jxi to depart 

Future imperfect^ anterior. 
JaUais traTaillery / was going to toork. 

The fiidloinBg imply emnmeef conjecture : 

Je Vaurai sans doute perda, / must without doubt have 


Les pertes que vons aurez The losses you may have ex^ 

€pTo\ivieSy perienced. 

yoTU aurez iti (or vous avez You must have been much 

d& itre) bien surpiis en ap- surprised on hearing that 

prenant cette nouveUe^ news. 


( — should or would .) 

Nous go&terions bien des jou- We should taste many enjoy' 
issancesy si nous savions ments^ if we knew how to 
£aire un bon usage du temps, make good use of time. 

( — should or would have ed.) 

n serait alle k la campagne. Me would have g<Mie into tie 
si le temps le lui avait per- country, had the weather 
mis, permitted. 

B n*eut pas mis au- jour son He would not have published 
ouvrage, s'il n'eut pas cru his worh had he not thought 
qu'il p&t toe utile, it might be useftd. 

Jaurais eu peur si je Veusse /should have been frightened 
vth {655.), if I had seen him (or it). 

184 VBBB8. 

Idhmaiic tenses. 
Conditional imperfect. 
Je devais 6crire, / was or had to write* 

Conditional future. 
II devrait 6tudier, Hie ought to, or should, study 

Conditional anterior, 
J'aurais du voyager, / ought to have travelled. 

236. Note. The conditional is sometimes used instead of the indicative in 
the announcement of sudden and remarkable events. This idiom is prin- 
cipally fonnd in newspaper paragraphs, and is intended to modify the ab- 
solute or positive tone o( the affirmative or indicative mood ; as, 

Notre correspondant de Marseille Our correspondent qf MarteiUea an- 

nous annonce qu'un armistice au- nouncea that a truce is said to 

RAIT KTx conclu Ic 19 juiUet, sur have been concluded on the 19M 

la frontiere de M — , qf July, on the frontier of Jtf— . 


(Do thou , do ye .) 

Lis maintenant, Read now, 

EcrivezAm demain^ Write to him tomorrow, 

Venez me voir, Come and see me. 

The imperative has also a compound tense, used to command an action 
anterior to another ; as, ayez ditUquand il viendra. 


Present or Future, 
(That I may, etc. .) 

237- The subjunctive is used after a preceding verb 
or expression implying wish, doubt, fear, command, 
necessity, joy or sorrow. Hence the subjunctive is 
found after a preceding verb used interrogatively* or 
negatively*, and also after certain conjunctions (see 
Syntax); as, 

Je souhaite quMls soient I wish they may be learned, 


Je doute que tu sortes^ I doubt whether you will go out 

II ordonnera que je parte^ He will order me to set off. 

* The exceptions to this rule are fully explained in the Syntax. 



Permettez que je parte. 
Voire cousin est tres-modeste» 
quoiqu'il soU tres-instruit : 
je veux que vous enfassiez 
votre ami, 
Pensez-vous qu'il ait raison ? 
Je ne Crois pas qu'il le sache, 
II importe que vous y sot/ez, 

Allow me to set off. 

You7' cousin is very modest, 

though he is very learned: 

Iwishyouvrovld make him 

Do you think he is right f 
I do not think that he knows if. 
It is important that you should 

be there. 
Lest he should come. 

De crainte qu'il ne vienne, 

238. The subjunctive is likewise used after the rela- 
tive pronouns ywi*, que, dontf lequel, laquelle, oil, when 
they are preceded by an adjective in the superlative de- 
gree, or by the words le seul, Vunique, le prefnier, le 
dernier, and similar expressions, when implying an idea 
of wish, doubt, ignorance ; as, 

C'est le plus grand homme que He is the greatest man I know, 
je connaisse. 

It is the best news that I know. 

There are few kings who know 
how to seek true glory. 

It may he said that the dog is 
the only animal whose fide- 
lity can stand the test. 

C'est la meilleure nouvelle que 

je saehe, 
II y a peu de rois qui sachent 

chercher la veritable gloire, 
On pent dire que le chien est 

leseul animal dontlaiid61it6 

soit h r^preuve. — ^Buffon. 

239. But with an afBrmation certain or positive, 
the adjective in the superlative degree and the above- 
mentioned expressions le seul, etc., are followed by the 
verb in the indicative mood ; as, 

Le plus grand mal ({wefait un The greatest evil which a dis- 

honest minister causes is the 
bad example he gives. 

ministre sans probit6 c'est 
le mauvais exemple qu'il 
donne. — Montesquieu. 
Souviens-toi que je suis le seul 
qui ta d6plu. — F^nelon. 

Hemember that I am the only 
one who has displeased thee. 

The indicative andfubfunetive compared. 

Jltabiteni un pays qui me plattj ou je terai tranquille, que je/io«rras 
parconrir sans crainte, et dont la temperature ett douce. / thall dwelt in 

* See in the Syntax EmpUn dee temps du Sutjanctif par rapport aux 
pronomt reUU\ft» 

l86 VBBBS. 

a country that pleases me, toAeiv I shall be quietf over which /shaU beaUB 
to travel without feoTf and whose temperatwre is mild. 

In the above example the indicatiYe is used, to express an idea certain 
QT positive ; but if the idea expressed be wneertaia or doub^fiU, yet the ob- 
ject of oar flouA, the tubjimctiTe is used ; as, 

J'habiterai un pays qui me/iilaue, ou je «os9 tranqoiUe, que je ptnaw par- 
courir sans crainte, et dont la temperature eoit douce. , 

Other examples of the Subjunctiye : 

JechercheunpTecepteorquipuissE I am seeking an inetruetor aUe to 

enseigner le franpais, teach the French language, 

n n'y a rien qui rafbaSchisse le There is nothing that refreshes the 

sang comme une bomie action*— blood so much as a good action* 

La Brutere. 

Je n'ai rien tu qu'on puissb bldmer I have not perceived anythsng that 

dans sa condnite, one can blame in his conduct. 

Qudque effort que fassent les Whatever effort men may make, 

hommes, leur neant parait par- their nothingness tgapears every" 

tout. — ^BosauET. where. 

Si minoe qu'ilFinssB £tre» on cheveu Be it ever so iMn^ a hair mates some 

fait de I'ombre. — ^Villef&e. shadow. 

S'il est vrai que vous soyez sincere, If it be true that you are sincere, 

jeipliquez-Tons.denc, explain yourse^. 

PxRissE le Troyen, auteur de nos Perish the Trojan, author qf our 

alarmes ! — ^Racine. /ears / 
See Syntttsedes Verbes. 

240. Impetfaet. 
(That I might .) 

Je d^sirais que vous vinsiiez I was desirous that you should 

afin qu'il partUy come in order that he might 

II voulait, il voulut, or il a He was desirous, he ordered, 

voula, que je parHsse hier, or he eommanded, that I 

should set tiff yesterday. 
II voudrait que je pardsse He would wish me to set off 

maintenanty now. 

II aurait voulu que je jEMzr^^^ He would have unshed me to 

demain, set off tomorrow. 



(That I may have ed.) 

Je suis enchaute que vous I am delighted that you have 

ayezfait sa conuaissance, made his acquaintance. 

Nous ne cachetterons pas cette We shall not seal this letter 

lettre que vous ne Vayez lite, before you have read it. 




(That I might hare e d.) 

Je ne croyais pas que tous / did not think you would 
tussitz KiXot finiy have fioished to toon, 

Je Toudrais qne Tons euuiez I with you had fiiuahed. 

Ready translatey and parse : 

[Nan. The figures afiixed to wocds in the kXiamng sfiUffffff^ refer to 
the fTpliitttnry notes, pven with the truuhitions of this '^ctti w? in the 
AFPKMmcXy pages 420, et «ey.] 

S'occuper, c'es^ wawoir jouir^, — ^L oisivete pete^ et taur- 
fii6file^.—Sois juste, et charts* ta patrie* — Colomb dAsoutrii^ 
TAm^que en 1492« — .^pprtnez^ que toat .flatteur vii^ aux 
dipens de eeiid qui VSeouieK — JSotofw'-uous, le tempsyin^^o 
et nous inHne^^ avee aoL — On n'aime pas toujouis ce qa'on 
admire^ — ^Desirons qu on nous approuTe et non pas qu*on 
nous loue^K — Sur certains esprits soperficids tout gUise^^, 
lien ne p^dtre. — Abtiimg ^^iolyn tu doutes. — ^Noos nous 
pardonnons tout, et lien aux antres ^onunes. — U amye 
parfois qu'en voukmt^^ tromper aotrui, on se tiompe soi- 
mhne^ — Ne foi^ons point notre talent — Mhtageons^^ le 
temps car la lie en est feitOd — Si tu aeheiet^'^ le superfluy tu 
vendras*^ bientot le n^cessuce. 

Quand tu paries, tu jancf'^; quand tu Icoutes, tu re- 
emeiUes^. — ^La Jtenrii^^ k rose« — ^Le printemps qu'annonce 
rhirondelle. — Cestdans les chaumieresqu'AoAtifeit/^^ lapaix et 
le bonheuTd — ^La maison que bdiU^ mon pere« — Son am^nitCy 
sa douceur est contme^ de tout le monde* — ^Aimer la patrie 
est un sentiment natnreL — Le Rhone, la Loire, sont les rivieres 
les plus remarquables de la France^ — ^L'or, la grandeur, jietf- 
twn^-ils rendre heureux ? — Ni lui ni son irere ne sera nomm§ 
d^put4« — ^Ni lui ni ion firdre ne seront nommes d^put^s. — La 
plupart des ^colierssontattenti&i. — ^Laplupart aiment Fetude. 
— ^Une infinite d'^iks sont invisiblesy — Un nombre infioi 
de numde^ assistait k ce spectacle. — Une nu^ de traits ob- 
mntreii*^ Ym^ — ^Une nu^ de barbajres d^mdertm^ le paysr-^ 
Heureux oeux qui aiment a lire! 

Les animaux boioent^y manffent^ydorment^\ et n*ont aucun 
80uci« — ^Llu>mme s'indine^y ^agenouiUe^\ rampe^\ glistey 
naye^\ amri^^y tiorofte, joade'^ sV/ance'^, descend, numte^ 

188 VERBS. 

grimpe^f et est 6galeinent propre k gravir au sommet des 
rochers et k marcher sur la surface des neiges, a traverser les 
fleuves et les forets, a cueillir la mousse des Fontaines et le 
fruit des palmiers, a nourrir Tabeille et 4 dompter T^I^phant. 
— La route des pr6ceptes est longue ; celle des exemples est 
plus courte et plus s(ire. — Le travail conduit*^ a la prosperite, 
la paresse it la misdre. — ^Le m^chant qui ourdit*'^ la perte d*un 
homme pr6pare souvent la sienne. — N'est-il pas vrai que votre 
§ldve 86 porte*^ avec ardeur ^ tout ce qu'il fait** ? — Je suis 
persuade que vous ne vous en ^tes jamais plaint*^. — Ces de- 
moiselles ne se sont-elles pas rq)os4es*^ en route? — Ces hommes 
ne B^eniretiennent^'^ que de bagatelles. — Vous ne devriez*^ pas 
vous m^ler de cette affaire. — Vous ne vous souveniez*'^ pas de 
ce que je vous avais dit^^, — ^Vous ne vous rappeliez^^ pas ce 
que mon frdre vous avait ^crit^. 

Ceux qui donnent des conseils sans les accompagner d*ex- 
emples, ressemblent d ces poteaux de la campagne qui in- 
diquent les chemins sans les parcourir. — Passion sublime, 
sentiment des grandes ames, bonheur du monde, devant lequel 
tous les maux disparaissent ^ ou s*(iffaiblissent^ et tons les 
biens B*embellis8ent ^ ou s^accroissent^y 6 divine amiti6 f ton 
nom seul me rappelle tous les charmes de ma vie. — ^Les petits 
esprits triomphent des fautes des grands g^nies, comme les 
hiboux se r^jauissent ^ des taches du soleil. — Si la terre 6tait 
plus molle ou plus spongieuse qu'elle n*est, les hommes et les 
animaux sV enfonceraient^i si elle ^tait plus dure, elle se re- 
fuserait aux travaux du laboureur, et ne paurrait^^ produire 
ni nourrir ce qui sort actuellement de son sein. S*il n*y avait 
point de montagnes, la terre serait moins peupl^e d'hommes 
et d'animaux ; nous aurions moins de plantes, moins d*arbres ; 
nous serions totalement priv^ de m6taux et de mineraux; 
les vapeurs ne pourrcdent^ Hre condens6es, et nous n'aurions 
ni sources d*eaux ni fleuves. 

Plus on aime quelqu'un, moins il faut^ qu'on le flatte. — 
Ce n'est pas obiir, qu'ob^ir lentement. — Tout homme de cou- 
rage est homme de parole. — On n'ex6cute pas tout ce qu'on 
se propose. — Travaillez ^ loisir, et ne vous piguez point^^ 
d'une foUe vitesse. — Souvenez-vous^^ que dans la vie, sans un 
peu de travail on n'a point de plaisir. — On se repent toujours 
d'un langage indiscret. — Le cceur de I'homme ingrat est sem- 
blable a un disert, qui boit^^ avidement la pluie tomb^ du 
ciel, YenghutU^y et ne produit^^ rien. — Le plaisir peut s'ap- 
puyer sur Tillusion, mais le bonheur repose sur la veritl. — 


Celui-1^ est riche, qui re9oit plus qu'il ne consume ; celui-la 
est pauvre, dont la depense excede la recette. — L'activite paye 
les dettes, le d^sespoir les augmente. — Je ne pense pas qu'il 
ait raison. — Soup9onnez-vous que cela soit ? — Je doute qu'il 
fdsse^^ ce qu'il a promis^T, — II est possible qu*il vienne^K-^ 
Supposez que yicrive^^ a votre ami. — 11 faut que vous r^ttS' 
sissiez''^, — Je crains''^ qu*il ne vienne. — Mon fr^re reviendra 
a moins qu'il ne pleuve'^K — Get 61eve travaillera sans qu'on le 
lui dise''^. 

Telemaque est le plus bel ouvrage que la vertu ait inspire 
au g^nie. — Avouons nos torts a ceux qui nous aiment : a la 
voix d'un bon pere, la conscience reprend son empire, le coeur 
s'ameliore, on se repent et Ton se corrige. — Tai8'toi''^i ou dis 
quplque chose qui vaille''''' mieux que ton silence. — Ton corps 
souffre, appelle le m6decin ; ton ame est dans la langueur, fais 
approcher ton ami ; la douce voix de I'amiti^ est le plus sur 
remede contre TafHlction. — Voulons'^^'noxis rendre persuasifs 
les bons avis que nous donnons, d^pouiUonsT^-les d*orgueil, et 
imprignans'^^-les pour ainsi dire d'indulgence et de sympa- 
thie. Lemoyen d'en 6prouver Fefficacit^, c'est d'en faire 
I'essai sur nous-memes ; ^ corrige'^^ -toiy semblera toujours dur ; 
* corrigeons-nous,' est plus doux a I'oreille. — La pridre de I'in- 
nocence est la plus agr^able a Dieu : gardons notre inno- 
cence, enfants : nos parents peuvent tomber malades. — N'a- 
journons jamais la reconciliation : offenses, ne refusons pas 
notre main; offenseurs, offrons-la de nous-m^mes.*— Pense 
deux fois avant de parler une, et tu parleras beaucoup mieux. 

The following sentences are chiefly on the irregular verbs, 

Oii rcw^-tu? — /rcz^-vous demain a Londres? — M'cwrcr- 
rc2;'-vous ce que vous m'avez promis^Y—Ce balcon saillera^ 
trop. — L'ennemi nous assaillirait^. — Je tressaillirai^. — ll^w*^ 
que tu viennes. — II faudrait^ que tu vinsses, qu'il vint — Je 
vovdrais^ que tu me tinsses parole. — Je serais d^solee qu'il 
mourut^, — II faut que tu acquierfBS^^ des talents. — J'en ac- 
querrai. — II faut que nous acqu6rions des connaissances. — 
Je doute qu'il en acquiere. — Je doute que tu coures^^ plus vite 
que moi. — lis courront apres nous. — Je faiUis^^ de me tuer. 
— Mes forces difaiUevit^^ chaque jour. — On les craint, on les 
hait^*. — L'hiver je me vets^^ chaudement. — Je roLOSsierais^^ 
volontiers.^ — Assieds-toi pres de moi. — II faut que tu t'asseyes. 
— II faudrait que tu t'assisses. — Si nous nous asseyions. — ^La 

190 VBBBB* 

fortane dktherra >? bientot — Ce billet idunt >' aujourd'hui ; je 
croyais^^ qu'il 6cherrait demain. — Flusieurs lots nous echer- 
root. — Je d^sirends que ces billets ^chussent plus tot^r— Je 
m'^mettf^ facilemeotr— Je crains qu'il ne s'^meuve trop« — Je 
pownmrai^^ k vos besoins^ — II faut que vous y pourvoyiez. — 
Je n'y ptwirrat** rien. — Qu'y pourras-tu faire? — ^Nous ne 
piimes y pairenir. 

Si tu as des talents, il ne faut pas que tu Hen pr6vales^, — 
9e scds'^ ce qu'il vauf^^, — Si peu que nous valions, nous va- 
lons quelque chose« — Savez-vous ce que nous verrons^? — 
On suneoira'^ k I'ex^cution. — Ces coulenrs ne vous siSent^ 
pas^ — Cela ne vaudra plus rien. — ^Veux-tu me r^pondre ? — 
Nous ab90udra^^'i'\\7 — ^Elle fut absoute a pur etdplein^^, — 
Le sel se dUsolvaU^^ lentement^ — Mon ami a r^solu^^ piu- 
sieurs questions. — ^Le soldi a r^ous le brouillard en pluie. — 
lis nous baUnmt^K — Je craignais qu'on ne me batttt — ^Ils se 
battirent en d6sesp6r6s. — ^Les flots brm/aient^. — On cldt^^ ce 
cfaamp^ — Q faut bien qu'on le closer— J*ai exchts^ cet honmie 
de ma maison. — ^Je voudrais que tu te conduisisses mieuxi^— 
Que cotMfe'Mu \k? — Je coudrais mieux si j'y mettcds^^ plus 
de temps**— Vous ne croyiez^ pas que je oousisse aussi bien. 
— ^Vous craigniez done que je ne vous crusse^ pas. — Je crains 
qu'on ne me croie pas. — L'arbre croit et meurt. — Dkes^-yoym 
la y6rit6? — ^Dites ce que vous ferez.^ — Vous vous didirez*^. — 
Pourquoi vous contredisez-vous ? — Quel 6v6nement vous 
pr^isez I — ^D^disez^^vous si vous voulez. — Ne m6disez de 

Ce n'est pas un homme k qui Ton puisse en faire accroire. 
— On dissoudra ce manage. — On a dissous cette societ6. — 
Je vous ^cnVat**. — Je voudrais que tu 6crivisses mieux. — ^11 
faudrait qu'on Texdiit. — Nous fesons^ ce que nous voulons. 
— Vous ne faites pas aujourd*hui ce que vous fites hier. — 11 
faudrait que tu luues** plus souvent.----Je vous le promets*^. 
— ^Ils nous le promettront. — Je ne vous permettrai^ pas de 
sortir. — ^Le bl6 se moud^"^^ — ^Le bl6 et le caf§ se moulent. — 
On ne moulut rien la semaine demi^re. — Quand cet enfant 
naquU^^Al? — ^D'un mal natt quelquefois un bien. — II me nut" 
sit*K — Je cndndrais qu'il ne me nuisit. — Je ne vous nuirai 
jamais. — lis me nuisirent. — Us nous ont nuL — II se npaU^ 
d'une vaine esp6rance. — ^11 parait que vous faites plus que 
Tous ne promettez. — Ce que tu peins me pla(t^^^ — Wentre- 
prends^^ rien au-dessus de ce que tu peux^--Je doute que tu 
le con^prennes^^. — Si tu n'6tudies pas, tu disapprendras^*^^ 

BXBROI8B8. 191 

n ne finit pas qae ta ries^K — ^11 f^dndt que cela Tons mffU^, 
— Chacan setut^, 

Je cnundrab que tu ne te tiuses paAt — Ce difcoun me am* 
vcdnc'^. — Rien ne le convainqnaiL— Vainqnons nos mauTaisef 
habitudes* — ^Alexandre vainquit les Penes. — n fallait qu'fl 
t7^^39 pin^ loogtemps. — Par leurs bienfiuts, ils vivront dans la 
soci^e. — On lui cria, " Qui vive^^ ? " il r6pondit, " France." — 
**Je Mu^l je sals!" propos d'enfant, qui revient i oeci: 
^ j'ai de la vanit^, done je n'apprendrai rien." — Combien de 
grands monuments s*en soni ams^ en poussidre ! — Socrate 
passa le dernier jour de sa vie ^ discourir de (or sur) Tim- 
mortalit^ de F^me. — ^Veuillez rendre hommage au m^te. — 
Pensez'Yous qu'il faille croire tout ce qu'il dit? — C'est un 
honmie tr^ comme il fauL — ^£ncore faut-il que je sache SL 
guoi nien ienir^^K^H lui fallait (192.) cent francs.^Cet 
bomme est toujours chagrin, il ne sait ce qu'il lui faut. — 
Combien vous faut-il ? — Vous dites qn'il ien faut timt^ que 
la somme entidre n'y soit. — II a fini son travail ou peu ien 
fauifi^. — ^Les palmiers ne naiwent que dans les pays chandk — 
Les inventions utiles sont n6es du besoin. — ^Les empires nais* 
sent, se d^veloppent et p^rissent^— Un juge doit ouir les deux 

Exercue on verbs of the first conjugation (16S.). 

841. NoTB« Addtrht are nerer plaeed in Freiieii, as tliej firequeittlf are 
in En^^h, between the nominatiTe when a oonjonctive p r onoun and the 
verti, bat are generaUf placed after the verb in simple tenses, and between 
the anxiliazy and the portidple in oompoond ones; as, 

Je youA le donne volontien, / wiDingiy ffive it you, 

J'ai ton dormi, I have depi m€Si. 

At the b^;inning of a sentence, adreibs are sometimes placed bdinre the 
nominative wfaethor noon or pronou n ; sSf 

T amj o un lemensongeestodienx, lUlieAonf tr always oeSoiif. 
Sowemt il'vojager He dtea traoeb. 

Jamais iln'spazie. He has wiefer spoien, 

242. NoTB. When the nominative is a difflmctive p ro n o un , the advcrii 
may be placed between the nominative and the verb ; as, Lni, eepeiidamtf 
donnait (8. Mattbisu, viiL 24.), In the meanwhile, he was asleep. 

248. Nora. An advoh may abo be nsed between the nominative and 
the vcib, when the nominative is a subs tanti ve ; as, 

L^gnoranee tcs^oun est pi^ a Jgmoramee is s3anij%reaijf to admire 

s'admirer. — ^Boilxau. its^, 

Kotre bonheor bient6t fiut notrein- Our happiness soon coicaer oar ws» 

quietode, easimess. 

Vote. It shoold be remembered thattiie andliaiydS^, does, or did, wfaiefa 

192 VKRBS« 

in English is used in a£Brmatiyei negative, and interrogative sentences (219.)' 
is not rendered in French ; as, does he speak ? parH't-U? 

244. Note. In the following exercises the verbs will be found in the 
present of the infinitive only ; the learner, therefore, will have to alter them, 
tf necessary, into their proper mood, tense, etc., conformably to the En- 
glish sentence. 

Indicative present. — I begin to speak French. Do 

commencer (244.) h parler fran^aia (219.) 

I prefer that poet? Dost not thou refuse to travel? He does 
prif6rer(}65,) poele refuser de voyager 

not find the Italian language difiicult. We do sincerely 

trouver italien (65.) lanffuef. difficile sincerement(2H,) 

hope to succeed. Do you teach music? They do not 

espirer * rSussir enseigner art musique f. 

remain in town. Do your relatives approve such conduct ? 

rester en viUe parent (150.) approuverune telle conduit e 

Your sisters do not resist the entreaties of their friends. 

risister aux prieres 

Past indefinite. — I have finished my letter. Thou hast not 


worked this morning. He has well employed his time. We have 
travailler matin m, bien employer temps in, 

protected you. You have accused me of levity. They have 
proiSyer (90.) accuser ISydretS 

studied drawing and painting. Those gentlemen have walked 
itudier Art dessinm, art. peinturef. messieurs marcher 

from Paris to Versailles. Have those ladies accompanied you this 
■ __ dame accompayner 

afternoon ? 
apres'dinie f. 

Imperfect.— I used often to give them fruits and 

souvetU donner leur (90.) (39.) — m. 

flowers out of my garden. Wast thou living then in Paris? He 
Jleur i. * de jardm m. demeurer alors a 

loved them because they were humane. You were listening to 
aimer les parce que itre humain Scouter * 

that symphony when he came in. Did those magistrates judge 
symphonic f. quand entra magistrat juger 

with impartiality? How did they study the lessons which their 
impartialiti Comment itudier legonf, 

masters used to give them ? 
mailre donner (223.) leur (98.) 


Plupeefbct.— I had not concealed that unfortunate affiur. 

cocker malheureux affaire f. 

Hadst thou sought the friendship of virtuous men ? Had he 
rechercher amitiS f. art. veriueux 

thought of the message I had given him ? We had lived 

Sanger d commission f. dontje Vavais cliarffS habiier 

in the rue de la Pais before the Revolution of 1830. Had you 
• ....-..^— avant rSvobUionf. 

hesitated to defend the laws of your country? They had not 
hSsiier d tUfendre loif, paysm, 

blamed him for such imprudence. Had not his friends procured 
bldmer tPune telle f. procurer 

him a good situation in the Custom-house ? 
lui place f, d douanei. 

Past definite.— -I bought yesterday the works of Boileau. Thou 

acheter hier CBUvre 

forgottest to bring me a French newspaper. Did not that 

owlier de apporter fran^ais (65.) journal m. (or gazette f.) 

young lady sing with taste ? Yesterday, we conducted your sis* 

demoiselle chanter(l4S.) goiU m. mener 

ten to the museum of the Louvre. Did you not invite us to call 
musSe m. m. inviter d passer 

upon you (on our return) from the palace of the Tuileries? They 
cnez vous en revenant palaism, .-..^..^ 

met him in the street. Did not those travellers cross that 

rencontrer ruef, voyageur traverser 

province in the year 1808? 
f. antiSef, 

Past anterior. — As soon as I had prepared my letters I 

Des que appriter 

(went out). Hadst thou not soon appreciated those advantages? 
sortis hient6t apprScier dvantagem. 

As soon as the general had reinforced the garrison of that citadel 
Aussit6tque gSnSral renforci gamisonf, citadeUef, 

the enemy raised the siege. As soon as we had dined we departed, 
pi. lever siSgem. diner nous partimes 

When you had pardoned him he was quiet. The moment they 
Quand pardonner d tranquille AussitSt qu* 


194 ^ESBS. 

bad crossed ihe street, they met seyend friends whom ihej 
trtwener rencontrer plusieurs Ut 

had not seen for (a long time.) 
n'avaient pas vus depuU lomgtempt 

Future. — I shall not neglect my duty. Wilt thou complete 

nkgliger devoir m, achever 

ihat work in the course of the week ? Wfll he not call 

ouvraffem, courantm. semamei, <^e/er(166.) 

you? We shall purchase all the music of the new ofienu 

aeheier munquef, nimveau opSram. 

By such conduct will you not a6Uct your friends? Tbey 
une telle conduite cffliger 

will imitate the virtues of their ancestors. My aunts will reside ia 
itnUer vertuf, ancHrem, tante demeurer d 

Paris during the winter. 
pemUmi Anwrm. 

Future anterior. — ^When I shall have spoken to him I will let 

Quand parler je wnu le 

you know. Wilt thou have comforted that afflicted family ? Will 
/eraieavoir consoler qffligi famiUet 

she have consulted her guardian ? We shall he better pleased when 
eonsuUer hUewm. phu content 

we shall have unravelled the clue of that intrigue. Will not those 
dimiler JUm. f. 

men have respected the established laws? 
respecter itabli hi f. 

Conditional present. — If I had time, I should cultivate the 

(22i,)le temps CMUiver 

flowers of our garden. Wouldst thou not reward their ezem- 

ricompenser exem- 

plary conduct? Would he accept those advantageous offers? 
plaire conduite t accepter avantageux cffrei. 

We should like hunting if we were in the countiy. Would 
aimer art. chasse f. si nous Stums d la campagne 

yon study geography and history? Would my com- 

Studier axt, gSographie t tat, histoiref, eofnor 

panions form such ridiculous projects? Would tbey not avoid 
rade former des prqjets si ridicules hnter 

10 great a danger? 
un si grand — 



ConrnmoMML rAsr^— Should I not lunre admired the beauty of 

admirer heamUrt. 

that pamthig? Wonldrt thon not hsfe torn diot letter! He 

iableaitm* dSchirer 

would not have played with thoae children. We shonld have 

jouer poiifer 

you yesterday had we been able. Shoold we have praised his 
hier ti nous Taclons pu Umer 

^penevennee? Ton wonld have walked. They would not ha?e 
persSvh^aneef, marcher 

denied the trnth. Wonld your relatires have granted what yon 
nier vhitSt aeeorder (123.) 

had requested with so many entreaties? 
(233.) demander iant d^nuiancet 

iMFBEATmB. — Study tfay lesson. Do not accuse them unjustly. 
Hmdier aceueer n^uMtemad 

Let us cdebrate this great event. Do not stammer. Parse 
eiWirer hfinementm. begayer Analyeer 

this phrase. Lend me ten francs. Wish him good moming. 
f. TrHer dkx Souhaiter a Uhonjour 

Do not neglect anything. Let us consult together. Do not leatfe 
nSgUger rien contuUer ensemble quitter 

me so soon. 

SuBjuKCTiTE pftBSEHT OR ruTURE. — ^Hc 09 desffous) that I should 

desirer par" 

speak French. I wish that thou nu^rst find real friends. 

ler souhaiter trouver (40.) vrai 

Do yon diink that he teaches geometry? Does he not believe 

Croyezrifous enseignertat. giomitrief, Ne eroit-il pas 

that we should own oar fimhi ? We retire in order 
avouer (166.) torts Nous nous retirons a/in 

that you may remain alone and quiet. Ton do not wish that 
que resUr seul traitquille Fousnevoulezpas 

they should play unceasingly. They must send the paradi 

jouer sans eesse Ufaut que (237.) envoger paquetuL 


TMMt* — Do you believe that Ifaave consoled that man? Can any one 
Crogez-iMmM consoler Pomrrori-^m 


196 YBRBS. 

imagine that he has spent such a sum? I do not helieve 
8*imaginer dSpenser une telle somme Je ne crois pas 

that he has owned the truth. Is it possible that we should have 
avauer — 

chatted so long? It is not expected that you have criticised. 
causer si Umgtemps On ne s* attend pas criiiquer 

1 cannot conceive their having invented such a tale. Is it possible 
Je ne confois pas qu*ils inventer un tel conte 

that those young men should not yet have paid the bills 

jeunes gens encore payer tnimoirem. 

sent to tliem last year? 
qu'on leur a envoyis Vannee passSe 

Imperfect. — ^They wished that I should appoint a successor. I 
On voulait nomnusr successeurm, 

did not suppose that he would forget it. I should wish him to con- 
supposer outlier Je voudrais qu^U con- 

;fugate these verbs with facility. It was necessary for us to 
juguer verbem, facUement II faUait que nous 

breakfast early. I wished you to yield to their entreaties 

dSjeuner de bonne heure voulais que vous cider instances 

in order that they might not solicit in vain. 

prier en vain 

Pluperfect. — They did not believe that I should have dined at 

On ne croyait pas diner d 

five o'clock. It was not expected that he would have attributed that 
cinq heures On ne s'attendait pas attrUnter 

error to your negligence. Was it possible that we should have 
faute f. negligence f. Etait-il 

worked so late? He would have wished that we should have 
travaiUer tard H aurait voulu que nous 

rewarded the merit of that pupil. Should we have succeeded 
ricotnpenser Sieve m, Aurioiifi-nous riussi 

supposing that we had negotiated that treaty immediately? He 
supposS que nSgocier traitim. 

would have wished you to have awakened their courage. 
disirer que vous rSveiUer m. 

Did you suppose that they would have threatened him in vain ? 
Vous figuriez-vous menacer 


Extrdte en verbs cfihe second cov^UQaSion (167.)- 

IsDicATiTE PSESEHT. — ^I cheiish thosc good friends. Art thou not 


ooimng? He wains yoa of your erron. That chfld (grows talO* 
averiir tart m. grandir (172.) 

Tbat man stons the whole neighbomhood. We demolish our 
Homrdir toulie voumage dSwuiUr 

house. Are yoa not embellishing your garden ? Are yoa not opening 

embellir ouvrir 

the window ? Those gentlemen come finom Paris. Those childreM 
femitret messieurs vemr 

sleep too much. Are they not disobeying? They do not reflect. 

disob^ ri 

Do they not socoeed? 

iMrBBVBCT. — I was obeying with ^easoie. I was going oat when 

abStr Mortsr 

he came in. Didst not thoa ophdd that ahsord idea? He 
emirer (226^} womUmr absmrdeidSet 

nsed to come every morning. We nsed sddmn to go oat ahme. 
seair lout let flMfaw rarewteml 

Were yoa not eniojriiig the pleasores of the ooontry ? Did not yoor 
jamr de pkusir eampagmet, 

friends sympathise with yoor sorrows? Those tradesmen osed veiy 
eoiwKpaAr d ehagrim mertHumd 

often (to raise die jniee oQ dieir goods. They were not 
samoeni remdkhir w^arekamdhe t, 

betraying yon. Those curtains darkened the room. Were not 
traJkir rideaum, obsemreir 

those children opening die doer? 

Past p kfimi t b . — I returned at once. Didst thoa succeed in that 

revemir d fhutamt 

affidr? He did not consent. Tour sister chose a pretty coioor. 
^ekrei, camsemtir ehmnr eomleurf. 

We ^rplanded the whole evening. We obtained the money yesterday. 
a]^daudir iomU la soirieL oUemr Her 

We agreed aboot die price. Did we not go oot again immediately t * 

196 YBBBB. 

You senred me with zeal. They fed the poor. Those 

servir zhlem. nourrir pattortfm«pl. 

haughty chiefs sullied their glory hy their ambition. My sisters 
orgueUleux chefs temir gloire f. ' f, 

came unexpectedly. 
survenir d VimprovUte 

FuTUBjs.— I shall set out tomorrow for the coontry. Thou 

partir - campagne f. 

wilt come with me. That tree will blossom soon. We shall never 
venir fleurW bienidt 

interfere in that matter. Tou will accomplish your object. They 
mtervenir affaire f. venir d bout de dessein 

will return tomorrow. Will not those men ofier us their assistance 1 
reffenir offrir secours 

They will invade an immense country. Will they not obtain it ? 
envahir _^^ paysm. obtenir U 

GoaDiTioNAL.^-1 should choose that picture. Thou wouldst not 

choisir tableau m. 

^t contrarily) to these orders. Would my sister return this mom- 
eaiUrewtt dr ordrBm. nnenir 

ing, if it were possible 7 We should embellish that residence^ if 
e'Uait embMt demeuret. 

it weie onrs« You would not demolish that cottage. Would yoa 
elle 6tait d nou» dimoUr ehaimAre f. 

not foresee that event? Would they not warn us in time? 
pressetUir ivinement m. prSvmnur d temps 

Would not those ladies go out (if the weather were fine)? 

s^rtir s'il faisait beau* 

Impbrative.— Come (thou) quickly. Fill thy glass. Let us 
Fenir vite, Memplir verrem. 

not disobey. Well! succeed. Do not set oat this evenmg. 
dhobHr Eh bien I riussir partir soir m. 

Return tomorrow. Never betrav any one. Punish the idle. 

Eevenir trahir personne Punir paresseux^\. 

Reflect well before acting. Do not converse with him about that 
MiflSchir avant d*agvr entretenir * le taucfutnt 

affair. Agree about the conditions. Strengthen ihem in their 

if^atVef. Ctmvenir de — f. Affermir 

^ deieotrrsi. 

£XXE0I»E8. 189 

SuBJUKCTiv& nuBSBNT OR FUTUBs.— *He visKes tjbafc I should reflect 

sQuhaUer riflSchir 

on that proposal. (It \rill bo necessary) for thee tacome next 

d propositiont, Ufaudra que tu veniraxUpnfcham 

month. We sincerely wish that he may long enjoy the fruits 
moism. disirer hngtemps jouir de 

flf his labour We must obtain it. Js^ it possible that you 
^offat^m. n faut qm nouinhtenir Est-il 

irould subject me to such troatment? Itisnotahfiolutelynecessaiy 
assufettir ^iinptareUtrmUtment II ne faut pas absolument 

that you should depart tomorrow. I will not have you consent to 
partir Je neneux pas que vous eonseniir 

that ridiculous bargain. Do you think that they will offer to take 
ridicule marchSm, Croyez-vous offnr de prendre 

that mansion ? i do noit think that tho«e books belong to you. 
h6telm.(hm») JHeinncroispaii appartenir 

I (inU have) them obey* 
Je Vina ^*ils obSir 

Imperfect. — He wished me to depart in the course of the 
II voulait queje partir eourant m. 

momingp^ (It would be necessary) for thee to obtain leave 

matinee f, Ilfaudrait que tu obtenir la permission 

to read that work. Would you not wieh him to come frequently? 
de lire ouvrage m. Ne voudrtez-vous pas quHl venir souvent 

I did not believe that that farm belonged to you. It was 
Je ne eroyais pas ferme f. appartenir II fallait 

aibs(^tefy necessacy for us to act in concert. It would be denrable 
0ibsohunesU ^e nous agir ensemble serait d disirer 

ihat you renounce your errors and prejudices. It was not 

rtvenirde erreurt de (102,) prejtiffSTn* On ne 

expected that they would abolish such laws. 
8*attendaitpas abolir de telles lois 

EDerdse on verbs t^tie third cofyugoHon (173.)« 

IVDiCATiTE PRESENT. — I pcrceivc him now. Dost thou not 

apercevoir h present 

owe him six hundred francs? Does he conceive what you say? 
devoir lui cent (75.) concevoir ce que vmu 

200 VERBS. 

We do not understand what he means. Do you not perceive the 
eoncevoir ce qu*il veut dire apercevoir 

steeple ? They (owe still) the rent of their house, 
clocherm^ redevoir layer m* 

Imperfect. — I received my income monthly. Didst thou 
percevoir revenue pi. tone lee mote 

not receive his letters from time to time? We owed more than 
recevoir tempe en tempe devoir plue que 

you. Did you not receive news every day? Every 

(39.) nouveUee^X. toue leejoure Toutes 

time your brothers came to our house they received 

leefoie que venir (223.) chez noue 

great attentions. 
(40.) honnHeUf, 

Past definite. — I conceived at last the depth of his plan. 

enfin profondeurt — -m. 

I saw him in the street. Did he not receive his salary 

apercevoir appoiniemente^, 

last week ? We perceived the danger. Did you not receive 
la eemaine passSe apercevoir m. 

last month a visit from your brother? Those teachers owed 
le mois passi vieite f. pricepteur 

their success to their assiduity. 
euccee aseiduitSf, 

Future. — I shall no longer owe him anything. Will he conceive 

plue lui rien 

that rule? Will your brother receive that advice with indifference? 
rkgle f . avie m . ind^irence f . 

We shall perceive the setting of the sun. Will you not receive 

voucher m. 

that letter on Friday next? They will easily perceive the 
* vendredi prochain meiment 

beauties of that poem. 
beauiif, poeme m. 

Conditional. — I ought to go out this morning. Would he not 


receive you well ? Ought you thus to neglect your studies ? Chil- 

Devoir ainei nigliger • Hudef, art. 

dren should learn every day something by heart. 
devoir apprendre toue leejoure quelque choee cceur 


ImvRATiTB.^— Beoehre tliem widi IdndneM. Do not owe 


wo mx^ a fuju* Let as cononve too nnportaiice oioor dntin* 
wme n gramde 9omme £ tlrvptmi. 

Reoehre your ineome v^inlariy. LeCns entertam 
Pereevwr revemuj^ riguUh'etnefU coneevoir de art 

oorrar oi ynce^ 

korremr pour axU — m. 

SvmrncTvm rmmsBmr on FOTinuEd— Slop widi me until I 

Betia juiquit ee que 

reedTe amstance. Is it credible that he would not understand that 
de» teeottn eroyable eomeevoir 

definition ? He will not allow ns to owe the least trifle. 

definitiont II ne permet pas que nous mcmdre bagaUBef, 

I cannot understand that yon should perceive the least advantage 
Je ne eonfois pas momdre avtmtagem, 

in that undertaking. Is it possible that those men should collect 

enirepriseU pereevoir (39.) 

uninst tsmt 
irynsie "^'-'t, 

Imtekfectw— -He did not believe that I owed the whole amount 
// ne erojfoit^pas Umt U wumtant 

of that bUL I wished her to receive my note this moni- 

nUmoire m. Je vouiais qt^ette ,hUiei nu 

ing, that she might be no longer uneasy. He wished that we should 
afn qn'eUe ne f(U pUu mqmet II vonlaU 

receive them kindly. Could it be possible that you should not 
aoee honti Serm^ril 

perceive my des^ ? Was it probable that we should not con- 
apereewnr dessemm* EiaiUU 

eeive his intention? I should not wtth diem to owe me so much. 
(101.) 1 Jene vouiais pas qttUs autant 

ExereUe om verbf cf^famHk an^uffaUon (174w). 

Ikdicativk pkeseot. — I hear him. Dost thou not forbid it 

entendre difendre le 

to diem? He knows you^ *Does she not answer? Do those 
leur (96.) eonmdire rSpondre 



ipomem seU teU? W* reMgnise hin. WeaiewMtag. 
vendre (150.) m. reeonnt^re aUendre 

An you Bofc tninilirtBg • kttar te that fiireigner? Do ih^ not 
tr&dmrs Hranfftr 

pity your misfortunetf Thoio ohildren do not 'fear lum. 
plaindrt mtUheurm, craintbre 

Are not ihoie joung ladies losing their time 7 Do not your pimilf 
demoiselles perdre Sl im 

confoand these rules with one another? 
eonfondre rigle les tmes aoee les trntm 

Imperfect.— I used formerly to paint flowers and land- 

autrefois peindre art. art pay- 

Bcapes. Wast thou not waiting for me? That did not depend on 
sagem, aUendre * Cela dSpendre de 

his will. We used to correspond formerly. Were you not feigning 
vohntSf. correspondra feindre 

to believe him? Their kindnen diffused joy among the 

de le croire hontS f.'pl'ripandre aiLjoief, parmi 

people. They were leading us into error. 
peuplem., induire en erreur 

Past definite. — I put out the fire at five o'clock. Didst thou 

&eitidre feum. si cmq hemres 

not pity him? He knew me again although I had changed 
phimlre recotmaUre fuoique femse aksmgi 

my dress. The chairman suspended the sitting. Did we not 
d'kabU president nupendre siameet 

sell it to him again ? You went down into the cellar. Did you 

revendrele lui detcendre d cavef, 

not spill the wine? They answered me in the course of the 
ripandre mnm. ripandre courantm, 

morning. They disappeared the moment he entered. They 
matkUet dispardUre dh que aUrer 

took us back in their earrif^. 

reconduire * voiture f. 

Future.— I shall not compel you to go thither if you do not 

eontraindre ay aUer ne le 

wish it. He will seduce his hearers by his eloquence. We 
votdezpas sSduire auditeurm, (101.) iloquencef. 

shall sell all our fiimiture. Shall we not aim at the same end? 
vendre meublesm»^L tendre InUixi. 

WiHyoa heiir me vhen I call? Will those meo appe«r 
entendre quand fappeUeral comptiraUre 

before tbe judge ? Will they not infringe the laws? 
devant juge enfreindre loif, 

CovDiTioMAL. — I would remodd tb&t work if I had time. 

rrftmdre ouvragem^ (224.) art 

Would he driTe you to despair? Would he oondegccad to 
ridtdre d art. dUespoir condeteendre d 

answer such a request? Should we not fear to offend 
repondre d une telle demande eraindre de ofenser 

him? Would you not describe the beauties of that landacafie? 
le dipeindre heaute f. 

Would not my fiiends introduce you into good company? 

inirodmre art eompagnie f. 

Those workmen (would carry on) the undertaking with success. 
ouvHer eonduire entreprue succes 

Im^katite. — Know me again. Let us unite our endeavours, 
ReeonwiAtre jamdre ejfort 

in order to do honour to our affairs. Do not lose your money.' 
qfin de /aire honneur perdre 

Put out tbe lamp. Enjoin him to write immediately to the 
Eteindre lampei. Ei^indre lui d'Scrire immiduUement 

head-master of that college. Let us wait a little longer. 

provkeur eoUige m. AUendre un peu plus Umgtemps 

Do not appear so grave. Let us destroy those useless plants. 
paraitre sSrieux dSlruire inutile plantef. 

Do not spill that water. Paint this rose. 
ripandre Peindre — f. 

Subjunctive present or future. — ^Speak louder, that I 

pluM haui, afin que 

may hear what you say. Is it possible that I should fear them ? 
entendre ce que vous dites eraindre 

I do not suppose that be will answer your letter. He plays with 
supposer ripondre d jouer 

a penknife although we forbid him daily to do it The 
canifm, quoique dtfendre hti tous les jours de faire 

general wishes us to defend the town to the last. I do 

veuJt que nous difendre viUe f. jusqu^d Vextrhnite Je ne 

not wish you to pitv me. He (is desirous) that they should 
veux pas que voiu plaindre dSsirer 

304 TERBS. 

not bkcreaae our tixmble. Is it ponible that they cotdd not 
aeer&Ure peine f, 

understand me f 

Imperfect. — He would not allow me to sell my hone. Was it 
// ne vouleut pas queje venire EtaU-il 

possible that he forbade what he had allowed at first? They 

tUfendre ce qu'U avait permu d^ahord Ik 

wished us to paint in oil. I (was desirous) that you should 

vouUnent que nous peindre d FhuUe wnUais tra^ 

translate those papers for your uncle. It was not expected that 
dmre papier ancle On ne s*aUendait pas 

they would dye those cloths. We were staying in Naples in ordei^ 
teindre drapm.. rester d afin 

that they might rejoin us. They would be sony that we should 
que rejoindre fdehS que 

wait the whole day. You ought to tell them that circumstance, 
attendre toute lajournSe devoir dire leur circonstance f. 

in order that they might recognise the truth. 
afin que reconnaitre 

Promiscuous exercise on the Regular verbs* 

I cultivate the arts. Thou cherishest virtue. We encourage 
cultiver cherir art. ^coura^er(l66.) 

industrious pupils. Is not that youth studying the master- 
art laborieux jeune homme Hudier chefs- 

pieces of the ancients ? Fine actions excite admiration. Re- 
d*aBuvre art. exciter art. art 

ligion elevates the soul. Hope soothes care. Virtue alone 

ilever art adoucir oxi, peine i. art 

secures an immortal glory. Madame de S^vigne's letters are 
assurer (37.) art. 

charming. Great successes do not always prove a superior mind. 
charmant art. succh prouver 

Euripides and Sophocles contributed to the glory of the Athenians. 
Euripide Sophocle contribuer (226.) Aiheniens 

The honest man acts (according to) his conscience. Wars often 

agir selon f. art. 

begin by the ambition of princes, and always end by the misfor- 
commencer finir 


timeofiuitioiu. Theglovyof kings (passes away) like a riiadow. 
peuple9 art. digparaitre eomme amhret. 

We often lose our reputation for having ill chosen our friends. 
On (241,) per dre sa (215.) tnalehoui ses 

Heaven and earth declare the power and wisdom of the 
art. art. annoneer puittaneef, art. 


For exercises on the Passive verbs, see Syntaxe des Pariicipei, 

ExercUe on BefUcHve verbs (184, 185.). 

Indicative prbsent. — I rise in summer at five o'clock. Dost 

se lever dans ViU d, heuree 

thou repent? He dresses himself. He does not remember 
»e repeniir s*habiller se souvenir 

what I told him yesterday. We walk every day in the 
deceque die lui se promener toui leejour* *au 

park. Do yon not discourse about that af^r? You rest. 
pare m. s'entretenir de affaire t se reposer 

Do you rest? You do not rest Do you not rest? Are those 

boys making haste? 
se dSpieher 

Past ihdefihite^ — I have intended to write to you. Has he 

se proposer de ierire 

enriched himself at your expense? Has my friend imagined that 
s'enriehir d \os d^ens sHm^nner 

I was wnmg? Your brother has intended to so to Paris. We 
j'aoais tort se proposer d^aUer 

have not subscribed to those concerts. Have yon not trusted him? 
s'abonner m. (324.) se fier h lui 

Have they not fainted? It is said that they have escaped. Those 
s*Svanmur On dit s*eehapper 

children have fidlen asleep. Have they not fallen asleep? 

IxpEXPECTw— I was recofleetnig what I heard last night 

S€ rappeUr ee que entendre (226.) Mer an smr 

He was often angry without a motive. He abstained from drinking 
sefSeker stmsmoU^ s*ab$tenir boire 


wmeu We were complaiiUBg wtthoiit reaBon. U^cd tdu ttol 

(89.) a# j^aindre raiton 

to dreM youraalreB ia this room? Did ihejr not kugb at yvmf 
8'habiUer se moqmr dB 

Were tbey not rqoking at the good sews,? They (found tbem- 
90 r^mur de nouveUe f. se tr^tt- 

selves comfortable) in that cottage. 
ver bien chaumtiret. 

Plvperfect. — I had taken possession of the book which belonged 

s'emparer appartenir 

to my brother. Ha had (placed his trust) in a man unworthy of 

se fier h indigne 

confidence. We had remembered our promise. Had you not 
confiance se restouvenir de promesse f. 

retired into your study ? They had behaved perfectly well. 
se rearer cabinet m. se comporter parfaitement 

They had been proud of that advantage. Had not the 

s^enorgueiUir avantage m 

pilots rushed into the danger to save the crew ? 
pilote sepr6cipiier m. pour sauver iquipage m. 

Past definite. — I complained (about this) to my master. That 

se plaindre en (90.) 

flower faded. We rejoiced. Did you make use of the best 
seflHrir se rSjouir se servir 

expressions? They met, but did not speak (to each 

— — f. se rencmUrer muis se parler • 

other). Those men betrayed themselves. His riches increased. 

se trahir rickesses s*accrcUre 

and diminished with the same rapidity. 
se disperser rapiditif. 

Past ANTERIOR. — ^As soon as I had applied myself I surmounted 

Aussitdt que s'appliquer surm<mter{^2Q.) 

all the obstacles. When he had approached the king he spoke. 
' m. Quand s*approcher de 

When he had recollected all that had happened he wrote 
seressouvenirde ce qui (182.) arriver (233.) icrivit 

to his fiiend. As soon as we had assembled we went to meet 

s*assetnbler nous dUdmes ik sa ren- 

him. When you had conversed about his merit you elected him 
amire s'entretenir de mSritem.wms SlUtes le 

unanniMNnly* After having walked in the garienof theTiifleric% 
^ runanimiti jiprit fu'ila te pramener ■ pi. 

they returned home. 
g'en reUmmer chez eux 

Future.— I dull not interfen widi 80 vnjnst a poceeding. Wilt 

amUer if tin procSdS u injuste 

tiiOD renember thy pramieef Will not that dnld fidl adeep? We 
ie souvenir de fmmune f. i^endormir 

■hall meet perhape. WiU yon d«?ote ]Nmnelf to that undar- 
ie rencontrer pevUHre i*oecuper tk tntre' 

taking? Thoae chiUreii mSi catdi cold. Will mat tfaota gendcraen 


interfere with the oonTenation ? Will not ihoie merchants grow rich? 
ie miUr de __ f. nigociant s'enriehir 

Future anterior. — Aa soon aa I shall have taken rest I will go 

se repoeer se rename 

to yonr unde'a. By such conduct w3t tboa not have 
chez voire onch Par uneteUe eondmte 

degraded thyself in his eyes? Before his departnre he will have 
ttavUir d Avant de partiar 

seized his arms. Thereby we shall have fatigued ourse^res 

s^emparer de armef, ParUL sefaiigtter 

(to no purpose). WiU you not have stopped at the gate? Those 
inutuement s*arrHer barrih^f, 

men will have betrayed themselves. 
se trahir 

CoNDiTioiTAL PRESENT. — Shouldlnot tmst youf Thouwonldst 

se fier it (32^.) 

not be offended. Woddhenot devote himsdf to drawing? 
s^offenser ^appHquer art dessin m. 

Would not yoor sister deceive herself? Shonld we not defend 

se tromper se difendre 

ourselves? Would you assemble in tins room? They would 

se riunir 

expose themselves to the greatest dangers. Those women would 

accustom themselves to work. Would those ministers submit 
shabituer sxL traioaUm, sesoumeUre 

206 VERBS. 

to such whims? They would not expose themselves so 
de tela capriceM 8*expater si 


Past. — Should I not have repented for having listened to him? 

se repentir de Favoir ScouU 

He would not have yielded to their entreaties. We should never 

se rendre instance 

have parted. Would you have boasted without reason? Those 
se separer se vanter 

birds would have flown away. Those soldiers would have revolted. 

s*envoler se rhfoUer 

Would not those gentlemen have been astonished at that decision? 

s*itonner de dicision f. 

Those poor children would have rejoiced at the happy news. 

se rijouir de nouvelle f. 

Imperative. — Rest, my friend. Do not walk (any more). 
se reposer sepromener phis 

In doubt, abstain. 'Let us remember that our first duty is 
Dans le doute s'ahsteuir se rappeler devoir m. 

to be just. Expect to hear from me. Do not trust to his 

d' s*attendre d recevoir de mes nouveUes se fiet 

promises. Make haste. Refresh yourselves. Never despair. 
promesse f. se d^ieher se rafraichir se desespirer 

Do not fatigue yourselves too much. 
sefatiguer trop • 

Subjunctive present or future.— I must devote myself 

Ufaut queje s*appliquer 

to this study with more zeal. It is absolutely necessary that thou 
itudef, plus de zile II faut absolument 

shouldst inure thyself to work. I wish he may be better. 
s'habituer au travail dSsirer qi/il se porter mietUB 

Is it not essential that we should get up early every day ? 

essentiel se lever de bonne heure tousles jours 

I do not think that you repent your errors. Is it probable that 
Je ne crois pas se repentir de 

they will interfere in that lawsuit? I fear that those liquids will 
se mHer de proces m. craindre que liqueur ne 


ev apora te. Do yoo think tbattfaoae flowenwill fade? Suppoong 
tkvaporer Croyez-wnu geJlHrir Suppate que 

they shoald remember it, do you think they wiD boast aboat it? 
96 souvenir de te vanier de 

Past. — ^Is it ponible that I should haye fainted ? It is astonishing 
Sepeul4l que **hMmouir II est HomuuU 

that thou hast grown rich so soon. I do not beliere that he has fled. 
s^enrieJur sU6t Jenecrcupas s^etsfiar 

De you suppose that we hare parted willingly? It wiU nerer 
s*iwutgimer se iiparer voUmiiers Ou ne eroira 

be bdiered that yon hare deceived yourselves to soch a d^^ree. It is 
jmasms s'abuser tat tel pomt On 

feared that diey have surrendered to die enemy. It is not pro- 
cnuHi que ne serendre ennewum, 

bable that diey hare determined to depart without taking leave of 

se dieider d portir prendre comgi 

their friends. 

IifPBarECT.^»They wished that I should remember the ndes 
On vaulaU se amnenir de riglemeni 

of the school. I was not desirous that thou shonldst complain. We 
Seoiet, dhtrer sepUundre Nome 

wished him to walk a little every morning. Was it necessary 
coviioiu qu'U se promener Urns les matins FaUaii-il 

that we should trust that imprudent man? It was not required that 
sefierh On nexigeait pas que 

joa should have recourse to this method. They wished them to re- 

se sermr de wtoyen m. On voulait qu*ils se ri- 

joice. Did they not wish them to r emember that message? 
jouir Ne dhirail-<m pas qu^Oe se ressoaeenir de eommianon f. 

pLUFERFECT.^-GNild they have wished that I had practised fen* 

Aurail-<m vouiu s'exereer itfaire 

dng before my departure? It would have been necessary for 
desarmes avant de portir H aurait failu que 

thee to have defended thyself more valiantly. They did not believe 
tu sedifendre vaiUamment On ne erojfoit pas 

that we should have met so soon. Was it possible for you to 

seriumir que 

have rejoiced at that dismal news? We could have wished 
se rSjouir de fdeheuse nouveUe Nous aurionspm dinrer 

210 VBRBB^ 

that they had remembered exactly all the partiealars of that 

ie rappeler exactement ditails m. 

extraordinary event. He would not have wished your Mends 

extraordinaire Svinement m. // n*auraU pas voulu que 

to have meddled with that ridiculous quarrel. 
ae miler de ridieuie quereUe f. 

Exercise on Uhipersonal or Impersonal verbs (1 86.)* 

I want a pendL There are several in my dssL Does it 
falloir(l92,) Y avoir (e^) plusteurs pupkrem. pUu- 

rain ? I want fifty pounds. It appears that he is right Will he 
voir livre paraitre U a raison 

not want writing-paper, pens, and ink? Could there be a child 
faOoir PourraOM (186.) 

happier than the one who has always caused the joy of his parents ? 
celui fait joie £ 

There must be great difficulties in that undertaking. I did not 
// doit y avoir de difficuUS f. entreprite f. Je ne croy- 

think that it was necessary (for me) to write again. It (is important) 
aiipa$ faUoir me icriredenowveau importer 

to succeed. Was it not necessary Aat he should answer him? 
de riuseir faUoir (191,) rSpondre lui 

Must that man come in? Yes» he must. That is what I want. 
fcdloirque entrer illefatU (Test likce que faUoir 

There still remain nine francs, which I ought to have paid a week 
encore reeter faurais d4 payer il y a huit 

ago. There would be more happiness if the people were more 
jourt Y avoir de bonheur si pevpte m. (224.) 

enlightened. Is there any one who boasts more than diat man ? 
SMrer Y avoir quelqu*un se vaater 

Exercise on the Irregular verbs (page 157 e^ seq,y, 

I am gmng thither now. Shall you go with him tomorrow? 
tMer y ^prUent 

Sit down, ladies, you (look tired). Will you send it to him ? 
Sfasseoir aioezrairfatigu^ (246.) envoyer 

I was drinking a glass of water* We ran when he called us. 
hoire aeeaurir appeler ^ 

Beve lies a great poet. I wrote the whole morning. Do not 
GrgiHT poete icrire toute la matin4e 


g» away yetu I shHil send your letter by the post Do yon 
tten oiler encore emmyer posie f. 

ihink that lie will write this eveniog? May the name of tf»(^t 

croire ecrire (237.) 

great man be blessed fiom generation to genention! Do that fiaar 
bSnir gMratum en Faire 

me. I would do it if I could. I have inquired about 

faire pouooir (224.) s'en^rir (227.) de 

that man eyeiywbere. Would be not avoid flatterers if he 
fortout fuir art fiaUeur 

knew all their falsehood? 

comka&lre (224.) fatuseti f. 

That bill is due today. Do you wish me to send 

kttre de change Schoir vouloir ^ue envoyer (237.) 

by the post? Those trees blossomed twice every yeac 

potte f. J^urir (223.) deuxftm iatu les ans 

Shall I gather some of tbesc flowers? Allow me to offer you 
cueUHr quelquee-une* Permettre de offrir 

lome* Did yoa not know your lessons tfaia morning? I 

en MUfoir (225.) 

wished you to read a duptar or two. That book (is worth) 

vouloir que voue Ure (240.) chapUre m. valoir 

a guinea. Do yoa think that he wishes to purchase it? 

guinUL croire vou/on* (237.) acheter le 

Those cbildittn were langhing. I (was nmch deli^ite^ in that 

rire beaueoup se plaire 

house. It is not believed that he is dead. Should I not foresee 
OnhecroUpoM mourir prhfoir 

that event? Do you think he will take all that money? 

criMte que prendre (237.) 

I diall follow him everywhere. His stoength fiifls him from 
euhre partout foreeeLjL defaillir lui 

day to day. 
JMur en jour 

The fruit that cshild gadien is not ripe. Commerce was 
(120.) emeiUir wmr ait m. 

flourishing in our country. We must remain haie 

fieurtr II faut que nous rester (237.) 

tiU we know die tenth. That colow does not 

jtuqu'd ee que lavoir (237.) eouleurt. 

212 VERBS. 

become you. 1 will lend you this umbrella for fear it should rain. 
seoir priter de craintequ'Unepleuvoir(2S7.) 

Are we not learning these rules with facility f I used often 
apprendre aisSment 

to see your cousin when I was in Paris. That good man 
voir (222.) d brave 

was living in peace, on the patrimony of his ancestors. We were 
vivrfi en paix dans patrimoinem, 

going towards the meadow when we saw the villagers. They 

aUer vers prairie f. voir (226.) villaffeois 

were milking their cows. Is it possible that I should screen 
traire vache f. soustraire 

those (guilty persons) from the rigour of the laws ? . Would 
(237.) eoupwles d n^ru^tirf. 

they have hurt you in that lawsuit? 
nuire procis 

Have you read that work ? Do you think it is worth while ? 

lire valoir (237.) la peine 

Must I follow him the whole day ? Was not Napoleon 

Faut'U queje suivre (237.) totUe lajoumSe 

born in the island of Corsica? Never contradict with ill 

nattre {226.) He Corse eowtredire 

humour. I was reading when your brother arrived. Has he 

humeur lire arriver (226.) 

interrupted you? I did not believe that it was raining 

interrompre croire (222.) pleuvoir (240.) 

then. In absolving that man justice was not done. That author 
ahsoudre on n*a pas fait justice 

has acquired celebrity by his works. Are they going 

acquhir de art. ckUhriU f. ouvrage m. s*en 

away ? Have you leamt this lesson ? We undid all the work. 
aUer apprendre dtfaire (226.) 

Are you not doing your exercise ? Philosophy comprehends 
(219.) fatre ihhnexsL, art. compr«fti^ art. 

logic, ethics, physics, and metaphjrsics. 

loffiquef. art, morale, f. n, ait, physique tt, art mitaphysique t a. 

Let us learn. 

They (pulled down) the walls of their garden. Will you not send 
ahattre murm, jardinm. envoyer 


it to tliem t He has extracted many of these examples from ihe 
(96.) extraire pbuieurs exemple 

Dictionary of the French Academy. Did yon not displease 

dietumnaire Acadhmet (245.) tUplairei^ 

your benefactor? Have they not written to you the details of the 
hienfaiteur icrire deiailm. 

mayor's feast? She moved the heart of that unfeeling man. 
himquetm.eiui^ue kmrnnow maendble 

Sciences, arts, and literature flourished in France in 
art art. • art Jieurir tous 

the reign of Louis XIV. I do my duty, do yours. He has 
r^nem. /aire devairvL, 

not committed that fiuilt He will never admit those principles. 
eommeUre fautef, admeUre prmeipeg 

Win he believe it? I do not see it. The enemies were com- 

* • • 

pletely beaten. The artillery (beat down) the tower. 
plHemeni bathre abaUre tamrt 


It begins to be hot; it is time (to throw off some clothing). 
H commence d /aire chaud de se dhoHhr 

Describe all yon saw in that beantifiil city. It was the first 
DSerire tout ce que voir CefiU 

battalion of the third rmment which assaulted the entrench- 
btUaillom'm. rSgnmenim* anailUr reiranehe- 

ments. They died of griet Is it not that spring which moves 
m. flmwrir resMMtm. 

the whole machine? Yon do not hate any one. The empire of 
iomte la f. hair per m m me 

the Babylonians was flourishing (in finmer times). Does he not 
Babylomeme JUwrir OMirrfoiM 

bate thai ridiculous parade? I (had a glimpse of) that beautiful 
Aoir ridiade appareilm. eairewnr 026J) 

kndseqie. We were elected. Have they not inclosed that field ? 
pojftagem, SUre euelore chawtpm. 

Win he omit the drcmostance? Have yon read it? Will not that 
omeUre lire 

conduct hurt your interests? I will follow his example. Pur- 
eomdmU t mure h imieriit m. Jiitere Pour- 

woe your oouise quietly. 
tuimre ekemm iramquillemeai 

214 VSRB&. 

The chairman did not collect the yotei. I Inow tlie truth 
prSndent reeueiiUr voce tavoir 

now. Your behaviour has not pleased your tutor. Your 
i^prSteiU condtdte plaire ei pricepteur 

guardian wrote to you last week. That man cannot convinee 

tuteur ierire (226.) eonvainere 

his constituents of the sincerity of his intentions. Let us see what 
comfnetiantm. sincSritSf. _ «o^ (123.) 

you hare written. (Have the goodness to) tell him that I shall send 
Scrire Fouloir dire lui envayer 

that amount in the course of the week. See him if you can. 
moatafUm, couranim. semainef. Voir pomtoir 

Behold the admirable order of the universe ! I would wish you 

ordre vouloir que 


to keep your word with me. They surprised the enemy. 

tenir (240,) * parole * me surprendre 

Would this work be^ood for nothing? This newfashioned 
ouvragem. vahir * rien che^eaum. d'tm 

hat becomes you wonderfully. Those colours will not 

nouveau goUt eeoir d merveille 

become her. 
seoir lui 

Did not the Greeks vanquish the Persians at Mara&on, Salamis, 

vaincre(226.) Peree d —^kSaletmme 

Flateea, and Mycale ? Thereby did they not transmit their glory 
^PlaUe d Par Id tranemeUre gloiret 

to their posterity? Will you be able to accomplish that affair? 
poetMU Pouvoir venir d bout de 

That general lieutenant will very soon be promoted to the rank of 

incessamment promouvoir 

French marshal. You suppress an interesting description. Could 
marichal de France taire inUreeeant f. Pouvoir 

you foresee iheir misfortunes? Do you know Ihe truth of his 
(225.) privoir malheur m. savoir 

evidence? My brother knew French and German. You satis- 
iimoiffnaffem. savoir le /ran fais Vallemand eatii^ 

U^ your master. You follow the precept. That answer is 
fcAre aatirfaired priceptem. r^pontef. 

equivalent to a refusal. They lived together. The memory of that 
iquivaUnr refutm. vivre mSmoket 


legislator, hk name, his glory will live to the most distant 
Ugislateur vhre jvsque dans la postiritS la 

posterity. Fathers live again in their children. 

plusrecuUe art. reviwe 

Go and fetch from my library, a volume of Seneca. He has 
* quSrir bibHothiquef, Sinigue 

inquired about the state of your affairs. That cornice does not 
8*enquhir de Hatm, comicket 

sufficiently jut out. The parliament sitting in London. Our sweetest 
saiUir seoir* tL 

food Was the milk of our goats and sheep, which we took 

me/« chivre de (102,) brebis avoir 

oare to milk ourselves. We were sitting on the banks of the 
soin de s^asseoir bord 

Thames, whence we contemplated myriads of vessels, which bring 
Tamisef, contempler desmilliers apporter 

every year the riches of the two hemispheres. A bad action is 


followed by repentance. Anacharsis went into Greece. A beautiful 
iuivre de art. repentirm. oiler 

thought well expressed pleases at all times. A single day 
pensie exprimer plaire en tout temps aetd 

can tarnish the gloiy of twenty years. Think much, speak little, 
pouvoir temir 

write less. 

Promiscuous Exercise on the Verbs* 
Chiefly for viva voce prtzcHce, 

[Each of the following sentences may be varied and extended so as to 
be made the foundation of several others : as, / speaJky — I do not speak; 
does lie speak? does she speak to you? have toe spoken to the master? 

245. Note. ^JHdy used in English in interrogations, must, according to 
the time when the action expressed by the verb took place, be rendered 
in French by the imperfeety past definite^ or past indefinite of the indi- 
catiye. Thus, Did he know? may be translate by SanaitM? sutM? or 

246. Note. Wouldy wiUj shoutd, shall, etc., being sometimes principal 
verbs and sometimes only auxiliaries to other verbs, must be translated 
into French according to their meaning. Thus, He would not go, may be 
rendered by any of the following sentences : // n*irait pas; il ne voudrait 
pas alter; U ne wmtaitpas aSer; il ne vouhU pas oiler ; or, il n' a pas vot^ 
oiler. Will you come? may likewise be rendered by Viendna'Wms ? or, 
vouleZ'Vous venir ? 

216 VERBS. 

247. Note. English passiTe verbs used in a general sense', to express 
that something U, has been^ or wiU be done^ may in most instances be 
rendered in French by the active voice, with on as the nominative (see 
Prononu ind^nia in the Syntax). Thus the sentence, a letter has been 
recewedf may be rendered by on a refu une lettre, 

I speak (parler). Let us walk (se promener). Write 
(ecrire). Do not interrupt (interrompre). Will he stay 
(rester) ? Do not run (caurir). Have they complained (se 
plaindre)? Wq have not finished (Jinir). Are they not 
ringing (sanner) ? Dojrou not borrow (emprufUer)? Does 
the master reward (ricompenser) ? Have they not doubted 
(douter)? Did (246.) not your sister (103.) guess (deviner)? 
Did those men refuse (refiiser)? Did they call (appeler)? We 
do not give ((2oitiier). Shall I consult (con^u/^cr)? We should 
walk (marcher). Would they eat (manger)? Would not the 
judges condemn (candamner) ? Is the servant coming up 
(monter)? Will he carry it (joorfer)? Will he think (penser)? 
Would they not forgive (pardonner)! We were dining then 
(diner y alors). At what time does he breakfast (a quelle heure^ 
defeuner) ? We do not sup (souper). Would he not plead 
(plaider)? The workmen demolish (oMi?rtcr, di^mo/tV). Are 
you not considering (rS/Hchir)? Did they not show it to you 
(mantrer) ? I will not offend (offenser\ Did not my father 
warn you (avertir) ? They shuddered (frdmir). Would you 
applaud (applauair)? 

Would not your friends suffer (sotiffrir) ? Do not the rays 
of the sun dazzle (ibUmir) ? Can you define this (pouvoir^ 
d/ijinir) ? Shall you not return (reioenir) ? Will those mer- 
chants buy (acheter) ? I owe (devoir). Have you conceived 
that idea (concevoir^ idie) ? Have they not deceived my dear- 
est hopes (dicevoir, espirance)? Have they levied ( percevoir) 
unjust taxes? Have they perceived (apercevoir) their error? 
Does she sell (vendre) gloves ? Have you not spilt (ripandre) 
the ink ? Will they laugh (rire) ? Let us begin (commeneer)* 
Let that child sleep (laisser dormir). Do you understand me 
(camprendre) ? He would (246.) not stop (sarreter). Would 
you not hurt yourself (se blesser) ? Do you think that they 
will not consent (croire, consentir (237.)) r Would not those 
children come down when you called them (vouloiry descendre, 
appeler)? Would he not get weak (**fl^atft/£r) ? Did (24-5.) 
she not blush (roygir) ? Would you not have chosen that 
colour (choisir)? You ought not to resist (devoif, r^sister). 
Will he not clean (nettot/er) the library ? They have obtained 


it (pbieniry Would you teach (enseigner) ? Does it not 
rain (pletivoir) ? 

Do not promise (promettre). Have you not heard it (en- 
tendre)? Will they not repent (se repentir)? Rise (se lever). 
Go out (wrtir). Let us obey (obeir). Would you not suffer 
(sauffrir)? Ijet us rejoice (se r^atdr). Let us not fear 
(eriondre). WiU he not cure (guMr) ? Have they not an- 
swered (r^pondre) ? Mend this pen (taillerj plume). We were 
succeeding (rdussir). Do not disobey (desobUr). They would 
perish (perir). Let us hope (esp^er). Let us rest (se re- 
poser). Have you found it (trouver^ ? Would those pupils 
devote themselves to that science (4leve, ^appliquer) ? Will 
you take it (prendre)? Have they fled (fuir)? We will 
know it (savoir). You will know him (oonitat/re). They will 
correspond (correspandre). Answer (ripondre). Do not mis- 
take (se tromper). He boasts (se vanier). Make haste (se 
depicher). Behave well (se comporter bien). Do we not re- 
joice (se rejauir) ? How do you do (se porter) ? How is your 
n03.) father (se porter)? Sit down (s'asseoir). We open 
(ouvrir) the door. Does this grammar belong to you (appar- 
iemr) ? Do you not see (voir) ? 

Does that boy displease you (diplaire a)? Be silent (se 
tcdre). We paint (pemdre). She feigns (feindre). They were 
extinguishing it (eteindre)» Will they not disappear (dispa- 
raitre)? Do you recognise him (reconnaUre)? Was not your 
sister learning (apprendre) that language ? He does not un- 
dertake it (entreprendre). You surprise me (surprendre). 
Was she describing it (dicrire) ? Do you think I have never 
travelled (croirey voyager) ? We have done (faire) an exer- 
cise. Have you not avoided (eviter) that danger ? . We are 
interested in (sHnteresser a) that affair. He was dying (se 
mourir). She is fainting (s*evanautr). Hold it (tenir). Will 
you not subscribe (s'abojiner) ? WiU not your friend read 
(Ure) your brother's letter ? Has he not returned it (rendre)? 
Keep your word (j^arder, parole). Would they not come 
(venir) and spend the evening (passer la soMe) ? Does your 
sister apply to work (iappiUquer au travail) ? Will you not 
receive company (reeevoir du monde)? Have you taken tea 
(prendre le the) ? Do not refuse him that service (refuser ce 
service). Would not the secretary warn us (prSvenir) ? 

Smell this flower (senHr). Let us serve him (servir). Have 
you broken (casser) this glass ? Do you like reading (aimer 
a lire) ? Let us not stop on the road (s*arriter en route). She 


218 VERBS. 

WBB endeavouring to please you (chercher it plaire). Come 
near (yapprocher). Do you believe it (croire) ? You were 
drinking (boire) water. Are you going (aUer) to London? 
He contradicts a false report (demeniir un faux rapp&rty 
Does he employ his time well (en^fdoyer bien le temptt) ? Is he 
not becoming rich (devenir riche) ? I am dull {s*ennuj^y. 
Are they dancing a quadrille or a country-dance (danser iine 
oofUredanse* une angtmse) ? Was not your ( 103.) mother un- 
easy {sinquHter) ? Are you hungry (avoir faim) ? You 
should learn music (devoir^ apprendsre)* I am going to trandate 
(oUeTf tmduire). Will they elect him (4Ure) ? They are going 
away {s*en oiler). Will they be admitted (admettre) ? Wait 
(otieTuire). He was deceiving you (tromper). Where shall 
I drive you (youhir que^ oonduire)? Will he follow you 
(stdvre) ? Do you remember it (se souvenir de) ? Let us 
gather (cuetUir) some of these flowers. 

Will not your servant deliver (remettre) this letter to him? 
You should abstain from meat {devoir sabstenvf). Will the 
teacher explain that rule (precqfteury expliquer^ regie) ? The 
members of the committee assembled (s^assembler). Have you 
made use of that (se servir de)? We were dressing oui^lves 
{ihabiUer). This book is worth (valoir) ten francs. Do not 
laugh at him (jse tnoquer de). He dresses in the French style 
(se mettre d la frangaise). Has the surgeon dressed their 
wounds (chirurgien^ panser^ blessure) ? Were they consenting 
(conserUir)? I sh'all soon go to sleep (s'endormir). Why 
does he beat that child (battre)? See what they have written 
(voir^ icrire). Will (246.) you advance (vmdoir avancet) 
^fty francs ? Dye this cloth (teindre, drap). Ought they to 
resist (devoir, resisler) ? Were they not all running to his 
assistance (aoeourir, secours) ? Can your brother drive («a- 
voir, conduire) ? Will you not embark at Dover (s*embarguer) ? 
He smiled (sourire). Tell him to frank this letter (dire de, 
payer Ic port de or affiranchir). You dare not (oser). Have 
they caught him (attraper) ? 

Should we not send it back (renvoyer) ? These colours are 
well matched (itre assorii). He goes to bed at eleven o'clock 
(se Gaucher a onze heures). Is your brother angry (fdche)? 
Let us not debate (dtscuier). Have those pupils thanked you 
(remercier) ? When these exercises aref corrected we dbali 
learn them by heart (thimey corrigery appremdre par cceur). 
I have just had (see Idiomatic tenaesy page 85 et seg.) the 
* Or un guadriUe (pronoimce kft-dri-ne), f seront. 


letter. We have jnst seen your broUier. I had just spoken to 
your friend. We are going to have a holiday. We are to 
have one tomorrow. We were going to have <me today. Were 
you not to have had an answer this morning ? You ought to 
ask. You ought to have asked. He has just been rewarded 
(247-)« They had just been punished. They are to be sent 
away (renvoyer). They were to be sent away this morning. 
We have just written to the chairman (pr^stdent). He ought 
to have oome this aftamoon. We had just risen (se lever) 
when the news came. You ought to have taken (^porter) that 
letter to the p08t-H>ffice last night. 


248. The Participle is a word which partakes, or par- 
ticipates, of the properties of a verb and an adjective. 
It has the signification and government of a verb, as des 
enfants aimant DieUy children loving God ; des en/ants 
aim4s de DieUy children loved by Grod ; cegin^al ay ant 
vaincu Pennemi, that general having conquered the 
enemy; and, like an adjective, it expresses also the 
quality or state of persons or things ; as, un voyageur 
fatigue^ a weary traveller; une maison Men bdtie, a 
house well built. 

There are two sorts of participles : the participle 
present, ending in ant, as chantanty unissant ; and 
the participle past, which has various terminations, as 
chantiy uni, apei'qu, mis, ecrit, etc. (See the Syntax.) 



249. The Adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or 
another adverb ; it is placed near and generally after 
the verb, to express where, when, and how the action is 
dqne; as, 

* For the etymology of the French invariahle or undedined parts of 
speech, and of the words of most frequent occurrence, such' as artides, pn>- 
nonnSi etc, see the MroeftccfMn. 



n parle SloguemmetUf He speaks eloquently. 

II est fort estim6, He is much esteemed. 

C'est tres-bien fait. It is very well done. 

Most adverbs, in French, are formed by adding to 
adjectives the syllable ment; as. 

Sage, toise ; Sagement, wisdy. 

Libre, /ree ; Librement,/r6e/^. 

The following take an ^ before the. final ment : aeeuglSmmit cmmmM-' 
ment, confirmanentf 4norm^ment, untform^meni, 

Ment is added to the masculine of the adjective, if the 
adjective ends with a vowel ; or to its feminine, if not ; 


Utile, useful \ Utilement, usefuUy. 

Doux, gende ; Doucement, gently. 

Attentif, attentive. Attentivement, attentivefy. 

Except gentilt which makes geniiment ; and commtme, cw^naey dijflMte, 
espretse, importvne, obscure^ pr^cite, pniffmdt, which change the e mute 
into e ; as ^mvmuniiment, cot^uimentf etc. The adjectiyes beauy noweauj 
ftm, and mou fonn their adverbs from their fominine, beUct nouvelleifoUe, 
mothf thus, belkmentf nouveUementj etc. Impuni is also an exception, and 
makes in^ntn^ent. 

Adjectives in ent ^ or ant change nt into m to form 
adverbs in ment ; as, 

Patient, patient ; Patiemment, patiently. 

Savant, learned \ Savamment, learnedly. 

Lent, slow, makes ientement ; present makes pr^aeniement. 

Note. French adverbs in ment are generally derived from a Latin ad- 
jective with the noun mens, mind, (meaning intention,) in the ablative ; as 
HONSSTA MENTE, honuStemeut, honestly, 

[jPor the placing of adverbs, see 241.] 

List of Adverbs and Adverbial expressio7is most in use. 

A dessein, on purpose. Alentour, around, in the eir^ 

A droite, on the right. ^ cumference, 

A fond, thoroughly. A Tenvi, vying with one an- 

Ailleurs, elsewhere. other, 

A jamais, ybr et7«r. A rimproviste, tme;^pec<M%» 

Ainsi, thus. Alors, then. 

A la fois, atxmce. A part, aside. 

A Tamiable, amicably. A peine, scarcely. 


Aprds-demain, ihe day after Derriere, behind, 

tomorrow. Des \ors, from that time. 

A present, now. D^ormais, hencrforih. 

Assez, enough. Dessous, undemeat/i. 

Aujourd'hui, today. Dessus, upon. 

Au moins, at least. De suite, immediately. 

Auparavant, before. Devant, brfore. 

Auprds, near. D'ici, hence. 

Aussr, asy also. D'ordinaire, generally. 

Aussitot, as soon^ immediately. Dorenavant, henceforth. 

Autant, a« mttch. D'6^, whence. 

Autvefoisy formerly. Du reste, besides. 

Autrement, otherwise. £n Siy&nty fonoard. 

Avant-hier, the day before yeS" Encore, stiUy yet. 

terday. Enfin, cU last. 

Avec soin, careftdly. Ensemble, together. 

Beaucoup, much. Ensuite, afterwards. 

Bien, weU. En sus, over. 

Bient6t, soon. Environ, abovty near. 

/O, hither (viens ca). Expres, on purpose. 

^ et l^ up and downy to and Fort, very. 

fro. Guere, Uttley but littkyfew. 

Cians, within. Hier, yesterday. 

Cependant, in the meantime. Ici, here. 

Certes, certainly. Incessamment, shortly y forth' 
Q\ for \Q\y here. withy — incessantly. 

Ci-aprds, hereafter. Instamment, earnestly. 

Combien, how muchy Itow Jsdis, formerly. 

manyy how far. Jamais, eoer (with ncy never). 

Comme, asy how. Jusque-la, so far. 

Comment, how. Jusqu'o^, how far. 

jyBbovdy first. L^ there. 

D'ailleurs, besides. La-bas, yonder. 

Davantage, more. La dedans, unthin. 

De9d et dela, up and downy Loin,yar. 

to and fro. Longtemps, a long time. 

Dedans, unthin, Lors, then. 

De gr6, willingly. Maintenant, now. 

Dehors, outside. Mai, badly. 

D6j^ already. Mdme, even. 

Demain, tomorrow. Mieux, bettery rather. 

De meme, in the same manner. Moins, less. 

De plusy moreover. "SagvLerey formerly. 



Ne, not 

Ne...pa6 (151«). 
NeanmoiDS, nevertheless. 
Ni plus ni moinsy neiUiermore 

nor less. 
Notamment, espeeidOy. 
Nuitamment, nightly. 
Nullemect, by no means. 
O^, where. 
Oui, yes. 

Parfois, sometimes, • 

Partout, everywhere. 
Pele-mele, in confusion. 
Peu, little. 
Peut-etre, perhaps. 
Pis, worse. 
Plus, mare. 
Plus tot, sooner. 
Plutot, rather. 
Pour lors, then. 
Pourtaut, however. 
Preaentement, now* 
Presque, almost. 
Prds, near ; ici pres, her^. 
Proche, near. 
Puis, then. 
Quand, when. 
Quelquefois, sometimes. 
Sans fa9on, without cere" 

Sciemment, knowingly. 

Sens dessus dessous, upside 

Si, so. 

Soudain, suddenly. 
Sou vent, often. 
Sur-le-champ, immediatdy. 
Surtout, above all. 
TsLuUso much, so many. 
Tantot, soon, by and 6y, some* 

Taut soit peuy ever so little. 
Tard, late. 
Tot, soon. 

Tot ou tard, sooner or later. 
Toujours, always. 
Tout ^ Vhsxaet presently. 
Tour k tour, by turns. 
Tout k coup, suddenly. 
Tout k fait, quite. 
Tout d'un coup, aU at once. 
Tout de suite, immediately. 
Toutefois, hotoever. 
Tr^, very. 
Trop» too muck* 
y^ritablement, and other ad-' 

verbs in ment derived from 

Vile, qtdeify. 
Volontiers, wittingly. 
Vraiment, truly^ indeed. 
Y, there. 

250. Frequently adjectives are used adverbially, as in the 
following examples : 

II dit vrai, 
£lle ohante^iu:, 
Tu paries bos, 
L'oiseau vole hauty 
Cette fleur sent boUy 

Me speaks truly. 

She sings out of tune. 

Iliou speahest low prin a whisper. 

7%e bird flies high. 

That flower smells sweet 

251. The above and aU other adverbs are generally classed according to 
their signification with reference to mannerf timey ptaety orders fumUity, 
compariaonf affirmation or mj^/ton. 

Thus the adverbs of immiMr are, tagement, wisely ; pottmant, politely ; 


ffU^t qiiickly ; letiiBmmt, slowly ; pmdemmeni, prudently ; m^chammmtf 
wickedly; hieny well; mal, badly, etc. 

Theadverbsof^tmtf are, att/re^oMj^'orfw, formerly; a/or^, then; aussiiSt, 
as soon as; bientSt, soon; hicTf yesterday; auJourd*huit today; dirniam, 
tomorrow; d^sormaiSf henceforth; tdt, soon; tardf late; touJourSf al- 
ways, fete. 

The adverbs of place are, od, where ; id, here ; M, there ; parttrnf, 
everywhere ; dessouSf underneath ; deasua, upon ; dedans, within ; dehors^ 
outside ; alentour, around ; ailleurs, elsewhere, etc. 

The adverbs of order are, d^abord, at first ; premUrement, eecondement 
(78.), pui8y ensuite, then, etc. 

The adverbs of qwmtUy are, peu, little ; trap, too much ; moina, less ; 
deaueoup, much; aetez, enough; tant, so much; autant, as much; com* 
bien, how much ; davantage, more, etc. 

The adverbs of comparison are, mieux, better ; phts, more ; motnSf less ; 
de m&me, in the same manner ; auasi, as ; comme, as, etc. 

The adverbs of q^rma/ton and negation toe, otu, yes ; non, no ; ne,,,paSf 
9U.., point, not ; nuBement, by no means, etc. 

252. NoTB. P/ttf, more, compared with davantage, more. P/t» ex- 
presses a comparison, davantage implies one ; the former establishes it in 
a direct, the latter in an indirect manner : Les Romaina ont plus de bonne 
Jm que iee Chreea. The Romans have mare good faith than the Greeks. Lu 
Greegn'antguiredeinnnefH, lea Romaina en ont oayaktage. The Greeks 
have but little good faith, the Romans have more. The position of davem- 
tage is properly at the end of the clause or phrase. In the case of the 
infinitive, however, it may either precede or follow the verb ; in which 
situation it admits of the comparative construction of phu : // n'eat rien 
gu'on doive DAVAitVAGB reeommander, ou reeommander datantagb, taut 
Jeunea gene, que de prendre garde aux Uaiaons qtCila formeni. There i* 
nothing that ought to be more recommended to youth, than to mind what 
connexions they form. See in the Syntax, Obaervationa aur Vemploi d& 
pluaieura adverbee. 

Seady trcmslatey and parse : 

Vous I'avez fait a dessein. — Toumez k droite, puis a gauche. 
— ^11 m'a e]iseign§ la grammaire k fond. — Que Dieu soit lou6 
^jamais! — ^Je m'ennuie ici, aUons ailleuis. — ^Vous le voulez 
ainsi, j'y consend. — ^Vous entreprenez trop ^ la fois. — Ar- 
langez-vous a Tamiable. — Ces Aleves ^tudient a Tenvi. — Ne 
surveuez done pas ainsi, ^ Fimproviste. — Ne demeuriez-vous 
pas alors k Paris ? — ^A peine sait-il lire. — C'^tait autrefois la 
mode. — Dinerons-nous bientdt? — Savez-vous combien cela 
coiite ? — Je ne sais comment 11 pent vivre. — ^11 le fera de gr6 
ou de force* — Adieu, jusqu'a demain.— Marchez, ne restez 
pus derriereh — R^fl^ohissez-y bien dor^navant. — Essayez en- 
core. — Cette afiaire est enfin termin6e« — Nous sommes venuf 
ici tout expr^.-^Nous inms chez vous ensuite. — Venez lci» 
mon bon ami. — Jusqu'oil devez-vous lire ? — Nous n'irons pas 


loin aujourd'hui. — £ltes-vou8 pr^t maintenant ? — Oii allez- 
voiis si vite ? — Tous vos livres sont p^le-m^le dans la biblio- 

Je yous 6crirai peut-etre demain. — Vous ne pourriez faire 
pis. — Cela ne vaut pas plus de trois francs. — Pour lors, que 
ferez-vous ? — N*est-il pas log6 ici pres ? — Parlez-lui sans 
fa^on. — Nous nous separames sur-le- champ. — ^Voici tant pour 
vous et tant pour moi. — Dounez m'en tant soit peu. — Get 
6v6nement arrivera t6t ou tard. — Parlez tour a tour. — ^Ma 
soeur est tout k fait ritablie. — ^11 entra tout k coup. — Ne de- 
meurez-Yous pas vis-a-vis? — Je vous obligerai volontiers. — 
Commencez tout de suite. — Parlez peu, mais parlez a propos. 
— Vous etes venu tard aujourd'hui, venez plus tdt demain. — 
Venez plutdt aujourd*hui que demain. — Une fausse honte 
empeche souvent de demander, quelquefois m^me de donner. 
— Ne cachez jamais les difficuUls k votre 61dve ; faites qu*il 
aime k les vaincre. — Ce que Ton con9oit bien s'6nonce claire- 
ment, et les mots pour le dire arrivent aisement — Rarement 
de sa faute on aime le t6moin. — Rien de trop est un pointy 
dont on parle sans cesse et qu'on n'observe point. 


He always (24fl.) says (dire) the truth. He comes (vemr} 
sometimes. I will do (faire) it willingly. Go (aller) quickly. 
He spoke then. We have worked (travaiUer) together. 
They have travelled (voyager) very far. I knew (connaitre) 
him formerly. Shall I never see (voir) him ? How do you 
manage (faire) that? Write (dcrire) immediately. Come 
hither. Read (lire) now. He will give him more (252.) of 
it (en), I saw him yesterday. We expected (aitendre) you 
the day before yesterday. The painter (peintre) had brought 
together (rassembler) in the same picture (un mime tableau} 
several different objects : here, a troop of Bacchantes ; there, 
a group of young people (gens) ; here, a sacrifice ; there, a 
reunion of philosophers. I went yesterday to Brightori. I 
have looked for (chercher) that work everywhere, and I have 
not been able to find it (pouvoir trouver). How far is it 
(f/ a-t'il) hence to Brussels ? Do you see that house yonder? 
If we cannot do what (123.) he desires, at least we must (191.) 
^rite to him. He came in (entrer) suddenly. He wiU suc- 
ceed (rSussir) sooner or later. It is late ; you ouffht (devoir) 
to come sooner. Call afterwards at your brother's (passer chez 
votre frere). 



253. Prepositions^ so called from their being pre- 
fixed to the words which they govern, serve to show the 
relation which some words have with each other ; as. 

Le livre est stir la table, 
II est dans la chambre, 
Mod oncle vient de Paris, 
De qui parlez-vous ? 

The book is on the table. 
He is in the room. 
My uncle comes from Paris. 
Of whom do you speak f 

254. Prepositions are always placed, in French, be- 
fore the word to which they relate, and never after, as 
is sometimes the case in English ; as, 

De qnoi se plaint-il ? What does he complain of? 

Dwrant is the only exception ; we say, ta vie dttrant. 


A, o^ to. 

A cause de, on account of. 
A c6t6 de, by, next to. 
A Finstar de, in the style of. 
Apres, after. 
A travers, through. 
Attendu, considering. 
Au dela de, beyond. 
Aupres de, near. 
Autour de, around, about. 
Au travers de, through. 
Avant, before. 
Avee, with. 

Chez,a^(the house of ),among. 
Concemant, concerning. 
Centre, against. 
Dans, in. 
De, of, from. 
Dela, Uience. 
Depuis, since. 
Derriere, behind. 
D^yfromj since. 
Des8us et dessous, upofi and 


Devant, before. 

Devers, towards. 

Durant, during. 

En, in. 

£n de^^ de, on this side of. 

Entre, between. 

Envers, totoards. 

Except^, excepL 

Faute de,for want of. 

Hormis, except. 

Hors de, out of. 

Joignant, next to. 

Jusqu*a, eufar as. 

Loin de, far from. 

Malgr^, in spite of. 

Moyennant, by means of, for. 

Nonobstant, notwithstanding. 

Outre, besides. 

Par, by, through. 

Par dela beyond. 

Par-dessus, over. 

Parmi, among. 

Pendant, during. 

Four, for. 


^^. \ near, next to. Suivant, ooconfiay to. 

Proche, 1 ^^^ j^. Touchant, concerning, 

Proche de, / ^^^' ^' Vers, towards. 

Quant k, €ta to, asfbr* Voici, h«fe «$• 

SaiM, witkout, Voil^ lAers it. 

Sauf, eouxpt Vk-il-yis, 1 ^-*«^-.'#. 

Selon, aecordinff to. Vifl-i- vis de, / ^W*««^- 

Sous, tin^fer. Yu, conndlervt^. 

256. NoTB. The preposition d ii used for ft), «rf or ni, befere pi^r 
names of plaoes» such m tovrat, yiUages, etc., tnd the pr^odtion «n is 
used for to or tii before names of countries and provinces ; as, 

Je TBis d Tours, / am gmmg to Tiwrv. 

Moo pere est d Pans, Myfathar it at or in iWtt. 

II demeure d Londres, iTff /toe« in LomdotL. 

Nous allons «n Ecosse, We are going to Scotland, 

lis sont m Irlauds, 7%«;y are in IrtlantL 

Ayez-YOtts ^te en Nonnandie ? Haae you been in Normandy ? 

If, however, the name of the country requires the article, the preposition 
d is used ; as, 77 est au BrM. 

256. Note. En is used with nouns taken in a vague and indeterminate 
sense, and is not generally to be followed by the article*. Dang, on the 
contrary, is used with nouns taken in a more determimite sense, and requires 
the article ; as, JT^taU en Jngleterre, dans la premnee de Middktex. En 
is used before a pronoun ; as, Mon eapoir est en votis , My hope is in you. 

257. Note. VerSf towards, is used with reference to nouns which indi- 
cate place or time ; as, Vers la parte. Vers le guatorziime Steele, Towards 
the fourteenth century. Enyers means with regard to, and is used after 
words implying behaviour ; as, Charitable enve&s les paw/res, Charitable 
to the poor. Ingtat envers son biettfaiteur, Ungratefhl to his bene£Betor. 
Agir bien envebs guelqu^vn. To act well towards any one. 

Read, translate, and parse : 

Je parle de mon ami. — Je vais a la campagne.— Je viens 
de la ville. — Je travaille pour mes eufants. — ^11 est sorti sans 
chapeau. — D mange avec app^tit. — II parle avee Eloquence. — 
Aprds avoir parl6. — Apr^s ^tre tomb6. — II vient en ehantant. 
— Jl part en courant. — Je yiens de travailler. — 11 commence 
a dessiner.— -n est fait pour r^ussir. — On ne pent vivre sans 
manger. — II commence par bouder, 11 finit par sourire. — De 
Paris au P6rou, du Japon jusqu'a Rome. — Les enfants s'agi- 
tent souvent sans but — A travers les dangers la peur les 

* Certain phrases sanctioned by usage are exceptions to the above rule: 
En laprisence de JHeu. En Can mil huit cent, etc. 

prfieipiteii— En toydisiit i oe mebble, 3 me pariait toadiaiit 
SOD affiuffti— Pendant aa r^or^adon, il a'est lendn utile en 
pendant oes tableaox^— II vm i(255.) Versaillesy fl erti Rnv. 
— II demeoie i Landiek — ^Voila una cfaemin^ de marbte^ — 
Ne vient-il pas de Niqiles? — ^Jetez cekt par la fentoe^ — Ce 
dictionnaire e>t poor toos, poor tooa Stee ntile. — Get Uewe 
ett avant vousy il est le piemier de sa dasae.^ — ^Vons Stes tona 
devant moL — he pioa tc£t aniT6 se place avant les autreB; le 
jhas conaideiable se place devant. — £crivez-liii avant de 
sortir; fiiites-le anparavaDt (advJ), — ^N'aYez-yoas pas mis mes 
litres dans men pnpitre ? 

Mademoiselle votre soeiur n'est-dlepas dans sa chambre? — 
n est en col^ie.^ — Y a-t-il longtemps que toub ^tes en Angle- 
terre ? — ^Nooa noos acheminicms vers le viDage lovsqne noas 
rencontrinies ce ministre qui est si charitable enven les pan- 
▼res. — ^Monsieur votre oncle est-il chez hii ? — Nod, monsieur; 
il est en yille. — Venez cfaez moi^ — ^Allons chez toi, on chez 
lui^ on m&me chez elle.^ — ^Viendiez-Tons chez nous demain? 
— ^Je m'en allais chez toos, et je me serais rendu chez eox en 
revenanty ou chez les dames que nous ayoos lencontrees liier. 
Chez elles ? Ne demeurent-elles pas vis-a-yis de la bonne ? 
— Chez les Fran9ais9 les modes se succedent rapidement^ — 
On aime tonjouis son chez-soi. — Quand j'anrai un chez-moi, 
j*y recevrai mes amis. — Quand tous aurez un chez-vous, j'irai 
vous voir. — N'est-ce pas sur la table? Nod, c'est dessous 
(adv.), — ^NTest^ce pas sous la table ? Non, c'est dessus {adv^. 
— Ce n'est ni dessus ni dessous la table. — ^De^a les Alpes; en 
de^a des Pjrr^ees; an dela du Rhin. — Faute d'economie, 
faute d'ai^ent. — Quant a moi> j'aime la sincerity. — Point 
d'amiti6 sans franchise^ — ^Tont est perdo, sauf Fesperance. — 
Vu les drconstances presentes^ nous ne lui ^crirons plus. 


Is he not going to Paris ? Was (222.) he not at Versailles 
during the fete? We live (<2e9R6U9^er) in (255.) London. It 
was against my advice. Except those letters I have sent the 
whole. Were yon not speaking of those bills of exchange 
(Uttres de change) which we received yesterday ? Do they 
not come from France ? I am going to my brother's. He 
has been ungrateful towards (257.) his benefactor (bie/tfai' 
teur). He went towards (257.) the pond (itang). Is he at 
home? He behaves (je condum) well towards his fnends. 
My hat ia in the iDom. Does he not live in fnnudied lodg- 



ings (en tkamibrt pamie)? Is this letter for me or for you ? 
This has been done by my sister. He has every one (tout ie 
numde) against him. He will go in spite of you. Have you 
been at, Mr. William's? Have you called (paster) at his 
house ? Come to my house, said the doctor to me. Was not 
the left wing (aik) of the army between two fires (feu)? He 
went towards (257.) the city. Come after me. Was he not 
near us ? My hope is in (256.) thee. He is gone into the 
city. Do not stand (se iemr) before him. It was (223.) the 
custom (usage) among the Romans (Romains). I accom- 
panied your sister as far as the bridge (pont). I bought these 
works at the rate of (d raison de) ten francs a (k) vohune. 
Towards (257*) the north nature presents a gloomy and wild 
aspect (un aspect triste et sauvage). What magnificence she 
displays (difiayer) under the torrid zone (la zone torride)\ 


258. Conjonctioiis serve to connect words and sen- 
tences toge^er ; as, 

Vous et moi, nous lisons en- 

Travaillons si nous voulons 
acquerir des talents, car le 
temps s'enfuit, et persua- 
dons-nous bien ^u'il ne re- 
vient plus. 

You and I read together. 

Lei us study xlvoe foish to ac- 
quire knowledge^ for time 
passes, and let us remember 
that it returns no more, * 

Et, and. 
Ou, or, 

Soit que, whether. 
Ni, nor. 
Mais, but. 
Quoique, though. 
Car, because, for. 
Puisque, since. 
Or, now* 

Pourquoi, wherefore. 
Lorsque, when. 

Principal Confunctions. 
Que, that. 

Quand meme, J ^^ 

Pourtant, ^ 

Cependant, Vyet, however. 

Toutefois, J 

Si, if 

Si non, or else. 

Savoir, namely. 

Comme, as. 

Done, then, therefore. 
259* Some conjunctions are compound) that is, composed 


of two or more words; as^ d moins que^ unless ; pawnm quey 
provided;^ nit que^ whether, etc. 

960. A moms que^ unless ; de cramte que, or depeur que, 
for fear that, require ne before the following verb in the 
saljunctiye mood (see Sjrntaz); as, 

H n'ira pas, a mains que vous Hie wiU noi go unless you ask 

ne lui demandiez, him, 

Allez-vous-en bien vite, tie Go away quickly yles^U should 

peur quH ne soit trop tard, be too laie, 


^ mohu que, unless, follcmed by a verb in the infinitire mood, requires 
the prepodtion de withont tbe negation ; as, Je nepomoaupat bd porter 
phuforlement a numu qve db le qiterdler, I conld not spc»k to him in 
stronger terms unless I scolded bim. The jve may be omitted, a monuifp 

Readj translaie, and parse: 

n rit et pleure dans la m^me minute. — Tu yiendras avec 
rooi si tu es sagCi^ — H est indiscret, aussi ne lui confie-tK>n 
rien. — 8i vous Youlez avoir un senriteur fiddle, senrez-vous 
vons-mdme. — Pourvu que vous soyez attentif, vous r^ussirez. 
— Aimez qu*on yous conseille et non pas qu'on yous loue.p— 
Ni Tor ni la grandeur ne nous rendent heureux. — Ce travail 
devient plus aise, a mesure que nous avan^ons. — Nous nous 
r6unirons de bonne heure, attendu qu'il s'agit d une affiiire im- 
portante. — Quand mSme je le voudrais, je ne le pourrais pas. 
— Vous vous amusez, tandis que nous travaillons. — Soit que 
cette jeune demoiselle eut 6tudi§ sa langue, et qu'elle la parlat 
par prineipes, soit que I'usage supplee k la connaissance des 
regies, elie me semblait s'exprimer correctement. — ^Je travail- 
lerai, a moins que je ne sorte. — Afin que vous soyez content. 
-^Avant que mes amis reyiennent^-^ll sort, quoique je le lui 
aie d^fendu. — Quoi que vous ecriviez, ^vitez la bassesse. 


You and I. He or she. We have written a long exercise 
but we have not learnt it {apprendre). Be sober, for health 
requires it (exiqer). They rejected (refeier) that measure as 
too vi<dent. Since you behave well (se conduire) you will be 
rewarded (rieon^fenser), I have shown him the rule, yet he 
has not understood it (conqn'endre). Do not waste your 
time (dissiper le temps\ for life is made of it i^faire en)\ em- 
ploy {en^pioyer) it weU, if you wish (vouloir) to be happy ; 


and do not lose (jperdre) one hour, since yon are not certain 
(jsur) of a minute. Whether I read (£re, 237.) or write, I 
cannot endnre (pouvair $ouffrir) that any one (cm) should 
make {fixire^ 287.) a noise (du hnn£) near me. I wiU go to 
Paris next summer {6U proehain) provided you accompany 
me thither (y accompagner^ 237*)* Though he studies (eAicKer, 
237.) a great deal, he makc» very little (158.) progress. Unless 
you tell (a mains gue vou» ne; dire (260.) de) him to write, 
he will not do it. I shall see him before I go into (avant 
dialler a) the country. 


261. Interjections^ or Exclamations, are unconnected * 
words used to express emotion; as. Ah! ha! eh! h^! 
oh! ho! O! etc. 


Joy: Bon I Vive la joie I Silence : Chut I Paix ! St ! 

Grief: H61asl Aiel Ah I OufI Calling: Holal Ho I Hem I 
Fear: Ha! H6I FFarwiw^.* FrenezgardelGarel. 

Aversion: Fil FidoncI Attention: Tenez! Voila! 

Admiration: Oh I Con/ra<ftcfin^;Pardonnez-moi. 

JSncouraging: AllonsI Courage I Si or si fait 
AS'KTTTme.* Quoil Vraiment! Disbelief: Ah bah! 

Ciel/ Bis, encore! Bravo f Tout beau, softly! are also 
used in various exclamations. 

Bead and translate: 

A'ie, aie ! je me snis fait mal. — Ah ! que tu me fais de 
chagrin ! — Oh ! comment peux-tu agir ajnsi ! — Eh ! laisse- 
moi en repos. — Ha, ha I je t'y prends I — Ho I ho I voil^ 
qui est surprenant — Chut ! tais-toi I — Fi ! ce que tu fais est 
bien vilain. 




The fonofwing Exercises are translated at length in the Afpsmdiob, 
under the head Beetqntulated eaeerdaee. See page 426. 

Veritable grandeur. — Philippe de Valois disait que le 
plus grand tr^r d'un roi doit etre dans le cceur de ses sa- 
jets, et qu'il aimait mieux 6tre le roi des Fran9ais que de la 

Ri^suLTAT. — On demandait a Aristippe la diffb'enee qui 
^ste entre un homme instruit et un ignorant ; il r6pondit : 
^ £nvoie-les tous deux vers des gens qui ne les connaissent 
pas et tu le sauras." 

Fatalisms. — Z6non chatiait un esclave pour vol. ^'Le 
destin," dit cet homme, " a voulu que je volasse." " Et que 
tu fusses puni aussi," reprit Z6non. 

UiBPONSE HARDiE.^ — ^Xerc^s Youlaut forcer le passage des 
Thermopyks, icrivit a L^onidas : << Rends^moi les armes." 
Ce h6ros lui r^pondit, '* Viens les prendre." 

Laconisme. — Un g6n6ral persan ^criirit k Lysandre, chef 
des Lao^^moniens : " Si j'entre dans la Gr^ce, je mettrai 
tout k feu et a sang." Lysandre lui r6pondit seulement: 
«Si " 

Proverbe. — ^Le proverbe suivant, emprunt6 aux Persans, 
semble extr^mement heureux : " Avec le temps et la patience, 
la feuille du murier devient satin." 

Assurance^— C6sar voulant rassurer son pilote que la tem- 
p^te effrayait, lui cria : ^ Ne crains rien, tu portes Cesar et sa 

Precaution. — ^Diog^ne demanda une somme assez forte 
a un disfiipateur: '^Quoi!" lui dit cet homme, ^'tu ne de- 
mandes aux autres qu'une obole I " '^ Cela est vrai," r^pondit 
Diogene, ^'rnais je ne dois pas esp^rer que tu puisses me 
donner plusieurs fois." 


BoNKE AVENTURE. — Quelqu*un se faisait dire la bonne 
aventure par un astrologue. Apres avoir h Taide de paroles 
ambigues d^voil^ a cet homme les 6y^nements de sa vie pas- 
s6e, pr6sente et future, le devin lui demanda la retribution 
d*usage: *< Comment I" lui ditle curieux, '*vouBquipr6tendez 
connaitre les choses occultes, est-ee que vous ignoriez que je 
n'avais pas le sou dans ma poche?" 

Fraternity. — Un roi scythe, ayant appel6 ses enfants, 
leur ordonna de rompre un faisceau de filches : les jeunes 
gens, quoique nerveux, ne Vayant pu, il le prit a son tour, et, 
Tayant d^li^, il brisa du bout des doigts chaque fldche s6- 
par^e : " Voil^," leur dit-il, " les effets de Funion : unis en 
faisceau, vous serez invincibles ; pris s^par^ment, vous serez 
bris6s comme des roseaux." 

RiCHESSESw— Avec la science et Tinstruction on a sans 
cesse des ressources et des moyens de subsister; et voil^ 
pourquoi un philosophe qui avait ftut naufrage disait au milieu 
de ses compagnons,qui se d^solaient de la perte de leurs fonds : 
" Pour moi, je porte tous mes fonds en moi." 

AuGURE. — Jules C6sar, ayant d6barqu6 en Afrique, toniba 
au sortir du vaisseau, ce qui parut a ses soldats d'un fort 
raauvais presage ; mais faisant toumer a son avantage la dis- 
position de Tarm^e: *' C'est maintenant," s'6cria-t-il, <<queje 
te tiens, 6 Afrique I " 

PoETES. — LoTsque Louis XIV partit pour aller faire le 
si6ge de Mons, il ordonna a ses deux historiens, Racine et 
Despr^ux, de le suivre. Aimant une vie plus tranquille, ils 
s'en dispens^rent Le roi, a son retour, leur en fit des re- 
proches. "Nous n'avions, sire," dirent ingenieusement ces 
deux poetes, "que des habits de ville; nous en avions ordonn§ 
de campagne, mais les villes que votre majesty assi6geait ont 
6t6 plus t6t prises que nos habits n'ont 6t6 faits." 

AcTEUR. — Le c61dbre acteur Talma fut un jour surpris a 

la chasse par un garde, qui lui demanda de quel drbit il venait 

chasser en ce lieu. L'autre lui r^pondit avec fiert^ : " De 

quel droit, dites-vous ? 

< Du droit qu'un esprit vaste et ferme en ses desseins, 
A sur Fesprit grossier des Yulgaires humains.' " 

Tout 6tourdi du ton imposant de la r^ponse, le garde se re* 
tira en disant : " Excusez, monsieur, je ne savais pas cela." 

EpiTRE. — Voici une lettre qu'adressa un ^colier a son pdre: 
" Mon cher papa, je vous 6cris aujourd'hui, lundi ; je donnerai 
ma lettre au messager, qui partira demain, mardi ; il arrivera 


apr^s-demain, mercredi ; vous m'enverrez, je vous prie, de 
Fargent, jeudi; si je n'en re9ois point vendredi, je pars samedi, 
pour ^tre chez nous dimanche." 

La fareille. — Voltaire et Piron avaient 6t6 passer quel- 
que temps dans un chateau. Un jour Piron 6erivit sur la 
porte de Voltaire, Coquin, Sitot que Voltaire le vit, il se 
rendit chez Piron, qui lui dit: ''Quel hasard me procure 
I'avantage de vous voir ? ** " Monsieur," lui r6pondit Vol- 
taire, '' j ai vu votre nom sur ma porte, et je viens vous rendre 
ma visite." 

Le savant. — On faisait au ci§lebre docteur Abou-Joseph, 
Tun des plus savants musulmans * de son siede, une question 
extraordinaire et difficile. 11 avoua inginument son igno- 
rance ; et, sur cet aveu, on lui reprocha de recevoir de fort 
grosses sommes du tr^sor royal, sanB cependant etre capable 
de decider les points de droit sur lesquels on le consultait. 
" Ce nest point une merveille," r6p0ndit-il ; " je re9ois du 
trisor a proportion de ce que je sais ; mais si je recevais i pro- 
portion de ce que j'ignore, toutes les richesses du califat ne 
suffiraient pas pour me payer." 

Desinteressement^^— Un sage Arabe avait dis8ip6 ses 
biens au service d'un oalife ; ce monarque, plonge dans les 
d^lices, lui dit ironiquement: "Connais-tu quelqu'un qui fasse 
profession d'un plus grand d6sint6ressement que toi ? " '' Qui, 
seigneur.'* " Quel est-il?" " Vous: je n'ai sacrifi^ que ma 
fortune, vous sacriiiez votre gloire." 

DiLEMME. — Protagoras, rh^teur ath^nien, 6tait convenu 
d'enseigner la rh^torique k Evalthe, moyennant une somme 
que celui-ci lui paierait s'il gagnait sa premiere cause. Eval- 
the, instruit de tous les pr^ceptes de Tart, refusant de payer 
Protagoras, celui-ci le traduisit devant FAr^opage, et dit aux 
juges : '' Tout jugement est d6cisif pour moi ; s'il m'est fa- 
vorable, 11 porte la condanmation d'Evalthe ; s'il m'est con- 
traire, il faut qu'il me paye, puisqu'il gagne sa premidre cause." 
''J'avoue," r6pondit Evalthe, ''qu'on prononcera pour ou 
contre moi ; dans I'un ou I'autre cas je serai 6galement ac- 
quitt6 : si les juges prononcent en ma faveur, vous Stes con- 
damn6 ; s'ils prononcent pour vous, perdant ma premiere 
cause, je ne vous dois rien, suivant notre convention." Les 
juges ne pouvant accorder les plaideurs, leur ordonn^rent de 
comparaitre cent ans apres. 

* Miuulman. Titre pur leqiiel les mahometans se distingoent des antre& 
homroes, et qui signifie dans leur lang^e, vraijidile, vrm eroyani. 


PBicisiON« — On cite de Thal^ plasieurs r^ponses qui 
peuvent donner une haute id^ de sa philosophie, et montrer 
avee quelle pr6ci8ion les sages de ce sidcle t4chaient de satis- 
faire aux questions qu*on leur proposait. ^*Qu y a-t-il de plus 
beau ? — ^L'univers, car il est Touvrage de Dieu." " De pliis 
vaste ? — Uespace, parce qu'il contient tout." ** De plus fort? 
— La n6cessit6, parce qu'elle triomphe de tout." << De plus 
difficile? — De se connaitre." " De plus facile? — De donner 
avis." "Que faut-il pour mener une vie irreprochable? — 
Ne pas faire ce qu'on blame dans les autres." " Que faut-il 
pour ^tre heureux? — Un corps sain, une fortune ais^e, un 
esprit 6clair6," etc. 

Dbessss. — Th^mistocle 6tant envoy^ ^ Tile d'Andros pour 
exiger un tribut, convoqua Tassembl^e et fit sa proposition ; 
mais %y trouvant des difficult6s, il dit : ** Andrieus, je voua 
apporte deux diesses, la Persuasion et la Force ; choisissez ^ 
present celle qu*il vous plaira." Les Andriens r6pondirent 
sans h^iter: " £t nous aussi, Th^mistode, nous avons deux 
dresses, la Pauvreti et rimpo6sibilit6> prenez maintenant celle 
qui vous plait le mieux." 

Harangue. — ^Le respectable Malesherbes (ministre de 
Louis XVI), ft la t^ie d*une cour souveraine, avait ^t6 charg^ 
de haranguer le Dauphin* au berceau, et qui, loin de pouvoir 
entendre une parole, ne savait encore que crier et pleurer pour 
exprimer ses d^irs et ses douleurs. II se botna k lui dire : 
"Puisse, mon8eigneur,yotreAltesse royale, pour le bonheur 
de la France et le sien, se montrer toujours aussi insensible et 
soarde au langage de la flatterie, quW/ef Test aujourd'hui au 
discours que j'ai Thonneur de prononcer devant elle." 

JouRNAUx.— Les joumaux de Paris, soumis a la censure, 
en 1815, annonc^rent, dans les termes suivants, la sortie de 
Bonaparte de rUe d'Elbe, sa marche a travers la France, et 
son entree dans la capitale: — "9 mars. L'anthropophage est 
sorti de son repaire. — 10. L'ogre de Corse vient de d^barquer 
au Cap- Juan. — II. Le tigre est arriv^ a Gap. — 12. Le monstre 
a couch6 ^ Grenoble. — IS. Le tyran a travers^ Lyon. — 14^ 
L*usurpateur se dirige vers Dijon, mais les braves et loyaux 
Bourguignons se sont lev^ en masse et le cement de tous 
c6t6s. — 18. Buonaparte est a soixante lieues de la capitale ; 
il a eu Tadresse d'Ichapper des mains de ceux qui le poursui- 

* Dauphin, Ce mot, deriv^ de Daaphin^, nom d'ime proyince de Fhmoe, 
ert le titre que prenait autrefoia le fik aine daroi de France, 
t EUe refers to aUesse, 


^aient.^— 19. Bonaparte s'avance k grands pas, mais il n'en- 
trera jamais dans Paris. — 20. Napoleon sera demain sous nos 
remparts. — 21. L empereur est a Fontainebleau. — 22. Sa Ma- 
jesti imp^riale et royale a fait hier au soir son entree k son 
chateau desTuileries, au milieu des transports d'ali^gresse d'un 
peuple adorateur et fidele." 

Grandeur. — Tons les Fran^ais conservent dans ieur m6- 
moire le discours que Henri IV pronon^a au commencement 
de son rdgne, dans une assemblee des notables convoquee k 
Rouen. Voici ce discours ^temellement memorable : 

'* D^ja par la faveur du ciel, par les conseils de mes bons 
serviteurs, et par Tep^e de ma brave noblesse, j'ai tir6 cet 
etat de la servitude et de la mine qui le mena9aient. Je veux 
lui rendre sa force et sa splendeur. Participez a cette seconde 
gloire, comme vous avez partag6 la premiere. Je ne vous ai 
point appel6s, comme faisaient mes pred^cesseurs, pour vous 
obliger d'approuver aveugl6ment mes volont^s, mais pour re* 
cevoir vos conseils, pour les croire, pour les suivre, pour me 
mettre en tutelle entre vos mains. C'est une envie qui ne 
prend guere aux rois, aux victorieux, et aux barbes grises ; 
mais Tamour que je parte k mes sujets me rend tout possible 
et tout honorable." 

Charitib. — Les boulangers de Lyon vinrent demander a 
M. Dugas, pr^vot des marchands de cette ville, la permission 
de rencherir Ieur pain. Lorsqu'ils lui eurent expliqu6 leurs 
raisons, ils laissdrent sur la table une bourse de deux cents 
louis, ne doutant point que cette somme ne plaidat efficace- 
ment Ieur cause. Quelques jours aprds, ils se pr^sent^rent 
pour avoir sa reponse. " Messieurs," Ieur dit le magistrate 
*'j'ai pes^ vos raisons dans la balance de la justice, et je ne 
les ai pas trouv6es de poids. Je n'ai pas jug6 qu 11 ialliit, par 
une chert6 mal fondle, faire souffrir le peuple ; au reste, j'ai 
distribue votre argent aux h6pitaux de cette ville, persuade 
que vous n'aviez pas voulu en faire un autre usage. II m'a 
paru aussi que, puisque vous 6tes en 6tat de faire de telles 
aumdnes, vous ne perdez pas, comme vous le dites, dans votre 

L'enfant gate. — Une dame voyant son enfant ch6ri 
pleurer et tr^pigner pres d'un domestique qui avait Tair de 
lui rire au nez . '< Champagne," dit-elle, " pourquoi faire ainsi 
crier mon ills ? donnez-lui ce qu'il demande." — " Madame, il 
crierait jusqu'^ demain qu'il ne Taurait pas davantage." — 
** Comment I qu'est-ce que cela veut dire ? vous ^tes un im- 


pertinent ; jc tous ordonne de satisfaire ce petit fi I'instant 
m^me." — " Madame, eela ne se pent pas." — " Oh I celui-la 
est trop fort .... Monsieur ! monsieur ! mon man I " — " £h ! 
ma bonne, de quoi s'agit-il done?" — " De chasser im insolent 
qui me nargue en prenant plaisir k contrarier mon fils, a Itti 
refuser ce qu il d6sire, et que je dis de lui donner." — " II est 
fort singulier, Champagne, que vous vous permettiez de 
manquer aussi grossidrement a Madame, et de faire pleurer 
votre jeune maitre I Donnez-lui ce qu*il veut, ou sortez.'* — 
<< Je sortirai s*il le faut, monsieur ; mais comment pourrai-je 
lui donner la lune qu'il vient de voir dans un seau d*eau, et 
qu'il veut avoir absolument?" A ces mots, monsieur et 
madame se regardent ; ils ne savent que r6pliquer. Toute la 
compagnie part d'un 6clat de rire. Les deux 6poux prennent 
le meme parti et se promettent Tun etTautre de se corriger de 
leur faiblesse pour cet enfant gat6, dont ils voient trop com- 
bien il leur serait difficile d'accomplir tons les vceux. 


£n voyage le meilleur instrument, le plus efficace passeport, 
est de parler couramment la langue du pays o\i Ton se trouve, 
on peut alors agir directement sur les esprits ; il y a pen de gens 
qui appr6cient toute la puissance de ce moyen : tout est la. 

Le voyageur qui ne peut converser, est un sourd et muet, 
qui ne fait que des gestes, et de plus un demi-aveugle, qui 
n'aper^oit les objets que sous un faux jour : il a beau avoir 
un interpr^te, toute traduction est un tapis vu a revers ; la 
parole seule est un miroir de r6flexion qui met en rapport 
deux ames sensibles^ et g6n6ralement la plus forte finit par 
maitriser Tautre. Si Ton ajoute k la connaissance des langues, 
les avantages scientifiques que donne Teducation moderne, on 
imprime Tattention et le respect en r^veillant la curiosity. 
C'est en charmant Foreille et Timagination que Ton arrive 
jusqu*au cceur, et que Ton parvient a 6clairer et a persuader. 
C'est avec le langage que Tame d'un seul homme devient celle 
de toute une assemblle, de tout un peuple. On peut dire 
aussi que la langue est I'arme la plus siire pour 6tablir une 
domination durable, et que les grands 6crivains sont de vrais 
conqu Grants. 

Charles-Quint disait qu'un homme qui sait quatre langues 


vaut quatre hommes ; — en effet, nous avons tous besoin les 
uns des autres, et un Stranger n*existe pas pour nous, si nous 
ne pouvons le comprendre ; enfin, la littlrature de chaque pays 
d6couvre k qui sait la connaitre une nouvelle sphere d*id^. 
Quant aux langues mortes, jaloux d'^tendre et de multiplier 
ses connaissanees, rhomme de lettres remonte dans les sidcles, 
et s'avance au travers des monuments 6pars de Tantiquit^, pour 
y recueillir, sur des traces souvent presque effac^es, Tame et 
la pens6e des grands hommes de tous les ages. 

L'intelligence des langues (dit Rollin) sert eomme d'intro- 
duetion k toutes les sciences. Par elle nous par\'enons presque 
sans peine k la connaissance d*une infinite de belles choses qui 
ont coute de longs travaux a ceux qui les ont invent^es. Par 
elle tous les siecles et tous les pays nous sont ouverts. Elle 
nous rend en quelque sorte contemporains de tous les ages et 
citoyens de tous les royaumes, et elle nous met en 6tat de nous 
entretenir encore aujourd*hui avec tout ce que rantiquit6 a 
produit de plus savants hommes, qui semblent avoir v6cu et 
travaill^ pour nous. Nous trouvons en eux comme autant de 
maitres qu'il nous est permis de consulter en tout temps; 
comme autant d'amis qui sont de toutes les heures, et qui 
peuvent ^tre de toutes nos parties, dont la conversation, tou- 
jours utile et toujours asr6able, nous enrichit Tesprit de mille 
connaissanees curieuses, et nous apprend a profiter egalement 
des vertus et des vices du genre humain. Sans le secours des 
langues, tous ces oracles sont muets pour nous, tous ces tr6- 
sors nous sont fermes ; et faute d'avoir la clef qui seule pent 
nous en ouvrir Ventr^e, nous demeurons pauvres au milieu 
de tant de richesses, et ignorants au milieu de toutes les 

Voltaire nous dit, que " de toutes les langues modernes la 
fran9aise doit ^tre la plus e6n6rale, parce qu'elle est la plus 
propre a la conversation.' £n effet, la clarte, Tordre, la 
justesse et la puret^ des termes la distinguent ; elle procede 
comme la pens6e et Tobservation, elle sait tout exprimer et 
tout peindre, elle suffit aux besoins de la raison, du genie, et 
du sentiment. Aussi lui fait-on Thonneur de la ch^rir, de la 
parler ; elle est la langue des princes, de leurs ambassadeurs, 
des grands, des hommes dont I'^ucation a 6t6 soignee dans 
toutes les parties de FEurope. 

r — 



Le premier homme rcuxmte ses premiers mouvements, see pre' 
miires sensations, ses premiers Jugements aprds la crSaiion. 

Je me souviens de cet instant, plein de joie et de trouble, od 
je sentis, pour la premiere fois, ma singulidre existence : je ne 
savais ce que j*6tais, ou j*6tai8, d*ou je venais. J'ouvris les 
yeux : quel surcroit de sensation I La lumiere, la voute ce- 
leste, la verdure de la terre, le cristal des eaux, tout m'oceu- 
pait, m'animait, et me donnait un sentiment inexprimable de 
plaisir. Je cms d'abord que tous ces objets ^taient en moi, et 
faisaient partie de moi-meme. Je m'affermissais dans cette 
pens6e naissante, lorsque je tournai les yeux vers Fastre de la 
lumiere : son 6clat me blessa ; je fermai involontairement la 
paupiere ; et je sentis une 16gere douleur. Dans ce moment 
d'obscurit6, je. crus avoir perdu tout mon 6tre. Afflige, saisi 
d'^tonnement, je pensais a ce grand changement, quand tout 
h coup j'entendis des sons : le chant des oiseaux, le murmure 
des airs, formaient un concert dont la douce impression me 
remuait jusqu'au fond de Tame ; j*^outai longtemps, et je me 
persuadai bientot que cette harmonic 6tait moi. 

Attentif, occup6 tout entier de ce nouveau genre d'exis- 
tence, j'oubiiais d6j^ la lumiere, cette autre partie de mon dtre 
que j'avais connue la premiere, lorsque je rouvris les yeux. 
Quelle joie de me retrouver en possession de tant d'objets 
brillants I Mon plaisir surpassa tout ce que j^avais senti la 
premiere fois, et suspendit pour un temps le charme des sons. 
Je iixai mes regards sur mille objets divers ; je m'aper^us 
bientdt que je pouvais perdre et retrouver ces objets, et que 
j'avais la puissance de d^truire et de reproduire ^ mon gr6 
cette belle partie de moi-m^me ; et quoiqu'elle me parut im- 
mense en grandeur, et par la quantit6 des accidents de lumidre, 
et par la vari6t6 des couleurs, je crus reconnaitre que tout 
6tait contenu dans une portion de mon ^tre. Je commen9ais 
a voir sans Amotion, et k entendre sans trouble, lor»qu'un air 
16ger, dont je sentis la fraicheur, m'apporta des parfums qui 
me causerent un 6panouissement intime, et me donnerent im 
sentiment d'amour pour moi-m^me. 

Agit6 par toutes ces sensations, press^ par les plaisirs d'une 
si belle et si grande existence, je me levai tout k coup, et je 
me sentis transport^ par une force inconnue. Je ne fis qu*un 
pas ; la nouveaut6 de ma situation me rendit immobile, ma 
surprise fut extreme ; je crus que mon existence fuyait ; le 


mouvemeDt que j'avais fait avait confondu les objets; je 
m'imaginais que tout 6tait en d^sordre. Je portai la main 
sur ma tete, je touchai mon frout et mes yeux ; je parcounu 
mon corps ; ma main me parut etre alors le principal organe 
de mon existence. Ce que je sentais dans cette partie itait 
8i distinct et si complet, la jouissance m'en paraissait si par- 
faite, en comparaison du plaisir que m'avaient caus6 la lumidre 
et les sons, que je m'attachai tout entier k cette partie solide 
de mon ^tre, et je sends que mes id6es prenaient de la pro- 
fondeur et de la rialit^. Tout ce que je touchais sur moi 
semblait rendre a ma main sentiment pour sentiment, et 
chaque attouchement produisait dans mon ame une double 
id6e. Je ne fus pas longtemps sans m'apercevoir que oette 
faculty de sentir 6tait repandue dans toutes les parties de mon 
^tre; je reconnus bientot les limites de mon existence qui 
m'avait paru d*abord immense en 6tendue. J'avais jet6 les 
yeux sur mon corps ; je le jugeais d'un volume 6norme, et 
si grand, que tons les objets qui avaient frapp6 mes yeux ne 
me paraissaient, en comparaison, que des points lumineux. 
Je m'examinai longtemps, je me regardais avec plaisir, je 
suivais ma main de Tceil, j'observais ses mouvements. J'eus 
sur tout cela les id6es les plus 6tranges; je croyais que le 
mouvement de ma main n'6tait qu'une espece d'existence fugi- 
tive, une succession de choses semblables ; je I'approchai de 
mes yeux ; elle me parut alors plus grande que tout mon corps, 
et elle fit disparaitre si ma vue un nombre infini d'objets 

Je commensal a soup9onner qu*il y avait de Tillusion dans 
cette sensation qui me venait par les yeux. J'avais vu dis- 
tinctement que ma main n*etait qu'une petite partie de mon 
corps, et je ne pouvais comprendre qu'elle fut augment6e au 
point de me paraitre d'une grandeur d^mesur^e. Je r^olus 
done de ne me fier qu*au toucher, qui ne m'avait pas encore 
tromp^, et d'etre en garde sur toutes les autres fa9ons de 
sentir et d'etre. Cette pr6caution me fut utile: je m'^tais 
remis en mouvement, et je marchais la t^te haute et lev6e vers 
le ciel ; je me heurtai 16gerement contre un palmier ; saisi 
d*effroi, je portai ma main sup ce corps Stranger ; je le jugeai 
tel, parce qu'il ne me rendit pas sentiment pour sentiment. 
Je me d^toumaiavec une esp^e d'horreur, et je connus,pour 
la premiere fois, qu il y avait quelque chose hora de moi. Plus 
agit6 par cette nouvelle dicouverte que je ne Tavais 6t6 par 
toutes les autres, j'eus peine ^ me rassarer; et aprds avoir 
m6dit6 sur cet 6vlnement, je condus que je devais juger des 


objets exterieurs comme j'avais jug6 des parties de mon corps, 
et qu'il n'y avait que le toucher qui put m'assurer de leur ex- 
istence. Je cherchais done a toucher tout ce que je voyais : 
je voulais toucher le soleil; j'etendais les bras pour embrasser 
Thorizon, et je ne trouvais que le vide des airs. A chaque 
experience que je tentais, je tombais de surprise en surprise ; 
car tous les objets paraissaient etre 6galement pres de moi ; 
et ce ne fut qu'apres une infinite d'^preuves que j'appris a me 
servir de mes yeux pour guider ma main ; et, comme elle me 
donnait des id6es toutes diffdrentes des impressions que je 
recevais par le sens de la vue, mes sensations n'6tant pas d*ac- 
cord entre elles, mes jugements n'en ^taient que plus imparfaits^ 
et le total de mon ^tre n'6tait encore pour moi-meme qu*une 
existence en confusion. 

Profond^ment occup6 de moi, de ce que j'etais, de ce que 
je pouvab ^tre, les contrariety que je venais d'^prouver 
m'humili^rent Plus je r^flechissais, plus il se pr^sentait de 
doutes. Lass^ de tant d'incertitudes, fatigui des mouvements 
de mon ame, mes genoux fi§chirent, et je me trouvai dans une 
situation de repos. Get ^tat de tranquillit6 donna de nouvelles 
forces a mes sens. J*6tais assis a Tombre d'un bel arbre ; des 
fruits d'une couleur vermeille descendaient, en forme de 
grappes, a la port6e de la main. Je les touchai l^g^rement : 
aussitot ils se s^par^rent de la branche, 6omme la figue s'en 
s6pare dans le temps de sa maturity. J'avais saisi un de ces 
fruits ; je m'imaginai avoir fait une conquete, et je me glori- 
iiai de la faculty que je sentais de pouvoir contenir dans ma 
main un autre etre tout entier. Sa pesanteur, quoique peu 
sensible, me parut une resistance anim^e, que je me faisais un 
plaisir de vaincre. J'avais approch^ ce fruit de mes yeux ; 
j'en consid^rais la forme et-les couleurs. Une odeur delicieuse 
me le fit approcher davantage; il se trouva pr^s de mes 
l^vres ; je tirais a longues inspirations le parfum, et je goutais 
k longs traits les plaisirs de I'odorat. J'etais int^rieurement 
rempli de cet air embaum^. Ma bouche s'ouvrit pour I'ex- 
haler ; elle se rouvrit pour en reprendre ; je sentis que je 
poss6dais un odorat interieur plus fin, plus d^licat encore que 
le premier ; enfin je goutai. Quelle saveur I quelle nouveaute 
de sensation I Jusque-la,je n'avais eu que des plaisirs; le 
goClt me donna le sentiment de la volupte. L'intimite de la 
jouissance fit naitre Tid^e de la possession. Je cms que la 
substance de ce fruit 6tait devenue la mienne, et que j'etais le 
maitre de transformer les ^tres. 


Flatt^ de cette id6e de puissance, incite par le plaisir que 
j'avais senti, je cueillis un second et un troisieme fruit ; et je 
ne me lassais pas d'exercer ma main pour satisfaire mon gout ; 
mais une langueur agr^able, s'emparant peu k pen de tons mes 
sens, appesantit mes membres, et suspendit I'activit^ de mon 
ame. Je jugeai de mon inaction par la mollesse de mes pen- 
sees ; mes sensations imouss^s arrondissaient tous les objets. 
et ne me pr^sentaient que des images faibles et mal termin^es. 
Dans cet instant mes yeux devenus inutiles se ferm^rent, et 
ma t6te n'6tant plus soutenue par la force des muscles, pencha 
pour trouver un appui sur le gazon. Tout fut e£fac6, tout 
disparut. La trace de mes pens^ fut interrompue, je perdis 
Ic sentiment de mon existence. Ce sommeil fut profond ; mais 
je ne sais s'il fut de longue dur^e, n'ayant point encore Tid^e 
du temps, et ne pouvant le mesurer. Mon riveil ne fut qu'une 
seconde naissance, et je sentis seulement que j'avais cesse 
d'etre. Cet an^antissement que je venais d'§prouver me donna 
quelque id^e de crainte, et me fit sentir que je ne devais pas 
exister toujours. J'eus une autre inquietude, je ne savais si 
je n avals pas laiss§ dans le sommeil quelque partie de mon 
etre. J'essayai mes sens: je cherchai a me reconnaitre. 
Dans cet instant I'astre du jour, sur la fin de sa course, 
eteignit son flambeau. Je m aper9us a peine que je perdais 
le sens de la vue: jexistais trop pour craindre de cesser 
d'etre ; et ce fut vainement que Tobscurit^ ou je me trouvai 
me rappela Tidee de mon premier sommeil. — Buffon, Histoire 

[For a continuation of the Narratory exereiaes, the student is referred 
to the author's Repertoire titt^ratref which contains selections from the 
best miters of FEance, and supplies a store of idiomatic expressions for 
fitmiliar oouTersation ; together with narratians, descr^tiorUf morceaux 
oratoires, etc., intended for the practice of recitation, which, of all auxi- 
liaries in instruction, is the most conducive to the acquirement of the deli- 
cate inflexions of pure pronunciation and accent.] 



The students «re reoommeiided to write atransUtion of tlie PaHieJira9i~ 
false ; by so doing they will become familiar with the rules, and at the 
same time acquire a yeiy nsefiil book of reference. The rules, examples, 
and literary extracts should then be committed to memory, and repeated 
aloud in the class. " Rappelons-nons qae La m^mrire et/ le portrfeuiOe 
de teqnit — See Mitkode vmwignemmt^ at the end of the book. 


262. La syntaxe a pour objet Temploi et la construc- 
tion des mots : elle fixe les inflexions ou terminaisons 
sous lesquelles ils doi^ent paraitre dans la proposition^ 
et la place qu'ils doivent y occuper. 


263. Rkgle. — On emploie Tarticle avant les substan- 
tifs communs dont la signification d^signe un genre^ 
une esp^ce, ou un individu particulier : 

Les hommes sont mortels, Men are mortal*, 

Le savoir est tr^s-utile, Knowledge is very ttseful. 

Za ville de Rome fut fondle The city of Home was founded 

par Romulus, by Romulns. 

* The translation of the examples is giren to enable the student to ob- 
serve, by eompariaont the difference in construction between the French 
and English languages. In the first two phrases, for instance, the sub- 
stantives being used in a general sense, take no article in English, but they 
require the definite article in Frenchi conformably to the rule 263. 


264. NoTs. The artide is genenUj used in Ptoich before nouns of title 
indignity; as, 

Im princesse Marie, Princes Mitry, 

Le geD^ral Mortier, General Mortier, 

Le docteur SaDgrado, Doctor Sangrado, 

265. Rbgle. — Quand on emploie Tarticle, on doit le 
r^peter avant tons les substantifs sujets ou regimes : 

La po^ie, la peintare et la Poetry^ painting and music 

musiqae sent soeurs, are sisters. 

Evitoas la paresse et fintem- Let us avoid idleness and ifi^ 

pirance, temperance, 

IHctee et analyse*, 

Le bonhear des m6chants comme «n torrent s'ecoale. Ra- 
cine. — ^Z/'amiti6 dans nos coeurs verse «n bonheur paisible. 
Desmodtiers. — Les mortels sent 6gaux; ce n'est point la 
naissanee, e'est la seale vertu qui fait leur difference. Vol- 
taire. — Aux ames bien n^, la valeur n'attend point le nom- 
bre des ann^es. Corneille.. — Le coeur, Tesprit, les moeurs, 
tout ^gne a la culture. — Le moment du p6ril est celui du 
courage. La Harpe. — ^Z'arbrisseau le plus sain a besoin de 
culture. Fabre. — Le eiel bcnit toujours les efforts d'un bon 
cceur. Montesquieu. 


Custom is the legislator of languages. Cares and infelicity 
are often the attendants^ '\ of greatness. Docility, applica- 
tion, and modesty are qualities which we delight to find in 
children^i because they promise all others^. Gold is a precious 
metal (65.). Man too often indulges in vain fancies*. Great 
thoughts j^roceeif^ from the hearL With labour and patience 
you will enconyxiss your end^. Study nourishes youth, amuses 
old age, adorns prosperity, and comforts'' us in adversity. 
Man was boni^ for society; beasts, fishes, birds, and even^ 
reptiles have been created for his use >o. We were reading the 
history of admiral Nelsdti. General Kleber was killed in 
Egypt — Have you read the works of Dr. Blair? Yes, I have. 
—Count de Las Cases was at the review. Genius and virtue 

* The stadent should write these and the following literary extracts 
headed IHctee et analyte from the dictation of his To-ister, and then trans- 
late and parse the sentences which compose them (See page 435). 

f See Explanatory notes at the end of the book. 

M 2 


advance in spite ^^ of obstacles. Ignorance and stupidity give 
birth to ^^ fear and prejudice. Sciences and letters adrnm^^ 
the mind and the heart. 

266. Suppression de V article. 

Nous avons vu (39.) que Ton emploie duy de la^ des 
avec les substantifs couimuns pris dans un sens partitif ; 
cependant on supprime Tarticle, c*est-a-dire on emploie 
siinplement de^ quand le substantif est pr^ced^ d'un ad- 
jectif (40.), ou d'un verbe accompagne d'une negation 
(159.) : 

•Fai vu de belles maisons, I have seen same fine houses. 

J*ai mang6 de bon pain, / have eaten good bread. 

Cethommen'estpasd^pourvu That man is not destitute of 

de grands talents, great talents. 

Je ne vous ferai pas de re- I will not make you any re- 

proches, proaclies. 

On supprime aussi rarticle apres les adverbes de 
quantity* (158.), apres un coUectiff, et en gen^nil 
lorsque les substantifs sont sous la d^pendance de I'uii 
de ces mots : Comhien^ que^peu^ beaucoup^ moinsypliis^ 
tantj autantj espbce^ genre, sorte, portion, nombre, 
foule, quantity, infinite, amas, multitude, etc. : 

Beaucoup de courage, A great deal of courage, 
Une multitude de peuples, A multitude of nations. 

Une sorte de fruit, A sort of fruit. 

Un genre rf*ouvrage, A hind of work. 

Un monceau cf argent, A heap of money. 

Une pile de livres, A pile of books. 

Un nombre cThommes, A number of men. 

267* Mais si les substantifs sont employ^ dans un sens 
d6termin6, il faut mettre Tartide : 

Cet homme n'est pas depourvu 77uU man is not destitute of the 
des grands talents qu'exige great talents which his situ- 
sa place, ation requires. 

* Apres Tadverbe de quantity bien on met rarticle : bien du courage ; 
except^ lorsqu'il est suivi du mot autre; biend'autree vous dirontla mime 

t Laphipart est soivi de Tarticle : laplupart dee hommet. 


Je ne tous ferai pas det re- / vnU not make you any tuc' 

proches inutiies. Racine. less reproaches, 

Un grand nombre des per- A great number of the persons 

sonnes que j*ai Yues, / saw. 

268. Remsrqooiis que a. mi adjectif fidt paitie d'nn nom compos^ comme 
dans Mle-mire, betm-pire, petitspoit, etc. ; on si tel adjectif joint a on 
■om en fidt poor ainsi dire im nom compose, comme dans jetma gems, 
jetmes permmetf grand homme, beau tea^, beau monde, bon ieagts, mau^ 
tfoif ien^i etc, fl isxA maintenir I'artide: U y a dbs beaux-peres, dbs 
beOeM-^mireM, gm wUeni de tf&iiablet piret, de vraieg mires; voild des 
James gens et j^msjeunesperseamespassUnmApour f^tude; avoir du beau 
temps, DU numvais ienqfe, Jriguenier la socUii du beau monde, — Gram > 


969. Note. The nse of de after beaueoupf assez, etc. is derived from 
the Latin langoage, in which certain adyerbs of quantity require the geni- 
tiTccase; as, 

Satis Bi<oQUKNn«, SAPisMTue parum. — SaJktsL 
Assez d^Slognenee, pen de sagesse. 
Enough ^eloquence, little ^wisdom. 

270. On doit supprimer I'article devant les noms 

1^ Quand its sont unis par une. preposition a un 
autre mot qui pr^^de^ pour en exprimer un mode^ une 
mani^re d'etre : 

Chemin^ de marbrey Marble chimney-piece. 

Table k tiroir, Table with drawers. 

Moulin a vent, WindmilL 

Maison en bois. Wooden house. 

2^ Quand ils sont precedes des mots sanSy avec, ui, 
entre, et en general toutes les fois qu'ils sont en re- 
gime d'un yerbe ou d'une proposition dont la significa- 
tion est indOtermin^ : 

Un homme sans m6ritey A man without merit. 

Se conduire avec sagesse. To conduct one's self with wis- 

11 n'a ni parents m amis. He has nei^er relatives nor 

Flein de cbarmesy FuU cf charms. 

Doa6 de yertu. Endowed with mrtue. 

n raisonne en homme sens6. He reasons as a sensible matu 

971. Renmrjue. Apres les propositions, on exprime du, de la, des toutes 
les fois que les noms sont empl^^ dans un sens partitif : avee dr Var' 
gentf etc 



3° Quand ils s'unissent aux verbee avoir, favre^ etc. 
pour n'exprimer avec ces verbes qu'une seule id^e : 

Avoir affaire 

Demander avis 
















Dire vrai 


DoNNER avis 

en vie 























Entendre rai- 



Chercher for- 

Faire affront 





CouRiR risque 

cas de 

Crier vengeance 


Faire honneur 













Filer doux 
LicHER prise 
Mettre fin 
Parler anglais, 

fran9ais, etc. 
P.W.R. courage 

Plier bagage 
Porter nonnenr 

Prendre cong6 




Prendre godt 








PaiTER serment 
Rendre compte 







Savoir gr6 

bon gr§ 

mauvais gr6 
Tenir bon 


TiRER avaatage 

parti de, etc. 

On Toit que la suppression de I'article U^ la, le$ fait consi- 
d^ner le substantif dans toute son etendue, et le rend aussi 
ind^termin^ qu'il peut Tetre; tandis que Femploi de cet artiele 
nous pr^sente le substantif comme plus on naoins d^teniMn^. 
£n voici d'autres exemples : 

L'amour de la vertu, 

Un fils du roi, 

Le pot au beurre, 

La forme du gouvernement^ 

Les jeux des enfants> 

Un enfant de la famille, 

Parler de la guerre. 

Un acte de vertu. 

Un fils de roi. 

Un pot k beurre. 

La forme de gouvernement. 

Les jeux d'enfants. 

Un enfant de famille. 

Parler de guerre. 

Avoir le dessein, Tenyie de Avoir dessein, envie de yoy- 

voyager, ager. 

£au de la Seine, Eau de Seine. 

Eau du puitSy Eau de Duits. 


Qei €Lewe ne peat parler saiis Cet 3eve parie sans faire de 

faire des faates (c^eU-dHhre fimtes (cett^-dire il ne fait 

il fait dea fantes), pas de £uites). 

Je eonnais beaneoap des per- Je connais beauooup de per- 

sonnes que yous m^avez soniies icL 

878. Quad la propositioii est a^sstive oa interrogatiTe, <m emfkae oa 
Ton sopprime VtaSadt, sekm le sens partitif oa a^o/sTque Ton vent ex- 

N'avez-Tous pas du pain? N'avez-vous point de pain? 

On, eomme noas I'sfont dit « la re^ 161, oa se lert de Tarticie qaand 
OB Tent £ure entendre an ftit que Ton cioit exister : N'aveZ'WOus pat des 
ei^anis, ve la. /brttme T N'aoez-voug pamt des ehevaux, des voUures ? 

Sans Taitkle, rinteirogaiion n'est qn'nne simple question ; on ezprime 
senlement nn doate ; IfmKt^tamgpaM d^amuT fPaoez-wmapndtargetdt 

273. Les substantifs pris adjectivement ne sont pas 
prec^^s de rarticle : 

n cfftFian^aia, He is a Prenchman, 

Je sob n%ociant» lam a merchant. 

Son pdre est m^deciny His father is a physician. 

274. On sopprime anssi rartide : 

1* Dans certaines phrases proverbiales : 
Fanvret^ n'est pas Tioe, Poverty is not a vice, 

2^ Dans les ^nnm^rations^ k caose da besoin de 
s'exprimer avec le plus de rapidite et de concision pos- 

Hommesy femmesy enfants» Ma^ women, ehUdnsh aU pe- 
'Umt p^t ! rished / 

3^ Dans les drconstances oh Ton apostrophe les 
personnes ou les choses : 

Amis I volons a la gloire» Friends ! let usfiy to glory. 

87S. NoTB. The artide is aot ased in Rvaeh : 

1st. Bdimne the first sobstantiYe In tiie titles of books tdcen in a geaenl 
■ease; as, 

Essai sor le Goat, An Enajf on Tot /e. 

It is nsed howerer when the sobstandve is taken in a pazticDlar sense; 
as, UEmrope tUt^rahre, UUuwertptttoretgme. 


2ndly. The article is also omitted in French before cardinal numbers 
used a^er substantives to indicate rank or order ; as, 

livre dix, section ,sept, Book the tenth, secium the seventh. 

Charles douze, Edouard trois, Charles the Tvoelfth, Edward t^e 


3rdly. Before a substantive in apposition, or employed to particulame 
another which precedes it ; as, 

Minerve, d^esse de la sagesse, con- Mineroai iht goddess of wisdom^ led 

duisait T^l^maque, fils d'Ulysse, Telemachus, the son of Ulysses. 

Marseille, ville de France, fnt fondee Marseilles^ a town of France, was 

par les Grecs, founded by the Greeks. 

J A reine fut re^ue en triomphe, hon- The queen was received in trittmph, 

neur qu'eUe m^ritait bien, an honour she weU deserved. 

4thly. After quel, what, used in exclamations ; as, 

Quel homme ! What a man / 

Quel malheur ! What a mi^fbrtune 

276. Note. The more and the less, repeated before a verb, or coming 
before an adjective or a substantive, are rendered hy plus and moins with- 
out <an article ; as. 

Plus on a, plus on veut avoir, The more we have, the more we de- 


Dictde et analyse, 

A qaoi bon tant ^amis ? un seul suffit quand il nous aime. 
Florian. — De hien des gens, il n*y a que le nom qui vaille 
quelque chose. La Bruyere.— -Entre voisins, on se parle 
avee franchise. — Charity bien ordonn6e commence par soi- 
m^me. — Citoyens I que la Concorde regne entre vous. — II y a 
dans la bont^ une sorte d'aimant qui attire tons les hommes 
k soi. — Ce fut Charles IX qui, par Tordonnance de Roussillon 
du mois de Janvier 1563, 6tablit que Tannee, au lieu de com- 
mencer a Paques, commencerait au premier Janvier. — Louis- 
Philippe l*', n§ k Paris le 6 octobre 1773, fut 61u roi des 
Fran9ais le 9 aoClt 1830. 


Give me good books. He has no patience. Inexplicable 
mortals I how can you unite^ so much baseness and so much 
grandeur? How many ^ men? Few persons. So many^ 
friends! A marble table*; a gold watch. A noble but con- 
fused thought (65»} is a diamond covered with dust Man 
is exposed to all sorts of infirmities. Have pity on the^ poor. 

* Translate, a table of marble, a watch of gold, etc 


Artide the fifth, page nine. Charles the Fifth. The more 
knowledge a man haSy the more modest heisK What a beauti- 
fol picture ! Normandy, a province of France. — What is the 
title of that pamphlet^? << An Essay on the Civil Wars of 
France." — Ke has neither friends nor acquaintances. The 
roads teere lined with'' laurels, jasmines, and other trees, ever 
green and ever blooming^. Temerity is not prudence. Old 
men, women, children, aU wished to seemed He is a German. 
She is a French-woman^. He is a musician. Mutual bene- 
volence is the bond of society ^^-j without it^*y life is grievous ^9 
full of fear, and ffoid of comfort ". Did you ever hear ** the 
proverb : ^Content is beyond^ riches" ? Delightftil flowers ! 
nature is embelUshed^'' by you. What a beautiful morning ! 
comcy let us walk^ in the fields. 

277- Emploi de Particle avec les noms de cmitrieSy de 

rayaumes, de provinces^ etc. 

Single. — On emploie g^^ralement Tarticle avec les 
noms de contr^s^ de royaumes^ de provinces, de fleuves, 
de rivieres et de montagnes : 

L'Europe et FAsie, Europe and Asia. 

L'Angleterre et la France, England and France, 

La Champagne et la Flandre Champaign and Flanders. 

Le Khin et la Loire. The Rhine and the Loire. 

Exceptions'. 1® En g^n^ral ces noms ne sont pas 
pr^^d^ de I'article, toutes les fois qu'^ I'aide de la 
proposition de et de son complement, il s'agit d'indi- 
quer un rapport de qnalification : 

Jjt royaume de France, The kingdom of France. 

Les vins d'Espagne^ The wines of opain. 

Du drap d'Angleterre, English cloth. 

L'empereur d'Autriche, The emperor of Austria. 

L*histoire d'Allemagne, The history of Germany, 

JLemmrqmt. On dit ^galement bien la petqjtks SJne cm la pemplet de 
\ Amelia motions d'Ewrope et les nations de VEurope, En gen^iJ, on 
n'emploie pas Tartide qoandQ ne s'agit que d'expiimerime idee qaalifica- 
tive, hon de 1^ il doit toajoors etre enooce ; ainsi dites : voUit la situation 
de VABemagne; Uses FMstoire d*ABemaffne ; on hut du via de Champagne ; 
hs emtemis ont ^t/repoussA de la Champagne, 

2*^ On supprime aussi Tarticle lorsque ces m&mea 



corns sont en regime de la proposition en (Voyez la 

page 226, note *) : 

II est en Angleterre, He is in England, 

Retnargne. Lorsqne ces noms 8ont en r^rae des Terbes oiZer, v€nir, 
mrheTf wrtiry on peat tm^jtt on supprimer Tarticle. Ainsi on £t : 
Je vient de fltaHe, on tPItaUe. 

Remargve, Qaelques noms de HenTes, de rivieres, d'ilei et de pays «ont 
toi^oure pr^o^s die Tarticle : k dmadm, le P^rou, le 7¥6re, ele. 

Dictie et analyse, 

Voici les confins de la France d'apr^ les derniers Craites : 
Au nord, la Manche et le Pas-de-Calais qui s^arent la 
France de TAngleterre; le royaume de Belgique avec le 
grand-duch6 de Luxembourg; le grand-duch6 du Bas-Rhin, 
compris dans la monarchie Prussienne ;^ et le cercle du Rhin 
appartenant au royaume de Bavi^re. A Test, le grand-duch6 
de Bade ; la confederation Suisse (les cantons de Bale, Berne, 
Neufchatel, Vaud et Geneve), et le royaume Sarde. Au sud, 
la Mediterran^e, la monarchie Espagnole et la r^publique 
d'Andorre. A Fouest, ^ rOc^an-Atlantique et en partie la 
Mancbe. Balbi. — Les lies britanniques, qui forment le roy- 
aume de la Grande-Bfetagne, sont situ6es dans rOc^an-At- 
lantique ; elles sont s^par^es de la Norw6.g;e et du Danemark 
par la mer d*Allemagne et du Nord ; et de la France jyar la 
Manche et le Pas-de-Calais. 


Europe is bounded on^ the north by the Frozen Ocean^; on 
the south by the Mediterranean Sea, which separates it from 
Africa ; on the east by the continent of Asia; on the west by 
the Atlantic Ocean. It contains the following states : in the 
north, Norway, Sweden^ Denmark, and Russia^ ; in the middle, 
Poland, Prussia, Germany, Holland, Belgium, France^ Swit- 
zefiand, Bohemia, Hungary, the British Isles* ; in the south, 
S^Hy Portugal^ Italy, Turkey in Europe^, Those merchants 
have received French and Spanish fruits, Provence oil, and 
English wool^. I come from Scotuzfid'^, He is not in Ire- 
land. — How long have you lived^ in England ? Seven years. 
And in Holland? Five years and a half. Did you remain^ 
long in Italy when you made the tour of Europe ? Only two 
months. And in France? Three years. 


27B. Le, la, les avec les noms qui expriment lepoids, 

la mesure, etc. 

Rkgle. — On se sert de Tarticle le, la, ou les avec les 
substantifs qui expriment lepoids^ la mesure, lenanArcy 
etc, en parlant du prix d'un objet quelconque : 

Six francs la bonteille, SixjrancsK boUle. 

Deux sous la livre, Tioo sous (a penny) z, pound. 

ViDgt-cinq sous Taune, Twenty-five sous an 0^7. 

Dix schellings le eent, Ten shiUings a hundred. 

Vous paye-t-on a la joam6e ? Areyoupaidby the day 9 — Noy 

— Nod, on me paye a la piece, / am paid by the piece. 

• » 
279. Quand on parle de certaines parties ou subdivisions 

du teQips, ou de ce qui se paye oomme hxmoraires^ appoijUe- 
mentSy salairey gages^ prix dentree dans un spectacle, etc., on 
se sert de la proposition par : 

Vingt-cinq mille francs par Twenty-Jive thousand francs 

an, per annum. 

Cent 6cus * par mois, A hundred croums a month. 

Trois guinOes par trimestre, Three guineas a quarter. 

Cent sous par jour. Five francs (a hundred sous) 

a day. 

Trois schellings jMzr billet. Three shillings a ticket. 


How much ? Five francs a dozen. Twelve pounds a hun- 
dred. Eight shillings a pound. This cloth cost thirty francs 
a yard. Good Bordeaux wine is sold for fire or six shillings 
a bottle. He sells by (a) the pound. Threepence an ounce ^ 
Two crowns^ Si btishel^. Five guinesiS a hundredweight*. Ten 
shillings a ticket. Five thousand francs a year are sufiicient 
for me. — What wages^ does he give his servant? Twelve 
pounds a year. — Two hundred men are constantly employed 
in that manufactory ; those who work by (a) the day^ receive 
eachofthem^ twelve francs a week for i\ke\r salary ^ ; but those 
who work by (a) the piece receive no less than^ sixty francs a 

* Eeu,Be dit en France.d'une certame moimaie d'argent. Seu de trois 
ihregj ou petit 4cu. Ecu de six Uifres ou. de aiaejrenes. Un ^ de dnq 
franee. H signifie egalement une monnaie de compte de la valeur de trois 
livres ou soixante aous toomois. 11 a miUe <^CU8, cent rniHe 4cu8 de rente. 



280. JR^gle. — Un substantif ne peut 6tre regime d'lm 
autre substantif^ qu'^ I'aide d'une proposition : 

La beauts de runivers, TTte beauty of the universe. 

Le palais du roi. The king's palace (37.)* 

Une porte de fer, An iron door, 

Un moulin ^ papier, A paper-mitt. 

De la poudre (d canon), Gunpowder, 

Des armes ^ feu, Fire-arms. 

Des bas de soie, Silk stockings, 

Du vin de Bourgogne, Burgundy wine. 

De Thuile d'olive, Olive oil. 

Une voiture ^ quatre roues, A four-wheeled carriage. 

Une maison ^ trois Stages, A three-story house. 

Un pot k eau, A water-pot. 

Un pot d'eau, A pot of water. 

Une bouteille k vin, A unne-bottle. 

Une bouteille de vin, A bottle of wine. 

281. NoTB. The use of a or <2e in the above and similar examples de- 
pends on the nature of the expression. Db is used when made off com" 
poted qf, coming firomy qf the, or belonging to can be understood ; as, de 
VhuUe d^oUve, olive oil; — d is used when for the purpose qf, by means qf, 
or vfith may be understood ; as, de Fhuile a brUier, lamp-oil, t. e. oil for the 
purpose of burning ; JUie^ats yeux bleus, blue-eyed girl, t. e. girl with blue 

Dictie et analyse. 

Les sept merveilles du monde : Les murailles et les jardins 
de Babylone, ouvrages de S^miramis ; les pyramides cfJi^igypte ; 
le phare cf Alexandrie ; le tombeau qu*Art6mise fit Clever 
pour Mausole, son mari ; le temple de Diane a Ephese ; celui 
de Jupiter Olympien a Pise, en Elide ; et le colosse de Rhodes. 
AcADEMiE. — Lies pyramides de TEgypte s'en vont en poudre, 
et les gramin6es du temps des Pharaons subsistent encore ! — 
Les Grecs et les Romains ont tir6 de TAsie la plupart des 
arbres d fruit que nous cultivons aujourd*hui. Bernardik 
DE St.-Pierre. 


I found this work in your brother's library. Here is a gold 
box. Bring me some wine-glasses. Give me a bottle of wine. 
— ^Where is the water-jug ? Here it is. — Give me a teaspoon. 
Do you not see that windmill in the distance ? No, I do not. 


Is this the letter-box ? Yes, sir, it is« — Do you noitoear^ silk 
stockings in summer? Yes, I do sometimes. — Socrates' wis- 
dom. Achilles' valour. Cicero's eloquence. Cato's virtue. 
La Fontaine's fables. Racine's tragedies. Diana* s'^ anger 
was the cause of Acteon's death. F^nelon's T616maque may 
be read (247*) as a continuation of Homer's Odyssey. Pope's 
images are as perfect as his style is harmonious. Moli^re's 
comedies would alone suffice to immortalise the age of Louis 
XIV. (84.). Victor Hugo's Notr^ Dame de Paris and Walter 
SGott^f^QfAenHnDunDardore historical romances which contain 
many interesting incidents of the reign of Lewis XP^ (84.)9 
king of France. 

282. Nomlre des substantifs propres. 

Les noms propres ne prennent pas ordinairement la 
marque du pluriel : 

Les deux ComeiUe sont n6s a The two Corneilles were bom 
Rouen, at Rouen, 

283. Quelquefois les noms propres, quoique ne d^- 
signant qu'un seul individu, sont pr^c^d^s de rarticle 
les I 

IjesComeille et les Racitie ont Corneille and Racine have U- 
illustr6 la scene fran^aise, htstrated the French stage, 

Cet emploi de Tarticle lea donne une toumure ^nergique a la phrase. 

284. Les noms propres prennent la marque du plu- 
riel quand ils sont employes comme noms communs ; 
c'est-k-dire, pour designer des individus semblables k 
ceux dont on emploie le nom : 

La France a eu ses Cisars et France has had her Csesars 

ses PompieSy c'est-d-dire, and Pompeys, t. c, generals 

des g6u6raux comme C6sar like Ccesar and like Pom- 

et comme Pomp^e, pey, 

285. A I'imitation des Latins, on 6crit au pluriel: les Horaces^ 
les Gracques, les Scipions, etc. On 6crit de m^me g^n^rale- 
ment les Stuarts^ les Guises, les Conddsy les Bourbons^ mots 
qui sont plut6t eonsid6r6s comme noms de grandes et illustres 
families que comme noms d'individus. 

251' STNTAXE. 

Didie et anafyse. 

Le meilleur code grammatical se trouve dans les grands 
^rivains d'une nation. C'est dans leurs immortels ouvrages 
qn'une langue brille de tout son ^clat Tout y sert d*instnic- 
tioti. C'est dans P&scaUCorneille, Racine, Despr6aux, Bossuet, 
F}6chier, F6uelon, madame de S6vign6, les deux Eousseauy 
etc. qu'on doit ^tudier la langue fran^aise, si Ton vent en 
connaitre si fond toutes les beauts Uvisac. — Le m^me roi 
(Louis XIV) qui sut employer les Cond^ les Turenne» les 
Luxembourg, les Cr^qui, les Catinat, et les Villars dans aes 
armies ; les Colbert et les Louf ois dans son cabinet, choisit 
les Racine et les Boileau pour ^crire son histoire ; les Bossuet 
et les F6nelon pour instruire ses enfants; ks Flechier, les 
Bourdaloue et les Massillon pour Tinstruire lui-meme. Maury. 
— Les Boileau et /e^ Gilbert furent les Juvenals de leur siecle*. 
— L'Espagne s'honore d'avoir vu naitre les deux Seneque, 
Raynouard. — ^Les Romtuns vainqueurs devinrent les disci- 
ples des Grecs vaincus, et apprirent une langue que les Ho- 
mere, les Pindare, les Thucydide, les X^nophon, les D^mos- 
thene, les Platon, les Euripide, avaient embellie des graces 
de leur esprit. Mably. — Les Shakspeares, les Miltons, les M o- 
lieres, les Racines ne sont pas moins rares que les Newtons, 
Us Turennes, les Marlboroughs, les Napoleons. 


What a pleasure it is to love religion and find tluU faith 
and support are given to it^ by such men as (1283.) Bacon, 
Descarte, Newton, Grotius, Corneille, Racine, Boileau, Tu- 
renne, and Daguerreau, the eternal honour of the human 
mind! La Bruyere. — The principal fabulists among the 
ancients are .^op and Phaedrus, and among the French, La 
Fontaine, La Motte and Florian. Cornelia, daughter of Scipio 
Africanus, was the mother of the Gracchi (285.), so celebrated 
in Roman history. The combat of the three Horatii (285.) 
against the three Curiatii took place in the reign of Tuilus 
Hostilius, third king of Rome : Corneille has made this event^ 
the subject of one of his finest tragedies. William of Nassau, 
the (275.) stadtholder^ of Holland, was called to the throne of 
England iri the stead* of James the Second, who was forced to 
retire to France, where he died at the castle of St Germain. 

* Ce qui signifie sans figure : Boalean et Gilbert farent les poStet nli- 
riques de leur siede. 


Almost every century gives birth to warriors like (284.) Cae- 
sar and Poropey ; but it requires many ages* before nature 
can produce^ writers like (284.) Homer, Virgil, Demosthenes^ 

286. Noms collectifs. 

Lea noms coUectifa sont de deux sortea : le collectif 
giniral et le collectif partitif. 

Le collectif gSneral est celui qui ^once Yufdversaliti 
des ol^ets. Le peuple, Parm4e^ sont des noms collec- 
tifs g^^raux : 

Ijepeuple est heureux. The people are happy. 

'La,/amille est kht campagne. The family are in the country* 

287. Note. Le pevfle, la/amiQe, and all other collective nouns in 
the singular, such as te parUment, le conseilf le comiU, etc., require 
that the verb should, in French, be put in the singular*. ' 

Ije collectif partitif est celui qui d^sigue une collection 
partielle ; unefoule^ une infiniti, la plupart, etc. sont 
des collectifs partitifs : 

Une foule d'enfants, A crowd of children. 

La plupart le croient*. The mc^orHy think so. 

288. Remarque, kyec les noms oollectifii, les Latins avaient k choix da 
plmiel on do singnHir poor le verbe snivant ; ils disaient indiff^femmeiit : 
turba rvit on twrba runmi. II en est de mime de dos eirflectift partitifr 
sums de snbstantifs phuids ; Taccord da veibe depend du point de vne 
sons leqoel on consuE^ le rapport : 

Uneybtt/e d ennemis Moffrit k nous. 

Une foule de courtisans VapplaudisMnent. 

n fant chercher le mot qui est le pins en rapport d'idee avec le verbe, et 
qoi coas^qnemment en commande Tacoord : c'est la foule qui ioffrii ; ce 
sont lee couriuans qui applauditeaierU. En Toici deux autres eiemples : 

Une troupe d'hommes arm^ a paru k mes yeux. — Florian. 
Une troupe de nymphet oouronn^ de fieurs nageaient en 
foule derri^re le char de la deesse. — F^nelon. 


A crowd of ideas offered themselves ' to my mind. The peo- 
ple (287.) are fond (f^ mechanical science. Is it true that 
Parliament (287.) have adopted that law ? A great number of 

* After la phtpari the verb agrees in the plural with a nominative 

256 8TNTAXE. 

friends went^ to his assistance. A troop of brave soldiers fv- 
sisted that warlike army *, A crowd of friends came ^ to see 
us. The senate were divided*; many were opposed to that 
measure. The people of the neiglibouring provinces would 
have peace. The whole fleet will set saiP in the couVse of the 
week. In Paris, at the College de France, a very great num< 
ber 0^ young men attend gratuitously tJie lectures^ of the most 
distinguished professors. Are not most men of opinion'^ that 
happiness is in virtue ? The family (t^87«) are in town. 


289. Substantifs employes comme complements. 

DanH la construction des substantifs complements, 
rharmonie exige que le plus long se place le dernier : 

L'avare ssLcri^e a TintSrSt son honneur et sa vie. 

Quand ils sont d'^gale longueur, le direct se place 
g^neralement le premier : 

L'avare sacrifie Ylionneur a Tint^r^t. 

Ce serait mal s'exprimer que de dire : je connais et me sers 
de mes avantages, parce que chacun des verbes de cette 
phrase exige un complement different : connaitre ses avan- 
tages, se servir de ses avantages. 

II faut done dire : Je connais mes avantages et je men 
sersj en donnant It chaque verbe le complement qui lui con- 
vient ; ou bien il faut employer deux verbes qui aient le m^me 
complement, comme dans : je connais cf y utilise mes avan- 


290. R^gle. — L'adjectif s^accorde en genre et en 
nombre avec le substantif qu*il qualifie (56.). 

291. Cependant il faut mettre an singulier Tadjectif se rapportant anx 
pronoms notta, voust lorsque ces pronoms ne represcntent qu'une seule per- 
Sonne: mon fik^ vous terez recherchb n vous Het instruit; nous 
80UB8IGNX maire de LyoUf nous prkfbt de la Seine, 

292. R^gle. — S'il y a deux ou plusieurs substantifs 
ou pronoms^ Tadjectif se met au pluriel ; et prend le 

ST^TTAXE n^ l'abjjegtif* 257 

geme mascidin si les sabstantifiB aa les pnmoms aont 
de difil^rents goups : 

Le ricbe et le paarre sont Tie ritAandikepoor are equal 

egoMX deraot la loi, tii (presence of the) Ime. 

3Ia mere et ma sonir soct Jfy moAtr amd wuier are 

kettreftseSy happr. 

Mon frere et ma scrar sont Jfy ^ivdler mu/ sisier are 

hearatx^ happj. 

293. Exceptions. — ^L'adjectif place apres deux oa 
pln&ieors sabstantifs s'accorde arec le dernier : 

1* Lorsque ks snbstantifs cmt a pea pres la mteie 
significadon : 

Toute sa vie n'a ^ qii*iiii tiaTail, qu'iue ocei^MilHMi cimi^ 

n s'exprime avee une grace, ime pMnae patfintem — ^M** 


2* Tootes les fcris qu^ y si gfadatkm dans les mots: 
Le fer, le bandeanj la flamme est toute /irefe. — ^RACin. 

3^ liorsqiie les sabstantifB sont s^pares par la parti- 
cuieoif : 

Un eomage ov ime pmdenee e tamm o M t e . 
Cest on homme ov ime femme JMyw. 

On dit pourtant pour eviter Teqidvoqae: 

On demande on hoamie ov nne femme dgi^s^ — Bomifagc 
Le firere ok la flonir oineK. — ^M"* Casipav. 

294w Les ad}ecti£s Mt (naked), dead, frame, les paiticipes 
tvppo9L, extepii^ etc^ ainsi que les mots compost eijaimt et 
d-imebiSf sont imranables lonqaHs precedent le sobsfantif ; 
YadjeedTJem (late) est anssi inrariable qnand 3est pfaeeaTant 
Taiticle <m toot antie mot qui d^tennine le sohrtanri^ 

Lwariabie, Variabie, 

nteitw».tete. Davaitlatete 

Une dbB»-lieae. Une liene et deaue. 

le nlMtaiilif q^oliie pv rai^cctif « CD 
ranide Ik, eet a#ecfi^ fMifne pboe avaat le mw, nfaifc I'aeoori, 

'. Udommtemr^ettemtenelmwc^prvfriSUM 


Yenez dans une demi-henre. Hier, ii dix heures et demte. 

Deux demi'pieds. Quatre aunes et demie. 

Suppose les circonstances. Telle circonstance supposie. 

Excepte ces messieurs. Ces messieurs eoccepUs. 

Ci'joint ma lettre. Ma lettre ci-jointe* 

Franc de port leurs lettres. Leurs lettres^ancA^ de port. 

Ci-inclus leurs lettres. Leurs lettres ci-incitises. 

Feu la reine. hsi feue reine. 

Feu les princesses. ' hesfeues princesses. 

Feu vient da latin /idt ou plutut de ritalienyu. En efTet les Italiens pour 
dureyeti monpire, dkeut jMuIre eheju. — Journal OKAMMATicAii. 

295. Le rapport de Tadjectif est quelquefois difficile ^ 
saisir ; il faut alors se bien pen^trer du sens qu'on veut ex- 
primer, et examiner auquel des substantiils coDvient la modifi- 
catioD. £n void quelques exemples : 

Une ma99% de neiges effray- Une masse de ndges UbiUmis- 

ante. sanies, 

Des boutons de miudjaune, Des bouions de m6tal ronds. 

Une tnnq)e de soldatsybrm^ Une troupe de soldais formis 

k la hate. k la guerre. 

Cette femme a Voir bon. Cettefemme a Fair contenie de 

ce qu'on vient de lui dire. 

296. NoTA. Si ra^iedif qcd snit otV se rapporte il ce nom, il fiiut mettre 
cet adjectif an mascuHn : eUe a l'aib bon, elle m l'aib MicHANT. Mais 
si Tadjectif se rapporte a la personne plutdt qu'au mot air, cet adjectif 
prend le genre et le nombre de cette personne : eUe a Pair toute tboublxe, 
eUe a Fair utooimanm. Ik mU Pair fIchss de ee gu*ib 9iennent dCe^ 
prendre. En parlant des choses, il fiuit dire Pair d'etre, Cette niawU 
a L*AiB d'xtrb FRAicHE. Cet Uffumee tCont paa l'air d'etre cuits. 
Catte maladie m l'aik b'ztbs bbribusb. 

Dictie ei analyse. 

" Que tu me parais beau,*' dit le loup au limier, << net, poliy 
grasy heureux et sans inquietude I Mais qui te p^le ainsi par 
le cou?" "Mon collier." "Ton collier? fi des biens avec 
la servitude!" Benserade. — Sans Testime il n'est point de 
solide amiti6. D^moustier. — Partout la jalousie est un ^tre 
odieux, MoLiiRE. — ^Le beiage n'est qu'une fleur qui passe.-^ 
La vertu qui jettc un si doux parfum dans la m6moire des 
hommes ne meurt jamais. Fbnelon. — La flatterie est une 
fausse monnaie qui n*a de cours que par notre vanit6. La 
Rochefoucauld. — Philippe montra partout un courage et 
une prudence superieurs k son age. Rollin. — Le bon goiit 


des Egyptiens leur fit aimer la solidit6 et la r^gularit6 toute 
nue, BossuBT. — II a une am6iiit6, une douceur enchanteresse. 
— On a trouv6 une pariie du pain mangee. — On a cuit une 
partie du pain desHn^ aux pauvres. — Un service solennel pour 
iesfeus rois Louis XVI et Louis XVII eut lieu k F^glise de 
Notre-Dame k Paiis le 14 mai 1814. 

She is a spoiled ckUd L Are not your (103.) father and mother 
much pleased'^ vnth the progress you are making in your studies? 
Her Majesty the Queen and Her Royal Highness the Duchess of 
Kent have arrived in London. Virtue and science can alone 
render a man happy. The king and the shepherd are equal 
after death. He has shown a modesty^ a discretion^ worthy of 
praise. His daughter and yours are attentive. The dcmi-gods 
of the ancients were only men who had distinguished them- 
selves^ by extraordinary (65.} valour or virtue. The late queen 
was opposed to that measure. Why do you go barefoot? — Come 
in half an hour. I cannot. — ^I have studied this morning du- 
ring an hour and a half. If you give me half a guinea, you 
will only owe me a e^ninea and a half. The light of the sun 
comes^ to us in less (305.) than eight minutes and a half. Ex- 
perience will always show^ that a sober, r^ular, and laborious 
life fortifies health ; whereas"^ a dissipated* and idle^ life de- 
stroys it Friendship lessens^^ our cares by dividmg^^ them, 
and doubles our pleasures by mutual participation. 

[Place de Tadjectif, voyez la rigle 65 et TAppendice.]] 

297. Compliment des cLdjectifs. 

Le regime ou complement des adjectifs est un sub- 
stantif ou un verbe, pr^c^de de I'une des propositions &, 
dcj dans J en, sur^ etc. : 

Digne de r^compenscy Worthy of reward, 

Propre a la guerre, Fit for war. 

Un enfant ch§ri de son p^re, A child cherished by his father. 

Qaelques adjectifs ne sont accompagnOs d'aucun 
complement; ce sont cenx qui, par eux-m^mes, ont 
une qualification determinOe : 

Les droits sacr^s de I'amiti^ The sabred rights of friendship 
sont iaviolables, are inviolable. 



Parmi les adjectifs qui ont un complement, les uns le 
prennent accidentellement, les autres ne peuvent s'en 
passer : 

L'ignorance toujours est prete a s'admirer. — Boileau. 
Celui qui aime le travail trouve son plaifdr toujours /w*^^^^.-* 


Ne soyez pas enclin t, la paresse. 

298. Adjectifs dont le 

compl^ent est 

precSdS de It 

proposition db. 







































Note. In general, all adjectives which signify jvJIm^y, scarcity t orwenU 
are followed by de before the noun which they govern. 

299. Adjectifs dont le campUment est precede de la 

preposition A. 

contraire, importun 

















impenetrable, prompt. 

in vulnerable, semblable, 
nuisible, sujet, 

preferable, visible. 

NoTB. In general, all adjectives which denote aptntft^fitneut tncMtu^ 
tion, eatCt readinegs, or any habit ^ are foUowed by d before the noun wfaidi 
they govern. 

300. n y a des adjectifs dont le complement se construit avec 
differentes prepositions : affable a tous, affable envers tous^ etc. 

Dictie et analyse. 
Qui vit content de rien possdde toute chose. Boii^eau. — ^La 


haine est aveugle dans sa propre cause. — La religion est ndceS" 
saire et natureUe a rhomme. — Le sentiment de rimmortalit6 
est commun d tons. — L'ennui, qui d6vore les autres hommes, 
est incannu d ceux qui savent s'occuper. Fenelon. — La re- 
oonoaissance est une des qualit^s les plus inseparables des 
ames bien n^es. — On ne saurait ^tre trop reconnaissant envers 
ses parents de la bonne Education qu'ils nous ont donn6e. — Un 
menteur est tou^ouvs prodigue de serments. Corneille. 


He is always ready to do his duty. Are you not pleased^ 
with this work? Is he free^ from error? I am tired with 
walking. It is shameful^ to betray a friend. Are you sure^ to 
succeed ? That good minister is accessible to every one. The 
universe is full of the magnificence of the Almighiy^. That 
general is loaded^ with honours. He was invincible in war, 
formidable to his enemies, accustomed to labour''. How glo- 
rious itis^ to serve our country ! He is unworthy of reward. 
She is much afflicted by thb news. Too much exercise may 
be injurious^ to health. Do not be so greedy ^^ after riches. 
Let us be kind to one another ^^. That man is dear to his 
family. Be affable to everybody i^. Is it not true that human 
life is never free from troubles^^? 

Adjectifs qui expriment la dimension, r^tendue des 

corps, etc. 

301. Norn. Adjectives relating to the dimensions or size of objects are 
expressed in French in various ways, as will be seen by the following ex- 
amples : 

Une tour haute de cent pieds, or Une tour de cent pieds de hanteor. A 

tower a hundred feet high. 
Une riviere large de trois cents pieds, or Une riviere de trois cents pieds 

de largear. A river three humdredfeet wide. 
Cette colonne ett haute de deux cents jneds, or Cette oolonne a deux cents 

pieds de hauteur. Thai eotumm t» two hmndred/eet high. 

302. NoTS. By or and used when comparing length and breadth is ren- 
dned in Firench by mt; as. The form of the Place VendSme is a square qf 
75 toisea in length by 70 m width, the angles qf which are cut off. — La 
forme de la place Venddme est un quadrilatere de 75 toises de longueur 
«Mr 70 de largenr, dont les angles sont ooup^ The walls ofAlgiere are 
twehe feet thici and thirtg high, — ^Les mun d'Alger ont douze pieds 
d'^aisseur tur trente de hauteur. 

303. NoTv. Bg after a comparative, and before a noun of measure, is 
expressed by de; as, He is taller than you by two inches, by the whole 
head^ etc, — ^11 est plus grand que vous de deux pouoes, de toute la tete, etc 


I have a deift' two feet three iDchet long, aod one foot nine 
inches broad. That tree is ninety feet in height, and fifteen 
in (de) circumference. You are taller than I by three inches. 
The Monument of London is a column of the Doric order, more 
than (S05.) two hundred feet high ; it stands on a pedesiai* 
twenty feet high. 1b not the c<4umn in the Place Vend6me 
two hundred feet high ? That well^ is a hundred and eighty 
feet deep by twenty in (de) circumference. That man is six 
feet high. This street is about a mile* and a half long, and 
seventy feet wide. 

Des cotnparattfs et des super latifs {JO, 71 ct 72). 

304. NoTK. Thau after a oomparatiye, and before any tense of the indi- 
cative or conditional mood, is expressed by gue ne; as. 

He if riehtr than he waif U ettphte riche ^Q ne I'^tait. 

He it lem rich than he imw, 11 est mama riche jvll ne T^tait. 
The ne is omitted i^en the &st part of the sentence is either interroga- 
tive, negatiye, or expressive of doubt, or when there is a conjunction be- 
tween que and the verb ; as, Can any one be happier than lam? Pent-on 
^re phu heurenx gue je le suis ? — He it noi richer than he wae, II n'est 
pas phie riche ^'il I'^tait. — You are happier than when you were in Ger- 
many t Vous kteisplue henreux que guand vons ^iez en AUemagne. 

HowcTer, if the subordinate proposition be intended to convey a nega- 
tive meaning, ne must be used before the verb (482.) ; as, The exittenee 
of Alexander will not be more conieeted in ten centuries than it is at the 
present time, L'existence d' Alexandre ne sera paspbie contestee. dans dix 
siecles, ^'elle ne Test de nos joins. 

305. Note. Than after more or fesr, when followed by a numeral, is 
expressed by i!e; as. He has more ihxn fifty Jraneej II BpUta de cinquante 

If the comparison is one of equality autii,.,gue is used (72.), unless 
the comparison relates to quantity or numbCT, when snttani (alterum tan- 
turn) gue is used (486.) *, as, Autant de tu^ gme de bless^, As many kiUed 
ws wounded. 

If the second member of the comparison is an infinitive, the compari- 
son is by si—gue de; as, Je ne suis pas •» fon ^ed^ vous croire, lam not 
to/boUsh as to believe you. 

Note (276.). The article which in English precedes the comparative 
when repeated, is not expressed in French ; as. The longer the day, the 
shorter the nighty Phu le jour est ]ovig,^plKf la unit est coorte. 

306. Bigle. Le snperlatif est abtohi on r^tif. Le snperlat^ abeobt es- 
nrime la qualite k nn trH-haut degr^, sans rapport k une autre chose oa 
a une autre penonne, comme tres-aoge,fort utiles bien triste, extremememt 
attentif, etc Le 9tqterlat\f relatif exprime le plus faaut dqgre de la quality 
cvec oomparsison et relativement aux objets compares, comme lepkueagep 
1m pbis belle. On appelle tuperlatif d^ir^fMiriU celui qui sc compose avee 
les mots le mains. Le moins beau de tons cesjeunes yens. 



A nyedative (a4iecthre or adrerb) mtjr be heigfatened in Taiiow 
wayi; as, 

Ce jeune homme est on mepeMtphu That yonmg nun u most amimMe. 


TLfaXde heauemm sup^rieur, He t* by far ingperkr, 

II crt plus grand iie heauanm. He tr mncb iaOer. 

Cest Tbonune le pbis g^nraeia dm He it mmt femermu (iit. the moii 

monde, fenertmg mum in the ifodil). 

Venez le plus tot poisible. Come as Joo» as possible. 

The fe of a 8iq)erlatiYe adTerb does not agree either in gender or in 
number with the substantive spoken of; as, 

Cette couleur me plait le mienx, Thu colour pleaaee me most. 

" The fe of a superlative adjeetwe Ib changeable (that is agrees with the 
substantive), when the comparison is vnih others : it is unchangeable. 
when the eomparison is with some other state of the object itself: 

^ Cette fiUe est te idns bllmable, 7%ts^tffiiMf//o6/;siiie(ofthema]l). 

" La mere ne punit pas sa fiUe, lors mdme qn'dle est le pins coupable. 
This mother does not correct her daughter^ even when she is most m 
fauU ; more in fault than she has been at any other time." — Arnold. 

307. NoTs. So much the more and so much the less, are expressed by 
d^aatant plus, d^awtant mofnt; as, He it so mneh the more gmlty, n est 
d'autant plus conpable. He is wo much the less to blame H est d^autant 
mains blllinable. 

{Not) near so good, etc., is expressed by (ne)...a beaucoup prh si bon, 
etc. ; as. He is not near so good as his brother, II n'est pas a beauang? pres 
si sage que son fi^re. 

308. Note. The more or the less... fir it, is expressed by en before the 
verb, and plus or mains after it ; si,Heis onfy the more guilty for it, H 
-n^en est que plus coupable. He is not the less sorry for it, II n*eii est pas 
moins fachi. 

309. Note. In after a superlative is expr e ssed by <fe ; as, France is the 
oldest menarchg in Europe, La France est la phu andenne monarchie de 

310 RaMAKQiTBa sun lis coitPA&ATipa pire vrpis. 

Pire se rapporte i vn snbstantif masoolin on f^^minia : Le remede est 
piBB que le nisi; U n'est pimn eau qme esOe qui dart* 

On emploie pis, V Lorsqu'il se rapporte Ik nn mot indetermin^ : JUen 
n'est PIS gu'une mauvaise langue. Ce que vous prqposez est Pi9 que ce 
qu^on aUaitfaire, 2° Lorsqull est employ^ M-meme comme mot ind^ 
terann^: Mettre les chases au pis. 3^ Lorsqn'il fait la fonction d'ad- 
verba : iZt sont pis que Jamais ensemble f U aepartait unpen mieux, it est 
PIS que jamais. 

Cependant on emploie anssi pure comme snbstantif : II n'est point de 
degr4 du mediocre au pibb. — Boilb au. 

Pis dime du latin pejus, plus mal, et pire de pefor, pins manvais. . 


NoCkiog ottgbt to be 80 sacred to men as the laws intended 
to render them good, wise, and happy. Be just as wettas^ 



humane. I am as happy as you. That country is as much 
enlightened^ as ours. He remained^ more than ten years in 
France. He is older* than you. The more they study ^ this 
language, the more they like it His uncle is one of the 
richest merchants^ in Paris. That lady is not less than forty 
years old'^. He feels the insult so much the more as he 
deserved it the less. The weather is not so fine as I should 
have expected^. The laws are less severe than they u)ere'K 
You are more learned than I. There is nothing (de) more 
difficult than to learn by heart what one does not understand 'o. 
The richer they are, the more charitable they become^ ^. That 
action is so much the more laudable because it was unexpected ^^, 
That is so much the more blamable. You do not think them 
the less guilty. Their conduct is so much the more honour- 
able. The oldest general in the army. 

The wisest of men have been the most religious. Of all 
flowers, the rose pleases me most William and George are 
most to blame. That ot^er i^-iodulgent father never chastises 
his children even when they are most in fault. That professor 
is most (translate one cannot be more) learned. He is not 
nearly so attentive as his sister. The voyage of the Phoeni- - 
cians round Africa is (so much) the more admirable, because^* 
their ships could not go far from the coasts. He is not so 
silly as to^^ believe you. Write to me as soon as possible. 
Your father is a most generous man (translate the most gene- 
rous man in the world). Is he as tall as your brother? He 
is much taller. A kindness received is of all debts the most 
sacred. The learned are of all men the most sought afler. 
Learned men have been most sought after. She is too sensible 
to do thAt. The highest trees are most exposed to the storm. 
The most fashionable ornaments. The talents most in honour. 
It is in France that the fine arts are most cultivated. The arts 
that are most needed, are not the most honoured. It is in 
England, where agriculture is in honour, that the land is 
best cultivated. That song is one of those which were most 


311. Le pronom est soumis pour raccord^ aux m^mes 
regies que Vadjectif qaalificatif {b^.) : 


LdtB fmhs et les flean oacr- The fndtM amd flawtrs to 
qmeU je doonais tons ines yMsh. I devoted aUm^jf care 

soios aoDt detmitSy 

n a Qn eooiage, une intrepi- He has a eommge, an imtrepi-- 

diti a hujpueiU (293.} rien cfi^, which nothing can re- 

He resiste, 


./4P, /w, #7, ^//^/ noiiv^ rottt, tZs, elles, etc, (S8.) 

312. Le pronom sujet da Terbe le precede ordinaire- 
ment : je sids, yaime^ Excepte, comme nous Tarons 
vu (91.), daus les phrases interrogatiYes : parUnt-iis} 

313. Le pronom sujet se place inni mpns le Tctbe : 
l** Dim certaices phrues dUptiqaes ct frrlamatiTei : 

PaitticK-Mwr etre benreux ! Utnf ytti be k^pjf ! 

Qoe Tiens^ d'enteadre ! Whmt hne I hmrd! 

2= Dans les phnscs inteijctees: 

'•Soldats!''«'MFM.<4;«'qiiim'aiiK, '^Sei£en!"eotAht,'*teiUmwho 
mesoiTe!" Isvet awyblbv aw.'" 

TT Dans les phrases coastzvitei a:fee mmMai, em naaa, p e mi iire^ 
peine ^ dm nudms, em muoau^ oa antre es^resskm lemblaUe : 

Peut<etre T.endra-t-i4 Perkepe he will eoaMU 

X peine fomes-noaa arrires. We were eeercebf 

On peat ansa placer le pronom arant le rcrbe : pemt-etre il 
314^ Note. A penoaal pronoun in the momumatime is repeated in French 
before er cij weib , if those rerbs be of different teases. When boverer the 
▼crba are in the ame teasc^ it majbe v^eated or act, as taHe may direct 
or pcnpicnity rapiire: 

yetndie et/etndieEU toiqoaiB, I atedf mad tnB ahmyv atedf. 

315. Note. WfacB there are two or aiore pionoans in the nomicatir* 
case, a rfsoming prawMin (39^.), such as ■••«» memet ib» is gencnllT used 
in Frendh as the subject of the foUowiag verb; as, 

VoDS et moi, aaiv paitii oa s . Ton mmd I wiB depert. 

Vous ct aovs, nous p aie t un s. Ton mmd ve wSUpm^f. 

VoBSCtcax,aMViBaRhczMfe^ Xommmdi^ wmikfmMi. 

316. La repetition des pronoms fiusant office de com- 
plements est indispensable ayant chaqne verbe : 

II flu fa dit et M« fa assore He eaid U to me and asserted 
cent fots, U a hmndred Umes. 

Mab OB ae les it^cte pas Sfiat va tenvs eoaipoae doat raaxHiaire est 

n In a iattei ct Vmb^ BeJUHertdmmdprmmd fiemu 



Sir. Qnaiid nn veri>e a pour eompl^nieiit» directs (132.) nn prononi 
ptnomiel et un sobstanti^ ii y a reduplication da premier : 

II me verra, moi et mon domestique. He will tee me and my servant, 

318. II en eat de mema loraqu'un verbe a un pronom personnel et mi 
substantif poox complements indirects (133.) : 

Cela me psrut vrai, a moi et a tout Thai appeared true to me and every 
le monde, one. 

319. Quelquefois on supprime apres moif toif etc. les pronoms per- 
sonnels ^e, tUf etc., ainsi que le verbe dont ils sont le sujet : 

Moi, vous abandonner ! I adandon you ! 

Voudriez-vousmeperdre,mox,YOtre Would you ruin me, who am your 
alU^ ! ally / 

320. En gp^n^ral on se sert des pronoms mot, /ot, hU, etc. quand on vent 
s'exprimer avec force et energie : 

Toi, qui fais le brave, T%m who pretendeat to be so valiant, 

321. On s'en sert aussi par raison de clarte, qnand il y a piusieurs pro- 
noms sujets qui se solvent dans ane mSme phrase : 

Eux m'ont relev^, et M m'a panse, They picked me t^, and he dressed my 

Place des Pronoms (96.) 

322. Note. We have seen, in page 67, the arrangement of personal pro- 
nouns when there are two or three governed by the same verb ; in order 
however still further to simplify this subject to the student, the following 
table is given, which shows not only the relative position of the personal 
conjunctive pronouns with regard to each other, but also with regard to 
the verb and other words connected with them in a sentence. The 
figures indicate the order of the words. 



t 3 






ne| me 






• • • 




• • • 




• • • 


• • • 

• • • 

• • • 



• • r 

« «• 



• • • 

• •V 



• • • 

• •• 


• • • 

• • • 

' •»• 


w verb. 





• • • r« . • • • 


The student will understand^ that although aU the words numbered 
cannot come together in the same phrase, yet that as many as do occur 
invariably preserve the saint rehtive position, aa will be seen by the fol- 
lowing examples : 

1 4 8 

Je le crois, / believe H. 

1 S 4 8 9 

Je ne le crois pas, / do not beUeve it. 

13 8 

II me volt, He se«s me, 

1 s 3 8 9 

n ne me voit pas, He does not see me. 

15 8 

Tn Iw paries, Thou speakeet 

to him. 
I 5 8 ri 

Tu lui as parle, Thou heist 
i^ken to Mm, 

14 5 8 

Je le lui dis, / told it to hint. 


1 2 4 ft S 9 10 11 

Je ne le lai ai pas encore dit, / kave not yet taid U to him, 

13 4 8 n 

11 me les a doiift, Ha §moe ikem to me, 

1 2 s 4 8 9 10 II 

n ne me les a pas encore donn^, He hu not yet gwen them to me. 

1 s 5 8 9 10 11 

Nous ne loi avoM pas eocoxe toit» We hmm not yH writfim to Aim; 

15 7 8 11 

lis loi en. out eiiToye, l%ey have eeni him aome, 

1 96 8 9 II 
Je n'y suis pas connu, / <m not known there. 

12 6 8 9 11 

n n*j est pas saniT^, He kae not arrived there. 

19 3 7 8 9* II 

Us ne vain es ont pas dematui^, They hmre not mked you for mny, 

19 9 7 8 9 n 

Nona na vwis en avons pas envoy^, We have not sent you any 

1 9 86 8 9 11 
lis ne s^y sont pas appliques, T^ey have not applied themselves to it. 

1 9 s 7 8 9 10 II 

Tons ne yoiis en etes pas eneore plaimt, You have not yet eornphrined 
about U. 

And in placing the nominative after the verb in interrogations (91.) : 

9 5 7 8 9 II 
Ne M y en u-ie pas eavoy^ ? Have I not sent him any qfit thither ? 

The order of the personal pronomis with verbs in the imperative mood, 
as in the following examples, will be found fully explained in the rales 92, 
93, and in the note *, page 67. 

Donnez-le-moi, Give it me. 

Ne me le doimez pas, Do not give it me. 

Donnez-n'en, Give me some. 

Ne m'en donnez pas, Do not give me imy. 

32S. Remarque, Quaod il y a deux imp6rati& de suite usis 
par une des coDJooctioDs €^ om^ les pronoms complements du 
dernier imp^ratif peuvent le pr^ceder : 

J^crivez-Ie-lui et le lui ett- Write k to kimy mnd gend it to 
voyez, 4tii8. 

324. Note. In sentences like the following: II ne s'est pas Fif k lui, 
he has not trusted himself to him, beginners often find a difficulty in ar- 
ran^ng the prenouns, and are inclined to put kti for d ku hefon the verb ; 
thereby they oonmh a great enor and compose a very obaeiire sentence. 
It is true that whea y es m is ascd, eMher may precede the verb, as, II ne 
s^y est pas JU (329.), but one of the pronouns mot, /ot, /ut, ellet soi, nous, 
vous, euXf etteSf soi, must be used and placed after the verb whenever a 
personal pronoun is indirectly governed by a heflective verb which re- 
quires after it the prejposilisa kndei us, 


268 S7NTAXE. 

II ne s'est pas adress^ a lui, ' He has not applied to him. 
Je me suis rendu a vous, / surrendered to you, 

lis se sont Utt^s a moi, Tfiey gave themselves up to me» 

Je me souviendrai de lui, / shaU remember Atm. 

Dictie et analyse. 

n veut, U ne veut pas ; U accorde, il refuse. — Je cralus 
Dieu, cher Abner, et n'ai point d'autre crainte. Racine* — 
Aidons-nouj mutuellement, la charge des malheurs en sera 
plus 16g^re. Florian. — " Le lis des jardins," dit TEvangile, 
" ne *'est pas fil6 sa parure." — Je veux le voir, le prier, le pres- 
ser, Timportuner, le flichir* — Un homme vans flatte-t-t/? ne 
voiis y fiez pas ; il veut vous tromper. — Pourquoi la boussole 
2AreUe 6t6 in ventre? — Ou Napoleon vit-t7 le jour? — ^Les 
songes ^qvlXtiU un effet des sens ? — Ou suis;^ ? qu'ai;;'!? fait ? 
que dois;;e faire encore ? — Grand Dieu, souverain maitre de 
Tunivers, quel lieu de la terre pourrai;^ parcourir ou je ne 
trouve partout sur mes pas les marques sensibles de votre pre- 
sence ? Massillon. — Sur le bord du lac on arr^tait le mort : 
'* Qui que tu sois, rends compte de tes actions. Qu'as-to fait 
du temps et de la vie ? La loi ^interroge, la patrie f'6coute, la 
virite ie juge." Thomas. — Aglaure «'6criait : " 6 temps, ye te 
d^teste I Tout vieillit : grace, esprit, attraits." Sa m^re lui 
repond: " Un seul charme nous reste ; le bon cceur ne vieillit 
jamais." Mollevaut. 


I am always happy when I do my duty. We are friends. 
They are ungrateful. Bjememher'^ it Ought ^ I to say it? 
May^ I know it? Am I going thither? Will he believe ? Do 
not scold* him. Do not condemn them. Let us not disturb^ 
them. Do you not believe me ? Do not give it them. Vice 
often deceives^ us under the shape'' of virtue. I am not so 
learned as your brother, but he is older than I (95.). You and 
I (315.) agree. — I (319.) betray^ the best of my friends! 
Never. — My sister and I were walking by moonlights You 
and your friend will go to the museum. I will show them to 
you. They knd^^ it to me. They do not lend it to me. 
Do they lend it to me? Do they not lend it to me? I will 
write to him. I will not send^^ it to them thither. Have I 
not sent them any of it? Would he not have brought^ it to 
us thither ? 

I shall bring you some of it. You must not leave^ so much 


of it there for hinou Hare they not promised it to you ? You 
have plenty of money, give me some. I shall not give him 
any. Where is the petition? Bring it and show it me (323.). 
Read it and sign it — ^Who did that? I. — ^Whom have they 
seen? Me. — Does he speak of me or of him? Charles, he, 
and I spoke to him. I give myself vp to thee^* (324.) and 
them. You have seen him, but I* have spoken to him. She 
and I are learning Italian. May you live long I My fnends ! 
cried he, let us do our duty. Perhaps he is gone. He will 
write to me and my brother. — ^Have those men appHed^ (324.) 
to you? Yes, they have. — ^The wounded soldier surrendered 
to us (324.). Do not trust yourselves (324.) to them. Re-^ 
member^ me. Remember it. — Have they eomplamed^^ of you ? 
No, they have not (324.).' — We have complained of them. 

ZfCy la, les. 

325. Qaand le pronom le se rapporte k un substantif^ 
il s'accorde avec ce sabstantif en genre et en nombre : 

Esirce \h votre livre? — Qui, Is thai ycfur hook J — Yes^ it 

ce t^est. isf. 

Sont^ce U vos livres? — Oni, Are those your hooks f — Yesj 

ce Us sont. they are. 

fites-vons la maitresse de la Are you the mistress cf the 

maison ? — Je ne la suts pas. house ? — / am not. 

£tes- vous madame de Genlis? Are you madame de GenUs f-^ 

— ^Je ne 2a suis pas. lamnoL 

£tes-vous les ^l^es de M. Are you the pupUs cfM, Des 

Des Lyons? — Oui, nous les Lyons f — Yes, we are* 


£tes-vous les soeurs de mon Are you my friend s sisUrsf — 

ami? — Oui,nous2»sommes. Fe«, we are. 

326. Le pronom le signifiant cela est invariable quand 
il rappelle soit nn adjectif, soit un mot pris adjective- 
ment, soit une phrase : 

Si vous obligez quelqu'un. If you oblige any one^ do it 

faites4s sans int6r^ without interested motives. 

Qn'appelea^vous douze hom- Wkai do you mean by twelve 

mes de bonne vdont^? fmen of good willf we are 

nous le sonmies tout. aU so. 

* See the lecond labdifinon of nde 95. 
t Tbepraiioiii^tlioiighoniittediiitliisaiidiiiiiilsriBitai^ 
Biiitt ahr^v be wed in frca^ (33L). 


Vous n'avez qu'a vcras croire You need onfy think ponrse^ 

hewrevL-K, et vous le serez. happy, trndt/ou wiU be «a. 

Mesdemoiselles, ^tes-TOus Young kidie8,arey€m French? 

Fran^aises ? — ^Oiri, nous fe — Yes, we nme, 

Didde et atiafyse. 

^tes-vous malade, madame? Je le svia. — ixeB-vaus la 
malade ? Jeia suis* — Messieiirs, etes-vous m^decins ? Nous 
le fiommefi. — ^Meaaieius, 4te&-yous les m6decins? Nous ies 
sommoB. — MaderaoiseUet 4te»-vacis plus ig^ que wotre cou- 
sine ? NoDy je ne k^xua pas. — " Miracle I " criait^on z ^ venez 
voir dans ks nues passer la reine des -tortues.** ^ La reine I 
vraiment oui; je la suis en effet." La Fontains. 

Are yon sorry? No, I am not — Is he n6k ? Yes, he is. — 
Are you lord Byron's relatiTe ? Yes, I ant^ — ^Are those ladies 
sisters ? No, they are not. — Are jour friends pleased at that 
event ? Yes, they are. — Because she is pretty she must not 
inuigine^ that she will always be so. They have been rich, 
but are not so at present I thought they were busy \ but they 
are not You have found me amiable : why have I ceased to 
appear so to you ? — Are you still my friend ? Yes, I am. 

Soi; luiyleur,ym 

327. Le pronom soi s'emploie : 1® Dans un sens in* 
d^fini ; 2° En relation arec tm sxrbstantif d^termin^, 
soit pour mieux pr^ciser ce rapport, soit par raison de 
clart^ : 

II depend toujours de soi It akoays depends t^xm our- 
d^asir honorablement. selves to act honourably. 

Idomen^e revenant k soi, re- Idomeneus recoveriny kims^ 
mercia ses amis. Fenelon. thanked his friends, 

328. Comme complements indirects hii et lenr se 
disent en g^n^ral des objets animus, et le pronom y^ 
qui signifie h cela, des objets inanim^s : 

Chargez-vous de cet 4^Ye ; TaJte okatjye of ihat pupil ; 

AonnGL-lui vos soins. devote your care to him. 

Chargez-vous de ceUe affaire ; ToAe charge of that affair ; 

donnez-^ vos soins. demote yoar care to it 


329. y se dit aussi d'nne penonne quand on la designe Taguement on 
indirectement : Ceti «m hounete homme, fiez-wnu-Y, Academue. Mais 
tk Ton vonlait» t'eqwriipj 4i»ec fnodsiom et enogic qb dkait: fiex^oimt 

Y signifie aussi & eet endroit, dans ee lieu : 

Reveuez-vous de la cam- Are you Just returned from the 
pagne ? — Nob, j'jr Tais. cotcs/y^r ^ — No^ I am going 


Yoili UB fo98^ preaei gaide T%ere is a ditch, take care not 
d'y tomber. to fall into iL 



S90. Ce que nous ▼enoBs de dire des pronomsy, hdy eiieur, 
s'appliqiie au pronom en, qui signifie de celoy et aux expres- 
flioBs c& /tfi, ^eEfe, etc. : Je vous eonfie eet enfanty occupez- 
vous J>£ Lui. Je vous eonfie cette affaire, occupez-vous-Eyi, 

C'estan veritable ami ; je n*ou- He is a true friend; I ^aU 

bliend jamais les services never forget the services 

que j'en ai re9us. Aca- which I have received from 

DEMIE. Atm. 

Aves-vous des livres ? — Oui, Have you any books f — Yes, I 

j'e» aL hasfe. 

Vous avez du pain, donaez-en You have bread, give some to 

aux pauTies. the poor, 

Allez-Tous a la ville ? — ^Nob, Are you going to towmf — No, 

yen Yiens. / have Just returned. 

jr^tudie cette langue, j'en con- / study that language, I know 

nais bien les regies, mais la its rules well, but its pro- 

prononciation m'en parait nunciation appears difficult 

difficile. to me. 

Duiie et anabfse. 

Ici bas chacun ne pense qu'i soi. — ^L'avare qui a un fils 
prodigue a'amasse ni pour soi m pour luL — On a souvent 
besoin d'un plus petit qne soi. — En remplissant les volont^s 
4e son pdre, ce jeune hoamie trayaille pour sou — Cette maison 
menace mine, n'en approchez pas. — Ce cbeval est m^ehaat, 
B'y toochez pas. — Ces batioMnts n*^nt pas assez grands, j y 
ferai ajouter une aiie. — Ob revient d*une erreur a force d'eit 
rougir. — Je viens de Faris, jVn ai admir§ la magnificence, les 
promenades, etc. 


We think too much abotU^ ourselves. Ifyou gp to the park, 
/ shall be gUzd to go^ (thither) with you. Talking of^ medals, 
/ have beautiful ones^ to show you. If you have no umbrella, 
/ unll lend you one^ Wine is bad for me; I will abstain from 
it^ ; you should"^ abstain from it If you meet my servant, have 
the goodness to tell him that I shall tvanthim^ in half an hour* 
Here is the letter, direct itK I will add a word to it^^. You 
must not be uneasy, we will set about t^" immediately. — Are 
you afraid of^ him? YeSy I am^. — It is an unfortunate 
business ; do not speak of it. 


381. Semarh on the pron&unt le la les> en, y, and other worde veed 
m French u>hen antwering guestione. 

The elliptical answer it i»r he ie, ehe is, they are, etc., which in English 
is generally the same, whatever may be the question to which it relates, 
must be rendered in French with the addition of some word referring di- 
rectly to the subject of the inquiry. 

It iSf they are, etc., relating to a substantive used definitely in the ques- 
tion, are expressed by ce Pest, ce lee eont in the answer ; as, 

It it Paradise Lost you are reading ? £st-ce le Paradie perdu que voua 

— Yee, it ie, lisez ? — Oui, ce Test. 

Are those the works qf ComeiUeyou Sont-ce les ceuvres de Comeille que 

are reading ? — Yes, they at*e, vous hsez ? — Oui, ce les sont. 

Remarqub. Est'Ce Id, voire voiture? Oui, ce l'est. — Bont^ee f>08 
litres? Oui, en les sont. Ces reponses <sont grammaticalement cor- 
rectes, mais on evite de les employer, parce qu'elles ont quelque chose 
d'affect^, de bizarre. On dit simplement : Oui, ou Oui, c'est ma voi- 
ture ; oui, ce sont mes livres. — ^Acadbmie. 

// is, he is, she is, they are, etc., relating to a substantive used with the 
indefinite article, are expressed by c*en est un, c*en est une ; as, 

Was it an Italian book you were Etait-ce un livre italien que vous 

reading f — Yes, it was, lisiez ? — Oui, e'en etait un. 

Is it an English watch you have ? — Est-ce une montre anglaise que vous 

No, it is not, avez ? — Non, ce n'm est. pas une. 

It is, it was, they are, etc., relating to a substantive used partiiively, 
are expressed by e*en est ; as. 

Is it Spanish you are reading /— Est-ce de I'espagnol que vous lisez ? 
Yes, it is, — Oui, e'en est. 

It is, he is, she is, they are, etc., relating to a place in which a thing or 
person is, are rendered by il y est, eUe y est, ik y sont ; as. 

Is your letter in the post-office t — Votre lettre est-elle k la poste ? — 

Yes, it is. Oui, elle y est 

Are not your sisters in Paris? — Yes, Mesdemdselles vos sceiirs ne sont- 

they are. elles pas h, Paris?— Oui, elles y 



// tr, 9hg is, ete., rditiiig to a place firom which a thing or penon oomeiy 
are exprened by tl €» et/, etc. ; as, 

/# mot that quotaium from Skai' Ce passage n'est-il pas de Shak- 

4pearf / — Yet, it is. spear e ? — Oui, 11 em est. 

Was not Comeuk/rom Rooen ? — Corneille n'etait-il pas de Rouen ?— 

Yes, he was. Oui, H en etait. 

// tr, she is, etc., relating to an adverb, an adjectiTe, or a past participle^ 
are expressed by U Vest, eUe Pest, ils le sont, etc ; as, 

Is not the style qf MiUonJrequenify Le style de Milton n'est-Q pas son- 
snUime J — Yes, it is. vent sublime ? — Oni, il Test 

Are not the tragedies of Racine ad- Les tragedies de Racine ne sont- 
mkrahUl — Yes, they are., elles pas admirables? — Ooi, eDes 


332. The student wiO perceiTC from the above, that in answers, the 
French language is less elliptical than the English. In the former it is 
ahrajs necessary to use some woid directly applicable to the qnestion, and 
not nnfrequently to repeat the principal words, as will be seen by the fol- 
lowing exampla : 

Avez-Toos ecrit ? — Oni, j'ai ecrit. Base you written T — Yes, I haoe. 

Viendrez-Toos ? — Om, je viendraL Will you come ? — Yes, I wUL 

Enraiez-Toos oes litres? — Qui, je Will you send those boots T — Yes, I 

les enTenaL wiU. 

Avez-Tous envoy^ de Targent a Totre Have you sent any money to your 

and ? — Oni, je Act ea ai enToy^. friend 7 — Yes, I haoe. 

Lni en prfiterez-vons? — Om, je hd WiU you lend him any 7 — Yes, I 

oipreteraL wiB. 

Lenr donnez-vous des tiadnctions? Do you yive them translaiionsf — 

— Oui, je lew en donne. Yes, I do. 

N*est-ce pas toos qniavez £ut cela ? Is it not you whohsne done that /•*- 

— Oni, ^est moL Yes, it is. 

N'est-ce pas monsiear R. qni est Is it not Mr. R.who is your bonier T 

Totre banquier ? — Oui, c'est Act. — Yes, it is. 

N'cst-ce pas mademoiselle G. qui est Is it not Miss G. who came T — Yes, 

Tenne ? — Oni, c'est tUe. it is {she). 

Mesdamesy n'Stes-voos pas fich^ Ladies, are you not sorry it rains T 

qn'il pkn^e ? — Oni, nons en — Yes, we are. 

sommes or nous le sommes. 

ITetes-Tous pas sujet a toos trom- Jre you not UaNe to make mistakesT 

per ? — Om, je le sms. — Yes, I am, 

Le cheval n'est-il pas ntfle a Is not the horse us^ to man f— 

IHiomme? — Oni« illiit est ntQe or Yes, he is. 


Get homme, n'est-fl pas endin k la Is not that man subfeet to fits of 
colere ?— -Oni, il Test. anger ? — yet, he is. 

Nora. If the adjective in the question follows the rerb ktrb used im- 
personally, then the answer must be with c'esf, i?4taxt, eefut, etc ; as, 

N'est-il pas glorieux d'etre utile a Is it not glorious to be useful to our 
ses sembl^les ? — Oui, c'est ^o- ^ellowireatures? — Yes, it is. 


274 STNTAXSi. 

ITeit-il pn phu noUe depavdonner A it not more noble iofmifwe fian 
que de se yenger ? — Ooi, e'est plus to rtnmkgel — }>«, it m. 

833. NoTB. In sentences like the following : // rmra^ don it not T You 
have done pour exeroiaef have pou not 1 I told pou «o, did I not ? etc., the 
interrogation in French is always expressed hy n'sst-ce pas ; as, flpleut, 
in'oBT-om PAS ? Voui avex fait votre thime^ n'xst-gb pas ? Je vous Vai 
ditf n'bst-cb pas ? 

834. Note. The Engfish auxiliary ^veibs <ft>, did, ehaU, wHi, ohomld, 
would, can, eouldf etc., occasion both in questions and in answers a rariety 
of elliptical constructions peculiar to the English language. The student 
should be careful to observe that the French language has no words corre- 
sponding to the above-mentioned do, did, shall, etc., as auxiliaries (164.), 
and consequently^ clearness and regularity will require the verbs to be re- 
peated in French ; as, 

Wliy do yon complain ? I do sot Pomtfuoi ffom pUtiffmez-wmil Je me 

complain.— My brother does. me pkame pat* — Ceet mom, frh^ 

Does he! — Indeed he does, and qui ee plaint. II ee plaint/ (one 

he has complained for a long plaint •UJ) — Oui vraiment, et il y 

time. a hngtemps qu^il ee plaint, 

335. 'NoTB. Interrogative exclamations, such as the following, sue fiee- 
quently used in English familiar conversation : 

My eister speaks French. — ^Dobs she ! 

/ am going to Paris. — Are you ! 
These expressions Does she, are you, and similar exclamations, have no 
literal equivalent in French, and the student would make a ridiculous mis- 
take if he translated them by the words Fait-eXle! Stes-tous! etc. The 
iteneh vse a differant exclamation, such as Jh! Vraiment f 


Hflve fou my penksiie ? Yes, I have* — ^Has he (it) ? No» 
he has not — Have they «what they want (192.)? Yes, they 
have. — ^Would you have money if year lather w&te heiie? 
Yes, I should. — Are you an Englishman (27S.) ? Yes, I am. — 
Is flbe a Pvenoh-woman ? No, she is not. — Are those M oK^re's 
comedies ? Yes, they are. — Was it a grammar you bought ? 
No, it was not— ^s it an Italian dictionary you want ? Yes, 
it is. — Are they pleased with (298.) me ? Yes, they are. — Is 
not your uncle in Paris? Yes, he is. — ^Was not that work 
translated from the German ? Yes, it was. — ^Are those gentle- 
men gone ? Yes, they are. — Is not the style of Racine more 
pure than that of any other French poet? Yes, it is. — Have 
you been this year to Versailles? Yes, I have. — Has your 
friend been with you ? Yes, he has. — Have you seen the 
picture galleries^ of the Louvre ? Yes, we have — Have you 


written the letter? No, I have not-^You iiave not written 
to him I No, I have not. — Is he in the library ? Yes, he is. 

Do YOU think the binder will send those volumes in the course 
of the morning ? Yes, he wilL — Has the postman any chauge ? 
No, he has not, but I have. — Have you change for five pounds? 
Yes, I have. — ^!s the king at St. Cloud? No, he is not. — 
Have those merchantB satt the wines^ yon ordered^ in your 
last letter? Yes, they have. — Are you reading (219l 221.)? 
Yes, I am. — ^Do you read French as often as English? 
Yes, I do. — ^Do you like music? Yes, I do. — ^Does your 
sister like music? Yes, she does. — ^Has she a ]Mano? Yes, 
she has. — Do yon speak Grerman? Yes, I do a Hide** — Was 
it he who did that ? It was. — No, it was not ; yon are mU- 
takenK — ^Do you not think that we shall speak ^at language 
m a ekort time^ if we persevere in our studies ? Yes, I do. 
— ^Will you persevere? We wilL — You M^prooe?, do you 
not (333.)? Yes, we do. — ^A knowledge of French is very 
useful, is it not? Indeed* it is. 

Is that house to be let (216.)? Yes, it i&s — Do you wish 
to see it? Yes, I do. — Do you want a good servant? No, I 
do not, I have a very good one. — ^Has he served you long ? 
Yes, he has. — How iong? Six years^-— >Does he eomplain? 
No, he does not.— Does he not (334.)? Why should he? 
He has no reason to complain. — ^My cousin is goii^ to Dover 
by the railway. Is he (335.) I — Ihaee been the whoLe way ^ from 
London to Orieans in France by steam. Have you! — By 
steamboat to Havre, and by railway to Orieans, passiiig through 
Rouen and Paris. Really ! — ^Was it a pleasant jouniey ? In- 
deed, it was. — Do you like tiaveUing? Yes, I do. — Was it 
neoetnry for you to have a passport? Yes, it was^ — ^Did the 
fMBe<ffifiers er gendarms^^ ask you for it ? Yes they did, 
once, at the railway ierminus^K — Should you like to reside in 
France ? Indeed, I should, and particularly in the south. — 
The climate of the south is mild and pleasant, is it not (333.)? 
It is paitiealariy so^— ** There are many learned men^* in 
Rome, are there not (333.)?" Milton asked a Roman. ""Not 
ly as when yon were there," answered the Roman. 


JEh et rarticle le, fa, ks, employ^ pour eon, sa, see, 

lewTj leurs. 

336. Les adjectifs d^terminatifs possesaifiB soh, sa. 


seSj leiir^ leurs^ ne precedent g^n^ralement un substantif 
complement direct d'un verbe, que quand ce compl^meut 
est en rapport de possession avec un nom de person ne : 

Cet homme est fort aimable ; TIuU man is very amiabh ; 
chacun recherche sa soci6te. every one seeks his company, 

Ou qu'^tant im nom de chose, il est en rapport de 
possession avec le sujet de la proposition ob. il se 
trouve : 

Chaque travail a sa fatigue. Every labour has itsfoHgue* 

337. Autrement Tadjectif possessif est remplac^ par 
Tun des articles le^ la, les, pr^c^d^ du pronom en : 

J*habite la campagne, les agr6- / Uve in the country^ its plea" 

merits en sent sans nombre, sures are numberless, 

Ces langues sent riches, yen Those languages are rich, I 

admire les delicatesses, admire their niceties* 

C'est par raison de clart^ qu'on a d'abord employe en et ICf la, leSf poor 
Tadjectif possessif, qui fait souvent naitre des equivoques. 

Exception. — Quoique le mot possesseur ne soit pas 
le sujet de la proposition oh. se trouve Tadjectif possessif^ 
on emploie son, sa, ses, leur, leurs lorsque le substantif 
poss^de est le regime d'une proposition : 

Paris est une ville remarquable ; les Strangers admirent la 
beaut6 de ses Edifices. 

338. Note. In a sentence of two members, containing two verbs, son, 
sOf 868 are frequently used when the nouns following them are the nomi- 
natives of the second verb (etre generally excepted) ; a8,/ai vu Paris \ ses 
edifices^ ses promenades nConifi'appi, 

Dictde et analyse, 

Ces ouvrages out leur m6rite, chacun en appr6cie la valeur. 
— Le soin qu'on apporte au travail empeche d'en sentir la 
fatigue. — C'est parce que Tor est rare que Ton a inveute la 
dorure, qui, sans en avoir la solidity, en a tout le brillant« 
Ainsi, pour remplacer la bent 6 qui nous manque, nous avons 
imaging la politesse, qui en a toutes les apparences. De 
Levis. — ^Le temps fuit, la perte en est irreparable. — La terre 
par son mouvement de rotation nous donne success! vement le 
jour et la nuit 


Every age has its pleasures. England sends her fleets into 
all seas. What a beautiful country ! Everything conspires to 
make me love its abode ; her laws appear to me extremely 
wise. That superb temple was upon the summit of a hill : its 
columns were of Parian * marble, and its gates of gold. I like 
London, I admire the size of its streets. What a fine picture I 
do you not admire above all^ the richness of its colours^ ? The 
Seine has its source in Burgundy, and its month at Havre. 
The Thames is a magnificent river : its channel is so wide 
and so deep belaw^ London-Bridge, that several thousands of 
vessels lie at their ease in it\ 

3fon, may mes, etc., remplac^s par hy la, les. 

339. Les pronoms (adjectifs) possessifs doivent £tre 
remplac^s par rarticle, quand le sens indique clairement 
quel est I'objet possesseur : 

J'ai mal a la t^te. My head aches, 

Je lui tatai le pouls, IfsU his pulse, 

J'ai froid aux mains. My hands are cold. 

n m*a attaqu6 fhonneur, He attacked my honour, 

L'enfant avait/e^ yeuxou verts. The child had his eyes open, 

n a /e corps trop gros et la His body is too large and his 

tete trop petite, head too smaU, 

Je lui dois la vie, I owe my life to him, 

Je lis les bons auteurs pour me / read good authors to improve 

perfectionner le godt, my taste. 

Nous vinmes tons les mains We aU came with our hands 

]i6es derridre* le dos, tied behind our backs, 

Elle vin t, les lannes aux yeux, She came with tears in her eyes 

II s'est coup^ au doigt. He has cut \i\& finger. 

On se sert du pronom pour 6viter Tiquivoque : sajambe 
continue denfier, 

340. Note. Couper A in examples like the ibilowiiig, 77 f'er/ ewip4 kxj 
hroMj Vaut m^avez eoup4 au petit dtrigt^ means to cut tHffhtfy or to make «i 
mcinon. Without the preposition a, couper, in the above or simOar exam- 
ples, would mean to cut off-, Le eMrurgien bii acoup^lajambe, 

* Uer lee mame derriire le doe est nne expression oondamn^ par la 
plupart des grammairiens. lis jnn^tendent qn'elle pr^nte nn contre-sens 
et qa'il faiicbrait dire : Lier lee maine au on sun le doe ; ponrtant noire 
phrase a poor appni Tantorite de VAcademie fraufaise. 

2^8 SYJ^TAXE. 



I haivte cut my fiDger. Shut your eyes. He holds <mt^ his 
laoMdi lo joH' Open your month. My arm arches. The sur- 
geon has dreued^ his ieg. — ^Are yo«r feet cold ? No, but my 
hands are. — What is iht maUer with you^ f My teeth ache. 
I warm my finders. He has lost his sight. He ought to be 
grsteiul, for he owes you his life. That poor man came with 
tears in his eyes to thank us for having rdkved^ his dis- 
tressed^ family. We read the authors of the age of Louis 
XIV. to improve our taste. The surgeon felt his pulse, but, 
alas I he was dead. 

£tre d moif d tai, etc. 

341 . Le rapport de possession (99.) s'exprime souvent 
par ci mot, h toi^ d lui^ h ethj & naus^ h vous, d euXj h 
ellesy etc., apr^s le verba ^tre : 

Ce chapeau est a moiy This hat is mine. 

Cette maisoB etait a mon wd- This house was my neigh- 

fin ; a present elle n'est hour's ; now it is no longer 
plus a luif elle est d nous* his^ it is ours. 

A qui est ce livre ? — A moi» Whose book is this ? — ^Mine. 

C'est a vous a lire, It is your turn to read. 

342. Note. AVhen mme, tMney etc. are used with qf^Sier a substantiye, 
the following inversion always takes place : a relati^ of mine, tm de mm 
parents (one of my relatives) ; a brother of Yoa, «» deMCtfrhrm (one of Ms 


This is mine and that is yours. — This book is my bro- 
ther's. — Is that your gatden or his ? It is not mine, it is my 
neighbour's. I heard^ it was no longer his. I was kdd^ it 
was yours. — Whose money is tlus ? Is it thine or hers, ours 
or theirs ? It is theirs. — 1 want a book of yours, will you lend 
it me ? Yes, I wiiL — A irieiid of mine brought the news. — 
Are you not a pupil of hb? No, I am not. — Is it my turn 
to read? No, it is not. — ^One of your sisters is studying Italian, 
is she not (3S3.)? Yes, she is. — Is your fetber (lOS.) in Lon- 
don ? No, sir, he is not, but his partner^ is — Are your sisters 
in the country ? No, sir, they have returned. 



Quiy que, 

343. Le pronom relatif preud toujours le genre^ le 
nombre et la perstonne de sou antecedent : 

Moi qui suis estim^. Nous qui sommes estim^s. 

Toi qui es estim^. Vous qui dtes estim^s. 

Lui qui est estim^. Eux qui sont estim^s. 

Ella qui est estim^e. EUes qui sont estim^. 

Moi que vous aimez, etc. 

344. Note. We have seen (108.) that ^t and ffue are used in reference 
to things as well as persons. The difference of case which they express, 
in agveement with ^eir anteoedent, shoald be 'CarefuUy observed, as inver- 
sions of the nominative, oixnflar to the first of the foUawing examples, fre- 
quently occur in French : 

Tels fnrent les manx que d^tniiHirent ses raeaonres. 
Tels fiirent les maux ^t d^truisirent ses mesures. 

345. Qui s'emplok aossi d'une niaxd^re abBolue : 

Qui observera les commande- Who (i. e. wkoioever) wiU ob^ 
ments de Dleu, sera sauv6j serve the commandmefUs of 

God shall be saved, 
Je croirai qui vous voudrez, / akaU Mieve whom jiw wish, 

346. Note. It will be seen by the above examples, that when used as a 
pronoun absolute, ^t may be a nominative (131.; or an accusatiye (132.). 

NoTA. Qui rep^t^ est quelquefois distributif, et signifie, eeux-cij cetuC'ld; 
le» wtUy lea tnttres : Ik eounarent -mux tLrmeSj et te tSkirmni Qm d'une ^t^e, 
atri d*unepiqtie, ani d'une hallebarde, II vieUlit dans cette accepticm. 

A qui; auqueij h laqudUy etc. 

347* A qui se dit ordinairement de^ persooaes etdes 
choses peTSonnifi^es ; il e'enipioie aumi ajysoliaiiient, 
dans un sens ind^fini^ pour h eeiui quiy & quelie per- 

Auquely h lofuelk, maequehj auxqueUes se disent 
des objets inanimfe et des animaux; guand on en fait 
usage pour les personnes, c'est en g^n&rdl par raison de 
clart^ et d'euphonie : 

A qui est cette maison ? Whose hatise is this ? 

Hooneur ^ qui sert la patne I Honour to him who serves his 

country f 


A qui doDnez-vous la pr6f§- To whom do you give the pre- 

rence ? ference f 

Auquel (or a laquelle) des To which (person or thing) of 

deux donnez-vouB la pr6f6- the two do you give the pre- 

rence ? ference 9 

L'^tude a laquelle je me con- The study to which / am de- 

sacrC) voted, 

Avec qui dtes-vous venu ? With whom did you come 9 

Donty de qui, duquel, etc. 

348. JDont se dit des personnes et des eboses (liS.): 

L'homme doni la probit6 est 7^ man whose probity is «»- 
intacte, est estim6, sullied, is esteemed. 

Mais on dira quand un objet poss^d^ est apres une 
proposition : 

L'homme h, la probit6 duquel The man to whose probity I 
je me fie, est estim6, trust, is esteemed. 

349. Complements de verbes et de participes, dont et de qui expriroent 
egalement une id^ de point de depart, d'origine ou d'extraction (c'est 
Vablatifdea Latins) ; mais de qui paniit exprimer cette idee d'une maniere 
plus precise : 

Souvenez-Yons qu'on ne doit pas dter la Tie a ceux de gut on la tient. 


350. Pour ^yiter une ^uivoque, on emploie de qui ou duquel a la place 
de dont: 

Get homme, de qui le pays est assez bien connu, nous aidera dans nos 
recherches (c'est-ardirei par qui le pays). — ^Boniface. 

351. Ce que nous venous de dire sur d qui (pris absolument), auquel, 
s'applique Egalement a de qui, duquel. 

On ne peut lien exiger de qui n'a rien ; c'est-a-dire, de celui qui n'a rien. 
J>e qui parlez-vous ? Duquel parlez-vous, du poete ou de Tbistorien ? 

Quoi (115.); Oil, d'oil, par oU. 

352. Oil indique gOnOralement un rapport de lieu; on 
Temploie souvent pour auquel, dans lequel, etc. : 

Voil^ le chemin par oil nous That is the way through which 

avons pass6, we^passed, 

Voil^ le but oil il tend, TTiat is the aim to which he 



D*oily dont. 

353. On dit : La maison n^obje sora eat & vendrCf et La maison BOKTje 
tors eat iUuaire, Wob exprime Taction physique de sortir, et dont Tac- 
tion morale d'etre issu. On dit aussi: Lep4rU n'odje nCiehappej paroe 
que Timage est locale; et Lep&UiiosTje me d^gaget parce qu'alors le p^ril 
eat pris pour un piege, pour une entrave. C'est cette conyenance du mot 
avee Tid^ qu'U faut obserrer avec soin. Mabmontel. 

DicUe et analyse. 

L'Eternel, dans ses mains, tient cette chaine immense, que 
^ termine Tinsecte et que Thomme commence. Chienedolle. — 
Gloire a la main qui seme, honte k la main qui nuit I La mar- 
tine* — ^L'enfant a qui tout c^e est le plus malheureux. — A 
mi venge son pere, il n*est rien d'impossible. Corneille. — ■ 
L'arbre auquelje donne la pr^(6rence est le chdne. — Le bon- 
heur appartient d qui fait des heureux. — Heureux qui, satis- 
fait de son humble fortune, vit dans T^tat obscur ou les dieux 
Tont cach6. Racine. — C'est un homme qui parle pen, qui r^ 
fl^chit beaucoup,<i ^t Ton peut se fier, etpour qui je ne crains 
pas de faire des sacrifices. 


Who told you (that) I was here ? He did. — ^What has he 
written ? Three letters. — Of what (118.) does he complain ? 
Of your negligence* — ^Which (111.) of these two oranges is 
mine ? This one (127.)- — Who is come ? No one. — To which 
of those exercises ought I to give the preference ? To this 
one. — Name the towns through which he passed. Paris and 
Rouen. The flocks which graze^ in the meadows. — Do you 
know the lady to whom I was speaking ? Yes, I do. — On 
whom do you rc/y*? On you. — To whom have they writ- 
ten ? To his brother. — From whom do you expect a letter ? 
From my unde. — To whom did you apply ^? To the 
mayor. — The boy and girl whom I esteem. The man (120.) 
you respect. The lady of whom I speak has requested meto^ 
see you. The person whose child I bring up'^ is in France. 
The foreigners of whom you were speaking went away ^ this 
morning. The children to whose whims we submit "f, only be- 
come more tyrannical when they have not sense ^ enough to 
discern ^ our kindness. 

They call, in French, the je ne sais quoi, a certain pecu- 
liar quality which cannot be defined ^^, I do not know who (345.) 
could tell you so. I understand whom (345.) you mean^. 


When my father approached, a voice cried oiU^i '^ Behold 
whom (345.) you must respect." I do not know whom you 
will love, if you do not love even those '' who have protected 
you and who have taken care of your education. Everything 
in ihe universe €iker$ ^ and perishes ; but the writings which 
genius has dictated will be immortid. That of which we oom- 
plain most bitterly is not always what (123.) affects us the 
most We must incessantly iegtify ^ our gratitude to our Cre- 
ator, from whom we have received etfen/thin^ ^* we possess, 
and from whom we expect ^^ all our happiness after this life. 
Begin always by doing (215.) your duty, after which (114.) 
you niay snort jredy ^ enjoy your recreations. 

PBoaroMS DfiacoNSTaATiVS, 

Ce^ celOf compart avee JF?* 

354. On emploie ce, cela,oa U selon le degr^ d'6iei^rie 
qu*on veut donner it la phrase, II est nae ezpressioii 
vague ; ce ou cela est plus affirmatif : 

Vous 6tes d6vou6 ^ vos amis, c'est vrai. H est vrai que 
Tous leur ^tes d6vou6. Je suis jeune, il est vrai. 

On dit: 4Mk ktmre ett-^M? «t gudk heure at/^iL ? JJ^mfLoi de ee 
indique qu'U est question d'one heore qu'on entend sonner, tandis que 
remploi de U expiime aimplement le doute et llnterrogstifm. 

Celut, ceux, etc. 

355. Cebzi, celle, eeux^ oelleSy rappdant un aubstantif 
d^j^ ^Donc^, peuvent^ comme nous TaTona va (128.), 
s'appliquer 6galement aux personnes et aux cbosea; 
cependant^ quand ces pronoms se rapportent aux per- 
sonnes, Tant^^dent peut etre sous-eiitendu : 

Celui qui ainae Dieu doit le He who loves God must pray 
prier, 4o hinu 

Celuiy ctlui^ (1^70^ ^^'9 ^^9 oela, ^a, 

356. Celui-dy celle-ci, ceux-ci^ celles-ci^ ceci se diseat 
des objets les plus rapprocb^s de la personue qui parle; 
celui-lcL, ctUe4d., ceux-Kiy ceilea-l^, cela, des choses les 
plufi ^loign^es : 


L'opiileiice et le repos aoiit ^ (^ndemce and tramqu^Uhf are 

one si graDde dbtance I'lin at so great a distance from 

de Tautre, qae plus on ap- each oiher, that the mare toe 

proche de ceUe-la, plus on approach the former, the 

s*eloigne de cehd-ciy more we remove from the 


Je n'alme pas cect, doxmez- / do no^fi^ this, ^cen^ that 

Dans le Ungage tres-fiunHier, ofZs se contracte en (O, oomme dans : 
q A. fait tot^emrt plaUir ; comment 9 a va-t-Ut 

C'est, ce stmt. 

357* Ce devant le verbe ^tre, demande ce verbe au 
singidierf except^ quand il est suivi de la lnoisi^Bie per- 
soone plurielle : 

C^est moi. It is /• (Test nous. It is we. 

CestU^ Misiknu CestYWi^ Itieytnu 

Gest lui. It is he, Ce sont euz, 1 n - *h 

C'ertelle, Itisdie. CewitfeUes,/ ^'«*"Ky- 

On dira aussi: ce sont tos Cvres; c^itaient mes amis; cefu" 
nmt eux, quoiqiie eefiiuent elks, etc 

L'aoooid est alcxn sylleptiqae *; c'est Fsttiibiit qui le eommande. Cest 
par U meme fignre que Bi]^dii a dit : Sb tumrrittare ordmnre sour lea 

1® Par euphonie, on d\ti fiit-ce tos seuls motifs? sera-ce 
▼OS seules raisons ? ^a ite longtemps mes id6es. 

2° Suivant le point de vue, on emploie quelquefois Fun ou 
Tautre nombre : 

C^est eux que Ton craiat. Ce sont eax qui se font craindre. 

^ Qoand Fattribat est compost de plnsienrs sabstantifs 
dont le premier n'est pas au pluriel, le rerbe est gin^ralemeRt 
au singulier : chesty cefutj c*Stait mon fr^re et ma soeur. 

* L'aooQfid cA ay flejitiqu e qnaad il ae £ut amc an not qn'on a dans 
Fcsjirit; c'<eat one figure appellee jyAgMe. 

SyUepae est &hvr6 da grec iniXXif^ts (tmUiptk), prise, acoeption, qm 
Tient de vvXKofifiavm (iiittiai^ii<l), eomprendre, dant la Tadae est Xaft- 


** Cependant le pluriel/' dii Bonifiu^e, " n'est pas une faate ; il est mSme 
plu8 ^nergique :'' 

Cefureni Tamiti^ et ramour du travail qui r^unirent dans rorigine lea 
membres de TAcad^mie fraii9aise. Cutier. 

" Les juges se placerent ; 
Citaient le linot, le serin, 
Le rouge-gdrge et le tarin." — ^Florian. 

La r^ponse a la question suivante, ou a toute autre analogue : Q^eUe8 
9ont lespartiea du monde ? est celle-ci : Ce sont V Europe^ VAne^ fAfiiqu^^ et 
VAmAiqve\ tandis qu'on dirait : C^teiV Europe et VAtie qui eont tee parties 
du monde lespltu cmlii^es, 

358. On emploie ce devant leverbe ^tre en ces sortes 
de phrases : 

La vraie noblesse, c'est d'etre Trtte nobility is to be vir- 

vertueux, tuous. 

La ynde noblesse, c*est la True nobility is virtue, 


Ce que j*aiine, c'est la v§rit6, What I love is truth, 

359. NoTB. If the object be an adjectiye, ce is not used before Hre; as, 
ce queje die eat vrai. 

Dictde et analyse. 

Lorsqu'on lui repr^sentait (d Napoleon) qu'une chose 6tait 
impossible, il pr6tendait que ce mot-Id n'^tait pas fran^ais. 
Say. — Ce furent les Ph^niciens qui inventdrent r^criture. 
BossuET. — Le seul caraetere qui distingue essentiellement 
rbomme des animauz, c'est qu'il est un ^tre religieux. Ber- 
NARDiN DE Sx.-PiERRE. — Le plaisir des bons coeurs, c*est la 
reconnaissance. — ^La meilleure le9on est ceUe des exemples. 
La Harpe. — Corneille nous assujettit ^ ses caractdres et ^ 
ses id^es, Racine se conforme aux n6tres. Celui-ld peint les 
hommes comme ils devraient dtre ; celui-ci les peint tels qu'ils 
sont La Bruy^re. — Celui'-d meurt dans les prosp6rit6s et 
dans les richesses, celui'ld dans la misdre et dans Famertame 
de son ame ; et les uns et les autres donniront ensemble dans 
la mdme poussidre. Flechier. 


They (128.) who are contented with (298.) their condition 
are happy. Education is to the mind what (124.) cleanli^ 
ness ^ is to the body. — Is it we who deceived you ? No, it is 
(S570 they. — Gentleness \ affability, and a certain urbanity 


distiiigiiish the man -who frequemtt poUU compamy ^; these are 
marks by which he may be known\ If you are intended for ^ 
the pulpit, read over md ooer again ' Bourdaloue and Massil- 
Ion : they are both very eloquent; but the aim ' of the former* 
is to convince, and that of the latter^ to persoade. Whai eom^ 
sUtuies ^ poetry is not the exact ^ number and regular cadence 
of syllables, but it is the sentiment which animates everything, 
the lively ^ fictions and bold figures, the beauty and variety 
cfihe imagery ^^ ; it is the enthusiasm, fire, impetuosity, force, 
a something in the words " and thoughts which nature alone 
can impart^. 

He who (355.) thinks of nobody hut himse^^y excuses 
o^kers^ fitMu thinking of him. He who wishes^ to make 
himself too much feared (217.), seldom makes himsdf be- 
loved. French and English are the languages the most gene- 
rally spoken ^'; the former in Europe, and the latter in the 
other parts of the worid. He who speaks iHl of his feUow- 
creatures^ deserves to be despised. What I fear (358.) is to 
see him. What he says is (359.) true. Here are two charm- 
ing /;ro^pee<f°; this is more cheerful, but that is more maje^- 
tiCd — ^Is it you who are fond ^ of sketching ? No, it is they 
(357.). — ^Truth is the object of sciences ; what is fair ^ and 
good is that of the arts. Virtue and vice have contrary effects; 
this (356.) causes the misery of men, that makes them happy. 
Good masters make good servants; the latter (356.) are scarce, 
because the former are not common. Let us live with sobriety; 
without that, we cannot ei^oy ^'^ good health. 



360. Le mot on, contraction de hamme, est destine 
a iodiquer runiversalite des personnes d'one maniere 
vague et indetermin^. Le rerbe qui le suit est tou- 
jours an singulier : 

Oh dit, on suppose, on croit It is said, supposed, thought 
que, etc that, etc. 

361. Kon. The genias of the Frendi language is oppoicd to the lae of 

* The indefinite adjcctivca hare been placed under this head for the 
sake of shnpli^ing thdr daasificatkm, most of them being firequentlj used 



the passiYe Toice in all phrsMS like the following : If is aaid thai he it in 
PariM; letters have been received; I have been told that a eounerwtu 
detpatched by the minister ; the alarm was spread. The yerhs thus used 
in the passiye yoice in English, must be changed into the active voice in 
French, and have generally as a noniinatiTe the prononn on ; as, on dit 
qu*U est a Paris ; ov a rept des tetirem / (Mr or fuelqsCvn m*a dii que k 
fninisire a expidiivn courrier; on r^fondU Vaktrvst. 

Par enphonie on peut employer Vfm au lieu de <m apr^ les 
BMmosyllabes m, cm, ^ et qfaelqneibis apr^ que^ a moins que 
k mot qui suit en ne coBnnenee par une l\ 

Le lieu oii ron a re9u le jour a toujours des charmes poor nous. 

362. NoTA. Or, qnoiqne otdlnairement dn mascuiin et du slngulier, de- 
signs dans qndqnes ciroonstances ri predsement nne femme, qn'alora il 
est feminin : on fiea^ pas tomfours jkunb et bblui ; on est heukbusb 
quand on ett mxre. On, peni auasi se prendre dans ime idee de ploralite : 
On n* est pas des esclavespour essuyer de si mauvais traitements. On est 
^gaux quand on s'aime. Favart. — " Id, on est egaux." Inscription d'un 

363. Les adjectifs qui expriment une quantity ind^- 
termin^e aont : — -plusieurs (several) et quelgties, poor les 
deux genres: plusieurs kommeSj plusieurs /emmesj 
quelgues amisy quelgues personnes ; — certains^ feminin 
certaines : certaivis autmrs, certaines choses; — maint^ 
f^m. mainte (373*) • 

364. Plusieurs est quelquefois employ^ substantivement : 

Plusieurs le disent, Many say so. . 

Quelque que, 

365. Quelque s'^crit de trois mani^res : 

1° Suivi d^un verbe, il se met en deux mots, quel 
quey et alors quel s'accorde en genre et en nombre aVec 
le sujet de ce verbe : 

Quel que soit son talent, Whatever may be his talent. 

Quelle que soit sa fortune, Whatever may he his fortune. 

Quels que puissent ^tre ses Whatever may be his friends. 


QueUes que soient ses protec- Whatev^ may be his protec- 

tions, iions. 

2^ Quelque modifiant un substantif dont il n'est 


point s^pare par an rerbe, s'^crit en un seul mot^ et 
s'accorde en nombre avec ce substantif : 

Quelques richesses que vous Whatever riches you may 

ayez, have. 

Qudques grandes richeflses Whatever grtai riches he may 

qf£'A aity hone. 

3^ Quelque modifiant un adjectif on un adverbe, 
s'&:rit en un seul mot, et, comme adverbe, reate invari- 

Quelque riches qu*i\A soieDt, However ru^ they may be, 
Quelque adroitement qtiCils However dexterously they sel 
s'y prennenty ahovt iL 

II est de meme de quelque modifiant an substantif employe 

Quelque bona traductenrs ^'ils soient, ils ne comprendront 
pas ce passage. 

Qudque^ adverbe, signifie qnelquefois dpeupresy environ : 

II a quelque soixante ans, His is about sixty, 

" On croit, et nous aTons cm nous-meme," dit Lemare, " qu'il y a deux 
fiid^iie, run qoi signifie tm, tmr, phuiemrs, repondant a VaSqmt des Latins, 
Vautre qui marque un exces, soit dans la qoalite, soit dans la qnmtit^ ct 
repondant an quaiuettmgue et an fuotemmque des Latins. ' Mais le liit eat 
que gnelyue, quel qu'il soit, vient du latin qualu quaUs, d'oa Tinusite ^ik^ 
quel, puis qm^que." 

Aucun, nuL ^ 

366. Les adjectifs attcun et nuly dont le f^minin est 
aucune et nulle, sont essentiellement du singulier ; on 
ne les emploie au pluriel que lorsque I'id^e de plunilit6 
dominant, la decomposition de la phrase amene ce 
nombre : 

ExempU du nrngvUer. 

Je ne connais aucun de ses I do not know any one rf his 

anusy Jriemds. 

Nul homme vivant. No 

JSxemple du plmriel. 

N'ayantotceiinefvisites^iairey Having no visiis to nuike, I 

j'ai toat mon temps a moiy have all my Hme to mys^. 

Nuttes troapes ne sont mieux No troops are better driUed. 


367. NtU, au masculin, employe absolument et comnie sujet de la 
phrase, signifie nul homme, personne : 

Nul n'en sera excepte, No one will be excepted. 


368. Tel est adjectif ou pronora : 
Unfe/homme,uDe^/efeinme, Such a vum, such a woman. 
Monsieur un tel, Madame une Mr. such a one, Mrs. such a 

telley one. 

Tel est riche aujourd'hui qui Such a one is rich today loho 
peut ^tre pauvre demain, tnay be poor tomorrow. 

Chaqucy chacun. 

369. Chaque veut toujours un substantif apres lui : 
Choqae pays a ses plantes par- Every country has its peculiar 

ticulieres, plants. 

Ne confondez pas chaque et chacun; chaque est toujours employe comme 
adjectif ; chacun ne Vest jamais : 

Chaque volume coiite cinq francs, Each volume costs Jive /raneg. 

Ces volumes coutent cinq francs chacunt These volumes cost Jive francs each. 


370. Chacun prend son^ sa^ ses^ si dans la proposition 
antecedente, le verbe a un complement qui precede le 
pronom ind^fini^ de telle sorte que la phrase arriv^e 1^ 
offre un sens complet : 

lis ont donne leur avis, They have given their opinioniy each 
chacun selon ^e^ vues, one aecording to his views. 

371. Chacun, pr^ced^ d'un sujet pluriel^ prend leur^ 
leurSj lorsqu*il precede le complement direct : 

lis ont doun6, chacuny leur Jheyltave, each oHhemy given 

avis, their opinion. 

lis ont apport^, chacuny leurs They have, each of them, 

offrandes, brought their offerings. 

. Cette regie, donnee par TAcademie et la plupart des grammairiens, n'a 
pas toujours ete observee par nos grands ^rivains. Selon les vues de 
Tesprit ils ont employe tantot leur, leurs, tantot son, sa, ses, le sien, la sienne. 

En voici des exemples : 

Les abeilles dans un lieu donn^ tel qu'une ruche ou le creux d'un vieil 
arbre, b&tissent, chacunb, leur cellule. — Buffon. 

La nature semble avoir partag^ des talents divers aux hommes pour leur 
donner, k chacun, leur emplol, sans ^gard a la condition dans laquelle ils 
sont nes. — J.-J. Rousseau. 

Les dix tribus de FAttique avaient, chacune leurs presidents, leurs 
officiers de police, leurs tribunaux, leurs assemblies et leurs Intergts. — 



Paris ^tait partage en districts qui a^aient chaoun Jon oonseil et une 
GOmpagnie de gaides nationales a tes ordres. — AitQjjwns,, 

11 n'y a si chetif Tillage qui n'ait aa moins deux ou tiois fontaines ; les 
maisons isolees ont presque chacunb la sienne, — ^J.-J. Rousskau. 

372. Chodmrij pr^c^d^ d'un verbe qui n'a point ou ne 
saurait avoir de complements prend son, sa, sesy ou leur, 
leurSj selon les vues de Tesprit : 

llssontvenusychacunavecses Us sent venus, chacun, avec 

gens. leurs gens. 

Tous les juges ont opia§, Tons les juges ont opin6, 

chacun selon ses lumieres. chacun, selon leurs lumieres. 

NoTA. Dans les phrases ou Tincise se trouve forcement plac^ entre 
deux virgules, ainsi que dans chcuwn a ton tour, chacun selon leurs facuitei, 
etc., les ecrivains expriment, apres ehaeun, tantdt Tidee collectiTe, tantot 
I'idee distributlYe : 

Les nns et les autres, chacun selon Les uns et les autres, chacun sui- 
son opinion, prirent partL vant kwr opinion, priient partL 

Maint (many). 

373. Maint, dans quelques locutions, s'emploie in- 
diff(£remment au singulier ou au pluriel : mainte fois, 
maintes fois. Souvent il se r^p^te : 

Par mainis et maints travaux. J ai lu dans maint auteur. 
II m*a fait mainte et mainte difficulte. 

Personne (pronom ou substantif).* 

374. Personne, comme pronom ind^fini, signifie nul, 
qui que ce soit. En ce sens il est toujours masculin, et 
toujours pr&^de ou suivi d'une expression negative : 

Personne n'est assez sot pour No one is siUy enovgh to be- 
le croire, lieve it 

375. Personne se prend anssi dans le sens de guelqu*t»n: 
Personne oserait-il nier ? Would any one dare to deny it 7 

Y a-t-il personne d'assez hard! pour Is there any one bold enough to do 
lefaire? it? 

376. Personne comme substantif est feminin : 

Quelle est la personne (homme ou Who is the ^eaonjoolish enough to 
f emme) assez sotte pour le croire ? believe it T 

Uun t^ autre (one another)^ Uun et Fautre (both). 

377* L'un et Vautre, les uns et les autres, ^veillent 
simplementune id^e de plurality; Vun Vautre^ les uns les 
autres, k I'id^ de plurality ajoutent celle de reciprocity : 



Uun et Vautre (Racine et Boi- 
leau) furent deux grands 
poetes ; ils s'estimaient run 
n faut se secourir Vvn VmUrey 
Vun et r autre y a manqu6, 
L^un et Vautre sont venus, 
iVt iun ni Vautre ne viendront, 

JMi Vun ni Vautre ne viendra, 

Both were two great poet$; 
they esteemed each other. 

We ought to assist each other. 
Each of them has Jailed in it 
Both are come. 
They will not come, either of 

Neither of them tcill come. 

378. " L'usage varie a Tegard de Taccord dn verbe apres Pun et Pmtfref 
tii Vun ni Vautre, et beaucoup d'^criyains ont employ^ tantot le singuUer, 
tantdt le pluriel, selon le point de Tue sous lequel ils ont considere ces ex- 
pressions : le singolier a 6i6 appel^ par nne espece de syllepse; dans Vmn 
et r autre Tesprit a vu ehacun; et aueun dans ni Vun ni V autre \ ce peat 
etre encore une reminiscence des mots latins uterque et neuter, qni y cor- 
respondent et qui sont da singolier. Toutefois le pluiiel est pi€fi^ble» 
comme plus conforme au g^nie de notre langue, et surtout au prindpe 
general." — Bonipace. 


379. Autrui est toujours employ^ substantivement^ 
et n'a point de pluriel : 

Ne fais pas a autrui ce que tu Do not unto others wh/xt thou 
ne voudrais pas qui te fut wouldst not they should do 
fait a toi-mdme, unto thee. 


380. Touty est pronom ind^fini dans cette phrase : 

Tout atteste la majest6 de Everything proves the majesty 
Dieu, of God. 

381. Tout^ adjectif^ s'accorde en genre et en nombre 
avec le substantif auquel il se rapporte : 

Tous les amis, totUes les amities. 

382. Tout s'emploie aussi dans la signification de 
CHAQUE {eachf every) ; et alors il n*est point suivi de 
Tarticle : 

Tout bien est desirable, Touts peine m6rite saiaire. 


383. Tout est aussi adverbe et signifie tout d. faitj 
quelqucj et reste invariable : 

Tout savants qu'ils sont. Learned as they are, 
Ella est tout 6tonn6e, She is quite astonished. 

384. Tout^ quoique adverbe, varie, quaud I'adjectif 
qui suit est f^minin, et commence par une consonne ; 
cet accord a lieu par euphonic : 

EUe est touie stap6faite, She is quite abounded. 
Toute hardie qu'elie est, Sold as she is. 

385. Tout est aussi employe substantivement : 

Diviser un tout en plusieure parties : 

386. Tous DEUX, et Tons les deux. 

TbKf deux signifie rim et Fauire. Cesar, si ambitieux, si debaache, et 
Caton si yertaeox ^taient tout deux d'une laible sante. — Bernardin de 

Ikme k§ deux s'emploie dans le m&ne sens. Le melanee dn gout aeqnis 
et da gout naturel est la perfection de tout lee deux. — Keeatrt. 

On dit de mSme tame troie, tout quatre, et tout lee troit, tout let guaire. 

Tkmt deux, tout troit penvent, dans bien des cas, exprimer une idee de 
simnltan&te, soit de temps, soit d'action, mais ils ne Texpriment pas neces- 
sairement, les ciroonstances supplant sou^ent anx termes snpprimes ; et, 
qnand il poomit y a^oir quelque chose de douteux ou d'obscur, les ^crivains 
ajoutent les complements necessaires. Je les ai tus tout deux entemble. — 


Remargue. An dela da nombre guatre, on sapprlme rarement I'article. 
On dira done : Jit tout venut nout voir tout les emq, tout lbs tix, et non 
tout emq, tout tix. 

387. M4me est adjectif ou adverbe : 

AiJ^ectif. Adverbe. 

Vous retombez dans les Exempts de maux r6els, les hommes 
mhnes alarmes. s'en forment mhne de chim^riques. 

388. Note. " Mime has fbor uses or significations : 

1. Denoting identity, corresponding with the Latin idem ; as, 

Ce sont la les m^met choses que j*ai Tues ce matin, 
Thote are tki same tkimgt I tew thit montmg. 

2. Expressing timUarUy or retemblanee, the Latin ftmtfit; as. 

Do berger et da roi les cendres sont les mimet^ 

Cf the thepherd and the king the athet are the same. 



3. To indicate en^haticaUyj the Latin ^te ; as, 

J'ai vn vos sceurs ; les Toila, eUes-m^me* (94.), 

J have seen your siatert; there they are themselrei. 

4. Signifying likewUe^ even, the Latin etiam ; as, 

Les plus sages mhne le font. 

Even the wisest do it" — Manuel ■TnioLOOiaum. 

Qui que ce soit, qui que ce fdt ; Quoi que ce soit, quoi 

que ce/ut. 

389. Qui que ce soit ou fut se dit des personnes, et 
signifie quelque personne que ce soit ou fut, Quoi que 
ce soit ou filt se dit des choses : 

Qui que ce soit qui ait (alt celsL, Whoever has done that i$ a 

e*est un habile homme, clever man, 

II m'a d6fendu d en parler a He has forbidden me to men- 

qui que cefut^ turn it to any one soever. 

Quoi que ce soit quW fasse, on Whatever he doeSy he is dis" 

se d^fie de lui, trusted. 

Nous n'avons fait quoi que We have done nothing what- 

cefuty ever. 


390. Quiconque signifie tfmte personne qui, quelque 
personne que ce soit qui, et n'a point de pluriel : 

Quiconque n'obser^'era pas W^hoever shall not observe this 
cette loi sera puni, law will be punished. 


391. Quelconque siguifie quel que ce soit, quel qu*il 
soity quelle qu'elle soit. II se place toujours apres le 
substantif : 

II n'y a pouvoir quelconque There is no power whatsoever 

qui m'obligeat a cela, thatcould compel meto do that, 

Une ligne quelconque 6tant Any Une being given. 

Dictde et analyse. 
On gagne les esprits par beaucoup de douceur. MoLii 


On Toit les maux d'autrui d'un autre ceil que les siens. Cor- 
NEiLLB. — ^Eh ! que ne doit-on pas i qui Fan doit la vie ! 
BouRSAULT. — • . • . Aussi doit-ofi printer a Fesprit des 
jeunes gens des choses de tmOe espdce, des etudes de tout 
genre, des objets de toute sorte, aiin de reconnaitre le genre 
auquel leur esprit se porte avec plus de force, ou se livre avec 
pins de plaisir. Buffon. — Au langage pres, la eomidie, chez 
les Romains, fut touie athenienne. Academie. — ^Madame de 
S6vign6 §criyait k sa fille : '' Adieu, je suis touie a vous;" k 
de simples connaissances elle mettait : " Je suis tout a vous." 
— n est bon de voir avec qui Ton s'allie. — On vous blame. 
On vous accuse. On attend de vous telle justification, tel 
sacrifice. On dit de vous .... enfin On dira .... Quel est 
done ce roi On, dont Fautorit^ est si souvent proclam^e? 
C'est un roi sans apparat, sans pompe, sans trdne visible, et i 
sa voiz niaamoins chacun ob^it, chacun tremble. Necker. 

Quicomque k vingt ans ne sait rien, ne travaille pas a trente, 
n'a rien acquis a quarante, ne saura, ne fera, et n'aura jamais 
rien.— Ceux de qui la conduite ofire le {dus k rire, sont tou- 
jours sur auirui les premiers i m^ire. Moli^re. — Par lot- 
m^me on peut juger d'autruL Corneille. — QueOe force in- 
visible a soumis Funivers I Louis Racine. — Qudquu soini 
^'on apporte pour entendre une langue, il faut qu'un usage 
constant et nniforme concoure avec les r^Ies. Duci.08«— 
Toutes les jouissances sont toujours pr6c^^ d'un travail 
qudcanque. M"^ Camfan. — Nul n'est content de sa fortune, 
ni m^content de son esprit. M"^ DESHouLii^RES« — Comment 
pr§teildons-nous qu'un autre garde notre secret, si nous ne 
pouvons le garder noui^mimes. La Rochefoucauld. — Tout 
ce qui est organist pour la vie se dirige dans ses accroissements 
vers le soleil et la lumiere, conmie le prouvent les v^^taux, 
mime plants li I'ombre. Bern, de St.-Pierrx« — Passant qui 

Sie tu saiSf contemple avec un respect religieux ce monument 
ev6 par la reconnaissance; c'est le tombeau d'un homme 
juste et bienfiusant I 

llkime (129. 360. ei seq.). 

We succour the unfortunaie more readify^ when we have 
been to* ourselves. It is said that the queen is in (255*) 
London. People are not always fortunate. — ^Is It not said that 
we shall have war? It is a mere rumourK — French is spoken 
here« — Can any one learn to speak a foreign or living Ian- 


goage without a master? Out of the country where it ia 
spoken, no one can. — ^When you are at the top^ of the Pan- 
Maiif you can see the whole of^ Paris. On the top of Mount 
Ccusel^ in the Dipareement du Nord, you may discern the 
sea, and it is even said that the coast of England can be seen. 
In Italy people seem naiuraUy fond ef^ the fine arts. How- 
ever (384.) learned those young ladies may be, they will not 
be able to understand that author./ Whatever friends you may 
have, you will not succeed. Whatever may be the number of 
your friends, they cannot insure'' your success without your 
own exertionsK Whatever his riches may be (or let his riches 
be what they may), he ought not to disdain us. 

Whoever says so is wrong. Those children love each other. 
They are always speaking (221.) of 'one another. — ^Do you 
not love them both ? Yes, I do^ — Either will be chosen. I 
shall speak to either. We* ought in this world not ofidy to 
iove^ but to help one ano^er^K — ^Which of these pens will you 
have ? Neither. — No well-educated^ person would use such an 
expression. He " was the onXj yenieel person^^ in the company. 
Any law (382.) which screens the guilty ought to be abo- 
lished. Whoever says so is quite riyht^. They have each a 
good place. Charity r^oices in^ the happiness of others. 
Can any one he still iynorani^ that it is from the earliest in- 
fanc}" we ougkt^ to form the mind, the heart, and the taste ? 
Whoever has studied the principles of an art, knows that it is 
only by length of lime'* and by deep reflection that he can 
succeed in making them his oum\ Whatever he may do or 
say, he will find it very difflcuW^ to convince them. 

Both relate the same story^j though neither believes it to 
be true^. Hope, deceitful as it w^, leads us to the end of life 
through^ a pleasant path. Happiness is not to be purchased. 
It is Uie law that ought to reign, and not the man : such was 
the maxim^ of a wise legislator. Such a one is happy today 
who may be wretched^ tomorrow. These books cost ten 
francs each. The members of the conmiittee have given 
their opinion, each according to his views. We have read it 
in many (373.) wrtters'^. We have complained of it many a 
time, but in vain. Several modem historians have related 
the same event. No one has seen your friend. Your sister 
is quite astonished that her cousin could not understand that 
author, learned as she is. — Are those the same works you 
recommended for our library ? Yes, they are« — The wisest 
even are sometimes deceived. Whoever does not observe the 


fi^ulatioiis of tlie school will be punished.^ — Can yoa ftid 
the centre of any giren square ? Yes, I can.* — ^Tarenne and 
Conde united prudence mM,^ intrepiditj. Botk obtained die 
esteem mad admiration of tiieir contemporaries. 


392. Bkgle* — Tout rerbe s'accorde en nombre et en 
peraonne arec son snjet : 

Celai qui met nn frein i la fnrenr des flots. 

Sail anssi des m^bants arrdter les comjrfots. RACiifS. 

393. Qamd plnsiean iiibftaiiti£i oa y t oi ioi m font joints par Iss apras- 
lioiit tfoww i f , mhui qme, de mSme qme, mud Mm qme, over, ete., OB peat 
nettle le Terbe an wngiiliCT oa sn ^nrid, idon ki vnes de Tcsprit : 

rCrOr OTi Wmgmntr* W€rO€ •■ JMMTfefc 

La Tertn, otius ^«e le savoir, a La peste, tnnn qut la gnene, 

son prix. oitf d^9ol6 ce pajs* 

La T^t^ Arntme la lomi^, La sant^ eommt la forton^ 

ttl inalt^Ue, inunortelle. fet ife n i lenrs fareon i eenz 

qui en abosent. 

Le farouche Fhalantey avee Lecomte Piper, otwrquelques 

iesLac^^nioniens,ykfsur- officiers de la chancdleri^ 

prisdetrouTersesentrailles ^Anen^ sortis de ce eamp^— 

attendriea. — Vtvnjon, Voltaibe. 

394« Lonqne, dans me ^anmi&ation de ploiean sobttantifs, le denncr 
dsfieat FcjqiiuBOB donunante, ee sobstancif ooDunaade leal Faecovd da 

Son am^ft^ $a doweewr nous channe. Son courage, 90u 
intripidiii nous ^tonne. Ses enfimts, ses amis, chaewi Taime. 

Voyez I'aeeord de Tai^eetif (290.) ; ainai que la remarqne sor Taeeord 
dn Terbe apr^ les sobttantifr ^Bto CoOeeiift (288.). 

39$. Qnand le ?erbe wt nppoiU ik pluriciui aglets de dittnnles per- 
SSBBCS, il 96 met an pfanid, nnns il a'aeeotde avee la peisonne qni a la 
mpaat/L Lnprcni^reniportesarlaseconde,etodle-d tor la troto^ne. 
Bans ee cas* le nzbe est le plus sooreDt preo^ d'lin pnnom pfamd, qoi 
tntttlt wajjtt grammatica] (315.) : 

Yous et moiy nous sommes You aatd I are happy, 


Yona on moi, iMw# parierons^ You or I will speak, 

(Test Tona ou lul qui irez i It is you or he who wiO go 

Paris^ Paris, 


396. Nan. The remmiog pronoan (315.) is not repeated when the 
ooDJunction ni occurs between the nominatives ; as, 

Ni vous ni lui n'avez raison, Neither ycu nor he is righi* ' 

DicUe et anafyee, 

L'honneur reseemMe k Fceil, qui ne saurait soufinr la moindre 
impuret6 sans s'alt^rer; c'est une pierre pr6cieiise dont le 
moindre d6faut diminue le prix. Bossuet. — Tandis que la 
foule des hommes senriehit et iilluHre par i'agricnlture, le 
commerce, la navigation et lea arts, bien souvent ceux qui en 
otU fray§ lea routes ont v^cu dans Findigence et dans Toubli 
de leurs contemporains. Bern, de ST.-PisatiE« — La lib^ralit^ 
consiste moins k donner beaucoup qu'^ donner k propos. — La 
religion est une chaine d'or qui suspend la terre au trdne de 
TEternel* — PenseS'j bien, jeune homme, que sont dix, vingt, 
trente ans pour un 6tre immortel? J.-J. Rousseau. 

La fleur esl la fille du matin, le charme du printemps, la 
source des parfums, la grace des vierge% Tamour des poetes. 
Elle^TOMe vite comme Fnomme, mais elle rend doucement ses 
feuilles & la terre. On conserve I'essence de ses odeurs : ce 
sont ses pens^es qui lui survivent. Chez les anciens, elle eou^ - 
rannait la coupe du banquet et les cheveux blancs du sage ; 
les premiers Chretiens en cauvrcneni les martyrs et Tautel des 
catacombes. Dans le monde, nous attribtums nos affections 
k ses couleurs; Tesplrance i sa verdure; Tinnocence k aa 
blancheur; la pudeur k ses teintes de rose. II y a des na- 
tions enti^rea oii elle est Finterprete des sentiments, livre 
charmant qui ne cause ni troubles ni guerres, et qui ne^ gcarde 
que Thistoire fugitive des revolutions du coeur. Chateau- 

Le spectacle de I'univers n'est fait que pour Thomme ; lui 
seul le contemple et Vadmirey lui seul jouit de sa beauty et 
livre doucement son coeur k F^motion q\x* elle inspire: la biche 
l^gere, errante sur la coliine, ne prite point Foreille au mur- 
mure du z^phir; la g^nisse foldtre ne ^arriU point pour 
respirer le parfum des fleurs ; couch6 sur les rives des fleuves, 
le troupeau est insensible au bruit des ondes, et au tableau 
riant de la campagne .... car le spectacle enchanteur de la 
nature n*est connu que de Fhomme ; lui seul est grand par la 
pens^e et sublime par ses meditations ; lui seul annonce qu'il 
est roi de la nature, lorsque le front ceint de la bandelette 
sacr^e, il B*avance dans les for^ts, et que tout k coup sa voix 


6clatante invoque le Dieu saint qui sime la verdure et aUume 
les soleils. Aime-Martin. 

Ces vastes oceans sont comme les sources de tous les fleuves; 
comme le bassin ou la nature puise sans cesse pour arroser 
Funivers .... II exists entre la faible plante et Toclan, une 
correspondance invisible ; la vie de Tune est attach6e a i'exis- 
tenee de Tautre : uHmporte la distance qui les sipare, la nature 
sait la franchir, De ce vaste gouffre placi entre les deux 
raondes, sortent les 616ments des gazons, des fruits et des 
fleurs : Tonde se change en vin dans la grappe parfum^e ; on 
la savoure dans la p^ch.e, Torange, Tananas ; elle se teint en 
bleu dans la violette, dore le souci, argente le lis, colore en 
pourpre rceillet, et verdit le feuillage. O sagesse admirable I 
{'immensity seule du bassin des mers peut nous rassurer sur 
Texistence des races futures. Aime-Martin. 


You, your brother, and I will go to (255.) France in the 
course of the summer. You and those gentlemen will be in- 
vited. It is he or you who have done it It is he and you 
who are blamable. He, you, and I learn drawing. Let us 
be fnends, said Augustus to Cinna. You and I think dif- 
ferently. The people wish for peace. Either persuasion or 
terror has drawn ^ him into the party of the rebels. Envy, 
like ambition, is a blind passion. Science is the finest domain 
of man. Navigation reunites distant countries. That divine 
fire that is within us the principle of all our thoughts, that 
pure essence which renders us capable of raising ourselves to 
the most elevated regions of heaven, and of penetrating into 
the very sanctuary'^ oi the Divinity, is, for every sensible man, 
the pledge ^ of his immortality. 


89?. II y a des verbes qui ont deux complements, Tun 
direct (132.), Tautre indirect (133.) : 

Le maitre a donn^ un prix a The master has given a prize 
relive, to the pupil. 

Un nom peut 6tre r^eji par deux verbes k la fois, 


296 8YNTAXX* 

pounru que ces deux verbes ne veuillent pas un regime 
different : 

Nos troupes attaquhent et Our troops attacked and took 
prirent la ville, the dty. 

Le regime des verbes passifs s'exprime par les pro- 
positions de ou par : 

Un eDfant sage est aim6 de A good child is beloved by 

tout le monde, every one, 

J'ai 6t6 tromp6 par rhomme / was deceived by the man 

que je regardais comme whom I considered my best 

mon meilleur ami, friend, 

G'est la nature de I'actioii qu'exprime le yerbe qui d^tennine le choix de 
la proposition. S'agit-il d'un sentiment, d'one passion, ou, poor tout dire, 
d'une op^ation de r&me, employez la proposition de: II est culbii de «et 
parents; les m^chants sont detbstxs de tout le monde, Est-il question, 
au contraire, non d'une passion, d'un sentiment, mais d'une action a la- 
quelle I'esprit ou le corps a seul part, faites usage de la proposition par : 
Le premier romamfrangais en lettres a 4t4 composi pak M"^ de QrafigKy; 
Henri IVJUt xssASSiNi par un/anatigue, 

Verbes qui ont pour compl^eiit un autre verbe d 


398. II est des verbes qui peuvent avoir pour comple- 
ment un autre verbe k Tinfinitif^ et ce sans le secours 
d'une proposition ; tels sont entre autres ceux qui se 
trouvent dOsignOs ci-apr^s : 

Aimer mieux, compter, croire, daigner, devoir, entendre, faire, falloir, 
s'imagincr, oser, pouvoir, prOtendre, savoir, valoir mieux, et venir. 

Exemples, — Wfautfaire partir le commissionnaire. Je vou* 
drais vous inspirer Tamour du travail et de T^tude. Ikagnez 
m'6couter. Je compte vous remercier moi-m^me. II vaut mieux 
declarer la v^ritl. ^ose soutenir que vous avez tort. 

399. Verbes qui exigent la preposition a devant un 

autre verbe d Vinjinitif. 

S'abandonner, s'abaisser, aboutir, Chercher, concourir, condamner, 

8'accoutumer,s'appliquer,aider, consentir, connster, conspirer, 

aimer, s'animer, appreudre, contribuer. 

aspirer, autoriser, avoir. Dxsapprendre, dOvouer, diapo- 

Balamobr. aer, donner, dresser. 



enadgnery s'^tndiery exc^ar, PAKTsnm, pen^vter, 
exciter, ezhorter. porter, proToqoer. 

FOKMKR. RraiOMCEB, T^pi^eT. 

BUbitueb, h^siter. Sektib, sooger. 

Ihciteb, instmire, inviter. Tehdke, traTafller. 

MoNTREB, meCtre. Vouek. 

Exew^plu^ — CcamneDt s'estnl abaisg^ d prier nn homme in- 
digne de oonfiance ! Je oonsois d me perdreafin de la aauTcr. 
£Ue aimait d priTeair les injures par sa bont6. Aocootnmez- 
Tous d travailler. Qui paidonne aisfment incite d I'olfenser. 
Appliquez-Tous a remplir tos deYoin. Chariemagne ▼eoait 
de descendre dans la tombe qnand ks Nonnands soogerent d 
laTager la France. 

400. Ferbes qui exigent la proposition ds devant un 

autre verbe d Fig^mtif, 

AcHETSB, ■'shrtpfiir, aocoaery sV Jueek. 

gir,8'affliger,ai&cter,ainhitioii- Lahouik. 

ner, avertir, appi^liender. Maessb, m^diter, menaoer, wok- 

BiJLmee. riter. 

Cbsseb, charger, commander, Nkoligbk* 

oonjnrar, coniriDcry eonTOiiry Obtbhib, ofiir,oidioiiner,oablier. 

ctaindre. Pbbmettbb, pemiader, avoir 

Dii»Ai(»nEB, d£fier, d^lib^rer, d6- pear, pv^rer, prendre gaide^ 

sesp^rer, difflber, dire, disoon- pr^serrer, prier, prcjeter, pro- 

^ yenir, di^enser. mettre, proCerter. 

Eludeb, emp^dier, cnjoindre^ Recokmavdbb, rdbier, regretter, 

s*enoigiieiIBr, entrepicndre, re[Kocher, retaider, risquer, 

^viter, s excuser. roogir. 

Feihdbe, fi)§mir. Somxeb, soap^nner, suggi&cr, 

Gagneb, g&nir. sapplier. 

Ibspibeb, inteidire. Tenteb, trembler. 

Exempies, — ^11 s'abstient dt le &ire. H m'aocose ifavcur 
desob^L Je crains iTobtenir ee que j*ai demand^ II ach^ve 
de travailler* II s'agit de hire son deroir. II afiecte de dire 
a i'oreille des choses de rien. H s'afflice de Tayoir offens^ 

401. Ferbes quf prennent la pr^Hifition A ou Bit devant 

un autre verbe a rinftnitif. 

Commencer d^ commenoer de. Contraindie d, contraindre dc. 
Contentir ^ consentir de. Demander a, demaoder de. 

Continaer d, oontinuer de. Determiner a, determiner d!e. 

300 8YNTAXB. 

S'efibrcer d, s'efforcer de, Manquer d, manquer de* - 

S'empresser a, s'empresser de, Occuper d, occuper de. 

Engager d, engager de, II y a plaisir d, il y a plauir ife. 

S'ennuyer d, s'ennuyer de, R^soudre d, r^soudre de, 

Essayer d, essayer de, Suffire d, suffire de. 

Forcer d, forcer de. Tftcher d, tftcber de, 

Se hasarder d, se hasarder de, Tarder d, tarder de, 

Obliger d, obHger de, Se tuer d, se tuer de, etc. 

La pr6position a indique toujours un buty une tendance a ud 
but; la preposition de, un point de depart, une id§e de cause. 

Aprds la plupart des verbes precedents, on emploie d 
lorsque le verbe complement indique une action qui sert de 
but, et de lorsqu*il indique une action qui a sa cause et son 
effet dans la personne mdme. 

Exemphs, — Get enfant commence a marcher. II n'a pas 
encore commence (f ecrire sa lettre. II continue a batir. Con* 
tinuez d bien faire^ ou de bien faire, et vous vous en trouverez 
bien. II s'est empress^ a le servir. II s'est empress6 de courir. 
Je m'ennuie d lire. Je m'ennuie de lire. 

Cest a V0U8 k, exprime une id^ de tour : Je viene dejoutTj e*ett a poue 
kjouer, Cett d vout db, ^yeille une idee de droit, de devoir : Cest d voue 
DRjoiter le premier. 

Observations sur les verbes transUifs ou iniransitifs, 

402. II y a des verbes qui sont tantot transitifs (135.) et 
tant6t in transitifs (137.) : 

Verbes transitifs. Verbes intransitifs. 

On (ude qnelqu'un k payer ses On aide a * quelqu'un a porter un 
dettes. fardeau. 

* Aider d quelqu*unf signifie lui prater une assistance momentanee pour 
un objet determine, et le plus souvent pour un travail qui demande des 
efforts physiques. 

" II y a quelque difference," dit Andry de Boisregard {R^xions sur 
Vusage present de la languejranftti8e)i**entre aider quelqu*un et aider d quel- 
gu*un ; et en prehant oes mots selon Texactitude et la purete de la langae, 
aider d quelqu'un signifie proprement partager avec lui les mimes peines ; 
ainsi on dira fort bien d'une personne qai aura mis la main a I'ouvrage d'un 
autre : il lui a aide dfaire cela. Mais si I'aide qu'on donne ne consiste pas 
a prendre sur soi-mSme une partie du travail de celui qu'on secourt, alors 
ilfaut dire aider avec I'accusatif; ainsi on dira d'une personne qui aura 
donne a quelqu'un une somme d'argent pour achever un edifice : quHl Va 
aide d bdtir sa maison." Feraud ajoute : " Sur ce pied-la il faudra done 
dire que : On doit t^aider les uns les autres.** Avec les cboses, aider d 
fait fort bien : aider d la fortune de; aider d la lettre; il n'apaspeu aidf 
d cette affaire. 




Ferbes irMnsiiift. 
ojouiS vingt francs 

On pardaime nne chow. 
On jprhide* une evince. 
On satirfaU qnelqn'un. 

Verhet intranntifs, 
2k la Le trarail ajouU d la gatt^. 

On pardorme d qnelqn'nn. 
On prhide df une solennit^. 
On aatiafait d (une chose) un 

II a talufait a son devoir. 
On tupplee d§ quelque chose. 

En aatU/tusani ses parents : 
On tuppUeX quelqu'un. 
On iupplSeW quelque chose. 

" Ondit anmrer quelqueehote H quelqt^un, et auuter gmelqt^undeguel^ue 
chote. AttureTf dsos la premise construction, signifie doimer pour tHr, et 
dans la teeonde temoigner. 

^ Om rn'oanare qiie lii trtmblet gm agitent h Ht^laitde ne iermit pat navia 
d^tauffuerre ewile, Dans cet exemple atturer ngnifie donMer pour sHr, et 
reclame apres Ini la preposition d. 

** H €tt agriable de n'atturer de ten retpeet que ceux qu*on rnpeete rMU" 
mmt. Ici atturer signifie t^moifuer, et r^diune nn oompl^ent direct de 
personne." — Domsbovs. 

403. II y a des verbes intransitifs qui dans leurs temps com- 
poses se coDJaguent tantdt avec le verbe avoirs tantdt avec le 
▼erbe ^ire^ selon le sens qu'on vent exprimer. En general, on 
se sert du verbe avoir qaand on vent exprimer une action 
faite, et dn verbe iire qaand il s'agit d'nn 6tat ou d'une 
maniere d'etre actuelle. Ainsi on dit : 

jivee avoir : 

sons mes 

Le cort^e a passi 

II a sorti, mais il vient de rentrer. 
Le prix a augments vite. 
La rivi^e a baiui d'un pied. 
Son fusil a crevi dans sa main. 
La riviere a debord6 deux fois. 
11 a deseendu an salon. 
Elle a grtmdi en peu de temps. 
11 a parti pr^pitamment 
La pendule a somti trop tdt 

* Preeider: Occnper la premi^ place. 

t Pretider i : Avoir le soin, la dii^etion, vdller L 

t St^Uer qudqu^un-. Prendre sa place. 

$ Supplier d. quelque ehoae: R^parerle d^nt de qoelqoe chose : lit ami 
tupplee AU nombrepar la valeur, 

n Supplier quelque ehote, c'est ajonter k un objei ce qui y manque poor 
faire le compte. Si je paye a un marchand cinq amies d'etoffe, et qn'fl ne 
m'en livre que qoatre, U doit tttppUer la cinqni^me anne, c'est4Udire 

Avec iTRB : 
Le printemps ettpattS. 

II ett tortif mais il va rentrer. 
Le prix du h\k ett augments. 
Comme la riviere ett baittSe I 
Le tuyau ett crevS, 
La rivi^e ett dSbordee. 
Maintenant il ett detcendu. 
On dirait qn'elle ett grandU. 
II ett parti depnis nne heure. 
L'heure ett tonnie. 

302 8TNTAXB. 

Avec AVOIR : Avee Stre : 

II a tombi sans se faire mal. II eH tombS : relevez-le. 

£lle a vieilli bien vite. Comme vous iies vieilU/ 

M on billet a Schu bier. Mon billet est iehu d'hier. 

404. Quelquefois le cbangement d'auxiliaire donne au verbe 
une signification toute diiF(§rente : 

Ce mot a passS. {II est admis ou Ce mot est piisse. (On ne s'en 

rept.) sertplus.) 

Ce mot ma echappi, (Je ne m'en Ce mot m.*est ichappi, (Je Fai 

souviens plus.) dit par migarde,) 

Cette maison m'a convenu, Je sws convenu du prix. 

Emploi des modes et des temps (214. et seq.)m 


Idle people have always a wish ft>^ do something. The 
conquests of the Romans destroyed the Latin language by the 
mixture of the foreign tongues. I shall set out tomorrow for 
the country ; you will go with me to visit your aunt, who 
expects us. Feacefeeds^ the husbandman even on barren rocks» 
war destroys^ him even in the midst of fields. It is taste which 
chooses* expressions, which combines, arranges and varies 
them. I shall depart this afternoon. I was passing when the 
fire broke out^. When I was in (255.) Paris I often visited 
(223.) the Louvre. Mirabeau was the most eloquent man of 
his day^. You looked'' serious when I met (226.) you. He 
appeared astonished to {de) see them. We dined together 
on (516.) that day. He lost his watch yesterday. Napoleon 
died in eighteen hundred and twenty-one. 

That pupil has read a great deal. I saw (227*) the queen 
twice. When we (shall) have done our duty, we shall go out. 
When you have written that note, come and speak to me^. Is 
this the letter you received (227.) this morning ? I am writing 
(221.). It^ is going to rain, let us make haste. I am to go 
there with him. I am going to speak to him. I was going to 
send the parcel. I had just arrived. We will (235.) do it You 
shall (235.) go. Sit down a minute, I will give you an answer. 
If you knew him. If I had money I would lend him some. We 
ought to have obeyed. I have just finished. Alexander died 
very young. Love (399'.) to help the unfortunate, and to 
comfort the afflicted. Truth eternal by its nature is tmrnu* 
table ^^ as God himself. A good heart and a noble soul are 
precious gifls of nature. Do you think that, in forming the 


republic of bees, God hag not had in view^^ to teach kings to 
govern with gentleness, and subjects to obey with love ? 

Mode et temps du verbs aprhs si (if^ whether). 

405. Nous avons vu (224.) qu'apr^s la conjonction si 
{if) conditionnelle^ le present et le futur conditionnels 
sont remplac^s par YimparfaiL On observera pour- 
tant qu'on emploie le futur et le conditiounel apr^s si 
{whether) particule dubitative : 

Je doute si vous viendrez d I doubt viUeWiet you loUl sue- 

bout de cette affaire, ceed in that affair. 

Je voudrais bien savoir si vous / shotdd like toRnow whether 

series venu aprds avoir re^u you would have come after 

sa lettre, hamng received his letter. 

406. On peut se servir de si au premier et au second 
membre d'une p^riode : 

Si vous gagnez votre proc^, et si vous allez dans votre 

407' Au second membre d'une p^riode on se sert de 
que^ avec le verbe suivant au subjonctif^ au lieu de si, 
si Ton veut marquer une liaison de consequence entre 
ces deux propositions : 

Si vous gagnez votre proces, et que vous vous irouviez dans 
une position plus avantageuse 

Mode indicatif et mode subjonctif (237 ^ 240.). 

408. Nous avons vu (page 185) que le sens affirmatif 
ou c?wA2Va/!i/ que veut exprimercelui qui parle, doit seul 
determiner Temploi de Tindicatif ou du subjonctif. En 
voici d'autres exemples : 

Indicatif y ou affirmatif Subjonctif 

Je ferai mon devoir de ma- Je ferai mon devoir de ma- 

niere qu*on itaura rien a niere qu'on liait rien ^ 

me reprocher (424.). me reprocher. 

Montrez-moi la faute que j'at Montrez-moi une faute que 

faite. j'ata faite. 

Pensez-vous que sa protection Fensez-vous que sa protection 

m'e^^ n^cessaire ? (Moi, je me soit n6cessaire ? 
le pense.) 



Indicaiif^ ou tiffinnaiif, 

Je cherche quelqu'un qui me 

rendra service. 
•Taspire k une place qui est 

Pr^firez ces livres o^ le style 

est sublime et pur. 
Montrez-moi le chemin qui 

conduit a Paris. 


Je cherche quelqu'un qui me 

rende service. 
J'aspire d, uue place qui soii 

Pref^rez des livres oik le style 

soit sublime et pur. 
Montrez-moi un chemin qui 

conduise k Paris. 

En rappelant anx eleves les remarques et les citations des pages 184, 165, 
et 186, nous igouterons la definition que Boniface a faite du subjonctif, ainai 
que quelques regies de la plus haute importance : 

409. Le subjonctif est un mode de doute^ qui^ dans 
les propositions compl6tives, sert a Texpression de ce 
qui est vague, incertain; et com me le doute^ Vindectstofty 
la supposition^ la nSgatioriy la volonti, la nicessit^^ le 
d6sir et la crainte ne portent que sur des choses non 
positives, apres les verbes ou les expressions qui rd- 
veillent ces id^s, on emploie g^neralement ce mode. 

410. Quelques verbes cependant sont suivis de Tindi- 
catif, sans exprimer une affirmation positive ; ce sont : 
croirCypenseTy concevoir^oubliery s*imagineryS'attendre^ 
se doutcTy espirer^ pr^sumer, soupconnery a moins qu'ils 
ne soient employes interrogativement ou n^gativement, 
ou que la proposition oii ils se tronvent ne renferme une 
expression qui appelle le subjonctif. 

411. R^gle. — On emploie le subjonctif apr^s les verbes 
qui marquent le doute^ Y incertitude ^ le souhaity le desivy 
la crainte^ la volont^y le commandementy la necessite, 
Vutilitiy \dL permission^ le consent enieiity apr^s les verbes 
impersonnelsy eniin dit Lemare, ^' apr^s certains verbes 
ou certaines locutions qui expriment le plaisivy la dou-- 
leuvy Vimprobationy Vassentimenty la surprise y senti- 
ments qui paraissent rattach^s k une volonti tacitCy cause 
premiere de Pemploi du subjonctif; tandis que le plaisir, 
ladouleur, la surprise, etc. n'en sont que les causes se- 
condaires ou accessoires " : 

Je me r^jouis qu'il vienne ; je suis fache, je vois avec peine 



qn'il s'en aiBe; je me plains qu'il Aorfesouyent; je consens qu'il 
vienne; je suis etonD^ qu'il ne retnenne pas, etc. ' 

On tromre cependant qadquefois Tindicatif apres qadqnes-iuu de oes 
veibes, parce que la proposition completive designe quelqae chose qui eziste 
reellement, et qui occasionne le sentiment dont le premier verbe exprime 
ridee ; c'est alon la cause accessoire qui domine (435.). Yoyez lea re^ea 
snr la Concordance des temps du Sutjonettff dtees d- apres (414.). 


C'est le temps du verbe principal qui present au 
second verbe le temps qu'il doit prendre ; et la corres- 
pondance dans les verbes ne peut avoir lieu que dans la 
phrase compost ou plnsieurs verbes dependent les uns 
des autres. Les principaux rapports des temps de Tin- 
dicatif et du conditionnel sont enseign^s par I'usage. 
En voici le tableau : 

412. Concordance det tenets de VmdicaHf et du condUumnei. 


r qnand vous lisez. 
I qoandvous arez la. 

^ fanssitdt que TODS I'aTezvoula. 
-g i pendant que tous ecriviez. 
^ I, apres qoe tous avez eu dine. 



quand tous le Toulutes. 


quand j'eus fini de jouer. 

(si TOUS le ddsiiez. 
si TOUS aTCz fini Totre onmge. 
quand tous Toudrez. 
quand tous I'aurez dit. 

r quand tous ecriTiez. 
Je lisais < quand tous ^cri^tes. 
(.quand tous aTCZ edit. 

qnand tous entiiez. 

qnand tous entrates. 

quand tous etes entre. 
I ^-- quand tous fiites entr^ 
1 *^ L^^^ ^^^ n*etiez pas eneoie entr^ 

Qoand j'eus lu 1 

Apres que j'eus lu > on oommen^ 

D^ que j'eus In J 

qoand TOUS series lentr^ 
si Toutf le Touliez. 


si TOUS aTiez finL 



pendant que tous anriez ^ciit. 
tn TaTais touIu. 

413. Concordance des verba Uapar la confonetion qui. 
que TOUS etes ptrti oe matin, 
que TOUS etiez parti hier arant moL 
que TOUS partiriez aujourdliui, si, etc. 
que TOUS seriez parti hier, si, etc 
que TOUS fussiez parti plus tdt, si, etc. 
que TOUS partez ai^urdlim poor Paiii* 
que TOUS partirez demain. 
que TOUS serez parti, si, etc. 
que TOUS partiez hier, si, etc. 
^qoe TOUS partites hier. 




414. Omeordamce det tempt dk tuifjoneiff. 


Je Youdrai 

Qnand j'turai tooIu 


que tu yieimes. 

Je Youlais 
Je Toulus 
J'ai Toulu 
J'avais voulu 
Je Toodnis 
J'auraiB vouln 


que tu Yinises. 

Je Yeuz 

J'ai TOulu 

Je voudrai 

Quand j'aorai Tonln 


JeTOulns Y 

J'ai Toula J 
Quand j'eus Toula 
J'avais youIu 
Je YOudraU 
J'aurais yodIq 

que ta 

que tu eusses 

qae tu fiisaes 

n faat bien se garder de croire que Ton doiYe toujoun et dam tooa les 
cas suiYre les fonnet de concordance ^tablies dana ce dernier tableau : qu'on 
aente bien ce qu'on Yeut expiimer, si c'est un present, un pass^ on un ftitur, 
simples ou modifi^ par les id^ accessoires de simnltanSt^y d'ant^orite, 
de posteriority on de condition, et Ton trouYera sans peine la foime verbale 
destin^e ^ peindre chacune de ces id^. 

Yoici les meilleures regies qui aient 616 ^blies ii ce siget. Elles sont 

5 rises de la graaunaire selon rAcad^mie par Bonneau et Lucan, reYue par 
I. Michaad, membre de TAcad^mie fran9aise. 

** Rappelons^nous d'abord/' disent ces habiles grammairiens, 
'' que le present et Yimparfaii du svbjonctif marquent Tun et 
Fautre un temps priaent ou un temps k venir, que lepcusS et 
\e pluS'qtie'parfait marquent Tun et I'autre un temps 6coul6. 

Mais quoique le prisent et Yimparfaii du subjonctif ezpii- 
ment un temps present ou un temps a venir, on ne pent indif- 
fiiremment employer Tun de ces temps pour Tautre ; il existe 
k ce sujet les cinq regies suivantes : 

415. Avant de les poser, disons toutefois qu'il est indispen- 
sable, pour en faire Tapplication, de remarquer, 1® a quel 
temps est le preimier verbe, sous la d^pendance duquel se 
trouYe toujours celui qu'on se propose de mettre au subjonc- 
tif ; 2® de s'assurer si celui-ci exprime une action pr6sente, ou 
une action k venir, ou une action pass^e. £n effet, aprds le 
prisent de Vindicatif et le futur^ le second verbe s'emploie 
tantot au prisent^ tant6t k Yimparfait^ tantdt au pass^, tantot 
axL plus-qtce-parfait du subjonctif, selon le temps exprim^ par 
ce second verbe. 

416. 1** R^GLE. Quand le premier verbe est Kupr^eni de 
Tindicatif ou au Jutur, il faut mettre le second axi prisent du 
subjonctif, si ioiUefais ce second verbe marque un temps present 
ou un temps d venir, 

Je doute qu'il soit en France. 

Je ne croirai pas qu't'/ vienne ce soir. 


41 ?• 2* RioLE. Qaand le premier yerbe est an present de 
rindicatif on au fuiur, il faut mettre le second k YiTttparfait 
du subjonctif dans deux cas. Dans le premier cas, il faut ces 
deax ciroonstances r^unies : 1® que le second Terbe marque 
un temps present ou un temps k venir ; 2^ qu'il j ait dans la 
phrase une expression conditionnelle, navie dTun imparfak cu 
(Tun pbu-que-parfitu. 

Je doute qu'il restdt k Paris, si des affaires ne I'y reiencuefU, 
Je ne croirai pas que tous fussiez dans cet Hat, si vous 
aviez suivi les conseils de votre docteur. 

Dans le second cas, c-a-d. apr^ lepriseni de Findicatif ou 
Yefutur^ on met le second k Yimparfait du subjonctif, quand 
ce second verbe, quoique indiquant un temps passl^ pr^sente 
Taction dans le moment mSme o^ elle avait lieu. 

Je ne crois pas qu'alors il e&t raison sur ce point. 
Je n'assurerai pas que ce prince vecut a F^poque que toqs 

418. 5^ R^GLE. Quand le premier verba est au prisent de 
rindicatif ou au fiUur, il faut mettre le second au passi du 
subjonctif^ loisque ce second verbe marque un temps pass6 
abujhtj c-^. sans aucune autre circonstance de temps, sans 
aucune condition. 

Je doute qu'ils aieni rhtssi. 

Je ne pr^iune pas qu'ils Yaieni trauvi. 

Croyez-vous qu'ils aient refu ma lettre ? 

419. 4* R^GLE. Quand le premier verbe est au present de 
rindicatif ou auyi£tor,le second ne se met au pbis-gue-parfhit 
que lorsque 1® ce second verbe marque un temps pass6, 2^ et 
qu'il y a dans la phrase une expression conditionnelle. 

Je ne pense point qu'ils eussent dbienu cette faveur si vous 
ne les eussiez prot^g^ 

Je doute que vous eussiez gagni votre proc^ si votre avocat 
n'avait pas fait valoir ce moyen. 

Bemarqme, D est bon de dire que si n'est pes Fmiiqae ezpretsioii condi- 
tioniieUe ; oette expreenon est quelqnefoii lendae pir Is pt^position «aiw, 
sniTie d'on nom on d'an pronom, camme tans vous, nms hU, tang cela, tans 
ffotre proteetUm, etc 

Je me eroiepae jt^Ue bvsskht r^ussi emte vame, Ces mots eant vaue 
soDt une exprenion oond^tioiiiiene qui ^quiTant id i «f vous ne lee eueeiet 

Miui oes mots earns voue, eane eux, eons eela, etc., ^taot appeles a ex- 
primer tour k tomr des temps presents, on des temps ^ venir, ou des temps 


pass^i c'est par le verbe an subjonctif que cette circonstance de temps doit 
etre rendue. 

Exemple : Jt doute qu'U rkussisse saru vout ; ces mots aam vow Equi- 
valent au present de Tindicatif ri vou» ne kprotigez. 

Je daute qu'U BiussiT tana tout. Ici, aatu votu est mis pour Fmiparfail 
ri wnu ne leprot4giez. 

Je doute qu'U sftr rsussi $an» vmu. Iql, sane voue est mis poor le plus* 
que-parfait si voue ne Veuaeiez ftrotSgi, 

L'expression conditionnelle peut aussi etre comprise dans une phrase : 

Je ne croitpae quefEVSSR beeoin de cet exemple d^Euripide pourjttaH' 
fier lepeu de liberie que fat priee, — Racink. Ces mots pour Jtut^ier le 
peu de liberie que fat prise sont une expression conditionnelle qui ^uivaut 
id k eije voulaie Justijier lepeu de liberie que fai prise, 

420. 5^ RE6LE. Apr^s Yimparfait, les passis, le pltis-que- 
parfait de Tindicatif et les condiiionnels, le second verbe se 
met a Yimpaffait ou au plus-qtie-parfait du subjonctif. On 
le met k Vimparfait, s'il marque un temps present ou un temps 
d venir ; on le met au plus-que-parfait s'il marque un temps 

. II ne se doutait pas que vous demeurassiez ici. 
On a exige qu*ilpa^dt d'avaiice. 
Nous ignorions qu'il eut it6 blessi. 

On n'avait d'abord pas eru que nous eussians si compl6te- 
jnent riusH. 

421. n y a des conjonctions qui veulent toujours les temps 
du subjonctif, et d*autres qui veulent tantot le subjonctif, 
tan tot Tindicatif. 

Voici les conjonctions qui veulent le subjonctif: 

Afin que, in order that- Loin que, far from, 

A moins que (260.), unless. Non pas que, not that 

Avant que, before. Nonobstaut que, notwithstand' 

Au cas que, in case, ing that, 

Bien que, although, Pos6 que, suppose that, 

De peur que (260,), for fear Pour que, in order that, 

that, Pourvu que, provided that 

De crainte que (260.), for Quoique, aWumgh. 

fear that Sans que, without 

En cas que, in case, Soit que, whether. 

Encore que, although, Suppos6 que, suppose, 

II ne travaille jamais k moins qu'on ne IV contraigne 

Encore que vous m*ai/ez compte le capital, je reclame les 
int^rdts (3« rdgle). 


Bien qu*il ait eprouve des pertes, il satisfait k tous ses en- 
gagements (3® regie). 

lis lui conseillerent de partif) afin que sa pr^nae-caniribudt 
a retablir Tordre (5® r^gle). 

Nous vous donnames ces informations, pour que vous vous 
missiez en mesure (5^ regie). 

Telle 6tait son instruction, qu'il parlait de tout, quelle que 
fut la matiere de la conversation, et quelque dif{icu1t6 que 
presentdt cette matiere (5^ regie). 

De la conjonction que. 

422. Que veut le subjonctif, lorsqu'il s*emploie pour 6viter 
la r6p^tition des coujonctions si (407*)» ^ nunns que^ avani 
quey afin que, quoique, soit que, sans que. 

Si vous veniez nous voir, et que vous voulussiez passer 
quelque temps avec nous, nous vous ferions connaitre les cu- 
riosity de ce pays, c.-^-d. si vous veniez et si vous vouliez 
(5« regie). 

II ne paiera pas ^^t^'on ne Vy contraigne, c. -^-d. k moins 
qu'on ne Ty contraigne (1" r^gle). 

II ne partira pas ^'il n'en ait re^u Tordre, c-a-d. avant 
qu*']l en ait re9U Tordre (3® regie). 

423. II est certaines phrases o^ les conjonctions sont sous- 
entendues, comme dans 

Vienne qui voudra, je ne me derange plus. 
JDus8ieZ'Vo\i9 ne passer avec nous que quelques instants, 
Boyez assez bon pour venir, c.-a-d. bien que vous ne dussiez. 
II vous restera fiddle, dut-il lui en couter la vie. 
Veuille le ciel entendre mes voeux ! 

424. Les conjonctions qui veulent tantot le subjonctif et 
tantot Tindicatif, sont sinon que, si ce n^est que, de fa^ que, 
de s&rte que, de maniere que ; elles veulent le subjonctif, si 
e es accompagnent un verbe qui marque quelque doute, 
quelque incertitude, quelque ordre; elles veulent Tindicatif, 
jsi ce verbe marque raffirmation, la certitude. 

Prenez-vous-y de sorte que ces gens n*aient aucun soup9on 
de votre d-marche. II faut le subjonctif aient, parce que Ton 
n'aflirme pas que ces gens ont ni qu'ils auront du soup^on 
(re regie). 

Ces iicns s'y prirent de telle sorte, que Vun pinitra leurs in- 


tentions. Pinitra est fi un temps de Findicatif, parce qu'il 
y a affirmation. 

Ce jeune homme obtiendra cat emploi, n ce n*esi gu*il j 
goie tout a fait Stranger (l** r^gle). 

On ne lui fait aucan reproche a regard de ses combi- 
naisons, si ce n*est gu'il ne sait pas en tirer parti. 

Conduisez-vous defa^on que vous obteniez son estime. 

11 s'est conduit defa^on gu*i\ a obienu son estime. 

Emploi des temps du subjonctif par rapport aux 

pronoms relattfs, 

425. Aprds les pronoms relatifs qui, qucy dont, lequel, la- 
quelle, oii, on se sert des temps du subjonctif en deux cas : 

P Quand ces pronoms sont precedes de le seul, ou de peu, 
ou d'un superlcUif relatif. On sait que le superlatif relatif 
n'est rien autre chose qu'un adjectif pr§ced6 des mots le plus, 
le mains, 

Cest la seule personne que ^e voie (1" regie), 
n y SLVAitpeu de gens qui le connussent (5^ rdgle). 
Le meilleur cortege qu'un prince puisse avoir est le cceur 
de ses sujets (1** regie). . 

Cest le livre lephts interessant que j'aie lu (3® r^gle). 

Les expressions le seul, V unique, le premier et autres ana- 
logues (238.) sont suivies du subjonctif, parce qu'6tant d6ci- 
sives, peremptoires, on affaiblit Fassertion par I'emploi d'une 
expression dubitative et en quelque sorte palliativet Cest 
ainsi qu'on dira : 

La gloire est le seul bien qui noxiA puisse tenter. 

Mais si, par le second verbe, on veut presenter une chose 
Gomme incontestable, on emploie Tindicatif (239.). 

L'Acad^mie dit, au mot /oit : 

Cest la seule fois que je rot vu on que je Yaie tm. 
Au mot phu'. 

Lepltu que je puis fiiire ou que je puisse faire ; lephu que 'VOns pouvez 
pr^tendre ou que Yoxupuissiez pr^tendre, etc 

2? Apr^s les pronoms relatifs, on se sert des temps du sub- 
jonctif quand le verbe qui les suit marque quelque incerti- 

Je cherche quelqu'un qui puisse me servir. 

Je vous enverrai un homme qui sache s'expliquer. 

11 demandait une personne qui voulut Tobliger. 


Dans ces phrases oa ne s'exprime ainsi par les temps da 
snlgonctify que paroe que la personne dont il est question 
n'etant pas coimney on ne peut afiirmer d'elle qu elle peui 
servir, qu'elle Mut iexpUquer. Si, an contraire, elle etait 
connue, il faadrait dire : 

Je cherche quelqu'un qui peui me servir. 

Je vous enverrai nn homoie qui gait s'ezpliquer. 

Exceptions aux regies que Von vient de donner sur les 

temps du subjonctif. 

426. 1" exception, — Apr^ les verbes qui marquent Tinter- 
rc^tion, il faut, avons-nous dit (237.), employer le subjonctif. 
Mais^on doit en excepter le cas oi^ Finterrogation n'est qn'un 
tour oratoire, ce qui arrive tonjonrs lorsque celui qui parle, an 
lieu de chercher ^ savoir une chose qu'il ignore, la donne pour 

Croiriez-Yous, auriez-rous jamais em que cet homme venait 
chez nous pour nous nuire ? c.-^-d. cet homme venait chez 
nous pour nous nuire ; le croiriez-vous ? lauriez-vous jamais 

Vous voulez blesser son amour-propre, dites-vous; mais 
oubUeZ'Vaus done que son ressentiment peut vous perdre ? 
c-^-d. son ressentiment /^eu^ vous perdre, I'oubliez-vous ? 

427* 2^ exception* — ^Apres les verbes impersonnelg, il faut, 
avons-nous dit (41 1.), employer les temps du subjonctif : 

II faut que vous partiez. 

II importait que vous arrivassiez plus tdt. 

II conviendrait que nous le vissions. 

n est necessaire que vous fassiez ce voyage*. 

n semble qnilsorte d'nne boite. (Acad.) 

429. Mais il est quelques verbes impersonnels aprds lesquels 
on ne doit mettre que les temps de Tindicatif ; tels sont, il 
risuUcy il arrive^ il est certain^ il para% il s^ensuit, et tons 

* 428. Ce, tvant le verbe Hre suivi d'lm adjectif on d'on nom et d'an 
que oonjonctif, est employe pour le pronom imperM>nnel il ; dans oe cas, le 
second verbe doit etre ^ Fan des temps da snt^onctil Ex. Cest /Sekemx 
poor hd ;«« son protecteor soii absent, c-i-d. il est ficheoz ; c'est on bien 
que tdle chose soii aniree ; c'eat dommage qae voos ViO^ez point tg^pris 
eels, plos tdt ; c'est on miracle ^'il n'oU pas iti tae dans cette bataiUe, 
qa'il soii vemt n lite, qn'il ait aehev/ n promptement cet oavnge ; c'est 
merreille qull soit aitdt sorti d'embarras. (Acad., anx mots bien, dommage, 
nuraele, merveiUe^ 

312 8TNTAXB. 

ceux qui marquent affirmation. II faut encore y joindre le 
▼erbe smbUry lorsqu'ii est impersonnel et ainsi aceompagn6 
d'un pronom personnel : H me sembley il vous semblait, etc. 

II r^sulte de ces explications que yous avez tort, 
n arriva que mes pr6visions se /rouv^en^ justes. 
II est certain que Tennemi a iti battu. 
II parait que nous nous sommes tromp^s. 
II me semblait que vous ^tiez assis. 

430. Cependant si ces m^mes verbes sont accompagp^s 
d*une negation ou de la conjonction »', qui ieur donne alors 
un sens douteux, ou s'ils sont employ^ sous la forme interro- 
gative, ils demandent le subjonctif : 

II ne r^sulte pas de la que/at^ tort 
II n'arrive pas toujours qu't79 soient contents. 
£tait-il certain que Tennemi eut ^ battu I 
S'il vous semble que cda soit, (Acad.) 
Vous semble-t-il que ce parti soit pr6f6rable ? 

431. 3^ excqfiian. — Les conditionnels des deux verbes /xmc- 
voir, savair (213.) sont quelquefois employes pour le present de 
Tindicatif : c'est lorsqu'on pent les rendre Vun et Tautre par/e 
ne puis onje nepeux ; dans ce cas, on doit les regarder comme 
des presents de findicatif, et non comme des conditionneb : 

Je ne saurais croire qu'il veuiUe vous tromper, ni qu*il le 
puisse, c-^-d. je ne puis croire. 

Nous ne sautions croire qu*il ait si mal agi, ni qu*il en ait 
eu rintention, c-d-d. nous ne pouvons croire. 

Exceptions relatives a la cinquihne r^gle des temps du 


432. Quoique en g6n6ral aprds Vimparfaitf les passis^ le 
plus-que-parfait et les conditionnels, on doive se servir de 
Ximparfait ou du plus-que-patfait du subjonctif, il est pour- 
tant des cas assez frequents encore ou il faut le present du 

La regie neuve que nous* aliens ^tablirsur ce point k cdt6 
d*un principe donn6 comme general par toutes nos gramniaires 
est appuy^e de Tautorit^ de FAcademie. Ces exceptions, 
toutefois, ne se pr^sentent guere qu'apres les conjonctions qfin 
que, pour que, de crainte que, pour que, quoique, bien quCf en- 
core que, 

433. R^GLE. — Lorsque le premier verbe est au passe indi- 

* Bonnetu et Lucan. 


fini, et qu'i! est suivi de Tune des conjoncdons afin queypour 
quBy de crainte que^ depeur que^ quaique, bien que, encore que^ 
le second verbe doit ^tre ?M.pri^nt da subjonctif, s*il marque 
un temps a venir au moment o^ Ton parle : 

Vous TDLavez rendu trop de servicea.pour que je puiste 
douter de votre amiti6. 

Je suis venu vous voir pour que nous parlions de nos af- 

II VOL a fUgUgi trop longtemps /nn^r ^t^ j'esp^re rien de lui 

Quoiqu*iX relive de maladie et qu'il soit encore tres-faible, il 
a voulu se mettre en route. (Acad, aux mots pour que^ quai' 

D'apr^ ces exemples de T Academic, d'apr^ Tusage, d*aprds 
la n^cessit^ il faut dire : 

Je lui ai ecrit afin qu'il sait ici demain, c-^-d. c*egt afin qu*il 
soit ici demain que je lui ai ^rit*. 

Nous lui atHms ddressi ce paquet par la poste, pour qu'il le 
repotve jeudi prochain, c.-£i-d. c^est pour qu'il resolve. 

Ses amis lui ont fait connaitre ses droits, de crainte qu*on 
ne le trompe dans Tarrangement qu'il doit faire, c.-^-d. c*est de 
crainte qu'on ne le trompe. 

Or, si je ^Ssyje lui ai icrit ajm qu*il vvt icid sept heures, et 
je lui ai icrit afin qu*il soit ici a s^ heures, il 7 a cette dif- 
ference que, par Femploi de Timparfaityti^ du premier exem- 
ple, j'iodique qu'^ Finstant 0^ je parle, les sept heures sont 

. * Ce qni d^tenniiie cette fa^on de pailer, c'eit que les oonjoiictions t^n 
que, pour que, de peur que, de eramie que, peuvent toQJoan dtre rendaes 
par c'est on c'etait afin que, c'est ou c'mt att pour que, etc, selon la ai- 
Constance de temps exprimee par le verbe qui les suit. 

1* Si le verbe qni suit Tune de ces quatre conjonctions marque un temps 
present ou un temps a venir, cette coigonction signilie c'ssn^n^uc, c'xst 
de peur que, etc 

Exemple: Je hit remett met letires, afin auK vous lee receviez phu 
promptement. Ici, le verbe recewnr marquant un temps ^ venir, afin que 
signifie c'est t^ que. Effectivement, cette phrase dit : c'est tjin que 
vous receviez plus promptement mes lettres que je les lui remets. 

2° Si le verbe qui suit ifin que, pour que, de peur que, de eramie pie, 
marque un temps pass^/wir rtqtport au moment ou Fon parle, ces conjonc- 
tions signifient c'etait afin que, c'etait de crainte que, etc, 

Szemple: UparlaU trie-haut, afin que tout le monde Ventendit. Le 
verbe entendre exprimant un temps passe, afin que signifie id c'xtait afin 
que ; et c'est oomme s'il y avatt c'etait tfin que voxjr lb mondb Pentendit 
qu'il parlait tret-hant. 


314 STKTA 

pMa^Oy taoiiis fne le pr^ni du subjonodf Joa< da leeoBd ex- 
M^le ^priflM qmt, dam fe moraest de la pan^ ks aept 
beitrcB doot il est questian soot un tenps i vaoir. 

^tf^res exemples, — JTid rentr^ mes orangen ce soir, d^ craimie 
^*il ne fasae fro&d cette niut, c-ird. j'ai roatr^ mes ota^gers, 
parce que je crains qu'il ne fosse froid cette nnk. 

Mais n faut dire, en se servant de rimparfait du subjonctif, 
parce qu'il est question d*un temps pass6 au moment oii Ton 
parley^at rentri mes orangers il y a t^fa gttelque tempsj de 
CRAiNTE Qvil ne Fix frotdy db peur qu*«7 ne gel at, c.-1-d. 
parce que^e craignais alars qu's7 ne fit frotdy Qu*tl nepeldL 

Nous lui avons ecrit aujourd*hui afin qu'il prenne une de- 
termination prompte, c.-a-d. c*esi afin quTI prenae. 

Mais si le temps de prendre la determination etait pass^, il 
faudnut dire : noiLS lux avons 6crit afin qu*\\ prit une determi* 
nation prompte, mats il n'en a rienfoit 

De m^me oa dira : 

Nous les €nMms prSvemts de votre arriv^e pour qu*ils vien- 
nent passer la soii^ de demain avee nous. 

Nous avons entrepris ces travaux, bien que TextoitioR en 
soit difficile. 

Ces soldats ontfak huit lieues aujourd'hui, quotqu'ik aoietU 

Son baaquier lui a etcompie ces effiets^ qaoiqu'ils ne soient 
payables que dans un an. 

Je Vai obHgfit bien ^'il ae le mirite pas. 

II ufait des d^penses considerables dans son voyage, bien 
qu'il n ait qu'une fortune mediocre. 

Encore qu'il soit mon d^biteur, je lui ai priti quelque argent 
ce matin. 

434. Msus, pour le dire encore une fois, si le second verbe 
doit exprimer une ctrconstance pass6e au moment oii Ton 
parle, il faut se servir de llmparfait. 

ExempHe, — Nous avoms entrepris ces travaux bien que Fex^- 
eution en fut difficile. (Uimparfait fkt indique que la diffi- 
culte n'existe plus.) 

Son banquier lui a escompU ces effets, quoiqu'ils nefttsseni 
payables que dans un an. (L'imparfait fuLSsenit exprime que 
cet an, au bout duquel les billets ^taient payables, est patt^ 
etc. etc.) 


4S&. n J a d» rerbes ^i Teolent, iatMi k I'iftdSeMtf et 
tBBl6t a« sobjoDctil^ le verbe q«i ks suit; cda depend dn 
■ens affirmatif eu dn tens imp^iatif «i doutenx que leur doo- 
■flBt lean divenes aeoeptioiie: 

n da qne tous avez tort, c-^-d. il affirme ; 
II dii que Tonsfassiez cela, c-a-d. il reut; 
Je nqppose qu'il est honnete, c-^-d. je pense ; 
Je suppose que ee soit an fHpon, que ferez-Tons ? 
Qaand il eniend que je viens^ il bondit de joie ; 
Teniends qu'il parte, c-i-d. je veux ; 
Upriiend qu'il a raison, c-S-d. il pense ; 
Je priiends que I'affiure sefasse connne je Fai d6dd6, c-ll-d. 
je veox, etc. etc.** — Grammaire selon L'AcADiMix. 

DicUe et anafyse, 

Je Youdraifl que vous vinssiez me Yoir a la fin de oette 
fenaioe^ci; j'amrai quelque chose de trds-important k yous 
eomiiuuiiquer. Nous aooimes bien aises, rarisy au f^h^ que 
cela soiL Je n'^ane qm'il ne vote pas le danger oii il est. 
La domestique de ma stMor m'a apporti une lettre ee matin 
a^aal que je fiuse lev^. Ma sceor m'a dit qa'eUe Yiendrait 
diner avec moi aujounfhuL Je lui ai r^pondu que je desirais 
qu'elle vhU de bonne beoie* Quelque m^rite que vous oj^ezy 
soyez modeste. II avoue qu'il Ta dit; il n'avoue pas qu'il 
Vait fiuL 11 est a croire qu'il le Teut ainsi; est-il a croiie 
qu'il le veuiile ainsi ?~Je doute que votze ami ^ r^ustd dans 
SOB entreprise sans yos boos offiioes» LBTE&U£B.r— 42uo]qu'il 
9oit pauYve, il est honn^te h<»Bme.'-*>Les mouvements des 
plandtes sont les plus r^uliers que nous eonnaissious* Bur- 
WQivu — Mentor Youlait une grande quantity de jeux et de 
spectacles qui ammassent le peuple, mais surtout qui «z«r- 
fossent ks corps pour les rendre plus adroits, plus souples et 
plus vigoureux. FivELON.^ — ^Accompagnez-le jusqa'a ce qu'il 
joi^ hors de la Yille« — Je fus.son ami jusqu'a ce que je m'aper9tts 
qu'il disait du mal de moi. Gbam maire MATiotNAJUB. 


He doubts wktAer^ we skall eomeu J wiB home him^ do 
that Yott are sofry that be is gonew You must (I91.) write 
to your fiifther. Do you think he is ill ? Although (421 .) you 
mre weO^ now, you aiay be ill tcMBorrow. It is (tfctmsequeneB* 
that I should be there. I do not belicYC that he is gone. He 


316 8TNTAXB. 

is the richest merchant I know (425.). This is the best dic- 
tionary we have. It is proper^ for you to do what your 
father orders you. I am afraid you (ne) are ill. I was afraid 
you were ilL Give me the best pen you have. I will have hiii 
do it this moment^. If your brother come tomorrow, and 
the weather be (406.) fine, we will take^ him with us. I wish 
you would come this evening. He was desirous that they 
should translate tJie whole^ chapter. I could have wished 
that he had applied himself more to his duty. I am not sure 
that he will do it Do you think that he will soon set out? 
We require^ that they should obey him. It is possible that you 
may obtain it. Whatever you may do, you will be blamed. 

You are the first who has mentioned it to me ^°. He likes 
peopk^^ to tell him the truth. I do not think he would come 
even if he were invited. Stay with me until they retuni. 
Do you think they are disposed to serve you ? Does he think 
it is prudent to act in this manner ^"^^ I am delighted you 
succeeded so well. I wish it may be so, but / doubt t^>^. Let 
us make haste, that everything may be ready for his arrivaL 
Hold it fast, for fear it (ne) should M (lest it fall). Place 
everything >^ so that I may easily find what I want (192.). This 
author is the first that mentions it. May you live hiappy (42d*) I 
There is nothing in all this which ought to ofiend you. I 
want a young man who can teach Italian. Is there anything 
which renders men more happy than virtue ? It is the first 
speech he ddivered^^* There are few men who can support 
adversity. It is the finest country (425.) I have ever seen. 
The example of a good life is the best lesson that can be given 
to the human race. Ask him whether (405.) he would woik 
in case we gave him permanent employment. 

I do not believe that my friend will caU^^ (416.) here this 
evening. He does not believe that you could be (417*) in 
that unfortunate situation had you followed the advice givea 
to you. We do not believe that they were right on that point.— « 
Do you believe that my brother has received (418.) my letter? 
Yes, I do (332.). — ^I do not think that you would have ob«> 
tained (419.) that appointment had you not persevered us 
your application ^T, I doubt whether you could have suc- 
ceeded without your father's kindness. We were not aware 
that you lived (420.) here. He gave me those particulars in 
order that I might know (421.) how to act. Were we to 
stay (42S.) with you but a few moments, we should miss ihe 
object *^ we have in view. Behave in a manner that (424.) 


you may deserve the esteem of good men'^. The only news 
I know (425.) is uninteresting. I want an interpreter (tono may 
he) able (425.) to speak the principal continental languages. 
Could you have believed that my friend came here (426.) to 
deceive me ? Do you forget that his anger can (426.) injure 

JFOU? • 

He has written to me in order that I may depart (4SS.) to- 
morrow. We have obliged them although they do not deserve 
it I undertook (229.) that translation although the subject 
was very difficult. It is just that the laws should be observed. 
If your brother takes his lessons regularly, and studies (407.) 
two hours a day, he will make great progress. Who are the 
greatest men that France has (425.) produced ? Whatever 
riohes we may have, we are never satisfied. I do not know 
(211.) anything more pleasing than the remembrance of a 
good action, — Is your friend gone into the country ? Not to 
my knowledge (212.). — Whatever your duties may be, you 
are bound to perform them. I doubt whether the ambassador 
would remain (417.) in that city, if he were not detained by 
very important affairs. We were notatoare'^ that the gallant 
general had been wounded in that engaffemeni^^. It was not 
believed (361.) at first that they would so completely have 
succeeded (420.). Although he has (421.) paid the principal, 
he has still to pay the interest at the rate qf^* three and a 
half per cent. 

The only service (120.) I can (425.) render you is to tell 
you the truth, and in order that you may understand the folly 
of your conduct, I will at once address you as I would my own 
brother. Thus shall I prove mysdf^ the best friend you have 
(425.). It is a sad thing for you that your guardian is (427.) 
absent I cannot (213!) believe that they wish (431.) to de- 
ceive me. The chairman spoke very loud in order that every 
one might hear him. That man is far (190.) from being 
learned. The master is not satisfied with our progress, far 
from it (190.). We must (191.) prepare our lessons with 
gftater care. It is a fortunate thing (428.) that your (103.) 
lather is near you, to cherish and protect you. May (423.) 
he live long I May he enjoy many years of happiness in his 
venerable old ^ge I Whatever difficulties you may have to 
surmount, I sincerely hope (410.) you will persevere in your 
endeavours. May you reap the fruit of your labour ! May 
peace and concord reign among the nations of Europe I Long 
Uve^^ the Queen and the Roycd family I 



Participe present ou actif. 

436. Le participe present est toajourl invariable : 
Un p^ aimarU son enfant. Una demoiselle obUgeant ses amis. 

437« Mais il ne faut pas confondre avec le participe 
present un grand nombre d'adjectifs verbaux, ^galement 
terminus en ant, (On les appelle adjectifs verbatuc^ 
parce qu'ils sont formes des verbes.) Comme tout 
autre adjectif^ I'adjectif verbal prend le genre et le 
nombre du nom au^uel il se rapporte : 

Une demoiteile cUigeemie. Des jeanes gens privenamts. 

Ehcem^ies pour Us deux cos, 

Partieipst prisenU, Adfecttfo (Mr&nuO. 

Des eofents qft^isssjif k ieitr JaiBie les entete oi&smmtB. 


Use mk» oimaM sa faoulle. U&e mdve ainuMte^ 

Des bnuts (Okmnaal ks ss- Des bnte ukBrmafOB. 


lilDe fotfte hamamt contce le Une porte haUamtt. 


Des enfants <arcMflMtf lear Des eaiEoits corasseMli; 


Une ^^Ko/tf^omtdant k tefve. Une J^XmefScondaate, 

Des pafoks ^ffienmnl la pa- Des panoles crffemamies, 

Des tesola^s nqjpkant te Une posture sufpSesniu, 


Uneplainteftmc^ra/kseoenrB. Lbe pbdnte touefyanie. 

La soci6t^se eempose d'iiom- On prend sami peiM les ol- 

mes vimmt sovs les m^mes seaox vivamts, 


438. Le participe present se distingue en ce qn'il ne sanrait peindre que le 
m umeum mt, VwaAoOf et qn'il est presque toujoors "suiyi d'un n^gfime : 

On dames obly&kast indiathtctement tout le monde, sont vineries de 
tmtte Ai viUe, IZhns eet exemple ebligemt est un participe present, patce 
qu'il a pour regime tout le tncnde. 


pnmer qa'nne quM Mifrmtf. ^ lapefwnae on k la cbow dnt ob fKl^ 
ime qiu£te qm lait dais la natine de cette peiiomie OfQ de oette 

Ciet James p erMo ni ta toni mUreundet, obSffemtieM, frevaumUg, ekfor'- 
nuMteM. Ici 3 est questum des quality qm sont dans le CMtuAjtn des 

Pariicipe paM»i au passif. 

439. R^le. — Jjd participe pass£ employ^ sans atixBS- 
aire, s'accorde^ comme I'adjedif, ea genre et en nombre 
ayec ie substantif auqael il se rapporte : 

Un oavrage aeheoi\ una matson aekewiei 4eB tniTTnginf 
meke9^ ; des nunsoas ac fe o to . 

440. R^le. — Le participe paaa^ aeoonpagB^ dk 
Taazifiaire itrej s'accorde sFec le aiqet (nomtiMilitfe 
Mfe) «bi vserbe (I8a) : 

Le billet est icrit ; les biUets sont 6erUi ; la lettre est Imife; 
les letUes sont AitUu» 

441. £^fe.— Toot participe paaa^ acrowpagn^ de 
Tauxiliaire mtoir^ ne s'aocafde qn'avec aon conpl^ment 
direct (occiitff/itif one), et senlement lorsqn'il en est 

Les billets que ma soeor a ^cri^. Les lettresqaeaaa fiacre 

442. Jl s'en suit que le participe ne s'accorde jamais 
ayec le sojet da verbe avoir, m a?ec m oompl^meiit 
antre que le direct : 

Ma sflenr a ^erii les billets* Mes frdres ont ScHl les letties. 

443. L'Seresenqnidlaaqaetoiitsabstaiilifofa pnmomestle 
ant direct (i. e. » Me MWMlRw cote) d*a vote, s'il i^^ead A la 
tiaiifw/ oafMif (132.) Masceor a^oit jvot/— let Mfetf; etc. 

Pgr l fctpe g pauis ernplm ^ dans les temps eompmh des wmrbes 
riflMnsy ek Vrntt riK aire Stre renplaee VaiBaMmsn avoia. 
444. Dans les temps compost des rerbes r^^his, Taaxi- 
liaire iire Templace toigo u r s I'aiudliare av& m (184.) ; auos ee 
changement n*eseree aneune inflaenoe sur Fortkegn^B du 
participe pass^ qui suit la r^le 441 ; c'est-^-dire, que le par- 



ticipe paas^ d'on verbe r^^chi s accorde avec le pronom com- 
pl^meDt direct (accuuxHve case) qui le pr^c^de : 

Elle s'est bless6e. Que de peines elle s'est dannSes I Les 
fSHes se soot sticcdd^. 

n s'agit seulement de remplacer ^tre par avoir daiw la qvea- 
tion k faire pour trouver le complement direct (44S.) : £Ue 
/est blessSe. Elle a bless^ qui f — je, ou «of . JEUe§ $e scut 
9ucc6d4, C'est-^-dire, elles ont succScUIl elles. On ne peat 
pas ici faire la question— ^t f ou quoi f parce que mceSder 
est un verbe intransitif. 

445. NoTB. The following snmmary of the aboTe ndes desenres the par- 
ticnlar attentkm of the student: 

The past participle, after the anxiliary avoir (or 0tre in the con^nn^ 
tenses ii reflective rerbs), is declinable if the objectire (accnsative) case 
pnetdet the participle, and the participle then agrees with the objective 
(accosatiTe) m gender and number. But if the objectire (aocusatiye) h 
placed tftir the participle, the participle is indeclinable. 

Nora. The past participle after aoAr nerer agrees with its subject (bo- 
miiUHthre) : 

Ma soRir a ^cri^ la lettre. Lalettreqaenumfr^aicrtfo. . 

Tableau des principaux cos dmis lesqueh le participe 
passS est variable ou invariable (446.). 

Participe variable. * Participe invariable, 

Une faute avouh est k demi J'ai avoui ma faute. 

Mes lettres sont envayies* 

nation, prot^gie du ciel I 
Voild vos papiers retrouvis. 
La lettre que tous ayezrefue, 

Vous avez d^j^ envoy4 vos 


Le ciel 2Lprot^g4 cette nation. 
On a retrouve vos papiers. 
Vous avez refu ma lettre. 

Les arbres que j'ai vus (449.) Les arbres que j'ai vu (449.) 



(Ces artistes), je les ai enten^ (Ces airs, ces romances, oes 
dus chanter. chansons), je les ai eniendu 

(Ces actrices), je les ai enten" Je les ai entendu applaudir 

(on les applaudissait). 
Je les ai laiss^ emmener (on 
les emmenait). 
Que de fleurs nous avons vues Que de fleurs nous avons vu 

dues chanter. 
Je les ai kuss^ partir. 


fl6trirl (quelque chose les 



ParUeipe variable,, 
(Cette dame), je Tai envcyie 

se promeoer. 
La le9on qu'on m'a donnie ^ 

apprendre. (On a donn6 la 

lecan k apprendre.) 

Participe invariable. 
Je I'ai envcyi chercher (quel- 

qu*un allait la chercher). 
La le9on que j*ai ouhlU d'ap- 
prendre. (J*ai oubli^ d'qp- 
prendre la le9on.) 

Queues peineselles'estdlonfi^! £lle s'est donn^ des peines. 

Cette femme s'est propos4e Cette femme s'est proposS 

(444.) d'enseigner la geo- 
graphic k ses enfants. 
Lucrdce s'est donn^ de la 

(444.) pour module k sea 

La peine que Lucrdce s'est 

Le mal que Lucrdce s'est 

Les arbres que j'ai vus fleurir. 
lis se sont adressis k moi. 
Elles se sont assuries de la 

lis se sont aivouds comme au- 

teurs du d^lit. 
Tous les maux qu'il a soirf- 

Cest une gavotte qu*on a 

Les lettres qu'il en a recues 

Les compliments que vous 

m*en ayezfaits, 
Les enfants que j'ai vus des- 

La maison que j'ai vtie tomber 

en mines. 
I^es ofires de services que je 

les ai vus faire. 
La v^rite, je vous I'ai di- 

clarde, que voulez-vous da- 
vantage ? 
Les merveilles que Dieu a 

£ile s'est laissie tomber. 
n s'est rappele toutes les 

bonnes actions qu'il avait 

Lucrdce s'est donn^ du mal. 

Les arbres que j'ai vu tailler. 
lis se sont adresse des lettres. 
Elles se sont assur^ un re- 

Us se sont avau^ leurs torts. 

Tous les jours qu'il a souffert 

Cest toute la nuit qu'on a 

dans^ (453.). 
De mes lettres, il n'en a jamais 

regu (456.). 
Des compliments, vous ne 

m'en avez jamais ^at'^ 
Les paysages que j'ai vu des- 

La maison que j'ai vti batir. 

Les offres de service que je 
leur ai vu faire. 

Cette virite, je vous I'ai d^- 
c^r^y^doit rester ensevelie 
dans un profond secret. 

Je les Bxfait (450.) sortir. 

Elle s'est laiss^ tromper. 
II a secouru tons les mal- 
heureux qu'il Apu secourir. 


* Le participe <2ec/^r/ s'accorde ici avec le (462.). 




ParHape vanMe. 

Elle s'est prapotee poor toih 

Ce sont des choies qnlb out 

«r»e» permisea. 
Ces choses je les ai pen»6u, 

Ces fleavs sont beDes, les 

airez-voiis cueilUei? 
Je les ai cueUUet, 
Combien j'en ai eueOHeg 

(459.) I 
Cette promenade est telle que 

je Tavais crue (461. )• 
La reine Anne s est prapoUe 

ponr gouvemer les affaires 

Elle s'est dite fort heurense. 

Je Tons ai rendu tons les ser- 
vices qne vous aviez dinria rices qne voos aviez 
{tervicet dMria avant que (st^j^ t'^'ttf rendisse, 
je les rendisse). entendu). 

Les dangers qull a courus, Les deux heures qu'il a tomru 


KoiB. The vobf «n«r, ^ider, appUmiir^ and a few othat, goyem the 
aocmatife or dative aeeoEdiiig to their meming (402.) ; as. 

EUe s'est pf<tpe§6 de vous 

Ce sont des choses qnHs ae 

Mat ers peiBiis de £ure« 
Les choses que j'ai 

(452.) que vons feries. 
Jen ai cmaUi {456.) qselqaes- 

Combien en avez-voas eueUU? 
Je ne sais pas combien toos 

en avez cudUL 
Cette lille m'a/Mw plus belle 

que je ne Favais cru (462.^ 
La reine Ame s'est piwpfmi 

de gouvenierles afinres de 

Elle s'est dUi ''Que je aerai 

Je Tous ai rendit teoa les ser- 

Ce domestiqne nous a fiddle- 

ment «^rvtf. 
Us nous ont mdh dans nos 

n nous a c^laudis quand 

nous arons parl6. 
L*ennemi nous a. fins (c'est-^ 

dire MtA). 
n nous a intuUh grossi^- 

n a tir^ sur nous mais il nous 

a manqu^s (c'est-^-dire, ne 

nous a pas atteinis). 

Ce livre nous a bien serm. 
lis nous ont aidd a dcscendre. 

II nous a applauM d*aiFoiragi 

de cette sorte. 
Le temps nous a fyi (c'est-d- 

dire 6chappi). 
n nous a insuU^pnr son luxe. 

Le temps nousamaii^u^(c*est- 
^-dire nous afaii dtfaui). 


446. OhtervaiUmg et dfvdopp e m e n U des regks et ei» txem^a 

qtd precedent 

44<7* Tout partieipe pass6, aecompagn^ cTan verbe autre 
que ie verbe avoir ou etre^ sabit tontes ks TariatioDs de genre 
et de nombre que lui impose le nom qu il qualifie : 

Je les croyais partis ; lis semblent inierdits, 

448. Le participe pas6§, suivi d'un a(Qectif on d*ini autre 
participe, doit toujours ^tre conforme en genre et en nombre 
au nom qu*il modifie : 

On les a cnu cottpables, parce qu^on les a vug embarrass^ 

449. Quand le participe passe est immediatement suivi d*un 
infiaitif, le nom qai precede pent etre regime soit du participe, 
soit de Tinfinitif ; dans ie premier cas le participe Tarie, dans 
le second cas il est invariable : 

Je les al vus prendre la fiute; je Ze^ ai vu premire sur le fait 

BxMA&QiinB. On ecrira : J7 veui fortement let cTuma gu^il a vouluks, 
parce que le participe est precede d'nn regime direct avec leqnel fl s'accoide; 
nuds il fiiut ^ciire mee rinvariabflite : // a pay/^la wmme gu'ii a toitlu, 
tttendu que le que n'est pas regime cBrect du partietpeyXnais bien da verbe 
aons-entenday payer. 

450. Le participe faiti suivi inun^diatement d'un infinitif, 
est toujours invariable : 

£Ue s*esifait mourir ; lea dispates quil a JW naitre. 

451. Lonqne le participe pass^ est snivi d'une proposition 
et d'un infinitif, il est. vanjMe, si le regime appartient an 
participe ; invariable, si le regime appartient il rii^iiiitif : 

hesennemis^fueyakcontramfy kBer&adie; la tvrfw ^«e j*ai 
tacfaO de lui inspkrer. 

452. Dans les phrases analogues a celles-ci : Zev chagrins 
que fid sv que vous aviez; ce somt des Mioses que fat cru 
uiXLe defaire ; — le participe paasO est toujours invariable, paree 
qu'il est suivi d'une pr(^x)sitioA qui «n eat le complement 

La simple reflexion fiut voir que les actions de unokr et ids crmivicMii- 
bent, non sur les snbstantifs chagrins et chotet, mais luen sur les proposi- 
tions que voug aviez et «/cfe defdre, J'ai sn guoi T — Que vous aviez des 
chagrins. J'ai cm gmoi t — QfiU serait utile de &ire ces choses. 

458 Si le que, relatif i un substantlf, est regime direct du 


participe paas^, cdui-ci en prend I'accord ; mais il reste inyaii* 
able b'U est complement d'une preposition sous-entendue : 

Toutes les erreurs qu*il a pteuries. Toutes les ann^ qu'U 
a pleur6 (^pendant lesqudles il a pleur6), 

454. Le participe pa8s6 d'un verbe impersonnel est inva- 

Les chaleurs qu'il SiJuiL Les livres qu'il ^foMu. La pluie 
qu*il y a eu. 

455. Lorsque le participe pass6 est pr6c6d6 de deux sub* 
stantifs unis par la proposition dcy le participe s'accorde avec 
le nom qui domine le plus dans Tesprit (295.): 

\}nejhule de gens s*est prisentie ; une foule de jeunes gens 
se sont qfferts. 

456. Le participe pass6 pr6c6d6 du pronom en partitif, 
comme dans cette phrase: II y a desfleurs, f^v ai cueiUi, — 
reste invariable, parce que ce pronom signifiant de cela est 
regime indirect du participe. 

457. Lorsque le participe pass6, pr6c6d6 du pronom en, 
est pr6c6d6 d'un adverbe de quantity pris dans un sens inte- 
gral, le participe s'accorde : 

Pendant ces derniers temps, combien en a-t-on vus 
Qui, du soir au matin, sont pauvres devenus 

Pour vouloir 6tre trop riches I — La Fontaine. 

Mais si Tadverbe de quantity est pris dans un sens fraction- 
naire, le participe reste invariable : 

Les Russes sont venus tard ; et ayant introduit les arts tout 
perfectionnls chez euz, il est arriv6 qu*ils ont fait plus de 
progr^ en cinquante ans, qu'aucune nation n'en avait jfSitY par 
elle-meme en cinq cents annOes. — Wailly. 

458. n en est de m^me si le participe est prec6d6 d'un 
substantif et d un adverbe de quantite : 

Que d'herbes il a«arrachees I Que dkerhe il a foulO ! 

Le fiidt est, que dans ces exemples, comme dans ceux de la regie 455 
pr^t^, le participe s'accorde avec le nom qui domine le plus dans Tesprit. 

Le grammairien Boniface, avec cet esprit d'analyse qui le distingue, 
nous donne aussi la r^le suivante : 

459. Le participe passO prOc^O du pronom en partitif, ne 


varie que qaand ce pronom, complement d^terminatif d'mie 
expression de quantity qui le pr^dde, repr^senle un substantif 
pluriel, et qu'il ne se trouve pas dans une phrase interrogatiYe 
ou dubitative. 

D*aprds ce principe, on dira : 

Des fleurs, combien j'en ai cueiUies I 
Des pages, combien en avez-vous^/Sicf? 
Des fantes, que j'en ai commites ! 

460. REMAKaux. Dtnsles phrases ualoiiies a celled: Cethomimem*a 
obU^; let tervieeg quefvs ai re^s me pmitrent de reeoimneeimoe ; le 
pronom en n'entre point dans Tanalogie des precedents, il n'y est point 
ptftitif on d^terminatif dn oompl^ent direct ; il repr^ente le substantif 
hommBf et signifie de ktL Le complement direct dn partidpe est le pro- 
nom ezpiimant lee eervieee, 

Participe passi se rapportant au pronom le. 

461 . Si le pronom le est relatif ^ un substantif exprim6 dans 
la phrase, le participe varie : 

Cette Tillci je Tai vue. 

462. Mais si le pronom le signifie cefa, qu'il repr^sente un 
adjectif ou une proposition, dans ce cas le pardcipe est mas- 
culin singulier pour s'accorder avee le^ compl^ent direct : 

Cette ville, je Fai dUj est belle. 

Cette promenade a 6t6 plus agr^ble que je ne Tayus cru. 

C*est ainsi qu'on 6crit : 

Cette figure* conune nous favons tme^ parait horrible. 
Cette figure, comme nous I'avons mi^ attire tons les regards. 

44S3. SsMABauK. Dans qnelqoe sens qn^s soient piis, an propre oomme 
au ignr^, les ptrticipes eoAti, vaiu et pa^ B'ueetadeat toujonrs avec le r^- 
gime lonqne ee r^gune ks precede : 

Les cent francs qn'il a eoAtA ; les cent litres cpie le ballot a jMs^es. — 
Gkammaim vatiomalk. 

L'Acad^ie ne partage pas oet avis et dit que "le Tcrbe eoAier itant 
neutre est inYariable au partidpe." La ndson nous porte k p r tf i gre r le 
point de Tue que les hahOes ooUabontenrs de la Grammaire nationale ont 

DicUe et analyse, 

Cette femme est douce, afiable, privenani tout le monde. 
Cette femme est douce, afiable, prSienanie* — ^Le temps est un 
vrai brouillon,iReftoii^ remeUatUyrangeani^ dhwngeanty mpri* 


a^gp— f, m/yoQtorf» ^igtumt et remdmd touto chjoaco 
boones ou nuMLTaisea. M°^® db Sevigkb. — Cea h»nmieR pre- 
vojfont le daagnv <Be nuFent sur leurs gardes. Ces hommes 
privoyants ont aper9u le danger. — En prevenant toiifi ka de- 
sirs des autres, cette demoiselle est devenue priveKusmie. 

EfUouris de toutes parts ik se crurent perduA, et furent 
fords de se rendre. — Arrachee de sa tige, cette fleur se fanera. 
— L*6quit6 et la dnoiture wmi produites par Tamour de la jus- 
tice et de la y6rit6. — Une chose promise est une chose dtie — 
La Yertu obscnre est sonvent m6pris6e* Masstllon. — ^Les 
Grecs 6taieiit persuadis que Tame est immortelle. Barthe- 
LBMY. — ^Les hommes n'ont jamais cueHU le fruit du bonLeur 
■nr Tarfare de rujustioe. — ^Eien ne pent suppler la joie qu'ont 
dtie les remords. — ^L'homme n'a gu^re de raanx que cenx qn il 
s'est donnis. — Sept villes se sont dispute ThouBeur d'avoir vu 
naitre Hom^re. 

Newton, ayant compar6 une ann6e commune des annies 
qu*ont rigne les rois des difflrents pays, r^duit chaque regne 
h. vingt-deux ans ou environ. — Tant que la France vivra, on 
louera la magnificence de Louis XIV, qui a prot^6 les arts 
que Francois 1^ avait fait naitre. — Que d*esp^rance la reli- 
gion 9^ fait naitre quand il n'y avait plus rien a e^lrer I — 
C'est des Tartares 'que sont sortis ouelques-uns des peuples 
qui ont renvers^ Tempire romain. — A mesure que les hommes 
se sont ripandiLS sur la terre, il s'est formi des nations s§pa- 
r^es, qui, se conformant aux lieux qu'elles 'ha'bitaient, se sont 
accoutumies a difF(§rentes manidres de vivre, et doot les carac- 
teres ont 6t^ d'autant plus diflf^rents qu'H y a e« moins de 
communication entre elles. Coi^dillac. 


Even the ravage living in the desert has some knowledge 
of a Supreme Being to whom reverence and submission are 
due. — What lesson have I given you ? You gave us the ex- 
planation of the parts of speech. — ^My sister has received the \ 
letters which you have written. My aister has written the 
letters which you have received. I presented (227.) the 
letter to her, which she has read; it was the same letter which 
you had returned to me. What business have you under- 
taken 1 ? Those servants have sensed us. A year k soon 
over^ — Where is your slate ? I have lost it — Wheoe are your 
pens? I have lost them. — ^Have not dioae pupils been re- 


warded ? They have been well rewarded. — Transported with 
joy, my mother came to see me. Those women have given 
themselves up * to despair. 

The mathematics which you have learnt will be useful to 
you. She appears afflicted. — Are they not satisfied ? They 
are not. — Are those houses sold? Yes, they are. — Those 
kingdoms have been formed from the ruins of the Roman 
empire. The sciences have always been protected by «i- 
lightened^ governments. Those young ladies have painted 
these flowers. — Have you taken the flowers which I had ga- 
thered? Yes, I have. — What measures have I not taken! 
The language which Cicero and Virgil have written will Mve 
in their works. Our soldiers have fought with courage. My 
sisters have not made sufficient haste. When be saw the nm 
in which were inclosed* the ashes of his friends, he shed a 
torrent of tears. Those men have rendered theuKelves for- 
midable. Tins is the objection which he has made. Those 
men have quarrelled, caused one ano^ier^, and would have 
fought if we had not hastened to separate them. 

Your mother is very obliging. That young lady in obliging 
her friends has merited their esteem. It is a convincing proof 
of the surprising eflects of the loadgtoneK The ruling passion 
of Caesar was ambition. I heard (227.) them sing yesterday. 
Those hymns we heard were very beautifuL — ^Were they as fine 
as those you heard in St. Paul's cathedral ? No, they were not. 
— What heat we had last summer I — Have they washed^ their 
hands ? They have washed them twice already. — Alms given 
without ostentation acquire a new merit. How many mini- 
sters have succeeded each other^ during that reign! Yonr 
sisters, his, and mine met in^ the Park, but did not speak to 
each other. They had written to each other. Jt is a ciroimi- 
stance which I thought (452.) you knew. The trouble which 
I hsid foreseen^^ that these affairs would give you. The reso- 
lution which you have taken togo^^ into the country. 

The history which you have given me to translate is full of 
interesting details. The measures which they had advised me 
to^^ take were full of difiiculties. The rule which you had 
begun to explain is very -clear. The fiEivours which I obtained 
from him {en)» The value which we received irom those 
merchants. You asked me for some pencils, and I have sent 
you a dozen (of them, en). Such are the difficulties which 
he has not been able to overcome. Do you not feel the iault 
you have committed ^^ ? Imitate the virtues you have heard 

328 8YNTAXE. 

praised. Stiq)endous^^ mountains, who has established you 
on your foundations ? who has raised your summits above the 
clouds ? who has adorned you with verdant forests ? What 
lessons we should have lost, if Cicero and F^nelon had not 
given themselves up to the study of wisdom I 

I have not succeeded, notwithstanding the steps^^ (that) 
you advised me to take. I have received the letters you 
wrote (2270 respecting ^^ the affair which I had proposed to 
you ; and after having read them attentively, I found ^^ (227.) 
that if I had undertaken it I should have met with >® obstacles 
which I had not foreseen. How many towns destroyed would 
have been saved, had (jsi) the conqueror been more humane I 
The songs which I have heard your sister sing are very fine. 
The house which I have advised you to buy is large and well 
situated. It frequently happens that we commit the same 
faults which we had resolved to avoid. Has she not rendered 
you all the services she could ? How many days and nights 
have I not passed by (a) your side when you were ill I The 
five hours he has slept this morning are the only rest he has 
had for (dqmis) a fortnight. 


De I'usage des expressions negatives, 

464. Nbn et ne sont les seuls adverbes essentielle- 
ment n^gatifs ; les mots pas, pointy plus^ rieUj jamais^ 
personne^ guh^e, etc. ne servant qu'a modifier, a precUer 
la negation (151.). 

465. Note. As may be seen by the following extract from Le Makuel 
XTTMOLOOIQVE, a knowledge of the derivation of these negatory words will 
be the best means of comprehending their real value and signification : 

" Pas from the Latin passuSf a step. 

Point punctum, a point. 

Plus pbUf more. 

Bien re«, a thing. 

Jamais (the old French ^a now, and mais more), from the Latin j€tm 
now, and magis more (525.).'' 

466. Ne s'emploie souvent seul^ quand il est en 
rapport avec les verbes oser^ cesser, et pouvoir : 

Je 9»'ose ; il ne cesse de travailler ; je ne puis. 


II en est de mdme quand il est en rapport avec le verbe 
Mwotr pris dans le sens de pouvair, ou signifiant iire incertain : 
fy ne saurais en venir a bout; il ne saii ce quU veuU, Mais 
U faut employer pas ou pointy quand savoir est pris dans son 
vrai sens : Je ne sais pas ritalien. 

Difflh'ence entre pas et point, 

467- Point nie plus fortement que pas. On dira 
^galement : // n'a pas d^ esprit ; il rCa point £ esprit ; 
et on pourra dire, II n' a pas (T esprit ce qu*il en faudrait 
pour sortir cPun tel embarrass mais quand on dit, // 
n'a point d'esprit, on ne pent rien ajouter. Ainsi^ 
point, suivi de la particule de^ forme una negation 
absolue ; au lieu que pcis laisse la liberte de restreindre, 
de r^server. Par cette raison pcis convient k quelque 
chose d'accidentelf de passager; point k quelque chose 
d'haUttiel, de permanent: 

Pas. PomL 

Apportez de la lumidre, nous L'aveugle ne voit point. 

n'y voyons jww. 

Vous faites tant de bruit que Le sourd n*entend point. 

nous n'entendons pas. 

Get 61dve ne travaille pas Get 61dve ne travaille /mmh^ il 

comme je le voudrais. ne fait absolument rien, 

Dans les propositions interrogatives^potn/ suppose un 
doate dans la personue qui parte ; pas fait entendre on 
qtt'elle a connaissance du fait, uu qu'elle est port^e k 
croire que la chose a eu lieu : 

Tout le monde rit: n'^']& point dit quelque sottise? 
Pourquoi me blamez-vous ? n*ai-je pas dit la y^rit^ ? 

Point se met quelquefois au lieu de nony soit pour terminer 
une phrase elliptique, Je le croyais mon amiy mais point ; soit 
pourr^oodrea une interrogation, jLt>£2-t;at£fce«t;er«^ Point. 
On ne pourrait employer pas qu'en disant la phrase entidre : 
Jeneies lira* fas. 

Chnission de pas et de point. 
468. On supprime pas et paint, quand T^tendue 


qu'on vent donner i la negation est saffisaminent ex- 
piim^e par d'autres termes qui la restreignent : Je ne 
soupe guh'e;je ne sortirai de trots jours ; je ne le 
verrai de ma vie ; je n*ai pairU b, qui que ce fut ; — ou 
par d'autres termes qui excluent toute restriction : Jie 
ne soupe jamais ; je ne vis personne hier ; je ne dots 
rien ; je n'ai nul souci I'-ovl enfin par des teitees qui 
d^SBgnent les moiDdres parties d*un tout, et qui ee 
mettent sans artide: Je »'jr vais gouUe; je me dU 

Apr^ toutes cei plira9es> si la oonjonetioB qite on les vektift 
fm et dofiU aEndnent ime autre phnm qn mk a^gativc, on y 
mqppiBR/MA dfcjRWtf : 

Je ne le vois jamais gne je ne / nener me hm wUkaat mem- 

faii -en parley ftoiicN^ ii to him. 

fl Be Toil penoDBe qm ne le Be sea $m sme aab» 4^09 mot 

loue^ coHBHettd kinu 

On dira de aafime : Vous ne dites mot qui ne eoit appiUmdL 
Mais si ua nom de ndadbie est 2Jf»a3fJk ^ no/, il faut employer 
pas : Ilnedit ^aa un mot qui ne sait apropos. 

On ipeui les sapprimer avec 61^gaoee dans ces sortes d'in- 
terrogations : Ya-t-il un homme dimteBe ne midisef Jioez- 
tKwt «tfi4Mu qui nesoii des miens f 

469. On sapprime souvent pets et pomi ufffta ne 
mawi de Tadjeotif autre et de que: Je n^ai d^tmtre 
disit que eehd de wms 4tre utile^ Mais on peut diie 
muasi : Je s'ot pas dP autre disir^ etc. Quaod autre est 
sous-entendu, pa^ et point se supjuriment toujours : Je 
n'aide valoutique la tiennej U nefait querire (autre 
chose que rire). 

470. Souvent ne • . • que ^quivaut k seulement : Je 
ne veux que la voir; Vhxmnite homme ne eonnuH que 
ae« devoirs. 

471* On supprime pas et point apr^s que^ mis k la 
suite d'un terme comparatif (304.) 9 ou de quelque Equi- 
valent : Vous 4crivez mieux que vous ne parlez ; c*est 
autre chose queje necroyais; il parte autrement qu'il 
n'agit ; peu s'en faut qu'on ne m*ait trompi ; il est 
Jttoins ricie, phis ricke qu'on ne crdL 


472* On leg Buppritne, quand le mot que sigoifie 
pomnpi&i, aa commencemeut d'lKDe phrase : Qwe n'^tes- 
v&us arrive plus idt ? — ou quand il sert i exprimer im 
d^sir, k former une imprecation : Q^e ne m'esi^il 
permis. . • . Que rCestM d cent lieues de nous ! 

473. Apr^s depuis que, ou il y a, suivi d'an mot qm 
indique une certaine quantity de temps, on supprime 
pas et pointy quand le verbe est au pr^t^rit : jyepuis 
queje ne Vai vu ; il y a six mois queje ne lui ai parle. 
Mais il faut Tun ou rautre, si k verbe est au present, 
ce qui forme un sens tout different : Ikepuis que nous 
ne nous voyons pas j ily a six mois que nous ne nous 
parlons point. 

By a Umgtemp9 que Je Tai vu, Bigniie^tf Fmi tm, et Uy a kmgten^a^ 
tan^ qn'aTec le ne oette phrase ngn^e J« ne VakpoM vu dq/uia Umgten^e. 

474. On les supprime encore lorsque deux negations 
8out jointes par niy comme^ Je ne Vestime ni ne Vaime ; 
et quand cette coiyonction ni est redouble, soit dans le 
sujet, Ni les Mens ni les honneurs ne valent la sant^j 
soit dans Tattribut : // est avantageux de n^Htre ni 
trop pauvre ni trop riche; heureux qui rCa m dettes 
ni proems! 

475. Apr^ le verbe craindre, suivi de la conjonction 
fuej on supprime pas et poini^ locsqu^ s'agit d'un 
effet qu^on ne desire pas : •/!? crains que vans ne perdiez 
voire proc^. Au contraire, il £aut pas ou point, lors- 
qu'il s'agit d'un efiet qu'on desire : Je crains que ce 
firipon ne soit pas puni. La m^me r^gle est a observer 
apr^s ces mani^res de parler^ de crainte que, de peur 
que (260.). Ainsi lorsqu'on dit, de crainte qu'il ne 
perde son proems, on souhaite qu'il le gagne ; et, de 
crainte qu*il ne soit pas puni, on souhaite qu'il le soit. 

476. Dans cette phrase, Je crcans qu^il ne vienne, et autres 
semblables, ce mot ne D'expriine point udb negation ; c'est le 
KB ou le QuiN des Latins, qui a pas86 dans noire langue. 
(TiMBo NE VENIAT, je cnuDS qu'il ne vienne.) 

il en est de m^me des verbes synaiiymefl de eraimhvj tek 
que avoir peur, tr&nbler, apprehender .* 

«rai peur, je tremble, j'appr^hende qu'il ne fvemie. 


477- Aprfes prendre garde, quand il signifie 4vitcr^ 
on met le subjonctif, et l^on supprime pas et point : 

Prenez garde que votre fils ne Be careful your son be not 
commette cette imprudence, guilty of that imprudence, 

Au contraire, quand prendre garde signifie/fl«r«r^- 
Jlexionj il faut mettre Tindicatif et ajouter pas ou point: 

Prenez garde que Tauteur ne Notice that the author does not 
dit jMi« ce que vous pensez, say what you think, 

JSmploi de ne. 

478c Apr^s les conjonctions d mains que (260.)5 et si 
dans le sens d'd mains que, on se sert de la particule 
ne comme expression de doute (481.) : Je ne sors pasy 
d mains qu'il ne fa^e beau ; je ne sortirai pointy si 
vous ne me venez prendre en voiture, 

479. On se sert aussi de la particule 7ie apr^s le verbe 
emp^cher : 

La pluie empScha qu'on ne se promenat dans les jardins. 

Remarque, 'Soils avons vu (469. 471*) que Ton emploie ne 
apr^ auirCy autrement^ plus, mieuXf mains (formant un com- 
paratif ), ainsi qu'aprds les verbes craindre,avoir peur^ trembler^ 
apprShender (475. 476.); cependant lemploi de ne cesse 
d'avoir lieu, quand le verbe de la proposition pr^cMente est 
accompagn^ d'une negation, ou que Tid^e de negation ne 
tombe pas sur la proposition subordonn^e : 

n ne parle pas autrement qu*il agit. II n'est pas moins mo- 
deste qu'il le parait £st-il plus heureux qu*il T^tait ? Je ne 
Grains pas qu*il vienne. 

480. Niery d6sesp6rery disconvenir, et douter sont sui- 
vis de ney quand ils sont accompagn^s d'une negation : 

Je ne nie pas, je ne doute pas que cela ne soit 

Mais on dira sans la negation : Je nie^je doute que cela soit 
L'emploi de ne cesse aussi d'avoir lieu, quand on exprime 
une chose positive : Je ne doute pas qu'il y ait un Dieu, 

Lorsque les verbes douter^ niery etc. sont employ^ interro- 
gativement, on exprime la negative ne dans la proposition 
8ubordonn6e : 

Peut-on nier que la sant6 ne soit pr6f6rable aux richesses ? 


Qudques ^crivams ont supprim^ la negative lonque Tidee exprim^ par 
le verbe de la proposition subordonnee etait si ^vidente, si positive a leur 
esprit, qu'ils ont voulu la rendre encore pins affirmative par la suppression 
de ne: 

Qui est-ce qui nie que les savants saehent mille choses vraies que les 
ignomnts ne sauront jamais. — Grammai&b nationals. 

481. L'emploi ou la suppression de pcis ou de point 
change quelquefois le sens de la phrase : 

Je sortirai, i moins qu'il ne I shall go out unless it sJundd 

pleuve, rain, 

Je resterai, & moins qu'il ne I shall remain unkss it should 

pleuve paSf not rain. 

n en est de m^me des phrases suivantes et autres analogues : 
II ne cesse de pleuvoir (tl pleut sans cesse), II ne cease pas 
de pleuvoir (t7 pleut encore), II ne sait ce qu'il dit (t/ derail 
Sonne). II ne sait pas ce qu'il dit (t7 ignore la vcueur de ce 
quHl dU). 

489. La langue firanfaise, si d^cate, offre, comme on voit, une foule 
de nuances.* En void une autre que nous soumettons a Texamen de 

n ne sait pas plus le grec que je sab le latin. 
II ne sait pas plus le grec que je ne sais le latin. 

La premiere phrase signifie que je sais le latin autant qu't/ sait le grec ; 
la seconde vent dire que^> ne eaiapae le latin fdhdie grec* 

4*83. Remarque, Les conjonctions a moins que, de peur que^ 
de crainte qtie, comme nous Tavons vu (260.), doivent ^tre sui- 
vies de la particule ne ; cependaut on doit la supprimer, si le 
verbe suivant est accompagn6 d'un adverbe tenant de la ne- 
gation, comme peUf dpeine^ etc Exemple: Un vershdroique 
ne doit guihefinirpar un adverbcy 1 moins que cet adverbe se 
fosse a peine remarquer, 



Auparavant et avant que^ davantage et plus. 

484. Auparavant et davantage sent des adverbes 
qui ne s^emploient qu'absolument : ils ne peuvent done 
r^gir ni de ni qu£. Ne dites done pas : il a davan- 
tage de fortune que moij auparavant qu*il parte ; 
mais il a plus de fortune que moi^ avant qjjHI parte, 

485. Remarque. Si quelquefois auparavatU et davantage sont suivis de 

• Voyez Temploi de ne apres temr (556.). 


fm des mofei lir •!! fm^ ee 49 on ce fue sont alors boos la d^endaBoe de 
qnelqve TCfbe wi dft ^d^pie adjectif pr^o^dent, oonoBe quuid on ^ : 
Qmi^Ufkt eoniaU 4b mm j nmmmr Mya^Wy U Ftti Hm bayantaqs dv 
teeondt c'est-i-dire, t/ e«/ con^cn/ <it( second. Je serais saiitfait de le wdr 
prospi^rer, mma jt ddsin meort hatastaqe va*U cemerve Iw principes 
de veriu que Je bU m mctdfuA^ c^tst-l-dixc, Je dmre ^*U etmserve, B 
veut leur mienter unproeis, nutis il seraii ban AUPAaAVANT jpt'sV consuUSt 

Si, aitssi, tanly autant. 

486. Comme expressions comparatives^ aussi et cm- 
taut s'eniploieiit dans les propositions positives (72.)^ et 
sif tanty dans les negatives, ou Pon peut cependaat faire 
usage de aussiy autant, qui sont plus expressifs : 

n est auMt heureux guiB voua. He i»d& ^Jipif as yoic 

n B*est pluA si heureuxy atusi He. is . no umger so hctppif at 

keureux qy/s vous» ^^(w* 

J*ai autant c? amis que vous, / have as many yHen^ as j^oac 

Je n'ai pas iant ^amis qv^ I have not so many friends as 

vous» yo'U. 

.Tai autant cTargent que lui, / have as much money as i^. 

Je D*ai pas taM iTargent gue / Aove nU so much, moni^ as 

lui, A«. 

487^ NoTA. L'adverbe » sa pvend parfois dans le sens de gnelqite: 

Si petit qu'il ioit» However Uttk he (or U) mojf fie. 

Si habile que vous soyez, However ski{fid you may be. 

Rien^ pus. 

488. Rien signifie nulte chose : 

H ae fait ne». Cela ne vous servLra de rien. Ce que vous 
dites et rien^ c'esi la m4me chose. Si peu que rien. JRien 
du tout 

Rien s'emploie aussi pour signifier qtielque chase; 
en latin quicquamn : 

Rien flatte-t-il si d^licieusement Tesprit et roreille qu'un 
discours sagement pens6 et noblement exprim6 ? D*Olivet. 

489. Note. Rien sometimes meaning^ no/A^^, and at other times mean- 
ing something or an^tkinfft creates a difficulty which aaalysia alone viU 
solve ; as in the following examples : 

Que vous dit-il ? Rien, What does he say to you ? Nothing. 

Qui vous dit rien ? Who says anything to you ? 

In the first of the above sentences rien is used alone, the negative ne and 
the verb being understood. Rien^ i. e. 77 titf wms dit rien. 


In iqdjr to ft qaatiai pot is also frequeBtly nied idlihoiii the aegakore ne^ 
the n« and the verb being understood ; as, 

Y a-t-fl des lettres ? Paa nne. Are there any htter$ f Not one. 

Mai parler, parler mal, 

490. II faut bien se garder de confondr^ ces deux 
expressions; Tone porte sur les choses que Ton dit^ 
Taotre snr les expressions dont on se sert pour les dire. 
Mal parler de quelqu'un^ e'est en dire des choses 
offensantes; etparJer mal^ c'est employer des expres- 
sions hors d'usage^ des termes ^quivoques^ des tours 
embarrasses^ etc. : 

II De faut ni mal parler des absents, ni parler mal devanti 
les granunairieiis. 

n iaat avoner (joe cette ffistinction ne pent svor ISeu qn'ii Finftnitif ct 
anx temps eomposes. 

De plusy d^ailleursy outre cela. 

491. De plus n'a rapport qu'au nombre : H a tel et 
tel difaut'j db plus, il est menteur. — D'ailleurs am^ne 
ime raison difr<^rente : Le temps ne permet pas de se 
mettre en route; d'ailleurs, la route est infestie 
de voleurs. — Outre cela am^ne une raison nouvelle : 
OuTRB csi«A^ il est beavAiomip trop tard. 

Vite, tdtj promptement, 

492. Le mot vite exprime le mouvement, son oppos^ 
est lentement'j le mot t6t regarde le moment de Taction^ 
9cm oppos^ est tard^promptement a jAus de rapport au 
temps qn'on enq>lo]e» son opposi est langtemps : 

Qui commence tdt et travaille viie^ achdve promptu m id. 

Plus tdt (sooner)^ plutSt (rather). 

493. Plus tdt reveille une id^e de temps, et se dit 
en opposition k plus tard, II r^pond au nmturVks et au 
citiiis des Latins: 

XarriTerai^uf tdt qu'a rordinaire. 

336 8TNTAXB. 

Plutdt reveille une id^e de choix^ de pr6f^rence. U 
r^pond axipotiils des Latins: 

PliUdt souffrir que mourir. 

* Aussiy non plus. 

494. Aussi et non pltis, ^ignihaiiipareillementf s'em- 
ploient, le premier dans un sens positif^ et le second 
dans un sens negatif : 

Et moi aussi; ni moi nan plus, 

495. NoTB. Autsi, also, must not be mistaken for aussi meaning there- 
fore ; the latter may be used in any sentence, affirmative or negative : 

Aussi, non plus, Aussi (therefore). 

Vous le voulez, et moi aussi. H faut etre reconnaissant, 

aussiy nous le sommes. 

II viendra vous voir, il vous II vous en veut, aussi il ne 

6crira aussi, vous ^rira pas. 

n ne viendra pas nous voir, il II vous en veut, il ne vous 
ne nous ^crira pas non plus, #crira pas aussi, 

De suite, tout de suite, 

496. De suite signifie successivementy sans inter- 
ruption: II ne saurait dire deux mots de suite. — 
Tout de suite signifie aussitdt^ immidiatement : II part 


Partanty pourtant. 

497« Partant signifie par consequent, Ce mot est 
particuli^rement d'usage en style de pratique et de 
comptabilit^ : 

Vous avez sign6 un contrat, et partani vous dies oblige. 
Re9u tant, pay 6 tant, et partani quitte. 

II s'emploie aussi quelquefois dans le style familier : 

II n'avait plus de fortune, partant plus d'amis. 

Pourtant signifie n^anmoins, cependant: 
II est habile, et pourtant il a fait une grande faute. 



Contre la m^isance il n*esi paint de rempart Moliere.— - 
n n*€st point de noblesse ou manque lavertu. Crbbillon. — 
Nul ne pent ^tre heureux s'il ne jouit de sa propre estime. 
Jw-J. Rousseau. — Titna ne passait atiettn jour sans faire une 
bonne action. — L'homme vertueux ne doute point qu'il j ait 
un Dieu, a la vue de ses moissons. Bern, de St.-Pierre. — 
On se Yoit d*an autre oeil qu*on ne voit son prochain. La 
Fontaine. — ^L'homme digue d*etre ecout6 est celui qui ne se 
sert de la parole que pour la pens^, et de la pens^ que pour 
la v§rit6 et la vertu. Feneju>n. — Pius je rentre en moi-menie 
etp/ttfje me consulte, /i/u« je lis ces mots Merits dans mon 
amez'^Sois juste, et tu seras heureux." J.- J. Rousseau. — £ien 
6couter ou bien lire, bien coroprendre et bien reteuir, c*est la 
le secret du vrai savoir. 


How are your (103.) sisters ? Not very welL — Is there any- 
thing (de) more useful than science? Nothing. — Will he do it ? 
Never. — Is there any one in that room ? No one. — He has 
neither talent nor ffood will '• We oughi not - to say anything 
that can injure the reputation of a good man \ Never did any 
man* behave more honourably. — FF%y ^ do you not do that ? I 
will do it now. — ^I dare not go thither without leave. She does 
notecase speaking^, I cannot write. He does nothing but read 
from morning till night. We are afraid he will hurt himself'. 
— Are you stronger than you were ? No, I am not- — ^You are 
more punctual than you were. You are not richer than you 
were three years ago. I have not seen him since I was (227*) 
in Italy. He speaks French better than he did two months 
ago K They who speak otherwise than they think are despised. 
There are no resources in a person dtprived of sense ^. There 
are persons who write better than they speak, and others who 
speak better than they write. I have not so much success as 
he. The more we love a man, the less we should flatter him. 
The more I see then), the more I admire them. We do not 
esteem him the less for it (308.). We require as much dis- 
cretion to give counsel as docility to receive it. It is better to 
be silent than (507.) speak unseasonably. However (487.) 
skilful we may be. we ought never to despise the advice of a 


Ripitition des pripasitions* 

498. 2Ugle4 — lie, H, en, §e T^pitent toujonra ayant 
chaque regime : 

Elle a <fe la beauty de la grace, de Fesprit 
II dut la vie a la cl^mence et a la magnanimity da vain- 

Le« autres pv^positions se r^p^tent de mteie avant 
cbaque regime, k moiiu? que les r^mes ne soient des 
expressions synonymes : 

Dans la paix et dans la guerre. Dans la moUesse et Toi- 


Avant, devant, aupcaravaad. 

499. Avant a g^^ralement rapport au temps, et 
devant au lieu. On emploie aussi avant pour exprimer 
une priorite d'ordre : 

Avant la fin du mois. ' Je suis avant vous. 

Regardez devant vous. Se placer devant quelqu'un. 

Devant f se rapportant au lieu sigiiifie aussi en pre- 
sence de : 

Les accuses sont devant le The accused are in presence 
juge» of the judge* 

NoTA. '* Qnoi qu'on en ait dit, ces denx pr^sitions, ananl et devant^ 
s'emploient soavent rune pour Vmtte. On din ^galement bien : im mot 
plane DBYAMT on ATJjrr mi mifre."— Acajwmu. 

Ne confondez pas avant et auparavant ; avant est une pr6* 
position* et est suivi d'un regime: avant fogey avant le 
tenyfts ; — auparavant est un adverbe, et 6*a point de regime : 
nepariezpcu sitdt, veaez me voir auparavant. 

Dans, en. 
500. Dane, comme nous Tavons dit {2Se.), se met 


devant les noms d^tennin^^ et en se met devant les 
noms ind^nis : 

II est dans la Franee m^ridionale. II est €fi Fnmce. 
II est dkau la TiUe. U est ^eii ville. 

Pourtant il n'est pas rare que les 6criyains fassent usage de 
la proposition en, auasi bien que de la proposition dans, avec 
des noms dOtenninOs : 

Un bon mot en ce sidcle est un fort argument — Moli^re. 

Ne confondez pas itre d la viOe et ftre en viUe. On dit : Moruietir ett 
itiatfitte, poor marqner qa'il n'est pas k la campagne; et Ton dit: Jfon- 
aieur est en viUe, pour marquer qu'il n'est pas au logis. 

501. Dans marque le temps oik Ton execute les 
choses, et en celui qu'on emploie k les ex&:uter: 

II viendra dans un mois. II a fait le Toyage en un mois. 

n arrivera dans huit jounu II arrivera en huit jours. 

II apprendra le fran9ais dans II apprendra le fran9ais en six 
six mois. mois. 

JEntre, parmu 

502. Entre se dit de deux objets : Entre ses mains; 
entreMome et Carthage. Pamii se dit d'une collection 
d'objets^ et demande toujours apr^s lui^ soit un sub- 
stantif plurielj soit un noni coUectif : Parmi les hommes; 
parmi la foule, 

Sntre est ansn qnelquefelB employ^ a:vec vn nom pluriel : 

La haiae mttre les grands se calme Taienient. — Cc»n«lxje. 

DepuiSf pendantyptmr (for). 

503. Depnis, avec les noms de lieu et ceux de temps^ 
marque un point de depart. Pendant sert il marquer 
la durSe du temps. Pour^ joint k une expression qui 
marque le temps^ indique le motif ou la cause finale : 

Je n'ai pas vu oet iuni dqmis I have not seen that friend for 

un an, a year. 

n a voyagO pendant six mois, Hehastravelled for six months. 
Us ont de I'ouviage J90«r huit Th^ kaice work iox a week. 




Auprhs^ au pris. 

504. Auprbs et an prix servent k comparer ; mais au 
pris ^veille une id^e de valeur dans les objets, et aupr^s 
une id^e de proximit^^ de position, de grandeur : 

L'int6r^t n'est rien auprix du devoir. — Marmontel. 
Mais UD eueux qui n*aura que Tesprit pour son lot, 
Aupres d ud homme riche, k mon gre, nest qu'un sot, 


Prdt a, pr^t c/e, pr^s de. 

505. Pr^t a signifie disposS d, pr^par4 d, c'est le 
paratus des Latins : 

Je suis pret a partir. 

Pr4t de exprime une disposition, une determination 
sans aucun pr^paratif r&l : 

Qu'on rappelle mon fils, qu*i1 vienne se d6fendre ; 
Qu*il vienne me parler, je sMv&prit de Tentendre. 

Racine, Phedre. 
Aujourd'hui prCt de est peu usite. 

Pr^s de marque proximity de lieu, ou de temps; il 
r^pond au proph des Latins : 

On peut kirepres de niourir, sans etre pret a mourir. 


506. L'emploi de cette proposition change quelque- 
fois enti^rement le sens de certaines phrases : 

11 ne fait que sortir (c'est-a-dire, il sort toujours). 
II ne fait que de sortir (e'est-^-dire, il vient de sortiry 

See the Idiomatic tenses qfverbSf page 182. 

On sentira aussi la difference qu'il y a entre : 

II vient lire et il vient de lire. 

Disposer quelqu'un .... disposer de quelqu'uD. 

Juger une affaire juger cf une affaire. 

Sonner le cor sonner du cor. 

Pincer la harpe pincer de la harpe. 

Avant le diner avant de diner. 

Les ^l^ves qui voudront approfondir ces d^icatesses de la langue fran- 
faise, feront bien de consulter le savant traits sur Tasage des propositions 
par M. CoUin d*Ambly. 


507. On dit ^akment : JTaime miemx Ure qu*eerire, et 
J^aimt muMx resier que de MorHr. 

Dans oes sortes d'ezpressions, qoand on pule d'nne mani^ 
g^erale, oo nezprime point la preposition ife; on en fait 
usage, s'il s'agit d'an fait paiticalier. 

508. NoTB. Ille if iiMd IB some particpbr phnseii : 1. After fwIpMecilatf, 
rin,fMd^9iKl^ia^/wrnaae,/Mf^jN»i/, etc.; 2. Bdnre a participle pre- 
ceded bj a Dcmn of number. 

L Qodqne chose de menreil- Somedung ttMrnderfuL 


Y a-t^fl qnelqii'nn de mecon- 7^ there any one dismUgfiedf 

tent? ^ 

2. On dit qnll y a en dix It is wend that there were ten 

hommes de tues et quatre- men hiUed and nxnehf-fioe 

vingt-quinze de blesses, wounded. 

On dit fg>lfflifgit Irien mis la pr ep o siti on ie : 

n y a en diz bommes tnfis et qaatie-Tuigt-q[DiBze blesses. 

Au traversy d trovers. 

509. Au travers est saivi de la preposition de, a 
trovers la rejette : Le jour passe av tracers des vitres^ 
et le vent k travjsrs la gaze. Cependant si le com- 
plement qai suit a travers ^tait pris dans uu sens par- 
titif, force serait alors de faire usage de la proposition 
de : // porta ses armes redoutees a travers des espoces 
immenses de terre et de mer. (Bossuet.) 

Nonobstanty confrey tncdgr^. 

510. Nonobstant marqae nne opposition legere : Le 
sc^l^at eommei le crime dans les temples nonobstant 
la saintetS du lieu. — Centre marque aoe opposition 
formeUe : On agit contr£ la r^gle. — Malgrky une op- 
position de T&istance : MAUGRi Us avis. 

Ihiranty pendant. 

511. Ihtrtmt exprime nne dnrfe continue; pendant 
marqae un moment^ nne Opoqne^ cm nne dai€e snscep- 

S42 aixTAXEm 

tible d'interruption. Ainsi Fon doit dire, les efmemis 
se sont cantonnh durant Vhiver^ a'ils sont rest^ can- 
tonnes tant qae Fhiver a dur^ ; et les ennemis se sont 
cantann4s pbndant Fhiver^ s'ils ont seulement fait 
choix de cette saison pour se cantonner, sans cependant 
qu'ils soient rest^s tout ThiFeE dans leur cantonne- 
ment. — Laviiaux. 

Tomber par terrey tomber k terre. 

512. Ce qui est ^leve au-dessus de la terre, tombe d 
terre ; ce qui est debout sur la terre tombe par terra : 

L^ fruits d'un arbre tombent d terrSf et i'arbie lui-m£me» 
e^ant ^ rorage oa au temps, tombe /wrleirra. 

Quant hf qitand. 

513. Qjjuint a est une proposition qui signifie pour 
ce qui est de^ a Vigard de : quant k ^oi^ fy consens ; 
QUANT A L,uiy U &*y refuse. 

Quand est un adverbe qui signifie larsgue, dans le 
iemps quay etc. : <m itait h table quand H arriva, 

Fis-'h'ViSy en face^ face d face, 

514. Wis-h-vis dOsigne le rapport de deux objets en 
opposition dtrecte ; en face ne marque qu'un simple 
rapport de perspective; face h face marque double 
rapport de reciprocity. Deux objets sont face hface^ 
lorsque la face de Tun correspond a la face de I'autre ; 
un arbre pent ^tre en face d'une maison ; deux arbres 
seront vis-h-vis Tun de I'autre. 

Vbidy voith. 

515. Void {vols id) d^si^e le lieu le plus prochej 
voitd. {vois Id) le lieu le plus eloign^ : Faid les ApenninSy 
voilh le Caucase, 

Void a rapport k ce qui suit, et voild, a oe qui prO- 
c^de : 

Void trois m^ecina qui ne se trompent pas : 

Gait^ doax exercice et modeste repas. (Cit6 par Domergub.3 


La dioitare da ocBiir> la v^rit^ Yixmoceaeey rempire nurles* 
paaaioiuy fN»£B la v^ritaJile grandeur^— -MAfiau.i.ov. 

'516. WoTK. The ptq ^o ait ion o», wnetilly med in Bng^Mi bcforetheinorit 
fw%aumiin^ iar» <hy wifthi* wnwic <wr ftg date rf thamflndi, la npvwp <■ ip i M M jf 

IkcwA: & «pi0 «frivf OB 7%wiidqe» fl amfOA jeodi; on ii^^ 

Des pripasitions employ 4e9 absoiumeni. 

517« Presque toutes les pr^positioiis peuvent s^em* 
pIoyerabsoIumentyC'est^iL-dire sans qu'ellei< soientsuivies 
de lear i^me : U aparl^ pour et contbb. 

KocA. Lftpii£|MMiiion«Mr ne ■'ea^laie iinsii%iBie que dans k langige 
: UmHiMemirmtes eiU a tmeof em de Fargiu m.twc 


A/aaml Louis XIY. la FEance* presque sans vaisseanx, tenait 
en vain anx deox men. Bossuet^ — Jour et nuit un homme de 
mer est le jouet des ilemenls ; le &a est Unsjfown pris de con- 
flomer son vaissean, fair de le reaFerser, lean de le submerger, 
et la terse de le brisen Bebv. de St.-Pierrb* — ^Le p^ier a 6te 
invent^ ven la.fin du qaatorzi^me siede, et FimpriBierie vers le 
miliea da quinzseme^ — ^La bmme com^e fat igaoT^Juequ^d 
Moli^re, comma I'art d'exprimer sur le theatre des sentiments 
▼rais et ducats fut ignori/itfyv'a Racine. Voltaire^ — ^L'^lo- 
quence est an art tres-s^rieux, destin6 a instraire, a r^rimer 
les passions, a corriger les moeors, a soutenir les loisy a dinger 
les deliberations publiqaes, d rendre les hommes bons et hen- 
leox. Fehei;oii« — Powr acqa^rir la perfiectioD de I'doqaence, 
il faat avoir un foods de bon sens et de bon esprit, Timagi- 
natioD vive, la m^moire fidele, etc St. £ vremomt. — On re^oit 
lliomnie sttwant fhabit qa*H porte; on le recondoit man 
Tesprit qu'il a montri. — ^La moft arrive dmne le moment, et 
Ton passe en an instant. 

Were yon not in Pkris on (516.) the 3rd oT Jnlj, 1836? 
Yesy I was.^ — ^I learnt that language in nine months. I intend 
to^ b^in mathematies in a week. Say that I shall be there in 
half an hour. — Did you not see that gentleman in (502.) the 
crowd ? No, I did not — Is your father at home ? No, sir, 
he is not I think he is gone to Mr. Richard's. — ^When will he 
be at home? On (516.) Tuesday <Hr Wednesday. — He works 
from morning till night. T/ue rule nmet be ttudied'^ before 
that one. Ton will find the master in his library. Do not place 


yourself before him. Though he is one of the youngest 
pupils, he is always before the others. If we do not make 
haste, he will arrive before us. I shall remain in Paris for a 
fortnight We have not work enough for this afternoon. — 
Where were you during the day ? I was in the garden of the 
Luxembourg. — If you intend going thither, come and see me 
first Behave weU^ towards (257.) him. 

In Asia, in Europe, in Africa, and even in America, we find 
the same prejudice. His collection of pictures and engravings 
is very curious. — ^Was there not an inscription orcr* the door? 
Yes, there was. — As for me, I am not of that opinion. I know- 
he is in Germany, but I cannot tell you in what town he lives. 
Justice and honesty before everything else ^. — Was it not the 
custom among the Italians ? No, it was not — Have yon looked 
upon and under the table? Yes, I have. — They fought for 
two days. The garrison have provisions for twelve months. I 
shall be happy to teach you French, but as to your progress, 
I cannot answer for it, it will depend on (de) your application 
and memory. — NapoI6on had extended his empire from the 
Tagus to the shores of the Baltic. Were you not born during^ 
his reign? Yes, I was. — ^Did not that event take place on 
(516.) the 16th of October, 1808? Yes, it did. 


518. Qucy conjonction^ adverbe, ou pronom relatif^ 
tient la place d'une infinite d'ellipses : 

Exemples gineraux. 

Que pour lequel, laquelle, etc., whom* 

Voilh un monsieur que j'ai vu ce There is a gentleman whom I saw 
matin. thie morning, 

Oii est la demoiselle que vous Where it the young lady waoic 
appelez votre cousine ? . you caU your cousin f 

quoi, what. 

Que faites-vous? que dites-vous? What are you doing? what do 

you say? 


ponrquoi, why. 

Que ne r6pond-il qnand on lui Why does he not answer when he 
parle ? is spoken to f 

comme, how. 

Que tous ^tes heureiix ! Horn fortunate you are! 

combien, how much, how many. 

QcE de bonbeur j*ai eu depuiisun How much happineu I have had 
an ! for this year past I 

Que de malfaeun il a ^prouT^ How uaky misfortunes he has eX' 
dans ses Toyages ! perienced in his travels! 

comme, as. 

Comme voiis ^tes ricbe, et qoe As you are rich, and as you have 
voua avez on bon coeur, faites a good heart, do that for him. 
oela poor lui. 

81, $f. 

Si TOUS alliez a Paris, et que(407.) If you were going to Paris, and 
vons voulussiez vous cbaif^er if you would take charge of a 
d*unc lettre, je I'ecrirais. letter, I would write it. 

cependant, yet. 

Vons auriez tout I'aigent du Bad you all the money in the 
monde, qce vous en d^sireriez world, tet you would wish for 
encore. mare. 

lorsqne, when. 

Je lui parlai QU*il 6tait encore k I spoke to him when he was still 
table. at dinner. 

quoique, although. 

Quoiqn'nne partie du monde Although one half of the world 
cbercbe a tromper, et que be deceitful, and the other half 
I'autre ticbe de faire du mal, wicked, yet we must live in it. 
il faut ponrtant y vivre. 

il faut que, let. 

Que I'on disc k oeux qui passe- Let those who may caU he told 
ront cbez moi que je suis all6 thai I am gone to the Exchange. 

soit que, whether. 

Qu'il perde son proces on Qu'il le Whether he lose his lawsuit or 
gagne, il partira. gain it, he will depart. 

de peur que, for fear. 

Uentrez de bonne beure, que Come home in good time, wok weam 

TOtre p^re ne vous gronde. your father should scold ymu 


946 aTHTAJEB* 


il moiiiB qoe^ imkif. 

Je ne 1mm jamaif qdb je n'aie / ntwer diimk unless / 
8oif. thirsty, 

depids qae, tmee, 

II y a trois ant que je n'al vn ma It is tkreM fsan wmomllume 
famille. myfamiljf. 

pendant que, during which (thatj. 

La nuit qub le tmnblement de The night that the earthquake 
terre arriva^^tait tre^obscure. happened was very dark, 

parce que, because. 
Si je ne vous vois pasce soir, c'est If I do not see you tonight^ it is 
QUE je ne pourrai sortir. because I shall not be able to 

go out, 

jusqu'lL ce que, till. 

Attendez que la trag^die soit fi- Wait till the tragedy is over, and 
nift, et nous sortlrons ensemble. we shall go out together, 

afin que, in order that, 

Approchez que je vous parle. Come near, in oedee that I may 

speak to you, 

sans que, without, 

Je ne vais jamais au th^&tre qoe* / never go to the theatre without 
je n'y voie cet bomme. seeing that man. 

avanfc que, before, 

Je n'irai point \k que * tout ne soit / shall not go there befoee every- 
pr6t. thing is ready, 

519. Que s'emploie aussi dans certaines phrases ex- 
clamatives entre Fadjectif et le verbe ^tre : Insensi que 
vous ^tes I 

520. Et enfin que est redondant (c^est-^-dire superflu) 
dans certains tours de phrase qu'on peut appeler idio- 
tismes ou gallicismes^ comme quand on dit : 

Que s*il m*all^gue telle raison 

Que s'il se fache 

* Dans ces deux exemples, Je ne vais jamais au theatre ovEJe n'y voie 
cet hommetje n*irai point Id que tout ne soitprity il y a plutdt substitution 
de pbrase qu'ellipse. En effet, que Je n'y voie cet homme peut etre rem- 
place par sans guefy voie cet hoinmef et que tout ne soitprit peut Stre de 
3ieme remplaoe par avmU que tout soitprSt* 

8TNTAXE jam C09f JUNCTIONS. 317 

C*e8t pea que de poss^er des viriMflieB*. 
. C'est UQ devoir que ^f obliger sea amis. 
C'est ^Ire sage que de ae defier des m^chants. 
Quel plaisir que de revoir sa patrie !' 
U ne laisse pas que d^tre generenx. 

Daxu oes ezemples on pent SBpprimer qwe et dire : ^U nCaJBkgue telle 

raitoiu 4^t/ tefdehe. Ceet peu de potteder dee riekeaet: e^ett tm 

demtir d'okBger jet oant, etc Cest le gout qui e& d^cid& 

NoTA. '* Ne pat Unuer de^ ne pae hitter que de, c'e8t-a*dire, ne pas 
cesser, ne pas s'abstenir, ne pas discontinuer de. Mafyr^kwr brwHterie^ 
tf k'a pas LAismauBOBAtf eeriire. B ett pmnore, laactaf m umssb pas 
ft'itre Junmele hoimme** Acad. 

NoTA. Les conjonctions qni veulent le Yeibe soivant an subjonctaf sont 
cHte a la page 308, regie 421. 


521. La conjonctiott ni joint deux propositions nega- 
tives, pleines ou elliptiqnes, lorsqu^eUes sont svmilairesy 
c'est-a-dire, lorsqu'elles sont modifiees> par le m^nie 
sens n^atif, comme dans : II ne mange ni ue boit ; il 
ne boit point d^eau ni de vin. 

La conjouction et joint au contraire deux proposi- 
tions non negatives, comme il mange £t ilboit bien; — 
ou une positive et une negative, comme il mange et il 
ne boit pas ; — ou deux propositions n^atives dissimi" 
laireSy c'est-a-dire dont ehacune a un sens n^gatif qui 
]ui est propre, comme dans il n*apaa ha sapotien^ et 
il ne e'en est pas trouv^ plus mal. 

Dans ce cas, la conjonction et est simplement addi- 
tive, tandis que ni lie intimement les deux propositions 
soumises au m^me sens negatif. 

Voila pourquoi Fon dit r Je r^aime pas la guerre et 
ses funestes ravages, ni Pambition el ses pretentions 
irifustes. Le sens negatif ne tombe ici que sur la guerre 
et rambitiou ; ce qui suit cbacun de ces mots n'en est 
considere que comme les effets. 

Pendant que^ tandis que* 

522. Pendant que d^signe Fepoqne; tandis qne 


marque les rapports moraux et fait sentir les con- 
trastes : 

Pendant que Finnocence dort, le crime veille ; tandis que 
rinnocence dort en paix, le crime ne dort que dans le tour- 

Qfiandy Icrsque. 

523. Quandy lorsgue, s'emploient souvent Pun pour 
I'autre ; c'est une faute : on met quand pour signifier 
dans le temps qtie, en supposant quey dans quelque 
temps : 

Qu'on est malheureux quand on est au-dessus du reste des 
hommes I 

Quand le malheur ne serait bon 

Qu'li mettre un sot a la raison, 

Toujours serait-ce k juste cause 

Qu'on le dit bon k quelque chose. — La Fontainb. 

On met lorsque pour signifier da7is les occasions oU^ 
pour peu que^ au moment oU : 

Larsqu^on est assez heureux pour entrevoir une lueur de 
v6rit6, La droiture du coeur doit suppler h ce qui manque a 
r^yidence de la lumidre. 

QuoiquCy quoi que. 

524. QuoiquCy comme conjonction, s^ecrit en un seul 
mot. II repond au quamvis des Latins. 

Quoique vous disiez la v6rit6, on ne vous croira pas. 

Quoi qtie^ en deux mots, signifie quelque chose que. 
C^est le quidquid des Latins. 

Quoi que vous fassiez, vous ne r^ussirez pas. 


525. Note. *^ The conjunction mais, but^ yet^ howeter^ is derived from 
the Latin magit^ more." Manuel ETYMOLOoiauE. — In the familiar style 
of speaking it is still used with the meaning of the Latin word, as will be 
seen in the following observation taken from the dictionary of the French 
Academy : 

'' Mais est quelquefois adverbe, dans le langage familier ; et alors il se 
joint toujours au verbe pouvoir par une negation ou par une interrogation : 
Je n* en puis mais, Ce n'est pas ma faute, je n'en suis pas la cause. Si le 
fils a fait une f ante f le pere n*en peut mais. En puis»je nuUs de oot sot- 
Uses ? Si eela est arriv4 en puis-je mais ? " 


IHei6e H amUyie* 

Le flambeau de la critique ne doit pas brikler, mots §elaiier. 
— Le peuple ae figure une f<§licit6 imagiDaire dans lea situations 
^ievees o& il ne pent atteindre, et ii croit (car td est rhomme) 
que tout ce qu'il ne pent avoir, c'est cela mdme qui -est le bon- 
heur qu'il cherche^ — ^La m^moire de Henri IV sera toujours 
cbdre aux Fran^aiSj/xiivc ^'il mettait sa gloire et son bonheur 
i rendre le peuple beureux. — Quel progr^ ne fait-on pas dans 
I'itude, quand on soutient de loogues veilles par la sant6 et par 
la Constance, quand, outre ses propres lumi^res, on a le oonseil 
et la communication des grands hommes, H quand on joint ^ 
rassiduit6 du travail la faolit^ du g6nie I — Dieu existe, car ce 
qui pense en moi, je ne le dois point k mol-m^me. 

Theme (258.)- 

He devotes himself to letters and sciences. If you have friends 
and are denraus^ to keep them, prove to them your esteem. 
When do you go ? I shall go tomorrow* — ^You do nothing but 
talk. You must wait till they give you an answer. How un- 
fortunate he is ! How many misfortunes you have experienced ! 
Suppose they were ill, what would become ofthem^? Provided 
they do what you tell them. Not that we are satisfied with 
their conduct. In case they do wrong, tell me of it ; be not 
afraid. You said it, and yet you deny it. I will explain to 
you every difficulty that you may not h^ disheartened^ ia your 
undertaking. Although she is younger than her sister, she has 
much more perseverance. How many persons die victims of 
their own follies I As for war (51 S.), 1 have always held it in 
abhorrence, and I wiU ever oppose it with my utmost power. 


526. Ahf Ha! Ho! Oh! O! BS! Eh! (261.) 

Ah ! exprime la joie on la douleur, et Aa .' la surprise : Ah ! quei 
hamkewr! Ha! e'estvotu. 

Ho! marque r^tonnement : Ho! que dites-vous? On s'en sert 
ansai poor appeler. Oh ! s'emploie dans les autres exclamations : 
Ob! quelhamhew! O! est en g€n6ral un signe d'appellation, d'in- 
vocation, et s'emploie avec les substantia et les pronoms. 

HSI sert prindpalement 4 appeler, k avertir: Hi! venez done. 
Hlfc ! qu^aUem^ooiuMfaire t Eh ! exprime mieux la douleur, la plainte : 
£h! qtn n'apasfieuri quelqueperte erueiie! 

360 flTNTAJUl, 

d humanity I penchant g^^reux ct subMrnB, qnirvoMian- 
imncez dans notre enfance, pa* les tran^xirta d'une tendxeaie. 
naive; dans la jettnessey par la thnisiU^ d'une eonfiance av^ogle;: 
dans le coon de notre vie^ par la hcihth avec laquelle aoua. 
contraetonB de nonvelles liaisons I ens de la. nature, qpi 
retentissez d'un boutde I'lmiyeffB k Tautre; qui nous remplisaec 
de remords quands nous opprimons nos semblables^ d'une 
Yolupt6 pure quand nous pouvons les soulagerl 6 amour! 
6 amiti6 1 d bienfaisanee I sourcea intarissables de biena et de 
douceurs I Ah I les hommes ne soni malheureux que parce 
qu'ils refnsent d'entendre votre Toix. 


527. On appelle onomatopie (Svoiuif onoma, nom, et n-oico), poiS6,je 
fais), la formation d*un mot dont le son est imHstif de la chose qu'il 
signifie. Les muts haMRer^ to prattle ; baUlm', to gape ; barboiery to 
dabble; bombe ; botdUir; bnMter^ to brawl ; bredouilkr, to gabble^ brUer^ 
to break; 6rotiA<i^ uproar, hubbub; broiment, pounding, grinding; 
hruissemBfUf rustling; cataracte; choc; chuchotter, to whisper; claque, 
slap ; elmquement, clapping ; cliquetU, din, clang of arms ; craquer ; 
orier; croquer, to craunch; crouler, to fall or sink in; diffrinffoler, 
to tumble down stairs ; icrasert to crush ; fanfare, flourish of trum- 
pets; fifre, fife; fianquer, to hit, to slap; fie flac, thwack thwack; 
fracasser, to shatter; /rAnir, to shudder ; jroieser, to bruise (by pres- 
sure), to rumple ; froler, to graze ; ffaloper ; gargartBer, to gar^e ; 
glisser, to slide ; glouglou, gurgling ; gr<Uter, to scratch ; grifej talons ; 
grincement, grinding, gnashing; grander, to scold; JluJier, to hoot; 
hkser, to hoiBt ; hoquet, hiccup ; lapper, to lap-up ; moue^ pouting ; 
tnurmurer; pan, paiapatap^n, pattUras, povf, flap, slap, bang; puer^ 
to stink; racier, to scrape; rataplan, rantanplan (imitation of drums) ; 
rauque, hoarse; rixe, scuffle; ronflementj snoring, roaring; roue, 
'wheel ; scier, to saw ; touffler, to blow ; strident, harsh, screaking ; 
tact; tambour, drum; terreur ; tinter, to toll (a bell); t&imerre, 
thunder; torrent; tracasser, to bother; trembler; trictrac, back- 
gammon ; trompette; trotter; vite, quick; xestf pshaw! zigzag, etc, 
sont formes par onomatopie. 

Quel^ues grammairiens appellent mimologiemea (jiAfUofiai, mimi»- 
mat, imiter, et \6yos, logos, discours) les imitatioBs du laagage de 
quelqu'un, enfin certains effets Tooaoxj teb que les cris inoqu^s:^ 
ia page 379 : Prenez une guitare. — Que Teux-tu que j*eB fasse^ j'en 
joue si mal. — Aveo le dos de la main, from, from, ftmn* Baiku* 
XARCHAis. — Le mdle de la caille fait ouan, otum, ouan^ ooait; la 
femelle a un petit son tremblant, crt, cri, Bupvoiu---^'aitendis ccer 
"Enjouel Feu I" etpan/le coup pardt. 



528. n y a deux mani^res de prononeer 17mouil]^ : 
Tune propre au disconrs soutenu^ Taatre k la conver- 
sation. Le mouiU^, dans le disoours soutenu, consiste 
k fiilre entendre un t aprte 17, ind^pendamment de celui 
qui existe r^llement aevant cette consonne, et sans le- 
quel il ne pent y aroir de mouill^ ; ainsi, Hsez billardy 
billety babiller, pilier, tilleuly etc., comme s'il y avait : 
btiiardy biliet, babilier, pilier, tiiieuL Dans la conver- 
sation, on supprime enti^rement 17, et on prononce 
bi-iardj bi-iet, babi-ier, etc. 

Cette prononciatioQ de 17 mouill^ noos vient du gli des 
Italiens. Ainsi, par example, bUlei^ billardy nUdaUlon, midaUhy 
HJUetdj coquiUey etc. sent d^riv^ de bigUetto^ bigUardo, meda- 
gUone, medaglioy tiglioy cochigUa, (M°^ Dupuis, TraUi de 

DE LA PROSODIE.— Page 15. 

529. La prosodie est Tart de dimner k cfaaque sou ou 
syllabe le ton qui lui est propre. Elle pent se diviser ea 
deux parties : I^ L'accent et la quantity ; 2® La ver- 

De Paccent. 

On entend par accent les diff(£rentes inflexions de 
VOLS et les diverse^ modulations dont on pent se servir 

* L'^ere pooin consnttcr le TrmiUdt wen^leaiiom/rtrnfoim^MaM le le- 
MoDJLLBS ikB po6uB VRASigAiss (WhittakfT et C*, Lomhet). 


pour prononcer comme il convient les mots d^une langue. 
Chaqiie province, chaque ville m^me, chaque nation, 
chaque peuple di£^re d'un autre dans le langage, non- 
seulement parce qu'on se sert de mots diffi^rents, mais 
encore par la mani^re d'articuler et de proncmcer les 
mots. Cette esp^ce de modulation dans le discours, 
particuli^re k chaque pays, est ce que I'abb^ d' Olivet 
appelle accent national. 

Pour bien parler une langue vivante, il faut avoir le 
niSme accent, la m6me inflexion de voix que les per- 
sonnes de la capitale qui ont v^cu dans le grand monde; 
ainsi, quand on dit que, pour bien parler fran9ai8., il oe 
faut point avoir d* accent , on veut dire qu'il ne faut avoir 
i)i Faccent italien, ni Paccent picard, ni un autre accent 
qui n^est pas I'accent national. — Dumarsais. 

De la quantite. 

La quantity exprime une Amission de voix plus 
longue ou plus br^ve; elle marque le plus ou le moins 
de temps qui s'emploie k prononcer une syllabe: 


Syllahe longue. Syllabe breve. 

Barre, arr^t, r5se. Barque, berceau. 

530. Ragles de prosodie, donnSes par Pabb^ d^ Olivet. 

P Toute syllabe dent la demidre voyelle est suivie d*une 
consonne finale, qui n*est ni 8 ni z, est br^ve : Sac, nectar, 
selyftl, pot, tuf. 

2° Toute syllabe masculine, qu'elle soit br^ve ou non au 
singulier, est tonjours longue au pluriel : Des sacs, des selsy 
des pots. 

3® Tout singulier masculiu, dont la finale est la mdme au 
pluriel, est long : Le temps, le nez. 

[II faut avouer que ces trois premieres regies pronvent plutdt en faveur 
de Tesprit ingenieux de Tabb^ aOlivet que de la verity du fait.] 

^4-" Quand un mot'finit par I mouill§e, la syllabe est breve : 
Eventail, avril, fauteuil, quenouille. 

5° Toutes les syllabes nasales, suivies d'une consonne qui 
n*est ni m ni n, et qui commence une autre syllabe, sont 


longttes : Jdmhe, jambonf craifUej tremblery pemdre^ fiindre^ 
tdmher, humble. 

6^ Toate %'oyelle suivie de deux tn ou de deux n est breve, 
et n*est plus nasale : Epigramme^ personne, quil prenne*, 

7^ Deux r, qui ne forment qu'un son lodivbible, reudent 
toujours longue la syllabe pr^edente : Arrets barre, bizarre, 

8® Entre deux voyelles, dont la derniere est muette, les 
lettres s on z allongent la syllabe penulti^me : Base^ fr/a«e, 
iUocese, bidsejjranchise, rose, epouse, ruse, recluse, 

9® Les lettres r ct s prononcees, qui suivent line voyelle, 
et pr^c^ent une autre couFonne, rendent la syllabe toujours 
brere : JBdrbe, barque, berceau, informe, ordre,jaspe, masque^ 
burlesque, funeste, piste, risque, paste, brusque, 

liy Tous les mots qui fiiiisseut par ud e muet, imm^iate- 
ment preced6 d*uoe Toyelle, out leur penultieme longue: 
Pensee, armke,j(ne,jenv<ne, vie,je hue, iljone, la rue, la nue» 

Mais, si dans tons oes memes mots Ve muet se change en e ferme, alors 
la penultieme, de longue qu'elle etait, devient brere : Louer, muer. 

IP Quand uoe voyelle finit la syllabe, et qu'elle est suivie 
d*une autre voyelle qui n*e8t pas Ye muet, la syllabe est breve : 
Feed, cree, ac£wn, hdir, doiu/i, ^(ler. 


qui ant une signification differente sdon quails sont pronances 

longs ou brefs. 

Syllabe longue ( - )• SyUabe brive ( w ). 

Bailler, to gape. BSiller (a law term), to give (on 

Bat, paci-taddle. Bat (il), he beats. 

Bete, beast. Bette, beet. 

Beailt^, beautg, Bott^, booted. 

* Cette legle n'est pas sans exceptions : Enhui, et see d^nves; kkko- 
blik; etc. 

Remarqme sur la pronomeiation dee mots MSVOBVtR, kmokgiteillib, etc. 

Dans les mots composes commenfant par en, snivi d'nne voyelle ou d'nn 
h mnet, si le prepositif est /, comme daiis let mots ^kerver, hiMmirer, il 
tuA prononcer i-wener, i-wtmirer ; mais lonqoe le prepotitif est cii,il est 
uccessaire de consenrer a cette syllabe la pronondation qu'elle aonit si elle 
ctait isolee. Eiaorer^ enorgunUir, emtobUr doiveut en oons^oenoe se pro- 
voooer en-itrer, enrorgueiltir, enMbtir, 

t Yoyez la note an bas de la page 9. 



Cote, ribf coasL 

D^oute (il), A0 ditguits, 

Faite, summit, 1 

Fete, feast. J 

Tcretf forest, 

Goute (il), he tastes. 

Grave, ffrave, 

Hote, host, 

J ais, jet, 

J eune, fasting. 

Legs, legacy. 

Lalsse (je), I leave. 
Mfutre, master. 
Matin, mastiff, 
Maase, maee, 
Male, male. 
Pate, dough. 
Paume, tennis, 
Pecher, to fish, 
R5gner, to cuf, fare. 

Sas, ttVoe. 

Scene, ictfit«. 

Cene, ^A« Lories Supper. 

Saine,/nii. ofsm, mkoleeome, 

Tete, AtfoJ. 

Tache, <a«^. 

Tacher, to try. 

Vaine,/?j». ofytaa (atff.)^ 

CSte, a numeral or alphidteHcal 

D^goiitte (il), it drops, trickles, 

Falteffsm. of (ait, done. 

ForSt, hradaml. 
Goiitte, drop. 
Gr&ve (il), he engraves. 
HStte, basket, dosser, 
JSt, cast, 
Jedne, young. 

{Laid, ugly. 
Lait, milk. 
Lalsse, leash. 
M)Htre, toput. 
Mttin, momifi^. 
M&ae, mass, heap, 
lAme, trunk. 
P&tte, paw, 
PSmme, apple. 
PScber, to sin, 
RSgne, scmf. 

f f S, here. 

iS, Afti, Aer, or Us. 

I Seine, a rtoer tn France, 
I SSnne, a rt Mr in Belgium, 

TStte (il), he sucks, 
Tfiche, stain. 
TSfiber, to stain. 
Veine, vein. 

^ Si Ton ne met pas dans ces homon]^^^^ 1a diffiorence qu'ezige leor quan- 
tity respective, ce d^ordre dans la pronondation entrainera le d^rdre et 
la confosion des idte. — ^EarrABAC. 

[Voyez les Remarques Ut ti r ai re s et grammatieales pour servir d*intrO' 
dueiion d la lecture d kaute wrix, et d la dSekanation, Rxbibtoibb lct- 
TEBAiRB, page xziv.] 


532. C^est par imitation qu'on a 6tendu la distinction 
du mascfilin et du f^minin aux noma d'objets inanim&t. 
On a fait le soleil (sox., m.) du genre masculin, la lune 

* Exemple : Ces pieces sont sous la cote A ou la cote B, those pepers 
are in the letter A or B. 



(luna^ f.) dti genre f^minin, etc. Nous avons d^ja vu 
(44.) qu'il n'y a que Fusage qui puisse faire acqu^rir 
cette connaisBance. 

533. Qoant aux noms d*etres animus, nous ajouterons 
quelques d^veloppements indispensables : 

1^ Pour designer le male et la femelle d*une mSme esp^ce, 
nous employons deux mots diff^rents : Sbmmeyfemme, 




B^lier, ram. 


BouCy goat ; 


Bourdon, drone ; 




Chapon, aqxm; 


Cheval, horse ; 


Cockon, pig; 




Coursier, steed; 


Etalon, stallion ; 


Jars, gander ; 


Li^vre, hare ; 


Mouton, sheq) ; 


Sanglier, wild-boar; 


Singe, monkey ; 


Taureau, hull ; 


Verrat, boar ; 


2® Pour d&igner le male et la femelle, nous avons aussi un 
mot unique, yariable seulement dans sa tenninaison: Dieuy 




Ane, ass ; 


Agneau, hxah ; 


Canard, draike; 




Chien, dog ; 


Ckeyreuil, roAiuk ; 










TsLOUj/awn ; 


Lapin, rcUfbit ; 


Lion, lion ; 


Loup, wolf; 


Mulet, mule ; 


Ours, bear; 


Paon, peacock ; 


Perroquet, parrot ; 
Poulain, colt; 



Poulet, chicken ; 


Rossignol, nightingale ; 


Serin, canary ; 


Tigre, tiger r 


3® Quelquefois le male et la femelle sent design6s par un 
seul et m^me nom, tantot masculin, tantdt f§minin. 

RsMARaus. Dans tons les exemples snivants, quand on yeut disting^er 
le sexe, on est obIigi6 d'ajouter an nom de Taninial un mot qni le designe : 
Le mdie de la ioriue, la femelle de Veliphant ; ou la tortue tndle, P elephant 
femeUe, etc. 



Un buffle, a buffalo, 
Un castor, a beaver. 
Un chameau, a catnel. 
Un ^cureuil, a squirrel. 
Un 61^phant, an elephant, 
Un h6risson, a hedgehog. 
Un leopard, a leopard. 
Un rhinoceros, a rhinoceros. 


Une belette, a weaseL 
Une girafe, a giraffe* 
Une hydne, a hyena. 
Une pan there, a panther. 
Une souris, a mouse. 
Une taupe, a mole. 

Un cygne, a swan. 
Un epervier, a hawk. 
Un geai, a jackdaw. 
Un hibon, an owl. 
Un merle, a blackbird, 
Un p§lican, a pelican. 
Un vautour, a vidture. 


Une alouette, a Icerk. 
Une autruche, an ostrich* 
Une cicogne, a stork. 
Une hirondelle, a swaUotc. 
Une m§sange, a titmouse. 
Une pie, a magpie. 
Une perdrix, a partridge. 





Un brochet, a pike. Une anguille, an ee/. 

Ud hareng, a herring. Une carpe, a can, 

Un maquereaii, a mackerel. Une limande, a bretm 

Un saumon*, a salmon, Une perche, aperch. 

Un turbot, a turbot, Une sole, a sole, 


Un crapaud, a toad, Une grenouillei a frog, 

Un crocodile, a crocodile, Une tortue, a tortoise, 

Un lezardi a lizard. 


Un hanneton, a cockchafer, Une araign^ a spider, 
Un papillon, a butterfly, Une fourmi, an ant, 

534. Observations du grammairien Boniface sur k genre de 

qudques substantifs. 


AiGLE. Comme nom de I'animal, ce substantif est masculin 
ou f6minin, selon qu'il d^signe le mMe ou la femelle: 
Vaigle est fier et courageux; Vaigle est remplie de 
tendresse pour ses pettts, elle les dSfend avec courage. 

II est feminin dans le sens de signe militaire, d'armoiries, 
de blason et de constellation, et quand il designe une espdce 
de poisson : L^aigle marine (espece de raie). Les aigles 
romaines ^taient peintes sur les drapeaux. — ^Laveaux. 
Dans les autres accept ions aigle est masculin. 

Amour. Au singulier, ce mot n'est plus que masculin : au 
pluriel, dans le sens de passion, 11 est g6n6ralement des 
deux genres, mais plus souvent f§minin : 

Les amours de Penelope et d'Ulysse wmtpures et s^veres. 
— Chateaub riand. 

Les amours d'Astarb6 n'6taient ignores que de Pygma- 
lion. — ^F6nelon. 

Les poetes, selon le besoin, ont de mkme fait usage des 
deux genres. 

* On se tert aiusi du mot heeard pour d&igner le saumon male. Ce 
mot est indiqu^ dam le Complement du dictUmnaire de CAcademie. 


Cependant, quand il ne B'agit point d'une passion d'an 
sexe pour I'autre, ^miocfrdoit hire du masoulin : 

Taus ces amoun (I'amour du plaisir» I'amoiir de la gloire, 
etc.), si diff^ireni$ entte eux, prouventseulementunegrande 
y6rit6: ceat que tout est amour pour rhomme, et qu'ii ne 
vit que jponr aimer« — Db ^gur. 
Couple. .N'expriniant que le nombre deux, couple est fUmi- 
nin : Une goitfle ilk pigeons siiffUpour notre d^feuner, TL 
est masoulin, si a cette id6e num^rique se joint celle d*union, 
d'assentiment, d'assortiment, d'assemblage : Un couple de 
pigeons njffit fowr ptMpkr une voliire. 

On dit de mdme par extension : Uv beau couple de vases. 
M. de Chateaubriand a dit avec raison : Un couple de ea- 
pucins, D'ailleurs le substantif couple au masoulin est em- 
ploy6 depuis longtemps dans le m^me sens : 

Certmn eat^ d'amis en un bonrg ^tabli. — ^La FoMTAnn. 

D^LiCE. Ce mot est masoulin au singulier, et flminin au 
j>luriel: (Jest un grand d^lice, ce sont mes plus chores 

C'est un^an^ dSlice de boire frais en 6t6. — Domergue. 
Us foulent a lenis pitds les moUes d^lioes. — Fenelon. 
Mais, pour 6viter la rencontre bizarre des deux genres, 
on dit : ITn de mes plus chbrs dilices. 

Enfant. Ce aubstantif est fdminin quand il d^signe sp^ciar 
lement une personne du sexe f^inin. Dans ce sens on 
rempkne ausai au pluriel, mais plus rarement. 

CMrredhnil que ton eceor tannit avec effh>i 

Qoe Je suiB i^Gide, et que j'oee 6tre roi. — ^Victor Hugo. 

Ebpace. B o*est fi§minin qu'en terme d'imprimerie et de 
musique, c'est alors une petite lame pour espacer les mots, 
ou un bkmc entre les lignes de la port^. 

FouDRE. Comme «ynonyme de tormerre, ce mot est presque 
toujours f6minin : La voudre Alette. On dit m^me dans 
le seiis'figar6 : La voudre est &ms ses t/eux. 

Employ^ iigur^ment, il est mascuKn : 

I® Dans le sens d^xoommunieafion : Les vains foudres 

9^ Dans le lena de benches ^^ feu, de Tolcan : Thsjoudres 
ALLUM^s ORONDANTS ouiour de vous. 

3° Dans un foudre de guerre, d*61oquence : 

Je suis done un foudre de goorre.— 'La. Fomwran. 

GKNaE mis KOMs. 8B9 

4^ Uamie de Jupiter : 

AQons fooler aoz pieds ee foudxe ridicule. — CoiaixiiiJB. 
Unfiiudre de Tin est un vaste tonnean qui contieiit plnsieiin mnidi. 

Garde. Vh garde national est uu individu de Ja garde tut' 
tionak, de la la diff^Jioe ou'il y a entre des gardu matHuh 
naux et des gardes naiiomues. 

Gent, substantif f^minin, eignifie futtmn, raee. £n ce sens ii 
ne s'emploie au singalier que dam la polsie fiimilidre : La 
GENT qui parte le turban^ c'est-a-dire, les Turai. Au plnriel, 
il n'est iiflit6 que dans oette locution : JLe drak des cfEVs. 

Hors de li, il signi&e persofineSf et ii n'a point de eingulier. 
II veut au f§minin lee adjectife quiie pr6cddeDt inin]i§diate* 
ment, et au masculin ceux qui le suivent : FoRMis par 
reapMence, les vxeilles gens sont frudsnts. 

On ^t,la bonmes ei'tneiOif gem, tt let jmw et AgiM^fot gens : delala 
r^e sniTante: 

Quand le substantif ^«w est imm^diatement modifi^ par plusieurs adjec- 
tift qui le p^cedeat, ces a^eetifs «ont wbl masculin on au feminxn : au 
masodin, li o^u qui ae ivouve imm^diateBeDt anraat le tnlntaBtif ^eav est 
des deux genrea, eomme hftanete^ aimakk ; an £eminin, dans le oas eon- 

Genre de fadjeet\f ddtermmat\f afMuU 

On dit : Toutes gena tens^e, tons getu de Men vouslldmeront. Certaines 
^0119 VOU9 approuventf dites-vous ; maie quelles gens ? ce sont certains gens 
d*^aire8 peu deUcete, tone gene mt&ettA d wtma tranper (c'est-a-dire, 
qui sont toue) ; de teUes genM aontMs eetimaUee t De toua cos ezemples 
on pent d^uire la regie snivante : 

L'adjectif d^terminatif qui precede imm^iatement le substantif ^0fu, se 
met au fMnin pluriel, a moins que ce snbstantff n'^yeille sp^dalement 
rid^e d'AomiNM, et qu'il ne soit suivi d'un d^termiifatif formant avec lui 
une expression compos^ oomme dans gene d^qjfieire»t gate de lehree^ gena 
de rode, gene de bien, Jeunes-gene est de meme masculin : Certame jeweea' 
gene, mcinte jeunea-gene, 

Certainee gens etudient toute leur vie ; Si la mort, ils ont tout appris, 
excepts ii penser. 

Spartacos se vit juaqn'li six-vingt mille hommes k ws oidres, prdtres, 
bandits, esclaves, transfuges, toue gens feroces et cruelly — ^Vbktot. 

On dit : Tous lee gene eeneA, tons cee honnSiee gene ; toutes lee bonnee 
gene, toutes lee meUlewree gene ; certains honnitee gene, certaines vieiUee 
gene ; quels bravee gene ! quelles eottee gene ! 

On voit id que Ta^jectif determinatif, s^par^ du substantif ^«n«, ee met 
an ffiminin quand il est imm^diatement euivi d'nn a^jectif de forme femi- 
nine, comme bonnee, meUlewree, vieUlee ; ou quand il n'est s^par^ de cet 
a^jectif que par un a(][}ectif d^terminatif, comme dans, toutee les meiUeuree 

jQ me semble qn'on doH ^eriie : Quda aont ces gena ? gude ^taient oes 
bonnes gens ? quels que fusaent ces soltes gena, comme on dit : Ovdlgiiei^ 


unt de ces bonnes gens, eeux de ces bonnes gens, eertabu de oes bomies 

Tout ces gens-lk regardent tonjours a mOle choses ^tiangeres. — J,^, 


n eut bientdt £ut connaissance avec tout les bonnStes gensde la Tille. 

Toutet les vieUles gens. — Laveavx. 

7\e2r sont les gens qu'on voit r^genter runiven. — ^Lbmarb. 

Hymne. II n'est f^minin que quand il exprime un chant 
d'^glise : Les belles hymnes de Santeuil. 

EUes chantaient diuis leur langue des hymnes sacrietk — 


La vie de Turenne eat un hymne k la louange de rhuma- 
iiit6. — Montesquieu. 
Interligne. II n'est f6minin qu'en terme d'imprimerie. 

Office. II est f6minin dans le sens de priparaMon des des- 
sertt, et lorsqu'il signifie le lieu ou on les prepare : 
II y a dans ce palais de grandes offices, — Planche. 

CEuvRE. Ce substantif est g6n6ralement du fiminin. Quel- 
ques auteurs Font employ^ au masculin dans le sens de tra- 
vail important, de grande entreprise, de la on dit, le grand 
(EUVREy pour la pierre philosophale. Le saint ceuvre, un 
GBUVRE de ginie. II est aussi masculin dans le sens d*ou- 
vrage de musique ou de gravure. 

Orge. II est feminin, excepte dans orge monde^ orgeperU, 

Orgue. Masculin au singulier, ce substantif est feminin au 
pluriel: Un bel orguej de belles argues. Pour eviter 
la bizarrerie des deux genres, on dit : C'est un des plus 
BEAUX orgtiesy cest le meilleur des argues que j*aie en- 
TENDUS, etc. 
Periode. II est f6minin en termes d'astronomie, La lune 
fait SA piriade en vingt'netef jours et demi. En termes de 
chronologic. La piriode chaldatque^ la piriode Julienne. 
En termes de m^decine, La piriode daccroissement. En 
termes de grammaire, Periode obscure et embarrass^e. 
Et en termes de musique, Piriode musicale. 

II est masculin quand il se dit du plus haut point ou une 
chose, une personne puisse arriver, est arriv^e. 

II est au plus haut periode de la gloire. — Laveaux. 

II se dit ausfsi d'un espace de temps ind^termini. Un 
LONG piriode de temps. Dans le dernier piriode de sa vie. 

Personne. Voyez la r^gle 374?. 

RsBf ARQUB. On dira au feminin : Personne n'est plns^ofttf qne cette de- 
moiselle comme on dit : On n'est pas plos^'o/ie qne tous. 



QuELQUE CHOSE. D est roasculin quand il signifie une chose^ 
et f§minin dans le sens de quette que soit la chose, ou quelle 
quefui la chose : 

Quelqtte chose qu'il m'a dity m'a surpris. 

Que^ftie chose que je lui aie dite, je n ai pu le convaincre. 


Pour savoir qudque chose, il faut Tavoir appris. — An- 


n me semble que Texpression atOre chose, employee sans 
adjectif d6terminatif dans un sens ind^termin^, doit aussi 
^tre du masculin : Cest autre chose qu*il a dit ; quelque 
CHOSE e«^ pROMis, AUTRE CHOSE est AccoRDiB ; donnez-moi 
AUTRE CHOSE de BON ; demandeZ'lm autre chose, U ne 
vous LE refuserapas. 

BKMABauB. Qudques personnes donnent les deux genres aiix mots 
jv^vbe et r^gU89e\ comme firuit et plante, elles les font feminins: Lu 
p^ubttt lor9gu*mLLXS aont fraiches, ontune chair Jerme; la rxolissb est 
jaundtre. C'est Ik le genre essentiel de ces mots ; mais, comme designant 
le tue extrait de la jiqube oa de la r^Usse, elles leor donnent le genre 
mascnUn : Lb jujttbb, jnwt la touXf e%t pr^irdbU au uolisse. Cette 
distinction, qui n'est pas g^n^ralement ^tabUe, me parait assez juste ; elle 
est d'ailleurs en parfaite analogic avec d'autres substantifs des deux genres 
par ellipse, conmie etpaee, remue, mAmoire, etc. On commence a donner 
de mime les deux genres k vUlnAmre. 

Les autres substuitifiB des deux genres, tels que voile, tfose, tron^tte, 
potte, wurit, tour, remite, pendtUe, etc., me paraissent presenter trop peu 
de ctifficnlt^ pour Itre compris dans laliste prec^ente. 


Page 4>4>. 

535. Voici quelques exemples a Tappui des exceptions k la 
regie 52. 


Des monuments colossals. Daunou. 
Des instants fatals, St. Lambert. 
Des swis finals. Beauz6e. 
Des vents glacials. Bailli. 
Des sons initials. Dumarsais. 
Des sons labials. Boniface. 
Des sons midials. Dumarsais. 
Des sons nasals. Beauz6e. 
Des cierges pascals. Tr6voux. 
Des ouvrages thedirals. La Harpe. 

* Labimuc, tuuaux. En termes d'anatomie. 
























596. BnfABOVB. " L'nMge," dit Bonfiue, << ptfait ptrtag^ sor le pin. 
rid del adjectift auairalf borialj eolotaalf em^fm^tij doeitnd^ dmemi,fi mgui, 

natalj iriviaL Le pluriel en aux me semble pr^enble." 

537* II y a quatre substantifs (53.) qui ont un double 
pluriel ; ce sont aeily ateul, del, travail, qui font : 

Pluriel rSffuUer, Phariel irrigftUUr» 

(Eils-deAxBuf, de bouillon ; t^ux, organes de la rue. 
AleuUy les grands-p^res ; aieuxy les ane^tres* 
TravaiUi poteaux, rapports ; tnwaux^ occi^ations. 

Des CBtU-de-^nxuf sont des esp^ces de fenetres rondes ou 
ovales. On appeUe cdU de peirdrixy une sorte d'ceillet ou 
petit trou rond qui se fait en broderie. 

Cid ne fait cteU qu*en parlant de dels factices, et dans le 
sens de climat : des ciels de lit; cepdntrefait hien les ciei.8 ; 
iEspagne est sous un des plus beaux ciels du numde. Dans 
tons les autres cas ii fait deuxi le ro^oMme des cieuz; Vaaswr 


Travails^ poteaux oii Ton attache les cbevaux fougueox 
poor les ferrer. Travailsy rapports ou comptes rendiis par 
des commis a leurs chefs. 

IXctSe ei anafyse, 

"Les a»i5-de-b(Buf sont des fenfires peu commodes. — ^EDe a 
mal aux yeux. — J'ai encore mes deux (neuls paternd et ma- 
temeL-'-^^ui sert bien son pays n'a pas besoin d*aieux. Vol- 
TAiRE.^^Ce peintre r^ussit dmerveille daiis les dels. — Naples 
est sous un des plus beaux dels de I'Europe. — Les deux an- 
noBcent la gloire de Dieu. — On a mis ce cheval dans les tra- 
vails, — Ce commis a pr^senti plusieurs travails au mioistre^— 
Les travaux de la campagne sont en pleine actiyit^. 

Pluriel des svbstanUfs composes. 

538. Prindpe ghiiraL — ^Tout substantif compost qui 
n'est ppint encore passe a I'etat de mot, (c'est-k-dire, 
dont les parties distinctes sont rapproch^s par le trait 
d'union,) doit s'^crire, dans cfaacune de sea parties, au 
singulier ou au pluriel, selon que le sens ou la nature 
des mots partiels exige I'un ou I'autre nombre, oe que 
la decomposition de Pexpression peut faire connaStre. 

D'apr^s ce principe on dcrira done : 


Un clioii-flear, a e auiij k>m §r ; Des ehooz-ileiiB. 

Un oerf-volanty a kite; DtB cei6-v«laata. 

Le chd^lieii, theeAUf town (of a De-^ j^ cbefe-Uenx. 

Vne plate-lMUide, aJUnper-border; Des plates-bander 

Un petit-maitre, a dandffi Des petite-majtces; 

Un aide-de-camp, an aide-de-camp; Des aides-de-cao^ 

Un che^d'oeoTre, a matierpiece; Des chefs-d'oeuTre. 

Un tiie4xrachon, a eorkterew; Des tire-bouchons. 

Un tire-botte, a boo^ack; Des tbe-bottes. 

Un eui e d eut (Acao.), a toothpick; Des cure-dents. 

Un essnie-main (Acad.), a towd. Des essuie-mains. 

Didie ei a$iafy8e* 

Nos petitS'tnaUres sont I'espece bi plus ridicule qui nimpe 
avec orgueil sur la surface de la terre. Voltaire*— *Vaiae- 
ment rhomme 6ldve des palais et des arcs-de-trionq^hey le 
temps les use en silence. Aime-Martin. — ^Vous poavez don- 
ner aux enfants le spectacle ^nnant de V&Lectncitk atnaofr- 
pb6rique par un cerf^vokaU^ dont la ficelle est fil6e avec un fil 
de laiton, qui attire le feu ^lectrique, et termin^e par un cor- 
don de soie qui en arrete le cours, dans la main de celni qui 
le tient. B. de St.-Pierre. * 


539. n y a en fran9ais qaelques mots dont la termi- 
naison possMe une propriety aogmentative : 

Aiguille, atguiUon, dard. 

Couteau, coutelasy grand couteaa, 6p6e lai^e et pfaite. 
Medaille, midailUmy m^daille qui snrpasse en poiife et 

en volume les m^dailles ordinaires. 

Csouiy croitadej reunion de eroisea. 

Fusil, futiUadey pi usieurs coups de fusil tir& a la foia. 

(EiL, caUadey coup d^oeiL 

540. II y a d'antres mots dont la terminaison possMe 
one propria diminutive, exprime nne id^ de petttc»se : 

AomAUy offHideiy petit ^nesn. 
LiYREy Uuret, petit livrb 




ManteaUi mantelet, petit manteau. 
Marmot, marmotiset, petit marmot. 








ariette, petit air. 
bandelette, petite bande* 
chansormette, petite chanson. 
Jillettey petite fille. 
historiette, petite histoire. 
maisonneUe, petite maison. 
rosette, ornement en forme de petite rose. 

parcelle, petite partie. 
ruelle, petite rue. 
tourelle, petite tour. 

doguinj petit dogue. 

arhrisseau, petit arbre. 
caveau, petite cave. 
* dindonneau, petit dindon. 
faisandeauy jeune faisan. 
lapereau, jeune lapin. 
levratit, petit lidvre. 
lionceaUy petit lion. 
Umveteauy petit loup. 

monceau, amas, tas en forme de petit mont. 
plateau, petit plat. 
soliveau, petite solive. 
vermisseau, petit ver. 

CoRBEiLLE, corbillon, petite corbeille. 
Oiseau, oisillon, petit oiseau. 

Globe, globule, petit globe. 
Mont, monticule, petit mont. 

Partis, particule, petite partie. 

54 1 . II y a aussi d'autres mots dont la desinence ex- 
prime une id^e de m^pris, de compassion^ de pauvret^^ 
en un mot d'une mauvaise qualification : 

Marmot, marmaille, nombre de petits marmots. 

racaille, michante race, rebut du peuple. 
vahtaiUe, troupe de valets. 

paperasse, amas de papiers, d'6crits inutiles. 
populace^ le bas, le menu peuple. 










Crieub, criardy qui crie souvent, se plaint, gronde 

sans sujet 
GuEUX, gueusard, un gueux fieff6. 
Crisrie, crktillerie, crieries r6p6t6es. 
Ris, ricanerie, ris malin, moqueur, injurieux. 

CRiEURf criailleur, qui crie k plusieurs reprisesi et 

pour rien. 
RiEUR, ricaneur, qui rit k demi par malice, ironie, ou 

RiMEUR, rtmaiUeurf mauvais poete. 
Po£te, poitereauy fort mauvais poete. 

M^RE, mardire, mauvaise mdre. 

LouRD, laurdaud, homme grossier. 

RusTRE, rustaudy grossier. 

Nous aTons anssi des diminutifs d'adjectifs en dire : blbuJLtre, bhnth ; 
blanchItbx, fohitith ; etc. 

54>2. C'est principalement de la langue italienne que nous 
avons pris nos augmentatifs et nos diminutifs*; nous n*en 
faisons usage pourtant que dans le style familier. U faut 
avouer que les auteurs du si^cle de Louis XIV t>nt eu grand 
tort de n6gliger ces desinences qui donnent k la langue tant 
d'6neigie, de grace et de concision. 

Qne peot-on dter de pins gradeux que ces vers de Clotilde de Snrrille 
(poete c^^bre dn IS^me gi^e) ? 

O cher enfanielet, my pourtraict de ton pk'e» 
Dors sur le seyn qne ta bousche a press^ I 

Dors, petiot ; doz, amy, sur le seyn de ta mere, 
Tien doulx cBtOet par le somme oppress^ ! 

* Les diminutift italiens se terminent ordinairement en inOf etto, etitno. 
Nons disons ordinairement, car lis revStent une dizaine de formes. En void 
un ezemple snr le mot eata (maison) : eaa&ita, eatina, eaaettma, eatueeia, 
eaterdla, eateUma, comitna, easuccina, easerellina, eahpoku Chacune de 
ces formes ezprime nne nuance de sentiment ou d*id^. En void un autrs 
exemple, cappkllo, nn chapeau ; c appellbtto, unpetit chapeau ; c appbl- 
LiNO, vnjoU petit ehopeau gu'on aime; cappbllettino, tin tret-petit cha- 
peau. Pour ce qui est des augmentatift, cdui du nom d-dessus serait 
CAPPBLLACCio, fi» grond vUam ehcg^eau ; ou simplement cappellonb, im 
fffrand chapeau* 

Nous n'avons gu^ imit^ que dans les sdences les diminutifs latins : 
einsi la botanique volt dans les jeunes pUmtes l^phmmle et la radieuk ; la 
physique a ses corpueeuUe. 

C'est de Titalien que les peintres ont naturalist le diminutif /^rtn«, et 
les m^dedns cette serie n^oessaire pour les divisions des doigts : phakmge, 
phalangme, phalangette. 


PLACE DE L'ADJECnP^Pftge 5a Regie 66. 

543. Les participes pass^ employ^ comme adjec- 
tifi?^ se placent apr^s les substantifs : 

Un homme instrait, vme action defendue. 
On dit cependant, mi Jiir/menteiiry im jowmi/ biweur* 

544. On place g^n^ralement apres leurs substantifs^ 
les adjectifs qui d^signent des quality physiques^ des 
qualit^s ext^rieures ou accidenteUes : 

Une table ronde, un ruban Tert, tme surfaee lisse, am tnoCnc^ 
ment sonore, une odeur infecte, etc 

545. NoTA. Si Ton dit, feffVBmTESjM"<mtief,2p« BLONDS ^nr,&rBLAKCHX 
aub^inef let noirs toucia, la souvaxjaiounef etc., c'ett pour ob&r a cette 
mxtit regie (cit^ par le gmnmairien Boni&ce), q;iie Ta^ectif pr6odde I0 
substan^ quand il en exprime une quality habitaelle,inli^rente ; c'est phis 
alon one ^pithete qu'on a4jectif. Anssi dit-on, un noiix ami, et non mm 
vmiLB kmme; mne bams mtrigue, et non nng B AOwt action; t» Atmarr 
friffm, et non un AOBorr voUwr, 

B^* Qoand on emploie an substaDtif et un adjeetif qualifi- 
catif, eelui des deux mots qui est le plus long se place g6n6- 
ralement le dernier: Une haute montogne^ une numta^ne 
INACCESSIBLE ; k moios que la construction de la plunie Be 
s'y oppose, comme dans, Timmortel OMtieur de TilSmaque. 

547. Nous avons vu (page 51) qu'il y a des adjectifs dont 
la signification change selon la place qu'ils ocoupent. En 
iroici quelques exemples : 

Un bofi homme a de la simplicity. Un homme ban a de la 

Le galant homme est un homme qui a de la probit6, des 
manidres civiles, une conversation agr^able ; VJiomme galant 
est celui qui cheiche k phure aux dames. Un homme galant 
n'est pas toujours un galant homme, et un galant homme n'est 
pas toujours un homme galant 

Un pauvre auteur est un auteur de pen de m6rite ; un auteur 
pauvre est un auteur qui n*a point de fortune. 

Un homme plaitant est un homme enjoui ; un plaisant 
homme est un homme ridicule. 

Autres exemples que fusagefera conntdtre: 

Un teul mot. Un mqt MeuL 

Un vUmn homme. Un homme vUaim. 

Un petit homme. Un homme petU, 


Uoe pauvre lasgue. Une langue pauvre, 

Une mSchante Ipigramme. Une ^pigramme michante, 

Un mauvais air. L'air mauvais. 

Un nouvel habit. Un habit notivtau* 

Les propres termes. Des tertnes propres, 

Le haut ton. Le ton haut, 

Un unique tableau. Un tableau unique, 

Vnefaune clef. Une clef /atiMff. 

Une aage-iemvae, Une femme sage, 

Un fufUux axunuJ. Un animal furieux. 


548. ^' On ne se sert ordinairement des pronoms tu^ tot, te 
ainai que de Tadjectif possessif tan, et du relatif le tien, que 
quand on parle ^ des personnes fort inf^rieures, ou avec qui on 
est en trds^grande familiarity. Quelquefois, au contraire, on les 
emploie dans le style oratoire ou po6tique, en s'adressant aux 
personnes qu'on respecte le plus, aux rois, aux princes, k Dieu 
m^nie* On s'en sert encore en faisant parler certaines na- 
tions, et principalement les Orientaux, lorsqu'on veut leur 
oonserver un caractere Stranger ; et quelquefois aussi dans la 
po^ie. Hors de la, on emploie le pronom pluriel votis, Tad- 
jectif possessif vo^re, et le relatif ie vdtrer — Acad^mie. 

" n est a pr6sumer que le vous k la place du tot a com- 
mence, dans toutes les langues qui Font adopts, par ^tre un 
mode d'urbanite, une marque de d6f(6rence sociale, de respect 
volontaire, qui de la cour aura pass6 dans toutes les condi- 
tions ; et ce genre de politesse a produit successivement une 
foule de nuances si sensibles et si diverses, que le langage en 
a 6te moditi6, de manidre k ne pouvoir s'en passer, sans de* 
venir m^connaissable et sans heurter violemment toutes les 
id6es sociales. Ainsi d'abord le vous 6tant ime marque d'edu- 
cation, a du etre d'usage entre tons les hommes bien Aleves, et 
qui se piquaient de bien parler. Le tutoiement habituel 6tant 
demeur^ k ceux qui n'avaient re9u aucune instruction, aura 
pris un caractere de grossidrete : et dds lors on I'aura proscrit 
g6n6ralement d'un sexe k Tautre, chez toutes les nations po- 
lies, lorsque Fesprit de chevalerie 6tablit en loi le respect pour 
les femmes, auparavant trait6es en esclaves. Le tutoiement 
aura ^t^ g6n6ralement interdit des enfants k leurs parents, des 


jeuDes gens aux vieillards, des laics aux ministres de la reli- 
gion, des domestiques a leurs maitres, des soldats k leurs offi- 
ciers, des eldves k leurs instituteurs, en un mot de tons les 
8ubordonn6s k leurs sup6rieurs dans Tordre social; alors le 
tutoiement aura marqu6 ou une sup6riorite quelconque» ou nne 
familiarit6 intime, ou le mipris ou la coldre : ces modes de- 
venus essentiels au langage pendant une longue suite de 
siecles, s'y sont in corporis de maniire i ne pouvoir plus en 
^tre arrach^ ; ils ont pass6 dans les ^rits, surtout dans le 
dialogue dramatique, et des lors le goiit, qui n'est que le sen- 
timent des convenances, a su varier cet emploi du vaus et dn 
taiy et le marquer par des effets si heureux, qu'il est devenu 
un des moyens les plus riches de Tart d*6crire, et particulidre- 
ment de Tart du th6&tre, en mime temps qu'il exprimait dans 
la sociiti une foule innombrable d'affections morales. II en 
r^ulte qu*aujourd'hui cette difference du vous et du tot est 
r^ellement une source inipuisable de richesses qu'on pent 
appeler idiotiques, nationales, c'est-^-dire, qui appartiennent 
en propre k la langue fran9ai8e, et faites pour balancer, par 
un moyen qui est k elle, les avantages des langues anciennes.** 
— La Harpe, Lemons de litUrature, 

'* Un pire, pr^venu que son fils se propose de forcer son 
secretaire pour y prendre de I'argent, et foumir aux d^penses 
que lui occasionne un fol amour, ouvre lui-meme son secr^ 
taire, y met en Evidence une somme d*argent avec ce billet 
foudroyant adress6 k son fils : 

« Paisqa'un amour infiUne a pour ootif tant d'appas, 
Qu'il voui fait renonoer SL voire propre estime, 
Je veux voui ^pargner un crime : 
Aecepiez, ne derobez pas. 

^' Maintenant, substituez le tu au vousj et voyez Teffet, on 
plutdt le manque d'efiet. Ce ne sera plus la le langage s^vdre 
et noble d*un pire justement indign^; il semble que ce re- 
proche paternel ne serait plus si touchant" BENoiT Lamotte. 
Stance des Ecoles narmales. 

Remarquons enfin le bel effet du tutoiement dans ces vers 
de rei^gant Racine: 


Vous ne r^pondez point ! Perfide, je le voi, 
Tu comptes les moments que tu perds avec moi I 

ANDHOMAauB, Ttagidk. 





Articles; substaniifs. 

L^Kwmoc, fesprit, fimagination, futility fhistoire, les 
himuiiiis. La haine, les hasards. Le fils du roi de France, 
ia oooroime de la reine, i'ainiti6 d'un frdre, le nom de fenfant. 
La grandeur et la decadence des Romains, les oeuvres de 
Racine. A rambesBadeur, d fhonneur, a la dame, d Vesg&- 
ranee, aux gar^ons, anx historiens, aux hameanx. De fltalie 
d la SuiflBe. Deux francs le cent, huit sous la livre. II est 
m^ecuL< — ^£tes-Toa8 Francais ? Oui, je le suis. — Quel bon- 
henr ! qnd dommage I vne si belle chose I Un tel malheur ! 
Apollon, dien des b^ux-arts. Paragraphe six, num^ro quatre. 
•Tai la plnme. — ^As-ta les crayons ? Oui, je les aid — 11 a des 
gants. Nous avons de la perB6v6rance. — Avez-yons du plaisir? 
Oui, nons en avons.^ — Ont-ils de la patience ? Non, ils n'en 
ont pasd — EUes ont de la complaisance. — ^Aura-t-elle une r6^ 
compense ? Oni, elle en aura une. — ^Elles auront des connais- 
sances. J'aurai de la fortune. — Aurait-il de grandes aflaires ? 
n en aurait quelquefois.^ — ^Tu aurais des fleurs odorifirantes. 
Nous n'aurions pas de loisir. N'avez-vous pas des enfants I 
N'avez-vous pas cfenfants ? H est sans amis. Des querelles 
entre yoisins. 


Une amie sindre. Je suis content. Elle eBtprudente. La 
route est escarp^. Un temps pluvieux. Une matinee pht- 
ffieuse. Un enfant vtfi Une action vitfe. Un hommeyrmu;. 
Un grand parleur. Un bon acteur et une honne actrice. Un 
style enchanieur, Un bel oiseau. Un heau cbeval. Une 
bale mode. Elle est douce, C'est une vieiHe maison. Un 
vieil and et un vieux camarade. Elles sont malignes. Nous 
avons de bons chevaux. Tai de bonnes oranges et de belles 
poires. II avait de bon pain, de bonne viande et de bon yin. 
Elles ont les Idvres vermeiUes, Instndt^ plus instruity leplus 
instruiL Son raisonnement est bonj le mien est meilleur, et le 
sien est le meilleur de tons. Vous raisonnez bien, votre ami 
raisonne mieux, et votre fr^re raisonne le mieux de tons. 



Ma d^pense est peiUef mais la vdtre est momdre. Elle est 
trds^'fl^ettf^. Nous sommes bien aUeniifs, U est fort esHmL 
n est hiexi Jbrt et bien adroit. Nons avons autanU de r^ussite 
que vous. Nous n'avons pas tant de moyens que lui. 

Adfedifs numiraux. 

Paris, ^ 15 juin 1844. Le 30 du mois prochain. Depuis 
quinze jours ( 85.)* D*aujourd*hui en htdL Pendant 332 ans. 
Un degr6 ou 25 Ueues. Une lieue ou 2282 toises. Use toise 
ou 6 pieds. Un pied ou 12 pouces* Un pouce ou 12 Ugaes. 
L*unit6 principale des nouvelles mesures est le m^re (voyes 
la page 382)* — Quel quantidme du mois avons->nou8 ? Nous 
sommes au 27 d'aoOit — Avez-irous re^u ma lettre du 17 -da 
courant ? Oui, je Tai re9ae« — ^Le dernier mois de Taiin^e dar- 
niere. Plus de quinze, plus de cent. 


Quand vous yerrez eon mari, vous lui direz que vous avez 
parl6 k Ba soeur et que vous lui avez demande son adreaee. 
Yoici ma cousine et voila la aienne. De ces trois compositions 
la mienne est la plus grave, la tienne est la plus touchante et 
la sienne est la plus sublime. Tan amiti^ et la eienne me sont 
chores. Je le vois, il la volt, nous le voyons et nous lui disons 
la v6rit6. Man frere tacba de la consoler, et lui promit de 
voir son p^re. Je te le donne. Tu me le montres. H lehn 
r6citera. Dites-Ztft que j'aurai sa r^ponse. Ne lui parlez pas 
de sa soeur. Nous vous demandons la raison. Vous nous 
invitez. Us vous pr6sentent mes amis. — Votre frdre est-t7 ici? 
Non, U n'y est pas. — Je leur parlerai. Je la leur offriiai. H 
FsL vue, et lui a donn^ le billet. Vous ^tes fach6,ye ne le suis 
pas. — Mademobelle, §tes-vous la fille de monsieur Dupre? 
Oui, je la suis. — £tes-vous heureuse ? Oui, je le suis. — Mes* 
dames, ^tes-vous les amies de ma cousine? Oui, nous les 
sommes. — £tes-vous sceurs ? Oui, nous le sommes. — Donnez 
d elle et non d lui, Je pense a toi, Je sortirai sa$is toi. 
Partez avec lui ou avec elle, 

Ce cheval est-il k vous? Non, il est k mon voisin. — Ne 
courez pas apres eux, — Qui a fait (xla ? Moi. C*esttot I Non, 
c*est lui, ou c'est elle. — 11 est plus ag6 que moi. Vous avez 
plus de savoir que lui. — N'6tes-vous pas plus heureux qu *euar? 
Non, je ne le suis pas. — Je lui en ai parl6. Parlez-Zeur-efi. 
Non, ne leur en parlez pas. — Vous xj^y pensez pas. Donnez- 
moi des conseils, ne me donnez pas d'embarras. — Pourquoi lui 


«fi eboisiriez-fwiM? Je ne sauzais vous le dir& — YsirUil 6te? 
Oui, t/ y a iilL — ^11 a une belle charge, il y aspirait depais long- 
taiips. Le chiiuigien bd a panse le bras. J'ai mal a la tete 
et au ccBar. Donoez-moi ee livre, cet enciier, ceite plume et 
ees crayons. Otez eed et donnez-moi cela, — Laquelle preferez- 
Y011S de ees coulears? Je prefere ceUe-ci k ceUe-leL — Ce livr&-<» 
est plus int^ressant que celui4cL Ces portraits-crt ne sont pas 
si bien faits que ceux-ld, Celui qui parle m'a doim6 cecL — 
Ceiie plume est mauvaise. Laquelle ? Celle que je vous ai 
donn^e. Ceile qui est sur la table^ — ^Les personnes qui vous 
aiment et celles que vous aimez. Ceux que nous avons vus 
sont partis. La nature dent nous ignorons les ^secrets. C*est 
une condition easu laquelle il ne r6ussira pas« — A quoi pensez- 
vous ? A mon devoir. — Qu'est-ce que c'est ? Rien. 

Pronoms indefinis. 

Connaissez-vous ^ti6/(^'«» ici ? ^on^ personne, — Quiconque 
vous Fa dit a raison. Chacun a son opinion. Quelque grands 
que vous soyez, quelques richesses que vous ayez, et quels que 
soient vos talents, je vous assure, messieurs, que vous ne serez 
pas 6]us. Qvelles que soient vos qualites, vous.trouverez des 
gens qui vous ^^leront en m^rite. On dit que le corsaire est 
pris. — A't-on rei^VL des nouvelles? Oui, on. en a re9u ce matin. 
— ^En Brt-on parl6 ? Je ne le crois pas. — Qui que ce soit qui ap« 
pelle, ne venez pas. Tout ce que vous dites est vrai. Taut 
savant que vous ^tes, soyez modeste. Quand on vous parlera, 
vous r^pondrez. Le th6^tre, o^ Fon repr6sente cette pidce. 
Si Ton me demande, je serai dans mon 6tude. Toutes sa- 
vantes et tout aimables qu'elles sont, ne vous y fiez pas. lis 
out apporti leurs ofirandes, chacun selon ses moyens. Ni Tun 
ni I'autre n*ont £ut leur devoir. 


Je suis bien aise de vous voir. — ^^vesr-vous les moyens n^- 
cessaires? Oui, nous les avon^. — Aura-t-H le journal? Ouiy 
il Vauram — Elle n'aura pas beancoup d'avantages sur lui. — 
Vos amis «oii^ils encore k Londres ? Non, ib sont patfis. — 
Ses demi^res lettres n*et(dent pas consolantes. — Votre 61^ve 
ne prqfiie-UH point ? Non, pas du tout — Des historiens v6- 
ridiques n'ont-ils pas racont^ oes faits importants ? Flusieurs 
en ont parle^ — Mon fr^ et son amie sont arrivis, — A qui 
parle-je ? A moi. — Est^ce que je cours ? (149.) Est-ce que 
je crois ce que tu m'aa dit ? Vous devriez le crotre^^-Vous 


ffiendrez, n'esi-ce pas ? Peut-^tre. — II parte fran^ab, n^est-ce 
pas? Un peu. — 11 est tard, n'est-ce pas? Oui, il est trd»- 
tardd— Qui soni ces messieurs ? Ce soni mes amis. — On awut 
le roi, et Ton craint le ministre. Mon pdre lui pardonne. 
Vous et votre ami, vaus parlerez au directeur. Pendant mon 
B6jour k Paris, ]*allais tous les jours me promener aux Tnile* 
Ties. Je 1*7 voyais tres-souvent. II vint me voir hier. Je 
Fat vu ce matin. — Quand trez-vous k Paris? L'ann6e pro- 
chaine. — Je disire que vous veniez me voir, et je voudrais 
qu'ils vinssent aussi. — Voulez-vous que yaille k T^glise ? Cer- 
tainement, je le veux. — AsseyeZ'YOxiSy ma soeur, vous avez Tcdr 
faJdgui. JBuvez un verre d'eau. Ces lettres ne sont pas Scriies, 
Ma sceur est tombSef elle a passi la nuit sans dormir. Avez- 
▼ous lu la lettre que j'at ^ert/<e ? Oui, je Yai lue, — Avez-TOMA 
6crit la lettre que j*at liie? Oui, c'est moi qui Tat icriie* — 
H veut que vous fassiez votre devoir. Nous voudrions que 
vous lussiez les joumaux. Permettez-xxioi de vous fidre oh^ 
server que nous leur avons icrit plusieurs fois, et que nous ne 
crayons pas qu'ils aiemt recu nos lettres. 

• Verbes rijlichis, 

Je me propose de vous enseigner. lis se promettent le plaisir 
d*aller au mus6e. Nous nous habillons, II se live h, cinq 
heures; et vous, a quelle heure vous levez-vous? A sept heures. 
Us se ditestent. — S^alarme-t-il sans raison? Oui, tres-sou- 
vent. — ^Ne sennuiera-t-il pas k ce concert ? Peut-^tre. — S*y 
est'il abonne ? Oui, il sy est abonni, — Mesdames, vous etes' 
vous promenees ce matin ? Oui, monsieur, nous nous sommes 
promenies pendant trois heures. Nos freres se promenaient a 
cheval, pendant que ces demoiselles se promenaient en bateau. 
— Ddpechez'vous, Allez-vous-en, Je ne m^en souviens ^as. Ces 
deux amis se sont embrass6s. Le vin se hoit en France. Ne 
nous laissons pas tromper. Se sont-ils rijouis de cette ren- 
contre ? Oui, tant soit peu. — Les soldats se sont-ils empares 
de la maison ? Pas encore. — Vous Stes-vous blessif Je me suis 
coupe diM poignet — Vous portez-vous mieux? Oui, beaucoup 
mieux, je vous remercie. — // ^'e*^ enrhum6. 

Verbes impersonnels. 

Ilyade bonnes raisons.^ — Ya-t-il beaucoup de monde? 
Non, il n*y a person ne. — Fly a une heure que je vous attends. 
fly a longtemps qu'il est parti. // est des hommes que la r^- 



flistaooe anime, il eneH d'aatres qu'elle d^ourage. H fcM 
que vous lui r^pondiez. H luifaut r6pondre« HmefatU dea 
moyens. H sefait tard. H rrCen caiUe beaucoup de lui faire 
des reproches. 77 ntffit de le faire. J7 ne ndgepas, mais U 
faitfrwdi — Crois-tu quHlpleuve 9 Non, ilfaii trop de vent. — 
II nefauipas que vous veniez si tard. H me vient une id6e. 

Idtotumes (voyez la page 377). 

II venait d'arriver. Je doia lui parler et il va sortir. H de* 
vrait me r^pondre. II a £?tl sortir.— Aurait-il pu faire autre* 
ment? J'en doute. — lis auraient pu parler plus haut. Dites- 
moi de quoi il s'agit, — J7 se trouvait alors k Paris. FaUes-^moi 
voir ce que vous avez 6crit. On dirait que vous ^tes malade. 
J*aime beaucoup la lecture. — Comment cela va-t-ilj mon ami ? 
Je me suis fait arracher une dent. — Voulez-vous batire lea 
cartes? Si cela pent vous faire plaisir. — ^Vous pouvez compter 
sur luL Je ne m*y connais pas. J'en conviens. Le bruit 
court qu il est mort. Je crois que non. Je crains qu*il ne 
pleuvcy car le temps 9e couvre, Le vaisseau a coul^ k fond. — 
Qu'en diteS'YOVLB ? Cela va sans dire. — ^11 parait qu'elle s'en 
donne k Paris. Cela 8*entend. FaHltes mes amities k vos en- 
fants. (Test un bomme comme U faut. Qu*est-ce que cela 
Ttiefait? LaissezAe, Elle se met k son aise. II ne pent se 
passer de vous. 

Elle a pens4 mourir de chagrin, elle n*en pouvait plus de 
douleur. Cela sepeut> Elle ne sait k qui s*en prendre. Faites- 
moi rappeler que je dois lui 6crire. Cela revient au mdme. 
jRemetteZ'Vous, Je ne saurais le faire. II a servi, II tarde 
bien k venir. II ne tient qu'^ moi de le faire, et je saurai bien 
m'en tirer. Ne trouvez pas mauvais que je vous disc que vous 
Ti*en viendrez jamais d bout, car vous n'y entendez rien. Faites 
comme vous voudrez, mais ne m'en votUez pas. Menez cet en- 
fant k r^cole — Vous amenera'i'T\ votre cheval ? Non, il est 
parti depuis une heure. — II emmena mon frere dans son car- 
rosse. JRemenez cet enfant a sa m^re. Portez ces livres dans 
mon 6tude. Apportez-moi de Targent. Emporiez ces lettres. 
Heportez ces papiers dans ma chambre. — Comment se portent 
monsieur votre pdre, madame votre m^re, et mesdemoiselles 
vos soeurs ? Assez bien, mercL — Eh bien, mon ami I Comment 
fe/x>rte7i^ tafenuneettesenfants? Comme cela. Toutdouce- 

^t;e2r-vous faim ? Non, mais j'nt aoif — Tu as chaud et nous 
avons froid. Vous avez raison et il a tort* Vous avez huit 



«M, mon ami, et voub avez peur de voire ombre 1 H fait 
wmbre. — Quel temps ^atZ-t'/? 1\ fait beau. Ufait mauvais. 
— FaU-il chaud f Non, il/at^/rotrf.— II 9efait nuit Faites 
attention. U 9, fait banqueroute. Ce matelot di,fait naufrage. 
Ceci est k Yotifirais et dipens, Ne d§se8p6rez pas, vous ferez 
6eiAprogris. — Que vous reste-t-U? Trois francs et demi. — Que 
dtra-t-onf si Fon en trouve f On nous grondera. — II y a beau- 
coup de monde dans cet h6teL JBien des gens sHmaginent que 
ce g^n^ral est mbrt. U est revenu de Paris. — Quand retour- 
fi€**ei7-vous k Londres? Le mois prochain. — Nous sommes partis 
de tris-grand matin, et cependant nous ne sommes arrivis qu'^ 
midi. Nous mourions de chaud, nous avions une tres-grande 
faimy et une tris-grande soif, Cet effet, qui me parait tres-nar 
turel, ne me parait ipasfart nouveau. Les choses vont de mal 
en pis. Le remede est pire que le mal. Votre fils a tout 
disdipe, a tout mang4 ; et vous voulez lui taut pardonner I n 
dit taut, il a tout expliqu^. 

Je vous prie de faire bien des compliments de ma part k mes- 
demoiselles vos nidces ; elles sont toutes venues ici l'^t6 dernier, 
et je d6sire beaucoup qu'elles reviennent V6t6 prochain. Re- 
cevez mes tr^-humbles remerciments pour la faveur qu'il vous 
a plu de me faire. lis le venlent forcer k croire tout ce qu't/ 
leur plait. H se plait k mal faire. Ette se plait dans ses larmes. 
— Vous serveZ'WOMs du Dictionnaire de T Academic ? Oui, je 
m'en sers. — Ce mot n'est gudre usite. Cet habit est tout im^. — 
Connaissez-yoMs cette r^gle ? Je la sais. — Je connais monsieur 
votre oncle. Cela niest 4gal. Comment pouvez-vous qjouter 
fax aux discours de cet homme ? il e» impose a tons ceux qui 
r^coutent, et les trompe effront6ment. — Les ennemis s'avan- 
c^rent centre cette troupe ; mais la fiere contenance de nos 
braves leur imposa : ils se retirerent sans bruler une amorce. 
Qu'avez-vous a la main? Rien* — Songez k ce que vousyat^^. 
Je nefais que cTentrer. H ne fait que rire. — Que faut-41 faire ? 
Son devoir. — Que vousfaut-il? II mefaut de Targent. 

Avez- vous 6t6 chez lui ? Oui, j'ai 6t6 chez lui deux fois. — 
£tes-vous d mhne de le faire ? Non, je ne le suis pas. — Vous 
avez beau dire et heaufaireyye le veux. Faites-le faire sur-le- 
champ. £st-ce de V argent comptant 7 a la bonne heure. Vous 
parlez d tort et d travers. Vous voulez m'en donner a garder, 
Je vous parle en ami. C'est d bon marcM. Je I'ai echappe belle. 
Vous vouliez m* en faire accroire. Je n*en puis plus. — En avez- 
vous besoin ? Oui, ^en ai besoin. — II 7ie tient qu a vous de 
sortir. II fait grand cas de cette nouvelle connaissance. 



Jouona atix caries, II ne fout pas m'en vaidcir, Fous trout 
eonnaissez en tableaux. Mettez^vous au dessin. — A qui vous 
en preneZ'iHms ? A vous, c'est votre gaucherie qui est cause 
de mon manque de r^ussite. — Cela va mal, J'en d&neure 
d*accord, AlUms, tUlons, d^p^chez-vous I Jouez-vousau^t^ 
lard ? Jamais^ — ^11 s'avisa de faire une demaude siqguliere. 
Ne vous avisez pas de le croire. Cette femme a un bon car 
ractere. Son Elevation Ta mise en butte aux traits de Tenvie. 
JSn taut COS, 6crivez-lui. Si mes amies yieDneatyenvojfcZ'nun 
chercher. II s'est mis en condUimu 

Coup de tonnerre ; coup de mer ; coup de main ; coup de 
fusil ; coup de pistolet ; coup de canon ; coup de feu ; coup 
d'oeil ; coup de dent ; coup d'6p6e ; coup de sabre ; coup de 
baton ; coup de vin ; coup de langue, etc — Encore un coup^ 
vous avez tort. II a fait son droit k Paris. Quelle inconsi' 
quence nous avons commise I — Battre le tambour, les cym- 
bales. — DoNNER du cor. — Jouer du violon, de Talto, de la 
basse, de la flute, de la clarinette, du flageolet, du hautbois, 
du basson, et de tons les instruments. — Pincer de la harpe, 
de la guitare. — Sonner la trompette. — Toucher du piano, 
de Torgue, 


La reruxmtre. 

Bonjour, mon ami. Monsieur, je vous salue. — Comment 
vous portez-vous? Trds-bien, je vous remercie; et vous? 
Tout doucement, comme k Tordinaire. — D'o^ venez-vous 
done ? Je viens de la bourse. — Et o^ allez- vous ? Je vais a 
la banque. — Je vous rencontre h. propos, j'allais cliez vous. 
Pour quelle affaire ? — Je voulais vous demander des nouveiies. 
Des nouveiies I de qui done? De votre onde. — ^Lequel? 
vous savez que j*en ai deux* — Celui qui est actuellement a 
Paris. — Xen attends ce soir; faites-moi le plaibir de passer 
chez moi demain matin, je vous ferai voir ce que j'aurai re^u. 
-^Je vous remercie, je n'y manquerai pas. Sans adieu. 


Madame, je vous souhaite le bonjour. — Que je suis aise de 
cette visite ! Asseyez-vous, je vous prie. II y a bien longtemps 


que je n*ai eu le plaisir de vous voir ; comment vous ^tes-vous 
porti? — Assez bien; et vous-mfeme?— A mon ordinaire^ 
passablement. — Je me suis pr^nt6 hier pour avoir Thonneur 
de vous saluer ; vous veniez de sortir. — Je regrette beaucoup 
de ne m*6tre pas trouv6e chez moi. Faites-moi le plaisir de 
diner avec nous. — Vous avez bien de la bont6 ; je ne puis 
m'arr^ter plus longtemps, j'ai promis de me rendre ^ llidtel H 
cinq heures. — Quoi, vous vouiez d6j^ pariir ! Restez encore 
un moment.— 'C'est ^ regret que je vous quitte sitdt, je resterai 
plus longtemps une autre fois. — Quand aurons-nous le plaisir 
de vous revoir? — S'il est possible, je reviendrai demain^ — 
Adieu, portez-vous bien. Au plaisir. 


Quelle heure est-il ? II est neuf heures ou neuf heures cinq. 
— ^Vous vous trompez, mon ami, il est neuf heures et un quart. 
— C'est vous qui avez tort, voyez la pendule. — Mon fr^re croit 
qu'il n'est pas encore neuf heures, qu'il est neuf heures moins 
un quart — EcoutezI voilaVheure qui sonne: un, deux, trois^ 
quatre, cinq, six, sept, huit, neuf. Neuf heures I Partons vita, 
^ Tecole I — A quelle heure arrivera le maitre d'allemand ? A 
onze heures moins dix, et il restera jusqu'a midi et demi. Nous 
pr6parerons ensuite nos lemons de fran^ais, et nous serons 
fibres a deux heures et demie ou d trois heures au plus tard. 

Le Rentier jour de Van» 

Je te souhaite une bonne et heureuse ann6e, mon cher 
Jules. — Merci, ma sceur ; je te souhaite aussi tout ce qui peut 
faire ton bonheur. Oh I que je suis content I je saute de joie. 
— Mus qu'as-tu done ; quel est ce grand plaisir? As-tu d6ja 
re9u tes ^trennes? — Oui, je les ai revues et je vais te les 
montrer. Vois, de fort jolies choses : un fusil, un sabre de 
hussard, une gibeme, un casque, des pistolets de bois qui ne 
sont pas dangereux, des quilles, une ligne, des hame^ons et 
un filet pour la p^che, des maisons a dbnstruire, un superbe 
polichinelle, des images, des figues, des oranges, des fruits con- 
fits, une boite pleine de bonbons d^licieux, une douzaine de 
biscuits ^ la cuiller, et une corbeille pleine de papillotes. 

Le voyage. 

Comment vous proposez-vous de voyager? D'abord par 
mer ou par terre ? — Si je voulais faire ce voyage, il me fan- 


drait prendre le paquebot ^ voile ou bien le bateau k vapeur.-^ 
£t quels sont les moyens de transport par terre ? — Premidre- 
ment, le chemin de fer, ou si vous avez des craintespour votre 
respiration, louez une voiture, ou m^me un fiacre ou un cabrio- 
let^.ouy si vous le pr6f6rez, prenez une place dans la malle- 
poste ou dans la diligence, et pour 6viter des frais vous pour- 
ricz envoyer vos effets par le roulage ordinaire, ou si vous ne 
pouviez attendre si longtemps, envoyez-les par le roulage ac- 
c614r6. J'avais presque oubli6 d'ajouter que vous avez encore 
le choix d'aller a pied ou k cheval. 

L*ititde dufrangcds. 

On m'a dit que vous apprenez le fran9ais. — Oui, je T^tudie 
depuis six mois. — Avez- vous trouv6 cette 6tude difficile ? je 
sais que vous ties infatigable, que vous ne vous d^couragez 
jamais. — II est vrai, ayant surmont6 les principales difiicult^s, 
je commence k recueillir le fruit de mes travaux. Je vous 
prie de croire que cela n'a pas 6t6 sans peine ; ce chaos de 
regies, d'exceptions, m'a si souvent embrouill6 la cervelle que 
je me suis vu vingt fois k la veille de ren oncer k mes projeta* 
II y a tant d'idiotismes, tant de toumures bizarres que Tusage 
seul autorise. Si vous venez chez moi dans la soiree, je vous 
ferai voir les ouvrages dont je me sers. — Ce sair ? — Oui, ce 
soir, A propos, quelle difference y a-t-il entre soir et sotr^e^ 
matin et matiniey jour et joumie^ apres-midi et apres-dinie ? 
— Ces mots sont synonymes. he Jour marque une 6poque, 
sans ^gard a la dur^e; IsLjoum^e est une dur6e d6termi- 
nie et divisible. II en est de m^me des mots an et annie, 
matin et matin^e^ soir et soirie, etc. Remarquez les exemples 
suivants : Je viendrai un jour ; la journee est tongue pour 
les gens oisifs, Sa terre lui rapporte dix mille francs par an ; 
cette ECLIPSE aura lieu dans le courant de /'ann^e. — Je vous 
remercie de cette explication. 

Idiome, Idiotisme* 

II ne faut pas confondre les mots idiome et idiotisfnes, Une 
laiigue consid6r6e relativement aux expressions qui lui sont 
particuli^res, prend le nom d'idiome, et ces expressions sont 
appel^es idiotismes. 

Les idiotismes de la langue grecque sont des heUinismes. 

Les idiotismes de la langue latine sont des latinismes. 

Les idiotismes de la langue allemande sont desgermanismei. 


Les idiotismes de la langue anglake soot des tmplicismes. 
lies idiotismes de la langue frao9ai8e BOBt des ffoUieismes. 
Les idiotismes de la langue italienne sont des itaHanismes. 
Les idiotismes de la langue espagnole soot des kupamames, 
Les idiotismes de la langue portugaise sont des lusktamsmesy 

^^Le gallicisme," dit TAcad^mie, '^est une constructioii 
propre et particuliere ^ la langue fran^aise, contraire aux 
regies de la grammaire, mais autoris6e par Tusage : // vient de 
mourir, II va venir. Si f^tcns que de vous, etc, sont des 

Les expressions figur^es qui forment des gallicismes sont 
tir6es plus g6n6ralement d'anciens usages qui itaient viaisem- 
blablement plus familiers aux Fran9ais qu'aux autres nations: 
comme les tournois, la chasse, le jeu de paume, etc AiBsi on 
dit rompre en visiire a quelqu*un, pour dire Tattaquer, le oon- 
tredire sur ses opinions, ses pretentions. Anciennement, il 
n'6tait pas permb dans les jodtes et dans les tournois, de flap- 
per k la visiire de son adversaire. £tre d bouit d bout de vcUy 
sont des termes de chasse. Donner dans le trovers. Hmela 
donne belle ; vous me la baiUez bonne^ sont des termes du jeu 
de paume (le mot balle y est sous-entendu). jEmpaumer 
quelqu^uny empaumer une affaire^ sont aussi des expressions 
familidres qui viennent de la m^me source. 

DifficuUis de la prtmonoiaiian, 

Voyons si vous prononcerez facilement les phrases suivantes: 
^ Voulez-vous cueiliir des fruits? Laissez-moi recueillir mes 
id^es. Donnez-moi une cuiller k ca£€, Prenez une cuiller^ 
de bouillon. — II y a plus de vignobles en Bourgogne qu'en 
Bretagne. — Ce proe6d6 est ignominieux et indigne d'un £s- 
pagnol. — Essayez de me tronver un petit 6pagneul semblable 
a celui de votre ^We, — Un bon pasteur veille sans cesse sur 
ses ouailies. — Mettez dans ce bouillon des feuilles de cerfeuU 
et d'oseille, et joignez-y une gousse d'aiL — ^Voulez*vous faire 
une partie de quilles? — Mon tailleur m'a dit que tons les 
grands seigneurs 6taient alors en deuil a Versailles. — Je m'a- 
musai la veille de Noel k consid6rer une vieille Bourguignomiey 
qui jouait de la vielle, tranquillement assise au soleii sur le 
seuil de sa porte." 

Essayez de bien prononcer "Tamour et la mort; des gre- 
nouilles et des citrouilies; un chien hai^eux; une abeilie in- 



dustrieuse.'* Ne b^gayez pas en disant *' une anguiUe et nne 
aiguille ; ^ayant et 6gay6.'* 

ProDoneez leg deux r des mots '* irrecusable, eireur, honeuTy 
terreur, terrible, erron^, irriter,-~Arbre;' 

'^Les armies entreront mardi en campagne. — ^Marchez, 
mslres, marchez I ne vous endormez pas.-— Cest en foigeant 
que vous deviendrez forgeroUi. — Mon agent a men argent 
Quant ^ moi qui n'ai point d!argent, je n'ai pas besoin d*agent 

'* Quand un cordier, cordant, veut corder une corde, 
Pour sa corde corder, trois cordons il accorde ; 
Mais si Tun des cordons de la corde d^corde, 
Le cordon, d6cordant, fait d^corder la corde." 

Cris des animaux et leurs parties communes, 

Les mots qui expriment les cris des animaux (527*) et leuis 
parties communes sont essentiels k connaitre. 

On dit : 

L'abeille, le bourdon et la 
mouche bourdonneni. 

L'aigle iron^ette. 

L'alouette ffrisoUe, tireUre, 

L*&ne brait, 

Le buffle waffle^ beugle. 

La caille carcaille, margoUe* 

Le canard nasUk. 

Les gros chiens ahoient. 

Les petits chiexi^jappent. 

La cigale craquette et chante. 

Le cochon grogne. 

La colombe et le ramier^^- 

Le coq coqudine et chante. 

Le corbeau croasse. 

La grenouille coasse. 

Le crocodile lamenie* 

Le dindon gloughute, 

L*ei6phant borate. 

L*6pervier, le lapin et le re- 
nard glapissent, 

Le faon rale, 

Le hibou hue. 

L'hirondelle gaztndUe. 
La huppe/7tf/>tf/(e. 
Le lion rugit, 

Le loriot, le merie et le ser- 
pent ^y^Ze;!/. 
Le milan kuit. 
Le moineau p^pie. 
Le paon braille, criaUle, 
Le perroquet cause. 
La plejacasse, coquette, 
Le pigeon raucouU. 
La poule gltmsse, 
Les petits poulets jMou/snl. 
Le rossignol ramage, 
Le sangiier gronMe. 
Le tanreau mugit et beugle. 
Le tigre raugue, 
Le chat miaule. 
Le lonp kurle, 
Le lidvre erie. 
La brebis bile, 
Le cheval hennit, 
Le pourceau grogne. 
La vache beugle^ etc. 


On dit : 

tspied d*un cheval, d'un boeuf, d'un veau, d'un cerf, d'un 
chameau, d*un 61§phant, d*un mouton, d'un cochon, d'une 
chdvre, et de tous les animaux chez lesquels cette partie est 
de corne. 

\ApaUe d'un chieu, d'un chat, d'un li^vre, d*an lapin, d'un 
loup, d'un lion, d'un ours, d'un singe, d'un rat, d'une grenouille, 
d'un pinson, de tous les oiseaux qui ne sent pas oiseaux de 
proie, et en g6n6ral de tous les animaux chez lesquels cette 
partie n'est pas de come. 

Les serres de Taigle, du vautour, et de tous les oiseaux de 

La bouche d'un cheval, d'un chameau, d'un ane, d'un mulct, 
d'un boeuf, d'un 616phant 

La gueule d'un brochet, d'un crocodile, d'un 16zard, d une 
carpe, d'une truite, d'un serpent, d'une vip^re, d'un lion, d'un 
tigre, d'un chien, d'un loup, d'un chat 

Le.^ d'un perroquet, d'une hirondelle, en un mot de tous 
les volatiles. 

Le groin d'un cochon. 

Le museau d'un renard, d'une belette. 

Le mufle d'un cerf, d'un taureau, d'un boeuf, d'un lion, d'un 
tigre, d'un leopard. 

Les defenses d'un 616phant, d'un sanglier. 

La tSte d'un lion, d'un cheval, d'un mouton, d'un oiseau, 
d'un poisson, d'une mouche, d'un serpent. 

La hure d'un sanglier, d'un brochet, d'un saumon, d'on 

Le hois d'un cerf. 

La come d'un rhinoceros. 

Les 08 d'une baleine, Vos d'une sdche* 

Les arHes d'un 'brochet et de tout autre poisson. 

On dit qu'an animal a des piedt, lorsque les membres qui anpportent wm 
corps ont la partie inf^rieure termin^e par de la comei comme cela se ze- 
roarqae chez le cheyal, I'&ne, le bceaf, le moutoni le bouc, Tfl^phanti etc. 
Quand cette partie est form^ par des doigts pounrus d'ongles ou de griffes, 
on la nomaitpatte. Les lions, les loups, les cbiens, les chats, les sonris, 
etc., ont deBpaitet. De sorte que les parties inf^eures de certains ani- 
maux, lesqucdles, par leur conformation, ^tablissent le plus de ressemblance 
entre ces animaux et Thomme, ont pr^cisement refu le nom qu'on ne veul 
pas appliquer h. ces mSmes parties dans Tespece humaine. — ^Dictionnaixi 




Monnaies franqaises. 

En France, Tai^ent se compte par francs ; le franc se divise 
en cent parties qu*on appelle centimes^ ou le centi^me d*im 
franc ; un sou vaut cinq centimes ; un gros sou ou d^cime 
vaut dix centimes ou deux sous. Nous avons en argent : 
!<> des pieces de cinq francs, ou cent sous ; 2^ des pieces de 
deux francs, ou quarante sous; 3^ des pieces d'un franc, 
ou vingt sous, ou cent centimes ; 4^ des pieces d'un demi- 
franc, ou dixsous, ou 50 centimes; et 5^ des pidces d'un quart 
de franc, ou cinq sous, ou 25 centimes. Nous avons en or 
des pieces de quarante francs et des pieces de vingt francs. 

Le tableau suivant contient tontes les mesures l^gales dont 
on se sert aujourd*hui en France, et ofifre a T^ldve intelligent 
des details aussi utiles qu*int6ressants. 


Loiidu IS gemmal an m*, et du 4JuUkt 1837. 
(Extndl de rAnnnaire dn Bmean des Longitndci, Paiia.) 


Nom» aif9Umaiiqua. 





Dix mJlle metres. 
Mille metres 
Cent metres. 
Dix metres . 

Ei»giuh vohiie. 
6*2138 mDes. 
1093-633 yaids. 
109-3633 yaids. 
10-93633 yaids. 

* DelaiepobliqiiefrBiiftiM. La premi^ amide de cette ere commenfa 
le 22 septembre 1792. L'amide rdpublicaine dtait divisee en donze mois 
^ganx de trente joois chacnn; ^;irea les donze mois, suivaient cinq jours 
poor completer I'annee ordinaire, et qoelqnefois six, selon qne la position 
de Teqainoxe le comportait, afin de maintenir la coincidenee de Tann^ 
civile avec les monvements cflestes. Ces joars n'apparteoaient a ancnn 
mois. Us se nommaient jours oompldmentaires ; et Tann^ qui en avait six 
se nommait wextile : elle arrivait tons les qoatre ans comme Tann^ bissextile 
dans Fancien calendrier, et U y en avait de meme trois d'omises en qoatre 

Les aoms des mois ^taient : 

^ Yendemiairel 
Brmnaire ^Antomne. 










Messidor 1 , 
Tbennidor l^Ete. 
Fmctidor J 


[Ces mots 

t See Non 549, page 384. 



Noau tysiimatignes, 






VmU fondamentale det 
poidMct men a r€9 . Diz- 
milUoni^me partie da 
quart du m^ndien ter- 

Dixieme dn m^e 

Genti^me da metre 

Millieme da metre ••••«.••• 


Cent aresyoa 10|000 metres 

Cent metres carres, caii^ de 

dix metres de cdt4 

Centieme de I'arei oa metre 

English vahte* 
3*2808992 feet, or 
1*09363S yard (or 
about 3 feet 3f in- 

3*937079 inches. 
0*393708 inch. 
0*03937 inch. 

2*471153 acres. 

0*098846 rood (or 
aboat 119f square 

1196033 sqaare yard. 


pwr Us Uquides et let maiUrei siches. 



IDecihtre .•.««••••••»••• 

MiUe litres 
Cest litees 
Dix litres.. 





D^metre cube 

Dixieme dulkze .«... 


Dix steres ». 

Metre cube •«•— 

Dixieme du stere 

220*09668 gallons. 
2^009666 gaUons. 
2*2009668 gaUons. 

\ 1-760773 ptntt 
0*17608 pint. 

353*1658 cubic feet. 
35*31658 cubic feet. 
3*53166 cabic feet. 

Ces mois se dlTisaient anssi en trois parties on Decades, chacune de dix 
jenrs ;' on les nonmtait : 

Primidi. SextidL 

Duodi. SeptidL 

Tridi. Octidi. 

Quartidi. NonidL 

Quintidi. Decadi. 

Le jour ^tait diiris^ en dix parties, que Ton nommait keutes, et la noa- 
Telle heure ^tait diyisee en dix parties ^gales, chaque partie en dix autres, 
ainsi de suite jusqu'a la plus petite portion commensurable de la duree. 

« Le m^tre est la dbc-millionieme partie du pole a I'^uateur (2250 
lieues, compt^ sur le m6idien de Paris). II vaut 3 pieds poace ll-i^^ 
lignes des anciennes mesurcs (or equal to 39*37079 English inches). L'etalon 
prototype en platioe, depose aux Archives }e 4 messidor an vii, donne la 
longueur legale du metre quand il est a la temperature z^ro du thermometre 

t See Note 549, page 384. $ Or about If pmt. 



JVbm* sygt^natiqueM, 




D^gramme . 



Mille kilogrammes, poids 
da metre cube d'eau et 
du tonneau de mer. 

Cent kilogrammeSi quintal 

Mille grammes. Poids dans 
le vide d'un decimetre 
cube d'eau distill^e k la 
temperature de 4^ centi- 
gnidesf (or 39'' I2f Fak- 

Cent grammes 

Dix grammes 

Poids d'un centimetre cube 
d'eau k 4*^ centigrades. 

Bixieme du gramme 
Centi^me da gramme . 
Miilidme dn gramme 

Engiiih vahte. 
19*7 cwt. 

1*97 cwt. 

2'68()3 lb. troy, or 
2*2052 lb. avoinlu- 


3*2 ounces troy. 

, 3*52oz.aToirdupcMS. 
6*43 pennyweights tr. 

["15*438 grains troy. 
•< 0*643 pennyweig^ 

[0*0322 ounce troy. 
1*5438 grain troy. 
015438 grain troy. 
0*015438 grain troy. 


F&ANC§ (seep. 63). 

B^dme . 

Cinq grammes d'argent, an titre de 9 dodges 

de fin. 
Dixieme dn franc. 
Centieme du franc. 

[Note. As previously mentioned, page 381, accounts are kept in France 
in francs, each of 10 decimes or 100 centimes. The modem gold coins 
are pieces of 40 fr. and 20 fr. The silver coins are 5 fr., 2, 1, ^ and } fr. 
The copper coins are 1 dedme, or 2 sous, pieces of 5 centimes, or 1 son, 
and of 1 centime.] 

* Or about 2 pounds 3 ounces and 5 drams avoirdupois, 

f L'etalon prototype en platine, d^pos^ aux Arcldves le 4 measidor 
an vii, donne, dans le vide, le poids l^gal du kilogramme. 

Note. In France the thermometers in use are Reaumur's and the Centi> 
grade, in both of which the freeang point of water is the zero of the scale ; 
and the distance between the freezing and boiling points is in Reaumur's 
divided into 80 equal parts, and in the centigrade into 100. 

The zero pcunt of Fahrenheit's (the thermometer used in England) is 
32 desrees bfelow the freezing point of water, and, since the boiling point 
is 212^, the interval is divided into 180 equal ^wm. 

We have then the fdlowing proportion, which will enable us to reduce 
one of these scales to another : 

P - 32 : C» t R? :: IW : 100 : 80 

or 9 : 5:4 
F^ — 32, C°, R°, being supposed to indicate the same temperature in the 
three thermometers. 

% See Note 549, page 384. 

§ Franc, du latin F^ancK. nom du penple tudesque qui asservitla Gaule. 


549. Note. It will be perceived by the above table that the terms med 
in the French metrical system are five principal^ with four to express in- 
crease and five to express decrease. 

The five principal are, for long and square measure, the mitrCf firom the 
Greek vroTdfUrpov (metron), measure ; for land measure, the are, from the 
Latin word area*, a field ; for wood, the et^e, from the Greek word vre" 
peos (etereot), soUd ; for measure oJP capacity, the Utre, from the Greek 
word Xiroa (Uira), a pound weight ; and for weights, the gramme, frtnn 
the Greek word ypafifuipiov (jframmarion), the 24th part of the ounce 
among the ancients. 

The four terms which express increase 

Myria, . 

^ - rtenfold. 

o'S ^ J ^^'^ hundredfold, 
g g, I one thousandfold. 
'S [_ ten thousandfold. 

dexa (deka), ten ; 
BKarov {ekaton), hundred; 
X^XiOi (cAt/toi), a thousand ; 
jivptoi (mtcriof), ten thousand ; , 

The three terms which express decrease are — 

the tenth part, 
the hundredth part, 
the thousandth part. 

The names of all weights and measures are formed by a union of one of 
the principal terms {mitre, are, itire. Hire or gramme) with one of in- 
crease or decrease. KUogramme, for example, is kilo (lOOOfold) and 
gramme, and signifies 1000 grammes. D/cimitre is deci (the 10th part) 
and mitre, and signifies the tenth part of a metre. Decametre is deca 
(tenfold) and metre, and signifies ten metres, etc. 

With great ingenuity the contrivers of the French system of weights and 
measures took from the Greek language the terms deca, hecto, kilo and 
myria to express increase, and from the Latin the correspondiiig terms 
deci, centi, and mUU to express decrease. 


Les principales formes k observer dans une lettre sont : — 

1' L'adresse:— 


Monsieur Charles D * * * f, 

Hdtel Meurice, 

rue Rivoli, 
a Paris. 

2* Le corps de la lettre : — 

Londres, ce 15 decembre 1844. 

J'ai appris avec plaisir que vous avez public une 
nouvelle ^tion de votre grammaire. 

* From which are derived the French wordair£,and the English wordarM. 
t Or simply : A moruieur Charles Z) * * * etc., without the repetition of 


3® La Bouscription :•— 

J'ai Thonneur d'etre, 

Votre tres-humble et tres-obeissant terviteur, 

GauUier Legendre, 

Les billets s'^rivent souvent ^ la troisieme personne : 

M. et M'^' Duval out Thonneur de faire leurs compliments a mademoi- 
selle Lepelletier et de la prier de vouloir bien augmenter le petit nombre 
d'amis qu'ils r^uniront chez eux ii diner, mercredi prochain. On se mettra 
a table I six heures. 

Boulevard des Italiens, No. 15, 
le 2 octobre 1844. 

M*"* LepeUetier presente ses respectueux hommages a monsieur et a 
madame Duval, et die ne manquera pas de se rendre a leur aimable invi- 

Place Venddme, No. 1, 
Lnndi soir. 


Lettre de recommandtUion enfaveur d'unjeune Iwmme qui 
cherche une place de commit, 

Paris, le 20 juiUet 1839. 

Moruieur Dupuisy nigociant a Bordeaux. 

Monsieur Richard Delsert, qui depuis six ans a travaill^ dans 
notre comptoir k noire enti^re satisfaction, aura Thonneur de 
Yous remettre la presente lettre. 

Le d^sir d'6tendre ses connaissances a seul pu Fengager a 
quitter notre maison, et a chercher une place dans votre ville, 
od tl veut se familiariser avec le commerce maritime. Loin de 
nous opposer a ses d^irs, nous nous faisons un plaisir, et meme 
un devoir, de contribuer autant qu'il est en nous a lui faire 
atteindre son but. 

Nous pouvons lui rendre le temoignage, que nous perdons 
en lui un homme qui s'est acquis notre attacliement taut par 
un esprit distingue que par son zdle pour nos int^r^ts, et par 
la conduite la plus irr6prochable. 

Ses talents le rendent particulierement propre a la corres- 
pondance : il joint a une belle 6criture, un style epistolaire 
61^gant et correct. Outre sa langue matemelle, le fran9ais, 
qu'il poss^de parfaitement, il parle et 6crit avec beaucoup de 
faoilit6 Tallemand et Tanglais. II est tres-habile dans la tenue 
des livres, et n'est pas sans connaissances dans la partie des 



marchandises. S'il yous 6tait possible de Temployier dans Totre 
comptoir, il trouvendt non-seulement une place coaforme a 
ses d^rsy mais encore des chefs qui* nous en sommes siirs, lui 
accorderaient lenr bienveillance. 

Tout ce que vous voudrez bien faire en faveur de notre re- 
command^y nous le regarderons eoiBine une maiqve de votre 
amiti6 pour nous> et vous en serons vivement reconnaissants. 

Agr6ezy monsieur, Fassunince de notre consideration tres- 

Eugene Morel et comip. 

Lettre de reeommamdcOion en favemr dm ehrfd^un msHtui 


Strasbom^, le 18 nan 1844w 
Messieurs Bachelier, n^gociants a Marseille. 

La pr^sente lettre- vous sera remise par monsieur Lefdyre, 
cbef d'un institut commercial qu'il a cr66 dans notre ville. 

Accompagn^ de ses 61i^yes, il se read daaoa tos conlr^es, 
tant pour leur procurer un d^lassement salutaire que pour 
ajouter a leurs connaissances en leur faisant visiter les 6ta- 
blissements int6ressants de votre ville et des environs. 

Permettez-nous de vous recommander M. Lefevre d'nne 
maniere toute particuliere, et de vous prier de coBtribuer, 
en ce qui d^pendra de vous, messieurs, k ragr^m^tt et k 
Tutilite de son voyage. Son but nous paralt trop utile pour 
que nous ne desirions pas vivement qu'il puisse TatteiDdre. 
Nous avons done pens^ ne pouvoir niieux lui aider qn'eii voua 
Tadressant, en appelant sur lui tout votre int6r§l. 

Get inter^t, nous le r6clamons anssi pour son ^tablissemeot: 
le talent avec lequel il le dirige, et la mithode a la fois neuve 
et facile qu'il suit, ont fait faire a tons ses 61dves des progr^ 
aussi surs que rapides. 

Si done Toceasion se pr^sentait de favcmser s^n entreprise, 
vous nous obligeriez beaucoup en y soogeant. 

Veuillez agrier, avec nos remercimcnts poor ies bons offi<$e8 
que vous rendrez 4 notre reconmand^y rasmirance de la con- 
sideration distingu6e avec laquelle noos avons FhoBnenr d'etre. 


Vo9 trds'-humbles 

et trds-obeissants serviteun^ - 
Auguite DehvtffM et comp. 


CireuUdre d'une sociM en eommandiie. 

Paris, lel«'mai 1839. 
Messdeura I&milton et C^% k Londres. 


Encourag^ par les avantages que pr^sente notie 
place ponr les afbires en coiiimu»ioD> nous avons pris la reso- 
lution de former un ^tablissement de ce genre, dans lequel 
monsieur Louis Delacroix k Rouen a pris un int^r^t comine 

Nous g6rerons nos affi&irea sous la raison de Delamare et 

Confonn^ent au yoeu de la loi, nous avons d6pos6 au greffe 
dn tribunal de commerce de cette ville un extrait de notie 
contrat de soci6t6. Far ce contrat, monsieur Delacroix s'esi 
engag6 a nous foumir un fonds de quaire cent mille francs. 

Ce capital, r6uni ^ celui que nous versons en notre quality 
d'associ^ solidaires, nous parait suffisant pour que nous puis- 
sions nous livrer k la commission dans toute son 6tendue. 

(jonnaissant les ressources de notre place, nous saurons pro- 
fiter, dans Tint^rdt de nos correspondants, de tons les avantages 
qu*elles nous pr^sentent. La. confiance que nous accordent 
nos commanditaires doit vous ^tre un siir garant que nous ne 
serons pas indignes de la vdtre. 

Veuillez prendre note de nos signatures, et agr6er Tassurance 
de notre pufaite estime. 

Delamare et ViUeneuve^ 

Signature de notre sieur Frederic Delamare : 

Delamare et VtUeTieuve. 

Signature de notre sieur Jules Villeneuve : 

Delamare et VUleneuwe, 

Cfirculaire de run des commanditaires, suppUmeni d la ktire 


Rouen, le 10 mai 1839. 

Messieurs Hamilton et O^, a Londres. 


Tai rhonneur de vous confirmer le contenu de 
la circulaire de messieurs Delamare et Villeneuve, et de vous 
recommander d*une maniere particulidre leur 6tablissement, 
dans lequel je suis int^ress^, en quality de commanditaire pour 
une somme de quatre cent miUe francs, que je leur ai vereie. 



L'an d'eux, monsieur Ddamare, a travaill6 pendant quinze 
ans dans ma maison, et s'y est form6 a tons les genres d'affaires 
Gommerciales. II s'est principalement distingu6 par ses con- 
naissances et par son amour pour le travail. Je fais en lai une 
perte difficile k reparer ; c'est un t^moignage d'estime que je 
me plais a lui rendre. 

Son associ^, monsieur Villeneuve, n'est pas moins fiuniliarise 
avee les affaires. Par un long sejour a Hambourg, k Bordeaux 
et a Londres, oil il a travaill6 dans des maisons distingu^es^ 
il s'est acquis des connaissances solides et des relations qui 
seront tr^s-utiles au nouvel 6tablissement. 

Les principes d'honneur et de probity qui les animent tous 
deux me sont un sur garant qu'ils se montreront dignes de la 
confiance qu'on leur accordera, et qu'iis mettront tous leuis 
soins k servir les int^r^ts de leurs correspondants. 

Agr6ez, messieurs, Tassurance de ma consideration dis- 

Louis Ddacroix. 


Paru, ce 26 septembre 1844. Bon pour F. 3590, 50^. 

Au 15 octobre prochain, payez par cette seule de change, 
k Tordre de monsieur Elie de Beaumont, la somme de trob 
mille cinq cent quatre-vingt-dix francs, cinquante centimes, 
valeur dont,' suivant notre avis de ce jour, vous d^biterez le 
compte de vos d^voues serviteurs, 

Firmin Didot, freres, 
Imprimears de rinstitat et libraires, 
rue Jacob, No. 56. 
A monsieur Gustave Otte, 
agent de messieurs Didot et C^", 
ii Londres. 

Accept^e pour la somme de trois mille cinq cent 

quatre-vingt-dix francs, cinquante centimes. 
Payable le 15 octobre prochain. 

Gustave Otte, 
Londres, le 29 septembre 1844. 
Retour sans frals. — Motifs du refus, S.V.P. 

Paris, le 24 aoCit 1844. Bon pour £250. 

A vue (oM k dix, quinze, etc. jours de vue) payez (pu il 
vous plaira payer) par cette premiere de change (la seconde^ 


cu la troisi^me, etc De F^tant) h, Tordre de messieurs V*^ Luc, 
Callaghan et fils, la somme de deux ceut cinquante* livres 
sterling . valeur re^ue comptant (pu en marchandises) que 
paJsserez sans ou suivant Favis de 

Charles RoUin, 
I A messieurs Puget et Comp^ 
k Londres. 

Cherbourg, le 18 Janvier 1845. B. P. 10,000 francs. 

A deux mois de date payez k monsieur Gaspard Lourmand 
on a son ordre, la somme de dix mille francs valeur re9ue 
comptant et que passerez en compte, suivant Tavis de 

Richard Martineau* 
A messieurs Lafitte et 0% 
rue Lafitte, a Paris. 

NoTA. Lea endoasementa a'^crivent ainai : — 

Payez i. Fordre de monaieur Deasnme, valeur re^e comptant. 

Cherbourg, le 5 firmer 1845. 

Gatpttrd LoumuauL 

Payez k Fordre de monaieur Chailea Deveau, valeur re9ne« 

Londrea, le 10 fSvrier 1845. 

Ch. J>e$tutme, etc. 

OrUana, le 27 ami 1842. B. P. 775£: 80o. 

Au 24 juin prochain, je payerai a monsieur Desvilliers, n6- 
gociant k Nantes, ou a son ordre, la somme de sept cent soi- 
xante-quinze francs et quatre-vingts centimes, valeur re^ue en 
marchandises (esp^ces ou de toute autre manidre) dudit sieur. 

Robert IHdier. 

Londres, le 12 fevrier 1837. 
JTai re^u de messieurs Hankey et Comp. la somme de 
douze livres sterling et quinze schellings pour solde de 

£12 : I5s* Joseph Michaud, 

Veraaillea, le 30 novembre 1839. 
Refu de {ou Je reconnais avoir re9u de) madame V^ Mel- 
notle, propri6taire i Lyon, la sonmie ae deux mille cinq cents 
francs que je lui avals pr6t4e. 

2500/. Albert BruneL 

300 APPENBIClfi. 

JSxerezses an Hie comuiercial subjects gwen above. 

Tiaiidlate into FrencE \^^ 

Havre, l<t September, 1839. 
Wm. AusteUy Esq,, London. 

Sir, — ^I have the honour to inforc[\ you that I have, opened^ 
a hottse^ in this town for the pmrpeve of tnmsaeUnff general 
commission bttsiness^, 

A long experience, an unblemished character^, and the fundi 
necessary for this undertaking^ wiU, I trust, recommend me^ to 
yoar confidence. Anticipating nn early opportimity of proving 
to you how much I am worthy ofit^, 

I am. Sir, your obedient humble servanf, 

Marseilles, 1st Decemher, 1839. 
Messrs. Goldsmith and Go^lAmdon* 

G«nt]«raen', — We have the hoooiir to infomi^ you of our 
establiahmexit^fiicfer tkefirm^'oi Paoli and Lecointe. 

AlthoBgh 'We are preferably devoted to inland produce ^^, we 
will take cfaan^ of any.affiBra^f smpQrtanfie-whrclr.m«y be en* 
trusted to our eare ". 

The experience of several years and strict punctuality will, 
we trust, make us worthy of ^ confidence ofAose who may be 
pleased to honour us wUh their commands^K We solicit yours, 
and request your noticing the signatures of your httmble and 
obedient servants. 

Signature of (7. Paoli : — Paoli and Lecointe. 
Signature of P, Lecointe : — Paoli cmd Lecointe. 

Liverpool, 18th June, 1844. 
Messieurs Philippe Baudouin and C*^, Havre. 

Gentlemen, — JBy order and on aceount^^ of Messrs. Boii> 
dillon of Rouen, we have shipped^* on board L^Esp6rance^ 
captain ^ean Bart, who is to sail from our port for Havre on 

the S;Oth inst, twenty bales of cotton, amounting to 

pounds sterling. We send you hereto annexed the biU of 
lading^^ signed by the said^ captain, and beg you will effect 
the insurance to the best advanta^ of our niends at Rouen, 

* En style de pratique, de formule, dU «e*i«nt mz ailieles» mz ^pxtnaomm 
et k quelques adverbes : Ledit tel, Ladite maiwn. Audit lieu. Mondii 
seigneur. Sondit pracia-verbal. Sutdit. 


with whomyou wiUidde^^ joai diftbanement in this banneM. 
We have jet renwining a eaargo tftke wif miiriy'^ io forward 
to jovL in a few weeks, and we request of joa in due dme^ 
io take the trouble of having it likewise iasnied in your town. 
We remain. Gentlemen, 

Yoor yerj obedient servants, 

WUUam Thampttmamd Co. 

Havre, 20th June, 18i4« 
JCsisrs. WiBiamTho m pmmamd CtK, ZdverpooL 

We hare been fevonred with yours of the 18th int, eon- 
taimttg a bill of ladii^ lor twenty bales of oo<lon, which joa 
hare placed to the aooonnt of Messrs. Bonrdillon of Booen^ 
on board the ship VJBtpiraneef Captain Jean Bart, and ^ 
uuuranee wkartofyou leave to tu^K We have latdv effected 
this insarance, and shall immediatelj acquaint our s^d friends 
at Rouen wilh it, informi ng them at the same time of the 
premiom we have paid. Ire AaUfoOaw the mme eoune^ 
with what reoMins to be^taosautted; aad the mcHnent we 
-noem mMet fimn foo, we will aftleDd to it with equal 


In die meaolkne, we reniin. 

Your moat obedient servants, 

Fkihppt Bmmii^miM amd Om^ 

£350 : lOff. ed. Londom 14th Uty, 1S49. 

Two mootfaa after date, please to pay Mesrieors Bainbridge 
and Co. or opder, the a«n of three hoadred and fiftj poondf 
ten ahilfe^ and sig peaee , and ^aee the aame to the ae- 
ooont of 

To William Baker, "Eaq., Richard Jamu. 

£157 : 7s. ll<i. MsM, 27th SepiadMr, ISiS. 

Three months after date we promise to pay to the order of 
liL Jean CaiOard the som of one hundred and fifty-seven 
poaadi seven shilBags and elevenpence for value received. 

Bmgrmf amd iMwmmm 
Payable at the Bristol Bank. 



To be translated into French. 

biographical sketches. 

CoRNEiLLi. — He vas the first dramatic author of eminence^ among 
ihe French. To many defects he joined beauties of the first order ; 
and although he did not possess the pure and delicate taste of Racine, 
being inferior to the latter in painting the softer^ passions, he had 
more nre and more majesty. The flights* of his imagination are 
sublime; the heroes whose pictures he delineates* are truly great;, 
and his masterpiece, the "Cid," tvill ever remain on the* French 
stage a fine monument of his genius. 

Racxnb. — He studied early and with care the Greek tragic poets,. 
and perfected his taste qfter^ that reading. This poet is remarkable 
for the elegance of his style, and for the art with which he delineates* 
the softer passions. His poetry is highly harmonious, correct and 
I gracefidK He is reproached with too much sameness* in the intrigue 
of his plays, and in the character of his heroes ; but the beauties he 
displays are so far'^ superior to his defects that he is allowed* the 
first rank among the French tragic poets, which is, however, con- 
tested^ by Voltaire. Racine's son has supported* the glory of hia 
father; his poem on^ Religion contains passages of the greatest 
beauty ; his Odes are much esteemed, and some of them^ worthy of 
J.-B. Ilousseau. 

MoLiiRE. — It is a received opinion that Moli^re's comedies sur* 
pass the best performances^ of that kind among the Ancients; and 
Voltaire calls him the best comic poet that ever existed. The fer- 
tility of his genius is astonishing : he spent* the greater part of his- 
life in writing comedies, both* in prose and* verse, which were much 
applauded. His talents were not confined^ to composition only, for 
he was also an eminent actor. His last comedy was the Hypochon- 
driac, or Le Malade imaginaire. Whilst Moli^re was performing the 
principal character of that play, andi pretending to he dead*, he was 
seized with an illness, of which he died the next day. 

La Fontaine.— 'As a fabulist he has surpassed every other writer, 
and the name of ** the inimitable La Fontaine " has been given him dy 
common consent^. His fables are perfectly natural, without the least 
afiectation, and replete with* wit. He was a man of extreme sim- 
plicity of manners; fiill of candour and probity; but in society 
always absent* and thoughtful, so much «o^ that he often spoke to 
his friends without knowing them. Madame de S^visn^, herself a 
distinguished writer of his time, used to say that his faUes resembled 


a potde of strawbeniei, of wbich we commence by fdekmg out* the 
best and finish by eating them aU. 

BoiLEAU Desprbaux. — A (275.) member of the French Academy, 
and one of the most cetebrateid poets of the age of Louis XIY. He 
IS the Jnrenal of the French, and in his satires tar superior to the 
JELoman writer m pohU af^ delicacy and chasteness of style. His 
prodnctions gmmed kim^ great reputation, particnlarly his " Art of 
Poetry," his « Epistles," and his " Lutrin. Ko French poet has 
been so correct in his style, and few equal him in strength and har- 
mony. He has written some " Odes," but they are inferior to those 
of J.-B. Rousseau. It has been said of him, Uiat his vevBes will be 
read even when the language U obsolete^ and will be the last ruins 
of it 

CmAsiLLON. — Although inferior to his great dramatic riTals Cor- 
neille, Racine^ and Voltaire, he opened a new paih\ in which he 
succeeded well. Comeille had astonished the mind by the sublimit 
of his thoughts, Racine had moved the heart, and Cr^biDon struck it 
with terror. When Cr6bil]on was received at the French Academy, 
they applauded, in his discourse on the occasion, the truth of the 
fdlowing line : 

** Aueon fid n'a jamais empmsonne ma plume.** 

Madame DESHouLiisEs. — Three French poets have distinguished 
themselves in pastoral poetry ; Deshouli^res, Segrais, and FonteneDe. 
The last-mentioned, however, did not possess the simplicity so natural 
to that style ; and Segrais, with more poetical talent, had not so pure 
a diction as Madame Deshoulieres. Among her *' Idyls," there are 
some of the greatest merit. 

Destouchbs. — ^This dramatic writer rank* far below^ the favourite 
of Thalia, the keen* and witty Moliere ; yet one of his comedies^ 
'' Le Glorieux" would do honour to that great writer himself and 
iff looked upon* as one of the best plays in Ine French language. 

RoLLiN. — Rector of the University of Paris, he caused letters to 
Jhurisk^ under his administration, and revived the study of the 
Greek. His principal works are, " A Treatise on the manner of 
studying and teaching the Belles-lettres," and an "Ancient History." 
They have obtained univenal approbation, and are translated into 
several languages. 

Maemoktel. — Secretary to the French Academy, well known by 
the variety of his literary productions, and admired for the vigour and 
delicacy of his genius. He wrote the " Literary Observer," the 
" Charms of Study," the " Elements of Literature," a French trans- 
lation of Luean's PkarsaUa\ and several tragedies ; but his fiune rests 
principally upon his « Moral Tales " and " Belisarius." Never has 
wisdom appeared more amiable than in these charming productions. 
Marmontel died in the year 1799. Three years before his death, 


894 nUB 3SZBBCI8B8 

Mfftf wowMirffrf* to Ae Lesiabtare, he went to tbe ELecCoad As- 
sembly, and, thanfcing his feuow-citisenf for tint mark of n wpec t , Im 
laid to them, ** Yoii Sihold^ my fnends^ a body enfeebled by age, but 
the heart of an honest man never grows MK 

T11011A8. — ^A (275.) member of the Fieneh Academy : he is hnown 
by ffaritnu^ works, bat more pnrtiwilariy by his Eulqgies, the subject 
of which is taken from all natioM. His ''Eokigy of BiaishalSnoDe" 
was crowned by ike French Academy. His s^de has been mndi 
eritidsed, bat among his productions were are eome of the gientest 

La Harpe. — ^He was an anthor of raried talents, an (273.) onlor, 
critic, poet, and dramatic writer. His dramatic pieces have consi- 
derable merit; lus poems gained^ several prizes from difierent Aca- 
demies : his Eulogies of F^nelon^ Radne, and Charles the Mftk ' hare 
been much admked; but his principal work is a " Complete Comse 
of Litetataie." 

YoLTAiaE.^— 'This anthor is oonsidered the most eztraordmary 
genins that Fiance everprodnoed ; he has written, both in yerse and 
prose, on almost every subject, and generally with great aaooesa. 
From his earliest youth he showed^ proo& of the aeuteness* of fan 
wit and brilliant imagination ; such was the pnooci^ of his genins, 
that at twelve years of age his poetical essays would have done ho- 
nour to hie riper ogeK His tragedies are masterpieces : although 
below Moli^re in the comic style, his comedies are replete with wit. 
His histories of Charles XII. and Peter the Qreat aro models of 
historical composition. His *' Henriade " is a fine epic poem, in which 
all the characters are well supported, the passions skUfttUy Uad open\ 
the descriptions striking, and accompanied with all the enthusiasm of 
fine poetry : the subject, however, was ill chosen, being too near our 
age ; it shackled^ his creative imagination, and destroyed the illusion 
we indulge in when* reading Tasso, Ariosto, Homer ^ and FirgilK 
The most perfect of his writings is his fugitive poetry, in which he 
has no rival. 

BARTHSLBiffT.— He is the author of the "Travels of Anacharsis " in 
Greece, a (275.) classical work, in which he has di^layed vast eru- 
dition ; it is the fruit of thirty years' labour, and will immortalise his 
memory. He was a (273.) member of many distinguished academies^ 
and he united to profound learning, modesty, simplicity and amia- 
bility of temper. 

La Bruyxre. — He has displayed^ the follies of mankind and the 
manners of his age in his Caracteres, after the manner of J%eophras-' 
tus*. Their success was very great when they appeared, these cha- 
racters being not always imaginary, but drawn' after nature, and 
from known persons. They ^oll always be read with pleasure. 

FsNELON. — He preached with success from the age of nineteen, 
and wrote many works which are admired for their beantv of s^le; 


lot tibat wirick hat (famed kim^ the matest repntolioii u Ins "Tde- 
nadiiiffe" where he has di^Uyed Ji the ridwa of the French lan- 
guage. No work had erer a greater fepatatioo ; it is written in a 
UoeUf\ simple, natural and ^^ant manner; its fictions are well 
im^g"*^, rae moral snUimey and the poKtical maxims it contains 
an tend to the hiqppineai of mankind. 

FLomiAir.«— Althoi^ this anifaor is prindpaDj known \j Ym 
Aorels, his style is so el^ant, and the moral in his writings so pore^ 
that we do not hesitate m reeammen^&mg ^uir penuaS^, He has 
written some comedies with a great deaf of success; his fid>les are 
inferior only to those of La Fmtaine; his''£stelle'*isapastDraleqnaI 
to "Galatea"; andhis ^Gonzatroof CordoTa"and''Aintta Pompi- 
lins" are kigfO^^ esteemed. 

^ Massiu.oh. — ^This divine is justly considered one of the hest and 
most eloquent of French preachers. Louis XIV. once said to hiniy 
''When 1 hear other orators I am pleased with them; hut after 
having heard yon I am displeased with mysell** It is imposdUe to 
Tead his sermons without hecoming better. His style is nnld and 
elegant, and the effixrt of his dechnnation was irresistiUe. 

MoaTSSQDiEu.— His first literary production is cntided ** Persian 
Letters," and gave proofii of a fine genins. His gieatest work, the 
** Spirit of Laws," was much criticised, but has puoed its author in 
the first tank among political writers. Montesquieu has examined 
his subject with so much deameas and judgment, that his bode 
ought rather to have been nawted^ the Code of the Laws of Nations. 
His *< Considerations on the Causes of the Bise and FaU* of the 
Romans" is an excellent work. 

BamQuiif.— This author should be particulariy recommended to 
yondi. In his '* Ami des exfimU " he ofiers the most important lessons 
under the most attractive form. His works have been tnmslated 
into all the languages of the civilixed worid. 

JlwmgktSi Maximtj and other mimxlkmeous $electiotu. 

Love God who made thee with all thy strength. 

IX> good to an, that thou mayst keep thy friends and gain thy 

It is right to be content with what we have, not with what we are : 
the exact reverse is the case with most men. 

What cannot courage and power do when guided by wisdom t 

An honest man is &e noblest work of God. 

Ostentation and taste are irreconciUUe enemies. 

Life is a heavy burden for every man who does not know how to 
employ himself 

Juda^ment and imagination are rare^ united. 

In the padi of life, wa hsve the biil&aBt nefeMr of hope to daxda 
wm and behind ua tmth. 


The descent of the Nonnans is mentioned as a fact well known* 

There are foolish things well arranged, as there are foola well 

The safest asylum is the bosom of a mother. 

Where can one be happier than in the bosom of one's family? 

The best method of all is a good master. 

An honourable life is the best legacy a father can leave to his 

The slanderer's tongue is a poisoned dagger. 

Life is divided into three terms : that which was, which is, and 
wbich will be. Let us learn from the past to profit by the present, 
aud from the present to live better for Uie future. 

Alexander often said : << I am not more indebted to Ffail^p my fa- 
ther than to Aristotle my preceptor. If I owe to the one my me, I 
am indebted to the other for virtue." ^ 

Homer is considered the father of epic poetry ; ^schylus, of tra- 
gedy ; ^sop, of apologue ; Pindar, of lyric poeti^ ; and Theocritus^ 
of pastoral poetry. 

Moliire nas taken from Aristophanes, the comic ; from Plaatus, 
fire and activity; from Terence, the picture of manners. 

The majestic eloquence of Bossuet is like a river, which carries 
everything along in its rapid course. 

It has £een said of the Telemachus of tiie virtuous F^nelon, that 
it is the most useful present the Muses have made to mankind ; for 
could the happiness m man be produced by a poem, it would be by 

He was a wise legislator, who, having men to his countrymen 
laws calculated to make them good and happy, made them swear 
not to violate any of those laws during his absence : after which, he 
went away, exiled himself from his country, and died poor in a fo« 
reign land. 

A beautiful precept. 

An all-wise Creator has ordained that, as parents watch over the 
helpless infancy of their children, so the children are to nurse the 
declining days of their parents, support the tottering steps, and ad- 
minister to the weakness of second childhood in those who admini- 
stered to their wants. 

27ie happy man. 

The happy man is not he whose happiness is his only care, but he 
who, with perfect resignation, leaves the care of his happiness to 
Him who made him, while he pursues with ardour the road of his 
duty.— Dr. Reid. 

The study cf Nature. 

The observation of the calm, energetic regularity of nature, the 
immense scale of her operations, and the certainty with whidi her 


ends are attained, tend inesblibly to tnnqmDiie the mind, and ren* 
dcr it lea acff^imW** to lepniingy selfish wad tniholent emotional— 
W. Herschbl. 

Do good for tkt sake of good. 

The hone, when he has ran his cooiae ; the hee, when it has made 
its honey ; aod the good man, when he has done good to others, do 
not make a noisjr hMst aboot it, hat go on to repeat the acticm, aa 
the vine, in its season, prodooes new dusters again. — Caldweu.. 

EquaUty of mams desimy. 

The diflferent ranks and orders of mankind may be compaicd to so 
many streams and rirers of ranning water. All proeeed from an 
original small and obaeore; some tmrenA wider, travel over more 
coantries, and make more noise in their passage than others ; hot 
all tend idike to an ocean, where distinction ceases, and where the 
latgest and most cdebrated rivers are equally lost and absoibed wifih 
the smallest and most unknown streams. — ^Bishof Horbe. 

EarUf kabiU* 

Eaity habits of viitiie, like new dothes upon a yoong and eomd|y 
body, sit very gracefaOy npon a sbaight and well-shaped mind, and 
do migfatify become itd — ^Woumwortb. 


Be rather careful of what thon dost than of what thou hast ; fiir 
what thou hast Is none of thine, and will leave thee at thy death; — 
but what thou dost is thine, and will follow thee to thy grave, and 
will plead for thee, or against thee, at the day of judgment. At that 
day it will be what we have done for others, rather than fiir cmrselves, 
that will most avail us. — Cau>well. 


The Cunous Oriental philosopher Lockman, while a slave, being 
presented by his master widi a bitter melon, immediatdy ate it alL 
** How was It posmUe," said his master, " for you to eat so nanseons 
afiruit?'' Lockman icniied : " I have received so many fiivoors from 
yoo, that it u no wonder I should once in my life eat a bitter melon 
from yomr hand." This gene r ous answer of the dave strack the 
master to such a degree that he immediately gave him his liberty. 
Withsoeh sentiments should man receive his portion of sufferings 
at the hand of God. — ^Bishop Horhb. 

God teen m his works. 

The Sidonian servants agreed amongst themselves to choose him to 
be dieir king who that morning should first see the sun. Whilst aU 
othcfB were gazing on die east, one alone looked on the west; some 

S06 • rass BXJwoisBS 

adnired, more mock«d Um, ai if he looked on tiit ftet, dwre to find 
the eve of the face. But he fint of all diicoTered the light of tlia 
■an ■Dining on the tops of the houses. God is seen ■ooner, easier, 
dearer, in his operations than in his ■■■ence^^best beheld by reflec- 
tion in his creatures.— FuLLEE. 

Animal ^lectrieit^. 

The knowledge of the laws of electricity, in its difierent forms, fs 
one of the latest results which science has revealed to man. Could 
these laws, and their various combinations, have been unknown to 
the Power who created the torpedo, and who armed it with an ener- 
getic galvanic battery, constructed upon the most refined scientific 
principles, for the manifest purpose of enabling the animal to strike 
terror into its enemies, and paralyse their efibrts to assail it? — Rooet. 
Oh Jnmal and Vegetable Physiology, 

Reaeon promoted hy affectum* 

' Reason fmgkt to direct us," says Lord Chesterfield, <* but it sel- 
dom does ; and he who addresses nimself simply to another man's 
reason, without endeavouring to engage his heart in his interest also, 
is no more likely to succeed, than a man who should apply only to 
a king's nominal minister, and neglect his favourite." Tne illustra- 
tion is just and beautiful, and the observation deserves the notice of 
every one whose employment it is to win man to faith and righteous- 
ness. Dry reasoning, though ever so solid, will not do alone.— 
Bishop Horne. 

A Lesson, 

A friend of Dean Swift one day sent him a turbot, as a present^ 
by a servant who had frequently been on similar errands, hot who 
had never received the most trifling mark of the Dean's generosity. 
Having gained admission, he opened the door, of the study, and 
abruptly putting down the fish^ cried very rudely : ** Master has sent 
you a turhot" " Young man," said the Dean, rising from his easy 
chair, " is that the way you deliver your message ? Let me teach you 
better manners ; sit down in my chair^ we will change situations, and 
I will show you how to behave in future." The boy sat down, and 
the Dean, going to the door, came up to the table with a respectful 
pace, and making a low bow said : " Sir, my master presents his 
kind compliments, hopes you are well, and requests your acceptance 
of a small present." " Does he (335.)?" replied the boy; "return 
him my best thanks, and there 's half-arcrown for yourself." The 
Dean thus drawn into an act of generosity laughed heartily, and 
gave the boy a crown for his wit 

Napoleon and the British sailor. 

Whilst the French troops were encamped at Boulogne, public sit- 
tention was much excited hs the daring attempt at escape mada by 


an EDgKsb tailor. Hub penon kaving esc^ad from die dao^ aod 
gained the harden of die tea, the woods near which aervad hiai te 
eonoeahnent, oonatmcted with no other inttramant than a knife, • 
haat, entirely of the hark of treea. When the weather was fiiir, he 
mounted a tree and looked out for the English flag ; and having at 
last dbaenred a British emiser, he ran to the shore with his hoat on 
his bade, and was ahont to tmst himself in his frail vessel to the 
wavesy when he was pnnaed, arrested, and loaded with chaina, 
Eveiyhody in die army waa aiudoiis to see the hoat, and Napoleon, 
having at length heard of die affiur, lent for the sailor and interro- 
gated him. " Yon must," said Napoleon, " hare had a great desire 
to see your country again, since you could resolve to trust yourgelf 
on the open sea in so frail a hark. I suppose you have left a sweet- 
heart there?" ''No," said the sailor; **but a poor infirm mother, 
whom I was anxious to see." " And you shall see her," said Na- 
poleon, giving at the same time orders to set him at liberty, and to 
bestow upon nim a omnderable sum of money for his mother, ob- 
serving tnat ** she must be a good modier who had so good a son." 

Bahelaii, a traitor. 

This celebrated wit was once at a great distance from Paris, and 
without money to bear lus expenses thither. The ingenious author 
being thus sharp set, got together a convenient quantity of l»ick- 
dnst, and having disposed of it into several papers, wrote upon one, 
Poitcn for Monsieur *\ upon a aecond, PoUon for the Daniphmf; 
and on a third, Pohon for the King, Having made this nrovisioii 
finr the royal family of France, he laid his papers so that nis land* 
lord, who was all inquiritive man and a good subject, might get a 
sight of diem. The plot succeeded ss he desired ; die host gave im- 
mediate intelligence to the secretary of state. The secretary pre- 
sendy sent down a special messenger, who brought up the traitor to 
court, and provided him, at the kin^s expense, with proper accommo- 
dadons on the road. As soon as he appeared he was known to be 
the celebrated Rabelais, and his powder, upon examination, being 
found very innocent, the jest was only huigned at; for which a less 
eminent droll would have been sent to die galleys. — Spectator, 

Dimenrions of the PlaneU, 

If we suppose die earth to be represented by a globe a foot in 
diameter, the distance of the sun from the earth will be about two 
miles ; the diameter of the sun, on the same supposition, will be 
something above one hundred feet, and consequently his bulk such 
as might be made up of two hemispheres, each about the size of 

* Mofmeur, employ^ sbiolnment, s'est dit de V£a€ des frives dn rai 
de France, 
t Voyez la note *, page 234. 


ihe dome cxf St. PaoTs. The moon wiD be thirty feet from va, 
and her diameter three inches, abont that of a cricket-ball. Thus 
the son would mnch more than oocnpy aU the ^ace within the moon's 
orbit. On the same scale, Jwpiter * would be above ten miles from 
the snn, and Uranms\ for^. We see then how thinly scattered 
through space are the heavenly bodies. The fixed stars would be 
at an unknown distance ; but, probably, if all distances were thus 
diminished, no star would be nearer to such a one-foot earth than 
the moon now is to us. — ^Whbwbll. Attmmomff and General Phyaa^ 

Motion of our Globe. 

This diurnal sphere on which we live would alone evince the power 
of its Almighty Maker. When we consider its magnitude, its daily 
rotation, its annual revolution, the rapidity of its course, and reflect 
how vast must be the power to move this single mass, we are lost in. 
amazement, and humbled under a deep sense of our own weakness. 
It was calculated by a late astronomer, that with a lever whose ful> 
crum was six hundred miles from the earth's centre, and with a 
moving power equal to two hundred pounds in weight, or the power 
of an ordinary man, and in velocity equal to a cannon-ball, placed 
at the immense distance of twelve quadrillions of miles, it would 
require twenty-seven billions of years to move the earth one inch. 
How vain would be the united force of all the human beings that 
now people the earth to produce even this effect ! Yet our globe 
rushes onward in its course, at the rate of one thousand miles a 
minute. But what is our earth to the planet Saturn, which is more 
than one thousand times bigger than this sphere of ours ? What ia 
it to the snn, nearly a million times greater? what Is it to the whole 
planetary and cometary systems ? Only one of five hundred masses, 
what is the planetary system itself? It is nothing when compared 
to the universe, — nothing to the thousands and thousands of sj^tema, 
each enlightened by its sun and stars, extending through Uie im- 
mensity of space. From the nearest of these stars or suns our di- 
stance is not less than thirty-seven billions of miles ; and when we 
reflect that luminous bodies are discoverable by the telescope, whose 
light, if we may credit the calculations of an eminent astronomer, 
has been nearly two millions of years in reaching our globe, though 
moving at the rate of more than ten millions of miles in a minute, 
what a conception does this give of the universe ! — Crombie. 

Most of the following extracts, as far as page 408, are taken from the 
French examination papers of the University of London : 

* Jupiter. Planete qni est entre Pallas et Satume, et qui fait sa revolu- 
tion autoor da soleil en qnatre mille trois cent trente-trois jours. 

t Uranus. Planete decouverte par Herschel, dont elle a porte le nom 
pendant quelque temps. 


Praiaetoorthy amhUum. 

There are but few men who are not ambitious of distinguishing 
themselves in the nation or country where they live, and of growing 
considerable among those with whom they converse. ' There is a kind 
of grandeur and respect, which the meanest and most insignificant 
part of mankind endeavour to procure in the little circle of their 
mends and acquaintance. The poorest mechanic, nay, the man who 
lives upon common alms, gets hun his set of admirers, and delights 
in that superiority which he enjoys over those who are in some re- 
spects beneath him. This ambition, which is natural to the soul of ' 
man, mieht receive a very happy turn ; and, if it were rightly direct- 
ed, contnbute as much to a person's advantage as it generally does 
to his uneasiness and disquiet. — Spectator, 

Education of a poet. 

Being now resolved to be a poet, 1 saw everything with a new pur- 
pose ; my sphere of attention was suddenly magnified : no kind of 
knowledge was to be overlooked. I ranged mountains and deserts 
for images and resemblances, and pictured upon my mind every tree 
of the forest and flower of the valley. I observed with equal care 
the crags of the rock and the pinnacles of the palace. Sometimes I 
wandered along the mazes of the rivulet, and sometimesi watched the 
changes of the summer clouds. To a poet nothing can be useless. 
Whatever is beautiful and whatever is dreadful, must be familiar to 
bis imagination : he must be conversant with all that is awfully vast 
or elegantly little. The plants of the garden, the animals of the 
wood, the minerals of the earth, and meteors of the sky, must all 
concur to store his mind with inexhaustible variety : for every idea 
28 useful for the enforcement or decoration of moral or religious truth ; 
and he who knows most, will have most power of diversifying his 
scenes, and of gratifying his reader with remote allusions and unex- 
pected instruction. 

But the knowledge of nature is only half the task of a poet : he 
must be acquainted likewise with all the modes of life. His charac- 
ter requires that he estimate the happiness and misery of every con- 
dition ; observe the power of all the passions in all their combina- 
tions, and trace the changes of the human mind, as they are modified 
by various institutions and accidental influences of climate or custom, 
from the sprightliness of infiincy to the despondence of decrepitude. 

His labour is not yet at an end : he must know many languages 
and many sciences ; and, that his style may be worthy of his thoughts, 
must, by incessant practice, familiarize to himself every delicacy of 
speech and grace of harmony. — Johnson. 

SvhUmty of conception. 

Looking over the late edition of Boileau's works, I was very much 
pleased with the article which he has added to his notes on the traos^ 


latioD of Longinus. He tline teUs «b, that the sablime in writing 
ziies either from the nobleness of the thought, the magnificence of 
the words, or the harmoDious and lively turn of the phrase, and tihat 
the perfect sublime arises from all these three in conjmiction toge- 
ther. He produces an instance of this perfect sublime in four veneB 
from the Athalia of Racine. When Abner, one of the chief cfficera 
of the court, represents to Joad, the high-priest, that the queen was 
incensed against him, the high-priest, not in the least terrified at the 
news, returns this answer: 

** Cdni qui met mi frein i^ la ftnear des ilots. 
Slit aoBsi des m^hants air^r les oomplots, 
SoDnus srec respect a sa volonte sainte, 
Je crains Dien, cher Abaar, et n'ai point d'antre crainte." 

Such a thought gives no less a sublimity to human nature than it 
does to good writing. This regions fear, when it is produced by just 
apprehentions oi a Omne Power^ naturally overlooks all hwnan greet- 
ness that stands in competition with it, and extingoishes every other 
terror that can settle itself in the heart of man; it lessens and con- 
tracts the figure of the most exalted persons; it disarms the Qrrant 
and execationer ; and represents to our minds the most enraged and 
the most powerful as ah^ether harmless and impotrat 

There is no trae fortitude which is not foimded upon this fear, as 

there is no otiier principle of so settled and fixedanature That 

courage "which proceeds from the sense of our duty, and fVom the fear 
of offending Him that msde us, acts always in a uniform manner, and 
aoeording to the dictates of right reason. 

What can the man fear, who takes oars in all his aetioiis to please 
a Being that is omnipotent ?'*-<AnDisoir. 


Many people suppose that poetry is somethine^ to be ibund only in 
books, contained in lines of ten syllables, with like endings: hut 
wherever there is a sense of beauty, or power, or harmony, as in the 
motion of a wave of the sea, in the growth of a fiower that '< spreads 
its si^eet leaves to the air, and dedicates its beauty to the sun,"-* 
there is poetry^ in its birth. If histoiy is a grave study, poetry may 
be said to be a graver : its materials fie deeper, and are spread wider. 
History treats, for the most part, of the cumbrous and unwieldy masses 
of things, the emp^ cases in which the affairs of the world are packed, 
under the heads of intrigue or war, in difibrent states, and fitNn cen- 
tury to centuty : but there is no thought or feeling that can have en- 
tered into the mind of man, which he would be eager to commimi- 
cate to others, or which they would listen to with delight, that is not 
a fit subject for poetry. It is not a branch of author^p : it is '< the 
stuff of which our life is UMuie." The testis ** mere oblivion," a dead 
letter : for all that is worth remembering in life is the poetry of iL 
Poetry is that fine particle withm ns, that expands, rarefiiei^ 


refiafes, raifles oar whole being Those of us who do not stocly 

the principles of poetry, act upon them all our llvesi like MoU^e's 
JBourgeoU gentUhomme, who had always spoken prose without know- 
ing it. — Hazlitt. 

The BrtHsh Emjnre. 

The British Empire, exclusive of its foreign dependencies, consisti 
of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the smaller islands 
contiguous and subordinate to them. Great Britain, the largest and 
by far the most important of the British Islands, is divided into the 
kingdoms of England and Scottend ; the former occupying its south* 
em, most fruitful and extensive, and the latter its northern, mofo 
barren, and smaller portion. Alter the withdrawal of the Romans 
from Great Britain, these two divisions became separate and inde- 
pendent states, between which the most violent animosities frequently 
subsisted. In consequence of the marriage of Margaret, daughter of 
Henry VII. -of England, to James iV. king of Scotland in 1502, 
J«mes VI., king of Scotland, ascended the English throne upon the 
demise of queen Elizabeth in 1604. But, notwithstanding tma union 
of the crowns, the two kingdoms had distinct and independent legis- 
latures till 1707, when, under the auspices of queen Anne, a legis- 
lative union of Eng^nd and Scotland was completed. In many re- 
spects, however, the institations of the two countries still continue 
Seculiar. The common law and the judicial establishments of E^eland 
ifl^r much from those of Scoldand ; the prevailing reheion and the 
church ^establishment of tiie former are also matenally uffbrent firom 
those of the latter ; ^and the manners and customs of the two coun- 
tries, though gradually assimilating, still preserve many distinguish- 
ing features.-^M*Cini:r&ocH*8 StatUUcmlAcewnt of the British Em-- 

Deteriptkm of England. 

Few ooantries exhibit a mater variety of surface than England, 
or have been more highly favoured by nature. << Although, says 
Dr. Aikin, " its features are moulded on a comparatively minute scale, 
they are marked with all the agreeable interchange wluch constitutes 
picturesque beauty. In some parts, plains clothed in the richest ver- 
dure, watered by copious streams, and pasturing innumerable cattle, 
extend as far as the eye can reach : in others, gently rising hills and 
bending vales, fertile in com, waving with woods, and interspersed 
with flowery meadows, offer the most deHghtful landscapes of rural 
opulence and' beauty. Some tracts fbmish prospects of the more ro- 
mantic and impressive kind; Idfty mountains, craggy rocks, deep 
dells, narrow ravines, and tumbling torrents : nor is there wanting as 
a contrast to those, scenes in which every variety of nature is a dif- 
ferent charm, the vicissitude of black barren moors and wide inani- 
mated heaths." Such is a Tivid description of the general appear^ 
ance of England. But the beauty and fertility of the country are not 
the only things to excite admiration ; &e mildness of the climate. 


removed alike from the extremes of heat and cold ; the multitude of 
rivers, their depth, and the facility they afford to inteTnal navigation ; 
the vast beds of coal and other valuable minerals hid under the sur- 
face ; the abundance and excellence of the fish in the rivers and sur- 
rounding seas ; the extent of sea-coast ; the number, capaciousness, 
and safety of the ports and bays ; and the favourable situation of the 
cpuntry for commerce; give England advantages that are not enjoyed 
in an equal degree by any other nation. — M^Cdlloch's StatuUeal 
Account of the British Empire, 

The Land of the Free, 

I speak in the spirit of the British law, which makes Liberty com- 
mensurate with and inseparable from British soil ; which proclaims 
even to the stranger and sojourner, the moment he sets his foot iipon 
British earth, that the ground on which he treads is holy, and con^ 
secrated by the genius of Universal Emancipation. No matter in 
^hat language his doom may have been pronounced; no matter what 
complexion, incompatible with freedom, an Indian or an African 
sun may have burnt upon him ; no matter in what disastrous battle 
his liberty may have been cloven down ; no matter with what solem- 
nities he may have been devoted upon the altar of slavery ; the first 
moment he touches the sacred soil of Britain, the altar and the god 
sink together in the dust ; his soul w^ks abroad in her own majesty; 
his body swells beyond the measure of his chains, that burst from 
around him ; and he stands redeemed^ regenerated, disenthralled, by 
the irresistible genius of Universal Emancipation ! — Curran. 

7%e world was made with a benevolent design. 

It is a happy world after all. The air, the earth, the water, teem 
with delighted existence. In a spring noon or a summer evening, 
on whichever side I turn my eyes, myriads of happy beings crowd 
upon my view. ' The insect youth are on the wing, swarms of new* 
born flies are trying their pinions in the air. Their sportive motions, 
their wanton mazes, their gratuitous activity, their continual change 
of place without use or purpose, testify their joy and the exultation 
which they feel in their lately-discovered facilities. A bee amon^t 
the flowers in spring is one of the most cheerful objects that can he 
looked upon. Its life appears to be all enjoyment; so busy and so 
pleased : yet it is only a specimen of insect life, with which, by rea 
son of the animal being half domesticated, we happen to be better 
acquainted than we are with that of others. The whole winsed insect 
tribe^ it is probable, are equally intent upon their proper employments, 
and, under every variety of constitution, gratified, and perhaps equally 
gratified, by the ofiices which the Author of their nature has assigned 
to them. JBut the atmosphere is not the only scene of enjoyment 
for the insect race. Plants are covered with aphides, greedily sucking 
their juices, and constantly, as it should seem, in the act of sucking. 


It cannot be doubted but that this is a state of gratification : what 
else should fix them so close to the operation, and so long ? Other 
species are running about with an alacrity in their motions which 
carries with it every mark of pleasure. Large patches of ground are 
sometimes half covered with these brisk and sprightly natures. If 
we look to what the waters produce, shoals of the fry of fish frequent 
the margins of rivers, of lakes, and of the sea itself. These are so 
happy that they know not what to do with themselves. Their atti- 
tudes, their vivacity, their leaps out of the water, their frolics in it 
(which I have noticed a thousand times with equal attention and 
amusement), all conduce to show their excess of spirits, and are 
simply the efiects of that excess. Walking by the sea-side in a calm 
evening upon a sandy shore and with an ebbing tide, I have fre- 
quently remarked the appearance of a dark cloud, or rather very 
thick mist, hanging over the edge of the water, to the height, perhaps, 
of half a yard^ and of the breadth of two or three yards, stretching 
along the coast as far as the eye could reach^ and always retiring 
with the water. When tliis cloud came to be examined, it proved tp 
be nothing else than so much space filled with young shrimps in the 
act of bounding into the air from the shallow margin of the water^ or 
from the wet sand. If any motion of a mute animal could express 
delight, it was this ; if they had meant to make signs of their happi- 
ness, they could not have done it more intellisibfy. Suppose men, 
what I have no doubt of, each individual of this number to be in a 
state of positive enjoyment; what a sum, collectively, of gratification 
-and pleasure have we here before our view ! 

The young of all animals appear to me to receive pleasure simply 
from the exercise of their limbs and bodily faculties, without reference 
to any end to be attained, or any use to be answered by the exertion. 
A child without knowing anything of the use of language, is in a high 
-degree delighted with being able to speak. Its incessant repetition 
of a few articulate sounds, or perhaps of the single word which it has 
learned to pronounce, proves this point clearly. Nor is it less pleased 
with its first successful endeavours to walk, or rather to run (which 
precedes walking), although entirely ignorant of the importance of 
the attainment to its future life, and even without applying it to any 
present purpose. A child is delighted with speaking, without having 
anything to say ; and with walking, without knowine where to go. 
And, prior to both of these, I am disposed to believe that the waking 
hours of infancy are agreeably taken up with the exercise of vision, 
or perhaps, more properly speaking, with learning to see. 

But it is not for youth alone that the great Parent of creation hath 
provided. Happiness is found with the purring cat no less than with 
the playful kitten ; in the arm-chair of dozing age, as well as in either 
the sprightliness of the dance or the animation of the chase. To no- 
velty, to acuteness of sensation, to hope, to ardour of pursuit, suc- 
ceeds what is, in no inconsiderable degree, an equivalent for them 
ally * perception of ease.' Herein is the exact difference between the 


jaang and the old. The young are not happy hut when enjoying plea 
sure; the old are happy when ^ee from pain; and this constitution suits 
with the degrees of animal power which they respectively possess. 
The vigour of youth was to be stimulated to action oy impatience of 
rest; whilst to the imbecility of age, quietness and repose become 
positive gratifications. In one important step the advantage is with 
the old. A state of ease is, generally speaking, more attainable than 
a state of pleasure. A constitution, therefore, which can enjoy ease, 
is preferable to that which can taste only pleasure. This same per- 
ception of ease oftentimes renders old age a condition of great com- 
fort, especially when riding at its anchor after a busy or tempestuous 
life. It is well described by Rousseau to be the interval of repose 
and enjoyment between the hurry and the end of life. How far the 
same cause extends to other animal natures, cannot be judged of with 
certainty. The appearance of satisfaction with which most ftnimnliy^ 
as their activity subsides, seek and enjoy rest, affords reason to be- 
lieve that this source of gratification is appointed to advanced life 
mider all or most of its various forms. In the species with which we 
are best acquainted, namely, our own, I am far, even as an observer 
of human me, from thinking that youth is its happiest season, much 
less the only happy one. — Palet. Natural Theology, 

A Soliloquy on the Destiny of Man, 

Fancy a man walking in some retired field, far from noise and 
free from prejudice, to debate tins matter with himself, and then 
judge whetner such meditations as these would not be reasonable :•— 
"I think I may be sure that neither the vegetable tribe,—-that stone, 
that flower, that tree, — ^have any reflex thoughts ; nor do the sensi- 
tive animaJs, — that sheep, that ox,—- seem: to have any such tiling, 
or but in the lowest degree, and but in respect of present objects 
only. They do not reason nor discourse. I may therefore cer- 
tainly pretend to be something much above all thme tlungs. I not only 
i^rehend and consider these external objects acting at present upon 
my nerves, but have ideas raised within myself of a nieher order, 
end many : I can not only represent to myself things £at are, or 
have been, but deduce many others from them, make excursions into 
futurity, and foresee much of what will be, or at least may be ; bj 
strict thinking, I had almost said, get into another world beforehana; 
and, whether I shall live in some other state after death or not, I am 
certainly a being capable of such an expectation, and cannot but be 
solicitous about it; none of which things can be said of those clods or 
those brutes. Can I then be designed for nothing further than just 
to eat, drink, sleep, walk about, and act upon this earth ; that is, to 
have no further being than what these brutes have, so far beneadi 
me ? Can i be made capable of such great expectations, which those 
animals know nothing of (happier by far in this regard than I am, if' 
we must die alike), only to be disappointed at last; — thus placed 
just upon the confines of another, better world, and fed w^ hopst 


of penetrathig into it, and enjoying it, only to make a sliort a ppe a r 
anee here, and then to be shut out^and totally sank ? Must I, tfaei^ 
when I bid my last farewell to these walks, when I close these lid% 
and yonder blue regions, and all this scene darken upon me and go 
out, must I then only fiimish dust to be mingled wim the ashes of 
these herds and plants, or with this dirt imder my feet? Hare I 
been- set so far aboTe them in life, only to be levelled with iliem.iB 
death t " — ^Wollastov* 

Difficutty adotmtagemu. 

Difficulty is a seyere instructor, set over us by the siqiFeme ordi- 
nance of a parental guardian and legislator, who knows us better 

than we know ourselyes, as he loves us better too ••••He that 

wrestles with us, strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skflL 
Our antagonist is our helper, lliis amicaUe conffict with difficulty 
obliges us to an intimate acquaintance with our object, and compels 
us to consider it in all its relations. It will not suflJer us to be supei^ 
ficiaL — BumxE. 

PwbUe Schoob in Framee estabUshed by Charlemagne, 

The establishment of public schools in France is owing to Charle- 
magne* At his accession, we are assured that no means of education 
existed in his dominions ; and in order to restore in some d^ee the 
spirit of letters, he was compelled to invite strangers finom countries 
where learning was not so thoroughly extinguished^ Alculn of En- 
gland, Clement of Ireland, Theodulf of Germany, were the true Pala- 
dins who repaired to his court With the help of these he revived a few 
sparks of diligence, and established schools in different cities of his 
empire ; nor was he ashamed to be the disciple of that in his own 
palace under the care of Alcuin. — ^Hallax. State of Europe during 
the Middle Age$, 

Foundation of the Unhersitg of Paris, 

About the latter part of the eleventh century, a greater ardour for 
Intellectnal pursuits began to show itself in Europe, which in the 
twdfth broke out into a flame. This was manifested in the numbcn 
who repaired to the public academies, or schools of philosophy. 
None of these grew so eariy into reputation as diat of Paris. This 
cannot indeed, as has been vainly pretended, trace its pedigree to 
Chsvlrmagne. The first who is said to have read lectures at Paris 
was Remicins of Auxerre, about the year 900. For the next two 
centuries uie history of this school is very obscure; and it would be 
hard to prove ^m unbroken contimiity, or at least a dependence and 
connexion of its professors. In the year 1100 we find William of 
Champeaux teachmg logic, and apparently some higher parts of phi- 
losophy, with much credit. But Uns preceptor was eclipsed by his 
disciple, afierwaids hb rival and advemxyy Peter Abelaid, to whose 


brilliant and hardy genius the University of Paris appears to be in- 
debted for its rapid advancement.^ Abelard was almost the first who 
awakened mankind in the ages oY darkness to a sympathy with In- 
tellectual excellence The resort of students to Paris became con- 
tinually greater; they appear before the year 1169 to have been di- 
vided into nations ; ana probably they had an elected rector and 
voluntary rules of discipline about the same time. This however is 
not decisively proved ; but in the last year of the twelfth century, 
tiiey obtained tneir earliest charter from Philip Augustus. — Hallam, 
State of Europe during the Middle Ages, 

Social Worship agreeable to the best impulses of our nature. 

Sentiments of admiration, love, and joy, swell the bosom with 
emotions which seek for fellowship and communication. The flame, 
indeed, may be kindled by silent musing ; but when kindled it must 
infallibly spread. The devout heart, penetrated with large and af- 
fecting views of the immensity of the works of God, the harmony 
of his laws, and the extent of his beneficence, bursts into loud and 
vocal expressions of praise and adoration; and from a fiill and 
overflowing sensibility, seeks to expand itself to the utmost limits of 
creation, llie mind is forcibly carried out of itself, and, embracing 
the whole circle of animated existence, calls on all above, around, 
below, to help to bear the burthen of its gratitude. Joy is too bril- 
liant a thing to be confined within our own bosom^ ; it burnishes all 
nature, and with its vivid colouring gives a kind of fictitious life to 
objects without sense or motion. There cannot be a more striking 
proof of the social tendency of these feelings, than the strongpro- 
pensity we have to suppose auditors when there are none, nneu 
nien are wanting, we address the animal creation ; and rather than 
have none to partake of our feelings, we find sentiment in the music 
of birds, the hum of insects, and the low of kine : nay, we call on 
rocks and streams and forests to witness and share our emotions. 
Hence the royal shepherd, sojourning in caves and solitary wastes, 
calls on the hills to rejoice, and the floods to clap their hands : and 
tiie lonely poet, wandering in the deep recesses of uncultivated na- 
ture, finds a temple in every solemn grove, and swells his chorus of 
praise with the winds that bow the lofty cedars. And can he, who, 
not satisfied with the wide range of animated existence, calls for the 
sympathy of the inanimate creation, refuse to worship with his 
fellow-men? Can he who bids "Nature attend," fojrget to ''join 
every living soul " in the universal hymn ? Shall we suppose com- 
panions in the stillness of deserts, and shall we overlook them 
amongst friends and townsmen ? It cannot be ! Social worship, 
for the devout heart, is not more a duty than it is a real want.— 
Mrs. Bakbauld. 

Sketch of an English Barrister, 
How cold and dead a figure does an orator often make at the 


British bar, holding up his head with the most insipid seTenity, and 
stroking the sides of a long wig that reaches down to his middle ! 
The truth of it is, there is often nothing more ridiculous than the 
gestures of an English speaker ; you see some of them running their 
Bands into their pocket^ as far as ever thej can thrust them ; and 
others looking with great attention on a piece of paper that has no- 
thing written on it ; you may see many a smart rhetorician turning 
his hiat in his hands, moulding it into several different cocks, exami* 
ning sometimes the Kning of it and sometimes the button, during 
the whole course of his harangue. A deaf man would think he was 
cheapening a beaver, when, perhaps, he is talking of the fate of the 
British nation. I remember, when I was a young man, and used to 
frequent Westminster-hall, there was a counsellor who never pleaded 
witnout a piece of packthread in his hand, which he used to twist 
about a thumb or a finger all the while he was speaking : the wags 
of those days used to ^Jl it ** the thread of his discourse," for he was 
imable to utter a word without it. One of his clients, who was more 
merry than wise, stole it from him one day in the midst of his plead* 
ing : but he had better have let it alone, for he lost his cause by his 
jest, — ^Addisoh. 

Thefaaufy of Waie/Uid after the lou cf their fortune. 

Tbe place of our retreat was in a little neighbourhood, consisting 
of farmers who tilled their own grounds, and were equal strangers to 
opulence and poverty. As diey had almost aU the conveniences of 
Itfe within themselves, they seldom visited towns or cities in search 
of superfluities. Remote nrom Uie polite, they stiU retained the pri- 
meval simplicity of manners ; and frugal by habit, they scarce knew 
that temperance was a virtue. They wrought with cheerfulness on 
days of labour, but observed festivals as intervals of idleness and 
pleasure. They kept up the Christmas carol, sent true-love-knots on 
Valentine morning, eat pancakes on Shrove-tide, showed their wit on 
the first of April, and religiously cracked nuts on Michaelmas eve. 
'Being apprised of our approach, the whole neighbourhood came out 
to meet tneir minister, dressed in their fine clothes, and preceded by 
a pipe and tabor: a feast also was provided for our reception, at 
wnich we sat cheerfully down ; and what the conversation wanted 
in wit, was made up in laughter. 

Our little habitation was situated at the foot of a sloping hilL shel 
tered with a beautiful underwood behind, and a prattlmg nver be- 
fore; on one side a meadow, on the other a green. My fiirm consisted 
of al>ont twenty acres of excellent land, having given a hundred 
pounds for my predecessor's goodwiU. Nothing could exceed the 
neatness of my little enclosures, the elms and hedge-rows appearing 
with inexpressible beauty. My house consisted of but one story, 
and was covered with thatch, which gave it an air of great snugness; 
the walls on the inside were nicely whitewashed, and my daughters 
undertook to adorn them with pictures of their own designing, 



410 VEBfi BXSECIS8» 

Tikoagh tlie fame raom served us Ibr pailoar and Idteben, tliat onty 
made it tlie warmer. Besides^ as it was kept with &e utmost neat- 
ness, liie dishes, plates and cuppers being well scoured and aO dis- 
posed in bright rows on the shelves, the eje was agreeably retieve^ 
and did not want richer fomiture. There were three other nnazt- 
meots: one Ibr my wife and me; anotiier for our two daugntets 
within our own ; and the third, with two beds, for the rest of the 

Hie little republic to which I gave laws was regulated in die fol- 
lowing manner : bj sunrise we au asaemUed in our com m< m apart- 
ment, the fire being previously kindled by die servant. After we 
had saluted each other with proper ceremony, for I always thoi^ght 
lit to keep up some mechanical forms of eood-breeding, widioot 
which freedom ever de8tro3r8 friendship, we au bent in gratitade to 
that Being who^ve us another day. This duty being performed, 
my son and I went to pursue our usual industry abroad, while my 
wife and daughters employed themselves in providing breakfast 
which was always ready at a certain time. I tilovred half an boor 
for this meal, and an hour for dinner; whiefa time waa taken up m 
innocent mirth between my wife and daughters, and in philosopfaical 
arguments between my son and me. 

As we rose with the sun, so we never pursued our laboor after it 
was gone down, but returned home to the egqiectnig fomily ; where 
nniling looks, a neat hearth and pleasant fire were prepared foor our 
reception. Nor were we without guests : sometimes farmer Flam- 
borough, OUT talkative neighbomr, and often the blind piper, would 
pay us a visits and taste our gooseberry wine; for the malrtng of 
which we had lost neither the receipt nor the reputation. These 
harmless people had several ways of being good company; while one 
played, the other would sing some soothing ballad, Johnny Arm- 
strong's Last Good-night» or. The Cruelty of Bariiara Allen. The 
night was concluded in the manner we began the morning, my 
youngest boys being appointed to read the lessons of the day, and he 
that read loudest, dlst^lctest and bes^ was to have a hal^ienny on 
Sunday to put into the poor's box. 

When Sunday came, it was indeed a day of finery, which att my 
flomptuary edicts could not restraim How well soever I fandod my 
lectures against pride had conquered the vanity of my daughtera, yet 
I still found them secretly attached to all their former finery ; they 
still loved laces, ribands, bugles, and catgut; my wifo herself retained 
a. passion for her crimson padnasoy, because I formerly hiqipened to 
say it became her. 

The first Sunday in particular their behaviour served to mortify 
me : I had desired my girls the preceding night to be dressed eariy 
the next day, for I always loved to be at church a good while before 
the rost of the congregation. They punctually obeyed my directions ; 
but when we were to assemble in the morning at breakfast^ down 
came my wife and daughters, dressed out in all their former splen* 


dour, ibeir lunr plaistered up witb pomatum, their faces patched to 
taste, their tnum bundled up into a heap behind, and rustling at 
eterj motion. I coold not help smiling at their yanity, particularly 
that of my wife, from whom 1 expecled more discretion. In this 
exigence, therefore, my only resource was, to order my son, with an 
nnpoitant air, to call our coach. Tbo giris were amazed at the com- 
annd ; bat I repeated it with more solemnity than before. *' Surely; 
my dear, yoo jes^* erred my wife, ''we can walk it perfectly wefl; 
we want no coach to cany us now." ^ Tou mistake, child," return- 
ed I, '^ we do want a coach ; for if we walk to church in this trim, 
tile Tery children in tiie parish will hoot after us." " Indeed," re- 
pified my wife, '^ I always imagined that my Charles was fond of see- 
ing his children neat and handsome about him." " Tou may be as 
Beat as you please," interrupted I, '* and I shall love yon tiie better 
for it ; but an this is not neatness, but frippery. These rufflings, and 
pinkings, and patchings, will only make us hated by all the wives of 
our neighbours. No, my children," continued i, more gravely, 
** those gowns may be altered into something of a plainer cut, for 
finery is very unbecoming in us, who want the means of decency. I 
do not know whether such flouncing and shreddine is becoming even 
m the iwh, if we consider, upon a moderate ouculation, that the 
nakedness- of tiie indigent world may be clothed from the trimmings 
of the vain." 

This remonstrance had the proper effect; they went with great 
composure, that very instant, to change their dress ; and the next 
day 1 had the satisfsMrtion of finding my daughters, at their own re- 
oraest, employed in cutting up their trains into Sunday waistcoats fur 
Di^ and Bill, the two little ones ; and what was still more satis&e- 
tory, the gowns seemed improved by this curtailing. — Oliver Golih 

The TemptaHan. 

Ravenscroft was a man, I have heard say, of all men least cal- 
colated for a treasurer. He had no head for accounts, paid away at 
random, kept scarce any booka^ and summing up at the week's end, 
if he found nimself a pound or so deficient, Ueat himself that it was 
no worse. 

Now Barbara's weekly stipend was a bare half-guinea. By mis- 
take he popped into her hand — a whole one. Barbara tzmped away. 

She was entirely unconscious at first of the mistake. Ravenscroft 
would never have discovered it. 

But when she had got down to the first of those uncouth landings 
places, she became sensible of an unusual weight of metal pressing ^ 

her little hand. ^ 

Now mark the dilemma. 

She was by natorea good child. FVom her patente and thoae about 
her she had imbibed no contrary infiuence. But then they had taught 
her nothing. Poor men's smoky cabins aire not always porticoes of 
moral philosophy. This little maid had no instinct to evil, bat then 




she might be said to have no fixed principle. She had heard honesty- 
commended, hut never dreamed of its application to herself Slie 
thought of it as something which concerned grown-up people, men 
and women. She had never known temptation, or thought of pie- 
paring resistance against it. 

Her first impulse was to go back to the old treasurer, and **^"x>lain 
to him his blunder. He was already so confused with age, besides 
a natural want of punctuality, that she would have had some diffi- 
culty in making bun understand it. She saw that in an instant. And 
dien it was such a bit of money ! And then the image of a laigei 
allowance of butcher's meat on their table next day came across her, 
till her little eyes glistened and her month moistened. Bat then 
Mr. Ravenscroft had always been so good-natured, had stood her 
fiiend so often. . . . But again, the old man was repiUed to be worth 
a world of money. He was supposed to have fifty pounds a-year 
clear of his profession. And then came staring upon her the figures 
of her little stockingless and shoeless sbters. And when she looked 
at her own neat white cotton-stockings, which her situation niade it 
indispensable for her mother to provide for her, with hard straining 
and pinching from the family stock, and thought how glad she shoulS 
be to cover their poor feet with the same. ..In these thoughts she 
reached the secona landing-place — ^the second, I mean, from the top 
— ^for there was still another left to traverse. 

Now virtue support Barbara! 

And that never-failing fnend did step in; for at that moment a 
strength not her own, I have heard her say, was revealed to her — a 
reason above reasoning — and without her own agency, as it seemed 
(for she never felt her feet to move), she found herself transported 
back to the individual desk she had just quitted, and her hand in the 
old hand of Ravenscroft, who in silence took back the refunded trea- 
sure, and who had been sitting (good man) insensible to the lapse of 
minutes, which to her were anxious ages ; and from that moment a 
deep peace fell upon her heart, and she knew the quality of honesty. 

A year or two s unrepiuing application to her duty brightened up 
the feet and the prospects of her little sisters, set the whole family 
upon their legs again, and released her from the djfiiculty of discuss- 
ing moral dogmas upon a landing-place. 

I have heard her say, that it was a surprise, not much short of 
mortification to her, to see the coolness with which the old man 
pocketed the difference, which had caused her such mortal throes. 

This anecdote of herself I had in the year 1800, from the mouth 
of the late Mrs. Crawford, then sixty-seven years of age. — ^Charles 

The Fision of Mirza, 

On the fifth day of the moon, which, according to the custom of 

* Charles Lamb was educated in Christ's Hospital, London. He died 
in 1834, aged 59. 


my fore&fhen, I always keep lioly, after baying washed myself and 
^red np my morning derotions, I ascended tne bigb hills of Bag- 
dat, in order to pass the rest of the day in meditation and prayer. 
As I was here airing myself on the tops of the mountains, I fell into 
a profomid contemplation on the vanity of homan life; and passing 
from one thought to another, " surely," said I, ** man is but a snadow, 
and life a dream." Whilst I w^ thus musing, I cast my eyes to- 
wards the summit of a rock that was not far from me, where I dis- 
corered one in the habit of a shepherd, with a little musical instru- 
ment in his band. As I looked upon him he applied it to bis lips^ 
and b^an to play upon it. The sound of it was exceeding sweety 
and wrought into a yariety of tunes that were inexpressibfy melo- 
dious, and altogether different from anjrthing I had ever heard. 
They put me in mind of those heavenly airs &it are played to the 
departed souls of good men upon their first arrival in Paradise, to 
wear out the impressions of the last agonies, and qualify them for 
the pleasures of that happy place. My beiCrt melted away in secret 
raptares. I had been olten told that the rock before me was the 
bimnt of a genius; and that several had been entertained with mune 
who had passed by it, but never beard that the musician had before 
made himself visible. When he had raised my thoughts by those 
transporting airs which he played, to taste the pleasures of his con- 
TersatioD, as I lodged upon nim l&e one astonished, he beckoned to 
me, and by die waving of his hand directed me to approach the 
place where he saL I drew near with that reverence wmch is due 
to a superior nature ; and as my heart was entirely subdued by the 
captivating strains I had heard, I fell down at his feet and wept. 
The genius smiled upon me with a look of compassion and affiibihty 
that familiarized him to my imagination, and at once diroeDed all 
the fears and apprehensions with which I approached nim. He 
lifted me from the ground, and taking me by the hand, "Mirza," said 
be, " I have beard thee in thy soliloquies ; follow me." 

He then led me to the highest pinnacle of the rock, and placing me 
on flie top of it, " cast thy eyes eastward," said he, " and teU me what 
thou seest." *' I see," said I, " a huge vaDey, and a prodigious tide 
of water rolling through it" " The valley that thou seest, said be, 
** is the Vale of Misery, and the tide of water that thou seest is part 
of the great tide of eternity." '< What is the reason," said I, ** that 
the tide I see rises out of a thick mist at one end, and again loses 
itself in a thick mist at the other?" " What thou seest," said be, 
** is that portion of eternity which is called time, measured out by 
the sun, and reaching from the b^iinning of the world to its con- 
summation. Examine now," said be, "this sea that is bounded 
with darkness at both ends, and tell me what thou dtscoverest in it." 
« I see a bridge," said I, '* standing in the midst of the tide." « The 
bridge thou seest," said he, " is human life ; consider it attentively." 
Upon a more leisurely survey of it, I found that it consisted of three- 
score and ten entire arches, with several broken arches, which added 


io those that were entire, made up the nnmber ahout a hundred. 
^8 I was couBtii^ the arches, the geniua told me that this bridge 
consisted at lirst of a thousand arches ; but that a great flood swept 
jaway the rest, and left the bridge in the ruinous condition I now 
beheld it. *'But tell me further/' said he, *' what thou discoveiest 
on it" '* I see multitudes of people passing over it," said I, " and a 
black cloud hanging on each end of it." As I looked more atten- 
tively, I saw sever^ of the passengers dropping through the bridge 
into the great tide that flowed underneath it ; and upon further exa- 
mination pereeived there were innunmrahle trap-doors that lay con- 
cealed in the brldee* which the passengers no sooner trod upon but 
ihey fell through &em into the tide and immediatdy disappeared. 
These hidden pit-falls were set very thiek at the entrance of the 
bridge, so that throngs of people no sooner broke through the dovd 
but naany of them f^ into than. They grew thinner towards the 
middle, hut multiplied and la^ closer together towards the end of 
the arches that were entire. There were mdeed some persona, but 
tbebr number was veiy small, that continued a kind of hobb]ing 
narch on the broken arches, but fell through one after another, being 
^uite tired and spent with so long a walk. 

I passed some time in the contemplation of this wonderful atmctur^ 
and the areat yaiiety of oinects which it pieaented. My heart waa 
filled wiu a deep melancholy, to see several dropping unexpectedly 
in the midst of mirth and jollity, and catching at eveiythmg that 
stood by Ihem to save themselves. Some were looking up towards 
heaven in a thoughtful posture, and in the midst of a qpeculatioa 
sbunbled and felTout of sight Multitudes were veiy busy in the 
pursuit of bubbles that elittered in their eyes and danced before them ; 
but often when they thought themselves within the reach of Aem, 
tbeir footing failed and down they sank. In this confiuion of o^ects, 
I observed some with admitars in their hands, and others who ran to 
and fro upon the bridge, thrusting several persons on trap-doois which 
did not seem to lie in their way, and which they might have escaped 
had they not been thus forced upon them. 

The genius seeing me indulge myself on this melancholy prospect, 
told me I had dwelt long enough upon it " Take thine eyes off the 
ikridge," said he, " and teU me if tiiou yet seest anything thoa dost 
not comprehend." Upon looking up, '* What mean," said I, ** thoee 
great flights of birds that are perpetually hovering about the bridge, 
and settling upon it 'from time to time? I see vultures, harpies, 
ravens, cormorants, and among many other feathered creatures, 
several little winged boys, that perch in great numbers upon the 
middle arches." <* These," said the genius, ** are Envy, Avarice, 
Superstition, Despair, Love, with the like cares and passions that 
infest human life." I here fetched a deep sigh. "Alas," said I, 
** man was made in vain I How is he given away to misery and 
mortality f tortured in life, and swallowed up in death!" The ge- 
nius being moved with compassion towards me, bid me quit so un- 


comfortable a prospect. " Look bo more," said he, " on man in the 
first stage of his existence, in his setting out for eternity, but cast 
thine eye on that thids mist into whidi the tide bean the several 
generations of mortals that fall into it." I directed my sight as I was 
ordered, and (whether or no the good genius strengthened it with any 
supernatural force, or dissipated part of the mist that was before too 
thick for the eye to penetrate) I saw the valley opening at the farther 
end, and spreading forth into an immense ocean, that had a huge 
isek of adamant ronningthrflngb the midst of it, and dividing it into 
two equal parts. The aonds stii] rested on one half of it, insomuch 
tiwt 1 could fkiso0ver nothing in it ; but the other appeared to me a 
▼ast ocean planted with innumerable islands, that were covered witli 
fruits and flowers, and interwoven with a thousand little shining seas 
that ran among theoL, I could see persons dressed in glorious habits 
with garlands upon their heads, passing among the trees, lying dowm 
by the sides of fountains, or restii^ on beds of flowers ; «nd eonld 
)iMT a confused harmony of singing birds, fidling waleis, bomaa 
voices^ and musical instrumoits^ Gl adn e ss grew in me i^Mm dMi 
discovery of so deUghtfiil a scene* I wished finr the wings of an 
eagle^ that I might fly away to those happy seats; bnt the geniofl 
told me there was no passage to them cxoqpt through the gates o£ 
death that I saw opening every moment upon the bridge. '* The 
islands," said he, ** that lie so fresh and green befqre thee, and with 
which the whole face of the ocean appears spotted as far as thou 
canst see, are more in number than the sands on the sea-shore ; there 
wn myrincls of islands b^iiwd Aoae which thou here mscowresl^ 
Rsdung fiurther Aaa tiime eye, or even thine imi^i n a li on esn ex- 
tend itwifl These are tiw mansions of good men idler death, who, 
aniOfdiiig' to die degree and kinds c^ vlitnc in winch they exceHeii^ 
me distrwuled anoi^ these several iskmds, which abound with plett" 
snres of difierent kinds and degrees, suitable to the relishes and per- 
£BCtions of those who ore settled in diem; every idand is a panMise 
accommodated to its respective inhabitants. Are net these, O Minn, 
habitations worth contending for? Does life appear miscfable^ that 
gives thee opportunities of earning such a reward ? Is death to be 
feared, that win convey thee to so happy an existence? Think not 
maa was made in Ytan, who has such an eternity reserved for him." 
I gazed with inexpressible pleasure on these nappy islands. At 
length said I, " Show me now, 1 beseech thee, the secrets that lie 
lud under those dark clouds wboA oowr the ocean on the other side 
of the rock of adamant." The genius making me no answer, I 
tmned me about to address myself to him a second time, but I found 
dmt he had left me ; I then turned again to the vision which I had 
been so long contemplating; but instead of the rolling tide, the 
arched bridge, and the happy islands, 1 saw nothing but the long 
boDow valley of Bagdat, wim oxen, sheep and camels graxing upon 
die Sides of it— Jossra AoDisoa. 





Page 38. — The boy, the girl. The uncles, the nephews. The seft* 
sons, the spring, the summer, the autumn, the winter. The sun, the 
moon, the stars. The year, the month, Uie day, the hour, the walk, 
the histories, the harps. 

Page 40. — The love of virtue. The happiness of man. To or in 
the spring of life. From the dawn of day to the setting of the sun. 
Wisdom IS the health of the soul. The vigour of the mind and body. 
Agreeable to the sight, to the hearing, to the taste, and to the toucn. 
Activity is the mother of prosperity. Instruction is a treasure. The 
fruit of labour is the sweetest of pleasures. There are an apple and a 
pear. Here are tea, chocolate, cream, bread, butter, ana eggs for 
breakfast. There are some sugar and milk*. A year, a month, a week, 
tt day, an hoiur, a minute, a second, even an instant is a part of time 
as well as a century. 



pAgE 44.-^£urope is the most civilized part of the world. There 
flouri^i the sciences, letters, and arts. The soil covered with popu- 
lous towns is cultivated with care. There are found (one there foids) 
many roads and canals, and numerous manufactures*. Commerce 
has Ln^ to E«rope«„ aU the region, of the glob.. «.d their .hip. 
navigate all seas. 

Page 45.— -Virtue, riches, vice, man, a friend, the master, the 
pupil, the partridge, excess, the walnut, the picture, the castle, the 
bird, the horse, the work, the detail, a fan. 

The uncles, the aunts, the cousins (m.), the cousins (f.), the mis-* 
tresses, the heroes, the boats, some knives, some originals, the eyesy 
the ancestors, the heavens, the jewels and the toys. 


Page 49. — My dear fnend, said a wise tutor to his Illustrious pupil, 
be meek, humane, accessible, afiable, compassionate, and liberaL 

* Fabrigttee ef mamfaeiures (page 44). — ^La fabrigue roule plut6t sur 
des objets d'un usage plus ordinaire ; la manufacturej sur des objets plus 
relev^s : det FAmuairBS debet; det manttfactures de glacee, 1a fo' 
brique est une manufacture en petit ; la maw^faeture est nnefabrigve en 
grand. — ^Boiste. 



Imitate your father. Remember that he was superior to others by the 
nobleness of his sentiments ; assiduous, upright, and firm in negotia- 
tions. Nothing is beautiful but truth, truth alone is amiable. The 
Tynans are industrious, patient, laborious, clean, sober, and thrifty. 
The French language is spoken in Europe by all enlightened men. 
Persevering labour and uigent necessity triumph over the greatest 



Page 49. — Heavy, peopled, necessary, wise, just, esteemed, ruddy, 
christian, good, fat, dumb, discreet, active, lively, white, frank, dan- 
gerous, jedous, sarcastic, lyings avenging. 

Lead is heavier than iron. 
Our country is very populous. 

Air is necessary to life. 
My friend (m,), be wise and just 
Your duty is not difficult. 
Bread is substantial. 
No monument is etemal. 
This wall is thick. 
The Louvre * is very old. 
My son, be good and well-be- 
The fop is often very ridiculous. 
His discourse is ambiguous. 
There is a new hat. 
Let us not disturb public order. 

That child is ingenuous and frank. 

I like a frank disposition. 

This air is cool. 

This road is very long. 

It is a deceitful hope. 

An accusing testimony. 

She has an enchanting smile. 

Seek a better climate. 

That nation is courageous. 

Never be jealous. 

That man is indiscreet and talk- 

He is absent and thoughtless. 

A straw hat is light 

My son, show thyself docile and 

Be a faithful and discreet friend. 

New year, new pleasure. 

The north is a cardinal point. 

Water is heavier than air. 

France is more populous than 

Heat is necessary to the body. 

My friend (/.), be wise and just. 

Your task is not difficult 

Meat is substantial. 

No fashion is lasting. 

This hedge is thick. 

Study ancient history. 

My daughter, be good and well- 
behaved. . 

It is a foolish undertaking. 

This expression is ambiguous. 

Here is a new thou£;ht 

The minister of Fubuc Instruction 
is in Paris. 

His sister is ingenuous and frank. 

I like a frank answer. 

Here is some fresh water. 

My lesson is not long. 

It is a deceitful promise. 

An accusing expression. 

Her voice is enchanting. 

Solicit a better situation. 

That woman is courageous. 

Be not of a jealous disposition. 

That young lady is indiscreet and 

She is absent and thoughtless. 

Straw is light 

My children^ show yourselves do- 
cile and attentive. 

Be faithful and discreet friends. 

New labours, new enjoyments. 

There are four cardinal points. 

A palace in Paris. 



B» thou neiihcr tngwckwi nor Be ve ntidiec mipiriwM 

■iiUeB. mlieii. 

Leaisa, be prudent Chailee and Loraaa, be pradent;. 

ThepaiTotiatalkatiye. The bbckbird and nii^;pie ace 


Tbe tiger is enKl. Hie tiger end Irfeaa axe cruaL 

Vengeance is odious. Vengeance (plural) is odioos. 

Sir, be attentive. GenUemen, be attentive. 

MisSf be attentive. Young lacBeS) be attentive. 

France is fertile. France and Italy are fertile. 

My friend, be charitable. My friends, be charitable. 

My dauffbteTi be pdite. My dau^ters, be polite. 

My child, be good. My children, be good. 

Page 53.-— London is the finest of cities. The best friend. The 
most beantifrd comparison. My prettiest fiowers. His best werk. 
The youngest of my sisters. The least wise ef my brothers. A be^ 
ter argument. He reasons better. 

Page 64. — Homer appears to me more sublime than all other epic 
poets. The rose is more beantiful than tiie violet. Autumn is less 
varied tiian spring. Yon are less informed than your brother. He 
is as learned as I. He is not so old as your sister. 


Page 63. — The ro^al library of Paris consisted of 910 volumes 
under Charles V, of 1890 imdor Francis I, and of 16,746 under 
* Louis XIIL In 1684 it had 60,542; in 1775, nearly 150,000 
volumes, and about 200,000 in 1790. It now contains 600,000 
printed books, and 80,000 manuscripts. The Mazarine library con- 
sisted, in 1684, of 40,000 volumes; it has now 90,000 printed books, 
and 3437 manuscripts. The library of the Arsenal consists of more 
than 175,000 volumes, 6000 of which are manuscript. The library 
of Sainte-Genevi^ve contains 160,000 volumes. Total, 1,111,937 

France is divided into 86 departments, 373 districts, 2842 cantons, 
and 39,381 mayoralties. Louis XII, Francis I, Heniy II, Francis II, 
Charles IX, Henry III, Henry IV, Louis XIII, Louis XIV, XV, 
XVI, XVII, and XVIII, Charles X, Louis-Philippe I. (See R^ 
rsRTOiRE LiTTKRAiRE, page 356.) 

A quarter, or three months. Half a year, or six months. About 
twenty times. London, Ist January, 1840. 

A franc, or 20 sous (ten pence)j or 100 centimes (a centime is the 
hundredth part of a franc). Twenty-five sous make a shilling, and 
25 francs inake one pound sterling. One hundred pounds sterling 
make 2600 francs. One thousand pounds sterling make 25,000 


Paos 68. — ^I woifc with application. It is I wlio bore all {be ttoMe^ 
It ]• to thee I speak. Irost him. I shall speak to him about it 
I see him coming. She is lored became she is good. I will rewarfl 
her. Those joimg pupils please me, they ate well brooght xsp> 

Paob 70u — My haAp mj pane, wjr gloves, iby handkerchief thy 
cravat, thy shoes, his pocket-book, his watch, his jewels. His man- 
senrant, her hosband, her sister, her address. There is his boose. 
Hen is miiie. Those are yov books or mine. It is not your pro- 
perty, it is oms. His adnoe (opinion) is better than mine. 

Pa«b 74^ — It is the son which gives ns ]u;ht; it warms the earth 
which sustains ns ; it rivens the firnits which refresh ns^ and causes 
the flowem to blossom which delight oar eyes. It is the lady whoni 
j€n iaow. Here is the box which yon have given me. Hie papers 
which you have entrusted to me* — ^What house is that ham which 
you come ? The boose of my lather. — Of these jewels, whidi do you 
prefer? This one.^— Which of these staffi pleases you most? This 
enew-^Which ai those books bekng to you? These.— I know the 
events «f which you are speakings I Rjoice at them. A pleasure 
Idt which we waffkt repent does not deserve our regret. Happy the 
p e op l e who are governed by a wise king ! they are in the nudst of 
plen^ they life happy, and love him to whom they owe aU their 

Pace 77^ — That is not what yon bad promised me. This book 
pleases me. This deserves attention. Tms engr a t ii ^ is not the <me 
you had promised me. — What do yon say about (that) it? Nothing. 
»~This child is not the one I have seen. These gnpes are gMid, but 
these are better.— What do yon say of tboseyonng ladies? That one 
is amiable, but this one pleases me more. — ^lliis is good, that is bad. 

Page 78.-— Some one told me he had seen you (vous avow vu, to 
hive seen ffou). Do not to odiers what you would not wish shovild 
be done to you. It is said that peace is made. No one is free from 
error. Whoever passes that way (pas, bjf ; jA, there), must pay so 
much. Some one knocks at the door. Every one thinks of himselC 
We must not reckon on proiperity. 


Pass 108. — Today, now, I have a book, I am attentive. This 
morning ihon badst (227.) ple us mc , thou wast happy (227.). Her 
cousin bad not her fiitber's letter, she was very uneasy. We thought 
that she had had a fever, that she had been ilL Yesterday my friend 
bad a headache, he was poorly. We setoff as soon as we had (231.) 
the order (for it), as soon as we were dressed. Tomorrow you will 
have a prize, yon wOl be happy. Tomorrow at noon you will have 
had a prize, you will have been rewarded. If it were (224.) possiUe 
they would have a master, they would be taught. If it had been 


possible tbey (/em.) would have had a governess, they would have 
been taught. Have care, be attentive. Let us take care, let us be 
attentive. It is necessary that my brothers should have application, 
that they should be assiduous. You do not think that I have had 
sorrow, that I have been unhappy. It would be necessary that yon 
should have a library, that you might be steady and quiet. He did 
not believe that you would have succeeded, uiat you would have 
been joyful. 

[The figures in the following Exercises refer to the words coire* 
spending with them, in page 187 et $eg.^ 

Page 187. — To employ one's self is to know how to be happy(^sAvmR, 
to know; jouiR, to enjoy), — Idleness oppresses and makes us wretched 

SPESKR, to weigh; 'tourmenter, to torment), — Be just, and cherish 
y country (^chIerir, to cherish), — Columbus discovered America 
in 1492 ('dscouvrir, to discover). — Know that every flatterer lives 
at the expense of him who listens to him (^apprendre, to learn; 
MvRE, to live; ^couter, to listen), — ^Let us hasten, time flies, and 
hurries us along with it (*8e bIter, to hasten; '^fuir, to fly, to 
escape; ^'traIner, to draw, hurry along), — We do not always love 
what we admire. — Let us desire to be approved of, and not to be 
praised (^louer, to praise), — On certain superficial minds evety> 
thing glances, nothing penetrates (''glisser, to glance , s/ip). -^For- 
bear if thou doubtest ('^s'abstenxr, to abstain), — We foigive our- 
selves everything and others nothing. — It happens sometimes that in 
wishing to deceive others we deceive ourselves (^Vouloir, to be 
willing), — ^Let us not force our talent. — Let us be sparing of time, for 
b'fe is made of it (^^jiiNAOER, to spare), — If thou purchasest the 
superfluous thou wilt soon sell the needful C^acheter, to buy; 
^^VBNDRE, to sell). 

When speaking thou sowest, when listening thou reapest (^sbmer, 
to sow; *RECUEiLLiR, to gather). — ^There the rose blooms C*fleurir, 
to blossom, bloom), — ^The spring which the swallow announces. — It 
is in cottages that peace and happiness dwell (^habiter, to inhabil). 
— ^The house which my father built ^bItir, to build). — His ameni^ 
and suavity are known by every one (^connaItre, to know). — To 
love our country is a natural feeling. — ^Tbe Rhone and the Loire are 
the most remarkable rivers in France. — Can gold or srandeur make 
men happy (^pouvoir, to be able)1 — Neither he nor his brother will 
be elected member of parliament. — Neither he nor his brother will 
be elected members of parliament. — Most scholars are attentive.— 
Most love study. — An infinity of stars are invisible.— An infinite num- 
ber of persons were present at this sight (^MONDE,trorM, in this sense 
refers to persons; we say le beau monde, le grand monde). — A cloud 
of arrows darkened the air (^^obscurcir, to darken), — A host of bar- 
barians laid waste the country (^dksoler, to lay waste, ravage) »^^ 
Happy those who are fond of reading! 

Animals drink, eat, sleep, and have no cares (^boiee, to drink i 


''te ANGER, to eat ; "dormir, to sleep), — Man stoops, kneels, creeps, 
slides, swims, runs, walks, jumps, springs, descends, ascends, climbs^ 
and is equally able to reach the summit of rocks and to walk on the 
snHaee of snows, to cross rivers and forests, to gather the moss of 
fountains and the fruit of palm-trees, to feed the bee and tame the 
elephant Cs'incliner, to bend, stoop; '^^'agenouiller, to kneel; 
^AHPBR, to creep ; 'olisser, to slide ; naoer, to strim ; ''courir, 
to run; '^marcher, to walk; sauter, to jump; *8*klancer, to 
spring; *monter, to ascend, go up; ^orimper, to cUmb"). ^-The road 
of precept is long, that of example is shorter and safer. — Labour 
leads to prosperity, idleness to want (^conduire, to lead), — ^The 
wicked wno plot the ruin of a man often prepare their own (^ourdir, 
to frame, plot), — Is it not true that your pupil devotes himself with 
ardour to all he does (^e porter, to apply one's self; %airb, to 
tfio)?— I am persuaded you have never complained of him (^se 
PLAiMDRE, to complain), — Have not those young ladies rested on the 
road C^sE reposbr, to re«0-"1'hose men only talk about trifles 
(^s'ehtretbnir, to discourse, converse), — ^You ought not to meddle 
with this business {fought, see Idiomatic tenses, page 184). — You 
did not remember what I had said to you (*8e souvenir, to remem'^ 
her; *dire, to say), — You did not remember what my brother had 
written to you (*'se rappelbr, to remember; '^crire, to write). 

Those who give advice without accoropanyine it by example are 
like those posts in the country which point out the way without pur- 
suing it — Sublime passion, feeling of noble niinds, happiness of 
the world, before which all evils disappear or are diminished, and all 
blessings are enhanced or multiplied, O divine friendship ! thy name 
alone recalls to my mind all the charms of my life ("disparaitre, 
to disappear; ^s'appaiblir, to grow weak, to diminish; '^s'embel- 
LiR, to embeVish ; ^'s'accroItre, to tftcrtfa«tf).^Weak minds triumph 
over the faults of men of great genius, as owls rejoice at the spots on 
the sun (*^se rbjouir, to rejoice), — If the earth were softer or more 
porous than it is, men and animals would sinkinto it; if it were harder, 
it would not yield to the toils of the husbandman, and could neither 
bring forth nor nourish what is now produced from its bosom (^bn- 
FONCBR, to sink; ^pouvoir, to be able), — If there were no mountuns 
the earth would be less inhabited by men and animals ; we should 
have fewer plants, fewer trees; we should be totally destitute of 
metals and minerals ; vapours could not be condensed, and we should 
have neither springs nor rivers. 

The more we love a person the less we should flatter him (^pal* 
LOIR, to be necessary),'^To obey slowly, is not obejring. — Every man 
of courage is a man of his word. — We do not execute all we purpose. 
— ^Work leisurely, and do not boast of a heedless rapidity C^se pique a, 
to pride one's m^). —Remember that in life, without some toil, there 
is no pleasure ("^b souvenir, to remember),'^^We always repent of 
indiscreet language.^-The heart of the ungrateful man is like a de« 
sert, which receives greedily the showers fallen from heaven, im« 


bibea ihem* and produces nothing ("boibb, to drink; ^BNoiiOOTUiy 
to ingulf; ''fsoduirs, to froduce), — PUasure may rest upon illuri— 
but nappiness dwells in truth. He is rich who receives oMNre than 
he consumes; he is poor whose expenses exceed his mcome.— Ae- 
ixnty pays debts, despair augments them.— -I do not think he is 
right* — Do you suspect it is so?-— I doubt whether he wHl do what 
he has promised (^ajrb, to do ; "^paoicETTas, to promise). — -It is po«>^ 
siblehe may come ('"veniBi to eome). — Suppose I write to your fnend 
("ftcaiRE, to flRrtte).— Tou must succeed ('''^aiussiR, to MMwecif).— I 
fear lest he should come (^craindrb, to fear). — My brother wfll re- 
turn unless (260.) it rain PpLBUvoiR, to ratn)«— >ThiB pupil will 
work without beine told (^dibb, to sajf, teU)» 

Telemachus is the finest work which virtue has inspired to genius. 
•—Let us own our faults to those who love us : at the voice of a good 
father conscience resumes its sway, the heart is softened, we repeat 
and amend. — ^Be silent, or say something which is of greater value 
than thy silence C^sb taieb, to be silent ; ^valoir, to be worth),^- 
If thy body be in pain, call in the physician ; if thy mind langiiiah, 
summon ^y friend ; the sweet voice of friendship is the most certain 
remedy against afliiction.— If we wish to render persuasive the good 
counsels we give, let us divest them of pride^ and impregnate tlienii 
as it were, with indulgence and sympathy (Couloir, to be wilUnff; 
^DipouiLLBR, to ^rip ; ''^impri^^oner, to impregnate)^ — ^The means of 
ascertaining their efficacy, is to make a trial upon ourselves : ' Cor- 
rect thyself' will always appear harsh; 'Let us amend' is more 
agreeable to the ear (^se corrioer, to am«iMQ.— >The prayer of in- 
noccDce is the most grateful to God : let us preserve our innocence 
while we are young : our parents may fall ill. Let us never delay a 
reconciliation : if offended, let us not refuse our hand ; if aggressors^ 
let us offer it ourselves.-^Think twice before speaking once, and you 
(89.) will speak much better. 

J%e following sentences are chiefly on the vrreguloBr iferbs. 

Page 189.— -Whither are you going? (^ALLBR,~-^or the translation 
of this and ^following irregular verbs seepage 167 et «tfa.)— Shall yoB 
go to London tomorrow ? — Will you send me what you nave promised 
me (^envoger, ^ome/^e) ? — This balcony will project too much 
{^Boillir), — The enemy would attack us (^««ii//tr).-«-I shall be star' 
iled i^reescaJUr)* — You (89.) must come (JfalUnr). — It would be ne* 
cessary thit you shotild come, that he should come.— -1 should wish 
you to keep your word with me (fvouloir), — I should be sony if he 
were to die (^motirtr).— You must acquire talents (^aequ^ir), — ^I 
shall acquire some. — We must acquire knowledge. — I doubt whether 
he will ac<|uire any. — I doubt whether you run faster than I (^^coMrtr). 
— ^They will run after us. — I was very nearly killed (^failUr). — My 
strength fails every day (^d&faiUir). — They are feared, they are hated 
O^Aatr).<— In winter 1 clothe myself warmly ("t?^^).— I would will- 


ix^|ly rit down (^«'iiM«oir). — Sit near me.— >You nuist sit down. — 
Ton should (191.) sit down. — If we were to sit down. — ^Fortune 
will BOOB be unpropitioua Q^dechoir). — ^This bill becomei due to- 
day ; I thought it would beeome due tomorrow O^Sekoirf ^eroire),'^ 
SeveiBl lota will &11 to us.— -I wish these l»lls w«re due sooner. 
—I am easily excited (^Smouvoir), — I fear lest he riioidd be too 
nmeh exdted.-— I shall provide for your wants C*^|ioiifvotr).«— You 
must provide for them. — I shall not be able to do anything for it 
(Jfpouvoir), — What wilt thou be able to do in it? — ^We could not 
succeed in it 

If you (89.) have talents, you should not take an undue advan* 
tage (^prhKUoir), — I know what he is worth (^«aooir, ^iMdotr).-— 
However little we are worth, we are of some value.— >Do you know 
what we shall see (*»c»r)? — They will put off the execution 
(VntTMotr). — ^These colours do not become you (^seoir)* — That will 
no longer be worth anything.— Will you (89.) answer me?— WHl he 
abeolve us (^abtoudre)2 — She was fully absolved (*^d pur et d plem 
n'est gu^e usit6 que dans ces phrases : iire absout d pur et d plnm ; 
un eompte soldS d pur et d pUin). — ^The salt was dissolving slowly 
(^^JtsMMM^re).— My friend has solved several questions (!^r6s<mdrey^^^ 
The Sim has turned the fos into rain.— They will beat us ^haitre), — 
I feared lest they should heat me. — ^They fought desperately. — The 
billows roared i^hrmre). — ^They are inclosine this field ("c/ore).— It 
is necessary that it should be inclosed. — I have excluded that man 
firom my house CexcZure).*-! should wish you to behave better.— 
What are you (89.) sewing i^coudre) ? — I snould sew better if I de- 
voted more time to it (^metire), — You did not think I sewed so well 
Ccreire).-— You feared then that 1 should not believe you. — I fear 
they will not believe me.— The tree grows and dies. — ^Are you speak- 
ing the truth {^tUre)^ — Say what you will do.— You will retract 
(^ se didire).-'Whj do you oontiadict youiaelf ?— What an event you 
foretell I — Retract if you wish.— Slander no one. 

He is not a man who can be imposed upon. — ^This marriage will 
be dissolved. — ^Tbat society has been dissolved. — I shall write to you 
(^ecrire), — I wish you (89.) would write better.-^It would be ne- 
cessary to exclude him. — We do what we please (^faire), — You are 
not doing today what you did yesterday. — You snould read nM>re 
frequently (^Ure), — I promise it to you (^promettre), — They will 
promise it to us. — I will not permit you to go out (^permettre). — 
Wheat is ground {^tnoudre), — Wheat and coffee are ground. — ^No- 
thing was ground last week. — When was this child bom {^naUre) ? 
— From evil sometimes good arises. — He injured me (*^nuire), — I 
should fear lest be injured me.— I will never injure you.— They in- 
jured me. — ^They have injured us. — He feeds on a vain hope (^sere^ 
paUre).^lt appears you do more than you promise.— What you (89.) 
are painting pleases me {^^plaire). — Undertake nothing above your 
power {^entreprendre). — I doubt whether you understand it {'^com^ 
prendre), '-^U you do not study, you will forget i^^dUapprendre).'^ 


You must not laugh (^rire). — ^That should suffice you (^suffire)* — 
Erery one was silent {^8e taire\, 

I should fear you would not be silent.^— This discourse convinces 
me (J^eonvmncre), — Nothing convinced him. — Let us conquer our 
bad habits. — Alexander conquered the Persians. — He should have 
lived longer C^vtiTrtf).—- By their good deeds they will live in the me- 
mory of men. — ^They cried out to him, " Who goes there?" he re- 
plied, "France" (*wwe). — " I know! I know!" a childish expres- 
sion which means this : " I have much presumption, therefore I will 
not learn anything." — Hownuiny great monuments have crumbled 
into dust (^s'en iUier) I — Socrates passed the last day of his life in 
discoursing upon the immortality of the soul.— Be desirous to pay 
respect to merit. — Do you think we must believe all he says? — He is 
ouite the gentleman. — ^Yet I ought to know what to depend upon 
(^s'en tenir a, to abide hy, to depend upon or rexo/oe).— He wanted 
a hundred francs.^That man is always grieving, he knows not what 
he wants. — How much do you want ?*— You say that so much is 
wanting to complete the whole sum (^, ®«>n faUoirY — He has 
finished his work, or nearly so. — Palm-trees grow only in warm 
countries. — ^Useful inventions have sprung from necessity .-r-£mpires 
rise, extend, and fall. — A judge should hear both sides. 


Page 223. — ^You did (227.) it on purpose. Turn to the right, then 
to the left. He has taught me grammar thoroughly. May God be 
for ever praised ! I feel weary here, let us go elsewhere. You will 
have it so, I consent to it. You undertake too much at a time. 
Settle it amicably among yourselves. These pupils are vying with 
one another in their studies. Do not come thus unexpectedly. Were 
you not then living in Paris ? He scarcely knows how to read. It 
was formerly the fashion. Shall we dine soon ? Do you know how 
much that costs ? I do not know how he can live. He shall do it 
willingly or unwillingly. Farewell, till tomorrow. Walk on, do not 
stay behind. Henceforth, reflect well upon it. Try again. This 
business is ended at last. We came here on purpose. We shall 
afterwards go to your house. Come hither, my good friend. How 
far must you read ? We shall not go far today. Are you ready now ? 
Whither are you going so fast? AH your books are in confusion in 
the library. 

I shall perhaps write to you tomorrow. You could not do worae. 
That is not worth more than three francs. Then, what will you do ? 
Does he not lodge near here? Speak to him without ceremony. 
We parted immediately. Here is so much for you and so much for 
me. Give me ever so little of it. This event will happen sooner or 
later. Speak by turns. My sister is quite recovered. He came in 
suddenly. Do you not live opposite ? I shall willingly oblige you. 
Begin immediately. Speak little, but speak to the purpose. Vou 


came late today, come sooner tomorrow. Rather come today than 
tomorrow. Diffidence often prevents one from asking, nay sometimes 
from giving. Never conceu difficulties from your pupil ; contrive 
that he may feel a pleasure in overcoming them. Whatever we 
understand well we can express clearly, and Sie language of a correct 
conception will flow readily. We seldom like the witness of our 
faults. Too much of anything is a point much talked of and never 


Page 226.— I speak of my friend. I am going into the country. 
I come from town. I work for my children. He went out without 
his hat. He eats heartily. He speaks eloquently. After having 
spoken. After having fallen. He comes singing. He sets off run* 
ning. I have just been working. He begins to draw. He is bom 
to be successAil. We cannot live without eating. He commences 
with being out of temper, and ends with smiling. From Paris to 
Peru, from Japaif to Rome. Children are often restless without an 
object. Fear precipitates them through dangers. In touching this 
piece of furniture, he spoke to me concerning his business. During 
his playtime, he made himself useful by hanging up these pictures. He 
is going to Versailles, he is at or in Paris. He lives in London. There 
is a marble chimney-piece. Does he not come from Naples ? Throw 
that out of the window. This dictionary is for you, to be useful to 
you. This pupil is before you, he is the first of his class. You are 
all before me. The one who comes soonest is placed prior to the 
others ; the highest in rank is placed before them. Write to him be- 
fore you go out ; do it previously. Have you not put my books inta 
my desk? 

Is not your sister in her room ? He is in a passion. Have you 
been long in England? We were pursuing our way towards the vil- 
lage, when we met that clergyman who is so charitable towards the 
poor. — Is your uncle at home ? No, sir, he is not (600.). — Come to my 
house. Let us go to your house, or to his, or even to hers. Shall 
you come to our house tomorrow ? I was going to your house, and 
I should have gone to theirs on my return, or to the house of the 
ladies whom we met yesterday. To their house ? Do they not live 
opposite the Exchange ? Among the French, fashions ouickly follow 
• each other. We are always fond of home. When I nave a home 
(of my own), I shall receive my friends. When you have a home of 
your own I shall visit you.— Is it not upon the table ? No, it is under 
it. — Is it not under the table? No, it is upon it. — It is neither upon 
nor under the table. On this side the Alps ; on this side the I^- 
renees; beyond the Rhintf. For want of economy, want of money. 
As. for me, I love sincerity. No friendship without frankness. All 
it lost except hope. Considering the present circumstances ,we shall 
not write to him any more. 


Page 229. — He laughs and weeps at tlie ^same time. Yon (89.) 
sball come with me if you are gooa. He is indiscreet, therefore he 
is not entrusted with anything. If you wish to haye a faithfol seiv 
▼ant, attend upon yourself. Provided you be attentive, you will suc- 
ceed. Delight in being advised, and not in being praised. Neither 
gold nor grandeur makes us happy. This woHt becomes easier as 
we proceed. We shall assemble early, on account of important busi- 
ness. Though I should wish it, I could not. You play whilst we are 
working. Whether that young lady had studied her language, and 
spoke it grammatically, or whether habit supplied the want of a know- 
ledge of the rules, she seemed to me to express herself correcdy. I 
shall work unless I go out. In order that you may be pleased. Before 
my friends return. He is going out, although I have (bibiddea him. 
THiatever you may write, avoid an inelegant style of compositioD. 

f The translation of the sentences on inteijectionsj page 230, is not 
given, aM they offer no remarkable difficulty.] 

Namitory exercises. 

Paob 231. — True greatness. — Philip of Yalcus used to say, that 
the greatest treasure of a kinf should be in the hearts of his subjects, 
and that he would rather be king of the French than of France. 

Resvlt.— Aristippus was asked what difference there was between 
a weU-informed and an ignorant man ; he replied : ** Send them 
both among men whe are not acquainted with them and tbou wih 

Fatalism. — Zeno was chastising a slave for theft " Fate,** said 
libe man, ** has determined that f should rob." ** And that Choa 
shouldst be punished also," replied Zeno. 

^Li> ANSWER. — Xerxes wishing to force the pass of Hiermopylse 
wrote to Leonidas : '' Surrender thy arms,** This hero repliea to 
him, " Come and take them.** 

LACONJCf REPLY. — A Persian general wrote to Lysander, chief of 
the Lacedsemonians, " If I enter Greece, I shall put all to fire and 
sword." Lysander replied to him only : " If..." 

Proverb. — ^The following proverb, taken from the Persians, ap- 
pears an extremely happy one : ** With time and patience, the leaf 
of the mulberry-tree is changed into silk." 

Encouragement. — Ceesar, wishing to encourage his pilot who was 
frightened by a tempest, cried out to him : <* Fear notmpg, thou ear- 
nest Cassar and his fortune." 



pact that you will be able to give many times. 

* Laeoni^me. Conds 2k la mamte des hahiMnts de la Lao&mi, dat 


FoRTUNE-TELUiiG. — SooM oiie had his fortune told hy an astro- 
loger. After having, hy means of amb^uous words, told the man 
the events of his past, prettent, and future life, the fortune-teller asked 
him for the customary fee: "How!'* said the inquisitive fellow, 
*^ you, who pretend to know what is hidden, were you not aware that 
I had not a farthing in my pocket f ^ 

FiLATERNiTT.^A Scythiau king having summoned his children^ 
ordered them to break a bundle (Jfduceau, from the Latin fascis, a 
bundle, a sheaf} of arrows ; the young men, although muscidar, not 
heing able to do it, he took it in his turn, and having untied it, he 
hroke with his fingers each arrow separately. " Behold," said he to 
them, " the effects of union : united, you will he invincible ; taken 
separately, you will be broken like reeds." 

RicH£s. — ^With science and knowledge we have always resources 
and means of subsistence ; hence a philosopher who had been ship- 
wrecked, exclaimed ia the midst of his companions, who were la- 
menting the loss of their fortune : " As for me, I cany my fortune 
about me.** 

An omen. — Julius Ctesai^ having disembarked in Africa, £ell down 
as he was leaving his vessel ; this appeared to his soldiers a very in- 
auspicious omen ; he however turned the feelings of the army to his 
advantage by exclaiming : <* It is now, O Africa, that I hold thee !" 

Poets. — When Louis XIV. set out to lay sieee to Mons, he ordered 
his two historians, Racine and Deror^aux, to follow him. Preferring 
a more tran^l l^e, they managea not to go. The king, on his re- 
turn, reproached them with their conduct. " Sire," ingeniously re- 
plied the two poets, *' as we only possessed dresses suitid>le to the 
dty, we had ordered some for the field, but the towns to which your 
majesty laid siege were much sooner taken than our coats were 

Ah actor. — The celebrated actor Talma was one day suddenly 
accosted while hunting by a game-keeper, who asked him by what 
right he dared to hunt in that place. The former with a tone fuU of 
cBgnity replied : " By what right ** do you say? 

By thai great right the ^ast and towering miad 
I^ o'er tiie instinct of the vulgar kind. 

The gaard, quite astounded by the im.po8ing tone of this tefity, irilih- 
drew, a^ing : '' Pardon, air, 1 did not know that" 

A LETTER. — ^The fottowii^ is a fetter addveaaed by a schoclboy to 
bia fiitfacr : << My dear papa, 1 write to yon today, Monday ; I tiidEI 
give my letter to the carrier who will act ant tomfliTow, Tuesday; he 
will arrive the day after tomorrow, Wednesday ; yon irill aend me, if 
you please, some money on Thursday ; if I do not'receive any oB 
Friday, I shall set out on Saturday to get home on Sunday." 

TiT-poR-TAT. — ^Voltaireand Piron bad been to pass some time at a 
country-seat. One day Piron wrote upon the door of Voltaire's apari- 
ment, ** Rogue." As soon as Voltaire saw it, he proceeded at onee 
to Piron's, who said to him : ** What chance procures me the pleft- 



sure of seeing you ? " " Sir," answered Voltaire. *' I saw your name 
upon my door, and I am come to return the visit" 

The learned man. — ^An extraordinary and difficult question had 
been propounded to the celebrated doctor Abou-Jos^pb, one of the 
most learned Mussulmans of his age. He ingenuously confessed bis 
ignorance, and on this avowal he was renroacbed with receiving enor- 
mous sums from the royal treasury without being able to decide the 
points of law on which he was consulted. " There is nothing won- 
derful in thb," replied he ; "I receive from the treasury in proportion 
to what I know ; but if I received in proportion to what I do not know, 
aU the wealth of the caliph's dominions would not be sufficient to 
pay me.*' 

Disinterestedness.— A wise Arab had consumed his property in 
the service of a caliph ; this monarch, devoted to extravagant plea- 
sures, said to him ironically : " Do you know any one who professes 
greater disinterestedness than yourself? " " Yes, sire." " Who is 
it?" " You; I have only sacrificed my fortune, you are sacrificing 
your honour." 

Dilemma*, — Protagoras, an Athenian rhetorician, had agreed to 
instruct Evalthus in rhetoric, on condition that the latter should pay 
him a certain sum of money if be gained his first cause. Evalthus^ 
when instructed in all the precepts of the art, refused to pay Prota- 
goras, who consequently brought him before the Areopagus f, and 
said to the judges : " Any verdict you may give is in my favour : if it 
is on my sine, it carries the condemnation of Evalthus; if against me, 
he must pay me, because he gains his first cause." " I confess," re* 
plied Evalthus, *' that the verdict will be pronounced either for or 
against me ; in either case I shall be equally acquitted : if the judgeM 
pronounce in my favour, you are condemned ; ft they pronounce for 
you, according to our agreement I owe you nothing, for I lose my 
first cause." The judges, being unable to reconcile the pleaders, 
ordered them to reappear before me court a hundred years afterwards. 

Precision. — Many replies of Thales are quoted, which give a 
high idea of his philosophy, and show with what precision the sages 
of bis time endeavoured to solve the questions proposed to them. 
« What is the most beautiful of all things ? "— " The universe, for it 
is the work of God." " The most vast ? "— " Space, for it contains 
everything." " The strongest? "— '* Necessity, for it triumphs ovet 
all." « The most difficult? "—"Self-knowledge." "The most easy? '* 
— ** To give advice." " What is requisite for leading an irreproach- 
able Ufe?'*— '"To avoid doing that which we blame in others." " What 
is necessary for happiness ? " — " A healthy body, an easy fortune, an 
enlightened mind," etc. 

* Dilemma, from the Greek Sis (dis), twice, and \rififta {kmma), an 

t Arecpaffus, from the Greek dpeos {areos), genitive of 'Aptis {ares) Mars, 
and Tayos (pagot) a hill. The hill of Mars, where was held the supreme 
council of Athens. 


Goddesses. — Themistocles, being sent to the isle of Andros to 
exact a tribute, convoked the assembly and made his proposition ; 
bat meeting with difficulties in the matter, he said : '* Men of An- 
dros, I bring you two goddesses, Persuasion and Force ;• choose at 
once the one which you please." The Andrians replied without 
hesitation : " We also, O Themistocles, have two goddesses, Poverty 
and Impossibility ; take now the one which pleases you best" 

Harangue.— Tlie worthy Malesherbes (minister of Louis XVI.), 
at the head of & sovereign court*, had been deputed to harangue the 
Dauphin in his cradle, who far from understanding a single word of 
the address, could only cry out and shed tears to express his wants ' 
and his grie&. He, the minister, contented himself with saying : 
" May your Royal Highness, for the happiness of France as well as 
your owuy always show yourself insensible and deaf to the language 
of flattery, as you are this day to the discourse which I have the ho- 
nour of pronouncing before you \ ** 

Newspapers.— 'Die newspapers of Paris, submitted to the censor- 
ship of the press in 1815, announced in the following terms Bona- 
parte's departure from the isle of £lba, his march across France, and 
hii entry into the French capital : — *' 9th March, The cannibal has 
escaped from his den. — 10th, The Corsican ogre has just landed at 
Cape- Juan. — 11th, The tiger has arrived at Gap. — 12th, The mon- 
ster has passed the night at Grenoble. — 13th, The tyrant has crossed 
Lyon. — 1 4th, The usurper is directing his course towards Dijon, but 
the brave and loyal Burgundians have risen in a body and they sur- 
round him on all sides. — 18th, Buonaparte is sixty leagues from the ca- 
pital ; he has had skill enough to escape from the bands of his pursuers. 
— 19th, Bonaparte advances rapidly, but he will never enter Paris. 
— ^20th, Tomorrow Napoleon will be under our ramparts. — ^21 st, The 
emperor is at Fontainebleau. — 22nd, His imperial and royal Majesty 
last evening made his entrance into his palace of the Tuileries, amidst 
the joyous acclamations of an adoring and faithful people." 

Greatness. — Every Frenchman preserves in his memory the di»- 
course which Henry IV. pronounced at the commencement of his 
reign in an assembly of principal citizens {or chief men) convoked 
at Rouen. This eternally memorable speech is as follows : " Already 
by the favour of heaven, by the counsels of my worthy ministers, and 
by. the sword of my brave nobility, have I rescued this state from the 
aUvery and ruin which threatened it. I wish to restore to it its power 
and its splendour. Share in this second glory as ye have partaken of 
the former. I have not called you, as my predecessors used to do, to 
force jovL blindly to approve my wishes, but to receive your advice, to 
trust m it, to follow it, to put myself into the guardianship of your 
hands. It is a desire which seldom enters the mind of kings, or con- 
querors, or grey-beards ; but the love which I bear to my subjects 
renders everything possible and honourable to me." 

* En France, dans Tancienne organisation jadidaire, eour towerame so 
disait du tribunal supreme dont le jngement ^tait sans appel. 


CBARi¥T»^The baken of Lyon came to reqnest of M. Dugai^ pro- 
vost of the tradesmen of that town, pernussion to raise the pziGe of 
tiieir bread. When thej had explained their reasons to bins, diey 
left on the tMe a piuse of two hundred louis, ha<nng not the least 
doubt but that this som would effectually plead their cause. Some 
Jays afterwards theypresented themselyes to reeeiye his reply. '* Gen- 
tlemen," said the magistraAe, *^ I have weighed your reasons in the 
scale of justice, and lAYefoand them wanting in weight I have not 
considered it necessair to make the people suffer for an ill-foimded 
deamess ; moreover, I have distributed your money to the hospitals 
of this town, persuaded that you had no wish to employ it otherwise. 
It has also seemed to me that, since you are in a condition to grant 
fnch alms, you do not, as you say, lose in your trade." 

Thb spoilt child. — ^A lady seeing her cherished boy cry and fret 


a servant who seemed to laugh in his face : ** Champagne," 
said she, " why do you make my child ciy so ? Give him what he 
waata." *' Madam, if he cry tiu tomorrow, he will not obtain what 
he wishes." ** How I what do you mean ? You are an impertinent 
fellow. I command yon to satisfy t^ little darling this very in- 
stant" " Madam I it ia impossible." '* Oh I this is beyond all en- 
durance.. .(Monsieur, monsieur!) husband ! " " Well, my dear, what 
is the matter now ?" " Tom away this insolent servant who mocks 
me ; who takes pleasure in contradicting my son, in refining him 
what he wants, and what I desire him to give." ^ It is very strange, 
Champagne, that you allow yourself to ful so grossly in your duty to 
your mistress, and to make your young master cry ! . Give him what 
he wants, or leave the house." " I will leave if it must be so, sir : 
but how can I give him the moon which he has just seen in a pail of 
water, and which he absolutely wishes to possess?" At these words 
the master and mistress looked at each other : they could give no 
answer. All the company burst out Umghing; husband and wife 
followed the meny example, and promised each other to correct their 
weakness towards this spoilt child, whose every wish they saw too 
well it would be difficult for them to accomplish. 

Page 236. — Detached remarks on the wtiUty of languagee*, 

In travelling, the best instrument, the most efficacious passport, £s 
V> speak fluently the language 6f that country which we may happen 
to visit ; we can then act in a direct manner on the minds of those 
who surround us; there are few persons who appreciate the whole 
power resulting from this cause : it is everything. 

The traveller who is unable to mix in conversation, is like a being 
both deaf and dumb who can do no more than make gestures, and 
moreover like one who, all but blind, perceives objects under a false 
light: it is in vain for him to employ an interpreter, for every translation 
may be compared to a carpet turned the wrong side upwards. — Speech 
is of itself a mirror of reflection by which two souls imbued with feel- 
ing may become united, and generally the stronger in the end gains 


tbe aieendency over tlie weaker. — If we add to tiie knowledge cf 
languages, the scientific advantages which the modem system of edu- 
cation gives, we excite attention and respect by awakening curiosity. 
It is by charming the ear and the imagination that we penetrate to 
die heart and succeed in our endeavours to enh'ghten and persuade. 
It is with the assistance of language that the mind of one single man 
is infused into a whole assembly, a whole pation. We may also say 
that lanfi;ua£e is the most sure weapon wherewith we can establish a 
lasting dominion, and that all great writers are true conquerors. 

Charles the Fifth used to say that a man who knew four languages 
was worth four men ; in tact, all men have need of one another, and 
a stranger may be said not to exist for us, if we cannot understand 
his language* In short, the literature of every country reveals to him 
who can understand it a new sphere of ideas. As to the dead lan- 
guages, the man of letters, jealous of extending and multiplying his 
knowledge, penetrates into past ages, and advances. over the scattered 
monuments of antiquity to gather from them, amidst traces often all 
but obliterated, the spirit and the thoughts of the great men of all 

A knowledge of living lanffua^es (says Rollin) serves as an intro- 
duction to all the sciences, ay its means we arrive, almost without 
difficulty, at the perception of an infinite number of beautiful things, 
which have cost their inventors long and tedious labours. By its 
means all ages and all countries are open to us. It renders us to a 
certain extent contemporaries of all times and citizens of all nations, 
and enables us to converse even at the present day with all the 
wisest men that antiquity has produced, who seem to have lived and 
to have laboured for us. In them we find, as it were, so many masters 
whom we may consult at any time, so many friends ready at all 
hours to join in all our pursuits, whose conversation, ever useful and 
agreeable, enriches our minds with the knowledge of a thousand 
curious facts, and teaches us to derive equal profit firom the virtues 
and from the vices of the human race. Wimout the assistance of 
languages, all these oracles are dumb for us, all these treasures are 
doMd to us ; and firom the want of the key which can alone throw 
open the entrance to us, we remain poor in the midst of so many 
nches, and ignorant in the midst of all the sciences. 

Voltaire tells us, that " of all the modem laneuages the French 
ought to be the most generally spoken, for it is tne one most fitted 
for conversation." In fiu;t, it is distinguished by the deamess, the 
order, the precision and the purity of its phraseology ; it proceeds as 
thought and observation proceed ; it can express and describe every- 
thing; it has all the qualifications necessary to satisfy the wants of 
reason, genius and feeling. Therefore men do it the honour of che- 
rishing and of speaking it : it is the language of princes, of their 
ambanadors, of tne great, of all men throughout Europe whose edu- 
cotion has been cultivated with care. 


Page 238. — The first man relates hU first actions, his first sensations , 

his first opinions after the Creation*. 

I remember the moment, replete with joy, amazement and anxiety, 
when I perceived for the first time my singular, existence. I neither 
knew woat I was, where I was, nor whence I came. I opened my 
eyes ; what an increase of sensation ! The light, the celestial vaults 
the verdure of the earth, the transparency of the waters, everything, 
in a word, ^ave animation to my spirits; and conveyed pleasures 
which exceed the powers of expression. I at first believed that all 
these objects existed within me, and formed a part of myself. When 
totally absorbed in this idea, I turned my eyes to the sun : his splen- 
dour overpowered me. I involuntarily shut my eyes, and felt a 
slight degree of pain. During this moment of darkness, I ima^ned 
that I had lost my whole being. Whilst reflecting with grief and 
astonishment upon this great change, I was roused by a variety of 
sounds. The singing of birds, and the murmuring of the breezes, 
formed a concert which excited the most sweet and enchanting emo- 
tions. I listened long, and was convinced that these harmonious 
sounds existed within me. 

Totally occupied with this new species of existence, I had almost 
forgotten the light, though the first part of my being that I had re- 
cognised, when I again, by accident, opened my eyes. What a joy 
to find m3rself again in possession of so many brilliant objects? 
My pleasure surpassed every former sensation, and suspended, for a 
time, the charming melody of sound. I fixed my eyes on a thousand 
objects ; I soon perceived that I had the power of losing and of reco- 
vering them, and that I could, at pleasure, destroy and renew this 
beautiful part of my existence ; and although it appeared to me end- 
less in extent, both on account of the numerous effects of light and the 
variety of the colours around me, I fancied that the whole of it was 
contained in a portion of my own being. I now began to see without 
astonishment and hear without anxiety, when a gentle breeze, whose 
freshness I felt, wafted perfumes which produced within me a most 
delightful sensation, and gave me a feeling of self-love. 

Agitated by all these sensations, and by the pleasure emanating 
from so large and beautifiil an existence, I suddenly arose, and felt 
myself transported by the perception pf an unknown power. I had 
made but a single step, when the novelty of my situation rendered me 
immoveable. My surprise was extreme. I thought my being fled 
from me; the movement I had made confounded the objects of 

* The above extract, taken from Buffon's * Natural History,' contains a 
vivid and fanciful description of the slow and painful process by which human 
beings acquire what may be called the use and knowledge of their senses. 
The idea, that Adam had to undergo nearly the same discipline as a little 
child, before he acquired a knowledge of himself and of that sublime crea- 
tion of which he was then the sole heir, is, of course, altogether imaginary, 
and merely assumed for the purpose of illustration. 


Tisioii, and the wHole creation seemed to be in disorder. I raised 
my hand to my bted ; I touched my forehead and my eyes, and I 
felt every part of my body. The hand now appeared to be the prin- 
cipal organ of my existence. The perceptions a£&rded by this in- 
strument were so distinct and so perfect; the pleasures conveyed by 
it were so superior to those of light and sounds that, for some time, 
I attached myself entirely to this substantial part of my being, and 
I perceived that my ideas began to assume a consistence and reality 
which I had not before experienced. Every part of my body, whicL 
I touched with my hand, reflected the sensation, and produced in 
my mind a double idea. By this exercise I soon learned that the 
faculty of feeling was expanded over every part of my frame ; and I 
began to recognise the Bmits of my existence, which at first seemed 
to be of an immense extent I surveyed my body, and I judged it 
to be of a size so immense, that all odier objects which caugnt my 
sight, seemed, in comparison, to be only luminous points. For a 
long while, observing with delight my wonderful being, I continued 
to follow my hand with my eyes, and to watch its motions. The 
ideas I was forming of all these objects were both confused and fal- 
lacious. I imagined that the motion of my hand was a kind of fugi- 
tive existence, a mere succession of similar causes ; I brought my^ 
hand near my eye, it then seemed to be larger than my whole body ; 
for it concealed from my view almost every other object. 

I began to suspect that there was some illusion in the sensation 
conveyed by the eyes. I distinctly perceived that my hand was only 
a small part of my body, and I was unable to comprehend how it had 
increased to a size which appeared so enormously large. I therefore 
resolved to depend for information upon the sense of touch alone, 
which had not hitherto deceived me, and to be on my guard against 
all the other modes of sensation. This precaution was extremely use- 
ful to roe. I again moved forward, and walked with my face turned to- 
wards the heavens, when I struck against a palm-tree ; seized with ter- 
ror, I ventured to lay my hand upon the object, and discovered it to. be 
a being distinct from myself, because it gave me not, like touching my 
own body, a double sensation.. I turned from it with horror, and 
perceived, ' for the first time, that there was something external, 
something which did not constitute a part of my own existence. 
More agitated by this new discovery than I had been by all that 
preceded, it was with difficulty that I regained confidence ; but, after 
reflecting on the event which had happened, I concluded that I 
ought to judge concerning external objects in the same manner as 
I had judged concerning the parts of my body, and that the sense 
of touch alone could ascertain their existence. I resolved, there- 
fore, to touch every object that I saw. I had a desire to touch 
the sun; I accordingly stretched forth my hands to embrace the 
horizon, but they met in the empty air. Every experiment I made 
served only to increase my astonishment ; for all objects appeared to 
be equally near ; and it was not till after an infinite number of trials, 


that I leai*ned to use my eye as a gnide to my hand. As the hand 
gave me ideas totally different fVom the impressions I received by 
the eye, my sensations were contradictory; the judgments I formed 
were imperfect; and my whole existence was disorder and' con- 

As I reflected deeplv on the nature of my being, the contradictions I 
had experienced filled me with humility : the more I meditated, the 
more my doubts and difficulties increased. Fatigued with so many 
uncertainties, and with anxious emotions which successively arose ia 
my mind, my knees bent, and I soon fbund myself in a situation of 
repose. This state of tranquillity added fVesh force to my senses. I 
was seated under the shade of a beautiful tree. Fruit of a vermilion 
hue hung down, in the form of grapes, within reach of my hand. 
These frnits I gently touched, and, like the fig when arrived at ma- 
turity, they instantly separated fi-om the branch. In laying hold of 
one of them, I imagined I had made a great conquest; and I re- 
joiced in the faculty of containing in my hand an entire being which 
made no part of myself. Its weight, though trifling, seemed to me 
an animated resistance, which I had a pleasure in being able to con- 
quer. I held the fruit near my eyes : I examined its fbrm and its 
colours. A delicious odour allured me to bring it nearer still. It 
happened to be close to my lips, and I inhaled long draughts of its 
permmes. When entirely filled with the sweetness of its fragrance, 
my mouth opened to exhale it : it reopened to inhale the odour a se- 
cond time ; and I discovered that I had an internal sense of smelling, 
which was more delicate and refined than the one I had previously 
observed. In fine, F tasted the fhiit. What an exquisiteness of 
savour and novelty of sensation transported me now 1 Hitherto I 
had only enjoyed pleasures; but taste gave me an idea of voluptu- 
ousness. The enjoyment was so congenial and intimate, that it con- 
veyed to me the notion of possession of property. I thought that the 
suDstance of the fruit had become part of my own, and that I was en- 
dowed with the power of transfiirming bodies. 

Charmed with this idea of power, and with the. pleasures I felt, I 
continued to pull and to eat, and my hand seemed never to tire of 
ministering to my taste. But an agreeable languor gradually over- 
powered my senses ; my limbs grew heavy, and my mind seemed to 
Jose its natural activity. I perceived this inaction by the feebleness 
of my thoughts : the dulnessof my sensations rounded all external ob- 
jects, and conveyed only weak and ill-defined ideas. At this instant 
my eyes, become useless to me, closed, and my head, losing its na- 
tural support, reclined upon the grass. £ver}'thing now grew dim 
and disappeared : the train of^ my ideas was interrupted, and I lost 
the consciousness of my existence. My sleep was profound ; but^ 
having no mode of measuring time, I knew nothing of its duration. 
My awakening appeared to me a second birth : for I only perceived 
tiiat I had ceased to exist. This temporary annihilation gave me an 
id^ of fear, and made me conclude mat my existence was not for 


ever. Another perplexity arose : I suspected that sleep had robbed 
me of some part of my powers : I tried my different senses, and 
endeavoured to recognise all my former faculties. At this instant 
the sun had finished his course and the light disappeared. Happily 
conscious that I was again in existence, i scarcely perceived that I 
had lost the sense of seeing, and the present obscurity recalled in 
vain the idea of my former sleep. 


Syntax of the artieie. 

Page 243. — ^The prosperity of the wicked flows away llkea tomnt, 
— Friendship sheds in our hearts a peaceful happiness. — Mortals are 
equal ; it is not high birth, it is virtue only that makes a differenat 
between them. — In souls noble by birth, valor does not wait for age« 
— The heart, the mind, the manners, all are improved by cultivation* 
— The moment of peril is that in which courage should distinguish 
itself. — The healthiest shrub needs cultivation. — ^Heaven always 
blesses the attempts of a good heart. 

Page 248. — ^What is the use of so many friends? One alone is 
sufficient provided he love us.— Of many men, the worth ia but iu 
their name.— Among neighbours we may speak without reserve. — 
Charity, when properly dispensed, begins at home.— Citizens! let 
concord reign amongst you ! — In kindness there is a sort of magnet 
which attracts all men to itself. — Charles the ninth was the monarch, 
who by the decree of Roussillon, in the month of January 1563, 
ordered that the year, instead of beginning at Easter, should begin 
on the Ist of January. — Louis-Philippe the first, born at Paris on the 
5th of October 1773, was elected king of the French on the 9th of 
August 1830. 

Page 250. — The following are the boundaries of France according 
to the latest treaties : on the north, the Channel and the straits of Dover 
which separate France from England : the kingdom of Belgium with 
the grand-duchy of Luxembourg: the grand-duchy of the Lower- 
Rhine, which is comprised in the kingdom of Prussia ; and the circle 
of the Rhine, which belongs to the kingdom of Bavaria. On the 
east, the grand-duchy of Baden ; the Swiss confederacy (viz. the 
cantons of Basle, Berne, NeufchStel, Vaud and Geneva) and the 
kingdom of Sardinia. On the south, the Mediterranean, the kingdom 
of Spain and the republic of Andorra*. On the west, the Atlantic 
Ocean, and partly the English Channel.— The British Isles, which 
compose the kingdom of Great Britain^ are situated in the Atlantic 
Ocean : they are separated from Norway and Denmark by the German 
Ocean and the North Sea, and from France by the English Channel 
and the straits of Dover. 

* Andorre, Petit €tat situe en Cstalogne sor le versant m^dional dea 
Pyrenees entre Foix en France, et Uigel en Espagne. 



Synieus of the substantive. 

Page 252. — The seven wonders of the world are : the walls and 
gardens of Babylon, the work of'SemiramiB ; the Egyptian pyramids; 
the lighthouse of Alexandria ; the tomb that queen Artemisia caused 
to be built for Mausolus, her husband ; the temple of Diana at £phe> 
SOS ; that of the Olympian Jupiter at Pisa, in £lis ; and the colossus of 
Rhodes. — The Egyptian pyramids are crumbling to dust, and the 
grasses of the time of the Pharaohs are still in existence! — The Greeks 
and the Romans imported from Asia most of the fruit-trees that we 
cultivate at the present day. 

Page 254. — The best grammatical code is to be found in the great 
writers of a country. It is in their immortal works that a language 
shines in all its splendour. Everything in them serves for instruc- 
tion. It is in Pascal, Comeille, Racine, Despriaux*, Bossuet, Pit- 
chier, F6nelon, Madame de S6vign6, the two Rousseausfi etc., that 
we should study the French language^ if we wish to become thoroughly 
acouainted with all its beauties. — The same king (Louis XIV.) who 
haa the wisdom to employ such men as Cond6, Turenne, Luxembourg, 
Cr^qui, Catinat, and ViUars in his armies ; Colbert and Louvois in 
bis cabinet, chose Racine and Boileau* to write his history; Bossuet 
and F6nelon to instruct his children; Pitchier, Bourdaloue and 
Massillon to instruct himself. — Boileau and Gilbert were the Juvenals 
of their age. — Spain is proud of having given birth to the two 
SenecasJ. — llie victorious Romans became the disciples of the Greekf 
whom they had vanquished, and learnt a language, which Homer, 
Pindar, Thucydides, Xenophon, Demosthenes, Hato and Euripides 
had adorned with thegracesof their genius. — Such men as Shakspeare, 
Milton, Moli^re and Racine are no less rare than men like Newton, 
Turenne, Marlborough and Napoleon. 

Syntax of the adjective. 

Page 258. — " How beautiful you appear to me," said the wolf to 
the timer §, " sleek, polished, plump, happy and void of care ! But 
what is it that has rubbed off the skin from your neck ?" " My collar." 
" Your collar ? Shame on wealth possessed with slavery !" — Without 
esteem there can be no substantial friendship.— Jealousy is everywhere 
an odious thing. — The prime of youth is but a flower which fades. — 
Virtue, which sheds so sweet a perfume over the memory of man, never 
dies. — Flattery is a base coin, which only passes current through 

* Boileau (Nicolas-Desprdaux). 

f Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, poete lyrique, et Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 
celcbre prosateur. 

X Sunequc, le rheteur, et Seneque le philosophe, fils du precedent. 

§ Limer. A dog of the chase so called from the learn or leash in which 
he was held till he was let slip. Richardson. 

Uq limier est un gros chien de chasse avec lequel le veneur qudte et 
urne la bete, pour la laucer quand on veut la courir. 


our vanity.-— Philip showed in every instance courage and prudence 
superior to his years. — ^The good taste of the Egyptians caused them 
to delight in unadorned solidity and regularity. — He possesses an 
urhanity, a suavity which is enchanting. — They found part of the 
hread eaten. They baked part of the bread intended for the poor. — 
A solemn service for the late kings Louis XVI. and Louis XVII. was 
performed at the church of Notre-Dame, at Paris, on the 14th of May 

Page 260. — He who lives contented with little possesses everything. 
—Hatred is blind in its own cause. — Religion is necessary and natural 
to man. — The consciousness of immortality is common to all men. — 
£nuui, which devours other men, is unknown to those who understand 
how to employ themselves.— Gratitude is one of the qualities which 
are most inseparable from noble minds. — We cannot be too grateful 
to our parents for the good education they have given us. — A liar is 
always prodigal of his oaths. 

Syntax of the pronouns. 

Page 268. — He wishes ; he does not wish ; he assents ; he refuses. 
•—I fear God, dear Abner, and have no other fear. — Let us assist one 
another, it will make the burthen of griefs lighter. — '< The lily of the 
fields (Jardin, garden)," saith the Gospel, *^ did not weave its own gar- 
ment*." — I wish to see him, to beseech him, to urge him, to importune 
him, to bend him. — Does any one flatter you? trust him not; he 
wishes to deceive you. — Why was the mariner's compass invented ?— 
Where was Napoleon bom : — ^Are dreams the effect of the senses? 
— Where am I ? what have I done ? what have I still to do ? — Great 
God, sovereign Lord of the universe, what part of the earth can I 
traverse, without finding everywhere in my path evident signs of 
thy presence ? — On the banks of the lake they were wont to stop the 
dead (and to say :) " Whosoever thou art, give an account of thy 
actions. What hast thou done with time and life ? The law inter- 
rogates thee, thy country is listening to thee, and truth is thy judge." 
— "O time, I hate thee!*' said Aglaura; ''everything grows old: 
grace, wit, beauty." Her mother replied, *' There is one charm left 
us ; a good heart can never decay." 

Page 270. — Are you ill, madam? I am. — Are you the patient? I 
am. — Gentlemen, are you doctors ? We are. — Gentlemen, are you the 
doctors? We are. — Are you older than your cousin, Miss? No, I am 
not. — " Wonderful ! " was the cry : '* come and see die queen of 
tortoises passing in the clouds." *' The queen ! Yes, indeed ; I am 
so in reality." 

Page 271. — In this world, no one thinks of any but himself. — The 
miser, who has a prodigal son, hoards up wealth neither for himself nor 
for his son. — We often have need of one, who is inferior to ourselves. 

* Consid^rez comment croissent les lis des champs, ils ne travaillent ni 
ne filent. Or je vous dis que Salomon m^me, dans toute sa gloire, n'etait 
pas vetu cornme Tun d'enx. S. Mattbieu. 


^In falfilling the wishes of his father, this young man is working lor 
his o^n advantage.— -That house is in a ruinous state, do not go near 
it. — This horse is vicious, do not touch him. — These buildings not 
being sufficiently extensive, I shall have an additional wing built. — 
We retract an error, by being ashamed of it. — I have just come from 
Paris : I have seen with wonder its magnificence, its promenades, 

Page 276. — These works have their merits, every one appreciates 
their value. — ^The care we bestow on labour prevents our feeling its 
fiitigue. — It is on account of the scarcity of gold, that. gilding was in- 
vented, which, thou^ widiout the solidity of gold, possesses all its 
brilliancy. Thus to supply the place of the Jiindness which we laoki 
we have invented politeness, which has all its outward appearance* — 
Timeflies: its loss isirreparable* — ^The earth, by its rotatory.movement, 
gives -us in succession day and night. 

Page 281.— The £tema] holds in his hands that immense chain 
ended by the insect and begun by man. — Glory to the hand that sows, 
shame to the hand that injures ! — ^The child to whom every one yields 
is the most wretched. — Nothing is impossible to him who avenges 
his father. — The tree I prefer is the oak. — Happiness belongs to 
him >who makes others happy. — -Happy the man who, contented with 
his humble lot, lives in the obscure condition in which ^e gods have 
concealed him. — He is a man of few words, of great reflection, trual- 
worthy, and *for whom I would mot 'hesitate tO'mabe sacrifices. 

Paos 264.— 'When some* one vepreseated to Napoleon that a thing 
was impossible, he declared that the -word was not French. — ^The 
Phoenicians invented writing.— The'onljn characteristic that essentially 
distinguishes man from other animals is that he is a religious being. 
—-Onititude is the delight of good heatts. — ^The best Imson is that 
of example.— ^Gomeille leads us oaptive to his dharacters and ideas, 
Baeine makes his conformable with ours. The form^ paints men as 
they ought to be, the latter as they are.—^ne'man-dies amid prosperihr 
and riches, another in misery and bitterness of soul ; and both shall 
sleep together in the same dust 

Page 292. — Minds are gained by a great deal of 'mildness. — We 
look upon our own ills and those of others with diflferent eyes. 
—Ah ! what do we not owe to those, to whom we owe our life ! — 
Thus we ought 'to present to the minds of the young all sorts* of things, 
studies of evety kind, objects of every nature, so -as -to discover the 
kind to which their mind directs itself most powerfully, or gives itself 
up with the greatest pleasure. — With the exception of the language, 
comedy among the Romans was entirely Athenian. — Madame de 
S^vign^ used to write to'lier daughter : ** Adieu, 1 am'(^ci/«) ail your 
own ;" to common acquaintances she put, *' I am (ioti^) wholly yours" 
(equivalent to the familiar compliment in 'English eorrespondenee : / 
am yours truly). — It is well to see with whom we connect ourselves. 
— They blame you. They accuse you. They expect such-and-such 
a justification, such-and-such a sacrifice from jou. They say of 


ycu .... in short, thty will say . . . What then is this mighty ''tliey/' 
whose authority is so often proclaimed? It is a king without a court, 
without pomp, without a visible throne, and yet every one obeys, 
and trembles at, his voice. 

Whoever knows nothing at twenty, labours not at thirty, has ac- 
quired nothing at forty, will never know, do, or possess anything. — 
Those whose conduct is most ridiculous are aJways the first to slander 
others. — \Ve can judge of others by ourselves. — What invisible power 
has brought the universe into subjection !— Whatever care we apply 
to learning a language, constant and uniform practice must accompany 
:die rules* — All enjoyments are always preceded by some labour or 
other. — No one is contented with his lot, nor discontented with his 
mental capacity .-^How can we expect others to keep our secrets, if we 
cannot keep them ounelves? — ^Everything which contains vital or- 
gans, turns in its growth towards the sun and the light, as vegeta- 
bles prove «ven when planted in the shade. — Traveller or stranger 
{passant, pasier-by), whosoever thou art, contemplate with religious 
respect this monument, jaised :by gratitude ; it is the tomb of a just 
and beneficent man! 

Syntax of the verbs. 

Paoe 296» — Ii«DOur is .like theey^ which cannot endure the least 
impurity without being injured ; it -is a precious stone, the price of 
which is lowered by the «light6stfiaw. — While most men become rich 
and illufitrious by .agriculture, commerce, nav^ation and the arts, 
often have those, whohave traced the roads to them, lived in indigence 
and forgotten by their contemporaries. — Liberality consists less in 
giving much, than in giving oi»portuuely<— -Ileligion is a chain of ^old, 
which connects the earth with the throne of the Etenaal !— •Consider 
this well, young man, what are ten, twenty, thirty years for an im- 
mortal being ? 

The flower is the daughter of the Mom, the charm of Spring, the 
fountain of perfumes, the beautyof virgins, the love of poets. It 
passes away swiftly like man, but it returns its leaves gently to the 
earth. We preserve the essence of its odours : these are its thoughts 
which survive it. Among the ancients, it crowned the banqueting- 
cup and the white locks of the sage ; the .early Christians covered 
with it the martyrs and the altar of the catacombs. In the world we 
ascribe our affections to its colours ; hope to its verdure ; innocence 
to its whiteness ; modesty to its rose^tints. There are entire nations, 
where it is the interpreter of the feelings, a delightful book, which 
causes neither troubles nor wars, and which preserves only the fleet- 
ing history of the emotions of the heart. 

The sight of the world is made for man alone ; he alone contem- 
plates and admires it ; he alone enjoys its beauty and gives him- 
lelf up to the emotion it inspires : the light-^footed hind, wandering 
over the hill, lends not her ear to the murmurs of the zephyr ; the 
tportive heifer stops not to breathe the perfume of the flowers; the 


flock, lying on the banks of the streams, is insensible to the rippling 
of the waters, and to the smiling landscape of the coimtry . . • . for 
the enchanting spectacle of nature is known only to man ; he alone 
is great by thoughi, and sublime in his meditations ; he alone 
declares that he is king of nature, when, with his brow girt with the 
sacred fillet, he walks in the forests, and suddenly his voice breaking- 
forth invokes the glorious God, who sows the verdure and kindles the 

These vast oceans are as the fountain-heads of all streams ; as the 
basin, whence nature continually drinks, to water the universe . • . » 
There exists an invisible link between the fragile plant and the ocean ; 
the life of the one is attached to the existence of the other; whateveT 
distance separates them, nature can overleap it. From this vast gulf 
placed between the two worlds go forth the embryos of grasses, finiita 
and flowers; the wave transforms itself into wine in the odorous 
grape; we taste it in the peach, the orange, the pine-apple; it is 
tinted with blue in the violet, it gilds the marigold, silvers the lily, 
empurples the carnation, and makes the foliage green. O admirable 
wisdom ! the vast seas alone can allay our apprehensions concerning 
the existence of future generations. 

Page 315. — I wish you would come and see me at the end of tliis 
week ; I shall have something very important to communicate to you. 
— We are very glad, delighted or sorry, that such is the case. — I 
wonder he does not perceive in what danger he is. — My sister's ser- 
vant brought me a letter this morning before I was up. My sister 
told me she would come and dine wim me today. 1 answered her 
that I hoped she would come in good time. — Whatever merit you 

fossess, be modest. — He owns he said it : he does not own he did it — 
t is to be believed that he wishes it thus. Is it to be believed that 
he wishes it thus ? — I doubt whether your friend would have succeeded 
in his undertaking without your kind assistance. — Though poor, 
he is honest. — The motions of the planets are the most regular we 
know. — Mentor wished for a great quantity of games and shows to 
animate the people, but above all to exercise their bodies, so as to 
make them more dexterous, more supple, and more vigorous. — \c- 
company him till he is outside the city. — I was his friend till 1 per- 
eeived that he spoke ill of me. 

Syntax of the participles. 

Page 325. — This woman is gentle, afiable, attentive to (prevenant, 
anticipating the wishes of) everybody. This woman is gentle, affable, 
attentive. — Time is a real blunderer, placing, replacmg, ordering, 
disordering, impressing, erasing, approaching, removing, and making 
all things good or bad. — These men foreseeing the danger, put them- 
selves on their guard, lliese provident men perceived the danger. 
— By anticipating all the wishes of others, this young lady has become 
habitually attentive (or obliging). 

Surrounded on all sides, they gave themselves up for losti and 



were forced to surrender. — Tom from its stem, this flower will fade. 
— Equity and uprightness are produced by the love of justice and 
truth. — A thing promised is a thing due. — \ irtue in obscurity is 
oflen despised. — The Greeks felt confident in the immortality of the 
soul. — Men have never culled the fruit of happiness from the tree of 
injustice. — Nothing can supply the joy that remorse has taken away. 
— Man has few evils but those which he has occasioned himself. — 
Seven cities disputed the honour of having given birth to Homer. 

Newton, having taken the average of years during which the kings 
of the various countries have reigned, reduced each reign to about 
twenty-two years. — As long as France shall exist, the magnificence 
of Louis XIv. who protected the arts, to which Francis I. gave birth, 
will be lauded.<^To what hope has religion given birth, when there 
was nothing more to hope for ! — Some of the nations who overthrew 
the Roman empire branched out from the Tartars.— In proportion as 
men spread themselves over the earth, separate nations were formed, 
who, accommodating themselves to the spots they inhabited, accustom- 
ed themselves to dmerent modes of life, and whose characters have 
been diverse in proportion as the means of communication between 
them have been small. 

Syntax of adverbs. 

Page 337. — There is no barrier against slander. — There is no no- 
bility where virtue is wanting. — No one can be happy, if he enjoys 
not self-esteem.— Titus passed no day without performing a good 
action. — ^The virtuous man, at the sight of his harvests, doubts not that 
there is a God. — We look with a different eye on ourselves and on 
our neighbours. — The man worthy of being listened to, is he who 
only makes use of speech to express thought, and of thought for truth 
and virtue. — The more I dive into myself, and the more I examine 
myself, the more do I read these words inscribed on my soul :. '< Be 
just, and thou wilt be happy." — ^To listen well, or to read well, to 
comprehend well, and to retain well, what we read, there lies the secret 
of true knowledge. 

Syntax of prepositions. 

Page 343. — Before the reign of Louis XIV., France, almost desti- 
tute of ships, in vain was contiguous to the two seas. — Day and night 
the sailor is the sport of the elements; fire is always at hand to con- 
sume his ship, the air to overturn it, the water to sink it, and the land 
to shatter it. — Paper was invented towards the end of the fourteenth 
century, and printing about the middle of the fifteenth. — Good comedy 
was unknown till the time of Moliere, just as the art of expressing on 
the stage true and delicate sentiments was unknown till the time of 
Racine. — Eloquence is a very important art, destined to instruct, to 
repress the passions, to correct the morals, to maintain the laws, to 
direct public deliberations, to render men eood and happy. — ^To ac - 
quire the perfection of eloquence, we must have a fund of good sense 


and Bound wit, a lively imagination, a faithful memory, etc. — A man 
ia receired according as he is dressed : he is dismissed according to 
the sense he has displa3red. — Death comes at any moment, and we 
pass away in an instant. 

Syntax of conjunctions. 

Page 349. — The critic's torch ought not to hum, hut to enlighten. 
-7-People fancy there is an imaginary felicity in elevated situations 
to which they cannot attain, and believe (such is man I) that all, which 
they cannot have, is the very happiness they are in search of. — The 
memory of Henry IV. will always be dear to the French, because he 
placed his gloty and his happiness in rendering his people happy. — 
What progress do we not make in study, when we sustain long watch- 
ings with health and endurance ; when besides our own wisdom, we 
have the advice and intercourse of e;reat men and join to assiduom 
labour facility of genius! — God exists; for the faculty that thinks 
within me I owe not to myself. 


Paoe 350.— O humanity I generous and sublime instinct, who an- 
nouncest thyself in our infancy by tlie transports of ingenuous tender- 
ness ; in youth, by tbe rashness of a blind confidence ; in the course 
<tf our life, by the readiness with which we contract new alliances ! 
O cxy of nature, which resoundest from one end of the universe to 
tbe other; which fiUest us with remorse when we oppress our fellows, 
with a.pure pleasure when we can relieve them I O love ! O friendship ! 
O benevolence .' inexhaustible sources of blessing and delight ! Ah I 
men are only unhappy when they refiue to hear your voice. 

Irregular formation of the plural of substantives. 

Page 362<— Oval windows are not very convenient. — She has sore 
eyes.— I have still my paternal and maternal grandfathers. — He 
needs not sires, who serves his country well.— This artist succeeds 
well in painting skies. — Naples lies under one of the most beautiful 
skies in Europe. — The heavens declare the glory of God. — This 
horse has been put into the trave. — This clerk has presented several 
reports to the minister. — The labours of the field are in full activity. 

Plural of compound substantives. 

Page 363. — Our dandies are. the most ridiculous species that crawl 
with pride upon the face of the earth. — In vain does man erect 
palaces and triumphal arches, time silently wears them out. — You may 
give children the astonishing sight of atmospheric electricity by means 
of a kite, the cord of which is interwoven with a brass wire which at- 
tracts the electric spark, and is terminated by a thread of silk which 
stops its passage in tbe hand of the person holding it. 



Articles ; Substantives, 

Page 369. — Avarice, the mind, the imagination, utility, history, 
men. Hatred, the chances. The son of the king of France, the queen's 
crown (37.), a brother's friendship, the child's name. The rise and 
fill! of the Romans, Racine's woHcs. To the ambassador, to honor, 
to the lady, to the hope, to the boys, to the historians, to the hamlets. 
From Italy (277.) to Switzerland. ,Two francs a hundred (278.), 
eight sous {or fourpence) a pound. He is a doctor (273.). — Are you 
a Frenchman ? Yes, I am. — What happiness (275.) ! What a pity! 
Such a beautiful thing ! Such a misfortune ! Apollo (275.), god of 
the fine arts. Paragraph the (275.) sixth, number four. I have the 
pen. — Hast thou the pencils? Yes, I have them. — ^He has gloves (39.). 
We have perseverance. — Have you any (39.) pleasure ? Yes, we have. 
— Have they any patience? No, they have none. Tliey have com- 
plaisance. — Will she have a reward? Yes, she will. — ^They will have 
Knowledge* or acquaintances f. I shall have wealth. — ^Would be 
have important affairs ? Sometimes. — ^Thou wouldst have odoriferous 
flowers. We should have no leisure. Have you not children (161.)! 
Have you no children? He is without friends (270.). Quarrels 
among neighbours. 


Page 369. — A sincere friend | (65,). I am pleased. She is pru- 
dent. The road is steep. Rainy or showery weather. A rainy 
morning. A lively child. An energetic or animated action. A 
frank or candid man. A great talker. A good actor and a good 
actress. An enchanting style. A fine bird. A fine horse. A hand* 
some fashion. She is mild (or good-tempered). It is an old house. 
An old friend and an old companion. They are cunning. We have 
good horses. I have good oranges and fine pears. He had good 
bread, good meat, and good wine. They have ruddy lips. Learned, 
more learned, the most learned. His argument is good, mine is better, 
and his is the best of all. You argue well (69.), your friend argues 
better, and your brother argues the best of all. My expenditure is 
small, but yours is less. She is very joyful. We are very attentive. 
He is much esteemed. He is very strong and skilful. We have as 
much success as you. We have not so many means as he. 

Numeral adjectives. 
Page 370.— Paris, 15th of June, 1844. The 30th of next month. 

^ ComMussances, au pluriel, et absolnment, signifie mvotr, inttrucHtm, 
htmi^es acqtases .* Cet homme a de grandest de prqfondes, de vastea con"* 

t Connaissance se dit aussi des personnes avec lesqnelles on a des liaisons 
ou des relations : Je vois toujours avec plaitir une aaciemie connaissance, 
mes anciennes connaissances. 

X Masculin, ami ; feminin, 


A fortnight since. Tliis day week. During 332 years. A degree, 
or 25 leagues. A league, or 2282 toUes*, A toixe, or 6 feet. A 
foot, or 12 inches. An inch, or 12 lines {or parts). The standard 
unit of the new measure is the metre. (See page 381, Tableau des 
mesures UgaleB), — What is the day of the month ? The 27th of An* 
ciist'. — Have you received my letter of the 17th inst. ? Yes, I have.— 
The last month of last year. More than (305.) fifteen, more than a 


Page 370. — When you see her hushand, you will tell him you have 
spoken to his sister, and have asked her for her address. Here is my 
cousin, and there is his (or hers). Of these three compositions, mine 
is the most serious, thine the most affecting, and his the most sublime. 
Thy friendship and his are dear to me. I see him (or it) ; he sees 
her {or it) ; we see him and we tell him the truth. My brother en- 
deavoured to console her, and promised that he would see her father. 
I give it thee (322.). Thou showest it me. He will recite it to him (or 
her). Tell him (or her) I shall have his (or her) answer. Do not 
speak to him (or her) of his (or her) sister. We ask you the reason. 
You invite us. They introduce my friends to you. — Is your brother 
here (150.) ? No, he is not. — I snail speak to them. 1 shall offer 
it to them. He has seen her and given her the note. You are sorry 
(or angiy), I am not (326.). — Are you, Miss, the daughter of Mr. Du- 
pr6? Yes, lam (325.). Are you happy? Yes, lam. — Ladies, are 
you the friends of my cousin ? Yes, we are. — Are you sisters ? Yes, 
we are. — Give to her and not to him. — I think of thee. I shall go 
out without thee. Set out with him or with her 

Is this horse yours (341 .) ? No, it is my neighbour's. — ^Do not run 
after them. — Wlio did that? I (95.). Thou! No, it is he or she. — 
He is older' than I. You have more learning than he. — Are you not 
happier than they? No, I am not. — I spoke to him about it. Speak 
to them about it. No, do not mention it to them. You are not 
thinking about it. Give me advice ; do not give me any trouble. — 
Why should you choose him any? I cauhot tell (213.) you. Has 
he been there? Yes, he has. — He has a good appointment ; he had 
been aspiring to it a long time. The surgeon has dressed his nmi 
(339.). I have a headache, and the heartache. Give me that book, 
that inkstand, that pen and those pencils. Take away this and give 
me that.— Which of these colours do you prefer? 1 prefer this one 
to that. — This book is more interesting than that. These portraits 
are not so well executed as those. He who speaks gave me this. — 
This pen is bad. Which? The one I gave you. The one which is 
on the table. — ^The persons who love you, and those you love. Those 
whom we saw are gone. Nature, whose secrets are unknown to us. 
It is a condition without which he will not succeed.'^Of what are you 
thinking ? Of my duty .—What is it ? Nothing. 

* Le mot ioise est d^v^ da latin tennUf partidpe du verbe tenderer 


Indefinite pronouns. 

Page 371. — Do you know any one here? No, I do not. — Whoever 
told you so is right. Each has his own opinion. However (365.) 
^eat you may be, whatever riches you may have, and whatever may 
be your attainments, I can assure you, gentlemen, you will not be 
elected. Whatever be your qualifications, you will find persons who 
equal you in merit. It (361 .) is said the privateer is taken. — Has 
news been received ? Yes, this morning. — Has it been mentioned ? 
I*" do not think so. — Whoever calls, do not come. All that you say is 
true. Learned as (383.) you are, be modest. When spoken to, you 
will reply. The theatre where that piece is represented. If any one 
should ask for me, I shall be in my study. Learned and amiable as 
(384.) they are, do not trust them. They have brought their offer- 
ings, each one (370.) according to his means. They have neither of 
them done their duty. 


Page 371. — I am verj' glad to see you. — Have you the necessary 
means? Yes, we have. — Will he have the newspaper? Yes, he will. 
She will not have many advantages over him. — Are your friends still 
in London ? No, they are gone. — His last letters were not consoling. 
Does not your pupil improve ? Not in the least. — Have not faithful 
historians related those important facts? Several have mentioned 
them. — My brother and his friend have arrived. To whom am I 
speaking (165.) ? To me. — Do I run (149.) ? Can I give credit to 
what you (89.) have said to me ? You ought to credit it. — You will 
come, will you not (333.)? Perhaps. — He speaks French, does he 
not? A little. — It is late, is it not ? Yes, very late. — Who are those 
gentlemen? They are my friends. — They love the king and fear the 
minister. My father pardons him. You and your friend (315.) will 
speak to the manager. During my stay in Paris, I used often to 
walk (225.) in the garden of the Tuileries. I used to see him there 
frequently. He came to see me yesterday. 1 saw (230.) him this 
morning. When shall you go to Paris ? Next year. — I wish you to 
come and see me, and I should wish them to come likewise. — Do you 
wish that I should go to church ? Certainly, I do. — Sit down, sister, 
you look tired. Drink a glass of water. Those letters are not written 
(440.). My sister fell down, she has passed the night without sleep- 
ing. — Have you read the letter I wrote (or have written) (441.) ? Yes, 
1 have. — Have you written the letter I read (or have read) (441.) ? 
Yes, it is I who wrote it. — He wishes you to do your duty. We 
should wish you to read the newspapers. Allow me to mention to 
you (vous faire observer, make you observe) that we have written 
to them several times, and we do not think they have received our 


Reflective verbs. 

Page 372. — I intend to teach you. Tliey anticipate the pleasure of 
goine to the museum. We are dressing. He rises at five ; and you, 
at what time do you rise ? At seven. — ^They detest each other. Is 
he alarmed without cause? Yes, very often. — Will he not be weary at 
that concert? Perhaps he will. — Has he subscrihed to it? Yes, he 
has. — Ladies, have you been walking {or taking exercise) this morn- 
ing? Yes, sir, we have walked for three hours. Our brothers were 
riding, whilst those young ladies went in a boat (see note, page 1481 
— Make haste. Go away. I do not remember it. Those two frienCs 
embraced each other. Wine is drunk (138.) in France. Let us not 
be deceived. — Did they rejoice at that meeting? Yes, slightly so. — 
Have the soldiers taken possession of the house ? Not yet. — ^Have 
you hurt yourself? I have cut my wrist. Are you better? Tea, 
much better, I thank you. — He has caught a cold. 

Impersonal verbs. 

Page 372. — There are good reasons. Are there many persons (or 
people) ? No, there is no one. — ^I have been waiting for you for the 
last lumr. He has been gone a long time. — There are men who are 
urged on by resistance, others who are discouraged. You must (191.) 
reply to him. It is necessary to answer him. I want means. It is 
growing late. I feel very reluctant to reproach him. It is sufficient 
to do'it. It does not snow, but it is cold. — Do you (89.) think it will 
rain ? No, there is too much wind. — You must not conoe so late. 
An idea occuns to me. 

Idiotisms and phrases which offer a few difficulties. 

Page 373. — ^He ^ad just arrived. I have to speak to him, and he 
is going out. He ought to answer me. He has been obliged to go 
out. — Gould he have done otherwise ? I doubt it. — They could have 
spoken louder. Tell me what is the matter. He was then in Paris. 
Show me what you have written. You look ill. I am very fond of 
reading. — ^How do you do, my friend? I have had a tooth extracted.— 
Will you shuffle the cards ? If agreeable to you. — You may rely upon 
him. I do not understand the subject. I acknowledge it. It is 
Reported that he is dead. I believe not. I am afraid it will rain, 
for the weather is becoming heavy. The ^hip has foundered. What 
is your opinion about it? That is a matter of course*. It appears 
she is enjoying herself in Paris. That is understood. Remember me 
kindly (or My love) to your children. He is a person of distinction 
(or a well-bred man, a gentleman). What is that to me? Leave it 
(or him) alone. She takes her ease. He cannot do without you. 

She nearly sank under hergrief, she was overwhelmed with sorrow. 

* Cela va sans dire, C'est unft chose tellement certaine, incontestable! 
on tellement claire, naturelle, qu'il est inutile d'en parler, de la dire, de 
VpTpliquer. On dit dans le m6me sens, II va sans dire ^ue...... 


That maybe. She knows not whom to blame (or accuse*). Remind 
me that I must write to him. The result is the same. Recover 
yourself. I cannot. He has served (t. e, in the army or uanry). He 
delays his arrival a long time. I may do it if I choose, and shall 
find means of getting out of the difficulty. Do not be affronted if I 
tell you that you wiu never succeed, for you do not understand any- 
thing of the matter. Do as you wish, but bear me no ill-will. Take 
that child to school. Will he bring you your horse ? No, he has 
been away for the last hour. — He took my brother in his carriage. 
Take back that child to its mother. Carry those books into my 
study. Bring me some money. Take away those letters. Take 
back those papers into my room. How are your father, mother and 
sisters? Tolerably well, I thank you. — Well, friend ! how are your 
(89.) wife and family? So, so. 

Are you hungry? No, but I am thirsty. — You are hot and we are 
cold. You are right and he is wrong, i ou are eight years of age, 
my friend, and are afraid of your own shadow ! It is dark. What 
weather is it ? It is fine. It is bad weather. — Is it warm ? No, it 
is cold. — Night is coming on. Pay attention. He is a bank- 
rupt f. That sailor has been shipwrecked. This is at your own cost. 
Do not despair, you will make progress. — What have you remaining? 
Three francs and a half. — What wiu they say if any be found ? They 
will scold us. — There is a great deal of company (or There are many 
persons) in that hotel. IVfany persons believe that general is dead. 
He has returned from Paris. When shall you retin*n to London ? 
Next month. — We get out very early, and yet we only arrived at 
noon. We were exhausted by the heat, we were very hungry and 
thirsty. This result, which appears to me veiy natural, £>e8 not 
appear very new. Matters go on from bad to worse. The remedy 
is worse than the disease. Your son has squandered, wasted every- 
thing ; and you are inclined to pardon all 1 He said and explained 

Have the kindness to present my compliments to your nieces ; they 
all came here last summer, and I am very desirous that they should 
renew their visit next summer. Accept my very humble thanks for the 
favour yon have had the kindness to grant me. They wish to compel 
him to believe all that suits them. He delights in mischief. She 
delights in her tears. Do you use the Dictionary of the French 
Academy ? Yes, I do. — That word is seldom used. That coat is 

* S*eH prendre H quelqu^un, c'est-a-dire, lui attribuer qnelque faute, 
vouloir Ten rendre responsable, lui en donner le tort : S*il y a du maif 
preneZ'Votts-en d vous-mitne, Je ni'en prendrai h voue de tout ee mUpourra 
arrwer. " Je ne m^en prenda qu*au meet et Jamais d la loL" — Fabrb 

t Bangueroute est d^v^ de I'italien doiico, banc, et rotto, n»npu. 
Autrefois, en Italic, chaqae n^g:ociant avait son banc dans la place da 
change ; et quand il avait mal fut sea aflUres, qu'il se d^lanit fidUiOf en 
^tat de fidllite, son banc ^tait eoitS, 


quite worn out. — Are you acquainted with that rule? I know it*.— • 
I am acquainted with your uncle. It is immaterial to me (or I do 
not care about it). — How canyon have confidence in the assertions of 
that man ? he imposes upon f all those who listen to him, and impudent- 
ly deceives them. The enemy advanced against that troop, but the 
determined appearance of our brave men awed them f : they retreated 
without firing a shot. What have you in your hand (or What is the 
matter with your hand) ? Nothing. — Think of what you are doing. 
I have this moment entered (506.). He does nothing but laugh (506.) 
(or He is always laughing). What is to be done? Our duty.— 
What do you want? 1 want money. 

Have you called upon him ? Yes, I have, twice. — Is it in your 

?ower to do it ? No, it is not. — Whatever you say or do (is in vain), 
insist upon it. Have it done at once. Is it ready money ? well 
and good. You speak at random. You wish to lead me into error. 
I speak to you as a friend. It is cheap. I have had a narrow escape. 
You wished to impose upon me. I feel quite exhausted. — Do you 
want it? Yes, I do.— You may go out if you choose. He sets great 
value on that new acquaintance. Let us play at cards. You must 
not bear me ill-will. You are a connoisseur in pictures. Set about^ or 
apply yourself to, drawing. Whom do you blame J ? You ; your awk- 
wardness is the cause of my failure. — It goes on badly. I agree to it. 
Come, come, make haste ! Do you play at billiards? Never. — He 
took upon himself to make a singular request. Do not venture to 
believe him. That woman has a good disposition. Her elevation 
has exposed her to the shafts of envy. At all events write to him. 
If my friends come, send for me. He has taken a situation. 

A clap of thunder ; a high sea, a sudden shock of a wave ; a sudden 
or unexpected attack ; a musket-shot ; a pistol-shot ; a gun-shot ; a 

* Conmaitre and savoirare both applied to things ; connaUre means to 
be acquainted with, and savoir, to know, to understand. The following 
examples will illustrate the difference between these two words : 

Mademoiselle, connaissez-voits ce Do you know, Misst thai piece of 

morceau de musique.' — Oui, mon- music? — Yes Sir, I know it very 
sieur, je le connais tres-bien, je Tai weUf I heard it iasi night at the 
entendu bier a I'opera. cpera. 

Mademoiselle, savez-yons le mor- Do you know, MisSf the piece of 

ceau de musique que votre maitre music your singing-master gave you 
a chanter vous a donne a apprendre to learn this morning during the les- 
ce matin pendant la lefon ? — Oui, son? — Yes^ Sir^ I know it now,'^ 
monsieur, je le sais a present. — Eh Then do me the favour to play it. 
bien ! veuillez me faire le plaisir de 
le jouer. 

t Imposerf en imposer, Imposer renferme une idee de respect, de con- 
sideration, d'ascendant ; en imposer, une id^e de mensonge, de deception : 
Vhonn&te Jiomme qui dit franchement la v^t^^ impose ; U fripon ^ 
cherche a se tirer d^ affaire par des mensonges, SN imposb. 

X See page 447, note*. 


shot (from any fireann) ; a glance ; a bite ; a sword-thrust ; a sabre* 
cut; a blow from a stick or cane, a cudgelling; a draught of wine; 
a slander. Once more you are in error. He has studied law (or He 
has taken his degree in law) at Paris. What an act of imprudencie we 
have committed ! To beat the drum, to strike the cymbals. To blow the 
horn. To play on the violin, the tenor, the bass, the flute, the clari- 
net, the flageolet, the hautboy, the bassoon, and on all instruments. 
To play on the harp, the guitar. To sound the trumpet To play on 
the piano-forte, the organ, etc. 

Familiar conversations, letters, etc. 

The meeting. 

Page 375. — Good day, my friend. Sir, my respects to you.'— How 
do you do ? Very well, I thank you ; how are you ? Pretty well, 
as usual.-* Whence do you come ? I come from the Exchange. — ^And 
whither are you going f I am going to the Bank. — I have met you 
opportunely, I was going to your house. For what purpose? I 
wanted to inquire for news. News ! of whom ? Your uncle. — Which 
uncle ? You are aware that I have two. — The one who is now in Paris. 
I expect to hear from him this evening; do me the favour of calling 
upon me tomorrow morning, I will let you see what I have received. 
— Thank you, I shall not fail to do so. I need not say good bye\ 


Paob 375. — Madam, I wish you good morning. — How glad I am 
of this visit ! Sit down, pray, ft is a long time since I have had the 
pleasure of seeing you ; how have 3*ou been ? — Pretty well ; and your- 
self? As usual, tolerably. — I called yesterday to have the honour of 
presenting my respects to you, you had just gone out. — I am very 
sorry not to have been at home. Let me have the pleasure of your 
company at dinner. — You are very kind; but I cannot stay any 
longer, I promised to be back at the hotel at five o'clock. — What! you 
will leave us already ! Stay another moment. — I am sorry to quit 
you so soon, I will stay longer another time. — When shall we have 
the pleasure of seeing you again ? — If possible, I will come again 
tomorrow. Good bye. Farewell till we meet again. 

The time. 

Page 376. — What o'clock is it ? It is nine or five minutes after.-— 
You are mistaken, my friend, it is a quarter past nine. — It is you 
who are wrong, look at the clock. — My brother thinks it is not nine 
o'clock yet, that it wants a quarter to nine. — Listen ! the hour is 

* Good bye, being derived from the phrase God be with ye ! corresponds 
by a portion of its etymology with the French adieu ! According to Roque- 
fort, dieu is derived from the Latin phrase deo ie eommendo. In the 
XIIth,XIIIth and XlVth centuries, the French used to say a^ieu-command 


ntaking : one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine. Nine 
o'clock { Let 118 be off to school directly! — At what time -will tiie 
German master come ? At ten minutes to eleven, and he will itey 
till halP-paat twelve. We shall then prepare our French lessons, and 
we shall be free at half-past two or three at the latest. 

New Yearns day. 

Page 376. — I wish you a good and happy new year, my dear 
Julius. — I thank you, sister; I wish you, in my turn, all that can give 
you happiness. Oh ! how delighted I am ! I jump for joy. — But 
what is it? What means all this great delight? Have you received 
your new-year's gifts already ? — Yes, I have, and I will show them 
• to you. Look, some very pretty things : a musket, an hussar's sabre, 
a cartridge-box, a helmet, wooden pistols that are not dangerous, 
ninepins, a line, hooks and a net for fishing, houses to build, a hand- 
some punch, pictures, figs, oranges, preserved fruits, a box full of 
delicious (bonbom) sweetmeats, a dozen sponge biscuits, and a basket 
full of sugar-plums. 


Page 376« — How do you intend to travel ? And first (will you 
iravel) by sea or by land ?— If I intended to go that journey, I 
should have to take the sailing-packet-boat, or the steamer. — And 
what are the means of conveyance by land ? — ^In the first place, the 
railroad ; or if you have fears ibr your breath, hire a carriage, or even 
a hackney -tcoaeh or a cabriolet; or if you prefer it, take a place in the 
mail or in the diligence, and, to avoid expense, you might eend your 
luggage by the common carrier, or if you could not wait ao long, 
you might send it by the van. I had almost forgotten to add, that 
you have still the choice of going on foot or on horseback. 

The study of the French language. 

Pace 377. — I have been told you learn French.— Yes, I have been 
studying it the last six months. Have you found this study dif- 
ficnlt? I know that you are indefatigable and are never discouraged. 
^-It is true, that, having overcome the principal difiiculties, I am 
beginning to gather the fruit of my labours. Pray believe that it has 
not been without trouble ; that chaos of rules and exceptions has so 
often confused my brain, that I have twenty times been on the eve 
of renouncing my intentions. There are so many idiotisms, so many 
■trange turnings which custom alone authorizes. If you will come 
to my iiouse this evening (soirSe), I will show you the works I use. — 
This evening (*oir) ? — Yes, this evening. Well, hut what difference 
IS there between soir and soirSe, matin and matinee, jour and Joumee, 
aprds-midi and aprh'din^e ?— Those words are synonymous. Jfour 
marks an epoch without regard to the duration, joumSe expreasfls 
a duration both certain and divisible. It is the same with the words 
an and annSe, matin and matinie, soir and soirie, etc. Observe £he 



I following examples : / wiU come some day (jour). The day (journ^e) 
is long for lazy people. His land yields him ten thousand francs 
s per annum (an). That eclipse will take place in the course of the 
year (annee). Thank you for that explanation. 

[Note. As the exercises, page 377 et seq.^ headed idiome, idietieme, 

difieult4s de la pronondationj eris des animauae et leurs parties commwueSt 

momudes/ran^isBS, tableau des mesureSf e/c., principally consist of gram- 

[ mstical explanations, remarkable nomenclatures or statistical subjects, it 

' has not been considered necessary to translate them into English. The 

' student is recommended to study these exercises in French, according to 

the method adopted in the study of the syntax.] 

Commercial corresfomdence. 

Page 385. — Letter of recommendation for a young man in search 
of a situation as clerk. 

To Monsieur Dupuis, merchant, at Bordeaux. 

Paris, 20th July, 1839. 

Monsieur Richard Delsert, who for the last six years has been 
engaged to our greyest satisfaction in our business, will have the 
honour of presenting you this letter. 

The desire of extending his knowledge has alone induced him to 
leave our firm, and endeavour to obtain a situation in your town, 
where he intends to familiarize himself with -maritime eommnace. 
Far from opposing his wishes, we consider it as an agreeable duty to 
do as much as we can to help him in attaining his object. 

We unfeignedly say, that we lose in him a man who has secured 
for himself our esteem as much by the superiority of his mental quali- 
fications as by the zeal he has shown for our interests and the irre- 
proachable character he has always borne. 

His abilities render him particularly fit for correspondence. To a* 
good handwriting he combines an elegant and correct epistolary style* 
Besides his native language, the French, of which he is a peifeet 
master, he speaks and writes with great ease both German and £n* 
elish. He is well versed in book-keeping and has also some know- 
ledge of warehouse business. If you could employ him in your 
counting-house, he would find not only a place suited to his wishes, 
but also principals, who, we feel assured, would not refuse him thek 
kind assistance and lenity. 

Any service which you can render to M. Delsert (our reeommandi) 
will confer a particular favour on us and we shall be extremely 
grateful for it 

We remain, etc., 

Euglne Morel and Co. 


Page 386. — Letter of recommendation for the head of a commer' 
cial school. 

To Messieurs Bachelier, merchants at Marseilles. 

Strasburg, 18th March, 1844. 

This letter will be presented to you by Monsieur Lefevre, the prin- 
cipal of a commercial school which he has established in our town. 

Accompanied by his pupils, he visits your neighbourhood partly to 
obtain for them some wholesome recreation, and partly to add to 
their knowledge by making them visit the interesting establishments 
in your town and its vicinity. 

We beg to recommend M. Lef^vre to your particular notice, and 
to solicit your kind assistance as much as it will be in your power to 
make his journey as agreeable as useful. His object appears to us 
so praiseworthy that we anxiously look forward to his attaining it. 
We have therefore considered that we could not do him a better ser- 
vice than by recommending him to your obliging attentions. 

We further solicit your kind patronage in favour of his establish* 
ment : the talent with which he manages it, and the new and