Skip to main content

Full text of "A French Grammar for Schools and Colleges"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



so HO 00 MA 







=^:i by Google 

Heatb'B flDoftetn Xatifluaae Series 







r.,„: ,;.!;, Google 

U-2_ Vi . 'h'h 




Bv D. C, Heath S Co. 

PBiNTED m ir.3.A. 

:,a.-re:i by Google 

This book aima to provide a practical and thorough 
course in French grammar and elementary composition for 
sohools and colleges. In the preparation of the work an 
effort has been made to bring the presentation of the sub- 
ject into accord with recent advances in the methods of 
modem language teaching. 

Having regard to the importance of securing aocmate 
pronunciation from the very outset, care has been taken to 
facilitate the work of the teacher in this respect by giving 
a phonetic transcription of all vocabularies and paradigms, 
under the conviction that in no other way can distinctions 
in sounds be intelligibly explained. In order, however, not 
to confuse the banner with too minute distinctions, "half 
long " vowels have not been indicated, and the same rule 
has been observed, for the most part, with regard to such 
Btressed vowels as aro optionally long or short. 

The elementary exercises are based almost exclusively 
upon connected pieces of French, dealing with a variety of 
topics relating to every-day life, and make provision for 
both oral and written practice. They have been provided 
in abundance so as to admit of selection and variety, and 
to afford ample material for review. In both the elemen- 
tary and advanced exercises, regard has been had to the 
requirements of such teachers as feel the necessity for a 
la^e amount of work of this kind in order to ensure ade- 
quate and practical knowledge on the part of the pupil, 

Patt I. oonaiBtB of a series of lessons on the elements of 
gtammax as an essential preparation for easy leading, while 
Fart 11. furnishes a systematic grammar of modem French 
for later study and general reference. To this part a se- 
ries of exercises has been added dealing with the rarious 
topics treated in the text. It was thought best to group 
these exercises together at the end, in order not to impair 
the usefulness of the Grammar as a book of reference by 
inserting the exercises immediately after the paragraphs to 
which they refer. Each exercise, however, is furnished 
with section references which will enable the pupil to turn 
readily to the theory upon which the exercises are based. 

The Reader, which may be used with advantage after 
the completion of Fart I. of the Grammar, has been made 
up of interesting selections, for the most part complete in 
themselves, and affording considerable range as to topic, 
vocabulary and idiom. The exercises inserted at the end 
of the Keader are based on the idiom and vocabulary of the 
text, and are intended to give practice in the reproduction 
in French of the substance of the selections. 

The authors take this opportunity of expressing indebted- 
ness to a number of teachers, whose advice and criticism 
have been of much assistance in the preparation of the 
present volume. 

March 36, 1901. 

This edition has profited greatly by criticisms kindly 
suggested by several instructors, in particular by Madame 
H^l^ne J. Raiche, of Wellesley College. 

JaniMTV, 1903. 

-,<jr.=^-)hy Google 


PhoneUo IntrodnctJon , 
Exerciw in Phonetio Tmuoription 

Elententftry Lmmob, I-LI . . . , 

The Verb 

The Noun 

The Article 

The Adjeotive 

The FrMtoan 

The Adverb 


The PrepoMtioii 

The ConjanctioD 

The lateijectioD 


EzerdM* on Oraminu', I, b-LXXT, a . 


Prose Seleotioua 
Poetical Beleotions 
Compoaition BxecciBaa oi 

Eogliih-Frenoh . 



By a decree of the French Minister of Public Instruction, 
dated February 26th, 1901, certain deviations from eom- 
ntonly accepted rules of grammar are permitted at all 
examinations held under his control. In the Appendix 
(see last page of this volume) will be found a reference 
list explaining the bearing of these deviations upon the 
various sections of the Grammar affected thereby. 



I. General Distinctions. The pronunciation will be 

explained, as far as poesible, by comparison with English 
sounds, but it must never be forgotten that the sounds oi 
two languages rarely correspond. Important general distinc- 
tions between English and French are the following : — 

1. English haa stroDg stress (§ 7) and comparatively weak action ol 
tiie organs in artlcnlatioiL 

2. French has weak stresB, while the action of the organs in articala- 

3. Eenoe, French Bonnds, both vowels and consonants, are almost alt 
' narrow,' i.e. , nttnred with tenBenesa of the organs concarnad in their 
uticulation. (To nnderstand 'narrow' and 'wide,* compare the narrow 
aonnd of eain 'seat' with the wide soond of 1 In 'sit.') 

4. Tongne and Up positions for French vowels are more definite, and 
more promptly taken, than in English. Lip-ronoding (as in 'who,' 
'no,' 'law') and lip-retractiw (as in 'let,' 'hat'] are much more 
definite and energetic in forming French vowels. 

G. The tongue, both for vowels and consonants, is, in general, either 
fmlher advanced or further retracted than in forming English sounds 
requiring tongne action. 

6. English long vowels (like a in 'fate') are diphthongal (especially as 
[HTHuninced in the Sonth of England), while French vowels, whethMr 
long or short, are nniform thionghout their utterance. 

?■ The nasal vowels of French are entirely foreign to EnglisK 
3^iey are formed by allowing the soft palate to bimg freely, as in 
Mdinary breathing, thus causing the air to escape through both nose 
and month at once. If, for example, the a of ' father ' be uttered with 
the soft palate hanging freely, the resulting sound will be appioxi- 
niatelythatDfthenasaI[a]in 'tante' [UHf], The posittoa of the raft 

u, Gooijlc 


pal&te in formiDg thia sound may be readily observed with a mirror. It - 
must be carefully QOt«d that there is absolutely no sound of n, m, or ng;, 
in FreDch nasal vowels, aod hence that great care moat be taken neithM 
to niM the tongue nor close the lips until the sound is complete. 

2. Sounds. The French language has thirty-seven sounds, 
exclusive of minor distinctions. The orthography, like that of 
English, is irregular and inconsistent. Hence, to avoid con- 
fusion in indicating the pronunciation, we shall employ a 
phonetic alphabet (that of the 'Association Pbon^tique In- 
ternationale'), in which each sound is represented by but one 
symbol, and each symbol has but one sound. 

3. Table of Symbols. In the following table, the 
examples are in ordinary orthography, the heavy type indi- 
cates the sounds which correspond to the symbols, and the 
phonetic transcription is given within brackets : — 


pn, muse [py, mjiij. 


creux, creuse [kr^, kr^iz]. 

le n^i. 

pria, pirefpre, pelr]. 
fin, prince [li, prSia]. 
neuf, nenve [ncet, nteiv], 
un, humble [*, «:blj. 
patte, part [pat, pair], 
pas, paase [pa, pais], 
tut, tante [t^, td:t]. 
note, tort [not, tair]. 
rood, ronde [ra, raid]. 
sot, chose [so, Joiz]. 
lout, tour [tn, tuir]. 
lui [li{i). 

I. Biufriin, 

beau, robe [bo, rab]. 
dame, fade [dam, fad], 
ifort, nBnf[foir, ncef). 
gant, dogue [ga, dog} 
aha : [o(h)a]. 
car, roc, [kar, rok]. 
long, setil [15, stel]. 
mot, dame [mo, dam], 
ni, ane[ni, am]. 
^nean, digae[apo,dlj4 
pBB, tape [po, tap], 
drap, par [dra, par]. 
■i, pense[ai, pQis]. 
chou, l&che [Ju, loij]. 
taa, patte [ta, pat]. 
▼in, cave [vE, kaiv], 
zone, rose [mm, rois]. 
je, roi^je [se, miB> 
sign of length. 



4. The Alphabet. The letters of the alphabet, vith 
their Freach ziames, are as follows : — 

» Ho]. j jitji} s ««[£.]. 

b M [bel k ks [ka]. t t« [te]. 

C o4[se> I elle[elj. n n [yj 

d dd [del ■» emme [em], t v6 [ve]. 

• d [e]. n enne [sn]. w double y6 [dnbl ve^ 

f flBe[cf|. o o[o]. X iks[ibs]. 

g g* [!«]. p P* [pe]. y i grec [i grtkt 

h ache [ajl q ku [kj]. z zMe [zEd]. 

i iW r erretEF]. 

Not*.— Wotda an oommoiilT apelled by nunliir ili^ latlan, u kbnre, togcUur w(th 
ttM Dther octhognpUo afgni, 11 my. 

5. Other Ortht^^aphic Signs. In addition to the 
letters of the alphabet, the following signs are used : — 

1. The acute accent ', Ft. 'accent sign' £akadt egf], e.g., I'ili, 

2. The grave accent "^i Fr. 'accent grave' [akefl graiv], t.g., voiU^ 

3. The circnmflex accent '- , Fr. ' accent circonfiexe ' [aksd eirkSflEka], 
e.g., 4ne, t^te, Ue, hote, fl&te. 

Oi—nt: Nona ol tbs BbOTc Kccnt muki Krvs tc dmots itrcd (I I). 

4. The cedilla, Fr. 'c^ille' [eediij], used under c to give it the 
sound of [b], beEore a, o, u (§ 17, 13), e.g., fa^de, \eijon, commen^it, 
oommen^ons, re^mes, re^ 

5. The diffiresii ~ , Fr. 'trfima' [treni8],ehowt that thevowel bearing 
it is divided in pronunciation from the preceding vowel, i.^., NoCl, naif. 

6. The apostrophe, Fr. 'apostrophe' [apaetrof], shows omission of 
final vowel before initial vowel sound, e.g., Tamie ( =Ia amie), I'ami 
(ale ami), rhomme [ = lehoniPie), a'illzsiil), g 19. 

7. The hyphen, Fr. ' trait d'union ' [trcdynjS], used as in English. 

6. Syllabication. 

1. A single consonant eonnd between vowel sounds always belongs to 
tiM following syllable. 

Ex.: Marie, in-di-Ti-si-bi-li U, s-che-ter. 

2. Two consonants, of whii:h the second is 1 or r {bi>t not the com- 
binations rl or It), similarly both belong to the following syllable. 

Ex.: ta-blean, ^.cri-vain. 

-.u, Google 

4 iNTEODncnoN. [§§^"8 

8. Otlier cDmbuutions of consoneuita rqireteotiiig two or more Miiindi 
' are divided. 

Ex.: par-ler, per-dre, ea-ca-lier. 

N.B. — Great care should be taken to avoid the conmnant*! ending 
of sjUablea, so frequent in English. Compare French ■ ci-t4,' ' to-blean,' 
with English 'cit-y,* 'tab-leau.' 

7. Stress. 

'Stress' is the force with which a Billable is uttered as compared 
with other ajllables in the same group. In French, the sjllablea ate 
nttered with almost equal force, a very alight stresB falling on the last 
syllable of a word of two or more syllableB, or, on the last but one, if 
tite last Towel of the word ia [a]. 

Ex.: Che'Val, par-ler, par-laJ, per-dre, cr^-di-bi-li-t6 {compare the 
rtrong stress of English crod-i-bil-it-y). 

Notb,— In oonntcted diKonne tba rula above stated viiea ooiuidenbly, bat ■ tuU 
IreitnieDt at tlie subject noutd exceed the limits at ta elemeDtoiy work. The ulest 
pnctlce lor tba bcKlaner lata pronounce Bllsyl1>J>lnvlCb ftlmcat eqi»l loroe. ItahoaU 
be rernembeTed that Rocent-marka have nothioj to da with streH, and that all rowels, 
aioept [»], iea 1 19, whether atmied oi uoatrc^ud, have theii full valae, never belnf 
duired over as in EnKlieh. 

8. Vowel Quantity. The most important general mlea 

1. Final vowel sounds (including nasals) are regularly short, e.g., 
fini [flni], vie [vi], loue [lu], pari* [parle], rideau Irido], mais [me], 
donner [done], enfant [dfd], parlerons [parlarS]. 

2. Stressed vowels are long before the sounds [v], [z], [j], Q], 
[r final], t.g., rive [ri;v], ruse [ryiz], rouge [rulj], feuille [fiBtj], 
faire [fe.r]. 

3. Of stressed vowels standing before other consonant sounds, nasals 
are long, e.g., prince [prEis]; [o], [dj, long, e.g., faute [foit], menle 
[mi^ill; [a], long (almost always), e.g., passe [pa:s] ; [c], long or short, 
e.g., Teine(re!n], renne [ren] ; other vowels regularly short, e.g., cap 
[kap], poche [ps/], koupe [kup], pipe [pip], seul [seel], lone [tyn]. 


§§9-11] TOWEUL S 


9. Tongue Position. The relative position of tb« 
tongne for the varioua vowels may be seen from the following 
diagram, adapted from Vietor. Bounded vowels are enclosed 
in parentheses : — 


eZ(raA} (oB) 


N.B. — In the following descriptions of sounds, the word 
•like' metuis, of course, only 'resembling,' or 'approximately 
Iike'(§l). The examples given after the word 'also' shov 
the teas common orthographical equivalents. 

10. i, y. 

1. i — Like ea in 'seat'; 'the comers of the mouth retracted as In 
n)iliiig(Sl> 4}; avoid thesoimd of i in 'ait'; avoid diphthongization 
<81, 6); narrow (SI, 3). 

Ex.: iii[m], vive'{viiv]; abo, Qe [ill], lyre [liirj. 

2, y — Haa no coonterpert in Englidi. The tongne position is practi- 
cally the same as for [i] above ; very tense lip-nnmding (g 1, 4) ; avoid 
diphthongizatioD {%l, 6); narrow (§1, 3). The sound may be beat 
acquired either by prolonging [i], and at the same time effecting the 
rounding, or by holding the lips rounded and taking the t':ingue 
position of [i]. 

Ex.: pn [py], muse [myjz]; also f&t [fy], il eut [il y], nous efimea 

11. e. A 9. 

1, e—Uke tiie fint purt of the sound of a (n < day,' but witli the Upi 
more retracted (S 1, 4) ; avoid diphthongization (g 1, 6) ; narrow (g 1, 8> 
fix. : tit [ate} ; also, puler [parte], donnai [done]. 

I., Glxh^Ic 

6 INTRODUCTION. [§§12-18 

2. ^ — Ha* no conntetport in English. The tongue position Ib prao- 
tically the iame as for [e), with tense roonding of the lips (g 1, 4)j avoid 
diphthongization (gl, 6) ; 0811x07 (§1, 3)i beat acquired by combining, 
as explained for [y] above, ttie lip-rounding with the [e] position. 

Ex.: creux [krci], crenae [br^lz] : also, bceufs [hfi]. 

3. B — Like English e in 'the man,' or a in 'Louisa,' but slightly 
founded ; best acquired by relaxing the tension of the organs required 
for the production of the {fi] sound. 

£x.i le [la] ; also, monsieur [mesj^I, faisant [fozfi]. 
S2. E E, (e, <£. 

1. c — Like the sound of e in ' let,' with the mouth more definitely 
open and the lips more retracted (g 1,4); avoiddiphthongization (g 1, 6); 
narrow (§ 1, 3}. 

Ex.! pris [pre], pire [psir]; also, fftte [feit], terra Iteir], secret 
[askre], parlais [porlE], paix [pe], reine [rem]. 

Note. ^The e of a stressed syllable followed by a syllable containing 
e mute has almost always this sound (orthographically denoted by i, t, 
ore + double consonant), e.g., je mine [mEn], ttte [teit], chire[|e;r], 
j'appelle [apel], ancieune [fiajcn]. This principle occonnts for th« 
apparent irregularities of certain verl>s and adjectives. 

2. £— The [e] sound nasalized (§ 1, 7), but slightly more open. 

Ex.: fin [fE], prince [prf is]; also, fBim[f^sunteIsS:t], Beiins[rfie], 
plein [pit], simple [sE:pl], ^mbole [sEbal], sTntaxe IsEtaks], viendrai 
[vjidre], soin [awi]. 

3. ce^Haa no counterpart in English. It has practically the toogna 
position of [e], combined with definite rounding of the lips ; avoid diph- 
thongization {§ 1, 6) ; narrow (§ 1, 3) ; best acquired by combining, with 
the [e] position, the rounding described. 

Ex. : nenf [ncef], neuve [nceiv] ; also, ccenr [kixir], ceil [<ej], orgneil 

4. •£— The [ce] sound nasalized (g 1, 7), but slightly more open. 
Ex.: tin[<£], hiimble[iSibl]; also, & jenn [a 3<£]. 

13- <". °. A. 

1. a — Only very elightly reaembles the aound of % in 'pat,' which u 
nearer that of [ej. I^e [a] sound requiiea much wider mouth opening 
tlian not 'pat,' accompanied by retraotion of the lips and lowering cd 

u, Gooijlc 

§§14-16] CONSONANTS. 7 

the tongne, though with the point Btill touching the lower teeth ; avoid 
liphthongiiuttioii (§ 1, 4) ; narrow (g 1, 3). 

Ei.i patta [pat], part [pair]; also, I& [la], femme [fam], moi [mwa], 
lx>It« [bwait], parl&mei [parlam], parUlt [park]. 

2. a — Like ii in ' father ' ; the month weU open, the tongue lying Sat, 
jkitd so far retracted that it no longer touches the lower teeth ; lips 
absolutely neutral, i.e., neither rounded nor retracted ; avoid especially 
rounding, as of » in ' fftll.' 

Ex.: pu [pa], pAsae [pois]; also, pAte [pait], roi [rwo], poCIe 

3. a— The [a] sound nasalized (g 1, 7). 

Bz.: taot [ta], tante [tdit] ; aim, lampe [13 :p], entra [Qitr], membn 

14. 0, 5, o. 

1. □ — Like o In 'not,' but with definite bell-like ronnding (§1, 4)j 
•void diphthongization (§ 1, 6) ; narrow {% 1, 3). 

Ex. : note [not], tort [toir] ; also Paul [pol], album [albora]. 

2. 3 — The [9] sound nasalized (§ 1, 7], but slightly more close. 
Ex. : rond [r5], ronde [rSid] ; also tomber [tsbe], comte [k3:t]. 

3. o— Like o in ' omen,' but with more protrusion and much tenser 
nninding of the lips (§ 1, i) ; avoid diphthongization (g 1, 6] ; narrow 

Ex.: BOt [bo], chose [foiz], fosse [fois]; also, c«t4 [kote], c6te [koitj, 
fante [foit], beauts [bote]. 

IS ti. 

1. u — Idke a in ' nunour,' but with more protroaion and much tenser 
nninding of the lips (| 1, 4) ; avoid diphthongization (§ 1, 6) ; narrow 

Ex.: tout [tn], tour [tnir] ; also, go&t [gu], aoAt [u]. 


16. i. ^. w. 

When the sounds [i], [y], [u], g 10 and g 15, come beforo a vowel of 
etconger stress, they are pronounced with the tongue slightly closer to 
the palate, and bence assume a consonantal value, indicated by [j], {i|], 
[w], respectively. They ai« sometimes called semi-vowels. 

u, Gooijlc 


1. j — Like very brief uid narrow y in 'y*.' 

Ex.: viM)de[vjaid]; nUo, jreox [jf)]. (^'eol N<b11 fiUe [Sij], trav«iller 
[travaje], travail [travaj]. 

2. i;— Eaa no eonnterpart in English i avoid very carefnlly the eonud 
of w in ■ wall ' ; may be best acquired by at firat mbatituting [y] for it, 
and afterward increasing the speed of the atteranoe and the elevation 
at the tongue until it can be formed exactly along with what followa. 

Ex.: Ini [li{i]; alao, nuoge [niiaij], dcnelle [ekqel]. 

8, w — Like very brief and narrow yr in 'we,' 'west.' It ii beet, 
however, U> prooeed from the sound of [u] in the manner deaoribed 
for In] above. 

Ex.: oui [wi] ; aleo, poida [pwo], tramway [tntmwe]. 

I7> The remaiaing consonantftl sonnds can be sufficiently 
described by noting the differences between their mode of for- 
Eoation and that of the nearest English sounds (see § 1). 

1. b — Like bin 'barb.' 

Ex. : beau [bo], robe [rob], aVbi [abe]. 

2. d— Like d In 'did,' but with the t«ngiie so for advanced that 
it« point, or upper surface, forms a closure with the Inner anrfoce of 
the upper teeth and gums ; or the point of the tongue may be thrust 
against the lower t«eth, the upper surface forming a clomre with the 
upper teeth and gums. It must be remembered that in forming English 
d (also I, a, I, a, t, z) the tongue touches at some little distance abov« 
the teeth (g 1, 5). 

Ex.: dame [dam], fade [fad], addition [adisjS]. 

5. f-Ukefin 'fcf 

Ex.: fort [fair], neuf [ucef], difncile [difisil). 

4. g— Likeffin 'go.' 

Ex.: eant [ga], divne[dDg], gnemlgeir]; also, second [sagS]. 

6. h— In orthography the letter h is known as 'h mate' (Fr. 'h 
mnette'), or 'h aspirate' (Fr. 'h aapir^'), according as it does, or doe* 
not, canss elUdon (§ 19). The learner may regard it, in either case, as 
absolutely silent. 

Ex. : rhomme [1 om], le hiroa {la ero]. 

=^:i by Google 


In histna, bowerer, ft Mnmd Tesembliog, bat much VMker than h in 
' hkt,' is peimiadble, and u MtluJly naed by many Fnmohmen. 
El. : aba ! [aha], le h^roa [la hero], fl^n [flsho]. 

6. b — like k in ' take ' ; avoid the alight aapimtion which genenJlj 
follows the English aonnd. 

Ex. : cor [kar], roc [rsk], accorder [akorde] ; also, clu^tien [kratj^, 
ain<] [aSik], bouquet [bake], acqudrir [akeriir], kilo [kilo], majEime 

7. 1 — Like 1 in ' law,' but with the tongne advanced aa for [d] abov«. 
Ex. : long [13], wu] [acel], alter [ale]. 

8. m— Like min 'man,' 'dumb.' 

Ex. ; mot [mo], dame [dam], homme [am], 

9. n — Like n in 'not,' 'man,' but with the toDgn« adTUoed aa for 
[d] abore. 

Ei. : ni [ni], Ane [o in], donner [done]. 

10. ji — Somewhat like 07 in ' ban-Tan,' except that [ji] ia a tingle, not 
a double, sonnd, oud ia fonned by pressing the middle of the tongue 
against the bard palate, the tip being uaually thnut againat the lower 

Ex.: agneau [apo], dig;ae [diji]. 

11. p — Like p in 'pan,' 'top'; avoid the slight aapiration which 
generally follows the English sonnd. 

Ex. pas [pa], tape [tap], appUqaer [aplike]. 

12. r — Has no English connterpart. It is formed by trilling the tip 
of the ttmgne againat the upper gams, or even against the npper teeth. 
Thia r is called in French 'r lingnale.' The tongue most, ot course, 
be well advanced towards the teeth, and not retracted and turned 
apward, as in our r sound (§ 1, S). The sound may be advantageously 
proctiaed at first in combination with d, e.g., dry, drip, drop, drum 
(as in Scotch or Irish dialect), and afterwards in combinations in which 
it is less easily pronounced. 

Ex. ; drap [dra], par [par], torrent [tarC], rond [rSJ 

Nen- — Anotber r saiind (c^Ued in Frsnch ' r urnlAin *), cied cipeciaUj In hria 
and In tlM luc* dllia ud (own. ii lonaMl br witbdiswini nod vtsntinE tbt nwt d( 
tb* loogn* » u In cmuK ■ ttUling: <•! tb* nvuU. Thii r ia onuil]' mon dUBcnilt Urn 
Eii|U<h-«p«kin[ people to wquir*. 

13. ■ — Iiike a in ' aea,' ' oeaae,' but with the tongue advanced as for 
[d] above. 


10 INTRODUCTION. [5§18-19 

Ex.: si[Bi], penaeCpaiaXoawerCkaae]; ^ao Ktoe [mid], place [pUa^ 
&9ade [fasad], le^oD [lasS], re^u [roa;], commen^t [ksmiflBe], commeD- 
QODB [kamSsS], re^QmsB [rMyin], portioa [psrsjS], soixante [swaaQlt]. 

14. J—Like sh in aboe, but with the tongue more advanced (g 1, 5). 
Ex.: ebon [Ju], liche [laij], also, Bchiame [Jism]. 

15. t — Like t in 'tall,' but with the tongue advanced aa for [d] abore j 
tvoid the slight aepiration which gsaenUy follows the Kngliah sound. 

Ex. : tM Ita], patte [pat]. 

16. T — Like y in ' Tine,' ' cave.' 

Ex.: Tin [tS], cave [kaiv]; also, iragon IvagS], nenf h6nrea[n<ETtEir]. 

17. E — like z in 'zone,' or s in 'tcse,' but with the tongue advanced 
as for [d] above. 

Ex.: zone [zoin], n>M [tolz]; also, deux henrea, [d^ ceir], exact 

18. i — Like z in 'aznre' or a in 'pleasure,' but with the tongue more 
advanced (§1, fi). 

Ex. : je [s9], rouge [rnii] ; alao tnaneeant [majfi], Jean [jS]. 

iS. Liaison. Final consonants are usually silent, but in 
oral speech, within a group of worda closely connected It^cally, 
a final consonant (whether usually sounded or not) is r^ularly 
sounded, and forms a syllable with the initial vowel sound of 
the next word. This is called in French ' liaison ' = ' linking,' 
' joining.' 

Ex. : Ceet^im petit._^omme [s^e-tA-pa-ti-tam]. 

1. A few of the con«onant8 change their sound in liaiton, thus, final 
sorx=z, d=t, K^k, f=T, e.g., noa^amis [no-za-nu], qaand„oii parte 
[kd'tS-parl] ; the t of el ia ailent, for eismplea see p. 12. 

2. The n of a nasal is carried on, and the nasal vowel losee its nasality 
in part, or even wholly, e.g., un bon^mi [iK-ba-na-mi, or <t-bo-na-mi]. 

NOTi.— The •dodiIb CHTlod i>v«r mllj belonK In pronnnoUtioD to the ioitiml ^llabl* 
at the lollowiu; word, but u aviM aonf osion they will be indlcsieil in Uie tnomiptloD 
with ths pT«»dii4r word, e.g. , lai„homm« [1«e am, more properl; la om). 

19. Elision. The letters a, e, 1, are entirely silent ia 
certain cases : — 

1. The a and e are ailent and replaced by apostrophe in le, la, je, me, 
te, t, de, ne, que (and some of its oompoonda) before initial vowel of 

I., Glxh^Ic 

§§20-21] CAPITALS. 11 

b mute (not, however, je, ce, le, U after a verb) ; ao also i of d before 

Ex.: L'arbre t = lc arbre), I'encre ( = 1a encre), ^ai ( = je ai), qnVt-il 
(=quea-l-il], jiiBqu'k(=jugqaeit), s'il < = il il). 

2. In prose the letter e is silent at the end of all words (except when 
e is itself the oalj vowel in the word), silent in the verbal endings -ta~ 
-eot, ailent within words after a vowel sound, and in the combination 
g« or je [s]. In verbs which have stem g [j], g becomes ge [s] before 
a or o of an ending, to preserve the [3] sound. 

Ex.; me [ry], donnte [done], rat« [rair], place [plas], ai-je [eil], 
table [tabi], sabre [suibr], prendre (praidr], tu paries [ty pari], ili 
parlent [il pari], gaietd [gete], mangeons [mosS], Jean [jQ]. 

NoTL^In ordlnujdinoQna.tbisHoaodlausiullysUflhtedor whoHj omitted Inmcirt 
OMes in which conioDutl^ oombiiuUoiu piodiind by iU wcakeDlng or eliuoD cut bo 
ntdO; prODOonoed, hut begioncn will da well to HjuDd It full;, except in the caoM 
above ipodSed. Ihe treMmeat ol ktao | >1 In poeu? u iMyood Uia •cope of tlila work. 

20. Punctuation. The same puacttuitioD marks are used 
in French as in English. 

1. Their French names are : 

. point. • tnut d'nnion. [ ] crochets. 

; point et virgnle. separation. 

: deiii points. . . . points suspenaifa. * ast^riaqne. 

? point d' interrogation. " " guillemeta. t croix de renvoL 

I point d' exclamation. ( } porentbtee. 

2. They are used as in English, bnt the * tiret ' commonly servM 
to denote a change of interlocutor. 

Ex.! "QuieatlA! dis-je, — Peraoone. — Qnoit personnel — Personne, 

21. Capitals. The principal differences between French and 
English in the use of capital letters {Fr. ' ^ettres majuscules,' 
' capitales ") ma; be seen from the following examples : 

Un Uvre conadien ^rit en tranfois par un Canadien. Toronto, Inndi) 
le 3 Janvier. Je lui oi dit ce que je peusoia. 

I accolade. 

-,9,-.e:i by Google 


[The Bign {i)in nnatrawed syllftblea indicatea * half long. '] 

Tu umeras le Seigneur ton Dien de tout ton ccenr, de tontt 

ty c:mra 1 BEjueir td dj^ d to t5 koeir, da tut 

toD &me, de tonte ta force, et de toute ta pens^; et ton 

t3u a:ia, da tut ta fan, e d tut ta pAlw) a tS 

prochwD comme toi-mSme . . . 

prajl kam twa mGlm. . . 

TJa hcHnme descendait de J^msalem k Jericho; et i1 est 

<£a om dea9:dc d teryzalEm a seriko; a il e 

tamhi parmi des brigands, qui I'ont d^ponill^, ils I'ont chargd 

tSibe parmi de brigd, ki 1 S depuje, i 1 3 Jarje 

de coups, et ila sent partis, en le laiss&nt k moiti^ mort. Et 

d ku, e i s3 parti, d I Icisd a mwatje mair. a 
par hasard nn pr^tre deacendait par ce chemin-Uk, et en le 

par azair A preitre deafiide par ta Jmt la, e d 1 a paas^ outre. De mSme ausai un Invite, arrive 

Twajfl, il a paiBe ntx. ds ine:m oid Cb lavit, ariive 

dana cet endroit, il eat venu, et en le voyant, il a pass^ outre, 

da st aidrwa, il e vny, e 3 1 vwajfl, il a paiae utr. 
Mais nn SamaritAin, qui voyageait, est venu Ik, et en le Toyant, 
me A samaritS, ki vwajasE, e vnj la, e fi 1 TwajS, 
il a ^t^ t^mu de piti^ ; et il s'est approch^ pour bander aea 
U a ate emj d pitje; e il ■ Et apraje pnr bflide la 
blessures, en y versant de I'hnile et du vin ; puia il I'a mia sur 
bkayir, Ha i TErsd da 1 i]il e dy yl ; pqi i 1 a mi ayr 
■a propre WSte pour le conduire k une auberge, et il a pria soin 
■a prapre beit pur la k3]di{i:r a yn aberj, a il a pri awl 
de lui. Et le lendemain il a tir^ deux deniers, et il lea a 

d ll{i. el IdidmE il a tilre d0 dsnje, e i lez a 
donn^ k I'aubergiate, en disant, 'prends soin de lui, et ce que 

dane a 1 abcrsist, 6 diizd, pril gvt d Iqi, e e ka 
tu d^penseraa de plus, moi jft te le rendrai il mon retour.' 
ty depflara d plye, mwa j ta 1 rSidre a m3 rtuir. 

■—Be^mted by kind permiasion of U. Paul Passy, from his "Version 
pc^nlaire de I'Svangile de Lno en tnuucription phoo^lique." 



22L Deflnite Article. 1- The definite article hu tbe 
following forma in the singular ; 



iDOBcaline banning with a consonant. 
I, before e> femiQioe beginning with a consonant. 
before anj noun beginning with a vowel or h mnt*. 

Le p^re, la mire. The father, the mother. 

L'eu&nt (m. or f.), I'homtne. The child, the num. 

2. The definite article muat be repeated before each noon 
to which it refers : 
L'onole et bi tante. The nncle and (the) annt. 

23, Gender, l. All French noims are either mascolin* 
or feminine : 

Le papier (in.), Is pltime (f.). The paper, the pen. 

2, Ifames of male beings are masculine, and names of 
female beinga feminine, as in English. 

24. Case. French nouns have no cose endings. The direct 
object (accuBative) is expressed by verb + noun ; the indirect 
object (dative) by tbe preposition & 4- noun ; the poasessive 
(genitive) by de + noun, and these prepositions mast bo 
repeated before each noun to which they refer : 

La m^ aims renfant. The mother loves the child. 

J'ai la plnme de Robert. I have Robert's pen (the pea of 

Je doime I'ugent & Marie et & I give the money to Maiy and (to) 
Jean. John. 


14 LESSON L [§2S 

25. Agreements, French has the following agreement^ 
and they are usually expressed by change ol fonn : (1) Verb 
and anbjeot, in number and person ; (2) adjeotire and noun, 
in gender and number ; (3) pronoun and antecedent, in gendec 
and number. 


avec [ank], with. 

crayon [Icrejs], m., penoQ, 

encre [dikr], f., ink. 

est [c], is. 

et [eland. 

livre [Uitt], m., book. 

■nontiesMnoi [mitre mwa^ thow 

oft? [n], when t 

pairier[papjo], m., papar. 

plume [plj'm], f., pen. 

tur [fijr], on, upon. 

Ublertabi], 1, table, 

Toici [vwosi], here ii, here u«, 

Toiljl [vwala], there is, there ank 


A. 1. Oik est le lirret 2. Toici le tirre. 3. Oik est la 
table 1 i. VoiA la table, 6. Oft est le papier 1 6. Yoici 1» 
papier. 7. Oil est U plume 1 S. Yoici la ^ume, 9. Oi) est 
I'encre 1 10. Voil& I'encre sur la table. 11. Oit est le crajon 1 
12. Voilit le crayon aveo la plume. 13. Yoici le livre et la 
plume sur la table. 14. Yoil^ le papier avec I'encre sur la 
table. 15. Montrez-moi le papier, la plume et I'encre. 16. 
04 est le crajont 17. Yoici le crayon et la plume. 18. 
Voili le papier et I'encre. 

B. (Oral Exercise — questions to be answered in French by 
the pnpiL) 1. Montrez-moi la table. 2. Montrez-moi le 
papier. 3. Montrez-moi la plume. 4. Montrez-moi I'encre. 
6. 0& est la tablet 6. Oft est le papier I 7. 04 est la 
plume! 8. 04 est I'encrel 9. Montrez-moi le papier, la 
plume et I'encre. Etc., etc. 

C. 1. Here is the pen. 3. "Bxm is the ink. 3. Where is 
the paper t 4. There is the paper with the pen. 6. Here is 
the book. 6. Show me the paper, ,7. Here is the paper on 
the table. 8. Where is the pent 9. The pen is with the ink. 
10. Show me the paper and ink. II. Ilie paper is on the 
table. 12. The ink is with tJie paper. 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 



26; Indefinite Article. It has the foUowing forma, which 
tmut be repeated before each douq to which they refer 1 
fun [i£], before any maocaliae nann. 

'A' or ' fttt = \iiat [yn], before my faminine noun. 
Un livre et nne plume. A book and (a) pen 

Va homme, une tooie. A man, a lohooL 


Hatie [mui], Uuy. 
non [nSJ, no. 
parte [port], 1, door, 
qui ? [Id], who ?, YfhomP 
tableau [tablo], m., pictnre 

ansri [o«d], too, tiao. 
chaise [Jets], i., chair. 
deniire [dcrjeir], behind, 
derant [dsvd], before, in front of. 
fenttre [fansitr], f., window. 
Jean [sd], John. 

J'ai [9 e], I have ; U a [il a], be has ; eUe a [d a], abe has ; 
TOna avec [voz ave], you hare, 


A. 1. Voici une porte et ausai une fenStre. 2. Montrez-md 
la porte. 3. Montrez-moi la fenStre. ' 4. Montrez-moi uoe 
chaise et une table. 5. YoiUi uae chaise devaat la table. 6. 
Voici nne plume sur la table. 7. Voil^ un tableau derrifers la 
porte. 8. Qui a un crayon et une plume t 9. Jean a na 
crayon et l^farie a une plume. 10. Nod, elle a un crayon et il 
a une plume. 11. J'ai un crayon et vous avez un livre. 12. 
Oft est Jean ? 13. Jean est derriire la table. 14. Marie est 
devant la fenStre. 15. Marie a I'encre et elle a la plume 
aussi. 16. Elle a le papier et tous avez I'encre. 17. Montrez- 
moi Tencre et aussi la plume. 18. Voici I'encre avec la plume 
sor la table. 

B. (Oral.) 1. Montrez-moi une porte. 2, Montrez-moi une 
fenfltre. 3. Montrez-moi une table anssL 4. Oit est la chaisel 
e. Oi^ est la tablet 6. Qui a la plume et I'encre? 7. Oii est 
le orayonl 8. Montrez-moi une plume 9. Montrez-raoi nn 
tableau. 10. Oi^ est te tableau! 11. Oil est Mariet 12. 
Oik eet Jeant Etc., etc. 


10 LESSON ITL [§§27-29 

C. I. There is a door uid here is a window. 2. Show me 
a chair and a picture. 3. Here is a chair behind the door, 
4. There is a picture. 6. Who has a pea and a pencil t 6. 
John has a pen and Mar? has a pencil 7. Yon have a pencil 
8. No, I have a pen. 9. Who has the ink! 10. J/Lsuy has 
the ink. 11. She has the ink. 12. Ton have tbe pen and a 
penciL 13. There is a chair in front of the window, 14. 
There is a book on the table. 15. The pea is with the book. 
16. The chair is behind the door. 17. Where is the picturel 
18. The picture is behind the door alsa 


27. Some Possessives. Observe the following, and 
remember that possessive adjectives mnst be repeated before 
each noun to which they refer (for pronunciation, see § 32) : 
Hon (m.) livre et ma (f.J plume. My book and (my) pon. 

Too (m.) livra et ta (L) plameL Thy book and (thy) pen. 

Son (m. ) livre et sa (f. ) plume. His or her book and pen. 

Votre (m.) livre et votre (f. } plums. Your book and (your) pen. 

28. Negation. With verba, 'not' or 'no*-=ne . . . paS, 
with the verb placed between them, ne becoming n' before a 
Towel (§19, 1): 

Je n'ai pas, vous n'avez poa. I have not, yon have not. 

29. Intem^ation. In questions, the personal pronoun 
subject comes after the verb, as in English, and is joined to it 
by a hyphen, or by -t- if the verb ends in a vowel : 

Avez-voQsT; a-t-ilt; est-elleicit Baveyoatt has bet) issbehece! 
antra [otr], other. mals [mc], but 

bofte [bwait], 1, box. nc.pas [na.. ,pa7, not, no. 

Conr [kuir\ L, yard. oul [wi], yes. 

dans [dd]/iii, into. salle [sal], f., room (large> 

tiire [freir], m., brother. sceur [sieir], f., aiater. 

id {M], here. 

I'encre de votre tAit, your brotbei'B Ink. 

,;.!;, C^t)t-)'^le 

§80] LESSON IIL 17 


A. 1. Avea-vou3 voire crayon 1 2, Oui, j'ai mon crayon, et 
Jean a son crayon. 3, Ou eat voire crayon 1 4. Voici mon 
crayOD dana ma boite. 5. 0& est votre fr^re t 6. II est dana 
la cour avec ma sceur. 7. Ou eat Mariel 8. EUe n'est j:as ici. 
9. Elle est dans I'autre salte. 10. A-t-elle la boite et le 
papier! 11. Elle n'a pas le papier, mais elle a la botte. 
12. Ou est Jean! 13. A-t-il le papier et la plume) 14. II a 
le papier mais il n'a pas la plume. 15. Montrez-moi Totra 
frfcre et votre soeur. 16. Voici mon frfere, mais ma aceur 
n'est pas ici. 17. Qui est dans la sallel IS. Votre frfere est 
dans la salle. 19. Qui a I'encre de mon frfere! 20. Jean a 
I'encre de votre frfere. 21. Avez-vous un crayon) 22. J'ai 
un crayon. 

B. (Oral.) 1. Oil eat Jean! 2. Est-il ici! 3. Oil eat 
Marie! 4. Estelle ici! 5. A-t-il son livre et sa plumel 

6. A-telle son papier et son crayon! 7. Avez-vous votre 
livre! 8. Avez-vous le livre de Mariel 9. Avez-vous un 
crayon et uue plume! 10. Ou est ma plume! 11. Oikestmon 
papier! 12. Oi eat votre botte J 13. Oiest-elle! 14. Mon- 
trea-moi une autre boite. 15. Montrez-moi votre frfere et votre 
soeur. 16. Eat-il icil 17. Est-elle ici) Etc., etc. 

C. 1. Has he the paper! 2. He has not the paper. 3. 
Where is my pencil 1 4, Where is your pencil 1 5. There is 
my pencil in the box on the table, 6. Where is your sister! 

7. Is she in the other room! 8. No, she is in the yard. 9. 
Wher« is your brother 1 10. laheherel 11. He is not here. 
12. He is in the yard with your brother. 13. Your sister haa 
her pen. 14. I have her pencil. 15. Show me the pictura 
16. There is the picture behind the door. 17. Where is the 
table! 18. Where U it! 19. The table ia in the room in 
front of the window. 


3D. Some Pronoun Otfjects. 'Him' or 'it' - le (m.), 
and ' her ' or ' it ' = la (f. ), both becoming I' before a vowel or 
h mute (§ 19, 1). They come next before the verb, or b^ore 
voici and TOiUi: 


18 LESSON IT. [§80 

Ob eat la plume I Je I'aL Where is the pen ! I hare it 

0<ieBtlelivre! L« voici. Where is the book T Here it is. 

Oil est Marie T La voilk Where ia Mary T There she is. 

Hon.~7alei ^nd Toilji m darlTed from Toll = '«ee' + lcl = 'htn'utdTOll 
-'•««' + lit- 'then' (liUmly, 'iss here.' 'kc then '), mod, owlzic to tbsir v«rtNd 
lam, gOTcrn word* dlrtotly like tnuuitlve verbi. 


caliier [kaje], m., exercise-book. madAine [madam], f., madam, 

«cole [ekal], t, school. Mrs. (Miss, 

iglise [egliiz], f,, church. mademolaelle [madinwazcl], f., 

<UTe Celc;v], m., f., pupU. malaon [meza], t, bonse. 

la [la], f., her, it. monBleor [masj^], tn., sir, Mr. 

le [ls],in., him, it pardon [pardSJ.l beg your pardon. 


A. I. Montrez-moi la fenStre. 2. La voiI&. 3. OA est moD 
cahier t 4. Le voili aur la table. 5, Avot-voub votre plume, 
mademoiselle 1 6. Non, monsieur, je ne I'ai pas. 7. Marie a 
I'eticre. 8. Non, monsieur, elle ne I'a pas. 9. A-t-il mon 
crayon I 10. II ne I'a pas. 11. Ou eat ma sceurt 12. La 
Toilk dans la coiir derrifere I'&ole. 13, J'ai mon crayon; 
Marie ne I'a pas. 14. La cour est derri^re I'^cole ; la voil^ 

15. Vous avez I'encre. 16. Pardon, madame, je ne I'ai pas. 

17. Montrez-moi votre maison. 18. La voiUi derrii^re I'^glise. 
19. A-t-elle sa plume) 20, Kon, monsieur, elle ne I'a pas. 
21. La voilji sur la chaise. 22. N'avez-voua pas mon cahier I 
23. Non, monsieur, je ne I'ai pas. 

B. (Oral.) 1. Montrez-moi la fenfitre. 2. Oft est votr« 
cahier? 3. Qui a ma plumet 4. Qui a mon crayon) 5. Aves- 
Toual'encrel 6. Qui a votre cahier? 7. Montrez-moi I'^glise) 
8. OCt est le papier de Jean 1 9. A-t-il son papier 1 10. Avei- 
Tous votre encre! 11. N'avez-vous pas le papier aussiT 
12. A-t-ellesa bottel 13. A-t-elleson papierdana saboSte! 
14. A-t-elle sa plume auBSi? 15. Oil est votre frfere Jean) 

16. Oiiest votre sceur Marie? 17. Montrez-moi votre fr6r& 

18. Montrez-moi votre sceur. Etc., etc. 

C. 1. Who has my pen? 2. John has your pen, mr. 
8. John, have you my exercise-book ) 4. No, sir, I haven't 

u, GoO^jlc 

|§31-32} LESSON V. 18 

it ; here it is oD tbe table. 6. Who has yonr exerGise-book 1 
6. Here it is, air. 7. John, where is your pen! 6. Another 
pupil has my pen. 9. The yard is behind the school ; there it 
is. 10. Mary, your pencil is on the chair. 11. I beg yonr 
pardon; I have it here. 12. Have yon your ink, toot 
13. Yes, sir, I have it. 14. Mary has her book, pen and 
exercise-book. 16. Where is Mr. B, 1 16. Here he is. 
17. He is here. 18. Where is Miss B. 1 19. She is here, 
too. 20. There she is vith her brother. 


31, Plural Fonns. l. The plural of a noun or an a4}oo 
tive is r^pilarly formed by adding -5 to the singular : 

Le grand roi, la grande reine. The groat king, the gnat qneen. 

Lbb grands tois, les grandes roiaes. The great kings, the great qDeens. 

2. The plnraJ of the deSnite article le, la, 1' is les : 
Lea Pe] Uvrea, les [lei] enfants. Tbe books, tbe children. 

3. The plural of the personal pronoun le, la, 1' is also tes : 
Je les ai. I have them (books, pens, etc). 

32. The Possessive AtUective. 1. The following Kn 
its forma in fall (for ^reement and repetition, see g 27) : 

Masoulins. Fbhikikb. PLcaAL. 

mon [mS] ma [ma] mes [me], my. 

ton [t5] t« [ta] tel [te], thy, your. 

son [s3] sa [sa] les [Be], hia, her, ita. 

notre [natr] notre [notr] noa [no], our. 

▼otre [vatr] votre [votr] voa [vo], yoor. 

knr [Iceir] lenr [Iceir] leuta [Ice ir], their. 

2. The forma mon, ton, son, are used instead of ma, ta, sa 
before feminines b^j^iiming with a vowel or h mute : 

Uon [mSn] amie (f.). My friend. 

Son [sSn] bistoire (f.). His story. 

Son [son] autre plume (f.]. His other pen. 

3. Since son (sa, ses) means 'bis,' 'her,' or 'its,' it oan 
only be known &om the context which is meant. 


I., Glxh^Ic 

LESSON V. [§32 


porte^rinme [partplTm], m., pan- 
r^E'^ [rc'gl]> t , ruler, 
sous [su], onder. 

■ffoires [aieir], I pL, things, 
aujonrd'hui [osocdip], to-day. 
bon [t^], good, 
conif [kanii], m., penknife. 
il^Te [eU:v], m. or i., pnpiL 

ils ont £ilz 5], they have, ils SMit [il s3], they are. 


A. 1. Mes livres ne sont paB sar U table ; qui les a 1 2. Lea 
voilk sur una <!haise. 3. Qui a nos bons crayoasi i. Le» 
voil& dans ta bo!t« de Marie. 5. OA aoat vos plumes 1 6. Toici 
noa plumes. 7. Ou sont nos affairea 1 8. Voici vos crayons 
et voa plmnea sur la table. 9. Leurs plumes et lea plumes de 
leur a(Bur ne sont paa ioi. 10. Pardon, monsieur, lea voici 
sous la table. 1 1. Lea ^feves n'ont pas leura livres aujourd'hui. 

12. Montrez-moi la r^gle de I'^ive. 13. La voici dans sa 
bolte. 14. Ijeurs canifs sont bons. 15, Noa canifa sont bons 
»U3si. It). Vos port«-plumes ne sont pas bons. 17. Oil est 
mon encre? 18. La voil& avec I'encre de ma scenr. 19. Oil 
est mon autre plume ) 20. £lle est dans ma botte. 

£. (Oral.) 1. Oil sont les affaires de mon frfereT 2. Qui a 
le canif de ma aoeurl 3. Montrez-moi votre ligle. 4. 06 est 
la plume de Manet 6. Oft sont nos livros aujourd'hui I 
6. Avez-vous ran botte I 7. Qui eat danslasallel 8. Qui est 
avec Jean dans la cour ) 9. 0& est la court 10. Oi eat 
Marie? 11. N'eat-elle paa icit 12. Montrez-moi vos bons 
orayons. 13. Avez-vous mon eDcre! 14. Qui a mon autre 
plume t Etc., etc. 

C. 1. Where are your hooka to-day ? 2. They are here. 
3. There they are on the table. 4. Where are your brother's 
things? 5. There is his peu-holder and hia ruler. 6. Have 
you my ink and my other pec" 7. Where is your sister's 
ruler 'i 8. Her ruler is not here to-day. 9. There is her pen- 
knife on the table. 10. Where ia Mary's bookl 11. Her 
brother has her book. 12. And she haa her brother's book. 

13. John's ink is on the table. 14: Their books are not here. 
16. Have you not my peost. 16. No, your pens are in the 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 

l)ox. 17, Where are John's and Mary's bootsi 18. Here 
they are on the table. 19. Where is my sister's mler} 20. I 
haven't it ; there it is oq the table. 

33. Present Indicative of avoir, ' to have.' 

1. AfGrmatiTe. 2. Negative, 

I have, etc I have not, etc, 

fai [je]. jea'aipM [jane pa], 

tu aa [ty a]. tn n'ae pas [ty n a poj. 

il a [il a). il n'a pas [il a a po]. 

UouB Bvons [nu£ avS], nons n'avons paa [no n av5 pa^ 

Tona avei (vuz ave]. vous n'avez paa [vm n ave pa J. 

its out [ilz 5]. ila n'ont pas [il n 5 pa]. 

34. Pronouns in Address. 'Yon' is regularly tous; 
the form tu -• ' thou ' or ' you ' is nsed in familiar address : 
Aves-voiu ma pliune, mondenr T Have yon my pen, sir ? 

Ae-tn ts pluiDS, men eniant I Have yon yonr pen, my child T 

N.B. — Translate ' you ' by Tona in the exercisea, imleBs the nse of tn 
is required by the context. 

35. Contractions. De + le and de + les are always 
contracted into du and des; the remaining forms are not 
contracted, thus, de la, de 1' in full : 

La plume dn [dy] fr^re. The brother's pen. 

Lea plames des [de] Btenrs. The BiBterB* pens. 

Bat : "La plame de I'^Ave, etc 

36. The Partitive Noun and Pronoun. 1. 'Some' or 

'any,' whether expressed or implied before a nonn in English, 
is regularly expressed in French by de + the definite article : 
J'ai de Tencre. I have (some) ink {lit., 'of theink*). 

A-t-i1 des hbret T Has be (any) brothers T 

2, In a general negation the partitive ia expressed bj de 


n n'a pBB de pun. He haa ao bretd. 

n n'a poB d'aiiuB. He hu do friendi. 

3. 'Some' or 'on;' as a pronoon^en, which must be ex- 
pressed in French, even when omitted in English (cl { 80) : 
A-t-il de I'encre ?— H «n a. Haa lie (ouj) ink T— He has (aonw). 

A-t-U one plume T — D en a one. Has he a pen T — He haa ooe. 

ami [ami], m., friend. fiis [gf,]^ ^_ jj^l 

deux [d0], two. ji [ia]_ there, 

encrier [akrie), m., inkstand. n„_ „ne [^_ j ^^ 

enfant [df<l], tn. or t, cbild, boy, 

il n'en a pu, he baa not, he baa not any, be has nooe. 


A. CoDtinue the following throughout the singular and 
plural : 1. J'ai des plumes, tu as dea plumes, etc. 2. Je n'ai 
pas de plumes, etc. 3. J'ai des amis, etc. 4. Je n'ai pas 
d'amis, etc. 5. J'ai de I'encre, etc. 6. Je n'ai pas d'encre, 
etc 7. J'en ai, etc. 8. Je n'en ai pas, etc. 

B. 1. Avez-voua des plumes et des crayons 1 2. Je n'ai pas 
de plumes, mais j'ai dee crayons. 3. MoQ frire a un canif et 
ma sceur en a denx. 4. OA eat I'efibrel 6. La voilA dans 
I'encrier sur la table. 6. Avez-vous du papier ) 7. Jen'enai 
pas. 8. Jean est ]k dans la salle. 9. A-t-il de I'encret 
10. Non, monsienr, it n'a pas d'encre. 11. A-t-il des livreal 
12. Non, monsieur, il n'en a pas.. 13. As-tu du papier, mon 
filsT 14. Je n'en ai pas. 15. Tu as de I'encre et des plumes, 
mon enfant. 16, Pardon, monsieur, je n'en ai pas. 17. Oi 
Bont lea lirres des ^l^ves T 18. Les voilA sur la table. 19. Mes 
stEurs n'ont pas de papier, mais elles ont de I'encre et des 
plumes. 20. Oft est la r^le du frire de Jean? 21. Je I'ai. 
22. Nous avons des liTres et des plumes. 23. £n avez-voust 
24. Nous n'en avoDS pas. 

C. (OraL) 1. Avez-vousuncabiert 2. Oft est votre cahier ! 
3. Oft eat le cahier de Marie 1 4. A-t-elle des crayons aussil 
6. Qui a de Vencre i 6. Oft est son encre 1 7. Oft sont voe 
fr&ne et voa soavrsl S. Atab-vous des crayons t 9. Avons- 

I., GtXH^Ic 

S§37-38] LESSON yar 2S 

nooadupapier «t dea plumea] 10. ATez-roos des amis t 11. 
Oil Gont-ils) 12. Qui n'a pas d'amisi 13, Aa-tu du papier, 
mon enfantl 14. Qui a ton cabier, Mari«I 15. As-ta la r^gla 
de ta Boeur 1 Etc., etc. 

D. 1, Where is your brotber'a bookt 2. Here it is with 
our books. 3. Have you any ink t 4. I have some. 5. Show 
me your ruler. 6. I haven't any, but my sister has one. 
7. Have you a pen-holder 1 8. Yes, sir, I have one, and my 
brother has two. 9. Bhow me your pencila. 10. I haven't 
any, but my friend has some. 11. We have pens. 12. You 
have ink. 13. They have no pens. 14. He has no ink. 
15. His brotber'a friend has no books. 16. Where are their 
books! 17. There are some hooka on the tabla 16. Here 
are our books on the chair. 19. She has brothers and sisters. 
20. Where are thejl 21. They are in the yard. 22. Where 
are the pupils' things ! 23. They are in the other room. 
2t. Where is your ruler, my boy ! 25. Here it is. 26. Have 
you any ink, my sou 1 27. I haven't any. 


37. Present lodicatiTe of auoir {cotuinued). 

1. Interrogative. 2. Negative Interrogative. 

Have I T etc Have I notT etc 

ai-jo t [ei si n'ai-je pas ! [n ei s pa\. 

a».tn T [a ty). n'as-tu pas I [n a ty pa], 

a-t-il ! [at il]. D'a-t-il pas ! [n u t il pa), 

avons-nons T [av3 no]. n'avoDB-nons pas 1 [n avS nu pa], 

avez-vous T [ave vn]. n'avez-vous pas ! [n ave vu pa]. 

ODt-ilsT [3til]. n'oDt-ila pas t [nStilpaj. 

38. InteiTOgatioa. !■ Wheo the subject of an inter- 
rc^tive sentence is a noun, the word order is noun-verb- 

L'homme est-il 1^ I Is the man there ! 

2. This form of question may be combined with an inter- 
Tt^tive word : 

Haia Jean oh sat-il ? Bnt vhere ii John ? 

CombieD de plomeB Jean a-t-il ? How many peni baa John 7 


u, Google 

M LESSON vn. [§38 

3. 'Wliatt* (as direct object or predicate of a verb) — que? 
See &iso § 19, 1 : 
Qo'avez-vonelJi? What b&v« yon th««I 

chez mid [Je mwn], at home. 
dasse [kla i i}, 1 , clMa, closa-room. 
combien de ? [kSbji de], how 

ensemble [989ibl], together. 
mainteiuiit [mEtnS], now. 


poche [pojl, f., pocket. 

qnatre [batr], four. 

Bac [sat], m., bag, satchel 

salle de dasse [sal daklais], t., 

trois [trwa], three. 


A. Continue the following: 1. Ai-je nn canifl, aa-tu un 
canif}, etc 2. Ai-je dea crayons dans one botte?, as-tu dea 
crayons dans une boite T, etc 3, M'ai-je pas nn bon ftini 1, etc. 

B, 1. Avez-Toua votre crayon dans votre bolte? 2. Non, 
monsieur, je I'ai dans mou sac. 3. Combien de livres avez- 
Tousl 4. J'en ai trois ou quatre dans mon sac. 5. N'avez- 
Tous pas un canif dans votre poche! 6. Non, monsieur, je 
n'en ai pas dans ma poche, maia j'en ai un chez mot. 7. Oil 
est votre fr^re maiotenant T 8. II est dans la cour avec les 
autres enfants. 9. Ou sont Marie et sa soeur! 10. Les voil& 
ensemble dans la saUe de classe. 11. Jean n'a-t-il pas mon 
porte-plume et mes plumes dans son sac) 12. Kon, monsieur, 
il les a dans sa poche. 13. Ou sont le mattre et lea ^l^ves 
mainteaantt 14. lis sont dans la salle de classe. 15. Qu'os- 
tu dans ton sac, mon enfanti 16. J'ai deux livres et quatre 
pliiraea dans mon sac. 17. Oil sont les porte-plumes 1 IS, 
En voiUt un sur la table. 

C (Oral.) 1. Oil est le sac de Jean T 2. Montrez-moi votre 
* -papier. 3. Jean, oii est ton canif} 4. N'as-tu pss un canif 
et un porte-plume) 5. Ou sont les enfantel 6. Qu'avez-vous 
dans votre poche 7 7, Combien de frferes avez-voust 8. Votre 
fr^re combien de plumes a-t-iH 9. Qu'a-t-il dans son saci 
10. Od sont mes affaires! 11. Qui est dans la aalle de dasse 
maintenant) 12. Le mattre ciit est-il? 13. Et les ^^ves 
oil soat-ilst 14. Combien de plumes as-tu, mon enfanti 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

§39] LESSON vm. 25 

Id. £t Marie, combien de plumes a^t-elle ? 16. Les ^bves Bont* 
Ub dans la Balle ? 17. Les ^^ves ont-ils leura aSairea dam leura 
sacs ? 18. Avez-vous mes bons crayons ? 19. Qui a mes bona 
Etc., etc. 


D. 1. Where are c 
door. 3. What hai 
knife and a pencil 

bags ? 2. There tbey are behind the 
^ou in your pocket ? 4. I have a 
my pocket 6. Have you pens and 
pencils .' 6. Yea, sir, I have two pens and three pencils. 
7. Where are John and his brother ? 8. They are with the 
other boys in the class-room. 9. Show me your books and 
pens. 10. I haven't any. 11. John is in the other room with 
his brother. 12. How many pencils have they ? 13. Tliey 
have four. 14. Where are your things? 16. Here they are 
in my bag. 16. Have we any pens ? 17. Yes, sir, here 
are some in the box. IS. Where are John and Robert ? 
19. There they are together in the clasB-room. 20. How 
many knives have yon ? 21. I have one and my brother has 
two. 22. Have you any paper ? 23. We haven't any, but 
the master has some. 24. Here is his paper. tS^^ 



Present Indicative of Stre, 'to be.' 

1. Affirmative. 

2. Negative. 




not, ato. 



je ne mis pas 

tu n'es pas 
il n'eat paa 



» [nn sam]. 

nous ue sommes 

pas [nn na Bom pa]. 





VDUB n'^tea pas 
ils ne 80Dt pas 


4. Negative 


Ami! etc 


not? etc. 




lbT [scm no! 
[eit vu]. 



n'est-il paa T 

ne sommeB-noDB ] 


[n E ty pa], 
[n et il pa]. 
[n sit vu pa]. 

u, Gooijlc 

26 LBSSOif Tm. [|40 

40. Observe that 11 and elle mean not only 'he' and 'she,' 
bat also 'it,' since there are but two gendere of nonna in 
French : 

Oil eat la plume T Elle eat icL Where is the penT It la here. 

Oil Mat lea plmnea t Ellea aont ieL Where ore the poia T They are 

nuUde [maUdl ill, dok. 

nous [ntij, ae. 

UbleAU noir [tahlo nwair], m., 

k prtseut [a prezfi], at pieeent 

k [a], to, at, in. 

difficile [diGsii], difficult, 
facile [fasil], easy. 
le9on [1m5], f., Ibsmd. 


A. Continne the following: 1. Je suis k I'dcole, tn es, etc. 
2. Je Buia malade aujourd'hui, tu es, etc 3. Je ne suis paa 
molade aujourd'hui, etc 4, Suis-je malade^ etc 6. Me 
suis-je pas malade !, etc 

£. 1. Nons sommes k I'^cole aujourd'hui, et nos freres sont 
avec nous. 2. Nous sommes k present aveo lea antrea ^^vea 
dans ta salle de classe, et le mattre est ici aussL 3. Mous 
avons nos affaires. 4. Mos canifs sont dans nos poches. 5. 
Nos plumes et nos porte-piumes sont dans nos bottes. 6. Mos 
livrea sont dans noa sacs. 7. L'encre est dans les encriers. 8. 
La lefon est Bur le tableau noir. 9. Nous avons des cahiers, 
et les autres ^l&ves en ont ausai. 10. La le^on commence. 

11. La lefon n'eat paa difficile. 12. Elle est facile. 

C. (Oral) 1. Oil etes-vons k pr^ntT 2. OA suis-je k 
pr^sontt 3. Oi sommea-nous? 4. Qui est avec nousT 5. Oft 
sont les afiaires des divest 6. Le mattre n'est-il pas avec les 
^l^ves I 7. Oik sont les chaises et les tables ? 8. N'avez-voua 
pas vos livrest 9. Montrez-moi les regies et lea porte-plumea. 
10. Qui est devant le tableau noirl II. Oil est la le;oa1 

12. Avez-vous des cahierst 13. La 10900 commence-t-elle 1 
14. Qui commence la ]e9on1 15, Ta leQon eatelle facilel 
16. Tea lemons sont.elleB difficiles, mon enfantt Etc., etc 

J>. I. Our brothers are not in the class-room. 2. Thejr are 
in the yard with the other pupils. 3. The lesson is not on 
the Uack-board. 4. Are fou not in our olassl 6. Yea, I am 

-.u, GtJO^Ic 




in your class, 6. Have you your things in your baga ! 7. 
So, our things ara on the table. S. Have you exercise-booksf 
9, Yes, and our brothers have some too. 10. Have you n& 
paper f 11. No, sir, I h&ve nona 12. Are the pencils heret 
13. Yes, here they are oa the table. 14. What have you io 
TOur bags! 15. We have paper, exercise- books and pen- 
holdera. 16. Have you no ink? 17. Yes, I have some. 18. 
How many books have you ? 19. I have four in my bag, and 
three at home. 20. The lesson is easy to-day ; it is easy. 21. 
John's lessons are di£Scult. 22. Are your lessons difficult, 
John) 23. Yes, sir, they are difficult 

41. The Regular Conjugations. French verbs an 
conveniently divided, according to the infinitive endings -CT, 
-ir, -re, into three conjugations ; 



Donntr [done], togive. Finirffiiiiir], tofinicih. Teodre [vaidr], tosell. 

Like these are conjugated all regular verbs with corres- 
ponding infinitive endings. 

42. Present IndicatiTe of donner, 'to give.' 

1. Affirmative. 
I give, am giving, eto. 
]e donn e [sa dan], 
ta donn ea [ty dDo]. 
il donn e [il dsii]. 
Bona donn ona [nu donS). 
VouB donn er [vn dans], 
ils doaa eat [il dan]. 
3. Interrogative. 
Amlgivingl, dolgive!, etc 
donn^jeT [donei j]. 

donnes-tn I [dan ty]. 
domie-t-ilT [dan t il]. 

donnonB-tMMiB ! [danS nu]. 
donnez-Toua ? [dane vu]. 
donnent-ibT [dontil]. 

2. Negative, 
I do not give, am not giving, etc 
JB ne donn e pas [k no dan pa], 
tn no donn es pa« [ty no dan pa], 
il ne donn e paa [il ne dan pa]. 
DouB ne donn ons pas (nu na dan3 po^ 
vous ne donn ez pea [vu no dane po]. 
iU ne donn cnt pas [il n9 dan pa]. 
4. Negative Interrogative. 
Amlnot giving?, dolnotgive?, etc 
no donn^-jepasT [na danEi s poj. 

ne donnes'tn paaT [db dan ty pa] 
ne donna-t-il pas T [ns dan t il pa], 
ne donnona-nouBpasT [na donS na pa] 
ne donnez-vona pas T [ne done vn pal 
He donneiit-ils pas T [na daot il po^ 

,;.!;, Google 

£8 LESSON IZ. [^^43-44 

43. InteiTOg:atioil. By prefixing the words est<ce que ?, 
Bterally, 'U it that!', any statement may be turned into a 
question : 

Tons BveE men oanil Ton have my penknifeL 

£st-ceque voqb avez mon oanift Have yoa ray penknife t 

Hon.— The tint rinamlu IntemgMlTa lorra (t.g., donni-JeT nilf-Jtr Me.) H 
«Talded in nwct vn-tn, nod muit be itoMkI la Knne, br nnng ' ot-n qnaT' In tbt 

■«x*rdKfl, lue 'eit-c«qiHF' evoywhenia iDtcm^fttiou with ttaeflrM ilTiBiiUrt 

44. The Demonstrative Adjective. 1. The folJowing 
«re its fomiB, and they mast be repeated before each noun to 
which they refer : 

I ce [m], before a imuculine begimimg with a consooBot. 
'Tbia,' 'tlut*=-|cet[sGt], before am. begiDiijng with a Towel or b mnte. 

|,cette [act], before any feminiae. ., 
'Then,* ' those ' = ces [se], before any pluraLv- 

2. To distingoish 'this* from 'that,* or for emphasis, add 
-d ( ■■ ici) and -1^ respectively to the noun : 
■Ce livre, cet homme, cette amie. This (or that) book, man, friend. 
■Ce crayoD-ci et cea plumea-UL This pencil and those pens. 


«ller [ale], to go. 
BiriTer [arive], to arrive, 
chetnin ((wnS], m., road, way. 
commencer [kamdae], to begin. 
coatinner [kStinqe], tocontinne. 
'Pouter [eknte], to listen to, hear, 
en [d], in, on. 

< entrer [d tre] dans, to en ter, go into. 
Ustoirc [iBtwair], f., story. 

[raar|e], to much, walk, 
ponr [pur], for, in order to. 
raconter [rakSte], to relate, telL 

MMT [ramaae], to pick i% 


[rfikStre], to m> 
Robert [robeir], RoberU 
rente [rut], f., way. 
me [ty], f., street 

nous Ttrid [no vwad], here we are. en route [S rut], on the way, 

A. Je ramoBse mes aSaires pour aller k 1'^cole. Yoici mei 
'ti^res, mon cahier, mes plumes, ma r^gle, mon crayon. Les 
-TDiU maintenant dans mon sac. Maiutenant je suis en route 


§44] LESSON IZ. 29 

! je rencontre mon uni Robert. 
Noua contiDuona notre chemin, 
II rocoate una histoire. Nons arrivoos k la porte de I'^le. 
Nous eatrooa dans I'^cole. Nona voici daoa la classe. Lei ' 
autres ^Ifevea arrivent auasi, et le mattre commence Icb le^us. 
Ce mattre donne dea le^ima facilea. Cette lefOD n'eet pas 
difficila Cea ^16ves-ci ^conient. Ces dive^-U n'^coutent pas. 

B. Continue the following : 1. Je donne dn papier & I'^^ve, 
flto. 2. Eat-ce que j'arrive k I'^cole], etc 3. Je no ramaase 
pa3iiiesafFaireB,tunenimassespastesaffaiTeB,etc. 4. Est-ce 
que je ne dotine pas un canif k Bobert?, etc. 

C. (Oial.) 1. Oil allons-nous ? 2. Qui ramaBse nos afEaires ? 
3. Oi sont nos cahiers 1 4. Avez-vous tos lirres 1 5. Est^M 
que Tous avez votre crayon auasi 1 6. Ou Bommea-nous mainte- 
nant) 7. Qui est en route pour I'^cole) 8. Qui rencontrons- 
nona? 9. Oil est-ce que nouB le rencontronal 10. Qui eat 
KobertT 11. Est-ce que Robert est en route pour l'6cole 
aussil 12. Qui raconM uoe histoire t 13. Qui arrive k la 
porte de I'dcolel 14. Oil entrons-nous t IB. Oil sommes- 
nons maintenantT 16. Qui est dans la classe! 17. £at-ce 
que lea autres ^l^ves sont dans la classe ausail 18. Qui 
oommence lea lefona! 19. Ce mattre donne-t-il dea lefons 
fociles) 20. Cea le^ona sont«lle8 focUes! 21. Get abv»-\k 
^oonte-t-ilf Etc, etc. 

D. 1. Where are you going! 2. Are you going to schooH 
3. We are going to school. 4. I am collecting my things to 
go to school. 5. My things are in my bag now. 6. We meet 
our friends in the street. 7. We continue oar way. 8. We 
arrive at the door of the school. 9. The other pupils arrive 
also. 10. They enter the school. 11. We enter the school 
too. 12. The master and the pupila are in the claas-room. 
13. He begins the lesson. 14. Is he beginning the lesson 
now! 15. He continues the lesson. 16. This lesson is nut 
eaay. 17. It is diiScult. 18. These lessons are difficult. 
19. The master tells a story. 20. The pupils listen. 21. Are 
you listening! 22. Tes, sir, I am listening now. 23. Robert, 
are you listeoingl 2i. Yes, sir. 25. Are those pnpila 


o,,r.=^i by Google 



45. Plural Forms. Note the following exceptions to tba 
rule (§ 31) that the plural of nouns and adjoctivoa is formed 
b; adding -s to the singular : 

1. NonnB in -8, -x, -z, and adjectiveB in -s, -x, remain nnchuiged in 
the plural, t.g , bras, bras, ann(s) ; voix, voix, voice(a) ; nez, nes, 
QOBefs] ; bas, baa, low ; vieux, vieux, old. 

2. Nouns and adjectives in -au, nouns in -eu, and a few nouns in -OOi 
«dd -X instead of -a, e.g., coutean, couleanx, knife, knives; bean, 
beaux, fine ; jen, jeux, gamefs) ; bijou, bijoux, jewel{B} ; caillon, 
cailloux, pebble^s), and a few rarer nouns in -on. 

3. Nouns, and the commoner adjectives, in -al change -«1 to -an and 
add -X (as above), e.g., giniral, g^n^raux, general(g) ; rival, rivaux, 
lival(B], except bal, bals, ball(s), and a few rarer nouns. 

4. Oeil, Tcnx, eye(s) ; del, deux, aky, skies, heavents). 

46. Contractioas. The forms k + lc and k + les are 
always contracted into au and aux respectively ; the remain- 
ing forms are not contracted, thus, 4 la, k 1' in full : 

<Je parle au [o] fr6re. I speak to the brother. 

Aux [o] Boeurs, aux [oz] hommes. To the sisters, to the men. 
But : Je parle k la scenr, k I'honiine. 

47. Use oiil y a. !■ 'There is' and 'there are' are not 
only translated by T0il4, but also by il y a : 

Voilk dea plumes sur la. table. There are some pens on the table. 

Jl 7 a [il j a] des plumes sur la table. There are some pens on the table. 

2. Obeerve, however, that T0il4 answers the question 
'where is)', 'where areT, and makes a specific statement 
about an object to which attention is directed by pointing or 
the like, while il y a does not answer the question 'where . 
ie r, ' where are ! ', and makes a general statement. 

3. II y a governs nouns just like other transitive verbs : 
Je donne des plumes h Marie. I give (some) pens to Mary. 

U y a des plumes BUT la table. There ore (some) pens on the tabla 

,;.!;, GtJO^IC 


aimer [cms], to lore, like. 
bettn [bo], fine, hamlBoine. 
beauconp [bokn], much, veiy much. 
bUnc [bia], wbiU). 
bleu [bl0], blue. 

bord[boir],m., edge, shore, border. 
C«illon [kaju], m., pebble, stone, 
cheval [Jovol], m., horse. 
conrkgeux [karajil], brave, 
creuser [kr^ze], to dig. 
e«i[o], f., water. 
fot^rnenx [tugfl], Epidted, fiery, 
giaiad [seneral], m., general 
8T>1><1 [gri)]< gr^At, large, talL 
joner [swe], to play. 

It cheral, on horaebock. chez 

1«C [lak], m., lake. 
I'un [1 a], the one, one. 
nKturel {natyrel], natural, 
nolr [nwair], black. 
oeil, yenx [rej, j^], m,, eye, eyes. 
pM-ce que [pars ke], because, 
parler [parle], to apeak, talk, 
ponrquot? [purkwa], why? 
qui [U], indecL, who, mhom, 

repiiMnter [repreiflte], to repre- 

uble [sa;bl], m., sand. 
Bi [Si], so. 
Tieiix [Tj^], oW. 
BOOM, at home, at our honaCb 


^. n y a deux tableanz chei nous. Nous les aimons beau- 
coup, parce iju'ils sont si naturels. L'on repr^sentA quatr« 
enfante qui jouent au bord du lac. L'eau du lac est blone (f.), 
et les yeux dea enfants sont bleus aassi. II y en a deux qui 
ntnaasent des cailloux, et lea deux autres creusent dans le 
sable. L'autre tableau repr^ente deux grands g6ninnx k 
cheval. Us sont sur deux beaux chevanx. L'un des chevaux 
est blanc et l'autre est noir. Lea g^n^raux sont oourageux eb 
leurs chevaux sont beaux et fougueux. 

£. Continue the following : 1. Je parle aux g^ti^ux, etc. 
2. Je parle k I'enfant, etc 3. Estate que je ramaese des 
cailloux), etc. 4. II y a des plumes daaa ma botte, dans ta 
botte, etc 6. II n'y en a pas dans ma botte, ta botte, etc 
6. Ides yeux sont bleus, tes yeux. etc 7. J'ai deux beaux 
chevaux, etc. 6. J'aime ces vieux tableaux, etc 

C. (Oral.) 1. Oti sont les tableaux t 2. Eat-ce que tous les 
atmezl 3. Fonrquoi est^e que toos les aimez) 4. Y a-t-il 
des tableaux dana cette salle t 6. Montrez-moi ces tableaux. 
6. Qui jouet 7. Oik est-ce qu'ils jouentt 8. Les yenx dea 
s sout-ils bloos ou ooirst 0. Yoa yeux sont-ila noiraf 

u, Gooijlc 

8S LESSON XL [§§4)8-49 

10. Qui raiurase dee caillouxt 11. Que ramasaez-vous ) 12. 
Qui creuse dans le sable ? 13. Oil sont les deux gronda 
g^n^rauxl 14. Les chevaux des g^n^raux sont-ils bluics ou 
noirsi 15. Vos frd^res sont-ila courageux} 16. A qni eetK^ 

auejeparlel 17, A qui eat-ce que vous parlez ? 18. Y a-t-il 
ea plumes dans votre bottef 19. Combiende tableaux y a-til 
cheznousi 20. Aimei-vous ces vieux tableaux ) Eta, etc. 

D. 1. There are two &De pictures in our class-room. 2. The 
pupils like them. 3. These pictures are natural and beautifuL 
4. In this picture there are four children. 5. They are play- 
ing, 6. The children's eyes are blue. 7. Three of the children 
are picking up pebbles on the shore of the lake. 8. The 
other child is digging in the sand. 9. He is talking to the 
other children. 10. There is the other picture. 11. In that 
picture there are two generals. 12. Their horses are fine 
and spirited. 13. The generals are brave. 14. I like these 
pictures very much. 15. The master is relating the story of 
the generals to the pupils. 16. There is a pupil who is not 
listening. 17. Show me the pupil who is not listening. 
18. I am listening, because I like this st«iy. 19. Now, show 
me the fine pictures. 20. There they are. 


48. An Indefinite Pronoun. 1. 'One,* 'some one,' 'we,' 
'you,' 'they,' 'people,' used indefinitely, are represented in 
French by on, with the verb always in the singular: 

On [3] parle de Jean. We (you, they, etc. ) speak of John. 

2. When following a verb with a final vowel, on is joined 
to it by -t- (cf. §29): 

Par oil commence-t-on f Where do we [etc. ) begin t 

3. An on* construction often corresponds to an English 
passive, especially when the agent is not mentioned : 
Ensuite on apporte le potage. Next the sonp is brought. 

49. InteiTOgatiOD. Observe the frequently used inter- 
rogatire phrase ' qu'eSt-Ce que ? ' = ' what ) ' which is made 
np of que ? <§ 88, 3) + est-ce que ? (§ 43) : 

Ql^a-t-ill or Qi^ett-ce qo'U s7 What has hel 

c,6.ire:i by Google 



50. Present Indicative of fain, ' to do," make ' (img.). 

I do, am doing, oto. We do, sre doing, etc 

je foii !i» fe]. nous faisoiu [on taeS]. 

taMB[tyfc]. TOBBfaiteB [vofct). 
il fut [il fe]. iU fcnt [il fB). 

d'abwd [d aboir], flnt (of aU). 
^iparter [ftpsrte], to bring. 

MSiCtte [tuJEt], f., plate. 
Wentfit [bjJlo], soon. 
bibUoth^iW [bibUsuk], f., li- 

boane [ban], f., maid, Bemut. 
cafi [kafe], m., coffee. 
chapoin rjapo], m., hat. 
coatean [kuto], m., knife. 
cniller [kyjeir], 1, spoon. 
d«Mert [deec'.r], m., dessert. 
enmite [dBt{it], then, next. 
eaCAlier [eskalje], m., ataira. 
(onrcbette [furjet], L, fork, 
fmit [fnti], m., frnit. 
fonrnai [sumol], m« newspaper. 
I^nme [l^tym], m., vegetable. 
Ure [Uir], to read. 
BMOKer [mOse], to eat. 

CO baut [d o], up stuTH. 

[momfi], m., 
monter [mSte], to go up. 
nappe [nap], f,, table-cloth. 
dter [ote], to take oC 
place [plas], L, place. 
pot«ee[patais], m., Hmp. 
prend [prd], 3 sg. prea. ind. prm- 

puis [pqi], then, afterwards, 
remporter [rdporte], to take away, 
repaa [repo], m., meal, repast, 
retonnier [raturae], to return, go 

back i de retour, hock. 
salle k manger [sal a mOje], t, 

sonner [aone], to ring. 
vestibule [vcttibyl], m., ball, oo- 

en baa [S ha], down atain. 

A. Noos Toici de retour de I'^ole. Nons entrons dans la 
maisoa. Dajis le vestibule noua fitoue noe chapeaux. Eoauite 
&OUS montong I'escalier. Nous aommes en haut nuiintenant, 
et uoos entrona dans la bibliothfeque un moment pour lire les 
joumaux. BientOt on aonne, et nous allons en bas. Nona 
▼oioi dans la salle k manger. La nappe est sur la table. Iiea 
uaiettea, les cuillera, les couteaux et les fourchettes sont k lenr 
l^ace. On commence le repaa. La bonne apporte le potage^ 
Fnia, elle apporte la vi&nde et les l^gumee. On mange, on 

u, Gooijlc 

84 LK8S0N XL [§60 

nocmte dea lustt^ras. Ia bonne remporte lea uriettea. Ao 
deuert OD mange da frnit et on prend du cati. 

B. Continue the following : 1, J'dte mon chapeati) tn 6tea 
ton ohftpean, etc 2. Ja ne suis paa en baut, etc 3. Qn'eet-ce 
que je {aiBf, etc 4. Estrce qne je ne sonne p»f, etc S, Je 
ne monte paa I'escalier, etc. 6. Ou apporta mon repos, ton 
repas, etc. 7. £at-ce qu'oii n'apporte pae mon repaal, ton 
repaal, eta 8. H n'y a paa de vi&nde but mon aasietto, toai 
Msiette, etc 

C. (OraL) 1. OA est-ce qne Bona allonsmaintenaDtt 2. Qne 
faiaons-nons dans le vestibule 1 3, Qu'est-ce que voub faites 
dans le vestibule ? 4. Enauite que faites-vous ? 5. Pourqu<ri 
est-ce que j'entre dans la biblioth^uel 6. La bibliothiique 
eat-elle en haut on en baa I 7. OA est la aalle h. manger t 
8. Qui Sonne! 9. Est-ce que la bonne sonne pour le repast 

10. Qu'est-ce qn'il y a sur la table dans la salle i mangert 

11. Oil soat les conteauz et lea fourchettest 12. Lee cniUers 
■ont-elles sur la tablet 13. Qu'est-ce qu'on apporte d'abord t 
14. Elnauite, qo'est-ce qu'on apporte 1 15. Qu'eatrce qn'on fait 
au repast 16. Raconte-t^on dea biatoires aussi t 17. Qui 
apporte le desaertt 18. Qu'est-ce qu'on mange au dessert t 
Etc., etc 

il. 1. I am returning home now. 2. I enter the bouse. 
3. First, I take off mj hat in the hall. 4. You take off your 
hat R. I meet my brother in the halL 6. We go into the 
library for a moment to read the newspapers. 7. Somebody 
rings. 8. We listen. 9. We are up stairs. 10. The dining- 
room ia down stairs. 11. There is a cloth on the table in the 
dining-room. 12. There are plates, spoons, knives and forks 
m the table also. 13. First, the soup is brought. 14. Tba 
soup is eaten, and the maid brings the meat. 16. There is no 
fruit on the table now. 16. The maid brings it at (the) 
dessert. 17. People take coffee at dessert. 18. Then th^ 
go up stairs. 19. Then they go into the library. 20. What 
am I doing nowt 21. What ore ;oa doing! 23. We are 
going into the Ubraiy, 



S§61-A8J LESSON XIL 8fi 


51. Feminine of Adjectives. It is p^nkriy formed by 

adding -e to the mascnline singular, but adjectiTee ending in 

-e remain unchanged. 

Qraud, m., grande, f., tall ; facile, m. or f., euy. 

52. Irrei^larities. Change of stem takes place in aeg- 
tain adjectives on adding -e. The following list showe the 
commoner tjpee ; 

M. F. M. F. 

•atif, BOtJTe, activfl. omel, cmelle, [iniQL 

benrenx, hanretise, happ^. gentil, g^iUUe, mob. 

flattanr, flatteuse, flatter- ancien, aaoienne, aaoknt. 

ing. gi^oe, grosse, big. 

blant, blaucbe, white. mvet, mnette, dmiiK 

long, loDgne, long. ober, chbre, dear, 

faux, fansie, false. KC, Biche, di;. 

Obaerre also : m. beau or bel, f. belle, fine ) m. nonvean or nonTtd, 

I Douvelle, new j m, vieui or vieil, f^ vieille, old, with two fomiB for 

the masculine, one of which gives the feminine. The masciilme forms 

ib -1 are nsed before a vowel or h mote : 

Le bel arbre, le be) homme. The fine tree, the handiome man. 

Bnt: L'arbre est beau; le beau livre; lea beaux arbrea; les orbres 

Bont beanx. 

53. Position. !■ An attribntive adjective more usually 
follows its noun : 

Uu homme riche, ime pomme milre. A rich man, a ripe apple. 

2. Adjectives from proper nouns, adjectives of physioal 
quality, participles as adjectives, almost always follow : 

La langoe anglaise. The English language. 

Ehi caii cband, une lampe coss^. Hot coffee, a broken lamp. 

3. The following of very common occurrence nearly always 

Bon, good, mauvaia, bad ; beau, flne, handsome, joll, pretty, Tilaio, 
ugly ; jenne, young, vieux, old ; grand, tall, great, gnn, big, peti^ 
«mfdl I long, long, court, abort. 

u, Gooijlc 


54. InterroRative A^Jectire. 'WhichT', 'whatr, *whrt 
^)i'->m. quel?, t. quelle?, m. pi. quels?, t. pL quelles? 

Qnel [kel] livre T Whioh (what) book T 

QneUe [kel] plmne r Which (what) pen ? 

Quelle belle vue 1 Qnela h4ioB I What a flue view 1 Wliat heroea ! 

55- 'There,' 'in that plaoe'^y. It stands for a plaoa 
already referred to, is pat before tb« verb like a pronoim 
object, and is lesa emphatic than Ui " f there ' : 
B^ilLI'JocdeT DyLOeot. laheMBohoolT HDiB(thBr«J 


at;>w«i [bj«>I. m., Iamb. 

fnlmmi [anitnalj, m. , animal, beast. 

•rtw[arbr], m., tree, 

■wan, belle [bo, belL fine, haiid- 

Uanc, Uuche [bM, biai0, whita. 
bob [bwa], m., wood(a). 
Campagne [kSpaji], f., ooimtiy. 
cliainp [ja], m., field, 
chemin de fer [Jam! da fsir], m., 

comme [kam], how t 
comnwat [kam<1), howT 
cotuin^e) [knzf, knzin], coiuin. 
fer [fe.r].iil., iron, 
flenr [fioir], t, flower. 
gare(g«tr], f., station. 
benrenx -m [<bc0, <bc0is], hajmy 

k Ut campaffBC, in the eotrntr}*. 

joU [soli], pretty. 

onde [Sikl], m., imols, 

par [par], by. 

parent* [pard], m. pL, nlativea. 

paseer [paae], to pass. 

petit [pati], enuUL 

regarder [regarde], to look HL 

aemaine [aemezn], f., week. 

taste [t4l:t],f., Bunt 

tout [tu], all, everything. 

traTailler [travaje], ta work. 

trouTer [trove], to find. 

Tache [vaf]. t, cow. 

Tiaiter [vizite], to viait. 

Tite [vit], quickly. 

TOir [vwair], to see. 

Toitnre [vwaty^r], f.. carriige. 

f [i], there, in that place. 

de nona voir, to see na. 
■ ■, en flenrs, in flower, blooming. 

alter j , ' > to ^ to see, go and 

A. Nona oUons visiter aoa parents k la campagne. Nons j 
allons par le chemin de fer. Nons arrivons k la petite gaT& 
Nous y troavoDs ma tante et une de mes cousines avec leur 
voiture. Comme nous sommea heurenx de les voirl Mon 
onde et mes cousins n'y sent pas, paroe qu'ils tnrailleat d&mi 

u, C^oo^jlc 

S§54-65] LESSON zn. 87 

ks ohamps. Nona montons d&ns la Toitnre, et notu voil^ en 
route. Comme la campagne est belle] Tout est en flean, 
lea arbrea et lea champs. Nous paasons devant les beaux 
champs et les jolies maisons blanches. Lea chevanz marchent 
Tit«, et Doua arrivons bientAt chez nos parents. Nous y 
paasons deux ou trois semaines. ITous allona dans les bois 
et les champs. Nous y trouvons des fleura et des fruits. 
Nous allons regarder les animauz, les belles Taches et lea 
joUs agoeaux. 

B. Continue the following: 1. Quelle plume est-ce qne je 
donne k I'enfant \ etc 2. Kst-oe que j'ai des fleurs blanches ^ 
etc. 3. Mes Senrs sont belles et blanches, t«B fleurs, etc. 4. 
Je ne suis pas heureuse, etc. fi. Je suis k la campagne ; j'7 
snis, etc 6. J'ai un bel arbre devant ma maieon, tu as un 
bel arbre derant ta maison, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. 0& sont Toa parents T 2. Comment allons-ooufl 
h, la campagne } 3. Comment y allons-noua 1 4. La gare est- 
elle grsnde ou petite ) 5. Qui trouve-t-on k la gare ? 6. Notr« 
tanteest-elle beureuae de nous voir t 7. Que fait votre oncle 1 

8. Pourquoi tob cousins ne aont-ila pas k la gare) 9. Aimee- 
Tona la campagnet 10. Fonn^oi) 11. Les chevauz de 
votre oncle sont-ils beaux 1 12. Et sa maison est-elle belief 

13. Combien de semainea passez-vous chez vos parental 

14. Aimez-Toas lea fleura blanchea ! 15. Quellea fleun 
aimez-voua? 16. fetea-vous heureuse d'aller voir votre 
tante, mademoiselle ? 17. Oil trouve-t-on ces belles fieurs ? 
18. Ob sont les belles vaches et les jolis agneaux ? 19. Quels 
animaux y Srt-il dans lea champs ? Etc., etc 

D. \. 1 have an uncle and aunt in the country. 2. They 
have a fine house and a carriage. 3. There is my uncle's house. 
4. We are going to visit them. 6. We are going (y) by (the) 
railway. 6. We find my uncle and cousina at the station. 
7. My aunt is not there. 8. How beautiful the coontiy is 1 

9. The flowers in (de) the flelds are so pretty 1 10. We go to see 
the animals la the fields. 11. There are some cows and 
some white lambs in the fields. 12. We are going to pass 
two or three weeks with (chez) our relatives. 13. They are 
happy to see us. 14. We are happy to see them too. 15. I 
like my aunt and uncle. 16. Which uncle are you going to 
risit now ? 17. What ate you going to do in the countafy ? 

u, Gooijlc 

8S LESSON xnx [§§56-58 

LESSON xin. 

561 Present lodlcatiTe of donner, flnir, vendre. 

I giTBi un giving, I fimah, am finishing, I Bell, am selling, 

eta. etc etc. 

doon t [dan]. fini a [fini]. vend g [vS]. 

donn ei [dan]. fini a [fini]. vend a [vO]. 

donn e [dan]. fini t [fini]. Tend* [vS]. 

donn Ota [dan3]. finiaa ona [SnisS]. vend ona [vfldS]. 

donn ez [done]. finiaa ez [finise]. vend ez [Wide], 

donn ent [dsn]. finiaa ent ^finis]. vend snt [vfiid]. 

Kna— ni« prooomu Je, ta. il, eM.. Ii*v« Ixeo omltUd in thli pmdigm Mid la 
HOW otIiBra to eoooomln qww In piintlDK. Tbtf (hould b* lupplisd in iMroiDC m 
noitinff tha p&ndignu, 

57. The General NoIUL A noun used in a general aenae 
takea the definite article in French, though not commonly in 

L'homme eat morteL Man is mortal. 

Lea honunea aont morteu. Men are mortal. 

Le miel est trte doui. Hone; ia very sweet. 

Le cheval eat nn animal utile. The horse ia a useful animaL 

58. Tout 'Al!,' 'the whole,' * every,* = tOUt, with the 
foUoving format vhioh precede the article, when it is present : 
m. a., tmt [tn]. f. a., taiite[tut]. m. pL, toaa[tn]. f. pL, t(Hitea[tiit]. 

Tont homme, tonte femme. Every man, eveiy woman. 

Tona lea hommes. All the men. 

Tonte la jonia^ The whole day. 

aoAt [a], n., Aagaat. 
Utir [batiir], to bnild. 
bon, bonne [bS, bon], good, 
ceriae [sariiz], t, oheny. 
oeriaier [sari^e], m., oheny-tiMk 

eapice [Espea], 1, apeoles, kind, 
fruitier [friptje], fruit (adj.). 
ROflt [gn], m., taate. 
grimper [gripe], to dimb. 
ffl^joritA [magaritol 1, niajori^. 


^58] LKSfiOK XUL 

qwmd [kfi], when, 
rouge [raia], red. 
•eptembre [B^tfl I br], m., 8ept«»> 

■onrent [mva], oft«i. 
Tendre [vaidr], to wIL 
vei^er [vErge], m., oroh«rd. 
Tert[veir], groon. 
TillelvUlt, town,oi^. 

nutrduuid [m«r/fi], n., merchuit. 
moia [mwa], m., moaith. 
atbi [mytr], ripe. 
mftrir [mjriir], to ripen, 
poire [pmir], 1, pear. 
poiricr [pwarje], m., pe«r-ttee. 
pomme [pam], f., apple, 
pommier [pamja], m., apple-tree, 
prune [pryii], f., plum. 
pnmier [prynje], m., plnin-tree. 

k la maison, at home, pour en avoir, to get lome. en (dans) quel 
niois i, in what month ? au moia d'oofit, in the month of AugniL 


A. Chez notre oncle k la campagne il y a un vei^«r. Dam 
ee verger U y a des arbres fruitiers. La majority dea arbrai 
mut des pommiers, et ils donnent des pommes de toute esp^ce. 
II 7 en a qui mfkrisseat au mois d'ao&t, et il y en a qui 
mflrissent au moia de eeptembre. On ne mange paa toutes lea 
pommes k la maison. On ea vend beaucoup aux marchands 
des tiUbb. H y a aussi daua le verger dea cerisiers, dea 
pruniera et des poiriers. Xies cerises aont rouges et out un 
Don goflt quand elles soat mQres. Les prunes et lea poires 
■out bonnes aussL Nona les aimons beaucoup, ec souveut 
BOUB grimpons dans lea arbrea pour en avoir, 

S. Contitme the following: 1. Je vends des pommes aax 
marchands, etc 2. Eat-ce que je vends des pommea aux 
marchands 1, etc 3. Je ne vends pas de pommea, etc 4. Je 
finis mes lemons, tn finis tes le9ons, etc 5. Est-ce que je b&tia 
une maiaon}, etc. 6. Je ne b&tis pas nne maiaon, etc 7. 
J'aime lea pommes, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. OA est le verger de votre onclet 2. Quela 
arbrea y a-t-il dans son vei^rl 3. Quel fruit les pommiera 
donnent-ils 1 # 4. Quel fruit est-ce que le prunier donne t 
6. Ces pommes aont-elles mflres ou veriest 6. Les pommes 
<mt«llea un bon go&t quand elles sont vertest 7, En quel 
moia les prunes mflrissent-elles 1 8. A. qui est-ce qu'on vend 
lea ceriaeal 9. En quel mois est-ce que votre oacle vend sea 
* 10. Ke veodez-Toua pas tontei voa poirasl IL 

u, Gooijlc 

40 LESSON ZIT. [§59 

Aimez-TOUB lea poiresf 12. Mange-t-on lea poires quiuid elles 
8ont vertesT 13. Mange-ton tout«B lea poires k la maisonS 

14. En quel moia la pomme mArib-elle ? 15. Fourquoi grimpez- 
voua dans le pommier de votre oncle ? 16. Allons-nous visiter 
le verger de votre oncle aujourd'huiT 17. Eat-ce que vona 
finissez tob lemons maintenanti 18. Qui b&tit cette maiaOQ 
derri^r« le verger ) Etc., etc. 

J). 1. There is a pear-tree in our orchard. 2. There are 
also apple-treea, plum-trees and cherry-treea. 3. What fruit 
does the apple-tree bear (donner) 1 4. What fruit do plum- 
trees bearf 6. The cherrj-tree bears cherries. 6. Are the 
plnms ripe nowt 7. In what month do plums ripen! 8. They 
ripen in the month of September. 9. The apple also ripens in 
the month of September. 10. The pears on (de) these trees are 
green. 11. There are ripe cherries on that tree. 12. When 
the apples ripen they are sold. 13. We sell them to the 
merchants. 14. We do not eat apples when they are green. 

15. They have not a good taste. 16. When we finish our 
lessons we go into the orchard. 17. All the apples are 
ripening now. 18. I climb into the pear-tree to get pears. 
" 1. We sell the good pears. 20. We give the others to the 



59. PartitiTes. in partitive constmotiona (§ 36), de 
alone is used: — 

1. In a general negation (§ 36, 2) : 

n u'a paa de plumes. He baa no pens. 

2. When an adjective precedes the noun : 

Marie a de jolies fleara. Mary baa (some) pretty flowen. 

J'ai de votre argent. I have some of yoDr money. 

But : iTai des pominea infires. I have (some) ripe apples. 

3. Similarly when a noun after an adjective is understood ; 
De boDS rois et de niauvais. Good kingi and bad (kings). 

4. After words of quantity in such expressions as these : 
Beanconp de thi. A great deal of tea (mooh tea). 
One livre de vianda. A pound of meat. 

Aaaez de viaode. Enough (of) meat. 

Trop de pain. Too muoh bread. 

u, Google 

§§60-61] LBSSOIT XIT. 41 

to. The preposition de+K noon forms odjectdTal phrMee: 
UnB robe de sole. A silk dress. 

L* fenille d'AnUs. The maple leaL 

6l. Observe the following expressions of frequent obb, 
formed from avoir + an undetermined noun : 
ftvoir besoin [baswl] de, be in avoir soif [awaf], be thirety. 

need of, need. avoir sommcil [saniEij], be sleepy. 

avoir dumd [fo], be vrann. avoir raison [rexS], be (in the) 

avoir froid [frwo], be cold. right. 

avoir faiin [fi], be hongiy. avoir tort [toir], be (in the) wrong. 

■briter [abrite], to shelter, 
alora [aloir], then. 
Mm [briti], f., breese. 
canadien [kaoadiS], Canaiiian. 
dund [fo% ID., beat. 
eboM [Joie], t, thing, 
toireuil [ekyneij], m., squirreL 
emblfcme [dblEia], m., emblem. 
Arable [erabl], m., maple. 
fewl]e[tcBij],(., leaf. 
leoillaKe [fmjatj], m., foliage, 
fbnmir [famiir], to fnmUh. 
betre [inr, h asp.. St7,G], m., beeoh. 
il bit diand, it is warm, hot 

insecte [Esekt], m., in 
intiicaaant [Eteresa], 
mauvais [roave], bad. 
moins [mwf], lees, 
national [nasjsnal], national 
nombreux [nSbr^], numeroos. 
nonrritnre [nurityir], f., food, 
oisean [wazo], m., bird, 
ombre [3ibr], f., shade. 
onnc [arm], m., elm. 
paimi [parmi], among, 
trfcs [trt], very, 
utile [ytil], useM. 
(of weather or temperatnte). 


A, Qnand nons sommea k la campague nous aUons aouvent 
ftox bois. On y trouve beancoup de choses iat^ressantee. H 
y a !& de grands arbres et de petites fleurs. Lea arbrea abri- 
tent beancoap de petita tinimauz. Les ^ureuila et lea petite 
oiseaux trouvent leur nourriture dana les arbres. Les fleura 
fourniasent de la nourriture aux inaectea nombreux. Les 
Canadiens aimetit beaucoup I'erable. L' Arable est un bel arbre 
et il eat trfes utile. La f euille d' Arable est I'embleme national 
eanadien. Dy ad'autres arbres, oomme le Mtre et I'orme, qui 
sont beaux et utiles aussi. Leui feuillage est vert et donne 

,;.!;, C^oogle 

48 LESSON XIV. [§61 

de rombre. Qnand il fait chnud nous trovroiu souvent k 
rorobra una bonne brise, et aJors nous aroos moina obaud. 

£. Continue the foUowing : 1. J'ai de jolies flenrs, etc 3. 
Est-ce que j'oi dea pommes mflresl, etc. 3. J'ai de booDM 
pommes et de mauvaises, etc. 4. J'aime le hStre et I'^rable, etc 
6. Est-cfl que je vends beaucoup de ponunest, etc 6. J'ai raisoD, 
etc 7. Je n'ai paa tort, etc 8. Est-oe que j'ai chaudl, etc 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qu'est«e qn'oa troave dans lea boiat 2. Oil 
trouve-t-on de grands arbres 1 3. Y a-t-il de petit«s fleura dans 
lea bois auaail 4. Quels animaux les arbres abritent-ilsl 5. 
Lea oiseaux ont-ila besoin de nonrritnrel 6. Oii est-ce que lee 
oiseanx trouvent !eur nonrritare t 7. OA trourons-nons notre 
nounituret 8. A qnels petita aoimanx les fleurs fourcis- 
sent-ellea de la nourrituret 9. Qnels arbres tronve-t-on dans 
lesboisl 10. Quels arbres aimez-TousI 11. L'^rable eat-il un 
belarbret 12. Aimez-Tous lebgtreetl'orme? 13. Trouve-t-on 
dea arbres fruitiers dans les boial 14. Oil est-iiie qu'on les 
trouvet 15. Lea arbrea dea boia aont-ila beaux ) 16. Y a-fr-il 
de beaux arbres chez Totre onclet 17. Qu'est-ce que le feuil- 
lage des arbres donnet 18. Est-«equ'il &it chandanjonrdliui) 
19. Avez-vous chaud 1 20. 0& allons-nous quaud il fait chaud? 
21. Est-ce qu'oQ a soif quand il bit chaud I 22. Avez-voua 
ioif } Etc., etc 

D. 1. TiMlay it is hot, and ve are going to the vooda. 2. 
There are many intereeting thinga in the woods. 3. One finds 
tiiere great trees and beautiful flowers. 4. Among the trees 
there are pretty little animals. 6. The leaves of the trees and 
the fiowera shelter many little insects. 6. These trees are very 
beautiful and very useful also. 7. The maple is a very fine 
tree. 8. We like the elm and the beech because they are fine 
trees. 9. The beech and the elm are very useful. 10. The 
foliage of trees gives ahadc 11. In the woods behind our 
house there are large trees and small ones. 12. People like 
the shade of trees when it is hot. 13. We go into the woods 
to find shade. 14. The animals in the woods have need ot 
food. 15. The fruits of the trees furnish food to the animala, 
16. Many little insects find food in the flowers. 17, When it 
is hot the animals are thirsty. 18. Then they need water (see 
0. 5). 19. They find it in the woods. 20. We need water when 
ve are thirsty. 21. People need food when they are hungry. 

S§62-66] LESSON IT. 


62, Past Participles. 

Given. Finished. Sold. Had. Betn. 

doDn«[dane]. fini [fini]. vendn [vfld;]. en[;]. M [et«]. 

6^ Compound Tenses, They are formed from the put 
participle along with on auzili&rjr (usually avoir, sometime* 
6tre, see §155), as Id the foUoTing sectioo. 

64. The Past Indefinite. 

I have given, or I hare finished, or I faavs sold, or 

I gavB, etc. t finished, etc I sold, etc. 

jU donnd [3 e done] j'ai Sni [i e flni] j'ai vendn [3 e vfldf] 
tn M donnd [ty a dane], tu as fipl{tya fini], tu as vendu [ty a vQdjr^ 
etc etc etc 

I have had, or I bad, etc I have becD, or I was, etc 

j'ai en [s e y]. j'ai iti [s e tte\. 

tu as eu [ty az y]. ta as iti [ty az ete]. 

il a BD [il ay]. ila 6U [il a «te]. 

etc etc. 

65. Word Order. The auxiliary b the verb in a com- 
pound tense, and all rules of word order apply to it : 

Nous ne TavonB pas fini. Ws have DOt finished it. 

N's't-elle pas ^t^ ici ! Has she not been here I 

66. Use of Past Indefinite. It denotes cot only what 
has happened or has been happening, as in Knglish, but alao 
what happened ( = English past tense) : 

J'ai flni mon onvrage. I have finished my work. 

Kile a obantd tonto la matinde. She has been singing all tke morning. 

n a iti longtemps ici. He was here for a long time. 

J'ai qnitti Paris lUver pass& I left Paris last winter. 

N.B. — The past indefinite is the ordiDaiy past tense of Stench. Foi 
tbe past tenae of nartative in the literwy style, see j 14S> 




(fj. Idiomatic Preseot Indicative. Besidee iu use in 
general, as in English, the present indicative is usod idioma* 
tically, in certain phrases, to denote what haa been and still 
continues to be : 

Depnii qaand fites-vous ici ? How long have 70Q been here T 

Je aula ioi depnia trois Joan. I have been here for three daj>B 

(or for three days past, or 
for tha lost three dajv}, 


grange \s^\z\, f-. bani. 

hiei [i<!r], yesterday, 

mennier [m^je], m., miller. 

morceau [maiso], m., piece. 

naige \w\z\, f-i anow. 

pa7Ban[peiZ0],m., peasant, farmer, 

plante [plSit], f., plant. 

protiger [prolesoji to protect 

saiaOD [m^], f., season. 

»ec [wk], dry, 

aemei [same], to sow. (bring. 

tranaporter [trffspartej, to cairy, 
aonT, when?; an printempB [o prEtfl], 
aummer; en wiTt'>t""» [fin aton], in 

ubeter [a/te], to bi^. 
battre [batr], to lieat, thiesh. 
bit [ble], m., wheat, 
boulanger [bulcTze], m., baker, 
contie [kStr], against, from, 
conpei [tupe], to out. 
depnis [dapqi], since, 
fait [ft], p. p. /aire, to do. 
faiine [farin], f., Sour. 
froid [frwo], m., cold. 
germet [3«rme], to sprout. 
grandii [griTdijr], to grow large. 

en quelle eaisan?, in what aeai 
in spring ; en ^t£ [dn 
autumn; en ttiver [dn iveirj, in winter. 


A. Void I'histoire d'on morcean de pain. En antomne 
le paysan a sem^ le bl^ et puis le bl^ a germ^ En hiver la 
Deige a prot^g^ les jeanes plantes centre le froid. Au prin- 
temps elles ont grandi. En hiA le bl^ a mflri. Les pajsana 
I'ont coup^. lis I'ont transport^ dans la grange, et ils I'ont 
battu. Le mennier a achet^ le bH pour faire de t& farine. B 
a fourni la farine au boulanger. Le boulanger a fait le pain, 
9t ensuite il I'a vendu. Voil^ nn morceau de pain sur la table. 
II est li depoia hier, et il est trte sec. 

B. (Oral.) 1. Quelle histoireeat-ce que TouaraoonteET 2. Qui 
a travailU pour faire le paiaT 3. Qui a sem^ le bl^) 4. En quelle 
aaieon I'a-t-il sem^ ) 6. Quand le bid a-t-il germ^ ! 6. Qu'est^M 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

§§68-69] LESSON xn. 45 

qae la ne^ a fut ea hiver ? 7. En quelle sslson eafr«e 
que les plaates ont grandi ? 8. Qaaad te by a-t-il mflri ? 
9. Avez-vous cuup^ le bl^ ? 10. Est-ce que j'ai coup^ le hl6 ? 
11. Qui a. coup^ le bid ? 12. Oh I'ontrilB transports ? 13. Et 
ensuite qu'eat^e qu'ilB oat fait P 14. A qui I'oDt-ils vendu ? 
16. Qa'estKse que le meunier a fait ? 16. Le boulanger qu'a-t-il 
achetS pour faire le pain F 17. Qui a fourni la farine aa bou- 
langer ? 18. Avons-nou9 vendu le pain ? Id. Qui I'a vendu ? 
20. Depuis quand ce morceau de pain esUil Bur la. table ? 21. 
Fourquoi est-il sec ? 22. Depuis qusnd 6tes-roua ici 'f Et«., ete. 
C. 1. This bread is dry. 2. It has been on the table 
■ince yesterday. 3. Here is the story of a piece of bread. 
4. The farmer sowed the wheat 5. He sowed it in the 
autumn. 6. The wheat sprouted. 7. In the winter the snow 
protected the young plants from the cold. 8- When did they 

?row large ? 9. In spring. 10. When did the wheat ripen ? 
1. It ripened in summer. 12. Who cut the wheat ? 13. Did 
we bring it into the bam ? 14. Did you thresh it ? 15. Who 
bought the wheat? 16. The miller bought it, and made the 
floor. 17. We are the bakers ; we made the bread. 18. Then 
we sold it to the farmers. 19. Here are two pieces of dry 
bread. 20. Did you make this bread F 21. Who made it ? 
22. Onr baker made it. 


68. Comparatives. Place plus -'more,' moins-'leai,' 
or aussi ^ ' as,' before the adjective, and que = * than ' or ' aa ' 
after it, to form comparatives : 

n eat plus grand que Jean. He is taller than John. 

Heat moins grand que Jean. Heialesstall than (not sot. as) John. 

n eat ausai grand que Jean. He ia as tall aa John. 

6g. SuperlatiTes, 1. Place the definite article or a poo- 
Kssive adjective before plus or moios to form Buperlalives : 
Marie est la plus jeime ds toutea. Mary is the youngest of alL 

ObM.: La pins jenne de« deux. The younger of the two. 

2. Do not omit the definite article when the superl&tiTa 
follows the noon : 

La lefon U pins difficile. The most difficnlt lesson. 

Mm Uvre* les plus ntilea. My must uaeful book^ 

r.,„: ,;.!;, Google 

46 LESSON XTL [§§70-7ft 

7a IlT^fular Comparisoa Obseire the irregular fonuB: 
boa [bS], good. meUlenr [niEjceir], better. le meilleiir [la mcjoeirL 
the best. 

71. Comparison of Adverbs, l. They are compared by 
plus and moins lilce odjectivee, bat le in the sttperlatiTe ii 

2. Observe tbe irregnlar forms : 
Men [bjri, well, minuc [mj<I, bettor, le mlenz [la mj^. (the) beak 
pen [p0], little, moins [mwE], less. le moiiu [la mwE], (tbe) leaat. 

jz Present Indicative of alter, ' to go ' (irreg.). 

I go, am going, ete. We go, are going, eto. 

je vala [ja ve]. nona allons [nuz alS], 

to vaa [t7 va], vona alles [vuz ale], 
fln [il va], ilsvont [U vS]. 

73. Imperative of a//er, 'to go.' 

Ya [va], go. aliens [ola], let na go. alias [abl, ga 


nnnte [aoel, f., year, 
nvril [avril], m., AprlL 
carotte [karot], 1, carrot, 
cbarmant [fannS], channing. 
Chou [Ju], hl, cabbage. 
chenille [Jeniij], L, caterpillar. 
dAk [kote], m. , side. 
Couleur [kn]<eir], f., colour. 
d^l> [desa], already. 
dernier, -i^e [dEmje, -jcir], last 
encore [akair], yet 
entre [ditr], among, 
gjaine [grein], L, aeed. 
groa, -se [gro, flroia], big. 
jardin [jarde^, m., garden. 
modeste [madeet], modest. 
muguet [myge], m., lily of the 

ifanei mlenx, to like bettor, prefer 
roe lide, on the other aide ; 

oignon [oj)3], m. , onion, 
paitie [parti], t, part. 
pen [p#(], m., little, 
peut-ttre [ptft aitr], peiltapti 
planter [pUte], to plant, 
pomme de terre [pam da tcir], L, 

poutser [pnse], to grow. 
probablement [prabablomdj, prob- 
reine [rem], 1, queen. 
riservi [reiErve}, reserved. 
semaine [saraem], f., week. 
terre [teir], f., earth. 
toujoun [tu!^ii:r], HtilL 
tout k fait [tut a ii\, qiut« 
tolipe [tylip], f., tulip. 
d'on cAti, de Fautre cAti, on the 
'anote denude, last year. 

u, Gooijlc 

$78] Lzssoif XVL 47 


A. IfQQB Bommea toojoars k la campagne. Allona voir matit* 
tenant le jardio. D'ua cdt^ il 7 a des l^^unes, de I'antre cUbi U 
J a des fleurs. H 7 a dea pommes de terre, des choux, des 
oigaons et des carottes. On a plants les pommea de terre an 
mois d'avril, et elles sont mainteaant ea fleurB. On a plants 
les choux la semaine demi^re. lis ont d^jk pooss^ un pen. 
Us Tonb Stre probablement meilleurs cette ann^e qne I'ann^e 
denii^re. L'annte demi^re les chenilles en ont mang^ bean- 
ooap. On a sem^ la graine de deox esp^cea de carott«s : des 
carottes rouges et des carottes blanches. Ifous aimona mieuz 
les rouges pour le potage que les blanches. Les oignona sent 
d'uae esp6ce plus grosse que les oignons de I'ami^ derni^re. 

Dans la partie du jardin r^serv^e anx fleurs nous trouTons, 
entre autres, des roses, des tullpes et des muguets. Ia roae 
eat la reine des fleurs. Elle est pent-fitre la plus belle de 
tontes les fleurs. Les talipes sont trbs jolies. Elles sont d« 
toutes les couleurs. Le mugnet est une petite fleur blanche, 
tarto modeste mais tout k fait charmante. 

B. Continue the following: \. Je suls plus grand que 
Robert, etc 2. Est-ce que je auis aussi grande que Marie I, 
etc. 3. Je Buis le meilleur iihve de la cla^e, etc. 4. N'aige 
pas la le^on la plua difficile^ etc 6, J'ai venda mes meilleura 
livres, tu as vendu tea, etc 6. Est-ce que j'aime mleux les 
fleurs rouges 1, etc. 7. Est-ce que je vais voir mes parents i, 
est-ce qae tu vaa voir tes parents F, etc. 8. Je n'ai pas 
encore ^t^ h la campa^ue, etc. 

C (Oral.) 1. Qu'est-ce que vous allez voir aujonrdlinit 
3. Qu'y a-t-il de ce c6i6i 3. Qu'est-ce qu'il 7 a de I'autre 
c6t6 1 i. Dans quel moia plantez-voos vos chonx ) 5. Les 
choux pouasent-Qs ausai vite que les pommes de terre f 

6. ToB pommes de terre aont-ellea bonnes cette ann^t 

7. Sont-elles meilleures que t'ann^ demi^ret 8. Sont^lles 
plus grosses 1 9. Est-ce qu'ellea ont on meilleur goftti 

10. Combien d'esp&ces de carottes j a-t-il dans ce jardint 

11. Aimez-vous mieux les carottes blanches que les carottes 
rouges) 12. Fonrqnoil 13. Quelle est la reine des fleural 
14. De quelle couleur les tulipes sont-ellest 15, De quelle 
coolear le mnguet eat-ill 16, Eab-il ausu blanc que la neiget 

u, Gooijlc 

48 ussoN XTn. [§§74*-75 

17. Qaelle Mt la flenr la plna channuitw d« votre jordial 

18. Quels sont tos meilleurs legumes) Etc., etc 

D. 1. I am going to see yoar garden. 2. Year garden iB 
large and fine. 3. What have you planted on t^s aidel 
4. Where are the flowers 1 5. I plant«d my potatoes in the 
month of April. 6. I am going to plant my cabbage this 
week. 7. The potato is a very useful plant. 8. It is perhaps 
the most useful of all the vegetables. 9. It is good for men 
and for animals. 10. Carrots are not so useful. 11. I like 
the red carrots better than the white. 12. They ore better 
for soup. 13. The white ones are larger, but they are not so 
eood. 14. Now let us go and see the flowers. 16. How 
beautiful those tulips are I 16. They are finer this year than 
last year. 17. The lily of the valley and the rose are not yet 
in flower. 18. Do you like rosea better than tulips t 19. Yes, 
but I like the lily of the valley better than all the other 
flowers. 20. It is smaller than the others, but more charming; 
21. I like your garden very much. 22. I am gcong to visit it 
often t.hi'ii summer. 

LESSON xni. 

74. Agreement of Past Participle. 1. In a ctxnpotutd 

tense with avoir the past participle agrees in gender and 

number with a direct object which precedes it : 

J'oi fini mes Ie9(»B. I have fiuiBhed my lesaous. 

Je les ai Snies. 

Quels livTes a-t-il ochet^? 

N.B.~Rnii«iiber Out the pu- 
ds* pIdthhT Oul, J'en li aolieU ] 

2. When used as an adjective, the post participle agrees 
like an adjective : 
La plnme achette hier. Hm pen bought Teeterday. 

75. Some Relatives. 1. The relative pronouns of most 
common use are qui as subject, and que as direct object of a 

Lb dame qnl cliants. The lady who sings. 

Les livrea qui Bont id The books which are here. 

Les pommes que j'u aohetfaL 31ie apfdee that I have boo^A 

u, Gooijlc 

§75] LESSON XVIL 49 

2. The reUtive proDonn, often omitted ia English, is never 
knitted in French : 
Jjb pain que j'ai scbetd hier. The bread I bought yestardaj. 


bawuie [banon], £., baiuuia. 
car [kar], for. 

cher, -ire [Jeir, (e:r]. dear. 
cuisiniire [kqizinjeir], i., cook, 
diner [dine}, m., dinner. 
donzune [duzEn], f., dozen. 
franc [frd], m., franc 
laitue [lety], t., lettuce. 
mcrchi [marje], m., market. 
nutin [matE], m., namiDg. 
aillet [ffije], m. , pink. 
irie [wa], f., goose. 

omer [ame], to decorate, adorn, 
pajer IpEJe], to pay, pay for. 
plnaieurs[plyzi<B!r], severaL 
poulet [puU], m., chicken, fowL 
preparer [prepare], to prepare, 
quant 1 [kdt a], aa for, as to. 
sal«de[sa1ad],f., salad. 
Mir[swairJ, m., evening. 

tnUn [tri], m., ti&in, act of, eta, 
vingt [vl], twenty, 
voUille [valaij], f., poultry. 

Ure en train de, to be in the act of, be busy (doing a thing). 

je les ai pay^s vingt [yt] sous la douzaine, I paid twenty csnti 


A. Koas avons ^t^ &u march^ ce matin. ITous avons schetd 
plnsieura chosea pour ce soir : dea legumes, des fleura, des fruits 
et de la volaille. Nous allons avoir des amis k diner. Voici 
les legumes que nous avona achet^, II y a des pommes de terro, 
des carottes et de la laitue. Les carottes Bont pour le pot^^e, 
et la. laitue est pour la salade.t Voil^ sur la table, les fleurs 
que nous avons achet^es. Nous les avons achetfea pour 
omer la table. II 7 a des roses et dea isilleta. Quant k la 
Tolaille, nous avons achet^ an poulet et unc oie. Ia volaille 
n'est pas trhs cbfere, car il y en a beaucoup en cette saison. 
Nous avons pay^ ie poulet vingt sous et I'oie trois franca. 
La cuisinifere est en train de les preparer. Pour le dessert 
nous avons a«bet^ des pommea et dea bananes. Les bananes 
Bont chores. Nous les avons payees vingt sous la douzaine. 

B. Continue the following: 1. Voili les pommes que j'ai 
mchet^es, etc. % Quelles fleurs ai-je acbet^ au march^ 1, etc 

u, GoO^jlc 

60 LESSON ZTIL [§76 

3. J'ai vendn lea pommea qn'on a achate hier, «tc. 4. Est-oe 
qae j'ai 4t4 an march^ ce matin % etc, 5. J'ai aclieM lee livre* 
qui Bont aur la table, etc 

Relate the story of Part A, nsing the first singular iostesd 
of the first plural. 

C. (Oral.) 1. ATez-TOOB 4t4 an march^ ce matin! 2. 
Qn'avez-Tous achet^) 3. Fourquoi aTe^vous acbet^ toutes 
ces choses ? 4. Combien d'amis allez-'vous avoir & dtner t 5. 
Montrez-moi lea legumes que toub avez achet^. 6. Sont-ila 
tr^ chers en cette saisont 7. Combien avez-voDs pay^ les 
pommes de tbrre que voua aves achet^J 8. Quel^ autrea 
legumes aveB-voua achet& ! 9. Oftaont-ils? 10. Quelle belle 
oie! combien I'aTez-Tous payfe? II. Qu'est-ce que la cui- 
aini^re fait maint«nant1 13. Oit sont les flenra que tous avas 
achet^es! 13. Quelles esp^ces de fleurs j a-t-U 1&1 14. 
Qu'allons-noua faire de ces fleurs? 15. Les fieurs qu'on a 
achet^ hier les avez-voua encore I 16. Quels fruits allez-voua 
avoir pour le dessert? 17. I^es bananes sont-elles plus chores 
qae lea pommes cette aun^? 16. Combien ave^voua pay4 
oes pommes 1 Etc., etc. 

I>. 1. We are going to hare some friends to dinner tbia 
ereninit 2. I have bought some flowers to decorate the table. 
3. The cook has been at the market to buy meat and vege- 
tables. 4. Here are the things she brongbt. 5. What 
poultry did she bayl 6. Is poultry dear at this season t 
7. Here ia a goose which she paid three francs for. 8. There 
are two chickens which she bought. 9. Chickens are not so 
dear aa geese; they are not so large. 10. What pretty 
flowers! 11. Where did you buy them 1 12. I bought them 
at the market this morning. 13. I bongbt some yeaterday, 
bat they are not so pretty. 14. My flowers are dearer. 16, I 

Cid three francs a dozen for the roses. 16. Last ^ear I 
aght roses for twenty cents a dozen. 17. Fnut(pl.)iBdear 
this year. 18. How mach did yoa pay for the bananas t 
19. I paid twenty cents a dozen for them. 20. We are going 
to have a good dinner. 21. The cook is busy preparing it 




LESSON xvin. 

76. Tenses with 4tre. 1 . The verb *trc + the past partf. 
dple forms the compoaod tenses of &U reflexiTe verbs (g 82) and 
k^ a f&w intransitive verbs, of which aller, ' to go,' arriver, 
* to arrive,' and yetUT, ' to come,' are of very freqnent use. 

2. The past participle of a verb (not reflexive) conjngated 
with ttre agrees with the subject, thus : 
I have arrived, etc 


tu ea amv4(e) [arive], 

n (elle) est uTivi(e) [arive]. 

■dmirablement [adminblama], 

admirer [admire], to admire, 
amiuer [amfse], to amnse. 
cOkbM [seleibr], celebrated, 
chanter [Jflte], to cdng. 
concert [kSacir], m., concert. 
depnis line [depifi ka], oon^., alnce. 
dimancbe [dimiiij], m., Sunday. 
Uifice[edifiB], m. , edifice, building, 
emplette [tiplet], f., purchaae, 
entendre [auiidr], to bear. 
liAtel de ville [otel da vU], m., 

bier atit [jcir swair], yesterday 

nous tommes arrivi(e)i [srivel. 

voua 8teB arriTi(e)B [arive], 

ila (ellea) sent arnv^e)s [arive]. 

Inndi [lOdi], m., Monday, 
magaain [magazE], m., ahopt 
mener [mene], to lead, take. 
nnlt [01(1], f., night. 
partont [porta], everywhere. 
prMicntenr [predikatceir], m., 

prindpBl [prEsipal], principsL 

prochain [projt], next. 

public [pyblik], public. 

rencontre [rilkSitr], 1, meeting. 

sermon [sGrm3], m., sermon. 

Songe [s5is], m., dream. 

thiitre [teaitr], m., theatre. 

tour [tu:r], m., circuit. 

tramway [Cramwe], m., street- 
n [tMnjS], f., intention. 
Jourlsnir], m-jday. venu[TSny], p. p. wnir, t 

aller i. la rencontre de, to go to meet, 
faire le tour de, to go aronnd. 


A. Nos parents de la campagne sont chez nous depuis qna- 

tte jours. Ila sont arrives lundi dernier par le chemin de fer. 

Nous Bommes all^ k la gare k leur rencontre. Depnia qu'ili 

-.u, Google 

62 LESSON ZTm. [§76 

soBt ici nouti les menonB partoat poor les amuser. Nous mon- 
tons en tramway et noos faisoRB le tonr de la ville. Nans 
entrona dans lea grands magasins pour faire dei empletteo. 
Nous aTons visits les principaux ^dificeg publica. Nous btodb 
admir^ les ^glises et ThStel de ville. Hier soir nous avons 4t4 
an th^&tre. On y a jou^ le "Songe d'nne nuit d'^t^" de 
Shakespeare. Noua I'aTons beaucoup admir^. Noas avons 
iti aussi k ud concert. On j a chants admirablement. 
Dimanche prochain nous avons rinteotion d'aljer k I'^gliae 
pour entendre un sermon par un des plas c^l&bres pr^cateura 
de la ville. 

3. Conlinae the following: 1. Jo suis arriv^ hier, etc. 
2. Je (f.) suia venue ce matin, etc. 3. Est-ce que je n% suis 
pas all^ k la gare t, etc. 4. Est-ce que je ne suis ptis all^e k 
la rencontre de mes amies % eat-ce que tu n'ea pas all^e k 1ft 
rencontre de tes amies 1, etc 5. Je faia le tour de la viOe, etc 

6. Je suis entr^ dans les magasins, etc. 7. Je n'ai pas 6t6 aa 
tbiktve, etc. 8. J'ai I'iatention d'aller k I'^glise, etc. 

C. (Oral,) I. Qui est chez vousT 2, Vos parents sont-ila 
toujours chez vousi 3, Depuis quand sont-ils chez vousi 
4. Quand est-ce qu'ils sont arrives 1 6. Yotre tante est-elle 
venue ce matin } 6. Qui est all^ k aa rencontre ) 7. L'aves- 
votts trouvfe k la. gare t 8. Que faites-vous pour amuser voa 
amis I 9. Comment taites-voos le tour de la ville t 10. Sont-ils 
entr^ dans les magasins t 11. Dans quels magaaina sont-ils 
entr^t 12. Qnela sont les plus grands Edifices de votre ville 1 
13. Yotre tante a^t-elle admir^ tee ^glises} 14. Oik eat-elle 
all^ hier soirf 15. Qn'est-ce qu'on va jouer an theatre oe 
soir? 16. Aime-t-elle mieux aller au concert qn'an th^&tret 
IT. A-t-elle I'intention de retoumer bieutOt k la campagnet 
16. Vos parents o& sont-ils all^ dimanche demiert 19. 0& 
avez-vous I'intention d'aller I'^t^ prochain t Etc, etc. 

D. 1. My nncle and aunt are at onr house. 2. They 
arrived this morning. 3. They came by the railway. 4. My 
sister went to meet them at the station. 5. They came from 
the station in a carriage. 6. They soon arrived at our house. 

7. Tonlay we .took them into the city to amuse them. 8. First 
we went around the city in the street-cars. 9. Then my aunt 
went to one of the lai^ shops to make purchases. 10. To- 
morrow we ai« going to visit tjie largest churches. 11. They 

u, Gooijlc 

§|77-78] LKSsOJr xix. 63 

admire very much the public buildings of the city. 12. We 
we goii^ to the concert this eTening, perhaps. 13. Wa 
weat to the theatre yesterdaj evening. 14. My aunt did 
not go (y) ; she does not like the theatre. 15. I aJwajs go (y) 
Then they play ShaJcespeore's " Midsummer Night's Dream." 
16. I admire it very much. 17. The churches of this city are 
very 0ne. 18. My aunt intends to go to church next Sunday 
to hear a sermon. 19. Next Monday my unole and aunt 
return to the country, 20. They admire the city, but tiiey 
like the country better. t" 


77. Pronoun Objects. 1. The personal pronoun haa, tot 
the indirect object of the third person, the following forms : 
fad nqi], (to, for) him, (to, for) her. lenr D^>r], {to, for] them, 

2. Lui and leur precede the verb (g 30), but follow le, la, 

Nona 1^ parlous. We apeak to him (to her). 

Je donne uke row i Marie. I am giving Mary a rose. 

Je U hii drame. I give her it (it to her). 

Je donne nea livree »ns eo&obB. I give the children my books. 

Je les lenr donne. I give them (to) them. 

78. Observe the following orthographical peculiarities : 

1. commeDCei, nous commen^ooB — stem c [s] becomes ^ [s] before o of 
CMli]ig(cf. §5, 4). 

2. mang^, noiu maugeoiia — stem g [s] beoomea ge [3] before o of 
coding (cf. g 19, 2). 

3. mener, je tafcne [men], ta mfenes, il mfeae, ils mfeaent — stem e [e] 
beoomea i [g] in most verbs when ending is e mate (cf. g 12, 1 , n. ). 


er [akSpajie], to aocom- 
article [artikl], m., article. 
av«rir [avwair], to have, get. 
boobon n^bd], m. , bonbon, candy. 
" tt Uepelje], m., hatter. 

cbansanres [/oeyir], L pL, boota, 

confiseur [kSfiz<Bir], m., confeo. 

conru [kniy], p,p. eourir, to mn 


u, Gooijlc 

54 LESSON XIX. [$78 

roontrer [mStro], to skon. 
mouchoir[inQjwa!r],m., hondlu^ 

□ouveauU [nuvoto], f., noveltr. 
p«ille[pa:j], f., straw. 
pure [peirj, f., pair. 
prix [pri], m., price. 
Soulier [eulje], m., aboe. 
toilette [twaUt], L, toilet 

tr [datna<le], to uk (for). 
deiiteUe [datel], f., lace. 
dollar [dolair], m,, dollar. 
extuniner [egzamine], to examine. 
fadgni^ [fatige], tired, 
fouz-col [fo ksl], m., collar, 
li U fin [a la fej, at 1m(, Saailj. 
manchette [mdjet], f., tai3. 
mCme [mcitn], same. 

k bon tnarchj, cheap, nuiewn de nouveontte, dry-gooda tt^OL 
Alkr btire dea emplettet, to go ahopping. 


A. Qae zLona sommes fatigu^ I Nous avons couni beanconp 
ftnjonrd'hui. J'ai accompagn^ mon oouain chez plusieurs mar- 
chaads poor avoir des articles de toilette. D'abord doob 
Bommes entr^s chez le cliapelier. Mon couain a demands un 
chapeau de paille. Le chepelier lui a moatr^ tin tr^a joli 
chapeau k ua dollar, et ]}ion cousin I'a aohet^. J'en ai achettf 
nn aossi an mgnie prix. Ensuite nous aommes all& chez le 
marchand de chaussurea oik noua avona ezamin^ plusienra 
pairea de aonliera. Maia uoua n'en avons pas achebd. Puts 
nous aommes entr^ dans nn grand magasin de nonveant^ 
Mon cousin y a demand^ des faux-cola et dea manchettea. Od 
lui en a montr^ k tr^ bon march^, et il en a, achet^. Nous f 
avons achet^ auasi dea monchoirs pour mon oncle et de la 
dentelle pour ma tante. A la fin nons sommes entr^s chez un 
confiseur oil nous avons acbet^ pour mes cousines dea bonbons, 
que nous leur avons donn^ 
^ B. Continue the following: 1. Qu'estceqaejelQidonnet.etc. 
3. Je parle k mes amis, je leur parle ; tu parlea k tea amia, tu 
leur parlea, etc 3. Void une plume; je la lui donne, etc 
i. Voici des bonbons; je ne les leur donne pas, etc. 5. Est-ce 
que je ne mac^ pas beaucoup de bonbons ), etc. 6. Je com- 
mence mes le^na, etc. 7. Est^ce que je m&ne mon cousin chea 
le confiaenr ), est-ce que tn m^nes ton cousin, etc. 

Relate part A, using *ma tante' and 'elle' aa subject, and 
changing 'couain' to 'cousine.' 

0. (Oral.) 1. Votre oncle eat-il fatigu^l 2. Pourquoil 
3. £b^ que votre fr^re I'a accompagn^ partoutl 1. Oil 

u, Gooijlc 

$79] Ltaaos zx. 66 

KKit-Us «iitr^ d'abordi 5. Qa'est-ce qa'on tronve chez la 
fihapelier! 6. Totre fr^re qn'a-t-il demand^ chez le ohapelierl 
7. Quels chapeauz le chapelier lui a-t-il mootr^ t 8. Qui lea 
leur ft montres) 9. Combien votre frire a-t-il pay4 le 
cbapeaut 10. Oil sont^ila all& ensuite ? 11. Qn'est-ce qae 1« 
marchand de chaussDres leur a moatr^T 12. Lea souliers de 
ce marcband Bont-ils cben on bon marcb^l 13. Votre ODcle 
it-t-il acbet^ les souliers que le marcband lui a montr^s ? 14. 
Qu'est-ce qne Totre tante &t votre soeur out acbet^ dans le 
magaain de nouveant^? IS. Four qui est la dentelle qne 
Totre tante a acbet^l 16. E8t.ce qa'elle la lai a donniel 
17. Et pour qui soQt les bonbonst IS. Quand est-ce qu'elles 
rout les leur donnert 19. Mangeons-nouB des bonbons au 
deaserti SO. Oil eat«e qn'oa achate les bonbc«ist Etc., etc 
D. 1. We are going shopping again to-day. 2. My rela- 
tives are buying a great many things, 3. They always buy 
uticlea of dress when they are here. i. I take them to all 
the large dry-goods stores. 6. They bought several articles 

rterday. 6. First I went with my uncle to a hatter's. 
The hatter showed bim several straw hats. 8. My uncle 
bought one at a dollar. 9. Afterwards I went with my 
oonain to buy shoes. 10. The shop-keeper showed bim soma 
11. He bought two pairs. 12. Then the shop-keeper gave 
them to him, and be brought them home. 13. My aunt has 
been to a dry-goods store to buy handkerchiefs. 14. The 
shop-keeper showed her handkerchiefs at a dollar a dozen. 
15. She nought some of tbem for my uncle. 16. Finally my 
aunt and my cousin (f.) went to a confectioner's, 17. The 
confectioner showed them several kinds of bonbons. 18. Who 
Mid for the bonbons) 19. My cousin paid for them. 20. 
They are for her little sister, and she is going to give them to 
her after dinner. 

79. Personal Pronoun Objects, The remaining forma 
serve both as direct and indirect object of verbs (for elision, 

me [me], oie, to (for) me. nous [nn], ua, to (for) oa. 

te [ta], thee, to (for) tbee. vous [vn], joa, to (for) yon. 

M [is], HiiiiBeU.berBelf, itself, <xn's ae [as], themBelveB, to (for) them- 
mU, to (for) hinmU, etc aelvea. 

56 LESSON XX. [§§S0-83 

Sa Pronominal Adverbs. They &re nsed with verbs, 
ftnd are equivalent to a preposition + a prononn, atanding 
usually for things : 

hos 'to (at, on, in, into, etc) 

en = de + apraooun, meana 'of (from, «tc.) it or tbem,' 'some of it,' 
'■ome of them,' 'some,' 'any,' 'thence,' 'from there.' 

8l. Position. Personal prononn objects and pnmomiual 
adverbs, coming before the verb, are arranged thus : 

me ^ before rle \ before rlui \ before j\ before e 
te Ju tlenr 

•el Ileal I 

n me donne les plumeB. He gives me the pens. 

II me les doime. He gives them to me. 

n lea leuT dorme- He gives them to them. 

XI nous en domis. He givea as some of iL 

n 7 en a. There is (are) aome. 

82. Reflexive Verb. The compound tenses of reflexive 

verbs, e.g., se flatter, to ' flatter one's self,' are formed with 

Pbisent Ihdicativb. Past Indefihitk. 

I flatter myself, etc. I (have) flattered myself, etc 

le flatte [sa ma flat]. je 1 



'] Batt4(e)8 

tu te flattes [ty to flat]. 
a (elle) se flatte [U sa flat]. il (elle) s'est 

nona nous flattons [nu nn flats] 

vouB TOUS flattez [vo yn flate]. voua vons Mea Ko , i 
Us (ellea) se flattent [il sa flat). ilB(BUe8)se lont J ^ '' 

83. Agreement. The past participle screes with a pre. 
ceding reflexive object, unless the object be indirect : 
EUsa se sent flatties. They have flattered themselves. 

But t na se sont lav4 Ina mains. They have washed their handa 

u, Gooijlc 

§84] LESSON zx. 67 

84. Observe the possessive force of the artide, or of the 
■rticle with an indirect object, when there is no ambiguity as 
to the poBseesor : 

Je voDB donne la main. I give yon my band. 

IiB bonne leur laTe lea mains. The maid ia wadiing their hai>d& 

Ds M lavent lea maine. Thej are washing their hands. 


»ptia laprE], after. 

aimoire [aimwBirJ, f., cupboard, 

boajour [bS^uir], m., good morn- 

brosse [broa], f., bruBh. 

brosser [broHe], to brnah, 

chercher [Jerjej, to seek, look for. 

cheveuz [|3V0], m. pi., hair, 

dijeuner [dej^ne], m., breakfast. . 

dent[dd], f., tooth. 

descendre [deadtdr], 
go down (atairs). 

dire [diir], to say, teU. 

donnir [danniir], to dei 

figure [figyir], f., face. 

gilet [jiUJ, in 

tout de suite [tu da st;it], 

ll I'uutant [a 1 teta], at 

) descend, 

habiller [abije], to dresR. 

habit [abi], m., coat. 

instant [Seta], m., inatanb 

laTBT [lave], to wash. 

main[mE], f., hand. 

mire [ine:r], L, mother. 

mettre [metr], to put (on), place. 

peiKneCpe'Ji]. nL, comb, 

pire [pE!r], m., father. 

prtt [pre], ready. 

se lever [lave], to riaCL 

saTon [savoj, m., aoap. 
serviette [eervJEt], t, toweL 
temps [td], ni., time. 

donner la main i, to shake hands 

je suis left, I am ap. 


A. Comme nous avona bien dormi ! II eat temps de se lever 
maintenant. I^ous nous Levons tout dc suite, et nous faisons 
notre toilette. Je vais me laver lea mains et la figure, mais 
ou sont I'eau et le savon 1 — Lea voici ; je vais vous lea donner. — 
Maintenant, oA est ia serviette 1 — La voici. — Je cherche main- 
tenant mes broases et mon peigne. — Les voil& sur la table de 
toilette. — Je me brosse les cheveux et les dents. Je vaia 
mettre mon gilet et mon habit, mais oii sonMls 1 — Les voici 
dans j'armoire, je vous les donned rinatant. — Me voili prfit 
£tes-vous prgt aussi t — Qui, me voilA babill^ — Nona d 

u, Gooijlc 

68 LESSON XX [§84 

k 1& salle k manger. Mod pfere et ma mbre 7 sont d^j&. Nona 
ollcms leur diie boujour. Apiis le d^jeoner nous allons tioua 

B. Continue the following ; 1, Je me live, etc. 2. Je me 
enis lay^ les maisa, etc 3. VoiUt da savon ; je lui en donne, 
etc. 4. Je leur ea ai doim^ etc. 5. Me Toil& pr6t, te voilii 
pr^t, etc. 6. Me voillt prSte, te voilk prSte, etc 7. Je des- 
cends k la ealle k manger, etc 8. Je me suis promen^ hier, ta 
t'es, etc 

C. (Oral.) 1. Avez-voua bien dormi t 2. Eat-il tempa de se 
lever maintenant t 3. Allez-vous voua lever tent de suite? 4, 
Qui se lave lea mains t 5. Est-ce que Jean et Bobert se Bont 
lav^ lea mains 1 6. Allez-vous teur donner de I'eau et du 
Bavon) 7. Qui en donne aux autrea- enfants t 8. En donne- 
t-elle aussi k Marie! 9. Qu'est^equevouscherchezl 10. Qui 
est-ce qui va me donner la serviette et les broBsea! 11, OA eat) 
mon gilet 1 12. Qui vons a donn^ ce beau gilett 13. Eat-ce 
que lea enfanta sont habill^t H. Que font-ils ensuitet 16. 
Qui eat dans ta aalle k manger 1 16. Lea enfanta donnent-ila 
la main k leur pere } 17. Est-ce que je lui donne la main 
aussi? 18. Que vont faire lea enfants apr^s le dejeuner 7 
19. Ne sont-ils paa encore prfitsi 20. Ott eat-ce que vous Toua 
4te« promen^s bier? Etc., etc 

D. 1. Have you slept well ) 2. Yes, and it is time to rise 
now. 3. I riae, you rise, we riae, we are up. 4. Now I 
make my toilet. 5. I am wasbing my bauds and my face. 
6. Xou have already washed your handa and your face. 7. I 
give you your comb and brusbea. 8. I give you them. 9. 
You are brushing your hair. 10. I brush my teeth. 11. 
Have you bruahed your teeth yet) 12. Yon need your vest 
and coat now. 13. Wby do you not give me themi 14. 
There they are in the clothes-press. 15. I am going to give 
you them at once. 16. We are ready now, and we are going 
down stairs. 17. We shake hands with onr father and mother. 
18. They shake hands with us. 19. We shake hands with 
each otber. 20, They are going for a walk in the garden 
after breakfast. 21. We are going for a walk there toa 




85. Imperfect Indicative of donner, flnir, vendn 

I vae giving, etc. I waa finishing, etc I waa Belliog, etc 

doim ais [dace]. finias us [finiBs]. vend bis [v3de]. 

donn sis [dooE]. £iiisa ois [fioisc]. vend ais [vSdc], 

donn ait [done]. finiss sit [finieE]. vend ut [vfldcj. 

donn ions [danjS]. finiss ions [SniajS], vend ions [vadjS]. 

donn iez [danje]. finiss iez [finisjet vend itx [vddje]. 

donn uent [dsne}. finiss aient [finiae}. vend aient [vddc]. 

86. Imperfect IndtcatiTe of aooi'r, itre. 

I bad, used to have, etc I was, used to be, etc 

av ais [bvg]. av ions [avjS]. it aia [et«]. it ions [etjS]. 

avaia[ave]. av iez [avje]. dtaiafete]. rt iez [etje]. 

av ait [ave]. av aient [ave]. it ait [eU]. ^t aient [etc]. 

To form the Pluperfect tense, add a past participle, see §63. 

87- Use of Imperfect I- It denotes what used to hap- 
pen or continued to happen : 

NouB parllons souvent de cela. We oft«n nsed to speak of that. 

Mon onole itait tris vieux. My uncle was very old. 

n aUait Bonvent k pied k la vjlle. He would often walk to town. 

2. It denotes what waa happening when something eln 
happened or was happening : 

On chantait qoand je snis arrive They were singing when I arrived. 
SI parlait pendant que noua chatt- He was speaking while we «ang 
ticma. (were singing). 

88. Imperfect of f aire (irreg.). 

I was doing, etc. 
je faIaus[:(sfozE]. nous faia ions [nafazjSJ. 

tn fikiB ais [ty faze]. voua faia iez [vn fazje]. 

il Uis ait [il faze]. ils faia aient [il lem\ 

89. For imperfect of commencer, manger, cf. §§ 78, 166; 
e oommeajaiB [so komdse], etc je manseais {mStie], etft 

,;.!;, Google 

00 LESSON XXL [§q9 

[The vocabnlarieB for this tind the renuuniog ezeroiaet will be foaiid 
at the end of the volume. ] 

A. Nous avona ^t^ h. I'^gliae ce matin. Quand nous sommea 
MTivis on chantait d^jJt le premier cantiqne. II ; avait 
beaucoup de monde, et nous avons trouv^ nn banc avec diffi> 
cnlt£. Lo paateur a lu (read) un chapitre des ptoverbeB, Tout la 
monde ^oatait attentivement pendant \e. lecture dn chapltre. 
Enfiuite le pasteur a pii^ Dieu, et on a chants des versets 
d'un autre cantique. Aprte cela le pasteur a choisi comme 
texte an yera«t du " Sermon but la montagne." Voici le texte 
qu'il a choisi : " Tout arbre qui est bon poile de bons fruits ; 
mais un maavab arbre porte de mauvais fruits."* Le pasteur 
I'a expliqud, et en a tir^ de bonnes te^ns. H a compart 
lea homines avec lea arbres. Le m^rite dea hommes conaiate 
dans leurs bonnes actiona, comme le m^rite dea arbres dana 
leurs bons fruits. Ce sermon a ^t^ nn encouragement ^ foire 
le bien. Le sermon fini, on a fait la qu^te, on a chants eacor« 
Bt le pastenr a donn^ la b^n^iction. 

B. Continue the following : 1. Je chantiua le premier 
cantiqne, etc. 2. J'avaia d^jii chants le premier cantique, etc. 

3. Le pasteur priait Dieu quand je suis arriv^, le pasteur, etc., 
quand tn, et«. 4. Je comparais les hommes avec lea arbres, 
etc 6. Eat<e que je faisaia la quSte % etc. 6. Est-ce qa« 
je ne finissais pas mea Ie50ns %, eslxie que tu . . . tes lemons 1, eta 
7. A. qui est-ce que je vendais mes pommesT, i. qui est-ce que 
tn. . .tea pommes), etc. 8. Y avait-il beaucoup de plumes 
d&na ma bolte X, dana ta botte, etc. 

C (Oral.) 1. Oi avez-vous ^t^ ce matin? 2. Y avait-U 
beancoup de monde t 3. Que faisait-on quand vonaSteaentr&T 

4. Qu'est-ce que le pasteur a fait aprte cela? 5. Elst-ce que 
noua ^coutions pendant la lecture du chapitrel 6. Votre 
tante ^coutait-elle attentivement anssit 7. Tout le monde 
^coutait-il attentivement t* 8. Qu'est-ce qu'on faisait pendant 
que le pasteur priait Dieuf 9. Et aprda cela qu'est-ce que le 
pasteur a fait t 10. Qnel ^tait le texte qn'il a choisi! 11. Le 
sermon ^tait-il int^ressantl 12. Qui a expliqn^ le textet 13. 
Quels fruits les bona arbres portent-ilsl 14. Et les mauvais 
arbres quels fruita portentjlsl 16. Qu'est-ce qu'on a faib 
Afwis le semuml 16. Est-ce qn'on chantait pendant qu'on 

-.u, Gtjo^lc 

§90-91] LESSON XXIL 61 

faia&it la quSte t 17. Qui a, dotini U b^a^ictionf 18. Que 
fEUB&it-on quand voua ^tes ftrriv^ ohea vous) 19. Alliez-vooi 
souvent ii I'^glise quand tous ^tiez & la campagae 1 20. Yotra 
Tieil oQcle allait-il i, Teliae toua les dimancheal Btc., et«, # 

D. 1. I ofCea used to go to church when I waa in the 
oountry. 2. My relatives used to go (y) every Sunday. *3. My 
old uncle used to go (y) in his carriage. 4. I went to church last 
Sunday. 5. While I was at church my brother was taking a 
walk on the mountain. 6. There were a great many people 
in the little church. 7. There were people everywhere, in the 
seats and at the door. 8. I met one of my cousins at the 
door. 9. When we went in the pastor was finishing the 
reading of the chapter. 10. They (on) had already sung and 
prayed. 1 1 . Then they sang two verses of another hymn, and 
the pastor began the sermon. 12. What was the t«itl 13. 
The text was a verse from the "Sermon on the mount," 14. 
While the pastor was speaking, everybody listened attentively. 
15. He finished the sermon, and then the collection was taken 
up. 16. While they were taking up the collection, the pastor 
read some verses. 17. We sang again, and after the last 
hymn the pastor pronounced the benediction. 18. As I was 
going home I met my brother. 19. We were hungry when 
we arrived at the house. 20. My uncle bad already arrived, 
and we had {awns fait) a good dinner. , 

LESSON xxn. ^ 

pa Future Indicative of donner, finir, oendrs. 

I shall give, etc I shall iiiiiHh, etc I shall sell, etc 

donner ai [danare]. finir at [finire]. vendr ai [vddre]. 

donner aa [danera}. Sniras [iinira]. vendr as [vddia]. 

donner a [danara]. finir a [finira]. vendr a [vddra]. 

donner ons [donarS]. finir ons [finirS]. vendr ons [vfldrS], 

donner ez [danere]. Snir ez [linire]. vendr ez [vadre]. 

donner ont [danerS]. finir ont [fioira]. vendr out [vtidrS]. 

91. Future Indicative of auoir, itre. 

I Bhall have, etc. I shall be, etc. 

anr ai [are], anr una [orS]. aer ai [sare]. oer ons [sarS]. 

anr as [ora]. aor ez [ore]. wr aa [sata]. ser ez [sare]. 

aura [ora], aorontioiS). fera [nra]. Mraiit[Mi^ 

u, Gooijlc 

fl2 LESSON XXIL [§§92-94 

92. Future Indicative of a//er (irreg.), coAfafn (img.). 

I shall go, eta. I shall do, etc 

Ir ■! [ire], ir dos [irS]. far ai [fare], fer ons [farS], 

ir MS [ira]. ir es [ire]. fer as [fera]. fer ex [fare], 

ir ■ [ira]. ir out [irS]. fer a [fara]. fer out [fariC^ 

^ For the future of lever and acfaeter, cf. §78, 3 : 
je liveni [levMe], etc j'achiterai [aJeUre], etc. 

94. Use of Future. It ia used in general aa in English, 
but observe its use in a subovdinate sentence, when futurity 
is implied (but for 'if clause see § 116, 3); 
Je lui parlerai qoand il aniTen, I shall apeak to him ^riun he cornea. 


^. II est dijk tard. Maintenant nous allons nous ooucher, 
Nous avoDs fait nos plana ponr demain. Nons nous l^ve- 
rons de bonne heure. Le dejeuner sera pr€t quand nous nous 
Ibverons, et nous sorttrona bient6t apr^ S'il fait beau temps, 
nons irons k pied, mais s'il fait manvais temps, nons presdrous 
le tramway. Kous passerons d'abord chez la modiste. Si noa 
chapeauz ne eont pas pr6ts, nous attendrons un peu. Mais ils 
seront pr6ts, parce qne je les ai vus hier, et ila ^taient bien 
avanc^ Avant midi nous serons chez la couturifere pour 
«sayer nos robes. Nous y resterons probablement une heur& 
Alors nous irons prendre une ghtce au cafd Bnsuite nooa 
flntrerons dans un magasin de nouveaut^s pour acheter de la 
dentelle et des mbans. Puis nons monterons encore dans le 
tramway, et nous serons de retour de bonne heure dans I'apr^ 
midi, parce que nous atteodons des amies. Si nous ne sommes 
pas trop fatigufes, nous irons le soir au theatre ou au concert. 
Si nous nous amusons bien, nous ne serons pas chez nous 
avant minuit. 

if. Continue the following : 1. Je vais me coucher, etc 
2. Je me l^verai de bonne heure demain, etc. 3. Est-ce que 
je sortirai aprfes le dejeuner), etc. 4. Est-ce que j'achfetertu 
des mbans % etc. 6. J'attendrai an caf^, etc 6. Est-ce que 
je ne serai pas de retour de bonne heure i, etc 7. Si je snis 

u, Gooijlc 

$95] LXSSON zznL 68 

bktigiiie, je ne sortirai pas, si to, etc 8. S'il Uit bean temps 
demain, j'irai en ville, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Pour qnand faites-vons voa plans? 2. Sor. 
tirezvoQB demain s'il t^t bean temps t 3. Que ferez-TOus s'il 
fait mauvais temps 1 4. Tons 16vere&-voua de bonne benre} 
6. Le ddjeoner sera-t-il pr6t) 6. Qu'est-ce que vous ferez 
apr^ le d^jenaerf 7. Irez-vous & pied on diuia le tramway} 
8. Qni va vona accompagnerl 9. Ott irez-vous d'abordi 
10. Votre Bcenr ira-telle anssi chez la modistel 11, Qu'est- 
ce que vona ferez si votre cbapean ii'est pas prftt 12, Koos 
attendrez-vous cbez la modiste on an caf^ 1 1 3. Foorquoi allet 
vous chez la couturiire? 14. Quand y serez-vous 1 16. Irez- 
vous an caK ensuitel 16, Qu'est-ce que vous ach^teret an 
magaein de nouveaut^t 17. Qnand aerez-voos de retonrt 
18. Vos amies seront-elles chez vousl 19. Oti irez-vons le 
Boirt 20. Quand seraz-vous de retonrt Etc., eta 

D. 1, After (the) dinner I shall make my plans for to- 
morrow. 2. Then I shall go to bed. 3. To-morrow I shall 
rise early. 4. After (the) breakfast I shall go out if it is fine. 
6. My sister will go out too. 6. We shall take the street-cars 
if it is not fina 7. First I shall go to die milliner's. 8. I 
shall wait for my sister there. 9. Our hats will probably be 
ready. 10. They were well advanced yesterday. 11, After 
that we shall go to the dressmaker'a 12, We shall remain 
aa hour there to try on our dresses. 13. If we have (the) 
time we shall probably go to the caf^. 14. What will you 
do next} 15. I shall go to the dry-goods store to buy some 
ribbons. 16. My sister will return home. 17. Some friends 
will be waiting for her there. 18. I shall go to the concert 
in the evening with my brother if I am not too tired. 19. My 
Bister will stay at home with my mother. 20. They will 
expect us before midnight. ^-, 

% ^* 

LESSON xxin, 
95. DmunctiTe Personal Pronouns. The personal 
pronouns already given are used as subject or object with 
the verb, and are hence called 'conjunctive.' The following 
forms, not being immediately connected with a verb, an 
called 'duganctive': 

u, Gooijlc 

64 LESSON xxm. [§§96-97 

mot [mwal, I, me. nons [ira], we, us. 

toi [iwa], thou, thee, yon. vona [vu], you. 

Inl [li|i], be, him. eux [i«], they (m.), tbeiD{m.^ 

elle [el], Bhe. her. dle> [el], thoy (L ), them (t). 

96. The following are some of their ases : — 

1. Absolutely, a verb being implied, but not expressed: 
Qni eat U !— Moi (eni, elles). Who ia there !— I {they). 

2. After a preposition : 

Fooiellea; aveomoi; suuenx. For them; with me; witbootthemi 

3. As logical sutgect after ce + 6tre : 

Ceat moi, lyeHt toi. It is I, it is thon {yon). 

Ceet lui, c'eat elle. It is he, it is she. 

Ceat noua, c'eat voua. It is we, it is yoo. 

Ce aont mz, ce aont ellM. It ia they (m. ), it is tliey {1 ). 

97. Hitherto in the exercises il(s), eUe(s), standing befora 
» Terb as subject, have been nsed for 'he,' 'she,* 'it,' 'titay' 
(§ 40). When the logical subject follows the verb 6tre, ' hO)' 
'she,' 'it,' 'they' = ce, as representative subject, ia cases like 
the following : 

Ceat Marie et aa mire. It ia Uary and her motiur. 

C'eat Dooa, ce sent euz. It ia we, it is they. 

C'eet nn homme cdlibie. He ia a celebrated man. 

C'est nne joUe dame. She ia a pretty lady. 

Ce aoat dea amia de Jean. They are friends of John. 

Ce BOQt mes meillenres amiea:. They are my beat friends. 

C'eat anjoard'hul Inndj. It ia Monday to-day (to-day ii, etc). 

Cest a nous qu'il parle. It ia to as that he ia speaking. 

C'eat id qa'il demeore. It ia here that he lives (he Uvea hen). 


[BefoMdoingthlsezeiciaeleBm the preaeot indicative of voii, 'to see,' 
p. 82, and Its paat participle vD, ' seen.'] 

A. Noua irons en ville k pied ce matin, n'estrce past — Oh 
oni, il fait beau, et nons caoserons en route. Qui est oe 
monsieur qui est U-baa de I'autre o6t^ de la rue 1 — Cest un de 
noe anciena voisins. II demenre k present dans une antra 

.., Glxh^Ic 

{97] LESSON XXUL 66 

me. — Yoilk nn ftutre monsieur qui attend le tnuniray ; c'ert 
votre professeur de fran^is, n'estoe posl — Oni, c'est lui. 11 
va doimer probablement une le^n.— Voil& m&intenant le 
tramvaj' qui passe. Avez-voua tu ces deux mesaieurs qui 
nouB oot Balu^ t — Oui, je les ai vus. Ce aoub les measieurs 
que nous avoos rencontr^ I'autre soir. — Voyez-vous cette dame 
qui monte en voiture) C'est I'amie de votre m^re, n'est-ce 
pasi — Nan, ce n'eat pas elle. L'amie de ma mtre est plus 
grande. — Qui est ce monsieur qui approche ) II va noua parler, 
n'est-ce pas t — Non, ce n'est pas ii nous qu'il va parler, mais k 
ce monsieur qui est derriire nous. — VoiUi encore un autre 
monsieur qui vous salue. — Ce n'est pas moi qu'il satue, c'est 
Tous. — Mais non, c'est bien vous. H m'est inconnu. C'est la 
premiere fob que je le voia. — Nous voici arriv& maintenaat. /■ 
C'est ici que vous alliez entrer pour acheter vos gants. 1^ 

S. Continue the following : 1. Je vaia donner une leijon, 
n'est-ce pas?, etc. 2. C'est ici que je demeure, etc. 3. C'est 
moi qui vaia en ville, c'est toi qui vas en ville, etc. 4. J'irai k 
pied, etc. 5 Je vois un monsieur qui moote en voiture, ta 
vois, etc. 6. Ce n'est pas moi qu'il a salu^, ce n'est pas toi, eta 

C. (Oral) 1. OA est^e que vous allez ce matin t 2. Allez- 
Tous k pied ou en voiture f 3. Qn'est-ce que nous ferons en 
route pour nous amuserl i. Qui est ce vieux monsieur 
14-baa) 5. Oit est-ce qu'il demeure k pr^nt) 6. Voiii un 
monsieur qui attend le tramway; qui esfrK»1 7. Voyez-vous 
ces messieurs qui nous saluentT 6. Ce sont des amis de votre 
pire, n'est-ce pasi 9. Qui est cette dB,me qui se promfene en 
voiture? 10. Quand est-ce que je I'ai vuel 11. Est-ce bien 
elle? 12, Ce monsieur qui approche est votre voisin, n'est-oe 
pas? 13. Est-ce moi qu'il a salu^l 14. Qui est-ce que vous 
avez salu^ devant I'hAtel de ville? 16. Est-ce un de vos 
anciensamis? 16. Eat-ce ici que vous allez acheter vos gants? 
17. N'estKn pas dans cet autre magasin lii-basi 18. £st-ce 
la premiere fois que vous allez dano ce mi^asin ? Etc., etc. 

J). 1. We are going down town cm foot 3. We are 
chatting ou the way. 3. We see a gentleman on the other 
side of the ntreet. 4. He is one of my old neighbours. 5. H« 
lived on the other side of the street. 6. He is your 6iA 
French teacher, is he not? 7. No, he ia an (Ad merohant. 


00 LESSON XXIT. [§98 

6. A carriage pasaes next. 9. Who are those two gentlemen 
in the carriage who bowed to us T 10, They are the gentlemen 
Te met yesterday evening, 11, Was it I that they bowed tot 
12. Who bowed to them, you or It 13. I see a lady (who 
is) waiting for the street-cars. 14. She is a ftiend of year 
family, is she not 1 16. She is a friend of my motiier. 16. Do 
you see that gentleman who is approachiagt 17. Yes, who 
is itt IS. He is a celebrated genera] who lives ia this city, 
19. Is it here that you buy your glovest 20, No, it ia in 
that large shop over yonder. 


98. Impersonal VeTl>S. They are conjugated in the 
third person singular only, with the subject il -^ ' it,' used 
indefinitely and absolutely. Among such are verbs describing 
natural phenomena, as in English : 

Quel temps fftit-il t What kind of weather is it t 

H tail beau tempo. It ig fine (weather). 

n plent, il pleovtuL It is nuniog, it wu raining, 

n a pin, il pleuvra. It has rained, it will rain, 

n neige, il a neig& It is anowing, it has snowed. 

D fait ohaud, il fait du vrab. It is hot, it ia windy. 

^.C'estmardi dernier que nous avons fait notrepique-niqoe. 
Nous nous sommes \ev4a presque au lever dn soleil. La pr»- 
mi^ question a ^t^ : quel temps fera-t-il I Le temps ^tait 
couvert, et il faisait tr^ lonrd. II y avoit de gros nnagea k 
I'ouest, et le tonnerre grondait Aijk. H a fait des Mairs, et 
aprte nn grand coup de tounerre la plnie a commence. * II a 
plu pendant une heure. Ensuite le soleil s'eat montr^, et on 
l>on vent a chaas^ les nnages. BientAt il a fait tr^ bean, et 
nous sommes partis. Le piqne-nique a eu lieu dons les bois au 
bord du lac Nous avious I'intention de nous promener en 
bateau, mais il faisait du vent, et il y avait des vagnes. C'est 
pourqnoi nous ne sommes pas all^ sur I'eau. Il a fait chand, 
mais nous ^tioos ^ I'ombre, et un vent frais nous arrivait dn 
lao. Vers midi nous avons mang^ notre goftter. Dans I'apr^ 


|98] LEasoN ZXI7. 67 

midi noua ftvona joa4 et olumt^ Arant 1« concher du wdkU 
nous sonuDOB aniT^ ohez noua. 

B, Commit to memory ; 

1a semaine au londi commenoc^ 
Et mardi Toavroge avance, 
Enauite vient le mercredi, 
Le jeudi, puis le vendredi ; 
Le aamedi comble nos vceux, 
Et le dimauche nous prions Dieo. 

C. (OraL) 1, Aimez-vous lee piqae-niques I 2. Qnand avez- 
T0U8 fait votre pique-nique cett« ann^e? 3. Qu'est-ce qu'oD 
dema&de quaod oa va partir 1 4, Quel tempe faiaait-il quaod 
TOus Tona Stes lev&I S. Est-oe qu'U a fait des flairs) S, 
Est-ce qu'il a plul 7. Quand la pluie a-t-elle oommenc^I 8. 
Pendant combien de temps estrce qu'il a plu ? 9. Quel tempa 
faisoib-il quand vous 6tea partis t 10. OA Totre piqna-niqne 
a-t-il ea Heul 11. :f:te3-Tou3 all^ fiur I'eaut 12. Fourqnoi 
paal 13. Y avait-il de grosses vaguea ! 14. Quand avez-vous 
mang^ votre goflterl 15, Vous fltes-vous bien amus&l 16. 
Etes-Tous arrive tr^ tard chez voual 17. Quand Stes-roufl 
arriv&t 18. Quel jour eat-ce aujourdliuil 19. Etdemaiu! 
20. Et apr^s-demainl 21. Quels sont les antras jours de U 
■emainef Etc, eta 

2). 1. I like picnioa. 2. I always enjoy myself at picnici. 
S. If the weather is fine, we shall have a picnic to-morrow, 
4. What kind of weather is it now! 5. It is raining. & 
There will be no rain tt^morrow. 7. The ann is showing itself 
already. 8. This afternoon it rained for (pendant) two hours. 
9. Where will your picnic take place I 10. It will take place 
in the woods, at the lake shore. 11. We bad a picnic there 
last summer toa • 12. If it is not windy, we shall go for a 
row. 13. Last summer we did not go upon the water. 14. 
The waves were too large. 15. Will you eat your lunch before 
noon? 16, What will you do in the afternoon? 17. We ^U 
ung and play. 18. When will you reach home ? 19. Wa 
sh^ set out before sunset, and we shall reach home early. 
20. The days of the week are: Sunday, Monday, TuesdAy, 
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday. * ^ 


u, Google 

68 LESSON XXT. [399 

9P. The InfinitiTe. Some of tiie otniimoner uses of the 
infinitive are : — 

1. WiUiont any prepoeitioD, after such verbs as vouloir, 
<will,' potlTOir, 'can, may,' d^sirer, 'wish, desire,' savoir, 
•know how to,' dCTOir. 'ought,' falloir, 'be necessary,' aller, 
'go'; after verbs of perceiving, such as TOir, 'see,' ^coutCT, 
'listen (to),' regarder, 'look at'j also after faire, 'make, 
cause to,' laisser, 'let': 

Dfeire-t-il allor en viller Does he wish to go down town I 

n lui trsvailler. He must work. 

Je vaii chercher dee plumas. I am going to get some pemi. 

Je ToiH vaoir Abb soldata. I see some soldiers comiiig. 

Je fais sonner la cloche. I make the bell ring. 

2. Preceded by de, after £tre impersonally + an adjective; 
after many verbs like cesser, 'cease,' r^^rctter, 'r^ret,' 
prier, ' beg'; after nouns to form adjective phrases; and after 
most adjectives : 

n est facile de parlor. It ia easy to talk. 

D a oesad de chanter. He has ceaaed BJnging. 

Le crime de voler. The crime of stealing. 

TouB £teB lihre de partir. Yon are free to go. 

5. Preceded by k, after verbs like r^usslr, 'sacceed,' aimer, 
'like,' enseig^ner, 'teach,' etc.; and after some adjectives: 
J'aime k patinei. I like to skate (like skating). 

Je m'amose k patiner. I amuse myself (by) skating. 

Oola eat facile h fairs. That is easy to do. 

4. Observe that the same adjective may take Ji or d^ 
according to the constmction in which it is used : 
D eat facile h contenter. He is easy to satisfy. 

H set facile de le conteater. It is easy to satisfy him. 

Ceat facile i. faire. That (or it] is easy to do. 

6. A. verb governed by a prepoeition must be in the infill 
tive, except after en-(ct § 101) : 

Je I'al tail sans pemier. I did it withont thiiW^g, 

,;.!;, C^t)t-)'^le 

|§100-103] LESSON XXV. 69 

loa Present Participle of dormer, finir, oendre, etc. 

Giving. Pimahing. Selling. 

doDn ant [dona]. finUa ant [fimaa}. vend ant [vddOl 

Having. Bedng. 

arant[eja]. 6tatA{etS\. 

101. ^^freemeilt. 0aed aa an adjective, the preaeat parti- 
ciple agrees like am adjectirej otherwiBe it is invariable: 

Uoe ictoe chBjmuite. A charmmg scene. 

Bile tombait wnvoit en mardumt She often fell while walking. 

102. Present IndicatiTe of pouooir, 'be able,' 'can,' 
•may' (irreg.). 

I can, am able, eto. 
je puis or penx [ja pqi, pfy nooa ponvons [nu pnv3J 

tu petui [ty p0]. vons ponvez [vu pare], 

il peat [il p^]. ils peavent [il pteiv]. 

103. Observe the ase of the impersonal il faut + infinitiv«: 
n lui faat partir. He miut (it ia necessary for him to) go. 
n me faudra tiavailler. . I ahaJl have to work. 

H ne faat paa voler. We (one) most not steaL 


A. Bonjour mon ami ; je suis charm^ de voua voir, Oom- 
ment vous portez-vous i — Je me porte trte bien, merci. — Comme 
j'aime k me promener 1e matin ! II a gel^ cette nuit, maia 
maintemint le soleil brille et il fait presque chaud. M^gr^ !• 
froid tout est gai. — II a'; a pas de fleurs, mais il y a de petite 
oiseaoz qui n'ont pas encore cesa^ de chanter. En passant j'ai 
regards le petit lac, et j'ai vu qu'il y avait de la glace. Noiu 
pouvoQs bientdt patiner. — Aimez-vous li patinerf— Oui, j'aime 
beaucoup k patiner. Nous avons beauconp d'amnsements en 
hiver, a'est-ce pas 1 — Oh oui, il eat trte facile de s'amuser ea 
hiver quand on se porte bieo. — Aimez-vona k vous promener 
an trabieaa ! O'est tr^ amnsant, n'est-ce pas t — C'est surtonl 
le Boir que j'aime une promenade en tratneau. C'est si joli 
quand il fait clair de lune. La neige est blanche, tout le monde 
eat gai, et lea chevaux font sonner lenrs grelots. — £t >i on ne 


rO LEB80N xxr. [§IOS 

desire pu aortir, on pent a'amuser k la maison. Yona aimez la 
lecture, n'est-ce poaT — J'aime beaucoup k lire. Hier j'ai com- 
mence an roman de Daudet. Quelquefoia nous invitona nos 
amia k passer la soir^ chez nous. Nous aimoas k chanter et k 
danger. II eat facile de passer le teiups quand on a dee amia. 

B. Continue the following: 1. Je ne peux pas partir ce 
matin, etc. 2. H me faut partir ce aoir, U te faut, etc 

3. list-ce que je ne me porte pas bien 1, etc. 4. Get^e que 
j'aime k patiner!, etc. 6. Je ne cesse pas de chanter, etc 
6. Je Toia une sc^ne charmante, etc, 

C. (Oral.) 1. Comment tous portez-Toua ce matin! 2. 
Avez-voos bien dormil 3. Est-ce qu'il a gel^ cette ncit) 

4. Ea quelle aaison lea oieeaux cessent-ils de chanter t 
6. Quand eat-ce qu'ila commencent k chanter) 6. Eat-ca 
qa'il y a d^ji de bonne glace aur le lac ] 7. Peuton y patiner 
oe aoirt 8. Aimez-vous k patiner! 9. Qu'eatce que vous 
fadtes en hiver pour vous amuser! 10. Estrtl facile de 
s'amuser en hiver ! 11. Fouvez-vous vous promener en 
trainean ce soir! 12, Ne d&irez-vous pas sortir ce aoirt 
13. Qu'aTeB-vous I'intention de fairel 14. Allez-vous passer 
toute la soir^ chez vous! IS. Faut-il avoir des amis pour 
•'amuser ! 16. Aimez-vona k passer la eoir^ k lire t 17. Quand 
avez-Toua commence k lire ces romansi 18. Ce sont dea 
romans cbarmants, n'est-ce pas t 19. Vous faut-il rester k U 
maison ce soir t Etc., etc 

D. 1. Oood morning; I am charmed to see yon. 2. Hie 
weather is very fine for the season, is it not I 3. Did you look 
at the ice on the lake in passing i i. Tee, the ice is good, 
and we shall soon skate. 5. Do you like to skate ! 6. Yes, 
but I cannot go skating this evening. 7. I must stay at 
home. 8. Yon can amuse youraelf reading. 9. I like to pass 
the evening at home sometimes. 10. It is easy to find 
amuaementa. 11. We often invite friends to pass the evening 
with us.tl2. We have begun to read a novel together. 
13. It is charming to go for a sleigh-ride sometimea. 14. The 
white snow and the moonlight make a charmiug scene, 
15. It is so charming to hear the sleigh-bells ring. 16. We 
most go for a sleigh-ride to-morrow. 17. I shall go if I can. 
18. We shall go too. 19. We must have some Mends with ni. 
SO. To eujc^ one's self one must have friends. 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

S§104-106] LESSON XXTL 71 

X04. Present SubjunctiTe of donner, flnir, oendn. 

I (nuiy) giTfl, flto. I (may) finish, etc. I (ni»j) sell, etc. 

donne [dso]. finiase [Snu], vende [vfltd]. 

donn ea [don]. flniM es [finia]. vend ea (vdid]. 

donne [don]. finiaa e [finiB]. reitde [vaid]. 

doim iona [doujS]. finisi ions [finis}3] Tend ions tvSdjS). 

donn iez [donje| flnias iez [finiajej. vend iez [TSdja]. 

donncnt [dan]. fiiusaeiit [finis]. vend ent [raid} 

N.B. — The ptLradigin meaningB ■ I may give,' eto., are only appcozi- 
luate, aa will be seen from the examples below. 

lOS Present SubjunctiTe ot avoir, Stre. 

I (maj) have, etc I (toaj) be, et& 

aie [e]. ayona [e}3]. sois [awa]. soyona [swajfi]. 

aiea [e]. ayez [eje], sois [awa]. sojez [swaje]. 

«it [e]. aient '[e]. eoit [swa]. soient [swaj. 

X06. Use of the Subjunctive. Some of the commonei 
OSes of the aabjvuLctive are : — 

1. In a subordinate noun clause introduced by que, 'that,' 
after expressions of vnUing or deairing : 

Je dMre qne vous reatiet. I desire yon to remain (=that yen 

may or should remain). 

2. Similarly, after ezpressiona otjoy or torrow .■ 
Je aoia contait qn'il soit id. I am glad he is here. 

3. So also after expressions of necessity, like il faut : 
n but qne vons reoties. Yon mnst remain. 

S est nteesaaire que vons r^atiez. It ia necessary for you to remain. 

4. It is used in adverbial clauses after certain conjunctions, 
t-ff; afin Que, 'in order that,' pour que, 'in order that,' 

arant que, 'before,' bieu que, 'although,' quoique, 

'although,' etc. 

Ken qn'il eoit panvre il eat heureni. Although he is poor he is happy, 

6. Que is never omitted, as ' that * often is in English -. 
Je anla oonteut qn'il eoit ioL I am glad (that) he is hera> 

-.u, Googlf 

72 LKSSON XXTL [§§107-109 

IffJ. Tense Sequence. Present or Future is regularly 
{(Gloved by Present Subjunctive : 
Pmb. II faut J ^^^ ,j^ ( You must speak. 

Fur. II faudra ( 1 You will have to speak. 

xo8. Present Indicative of uoulolr, 'will,' 'wish,' etc. 


I will, wiah, etc 
jo yem [je vi*]. nous voulons [nu vulS]. 

tu veui [ty T0]. vous voulez [va vule]. 

il vent {il Tft], ila veulent [il voel]. 

1091 Present Subjunctive otfaire (irreg.). 

■ 1 (may) do, eta 
fuse [ftui]. fsBBionB [faajS]. 

bases [fas). fassiez [fasja]. 

&s8e [fas}. faasent [fas], 


A. On f rappe k la. porte. Je vais Toir qui c'est. » C'eat ime 
de mes amies. EUe entre. Nous causons ensemble. — Qu'allez- 
V0U3 faire aujourd'huil — Ma robe n'est pas encore pr^te. II 
faut que je sois chez la couturiire avant midi kApr^ cela je 
vais porter dea fleurs k une ninie qui est nn peu aouffrante, et 
je dfeire que vous m'accompagniez, si vous pouvez." C'est asaez 
loin, mais nous n'irons pas k pied. Je serai si conteote que 
TouB soyez avec moi. II faut que vous fassiez connaissanoe 
avec mon amie ; elle est si charmante, — Je regrette de ne 
pouvoir pas vous accompagner ce matin ; j'ai mal aux dents 
depuia hier. II y en a deux qui me font souffrir. — Que je 
regrette que vous ayez taut d'ennui ! C'est trfes fAcheus. Et 
qu'allez-Tous faire) — II me faut aller voir le dentiate. H 
arrachera une de mes dents probablement, car elle est entifere- 
ment g&t^ Mais je d^ire qu'il tftche dome conserver I'autre. 

B. Continue the following ; 1. Je suis content qu'il soit 
arriv^ tu es, etc. 2. Je veux qu'elle attende, tu veui, etc. 
3. II faut que je sois 14 avant midi, il faut que tu, etc. 4. II 
d^re que je le finiase, que tu, etc. 5. II faut que je vende 
ma maison, qne tu, etc. 6. Bien que j'aie des amis, bien qoe 
feu, etc. 7. Je suis ffu^ qu'elle soit sou&ante, tu ea, eta 

I., Gi.x)^lc 

$110] LBSSON zxm. 78 

C. (OraL) 1. Qoi frappe h. la portel 2. Qu'est-ce qa'elle 
demanded 3. Totre robe est-elle pr6tetv4. Faut-il que je 
Boia en >ille avant midi t fi. He fant-il partir tout de suite } 
6. D&irez-Tous que je voos accompagne ] 7. Begrettez-voos 
que Totre amie soit souSraate 1 6. Et«e-vous contente qu'eUe 
Be porte mieux k prAjent? 9. Qa'eat-ce que voua avez oe 
matin! 10, IMairez-vona que le dentiate arrache votre dent 
m&lode! 11. Y-julez-vona qu'il vous arrache les denz deota 
maladest 12. Que d^irez-voua] 13. Ke voulez-vous paa 
que je vous attende au caf^t 14. D^iraz-voua que je aoia 
avec vous chez le deotiste) 15. Faat-il que houb aoyonti de 
retour avant midit 16. £t«s-Ton8 f&ch^ que votre p^roait 
vendu Ba maisonl 17. D^irez-voua qu'il en achate une dona 
cette me 7 IS. Gette maispn est jolie blen qu'elle soit petite, 
n'est-ce pasl Etc., etc. 

D. 1. There ia a knock at the door. 2. I do not wish yoa 
to knock at my door. 3. I wish yon to ring. 4. Mnat yon 
be at the dressmaker'B at noon? 6. Tes, I must have my 
dress for this evening. 6. -I am going afterwards to see my 
friend who is in<^spoaed. 7. I am very Borry that she is 
indisposed. 8. 1 must take her some flowers. 9. Do you 
wish me to aocompaay you ) 10. No, I desire you to remain 
at home. 11. I am very sorry yon have toothache. 12. la it 
necessary that the dentist should extract your tvo teeth t 
13. I must go and see him first. 14. I wish him to try and 
aave one of the two. 15. Although Uiia tootli ia a little 
decayed, it is better than the other. 16. Do you wiab me to 
be with yon at the dentist's 1 17. No, I wish yon to buy 
some fruit for our dinner. 18. Although fruit is dear, I Bhall 
buy a great deaL 19. One mnst eat to Uve. 20. Everybody 
must eat enough. ^ 


iia Imperative of donner, flnir, aendre. 

Give, etc. ITiniah, etc. Sell, eto. 

domi e [don]. flnia [fiui]. vend s tvO). 

qnil donn e [don]. qu'il finiss e [Gnii). qn'il vend e [void], 

donn ons (doiiS]. flniaa ons [flnisS]. vend ona [vddSJ, 

donn ez [done]. finiss ez [finise]. vend ez [vfide). 

qn% donn ent [dan], qalla finiaa ent [Aiub]. qn'ils vend ent [vSid] 
Ota..- Ih* >Td rinf. ud lid plw. ■» ■abJunotlT* lomi uHd u impoHtivM. 

U, GoOijIc 

74 LESSON XXVIL [§|111-118 

xiz. Imperative of avoir, Stre. 

H*v«, etc Be, etc 

qniloit [kilc}. qn'ilsoit [em]. 

aj ons [ejS]. Mj ona [swajS], 

•yea [sjel. oojez [awajej. 

qn'ilB oieot [k ilz c]. qa'ila soient [k il (ml. 

ZI2. Imperative N^:atiTe. 

ne doDDe pu. qn'il ne donoe pas. ne dotmona pu, etc. 
XI3. Position of Objects. 1. Personal pronoun objeoto 
follow the positive imperative (but Bot Uie aubjonctiTs aa im- 
perative), and are joined to it and-to one another by bTphens; 
Donnez-Inl la plnme. Give him tlie pen. 

Donnei-U-IiiL Give it to him. 

DoDaoaB-lenr-en. Let as give them some. 

Qu'il me la donne. Let him give it to me. 

2. If the imperative be negative, the general rule of positioD 
(§81) holds good: 

Ne la Ini donnez pu. Do aot give it to him. 

3. Moi and toi are used after an imperative instead of me 
and te (unless before y and en, in which case apostroph* 
replaces hyphen) : 

Domiez-mol dee pomtDea. Give me aome applea. 

Domiez-m'eD. Qlve me aome (of them). 

4. When a verb has two objects, they are arranged thus 
after it (for alight exceptions, see Part II) : 

le (la, lee) before moi (toi, lui, notu. Tons, lenr). 

DM (te, Ini, noos, vons, lear) before 7 (en), 
y before en. 


A, KouB allons ^tudier nos le^ona. Le profesaeur doui a 

Imss^ ici dans cette salle afia qu'on ne nous derange pas. 

TravaiUons ferme. Quel est le livre que vous avez k la maini 

-^'eet ma grammaire fran^aiae. — Donnez-la-moi un moment 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

$113] LESSON xxm. 75 

•'il TouB platt. Je Unre chercher qnelqne choM. — Oii ert 
done mon cahier! Le voyez-voust — Qui, le voici. — Donnec- 
le-moi, b'U vous plait. — Mtuntenast c'eat ma rfegle que ]« 
cherohe. — Je ne I'ai pas vne. — Si vona la tronvez, ne la casaez 
pas. — Avex-TOus de rencret— Oui, j'en ai. — Soyez aseez bon 
pour m'eD dramer. Mon petit ami n'en & pas, tioa plus. 
Donnez-lui-en un peu aussL — En voili. Est-ce assezi — Oui, 
je Tous remercie infiniroept. — Allona, d^pdchona-noos ! II eat 
d^i^ tard, et nous n'avoni pas encore fait grand'chose. — Soyes 
tauiquille, noua fioirons bientSL — " Ayez de la patience '' eat 
line bonne maxime, maia n'en abusons pas. — Avez-youa part^ 
de cette afEaire au profosseur j — Pas encore. — Eh bien, parlez- 
lai-en cette apiis-midi. — Poor Tons contenter, je lui en parlerai. 

S. Complete the foUoiring by adding a nonn object, and 
then repeating the phrase with the proper pronoun i 1. Cher- 
chez... 2. Ne cherchez pas... 3. Finissez... 4, Nft 
flnisaez pas ... 5. Vendez ... 6. 'Ne vendez pas ... 7. Qn'il 
feoute. . . 8. Ghante. . . 9. Ke chante pas. . . 10. ChoisiB- 
sez.., 11. Ife choisissez pas... 12. Vends... 13. Ne 
vends pas... 14, Finissona . . . 16. Ne finimmptf pas... 
16. Tendons... 17. Ne Tendons pas .. . 

C. 1. Go and study your lessons. 2. Study them for aa 
bour. 3. Remain in this class-room. 4. Remain in it for an 
bour. 5, Do not disturb me; I wisb to study. 6. Not let us 
work hard. 7. Show me the lesson. 8. Show me it. 9. Find 
me my exercise-book, if yon please. 10. Find it for me. 
11. I have your ruler. 12. Do not break it, please. 13. If 
yon have any ink, gire me some of it, please. 1 4. Give some 
to Robert, too; he hasn't any, either. 15. Now Robert, thank 
him. 16. Come, hurry up. 17. Have patience, bnt don'b 
have too much of it. l8. Let us finish our lessons. 19. Let 
us finish tiiem before noon. 20. Hsto you spoken to the 
master of that affair) 21. Do not speak olE it to him to-day. 
22. Speak to bim of it to-morrow. 23. We have finished out 
lessons. 24. The lessons are finished now. 26. HaTe the 
kindness to liring me my hat. 26. Look for it, please. 27. 
Let ns go for a walk. 28. Let us not take advantage of the 
Patience of our masters. 39. Let us not take adTantage of it> 


-.u, Google 

?6 LESSON xxTin. [§|114>116 

LESSON xxvm. 
1x4. Ccmditional of donmr, fintr, oendre. 

I shonld give, etc I •boold finiah, efax I iboQld wll, et& 

dcHmer aim [dsnare], finir ala [finire). rendr als [Widnji 

donner ttia [danare]. flnir aia [finire]. Tendr ala [vfidn], 

donner ait [donere]. finir ait [finirE}. Tsodr «it [Tddrc]. 

donner ion* [dooeriS]. flnir lona [fiiiirjS]. reodr iona [vOdiiSy 

donner iex [daneije]. flnir lex [finirje]. rendr lei [vOdrie]. 

donner uent [dansrej. fitiir aient [finire]. vendr alent [Wldre]. 

115 Conditional of aootr, 4tre. 

I should have, eto. I ahonld be, etc 

Mir als [are]. anr ions [arjS], aer aia [ssrc]. wi ions [aaijS], 

anr aia [are]. aor lez [orje]. aer ala [bsie]. aer lez [aaiie]. 

•UF ait [srs], snr alent [are]. ter ait [asre], lei aient [aart], 

Ote. : Id >U rarta tin (Mm d ID* ooDdlOiMMl li th* noM M tbit ot tb* tolon. 

116 Conditional Sentences. 1. The conditional is used 

to express what wonld happes (reeolt) in case scxnething else 
were to happen (condition) : 

8*11 BToit le tempt (condition), If he had time (had he time, eta), 
il fiuinit aa lefOD (result). he wonld fiuiah his Umod. 

3, A ' result ' clause in the conditional (English ' shonld ' or 
'would') regularly tias the 'if' clause in the imperiect indica- 
tive, whatever be the corresponding English form : 
Si j'A^ndiafB bieu (condition). If I atndied (or if I were to a., w 
lem>ItreaenitccmteDt(Teaalt). were Itoa., or shonld I a.) well) 

the master wonld be glad. 

3. A ' result ' clause in the future requires the ' if ' clause in 
(Ae present indicative, whatever be the corresponding K'^g'W*' 

S'il eat ici demain (oratditiou). If he ia (or be, or will be, or ahanld 
)/» Ini dcmuerai I'argsnt (resolt^ be) here t<i-morrow, I thad gin 

,;.!;, GtJO^IC 

$117] LissoN xxTm. . 77 

117. Future and Conditioiiat oCfiiire (img.) ud alter 

if « [ire]. ir &ia [ire]. fer ai [fare]. fer ui [fare], 

k M [in], eto. ir ub [ire], eto. fcr u [ton], eto. fer ail [fare], sto. 


J. Si j'avais mes livres, j'^tndierais mes lemons. Je lea ai 
laiss^ k I'^oole.— Cependant il n'est pas D^ceasaira qoe v<mu 
perdiez votro temps. J'ai mes livTee et je puis vous les prater, 
si voos desires preparer yos lefons. — Tous fite^ trop aimable, 
ie les accepterai avec pl«sir. — De qaels lirres av«s-voiu 
besoin t — J^ besoin d'tine arithm^tique et d'nne g^ographie. 
81 j'avais ausai ua crayon et du papier, j'ea ferais usage. — M« 
biblioth^ue ^nti^ est k votre disposition. — A propos, 

3a'aUez-vouB faire pendant les viuMncee f— Si j'avais beauconp 
'argent, j'irais bien loin. Je snis si fatign6 depnis quelque 
temps.* Et qu'eat-ce que vous allez faire) — Si je n'avaiG pM 
6t6 si Bouvent k la campagne, j'y serais aU^ encore cette ann^ 
Mais il me faut nn plus grand changement a'il eat possible.— 
Alors vona n'dtes pw encore d^d^ — Pas encore, il 7 a tanl 
de r^flexiona k faire. S'il ne fait pas trop cband, nous reste- 
rODS icL On sera tr^ bieu ici, a'il fait fraia. Maia s'il fait 
trte cbaad, nous partirons pour on endroit plos agrteble. 

B. Complete the following by adding a 'result' clause or an 
'if' clause as the case may be: 1. Le mattre sera content. . . 
2. S'il fait chauddemain. .. 3. S'ilnefaisaitpas si chaud. ., 
i. Je Ini donnerai I'argent. . , 6. Je lui donnenus I'argent. . . 
6. Si j'avais du papier et des plumes. . . 7. Si j'avais ma 
grammaire fran^aise. . , 8. J'iraia bien loin. . . 9. Yendries- 
Tous Totre maison. . . 10. Seriez-vons parti. . . 

C. (Oral.) 1. Oh sont voa livresl 2. Si vous les aviez, 
qu'est^ce que vons feriez 1 3. Si je vous prStais ma grammaire, 
en feriez-vous usage I 4. Qn'est-ce que vous ferei si je vous 
prAt« mes livreat 6. Le mattre sera-t-i] content si nous ae 
prriparoQS paa noa lemons t 6. Ne sera-t-il pas content si nona 
^tudions deux benres entJferesl 7. Serait-il content si je perdaia 
mou temps 1 8. Le mattre eat-il content si nous perdons notre 
tempel 9. Est^M que je serai content si je perds mon tempst 
10. Serian>-nonB contents si nous perdiona notre t«mpat 

78 LESSON ZXIX. [^118 

n. Seriez-Toas tatdgn^ bi toos travailliez tonte la soir^t 
12. Iroz-vous k la campagne s'il fitit chaud demaint 13. 
Qu'est-ce qae nous ferous s'U fait chaud demaial 11. Si tooi 
ariez des vacancea, est-ce que vona resteriez k la huusodI 
IS. Que feries-vousi 16. Iriez-vous k la csmpagnet 17. Si 
Tons aviez beaucoup d'ar^ent, que feriez-vous pendant I'^t^t 
18. Serons-nous bien ici s'il fait chaudi Etc., etc. 

i>. 1. I hare left all m; books at school. 2. If I had tbem, 
Z should prepare my lessons for to-morrow. 3. If I do not 
prepare them, the master will not be pleased. 4. If you wish 
to study, I will lend you my books. 6. If you were to lend 
me them, I should be rery glad. 6. I should study the whole 
eveoing. 7. I do not wish to lose my time. 8. I am nerer 
happy, if I am not working. 9. Should yon make vae of 
my peas and paper, if I lent yon themt 10. I should accept 
them with pleasure, if you were kind enough to lend me 
them. 11. If we work the whole evening, we shall be tired. 

12. By the way, what are you going to do in the holidayst 

13. I shall go to the country, if it is hot. 14. I should go 
too, if I had not been there so often. 16. If I had a great 
deal of money, I should go a long way oflf. 16. If one has no 
money, one caonot go far. 17. If it is possible, I shall spend 
■ome days with my relatives. IS. It (ce) will be for me • 
great pleaaurey if my cousins are at home. 


3x8. Use of Article. 1. Names of continenta, countriei^ 
provinces, large islands, regularly take the definite article ; 
La France est nn beau pays. France is a beautiful countiy. 

Nana pBitona ponr le Canada. We are leBTing for Canada, 

n demenre aux fitata-Unii. He Utw in tlie United Stataa. 

2. The article ia omitted after the preposition en = ' in,' * to ;' 
it is also omitted after de in certain constructions : 
Men pire eat en Augleterre. My &ther is in Bngland. 

Nona alloDs en France. We are going to France, 

n Tient d'ltalie. He cornea from Italy. 

Las vlns d'Eapagne. E^taniah wines, 


§§119-120] U3S0N 3XEE. 79 

1X9. ^- Plftco 'where,' 'whereto,' is nsuftlly denoted by 
en before names of continents, European countries singular, 
and feminine countries Bingular outside of Europe; other 
countries OBnallj take the preposition 4 + the definit« article : 
n e«t en (va on) Enrope. He ia in (goes to) Europe. 

U est an (va an) Canada. He ie in (goes to) Canado. 

2. Cities, towns, etc., usunllj' take k, without anj article: 

X2a Present Indicative of sauoir, 'to know' (irreg,)i 

ja aais [le]. nous savong [wvS]. 

tn Baia [sej. voub Bavez [save). 

ilsait [se]. ilssaTent [sa:v]. 


A. Savez-TOus que votre ami est parti hier pour la France t 
— Oui, je le sais. II ^tait bi content ! II sait d^jii bien le fran- 
(ais ; dans quelquen inois il le parl^ra cnmme un Fran9ais. 
— Avez-vous jamais ^t^ en France 1 — Non, je n'y ai jamais ^t^ 
mais j'ai I'intention d'y aller I'ann^ prochaine. Vous y avez 
6t6, n'est-ce pas! — Oui, j'y ai pass^ deux aan^es. C'est un 
beau pays, j'aime beaucoup la. France, j'aime les Frani;ais et 
le franijais. C'eat une belle langue. — Oh oui, vous, vous fitea 
bien avanc^. Vous parlez fran^ais couramment, mais moi, je 
trouve cela dilficile.^En commen^ant, c'est difficile, mais aveo 
le temps vous I'apprendrez, surtout si vous passes une ann^ en 
France. — Quelle partie de la France avez-vous habitfel— J'ai 
habits Paris, mais j'ai visits d'autres grandes vilies. J'ai ^t^ k 
Rouen et k Lyon.— Avez-vous jamais ^t^ au Bas-Canadal — 
Oui, j'y ai ^t^, J'ai ^t^ k Montreal et k Quebec. Ce sont 
deux belles vilies. J'ai ^t^ aussi k la Nouvelle-Orl^ans, ou i! y 
a beaucoup de Franfais. On y parle encore aujourd'hui 
fran^ais. Mais en g^n^ral aux Etats-Unis les Fran^ais n'ont 

s conserve leur langue si fid^ement que lea FnuKjaia dq 

u, Goo^jlc 

80 LsasoK XXIX. [§120 

B. ContiiMje the following: 1. Je parle anglais, tu, «tck 

2. Est-ca que je parla fraa^ais 1, est-ce que tu %, etc 3. Je sais 
biea le fran^aia, tu, etc. 4. Ai-je iii en France), as-tu itA% 
etc 5. Demain je partirai pour le Canada, tu, etc. 6. Je 
vaia aui ^tats-Uuia, tu, etc 7. J'habite les Etata-Unis, to, 
etc. 8. J'irat 4 Paris I'aim^ proobaine, tn, etc 9. J'ai 
demeur^ une ann^ & Paris, tu as, etc 

C. (Oral. ) 1. Oii eat la France 1 2, Quelle langne lea Fran- 
^ais parlent-ils] 3. Savez-vous le fran^aisl 4. Parlez-vous 
fran^is 1 fi. Le parlez-vous couramment f 6. Avez-vous jamais 
^t^ en France 1 7. Combien de temps avez-vona pass^ h. Paris I 
8. Avez-vous ^t^ aussi k Bouen et h. Lyon) 9. Aimez-rous 
ta France! 10. Aimez-Tous lea Fran9aia1 11. £st-ce que 
le fran<^is eat une belle languel 12. Quelle langue parles- 
vonst 13. Eat-oe que nous aommea Anglab on Fraa9aiBt 

14. Les habitants de la Prance parleot f ranijais, n'est-«e pas t 

15. Y a-t-ii beaucoup de Fran9aia aux £uts-Unis f 16. Quelle 
langue parle-t-onauBas-Canada1 17. Farle-t-on auasi la langue 
fran^ise k la Nonvelle-Orldana ? 18. Quelle langue parle-tH3n 
k Montr&l et k Quebec) 19. Lea Fran^ des i^tats-Unis 
ont-ila conserve fid^lement leur laagoe) 20. Depaia quand 
ritudiez-vons le fran^ial 21. Avez-vous I'lntention d'aller en 
France I'ann^ prochaine? 22. Dana quels pays avez-vous 
pass^ les vacancea I'ann^ demi^re % Etc, etc 

D. 1. France is in Europe. 2. France is a beautiful country. 

3. Its inhabitants speak French. 4. French ia spoken also in 
Canada and in the United States. 6. It ia apoken at Mont- 
real, Quebec and New Orleans. 6, French ia a fine language. 
7. We like the French and the French language. 8. We have 
been studying French for three months. 9. I have not been 
in France yet. • 10. I intend to go there next year. 11, I 
shall set out for France in the summer, 12. I shall spend a 
month in Paris, and some time also at Lyons and Rouen. 
13. On my return, I shall remain some days at Montreal and 
Quebec 14. French is a difficult langut^ for the English. 
15, We speak English. 16. You live in Canada. 17. Our 
relatives live in the United States. 18. They live in New 
Orleans. 19. They have never been in France, but they speak 
French like Frenchmen. 20. If you were to spend a year in 
France, you would speak it fluently alaa 

$|121-128] LESSON xxz. 

The Possessive Pronouns. 

[mjf], m. lem tnlena [mjE], m. ^ „) 

e [mjen], L lei mieiinci [mjcn], t j 

[tjE], m. 1« tien [tjq, m. 1 ^y^ 

[tjen], 1 lei tiennei Itjcn], f. J 

[ajS], m. leaiieiu [sjE], m. Ihis, ho™, 

[qcn], L leinennet [sjen], L /itg, ODe'iown. 

le ndtre [noitr], m. \ 

1ft nMre [noitr], 1 / 

le vMre [voitr], in. ) 

la tM« [Toitr], t J 

le leur [lisir], m. \ 

la leur [keir], L / 

tnojtrl OUM. 
[voitr], yonn. 
[Iceir], thwn. 

122. Agreement. FoaseaaiTS pronouna agree in gender 
and noinber with the object posaeased, and in peraon witJi ths 

J'al mea livrea ; elle a lea aleoa. I bare mj books ; abe hu ben. 

123. Use of Possessive Pronouns, l. After 4tre, mere 

ownership is r^ularly expreased by it + a personal pronoun 

disjunctive, while the uae of a poaaessire prononn impliea 

distinction of ownership : 

Cette Dtontre est k moi. This watcb is mine. 

Oetle montre eat la mienne. Tbis watob is mint. 

2. Deand jl-f le mien, etc., contract as uaual (ct §§3S, 461: 
Je parle de sod ami et du mien. I speak of bis friend and of mine. 

3. Since le sien, la Sienne, etc., mean 'his,' 'hers,' 'its,' 
'one's,' the context detennines which sense is intended : 

E a sea Uvrea ; elle a lea slena. He has bis books ; she baa hers. 

1. Observe the idioms : 
Un de mea ai 

u, Gooijlc 

SS USSON xzx. [|124 

124. Present IndicatiTC of dire, 'to aay,' 'toll' (irr^)^ 
•od at voir, 'to see' (irr^.)* 

I My, etc. I ne, ete. 

}• dis [di]. aotu duoiu [diES]- ]e voia [rwa]. nana voyoni [vwajEt], 
tn dig [di]. toob dit«s [dit]. ta vois [wa]. vona voyoc [vwaje]. 
ilditidi]. ib diaeat [diiE]. UToit[vwa}. ila roient [rwa> 


J, TJq de mes amis, qui voya^ actuellement en Europe^ m's 
voivoyi une lettra I'autre jour. Dana cette lettre il fait les 
comporaisons les plus int^ressantes entre lea habitudes des 
Europ^QS et lea nitres. Far exemple, les chemins de fer 
europtenB sont diff^reats des ndtres. Koa voitares sout plna 
grandea que lea leurs, et elles out uu seul compartimeiit, 
tandia que les leura sont divia^ en plusieurs. Les petits 
OOmpartimeDts sont sonvent tr^ commodes j on peut y Atre 
seul on avec une petite compagnie agr^abla Mais il y a an 
inoonT^ent: on risque de se trouver ftwe k face avec un 
oompagnon de voyage tr^ d^aagr^ble, ou m^me dangerenz. 
Un jour, par exemple, moa ami se Crouvait dans un comparti- 
ment avec un individu qui ne reepectait pas trop la diff^rencs 
entre le mien et le tien. Mod ami avait une jolie montre 
d'or. Son compagnon la remarque. Le train approche d'une 
petite ville, et ralentit aa marche. L'individn tire tm revolver 
de aa poche et dit k mon ami : " Vons avez 1& one belle 
montre, donnez-Ia-moi et je vous donnerai la mienne." Mon 
ami a peur, il donne aa montre, et le voleur saute du train. 

B. Complete the following by supplying a anitaUe posaafr- 
sive pronoun form: 1. Ma montre est en or;.., est en 
argent. 2. Mes parents sont k Paris ; . . . sont aox Etats-Unis. 
3. Marie va cbercher mee plumes et. . . 4. Kons avons fini 
noe lemons ; ils ont fim ... 6. J'ai fini mea le9ona, et Jean 
a fini. . . 6. Vos le^ona sont faciles, maia. . aont difficiles. 
7. J'ai mon crayon, et Marie a. . . 8. Marie a ses crayons et 
. . . aussi. 9. Les Fran^ais aiment leur pays, et nous aimona . . . 
10. Nous aimons notre langue; lea IVan^aia aiment. .. 11. 
Je parle de mes amis, et vons parlez ... 13. Jean donne dea 
flaora k ses sceura, «t Robert en donne. . . 

,;.!;, GlXH^IC 

$124] LESSON zxx. 88 

C. (Onl.) 1. Qui voua a eavoy^ nnelettret 2. Lea haU- 
tndee dea Europ^ns sont-elles lea memes que lea afitree 1 3. 
ITos cbemins de fer soat-ils meilleors que lea leurs 1 1. Leon 
Toilures eont^lles ptos grandea que lea ndtres! S. Les uAtrea 
B<xit«Uea plus commodee que lea lean) 6. Avec qui votra 
uni se trouvait-il dans un compaxtiment t 7. Ia montre dn 
voleur ^tait-elle meilleure que la sienne ) 8. £n quoi eat votn 
moatre 1 9. TouIez-vouB me donner la vdtre «ti Change d« 
lamiennel 10. A qui ^tait Ubellemotitre d'orl *11. Qu'eat- 
ce que le voleur vent donner en Change de la montre de votre 
ami? 12. Qui a tir^ un revolver de sa poche 1 13. Votre ami 
a-t-il tir^ le sien aussi de aa poche? 14. Anriez-Tous donn^ 
au voleur votre belle montre en Change de la sienne T 
16. L'anriez-vous donn^ si la denne avait 4t^ meilleure que 
la vdtre t 16. Qui ne reapecte pas la difference entre le mien 
et le tdeat Etc, etc. 

D. \. A. friend of mine is travelling in France. 2. There 
is much difference betveea the customs of the French and 
oura. 3. For example, our railways and tbeire are dififerentt 
4. Their railways are not bo long as ours. 6. The carriages 
oi. our trains are lai^r than theirs. 6. But their carriages 
are often more comfortable than ours. 7. Oun are not 
divided into oompartments. 6. One day I find myself in 
one of these compartments. 9. I draw my watch from my 
pocket to look wt it. 10. My travelling companion is an 
individual who does not respect the difference between mine 
and thine. 11. He draws out bis also from his pocket, and 
looks at it^ 12. He looks at mine too. 13. He says to me : 
" Here are two watches ; yours is of (en) gold and mine is 
tA silver. 14. Oive me yours, and I will give you mine." 
15. At these words, I draw a revolver which I have in another 
pocket. 16. The thief does not draw his from his pocket, 
because he has no revolver. 17. At this moment the train 
arrives at a little town. IS. The thief is afraid, and jumps 
from the carriage, leaving me his watch. 19. I have now two 
watches^ mine and his. 20. If he had had his revolver, 
and if I bad not had mine, the aflair would have been veij 


M LESSON XXU [§§126-129 


125. The Demonstrative Pronouns. 

ce [as], tfaia, these, that, thoae, he, ihe, it, they, 
ced [sasi], this. 
celA [sala], that. 

cdni [aalqi], m. ) that (one), the (om), cenx [afi, in.\thoM [ooet), the 
ceUe [ael]. /he, she. cell«S [beI], f. Jonea, tiay. 

cdni-d [seli{i ai], m. \thiB (one), c«nx-ct [eg u], m. \ theae (ones), 

celle-d [id ei], t /the Utter. cell«s-d [sel ai], f. /the latter. 

G«Iui-U[a9li|ila],iii.'l that (one), the cenx-U [g0la].ra.\ thoBe(oiieB), 
cdle-Ui [sd la], f. /former. cdles-U [ael la], f./the former. 

126. For the use of ce as distinguuhed from the personal 
prononn il (elle, etc.), see § 97. 

127. Ceci = 'this,' and cela — 'that,' are used to denote 
Bomethiag pointed out or indicated, but not named. Ccla is 
often contracted into ^ in familiar language : 

CeU est ]olJ ; je prdfire ced. That iB pretty ; I prefer this. 

Fouvez-Toos faire cda f Can you do that I 

J'alme fa. I like that. 

128. Celui, 'that (one),' 'the (one),' 'he,' is used of peraoiu 
or things, and is regularly followed by a relative clause or ft 
de dause ; 

Cdui que j'atlendaie eat arrivd. He whom I expected haa ajrived. 
Ceux qui chercbent trouvent. Thoae who seek find. 

Mes fleora et cclles de Marie. My flowera and Majya. 

Celles que vous aimez. The ones (flowers) yoa like. 

129. 1. Celui-Ci, 'this,' 'this one,' 'he,' and CClui-U, 
' that,' ' that one,' are used of persons or things already men- 
tioned, to contrast the nearer and the more remote : 

Voici lea deux chalnes ; gardes Here are the two chains i keep 

celle-d et dDnnez-moi celle-IL this (one) and give me that (one). 

2. 'The latter* is celui-cl, and 'the former' is celui-U^ 

the order of ideas being inverted as compared with English : 

Oioiron et Tlrgile ^talent tone Cicero and Virgil were both oele- 

denz oQhhnK ; cdtii-d Unit brated ; the former was an 

poMe et cdni-li oratenr. orator and the latter a poeL 

I., Clkh^Ic 

§129] U880N XXXL S6 


A. Ua oertain homme poss^daib na ioe et nn petit ohien, 
A. celui-ci il donnait dea oaresses et k oelui-U des farde&ux k 
porter. Le chien B'smoaait toute 1a joam^ H courait par-ci 
par-lJL A. table il mangeait avec son mattre. II donnait U 
patte a tout te monde, et tout le monde M donuait dea 
baisers. Le pauvre ftne Tpyait toot cela, et il en ^tait trte 
m^content. IJn jour il se demaada : " Fourquoi ne me dotine- 
t-on paa autant de bonnes clioses qu'4 ce miserable petit chieal 
Fourquoi doime-t-on toutes lee caresaes k celui qui ne travaille 
paa, et toua lea coups de bit6n k celui qui travaille toujoural 
Je ceaaerai de travailler. J'entrerai dans la salle k manger 
de mon moltre, je doouerai la patte k toua seux qui y sont, et 
ile me donneront des careeaea." Le pauvre ftne tAche de fidre 
oela. II entre dans la salle k mangsr, il aalue la ccanpagnie. 
n chante de as belle voix. H veat donner la patte k son 
mattre. Hais en levant la patte U fait tomber la vaiaselle. 
On a pear, on crie. Lea valeta entrant, et donnent k la pauTTS 
Ute, non dee caresaea, mais dea coups de Uton. 

B. Complete the following by aupplying suitable demonstra- 
tive pronoun forms : 1. Ceci eat bon, . . .est manvaia. 2. Cela 
est grand,. petib 3. VoiU deux montres d'or; 
plus jolie que. . 4. . . .de mon p^re est plus jolie encore. 
6. Voici des livrea pour nous ; donnez-moi . . . , et je voua 
donneru... 6. Donnez-moi d'autres plumes, j'ai perdu... 
que voua m'avez prdt^es. 7. Je parte de Cic^ron et de 
virgile;. . .itait poite et. . .^tait oratear. 8. . . qui volent 
«ont dea voleurs. 9. Get homme a vol^ mon argent et. . .de 

C. I. Qire me that 2. I do not need this. 3. There are 
two pens ; give me this one and keep that one. i. My watch 
is finer than John'a 6. My father'a is still finer. 6. He 
who steals is a thiol 7. Those who steal are thieves. 8. I 
have two brothers, John and Bobert : the former is toller 
tlian I, the latter smaller. 

Z>. (Oral.) 1. Quels ^talent lea deux animanx que possAlait 
oet homme 1 2. Qu'est^ce qu'il donnait k celui-ci 1 3. Qu'eat-ce 
qn'il donnait k celui-l&l 4. L'&ne ^tait-il content de celal 
0. Qn'oBt-oe que I'ioe ae demandel 6. CM eet-ce qn'il veal 

u, Gooijlc 

86 LESSON xxxiL [§§130-132 

sntrerl 7. Eat«e qu'il a fait ceUt 8. I« voix de I'&ne 
eet-elle plus belle que celle dii chienl 9. A qui veut-il 
donner la patte) 10. Ceux qui Boat dans la salle soat-ils 
oontentsi 11. Qu'est-ce que font les valetst 12. Eat-cd 
qu'on donne toujaurs dee coups de bftton k ceus qui lee m^ritent? 

E. 1. The donkey and the dog are useful animals. 2. The 
former carries burdens, and the latter is the faithful friend of 
man. 3. The donkey in this story ia dissatiafied. i. Ue asks 
himself why people give good things to those who do not work, 
d. His master gives caresses to the dog and blows to him who 
works. 6. The unhappy animal is dissatisfied with that. 7. Ue 
ceases to work, and enters the dining-room. 8. He salut«s those 
who are there. 9. He singa with his beautiful voice. 10. That 
ia not yeiy agreeable to the company. 11. Tou know that the 
voice of the donkey is not so pleaaant as that of the dog. 12. The 
master is afraid. 13. All those who are present scream. 14. 
The servants hear this, and enter the room. 15. They give thft 
poor donkey blows with a stick. 16. People do not always giTft 
(des) blows to those who deserve them. 


13a The Relative Pronouns. 

qui [ki], who, which, that, whom (after a prepodtitm^ 

que [ka], whom, which, that. 

(tout [d3], whose, of whom, of which. 

oik [u], in which, into which, at which, to which, etc 

lequd [lakel], m. a., lesquela [lekd], m. p). ) . . ., . ^l ^ 

qnoi [kwa], what, which. 

I3I< Alfreement. A relative pronoun, whether variabla 
or invariable in form, is of the gender, number and person of 
ita antecedent : 

Moi qui itais (vons qui £tiez) \k. I who wag (yon who were) there. 
Le3 lettres que j'ai apporttea. The lett«n which I have brought, 

132. Use of the Relative. 1. The relative of most 
common use is qui, as subject, and qu^ as direct object) of ft 


$183] UE880K xzxn. 87 

2. Qui — ' whom ' (of persons only) is also naed after t 
preposition : 

lAmole qui ]e demsniBla. The uncle with whom I lived. 

3. The force of de + a relative is generally expreased hf 
dont : 

Lea amis dont nous parlicnuu 
L'^Iise dont je vois la toor. 

i. Oil = dans (or some other preposition of position) + a 
Ia ville ofc {or daiu laqnsUe) ]b The mty in which I liv«k 

6. Lequel ia often uBed instead of qui (que, etc.), to avoid 
ambignity, and must be used of things after a preposition: 
Lee Bcean de HOB amis, lesqueQca The aiatera of oar frieods, who(i.e., 
■oat ches otnu k pr^Beut. the aieten) are with ns now. 

6. Quoi stands after a preposition, rarely otherwise : 
Voilk de qnoi je parlais. That is what I was speaking of. 

7. The absolute ' what,' ' which,' < that which ' as sabject is 
Ce qui, and, as object or predicate^ ce quc ; ' of what,' ' that 
of which,' is ce dont : 

Je vois ce qui vona amiue. I see what amiueH you. 

Je Btus ce que je sais. J know what I know. 

Ttnis saveE ce que je saia Yon know what I am. 

Ce dont j'ai besoin. That which I need. 

8. ' He who,' ' the one who,' etc = celui qui : 
J'aime ceuz qui m'aiment. I love thoee who love me. 

Ha montre eat plua jolie que My watch Is prettier than the 0B> 

celle que voiu avez. you have. 

9. The relative prononn, often omitted in English, is never 
(Knitted in IVench : 

Le tableau que I'ai vu hier. The picture I saw yeaterday. 

133. Present Indicative of oonnattre, 'to koow,' 'be 
acquainted with,' etc. (irreg.). 


LCBSOH xxxn. [§188 

I know, etc 

oouiAlt [il koatl 

■ kODW]. 


A. C'eat ma premi^ promenade k Faria. Un Fuisieii de 
mes (unis rn'occompagoe. Nous voil4 jt la place de la Con- 
oorde. — Quelle est cette ^lise dont on volt la fafade au bout 
de cette rue) — C'eat I'^glise de la Madeleine dont je vous ai 
dij^ parl^ ce matin. C'est une tiia belle ^lise. Je vous y 
mineral un de oee jours pour asaiater k la mease. —Quel est cet 
autre Edifice de I'autre c6i6 du fleuve ! — C'eat le palaia de la 
Cbambre dea d^put^ C'est 1& que ae font lea lois du pays. 
Je oonnaia qq d^put^ qui m'a donn^ des billets d'entr^e pour 
demain. Vbulez-vons m'y aocompagnerl — Arec plaiair. Et 
quel est ce grand monument tout pr^ de nouat — C'est un 
ob^lisque ^gTptien qu'on a apportd en France sous Louis- 
Philippe. Voyez-vous aussi ces buit statues situries k diffirents 
pointe autour de la Place? Ce sent dea statues qui repr^ 
aentent lea villea lea plus importantes de la France. B«gardez 
rortout celle de Strasbourg qui est coaverte de couronnes. 
C'est une soci^t^ patriotique qui a fait cela pour m&rquer la 
douleur que lui a caus^ la perte de cette vUle. Begardons 
encore ce qui ae trouve autour de nous. A droite il y a les 
fameux Champs-^lys^es avec leurs belles promenades. Cette 
avenue splendide qui les traverse m^e au bois de Boulogne, 

r passant par I'Arc de Triomphe qu'on voit l^bas k I'honzon. 
gau<^e nous voyons lea jardina des Tuileriea, et plus loia le 
Louvre, ancien palais dea rois de France. C'est U que none 
irons visiter les grandes galeriea de peiuturee. Tout ce qa'oo 
voit d'ici est int^resaant. 

S. Complete the following by supplying suitable relative 
pronoun forms: 1. La ville...aouB habitons. 2. Za ville 
. . .nous demeurona. 3. L'oncle chez. . .je demenraia, 4. Lea 
amia . . . m'accompagnent. 6. L'^gliae ... on voit la £a^e 
Ui-baa. 6. Les acears de noa amis . . . aoat chez nous k present. 
7. Lee damea. ..j'ai donn^ les fleurs. 8. Les cbieaa. . .j'ai 
donn^ la viande. 9. Vous aavez ce ... il a perdu. 10. Je voia 
ae...voas amuse. IL Nous umons cenx...nouB aimeat. 
12, Oe. ..j'ai bescnn. 

fl33] LE680IT xxxn. 88 

C (Oral.) 1. Est-ce la premiere promenade que vons faites k 
Paris ? 2. Quel est I'ami qui vous accompagne ? 3. L'ami que 
Tous accompagcez conualt-il la ville f 4. Quel est I'endroit oti 
TouscommencezTotre promenade? 5. Quelle est I'^lise dont 
on voit la facade ? 6. Est-ce I'^lise dont tous la'arez parl4 
ce matin i 7. Et quel est cet autre ^ifice dont on voit la 
facade de I'autrec6t6dufleuve? 8. Vous dites que TouaaTez 
desbilletsd'entr^e;qui vouslesadoun^s? 9. Est-ce led^put^ 
otez qui vous ^tiez hier soir ? 10. Od est cet ob^liaque ^gyptien 
dont vous m'avez parl^ f 11. Est-ce le grand monument pris 
duquel on voit taut de monde?* 12. Que repr^sentent ces 
Btatues-li? 13. Connaissez-voua celle sur laguelle on volt 
tant de couronnes ? 14. Voulez-vous me dire ce qu'elle repr6- 
aente ? 15. Cet espace qui se trouve k droite, est-ce un jardin 
pablic? 16. Oil nifene cette avenue par laquelle on voit 
p«sser les voitures ? 17. Quels sont les jardins qui sont k 
gauche ? 18. Quel est cet ddifice dont on voit d'ici les fengtres ? 
19. M'avez-voos montr^ tout ce qui est int^ressant 1 Etc., eto. 

D. 1. Paris is a city of vhich we have often spoken. 2. 
TtMlay 1 take my first walk in Paris, 3. The gentleman who 
accompanies me knows the city well. 4. He shows me every- 
thing that is interesting. 6. The point at which we begin 
our walk is the "place de la Concorde." 6. From this aquars 
we see the church of the Madeleine, whose io^ade we admire. 
7. We see also the " Ohambrc des d6put^," wiiere the laws of 
the country are made. 8. A member of pariiament {d^utd), 
at whose house we were yesterday, has given us tickets of 
admission. 9. Near the middle of the square there is an 
obelisk which was brought to Prance in the time of (aoua) 
Louis-Philippe. 10. Statues which represent the most im- 
portant cities of France are situated around the square. 

11. What is that statue on which I see so many wreathsl 

12. It is a statue which represents a city the loss of which 
caused much sorrow to France, 13. Let us look again at 
what is around us. 1 4. Where does that avenne lead, through 
which we see the carriages passing! 15. And what public 
gardens are those on our left, to which we are going (m 
rendre)t 16. They (m) are the gardens of the Tuileries. 
17. Farther oflf you see the Louvre, in which lived (vivre) the 
kings of France, 18. All that you have shown me in tw; 
interesting. 19. I thank you very much. 


. Clhh^Ic 

90 LEssoTT xxxm. [§§134-185 


134. The InterrosatlTe Pronouna; 

qui? [kl], whot, whomT 

que?[ka], what? 

quoi? [kwa], whati 

lequd? [lakel], m. b., leaqneb? [lekcl], m. pL *) iriiioh!, whichotM(f)\ 

btqueUe? [l&kel], 1 e., leaquelles? [lekd], 1 pLjwlutone(e)T 

135. Use of InteiTOgatiTes. 1. Qui? -'who V 'vh<»iV 
is used of persona: 

Qniaonnet Quscait-^UwT Who is ringing f Wboaratbay? 

Dit«a-moi qui Bonm. Tell me who ie ringing. 

Qui a-t-il frapp^ t Whom has he struck T 

He qui pulez-rouB 1 Of whom are yoa speaking T 

2. 'WhoBe!' denoting owner«lupaimpl; = jl qui?) otherwiw 
generally de qui ?, but never dont : 
A qnj eat oe livre T Whose book is this T 

De qui fitw-Tons (le) fila ! Whose sonareyouT 

5. Que? = 'wliat',' stands always as the object or the 
predicate of ft verb : 

Qne vons a-t'il dit r Qu'e«t-ceT Whatdidbe teUyonT WhatisitI 
4. 'What)' as subject is usually qu'est-ce qui?, aod 
*irhat' in indirect question is usually ce qui (oe que, etc): 
Qu'est-ce qui vona a Int^rassd ! What has interested yon t 
Je ne mis pas ce qui m'a frapp4 I do not know what atrvck me. 
Dites-moi ce que Tons disirei. Tell me what you desire. 

6. Quoi ? — ' what V stands regularly after a preposition, or 
absolutely, the verb being understood ; 

A quoi penBes-voos! What are yon thinkiDg oft 

Je obeccke quelque chose. — QunP I am looking for something. — WbstI 
6. Lequel? (laquelle^ etc) — 'which V 'which or what 
one t,' agrees in gender with the noun referred to. Both parts 
of lequel (le and quel) are inflected, and the usual oontrao- 
tions with de and k (of. ^ 39, 46) take place ; 
Laquelle dea dames eat UT Which of the ladiea is thereT 

AnqneldMhomiDMparle-t-UT Toirtiichof themendoeslMspaakl 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

§186] LESSON xxxm. 91 


A. MOQ ami et moi continuooB aujourd'hai notre promenade. 
Nous allons Toir d'aatrea choses inb^resaantes. Je demande k 
mon ami : " Qu'eat-ce que o'eat qne Itle de U Cit^ dont voub 
me parlez 1 " — L'tle de la CiM est uae lie de la Hume oil on 
trouve plusieurs dea grands ^ficea publics de Paris. Mais 
TOUB allez voir tout de suite. Nous voici au Pout-Neuf par 
lequel on entre dans la Cit^. — Quel eat ce grand ^ifico dont 
nous approchons ! — C'est le Palaia de Juatice.— Qu'est-ce que 
c'eet que le Palais de Juatice 1 — C'est I'endroit oit les juges 
tiglent lea difii^renda qui existent entre les particuliers, — 
Quelle eat cette partie de I'Mifice qui ressemble k une ^glisel — 
C'est, en effet, une ^gliae qui s'appelle la Sainte-Chapelle. — Par 
qui a-t-elle ^t^ b&tie 1 — EUe a 6t6 b&tie par un roi de France qui 
sappelait saint Louis, fils da la c£16bre Blanche de Castille. 
Maia continuons notre cbemin. £n avan^nt nous -voyoaa 
I'Hatel-Dieu. — Qu'est-ee que c'eet que I'Hetel-Dieu 1— C'eat un 
hApital. — Et en face de uous quelle est cette grande ^gliael — 
C'est r^glise de Kotre-Dame dont nousavonsd^j^ tantparl^, — 
Oh oui, je me rappelle. Je ue saia pas k quoi je pensais. Que 
je sois bSte 1 I^uelle eat la plus ancienne, I'^glise de Notre- 
DMne on la Madeleine 1 — Notte-Dame est beaucoup plus 
Micienne ; elle est parmi les plus anciennes ^glises de I'Europe. 
Cost une belle facade ; admirons-Ia un peu. Begardez les trois 
portaila qui sont om^ de statues. — Qu'est-ce que c'est que 
cette rang^ de statues au-dessus des portaila I — C'est ce qu'on 
appelle la galerie dea roia. — Qu'eat-ce que cela aignifiet— On 
<Ut que les vingt-buit statuea repHsentent des rois de France. 
An-dessua de la galerie il j a une belle rosace, plus baut, une 
denxitoie galerie oil il n'y a pas de statuea, et encore plus hant, 
les deux grandes tonrs oil ae trouvent les cloches. 

B. Write in French one example of the correct use of each 
fd the following interrogative forms and locutions: 1. QneT' 
2. Est-oe quet 3. Qn'est-ce quel 4. Quel) 6. Quelle) 
6. Quebt 7. Quellesi 8. Quil 9. Qu'es^ce que c'est quel 
10. Quoif II. LequeH 13. Laqnellel 13. Leaquelst 
U. Lesqnellee. 15. A. qui? 16. Dequil 

C. (Oral.) 1. Avec qui vous promenez-vona anjonrd'hoil 
2. Qn'est-oe que vous ^lez voirl 3. Qa'est«e que c'est qos 

I., GtJiH^Ic 



llle de la Cit^l 4. Oji eaUx qu'elle eat eitn^T 6. Quela 
ddifioea a'y troaventl 6. Comment a'appelle ce pont-14t 
7. Qn'est^M qne c'est que ce grand palaist 8. J'en vois 
<lenx, leqnel voulez-voos dire! 9. Vonlez-vouB me dire par qui 
U Sainte<!haipeUe & ^t^ b&tiet 10. Savez-voua de qoi il ^Uit le 
flls t 11. Savez-voua ce que c'est que Illfltel-Dieu ? 12. Laquelle 
eat la plus anoieime de oes denz ^lises, Notre-Dame oa la 
Madeleinet 13. Quel est I'aatre Mifice que vous voulez visiter 
maintenantl 14. Aaquel voulez-Tous aller T 15. Oik sont oes 
fameux portails dont voua porliez) 16. Qn'y a-t-il au-deasus 
des portails t 17. Qn'est-ce que o'est que la galerie des roist 

18. Youlez-Tous me dire ce qa'il y a dans cette tour-l^t 

19. Qa'eat-ce qui vous a iatireaai le plus dans oet Mifloel 
Etc., etc 

D. 1. What interesting things are yon going to see unJayt 
3. What ia the lie de la Cit^! 3. What is the name <A the 
Inidge by which one enters it (y) T 4. Which of those build- 
togs ia the Palais de Justice! 6. What is the Palais de 
Justice! 6. What is a judge t 7. A judge is a man who 
settles disputes. 8. There is a part ot the building which 
resembles a church ; what is it I 9. Will you tell me by whom 
the Sainte-Chapelle was builtl OlO. Which of those buildings 
is the HAtel-Dieul 11. Do yon know what the HAtel-Dieu 
isl 13. What is the name of that large ahurch in front of nsl 
13. Which is the more ancient of those two ohurchea, Notre- 
Dame or la Madeleine? 14. Which of these two churches do 
you admire the moreT 15. In which do yon attend mass! 
16. What is it that people call "la galerie des roia"? 17. What 
is there in the two high towera on the right hand and on tlie 
left! 18. What has interested you moat in Notre-Dame I 

LESSON xxxrv. 

1361 Indefinite Pronouns. The indefinite pronouns of 
most frequent occurreace are :— 

1. On [3], 'one,' 'someone,' 'we,' 'you,' 'they,' 'people,' etc (ct 

2. Qiielqa'iin[kelkiS],iii.,qnelqu'Dne[kelk jii],f., 'Bomebody,' 'mbm 
me,' 'any ons,' plnial qnelqnea-ims [kelksz A], m., qilflqiiri IIIMIS 
[Uknyn], f., 'Bome,' ' some people,' 'any,' 'slew'i 

|137] LI880H XXXIV. 98 

n 7 s qndqn'ua k la ports. There is Mmebody »t the door. 

J'ai VD qnelqnes-imes de voe uniea. I have Been some of yoar frieodi. 
Avez-Tous das cerises, madame ? Have you any chenieB, «iml»m j 
Tta «i qnelqnes-niiea. I ban » few. 

3. Qndqtie chose [kelkejoij], m., 'iomethiitg,' '(uiything't 
Qodqiie cbose eat tomb4 Something has fallen. 

J'ai qndqne choM de bon. I have Bomelhing good. 

4. AloDg with ne + averb, or when alone, a verb being underatood, 
peraonne [person], m., means 'nobody, 'not anybody,' 'no one,' amd 
nen [rjS], m., 'nothing,' 'not anything'; 

Je n'ai parU k personiie. I did not Bpeak to anybody. 

Voiu n'avez rien apportS. Yoa have brought nothing, 

n t^B lien dit de mauvaia. He said nothing bad. 

Qa'a-t-il dit !— Rien. What did he iay T— Nothing. 

Peraonne ici 1 Nobody here I 

137. Gertain forms serve both as adjectives and as pronouns. 
Those of moat frequent occurrence are : — 

1. Autre [otr], 'other' (adjective); ua antre, 'another,' I'witn^ 
' the other ' (pronoun) : 

Une autre foia j d'anbcs oansea. Another time ; other em — ■ 
Lea auties iront ausaL The others will go too. 

SI Distingnish nn antra from encore nn : 
Une antra plume. Another (a'difierant) pen. 

Encon une plume. Another (an additional) peo. 

3. From uitre are formed various locntione : 
L'une et I'autra occasion. Both occasions. 
Lea una et lea antrea partent. All are going awaj. 
DoQues-le k I'nn on k Tantra. Give it to either. 

Ge n'est ni poor lea una ni pour It is for none of them. 

EUeaseSattentleaunealesantrea. They flatt«r each other. 
Us ont peuT lea una des aotres. They are afraid of one another. 

4. When used with ne 4- a verb, or when alone, the verb being under- 
■tood, ancun [ok«], nul [nyl], pas un [poz <£], as adjectives- ' no,' ' not 
WW,' 'not any,' andaa pronouns =' none,' 'no one,' 'not one's 
Ancun ant«ur ne dit cela. No author says that. 

A-t-co de I'eapoirt — Ancnn. Have thej any hope? — None, 

u, Gooijlc 

94 LESSON zzxiv. [§1S7 

5. Td [tel]='Bach,' tm td='ench a.' 'Such' ai am adverb !■ ri 
[d] or tffllement [tElma] : 

Telles Bont mea donleura. Bnch are my griati. 

Qui rocoQte ime telle hiBtoire ? Who telU such a eUtry 1 

Une si belle maison. Buch a beautiful house. 

On homme tellement cruel. Such a cruel man. 

6. Tout [tu], ja., toute [tut], 1, tous [to (as adj.), tua [as ptoa,}^ n. 
pL, toutes [tut], f. pL, = 'all,' 'every,' 'any,' 'whole,' etc: 

Toua les hommes. All (the) men. 

Toute ma vie. All my (my whole) life. 

Toua (toutes) sont amv£(e)B. All have come. 

7. Ufane [m£:m], before a noun or as a pronoun = ■ same ' ; mteie, 
following the noon or pronooa qualified = ' self,' 'very,' 'even,' and 
agrees, but has no article ; as adverb mftme = ' even ' i 

La mftme oboae. The same thing. 

Ce sent les mimes. They are the same. 

Dieu eat la bontd mbiK^ Ood is goodness itseU. 

Les anfants mimes le savent. The very children know ib 

Noua-mimes ; elles-mimcs. We tmrselves ; they themaelvN; 

Us nous ont mfane battus. They even beat us. 


A. A. Paris od peat s'amuser facilement. On y trouT« dn 
amusements pour tout le monde. On y trouve des th^tres, 
dea cirques, des spectacles de toute esp^ce. Hier nous avona 
6t6 k un apectacle qui nous a beaucoup amuaSs. TJn monsienr 
en ^ta,it le directeur, mais tous les acteurs ^taient des chats et 
des chieos. C'^tait quelque chose de mt^niEque. On u'a 
jamais rieu vu de plus amuaant 1 Personne n'av&it jamais vu 
dee animanx si itit«lligents I II y avait dea chieus Doirs et 
des chiena blancs. H y en avait des grands et des petits. H 
y en avait de toutes les racea : des chiens danois, des chiens de 
oerger, dea terre-neuve, des l^vriers et dea caniches. Les 
granda chiens portaient les petits snr le dos. - Quelqaes-una 
^talent habill^a en homme et d'autres en femme ; ils f aisaient 
beaucoup de tours comiques. 11 y en avait qui fumaient la 
pipe. It y en avait d'autres qui causaient ensemble comme 
des peisonnes. D'autres promenaient des voitures d'eofant 
oomme des bonnes. Quelques-uns se promenaient k bicy- 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 

§137] US80N XXXIT. 95 

olette, quelqnes-uns marchaient buf lee pattes de derribre, et 
un, plus fort que les autres, marchait Bur les pattes de derajit. 
II 7 ea artat d'auties qui Be battaient & coups de poing. 
II 7 en avait mSrae qui tiraient des coups de pistolet lU 
couraient, ils sautaient, et pas un ne semblait s'esnuyei Leg 
perBonues qui assistaient au spectacle ne s'ennujaient psA 
uon plus On liait, on applaudissait, on battait des mainsj 
et peisonne n'a quitt^ la s£dle en mauvaiBe bumeur. 

B. Write in French one example for the nae of each of the 
fallowing in a sentence : I. On. 2. Quelque chose. 3. Quel- 
que chose de. 4. Quelqu'un. 6. Quelques-nnes. 6. Ke . . . 
personne. 7. Ne . . . rien. 8. Autre (adj.). 9. L'une I'autre. 

10. Les uns aux autree. 11. Fas une (adj.). 12, Un teL 

13. Toutes (adj.). 14. Tons (pron.). 16. Mgme (-self). 
16. M£me (=Bven). 

C. (Oral.) I. Est-ce qn'on s'amuse facilement k Farist 

3. Y a-t-il des amusements poor tous t 3. Quelques-uns des 
th^tres BOnt-ils tr^ c^^bres ) i. Avez-vous ^t^ ii quelque 
spectacle biert 5, £tait-ce quelque chose d'amuaont I 6. N'avez- 
TOUS jamais rien vu de plus amusant t 7. Avez-voua jamais 
TU an tel spectacle 1 8. A-t-on vu dea animaux si intelligents t 
9. Quelles eap^ces de chiens y avait-il} 10. Qu'est-ce que 
lea uns faisaient pendant que les autres fumaient la pipel 

11. Avez-vous dit que les una 3>arlaient aux autres ! 12. Com- 
ment se battaient-ils t 13. Jouaient-ils tous enmSmetempsI 

14. Est-ce que tous les chiens semblaient contents 1 15. Est- 
ce que les personnes qui j assistaient a'amusaient hien I 

16. Et personne n'a quitt^ la salle avant la fin, n'est-ce pas I 

17. Oes chiens sont-Us les mSmes que nous avona vus I'ann^ 
paas^} 18. Est-ce que les enfants iront les voir encore une 
foisT 19, Irez-vous vous-mtoe 1 20. Irez-vous m€me s'il 
fait mauvais temps 1 Etc., etc 

J). 1. There are amusements in Faris for all sorts of people. 
2. There is something new every day. 3. One can find 
amusement in the promenades and public gardens for nothing. 

4, Yon can also visit the picture galleries for nothing. 5. Some 
of the theatres of Faris are among the best in the world. 
6. Some of its promenades are very celebrated, for example, 
the Champs-Elys^s. 7. Yesterday evening I was at a very 
im mifing show. 8. Two of my coosina (f.), who are at our 

u, Gooijlc 


bouse, vers with me. 9. Both enjoyed themselves very much. 
10. I have never seen uiTtbing more Mnusing myself. 11. It 
waa a kind of theatre, in which the actors were dogs and 
oata. 12. There were doga of all races: shepherd's dogs, 
poodles, and many other kinds. 13. Several of the dogs were 
dressed like men and women. 14. Some were walking on 
their hind feet. 15. Others were amokiag pipes. 16. And 
there were even a few that were chatting blether like people 
in the street. 17. Nobody left the hall before the end of the 
show. 18. We were all very mnch pleased. 19. We saw the 
same dogs last year, hut they seemed all cleverer this year. 
20. I should go to see them again to-morraw if somebody 
MCOmpanied me. 21. I shall go with you myseU, 


2. deux 
a tniis 

4. quatre 

6. six 

7. sept 

5. huit 

10. dix 

12. donze 

13. treize 

14. qaatorze 

15. quinze 

16. seiM 

17. dix-sept 
IS. dix-huit 
19. dix-neuf 

Cardinal Numerals. 

















[diz qjt]. 

■ vl]. 

.. TiQgt Bt nn 
', vingt-denx 

,. trente et nn 
I. qnatSDte 
I. cinqnante 

i. soiiBQte.dii 
.. Kaxaate et oma 

L qnatre-Tiiigts 
.. qnatre-Titigt-ai 
}. quatre-vingt-di 
.. quatre-viugt-Mkze 


deux cents 
deux cent UB 

dsUX rt«i11* 

[vrnd d^ 






[awssa it dis]. 

[katr vr «J. 
[katr vt dis]. 
[katc vl 3is]. 


[dti (Hi a> 




-.u, Glxh^Ic 

§§IS9-142] LESSON XXZT. 97 

Nocira or Noiibkr; l,OIM,OIM=iin ininioa [A niljSI; 2,000,000a 
dmx miUions [d^ milj5] ; 1,000,000,000 = im miUianl [a miljair], 
Obttrw: 1. The hyphen tmitei together ooiapound n 

100, except where et occurs. 2. Et Etanda regularly in 21, 31, 41, 61, 
ftl, is oplioo&l in 70, omitted in 81, uid elaewhera. 

Nona OR Pbonunciatioh : 1. The final consonuit of ff, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, 17, 18, 19, is silent before initial consonant or h upirats of a Tonj 
multiplied bj them, not elsewhere: 'Cinq livrea' [sE liivr], but 'le 
dnq mai ' [la sfik mc]. 2. No elision or liaison occurs before hni^ 
onze: Le huit [Is qit]; lea huit livi«s [le jp liivr]; le once [Is Siz]t 
1m onxe franc« [le S:x frO]. 3. The t is soonded in vinet in 21, 23, 24, 
as, 26, 27, 28, 29, becomee d in 22, ia silent from 61 to 99, is silent in 
cent un, denx cent un, etc ^ 

139. Million and milliard require de before the object 
•Dnmerated; cent <° 'a (or one) hundred'; miUe = ' & (or* ooe) 

140. Quatre-vingt and the multiples of cent take -S only 
Then immediately preceding a noun, or when they tbemselTes 
are used as nouns of number < 

Qnatre-vingts francs. Eighty francs. 

Troia cents francs. Three hundred fnuos. 

Lea cinq cents. The five hundreds. 

Bat: Trois cent un franc« ; quatre-vingt -un fr&nca, etc 

Ott. 1 Hut ui not ooaaa ol Dombar In data, or wtisn used u otdlnsU. 

141. Multiplicatives. 'Onoe'^unefois, 'twice'=deux 

fois, ' three times ' = trois fois, etc. : 

Diz fbis dii font cent. Ten times ten make a bundrei]. 

I4Z Ordinal Numerals. They are formed from 'third' 
upwards by adding -iime to the corresponding cardinal, final 
e being dropped - cinq adds u, and neuf changes f to T 
before -itoie: 


98 US80H XXXT. [^143 

lit premiar [premje]. 7th aeptiime [aetjem]. 

^^fsocond [b^]- 8th huitiime [qitjeo.^ 

^^'^tdeuiiime [d^em]. 9th oeuviAnie [mevjem]. 

Scd troidfeme [trwa^m]. lOth diziime [dizjem]. 

4th quatriime [katriem]. 11th oozjime [SsJEm]. 

fith cinqni^me [aSlcjem]. 2lBt vingt et nnitoie [rlt e 3^]eiii]. 
flth Bixiteie [aizJEin]. . SSnd vingt-dwuddme [vSnd d0zJEm]. 

14^ Fractions. The nnmerator ia expressed by a cardi- 
nal, the denominator by an ordinal, as in English. ' Half ' >> 
moiti^, 1 (as noun), and demi {as adjeotive) ; ^ = utl quart, 
^ =3 ua tiers. Before a noun, demi ia invariable, and joined 
by a hjrphen, but agrees elsewhere. Use la moiti^ (not demi) 
where ' the halt of ' is, or may be, used in English : 
Uu huiti4me ; lea trois dm^mea. One-eighth ; the three tenths. 
Ia moitii de I'ann^ (The) half (of) the year. 

Une heure et demie. Ad hour and a half. 

Une demi-heare. Half an hour. 

Lee troia qnarte de cette somme. Three-fourths of that anm. 


A. En France on indique la valenr dee objets par francs «t 
oentimes. Le franc vaut k pea pr^ vingt "cents" de la 
monnaie ajndrioaine ou canadienne. Le centime est la cen- 
tUme partie du franc. On compte souvent auasi par sous pour 
les petites sommes. Uusou, aussibien qu'un"cent" am^ri- 
cain, vaut cinq centimes. Pour trouver la valeur, en monnaie 
am^ricaine, d'une somme quelconque, exprim^ en francs, on 
la divise par cinq. Par exemple, une somme de sept francs 
quarante centimes (7 fr. 40) rant un dollar et quarante-huib 
"cents" de notre monnaie. Au contraire, pour trouver la 
valeur en franca d'une somme quelconque, exprim^ en dollars, 
on ia multiplie par cinq. Ainsi $7.45 vaut, en monnaie 
fran^aise, trente-sept francs vingt-cinq centimes (37 fr. 25). 

S. (Oral.) 1. Comptez en frangais jusqu'i dix ; de dix k 
vingt ; de vingt k trente. 2. Kommez les nombrea 40, 41, 50, 
61, 63, 60, 61, 64, 70, 71, 75, 76, 80, 81, 87, 90, 91, 92, 93, 
100, 101, 102, 118, 171, 179, 200, 220, 1000, 1001, 75,000. 
2,000,000, i, ^ 21 3. Deox fois on font deox; deux foit 



deux font qoatre, etc . . . contimiez jnsqu'^ deux fois douze. 
4. Trois fois un font trois, etc, 6. (>»nbien font 2 fois 10 ; 7 
foia 9 ; 9 fois 9 ; 1 1 fois 111, etc 6. l>o[uiez les nombrea ordi- 
oaux jusqu'ii vingti^me. 7. Nommez les ordinauz 21", 61', 
71', 89', 101", 200", 2000*. 8. Comment indique-t-on la valeur 
des objet^ en Fr&ncel 9. Combien vaut le franc en notre 
momiaie? 10. Combien de centimes y a-t-il en nn fmnct 
11. Quelle partie dn franc le centime est-ilt 12. Combien 
Taut le sou) 13. Quelle est la valeur de cent franca en 
mounaie am^ricaine? 14. Quelle est la valeur de cent 
doUars en mounaie fran^iset Etc., etc 

C. Qive in dollars and cents the equivalenta of: 1. CHnq 
centimes. 2. Dix centimes. 3. Quinze centimes. 4. Yingt 
centimes. 6. Yingt-cinq centimes. 6. Cinquante centimes, 
7. Soiiante-quinze centimes. 8. Quatre-vingt- quinze centimes. 
9. Un franc dix (centimes). 10. Vn franc vingt-ciuq. 
11- Un franc soixante-quinze. 1 2. ITn franc cinquonte. 
13. Dix sous. U. Yingt sous. 15. Cinquante sous. 16. 
Cent francs. 17. Cent cinquante francs. 13. Deux cents 
francs, 19. Cinq cents francs, 20. Mille franca. 21, Deux 
millions de francs. 

D. Give in French, in franca and centimes, the equivalent! 
of: 1. One cent. 2. Five cents. 3. Bight centa. 4. Ten 
cents. G. Fifteen cents. 6. Eighteen cents.. 7. Twenty 
cents. 8. Twenty-five cents. 9. Thirty cents. 10. Fifty 
cents. 11. Seventy-five centa. 12. Kinety cents. 13. One 
dollar. 14. One dollar and twenty-five cent«. 15. One dollar 
and fifty centa. Ifi. One dollar and seventy-five cents. 17. 
Two dollara. 18. Ten dollars. 19. Fifty dollars. 20. A 
hundred dollars. 21. A thouaand dollars. 


144. Dates, Titles, etc l. The form mil is used in 

dates of the Christian era, from 1001 to 1099 ; from 1100 on- 
ward, dates are often expressed by hundreds, as so h^quently 
in EIngliah : 

(Eq) I'an mil six. (In) the year 1006. 

En mil neaf cent neiil In nineteen hundred and nineh 

Bn diz-neuf oent nent. In 1908L 

r.,,- .1., Gl.X)^lc 


2. Days of the month nnd numerical titles of rulers ar« 
indicated by cardinals, except ' first ' = premier : 

lie premier maL Ch&rlea premier. The first of May. Chatlea the Vint. 
Ptuia, le deiuc mai Paria, the iad of Hay, 

Lonia qnatorze (XIV). LoniB XIV. 

3. Observe the following date idioms : 

Qnel jonr dn iiuhb eet-ce anjonr- What day of the mooth is this T 

Quel jonr du moia aoinmea-iioiu n n n ■ 

Quel qoftutitme da dumb est-oe n » >i ■ 

aojourd'hiii T 

Cest aujonrd'hiii le qnince. Towlay is the fifteenth. 

Ce sent demain le aeice. To-morrow will be the eizteenth. 

Le ail Janvier. On the sixth of Jaonary. 

Ha aont arrivia Inndi. They came on Uouday. 

lyanjoard'hui en hnit. A week from bMlay (fatnre). 

n y a qninze jonra. A fortnight ago. 

4. The names of the months may be convenientiy Iwmed 
Crcon the following rhyme: 

Trente joura ont septembre, 
Avril, jain, novembre; 
Trente et on ont man et mal, 
Aoflt, ootobre, pnia jnillet, 
Et ddcembre et Janvier ; 
De vingt-hnit eat f^vrier. 

6. Obserre the following idioms referring to age: 
Qael ^ avez-voQB r How old are you T 

J'ai vingt ana. I am twenty (yeara old). 

Une fille igiti de aiz ana. A girl aiz yeara old (or of age>. 

A 1*180 de vingt-cinq ana At the age of twenty-fire (yeank 


A. Dana tons les pays il y a des jours de ffite, ofl on ne 

travaUle pas. En France, les jours de f^te reconnns par la \<a 

■ont : les dimanchea, le jour de I'An, oA on se donne des dtren- 

Dea; le lundi de I^aes, qni tombe entre le 21 mars et le 

I., Clkh^Ic 

§144] UISSON XXZTL 101 

26 KTril , I'ABcension, qui tombe qnor&nte jonni aprte F&quea ; 
le lundi de la Pentecdto, qu'on calibre cinquonte jours aprta 
Pftqnes ea m^moire de la descents da Saiut-Esprit sur let 
apdtrea; la F6te Nationals, qu'on c^lfabrs le 14 jiiilleb en 
m^ou« ds la destruction de la Baatills (Is 14 juillet, 1789) ; 
I'ABsomption, qu'on c^lfabre Is IS aoQt en m^moire ds rascension 
de la aainte Yiergs ; la Toussaint, la f6te de toua les saints, 
qui tombe le I" novembre; et le jour dp No61, le 25 d^mbre, 
en m^moire de la naiBsauce de J^sus-Chriat. II y a beauconp 
d'autres f€tes religieusss, comme par exemple le vendredi saint 
et la F€te-Disu. II y a ausai, en outre, plusienrs fStes plutM 
populairea que religieusss, quoiqu'ayant uns origine religiense, 
oomme le jour des Bois et le mardi gras. 

B. Farmi les roia de France les plus c^^bres se trouvent 
ceux-ci: Franfois I", n^ le 12 septembre, 1494. II a com- 
mence k r^gnsr en 1516, k I'&ge de vingt ans. II eat mort le 
31 mars, 1547. Louis XIV, n^ le 5 septembre, 1638. Lors- 

Ju'il n'avait qae cinq ana il a succ^^ k son pfere le 14 mai, 
643. Aprte nu long ligne de soixaute-douze ana, il est mort 
le I« septembre, 1715. Louis XYI, n^ le 23 aodt, 1754, a, 
nnixMi k sod grand-p^re, Louis XV, Is 10 mai, 1774, k I'&ge 
de vingt ana. C'est sous son r^gne que la Evolution a icUbi. 
Ilh6t6 d^pite le 21 Janvier, 1793. 

C. ^Oral.) 1, R^p^tez-moi les noms des six premiers mois 
de I'annfe 2. Quels sont les noma des six derniers mois de 
I'&nn^ 1 3. Quels sont les mois qui n'ont que tronte jours t 
4. Le mois de f^rier combien de jours a-t-il ) 6. Quelle est 
la premiere f 6te de I'ann^ sn France ] 6. Entre queUes dates 
le lundi de F&qnes tombe-t^il ) 7. Combien de jours y a-t-il 
entre F&ques et I'Ascension t 8. Quand eet-ce qu'on c^lM>re 
la FSte Rationale t 9, En m^moire de quoi la c^libre-t-on 1 
10. Dites-moi la date de la f€te de I'Assomption. 11. Qu'est- 
ce que c'est que la Toussaint! 12. Quand eat-ce qu'elle se 
c^lfebrel 13. Qu'est-ce qu'on c^lfebre lejonrde Noel! 14. Quel 
jourdu mob Bommea-nous aujourd'bui 1 16. Quel jour du mtus 
serons-nous demaint 16. Quel jour du mois serons-nous d'au- 
jourdliui en huit 1 17. Et lundi de la semaine procbaine quel 
jour dn mois serons-nous 1 18. Quel jour de la semaine Noel 
tmnbe-t-il cette aamie 1 Etc., etc. 

u, Gooijlc 


J>. (Oral) 1. Quel Age ftrez-TouB t 2. Dans quel mois (tea- 
TOUB n^ t 3. Quel jour du moia t 4, Quand Frao^is 1" estil 
D^ } 6. Quel &ge avait-il quand il a commence k r^guert 
6. Quaod Brt-il commence k r^gner ! 7. Dites-moi la date do 
sa mort) 8. En quelle aon^ Lonis XIV est-il n^T 9. Quel 
jour da mois T 10. Quel Age avait^il quand il a eucc^d^ k son 
p^rel 11. Combien de temps a-t-il r4gniJ 12. Quand eat-il 
mortt 13. A qui asncoM^ LoniBXYIt 14. Quiuid a-t-il 6U 
d^capit^? Etc, etc 

M. 1. The months of April, June, September and November 
hare thirty days.' 2. The months of Januarj^, March, May, 
July, August, October and December have thirty-one days. 
3. The month of February has twenty-eight, and sometimea 
tirenty-nine days. 4. The 1st of January is New- Year's 
Day. 6. On {k I'occasion de) New-Year's Day in France 
people (on) give each other gifts (etrennes). 6. Easter Mond^ 
tells between the 21st of March and the 26th of April. 7. 
^e FSte Nationals is celebrated on the 14th of July. 8. It is 
celebrated in memory of the destruction of the Bastille, in 
1789. 9. The 15th of August is the date of the Feast of the 
ABsnmption. 10. All Saints' Day falls on the 1st of November. 
11. The 2&th of December is Christmas Day. 

F, 1. Francis L, Louis XIY., and Louis XYL, are among 
the most celebrated kings of France. 2. Francis I. was born 
(est n/) on the 12th of September, 1494. 3. He was twenty 
years of t^ when (lorgque) he began to reign. 4, He reigned 
thirty-two years, and died («( mort) in 1547. 5. Louis XIV. 
began to reign at the age of five years. 6. He was bom in 
1638, on the 5th of September. 7. He reigned seventy-two 
years. 8. The day of his death was the Ist of September, 
1715. 9. In the reign of (totia) Louis XVI. the French Revo- 
lution broke out 10. Louis XVI. had succeeded Louis XY. 
in 1774. II. On the 21st of Januanr, 1793, he was decapi- 
tated. 12. How old are you t 13. How old were you when 
you began to go to schooll 14. What is the date of your 
birthday 1 19. What day of the month is it to4ay ) 16. Two 
weeks from to^lay (it) will be the 24th May. 


|145] LESSON zxxTn. 108 


I4S The Time of Day. The hours and fnictiona of 
boars are indicated as follows : 

Qoelle henre est-il ? What o'clock ii it T 

n est deal henrea. It is two o'clock. 

Trois henrea et demie. H&U-past three. 

Trois beares («t) na qoarb A quarter past three; 

Qnatre henrea moina na quart A quarter to four. 

Trois heures dix (minutes). Ten minutes post threA. 

Qnatre hearesmoinBciiiq(miimt«B). Five minutes to four. 

Troia heures cinquanto-ciDq. Three fifty-five. 

n est midi et demi. It ia half-past twelve {noon). 

n est minuit. It is twelve o'clock (night). 

A aept heurea dn aoir. At seven o'clock in the eveiUDg. 

A quelle henre I At what o'clock I 

A trois heurea priciaes. At three o'clock precisely. 

Vms (les) troia heures. About three o'clock. 

A. Quel jottr da mois sommes-nons ? Cest le quinze, n'eatHse 
past J'ai une lettre k ^rire k mon frfere poar lui raoonter ce 
que j'ai fait aujourd'huL Q'a ^t^ une journ^ bien remptie. 
Le matin k nenf heures nn quart j'arrive chez le tailleur pour 
eesayer mon vgtement. C'est un complet en sei^. I] me va 
trfea bien, II co&tera cent dix franca. A dix beares dix je 
me trouve chez le chapelier. II n'a pas de chapeaux que 
j'aime, et j'en commande uu. Le prix sera de vingt-deux 
francs. J'entre chez le gantier K onze heures pr&ises. J'aohfete 
deux paires de gants de chevreau. A onze heures et demie 
me voil^ chez le marchand de chauasures. On prend ma 
mesure, et on me fera une paire de aouliers. lis seront prSts 
dans huit jours. A midi pr^is je fais ma deaxikne visite au 
m^ecin. J'ai fait ma premiere visite il y a huit jours. II 
m'a anscult^, et il a trouv^ chez moi une l^re faiblesse de 
poitriue. II m'a fait une ordonnanoe, et j'irai le voir pour la 
troisi^me foia d'aujoord'hui en hnit. A midi et demi je d^jetme 
dans un restaurant rue de Rivoli. L'additioa est de deux 
francs vingt-^jinq, avec cinq sous de poarboire. A. une heure 


104 UBSON xsxvii. [§145 

Tingt-cinq me T<nl& dana ]es galeries dn Lonvra. J'y patse mte 
heure et demie. A trois heures an quart j'aniTe an Th^tre- 
Fran^is. Je paie ma place au parterre deux franca cinquante. 
On joue le Cid de Comeille, A aix heures moins vingtcinq 
j'arriTe icL J'^tois tr^ fetigu^ et je me repoee pendant une 
heure avant de mliabtllet pour diner. A s^t heures diz 
nous nous mettons k table. Nous dtnons bien. Nous causoiu 
aprte. Et vo04 maintenant buit heures et demie. Je vais 
^ dcrire ma lettra 

B. 1. Eelate the above, beginning at the fifth sentence, 
using ' mon f r^re ' as the subject, and making the necessary 
changes throughout. 2. Be-write the extract, substituting a 
time five minutes later for each hour of the day mentioned. 

C (Oral.) 1. C'est aujourd'hui le diz, n'eat-ce past 2. Quel 
jour de la semaine estce) 3. Quelle heure est-il k votre montrel 
4. Avez-vouB ^t^ en vilie aujourd'hui I 6. A quelle heure 
ites-vous parti ce matin! 6. Chez qui Stes-vous all^ d'abordt 
7. Quaod Stes-vona arriv^ chez lui 1 S. Combien votre complet 
en serge cofltera-t-il? 9. A quelle heure vous fites-vous trouv^ 
chez le chapelier ? 10. Quel sera le priz du chapeau que vous 
avez command^? 11. fltes-voua rest^ une demi-heure chez le 
gantier? 13. Ot ^tiez-voua 4 onze heures et demie pr^isesl 
i3. Qaand vos sOTiliers seront-ils pr€ts) 14. A quelle heure 
votre m^ecin se trouve-t-il che£ luiT 15. Quand Stes-voua 
all^ le voir I'autre foial 16. A quelle heure avez-vous d^jean^/ 
17. Combien avez-voua pay^ ) 13. A quelle heure Stos-vons 
Krriv^ au Louvre! 19. A quelle heure aven-vous dln^ ce aoirf 
20. Quelle heure est^il k pr^ent ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. My brother has related to me wiiat he did today 
down town. 2. He has told me tiie preinse hour at which he 
was at the tailor's, the hatter's, etc 3. He set out at half- 
past eight. 4. He arrived at the tailor's at half-past nine. 
6. He says that his serge suit fits him well. 6. He was trying 
on hats at the hatter's at ten minutes after ten. 7. He bought 
two pairs of gloves at eleven o'clock precisely. 8. Half an 
hour later he was at the shoemaker's, 9, His shoes will be 
ready in a week. 10. At five minutes after twelve he visited 
his doctor for the second time. 1 1. He will viait him again 
a week from to-day. 12. At half-pnst twelve he lunched in a 
leataunnt. 13. His lunch ooet him two francs and fifty cen- 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 

§§146-148] LESSON XSXTin. 105 

times. 14. At twenty-five minutes past one he went to the 
Louvre to see the paintings. lH. At & quarter to three he 
was at the door of tjie Th^tre-Fran^is. 16. At ten minutes 
to six he left the theatre. 17. In a quarter of an hour he waa 
at home. 18. He rested for half an hour. 19. At ten minutes 
after seven (the) dinner was ready. SO. All that is interesting 
for him, but not for me. 


146. Past Defioite of dormer, finir, oendre. 

I gave, etc. 

I finiahed, etc 

I Bold, etc 

donn ai [done]. 

fin is [flnij 

vend 19 [vfidi]. 

dorm u [dona]. 

fin is [finij. 

vend is [vadi]. 

donn a [dana]. 

fin it [fini]. 

vend it fvadi]. 

donn Ames [danaro]. 

fin fmes [finim]. 

vend Imea [vadim}. 

donnltea [donat]. 

fin ites [finit]. 

vendftes [vQdit], 

donn irent [danE 1 rj. 

fin irent [fini ir]. 

. vend irent [vddiir]. 

147. Past Definite of moir, 


I had, etc 

I waa, etc 

one [7]. efimw 

[yn.]. fu.[fy]. 

fflmea [fym]. 

eoaCy]. efttoa 

tytt fui [ty]. 

ffltes [fyt]. 

eut[y]. eureni 

>[yir]. ftitpy]. 

furent [tyir]. 

148. Use of the Past Definite. The past definite is 
used in the literary narrative style to denote what happened 
(completed past action), or what happened next (successive 
events). It never denotes, like the imperfect (§87), what waa 
happening or used to happen, or continued to happen : 
Les Romains br^irent Carthage. The Romans burnt Carthage. 
Dien accepts lea presents dAbel, God accepted the gifts of Abd, 
qui Aatt plus pieux que son f r^re ; who viat more righteous than his 
maia il d^tooriM lea yeux de ceax brother ; but he turned away his 
d(i Cain, puree que son iKeur a'itaU eyes from those of Cain, because his 

pas pur, ...Un jour Cain et Abel heart loot not pure One day 

AatmtaealBdanBunchamp,etCa]in Cain and Abel vttre alone in a field, 
MJebl sur Abel, et le tua. and Coin fell upon Abel, and aim 

u, Gooijlc 




Past Definite otfixire (irreg.)- 


jefialwfll. iK>iwflmeB[nufiml. 
tufiaftyfij. vouEfltoa [vu fit]. 
Ufit[ilfi]. UsfireDt[ilfiir]. 



ITofl,— >1^ to tUs polat tile past Indaflnlta hai bean luad «itt:dailTalj In the immlm 
to npnH oompletad kctioa In part tlmk It wh tboaght wall to gin uaple pnctln 
In the p»t Indaflnlte, owlnff to Iti almott aioliuira OM u a pHt tenia In tha langiuic* 
ol avarj-dar Ufa. Slnoa tb> past deflnlta, howaver, la » aiteuilfaly amploTed in 
namtlon la Cba Utanu7 or elgviMd Myle, and ^poa funllUiity wltb Ita foitnl la to 
naosnarj for tbe rHdlng of booka, thli tenaa will b« given pmmlnenca In tha eittacti 

A. Uu petit rouge-got^ frappa & notre fenStre. "Ajes 
piti^ de moi I Onvrez-moi, je vaua prie ; la neige tombe, la 
bise souffle, et j'ai bien foim.'' 

Nous eflmos piti^ du petit ronge-gorge, et j'onvria la fenltre. 
Le gentil oiseau voU dans la chambre, et ramassa lea miettes 
de pain qui ^taieat tomb^ de la table. BientAt m6ine 11 
becquets le grain dons la main, qu'on lui tendait. 

Mais lorsque la neige fut fondue, le printomps irerint et lea 
haies se couvrirent de feuilles. Kous oavrtmes la fen6tre, et 
notre petit h6t« s'envola dans le bois voisin, oil H b&tit son nid, 
et nous entendtmes ses joy euses chansons. 

L'hiver recint, et le roage-gorge rerint auasi, cette fois aveo 
sa compagne. Les deux petits oiseaux entr^rent avec con- 
fiance dans la chambre, et nous nous r^joulmes beancoup de 
^l» revoir. 

B. Continue the following : 1. J'eus piti^ de lui, tn ens, etc 
2. J'ouvris la fenStre, tu, etc. 3. Je volai dans la chambre, 
tn, etc. 4. Je ramosaai les miettea de pain, tu, etc 6. Je 
me couvria la tSte, tu, etc. 6. Je m'envolai dans le boia, tu, 
etc. 7. Je b&tis une maison de pierre, tu, etc. 8, J'entendb 
des obansona d'oiseau, tu, etc. 9. J'entrai dana la chambre, 
tu, etc 10, Je me r^jouis de les revoir, tu, etc. 11. Jefla 
mon devoir, tn fla ton, etc. 12. Je fus joyeux, tu, etc 

C. (Oral.) 1. De quel oiseau racont«-t-on cette hiatoiref 
2. Ofi frappa oe petit rouge-goi^ ? 3. Qu'eat-cequ'iladitt 
4. Eat-ce que voua efttes (or avez en) pitid ile lull 5. Qui 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 


onvrit la fen«tret 6. Et alors que fit le touge-gorge ? 
7. Qa'eet-ce qu'il r&masBat 6. Qu'est-ce qu'oa lui tendufe 
soaveat d&ns la maint 9. Qaelle saison. aniTa eofin t 10. Lft 
oeige ^tait^elle dSjk fondue T 11. Qu'estce que voua fitea (or 
avez fait) alora I 12. Et le petit rouge-gorge 0& s'etivola-t-il t 
13. Qu'est-ce qu'il b&tit dans le bois ) 14. Chaatait-il souventt 
15. Sea ohaiiBODB ^taient-ellea jojeuses ou tristesi 16. Enteii^ 
dttea-vous ses chansons T 17. Quand le rouge-gorge revint-il t 
18. Qui Taccompagna 1 19. Qui ouvrit la fengtie de la chan^ 
bre cette foia 1 20. Et les oiaeaux que firenMls t Etc., etc. 

J). 1. Here is the story of a little robin. 2. The snow was 
falling, the north wind was blowing, and the robin was hungry. 
3. He often knocked at our window. 4. At last I had pity 
on the poor bird, and I opened the window, 5. The pretty 
little robin flew into the room. 6. There were some crumlM 
of bread on the table, and be picked them up. 7. My sister 
used to hold out crumbs to him in her hand. 8. At last hs 
pecked at them. 9. In spring the snow melted, and the 
Qedges were covered with leaves and flowers. 10. The littl« 
robin was sad, and did not sing. II. I opened the window, 
and he flew away. 12. He built his nest in a neighbouring 
wood. 13. We heard his joyful song again. 14. The robin 
returned (revint) with the winter, lb. Another robin ac- 
companied him this time. 16. We rejoiced very much at 
this. 17. We opened our windows, and the two birds flew 
into the r6om. IS. They passed a second winter with us, 
and flew away again in spring. ^ , 

iSa Imperfect Subjunctive of donner, flnir, vendn. 

(That) I gave, might (That) I flmshed, might (That) I sold, might 

•ell, etc. 

vend isae [vddis]. 

vend iases [vfidis]. 

vend ft [vddi]. 

vend isMons [vddisjSl. 

Tend issiez [vOdiije]. 

vendutseot [vfldis]. 

u, Gooijlc 

108 LEsaON XXXIX. [§§161-162 

151. Imperfect Subjunctive of aroir, etrt. 

(Tbat) I had, might have. (That] I was, were, mi^ be, etc. 
euase [jb]. eufflions [yaja]. fuasa [(ys], fuBdons [fysji]. 

eQfiHea[ys]. euffliez [yqe]- fusees [{70]. fuHdez [fysje]. 

eflt [y], euaeent [ye]. fflt [fy]. fuasent [fys]. 

J52. Tense Sequence. Any other tense than the present 
or future (§ 107) in the governing clause regularly requires the 
imperfect Bubjunctive in the governed clause ; so also for com- 
pound subjunctive tenses, the auxUiaiy being considered as 
the verb : 

IvpF. Je dteirais *] (I was desiring liim to remain. 

P. Dbf. JedJsirai Lnn'il , ,., J I "lEsired him to remain. 
COMDL. Jedjairerals p° """■[I should desire him to rem^n. 
Pldpf. iTavaiB dfeiriJ (.1 bad desired tiim to remain. 


A. L'^ucation d'Henti IV, roi de France, fut dirig^e par 
Bon grand-pfere Henri d'Albret, roi de Navarre, qui ne voulut 
pas qu'on ^evat le jeune prince avec la d^licatesae qu'on a 
d'ordinaire pour ies gens de ceCte quaUt^, sachaat bien que 
dans un corps mou et teudre n'habite ordinairement qu'une 
&me molle et faibie. II d^fendit auasi qu'on I'habill&t riche- 
ment, qu'on lui donnftt des babiolea, et qu'on le Sattat, parce 
que toutes ces choses ^Ifeveat le cceur des enfauta plutOt dans 
I'orgueil que dans lea aentimenta de la g^n^rosit^. Mats il 
ordonna qu'on habiliat et qu'on nourrlt son petit-fils comme 
Ies autrea enfanta du paya, et memo qu'il' fflt accoutum^ ik 
courir et h. grimper sur lea rochers, pour I'habituer k la 

Note.— The Impeited gal^iiDctlTa 1b of Tery llmlled me la Uie lmngiug« of CTerr- 
d*; life, being imlr emplaned except ia thelltenrr oreleiUed gtyle. Akoavledgr 
of lie forms »nd their nse Is, hoireTer, necsMary for reading purpoMs. 

B. Continue the following: 1. Mon pfere ne voulait pas que 
je partisse hier, que tu partisses, etc. 3. Le maltre di^endit 
que je parlasae k Henri, que tu, etc. 3. Notre voisin d^sirait 
que je lui vendiaae dos pommea, que tu, etc. 4. Un bon rOi 
d^irenut que je fusse heureux, que tu, etc. 5, Un tel mi 
regretterait que j'eusse besoin de rien, que tu, etc. 

-.u, GtXH^Ic 

|152] ixssoH xzxrz. 109 

Turn the governing verbs in the extract into the preeenl 
indicative, and make the necessary changes in the subjunctive 

G. (Oral.) 1. Qui ^Uit le grand-pfere dTIenri ITt 2. Par 
qni I'^ucation d'Henri IT ful>«lle dirig^ef 3. Le jeune 
prince fut-il 41ev^ avec d^licatesse oa avec s^y^rit^ 1 4. Eat-ce 
qu'on a ordinairement beaucoup de d^icatease pour les jeunea 
princes 1 6. Le vieux roi voulait-il qu'on Sev&t le prince aveo 
d^icatesse 1 6. Quelle &me tronve-t-on souvent dans un corps 
mou et teodre 1 7. Henri d'Albret d^irait-il que son petit- 
fiia e&t une telle &me? 8. Les gens de la cour aiment-ils k 
flatter les jeunes princes 1 9. Le grand-pfere aimait-il qa'on 
flattftt ce jenne prince 1 10, Permettait-ii que les gens de la 
oour flattassent son petit-filal 11. Yotre pitre penuettait-il 
que vous vons habillassiez richement quand vous ^tiez jennet 

13. Henri d'Albret ordonna-t-il que son petit-flls eftt un« 
Dourriture richet 13. Comment vonlnt-il qu'on le nourrttt 

14. Pourquoi ordonna-t-il que )e jeune prince fut accoutumj 
k courir et k grimperJ 15, D^sireriez-vous que je fusse ao- 
coutum^ k courir et k grimpert 16. Pourquoi le d^ireriee- 
vona) 17. D^sireriez-vous que j'eosse des sentiments de 
g^^roeit^l Etc., etc 

D. 1. Henry d'Albret was the grandfather of Henry IT. 
vi France. 2. His grandfather directed his education. 3. 
Here is what the old king said to the people of the court. 
1. "I desire my grandson to have a strong mind (dme). 
6. Knowing that a weak mind osoally dwelb in a weak body, 
I desire hia body to be strong. 6. I desire that nobody should 
flatter him." 7. So you see that the king did not wish the 
prince to be brought up with delicacy. 8. He did not wish 
his grandson to have a soft and weak mind. 9. He wished 
hia body to be strong in order that his mind might not be 
weak. 10. He did not like the people of the court to flatter 
him. 11. He forbade them to flatter him. 12. He did not 
permit them even to give him trinkets. 13. He ordered the 
prince to be dressed like the other children of the country. 
14. He allowed him to play with the other children and to 
climb the rocks. 15. He wished htm to be fed like the other 
children too. 16. All this he did becanae he wished his grand- 
son to be a good king. 17. Our parents wish us to be strong 
aod good. 18. They would not wish ua to be weak and bfui 




A. TTd mfttelot, tk bord d'an Taissean, ayant^ eu la maladreaM 
de laisaer tomber par-deaaoa le bord ime th^i^re d'argent, alia* 
teouver le capitoine et lui dit^ : " Peut-on* dire" d'lme choee, 
qu'elle eat' perdue^, loraqn'oa siiit^ oft elle est^l — Koc, moa 
■mi. — En ce oaa, toub n'avez^ rien ^ craindre" poor votre 
tli^i^re; car je sats^ qu'elle est' au fond de U mer." 

■ liEi. •iin. ■iiH. 'm& •luo. 

■ ii«o. •itn. 'i^ic, 

^i« Hadoiii iii(lic»t«d ^T« Uu fomia of tha Lrnpnlu TBrb&) 

B. Complete the foIloTing by conjnKating the tense in full, 
repeating also the remainder of the expression along with the 
verb: 1. II alia tronver le capit&ine. 2. II lui dit. 3. Peut- 
il dire ) 4. II salt o& il est. 0. Elle est perdue. 6. Vons 
n'avez rien & craindre. 

C (Oral) 1. De qnelles peraonnes parle-t-on dans cette 
histoiret 2. Oi) ^taieat ces personnesl 3. Qu'avait fait le 
matelotl 4. Qu'eatn^ que c'est qu'une thd^re] 5. En qa<M 
^tait cette th^i^re! 6. A. qai ^tait-elle! 7. Oti ^tait-elle 
tomb^l 8. Savait-on oii elle^taitl 9. ^^tait-elle alors vral- 
■nent perduel 10. Mais quel ^tait rargoment du matelotl 
Etc., etc. 

D. 1. The sailor vas so clumsy ae to let the tea-pot falL 
2. If you let a silver tea-pot full into the sea, it is lost. 3. Oo 
to the captain. 4. I went to the captain, fi. Tetl him that 
the tea-pot is not lost. G. The captain will say : " My good 
fellow, did you drop my silver tea-pot into the sea )" 7. When 
ve are on board of a ship we do not let tea-pots fall into the 
sea. 8. Where is the tea-pot T 9. I do not know where it ia. 
10. No one finds tea>-pots at the bottom of the sea. 

E. A sailor dropped the capitain's silver tea-pot into the sea. 
The captain went to the sailor and said to him : " You let my 
tea-pot fall into the sea, did you notl It is lost." "No, no," 
aaid the sailor, " I know where it is. It is at the bottom ot 
the sea." 





A. TTo Arabe, ig^ri dans le iiaest, n'ayait^ pas mang^* 
depnia deux jonra, et se voyaib* menao^^ de mourir* de f^n. 
En paaaant pr^ d'un de oea puita oil les corav&nea vieiment* 
ftbreuTer leurs chomeaux, il voit^ Bur le sable un petit sac de 
cnir. n le ratnoase et le tit«. " Allah soit' b^ni^ ! dit-il*; 
oe soDt,'' je orois,^* des dattea ou des noisettes." Flein de cette 
donee eep^ranoe, il ae b&te d'onvririi lo sew; mais, k la vne d» 
ce qu'il contient'^ : " H^las ! s'&rie-t-il doulonrenaemeDt^ 00 
Be Bont^ que des perles !" 

■ liei. 'iiM 'tiu. •|i«- >>iiT& 

•IIM- MIT*. "flSS. "IIBL "im. 

>itM- Min. 

B. Complete the following, as ia the preceding ezerdae: 
1. II n'avait paa inang& 2. II se voyait menac^ 3. Us 
vietmeot. 4. II voit son sac; 6. II le tite. 6. Qn'il soit 
b^i I 7. Je le oroia. 8. II ae h&te d'onvrir le sac 9. TX 

Relate the story in the first person singular, thus : " Egar4 
dans le d^sert^ je n'avab pas, etc" 

C. (Oral.) 1. Oil demeurent les ArabesI 2. 0& est 
I'Arabiet 3. OJi s'^tait ^gar^ I'Arabe! 4. Eat-ce qu'il y a 
beancoup de deserts dans ce pays I 6. Dans quel ^tat se 
trouvait I'Arabe ! 6. Par oik pasaait-il I 7. Qu'eat-ce qn'il a 
TV ) 8. Qu'est-ce qu'il y avait dans le sac 1 9. ^tait-il content 
de troaver les perles I 10. Est-ce que les perles ne sont pas 
deachoaespr^cieusesl 11. Qu'est-ce qu'il esp^raittrouTer dans 
leaacl 12. Pourquoi pr^f^rait-il des noisettes k dea perleat 
13, Lesquelles prti^reriez-vouB maintenantt Etc., eta 

D. I. The Arab has lost his way. 2. If we had not eaten 
for two days, we should be hungry. 3. We saw onrselvea 
tiireatenod with starvation. 4. The caravans will come to 
water their camels at the well. 5. We shall water our camela. 
6. If I saw pearls on the aand, I should pick them up. 7. He 
felt the dates in the bag. 8. If there hod been hazelnuts in 
the leathern bag, he would have hastened to open it, 9. But 




the baff did not contain nuts, it contained only pearls, 10. At 
the sight of that he esclaimed : " I ehall die of hunger." 

E. An Arab had lost his way in the desert. Not baring 
eaten for two days he s&w that he woald soon starve. As he 
was passing near a well where the caravans came to water 
their camels, he saw there on the sand a leathern bag which 
he hoped to find fall of dates or hazel-nuts. He picked it 
up, felt it, and opened it. Alas, it contained only pearls I 


A. TJn paysan accompagn^ de son fils, le petit Auguste 
alia' un jour visiter ses diamps pour Toir^ dans quel ^tat Itait* 
son bid lis arriv^rent k un champ oik certains ^pis se to- 
naient* droits tandia que d'autres dtaient' lourdement incline 
vers la terre. Augusto s'&ria : " Quel dommage que ces ^is 
soient^ si courb^ ! Combien je pr^f^re' ceux<l& qui sout^ 
vigoureux et droits." Le p^re prit^ deux des ^pis, los roula 
entre ses doigts pour faire^ sortir* le grain, et r^pondit': 
"Begarde un peu men enfant; ces ^pis courb^ sont^ pleins 
du meilletir bl^ car o'est> le poids qui taX^ pencher leur bSte, 
tandia que ceuz qui la reinvent'" si fi^rement sont^ Tides et oe 
Talent" rien." 

>|1» *iVn. •!»». 'IIM. ••116*. 

B. Complete the following, as above ; 1. H alia visiter s«a 
champs. 2. Us arrivferent k un champ, 3. lis se tenaient 
droits. 4. II a'^ria. S. Quel dommage qu'ils soient si 
courb& I 6. Je pr^f^re ceux-lJL 7. II en prit deux. & H 
fait poacher leur t€te. 9. lis ne valent rien. 

Give the present indicatiTO in full of: 1. Alia. 2. Se 
tenaient. 3. Prit. 4. Fait 5, Talent. 

Relate the story, substituting the past indefinite for tbe past 
definite, thus: "TJnpaTsaa.,.esta]I^TiBiter,"etc 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qu'estK» que c'est qu'un paysan t 2. 0& 09 
paysan est-il b.\\6 f 3. Est-ce qu'il ^tait seul 1 4. Qui est alU 
avec lull 5, Pourquoi sont-ils all^ aux champs 1 6. Cont- 
ment ae tenaient certains ^is dans les champs qu'ils out 

,;.!;, GtXJ^IC 


Tuit^ t 7. Tons les ^ia se tenaient-ila droitfl t 8. Commenb 
lea antres b« tonaieDt-Ua 1 9. Quels ^pia pr^^rait le petit 
Augustel 10. Qu'esl-ce qu'il a'est ^ri^t 11. Leaqaela pr6- 
f^rez-vons? 12. Fourquoi lea pr^^rez-rous 1 13. Lesquela 
des ^pis ^talent courb^I 14. Qn'eat-ce qui lour faiaait pen- 
cher la t^t« ! 1 S. Fourquoi les autres ae teuaieot-ila si droits t 
16. Lesquels valeat le plual 17. Comment le p^re a-t-il 66- 
moQtr^ cela k son filst 18. Les personnea fi^rea valent-ellea 
ordioairement grand'cboeel 19. Fr^^rez-voua lea persotmeB 
modeates ) Etc., etc. 

i>. 1. I am going to see the fielda. 2. If you were to go 
and visit tLe fielda, in what condition would you find the 
wheat 1 3. Hold yourself upright. 4. Talce two ears of 
wheat. 0. Bub the grain out^ 6. The best wheat is not in 
the upright ears. 7. The full ears are bent, whilst the empty 
ears are upright. 8. Juat look, my boy, the upright ears are 
empty. 9. Full heada are worth a great deal, but empty 
hetida are worth twthing. 

T7ae either the past definite or the paat indefinite for the 
narrative tensea of the following : 

S. little Auguatus went one day to the fields. He went 
with his father, who was going to see whether his wheat waa 
ripe. They arrived at a wheat-field. Auguatus observed that 
certun ears of wheat were bent down towards the earth. He 
observed also that others held themselves upright. He said 
to his father: "Look at those ears of wheat What a pity 
they are so bent down 1 I prefer those which hold them- 
selves upright." His father wished to teach him a lesson. 
He took two of the ears of wheat, and rolled them between 
his fingers. The one waa empty and was worth nothing. The 
other was full of good wheat. Then he said : " Look, my boy, 
this ear which raised ita head so proudly was almoat empty. 
On the contrary, this other which was so bent down was full 
of the best grain. We obaerre the same thing amongst men. 
Those who are proud have an (the) empty head. They are 
worth nothing. On the contrary, thoM who are modeet and 
humble are generally the beet" 



by Google 


A. TTn labonFenr ita.nt aur le point de monrir^, et Tonluit* 
dotmer k ses enfanta une demi^ prenve de sa tendresae, les 
fit^ venir* anpr^ de ]ui, et leur dif: "Mes enfonta, apr^ 
moi Tons anrez le champ que mon pire a poasSd^", le champ 
qui m'a servi^ k Clever' et k nourrir vaa, fwnille. Cherches 
bien dans ce champ, et tous trouverez un tr^r." 

Lea enfants, apiia la mort de leur p^re, se mirent' k retour. 
ner le champ en tous sens, bSchant, labourant la terre. Us 
o'y trouT^rent ni or ni argent; mois la terre bien remu^ bien 
labour^ prodnisiti" une moisson abondante. Le sage vic^ard 
ne lee avait paa tromp^ ; il leur avail enseign^ que le trarail 
est un tr&u>r. 

S. Complete tbe following, as above: 1. II les fit venir 
aupr&s de lui. 2. Us se mirent k retoumer le champ. 3. U 
pToduisit une moisson. 4. H ne les avait paa tromp^ 

Give the future and the past definite in full of : 1. Monrir. 
2. Voulant S. Fit 4. Venir. 5. Dit. 6. Servir. 

C. (Oral.) I. De quellea perBonnes parle lliistoirel 2. 
Qn'est-oequec'est qu'nn labonreurl 3. Ce labouieur-ci ^tait-il 
on jenne homme? 4. Dansquel ^tatse trouvait-UI &. Qu'est- 
oe qu'il allait laisser k aes enfants 1 6. Avait-il schet^ ce 
champ! 7. £tait-ce un bon champ T 8. Quel cooseil le 
laboureur a-t-il donn^ k ses enfants f 9. Ont-ils Inen oherch^t 
10. Est-ce qu'ils 7 ont trouvj de I'or ? II. Leurpfereles avait-il 
tromp^.alont 12, Quel tr^sor ont-ils trouv^t 13. Quelle est 
la morale de I'hiatoire } Etc., etc. 

D. 1, The father gave his children a proof of his love. 2. 
He called his children into his presence. 3. The children will 
own the field after the father. 4. The children delved and 
ploughed the field. 5. Stir the land, and it will produce a 
harvest. 6. If you plough this field, you will find a treasure. 

7. It will not be silver or gold, but it will be a good harvest. 

8. Your father is not deceiving you, he is teaching you a good 

o,9,:.« by Google 


E. A htubandmftn, who was at the point o{ death, wiabed to 
teach his children that lahour ia a treasure. Calling bis chil- 
dren into hia presence, he told them that they would bare the 
field which hia father had owned. It was a good field, and it 
had fed his father and his father's family. If they would 
seek in it, they would find a treasure there. After the old 
man's death, the children dog everywhere in the field, but 
they found no treasure. There was no gold or silver, but they 
stirred the land ao well that they had an abundant harvest. 
Thej had not been deceived. Their father bad taught them a 
good lesBOD. / 


A. Ix>nis XrV, traversant avec sa cour la galerie de Ver- 
sailles, aperfoit' Jean Bart fumant sa pipe dans I'embrasiire 
d'une fenfitre onverte*; il le fait* appeler*, et lui dit' d'un 
ton affectueux: "Jean Bart, je viens^ de vous nommer chef 
d'eacadre. — Voos avez bien fait*, aire, r^pondit^ le marin en 
continuant de fumer tranquillemeiit sa pipe." Cette brusque 
r^ponse ayant excite parmi les sots conrtisan^ nn grand 6c1at 
de rire : " Voua vous trompez, messieurs, leur dit' gravement 
le roi, cette r^ponse est celle d'aa bomma qui sent^ ce qu'il 
vaut", et qui compte m'en donner bientOt de nouvelles preuvea. 
Sans doute, Jean Bart ne parle pas comme voos ; mais qui de 
TOuB peut^" faire* ce que fait* Jean Bart 1 " 

i|ns. 'iiw- •lies. 'ino. •lezi; 

'fira. 'iin: 'ins: •iiw. >*|sl 

B. Complete the following, as above: 1. H apergoit Jeaa 
Bart. 2. n le fait appeler. 3. Je viens de le nommer. 

4. Vous avez bien fait. 5. Vous vous trompez. 6. II sent 
oe qu'il vaat. 7. H ne parle pas comme lesautres. 

Give the imperfect indicative and the imperfect subjunctive 
of: 1. Aper^it. 2. Fait. 3. Dit 4. Yiens. 6. Sent. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui ^tait Louis XITt 2. 0& est Yersailles f 

5. Qu'estK» que c'^tait autrefois T 4. Quel est I'autre person- 
nage de notre histoire) 5. Quelle ^tait sa profession! 6. Etait- 
U, ce jour-l^ k bord de son vaissean ) 7. Qn'est-ce qu'O faisait 
qui montrut qu'il n'^tait pas courtisanT 8. De quelle facon le 
roi »-fr-il mOntr^ qu'il n'^n ^tait pas m^oontent) 9. Quelle 

u, Gooijlc 



■ortfl de T&ponae Jean Bart a-t-il faite au roil 10. Qnelle im- 
pressioa ft-t-«lle faite sur les coartisansf 11. Quelle en ^tait 
I'opinion du roil 12, Pourqaoi ^t&it-il permia k Jeao Bart, et 
aon paa aux courtisana, de fure une brusque r^ponset Etc., etc. 

J). 1. The king sends for Jean Bart. 2. I aball call him. 
5. We have jnst called Jean Bart 4. The king had just 
appointed him rear-admiral. 6. A great outburst of laughter 
was excited by Jean Bart's blunt answer. 6. The king did not 
appoint the stupid courtiers rear-admirals. 7. We are mis- 
taken ; it is not a blunt answer. 8. Do not make a mistake. 
9. The stupid courtiers did not make blunt answers, because 
they did not feel their own worth. 10. Jean Bart hopes soon 
to give the king new proofs of bis worth. 1 1. We can not do 
what Jean Bart did. 

S. Jean Bart was coolly smoking his pipe in the embrasure 
at a window in the palace (e/idteau) of Versailles, as the king, 
aocompaoied by his courtiers, was passing through the great 
gallery. The king sent for the brave sailor, and told him that 
be had just been appointed rear-admiral. The sailor's blunt 
reply: "You have done well, sire," caused a burst of laughter 
among those who were with the king. But Louis knew thab 
it was the reply of a man who would soon give proofs of hia 
worth. Jean Bart did not talk like a courtier, but he did 
what courtiers could not da 

A. J'ai Tu> une petite iburmi qui allait' 9& et Iji cherchant 
fortune. EUe a rencontr^ sur son chemin un brin d'herbe 
qn'elle voudrait' bien emporter ; mais comment faire* 1 11 est 
si gros, et elle est si faible. Alors elle est mont^ sur un 
cullon, dn haut duquel elle r^arde la campagne, comme da 
haut d'une tour. Elle regarde, elle regarde; enfin elle a 
aper^u' deux de aes compagnes qui passent par U, et elle 
court* k elles. Elle se frotte 1e nez contre leur nez pour leor 
dire' : " Venez^ vite avec moi ; il y a par ]k quelqne chose de 
bon !" Les trois fourmis se pr^pitent vers le brin d'herbe et 
le saisissent. Ce que I'une ne pourait' faire*, les trois ie font* 
ais^ent, et elles empvortent en triompbe le brin devenn^ 
l^er poor elles. 
'lit*. *|BS. •ina 'iiot- 'Ibl 

•tub •iisfi. 'iiM. ' 'im. »iii& 

u, Gooijlc 


S. Complete the following, as above : 1, Elle allait ;& etlL 
3. Elle voudroib bieo I'eraporter. 3. Elle est mont^ 4. Elle 
ootirt k eUes. 6. Elle se frotte le nez. 6. Venez. 7. Ellea so 
pr^ipitent. S. EUes le saisiesent. 9. Elle ne pouvait pas le 
cure. 10. Elles le font ais^menb. 

Give in full the past definite of: 1. Yu. 2. B«ncontr^. 
3. Regards. 4. Aper^u. 5. Court. 6. Se pr^ipiteat. 7. 

Beginning at the second sentence, relate the story in the 
past definite, thus : " Elle renoontra, etc," 

C. (Oral.) 1. De quel insecte parle-t-on ici t 2. Qu'eat-ce 
qu'elle faisaiti 3. Qu'est-ce qu'elle a rencontr^ sur son 
cheminl 4. Le bria d'herbe 4tait-il groa ou petit 1 6. Et la 
founni ^tait^lle forte ou faible t 6. Qu'est.ce que la founni 
anrait touIu fairel 7. Est-ce qu'elle pouvait le fnire toate 
seulet 8. Ott est-elle mont^l 9. Qu'est-ce qu'elle a regard^ 
du haut da caillon I 10. Pour la fourmi le caillou ^tait comme 
one tour, u'est-ce pas) 11. Qu'est-ce qu'elle apergoit enfinl 
12. Que faisaient les deux compagnes de la fourmi I 13. Et 
la fourmi qu'estH^ qa'elle a faitt 14. £st-ce qu'elle lettr a 
parl^! 16. Comment leura-t^elleparl^l 16. Qu'est-ce qu'elle 
leur a dit I 17. Quelle est la premiere chose qu'ont falte les 
trois fourmisi 18. Et ensuite qn'ont-elles fait] 19. Une 
fourmi pouvait-elle emporter le brin d'herbe 1 20. Les 
trois founnis ensemble pouvaient-elles le faire ois^ment ? 
21. Fourquai le brin d'herbe est-il devenu 16ger t Etc., etc. 

D. A little ant was going hither and thither one day. She 
found a blade of grass on the road. "Thia blade of grass is 
very big," thought the ant. " I am too ireak to carry it off 
alone, I know what I shall da I shall climb upon a pebble. 
From the top of the pebble I shall look around. The pebble 
will be for me like a tall tower." She did so. She looked 
about her a long time. At last she saw two of her compan- 
ions. They were passing along {par) the same rood. She 
called them, and they ran to her. She said to them : "Come 
here, for I have found something good," She said thia by 
rubbing her nose against theirs, Aots, as you know, cannot 

rk like men. After that the three anta rushed towards 
blade of grass. They seized it quickly. It had been very 
heavy for the one ant. But the three together carried it off 

O '"^ , Google 


A. XJa homme deBceudib^ de J^maalem h Jericho, et tombn 
parmi des briganda, qui le d^pouill^rent. Aprfee I'avoir blessd 
da pluaieura coups, ils a'en allirent^, le laiHsant k demi mort.' 
Un prStra, qui par basard descendait' par ce chemio-l^, I'ajant 
vu*, passa outre. Uu Invite, venant' aussi dans le m£me 
endroili et le voyaat^, paasa outre. Maia ua Samaritain, 
qui Toyageait', Tint* vera cet homme, et le voyant*, fat 
touchy de compassion. S'approchaut de lui, il banda sea plaiea, 
et il y versa de I'huile et du Tin ; paia il le mit^ aur sa mon- 
ttire, le mena^ k une auberge, et prit" aoin de lui. Le lende- 
main, en partant^", il tira de sa poche deux deniera d'argent^ 
et lea donnant k I'aubergiste, lui dit": "Aie soin de lui, et 
tout oe que tu d^penseras de plus je te le rendrai' k moa 

£. Complete the folloiring, as above : 1. II desoendit. 2. Ha 
le d^pouill^rent. 3. lis s'en all&rent. 4. II descendit par ce 
ohemin. 5. II passa outre. 6. II vint vers cet homme. 7. H 
y Teraa de I'hiiila 8. II le mit sur sa monture. 9. U prit 
soin de lui. 

Give the present indicative and present subjunctive of: 
1. S'en all^rent. 2. Mort. 3. Venant. 4. Vojani. 6. Mit. 

0. (Oral.) 1. D'oJi a-t-on tir^ cette hiatoiret 2. Comment 
a'appelle I'hiatoirel 3. 0<^ sout Jerusalem et J^richol 4. 
£st-ce que !a terre sainte est nn grand ou un petit payat 
6. Qu'ont fait lea brigands au voyageur) 6. En quel ^tat se 
trouTaib-il apr^s leur depart ! 7. Quelles personnes sont venuec 
ensuite! 6. Qu'eat-ce qu'etJes ontfaiti 9. Qui est Tenu aprte 
le prStre et le l^vitet 10. Est-ce que lea Samaritaina ^taient 
bien atm^ dea Juifa) 11. Est-ce quo cela a emp&3h^ le 
Samaritain de Eaire le bient 13. Qu'est-ce qu'il a fait an 
Juifl 13. Apr^ I'avoir soign^ qu'a-t-il faitl 14. QuVt-il 
donn^ k I'aubergiste I 16. Kn quittant I'auberge, qu'a>-t-il dit 1, etc, 

D. 1, If we fall among thievea, they will atrip ua. 2. After 
baving wounded ns they will depart. 3. If you should see o 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


poor traveller h&lf dead, would yon pass by on the othw side t 
1. If the priest had been touched with compassion, he woald 
IlATe bound up the wotinda, 6, Let us pour oil and wine into 
his wounds, 6. Let na put the poor man on our own beast. 
7. Let us take him to the inn. 8. Let us take care of him 
there. 9. The next day we shall give money to the inn- 
keeper. 10. On our return we ahall give Mm back whatever 
he shall have sp«it for our friend. 

E. A man, who was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, 
fell among thieves. They stripped him and wounded him, and 
left him half dead. Then a prieet and a Levite came by 
chance to the same place, and they saw him and passed by on 
the other side. But a Samaritan, who was going down by 
tiiat road, saw him, and was touched with compassion. Then, 
after having bound up his wounds, he put him on his beast 
and took him to an inn. On the morrow he gave money to 
the innkeeper, and said that on liis return he would give the 
innkeeper vfaatever he should spend if he took care of the 
poor man. 


A. Lorsqne M. Laffitte, le famenx banquier, vinf h. Pane, en 
1788,i]'&gede21 ana, tonte son ambition sebomaitJlobtenir* 
one petite place dans une maison de banque. H se pr^nta 
ohez un riobe banquier. " Impossible de vous admettre' chez 
moi, du moins pour le moment, lui dit* le banquier : mes 
bureaux sont au complet." Le jeune homme salue et se retina 
En traversant la cour, il aper^oit' ji terre une ^pingle, et la 
ramasse. Debout devant la fen€tre de son cabinet le riche 
banqttier avait suivi' des yeux la retraite du jeune homme. II 
lui viti^ ramasser I'^pingle et ce trait lui fit^ plaisir, Le soir 
m^oie le jeune homme re;nt^ nn billet du banquier, qui lui 
disait*: "Voua avez une place dans mes bureaux; vous pou- 
vez" venir^ I'occuper d^ demain." Le jeune homme devint' 
bient6t caisaier, puis associ^ puis maltre de la premiere maison 
de banque de Paris, et enfin bomme d'Etat trte influent sous 

• tin. •IIM. 'i^lB. 'ItU. '(IIL 

u, Gooijlc 


B. Complete the followmg, aa above: 1. H viiit k Paria. 

2. Elle se bornait k cela. 3. U ae pr^seota chez le banquier. 
4. n se retire. 5. II aper^oit k terre une jingle. 6. II I'avait 
nuTi des yeux. 7. II vit ramasser I'^pingte. 8. II refut un 
billet 9. Bluidisait. 10. Vous pouvez venir. 11. Udevint 

Oive in ftill the future and conditional of; 1. Tenir. 

3. Admettre. 3, Aper9oit 4. Suivi, 5. Vit 

C. (Oral.) 1. Quel &ge avait M. Laffitte k son arriT^ k 
Paris 1 2. Qu'est-ce qu'il cherchaiti 3. B^usait-U d'abord k 
trouver une place ? 4. Oi ae pr^nta-t-il ) 5. Que Ini a-ton 
dit t 6. En 86 retirant oi va-til ) 7. Qu'eatK* qu'il trouve ! 
8. Quil'avul 9. En ^tait-U content! 10. Be quelle fa^tm 
ft-t-il montr^ aon contentement } 11. Qn'est devenu lejeune 
homme par la aoite 1 12. Quelle eat la morale de I'histoire f 
Etc., etc. 

D. 1. If your ambition la only to get a humble poaition, 
you will get it 2. Preaent yourself at the o£Sce of the rich 
banker. 3. He will admit you into his employ. 4. Ilia 
offices are not full. 6. Do you aee that pin on the ground t 
6. Pick it up. 7. There is the rich banker standing at his 
office window. 8. The banker is watching the young man as 
he retires. 9, If we see bim pick up a pin, it (cela) will please 
us. 10. Did you receive a note from the bankerl 11. You 
shall have a poaition in his banking-houae. 12. You will 
soon become his partner, will yop not? 13. Thoae who pick 
up pins may become statesmen. 

E. When M. Laffitte was twenty-one years of age he came 
to Paria. He wished to get a humble position with a rich 
banker. But when be presented himself, the rich banker told 
him that bis offices were full, and that he could not admit 
him. He withdrew. The rich banker watched him from hia 
office window, and saw him pick up a pin which he noticed on 
the ground as he was crossing the yard. This action pleased 
the banker. That very evening he sent a note to the young 
man, which said that he could have a position in his offices 
the very next day. The young man became head of a great 
buikins-houae, 8>Dd at last an influential atatesmaa. 

BXEBCI^ TT.vilf. 


jj. BenjunmFraaklinraconteVanecdotesaiTaiite^: "Qnond 
i'^taia ua enfant de cinq ou six ana, mes amis, un jour de Ute, 
remplirent ma petite poche de sous. Je partis^ tout de suite 
pour une boutique oil Ton vendait^ dee joueta. Chemin fuisant*, 

{'e vis' dans lea mainB d'un autre petit gar^on on sifflet, dont 
e son me charma. Je tui donnai en ^ange tout mon argent. 
Bevenn* chez moi, fort content de mon achat, sifflant par 
toute la maison, je fatiguai lea oreillea de toute la famille. 
Ues irhrea et mes Roenrs apprenant^ que j'avais tout donn4 
poor un mauvais instrument me dirent^ que je I'avais pay^* 
dix foia plus cher qn'il ne valait"*. Alors ils ^num^rferent" 
tontes les jolies choees que j'auraie pu'^ acheter" avec mon 
argent si j'avais ^t^ plus prudent. lU me toumbrent tellemeot 
en ridicule que j'en pleurai. Oependant, cet accident fut de 
qnelqne ntUit^ pour moi. Lorsque plus tard j'^tais tent^ 
a'acheter'^ quelque choae qui ne m'^tait paa n^cesaaire, je 
disais* en moi-m€me : Ife donn&tu peu Irop pour U t^fflet, et 
j'^pargnais mon ai^nt." 







B. Complete the following, as above : 1. Quand j'^taia on 
enfant. 2. Us remplirent ma poche. 3. Je partis tout de 
suite. 4. Je vis ua sifflet. 5. Je fatiguai tons mes amis. 
6. Je remplis mes poches, tu remplis tes poches, etc. 7. Ba 
me dirent, ita te dirent^ etc. 8. Je disais en moi-mSme, ta 
disab en toi-mSme, etc 

C. (Oral.) I. Qui ^tait Benjamin Franklini 2. A quelle 
^poque vivait-il 1 3. Quel Hge avait-il k IMpoqne de I'anecdotet 
4. Qu'est-cequ'ilavait dans Ba poche I 5. Qui le lui avail donn^) 
6. Pour quel endroit est-il parti ensaite J 7. Y est-il jamais 
arrive T 8. Quel ^tait I'obstacle ) 9. Qu'eet-ce qu'il a fait 
de son argent T 10. A. son retour chez lui, qu'eat-ce qu'il a 
(t-M 11. A-t-il charm^ ses fr^rea et ses sceursl 12. £st-ce 
qu'il avait pay4 assez cher son sifflet) 13. Elst-ce que la 
fomille ^tait contente de son achat 1 14. De quelle fa^n la 
famille a-t-elle fait voir son m^conteotemeot 1 15. Le pauvrv 

u, Goo^jlc 


Wanklin ^tait-il content k la fin! 16. Quelle le^n Fnmklm 
»-t-il re^ue par cet accident % Etc., etc 

D. 1. You have paid twice as much for that apple as it is 
worth. 2. If you pay tea cents for that pencil, that will be 
three times as much aa it is worth. 3. Never pay more for 
things than they are worth. 4. We could have bought many 
pretty things with our money, if we had been prudent. S. u 
our friend had been less prudent, he could not have bought ao 
many pretty things. 6. That accident will be of some use to 
our friends. 7. When we are (fut.) tempted to buy some- 
thing which is not necessary for us, we shall say to our- 
selves : "We are not going to give too much for the whistle," 

JS. When Benjamin Franklin was five years old, his brother, 
on a holiday, filled his pockets with coppers. Starting ofT at 
once for a shop where toys were sold, he met on the way 
another little boy who had a whistle. The sound of the 
instrument charmed him, and he gave all his money to have it. 
He was much pleased with his purchase, but be whistled ao 
much all over the house that he tired the whole family. His 
brothers and sisters asked him where he had bought his whistle 
and how much he had paid for it. He told them he had given 
all his money to the little boy^ Then they told him he had 
paid too much for it. They said too that if he had been more 
prudent, he could have bought ten times as many pretty things, 
and he cried on account of it. But the affair was of some use 
to him later on. Whenever he was tempted to buy things 
which he did not need, he would always say to himself: "J 
will not give too much for the whistle." 


A. Henri lY, dans une chasse, s'^tant ^cart^, suivant^ sa 
ooutume, de ses gardes et de aa cour, rencontra un paysan 
assis^ sous un arbre. "Que fais-tu* 141 lui dit* le prince. — 
J'^tais venu* ici diia le point du jour, pour voir' passer le riM, 
r^pondit'' le paysan; sans ce d^ir, je serais k labourer mOD 
champ, qui n'est paa fort ^oign^. — Si tu venx' mMiter sur la 
croupe de mon cheval, lui r^liqua Henri, je te cooduirai' o4 
est le roi, et tu le verras' & ton aise." 

Le paysan, enchants, profite de la rencontre, monte h, o6t6 
da rd, et dem&nde, cbemia faisant^ oomment U pourra'" reotaf 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 


jitftre" le roi, "Tn n'auras qn'^ regarder celiu qui sen 
couvert" pendant que toaa lea aucres auroQt la t£te Dne." 

Enfin le moment arrive oil le roi rejoint ** une partie de m 
DOor et se trouTs parmi see counisaDs; tous se d^convrent", 
excepts luL Aloni i1 demaude uu pa;san : " Eh bieo, quel eat 
le roi ? — Ma foi, monaieur, lui repondit-i) ', c'est voua ou moi, 
car il n'y a que nous deux qui ajons le cbapeau sur la tSte." 

'5206. 'SIS*- 'SMO. »(22L "JIT*. 

• (US. >S1T8. '{226. "S183. uflSO. 

>SlBt. •S2U. 'flBt. 

B. Complete the foUowioK, as above: 1. J'4tai8 venu. 2. 
Tq venx voir le roi. 3. Tu ]e verras & too aise. 4. II pouira 
reconualtre le roi. 5. II sera couvert. 6. II rejoiut lea 
Gourtisana. 7. lis se d^couvrent. 8. U n'y a qae uoua qui 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui ^tait Henri IV ? 2. A quelle ^poque 
▼ivaiuil ? 3. Quelle ^tait sa coutume quand il 4tait k la 
cbasse? 4. Qui a-t-i] rencODtre ud jour? 5. Qu'est-ce que 
c'est qn'un payaan ? 6. Que faisait le paysan ? 7. Depuia 
cM)mbien de tempa y ^tait-il ? 8. Pourquoi y iftait-il venu ? 
9. S'il n'^tait paa venu oil aurait-il ^t^ ? 10. Qu'cstrce que le 
roi a propose an payaan ? 11. Le payaan a-t-il accept^ ? 
13. Qu'ealKM que le payaan a demand^ au roi en chemin 7 

13. Quel 4tait le signe par leqnel on reconn^trait le roi? 

14. Le roi et le payaan ofi arrivent-ila bieotCt ? 15. Qu'eat-ce 
que lea coartisana out fait & leur approche ? 16. Combien de 
peraonnea restaient convertes ? 17. Ec combien de rois j 
BTaitril dauB la compagiiie ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. We have wandered from the court, 2. If the king 
bad not wandered from ibe court, he would not have met the 
peaaanc. 3. We came here at the very peep of day. 4. I 
bave not seeo the king go by. 5. The peasants are buay 
plouabing the field. 6. If you get up beside me, you will ae« 
the idng. 7. Aa they went along, the peasant said to the 
king : " Take me where the ki:ig ia." 8. Everybody had his 
hat on, and we could not recognize the king. 9. If the 
courtiers bad taken off their hats, we could bave recognised 
the king. 



E, One da; Henty IV. had wandered from his oonrtien. 
Meeting a peasant who was sitting under a tree, he aaked 
the latter what be was doing there. The peasant replied that 
he had been there since daybreak, and that he wished to see 
the king, and that if he had not come, he would be busy 
ploughing hia field. The king said to him : " Get up behind 
me, and I will take you where yon can see the king." The 
peasant was delighted, and got up beside the king. Aa they 
went along, he asked how he should recognize the king, and 
the king told him to look at the one who should have his hat 
on, whilst the others should be bareheaded. When they 
arrived where the courtiers were, the latter took off their hats. 
Then the king aaked the peasant which was the king. He 
replied : " We two have our hats on, the others are bare- 
h<»ded : it is you or I." 


A. Vn payaao traversait la campagne avec son fils Tbomaa. 
" Begarde ! lui dit-il' en chemin, voili par terre uu for 4 
oheTal perdu*, ramasse-le !" 

" B^ ! r^pondit^ Thomas ; U ne vant* paa la peine de m 
baisser pour si peu de chose 1 " Le pire ne dit* rien, ramasaa 
le fer et le mit* dang sa poche. Arriv^ an village voisin, il le 
Tendit* pour quelques centimea an marshal ferrant, et acheta' 
des cerises avec cet argent 

Cela fait', ils se remirent* en rente. Le soleil ^tait brfilauL 
Thomas mourait' de aoif, et avait de la peine ^ ponraairre* son 
chemin. Le p^re, qui marchait le premier, laissa, comme par 
hasard, tomber une cerise. Thomas la ramassa avec empresse- 
ment, et la mangea'*. Quelquea paa plus loin, une seconds 
ceriae s'^bappa des mains du p^re, et Thomas la saiait avec 
le mdme empressement. Le p&re fit* de m8me avec toutes lea 
ceriaea. Lorsqne I'eniant eat port^ k la bouche la dernifere 
cerise, le p^re se retournaet Ini dit* : "Toia^", mon ami, tu n'as 
pas vouluii te baisaer une fois pour ramasser le fer k clieval, et 
to as ^t^ oblig^i^ de te baisser pins de vingt fois pour ramaaser 
los cerisea." 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


jB. Complete the following, aa above; 1. H ne dit rien. 

3. II le mit dans aa poche. 3. I] vendit le fer. 4. II achat* 
dea cerises. 5. II moorarit de soif. 6. H mangea une cerise. 
7. n la saisit. 8. II fit de mSme. 0. lis se remirent ea route. 
10. B e'^chappade sesmains. 11. II se retonraa. 12. Tn t'es 

C (Oral.) I. De qnelles personnes parle-t-on dans cette hi»- 
toiret 2. Qa'est-ce qae c'eat qn'im payaan t 3. Etait-il seult 

4. Qu'est^ce qn'ils ont tu ea cbemin ! 5. Qn'est-ce que c'eeb 
qu'un fer & cheval t 6. Qo'est^e que le p^re a dit au fils t 7, 
Qu'est-ce que le fils a r^pondu 1 8. Lequel des deux ^tait le 
plus prudent ) 9. Par quelle action a-t-il montr^ sa prudence I 

L qui 
a & 1 

L an marshal f errant 1 12, Qu'est-ce qu'on a aohet^ 
arec I'argent 1 13. Quel temps faisait-il 1 14. Qnel^taitreffet 
d« la cbaleur sur le petit Tbotnaa) IS. £atH» que le p^ 
n'avait rien poor la amfl 16. Est-ce que les cerises sont 
bonnes pour la soif} 17. Qu'est-ce que le pire a fait dea 
oerisesl 18. Et qu'est-ce que son fils en a faiti 19. Conw 
bien en a-t-il mangles 1 20. Pourqnoi aurait-il mieux fait ds 
H baisser pour le fer k cheval 1 Etc., etc. 

D. 1. It vas not worth the trouble. 2. It will not be 
worth the trouble. 3. If it is worth the trouble, we shall 
pick up the horse-shoe. 4. Put the horse-shoe into your pocket 
and buy cherries. 6. We shall set out again on our journey. 
6. If the Bua is hot, they will not set out again. 7. I am 
very thirsty (dying with thirst) ; give me some cherries, 
8. We have difficulty in picking up the cherries. 9. If you are 
dying with thirst, I shall drop a cherry. 10. The cherries ars 
on the ground ; pick them np. 11. If you walk ahead, will 
yon pick up the cherries T 12. A few steps farther on, I 
stooped to pick up the horae-shoe. 13. Why did you seize 
the horse-shoe so eagerly t 14. We did not seize it et^rly. 
15. If yon had been willing to turn round, we should have 
given you the cherries. 16. Stoop, if you wish to pick up. 
17. He who is not willing to stoc^ once, will perhaps stoiq) 
more than twenty times. 

E. As a peasant and his son were crossing the coantiy; 
they Bftw a hwse^hoe on the gronnd. The father told bia son 

u, GoO^jlc 


l26 EXEBCISi: Lt 

to pick ib \q) and pat it into hia pocket The son replied fibrt 
it was not worth while to stoop for a horseshoe. Then the 
father stooped and picked it up. They sold it to the black- 
■mith of the noighboring viil^e, and bought some cherries, 
which the father pat into his pocket. They pursued their 
way, the father walking ahead. The sun was hot and Thomac 
was very thirsty, and, as if by chajtce, a chertr fell from his 
father's pocket. The son seizing it, ate it, and also a second 
one, which slipped from his father's pocket. Soon the last 
cherry was carried to his mouth, and his father, turning round, 
told him that if he had been willing to stoop once for the 
horse-shoe, he would not have beea obliged to stoop twenty 
times for the cherries. 


A. Tin jour Fr^^ric le Grand, roi de Pmsse, ayant sonni 
•ans que personne r^pODdtt' k cet appel, ouvrit^ la porte de son 
antichambre et trouva son page endormi" sur nne chaise. Au 
moment oii il allait* le r^veiller, il aper^nt^ ud papier 4cTit* 
Bortant^ de la poche du page. La curiosity dn roi fut excit^ 
il prit^ le papier et le lot**. C'^tait une lettre de la m^re du 
jeune homme, dans taquelle elle remerciait son fils de ce qu'il 
lui envoyait*" une partie de ses gages pour la soulager^' dans aa 
misitre. Le roi, ayant lu^ la lettre, prit* un rouleaa de ducats 
et le glissa avec la lettre dans la poche du page. Un instant 
apr^ il sonna si fort que le page se riveilla et accourut^* 
aupr^ de lui. " Yous avez dormi^," lui dit'^ le roi. Le jenne 
homme, ayant honte, tScha de s'ezcuser. Dans Ron embarras U 
mit^* la main dans sa poche, et y trouva le rouleau de ducats. 
II lo prit*, pUit, trembla, et ne put^* articuler un seul mot. 
" Qu'avez-vous 1 dit^' le rot. — Hdlas ! sire, dif le p^;e, quel- 
qu'un veut^* me perdre'; je ne sais'^ pas d'oi m'est venu^' 
oet or. — La fortune ne vientelle^* pas souvent en dormant^l 
reprit* Fr&i^ric. Envoie^* cette somme k ta mfere, an lui fai- 
aant'* mes compliments et assure-la bien que j'aurai soin d'ell(> 
»t de toi." 

-.u, GtXH^Ic 
















It int. 


B. Complete the following, as above : 1. Sana qa'U r^ptmdtt. 
S. II ouvrit ta porte. 3. II lut le billet, i, 11 allait la 
i^Teiller, S. II aper^ut \m papier. 6. II remerciait le rot 

7. II envoyait I'argeot. 8. II prit le ronleau. 9. II so 
r^veilla. 10. II accomrut aupr^ da roi. 11. U ne put dire 
nn mot, 12. II vent me perdre. 13. Je saia d'oil c'eat Venn. 
14. Envoie cette somme. 

Re-write the anecdote sabstitnting the past indefinite for 
the paat definite. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Quel est le eujet de cette anecdote T 2. A. 
quelle ^poque vivait Fr^^ric le Grand t 3. Oil est la Fruese t 
4. Qu'eat-ce que c'eet qu'un pt^T 6. Oi ^tait le page dont 
parle lliiatoira 1 6. Qu'est^^» qu'il y faisait 1 7. Qu'est-ce que 
lee pages derraient faire dans lea antichambres des roist 

8. Est-ce que le roi e'est mis en colore contre le pageT 9. 
Qu'est-ce qu'il a fait 1 10. Ea lisant la lettre qu'est-ce que le 
roi a d^couvert) 11. Eat-ce que la mhre dupage ^tait riohe) 
13. Qu'estMM qne le page faisait pour ellel 13. Le roi en 
<tait-il content 1 14. De quelle fa^on a-t-il montr^ son con- 
tentementl 15. Comment le jeune homme a-t-il d^couvert ce 
que le roi avait faitt 16. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'un ducati 

17. Que pensaib-il en sentant lea ducats dans sa pochet 

18. De quelle fa^n le roi a-t-il calm^ le Jeuoe homme I 

19. £st-ce que le proverbe est toujours Trai : " La fortune 
nous vient en dormant?" 20. Qu'est-ce que cette hiatoire 
nous apprend ) Etc., etc 

J). 1. He rings without anyone answering him. 2. If we 
open the door, we shall find the p^e. 3. I am going to wake 
him. 4. He will waken. S. ^e paper was sticking out of 
his pocket. 6. She thanked her son for sending her a part of 
his wages. 7. She sent a letter in which she thanked her son. 
8. We have been asleep. 9. We had been asleep. lU. The 
king asked: " What ia the matter with him 1" 11. Somebody 
will rain me. 12. He took care of him and her. 

B. One day Frederick the Great rang, and nobody answered 
him. Opening the door of the antechamber, he finds his page 
■sleep. A letter, which was sticking out of the page's pocket, 
aroused the king's curiosity. The young man used to send hia 
" r a part <a his wages, and in thia letter she waa than kin g 

u, Goo^jlc 


him for it. The king read the letter, and, taking a roll erf 
ducats, slipped it, with the letter, into the young maa's pocket. 
Then ringing very loud, he waked the page, who hastened into 
his presence. He asked the young man if he had been asleep. 
The young man was ashamed, and tried to excuse himselC 
Fatting his hand into his pocket he finds the ducats. He 
trembles, and cannot titter a word. The king asked him what 
was the matter with him, and he replied that somebody wished 
to ruin hio), for he did not know where the ducats came from. 
The king replies that good luck cnmes to us often while we 
sleep. He tells the page that he will take oare of his mother 
and >i''ii . 



il68J BiaULAB TKBB8. 




153. Ree:ular Cottjug:ations. Regolar Terbs are con- 
Teniently divided into three closaea or coi^ugations, according 
as the present infinitive ends in -er, -ir, -re, and are inflected 
in their dinple tenses as follovs : — 

I. II. UL 

InfinitiTe Mood. 

hmn er, to yiw, fin Ir, tofiniA. romp re, to bnoL 


'Pxgaxsv. Pbzszmt. PsnniT. 

kon Mtt, giviitg, fin in ant, finU^. romp ant, brtaHng. 

Fast. Past. Past. 

donn i, given, fin 1, ^finMtd. romp n, brviat. 

Indicative Mood. 


Igivt, am giving, IJhMi, amjhuihing, Ibreat, am breahnff, 

je donn e. ]e fin i B. je romp a. 

tu donn es. tn fin i s. ta romp 9. 

il doDn e. il fin i t. il romp L 

nons donn ons. nous fin iss oni. noos romp oos. 

TODS donn ez. vona fin isa ez. toos romp ex. 

u, Goo^jlc 


/ WM giving, lued 
je donn kia. 

ils donn aienL 

Fast DEFiNrra. 
/ govt, etc 
}e donn ai. 


IvXU finiihiMg, vMd 
to fituA, ttc 
}e fin in fti^ 
tn fin iaa «i& 
il fin in ait 

□OQB fin iss ionai 

iU fin ias alefUi 

PiifT Definite. 

I fattthed, tie. 

je fin ia. 


to bT«ai, tic. 
je romp ais, 
tn romp aia. 
il mmp ait. 

Tona romp ies. 
ila romp aienL 

Pj0i DEFixita, 
Ibrokt. tie. 
je lomp ia. 

BOUB donn AniM. 

Toua donn Ates. 

Us donn irent 

I AaU give, etc 
je donner aL 
tn donner aa. 
il donner a. 
nous donner ona. 
voiu donner ee, 
ib donner onL 

/ lAwM give, etc 

il donner ait 

TOOM donner iez. 
ila donner aient 


7 iAiii2 j!nuA, tte, 

nouB finir ona. 

Toos finir ex, 

ila finir ont 


lAmOdfimA, tie. 
je finir aia. 

lis romp ireot 

I thall brtah, etc 
je roDipr aL 
tu rompr aai 
il rompr a, 

voua rompr ex. 
ila rompr ont 

I thould brrai, tte. 
je rompr ai& 
tu rompr aia, 

il rompr ait 
none rompr iooa. 


|164] AUZIIJAB7 VERB& 181 

ImperatiTe Mood. 

FKnmr. Pkesbht. Pkbkkk 

Give, etc Fta'ah, tie. Break, tie. 

donn c* fin is. romp s. 

(qn'il donn e.) (qn'ilfin isse) (qu"!! rompe.) 

donn ona, fin ias ona. l^>II1p ona, 

donn ez. finis* ez. romp ez. 

(qnlladooaent) <qa'ilB fin ias ent.) (qu'ils lomp eoL] 
Ihli foim tKoomei 'donn m' when toUowad 1>7 -y or -«tl (of . |370, S, oti. S, 4X 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Pbbbi3ii. Pbesent. Pbisent. 

(7^(iK)/(nuij/)^iw, (7^0/('nay)/nuA, (TAiif) /(ma;/] braii^ 

<que) je donn e. (que) je fin 

(qoe) ]'e romp e. 

(que) tu donn ea. (que) tu fin tss es. (que) 

(qu') il donn «, (qu* il fin ias e. (qu') il romp e. 

(que) noua donn ioDB> (que) nous fin iaa Ions, (que) doob rotup iona, 

(que) TouB donn lez; (qne) voua fin iss iez. (que) voub romp iez; 

(qn') ila donn ent. (qu') ils fin ias ent. (qu') ils romp ent. 

iHrERFBcr. iHPanracT. Iupebfect. 

(That) I Imighi) give, (Thai) I (might) Jinuh, iThat) I imight) break, 

etc. ete, el£. 

(qnejjedonnaase. (que) jefiuiase. (que) ja tomp isse. 

(que) tu donn oases. (que) tu fin isscs. {que) tu romp issci. 

(qa') il donn Jit. (qn') il fin ft (qu') il romp It. 

(que) nous donn salons, (que) noua fin issiona. (que) nous romp iaaiou. 

(qne) vona donn assiez. (que) voua fin issiez. (que) tous romp issiez. 

(qn') iUdonnasaent. (qu') ila finisaent. [qu') ils romp isseob 

154. The anxiliaty verbs avoir, ' to have,' and 6tre, ' to bc^' 
sre conjugated in their simple tenses as follows : — 


Pkib. sv<nr, to have. Pkb. 6tn, to bt. 

u, Google 



Pius. Mut, Mug;. 
Past, iti, beea. 

thavt, am having, et 

/ had, tnu hamng, etc. 

tu nvftU. vous &vie£, 
il avait. ila kvuent. 

Pm DantriTB. 
/Aad, etc 

tn eiu. vouB efltea. 
il eut. ila eureaL 

Ithttilhave, etc. 
j'aarai. nous ftoront. 


/ont, ant ftcin^, etc. 
]e suis. aona sommM; 
tn 08. Toiu «tea. 
ilett. ila aoQt. 

/inu, inu beitig, ete. 
i'dtaia. noua dtiona. 
tn 61MA. voue ^liei. 
il <!tut. ils dtaienb 

Past DsFUtrrs. 

j«ftia. noua fames, 
tn foa. vona ffltea. 
il fuL ila fiirent. 


/(AouU Aa««, He. 




je aeraia. nona aerie 
tn aersia. toob aerie 


Pbksint. PuBBin. 

^aw, dc Be, etc 

ayona. Bojona. 

nyei. soia. aoyez. 

(qn'Ik kient.) {fo'il aoit.) (qnlla awcob) 

-.u, GtXH^Ic 




(T^ial) I (may) have, etc. 

(que) j'aie. (que) noua ajona. 

(que) tu sies. (que) vous ayez. 

(qn') il ait. (qa') ila aient. 

( Thai) I imight) have, tie. 
(gne)j'euB«e. (que) 
(qne)tneu«SM. (que)vouai 
{qu'}ile<lt. (qu'Jilsi 


( That) I {may) be, etc. 
(que) je soi*. (que) noua «o;oillt 
(que) tu Bois. (que) toub tojet. 
(qu') il Boit. (qu') fla raient. 

{That) Umii/ht) be, etc. 

(que)jefusse. (qae)iioaBfusaii>iu, 
(que)tufuB0ea. (que) voub fuBaia& 
(qu') il fat. (qu'} ila fusBeob 


) 155. Formatiotl. Compouiid tenses are formed from t^ 
put participle of the principal verb along with an auziliaiy 

Terb (usuaUy avoir, sometimes fetre), 

see §§227-229. 




To have giveri. 
avoir donn^ 

To have arrived. 

Bavmg given. 

STant domi4 


Saving orHved. 

iumt arrir<(e)(s). 

Past IsDKnNTTS. 

I have givm, etc. 



Fast iMDEnnm. 
/ have arrived, etc 




I had given, €tc 


I had arrived, ttc 
i'iUia arrivi(B). 


PlSF Anteriob, 
/ had given, etc 


Past Antzriok. 
/ had arrived, ti& 

FnnntE Aktekiok. 

/ ^att kave given, etc 

j'aurat cl[>Tm& 

Conditional Aktxrior. 

/ AotUd have given, tie. 

j'auiais doim& 

CoHDmoKAi. Antekiob. 

J Mhould have arrived, etc 

jo serais aniv^e). 



Perfsot. pKRFscr. 

{Thatt I {may) have given, etc. (That) I {may) have arrived, tte, 

(que) j'aje donni. que je sois airiv^e). 


PttipRKMcr. Plufertbc 

{That) I {might) have given, etc. {Thai) Umij/hl) have 

(qua) j'auaae donnd. 

arrived, ele. 

(qne) je fiuae artiv^e). 

* 156. Verbs in -cer and -ger. 

1. Verbs in -cer, e.g., avancer {avSae], 'to Bdvance,' («qalre the [•] 
Kiiind of c throughout their conjugatioii, and hence c beeomea c befora 
a OF o of an ending (3 S, 4), but m ' ' 

Pre*. Part. Pre*. Indie. 
tKtatgmt. avance. 

t elsewhere : 

/msT. Indie. PaA Def. Imp/. Suli. 

BTan{al& avan^L avanfaaae. 

avan^ais. avan^aa. avan^asaet. 

avau^t. avBuga. avan^t. 

avancions. avan^ftmes. avan^auiona. 

avanciez. a^u^&tes. 

aran^ent. avanciTent. 



2. YerbB in -gtr, e.g., nuuiEer [rnQse], ' to eat,' reqnire the [9} eoniid 
of g throughout their conjugation, and henco g becomes ge befo[« ■ ot 
o (g 19, 2), but not elsewhere : 

Pra. Part. Pra. Indie. Imp/. Indie. Past Di/. Impf. Sttb^, 

mngeaDt. mange. mangvaia. nuuigeaL manfreaase. 

mangea, toaag^B. mangeaa. numseasaea. 

mange. mangeait, man^fea. mangeftt. 

mangeons mangions. mang^e&mea. moiigeasBionfc 

mangez. mangiez. mang^e&tea. mangeaBsiea. 

maogeat. mangeaienL mongirenL mangeaaaent. 

157. Verbs in -yer. 

Verb« Id •ojer and -i^er change 7 to i whenever it comes before [«] 
in conjngation, but not elsewhere ; verbs in -ayer and -tytt may either 
retain j thraughont, or change it to i before [e] ! 

Pre*. In£e. Fat. Condi Prti. 8ulf. 

nettoie, etc nettcuerai, etc nett^neraie, etc nettde, eto. 

P^y-Utc P*y^''|etc I»y«'*'«*\etc P*y"'letQ. 

paie, J paierai, } peierais, J paie, j 

158. Verbs with Stem-vowel e or 4. 

Verba with stem-vowel e require the [e] aormd of e (S 12, 1) whenevOT, 
in conjugation, the next ajll^e contains [a] ; so also verba with th* 
stem-vowel £, shown orthographicallj as follows : — 

1. By chongiiig e or < to i (3 12, 1), e.g., mener, ■ to lead,' cider, ' to 

Ptm. Indie. 

Frej. S«y. 

















mioent. mtnenL miueront. mineraienL 

Bnt cMer with the stem-vowel i : 

cMe, etc ctde, etc c^lerai [aedere], etc c£derais [sEdere], eto. 

Obt.: Inmeni-jet [msoei)], e of the ending is not mute, and heooe 
the atom- vowel e is unchanged. 

like mencr : Verbs with Stem-Towel e (for eioeptions in •eler tvd 
4ter, see below). 



Like cMer: 
•reign,' etc 

Verb* with ate 


NoriL -Tartu llks atn. craU, uriUl 

nmil raUowed bj > Toinl. » Rfidu: 


2. Meet verbe in -eler, -Hba:, 

howerer. indicate the [e] Bonnd by 

doubling 1 or t (1 12, 1), e.g., kppder, 

■tao»ll,'jeter, 'tothrow': 



Fut. CoBdC 



appellerai. appellerai^ 



appellents. appelleraia. 









appellen^it appeDeraieat 

Bo also, Jeter: 


Jette, oto. 

jette»I, eto. Jetteraie, eto. 

A few verba i 

n •der, -cter take the 

psve accent prediely like meoer. 



aohfcte, etc. 

Ezceptiooa like acheter : 




T.iut. inaM>T,««U 

biHirrcler, toad, s«t*T, frtti*. 

d4muC«LeT» dirmofUTj. hircelcT, Aoroa. 

AoHTteler, fuorUr. nurUler, Anmfiwr. 

*Af. JpOIUaetaral KoordinK to tba 'Dlottonnali 
EzceptioDB like Kppeler or achettr : 

botular. AoA (bV. *to.). i»qneMr, nuHK 

npU«t«r, pisM. 

ctoduUr, i«A(a loAX 


159; Principal Parts. By the following rules, the Tariooa 
tenses of all regular verbs and of moet irregular verbs may be 
known from five forms of the verb, called principal parts or 
primary tenses : — 

1. The /n/niCiM givea the Fvlare by adding -ai, -as, -a, -oni, -u, 
•«at, and the OondtUonai by adding -aia, -aia, -«it, -iooo, -t«x 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

§§16(H61] ntBEGULAR TERBS IN -EB. 187 

4ient — dropping the final infinitive -e ot the third oonjagatiiMi for 
both teUBBB. 

2. The PreimU Participle gives the Imptrfect Indicative by changing 
•Not into -ais, -ais, -ait, 'ions, -tez, -aient, and the Praeat Subjanctivt 
\>j chaugiDg ^nt into -e, -es, -e, •ions, 'itx, -«nt 

S. The Poet Partici/ile gives the Compound Tenta, with the auxiliary 
avcMT (§227) or fitre (§228), and the Pantive, with the auxiliary ttre 

i. The Prettnt Indicative gives the ImpeTotive by dropping the 
prcmoon subject of the second singular and first and second plural, 
the -a of the first cixijngatioa second singular being also dropped, 
except before y and en (c£ $370, 3, ob*. 3, 4). 

fi. The Patt D^itite gives the Impetfett SvbjuTKtive by changing the 
final letter of the first singular (-i or -s) into -sse, -nes, -t, -ssiona, 
•4wiez, -Bsent, and patting a circiunflex accent over the last vowel of 
the third singular. 

I, mn not nullr rffriiwit trom tli* 


i6o. Aller, 'to go.' 

1. Injiuitive. aller; fiu. *irai, iras, ira, etc; cottdl. irtus, etc. 

2. Prea. Part, allant; imp/, indtc allais, etc.; jvet. aula. ^iU« [^'jl 
•illes, aiBe, allioos, alliez, aillent. 

a Patt Part. alK ; paat indtf, }e suis all^, etc. 

4. Free. Indie, vala [ve], vas, va, allons, allez, vont; impve. va 
(vas-y), allons, allez. 

6. Pa*t Dtf. allai, alios, alia, allAmes, aMtes, all^rent ; imp/, tviq. 
allaese, allasaeB, allAt, allaasions, allassiez, aUassent. 

*Ths (tarn ol Cha hiliue ia trom tlia I^tiu iuDuitlTB tre. 

Like aller: ^ 

I'an sllar, go aiMy. 

• l6l. Envoyer, ' to send.' 

1. /nfEnUltie. enroyer ; fvt. enverrai, etc.; tondl. eavermis, etc 

2. Prt«. Pari, envoyant ; imp/, indie, eavoyais, envoyaia, envoyait, 
envoyinns [dvwaijS], envoyiez, envoyaient; prei. tttld- envoie, envoiei, 
euvoie, envciyioDs [dvwaijS], envoyies, euvoient. 

u, Gooijlc 

138 THE VERB. [§§162-164 

5. Ftul Part, eamji ; patt indrf. j'ai envoyi, et& 

4. Fret. Indie, envoie, eiiToieB, envoie, envoyoiu, eavajez, enToientt 
impvt, envoie, anvoyons, envoyez. 

a. PiUt D^. Komsai, envoyas, envoya, enToyimeB, envoy&tw, 
eovoyirent ; imjif. «u^. eoToyaase, envoyaaBea, envoylt, enToy—ioni, 
enToyassiM, envoyoBB^L 

noToru, wnd awov, AUmiu. 

- 1G2. Acqutfrir, * to acquire.' 

1. li^nitivr. kcqu^rir ; /^l. acqueirai, acqueiras, eto. ; eondL Mqner- 

2. Pro. Part. Kcqu^nut ; imp/, indie, aoqudrais, etc. i pra. ni^ 
Mqniire, acquiirea, scquiire, acqa^riona, acqu^riez, acqui^renL 

3. P(ut Part, ocquia ; patt indrf. j'ai acquis, etc 

4. Pra. Iridic. Kcquicrs, acquiers, acquiert, acqn^nins, acqndm^ 
acqniireiit ; impee. acqoieri, acqa^txma, acquires. 

6. PaU Def. aoquis, acquiB, acquit, acqutmes, acqattea, acquirent ; 
imp/, tui}. acqnjsse, acquisseB, acquit, acquiasiona, acquiasiez, acquiasent. 

Like ocqiiirir : 

oonqo^rir, oon^utr. *qxarit or qnfirtr, Meek. requArir, nfufn, olaini. 

^•oquAriri iaquirt. reooDqn^rir, reeonqiur. 

* Hu only ths InJInitlire. 

163. Bfeir, ' to bless.' 

b regolar, but ha* also an irregular paat participle biait, uaed only 
M adjective : 
De I'eau b^te ; du pain Mnit Holy water ; cousecratad bread. 

164. Courir, ' to run.' 

1. Infinitioe. COnrir j J\ll. couirai, courraa, etc. ; eondl comraJB, eto. 

2. Pro. Part courttnt; imp/, tntjic. connuB, etc.; pru. tuij. conre, 
Ounrea, coure, couriona, conriez, courent. 

3. Pa*l Part, couni j pott indef. j'ai conrn, eta 

4. Pret. Indie, coun, conrs, court, oourans, ooonx, coorcot ; impw, 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 

5§165-166] ntREGULAR VERBS IN -IB. 139 

6. Pa«t Drf. connis, counia, conrut, oonrdmea, courfltea, coam- 
rent ! impf. tubj. counuae, cooniBseB, courflt, couruBsions, cournsdiei, 

Ijke conrir are its oomponnda ; 

■ooouiir, rvn uj>, htuttn. discoorir, diteoum. noomir, run ivajn, oppfy* 

OMiooorir, HHjpcraU, con- enoouiir, incur. •Boouilt, twxor, htlp. 

NoTL—Goaira, ehau (» htuiUng: tannX w>metlinae npUcs* oonrlr Id ttaa luflnltlT*, 

165. Cueillir, 'to gather,' 'pick.' 

1. Iiifinitive. caeillir ; fiU. cueillerai, etc. ; condl. cneiUsraiB, et& 

2. Prei. Part. cueiU«iit ; impf. ittdK. cueillaia, etc. ; prtM. ni^. 
oaeille, cueillea, oueille, cueilliooa, cueiUiez, cuciUent 

3. PiM Part, cueilli ; pcM ind^. j'ai cueilU, «to. 

4. Prai. Indie. dKlUe, cueillea, caeiUe, oueillona, coeillez, oneilleDt ; 
mpBC oueille, oneilloDa, cueillez. 

5. Paa Def. cneillis, cueillis, cueillit, cueilUmea, cueillttes, cueilli- 
nat ; impf. itdij. cneillisae, cueilliaBes, cueillit, oueiUiuiona, cueillisaiec, 

Obi. : Tbe pnmit lodlotUre, futun, and condiUoiul us lik< Uidh dI donnw. 

Like cndllir : 

MDD^lllr, wttamu. *ui^llJr. auaO. tr 111 till r, dart. 

nni^Ur, gather. coUat, t aidlllr, M «il. 

• Bagnlu In hitun umI condltian&l : aauUllnl, etc 

tBailUr, itujA rHit, rutk/oTth, liKguUr, likaflnlr. 

■ 166. Dormir, 'to sleep.' 

1. Infimtivt. dormir ; /lU. dormirai, etc. ; catuil. donniraia, etc 

2. Pra. Part, dormant ; impf. indie. donnaiB, etc. ; prta. tuhj. 
dorme, dormea, dorme, dormiona, dormiez, dorment. 

3. Pwit Part, dormi; patl indef. j'ai dormi, etc. 

4. Pra. Indie, dors, dora, dort, dormoua, dormez, donneut ; 
impve. dors, dormonB, dormei, 

5. Past Dtf. dormis, dormia, donnit, donnImea,dormtteB,dormirent; 
i»pf. mb}. dormisae, dormiases, donnit, donnisuons, dorntiaaiec, 

Like dormir: 

a (Imp BMDtlr, K6. 

iMmBDtIr, tontradia. Mtl. 

nodonnir, iwl le tiagp tbonlUli, bail BtD^. MfmiUi, diitribiitt. 

agatn. nboniUir, Ml Offatn. n dtputlr, duM. 

6^^ r,,, I, Google 

THE VERB. [§§167-169 

lir. clear Iht tatU. 

lUl (OD, k) 

repamr, autruHiit, im like nnir. 

Observe the Present Indicative of the following types, which axo 
represented in the above list ; 

bouillir : bons, bona, bout, bouillons, bonillez, boniUent 

mentir : mens, mens, ment, mentions, mentez, mentent 

partir : para, pare, part, partona, partes, partent. 

Be repcntir : repeos, repens, repent, repentons, repentez, repeutent. 

sentir : sens, sens, sent, sentona, sentez, aentent. 

serrir ; sera, sera, sert, servons, Bervez, servent, 

sortir : sors, son, sort, sortoos, sortez, sortent. 

167. Faillir, ' to faU.' 

' 1. InfinUive. failUr ; fjit. faudrai, faudras, etc ; condl fandraia, eta 

2. Free. Pari, faillant ; imp/, indk. faillais, etc. ; pree. tub), faille. 
failles, faille, faillions, failliez, faillent 

3. Poet Pari. Uaili ; poKl indef. j'ai failli, etc 

4. Pre». Indie. £aux, faux, faut, faillons, taillez, faillent ; imptt. 

5. Paat Def. faillis, faillis, faillit, faillimes, faillttes, failUrent; imff. 
M^. faillisaa, failUssea, faillit, failUsBiona, faillisaiez, failliasent. 

Like faillir : 

•ditaimr, /fl(n/, /all. 
* PreB. indio. uaually <UfanB, dAfani, di&nt. 
BOTt-Fallllr, /aa in ftiHiiwM, li muilly Ute flnlr. 

168. F^rir, 'to strike.' , 

Used only in 'Sans coup firir,' ' Without striking a blow,' and in the 
pa«C part. iixXi, mounded (a veterinary term). 

169. Fleurir, ' to flourish,' etc 

Pre». Part, florissant ; imp/, indk. florissais, etc., when used of per- 
sons or a collection of persons, or flenrissais, etc. , when used of things ; 
otherwise like finir. 
San.— Tieaxix, btouem, btema {inftliMn]*eDw}liUk«ll]il£ 

u, GtXH^Ic 

§§170-174] IBBEGTJLAB VERBS IN -IB. 141 

17a Fuir, 'to flee,' 'fly.' 

1. Infinitive, fuir; /ut. fniiai, etc; amdl. fuirais, eto. 

2. Prm. Part. fajaOt ; itapf. indie, fujaia, etc ; pru. nij. foie, fniei, 
fnie, fuyioDS, fu^ez, fuieuL 

a Past Part, fid ; patt ind^. j'ai fui, etc 

4. Pre». Indie, filis, fius, fuil, fuyooi, fujez, fuieut; impvt. foil, 
fnyons, fujez. 

6. Past Def. fiiii, fuis, fnit, fuimes, futtet, foirent ; imp/, ni^. fidwe, 
foiMM, futt, fuisriiHu, fuiasiez, fuissenU 

Like fuir; 

■'enfulr, fia. evuBpfl. 

, 171. G^r, ' to lie,' ' lie buried.' 

1. Infinitive. gtMi ; fnt. j condL , 

2. Fret. Part, gisut; imp/, indie. gisaJB, etc; prti. «uy. , 

8. Pait Part. . 

4. Prea. Indie. , , g^ gieoiiB, giBez, gisent ; impve, ', 

B. Patt DeS. i impf- Mi- ■ 

Nora.— It* meat fnqiunt nn li Id ei^Upha : ' Oi-Sit,' 'Han Uta,' • Cl'SlMati' 
•Ban Ua/ 

- lya Hair, 'to nat©.' 

1. In^joii'Be. lu^r ; /ut. htlrai, etc ; eondl. iialraia, etc. 

2. Pre*. Part, tuiaaant; imp/, indie, haluais, etc; pret. n^ 
balase, halnee, halme, halaaiona, halsaiez, halssent. 

3. Past Part, tul; paM ind^f. j'ai haf, etc 

4. Pret. Indie. hAia, haii, halt, halBBons, halssez, haiuent; impvt. 
Iuu3, b&lBaozVf hairaez. 

fi. Pott ZV. haid, halB, hott, h^inea, haitea, halreut; tmp^. m^ 
balaae, haiBBeB, halt, h^^aaiotiBT hals^eZt ha^fasent- 

17J Issir, 'to spring (from, de),' eto. 

Uaed only in the piut parf. issu; patliadff. je auia iam, etc 
. 174. Mourir, 'to die.' 


142 THE VERB. [§§175-177 

2. Pret. Part, monnuit; impf. indie, moniua, eto. ; pra. »i^. menra, 

5. Pott Def. mounis, mourua, monmt, moniilineg, i 
nirent ; impf. milf}. mouruase, mouruaBea, monrfit, monruBuoiw, 
mounissiez, monnissent. 

Obi. : The iMDi-Towal beooma en whenvir 11 bun tha iIiim 

Like mourir : 

■e Bunib, A« dyitv (OMd oal; in Infln., pm. imUo., Impl. Indlo.), 

175, Ouir, 'to hear.' 

) Ib hardly used bejond the infioitive and paat participle : ' iTai tut 

dire.' ' I have iieard said,' etc 

ff 176. Ouvrir, ' to open." 

1. Infinitive, omrrir ; /ut. onvrirei, etc ; condL ouvrirais, etc 

2. Pra. Part. ouTrant ; imp/, indie, ouvraia, etc. ; pro. tul^. OMvn, 

3. Pott Pari, oavert ; paal indrf. j'ai onvert, etc. 

4 Pre*. Indie, ouvre, ouvres, ouvre, onvrouB, ouvrei, oavrwitl 

B. Pott Dtf. ourris, ouvris, ouvrit, ouvrimea, ouvrltos, ouvrirentj 
Hn^. «ut>7. ouvrine, onvriaeei, ouvrit, ouvriasione, onvriwiez, ouvriBaenb 
Oh*.: Tba pmeat Indicaitlv* {• like ttut of doniwr. 


•Dtr'tniTrlr, opta (KtfiU^. dteonirir, dftesier. offilr, aftr. 

ft 177. Tenir, 'to hold.' 

1. /ni^nUitw. tenir ; fvt. tiendrai, tieudras, etc. ; iondL tiendroia, atCb 

2. Prts. Part, tuumt ; impf. indie, tenaia, etc. ; prta. «*%», tienne. 

3. Pa*t Part, tenu ; po** indef. j'ai tenn, etc 

4. Pra. Indie, tieus, tieiia, ticot, telunu, Una, tictuunt) 
tieoa, teoons, teaes. 


§§178-179] ntfiEQITLAIt TEBBS IS -IB. 143 

, tintea [ttit], tiurent 

Venir, ' to coma' 

1. Infintiive. venir ; fuL viendrai, vieudras, etc ; eoniU. viendnia, etc. 

2. Prti, Part, rciiuit ; hnpf. indlc venaia, etc j prt*. tukj. vienne, 
Tiomiea, vienne, veniona, veniez, viennent. 

S. Patt Part, vena; pait ind^. je auia venu, etc 

4. Prea. Indie. Tiens, viena, vient, venous, venez, viennent; impw. 
Tlena, venona, venez. 

fi. Pail Pef. vios, vina, vint, vfaaiea Ivfim], vintoa [vE;t], vinrent 
[tEit] ; imp/, mbj. vinwe [vSla], vinaaea, vint, vinaaiona, VTnasiez, 

Oit..' 1. Tbt at»n-Towd becoDiBa le 
pcadael; like tenlr In Ita IrnguUritieg, but owing to it 

Like vtxat are its compounda : 
annlt,A(ifipi!n(3ig.onl7). dlKOnvenir, ft< dfMsrdant. 
«d>aiir,Aii;ip«n(3gc.oiil7).|DUrTeniT. intenene. 
ooOTanir. a^r«, ni<t. purenir, otfain. 

179. Vfttir, 'to clothe.' 

1. Infinitive. v6tir ; fat. vStirai, etc ; condi. vdtiraia, etc 

2. Pra. Part, rttant j imp/, indie, v^taia, etc.; pra. m/tj. vSto, vfitea, 
vSte, vStiona, vftiez, vfiteDt. 

3. Patt Part, vttu ; patt indt/. j'm vStu, etc 

4. Pra. Indie. T6ta, vfta, v£t, vgtona, vStez, vStont ; intpse. vSts, 
TStcaia, v£teE. 

a. PaU Dr/. vttia, vStis, v8tit, vatlmea, vfitltea, vStirent ; km^. vUg. 
T^tiaae, vStisaea, vltlt, vatiaaioua, vetiaaies, vfitiaaeat. 

dMUr.dime. nmti, eliXk*, insML m mtHIt, iw« m oMkOv. 

M 4Mtlt, lot* qfabttfiv. 

u, Gooijlc 

144 TEE VERB. [§§180-188 


180. Battre, 'to beat.' 

Loses one t in the pTGsent indioatiTe iingnUf: Bkts, bats, twt; 
otherwiae like rompre. 
Like battre: 

■Iwttte, fill. ddbnttn. debate. nbUtra, ital doom. 

oombMtn.jIfAC, oppoH. ne Hbmun, itruggle. 

181. Boire, ' to drink.' 

1. Infinitive, boire ; fat. botrai, etc. ; tondl. boirais, etc 

2, Pres. Part, buvant ; imp/. iWic. bnvaJB, etc. ; pra. «u^. boive^ 
boives, boive, buvions, buviez, boivent. 

a. Patt Pari, bu ; pait indef. j'ai bn, etc. 

4. Pra. Indie, bois, boia, boit, buvons, buTez, boivent ; itnjtve. boil, 
bnvoiu, bnvez. 

5. Patt D^. bna, bos, but, bQmes, bAtes, barent ; impf. svhj. biUM, 
buBBes, bat, buwions, busaiez, buasent. 

Like txHre; 

•mboln, eoat (!□ palsUDt). Imboln, imbO)*, tm&M. 

*i'emboire, AumuituU. rdxdrt, drini (V<i(n> 

*iued In third pHBon. 

182. Bniire, 'to murmur,' 'rustle.' 

1. Infinitive, bnure ; fat. bniirai, etc. ; wndl. brniraia, tte. 

2. Prei. Part. bnijMit j impf. imdic bmyais, etc. ; prt*. mbi. -1. 

3. Past Part, bruit ; patt indtf. j'ai bruit, etc. 

4. Pra. Indie bniis, bmia, bruit, , , ; tmptw. . 

6. Poet Dff. ; imi>f. #»y. . 

Nam.— 1. ThB))ni.iurt bniFUt,twt(V.lgaMdu>d]eoUT*onl]r. t.Tbtlotua 
ii— i«M*i^^ bmtHfilf I fltc, tVUllM,elo., uBBlaoiaute. 

• 183. Clore, 'to close,' 'enclose.' 

1. Itifinitive. clore ; JuL clorai, etc. ; eondl, cloraia, etc 

8. Pre*. Part. ; imp/, indie. ; pre*, tuhj. dose, doeea, clOMt 

olodone, clooiez, doBent. 

3> Pad Part, clos ; patt indtf. j'ai cIob, etc 

4. Prt». Indie, dos, clos, clflt, , , i jnipw; -^-* 

& Patt DtJ. ; imp/, tu^. . 

o\°\ ,- , 

§§184-186] IRBEQULAB VERBS m -BE. 

■tcJote, hatch, optn (ot Stmatt). UtordarK./oriclBte.^ihaT. 

' Bu klK> prtt. plur, joloioiii, ttc. ; impf. indie, icloaaia, (to. II 

<oiHi,Li(iii>i are bclorai, etc. 

I HiB >Ib priM. plur. encloaoilB, eta. ; prti. part, cnalount ; 

ttQ*i>dlf uaed bejODcl Uis Infinltiie, put participle, ud compcund Icniei. 

184. Cooclure, ' to conclude,' 

1. hfinitive. conclure ; /«/• conclnrM, etc.; condl. conclurais, etc. 

2. Pre». Part, conduaat ; impf. indie, concluais, etc ; pra. tvif. 
DODclae, conclaes, conclue, concluionB, coccluiez, conolaent 

3. Pa*t Part, condu ; pott indef. j'ai coticlu, etc. 

4. Prt*. Indie, conclus, conclua, conclut, concluona, conduei, con- 
daent; impvf. condus, iKiiiduona, conduez. 

5. Past Def. condus, condua, condut, condflmea, conclfltes, condn- 
rent ; impf. subj. conduBBe, condiuseB, coudllt, conduastonB, coDcluBaieE, 

Like condure : 

'fait Part, iuoltu, 

fCHdoolj lDlnBn.,putput,uulDomp. lout*. J'lut port. rWillU. 

l8S Conduire, ' to conduct,' etc 

1. Injiniiive. coniluire ; ful. conduirai, etc ; eonOl, conduirais, etc 
% Prta. Pari, conduiswit ; impf. incfic. conduinais, etc, ; pra. mtbj, 
ooaduiBe, conduisea, condnise, conduiaiona, condoiBtez, coaduisent. 

3. Poet Part, conduit ; patl indef. j'ai conduit, etc 

4. Pra. Indie, conduis, coaduis, cooduit, conduiaons, conduiseE, 
conduiaeut ; impve. conduis, conduisooB, conduiBez. 

6. Past Dtf. conduisis, conduisiB, conduiait, condaiBtmes, condoi- 
■tt«a, conduiairent ; impf. eahj. conduiaiBse, conduiBuses, conduiatt' 
oonduisiBsiona, conduiaiaBiez, coDdaiaiBaeut. 

Like condure : 

w cooduln, Mndtul nu'i dMulre. dtdvet. rMnln. reduce. 

tt(f- anduira, eoat (vith ptaittr). rBpradnlre, tepreduce. 

tDDDdiiir^ (k«g out, ditnttt. Induiie, induct. sMulre. ledaa. 

■dnin, ifltaM, *aiL pndnin, imduM. oooatruin. tmulmel. 


take opart. AUtairt, itttrag. 

nconitrulR, reamatrvet. rwnilre, sook again^ 
*Oiil7ln Iblrdaing. uidplu. pm. indie >nd tfaird sing, 
t Piut part, lol utd relni ropectirely. No put def. o. 
t Pait pari. nnL 

^ l86. ^tre, 'to be.' 

See 9 154 for the full conjogatioo. 
^ 187. Confire, ' to preserve,' etc. 

1. Infinitive, confire ; /ut. confirai, etc. ; condl. confiraia, etc 

2. Preg. Part, confisant ; im/tf. indie. coDfisais, etc ; prei. «u^ 
confise, confises, conflse, confiaions, confisiez, confisenL 

3. Past Pari, confit ; past indtf. j'ai confit, etc. 

4. Prrt. Indie, confis, confia, confit, confisoDB, confiaez, confisent ; 
impve. confia, confiaona, conflaez. 

5. Past Def. confis, confis, confit, conflmea, conftt«B, confirant ; imp/. 
*ui>j. confisae, confisseB, conftt, coofisaiona, conSsaiez, coDfiaaent 

Like confire : 

iMconllre, diteamM- circoocire (p.p. -ds), ctrcutnciR, sufflrB (p.p. auffl). mgUt. 

» 188. Coon^tre, ' to know,' etc. 

1. lafinilivf. connaltre ; fiil. connatCrai, etc. ; eondl, connattraui, etc 

2. Pree. Part. connaissAnt ; imp/, indie. conDaissaU, etc, ; preM. 
fubj, conuaisse, connaisacB, connaiase, coDuainiona, coimaUaiez, con- 

3. Past Part, coana j j'ai connu, etc. 

4. Pro. Indie, couiuis, connais, comiatt, c 
coanaiasent ; impvf. connais, connaisB 

5. Ptut Drf. connus, connus, connut, connameB, connlitea, a 


Obt. .• Slem-Towd i bu drcumflex (i) eyeTywhen belon t. 

Like conoftitre : 

m^Mnnsttre, net to ktum. oompoiultre, appear (taw 'psttre. grait. 

ptitllrt, appear. iitpanltn, diiapptar. tenptStrt.feed.ftoH. 

»!ppt,nlat, awar. tepunitrc, rtapptar, 

' Luki Uu pul put., pMt dflf., and impf. lubj. 

NoTt.— ApparolT (tl» uHd la tbird Bingnlu'U opput, 'it app«n') uti oom- 

puolri kn ipBoiUTe aniuio Tutuita ot app&nltn and oompixaUre. 

.;.!;, GlXH^IC 

§§189-191] ntBEQULAB VERBS IN -BEL 147 

189. Coudre, 'to sew,' 

1. Infinitive, condre ; /ul. coudrai, etc. ; condl, condrais, etc. 

2. Pret. Part, cousant ; imp/, indk. aaaeaia, eta. ; pi-et. lubj. couae, 
ooiuea, ooDHe, couaiona, couuez, ctmsenL 

3. Piut Part, cousu ; patt indef. j'ai cousu, etc 

4. Pra, Indie, couds, couda, coud, cousone, ooasez, coiueut ; imptm. 
oouda, cooBODS, couaez. 

6. Patl D^f. couais, couaia, coueit, coustmee, coualtee, cousirent t 
imp/, taly. comiBoe, couaiBses, coustt, coasisBions, cousisaieK, cousuMut- 
Like coudre : 

dtooudn, rip. unww. nooudre, wu again. 

19a Craindre, 'to fear.' 

1. InfifiiUve. cntmdre ; /uf . craindrai, eta. ; eondl. oraindreia, «to. 

2. Prta. Part, cra^nant ; imp/, indie. ortugDato, etc. 1 pret. ti^ 
oraigne, craiguea, craigne, cnugnions, craigniez, oraigiienL 

3. Pott Part, craint ; past ind^. j'ai craint, etc 

4. Preg. Indie, craios, orainB, oraiat, craignona, craiguez, craignent ) 
impvt, craiiis, craignona, craignez. 

5. Past D^. craignis, craignis, ctaignit, craigntmea, craignlte^ 
craignirent ; imp/, at^. craigniBse, craigniaaes, craignlt, craigniaaioiii^ 
craignisaiez, craigniaseDt. 

Like craindre : 

in -Aindn ; eolrelDdre, iiiJHngt. ntekudn, dya opoffk 

amtnlodn, eomtrain. ^nlndre, tr/yuat out. la -olndn : 

pUlndre, pity. «Ulndre, txtmgv,iih. Jolndn, join. 

M pkludn, BimpUan. iininin. draw t^Kt. td\dmixe, aijoin. 

In-tfndTe: luindte, /tigti. oonJoiDdce, coi^Mn. 

wtnindn, uAitrnel. gelndR, groan. d^Jnindr*, di^oin. 

kttalndR, aKa<n. pclndn, patnt. dlijoiudn, iiijobt. 

oelDdiQ) eneloK. gird, gird r&ttalndre, overtake. enjoindn, enjoin. 

im(&sn'onl, alo,). nf^oAn, faint again. Kjolndn, rejoin. 

dipeladn, dtijiicl. mtnlndn, reKnii?^. ^odre. anoint. 

•mpr^ndr*, imprint. ttlndrt, iyt. * polodrt, •toun. 

■Boeindra, giri. dit«lDdre, fadt. 

'Haidly oied bajood the InlloltiT* loA taCura. 

191. Croire, ' to believe.' 

It I. Infinitive, croire; fai. oroirai, etc; eondl. croiraia, etc 

2. Fret. Part crofant; impf. indie, croyaia, etc; pret. tu^. oam, 
oroiea, anus, oroyions, oroyiez, oroient. 

u, Gooijlc 

148 THE TEBR [§§192-193 

Z. Pott Part, crn ; 'paii mdtf. j'ai era, etc. 

4. Prat, /fufte. crois, crois, croit, croyons, cro^M, croieDt ; tmpM; 
oroia, ciiiyonB, croyez. 

5. Pant Def. crua, crua, cnit, orftmea, crfltee, crurent; imp/, tvlo. 
cnisse, croBseB, crQt, cnusions, crosBiez, crussent. 

Like CTMre : 
' KCroin, believe (mi antniUi). t d^crolre, dUbiUnt. 

'Pound only in tialre ACCrOlre, lo caiut to belifwita unCmth). 
tUsedonlf In ']a aeoroiinlneilicroU,' ' 1 neilliec beileie nor diatHlIcra.' 

^ 192: Croitre, ' to grow.' 

1. InfiniUve. crottrc ; fnt. orottrtu, eta.; condL crottrais, etc. 

2. Pret. Pari, croissant ; imp/, indie. croisBais, etc. ; prea. »i^ 

3. PoKt Part, crfi (f. cruel; pott indff. j'ai crfl, etc. 

4. Pret. Indie, crois, crobi, cnitt, croisBOQB, croissez, croissant; impve. 
crots, croissons, croisaez. 

6. PaH Def. crflB, crOa, criit, ciilines, crAtea, crOreot ; imp/, tu^. 
crflsse, crdBses, crflt, crAasions, crUssieE, crfisBcnt. 

Otie.: The inrcumflH socent diitinguliha othenviH 1ik« lormi ol CTOltn uid 
Omr^ but ifl optional in the imperfect eubJunotLve (except the third sln^lar). 

Like cnrftre: 

■ Meroltre, infl«o««. • woteltre, jjnw ojwin. ■mrotoitr*. owr^rou. 

'No dmimflei in psat putldpls, p*>t dellnite third iliiKiiliir uid third plunL 

0. IS>3. Dire, ' to say,' ' tell.' 

1. Infinitive, dire ; /vt. dirai, etc. ; eondl, dirais, eta. 

2. Pro. Part, disant ; imp/, indie, diaais, etc.; pru. «iy. dise, dlses, 
dise, disions, diaicz, disent. 

3. Past Pari, dit ; poet indrf. j'ai dit, etc, 

4. Pru. Indie, dis, dia, dit, disons, ditea, disent ; impM. dia, diaons, 

5. Pant Dt/. dis, dis, dit, dlmea, dtt«a, dirent; impf. taij. disie, 
disses, dtt, diasiona, dissiez, diaaent. 

Like dire : 

^ooncredlre, eoTitradiet. *lnC«niln, interdi^ *prMir?, jtredicl. 

■dUire, Tetratt, deny. •m^re (de), itandtr, redlro, My again. 

• Tlis 2d pluT. pret, Indlc and Impre. li : Gontretllaei, dMUiei, inteTdlMS. etc. 

"ke dire onlf is InflnltiTg, put partluiiils (maadlt), fubii* 


|§194-196] IBBEQULAB VERBS IN -BE. 149 

> 194. 6crire, 'to write.' 

1. Infinitive, Retire; /uf. 4crirai, etc., eondL ^riraia, etc. 

2. Fren. Pari, tcrivuit ; imp/, ijuik. icrivws, etc, pre*, tuifj. *cnv8, 
Aonves, &^ve, ^crivioua, ^riviez, 4crivent. 

3. Paal Part, iajt; pait inde/. j'ai ^rit, etc. 

4. Prea. ItkHc iaia, icria, jcrit, ^orivona, ^criTra, ^crivent ; impve. 
4cTiB, Acrivons, icnvet. 

B. Past D^. icrivis, icivm, ferivit, fcrivlmea, icrivltoa, Ajrirt- 
lent; iinpf. taltj. Acriviase, 4criTiBaQB, ^crivtt, ^rivigsiona, ^riviBnes, 

Like tarn are all verbs in •{a)crire : 

olroonMirire, eiramucriit. pnacrln. pracribt. tcniMiTlTe, tUhtaribt. 

Pterin, detcribe. pnacrin, pnuirAA*, tnoKiln, tniuctibt. 

195. Faire, 'to do,' 'make.' 

1. JnfinUim. faire ; fill, feral [fare], etc.; eondL feroia, etc. 

2. Prea. Part, faisont [faza]; imjif. indie, faisaia [faze], etc; prtt. 
mbi. fasae, foaaea, faase, fassions, faaaiez, fasaenu 

8. Pait Part, fait ; paat irukf. j'ai fait, etc. 

4. Pra. Indie, fais, fais, fait, faisona [fez5], faitea, font ; ini;nK. faia, 
bisons, faitea. 

5. Fast Def. Ss, fis, fit, ftmea, fltoe, Srent; imp/. »uhj. fiase, fiasea, 
fit, fissions, fiasiez, fiaaent. 

Like foire 1 

ooDtfefidn, imitaia. mbttiT% hamv. nF^iB, do again. 

lUlkln, undo. puftin, am^tU. ntiatalre, (otiW- 

(ocMre. fvrftit. mUtiJra, undo ojnlfa. nir 

•milMn. da UL 
•UMd la InflnlElni 011I7. 

I 196. Frire, 'to fry' {intr.). 

1. Jnfinitive. frire ; fvt. frirai, etc. ; oatdL frirais, etc. 

% Prts. Part. ; imp/, indie. ; pret. «ii^'. , 

8. PaMt Part, frit , piut indq/"- J'ai W. etc- 

4. Prt». Indie, fris, fris, frit, , , ; itnpve. fria, - 

0. Pan iV- ; imp/, luttj. . 


160 THE TERR [§§197-199 

i 197. Lire, 'to read." 

1. Ii^itivt. lire ; /tit. lii«i, «te.; amdl. Urait, etc. 

2. Pru. Part, lisant; impf. indie liaais, etc.; pro. wIkj. lise, liOM) 
liae, liaioDB, liBiez, liseoL 

a Paia Part, lu ; pogf tndef. j'fti In, etc, 

4. Pro. Indie, lis, lis, lit, Uboiu, lisez, lisent ; impve. lis, lisons, liaez. 

6. Pait Dt}. Ins, lus, Int, Iflmea, lQt«s, lurent ; ianpS- ftj' losw, 
Insses, lot, lusBiona, loBBiez, loBaeut. 

like lire; 
tOn, 4UcL rUliie, n-diet. nUn, nod again. 

_ 198. Mettre, 'to place,' 'put.' 

InfiniUvt. mettre ; fut. mettrai, etc. ; condl. mettrais, etc. 

2. Pree. Part, mettMit ; imp/, indie, raettaie, etc ; pru. mbj. mette, 
metteB, mette, mettioiu, mettiez, mettent. 

3. Pott Part, mis ; paM indef. j'ai mie, etc. 

4. Pres, Indie, tnets, mets, met, metUmE, roettez, mettent ; impue. 
mets, mettona, mettez. 

6. Pail D(f. mis, mis, mit, mtmes, mtteB, mirent ; raZrj. misae. 

■e mettre. twj^in. d^Duttre, dumiM. promettn, prvntue. 

kdmEtln. admit. imatn, emit. remattre. puE baeli, hand U, 

oonunettre, citmmit. E'entmnettn. intrrpoee. npromettre, prmrnee again, 

oompromettre, cvmpra- omettre, omit. »DiiiettR. tubmit. 

199. Moudre, 'to grind.' 

1. Injmitive. moudre ; fut. moudrat, etc. ; eoadl mondrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, moulant; imp/, indie, moulais, etc.; pra. m6j. monle, 
moule^, moule, moulions, moullez, mouleot. 

3. Pait Part, mouln ; pait indrf. j'ai moulu, etc 

4. Pre». Indie, monds, monds, mood, moulona, monlez, moulent; 
Impvt. mouds, moulons, moulez. 

6. Pott Dp/, moulus, monlua, monlut, moulOmea, moulfltea, mouln- 
Tent; imp/, tulg. moulueae, moolasses, aonlQt, moulnaaioiis, moulusaies. 

Like mondrei 

§§200-202] mBEOniAR teres in -ee. 161 

' 20a Naitre, ' to be bom,' etc. 

1. Itifinitive, lultre ; fat. uottrai, etc i cotidl. nsttTaia, etc. 

2. Pnt. Part, naissant ; imnf. indie, naiBBaia, eta.; pra. tu^. naieee. 

5. Past Dff. naquis, naqaie, naqnit, naqohnes, usquttee, naqtii- 
nnt; itti'pf. gvJij, naquisse, naquiesee, oaqult, iiaquiBsioaB, naqnuaie^ 


201. Plaire, 'to please.' 

1. Infinitive. pUtire ; /uf. plairai, eta ; eondl ploiraia, etc 

2. Pra. Part. pUusant ; imp/, indie, plawaia, etc. ; prea. m^. plaiM^ 
plaises, plaise, pUiBiaoB, plaliiez, plaiseDt. 

3. Pati ParL plu ; p<ut indef. j'ai plu, etc 

4. Ptu. Indie, plaia, plais, plait, plaisooB, pl&isez, pUiBent ; impvt, 
ploiB, plaisoDS, plaiseE, 

5. Patl D^. plus, pluB, plut, plOmes, plQtea, plureut; impf. taig. 
pliUBe, ploBses, pMt, pluaaioiiB, pliusiez, pluasent. 

LikepUire : 
eomplilre, Aumour. d^UIn, ditjixat. ' Cairo, tail nothing oteut 

■ n t»lt hM no dreumflet 

202. Prendre, 'to take.' 

1. Infinitive, prendre ; fnt. prendrai, etc. ; uyndL prendraiB, eto. 

2. Pra. Part, preoant ; imp/, i'odie. preoaui, etc. ; pre*, tabj. preone, 
pmmeB, prenne, preoiotis, preniez, prenneot. 

3. PcM Part, pria ; poet indef. j'ai pria, etc 

4. Pra. Indie, prends, prenda, prend, prenoue, ptenes, prenDent; 
impve. prenda, prenons, prenez. 

6. Patt DeJ, pris, pris, prit, primes, prltea, prirent ; imff. tu^. prisM) 
pris«ee, prtt, prisaionB, prissiez, prissent 

Like prendre are its compounds : 

■ppnodn, learn. •ntnprendra, undd-Eais. rq>pniidn, bum agallt. 

dftprmdre, part. rtprend™, bt taktn. nprtadn, tait htct; 

diupprendn, tmltam. w lotgttain, bt mMoJban. uiiniidn, turprim. 

I., Glx)^Ic 

152 THE TEBB. [§§203-206 

* 203. Rtfsoudre, 'to resolve.' 

1. Infimdve. r^sondre ; /ut r^aondrai, etc ; eondl. rJiomlniH, eta 

2. Pru. Fart, r^solvuit ; imjif. imUc. riaolvaiB, etc ; pru. miff. 
rdsolve, risolvca, resolve, rdsolvioiui, r^Bolviez, i^solvenL 

3. Pa»t Part. r*soIu aniJ resous ; past indtf. j'ai riaoln, etc. 

4. pTtg. Indie, ristma, r^aons, r^aout, r^lvooa, resolves, riBolvent ; 
impBt. r^Bous, r^solvons, r^solvez. 

6. PastBef. r£solas, r^solus, r^solut, r^solflmes, riaolfltes, r^solat«nt; 
impf. tu3^. t^soloBse, r^soliuaeB, r^BolQt, r^lagnoaB, cdBolnuiez, 

Like risondre : 

■ ibaDudn, abnlvt. ' dinoudn, dttmln. 

* Pmt part, abitnu (I. itliaoiitf), OinoQi (i. diuouteX napeothcly, luk ib» pmi 
dafiuiia uid Imperfect subJuDotiTs. 

' 204. Rire, ' to laugh.' 

1. Infinitive, rire ; fitt. rirai, etc. ; condl. riraia, etc 

2. Pra. Part, riant ; tm^. indie, riais, etc ; pru. eut}. rie, riee, rie, 

3. Patt Part, ri ; patt indef. j'ai ri, etc 

4. pTtt. Indie, tia, ria, rit, rions, riez, rient ; impoe. ris, rioui, riez. 

5. Poet D^. m, Hb, rit, rimes, rttea, rirent ; imp/, mlg. risse, rissea, 
ttt, rissiona, rissiez, risaent. 

Like rire: 
■a rite, matt tport (ot, ie\ loarlra, tmOt. 

« 20s Sourdre, ' to rise,' etc. 

1. Infinitive, sonrdre; fut. i1 aonrdra ; condl. il aourdrait. 

2. Prei, Part, aourdant ; imp/, indie, il aourdait; pret. tvli}, il eomda. 

3. Past Part. ; past indff. . 

4. Pru. Indie. -, -, aoord, , , aourdent j impvt. > 

5. Pait Def. il scurdit ; impf. eahj. il sourdtt. 
Hon.— Uttls oKd bejoDd the Infln. mod thlid loag. pna, iodic 

» 206. Suivre, ' to follow.' 

1. InfiiaAve. suivre ; fvi, anivrai, etc ; condi. Boivnui, eto, 

2. Prrt. Part. snJTUit; impf. indie. Bnivaia, etc; pre*. mAj. miiTtt 
Boivea, Buive, Bnivioiia, soiviei, cnuTeiiti 


§§207-209] IBREQULAR VERBS IS -KB. 153 

3. Patl Part, snivi ; pasi iitd^. j'ai suivi, etc. 

4. Pra. Indie, suis, auia, suit, suivona, suivez, Buivent j impvt. anil, 
■mvoUiS, Bnives. 

5. PoMt Def. snivia, enivis, mirit, aaivtmes, soivltaa, mivirent; irKpf. 
Wbj. BuiTisse, BuivisBeB, Boivlt, suivisaioaB, BoiTiBaiBZ, niiiTiirnt 

Like Buivre : 
mmiTnClmpen.}, fl/oUxM. ponnoivre, purnM 

207. Tistre, 'to weave.' 
VneAcxHy mtAsB pattpart. tissu, and compound teniea. 

208. Traire, 'to milk." 

1. Infinitive, traire ; fvt. trairai, etc. ; eondL tninds, eto. 

2. Pra. Part, trajant ; imp/, indie trajsia, etc ; prei. *uj<j. traia, 
traies, traie, trayioas, trayiez, traient. 

3. PaU Part, trait ; pant ind^. j'ai trait, etc. 

4. Pre: Indie, trais, traia, trait, trajooa, trayez, tnuent; impM. 
tnia, trajFOOs, trayez. 

6. Past Def. ; impf. nt^. . 

Like tiHire : 

kbatrcin. abitTact, utr^re. «z(nu(. loastmlie, ntMraet. 

kttnin, attract (Lniln. (K1I7J. nntnini dam. * bnln, bray- 

digtnin. diitnut. ntnlrE, rtdteni (ks^l)- 

* Cammonlj usad onlf is tb* IdOd. mkI tbe thiid pen. pns. isdio. fut. uid condL 

-J 209. Vamcre, 'to conquer.' 

1. Infinitive, vaincre ; /ut. vaiucru, eto. ; eondl. vaiucraia, etc. 

2. Pra. Part Tainquant ; impf. indie, vainquoia, etc. ; pre$. tultf. 
Taioque, vainqnea, vainque, vainquions, vainqniez, vainqnent. 

3. Paat Pai-e. raincu ; past ind^. j'aJ vaincn, ota 

4. Pra. Indie. Taincs [vE], vainoa, vaino, vainquoiw, vainqnez, vain. 
qneDt ; impve. vainca, vainquoQB, vainquez. 

5. Patt Def. vaioqiiis, vaioqnia, vaiuqnit, Taioqntmea, vainqnttae, 
Taiuquirent ; impf. ntbg. Tainqoiaae, vainqaiasea, Taiuqnlt, vainquiuioiiih 
Tainquiasiez, vainqniaseDt. 

Ota.; SMiDe(k]b*aomnaii[kJMcnurT(nnl«»aptlL 


154 THE VEB8. [§§210-218 

aia Vendre, 'to sell.* 


AH T«iia in -Kndn^ -andn*, -«TdTB, -ondn, -crdn. 
•Kideptvnndn, npnndre, lorprendn, etc. 
211. Vrm, 'to live.' 

I Infittilhe. vme; /vL Tivrai, etc. ; eonM. vivraU, oto. 

2, Pre*. Part, vmutt; imp/, indie, vivaia, etc ; pro. •uJtf., Ti«^ 
TlveB, Vive, viviona, viviee, vivent 

3. Pait Part, vicn ; pott iadef. j'ai vdcD, etc 

A. Prtt. Indie, vii, vie, vit, vivons, vivez, vivent ; irapiw. , vii, vivma, 

6. Patt Dtf. vkns, vfcus, vtent, vMtnies, vdcdteg, vicorent ; in^. 
tuV- vAciuae, vdonssea, vteflt, vdcnnioiu, vtentniez, vdcDMent. 

Like vivre: 


Note. — The few verba in -air, which are all irregnlar, fonn, in mdw 
grammatB, a aeparat* conjugation, the tfaiid, Terba in -re heing th* 


2IZ Avoir, ' to have.' 

Bee S154 for the full conjugation of this veilh 
Like avoir : 
* nTolr, AoH of o^n. 
■Und onlj Id tha InflnltlTB. 

213. Receroir, ' to receive.' 

1. h^imtkBe. TvaenAs % Jvt. reoevrai, etc; eondl. recevraia, eta. 
% Pra. Part, rwewit; imp/, indie, recevaia, etc.; pre*. §id^ 
te^oiTe, regoivea, regoive, reoeriona, reoeviez, re^oivent. 

3. Patt Part, n^a ; pant ind^. j'ai rB9n, etc 

4. Pra. Indie, repiiai re^oiB, regoit, noevou, leoeve^ ngoiTHitj 


J§214-216] ntBEQULAB TEBBS IN -OIB. 16S 

5. PaM d^. re^, refns, i«fat, Fe^Ames, refOtw, refonnt; im^. 
mi>4. re^nwe, tefuBBea, re^Qt, cefiudonB, ref ussiez, rejnsaeut. 

Obt: 1. SMm-vowil bMOmes oi whenvnr It bum Oi» ittau. 1. Stem a M ii 
wcttUa 9 [a] bclon o oi n {I G, 1). 
Like recevoir : 

tfntxvcAt, pereeiiK. dtoardr, itetiti. ptroendr, wSwt taat. 

214. Devoir, 'to owe.' 

1. Ii^iMvt. deroir ; fnt. devnu, etc. ; eomU. devrsis, eto. 

2. Pra. Part, devant ; impf. iodic. Asvaia, etc ; yra. svJ^. doiTe, 
doives, doive, devjons, deviez, doivent. 

a Pott Part, dft (L doe, pL dD(e)8) ; past indef. j'oi dQ, etc. 

4. Pro. Indie, dois, dois, doit, devoiu, devez, doivent ; impvt. . 

6. Paa D^. dns, diu, dut, dOmes, dUtes, dureut ; trnp/. ni^. dusse, 
diuaea, dat, duBiions, dnssiez, dnsaent. 

Hon.— ItoTOlr lollowi tlu r*0*V3lI model, bnb, u ItalomnprMuit aonu dlfflcnltj, 
tiwr bar* bsao g^vto Id InU. 

215. Asseoir, 'to seat' 

1. hpii&ee. xsseoir ; fvt. osaidrai, etc., irr aaae^erat, etc., or MBoirai, 
•tc. ; tondl. asd^rais, etc., t>r osBeyerais, eto., or assoirais, etc 

2. Pm. Part, aucyant or assoylUlt; imp/, itufic. assejajs, etc., «■ 
MBoyaie, etc. ; pre*, vii^. asaeye, asseyea, aaaeye, asseyions, aaseyiez, 
aaaeyeut, or aaaoie, aaaoiea, aasoie, OBaoyioiu, aaaoyies, assoieDt. 

3. P<uA Part, assis ; poat indtf., j'ai aasii, etc 

4. Pro, Indie, asaieds, ftsdeda, asaied, useyona, asaeyez, aswyent, 
or aasois, aaaoia, aaaoit, aaBoy<n)B, aaaojez, aaaoient ; impve. aaaieds, 
4BaeyoQS, asaeje;, or aasois, asaoyona, asaoyes. 

6. Patt Dff. asns, aaaia, aaait, asaimea, asattea, arairent ; impf. *u^. 
aaslBBe, aaaiaaea, asatt, aBaiaaiona, asaiaaiez, aasisaeDt. 
Like asseoir: 

^Mienir, ri< doiro. M nOMdr, fit dMcn otrofs. *m«idT.jlt taitl^. 

nHMdr, nMOt, eojm. 'nolr, t< iMMttoif. \taxtiaitt, mfmd,nfrtam, 

■OMdlnthlidptnonoltlMloaowine:: JVu. ImKii. litd, ritent (meidBl, mailteDt) ; 
toW^. iiuKa. Myalt, ■ajmlant (meaMTkll, nnaw^ilent) ; jira. mlsj. rite, iitent (ci«*- 
rifc, iHadiHit) ; /M. ilea, riinuit (miaUn, EWMMnnit); nnuH. iMnlt, aUninl 


156 THE TSBB. [§§216-219 

2X6. D^hoir, ' to decline,' etc 

1. Infinitiw, dfcbtar ; fiit. d^cberrai, etc. ; eondl. d^berraia, ete. 

2. Pra. Part. j imp/, indie. ; prta. ntltj. d^hoie, d^cbcHea, 

dMicae, d^boyioDs, d^hoyiez, d^choient. 

3. Pait Part, diciai ; pail indef. j'oi d^drn or je aids dtebti, eto. 

4. Ptu. Indie, dichois, dichoiB, dAihoit, dteboyons, dteboyei, 
4tehdent; impve. dtehoia, dteboyons, dtehoyez. 

6. Patt Dtf. dichus, d^chua, d^chat, d^chOineB, d^btitea, d^bnrent ; 
impf. <u^. dtebnaae, d^cbusaea, d^chAt, d^cbuseioiiB, d^busaie^ 

Like d^chdr ; 

*ah(dr, /oil * rechirir, /ail ofirin. 

a 217. ^choir, 'fall due,' etc, 

1. InfiaUiet. {choir ; fvi. il '^olietra ; contS. il * jdierrait. 

2. Prt*. Part, icbiuxt ; imp/, indie, il 4cho;ait ; pra. aalQ. il tehcrfcb 

3. Past Part, idxa ; pa»t indef. je anis £chn, eta 

i. Pra. Iodic. , , ^olioit or ictet, , , dcboieni or 

Aibient ; impve. . 

5. Patt Dt/. , , U {chat; , , ila tehurent ; imp/, m^ 


■Otnyulkr; 11 6clioln<it), 

* 218. Falloir, ' must,' etc. (impers.). 

1. Tnfitilive. &lIoir ; fuL il faudra ; eondL il faudrait. 

2. Pret. Pari. ; imp/, iodic, il tallait ; pru. au'tj, il faille. 

3. Past Part, fallu ; poet ind^. il a faUu. 

4. Fret. Indie, il faut ; imptx. . 

fi. Patt Dtf. il liUlut ; wnpf. mi>}. il faUflt 

<, sig. MouToir, 'tomova' 

1. Infinitive, monroir ; /at. tnoaviui, etc.; condl. moQTraia, eto. 

2. Pret. Part, mourauti imp/, indie, mouvaia, etc.; pra. nibj. raenvei 

3. Patl Part. mA (f. mne, pi. mu(e)a); paM indr/. j'ai tnQ, el 
A. Pra. Indie, neus, meua, ni 

meoa, monTona, mouvea. 

5|220-223] mREouLAB vebbs m -ont IST 

6. Past Dff. nua, mus, mut, mllmeB, mfltea, mureat ; ^pf. nlj. 
miiBBe, mussee, milt, musaionB, mussiee, musaeat. 
Olf..* SUm-Towel becomea ra whccenr ffiiMHd. 

* Put participle hu iw circnmflii uanC 

■3- 220. Pleuvoir, 'to rain ' (impers.). 

1. Infinitive, pleunrir ; fut. il pleavra ; amdl il plenTrait. 

2. Prr*. Part. pleuvaAt; impf. indie il pleovut; pres. eubj. Q plenT& 
a Piut Part, plu ; pagt indtf. il a pin. 

4. Prea. Iridic, il pleut j impve. . 

a. Past Dff. il pint ; imp/, nt^'. il plQt 

^ 221. Pouvoir, ' to be able,' etc. 

1. IjtfiniUve. poOTtur j /ut pourrai, etc. j amdL pourraia, etc 

2. Pres. Part, pouvant s impf. indie, pouvdis, etc i p™*. ra^. poial^ 
pniagea, pniese, pnissiooB, pnisnez, pnisaeDt. 

3. Pott Part, pu ; past ijidef. j'ai pu. 

4. Pr««. /ni^ic puia or peux, peux, peut, pouTOOB, ponvez, peuveat ; 

6. PiwC Def. pus, pua, put, pOmes, pOtes, parent ; impf. mi^. pnsBe, 
pusses, pllt, pussious, pnssiez, pusaeDt. 

Obt. : Tbe flnt alng. pre*, indlc la Dtgstiou Ib utuftlly ' ]e ne peui pu,' or ' ]■ d( 
poll'; in quaUoni, onl/ 'puia-JeF'i otIierniM ' pola ' or ' peux.' 

** 222, Savoir, 'to know,' etc 

1. Infinitiiie, savoir ; fiU. sanrai, eto. ; coadt. saor^, eta. 

2. Free. Part, sachont ; impf. imf ic. savaii, etc j "prM. ray. sachc^ 
•aches, sache, saciiioos. sochiez, sacheat. 

3. Patt Part, au ; paM ind^. j'ai bu, etc 

4. Pra. Iitdic. Mia [se], sals, sail, Bavons, aavei, savent; impve. sache, 
■aobons, sachec 

5. Past Def. sua, eos, snt, stlmes, elites, surent ; impf. tub}, bums, 
■QBseB, sQt, snssioDs, suBsiez, suBsent. 

Q 223. Valoir, 'to be worth.' 

1, Infij^ne. valoif ; fut. vaudrai, etc-! eondl. vaadraia, etc.. 

2. Pre*. Part. vaUuit; impf. indie, valais, etc.; prtt. miig. vuUe, 
nillea, vtulle, valions, valiez, vaillent. 


158 THE VEBB. [§§224-226 

8. P(ul Part vtlu ; pait in*/, j'ai tbIu, etc 

4. Pre$. Indus, vaiuc, vani, vaut, valoni, valez, valent ; impvt. vanx, 
v«lona, T&lez. 

5. Patt Def. Tmlu, Talus, valnt, TalOmes, valfltei, Tolarent ; tm}/. 
tvhi. voluBBe, valossBS, valfit, valuBsioDs, veJusaiez, veJusieiit, 

Like valoir : 

tqninlolr, ft< <fulval«i(. 'prinloiT.fnnail. fotudcdi. 

nnlfdT, pov Aixt. Muni 
lito/or lUa. 

*p™. mW- priraJe, «*«■ 

tHudlj u*ed beyond, 'II nt m* oluat d*,' ' I out not tor.* 

224. Voir, 'to see.' 

1. /({jfeititw. voir ; }vt, verrd, etc.; eondJL vemii, eto. 

2. Ptu. Part. Toyant ; iTnp/. imjic. voyais, ete. ; pru. mii4- ^oie, toIm, 
vsie, TOjions, voyiez, voient. 

3. Pait Part, vu : pa^ vad^. j'ai yn, etc. 

4. Pre*. Indie, voia, voia, voit, voyons, roye*, voient ; impve. vmM, 
TOyODs, voyez. 

6. PattD^. vis, TIB, vit, vtmes, Tttos, Tireut; im^. miy. Tisoe, viiaM, 

(ntriTi^, cotcA i^U (/■ 'panrTtiii, pnnrfda. IprirDlr./arwH. 

nroii, «M ajdin. 'tUpotminr, Mn;!, (aandcMOutt. 

*Put d(/. -Tni, etc.; fnvf. n)4- -tum, etc; fat. ud eondl, -TOlnl<l), npdtr. 

t AM. and «mdl. -TolraUi). et<i., ntrolnr. 

225. Vouloir, 'to will,' etc. 

1. Ii^. Touloir ; ftd. Toudi^, etc ; condL Toudrais, etc 

2. Prti. Part, voulaut; impf. indie, voulaia, etc. ; prtt. aubj. veuille, 
TeiiilleB, Teoille, voulions, vouliez, veiuUeiit. 

3. Patt Part. Tonln ; pant ind^. j'ai voula, et^. 

A. Prtt. Indie. TCnx, tnuc, veut, vonlons, voolez, veolont; impoe. 
Teui, voDlons, voulez. 

5. Patt Def. Tonlus, vonlua, vonlnt, voalflmeB, vonl&tea, touIh- 
rent ; impf. tulf}. vouliuae, TouluBBes, Tonlllt, Tonlussions, TOalnssies, 

, whtaerir It U (trcMed. 

u, Gooijlc 



226, Reference List of IiTeg:ular Verbs. 

NoTX. — Each TOrb in the list is referred to the eectjoa In which ita 
irregularity ia ezplamed. For verbs in -cer, -ger, see 8166 ; for verbs 
in -jer, §167; for verba with stem-vowel e or i, |158i for verbs in 
HUidre, •endre, -erdrei -oiidrei •oidre. S210. 

•beteuir . . , 
■betraire. . , 


chaloir . . 

.... 1« 

■coroire 191 

Mortdtre. 192 

aooneillir. 165 

Mqndrir 162 

■djcdndTD 190 

4dmettre 196 

advenir 178 

ftUsr. 160 

^leroevoir. 213 

apparattre. 188 

^^MToir 188 

•ppartenii 177 

■j^nendre 202 


. 165 
. 21fi 

coiijoindre . . 
. 100 oonnaltre. . . . 
. 100 oraiqitdrir . . . 
. 208 CMuentir . . . 


ccmtraindre . . 
ocmtredire . . . 
contrefaire . . . 
contievenir.. . 

. 208 aonvenir. . 

. 180 


eompBialtre 188 

camparoir. IBS 

compUire 201 

conprendre 202 

compromettre... 198 
. 213 
. 184 

d^oboir. .. 

difaire 198 

d^joindre 190 

... 166 

ddmettre 198 

d^partir 166 

d^eiudre 190 

d^plaire 201 

driponrvoir 22i 

. 169 d^s^prendre.... 20S 







- 190 


... 224 



.. 177 


... 170 




.. ISS 


.. 161 


.. 178 

.. 190 




,. 179 

.. 202 

malf aire 

.. 195 


.. 21* 

^uivaloir. . . . , 

.. 223 




.. 193 


.. 100 


.. 178 


.. 154 




.. lU 

.. 190 




.. 190 


.. 184 



dupaiattn. . . . 

.. 1S8 


.. 208 

mdpreadra — 

... 202 


.. 203 



... 215 


.. 208 


... 167 




.. 166 


... 195 




.. 186 


.. 218 


. 174 





. . . 219 


.. 160 


.. 168 



.. 217 


.. I«9 


... 20O 


.. 183 


.. 183 



.. 185 


.. 195 



.. 194 


... 186 




.. 197 


... 170 


... 176 


.. 181 





.. 196 





.. 109 
.. 219 



... m 


... 176 

.. 190 





.. 190 





.. 183 


... 181 



.. 161 





.. 166 






.. 185 





.. 190 






.. 170 


... 193 




.. 190 



pereerdr.. . . . 



.. 162 


permettre . . . 


.. 20S 


... 173 



.. 198 




♦BtrBpreudpe. . 

.. 902 




... 220 

u, Gooijlc 


poindre gl90 

poorsuivre 206 

pottrvoit 2S4 

ponvoir. 231 

prMiM 193 

prendre. 202 

presorire 194 

preBseiitiT 106 

prdvalcdr 223 

pr^yenir 178 

prtvoir 2M 

produire ISfl 

promettre, 198 

promonvoir 219 

proecrire 194 

provenir 176 

^^ 162 


mbattro. 180 

rapprendre 202 

rosseoir 215 

ratleindre 190 

Hivoir 212 

reboire. 181 

rebouillir. 166 

reoevoir 213 

rechoir 216 

Mwlnre 184 

recondnire 185 

nconiultie 1S8 

reonnqa^iir. 162 

reoonBtmJre .... 185 

recondre 189 

recourir 164 

reconyrir. 176 

Hcrire 194 

reorottre 19S 

recunllir lOS 

• recaire 186 

redjture 195 

ndevMiiT 178 

redevoir . . . 
redonnir . . 


c4moudre . . 
niuitre . . . . 
rendormir. . 

renvoyer . . . . 
repattre . . . . 
repttrattre. . . 



repromettre. . 

resBonvenir.. , 
rettreiudre .. . 



revaloir. . 
rerenir . . 

Biduire. 185 

eentir 166 

eeoir.. 216 

eervir 166 

BOrtir. 166 

Bouffiir 176 

Bonmettre 108 

Bourdre 205 

Bourire. 204 

souacrire 104 

BouBtraire 208 

Bontenir 177 

Bouvenir 178 

subvenir 178 

Boffira 187 

Boivra 206 

Furcroitre 192 

snrtaire. 195 

mrprandre 202 

snreeoir 215 

eurreDir 178 

enrvivre 211 


taire. 201 

teiudre 190 

tifltre 207 

tr&duire 185 

tr&ire 208 

traaBcrira 194 

traoBmettre 196 

treseaillir 166 


ToiDcre 209 

valoir 223 

vandre 210 

vBDir 178 

vStir. 179 

■rivre 211 

voir 224 

Tonloir. SBff 

u, Gooijlc 

THE TEBB. [§§227-229 


227. Avoir + the past participle forms the compoond tensM 
of all traneitive and of most intranaitive verbs (cl g 155). 

228. ctre + the past participle forms the compound tenies 
of all reflezive verbs (§ 242), and of the followii^ iatransitivea 
denoting motion or change of condition (cf. § 1 55) : 

■IIu, 10. tebob, fail due. nunrlr, dit. __ 

urlvu, arriH. More, AiUoh <Kt. Biiln, In Aom. 

eboir./all. totttx, tnt4r, go laomi) m. vtnli, wmt. 

80 also, the following componnds of TCnir ; 
demiir, becamt. purcnir, attain. lurnnir, niptrWM. 

ndavsnir, baam§ again. pronalr, prACHd. 
InterTmir, iniertene. Mvmir, wnw hut. 

229. 1. Avoir or 4tre + the put participle forms the com- 
pound tenses of a number of intransitive verbs, the general 
distinction being that avoir, vben so used, denotes action, 
■while ttre denotes state or condition resulting from action ; 
La pluie a pasa^ par la fenltre. The rain came through the windoir. 
La pluie est paas^. The rain is pasL 

Elle a grand! bleu vit«. She grew np very fast. 

Elle est grandie. She is grown Dp. 

2. Reference list of verba with avoir or 6tre : 

abdnJer, land. "dcaoandn, da«nd, tndefloendn, nmu dmm agait^ 

dup«nttn, ditapptar. ■nmontor, ffo Vfj offaiji. 
icibtippn, ttcapt, 'ncCnr, go in OfiaJn. 

tohooer, b* itrandtd./aiL npuwr, pun again. 

uidnr, expin. 'nUmbtr, /all again. 

gTuidlr, grow up. "rBtovmar. go baok. 

atoaaiz, aieag. "monttT, go up. •oimar, ttriki, loU. 

MinMn, dfcrtOM. 'pullr, tel tuL "lortii, go ouC 

Mgiaim, dtgtntrai*. puMr. pau. tomtxr, falL 
d«DMUr«r, rtnuiiti. T^hftpper, aeapt again. TldllUr, grme ol^ 

•Atnuntilinj* with tlM, and pluad bj huu gnmiovliuig iiaadg TntM BiUbi 



oaitiTely, mnst, of ootme, take ftTOll 

a. Any verb in the list, i 

11 tn'a ptaai la plume. He banded me the pen. 

Atcz-voub rentr^ votre bUT Have you hauled in your wheat T 

lis ont descendu le tableau. They have taken down the pictortb 

b. The roeaning alao determinee the ai 

jliary id ft few othM ci 


I tuit, N diteonSanl. 

nputir, ga simv again. 
du prix. We are (have) agreed on the prioa. 
The price did not Bait me. 


230. Auxiliary Function. Several verba, when followed 
hy a,n infinitive, have a sort of auxiliary function, and serve 
to form verb phrases of various values, modal, temporal, eto. : 

1. VonIotr= 
Je ne veui pas reeter. 

n voudrait (blen) le savoir. 
EUe n'a pas voulu m'4couter. 
n aurait voulu le faire. 
Veoillezle faite. 

a. Distingnish from ' will ' of t 
Bile voua ^couteia. 

2. Devoir = 
to,' 'intend to,' etc., vai 
Present : je doia reater. 

want to,' ' desire to,' etc i 
I will not remain. 
He would like to know it. 
She would not listen to me. 
He would have liked to do bo. 
Be BO good as to do BO. 

mple fatarity: 
She will listen 

have to,' 'be obliged 

I am to (have to, intend to, mnat) 

I was to (had to, etc. ) speak. 
Z shall have to (be obliged to) coma 

I ought to (should) write. 
PMtlndefinite: j'aidftm'aiT^ter. I have had to (been obliged to) Otopt 
mnat have stopped. 

Imperfect : je devals parler. 
Futnre j je devrai tevenir. 

Conditional ; je denaia ^crire. 

u, Google 


FMt Defiaile : Je dns rev 

Conditional Anterior : j'Oii 

-. I had to come back. 

is dft I oughb to have (Bhonld have; 


, Ponrolr^: ' can,' ■ be able U 
B ponvait poa porter le eac. 

Fuis-je aller k la yille ? 

Us auraient pQ le fure. 

Je pomrais le faire, si je voulals. 

Poarraient-ils en trouver t 

Fourraia-je vous demander? 

4. Savou'= ' know how to', ' oa 
Elle Bait chanter et danser. 

' * be pennitted to,' ' may,' etc. : 
He coald not cany the sack. 
May I go to town 1 
They could (might) have done it. 
I could do it, if I would. 
Could they find any f 
Might I ask you I 

She can sing and dance. 

le from pouToir : 
She is hoarse and canr 

b. The conditional with ne has peculiar idiomatic force : 
Je ne eaurais le croire. I cannot believe it. 

a. Distingaish MToir in this seni 
EUe est enroute et ne pent pas 
chanter ce eoir. 

6. Oser='dare': 

Je n'oae pas le lui dire. 

I dare not tell him so. 
Imeic&lled ' modbL AuxUlulea.' 
'cause to be,' 'have,' 'order,' 'ordei 

I have made the children study. 
He will make them listen. 
He bad a coat made for himself. 
Send for a doctor. 

6. Fairs = ' make,' ' cause t 
to be,' etc.: 

J'u fut ^tudier lei enfants. 
n les fera ^couter. 
n s'eet fait faire un habit. 
Faites chercher nn mMecin. 

a, A governed substantive follows the infinitive, but a governed con- 
jonctive personal pronoun (not t«flexive) goes with faire ; 

Faitea veuir le domeatique. Have the servant cume. 

Faitee-te venir. Have him come, 

b. If the infinitive with fiure have a direct object, the personal object 
of faire must be indirect (cf. g293, 2, a) : 

Je fia ^rire mon fils. I had my son write. 

Je Gb ^rire un devoir 1 mon fils. I made my son writ 
Fait«s-le-lui ^rire. Make him write it 

Je le tear fis voir. I showed them ib 

u, Google 


c. Poedble ombigmty is Bometimea avoided by par: 

D fit porter le b&c par le guide. Hehad the sack carried by the gnidoi 

d. Note the passive force of a inmsitive infinitive after foire : 
Je ferai terire une lettre. I shall have a letter written. 

7. Lftisser = ' let,' has nsually the same constractions as fsire : 
Laissez ^rire lea enfants. Let the children write. 
Laissez-lenr (or -lea) ^rire un Let them write an exercise. 


8. The present and imperfect of aller + an iafinitive give a bind of 
immediate future, as also in English : 

II va Tacbeter, He is going to (is about to) bay It, 

Nous allions nons arrSter. We were about to atop. 

n allait Be uoyer. He was on the point of drowning. 

9. Simihuly the present and imperfect of venir de + an inSnitive givs 
a kind of immediate past : 

Je viens de le voir. I have just seen him. 

n venoit de I'enteodre. He had just heard it. 


231. General Rule. The verb agrees with its subject in 
number and person : 

Lm hommea sont mortels. Men are mortal 

Tout le monde est ici. Everybody is here. 

Toi et moi (nous) ne faisona qu'on. Yon and I are but one. 

232 Simple Subject. Special rules for the agreement of 
a verb witb one subject are : — 

1. A collective subject Bingnlar, wben not followed by dC, 
or when followed by de + tbe singular, baa a singular verb : 
Le peuple fnutfais est brave. The French people are brave. 

Le B^nat I'a d4cid& The aenate has (or have) decided iL 

La plupart du monde le croit. Most people believe iL 

2. A collective subject singular + de + a plural takea • 
plural verb, unless tbe sense of tbe collective be dominant .- 

166 THB TEBR [§232 

Une anie de nnvagea I'attaqa^ A clond of savages attacked him. 

Une aaio de traits I'obBciircit. A olond of airowa hid him. 

Vna partie dea Boldats reatent. A part of the soldiers remain. 

Une partie dea bonrgeoia protasta. A part of the citizena protested. 
Cette Borto de poirea est ch^re. This sort of pears is dear. 

a. When ao used, adverhs of qnaotitj, e.g. bCAIiCoup, pen, etc., the 
nouns Dombre, qnsntitf, without article, and la plnpart, are regolarly 
[dnral in sense ; so also, force : 

Beancoi^ de gens pensent ainai. Many people think so. 

Pen de gens le savent. Few people know it. 

Que d'ennemis m'attaqueot t How many enemies attack me I 

Kombre d'Atbi'^iiens avaient fui. A number of Athenians hod fled. 

La plupart des soldats p^rirent. Most of the soldiers perished. 

Force sots le tonteront. Many a fool will try it. 

b, Beanconp, peu, combien, used absolutely, are singnlar or plund 
according to the aenaa of the de clause implied ; h) plupart when so 
Qsed is always plnral : 

Beaucoup (tc de gens) le croient. Many («:. people) believe it. 

Peu {te. de caci) me suffira. little {k. of this) will suffice me. 

Ia plupart votirent centre. The majority voted nay. 

e. Plus d'uu is singular, unless reciprocal or repeated, and moins d« 
denx is plural ; 

Plus d'lm tirnoin a dSpoet More than one witness has awbm. 

Moins de deux ne valent rien. Less than two is no use. 

Plas d'lm fripon se dupent I'nn More rogues than one cheat each 

More than one officer, more than 
one general was killed. 

3. Ce rei^uires a plural verb only when the predicate is » 
f^ural noun, a plural pronoun of the third person, or when ce 
refers to a preceding plural ; 

Sont-ce voB amis 7 — Ce sont euz. Is it your friends ? It is they. 
Ce doivent dtre les siens. Those must be his. 

Ce sont nos semUables. They are our feUow-cr«atures. 

6es d^rs, ce sont sa loi. His desires are his law. 

But : Cest tnoi ; c'est toi ; (/est lui ; c'est nous ; c'est vous. 

a. The third singular is often uud for the third plural in this constrao> 
tion, more especially in f«.Tniliai- langnage or to avoid harsh looDtionsi 

,;.!;, GtJiH^IC 


Eat-oelaa Anglais que jBcniiuT b it the Engliih that I fewf 
CMt Bux qui I'oot fiut. It ii thoy who did it. 

CTert dea UtioaB. That is atnpidity. 

Ne f At-oe qne qii«k|nea lignes. If it wen onlj' % few lines. 

b. The verb with ce ia nngaUr when the predicate is a. nnmeral+ft 
nonn of coUeotive force : 
Cfl«t dix henres qui ronneDb It is ten o'clock that ia atriking, 

e. Si ce n'eat is always singolar : 
Qui, d CO n'ett Doa patents T Who, if it ia not our parents t 

i. II (impera.) alwajB has a singular verb, whatever be t^a 
logical snbjoct : 

n est arriTri bien des choaee. Uany thin^ hare happened, 

n en reste troia lirrea. Three poonda of it remain. 

a. Importer ia constmed personally or impersonally : 
Qn'iinporte(importent)lead^peniT What matters the coat? 

233. Composite Subject A verb common to two or 
more subjects is regularly plural ; when the subjects differ in 
person, the verb agrees with the first person, if one subject is 
of the first person, otherwise with the second : 
Toi et moi (noiia) ne faisona qn'nn. You and I are but one. 
8a BtBor et Ini sont U. His sister and he are there. 

a. With subjects of difierent person, pleonastic noiu, vous, is generally 
Tons et lui (toos) I'avez vn. You and he have seen it. 

fi. With on = *or,' ni...iUB 'neither. . .nor,' the verb is singular if 
the sense is clearly alternative, i.e., the one subject excluding the other, 
otherwise generally plural ; I'nn ou rantre is always singular : 
8a vie ou sa mort en depend. His lite or death depends on it. 

Ni loi ni votre fr^ n'aura ce Neither he nor your brother wiU 

poate. fiave that poet. 

Ni I'nn ni Fantre ne sont bona. Neither ia good. 

L'nne on I'antre viendra. The one or the other will come. 

L'nn ou I'antre jonr rae convient Either day suits me. 

e. If the subjects (generally without et) are synonyinaai, or nearly ic^ 
OE tonn a climax, the verb may be aiiuuisr ; 

-,a.ire:i by Google 

168 THE VERB. [§234-236 

8a digniM, sa BobleBse trappa His dignity, his nobility struck 

toat le monde. everybcxly. 

L'lieure, le Ueu, la bra« «e cboiait The hour, the place, tlie arm ue 

anjourd'hai. chosen to-day. 

Une excuse, on mot le d^sanne. An excuse, a word disarms him. 

d. When the subjects are recapitulated by a word in the singular, 
t.g. , tout, rien, etc. , the verb is BJugulac agreeing with it : 
Bemords, crainte, perils, rien ne Bemorse, fear, dangera, nothing de- 

m'a retenue. terred me. 

e. With an intervening claoBe, e.g., ainai que, pins qne, etc., tlio 
■ubject is UBually only apparently composite ; 

La vertu, plus que le savoir, dlive Virtue, more than knowledge, ele- 

rhfwoma. vatcB man, 

/. Even with et the sense is occasionally singular, or diatribative, or 
alternative, and a singular verb is required : 
Le bien et le mal est an ta main. Good and ill are in thy hand. 
L'nn et I'autre peat se dire. Both may be said. 

1Jit6 est revenu et le solail. Summer has returned and the snn. 

Tombe Aigos et sea mnrs. Let A^oe and its walls falL 

234. Relative Subject The verb agrees with the rela- 
tive pronoun subject, which is itself of tlie number and person 
of the antecedent (see also Relative Pronoun) ; 

Cast nous qui I'avons fait. It is we who have done it. 

Dienx (vona) qui m'ezaucez 1 (Ye) Giods who bear ma 1 


235. General Rule. The subject usually precedes the 
verb. Exceptions to this rule are not«d in the following 

236. InterK^ative Word Order. Direct interrogation 
is expressed as follows ; — 

1. A personal pronoun subject (also ce or on) follows the 
verb, and is joined to it by a hyphen : 
Parlez-TOtU) franfaist Do yon speak FreDoh? 

EaMelnir Is it he? 

eg,: ^w by Google 


a. ThB letter -t- is inserted after a third ungnlar with final vowel 
before a pronoan with initial vowel : 

Farla-t-elle T I^le-t-on T Did she speak ! Do tbej* speak t 

b. A final e of the first nngnlar takes acute accent, but with tho 
Bound of [e] : 

Donni-JBt [doner jI Dolgivef 

2. A noan subject precedes the verb, and is repeated after 
it by a pleonastic pronoun ; so also, poasesaiTe, demonatratiTS 
and indefinite pronouns : 

Cet homroe parle-t-il anglais T Does that man speak English f 

Cela est-il vrai I Is that true ! 

Les miens ne sont-ilt pas bons ! Are mine not good T 

3. Questions are also asked b; interrogative words (a^eo- 
tives, pronouns, adverbs) : 

Quel po^t« a ^crit cela T What poet wrote that T 

A qnelle henre portira sou ami ! At what o'clock will his friend go t 

Qui est Ur Qu'ya-t-ilT Who is there* What is the matterT 

Leqnel des deux est parti T Which of the two has gone T 

Combien codte cela T 

Combien cela colite-t-il tf 

a. The word order of either of the last two examples is comcDonlj 
permissible for noun sabject under this rule. 

ft. The word order of the last example is obligstorir when the verb 
has a direct object (not reflexive), or a prepositional complement, or 
when ambiguity might arise ; this arrangement is preferable with 
ponrqnoi?, or when a compoond tense is used : 

Oil le poi tient-il sa cour 1 Where does the king hold his court t 

De qnoi le roi parle-t-il T Of what is the king speaking T 

Quel prii le roi paya-t-il ( What pnce did the king pay I 

Joan qui aime-t-il T Whom doee John love ! 

Pourquoi mon ami part-il f Why does my friend go t 

Quand ce roi o-t-il 6t6 d4capitd I When was this king beheaded t 

4. By prefixing est-ce que ? a statemeut becomes a ques- 
tion without change in its word order : 

Est-ce que vous partez I Are joQ going away t 

Qnand est-ce que vons partez t When are yon going nwajr t 


How much does that cost F 

-.u, Google 

170 THE TIStB. [§237 

a. The om of tat<s qoe? is permisBible with all fomu of the verb, but 
ig obligatory with a moDosylbibic first cdagolar (except si-je ?, mi^je ? 
di»:je7, dois-jeP, tija-jet, puis-je?, Mi»-je?, Tids-jeP, Tai»je?}, uid 
is preferable to avoid forms like doim^je 7 ; 
E»t-oe que je Bera, moi ? Do I serve I 

Est-ce que je porle de Ini J Do I Bpeak of him t 

6. laterrogation is also axpreBsed by mere inflectiOD ol 
the Toice^ -without change in word order ; 
Tons partei dijkt You are going already t 

' 237. Rhetorical Inversions. Owing to rhetorical ooo- 
nderations the noun subject not uncommonly follows the verfay 
or the sentence assumes interrogative form, though not inter- 
rogative, as follows : — 

1. In interjected remarks explanatory of direct quotation, 
as in English : 

Foie comme tn voodras, dit-iL Do as yon pleaae, said tie. 

Que veuz-tu I demaoda la mire, Wliat do you wish t asked the mother. 

2. In optative clauses when que is omitted, and also after 
the rare omission of si, 'if ' : 

Vive le roi I P&iue le tyran J (Long) live the king I Periih tlte 

tyrant I 

Vonlait-il de I'argent, son pire If he wished money, his father ■!• 

Ini en donnait tonjouni. ways gave him some. 

He fllt-oe que pour oela. If it were only for that. 

3. Very commonly after certain adverbs and adverbial 
locutions : 

Dn nioine devrait-il attendre. He Bhoold at least wait. 

A. peine le jour fnt-il arriv^ Hardly had the day arrived. 

6ncb ace; 

It pdiM, JtonUiF. *panE-4tn, jxrfaipi. toultleit, alOuiagh. 

BOrt. MM*. ancon, baida. m viln, in vaiti. 

ma mOiia, at liatl. tont u plug, ol matt, pnbibltmeiit, probaH^ 

da moini, at leatl. dVntant pliu, (A* mora. ato. 

*PtBt-Mn 4tM doa not ouiaa isvanlso : ' Pnit-«n qnll I« tna.' 'rvftrnft kl 



4. Soinel;imee in exclamatory sentences : 
Ayods-uoub cri^ t Didn't we shout t 

6. When a predicate adjeotire heads the phrase : 
Telle fat b Sn de Carthage. Such was the end of Carthage. 

Quelque riche qoe soit oet homme. However rich that man is. 

Htm. — AH tiM AboTfi tpvvnioiu. except the bill giTUDi nuv teke 'plu» wfaAterar t» 
tlw naRin of the wbjeot, Iwt the [nllowing tuIh da nnt lUiwU; hold good lor pamul 
inmcmit mititBt. 

6. Very commonly in a relative clause, especially when & 
second relative clause qualifies its subject : 

n tera oe que pent faire tm He will do what a inan can who 
homme qui se respecte. respects himself. 

Ditea-moi oe qa'a fait votre ami. Tell me what yonr friend did, oil eat ton amL Tell me where joar friend is. 

Von.— The reluln Ii nntnasd (pmollttc), ud natiumllj lUnd* nut (he Tab 

Irtilab (Oreru It. 

7. Commonly after c'cst que, and in the second member 
oE a comparative sentence : 

Ceet BD TouB qn'sspirent tous. It is in yon that all hope. 

J'en ai plus que n'en a mon ami. I have more of it than my friend haa. 

8. Commonly when an adverb,' other than those mentioned 
in (3) above, e.g., ainsi, bientOt, lei, 1^ etc., or an adverbial 
phrase heads the sentence : 

Ainsi va le monde. So goes the world. 

KentOt vieudra le printemps. Bpring will soon come. 

A la tSte de I'arm^ fut port^ At the head of the army was carried 
I'dtendard sacr& the sacred standard. 

9. Quite exceptionally, whon the verb comes first : 
Viendra mi autre. (Along) will come another. 

w Tcrb hu ■ dInM atdnt 

23S. Indirect Interrogation. It has no special rules of 
word order apart from those of the clause in which it occurs : 
Du-md CB qn'il a dil. Tell mo what he aaid. 

u, Gooijlc 

ITS THE VEEa [§§239-241 


239. Formation. The passive voice of a tniDsitiTe verb U 
formed from the auxiliary 6tre + the paat participle, which 
agrees with the subject of the verb in gender and number : 

Pltm. Infin. t:.tre \oni{e) or Umi(e)B, to be praited. 

PxBF. Infin. Avoir 616 loa4(e) or loo^(e)a, to have been praited. 

Fbss. Pabt. fitant loii4{e) or lon^(e)B, bting praised. 

PXKF. PAB.T. Ayant ^t^ loii^(e) or lon^(e)B, having been praiaed. 

Frbsght Ihdicatite. Pa9t iNDEPiHrrK Indicativb. 

J am {I am being) praiatd, etc I have been (/ wu) praited etc. 

jeBuiB-l j'aiiWl 

tn «B > ba£(e). ta as «t« [ 1oii^(b}. 

U (eUe) est j U (eUe) a ^t^ J 

nous Bommcal nous avona ^t^'l 

vons £t«a. V lon4(e}8. vode avez iti > lou4(e)& 

ila (ellea) MDt. J lis (eUes) out 4t4 J 

etc, etc, throoghoul. 
Obe,: 1. Thi put putldtils jt4 is >lwiiya lavurUbla. S. The put putidple ifttr 
70IU igns wilh the Hiue: 'Muluns, tdiu aarra mCprlMe <la loiw,' 'MiidiiiD, yon 
wiUbsdHpliedbf mlL' 

240. The Agent. The person bj whom the action is done 
is usually denoted by par, when a specific intention or definite 
volition ia implied, and by de when the action is habitual, 
usual, or indefinite : 

EUe tat saiai^par le voleur. She was seized by the thief. 

Le g^Sral fut suivi de pris par The general was closely followed by 

I'ettueuu. the enemy. 

La reina dtalt BniTie de ses dames. Tbe queen was followed by her Udiea. 
Da aont aim^ de tons. They are loved by everybody. 

241. Remarks, l- Only transitive verbs regularly have 
the passive voice, but tbe intransitives oMir, d^SOb^ir, par- 
donoer, may also be made passive : 

Voua dtes pardonn^ tons. Yon are all pardoned. 

Elle est tonjours ob^. She is always obeyed. 

2. Tbe passive is much less used than in English, especially 
if the agent be not specified, or if the corresponding French 

,;.!;, GlXH^IC 


rerb ia mtransitire, or if an indirect object be present. 
Substitutes are: 

a. A verb with the indefimte pronoun an ; 

On m'a tronip& I hava been deceived 

Od me sonpfoDue. I am auEpected. 

On a r^pondu li m*. qneatjon. My qneation has been answered. 

On lni a rendu Vaigent The money has been given back to 

b. A reflexive oonatmction i 

Ce lirre se pnblie k I^ris. This book is published in Faria. 

La guerre se prolongea. The war was prolonged. 

Voilii ce qtd te dit. This is what is being said. 

3. A transitive infinitire has passive force after verbs of 
perceiving (voir, etc.), after faire, laisser, and when cl-l-an 
infinitive is oaed adjectivally (cf. §284) 
Le ferez-vooB vendre t Will you have it sold t 

Je la vis bttttre. I «aw her beaten. 

Une bute i. dviter. A mistake to ba avoided. 


242. Compound Tenses. The auxiliary 6tre+the past 

participle forma the compound tenses of all reflexive verbs, aa 
follows ; — 

Fsra. Intin. Be flatter, toJtaOer one's m^. 

Pbrf. Isms. S'ttre flattie) or flatt^(e)s, lo have fiaOered one'* «e{f. 

Pus. Part. Se flattont, jiotferin^ one'* k^. 

Pkkv. Past. S'itaiit flatt£(e) or fiatt^e}8, having flattertd on^s *tlf. 

IfiaUer myst(f, tte. 
je me flatte. 
tn te flattea. 
il (elle) K flatte. 
aoDB HODS flattons. 
vons vous flattez. 
Os (elles) se flattent. 


Fast iNCEFHirFK. 
I{havt)fiaUfrfd myatlf, tte. 

tn fea [&att4(e). 
il (elle) s'eat I 
noDB nous Bommea't 
vona vons (tea t-flatt4e]« 
ils (ellea) se soot J 

,;.!;, Google 

174 THE YIBB. [( 


FlaUer thf§eif, tie. Do notfiatttr thyttlf, tie. 

flstt«-(oL ne te fltitte poa. 

(qn'il se flatte.) (qn'il ue se Satto paa.) 

flattons-iioni. ae nona flattons pM. 

flatten- voDB. ne voiu flattez pas. 

(qti'ils M flattent.) (qulla ne ae flatten! pM.) 

Motis.— 1. B« flatter, M flattutt, Mc, u* tfaa iDflnllive utd pvtioipiti lonH 
(annd In diotioDulH. but u muiC be npUoed b; me, te, au., loconllng to tb< aenML 
I. Bioept In Cbe OH of ttre uftiuUiiu?, nfleilva verbtbiTSoopicullarilleaolBiD- 
JnittloD on aoaniDt ot baini nSeilTa. 

243. Reflexive or Reciprocal. A reflexive verb often 
has reciprocal force, eapecialiy in ttie plural. Ambignitj i» 
genertill; avoided by some modifying expression : 

™, a .. . fThoy flatter thenwelvea. 

(.They natter each other. 
Elles M flattent I'une I'autre. They flatter one another. 

On K dupe mutueUement They cheat each other. 

244. Agreement of Past Participle, l. In compound 

tenses, the past participle of a reflexive agrees in gender 

and number with the reflexive object, unless that object be 

indirect : 

EUe s'eat &ni^ She cried onL 

Elle s'est dit 4 eUe-mfime. She raid to harseU. 

Hb M Bimt ^crit They wrote to each other. 

Ellee ae eont acheti dee robes. They bought themselveg dresses. 

2. Besides the reflexive object, a direct object may precede 
the verb, and with this object the participle agrees : 
Les plameB qu'iU se soot schet^es. The pens they boDght themselves. 

Nom.-L Tbe niullUiT Mr* la caii>hl«td u npladni avotr, uul Clia tbon 
affi'MineatB are aipUInad bj ihe jaDaral prindpla (| 3B1). 

i. The afiTaameDC with TOQS ii acoonUng to the MUM ; ' Vana TOns (M* trompte, 

245. Omission of Reflexive Ottject 1. It is always 
omitted with tbe past participle used as attributive adjectiTe : 
I« temps #coal& The time past. 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

S§248-247] THE BBFLEXITX TBBa 115 

2. The Infinitives of certain verbs, such u s'asscolr, se 
SOUTCnir^ se taire, regulturly omit se vhen preceded b; 

FmIm asM(^ VM unii. Make yaor frlendB nt down. 

J« vons en fend aonveiiir. I shall remind 70a of it. 

a. A similar omission of m ■oiiietim# oconn after laiaaer, entendre, 

24& Remarks. The reflexive confitmotiim is mach com- 
motier in French than in English : — 

1. It often translates the Knglish poasiv^ especially whrai 
tiie agent b not specified : 

Ia bourse •'est tronv^ The puTse has been fcmnd. 

Oela se raoonte partont. That is being told ererywherst 

2. Or it is expressed by an English non-reflexire verb, gen- 
erally intransitive : 

3. Or the French reflexive + a prepoeitioa has the valne at 
an English transitive : 

6'approoher de ; se dont«r de. Approach ; snspect. 

GTatteDdre 4 ; se fier i. Expect ; trust. 

8b passer de ; ae soiiTeuir de. Do withont ; reoolleob 

247. S'en Aller. The oonjngation of s'cn aller, 'to g» 

awmy,' preeents special difficnlty : 

Fbuxki! Imdigativx. Put iKDEmmv JsDKanvt. 

I go aiaay, ttc I hate gtmt (/ totnl) aipa]/, tU. 
Je m'en vmb. je m'en Boisl 

tn t'en vaa. tu t'en ss }'alU(e). 


,;.!;, GOOIJIC 

THK VERB. [§§! 


Oo awaji, ete. Do not go av>ay, tie, 

(qn'il s'sn aille. ) (qu'il ne s'en aille pai. ) 

alloDH-nona-eiL ne aoaa en allonB pa«. 

BlleZ'Voua-en. ne vous en allez pna. 

(qa'ilB B'en aillent.) (qu'ik Be s'en aillent paa.) 

Farther eiamples : 
Est-oo qno je m'en vais T 
VouB en alleZ'Tous T 
8'eQ Bont-eUea aB^ T 


248. Conjug^ation. An impersoo&l verb, or a verb ased 
■a such, is one conjugated, iu the third singular only, with the 
subject il = ■ it,' ' there,' used indefinitely and absolately, e.^^ 
tooner, ' to thunder ' : 


Pres. n toime, it thunderi. Past Ihdf. II a tonn^, il kaa Oivndered. 

Ihpf. U toanait, il thundered. Pldpf. Il%va,ittoaa6,ilhadlhuttdtrtd. 
FAarDBF. llUama.,U thundered. Past Ant. IleuttonnS.iiAodtAttndCTwi 
etc. , ete, , like the third singular of donner. 
NoTL^Apart from beinir ItmLted to tb« third BlnfulAT, their conjuffation doB ddI 
diilei from that of ordinary rerbs. Sooh kio regular, others irrefulAr. 

249- Use of Impersonals. I. Verbs denoting natural 
phenomena and time are impersonal, as in English : 
n tonne ; il a pin 1 il plenvra. It thunders ; it rained ; it will rain, 

n a gel4 hier ; il d^g^le. It froze yesterday ; it is thawing. 

H est une beure ; il eat tard. It is one o'clock ; it is late. 

Such verbs are j 
pleuroir, miii. greier, hait. gelw, J^iett. 

ti^Icr, mou. Mklrer, liffhtm. d^geler, thaw. 

2. Paire^'make,' is also muoh used impersonally to 
describe weather, temperature, etc : 

n,<ir.=^-h, Google 

§§250-251] IMPEBSONAL VERBS. 177 

Quel tempa fait-ilt ■ What kind of weather ia it T 

n fait beau (tempe) ce matin. It ia fine (weather) tliis morniag. 

n a fait bien froid hier. It was very cold yesterday, 

n faisait dn vent aussL It waa windy too. 

Est-ceqa'il fera obBcnr ce soir F Wtllit bediu^ this evening t 

001. : DistfnfniUh thoe from coiwtnHjtioni vith a peiWDft] nibJ«ot; ' Lb tempi Mt 
boa,' ' Ttas autlieT ia flue ' ; ' L'«u Mt Iroiila,' ' Ths mur b cold.' 

25a Impersonal avoir and itre. 1. The verb avoir, 
preceded by jr, used impersoiiallf = ' there is,' ' there are,' 
' there was,' ' there were,' etc. : 

Ilya. Ilyaen. Ya-t-il! Thereis. Therehaabeen. IsthereT 

U n'y a pas. II o'y a pas en. There is not. There liaa not been. 

Y a-t-il en T N'y a-t-il pas en! Has there been? Has there not been? 

Y anra-t-il ? U pent y avoir. Will there be ! There may be. 

2. II est (^tait, etc.) is sometimea used for il y a in this 

n est des honmiea qui le croient There are men who think so. 

3. II y a = ' there is,' 'there are,' ia distinguished from 
Toilil ^ ' there is,' 'there are.* Voil^ answers the question 
'where is?,' 'where are^' and makes a specific statement 
about an object to which attention is directed by pointing or 
the like, while il y a does not answer the question 'where ist,' 
' where are V and makes a general statement. 

II y a des plomes sur la table. There are pens on the table. 

Voil^ lea plnmes but la table. There are the pens on the table. 

4. Y avoir also forms idiomatic expressions of time, 
reckoned backwards, and of distance : 

Us sont arrive il y a troia joura. They came three daya ago. 

n y avait trois joora que j'^tais Uu I had been there three daya 

Combien y a-t-il d'iai b la ville ? How far is it to the city T 

U y a dix millee d'ioi b. la ville. It ia (en milea from here to the city. 

251. Falloir^'be necessary,' expresses the various mean- 
ings of ' must,' ' be obliged to,' ' have to,' ' need,' as follows ; 

1. 'Mnst' + infinitive-i falloir+que and saljunctive: 

u, Gooijlc 

n font que j« parte. I miut go, 

Il{audr»qu« voiiB reatiec You will havetD(b« obliged ta)it«y, 

3. Or the anbject of 'must,' etc., if a personal pronoun, may 
become indirect object of falloir+an infinitive : 
n me landralt reoter. I ahoold be obliged to remain. 

n leur faut taire oela. Tbejr mnet do that. 

n loi ft falln parler. He was forced (obliged) to epeak. 

3. The infinitive conatmction without indirect object is 
used in general or indefinite statement : 
n fant faire son devoir. One mnat do one's dutj. 

n DB faut pas \<Aer. We must uol steal 

i- . Faltoir -I- aa indirect object and a Bubstantnre eigmfiea 
'lack,' 'need': 

n faut une ardoiee i Jean. John naeda a date. 

D lettr fandra cent fnmcs. Tbejr will need a handled franM. 

6. S'en faUoir='la«k': 

n s'en faut de beanconp que Ton The one is not nearly so good as the 
vaiUe I'antre. other. 

252. Other Impersonals. l- Besides faire and avoir, 

already noted, many other verbs take a special meaning as 

De quoi ^agit-ilT What is the matter? 

D eit Bouvent arrivj que, etc It has often happened that, eta 

n vandra mieuz ae rien dire. It will be better to say nothing, 

n y va de sea joun. His life is at stake, 

a Be pent que je me trompe. It may be that I am mistaken. 

2. Many verbs may stand in the third singular with imper- 
sonal il representing a logical subject, singular or plural, 
following the verb : 

D viendra nn meillear tempa. There will come a happier tima 

n en reste trois livreo. There remain three pounds of iL 

Q est arriv4 des measageis. Menengen have arrived. 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


253. Omission otH. II is nnderatood in oertam phnaea, 
such as : 

lUite k eavoir. It remains to be aeen. 

N'importe. No matter (it matten not). 

HiMuc vant tarcl que jamus. Better late than never. 


254. Use of Indicative. The indicative is the mood o( 
direct or indirect assertion, and of direct or indirect inter- 
rogation. It stands both in principal and in subordinate 
olanses, both affirmative and negative : 

Diet! crte le monde. God created the world. 

Molse dit que Dieu crte le monde. Mosea aaya that Ood created the 

Oil alleo-vona ! Where are yon going T 

Dites-moi oil tous allez. Tell me where you are going. 

Je le fenuB, si je poDvais. I shonld do bo, if I conld. 

MmH.— 1. It ihould b* natad atpecUUr thit tbe IndioktlTa ia reguUriy thi mond at 

br tb* OMiMit, Bod not ilmplj b; Cba Uet (bat (lie clauM i> nibordla*(«. 


255. Periphrastic Forms. Such forms, so common in 
English, are not used in French : 

Jd parte. I speak (am speaking, do speak), 

n a &!rit. He has written (has been writiog). 

n dissit. He was saying (used to say, etc. }. 

256. Elliptical Forms. Ellipsis of part of a, verb form 
is common in English ; in French the form is either fully 
given or entirely avoided : 

J'irsi. — Moi. je n'lrai pas. I shall go. — I shall not (go). 

D a promia de venir, mais il n'est He promised tr> come, but he did 
paa Venn. not (come). 

u, Gooijlc 

ISO THB TSBB. [§§257-258 

n est vena.— Vnjmant I He boa oome.— Hm he I (Indeed!) 

VonB viendrez, n'eat-ce pas I Yon will come, will you not t 

II itait Borti, n'eat-ce pas! He had gone out, hod he not! 

257. Present Indicative. The present tenae is used : — 

1. To denote what is happening, including the habitual and 
the univeraally true : 

Je croia qu'il pleuL I think it is raining. 

II ae l^ve toujours do bon matin. He always rises early. 
L'homme propoee et Dieu dispose. Man proposes and God dispooes. 

2. To denote vhat has happened and still continues, after 

U y a ■ ■ ■ que, voici (Toilk). ■ ■ que, depuis, depuis quand ?, 
depuis . . . que : 

I>epuis quond attcndez-voos ? How long have you been waiting t 

II y a (or voici, voila) troia jonra I have waited (I have been waiting) 

que j'attends, or j'attends de- for three days. 

pais trois jours. 

3. Instead of a past tense in animated narrative : 

La nnit approche, Vinstant arrive. Night draws on, the moment comes, 
dear se presente, etc Cteaar appears, etc 

a. This uae is mnch commoner than in Engliah, especlallj side by 
nde with past tenses. 

b. Cest. . . qne + apaat tense='waa. . . that': 

Ceat lit que je I'ai vu. It was there that I saw him. 

4. Instead of a future in familiar style : 

Nous partons demain matin. We go to-momtw morning. 

6. As a virtual future after si = ' if ' : 
Je serai content, si voua venez. I shall be glad, if jou (will) ccme. 

258. Imperfect Indicative. The action or state denoted 
by the imperfect ia in general viewed as being in progress, %.«., 
as contemporaneous, customary, continued, etc., and it Is 
employed as follows : — 

1. To denote what was happening, when something elae 
happened or was happening : 


I., GlXh^Ic 


n itoit noit, qouid Je aortis. It was night, when I went out. 

II parlait, pendant que i& chmtaia. He was tftlking, while I aajig. 

2. To denote what uaed to happen : 

n ae levut de boo matin. He used to rise early. 

Je parUis eonveut de c«la. I often spoke (used to ipeak, would 

ipeak) of that. 
Lea R<HnainB biHlaient lenre morta. The Romans were accnstomed to 

bum tbeir dead. 

3. To denote what continned to happen : 

Son pire ^jt u^gociant et da- His father waa a merchant and 
meutait dana cetto rue. lived tn this atreet. 

i. To denote what had happened and atill continued, after 
il r a ■ ■ ■ que, voici (voiU) ■ ■ ■ que, depuis, depuis quand ?> 
depuis ... que (c£. § 267, 2) : 

Je le diaaiB depnis loi^tempa. I had long been aaying bo. 

Toili on an que je le disais. I had been Baying bo for s. year. 

5. In indirect discourse, after a past tense, instead of the 

Je cioyaiB qu'il revenait. I thought he waa coming back. 

Je demandat oil il 4tBH. I aaked where he was. 

But: 'Oiiest-il?', demandai-je. ' Where ia he I ', I asked. 

6. Begularly in an 'if clause when the 'result' clause ia 
oonditional : 

8'il venait, je serais contuit. U he oame, I ahonld be glad. 

7> Occasionally, instead of the conditional anterior in condi- 
tional sentences : 
Si je ne I'BTais pas arrSI^, il tom- 

bait (= serait tornb^) da train. 

8. Sometimes instead of the past definite (§ 260) : 

Un moment apite, le p^ Uphie A moment afterwards, Father Al- 
■e diessait, roarchait jk grands phens ran, walked abont with 
pu, Toil& a'dcriait-il. eto. great stridea, there cried he, etc. 

259. Past Indefinitfl. The past indefinite is used ; — 

u, Gooijlc 

182 THE VERB. [§260 

1. To denote what has happened or has heen happenjn|^ 
eqaiTolent to an English tense with ' have,' reference to the 
present being implied : 

J*ai fini mon onvnge. I have finished my work. 

L'avez-vouB vu demi^ment 1 Have you seea him lately T 

Je I'oi sonvBDt rencoDtr^ I have often met him. 

J'ai chants tonte la mating I have been singing all morning. 

2. In ^miliar style, spoken or written, to denote a past 
event, without implied reference to the present, or a succes- 
ii<m of such past events as mark the progress of a narrative^ 
answering the question 'what happened T or 'what bapp^ied 
aextV For narrative in the literary style, see §260: 

lis sout arrivte ce aoir. They arrived this evening. 

Je I'ai vn il y a dix ans. I saw him ten years ago. 

De qaoi eat-il mort ! What did he die of f 

J'al qnittfi Bove le dlz. Pali Je I left Rome on the tenth. Then I 
snia aHi voir des amis a Lyon, visited some friends at Lycxis, I 
J'alposs^qaelqQeijoDTs&Paiis, spent some days in Paris, and I 
e( je suis revenn iLondres hler. came back to London yesteiday. 

3. Occasionally instead of a future anterior : 

Attondei, j'ai bientOt fini Wait, I shall have finished soon. 

260. Past Definite. The past definite denotes a past 
event, or a succession of such past events as mark the progress 
of the narrative, answering the question ' what happened V, 
or 'what happened next}' Its use is confined to literary 
or ■' book " French, and formal public address. It is hardlj 
ever used in conversation or in easy correspondence : 
Dien crte le monde. Ood created the world. 

La gnerre dnra sept ans. The war lasted seven years. 

On for^ le palais, les sc^Urats They broke into the palaoe, the 
n'osirent pas raster longtemps et villains did not dare to resist long, 
ne song^ferent qa'k fuir. Aotarbd and only thought of fleeing. As- 
TOtdut se Bsuver dans la fbnie, torb^ tried to escape in the crowd, 
mais uu soldat la recoonnt ; elle bat a soldier recognized her ; she 
f ut prise. was oaptored. 

I,, Google 


a. 8am« Tnbs bava a Bpeokl force in th« pMt definite : 
Avoir ; j'ens. To have ; I received. 

BaToir ; je sua. To know ; I found oat (learaad). 

CcmwttTe ; je coonus. To know ; I realized. 

261. Examples of Narrative. I. The following ex- 
amples illustrate the principal uses of the past definite, 
imperfect, past iodefinite, imd historical present, in the literary 
narratire style : 

Les Ttirc8, qtd nepeodant entouratent cette mBisou tout embms^ 
VOTatcnt aveo nne admiration mlUe d'^uvante que lea gnMois n'en 
SOrtatent point ; moia lenr £toiH)emeat fut encore plus grand loraqn'ilB 
virent oavrir leg port«», et le roi et lea siena fondre but eoi en d^sespir^ 
Charles et ses principanz officiers £tajetlt arm^ d'^pdes et de pistolete : 
obacon tira denz coups a la foil k rinatont qne la porte B'ouTrit ; et 
daos le mSme clin d'lsil, jetant leurs pistoletB et a'armsnt de leort 
ipieB, ils fireut recoler lea Tares plus de cinquante pas ; maia le moment 
d'aprte oette petite troupe fut enhmr^ : le roi, qoi ftait eu bottea 
•elou aa oontame, a'cmbanaasa dans aes ^rons, et tomba ; vingt et 
nn jaaissairee ee jettent atuaitOt anr loi ; il jette en Fair son ^e poor 
a'ipargner la daalenr de la rendre ; lea Turca I'enunbient aa qnartier 
dn bacha. — Voltaire, 

Stanidas ae d&'oba an jour it diz beores dn aoir de rarmie suMoise 
qu'il conunandait en Pom^ranie, et partit aveo la baron Sparre, qui a 
iti depnia amboasadear en Angleterre et en France, et aveo nn autre 
oolonel : il prend le nom d'un Francis, nommd Hamc, alors major an 
■ervice de SnMe, et qui est mort depnia commandant de Dantzick. — 

2. So nearly identical is the force of the past definite and 
the past indefinite, as narrative tenses, that they are often 
used interchangeably, as in the following extract, taken from 
a newspaper : 

LoiTDBBa, 6 aoOt. — Hier Boir, k onze heuroa et demie, nn incendie 
a £clat£ dans I'atelier de composition de la ifational Prtu Agency. 

Huaienrs pompes k vapeur anivtrent imm&liatefflent sur le lieu du 
sinistre, et I'incendie s'itendit avec one telle rapidity que tonte la 
oaison a Ai complitement d^truite. — Lt Mafyu 

I., Gi.x)^lc 

184 THE VERB. [§§262-263 

ate. Pluperfect and Past Anterior. 1. Both denote 
what had happened, like the Engiish pluperfect : 
LoTsque je I'avais (ens) &ii. When I had finiBhed it. 

2. The pluperfect is of much commoner occurrence than the 
past anterior, and can alone be used after si =' if.' or when 
custom, continuance, etc., is implied (but cf. §§ 258, 275, 6) : 

Si je I'avaia vu, je Taurais dit. Had I seen it, I should have said so. 

J'avaiE tonjours fini aviut midi. I always had finished before noon. 

3. The past anterior denotes what had happened immedi- 
ately before another event. It is rarely used except efter 

conjunctions of time, such as lorsque, quand, aprte que, 
aussitdt que, ne ■ . . pas plus t6t ■ . . que, etc. : 
Aprto qa'il eat dtnd, il partit. After he had dined, he set oat. 

aCj. Future. The future is used : — 

1. To denote what will happen : 

lis viendront demain. They will come to-morrow. 

Je lea verrai bientOt. 

Je ne saia pas a'il viendra. 

a. Distinguish English ' will ' of futurity from ' will ' of volition, and 
from ' will ' of habitual action ; 

n ne restera paa. He will not stay. 

II ne veut pas rester. He will not stay. 

Ce chawenr reste aoDveat dana lea That hunter will often remain whole 
bois pendant des mois entiera. months in the woods, 

b. Observe the following commonly occurring forms ; 
Ne voulez-vouB pas rester! Will you not atay ? 
Voulez-vous que je icate. Shall I stay ? 

Je ne resterai pas. I shall not stay. 

2. Begnlarly in a subordinate clause of implied futurity : 
Payei-le quand it viendra. Pay him when he comes. 
Faitea comma voua voadrez. Do as you pleaae. 

Tant qoe je vivrai. As long as I live. 

3. To denote probability, conjecture, or possibility, etc : 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


The DBTe beloDg* to the 12tli Mntnr;, 

bat the choir uprobabl; of the ICitli. 

4. Sometimea with imperative force : 
Ta ae taeras point. Thou shalt not kill. 

Vons Tondrez bien m'^conter. Be good euoogh to heai iu«. 

a. This use is common in official style (edicts, etc). 

264. Future Anterior. The future aaterior is used : — 

1. To denote what will have happened : 

Jl aura bientOt fini. He will soon have done. 

2. To denote implied futurity (cf. §263, 2), probability, 
conjecture, or possibility, etc. (cf. § 263, 3) : 

Quand Tous serez rentrd je When yon have come home, I ahall 

sortirai. go out. 

Je me sarai tromp4. 1 most have mode a mistake. 

265. ConditionaL I. The main use of the conditional ia 
to denote result dependent on condition, i.e., what would 
happen in caae something else were to happen ; 

Je serais content, s*!! venait. I sfaonld be glad, if he came. 

a. The condition on which the result would depend is often merely 
implied, but not fonnally stated : 
H'^iter serait une faibLesse. To hesitate would be weakneas. 

6. Distinguish English 'should' of duty, etc., 'would' of volition, 
and ' would ' of past habit, from conditional ' should ' and ' would ' : 
Je devrais partir. I should (ought to) set ont. 

n ne vonlait paa dconter. He would not listeu. 

J'olkus souvent le voir. I wonld often go to see him. 

2. It corresponds to an English past in a subordinate clause 
of implied futurity (cf g 263, 2) : 

Ju prendrois ce qui resterait. I should take what remained. 

3. In indirect discourse, it denotes what was once future 
And is now r^arded as past, i.e., the origiaal future of th« 

\i\ ,- , 

186 THE TESa 

assertion or question becomes a conditional when in a cUuse 

Bubordinate to a verb in a past tense : 

Je croyiia qn'il pleavrut. I thought it would nin. 

A-t'il dit I'il le fenut I Did he iay whether he would do aoT 

But : * Je le fer&i,' dit-iL ' I ahall do «>,' said he. 

4. It is used in etfttement <xr request expressed with defers 
enoe or reserve : 

Je le croiraii an moins. I should think bo at least. 

Aoriez-vouB la bont^ d'y allii ? Wonld you have the kindDeas to gol 

Cela ne serait jamais vraL That never could (osu) be trae. 

Je ne saurais voub le dire, I cannot tell you. 

6, It sometimes denotes probability, conjecture, or possi- 
bility, etc, in exclamations and questions (cf. g 263, 3) : 
8erait-il vrai qu'il I'a ditT Can it be true ttiat he said boT 

Serait-il possible I Can (could) it be possible T 

6. It sometimes denotes concession after quand, quaud 
mftme, or with que : 

Qnand (mSme) it me tuerait, etc Even if he should kill me, etc 
Vons me le jureriez que je ne Even if you swore it to me, I should 
VOUB cnuTftis pas. not believe you. 

7. It is used to give the substance of hearsay information ; 
A oe qu'on dit, le roi sentit malade. By what they say, the king is ilL 

266. Conditional Anterior. Its uses are precisely 
parallel with those of the conditional (g 265) ; it denotes what 
would have happened, etc., etc.: 

Je aerais parti, a'il ittit venu. I Bhonld have gone, had he come. 

Je partiraiB dto que je Taurais vu. I should go when I had seen him. 

Selou lee joumauz, la guerre se According to the newspapers, war 
eerait dioUrte bier soir. was declared last evening. 

267. ImperatiTe Mood. It is used in general as in 
English : 

Idsez-le. Ne la Usee pas. Bead it. Do not read it. 

AlloDB-nonB-eu & pr^aeut. Let us go away now. 

Veuillei m'ioonter. Be good enough to hear me. 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

5§268-269] THE suBjuKcnvE mood. 187 

a. The first plual Mmetimes tervea instead of the laoking firat 

SoyoDS digne de tat, uoissanoe. Let me be worthy of my birth. 

E4flAohig80iii nn mament. Let me think a moment. 

AUoaa done I Allons, du courage ! NonBense t Come, courage I 
J'eu bhIb content, allez 1 I am gUd of it, I can aasnre yon I 

Voyous, que. pensez-vouB T Come now, what do j>ou think T 

e. An imper&tive perfect is rare : 
Ayra fini TOtre tftohe oe soir. Have yonr task done to-nigbt. 


268. General Function. The subjunctive denotes, in 
gMteral, what is viewed as being desirable or undesirable, 
uncertain, contingent, or the like, and. usually stands in a 
subordinate clause. 

269. SutgunctiTe in Noun Clause. The subjunctive 
is used in a clause introduced by que and serving as logical 
subject or as object of a verb : — 

1. After expressions of desiring (including willing, wishing; 
preferring) and avoiding : 

Je d^re (veuz) qu'il parte. I desire (wish) him to go. 

TonleE-Tons que je reste ! Do yon wish me to (shall I) stay t 

Je aouhaite qu'il ait du snocia. I wish that he may have success. 

U prdf^re que vons restiez. He prefers that you should stay. 

Avitez qn'il ne vons voie. Avoid bis seeing yon. 

Such are: 
^nur, UJu. Mttr, avoid. aonhmltcT, wML 

slmar mleiu. pn/er. prtf Anr, pr^er. 1] ma tarda, I l/mg. 

STOlT ttivle, A( dfn'i-MM. piendra.gvda, Mt« KsaicAi, laiil, witK 

iUin, intrt, viA. «ar«(leit). etc. 

a. Prendre earde requires ne in the subjasctive clause ; *o aboi 
Mter gorarally. 
Vnad* garde que oela oe se taase. Tike care lest that happen. 

u, Google 

188 THE VZHR l§269 

2. After ezpreasions of commanding (inclndiug reqaeating, 
eahorting), forbidding, consenting : 

Vona ordonnez que je m'en sille. Yon order me to go. 

Je demande que vona me payiez. I ask that you should pay me. 

Dia-leut qu'ils soieut prfts. Tell them to be ready. 

Le m^deoin defend qua je sorte. The doctor forbids me to go out. 

Je oonsens que oela Be fasee. I oonsent that that be done. 

■dmMCn, admit. dODUrJer, att. pemettn, permit, 

ogrter, jvrmil. ompAcbu, hinder. priflr, beg^ oak. 

avoir loin, take eon. «borl«r, exhort. KnSrir, wufer. 

ootJjuTTr, intflore. vvgiTr exact. nppl^er, beg, pray. 

ooiiKntlr, «nu«il. UlBcr, all<ng. ttouier nsturel,AnJiiaMraI. 

OODTeDiT) agree. I'oppoaer. oppoee. TeilLer, take core. 

<UI«idr«, f<ltbid. ordoDDei, order. etc 

Be 10*0, din, tell, icrin, write, entendre, man, pritendre, tnttnd, wh« 

a. The future or conditional often atanda after arriter, commander, 
dMdcr, iieitttr, etc. , eapecially when the subject is a word denoting 
final authority, such as cour, roi, etc. : 
Le roi d^rite qu'il sera pendo. The king de<^^eB that he shall be hanged. 

6. The subjunctive after empteher uaually has ne : 
Emp£chez qu'il ne sorte. Prevent his going out. 

3. After ezpreasions of judgment or opinion invcdring 
approval or disapproval : 

J'approuve qn'il rovienne. I approve of his coming back, 

n m^te qn'on le craigne. He deserves to be feared. 

II vant mieux que voua restiez. It is better for you to stay. 

n faudra qu'il parte demaiu. He will have to go to-morrow. . 
%cb are ; 

sppmuTcr. apprme, Mrs indlgiie, be unwsrtAy; tmnTer muiT^, ditappnm, 

taiiiz\aUrtt,,biinUml*d. iagtr it ftopat, think fit- tnavgr June, thin* jut. 

KinisT, bitune. toucr, praiM; troiiTflrlriJuate.tAuiifciuOMi 

dtnppmuTcr, dUapprem. m«rlter. dusnc nloLc, be tttrthf/. 

(tie tTatls, be of opmioa. tenir (k et qua), iiuiit. ato 

ttn6igBe, be worthy. tirmierboo, appme. 

Bo also, a large number of impersonals of like force i 

§269] up: subjunctive hood. 189 

neaayitat, unfitting. -f fHlle, «i>v. +taiiii*, MfM. 
dist iMo, it it tnough. 4-iinpiirUiit, ImfwHont IIIkuI, it i(n«lUH^VlnHlIt■ 
il «a(, it i> -|-lDdiBp«mbls, induiWRi- 11 importe, it U important. 

+^pniIK»,i>r«pcr. able, _ 11 peiil m Mie, il may At. 

■ -t-Jiule, juti. 11 auffit, il ik^cu. 

4-bOD, ffood. -l-naturel, naturaL 11 vaut mlmu, it It bifttr. 

+oODveiiftbl<,jII(inp. +nteaHiln, Reoxnrv- tic, and their oppodtta. 

+«Hiiti<l, eitttUtaL +k louh^ter, to bt uiithiiL 

+h,iMrti, to bi dtiirtd. +(tout)HiiiFte,(fuil()nmii2(. 

4. After expressions of emotion or sentiment, such as joy, 
sorrow, angei:, shame, vooder, fear : 
£teB-Toua coDtent qn'U soit ici ! Are jon glad he is here ! 
Je regrette qu'il aoit parti. I regret that he bju gone. 

n sat Ucbi que voiu 1e bl&miez. He is angry at your blaming him. 
n a honte que tous le eaciiiez. He ia aahamed that you know it. 

Jb m'^tonne qu'U n'ait pas honte. I wonder he is not aahamed. 
■Tai penr qn'Jl d'ait trop dit. I fear he baa uid too much. 

Such are : 
miniini, be attonitlu± -^itoajitaX. attanUliitig. ■+\oseia, gtad. 

•"mffliger, priei* +(ioheuii, onnoyinfl. +mioonteiitt, ditpltattd. 

■voir boot*, be athamed. +heunui, fortunate. ^Btiafui. tatiijied. 

BTOir onJnte, /Mr. mragsr, te enmiKd. +i\irpiiM, lurfriied. 

■Toir pcur, /ear. ^Atonner, be attonitlud. -tttlstt, lad. 

enindR. /ear. £tn, be ... . k t&ctatr, be torry, wagrym 

d^lorer, Aepkirt +iilfllg^, grieved. we pliundre, onnptain. 

c'cat, i(i> +blen aiM, tery fflad, tedoutei, /«ar. 

+un bonheor, forlvnaU. +oh»nn«, dttightid. ngrelter, regret. 

+doaixatg9, a pity. 4^oDntcnt, glad. h r^Joolr, rejoiee, 

^unfl honte, a ahame. -f d^aol^, mrjf torry. we npentlr. npenl. 

+boiiteiii, a iftonK. +iiiiiBBi, attonitted, rougJr, bliuA. 

■t'fMi, a pitt/. +ncbt, torry, angrg. moofirer, ligh. 

Sialiitil +beanai, happg. Uanblei, treuitU. 

+Bar\«aj:, ttrange. +ind\fDi, iruUgmint. etc 

' a. When it ia feared something will happen the enbjunctiva has iw ; 
when it la feared something will not happen the aabjunctive has ne ■ . . 
pms ; when the expreasion of fearing is negative, or interrogative, or 
conditional, ne ia usually omitted; with double negation ne...pu 
atanda in both : 

Je Grains qn'il ne vieime. I fear he will come. 

Je cruna qn'L ne vienne pas. I fear he will not come. 

Je ne craina pas qu'il vieime. I do not fear he will come, 

qn'il vienne T Do you fear he will iNxiie T 

u, Goo^jlc 

190 THE VERB. J [§269 

NaoraigneE-TonipMqii'illieTiaiuMT Do ^Sd not tear ho will oomoT 
Si je CRUgDM* qa'il vlut. If ,1 feared he would oomo. 

Jo ii« crum pM qa'il ne vieime pas. I*do not fear ho will not cone. 

h. AiMr eiprBBsions of emotion or sentiment (except fear), which 
admit de liter them, dece que-hindicativemaj' beosed : 
Xm iionte de ce qu'il » ^hoa& I un ashamed that he fiuled. 

6. After expressiona of doubt, denial, despair, ignorance (» 
very slight probability : 

n donte que je aoia loyaL He doubts that (whether) I am htmwL 

Je nie qae oela soit vrai. J denj tliat that is true. 

D est rare qne toos ayez tort. Yod are rarelj in the wrong. 

Bnch aie : 
OODdiBter, iliqRte*. +faiii,/aZB. da M quol wrt-U T, 4^ (MtOI 

dtaupirer, diirair. +lmpowbIs, imiMttlbU. ttttitilJ 

dltooDTsoir, d«i|r. 4-iio«lbl*, paoMt. U na hH de (!>} rlsn, (t ii tf 

liUilmnler. not sMV'ui. +nn, ran. no u*e. 

o. Douter si ( = ' if ,' ' whether ')rBqmrea the indicative: 
n donU Ed je mis loyal. He doabl« if (whether) I am honest. 

b. II temble regularly has the subjunctive, aince it indicates slight 
probability OS distingoished from il paralt = 'it appears,' 'ia evident,' 
and il me seiiible=*it appears to me' (personal conviction) : 
n semble qne vous me cnusniez. It seeros that yon fear mo. 
n me eemble (U paratt) que vous It seems to me (it appears) that yon 

me craigfncz. fear me. 

e. Verbs of doubt and denial used negatively or interrogatively Togo,- 
larly require ne in the subjunctive cUubb : 
Je ne nie pas qne je ne le sois. I do not deny that I am snch. 

d. Ignorer+negatives' know well,' andhenoe takes indicative: 
Je n'ignore pas qu'il a. menti. I know well he has lied. 

6. After expressions of perceiving, thinking, knowing 
declaring, resulting, but only when uncertainty or donbt is 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 


implied by aegation, interrogation, or condition; otherwiia 
the indicative : 

Will thej aee that I have weptt 

I do not think that that is he. 

Do jou hope he will succeed I 

I »m not sore he will come. 

If I claimed tiiat he wu wrong, 

I think it is he. 

I hope he will succeed. 

Verra-t-on qne j'aie plenrd T 
Je ue croii pa« que oe Boit Ini. 
BspJrei-vouB qn'il r^ussiaaeT 
Je ne sniB pas sQr qa'il vieime. 
Si je prdtendoiB qn'il ellt tort. 
Bnt : Je ciois qae c'ert Ini. 
J'eBpAre qn'il rtnaaira. 
Enoh are : 

■Snier. infirm. ttpinr, bopi. pr^ToIr, fimmt, 

("■pHiiarolr, ptrcrtvt. tin mtUiId, bt etrtain. pramattR, pramitt. 

■ppnndi*, tern, bear. U,n'petmadi,b»ptmiailid. M nppelir, rMoilMt. 

H flaiMr, JUMer ane't tet^. ttfUier, rtptat. 

louf^lDer, imagtnt. r^pondn, anmur. 

■'jma^nn, imagine. VToIr, kruHB. 

Jugsr, jtidet, ttin*. weaOi./etl. luHei 

jurar, d»elan. touMnii, maintav 

oubllar, /orget. ta Kiuvanlr, reeoU 

peuer, think, nappoaer, auppou 

pemuder, penviuli. inmvet.flnd, tJtIii 

pnmeBiii, faribedt. loIr, hi. 

prdtaodTe, autrl^ oiaim^ eto. 

OODOIUTfl, eoruludL 

a nnmber of impersonalB of like force : 

■i, lUmomtratii. 
+ini»ntatiib1e. iwIuFUMUA Urimiitt.U/MviK. 
.^-probablB, protoUf- 1ltQ«niDblc,if Honut 

a. Negative qneation oanally implies affirmation ; hence the indicative ; 
Ne trouvea-ta pas qn'il est beau ! Don't jou thiuk he la haodsome t 

b. When what the speaker regards as fact follows the negative oi 
oenditimal clanse, or when a person is qnestioned as to his knowledge 
of what is regarded aa fact, the indicative stands : 

n ne croit pas qne je enis ioi. He does not believe I am here. 

S'il savait tjoe tn ea ici. If he knew ;ou were here. 

Baveft-voDB qn'il ert arrive l Do you know that be boa oome? 

u, Gooijlc 

192 THE YEBB. [§270 

e, II me Maible + negation haa anhjunotiTe ; with iiitsROgstion + 
negaticot the iDdicative : 
D ne me sembla paa qa'il Boit fou. It does not seem to me he ta mad. 

Nevotusemble-t-ilpasqu'ileBtfou? Does it nit seem to you he is nudt 
d. A preceding dependent olaiue with this cissa of verbs idways haa 
the aubjunctive : 
Qq'il alt ichaai, je le saia That he hu failed, I know. 

Hon.— For tha oliolcs betwean q«a claoH wd knflnitiTe we J 283. 

270. Subjunctive in Adjectival Clause. The aab- 
junctive is used as follows in clanses introduced bj a relative 
pronoun : — 

1. When pnrpose regarding the antecedent, or nnattained 
result is implied : 

MoDtrez-moi nn chemin qui con- Show me a wa; which lesda to 

dai» h la Bcienae. knowledge. 

Je cherobe on endroit oh je Boia en I seek a place where I may be in 

paix, peaae. 

a. The indiaatiTe, however, is used to eipreti wliat ii rsgaidsd aa 
fact or certun result ; 

Montrez-nioi le cbemin qui con- Show me the road which leads ta 

dnit ji la ville. the town. 

J'irai od je aerai libre. I shall go where I shall be free. 

2. When the principal clause contains general negation, 
interrogation implying negative answer, or condition (all of 
which imply non-existence of the antecedent) : 

n n'a pas de raison qui vaille. He haa no reason worth anTthmg. 

Aa-tu on aeul ami qui soit tiddet Have yon one friend who is true t 
Bi i'ai Dm ami qui soit fiddle c'est If I have oue friend who ia true, it 

a. General Degatiijn is sometimea merely implied : 

n f a pen de gens qui le sachenU There are iew people who know it. 

b. Wlien the negation ia not general, or when the interrogation doe* 
not imply negative answer, the indicative stands : 

Ce n'eat pas voDs que je craina. It ia not you that I fear. 

ITMt-oe point nn souge qne je vois t Is it not a dream that I aee I 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


& In a negative relative claoBe ne, not 'tie...pa8,' ia naed when the 
principal olaiue is negative or implies negation : 

Bn est-il un seul qui ne tremble T Ib there one who does not tramblel 
3, When the antecedent is qualified b; a superlative, or 

by seul, unique, premier, dernier (ail with supetUtive 

force) : 

Cest lo meillear uni que j'ftie. He is the best friend that I have, 

Cest le seul uni que j'aie. He is the onlj friend I have. 

a. What is stated nnreservedly as fact requires the indicative ; 
Cest la seule chose qn'il a dite. It is the onl; thing he said. 

t. With concessive force in compound relative and indefinite 
clauses ( = 'whoever,' 'whatever,' etc.) : 
Qnoi que vons fassiez. Whatever jon da 

Qui qu'on J pnisse ilire. Whosoever may be elected to it^ 

Qui que to sois, parle. Whoever 3'ou are, speak t 

QnellM que soient vos raisons. Whatever be jour reasons. 

271. Subjunctive in Adverbial Clause. The aubjuno- 

tive is used in clauses of adverbial force, as follows : — 

1. After conjunctions of time before which or up to which 
(avant que, en attendant que, jusqu'i ce que) : 

IHs-le-lui, avant qu'il parte. Tell it to him, before he goes. 

Asaeyez-vous, en attendant qu'il Sit down until be cornea back. 

Pereiv^rez jnaqu'^ oe que voua Persevere till yon have succeeded. 

ayez r^nssi. 

a. Jusqu'jl ce que may have the indicative, when referring to com- 
pleted past event ; 
U y resta jnsqn'k oe qoe je levina He remained till I came back, 

2. After conjnnctioos of purpose or result (afin que, pour 
que, de crainte que, de peur que) : 

J'teris oeci afin que (pour que) I write this in order that you autj 

vouB sachiei la v^ril^, know the truth, 

Je le tins de crainte qu'il ne torn- I held him for fear he should fall 


194 THE TESa [§271 

a. So aiao, de soTte qne, en sorte qne, de teU« aorte que, de tatpa 
que, de maniire que, tel.. .qnC) tellemeot. ..qne. when denoting pat- 
pose, but not rasult i 

AgU de Borte qne tn rinmuet. Act in snch a way as to Hncceed, 
Bat : J'u Bf^ da aoite que j'ai rdnsu. I acted ho that I aucceeded. 

3. After conjunctiona of oonditioa (en cas QUe, au cas 

que, k moins que ■ ■ ■ ne, poumi que, suppose que, en 
supposant que) : 

Je viendrai an c*a qne je sois I shall oome in case I am free to- 
libre domain, on & moins qne monow, or unleas I am detained, 
je ne sois letenn. 

a. After sl = 'if,' tlie pinperfect subjonQtiTe atands esoeptionally 
(1276, b). 

b. The present Bnbjnnctive aometimea expreaaea oondition ; 
Vianne I'ennemi, il a'enfnit. If the enemy cornea, ha flees. 

c A (Ik) condition qne takes indicative, conditional, or snbjonotive i 
Je Ini donue I'argent & (la) condi- I give him the money on conditica 

tion qu'il psrtirft {or pute). that he will go. 

Ron.— Duu le oai ojl, an oai o& onull}' lun oondittoul: 'An <■■ (A otU 
malt •nil' ' In oue Uut ihonU be trua.' 

4. After conjunctions of conceasion (quoiquc^ biea qu^ 
encore que, nonobstant que, soit que . ■ . soit que or ou 
que, pour (si) peu que, si tant est que, malgr^ que) : 

Bien qn'il aoit malade, il sortirk. Althouf;b he is ill, he will go out- 
Fonr pen qn'il Mt malade, il se If he were ever so little ill, he 
oroyait monrant. thought hinuelf dying. 

a. The present subjunctive with que aometimea has ooacessiTe force i 
Qn'il perde on gagne, il partira. Thongh he lose or win, he will ga 

b. The use of a subjunctive after adverbial qnelque (tont, sl, eto.}+ 
qne=* however' depends on the same principle : 

Qnelque grand qne vous soyez. However great yon may be. 

8i brave qn'il se oroie. However brave he thinks himselL 

_■. Quaiid (mbne) used oonoeasiTely sometimes takes the plnperfgot 
mbjunctive for the conditional anterior (cf. g205, Q) : 
Qoaud (mflme) il rn'oU dlt oela. Etbd if he bad told me that 

,;.,!;, GlXH^Ic 


5. After coujanctions of neg&tive force (non QUC, OOO pas 
qu^ loin que, sans que) : 

n partit uos que je le tamo. Ho went away wjthoat my knowing it. 

6. After que replacing any conjunotion reqairing the sal> 
' JDQctive, and also after que replaoing si •■ ' if ' : 

yeiwtqne( = afiD qoe, poor qae) Come, that I may lee yon. 

jo vouB voie. 
Si je vais et que je le voie. If I go, and if I aee him. 

272. Subjunctive in Principal Clause. The Bnbjone- 
tive is sometimes itsed in principal clauses, as follows : — 

1. Either with or without que to denote what is dedredi 
etc. : 

Ainsi soit-il t Tiveleroil 80 be it 1 (Long) live tba Ungt 

Kilt k Dien qull en l&t unri I Would to Ood it were «o 1 

Qn'il parte tout de suite. Let him go at once. 

Je menre, ai Je mens t May I die, if I am lying I 

Le CFoie qui vondra I Let him believe it who will 

a. Que followed by the third person present subjunctive regnlady 
Mrvei a« an imperative j so also, sometimes, the first singnlar : 
Qn'il parte. Let him go. 

Qoe je VOUB entende. Let me hear you. 

Hon.— This oonMnuthai, ■■ ilso thasa wltbouE qne, may b* iiplalnad hy alUpala id 
«0OM «i[««nIob v4 dcalie, commud, eto. (I KB, 1, 1), 

3. The present subjunctive first singular of savoir is 
sometimes used to denote modified assertion : 
Je ne sache rien de plua bean. I know nothing finer. 

3. The pluperfect subjusctive stands exceptionally for coa- 
ditional anterior in a 'result' clause (cf. $276, b)i 
B'U e&t (or avait) su cela, il ne If he had known that, be would not 

I'eflt (or Burait) pas dit. have said it. 

273. Tense Sequence. The tense of the subjunctive is 
nsnaliy determined by the tense of the finite verb in die 
governing clause, as follows; — 


196 THE TEBa [§278 

1. A present {inclnding present snbjunctiTe and impel*' 
ative) or a future, in the governing clause, requires the present 
subjunctive in the governed clause : 

Je donte ^ I doubt that (whether) ho will come. 

Quoique je doute I ,., . Though I doubt that he will come. 

DoutM I ''" ™™e- Doubt that he wiU come. 

Je doutenti J I shall doubt that he will oome. 

2. An; other tense than the above (i.e., an imperfect, past 
definite, conditional, etc.) requires the imperfect subjunctive : 
Je doutais "I I doubted that(whether)he would come. 
Quoiqae ie doutasse I ,,. . Thoogb I doubted that he would come. 
Je dontai 1 I doubted that he would come 

Je donteraia ) I should doubt that he would couie. 

3. Compound tenses follow the same rules, the aimliary 
being reckoned aa the verb : 

J'ai dout^ (quoique j'ate dout^. I have doubted (though I have 

I'aurai dout4] qu'il vienne or soit doubted, I diall have doubted) that 

venu. he will come or haa come. 

J'aTaisdoDt^(j'eusdouU,qaoique I had doubted (I had doubted, 

j'ensse donte, j'anraia doute) tijough I had doubted, I . should 

qu'il vInt or fftt vena. have doubted) that he would come 

i. The following exceptional cases depend mainly on the 
sense of the context : 

a. Tbe seqaeoce after the past indefinite depends upon its value as a 
present past or as a past (§259, 1, 2) t 

J'ai dout^ qu'il viennc (soit v. ). I have doubted that he will (haa) e. 
J'ai doute qu'il vInt (fSt venu). I doubted that he wouid (had) come. 

b. Exceptiooally after verba of saying, etc, a governing present maj - 
take a past subjunctive and vice vend : 

Je ne dia pas qu'il fflt k. bl&roer, I do not say he was te blama 
D ne oroyait pas qu'il jr ait nn He did not believe there is a Ood. 

§§274-275] OONDinONAL SENTBWCEa 197 

c. In a relative claiue a past indefinite may stand for a pluperfect : 
II portait cet habit la seale fois He waa wearing that coat the only 

que je Taie tu. time that I saw him. 

d. The conditional of modified assertion (§265, 4], being virtuallj a 
present, is commonly foUowed by the present sabjunctive : 

Je d^sireraia qne vous TCniez. I should like you to come, 

n faudrait qu'il s'en AiUe. He would have to go. 

e. The imperfect or pluperfect aabjunctive, with the force of an 
English conditional, may follow any tense : 

n n'y a pas de rang qu'elle ne pfit There is no rank she could not hold. 

Je doate qu'il jonit (edt joni], I doubt that ha would play (wonld 
■'il avait (avait eu) de i'argent. have played), if he had (had had) 


274. Typical Form. A conditional sentence consists 
regularly of two parte : the condition, introduced by si °*' if/ 

and the result : 

Si i'avais le tempg. j'iriis i B. HI had time, I ihoold go to B. 

a. The oondidon may, of caarae, either precede or follow the result : 
Irezr.voiu i, B., s'il pleut ^ Will yon go to B., if it raina ! 


le f ut pas be 

.B, je d'ipai pa.. 

H it u not fin 

e,l shall not go. 


r the result underatood ! 


ter serait on 

e faiblesse. 

To hesitate would be weakness. 



i'iUis de Ini). 

1 should not 

go (if I were he). 


si j'^tois k sa place. 

Ah, if I wew 


275. Mood and Tense. A 'result' clause in the present 
indicative, imperative, or future, regularly requires the 'if 
clause in the present indicative ; a 'result' clause in the con- 
ditional regularly requires the 'if' clause in the imperfect 
indicative : 

S'il a la temps, il 7 va. If he has time, he goee. 

811 a le temps, dites-loi d'j aller. If be has (have, will have, should 
have) time, t^ him to ga 

u, Gooijlc 

198 THE VEEB. [§276 

S'il a U t«mp*, il Im la nrir. If he haa (baTe, will have. Bhonld 

have) time, he will go to see her. 

S'il avail le temps, il irait la vtnr. If he had (had he, were he to have, 
if he Bhonld have, ibonld he have) 
time, he would go to see her. 
Oit. : Tba oDDditlon li refcnlM'tj axpnaad b^ Uu iadkUJva pteuit or impeiteot, 

wfaataver be the oomcpoadlDg En^lah (arm. 

a. The above rules hold good for componnd tenses, the suziliary 
being cODBidered as the verb : 

S'il I'a dit, il le fem. If he has said it, he will do it. 

S'il est venu, faites-Ie-moi savoir. If he has come, let me know. 
S'il a eu le temps, Q sen venu. If he bos had time, he will ban 

6i j'ATkia en le tempe, je aenis If I had had time, I should have 

allj tk Londrea gone to London. 

S'il tiait brave, il wiimit fait cela. If he were brave, he would havo 
done that. 

b. Sometimes, in literary style, tlie pluperfect subjunctive stands in 
the ' if ' clause, or in the ' result ' clause, or in both : 

S'il edt {or svait) sn cela il ne Had he known that, be would not 
I'ellt (or aurait) pas dit. have said so. 

c. Occasionally the imperfect indicative stands in the 'if clauM 
instead of the plaperfect, and in the ' result' clause instead of the ctm- 
ditional anterior : 

Bi Stanislas demeurait (=aTtut If Stanislas bad remained, he would 
demenrO, il ^tait ( = KOnat itt) have been lost. 

d. Occasionally the condition is expretsed by inversion, withont d t 
If^tait-ce la crainte de cela. If it were not for fear of that. 
Ellt-il m moins riche. If be had been poorer. 

e. A virtual condition (ocmoeasion) is Sometimes expressed by varionl 
locutions : 

Qniconque le fera. Whoever (if any one) does it. 

niedirait, leferait-ilT Even if be said it, would he do it T 

Qnand meme il ne I'aurait pas dit Even though he bad not said so. 

n le diiut que je ne le eicaiaia Even if he sud it, I ahonld not 
DM^ believe it^ 

:,a.ire:i by Google 

§§276-278] THB INPINITIVB MOOD. 199 

/. The pEWt definite is rare In the 'it' cUnm. The eiprewioii 
■'U en fut, hOTTaver, 1h noteirorthj ; 
Bicha, g'il en fat (junsis), tnaU Rich, if an^ one ever mi, but oar- 

corrompo, rupt. 

g. Si=' whether' may take thefatare or conditional : 
Di*-moi d ta iraa (itaii) obeielle. Tell me whether (if) yon will(woiild] 
go to her honM. 


276. Function. The infinitive is & verbal noun. Aa a 
verb it goTema, and as a noun it eeires ae subject, object, etc. : 
VoDB devriec lui parler. You ought to speak to him. 

Voir o'eat croire. Seeing is beUeving. 

D lit sans comprendreL He reads without understanding. 

277. Use of Infinitive. The chief difficulty in the use of 
tiie iufinitiTe is to determioe, (I) when it should stand vithout 
■ay preposition, (2) when it should be preceded by k, (3) when 
it should be preceded by de. 

278. Infinitive without Prepositioa The infinitive 
without any preposition is used : — 

1. As subject, or in apposition : 

Mentir est hontenz. To lie (lying) is base. 

Trap pwUr Dtdt. Too mnah talk doe> harm. 

Vivre tfert soufiHr. To live ia to suffer. 

2. As predicate after a few verba (see list below) : 
VouB sembles hdfdter. You seem to hesitate. 

H est censd .I'avoir fait. He is supposed to have done it. 

3. As logical subject after a few impersouah (see list below) : 
n vaudrait mieui ae ture. It would be better to keep quiet. 

n fait cher vivre ii Paris. Living is dear in Faria. 

i. As object or complement after the so-called modal aux- 
iliaries (§230), after most verbs of motion and causation of 
motion, after verba of desiring and preferring, after verba at 

u, Gooijlc 

200 THE VERB. [§278 

perceiving, after verba of thinking and intending, after verbs 

of saying and declaring, and after certain verba of lacking 

and failing (see list below) : 

Voulez-vona dtner chez no«s T Will you dine with ub ? 

Faitee-lui apprendre bb 10900. Make him letim hie leaBoo. 

Envoyez ohercher le mMocin. Send for the doctor. 

Je d^irsraiB lui psrter. 1 ahonld like to speak to him. 

Je lea vois veoir. I see them come (coming). 

Quand comptcz.vooB revenir ! When do yoa expect to come bock T 

11 pretend avoir nuson. He claims to be in the right. 

J'avaia beau crier. It was in vain that I ahoated. 

6. Sometimes, in elliptical expressions, as on imperative, as 
a direct or indirect interrogative, or absolutely : 
Voir les affiches. See the posters. 

Que faire? Oft me cacher! What (am I) to do* Where hide! 

Je ne eais que faire. I know not what to do. 

Peoser qu'il a dit cela t To think that he said that 

6. Beference list of verbs requiring direct infinitive : 

aocoarir. Ivutttt. wivoytr, wnrf. prfKrer, prtftr. 

aimer luUDt, tita oj ihU. tire centi, be ruppotKt. nBOnuiUn, acknoMiif*, 

ilmec luieui, prtfer. Inillir', be on the paint iff . reguAa, Itokat. 

•percevolr, jwrMiw. 11 Mt(lmpeis.),ilt«. ivmamet, go bad. 

•Yoirbnu. tetnmn. 

H 9gurer, tmagitu. 

nvoir. know hw In. doiL 

Mmbler, mm. 

JUKSP, tomidir. 


»nfe«er, emfa,. 

tanf. tmar, a»Ml by oath. 



•ouunlr, mainlain. 

vmn. thiaJL 

itimtf, : M,.<Moa. 

dalKDW, dtlg^ 

n>.ncr, lead, bri-v- 



depwr. Mm. 


K trouTer, be. 

»1oiT Butant, to u iTMd. 

dMnr>, dairi, wiih. 


onir, hiar. 

TBulr", ', ame. 

din', tati. 

puiStR. appear. 

voir, •«. 

toDuUr, IMtn to. 



•nUDdn, luar, intmd. 




• Sm ilK lilt ot TOU nqulring 4 (1 m, 0). 

' B« »lK> Urt ot Terl> nqniiiDg de (1 SaO, 0). 

c,3,:.e:i by Google 

§279] TBI ntnsmvv hood. 201 

a. D«T(rir='owe,' 'be indebtad' with indirect object Ukeide; 
Je lui doU d'ttre eocore en via. I owe to hun tlut I un Mill tUn. 

h. Faire t&kea de in ne faire qiw de : 
n ne fait qae de lortir. He hM jnit gone oak 

e. Ne p*B laiaaer= ' not to obmb,' et«., takes de : 
n De laisee poa que d« le dlr& He it iHwaya Myliig ao (Mya m for 


279. InfinitlTe with the Preposition d. The infinidTe 
praoeded by i - ' to,' ' in,' ' at,' ' by," etc., ia used : — 

1. As direct objeot of a few transitivea (aee list bftlow): 
J'alma k olisuter. I like to sing. 

OoDtinncz k lire. Continne to read. 

U nt'enseigne k chanter. He hnchoB me U> dng (aiiigilig). 

. J'ai k 4tudier demain. I have to study to-morrow. 

n n'f a pas k *e plaindre There ii nothing to complain oL 

2. Ax s complement, after many verbs, to denote the objeob 
to which the action tends (answering the question ' to do 
what V) or the object in, at, on, about which the action takes 
place (answering the qaestion 'in doing what I' 'at doing 
what r etc.): 

B aqnre i devenir riche. He aspires to become rich. 

FonMea-lee k agir. Urge them to act. 

Je lea al invito k venir. I have invited them to come. 

Aides-moi li porter cette malle. Help me to cony this trunk. 
H rinsrit k me tronver. He socceeded in finding mCL 

Je snis k ierin noe lettre. I am (bosy) writing a letter. 

H ^amnse k me taqoiner. He amnsea himself teasing me. 

J'ai gagni k vendre ma roaieon. I gained bj selling my hooset 
n jone k faire le malade. He plays at being iU. 

3. As ihe complement of certain adjectiree (cf. § 280, 2) and 
Doans denoting fitness, tendency, purpose, etc. : 

Ceoi est bon i manger. This is good to eat> 

Je snis ptit k toob Aoonter. I am ready to hear yon. 

Qaekpie ehoHe d'ntile k savoir. Something useful to know. 

Oela est faoile k fairs. That is easy to dd 


302 THE TER& [§279 

Ia tendance k le oroire gnnd. The tendeDC^ to think one'i mU 

Uue bonne i, tout fure. A maid of all work. 

a. So also, le premier, le dernier, le aeul : 
n n'est paa le seul k la dire. Be ia not the only one to saj so. 

4. To form adjectival phrases denoting use, fitness, qnality, 

Una sallo i, manger, A dining-room. 

Une chose & voir. A thing worth seeing. 

Des conteg k dormir debonL Very tiresome stories. 

Un spectacle k fajre peur. A terrible sight. 

De manidre k r^Djair. In snoh a way aa to succeed 

Vous Stes k plaindre. You are to be pitied. 

Cest k en monrir. It is enough to kill one. 

0. To form adverbial phrases -. 
Ella chante k ravir. She sings charmingly. 

Elle plenrait k faire pitid. She wept pitifully. 

A vrai dii«, je le plains. To tell the tmth, J pitj him. 

Elle est Uide k &ire peur. She is frightfully ugly. 

6. Reference list of verbs requiring infinitive with k 1 

rnUlanr. Hoop. 

s-Krtltr, top. 

Kpira, aipin. 

•boutlr, end (in), Mnd. 


fuboHr, it mitlaien (in). 

utnlndR, eompel. 

■'utrelndni, bind s. i 

(In d'Bccotd, agrtt (in). 


rf«h»pner, be l«n((«i). 

■dmettre, admit. 


■ffnerrtrrt'). inww. 

•voir, hav, mwt 

ipp11qoer(^ BfipItF. H compUira, t>i« |)JMntr« dcmmnr. mnaiM. 

kpprendre. Uom, l^aek. (in). d^pnutr, aptnd (fnk 

yH't>m(>r),gttTead)i. oeaooaiiz,to-i>perate{in). d tMppimdfB, Jiirgit, 

,;.!;, GlXH^IC 



, Hn[r{ii«8:.)",*aKdo«. 

portm, indww. 

dHtiner, d«lf.i<. 


poomti. unw. in«(.. 

tmcncr, jjoin (iy). 

bildtud', mauHm. 







li«Bter', huiCote. 



inciter, inntfc 


dr««r. (rirtn. 


provoqutr, ineilt. 

ifeffopom', trji. 

Induin, induflL 

ftK»y<<r. dintrt o. i. dg). 


T«dulR, Ttdaee. 

«nploy«{n «.plw(in). 




tnriUr, mnlt. 

retoMr', iVuh to givt. 


M rahuwr. T-^/Mt 


U»r>,<, leoH. 

cnbudlr', emtoldm. 

■ lM»rMi«o. «.«!.). 

^mbwdir'. Kn««™. 



tfaadn', indue*. 

«>«iKner. («»&. 

tpontnr. tlune A«w. 

cotar. remain. 

•dlnlner, aEJurc 

obUger'. ■.oNiiW./o™. 


•«.T«', (TV- 

('oblicer-, bind O.I. 





•ouITrir', «/■«■. 


^offrir-. o/w. 

«n k>, Iw miCa turn. 









pCDOher, insKn*. 

tenlr, k anasoKi. 


IBUmi', tMni{qr) 




ahont, exhort. 





vealt'. '. happm. 



T\ttr. aim. 

' Ord*. 

• Sm b1» ll>t of thIh requiring da (| 280, 8% 

• Bee ilio IIM ot irerbi nqnlrlnE dlnct bBnitlrs (| IT§, 0). 

o. SnSBre BometimeB tBkea pour : 
Gela suffira pour runuser. That will Buffice to amoM hiia. 

6. The infinitive after ttrc k often has passive force : 
Oet onvrage est it refaire. That work is to be done again. 

c Hal'r may take de when negative : 
Dnehait pM it (d') fitre endetU. He does not dislike being indebU 


904 THE TEBB. [|280 

28a Infinitive with the Preposition de. The infinl. 
tivo preceded by de — 'to,' 'of,' 'from,' 'lor,' 'at,' etc., is 
used: — 

1. Aa logical subject of an imperBonal rerb (for rare ex- 
oeptiooa see § 278, 3) : 

B est facile de laire cela. It 18 easy h> do that. 

D importe d'arriver k t«inp& It is important to arrire in tfme. 

Bien vous eied de voob taire. It well becomea yon to be nlent^ 

a. Stmilarl]' aa eabjeot in inverted lentoncea : 
Ceat tine folie (que) d'aller U. It iB madneu to go there. 

2. Am complement of most adjectives and nouns (cf. §279, 3) : 
Lb disir de partir. The desire ot going. 

Lb n^cessitd de reater. The neceaeity of renuuning. 

n i^est pss digne de vivre. He is not worthy to live. 

J'ai envie de fdenrer. I feel like crying. 

a. So tiao, many expreasionB, like the last example, made from verfa 
-fnoon, e.g., avoir beaoin (honte, peur, raiion, tain, tort, etc.), f)un 
cnrie (plaiair, aemUant, etc.), ctnirir risque, etc, etc 

3. After verbs as object or complement, usuallj to denote 
the source or occasion of action (answering ' whence V, ' coa- 
ceming whatT'), or to denote separation or cessation from 
(answering ' from what V). See list below ; 

Je me rdjouis de le voir. I rejoice to see it 

Elle Be pique d'Stre la premiite. She prides hereelf on being first. 

Prenez garde de tomber. Take care not to fall. 

n B'ezcDse d'y aller. He excDsea himself from going. 

Promettez de ne pas le dite. Promiae not to tell it. 

4. As historical infinitive ( — a past definite) : 
Et I'ennemi de s'enfuir. And the enemy fled. 

6. After que in the second member of a comparisoik, unless 
the sentence be very short : 
n vaodra mieox re»ter qoe de It will be better to stay than to go 

partir si tard. so late. 

But : Mienx vant savoir qu'avoir. Better wisdom than wealUu 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


6. Beference liat of verbs requiring infinitive with dc : 

flbiBatr,Mt*nto.i.(/inn).i»itlmiTt,ferbtait,meiui Mlioilai 
Mmxidn, aitth* «.k «.<. (on). 

lAam). d4flar>, d«^. (lDir*,jtnait. 

^■iKtsilr, aMafn (^m). •• itHa, diilnat, h lUtUr, Jtalltr i 

MDOnler, (rant. MfO&Ui, ditjuit (ailXi, lomr'./Dne. 

BTotr toociutaia*, 6< oom*- diliMnr. iM<6«rMg(ateu(). Irimir, tAii<Ii(<r. 

tatt h—U. iHd«r(Nh ffUur. 

in ifiom,^ gtatr, intommtdt. 

fair ((/). •■ floTlBer, twut ifin 

ltr,grtevlal,tner). dMuUtnu (h), iItM» grnidn, •coUO'DrX 

r, oipin. suitsm (/rvm). huuder, vcnlun. 

■'■ptnwndr, jMTHitM. dtUnoisir*, n*alML h biter. Autm. 

tfplMa^, tongratvlaU dtUatcr. iMmC InuigliMr. tmaeint. 

•.<■ (on). lUtaDnwr, dimmtfCAw"). ilniFMiniUr, i* trnpoHtnt 

q>pi4lMad«r, /mt. din<, Md. impattt, tmputt. 

NTttu, t>rnni< (Av^X d(- diKOtittiiu«, mom; ^EndJgnet, bfnd<ftMnt 

tonmng. diaocinTenlr, itny. tloftnt, auddU (irilAX 

fKttMur.bttwutadlat). taiiaaiaptr,meume.t.(/ti^baitnt,1ai:vtr*. 

■nrtlr, tiM^, wpm. ^qpomr, dUpou* (/ron). tnlodin, inUrdM (/ram). 

I'kViHr, (JUiUI(qO- diMaMler,df«uaiK(Ai>«>% jDUlr.enfey. 

bttmec, UoiM CA>>% douMr, AmOoM. Juger ban, tUntfit. 

bnUar, tmg. m dgqter, niQAt. Junr*, protniw (rm eaOik 

oawirat, MWinv CArX terin, wKM. mpM I t t w iH ,*, mil le n am 

•MMr, OHW. •'€flo«r>, (ry, ■eluacr', ft>IHarv((t/> 

w»cbtttliiatdfri$m(at,ftni. itBayn, In afraid. tongi, praltt ifor). 

ilolndra, tnjirin. h m(l«, nuddit (wttk). 

mna;«>, *,tgtind(^). manucr, (ArMMn. 
SDOTfUfiiUlr. htpnvd, Tniaita, dea&nt^ 

t Duxiaei, mate qvrf (<i^ 
•otnpnadn, undtrtakt, aumiii, dit, Ibi^, 
DitUft. mtglat. 
Dotlfler, notifjf. 
oUlgati, vbKet./crtt. 
r ojlat) obllEcH, dn/atovr. 
obUrnlr, obtain. 
i^ooouper', In fntmt (aO^ 
dMdu>, d««l(, r«JH. uaiKr(y)«»iMtC/ran). oSrit, o/n-. 
d*ominstt(HXdtMMir«0* wempter, mmiit UViim). omattn, omll. 

(fraai), Itin Men, do iMll. ordooiMr, vrdtr. 

Mdaicncr, dlMUfn. M lUtcatr*, t« Krad (qO- ouVUai',fi>mt. 

^^ D,j..-i„Google 

n pssnr, do uttAout 
pgnseUra (m). iwrmit. 
penaader. pfniade. 
•■ piquar, prilb o. (. {(m), 

■B pUodie, eompfain (<!/). 
prendre gud«*, foia eon 


•e pnsKr, Aojtef). 


ni^Joulr, T^oia. 

remeroler, UUnt (/orX augginr, tagseit. 

H TvpentlT, npent (c\f ^ pupplLflr, buncA. 

repnndrfl^ r^ifVH (/or^ tloher', try^ 

ijptinBiidti, r^irtnutnd tenter', otMrnpC 

(/i>r)i trembler', treinM<,/rar. 

Iep^wb•r<MX 'nfnaeh tronver bun, think fit. 

(»iUX M nntsr, bund (s/). 

rteoudre', nnlH. t«Dir', ■> AoH^uit. 

• See ilio Un ol TeriM recidrlng L (1 ETS, fl). 

*Bee Bin lilt ot verb! requirlD): direct [nflnlUire H iTS, II). 

281. Distinctions. Aa appears from the list, the same 
verb sometimes requires i, de, or the direct infinitive. The 
following are examples of cases in which the sense varies 
with the construction : — 

■Taimerais bien le connattre. * 
J'aime mteiuc vodb dire tout 
Aimez-vous k deineurer ici t 

2. Decider: 
n m'a d^cidS k entrer. 
NouB ddcidftmea de partir. 

a D£Ber; 
On \e d^fia k boire. 
Je vous d^fie de pronver cela. 

4. Descendre: 

I should like to know him. 
I prefer to tell you alL 
Do you like to live here T 

They challenged him to drink. 
I defy yoa to prove that. 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 



5. Ditermiaer : 

Je I'm dManniii^ k reetar. 

n nvoit ddtermini de le reUUir. 

6. Dire: 

n dit I'avoir vu. 

Je lui M dit de venir. 

it k lui pMre. 
la de r^pondre. 
S. £tre: 
Je sois k ^rire des lettree. 
(Teat i vans de parler. 
C«it h VODB k parler. 

9. Sef«tie:uer: 

n ae fatigua k joner aa billard. 
n est fatigud de joner. 

10. Finir: 

n uB finit pas & me le diie. 
fai fini de travailler. 

IL Jnrer: 
Je JQTB I'avoir vn. 
Je jnre de le fairs. 

12. UOsflcr: 
Je I'ai laiiB^ dire. 

Je VOQB laisse k penser. 
n ne loiasa poB de parler. 

13. Se leaser: 

n a'est hae& k courir. 
U se base 4e coarir. 

14. Hanqoer: 

Je ntanqnai de tomber. 

n a manqud k fairs bod devoir. 

tfi. Obliger: 
Je I'ai obUgS k (de) le faire. 
' Je Bnia oblig^ de parCir. 
Vons m'obligerez beanoonp de le 

He was eager to please het. 
He hastened to reply. 

I am (bnsy) writing letters. 
It is yonr place to speak. 
It is your turn to speak. 

He fatigued himself playing bitliaida 
He is tired playiog. 

He was never done telling me M, 
I tiave fioiabed working. 


I leave yoo to think. 

He did not stop talking. 

He tired himself out (by) ronning. 
He is tired of runuiog. 

I waa on the point of falling. 
He has failed to do his dnty. 

I obliged him to do itk 
I am obliged to go. 

You will greatly oblige me by doing 

u, Gooijlc 


16. S'occnper: 
n t-occnpe k den fain. 
B ■'ocoupe de tout voir. 

He is busy doing notiiiiig. 

17. Penjcr: 

Qae penaez-vooa faire! 

Je pensai tomber. 

Je pease k r^liquer k oeU. 

What do you intend to dol 

1 nearly felL 

I think of replying to that. 

18. Prendre garde: 
Pnnes garde ^le fairs. 
Prenez gaida Jine paa le faire, 
PreDBz garde de le faire. 

Take care to do it. 
Take care not to do it 
Take care not to do it. 

19. Prftendre: 

D prdteml voiu coniiattra. 
n pretend k devenir savant. 

He aasertB that ha knows yon. 
He aspires to become learned. 

SO. Prier: 

n m'a pri« k diner. 

Je TOO* prig de m'aider. 

He invited me to dine. 

I pray (aak) yon to help me. 

21. Rehiaer: 

Je refiuerai d'7 alUr. 

Do yon refuse to give me feodi 

22. iUsottdre: 

n m'a rieoln k I'acheter, 
J'ai rte>la de I'Bchelei. 

He indnced me to buy it 

83. Trembler: 

n tremble ji me voir. 

11 bsmble de ma rencontrer. 

He trembles when he Moa me. 
He fears to meet me. 

24. Venir: 

Veoez Dons voir. 

Si voui renez k le voir. 

Je viena de le voir. 

Come to aee-ns. 

If you happen to see him. 


282. In&nidvc with other Prepositions. The infinitive 
stands also after par, pour, sans, apres, entre, and after 
locutions ending in de or a, auch oa afin de, afin que de, 
jusqu'a, etc, : — 

o,,r.=^i by Google 

$1283-284] TBE l uriMiTlva hood. 209 

1. Pv ' t^,' usually only after coniinencer and finir : 

U flnJt p«r m'iiuiilter. He ended by inaulting me {or Ha 

flnoUy insulted me). 

2. Pour usually translates ' in order to,' ' for the pnrpoae 
of'; sometimes also 'for,' 'from,' 'because,' 'though,' etc., and 
' to ' after aSSCZ, tfOp, etc. : 

n fikut maager poor vivra. We most e&t (in order) to lire, 

n est mort poor avoir trop bo. He died from oTer-dTioking. 

n fut puni pour avoir iL He woa punished for laughing. 

Four Mre panvn, il n'est pas larron. Thoogh poor, he b no thiel 

n est trop franc pom M ture. He ia too frank to keep quiet. 

a. Pour after a verb of motion (g278, 4] emphasizes the pnrpoMi 

iTiiai pour'le voir. I shall go to see him, 

3. Sans = * without': 

ITsUec pas sans manger. Do not go without eating, 

4. Aprte — ' after' requires the perfect infinitive : 
Aprts avoir dtn^ je partis. After having dined, I set ont. 

283. InfinitiTe for Subordinate Clause. 1. An in- 
flnitive construction usually replaces a que clause of which 
tlie subject ia the same with that of the subject or object 
(direct or indirect) of the principal clause : 

H oroit voTu avoir vn. He thinks that he has seen yon. 

Dites-lenr de ("en slier. Tell them to be gone. 

2. Similarly afin de, k moins de, aprte, avant de, de 
crainte de, de peur de, de fa^on k, de mani^re k, pour, 
sans, eto. + the infinitive stand for aiin que, etc. + the 
subjunctive, but only when the subject of both verbs is thn 

H partit sans me voir. He went without seeing me. 

But; n partit bods que je le visse. He want without my seeing him. 

284. Infinitive with Passive Force. A transitive in- 
finitive has passive force after verbs of perceiving {voir, etO-X 

u, Gooijlc 


after faire, latsser, and when il + ao infinitive ia nsed adjeo- 

tively (cf. §241, 3): 

Tai vu b&tir celt« maison. I saw this hoose being builb 

Je me fais faire un habit. I am having a coat made. 

Vons Itea k plaindre. Vou are to be pitied. 

Vae faute Ji Sviter. A mist&ke to be avoided. 

Hon.— This oonitnuitloii m^ b« expl^n«d by Bupplyiog tomt sucb aUlpBliHtlw 
drilowlng'; 'J'BlTubiUruneiiuilaao (^ or par qnslii.u'im), 'l luve aeca Hmebodr 
building ■ lioiue.- 

28s InfiDitive for Eoglish -ing. The infinitive moat 
be used to translate many such forms (see g 2S7, 2, 3, i). 


286. Functions. The participial form in -ant serves as a 
verbal adjective, as a present participle (without en), and as a 
gerund (with en) : — 

1. As a verbal adjective, it denotes quality or state, and 
threes like an adjective ; 

Elle paraft bien portanle. She seems irel). 

Lea eo&uita doivent Stre ob^iasants. ChildreD mvst be obedient. 
Lea vivanta, et les mourants. The living and the dying. 

Des paroles consolantes. Comforting words. 

Obi.: The vettwl idjecttn, uttribnUyaly, n«ululy lollowg the doub, u In Ute bit 

a. Some verbs have a special form for the verbal adjective : 

din^rent, diferent, dUKranC Diligent, eanltu. n«gliseaat. 

BoaTtinouit, amvineinff, oonv^niinuit. BVmnt, Uamed. Miolwnt. 

fatdfut, faiigtiing. tatigauBi. pnluuit, powtrful. ponvut 

2. As a present participle, it is used, in general, like the 
English present participle, to denote simultaneous action, 
manner, cause, motive, etc., and is invariable: 

Plearant, elle conCinna le r^it. Weeping, she continued the atorj. 
Je le trouvai riant oomme on fou. I foiuid liim laoghing like mad. 


Sk ne lortit p»B, iUnt malade. She did not go oat, being ilL 
ATsnt parld ainsi, il Mrtit Having thus spoken, be went oat. 

n n'entrera pu, moi vivaot. Be shall not enter, while I live, 

Nom.— L It k olun dldlcult to ditarmlnt whether the lorm In -ant il INirUcl|d* 
OiinrUbtBJDr idjeotlra (virl&ble). A** puClolpla, the ncUon (geoenllr tnnriUny)!* 
promlaent, bat u ui adjective, qullty or alae oontlnuMl utloa (ilate) 1> dtoMeil. It 
1* Tuarlr mlwiys ■ putlolpla when It hu & oomplemeDl or > ooitttmction peculiar to 
the rerb, nch M object, negulf e, $A'eib loElowliig : ' tine lemm* moumnlc,' ' A dying 
wOBBn'; 'Del g«tiB tpaunnt de teim,' 'People drlr« ot hunger'; ' [la enmnil* H 
ntlrtreat, brUluit lea vlUu puloat,' ' The ensmlee retired, bumlDg the towna ««r]r- 
whsrs ' : ' Vat temma ne cnlgniuit lien,' ' A womu leulaE notlilng ' ; ' Dee dunn 
pirUntdaoBenMnt," Ladles ■peBkiosMtllj': 'Dasaf-dlsuituals,' ' So-called triend*.' 

1 In the Utt axampla, KdHllBUIt. thoimh (djectlva in tone, ramalni Inrubibl* fa 
vlawiiltbeUlerBJniauiinii, 'caUingthenuelves.' 

8> JLyiUt and jtant axe Alio elwift InTiH&ble, aicaptla >lMk]ruiWdcolt(-aiua).' 

3. As a gerund, it denotes either Bimultaneona action or 
means by which, and is invariable; en =' while,' 'in,' 'on,' 
'when,' 'as,' ' by,' etc., or is nntranslated: 
En Jowuit, j'lu perdu ma montre. While pkying, I lost my watch. 
Ea rentraut, j'ai troav4 U lettre. On retnraing, I found the letter. 
Vous perdree, en agissont ainai. Yon will lose, if you act thus. 
En liaant on apprend k lire. By reading one learns to read. 

a. Both participle and genmd denote simnltaneoua action, but the 
use of en, atrengthened aometimes by tont, usually emphasizes the 
oontinnity of the action : 

(En) di«ant ceci, il prit la lyre. (While) saying this, he took the haip^ 
Toot en pleurant, elle continna. Still weeping, she went on. 

b. The gemnd nsually refers to the subject : 

Je I'ai vn en allant ft la posto. I saw him while going to the poet. 

But : L'appitit vient en mangeant. One's appetite oomes while eating. 

e. Ea is sometimes omitted, especially after aller : 
Gte^ralement parlant. Generally speaking. 

n s'en va (an) grondant. Off he goes gnimhUng. 

d. The gerund denotes progressive action in a few expressions f[»ned 
from aller : 
Cela alia (en) diminuant. That kept growing less and less, 

287. English Forms in -hg. These are Tarionaljr 
translated into French ; idiomatic difTere aces are : — 


212 THE VERB. [§§288-289 

1. Periphrastic tense fonoB are avoided in French : 

n a jood touts la matiuie. He has been playing all morning. 

2. English gerunds are translated by an -ant form only 
when the preposition en may be used; otherwise by an 
infinitlTe, a noun, or a clause : 

En lisant on ai^>rend k lire. By reading one learns to read. 

Bat : n parte de partir. He speaks of going away. 

n fut pendu poor avoir void. He woa hanged for having stolen. 

Elle partit sona dire odien. She went without saying gocd-bya. 

Voir o'eet croire. Seeing is believing. 

J'aime la ohasBe {or k chasser). I like hunting. 

Je sois itioaai qn'il soit venu. I am surprised at his coming. 

3. After verbs of perception (entendre, sentir, voir, etc.), 
tlie relative or infinitive construction is much commoner than 
the participle ; 

Je lee vols venir (qui viennent or I see them coming. 


Lea ToiU qui poasent t Bee them passing I 

n a vn sortir mea fritw. He saw my brothers going out. 

liBB aves-vouB entendus frapper Did you hear them knocking I 

(qui frappaient) ! 

Je la (or Ini) vis frapper I'enfant. I saw her striking the child. 

4. Compound nouns with a first component in -tag ore nob 
literally translated : 

Une machine k ooudre. A sewing-machine. 

5. It is often more elegant to avoid a French form in -ant, 
even when permissible : 

Pendant mon voyage. While tiavelUng. 


zSS. General Use. The past participle is used, (1) 
without auxiliary, (2) with ttre, (3) with avoir (or fitre used 
as avoir) 

289. Without Auxiliary. A past participle without any 
uixiliaiy baa the force of an adjective (attribntive, predica- 

,;.!;, GlXH^Il' 

§§290-291] THE PABT FABTICIPLK. 218 

tivet appoeitive), and agrees, like an adjectiTe, in gender and 
number with the word qualified : 

Festirities given by tlie king. 

The beaten ; the dead. 
Le paasi n'est plus k nona The past is no longer oun. 

Jeaa et Marie temUent fatign^ John and Maiy look tired. 
Toiez lea portea fermtes. Keep the doors closed. 

Ik me regardirent Mona^ They looked at me astonished. 

a. Certain past parUciplea have prepositional foroe when preceding 
the substantive, and are invariable, but are variable when following : 
Vn les didScultte In view of the diEGcnltiea 
Eioept4 enx ; enx exoeptte. Except them ; they excepted. 

Snch are : Apptoari, attendu, certifii, coUationni, j compris, Don 
compiia, entcaidn, excepts, oni. paj^ paasi, anppos^ tu, et«. 

b. Ci-incliUiB' enclosed* and d-joint =' herewith,' are invariaUa 
when bc^nning a sentenoe, or when followed by a noun without artiolei 
Ci-inclDB la copie, eta Herewith the copy, etc. 

Tous reoevez oi-joint oopie, eto. You receive herewith a copy, etc. 
Bnt : J'envoie oi-jointa nne (la) I sand herewith a (the) copy, eta 
copie, etc 

Tigo. Past Participle with £tre. A paat participle with 
Mre agrees with the eubject, for exceptions see g 244 : 
n Bont (ont iti) battos. They are (have been) beaten, 

llarie et Louise sont venues. Mary and Louisa have oome> 

Us sont sortis. They have gone ouL 

Lea damea ^tant arriv^es. The ladies having come. 

EUe parla d'avoir iti bless^e. She spoke of having been wounded. 

a. Hence the past participle of an impersonal verb with fitre tt 
tuvariable, agreeing strictly with the grammatical subject 11 1 
n Mait venu des soldata Soldiers had coma 

api. Past Participle with aooir. 1. A past participle 
with avoir agrees with a preceding direct object; otherwise 
it is invariable : 
Ia piice qne J'ai Acrite, I'avez- Have yon resd the play I wTOts? 

voua luet 
QneU linca a-t-il upporUt I What books did he loing ? 

u, Gooijlc 

214 THE TEBB. [§292 

But : J'ai Acrit la lettrck I hars written tbe letter. 

ESles ont lu et ^rit. They have read and wtitteD. 

Je Ini ai donn£ la lettre. I hare given har the letter, 

2. Similarly, the past participle of a reflexive verb (conjo* 
gated with £tre for avoir) always agrees with the reflexiva 
object, unless that object be indirect : 
Ub se iont r^jonis. They have rejoiced. 

Ellea t'^tuent trompSes. They were miatekeQ. 

Elle s'eat bless^ ^e wounded heteeU. 

Bile s'eat laisste tomber. Bhe has fallen (fell). 

Bnt : Da se sent dcrit. They wrote to each other. 

Elte B'est bleasi la mam. She wounded her hand. 

Ub ae Bont am^ ce priviUgeL They osmmed that privilege 

Hm sa BODt plu k Paris. They enjoyed themselves in Paris, 

a. Beaidea the indirect reflexive object, a direct object may be 
pregent, with which the {oil owing past participle agreea : 
Lea robes qu'elle s'est achet^es. The dresses she Ixmght her«eIL 

292. Remarks, All cases of tbe agreement of the past 
participle depend upon tbe above genera] principles ; special 
difficulties are : — 

1. The past participle of an impersonal verb is invariable : 
La belle jonmto qn'il a fait I What a Gne da; it was I 

La disette qu'il y a eu. The scarcity there waa. 

2. A noun denoting distance, time, price, weight, etc., with 
such verbs as marcher, courir, vivre, coiiter, peser, 
Taloir, etc., is adverbial accusative (not direct object) ; hence 
DO agreement : 

Lea dix milles qne j'ai march& The ten milea I walked, 

Les cent francs que cet ouvrage The hundred francs that book coat 

m'a oofttd. me. 

a. Such verbs used trauHitively, or figuratively with transitive forM| 
follow the general rule ; 

La molle que j'ai pesde. The trunk which I weighed. 

Lea dangers qu'il a oonmi. The dangers he incurr^ 

La peuT que cela a ootlt^ The fear which that oauMiL 

u, Gooijlc 


3. A past participle preceded by an expression of nnmber or 
quantity, a collective, etc., is variable or invariable according 
to the sense (cf. g 231-234) : 

Que de aaax il a soiifferti ! Wliat ilia he endnred 1 

Ceat la moiti^ dei tneubles qn'on It is the half of the furniture that 

a aoiaie. hoa been seized. 

Ia tnoitii des meublea quo j'ai The half of the furniture which I 

vendns. sold. 

Quelle joie, quel bonhear voub Ini What joy, what happineaa yon bave 

avez procure I procured him t 

a. Partitive en is Dever a direct object ; agreement, however, takea 
place with combien, plus, moins, preceding en, if the aense be plural : 
Combien Dieu en a-t-il exauc^ I How many of them God haa heard I 
Plus on vona a donn^ de livres, plua The more books yon were given, the 

VOUB en avea Ins. more of them you read. 

4. When an infinitive (with or without a prepoeition) 
follows, the past participle is invariable when the preceding 
direct object is governed by the infinitive, and variable if 
governed by the past participle alone ; 

La lettre que j'ai vonlu ^rire. The letter I wished to wnteL 

Ia lettre qua j'ai onbli^ d'^crire. The letter I forgot to write. 
D nooB a prUa d'y alter. He begged ua to go> 

On nous a dit de sortir. They told ns to go out. 

a. Entendn, vu, laisa^ i^ree when the infinitive hu active fore*, 
bnt ore invariable, if it has pasaive foree (S284): 

Ia dame que j'ai entendue chanter. The lady I heard aing(iDg). 
Lea enfants que j'ai vu battre. The children I aaw beaten. 

b. After d&i pu, voulu, ost, with auxiliary force, a governing infini' 
tive ia either expressed or implied ; hence no agreement : 

J'ai lu tona lea livres que j'ai pu I read all the books that I conld 

(lire). (read). 

Bnt : Lbs livres que j'ai voulu*. The booka I wished. 

e. Pait+infinitive is invariable: 

Lee mMedns qu'il a fait venir. The doctors he sent for. 

d. The part participle of t.ttir k is variable or invariable : 

Lm lettns qne j'ai en (eoea) k lire. The letters I had to read. 

^\\, r,, , Google 

216 THE TEBa [§§293-294 

S. The relative prononn que is sometimes direct object of 
ft verb in a following que clause, either fully expressed or 
implied, and hence the past participle is invariable : 
Dea choBM que j'ai era qu'il fenlt. Things I thought he would do. 
J'ti hi les livrea qu'il a vonlu (qua I read the books which bo wished 

Je Insaa). (me to roMJ). 


393, Transitives. !■ A transitive verb govenu a direct 
object, aa in EngUsb : 
J'ai terit la lettre (dee lettres). I wrote the letter (letters). 

2. A transitive verb can have only one direct object ; other 
sabstantivee related to it must stand as indirect object or aa 
prepositional complement : 

Pudonnea-lni ses p6ch^ Pardon him his una 

Je dofme le d£ i la fiUe. I give the girl the thimU«b 

Je Ivi donne le di aveo plainir. I give her the thimble with p]eMDr& 

Je ooneeiUe i mon fils de partir. I sdvise my acm to go, 

a. By an eitension of this principle, the verb fsire^^ ' make,' ' oauee 
to,' etc +Ui infinitive, requires an indirect personal object, when the 
hkfimtive has a direct object : 

Je fais lire ce lirre k mon fils. I make my son read this book. 

Je lilt fais lire oe livre. I make him read this book. 

Bat : Je fais lira mon fils. I make my son read. 

Je le fais lire. I make him read. 

b. Laisser, voir, entendre, otd!r, may have, and frequently do have, 
the same construction : 

laissez-k (-hil) lire le U-m. Let him read the book. 

Je l'(lni) ai vn jooer ce r61e> I saw him play that put. 

But : laissez tire t'enfant Let the child read. 

294. Intransitives. An intransitive verb can have no 
direct object, but may, of coarse, have an indirect object or a 
piepoeiti<mal complement : 

-laiirw by Google 

§§295-296] nOVERKHENT OF VERBS. 217 

O porle i ca Boldat. He is apealcing to that ooldiw. 

n Ini parle de la guerre. He speaks to him of the war. 

a. A very few intransitives govern a direct object aooinaloDBly : 
Oil avei-voa* passi I'it^! Where did you pass the Bummerr 

B vs. tout droit eon chemin. He goes straight on his way. 

Hon.—liany rcAm Hire both u tnnltlvM Mid IntrandttTCs: '11 Mt doonidn' 
(intnniiUveX 'He hu Kona down'; 'U a dnotnda l« Ublecu' ((rwttitl>«;, 'Ha ban 
taken down (be ptoton.' 

295. Predicative Complement. Nouns are used pre- 
dicatively after certain verba, as follows : — 

1, la nominative relation : 
They are Englishmen. 
He is a doctor. 

Elle eat morte jeuna fiUe. She died a joimg girL 

. Such verba are ; 

damearer, remain. ntonrfr, dii. rcMar, rmui<». 

davanlr. betotne. natlra, bt bom. •ambkr. nan, 

entrer, antar. panltra. apiwar. aortlr, ih> <ntt. 

ttn, b§. puwr, pcut. «tc 
ttra oBoi, be tupjmied. 

2. In accusative relation : 

On le fit roL They made him king. 

Je le connais honnSte bomme. I know him to be an hiHiBBt man. 

Snob verba are : 

d^lanr, dedare. Inatltuar, inttitiUe* aamir, ktune. 

Oin, etttt jugei. ifilge- ale. 

296. Prepositional Complement The use of de and 
k presents epecial di£Sculty; other prepositions have, in 
general, their usual literal force : — 

1. Some verbs with de hare the force of an English - 
transitive : 

H m^t de ses voinns. He slandera his neighbonis, 

D ne jouit de rien. He enjoya nothing. 

u, Google 


■boMr da, mitbH. u dtoiattn de, rsf^riL ao raMn de, «iit(m«C 

npenavolr de. peiwiK. diw»DTenlr dt. d<n]f. putir da, Kaw. 

i^proctaer da, approach, doutcr da. nupeer, doutt. n tmiaer da, ilo wilAsuf. 

■foir pitid d«, jiity. loulr da, enjoy. M trompar da. miiMiifc 

eoavanlr da. odmjl. nkuquer da, latk. met da. «>ni>lt>v, tin. 

•• diSer de, mMnuf. mMirada, «Iiind(r. ate 

2. Similarly, some verbs with k have the force of an RngliA 
transitive : 

n obdit k BOD pire. Be obeys his father. 

Je Ini ai r^sist^ I have resiat«d him. 

guch verba are : 
■Dar k, fit, noL nnlra k, kont, pniiMten ft, pnmte 

anlTar I, rtach. oMir ii, oieir. ramMlar i, renuily. 

■MauWr i, aftempl {l!ie l\fe), obvtar in abEuiU. renoDHr k, reneunM; 

omnpaUr i, ptij/. ordoDDer ^, ord<r, r^pondn 4, atuiHr, 

oanranlr k. mil. pudoanar li, jwriltRi riaitac k, ruiie. 

Ufiiln k, ditritat*. puienir k. auain. regaeiDblar k, nttMa, 

<UaoMlr 4. dixibey. parmattra k, ptrmit. loooMar i, ttuxai. 

•• 5ar i, (rtni. peniudar k. pemtada, lurvlvra fc, lureire. 

fanportcr k, ««Mnk plain k, pUati. alo. 

3. In some instances, oo the contrary, a French transittTe 
hae the force of an English verb + a preposition. 

Pa;ez-lni lea livres. Pay him for the books. 

Je r^arde oet arbre-lk I am looking at that tree. 

Such verba are : 
tecepta, aeetpt iif. danumdar, otl/br. piijar, pay Jbr. 

■dmattra. adtnit of. dtelrar, wiaA Jot. r^ardar, toot at. 

ApproQvar, approw of- teoutar, Uattn to. rancontrar, mut wtiK 

■Uandn, uau/or. tnToyer cbmibar, wnd /Dr. (onlulter, w<<A/iir. 

Oharohar, look Jor. aap^rer, lupt/or. ato, 

4. De and ^ frequently have, as compared with English, • 
special idiomatic force with certain verbs ; 

Cela depend de vous. That depends on 700. 

Pensez h, votre devoir. Think of joae dnty. 

Saoh verbs are : 

ttM^r it, grim at. bllmarda, Alanw/br. omioler da, aefUDlt/iir. 

a(ipinifaar(0 da, draw oompUmaater da, lompK- dtjaniiar da, frraoVaM oa, 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

§296] OOVEBNlfENT OF VERBS. 219 

mMK>taa»,fHtMner. n Dcnurlr de, [i» m. nnWRdtr d*, (konk/lr. 

Oott it, dHH en. pnatei da, profit by. Tin de, bnifA of. 

M>cl(erd*.a»vra<uIaU«>k paaiT de, pimith M. bionpher d>. MmqA «Mr. 

fteiir da, lament owr. rteonpaowi da, mBonl fivra da, Uh on. 

hnet da. praili filt. /w. ato. 
n mtltr da, nudiU* inU. le r«JoaIr de, r^firC« at. 

■cheterqqoh. kqqii.,(iiirnni«IAfn|i'ABm flterqqoh, L qqn., tab ainvJ^- 

(or /or) (Dme omL pudoaner qqch. k qqu. , fation/or. 

unober qqab. hqqn., >nafeA /twn- pkrarqqah. iqqu., pay/iir. 

cochar qqch. k qqu., Atdd^vm. paoaar fa qqoh. or k qqu-, tAini? of. 

oml^nrqqdL kqqa.,()<>>^«rim. prendra. qqch. kqqo., taJa front, 

damuider qqd). kqqo., aii/orlq^. poiUToiriiqqah.,))nnide/sr. 

tUfobcr qqcb. k qqo., tUoI A""' praounrqqch. k qqu., iTomn/nr. 

ampraoMr qqdi. kqqu., bormefnim. prodigner qqch. kqqu.,l«£iJtint. 

Inffifcr qqch. k qqu., ir^iet on. Rprocbar qq<^ k qqu., Ttpro<uh viA. 

inipirer qqoh. kqqu., intpirtviUK aoohaltar qqoh. kqqu., uftk. 

mUar qqob. k qqotu, minf la vUK Tolar qqcb. k qqu., ilaUfroBi. 

6. Many verbs have a double construction with Taiying 

Ha jonent anx cartes. They an playing cards. 

Elle joue du putno. She is playing the ptanoi 

Mift Barrlr, wem (tr, utd Inb.X 

■ font incb., eompiUfor. n k.tatutW/^. 

oooTanlr k qqu. , wit. Maarrirda, malceiut^. 

■I ■laqqc1I.,agr«ab)U(. oupplterqqu., Ul« CA«pIiM«l|f. 

eroin, qqu., irqqcb., ttJuiu. « k qqoh., compjiw. 

I' k, en, baJina tn. toucberqqu. or qqch., touch, 

demuider qqu. or qqob., <ut 9ft*r. •• d« I'krgwit. drav> monti/. 

■T qqch. i qqu., a^ J or ifromt<tf\ i k, m«t<Utf vi(A. 6«RAir to. 

Uritei de qqu., b> heir of. .. d'un Instrument, plagf an (nitro> 

<i daqqob., inAerit. meiit (kaj'sd). 

Jouer qqo., dtetioe. user qqoh., toeor «it. 

n d'on tautnunant, j>l<)t' on on Ifutru. n de, Tnote lueq^. 

" k no Jan, pHw (aO a jWBK. veUlerqqu., vwtcAmur, nnrii. 

manquarqqu. srqqEh., miu. ii k qqch.. allnuj (D, wolot mw. 

■ da, lacl. <• aurqqu.,«vteloi«: 

- K/'fin. MO. 
panaar k, tUnk vf Iflbout), 

c,6.ire:i by Google 

820 THE NOUN. [§§297-301 

297. Position. Objects and prepOGitional complementa 
regiiliu'ly follow the verb, the direct object (if sjij) being first; 
but if of unequal length, the longer usually last. For poBition 
<tf peraonal pronouns, see the Pronoun. 

298. Composite Complement. The various parts of a 
oomplement must be of the same grammatioal voln^ {.«., all 
nouns, all verbs, etc.: 

U apprend k lire et k chanter. He leania to read and sing. 

n apprend la lecture et le chant. He leams reading and singing. 

apQ. Manifold Verb. Two or more verbs can govern Ibe 
same complement only if alike in government : 

He lovee and reepecla liit nnola. 

He lovM and obey* his nnolew 




300. General Rule: Nouns in French are either masoD* 
line or feminine. As an aid to memory, general mles foe 
determining gender are given in the following sections. 

301. Gender by Derivation, l- Nouns derived frtra 

Latin masculines are regularly masculine : 

Mot (L. murum) ; Ijvre (L. Ubrwn) ; Wall ; book ; order ; poet. 

ordie (L. ordiitemi ; po«te (L. poeta). 

a. Exceptions are not onoonunon ; Latin mawiiline abetracte in -or 
(aocusative -orem) have become feminine, except mascnline honaeor, 
ditfaoimeiir, labeur, amour : 

CMtdciu, I. (L. eondDmH), leniliHir. •mar, I. (I. trrvrmit, tmr. 

'ociuUur. L (L. volsivin), mloiir. tuRmr. L (L,/)inn-flii).,fteii. 

dODleor, I. (L. dotormiy, fain. lEo. 

■IbBnUne Id iQob pliniHi u 'ooolmi d* leu,' 'oooltar de tnaB,' eta, t^g., 'ot 
ntan <M d'uu baui oonltoi d« rcea.' 

ljw'>'' r.,.;t Google 

§302] GENDER OF IfOUlfS. 221 

i. Koana derived from Latin femininea are regularly 

feminine : 

Justice {h, Jiutiiiam) ; chariW Justice ; ohuitj ; hand ; butb. 
(L. eaTiUUtm); auaa (L. man- 
urn); tol(L.fidem). 

3. Koims derived from Latin neuters are regularij 
Coip«(L. MMTHw); U<r{L./tmaii); Body] iron; goli 

or (L. atatim); prd (L. pro- oentnij; verb. 

turn) i sitek {L. jockAhh) ; verbe 

<L. verbum). 

o. More than a hundred neuter plurals In - 
iringiilu' in French, just m if derived from O' 
first deolensioD : 
wmi (L. Bnia), am. tralU* (L. A»». I*<V- Am (L. lnftnO, E^ 

diU(L(bU«),tla(<i rnlHtIi.;mna},(Mit. crarn (I, epora), worit 

d«tM(L. dtUtaXOM. hnUa(L. ofM), oil. pomma (I. fwifna), oppl*. 

Mods (L. ituiJiaX tttidit Jol*<t..«aiHtfa),»v; Mo. 

302. Gender by Endingis. L Masculine are moat nonita 
ending as folloivs : — 

(1) In a von'el sound (not -e mute) : 

Vd opdra (c6t4, ohapean, ohevea). An opera (side, hat, htir). 
Vn parti (zAk>, calllon, tissn). A partf (zero, pebble, tiHoe). 

a, FemiiiiDe exceptions are : 

faMlk, fwrtito. rooltl«, Mf. bra, dengHt w <« i— t 

fotta-ptrcba, ^Mto-ptnihi. loaiml, one gla. Mrd'Iinu. 

poOu, iwUa. merd, nHrstr. tilbu, tribt. 

nniB, raid. M, /><(*■ .rata, vCrtw. 

bmbeU, (iJhir<lv.MUrv. lol, I<n>. mh, wa(«r. 

rtnutda, MrondoL puol, foB. pau, (Ha, 

dUiit^ Tlnco, ttrOffo. ata. 

Fnrther, most abstracts In -t^, -tl^ ; 
M:aai,fr{*naA^ UbarU, HKnty. auiU, HfotU. 

^■ilU, eAoritif. i^Ui. pitp. aU. 

(2) In a consonant : 
[«iM(pi»d,joug,M>l,nw,tempe). The sarklfoot, yoke, BoIl,n(iw, time}, 

u, Gooijlc 

822 THE MOUN. 

a. Feminine ezoeptiona are : 

pour, /Mr, 
tnhlaon, trtowm. ooultur, iM^mr. tta 

(3) In -ade, -38:6, -asme, -*8:e, -tme, -isme, -tfere 

Le speotaole (voyage, sarcaame. The spectacle (joomey, 

college, diad^e, magn^tisme, college, diadem, magnetiiii^ 

myaUre). mystery}. 

a. The following feminineFi in -age should be noted : 
«■(■, tagt. BM«t, ivimmine. pUg*. »»«*. 

Imi:*, Imug*. pife, pagt (ol ■ book). n^, ng*. 

2. Feminine are moat nouns ending as follows : — 

(1) In -e preceded by a vowel or double consonant; 

Cne annte (vie, vue, raie, soie, A year (life, sight, streak, itlk, 
Toue, pluie, famille, flanune, wheel, rain, family, flame, 

coDTOUue, tristease, botte). crown, aadnesa, boot). 

(2) In -ace, -ade, <-ance, -ence, -ense, -iire, -oire, 
-ude, -ure: 

La preface (salade, oonstanoe. The preface (salad, constancy, 
presence, defense, lumi^re, his- presence, defence, light, hii- 

toire, habitnde, culture). tory, habit, culture). 

303. Gender by Meanil^. 1. Kamea of male beingi 
are asaallj mascnline, and names of female beings feminine : 
Ud homme ; nne femme. A man ; a, woman. 

Unboenfi imeTaoha. An ox; aoow. 



a. Mott Donns demoting pFofeasionH, e.g., doctenr, doctor, foinia, 
vriter, imprimeiir, printer, etc., tind a few dohub lacking » femiuiiw 
form, t.g., anfe, aiigel, Umcnn, witneu, etc, lemoin maacniline wheo 
applied fa} femalee : 

Cette dame eat nn antear dutiDgroj. That ladv is a celebrated antliarera. 
Harie est nn an^. Har; h an aiig«l. 

b. Some namec of lower aoimalB are mascidine only, e.g., ti^phan^ 
^jAaiU, Ubou, ovtl; others are femiaine only, t.g., fonimi, ani, aoiiri^ 
MOUM ; ambiguity may be avoided by adding mAle or femelle : 

Uu dUphant m&le (femelle). A he- {she-) elephant 

e. Some douiib are feminine only, whether applied to males or femalef ; 

2. The following are mascnline : — 

(1) I^ames of cardinal points and winds ; 

Le nord ; le Bud ; le zephyr. The north ; the aonth ; the lephjT. 

a. Femiuiae eioeptiocu are : 
Um, north vind. DunUKm, mmuaon. tmncntuia, lurtA windi 

briie. iTMta. 

(2) Names of seasons, months, days of the week: 

liB printemps ; oct«bre ; losdi. Spring ; October ; Monday. 

(3) Karnes of countries not ending in -e : 

Le Canada ; la Danphind ; le ChilL Canada ; Dauphiny ; ChOL 

(4) Most nomeB of mountains not ending in -es, and moel 
B&mes of rivers : 

LeHartz; leJora. The Eartz mountuns ; UonntJnra 

Les Apenuini. The Apennines. 

Le Volga ; le Rhfiue ; le Bhin. The Volga ; the Rhone; the Bhina 

But fern.: Lea Alpe»(Pyrtoiea, Voages, etc). 

a. The rivers of France in -e are nearly all feminine : 
La Seine, la Loire, ete. The Seine, the Loin^ eto. 

u, Google 

224 THE NODM. [§803 

(6) Ktunea of treea uid shrabs : 
LeohSne; lebonlean; leponunier. Theoak; thebirohl the ftf^da-tno. 
n. Fsminine ezoeptio: 

(6) Names of weights and meuures of the metrical BTstem i 
Un mitre (gramme, litre, etc ). A metre (gramme, litre, etc ). 

(7) Karnes of metals and chemicals : 

Lefec(or, cnivre, argent, enlphete). Ii(in(gold,aopper,iilTer,nilpha(«), 
a. Feminine exeeptiona era i 

(8) Words and phrasw not nouns when need aa noana : 
lie bean ; le blanc ; h frangais. The beantiful ; white ; Frenoh. 
Dd a; nn nuie; an oiU-diie. An 'a'l a 'bnt' ; a romooc 

Le derritre de la Ute. The back of the head. 

a. Adjectivse referring to etmcreta objeota have the gender of the 
noon nndertlood: 

Una belle (•«. dame, ferome, etc.). A beauty. 
Une oapitale {te. ville, lettre/. A capitaL 

b. The namea of the letters of the alphabet, aa given in {4, anal! 
nuacnline, except f, h, 1, m, n, r, s : 

Una; nn bd; oneefle. An'a'j a*b';an'f.* 

3. The following are feminine : — 

(1) Names of countries in -e : 

Ia Fnnoe (Aiie, Normandie). Fnuoe (Asia, Nonnandj'). 

a. Msacnline ezceptiona are : 
t» Beogala, BenffaL ]* Hniqn*, MtaUv. la Pdopoii(s)tM, Pdajwiminut 

Ic Huam. AOTMMr. ItlUlna, irii<(H0nPr,). Ma 

(2) Most names of cities and towns, eepeciall; in -e, -«s : 
Borne i Athbnea ; Tyr ; Hion. Rome ; Athens ; I^re ; lUom. 

a. Maaculine exceptiona are ; 
1* CUn. Cain. Londm, Louden. Puii, Parit. 

la Hun, Bam. VeruUlM, VertaUUt. ate. 

Nona.— 1. AoT ouw ol ■ Mwn or cdtj li nn 
Mlt,' 'All RooH know) IL' i. In cue of doubt 
b« pTKMiM bj la TlUe de- ' U» town (cdty) ol 


§804] QENDER OF N0U1I& 2S6 

(3) Names of holidaiTs, ffttc de being onderatood: 
La Saint-Hartin ; la mi-jum. MsrtiiunM ; mid-JniMk 

Nata, ID. (k No«l, U tSU) de Noel). CbriBtmu. 

(1) Names of arte, sciences, trades : , 

La peintDre (chimio, librouie). Fainting (ohemistiy, book-tnde), 

a. Prinoipal exception : 

\» dowlii, Jrmrtng. 

304. Nouns of Double Gender. !■ Some noons ds> 
noting persona, moatlj in -e, and adjectirea in •Cf when W 
uaed, are either masculine or feminine : 
Un (nne) artiste ; nn (nue) dlive. An artist ; a pnplL 

Va (nne) malade ; nn (nna) nbelto. A jutisiit ; a cabeL 


*Alw^« muciiiUB* In th« idonL 

2. The meaning of some nonns varies with the gender: 
Un critique ; one oritiqoe. A critic ; a critioism. 
Lemode; la mode. Tha mode, mood (gram.); the&ahidi 
Such nouns are i 

itud. m. Hua pm. 

•Id*. amiamt. atitlanl.lulp. pogt, pagi, pofiia t-lmdl 

Mun, ald*r, tU. pendols, pgndultm, doet. 

ortpc, eroft, pancaie. potlc, ttmt, piUl, frvitVf^ 

crlUqa*, triUe, eritieftm. pollUqiu, poUtieian, peHUat. 

|uil«, guara (mlLX ^XfW, halv 11/ poMe. pmltiiia, ]»it.(!|ta. 

tw p T, trrwpf, teatek, kitt. wmnw, llttp, Itap, mm. 

|[dIi1b, gtada, rein. winrU, milt, noum. 

Bne, book, pmnd. lUCiulrs, ttnlptor, wuIjiMr*. 

Bumobe, lumdU, ilmt, tour, Cum, Mtk, toKw. 

Di£inoln> nHmorandum, tiMnwry. (tompette, Iranifwlrr, CrunfHt. 

UHCoi, thankt, nwreir, ptty. t^hut, iMobut, Mean. 

mode, nud<. iHHiil. /niUon. nM, nu>, >Iiiiu.iiaNL 

meul*, mould, mutMt ToCIa, v*il, m*L 

^iL».^ c„„.«, Google 

SS6 THE sons. [§304 

3. The following nouns are either masculine or feminine, 
with identical or closely related meaning : — 

a. J^irfes-midi — 'afternoon' and antoume^' autumn' are usually 
mBBcuIine, «ometimee feminiiie. 

b. Amour (pi,) = 'love,' 'loved object,' 'paauon,' 'amour'; unouf 
(f. B. poet. ) = ' passioD, ' 'amour' ; amours (f. pl.) = 'paBsioD,' 'amours.' 

c Dilice-' delight' and oigiiK=' organ' (music) are mssculine in 
■ingular and feminiua in pluraL 
d. Hjmne (m.)s'hfiiui,' 'song of praise'; bynme (f.):='(church) 

e. Couple (m.) = 'couple,' 'pair' (joined byafiection, a 
couple (f.) = 'ooaple,' 'two' (two like objects taken together): 
Un couple d'amauts. A pair of lovers. 

Une couple d'ceofe. Two (a couple of) eggs. 

Note : Uue pairs de gauts, etc. A pair of gloves, etc 

/. PAque or p&ques (m. 8.] = 'Easter'; pJujues fleurles [t pl.)s 
'Palm Sunday' (bo also in other phrases) i pique (f.) = 'pssaover.' 

g. Orge (f.]='bsrley' is masculine in orge mond^ {perl£)='pot- 
(pearl-) barley.' 

h. Foudre (f.)='thnnderbolt' is sometimes masculine iu poetry or 
elevated prose ; fondrefm.) in le foudre de Jupiter='JovB'B thunder- 
bolt' and in figurati^>e expressions, e.g., un grand foudre de guerre ^ 

i. CEuvre (f.)='work,' 'worka,' is sometimes masculine in elevated 
.style; oeuvre(m. B.]=:'workB' (collectivelyof an engraveror musician); 
le grand cenvre = 'the philosopher's stone'; le gros oenne = 'heavy 
Stone-work'; de I'leuvre (m.) = 'silver-lead.' 

j. Gens (pi. m. or f.)='people,' 'persons,' etc Attributive adjeo- 
tivea are feminine when preceding, and masculine when following gens, 
but predicatives, before or after, are mascnline. ' All ' is translated by 
tontes only when attributive and separated from gens by an adjective 
variable for the feminine ; otherwise by tous : 
De bonuea gens. Good pec^le. 

Las vieillea gemt sent malhcureux. Old people are unhappy. 

u, Google 

§§305-306] GENDER OP NOUNS. 227 

Les petites gens et lee gnnda. The email people mid tlie gnat. 

Heroi, bonnes gens, mercL Thanks, good people, thnnVa, 

Gea gens sent haureux. Those people are happj, 

Toutes leB vieilleB gens. All the old people. 

TouB lea gens. All the people. 

But : Tooi les habiles geua. All the clever people. 

TouE oea gens-ci. All these people. 

Tons Bont de bonnes gens. All are good people. 

Les gens sont toua ici. The people are all here. 

MotD.— 1. A pronoun to vhich gaiw i* iuit«cedent 1b masouUDe : ' Leu geia qnl Mat 
VHniB,' 'The people Hho have come.' % Oena In eipnwionB like gens de TOlW- 
' tawjan' ud in Jennes gens-' ' young men ■ la sIwbjb mBecuUne. 

305. Gender of Compound Nouns, i. Compound 
Douns mtule up of a verb + a governed noun are regularly 
masculine : 

Un cure-denta ; an porte-plume. A toothpick ; a pen-holder. 
Un tire-bouchon ; ud portefeaille. A corkscrew ; a portfolio. 

o. OccasionaUy they are feminine : 
Une perce-neige. A snowdrop. 

2. The gender of other compounds is regularly that of iba 
noun, when only one noun is present, or of the principal nouOf 
in case there are two : 

Une eaD-fort«. An etching, 

Une mappe-monde. A map of the world. 

La fSto^dieu. Corpus Christi day. 

306. Formation of the Feminine. Most nouns de- 
noting living beings distinguish the masculine and feminine as 
follows : — 

1. Some by a different word : 
Maso. Fbu. Maso. Feh. 

b<£uf, ox, vacbe. mari, htuband. femme. 

bouc, he-goat, ch^vre. oncle, tateie. tante. 

coq, cod, poule. parrain, god-father. 

fc6re, brother, stenr. pore, pig. 

u, Gooijlc 

S THE NODN. [§306 

I. The feminina form la ofbm obvimuly oagDftte : 

2. Some by adding -esse to the last cODSonant : 
Maso. Fbu. Haso. Fan. 

abM, (Mot. abbeue. ogre, ogre. i^rtnt. 

ftne, ou. ftnesBS. pair, peer. paireoBe, 

ohaooine, canon. obanoineaM. panvre, pauper, paavreaw. 

ocHnte, ctnmi. comtene. prttre, ^rncaC prStMSBe. 

diable, dtvU. diableMe. prinoe, prinee, 

dlAle, rogut. drfil^BBe. siiisBe, AHm. 

dniide, druid, druidene. tigre, tiger, tigreOM. 

h6te, hott. heteaae. traltre, traiior. traltrasse. 

■naltre, matter, maitresse. etc etc 

a. So also the foUowing, but vith ohaogea in the stei)i : 

Mho. FmL Iluo. Fu. 

dtoOiPML dieiii. *ohminr, flunttma*. ilnMiiiiaiii 

dof*, dtffi, dogHTMS. dMeodeui. d^Andant. dtleadanMi. 

duo, dvJtt. duohevA. "damudeor, ptaintif. demandAnMa 

hmn, IMtf, luToniwiie. snobuiUur, itultanttr, «ioluioMra«a 

lltpt,nlgro. Bifrmie. pMisiiT, tinnfr. p^berMM. 

prapbM*, projilul, pnpliMaH. ■randaiir, Mllar (law). Tender am. 

baUlsDr, Icnor. bkUlaraw. Tengiur, mmigtr, Tsastnan. 

•Al» Id -ailM, wa |8»T, B, (K). o. 

3. A few DOuns take -ine : 

ISLtao. Feu. iijaa Fbm. 

taor, ezar. toarine. Philippe, Philip. Philippliie. 

hirtx, hero. hinHnB. etc eta 

4. Host other nouns follow the analogy of adjectiree of lik« 
termination, and will be noted under the Adjective. 

u, Gooijlc 

$307-308] KUHBEB or NOUNS. 229 


307. General Rule. The plural of & noon is regolai^ 
fonned by oddiag -s to the singular : 

Roi(a); reiiie(S); iardinls). KinglB]; qneea(i); gudents). 

308. Principal Exceptions. The following are the 
principal exceptions to the above rule : — 

1. Kouns in -S, -X, -Z remain unchanged in the ploral; M 
also invariable words vhen used as nouns : 

La bias t la voix ; k nez. The arm ; the voice ; the nose. 

Les biaa 1 laa voix ; lea nez. The amu ; the voioes ; the noM& 

Laaonlet leanoa; leaondit The ajea and noes ; the nimoiua. 

flaneurs pen font un beauooap. Many littlet make a ' muckla.' 

2. Konns ia ^U, -^U, and seven in -OU, take -X : 
N<:7an(x)i oh&teaa(x)i ieu(x), KenieKa); castle(s); gameCa); 

VtBOlX). TOW(B). 

The seven nouns in •ou are : 
bijoa(x], Jnvd. geDOu(x), tnee. jonjon(x), toy. 

aaillon(x), pMle. hibou(x), oieL poa(x), loiui. 

ahou(x], caibage, 
Bati Clon(8), noil, •ou(b), Katf-penny, etc. 

3. Most nouns in -al change -al to •au, and add -x as above: 
O^n^ral ; cheval ; journal. Oeneral ; horse ; newapaper. 
Gdndranx; chevanx; jonrnaux. Oeaerals; horwa; newapapera. 

a. Bnt the following, and a few rarer ooee in -al, are regular 1 
>nl(a}, nOonmunt mXt). eattoM^. ahKaKa). jtubO. 

laid), Ix^ tfor damtaf). cuunld), eamitBl r*gtKMX truL. 

4. The following in -ail have the plural in -aux: 

bail (-anx), Uok. travail (-anx), work. vitrail (-anx), OakiitA 

oorail (oanz), caroX. vantail |-anx), fddiiig-door. gUut mndow. 
Mapirail (-anx), ventail (-aox), ventail. 

Rat; ddtail(a], delail; dventail(s), /on, etc., aie regular. 

Hon.— BMtlanxfpI.).. aUlU, ia oltaa glTin u tbt plana ol bMaU, caCtf* ; It k 
fnu wi alaoKU lonn iMMlall, putUd M DMalL 

u, Gooijlc 

230 THE NODS. [§§309^11 

6. Gent " 'race,' 'tribe,' baa the plural gens — 'people,' cte. 

Note.— A Blmllir omiHlon of tin tha plunl otoouDBln -ant, -«nt, now uchilc, 
fs mmlnlalDed in the Etw det dtttt Honda, e. ff., 'ei^an$' for 'enfanU.' 

309. Double Plurals. The following have two pluraJ 
forme, mostly with varying meaning: 

Kieol (a'ieui), ancestor. leU (yeoz), eye. 

" (ueutg), grandfather. " (tellB-) in compoancla, e. g. 

all (anlx), garlic. (siU-de-bceut, oval teindotns. 

" (ailB), " pal (pani), pale, ttaJbe. 

del (cieoz), tkn, heaven, elintale. " (pals), " " 
" (clelB), bed^eiter, (sky in paint- travail (travaiii), mork, 
ing), Irfxtf (of a qiiarry.) " (trayailBl, report (of a minit- 

(er, etc.}, brake (for hort-thoting). 
Ohi.: The -X plunl regularlr hu Uu Ilt«[*l meuiliig of tbe vord. 

310. Foreign Nouns. Nouns of foreign origin take -S 
osually only when fully naturalized, but usage varies greatly 
(see dictionary) : 

a. Partial list of variable foreign nanus : 

H.lumonTabUmtn- blU(a), bill tout(s), tout. 

duo(B), dvih tnniw^B), *ti 

■IbuiiHI), alhnil. Jaty(t,'i,iarii. TiTatUJ, hwn 

■libKB), oUM, ap«n(ax otws. sto. 

Hfl«k(fX HuftUak. ftimmWk loA. 

h. Partial list of invariable foreign nonnt : 


iD-toUo. *' ■ 

qulnUU0(-i), fuAiMla 

311. Compound Nouns. The only components which 
take a plura! sign are nouns and adjectives. The following 
•re speciai rules : — 

1. CompoTindH without hyphen are treated aa one word, and 
follow the general rules : 
Portemanteand); grand "mfertfs). Vali»e(s); grandmother(«). 

a. Exceptions are: 
boD(*)hDniiiie(s), gooaman. ele. issdaiae (mssdtunesl, madam, Mr,. 

■enUKs^oiDmB(a)i nobltman. 
■oialwir (DMalflnn), Hr., all, eU. 

u, Gooijlc 

§311] NUMBER OP Nouwa. 231 

2. When placed in jaztapodtioo and connected b; a 
hyphen, nonna and adjectives are variable : 

Chef(B)-Ue«i(x) ; cbon(x)-flenTls) ; Ccnuity-town(s) ; ouiliflowin(l) ) 

graiid(s)-pire4s). grandfatli«r(B). 

a. Demi- ia invariable in oompoonds. 

Dm dsmi-heures. Bkll-hoan. 

b. BWtlier eioeptioDB are : 

bluio-HlDgd). liffnaturt i» blank. tsm^rindX flatfimit. 

oiMTaa-l^;er(B). light-Jumitivm. alo. 

3. Of two nouns joined hj prepositioD and hyphens, the 
first only is variable : 

Aro(8)-Bn-ciBl ; chef(9)-d'cBuvre. Rainbow; Tuaaterpiece. 

a. The prepodtion de is sometimea understood : 
b^iia>-iiiuie, vxutr-tiath. limbR(i)-pone, pMCoge-rtamp^ 
liHel(f>d)eu. hotpiM. tto. 

b. The following are invariable, since the idea conveyed by their 
plural does not properly belong to the first cximpoDent simply : 
floq-fa'l'ine, eoek-and-buil §tory. pot-wi-feu, beef and tmtp^ 
llM-Mam, temponuy lalgitig. Ute-k-UU, privalt intemiat. 

i. A noun with preceding invariable component is osually 

Angto-Saion(i) ; avant-garde(s) ; Anglo-Saxon ; vangnatd ; 
tire-bonchoQ(a) ; viee-roi(B) ; corkscrew ; viceroy j 

boQche-tron(B) ; stop-gap. 

a. Bnt the final nonn remains invariable vrhen the plural idea does 
Dot properly belong to it ; 

tliat-Joatt tanp-thade, giffatf^a, mtatu of limiB. r«Tellla-nutiD, olonit- 

eoQpB-|roiv«, eut4hroatplae4, pcrce-n«i^, nuno^tlrop, doek. 

(Mn-oour, hearMnak. prie-dieu. prai/ing-itiniL letn-ttte, htad-band. 

tootxt-faiMa, aaHdalt. b(nit«-tn-tniln,Ji>Uvy«Urw. >lo> 

b. On the otiier hand, a final noun of clearly pinral sense retains -• 
in the singular; 

an <d«B) cuse-BoiMtUi, nvl-cracker, on (dea) portiMlsft, lamfv^ 

on (d«) oun-deots, toolA-jrict. elc. 

5. Invariable words, such as verb, adverb, preposition, etc., 
are invariable in compounds : 
Dm on dit ; des passe-partout. anmours ; master-key*. 

u, Google 

28S THE KouN. [§§812-818 

0. Gard^ ia nniallj Tariable In compoundi danotdng ponooi, and 
tnTKriable in thoaa denoting thingB : 
Dm gardea-mdadet. Sick-unnea. 

But : Des gante-robea, Waidrobes. 

312. Plural of Proper Nouns. 1. Kames of peraooi 
or familiea are naually uiTtuiable ia tlw pinral : 
Lee deux RacineL The two Bwaiiaa. 

IiBB C(H1iaill« at In Raoine do la The Corneiilea and RaciiiM of tha 

miAm. atage ().&, Comeille, BBoiiw,ai)d 

others like them). 
Lm Daral aont axtM*. (The) Davals have coma, 

a. A few Latin tuunei, originally plural In form, and oeitaln weO- 
klKtwn hlahlrical namei of families and dynaatiaa, take -■ : 

Lm Banrbma, L« Qiwiinea. Lm FhuMni. Lm Todgta, 

LmCHbii, LmGuIhI. LwSd^on^ aU. 

LaOomML LnHimaa, htmStutrlM. 

b. Name* of persona n«ed a« ooinmoti uonni to denote 'pemmalifce' 
or ' woAa b; ' thoae named are often Tariable, but usage ia ot^ 

Lea Comnllei soot tares. Comeillea are tare. 

J'ai vn denx BaphaSla, I aaw two Raphaels. 

But : Lea Hamlet ; lea I* Fontaine ; lea Qoethe ; lea Washington, et& 

2, Karnes of places take -s when the idea is plarot : 
The lodie* ; the Voegea, 
The twoRomeB(Le.,theoIdaudnew). 


313. Case Relations. The aoun in French does not vat^ 
in form to denote case ; it ia used as follows : — 

1. With verbs, as subject, object, predicate : 
L« ptee alme ton fils. The faUier loves hia aon. 

Jean eat derenn aoldat. John haa beoome a acddiar. 

-.u, Google 


2. In appoeitions, and with adjectival force : 

Henri IV, roi de France. - HenijrIV., Eingi^FRUioe. 

Uq roi eobnt. A child king. 

3. After prepositions : 

J'ai parU k son ptre. I hare spoken to his fath^. 

4. Absolutely, generally with adverbial force: 

Le dln«r fini, il partit. The dinner ended, he aet out. 

n £tait Ui, le ebapcao i, la main. He was ther^ (with) his hat in hli 

Je snis venn samedi. I came on Saturday. 

H eal reeU trois hearea He stayed three hours, 

J'ai marchd dix miJles. I walked ten mites. 

None I'avons achetd dix francs. We bought it for ten francs. 

5. Tocatively : 

fionjonr, mea amia Good morning, my friends. 

314. Agreement A predicate noun, or a noun used 
adjectivally, usually agrees like an adjective with the word 
referred to, see agreement of the Adjective : 
Ha (alles) sont Alleinand[e)a Tbey ore Gennana 

La reine mir& The queen mother. 


315. The Indefinite Article. 

Hioc Fbm, 

BD, a (an). nne, a (an). 

3x6. The Definite Article. 

61K0. Flub. 

Fbh la (I')/ ^ 

Ota; For U» tonu in pumtbMla ne lUM. 

S84 THE ABTICLK [§§317-318 

317. C(»ltractioil& The prepositions de and JL+le and 
les, are always contracted as follows : 

de + le = du. Jl + le = UL 

de + teB = des. i + leB=^anx. 

Nom.— 1. No ccmtnoUon tiikia plan with 1ft, I*. 2. Fonurly eu+lM wu ood> 

318. Agreement and Repetition. The article agrees in 

gender and number with its noan, and is regularly repeated 
(as also de, k) before each noun or adjective denoting a 
distinctive object : 

Une maiBOD et qu jordio. A house and garden. 

Le flnx et le refluz. High and low tide. 

An bon et aa manvais oOU. On the good and bad aide^ 

Les bona et lea mauvaia. The good and the bad. 

Dw hominea 00 dea famines. Men or women. 

Bat : Le boo et pienx prStre. The kind and pioua priest. 

Lb delta on basse ^Igypte. The Delta or Lower Egypt. 

a. The definite article is not repeated when a single adjective precedes 
aonus joined bf et : 

Ijsb principalea villes et provinces The principal towns and provinces 
de la France. of France. 

b. Singular adjectives in apposition to a plonil nonn omit the article : 
Lss langues fraogaise et anglaise. The French and English langoagea. 
Or : Ia langne fraofsise et la langue anglaise. 

La langue francwse et ranglaiae. 
'c A few expressions of collective force, like the following, are per- 
nissibls, but are either not obligatoty or are confined to set ei^ireBsimis : 
Les pire et mire. The parents. 

Les Inndi et mardi. (On) Mondays and Tuesdays. 

Les trois et qnatre avriL The third and fonrtb of ApriL 

Les officiers et soldats. The officers and soldiers. 

£oole des ponts et chanssdes. Bohool of bridges and roads. 

d. For the repetition of le, b, lea with the superlative, see GompsrisoB 
of Adjeotives. 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 

{§819-321] USS OF IKTICLB WITH HouKa. 286 


319. Use in GeneraL French and EagliBh agree to ft 
ooDsiderable extent in the use of the article ; differences are 
noted below. 

32a The Indefinite Article, l- Ita use corresponda 
in general with that of English 'a,' 'an'; its plural is the 
partitive des (§323) : 
Va homma ; tine ffltmne ; dea gens. A man ; a woman ; people. 

2. Contrary to English usage, the indefinite article also 
commonly stands before an abstract noun used partitively with 
an adjeotire or an adjectival adjunct : 
D montra an aoin extrlme. Hs Bhowed extremo care. 

n a nne patieEice k touts 4pMiuve. He baa patience equal to anything; 
Eile jouit d'une bonne saDt4 She enjoys good health. 

Ceet nne triato nouvelle. It ia «ad news. 

a. The adjective or complementary claiue depending on aucb a noun 
may be understood : 

Toili one patience 1 There is patience for you 1 

J'4taiB d'nne humeur. . . I was in a temper. . . 

Un garfon d'nne raison. . . Ayonogfellowo£(apleiidid)intelleetl 

Non— For tavenl cue* In wbloh th« Bi^tih Indellnlte kttlole ii npUcad bf Uw 
Fmuh deflolta utiole. or via urtA, or it omitUd. tt bdon. 

321. The General Noun. A noun used in a general 
sense, i.e., 'in general,' 'all,' 'every,' etc., being implied with 

it, regularly has the definite article in French, though not 
usually in English : 

La vie eat courte. Life is short. 

Le fer et le cnlvte sont utilea. Iron and copper are asefuL 

f^tudie la moBiqne. I ajn atndying mnsic 

Lea Franfaia aiment la gloire. The French love glory. 

Le cheval est I'ami de I'homme. The horae ia the friend of man. 

Le noir vona aied bien. Black becoraea you. 

faime lea pommes et lea poirea. I like applea and peora. 

Le bean et I'utile. The beautiful and the usefnL 

Le boire et le manger. Eating and drinking. 

Vl V ,.,.,fc Google 

S86 TEE ABTICLE. [§§322-324 

a. So also, DamM of I&ngiugea, except afMr ea ; bnt not, however, 
itfter poller: 

Bait-il le fraofaia ! Does he know EVench T 

n porle bien (le) frsn;<ua. He speAka Frenoh welL 

Bnt : Ditea oela en franfaia. Sa.j that in French. 

Parlez-votw fnui^ais ? Do you apeak French ! 

322. The Partitive Noun. A noun implying 'an undo, 
termined quantity or number of ' is said to be used partitively 
or iu a partitive sense. 

323. Partitive with Article. The partitive sense, ex- 
pressed ia English by the noun simply, or else the nonn 
preceded by 'some' or 'any,' ia regularly expressed in French 
by the noun preceded by de + the definite article ; 

Dn pain tromp^ dana du vin. (Some) bread dipped in wine. 

A-t-il dea amia? Haa he (any) friendsT 

X>ea enfanta ponaeaieiit des oris Some ohildren were uttering tet< 

d^seep^r^ rible cries. 

n eat dea gens qui le croient. There ore people who believe it. 

Cest da Carlyle pur. That ia pure Carlyleiam. 

Non.-T1iiBUBeolde+the deflniU artlole. or tnn ol de aloDe <k« a<it Kotlon), ta 
ottenciIledlht-puUtiTeuticls'; itii sntlrelyldtntlMl in form with d«+theiirti(d« 
lo oOmmtata. e.g., ' Js tmhIi dn bU,' ■ 1 kU wheu ' ; '<tuel<ac]a piix dnbUV 
' Wbat 1* Um prlM ol Um wbtttt r 

324. Omission of Article. The partitive sense is ex- 
pressed by de alone + the noun as follows : — 

1. When on adjective precedes the noun ; so also, vhen s 
noon is understood after an adjective : 

Aver-Tona de bon papier T Have you any good paper ? 

Donnez-mo) de ces plumeS'lL Give me some of thoM pen*. 

J'ai de VOB livrea. I have some of your books. 

De bon vin et de mauvais (k. vin). Good wine and bad. 
De groa livrea et de petita (*e. livrea). Big books and little ones, 
Bnt : Des aoldata franfais. French aoldiera. 

J'ai du pain blano. I have white bread. 

O. The article ia not omitted when the noon haa a distinctive adjonot i 
Dn bon papier qn'il a aohet^ Some of the good paper he bought. 

u, Gooijlc 


b. The uticla is not omittod when adjective Mid noim ore indivuiUe 
in BeuBe, >. e. , vhen forming a real or a, virtual compound : 

Dea gr)uida-p4reB ; dea petita-fili. Grandfathers; grandchildren. 
Dea petita poia ; du bon tens. Green peoB ; common aense, 

Des jeunea gens ; de la bonne foi. Vonng inen ; honeatj. 

c. Fsmiliaj'ly, the article is often used eoDtroiy to the rule ; 
Dn bon viu ; dn yrai boaheur. Good wine ; true happinesB. 

2. After a- general oegation, implying non-existetice of the 
object in question : 

n n'a paa de montre. He hu no (not »aj) watch. 

Je o'ai point de livrea. I have no (not any) booLs, 

Sans avoir d'orgeot. Without having (any) taaooy. 

D ue fit pas de remarqnes. He made do remarks. 

Fob d'argent et paa d'omia. No money and no friends. 

3. But the article is net omitted, the negation being no 
longer general : 

a. When the noun has a diatinctive adjunct : 

Je n'ai plna du viu de cette ann^ I have no more of this year's wine, 

Jen'ai paa del'argent pour legaa- I have no money to waste (- Ihave 

piller. money, bnt not to waste). 

b. In ccmttaata: 

Pu du lait, mais du thd. Not mUk, but tea. 

e. In negative interrc^tion implying affirmative answer : 
N'avez-vona paa des amis, de ta Have you not frienda, health, in- 
aauld, de I'influence ! fluence I 

325. Omission of the PartitiTe Sig:n. The partitive 
sense is expressed b^ the noun simply, when the preposition 
de forms an essential part of the governing ezpression, 
thus; — 

1. In expressions of quantity or number : 
Dne livre de th4 (noii). A pound of tea (nuts). 

Un morcean de papier. ' A piece of paper. 

Une foale de gens. A crowd of people. 

Feu de tempa ; beanoonp d'amla IJttle time ; many fcleodl. 

u, Google 

238 THE AKTICIX [§326 

Avei de Uttm. Enoogh books (or books enongh). 

Des milliers d'dtoiles. ThoiuandB of atais. 

Qua de gem aaaembl^ I WhM a number of people Msembled 1 

0. Analogous to the above are ezpreasiona like the loUowing : 
TroiB jooTB de marcbe. Three days' march. 

Cent soldats de tudi. A hundred soldiers killed. ' 

Quelque chose (rien) de bon. Something (nothing) good. 

b. Bien— 'beaucoup' regularly has de-f the definiM article : 
Bien de I'atgent ; bien du monde. Much money ; monj peopte. 
Bien des gene le croient. Many people think bo. 

But : Bien d'autrea. Many others. 

Hon.— Bien Id oUkmrHDMadiM* not take de: ' J'KlbicnMm,"! unmrbniirir-' 

«. Lftpluput='moet,' 'the greater part,' etc., has de 4^ the definite 

La plapart des homines. Most moL 

La plupart du temps. Most of the time. 

it Expressions of quantity or number -with a distinctive adjnnot 
have de -I- the definite article ; ao also, beaucoup, pen, etc. , absolutely : 
Une livre da thd de ce marcbaod. A pound of this tradesman's tea. 
BeaucDop dea Jnifs de ce pays. Many of the Jews of that obnntry. 

2. After a verb requiring de before its complement, and in 
I^iraees, adjectival or adverbial, formed from de + a noun : 
n vit de pain (not ' de du pain '). He lives on bread. 
n manquait d'argent. He lacked money. 

n 4tait coavert de plaiee. He waa covered with wounds. 

Une robe de aoie. A silk dreas. 

Uq homme de ginie. A man of genius. 

Une bourse pleine d'or. A purse full of gold, 

Nor«».-l. labothoMMdSES,!, £|th« dteppnruMtor thsputltm de (i «iiiHd 
byiMooliiold«Doe»ith»(tOTernio(d* a. ThenegntiveooMtnioOoimSM.E) ii re»U, 
puiUel, the putiolat pai, polAt, elo., b«iiig B(yii«)kieio»UT ncmiM. 

326. General and Partitive Sense. The general senm. 
of a. noun (§321) ia to be carefully diatinguisbed froin the 
partitive sense (§322) : 

Lea oiaeanx ont des ailea. Birds have winga. 

Men are ftTiim^i* 


§§327-328] USE OF ABTICLE WITH K0UN3. 289 

327. Article with Titles. A title of dignity or pro- 
tessioa, preceding a proper name, regularly takes the definite 
article, except in direct address : 

La reiae Victoria eat aim^e. Queen Tictoria U beloved. 

Le docUuT Bibot eat arrivi Doctor Bibot has come. 

Qu'eat-ce que le pire Dam dit What does Father Daru say ! 

But : BoQJour, docteur Bibot. Good morning, Doctor Ribot. 

a. 80 aUo, when Buch title is preceded by a title of courtesj [nuMI- 
sienl*, tnadame, etc.), whether in speaking to or in apealcing of the 

Bonjour, monsieur le dooteur. Good morning, doctor. 

Monsieur le pr^aident I'a dit. The president said so. 

b. A preceding attributive adjective may have the force of a title : 
La petite Claire ; le groa Bobert. Little Clara ; big Bobert. 

328. Article for Possessive. The definite article is 

commonly used with the force of a poesesaive adjective, when 

no ambiguity arises from its use : 

Donnez-moi la main. Give me your hand. 

H a perdu la vie. He has lost hia life. 

n avait le chapeau but ta tdte. He liad hia hat on big head. 

a. The nee of an indirect pronoun object + the definite article oftep 
avoids ambiguity : 

Le conrage Itii manqna. Hie courage failed (him). 

£31e Ini a arrach^ l«g jeox. She tora out his eyes. 

D s'est fait mal h la tSle. He hurt his head. 

b. Poaaeaaive force appears also in avoir mal {froid, cluuid, etc) 
k+the definite article followed by a nonn denoting part of the person) 
umilarly, in phrases of personal description made up of avoir + the 
definite article + a noun + an adjective: 

J'ai mal ii la t€te. I have a headache [my head aches). 

n a znal anx yeoz. He has sore eyes {his eyes, etc.). 

11 a froid anz pieda. He has cold feet (his feet, etc). 

Jl a la tete groaae (or one grosse He has a large bead. 


n a les braa longs {or de longs bras). He haa long arms. 

Le ohfine a I'ioorce rodCL The oak has (a) rough bark. 

u, Gooijlc 

240 THE ARTICLE. [§§329-330 

329. Article Distributively. 1. The definite article with 
distributive force replaces English 'a' of weight, meaanre^ 
nomber, when indicating price : 

Denz franca la Uvre (le mitre). Two francs a pound (a metre). 

Dei dBofi (^) dii loDi la donzune. E^^ at ten cents a doiea. 

Des poirea (&) on aaa la pi^e. Pean at a cent apiece. 

a. Otberwim par is generally used with price : 

Cinq franca par jour. Five francs a (per) day. 

Cent francs par Ute. A hondred franca a (per) head. 

Trois franca par 10900. Three francs a (per) lesson. 

2. The definite article is also used distributively with namea 
of days: 

II Tient le dimancbe. He comes (on) Sundays. 

Le bateau part tons lea lundis. The boat goes every Honday. 

330. Omission of the Article. The article, whether 
definite, indefinite, or partitive, is frequently omitted. This 
takes place : — 

1. In a large number of expressions made up of a verb+ft 

J'ai sommeil ; il a honte. I am sleepy ; he is ashamed. 

Je vooe demaode paidon. I beg your pardon. 

Fnrther examples are : 

anil bcaulD, nntf. doimei stIi, neHfg, ttin plus, fluit* romt. 

avoir tklm. ba hvnfry. dounar onln, fiMDrdan. pnndn ooDgt, toti Ihm. 

aTolrbonna mine, Iwt mil. bin UltaUon, pay ati*n- jinuiT* ftrOt, lakt am. 

•iTirir peur, b« (tA-ofd. (isn. teDdrevUU, potracML 

KrolrUirt,b4iitithi)vraHg. tiinoti»ui.mattapr—int. trouvcr mofaD, find 
ooorlr rl>]u«, run Uu ritk. (sin lallUte, /aH (in bmi- mtant. 

damuider«nuell,(utadti<M. ■ mm). *ta, alo. 

2. la many adjectival and adverbial phrases made up of 
a preposition + a noun : 

IVaprta nature ; devaot t^oins. After nature ; before witnessea. 
Bsna cause j 4 travers champs. Without cause ; across the fielda 

\i ''-^ r.,.t Google 


Further axamplM u« ; 

tbord.onhoaril. (iliIand«liUK>r.<VfA*rd'< pti ohuola d* ICr, ty raff- 

t ebanl, on korotaeit dV' w<W- 

kd<B^ inUnHnnaB^. boduna d* coot, man 1/ p*rtx«mplB,/vMiiimf>b; 

fc gtaonx, on otw*! taMi. /hUiv. pu*ipMMiM,Aii«scp*r<mMk 

IkpUd, on/ooL hanuDB da fAniitSlafl <tf |nr tflm» byloful. 

potk flean..fl9i«r-poI. fcniut. Ma* onlota, iriMoM/eor, 

moulla li TCot, icind-inai an biitMU, <» a tool. no* t^Mn, wOJUhI nown. 

iqtrt* dtner^ q/ter if inrMr. ui Ati, in nwaner. aou o«MUd«i, on eondtldflk 

kTB InC^rtt, u^cA intenit. eo Toiton, fn a carriae*. hiu pmae, hi tk< pntM. 

Kne pJtidx, iBiih pleatxtri, ftt m, iy tht yioT. lat ptfitr, on paper. 

mirati*1aMa,laantk4taiU. ato-.tta. 

3. Before a predicate aonn which qualifies ia a general 
way the personal subject, or object, of certain verbe (cf.§29S); 
lU Bont Russra. They are Rasaians. 

~~ &ha is t, milliuer. 

We are doctors. 
n paralt honnSte homma He seems an honest man. 

8<Hi fr^re se fit soldat. His brother became a soldier. 

On I'a ordonuA pr£tn. He wu ordained a priest. 

Soyons amia Let us be friends. 

Kirs.— NooDi (o nssd an tmnunoiil; tliOM of nUioMlltr, pTolesilon, UUi, dUL.ud 
tbalc tDDoIlaa la adjtctlnl. Vrheaarai ■ pndlosU nouii danotai u IndiTldiul or a 
qieolBS, itmnatlUTa thaartida: 'Lk maa aat nntflanr,' 'Theroaa La a flower'; 'Las 
nil Mnt des bommaa.' ' Kiii(i are mao.' 

a. Thearticleisnotomitted when the predicate noon has a distinotive 
adjunct : 

Son frire est un artiste de m^rite. His brother is an artist of merit. 
Ha sont devenus dea g^n&aox They became distinguished generals 


& Observe the piedioativs force of a noun after traiter+de, qtudifier 

n m'a trutd de sot. He called me a fooL 

Je qnalifia oela de fraude. I call that fraud. 

c After c'est, ce sont, the noon is logical subject, not predicate, and 
hence the article or some other determinating word most be used with 

Ceat une AUemande. She is (a) German. 

Oe KMit lea (mea) gaat& Those are the (my) glore^ 

u, Google 

242 TEX ABTtCLE. [§330 

i. Before sach an appodtsre nonn as eerves merely the 
purpose of a parenthetical explanation : 
L'Avare, com&lie do Molifire. L'Avare, a comedy by UolUre. 

nria, fila de Priam, ravit Hdlbie, Pane, the (a) sou of Priam, carried 
femme de Manilas. off Helena, (tbe)wifeof Menelaoa 

a. Thiu IB explained the omiision of the article in numerical titles : 
Jacqnee premier (deux). James the First (the Second). 

b. An apposition which diBtingiiishee, contnuta, oompares, nearly 
hu the article, as in English : 

Pierre le Qrand. Peter the Great. 

Racine le fila et non Baoine le Racine the son and not Racine the 

pire. father. 

Hoatrtol U plus grande ville dn Montreal the largest city in 

Canada. Canada. 

U. Cook, un ami de mon pire. Mr. Cook, a friend of my father. 

c CoUoqaially, the article is often omitted in contrasts : 
Damaa pire et Dumas fils. Dumas the elder and Dumas the younger. 

Nora— P«auda4ppi»lllon (mllr eDIp^ of de or of ■ dt oIiiih) li taaad in mur 
oana Ilka ■ L'^Uie (k. d>) SuDt-Ptcrre,' ' St. Petor'i Ohnnh ' : ' do mcublo (M. da 
Umpa ds) Lonli XV,' ' Louli XV. loniltara ' ; ' La rw (m. d«) Hlnbeni.' HintMso 

6. In condensed sentences, sucti ns titles of books, ennmer^ 
tioQS, addresses, advertiaementa, proverbs, uititbetical expreo- 
BioDfl, etc., and asuall; after ni., sanS-. .oi, soit..-SOitt 
tant... que, jamais: 

Causes de la perte de Rome. Causes of the fall of Rome. 

Portrait de Napolton III. (A) portrait of Napoleon IIL 

Soldats, officiers, citoyens, tous Soldiers, officers, citizens, all haa- 

accoarurant. tened up. 

Beauts, talent, esprit, toat 8*000 Beauty, talent, wit, everything 

k la longne. wears oat in the long run. 

II loge rue Richelieu. He lives in Richelieu street. 

Maison k vendre. (A) house for sale. 

Chapeaux pour hommes. Men's hats. 

Corps etr ime ; nuit et jour. Body and soul ; night and day. 

Soit peur, soit prudence, il ivita Whether from fear or pmdenoe, bt 

le combats avoided the o<Nnbat> 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


n o'a ni pAre ni mire. 
BftOB amis ni argent. 
Taut bominea que feramea. 
jMnaiB p4re a'a taut aimd. 

331. Unclassified Examples. I'he foUowing exampl«s 
ihow idiomatic diBtinctiona in the use of the article vhich 
oamiot conveniently be bronght under general rules : 

He haa neitfaer father our mothac. 
Without f rienda or money. 
Aa well inea aa women. 
Never did a father love so much. 

Tons Stes It bienveon. 

Demander {bire) raomOue. 

Avoir le temps. 

Aller it l'«oole (I'^liae). 

CommoDder le reapect. 

Le fea a'eat ddclar4 

Faire la gaerre. 

Jeter (lever) I'ancre. 

Oarder le eilence. 

Hettre le fen L 

Sur (vers) les troia heorea. 

An revoir ! 

L'annfe derni^re (prochaine). 

La aemaiue (I'annte) paaa^ 

Le vendredi saint. 

Le mercredi dcB cendrei. 

Le printenpe, I'^t^, etc. 

An printemps, en 6U1, ete. 

La {le. Ute de) Saint-MicheL 

La (ic. fSte de) mi-juin. 

La moiti^ de I'ann^ 

Les denx tiers dn temps. 

Tons (les) deux ; tons (les) trci 

Toua les mois. 

Le miuistre de la guene. 

Le meillenr des amis. 

Prendre le deuil de quelqv'nn. 

Sentir la fomde. 

Je vons soDhaite la boone ann^ 


You are welcome. 

Ask (give) alms. 

To have time. 

To go to school (chnrah). 

Command respect. 

Fire broke out. 

Make war. 

Cast (weigh) anchor. 

Keep sileoca. 


Towards three o'clock, 
Good-bjB I 
Last (next) year. 
Last week (year). 
Good Friday. 
Aah Wednesday. 
Spring, summer, et& 
In spring, in summer, eta 

(The) half (of) the year. 
Two-thirds cf the time. 
Both ; all three. 
Every month. 



The beat of friends. 

He cried murder. 

I said it at random. 

Go into mooming for somi 

Smell of smoke. 

I wish you a happy new j' 

He ia wretchedly poor. 

,;.!;, C^oogle 

244 THE ABTicu:. [§33 

H eat ploB gnnd que votu de la He U taller than yon by a head. 

Un hoinine !> Ift bsrbe noire. 

L« belle qaeation ! 

A la (iK. mode) franf&iae. 

t^en slier k I'anglaiBe. 

A la (te. mode de) Henri IT. 

Cent (mills) ans. 

Les unu, od allez-voosT 

A man with a black baud 
What * (fine) question t 
Id the French style. 

To take French leave. 

In the style of Henry IV. 

A hundred (a thousand) years. 

(My) friends, where are you goingl 


332. Names of Persons, l. Names of persone usoallj 
take ao article, ns in. English : 
Comeille ; George Fox. Comeille ; Greoige Foz. 

a. The definite article U a coiutituent [Ntrt of some sumuaes : 
Lea loroana de Lcsage. The novels of Lesage. 

Lea fables de La Foutoine. The fables of I> Fontaine. 

2. The definite article is naed according to Italian analogy 
in the Frencli form of a few famous Italian surnames; so also, 
in a very few names which are not Italian : 

Le Cocrige ; le poAme du Tuae. Correggio ; the poem of Taaao. 
Le Ponaun ; le Camo^na. Ponssin ; Camoens. 

3. The article is nsed when the name has a distinctira 
adjanct, when it is plural, or when used as a common noun: 
lie Christ. Christ ( = the 'Anointed'). 

Le Satan de Milton ; le grand Milton's Satan ; the Oreat Coodd. 

Lea Comeilla et lea Kacine. 

A Comeille, a Racine (= Comeille, 
Racine and others like tbem). 
He ia an Alexander. 
It is pure Ciceronian. 
I have read T^l^maque. 

k a depreciatory sense, the definitA 
article is not uncommon, especially with names of females : 
Sans attendre la Barbette. Without waiting for Barbara. 

Le Dnnl me I'a dit. Daval told me so. 

Ceet nn Alexandre. 
Cost du Cic^ron tout pur. 
J'ai lu le T^^maque. 

1. Familiarly, often i 

u, GoO^jlc 


333. Names of Countries, l. Names of continnnt^ 
oountrieB, provinces, large islands, regularly take the definite 
article, always so vhen standing as subject or object of a rerb; 
L'Asie eat an grand continsnt. Asia is a large continent. 

Nona aimona le Canada. We love Canada. 

La NormandJe ; I'Angleterre. Normandy ; England. 

a. A few conntries named after cities have no allele : 
Naplei ; Panne ; Bade. Naples ; Parma ; Baden. 

Sots. — Conildmble tHiicty ptCTslI* Tegardlni the ma of Iha arltcle vlth namei 
of Itlinda: aoma reqnire Ibe kttlcle, vhllit il iiomlUed irllb olIwtB, tj., ' Li Coth,* 
Canlui •Laaiolle," Blrily; ' Cuba,' Cuba; • Tarra-Neo™,' Newfonndlaud. LTle 
de, precedlDg tbe Diuiie,aod I'Ho In spposlUon, ara common fnrma; r-g., 'IiHa 
d« Cabs,' ■ laHe Saint Domlngiie,' Bt. I>onilngo; 'lies tlei Babams,' :lia Babama 

2. Before names of continents, European countries singular, 
and feminine countries singular outside of Europe, en denotes 
* where,' ' where to,' and the article is omitted ; so also, after 
de denoting ' point of departure from ' ajid after de in moat 
adjectival phrases : 

n est en (va en) Europe. He is in (is going to) Europe. 

II voyage en France (Portogal). He travels in France (Portugal). 

Jl vient d'Espagne (Danemark). He cornea from Spain (Denmark). 

Le roi de Portugal (Espagne). The King of Portugal (Spain). 

Le fer de Suide ; lea vjna de France. Swedish iron ; French wines. 

a. EzceptionB are very rare, «.p>., 'ou Maine,' 'Leduc dn Haiiie,' eto. 

Kon.— In an adJeotlTal phraae, dt denaUo); titnlar diiUnctloB. oHgiD, daaoriptloi, 
la artlole, <.;., ']» pari d* Fnuoa,' 'LeBoyannie 

3. Bnt the definite article is not omitted, in answer to 
' where t' ' where to V, or after de as above, when the name ii 
plural, or has a distinctive adjonot, or denotes a mosculiiu 
country outside of Europe : 
n est anx Indes. He is in India, 

n va anx £tat(-Unis. He goes to the United SUtea. 

Aux Fays-Bos. In (to) the Netherlandi. 

L'impjratrioe dea Indes. The Empress of India. 

Venir dea indes (de I'lnde). To cone from India. 

Cans la I^ianoe mdridion»l«k In Southern Froaoa 

^ O-b r.,.,.u, Google 


Dmu I'AmMqne dn Nord. In North Americ*. 

Lo reine de U Gnuide-Bretagne. The Queen of Great Britun. 

n revient de I'Afriqafl aiutrale. He retumB from South Afric*. 

An Canada (Japon). In (to) Canada (Japan). 

Le Dominion da Canada. 1 nn >. - - mi 

, „ . J r< J r ^B Domimon of Canada. 

La Pmsaance du Canada. ) 

Chaaad de la Chine. Expelled from China. 

lie conml du P^roo. The consul of Peru. 

Le far du Canada. Canadian iron. 

Obt.: When ttaa daOolM utlcl* ia vei, 'when," when to,'al(t«a(nl)or<taai 


a. In a few names like ' Aaie Minenre,' * basse Bretegne,' the adjeo> 
tive is no longer felt to be distinctive : 
En Asie minenre. In Asia Minor. 

i. Omission of the article id the predicate, in enumeratiooa, 
titles, etc, sometimes occurs (cf. §330, 5) : 
La Ganle est devenne France. Gaul became France. 

Etpagne, Italle, Belgique, toot Spain, Italy, Belgium, all would 

etit pris fen. have caught fire. 

334. Names of Cities. Kames of cities and towns nsn- 
ally have do article, onless nsed with a distinctive adjunct : 
Loudres, Paris, Qn£bec London, Paris, Quebec 

A Toronto (Montr^). To or in Toronto (Montreal). 

Bat : La Borne de ce eitele. (The) Rome of this centary. 

La Noavelle-Orl^ans. New Orleans. 

a. The definite article is an essential part of several names of citiea : 
Le Caire ; le Havre ; la Ha vane. Cairo : Havre ; Havana. 

335. Names of Mountains and Rivers. Names of 
mountains always, and names of rivers regularly, hare tbe 
definite article : 

Let Alpes i le Nil ; le mont Blanc The Alps | the Nile ; Mt. Blanc 

a. For rivers, the usage after eo, de, is parallel with that described 

De I'eau de Seine. Seine water, 

Un abordage a eu lien en Seine. A collision occurred on tbe Seim 

u, Gooijlc 




336; General Rule. I'he feminine of an adjective is 
regularly formed by adding -e to the maaculioe sLogular, bat 
adjectives ending in -e remain unchanged : 

M. F. M. F. 

gisnd, grutde, lalL facile, facile, «uy. 

jcJj, jolie, pt-tUy. jeiine, jeune, yotaig. 

tliB^, rus6e, ewmmg. linc^re, sincere, mieert. 

bkes^, blesa^, vxmndtd. calibre, calibre, cdtbraUd, 

mort, morM, dtad. etc. etc. 

«, Similarly, nonns of like termination (but see § 306, 2) : 

oubarftdo, eomradt, cuuviMle, 
ooonn, counn, onunns. awoierg*, t/orter, (undei^a. 

Ii|)lii, roMit. Upioe, nululB, patiml, aaliat. 

b. Adjectivei in ^;u are regnlar, bat require the diiereBie to indicate 
that n 18 sounded, e.g., aigu, tharp, aigne. 

c The circumflex in db (t dne) distinguiahcB it from du = ' of the,' 
and disappesra in the fem. (§214); observe also mft (f. mne, §219). 

if. Besides adjectives in -e, a very few others are invariable for the 
feminine, t.g., c^tot, in Mre c^>Ot = 'have come t« grief,' grognOD, 
grunUUing, rococo, rococo, Sterlii^, lUrlmg, and rarer ones. 

Nora— Hen >1m prapwlr t»lon[a gnsd In graud'mire, ito. Id O. P. graad 
*u mucnllne or Inalntoi, but Riaomuuiui nt ■ Mm dsU gin It tbs ■poMjmphe to 
dnwts Uis lappoaMl elUhm of e. 

337. Special Rules. 1. Irregwlftrities consist chiefly ol 
changes in the stem on adding the feminine sign -e; thus, 
Then -e is added : — 

(1) Final f=y, x = S, C=-ch in some, and qu in otbera, 


M. F. M. F. 

Bctjf, aetive, active. 'blanc, vihUe, blanche, 

birf, hri^, brireL tpnblic, public, pnbliqne. 

henienx, happy, henreoao. long, long, longuei 

*flo&]H: tnDO, frank, tna^t; ho, dry, lAclla. 

tSo Mte : AmmonlMi (-quel, amma mtn ; otdiic (-qiU)b dtenpU; Hue 1<M 
PnuMiA; Inie (-qw), TwitM. 



^poia, thick. 





nrnet, dumb. 



Bot, fociUh, 



a. Simi7arlf , nomia of like termination : 
M. r. IL r. M. F. 

nnf, wfd«HWr, nan. ^poux, ipoiua, ipouM. toco, Turk, tonia*. 

Non.-Hen ■!*(> beloogg bttiUl, bailiff (O. F. tmOUtX UIUItl 
fi. The adjectives dooz. douce, nwcl, faux, faaBae,/alK, roaz, ronsae, 
rat (of luur, etcOi retain the [b] sound in the feminine, denoted by c and 
•■ respectively ; grec, OruJc, has feminine grecqne ; prefix pr^fixtd, is 

(2) Final •el, -eil, -ieo, •on, and usually -s, -t, double tha 
final consonant : 
M. P. M. F. 

pareil, like, 

ancieu, oid, 

boo, good, 

bas, hvi, 

groa, big, groaae. etc, etc. 

But: ras, raae,/afy gria, griae, grty ; mat, mate, dead, dull; -prtft, 
prSte, ready ; d^vot, devote, dtvoiU ; bigot, bigote, bigoted ; cagot, 
oagote, hypocrUical ; idiot, idiote, idiotic, and a few rarer ones. 

a. Similarly, douds of like termination, but see % 30€ ; 

U. F. H. F. K. F. 

mortel, mortal, tnarWUe. Uon, Kan. liotuie. 

b. A very few adjectives and noons of other endings follow this analogy: 

K. F. M. P, 

j*.ymti, peaiant, piTmuie. genlU. nfu, geoUlls. 

loiun, roan, rooaima. aul, null, nuUe. 

NoTK. — The doubling of the final consonant in -el, -ien, -et serves to 

denote the required [e] sound (§12, 1); a few adjectives in -et denota 

this [e] Bound by the grave accent withont doubling, cf. (4) below. 

(3) The following have two masculine forma (in sinff., not 
in pi-), one of which doubles 1 for the feminine, like the above ■■ 

M. F. M. F. 

beau<B-bel,/n<, belle, mon or mol, soft, moUe. 

u, Gooijlc 


a. Aiulogona are n few doudb : 

IL F. H. F. 

diUBWiii eamtl, ohamelle. JadTtDosui, inuiv/tilau, joQTuioBlla, Mo. 

(4) Before fina,! -r and -Ct of » few adjectives e beoomes ( 
(c£ §12, 1) ; so also in bref, brfeve, see, s^he : 

M. F. M. F. 

ohsr, dear, chire. complet, eomplete, complfetet 

Uger, ligJit, Mgire. etc eto. 

a. SimiUrlj, nonns in -er i 

M. F. M. F. 

bafn, ih»plierd, btrgin, ttnoger, ttrrnigtr, Una^n, iMt 

b. The complete list of adjeotivea in -et with fern, in -ite is : 
pn>Mnip]aC, (in)«>iilj)I<U. (iD>lliii»l, (InjdiHTHt. nplst, mr-lMM. 

NoTB. — The gravb aooent denotes the required [e] sound {gl2, I). 

(5) The following feminine stems show etymological el» 
ments which have disappeared in the masculine : 

U. F. M. F. 

ooi (L. quitiut), qvUt, coite. frais (L. L. freamt), cool, fralche. 

b&iiD (L. benignug), bemga, b&iig^e. tiers {L. ttriiut), third, tierce. 
tst'voti {It, favorito), favourite, favorite. 

2. Adjectives in -eur form their feminine as follows : — 

(I) Mi^eur, mineur, meilleur and those in -^eur an 

M. F. M. F. 

majenr, nu^or, majeure. extriiieur, exUriar, eit^eaiv, 

meiUeur, better, meilleuK, snpMeur, tuperior, anpirieiue. 

tnlneur, mfnor, missaie. prieur. jiKor, piianr^ Inlirliui, it^trioT. Ii 

(2) Those in -eur with a cognate present participle in -ant 
change -r to -s and add -e : 

M. F. M. F. 

causeur, talkative, caoseoae. itvemi, dreamy, rftvensa. 

QAttaat.flaltrring, Satteuse. trompenr, deeeHfiU, trampeuaek 

u, Gooijlc 

THE ADJECTIVE. [§§338-339 

arlf, nouns of like tormiiuitioii, but see alaog306, 1, a, S, ai 

llutaar, ;(a(tem', SMMuts. etc ate 

(3) Those in -teur, with no cognate present participle ia 
•ant, bave the feminine in -trice : 

tL F. u. F. 

lutteur, aceutine, aocuuliloa. 
la of lika termination, but we g 30e, I, a, 2, a : 


33S. General Rule. Most masculine adjectives and all 
feminines form their plural b; adding S to the singular 

(ct §307): 

gnuid(s), grande(s). jeune(s), jeime(B). haa, basse(sV 

joli(s), jolie(8). ajgtifs), sigue(s|. doux, doace(s). 

Tub6[b), TUB6e{a). completjg), oompUte(s). eta etc. 

339. Special Rules. The following rules are parallel 
with those for the irregular plural of noona (cf. § 308) : 

1. Masculine adjectives in -s^ -x (none in -z) remain 
unchanged : 

8. P. S. P. S. P. 

b«a, baa. gris, gris. £auz, fimx. 

4p*is, iptM. Boumia, Boumia. vienz, vieiLX. 

baia, traia. doux, doux. henrenx, heureiiz, 

ete. etc. etc 

2. Msscnlina adjectives in -eau, and one in -eu take x : 

8. P. S. P. 

bean, beaux. jumeau, jumeanx. 

nonvean, nonveaux. Ubren, hdbl«i& 
But : bleu, bleua ; fen, fenai 

, ^\, ,.,.:.. Google 


I -al regularly have the plural ii 


8, P, 


P. 8. P. 

Muical. amicMUE. 


gdo^raiuc. moral, monuix. 

twnUl, brntwix. 


(*pit&], capitanx. 


lib^ranz. rural, nirauz. 

cardinal, oardinaux. 


^al. ^gaoiL 


loyauz. trivial, trivianx. 

fiscal, fiocanx. 


a. Fatal mokee ' fatols ;' Littre gives also Giial(s). 

b. According to the Jiietionnaire dt FAcaditnie the following have no 
masculine plnral : 

*AutonmftL Vng:^ 'JovlaL lUTiL tpaaal, 

*Uiili— 1 fluUL Dittl. *putilL 

* Littr^ flvet % plnnJ In 411X. 

t UttrA ftdmiti ft plnnl la -auz, ud qaota utliority for m pliutl Id -%, 

Horn.— 1. Th*F« »r« upwkrdi ot ft huixlrdd ud Of ty ftdjMtlvei In -aL The IXetCn. 
nain it r^mUmw Ii dlenC Riinllng lbs mftwuline pluni ot (gma (litr ot thao, lo 
aMcl; arty ol wliiota, boncier, Uttrt iIth ft plutal la -anx. Th* follDwIt^ hire not 
b M n proDonnoAd upon by elthar ftuthorlty : BnunftJ^ ddloyft], dLigon*], Initrumflntftlj 
laUft], mAdloUul, mentftl, monkoftl, pftndoxft], quftdngdiLmft], totfti, virftuftl. 

t. BcsulirpluTftliln-ala wen tormerly much oommoBtr, ftod naigw ii (till unHttM 
In aom* worda When tbe plural la unoilng or doubtful it la often aToldad, t.g., • Un 
npu trugil ; dei repai almplea.' Plunli commooly n Moidad ar* : Fital, fud, 
bngftl, (iMlal, inlUftl, mftUiial, aaUl, navil, tb«tlnL 


340. General Rule. An adjective, whether attributive 
or predicative, regularly agrees in gender and number with it« 
substantive : 

Lu UUBOUB [roidea Bont sainea. Cold saaaooa are healthfUL 
EUm Boot contentes. They are pleased. 

Hi ae disaient maladea. They said they were ilL 

Je lea croia ainck^s. I believe them aincere. 

a. When the anbatantive haa a de clanee, the ogreemeat ia p«.T»l1»l 
with that explained for anbject and verb (cf. g232, 2), 

b. The i^reement with vooa >a according to the aenae : 
Uadame, vous Stea bien bonne. Madam, you are very kind. 


S62 THE ahiectitb. 

341. Manifold Substantive, l- One adjective qualify. 
Ing two or more substtuitives ia made plural, and agrees ia 
gender vith both, if of the same gender; if of differsDt 
gender, the adjective is masculine. 

De la viaode at dee pommeg de Cold meat and potatoes. 

terre f roides. 
Sa BtEor et lui aont couteata. His sister and be are pleased. 

a. When subataotiTes are joinecl bjr on, ni. . .ni, or are BjnanjmtiaB, 
or form a climax, etc., the principles stated for agreement of subject 
and verb applj (cf. g 233). 

b. When nouns differ in gender, the msscuUDS one is nsoally placed 
nearest the adjective, especially when the feminine form is distinct from 
the masculine. 

Ia mer et le ciel falena. The blue sea and sky. 

3. When the nouD is followed by a preposition + a noun, Uie 
agreemenC is, of comrse, according to the meaning : 
Une table de bois dur. A table of hard wood. 

Une table de bois auric. A square wooden table. 

342. Manifold AdJectiTe. When two or more adjectives^ 
denoting different objects singular, refer to one nonn, the noun 
ia made plural, and the adjectives follow it in the singular, or 
the Doun ia made singular, and the article repeated with each 

Les nations greoque et romaine. The Greek and Roman natfons. 
Ia nation grecque et la romaine. The Greek nation and the Roman. 
Or ; Ia nation grecqne et la nation romaine. 

a. The agreement for a preceding ordinal is parallel to this : 
Lea aixi^e et septi^me range. Ths siztb and seventh ranks. 

Le lixiime rang et le septUme. The aiith rank and the seventh. 
Le sizi^e et le septidme rang. The sixth and the seventh rank. 

343. Special Cases. 1- Adjectives used as adverbs ara 
regularly invariable : 

Cette rose sent bon. 

Im liviea oofiteat char id. 

u, Google 


I have made m few miatakes m pos- 
EUe se fait fort de 1e payer. She pledges heivelf to pay it. 

2. Compound adjectives, with or witboat hyphen, an 
treated as follows ; 

(1) Both components are variable when co-ordinate, except 
first components in -o : 

De* Knud(e)a-iiiiiet4te)s. Deat-mntea. 

Dea onngea aigres-doncea. SourUb oranges. 

Bat : Lea lettres grfrn rtimiiinrai Gmoo-Boman literature. 

(2) A subordinate component is nsoallj invariable, being 
regarded as adverbial, but the principle is not fully carried ' 

Dm mota greca-modeme. Uodom Greek words. 

Dea enfanta court-vStaa. Short-coated children. 

Una daiDe haut pUc^ A lady of high rank. 

Dea eoianta nonveaa-D^a. New-born infanta. 

a. But the sabordinated componeDt is variable in frais cndUia 
'freahly gathered,' in ivre moit^'dead drunk,' in grand ouvert^ 
'wide open,' and in premier, demier, nouvean-l-a past participle 
(except nouTeati-n£, see above) : 

Dea Seora fralcbes cneilliet. Freshly gathered flowere. 

La porte est grande onvert*. The door is wide open. 

Lea nonveanz marite. The bridegroom and bride. 

3. Koons serving as adjectives of colour are regularly 
invariable ; 

Dea rebes IJlas (citron). Porple (IeiDon.oolaDred) dremea. 

a. Rose, cnunoisi, ponrpre, are exceptions, and vary : 
Des robee roeea (cramoiaiea). Pink (crimson) dresses. 

b. Modified adjeotives of oolonr are also ninally invariable, tlie 
modifier being also invariable by rule, 2 (2), above : 

Dea chevenx blond ardent. Reddish blond hair. 

Sara.— ThiM ocoMnotlona u« tiplalDid by m-ppljbit (b* atUprfa: 'I>w rabv 
(aoBlaudaJtUu'; -IMasliamix (ooolnii da) blood ankob- 

u, Gooijlc 

254 THE ADJECnVE. [§341 

4. A few adjeotirea are variable or invariable according to 
position or ootit«zt .- 

a. Demis'half,' iin=' naked,' plein=*fuU of,' an invariable befora 
and variable after the noon ; eo aUo, excepts and others (gSSO, a, b) ; 
franc de part='poBt'paid' (also 'franco,' adverb) ia invariable beforn, 
and usually variable after : 
Una demi-henre ; one heure et Half an hour ; an hour and a half. 

n a de I'or plein see pochea. He has his pockets full of gold. 

D est Di]-t£t« ; il a les bras nns. He is bareheaded ; his arms are bM& 
n a lee yenx pleios de lanuea. His eyes are full of tears. 

Beoevoir franc de port iine lettre. To receive a letter poat-paid. 
Des lettrea franohea de port Post-paid letters. 

0b4. : denil, nn, when pr«ced{iic» form b flompound witii hTphen. 

6. Feu='late,' 'deceased,' is invariable when preceding the definite 
article, or determinative, and variable after it : 
Fen la reine (la feue reine). The late queen. 

e. After a*oir rair = 'havB an air (appearance)' the adjective agrees 
with air ; but it agrees with the subject of tlie verb wbeu the expreesiDa 
means ' seem,' ' appear ' : 

Cette dame a I'air hautain. That lady has a haughty air. 

EUle a i'air molfaeureuse. She aeems anhappy. 

Cette soope a I'air bonue. This soup seems good. 

6. A very few adjectives are always invariable : 
Nona avoDS iti capot. We had come to grief. 

Vingt livrea sterliug. Twenty pounds sterling. 

344. Nouns as Adjectives. By a sort of apposition, 
DOonH are frequently uaed as adjectives ; when so used, they 
usually i^ree like adjectives : 
Une mattresse cheminte. A main chimney. 

Dea pbiloaophea po^tea. Poet philoaophen. 

Bat : La race n^gre, etc 

a. Timoia= ' witness,' at the bead of a phrase, is adverbial and 
■Toi bien combattn, tdmoin tea 

blessurea que j'ai repiea. 

& Vox Donna as adjectivaa of ooloor, see g343, 3. 

u, Google 

§§346-346] coMPABisoN of ADJEcnvES. 256 


345, The Comparative. It is regnlarly denoted hy 
placing plus = ' more,' moins = 'le3B,' for inequality, and 
aussi-^'as,' for equality, before each adjective compared; 
' than 'or ' as ' = que : 

II est plus grand que Jean. He ia taller th&a John. 

n est moins grand que Jean. He ia leas tall than (not bo tall a«) 

n eat ansai grand que Jean. He is aa tall as John. 

D eaC plus dJligeDt et pine atteutif He is more diligent and (more) 

que Jeau. attentive than John. 

n est plus foible que maUde. He ia more weak than ill. 

a, Aus^ uaed negatively, may be replaced by ai : 

n n'est pas aussi(si) grand qne J. He ia not so tall as John. 

b. When aussi or si is omitted, comme (nof que) ia used : 
Ud roi ricbe comme Cr^eaa A king as rich as Cncsua 

D est plus grand qu'iliiC(le)pBratt. He is taller than he seems. 

d. 'Moresnd more (or -erand -er)' = de plus en plus; MessandleM 
(or -er and ■er)'=dt moins en moins; 'tlie more. ..the more' = pltia 
..,(et)plus; 'theless.. .the less'^moins.. .(et)inoias; 'themoro...' 
=d'autant plus. . . : 

L'air devint de plus en plus froid. The air became colder and colder, 
n devint de moins en moins actif. He became less and less active. 
Plus il devient ricbe (et) moins il The richer he becomes the lest 

est g^n^reuz. geaerouB is ha. 

II en sera d'autant pins riche. He will be the richer for it. 

346. Irregular Comparison. The adjectives bon, mau- 

vais, petit, have a special comparative form : 







07- bon, 

plus bon (rare) 

maurais, bad, 


or maurais. 

plus mauvaia. 

petit, wwa. 


or peat. 

pins petit 

2S6 TBS ABjEcnvE. [§§347-348 

a. Bon is hardly erer compaied r^tilarly : 

A bon marchd, & meiUear much& Cheap, choaper, 

Ola HDt boD (meiUenr]. That amelli good (better]. 

But : Ce n'est ni pins bra ni plna mmuraia, 

Non*.— I. In (ipnadoiM Uk* 'O tId Mt pitu on molni bon.' Ixm la not tMltr 
aompaatlve. S. Bmm gtminnmiMii adinU ptoa ton-'moM good-nmmd/ 

b. Pm 18, in general, atraoger than plus maunls, and may aem 
alao aa a comparative to m6chaiit='bad,' 'eril,' 'wicked': 

Get homroe est m^ohent {pire). That man U bod (worn). 

e. Id general, iiioi[idre= ' less,' 'loBaer,' 'leaa (in imporUnce)' and 
plus petit = '8malbr,' 'leaa (in size)' : 

Votre doulenr en sera moindre. Your sorrow will hence be le». 
Une plus petite ponune. A smaller apple. 

347. The Superlative Relative. 1. It U denoted by 
placing the definite article (variable) or a possessivB odjectlvs 
(variable) before the comparative of inequality : 

E31e est la moins aimi^le. Ehe is the least amiable. 

Mes meiUeoTB amis. My best friends. 

Ia moindre difficult^. The slightest dtfficnlty. 

a. When the auperlatlvo follows the Donn, the definite article is not 
Cest I'eufant le plus diligent et le He is the most diligent and att«n- 

pIuB attentif de toua. tive boy of all. 

Mes amis les plus fiddles. My most faithful friends. 

2. After a superlative, 'iii' = (le (not k, dans, etc); 

' among ' = entre or d'entre : 

Lliomme le plus riohe de la ville. The richest man in the city. 
Le meilleor ^rivain du Canada. The best writer in Canada. 
Le plus brave {d')eatre les Oreos. The bravest among the Greeks. 

348. The Superlative Absolute. It is expressed by le 
(invariable) + plus or moins before the adjective, or else by 
an adverb, such as tr^ bien, fort, extrfimeineot, etc., or 

some other modifying expression : 
Ells est le plus beureuse (moins 
haureuse) qnond elle est seole. 


$$349-360] POSITION OF AlkJECnns. 2S7 

VoDB fitea trte umable. Ton an T«ry (nKMt} kind. 

CeBt tout oe qn'il y a de pliu beau. It U moet beantifoL 

Dn broTO dea bravea. One of the bniveat. 

Un hooima dea plua digoM. A moat worthy nuuL 

Une dame on ne peut pltu dlgno. A moot worthy woman. 

Dot tribus saavogea au poaaible. Moit savage tribes. 

a. Occaoionolly it ii deiiot«d in familiar ityle by repetiticm of thi 
adjective, or by -isnme : 

Cet homme eat raai, ras& That man i« very, very ouiming. 

H est riobiseime. He ia very woaltliy. 

349. Remarks. 1. ComparstiTe aod superlative are nn- 
dutinguishable in oonstructiooB requiring in English a definite 
article before the comparative : 
La ploB fort de nee deux frires. Tbe atronger of my two brathera. 

2. De denotes 'by how much' after a comparative or 
snperlative : 

Plna igfi de tniia ans. Older by tbree years, 

n eat de beanooop le pins grand. He ia the tallest by far. 
Bat : n est beanoonp plua grand. He ia much taller, 

3. Observe the following ; 

Las basses classes. The lower classes. 

fai fiut mon possible, I did my utmoit. 


35a PredicatlTC A^jectires. They are placed, in general, 

as in English : 

EUes sont oontentea. They are pleaaed. 

f31e parut fatigute. She seemed tired. 

Brave, savant, vertnenz, 11 se fit Brave, learned, virtoons, he mads 
aimer de tons. himself bebved by alL 

a. Observe the position after aasez,. after plua. . .plua, moini. .. 

moina. and in eickmationa with combien I, commel, qnel,tuitLaa 

sompared with the order of words in ^'^g^■»^■ : 

c,6.ire:i by Google 

S6S THE ADJEcnvE. [§§351-352 

n Mt u«ez BOt poor le oroite. He is aOly enough to beliore it. 

Plus il deviiit riche moius il fat The richer he beoune Uie 1cm 

g^u^reux. ganerons was he. 

Qua voua Etea aimable I How kind you are I 

351. AttributiTe A^jectiTes. When naed literally, to 
define, distinguish, specify, emphasize, etc., they usually 
follow ; but when used figuratively, or as a merely omameDtal 
epithet^ or denoting a quality viewed as essentia] to the 
object, or when forming, as it were, one idea with the noaa, 
they nsually precede : 

Vae rue dtroite ; une dtroite a- K narrow street ; an intimate 

mitid. friendship. 

Ua roi saTant ; le savant antenr. A learned king ; the Isamed author, 

lie fameux Pitt ; un rus£ coquin. The famous Pitt ; a cunning rogua. 

a. The following, of very common use, generally precede : 

bHUL giiBiL J0IL miilleur. fin. vUiln. 

bon. gnu. ' Ion;. tnolDdre. cot. 

DDiuti Jeona. mtuTids. petit. vicni. 

352. Special Rules for Attributives. 1. Certain ad- 
jectives serve regularly to define, distinguish, etc., and heoos 
regularly follow ; such are ; — 

(1) Adjectives of physical quality : 

Cdb table carr^; one piene dure; A square table; a hard rtone; cold 

de I'ean froide (chaude); de (hot) water; black ink; a piquant 

rencrenoire;anesancepiquante. sauce. 

a. By the general rule (§351) thej sometimeB precede : 
De noira ohagrina ; Due verte Dark sorrows ; a green old age i 

vieillesaD ; le bleu oiel d'ltalie. the blue sky of Italy. 

(2) Adjectives of nationality, religion, profession, title, and 
those from proper names : 

La loi anglaiae ; on prStrs catho- The English law ; a Catholic priest; 
lique ; una splendeur royale ; royal Bpleadoac | Cieeronian 
le latin cic^romen. Latin. 

(3) Participles ased as adjectives : 

Doe 4toile filante ; on honuue in- A shootiog star ; an educatod mao; 
■trait ; one ports onverte. an open door. 


a. B7 the geaenlmle (§351} they BometimeB precede: 
ITne ^Istaote Tictoire. A aigmtl victory. 

b. Past participial forma which have become real adjectivei, &{F>i 
pr^ndu, absolu, parfoit, dissolu, feint, raai, etc., very ofteo preoedo 
(piitendu nearly always) : 

Cne teiute modestie. Feigned modesty. 

Le pretends comte. The would-be count. 

2. Adjectives sometimes follow the noun on acconat of 
their adjuncts or their function ; thus : — 

(1) "When modified by an adverb, other than aussl, sl, 
tr^ bien, fort, plus, moins, assez : 

Un discoars extrSmement long. An extremely loog Bpeeck 
But : Un trie long ducours. A vecy long speech. 

(2) When modified by an adverbial phrase, or in com- 
parisons : 

Une cODtr^ riche en vins. A district rich in wines. 

Un guerrier brave cotnme on lion. A warrior aa brava as a lion. 

(3) Nouns used appoaitively as adjectives : 
0ne puissance amie. A friendly power. 

3. Two or more adjectives, with one noun, follow, in general, 
the rules stated, but, if joined by a conjunction, they all follow, 
in case one is such aa must follow : 

Une jolie petite fille. 

Une belle maison blanche. 

Un objet blanc et ftincelant. A white and dazzling objecL 

Une dame belle et savante. A beautiful and learned lady. 

a. The more specific of two or more adjectives which follow comea 
last, contrary to English usage : 
Des icrivuns fran^ais habiles. Clever French writers. 

4. A considerable number of adjectives differ more or leea 
widely in meaning, according as they precede or follow : 

Hon cher enfant ; une robe ch^re. My dear child ; a costly dreai. 
Unefianchecoquette; une femme A thorough coqnette; a plain- 
frsuche. spoken woDum. 

u, Goo^jlc 

260 THE ADJEcnro. 

Snch uljectivM ue t 
aiMlai, dtnihr. toti ]«tia<; puUL bv*. 

boB- dlfltostt. furiuix mkl^rn. puiTn. aeuL 

bnr*. dl^iu. f&Uat. nulhoiuiftte- petiL ilmpto. 

otrtaln. divan. gitod. nwundi. ptnlwib tiliW. 

ehor. timnu. (ra*. mtaluiit. premltr. vMUbl*. 

eemiBna. (mix. lune. mort. pnipn. ttbI. >ta, 

orneL fl*r. hoanCt«. DOUTean. pur. 

Non.--DlstliicH(nu ol tUi kind dspeDd, la tha miilo, upm thi [aaanJ prlsolplM 
Ud doiiii abort, bat tbty an too nnmeioiu uid too tabOa to b« irlven Id daUil tanra 
Obaarratloa, ud Iha we ol a |Dod dloUouu; will, in Uma, maka tha learner (■mlllu' 
witli tba man impoMut ot Uwm. 

353. DeterminatiTCS. Such adjectives, iaclading Dumer- 
aJs, possesaiTeB, demonstratives, iade&nites, precede ' 
Trma plnmeB ; mei plnmea. Three peiu ; my paoB. 

Cei plumea-ci ; d'aatru plnm««. These pena ; other peni. 


354, An adjective is often followed by a oomplemeat con- 
nected with it by a preposition, tmch as k, de, en, envers, 
etc. The preposition to be osed is determined by the mean- 
ing of the adjective, as explained in the following sections. 

35S Adjective + 4, The preposition 4= 'to,' 'at,' 'for/ 
etc., is required after most adjectives denoting tendency, 
fitness, and their opposites, comparison, etc 
CetbommeeetadonndklaboiuoiL That man U addicted to drtnk. 
n est favotablc k mea projeta. He ii favorable to my projeoU. 

n eat bieD habile mix ofbires. He is verj clever in basineM. 

Un homine anpMenr k tons. A man anperior to alL 

Ce n'eat Ixm k rien. That ia good for nothing. 

Snob adjectivea are : 

•o«nitnni^a«iut«nMd({a). ditt, dMT (M). bardJ, (old (tn). 

•droit, ctoMT (<U). oniaublt, mitaOi (to). Impic^ra, unfit (fi)r% 

$t;rtM»,pltatant(lo). isii,tqual{to}. laUritai.inftriBrlU). 

tuUriaur, otKcriord*). tjMtt, etmt {in). iaMOt, vnfaii\fitHta). 

Hitat,aratnt(in). Mflt, /aUhfimfB). Inntll*, uwtai {!»> 

bsn, ««od,jtt (/<»% lort, ttmr (M> lant, fbw (<n> 


§|356-367] PREFOsrnONAi. complement. 261 

■nlWbl^AtlrOU(lIl). prtt, nody (to). HiiibUbl*, tiMlter (toX 

ttftptai, oppoMd {irt\ prompt, prvjapt (tnX utUoi la^fiU (to). 

pknll, finulor (la). proploe, jTopilioiu ((o). sto. 

porM, incKMit (la). proprai^CsTX 

a. Bon pour='good for,' 'beDeficUl to,' 'kindla' 
356. Adjective+rfe. The prepositioa de=-'of,' 'frran,' 
'with,' etc., is required after moat adjectives denoting sonroe 
or origin (hence also, feeling, sentiment, abundance), separ- 
ation (hence also, absence, distance, want, etc.), and after 
most past participles to denote the agent (cf. §240) : 
£teB-vous natif de PariiT Are yoa a native of Paris T 

Ha Bont content* de mon ancote. They are pleased at my aucocM. 

She U full of TBiiity. 

I am free from pain. 

He ia unknown to alL 

EUe eat pleine de vanity 
Je ania libre de douleur. 
n est incomiu de toua. 

Snch adjectives are: 
aDHDt, abtent (Jnm). 
tMgi, irruHd ^a^'^. 
tin,, glad W). 
•Urmi, alarmeii (at). 
ambltlsux ambitiota (nfy 
arldfl, ffrtedv (fif). 
b4nl, blatid (by), 
capable, capable (of), 
tbumi, a*ligMti (wiA). 
ota«ri, btlmxii (Jv). 
oootufly eoT^taetHal'y 
OOBtmU, teatd (triUX 

dllUnnt, diftrtnt (/rmn). 

a. Fich^contre^ 

Out, prmd (ct''X 
glorleui, proud lof). 
Ittrimi, britOing (viOt). 

t, intoxicatid (uitA). 
DUX. jealouM (qf). 

offcDsi, ojfimdAj {at}. 
pauvre, poor (in). 
Viein, fvllW). 
rari, d»t<gliUd (mth). 
MUMaLt, latiiJUd (viU). 
•ouoieu, anxUmt (aboul^ 
■ouilU, teilni (with). 



Tids, mplf ((/). 

angry at or with {a, person).' 

357. Adjective +e/?. En is required after a few adjeO' 
tives denoting abundance, skill, etc. : 
Le Cauada eat fertile en bl& Ouiada ia fertile In wheat, 

n eat expert en chimrgie. He is expert in surgery. 

Bnch adjectives are 1 

abmdant. Mmiidinff (inX fort, itnna (in). IranMd lin). rlche, rith (fn). 

Haaad,^f(fttl((»), IcnonoC, f^noroM (ta> mvaat, {MTiwd (ta^ 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


a. fort and ignonuit sometimes h«ve sur : 
n etrt fort sur l^tistoire. He U well vened (good) in history, 

^norant sw ces mati^res-li. Igaorant about those m&tters. 

358. AdJKtive + enuers. Envers is used after mort 
adjeotiveB denoting disposition or feeling towards : 
n est libdral eanrs tons. He is liberal towards sit 

Such adjectives are t 

tJbiHa, affaiU. honDSte, po^te. poll, pulUt. 

boa, kind. IndalgenC, induIiraM. prodl^e. laviA. 

shulUbli, sJborfCaW*. Ingnt, UTtgnttfuL —•——'-—"■. froC^ftiL 

oItII, dviL IniolcDt, mmUnt. napectumx, rttfttifiiL 

□rue), cruel. Ju«t«, ^ufC RapofUAble, rapmaiblt. 

dor, hard, harth. m^ohuit, flUt/feJincL idgoumu, tUm. 

gtBirnai, gmtroia. mli^ricordiaux, nMre<M> siiAic, mhiv, (Mm. 

(roMler, rud«. offloieui, sMvuij). elo. 

a. Bon, dor, very freqaently take pour ; indulfeot may take poot 
or k ; cin], livire, may take ii regard de : 
n est bon (dnr) pour moi. He is kind (liarsh) to me. 

Indulgent pour (^) ses entante. Indulgent to his childreo. 

Civil [s^vire) i, IMgard de tea Civil (harah) to his servants. 



359. Personal Pronouns. 

1. Conjunctive forms ; 

In Pn. iaa Pis. Bsp Pis. (m.> Bsn Pts. {L). au [lir.(m.lX 

rJi. }a.L tu,tiio(i. U.h>,it. eiieiibe, lb 

t^ ma,(to)iiu. te,(tD)ttin. Inl, (to) him. Inl, (to) Iwr. Ba,(tD>«dL 

k. me, nw. to, ttwe. le, him, IL la, her, it SB, -kU- 

rJI. nODB, -n. TOUB, yon. lis, thrj. ellSS, thay. 

• Tons, (lo) rou. leni. (to) tbem. leur, (to) tham. ia,(Co)-«Ins 


I., Glxh^Ic 

2. Diajunctive forms ; 

2i([i Pn. Su Pm. (m.X Su Pn. 0.). n» Ba. (m,LX 
him. allaiiluilwr. Md,OD«'iwU,*(a 

uM,yoa. anz,tlw;,tb«ii. •IlM,tbay,tb«iD. 


2. Diajunctive forms ; 

InPm. 2i([iPn. SuPm. 
ITA. Vmol, 1. m*. tOi,tboa,tl»e.liil,he. 


IN.cDomlnalin; D.^cUtlvn; A. •'■ooiUBUTe ; P.-^obJecbot ■ pRpodtloo.] 
Hon.— A more acieatiflo Urmluolo^ would be ' ungtrnKd' and ' Btnaied' InMud 
Of ^CODjulictivB * uid ' dujuzulivflp' u indiaALDj tha real dUbLocciOD b«tH«ell lb« two 
■eta of lorniB. t,g., ' Je (onstniMd) parte ' ; ' Qui puis !— Hoi ' (Btreaaed). Aa a matter 
Hi fact, tbe luutmaad forma iiaualL; atand in inmicdUt* cooneotlon wtlh ths verb (u 
wbisot or obJeotX hence tbatenn'oonJunoUre/ while the ilxeaaed forma »™ Mually 
•mplofed otbenriM, benoe tbe term 'diBjunctlie,' The diatinoClon ol 'i 
and ' MrcaNd ' ia oommon to moat other kiudi of pronaoM u veil, 

36a Pronominal Adverbs. 

J =to (at, on, in, into, etc.) it or them ; there, thither. 
etl=i>f (from, etc.] it or them ; some, my, some of it, « 
Hience, from there. 

361. Agreement. The personal pronoan regularly agrees 
with its antecedeut in gender, number, ajid person ; 
Nooi IcB avons frapp^e)B. We have struck them. 

EUe Ut U lettre ; elle U lit. She reads the letter ; she reads it. 

a. Hie first person plural for the first person singular is used by 
sovereigns and aatborities, and bj writers, as in EngUah : 
NoOB (le roi) avons otdonnd et We (tbe king) have ordained and 

ordonnons ce qui suit. ordain as follows. 

Comme nons avoos dit liijL As we have said already. 

& Vo OB^j 'yon' (singular or plural) has a plural verb; Jta other 
■greementB, at also those of nous above, are according to tbe sense ; 
Nons (la reine) sommea oonteute. We (the qneen) are satisfied. 
Madame, tooi Mes tnea Ikmiiw. Madam, yon are very kind. 

& For impMative fint plnral instead of first singular, see S267> a. 

u, Gooijlc 

264 THB PEOKOUN. [§363 

d, II and le kfs naed at inTOruble Dentml fonni, wlien the aotooadBnt 
b on* to which gender ouioot be aacribed : 
T eoa-b-il! — Jelecroia. la there uij (of It] I I think ao. 

363. Case Relations of Coqjunctives. l. The nomi- 
native tormB itand as subject and the acciuative forms aa 
direct object to a verb ; their use is obvious : 
n nous ft vna. He saw us. 

a. The conjuuctlve Is optional when there are two occusaUves ; 
Je (lea) bUme lul et elle. I blame him and her. 

2. The dative forms denote the person or thing for whoM 
* advantage' or 'disadvantage' the action is done, denoted l^ 
^ — * to,' ' for,' ' from,' with nouns : 

Ja leur prfiterai lea livrea. I shall lend them the booka. / Vi''-'^ 

On lid a void son aigeat. Hit monej haa been atolen fronihini. 

^ Bat JL -I- a disjunctive form is used in the following cases : 

(1) When two datives are joined by a coi^nnction, or when 
in emphasis a second dative is implied : 

J'eu ai parM fc Int et 4 elle. I ipitke of it to him and te her. 

Je donne le livre & elle (paa k ltd). I give the book to her (not to him). 

(2) When the conjonctire ijjiyct object is any other pronoun 
than le, la, les : -'|^ 

Je Tona prdaente k elle. I introdooe joa to her. 

U aa prjaenta 4 uoL He intnidnoed himself to ma. 

Bnt : Je le (la, lea) lenr prtente, eto. 

(3) After verbs of motion and some others, to denote the 
'object towards which the action tends,' the relation, though 
expressed by j^ not being really dative ; 

Je oooms i, InL I ran to lum. 

Cette msiaoD eat k moL That hotiw belong! to tat. 

- U penae [•onge, rtve) i eoz. Ha tJiinki (mosM, dreama) of them. 


§§363-365] THE PEBSONAL l-BONODN. 

Such verb* u« i 
■ODOatmiHr, ocnutom. oompanr. nmpan. rnmln 

uplrar, <upin. habituir, occiutom. nveoir, wrm back. 

ukrar, oKnut. mHCber, march. rtver, dream, 

Holi iflalK, Ash to do. pemer, Unut, lontrer, muw. 

nvolr raoonr*, i^De r#caun£. p»Ddn gaii:!^, pay lued. TenLr, fonUL 

a. Certain verbs of thia clam, when not literal, take tbe conjnnotiT* 

U Ini vint one id^ There occurred to him an idea. 

Toiu nous revieadrez. You will come to nee qb again. 

NOT!.— Ttas (thiol diliva, dvnotlns Uia penon ' Intenatad la ' or ' aflecled b^ an 
aoUoa, iwe In Bagllata, la omDmOD in Fnocb : ' OouMi-mol c« vId-U,' ' JuaC taat* 
that wins'; ' Na ma lalM* pliia »li," Dont dn tbU agidii (I tell roa}.' 

363. Impersonal //. For invariable 11 as the subject of 
«D imperaonal verb, see §§248-253. 

364. Predicative le, la, les. Aa predicate the aoonaatiTa 
third person is either variable or invariable ; — 

1. Le agrees when referring to a determinate noon or to 
an adjective used as such ; 

£tes-vous aa m^re ? — Je la auU. Are^oD his mother!— I am. 
£tee-vous Umarito? — Jelaauii. Are you the bride! — I sm. 
BoDt-ceU vo«Uvt«8! — Celeasont, Are thoee your books F—Thej are. 

2. Le, invariable, is used when referring to an adjective, 
or to a noun as adjective ; 

£taa-vous fotignte ! — Je le sui«. Are yoo tired !— 1 am. 
Stes-voos m*re! — Je le auis. Are you a mother!— I am. 

8oal-ik Anglais? — Ila le aont. Are they English? — They are. 

365. Pleonastic le. The neutral form le (§361, d) i« 
(rften pleonastic, as compared with English usage : 
fites-vnuB m^? — Je le sois. Are you a mother?^! am. 

Qu'ils soient veaua, je le saio. That they have come, I know. 

Fais dn Inen, quand tu le peox. Do good, when yon can. 

Ob qn'i) voolait, il le vout encore. What he wished, he still wiihea. 



S66 THE FBONOUN. [§§366-867 

Je sQu prite, Vil le taut, I am ruwly, if neod be. 

J'ii&i ai voua le (Utirez. I Bball go, if you wiBh (it), 

Hb BOut comme je (le) tUiirerais. Thej are as I should like. 

D eat plus &g6 que je ne (le) buIb. He is older tluui I ant. 

Obi.: Thills ii optkmal in compumilTa cluue*. 

a. Lfl is also used in a iiimiber of fixed expressioui : 
n ae le o6de i perBonua. He yields to nobody, 
NouB I'avoDH emport^ We have carried the day. 
n I'a dohappd belle. He had a narrow escape. 

b. Le may sometimes be translated by 'one 'or 'so' : 

n est soldat ; je le suis aussL He is a soldier ; I am one toa 

Soil brave, et je le aeru anasi. Be brave, and I ahall be so too. 

366. Reflexives, l. A special conjunctive reflexive form, 
Se for dative or accusative of either gender or number, £■ 
nqaired in the third person only; for the first and second 
person the ordinary forms are osed (cf. §342) : 
E (elle) M loae. He (she) praises him (her) -self. 

Ha (elles) se le sont dit. They said so U» each other. 

But : Je me looe ; tn te lones ; nous nous lonons ; vous voua lonez. 

2. The disjunctive sot is hardly ttsed beyond the third 
singolar in an indefinite or general sense : 
Chtunm tiavaille ponr soi. Every one works for himself. 

On doit parler rarement de soi. Oneshould rarely speak of one'sadl 
De Boi le vice est odieux. In itself vice is hateful. 

But : Elle est contoite d'elle-mtaie ; ils ne songent qu'k eux-mbnes, etOi 

a. The use of soi is rarer for the feminiDe than for the masculine : 
Un bienfait porte sa rfcompense A good deed brings its reward with 

avec soi (lui). it. 

La guerre entratna aprte elle (soi) War brings after it countless evils. 

des maux sans nombre. 

Non.— 80I Is no longer naed of pcnons danoted by ■ rsnmi] DoaD. <.|r., ' L'aru* 
n* vie qua pour Inl-mtms ' (not ' pour aol 'X nor li iC UHd. u tornHTly, of penona ta 
STtM UDbLfuitf , e.g.p 'ijmriqaa aon frAra aoib dam ia mia^ra^ 11 oa penaa qu'L Inlr 


367. Uses of en. 1. En is in function an equivalent 
of de+ a pronoun of the third person of either gender or 
oumber ; it is used of things, and less commonly of persons : 

,;.!;, GtJO^IC 


Je parle des pinnies ; j'en pule. I Epeak of the pens ; I ipetJc of them, 

DoaaeE-lsi-moi ; j'en oi bewin. Give me them ; I uoed them. 

n eat moa ami ; j'en r^pondi. He U my friend ; I muwer for him. 

H oime ies fill, et il en eat B,nai, He lovea hia aona, and U loved by them. 

Vona voilA ; j'en auia content. There yoa ore ; I am gkd of il. 

Vient-ildeTorontoI — Ilenvient. Doea he come from T.? Hedoea. 

a. The amteoedent ia often onderatood or indefinite : 
Voyona ! oti en itiona-nona! Let me aoe, where were weT 

Da en aont veniu auz maina. They came to blows. 

H m'en vent. He haa a grudge againat me, 

Tant a'en &ut Par from it. 

Cen eat fait de luL It ia all np witli him. 

A TODa en croire. If one ia to believe yon. 

Qnoi qa'il en aoib However it may be. 

Je n'en penx ploa. I am done out^ 

n y eD a qui le croient. There are aome who think to. 

2. Through a Bomewhat epeciid applicatioa oi the general 
principle, it is further used : — 

(1) In a partitive sense : 

Toici du papier; en voulez-voua ! Here is some paper; do yon wiah any 

— Merci, j'en ai of it t^Thank you, I have aome. 

Avex-vDua une plame T — Pen al Have you a pen I — I have one (I 

Que (j'en ai plusienis). have aeveral). 

II me faut ea aoheter d'aotrea. I must buy others. 

(2) En — 'thereof ' + the definite article replaces a poeseasive 
at^ective referring to a poeaessor in the preceding sentence, 
but only when the thing possessed is a direct object, a subject 
of Mre, or a predicate noun : 

Paime ce pays ; j'en admire lea I like thia country ; I admire its 

inatitationa. inatitntiona. 

HAmez lea p£ch4a de era gene, maia Blame the aina of those people, bnt 

n'en bl&mez pas lea malhenra. do not blame their misfortnnea. 

Cette affiure est delicate I leaoooia That a&ir ia delicate i ita aocoraa ia 

en eat douteux. donbtfoL 

Ceciestla gloire du pays ; oela en This ia the country's glory ; that ia 

eit la ivxte. iU di^race. 

Bat; 'CettemalsDnaBea ddfanta' (the poaaeaoor not being in the ^» 

u, Gooijlc 

268 THE raoNOUN. [§§368-369 

TiouB sentence) ; ' J'ume ces vers ; leurharmonia me ravit' (the thing 
poeeessed being anbject of another verb than £tre) ; ' J'odinire ce paya ; 
il eat fameuK pone ses bonnea lois ' (the thing poBBesaed being governed 
by a preposition). 

368. Use of y. Y is in function eqnivdlent to k (en, 
dans, etc.) ■*■ a pronoun of the third person of either gender ot 
Dumber ; it is aaed of things, and rarely of persons : 

Je pense k mea p6ah4a ; j'y pense. I think of my sins ; I tbiidt of th«m. 

n est en Europe ; il y est, et moi He is in Europe ; he ia there, and I 

j'y vais auesi. am going there too. 

n H oonnatt en ces choses, mats He is an expert in those things, bnk 

moi je ne m'y connais pas. I am not. 

n aspire i, cela 1 il y aspire. He aspires to that ; he aspires to iL 

Vooa fiez-vous i Ini ?— Je m'y fie. Do you trust him ?— I trust him. 

a. The antecedent is often nudeistood or indefinite : 

n yva de votre vie. Your life is at stake. 

J'y Buis 1 Qu'jr a-t-ilT I have it ! What U the niatterT' 

n a'j prend adroitement. He goes abont it cleverly. 

Est-ce que Monsieur B. j eat ! Is Mr. B. at home ? 

y pensea-voue ! You don't mean it T 

369. Position of Conjunctive Objects. 1. They atand 
immediately before their governing verb, except the imperative 

affirmative : 

3e lear en parlerai X shall speak to them of it. 

Je I'y ai envoy^ pour le leur dire. I sent him there to tell them it. 

n hii foul parler; il Eaut lui parler. He most speak ; one most spenk to 

Ota .' Bansmber tlut Che uulliary li the Terb in compoond tenie*. 

a. With negative infinitive, the object may stand between ne and 
pas (pwnt, rien, etc ) ; similarly adverb + infinitive ; 

is iUmai de ne point le voir I am astonished not to see him. 

To consider them welL 
& TheDbiectaofaninfimtivegovemedb;faife,laiaser(cf. §230,6,7)01 
a verb of perceiving (entendre, voir, etc), accompany the finite' verb; 
Je le lui feru dire. I shall make him say it. 

n se le voit refuser. He sees himself refused it. 

Hkitec-vous-la laconter. Have it related to yon. 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


c A similar HTangainaiit ii permiuible with aller, Tenlr, enmjer, 
etc. +aa infinitive : 

J'mven.iteoh.rch.rorl I ,iJl „d for hl». 

Je rBDverroi chercber. } 
Envoyez-le chercher. Send for it. 

NOTM.— Id the aUar lugaiss, objecita ol ui iaBnltlic oRen itood before the KHUDed 
nucU] Hiiilluieg. i^. , ' Je Tons dcrii din,' out uBge hudl; pennllg Itaii now, except 
tor en, 7,; 'Cequ'oosndDJlaCUadre.' 

2. Conjimctive objects stand immediately after an imperative 
affirmative ; 

Begardez-lea ; ^contez-nons. Look at tliem ; listen to ua. 

Donnez-le-lui ; sllons-nous-en. Give it to Mm ; let ua go away. 

Bat : Ne les regardez pas. Do not look at thenL 

Ne DOus 4coatez point. Do not listen to ua. 

He le lui donnez pas. Do not give it to him. 

a. The rule does not apply to the subjiinctiye as impve. (§272, I, a) i 
Qu'il les 6conte. Let bim liaten to them. 

Nona.— 1. Foimerlf , but rsrely now, ui Impentlve kfflrmaUte when ](dn*d W 
another by et (on. mall) might hate in object betore It: 'Achetei.lei et Ie> 

£■ Void Mid volUk, which nm ImpentlTea hj derinllcHi, ue ilwkra preceded ta; 
tbdr oaajDucUve ob]«ot ; 'Ida ridoi ; «n niil^ elo.' 

370. Relative Position of Objects, Personal pronoun 
objects and pronominal adverbs are arranged with reference 
to each other, as follows : — 

1. When coming before the verb : 

me 1 before fie \ before flni "1 before y^l before ea. 

D me les donne. He givea them to m& 

n lea Itii donne. He givea them to him. 

n nons en domie. He gives ue some of it 

Je lew en parleraL I shall apeak to them of it. 

Ne leDf en parlez pas. Do not speak of it to them. 

Je Vy ai envoy ^ pour le lent dire. I aent him there to tell them ik 

,;.!;, GOOIJIC 




a. When then ftra two direct or two indirect objeeti, they becooM 
dliJDiictive and follow the verb : 

J*^ vn hli et die. I have •een him and her. 

JW ti parU k Inl «t it elle. I apoke of it to him and to h«r. 

2. When ooming after the verb : 

k (la lea) before moi (toi, Ini, nons, toui, law). 

me tt«, Ini, noo*, Tona, Ibdt) before j (en). 
J before en. 

Domiez-les-nUM. Give them to ma. 

DoDiieS'lenr-en. Give them some of it. 

Donnez-m'en ; va-t'ok Give me aome i begone. 

Take na there. 
Go away. 

K After an Imperative, the indirect object* nons, tou, ma; precede 
the direct le, U, lea in familiar language : 
Conaervez-vons-le. Keep It for jronraelvea. 

Tenez-Tons-le pour dit. Couaider it a* final. 

3. Beference table showing possible combinationa of two 
pEonounB : 

(Before the Verb.) 

(After the Verb.) 



le lui 


-le -toi 




la Ini 

-la -moi 

-la -toi 

-la -lui 









le teur 




Tons la 


la lenr 

■U -noua 

-la -voUB 

la -lenr 



























lee en 






Pai y] 


















le. y 



le. -, 

,;.!;, GlXH^IC 

§|37l-372] THE PEKSOVAL PBOlfOUK. 271 

(Ma. .- 1. Tha dlajaaotlv* lonoi mol, tol an umI lutMd ol Bu^ t* ilUr lb« TNh^ 
•uqit balon so. 

S. Atter tha mb, tlwtoniia>nJolDedIoitaiidb}awiliMharb;h;pli«ii*,qM(t(i>Iik« 
taatMul of bjidten baing uaad ■awcdlni to |U. 

S. ComMoatlona ^ Uirae fomia ara rara, i.;,, 'H noufl yuiadamiA'; Uia^m 
mnallf HoMtd, e.g., ' Donaea-y-N) 4 mol ' for ' Daiuia-m'7-WL' 

i. Tbi lortna la [ ] an almoat alwiyi aToLdol, aitbar by tranaporttloQ or by aoin« 
otbar form ot axprtwlim, t.ji., ' MtiHa'-y-niOl ' or ' lUba-mol Ijk ' tor ' Miint-m'y,' afai. 

•SmIIN, 1 

371. Omission of Object. The object o£ the second of 
two verbs in a compound tenae joined by et or ou may be 
omitted along with the auxiliary and the subject ; 

11 1'a prii ct tn4 He caught ood killed it. 

Or 1 II I'a priH et I'a tni. He caught it and killed it. 

II I'a pria et il I'a tu& He has canght it and he has killed it. 

Bnt : II I'a pm, I'a tu& He baa caught it, has killed ib 

II le prend, et le toe. He catches it, and kills ib 

it bava Ibe uina MuDlar]', vdbM 
la allowed. 

372. Di^unctives. When, for any reason, the pronoun 
is BtreBsed (§7), the disjunctive form is usually employed (see 
§369, note) ; thus, the disjunctives are used : — 

1. Absolutely, a verb being implied, bnt not expressed : 
QnieatU!— Moifenx, elle). Whois there!— I (they, ehe). 
Qui aa-tn vuT — Lni (eux). Whom did yon see?— Him (them). 
Toi absent, que ferai-je! Yoa absent, what ahalll doT 

a. So also, in corapariBoaa, and onalogoualy, after ne. . -que: 
Je snia pins grand qoe toL I am toller than yon. 

ffaitea comme enx. Bo as they do. 

Je n'ai vn que Int. I have seen him only. 

2. In appositions, often emphatic : 

Hoi, je I'ai vn (moi-mSmel. (Why) I saw It myseU. 

Toi qui I'as vu, tu me crois. Yon who saw it (joo) beliere ms. 

Lni aoBsi (il) le sut. He too knows it. 

0«la vons est (acile k vons. That is essy for you 

u, Google 

272 THE PRONOUN. §378 

a. With lui K> used, and sometimea liao with cut, the ccmjnnotiTC 
tabjeot may be omitted : 

Lai seal (il) ne le voulait psa. He alone did not vieb it. 

Lni travaillait ; eux jonaient. He worlced ; thej plajed. 

HoTB.— Jei(mMl(Il£-'I (ba undenigiwd ' is > nlio ol Uw earlier luqpiagi. 

3, As logical subject after cc 4- £tre : 

Crefltmoi{toi, voub): ceBontenz, eta It ia I (thon, jrou] ; itiatht^. 

4. With an iii£iutire: 

Moi t'oublier 1 jamada. I forget thee ! Never. 

Et ens de s'enfuir. And the; made a£ 

6. When the subject or object is composite, see also §S6% 
1, o and 2, (1) : 
Son frire et ltd sont reniiB. His brother and he have come. 

a, A composite anbject or object ia usually lummed up by a pleouaatto 
sppoaitive oonjimctive, eepeciidly when the component* are nnlike ia 

You and he saw iL 

I Bend yoQ and your brother. 

6. After a preposition : 

Je parle de toi et d'enx. I speak of you and of them. 

Us Hont chez eux. They are at home. 

II se moque de nova. He makes sport of ub. 

a. Observe the peculiar use of a prepositbn+a disjunctive pTonoon 
as a sort of emphatic appoeitire of possesaioo. 
J'ai nne maison k moL I have a bouse of my own. 

Mon idie i moi, c'est, etc. My (own) idea ia, etc 

Nim.— A diiJunctlTe tor Ihingi itMr ■ pnpoaltlaix ia neiully kvirided. •Ittatr by iuhii* 
Of en. 7, or sIh b; an adrsrb. nch w dMlans. dehors, dMaos, deVaut, dertUra, 
■tc : ' Ja ne voli rlen lit dadana (in it) ' ; ' Vojes su U Uble, cbeiobei dMSOB (on 
It) el deiwnw {under !(>.■ 

7. For moi and toi after imperative, see §370, 3, oba. 1. 

373. Pronouns in Address. In addressing one person 
TOUS is< in general, the pronoun of formality and respect, 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 


whilst tu denotes familiarity, affection, solemnity, etc., 
OS follows : — 

1. Tu = 'yon,' of one person, is generally used between 
tnembers of the same family (husband and wife, parents and 
children, brothers and sisters), between very intimate f riendi, 
between children, by grown persons to children and sometimes 
to servants, by everybody to animals and inanimate objects : 
Ot es-tu, moo obet pire I Where are you, my dear father T 
Eat-oe toi, mon eitfaatl Is that you, my child I 

Paavre clu«n, tu m faim. Poor dog, you are haugry. 

2. Tu = ' thon ' is used in poetry and elevated prose, and ^ 
1:^ Protestants in addressing God, Roman Catholics using 

Nous to (voub) lonoiu, Dien ! We ptaise thee, God 1 

3. Vous, with the above limitations, is used, both in dte 
^gular and plural, as in English. 


374. Possessives. 

1. Adjectival Forms; 2. Pronominal Format 

Snto. Plus. Siko. Plur. 

m. mon f m. le mien lea miens 1 

f. ma (mon)/"*^ ""y- L laiuienneleaniieimea;"™* 

m. ton 1 , ,. m, letten lestiens V,. 

m. son '1 'I hii, her, tn. le sien lessiena lluB.hertiita, 

t wHson)/ ' /ita,one'a f. la sieuie les aieanesj one's own. 

p JTotre WW, your. ^ ^ Tdtrel '*' "•"■• y™™" 

'^ ]-leiir lenn, theira ^ |^ j^l les leurs, thun. 


r.,„: ,;.!;, Google 

274 ■ THE PRONOUN. [§§376-378 

Obi.! L Tb* toima In puraOMli, Ot>i. : 1. The lanlulM, aiovpt tor iMU; 

Inou, ton, MHI, m DBvd In^teMd o' II1&» Li formed iM for AdjAotlTca of Uk« endiiif . 

ta. ••, belora * vowtl or h mute : 'Tttax i. I>«, i,+U, IM, oontrut u nnul ; Ural, 

KiDle,' 'mr McDd (I,)'; 'ton Iliiloirs dn mica (-de+le mian), aox duhumi 

(I.),' 'yournoiT' ; 'Km aJnmblB Umte,' (-1,-*-IbB mknnciX sto- 8- Nate tbe ao- 

' hi* unikble uniit.' £■ Bin« BOn (Ift wat muk In nficn, Tfttn, (beeoc In notn, 

•Ml-'bli,' 'faer,' 'Iti,' 'oneV tbeoon- votra. «. Sln« la Han (U Eieune, eU.) 

text detennUua which Hnte la intended. = ' his," ' ben,' ' Iti," ' ons"*,' Ihs wmtext 

Hon.— Tha repilu tamlnlnB lormi. nut. tO. t&, ware at noa tfane med befora > 
Towalwnind: ■ tncaol thiiunreauTriieginmaiinleCIiuIll'UlllaXin'UIlOtU; 

375. Agreement. The possesaivea agree in gender and 
number with the noun denoting tbe object possessed, and in 
person with the possessor : 

Elle a Boa crsjon et lea miena. She haa her pencil and mine, 

n B aa plume et les vOtres. He haa hU pen and yours. 

a. The poaaeaaiva adjective ranst be repeated precisely like the 
definite article (cf. g3l8) : 

Mea parents et mes amis. My relatives and friends. 

b. When the poaseseor h indefinite, son (sa, etc.] and le sien (Ik 
•ienne, etc.), ore used : 

On doit tenir sa parole. One moat keep one's word. 

Be charger des afiairea d'autmi et To undertake the buaioera of othen 
ufgliger lee siannea. and neglect one's own. 

376. Use of Adjectival Forms. They are used, in 
general, like the corresponding English forms; idiomatic 
distinctions and special rules are : — 

1. The possessive adjective is oommouly replaced by the 

definite article (cf. §328) when no ambiguity arises from its 

Lonnez-mai la main. Give me your baud, 

n m'a d^hird le Tuage. He has acratched my faoe. 

Bat : II a ddchird son habit. He has torn hia coat. 

a. If the aense is apecific, emphatic, or distinctive, the posseiBive is 

Uon braa me fait maL My arm pains me. 

Voila enome ma miKcaine t There is my sick-headache again I 

u, Gooijlc 


Je r^ vn de me* propra yenz, I taw it with my own aye*. 
EUe lot « donnd u mun. She haa given him her huid («& 1b 


3. Rn + the definite article eerves in certain oases as a 
snbstitnte for son, leur, eee §367, 2, (2): 

a. This Gonstmctioii is more tunsl for things than for penona ; for 
things personified, for names of places, or to avoid ambignjt}', ton, lenr 

La n^cesait^ paile ; il fant suivre NecMtity speaks ; we must follow 

aa loi. her law. 

Voua rappelei-Tons cette viUe T Do you remember that cityT Its 

Ses promenodee 8ont tr^s belles. promenades are very fine. 

Ia source de toutes lea poraions Sensation is the sonrcc^ of all the 

est la sensibility, I'imaginatioD passions, imagination determine! 

determine leur pente. their tendency. 

3. The emphatic 'own' is denoted by proprc or 1^ an 
appoeitioD with k : 

Je I'ai ^rit de ma propre main. I wrote it with my own hand. 
Cest mon opinion & moL Tliat is my own opinion. 

CL also ; J'ai on cheval & moL I have a horse of my own. 

Cest k mol il joaer. It is my turn to play. 

a. Along with Km the k constmction often avoids ambiguity i 
Sonpire iluL His [i.e., not 'her') father. 

4. Moa (ma) is commonly nsed, in direct address, befora 
the name of a relative (not before papa, maman) or the title 
of a snperior officer : 

Bonjour mon p^re (men colonel). Good morning father (colonel). 
But : Est-oe toi papa (maman) T Is that you papa (mamma) I 
Kora.— Thli tHg« •iplum the origla of mouleiir (■'Dion-l-lleill), nutdaiiic 

(-ma-l-dame}, ttc 

5. In speaking to a person of his or her relatives, TOtTC 
(VOS) is often preceded by monsieur, etc., for politeness: 

e mtoe y est-elle t Is your mother in t 


That watch U 

Sff6 TEE PBONOUK. [§877 

6. When there b plurality of poasessor, the object possessed 
usually remains singular, if it is siDgolar as regards the 
individu»l possessor : 
Lea hommes songent moins i lenr Men think lesB of their tonla than 

Ante qu'i leur corps. of tlieir bodiea. 

Us ont perdu la vie. They lost their Uvea. 

a. Sometimes the sense demands a plural : 
Leors titea se reBsemblent. Iheir beads are alike. 

377. Use of Pronominal Fonns. They are used, m 

general, like the corresponding English forms; idiomatio 
distinctions and special rules are the following : — 

1. 'Mine,'etc., after ttre is regularly expressed by d; + moi, 
etc., whoD denoting ownership simply, while le mien, etc, 
denotes a distinction of ownership ; 

Cette montre eat k moL 
Cette montre eat la mienu 

2. The pronominal form sometimes stands without articis 
in the predicate after certain verbs ; 

Ces opinioDS sont vOtrea. Those ophuona are yours. 

Elle deviendra mienne. She shall become mine, 

Je lea ai fait miens. I made them mine. 
Such verba are : 

3. The idiom 'a friend of mine,' etc, is not literallj 
translated : 
Un de mes amia. A friend of mine. 

n-^jj^i^j _■ fOneof my friends, (who ia) a doctor. 

\jn meaeoin ae mea amia 1 » a .. r - * , . 

(A doctor, a fnend of mine. 
tJn ami it moi. A friend of mine. 

Mon ami que voici. Thia friend of mine. 

Cf.i Un tour de aa fa^on. One of hia trioka. 

a. The use of mien (tien, sien) attributively in thia aenae ia faTiilifT : 
Dn mien parent A relative of mine. 

Une aienne couaine. A cooain of hia. 


4. Emphatic 'own' is rendered hj propre, or is, more 
usnally, nntr&nsl&ted ; 
Scin avjB et le mien (propre). His r^inion uid my own. 

6. When used absolutely, i.e., without antecedent, the 
singular denotes 'property,' 'what is mine,' etc., and the 
plural 'relatives,' 'friends,* 'allies,' etc.: 
Je ne demaode que le miea. I aak only for what is mine. 

Lea n4treB ae aont bien luttuB. Out soldiers (etc ) fought welL 

a. Familiarly, the feminiue means ' pranks,' etc. : 
n fait encore dea aiennes. He ia at hia pranka again. 

Nan.— Olhei kbsDlula iu« ue not p«miidb1«, «.;.,' Votn lettn (not ' U TOtn ") d« 

37a DemonstratiTCS. 

1. Adjectival forma : 

2. Pronominal forma : 

Sua. Pum. 

S[>a. PbcR. 

rss*'}*-^ ~ 

rS")"'™'"- S} 

rsr';.:^-"}'"'— ■»• 

rsri'-i"}--' «-•■«■ 

nLeelnl-lii^ . ,_,. „„ eeme-li 1 

-^ OB.thls(th«»).th»HUio«).lie(Blie,lt.tlwy). 
1 CWHthta. 

OU .- The lorn cet Is used Man t, 

iowbI or h routs : C«t aibre ; c«t 

S e«U,tlimL 

Uonuiu -, aet aulm (U 1 bul : ne 061, : The a of OB l» elided before ft towsI 
etaeae ; oe tatn. or H „,„„, (jig, ; (,. becomee ^ before a 

«5,4): -ifiili.- 

379. Agjeement. The adjectival form agrees in gender 
and number with the noun before which it stands ; the pro- 
nominal form i^irees in gender and number with the noun 
instead of which it stands: 

This pen and that of John. 

I like these booka, but I do not like 


S78 THE FBOirovN. [§§880-382 

a. Tha demomtiatiTe adjective innit be lepeated like the definite 

uticU(clg31S). * 

38a Use of Adjectival ce. Ce (cette, etc.) -'this' 

or 'that'; to distinguish 'tbis' from 'that' -ci and -14 are 
respectively added to the noun ; 

Lis ce livre-ci ; lis ce liTre-U. Bead tbia book i r««d thftt book. 

J'aJme ces tableADX-lft. I like tboBe pictures. 

a. Ce {cette, et&), referring to what baa already been meotiooed, 
gometimes baa the force of ' that ' i 

Le t^ldgraphe, cette grande dd- The telegraph, that great diecoreiy 
converte de notre Steele. of our century. 

(. The definite article replaces the demonstrative adjective in a few 

Ne psrlez pas de la BOrte. Do not apeak in that way. 

J'irai k I'inaUnt. I shall go this (very) moment 

381. Celui The prononn celui (celle, etc.) - ' that," 'that 
fSD%' 'the one,' 'he,' ia regularly used only along with a 
relative clause or a dc clause : 

Ceni: qui rient pleureront. Those who laugh will weep. 

Celle dont je parle est veuue. She of whom I ape&k has come. 

Le devoir d'aimer Dieu et celui The duty of loving God and that of 

d'aimer son prochain. loving one's neighbour. 

Cette robe et celle que j'ai vue. This dresa and the one I saw. 
Mea plmnea et celles de mon fr^re. My pens and my brothei'B. 

OU ! Nota cha uh of oelnl'=Eli|i:U^ paveariie noun nitsUntlvelr. 

11. The relative sentence ia aometimea ellipticoUy ezpreaaed by the 
past participle : 

Lea dfcoDvertea iaamiTiet aoat The discoveries enumerated are 
cellea faitea par Edison. tboae made by Ediaoo. 

b. Cehli-lk replaces celui when the predicate cornea before the 
relative : 

Cdni-IJL eat riche qui est tonjonrs He (that man) ia rich who Is always 
content. happy. 

38a Celui^, celui-liL The pronoonB cclut-ci <celle-d, 

etc.) — 'this,' 'this one,' 'he/ 'the latter' and celui-14 (CeUft' 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 


U^ et«.)~'tliat,' 'that one,' ' the former,' are used tocontnut 

the nearer vith the more remote : 

Toici les deux chatiiea;g&rdez eel- Here eu« the two chains; keepthii 
le-ci, et r«nvoyei celle-Uu (one), uid send back that (one). 

Tent-ilcenz-cionceuz-UT Does be with these or tboM I 

Gc^rosetViigile^biientBaiDainBi Cicero and Virgil were RomAoit 
celni-ci dtait poite, ot oeloi- the former wm an orator, and 
U orateor. the latter a poet. 

Obt.: TtM Idiom In tlM Uat •ninple li UUnll; ' tba Uttsr. . ., th> lormtr.' 
a. 'Tbia' or 'that' for emphasiB, iiot contrast, iecelui-lli: 

Ceat una bonne loi (que) celle-U. This (that) is a good law. 

383. Ce £B Representative Subject Ce= 'this,' th»t,' 

'these,' 'those,' 'he,' 'she,' 'it,' 'they,' according to the coo< 
text, is used with £tre, or with devoir, pouvoir, savoir^- 
£tre, as representative snbjeot, when the logical subject is :— 

1. A proper noun, or a determinate noun, iucluding 
adjectives as such : 

Oest Marie et sa mireL It is Uary and her mother. 

Ce sera un beau apecUcIe. That (it) will be a fine sight 

Ce sont DOS plumes. These (those) are our pens, 

ifetait-ce le meillenr T Was it the best ? 

Ce sont des Allemaads. They (those) are Germans. 

Oest mon ami(e). He (she) is my friend. 

Ce peut Stre Jean. That may be John. 

a. Before ttre+an indeterminate noun il (ila, ellea) is the regular 

II eat temps de I'en aller. It is time to go, 

Ua sont amis (Allemands). They are friends (Oermans). 

Elle est contnri^re. She is a seamstress. 

Hon.— Fdi a l«r sTpmsloni like e>Mt domiuse, (W.. In which c'Mt (tuda 
with u iiidettrminsM noun, sh S84, 1, nota i. 

b. II est is always used to indicate honrs of the day : 
n eat nidi (troia hentes). It is noon (three o'clock). 

But: Quelle heure est-ce qui What hour haa just strockT — It Is 

Tient de BonDsr r—C'est oiuq five. 

-,a.-re:i by Google 

280 THE PBONOCK [§381 

A Obwrre the nee (tfce in the following date idfamu] 
Cut aujourd'hui InndL 
Ce Bera demaiu la quatre. 

2. A pronoun : 

Qui est-ce T — Ce sont eux. Who is it T— It is they. 

Ce aont lea leurs. Thoae are theirs. 

Ceat ceol ; deat cela. It is this ; it is that. 

C'^tAient les mSmea. They (thoee) were the lame. 

Ce doireat Stre lea miens. Those must be miae. 

3. An infinitive, or an infinitiTe with de : 

Ce oenit tout perdre. That would be losing ererythinf^ 

Voir c'est croire. Seeiiig is believing. 

Ce que je craina c'est de I'offenaer. What I fear ia to ofiend him. 

4. A nonn aeotence : 

Est-ce que voos ne le ferez pas? Will yon not do itt 
Ob eat-ce qa'il estT Where ia ic that he ist 

Ce n'eat pas qu'il ait penr. It is not that he is ofnud. 

a. The noun sentnnce may be understood : 
Tons partirez, n'est-ce pasi (= You will go, will yon not? 

n'eat-ce pas que vous partirez r) 

5. An adverb of quantity : 

Conbien est-ce ! ^'a ^t^ trop. How much is it T It was too much. 
Hota— For aereemeJt o( the verb, see |2Sa, S. 

384. Cs as Real Subject. Ce stands aa real subject of 
fttre, or of devoir, pouvoir, savoir+fitre, when the com- 
plement of £tre ia : — 

1. An adjective, an adjective -1- & + an infinitive, An infloitive 
preceded bj ii, an adverb (in all caaes without further syntac- 
tical connection, see a, below) : 

C'est facile (vrai, bien). That (it) is easy (tme, well). 

Ce doit Stre (ne aaurait Stre) vraL That must be (coimot be) tnia 
II est parti, c'eat olair. He ia gone, that is clear. 

C'est clair, il eat parti It is clear, he is gone. 

C'est 4 d£aii«r. That (it) is to be desired. 

u, C^tJD^Ie 


Ob Bora-ceT Where wiU it (that) be ! 

Citait bien mal Ji voiul That -wbh very wrong of you. 

a. When followed by dc + ao infinitive or by a que clanae, the regular 
ouiBtruction for the above is impersonal il (not 'ce']; so aisc the 
parenthetical il est vrai and n'est-il pas vrai I ( — n'est-ce pu T), though 
without Bjntactical coaaection : 

II est facile de dire cela. It ia easy b> Bay that. 

II est trist« de voos voir ainsi. It is sad to see you thus. 

II est dair que }'ai raiaon. It is clear that I am right 

Ilest&d^irer que la guerre finisse It is to be deaired that the war wQl 

bientOt. Boon end. 

On rit, il egt vrai, mais attendez. They laugh, to be mre, but wait. 
11 est bioD mol k vous de porler It is very wrong of you to speak Mk 

Hon.— I. CoUoqui*!!;, tfevt b prttt; ItmIt owd liwtHdotil eat beton de+lnllid- 
tlra or > qiu obnae : ■ CcU luiUa de lain oeU ' ; ' C'nC oliir que ]'^ nisDo,' elo. 

£. Tbia iu« of 0% im pflrmisEble Id thp llt«nuT style only Ln BKpns^oDH of emotloil, 
it;., CMt tMnreox (inallieQTeiiz, bean, tilBte, dtonnant, etc.), c'aat kpti- 
■nmar (oslndre, lecietter. Mo.): 'Cwt irlsu ds vou* voit'; 'O'am i<!»inii» 
qitn a* wit ooji.' 

IL Tbv 00 orHutmotloQ la oblEfratofj mtttt a few noun phnHfl of Ilka TalUfl, 4.^,^ 
iyvitioauD»S«aiUii,jfial^I,inaaoa\etc, ■ Cut pitl« da renUixln.' 

2. A prepositional clause, or a conjunction : 
C'eat pour vous. It (that) ia for you, 

C'eet ponrqnoi je iais venu. That is why I came. 

C'eat comme vous (le) dites. It ia aa you say. 

385. Ce + R Relative. As antecedent ce + a relative d» 
notes ' that which,' ' what,' ' which,' etc. : 
Ce qui m'amnae. What (that which) amines me. 

Ce que je dis eat vrai. What I say is true. 

Ce dont nous parliona. What wa were speahing of. 

Ce Ji qooi je pense. What I am thinking of. 

n est ftgd, ce qui est dommaga. He ia old, which ia a pity. 

a. Ce, so oaed, either immediately precedes the relative, or ia, foi 
emphasis, divided from it by 6tre + a predicate substantive : 
Ce qu'il veut eat la gloire. What he desires is glory. 

(Teat la gloire qu'il veut. It is glory that he deairea. 

Mon.— Thli type ol oonilniBtion la widely aNd to render t. predictta auMantlTa 
tnflaaB,t.g., 'Oat ton fi«» qnl ledit': 'Ctat i voua que (^'i qui ')je pule' 1 
•Cttt mourir qu da vlfn *itul' ; 'CtM nne bella vUla qua Full' (cL 807, £, n. U 

u, Gooijlc 

282 THE PBONODN. [|§386-388 

386. other uses of oe. Apart from its nse with 6tre 
or with a relatiTe, ce is found in a few phrases only, mostly 
archaic, familiar or jocnlar : 

Ce devint no usage. This (that) became a cuitom, 

Ta cnunB, ce Iiu dit-U. You fear, said he to him. 

Sot ce, je vom quitte. And now, I leave yoo. 

De ce uon content. Not satisfied with this. 

«. The parenthetical ce semble maj be used onlj when nncoimeotad 
(cf. §3tM, 1, a), otherwise il semble : 

Cest lui, ce me semble, an moina. It's he, it seems to me, at least. 
But : II me semble que c'est Ini. 

387. Pleonastic ce. As compared with English, ce is 
often pleonastic; thus, it ia used with itre + a logical sub- 
ject : — 

1. Regularly, after celui qui and ce qui : 

Gelle qui I'a dit c'est Tooa. The one who said so is yon. 

Ce qne je crains ce aoat meg pri- What I fear is my would-be frieodn 

Ce k qaoi je pease c'est «a mnt^ What I think of is hia hedtb. 

2. Eegularly, between infinitives when not negative : 
Penser, c'est vivre. To think is to live. 

Bnt : V^^ter (ce) n'eat pas vivre. To vegetate is not to live. 

3. Begularly, in inversion with que : 

—, . , „ .„ „ . ("Paris ia a beautiful city. 

C'est one belle ville que Paris. -f^ . , ... ,. ii - 

^ Utw a fine city, ('is') Pans. 

4. Optionally, in other inversions for emphasis : 

La guerre (ce) serait la mine. War would be ruin. 

Hon.— When the complement ot jtre !■ >n ndjectira or participle, pleonutiD e* 
Du)r noC be used : ' Ce qui cat ntlle n'tex pu toujoun Juite.' 

388. Geci and cela. Ceci = 'thi8,' the nearer, and cela 
= < that,' the more remote, are used to denote something 
Indicated, but not yet named : 

Oaidez ceoi et donnes-mo! cela. Keep this sod give me thaL 

Ott. : II the ob]«ot bu been ilmdy nuned, or U tb* osme is lolljr im|iU*d bf the 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 

This IB a «eci«t. 
That is K secret. 


a. Ced aiao rafen to what is about to be said, and cela to what hu 
been sold: 

B^fchJMM faien k csci. Think well on this. 

Je De dia paa davaiitage, oela snffiL I say no more, that ia enoo^ 

6. Ced {not 'cela') may have a predicate noun : 

Ced est on secret. t 

Or : C'est id nn secret (rarer). J 

Bat : C'eat Ik nn secret j 

CeU Cest un sacret. t 

NoTM.—Cela IB not M dlrldid before JotaoM, sBnl, ud It* dlvMOD In negathmi li 
OfOoial: ' Calk ••ul(aitma)eD eat U cuiM'; ' OcU a'uC pu (w ca n'tu pu 14}lins 

a Cda (not *ceci') = 'this' before a de clause: 
Pazie a ceU d'avanUgeux. Paris haa this advantage. 

d. Cela mar ^ replaced by 11 after de and p«r : 
De Ul vient que, etc. From that it cornea that, eto. 

U faut corameacer par U. W« must begin with that. 

t. Cda is often contracted to ca colloquially : 
Ca ne fait rien. That doesn't matter. 

/. ^ is sometimes used familiarly or contemptuously of peraoas 
instesiil of a personal prououn : 

Regardez comme.^ mange. Look how they (etc.) eat. 

^ veut faire k sa t£t«. Yon (etc.] wish to do as you pleoack 

MDn.~DiMlBCDldi fa (ram fit (id'ob) sod ^ 1 OotarJeotianX 

389^ Interroffatives. 

1. Adjectival forms : 2. Pronominal forms ; 

Bma. Pldk. Snro. Plus. 

m. qnel? qnelsT \wUchT, m. isqiiel? leiqnalif \«h1cb!, vUA 
L qnallef qaelies?' wiiat? ate. L laqnells? leiqiielletf/ot«)u(imif|P 
"c (|nlf. whol, wbomf 

e qnolT. wh»ti 

Ob^ .- 1. Par tha temlnlne and plant of quel, of- ifSST, 1, <!), and S38. 
t. LM]Iiel-le4-qa«I,baIbputabaliig)nfleatsd(HSlS,aaa,I); da, i oontnot wltta 
la, IM (dnqnal, snqnal. elc,, ct. ISITJ. 
•■ QlWEqa' bdon a tdwbI or b mota (|1Q, 

284 THE P£ONOUH. [§§390-392 

3S». ./^^reement The adjectival forms agree like ordi- 
nary adjectives; the variable pronominal forms agree Id gender, 
not necessarily in number, with the nouns for which they 
stand; qui? assumes the number of the noun or pronooD 
referred to : 

QoelBlivreHavez-vonaT Which [whatj booka have yottj 

Quellea sont voa raisonsr What are your reasons? 

I^uelle des dames est veaueT Which of the ledjea has come! 

Qui Bonne T Qui sont-ellea T Who rings T Who are they ! 

391. Quel ?, Lequel ?. The adjective que! ? - ' which t*, 
•whati', and the pronoun lequel ? = ' which (one)t', 'what 
(one)t', refer either to persons or things, and stand both in 
direct and indirect questions : 

Quels livres sves-vous ! Which (what) books have joa t 

. Ditea-moi quel livre il a. Tell me which (what) book he bM^ 

DesgueUavez-vousbesoinT Which (ones) do you need ! 

Dites-moi leeqaela vous avez. Tell ms which (ones) you have. 

Quelle dame est arrivfer Which (what) lady has comeT 

Je ne aaia pas laquelle. I do not know which (one). 

Qnelloa Boat vos raisons T Wltat are yonr reasons ! 

Qael bomme est-ce lA ! What (what kind of) man is thati 

AuqaeldeshommeBparle-t-ilT To which of the men does hespeaki 

a. Quell in exclamattonssometiroeB=*what a t', 'what!': 
Quel h^ros I Quels b^roa ! 
Quelle belle ac^ne ! 

6. Quel? as predicative adjective often replacea qui? = 'who?': 
Qnels sont cea gena-U I Who are thoae people T (or what 

kind of people are those r) 
Sais-tu quelle est cette dame ! Do jon know who that lady is T 

Nma— A pleonutia de n oammonl/ used before altcrutlTn tlMrqUBl 7, leqUlf 
mi Dtber intcrrogitWea, prabftbly aiued by ous BtCnctiDn wilh dM deuX, ottAD 
present in nicfa expreaiioDB : ' Que] (dee deui) eat le plua fakbile, de oet hamnie^ on ds 
Othll-UT' : ■ lAqaelle eM 1* plui Ulajtra, d'Achdnes au de Borne?' 

392. Qui?. 1. The pronoun qui? = 'whoT, 'whomt', ia 
r^ularly used of persona only, and stands in both direct and 
indirect questions : 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


Qnifrappe? Qui est UT Who is luiQckingT Whole theraT 

De qui (k qai) pule-t-ilT Of whom (to whom) is he spebkii^t 

Qui avez-vouB vuT Whom did you see r 

Qui etes-voua? ' Who are youT 
DiteB-moi qui est Venn. Tell me who has coma t 

a. Qui? ia Bometimea used, though rarely and not necessarily, a* 
■nbject to a traasitive verb iii the sense of ' wtmt ? ' : 

Qui vous aaiiae de si bonne heure ? What bringa you so early T 

b. Qui 7, predicatively, ia often replaced, especially when feminiae or 
plural, by quel i : 

Quelle est cet(« dame ! Who ia that lady T (What 1. ia thatT). 

Quels BODt-ilat Who are they t 

2. 'Whoaet', denotuig ownership simpl7=4 qui?; other- 
vise generally de qui?, sometimes quel?, but never 'dont': 
A qui est cett« maison-lA ? Whose house is that T 

Do qui £tee-vaus fils T Whose bod are you T 

Quelle maiaon a £t^ brfll^ ? Whose (what) house was burnt t 

393- Que?, Quoi?. The form que? = 'whftt1' ia con- 
junctive, while quoi?'°'wbatV ia disjunctive; their uses in 
detail are: — 

1. Que? stands regularly aa direct object or aa predicate^ 
ftnd in direct question only : 

Que vous a-t-il dit T What did he say to yon T 

Que cherchez-vonsT What are you looking ioit 

Qne sont-ils devenusT What baa become of themT 

a. QneP, alternatively with quoi?, may stand with an infinitive in 
Indirect question ; 

Je ne saia que (quoi) dire. I know not what to say. 

b. Qne? and que I sometimes have adverbial force : 

Qne tie m'avei-voas dit cela T Why did you not tell me that t 

Que vous Stes heureux 1 How happy you are I 

Que d'argent perdu I What a quantity of money loet ' 

y \ 

,;.!;, GOOIJIC 

2fift THE PRONOUN. [§394 

2. 'Whtttt' as sulgect of a verb ia regularly qu'est-ce 

Qu'est-ce qui fait ce brail ! What is making that doIw t 

a. The form que? may itond oa- subject to a, few intr&neitire Terlw, 
mostly ancfa aa maj also be impereonal, but never sa subject to a 
tniDUtive verb : 
Que sert de pleurer T 
Que vouB en oemble T 

What Ib the use o( crying I 
What do you think of it! 
What U itT 

., with ellipsis of the verfa^ 

There ia oewa.— What! 
What finer than that! 
What I Yon admire him I 
What are yon thinking of T 
In what oan I help youT 

3. Quel ? is used absolutely, 
and aft«r a preposition : 
H 7 a dn nouvean. — Qnoi 
Qooi de plni beau que eel 
Quoi < voua I'admirez I 
A. qnoi penoeE-voosT 
En quoi puii-je vous serv 

a. In cases of special emphaaia quoi f may be direct object : 
Je recoil qoolT — Dei lettres. I receive what? — Lettere. 

b. With an infinitive, que 7, or more emphatically, quoi i is used l 
Que (quoi) faire! What is one to do! 

Je ne sail que (quoi) r^pondre. I know not what to answer. 

394. Interrogative Locutiona The use of interrogativs 
pbraseB formed with est-ce, etc., instead of the simple forma 
is vety frequent (cf. §5392-3) : 

Qui est-ce qui chante ! 
Qui eat-ce qne vous demandez T 
A. qui est-ce que voua parliez! 
Qu'eat-ce qne cela prouvel 
Qu'est-ce qne o'eet t 
Qu'Mt-ce qne o'est que oelat 
De quoi eat-ce qu'il parle T 
Qu'eat-oe q[iii fait oe bruit t 

for Qui chante f 

II Qui demandez- vons ? 

II A qui parliez-vous t 

■i Que pronve cela T 

II Qu'eat-ce T 

■I Qn'eet-ce qne cela! 

■I De quoi parle-t-il! 
What is makiFig that noiaeT 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 

§§396-897] THE BELATirB PBONOtJlT. 287 

3P5. Relative Pronouns. 

qoi, who, which, that ; whom (after a preposition). 

que, whom, which, that. 

dont, whose, of whom, of which, etc 

oil, in whicfi, into which, at which, to which, etc 

lequel, m. s. lesqoeU, m. pL 1 ui l .i. i, 

, ,, , . II r 1 fwho, whom, which, that, 

uqnelle, f . s. lesqueUcB, f . pL J ' ' ' 

qiKH, wliat, which. 

06(. .- For qn', *» lie. 

396. Agrtemeot. A. relative pronoun, whether rariable 
or invariable ia form, is of the gender, number and person of 
its antecedent : 

Uoi qui ^tais {toub qui ^tiez) IL I who was (jou who were) there. 
Lea lettrcB que j'ai apport^es. The letters wluch I have brought. 

Moi qui suia son ami(e), I who am his friend (m. or f,). 

Dieui (vons) qoi m'exanoeE I (Ye) gods who hear me 1 

Cest aons qui I'avons diL It is we who have said it. 

Je Buis celui qui I'ai dit. I am the one who has said it. 

a. When the antecedent is a predicate noun, or an adjective u such, 
the relative may agree in person either with this noun or with the 
subject of the aenteoce : 

Nous sommes deux moines que We are two mooks who are trav- 

voyageons (voyagent). elling. 

Je snis le seul qui I'aie (ait) dit. I am the only one who has said it. 

b. The reUtive after un + a plural ia either singular or plural, usually 
acoording to the sense : 

Oest un ds mea (dea) proems qui It is one of my (of the) law-anita 
. m'a (m'ont) rxtiai. which has (have) ruined me. 

397. Qui, Que. Both qui tuxd que refer to antecedents, ' 
of either gender or number, denoting persona or things ; thnr 
nses in detul are : — 

u, Gooijlc 


1- Qui — 'who,' 'which,' 
'whom,' of persona only, oi 
used after a prepositioa : 
Ia dame qui a chaaU. 
Lea amis qui sont arriv^a. 
Ia vacha qui bangle. 
Las Ijvrea qni ont £td pardiu. 
tiea oiseaDz qui volant. 
Ce qui n'amuae. 
Rien qui aoit bean- 
Id tante chez qui ja demanca. 
Lee amis i, (de) qui je parlaia. 
Bocbers L qui je ma plains. 


'that,' serves as Bubject; qui — 
things persooified, may also be 

The lodj wbo (that) has Boug. 
Ths friends wbo (that) have oonuk 
Tba cow which (that) Iowa 
The books which liava lieen lost 
The birdi whicb (that) Ay. 
What (that which) amuses me. 
Nothing that is beautifuL 
The aunt with whom I live. 
The friends to (of) whom I spoke. 
Bocks to whom I complain. 
a. Qui, without antecedent, sometimeascdlU qui (cetuc qui* etc.), 

or, when repeated, =lesuns.. .lesuitres: 

Aimez qui vous aime. Love him (the one) who loves yon. 

Jouera qui vondra. Let tboae who will play. 

Pour qui connalt. For any one wbo knows. 

Qui d'un cdtA, qui da I'autra. Some on one aide, some on the other 

h. Similarly, in a few phrosas, mostly aiclamatory or parenthetical, 


Toillk qni est ^tnuige I That is strange I 

Qui pis eat (or ce qui est pis). What is worao. 

2. Que — ' whom,' ' which,' ' that,' serves reguUrly as direct 
object : 
Les ami{e>s qne faime. 

Le livie (chaval) que j'ai 
Les plomea que j'ai achat^es. 
Ce qne vous ditee. 
Bleu de ce que vona ditea. 

The friends whom (that) I love. 
The book (horse) which I have. 
The pons which I have bongbt. 
That which you say. 
Nothing that you say. 

a. Que stands also aa predicate nominativa (cf. £^95, 
logical subject of an impersonal veib : 

1), • 

Malhenreuse qua je aula 1 
Qn'eat-ce qu'elle est devenne t 
Jl I'henro qa'il est. 
L*homme qu'il vous fant. 
neuei ca qu'il vons fant 

Unhappy woman that I am t 
What baa become of her I 
At the present hour. 
The man that you need. 
Take what you need. 


|§398-399] THE BELATIVX: FBONOtTN. 280 

Mont. — L Thaqu«ol«Dipb*tielnT)rdaiu{iS8S,a,n.)l(bMt*iplUD«du|««dl«tlT« 
qna: 'CMtunabtlUTUltiiiM t^ri>'r''C<8t uoe bails villa qua Puii (art)' or 'Cisl 
via balls ville (os) que (lycM) Pula ' 1 ' Emnr que toaC Dal>' > '((Tsit) sttsiit que tout 
leU (iBt)' or ■ (CaM) amor (oe) qne (o'aat} toot mU.' 

2. Iha form que li often ■ reUtlv* idvarb, Dot to be eanloandad In fancUoo with 
lbs ralatlv* pnper : 'Dvu la tampa que oeU arrivait'; 'C«at jivooj qnejaparla' 
(or ' (Taat loui k qui ]a pule > 

398. Dont. The form dont = ' whose,' ' of whom,' ' of 
vhich,' etc., has the value of -de + a relative; it refers to 
antecedents, of either gender or number, denoting persons or 
things : 

L'honime dont le fils eat mort. The man whose son is dead. 

Lea geuB dont je parle. The people of whom I speak. 

Leg plumes dont je me scri. The pens which I make nee of. 

Ia gloire dont il est avide. The fame for which he is eager. 

Ce dont je me pUios. That of which I complain. 

a. Anoiinafterdaat=*ir)t()M'doe8DotonilttlM«rticleasiu English, 
•nd must follow its governing verb (cf. $4 0, 2) : 
Le monsiear dont j'ai trouvi la The gentleman whose parse I found, 

6. Ab compared with d'oil (cf. g399, a), dont has figurative force in 
ezpreBsioDB referring to extraction, linesge, etc : 
La maison dont il sort. The familj from which he comes. 

C^ Dcut waa originaUjr an adverb (L. de + utuU), and is often bast 
oonatmed as such : 
Le pafB dont il est venn. The oonntiy whence be came. 

39p, OiL The adverb oil = ' where ' is also used as » 
relative with the valne of dans (k, sur, vers, eto.) + * 
relative ; if preceded by a preposition, oCl = ' which,' ' where ' .- 
Ia moison oil je loge. The house in which I lodge. 

Le si^e oil nous vivons. The age in which we live. 

Le but oil il tend. The end towards which he tends. 

Les villea par ot je sois veuu. The cities through which I oame. 

L'endroit d'oti il vient The place from which he oomea. 

Coil vsnez-vous t Where do jou come from t 

a. D'ob='f(<xn which,* 'whence,' is unialljliteralin force: 
La maiscai d'ofi il aort. The house out of which he conm 


u, Gooijlc 

290 THE PBONOUN. [§§400-401 

40a Lequel. The form IequeI"'who,' 'whom,' 'which,' 
' that' refers to persons or things, and varies in form to agree 
with its antecedent; it is chiefly used where qui, que, etc, 
may not be employed : — 

1. Lequel, being inflected, stands where qui, que, from 
want of inflection, would be ambiguous, or it serves, owing to 
its stress, to denote the more remote of two possible ante- 

La ueur de mon ami Isqnelle vieat The Bitter of my friend who has jnst 

Le fiU du rtdacteur leqnel je viena The son of the editor whom {i.e,, 
de voir. ' the bod ') I have just »een! 

a. Lequel loay not be need of persons siter en, and it must be used 

of persons after parmi, entre : 

Tin homme en qui je crois., A man in whom I believe. 

Les amis parmi (entre) lesqnels. The friends among whom. 

2. When depending on a nonn governed by a preposition, 
'whose* must be turned by duquel, etc., which most follow 
the noun (of. §398, a) : 
la dame aa fils de loqnelle (or ds The lady to whose son I give Id«- 

qni) je donne dea le; ona. Bona. 

Ken.— IiMiuel ia used eiKptloiull; s> ai 

401. QuoL 1. The form quoi<='what,' 'which,' is used 
without definite antecedent, and stands after a preposition, 
rarely otherwise : 

VoilA de quoi je parlais. That is what I was speaking oL 

Snr quoi il est parti. Wherenpon he went away. 

(7est i quoi je penaais. That is what I was thinking ot, 

n ra'a. payi, ce i quoi je ue m'at- He paid me, which I haidly «i- 
tendais guiie. pected. 

u, Gooijlc 


mplied, danotea the tatua tm 

n a de qooi vivre. He has euongh to live on. 

n « de quoi («c tIttc, ete;). He hu mesna (is well off), 

Doiuies-nuii de qaoi iorira. Give me Bomething to write with, 

n a'y A pa» de qnoL There is no ocxMuioa (doa't mentioa 

it, etc.). 
b, Qhm Btanda withoat a prepodtioa in a few expreidoiu i 
Qnoi faisaat. (By] doing which. 

Ua je ne aais qaoi de omeL A certain indefiuabla crneltj. 

2. ' What ' -^ ' that which ' is expreaaed by ce + a reUtiTS 
(cf. §385) : 

Ja vois oe qui se pane. I bm what ie going on. 

Je laiB ce qoe je Bais. I know what I koow. 

Co dont je me plaioB. That of which I complain. 

Ce k qnoi je me fioii. What I was trusting to. 
n eat Bourd, ce qni eat bien dom- He is deaf, which is a great pity. 


402. Remarks. 1. The relative pronoun, often omitted 
in English, ia never onutted in French : 

Le tableau que j'aivn U. The picture (which) I taw there, 

lie Ijvre dont je parle tat k moL The book (which) I speak of is miu^ 

2. ftelative and aotecedent should stimd as near together 
as poBsible : 

n y a de oe livte one Mition qui There is an edition of that book 

Be vend, etc which is sold, etc 

Kot : Uno ddiliOD ds oe livre qui, etc 

3. A preposition never ends the relative sentence, as some- 
times in English : 

Ce k qnoi je me fiais. Wliat I waa trusting to> 

4. For Ti!n)^li>h forms in 'iag — rel&tive dauM, bm 
S387, 3. 

0,9,:.=^:! by Google 

S92 TUE PRONOUN. [§§403-40* 


403. Indefinites. 

1. Adjectival forms ; 

1. cerUin. a certain, pL certain. *■ di»e«. m. pL 1 ^rfo^ ^ 

2. chaqiie, each, every. diveraes, f. pL J 
S. difHrellt(e)s, pi., variooB, etc. G. maiot, many a. 

6. quelque, some ; pL , soine (few). 
Obi. ; Eicapt for divers, tbi lemlnlaB ud pliinl an lonnad lika ttu» nt ardtnuj 

2. Pronommal forms : 
I. autrui,otliers, other people, etc 5. quelqu'nii, m. ••\BMnobody,eto. 

m. leach (one), every quelqu'une, f. H.J 
chacune, f. /(one). qodques-uns, m. pL'\Bome (peo- 

2. chacim, m. leach (one), every quelqu'une, f. 
chacune, f. /(one). qoelques-uns, 

3. on (I'on). one, people, etc quclques-unes, f. pL J pie), ei 

4. peraonoe. . .ne, nobody, etc fi. quelque chose, something. 

7. riec . . . DC, nothing. 

Oil. : 1. On often become! Ton tltei t, vowel aoDDd to t'M Uitiu, eiftciillY tltm 
et, on, oh. qne, lonuiae, etc, qui, iiool, ponrqnol, il, kind, ansil, but not 
uiuUt vhen & clowlf following vord bu Initial 1; qn'on *lmaiC tivtyt beeoOMS 
qne Von wben ■ olowiy tauowiog noid bu initio |kl tound. 

i. Par qnelqn'uiUe), aee (19. 

S. Note Itas brpben of lbs plant ol qaslqn'nn. 

3. Forms serving either aa adjective or aa pronoun : 

L ancnn. ..oe, no; nobody, etc 6. plusieurs, m. i>rf. pi., several. 

a «itre. other. 7. tel, m. 1 „^^ ^^^_ 

8. mCme, same, etc telle, f. J 

4. mil., .ne, m. Ino; nobody, S. tout, m. tons, m. pi. 'I all, every,, £. /etc toute, f. 

5. pas un. . ,ne, no; nobody, etc 9. un, a; one, etc 

Oh..- The feminine uid plunl tn like Umm ol tdledivca of Ilk* endisfr. except tba 
tamifliue ol nnl uid cbe plunl of tout. 

404. Use of AdjectiTal Forms. 1. Certain -'{aJw^ 

tain,' pi. 'certain,' 'some,' precedes its noun; the use of UQ 
in the Bingnlar, and of partitive de in the ploral, is optional; 
(Un) certain roi de France. A certain French king. 

jDe) oerbunes geui. Certain (BOme) peo^ 

u, Google 


tt. Certaiiu is eiceptionallj used as a pronoim : 
Certluiia pr^ndent, etc. Some assert, etc 

2. Chaque = 'etu;h,' 'every,' b distribntire and smgalar 

Chaqne homme (femme). Bach or every nan (woman). 

a. Diatinguish chaqne = ' every,' 'each,' nhich individoalizes from 
tOiit= 'every,' 'all,' which generalizes : 

Chaqna hotame a des passions. Every (each) mao has paseions. 

Toat homme a une passion do- Every man has (all men have) a 

minante. ruling passion. 

Chaque auu^ ; tons les ana. Elach year ; every year. 

3. DiiKrentS, Divers = ' various,' 'several,' 'sundry,' 
'divers,' are indefinite adjectives only when plural and stand* 
ing before nouns : 

Di(r6rent«B ohoaea m'ont retenu. 
On a easayd divers moyens. 

Hon.— With tlw HDH ot 'diffirenC,' ' diTene,' thef an DKd u oidlnirj' adjastiTia 

i. Maint, whether singular or plural, = ' many s ' ; it if 
often repeated: 

Usint(B) danger(B). Many a danger. 

Meiiite(s) foia. Many a time. 

En mointe et mainte occasion. On many an occasion. 

6. Quelque = ' some ' ; when used of quantity or number, 
quelque = ' some, but not mncb or many,' 'alittle,' 'afew,* 
and b of more limited force than the partitive some (g 322) : 
Qnelqaes amis sont pirea que dea Some friends are worse than one- 

J'u eu qaelqne difBcnlt^ I have had some (a Uttle) difficulty, 

n a quelques amis ici. He has some [a few) friends here. 

Voici lea qnelques franca qui nous Here are the few franca wo havs 

u, Gooijlc 

294 TBB ntOHontf. [S40fi 

a. Qtielqnehaaaiiv«rbialforoe, aiidiaiiiTBri»bIe,befonaiiiiieTala(iiot 

nonDBof nnmber) = 'ftbout,' '•ome': 

A qnelqne dti millea d'icL About (Bome) ten miles from hen.' 

Bat I Quelquea centainea de paa. A few hundred paces. 

A cent et qnelques pas. At a little mora than 100 paon; 

h. Similarly before ftdjectivegor »dverbs = ' however' (of. S271, 4, 6). 
Qnelque riches qa'tls toieat. However rich they may he. 

Qnelque bien que vous parliez. However well yon may speak. 

Non,— 'Howeier'-fidjcatin ii ■!» Hpreaesd bf t( (omullr with Um 
Indlattva), si. . .(qn») (with tbt gabJuDctive), jMlir . . . qua (with the lubJunctiTa), t.g., 
' TOBtM bonnoi qn'ella Hut,' ' Howevei good the; an ' ; ' Bl bonne* qu'ellai 
•olent,' ' However good tbey are ' ; ' EU bonnei voi r^iona ulent-eUea,' ' However 
(ood foui reuODi en ' ; ' Pour boniua qn'ellea eoient.' ' However good tb*f u«.' 

e. For the use of qudqnefs).. .que = ' whatever,' see g407. 

405. Use of Pronominal Forms. 1- Autrui= 'others' 
'other people,' 'our neighbour (in general),' is rarely used 
except after a preposition : 
n ne fant paa convoiter lea biens We must not covet the gooda of 

d'aatniL others. 

Ia rigueur envera autruL Severity towards others. 

Kon.— 'Othen'famonDnudl;l«a antTM. d'antrw (t 40«, S, b); reguUrl; so, M 
mbjeot or direct object 

2. ChECUn = ' each,' ' each one,' ' every one ' is the pronoun 

corresponding to the adjective chaque (§404, 3) : 
Chaean d'eax a refuel Each (every) oae of them refused. 

Donnez L cbacun(e) sa part. Give to each his (her) share. 

T)ea poirea k deux acus chacuue. Pears at two cents eacL 

a. The possessive form to chocim is regularly son : 

Uettez-lea chacun(c) & sa place. Put them each in his (her, its) place. 

b. Chocun in apposition to nons, tous, takes, as its possessive, notre^ 

Parlez chacnn(e] k votre tonr. Speak each in your torn. 

e, Ctwcnn, in apposition to ils, elles, takes the possessive leur befotv 
the direct object ; otherwise son or leur : 
BUes r^tent cbacnne leur verset They each recite their veiM (each 

<ohaonne 4 aoa or lenr tonr). in turn). 

c,^:i by Google 


d. l'hereaeziviiU>chaciUI='«Teiyone'iB«e(sm)l 
Shfwnn pour ooi, Every one for himMlf. 

3. On = 'one,' 'same one,' 'we,' 'you,' 'they,' 'people,' 
etc., is iiaed as subject of a verb in the third singular, without 
specifying any person in particular : 

On dit quo 1a reine eat maUde. They (people) lay the qaeen is ilL 

A-t-on allum^ mon feu T Haa anyone lighted my fire T 

On ne pent pas mSIer I'huile aveo One (we, yon) cannot mix oil with 

a. The on oonstruction often corresponds to on Kngliah pasaiva, 
Mpeoially when the agent is not specified : 

On a attrop^ le larroo. The thief haa been caught. 

On croit que la gnerK est finie. It ia thought the war is over. 
On Tons demande. Yon are wanted. 

b. On may not be replaced by a personal pronoun subject : 

* On cat trlate qnand on est sana A man is sad when he is without 
argent. money. 

c. Since cm is snbject only, the coireaponding direct and indirect 
object, when required, are borrowed from voua ; 

Lorsqu'on prease trop un poisson When you squeeze a fiab too much 
il voos tebappe. it escapes you. 

d. The reflexive to on is se (aoi), and the oorraipanding posaeudve is 
■Ml, whatever be the English equivalent : 

On se demande. People sak themselves. 

On perdrait son temps. You would lose your time. 

e. Although on ia invariable, a feminine or plural noan or adjoctiva 
may relate to it, when the seoae ia clearly feminine or plural : 

On est plus iolie k present. She ia prettier now. 

On eat ai prochea voiaina. We are anch near neighbours. 

/. On may replaoe a personal pronoun, often with depreciatory force: 
On y penseia. I (we) shall see about it. 

Ob se emit bien fin. You (he, etc. ) think yourself vwy 


896 THE PBONOUN. [|406 

4. Personne aad rien along with ne + a verb, or when 
alone, a verb being understood, — ' nobody,' ' no one,' ' not any 
body,' etc., and 'nothing,' 'not anything,' respectively: 

Peraonnc n'«st veon. 

Nobody {no one] has come. 

I have spohen to nobody (not epokon 

fa. anybody). 


Say nothing (do not say anything). 

Personne ici 1— Peraoiino. 

No one here i— No one. 

Qu'a-t-ilditr— Rien. 

What did ho say !— Nothing. 

a. If the context contains oi 

' imphes negation, personne, rien, aasnnw 

quelqne chose) : 

He said nothing to any one. 

PeTBonne n'a jamais rien dit. 

Nobody has ever said anything. 

Je YOua defends de rien dire. 

I forhid you to say anything. 

Jb crains de parler i personne. 

I (ear to speak to anybody. 

Impossible de rien faire 1 

Impossible to do anything I 

U oessa de rien donner. 

He ceased giving anything. 

Oil trouverai-je rien de pareil ! 

Where shaU I find anything like it T 

Sons parier A personne. 

Withont speaking to anybody. 

6. The above rule does not 

1 apply to pleonastic ae, nor to double 

negations : 

Na ravenez paa sons voir quel- Do not come back without seeing 



on. S, t, ibovc) ; lh» doud personne u ilwmyi leminine (oC. {303. 1, c). 

6- Quelqu'un(e) = ' somebody,' 'someone,' 'anyone,' etc, 
with its plural quelqueS-un(e)S'< 'some,' 'some people,' 'any,' 
'a few,' etc., is the pronoun corresponding to the adjective 
quelque (%iOi, 5) -. 

II y a quelqu'un Uu There is somebody there. 

Y a-t-il qnelqa'an 14? Is there any one there? 

A-t-il quelqnes-nneB des flenrsr Has he some (any) of the floweisT 

n en reste quelques-ones. A few of them remain. 

Quelqu'une des dames viendra. Some one of the ladies will oome. 

Qnelqnes-uns le croient. Some (people) believe it. 



6. Quelque chose — ' something,' ' aaything,' and is masco- 
line, though formed from the feminine noun chosc : 
Qnelqne ohoee est promis. Something is promiMd. 

A-t-il dit quelque chose ! Did lie say anj^ing! 

A-t-il qoelque chose de bon ? Has he anything good T 

406, Adjectival or Pronominal Forms. 1- Aucun, 
nul, pas un, along with lie + a verh, or when alone, a verb 
being understood, = ' no,' 'not any,' 'not one,' as adjective 
and ' none,' ' nobody,' ' no one,' ' not one,' as prononn : 

Knl j-iorivain ne le dit. No writer says so. 

Fas on J 

Aucim ne le croit. Ko one believes it. 

Je n'en ai vn aucan(e). I saw none of them. 

Fas un de sas amis ne resta. Not one of hie friends remains. 

A-t-il de I'eapoirf — Aucoiu Has he any hope! — None. 

a. Aucim, bat not ' nul * or ' pas un,' becomes affirmative ( =quelqae 
or qnelqa'un) when the context is negative (cf. §406, 4, a) : 
Sans ancone cause. Without any canss. 

Jtien pour aucun de nous. Nothing for any of us. 

Oardez-vous de fairs aucuns faute. Take care not to make any mistake. 

h. The plnral adjective aucnn(e}s may be used, especially before 
nouns with no singular, or before such as are preferably plural i 
{d')aiiciins = quelques-nns is sometimes found in naif or jocular style : 
n ne ms rend aueons soins. He giyes me no care. 

(lyjancuns le CToirsJent. Some would believe it. 

2. Autre ■=' other,' is usually preceded in the singular ly 
un or r : 

Une autre tois ; d'autres livrea. Another time ; other books. 
En avez-vous un(e) autre t Have you another T 

[Jn aatre dit le contraire. Another says the contrary. 

Les autres ui'aideront. The others will help me. 

Entre autres choses. Among other things. 

a. IHstinguish nn autre ''another (a different)' from encore una 

'another <an additional)': 

Dranez-moi une autre plnme) ~. .. 

' t Give Qte another pen, 
■ ■ encoienne n J *^ 

r.,„: ,;.!;, Google 

298 THE FBONOVN. [§406 

h. 'Other*,' 'other people,'=le8 ODtres or d'antm, Knnetune* aik 
tnii (cf. §405, I) : 

n Be mdfie toojonra des autrea. He klways enspecla othen. 

D'autres pensent aatremeot. Others think othenriee. 

Bien d'aotrM. Many othen. 

<»«..- Tlu d' of d'tmtrw It ft PMtlUr* ilgi) (fit. isu, 1, b). 

e. Antres is often added familiorlj to nous, TOOa : 
NouB ftutres peintrea. We paintera, 

Vona autree Fnagau porlez trig Yon Frenohmen apeak vtxy fatt 

d Observe the following expraeaiona with sntrc : 
Antre part ( de part et d'autre. Elsewhere ; reciprocally. 
Cest nn (tout) autre honune. He is a very difierent man. 

Farler de eboaea et d'antres. To speak of this and that. 

L'antre jour. The other day. 

Antre est promettre, antre eat It is one thing to promise, and 

donner. another to give. 

Tout antre qne Ini. Any one bnt hinu 

De temps it antre. Prom time to time. 

A. d'autrea (familiar^ Tell that to the marines (familiar), 

c For I'lm. . .I'antre, les uiu. . .lea autrea, see g406, 7, [2]. 

3. Mftme varies in meaoing and form according to iti 
position and function : — 

(1) Preceding its noun or as a pronoun, mftme^'iune,' 
and nearly always has the article : 

La (lea) meme(a) choee(s). The same thing(a}. 

Les miens sont les mSmea. Mine are the same, 

Ponnez-moi des mSmea, Give me some of the sam& 

Una mSme aSaire. One and the same biuinees. 

Des plantes de La mfime esp^ce. Plants of the same species. 

(2) Following the noun or pronoun qualified, iii£ine=>'BeU,' 
'very,' 'even,' and agrees, but has no article : 

Dien est la bont^ mfme. God is goodness itself. 

Moi-mSme; elles-mimes. I myself ; they themselves. 

Oela m£me ; celui-U meme. That itself ; that man himself. 

Lea enfanta memes. The very (even the) children. 

-.u, GtXH^Ic 

§406] THE INDErmiTE FEONOUN. 29t 

a. Htole U alao used as so ftdverb (invariable) i 

n nouB a Dilme iuaolt^ He even ineulbed ns. 

Qnaod m£me il le dirait. Even if he ahould say m, 

b. Htme forniB a number of highly Idioniatia locutiotu ; 

CeU ravient an mame. That amouata to the aame thing. 

fites-vDua i, mSme de fure oela 1 Are you in a poaition to do that t 
■Tirai tont de mSme, I ehall go Deverthelesa. 

4. Plusieurs - ' several ' ; it is aometimes used in the sense 
of beaUCOUp = ' many * : 

Ruaienrs hommea (feinmefi). Several men (women). 

Apporte plndeura des plumea. Bring several of the pena. 

•Tl'ti ai plnaieora. I have several of them. 

Flnsienrs I'ont cni. Many (people) t>elieved it. 

5. Tel, as adjective, = 'aueli,' 'like'; un tel = 'suchft 'j 
' many a one,' ' he,' ' some,' etc. : 

Ife croia poa Que telle hiatoire. Do not believe aach a atorj. 

Tola soot mee malheors. Such are my misfortunes. 

n u'y a paa de tela animaax. There are no such aDimoia. 

A lelles et telles condilions. On such sod such conditions. 

Telle qu'iine tigrease. Like (aa) a tigresa. 

Tel qui tit vendredi dimanche Some (many a one, he) who Ungh(a) 

plenrsTB (proTerb). on Friday will weep on Sunday. 

a. Examples of more idiomatic naes are : 

Tel pire, tel fils. Like fatber, like son. 

Tel rit, tel pleura. One laughs, another weeps. 

Monaieur on tel (Mme one telle), Mr. So-and-so (Mrs. So-and-so). 

De la mnsique telle quelle. Mnsio such as it is. 

Votte at^nt t«I qnel. Your money intact. 

Sort.-' Sucb,' u sdvecb, is al or teUUMBt (oot ' tel ') ; ' Una d beUe «talle ■ ; 
•Du liomnw telleBMIt cruel.' 

6. Tout (singular) = 'all,' 'every,' 'any,' 'whole,' etc.; 
tOUS (plnral) = ' all ' : 
Toute ma vie ; tons lea hommea. All my (my whole) life; bU (the) 

All have come. 

CKjirw by Google 

800 THE PROKOUK. [§406 

That is all ; on all aides. 
Everything frightena me. 

a. Tontisoft«n aclverb= 'quite,' 'wholly,' 'very,' 'very much,' oto., 
and agrees like an adjective, when immediately preceding a feminino 
adjective with initial coosonant or b aapirate, but is eUewhera 
invanable : 

Elles £taient tontes pUes «t tout They were qiiit« pale and very much 

sgil^s. excited. 

Bat ; 11a ^tatent tout piles et tout agit^, etc. 
SoTi.— 9a alto. In the compound tout-pulaaaiLt. t-g.. ' Elle est tonts-pulssuite.' 

b. Observe the following idiomatic eipreBsioas : 

Tout le monde (cf. le laonde eatier). Everybody (cf. the whole world). 
Tons lea mois ; pas da tout. Every month ; not at all. 
Tons lea deux jours. Every other (alternate) day- 
Tons (les*) deui or lea denz. Both. 
Toat 4 rheare. Presently (or a little ago). 
Tout beau ; tont doui. Gently (slowly) i softly. 
(Poar) tout de bon. Seriously. 
"Tons deux (troU, ttc)— without '1«'— naaall; denote* 'BimulttuieounNW* 

e. Far the distinction between tout and chaqne see §404, 2, a; for 

7. Un is used either alone or as correlative to autre : — 
(1) Un, as adjective, = 'a,' 'an,' (cf. §320), 'one,' 'a 
certain ' ; un, aa pronoun, = ' one ' : 

La mail 

»D est d'lm cStd. 

The hanae is on oni 


isiBor A. I'a dit. 

A (OBrtain) Mr. A. 

Udb d« 

. damea I'a dit. 

One of the ladits s> 

Voioi Ul 

1 oraycin.-J'en m nn. 

Here ia a. pencil,— 


aoDt de cet aria, ies Butiea 

Some are of thia o[ 

a. Vn as a proDonn is often preceded by 1', eBpeeially with a da 
L'nn des consnla est anii& One of the cooaula has eome. 

(2) L'un I'autre, so also the feminine and plural, are 
combined into various correlatdve phrases, as follows : 


u, Google 


run ]'aiitre='each other,' 'one another'; pL ditto. , 

l'iinetrftutre = 'both'! pL, 'both,"»U,' 

I'un ou 1'a.utre — ' either ' i pL , ditto. 

ni I'un ni r&utre (. . . i]e) = ' neither'; pL, 'ueither,' 'ncMie.' 
EllsB Be flattent I'line I'autre. Thej flatter each other, 

11b parlent lea una das autras. They speak of oos another. 

Lee DDS poor lee aatrea. For oae another. 

L'tine et I'aiitre occasion. Both occaeioDs. 

Lea una at lea aatrea parlent. Both (all of them] ipeak, 

Ditea ceci aui una et aux antres. Say this to both (all). 
Je preoda run(e) on I'autre. I take either. 

Parla i I'line on k I'autre. Speak to either. 

Ni IsB cD(e)B Qi lea aatrea ne sont Neither (none of them) are fol 

pour YOQB, you. 

Ni pour ran(e) ni pour I'autre. For neither. 

407. Indefinite Relatives. 

1. Adjectival : 2. Pronominal : 

QnelMnqne, any (whatever, at all). Quiconqne, whoever. 
Quelque(4'aabj.of(tT«), whatever. Quiqne . . . {-t-sabj. of ttre), who. 
Qnelque . . . que( + aubj.), what- ever. 

erer. Quoique . . . ( + aubj.), whatever. 

a. Quelconque takea -s for the plural, and always followa its noon : 
qniconqQC ia invariable ; the other fonnB are made up from quel, qiieU 
que, qui, qnoi, -t- qne : 

Un (deux) pointfi] qaelconqne(B). Any (two) point(s) whatever. 
Des raiaons qnelconqDee. Any reasons whatever (at all). 

Quiconque parle sera pani(E). Whoever speaks will be punished. 

Quels qne soient (pniasent Stre) Whatever be (may be)yourdesign«. 

Quelle qne flit la loi. Whatever the law was. 

Quelques efforta qu'il fosse. Whatever efforts he makaa. 

Qui que tu aois (puisses etre). Whoever yon be (may be). 

Qnoi que voua faaaiez. Whatever yon do. 

Obi. : For tlia uM ol tl>« tubJtinoUn. hb t i70, 1 : 
h. Qui que and quo! que are also used with ce before aoit i 

Qni qne ce aoit qui le diss. Whoeoever aaya it. 

Qnoi que ce aoit qn'il diae. Whatsoever he aayi, 

r.,„: ,;.!;, Google 




408. Simple Adverbs. Th-s foIloviDg list coataina tho 
oommoner simple adverbs : 

dor^navont, htne^ortk. piu, not 
encore, MU. peu, little. 

pins, mart. 

plutOt, rather 

point, not. 

pourquoi (?), «iAy (/). 

pourtant, htnomer. 

prto, near (by). 

preaqDB, atmott. 

proche, near {bp). 

pDiB, then, tliereupon, 

quand (?), uiAro(f}. 
ioia,/ar{o^,aloiigv>ay. que '., hovi {!) 
longtemps, (a) long quelquefoia, lomtttTnet. 

eipr^B, onparpoie. 

fort, very. 
hier, iiuferciay. 

jadis, formtrly. 

•tillenrs, cZwuAtre. 

alora, that. 

spr^ ajlenoarda. 

aasez, tnotipA, rafA«r. ensuite, fA«ti. 

aujourd'hni, to-day. 

auparavant, be/ore, 

auBsi, afao, (00, at. 

aoisitOt, dirtcUy. 

antretoia, formerly. 

beaaconp, much. 

bien, wtll, very, mveh. U, there. 

bientOt, toon. 

cependant, AouMtwr. 

oertea, indeed. 

conibien(1),AouifflueA(/). lorx, then. 

fximme, a«, fite. naintenant, 

coniinent(?), hoiiB[T), mat, barffy. 

davantage, more. mime, «mn. 

dedatu, intide. mieux, btU»i 

dehori, oultidt. moina, ktt. tAt, won. 

ddjA, already. ne . . . , not. Untjonrs, idwayt, ttiU. 

demain, to-morroiB, n&uimoins, ne»ertKele»t. tout, fpiUe, entirely, 

derriire, behind. Don, no. toutefoU, hotcever. 

d&ormaia, henc^orth. oil (?), wSere (?). trie, very. 

de«80us, tmder. oui, yet. tmp, too (mudl). 

dessua, above. parfoU, tomelimtt. vite, i/iiicHy. 

devant, befare. partouC, tBcryii^ure. volontiera, mliingly. 

409. Adverbs from Adjectives. Most adjectives become 
adverbs by the addition of •ment to the feminine singulftr : 


a, to; yet. 

mrtout, etpeci^y, 
tant, to mack. 
tantAt, »o<M, rteaittg. 
tard, lait. 

u, Gooijlc 


Aim. Adt. Adj. Adt. 

pur, puTement, purdy. donz, doueement, meetUf. 

strict, Btriotemciit, strietlj/. fou, foUement, madly. 

ftotif, ootivement, acfine^. facile, facjlement, eanty, 

wo, B^nhement, dr^fy. autre, antrement, ethtrtnue. 

a. Adjectives ending in a vowel, other than •«, drop the -c of tha 
feminine on adding -meat : 

Au. AST. Aw. Anv. 

poiKs), |)olisMst,i>iiittefv. d(ckU(«), dfakumant, ■i«i>l«l'v. 

b. The following adjectivea in -e chajige e to £ on adding -ment : 
Am. Adt. Adj. Adt. 

avmgle, aveogi^eDt. Immenit, tmnuDiiaunt. 

oonunode, oommofUiMnt. iDCOnuDOitt, luoomiDOiUnient. . 

MinlormA, oonlonniiiKiiL opInUtra, D^tUrimcDt. 

toorma, iDormininit nnilorme, nnUDRniincDt. 

t. The following adjeotivei change the added -e of the feminine to 6 ', 

otaonrtaX cbMartomt. 

opportuD(a>, opportun^ent, 

prteii(e), pr^lidiDflnt. 

piolaad(a), prolondiinent. 

ImporninfeX Importun^uit. pnfiufa). profiuAm«rJt. 

t, eamtantly. pnident, pradBmmetib, prudmlltti 

, iligantly. etc. etc 

pTomtly : yihimaaltmcot, HAtmently. 

«. Gestil gives ^entinient, jticely ; the adverb to bref is britvement 
(from a parallel form), bri^y ; the adverb to impuni is impuntocnt 
(probabtj from L. impune, at b, abore), vrilh iwpunity. 

f. The adverbfl oorrespondin); to bon, good, and nutuTais, bad, aro 
bien, totU, and oulI, ba^. From bon oomea r^nlarljr b> 

u, Google 

804 THE ADTEBa [§§410-411 

410. Adjectives as Adverbs. Adjectival forma are not 
nncommoiJj' used as adverbs, and, aa such, are regularly 
mvariable : — 

1. A number of adjectives serve as adverbs in certain fixed 

Cette Bottise lui coflte cher. That folly is coating him dear. 

Elles parleat has (baut). They speak low (loud). 

Such expressions are ; 
tmatei boD, toil dtar. trr^ttr tmatt, itop iluirt. oodtiii grm, catt dtar, 

•eadr n tnteUgood. flier doux, 'ting tmalL' rUer hbul, aiinKi^h, 

teaLr n tta/nd Jinn, all«r droit, ffo tlra^ht. ohuiUr juBt«, aing in Utnt. 

Hhster ober, buy dear, viser pt aim ■■ fnpper ir ttrike itraxght, 

coClter M eott it cbuiter faul, tinff mU of HQllr iu«iv^, mw/J AotL 

TBadn „ tell a luiw. «crire seirt, wi-i(« tnudl 

kt hard, (t) vml din, tfeait tru^, 
hfrmiy. Mo. etc 

2. An adjective sometimea modifiea another adjective : 
Des dames haut placjea. Ladies of high rank. 

Un viritable grand faomme. A truly great man. 

3. Besides the above, a few adjectival forms serve also m 
adverbs : 

Je I'ai dit expr^ I said it purposely. 

Soudain noos vtmes I'ennemi. Suddenly we saw the enemy. 

bnl, in Aort. mfans. mm. tout b«iiu, not n /<u(. 

nprts. jMHTOM^. . prouhe, twor (^). tout doui, gaOly. 

tort, Hrji, hard, itnid, etc kihIiId, toMaiiy. tlite, flridU|i. 

Jmte, acoctlp, ett. *kHit, quite, ver^. tie. 

■FDTthefnfleoUODoltontuai'erb, He|4Wt, 6,0. 

iTbe adverb vitenteikt- ' qoickl}',' is tuilliu. 

411. Adverbial Locutions. Phrases with adverbial 
function are numerous: 

Je viendrai tout i I'heiire. I aholl come presentlj. 

Veaea ds bonne heora. Come early. 

u, Google 


Farther exoinplet a 



d'^Uean, »«ul(w. 




■uiB d«ut«, dtwifbo. 

kdK>iW,t« the right. 

d'ordinaiR, uiuaUv. 


d'Qd, uA™™. 


d'ob t, whaue t 

m DU ttfd, VKmrorUiUr. 


du moina, al UatL 

tour i tour, in Inm. 

k^iBt. hardly. 


lout k ooup, luddmty. 





en eSet, in /act. 

tout d'un ooup, aU ol oniM. 


en hiut, aboce, v.p Uain. 


li -bsB, iflmdfl-. 

d'»bonl, ai JfTtt. 

Jk^dama, ihemipm. 

412. Comparison of Adverbs. 1. Adverbs are regn- 
larly compared like adjectives {of. § 345) by the use of Jllus, 
moins, aussi; que = ' than,' 'as*; 

Plus, moins facilement que Jean. More, less easily than John. 
Aussi focilement que Jean. As easily as John. 

u. Further examples, illnstrating §34S, a, b, c, d, as applied to ad- 

n ne marche pas aussi (d) vite. He does not walk as (so) fast. 

Tite conune nn ^lair. As quick tu lightning. 

Ilmarcheplosviteque jenepenaais. He walks faster than I thought. 

De plus en plus vite. Faster and faster 

Plus je le connais (et) moins je The more I know him the lew I 

I'estime. esteem him. 

b. 'Mora than,' 'lesa than,' aa adverba of quantity = plus de, moins 

de, respectively ; they must be carefully distinguished from plus 
(moins) que — 'more (less) than' in an eUiptical sentence : 

J'ai plus (moins) de din franca. I have more (leas) than ten franoa. 

En moins d'une demi-heure. In leas than half an hour. 

But; Un d^phant mange pins que An elephant eata more than six 

six ohevanx (ne mangent). horses (eat). 

2. The following are irregularly compared : 
bien, well. tnienz, better. beaucoup, mnch. plus, mora. 

»U.l»ilr,IJ]. 1^"^ p.lUW» motaJNlw. 

^^ ■" \plus mal, wors«b 

^^ , GooqIc 

806 THE ADTEBB. [§413 

a. Beaiiconp='iaiicli (many)' or 'very much (msii7),'ajidianeTei 
modified by another adverb, except pas. 

3. The superlative fa formed by placing le, which fa inTari- 
able, before the comparative of inequality : 
Lc plus souvent (moina souvent). (The) most fr«qaently (least L). 
Elle parle le plui (mietu, moiuB]. She speaks (the) moat (best, least). 
413. Position. 1. An adverb regularly stands immediate!; 
after its verb, rarely between the subject and the verb : 
Charles porte son vent ma caniie. Charles often carries jny cone. 
On devrait lite lentement. One should read slowly, 

8e levant tard, se couchant tOt. Rising late, going to bed early. 
Us I'ont bien re;n. They have received him welL 

Obt,: HenM tbe itdverb ngnluly com«e betveen Uie iuxlliai;uid the putldpla la 

a. The adverbs aujourd'hui, luer, dcmain, autrefois, t6t, tard, id, Uk, 
ailleurs, paitout, never come between the auxiliary luid the participle : 
n est parti hier. He went away yesterday. 

Je I'ai ohetchi partout, I looked for it everywhere. 

b. Long adverbs in -ment not nncommonly stand after the part 
participle : 

II a parU ^loquemment. He has spoken eloquently. 

c. Most adverbs of quantity, such as peu, beancoup, trop, etc, and 
a few short adverbs like bien, mal, mieiuc, etc, as also adverbs of nega- 
tion, regnlarly precede the infinitive '. 

Ta ne devrais pas trop lire. You should not read too much. 

II ne saurait mieux fure. He cannot do bett«r. 

II parle de ne pas j oiler. He speaks of not going. 

d. Interrogative adverbs head the phrase, as in English ; other 
adverbs are not uncommonly placed first for emphasis (cf, g 237, 3) : 
Quand allez-vouB revenir! When are you going to come back I 
Aujourd'hui je vais me reposer. To-day I am going to rest. 
Malheureusement tout est perdu. Unfortnnatety all is lost. 

2. Adverbs usually precede the nouns, adjectives, adverbs, 
and phrases modified by them : 

Assez de livres, et assez chera. Books enough, and dear enough. 

Bien mal i propoa. Very nnsMaonably, 

u, Gooijlc 




unel, quel, Untl, find plus... i^DS, n 

r advetbfl, of. §350, a. 

a. For comblenl, e 
moins with adjectivei 

3. Adverbial phrases follow the same rules as adverbs, 
except that only the shorter ones may usually come between 
the auxiliary and the verb : 
Nona ^tions k peine partis. Hardly had we goQ«h 


414. Nf^gation without Verb. Non=''no,' 'not,' 

from a verb ; it is often emphasized by pas, point : 



viendrez! — Non pas (point), 
non, je n'itai pas. 
^Ollte□t de dire oeliu 
I ou DOD, 11 ne t'ai 

I, du talent ? 

Did you say it ! — No. 

You will come ! — Certainly not. 

No, no, I shall not ga 

Not satisfied with Ba3diig that. 

Rich or not, he shall not have it. 

Has he talent, yes or no T 

Ideas not less vast. 

A bonse not famished. 

Not only. . .but also. 

A-t-U, oui c 

Des Jdees non molns vaates. 
Une msison non meubl^ 
Nod seulemant. . .maia enco 

a. For the use of que non, see §420, 1, a. 

41S Negation with Verb. 1. Along with a verb, a. 
ne^tion consists regularly of two parts, ne (n', see §19) to- 
gether with some other word or words ; the principal correla- 
tive expressions of this kind are : 

uement'l nol at ne. . .rien, nothing. 
ne ... point, not. na, , .nullement jalL, ne. . .ni(. . ,ni) neifA^. . . 
ue . . . go^re, hardly 

ne. . que, oiUy. 

Nona.— I. Point la niually 

i. Ne^tian i* often denoted b; I)U, 
dtt oel* I (^ITii-le pu die cell !).' 

3. Other forms of less frequent use are 

peraoone, nobody, 

imphitja tbu paa, UMi 

tamillU' luigiufe ; 'Ai-je pa* 

-,a.ire:i by Google 

808 THE ADVERB. [§416 

a. Ne. . .qnelconque^'no. ..whatsoever (at •Jl),' ne.-.qni ^oe ce 

■oit^'nobody whatsoever (at all),' ne...qu(u que ce ■oit = ' nothing 

whatsoever (at all).' 

Je n'ai dit quoi que ce soit. I said nothing at all 

h. He...briii (lit 'blade'), of mie (lit 'crumb'), or gontte (lit 
'drop'), or mot (lit. ' word')=ne. . .rien, in certain phrases: 
n n'y en a brin. There ia none of it. 

Je n'y entends goutte. I Dnderstand nothing of it 

e. Ne...ime viTante, or hoinnie qui yive, or ftmequiTire, etc 

d. Ne. . .de + an expression of time, e.0.,U(iiia)Tie, debuit jours, eto-i 
Je no I'oublierai de ma vie. I shall not forget it while I live. 

416. Position. Ne always precedes the verb, and its 

cODJUDctive objects, if any ; pas, pOlDt and other adverbs 

immediately follow the verb, and its conjunctive pronouns, if 
any; indefinites have their usual place. 

Je ne le leur ai paa (point) dit I did not tell them it 

Je n'en ai gn^. I have hardly any of it 

Ne les a-t-il jamais vns t Did he never see them T 

Jo n'y reatcrai plua. I flhali stay there no longer, 

n ne le vent oullemeut He does not wish it at alL 

n ne prend aucun soin. He takes no care. 

Personne ne pent le dire. Nobody can say (it). 

n n'a mal qnelconque. He has no pain at alL 

Je ne I'ai dit k qui que ce soit I have told it to nobody at alL 

a. Pas, point, uBuaUy, and plus, often, precede the simple infinitive, 
and its conjunctive objects ; they may precede or follow avoir, 4tre, 
either when alone or in a compound infinitive : 
n parle de ne paa vous voir. He speaks of not seeing you. 

Etre on ne paa Stre. To be or not to be. 

J'^tais fich^ de ne vous avoir pas I was sorry not to have seen you. 

vn (or de ne paa vous avoir 

Tu, or de ne vous pas avcnr vu). 


§§417-418] NEGATION. 80! 

b. Rien as object li treated as an adverb ; it tnaj alio precede » 
infimtive like an adverb ; 
n promet de ne rien dire. He promiseB to bbj nothing. 

Je n'en ai vn que trois. I saw only three of them. 

d. To denote 'neither. . -nor,' nl is placed before each co-ordinate, 
if not a Suite verb, and ne Btauda before the finite verb ; when finite 
verbs are co-ordinated, ne stands before eaob of them, whUa ni also 
must stand with the last, but may not stand with the first, and ia 
optional with, others : 

Qui )e saitT — Ni lui ni moi. Who knows it? — Neither he nor L 

n n'a ni parents ni amis. He has neither rcdatives not friends 

Je ne I'ai ni vu ni eiitendu. I neither saw nor heard it. 

n ne Bait ni lire ni ^crire. He can neither read nor write. 

Je ne veui ni qu'il liae ni qu'il I neither wish him to read nor to 

ferive. writ«. 

n ne le bUme ni ne le loue. He neither blames nor praises it. 

Je ne ponvais, (ni) ne devaie, ni I neither. conld, nor should, nor 

ne Tonlais cMor. would jield. 

417. Ellipsis of the Verb. If the verb be omitted, but 
imderstood, ne is also omitted, and the correlative itself 
denotes negation : 

Est-il vena?— Pas encore ( = n Has be come!— Not jet(sHe has 

n'est pas encore vena). not yet come). 

Qui est li ! — Personne. Who is there ? — Nobody. 

Plus da larmes ; plus de soucis. No more tears ; no more cuee. 

a. Pas, when so used, may not stand alone : 

Non {paa) ; pas encore ; pas lui ; No ; not yet ; not he (him) ; 

pas du tout ; pas ce soir, etc. not at atl ; not this evening, etc 

418. ^e aloae as N^iative, Negation with verbs is 
expressed by ne alone in certain cases, as follows : — 

I. After que = pourquoi ?, and usually after que, qui in 
ihetorica] question or exclamation : 

■ ijyGoogle 

310 THE ADTZBR [§418 

Qne ae le disiez-voua plus tOtr Why did you not say bo soonerl 

Que DB ferais-je pour lui J What would I not do for him T 

Qui ne volt cela 1 Who does not see that t 

2. After conditioa expressed by inversion : 

ITetlt 4t6 la pluie. Had it not been for the rain. 

a. Sometimes also in conditions regularly expressed vith si ; 
8i je ne me trompe. If I am not mistaken. 

Qui, si ce n'eal vous ! Who, if not you T 

3. la dependent sentences after negation, either fully 
expressed or implied: 

Je n'ai pas (j'ai peu) d'omis qui ne I have no (I have few) friends who 

soient lea vOtres, are not yours. 

n n'y a rien qu'it ne sache. There is nothing he does not know. 

Nod qne je ne le craigne. Not that I do not fear him. 

ImpOBsible qu'il ne vlenne ! Impossible that he will not come ! 

Ai-je nn ami qui ne soit fidUe r — Have I one friend wbo is not faith- 

Non. ful ! — No. 

a. More obscure cases of implied negation are prendre j^arde que = 
'take care that not,' etc., and such expreesious as il tient — ' it depends 
on,' used interrogatively : 

Prenez garde qu'il ne tombe. Take care he does not falL 

Gardei qu'il ne sorte. Take care he does not go out. 

A quoi tient-il qu'on oe fasae What is the cause of that not being 

cela f done ! 

4. Sometimes with savoir, bouger, and with pouvoir, 
OSer, cesser + an infinitive, expressed or implied: 

Je ne saia (pas). I do not know. 

Ne bougez (pas) de Ik, Do not stir from there. 

Je ne pnis (pas) r^ndre. I cannot answer. 

II n'oserait (pas) le dire. He would not dare to say sa 

Elle ne cesse (pas) de plenrer. She does not cease weeping. 

a. Always ne alone iu je ne saurais and je ne sais qnoi i 
Je ne sauiais vous le dire. I cannot tell yon, 

Nb sauriez-vouB m'aider! Can you not help me? 

Un je ne sais quoi de terrible. Something indefinably tertiUa, 

u, Gooijlc 

§419] NEGATION. 811 

6, In a few set expressions, such aa ; 
ITimporte i n'avoir garde. It does not nutter ; not to oue. 

Nb vous en d^plaiBe. By your laave. 

ITavoirqne faira de. To have do use (whatever) for. 

n n'eat pire eau que I'ean qui Still waters run deep, 
dort (proverb). 

419. Pleonastic ne. la a que clanse ne ia often pleo- 
pastic, as compared with English ; thus, ne stands : — 

1 . After empicher = ' prevent,' ^vitCT =■ ' avoid,' k moins 
que = 'unless,' or que bo used: 

EmpScbez qu'il ne eorte. Prevent him from going ouL 

J'ivite qu'on ne me voie. I avoid being seen. 

A moins que je oe eoii retenu. Uulee» I be detained. 

a. This ne is often omitted after empCcher and iriter, after empAcbtr 
mostly when n^ative or interrogative. 

b. He nay also stand after arant que : 

Avant qu'il (oe) parte. Before he goes away. 

2. After expressions of fearing, such as cnundre, redoutCT, 
etc., avoir peur, etc., de peur que, etc., when not negative, 
or when negation is not implied by interrogation expecting 
negative answer, or by condition : 

Je ctains qu'il ne vieune. I fear he will come. 

Ciaignez-vous qu'il oe vienne T Do you fear he will come T 

But : Je ne craina pas qu'il vienne. Sans craindre qu'il vienne. 
Craignes-vous qu'il vienne T—Kon. Si je craignaia qn'il vtnt. 

a. What it is, or is not, feared will not happen has the full negation 
oe. . .pas in the que clause ■■ 

Je oraina qu'il ne vienne pas. I fear he will not come. 

Jeneorainspasqu'ilne vienne pas. I do not fear be will not come. 

h. Interrogation or condition and negation neutralize each other, and 
ne stouda I 

Necraignez-vons pas qu'il neviMUie! Do you not fear he will oome ? 
Bi je ne oiaigoais qu'il ne vtnt. If I did not fear he would come. 

Qnand niSme je ne craindrais pas Even thougbldidnotfearhewould 

qu'il ne vlnk oome. 


3. With a finite verb in the second member of a compeu-ieon 
of inequalibj, when the first member is not n^ative, or doe* 
not imp]}' negation as above : 

n eit plus ricbe qu'il ne t'dtait. He Is richer than he was. 
Est-il plus riche qu'il ne I'dtmt T Is he richer than he was T 
n gagne moina qu'il a'eapjrait. He earns less than he hoped, 
Bnt 1 H n'ett pas plus riche qu'il I'^tait ; eat-il plus riche qu'il l'^lait^-a 
a. A nc^tive interrogation implies affirmation, and ne stands : 
ITest'il pas plus riche qu'il Is he not richer than he was* 

4. Usually after expressions of donbt, denial, such aa 
douter, nier, disconvenir, etc., often d^sesp^rer, when 
negative, or when negation is implied as above : 
Je ne doute pas qu'il ne vienna. I do not doubt that he will oom& 
Doutez-vons qu'il ne vienne? — Do you doubt whether he will 

Non. come T— No. 

But : Je donte qu'il vienne; dout«z-voas qu'il vienne! ( — queetlon for 

B. After il s'eil faut negatively, interrogatively, or with 
peu, gu^re, etc. : 
H ne s'en fallut pas (de) beaucoup He came very near beiog killed. 

qu'il ne flit tu& 
Combien s'en faut-il que la somme How much is lacking of the Bom 

n'y soit T total J 

Peu s'en eet fallu que je ne vinsse. I came very near coming. 

6. With compound tenses after il y a, Toili, depuis : 
II y a (voil&) troie jonra que je ne It is three days since I saw him (I 

I'ai vu. have not seen him for, etc. ). 

n avait grandi depuia que je ne He had grown since I saw him. 

Depoia que je ne voua ai vu. Since I saw you. 

a. In a simple tense (§3257, 2, 258, 4) negatively, ne. . .pas, etc, 

Toili un an qn'Il ne buvait plus. He had dmuk no more for a year. 



42a Distinctions. The following are especiallf liable tO 
be confonnded in use : — 

1. Oni, SL 'Yea' in affirmatian or aasent is ouij 'fee' u lualtlj 
^ in conttadiotioD, in correctioD, in diesent : 

L'av«a-Ton* dit T — Oni, mcaudenr. Did you say it T — Tes, sir, 

VeneE. — Oui, oni, j'iraL Come. — Yes, yee, I shall go. 

n ns a'an T> pu. — Si, mouieiiT, 11 He is not going. — Yes, (sir), ha Is 

•'an n. (going). 

D ne >'en la pai 1 — Hus n. Ho is not going T — Yes, certainly. 

Je n'ini pas. — Si, li venex. I shall not go. — Yes, yes, come. 

Son.— ThSDis of ri.siklBd tbe tntcnriTB il fldt, etcttaouith Tct7aommon,t« 
riiMiiit M tkBiliu bT ttw AttKUmit; It la often ^nldod b; pudon, otc, or otlMr 
MpKudoni: 'It ns >» pas.— PWjon, momlWT (U n).' 

a. Oni, ai, and oon, are often preceded by que, really with ellipeii ol 
ft wliole que olanae, and are then rarioiuly translated by 'yea,* *aOi' 
'no,' * not,' etc , or by a olsose ; 
Je diB qne oni (ncm). I say yea (no). 

Je cTois qne oni (non). I think so (not). 

Tons ne I'avei pas ! — Oh I que si. Yon faavent it t — Oh yes 1 
Le fer»-t-il I— Je croia quo oui. Will he do it I— I think he wilL 

Je dia que Don. I say it ii not so. 

Pent4tTe qne non. Ferhape not 

2. Aabut, TmiL 'Aamncb (matiy)'=Mitant; 'so much (many)' = 

Je gagne antant que vona. I earn as much as you. 

H bat tant qu'il en moumt. Ha drank so much that he died 

from it. 
J'ai tont d'amis ; j'en ai antant I have so many friends ; I have u 
qne vona, many as you. 

3. Plna, DltTantkge. Plus is used in all sensea of 'more,' 'most' 
(see below); dkTutafe (strengthened sometimes by bien^'mnch,' 
encore= ' still ')= 'more,' is regularly used only absolutely, aodnBnaUy 
stands at the end of its clanse : 

N'en parle pas davantage. | ^ ^„ ^^ ^^^^^ .^^ 

ITmi parle pins. ) ' 

Negate, pas d.«nUge. \ Do not remain any long* 
He leateE phu ' 

u, Google 

814 THB KUHERU. [§4S1 

Cela ma pUtt encore cUruitBge That pleases me still mom. 

Je Bois riohe ; il I'eat bien davoD- 2 am rich ; ha is much more 80. 

Wge (pins). 
Bat only : J'en ai plus que ]iii ; il eat plus habile ; pins da dix franoi ; 
o'est oe qui le flatt« le plus, ato. 

HOTK— DftTUrtV* Is ectatkaaOj rollowad b; ^HB ■» srchala (tf I*. 

4. Ne . . . que, Senlement. SenlementmuBt beused,(l) when no 
verb is present, (2) when ' onl; ' refars to the subject, (3) or to the verb, 
(4) or to a que oUnse, and (S) it maj be used to strengthen a ne . . . 
que ; otherwise ' onlj ' = ne , . . que or sculement : 
Senlement les braves. Onl; the brave. 

Seulement mon fr^re la tait. Only mj brother knows it. 

£couteE sealameut. Onlj listen. 

II dit Beulement qa'il irait He onlj said be would go. 

II n'a Beulement qu'li venic. He has onlf to eome. 

fiat : Nons ne serons qne trois (or trois Benlement); je ne venx que 
voir son pfere (or je venz seulement voir son p^re), etc 

a. ' Only,' referring to the Bnbject, may be tnmed also by il n'y a 
que, ce n'eat que ; 'only,' referring to the verb, nay be turned by the 
help of f«ire : 
n a'y a que les morts qni ne re- The dead only do not come back. 

Elle ne fait qne pleurer. She does nothing bnt weep. 

Cardinal Numerals. 

1. un, nnfl 


S. iiuit 


2. deux 


9. neuf 


8. trob 


la dii 


4. quatre 


11. onzs 


6. cinq 


12. donze 


6. ail 


la treize 


7. »pt 


u, Google 



IS. qninze 



16. eei™ 


71. soixante ot ohm 


17. dix-sapt 


80. qnatre-vingtB 


18. tlii-hnit 


81. quatFe-vingt-an 

[katr vi «]. 

19. dix-nenf 

[diz nteii. 

90. qnatre-vingt-dix 

[katr vE die]. 

70. Tingt 


91. quatre-vingt-onzo [katr yi SizJ. 

21. vingt et a 

Q [vEt e «]. 

100. cent 


22. Tingtdeux 

[vf nd d0]. 

101. cent un 

[BO ft]. 

90. trente 


200. deux cent« 


31. trente at n: 

D Itraitaft]. 

201. deux cent nn 

[d0 SO «]. 

40. quaranM 


1000. roille 



1001. Dulleiin 


60. soixante 


2000. denx miUe 

[dd milj. 

Nouns OP NuHBEB : 1,000,000-un million [iS miljS] ; 2,000,000^ 
denz iIiiUions[d0 milp]; l,000,000,000^un tmUiard [•£ milja:r]. 

Observe: 1. The hyphen unites tt^ether compound numerals under 
100, except where et occurs. 2. Et stands regularly in 21,31,41, SI, 
61, ia optional in TO, omitted in 81, and elsewhei«. 

Notes ok Proncnciation ; 1. The final consonant of 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, 17, 18, 19, is silent before initial consonant or h aspirate of a word 
mnltipljed by them, not elsewhere: 'Cinq livres' [sS liivr], but 'le 
cinq mai ' [la sS:k me]. 2. No elision or liaison occurs before trnit, 
onze: Le huit [laqit]; les huit livres [le qi li!vr]; le onze [la 3;z]; 
lea onze francs [leSizfnS]. 3. The t is sounded in vingt in 21, 23, 24, 
2a, 26, 27, 28, 29, becomes d in 22, ia silent from 81 to 09, is silent in 
cent nn, denx cent un, etc 

a. Un (f. line) is the only cardinal which varies for gender : 
Une (deux, trois, etc. ) plume(s). One (two, three, etc. ) peD(s). 
Vingt et nne vaches. cows. 

b. Cardinals are invariable for number, except that -s is added to 
qiiatre-ving^ and the multiples of cent, bnt only when immediately 
preceding a noun, or an adjective + a noon, or when they themselvee 
serve as nouns of number : 

Qnatre-vingts francs. Eighty francs. 

Trois cents (bonnes) plumea. Three hundred (good) pens. 

Denx cents millions. Two hundred milliona. 

TroiB cents de pommes. Three hundred appl'is. 

IjM oinq cents. The five hnndreda. 



816 THE KUHERAI* [§422 

Bnt : TroiH cent tm francs ; lea cent hommei engagte ; qTwti«-Tlligt> 
m>a plninea ; deux cent mille ; trois inille milles, etc. 

JT,R— Ther UQ not Dounfl of number in AaXtm (e. below) or vbfin naed u ordin*]* 
(|1!7): 'I/uqiutnoaut'; ' page dam MUt ' ; ' PST* qul'e-'rtlwt.' 

e. The form mil (not 'mills') ia naed is dat«a of the ChrUtiim era 
from 1001 to 1990: 
Ea mil bait cent qoatre-Tiogt- In eighteen hnndrad and ninety- 

<En) ran mil six. (In) the year lOOfl. 

Bnt : L'an mille (sometimas mil) ; I'an deux mille troia oent ; I'an mill* 
cent du monde, etc 

d. Prom 1100 onward dates are often expresoed bj bnndreds, as 
■o frequently in English : 

Onzs cent(s) ; treize cent(s}. Elereo hundred ; thirteen bandrcd. 

Quinze cent cinquante. Fifteen hundred and fifty. 

e. 'A (0roue)bnndred'=cent; 'a (or one) thonsand'=mil]e: 
MiUe soldata. A (one) thousand soldiers. 

422. Ordinal Numerals. The ordina] numerals denote 
order or plajje in a series relatively to the first; they are 
formed, from 'third' up, by adding -I^me to the last conso- 
nant of the corresponding carding, cinq adding u, and f of 
□euf becoming v before -i^me : 

lat premier [pramje]. 

/second (segS). 
^<*\deuxi4me Id^zjem]. 

eth huiti^me 
9th neuvi^e 


10th dixiime 


6th oinquifime [sEkJEm]. 
6th siii^e [sizjem]. 

11th onriime pqemj 

2l8t vingt et miitoe [v!t e ynjemj. 

'En DI.1M. Uerce; "in tl.» hon» of . third i«rt,'i • 

Uno U*n quart*,- 'A 


§§423-424] OOLLEOTITES — ^FBACnONS. 317 

a. OrdinalB are like ordlnaiy odjeodTea in in&eotkm and kgmement, 
•ud regularly precede the noun : 

Lft (lea) preiiii4re(B) maistmlB). The first hoaee(s). 

Noiu Bommu Mriv^ lea premiera. We arrived first. 

b. Deuxibiie iDBt«ad of >ecoad is tnor« nmuJly employed in a «erie« 
of more tbim two, and always in compoDnda : 

Le second volume. The second volnme (of two). 

Le deuii^me volume. The second volnme (of three, etc.). 

Ia cent deuzi^e fois. The bnndred and second time. 

423. Collecthres. The following nouns are used with 
collective force : 

nD(e) couple, a couple (tioo). una cinquantaine, about Jiflg, 

nne paire, a pair, nne soixantajne, about aixty, 

one hnitnine, about tight. une centoine, aJiovl a hvTulTed. 

one diiaine, about ten. un cent, a hundred. 

one douzune, a dozen. nn millier, {ahota) a tKoutand. 

une qninzaine, about fi/leea. un million, a miUioTt, 

one vingtaine, ahoat twenty. un milliard, \ ^ hiUion, 

une trentaine, about thirty. nn billion, i 

nne qnarantaine, about forty. etc 

a. They take -s in the plural, and have the construction of ordinarj 

H y » une oentaiae d'atves. There at 

n y en a deux centa. There ai 

Dea milliers de gens. Thousands of people. 

Denz millions de franca. Two millioD(a of) francs. 

424. Fractions. The numerfttor is regularl; denoted by a 
cardinal and the deaominator by aa ordinal; 'half ' = nioiti^ 
f., as a Qoun, and detni as an adjective or a noun : 

{tm demL i no quart, 

une moitf4 } trois quarts. ji^ sept a 

I deox dentia. i nn cinqni^me, ^^ diz cent nniimea. 

} nn tiers. f un septi^me. i^ ooze miUl^mes. 

J deuz tiara. V 

a. Demi, before ita noan, is inTariable and joined by a hj^hen, bnt 
■greea elsewhere; as a noun, demi is hardly used, except in aritlimetica) 
OftlculatiODB : 

I., Glxh^Ic 


tJba demi-henre ; nne henre et HaU an boat ; am boor and • hall 

Quatre demu=<lenx. Fonr halvM=two. 

La moitid de U somme. B&U the nun. 

b. The definiM article it required before fractioiu followed by de-4:» 
noon when the noun is determined by the definite article, a poBBeadve, 
or a demonatcative, Mid ■itnilarly for pronominal anbatitntea for anch 

La moitid dn temps. Halt the time. 

Lea troie quorta de oe« (aea) bietu. Three-fourths of thoae {his) good*. 

Tea prends lee cinq mxiimes. I take Gve-dztha of tbero. 

425, MultiplicativeS, The following are used aa adje^ 
tives, or absolutely aa nouns : 

donble, dottle. septuple, teee^fold. 

tril^e, tripU. octnple, eightfold. 

qnadniple, qvadmple. nonuple, nin^old, 

quintuple, fivtfold. d^caple, Unfold. 

aextnple, ikofold. centuple, huttdrtt^old. 

Aa aouni, le double, the double, etc. : 
La triple alliance. The triple alliattoe. 

Payer le double. To pay twice as mnoh. 

a. Donble ia Bometimea adverb : 
n Toit double. He uee doable. 

2. 'Once,' 'twice,' 'three times,' etc.-Utte fois, deux 

fois, trois fois, etc.: 

Dix fois diz font cenb Ten times ten make a hundred. 

Denx fois antant. Twice as much. 

426. Numeral Adverbs. They are formed from the 
ordinals by -metlt, according to rule (at §409) : 
prenii^remeiit, Jtrst, firitly. troiaikoement, thirdly. 

a. Substitntea for them, of very frequent use, are: d'abord='al 
first,' puis = 'then,' 'after that,' eii9uite~ 'then,' ' next,* en premier 
liena'in the first place,' en second lieu, etc. = 'in the second plaoe,* 
•to. ; or the Latin adverb forms primo, aecnndo, tertios etc, abbre- 
viated to 1", 2°, 3*, eto., an used. 



427. Cardinals and Ordinals. 1. Premier -'first' is 
the only ordinal used to denote the day of the month or the 
nnmerical title of a raler ; otherwise, cardinihls are employed : 
Le premier (deux, dii) mai. The first (seoond, tenth} of May. 

Le onze de ce tnoia. The eleventh of this month. 

Napoleon (Gr^goire) premier. Napoleon (Gregory) the First. 

Henri (Catherine) deux. Henry (Catherine) the Second. 

2. Observe the following date idioms : 

Quel jour dn meat eet-ce aojour- What day ot the month is tbist 

Qnel jonr du mois sommes-nons m » n <■ 

aujourd'hni 7 
Qnel qoanti^me du moie est-ce n ii . h ii 

•njoord'bui T 

CTeet anjourd'hui le qoinzeh To-day is the fifteeath. 

Ce sera demain le wiie. To-morrow will be the aiiteeuth. 

Le aiz jauvjer. On the sixth of January. 

Ha Bont arriv^B Inndi. They came on Monday. 

Caajoatd'hni en hnib A week from to-day (futore). 

U y a qoinie jours. A fortnight ago. 

3. Other numerical titles, book, chapter, scene, page, etc, 
are expressed as in English, ordinals being used before nouns, 
and either cardinals or ordinals after nouns : 

Tome troisiime (troia). Volume third (three). 

La diiiime adne du second acte. The tenth sceoe of the second act. 

a. The first of two ordinals joined by et or On is not nnconunonlj 
replaced by a cardinal : 

Ia qnatre ou cinquiime p^e. The fourth or fifth pag«k 

b. Cardinals must precede ordinals : 

Les deux premiirea sctees. The first two scenes. 

42S. Dimension. The various methods of indicating 
dimension may be seen from the following : 

(1) Une table longue de dix pieds. A table ten feet long. 

(2) Une table de 10 p. de longneoF i> « i> . 'i n 

(3) Une table de 10 p. de long. i> .. n n n 

(4) Une table d'une Icmguent de LO p. ■> n n h k 


S20 THE NUMERAL. [§429 

(6) La table eat longue de 10 p. The table ii ten feet long. 

(6) Ia table a 10 p. de longueur. n i< » « « n 

(7) La table a 10 p. de long. it -i h • 

(8) La table a une longueur de 10 p. n i> m i> « n 
Obt.: L MDMoaion tOa mi idjMittvc it dtnoMd by de. ot. (l), (f}}. 

i. SulMtltutM lor Ux odJscUvM oooMniaUaD of a) ■" »» < i (2). (3). (•)■ 

S. Ibe T«rb < to be' le Mre, u In <S), ot aToir, u in (S), (T), (B). 

t. Hant, lane, lone (but not '6p»ls,' 'profond') nay be uied u nimni, Inftad 

«t liantaiu:, luKenr, limgiieiir, ci. (s), (T> 

a. ' By,' of relative dimendon = aur ; ' by,' after a comparative = de : 
Cette table a dix piede de longueur This table is ten feet long by three 

ear troi» de largeor. -wide. 

Plus (moins) grand de deux ponces. Taller (shorter) by two inchaa. 

429. Time of Day. The method of indicating the time of 
day may be seen from the following : — 

Quelle heure est-il ! What time (o'clock) ia It ? 

n est une (deux) beure(B). It is one (two) o'clock, 

n est tiois heuiea et demie. It is half -past three. 

Tmia hsures (et) uu quart. A quarter paat threa. 

Quatre beures moins un quart. A quarter to four. 

Trois henres tiois quarts. A quarter to four. 

Troia heures dix (minutes). Ten minutes past threes 

Six heures moina cinq (minutes). Five minutes to six. 

Cinq heures cinquante-cinq. Five fifty-five. 

n eat midi et demi. It is half-past twelve (noon), 

n est minuit (et) un quart It is a quarter past twelve (night). 

A hnit heures du soir. At eight o'clock in the evening. 

A quelle beiu«I At what o'clock T 

A trois heures pricisea. At three o'clock precisely. 

Vers (les) trois henree. Towards (at about) tbre« o'clock. 

OIn.:!. ■ICI*(wu,«to.)-.U«at(<talt,eta.). 
£. HMin(S)linevetODiiUed. 

B. St <i wmtlil only lit tbs bt]t banr. 

t. l>«ml(e}i(rn«*wiibiieui«(t.)oTwiUimldi(m.),ml]inlt^)> 

G. KtmttM Is oHea omilled. 

& ■Aqtuirterto,"ialnutsgU>' IimaliubafontbetoDaiwInghiiDE 

T. Tmdi* o'clock ti mrpi dOUe tMUTM. 

'^''' B,..=fcGoogle 


430, Age Idiomatic expressions denoting age are : 
Quel Age aves-YODi T How old are yon T 

J'ai viogt am. 1 am tnanty (yean old). 

Je Buia ag^ do vingt aiUL <• •> „ <• ■> 

Une 611e igte de eiz ma A girl six yean old (of age). 

Flos a^ de deoi ana. Older by two yean. 

Obi..- 1. The coDstniotion with kTOlrli tlia mora Damman. 

i. jLUii) nuy aat be omitted In ipeoi^iiig ife. 


431. Simple Prepositions. The following list ctmtainB 
the commoner simple prepositions : 

i, to, at, in, on, rf«. 

durant, daring. 

parmi, among. 

apr^B, after, tiext to. 

CD, in, to. 

pendant, during. 

avont, hrfoTt. 

entre, 6e(vw«n, among. 

pour, for. 

avac, vAih. 

envera, towards. 

Bans, incAoul. 

Chez, «Atk, at--.. 

hormis, ewep*. 

sauf , WW, eewpfc 

oontre, agaitut. 

juaque, ««, imW. 

dana, i^to). 

niBlgrS, in <pi(e ^. 

sous, nnder. 

ia, o/,Ji-om,mth, etc. 

moyennant, by meant of. 

Boivuit, aeeordmg U. 


BUT, on, upon. 

deniire, bAind. 


d^B, from, Hnce. 

oatre, baides. 

voici, Aer« m {are). 

devant, b^on. 

ToiU, (Aere if (an). 

432. prepositional Locutions. Phrases with preposi- 
tional function, mostly ending in de or i^ are numerous: 

A c&t4 de r^IissL Beaide the ohnrch. 

Jtuqu'ji la aemaine proohaine. Until next week. 

k travera la forSt Through the fonrt. 


r.,„: ,;.!;, Google 

THE PBEPosrnoN. [§§433-486 

Such locutions are : 

k BtU de. Ay DM tUt nf. ui U«u de, iiitUad ^. Joiqu 

t, foroe da, bg dint iif. lutoiir de, orhumI. pu di 

k I'^gKtd dd, vit\ reffard to. ta moyaa d«, by mcanf tff, pu-di 

t I'eiceptlon d>, tacipl. auprto de, nair Ay. 

t, rinm ds, tmimown Eo. ui Cnisn da. mtom, UroupIL prta 

MdaHida.tqKHiil. an defk ds. on (Aii ndi (q^). t1»4-v1i do, ii|]pa(((«. 

ui'deMHia da, ttntar. to ddplt de, (n qittt tu*. ato., ato. 

433. Position. FrepoaitiooBregularlfprecede the governed 
word, &8 in English : 

Je porle de Jean (de lui). I Epeak of John (of him). 

a. Conjunctive personal pronouns governed by Toid, voilfc, preoede : 
Ue voici ; lea voillt. Here I am ; there tbey ore. 

En voioi quelques-uns. Here are bodm of them. 

b. Dnrant u sometuues placed after its noon : 
Donnt s» vie (or s» vie durant). During hie life. 

434. RepetiUoa The prepositions j^ de, en, ara r^u. 
larly repeat«d before each governed substantive ; the repetiti<Mi 
of other prepositions is r^pilar in contrastB, but is elsewhere 
optional, as in English : 

n aime k lire et k 6acvee. He likes to read and write. 

Le p^re de Jean et de Marie. The father of John and Maiy, 

En France on en Ibtlie. In France or Italy. 

Snr terre et snr nier. Bj land and sea. 

Ktr la persoaaioQ on par la force. By persnasioD cr force. 

But : Pour lui et (pour) son fr4re, etc 


43^ Prepositions vary greatly as to idiomatic force in 
different languages. In the following sections are given soiM 
of the various French equivalents of the commoner ^J^g'''^ 

-laiir*:! by Google 

|§436-438] miouA-no DiSTHTcnONS. 828 

436. About 

1. In theseiiMof 'anKmd'iEuitoiu' de: 
Beg&rdez autour de voaa. Look about yon. 
Antoni de la plao«. About the square. 

2. Id thaoeiue of ' oonoeming,' *of'=:de, k: 

De quoi pwlez-vousT What are ron talking sbontt 

iLquoipenseE-vonsT What are you thinking aboutt 

& In the nnae of 'with,' 'about (the person) '=Mir : 
Avei-voiu de I'argent lur voub T Have yon any money about yon ? 

4. Denoting approximation =eiiTiroii, prfea de, k pea prfes, vers: 
Environ (pr^i de, k pen pr^) deux About two thousand francs ; abont 

ntille francs ; vers (but les) dix t«n o'clock ; about ISM 

heiue« ; vers IS30. 

437. After. 

1. Deooting time, rank, order, position =aprfeB : 

Aprte dtner ; le premier apris le After dinner ; the first after the 
n>i; on met I'adjectif apria le king; theadjectiveisplacedafter 
nom i oonrez apr^ lui. the noun ; run after him. 

2. In the sense of 'at theend of'=uiboiitde: 

An bout de trois si^es. After three centuries, 
a Undassified: 

De jour en jour ; dessinj d'apr^s Day after day ; drawn after Raph- 

Bapbael : le lendemain de son ael ; the day after his return ) he 

retour ; il tient de sa m^re. takes after his mother. 

438. Among:. 

1. In the sense of ' in the midst of,' ' snrronnded by '=pMini, som^ 
times entre ; 

A sheep among wolves. 

He was found among th& dead. 

2. 'Among (distributively or reciprocally) ' = entre : 

n le partagea entte sea amis. He divided it among his frienda. 

Da parluent entre euz. They spoke among themselves. 

3. Unclassified : 

CAait ainsi chez les Greos. It was so among the Greeks. 


884 THE PBEPOSTnoif. [§§489-441 

43> At 

1. Denotliig place, tiine,=fc, sometunea en: 

A I'^cole ; & Douvres ; & table ; 4 At school ; at Dover ; at table ; at 
dnq hear«B ; A !'&§« de ; en t£t« five o'clock ; at the age of ; at 
do; en (au) iii£me tempe; & la the head of; at the same time; 
fin (enfin). at lasL 

2. In the sense of 'at the house, etc , of,' 'at — 'e*=cliez: 

tTu iti chez voob ; il est chez I was at your house ; be is at Mr. 
Monsieur Ribot. Bibot'a. 

3. Unclaasified : 

X mes d^peas; & t«ut prii ; At my expense; at any price; at 

d'abord ; sous ta main ; entrer first ; at hand ; come (go) in at 

par la fenStre 1 enhant (bas); au thevindow; at the top (bottom); 

moins ; snr mer ; en guerre. at least ; at sea ; at war. 

44a Before. 

1. Dcoottngplace, in the sense of'infroQt of,' 'in the presence of '= 

Mettes oela devant le feu ; le jar- Pat that before the fire ; the garden 
din eat devant la maiBon ; il is before the bouse ; he preached 
prScha devant le roi. before the king. 

2. Denoting time, order=kTailt : 

Avantniidi; je I'ai vu avant vons ; Before noon j I saw it before you; 
mettez I'article avaot le nom. put the article before the noun. 

3. Unclassified : 

Sous mea yenx ; la veille de la Before my eyes ; the day before 
batiulle ; comparattre pat-de- the battle; to appear before the 
rant le juge. Judge. 

441. By. 

1. DotoWng tbeagentafter thepaasive=par, de (of. §240): 

Elle fat saisie par le voleur ; ils She was seized by the robber ; Uiey 
•out aim& de tons. ore loved by alL 

2. Denoting means, way, etc =par (nsoally) : 

Par la poste ; par chemin de fer ; By post ; by railway ; by thii 
par oe moyen ; par un ami. means ; by a friend. 



3. Denoting meaeuie = de ; relative dimension = ani; 

Plus grand de la tete ; plus Sg^ Taller by a bead; older by ten yean 
de diz ana (de beaucoup); plua {bj fai) ; heavier by a pound ; 
lonrd d'une livre ; moindie de less t^ half ; ten feet tiy aix. 
la moiti^ ; diz pieds sot elx. 

4. Unclafflifled : 

De jonr(nuit)i 4I'annte; goatte By day (niglit); by theyoar; drop 

& goutte ; il est midi & ma by drop ; it is noon by my watch ; 

montre ; connaltre de vue ; de to know by eight ; by word of 

vive voiz; un tailleor de eon mouth; a tailor l)y trade ; toMll 

^tat ; vendre au poids ; fait k by weight ; made by hand. 

442. For. 

1. In the sense of 'for the sake of,' 'instead of,' '(in exchange) for' 
— poor: 

Hourirponrlapatrie; jelefalspoiir To die for one's country; I do it for 
vous;donDez-moicecipourcela. yon; ^ve me this lor that. 

2. Denoting destination .- 

Je pars pour la France ; une let- I leave for France ; a letter for 
tre pour vous. you. 

3. Denoting a period of time (future)'^ pourj 
JereGterai(poui)haitjonr8; j'en I shall stay (for) a week; I have 

ai pour diz ans. enough of it for ten yean. 

Note.— 'For' aftlma not tnturela Tuloaily nndered ; 'J'euinhuitJounsbMat 
orr«Ul>ab»nt peDdut)iiiltJouTB,'Miiuib»atIorBiie«k'; '11 r ■ (•ol<^> voUk) 
deux heum que je lis or Js lis depals deux heum,' I bsTebeea r«idlng tortn 

4. Unclaadfled ; 

Mot it mot or mot pour mot ; nn Word for word ; a remedy for ; to 

rem&decontre (pour); trembler tremble for fear; for ezampie; 

decrainto; parezempte; quant asfor me; to sell for ten franca 

k moi ; vendre diz francs or or to give for ten francs ; to 

laiaaer (donner) pour dix francs; thank (punish) for; to change 

remercier (punir) de ; changer for; it is for you to say; foe 

pour (contre) ; c'est k vons de all that. 

diie; malgrd U 

n,ir^=^-h, Google 

826 THE rBBFOcsmoB. [§§443-444 

443. From. 

1. UnuU7-de : 

D Tient de Paris ; de trois k He oomea from Pitria ; bom thra* 
qtutre benres ; je I'u ftppris to four o'dook ; I heard it inm 
de IqL him, 

2. In theseiiBe of 'becatueof,' 'out of,' 'thmagh'=pftr: 

Cela lUTiva par ndgligence ; par That happened from carelemneu | 
experience (amiti^). from eiperience (friendBhip). 

3. In theaenee of 'datiDg from'=dii, depnis, fcputirde: 

Pis (depuia, k portir de) ce jour ; From that day ; from 1820 (on). 
4 partir de 1820. 

4. Unclassified: 

lyaujourd'hui en huit ; deeain^ A week from to-day ; drawn trwa 
d'aprii nature ; boire dans mi nature ; to drink from a glasa | 
VNTO ; Otez cela k Teufant. take that from the child. 

444. In, into. 

1. Denoting place or time specifically, i.e., in the«eute of 'within,' 

'inside of,' ' in(to) the interior of = datis (cf. §333, 3) : 
Dans ce paqaet {champ) ; dans In this parcel (field) ; in(to) the 
la maiaon ; dans I'AtHqae aus- house ; in South Africa ; in the 
trale ; dans toute la ville ; whole city ; in the same year, 
dans la m£me onnte. 
Hvn. — niB jrorenwd noon nnullj hu Uis deflnitft article. 

2. Denoting place or time geDeTally=eD,i(cf. 9333,2, 3): 

En Afrique; k la maiaon ; auz In Africa; in the house (at home); 
champs ; au Canada ; ^ Ber- in the fields ; In Canada ; in Bef' 
lin ; ^ la campagne (ville) ; en lin ; in the country (city) ; in 
biver ; an printempa ; en poix. winter ; in spring ; in peace. 
Ntm.— ni« sarsniMl word aitcr en hu bnt nuelf tha defluiM irtlcle (mostl]' Id OimI 

•ipnailaD* beloro InlUil vowel Kund): 'Bnl'ilr'i ' En rbomuur de.' eCo. 

3. In the sense of 'at the end of (timaj'^dwu ; 'in the oonrse ot 

Le train part dana nne heure ; on The train leaves in an hour ; on« 
pent aller il L. en une henieL can go to L. in an hour. 


§§445-446] IDIOMATIC DisnNCTioira. dSn 

4. Denotmgplaoe.afterasnperbtivesde: 

La plus grande ville du nioode. Tbe largeat city in the wm^ 

5. Unclu8i6ed : 

Par la plnie ; le matin ; de noa Id the rain ; in the morning ; In 

jours; porlepaas^i jtl'avenir; our dayfs); in the paat; in the 

d'aTonce ; entre lea maiiu de ; future ; in advance ; in the hands 

i nion avis ; sous le rigne de ; of ; in my opinion ) in the reign 

eons presae ; de oette maniire ; of ; in pren ; in this mj ; one 

nn 8ur diK. in tan. 

445- 0£ 

1. UBnaUy=de: 

hb toit de la maison ; la vflle de The roof of the house ; the city ot 

PariB ; on bomme d'iidueoce ; Paris ; a man of influence ; > 

nne livre de th4 ; digne d'hon- pound of tea ; worthy of honour ; 

nenr ; il parle d'aller K Paris. he speaks of going to Paris. 

2. Denoting material = en : 

XJn pont en boie (fer); le« piicea A bridge of wood (iton); ten frano 

de diz francs sont en or. pieces are of gold. 

3. UnclasaiSed: 

Cest aimahle k vous j but 100 It is kind of yon ; of 100 pereon* 

personnes 60 sont Ashappdes ; SO eecapad ; doctor of medicine ; 

docteor en mMecine ; nn d; one of my friends ; of age. 

446. On, upon. 

1. Umatly^snr: 

Le Uvre eat (je meta le livre] anr The book 
la table. table. 

s (I put the book) 

2. Is omitted in dates before specified days : 
Le dix mai ; je viendral mardi ; il On the tenth of May ; I ahaU 
arriv* le lendemain. on Tuesday ; he arrived e 

c,6.ire:i by Google 

THE PREPOSITION. [§§447-449 

Par line belle joaro^ d'^t^ ; mettre On a Sne snininec day ; to put on 

Bu feu; penflre contre le mur; the fire; to hang on the wall; 

dans la rue ; dans I'ile ; dana on the street ; on the island ; on 

I'eBcalier ; en (dans nn) voyage ; the stairs ; on a journey ; on a 

eo visjto (cong^) ; en chemin visit (a holiday); on the way (the 

(route) ; d'un cOt^ ; tomber par road) ; on one side ; to fall on 

. terre ; & genoux ; dana cette the groand ; on one's knees ; On 

occasion; & cheval (pied); k thatoccaBion;on horeeback(foot); 

droite (gauche) : i. son arrivie ; oa the right {the left) ; on hia 

au contraire ; pour afiaiiee. arrival ; on the contrary ; on 

447. Out o£ 

1. UucUssified : 

Boire dans nn verre ; copier dans To drink out of a glass ; to copy 

un livre ; regarder par la ont of a boob ; to look out of the 

fenStre ; un but dix. window ; one out of tea. 

44& Over. 

1. In the senseof 'above'=au-dessusde: 

Au-dessusde la porte^taient Merits Over the dpor were written theM 
ces mots ; les nombrea au-dessns words ; the numbers over one 
de mille. thousand. 

2. Denoting motion above = aur, par, par-dessus : 

Posaez la main sar ce drap; par Pass your band over this cloth; 
moots et par vaui; 11 aauta over hill and dale; be leaped 
par-deaaua la haie. over the hedge. 

3. Unclassified: 

Au deU de la riviftro j I'emporter Over the river ; to triumph over ; 
SOT (triompher de) ; se r^jouir to rejoice over ; to watch over, 
de ; veiller aur. 

449. Through. 

1. BeDotinginot)anacrosa=&traTer8(«itr«Tersde)i par: 
Jepassai & travera(an travera de) I passed through the forest; to pass 
la for£t ; passer par Berlin. throogh Berlin. 

u, Goo^jlc 


2. Id tbeMnBBof *b«caiueof,' 'owing tOi'spu: 

Sax Diligence. . Through careUBaneRK 

450. Till, untiL 

1. UncUseiSed : 

Jnaqu'^demain; pas avaot I'ann^ Till to-morrow; not till next jMt ; 

prochftiaai jusqa'ici; du matin till now; from morning till 

an aoir. night. 

451. Ta 

1. Denoting the indirect object^i {cl §362, 2) : 

Je I'ai donn6 k un ami. I gave it to a friend. 

2. Denoting motion to=i&, en (cf. § 333, 2, 3) ; in the aeiwe of ■ to the 
boose, etc, of,' 'to 's'=chez: 

n va & PariB (& l'4cole ; an Japon ; He goes to Paris (to school ; to 

& nn bal ; en France ; en For- Japan ; to a ball ; to Franca ; to 

tugal ; ohez eox ; chez man Portugal ; to their hoose, etc. ; 

ami). to m7 friend's). 

3. In the sense of ' towardB'=Ten(ph;slcal tendency), envers (moral 

Levez les yeax vers le ciel ; il est Raise yonr eyes to heaven ; hs !• 
juste envers tons. just to all 

4. In the sense of ' as for as ' = jnsqu'jl : 

Tenez jusqn'an bout de la rue. Come to the end of the street. 

5. Unclassified : 

452. Towarda 
See 9481, a. 

453. Under, underneath. 

1. UsnaUjssons: 
tioos la table; sous la loi; sons Under the table; under t^» IftW) 
peine de more under pain of death. 

830 THE PBEFOSmOH. [§454 

2: Denoting lower than, leaa than— ao-dessousde: 
An-desaoiiB du coude ; vendre une Under the elbow ; to sell b thin^ 
chose an-deasoua de s» valeur. under its Talue. 

3. Unclaasified : 
Fouler aux pieda ; k cette condi- To tread under foot ; under thii 
tion ; dans leg circonstancp^ ; condition ; under the circum- 
dons la n^essit^ de ; mineur. itances ; under the neoeBdty of) 


454- With. 

1. In the BenBe of ' along wjth,' ' in company with '=K7tC : 

Otsez avec moi & I'hOtel ; un offi- Bine with me at the hotel ; mi offl- 
cier avec des soldata. cer with some aoldiera. 

2. In the sense of ' at the house, etc, of '=cliez : 
U demeure chez nona. He Uvea with as. 

3. Denoting instrument, inanner=avec (usuallj) : 

Frapper aveo un inarteau ; ferire To strike with a hammer ; to write 
aveo une plume ; avec courage with a pen ; with courage (foroel. 

4. Denoting a characteristic = k : 

Un homme k la barbe noire. A man with a black beard. 

UBually turned by an abaolut* 

n parla les yeux baiss^ He spoke with downcaat eyee. 

6. In the senee of ' from,' ' on account of,' and after many verba and 
adjectives =de ; 

EUe pleura de colore; couvrirde; She wept with anger; to cover 
content de. with ; eatisfied wiUi. 

7. Undaaufied; 

\ I'exception de ; k hante voii ; With the exception of j with a loud 
Ibrasouverts; debon app^tit] voice; with open arms; with a 
t, I'ceil na ; de tout mon cceur. good appetite ; with the naked 

eje ; with all my heart. 

'^^"' Bi;.=fc Google 




455. Conjunctions. The following table coataiiui most 
of the conjunctions and conjunctive locutions in use : — 

ft (la) condition que', on condition 'encore qne*, Oumgh, aUhougk 
ten Borte que', so ttuit, 
•en Bupposant que', suppoHng that 

et.. .et, bath... and. 
except^ qne, except thai. 
tjnaqu'i ce que^, until, 
•loin qne', far from, 
lorsqne, vihen.- 
maie, bul. 


"afin que', in order that, 1 
ainsi, (Aer^/bre, htnct. 
oinsi que, a* aeli as, at. 
•Ion que, ic/ten. 

aprte que, (^/Jer. 

k proportion que, in proportion a 

Mtendn que, <:(mmdering ihoL 

fau caa oti', in cait {thai). 

•au oas que', in cam {that). 

ansai, hence, ther^fint. 
-■ ausaitdt que, at toon as. 

•ftvant que', bffore. 
• 'bien que*, IhKfugh, aliliovgh. 

cat, /or. 

•ce n'est pas que', not that. 

cependant, howevtr, yet. 

. ot>, i 

K {that). 
', /or /«a. 

I tde fa^on qne*, *o (Aat. 

tde maniire que', so Iftot. 
I de mSme que, an loeli aa, 

*(le peur que . . . ne', for f tar that. 

depnis que, «incc. 

tde (telle) aorte que*, 10 that. 
■• dte que, «« soon a», when, tine*. 

done, now, tfe^n, Iher^ore. 

•en attendant que', unttt^ 

•en COB que', in com {thai). 

ndaumoina, m^xrthelat. . .(.. .ne], neitAer. 
•nouobatant que' 

*non (pas) que**, not that. 
non seulement. . .mais em 
only. . .but alto. 

0U...0U, either... or. 
outre que, btsidea that. 
parce que, becaaw. 
partanl, Uter^ort, heiace. 
pendant que, vihUe, luhUlt. 
•pour peu qne*, i/ctct so Utile. 
•pour que', in order Uiai. 
pourtant, yet, however. 
■poorvn que', promded that 
puisque, since. 
quond, vihen. 

tqusnd mSme', Ihough, even }f. 
tque', that, than, as. 
•quoique*, though, although. 

u, Gooijlc 


■elon que, aeeoniing at. 

tri', ./(S27I, 3. a). 

tsi bien que*, m> that. 

tei pen que', hoieever litlk. 
' ainon, i/ not, or tUe. 

■itSl que, <m mok a». 
^ Boit. . .Boit, ahetlKr. . .or. 

Boit. . .on, ahe&er. . .or. 

*8oit que. , .soit que*, whether. ,.or. 
' FDUDwsd b; Itaa ntJunoUve. 
f FoUowsd by th* IndioatlTe or nibjanctlt 

N.B OoqJuqoUooi withoul • or t In lbs 

1 Sm |2T1, 1 (tlma belim wblnh or up to < 
E 9e« |!T1, Z (purpose or mult). 
8S»1!71, SCcondltLon). 


*Boitque. , .onqatf.Khether.. .or, 
Buivant que, according ai. 
'aupposl que*, mppott that. 
tandii que, tchilttf vthereai. 
tant. . .que, both. . .and. 
tant que, aa long ai. 
tteUement. , .que*, w . .that. 
toutefois, yet, nevertluiesi. 
one foia que, as toon as, 
■ vu que, aaing that. 


456. Et 1. When repeated, et uaually denotes 'both. .. 
and' ; otherwise it stands with the last only of two or more 
clauses : 

je couaaii et le p6ra it te fib- 1 know both the father aud sou. 

Ijea femmeB pleuraient, criaient et The women wept (and) acreamed 

gesticulaient. and gesticulated. 

2. ' And ' after a verb of motion is usually untranslated ; 
Allez leur parler. Go and speak to them. 

457- Ni. 1. A finite verb with ni or must be 
preceded by ne ; 
n a'a 01 or ni argent. 
n ne maDtfe n! ne boit. 
a. For the poaitioaof,, see §416, d. 

c,6.ire:i by Google 

§§458-459] USE 07 certain coNJXTNcnoira. 888 

2. In Geotences of negatiye force, 'and,' 'or,' are rendered 
by ni: 

Hooneiirs ni richeosea ns font 1e Hononrs and weoltli do not cooBti- 
bonheur. tut« happinass. 

3. Observe the following equivalents of 'neither,' 'not 
either,' 'nor either,' 'nor,' when not correlative: 

Jti ne le ferai pas. — Ni moi non I shall not do it — Nor I either 

plus. (or Neither ahall I). 

n ne 1e fera pas non plus. He will not do it either. 

n ne Vb, pas fait, et il ne le fera He has not done it, nor will ha 

paa " (do it). 

458. Que. 1. Que = 'that' is followed by the indicative 
or subjunctive according to the context ; 

Je djs que voos avez raison. I se-y that 70D are right. 

Jesois flch^ que vans ayez raison. lam sorry that you are right. 

2. Que often replaces another conjunction ; when so used, 
it takes the same construction as the conjunction for which it 
stands, except that que instead of si— 'if' always requires 
the subjunctive : 

Qnand vous aurez fini, et que vous When yon have finished, and (when 

aurez le temps. you) have time. 

Tenez que ( = ' afin que,' ' poor Come that I may see yoo. 

que') je vous voie. 

6i vous venez demaiu, et que vous If you come to-morrow, and (if you) 

ayez le tempa have time. 

3. Que may not be omitted before a finite verb, as 'that' 
often is in English : 

Je crois qn'il viendra et qu'il res- I think (that) he will come and 
tera. (that he will) stay. 

459. Distinctions. The following conjunctions are espe- 
ciaJly liable to be confounded in use : 

I. Quand, Lorsque. They are equivalents in the sense of ' when,' 
but qnand (not 'lorsque') serves also as au interrogative adverb io 
direct or indirect questions : 

I., Glxh^Ic 

8S4 THE unxBJBcnoN. [§460 

Qnand est-il arrivfi! When did he comeT 

Dis-moi quand il eat arrive Tell me when he cams, 

Quand (or loraque) je I'ai vu. When I saw him. 

NoQS partiTODBlors(|ae(Qrqiiaiid) We shall leave when the letter 

2. Pendant que, Tandis que. Pendant qne = 'while,' 'whilst,' 
'during the time that'; tandis qne = 'while,' 'whilst,' 'during the 
time that,' and aUo, 'whilst,' 'on the contrary,' 'whereas' : 

lisezle jourDftlpeodantquei'^riB Bead the newspaper while I writb 

ce billet. this note. 

Taudis que vons Stes ioi. Whilst you are here. 

lie p^re travaille, tandis que le fila The father works, while the ion 

ne fait rieu. does nothing. 

3. Depuisque, E*iiisqtie. Depntaqoe denotes time; puisque denotes 
oaaBe assigned : 

Je ania bien senl depuis -que men I am very lonely since my brother 

frftre est parti. went away. 

U me faut reeter, puisqu'il n'y a I must remain, since there is no 

pan de tndn oe eoic. train this evening. 


460. Inteijections, The commoner inter jectioon aad ex- 
pressions used as such ore : — 

1. Joy, admiration, approval : 

ah!, oi/ JL la bonne heure 1 , mtlldonel, Ihatt 

ha, hat or hi, hi] {to denoU right! 

laughltr). bis ! , encore .' 

boo !, good! bravo ! or bravisaimol, toeU donel, 

bien I , good I bravo ! 

ft merveille t , eapiiat ! honrra 1 or vjvat t , hvmA I 

2. Disgust, disapproval, indifference : 

Slijle! foinde!, aploffuetipont 

fidonc \,for thamel pouah I, ditgtuting !, faugkl 

fiedeI,>!OA/ ohl,oA/ 

u, Google 


lemple '. , a 
, pthaio! 

miB^corde '. , mercy 

oaf : {lo exprtM _ 

and exkaattion). 


bah ! or ah ! bah t , iioiuen*t I, 

pooh-pook ! 
baste ! , taouyh !, pooh !, nonwni 

3. Orief, fear, pain : 


h41aa ! , alat ! 

aie !, oh I, oh dearl 

4. Surpriae: 
ah I, ahl 

ohl, ohi 
eh!, oA/ 
ha t, Aa / 
comineDt I, tohat I 

5. Encouragement: 

courage I, cheer up / 
voyona !, come noie ! 
9& I, or or fi !, or sua !, or or si 

6. "Wamiog 
gare I, look out !, 

7. Calling: 
hi !, or obi '., or hoU !,*«/, hoy I at!, hiiherel 

liallool — - ----- ' "' 

hem I, ahem ! 

8. Calling for aid 

miffbcalion, or r«U^ 

TTaiment '., indeed ! 

tieos !, indeed ! 

par exemplel, you don't eay « 

mia^ricorde '., mercy I 

en avant !, /orteard t 
ferme!, »ttady! 
preate !, qiuck! 

hoU!, tlopt,«lopl 

t, who goet there t 


help/ an volenr I, atop thief I 

i],mttrderl aufeu!,jSre/ 

9. Silencing, stopping : 

chut I or Bt'., hudi I 
Bilence!, tHeacel 

l, not a word I 

tout dooz or tout bean !, geaO]/l 

not tofatt! 
halte-li !, stop there! 

at BouDdg ; Grid una I, bruMng ; drelln, 
An !, bang ; pif [wf I» ^ttruAoff ; bourn t, 
UAtbmiuiiTip ; rKtaplu ], arum; oan aftn I, ^tcifc nunvmenC; 4HhlD-c«h&, joi/ffinff 
along J clopia-dopuit, AobWtv; tio tAo, Jietuv. eto. 



u, Google 




461. French AbbreTiations. The following are the 
commoner abbreviations used in French : 
(^-i.-d.^c'est-i-dire, iJialu, 
C* w O'lxaipiigiue, eompan]/. 
etc.=et CKitenL 
fr. or I. = francB, Jrana. 
h. = heuTe, hour. 
in-f»=m.folio, /oiio. 
J.-C. =JteuB-ClinErt, Je»u» Chriit. 
M. = Monsieur, Mr. 
MM. =MeseieaT8, Meta-i. 
M.B. orM.R. . . =Motisieiir R. or 

MonHiear R Troie-]^toiles, Mr, 

S. or Mr. S—. 
M'=iiiarohaiul, mtrthanL 
U'(pL M'^Kiiuittre, m mtd with 

nama<tftavnfera iruUad of man- 

. (pL NNSS.)=moQBei2iienr, 
tay lord. 
MB. {pL MU-jaMademoiwlle, 


M* = iilaiaon, Aoum, firm. 

ma (pi. mBs.)Biiiaiiuscrit, nuinu* 

N.'D.=Notre-Dame, Ow Lady. 
N. 8. = Notre-Seigneur, Our Lord. 
ii*=nuiniro, numfter. 
B.S.V.P. =IUpoDdez o'il vouaplatt. 

an anmeer U rtqttaOed, 
S.A.R.=Son AltetsB Royale, Hit 

Soyat Higknm. 
a -enL = aonB-entendn, vndtrAood. 
S. Exc.=Soii Excellence, Hit Ex- 

a M. (pL LL MU.)»Sa Majeeti, 

Hit {Her) Majaty. 
8.a =Sa Saintet^, Hit HoUntit. 
a. V. p. = a'il vous plait, if you 

V'= veuve, aid<m. 

X'fin titlee)spremier, ihe FirtL l^ffem. l'')=premier, jfrat 

II (in titles) = deal, the Sr.eond. 3*=deiiziAme, tecond. 

Le XV* sitele, etc. =le qninzi^iDs l<'=prima, firtUy. 

aiAcle, IhclSih cetilwT/, 7'™=Beptembre, /September. I 



[Tha referencea at tha head of the exBrciaes &re to the Motioiu in the 
Gruimtar on which thejr are based.] 

EXERCISE I, a. (gglS6-16I.) 

1. What are you eating t 2. We are eating apples. 3. It 
was necessary that they should eat. 4. Who is calling} 
5. We are calling, 6. The general leads his army, 7. We 
shall lead the horses. 8. Who is throwing stoneal 9, It will 
freeze, 10. He is buying a coat. 11. We never yield. 
12. They will never yield, 13. The servant is peeling apples. 
14. When will he pay? 15. They never pay. 16. The servant 
is cleaning the kitchen. 17. We shall clean our gun. 18. The 
little girl wipes the dishes. 19, The farmer sows the seed, 
20. It is freezing. 21. We are going to school. 22, We 
■went home. 23. They used to go to market on Saturdays. 
24. He will send it. 25. The servant is bringing the horses. 
26. I send him there. 27. I shall go to school 28, Let 
them go to the city. 29, It was necessary that you should go 
there, 30, They will buy a box. 31. Let us bring the children, 
32, Bring the children. 33. Let him not throw stones. 
S4. We have led the horses to the stable. 35, Let us trace a 
line. 36. We are advancing. 37. They were eating, 38, Wo 
ate, 39. They will eat. 40, Let us advance. 41. Let na 
never yield. 42. Let us call the children. 43. Let us not go 
there, 44. The queen has been reigning a long time. 45, The 
children were throwing stones. 46. He led the horse to the 
stable. 47. He paid the money, 48. The servant wiped tJie 
dishes. 49. The child traced a line, 

EXERCISE II, a. (§9162-166.) 

I. He is running. 2. Shall we run? 3. Bud fast, my little 
boy. 4. He ia acquiring a fortune. 6. It was necessary that 
we should run. 6. They will conquer that city. 7. The 

u, Gooijlc 


general has acquired glorj. 8. He gives him eonsecrated 
bread. 9. They acquire knowledge. 10. We shall acquire 
property. 11. There is holy water. 12. Let us not run. 

13. Let them acquire it. 14. We are gathering apples. 
15. It was necessary that they should gather flowers. 16, He 
welcomed me. 17. We shall gather them. 18. Let ns not 
start with (de) fear, 19. He assails his enemy. 20, He will 
assail his enemy. 21. He is slteping, 22. Lst us not sleep. 
23. He must sleep. 24. We shall soon sl©^. 25. They fall 
asleep. 26. He is leaving for France. 27. He left yesterday. 
28. If he were asleep, I should call him. 29. He will go out 
30. Let him not go out. 31. The water boils. 32. The water 
was boiling. 33. When he speaks, be lies. 34. He makes 
use of it. 35. He will feel it. 36. If he were here, we should 
not sleep, 37. The water will soon boil. 38. He has ran. 
39. It was necessary that we should sleep. 40. I have not 
slept. 41. He never lies. 42. The horses would run, if 
they were not tired. 43. They ran. 44. We acquired it. 
45. The horses run over the field. 46, He does not consent 
to it. 47. He will never consent to it 48. Let him not 
make use of it. 49. We were running. 50. We fell asleep, 

EXERCISE Itt,a. (% 167-179.) 

1. He failed on (en) that occasion. 2. It is a prosperous 
country. 3. He flees, i. Let us not flee. 5. They fled. 
6. He will not flee. 7. It was necessary that I should flee. 
8. Here lies a hero. 9, Here lie the remains of the great 
Napoleon. 10. I hate evil. 11. Men hate their enemies. 
12. Let us not hate our enemies. 13. He hates his father. 

14. Let him not hate his father. 15. Was it necessary that 
he should hate his father} 16. She dies. 17. They will 
die. 18. Let us not die, 19. It was necessary that he should 
die. 20. He died. 21. She will dia 22, Let him not die. 
23. If they died, we should be sorry for it. 24. That tree is 
dying away, 25. Open the door. 26. We have opened the 
box. 27. He oflers me his book. 28. She used to suffer, a 
great deal, 29. If we had any. we should ofier you some. 
30. Columbus discovered America. 31, We held it. H2. Let 
him not hold it. 33. I hold it. 34. Let us hold it. 35. W« 


EXEBCiSE IV, a. 339 

toe coming. 36. We shall come. 37. We should come, if you 
would come. 38. If I should come, I should find it 39. They 
are coming back. 40. It is necessary that he come. 41. It 
was necessary that he should come. 42. Hold it. 43. He 
has held it. 44. The purse contains money. 45. If he comes, 
we shall be glad (of it). 46. They will come back. 47. He 
b ill clad. 48. He clothes himself well. 49. He will clothe 
hia child. 50. It is necessary that he clothe his child. 

EXERCISE IV, a. (§§180-188.) 

1. We beat the horse. 2. He fells the tree. 3. It is 
necessary that he fight the enemy. 4. We drink water. 6. 
They drink milk. 6. They were drinking wine. 7. We shall 
drink water. 8. Let him drink milk. 9. He has drunk the 
wine. 10. It was necessary that we should drink wine. II. 
We shall not drink wine. 12. The wind rustles in the trees. 
13. He encloses his garden. 14. He will close the bargain. 
15. Those flowers will soon open. 16. He is concluding his 
argument. 17. Let us conclude the bargain. 18. The bread 
is baking well. 19. If he were there, he would conclude 
the afl[air. 20. It was necessary that he should conclude the 
bargain. 21. He drives the cows to the field. 22. They 
destroyed their books. 23. They will construct bouses. 24. 
Let us translate this phrasa 25. It was necessary that we 
should translate that book. 26. He led his horse to th« 
stable. 27. We were translating oitr exercise. 28. We con- 
structed a house. 29. Let him translate his lesson. 30. I 
have translated a book. 31. I translated a book. 33. She 
was preserving plums. 33. We are preserving cherries. 34. 
That suffices. 35. That will be sufficient. 36. Let that 
suffice. 37. Five francs a day are sufficient for him. 38. I 
know that gentleman. 39. It is necessary that we should 
know him. 40. Let him appear. 41. The cows eat the grass. 
42. It was necessary that we should know him. 43. It was 
necessary that he should appear. 44. He will not disappear. 
45. We used to know him. 46. When he appears, we shall 
conclude the affair. 47. Let htm recognize him. 48. You 
know him, do you not! 49. You will know him. 50. He 

.., Clxh^Ic 

EXERCISE V,». (§§189-183.) 

1. The little girl is sewing. 2. We were sewing, 3, They 
will sew. 4. She sewed, 5. They had sewed, 6. Let us 
sew. 7. Let her not aew. 8. Let ua not fear. 9. The; fear. 

10. Let him not be afraid. 11, We shall not fear. 12. Men 
fear death. 13. They pity us. 14. He was painting a pic- 
ture. 15. Put out tiie fire. 16. Let him put out the lamp. 
17. It was necessary that we should rejoin our friends. 18. 
The general girds on his sword. 19. I feared the rain. 20. I 
believe you. 21, We sliall not believe it, 22, Let ua believe 
it. 23, I used to believe it. 21. It is necessary that he 
should believe it. 25. He did not believe it, 26. It was 
necessary that he should believe it. 27. We did not believe 
it, 28, Do not believe it. 29. The flowers are growing, 30, 
The tree grows, 31. That tree wilt grow fast, 32. We grew, 
S3. It was necessary that we should grow. 34, The trees 
were growing fast. 35. Let it grow. 36, He has believed. 
37. The tree has grown. 38. Do not say so (le). 39. We 
say so, 40, We should not say so, if we did not believe it. 
41, Is it necessary that he should say so! 42. They used 
to say so. 43. Let him not say so. 44, Was it necessary 
that we should say so I 45, Do not say so again, 46, Do not 
slander. 47. They do not say so. 48. Cain was cursed by 
(de) God, 49, We do not curse our enemies. 50, If I should 
a»y so, would you believe me t 

EXERCISE VI, a. (§§194-200.) 

1. I was writing when he came. 2. Let us write our ex- 
ercise. 3, We wrote a letter, i. Write your lesson. 6. Let 
him write. 6. We shall write our letter. 7. It was neces- 
sarj' that you should write. 8, He has described his travels. 
9. They are writing. 10. Would you write, if I should write 1 

11. Do what I say, 13, He did not do it. 13. He has not 
done his work. 14. Let us do our work. 15. Let him do 
what I said, 16. It wa-s necessary that you should do so. 
17. I shall do so when you come, 18. If you do so, we shall 
do so. 19. If you should say so, we should do it, 20. I was 
doing my work when he came. 21. It is necessary that we 
do that. 22. If Z do this, will you do that) 23. I wu 

u, GoO^jlc 

BZEBCISE Tn, & 841 

reading, when he came. 24. Ha will never read that bo<^ 

26. Bead that letter. 26. They are reading their btxdc. 

27. Did yon not read the newspaper! 28. If I should read 
tbia book, would you read that one! 29. la he reading the 
newspaper! 30. It was necessary that I shonld read the 
letter. 31. Let him not read that book. 32. Did they not 
read this book t 33. I placed the book on the table. 34. Do 
not commit that crime. 35. It ia necessary that he put on 
hi< coat. 36, Wo shall put on our clothes. 37. They have 
placed their books on the table. 38. We shall not permit ib 
39. Does he permit it! 40. It was necessary that he should 
not permit it. 41. What would you say, if we should permit 
it. 42. The miller grinds the wheat. 43. We are grinding 
wheat. 44. We ground the wheat. 45. Let him grind the 
wheat. 46. The prophet said that a child would be bom. 
47. We are born weak. 48. We were bom [on] the same 
day. 49. Let a young nation arise ! 50. Was it necessary 
tii&b hatred should arise between them 1 

EXERCISE VII, a. (Sg201-2ii.) 

1. That does not please him (lui). 2. You please me. 
8. Come when it pleases you. 4. Do so if you please. 
B, May it please you, 6. Take your places. 7. He takes 
his hat from (sur) the table. 8. If I should take it, what 
would you dol 9. Let him take his book. 10. It was 
necessary that be should take the medicine. 11. We took 
our places. 12. Have you learnt your lesson! 13. He will 
not undertake that. 14. Fire resolves wood into («i) smoke. 
16. We have resolved to (de) do it. 16. He solved the diffi- 
culty. 17. He will solve the difficulty, 18. Let us not laugh 
at((fe)him. 19. Why is he laughing 1 20. If I should laugh, 
what would you say! 21. Was it necessary that he should 
laugh! 22. We laugh at them. 23. Water springs from 
the earth. 24. Follow me. 25. The dog follows his master. 
26, Let him follow us. 27. It is necessary that we should 
follow you. 28. We followed him. 29. If I should follow 
him, it would please him. 30. We shall never follow him. 
31. Is lie not milking the cow! 32. If I should do that, he 
would not milk the cows. 33. When we were in the country, 
we used to milk the cows. 34. Let him milk the cow. 

I., Glxh^Ic 

'842 EXERCISE viii, a. 

35. That dietracta faim from hia work. 36. The general con- 
quen hia enemiea. 37. We conquer our passions. 38. If 
you were to conquer your pasaions, you would be happy, 
39. Our army will conquer. 40. We have conquered our 
enemies. 41. Let him conquer his passions. 43. He is not 
selling his house. 43. He will never sell it. 44. Horses live 
on (de) hay. 45. He lives only for himself. 46. Let us live 
in (en) peace. 47. He will live yet [a] long time. 48. Louis 
XIV. lived in the 17th century. 49, Long live the King. 
60. Hurrah for liberty 1 

EXERCISE VIII,«. {§§212-222.) 

1. We receive our friends. 2. He has received the letter. 
3. Let us not receive the money. 4. If they should receive 
ns, we should be glad. 5, We owe him (lui) money. 6. We 
shall owe him something, 7. If they receive it, we shall tell 
(it to) you. 8, Let him not receive it. 9. We received the 
money. 10. Sit down. 11. He aits down. 12. They will sit 
down. 13. Let us sit down. 14. It was necessary that we 
should sit down. 15. If we should sit down, would you tell 
(raconter) us a storyl 16, Let them not sit down. 17. That 
does not become liim (lui). 18. That will not become us. 
19. We sit down. 20, The payment falls due. 21. His 
inflttence has declined. 22. It will be necessary to do it. 23. 
It is necessary to be there. 24. Passion moves men. 25. 
Steam and water drive (mouvoir) machines. 20. His story 
moved (^mouvoir) the audience. 27. Such a story must move 
men. 28. We shall go out, if it does not rain. 29. It was rain- 
ing when we came. 30. It will rain. 31. I did not think it 
would rain. 32. It has rained. 33. I shall come, if I can. 
34. I shall come when I can. 3.5. They cannot go away. 

36. I would do so, if I could. 37. I wish that he may not be 
able to do ao. 38. I could do that, if I were rich. 39. You 
may do so, if you desire. 40. Could (condl.) you not give me 
some) 41, We know our lesson. 42, Do you know how to 
do thati 43. That child cannot write ; he is too young. 44, 
I cannot write ; I have a sore linger. 45. Do you know that 
gentleman) 46. I used to know how to swim. 47. Tour 
father must not know that. 48. We knew it. 49. We shall 
know it to-morrow. 

EZKRCiSBS ix<x, a. 343 

EXERCISE IX, a. (g3223'22S.) 

1. That horse ts worth one hundred dollars. 2. Virtue u 
TOrth more (miewe) than riches. 3. Those housea «f e worth 
more {plug) than these. 4. That was worth more lost year. 
5, That will be worth more next year. 6. If that weje worth 
more, I should take it. 7. He has nothing (which is) of value 
(aubj.). 8. We shall not see him again. 9. Do you see 
him) 10. I saw him. 11. We saw him. 12. If we should 
see him, we should tell (it to) him. 13, When we see him, 
we shall speak to him about it. 1 4. We must see our parente. 
15. It was necessary that we should see our children. 16. I 
have seen him. 17. If we wished to do it, we could do it. 
18. Tou may come when you wish. 19. He will wish to do 
that when he can. 20. Ba bo good as to sit down. 21. It 
you will sell your house, I shall buy it. 22. Will you be so 
kind as to give me some) 23. We do not wish to do that 
24. Should you like to see him 1 26. I should like to see him, 
if I could. 26. I could do this, if I wished. 27. If it rains, 
we cannot go out. 28. If they were willing, they could do it. 
S9. If they are not willing to tell (it to) you, you will not 
know how to do it. 

EXERCISE X, A. (gg237-229.) 

Qa'est devenu son frire ! What has become of his btotherl 

Je saii ce qn'il est deveun. I know what has become of him. 

EUe eat nte. She was bom. 

Elle eat morte. She died. 

EUe est moiiU& She has gone np {or up stun). 

NoTiL— In thlaeierdm.nrtiahkTlnE the uleiiik laths Ust \^xa,t,an to b« ooo- 
JqgUad with ttr* when iotrMuitlvB. 

1. Your mother has come, has she DotT 2. Ko, she has 
nob yet come ; she will come to-morrow. 3. Our friends have 
gone to church ; let us go (there) too. 4. The old gentleman 
who lived in that house died last night 6. (The) Queen 
Victoria was bom on the twenty-fourth of May. 6. My little 
sister was bom on the tenth of March. 7. How old is your 
father ? 8. He is seventy ; he was bom before the death of 
Napoleon. 9. What has become <A your brother! 10. He 

u, Goo^jlc 


bas gone to (partir pour) France. 11. When did he got 
12. He went yesterday moraing. 13. Is your father ontt 
14. No, sir, he ia in. 15. When did your father return) 

16. He has not yet returned ; he will return next week. 

17. The Bervant has brought down the trunk. IS. Where is 
yoursiatert 19. She haa gone down for breakfast. 20. Where 
are the children 1 21, They have gone up stairs. 22. Why 
did they not come down when I was there 1 23. What is the 
matter, my child % 21. It was slippery, and I fell. 25. My 
father has gone into the house. .26. Although he was bom 
rich, he ia now poor, 27. He died poor, although he was once 
rich. 28. I have not seen him to-day ; what has become of 
himT 29. I don't know what haa become of him. 30. Have 
you taken up the gentleman'a trunks} 31. Not yet, but I 
shall take them up immediately. 32. At what o'clock did 
your sister go out this morning 1 33. She went out at half- 
past nine. 34. Where ia my sisterl 35. She has gone np 
stairs ; she haa gone to get her books. 

EXERCISE XI, a. (g230.) 

1, We do not wish to leave this country; we should tike to 
remain here, but if we cannot, we shall go away, 2. Yon ought 
to go home (my) children ; it ia late. 3. We cannot go home; 
it is dark, and our father told ua to {de) wait for him. i. We 
cannot go away before six o'clock ; we are to wait here till 
our friends come. 5. We could have written the letter, if we 
had known that you desired it. 6. That beggar could have 
had work, if he had wanted it, but he was too lazy ; he would 
not work, and now he must beg. 7. Those children cannot 
read yet; they are too young. 8. If they had been able to 
read, they would not have believed all that was said to them. 
9. You ought to let them go away, for their father told them 
that they were to leave before (the) night. 10. You might 
have seen them, if you had been willing to come with me. 

11. Our teacher told us that we were to write this exercise. 

12. We are to have a house built next year. 13. Their 
teftcber made them write their exercise. 14. We should have 


EXBBOiszs xn-xm.a. 845 

a honae built, if we vere rich enough. 16. We said to the 
innkeeper, will you be so kind as to have oar horaes saddled t 
We are going to start. 16. Opium makes [usi Bleep. 17. It 
is very warm; If this great heat continues, it will kill the 

EXERCISE XII, a. <S23a) 

1. Those children make a great deal of noise ; they talk too 
much ; make them be silent. '2. That girl could writ«, if she 
wished (it). 3. If you would kindly tell me where the doctor 
lives, I should send for him. 4. Do you know Daudet's Za 
Bdh-Nivemaiae ? 5. Oh, yes, it ia a charming book ; I liked 
it BO well that I had my pupils read it. G. That is a beautiful 
picture. 7. Yes, I have just been showing it to your mother 
and sister. 8. When did yon see my father 1 9. I had just 
been speaking with him, when you came. 10. What are you 
going to do to-morrow^ 11. To-morrow we are going to see 
the Irvqalidea and the Are de Triomphe, and the day after 
to-morrow we are to see Nolre-Dame and the Louvre (m.). 
12. We ought to have vbit«d the Louvre when you were with 
us; you coSd have shown na the fine pictures. 13. May I go 
with you when you visit the Jxmwe next time 1 I should like 
to have explained to me some of the beauties of the finest 
pictures. 14. That gentleman must have been in Paris, for 
be speaks French like a Parisian. 15. Why did you not 
make those ladies sit down when they were herel 16. Ihey 
said they would not stay, because you were out, 17. There 
are ladies at the door. 18. Very well, show them in. 
19. Your son ought to write his exercises. 20. Very well, 
make him write them. 21. If I had made him study his 
lessons when he was at school, he would have become a better 

EXERCISE XIII, a. (t|231-234.} 

1. The French people are brave and gay ; they {H) have 
their («««) defects, but also their good qualities. 2, Few 

Eple believe that the earth is not round. 3. Most people 
ieve that the earth will be destroyed. 4. The greater part 
of his friends abandoned him. 6. Many think that our frienda 
will not succeed. 6. A great number of men were killed. 

u, Google 


7. The Swiss people are brave, they (it) will always be free. 8. 
More than one house waa burat. 9. Is it your friends who live 
in the house on the hillJ 10. Yes, it b they; they have lived 
there for two years. 11. You and he were there, were you 
Dot } 12. Yea, he and I were there, and your brother too. 
13. Will you and your brother come and see us, when you are 
in London) 14. We shall be very happy to (de) visit you. 
15. Do you see those two children J Both were bom [on] the 
same day. 16. You or I shall speak. IT. There happen 
many misfortunes here below. 18. There aroseagreat quarrel 
between them. 19. Who went for the doctor) 20. It waa 
(pres.) I who went for him. 21. Do you see those two gentle- 
men ! Both have had houses built this year. 22. Religion, 
truth, honour, all was abandoned. 23. Many think that you 
will never be able to build your house 24. The majority are 
not always right. 25. If there happened such misfortunes to 
me, I should leave the country. 2C. Were it only a few lines, 
I should like yon to write to me. 27. If you and I were 
young, fine things would be done (reflex, impers.). 28. Who 
can have done that, if not our friends) 29. Neither he nor 
his brother can go away ; both must stay. 

EXERCISE XIV. a. (SS235-23S.> 

1. Is that book youra or your brother's) 2, How much 
did tliese books cost) 3. I do not know how much they cost. 
4. Does that merchant provide you cheap with what you 
need) 5. What is the matter with that boy this morningi 
6. I do not know what is the matter with him. 7. Do I say, 
or can I say, the half of what he has done ) 8. Whatever 
men may do, they cannot escape death. 9. What books did 
your father buy when he was in the city) 10. Your father 
told me what your brother had done. 1 1. Your brother told 
me what he had done. 12. Will you tell me where those men 
were when you saw them ) 13. I cannot tell you where they 
were. 14. We have more books than that gentleman has. 
15. We have more books than you have. 16. Virtue is a 
beautiful thing, hence we love it. 17. My father is here; 
perhaps he will come to see you. 18. However good men 
may be, they are sometimes poor. 19. Such are my reasons 

u, Gooijlc 

KXXBCiSE XT, a. 847 

fiir doing bo. 20. You have told me that my friend has gon«; 
J did not know (impf.) it, but perhaps you are right. 21. I 
iriflb you were here, were it only to encourage ua. 22. That 
man does not respect himself, hence he cannot be good. 

23. Come and Bee ua, said he, as soon as you can (fut.). 

24. If I do this, thought he, I shall be punished, hence I shall 
not do it, 25. When was your little brother born 1 26. I do 
not know where that man died. 27. To whom did your friend 
give his gold watch ) 28. I do not know ; perhaps he gave it 
to his sister. 29. I cannot do {de) auch things ; am I not [ani 
Englishman 1 30. Do I not tell you that I shall be there, aaa 
that I shall see you t 

EXERCISE ZV, a. (%23»-241.) 

OnloioUit.! n . l j 

nertoWL I HoiBobeyod. 

On me I'a pardonn^ I have been pardoned (for) it. 

1. America was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 2. 
The first steamboat was built by Fulton. 3. We have been 
deceived by that scoundrel. 4. We have been de<«ived. 6. 
That gentleman has been mistaken in that a&ir. 6. Where 
is that saidi 7. Oh, that is said everywhere. 8. Who com- 
mitted that crime! 9. It was our neighbour's brother. 10. 
Will he not be punished ) 11. No, he has been pardoned for 
it. 12. I have often seen it done. 13. I have been told that 
yon had it done. 14. Is that not done everywhere^ 15. Oh, 
no, that is never done amongst respectable people. 16. How 
unfortunate he is ! He is a good fellow, but he is deceived 
(Uid suspected everywhere. 17. How little it is 1 It can 
hardly be seen. 18. That man is not a good teacher; he is 
not obeyed by his pupils. 19. There is a house to be sold. 
20. There is an exercise to be done. 21. That beggar was 
given bread and milk. 22. We were made to read our lesson. 
23. That is a man to be feared. 24. They were told that you 
were not here. 25. Why were we not t^d that onr irieoAa 
had gone away 1 


848 xxERCisE XTi, a. 

EXERCISE ZVI.a. (§S242-247.)' 

.«-. . . 1 ■. '. I-.. IShe remembered wh»t I Mid. 

"Baio i est aouvBDue de ea qua j'ai dit J ^^ 

Jd me le rappelle. "k t v -. 

... J- I remember It. 

Je m en soaviena. ) 

Je mo le rappelle. 1 t u v- 

, - I I - r 1 remember m m . 

Je me souvienH de liii. I 

lis se BonvisimeDt de moL Tfaej remember me. 

Je m'en sera. I use it (I make use of it). 

n B'en pasae. He doei without it. 

Elle a'eet fait mal k la main. She (has) hurt her hand. 

£lle a'est cass6 le bras. She has broken her arm. 

Elle s'est tue. She became Bilent. 

*In w Tappti»r, n b Indlnnt, In M tmamtr, m !■ direct. 

1. They have not yet gone away ; they will remain here till 

to-morrow. 2, When you are in front of Mr. Jackson's, be 

good enough to stop. 3. How have you been this long time! 

4. I have been very well. 5. How bas your mother been, 

sinoe she has been living in Toronto ) 6. How unfortunate 

I am, she exclaimed, my friends remember me no longer. 

7. When the door opens, we can go in, 8. Where is my 

book! I cannot do without it. 9. Why do you not make 

nse of that pen 1 10. It is not a good pen ; I cannot use it. 

11. There are some ladies in the parlour; very well, have 

them sit down, and ask them to wait a little. 12. Why are 

you crying, my little girl 1 13. I have fallen and hurt myself. 

14. Where did you hurt yourself! 15. I hurt my band. 

16. Why did those ladies not ait down! 17. They would not 

sit down, because they could not stay. 18. If yon wish to 

Tise this ink and paper, I shall give yon some. 19. It was 

very slippery this morning, and my mother in going down the 

street, fell and broke her arm. 20. If you cannot do without 

this book, I shall lend it to yon. 21. I can do without it 

now, bnt 1 shall need it next week. 22. Do you remember 

what was told you last evening! 23. No, I do not remember 

it 24. Did that little girl hurt herself badly, when she fell 1 

26. Yea, she hurt herself very badiy; she broke her arm. 
S6. Have those young ladies written letters to each other! 

27. They have written many ; they have been writing to each 

u, Gooijlc 


other for two years. S8. I am not well this morning ; I hurt 
my bead. 29. Are you using your pen now J 30. No, I am 
not using it; you may have it, if you need it. 31. Do you 
remember the gentleman who lived in that large house on the 
hilll 32. Yes, I remember him very well. 33. One cannot 
do without money ; it is useful everywhere. 34. I remem- 
bered what he had said, as soon as I saw him. 35. Be silent, 
(my) children, you are speaking too loud. 36, As soon aa I 
came, he became silent. 

EXERCISE XVII, a. (H242.247. conlinved) 

„ ^ , , ("What aro you called • 

Comment voua appelez-vouB? ■[ „,, ^ . •' , 

■^■^ (.What IS your name! 

Jem'appelle Jean. lamcalled Jobn(myaaiDeis Joba). 

Se promener k pied (& cheval). To take a walk (a ride). 

Se promeuer en voiture (en batioan). To take a drive (a row or sBil), 

EUe Vest coQchte k dii bearea. She went to bed at ten. 

Ells s'est levte i six henrea. Sbe row at nx. 

AttendeZ'moL Wait for me. 

EUb ne s'y est pas attendue. She did not erpeot it. 

Le pr^tre 1m a mari^ Ttie priMt (hna) married them. 

EUle s'est mari^ k [or avec] men She (has) married mj couiin. 

Bile s'eat mari^ hier. She was married yesterday. 

n est aI14 se promenor en bateau. He has gone fora row {or sail). 

Allona Doas promeuer. Let ns go for a walk. 

Bile s'est endormie. Sbe fell asleep. 

8e connalt'Jl en tableaux t Is he a good judge of piotoree T 

H s'y oonnalt assez bien. He is a pretty good judge of them. 

7oas ennnyez-vous icif Are yon tired of being herel 

1. What ia that little hoy'a name 7 2. His name is Henry. 
3. What are you going to do to-day 1 4. We are going to 
go for a drive. 5. We are not going for a drive ; we prefer 
to go for a walk. 6. Let us go to bed now, and then we shall 
get up early. 7. Is your brother out t 8. Yea, he has gone 
for a drive. 9. While we were out for a drive, we met your 
brother on horseback. 10. While they were out for a ride, ' 
they met us on foot. II. Let us go for a walk in that beau- 
tiful forest. 12. Has he gone for a ride or a wallet 13. He 

u, Gooijlc 

160 EXEBOISE xvut, a. 

has gone for a sail. 14. The children went to bed at eiglit 
o'clock, and the; will get up at six. 15. We shall wait for 
him here; he has gone for a walk. 16. That does not sur- 
prise me; I was expecting it. 17. I was not expecting to see 
him there. IS. Mr. Jackson has married his eldest daughter 
to a very rich man, 19. Who married them! 20. It was 
the priest who lives in the little village. 21. My cousin was 
married yesterday. 22. To whom was she married t 23. She 
was married to the gentleman who lived here last year. 
24. When are you going to get married 1 25. I shall never 
get married. 26. What is the name of the gentlemaa who 
married your cousin 1 27. If the children had not gone early 
to bed last night, they would not be able to rise early this 
morning. 28. That surprises my mother ; she was not expect- 
ing it. 29. We went to bed, and (we) fell asleep immediately. 
30. Are you not a pretty good judge of bookat 31. Yes, I 
am a pretty good judge of them. 32. Is your mother not 
tired of being here 1 33. I think so ; I shall ask her to go for 
a walk with us. 34. Do you ever get tired of being in the 
country! 35. Ko, I never tire of being there; I love the 
fields and trees. 

EXERCISE XVIII, a. (SI24S-253.) 

ntaitobacur.l It ig dark. 

II fait noir. / 

n se fait tard. It ia fijettiDK late. 

n fait jour. It is day (daylight). 

n fait du BoletL The aim ii Bhiaing. 

n fait du broaillard. It ia foggy. 

n fait ixin. It is comfortable (pleaBuit>. 

n tombe de la neige. It ia sDOHiag. 

n fait doux. It is mild. 

I. If the weather is fine, we shall go for a row this aftei^ 
noon. 2. It was runlng this morning, but now the sun is 
shining, 3. It ia not comfortable here ; let us go out for a 
walk. 4. It is getting late; let us go home. 5. It was rain- 
ing last evening, then it froze, and now it is slippery. 6. It 
is not comfortable in those countries where it ia very l/aire 
heanuxni^ de) foggy. 7. It is too windy ; we shall not go tor « 

EXERCISE XlXya. 351 

row. 8. It is getting late ; the children will have to go to 
bed. 9. What time is ill lU. I do not know, but it is 
Already daylight, 11. la iti Well then, we shall hare to 
get up immediately. 13. It had been snowing for two days, 
ttad we couldn't go for a drive. 13. It has been rainiog sicca 
yesterday morning, and it will be better to remain here. 14, 
My sister is very ill ; her life is at stake. 15, We cannot go 
away; it is raining. 16. Ho matter; I do not fear the rain. 
17. How did you enjoy yourself yesterday) 18. We did not 
enjoy ourselves at all ; it was raining all day. 19. If it is 
very dark this evening, we shall not go to see our friends. 
20, Yes, it will be better to stay at home ; we can easily 
amuse ourselves. 21. How long have you been in this city t 
22. I came here three years ago. 23. What sort of weather 
will it be to-morrow 1 24. I do not know ; I am not a good 
judge of such things. 25. It has been raining for two days ; 
we are tired of being here. 26. In winter it is generally mild 
in Italy, but it is often cold in Canada. 27. Those two men 
are disputing ; what is the matter 1 28. It is about (s'o^r (2s) 
the price of a horse which one sold to the other. 29. It was 
very warm yesterday, but it rained in the night, and now it is 
very comfortable. 30. I think (that) it will rain, but it may 
be that I am mistaken. 31. We need another house; this 
one is too small, 32. Their number is far from being com- 
plete. 33. Letters have come which tell us that there has 
been a great storm in the United States. 34. How far is it 
from Toronto to Montreal 1 35. By the railroad it b three 
hundred and thirty-ldiree miles. 

EXERCISE XIX, a. m 254-267.) 

(7eat k peine s'il sort i, present. He hardly ever goes out now. 
A peine le Boleil fut-il (dtait-il) Hardly was the son up, when the 
lev^, qu'oa aper^ut I'enneiiu. enemy was aeen. 

n I ■• L i_ fThe walking is good. 

n faat Don marcher. i,^ . . „ ■ 

l,lt is good walking. 

1, When that man is working, he will often stop to (pour) 

speak with his companions, 2. How long have yon been 

reading! 3. I have been reading for an hour. 4. It waa at 

your house that we met those gentlemen. 5. We shall be 

glad, if you are there, 6. We shall be glad when yoa are 

862 EXERCISE XX, a. 

there. 7. We often used to go for a walk when we lived at 
your bouse, but here it is not good walking, so we hardly ev« 
go out now, 8, When we were young, our mother would often 
toll us fairy stories which interested us very much. 9. We 
remember them yet, and we hope (that) we shall never forget 
them, 10. I had been there ten days when he came. 11. 
He had been reading an hour before bia sister rose. 12. He 
asked me where I came from, and where I was going. 13. I 
answered him that I came from Montreal, and (that I) wu 
going to Boston. 14. He wrote me a letter saying that he 
wished to see me. 15. He said in his letter that he had been 
ill, but that he was better now. 16. When he lived with na, 
we would often go out for a walk before breakfast 17. The 
eldest of the miller's sons received the mill, but the youngest 
received only the cat. 18. As soon as he learned that I was 
to go out for a walk, he wished to go alaa 19. If he had seen 
it, he would have told me (it). 20. When I had finished my 
lessons, I would always go out for a walk. 21. When he had 
finished his dinner to-day, be went out. 22. Hardly had he 
finished his work when his fiiend came. 23. We do not know 
whether our friends will come. 24. Oar father did not know 
whether he would come. 25. Why is that work not donet 
26. I told my brother to (t^) do it, but he will not do it. 27. 
Will you buy my horse 'i 28. No, I shall not buy him ; I do 
not need him. 29. Good morning, gentlemen, will you walk 
inl 30. No thank yon, we shall not go in. 31. As long as 
we live, we shall not fo^t your kindness, 32. As soon as he 
comes, I shall tell him. .13. We shall do as we please. 34. 
You may start when you will. 35. He may come when be 

EXERCISE XX, a. (§9254.267, amtintifd.} 

1. We shall soon have finished our work. 2. When yon 
have finished ynur lesson, you may go out for a walk. 3. 
Everybody should learn the ten commandments. 4. They tell 
na: Thou shalt not (point) have any other gods. 5. Thou 
shalt not take the name of thy God in vain. 6. Thou shalt 
not steal (dSrober). 7. That poor child ia very weak ; it can 
hardly walk ; it must have been ill. 8. My brother told me 
that you were not well. 9, You must have made a mistake, 
for I am very well; I never was better in (de) my life. 10, 

u, Gooijlc 


We should bo Borry, if you should do bo. 11. You should be 
virtuoua, if you wish to be happy. 12, I told him (that) he 
ought to obey hia teacher, but be would not listen to me. 

13. Men should love their enemies, but generally they do not. 

14. The little boy must have broken that stick ; 1 saw him 
tJiere. 15. I often used to go to see him when he lived in 
our city. 16. He says (that) it will rain. 17. He said (that) 
it would rain. 18. Can it be possible that my father's watch 
is stolen (use : on) } 19. I could do that, if I wished. 20. I 
could do that when I was young. 21. Could you tell me 
where U Boulevard dea ItcUieTie is J 22. I could not tell you 
(it); I have not been long in Paris. S3. Can it be true 
that he has done that? 21. One would say that you are [a] 
Parisian, you speak French so well. 25. Even ii that were 
true, I should not ga 26. Even if it should not rain, I shall 
not go for a drive. 37. According to the newspapers, a great 
quantity of money was stolen (use : on). 28. By what he 
says, his neighbours are poor. 29. When I was in Europe, I 
saw a horse as big as an elephant. 30. Nonsense I Tou are 
joking. 31. Come I Come I (my) children, you are making 
too much noise. 32. Let us go away. 33. Go away. 34. I 
did not think he would know it. 35. If yon will not do it, 
we shall not do it. 

EXERCISE ZXI,a. (§§254-267, coii^uaL) 

The two kings met (each other) on the 13th of July in a 
vast plain between Warsaw ( VareovU) and Cracow (Cracovie). 
Augustus had nearly twenty-four thousand men ; Charles had 
only ten thousand. At the first volley, the Duke of Holstein, 
who eomtnaruied the Swedish cavalry, received a cannon-shot 
in the back. The king asked if he teat dead ; he too* told 
(use : on) that he was (<fue oui) : he made no reply ; (some) 
teAnJeli from his eyes ; he (se) hid his (le) face [for] a moment 
with his (let) hands ; then he rue?ied into the midst of the 
enemy at the head of his guards. 

The king of Poland did all that one should expect from a 
prince who vxie fighting for his crown ; he himself brought 
back hia troops three times to the charge ; but ha fought with 
bis Saxons only ; the Poles, -who formed hia right wing, fUd at 
the beginning of the battle. Charles toon a complete victoiy. 

u, Gooijlc 


He did not stay on the field of battle, but {el) manAed direct 
to Cracow, pursuing the king ol Poland, who kept JUeing 
before him. 

EXERCISE XZII, a. (§§28S-2T3.)* 

Je tiens 4 ce que voua appreniez I am (moet) tuixions that you shaU 

le latin. leam Latin. 

Kousn'aimerionspasqu'onse mo- We ahouM not like to be made 

quit de nouB. eport of. 

n me tarda que cela Boit fait. I am longing for that to be done^ 

, . , . 1 , - f I wiah you would do it. 

Je Tondrais bien ana voua le laaBiez. ■{ . , ,, ,., ^ , -. 

^ U should hke you to do iL 

1. Our teacher said that he wished us to write our exercisA. 
2. If you wish to go to the city, you may i^pownair) go (there), 
but if you wish ua to go (there), we tell yoa piaiijy that we 
cannot. 3. I wish you to do your work before (the) breakfast 
4. Our friends wish us to stay with them this week. 5. My 
father is most anxious that I should learn French, but I don't 
like it, 6. Would you prefer that I should go to church this 
morning T 7. We should not like our friends to be made sport 
of. 8. You say that you are going to buy a house from that 
man; take care lest he deceive you. 9. I am longing for my 
house to be finished. 10. I am anxious that he should come to 
see us when he visits Toronto. 11. My teacher told me that I 
should write my exercise. 12. My father totd me that he bad 
seen you, 13. The law forbids that to be done. 14. These 
children must stay in ; their parents have forbidden them to 
go out. 15. I shall give orders not to admit them (use : on). 
16. I did not ask that I should be answered (use : ok) before 
the others. 17. I shall avoid her speaking to me about it. 
18. The doctor ordered that he should be given no wine. 19. 
We do not ask that you should pay the money. 20. The Fain 
hinders people (on.) from going out to-day. 21. I wish you to 
know that he is my friend. 22. You approve of my coming 
back, do you not! 23. Yes, I wish you would go away. 
34. It is better for the children to go to school. 26. What 
shall I say to that man 1 He has insulted me. 26. That 
makes no difierence, he is not worthy of being answered (use: 
on). 27. The doctor gave orders that my father should go out 
for a drive every day. 28. He has torn his book; he deserves 

>aae nots on th« limited lua at the impeifect subj., p. lOB. 

u, Goo^jlc 

EXEB0I8E zxui, a 365 

to be punisbed {use ; on). 29. I should like jnia to go for « 
Talk with me. 30. Weakoeaa often hioders good intentions 
from being fulfilled. 31. I long for hia return. 32. There ia 
no more bread ; I should like yoM to go and get some. 33. 
That man ia most anxious that hia children should go to 
school, but he ia too poor to (poor) buy them books. Si. 
Take care that the dog does not bite you ; he ia very cross. 
30. That young man ia not very amiable ; we should not like 
him to treat us aa be haa treated his father. 

EXERCISE XXIII,*. m2S»-'nZ,eontiHued.) 

1. It is fitting that children should obey their parents. 

2. It ia good that men should sometimea uudei^o miafortunea. 

3. It may be that be has returned, but I have not seen him. 

4. It is natural that we should hate our enemies, 5. It is 
getting late; it is time that we ahould go home. 6. He had 
to learn French, for he lived in France. 7. We are very glad 
that you have come. 8. We are very sorry that you did not 
come. 9. I am surprised that he said so, because he told me 
that he would not say so. 10. It is a pity that we cannot 
always be happy. 11. It is a shame for those young men to 
be so ignorant. 12. It is sad that a man like him ^ould be 
so poor. 13. I fear be will commit some crime. 14. I am 
glad you are so well. 15. I am afraid my father is not well 
enough to (pour) go with us. 16. 1 wonder he did not 
come laat night. 17. I know why he did not come; he was 
afraid it would rain. 18. He was not afraid it would rain; 
he was afraid a certain person would be there whom he did 
not wish to see. 19. I do not fear he will not go. 20. Are 
you not afraid he will be able to prevent your intentions from 
being fulfilled! 21. I doubt whether he will be able to come. 
22. I do not deny that I am glad of your ill-tortune. 23. Do 
you doubt that he b an honest mani 24. Kot at all; I know 
that he is on honest man ; I have known him for twenty 
years. 25. I do not doubt that you will be able to fulfil all 
your intentions. 26. It seems he has not received [any] of 
my letters. 27. It cannot be that you are ignorant of his 
intentions. 28. How is your father! 29. He is very well ; 
he is rarely ill. 30. It seems to me it will be dangerous if we 
do not follow his advice. 31. That child ia afraid you will 

u, GoO^jlc 


hart him. 33. I am glad you did not hart yooneU when 
you fell 33. We regret very much that we did not see yon 
when yon were in Paris. 34. Are yon not afraid that yoa 
will tire of being in the country 1 36. I am not i^raid th»t I 
BbaJl tire of being ia the country. 

EXERCISE XXIV, a. (§9268-273, eontitrntd.) 
1. Our neighbour ia an honest man; I hope he will succeed. 

2. I do not think he will succeed ; he has not much ability. 

3. We thought he would come to-day, 4. You told me that 
you did not think he would go away, did you notl 5. Do 
you think we must believe what he says t 6. It is probable 
that we shall go away to-morrow. 7. It is not certain that 
our friends will come to-morrow. 8. Is it probable that you 
will go away ttMlay) 9. We are sure that we saw them 
yesterday. 10. Are you not sure that you saw them yester- 
day) 11. Do you think your father will go to France this 
anmmer) 12. It ia probable he will go there. 13. It is 
certain that all men will die. 14. Is it certain that our 
friends will be there this evening? 15. Is it not certain that 
your neighbour will buy your house J 16. Does he imagine 
we shall do that merely to (pour) please himi 17. We are 
not sure that will please him. 18. Do you think you will go 
for a walk this evening! 19. Yes, I think I shall go out 
with my brother. 20. Give me the book which contains that 
beautiful story of which you were speaking. 21. Give me a 
book which contains some beautiful stories. 22. I should like 
to buy a house which would suit me better than this one. 
23. I am looking for a grammar in which I can find better 
exercises. 24. I have a grammar which has better exercises. 

25. Send me some clothes which I can wear in the house. 

26. Has he a single friend who ia true to him t 27. He has 
not a single friend who is true to him. 28. There is nobody 
here who can speak French. 29. I have nothing which ia 
of value. 30. There are no houses here which are as large 
as those in the city. 31. There are few people here who 
have learned French. 32. It ia the finest thing one can see. 
33. That ia the largest ship I have ever seen. 34. Whatever 
you do, yon will not be able to persuade me that you are 
right. 35. Whoever you are., yon will have to obey the law, 
as long as you are in Uiis conn^. 

u, Gooijlc 

KXBBCisE rxT, a. 867 

EXERCISE XZV, a. ({$268-273, coMrtti^.) 
Qtu Tent-il dire t What does he meant 

__ ~ , , - CMen trnst him. 

Foitea-moi uvofr. Send me word (let me know), 

Je ne refoia plus de sea uouvellea. I never hear from him now. 
n eat trte occnp4 He ia verj* bnay. 

n a'occupe de ceU. He takes an interest in that. 

1. I have told him nobhinf; which could influence him. 2. 
I know no book which pleases me better. 3. I want a house 
which wilt Buit me better. 4. Mr. Jacksoa is the richest man 
I know. 5. However good men may be, they do not escape 
misfortune. 6. Let ua go out for a walk before your father 
returns. 7. We rose this morning before the sun rose. 8. 
Will you not stay here until the weather is warm ! 9. Oh, 
no; we must leave before it begins to be warm. 10. We an 
going to work until we go to bed. 11. You must always act 
so that men may respect yon. 13. Tell the truth always, ao 
that men may trust you. 13. He insulted me so that I put 
him out doors. 1 4. That gentleman made a speech, but he 
spoke in such a way that one conld not unaerstand him. 

15. I did not trust him, for fear that he might deceive me. 

16. He passed our house before we had finished our breakfast 

17. I explained it to him, for fear he might not know what 
you meant. 18, I cannot trust you, unless you explain to me 
what you mean. 19. In case you cannot come, will you be 
kind enough to send me word. 20. We shall send you our 
carriage, in case you need it. 21. In case what he 
says is true, we shall send you word. 22. Although the 
children have gone to bed, they have not yet gone to sleep. 
23. Although you may not tike that man, you must confess 
that he is an honest man. 24. Although we used to be good 
friends, I never hear from him now. 25. Not that he has 
forgotten me, but he is so much occupied with his business. 
26. Far from his saying that he hates you, I assure you that 
be will say he loves you. 27. He gave her the money with- 
out my knowing it. 28. Even if he had told me that he 
liked me, I should not have believed it. 29, Though Canada 
be less interesting than England, Canadians love it better. 30. 
I cannot go out, without my dog following me. 31. If we are 

,;.!;, GoOglf 


there and see him, we shaJl tell him what yott uy. S3. Al- 
though he iB far away, I bear from him occasionally. 33. Not 
that we take no interest in your enterprise, but we are ao busy 
with our own work that we can't think of anything else. 34, 
We are at the wrong door ; would you be kind enough to tell 
us where we are, so that we can find where our frimds live? 
35. We shall rise early to-morrow morning, so as to be at the 
Station before our friends start. 

EXERCISE XXVI, a. ($S268-2T3, eonlitmid.) 

1. Would to God he were here 1 2. Let him be silent, if he 
cannot explain what he wishes. 3. The Frenchmen shout 
"Hurrah for France 1 " 4. He doubted whether there is a God. 
6. I should like you to write me a letter when you are absent. 
6. If his father should say so, he would have to do it. 7. I 
was most anxious that he should succeed in his enterprise. 
8. We were not willing that you should go away without our 
seeing you. 9. His father gave orders that he should be taken 
to school. 10. The doctor forbade that the patient should go 
for a walk. 11. I was longing for that to be done, 12. He 
would not permit it to be done. 13. The rain hindered ns all 
day from going out. 14. It was necessary that we should go 
away before the others came. 16. It was better that we should 
be here without their knowing it, IG. I was afraid that he 
had said too much. 17. I doubted whether he would be able 
to pay that price. 18. I was very sorry that we had not been 
able to go for a walk together ; I am sure we should have 
enjoyed ourselves. 19. Our friends were glad that you had 
visited them before they left for France. 20. He told me he 
would go away, unless he succeeded better. 21. We did not 
Bay you should write the letter; you may do as you wish. 
22. Did you fear he would go away without coming to see 
you 1 23, My father thought you would come, but my mother 
thought you would not come. 24. It was impossible that he 
should not be mistaken ; he trusts those who are not worthy 
of confidence. 39. We are not sure they would come. 26. 
We waited until they came. 27. We have taken care that 
they snould not see us. 28. No man has ever lived who could 
equal him in prudence. 29. He was the noblest man I have 
ever known. 30. I left Russia when I was a hoy ; I sought a 

u, Gooijlc 

EXEBCI3E xxvn, a. 369 

00iiutt7 vhere I might be free. 31. Did he ever h»ye a friend 
who was faithful to him 1 32. Show me a house which will 
suit me better than this one. 33. I have never seen anything 
which suited me better. 34. Why did your father cornel 35. 
He came in case I should be ill. 36. Although he was very 
iU, he would not go home. 

EXERCISE XXVII.a. ($S274-27S.) 

Je Ini si dit son fait. I (have) told him what I thought of him. 

Nous aaoB plaisona i la ville. Ws like it (like to be) in the city. 

n se plait k la oampagne. He likes it (likes to be) in the conntrj. 

le bean, ou qu'il plen 
B'il fait beau, on qu'il pleuve. 
Qnand mSme oe seiait vrai. 

■ VWhether it is fine, c 
/Even if it were true 


D s'en plaint. He complaina of it. 

1. If it does not rain, will you go for a walk tomorrow 
morning t 2. No, even if it should not rain, I must go down 
town to-morrow morning on bufiisesa, 3. If it were to rain 
to-day, we should not go down town. 4. If I had known that 
yon were in town, I should have gone to see you. 5. Had it 
not been so warm to^y, I should have gone away. 6. If the 
Qermans had not takea Alsatia, the French would not hat« 
them ao much to-day. 7. If I come here next year, I shall 
bring my brother with me, 8. If I were you, I should tell 
him what I think of him. 9. If I am present when he arrives, 
I ahali tell him what I told you. 10. If it is cold in winter, 
we go to Florida; if it is mild, we remain in Canada. 11. If 
my father likes it in the country, he will stay there till (the) 
autumn. 12. If I should like it in the city, I shall stay there 
always. 13. I can never trust that boy ; if he should tell me 
anytJiing, I should not believe him. 14. Whether it rains or 
Is fine, we shall come. 15. He is a good (brave) man, if there 
ever was one. 16. If that man were as rich as Crtesus, he 
would not be satisfied. 17. See what that man has done to 
me I He is a scoundrel,' if there ever was one. 18. If I 
ahonld go to sleep before you come, be good enough to wake 
me. 19. Will you not go down town wit£ me f 20. I cannot 
go, I am not wellj if I were better, I should go willingly. 

u, Gooijlc 


21. If he had risen at six o'clock, he would not h&ve miwed 
the train. 22. Yea, he would {si/ si/). He would have 
been late, even if he had riaen at half-past five, for the train 
left at a quarter past five. 23, I have been told that your 
friend has insulted you ; ia it true 1 24. No, but even if it 
were true, I should pardon (it to) him. 25. Did our friend 
tetl you last evening whether he was coming to-morrow 1 
26. Yes, he told me that he would come. 27. That man 
told me that he had a thousand dollars. 28. Were he to 
swear it, I should not believe it. 29. If you meet him, and 
he should ask you where I aip, do not tell (it to) him. 
30. Whether he comes, or not, (that) makes no difference 
to me. 31. If I were he, I should tell that scoundrel what 
I thonght of him. 32. If we liked it in the country, we should 
stay there. 33. If he had insulted me like that, I should have 
kicked him out. 34. Even were you to hate me, I should not 
complain (of it). 35. I should have liked it la the country, 
if it had not rained without ceasing. 

EXERCISE XXVIII.a. (g§276-285.) 

Ja voadreia le faire. I should like to do it. 

, , . ,., , , ,i,.i fl should like him to do iU 

Je voudra.8 qu".! le fi»» (fft). |j ^^ ^.^ ^^ ^^ .^ 

U fait beau marcher (w promener). { JJ"^ g^'^Jtj^ 

_ 1. J. , 1 1 fit >3 vain (useloBB) foryou to epeak. 

Tons avez beau dire (porler). ■(_ i. ■ i.i_ 

' V You may say what you hke. 

•Tai cm voir passer qnelqu'on. I thought I saw some one go by. 

Je les ai ^ont^ chanter. I listened to them sing(ing]. 

n a pensd mourir. He was near dying. 

Je pensa (songe) & le taire. 1 am thinking about doing It. 

n ne fait que de venir (arriver). He has just come. 

n veut faire k sa t£te. He will have his own way. 

J'aimerais autant m'en allei. 1 would as soon go. 

Faites'le mouter. Send (show) him up (sturs). 

1. Let US go for a walk this morning ; the walking is good, 

and it is cool. 2. Living is always dear in Paris. 3. Ar« 
the children coming ? 4. Yes, I saw them coming Then I 

u, GoO^jlc 


was on the hill, 6. I should like to apeak to the doctor 
when he comes. 6. I should like you to spe&k to my father 
when yon see him. 7. When do you expect to be there t 
8. I expect to be there in a fortnight. 9. He might say 
trhat he liked, nobody would believe him. 10. It was use- 
less for us to speak, nobody would listen to ns. 11. I like 
better to live in tiie country than in the city. 12. My 
friends have left me, and I know not what to da 13. I 
think it is going to be warm to-day. 14. My father thought 
he heard some one go by, but I think he was mistaken. 

15. My father was very ill last year; he was near dying. 

16. His little boy fell into the water, and was near being 
drowned. 17. I was thin Icing about going to see yon. 
18. I hope I shall see you when you come. 19. I hope he 
will come to see me when he is here. 20. Did you see my 
Bister at the balll 21. I thought I saw her, but I am not 
snre (of it). 22. I am thinking about writing him a letter, 
but I do not like writing letters, and so I delay (it) from week 
to week. 23. I should like better to go than to stay. 24. It 
would be better to go than to stay. 26. Come and see ua 
whenever yon wish, 26. My master has just come; after he 
has dined I shall tell him that you are here. 27. I hope I 
shall be able to go for a walk with you to-mc«Tow. 28. I 
hope yon will not go away before I have seen yon. 29. We 
ought to go and see your father before he leaves. 30. It is 
useless for you to say anything ; he wilt have hia own way. 
31. You may say what you like; young people will have their 
own way. 32. I would as soon go as stay. 33. I am not 
very well this morning ; I am going to send for the doctor, 
34. The doctor has just oome ; shall I send him up 1 35. We 
thought we heard aome one go by, but we must have been 

EXERCISE XXIX, a. (§$276-285, etmcinvtd.) 

n eat i travailler. He is hasy working. 

Ty iQii Bccoutumd. I am need to it. 

II finira maL He will come to a bad end. 

Se plaire k msl faire. To deUght in evil- (wrong-) doing. 

II tarde & venir. He is long in coming. 

Tenez-VODB (beauconp] & j allerl Are yon (very) aniions to go Uiere^ 

Je n'y tiens paa I am not anxious (for it). 

u, Gooijlc 

862 ExERciss xzx, a. 

1. Continue reading until you are called. 2. Wo »re busy 
writing our exercises. 3. I have my work to da 4. Our 
teacher taught us to do that. 5. Will you help me to do my 
work ) 6. I should like to help you, but I have work to do 
also. 7. I have difficulty in believing that he has done that. 
8. How old is that child) 9. He is two years old; be is 
beginning to talk. 10. The servant is busy washing dishes in 
the kitchen. H, We are owupied t<Miay in writing to our 
friends. 12. He spends his time in reading novels. 13. He 
is not lazy ; he sets about writing his lesson as soon as his 
teacher tells (it to) him. 14. Do you not get tired (in) reading 
those difficult works) 15. A little, but I am rather used to 
it. 16. He lost a great deal in selling his house. 17. That 
boy persists in reading bad books ; he will come to ft bad end. 
18. The wicked delight in evil-doing. 19, Our friends invited 
ua to stay with them, 20. I should like to know where my 
mother is ; she is long in coming. 21. I wish she would come; 
I long to see her. 22, Are you anxious to have it to-day 1 
23. Oh no, I am not anxious for that; but I must have it to- 
morrow, 24. Are those apples good to eat) 25. We are 
looking for a maid of all work. 26. That young lady sings 
and dances charmingly. 27. There are five bed-rooms in that 
house. 28. That poor little girl has hurt her hand ; she la 
crying pitifully. 29. Our neighbour has died ; his family ia 
to be pitied. 30. That young man seems to delight in wrong- 
doing. 31. Are you not very anxious to see your friendsi 
32. Yes, I should like to see them ; I have not seen them for 
ft long time. 33. That is very difficult to do ; I should like 
you to help me. Si. I am always ready to help yoa 36. I 
am glad to know that you are not the only one to say SO^ 
36. That scoundrel did not succeed in deceiving us. 

EXERCISE XXX, a. (§§276-285, continued.) 

Ho pretends to be asleep. 

To do well, to do evil {wrong). 

1. Onr teacher tells us that it is eany to read that book 

2. I am ashamed to say that we are mistakeu. 3. He pretends 

to be asleep, 4. She pretends to be reading. 5. It is difficult 

to aay whether we are right or wrong. 6. He ia wrong to 

-.u, GtJO^Ic 


believe that we are his enemies. 7. Will yon permit me to 
go to bed ) 8, Promise xia not to go away without tolling u> 
(it). 9. I am very glad to say that I sliati be able to come 
and see you at once. 10. We are sorry to tell you that we 
cannot come. 11. Ceaae to do evil; leam to do well. 12. 
Hasten to finish your work before leaving. 13. Let us hasten 
to leave, or we shall be late. 14 I am afraid to speak, al- 
though I know it is my place to toll them that they have 
done wrong, 15. He commenced by telling me that he was a 
rich man's son, and he finiNked by askii^ me to lend him five 
dollars. 16. Take care not to fall. 17. IE you happen to see 
him, toll him that I shall not go away before seeing him. 
18. I have just seen him, and he told me to tell you that he 
would come to-morrow. 19. We (on) shonld not live to eat. 
20. It is too cold to go for a walk. 21. It is not cool enough 
to go for a walk. 22. I rose early this morning in order to 
be able to do my work before going down town. 23. We 
leam French in order to be able to read French books. 24. 
Aftor writing our exercises we went for a walk. 36. That 
little boy was punished for having lied. 26. That young girl 
is much to be pitied ; her father and mother are dead. 27. 
Before going we should like to see you. 28. We should like 
to see you before you go. 29. We saw these houses being 
built. 30. He did that without tolling us (it). 31. We went 
away without his seeing us. 32. It was very windy, and w# 
would not go out for a sail for fear of being drowned. 33. 
Although he made me many compliments at first, he finally 
insulted me. 34. Your father has just oome; shall I toll him 
to wait here, or should you like to see him at oncel 35. I 
have not time to see him now ; I shall try to see him to- 
36. We cannot hinder him from doing so, 

EXERCISE XXXI, a. (§§286-287.) 

I am Bonj for that womAn. 
Ba got angry with me. 

1. Knowing so many things, those gentlemen must be veiy 
learned. 2. The field of battle was covered with the dead and 
dying. 3. I am sorry for that poor woman ; she is always ilL 
i. In n^lecting her duties, she shows herself c 

I., Glxh^Ic 


Their miBfortunes vent on increasing irom day to day. 
6, Don't you see them coming? 7. Yea; there they come! 
8. Man ia tlie only speaking creature. 9. Frenchmen will say 
(prea.) that, generally speaking, Frenchmen are better than 
Englishmen. 10. How happy those peasants are ! They are 
always singing their beautiful songs, as they work. 11. One's 
appetite comes while eating; but, said the Qascon, I have been 
eating two hours, and it has not come yet. 1 2. I like reading, 
but I prefer hunting and fishing. 13. Where are the childrenl 
14. There they are, playing under the trees. 15. Our neigh- 
bour's son has made astonishing progress at (the) college. 16. 
The sewing-machine is an American invention, but there are 
many of them in Europe now. 17. Our friends were very 
much astonished at our coming; they thought we were in 
Europe. 18. As we were taking a walk this morning, we met 
the old gentleman who used to live next door. 19. Our 
neighbours are speaking of going away, but J do not think 
they will. 20. That young man went away without saying 
good-bye; be must have got angry with me. 21. That prince 
has powerful enemies. 32. That lady, being ill, has not come 
to-day. 23. Those children, having finished their work, have 
gone out. 24. Those so-called learned men, who really know 
nothing, are very tiresome. 25. Who is that man going pasti 
26. That is the would-be nobleman. 27. England has the 
most powerful fleet in the world. 28, That little girl, having 
been ill, cannot go to school. 29. Our friends, being tired, 
have gone to bed. 30. Seriously speaking, that young man is 
not worthy of being respected. 31. Those children appear to 
be well. 32. If the population of the towns goes on increasing, 
and that of the country diminishing, we shall probably have 
great misfortunes. 33. I saw him coming down the street 
before I met you. 34. While travelling, I saw many astonisb- 
ing things. 35. Did yon not see my brothers going out! 

EXERCISE XXXII, a. (^288-292.) 

Elle b"; est pin. She liked it there. 

Tons Stes-vous bien amus£ ! Did you have a, good time? 

Elles se sent donn^ la, main. They have shaken hands. 

Elles se eont brouJU^es. They have fallen out. 

Lea grandea chaleura qu'il a fait The great heat that there has beem. 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

TXEBCtm xzxn.B. 865 

1. That is the old lady whom 1 saw fall in the street yester- 
day. 2. She fell in front of Mr. Simon's, and I helped her to 
get up. 3. Our friends have gone away, but they will come 
back to-morrow. 4. Your mother has been in the country; 
did she like it there) 5. She enjoj^ed herself (there) 
very much; she intends to go back again soon. 6. Your 
sister and mother have come. 7. You wUl find enclosed [a] 
copy of the contract which we have signed. 8. The ten hours 
that he has slept have not been enough to rest him. 9. The 
children had a good time to-day at the picnic. 10. Where 
is the servant) 11. I have let her go to see her friends. 
13. Those are the three miles that I ran to (pour) fetch the 
doctor. 13. Those are the dangers we have incurred to save 
our country, li. She remembered the dangers I had incur- 
red. 15. Did those two ladies shake hands! 16. No; they 
did not even look at each other. IT. Those ladies have 
written each other many letters. 18. There are the letters I 
wrote. 19. Those young ladies have fallen out, and have 
burnt the letters they wrote to each other. 20. They have 
said good-bye to each other. 21. They have lost what they 
have given each other. 22. The great heat that there has 
been has killed the crops. 23. The person I asked (prier) 
to sing will not sing. 24. What difficulty we have had to 
remember what you told us ! 25. The crops are poor this 
year; the great heat has killed them. 26. That is the house 
which we had built. 27. How many houses they have built] 
28. How many beautiful bouses they have had built ! 29. 
That is the lady we heard aing at the concert last evening. 
30. Those are the children we saw playing this morning. 31. 
Those are the beautiful songs we heard sung at the concert. 

32. Do you remember the houses we saw being built last yeart 

33. There is a letter which I forgot to put in the post. 34. 
He has read all the books he could. 35. There are the books 
we sent for. 36. We have told them to go out. 37. Those 
are the books which I thought he would r«Ld. 



EXERCISE XZXIII.ii. (§£203-299.) 

n Be croit hoimete bomme. He thinks be is an honest mitk 

n ne a'en est pes sperfu. He di<l not notice it. 

Ce cfaapeau ne lui va psa. That bat doe« not fit him. 

n ne (nous) est pas permis de . . , We are not permitted to . , , 

Je le lai ai ptyi. 1 paid him for it. 

Je Ten ai remercii. I thanked him for it. 

Je penae k vons. I am thinking of jron. 

Que pensez-TODB da cebl What do yon thiuk of tbatt 

1. We shall nubke them do their work. 2. They (on) ha™ 
mode her suffer great ills. 3. Show them up stairs when they 
come. 4. I have seen the children play. 5. We have seen 
him play that part. 6. He was born [a] poet. 7. He has 
become [a] soldier. 8, What will become of us! 9. I believe 
he is an nonest man. 10. He thinks he is [a] scholar. 11. I 
know be is [a] scholar. 12. We should not slander our neigh- 
bours. 13. I perceived their dejection, as soon as I came in; 
did youT (see § 256). U. No, I did not notice it. 15. We 
cannot do without our books ; we are going to use them to- 
morrow. 16. I remember the sorrows you made me undergo^ 
17. These gloves do not fit me. 18. Tliat young lady's gloves 
do not lit her. 19. I shall look for & house which suits me 
better (see g 270, 1). 20. That house does not suit our friends. 
31. I cannot trust him ; he often lies. 22. The son resembles 
his father. 2-3. We are not permitted to leave the city. 
24. The law does not permit children to marry. 25. The 
king pardons him his crime. 26. Did you pay me tailor few 
your coat ) 27. I have not paid him for it yet 28. What 
are you looking atl 29. I am looking at those men working 
in the field. 30. Wait for me, till I come. 31. I think of 
my friends who have gone away. 32. Do you think of the 
money you have lostt 33. I do not. 34. Shall you be at the 
ball this evening t 35. I do not know ; that depends on you. 
36. Did you thank him for having lent you his book 1 37. Z 
did. 38. He stole that watch from his father ; what do yon 
think of thati 39. He is laughing at us. 40. Those men 
were playing cards. 41. Those young ladies play on the 
violin. 42. You believe me ; do you not t 43. Yes, I believe 
yon. 44. That old lady believes in ghosts. 45. He lavee 

u, Gooijlc 


Bod obeys his parents. 46. He missed the train ; did he aotl 

47. I am short of money this morning; I cannot pa; you. 

48. He fails in hia duty when he does not pay his debts. 

49. Have you asked your father for money! fiO. I have ooi 
asked him for any^ 

EXERCISE XXXIV, a. (39300-306.) 

I. Tell the servant to put the frying-pan on the stove. 2. 
That man ia a regular dupe. 3, He is not a friend ; he is a 
mere acquaintance. 4. He was received with all the honours. 
6. That poet ia always singing of his first love. 6, The errors 
of men are numerous. 7. The old man has (/aire) a nap after 
dinner. 3. He paid me a large sum of money. 9. My 
memory is not good ; give me a memorandum of that aSair. 
10. Steam makes the steamer go. 11. That man and his 
wife are a happy couple. 12. T have Hugo's works at home. 
J3. The works of the sculptor Barye were exhibited in Paris 
in 1889. 14. Old people are generally less thoughtless than 
young people. 15. Those people are not all good. 16. All 
those people were present. 17. All good people are worthy of 
respect. 18. All the clever people in (de) the town were 
present at the ball. 19. Happy [are] the people who do not 
love vice. 20. All the young men of the village were present 
at the celebration. 

EXERCISE XXXV, a. (§§307-314.) 
Toraber k geatmx. To fall on one's kneeB. 

Le petit bonhomme. The brave little fellow. 

1. That man has broken his two arms. 2. The 'ife'and 
the 'bats' are often convenient words. 3. The criminal fell 
on his knees before the king. 4. That little boy likes to pick 
up pebbles. 0. The generals have good horses, ti. We read 
the newspapers before going down town [in] the morning. 7. 
Frenchmen hke carnivals and balls. 8. Our neighbour has 
some beautiful corals at home, 9. The Minister of Public 
Works has ordered a railway to be constructed, 10. His 
grandfathers are dead. 11. Our ancestors were great men 
who left [behind them] many noble works. 12. The poor bc^ 
had tears in his (oux) eyes when be waa told that bis bird was 

u, Gooijlc 


dead. 13. That painter makes beautiful skies. 14. Sevenl 
T« Denms were sung this year in that church. 15. Give me 
two poBtage^tamps, if you please. 16. We had Bome delight- 
ful private interviews. 17. Those corkscrews are useless. 
18. Those lamp-sliades are very pretty, l^. Give me a tooth- 
pick, if you please. 20. So not condemn me on rumours. 
21. The two Comeilles were dramatic authors. 22. All the 
Bibota were present 23. I have two Moliferes at home. 24. 
The Bourbons have been very unfortunate ; I pity them. 25. 
I saw the school-boys marching yesterday; the brave little 
fellows were really fine-looking. 26. The noblemen of France 
have suffered much during this century. 27. There are two 
gentlemen and two ladies waiting for you. 28. Good morn- 
ing, ladies; how do yon dol 39. I have visited all the 
county-towns of that part of France, 30. Many of Moliire's 
works are masterpieces. 

EXERCISE XZXVI, a. (§§315-335.) 

I. He showed remarkable courage in struggling with hia 
difficulties. 2. We (laed toenjoy good health when we lived 
in France. 3. Do you not like music) 4. I do, when it is 
good. 6. Gold and silver are abundant in that country. 6. 
The rich have much gold and silver. 7. Does that young lady 
know Greek 1 8. She does not, but she knows French and 
German well. 9. Does your mother speak French t 10. Yes, 
she speaks French and German well. 11. We have French 
and German books in our library. 12. Have you any good 
sugar for sale, sirl 13. Have you any of my books in your 
libraryl 14. Have you any of the good wine you bought last 
year J 15. We have no pens and no paper. 16. They have 
no more money, and so they must stay at home, 17. That is 
not wine ; it is water. ] 8. It is not money I ask ycu for, but 
friendship. 19. Why do you complain; have you not friendsl 
20. 1 should like to buy a pound o£ tea ; have you any of the 
good tea which you ordered from China] 21. I shall give you 
something good, if you come to see me. 22. He promised me 
something very beautiful, but he never gave it to me. 23. 
Many people believe that he will come to a bad end. 24. 
Many others believe that he wilt succeed well. 25. Most 
people ore ignorant of their true interests. 26. We wen 

EXERCISE xxxvn, a. 869 

sbaent most of the time. 27. Silk dresses and gold watches 
are not always necessary. 28. Horses are animi^ which are 
osefiil to men. 29. Queen Victoria has beea reigning a long 
time. 30. The President of the French Republic has eigned 
the treaty. 31. King Lonis XIV, is often called the Great. 
33. That old man has a long beard. 33. Give me your hand. 
and I shall help you to rise. 34. We shook hands before we 
parted. 35. She has not taken off her hat and gloves ; she 
Bays she cannot Btay. 36. I have tooth-ache and ear-ache, 
and BO I cannot go ont. 37. That little girl has blue eyes, 
and blond hair. 38. I had my hair cut b^ore starting. 39. 
What is the matter with you, my little boy I 40. My handa 
and feet are cold. 

EXERCISE 3CXXVII, a. (§§316-336, eoittiimed.) 

Combien les avez-vous pay& T How mnch did yoo pay for them ! 

Je les ai pay^s dix francs U donztune. I paid ten francs a dozen for them, 
n port pour la France. He is starting for France. 

Au nord de la France. In the north of France. 

1. Tou have some very fine pears ; how much did you pay 
for them} 2. 1 paid two cents apiece for them. 3. That is 
Dot dear; I thought that pears would not sell so cheap this 
year. 4. Carpenters are earning ten francs a day at present. 
5. We do not go to school on Saturday. 6. He will come on 
Saturday. 7. You were wrong to come on Wednesday; you 
should always come on Thursday. 8. Did I step on your 
toel I ask your pardon. 9. Are you going on horseback or 
on foot} 10. How we love spring! 11. In spring nature 
awakes from its long repose. 12. In winter there is sometimes 
much snow in France. 13. Those gentlemen are Frenchmen. 
14. Our neighbour is a carpenter. 15. His son has become 
a distinguished physician. 16. Charles the First, King of 
England, was beheaded. 17. She was bom at Marseilles, a 
city of Southern France. 18. We were without friends and 
money. 19. Those children have neither father nor mother. 
20. He will come home at Michaelmas. 21. Those ladies 
dress in French style. 22. Have you ever read Tasso's great 
poem f 23. Yea, and Ariosto's also. 24. We are to start for 
Europe to-morrow. 25. Normandy is a province of France. 

I., Glxh^Ic 


26. Did you ever live ia Parish 27. Yes, I lived a long time 
in France, and in England too. 28. iiy brother has lived in 
China, but be is living now in Japan. 29. The United States 
is the most important country in North America. 30. Havre 
is an important seaport of the north of France. 31. New 
Orleans is a large city of the United States, 33. French 
wines are celebrated in all parts of the world. 33. That 
traveller comes from Africa, and is going to South America. 
34. Ladies, you are welcome; we are always glad to receive 
you. 35. Our neighbour goes to the city every other day. 

EXERCISE XXXVIII, a. (§§336358.) 

I. That little boy's grandmother ha.s given him a knife. 
2. That little girl is very foolish. 3. I know those old ladies 
well ; they are our old neighbours. 4. What a fine-looking 
man I Do you know him J 5. There are some beautiful • 
trees ! 6. 'Die prince addressed him most flattering words. 

7. That statesman is celebrated for his liberal principles. 

8. There are, according to Catholic doctrine, seven capital 
sins. 9. The man and his wife were both old. 10, The 
French and Italian nations are often called Latin nations. 
II. Those Sowers smell sweet, do they not? 12. That large 
building is the school for (de) deaf-mutes. 13. He left the 
door wide open when he went out this morning. 14. The 
newly married couple had just left the church. 15. My 
mother had blue eyes and light auburn hair. 16. When I 
was young, I used to go barefoot to school. 17. That lady 
looks kind. 18. A pound sterlingis worth twenty-five francs. 
19. He is getting richer and richer. 20. He is richer than 
people (on) believe. 21. The older one is, the wiser one 
should be. 22. My brother is older than I by four years. 
23. The richer one part of the population becomes, the poorer 
the rest often become. 24. Your house is small, but ours is 
smaller still. 25. That man is bad, but his brother is still 
worse. 26, The dearer those articles are, the less of them we 
shall be able to buy. 27. Our house is good, but yours is 
better, 28. His most intimate friends knew nothing of his 
good fortune. 29. Men are often the most unhappy when 
they ought to be the most happy, 30. Is that not a Bpleodid 


■Igtitt 31. Yes, it ia most beautiful! 32. The richest men 
in the world are not always the happiest. 33. She is shorter 
than I by three inches. 

EXERCISE XXXIX, A. (gS338-35S, conftnixd) 

1. You are all welcome, ladies ; how kind you are to come 
to see me ! 2. What a pretty litUe girl ! What is her name 1 
3. There were black horses and white ones in the proces- 
sion. 4. Will you give me some cold water to (pour) drink ! 
6. Whose is that broken cane I 6. Our neighbour is not an 
educated man. 7. Our friends live in a beautiful white house 
behind the town. 8. The English language is spoken in all 
parts of the world. 9. I have just seen that pretended noble- 
man go by. 1(1. We have just been at a political meeting, 
where we listened to a very long speech. 11. My dear child, 
you are too young to wear dear dresses 1 12. I love that 
gentleman ; he is so kind to children. 13. Are you not ready 
to starts You are very slow in dressing. 14. I am very glad 
to see you; when are you coming to visit mel 15. I am very 
sorry to say that I have no time to visit you before I go away. 
16. We are charmed with the beautiful present you gave 
{Jaire) us. 17. You are not angry with me, are you? 18. I 
do not like that man; he is too severe with his children. 
19, That ia a nice little girl; she is so polite to everybody. 
SO. That little boy is very clever at history and arithmetic 
21, That army is weak in numbers. 22. We must be 
charitable to everybody. 23. Living languages are more 
useful than dead langm^es. 24. We must not confound the 
verbal adjectives with the present participles. 25. That 
young man is the living image of his father. 26. The mora 
learned that man becomes, the less generous he becomes. 

EXERCISE XL, a. (§§359-373.) 

1. Are there any good pens in the boxl 2. There are none. 
3. Do you know that old manl 4. I know him and bis 
brother. 5. Do you know that man and his vniel 6. We 
know both him and her. 7. We know him only. 8. Did you 
see my father and mother? 9. We saw her only. 10. Are 
you going to give them some moneyl 11. I have already 


given them soma 12. Will you give me some apples t 13. I 
ehall give you and him some. 14. Have you spoken to my 
cousin of your plan 1 1 5, I have spoken of it to her and her 
mother. 16. Will you have the goodness to introduce us to 
your mother! 17. I shall have great pleasure in introducing 
you to her. 18, I was thinking of you when you came in. 
19. Do you think of me, when I am far away) 20. Yes, I 
always think of you. 21. Whose is that house? 22. It is 
mine. 23. As soon as the child saw his mother, he ran to her. 
24 Are you that young man's sister) 25. 1 am. 26. Are 
yon satisfied, madam ) 27. I am. 28. Are you an American, 
sir! 29. lam. 30. Are you the gentlemen we met yester- 
day ) 31. We are. 32. I shall go for the doctor, if you wish. 
33. I shall do the work, if it is necessary. 34. That man is 
richer than we are. 35. Why do you tell me to be brave 1 I 
am BO already. 36. He carried the day over all his rivals. 
37. Tell me where he lives, if you know. 3«. He is a 
Canadian, and I am one too. 89. Do you know the Robin- 
sons? 40. Yes, they are very fastidious people, and I do not 
like to have [anything] to do with them. 41. There is the 
box ; put the pens into it. 42. Go there, my chUd ; do not 
stay here. 43. Do not go there, my daughter ; you will hurt 
yourself. 44. Give them some, my little boy. 45. He is » 
bad man ; I cannot trust him. 46. The earth about those 
flowers is dry ; throw some water there, my daughter. 

47. Let us not go away ; let them laugh at us, if they will. 

48. The children wish to go to the celebration; let us take 
them there. 49. That boy has apples and pears ; let us ask 
him for some, 50. That boy has your knife j take it away 
from him. 

EXERCISE XLI, a. {^359-373, eonlmued.) 

1. My father did not hurt himself, but he had a narrow 
escape. 2, Every one for himself is too often the maxim of 
men. 3. One should not always be thinking of one's self. 
4. The selfish live only for themselves. B. Do ydu need 
money? 6. I do. 7. Do you come from London? 8. We 
do. 9. I cannot understand why he has a grudge against me. 
10. However that may be, it is all over with him. 11. Have 
you any money t 12. I have, but I should like to have mom 

I., Glkh^Ic 

bxebcise: xui, a. 378 

13, How many apples hav« you I 14. I have sir. 15. Hera 
are some fine pears; do you wist any? 16. Yes, I should 
like some, for I have none. 17. Switzerland is my countrjr; 
I love its blue sky and free institutions. 18. I planted thia 
apple-tree; I hope I shall eat its fruit. 19. Do you ever 
think of your countty when you are in foreign countries t 
20. When I am far away, I always think of it. 21. My 
brother has gone home, and I am going too. 22. I see a 
crowd of people in the street; what is the matter t 23. Were 
you ever in Europe t 24. I never was. 25. We shall make 
him do it when we come. 26. The doctor is at home ; shall 
I send for himt 27. There they are; go and get them. 

28. There is some water; give us some, for we are thirsty. 

29. Do not give them any; they do not need any. 30. Where 
iy% thechildreal 31. They are coming up the street. 32. Do 
not listen to them ; they are making sport of you. 33. There 
is my hat ; give it to me, if you please. 34. That is my hat ; 
do not give it to him. 35. Let us go away ; it is getting late. 
86. If you have any money, give me some. 37. He gives 
himself some, but he will not give us any. 38. Take us there. 
39. Oive it to us ; do not give it to them. 40. What are yon 
doing, naughty dogt Go away. 41. I saw him, and gave 
hi"* the money. 42. They are worthy people; I love and 
admire them. 43. Our duty to our parents is to love and 
obey them. 44. It is I who was there. 45. My father and I 
were not there. 46. What were you and he doing? 47. He 
was writing, and I was reading. 48. He has a house of his 
owD. 49. You and be were there, were you nott 60. Then 
is the box; I should like to know whether there is anything 
in it 

EXERCISE XLIt,a. (§1374-377.) 

Elle lui a, ferm^ la porte au naz. She shut the door in hia ftuse. 

Cela lui a fait venir I'eau i. la boDche. That made his mouth water, 
Cette unit ; de toute la nuit. Last night ; all night. 

1. My father and yours will soon be here. 2. I have your 
books and my own, 3. Our friends are coming by the rail- 
way ; yours are coming by the steamer. 4. My brother and 
sister have gone away ; they will not be back till Wednesday 
next. &. One should not fail to pay one's dehta. 6. I had 

-.u, Google 


my hair cut tbia morning; I am afraid I ehttll catch a cold. 
7. The duke waa presented to the queen, and he kissed her 
hand. 8. She has cut her finger. 9. I shall love him, as 
long as my heart beats. 10. It vas so warm that I could not 
close my eyes all night. 11. Close your eyes, and open your 
mouth. 12. He shuta bis eyes to the light. 13. He was 
walking [with] his eyes closed; he fell and broke his arm. 
14. I have my hands full ; I cannot help you. 15. I went to 
see him, but he shut the door in my face. 16. It is a very 
cold morning; will you not warm your hands 1 17. Thank 
you ; my bands are not cold. 18. That clumsy fellow stepped 
on my toe, and he hurt me very much. 19. My head aches 
this morning ; I did not close my eyes last night. 20. The 
eight of those beautiful apples made my mouth water. 21. 
He stood there, [with] bis arms folded, awaiting bis fate like 
a brave soldier. 22. As long as my heart beats, I shall never 
forget you. 23. If they come here, we shall shut the door in 
their face. 24. Do yoa see those poor children ; those beau- 
tiful pears made their mouths water. 25. Let us hope that 
the law has not lost its force in this country. 26. He has a 
watch of bia own. 27. Whom do you mean ; his father or 
her father? 28. I mean her father. 29. This house is his, 
not yours. 30. They lost their lives fighting for their (la) 
conntry. 31. Kegroes have dark skins and large mouths. 

33. One of my friends who is a doctor told me the following 
story. 33. I am going to take away these books of yours. 

34. The difierence between mine and thine is not always easy 
to determine. 35. I love very much these books of mine. 

EXERCISE XLIII, ft. (§§378.388.) 

1. I have never read that book, but I have read this on^ 
and I like it very much. 2. These houses are not so fine as 
those. 3. Yoa should not eat in that way. 4. Have 
patience, I shall be (pres.) there this moment. 6. Those who 
do wrong will be punished. 6. He of whom you were speak- 
ing yesterday baa arrived. 7. Which of those horses do you 
like best! 8. I like the one you bought better than your 
brother's, but I like my own best. 9. This house and the one 
in which our neighbours live will be sold to-morrow. 10. Our 
house and our neighbour's are both (en) brick [houses]. IL 

-.u, GtXH^Ic 

EXEHCiSB XLiv, a. 876 

These facts, and those discovered siuce that time, prove that, 
although he was a great scholar, he was wrong. 12. I Baw 
the man (celui) last evening who wanted to buy my horsa 
13. Who are those two gentlemen 1 14. This is Mr. Robinson, 
tuid that is Mr. Jones. 15. You are looking for apples; very 
well, will you take these or those! 16. 1 will take these; 
those are too small, 17. How is butter selling to-day 1 18. 
That sells at two francs a pound, and this, which is finer, at 
two franca fifty centimes. 19. Gambetta and Hugo were 
distinguisbed men; the former was an orator, the latter a 
poet. 20. That is a fine horse! How much is he worth t 

21. Why do these people not reply when we speak to them? 

22. They are Russians ; they do not understand you. 23, 
Who did thatt 24. It was John who did it. 25. What 
o'clock is it) 26. It is half-past ten. 27. What day of the 
month is it 1 28. To-day is the tenth. 29. Is that tiie hoose 
of which you spoke to me ? 30. No, it is the next one. 31. 
Who is that lady ? 32. She is the lady who lives next door. 
83. What I fear is that he will never come back. 34. It is 
not that he is losing his money, but he is destroying his 
health also. 35. It is time to go home. 

EXERCISE XLIV, a. (33 3T8.3SS, eminwd.) 

Ceit nne belle chose qne tie pro- It is a fine thing to protect the 

t^ger lea faibleB. weak, 

Ge Bont dea quality n^cessaires IVIildneBS and firmneas are necesEary 

poor rdgner que la doaceur et qualities for ruling. 

la fennel^ 
II a cela de bon. He haa thia good thing about him. 

1. It is they who hare done it. 2. It was kind of you to help 
those poor people. 3. You can do it ; it is easy. 4. That was 
not kind of you ; yon should have allowed me to do it. 5. You 
are rich ; it is easy for you to say so. 6. It is a pity that we 
did not know it sooner. 7. It is unfortunate that he did not 
come yesterday. 8. My father told me you were here ; that is 
why I came. 9. It is to be feared that the traveller has died 
of hunger. 10. It is to be desired that those misfortunes will 
never happen. 11. What we were speaking of has happened. 
12. What I am thinking of is the way of preventing that 
misfortune. 13 What be says la true. 14. It's a fine thing, 

N, Glxh^Ic 


(' is ') money I 15. It is not to you that I Bp«ak. 16. Hehaa 
lost all bis money, which is sad. 17. What a beautiful thing 
is virtue ! 18. It is money that he wishes. 19. He is a fine 
young man, ('is') John ! 30. It would be a good thing to go 
away. 21. It is a fine thing to love virtue. 23. Health and 
good sense are qualities necessary for succeeding in the world. 
23. You are the one who did that. 24. Love is the strongest 
of all passions. 26. This does not belong to me, but that 
does. 26. Oive me thb; keep that for yourself. 27. He 
has this good thing about him, that he always tells the truth. 

28, What a lazy beast; and yet he thinks that he works I 

29. Did he give you back your pencil I 30. Ko, but that does 
not matter; I have another here. 31. It is difficult to trans- 
late the word 'that' into French. 32. I am sure that that 
' that ' that that man uses is superfluous. 

EXERCISE XLV, a. (§§ 380-402.) 

1. Whom did you see yesterday 1 2. I saw him who was 
with yon the day before yesterday, 3. I told you already 
what my reasons are. i. What sort of weather is it this 
morning! 5. I think it will be fine. 6, I do not know to 
which of those men we were speaking. 7. What fine weather 1 
I hope it will continue until we leave. 8. Who is thatt 
9. It is the man I sold my house to. 10. What was the 
matter this morning; I heard a great noise in the street! 
11. What were you speaking of to that man you mett 12. I 
was speaking to him of what we were discussing yesterday. 
13. Scoundrel that you are, if I catch you, I'll give you what 
you deserve. 14. What I compUin of is that you make no 
progress in your studies. 15. I do not understand you ; will 
YOU explain to me clearly what you mean! 16. What has 
become of that young gentleman with whom I saw youl 
17. I don't know what has become of bim ; I have not seen 
him lately. 18. Which of those ladies did you seel 19. I 
saw the one that was here yesterday. 20. What are yoa 
thinking oil 31. I am thinking of what we are going to do 
to-morrow. 22. What did your father ask you to do t 23. I 
have done what he asked me to do. 24. The gentleman, whoM 
son was visiting us last year, will come himself next year, 
25. The lady, whose daughter has just been married, will 

u, Gooijlc 

EXERCISE ZLVl, a. 377 

q)etid some weeks with ua next sammer. 26. The people, of 
whom I speak, would never do such a thing. 27. I, who am 
your friend, tell you bo, and you ought to believe it. 28. It 
was we who gave them their liberty, and yet to-day they are 
our enemies. 29. He has gone away, and what ia worse, lie 
haa not paid his debta. 30. That ia very strange ! I sent him 
a letter, and yet he says he never received it. 31. To whom 
are yon speaking, sir! 32. It is to you I am speaking, and I 
want you to pay attention to what I say. 33, The house they 
are coming out of belongs to my father. 34. The people of the 
village from which he came were very glad to be rid of him. 
36. The gentleman, for whose house I offered such a high 
price, has bought another. 36. The cause, for which those 
soldiers fought, was the deliverance of their country. 37. The 
man, in whom I trust, will not deceive me. 38. lliat child is 
deaf and dumb, which is a great pity, for he aeema very intel- 
ligent. 39. I thank you very much. 40. Don't mention it. 

41. What I was expecting was that he would pay me, 

42. That is not a poor man ; he is well off. 43. Where is the 
pen I made use of yeaterdayl 44. Take what you need ; there 
will be enough for all. 45. Which way did you come this 
morning? 46. I came the way you came yesterday. 47. 
There ia, in that attair, something strange and mysterious. 

EXERCISE XL VI, a. (SS40M07.) 

1. Certain people say the criminal has escaped. 2. Eaeh 
day brings its labour. 3. We rise every morning at six 
o'clock. 4. I have seen him many a time. 5. I have no 
apples, but I have some pears and peaches. 6. However 
great and rich we may be, we must die. 7. Whatever your 
intentions were, your actions were not good. 8. However 
good your intentions were, you did not succeed ia doing us 
good. 9. We should respect the rights of others. 10. Every 
one for himself is, happily, not a maxim which everybody 
practises. II. If we do not love others, others will not love 
us. 12. Those children will receive, each one at his majority, 
their portion of their father's estate. 13. Mother, will you 
come down 1 You are wanted. 14. It ia said that the roboer 
haa been caught. 15. It is not known whether the ship was 
wrecked or not. 16, When one is pretty, one is rarely 

u, Goo^jlc 

878 EXERCISE XLvri, a. 

ignorant of it. 17. People vonder why iiia,t young num 
aasooiatea with thoBe scoaodreh. 18. When one aeea a. noble 
action, it always gives one pleasure. 19. I have never seen 
any one who had so many noble qualities. 20. I am afraid to 
say anything about it to any one. 21. No one has ever done 
anything like that. 22. What a beautiful view ! Did yon 
ever see anything like iti 23. He went away without visit- 
ing anyone. 24. Did you fiud anything where yon were 
looking yesterday^ 25. I do not know any one of his friends. 
26. I doubt whether any one of you will do so. 27. If I can 
do it without any expense, I shall do it willingly. 28. I do 
not like this book ; give me another. 29. That little boy hoa 
had one apple, and now he wants another. 30. Frenchmen 
often laugh at ua Englishmen, because we are less gay than 
they. 31. This man I have seen elsewhere, but that one I 
never saw anywhere. 32. These are the same people that 
were here yesterday morning. 33. That lady is goodness 
itself. 34. Even if you were to say so, I should not believe it. 
36. That is a young man in whom I have confidence ; I shall 
pat him in a position to make his fortune. 36. Were there 
any children at the meeting t 37. Yes, there were severaL 
38. I shall never accept such conditions. 39. I never saw 
finch a foolish man. 40. If he were to say such a thing to 
me, I should put him out of doors, 41. He spent his whole 
life in doing good. 42. Our neighbour's daughters have 
become quito tall, 43. He comes to town every other week. 

44. Where are the children^ Both were here a little ago. 

45. I found two apples in the bosket, but neither is good. 

46. Any line being given, draw a straight line which shall he 
equal to it. 47. There is no reason whatever which can 
persuade me. 48. Whoever ' has stolen that poor woman's 
money onght to be punished. 49. Whoever he is who told 
you that, he is mistaken. 50. Whatever that man may do, 
he will never succeed. 51. Whatever the reason may tie, he 
will never come to see ns. 

EXERCISE XLVII, a. (40S-420.) 

1. I will not sell it, cheap or dear. 2. Tou did it on pur- 
pose, did you not! 3. Not at all, it was quito accidentaL 4. 
A Christian ought to love not only his friends, but even hia 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

BXEBCisB ZLvn, a. S79 

fi. Those poor people had scarcely a,ny bread to eat 
when we found them. 6. We have aaid nothing at all about 
it. 7. That is a very complicated afiair; I can understand 
nothing of it. 8. We did not see a living soul in the street 
vhen we rose that morning. 9. Whom did you see 1 I saw 
nobody at all. 10. I shall be silent, so us not to hinder you 
from working. 11. He told me to do nothing until he 
returned. 12. I went away so as not to be punished. 13. 
What is the matter with that little boy ? 14. I do not know, 
sir; I neither did nor said anything to him. 15. Would you 
not be glad to see our old friend 1 16. No, I neither wish to 
Bee him nor speak to him. 17.1 have a headache this evening; 
I can neither sing nor play. 18. Neither he nor his father 
were there. 19. I saw neither him nor hia brother. 20. I 
have neither friend nor money, but I have strong arms and 
courage. 21. No more regrets ; take courage, and forget the 
past. 22. Why did he not tell me so before leading me into 
this peril) 23. There is nobody here he does not know. 24. 
Take care that yon are not deceived. 25. There is nothing 
which does not please me better than that. 26. Not one <^ 
those we invited has come. 27. Do you know where Dr. B. 
livesl 28. 1 cannot tell you. 29. If you have no use for this 
book, lend it to me. 30. Unless you do what you said, I shall 
not pay you. 31. Do you not fear he will go away t 32. Ido 
not fear he will go away. 33, I am afraid our friends will not 
be there. 34. If I were afraid he would do it, I should do 
something to hinder him (from it). 35. If I were not afraid 
he would hurt himself with it, I should let him have it. 36. 
That man writes better than he speaks. 37. We do not wish 
more money than we have now. 38. I do not doubt that that 
is true. 39. Not much is lacking for the number to be com- 
plete. 40. We have not seen each other for three years. 41. 
It is more than three years since we were there. 42. I cannot 
go with you ; I have no time. 43. Yes, you have, you are not 
so busy. 44. You have stolen my apples. 45. I tell you I 
have not. 46. But I say yes, for I saw you. 47. He has as 
much money as you have, but he has not as much as I have. 
48, Let us say no more about it. 49. We are in a hurry; let 
US not stay any longer. 50. I have more than fifty francs, but 
he has more than I, and his brother has still more. 

u, Gooijlc 


EXERCISE XLVIII. (§§421-430.) 

n a one Tlngt&Ine d'auutea. He la abont Cwentrf (years old). 

U a unetxeutamedemille francs. He tiaa about thirty thousand fnuio& 

1. CoIumbuB discovered America in the year 1492, 2. The 
French national J&e is on the fourteenth of Jul;, because 
[on] that day the Bastille was taken. 3. My father 
left England on the first of May, 1824. 4. Kapoleon 
the First was a greater man than Napoleon the Third. 
5. Charles the First of England and Louis the Sixteenth of 
France were both beheaded. 6. The first train leaves at 
a quarter to five in the morntng, and the second at twenty 
minutes past two in the afternoon. 7. We went to bed hist 
night at haU-past twelve. 8. The first two houses in the 
street belong to us. 9. We have only the last two chapters 
in the book to read. 10. The carriage arrived at half-past 
one in the morning. 11. The father gave his son a fifth of 
his property when the son was twenty-one. 12. How old 
would you say that man is? 13. I should say he is about 
forty. 14. It is twenty years since I saw him. 15. That 
man is well off ; he has an income of about twenty thousand 
francs a year. 16. The first volume of his works contains 
poetry, and the fourth novels. 17. This house cost three 
times as much as that one. 18. Ten times ten make a hun- 
dred. 19. We paid a hundred and twenty dollars for that 
horse. 20. That carriage cost one thousand one hundred 
dollars. 21. That old man is eighty-five years old. 22. [On] 
what day of the month did that happen ? 23. It happeaed 
on the twelfth. 24. That table is two metres long by one 
metre wide. 25. We are going to have a house built sixty 
feet long by twenty-four wide. 26. What o'clock is it? 
27. It is just noon. 28. A boy ten years old was killed last 
evening by a carriage in the Boulevard ties Iialiens. 29. That 
girl is older than her brother by two years. 30. I am taller 
than my brother by two inches. 31. Will you come at two 
o'clock or at three 7 32, I shall be there precisely at three. 
33. Is that boy ten years old or eleven ? 34, He is eleven. 



EXERCISE XLIX, a. (g|431.4U.) 

1. I was thinking of what you were talklDf;; about this 
morning. 2. He paid about twenty francs for tliat hat. 3. 
He will be here about six o'clock in the evening. 1. The day 
after our arrival we went to see the museum. 5. That child 
has black eyes; he takes after his father. 6. The money was 
divided amonget the children. 7. Amongst all those people 
there is not one sensible perEon. 8. Art arrived at great per- 
fection among the Greeks. 9. He was at my house when I 
was at his. 10. They all laughed at my expense. II. We 
all laughed at him. 12. The thief will have to appear before 
the court. 13. He will be here before a quarter past three. 
14. That is greater by half than what we expected. 15. That 
bos is six feet long by two wide. 16. It is a quarter to four 
by my watch. 17. I know that man by sight only. 18. He 
will leave for France in a week. 19. We lived in that city 
for twenty years. 20. I have been here for two years. 21. 1 
traded my black horse for this white one. 22. I thanked him 
for his kindness. 23. From the fifteenth of May I shall live 
in that house. 24. They drank their wine from golden cups. 
25. That picture is painted from nature. 26. In spring tiie 
weather is warm and the flowers open. 27. There is not so 
much misery in Canada as in Bussia. 28. Let us live in 
peace with everybody. 29. There are several nations in 14'orth 
America. 30. Not one in a hundred was good. 31. Is your 
house (in) brick or stone t 32. It vaa kind of you to aid me 
in my misfortune. 33. In rainy weatticr we stay at home. 
34. We shall go away on Saturday. 35. He is now on the 
road for England. 36. Our house is on this aide of the street, 
and his is on that side. 37. When you come to the next 
street, turn to the right. 38. Instead of studying he is 
always looking ont of the window. 39. His gun was hanging 
above the chimney. 40. The dc^ jumped over the fenca 
41. He watched over my interests. 42. In passing through 
the forest we saw many rare plants. 43. We work from 
morning till night. 44. We are going to our friends' house. 
45. The train for Paris will be here immediately. 46, They 
sold those goods imder their value. 47. Wicked men tread 
God's laws under toot. 48. If you will live with us, we shall 

N, Gtx)^lc 


treat ^u well. 49. Do you remember the man with the big 
nose whom w« saw yesterday I 60. She told ua her story 
with tears in her eyes. 

EXERCISE L,«. (334&5-4Sg.) 

1. Far fear it should rain we shall not go away to-day. 
2. He did his work so that alt were pleased with him. 
S. Unless you come to-morrow, we shall not wait tor you. 
4. Both he and his brother were there. 5. Go and get us 
some bread. 6. She neither laughs nor cries. 7. Those poor 
people are without bread or meat. 8. He does not believe 
what you say ; nor I either. 9. We shall not be there ; nor 
he either. 10. We have not gone away, nor shall we. 
11. Aa soon as yon are there and have the time, will you go 
and visit my brother! 12. If he is there and we see him, we 
shall tell him what you say. 13. When bread is dear and the 
weather is cold, the poor suffer. 1*. I think we shall go away 
the day after to-morrow, 16. I£ your friend comes to the 
meeting and I am there, I shall apeak to him. 16. Since you 
went away I have been writing letters. 17. Since you cannot 
do it, you must let me try. 18. Since you went away yester- 
day he has done nothing but play. 19. Since every action 
brings its recompense with it, we must pay attention to what 
we do. 20. While I was doing my exercise, she was writing 
her letters. 21. The good shall be rewarded, whilst the bad 
shall be punished. 22. When I saw him, he was busy working 
in his field. 23. As long as the world lasts, justice shall pre- 
vail over injustice. 24. He did hia work, ao that he was 
E raised by all. 26. He was bind to the poor, so that he might 
e praised by all. 


The largest clock in the world will be the one^ which aoon* 
will adorn the city hall of Philadelphia. The dial of this 
colossal clock will be* ten metres in diameter, and will be 
placed and illuminated so as to be visible night and day (de) 
everywhere in the city. The hands will be, one* four metrea 
and the other three metres long ; the bell of the striking part 
will weigh forty-six thousand pounds, and in order to wind the 

-.u, GtXH^Ic 

clock a steam-engine placed in the tower will be used daily 
(= one will use daily a steam-engine, etc.). 


Horses^, birds' and animals' of all (the) sorts speak a 
language as well as men'. We cannot understand all (= all 
that which) they say, but we understand enough of it to^ 
know that they have thoughts' and feelings^. They are sad 
when they lose a companion, or when they are driven away* 
irom home. They are pleased when they are well treated*, 
and angry when they are ill treated*. They have, so to speak, 
a conscience ; they feel ashamed when they do what displeases 
na, and are very glad when they merit our approbation. 
KindnesBi on our part towards them is as reasonable aa love' 
and kindness' between brothers^ 


A rich' man, it is said^, once^ asked* a learned man what 
was* the reason that scientific men were* so often* seen at the 
doors of the rich, while the rich were* very rarely seen* at the 
doors of the learned. "It is," replied* the scholar, "because 
the man of science knows the vaiue of riches^, but the rich 
man does not always know the value of science^." 

> I S51. ■ 1 "S. • 1 ZSS, B. • 1 268. i. • I SSL 

■1Z41, 2,3. •tiEa,2. 


Mohire, the great French' author, was bom* in Paris in the 
year one liiousand six hundred and twenty-two^. His father 
was the king's upholsterer, and was probably a rather rich* 
man. The son received'' a good education, but not much is 
known^ of bis youth. When he was about twenty years oW, 
he organized* a company of actors, which was^ called L'lUvMre 
TMdlre. But in this enterprise he did not succeed* very well. 
He soon* lost* all his money, and with his troupe was* forced 
to" leave Paris and (to) make a tour in [the] province[s]. Thia 

,;.!;, GtXH^IC 

tour lasted' from eizteen hundred and forty-six to aizteen 
hundred and fifty-eight. During these years he travelled^ 
over nearly ihe whole of France, and played^ in many of the 
large cities. After his return to Paris he became^ the king's 
favourite, and produced* the masterpieces which have renderad 
him so celebrated. At last, after fifteen years of great sue- 
cess, he died* in sixteen hundred and aeventy-three at the 
age of fifty-one. 

■I MB, !,(«). "MM."- 'IM». 'I*sii. •ino.B. 

•FutDcL «13eL 'IStl.S.O. •ItU. 


Speaking of the small world in which even the greatest live^. 
Lord fieaconsfield used to tell^ that Napoleon I., a year after 
his accession to the throne, determined to^ fiud out if there was* 
anybody in the world who had never heard of him. Within a 
fortnight the police of Faris had* discovered a wood-chopper 
at Montmartre, in Faris itself, who had never heard of the 
Revolution, nor of the death of Louis XVI., nor qt tiM 
Emperor Napoleon. 

I'ssT.o. >|£BS,t- •two.e. •■»&*• *|«S!.l. 


Napoleon, the greatest general of modem times^, was bom^ 
at Ajaccio on the 16th of August, 1769. At the ^e of tea^ he 
was sent to the military* school at Brionne, where he remained 
more than* five years, Thea entering the French* army, he 
was, in 1796, appointed general of the army of Italy*, and 
soon succeeded in conquering^ that country. He used so well 
the opportunities which were offered him by the weakness of 
the Republic that in less than ten years he was elected 
Emperor. The ten years' struggle, in which he engiuj^ed with 
the purpose of subduing* Europe", ended with the battle of 
Waterloo in 1815. Banished to (a) St. Helena he died" 
there on the 5tb of May, 1821. Twenty years after his death 
his remains were brought back to (en) France, and interred in 
the Hdtel dei Invalided. 

•I ass, 2, act*. •|2B0,£. 

-.U, GtXH^Ic 



Great Britami and Ireland' are two large ialands in the 
Test of Europe^. Great Britain is the larger of the two and 
comprises England', Scotland*, and Wales'. The monarch of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain^ and Ireland' ia Qneen* 
Victoria, who was born* on the 24th o£ May, 1819. She is 
the daughter of the Duke of Kent, son of George IIL She 
ascended the throne on (A) the death of William IV. in 1837. 
She has to (pow) assist her in the government of the country 
a parliament which meets once a year at Westminster. When 
she appeared before (k) parliament for the first time, Qneen 
Victoria declared that she would place her trust in the wisdom 
of her parliament and the love of her people, and she has not 
failed to keep this promise. Having thus early won the 
hearts of all her subjects, she has retained their affection 
during a long reign of more than"* sixty years. Queen Victoria 
is a* widow ; her husband. Prince* Albert of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha, whom she married in 1840, died in 1861, much 
regretted by the Queen and the people. 


There was', in the city of Micon, a parrot which had 
learned to^ say continually : "Who is therel Who is thereV 
This parrot escaped one day from its cage in the garden, and 
eoon^ flew into a wood near by, where a peasant saw it, and 
began to^ chase it. The peasant had never seen a parrot in 
(de) all his life. He approached* the tree where the bird was, 
and was going to^ kill the poor bird with his gun. At that 
moment the parrot began to^ repeat the usual question : 
"Who is there ? Who is there T' The peasant, terrified at 
these words, let his gun fall^ from bis hands. Then taking 
hb hat off, he said, very respectfully : "My dear sir, I pray 
you to' excuse me, I thought that it was a bird." 

Digrre:! by Google 



The tmknowii' author of "Beowulf" was not a' native of 
£ngiand, and so the first of the loag line of English^ poets is 
really Gsdmon. Beeda tells us a pretty story of the way in 
whicD* Ceedmon became a^ poet. He wa^ already almost an* 
old man before he knew auythingS of the art of poetry. At 
the teasta, in those days, everybody used to sing^ in turn to^ 
amuse the company, but Cfedmon used to leave* the table 
before the harp was given^ to bim. One evening, when he 
had done thus, he went to the Btable and lay down, after 
having* cared for the cattle, because, you must know, he was 
only a farm-servant in the monastery at Whitby. As he 
slept'", some one appeared to him, and said, "Ctedmon, sing a 
Bong to me." "I cannot" sing," he replied, "and that is why 
I left the feast." "Nevertheless," was the answer, "you must 
sing to me." "Well, then," asked Credmon, "what shall I 
sing J" The other replied, "Sing the beginning of created 
things'*." Thereupon he made some verses, which he still 
remembered when he awoke. The Abbess Hilda, hearing of 
his dream, believed (that) the grace of God bad been given 
bun, and made him a* monk. 

»»SB2,1.(8>. <|S9S. '1288,2. • I tS2, 1. " | 230. *■ 

'1830,3. •{in5,4,a. •tSll.Z.o. ■<'f£CS,l. ••{321. 

• 1 362, 1, Ci). • 1 258, 2. 


A miser went' one day to market^, and bought' some^ fine 
apples. He carried'- them home, arranged' them carefully in 
his cupboard, and used to go* and look at them almost every 
day, but would' not eat any until they began to spoil. Every 
time he did eat one he regretted it. But he had a son, a 
young school-boy, who liked apples ; and one day, with a 
comrade, he found the miser's treasure. I do not know how 
he found the key of the cupboard ; but he did^, and you may 
imagine how many apples they ate. When they bad'^ finished 
the apples, the old father came, and caught them How 
angryS he was! How he shouted at tbem ! "Wretches! 
where are- my beautiful applesi You shall botb be banged I 
Ton have eaten them all!" Hie son repbed: "Bo not be 


angry, father* I You only eat the bad applea ; we have not 
touched (d) those; we have eaten the good ones, and left 
you yours." 

A hungry! foj^ ^^b one day looking for* a poultry-yard. It 
was late in the afternoon, and, as he was passing' a farm- 
bouse, he sa,w* a cock and some hens which had' gone up into 
a tree for the night. He drew near*, and invited* them to* 
oome down and^ rejoice with him on account of a new treaty 
of peace which had been formed between the animals. The 
cock said he was^ very glad of it, but that be did not intend^ 
to* come down before the next morning. "But," said he, "I 
see two dogs coming"; I have no doubt they will be" glad 
to'^ celebrate the peace with you," Just then the fox remem- 
bered that he had business'^ elsewhere, and, bidding the cock 
good-bye, began* to run. " Why do you run 1 " said the cock, 
" If the animals have made a pea«e, the dogi won't hurt you. 
I know them, they are good, loyal i* dogs, and would not harm 
any one." " Ah," said the fox, " I am afraid they have" not 
yet heard the news." 

■t3t!,l,(S). •|»a 't46S,S. "I^ST.S. '•laZB. 

• |Ms,i,; ie«B,a. ME»: |2ffi,i. '|ks,b "i«»,b. "%a62,i. 

»l 168,1. •IMO.a, •1280, a, a. "|SS<J. "fsw.*.a> 

A woodman, who was cntting* wood on the bank of a river, 
let* his axe fall^ into the water. He at once* began* to* pray 
[to] the gods to^ find it for him. Mercury appeared* and 
asked' him what was' the matter. "I have lost my axe," 
said* he. Having heard this, Mercury dived' int« the water, 
and brought' up a golden axe. "Is this^ yours)" "No," 
said the man. Kext time Mercury brought up a silver one. 
"Is this one yours?" "No," said* the chopper again. The 
third time Mercury brought up an iron one, which the man 
recognized, as soon as he saw* it. " It is yours," said the god, 
"and for your honesty I shall give you the other two also." 

'laSS,! •t230,t,a,mBd1. 'im.S. 'f2S8,G. 'liai,!. 

u, Gooijlc 



Two men were travelling' together, when they saw' a bear 
coming out* of the forest. The one climbed into a tree, and 
tried to* conceal himself in the branches. The other, when 
he saw . that the bear would ( = was going to) attack him, 
threw himself upon the ground, and, when the bear came up, 
he ceased to^ breathe, for it is said'' that a bear will not touch" 
a dead^ body. When the bear had^ gone, his companion came 
down, and asked ; "What was it that the bear was saying to 
you 1 " His friend replied : " He advised me nof to travel 
with a friend who runs away at the approach of danger'''." 


A well-known' English^ a«tor, travelling to Birmingham by 
the Great Western* railway the other day, on approaching* 
Banbury, began to feel hungry, and determined to have one of 
the buna for which the town b famous. 

The train having stopped, he called a boy, gave him six- 
pence, and asked him to get "two Banburya," promising him 
one of the two for his trouble. 

Just as the train was about to start, the boy rushed up to 
the carriage in which the impatient actor was seated, and 
offering him three pence, exclaimed : 

" Here's your change, sir." 

'* Bother the change ; where's the bun," roared the hungry 

"There was only one left," replied the boy, "and I'm 
eating that I " 

'1361.1,(11). '|3S!,1,<Z). 'fS3a,4,e,iiaU. 'i^K.l. 


Under a magnificent walnut-tree near the village, two little 
boys found a walnut. " It belongs to me," said the one, " for 
it was' I^ who was the first to see it (-'who have seen it the 
first)." "No, it belongs to me," exclaimed the other, "for it 
vss' P who picked it up." Thereupon there* arose between 

u, Gooijlc 

EXERCISES iJE:vi-Lxyii, a. 389 

tbem a violent quarrel, " t am going to make peace* between 
you," said to them a third boy, who wag passing at that 
moment. The latter placed himself between the two claim- 
ants, opened the walnut, and pronounoed this sentence: "One 
of the shells belongs to him' who was the first to see the 
walnut ; the other to him' who picked it up ; as to the kernel, 
I keep it for the costs of the court. That's how lawsuits* 
generally end," added he, laughing. 


Many years ago^ there* lived in the city of Paris a cele- 
brated^ physician who was very fond of animals. One day » 
friend of his* brought to his house a favourite^ dog, whose leg 
had been broken, and asked him if he could do anything for 
the poor creature. The kind doctor esamined the wounded^ 
animal, and, preaoribing a treatment for him, soon* cured him, 
and received the warm thanks of bis friend, who set a very 
high value upon hia dog. Not very long afterwards, the 
doctor was in hia room busy studying^. He thought* he heard 
a noise at tbe door, as if some animal was scratching in order 
to be let^ in. For some time he paid no attention to the noise, 
but continued studying^. At last, however, he rose up and 
opened the door. To his great astonishment he saw enter the 
d(^ which he had cured, and with him another d(^. The latter 
also had a broken" leg, and was able to move only with much 
difficulty. The d(^ which the surgeon had cured bad brought 
bis friend to his benefactor, in order that he, too, might be^^ 
healed ; and, as well as he could, he made the doctor*^ under- 
stand that this was what he wanted. 

>|M0.«- nm.a. 'i»fl,B. •i»i,s,a. "iOTi,a. 

• |1S£, a. * I Ul, 1, (SX • I *68, 8. >° I S7B. 8 >■ |£SD, 0, lb 

• lati. *t*ii. 


There was once a cat who was a' great enemy of tbe rots. 
He had eaten a great many*, and they were much afraid of 
him. So the chiefs of the rats called a meeting to' discuss 
what they should do to^ rid themselves of him. A great 



many plana were proposed, bat after a little discussion tbey 
'were all abandoned. At last a joung rat, who tbonght him< 
sell very clever, rose and said : " Do not despair my frlettds, 
I have not yet proposed a plan. A splendid idea occurs to 
me ; I know what we can do. We can, if we are economical, 
BOOH save enough money to^ buy a little bell. This ve can 
attach to the nei;k of our old enemy, and, if he approaches, we 
cat:* flee to {dtms) a place of safety." 

The young rate all applauded the idea, but one of the old 
[ones], who up to this time had said nothing, gravely* asked 
the one -who had made the speech if he wonld promise to put 
the bell on the cat. The young rat blushed, and said he 
would think of it". 

The meeting broke up shortly after, and the rats dispersed 
without doing anything'. 

■ (330,K. >i!a2.£. 'tiis. 'ises. '|<as.4.ii- 

'l«87,a,0). *(»».*■ 

Long ago* the tto^, tired of having^ a republic, resolved to" 
ask Jupiter to send them a king. Jupiter did not receive 
their petition with much favour, but as they seemed really to* 
desire one, be thought (that) it would be better to please^ 
them. So, one fine day, when they were all expecting* their 
king, a great log fell from the sky into the pond, where tbey 
were". They were very much afraid of the noise^ it made, 
and they took refuge in holes and in the mud at the bottom of 
the pond. Little by little, however, they approached^ their 
king to* get a good look at him, and seeing that he was so 
quiet, they becMne more bold, and finally leaped on him, and 
treated biro with great familiarity ( — very familiarly). Then 
they complained again to Jupiter saying that the king he had 
sent was not worthy of their respect, and that they desired 
another, who would show'" more vigour. In order to please 
them Jupiter sent thttm this time a stork, who immediately 
began to devour them with much avidity. They complained 
again, but Jupiter told them that, since^^ they had desired a 
king, they would be forced to quietly submit to the one^* he 
bad sent. 

"(Mo.f. '|iT8,a. 'iVK,\. •isM.e >>i46a,a- 
'ino.z. *)!9«,z. 'lattL lofSTO.L "issmo^L 
iian, s. 'ises.!. 



The two yoongest of my children were alreadjr in bed and 
asleep, the third had' gone out, but at my return I found him 
sitting beside my gate, weeping^ very aore. I asked him the 
reason. " Father^," said he, " I took thb morning from^ my 
mother, without her knowins' it, one of those three apples 
you brought her, and I kept^ it a long while ; hut, as I was 
playing some time ago' with my little brother in the street, a 
slave that went^ by snatched it out of my hands, and carried 
it off; I ran after him asking for it, and, besides, told him 
that it belonged to my mother, who was ill, and that you had 
taken a fortnight's journey to fetch it ; but all in vain, he 
would" not give it back. And because I still followed him, 
crying out, he stopped and beat me, and then ran away as fast 
as he could, from one street to another, till at length I lost 
sight of him. I have since that been walking outeide the 
town, expecting your return, to pray you, dear father, not to 
tell my mother [of] it, lest it should make her worse." And 
when he had'" said these words, he began weeping again more 
bitterly than ever. 

'»25S. '(STB,*. 'tSTl.B. '(260,4. 'IMM,*. 

■ t2se,£. 'ssse,*. 'iSMiS. 'tus.!. >°|se2,a 

A celebrated Italian' painter had told his pupils to* oak 
the name of any (totU) person who might come' to his house 
during his absence in the city. One day three gentlemen 
came to* Bee the painter, and the latter was not at home. 
One of the pupils, whose name was John, opened the door for 
them^, said that his master was not in, and let them depart 
without asking their names. When the master returned and' 
heard of the three gentlemen, he asked' John who they were. 
John could say nothing but, "I do not know, sir." The 
painter got angry, but John, with a few strokes of his pen- 
cil, drew (/aire) the portrait of the three, and gave it to 
his master, who imm»liately^ recognized them. The artist 
admired the skill of the young man so much that he took 
the drawing, and kept it afterwards among his most preciooa 
It is needless to^ add that he pardoned the pupil. 

•|ST0,1. ■1882,2. '1290,1. •ftg4,l,0k 

u, Gooijlc 



A man (eetvi) who woald' have friends mnst shov htmseU 
friendly. A man was passing the night at an inn. He had 
just left a town where he had spent several years. The land- 
lord asked' him why he had left the place. He replied, 
"because my neighbours were so disagreeable and disobUging 
that one could not live with them." The landlord replied, 
"you will find exactly the same sort of neighbours where you 
are going." The following day another traveller came from 
the same place. He told the landlord that he waa obliged to 
leave the place where he had been living, and that it caused 
him great pain to part with hia neighbours, who had been so 
kind and obliging. The landlord encouraged him by telling* 
him that he would find exactly the same sort of neighbours 
where he was going. 

>iw),i. 't3ae,t. >%aa,a. 


When I Wfts^ at school, I was^ often very idle. Even ia 
[the] class I used to play^ with boys as idle as myself. We 
usea to tryi to hide this from^ our master, but one day he 
caught^ OS cleverly. 

"You must not be idle," said he. "You must not raise 
your* eyes from your books. You do not know what you lose 
by idleness^ Study while you are young ; you will not be 
able to study when you are* old. If any one sees another hoy, 
who is not studying, let him tell me'." 

"Now," said I to myself, "there is Fred Smith, I do nob 
like him. If I see that he is not studying, I shall telF." 

Soon after, I saw Fred Smith looking^ out of the window, 
and I told the master what I had seen. " Indeed 1 " said he, 
" bow do you know be was idle 1 " " If you please, sir," said 
I, " I saw* him." " O you saw' him, and where were yomt 
eyes when you saw* him V 

I saw the other boys laugh^, and I was''' ashamed, for tJu 
master smiled, and said it was a good lesson for me. 

<i£E8. 'tsea. 'gsii. msss. •tuse.l 

•|*W,t. MSiS. •iiSS.I. •ItST.I. »|16S,L 

u, Gooijlc 



The princes of Enrope^ have found out a maianer of reward- 
ing^ their subjects who have behaved veil, hy preeenting^ 
tiiem with about two yarda of blue* ribbon, which ia wom^ on 
the Bhoulder. Those who are honoured with this mark of 
distinction are called knights, and the king himself is always 
at the head of the order. This is a cheap method of recom- 
pensing^ the most important services ; and it is very fortunate 
for kings' that their subjects are' satisfied with such^ trifling 
rewards. Should^ a nobleman lose hia leg in a battle, the king 
presents him with two yards of ribbon, and he is recompensed 
for the loss of bis leg. Should^ an amb&ssador spend all his 
fortune in^" supporting the honour of his country abroad, the 
king presents him with two yards of ribbon, which is con- 
sidered' the equivalent of his estate. In short, as long as an 
European king has a yard or two of blue or green ribbon, he 
will not wont statesmen, generals and soldiers. 

■I38S,?. '|!Se,8. 't^l.Z- '1889,4. 'liTE. 

»»!80,2. *» 852.3,0). 'IBM. • [ «», fi, a, not*. " I CT9, t 


At a time when ancient art was attracting so much atten- 
tion in Italy that modem art' was being neglected^, Michael 
Angelo had resort to a stratagem in order to teach the critics 
the folly of judging such things according to fashion' or 
reputation'. He made a statue which represented* a beautiful 
girl asleep*, and, breaking off an arm, buried the statue in a 
place where excavations were being made*. It was soon 
found, and was lauded by critics' and by the public as a 
valuable relic of antiquity'. When Michael Angelo thought 
the time opportune, he produced the broken arm, and, to the 
great mortification of the critics, revealed himself as the 

'ISO. »|W1,I. •IMS.a •|SB!.l,(», 


Had you seen ns, Mr. Harley, when we were turned out of 
South-hill, I am sure you would have wept at that sight. Yoo 

,;.!;, GOOIJIC 


remember old Trusty, my dog ; I shall never forget it while I 
live (fut.) ; the poor creature was o]d and almost blind, and 
could scarce crawl after us to the door; he went, however, as 
far as the gooseberry-bush, which, as you may remember, atood 
on the left side o' the yard ; he was wont to bask in the sua 
there ; when he had reached that spot, he stopped ; we went 
on ; I called him ; he wagged bb tail, but did not stir ; I 
called again ; he lay down ; I whistled, and cried " Truaty " ; 
be gave a how), and died ] T could have lain down and died 
( — should have liked to lie down and die) too ; but Qod gave 
me streo^b to live for my children. 




liAHEmjus (1783-1854). 

Loroqu'un arbre est aeul, il est battu des vents et d^pouill^ 
de ses feuilles ; et sea branches, au liea de s'^lever, s'abaiBsenb 
comme si elles cherchaient la terra. 

Lorsqu'une plante est seule, ne trouvant point d'abri oontre 
I'ardeur du soleil, elle languit et se dessfeche, et meurt. t 

Lorsque rhomme est seul, le vent de la puissance le conrbe 
vers la (erre, eb I'ardeur de la convoitise des grandu de ce 
monde absorbe la s^ve qui le nourrtt. 

Ne sojez done point comme la plante et comme I'arbre qui 
Bont seula : mais unissez-vous les nns aux autres, et appuyez- lo 
vous, et abritez-vous, mutuellement, 

Tandis qne vous seraz d^sunia, et que cliacun ne songera qu'& 
Boi, vous n'avez rien it esp^rer, que souffrance, et malheur, et 

Qu'y a-t-il de plus faible que le passereau, et de plus d^sarm^ u 
que I'hirondelleT Cependant ouand paratt I'oisean de proie, 
lea hirondeilea et les passereaux parviennent k le chaaaer, en se 
rasseiublaat autour de lui, et le poursuivant tous ensemble. 

Frenez exempte sur le passereau et sur I'liirondelle. 

Celui qui se s^pare de ses frferes, la crainte le suit quand il«) 
narche, s'aasied prfes de lui quajid il repose, et ne le quitte paa 
ntSnie durant son sommeil. 

Doac, si Ton vous demands: "Combien fitea-vousl" r^pon- 
dez : " Nous sommes un, car nos f reres, c'est nous, et nous, 
c'est nos frferes." a 

Dieu n'a fait ni petits ni grands, ni mattrea ni eaclaves, ni 
rois ni aujets : il a fait tous les hommes ^gaux. 

Mais, entre les hommes, quelques-uns ont plus de force ou de 

corps, ou d'esprit, ou de volant^, et ce sont ceux-li qui cherchent 

k s'assujettir les autres, lorsque Torgueil ou la convoitiae ^touf- )0 

feat en eux I'amtmr de leurs f t*res, 


u, Gooijlc 


Eb Dieu savait qu'il en serait ainsi, et c'est pourqaoi il a 
oommand^ aux bommea de s'aimer, afia qu'ils fussent uuia, et 
que le3 faibles ne tombasseut point bous I'oppression des forts. 

Gar celui qui est plus fort qu'un aeul sera moina fort que 
sdeux, et celui qui eat plus fort que deux sera moins fort que 
quatre; et aiasi les faibles oe craindront rien lorsque, s'aimant 
les UQS lea autres, ils seront unis v^ritablement. 

XJn homme voyageait dana la montane, et il arriva en un 
lieu oil un gros rocher, ayant roule sur le chemin, le rempliasait 
10 tout entier, et hors du cliemiu il n'y avait point d'autre issue, 
ni k gauche, ni k droite. 

Or, cet homme voyant qu'il ne pouvait continuer son voyage 
k cause du rocher, essaya de le mouvoir pour se faire un pas- 
sage, et il se fatigua beaucoup k ce travs^, et tous ses efforts 

Ce que voyant, il s'asait plein de tristesae et dit : " Que 
aera-ce de moi lorsque la nuit viendra et me surprendra dans 
cette solitude, sans nourriture, sans abri, sans aucune defense, 
k I'beure ou les bStea f^roces sortent pour cbercher leur proiel" 
to Et comme il ^tait abaorb^ dans cette pena^ un autre voya>- 
geur survint, et ceiui-ci, ayant fait ce qu'avait fait le premier - 
et s'^tant trouvd aussi impuissant k remuer le rocher, s'assit en 
silence et baissa la t€te. 

Et apr^s celui-ci, il en vint plusieurs autres, et aucun ae put 
t6 mouvoir le rocher, et leur crainte k tous ^tait grande, 

Enfio I'un d'eux dit aux autres; "Mes frferes, prions uotrs 
F^re qui est dans les cieux : peut^tre qu'il aura piti^ de nous 
dans cette d^tresse." 

Et cette parole fut £cout^, et ils pri^rent de coeur le Pfers 
aoqui eat dans les cieux. 

Et quand ils eurent pri^, celui qui avait dit : " Prions," dit 
encore : "Mes fr^res, ce qu'aucun de nous n'a pa faire aeul, qui 
Bait si noua ne le ferons paa toua ensemble ? " 

Et ils se lev&rent, et tous ensemble ila pousa^renb le rocher et 
BSle rocher cdda, et ils poursuivirent leur route en paix. 

Le Toyageur c'est I'homme, le voyage c'est la vie, le rocher 
ce sont lea mis^res qu'il rencontre & chaque pas sur sa route. 

Aucun homme ne saurait soulever seul ce rocher, mais Dieu 
en a mesur^ le poids de manik« qn'il n'arrSte jamais ceuz qui 
Mvoyagent ensemble. 




LAHENNAI9 (1782-1854). 

Deux homines ^taient voiains, eb chacnn d'eux avait nne 
femme et plusiears petita eufaots, et eon seal travail pour les 

Et I'aa de ces denx hommes s'inqui^tait en lui-mgme, disant: 
"Si je meurs ou que je tombe malade, que deviendront mft b 

Et cette pens^ ne le qnittait point, et elle rongeait son (Keor 
OOmme un ver ronge le fruit oil il est cach^. 

Or, bien que la mSme pensfe flit venue ^galement h I'autra 
P^re, il ne e'y ^tait point airSt^ ; " car, disait-il, Bieu, qui con- u 
na!t toutes sea clotures et qui reille sur elles, veillera ausai 
Bur moi, et sur ma femme, et aur mes enfante." 

Et celui-ci vivait tranqnille, tandis que le premier ne gofltait 
pas un instant de repos ni de joie int^rieurement. 

TJn jour qu'il travaillait aux champs, triste et abattu k cauae u 
de sa crainte, il vit quelques oiaeaux entrer dans un buiason, en 
sortir, et puis bientdt y revenir encore. 

Et, a'^tant approch^ il vit deux nida pos^ cOte a cOte, et 
dans chacun plusieurs petita nouvellement fcloa et encore aans 
plumes. to 

Et quand il fut retoum^ k son travail, de temps en temps il 
levait les yeux, et regardait ces oiseauz qui allaient et venaient 
portant la nourriture k leurs petits. 

Or, Toili qu'au moment oft I'une des mJires rentrait avec sa 
beoqu^ un vautour la saisit, I'enlfeve, et la pauvre mere sen 
d^battant rainement sous sa serre, jetait dea cris per^ants. 

A cette vue, I'homme qui travaillait sentit son &me plus 
trouble qu'auparavant ; " car, pensaib-i1, la inort de la m^re, 
c'est la mort des enfants. Lea miens n'ont que moi non plus. 
Que deviendront-ils si je leur manque 1" M 

Et tout le jour il Cut sombre et triste, et la unit il ne dormit 

Le lendemain, de retour aux champs, il se dit; "Je veux 
voir les petits de cette pauvre mhte : plnsieurs sans doute ont 
d^ji p^ri." Et il s'achemina vers le buisson. si 

Et, regardant, il vit les petita bien portants ; pas un ne sem- 
blait avoir p&ti 



Et, oeoi I'ayant ^tonn^ il se cacha pour observer ue qui sa 

Et, aprte nn pen de temps, il entendit un l^ger cri, et il 
aper^ut la seconde m^re rapportant en h&te la Dourriture 
tqu'elle avait recueillie, et elle la distribua k tooa les petite 
indiatiuctement, et il y en eut pour tous, et les orpheliua im 
furent point d^laiss^B dans leur mis&re. 

Et le pfere qui s'^tait d^^ de la Providence raoonta le soil 
k I'autre p^re ce qu'il avait vu. 
n Et celui-ci lui dit: "Pourquoi a'inqui^terl Jamais Dien 
n'abandontxe les siens. Son amour a des eecretfl que nous ne 
connaisBons point. Croy ons, esp^rons, aimons, et ponrauivona 
notre route en paiz. 

"Si je meura avant voub, vona serez ie p^re de meb infants; 
IS si voua mourez avant moi, je serai le p^re des vdtres. 

" Et ai I'un et I'autre, nous mourona avant qu'ila aoient ea 
ftge de pourvoir eux-m^mes k leurs n^oessit^s, ils auront poar 
plre le P^re qui est dans les cieux." 


Peesadlt (1628-1703). 

TTn memiier ne laiaaa pour toua biens k trois enfants qn'i] 

30 avait, que sou moulin, son One et son chat. Lea partaget 

furent bient6t fails ; ni le uotaire, ni le procnreur n'y furent 

appel^ Ila auraient eu bientdt mang^ tont le pauvre patri- 

moine. L'ain^ eut le moulin, le second eut I'&De, et le plus 

jeune n'eut que le chat. Ce dernier ae pouvait se consoler 

zfd'avoir un si pauvre lot. "Mes fr^res, disait-il, ponrront 

gagner leur vie honnfitement en ae mettant enaemble; pour 

moi, loraque j'aurai maug^ mon chat, et que je me aeru fait un 

manchon de sa peau, il faudra que je metire de faim." Le 

Chat, qui entendait ce discoura, maia qui n'en fit pas semblant, 

nlui dit d'un air pos^ et s^rieux : " Ne voua affligez point, moB 

maltre, vous n'avez qu'k me donner un sac et me faire fatre 

une paire de bott«a pour aller dans lea brouasaillea, et voua 

verrez que vous n'Stes pas si mal partag^ que vous crojOK." 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


Quoiqns le maftre da Chat ne fit pas gruicl food U-deasoB, il 
ltd avait va {aire tant de toura de souplesse pour prendre des 
rata et des souris, comme quand 11 se pendait par lea pieds, ou 
qn'il se cachait dana la farine pour faire le mort, qu'il ne 
d^sesp^ra pas d'ea Stre secouru dans sa mis^re. Lorsque le s 
Chat eut ce qu'il avait demands, il se botta bravemBut, et^ 
mettant son sac k son cou, il en prit lea cordons avec ses 
pattes de devant, et s'eii alia dana une garenne oil il y avait 
grand nombre de lapins. II mit du son et des lacerons dans 
son sac, et, sMtendant comme b'U eQt itA mort, il attendit que ID 
qnelque Jeune lapin, pea instruit encore dee ruaes de ce monde, 
vtnt se fourrer dans son aac pour manger ce qu'il j avait mis. 
A peine fut-il couch^, qu'il eut contentement; nn jeiue ^tourdi 
de lapin entra dans son sac, et le mattre Chat, tirant aussitOt 
MS cordons, le prit et le tua sana mis^ricorde. Tout glorieuzu 
de sa proie, il s'en alia chez le roi et demanda k lui parler. 
On le fit monter k I'appartement de Sa Majesty, oit 6tant 
entr^ il fit one graode niv^rence au roi, et lui dit: "Yoilii, 
aire, un lapin de garenne que M. le marquis de C&rabaa (c'^tait 
le nom qu'il prit en gr^ de donner k son mattre) m'a charge deM 
TOUS presenter de Ba part — Dis k ton mattre, r^pondit le roi, 
que je le remercie, et qu'il me £ait plaisir." ijne autre fois, il 
alia Be cacher dana un bl^, tenant toujours aon sac ouvert, et 
loraque deux petdrii y furent entrfes, il tira lea cordons et lea 
prit toutes deux. H alia ensuite les pi^senter au roi, commelt 
il avait £ait du lapin de garenne. Le roi re^ut enoore avec 
plaisir les deux perdrix, et lui fit donner pour boire. Le Chat 
GOntinua ainsi, peadant deux oa trois mois, de porter de temps 
en temps aa roi du gibier de la chasse de son mattre. Tin jour 
qn'il ant que le roi devait aller k la promenade sur le bord de so 
la rivi^, avec sa fille, la plus belle princease du monde, il dit 
it son mattre: "Si vous voulez suivre mon conseil, rotre for- 
tune est faite; vous n'avez qu'k tous baigner dans la riviere, k 
Tendroit que je vous montrerai, et ensnite me laiaser faire." 
Le marquis de Carabae fit ce que son chat lui conseillait, BansM 
gavoir k quol cela serait bon. Dans le temps qu'il se baignait, 
le roi viat k passer, et le Chat se mit k crier de toate sa force : 
"An secoura ! au secoars ! voilJi M. le marquis de Carabaa qui 
•e noie 1 " A ce crt, le roi mit la t^te k la portiere, et recon- 
naissant le Chat qui lui avait apport^ tant de fois dn gibier, M 
Q-ordonna i ses gardes qu'on all&t vite an seconrs de M. le 

u, Gooijlc 


marquia de CaraboB. Pendant qu'on retirait le panrre nuu^ 
quia de la riviere, le Chat, s'approohant da earrosae, dit an roi 
que, dans le tempa que son mattre se baignait, il ^tait venu 
des volenrs qui avaient emport^ ses habits, quoiqu'il eQt cri^ 
|au voteurl de toute sa force: le dr61e les avait oach& sous 
nne gfOase pierre, Le rot ordonna ausaitdt auz officiers de sa 
garde-robe d'aller querir un de aes plus beaux habits pour 
M. le marquis de Carabaa. Le roi lui fit mille caresses ; et, 
comiiie les beaux habits qu'on veoait de lui donner relevaient 

losa bonne mine (car il ^tait beau et bien feit de sa peraonne), 
la fille du roi le trouva fort k son gr^, et le marquis de Carabaa 
ne lui eut pas ploa t6t jet^ deux ou trots regards fort reapec- 
tueux et un peu tendres, qu'elle en devint amonreose k la folie. 
Le roi voulut qu'il mont&t dans son carrosse et qu'il fut de la 

Uproraenade. Le Chat, ravi de voir que son dessein cominen- 
^it k r^ussir, prit les devants, et, ajant rencontr^ des paysans 
qui fauchaient un pr^, il leur dit : "Bonnes gens qui favchez, 
si vout ne ditea jias aa roi que le pri que voug faaichez appar- 
tient A M. le marquis de Garahaa vous lerez tous hach4s menu 

Keomme chair A pdt^." Le roi ne manqua pas de demander anx 
fauchenra k qui ^tait ce pr^ qu'ils fauchaienL " C'est jl M. le 
marquis de Carabas." dirent-Us toua ensemble ; car la menace 
du Ghat leur avait fait peur. " Voua avez \k un bel heritage, 
dit le roi au marquia de Carabaa. — Vous voyez, sire, r^pondit 

ule marquis, c'est un pr^ qui ne maaque point de rapporter 
abondamment tontea les anuses." Le mattre Chat, qui allalt 
toujours devant, rencontra des moissonneura, et leur dit : 
"Bonnes gens qui moissonnez, at vous ne ditea pas que tous ees 
bl^s appartiennent d M. le mairquis de Carabas, vous serez tous 

tahacMa menu cwmrn chair a pdU." Le roi, qui possa un 
moment apr^ voubit savoir i, qui appartenaient toua les bl^s 
qu'il voyait. "C'est k M. le marquis de Carabas," r^pondirent 
les moissonneurs, et le roi s'en r^jouit encore avec le marquia. 
Le Chat, qui allait devant le carrosse, disait toujours la m€me 

Itchose k tous ceux qu'il rencontrait ; et le roi ^tait ^toon^ des 
granda biens de M. le marquis de Carabas. Le mattre Chat 
arriva en&n dans un beau ch&teau, dont le mattre ^tait ua 
ogre, le plua riche qu'on ait jamais vu : car toutes les terres 
par oi le roi avait pass^ ^taient de la di^pendance de ce chft- 

loteau. Le Chat eut soin de s'informer qui ^tait cet ogre, et ce 
qu'il aavait faire, et dem&nda k lui parler, disant qu'il a'avaib 

-.u, GtXH^Ic 


paa vouin passer si piis de BOa ch&teau sans avoir I'bonueor de 
lui faire la r^v^rence. L'ogre le re9ut aussi civilemeiit que le 
peut un ogre, et le fit reposer, " On m'a assur^, dit le Chat, 
que voua aviez le don de vous changer ea toutee sortes d'anU 
maiix, et que vous pouviez, par exemple, voua transformer en i 
lion, en ^^phaat — Cela eat vrai, r^pondit brusquement l'ogre, 
et, pour vous le montrer, vous allez me voir devenir lion." Le 
Chat fut si effray^ de voir un lion devant lui, qu'il gagna ausBi- 
t6t les gouttiferea, non sans peine et sans p^ril, k cause de sea 
bottes, qui ne vaUient rien pour marcher sur les tuiles. Quel- 10 
que temps apr^, le Chat ayant vu que l'ogre avait quitt^ sa 
premiere forme, descendit et avoua qu'il avait eu bien peur. 
"Oa m'a assur^ encore, dit le Chat, mais je ue Bauraia le 
croire, que vous aviez aussi le pouvoir de prendre la forme 
dea plus petita animaux, par exemple da voua changer en unu 
rat, ea une souris : je vons avoue que je tiena cela tout k fait 
impossible. — Impossible! reprit l'ogre, voua allez levoir;" et 
en m6me temps il BS cbangea en une souris, qui se mit i, oourir 
anr la plancher. Le Chat ne I'eut pas plus tdt aper^u^ qa'U 
ee jeta dessus et la mangeo. Cependant le rot, qui vit enit 
pasaant le beau chateau de l'ogre, voulut entrer dedans. Ls 
Chat qui entendit le bruit du carrosse qui paaaait sur le pont- 
levis, courut au-devant, et dit an roi : " Yotre majesty soit h 
bienvenue dans ce ch&teau de M. le marquis de CarabasI — 
Comment, monsieur le marquis, s'^ria le roi, ce chSiteaa estv 
encore k vous ! II ne ae peut rien de plus beau que cette cour 
et tons cea b&timents qui I'environnent; voyons les dedana, s'il 
vous plait." lie marquis donna la main k la jenne priocesse^ 
et, suivant le roi qui montait le premier, ils entrferent dans 
une graade salle, oi^ ila trouv^rent nne im^nifiqae coUatioDta 
que l'ogre avait fait preparer pour ses amis, qui devaient venir 
le voir ce m€me joa^-U^ mais qui D'avaieot pas os^ j entrer, 
aachant que le roi y ^tait. Le roi, charm^ dea bonnes qualit^s 
de M. le marquis de Carabaa, de mSme que sa fille, qui en 
^tait folle, et voyanl les grands biens qa'il possAiait, lui dit, n 
i^ir^s avoir bn cinq ou six coups : " II ne tiendra qn'& vous, 
monsieur le marquis, que vous ne soyez mon gendre." lid 
marquis, faisant de grandes r^v^rencea, accepta I'honnenr que 
lui faisaib le roi ; et, dfes le m€me jour, il ^pousa la princesse. 
Le chat devint grand seignenr, et ne coamt plus apr^ lestt 
fooris que pour se divertir. 


4. UN NEZ GEL&. 

Dbkas (1803-1870). 

T7n jour, k Saiut-F^tersbourg, je me d^dai de faire mes 
courses en me promeaant. Je m'armai de pied en cap coDtpe 
lea hostilit^s du f roid ; je m'eDveloppai d'tiiie gmitde rediDgote 
d'astracan, je m'enfoa^ uq bonnet fourr^ sur lea oreilles, je 
eroulai autour de mon cou une cravate de cachemire, et je 
m'avenhurai dans la me, n'ayant de toute ma peraonne que 
le bout du nez k I'atr. 

D'abord tout alia k merveille ; je m'^toooa! m^me du pen 
d'impression que me cauaait le froid, et je rials tout bas de 

lOtous let contea que j'en entendu faire; j'^tais, aa rest^ 
enchant^ que le hasard m'eut donn^ cette occasion pour m'accli- 
n)at«r. N^nmoins, comme les deux premiers ^coliers cbez 
lesquels je me rendais n'^taient poiot chez eux, je commen^ais 
k trouver que le hasard faisait trop bien les choses, lorsque je 

u cms remarquer que ceux que je croisaia me n>gardaient aveo 
one certaine inquietude, maia cependant sans me rien dire. 
Bientdt un monsieur, plus causeur, k ce qu'il paratt, que les 
autres, me dit en passant : N^oss ! Comme je ne eavais pas un 
mot de rnsse, je crus que ce n'^tait pas la peine de m'airSter 

to pour un monosyllabe, et je continuai mon. chemin. Au coin 
de la rue dea Pois, je recontra,i un cocher qui paasait ventre 
k terre en conduisant son tralneau ; mais, si rapide que flit sa 
course, il se crut oblig^ de me parler k son tour et me oris ; 
So»s I noM I Enfin, en arrivant sur la place de I'Amiraut^, je 

time trouvai en face d'un moujik qui ne me cria rien du tout^ 
maia qui, mmaesant une poign^ de neige, se jeta guf moi, et 
avant que j'euase pu me d^barrasser de tout mon attirail, ae 
mit k me d^barbouiller la figure et k me frotter particuH^re- 
ment le nez de toute sa force. Je trouvai la plaisanterie assez 

to m^iocre, surtout par le tempa qu'il faisait, et tirant un de mea 
bras d'une de mes poches, je lui allongeai un coup de poing 
qui I'envoya rouler k dix pas. Malheureuaement ou heureuse- 
ment pour moi, deux paysana passaient en ce moment qui, 
apr&s m'avoir regard^ un instant, ae jetferent sur moi, et mal- 

ffigr^ ma defense, me maintinrent les bras, tandis que mon 
enrag^ moujik ramaaaait une autre poign^ de neige, et, 
comme s'il ne voulait pas en avoir le dementi, ae pr^pitait de 
nonvean aur moi. Cette fois, profitant de rimpossibilitd od 


Vitaia de me dtfendre, i1 se mit & recommencer see frictions. 
Uais, si j'aTaia lea bras pris, j'avais la langua libre : crojant 
que j'titaia la victime de quelque m^prise ou de qaelqae guet- 
apena, j'appelai de toute ma force an seconre. Un officier 
accourut et me demanda en fran^aia k qui j'en avaia. t 

" Comment, monaieur ! " m'^riai-je en faisant un dernier 
effort et en me d^barrassant de mes trois hommea, qai, de 
I'air le pins tranquille du moode, se remirent k continuer leur 
chemin, I'un vera la Perapectiye, et lea deux autres du cdt^ dn 
quai Anglais, " vous ne voyez done pas ce que ces drOles me u) 
&isaient} — Que tous faisaient-ilB aoact — Mais ila me frot- 
taient la fissure avec de la neige. Eat-ce que tous trouveriez 
oela une plaiaanterie de boa gofit par haaard, avec le temps 
qn'il faiti — Mais, monsieur, ils toqs rendaient un ^norme 
service, me r^pondit mon interlocuteur en me regardant commeu 
nous disona, nous autrea Frangaia, dana le blano des yeox. — 
Comment celaT — Sana doute, vous aviez le nez gel^, — Mis^ri- 
cordo I m'A;riai-je en portant la main k la partie menac^. — 
Monsieur, dit an passant en s'adreasant k I'iiiterlocntear, mon- 
sieur I'officier, je vous pr^viens que votre nez gil& — Merci,M 
monsieur," dit I'officier, comme si on I'ellt pr^venu de la chose 
la plus naturelle du monde. 

Et se baissant, il rama^sa une poign^ de neige et se rendit 
it lui-mSme le service que m'avait rendu le pauvre moujik que 
j'avais si brutalement r^compens^ de aon obligeance. K 

" C'est-^ire alora, monaieur, que, sans cet homme . . . — Vous 
n'auHez plus de nez, continua I'c^cter en se frottant le sien. 

"Alora, monsieur, permettez. . ," 

Et je me mia k courir apr^ mon moujik, qui, croyant que 
je Toulaia achever de I'asaommer, ae mit k courir de son cOt^, ID 
de sorte que, conmie la crainte est naturellement plus agile 
que la reconnaiaaance, je ne I'eusae probablement jamais rat- 
trap^ si quelquea personues, en le voyant fuir et en me voyant 
le poursuivre. ne I'euaaent pris pour un voleur, et ne lui eussent 
barr^ la chemin. Loraque j'arrivai, je le trouvu parlanb aveciB 
tme graude volubility afin de faire comprendre qu'il n'^tait 
coupable que de trop de philanthropic ; dix roubles qae je Ini 
donnai expliquferent la chose. Le moujik me baisa les mains, 
et un dea assistants, qui parlait fran^ia, m'invita k faire drisor- 
maia plus d 'attention & mon nez. L'invitatioa ^tait inutile jsg 
pendant tout le reste de ma course, je ne le perdis pas de vue. 

V\i ,- I 



DuMAa C1S03-1870). 

Jean Bart ^tait de Dunkerqne, pays bumtde et froid, fA la 
pipe est noD seulement uae compagne, msis uii po€le. II ^tait 
petit-fils et Deveu <ie corsaires, et fut corsaire lui-m€me jasqu'^ 
I'^poque ou Louis XIV I'appela dans la marine militaire. 

s A. cette ^poque, Jean Bart avait d6jk quarante et un ans ; 
il ^tait done trop tard pour qu'il changeiLt sea habitudes de 
jeunesHe. Cependant, ceux qui voudront y r^fl^cbir, demenre- 
ront parfaitement convaincus que, lorsque Jean Bart allums 
sa pipe dana I'antichambre du roi, ce n'^tait pas par ignorance 

lode Wtiquette de Versailles, maia parce qu'il voulait attirer 
I'attention sur lui, de fa^n k ce qu'oo idt forc^ de le mettre k 
la porte du palais. Or, comme, aprfes tout, il ^tait chef 
d'eacadre et qu'il s'appelait Jean Bart, ce n'^tait pas chose 
facile de le mettre k la porte, on d'aller dire a Louis XIV qu'il 

iBj avait, porte k porte avec lui, un homme qui fumait. 

On sarait que Jean Bart venait demander au roi une grftce, 
— une gr&ce que le roi avait d^j4 refus^ deux fois. 

On ne faisoit pas parvenir au roi les demandes d'audience 
de Jean Bart ; il fallait que Jean Bart prtt le cabinet du roi 

■Opar surprise. 

Jean Bart mit de c6t^ aes funeux habits de drap d'or 
doubM d'argent, qui faiaaient tant de bruit dans les salons de 
Faria, revStit son simple costume d'officier sup^rieur de la 
marine, passa seulement k son cou la chatne d'or que le roi lui 

Bavait donn^ autrefois en recompense de ses exploits, et ae 
pr^senta k I'antichambre de Sa Majesty comma s'il avait sa 
lettre d'admiasion. 

" Monsieur le capitaine de frigate, demanda I'officier charge 
d'introduire les solliciteurs pr^ du roi ; monsieur le capitaine 

Bode frdgate, avez-vous votre lettre d'audiencet 

— Ma lettre d'audience 1 dit Jean Bart; pourquoi fairet 
Je sui^, certes, assez bon ami du roi pour qu'il n'y ait pas 
besoin de toutes ces niaiseries-li entre nous. Dites-lui que 
c'est Jean Bart qui demande k lui parler, et cela auffira. 

36 — Du moment oil Tons n'avez pas de lettre d'audience, 
reprit I'officier, personne ne ae permettrn de vons annoncer. 

— Mais j'ai beaoin qu'on m'annonce, fit Jean Bart, et je ne 
in'aunonceru pas bien moi-m^e 1 

u, Gooijlc 


Et il s'aTan^ vers la ports de communication. 

— On ne passe pas, mon officier, dit le moosquetaire de 

— Est-ce la conaignel demanda Jean Bart. 

— C'est la conaigne, r^pondit le mousqnetaire. b 

— Respect k la conaigne," dit Jean Bart. 

Puis, s'adosssnt a la boiserie, il tira uae pipe da fond de eoq 
chapeau, la bourra de tabac, battit le briquet et Talluma. 

Les courtisans le regardaient avec stup^action. 

"Je vous ferai observer, Monsieur le capitaine de frigate, lo 
dit I'otBcier, qu'oa ne fume pas dans I'antichambre du roi. 

— Alors, qu'on ne m'y fasse pas attendre; moi, je fume 
toujours quand j'attends. 

— Monsieur le capitaine de fr^ate, je vais 6tre oblig4 de 
Tous faire sortir. u 

— Avant que j'aie parl^ au roi ! fit Jean Bart en riant. 
Ah ! je vous en d^fie bien." 

Et, en effet, ce n'^tait pas, commo nous I'avons dit, chose 
facile que de mettre Jean Bart k la porte ; de deux maux 
choisissant le moiudre, et aurtout le moins dangereux, I'oEBcierso 
alia dire au roi : 

" Sire, il 7 a dans votre antichambre un officier de marine 
qui fume, qui noua d^e de le faire sortir, et qui nous declare 
qu'jl entrera malgr^ nous." 

Louis XIV ne se donna pas m6me la peine de chercher. IB 

" Je pane que c'eat Jean Bart ! " dit-il. 

L'officier s'inciina. 

"Laissez-le finir sa pipe, dit Louis XIV, et faites*le entrer." 

Jean Bart ne finit pas sa pipe ; il la jeta dans la chemin^ 
et s'^lan);a vera le cabinet du roi. Mais i peine en eut-ilso 
franchi le seuil, qu'il e'arrgta, saluant respectaeusement 
Louis XIV. 

Jean Bart ^tait arrive k son but. II se trouvait en faee du 
roi avec la m€me adresse qu'il manceuvrait devant les escadres 
ennemies. II conduisit la conversation k travers les^ueita,u 
les passes, les rochers, oil il voulait I'amener ; c'est^rdire 
qu'ayant commence par se faire faire force compliments sur sa 
sortie du port de Duukerque oii il ^tait ^troitement bloqu^ par 
les Anglais ; sur I'incendie de plus de quatre-vingts b&timenta 
ennerais qu'il brfila en mer; et enfin sur sa descente k Hew-« 
castle, — il mit un genou en terre devant le roi, et finit par lui 

-.u, Google 


demsoder la grftoe tie Keyser, son matelot, oondunn^ K mort 
pour avoir tu^ Bon adversaire en duel 

Le roi h^sitait. 

Jeaa Barb, qne I'amiti^ fratemelle qu'il portait i, Keyser 
trendait Eloquent, pria, adjura, coajura! 

"Jean Bart, dit Lonis XIV, je toub accorde ce que j'u 
refua^ k Tourville. 

— Sire, r^pondit Jeaa Bart, mon pfere, deux de mes ff^rei^ 
Yiagt antres membres de ma faraille, sont morts an service de 
10 Votre Majesty Vous me donnez aujourd'hui la vie de mon 
matelot, je vona doone quittance pour celles dea autrea." 

Et Jeaa Bart sortit, pleurant comme an enfaat, et criant ; 
" Vive le roi ! " k tue-tSte. 

Ce fut alore qu'envelopp^ par toua les courtisans d^ireux de 

U faire la cour il nn bomme qui 6tait demeur^ plus d'une demi- 

henre en audience privfe aveo Louia XIV, et ne sochant com- 

mont aortir de ce cercle vivant qui commen^ait k I'^touffer, il 

profita de ce qu'un dea courtisans lui demandait : 

" Monsieur Jean Bart, comment done Stes-vons sorti da 
nport de Bunkerque, bloqu^ comme voua I'^tiez par la flotte 
angtaise 1 

— Vous Toulez le savoir t r^poodit-il. 

— Oui, oui, s'^rifereat-ils tons en cbcenr; cela noua feraili 
grand plaisir. 
tf —Eh bien I vous allez voir. Je suia Jean Bart, n'eat-oe 
pas! Vooa Stea la flotte anglaiae ; vous me bloquez daos 
i'anticbambre dn roi; vous m'empficliez de aortir... Eh bieo, 
vli! vlan! piffl paff! voili comment je auia aorti I " 

Et h chaque exclamation, allongeant un coup de pied on un 

10 coup de poing k celui qui ^tait en face de lui et I'envoyant 

tomber snr aon voisin, il s'ouvrit nn passage jusqn'ii la porta. 

Arrive li : 

" Messieurs, dit-il, voilk comment je suis sorti dn port da 
m Et it Bortit de I'anticbambre dn roi. 



Dacpef (1S40-1897). 

Ce matin-li j'^tais tr^ en retard pour aller h I'^cole, eb 
favaiB grand'peur d'etre grond^, d'autant plus que M. Hamel 
' nouB avait dit qu'il nous inteirogerait sur lea participes, et ja 
n'ea savais pas le premier mot. Ua moment I'idto me vint da 
manquer la classe et de prendre ma course k tracers champs. • 

Le temps ^tait si chaud, ai clair I 

On entendait lea merjea siffler k la lisifere du bois, et daiu 
la pr^ Rippert, derrifere la scierie, les Prusaiens qui faisaient 
I'exercice. Toot cela me tentait bien plus que la r^gle des 
participes; mais j'eus la force de r^sister, et je coams bienu 
rite vers I'^cole. 

En passant devant la mairie, je vis qu'il j avait du monda 
arr^t^ pr^ du petit grillage aux affiches. Depuis deux ans, 
c'aat de \k que nous aont venues toutes les mauvaiaes nouvellea, 
les bataillea perdues, les r^uisitions, les ordres de la oomman-U 
dature ; et ja pensai sana m'arr^ter : 

" Qu'estce qu'il y a encore 1 " 

Alors, comme ja traversais la place en courant, le forgeron 
Wachter, qui ^tait Ik avec son apprenti en train de lire 
I'afSche, me cria : tt 

"We te d^pScbe pas tant, petit; tu y arriveraa toujoura 
assez tdt, k ton ^ole 1 " 

Je cms qu'il se moquait de moi, et j'entrai tout easoaSi 
dans la petite cour de M. Hamel. 

D'ordinaire, au commencement de la classe, il se faisait unM 
grand tapage qu'on entendait josqne dans la rue, les pupitrea 
onvertB, ferm^, les le^ns qu'on r^p^tait tris haut ensemble en 
se bouchant lea oreillea pour mieuz appreudre, et la grosse r^le 
du mattre qui t^pait sur les tables : 

" Un peu de silence I " w 

Je comptaia sur tout ce train pour gagner mon banc sana 
£tre vu ; mais juatement ce jonr-l& tout ^tait tranquille, comma 
nn matin de dimancbe. Par la fen^tre ouverte je voyais mea 
camarodes d^j& ranges k leur place, et M. Hamel, qui passait 
et repaasait avec la terrible r^le en fer sous le bras. II fallutu 
ouvrir la porte et entrer au milieu de ce grand calme. VooB 
pensez si j'^tais rouge, at si j'avais peur 1 


Eh bien, non. M. Hamel me r^;arda boob col&re et me dil 

" Va vite k ta place, moa petit Frantz ; nous ^ions com- 
mencer sans toi." 

s J'eDJanabai le banc et je m'asGis tout de suite k mon pnpitra 
Alors seulemeat, na peu remis de frayeur, je remarqnai que 
notre maitrs avail sa belle redingote verte, son jabot plisa^ fin 
et la calotte de sole noire brod^ qu'il ne mettait que les jours 
d'inspection ou de distribution de prix. Du reste, tonte la 

uolasse avait quelque chose d'extraordinaire et de soleniiet. 
Mats ce qui me aurprit le plus, ce f ut de voir au fond de la 
ealle, aur les bancs qui restaient Tides d'habitude, les gens du 
village asais et silencieux comme nous, le vieux Hauser avec 
son tricorne, I'ancien maire, I'ancien facteur, et puis d'autres 

upersonnes encore. Tout ce monde-t& paraissait triate; et 
Hauser avalt apport^ na vieil ab^cMaire mang^ aux borda 
qn'il tenait grand ouvert sur ses genoux, avec ses grosses 
lunettes pos^ en travers des p^;es. 

Pendant que je mMtonnais de tout cela, M. Hamel ^tait 

nmont^ dans sa chaire, et, de la mtoe voix douce et grave dont 
il m'avaic re^u, il nous dit : 

"Mas enfants, c'est la demifere fois que je vous fais la classe. 
L'ordre est venu de Berlin de ne plus enseigner qne rallemand 
dans les ^coles de I'Alsace et de la Lorraine. ... Le nonveau 

IB mattre arrive demain. Aujourd'hui c'est votre dernitre le^on 
de fran^aia. Je vous prie d'etre bien attentifs." 

Ces quelqnes paroles me boulevers^rent. Ahl les mis^ra- 
bles, voUk ce qu'ils avaient a£Gch^ k la mairie; 
Ma demi^re le^n de fran^ais ! 

10 £t moi qui savais k peine ^crire ! Je n'apprendraia done 
jamais ! II faudrait done en rester ]k ! Comme je m'en von- 
lais maintenant du temps perdu, des classes manqu^es k courir 
les nids ou k faire des glissades sur la Saar 1 Mes livres que 
tout k I'heure encore je trouvais si ennuyeux, si lourds k por- 

atter, ma grammaire, mon histoire sainte, me semblaient de 

vieux amis qui me feraient beaucotip de peine k quitter. 

Ceat comme M. Hamel. L'id^ qu'il allait partir, que je ne le 

verrais plus, me Eaisait oublier les punitions, les coups de rfegle. 

Pauvre homme I 

U Cest en I'honneur de cett« demifere classe qu'il avait mis sea 
beaux habits du dimanche, et mainten&nt je comprenais ponr^ 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


qnoi cee Tieox du village Staient venus s'asaeoir an bout de 1ft 
salle. Cela aemblait dire qu'ils regrettaient de ne pas j @tre 
venus pluB soavent, k cette ^ole. C'^tait auBsi comme une 
faQon de remercier notre mattre de ses quarante ans de bon« 
services, et de readre leura devoirs k la patrie qui E'en allait s 

J'en ^taia Ik de mea reflexions, quand j'entendia appeler moa 
nom. C'dtait mon tour de r&itor. Que n'aurais-je pas donn^ 
pour pouvoir dire tout au long cette fameuae r^le des parti- 
cipes, bien haut, bien clair, aans une faute ; mais je m'embrou- 
illai aux premiers mots, et je restai debout k me Wancer dans U 
mon banc, le coeur gros, sans oser lever la t€te. J'eotendais 
M. Hsmel qui me parlait : 

" Je ne te gronderai pas mon petit Frantz, ta dois @tre assez 
puni, Voili ce que c'est, Tous les joura on se dit ; Bah ! j'ai 
bien le temps. J'apprendrai domain. Et puis tu vois oe quiu 
arrive. , . , Ah 1 ^'a 4t4 le grand malheur de notre Alsace de 
toujonrs remettre soniiiiBtruction k demain. Maintenant cea 
gens-IJi sont en droit de nous dire : Comment ! Voua pr^ten- 
diez Stre Fran^ais, et vous ne savez ni parler ni ^rire votre 
langue ! . . . Dans tout ^ mon pauvre Frantz, ce n'est pasio 
encore toi le plus coupable. Nous avons tous notre bonne 
part de reproches k nous faire. 

"Vos parents n'oat pas assez t«nu k vous voir instruits. 
Us aimaient mieux vous envoyer travailler k la terre ou aux 
filatures pour avoir quelques sous de plus. Moi-mSme, n'ai-jett 
lien k me reprochert Est-ce que je ne vous ai paa aouvent fait 
arroser mon jardin au lieu de travailler t Et quand je voulais 
aller pgcher des truites, est-ce que je me g^nais pour vous 
donner oong^ 1" . . . 

Alors, d'une chose k I'autre, M. Hamel se mit k nous parlerM 
de la langue fran^aise, disant que c'^tait la plus belle langue 
dn monde, la plus olaire, la plus Bolide, qu'il fallait la garder 
entre nous et ne jamais I'oublier, parce que quand an penple 
tombe esclave, taut qu'U tient bien sa langue, c'est comme a'il 
tenait la clef de sa prison. Puis il prit une grammaire et nonsw 
lut notre le^on. J'^taia ^tonn^ de voir comme je comprenais. 
Tout ce qa'il me diaait me aemblait facUe, facile, je crois 
susai que je n'avais jamais si bien ^out^ et qr.e lui non plus 
n'avait jamais mis autant de patience k ses explications. On 
aurait dit qu'avont de s'en aller le pauvre homme voulait noas« 

u, Goo^jlc 


donner tout son saroir, nous le Eoire entrer duis 1* tMe d'nn 
■eal coup. 

La l«9on finie, on passa k I'^ritare. Foar ce jonr-U M. Hamel 
noua RVEiit pr^fMi^ des exemplea toot neufs, aur lesquels 6tiat 

t&rit «n belle ronda: France, Altae«, France, Alaace. Cels 
faisait comme dea petita drapeaux qui flottaient tout antour 
de U classe pendoa k la tringle de nos pupitres. U fallait voit 
comme obacun a'appliquoit, et quel sUence I Oa n'entendut 
que le grincement dee plumes eur le papier, XTn moment de« 

tohaimetons entr^rent; maia peraonne n'7 fit attention, pas 
mSme lea tout petits, qui s'appliquaient k tracer leura bdtmt 
avec un c<zur, une conscience, comme si cela encore dtsit do 
frao^ia. . . Sur la toiture de I'^cole, dea pigeona roncoulaient 
tout bas, et je me diaaia en lea ^coutant : 

u " Est-ce qn'on ne va pas lea obliger k cbanter en allemand, 
eux auaaif" 

De t«mps en temps quand je levais les yeux de dessna mft 
page, je voyaia M. Hajnel immobile dana sa cbaire et fixant 
les objeta autour de lui, comme a'it avait Toulu emporter dans 

K aon regard toube aa, petite maiaon d'dcole. . . Fenaez 1 depuis 

Juarante ana, il ^tait \k k la m^me place, avec sa conr en faoa 
e lui et sa clasae touto pareUte. Seulement lea bancs, les 
pupite«s s'^talent polia, frott^ par I'usage ; lea noyera de 1ft 
oonr avaient grandi, et le houblon qu'il avut ptant^ lui-mSme 

Itengairlaadait maintenant lea fenStres jusqu'au toit. Qaek 
crive-cotur ;a devait {ttre pour ce pauvre homme de quitter 
toutes ces cboaes, et d'ent«ndre sa aoenr qui allait, venat^ dans 
la chambre au-deasua, en train de farmer leurs malles I car ile 
devaient partir le lendemain, a'en aller du pays pour toujours. 

go Tuut de m€me il eut le courage de nous faire la claaae 
juaqii'au bout. Apr^ I'feriture, nous eflmea la le^on dliis- 
toire; enauite lea petita chant^rent le ba br bi bo BU. LA-bas 
%a fond de la aalle, le vieuK Hauser avait mis ses lunettes, et, 
tenant son ab^cMaira k deux maina, il dpelait lea lettrea avec 

Keux. On Toyalt qu'il s'appliquait, lui aussi; sa toIk tremblait 
d'^motion. et c'^tait si dr6le de I'entendre, que nous avions 
tous envie de rire et de pleurer. Ah 1 je m'en aonviendrai da 
cetto demifare clasae. . - 

Tout k coup I'borloge de I'^gliae aonna midi, puia I'Angdiu. 

W An mSme moment, les trompettea des Prussiens qui revenaient 
de I'exercice ^clat^rent aous nos fenfitres. ... M. Hamel se 

u, Gooijlc 


leva, tout pile, daos aa ohaire. JmnaJs il n« m'avut pam n 

" Mes amis, dit-il, mes amis, je . , . je " 

Mais qoelque chose r^touffait^ II ue pouvait pas acheTer 
la phrase. 

Alors il se tourna vers Is tableau, prit un morceau de cmie, 
et, en appnjant de toutea sea forces, il ^crivit aussi groa qu'il 

" ViTB LA France ! " 

Puis il resta li, la tfite appuyfe au mur, ot^ aans parler, aveo ic 
la main il nous faisait aigne : 

" C'eat fini .... allez-vo«s-en." 



Daudzt (1S4D-1897}. 

M. Segnin n'avait jamais eu de bonheur avec sea ch4vre«. 

It les perdait toutea de la m§me fa;on : un beau matin, eUes 
cassaient kur corde, s'en allaient dans la montagne, et l&^hautu 
le loup les mangeait. N't les caresses de leur mattre, ni la peur 
du loup, rien ne les retenait C'^tait, paratt-il, des ch^rres ind^ 
pendantes, voulant k tout prix le grand air et la liberty. 

Le brave M. Seguin, qui ne comprenait rien au caractire de 
ses bStes, ^tatt constem^, II disait : « 

"Cest fini ; les ch^vres s'ennuient chez moi, je n'en garderai 
pas une." 

Cependant il ne ae ddcouragea pas, et, apr^s avoir perdu six 
difevres de la mfime, maniiire, il en acheta une septifeme; seule- 
nent, cette foia, il eut aoin de la prendre toute jeune, pourls 
qu'elle s'habituat mieux k demeurer chez lui. 

Ah ! qu'elle ^tait jolie la petite chfevre de M. Seguin ! qo'elle 
^tait jolie avec sea y eux doux, sa barbicbe de sous-officier, ses 
aabots noirs et luiaanta, aea comes z^r^ea et aes longs poila 
blancs qui lui faisaient une houppelande ! et puis, docile, cares- K 
sante, se laissant traire sans bouger, sana mettre son pied dans 
I'^cnelle. Un amour de petite ch^vre . . . 

u, Gooijlc 


VL Segnin nviufc derribre sa mtuabn on clos m,ioar4 cl'MilMf> 

fines. C'est Ik qu'il mit ea nouvelle penaionnaire. II I'attachft 
nn piea a.a plus bel endroit du pr^, en ayant aoin de lui laisser 
beaucoup de cxtrde, at de temps en temps il venait voir si etl« 
■ ^tait bien. La ch^vre Be trouvait tr^ henreuee et broutait 
ITierbe de si boa cceur que M. Seguin ^tait ravL 

" £n&ii, pensait le pauvre bomme, en toU^ nne qui ne s'en- 
nniera pas chez moi ! " 

M. Seguin se trompait, sa ch^vre s'ennuya. 

n tTn jour, elle se dit en regardant la montagne : 

" Comme on doit fitre bien l^baut 1 Qud plaisir de gam- 
bader datis la bniy^re, sans cette mandite longe qui tous 
^corche le con ! . . . C'eat bon pour ]'&ne ou pour le bmuf de 
brouter dans un clos ! . . Lea chfevres, il leur faut du large." 
U A partir de ce moment, I'berbe du clos lui parut fade 
L'ennui lui vint. Elle maigrit, son lait se fit rare. C^tait 
piti^ de la voir tirer tout le jour sur sa longe, la t£te toum^ 
du cdt^ de la montagne, la Qarine ouverte, en faiaant MS!.. . 
ID M. Seguin s'apercevait bien que sa cli^vre avait qiie1qu4 
chose, mais il ne savait pas ce que c'^tait . . . Un matin, 
comme il achevait de la traire, la ch^vre se retouma et lui dit 
dans son patoia : 

"Ecoutez, monsieur Seguin, je me langnis chez vona, laiases- 
lE moi aller dans la montagne. 

— Ab! mon Dieu! . . . EUe aussi! cria M. Seguin stup^fait, 
et du coup it laissa tomber son Quelle ; puis, B'asseyant daiu 
I'berbe k c(M de sa chfevre : 

— Comment Blanquette, tu veux me quitter 1 " 
Ki Et Blanquette r^pondit : 
" Oui, monsieur Seguin : 
— Est-ce que I'berbe te manque idl 
— Oh ! non ! monsieur Seguin. 

— Tu ©8 peut-Stre attache de trop court; veui-tu qaa 
ttj'allonge la corde ! 

— Ce n'est pas la peine, monsieur Seguin. 
— Alors, qu'est-ce qu'il te faut ! qu'est-ce que tu veuz? 
— Je veux aller dans la montagne, monsieur Seguin. 
— Mais, malheureuse, tu ne sais pas qu'il y a le loup dana la 
tt montagne .. , Que feras-tu ^uand il viendrat. ., 


^-39 Ini donnerai des coups de corne, monsieur Segnm. 

— Le loup se moqne bien da tea comes. II m'a mong^ des 
biques autrement encom^ que toi . . Tu aais bien, la puuvre 
vieille Renaude qui ^tait ici I'an demierl une ma!tresse chiivre, 
forte et m^hante comme un bone. EUe s'est battue aveo le & 
loup tout« la nuit. . . puis, le matin, le loup I'a mang^e- 

— F^aira I Pauvre Renaude ! . . . ^a ne fait rien, monsiear 
S^uin, laiasez-moi aller dans la montcigiie. 

— Bont^ divine ! . . . dit M. Seguin ; mais qn'est-ce t^u'oa 
lear fait done k mes ch^vres 1 Encore une que le loup va me i» 
manger . . . Eb bien, non ... je te sauverai malgr^ toi, 
coquine I et de peur que tu ne rompes ta corde, je vaia t'en- 
fermer dans ratable, et tu y resteraa toujours. 

lA-desaus, M. Seguin emporta la ch^vre dans une stable 
tonte noire, dont il ferma la porte k double tour. MaJheu-u 
leosement, il avail oubli^ la fengtre, et k peine eut-il le doa 
tourn^, que la petite a'en alia. . . . 

Quand la ch^vre blanche arriva dans la montagne, ce fut un 
ravissemeat g^^ral. Jamais les vieuz aapins n'avaient rieu 
vn d'&uasi joli. On la re9Ut comme une petite reine. Les» 
Chfitaigniera se baissaient juaqu'^ terre pour la caresser du 
bout de leura branches. Les genets d'or s'ouvraient sur son 
passage, et sentaient bon tant qu'ils pouvaient. Toute la 
montagne lui fit fSte. 

On pease bien si notre ch^vre ^tait beureuse I Plus de tb 
oorde, plus de pieu . . . rien qui I'emp^chfit de gambader, de 
brouter k sa guise . . C'est \k qu'il y en avait de I'herbel 
jnaque par-dessus les comes ! . . . Et quelle herbe ! savoureuse, 
fine, dentel^, faite de mille plantes . . . C'^tait bien autre 
cliose que le gazon du clos. Et les fieurs done)... Den 
grandes campanules bleues, des digitaJes de pourpre it longs 
calices, toute une foret de flenra sauv^es d^bordant de Buca 
capiteux ! . . . 

La cb^vre blanche, k moiti4 sofile, se vantrait ]k dedans les 
jambes en I'air et roulsit le long des talus, p£le-m@le avec les» 
feuilles tomb^s et les cbfttaignes . . . Puis, tout k coup elle 
se redressait d'un bond sur sea pattes. Hop ! la voil& partie, 
la tSte en avant, k travers les maquia et les buissi^res, tant6t 
sur un pic, tantAt au fond d'un ravin, la-haut, en bas, par- 
tout. . . On aurait dit qu'il y avait diz ch&vres de M, Seguin 10 
daoa la montagne. 


"Ceat qn'elld n'avait peur de Hen Is Blanqnetto. 

EUe franchissait d'un saut de grands torrents qui l'Maboi» 
saient ail passage de ponssi^re humide et d'^ume. Alors, 
toute ruisselante, elle allait s'^teodre aur quelque roohe plate 
S et se faiaait archer par le so]eiI . . Vae fois, s'avan^ant au 
bord d'un plateau, une fleur de cytise aox dents, elle aper^at 
en bas, tout en bas dans la plaine, la maiaon de M. Seguin 
avec le cloa demure. CeJa la fit rire auz larmea. 

"Qae c'est petit, dit-elle; comment ai-je pa tenir U 
lodedana 1 " 

Fauvrette ! de se voir ai haut perch^ elle ae croyait an 
moins ausai grande que le monde . . . 

La montagne devint 

U " D^j^ !" dit la petite chivre; el elle a'arrSta fort dtonn^. 

En bas, les champs ^taient noy^ de brume. Le cloa de 

M. Seguin diaparaisaait dans le brouillard, et de la maisonnette 

on ne voyait plua que le toit avec un pen de fum^., Elle 

&x)uta lea clochettea d'un tronpeau qu'on ramenait, et se sentit 

Kl'&me toute triste... TTn gerfaut, qui rentrait, la frAla de 

sea ailea en passant. Elle tresaaiUit. . .puis ce fat un hurls- 

ment dans la montagne: 

"Houl houl" 

Elle pensa au lonp ; de tout te jonr la folle n'y avaib paa 
lepens^. . . Au m6iue moment une trompe sonnabien loin dana 
la vall^ C'^tait ce bon M. Seguin qui tentait un dernier 

" Hou ! hou I. . .faisut le loup. 
— Reviena t reviens ! , . . " criait la trompe. 
n Blanquette ent envie de revenir; mais en se rappelant le 
pieu, la corde, la baie du clos, elle pensa que maintenant elle 
ne pouvait plua ae faire k cetto vie, et qu'il valait mieux rester 
La trompe ne sonnait plus. . . 

La ch^vre entendit derri^re. elle nn bruit de fenilles. Elle 
IBse retouma et vit dans I'ombre deux oreilles courtea, tontea 
droites, avec deux yeux qui reluisaient. . . C^tait le loup. 

n,ir^=^-h, Google 


Enonne, immobile, aesis sur soa train de derribre, U ^tait ]k 
regardant la petite chivre blanche et la d^gustant par avance. 
Comma il savait bien qu'il la mangerait, le loup ne se preasait 
pas; eeulement, quand elle se retouma, il se mit k rire 
m^hamment. s 

"Ha! hal la petite chbvre de M. Seguin 1" et il passa sa 
groase langue rouge aur ses babines d'amadon. 

Blanquette se sentit perdue . . . Vn moment en se rappelaat 
lliiatoire de la vieille Renaude, qui s'^tait battue toute la 
nuit pour 6tre mang^ le matin elle ae dit qu'il vaudrait peut-u 
Stre mieux se laisser manger tout de suite; puis, s'^tant 
ravis^ elle tomba en garde, la t€te basse et la come en avant, 
comme une brave ch^vre de M. Seguin qu'elle ^tait. . . Non 
pas qu'elle elit I'espoir de tner le loup, — lea ch^vres ne tuenb 
pas le loup, — mais seulement powr voir si elle pourrait teiiiriE 
aussi longtemps que la Benaude. . . 

Alors le monstre a'avan^ et les petitea comes entrirent ea 

Ah I la brave chevrette, comme elle j allait de bon oxur I 
Plus de dix foia, je ne meua pas, elle for^a le loup i^ reculerflO 
poor reprendre hf^eitie. Pendant ces troves d'une minute, la 
gourmande cueillait en h&te encore un brin de sa cb&re herbe; 
puis eUe retoumait au combat, la bouche pleine. . . Cela 
dura toute la nuit. De temps en temps la chfevre de M, 
Beguin regardait les ^toilea danser daua le ciel clair, et elle sew 

"Oh I pourvu que je tienne jusqa'k I'nube. . ." 

L'une apriis I'autre, les ^toilea s'^teignirent. Blanquette 
redoubla de coups de osmea, le loup de coups de dents. . . 
tTne lueur p&le parut dana I'horizon. . . lie chant d'nn coqso 
snrou^ monta d'une m^tairie. 

"Enfin!" dit la pauvre bfite, qui n'attendait plus que le jour 
pour mourir ; et elle s'allongea par terre dans sa belle fourrure 
blanche toute tach^ de sang. . . 

Alors le loup se jeta sur la petite chferre et la mangeo. <■ 




LEOoiTTi (b. 1807). 

C« nuttin, h propos d'lui plaisir manqu^, je dis en riant h 

" Je ToiB que tu as besoin que je te fasse une petite leqon. 

— Eh .' sur quoi, pfere 1 
f — Sur une disposition que tu tiens de mot, h^las t et dont 
je voudrais bien te gu^ir. 

— Quelle estr«llet 

— Le r^it d'une petite aventure de ma vie d'^lier te 
10 J'avaia dix ans ; j'^tais au college ; je rapportaia chaqne 
lundi, de chez mes parents, la growe Bomme de quinze sous, 
destin^ k payer mes dejeuners du matin, car le cdllhge ne 
nous fournissait pour ce repas qu'nn morceau de pain tout sec 

Un lundi, en rentrant, je trouve un de nos camai'adea (je 
ume rappelle encore son nom, il ee nommait CJonture) arm^ 
d'une superbe patte de diudon. Je dis patte et doq cuisse, 
car I'objet tout entier se oompoaait de ce que, dans mon ignor- 
ance, j'appellerai an tibia, et de la patte avec ses qnatre 
doigts, le tout recouvert de cette peau noire, luiaante et 
lorugueuse qui fait que le dindon a I'air de marcher sur des 
brodequins de chagrin. 

D^ que moa camarade m'aper9at : " Yiens voir I " me dit-U, 

J'accoura ; il serrait le haut de la patte dans ses deux 

IE mains, et, sur un mouvement de s% main droite, les quatre 

doigts s'ouvraient et se refermaient comme lee doigts d'une 

main humaine. Je restai Btup^fait et ^merveill^ Comment 

cette patte morte pouvait-elle remuerT Comment pouvait-il 

la faire agirl Un gar^on de dix-huit ans qui va au spectacle 

toet qui suit le d^veloppement da drame le plus merveilleux. 

n'a pas lea jenx plus ^carquill^s, les regards plus ardents, la 

t€te plus fixement pench^ en avant que moi, en face de cette 

patte de dindon. Chaque fois que cea quatre doigts s'ouvraient 

et ae refermaient, il me passait devant lee yeux comme un 

fE^louiasement. Je croyais assister k un prodige. 

Lorsque mon camarade, qui ^tait plus &gi et plus malln que 
moi, vit inoD enthousiasme arrir^ k son paroxysme, il remit s» 

u, Gooijlc 


nerveOIe dans ea poche et s'^oigna. Je m'en allai de moo 
cQt6, maia rSveur et voyant toujours cette patte flotter devant 
mes yeux oomme une visioa. . . 

— Si je I'avaia, me disais-je, j'apprendrais bien vite lemoTen 
de la fnire a^r. Couture a'est pas aorcier, Et alors, comme ) 

Je n'y tins plus, je eourna k mon camarade. . . 

— Donne-moi ta patte ! . . . lui dis-je aveo nn irr^stible 
■ocent de supplication. Je t'en prie 1 . . . 

— Ma patte !. . ,Te donner ma patte!, . .veux-tu t'enallerlu 

Son refua irrita encore mon dfeir. 

— Tu ne veux paa me la donner L . . 
■ -Non ! 

— Eh bien 1 . . . vends-la mot 

— Te la vendrel combien) U 

Je me mis k compter, dans le fond de ma poche, I'argent de 
ma seroaine . . . 

— Je t'en donne cinq sous. 

— Cinq aons, nne patte comme celle-li ! . . . Est-ce que tu te 
moqnes de moi ! SO 

Et prenant le pr^ieux objet, il recommen9a devant moi cet 
A>loui3sant jeu d'^rentail, et ohaque fois ma passion grandisaait 
d'un degr^. 

— Eh bien, je t'en ofifre dix aoua 

— Dix sous!. ..dix soua ! . . . reprit-il avec m^pris. Maisii 
regards done . . . 

Et lea quatre doigta a'ouvraient et se refermaient toujours ! 

— Mais enfin, lui dis-je en tremblant, combien done en 
▼enx-tu t 

— Quarante sons ou riea. w 

— Quarante sous ! m'^riai-je, quarante sous ! pr^ de troia 
eemainea de dejeuners I Par exemple ! 

— Soit ! k toa aiae J 

La patte disparut dans sa poohe, et il s'^oigna. Je com^oB 
de nouveau aprba lui. II 

— (juinze sous ! 

— Quarante. 

— Vingt aouB I 


^Vingt-cinq soua 1 • 



Ob ! ce Coatnra I comme U iinr& fait boh chemin duu 1« 
monde ! comme il connaiasait d^j& le ccBur hamain 1 Chaqne 
fob que ce terrible mot quaranle tonchait moa oreille, il 
emportait un peu de ma r&istonce. Au bout de denx 
amiDutea, je ne me conitaissais plus I 

— Eh bien done, quarante I . . , m'^riai-je. Doniie-I»duoi I 

— Donne-moi d'abord I'argent, reprit-il. 

Je lai mis dana la main lea quioze sous de ma semaine, et 
il me fit ^crire un billet de vingt-cinq sous pour le surplus. , . 
uOb! Idac^l^rat! il ^tait d^i& homme d'affairesatreizeonst. .. 
Pnis, tirant enfin le cher objet de sa poche : 

— Tiens, me dit-il, la roil^ !. . . 

Je me pr^ipitai sur elle. Au bout de quelques secondes, 
ainai que je I'avais pr^vu, je connaissais le secret et je ticais le 
letendon qui servMt de cordon de sonnette, ausai bien que 

Pendant deux minutes cela m'amusa follement ; apr^ denx 
minutes, cela m'amnsa moins ; apr6s trots, cela ne m'amuaa 
presque plus ; apr^s quatre, cela ne m'amasa plus do tout. Je 
lotirais toujours, parce que je voalais avoir les int^ts de mon 
argent;. . .maia le d^nchantement me gagnait;. . .puis rint 
la triatesse, puis le regret, puis la perspective de troia semainea 
de pain aec, puia le sentiment de ma bStise ! . . . Et tout cela se 
ohangeant peu k peu en amertume, la col&re s'en mSIa ; et au 
nbout de dix minutes, saiaiaaant avec una veritable haine I'objet 
de mon amour, je le lan^ai par-dessus la muraille, afin d'etre 
bien sftr de ne plus le revoir. 

Ce souvenir m'est revonu bien aouvent, depnis que je n'ai 

EIus dix ana, et bien souvent aussi j'ai retrouv^ en moi I'enfant 
la patte de dindon. Oette impetuosity de d^sir, cette im- 
patience de tous lea obstacles qui me a^paraient de la posses- 
sion d^sir^ cette folle impr^voyance, cette puissance d'ilinsion, 
^;ale seulement h^as 1 k ma puissance de disillusion, tous ces 
traits de caractire se sont mille fois r^veill^s. . .que dis-je? se 

ur^veillent encore en moi, d^a qu'une passion m'envabit. Oh I 
on n'^tudie paa atsez les enfants ! On traite leurs sentimente 
de pu^rilit^s ! Bien n'est pu^ril dana I'&me humaine. L'enfant 
ne meurt jamais tout entier dans I'horame, et ce qui est pa^ril 
aujourd'hui peut Stre terrible ou coupable demain. Lea pas- 

Wsionssontdifi^rentea, maia lecceur oil elleapouasent eat lemSm^ 
et Ifl meilleur moyea de bien dinger un jeune homme eat d'avoir 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


Men observ^ le gftrgoit de dix ans. Ainsi cette patte de 
dindoD m'a fort aervi. Viagt fois dans ma, vie, an beau milieu 
d'une Bottise, ce souvenir m'eat revenu..."Tu seras done 
toujours le m^me!" me disai»-je, et je me mettais & rire, oe 
qui m'arr€tait court. II ti'7 a rien de plus utile que de Be rire 
au uez de temps en temps. 

Je me retoumai alors vers mon fils, et je lui dia : " Cetle 
fohU m<m<r«... que les fils reaaemblent quelqnefois k lenra 

FonriLLOH (b. IS40). 

Le petit coll^ est en fSte. Fortes ouvertes, volets bat-ia 
tanta, des drapeaux auz fen^tres, du monde partout, des 
bousculadea dans lea escaliers, des galopades dans les corridors, 
et, dominant le tapage, les coups de marteau du tapiasier en 
train de clouer les tentures sur I'eatrade dreas^e dans la cour 
pour la distribution des prix. is 

Les prix ! les vacances ! des mots qui rient, des mots qui 
chantent, des mots qui latent comme des soleils et qui 
embaumeut comme un bouquet de fleurs des champs I 

Tr^s triste, l&-haat, dans I'infirmerie toute blanche, le petit 
malade se soul^ve pour ^couter. Des pas montent, se hitent,M 
passent devant la porte ; aucun ne s'arr^te. Fersonne. Le 
docteur — hem I hem!— eat venu tout & I'heure, trfes preset 
& cause de la fSte ; bonjour, bonsoir, adieu mon m^ecin. 
L'infirmi^re, qui aide & faire les malles h. la lingerie, paratt 
one fois tous les quarts d'heure, fait voir le bout du nez,M 
referme la porte et s'en va. 

Qu'elle s'en aille 1 

Ce n'est pas elle qu'attend le petit malade, le docteur pas 
davantage. Ceux qu'il attend, tenez, les voili qui arrivent. 
Trois campagnards: un liomme en veste ronde, nne petite M 
femme courte en bonnet blanc, une fillette en robe longofl, 

u, Gooijlc 


drop loQgne, tes manches jusqu'au bout des doigts ; le p^ra, la 
m^re, la petite sceur. 

lis entreat : rbomme, diacr6t«ment, tr^ circonspect, un pea 
timide; U mire, tout de go, les bras tendus en avaut jusqu'4 
see qu'elle tienne embraBs^, ^toufiT^ sur sa poitrme, la ch^re 
petite t€te de I'enfant. Le p^re serre la main du malade, la 
fillette se hausae sur la poiate des pieds josqu'aux joues 
pench^s vers ses Ifevres. 

Et les questions pleuvent. 
U — Qu'as-tu, Tiennetl 

— Qu'est-oe qui te fait mal, jntekou ? 

— Bien, presque rien. lit, au fronts quelque chose qui me 

— Depuis qnand t 
u — Depuis la composition en tb^me latin. Oh I ce sera 
bientdt pass^. 

— Bientdt t Non; tout de suite, reprend la mfere. Demain, 
jour de lessive, je fius des fonaces. C'est bon, lea fouaces, eh 1 
K lb bavardent, et d'en bas, de I'estrade dress^ en plein air, 
une mmeur monte ; des pas sa pr^ipitent ; dea crosses de 
fuail sonnent sur le pav^ de la cour. 

Les pompiers sont arriv^. 

— F^re, allons-y, soUicite la petite sceur. Tantfit, nous 
Vn'aurons plus de place. 

Et, ciline, elle tiro rbomme vers la porte. 

— Tu peux bien, dit la mfere. A. troia, que ferions-nous de 
plus) Descendez; moi, je reste, s'il me veut, lui, ajoute-t-ella 
en couvant de I'ceil son Tiennet. 


ao La petite sceur, le pfere, aont partis. Iia m^re a ferm^ les 
volets, k cause du grand jour, et, dans la demi-obscurit^ de 
I'infirmene close, ils demeurent tons les deux sommeillant. 
— Dors un peu, mien, 5a te gu^rira. 
— Oui, mbre. 
It Et Tiennet ferme les yeux. 

Maia le moyen de s'endormir, avec le remue-m^nage de la 
diatribution des prix sous la fenStre ! 
— M^re, va voir, s'il te plaits Que fait-oni 



— Riea encore. Les meaaieiirB aont aniv^; une plem« 
fistrade. Oh ! je vois au milieu un officier avec uu chapean 
garni d'un ^norme plumet t 

— Le colonel I 

— Et nn autre au premier rang, en face, tout brod^ d'argent. • 

— Le Bous-pr^fet. Bon; que voia-tu encore 1 

— J^3U3 J tant de prix 1 lis eu ont fait trois piles au bord 
de I'estrade ; et des couronnes I une montagne I 

Brusquement, une fanfare delate kt pleins cuivrea, k plmos 
poumons. C'eat beau, la musique I El^ves, parenta, jusqu'an U 
petit malode, tout le monde applaudit. 

Attention, maintenant! 

Le frac brod^ d'argent se live, nn cbiffon de papier rouU 
«ur le doigt . . . le diacours. On n'entend pae un mot, rien 
(ju'un chantonnement aigu, berijant, monotone. u 

Cost curieux comme, k distance, un soua-pr^et qui parle 
peut faire I'effet d'un monoberon qui aifBe. 

Le frac brod^ d'argent s'assied ; une robe noire ae Ifeve : im 
long, cbanve, avec nn fort cahier k la main. II ne sifile pas, 
celni-oi, il bourdonne. Telle une gros^e mouche. X>es phrases M 
d'une lieue, des p^riodee d'une heure ; un sermon. 

Du coup, la mire s'est endonnia 

Tienne^ lui, a'impatiente. 

Anra-t-il, n'aura-t-il paa le prix de thime latin t Le prix, 
il eat 14, dans la pile, nn beau livre doi^ sur tranche, I'attesta- » 
tion coll^ en dedans avec lea palmes acad^miques en vignette 
«t le parafe dn principal. 

8'il pouvait lire le nom du vainqueur ! 

Et pendant qu'il calcule sea chances, le Bommeil le prend k 
son tour. H 



Quel canchemar 1 L'atteatation est dans ses mains, eoufi 
sea yeux. H^las ! un autre a vaincu ; Luc Onzi^ a obtenu 
I9 premier prix. 

— Erreur ! injustice I objecte Tiennet, ma oopie ^tait sans at 

— Saus fante, ricane le profesaeur, sana Eautel Et ceci, 
petit malheureuz, qu'ea faites-vous 1 

u, Gooijlc 


Suivant alors le doigt accnsatenr de M. lUguluB B«c sur la 
oopie cribl^ d'aunotationB, Tiennet d^convre, Bcmlign^ troia 
fou k I'enore ronge, oet aSreux barbarisme : 


Hortibas t Adien le prix, adien la gloire I 

t HortibuB ] Le mot fatal TobeMe ; il danse mnltipli^ dov&nft 
Ini, ^rit eo ronde, ea coulee, en anglaise, imprim^ en lettrea 
rouges, en lettrea bleues, affich^ snr le mnr en capitales, char- 
bonn^ en lettrea comiqnes qni s'aninient, tirant la langue^ 
earojant des pieda de ueic au vainoa. 

w Hortiboa 1 


Le malade a'agite, aea Ibrres remnent. 

— II appelle quelqu'un, dit la m^re. Tiennet, IHennet I 

Embraaa^, aecoufS de caressea, Tiennet ouvre lea yeux. 

Flua de hortiboa I Evanoui dana le pays dee songea aveo la 
It figure irrit^ du professenr B^gulus Bee. 

Bon voyage k tona deux ! 

Maia le prix I la couroone 1 

Le prix, la couronnel lis viennent,- Us montent, pieuao- 
ment, religieuaement apport^ par le p6re et la petite sceur. 
n Une marche triomphale ! 

lis entrant, et voiii le volume ^tal^ sur le lit du petit 
malade, la couronne pos^ sur aon front. 

Le p^re rit, la m^re pleure ; tous a'embraasent. Oh ! le 
bonheur des braves gens, le vrai bonheur ! 
U Et tandis qu'oa fait f€te au vainqueur. hem I hem I quel- 
qu'un se pr^nte, Invite noire, figure rose : le docteur. 

— Hem I hem ! . . .I'enfant va mieux ; ce laurier sur le front 
a fait des miracles. Allons, le grand air achfevera de le gu^rir. 
Dea marchea k pied, de I'exercice, et surtont pas de thfame 
30 latin ! Hem ! hem ! 

Le docteur fait deux pas vers la porte, et, salnant la families 
le doifft lev^ dans an geste de menace amicale: 

•—Pah de thtoie latin, entendez-voua 1 



FixRKB han (b. ISfiO). 

(7eBt une bien petite hiatoire, qui m'a ^t^ cont^ par Tves, 
~^in soir 01^ il ^tait a\\i en lade conduira, avec sa canoimi&re, 
one cargaiBon de cond&mn^ au grand transport en parlance 
pour la Kouvelle-Cal^onie. 

Dans le nombre se tronvait un for9at tr^ ftg^ (soiztinte-dix ( 
ans pour le moins), qui emmenait avec Ini, tendremeat, uq 
pauvre moineau dans une petite cage. 

Yves, pour passer le temps, ^tait entr^ en oonveraation areo 
ce vieux, qui n'avait pas mauvaise figure, para!t-il, — mais qui 
^tait accoupld par une chatne k un jeune monsieur ignoble, u 
gouailleur, portant lunettes de myope but ua mince nez bl6me. 

Vieux coureuF de grands chemins, airfit^ en cinqui^me ou 
sizi^me r^cidive, pour vi^abondage et vol, il disait : " Com- 
ment faire pour ne pas voler, quand on a commence une fois, 
— et qu'on n'a pas de metier, rien, — et que les gens ne veulent u 

?Ius de vous nulle part % II faut bien manger, li'eat«e pas % — 
'our ma derni^re condamnation, c'^tait un sac de pommes de 
terra que j'avaia pris dans un champ, avec un fouet de roulier 
et un giraamont. Est-ce qu'on n'aurait pas pu me laisser 
mourir en France, je vous demande, an lieu de m'envoyer Mr mi 
bas, ai yieux comme je suia 1 . . ." 

Et, tout heureux de voir que quelqu'un consentait k I'foou- 
ter avec compassion, il avait ensuite moatr^ k Yves ce qu'il 
poasMait de pr&^ieux au monde 1 la petite c^^ et le moineau. 

Le moineau apprivois^, connaiasant sa voix, et qui pendant m 
pr^a d'une aou^ en prison, avait v4ca perch^ sur son ^paule. . . 
' — Ah I ce a'est pas sans peine qu'il avait obtenu la permissioD 
de I'emmener avec lui en Cal^donie I — Et puis apr^, il avait 
fallu liii faire une cage convenable pour le voyage ; se procurer 
du bois, un peu de vieux fil de fer, et un peu de peiuture verte to 
pour peindre le tout et que ce fflt joli. 

Ici, je me rappelle textuellement ces mots d'Yves ; "Pauvre 
moineau I II avait pour manger dans sa cage un morceau de ce 
pain gris qu'on donne dans les prisons. Et il avait I'air de ee 
trouver content tout de mSme; il sautill&it comme n'importeaa 
quel autre oisean." 

I., Glxh^Ic 

424 FRENCH wmnirn, 

Qaelquea hearea aprts, comme on accostait le transport at 
one lee for^ts allaient s'y embarqner pour le grand YOyage, 
Yves, qui avait oubli^ ce vieux, repasaa par hasud pr^ de luL 
— Tenez, prenez-la, vons, lui dit-il d'une voix toute chang^ 
sen lui teodant sa petite ca^. Je vous la donne ; ^ pourra 
peut-€tre TouB servir k quelque chose, vous faire plaisir. . . 

— Nod, certes t remercia Yves. II faut I'emporter au con- 
braire, toos sarez bien. Ce sera votre petit con^iaffiwnlk-\»B. . . 
— Oh I reprit le vieuz, il n'est plus dedans. . . Vona oe 
10 aaviez done pas ) il n'y eet plus . . . 

£t deux larmes d'iadicible mis^re lui coalaient aar les joues. 

Pendant une bonsculade de la traverB^ la porte s'^tait 

ouverte, le moiaeau avait eu peur, s'^tait envol^ — -et tout de 

suite dtait tomb^ & la mer k cause de soa aile coup^. Oh 1 la 

IS moment d'horribledouleur! Le voir ae d^battre et mourir, 

entrain^ dans le sillage rapide, et no pouvoir rien pour lui ] 

D'abord, dans un premier mouvement bien naturel, il avait 

voulu crier, demander du secours, e'adresser k Yves Iui-m€me^ 

le supplier. . . Elan arrStd aussitdt par la reflexion, par la 

30 conscience immolate de sa d^radation personnelle : un vieux 

miserable comme lui, qui est-ce qui anrait piti^ de son moineau, 

qui est-ce qui voudrait seulement Pouter sa priferel Est-oe 

qu'il pouvait lui venir k I'esprit qu'on retarderait le navira 

pour repScher un moineau qui Be noie — et un pauvre oiseau 

vde fori^t, quel r6ve absurdel... Alors il a'^tait teuu ailen- 

cieux ik sa place, regardant s'^Ioigner sur I'^ume de la mer le 

petit corps gris qui se d^battait toujours ; il a'^tait senti effroj' 

ablement seul mainten&nt, pear jamais, et de grosses larmes, 

des larmes de d^sesp^rance solitaire et supreme lui brouillaient 

aa la vue, — tandis que le jeune monaieur k lunettes, son collogue 

de chalne, riait de voir un vieux pleurar, 

Maintenant que I'oisean n'y dtait plus, il ne voulait pas 

garder oette cc^e, constmite avec tant de sollicitude pour le 

petit mort; il la tendait toujours k ce brave marin qui avait 

•sconsenti k ^couter son histoire, d<^irant lui laisser ce \^» 

avant de partir pour son long et dernier voyage ^ 

Et Yves, tristement, avait accept^ le cadean, la mMBonnett« 
vide, — pour ne paa faire plus de peine 4 ce vieil abandonn^ en 
ayant I'air de d^doigner oette choae qui lui avait oofit^ tant de 
tt travail. 


ti. L'AVARE, Acte III, Sc V. 

MoLiiatE (1622-1673). 

Harpaook — Valfere, wde-moi k ceci. Or <^, mattre Jacques, 
approcbez-vous ; je vous ai gard^ pour le deraier. 

Maitrb Jacques — Eal-ce i, votre cocher, monsieur, ou biea 
k votre cuisioier, que vous voulez parler 1 car je suis I'un et 
I'antre. S 

HARPAaOH — Cest k tous lea deux. 

MAttBE Jacques — Mais k qui des deux le premier t 

Harpaooh — Au cuisinier. 

Maitrb Jacques — Attendez dooc, s'il tous plait. [H 6lesa 
aataque de cocker, et paralt vgtu en cuisinier.] U 

Harpaqoit — Quelle diantre de o^r^monie est-ce liil 

MaItrb Jacques — Yous n'avez qii'k parler. 

Habpaqoh — Je me suis engag^, mattre Jacques, k domier 
oe soir k souper. 

Maitrb Jacques — Grande merveille ! U 

Harpaoon — Dis-moi un peu, nous feras-tn bonne ch^re t 

Ma!trb Jacqcbs — Oui, si tous me donnez bieu de Tai^Qt. 

Habpaoon — Que diable ! toujours de I'argent ! II sembla 
qu'ils n'aient autre chose k dire, de I'argent, de I'argent, de 
1 argent I Ah I ils n'ont que ce mot k la bouche, de I'argent ! w 
Toujours parler d'argent ! Voili leur ^p^e de cheTet, de 
I'argent ! 

VAtfeRB — Je n'ai jamais vu de r^ponse plus hnpertinente 
que celle-1^. Yoilfi une belle merveille que de faire bonne 
cb^re avec bien de I'argent ! Cest une cbose la plus ais^e dua 
monde, et il n'y a si pauvre esprit qui n'en fit bien autant ; 
mais, pour agir en habile homme, il faut parler de faire bonne 
cb^re avec peu d'argent. 

Maitre Jacques — Bonne cbfere avec peu d'argent I 

VALfeBB— Oui. M 

Maithe Jacques — Far ma foi, monsieur I'intendant, vous 
nous obligerez de noua faire voir ce secret, et de prendre mon 
office de cuisinier ; aussi bien Tons melez-TOus c^ans d'etre le 

Harpaoon — Taisez-Toug. Qu'est^ce qu'il noua fandra ? h 

MaIthe Jacquks — Voili monsieur votre inteadant, qui vous 
Cera bonne ch^re pour peu d'argent^ 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


Habpaook — Haye ! je veox qne tu me r^poades. 

Maithb Jacqubs— Combien serea-voua de gena k table? 

Habpaoon — Nous serons hnit ou dix ; mais il ne faut pren- 
dre que huit. Qu&nd il 7 a & manger poar huiti, il 7 en a 
sbien pour dix. 

YALteB — Cela s'entend. 

MaItbe Jacques — H^ bien, il Eaudra quatre grands potages 
et cinq asaiettes d'entr^es. 

Harpaqon — Que diable I Yoila pour traiter toute une ville 

MaItre Jacques — KAt . . . 

HaBPaqon — [Lui mettant la main «ur la bouchs.] Ah, 
trattre, tu uiangea tout mon bien. 

MaItrb Jacques — Entremets . . 
U Habfaoon — £DCore1 [Lui meitant encore la main sur la 

Valebr— Est-ce que vous avez envie de faire crever tout le 

monde t et monsieur a-t-il invito des gens poar les assasainer h 

force de mangeaiUe 1 Allez-vous-en lire un peu les pr^ceptes 

Hide la saut^, et demander aux m^decina s'il y a rien do plus 

pr^judiciable k Thomme que de manger avec exc^ 

Habpaoon — II a raison. 

VALiRB— Apprenez, uialtre Jacques, vou8 et vos pareils, 
que c'est un coupe-gorge qu'une table remplie de trop de 
BE viandes ; que pour se bien montrer ami de ceux que Too 
invite, U faut que la frugality rhgne dans les repas qa'on 
donne et que, suiTant le dire d'un ancien, iljaut manger pour 
vivre, et non pas vivre pmir manger. 

Harpaook — Ah, que eela est bien dit! approche. que je 

so t'embrasse pour ce mot. Voiljt la plua belle sentence que j'aie 

entendue de ma vie ; il faut viwe poiir manger, et non paa 

manger pour viv . . . Non, ce n'est pas cela. Comment est-ce 

que tu dis ! 

Val^be — Qu'il faut manger pour vivre, et non pai vivrt 
Si pour manger. 

Harpaqoh — \h Maltre Jacques.'] Oui. Entends-tu7 [X Va- 
Hre.] Qui est le grand homme qui a dit cela) 

Tal^re — Je ne me aouviens pas maintenant de sod nom. 

Harpagon — Souviena-toi de m'^crire ces mots. Je les veu» 
40 faire graver en lettres d'or sur la cbemiii^ de ma Balle. 

-.u, GtXH^Ic 


YAlfeRE — Je n'y manqnerai pas, Et pour votre Bouper, vovu 
n'avez qa'lt me laisser faire. Je r^glerai tout cela comme il fauL 

Harpagon — Faia done. 

MaItre Jacqubs — Tant mleux, j'en aurai moina de peine. 

Hakpaqok — II faiidra de ces choses doDt on ne mange gufere, ■ 
et qui rassasieat d'abord ; quelque bon haricot bieu. gras, aveo 
qnelque pftte en pot bien garni de marrons. 

YALtuB — Reposez-vous aur moi. 

Harpagor — Maintenant, mattre Jacques, il faut nettoyei 
mon carrosse. U 

MaItrb Jacques — Attendez. Ceci a'adresse au oocher. 
[II Temet sa cagaque.'\ Vows dites . . . 

Harpagon — Qu'il faut nettojer mon carrosse, et tenir mes 
chevaux tout pr@ta pour couduire k la foire . . . 

MaItbe Jacquks — Voa chevaux, monsieur? Ma foi, ils nets 
Bont point du tout en ^tat de marcher. Je ne rous dirai point 
qu'ils sont sur la liti^re, les pau-vres b^tes n'en ont point, et oe 
serait mal parler ; maia vous leur faites observer des jeunes 
si aust^res, que ce ne sont plus Hen que des id^ ou des 
fantAmes, des famous de chevaux. IB 

Harpaoon — Les voila bien malades ; ils ne font rjen. 

MiItrb Jacques — Et pour ne rien faire, monsieur, est-oo 
qu'il ne faut rieii manger? II leur vaudrait bien mieux, les 
pauvres animaux, de travailler beaucoup, et de manger de 
mSme. Cela me fend le cieur de les voir ainsi ext^nu^ ; car.n 
enfin, j'ai une tendresae pour mes chevaux, qu'il me semble 
que c'est moi-m€me, quand je lea voia p&tir ; je m'Ate tons les 
joura pour eux les choses de la bouche; et c'est €tre, mon- 
sieur, d'un natuiel tiop dur, que de n'avoir nulle piti^ de aon 
prochain. W 

Harpaqon— Le travail ne sera pas grand, d'aller jusqu'& la 

MaItre Jacques — Won, monsieur, je n'ai pas le courage de lea 
mener; et je ferais conacience de leur donner des coupadefouet, 
ea I'^tat oil ils sont. Comment voadriez-vons qu'ils tratnaasentss 
nn carroBse ) Ila ne peuveot paa se trainer eux-m^mex. 

VALfeRE — Monsieur, j'obligerai le voisin Picard k se charger 
de les conduire : aussi bien nous fera-t-ii ici besoin pour 
apprSter le souper. 

MAftBB Jacques — Soit. J'aimemieux encore qu'ils meurentM 
■008 la main d'un autre que soos la mienne. 

u, Gooijlc 



Victor Hugo (1802-18S5). 

Us ^taient trois tnille cinq cents. Ila faisaient nn front d'vn 
quart de lieue. C'etaient des hommes grants Bur des chevaux 
coiossea. lis ^taient vingt-aix escadroQs ; et ils avaient derri^re 
eux, pour lea appujcr, la division de Lefebrre-Deaiionettes, lea 

scent six gendarmes d'^lite, les cliasseurs de la garde, onze cent 
quatre-vingt-dix-sept hommea, et les lancierB de la gai-de, huit 
cent quatre-vingts lancea. lis portaieut le casque sans crins 
et la cuirasse de fer battu, avec les pistolets d'ar^n dans les 
foutes et le long sabre^pee. Le matin toute rarm^ les avait 

loadmir^ quaad, a neuf heures, les clairona sonnant, toutes lea 
mosiques chantant : Veilhng au salut de I'etnpire, ils ^taient 
venua, colonne ^paisse, une de leurs batteries k leur flanc, I'autre 
it leur centre, se d^ployer sur deux rangs entre la cbauss^e de 
Oenappeet Friachemont, et prendre leur place de batailledsna 

ucette puissante deuxifeme ligne, si sav&mment compos6e par 
Napol^n, laqaelle, ayant k son extr^mit^ de gauche les cuiras- 
siers de ^ellermann et k son extr^mit^ de droite lea cuirasstert 
de Miibaud, avait, pour ainsi dire, deux ailea de fer. 

L'aide de camp Bernard leur porta I'ordre de I'empereur. 

loNey lira son ^p^ et pfit la tSte. Les escadrona ^normes 

Alors OD vit un spectacle formidable. 

Tottte cette cavalerie, sabrea lev&, ^tendards et trompettes 
au vent, form^ en colonne par division, desceiidit d'un m£me 

ttmouvement et comme un seul bomme, avec la precision d'un 
belter de bronze qui ouvre une brtehe, la colline de la Belle- 
Alliance, 3'eafon9a dana le fond redoutable oit tant d'liommes 
dijk ^taient tomb^ y disparut dans la fum^, puis, sortant de 
cette ombre, reparut de I'autre cAt^ du vallon, toujours corn- 
go pacte et serrfe, montant au grand trot, k travers an nuage de 
mltraille crevant sur elle, I'^pouvantable peQt« de boue da 
plateau de Mont-Saint-JeaD. Ila montaient, graves, mena- 
^nts, imperturbablea ; dana lea intervalles de la mousquet«ri6 
et de I'artillerie, on entendait ce pi^tinement colossal. !^tant 

Kdeux diviaions, ila ^taient deux colonnea ; la division Wathier 
avait la droite, la division Delord avait la gauche. On crojait 
voir de loin s'allonger vers la cr€te da plateau deux immeasea 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


oonleaTres d'acier. GeU traversa la bataille comme on 

Kien de semblable ne s'^tait tu depuia la prise de la, grande 
redoute de la Moskowa par la grosse cavalerie ; Murat y maa- 
qaait, mais Ney s'y retrouvait. It semblait que cette masse i 
^tait devesue nioasire et n'eilt qu'uae &me. Chaque eecadroa 
oudulait et se goaflait comme un aimeau du polype. On les 
apercevait k travers Tine vaste fumde d^chirfe iji et ]k. Pelo- 
mdle de casques, de cris. de sabreB, bondissemcnt ori^nx des 
croupes des chevauz dans le canon et la fanfare, tumulte disci- lO 
plin^ et terrible ; Uirdessus les cuirasses, comme les ^cailles sur 

Ces r^its semblent d'un autre ftge. Quelque chose de pareil 
& cette vision apparaissait sans doute dans les vieilles ^pup^ 
orpbiques racontant les hommes-chevaux, les antiques bippan-U 
tbropes, ces titans Jt face humaine et k poitrail ^uestre dont 
le galop escalada roiympe, horribles, invuln^rables, sublimes; 
dieux et bdtes. 

Bizarre coincidence num^rique, vingt-six bataillons allaient 
recevoir ces vingt^ix escadrons. JDerri^re la crSte du plateau, 10 
k I'ombre de la batterie masqn^ I'infanterie anglaise, fonn^ 
en treize carr^s, deux bataillons par carr^, et sur denx lignes, 
sept sur la premiere, six sur la seconde, la crosse k I'^aule, 
couchant en joue ce qui allait venir, calme, muette, immobile, 
al>tendait. EUe ne voyait pas les cuirassiers et les cuirassiers v 
ne la voyaient pas. Elle ^coutait monter cotte mar^ d'hom- 
mes. Bile entendait le grosaissement du bruit des trois mille 
chevaux, le frapperaent altematif et sym^trique des sabots aa 
grand trot, le froissement des cuirasses, le cliquetis des sabres, 
et une sorte de grand souffle faroucbe. II y eut nn silence M 
redoutable, puis, subitement, une longue file de bras lev^ 
brandisaant des sabres apparut au-dessus de la crgte, et les 
casques, et les trompettes, et les ^tendards, et trois mille t^tes 
k moustaches grises criant : vife I'empereur I Toute cette 
cavalerie d^boucha sur le plateau, et ce fut comme Teatr^si 
d'un tremblement de terre. 

Tout k coup, chose tragique, h. la gauche des Anglais, k notre 
droite, la tite de colonne des cuirassiers se cabra avec une cla- 
meur eSroyable. Parvenus au point culminant de la cr6te, 
efTr^n^s, tout k leur furie et k leur course d 'extermination snrio 
1m carr& et les canons, les cuirassiers veoaient d'apercevoir 

u, Goo^jlc 


entre eoz et les Anglaia on foss^ u&e fosse, C^tait le chemis 
creux d'Ohain. 

L'instant fut ^pouvantable. Be ravia ^tait ik, inattendu, 
b&mt, k pic Bous lea pieda des chevaux, profbnd de deux toisea 

B entre aon double talus ; le aecoad rang y poussa le premier, et 
le troisiSme y pousaa le second ; lea chevaux se dreesaient, se 
rejetaient en arri^re, tombaient sur la croupe, glissaient les 
quatre pieds en I'air, pilant et bouleversant les cavaliers, aucun 
moyea de reculer, toute la coloime n'^tait plus qii'un projectile, 

Hla force acquise pour Eraser lea aoglaia ^rasa lea fran^ais, le 
ravin inexorable ne pouvait se readre que combl^ ; cavaliers et 
cbevaux y roulSreat pSle-mye ae broyant les uns les autres, ne 
faisant qa'uua chair dana ce gouffre, et quand cette fosse fut 
pleine d'hommea vivants, on marcha deasus et le reste passa. 

U Presque nn tiers de la brigade Duboia croula dana cet abimft 
Ceci commen;a la perte de la bataille. 

TJne tradition locale, qui exag^re ^videmment, dit que deux 
mille chevaux et quinze cents hommea furent ensevelis dana 
le chemin creux d'Ohain. Oe chifire vraiaemblablement 

looomprend tous les autres cadavrea qu'on jeta dana ce ravin le 
lendemain du combat. 

Napolfen, avant d'ordonner cette charge des cuirassiers de 
Milhaud, avait scrut^ le terrain, mais n'avait pu voir ce che- 
min creux qui ne faisait pas mfime une ride k la surface du 

B plateau. Averti pourtant et mia en ^veil par la petite chapelle 
blanche qui en marque Tangle sur la chauaste de Nivelles, U 
avait fai^ probablement sur I'^ventualit^ d'un obstacle, nue 
question au guide Lacoste. Le guide avait r^pondn non. On 
pourrait presque dire que de ce signe de t6te d'un paysan eat 

nsortie la catastrophe de Napol^n. 

D'autres fatalit^a encore devaient surgir 
£taib-il possible que Napoleon gagn&t cette batailleT nous 
r^pondrons non. Pourquoi! k cause de Wellington) ii cause 
de Bliicberl non. A. cause de Dieu. 

IB Bonaparte vainqueur k Waterloo, ceci n'^tait plus dana la loi 
du dix-neiivifeme aitcle. TJne autre a^rie de faita se pr^parait, 
iiii Napolton n'avait plus de place. La mauvaise volont^ dea 
^v^nementa a'^tait annoncfe de longue date. 
II ^tait tempa que cet homme vaate tombftt 

40 L'excessive pesanteur de cet homme dana la deatin^ humaine 
troublait I'^quilibre. Cet individu comptait k lui seul plus qns 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 


le groape uniTersel. Ces pMthores de toute la Titalit^ hnmoins 
concentr^n dana une seule t€te. le monde montant au cervean 
d'UD homnie, cela serait mortel k la civilisatioa, si cela durait. 
Le moment ^tait veou pour I'incorruptible ^qiiit^ supreme 
d'amer. Probablement lea principes et les 4l6iBeata, d'od s 
dependent les gravitations r^guliferes dans I'ordre moral comme 
diuis I'ordre materiel, se plaignaient. Le sang qui fume, le 
trop-plein des cimeti^rea, tea m^rea en larmea, ce sont des plai- 
doyera redoutablea. II y a, quaod ia terre aoufiVe d'une sur- 
charge, de myat^rieux g^missements de I'ombre, que I'abtme w 

yapoI6on arait 6t4 d^onc^ dans I'infini, et sa chute ^tait 

n g^nait Dieu. 

Waterloo n'est point une bataille; c'est le changement deu 
front de I'univers. 



Rouovr DE L'IsLB (1760-1836). 

Allons, enfants de la patrie, 
Le jour de gloire eat arrive ! 
Contre nous de la tyrannie 
L'^tendard sanglant est lev^. 
Entend ez-VDua dans lea campagnes 
Mugir ces Krocea aoldatsi 
lis viennent jusque dans nos bras, 
!Egorger nos fits, nos compagnes ! 

i.ux annea, citoyens ! forraez vos bataiUons 1 

Marchona, marchons I 
Qu'un gang impur abreuve nos sillooa ! 

Marchona, marchona ! 
Qu'un Bang impnr abreuve nos aillons I 


Amour eacri de la patrie, 

Conduis, Boutiens noa bras veagenn } 

Liberty Libert^ cb^rie, 

Cknnbats avec tea d^ensenrs ! 

Sous DOS drapeaux que la Victoire 

Accoure k tes m&les Accents 1 

Que tes ennemis expirants 

Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire 1 

&.ax armea, citoyenti ! fonnez vos bataillons) 

MarchouH, marchons I 
Qu'tm sang impur abreuva nos eillonB I 

Marchona, marchons I 
Qu'un aang impar abreave nos siltona 1 


Abhault (1766- 1S34). 

" De ta tige d^tach^e, 
Pauvre feuille deas^h^, 
Oil vaa-tu 1 — Je n'en sais rieo. 
L'orage a bria^ le chene 
Qui seul ^tait mon soutien ; 
De WQ inconstante haleine, 
Le zephyr ou I'aquiloa 
Depuis ce jour me promfene 
De la for€t k la plaine, 
De la mODtagne au vallon. 
Je vais oik le vent me mfene, 
Sana m% plaindre ou m'effrayer, 
Je vaia oh va toute chose, 
04 va la feuille de rose 
Et la feuille de laurier." 



15. L'EXIL^. 

Chatsacbsiaud (1768-1848). 

Combien j'ai douce aouvenance 
Du joli lieu de ma naisBance ! 
Ma s(Bur, qa'ils ^taieat beaux, les jour 

De France ! 
O mnn pays ! sois mes amours, 

Toujours I 

Te souvient-il que notre m^re, 
Au foyer de notre chaumibre, 
Hous pressait Bur eon cffiur joyeux 

£t nous baisions sea blancs cbeveoz, 

Toua deux. 

Te souvientril du lac tranquille 
Qu'effleurait I'hirondelle agile, 
Du veat qui courbatt le roseau 

Et du soleil couchant sur I'eau, 

Si beau 1 

Ma sceur, to souvient-il encore 
Du cbateau que baignait la Dore, 
Et de cett« tant vieille tour 

Du Maure, 
OA I'airain aonnait le retour 

Du jour t 

Oh ! qui me rendra mon H^fene, 
Et la montagne, et le grand ch^nel 
Leur souvenir fait tous les jours 

Ma peine. 
Mon pays sera mes amours 

Toujours 1 




TsfopHiLX Gautiee (1811-1872). 

Tine jeune chimire, anx I^vres de job, coupe, 
Dans I'orgie, a donn^ le baiser le plua doux ; 
EUe avait les yeux verte, et jiisque eur sa croupe 
Ondoyait en torrent Tor de ees cheveux roux. 

Des ailes d'^pervier tremblaient k son ^paule ; 
La voyant s'envoler, je sautai sur ses reins; 
Et, faisant jusqu'^ nioi ployer son cou de saulc, 
J'enfon^oi comme un peigne line main dans ses crins. 

Elle se d^menait, }iurlante et furieiise, 

Mais en vain. Je brojais ses flancs dans mes genouz 

Alors elle me dit d'une voix gracieuse, 

Plua claire que I'argent : Maltre, 06 done altons-nous 1 

Far deljk, le soleil et par delA I'espace, 
Oil Dieu n'arriverait qu'aprfes I'^ternit^ ; 
IVIaia avant d'etre au but ton aila sera lasse ; 
Car je f eux voir mon rdve en sa r^alit^ 

17. EXTASE. 
TicroR Hnoo (I802-1S86). 

JMtaia seul pr^ des flots, par one nuit d'^toiles. 
Pas un nuage aux cieux, sur les mers pas de voiles. 
Mes yeux plongeaient plus loin que le monde r^ 
Et les bois, et les monts, et toute la nature, 
Sembiaient interroger dans un confus murmore 
Les flots dea mers, lee &ux du cieL 


Et lea ^toiles d'or, Wgions infiniea, 
A voix haute, k voix basse, arec mille harmonies, 
Disaient, en inclinaat leurs conronnes de feu ; 
Et lea flota bleos, que rien ne gouveme et D'arrSte, 
Disaient, en recourbant I'^ume de leur crSte : 
— C'est ie Seigneur, le Seigneur Dieu I 


LAuARntTE (1T91-1S6B). 

Salut ! boia coaronn^s d'un reste de verdure t 
Eeuillages jauaissaiits sur lea gazons ^pars I 
Salut, derniera beaux jours ! Le deuii de la nature 
Convient k ma douleur, et platt i mea regarda. 

Je anis d'un pas rSveur le sentier Bolitaire, 
J'aime k revoir encor, pour la demi^re foia, 
Ce soleil p&liasant, dont la faible lumi^re 
Perce k peine i mes pieds I'obacurit^ des boia. 

Oui, dans ces jours d'automne oil la nature expire, 

A. sea regards voilfo je trouve plus d'attraits ; 
C'est I'adieu d'un ami, c'eat le dernier sourire 
Dea Ifavrea que la mort va fermer pour jamais ! 

Ainsi, pr^t k quitter I'horizon de la vie, 

Fleuraut de mea longs jours I'eapoir evanoui, 
Je me retoume encore, et d'un regard d'envie 
Je contemple cea biena dont je n'ai paa joui. 

Terre, soleil, vallons, belle et douce nature, 
Je voua doia une larme au bord de mon tombeau. 
L'air est si parfum^ ! la lumi^re est si pure ! 
Aux regards d'un mourant le soleil eat si beau. 

u, Gooijlc 


Je voudnds maintenant vider jusqu'k la lis 
Ce calice nafiM de nectar et de fiel ; 
An fond de cette coupe oil je buvaiB la vi^ 
Feub4tre restait-il nue gontte de miel. 

Peut-Stre I'avenir me gardait-il encore 
Un retour de bonheur doot I'espoir est perdn ; 
Pent4tre dans la foule, nne &nie que j 'ignore 
Aurait compris mon kvae et m'aurait r^pondu. 

moQ &me, au moment qu'elle expire^ 

a son triste et m^lodieux. 


Db Muaairr (1810.18S7). 

J'ai perdu ma force et ma vie, 
Et mea amis et ma gaiet^ : 
J'ai perdu jusqu'ii la fiert^ 
Qui faisait croire k mon g^e. 

Quand j'ai connu la v^rit^, 

J'ai era que c'^tait une aniie : 
Qu&nd je I'ai comprise et sentie 
J'en ^tais dijk d^gofit^. 

Et ponrtant elle est ^tercelle, 
Et ceux qui se sent pasa& d'elle, 
Ici-bas ont tout ignord 

Dieu parle, il faut qu'on lui r^ponde. 
Le seul bien qui me reste au monde 
Est d'aroir quelqnefoie pleur^ 

u, GtJDt^Ie 



Gdu.t-Prudhommb (b. 1S39). 

Le vaae oil meurt cette verveine 
D'ua coup d'^veutail fut feM; 
Le coup dut effleurer k peine. 
Aucuu bruit ne I'a i&v^i. 

Mais la l^K^re meurtrissure. 
Mordant le cristal chaque jour, 
D'nne marche invisible et sfire 
En a fait lentement le tour. 

Son eau fraiche a f ui goutte k goutte, 
Le BUG des fleurs s'est ^paia^ ; 
f ereonne encore ue e'en donte, 
N'y touchez pas, il est bris^. 

Souvent aussi la main qu'on aime, 
EfBeurant le cceur, le meurtrit ; 
Puis le cteur se fend de lui-mSme, 
La fleur de son amour p^rit ; 

Toujoura intact aux ycux du monde, 
II «ent croitre et pleurer tout bas 
Sa blesHure Sne et profonde, . 
II eat bris^, n'y touchez pas. 



La Fontaini (1621'1695}. 

Le chSne an jour dit au roseau : 
Vons avez bien. sujet d'aocuser la oatare; 
Vn roitelet pour vous est un'pesant fardeaoj 

Le moindre vent qui d'aventure 

Fait rider la face de I'eau 

Vous oblige k baiseer la t^te ; 
Cependanl que mon front, au Cancase parail, 
Non content d'arrSter les rayons du soleil. 

Brave I'efTort de la tempSte. 
Tout voua eet aquilon, tout me semble zephyr. 
Bncor si vous nabsiez k I'abri du feuillage 

Dont je couvre le voiainage, 

Vous n'auriez pas tant k souffrir, 

Je vous d^endrais de I'orage : 

MaiB vona naisaez le plus souvent 
Snr les humides bords des royaumes du venb. 
La nature envers vous me semble bien inju3t«, 
Votre compassion, lui r^pondit I'arbuste, 
Fart d'un bon naturel ; mais quittez ce souci : 

Les vente me sont moins qu'4 vous redoataUe% 
Je plie, et ne romps pas. Vous avez jusqu'ici 

Centre leurs coups ^pouvantables 

R^sist^ Kans cuurber le dos ; 
Mais attendons la fin. Comme il disait ces mots, 
Du bout de I'horizon acconrt avec furie 

Le plus terrible des eufants 
Que le nord evkt port^ jusque-l^ dans sea flancs. 

L'arbre tient boa ; le roseau plie. 

Le vent redouble sea efforts, 

Et fait si bien qu'il d^racine 
Celui de qui la t€te au ciel ^tait voisine, 
Et dont les pieds touchaient k I'empire des mort«. 

-,a.ire:i by Google 




fit is recommended that the extracts from the Reader ibonld ba 
tU3d aa a basis for oral practice, dictation, etc. The exercises here 
given have not been divided ioto lessons : such portions may he 
assigned for this purpose aa the teacher deems advisable. The 
Tocabularjr required for translatiog any given enercise is to be fonnd 
Id the extract from the Reader on which it is based.] 


(Paroles d'mi croyant, pp. 395-6. ) 

A. 1. Instead of bending we rise. 2. Thb plant vjll d 17 
up and die, if it finds no shelter from the fierce heat of the 
sun. 3. The wind bends the trees to the ground. 4. If we 
unite with one another, we shall shelter one another. 6. Let 
ua not think of ourselves alone. 6. What is there that is 
stronger than covetonsneaa t 7. The swallows gathered round 
the bird of prev. 8. Fear sat down beside him, and did not 
leave him. 9. We asked them : " How many were there of 
you?" 10, They answered : "There were four of us." 11. It 
is thus, and therefore God commands us not to fall under the 
oppression of the strong. 12. The weak do not fear, when 
they love one another. 13. A rock had rolled upon the road. 
14. There is no way out, except the road. 16. The man tried 
to make a way for himself. 16. He saw that hia efforts were 
vain. 17. If we sit down full of sadness, what will become 
of us? 18. The second traveller did what the first one did. 

19. Several others come up. sit down, and bow their heads. 

20. If we pray to our Father, He will have pity on us. 



21. When we had prayed, we pushed the rock, and it gave 
-wKj. 2*2. Life ia a journey, and man is a traveller. 23, He 
meets many troubles on his way. 

£. The wind strips of its leaves the tree which is alone, 
and it finds no shelter from the fierce heat of the sun, and 
the fierce heat of the covetousness of the great dries up the 
sap which nourishes the man who is alone. Then, let us he 
united. So long as wa think only of ourselves, we have 
nothing to hope for but oppression. The sparrows succeed in 
driving off birds of prey, by pursuing them all together. Let 
US take example from the sparrows. Fear follows him who 
separates himself from his brethren. All men are equaL 
Ood makes neither great nor small. But when covctousness 
stiSes the love of others in those who are stronger in body or 
mind, they try to subdue their brothers to themselves. God 
knows that these things are so, and that is why He commands 
ns to love one another, so that we may be united, and may not 
fall under the oppression of the strong. A man who was 
travelling in the mountains came to a place where a great 
rock filled the road completely. The man saw that he could 
not continue his journey, and he tried to move the rock, but 
he found himself powerless to move it. He grew weary and 
said, " What will become of me in this solitude, when the 
wild beasts come out to seek their prey 1 " Another traveller 
came up, and then several others, and none of them being 
able to move the rock, they prayed to tlieir Father in Heaven 
that He might have (subj.) pity on them. The Father in 
Heaven listened to them, and rising up all together, they 
took away (enlever) the rock and went on their way. God 
measures the troubles which we meet on our path, and if we 
travel together, the weight of no rock w01 ever stop us. 


(Paroles d'un croyant, pp. 397-8.) 

A. 1. If we should die or fall ill, what would become of 
yon t 2. If this thought never leaves you it will gnaw your 
heart like a worm. 3. Although the same thought cornea to 

-.u, GtXH^Ic 


me, I do not dwell on it. 4. Let ns live vithoat anxiety, 
6. Those who do not live without anxiety, do not enjoy a 
mometit of repose. 6. Soon tlie mother came back again to 
her nest. 7. The man was sad and downcast, on account of 
the orphans in their neet. 8, The poor bird stm^led, but 
the vulture carried it off. 9. What will become of my 
children, if they lose me! 10. The little birds have only 
their mother. 11. My chOdren, too, have only me. 12. 
When he returned to the fields, he wished to see the young 
ones again. 13. All the little birds were well. 14. If he 
hides himself, he will see what will happen. 16. He observed 
what had happened. 16. The food, which was brought back 
by the mother, was given to all without distinction. 17. It 
we do not distrust Providence, God will not abandon us. 18. 
Let us not be anxious. 19. Those who pursue their journey 
in peace will know the secrete of God's love. 20. If our 
children are not of an ^e to provide for their own needs, 
they will have the Father in Heaven. 

B. Two men had only their labour to support their wives 
and their little children. And one of them was troubled, and 
asked himself («B demander) what would become of his wife 
and children if he should die. But the other man lived with* 
out anxiety, for he said that God knew His creatures, and that 
He would watch over him and his children. One day when 
the first man was working in the fields, he saw some birds 
which were going into and coming out of a clump of trees. 
•He drew near, and saw two nests in which were several 
young birds without feathers. He returns to his work, hut 
watches the birds as they come and go with food for their 

f-ouDg. T^ow, as the man was working, one of the mother 
birds] uttered a piercing cry, for a vulture had seized her as 
she was returning home with her mouthful of food. At the 
sight of this, the man felt his soul deeply (bien) disturbed, 
and said, "What will become now of the little birdst" Bui 
the next day, directing his steps towards the clump of trees, 
he saw that none <^ the young had suffered. This astonished 
him. But he soon saw the second mother distributing to all 
the young ones the food which she had gathered. She had 
not abandoned the orphans in their distress. Let ns not dis- 

u, Gooijlc 


trust Providence. God will not forsake His own. We shall 
never know the secrets of His love. If one father dies befora 
the other, the latter vill be a father to all the children. If 
both die, the children will have their Father in Heaven, and 
He will provide for all their needs. 


(Le chat bott^ pp. 3gS-401.> 

A. 1. We did not call the notary. 2. The miller received 
the mill. 3. Shall we be able to console ourselves for having 
euch a. poor share t 4. When he has his bag, and when he 
has put bran into it, he will go into the brushwood. 6. I 
have got a pair of boots made for myself. 6. He hung him- 
self up by the feet, and pretended to be dead. 7. He waited 
for some young rabbit to eat the bran. 8. We were shown 
up to bis apartmente. 9. Did you bow to the king! 10. We 
thank you. 11. Let us go and bide ourselves in the wheat 
13. One day, when we learned that you were to go to the 
river's banks, we went for a walk. 13. We said, "Follow 
our advice, and leave it to ua." 14. They advised him to 
bathe in the river. 15. As they were bathing, we happened 
to pass. 16. She put her head out of the carriage door, 
and screamed. 17. Order your guards that some one go to 
his help. 18. The marquis was pulled out of the water. 
19. Although the cat cried, " Stop thief," the thieves carried 
off his master's clothes. 20. Oo and get those fine clothes. 
21. We had just given him a carriage. 22. They wished us to 
get into the carriage. 23. We shall not fail to ask them 
whose meadow it is. 24. That meadow yields well eveiy 
year. 25, Do you wish to know whose castle this isf 26. 
We shall say the same thing to those we meet. 27. That is 
the castle whose master is an ogre. 28. He is the richest 
man I have ever seen. 29. Tell us what that cat can do. 
30. Can the cat change itself into a lion 1 31. The ogre 
became a lion. 32. Boots are no good for walking on tiles. 

33. Would you be frightened to see a lion before you I 

34. We have been assured that he was afraid, but we cannot 
believe it. 35. Con the cat assume the form of a rat^ V6. 



The mica b^^a to run over the floor. 37. If we hear th« 
noise of the carriage, we shall not enter the castle. 38. Bun 
to meet the marqoia and the princess. 39. You are welcome I 
40. Let DS see these buildings, if you please. 41. We went 
up first, the cat followed us. 42. Our friends were to come 
and see us. 43. They did not dare to come in. 44. We Baw 
the great wealth be possessed. 43. It will be my fault alone, 
if I am not the king's son-in-law. 46. Cats do not become 
great lords. 47. They run after mice to amuse themselves. 

£. All the property a miller bad was a mill, an ass and a 
cat. He left the mUl to bis eldest son and the cat to the 
youngest. The latter said that be would have to die of 
hunger, while his eldest brother would be able to earn his 
living decently. The cat pretended not to hear this speech. 
He told his master not to be troubled, but to give him a bag, 
and to get a pair of boots made for him. Hia master no 
longnr despaired of being helped in his misery, for he had seen 
the cat play many clever tricks. He had seen him catch 
many rats and mice. Then the cat put on his boots, and 
seizing his bag with his fore-paws, he went off where there 
were many rabbits. Having put some bran into his bag, he 
stretched himself out, as if he were dead. A giddy young 
rabbit poked himself into the bag, the cat drew the strings, 
and caught him. Then he went to the king's palace, carry- 
ing his prey with him. He went np to the king's apartments, 
and making a bow, he told the king that the Marquis de 
Carabas had commissioned him to present a rabbit to his 
majesty. Another time, he bid himself in some wheat, and 
caught two partridges which had gone into his bag. He 
presented these to the king also, and the king received them 
with pleasure. He carried thus, from time to time, game to 
tiie king. One day, the king went for a drive with his 
daughter, on the banks of the river. The cat advised his 
master to bathe in the river, where the king would pass by. 
The marquis did not know what use it would be, but he 
followed the cat's advica As the king was passing, the cat 
screamed, "Help! help! a man is drowning!" The king 
recognized the cat. and ordered hia guards to go to the man's 
belp. Kow (or), the cat had hid his master's clothes nnder a 

u, Gooijlc 

444 coMPOsnroH exercise hl 

stone, although he told the king that rohbers had carried 
them oS Then the officers of the king's wardrobe went for 
gome very fine clothing ioe the marquis. The king's daugh- 
ter fell in love with the marquis, for he was very fine-looking, 
and the fine clothes heightened hb good looks. Then he got 
into the king's carriage and took part in the drive. The cat 
was delighted to see that his plan was succeeding, and going 
ahead he came upon some peasants who were mowing in a 
meadow. He ordered them to say to the king, if the king 
asked them whose meadow it was, that it belonged to the 
marquis. They did not fail to say so (le) to the king. Then 
the cat came upon some harvesters, and told them that, if 
they did not say that the field of wheat which they were 
catting belonged to the marquis, they would be cut up as fine 
as mince-meat. The king asked whose field it was, and they 
replied that it belonged to the marquis. The king rejoiced 
at this, but was astonished at the great possessions of the 
marquis. Now, all these lands belonged to a rich ogre, who 
lived in a great castle. The cat made enquiries as to who 
this ogre was, and what he could do, and asked to speak to 
him, saying that he wished to have the honour of paying him 
his respects. He was civilly received by the ogre. Then the 
ogre, to show the cat what he could do, chang^ himself into 
a lion. The cat was frightened, and ficd to the eave-trough& 
After a little time the cat came down, and told the ogre that 
he had been assured that the ogre could also change himself 
into a rat or a mouse, but that he considered that impossible. 
Tl.e ogre replied that he would soon see, and changing him- 
self into a mouse began to run over the floor. The cat 
pounced on the mouse and ate it. The king, seeing the 
beautiful castle, crossed the drawbridge and entered the 
court. The cat ran to meet him and said, "Your majesty 
is welcome to the castle of the Marquis de Carabas." The 
king went in first, the marquis and princess followed him. 
In a great ball they found a wonderful repast which had 
been prepared by the ogre for bis friends. The king and 
the princess were charmed by the good qualities and the 
great wealth of the marquis, and the king said to him, 
"You shall be my son-in-^w." That very day he married 
the princess. 

Digrre:! by Google 



(Un Dez geU, pp. 402-3.) 

A. 1. We hawe decided to make our rounds on foot. 2. They 
were armed from head to foot. 3. I was delighted that we 
bad the opportunity. 4. We were going to a gentleman's 
bouse who was not at home. 6. He waa more of a talker, as 
it seems, than the others. 6. The coachman drove hiB sleigh 
at full speed. 7. However fast you may run, I shall 
catch {rattraper) you. 8. Before I could take ofiF my 
cashmere scarf, he was washing my face. 9. In such weather 
as it is, I do not venture into tbe street. 10. They looked at 
us a moment. 11. We rufihod again at them. 13. I profited 
by the fact that be could not defend himself. 13. He 
thought he was the victim of an ambuscade. 14. I got rid 
of the three men. 15. He did not think the joke in good 
taste. 16. We French look at people (getu) straight in the 
eye. 17. 1 rendered tbe same service to myself as tbe peasant 
had rendered me. IS. Ciratitude is less nimble than fear. 
19. We were guiltyonlyof too much philanthropy. 20. Those 
present spoke Russian, and did not understand French. 

S. Dumas, being at St. Petersburg, ventured into tbe street 
one day, having only the tip of his nose to the air. He had 
armed himself against the cold, by (en) wrapping himself in a 
great Astrachan coat^ and by pulling over his ears a fur-lined 
cap. At firsts he was surprised at the little impression the 
cold made upon him. He laughed to himself at the stories he 
bad heard told about it. Still he noticed that those whom be 
met looked at him with anxiety, but without saying anything 
to him. Soon, a gentleman, who was passing, shouted (crier) 
to him in Russian, but he did not know a word of Russian, 
and continued on his way. He soon met another man, who 
was driving his sleigh. Tbe latter also shouted to him in 
Russian. Finally he met a labourer, who picked up a hand- 
ful of snow, and rushing at Dumas, rubbed his face and nose 
vigorously. In such weather, Dumas thought this a rather 
poor joke, and he gave the labourer a blow with his Get. 
Then two peasants looked at bim a moment, and rushing at 
bim, held bia arms. The labourer, after having picked up 

-.u, Gtjo^lc 


another handful ot aoow, rushed at him again, and begaa 
again his rubbing. Dumas thought he was the victim of 
some mistake, and he called for help. An officer, who had 
mn up, aaked him in French with whom he was angry. 
" What," exclaimed Dumas, " don't you see what those scamps 
were doing!" The officer replied that they were rendering 
him a great service by (ett) rubbing his face with bdow, for 
Dumas had hia nose frozen. A passer-by, addressing the 
officer, told him that hb nose waa freezing too. The officer 
stoop«i, picked up some snow, and rubbed his nose. Then 
Dumas put off after the labourer, whom he would not have 
overtaken if some people had not stopped the way. When 
Dumaa arrived where the labourer was, he gave him ten 
roubles, and explained the affair to him. Those present re- 
commended Dumas to pay more attention in future to his 
nose. During the rest of his rounds he never lost sight of it. 


(La pipe de Jean Bart, pp. 4(M-6, ) 

A. 1. It is not too late for ns to change our habits. 2. 
Reflect on it and you will be convinced, 3. We did not wish 
to attract attention. 4. They did not turn Jean Bart out of 
the palace. 5. For he was a rear-admiral. 6. They did not 
go and tell the king that a man whose name was Jean Bart 
was smoking in hia ante-chamber, 7. We come to ask a 
favour of the king. 8. The rear-admiral has to take the 
king's cabinet by surpriaa 9. We shall lay aside our famous 
garments. 10. The king put upon Jean Bart's neck a chain 
of gold. 11. Captains receive gold chains as a reward for 
great deeds. 12. He showed the petitioners into the king's 
presence. 13. Are you a good enough friend of the captain, 
for there to be no need of thatt 14. It will be enough ii you 
tell him that I ask to speak to him. 15. Let ns advance 
towards the door. 1 6. The orders are that no one can enter. 
17. He looked at us with astonishment. 18. The officer 
observed to us that no smoking was allowed, 19, Do not 
keep ns waiting. 20. If yon keep me waiting, I shall smote. 
21. We shaJl be obliged to smoke, if we wait here. 22. Wo 
■hall put them out, if they smoke. 23. J defy yon to pat me 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 

cnuposmoN exebcise t. 447 

iKlt. 34 We shall not go out, before we speak to the king. 
2S. Yoa must choose the less of two evils. 26. Let us go and 
tell bim that Jean Bart is here. 27. Let us not take the 
trouble to look. 28. We shall show him in. 29. Do not let 
him finish his pipe. 30. We had hardly crossed the threshold, 
when we stopped. 31. If we salute the king, we shall arrive 
at our goal. 32. We began br paying compliments. 33. We 
finished by asking for the pardon of our friend. 34. We shall 
get many compliments paid us. 35. Many ships were burned 
at sea. 36. Many members of his family died in the king's 
service. 37. They were shouting, " Xjong live the king 1 " 
as loud as they could. 38. We profited by the fact that we 
had remained more than h»lf an hour with the king. 39. It 
would afford them great pleasure if yon told them how yon 
got out of the port. 40. Do not prevent me from getting out. 
41. I shall make a way for myself to the door. 

B. When JeanBact was called into the navy by Louis XIT., 
he was forty-one years old. The descendant of pirates, he had 
been a pirate himself, and he loved his pipe, for he was of 
Dunkirk, which is a damp and cold locality. But it was not 
from ignorance of the etiquette of Versailles that he lit hia 
pipe in the king's ante-cbamber. He bad come to ask of the 
king a favour which had been twice refused him. And he 
wished to attract attention to himself. Having put off hia 
famous garments of cloth of gold, and having put on a [Jms 
officer's costume, he presents himself at the ante-chamber ttf 
the king, but without his letter of admission. The officer 
who was charged with introducing petitioners into the ting's 
presence, asked him wbere his letter was. He replied that he 
was a good enough friend of the king not to have need of a 
letter. But the officer would {voulait) not take the liberty of 
announcing Jean Bart. The latter leaned gainst the wain- 
scot, and drawing a pipe from the crown of his hat, he lit it. 
The, courtiers oteerved to him that people did not smoke in 
the king's ante-chamber. But Jean Bart replied that he 
always smoked when he was waiting. The officer said he 
would he obliged to put bim out. But it was not easy to put 
Jean Bart out of doors, so the officer chose the less of two 
evils, and told the king that there was an officer in the ante- 
chamber who was smoking and who dared the courtiers to put 

u, GoO^jlc 


him out. The king told the officer to let Jean Bart finish his 
pipe »nd thea to show him in. Bat Jean Bart did not wait. 
Throwing his pipe away, he rashed into the king's cabinet. 
He coaducted the conversation with much skill. He get 
many compliments paid to him regarding his exit from the 
port of Dunkirk and his burning of the enemy's ships. Then 
kneeling on one knee he asked pardon for one of bis sailors 
who had killed his opponent in a duel. The king hesitated, 
but finally granted him what he asked for. When Jean Bart 
came out^ he was surrounded by the courtiers, One of the 
latter asked him how he got out of the port of Dunkirk, when 
he was blockaded by the English fleet. They all said it would 
be a great pleasure to them to know (it). "Well," said he, 
" you shall see. You are the English fleet which is blockading 
me." And he gave kicks and blows to those who were in front 
of him, and opened a passage for himself. When he arrived 
at the door, he told them that that was bow he got oat of the 
port of Dunkirk. 


(La derni^re clasae, pp. 40711.) 

A. I. I was afraid, the more so as the master would ques- 
tion me. 2. We did not run away from school. 3. Were the 
Prussians drilling in the meadow) 4. Did you see people 
standing near the bulletin-board 1 6. The blacksmith ran 
across the square. 6. We were busy reading the notice. 7. 
If you hasten, you will get to school in time. 8. Are yon 
making fun of me 1 9. They entered the school out of breath. 
10. They stopped their ears when they were repeating their 
lessons. 1 1. Belying on this noise wa gained our seats with, 
out being seen. 12. Everything was quiet, as on a Sunday 
morning. 13. Ton may well imagine he was afraid, li. 
Were they going to begin without us) 15. They sat down 
at their desks. 16. The teacher puts on his frock coat only 
on inspection days. 17. What surprises us most is to see the 
postman sitting on a bench at the back of the room. 18. Did 
you bring your ABC book t 19. We shall teach nothing but 
German. 20. He asked us to be attentive. 21, That is what 
we had posted up at the school. 22. They hardly knew how 
to read. 23. Are books tiresome) 24. It puns me to leave 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 


old frienda. 25. Did you come and sit down on the bench 1 
26. Will they regret not having come oftener ) 27. Will the 
fatherland pass away ) 28. When we were at that point in 
our reflections, we heard our naines called. 29. We got oon- 
fused at the first word. 30. That's how things go when you 
do not know how to speak your language. 31. We shall see 
what will happen. 32. Let us not put it off till to-morrow, 

33. Are you anxious to see your children educated ! — We are. 

34. Would you prefer to send them to work on the land t 

35. The master made us water bis garden. 36. As long as 
a people retains its language, it will not become a slava 
37. You would have said that the poor man wished to go 
away. 38. You should have seen how we worked I 39. No 
one pays attention to them. 40, He did not raise his eyes 
from the page. 41. The desks were worn by use. 42. Let 
us pack our trunks, for we must leave to-morrow. 43. It was 
so funny that they all wanted to laugh. 44. Shall you forgrt 
it} 45. He seems tall to me. 46. Can you finish the phraset 
47. We motion to them to go away. 48. Do not go away. 
49, If we do not go away, we shall not see our friend. 

B. Little Frantz was late that morning, and he was afraid 
of being scolded, and he did not know the first word about 
the participles. The weather was so warm that the thought 
came to him to play truant. But he had the strength to 
resist, although {bien que with subj.) the blackbirds were 
whistling in the woods, and he ran to school. As he was 
passing the mayor's office, he saw people who were reading 
the notices. And he thought without stopping, "What is 
the matter} Is there bad news again 1" The blacksmith and 
his apprentice shouted to him, as he was running across the 
square, not to (de ne paa) be in such a hurry, that he would 
get to school soon enough. But Frantz thought the black- 
smith was making fun of him, and he entered the school yard. 
Generally yon could hear (impf. ind.) out into the street the 
noise that was made, but that day everything was still. They 
(on) were not repeating tbeir lessons out loud, and the master 
was not striking the table with his ruler. The little boy's 
comrades were already in their places, and the master was 
going up and down with his ruler under bis arm, and Frantx 
had to enter in the midst of that calm. Then he noticed the 

u, Gooijlc 


muter's beautiful green frock coat, and his silk skuU-capk 
He noticed also, at the back of the room, sitting on benches, 
the old mayor and postman, wiio were holding open on their 
knees old ABC books. Then M. Hamel told the children 
that it was the last time he would have (/aire) the class, that 
it was their last lesson in French. These words npset little 
Frantz. Then he was angry with himself for the time that 
was lost. His books, which seemed a little ago so heavy to 
carry, were now old friends whom he could not leave. The 
little boy understood now why poor M. Hamel had put on his 
Sunday clothes, and why the old men had come to school 
They were thanking the master for hia forty years' services. 
Then he heard his name called. What would he not have 
given to be able to recite the rule of the participles ! But the 
master did not scold him, for he was sufficiently punished. 
He had said to himself that he had plenty of time, that he 
would put off his education. He had claimed to be French 
and he could neither speak nor write his own language. 
The people of Alsatia were not anxious enough to see their 
children educated. They sent them to work in the spinning- 
factories or on the land. And the teacher himself had 
something to reproach himself with. When he wanted to go 
fishing for trout, he did not hesitate to give them a holiday. 
Then M. Harad spoke of the French language. And tha 
little boy was astonished to see bow he understood. "The 
French language," said he, " is the finest language in the 
world. It must never be forgotten." Whatever the master 
said seemed so easy to the boy. The poor man wanted to 
make all his knowledge go into the beads of bis class before 
departing. Then they began to write. The copy-lines were, — 
frarux, AUatia, and everybody was diligent. Even the little 
fellows, who were tracing their " strokes," paid no attention to 
the may-bngs which came in. And M. Hamel was motion- 
less in his desk. For forty years he had been there, and now 
be wished to carry away in his eye all the objects in hia 
school. The walnut trees which be bad planted had grown 
large, and the bop-vine encircled the windows. And now he 
and his sister were to go away from the country (or ever. 
Then be gave the children their history lesson. The little 
fellows sang ba, be, bi, and old Hanser having put on his 

-.u, Gtjo^lc 


spectacles spelled the letters with them. When the church 

clock rang noon, M. Hamel rose in his desk, and turning 

towards the black-board, he wrote with a piece of cfaalk, 
"Hurrah for France." 


(La chivre de M. Seguin, pp. 411-19.) 

A. 1. They all went off in the same way. 2. I could not 
make out their nature at all. 3. Do you weary being at 
home) i. Do not get discouraged. 5. We are getting used 
to it. 6. How pretty the goat ia! 7. Her beard was as pretty 
as that of a non-commissioned officer. 8. Will she let herseU 
be milked t 9. Yes, she will never move, nor put her foot into 
the dish. 10. I shall go now and then to see whether yon 
are comfortable. 11. That's one that does not grow weary, 
13. The tether rubs her neck. 13. From that day she 
cropped no more grass. 14. She turned her head in the 
direction of the mountain. 15. Does that seem insipid to 
yout 16. Is anything the matter with yout 17. Did you 
notice that the goat was pulling on its tetherT 18. Do not 
let her go to the mountain. 19. Did you drop your dish? 
20. Do not sit down in the grass. 21. She was not tied too 
short. 22. Shall I lengthen the rope) 23. What will you do 
when the wolf comes t 24. The wolf will not make fun of 
her horns. 25. Let us not fight with him. 26. That makes 
no difference, I shall not stay with you, 27, He will tie her to 
a stake for fear she should go away. 28. Hardly had he closed 
the door, when she ran off. 39. They bowed to the earth. 
30. Those flowers smell sweet, do they not7 31. You may 
well imagine that she was happy ! 32. She had grass up over 
her horns ! 33. The white goat jumps np on her feet again. 
34. There, she ia off! 35. I should have said there were ten 
goats. 36. Let us jump across this stream. 37. Oo and 
stretch yourself out on a flat rock. 38. We did not notice 
U. Seguin's field. 39. We laughed tUl we cried. 40. How 
little that house ia, we can never find room in it. 41. Listen 
to the bells, 42, They are bringing home the flocka. 42. Do 
you think of the goat ! — I do. 44. I have a mind to return. 

u, Gooijlc 


15. But I can never get used to th&t life agtuo. 16. We see 
two ears and two aliining eyes. 47. Let us be in no hurry, 
48. So Dot turn round. 49, Do you remember that storyt 
60. It will be better to eat it at once. 51. She changed her 
mind. 52. Can we hold out as long aa the others T 63. If 
we go about it heartily, we may kill the wolf. 54. Let us 
take breath again. 55. We did not gather a blade of grass. 
56. Let us not look at the stars dancing in the sky. 67. The 
stars will die out, when a pale light appears (fut.). 

B. M. Segnin had bad six goats, and he had lost them all 
in the same way. They were independent animals which 
wi^ed for liberty at any price. Good M. Seguin could not 
underiitand them. Nothing could hold tliem Iwck. They all 
went away into the mountain, and the wolves ate them. 
Then he bought a seventh one, a pretty little goat, and quite 
young, for he wished it to get accustomed to living with him. 
It was a dear little goat with long, white hair, soft eyes and 
black hoofs ! M. Seguin tied his goat to a stake in a meadow 
surrounded witii hawthorn, where she was very comfortable. 
She ate the grass so heartily tliat M. Seguin thought she 
would never grow weary with him, but she did grow weary. 
One day she looked at the mountain, and from that moment 
the grass of the field seemed tasteless to her. She said to 
herself that one must be very happy on the mountain, that an 
ox might crop grass in a field but that goats needed room. 
When M. Seguin noticed that his goat was getting lean, ha 
knew that something was the matter with her, but he did not 
know what it was. She said to him that she was pining away, 
and that she wished to go into the mountain. It was not tha 
grass that was lacking ; it was not the rope that was t«o short. 
M. Seguin told her that the wolf would eat her, but she said she 
would butt him, she would fight with him all night. But M. 
S^uin said he would save her in spite of herself, and he shut 
his goat into a stable and locked the door securely. But ha 
foi^t the window, and the goat ran away. The old fir trees 
welcomed her. The chestnut trees oaressed her, the giddea 
broom smetled sweet. The whole mountain received her 
like a queen. It was there that there was grass, fine and 
•weetl And the wild flowers overflowed with juices I Sha 

u, Gooijlc 

COMPOSITION exe:bci8E Tin. 463 

wallowed in the fallen leaves ; she ran (courir) through 
the bushes ; she was afraid of nothing. If the torrente 
splaslied her with foam, she Btretched herself out on a rock 
and dried herself in the sun. Suddenly it was evening. The 
fields diaappeareU in the mist. You could see no longer any- 
thing hut the smoke of M. Seguin's cottage. There vaa a howl, 
and she thought of the wolf. Then M. Seguin blew his horn 
in the valley. She hea,rd it and had a mind to return, but she 
remembered the stake and the rope, and thought it would be 
better to stay. There was a noise in the leaves, and turning 
round she saw the wolf. There he was on hia haunches. He 
knew he would eat her, and was in no hurry. She remem- 
bered the story of another goat of M. Seguin, and being a 
brave goat, she said to herself that she would not let herself 
be eaten at once. She had do hope of killing the wolf, but 
she assumed a defensive attitude. The fight lasted all night. 
She forced the wolf to retreat more than ten times. The stars 
danced in the sky, and she said to herself, " If I only hold 
out till daylight!" The stars died out on the horizon; a 
hoarse cock crowed in the valley ; the wolf ate the poor littlft 

(La patte de dindon, pp. 416-19.) 

A. 1. Do you need a lesson from me t 2. He would like to 
cure us pt it. 3. They were ten years old. 4. We had a 
large sum, which was intended to pay for our breakfast. 
5, Do you still remember his name t 6. Their name is Cou- 
ture. 7. The object is composed of what is called a tihia. 
8. He looked as if he were walking. 9. Will the fingers open 
and shutt 10. How can you make it movet 11. If you go 
to the theatre, will you follow the development of the drama t 
12. A dazzling brightness passed before our eyes. 13. Did 
you think you were present at a mirs^lel 14. You are older 
and sharper than we. 15. We withdrew. 16. Did you go 
away too) 17. We shall soon learn the way to do it 
IS. What fun we shall have ! 19. Give it to us, we b^ of 
you. 20. Won't you give it t» usi 21. Well give you ten 
cents for it. 22. He is making ga^e of us. 23. How much 

u, Gooijlc 


did they -want for itt 24. He ran after us a^n. 26. How 
they must have got on in the world 1 26. How they know 
the human heart j 27. He knows himself no longer. 28. Put 
& cent into my hand. 29. He is a business man. 30. Do 
not rush after it. 31. That does not amuse me now at alL 
32. Disenchantment seizes me. 33. The prospect of three 
weeks of dry bread did not amuse me. 34. These traits of 
character will not awaken again in you. 35. People have 
often called the feelings of children puerilities. 36. The 
hearts where passions grow are the same. 37. The best way 
of guiding a boy ia to observe him. 38. It is useful to langb 
at one's self now and then. 39. Sons are not always like 
their fathers. 

B. Ernest was at Bchool on a Monday. He had fifteen cents 
which he had brought back from home to pay for his breakfast. 
On bis return he found one of his comrades who had a fina 
turkey's foot. When bis comrade said to him to come and see, 
he ran up. His comrade, by a movement of his hand, was 
opening and closing the fingers like the fingers of a human 
hand. He stood amazed every time the four fingers opened 
and closed. How could the dead foot movel Tlie comrade 
was shrewder than he, and when he saw Ernest's great enthu- 
siasm he put the turkey's foot back into his pocket. Ernest 
could stand it no longer. He begged his comrade to give him 
the dead foot. His comrade told him to be gone. " If you 
will not give it to me, will you sell it to me ) " He offered his 
comrade five cents for it, then ten cents, and then twenty 
cents. But the comrade demanded forty cents. After a few 
seconds he put fifteen cents into his comrade's hand, and wrote 
out a note for twenty-five cents for the remainder. After a 
couple of minutes he know the secret as well as his comrade. 
For a couple of minutes it amused him highly. But soon it 
amused him no longer. Sadness and regret came, and then 
bitterness and anger. After a few minutes he seized the tur- 
key's foot and threw it over the wall, so as nevftr to see it any 
more. The recollection of this often comes hack to him. Ho 
finds in himself again the child with the turkey's foot. And 
that turkey's foot has often been of great service to him. In 
the midst of a foolish action, he stops and says to himself 
" Will you always be the same ) " 

coHPOsmoy exercise ix. *65 


(Hortibtu, pp. 419-2S.) 

A. 1. It vaa a holiday at the echooL 2. The hammers 
were making a greater noise than all tlie rest. 3. They rose 
ap to listen. 4. No one stopped at his door. 5. Are you 
packing your trunk "i 6. They will appear every fifteen 
minutes. 7. If he were to show the tip of his nose, I should 
close the door. 8. Are you going away! 9. Let them go 
away toa 10. We are not waiting for the doctor, or the 
nurse. 11. The father came in circumspectly, the mother 
came in briskly, the little girl came in on tiptoe. 12. How 
long bos it pained youl 13. On washing days the mother 
used to make hearth-cakes. 14. Is the platform in the college 
or in the open airl 15. I hear hurried steps. 16. Let us 
not go there. 17. There was no more room on the platform. 
18. They gazed affectionately on their child. 19. Please go 
and see who are there. 20. The colonel had a hat with a 
plume. 21. The speech of the sous-pr^et was on a bit of 
paper rolled round his finger, 22. "We could not bear a word 
of it. 23. It was only a monotonous hum. 24. The certifi- 
cate was pasted inside. 25. The principal's signature was 
there. 26, We saw the academic palm-wreath in the form 
of a head-piece. 27. Did you make a mistake in your Latin 
prose! 28. No, my paper was perfect. 29. Your paper was 
bristling with corrections. 30. Your paper contained (con- 
tenir) this frightful error — "hortibus," 31. The master 
underlined it three times with red ink. 32. The awful word 
was posted on the wall. 33. His lips moved, he called his 
mother. 34. Hortibus had vanished {»'A)anouir). 36. It was 
in the land of dreams. 36. Good-bye to Hortibus. 37. Both 
have come. 38. The winner received his book. 39. They put 
the wreath on his brow. 40. Are you better ! 41. Yes, I am 
much better. 42. The open air, walks, and exercise will cure 
you, but above all no Latin prose. 

S. Vacation is a word that smells as sweet as a bouquet of 
flowers ! The decorators are busy putting up the drapery. 
There are people everywhere, jostling one another (se bimseu- 
l«r) in the halls and stairways. A platform has been erected 
for the .distribution of the prizes. Bat there is one little sick 

I., Glxh^Ic 


boy in the sick-vard who is awaiting some one. The doctor 
Gomes in great haate and goes away, and the curse alsa But 
they are not the ones tlie little patient is waiting for. He is 
awaiting some country-people — a man, a woman, and a yoang 
girt. There they come ] Thej enter the sick-ward. They 
olaap hia hands and embrace him. They ask what is the 
matter with him. He had had a heavy leeliug in bis head 
since the Latin prose paper. But it would soon be gone. As 
they chatted, a murmur rose from the platform in the court. 
The father and little sister went down to it. The mother and 
little Tiennet (Stevey) stayed. She said to him that if he 
slept a little it would cure him. But how could he fall asleep, 
with the hubbub under the window ! The platform waa full. 
The colonel was there, and the soua-prif&t in liis di-ess-coat, all 
embroidered with silver. There were ho many prizea,^ — three 
piles of books and a mountain of wreaths I The brass-band 
blared forth and everybody applauded. The a<nui-prifet rose, 
but not a, word was heard of his speech. Then a black gown 
arose with his sermon in his hand. He hummed away, and 
the mother fell asleep. Tiennet became impatient. Would 
he have the Latin prose prize f The beautiful, gilt-edged book 
was in the pile. But he could not see the winner's name. And 
he fell asleep too. He dreamed that he had made a frightful 
barbarism in his Latin prose, and that another bad won the 
first prize. The awful word "hortibus" haunted him. It 
danced before him in a thousand forms {muUiplii or en milla 
formes). It stack out its tongue and made grimaces at him. 
But when Tiennet opened his eyes, there was no more "horti- 
bus." The father and little sister brought up the prize and 
laid it on the little sick hfifA bed. The doctor came too, and 
aaid the boy was better, the wreath on the brow had worked 
wonders, the open air would complete the cure, but, said he, 
" no Latin prose I " 


(Chagrin d'na vienx format, pp. 423-4) 

A. 1. Did Yves not go to conduct the convicts^ 2. The 
convict was seventy at least. 3. Whom did you take away 
with yout 4. Why did you enter into conversation with 
him? C. It was to pass the time, 6. They did not have bul 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 

coHPOsmoN ExsBcisi; X. 467 

fnoes. 7. Does he ^ear speotacles } 6. People did not wutt 
anything to do with me. 9. He had stolen a carter's whip, 
10. He Tonld not consent to listen to Yves. 11. The cage 
and the sparrow nere his most precious possessions. 12. He 
bad tamed the sparrow and it knew his voice. 13. If he has 
to build a cage fit for the journey, he vill procure wood. 14. 
He wilt paint it, so that it may be pretty. 15. Do yon 
remember the very words of Yvesl 16. He will eat coarse 
bread like any other bird. 17. They embarked for the 
journey. 18. Will that be of any use to him I 19. You 
must bake it with you. 20. Big tears run down his cheeks. 
21. The cage door opened. 22. Was the bird frightened! 
23. The poor bird struggled and died. 24. It was carried 
away in the wake of the ship, 25. He applied to me. 26. Thab 
would never occur to him. 27. We staid silent in our place. 
26. Did you not feel dreadfully oloneT 29. Tears dimmed their 
aigbt. 30. Did they laugh to see the old man weep? 31. 
Will you not keep the cagel 32. This cage was made for the 
little bird. 33. He wished to leave me this legacy. 34. We 
did not wish to pain the old man. 35. He seemed to despise 
the thing. 

£, The transport-ship was about to sail for New Caledonia, 
and Yves was taking some convicts to it with his gunboat. 
Amongst the conviota was an old man who had a sparrow in 
a cage. He hod been arrested for the fifth or sixth time. He 
had to eat and he had no trade, and so (par cont^quent) he 
had stolen a bag of potatoes. He said they might have let 
him die in France instead of sending him away off there. 
He had obtained permiscdon to b^e away his sparrow. And 
then he had got wood and old wire and green paint, and 
he had made a cage for the sparrow. The sparrow had only 
the dark-coloured bread of the prisons to eat, but he seemed 
happy, and hopped about like any other bird. But during 
the passage to the transporlrship the bird flew away and fell 
into the sea. It was a moment of sorrow for the convict. 
He saw his bird struggle and die, and could do nothing for it. 
The first impulse was to ask for help, but the impulse was 
arrested by the consciousness of his personal degradation. 
ITobody would have pity on bis sparrow ; nobody would listen 
ba bia request. Who would at<^ the ship to pick up again a 

u, Gooijlc 

458 coMPOsmotf exebcise xi-xil 

convict's drowning bird ! Then he watched the poor littJe 
body grow more distant on the sea foam, and he felt himself 
very much alone. The bird was no longer in the cage, and so 
he handed it to Yves, who had listened to his story. And 
Yves, not wishing to seem to despise the thing which had cost 
tiie old convict so much work, accepted the gift. 


<L'Avftre, pp. 425-7.) 

Harpagon is a miser. Valire is his steward, and Mattre 
Jacques is his cook and coachman. The miser is going to 
give a supper, and has invited eight or ten people. He wishes 
good cheer, but does not wish to give much money. He thinks 
that a clever man can make good cheer with little money. 
Valfere, the steward, says the same thing. Ten people have been 
invited, but the miser says that if there is enough to eat for 
eight, there will be plenty fot- ten. There is nothing more hurt- 
ful to men than to eat to excess. Frugality must rule in the 
repasts we give, and one must remember the maxim, "We 
should eat to live, and not live to eat." Harpagon will have 
these words cut in letters of gold on his mantel-piece. Mattre 
Jacques will not fill the table with soups, entries and roasts, 
but with those things of which people eat sparingly. Then 
the miser addresses the coachman, tells him to dean the 
carriage, and have the horses ready to drive to the fair. But 
Harpagon makes the poor brutes observe such strict fasting 
that they cannot walk. Poor Maitre Jacques has pity on his 
neighbour. It breaks hb heart to see his horses suffer. They 
cannot drag themselves along, and he has not the heart to 
whip them. 


{Waterloo, pp. 428-31). 

A, 1. There were thi-ee thousand five hundred of us. 2. 
The light cavalry was supporting them. 3. We did not 
wear helmets, i. The cavalry descended like a battering- 
ram of bronze, so to speak. 5. A cloud of grape-shot hurst 
•t their right. 6. Do yon hear that mighty stamping? 7. 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


Nothing like it will ever be seen. 6. Murat had been at the 
taking of the redoubt of the Moskowa, but be was lacking at 
Waterloo, d. Something like these stories appears in the 
epics of another age. 10. The infantry was taking aim at the 
cavalry. 11. llie Knglisb listened to that tide rising. 12. 
Three thousand shouted, "Long live the Emperor." 13. There 
vras an awful noise like that of an earthquake. 14. "We have 
just noticed a ditch. 15. The second rank forced the first 
into the gulL 16. The horses overturned and crushed the 
riders. 17. There was no way of retreat. 18. Fifteen hun- 
dred men were buried there. 19. It vvas a grave into which 
many other dead bodies were thrown on the day after the 
battle. 20. Did he examine the ground) 21. He asked a 
question of the peasant. 22. He was not warned by the 
peasant. 23. Napoleon's end came from a peasant's shake of 
the head. 24. It is time for Napoleon to fall. 25. Napoleon 
by himself counts for more than all others. 26. The moral 
order, like the material order, depends on principles. 

B. There were eleven hundred and ninety-seven of them, 
and they had behind them one hundred and eighty lancers. 
At nine o'clock the bugles sounded and all the bands played. 
They came and took their place in the second line, where 
they had two iron wings, Kellermann on the left and Milhaud 
on the right. Then was seen a great sight. All that cavalry 
began to move. Like one man it came down the hill of la 
Belle-Alliance, disappeared in the valley and, reappearing on 
the other side, ascended the dreadful slope of Mont-Saint- 
Jean. There were two columns of thera. Like two great 
serpents of steel they stretched out towards the plateau. 
Nothing like it was ever seen. The mass had become a 
monster. Through a great smoke you could see a pell-mell 
of helmets, swords, and of the rumps of horses, and above them 
the cuirasses, like the scales on the hydra. It was like a 
vision of Titans climbing Olympus. Twenty-six battalions of 
infantry were waiting for tlie twenty-six squadrons of cavalry. 
The infantry oould not see the cavtdry, but it could hear the 
noise of the horses, the rattle of the armour and the clanking 
of the swords. Then suddenly the helmets, the trumpeters, 
the standards and the horses appeared on the crest of the 
plateau. The coiissaiers arrived at the crest, and suddenly 

I., Glxh^Ic 

460 coKPOsmoN exercise xii. 

they aaw between themselves and the English the hollow road 
of Ohain. It was a frightful ravine, two fathoms deep. 
Horses and riders fell into that grave and crushed one 
another. Wlien the abyss was full of men and horses, the 
others marched on them and passed over. Napoleon did not 
see this ravine when he ordered the charge, and the peasant 
of whom he asked the qneation replied that there was no 
hollow road. Why was it not possible that Napoleon should 
win the battle ) Because a new series of facta was preparing. 
The moment had come for that man to fall. His weight was 
disturbing the equilibrium of human destiny. Beeking blood, 
cemeteries, mothers' tears were complaining. Kapoleon's fall 
was settled. 





t a [a], 3 ig. pres. indie, avoir. 

• fc [aj, to, towards, a,t, for, in, into, 

around, by, with, from ; — voire 
viontre, by your wat«h. 
Kbaisser [abeee], to lower ; »'— , to 
lower one's ielf, fall, sink, b« 

* clHUidoiiiier [abSdane], to aban- 

don, forsake. 

* ahattre [abatr], to throw down, 

knock down, cast down, dis- 
hearten i abatiu, p.p., disheart- 
ened, discouraged, depreaaed. 

* ■Mrfdaire[abesede;r],m., primer, 
t-'Kblme [abiim], m., abyss. 

* abondamment [abodamo], abun- 


* abondant [abado], abundant. 

■ abord (d') [dabo!r], at first, first 
(of all), at the outset. 
a^euver [abiteve], to water, fill, 

abti [abri], m., shelter, oover; il 
^ r — de, in the shelter of. 

abriter [abrite], to shelter, shield. 
' abBorber [apsarbe], to absorb, en- 

* absnrde [apsyrd], absurd. 
abuser [al^ze], to make a bad use 

(of, de), abuse. 

I accent [aksfl], r 

, m., accident, 

accompagner [akopapa], to ac- 
accorder [akarde], to gnmt, oon- 

accoiter [akoste], to come along- 

accoupler [akuple], to couple, 

accourir [aknriir], g 164, to mu or 
hasten up; run ot hasten to 

accourut [akury], ! 

. deL 

accoutumer [akutyme], to acoiu- 

tom, habituate, 
accusateur [akyzat<e:r]. accusing. 
accuser [akyzej, to occuae, blame, 

achat [aja], m. , purchase, 
acheter [ajte], 1 158, to buy, pnr- 

acheminer (a') [b afmine], to take 

one's way, set out. 
achever [ajve], % 158, to finish, 

complete; — eh + infin., to 

Racier [aaje], m. , steel, 
acqn^rir [akeriir], g 162, to ao> 

acquis [aki], p.p. acqairir, 
acteur [aktCEii], m., actor. 
action [aksjS], f., action. 
actnellement [aktqElmQ], now, at 

this very time. 
addition [adisjS], f. , bill, reckoning. 
adieu [adj0], m., good-bye, fare- 

adjurer [adsyre], to adjure, bo- 

admettre [admetr], % 198, tc admit. 

u, Gooijlc 



Kdiiiinblement[admirablama], ad- 
admirer [lulniire], to admire. 
admission [admjsjS], f., admit- 

adosser (s') [s adose], to lean one'a 
back (againsUtt, cotitre), 

adresse [adres]!'!, addrees, skill, 

adresser [adrEae], to address; 
^ — , to address one's self, be 
addressed or directed, 'Pplyi 

adTcrsaire [adversEir], ts., ad- 
versary, opponent. 

afhire [afeir], f., affair, business, 
matter ; pL , things, business. 

afiectueux [afektq0], affectionate. 
' affiche [afij], f., placard, poster. 

afficher [ afi/e ], to post up. 

affliger [afiise], § 156; to afflict, 
vex, erievB ; a'—, to grieve, be 
troubled, be sorrowful, tret. 

affreux [afr0], frightful, horrible. 

afin de [bSS ds] + iofin. . in order to. 

afin que [afi ka], in order that, 
that (takes subjunctive). 

i^ [aij], m., age, century, time ; 
en — de, of an age to ; quel — 
a-t-iU, howoldishe? 

I^ilase]. aged, old. 

agile [ajil}, nimble, swift. 

affir [asi:r], toaet, opeiate, work, 
move, manage, 

Uiter (a') [s ajite], to stir, move, 
ne or grow restless. 

agneau [ajio], m., lamb. 

agr^able {agreabl], agreeable, 


ahl [o ara:],ah1, hah 1, oh I 
ai [e], 1 sg, prea. iad. avotr. 
aide [e:d], m., helper; —decamp, 

aider [ede], to aid, help, assist. 
aie [e], 1 sg. pres. subj. and 2 ag. 

aigu [egy], acute; shrill, pene- 
aile[d], f., wing, 
aimable [emabl], kind, amiable. 

atmer[eme], to love, like; — mieum, 

ain£[ene], eldest. 

oiosi [Ssi], thus, so ; — que, at, 
just as ; pouT — ilire, so to sa^. 

air [e : r], m. , air, atmosphere ; air, 
look, appearance ; A C — , en I' — , 
in the air; ie grand — , the opra 
air ; enjifein — , in the opwair ; 
asoir P — de, tii seem to. ^ 

airain [ert], m., brass, bronze. 

aise [e!z], f., gladness ; ease, con- • 
venienee ; d (on — , comfortably, 
at your ease, just as you like, 
suit yourself. 

aiai [eze], easy. 

aia^ent [EzemS], easily. 

ait [e], 3 ag. pres. subj. atwtr. 

ajouter [asnte], to add. 

Albret (d't [d albrel ; Henri — , 
father of Henry IV. of France. ■ 

AUah[alla],m., Allah. 

ollemand [atmd], adj., German; 
r — , m., German (the language)! 

aller[ale),gl60,togo; — -finfin.', 
to go to, go and; y-^deboncixvr, 
to go at (a thing) with spirit t 
g'en — , to go away, depart, set 
out ; aUfz-voae-m, go away ; 
qn'eUe a'en ailUf, let her go 
(away)!; allona!, cornel, cour- 
age :, up !, arise ! ; — Ala rin- 
con(re (if, togoto meet ! — eher- 
cher, go for, go and get; — 
trower, go and find, go to ; — 
(of garments), fit. 

aOon^r [alSje}, g 1S6, to lengthen, 
stretch out ; — un coap, to deal 
or administer a blow; «"— , to 
stretch out, extend. 

allnmer [alyme], to light 

al(irs[ab:r], then. 

Alsace [alzas], n. pr, f., Alsatia. 

alteniatif [altEmatif], alternate, 

amadou [amadu], m., tinder, 
punk ; hab'vaea d' — , red lips (ol 

ambition [dbiaja], f., ambition. 

Ame [o^ni], f., soul, heart. 

omener [amnej, S 1^, to bring, lead. 

u, Glxh^Ic 


uai [ami], m., friend; mon — , 

my good felbw. 
amie ^mi], f., friend, loved one. 
■ttiirpi [amikal], friendly. 
amirauU [Bmirote], f., admiralty. 
*roiti£ [amitje], f., friendahip, 

amour [ammr], m- in sing, and 

f . in pi. , love, affection ; Kn — 

de peliU eiiivrt, a, deM' little 

X [amnr^, enaiDonr«d, i 
— A ia Jblie, madly i 

i forty years old, forty 

kae [am], m., asa, donkey. 
anecdote [aneRdat], 1, anecdote. 
Aogelus [aselya], m., Angelus (a 

prayer in honour of tlie Incama- 

tion), rincing bell torditto. 
WiElais[dglG],adj.,Engliah; n.m., 

iEn^lishman ; l'—, m., Engliah. 
mnglaise [QglEiz], f., runoing- 

hand (of writing). 
»nple [a;gl], m., angle, comer. 
animal [animal], m., animal, beast. 
animer (s') [a auime], to become 

animated, become lively. 

u [ano], m., ring. 

[ane], f.,Te*r,twe 
demiire, last yeai 
annoncer [auSse], g 156, 

uoQnce one'a lelf, be indicated, 
be evident, 
wmotation [auataajSl, f., annota- 

antique [dtik], ancient. 

aolit [u], m. , August. 

aperceToir [apereevwair], §213, 
to perceive, see, obaerve, notice ; 
8—, ditto. 

aper^oit [aperava], 3 Bg. pres. in- 
die, apercevoir. 

apergu [aperay], p.p. apercevoir. 

aper^ut [aperayj, 3 eg. p. deL 

ap5tre [apoitr], m., apostle, 
apparaltre [apareitr], § 188, to 

apputement [apartsmS] , m . .apart- 
ments, mite of rooms, 
appartenir [apartoniir], % 177, to 
'' belong (to, d). 
appel [apel], m., call 
appelerfaple], § 15S, to caU ; call 

called, named ; comment a'ap- 

ptlle-t-ii?, what is his name!; H 

I'appelU Jean Bart, his name is 

Jean Bart. 
applaudir [aplodiir], to applaod, 

clap (the hands). 
appliqner [apUke], to apply ; **— , 

to apply one's self, work, set to 

work, take pains. 
apporter [aparte], to bring (to. A). 
amirendre TaproidrJ, § 202. to 

apprenti [aprdti], m., apprentice. 
apprfiter [aprete], to prepare, get 

apprivoiser [aprivwaze], 
(a ' 


af^ocher [aproje], intr., to ap- 
proach, draw near; — de, ditto; 
*' — , to approach, draw near (to, 

appuycf [apiiije], § 167, to prop, 
aupport, lean, rest, press on ; 
appuy4, p.p., leaning or sap- 
ported (on. A); «•— , to suppcnt 
one's self, lean. 

aprb [aprE], after, next (to) ; adr., 
afterwarda, after. 

u, Goo^jlc 


l^iit-demain t&pre dmTI, the d&7 

after to-morrow. 
^Tfes-midi [aprc tnidjj, m. L, after- 

■qiiilon [akilS], m., north- wind. 
ambe [amh], Ar&bian ; Arabt, m., 

tan) Arabian. 
Arable [arabi], f., Arabia. 
arbre [arbr], m. , tree. 
vbnate [arbyst], m., shrub. 
Arcde TriomfAe [ark da tri5;t], 

name of an arch in Paris. 
arcon [arsS], m., aaddle-bow. 
ardent [ardS], fiery, eager, int«nse. 
ardeuT [ard<eirj, t, heat, burning 

ai^ent [arjd], m., diver, money. 
•raiment [argymd], m. , argument. 
anthin£tique[Britmetik], f., arith- 

annelarm], t., i 

I, weapon ; i 

•rmie [arme], i. , army. 

amer [arme], to arm, equip, £t 
out, provide ; «' — , to arm, fort- 
ify, secnre one's self. 

armcHre [armwair], f., cupboard, 

ArnAtilt [arno], French author, b, 
1766. d. 1834. 

■rracber [araje], to pull out, snatch 
(from), extract (a tooth). 

arTang:er[arase], §156, toarrange. 

arreter (arete], to stop, delay, 
stay, check, arreet ; «' — , to 
stop, pause, give heed (to, d); 
rfa monde arrtU, people standing. 

aniire [arjeir], m., back part; 
en — , back( wards). 

.niTO (.rlvc], to .tri™ (.1, 4, 
tians, avr) ; come, come to, come 
up ; happen, occur ; Its voi^d qui 
arrimnt, see them coming (there). 

arroser [aroze], to sprinkle, water 
(a garden, etc.}. 

utide [artikl], m., article. 

articuler [artikyle], to articulate. 

, [aaQtjS], tt MceaBJaai 
ta file de rAaeauUm, Ascenaica 

ate, murder. 
isseoir(s') [a aawair], % 21S, to dt 

down, seat one's self, be seated. 
;s') [s aueja], proa. part. 

c [aae], enough, snfBciently; 
pretty, rather, quite, veiy ; — 
good enough. 
) [s asje], 3 sg. prea. indio. 

. [asJEt], f., platck 
[asi], p.p. j'oMeoir, seated, 
assistant [aaiat*]], m., person pree- 

ent, bystander. 
assister [asiete], to be present (at, 

d). look upon. 
assit(s') [s aai], 3 eg. past daL 

beat to death. 
assomption [aaSpsjS], f., assump- 
tion; lafiUde['Auomplion,AR- 

BumptioD day. 
aasujettir [asyjetiir], to rabdoe, 

enthral, suWect 
assurer lasyre], to Msure. 
astracan [astrakd], astrakhan (a 

kind of fur). 
attacher [ataje], to faalen, tia, 

make fast. 
attendr« [atd:dr], §210, to wait; 

wait for, expect, 
attentif [atatif ], attentive. 
attention [atosjS], f., atteutioni 

/aire — , to pay attention. 
attentJTement [atdtivma], atteo< 

attestation [a(estaBJ3], f., oertifi- 

attirail [atiraij], m., appantoa, 

gear, paraphernalia. 
>ttttirer [atire], to attract, draw, 
attrait [atre], m., attcactioit 

au [o], contr. <^i+le. 

-.u, GtJiH^lc 


• «iibetoib], f.,d»wi». 

• anMpme [obepin], f., b»wtbom. 

*«nberge [abers], £., iim. 
Mibergiste [sbETjiit], m., inn- 

• matxm [ok»], any, no; ne. . . — , 

I [odsy], above ; — de, 

• andience [odjais], f., audience, 


• Augmte [ogyBt], in,, AnguatuB. 

• wijourd'hiiita3urdi|i],to-doy,now; 

— <n ktlii, a, week from to-daj. 
' yWipaxa.vant [oporava], adv., be- 

(iuprl^ de [opre da], into the pres- 
ence of, to. 
V Auquel [okEl], contr. of A + Uqtul. 

• ftura [ara], 3 eg. fut. avoir. 
t fturai [are], 1 sg. fut. avoir. 

• «ura»ent [ore], 3 pL oondL avoir ; 

— e« (obs. form), would have, 
auiais [ore], 1 eg. coodl. avoir. 
aurait [are], 3 ag. condl. avoir, 
auras [ora], 2 ha;, tut, indie, avoir. 
aurez [ore], 2 pT, fut. avoir. 
anriez [arje], 2 pi. condl. avoir, 
aiiront [ara], 3 pL fut. avoir. 

^ ausculter [oskjlte], to auscultate, 
sound (lungB, etc.). 
auaai [osi], too, also, likewise ; bk 
~--^ (in comparison) ;— 6wn, besideB ; 

— 6te» ^w, as well aa. 
•nasitdt [oeito] , immediately, forth- 

Jtnstere [oste:r], austere, severe, 

antaat [ota], as or so much, as or 

BO many ; — de, ditto ; d' — pAw, 
the more ao ; hien — , quiU as 

antomne [otan], ai., anttunn { 

«n —, in autumn. 
■ntour de [otu i r ds], prep. , around, 

•ntre [otr], other ; 2u — I, others, 
the others, other people ; tf — >, 
others; J^jma J—jJsi^; '« 
an* let — f, one another, both, 
all ; mout — * B'rati^^, wfl 


thing very different, 
autrefois [otrefwa], formerly, once, 
antremeat [otremo], otherwise ; 
eaatnUtt que loi, with homt 

avait [ave], 3 ag. impl indio. 

avance[av(iis],f., advance; par — , 

avancer [avase], §1S6, to advance, 
forward ; a" — , to advance, move 
forward; auanc^, advanced; 

avant [ftvO], before; en — , for- 
ward ; la litt en — , head firat, 
head foremoet ; — de, before. 

avant que [ava ka], conj. -|- subj., 

avare [avai r], m. , miser ; FAvan, 
a comedv by Moli^re. 

avec [avEk], with ; — le tempi 
qu'il fait, m auch weather ai 
'avenir [avniir], m., future. 

aventure [avStyir], f., adventure; 
d' — ■, by chance. 

aventurer (s'J [a avatyre], to vea> 

avenue [avny], f., avenue, 
avertir [avertiir], to warn, !n- 
' form ; averti, warned, put on 

avez [ave], 2ag. pres. indie, attoir. 

aviaer [avize], to consider, take 

avoir [avwair], § 154, to have; ob- 
tain, receive, get} y — ,imper8., 
U y a, there is, there are ; U p 
avait, there was, etc. ; if if a Auil 
jours, a week ago ; Syeui,theT« 
was, etc. ; il eai k m<miin, he 
obtained, received, the mill; 
cet enfafit a qaelque ekote, then 
ia something the matter with 
that child ; qu'ei^-ce. que von* 
avts I, what is the matter with 
yonf; U a dia ant, he li ten 


I., Gt)iH^Ic 



years old, ten years of age ; voua 
n'aBtt ffu'4 parUr, you have only 
tospealt; —rainon, to be (in the} 
1 right ; en -- tt, be angry with, 

■TOM [av3], 1 pi. pre* ""Uo- 

avoiier [avwe], to oonfesa, declare, 
avow, acknowledge. 

•▼rillavril],m., April. 

■yant [Eja], pree. part, avoir. 

aye* [eje], 2 pi. impve. avoir. 

ayons [ej5], 1 pL pres. Bubj. avoir. 

— ■ aamaaoa, rea iips. 
bkbiole [babjol], f., toy, trinket. 
bah I [ba], pooh 1 pshaw 1 
baigner piepe], tr. to bathe, lave 

te^, to bathe (intr.). 
baiser [beze], to kiaa. 
baiaer [bEEB], m., kiss. 
baisser [bese], to lower, let down, 
hang (down) ; — la IMi, bow 
down, hang one's head} ae — , 
to stoop down, stoop. 
balancer [baldse],g 156, to balance, 
swing, wave ; »e — , intr. , to 
swing, rock, sway, 
banane [banan], f., banana. 
banc [bfl], m., bench, seat. 
bander [bade], to bind up. 
bauqne [boik], f., bank. 
banquier [bfikjej, m., banker, 
burbarisme [tarbarism], m., bar- 
barisir, ,, , 

barbicbe [barbij], t., tuftof beard, 

tufted beard. 
barrer [bore], to bar. obstrnct, 

block. , , ^ 

Bart (Jean) [sa bair], famous 
French seaman, b. at Dunkirk 
1651, d. 1702. 
b«s [ba], lowi W — , over there, 
yonder ; taui — , in an under- 
tone, to one's self, softly, 
siientlyj «i — , below, at the 
bottom, down (below), down 
stairs ; d'm —, from down be- 

Bas-Canada [ba kaoada], bl, 

Lower Cjanada. 
BastiUe [baatiij], f., Bastile. 
bataiUe [batoij], f., battle. 
bataillon [batojS], m., battalitni, ^ 

bateau [bato], m,, boat; «e pro- 

fmtjier en , to go for a boalr 

ride, row, sail (in a boat). 
b&timent [botima], m., building, 

edifice ; ship, vessel. ^ 

bMir [botiir], to build, 
bftton [bata], m., stick; stroke » 

(in learning to write); coapiie — , ^ 

blow with a stick, 
batterie [ba*"]. f-- battery (inilit.). 
battre [batr], § 180, to beat, strike ; 

thresh ; — dea mains, cUp the 

hands ; — U briqvrt, to strike a ' 

light vrith flint and steel ; batlu, 

beaten, wrought; w — ,tofight; 

^6(I«^Hl(,BWinging,Bwingi^gopen, > 
bavarder [bavarde], to babble, 
prattle, gossip. 
vli^ant [bea], gaping. 
beau, bet, belle, pL beaux, belles 

El, bcl, bel, bo, bel], beautifnl, 
ndsoroe, fine ; au — milieu, in 
the very midst J it/ait — {tempi), 

beaucoup [boku], much, a great 
deal, very much, many, very 
mapy, a great many ; — tfc, 

Bee [bek], proper name. 
.Iticher [beje], to dig, delve. 

becqueter [bekte], § 158, to peck. 

becquie [bake], f., billful. 

bel [b£l], see beau. 
, baier (belje], m., ram; battering- 
belle [bel], see btav. 

benediction [benedikajS], f. , bene- 

binir [boniir], § 163, to bless. 

bercant [beraO], soothing, som- 

bercer [herse], % 156, to rock, lull 

,;.!;, GtXJ^IC 


bereer [bcrse], m., shepherd ; 
eifien de — , shepherd's dog. 

Berlin [berU], m., Berlin. 

besoin ]hai.wt], m., need, neces- 
sity ; avoir — (ii, to need, be in 
need of ; votu avez -— qve je voui 
aide, you need my help ; atuni 
bien notu Jera-t-U — -, thea be- 
aidea we shall need him. 

bCte [belt], f., beast, brute, animoL 

Mte [belt], atupid. 

bttiae [beti;^, 1., atupidity, tolly. 


iHCjclette [biaikUt], £., bicycle. 

bien [bj!], well, Tery, indeed, real- 
ly, 1 am sure, surely, o[ course, 
quite ! — ptu», much more ; fai 
— te temp), I have plenty of time ; 
ttre — , to be well, be well o£f, be 

— , or indeed, or on the contrary j 
— de, much, a great deal of. 

bien [bjS], m., good. 

biens [bji], m. pi., estate, prop- 
erty, goods, w^th, possesaiooa ; 
J bientAt [bjlto], soon, shortly, pre- 

bienvenn [bjivny], adj., welcome; 

itre — , to be welcome, 
billet [bije], m., note, letter; pro- 

mieaorynote; ticket; — d'eMrie, 

tictet (of admission), 
bique [bik], f., ahe-goat. 
blse rbiiz], t, north wind. 
Mzarre [bizair], odd, siugolar. 

blonc [bid], white; U — , n. m., 
the whit«. 

Bbncbe [bio i Q, pr. a. f. , Blanche. 

Bknquette [biaket], t. 'Whitey.' 

bK [ble], m., wbeat, wheat-field. 
■r blfane [bleim], pale, pallid. 

blesser [blcae], to wound. 

blessure [blesjir], i., wound 

bka [bl<n, blue. 

bloquer [bloke], to blockade. 

Blftcher I blykeir or blyje!r], 
PruHsian geneml, ally ot Wel- 
lington at Waterloo. 

bc^e[bwair],3181,todrtnk; dom- 

Tier pour — , to give a gratuity, « 

tip (coUoq. ). 
bois [bwa], m., wood(s), forest. 
bois de Boulogne [bwa da bulap], 

m., name of a park in th« 

suburbs of Paris. 
boiserie [bwozri], f., wainscoting. 
boite [bwftit], f. , box. 
bon [b3], good ; kind ; teatir — , 

to smell sweet. 
Bonaparte [bonapart], (Napoleon) 

bonbon [b5b5], m., bonbon, candy, 
bond [ba], m., bound, skip. 
boDdisaement [ bSdiamS ], m., 

bounding, leaping, 
bonheur [tonceirj, m., happineu; 

good fortune, (good) luck. 
bonjonr n>5}uiT], m., good morn- 
ing, good day. 
bonne [boo], f., maid, servant, 

bonnet [nane], m., cap. 
bonsoir [bSswair], m., good even- 

bonti [bate], f., goodness; — 

divine .', soodDesa gnicious I 
bord [bsi^, m., ahore, bank, 

margin, ettee; board (nav.); 

d — cfc, on board of, 
bonier [bnme], to limit ; le — , to 

be limited. 
botte[bat], f., boot. 
better [bote], to famisb with boots; 

6oK^, booted, with boots on; "L« 

CAoi BoM^," " Pubs in Boots i" f« 

— , to put on one's liootB. 
bono [bnk], m., he-goat. 
bouche [bu J], f, , mouth ; d la — , 

in one's mouth, 
boncber [bujej, to atop, atop up. 
boue [buj, f., mud, mire. 
,bouger[baie], § 156, intr., tostir, 

bonlanger [bul<l:(e], m,, baker, 
boulererser [bulverse], to ovw 
■^ throw, overturn, upset, agitate, 
bouquet [bnke], m.. noB«^aft 


u, Gooijlc 



beardooder [bnidtme], to bum, 

bcmner [bure], to Btnff, fill. 
bousculade [buakylad], L , joatling, 

hiutling, confusion. 
bont [bu], m., end, tip; edge, 

Bitremity ; au — de, at the end 

boutiane [butik], f., ahop. 
bnmclie [braij], f., braoch. 
bnndir [biOdiir], to brandish. 
bru[bra], m., arm. 

brtche [brE|], f., breach, 
br^fade [bng^], f., brigads. 
briEfuid [mgQ], m., brigand, 

.- briller [brijo], to Bhine, sparkle. 
brin [br^, m., blade, apris. 
briquet [brike], tn.,Bt«el(foratnl[- 

ing a liebt) ; batlre U — , to 

■trike a ught. 
biise [briiz], t, breeze. 
. briser [brize], to break, break or 

dasfa to pieces, ahattor. 
broder [brode], to embroider ; 

ftnxW, p. part., embroidered, 
brodequia [bradkl], m., (laced-) 

bronze [brdiz], m., bronze, 
brosse [broa], f., braah. 
broaser [brose], to brush. 
brouilUrd [brujair], m., fog, mist, 

. bromller [bruie], to confnaes be- 
dim (the sight). 
broussaiUe9[bniBa]j],f. pl.,bmBh- 

wood, bushes. 
bronter [brnte], to browse. 
broyer [brwoje], g 167, to grind, 
'' crush to pieoes. 

bruit [bn;i], m., uoise, sound; 
fame, repntatiani/air«(ane(fe — , 
to attract so much attention. 

bnim« [blTuj, f., fog, mirt, haze. 

lent [brytoImS], brutally, 

bniy^[br jj e i r] ,f . , heath.heather, 

bu [by], p. part, boirt. 

buisaiire [bqisjeir], f., thicket, 

buiason FbitisS], m., bush, thicket. 
bnrean [byro], m., office. 
but [byt or by], object, end, goal j 
arrivtr A aim — , attain his ob- 

9a [sal, (for etta) that. 

9'ft ^te [a a ele], for fa or e< a M. 

^ [sa], here ; — tt iA, here and 

there, up and down, hither and 

cabinet [kabine], m., cabinet ; 

office, private office. 
^^cabrer (ie) [ss kabre], intr. to 

[kajmiir], m., oaab- 

cadavre [kadaiTr], m., corpse, 

dead body. 
cadeau [kado], m., present, gift. 

[kaje], m., noto-book, ax> 

caille [kaij], t, quail. 
caillon [kaju], m., pebble, stones 
caisaier [kEsje], m., cashier. 
calculer [k^yle], to calculate, 

calice [kalis], m., chalice, cop; 

cftlin [kolf], adj. , wheedling, coax- 

calme [kalm], m., atillneat, oahu. 
calme [kalm], calm, stiU. 
calmer [kalme], to calm. 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


calotte [kalat], f., cap, sknll-oap. 
U CtunuftdefkamBrad], m., f.,coin- 

nule, playmate. 
camp [kd], m., camp. 
CuupogiiArd [kapajiair], m., conn- 

cunMgne [kQpaji], f.i coontr;, 

fieldB ; d fit — , in the country. 
<»inpuiule [kdpanyl], f., campa- 

nnla, bell-flower. 
Canada [ksDada], m., Canada. 
canadiea [kanodjS], Canadian, 
canard [kanair], m., dnck. 
caniche [kanij], m., poodle, 
canif [kanif], m., penknife, 
canon [kans], m., cannon, 
canonnitre ikananjE:r], f., gnn- 

cantique [kStik], m., hymn. 

le [kapiten], m., captain. 
le [kapital], f. , capital letter, 
capitenx (kapitft], bea!dy, intoxi- 

CaHkari, for. 

caractire Ikarakteir], m., charac- 
ter, disposition, temper. 

caressant [karcsci], kindly, gentle. 
carase [kares], f., caress; /aire 

miUe —■> A, qq., to overwhelm 

anyone with kindness, 
caresser [karEse], to carsBs, stroke. 
car^aison [kargezS], f. , cargo. 
carotte [karat], f., carrot. 
1/ carr6 [kare], m. , square. 

caiTOsse [kanra], m., carriage, 


casaque [kazak], f., jacket. 
casque [ka.ik], m., heimet. 
v/'tjuser [koise], to break. 
Castille [kastiij], f., Castile. 
catastrophe [kataatrafj, f., cataa- 

Caucase[k3katz], m., Caacasns. 
caucheinar [kajmair], m., nigbt- 

"""' A — dt, 

nwae [koi^, f 

cajuer [koze], to cause ; chat, talk ; 

— MM impr«j«iwi, to msjie v> 

causeur [kosteir], talkative. ' 
cavalerie [kavalri], f., cavaliy; 

graue — , heavy cavalry. 
caTBlier [kavalje], m., horsemBn, 

rider, trooper. 
M [s9], pron., it, this, that; e'M 

pourqwA, that is why; e'eslnfiiu, 

it is we ; ce mtiU evx, it is they ; 

e« qui, ct qtK, that which, which, 

ce, cet, cette, ces [aa, set, set, se), 
adj. , this, that j ce . . . -id, that 

ciaus [sed], here within, in tbia 

ceci [sesi], pron. , this. 

cMer IsedeJ, § 16S, to jield, give 

cela (slaj, pron. , that ; — t'entaid, 

that is evident ; of course. 
ctiibrer [selebre], % 1S8, to cele- 

cflibre [selEbr], celebrated. 

cello [sel]. see celui. 

celui, celle, ceuz, cellea [ssliii. 

sel, H0. Kl], this or that, this or 
that one ; the one, he, him ; 

— qjii, the one who, he or him 

celni-ci [ssl^i si], celle-ci, cenx- 
d, cenea.«i, pron., this, this 
man, this one, the latter, ho 

celui-U, etc. [se1i(i la], pron. , thatt 
that man, that one, the former, 

cent [sa], (a) hundred, 
centieme [sStjcm], hundredth, 
centime [so tim], m. , the huudredtb 

part of a franc, 
centre [sflitr], m., centre, 
cepeodant [aapada], yet, never- 

thelesa ; ati)I, however, in the 

meantime, meanwhile; — que, 

while, whilst. 
cerde [serkl], to., circle. 
citimonie [seremani], f . , ceremoaj. 
cerise [setin], t, oherry. 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


T [wriejej, m., cherry-treo. 
1 [sertE], certain. 
[Bcrt], certain Iv, ■urely. 

., brain, mind. 

cesser [sesej, to c«ase, leave on ; 

— lie, ditto. 
ees [aei aeece. 
cet (set], ««e ee. 
cette [set], i. of ee. 
ceuz [b^], m. pL cefui. 
cbacun [jaka], pton., each, each 

cbai^nii [|agiE], m., sorrow, grief; 

cbaine [Tein], t, chain. 

chair [feir], f., flesh, meats —A 
P&14, mince-meat ; nt faiaaiU 
qu'une — , becoming only an in- 
distinguishable mass of neah. 

chaire [Je'-t], t, pulpit, desk (of a 

cluuse [[siz], t., chair, 

chaleurt/alcerr], t, heat 

chombre [Is \ hr], f. , room ; Cham- 
trre ila ddputdi, Hoose of Parlia- 

le of certain pnblic gar- 
dens in Paris. 

chance [Jdis], f., chance. 

changementiJSjmd], m., change ; 
-^ lit front, change of front, 

changer [jSse], g 166, to change, 
alter, tranrform ; «e — , to 
change or tranefonn one's self, 
change (jntr. ). 

chanson [faaS], f., eong. 

chant [jS], m., singing; crowing 

(of a 


chanter [Jate], to sing ; chant, in- 

chantoonement t IStanwA ], m., 

humming, singing, 
chapeau [fttpo], m., hat. 
diapelier[|'apelje1,m., hatter j cha 

U — . to or at the hatter's. 

ch^wlte [fapd], f., chapeL 

cbapitre [Japitr], m., chapter. 

chaque [Jak], each, every. 

chonionner [Jarbane], to writq 
with charcoal, sketch, scrawL 

charge [Jars], f. , charge, load. 

charger [jarse], § 156, to charge, 
commission, order, entmst; «e 
— , to undertake. 

charinant [Jarmd], charming. 

charmer [Jarme], to charm, de- 
light; eharaiide, charmed with, 
delighted with. 

chasM [/as], f. , chase, bunt, hunt- 
ing, hunting-party. 

cbawer 0aBe], to chase, drive 

chasseur [fasoeir], m., light in&n- 

try soldier, chasseur, 
chat [Jal,m., cat; "UChatBoUi," 

" Puss in Boots." 
ch&taigne [jatcji], f., chestnut, 
chAtaignier [ja tejie], m. , dies tout- 

ch&teau [Jnto], m., castle, palaoei 

CbateaQbriand {Jatobrio], Frenoh 
writer, b. 1768, d. 1848. 

cbaud [ [o], warm, hot. 

chaud [Jo], m., heat, warmth ; il 
fail — , it is warm, hot (of 
weather, etc. ) ; avoir — , to be 
warm, hot (of living beings). 

cbaumi^re [fomje:r], f., ttuitched 
house, cottage, cot, 

chansste tjose], f., highway, main 

chaussurea [fosy:r], f. pi., shoea, 

chauTe [Joiv], bald ; un >-, a bald 

cfaef[(ef], m., chief, commander; 

— a^eaeadr^, lear-admiral. 
chemia [JamS], m., way, road; 

grartd — , main road, highway ; 

— de ffr, railway ; — faimttt, 
on the way ; en — , on trie way. 

chemin^ [famine], f., fire-plaoei 

mantel -shelf. 
chtae [Jem], ra., oek. 
cbeniUe [Jamij], L, ost«rpUbB. 

I., Glkh^Ic 




a seek, search, 
look for ; ailtr — , go for, go and 
gel J — d, seek t<>, try to. 

diere [(e;r], f., cheer, entertun- 
ment ; /aire bonne — , to pro- 
Tide mod cheer, provide a good 

cherir [Jeriir], to cherish ; dtiri, 
beloved, cherished, dear. 

dievai [Jsval], m., horse ; A — , 
on horseback. 

dieret [|ave], m., pillow, boliter, 
the head of a bed ; dpie de — , 

cheven [fav0], m,,hAir; cAcmux, 

diiTTC [Jeivr], f., goat 
chevKMi [jsvro], m., kid 
chenette [JevrEt], £, little goat 
Chez [Je], to, at, in, into (the 
bouse, shop, office, etc., of}; 
with ; aller — U rot, to go to 
the king's (palace, court, etc) ; 
iU dlaient — eax, they were at 
home ; — vioi, at my house, at 
home ; — votu, at yonr house, 
at home, 
diien [[]£], DL, dog; — debtrgrr, 
shepherd's dog ; — danoii, 
Danish dog, great Dane. 
I cliiffoii[|i^], ni.,rag; strip, piece. 
I chiffre [Jifr], m. , figure, number. 
cdiiintre [jimEir], f., chimEera (a 

fabulous beast of antiquity). 
Cbceur [kceir], m., chorus. 
choisir [Jwaziir], to choose. 
cboie [Joiz], f., thing, a&ir, mat- 
ter ; qutlqut — , m. pron. , 
eomething ; qudqtu — dWrn- 
ordinaire, something extraordi- 
nary, nnusual ; la cMvre a 
qKelqnt — , there is something 
the matter with the goat ; blm 
aidre — , Bomething very dif- 

^ [si], see M. 
Ciciron [siserS], Cioero. 
Cid[Bid], leCid, dratna byComeille, 
ciel, pi. cieux [sjel, ijfi], m., 

heaven, heavens, sky. 
.dmetiire [aimtjeir], cemetery, m. 
duq [aSlk], five. 
dnquante [sEkdit], fifty. 
cinquitmc [s?kJEm], fifth, 
circonspect [BirkaBpe(kt)], circnm- 

■"^e[8i'rk],'m.!' ' 

atf [site], f., city. 
otoyen [aitwajlj, m., ci 
rivilement [sivilmO), civilly, c 

., citizen. 

teoualy, politely. 

avilisatiDn [HivillzasjS], f., civil- 

cbtir [kleir], clear, bright, plain. 

clAir [klEir], m., light, oleameec; 
— de hate, moonlight. 

cl«ir [kleir], clearly, plain(ly). 

clairoD [kkrS], m., clarion. 

dumeur [klamieir], f., clamour, 

clasM fklois], f, class, t«citati<»i, 
lesson, class-room ; manqver la 
— , stay away from school, play 
tmant ; faire la — , give a lessoa 
(to a class), t«ach (a class). 

def[kle], f.,key. 
■ ■■ [klikti],in., rattle, click- 


dOS [klo], p. part, elore, t 

doa [klo], in., enclosure, field, 
clouer [klue], to nail, 
cocher [koje], m., coachman, 
coeur[k(£ir], m., heart, heartineu. 

ing, jingle. 
locfic[kn.n, f., 
dodiette [klajet], f., (small) bell. 

mr^e, energy ; dt (fton) — , 
neartily, fervently; ' 
with a heavy heart. 

- gro*. 

___[k*E]. r . 

coincidence [kaEalda ins], f., coin- 

COl^e [koleir], t., anger; ft? net- 
trr m — , to get angry, be angiy, 

eolation [kolosjS], 1, collatioo, 



coUer [kale], to glne, poata 
coUine [kalin], €, hiU. 
colonel [kalsnel], m., colooeL 
colonue [kalan], I., cotmnn ; — 

dpaiue, close column, in dose 

marchiog order. 
COloUBl [kalosal], coIobbsI, mighty, 
colosse [kolaB], m. , colossus, giant ; 

dtxvaux — t, colossal or gigantio 

£5bal. m.. combat, fight, 
o fight. 


do battle. 
combiea [kabjE], bow n 

I, how many; — tta-txmst, 
how many are there of yon T ; — 
ttra-voM dt geia A table t, how 
many (people) will there be of 
youattableT; — avez-vou»payii, 
how much or what did yon pay 
(for) T 
combler [kSble], to heap up ; fill, 
crown, complete ; anwM, full to 

headquarters (milit.). 
OMniiuilder [komQde], to oom- 

mond, order, bid. , 
commeikam], as, like; as it were, 

as if ; as well as ; how ; how I ; 

— voici, BB follows J — if faiU, 

in fine style, exactly right, as it 

should be. 
commencement [komfismd], m., 

beginning, commencement. 
commencer [kamSse], g I6S, to 

begin, eommenoe (to, d, de). 
comment [komS], how; howT; 

how \, what : — cela I, how is 

that I ; — fairt poor nt paa 

voltrf, how is one to avoid 

conunode [komsd], comfortable. 

' ''a [kamynikasjS], f., 

compact [kSpaict], compact, denie. 

compftgne [kSpaji], f., oompaniont 

compagnie [kSpajii], f., company. 

compagnon [k3pap5], m., com- 
panion; ^rfaooyoffe, travelling- 

comparaiaon [k3parez3J, £., oom- 

comparer [b , 

compartiment [ kSpartin 

compassion [kSposjS], f., compas- 

■ aion, pity. 

complet [kSple], m., suit (of 
clothes); coin{dement; iire ati 
—, to bo fnlL 

compliment [kaplimS], m., com- 

composer [kSpoze], te oompoee, 
form, arrange ; »e — , to be com- 
posed, consist (of, dt). 

compoaition IkapozisjS], L, com- 

comprendre [kSprdidr], g Q02, to 
anderstand, comprehend ; in- 
clude ; /aire — , te explain. 

compter [kSte], to count, reckon ; 
intend, think ; be of import- 
ance ; il eomplail pbu, be was 
of more account. 

concentrer [kSsdtre], to ooncen- 

concert [kSseir], m., concert. 

Concorde [kSkard], f., concord; 
j^act de la ContoriU, name of a 
square in Paris. 

condamiiatioo[k3danaBJ3],f., con- 
demnation, sentence. 

coadamner [kadone], to condemn, 

condamni [kSdone], m., convict. 

condnire [k3diiiirl, g ISC, to con- 
duct, 1^, guide, drive, take, 

confiance [k3{j3iB], t, confidenoe, 

confiiMtir [kSfizosir], m., confeo- 

confns [kSfy], contused, indistinct. 
coogi [kSje], m. , holiday ; Amntt 
— d, to give a holiday to. 

I., Glkh^Ic 



eoajiirer [kSjyre], to implore. 
Gwuuis [ksQE], 1 Bg. pros, iodic. 

connaisiwnce [kaneaflis], f., ac- 
quaintance ; /aire — avtc, bo- 
come acquaiuUd with. 

GOOiuiascz [kanese], 2 pL pres. 
indie, eumtaiixt. 

comuussons {kaaesj], I pi, pres. 
indie. eonnaUre. 

COOnait [kane], 3 ag. preB. indie 

I [koneitr], § 188, to 
know, be acqnaioted with, un- 

COtiacfence [k iSsja i s], f . , conscience; 
conBciouaneoa ; coascientiousness ; 
je firaia — tU,I should scruple 
to, I should think it a sin to. 

cooseil [kSsGij], m., ooonsel, od- 

[kSseje], to advise, 

conserrer [kSserve], to preserve, 

cofUJEfae [kSsiji], f., orders (ndUt. ), 

consister [kSaiste], to consist. 
COiuo)er[K3B3lel,tocoiiBo1e, solace, 

comfort ; ae — , to console one's 

self (with, de). 
constenier [kSsteme], to astound, 

diamay, amaze, terrify, 
constrnire [kSstrqi I r], g 1S5, to con- 

cente [kSitl, m., story, bde ; /aire 
un — . teU a story. 

If [kStdpIe], to contem- 

cootent [kStd], adj. , content, satis- 
fied, pleased, gratified, happy, 
contentement [kStatraO], m,, con- 
tentment, satisfaction. 
contenter [kSt^te]. to satisfy. 
canter [k3te], to relate, telL 
'inaer [kStinqe], to cc 
>, de), keep on, pursue. 

contraire [kStre 

'],m.. contrary] 

au — , on iDe oontrwy. 
contre [kStr], against, from. 
convaincu [kovJky], convinced, 

convenablc [kSvenabl], suitable. 
convenir [tSvaniir], g 178, to suit, 

become, be fitting or appro- 

coaversatioii [kSversasjS], f, oon- 

conToitile [kSvwatiizI, f., covel- 

copie [kspi], f., copy ; exercise. 

coq [kokj, m., cook. 

co<]iiiii-e [kokl, kakin], togao, 

wretch, scamp. 
corde [kard], f., cord, rope, 
cordon [kardo], m., cord, strinc; 

— de sonneiie, bell-pull, bell- 

come [komj, t., bom. 

Comeille [ksmEi]], m., French 

dramatist, b. 1606, d. 1684. 
corps [kair], m., body, form, 
corridor [karidair], m,, oorridtw. 

lire [karsEir], m., privateer. 
GOttaune [kostym], m., ooatame, 

cAte [kot], f, , coast, rib, side ; — d 
— , side by side. 

c6t£ [koto], ra. , side, way ; if an — , 
on one side ; de Cauire — , on the 
other side ; dt u — , on tjiia 
side 1 de — , to one side, aside ; 
tfu — de, in the direction of, 
towards ; de son — , on his part, 
he too 1 d — df, beside. 

cou[ku], m., neck. 

condier [knje], intr., to lie, lie 
down; set (of the sun}; tr,, to 
|>ut to bed, lay down ; — en 
joue, take aim (at) ; k — i to go 
to bed, retire (to rest); Hre 
eoiicM, to be lyiug down. 

coucher [kn/e], tn., setting ; — du 
toleil, sanBet. 

COul^ [knie], f., running-hand. 
Vcoiiler [kale], to flow, run, trickle 
[kulceir], f., colour. 

u, Gooijlc 



conleuTre [knlffitvr], f., suake. 
coup [ku],m., blow, stroke; drink; 
boire eing ou (ix — a, to take fivs 

orsix drinka ordraughta ; — d« 
poinpr, a blow with the fiat ; — <U 
pUd, a. kick ; d'vn muI — , at a 
aingle stroke ; tout d — , all at 
once ; du — , at once, thereupon ; 
dormer det — e de come, to hook, 
butt ; — de dent, bite ; donntr 
des — » de JotiU, to whip ; — de 
lonnerre, thimder-clap ; ^^ de 
bdion, blow with a atick ; — de 
piato^, pistol-ahot ; de plueieara 
— s, in several places, 
coupablefkupabl], guilty, at fanlt, 

coupe [kup], f., cup, wine-eup. 
GOupe-goi^ [kup garj], m., a 

cut-throat place, a neat of 

couper [kupe], to cut. 
GOur[ku:i],f.,conrt; yard, court. 

yard ; /aire la — , pay court ; 

courage [kuraij], m., courage. 
courageux [kiiras0], brave. 
cauraaunent [kuramd], fluently. 
courber [kurhe], to bend, bow. 
COuretir (kurceir], m., runner; — 
de ijrande dianiTtt, tramp, va- 

COllrir[kuri l r], § 164, to run(about}; 
haat«n ; hunt after ; — tfi nidii, 
to hunt after birds' nests, go 
birds' uesting. 

couronne [kuran], f., crown ; 

cmnroimer [kurDoe], to crown, 

course [kuraj, f., course, tour, 
walk, round ; /aire une — , take 
a walk, make a round ; prendre 
la — , to take one's way. 

coiut [kuir], short (adj.); nhort 
(adv.); ■ 

courus [koiy], 1 sg. part d«£ 
cournt [kvry], 3 ag, past deL 

[kuzl, kuzin], coosio. 

couteau [kuto], m., knife. 

cobter [kute], to cost. 

coutume I kotym ], f., cnstcsn, 

couturiire [kutyrjeir], f., dress- 

couver [huve], to brood, hatch t 
convanl de rail, wistfully eying. 

.... 8 hat oi_ 

couviir [kuvriir], % 176, to cover; 
ge — , cover one's self, be coveradu 

craindre [krE;dr], g 190, to fear, 
be afraid of. 

craie [kre], f., chalk. 

crajnte [krSit], f,, fear. 

cravate [kravat], f., neckcloth. 

crayon [krejo], m., peuciL 

cr6a.ture [kreatyir], t., creature. 
ycrfite [kre:t], f., crest, BUimnit. 

creuser [krOze], to dig. 

creux [kre], hollow; chemin — , 
deep-cut road. 

criTe-cceur[krEvkceir],m., heart- 
break, grief. 

crerer [kreve], § 168, to burst ; die, 

en [kri], m., cry, shout, outcry. 

cribler [kriUe], to sift ; riddle. 

crier [krie], to cry (out), shout, 
call (out), exclaim. 

crin [kri], m., hair (of the mane 
and tail of the horse, etc): 
crina, pL, hair, mane; plant* 
(of a helmet). 

criatal [kristal], m., crystal 

croire[krwa:r], § 191, to believe; 
think ; ae — , to believe or think 
one's self ; /aire — d, to makf 
(one) believe in. 

croiser [krwoze], to oroM, come 

cro!tre[krwaitr], % 192, to grow. 

,;.!;, GtXJ^IC 



aone [krM], f.j -de faM, butt 
(-end) of a gon or mnaket. 

CTOnler [krule], to crumble, go to 
ruin, sink to ruin. 

croupe [IcTup], f., cronp, mmp. 

cro^uit [ krwojd ], pres. part. 
eroire ; — > m. , believer. 

aajtx [knraje], 2 pi pres. indie 

crojKMia [krwajS], 1 pi. indie, or 

impve. crotre. 
cnia [kry], 1 sg. past del ermre. 
crnt tkry], 3 ag. past def. eroirt. 
cueilhr [kfejiir], g 169, to pick, 

pluck, gaUier. 
culler [kyJEir], f., apoon. 
Cnir [kqiirl, m., leather, 
cuirasse [ kiiiras ], f., onirasB, 


cnisinier [kqizinje]^ m., cook. 
cnisiiuire [kqiziDJeit], f., cook. 
cnisse [ kijis ], 1, tbigli ; leg, 

" drom-siick." 
CtUTTe [ktgiivr], m., copper, brasa ; 

<t pleim ~t, aa loud aa the band 

could play. 
Cukiiiuttlit[kylmind]. culminating. 

curiosity [kyi^Jozite], t., curiosity. 
cytise [sitiiz], m., cytiius, bean- 
trefoil, labDmum. 

dame [dam], f,, lady, 
dcneerenx [ddsr^]. dangerons. 
danois [danwal Danish, 
dana [dS], in, vithin, to. into, at, 
on, amoDK, between ; — U 

dtuue [ddia], f., dance ; entTer «n 

— , to begin to play. 
denser [dose], to dance, 
date [dttt], f., date ; de longue — , 

Frencii novelist, 

1S40, d. 1897. 

darrantage [davQtaii;], mora; h 

doelnir pas — , nor the doetoc 

de [da], of, from, out of, for, with, 
in, on, by, at, to ; — + infin., 
to, at, for, in, etc. 

wash (the face). 

dibairauer [debarase], to di«- 
encumber, rid ; « — , to free 
oae's self, get rid (of, dt). 

d^battre (m) [as debatr], § IBO, to 

d^borou' [debarde], to overflow, 

[debuje], to come out 
(on, «tir), debouch. 

debout [ dsbu], adv., upright, 

d^ctqiiter [dekapite], to behead. 

d^cMnbre [desdibr], m., Decem- 

dicidi [desiOe], decided. 

dMder [deaide], Ut decide, det«r- 
mine ; te — , to decide, t«aolT«y 
make up one's mind. 

declarer [deklare], to declare. 

diconragjer [dekurase], g 166, to 
discourage ; M — , to be discour- 
aged, give up (intr. ). 

d&ouvru- [deknvriir], % 176. to 
discover ; take ofl the bat. 

d^daiguer [dedejio], to disdain. 

dedans [dodu], adv., within, in- 
side ; in it, into it ; fc — , Itt — , 
n. m., the inside, interior j en 
— , inside. 

difendre [defd:dr], % 210, to de- 
fend, protect (front, dr) ; forbid ; 
M — , to defend one's self. 

iittaae [defais], f., defense, pro- 

difensenr[deffisair],m., defender, 

di&er [defje], to defy, challenge ; 
jt wme en diJU, I dare, defy, 
you to do it ; M — de, to mia- 
trust, distrust. 

d^gofiter [degute], to uisguat. 

d£g:radatioD [degradaajs], f., de- 

tx^i [dagre], m., atep ; degteo. 

^ IH 

u, Gooijlc 



« taste, enjoy 

dienster [demte]. 
the taste of. 

ii\k[deii].B.heady;d&/t!, sosooni 

dneuner [de90ne], m., breakfast; 
lunch J — du maliii or premier 
— , breakfast (Le. , the first meal 
of the day) j — d la/ovrcheUe or 
second —, luncheon, lunch. 

d^ienner [des^ae], to breakfast, 

ddk [dala], beyond [ par — , further 
(than), beyond. 

d^lai^MT [delese], to abandon, de- 
sert, forsake. 

dtiicatesse [delikatcs], f. , delicacy, 

demain [damS], m., to-morrow. 

demande [damSid], f., demand, 

d^OAnder [dsmfide], to ask, aak 
for ; — d, to aak of, from (indir. 
obj.),askj — (l + infin.,toaskto; 
te — , to oak one's self, wonder. 

dimener (se) [ss demne], g 158, to 

d&noiti [demSti], m., contradic- 
tion i il nt vaalait pas en avoir 
U — , he waa determined not to 
be beaten. 

demeurer [dsmcerel, to live, dwell, 

derai [da'mi], half'; A—, half, 
demi-heure [dami ceir), f., half an 

demi-obscuriti [dami opskyrite], 
f., half darkneea, taint light, 
feeble light. 

d^ontter [demStre], to show. 


[denSse], g 156, to de- 

dent [dd], f., tooth; coup dt 

deutel^ [ datle ]. denticulated, 

notched (said of leaves). 
deiiteUe[datEl1, f.,lace. 
dentiste [dfitist], to., dentist. 
dipajrt [ilepair), m., departare. 
d^Ccber (se) [sa depcje], to malu 

hast«, hurry; ne te diptehe pat 

taut, do not bo in such a hurry, 
dipendance [depddd:*], f., de> 

pendence, territory. 
dipendre [depoidr], g 210, to dB> 

pend (upon, de). 
d^penser [depose], to spend, ez- 

diplover (se) [aa deplwaje], g 157, 
to deploy (milit.). 

d^pouiller [depuje], \o strip, de- 
spoil, deprive. 

depuia [dapifi], since ; from ; — 
deux ana, for two years back, 
for the last two year* ; ^ que, 
since; — quandf, since wheDt, 
how longT 

d^pot^tdepyte], m., deputy, mem- 
ber of parliament, 

d^oduer [derasine], to uproot 

dinugrer [derose], § 156, to de- 
range ; ae — , to trouble one'* 

demter [dcmje], latter, last, finaL 

derriire[derieir], behind (prep.); 
behind, at the back (adv.); dt 
— , hind (adj.). 

des [de], contr. of de + let. 

dis [dc], from {dating from), not 
later than ; — d^tiutin, banning 
to-morrow ; — yue, aa soon aa, 
from the very moment that ) 
— /e raiiae jour, on the {very 
same) day ; — le point du jour, 
at daybreak. 

d^sagreable [ dezagreabi ], dii- 
agreeable, unpleasant. 

diturmer [dezarme], Ut disarm; 
d^armi, unprotected, helpless. 

descendreCdesdidr], §210, to de- 
scend, come or go down ; go 
down (stairs). 

descenteEdesdit], f., descent. 

disenchantement [ dezSjdtma ], 
m. , disenchantment, disappoint- 

desert [dezeir 

Usert [dt 

,, desert. 

dHe^ira [deze^wreli S US, to 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 


[decUjrcjS], t, dinUu- 

diair [deziir], m., desire, longing. 

disirer [dezire], to desire, wiah. 

disimiz [dezir^l, desirous, amioua 
(to, de). 

Usoruuia, henceforth. 

des»ft:her [deMfe], § 168, to di7, 
dry up, pnrch, wither; u — , 
to dry up, wither. [schema. 

dMMin [desE], m., deaign, plan, 

dessert [deseir], m., dessert. 

deasua [dasj], adv. , above, over ; 
upon or over (it, them, etc); 
de —, from (off). 

destine [destine], f. , fate, destiny. 

destiner [dEstina], to destine ; in- 
tend, design, 

'--" — ■^-, [deatryksja], f., de- 

dteinir [dezyniir], to disunite. 
d£t«cher [ detaje \ to detach, 

ditresse [detrcs], f. , distress, grief, 

deiiil [d<e:j], m.,inoaniing(attire). 
deux [d0], two ; tout (or toutea) 

— , both (of them). 
denxitme [d0zjem], second. 
derant [dsva], prep., befor«, in 

frout of, aheaa of. 
devont tdsvd], adv. , before, ahead. 

Id advance ; patla <U — , froat 

pawA, fore-paws ; prendrela — a, 

to go on before, ahead ; eourir 

d^Tdoroement [devlapma], m., 

development, progress. 
derenir [davniir], g 178, to be- 

deriendront [davjEdrS], 3 pL fat. 

derint [darf], 3 eg. past def. de- 

devoir [dsTwair], m. , duty ; exer- 
cise (lesson) ; rendre Uart — » A, 
to pay their respects to. 

devoir [devwair], % 214, to owe; 
be one's duty to, ought, be to, 
have to, be obliged to, must; 
— + infin., to be one's duty to. 

ought, be to, have to, be obliged 

diable {djaibl], inter]., the devil] 

the deuce J 
diantreFdjditr], interi., thedertoe 1 
Dien [djt(], m., Godj akl mon 

— / , oh 1 dear me I 
dien [dj0], m., god. 
difference [difenIiB],f., difference, 
difftrend [difera], m., quarrel, 

diEr<£rent [difero], different, divers, 

difficile [difisil], difficult, hard, 
difficulty [difikvit«], f., difficnlty. 
digitnle [dinit^], f., fox-oleve. 
dimnnche [dimciij], m,, Sunday; 

tout lu — I, every Sunday, 
dindon [didS], at., tnrkey; putte 

de — , see patU. 
diner [dine], to dine, 
diner [dine], m., dinner; d — , to 

dire [diir], g 193, to say, tell, re- 
cite ; c'ttt A — , that is (to say) ; 
du-moi un pea, jnst tell mej 
wm^i^ — , to mean. 

dire [di:r], m., saying, maxim. 

directeur[direktDsir],m., director, 

dirent [diir], 3 pi. p. def. dire. 
dinger [dirise], g 166, to direct, 

dis [di], 2 Bg. indie, or impve. dirt. 
diaais [dlie], 1 sg. impf . indie, dire. 
disajt [dizE], 3 sg. impf. indie dirt. 

[disku!r], m., discourse, 

discritement [diskretmo] .discreet- 
ly, circumspectly, cautiously. 

disons [di25], 1 pL prei. indie, din. 

diMMraitre [disparEitr], § ISS, to 
disappear, vanish. 

disposition tdispozisiS], f., diapoM- 
tion, tendency, habit ; disposaL 

distance [dista:s], f., distance; 
rl — , at a distance. 

distribner [dlstri bqe], to distribnttv 
deal out, portion ont. 

u, Gooijlc 


diitaibntioii [diatribyBjS], 1, dis- 

dit [di]. 3 Bg. pres. indio., 3 ag. 
post def. , ana p. part, of dir^. 

dites [dit], 2 pL pres. indie and 
2 pi. impve. di« ,- voat — ("..., 
what did yon saj I 

^vertir [divertiic], to divert. 


self, B 

'a self. 

divin [divj], di 
diviser [diviie], to divide, 
division [divizja], f., diviaion. 
dix [dis], ten. 

dix-tiuit Jdiz ipt], eight«en. 
diz-neuviime [diz uievjem], nine- 
docile [dsail], docile, traotaible, 

docteur [dnktiEir], m., doctor. 
do^^trdwa], m., flnger; toe. 
dois [dwo], 1 and 2 «g. pres. indio. 

dollar [dal&ir], m., dollar. 
dominer [damine], to rule, prevail 

« {<kiinai}], m., diunage, 

-- . -. then, therefore, 

dtmner fdone], to give ; bear (of 

treei); — diouper, togiveasap- 

per ; M — , to give to each other. 
dont fdS], of whom, of (from, etc. ) 

which, whose, with which, etc, 

Dore [dair], 1, name of a river in 

central France. 
dor£ [dore], gilt. 
dormir [dormiir], % 186, to sleep. 
dos [do], m., back. 
double [dubl], double. 
doubler [duble], to double; line 

doncement [dnsmfl], gently, softly, 

quietly, kindly, 
donleuT [dulosir], t., pain, griet, 

[ dulnr0zm3 ], 

donte [dttt], tn., doabt; «bu — , 

no doubt, doubtlesa. 
douter (se) [aa dute], to be mu- 

picious ; at — d«, to suspect, 
douz [du], tweet ; soft, gend*^ 

douzoine [duzcml, f., dozen. 

douze [duiz], twelve. 

drame [dram], m., drama. 

dr^ [draL m., cloth. 

dr^ieau [drapo], m., flag, banner. 

dresser [drese], to erect, set ap ; 

ae ^, to rise upright, rear, 
droit [drwo], straight, right; up- 
right, ereoL 
droit[drwa], m., right; Itrten — 

de, to have a right to. 
droite [drwo t], f. , right hand, right, 

right side ; d — , de — , to or on 

the right (hand). 
dr&le [dro:l], comical, amusing, 
dr&le [dro:l], m., rogue, raacaL 
du [dy], contr. of dt + U. 
dncat [dyka], m,, ducat, 
duel [dqel], m., duel. 
Dumas [dy mo], Alexandre Dnmaa, 

French dramatist and novebM, 

b. 1803, d. 1870. 
Donkerque [dokErk], a French 

seaport, Dunkirk. 
dnquel [dykfil], oontr. ot de + 

dur [dy:r], hard, harsh. 
dnrant [dyro], during. 
durer [dyre], to last, continue, 

iblouissant [eblnisa], daszUng. 
iblouissemeat [ebluismd], m., dar. 

^branler (s') [s ebrdle], to begin to 

^caille [ekoijj, f, scale (of fish, 

£c«rquill£[ekarki}e],p. part.,wida 

open (of eyes). 
^carter (s*) [s ekarte], to go aw^ 

(from, Ue), ramble, stray. 

,;.!;, GtXH^Ic 



B leJOlsI, m., exchange; 

en — A, in eiehftnge for. 
iebapper (a*) [a ejapej, m., to ea- 

idabousser [ekUbnse], to splash, 

Eclair [eklEir], m,, lightning, flash 

of Ughtniiig ; U/mt dea — «, it 

Ugh tens. 
<clAt [ekla], m., burst, outhurst. 
^clater [ekktej, to buret ont, 

bnrst forth, sound out (suddenly 

and loudly), break out. 
fclore [ekbir], § 1H3, to hatch ; 

iclos, p. part. , hatched. 
<cole [ekal], f., school; maison 

rf— , school'houae. 
fcolier [ekalje], m., Bchool-boy, 


mb the akin off. 
icouter [ekute], to ligten, 1iit«n 

iaaatx [eknize], to crush, over- 

fcrier (a') [b ekrie], to cry out, 

icrire [ekrirr], | IH, to write. 
icnt [ekril, p. part, icrire. 
foiture [ekntyir], f., writing. 

Mune [ekym], f., foam. 
^cureuil [ekyr(E!j], m., Houirrel. 
Mifice [edifia],ni., edifice, building. 
Mucation {edykasjaj, f., educa- 
tion, training. 
effet [efe], m,, effect; e» ^, in 

effect, indeed, in fact. 
efflenrer [cflcere], to akim (over), 

touch (lightly). 
tfort [efa:^, m. , effort, endeavour; 

force, might; Wnffrunrfernier — , 

to make a final effort. 
dfrayer [cfrEJe], % 167, to frighten, 

terrify, alann ; »' — , to be 

frightened, fear, 
fStiait lEfrene], unbridled, unoon- 


effrojable [efrwajabl], frightful, 

effroyabtement [ ef rwajablema ], 

frightfully, terribly, dreadfully, 
^g-al [egal], equal 
^Saletnent [egalmS], equally, in 

like manner, also. 
igaitt {%') [a egare], to lose one*! 

t%\iat [egliiz], f., church. 
igOTEcr [egarjc], § 156, to cut the 

throat o^ butcher, slaughter. 
ieyptien [e.^ipsj?], Egyptian, 
eh I [e], ah !, well ! ; — Utn!, 

well t, well then !, well now 1 
ilan {e\Si], m., inipnlse, 
^lancer(s')[aelaae], ^166, to bound, 

nub, daah, precipitate one's self. 
iUment [elema], m., element, 
^lipbant [elefd], m., elephant. 
iliVe[eleiv], m., f, , pnpH, scholar, 
aever [elve], g 158, to raise, raise 

up, lift up, exalt ; rear, bring 

up ; f" — , to rise, exalt one's ael^ 

be lifted up, be exalted, 
ilite [elit], choice, pick ; (f — , 

■elected, picked, 
elle [el], ahe, it, her. 
€\6^pit [elwajie], distant, 
Eloigner (a') (s elwajie], to go 

away, disappear in the distance. 
Eloquent [elakS], eloquent, 
cmbwras [flbara], m., embarrasa- 

emborquer {s^[8dbarke], intr., to 

embaumer [dbome], to perfume. 

emblitne [dbleim], m., emblem. 

cmbrasser [obrase], to embraoe, 
clasp, kiss; «' — , to embraoe 
one another, kiss one another. 

embrasure [abrozyir], I, embra- 
aure, recess (of window, etc). 

embrouiller (a'), [s fibruje], to be- 
come confused, get puzzled. 

fanerreill^ [emcrveje], p. part.. 

me], % 15S, to lead 
or take away. 
tootton [ emosjS ], f. , etnotiont 

u, Gooijlc 



o hinder, pre- 


It (from. dr). 

reur (aprmic], m., emperor. 
empire [dpiir], m., empire. 
emplette [dplEt], f., purchase ; 

aUerfairtda — , togoshapping. 
emporter taporte], to oarry away, 

caiTj on, take away. 
empreiMmeiit [ dpremta ], m., 

Cn [a], in, into ; at ; of ; aa a, like 

a; en-t-pres. part., in, while, 

whilit, by (or untranslated) ; 

— ^(fe, of ftnageto; — nmU, 
on the way j — argejit, of ailver; 

— guoif, of what (material)* 
en [S], proD. and adv., of (from, 

out of^ for, by, etc.) it or them ; 
of him, of her, some of it, aome 
of tbem ; some, any. 

enchanter [djate], to enchant, 
oharm, delight ; eachanii, de- 

encore [akn^r], yet, itill, again, 
more, still IT — "-- 

encom^ [Qkame], tee under avtre- 

encourm;ement [akurasmQ], m., 

encre [dikr], f., ink ; d T— , with 

cncrier [dkrie], m., inkBtaud. 
eodomur ^S') [a adarmi:r], § 106, 

to go to sleep, fall asleep ; a, 

dormi, aaleep. 
endrwt [ddrwa], m. , place, spot. 
enfant [iiS\, m. f., child, soi 

daughter ; boy, girl, oKpring. 
enfermer tdfcrme], to abut u{ 

cnfin raff], at last, finally, in floe, 

enfoncer [afsse], % 156, to ii: 
push down, plunge ; £ — , 
onry one's self, plunge. 

engager (flgaie]. §166, to pled 
engage ; S — , to pronuM, plei 

to carry away. 

engnirlMiiler [ Q^ 

wreathe, encircle, 
enjamber [Qjflbe], bestride, pat 

one's leg over, 
enlenr [aive], § 158, t<i 

carry off. 
ennenu [emni], m., enemy, foe. 
ennemi [eiuni], hostile; of the 

ennui [ani[i],m., weariness, ennni, 

tedium, vexation, annOTanoo. 
ennuyer (»') [s flnqije], g 157, to 

be wearied, grow weary, find it 

ennnjmix [dnqijii], tiresome, an- 

ituvme [ensrm], enormoni, vny 
large, very great. 

enrag^ [araje], mad, enraged, de»- 

enron^ ffirwe], hoarse. 
enseigner [dsejie], to teach, 
ensemble [asSibl), together, aJI 

ensevelir [ Saarliir ], to bnry, 

swallow up. 
entnite [osqit], afterwards, then, 

thereupon, after that. 
entendre [Qtaidr], §210, to heart 

ctla ^aOend, that is evideot ; of 

[atnujaam], m., en> 
entier [atje], entire, whole; (oat 

entiirement [atJErmo], entirely, 

entourer l^ature], to surround, 
eutrafner [StrEne], to cany away, 

drag away, 
entre [a itr], between, among, 

entrie [fitre], f,, entrance, bo- 

gimiiDg i entr^ (a term in 

cookery); bitltl d"—, ticket (of 

entrer ^atre], to ent«r, 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 


tnamittt [enymere], 3 158, to enu- 

cnrshir [Svoiir], to invade, attaoh. 

Cnrdopper [dvlape], to envelop, 
wrap np, mufile ; Burround. 

enveri [Sveir], towarda. 

eilTie [dvi], f , envj, desire, incli- 
nation i amir — dt, to feel like, 
wish or desire to. 

iT [dvirone], to atUTOmid, 

enroler (»') [a dvale], to fly awaj, 

take to flight. 
eiiTojrer [dvwaj«], % 157, to eend. 
ip*is[epe|, thicic, close together; 

eoionnt epai»*e, see colOTaie, 
tfupker [eparjie], to save, eco- 

^para [epair], scattered. 

tpnlt [epoil], f., shoulder. 

j p ie [epe], f. , sword ; — de chteel, 
sword kept under the pillow for 
defence in oase of attack by 
night, a thing which one con- 
stiuitly uses, a " stand by." 

<popee [epapej, f., epio poem, 

^poque [epak], f., epoch, period, 

^pouaer [spuEe], to marry (tr.), 

take in m«.rriage, wed. 
jpouToatsble [epuvdtablj, fright- 
ful, dreadful, terrible. 
ipuiier (s) [a epnize], to be or be- 
le exhausted, waste away. 
tre [ekestr], equestrian, of a 

^nilibre [ekiliibr], 

brium. balance. 
iqmti [ekite], 1, equity, justice. 
£nible [erabl], m., maple. 
crrenr fcneir]. f., error, mistake. 
«• [el, 2 Bg. ores, fndic. &re. 
OMdre feskadr], f., squadron, 

fleet; enefi/' — . rear-admiral. 

eacalier [Eskalje], m., stain, 
eaclave [EskloLv], m. f., alaT*; 

tomber — , to fall into slavery, 

become a slave. 
espace [Espais], m., space, 
espfece {EBpes], f., species, kind 
«^ruice [esperiiiBj, f., bope- 
vninx [espere], % 158, to hop«, 

nope for, expect 
espmr [espwa I r], m. , hope,eipect«- 

esprit [espri], m. , spirit, mind, wit; 

Saint-BiprU, Holy Ghost. 
[eseje], g 167, to try, at- 

louffli [et „ . 

breath, breathless. 

\i [eanflej, p. part., out of 

«at [e], 3 sg. pres. iodic, t/tn; 
— -ce qutf, is it (the case) that! 
(a statement prefixed by eu-«« 
que ! becomes interrogative) ; 
tt'at-ce pat f, lit , is it not (ao) I 
(variously rendered ta suit the 

estrade [Estrad], f . , stage, platform, 

et [e], and. 

tiable [etabl], f., stable. We. 

ttait [ete], 3 sg. impf. indie. Are. 

<taient [etc], 3 pL impl India 

staler [etale], to spread out, dis- 

Jtant [etfi], prea. part. Are. 

^tat [eta], m., state; condition) 
homme d&tal, statesmau ; tit — 
de, in a condition to. 

Etats-Unia [etaz yni], m., pL, 
United States. 

iXt [ete], m., summer; «n — , in 

. idr], g 190, to extin- 
Kuisb ; a* — , to be extinguished, 
die away, go out or disappear 
(of a light, eta). 

^tei^rent [etEjiiir], 3 pi. poat 
del. ^Mndrt. 

jtendard [etSdair], m., standard, 

^eaOit [eUidr], S 210, toitratoh. 

u, Gooijlc 


exteod, «tret«li oat ; i — , to 

■tretch one's wlf out, lie down. 
Aemel [etEmEl], etemaL 
Mernit^ [etcmite], f., eternity. 
£tes [eit], 2 pi. prea. indie. Are. 
etiquette [etiketj, f., etiquetM. 
{toile [etwol], f., Btar. 
tonner [etaae], to astonisti, inr- 

prise ; i — , \a be astoniahed, 

Burprised (at, dt). 
touffer [etufe], to Hafibcate, choke, 

■mother, atifle. 
ttourdi [eturdi], m. , madoap. 
Ctre [sitr], S 154, to be ; — d, to 

belonic to : f «a &a\» JA df. mtt 

Tljhxiont, t had gone thua far in 

utj refleiionB ; noiu tomma ciitq, 

there are five of aa. 
jtrenne [etren], f. , New Year's gift. 
itroitement [etrwa tmd], narrowly, 

{tndier [etydje], to atndy. 
eu [y], paat p. avoir. 
-'- "TO], 1 pi. psflt det. aeoir. 

uromen [ceropeS], European. 
euB [y], 1 ag. past def. avoir. 
eusse [ya], I »g. impf. subj. avoir, 
eat [y], 3 ag. past def. avmr. 
^t {yl, 3 ag. impf. BUbj. avmr 
efites [vt], 2 pi. p. def., avoir. 
eux [0J, they, them, 
euz-mfimea [0 mcim], they them- 

selves, themselvea. 
jrauouir (a') [a eranwiir], to van- 

ieh : ivanoai, p. part., vanished, 

trtal [evE I jj, m. , awakeningiWatch ; 
en — , on one'a guard, on the 

ir&ieroent [evenmO], m., event. 

Crentail j^evjltaij], m., fan. 

{Tentnaliti [evdtqalite], I., con- 

jvidenunent [evidamai, evidently. 

tWMginr [egzaiere], % 156, to ex- 

"IT [egiaminel, to 

[ekaepte], escepi 
[ekaej ■n.,eice». 


[ekaetif], t 
[ekaite], to excise. 
~''~ [eaklomaajS], f-i flXi 

__. [chakyze], to eicnee. 

iple [egzdpl], m., example, 
pattern ; copy, copy-alip, head- 
line ; par — , for inatajice, for 
example ; you don't eay so I, 

exerdce [egzcnia], m., exercise; 

/aire F—, to drill (milit). 
exhijer la') [a eezale], to be ex- 
haled, be breatned forth. 
exili [eszile], m. , exile. 
eziater [esziate], to exiat. 
ezpirer [Ekapire], to expire, die. 
expticatioa [Gksplikoeja], f., ex- 

expliquer [eksplike], to explain, 
exploit [ekaplna], m., exploit, 

exprimer [Ekaprime], to eiprass. 
extaae [ekstoiz], f., ecstaay, rap- 

extinuer [EkBtenqe], to extenuate, 
enfeeble, weaken, reduce. 

[EkatErminasja], L, 

extraordinaire [ekatroardinEir], 

extraordinary, unuauai 
e^ti£mit< [ekBtremite], f., ex- 
tremity i — dt gaucht, extreme 

fable [fabl], f. , fable, stor^. 

facade [fasadl, f., front, fafade. 

face [fas], f. , face ; m — , oppoeite, 
on the other side ; «r — de, 
oppoaita to, facing, before, face 
to face with, in the pT«eence of; 
— d — , face to face, oppoaite 
(each oUier). 

fJkcher [faje], to vex, displease ; 
fieM, sonj-, angry. 

>rry, 1 


facile [faail], eaay. 
bdlement [fasilma], eaaily. 
fia^n [fssS], 1, faahicMi, w^i 

,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 


manner ; outline, sketch ; dt — 
d ee <pie, in aucli a way or 
inanner that ; de la mtnte — , in 
the Btuiie way. 
liKcteur [fokttEir], m., posl-man, 

faction [faksjSJ, f., tire de ^, to 
be on duty. 

fkctoton [faktots], m. , factotnio. 

fkde [fad], insipid, tssteleBB. 

fuble [fe I bt], weak, feeble. 

btiblesse [fEblsB], f. , weakness. 

bumt^, f., hnnger; antir— , to 
be hnngry. 

fiure [iEiT], § 196, to do, make, 
act, cause ( + infin., to do or be 
done), produce, occasion, give, 
form ; s»y, reply, eiclaim, cry, 
remark ; /aire /aire, to have 
made, cause to be mode ; — 
vivre, to keep alive, support t 
— U tour de, to go round ; — It 
mart, to pretena to be dead ; — 
jifaiiir.togive pleasure; — peurd, 
to frighten 1 — «Mcourwj|,tomake 
one's rounds ; — atltnlion, to 


— ttxercioe, t 
la ctaiuf, togi 

eela ne fait rien, that makes no 
difference; — /tCed, towelcome, 
hail with joy ; ct ipii fait out 
ie dindon a fair dt, ete. , which 
makes the turkey seem to, etc. ; 

— leamalltii, topackthetrunkei 

— coir, to show ; — titai A, to 
pain, hurt ; — un pa$, to take 
a step ; — bonne ebire, to pro- 
Tide good cheer, provide a good 
apread ; faia done, do (so) then, 
do (it yonr own way) then, all 
right ! je ferain conecienee de, 
I should scruple to, I should 
think it a sin to ; — unt qnts- 
tion, to ask a question ; U fait 
heaa {elMod, etc ), it is fine (hot, 

dure fse) [B9 feir], % 195, to make 

done; to become; to take place; 

to be; K — rare, to decrease, be- 
come scanty; if M/ai*ai( un jrraml 
tapage, there was a great uproar ; 
lie ^ d, to adapt one's self to. 

fa(s[fE], 1 Bg. pres. indie /aire. 

faisaient [feze], 3 pi. impl. indio. 

faisBis [fsze], 1 Eg. impf.^ire. 
faisait [fezE], 3 sg. impf. fairt. 
foisant [fszd], pres. part, /aire, 
faistui[fEza],m., pheasant. 
faiaoDS [fezo], 1 pL pres. indio. 

fMt [fe't], m., fact, event; tout H 
— [tut a fE], altogether, entirely, 

fait [fE], 3 sg. pres. indie, ^ire. 
fidt [fe], p. part, /aire; bien — de 

ta personne, handsome. 
faitea [fEt], 2 pL pres. indie and 

fallu^ [falE], 3 sg. impf. indio. 

fttlloir Ifalwair], % 218, impel*. 
vb., to be necessary, have to; 
il /aut+ iu6n., one (etc.) mast, 
one has to ; il/altait qtie, it was 
necessary that (he, etc), he was 
obliged (o or hod to ; U Itii/aut, 
he needs, must have ; il /aiA 
manger, one must eat ; H avaU 
/alia, he had been obliged. 

fiallnt [falyj, 3 sg. past del. fal'oir. 

fameux [&m^, famous, celebrated. 

faniille[famiijl, f., family. 

fanfareffafa;r],f., flourish of tram- 
pets, brass-band. 

fant&me [fotoim], m., phantom, 
shadow, ghost. 

fardeau (fardol, m. , burden, load. 

farine [fari.i], f., flour. 

farouche (faruj], wild, fierce. 

fasse [fas], 3 sg. pres. eubj. /aire, 

fatal [fatal], fatal! 

fatality [fatalite], f. , fatality. 

fatigne [fati:g], !., fatigue. 

fatig:n£ [fatiae], tired. 

fatijpier [fatige], to fatigue, weai^ 
tire ; X — , to fatigue orie's sel^ 

u, Gooijlc 


hncber [foje], to mow, reap. 

fkildra [fodra], 3 ag. fut falloir. 
faut [fo], 3 »g. prea, indie. faUoir. 
fonte [foit], r, fault, mistake. 
{knx-col [fo kal], m., collar. 
fUer [fele], to crock (glass, etc.). 
femine [fam], f., woman, wife, 
fendre [fflidr], J 210, to apbt, 

cleave; break; » — , iutr., to 

burst (asunder), break, 
(enttre [feneitr], f, window. 
fcr[fe.r], m., iron; en-, iron 

(adj. ), of iron ; — baUu, wrought 

iron i chtmin dt — , railway i — 

d ckevcU, hoTBe-shoe. 
fen [fsra], 3 eg. fut. faire. 
fenit [fsrE], 3 8g. condl. /ai'rr. 
ferez (tsrel, 2 pT fut. faire. 
feriu [forjB], 2 pi condL/aire. 
fenne [term], firni(lv), hard. 
Cermer [fcrme], to shut (up), close ; 

lock ; — d double tour, to double- 

f£roce [feros], fierce, ferocioua, 
wild ; bile — . wild beasL 

fernut [ferd], that shoes horses ; 
nttwifcWi — , blackamitb, horse- 

ttraaa [farS], I pi. tut. fairt. 

ate [fciC], f., holiday, featival ; 
feslrivity, feast, meny-makiliK ; 
Are en — , to be in festivity, hold 
a oelebration ; faire — d, to 
welcome, hail with joy ; Fit*- 
dieu. Corpus Chriati day; joar 
de — , holiday. 

feu [f0], m., fire. 

(eiuUa|;e [ftejais ], m., foliage, 

r<£Trier [fevrie], m., Febnianr. 
fidUement [adelmS], faithfully. 
fiel [fJEl], m., gall, bittemesa. 

figure ^Ggyir], f., face, counten- 
ll[flQ,'iii., thread; —dt/tr.-wm^ 

filatiire[filatyir], f.,amiuiiiiK-iniIL 

file [fil], I, TOW, file 

fille [fiij], f., girl, daughter. 

fillette [fijet], f., Uttle girl 

fits i:fis],m., BOO. 

fin [ft], f., end; d {a — , finally, 

at last, 
fin [^], fine, delicate, awoct: 

finir [finiir], to finish, conclude, 

end ; il finit par tui demander, 

ha asked him fiuftlly ; efett JM, 

it's all over. 
fireiit [S : i], 3 pi. p. def. /iiir& 
fia [fi], 1 sg. p. det. /airs, 
fit[fi]. 3 8g. p. def. /air. 

fit [fi], 3 sg. impf. Bubi. /aire 
— -i:|pl.jd.f./.ir^ 
[DKsma], Dxedly. 


fixer [fifcee], to fix, faaten ; gaie 
(steadily) at. 

flanc [flo], tn., flank, aide, womb. 

flatter [flate], to flatter. 

fleur [Uieir], f., flower; en — , in 
flower, blooming. 

fleuTe[flceiv], m„ river. 

flot [Qo], m., wave, billow. 

flotte[flnt], f., fleet. 

flotter [flate], to float, wave. 

foi[fwo], f., faith; ma—.', faith I 

foire [fwair], f, , fair (market). 

fois [fwft], f., time (repeated occa- 
sion) ; lant de — , so many times, 
so often ; wit — , detm — , once, 
twice ; encore hm — , once more. 

folje [fall], f. , madness, folly ; d la 
— , madly, to distraction. 

foUe [fal], I., madwomiui, madcap, 

foUe (tol], f. of /oh ; itre — de, to 
be passionately fond of, dote on. 

follement [folmaj, madly, extrava- 
gantly, exceedingly. 

(ond [f5], m. , bottom, depth, ab^; 
crown (of hat); an — de,a,\.acut 
the bottom of, at the back of, 
in the depth(B) of ; faire — ncr, 
to set store by, depend upon. 

fondre [faidr], § 210, to melt. 

font [f3], 3 pi. pres. indie, fairt. 

ronte[f3it],f., holster. 

,;.!;, GlXH^IC 



fbf^ [fona], m., gftUey-sbve, 

force [tors], t., force, atrength, 

might I d« loute aa — , with all 

one's might ; A — de vuiHgeaillt, 

hj dinfc of gorging. 
force [fars], adv., much, many, a 

forcer [faree], g 156, to force, oblige 

(to, de). 
for6t[farE],t., forest. 
forgeroii[far39r5], m., blackemith. 
bn^me [farm], f , form, ahape, 
former [farme], to form ; muster, 
fonnidable [f ormidabl] ,f ormidable, 

fort pair], strong, powerfal ; big, 

thick ; clever. 
fort lEoir], much, very, very much ; 

loud, loudly ; m'o — strvi, haa 

been of great service to me. 
fortiiae [fsrtyn], f., fortune, good 

lack ; cha-eha- — , to seek one'a 

fortune, see what one can Bnd. 
fone ffoial, f., pit, grave. 
foM^ [fose], m., dit^, moat. 
ton [fu], mad, foolish, extremely 

fonet [fwe], m., whip. 
foneueux [fag^], spirited, fiery. 
fbnle [fail], f., crowd, 
fourchette [furjet], f., fork. 
fonnni [furmi], f., ant. 
fotimir [furniir], to fumiah, pro- 

fourr£[fure], furry; bonnet — , fur- 
lined cap. 

fourrer (set [sa fure], to thrust 
one's self (into, dan»), creep 
(into, daaa). 

firamire [furytr], 1, fnr. 

foyer [fwaje], m., hearth. 

frac [frak], m., dress-coat. 

fra!chir[frefiir], intr., to freshen. 

frais, fralcne [tre, frE:)], cool, 

'— ■- ; /aire — , to be cool (of 


n worth 

^ 2-U 

francs [frdBel, adj., French; 
m.. Frenchman; le — , French 
(the language) ; en— , inFrench; 
■ parler — , to speak French. 

franchir ttrajiir], to pass, leap 

Francois [frSawa], m., Francis. 

Franklin (Benjamin) [ bEsamB 
frdklE ], Benjamin Franklin, 
American statesman and philo- 
sopher, b. new, d. 1790. 

Frantz [frants], n. pr. m., Frank. 

frappement [frapmfl], ro., striking, 
stroke ; — dea aaboU, trampling 
of hoofs. 

frapper [frape], to strike, knock, 

fmtemel [fratEmel], brotherly, 

frayenr [frsjceir], f., fright, tear. 

Frid^ric le Grand [frederik l9 
btQ], Frederic the Great, King 
ot Prussia, b. 1712, d. 1786. 

fr^«te [fregat], t, , frigate. 

frfere[frEirl,m., brother. 

friction [frikfljS], t., friction, rob- 

froidftrwo], adj., cold j /roid, m.. 



la], m., clash- 

fr61er [frole], to graze, touch light- 
ly (in passing). 

front [frS], m., forehead, brow; 
front, van; changemeat de — , 
change of front, transf ormation- 

frotter [frate], to rub. 

fni^alitj [frygalite], f., frugality. 

fruit [frui], m.| fruit. 

fruitier [fruitje], fruit-bearing j 
arbre — , fruit-tree. 

fair (fqiir], g 170, to flee, fly, run 

I f., smoke. 

I ta smoke, reek. 

3 pi. p. def. of Ar& 

, fury, rage. 

I], furious, fierce. 

. , gun, musket. 

3 pi. imp. Bubj. Hn. 

pMtde£ tire. 

,;.!;, GOOIJIC 


fU [fy], 3 Bg. impf. enbl. Are ; _ 

de la compagnie, should join the 
company; gnece — jo'i, in order 
thai it should be pretty (pour 
being uuderBtood with que). 

e^S:^ [gaiS], m. pi., wages. 
— ener [gajie], b 

Mitain ; reach ; 

flee to, take refuge in. 
gsi Ige], gay, merry, cheerful. 
Gfafte [gete], f.,gaycty, mirth, glee. 
g«lerie [gairi], f., gallery, 
galop [galo},m., gallop, 
golopode [galapadj, f., galloping, 

gwnbader [gobade], to gambol, 

frisk or skip about, 
gantfeaj.m., glove, 
gantier featjej, m., glover. 
garcon [garao], m., boy. 
garde [gard], m. , guani, keeper. 
garde [gard], f. , defence, guard ; 

lomhfT en — , to aasume the 

garder [garde], to keep, preserve, 

have in store. 
garde-robe [gard rob], f., ward- 

gare[ga!r],f., station. 

gareniie [^ren], f. , warren ; lapin 

gUi IgoieJ, spoiled, decayed (of 

g&ter [gate], to spoil 
gauche [go(j], adj., left. 
gauche [go;J], f., left-hand, left, 

left-Bide ; d (fa) — , de — , to or 

on the left (hand). 
Gauthier <Th^htle) [teofil gotje], 

French writer, b. 1811, d, 1872. 
gazon [gozdl, m., turf, grass, 

g&nt [sea], gigantic 

«ekr [jele], i 158, to freeze ; geU, 

g^missemeiit [semiunfl ], m. , groM 

(ingi, moan(ing). 
geadarme [»Sdarm], m., dragoon. 
gendre[ja:dr], m., son-in-law. 
g&ier [}ene], to impede, restrain. 

incommode, be in the way of. 

disturb ; ge — , to put one's Bolf 

to inconvenience, to hesitate, 
gjn^ral [jeneral], general; m., 

general ; ea — , in general, gen- 

giniioati [jenerodte], f., gene- 
gfentt [jane], m., broom (hot. }. 
g£nie [jeni], m., genius. 
genou [jsnu], m., knee. 
gens [id], m. f. pi., people ; — de 

gentil [sflti], pretty, nice. 

gtographie [sea^afi], 1, geo> 

gerfaut [jerfo], m,, gjrfalcon. 

germer [jEmie], to sprout. 

gestc [jest], m., gesture, sign. 

gibier [jibje], m., game (the pro- 
duct of the chase). 

gfilet [jile], m., waistcoat, vest. 

giranmont [jiromS], m., pampkio, 

glace [glaa],f., ice; ice-cream. 

glissade [gliaod], f., slide; /aire 
dts — s, to go sliding (on the 
■oe). _ 

Iwair], f., glory. 
[gbrj0], gloriouH, prond, 

go ig"] ; (ovt de — , unceremoni- 

□naly, without hesitation. 
gonfler (se) [ae gofle], to swell (np), 

be swollen. 
gouailleur [ffwajcpir], to., joker, 

one fond of teasing or ohalfing. 
gouffre lipifr], m., gulf, abyss. 
goumiande [garma:d], t, glutton, 

gout [an], m., taste ; dt bon — , in 

good taste. 
goQter tgute], m., lunch, 
goflter [gnte], to taste, enjc^. 
goutte [gut], f., drop; — *^ 

dropby dr^pt 

u, GtJiH^Ic 


gOQTemer [guverne], to govern, 

rule, control, guide, 
grAce [graia], 1., grace, favonr; 

graaaax [Rra8J0],graciouB, kindlj. 
grain [grSl m., grain, com. 
graine [grein], '^ — ■' 

grand ; Iodk. 
grand'ctiose linii Joiz], mnoh. 
giandir [gr6diir], to grow, grow 

Uree, grow up ; increase, 
grand-p&e [grd peir], m., grand- 

ermgelgiHa], f., bam. 

gras [groj, tat ; jnardi- ^, Shrove- 

grave [graiv], grave, gerions, 

graTement [gravmfl ], gravely , sen- 

gncnr [grave], to engrave. 
gravitabon [gravitoajSl, f., gravi- 

gri [gre], m., will, wish, liking, 
pleasure ; prendre en — ile, W 
take a fancj to ; A «oii — , to 

grelot [gralo], m,, bell (apherical), 
sleigh -belL 

grillage [arijais], m., gnitine, 
wire-work ; — aux tjffiche', bul- 
letin-board (covered with a wire 
net- work as a protection). 

grimper [grfpe], to climb. 

grincement [grEsma], m., scratch- 
ing (aound of pens on paper). 

STU (8"]i E'^J' dark-coloured; 
nitn — , black bread, coarse 

gronder [gi^e], to ohide, scold ; 

grumble, rumble (of thunder). 
gros [gro], large, big, great ; 

heavy j le ecear — , with a heavy 

gnmnssement tgnmsmil], m., in- 
crease, growing. 
gronpe [grnpl, m. , group, omh. 

gii^[gtir], bat little, not mitohi 

ne . . . — , hardly . . . atalL 
gu^rir ^riir], to cure, 
guerre [geir], f., war. 
guet«pens [get apa], m., amba» 

gnide [gid], m., guide. 
guise [giiz], f., manner, way, 
fancy ; d ta — , at will, as one 


[b uplnu Is iadlcftted thni : 11] 
■ha I 'ha I [a, a], bat ha! 
habile [abil], able, clever. 
babiUer [abije], to dress. 
habit [abi], m., garment, drees, 

apparel, garb ; coat; pi, clothes, 

ipparel, costume. 

' ' ' [abita], m., inhabitant. 

habiter [abite], to inhabit, live in. 
habitude [abityd], f., habit, cus- 
tom ; tT — , ordinarily, usually, 
habituer [abitiie], to accustom ; 

habituate; t' — , to accustom 

one's self, get need (to, d). 
tiacher [aje], to chop, hack, cut 

to pieces, mince, 
"hale [e], f. , hedge, 
'baine [c:n], f., hatred. 
haleine[ale:n],f., breath ; prendre 

— , to take breath, recover one'e 

luumetou [anto], m., may-bug, 

cock -chafer, 
harmonie [arninni], t., harmony. 
'haricot [ariko], m,, kidney-bean; 

stew of mutton and turnips. 
■Haipagon [arpa^], Harpagon, 

amiaer, the chief personage in 

Moliire's " I'Avaro . 
'hasard [azair], m., chance; par 

— , by chance, perchance. 
■hAte [a:t], t, haste; en — , in 

"Uttw (ae) [s3 ate], to hasten, 

"hausser (se) [se ose], to raise one's 
self, rise ; ee — tur la pointe da 
pUdt, to stand upon tiptoe. 

u, Gooijlc 



luuit [o], m., height; top, upper 
part, Bummit ; en — , up it*irs. 
■haut [o], high ; loud. 
<iULiit[o], adv., loud, 
•tutyel [haij], iuteij., indioatbg 

•Wl [e], hoy!, hallool 
Hafene[ek:nl,f., Helen. 
Henri tari], m., Heniy. 
berbe [srb], f., graes, hetb(8). 
Writage [eritftij], m., hentago, 

histter [eote], to hesitate. 
•hfetreCeitr],!!!., beech, 
henre [ffiir], f., hour; time; 
gvelU — al-ilf, what o'clock ib 
{[I, 4 _ heure?, at what 
o'clock I, at what hour ? ; d nenf 
— », at nine o'clock ; lout A P— , 
not long ago, just now, a little 
ago i de bonnt — , early, betimes, 
ia good time, 
nenreuaement [cerfjima], happily, 

luckily, fortunately. 
heureux [cen»], happy, 
hier Deir], yesterday; — lof, 

yesterday evening. 
hippwithrope [ipatrop], m., afabn- 
lous monster half man half horse, 
hirondelle [irodel], f., swallow. 
histaire[iatwair], f., history, story. 
hiver [i'e""]i "■' win'*'; *" — • 

bomme [am], m., m 

homme-cbeval [ai 


bonnetement [nuEtma], honestly, 

honourably, decently. 
honueur [onceir], m., honour, 
'honte [5 i t], f. , ahame ; oeoir —, to 

hOpital [apital], m., bas[dtaL 
horizon torizo], m,, horizoD. 
hortoge [OrlDijl, f., clock, 
horrible [oiibl], horrible, 
'hors de [oir da], outude of, sx- 

mpt, ftpsrt from. 

'hortibus [ortibjsl, the e..«-.~"- 
lAtin form which the boy in the 
story dreamt that he wrote iu lus 
exercise instead ef tiie f one hor1t$' 

h6te[o!t], m.,gneet. 

hostility [ostilite], f., hoBtihty, 

HAtel-Dien [otel di0], m. .hoepiUL 
hotel de Till* [otel da vil], m., town- 

'honblon [nblo], m. , hop, hop-vine, 
■houppdande [upland], f., big coat, 

Hugo {Victor) [viktoir ygo], 

FJonch writer, b. 1802, d. 188fiL 
huile [qi!]i t,, oiL 
•huit [qit], eight. 
bunuun [ym^]' human. 
bumeur [ymteir], £., humour, 
btunide [}Tnid]i damp, wet. 
'hurlemeot [yrlBmaj. m., bowl, 

•hurler [yrle], to howl, roar.bellow. 
hydre [idr], f., hydra. 

id [isi], here ; ici-ba», here betow. 
id4e[i<l«]. ^■' '^^^ 
^oble [ipobl], mean, base. 
^norance [ijiarflia], f., ignor»nce. 
ignorer [ipare], te be ignorant of, 

not to know. 
il [il], he, it J — ni mnt plutieitn, 

there came several 
gefilj,f., island, 
ils [il], they. _ 

UV 1_11J, VUBj . 

illusion (ilyzja], f., illumon. 
immidiat [imedja], immediate. 

immobile [imDbil], motionleas. 
im[>atience [ipaejeia], f.,_ impfc. 

itienter (s') [a Spasjate], to 
-•■ [Spertina], imperti- 


iinp«uo»it< [Epetnorite], I , impe- 

important [Epartai, importvit 

,;.!;, GlXH^IC 


imposaibilite [Ipaiibilite], 1. 

Impossible [Epaaibl], imporaible. 
impression [EpreBJS], {,, impres- 

impr^TOyance l^fprevwajdia], f., 
want of foresight. 

Imprimer [Sprime], to print, 

tmpuisaant [Spifiso], powerlesB. 

impur [Spyir], impure. 

matteadu [inatildy], unexpected. 

mcendie [Eiddi], m., burning, fire. 

tDdtner [tkline], to iocliiie, bend; 
»■— , to bow. 

tncomm [Skany], unknown. 

tneotutBnt [ tkSstA ], viuiable, 

incoaWnieiit [ikSrenjaj, m., dia- 
ad vantage. 

mcomiptiSle [Bkoryptibl], incor- 

indipendant [tdepadd], iudepead- 

indistiuctement [ EdistSktama ], 

without distinction. 
indifidu [fdiiidy], m., individuoL 
mexoraUe [in^;z»abl], inezor- 

infanterie [ifatri], f., infantry, 
infini [ifini], infinite, 
inftni [iflni], m., infinite. 
idBiltmeiit [Efinima], inSnitely, 

very much. 
laSimerie [Ifirmaril, f., infirmary, 

iii6rmJ^[Sfirmieir], f., nurse, 
influent pflyfi], inflnentiaL 
informer (■') [s Efarme], to In- 

injuste [EjyBt], anjiut. 
injustice [Enystis], f., injusti 

trouble ; 
inquietude [Ekietyd], f., anxiety. 
in«KAe[EB£kt],m., insect. 
usp«ction [EapckajS],!, inspection. 


instant [tsUi], m., instant, mo- 
ment ; d r — , immediately- 

instruction [EBtryksja], f., ioBtnio- 
tinn, education. 

tnstruit [istrip], informed, edn- 

iustniment [istryma], m., instm- 

intact ptakt), intact, whole, 
intellwent [itelisa], intelligent, 
intendant [Etada], m., steward, 
intention [Stdsja], f., intention i 

int^ressant [EterEsa], interesting. 

int^resser [Eterese], to interest. 

int^rtt [Itere], m., interest. 

intirieurement [ iterjcerma ], In- 

interlocuteur (Iterlokytcsir], m., 

interrog^ [Eteroje], g 

interralle [ItErral], m., interral. 
introdoire [Etradifiir], g 185, U 


mnsible [ 

invitation [tvitasj3],f., invitation, 
inviter [Evite], to invite, beg. 
inTulnirable [Evylnerabl], invul- 
irai (ire], 1 ag. fut, aller. 
irresistible [irezistibt], irresistibls. 
irriter [iritel, to irritat«, excite, 
issue [isy]; i, ismie, outlet. 

tabot [3abo], m., frill. 
jacquesEsoik], James, 
jamais [same], ever, never ; ne. . . 

— , never; pour — , for ever. 
Janvier [3a vje], m., January, 
jardin [jardE], m., garden. 
jaunissant [ j onisa ], turning yellow, 
je [S3], L 
Jean [ja], John. 
liricho [seriko], Jericho. 

[seryulem], JemsaleuL 

I., Glxh^Ic 



Jims-Christ [90x7 kri], Jesus 

Jeter [jate], § 158, to throw, cast, 

utter ; 86 — , to £aU upOD, ruah, 
jen [30], nu, play, game, motion. 
jeudi [}0dil, m., Thursday. 

ienne [seen], young. 
efkne [Jd^o], m., tasting. 
e [jCEnes], f., youth. 

i'ouer Ijwe], to play, 
ouet [jwt], m., toy. 
jouir [jwiir], to enjoy ; — ife, to 

jonr[)u!r!, m., day, light; — de 
/SU, holiday ilt — dt CAn, New 
Year's day. 

jounuU [jurnal], m., newspaper. 

jaurnte [surae], f., day) toutt la 
— , all day long. 

joyeux [swaj(S], joyous, glad. 

^uif [sqif], m., Jew. 
jnillet [SMiJ^Jf ■"■> July. 
jusque (k) [lysk [aj], to, even, as 
far OS, until ; — it cr ipit, till ; 
— id. till now ; — -lA, till then, 
it [systoma], precisely. 
X [jyitis], I., jiutice. 

under Napoleo 
Keyser [faeieir]. 

IlL [la], there ; eel^li■}A, that one, 
the former ; ». son/ '- «» adieux, 
those are its fiirewella. 

Ul-b«s pa bo], yonder, 

labourer [laburej, to plough, dig. 

laboureuT [laburreir], m., hua- 

Uc[Uk], m.,1ake. 

UcoiHi [lasarST, m. , aow-thiatle. 

!fc dedana [la doda], in it, therein. 

[la day], upon it, tbem- 

npon, on top of that. 
Lb Fontaine [la fStein], a oela- 

brated French writer, b. 1631, 

d. 1696. 
lUiaat [la o], up there, up high. 
laisser (lEse], to leave, bequeath, 

let, let have ; me — //tire, to 

allow herself to be milked ; — 

tomber, to let fall, drop> 
lait[ie], m., milk. 
Uitue [Isty], t, lettuce. 
Ltunaitine [ lamartin ], Frsnoh 

writer, b. 1791, d. 1869. 
Lametuwis [lamnE ], French writer, 

b. 1782, d. 1854. 
Iance[lai8], f., lance. 
lancer [Iflse], § 156, to fling, throw, 
lander [Ifiaje], m., lancer, 
lang^ae [la :gj, f., tongue, language. 
laugfnii [logiir], to languish, pine 

away ; *e — , ditto. 
laperean[lapro], m., young rabbit, 
t^iiii [lapf], m., rabbit, 
large [tars], wide, broad, 
lanne[larm], f,, tear; rinavx — •, 

to laugh till the tears come. 
Us [la], weary, 
latin [laCf ], lAtin. 
laurier [Isrje], m., laurel 
laver [lave], to wash, 
le, la, I', les [le, la, 1, le], the. 
le, ta, 1', les [le, la, I, le], him, her, 

le^on [l3s5], f., lesson. 

lecture [UkWir], f. , reading. 

Lefebvre - Desnauettcs [ lefeivr 
den wet], a French general under 
Napoleon, b, 1773, d. 1822. 

[iga [leje], light, slight. 

ligion [lesjo], f., legion. 

L^ouT^ [leguve], French wnt«r, 
b. 1807. 

legs[le], m., legacy. 

UgamK pegym], m., vegetable. 

lendemam [Iddiiiri, m., next day, 

day after, the morrow, 
lentement [iatmS], slowly. 
lequel, laqneUc [lakel, lakel], 

who, whom, whioh. 


,;.!;, GlXH^Ic 



Indve [leiiiv], f., large iraihing. 

lettrerutr], f., letter. 

kur [Iteir], poBS., tbeir ; It — , 

leur [liB:r], pars., to theni, tbam. 
krer [tave], g 158, to raUe ; te — , 

tevtl [lave], m., rising; — du 

Mrite [ievit], m., Levite. 

Uvite n^vit], f., frock-coat. 

Ifcrre (leivrl, f., lip. 

Mnier Ilevrie], m., Ereyhound 

Ubert^ [Uberte], L, Uberty. 

Hbre [libr], free. 

He [li], f., lees, dregs. 

lien [ij^, m., place ; ou — dr, in- 
stead of ; avoir — , to take place. 

fieue [li0], f., league. 

I^;iie [lijiji f.> line. 

lingene [Ujri], f., tinen-room. 

Uon tljSj, m., lion. 

lirepiir], sm, toread. 

tiaitfe [tiiiEirl, f., edge. 

Htrli], m-.bea. 

lititre [litjerr], t, litter, straw; 
llTt sar la — , said of a person 
veiy ill iu bed. 

Uvre ^ivr], m., book. 

Bvrer rlivre], to give up. 

lood Ilatal], local 

loipwa], t, law. 

loiu [Iwi], far, far off; de — , in 
the distance ; piua — , farther 
off, farther on. 

long: (13J. long ; I< — de, along ; 
tout an — , at fnll length. 

lonfe [13;]], f., tether; loin. 

louKtanps [IStA], long, a long 

Lorraine [brctn], f., Lorraino. 
lorsqne [larska], when. 
lot [lo], m., lot, portion. 
Louis-Philippe [Iwi filjp], king of 

France from 1830 to 1848. 
Louis XIV [Iwt katarz]. king of 

France from 1643 to 1715. 
Louis XV [Iwi k^:z], king of 

France from 1715 to 1774. 
Louis XVI [Iwi seiz], king of 

Frftuoe from 1774 to 1793. 

loupllu], ta., woll 

lourd [luir], heavy; cloae, nUtey 

(of weather). 
loiirdement [lurdmo], heavily. 

Lonvre [Iiiivrl, m., liouvre. 

Luc [lykl. Luke. 

hieur [Iqieir], f., gleam. 

lui [lifi], him, to him, to her, it, 

himself; he; — -mime, himself; 

d — aeul, by bimseU, alone, 
luisant [IqizA), eh' 

[lOdi], m., : 
[lyn], f., m< 

Lyon [Ijs], m., Lyoua. 

H. [m3BJ0], abbreviation of Jtfbii* 

madame [madam], f. , madam, Mrs. 
Mftdeleine[madk:n],f., Magdalen. 
mademoiseUe [ madmwaz^ ], f. , 

_ [magazE], m, , shop, Btoi:«. 
magnifique [mapifikj, magnificent, 

mat [me], m.. May. 
maiffrii'tniegriir], to become lean, 
main [ml], t., hand; d la —, iu 

his (your, etc. ) hand ; baUre da 

— », ta clap hands. 
maintenant [mUnaj, now. 
nuuntenir [mEtniir], § 177, to hold 

maire [me:r], m., mayor. 
mairie [meri], f . , mayor's office. 
mats [me], but; — non. not ai all 
maison [mez3], f., house, home ; i 

maisonnette [mezanet], f., cot- 
tage, tittle house. 

nialtee [meitr], m., master. 

maitresse [metrss], f., mistress; 
adj., superior. 

majut^ fmaseate], f., majesty. 

majoritA [tnasaritA], 1, majority. 

u, Gooijlc 



IIUd[mal], in.,evil, HI ; /aire — A, 

to hurt, be aore, ache ; r— aux 

dfnle, toothache. 
nial [malj, badly, ill, wrong. 
QtaUde [maUd], sick, ill, aora ; k 

— , tha sick one, the patient. 
mAladresw [malaidjXBji f., cJumsi- 

mAle [matl], male, strong. 

nulgr^ [matgre], in Bpite of. 

malheur [maTceir], nu, miBfortnne, 

malheureusenieiit [tnalffir^zmS ], 

nulheureux [maltsrft], nnhappy ; 
m., poor creature. 

nulin [malS], cnnntng. 

maUe [malj, f., trunk. 

nunche [mQiJ], f., aleeve. 

nuwdiette [mujet], f., cuff. 

Dunchan [maj3], m. , maS. 

nuuigeulleCmfijQijJ, f., food, eat- 

manger [mase], g 156, to eat, 

manijie [manjeir], f. , manner, 

way ; dt — que, ao that. 
nuuKenvrer [mancevre], to maa- 

nuuiqner [raSke], to fail, be lack- 
ing, misB ; — la etasse, to ran 
»way from school, play truant. 

m&quis [maki], tn., thioket. 

marebajid [narju], m., merchant, 

marche [mar J], f., march, walk, 
progress, apeed, 

march^ [marje], to., market j (i) 
hon — , cheap. 

marcher [macje], to march, walk, 

suu'di [mardi], m., Tuesday ; It — 

graa. Shrove -Tuesday. 
mar^chal ferrant [marejal fEro], 

blacksmith, horse -shoer. 
mor^ [mace], f., tide. 
Marie [mari], f., Mary. 
marin [niarEJ, m., sailor, aeaman. 
mariiie [marin], f., marine, navy ; 

— miUtairt, royal navy. 

marquer Tmarke], to mark, show, 
marquis [marki], ro., marqnia; 

vumaieur le — , the marquis. 
maiTon [murS], m., chestnut. 
mars [mars], tn., March. 
Marseillaise [marsejeisj, 1, the 

French national air. 
marteau [ntarto], m., hammer, 
roasqui [maske], masked. 

matelot [matlo], m., Bailor, 
materiel [materJEl], materiaL 
matin [mats], m., morning : U — , 

in the morning. 
niBudit [modi], cuned. 
maure [motr], m.. Moor. 

[move], bad, Ul, eviL 

[maksim], f., maxim. 
mc [ms], me, to me, for me. 
micbammetit [me|amd ], malj. 

mfchant [mejo], bad, cross, 
mfcontent [mekato], di&Batisfied, 

m^contentemeot [mekstd tmfi ], m. , 

disaatiaf action. 
m^ecin [medafi, m., doctor, 
mediocre [medjakr], mediocttt, 

meilleur [mejceir], better, best 

mSler [melel, to mingle ; le — 
be mingled with, to meddle with. 

mjlodieuz [melodjtf], melodious. 

membre [md i br], m. , member. 

mbne [me:m], same, even, self, 
very ;rfe~, theaame; de — que, 
as welt ae. 

m^moire [memwair], f., memory. 

menace[m3naa],f., menace, threat 

menacer[m3naBe], §156, to menace, 

mener [mane], g 158, to lead, con- 
duct, take, drive, 

mentir [mati;r], % 1B6, to ho. 

menu [many], small, fine. 

m^ris [mepri], m., scorn. 

m^prise [mepriiz], f., mistake. 

merci [mersi], m., tfaaoka, thaJok 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 



iiwrcredi [racrfcradi], m., Wednea- 

mire [mcir], f., mother. 

mjrite [merit], m., merit, worth. 

mtot«r [merit«], to deserve. 

merle {mcrl], m., blackbird. 

merreille [mErvEij], f, marrel, 
wonder ; d — , wonderfully. 

tax [merveja], wonderful 

QEs], f., ma«a (ecdea.). 

...rB[ineBJ0], pi. of monnevr. 

mesure [mazyir], f., measure. 

meaurer [maiyre], to measure. 

m^tairie [meteri], f., small farm. 

m^er [metje], m., trade. 

mettre [metrj, § 198, to put, place, 

Cut on ; le ~d la parte, to turn 
im out of doors ; — de cOti, to 
lay aside ; — en ivtil, to warn ; 
*e — , to set one's self, begin ; « 
— d teite, to sit down to dinner, 
etc X te — en colire, to set angry. 
•X [m^pie], m. , miller. 
(mceirj, 1 sg. prea, indio. 

I, 3 sg. pret. indio. 

ir fmcsrtriirl, to bmise. 
issure {miertrisytr], f., 

tnidi [midi], m. , noon. 

miel [mJEl], m., honey. 

mien [mjj], mine ; U — , mine. 

miette [mJEt], f., crumb. 

mieux [mj^], better. 

Uilbftud [mijo], a French general 

unddr Napoleon, b. lT76,d. 1833. 
milien [mil]0], m., middle, midst; 

au beait — , in the very midst. 
militaire [milite:r], military. 
mtUe [mil], a thousand. 
million [miljJ], m., million, 
mince [mSis], thin. 
mine [min], f. , looks. 
miunit [minqi], m., midnight. 
minute tminyt], f., minute. 
miracle [miraikl], m., miracle. 
mil [mi], 1 sg. p. def. and p. part. 

miii^able [mizerabl], miserable, 

mia^ [mizEir], £, miaery, trouble, 

mis&icorde [mizerikard], t, pity, 

mit [mi], 3 bj;. p. def. mel^e. 
mltnille [mitraij], f., grapesfaot. 
mobile Imabil], mobib, change- 
able, variable, 
modeate [msdEst], modest 
modiste (msdist], f., milliner. 

-mime, (!) myself. 
moindre [mwSidr], less, least. 

I; ■ 


moins [mwE], less, least ; pour le 
~, at the least ; da — , at leaat. 
mois [mwn], m., mouth. 
moisaon [mwasS], f., harvest. 
..._!_. ... [niwaaone], to reap. 

inoitie [mwatje], f., half; d — , 

Molifere [mslJEir], French drun> 

atist, b. 1622, d. 167% 
molle [mal], f. of mou. 
moment [mamQJ.m., moment; dn 

the moment when. 
mon, ma, mes [ma, ma, me}, my, 
monde [ui3:d], m., world, people i 

tout le — , everybody. 
monnaie [mouE], f. , coin, money, 
moaosrllabe [inonseilab], m., mo- 

mcmatoiie [manstan], monotonona. 

nuLn,the gentleman, my lord, Mjt. 
manstre [mSistr], m., monster, 
mont [m3], m., mountain. 
montagtie [mdtaji], f., mountain, 
monter [mate], to mount, go up, 

ascend. rise.getinto(of vehicles)! 
montre [m5 : tr], f . , watch. 
Montr6al [mSreal], m., MontreaL 
[motre], to show ; »e — , 


's self. 
[mStyir], f., beaat (for 

u, Gooijlc 


moquer fse) [as make], to laugh 

at, make Bport of, deapiae. 
moral [mDralj, moraL 
morale [maral], f., moraL 
morccAU [marso], m., bit, piece, 
mordre [mardr], g 210, to Bite, eat 

mort [ma;r], {., death. 

mort [mair], p. part. Tooarir, dead ; 
U — , tha dead one. 

mortel [msrtcl], deadly, 

Moskowa, Moskwa. [moskava, 
moakva], f., river on wMeh Mob- 
cow ia built. 

mot [mo], m. , word. 

mou [mn], soft. 

mondie [maj], f., Sy. 

mouctaeron [mufrj], m., gnat. 

mouidioir [mujwairj, m., hand- 

moiyik [mnsik], m., Russian peaa- 
ant, labourer. 

moulin [mnlS], m., mill. 

mourtmt [murd], m, , dying person. 

mourir [mariir), § 174, to die, 
perish ; it eat mort, he died ; 
— de/aim, to die with hunger, 
■e (to doatii). 

mousqueterie [muskctri], 1, mus- 

moustache [musta/], f. , moustache. 
moinement [muvma], m., move- 
ment : prsmieT — , first impulse. 

moyen [mwajl], m., means, way ; 

U — de U /aire ?, how shall we 

muet [nii|e], mute, dumb, 
mugir [myjiir], to bellow. 
muguet [mygc], m., lily of the 

mnltipherlmyltiplie], to multiply. 
mnr [rayir], m., waU. 
m&rfmyir], ripe. 

■"le[myralj], f, wall. 

murmnre [mynavir], m., murmur, 
musique [myzik], L, music, band 

Mussel (de) [do myse], French 

poet, b. 1810, d. 1S5T. 
rontuellemeiit [mytqElmeiJ, matn- 

mjrope Imjap], short-sighted. 
mysKrieux [misterj^] , mysteriona, 

mussance [nesa i s], f. , birth, 
naitre [neitrj, g 200, to be bom i 

U eat ni, he was bom, 
HapoMon [ napaleS ], Napoleon 
Bonaparte (1769-1821), bora in 
Corsica, became Emperor of the 
French, 1804, died in St. Helena, 
n^pe [nap], f., table-cloth. 
nanne [narin], £., noatriL 
national [nasjanal], national 
nature [mtty:r], f., nature. 
naturel [natyrcl], natural 
naturel [natyrel], m., nature, tem- 

.... [natyrElmo], natm^ 

NaTarre [naval r], f., ancient king- 
dom in the south of France. 

navet [nave], m., turnip. 

navire [nariirj, m., ship. 

ae [na], no, not ; ne . . . pas, no, 
not ; lit ... ni ... ni, neither 
. . . nor ; ne . . , rifn, nothing ; 
nt . . . qat, only ; untranslated 
after comparatives. 

Tii [ne], p. part. naUr^. 

ni=n>,.„...=f..^-i™iu;]_ne vertheleaa. 

Bsite], f., necessity, 
nectar [nektair], m., nectar. 
neige[Tie:3], f., snow. 
oettOTcr [netwaje], g 157, to clean, 
neuffnoef), nine, 
neuffncet], new. 
nenrieme {ncevjem], ninth. 
neven[navf)],m., nephew, descend* 

Ney [ne], a veiy diatinguished gen- 
eral under Napoleon, bom 176^ 

u, Gooijlc 


nes [oe], m., noae ; m rire au — , 
to laugh »t one's eelf; /aire 
<«»Dojer) im pterf lU — d, to put 

make grimaces at, to laugh at. 
ni [ni], neither, nor ; n« . ■ . ni . . . 

ni, neither . . . nor. 
nuiserie [nJEEril, f., nousense. 
nid [ni], DL, neat. 
Nolil [nsel], m. or f., Chnstmu ; 

It jour de — , Christmas day. 
noir [nwair], black, dark, 
noisette [nwazet], f , bAzel-nnt. 

Bomwt [natbcl, m., niunber. 
norobreux [nSbrtf], numerous. 

' [Dame], to name, call, 
, to be named. 

Doa (n3], no, not ; 
DOT I either ; tea 
moi — plui, mine also have 
one but me ; — pas qut, i 

nord Inoir], m., north. 

nos [no], pL of noire. 

tlOss [nas], Russian for ' now.' 

nOtaJre [nateir], m., notary. 

notre, noB Jnotr, no], oOr. 

natre (le) pa no:tr], ours. 

Notre<Duiie[natrdjun],f., church 

in Paris. 
DOarrir [nuriir], to nourish, feed, 

bring up. 
DOOTTiture [nurityir], f., food, 

nous [nu], we, us, to ue. 
DOUTCaufnuvdl, new;de — .again. 
DOOveftuti [nuvote], f., novelty; 
jnagaainde runtBtautii, dry-goodH 

HoQTelle-Cal4donie [nuvel kale- 
doiii], f., New Caledonia, a 
French penal aettlemeot. 

NonTelle-Orli&ns [duveI orledl, 
f. , New Orleana. 

nonrelles [nuvcl], t. pla, news. 

nouTellement [nuvElmai, newlv. 

nciTembre[navdibr],m., November. 

noyer [nwaje], ro., waWt'tree. 

nqjer [nwaje], S lfi7> to drown ; 

noyrf i2e brtime, hidden in mist ; 

ntt [ny], naked, bore. 

auage [nqais], ro.. cloud. 

nnit [nqi], f., night ; eettt — , lut 

nul [nyl], no, no one. 
numirique [nymerik], numerio&L 


objliaque [abeljak], m., obelisk. 
objecter [aljjekte], to object. 
oinet [abje], m., object. 
otdigeance [ablijdisj, f., kindness. 
obiter [ablije], g 156, to force; 

voiu noia obUgerez dt, you wiU 

oblige UB by. 
obscunti [apekjrrite], 1, dark- 

oba^der [opsede], g 15S, to beset 
obscTTCi [apscrve], to observe; 

/aire ^ A, to observe to. 
obstacle [opstatl], m. , obetacle. 
obtenir [aptanhr], g 177, to obtain. 
occasion [akazja], f., opportunity. 
occuper [akype], to occupy. 
oeil. pL ^eux [ceij, jfl], m., eye. 
ffiillet [<Eje]. m., pink, carnation, 
office [alls], DL, office, duty, 
officter [Dfisie], ro, , ofScer. 
offiir [afriir], g 176, to offer, 
oarefagr]. m., ogre, 
ofi I lo], oh 1 
aie[wa], f., goose. 
oienon[3Tia], m., onion, 
oiseon [wazo], m., bird. 

obsourity ; d V — (de), under or 
in the shadow (of). 
on 15], one, they, we, you, people, 

onde [Sikl], m., uncle. 

ondoyer [adwaje], g 1G7, to undn- 

late, float. 
onduler [Sdyle], to undulato 
ont [5], 3 pt pros, indie. QBoir. 
MWe !3ij;], eleven. 
opinion [apinjS], f., opinion. 
~ — .[QpTGBi5],£,oppre8rioa 
',, gola; (f— 1 goldfen). 


u, Gooijlc 



Ar[ajr],noir,bnt; — pi, come now. 
orage [oraij], m., storm, 
oneeux [artn^i, BWrmy, ogitatad. 
orateur [oratteir], m., orator. 
ordinaire [snliDEir], ordintuy j 

(f — , usually. 
ordinuremcnt [ordinermfi], or- 

ordinal [ardinall, ordinaL 
--' ^e[araaQdis],f.,prescrip- 

r [ordDne], to order, pre- 

wdre [ordr], in., order. 
Oreille [oreij],!-. ear. 
orgiefiwji], f.,orgy. 
onpieU [arfp^ij], m., pride, 
ongine [ariiin], 1, ongio. 
orroc [arm], m., eliu. 
omer [ome], to adorn, decorate, 
orphelm [orfslS], m., orphan. 
Oiphique [orfik], Orphic, 
ortolan [artalo], m., ortolan. 

Ater [ote], to take oS, taie out, 

ou [u1,_ or ; ou. . .ou, either. . .or ; 

oft [u], where, when, in which, 
on which ; <r — , whence, from 
which, on which. 

oublier [ublie], to forget. 

oneat [west], m,, west. 

oui [wi], yea. 

ontre [utrj, beyond ; en — , in ad- 
dition ; paster — , to pass by 
without noticing. 

onrert [uve:r], p. part, ouurir. 

onTrir [uvriir], S 178i to open; 

page [pa!!], f., page (of a book), 
paulerp>i'i]>f'>Btcaw; ehapeaude 

pidn [pi] m.. bread 

palr»[peir], 1, paJr. 

palx [pE], 1 , peace. 

palaia [pale], m, , palace, bnildillgt 
— tUjattUe, oourt-house, 

pUe [pail], pale. 

pAlir fpaliir], to grow pale. 

pftiiiwwnt [pali«a], tnrning pale, 

palme [palm], t., pdm ; — i aea^ 
dimiqua (p. 421), wreath ol 
palm leaves used as aa orna- 
mental design on the certifi- 
cates grant^ to prize-winnen 

de — , Easter Monday. 

par [par], by, through ; — oft, by 
what place, by wtiich, throun) 
which i — extmple, for eiamjue, 
(interj.) dear me 1 ; — mafoi, 
npon my word ; ' — deli, bejCMid i 
— nne tmii, on a night ; — U, 
by that place. 

parafe [paraf], m. , pamph, flooriak 
(added to one's signature). 

paraItre[parcitT],gl88, toa^iear. 
d ee qi^il porait, parait-ii, as it 

parce que [pars ka], becanse. 
par-d par-U [par si par la], here 

par-desaiiB [par <i98y], above, 
higher than, over ; — (fc) tonJ, 

pardon [pardi], m. , pardon ; exonsB 
me, I beg your pardon. 

pareil [pare I]), like, almllar, equaL 

parent [pai€], m. , parent, relative. 

parfiutement [ parfetrod ]. com- 

paif urn [part*], m., perfnine. 

paifiune [ parfyme ], perfnmedf 

Mrier [parie], to wager, bet 
Paris [pari], m., Pans, 
pariden [parizjE], Parisian, 
parler [i»arle], to speak, talk) — 

/Tanfait, to speak French- 
parmi[panni], amongst. 
parole [parol], L. word. 

-.u, Glxh^Ic 



ptnwTHnetpuoknvn], m. .climax. 

put [pair], 1, part, share ; de la 

— , from him; iuUi« — , no- 

pMlager [partase], g 156, to share ; 

give a share to ; StTtmalpartagi, 

to have a bad share. 
putance [partd i s], f. , setting sail ; 

m — , on the point of sailing. 
parterre [partcir], m., parterre, 

pit (theatre). 
ptJticipe [partisip], m. , participle. 
part)culier[partik3rljej,iii., private 

pajticuliirenient [partikyljennd], 

partie [parti], t, part. 
partir [partiir], § 166, to leave, 

depart, so away, be off, start ; 

A — de, from, bsginoing with. 
partout [partnj, everywhere. 
parut [pary], 3 sg, p. det. paraUre. 
reiur [parvaniir], % 178, to 

paa \pa\, m., step, pace, fr 
paa TpoJ, no, not ; n« . . . 

i!Sj, m., passage, 

t fposfl], m., paaser-by, 
« [pais], f., pass, channel. 

pM9< [paie], past, gone, over, last. 

paaaer [pose], to pass, pass on, go 
by, pat on ; spend (time) ; ii 
paua «a langue nir, he ran his 
tongue over ; — devant, to pass, 
go past I — ehez, to call od ; »e 
— , to take place, happen; k — 
de, to do without. 

D [pasj3], f, paBsion. 
pastenr [pasttetr], m., pastor. 
pAt^ Ipote], m., postrj, pie; chair 

<t — , niooe-nieat. 
patieoce [paajdis], f., patiencB. 
patiner [patine], to akat«. 
pUir [patiir], to rafCer. 

patois [patwaj, m., dialect 
patrie [^tri], f. , native land. 
patritnoine [patrimwan], m., in> 

patriotique [patriatik], patriotio. 

■i ^vq], m., pavement. 

«r [pEJe], § 157, to pay, pay for. 

'9 [pel], m., conntiy, locaUty. 

part [I 

p»y«rTp . _ 

pays [pel], m., conntiy, 1 
paysan [peizd], m., peasanc 
peau [po], f., skin, 
picai're I [pekaiir], dear, deart 
picher [^Je], to fish ; alier — , tc 

go fishing. 
pe^fne [peji], m., comti. 
pcindre [pEidr], % 190, to paint. 

p«lc-mCle [pel mcl], pell-m 

m., confusion. 
pencher [pdfe], to incline, bend. 
pendant ^dd], during ; — qwt, 

p«ndre [p^idr], S 210, to hang, 
pens^ [pOse], f., thought, 
penser [pose], to think ; vom 

penaez ei, imagine whether ( — d, 

to think of. 
pensiomiaire [ptiBJsneir], m. and 

f. , boarder. 

Pentecote [pdtkoitj, f., Whitsun- 
tide; luTidi de la —, Whit- 
Monday, Whitsan Monday. 

percer [perse], g 156, to pierce. 

perdreau [perdro], m., young pa 

perdrix [perdri], f., partridge. 
pire[pe:r], m., father. 
pitil [peril], m., peril. 

u, Gooijlc 


p^rlode [perjod], 1, period, aea- 

piiir [periir], to perish. 

perle [perl], f., peorL 

pennettre [pennEtr], % 10S, toper- 
nut ; m—, to take the libertj ; 
permh, permitted. 

' II [penniBJS], t,, parmiB- 

Pemult [pero], Fraach writer, b. 
162S, d. 1703. 

personnase tpei^^oaisli hl, per- 
sonage, character. 

persanne [pensn], f., person; pi 

personue [penon], m., luiybody, 
nobody; «e. . . — , not anj one, 

personnel [persanel], personal. 
perapectiTe [perapektiiv], f., pros- 

perte [pert], t., loss. 
pemont [ps™], heavy. 
pesAnteur {^iaUeir\, f., weight 
peser [peze], g 168, to weigh, be 

heavy, oppress, 
petit [pati], small, little; m., little 

pie [piBplj, m., people, na 

r[o«.rt,t fa.riI.i/«'' 
> Inghten him ; avow - 

^ „ n., little; iiUo m ad- 
verb, little ; — d — , little by 
little ; die-moi ui> — , tell me 
It ehotr, so little. 

peur [pceir], i 

to frighten 

be afraid ; avoir grand! — , to be 

in great fear; dt —, 

tor tear leat. 
peut [p0], 3 sg. pres. indio. pou- 

peut-Ctre (que) [p0t eitr ko], per- 

philanthrofHe [fildtropi], f., phil- 

pbraae [fra iz], f. , phrase, sentence. 

pic [pik], m., peak ; d, — , perpen- 

(Med [pje],m., foot; d—, on foot; 
de — en cap, from head to foot. 

pterrc [pjcir], f., stone. 

piitiiwment [pjetinma], m. , stAiap- 

picu [pjtf], m., stake. 
pieusenKnt [pj^zma], piooHly. 
jifCfioa [pisS], m., pigeon. 
pi^eonneau [pisono], m., yonng 

pireTpitl, f.,pile. 
piler [pile], toponnd (aaina mortar V 
pipe [pipl,f., pipe, 
pique-mqiie [pik nik], m., picmo. 
pistoM [pistsk], m., pistol; — 

(farfon, holat^-pistol