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'^ Vol. XI.] JANUARY, 1835, [No. 1. 



THE COLONY. 

By the Ruth and the Sarali PrUcilIa, which arrived recently, 
the former at New York, and the latter at Norfolk, intelligence from 
the Colony as late as the middle of October last, has been received.-^ 
Mr. PfNNKY, the ('Oioiiial Agent, in his letter of September 4, men- 
tions his hiiviiii; been alilicted by illness so long and severe, that he 
was obli<;ed to withilnuv frO'ii public business, and to commit ^e 
charge of the Society's property to Dr. Skinner. In consequence of 
his situation, the building; of the mill and store was suspended. His 
letter of September -^1, relates principally to the death of John Burns, 
an emigrant, from an act of imprudence in blastinga rock. AsBurnH 
was eni^ag-.d on work for the Society, Mr. P. had directed his fune- 
ral t xpenst's to b«» paid from the Agency funds, which he hopes the 
Boaid will npj.rovc. 

jAIr. P. adds, that the store, to be built of stone, is under contract, 
and if nothing oicurs to hinder its progress, will be speedily ready 
for covering. Until the Siore is finished, he states, the Colony has to 
allow ?,Ir. M'Gill $18 a month for storing the goods brought in the 
Jupiter, the old stoii- l)oing unsafe. 

In his letter of October 4r dated at Millsburg, he notices some in- 
bubordinate proceedings which had followed his retirement from the 
Agency. He had then returned to Monrovia, and the disquietude 
bail abated. Preparations were in progress for locating the Albany 
settlement near Millsburg, which would soon be ready to receive 
the settlers. 

His liist letter is dated October 13, in which Le states that the de- 
parture of the Unth is the first opportunity of writing to the Board, 
that had occurn.Hl since the departure of the Argus in June last. 

Dr. McDowall and Mr. Searl were then suffering under attacks of 
fever. Dr. Skinner and Mr. C. H. Webb have neither of them yet 
been sick, though iucetisaut in Sieir visits and attendance ou the 
sick. 

I 






2 THE COLONY. [January 

At the time of the arrival of the Jupiter, (on the last day of July) 
Mr. P. states, that he was too much weakened by sickness to transact 
any public business, and the Vice-Agent, Mr. M'Gill, had for some- 
time attended to the affairs of the Agency. But by the medical skill 
of Dr. Skinner, the attention of Mr. Finley, and the removal of other 
causes which he believes contributed to his sickness, his health of 
body and strength of mind have been restored, and he had resumed 
the public business until a successor shall arrive. Nothing, he adds, 
but a sense of public duty, could have induced him to have remained 
in ofDcc ; and, as it is, he says ''I have empowered Dr. Skinner to 
transact a large portion of the public business, that I may be left at 
leisure to recover my former health, and to make preparations for a 
Missionary station." 

Mr. P. states, that he has appointed Dr. Skinner to remain Physi- 
cian at Monrovia, and directed Dr. Todsen to proceed to Tassa, un- 
less inclined to return to America. 

The intention of the Resolution of the Board relating to the support 
of the Agent and Physician, has been a matter of doubt and dispute; 
and also the extent of the Vice-Agent*s powers as to general superin- 
tendence in certain cases. It has also been questioned whether the 
appointment of superintendents of settlements and clerks, belongs to 
the Agent's powers. Also whether dwelling-houses, or apartments 
are to be furnished to the several Physicians employed in the Colony, 
and whether their travelling expenses are to be borne ? It is also 
doubted when the regulations of the Board entered into last January, 
butnot received in the Colony till the 1st of August, ought to take 
e/Tect. 

Mr. P. slates, that he has agreed to allow to Mr. M'Gill a compen- 
sation at the rate of $G00 per annum for three months, during which 
Mr. M'G. acted as Agent, and paid that amount to him, with direc- 
tions for it to be charged upon the Colonial books to Mr. P.'s private 
account. 

Mr. P. observes, that the Secretary had been directed to make out 
the Colonial accounts, and forward them with full vouchers to the 
Board at Washington. Some of the items, he says, are large, swelled 
by the system of charges pursued in the public store. The utmost 
economy, he adds, has been studied, unless the erection of a public 
store, without waiting for instructions from the Board, may be con- 
sidered improp(?r. 

The schooner Margaret ^Mercer, Mr. P. states, has been found so 
worm-eaten, that a new keel is necessary. A new mast is preparing 
to replace one of the old ones, judged unsafe. It was intended to 
have sent the schooner to the U. States, under the care of the crew of 
the Jupiter (which ship has been cast away); but it was found impos- 
sible to get her ready in time. Captain Knapp and his crew return- 
ed in the Ruth. They have been supplied with rations from •tlu 
tublic store, which, said he, "I have, as their Agent, charged to th< 
United States." 

Mr. P. says that the small Agency notes, and cents, intended as r 
currency for the Colony, and which the despatches from the Boarc 
mention as being sent out by the Jupiter, were, by some oversight. 






ia35.] THE COLONY. 3 

lost, or never sent.* This currency, Mr. P. observes, would be very . 
convenient, and will, he trusts, be replaced, as the want of such a me- 
dium is very severely felt. It would save the expense of conveying, 
from place to place, camwood and other heavy articles, to make small 
payments. 

Mr. P. regrets that the Council have passed an ordinance to sus- 
pend the public schools. They have lately been managed with so 
little success, that they have been suspended until some better plan 
can be devised. It is supposed that the appointment of Committees 
by the people to select teachers, with the power of removing them, 
would remove most of the evils complained of. 

The desire of the Board relative to the New- York settlement, is 
not yet accomplished; but will be attended to as soon as Dr. M'Dow- 
all's health will allow him to devote himself to this object. 

The lots which this Board directed to be laid off in the Colony, 
Mr. P. says, will soon be ready to receive ten families. Dr. Skinner 
is sanguine in his expectations in relation to the good effects which 
will be produced by this measure, both in preserving life, and in 
promoting the general prosperity of the Colony. 

Mr. P. closes his letter, with reiterating his desire that a successor 
to the Agency may be speedily appointed. 

Dr. Skinner, under date of August 24, writes that he arrived on 
the first of August, and found Mr. Pinney in a very critical state of 
health. By prudent and careful attention, howeyer, he got better, 
and was for eight days without fever ; but fron Miie exertion aiid 
getting wet, he had a relapse. Dr. S. found so many' persons afflioled 
with the diseases of the climate, that himself. Dr. McDowall, and Mr. 
Webb, had been almost constantly employed since their arrival. He 
found numbers suffering for want of the comforts of life ; some from 
sickness, and others for want of employment. Three things, he states, 
are necessary to remedy these evils ; first, proper medical attention ; 
secondly, good and wholesome diet; and thirdly, cleanliness. If, 
the Doctor adds, provisions, soap and bandages be placed under his 
control, nothing, on his part, shall be wanting to furnish the medical 
attention necessary. The Doctor is of opinion that emigrants, on their 
arrival, ought to be put upon the lands to which they will beentitled, 
instead of being placed in receptacles, or hospitals ; as, though their 
dwelling might oe indifferent, they would be better satisfied, and, 
instead of being idle, might, when their health would permit, be 
employed in clearing their ground, and planting a few vegetables for 
their support. 

The Doctor also thinks it proper, that every emigrant should be pro- 
vided with bootees ; as afler undergoing the fever, the least scratch, • 
if unattended to, is apt to produce a bad ulcer. And he also advi- 
ses, in order to keep the females employed, that cards, wheels and 



* As these Agency notes were carefully packed in a box, and transmitted 
to the care of Mr. Thomas Bell, the Agent of the Board at New York, the recei^ 
of which was acknowledged by him, it is hoped, when the cargo of the Jupiter, dt 
present stowed away in Mr. M'GiU's warehouse, comes to be examined, it will \m 
found. — Ep. Rcpos. 



4 THE COLONY [January, 

looms, should be furnished them ; and, until it shall be raised in 
sufficient quantity in the Colony, cotton also. 

The Doctor's second letter is dated the 30th of August. Two of 
their little band, Dr. M'Dowall and Miss Sharp, have passed through 
the primary attack of the fever in the most favorable manner. The 
rest are well. Mr. Searl has to-day been engaged in breaking a pair 
of steers — a novel sight in Monrovia. The Dr. states, that he has, 
thus far, been very successful in managing the diseases of the climate. 
He has no doubt that he has saved several lives by the decided and 
bold use of the lancet. 

The Dr. states that Mr. Pinney's health is much improved, though 
it is yet such as to make it necessary he should relinquish the busi- 
ness of the Agency for the present. He has transferred the charge of 
the Society's property to Dr. S. The Dr. observes that there has been 
a great change in the Colonial officers at the late annual election, and 
says that he feels great delicacy in entering upon the duties of the 
important and responsible station which he has undertaken ; but with 
the advice of Mr. Pinney and Mr. Finley, and with a heart sincerely 
devoted to the interests of the Colony, he trusts they will not greatly 
suffer in his hands. 

The Dr. states, that he has found the state of society at Monrovia 
much better than he expected. **I have been," he adds, "here a 
month, and have visited most of the houses in town, and have ob- 
served ereat order and propriety amongst the inhabitants. An elec- 
tion and three days of public muster, have taken place within this 
period, and I have not heard a profane word from any one. I have 
seen but two persons disguised in liquor in the time. There is as 
strict regard paid to the Sabbath here as in any place in which I ever 
lived. In my intercourse with the people, I have not had a drop of 
spirits offered to rae, nor seen them used by others, nor do I see any 
evils here that are not remediable, nor anv thing to discourage the 
friends of Colonization, or to dishearten* the Christian Philanthro- 

{ist. Though God may try our faith, he will fulfil his word, and I 
ave not the least doubt but this Colony will be one of the points 
from which the Gospel will be extensively and permanently spread on 
this great Continent." 

In a letter dated September !2f), Dr. Skinner refers to the dissatis- 
faction which had- been occasioned by Mr. Pinney 's having placed 
the public property in his charge. The cause of it was removed by 
the Agent's return to Monrovia and resumption of his official duties. 

Five of the emigrants in the Argus died of small-pox on the pas- 
sage, leaving forty-nine; thirteen of which have since died — two 
more are not expected to survive — and three others are very sick. — 
Dr. S. states that he has not prescribed for any of the emigrants by 
the Argus till that day. 

Dr. Skinner says that he perfectly concurs in the views of Mr. Pin- 
ney in favor of erecting the Saw-mill, and a substantial Store, and 
also in relation to a Public Farm. He intends shortly to remove 
to Caldwell most of those persons in Monrovia who are subsisting on 
the stores of the Society, that they may be employed on the farm, or 
in spinning and weaving cotton. 



1835.] 



THE COLONY. Ti 



o 



Millsbiirg, the Dr. observes, is as healthy a place as can be found 
in that climate, except on the top of some mountain. There are, in 
the vicinity, mountains elevated two or three hundred feet above the 
village, which would be a good situation for a Medical and High 
School. There are two fadiilies in Millsburg, each consisting of nine 
persons, who were amongst the first settlers, all alive and well. They 
all parsed through the fever without a Physician or medicine. Four- 
teen of the emigrants brought out by, the Ajax, from Orleans, settled 
in Millsburg, and are all living but one. 

The Dr. is of opinion that every part of the Colony may be reii- 
dered more healthy, and that nothing but industrious perseverance is 
wanting to overcome the obstacle^ which at present obstruct the pros* 
perity of the Colony. We want, he observes, a virtuous and indus- 
trious people ; their lands fenced with ditches and living hedges ; 
means of cultivating the soil by the plough, and of conveying bur- 
dens by land without being carried by natives ; communications open* 
ed from village to village; and a spirit of improved agriculture 
spread amongst the people. We want also, a breakwater on the 
north beach; a direct road to the Society's store; a small steamboat 
in the river ; a good building at Millsburg for a public school, and 
other schools with good teachers, and Missionary establishments 
spread over the surrounding country. The work of civilizing and 
evangelizing Africa would then proceed with rapidity^ 

The Dr. adds, ample resources for all these objects might be drawn 
from the benevolent and Christian public of America, if they could 
be impressed with a just view of the great work. 

Dr. Skinner's Isist letter, is dated October 15, in which he says, it 
is a fact, that vastly more men than women are carried oflf by the 
diseases of this climate, and more women than children. Hence it 
arises that the Colony has so large a number of orphan children — 
many of whom are almost destitute of clothing, and are too much 
neglected in other respects. The Dr. supposes there are two women 
to one man in the Colony, many of whom, being without employ^ 
nient, find it difficult to obtain the means of living. These evils, he 
justly remarks, call for a remedy. He advises that no more aged fe- 
males, or young unmarried ones, without some male proteijtor, be 
hereafter sent to the Colony ; that cotton, and the means of manufac- 
turing it, be forwarded by the first opportunity, that* the idle may 
have no excuse, and the vicious no cloak for their sins. 

Such orphan children as are a charge on the Colony, the Dr. re- 
commends should be placed in the long house at Caldwell, and be 
fed, clothed and educated, until of a proper age to go out to service, 
or to learn a trade, or in special cases, to be completely educated. 

If any class of the community, more than another, deserves the 
commiseration and assistance of the benevolent, says the Doctor, it is 
orphans, and in no country do they need it more, than in Liberia.— 
'*May God grant the Board," says Dr. S. ''directing wisdom and 
means, and furnish them with Agents to carry into effect all their 
benevolent purposes, and the Colony will be safe, and Africa re- 
deemed." 



6 THK COLONY. [January, 

In reference to supplies sent by the Board to the Colony, the Dr. 
advises that less flour and meal (which is always injured by keeping) 
and more beef, fish and pork be forwarded. Hams, dried beef, sugar 
and tea should be sent insuflicient quantity for those in the Society's 
employ, and for the use of the sick. 

Besides the suggestions noticed in the foregoing abstract, others ot 
importance to the Colony are contained in the last despatches from 
Mr. Pinney and Dr. Skinner. The action of the Managers on these 
subjects was prompt, and will be noticed hereafler. 

From the Liberia Herald of Septentber 26, we copy the following 
'ieturns of the recent Colonial elections and appointments: 

OFFICIAL RETURNS. 

Whereas the foUowiDg named persons have been returned Ǥ duly elected to 
the several offices opposite to which their names are affixed; 
Nathaniel Brander, Vice jSgmt. 

COUNCILLORS. 

John Day» Jos. J. "Roberta, fir Monrovia. 

T. Pritchard, M. A. White,/or Oaldwdl. 

Philip Moore, /or MUlBburg. 

John Hanson, /or Edina. 

Wm. N. Lewis, High Sheriff. 

Jacob D. Preston, Tireaturer. 

J. W. Prout, Regitter of Deeds: 

CENSORS. 

J. C. Rosst J. W. Barbour, /or Monrovia. 
Mat. Brown, Benj. Lawrence, /or Caldwell. 
Willis Peal, Jesse Kennedy, fir MUUburg. 
H. W. Duncan, W. C. Buras, /or Edina. 

COMMITTEE OF HEALTH. 

Charles Butler, 8. W. Wheeler,/or Monrovia. 
P. Pritchard, S. J. White,/or Caldwell. 
Joseph Outlin, C. Willis, /or MUlslmrg. 
Davis White, Wilson Duncan, />r JEdmo, 

COMMITTEE OF AORICULTITRE. 

James Cotton, R. Matthews, /or Monrovia. 
Caleb J. Cox, J. Nixon, /or Caldwell. 
R. Boone, Tabb Smith, ybr MilUburg. 
J. B. Winder, E. Nutter, /or Edina. 

COMMITTEE OF SCHOOLS. 

John B. Russwurm, John Revev. 

Now, THEREFORE, I, JoHN B. PiNNET, Agent of the American Colonization 
Society, do hereby command and enjoin all the inhabitants of this Colony, to re- 
spect them in tibeir respective stations, and yield implicit obedience to all their le- 
gally authorised official acts. 

Done at Monrovia, this thirtieth day of August, Anno Domini, one thousand 
eight hundred and thirty-four. 

JOHN B. PINNEY. 
JigentJhnerican Colonization Society. 

APPOINTMENTS BY THE AGENT. 

John B. Russwurm, Colonial Secretary. 
£. Johnson, Jgeney Store Keeper. 

COLLECTORS OF CUSTOMS. 

Hilary Teage,^ Ifofiropta. 
Nathaniel Harris, for Edina. 
John Revey, CoUmal Surveyor. 

MAOISTRATBf. 

Chariet Butler, Joilroa Stewart, H. B. MattiM#a, Daniel Johnston, ybr Monrovia. 
Jeramiah Nixon, D. L. Brown, Jesse Palin,>br (hldwell. 






1835.] SLAVERY AND COLONIZATION. 

Tabb Smith, Philip Moort, /or MilUburg. 
William L. Weaver, John Hanson,^ Edina. 

CONSTABLES. 

K. Matthews, Moses Jacobs, /or MonrotrUi, 
Sion Harris, S. J.^White,/br Ckddwell. 
F. Richardson, James Thomas, for MilUburg. 
Lloyd Fuller, J. H. Stevens, /or Edi^a. 



SLAVERY AND COLONIZATION. 

[From the National Intelligencer, Nov. 5, 1834.] -* 

At the present time, when the discussion of these subjects haspro« 
duced great excitement in the public mind, es{>ecially in the Northern 
States, where much imprudent zeal has been discovered in favor of 
the Abolition of Slavery, and in opposition to the Society ejstablished 
at the Seat of the National Government in the Winter of 1816-1817 
t)y some of the most distinguished, patriotic, and benevolent men of 
our country, for colonizing in Africa, such free persons of color as 
were then free, or such as might thereafter become free, it may ^e 
well to take:a cool and retrospective view of the matter, and inquire 
what view9 and opinions were entertained upon it soon after the for- 
mation of the present Government. 

It is w€ll known to most reading men who have looked into this 
subject, that Judge Tucker, of Virginia, in his edition o( Blackslone' s 
Commentaries J published in the year 1803/with Notes and Referen- 
ces lo the Constitution and Laws of the United States and of the Com- 
monwealth of Virginia, gives a comprehensive vieu? of the state of 
Slavery in Virginia^ in which he notices the commencement and pro- 
gress of the system up to the time when his work appeared, and sub- 
mits for public consideration a plan, which, after much consideration 
he had formed, for a safe, gradualj and effectual abolishment of the 
system, whenever the public mind should be drawn to the subject. 

From an impression that this work of Judge Tucker is but little 
known tp readers of the present day, and, from a belief that it con- 
tains much practical wisdom on this important subject, devoid of all 
party considerations, I have thought it might be useful to give some 
extracts from it, and have therefore made the following, and send 
them for insertion in your valuable paper. 

November, 1834. AN OLD MAN. 

The Judge states, that "Slaves were first introduced into Virginia, by the anival 
of a Dutch ship from the coast of Africa, with 20 negroes on board, which were 
5jold, in the year 1620. In the year 1638, he says, we find then in Massachuset^. 
They were introduced in Connecticut, soon after the settlement of that Colony* 
about the same period. Thus early had our forefathers sown the seeds of an evil, 
which, like a leprosy, has. descended upon their posterity with accumulated rancor, 
visiting the sins of the fathers upon succeedin^j generations. The climate of the 
Northern States, less favorable to the constitution of the natives of Africa than that 
of the Southern, proved alike unfavorable to their propagation, and to the increase 
of their numbers oy importations. As the Southern Colonies advanced in popula- 
tion, not only imp ortations increased there, but Nature herself, under a clunate 



S SLAVERY AND COLOIVIZAMOiV. [January, 

more coiij;eiiial to the African constitution, assisted in multiplyipg the blacks in 
those parb!, no less than in diminishing their numbers, in the more rigorous cli- 
mates oi" the .North. This influence ofclimate, moFcover, contributed extremely 
to increase or diminish the value of Slavey to the purchasers in different Colonies. 
White laborers, whose constitutions were better adapted to the severe winters of 
the New Kngland Colonieg,' were there found to be preferable to negroes; who, 
accustomed to the influence of au ardent sun, became almost torpid in those coun- 
tries, not leds adapted to civc vigor to their laborious exercises, than unfavorable 
to the multiplication of their species. In the Colonies, where the Winters were 
not only milder, and of shorter duration, but succeeded by an.intense Summer heat, 
as invigorating to the African as debilitating to the European constitution, the 
negroes were not only more caj>able of performing labor than the Europeans, or 
their descendants, but the multiplication of tbe species was at least equal, and, 
where they met with hutnane treatment, perhaps greater than among the whites. — 
'The great increase of Slavery at the Southward, in proportion to the Northern 
States, is therefore not attributable solely to the effect of sentiment, but to natural 
causes, as well as to those considerations of profit which have, perhaps an equal 
influence over the conduct of mankind in general, in whatever country, or under 
whatever climate, their destipy has placed them. 

"The first act which appears in the Virginia code of laws for prohibiting the im- 
portation of slaves, passed in October, nj8, declares that no slaves should there- 
after be brought into that Commonwealth, and that every slave thus imported 
should be free. Iti 1785, the Judge states, this act underwent some alteration, by 
declaring that slaves, thereafter brought into the Commonwealth, and kept therein 
one whole year together, or so long at different times as shall amount to a year, 
shall be free. The difficulty of proving the right to freedom by this act was con- 
siderably augmented. The same act declares that no person snail thencefortli be 
slaves in tlie Commonwealth, except such as were so on the first day of that ses- 
sion, and the descendants of the females of them. In 1793, an additional act passed 
authorizing and requiring an^ justice of the peace, having notice of the importation 
of any slaves, directly or indirectly, from any poi:t of Africa or the West Indies, to 
cause such slaves to be immediately apprehended apd transported out of the Com- 
monwealth. Such, says the Judge, is the rise, progress, and present foundation of 
slavery in Virginia, as far as I have been able to trace it. 

"Whatever inclination the first inhabitants of Virginia might have had to en- 
courage slavery, a disposition to check its progress and increase, manifested itself 
in the Legislature, even before the close of the last century. In the year 1699, we 
find an act laying a tax on servants and slaves imported ipto this country, which 
was either continued, revived, or increased, by a variety of temporary acts passed 
between that period and the Revolution of 1776. 

"A system uniformly persisted in for nearly a whole century, and finally carried 
into cfiect as soon as the Legislature was unrestrained by the "inhuman exercise of 
the Royal prerogative," evinces the sincerity of that disposition which tlie Legisla- 
ture had shown, during so long a period, to put a check to the growing evil." 

The Judge then goes into a consideration of the condition of slaves in Virginia, 
and the legal consequences attendant on a state of slavery. We shall pass over 
what he says on this subject, in order to take notice of some other of his remarks 
more intimately connected with the general matter in hand. 

After closing his view of the jurisprudence of Virginia respectinf* slaves, he re- 
marks, "how frequently the laws of nature have been set aside in institutions the 
pure result of prejudice, usurpation, and tyranny. We have found actions, innocent 
or indifferent, punishable with a rigor> scarcely due to any but tlie most atrocious 
offences against civil society; justice distributed by an unequal measure to the 
roaster and the slave; and even the hand of mercy arrested where mercy might 
have been extended to the wretched culprit, had his complexion been the same 
with that of his judges, for the short period of ten days, between his condemnation 
and execution, was often insufficient to obtain a pardon for a slave convicted in a 
remote part of the country, whilst a free man, condemned at the seat of Govern- 
ment, and tri'?d before the Governor himself, in whom the power of pardon was vest- 
ed, had a respite of thirty days to implore tiie clem*»ncy of the Executive authority. 
It may be urged, and I believe with truth, that these rigors did not proceed from a 
sanguin&ry temper in the people of Virginia, but from those political considerations 
ind»pensably necessary where slavery prevails to any great extent. I am, more- 
ovcr, happy to observe that our police respecting this unhappy class of people is 



1835.] SLAVERY AND COLONIZATION. § 

not only less rigorous than formerly, but perhaps milder than in other countries 
where there are so many slaves, or so large a proportion of them, in respect to ^e 
free inhabitants. It is aJso, I trust, unjui^t to censure the present generation for the 
existence of slavery in Viij^nia; for I think it un<^ue8tionsu>ly true, that a very large 
proportion of our fellow citizens lament that as a misfortune which is imputed to thera 
as a reproach, it being evident, from what has been already shewn upon the sub- 
ject, that, aaUcedenl to the Revolution, no exertion to abolish or even to check the 
progress of slavery in Virginia could have received the smallest countenance from 
the Crown, without whose assent the united wishes and exertions of every individual 
here would have been wholly fruitless and ineffectual. It is, perhaps, also demonstra* 
ble, that at no period since the Revolution could the abolition of slavery in this State 
have been safely undertaken, until the foundations of our newly established Goy- 
emmentshad been found capable of supporting the fabric itself, under any shock, 
which so arduous an attempt might have produced. But these obstacles being now 
happily removed, considerations of policy, as well as justice and humanity, must 
evince the necessity of eradicating tne evil, before it becomes impossible to do it 
without tearing up the roots of civu society with it." 

Jud^e Tucker then considered the modes by which slaves have been or may be 
emancipated, and the le^ consequences thereof, from the time of the Israelites to 
tfa^ present day. But tms part of his remarks we shall pass over in order to come 
tO'his proposed plan. 

**The extirpation of slavery from the United States," the Judge allows, *'is a task 
i^ually arduous and momentous. To restore the blessine^ of liberty to near a mil- 
lion of oppressed individuals,* who have groaned under toe yoke of Bondage, and 
to their descendants, is an object, which those who trust m Providence, will be 
convinced would not be unaided by the Divine Author of our being, should we in* 
voke his blessing upon our endeavors. Yet human prudence forbids that we should 
precipitately engage in a work of such hazard as a general and simultaneous eman- 
cipation. The mind of a man must in some measure be formed for his future con- 
dition. The early impressions of obedience and submission which slaves have re- 
ceived among us, and the no less habitual arrogance and assumption of superiority 
among the whites, contribute, equally, to unfit the former for freedom, and tlie 
latter for equality. To expel them all at once from the United States, would, in 
fact, be to devote them only to a lingering death by famine, by disease, and other 
accumulated miseries. To re|ain them amon^ us, would be to thr6w so many of 
the human race upon the earth without the means of sulraistence; they would be- 
come idll, profligate, and miserable; unfit for their new condition, and unwilling to 
return to their former laborious course, they would become the caterpillars of the 
earth, and the tigers of the human race. 

*4n Massachusetts, the abolition of slavery was effected by a single stroke — a 
clause in their constitution. But the whiles at that time were as 65 to 1, in pro- 
portion to the blacks. The number of free persons in the United States south of 
the Delaware, arc less than 2 to 1 in proportion to the blacks. Of the cultivators 
of the earth in the same district, it is probable that there are four slaves to one free 
white man. To discharge the former firom their present condition would be attend- 
ed with an immediate general famine in those parts of the Union, from which hot 
all the productions of the other States could deliver them. Similar evils might rea- 
sonably be apprehended from the adoption of the measure by any one of the South- 
ern States; for in all of them the proportion of slaves is too great not to be attended 
with calamitous effects, if they were immediately set free. 

**Tbese are serious, I had almost said insurmountable, obstacles to a general, 
simultaneous emancipation. There are other considerations not to be disregarded. 
A great part of the property of individuals consists in ilaveg. The laws have sanc- 
tioned this species of property. €lan the laws take away the property of an indi- 
vidual without his own consent, or without tijvuf compemation 7 WiU those who 
do not hold slaves, a^ree to be taxed to make this compensation ? Creditors also, 
who have trusted their debtors upon the faith of this visible property, will.be de- 
frauded. If justice demands the emancipation of the slave, sne, also, tinder these 
circumstances, seems to plead for ^e owner, and for his creditor. The claims of 



• *The number, since the period at which Judge Tucker wiote, is more than 
doubled. 



10 SLAVERY AND COLONIZATION. [January, 

ir^ture, it will be aaid, arf stxx>n|^cr than those which arise from looial institution? 
only. I admit it, but nature also dictates to us to pnnide Air our own safety, and 
atithorizes all necessary measures k/r that purpose. And we have sliown that our 
county, nay our very existence, mi|ht be endangered, by the hasty adoption of 
«ny measure for the immediate relief of the whole of uiis unhappy race. Must we then 
quit the subject, in des^r of the success of any project for the amendment of their, a5 
Well as our own, condition? I think not. Strenuously as I feel ray n^nd opposed 
to a simultaneous emancipation, for the reasons already mentioned, the abolition of 
slavery in the United States, and especially in that State to which I an attached 
by every tie that nature and society torm, is now my first, and may probably bie my 
last expiring wish. 

**But here let me avoid the imputation of tncoosrstency, hr obseniirg, that the 
abolition of slavery may be etfected without tiie eittancipam>Br of a single slave; 
without depriving any man of the property which he possesses, and without defraud- 
ing a creditor, wno has trusted him on the faith of that property. The experiment 
ofthis plan has already been made in some of onr sister StsBes; Pennsylvania, under 
the au8i>ice8 of the immot^ franJUm,t begnit the work of the mdual abolition of 
flaveiy in the year 1780, by enlisting Nature herself on the side of Humanity. — 
Connecticut followed the example lour years after. New York lately made an 
essay, which miscarried by a very inconsiderable majority ;| Mr. Jefferson in- 
forms us that the Committee of Revisers m Virzinia (of which he was a member) 
had prepared a bill for the emancipation of all slaves bom after the passinsr of that 
act. Hiis was conformable for the Pennsylvania and Connecticut laws. Why the 
measure was not bronght forward kr the General Assembly I have never heard. Pro- 
bably bp cause objections were foreseen to that part of the bill which relates to the 
disposal ot' the blacks, after they had attained a certain age.§ 

^'Hnt, it may be asked, why not incorporate these colored persons, after they ob<- 
tain their freedom, into the State. This Question has been well answered By Mr. 
Jenerson, in his Notes on Virginia; and wno is there so free from prejudices among 
us, as candidly to declare that he has none against such a measure. The recent 
scenes transacted in the French Colonies in ttie West Indies, are enough to make 
one shudder with the apprehension Of realizing similar ealaiaities in this country. -> 
■ Many who regret domestic slavery,- contend, that, in abolishing it, we must also 
abolish that scion from it, whieh ' I have denominated Civil Slavery. That there 
must be no distinction of rights; that the descendants of Afiieantf as men, have an 
equal claim to all civil righu with the descc^ndants of Europesms, and, upon being 
delivered from the yoke of bondage,h8ve a right to be admitted to all ttie pritileget 
of citizens. But have not men, when tboy enter into « state of society, aright to ad>- 
mit, or exclude, any descriptions of persons, as they think proper .' And, if preju- 
dices have taken such deep^ root in our minds, as to render it iinpossibloto eradicate 
them, ought not these opinions to be respected. Shall wc not relieve the necessr- 
ries of the naked, diseased beggar, unless we will invite him to a seat at our table, 
nor afford him shelter from the inclemencies of the night air, unless we admit bin 
also to share our bed ! To deny that we ought to abolish slavery, without incor- 
porating the negroes into the State, and admitting them to a f\ill participation of all 
our civil and social rights, appears to me to rest upon a similar foundation. Somo 
middle course must tnerefore be found between the tyrannical and iniquitous policy 
which holds so many human creatvrea )n a state of grievous lK>ndage, and that 
which would turn loose a numerous, starving, and enraged banditti, upon the in- 
nocent descendants of their former oppressors. NeOure, Ume, and sound policy, 
roust co-operate with each other to prcKlnee such a chance; if either be neglected, 
the work wilf be incomplete, dangerous, and, not improbabty, destructive. 

**The plan, therefore, which I would presumS to propose for the consideration of 
my countrymen, is such as the number of slaves, the difference of their nature and 



tDr. Franklin, it is said, drew the bill for the gradual abolition of slavery in 
Pennsylvania. 

t New York and New Jersey have, since Judg» Tucker wrote, abolished slavery. 

§ The Cok>ny established by the Aimerican &IoniJttion Society at Liberia, it is 
presuaed, win provide for Che cinections on this scone, as it will at all times offonS 
aai Mylum for such frca parsons cf col:>r as dcsizfs i^ anjoy all thd privile^^ of a fr»» 
goverMMt, in ai6ctety wliete the highest ofRees wilt be open to them. 



.335/) SLAVERY AND COLONIZATION. U 

tiabits, and the state pf asricttlture among ui, might render it ixpidimi, rather than 
detiimble, to adopt* aad will partake partly of that propoaed bjr Mr. Ja^raon* ana 
adopted in other States, and partly or such cautionary reatrictiona as a due i^^Sw 
to situation and eircumstancei^, and even to general prejiidices, might recommeiM 
to those who engage in so arduous, and perhaps unprecedented, an undertakug. 

"1. Let every negro or mulaAto female, born after Hie adoption of the plan, ne 
free, and transmit freedom to all her descendants, both male and female. . 

**2. As a compensation to those persons in whose families such females or mir 
descendants may be bom, for the expense and trouble of their maintenance during 
infancy, let them serve such, persona UMtil the ajce of twenty-eight years; let tbem 
then receive twenty dollars in money, two suits of clothes suited to the season, a nat, 
a pair of shoes, and tvix> blankets. If these things be not voluntarily done, let the 
County Courts enforce the performance, upon complaint. 

" 3. Let all negro children b« registered with the Clerk of the County or Corpora 
tion Court, where bom, within ona month aOer their birth : let the pei-son in whose 
lamily they aro born take a c«py uf the rep^ister, and deliver it to tJie mother ; or, it 
she die, to the child, before it is of the age of twenty-one years. Let any negro claim- 
ing to be free, above the age of puberty, be considered as of the age of twenty- 
eight years, if he or she be not registered as required. , 

" 4. Let all negro servants be put on the same footing as white servants ^nd ap- 
prentices now are, in retpect to food, raiment, correction, and the assignment oi 
their service from one lo another. r 4i. * 

*-5. Let the children of negroes and mulattoes, bom in the families of ttwr 
parents, be bound to service by the Overseers of the Poor, until they shall attain tftf 
age of twenty-one years. Let all above that age, who aro not housekeepers, nor 
have voluntarily bound themselves to service for a year, before the 1st of Febrwy, 
annually, be then bound for the remainder of the year by the Overseers of the Poor. 
To stimulate the Overseers of the Poor to perform their duty, let them receive m- 
teen per cent, of their wages, from the person hirinfl" them, as a compensation tor 
their trouble, and ten per cent, per annum out of the wages of such as they may 
bind apprentices. 

" 6. If, at the age of twenty-seven years, the master of a n^gro or mulatto servant 
be unwilling to pay his freedom dues above mentioned, at the expiration of the suc- 
ceeding year, let him bring him into the Couofy Court, clad and furnished witn 
oecessanes, as before directed, and pay into Court five doUars for the servant, and 
thereupon let the Court direct him to be hired by the Overseers of the Poor for tne 
succeeding year, in the manner before directed. 

" 7. Let no negro or mulatto be capable of taking, holding, or exercising, any 
public office, freehold, franchise, or privilege, of any estate, in lands or tenements 
other than a lease not exceeding twenty-one years; nor of keeping or bearing arms, 
unless authorized so to do by some act of the General Assembly, whose duration 
shall be limited to three years.* Nor of contracting matrimony with any oyj®*^ J** 
a negro or mulatto; nor be an attorney; nor be a juror or witness in any Court of 
Judicature, except against or between negroes and mulattoes. Nor be an executor 
or administrator; nor capable of making any will or testament; nor maintam any 
real action; nor be a trustee of landi or tenements himself, nor any other person to 
be a trustee to him or to his use. 

<* & Let all colored persons, bora after the passing of the act, be considered as 
entitled to the same inode of trial in criminal cases, as fr^e negroas and mulattoes 
are now entitled to." 

** The restrictions in the foregoing Plan may appear to savour strongly of preju- 
dice; but whoevifr proposes any Plan for the aboutkw of Slavecy, must either en 




* The Bomanr, before the time of Justinian, adopted a similar policy in respect 
to their freed-mea. 

t If, upon experiment, it should appear adviaable to hasten the operation of this 
Plan, or to enlarge the privilege office negioes, it will be both eaaier and safer to 
do so, than to retrench any pnvilege once granted, or to rataid the operation pf the 
original Plan, after it has bee^ idopted, and in .part carried into execution. 



12 SLAVERY AND COLONIZATION, [January, 

• 

Though I am opposed to the banishment of the negroes, I wish not to encourage 
their future residence among us. By denjring them the highest privileges which 
Civil Government affords, I wish to render it their inclination and their interest to 
seek those privileges in some other climate. X ■ 

"But it is not from the want of liberality to the emancipated race of blacks,that I 
apprehend the most serious objections to the plan I have ventured to suggest. — 
Those slaveholders (whose number I trust is tew) who have been in the habit of 
considering their fellow-creatures as no more than cattle and the rest of the brute 
creation, will exclaim that they are to' be deprived of their property without com- 

fensation. Men who will shut their ears against this moral truth, that all men are 
y nature free and equal, will not even be convinced that they do not possess a 
property in an unborn chUd; they will not distin^ish between allowing to unborn 
generations the absolute and inalienable rights ot human nature, and taking away 
that which they now poetess; they will shut their ears against truth, should you tell 
them the loss of the mother's lalior for nine months, and the maintenance of a child 
for a dozen or fourteen years, is amply compensated by the service of that child for 
so many years more as he has been an expense to them. But if the voice of reason 
justice, and humanity, be not stifled by sordid avarice, or unfeeling tyranny, it 
would be easy to convince even those who have entertained such erroneous notions 
that the right of one man over another is neither founded in nature nor in sound 
policy : that it cannot extend to those not in being; that no man can, in reality, be 
deprived of what he does not possess; that fourteen years labor by a young person, 
in the prime of life, is an ample compensation for a few months of labor lost by the 
mother and for the maintenance of a child, in that coarse, homely manner that 
negroes are brought up, and lastly, that a state of Slavery is not only perfectly in- 
compatible with the principles ot firee Government, but with the safety and securi- 
ty ot their masters. 

"To such as apprehend danger to our Agricultural interest, and the depriving 
the families of those whose principal reliance is upon their Slaves, of support, it 
will be proper to submit a view of ihe gradual operation and etfccts of this Plan. — 
They will, no doubt, be surprised to hear, that, whenever it is adopted, the number 
of slaves will not be diminisned for forty years after it takes place; that it will even 
increase for thirty years ; that, at the distance of sixty years, there will be one-tliird 
of the number at its ifirst commencement: that it will require more than a century 
to complete it; and that the number of blacks under twenty ftgA/, and consequently 
bound to service in the families in which they were born, will always be at least as 
great as the present number of Slaves.'' 

[Judge Tucker here subjoins a calculation, in detail, to show that the efl'cct of 
hit plan will be as above stated, but the facts being fully and dearly laid down, 
every one, who has the curiosity to do so, can make the estimate for himself.] 

" It will further appear, that females only will arrive at the age of emancipation 
within the first forty-five years; all the males, during that period continuing cither 
in Slavery or bound to service till the age of twenty-eight years. The earth can- 
not want cultivators whilst our population increases as at present, and three-fourths 
of those employed therein are held to service, and the remainder compellable to la- 
bor. For we must not lose sight of this important consideration, that these people 
must be bound to labor, if they do not toluntarily eneage therein. Their faculties 
are at present only calculated for that object; if they be not employed therein, ^hey 
will become drones of the worst description. In absolving them from the yoke of 
Slavery, we must not forget the interests of Society. Thdse interests n^quirc the ex- 
ertions of every individual, in some mode or other; and those who have not whare- 
with to support themselves honestly, without corporal labor, whatever bo their 



X The Judge had reference in this remark to Louisiana, Florida, and other vacant 
territory then on this continent, which have, since the period of his writing, be- 
come integral portions of the Union. But as the .Colony of Liberia, in Africa, was 
expressly provided by the Philanthropists and friends of the Negro race in this coun- 
try as an Asylum for such free persons of color as might desire to enjoy the bless- 
ings of freedom in their fullest extent, no place could be better chosen for their ac- 
commodation; and there they wootdhave an opportunity of extending the blessing! 
of Freedom to a vast Continept of their colored brethren, at present in a state of 



1835.] SLAVERY AND COLONIZATION. 13 

coQiplexion, ought to be compelled to labor. This is the case in England, where 
domestic Slavery has long been unknown. It must also be the case in every well- 
ordered Society; and where the number of persona without proper^ increase, there 
the coercion of the laws becomes more immediately requisite. The proposed plan 
would necessarily have this eftkcU and therefore ought to be accompanied with 
such a reeulation. Though the rigours ot 6ur police, in respect to this unhappy 
race, ought to be softened, its regularity and punctual administration should be lu- 
•creased, rather than relaxed.*^ 



This plan of Judge Tttcker, when first publif^hed, struck me as 
beinpf more likely, than any other which had ever been proposed, to ef- 
fect the great object in question, and that it would be most acceptable to 
the People of the Southern States, who are most interested in the mat- 
ter. It will be gradual, easily carried into effect, will have scarcely 
any effect upon the present owners of negro property, and willnrove 
satisfactory to the colored people themselves; for though it does not 
propose to interfere with their present relation in society, it makes 
complete provision for the emancipation of their children and their 
children's children. And it is hoped, that when the friends of eman- 
cipation at the North, at least all those who are reasonable, practical, 
peaceable men, and wish for nothing but the increased happiness and 
prosperity of our country (and I must believe that much the greater 
part are of this number, though there are wild fanatics amongst them) 
when they maturely consider the matter, will be satisfied with the 
plan laid down by this tvise, learned and good tnan (now no more) up- 
wards of thirty years ago. 

And should this be the case, I would hope there would be no diffi- 
culty in bringing about the end so devoutly to be wished. For I be- 
lieve the time has arrived when many of the owners of negro proper- 
ty themselves are desirous of adopting some jsafe, gradual, and practi- 
cal plan for changing the present state of things at the South, as they 
plainly discover that the Northern and Middle States are far in ad- 
vance of them in every kind of improvement; that their lands are in 
a higher state of cultivation, that their comforts (5f life are greater ; 
that property of every kind is much more valuable; that their means 
of communication are more complete; and that these differences of sit- 
uation between the two portions of country, are principally owing to 
the existence of slavery. Now nothing further is necessary to bring 
about a desirable change in these respects, than that one or more of 
the Legislatures of the Southern States (say Maryland or Virginia, or 
both, for the abolition of slavery commenced at the North, and will 
probably progress regularly from North to South) pass an act or acts 
adopting some such plan as the one here given. For, the moment au 
act of this kind is passed, the scene would begin to change, the coun- 
try would resound with the glad tidings that the Southern States had 
resolved to abolish slavery ! All would be joy and congratulation.— 
We should hear no more of emigrations to the Far West. The farm- 
ers would remain satisfied with the prospect before them of better 
times, and the Legislatures of the several States would begin, to make 
improvements in anticipation of the coming events; and the black pop- 
Ailatioo would rejoice in the prospeet of freedom for their posterity. 



14 COLONIZATION MEETING. [January. 

In the meaotime, I would hope that the same patriotic and benev* 
olent spirit which first established the American Colonization Soci^y, 
and afterwards their Colony at Liberia, will continue its countenance 
and support. Much has been effected by that Society. More than 
three thousand colored emigrants (many of them manumitted slaves) are 
comfortably settled there under a free Gorernment; some of them be- 
int; engaged in commeice and trade, and otherain agricultural and other 
pursuits. The settlement will be from time to time increased by egai- 
grants from tliis country, both by persons of color already free, who may 
choose to go thither, and by colored persons who may be manumitted for 
the purpose. So that, by the time any act ^f the Southern States, passed 
for the gradual emancipation of the colored people, can go into ell'ect, that 
colony will probably have become a large, popnilous, and flourishing 
community. la order to promote the extension and prosperity of the 
colony, the Managers of the Colonial Society, it is understood, have 
given instructions to their Colonial Agent to obtain additional Terri- 
tory in the interior of the country, with a Special view lb agricultural 
pursuits. 



COLONIZATION MEETING. 

[Prom the Ntw- York Spectator, January 16.] - 

On Thursday evening, a numerous meeting of ladies and gentlemeD 
friendly to the cause of African Colonization, was held at Masonic 
Hall, ill this city. The spacious room, notwithstanding the inclemen- 
cy of the weather, was filled at an early hour. The meeting was 
called to order by the Rev. Dr. Milnok, who nominated President 
DuER, of Columbia College, as Chairman, which was unanimously 
agreed to. Robert B. Browne, and William L. Stone, were ap- 
pointed Secretaries, and the Rev. Dr. De Witt, addressed the throne 
of grace in an appropriate prayer. 

President Duer then rose and briefly stated the objects of the oeet- 
ing. He said that about fifteen months ago it had been determined to 
establish a new colony upon the African coast — but ahhough the con- 
summation of the design had been delayed, it had never been lost sight 
of. Intervening difficulties had retarded the benevolent purpose iu 
view, but had not suppressed it. The want of funds by the Parent 
Society impeded their operations, and naturally called forth our sym- 
pathies and aid. It was indispensable to maintain the present colony, 
and it was early and properly determined to do nothing in relation to 
the planting of a new one, but with the assent, and under the direc- 
tion, of the Parent Society. Difficulties still remained in the way of 
proceeding, which arose from domestic causes, and paralyzed active 
exertion. Offers, however, vrete received from various parts of the 
South to emancipate slaves on condition that they should be sent to 
Africa at the expense of the Colonization Society; and this was suffi* 
cient evidence to show that thejpirit which Was excited had extend- 
ed itself; and that it only wanted the co-operation of the NMb IMf- 



1^35.] COLONIZATION MEETING. 16 

feet the gradual emancipation of the South. Still the Parenrt Society 
could not avail itself of the proffer. It had become involved in debt, 
and wisely and justly resolved to pay off outstanding claims before 
irontractiDg new oqes. But the opportunity of converting so many 
American slaves as were offered, into African freemen, was too im- 
portant to be lost. The subject was taken up by a Society formed in 
Philadelphia, called the Young Men's Colonization Society of Penn- 
sylvania, which raised a fund and lately sent one hundred and thirty- 
one manumitted slaves to Africa. They embaiked m tbe Ninus, at 
Norfolk, for the purpose of planting a colony at Bassa Cove, upon the 
coast south-west of Liberia. Though not able of themselves to sustain 
the expense of planting and maintaining a seperate colony, yet by 
union with us, it is believed that the object may de effected. 

The leading features of this plan were — first, to assist the Parent 
Society, so far, as that out of all sums collected, a portion should be 
given to the Parent Society, equal in amount to what they would have 
been probably able to collect on their own account, if this Society had 
not been in existence. The next object of the Society was to estab- 
lish a colony at Bassa Cove, some distance from the present colony at 
Liberia, and which was supposed to- possess superior advantages over 
the latter place. The great object was to establish this colony by 
united efforts; and the present meeting was called together in conse- 
quence of the many applications from their brethren of the South, for 
means to send away their slaves, two or three hundred of whom would 
he liberated as soon as they could be removed. The question was oo 
longer, whether colonization was to be carried on, or free poeple of 
color transported; but whether it should be done to forward emanci- 
pation; and whether the Societies should be supported in an under- 
taking from which Africa could be colonized and Christianity extend- 
ed; besides all the other effects which might be expect from it. 

The Rev. Mr. Hunt, of North Carolina, rose and addressed the 
meeting. He felt happy, he said, in being a Southerner, and an 
American, and could say that so far as his acquaintance extended, a 
strong inclination pervaded the South to give liberty to their slaves. 
Still, however, whilst the considerate and benevolent cherish these 
sentiments, they will never permit, in any way, the interference of 
others in their domestic relations. He was once a slaveholder him- 
self, and could appreciate the feelings of others. It was objected to 
the Colonization Society that its movements were slow — but the 
greater wonder was that it should be able to move at all. There are 
many causes to retard its operations. Among the rest, not the least 
itffective in the South, was the strong attachment which existed be- 
tween the master and the slave. So much had been said of the uo- 
liealthiness of Africa, that the former were reluctant to send the latter 
;to a climate which was represented as pregnant with disease and death. 
His own knowledge of the subject, enabled him to refute these repre- 
sentations. He had emancipated his own slaves, sixteen in number, 
in thft y^r 1828, and sent them to Liberia. They settled, immediate- 
ly o]ll tbei^ arrival, on the Saint Paul's River. None of them had died 
|)y tbe last advices, June 18349 except two infants— one on the voyage, 
and OM hank after Che arrival in Amea. Tb^ fa^er of the family tent, 



16 COLONIZATION MEETING. [January , 

was a very coBScientious, pious roan — for many years a member, and, 
previous to his departure from this country, was ordained an Elder, 
of the Presbyterian Church. He would rely on any statement he 
would give, so far as veracity is concerned, as soon as on that of any 
other man. He informed me, said Mr. H., that they are doing well, 
except as it bas reference to those inconveniences which result from a 
newly settled country — that most of those who went with him, not 
before pious, have made a creditable profession of faith in the Saviour^ 
The obstacle of Colonization is therefore removed; how often soever 
the mendacious allegation may be made. It is like the thousand other 
baseless fabrications which ignorance and wickednei^s set afloat in the 
community — ^like the sinful cry of the rich against the poOr. During 
the prevalence ot these calumnies, the real friends of the colored race 
were afraid to move onward. They drew back— to wait till the 
wiidness of feeling had subsided. They had ascertained that the 
Southampton massacre had been justified by certain editors, and that 
insubordination and insurrection had been so countenanced that they 
had been compelled to take measures of precaution against them. — 
In the meantime, the beuevolent masters who were looking forward 
to the period when, with safety to themselves and the community, 
they could emancipate their slaves, were teaching and instructing* 
them to become men fitted to participate in the blessings of free- 
dom. 

Several other topics were discussed by Mr. H. wkh great facility 
and force, which our limited space compels us to omit. He referred 
particularly to the accusation that preaching was not allowed to the 
slaves, which was denied; and illustrated the position that we were 
not to despair of the emancipation and colonization of the blacks, 
when we reflect ^hat the greater and more glorious cause of Christi* 
anity has been preached already 1800 years — and though hastening 
to its consummation — yet a great portion of the earth still remains un^ 
enlightened by its beams. 

Mr. H. was very forcible and eloquent at times. He could not en- 
dure the thought of abandoning or breaking up the Colonization So- 
ciety. It was their last and only hope at the South. If that should 
fall — a dark cloud would come over them. It would be final as to- 
the hope of a peaceable extinguishment of slavery. Ultimately it 
would come to force. It would be the blacks against the whites, and 
the whites against the blacks; and he asserted, and repeated, with- 
great emphasis, that in that event there would — there could*-be no 
compromise. // would be war to the knife, and thi knife to the hilt ! 

Bishop Smith, of Kentucky, then addressed the meeting. He 
would confine himself, he said, to facts relating to this important sub- 
ject. The sentiment was becoming next to universal in Kentucky, 
that slave property is unprofitable and undesirable. Instead of the 
cry that the blacks were running away from the whites, the tables 
were now turned, and the whites were running away from the blacks. 
The slave districts, though not deserted, are yet becoming less popu* 
lous and less valuable. Great sacrifices are made by slaveholders to 
establish themselves in places where the influences of slaveiyshdll not 
be felt. To get rid of toe pendiag evil, a convention has been i'eceoV 



18350 COI.ONIZATION MEETINC^. lY 

ly called in Kentucky. A gentleman of Lexington, a manufacturer, 
who belonged to it, made a Colonization Speech in that body, evin* 
cing great shrewdness and just observation. He remarked that the 
regular working men were in rea^lity keeping watch for the benefit 
of slaveholders — and that five were standing guard to ensure thetofety 
of one. Some plan must be devised to vary the present relations in 
slaveholding society. He believed that only three effectual plans 
could be devised — these were-— extermination — amalgamation — and 
colonization. Humanity shudders at the two former, and we there* 
fore must have recourse to the last. Voluntary gradual emancipation 
was the only remedy, and this could be effected only through the Co« 
Ionization Society. ~ 

Rev. Mr. Jackson of this city, next addressed the meeting and 
submitted the following resolution:*^ 

Ruohed, That this meeting re|;ard tiie union and plan of ftiture operations form- 
ad between the Colonization Society of the pity or New York, and tiie Toung 
Men'i Colonization Society of Pennsylvania, as an event promising to be highly 
beneficial to the Colonization cause, and cordially recommend it lo the appro- 
bation and support of all the friends of our colored population. 

He could not hope, he said, to excite an interest, superior to that 
which had been manifested already : but it was a matter of rejoicing 
that we were now pointed to an event which would form a new era 
in the annals of Colonization. We were now about to draw to out 
aid the occupiers of a neutral ground— >real philanthropists, but 
whose vision had been obscured by the clouds raised around it by 
the opposers of the Colonization cause. If the North would do its 
duty, the South, he was sure, would not be backward to let the cap« 
tive go free. An alliance was formed with the Society of the 
Young Men of Philadelphia — the plans had been laid and matured— •- 
and a Colony already on its way to a land probably to assume the 
name of Yorksylvania. They were emigrants of the best class — 
men of Peace and Temperance— most of them imbued with our 
Holy Religion—and he justly hoped that the Colony they were to found 
would rival New-Torx in commerce, and Pennsylvania in fertility* 
It remains for these States to say how soon these delightful visions 
shall be realized. The enterprise will be beneficial to the slave, the 
free colored man, and the slaveholder. All who are connected with 
it, must profit by it. Leave the free colored man here, and he is only a 
free alaive. Their elevation in this country may be hoped, but it can- 
not be expected. By promoting their settlement in dieir native 
land, we may refine, elevate, and save them. The present plan re* 
commends itself to the Colonizationist, the Abolitionist, and the Friend 
of Temperance. Let our friends be firm, liberal and energetic, and 
we may see Africa regenerated, and America free. 

Rev. John Breckenridoe said, he rose to second the resolution ; 
and he supported it in his usuid style of chaste and commanding 
eloquence. He had hoped, he said., to avoid saying a word on the 
aubject this evening, but there was a principle involved in die mea> 
sure of founding a separate Colony, wnich, ne thought, required ex- 

!>lanation. It might perhaps be supposed that this enterprise would 
nterfere with the Patent Society—but such was not the ftct It was 
a radical princiite with the two Sodetieii tl^aSt the Parent 
3 



18 COLONIZATION MEJCTING. [Januarj, 

shcUl not be abandoned. This they have resolved on, uot only as a 
point of honor, but from a regard both to interest and philanthropy. 
They would not forsake that blessed institution which had done so 
mucn for the benefit of the human family, and for the glory of God. 

Mr. B. explained the origin of the Young Men's Society in Phii»- 
delphia. and the object of the Union. It was intended to colonize it 
as our ancestors colonized this country* They settled at difl^rent 
points — at Plymouth, at New- York, at Philadelphia, and at James- 
town ; so shall little settlements be formed — scattered from Sierra 
Leone to Cape Palmas — like gems scattered upon the African coasts 
diffusing their brilliant light over that whole region of darkness. 

Mr.B. also went somewhat into details as to the geography of Africa — 
the Maryland settlement of Cape Palmas — its effects, and the designs of 
the Society of that State — disclaiming, on all sides, any intention to 
injure the Parent Society. We do not, said he, wish to kill the 
venerable tree, but only to tear away the poisonous vine that clings 
around it. 

Near the close of his remarks, he observed, that he would now 
mention an affecting fact connected with the subject of slavery. 
There was then in the room a venerable old man, who would present 
himself before them. His name in English was Paul, the aged. He 
bad been thirty years in slavery, and was now free, and hoped once 
more to revisit his native land, and meet his family, from whpni he 
had been so long separated. After being fpr so long a period a slave, 
he had at last met a Christian Master who set him tree, and sent him 
to ask assistance from the Colonization Society, to enable him to re- 
turn to Africa. Let those who mourned over his unhappy fate, or 
who wished him to be restored to his country, cast the nrst stone at 
him (Mr. B.) or the Colonization Society ; and if sending this man 
home was to be called slave-making, he wished to be a slave-maker 
all his life. 

The old man of whom he was speaking was a scholar, and could 
write in the Arabic, and knew the Bible in his own language, though 
he was ignorant that the art of printing had ever been invented. He 
had left behind him a wife and ihree cliildren, and it was the earnest 
wish of the Society to Rend him home as soon as possible, in the hope 
that he might once more meet his family, before they parted, never 
more to meet in this world. 

The old man was then brought forv/ard and related in broken 
English, the principal events of his life. He was of an affluent if 
not a noble family, and went 900 miles to an institution to acquire an 
education. After that he taught a school for five years. He was 
then married, and at a subseauent period went to Timbuctoo to ob- 
tain paper. On his way back he was surrounded when asleep, and 
awoke by the act of his captors putting fetters upon him. He was 
then taken down to a slave ship and brought to this country. He 
ended his narrative by stating bis travels and transfer from master to 
master for the last 30 years, as mentioned by Mr. Breckenridge, and 
concluded by invoking a blessing on this country. 

Mr. B. then observed, that he would add a final word — it was es- 
pecially Addressed to the young men of that assembly. He conjured 



1835.] COLOmZATION MiaBtlNG. ^ 19 

them to. rouse themaelves upon this important subject, so peculiarly 
interesting to tlienir— for as the great Webster said — ''in the bosom 
of the younpr man is the sanctuary of freedom.'' 

The question was then taken upon the resolution, and it was 
adopted. 

The Rev. Cyrus Mason then offered the following resolution : — 

Resolvedy That this meetinp^ approve the plan of raising $16,000 in aid of the 
olyects of this Society, and that a subscription be now opened for the purpose. 

The resolution was seconded by W. L.Stone, who observed that 
before the subscription and collection were taken up, he had two 
facts to state for the consideration of the meeting. They had already 
been informed of the sailing of the expedition for Bassa Cove ; and 
he thought it well to apprise the meeting that it was intended to send 
another expedition of select emigrants, who were now waiting to 
embark, from Savannah. It was the present purpose of the New- 
York and Philadelphia Societies to send them in March next. Their 
Huraber is about one hundred and thirty — all people of information 
and character — having among them various artisans, teachers, and a 
clergyman. Towards. this object the New-York Board had pledged 
itself to raise one thousand dollars. The second circumstance which 
he wished to announce, was th^ contents of a letter just received 
from the Secretary of the Parent Board. It was not now introduced 
to the meeting for stage effect, since it had only been received upon 
the stage after the organization of the present meeting. It was ad- 
dressed to his friend bn his left, (Mr. Anson G. Phelps,) and ati- 
Aounced the fact, that a vessel was immediately wanting to transport 
to Liberia sixty-two recaptured African slaves— ^ixty-two human 
beings, under circumstances similar to those which the meeting had 
just heard detailed, respecting the venerable African now before 
them. As an appeal to the meeting, he would not add another word^^ 

One thing more : It has been asserted by the foes of the Coloniza* 
tion Society, that the distinguished Christian Philanthropists of Eng- 
land were opposed to it. But, Mr. President, such is by no means 
the universal fact; and may I ask you, sir, (added Mr. S.) whether 
you have not recently received from the distinguished President of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society, f Lord Bexley,) a letter, in 
which his Lordship speaks favorably of th^ Colonization scheme? 

President Duer intimated that he had received such a letter. 

Mr. S. resumed, and observed, that he had no doubt that the meet- 
ing would be much gratified to hear the letter, if no objections ex- 
isted to making it public. 

President Duer remarked that the letter was written to him upon 
another subject, in part, but that if the meeting desired it, he would 
read it with pleasure. The letter was thereupon read as follows : 

FooTSCRAY Place, 18th Nov. 18'M. 

* Sir — I have the honor to acknowledge, with many thanks, your oblinne pre- 
sent, of pamphlets in defence of the American Colonization Society, wbicn Mr. 
Yail had the ^^oodness to forward to me. I am happy to obaerye that the cause of 
African Colonization is prospering in America, notvnthstanding considerable op- 
position. With UB it is very languifhtn|; ; owing, in a sreat degree, I believe, to the 
excitement occaiionsd by the emancipation of th« slaves in our Colonies, which 
absorbs public attention. This great measure may hereafter tonish some ma* 



so COLONIAL CONSTITUTION AND [January, 

terials for a firitUb Colony in Africa ; but I fear tbere are few of tbe Britisb Ne- 
groes 80 well qualified by education and habitB, to become peaceable and industri- 
ous citizens, as the settlers in Liberia. This must be the work of time ; and to 
transplant them without due preparation, would be only to entail misenr on them- 
selves, and those among whom tney are placed. While I think the Colony of Li- 
beria promises to be one of the greatest blessings ever bestowed upon Africa, I 
am ever, sir, wiUi every wish for the success of your benevolent Society, 

Your faithful servant 
Mr.DuER. • BEXLEY. 

It was received with applause : the resolatioo was adopted ; and a 
•ubscriptioD (and money) taken up amounting to near six hundred and 

FIFTY DOLLARS. 



COLONIAL CONSTITUTION AND PLAN OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 

Office of Uie American Colonization Society, 

Washington, Mat 18, 1825. 
At a special meeting of the Board of Managers of the American 
Colonization Society, the Digest of the Laws and the Plan of Civil 
Government for Liberia, as adopted by the Agents of this Society, 
having been read and considered, it was, on motion, 
^ Retoheit That the Board of Managers, coosidering the satisfactofy information 
afforded by recent accounts from the Colony, of the successful operation of the 
Plan of the Civil Government thereof, as esteblished bjr their Agents in August 
last, and seeing therein reason to reconsider tiieir instructions to tiie Ageht, of tiie 
29th of December, 1824, now approve of the principles in that form of govern* 
ment, and g^ve their sanction to the same. 

Bitohed, That the digest of the laws be referred to a Committee to examine 
the same, and compare uiem with the Constitution and Laws of 1820, and report 
to the next stated meeting. 

Washington, May 28, 1825. 
At a meeting of the Board of Managers, this day, the Committee 
appointed at the last meeting, presented the following resolutions, 
which were adopted : 

Retolved, That the Board, having considered the Digest of tbe Laws now in force 
in the Colony of Liberia, dated August 19, 1824, as prepared by the Agent, do ap- 
prove ^he same, and declare the same to be, under the Constitution, tbe law of the 
Colony, adding thereto the following: In case of fiulure to find recognizance for 
good behavior, when required, the person so failing shall be subjected to such la- 
bor on the public works, or other penalty as the Agent shall prescribe, until he 
shall find recognizance, or the object for which it was required of him shall have 
been answered. 

In all cases of banishment, where the ban^hed person has no heir in the Colo- 
ny, the land held bv him shall revert to the Colony. 

Ruohed, That tnis declaration of the law of the Colony, shall not be construed 
to annul or impair any regulation which the Agent, under his constitutional au- 
thority, may have seen fit to establish subsequent to Uie above date of August 1$, 
1824. 

R$$ol9ed, That the Resident Agent cause to be nrinted two tliousand copies of 
tbe Constitution, Government and Laws, of tbe uolony of Liberia, as established 
by this Boaid at Washington, 28d of May, 1826. 

JAMES LAURIE, Jkting PreHdmt. 

R. R. GKntLKT* iMdmt Jtfnt. . 



1835.] I'l^AN OF CIVIL 60TEltNM£inr. 21 

CONSTITUTION 
Tw the Oavemment of the African Colony at Liberia. 

A&TicLS I. AH pcTBons born withia the limitB of the Territonr held by tho 
American Colonization Society, in Liberia, in Africa, or removing there to reside, 
shall be free, and entitled to all such rights and privileges ai( are enjoyed Irjr the 
•citizens of the United States. 

Articlk II. The Colonization Society shall, from time to time, make such rules 
tis they may tiiink fit for the government of the settlement, until thev shall with- 
draw their ^ents, and leiive me settiers to the government of themselves. 

Abticls ni. The Society's Agents shall compose a Board, to determine all 
questions relative to the government of the settieme'ht, shall decide all disputes 
between individuals, and shall exercise all judicial power, except such as they ^hall 
delegate to Justices of the Peace. 

Abticle IV. The Agents shall appoint all officers not appointed by the Mana- 
gers,^ necessary for the eood order and government ol* the settlement. 

AsTiCLS V. There sball be no davery in the settiement. 

Article VI. The common law, as in force and jnodi^ed in the United States, 
and applicable to the situation of the people, shall be in force in the settlement. 

Abticlx VII. Eveiy settier coming to the age of twenty-one ^ears, and those 
now of age, shall takfr an oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution. ' 

Abticlx VIII. In cases of necessity, where no rule has been made by the 
Board of Managers, the Agents are authorized to make the necessary rules and 
regulations, of which they shall, by the first opportuni^, inform the Board fi>r 
their approbation ; and they shall continue in force, until the Board shall send out 
tiieir decision upon them. 

Article IX. This Constitution is not to interfere with the jurisdiction, rights 
and claims of the Agents of the United States, over the captured Africans and 
others, under their care and control, so long as they shall reside within the limits 
of the settlement. 

, Article X. No alteration shall be m^de in this Constitution, except by the 
unanimous consent of aU present, at a regular meeting of the Board of Managers, 
or by a vote of tiro-thinls of the Members present at two successive meetings of 
the Board of Managers. 

I I 

The Board received from fbe Colomal Agent, Mr. Ashmun, early 
in last year, a Plan of Government, exhibiting several deviations 
from the form sketched in 18^, but in its principles the same. These 
deviations, Mr« Ashmun remarks, "have grown gradually out of the 
altered and improving state of the Colony, and are neither the off* 
spring of a rash spirit of experiment, nor have they been made with- 
out evident necessity." At a meeting of the Board of Managers, 
October 22d, 1828, it was determined to consider the revised Consu- 
ltation or form of Government, submitted by Mr. Ashmun, and after 
•due deliberation, it was 

JUsohfed, That the Constitution as modified by the Colonial Agent, Mr. Ashmun, 
as now in operation, be hereby ad(^)ted. 

[See this modified Constitution, Sixteenth Annual Report, p. 31*] 

Office of the American Colonization Society, 

Washinoton, January 80, 1884. 
At a meeting of the Board of Managers held this day, the follow- 
ing resolutions were adopted : 

1. Ritt^d, That the fourth article <>f.the Plan of Civil Government for the 
Colony of Xiiberia be so amended as to read for " iwo,^* <* six'* counsellors ; this 
amendment uot to take effect until the next annual election in the Colony ; and 
that the other articles be so altered as to correspond with this and other amend- 
ments which xDKf now be made. 

2. Bftobf^ That the A|^t, or <ln his absencey the Vice Agent, togetiier with 
the aforesaid six counseUora, shaU constitute a connoil, who sbd meet on the first 



^ C?OLONIAL CONSTITUTION AND [January, 

Monday of January and July of each year, and at such other times as the Agent 
shall deem expedient. The Agent, or, in his absence, the Vice A^ent shall pre- 
side at all their meetings. They shall have power to lay taxes, impose duties, 
make appropriations of public monies, &x the salaries of all officers te be paid out 
of the tunds to be raised in the Colony, and enact such laws as they may deem ne- 
cessary for the general welfare, subject, however, to the approval of the Colonial 
Agent and the Soard of Managers. Should any law be passed by the council and 
disapproved by the A^ent, he snail state to the council hit reasons for disapproval; 
and snould it uien be passeii unanimously by the council, it shall remain in force 
until the Board of Managers shall pronounce their decision upon it. 

8. Rtioloid, That from and alter the first day of May next, any officer or Agent 
of the Society or Colony, who shall be supplied with articles of living from the 
|iublic stores, shall be charged on the books of the Colony, twenty-five per cent, 
advance upon the ori^nal cost and freight of such articles. 

4. Euotved, That, from and after the first day of August next, the Colonial 
Agent, Physician, Assistant Physicians. Colonial SecretuV and Storekeeper only 
sbaU derive support from the Society: [that sitch support shall consist exclusively 
of the salaries nereafler mentioned ;] * and such officers as the Colonial Council 
majT-deem necessary, shall be paid out of the funds raised in the Colony ; and that 
from and after the first day of May next, the following salaries be allowed the said 
officers respectivelyt in full compensation of their services — ^that is to say. 

For the Agent, in addition to the acnount allowed by the Government of tlie 
United States, ....... |^i4oo 

For the PhysiciaD, - • - > • - - 1600 

For the Colonial Secretary, ..... 600 

For the Storekeeper, ,-.--.. 400 

Thb Plan of Civil GovsRincxNT roa the Coi.ont ov JLibcbia, 

At modified by Mr. AshmuD and by the foregoing resolutions, is as 
follows : 

The necessity of a mild, just and efficient Civil Government, for the preservation 
of individual and political rights among any people, and the advancement of true 
prosperity, induces the Boara of Managers of the American Colonization Society 
to aidopt, after mature consideration^ the following system of Government, for 
the proper segulatioo of public affaira in the Col6ny of Liberia : 

Articlx I. The Agent of the American Colonization Society, resident in the 
Colony, possesses witnin the same, sovereign power, subject only to the Constitu- 
tion, me chartered rights of the citizens, ana the decisions ofthe Board. 

AxTicLx II. All male colored people, who have subscribed the oath to support 
the Constitution, and drawn and not forfeited lands ia the Colony, shall be entitled 
to vote for, and be eligible to the civil offices of the Colony. 

Article III. The Civil Officers of the Colony shall be appointed annually; and 
the polls for the general annual election of the Colpny, shalrbe opened on the last 
Tuesday in Au/pist, and continue open not more than three, nor less than two suc- 
cessive days, in the different setUements. Elections shall be organized by the 
Sheriff, by the appointment in each settlement, of a President, two Judges, and 
two Clerks. 

Article IV. The Colonial Officers eligible by the annual sufirage of the free- 
holders, in which the Agent has the right to interpose his negative, assigning to 
the voters in time to renew the choice at the same election, his reason for such in* 
terposition are, for the Cohm/^ a Vice Agent, six Counsellors, a High Sheriff, a 
Register, and a Treasurer ; and for each of the settlements consbting of not less 
than sixty families, two Commissioners of Agriculture, two Commissioners to form 
a Board of Health, and two Censors. 

Article V. The Vice Agent shall be admitted to the counsels of the A^nt in 
all important matters; and shall express an opinion on all questions submitted to 



* The words in brackets were added, as declaratory, by a Resolution of the 
Board, April 24, 18S4 ; and the resolution thus amended, was communicated to the 
Ootonial Agent by leUer, dated Mi^ 15, 18t4. ( 8h Jfriean RfpoiUory, Vof. lp» 



leao.j 



PLAN OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 33 



his consideration. He shall aid the Agent in the discharge of bis various duties, 
and in the support and execution of the laws ; and in the event of the Agent's 
absence, or sickness, the Vice Agent shall become the General Superintendent of 
Publib Afiairs. 

Abticle VI. The Agent, or (in hit absence) the Vice Agent, together with 
the aforesaid six counsellors, shall constitute a council, who shall meet on ^e fint 
Monday of January and July of each year, and at such otiier times as the Agent 
shall deem expedient The Aj^ent, or in his absence, the Vice Ag;ent, shall pre* 
side at all their meetings. Tney shall have power to lav taxes, impose duties, 
make appropriations of public monies, fix the salaries of all officers to be paid out 
of the funds to be raised in the Colony, and enact such laws as they may deem 
necessary for the general welfare, subject, however, to the approval of the Colo' 
nial Agent and JBoard of Managers. Should any law be passed by the council, 
and disapproved by the Agent, he shall state to the councu'his reasons for disap- 
proval; and should it then be passed unanimously by Uie council, it shall remain 
in force until the Board of Managers shall pronounce their decision upon it. 

Article VII. The dut^r of the Counsellors shall also be, to aid tne Agent, or 
Vice Agent, with their advice and counsel, on subjects relating to the general wel- 
fare of the Colony, whenever thereto requested by either. 

Article VIII. The High Sheriff shau, either by himself or his deputies, aid in 
the organization of elections, act as Marshall for the Government or the Colony, 
execute all processes, jud^ents, and commands of the Court of Sessions, and 

Sirform, generally, the services required of the same Officer, by the common laws of 
nffland and the United States. 

Abticle IX. The Secretary of the Colony shall take charge ^f, and carefully 
keep all the papers, records and archives of the Colony, generally ; shall attend 
and exactly record the doings of the Agent in council : shall publish all the ordi- 
nances, and legal enactments of the &)vemment ; puolish Grovemment notices ; 
issue the A^enrs orders, civil, military, and judicial, to the proper functionaries ; 
deliver a fair copy of Grovemment papers necessary to be recorded, to the Regis- 
ter of the Colony ; and manage its internal correspondence, on the part and under 
the directions of the Agent. 

Article X. The Register shall record all documents and instruments relating 
to the security and title of public or individual property ; Government grants, pa- 
tents, licences, contracts and commissions, and all other papers which are properly 
a matter of record, and to which the Government of the Colony shall be a party. 

Every volume of records when completed, shall be delivered by the Register to 
the Secretary of the Colony, for preservation, among the archives of the Colony. 

Article aI. The Treasurer of the Colony shall receive and safely keep all the 
monies, and public securities required by law, or the judgment oi courts, to be 
deposited in the Public Treasury, and shall deliver up, and pay over the same, only 
to a requisition signed by the Agent, or Vice Agent of the Colony; to whom he 
shall render a statement of the public finances on the Monday preceding the an- 
nual election of the Colony. 

Article XII. The Commissioners of Agriculture shall report, and serve as the 
omn of the Government, on all subiects relating to the Agriculture of the Colony. 

The Commissioners composing the JBoard of Health, snail report, and serve as 
the organ of the Government, on all subiects relating to the health of the Colony ; 
shall ascertain the proner objects of medical attention ; report nuisances prejuai- 
cial to the public health, direct their removal, and make themselves generally ac- 
tive in diminishii^ the sufferings and dangers of the settlers caused by sickness. 

Each of t^ese GDmmittees shall record, for the future use of the Colony, all im- 
portant observations and facts relating to the subjectaof their «haige. 

Article XIII. The two Censors shaU act as conservators of the public morals, 
and promoters x>f the public industiy ; and be obliged to all the duties, and invest- 
ed with aU the legal nowers, on whatever relates to the public morals and indus- 
try, which are lawfmiy required of, and possessed by jgprand jurors, in such parts of 
the United States as recognize such auxiliaries to their ma^tracy. 

It shall be the special dufy of >those officers to ascertain in what way every per- 
son in their j>roper districts, acquires a livelihood ; to report or present idlers ; de- 
tect vicious or suspected practices ; and present for legal investigation and cure, 
«Tery actial or prooable evil, srowing out of the immoralfties, eiuer of a portion 
H)f the eommunrhr, or of indivMoals. 

Article XIv. The Judiciary of the Cotooy sluJl consist of the Agent and a 



S4 i^ORM OF BEQUESTS TO THE [Janaary^ 

compefeiit number of Justices of the Peaee, created by hii appointinent The 
Justices shall have cognizance of all cases affecting the peace, and of all criminal 
cases witiiin the definition of petU larceny, and aO actions of debt not exceeding 
twenty dollars. In the court of Monthly Sessions, wheUier acting as ia court m 
law, or a court of equity, the Agent or vice Agent shall preside, and the Justices 
to be his associates. 

, The court of Monthly Sessions shall have original juriscficfion in all actions of 
debt, in which the amount in litigation shall exceed twenty dollars ; and in criminal 
causes above the degree of petit larceny, and shall harve i^pellate jurisdiction in- 
all civil causes whatsoever. 

The requisite number of Constables for the Cdoiy shall be appointed by tiie 
Agent annually. 

A Clerk and a Crier of the Court of Sessions shall also be appointed by the said 
Court, annually. 

An Auctioneer, who shall conduct all auction sales, except those of tiie Sheriff 
and Constables in pursuance of the judment of the Ceuits of the Colony, shau 
also be created by annual appointment of the Agent. 

A Storekeeper, Librarian, Commissary of Onlnance, to be appointed by the 
Agent, shall be respected and obeyed in matters belonging to their respective fonc' 
tions, as officers of the Colony. 

Instructers in all public schools having the sanction of a public charter, or par- 
ticipating in any degree in the public funds, shall be appointed and employed by 
the regular school committees of the Colony, but with the Agent's approbation 
and concurrence. 

All Custom, Port, Infirmary, Medical, Guard and Police Officers, not appointed 
by the Managers of the Colonization Society, and whose services are reouired and 
defined by the laws of the Colony, togetiier with the public Measurers, Inspectors 
and Appraisers, shall be appointed by the Agent of the Colony. 

Article XV. The Mihtia of the Colony, shall consist wholly of such uniformed 
Volunteer Corps as shall obtain charters under the tjrovemment of the Colony ; of 
which charters, the followinj? shall be fundamental articles : 

1st. That the corps shall uways comply with any requisitions for their services, 
ei^er wholly or in part, made by the Executive Government of the Colony. 

2d. That ihe corps shall ever preserve and hold themselves and their arms and 
equipments in a $\kie of readiness for actual service, at the shortest notice. 

8a. That the Officers be commissioned by the A^nt; and 

4th. That they shall muster, parade, and serve m the line of the Colony, under 
General Officers, when thereto required by the Executive Government. 

Generd Officers sfasdl be appointed by fne Agent ; and whe» especial reasons do 
not forbid, shsU be taken from the Omcers of the several corps, and promoted ac- 
cording to rank, and tiie seniority of their commissions. 

All Military Officers and delinquencies, shall be tried by a General Court Mar- 
tial, to be composed, except the Officers and Guards of the court, of Commissioned 
Officers ; and to sit quarteriy . 

[For a digest of the Laws of the Cobny, see the Appendix of the Twelfth Re- 
port, page SS-I 



FORM OF BEQUESTS TO THE COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 

In some instances, objections have been raised against legacies to' 
the Society, on tke ground of its not being an incoiporated company. 
In order that beneyolent indiyiduals may execnttt their wishes in Ui- 
Yor of the Institution in a manner secure from cayil, we subjoin 
from the Eighth Annual Report, page 51, an extract from{a will, which 
was prepared by a Professional Gentleman, whose abilities, learning, 
and reputation, are not surpassed by those of any other ia the Union^^ 



.] COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 26 

The attention of the friends of Colonization is earnestly invited to it; 
and those who design making bequests in favor of tne Society, are 
•olicited to follow it strictly, taking care to substitute for the names of 
the President and Managers given in the extract^ the names of the Presi- 
dent and Managers for the time being: 

Extract from the last Will and Testament (dated the 16th April, 1822,) of Miss 
Elizabeth Lee Jones, fonnerly of Northumberland, afterwards of Fairfax, in 
Virginia: who died at the seat of her brother, Captain Thomas ap Catesby 
Jones, in Fairfax, on the day of 1822. 

** 4. I dve and devise to Bushrod Washington, Francis S. Key, Walter Jones, 
flie Rev. Dr. S. B, Balch, the Rev. O. B. Brown, the Rev. Dr. W. Wilmer, the 
Rev. Dr. James Laurie, the Rev. W. Hawley, the Rev. Henry Foxall, Dr. W. 
Thornton, Thomas Dougherty, Henry Ashton, Elias B. Caldwell, John Under- 
wood, and Richard Smith, the present President and Board of Managers 
of the American Society for colonizing the free people of color of the United 
States; and to the survivors and survivor of tiiem, and to their assigns, all the 
slaves now belonging to me, or whereof I shall die possessed ; and the future is* 
■He and increase of the same ; in trust for the following purposes and uses, to wit: 
Ist. To be held at the absolute disposal, and under the control and direction of the 
said Soaety, or of the Acting Managers of the same for the time being : so as 
inch disposal, control and direction. Be in furtherance and execution of the plan 
of colonization now adopted and pursued by the said Society ; or of the same plan 
ande> such modifications, as the said Society may, in its wisdom, hereafter institute 
and establish ; embracing, within the authority and intent of the said trust, any 

Slan for the preparatory education and discipline of the intended colonists, which 
le said Society, or the said Acting Managers, under its authority, may institute : 
the said slaves, and the future increase and issue of the same, to be neld, at all 
times hereafter, subject to the orders and disposal of the said Society, or of the 
Acting Managers of the same, for the purposes, either of colonization and com- 
plete emancipation, or of such preparatory education and discipline as aforesaid. 
And in the case of the death, resignation or removal to an inconvenient distance of 
any of the said trustees to whom the said slaves are devised as aforesaid, or for 
any other cause deemed sufficient by the said Society, or by the said Actibg 
Managers of the same, they the said trustees, or such of them as remain or sur- 
vive, snail or may either assign over the said trust entirely, or admit into a partici- 
pation of such trust, by special assignment, such person or persons, as may be 
appointed by said Society, or by the said Acting Managers thereof. 

" 2d. But as it is uncertain when the said Society, or the said Acting Managers 
thereof, may be in a condition to assume upon themselves the practice execution 
of the said trust, it is therefore my will and desire, that, in the mean time, until 
the said Society, or suah Acting Managers, shall see fit to interpose and call for 
the said slaves, or any of them, in order to be disposed of in furtherance and exe- 
cution of the said trust ; the said slaves, or such of them as may not be called fo^* 
as aforesaid, shall serve my relations, and shall be appointed among them as £>1- 
lows." [Here follow parUcular allotments of the several neeroes amongst thr re- 
latives of the testatrix.] *< Such services being given upon me express conation, 
and with an implicit reliance upon the kotwr and good faith of my said re^tions, 
tiiat the said slaves respectively allotted to them, sndl receive such mora^ and re- 
ligious instruction, and be so habituated to the useful arts of domestic Vfe,^ as ^ to 
prepare them, as w/ell as circumstances will allow, for their ultimate destination 
of emancipated colonists ; and, in particular, that the ehUdren be ^ared with a 
view to that destination.** 

[Here follow some provisions for certain of the negroes who ^ete thought too 
old for colonization.] 

** And as to the boy Davy, son of Nancy, it is my earnest ^h and recc^Lmen- 
dation to the trustoes herein before named, and to my executMV, that he be imme- 
diately put to school, on some public foundation, in order to be educated as a Mis- 
sionary to Africa, or as a Minister of the Gospel to be settled in the proposed 
Colony in Afirica, under the patronaee of the said Sociilj; and if it be found im- 
practicable to get bim admitted into any pubBer scboot, fktsn tiiat the best and 

4 



its ACCURACY. -Janaary, 

ipeediedt arrangjement be made for placing him iu the &mily of some Minister of 
the Gospel, upon condition of his receiving the necessary instruction to fit him for 
such Ministry among the people of tiis own class." . 

<* Sd. If it shall so happen that the s4id Colonization Society, or the Acting 
Managers of the same, shall not find it expedient within ten years after my de- 
cease, to execute the trust herein before declared, in regard to the colonization of 
the said slaves : then f do hereby declare and desire, that after they shall have re- 
ipectively served the persons to whom I have devised their services, as herein be- 
fore declared, for the space of ten years from my decease, they shall be absolutely 
and unconditionally emancipated and free; reserving, as before, to the said trustees 
and their assigns, under the direction of the said Society, or of the Acting Mana- 
gers of the same, full and unlimited discretion and authority, at any time within 
uie said ten years, to witlidraw the said slaves, or any of them, from such service, 
and forthwith to emancipate and colonize them ; or subject them to such prepar- 
atory course of education and discipline, as is herein before provided.'* 



lF)rom the Journal of Freedom, New Haven, ( Conn.) October Sy 1884.] 

ACCURACY. 

The Emancipator, which journal is an official organ of the Ameri- 
can Anti»Slavery Society, introduced Mr. Birney'a letter with the fol- 
lowing statement : 

LETTER OP HON. J. G. BIRNEY. 

As the writer of the following letter is not extensively known in (the Eastern 
States, it is deemed proper to state, that in the South-west, he has maintained the 
highest standing, both as a citizen, a christian, and a professional man. A native 
of Kentucky, and connected by birth and marriage with most of the leading 
families of the State ; he resided 15 years in Alabama, and was in the way to its 
highest honors. He was Solicitor General, had the offer of a seat on the bench of 
the Supreme Court, and was appointed by the Lecnslature to nominate, at his sole 
discretion, the Faculty of the State Universihr. Since his return to Kentucky, he 
has been offered the nrofessorship of Political Economy, Rhetoric and Belles Let- 
tres, in Centre College, at Danville. 

Here the reader will notice, first, a general statement, supported by 
specificatioDS. The general statement is undoubtedly correct, at least 
SRifficiently correct for the careless writing of newspaper editorials. 
Mr. Birney i^ a man of eminent standing in *' both*' of the three re- 
spects mentioned, viz: '^as a citizen, a christian and a professional 
man.^ But notice the specifications. 

J. Mr. Birney is the " Hon. J. G. Birney." 

S. He belongs by birth and marriage to the aristocracy of Ken- 
tucky. 

3. He ha& resided fifteen yearsi in Alabama. 

4. He was Vi the way to the highest honors of that state. 

5. He was SUicitor General of Alabama. 

6. He had the offer of a seat on the bench of the Supreme Court 
of Alabama. 

7. He was appointed, by the legisUUure to nominate, at h%$ own 
dUeretum, the Faculty of the State University of Alabama. 

6. Since hit return to Kentucky, he has been offered the Professor- 



1838.] ACCURACY. 27 

ship of Political Economy, Rhetoric, and Belles Lettres, iD Centre 
College at Danville. 

These eisht specifications include every particular assertion made 
by the Editor of the Emancipator ; and hov^ many of the eight, 
think you, are true in manner and form as alleged ? Mr. Birney has 
thought proper to answer this question, in the following letter to the 
Emancipator. - 

Danville, (Ky.) Se^ 7, 1884. 
3b ike Editor of the Em&ne^jKUar: 

In your remarks, prefixed to my letter addressed to Mr. Mills of Kentodnr on 
the subject of colonization, and republished in your paper of August 26, you have 
been led into some errors, which I trust, you will enable me, through the same 
channel, to correct. 

1. At no time, during my residence in Alabama, did I hold the office of Solicitor 
[Attorney] General ; nor any other, which, according to the style of address used 
in the West and Southwest, would entitle me to the prefix of * Honorable' to my 
name. The mistake in relation to the office of Attorney General, originated, 
doubtless, in the ftct of my having held for a few years, that ot Solicitor, in one 
of the Judicial Circuits of that State. 

2. Neither did I have the offer of a seat on the bench of the Supreme Court of 
that State. This station— had I been rash enough to have aspired to it, under any 
circumstances — would, at any period in the last ten years of my residence there, 
have been closed against me ; because of my unpopular political opinions and per- 
sonal preferences, and of my open support or some of the benevolent opera- 
tions of our day, against which strong prejudice existed in the minds of a large 
majority of the people and of their representatives in the legislature. 

S. I was not appointed bv the legislature with power to nominate, at my sole 
discretion, the Faculty of the State University. Bein^ one of the Trustees, who 
are elected by the legislature, I was appointed by their Board, to visit any part of 
the United States, at my discretion — ^that I might obtain the names of distinguished 
gentlemen, who would consent to occupy, if afterward elected, the Presidency of 
that Institution, and the Professorship of Ancient Languages and I^iterature. 

4. Since my return to this State, mere has been no cfflcial or formal offer to me 
of the Professorship of Political Economy, Rhetoric and Belles Lettres in Centre 
College. It was, I believe, the understanding of the Board of Trustees, of which 
I am myself a member, that, during the absence of Professor Green [who filled the 
above chair] in Europe, whitiier he was so soon to depart, and where, it wad expected, 
he would remain some eighteen months or two years, I should be elected, ad m- 
Urim, to his station, with the inducement, tiiat my situation in the college would, 
almost without doubt, be made permanent. About the time Professor Green's duties 
in the colleire were to cease, previously to his setting out, Jlboliiion began to be 
much talked of, and its progress deprecated. I thought it not improbable, that my 
decided opinions on this subject might, if fhlly known to the rest of the Trustees, 
have some influence on their minds in reference to the station I was about to as- 
sume in the college. I therefore, [bein? necessarily absent myself, at this junc- 
ture,] left it to the discretion of President Youn^f, to whom my opinions on slavery 
and aoolition were fully known, whether or not, he would bring them up to the 
consideration of the other Trustees, before I should become formally connected 
with the institution. This he thought it his duty to do; and so far as I have been 
informed, it was the unanimous opinion of those he consulted, that my connection 
with the college as a Professor, under such circumstances, would be injurious to it, 
especially in tiie estimation of the slaveholdin^ community upon wbich it had 
chiefly o rely for pupils. As I voluntarily submitted the case to these gentlemen, 
I have tmade no complaint of their decision. It has made no alteration in my 
friendly feelings towards them — nor, as I believe, in theirs towards me. 

If th e circumstances by which I have been surrounded, bewg trvd, have a ten* 
dency to advance me in the estimation of your readers, and to giVe an extriniic 
importance to any of my opinions or arguments — the correction ^f these, by pre- 
senting myself in my proper attitude, will, so Ux from being tbdught unnecesMiy* 
be considered, I trust, as aue to myself and to the cause of tnitb. 

I remain ve^y respectftilly, 

Mr WiLUAM GooDBi^L, New-York. J. 6. BIBlNEY. 



28 LIBERIA PROSPERING. [January, 

So out of eight particulars alleged as facts by the Editor of the 
Emancipator, only two remain uncontradicted by Mr. Birney ; and 
those are, the fact that by birth and marriage he is connected with 
the first families of his native state, and the fact that he has resided 
fifteen years in Alabama. 

The correctueas or incorrectness of the Emancipator's statement, 
is of no consequence whatever, except as showing how perilous it is' 
to receive, as a matter of fact, any thing, the truth of which depends 
on the accuracy of that paper. 

If the Editor will make such mistakes in telling a simple story 
about Mr. Birney, what credit shall be given to his statements about 
Liberia, the Colonizition Society, Mr. Finley, or the New- York 
riots? 



LIBERIA PROSPERING. 

Interesting Intelligence. 

Nsw-YoBK, December 18. 

We have at length advices from our friends who sailed from this 
port in the Jupiter, last June, for the African Colony of Liberia.— 
They arrived out, all well, in forty days, and were landed at Monro- 
via. The Liberia Herald, of September 26th, contains much inter- 
esting intelligence, some of which is more cheering from the Colony 
than any we have ever before had the pleasure of extracting from the 
Colonial Journal. The following letter from Josiah F. C. Finley, 
Esq., under the patronage of the Ladies' Society, will cheer the 
hearts of the friends of the noble and sacred cause of Colonization, 
and we beg leave to commend this letter, from a man of character, 
and truth, writing on the spot, to the attention of those well-inten- 
tioned citizens of thid country, who have been deceived by the 
countless misrepresentations of the opponents of the Colonization So- 
ciety : — 

2b Mettn, Robert Stanton, and McMatUrs, 

Students of Cmdnnatit OAto, Lane Seminary: 

Mt Dear Friends — ^We arrived here safely, afler a pleasant voyage of forty 
days, on the last day of July last. My highest hopes, my brightest expectations, 
are fully, and in most tilings, more than realized. 

I have never met with but one more flourishing town in Ohio or Indiana, nor 
hav6 I met with a single town in any part of your country where the people were 
more moral or temperate, or enterprising, or were more strict in their observance 
of the 8&bbath, than the people of Monrovia. Here is a climate congenial to the 
constitutions of those citizens who have lived here a year or two, and their children 
who have b«en born here — a soil far more fertile than any in the Eastern or middle 
divisions of ttie United States. Here all the necessaries, and very many of the 
luxuries of life^ may be raised with one-half or one-fourth of the labor which they 
would require ih your country. Almost every thing I see, raises Liberia so 
much in my estima^on, that I feel as confident as I do of my existence, that if my 
personal and christian firiend, who announced to the laree audience in Chatham 
street Chaoel, New-York, in May last, that the funeral Inell of the Colonization 
Society baa toUed, and who in the exuberant joy of bis soal. eloquently pronouDead 



1835.] ATJXILIART SOCIETIES, 21 

its euloftTj or perhaps, I might more properly say, its funeral maledictory benedic- 
tion, wul come out and examine this countiy, and this infant Republic for himsdf, 
that in less than two months he will become as ardent an advocate for the Coloni- 
zation Socie^ as any your country can produce. All this, my dear friends, is 
strictly and literally true, and yet Liberia is not what it may, nor what it ought to 
be. We have no college here. We have not so many thoroughly educated teachers 
«s we ought to have. We want a greater variety and lar^r supply of seeds — ^we 
want one or two manufactories — ^we want aid in building school houses and 
lurches. If the American pi:d>lic should, as m duty bound, furnish us with these, 
«nd assist none in coming here who are not temperate, moral, and enterprising, 
there are those now living who will see the day when this counby will equal at 
least the present prosperity of the United States. I would like to write more, but 
have not time. May I not hope toon to see vou in this countiy. You can come 
here with as much safety as you can go to the newly settled parts of Mississippi. 
Ever yours, JOSIAH F. C. FINLEY. 

Momrooia, Liberia^ Jtvgwt 9th, 1884. 

The same paper coDtains a valuable commnnication from Dr. Skin- 
ner, who has gone to the Colony as Physician, in regahl to the un- 
liealthiness of the town of Monrovia, and making a variety of im- 
portant suggestions for the sanitary improvement of its condition.— 
The difficulty has arisen from the fact that the town was built in a 
low position, where it does not receive the advantage of the direct 
breezes from the ocean. It is believed by Dr. Skinner, that the build- 
ing of a house upon a commanding situation, which he points out, 
for the reception of strangers until they are acclimated, will disarm 
the atmosphere of its terrors. 

The annual election has recently taken place, and certificates of 
•election are inserted in the Herald. 

The Herald of the 19th, mentions the arrival of the Jupiter, with 
passengers, medical men, and clergymen, for the Colony. , The Ju- 
piter left Monrovia soon afterwards, and was entirely lost on the 
t:oast in a storm, N« W. of Manna River. Crew saved. 

Rev. Colston M. Waring, Pastor of the First Baptist Chusch, died 
«on ihe 1^ of August. 



AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. 

We bave just been furnished with a list of Officers and Managers 
■of the Washington Colonization Society, and with a Report of 
its proceedings at its last meeting. The list and Report are as fol- 
lows: 

Officers. 



M. St. Clair Clark, PrendenL 

Doctor Thomas Sew all, ^ 

Doctor Thomas P. Jones, > Vice PretidenU. 

William Hewitt, ) 

Managen, 
Darius Claobtt, Doctor Jane's C. Ha^a» 

S. J. Todd, Zaccheus C. Lxs, 

John P. Ingle, Gideon Pearcs, 

Col. Samuel Burch. 

William Mechlin, Tnoiwrer, 

JosiAH F. PoLx. Secretaire, 



30 A BRIEF REVIEW. [January ^ 

The Society met Id Trinity Church on Monday evening* the 
27th of January, 1834. A general invitation having been given, the 
meeting was large. 

The Society having been called to order, and after a prayer by the 
Rev. Doctor Laurie, the meeting was addressed by Elliott Cresson, 
John Coyle, Z. G. Lee, and David A. Hall, in support of the fol 
lowing resolution, which was unanimously adopted, viz: 

Resoloed, That this meetinij^ proceed forthwith to subscribe $1,000 in dooatiom, 
or to be paid in five annual instalments, ia accordance *with a reSohition adopted 
by the Parent Society at its late annual sieeting, to raise $50,000, to meet^ the 
exigencies of the Society. 

The sum of $l,l'l4, was then subscribed. 

The (lev. Mr. Gurley then addressed the meeting, and was fol- 
lowed by the Rev. Mr. Hawley, in support of the following resolu- 
tion, which was* also adopted unanimously, viz: 

JUtolvedf That this meeting recommend to every Church in the Dial rift, to 
make a subscription in furtherance of the proposition, to raise $IM),000, for the 
use of the American Colonization Society. 

A letter from the Rev. William M. AxKiNsoN.'of Petersburg, Va. 
was read to the meeting, shewing the light in which the projects of 
the Anti-Slavery Societies are viewed by the people of Virginia, and 
contrasting the efforts making by the people of that State to put an 
end to Slavery, with those of tibe Abolitionists, d&c. 



A Brief Review of the First Annual Report of the American AntU 
Slavery Society, with the speeches delivered at the Anniversary 
Meeting, May 6(A, 1634, addressed to the People of (he United 
States, by David M. Reese, M. D., of New- York. 

The Author of this Pamphlet has been for some time past a bold 
and active and vigorous supporter of the American Colonization 
Society. He has taken from the arduous duties of his profession, a 
large share of time that he might bring the claims of this cause be^ 
fore the American People. He has entered into the work, from ft 
deep sense of its importance, as a Patriotic and Christian enterprise 
of vast magnitude and promise. His opposition to the extrava- 
gances of the most wild and furious advocates of entire and instant 
abolition has been firm and fearless. In this pamphlet, he has shown 
the dangerous tendency of their principles and measures. He has 
* expressed his sentiments with vivacity, and in some cases, perhaps, 
with a less restrained and guarded severity than perfect discretion 
would have dictated. But it must be recollected that he published 
bis views at a time of prodigious excitement, and when the frienda 
of the people of color, and of the Federal Union at the North, felt 
bound to speak ont in decided tones against doctrines, which, how* 
ever honestly entertained* menaced the general welfare of the colored 
population and the peace of the country. We understand that this 
pamphlet has been extensively circulated and made a powarfiil in* 



X • 



1835.] A BRIEF REVIEW. 31 

pression. It is written with that force and spirit which distinguish 
the public addresses uf its author. We might dissent from some of 
the opinions of Dr. Reese, yet he has exposed very clearly and con- 
clusively the errors which lie at the foundation of the hostile designs 
against the Colonization Society. After reviewing the Report of the 
Anti-Slavery Society, and the speeches made at its Anniversary 
Meeting, and alluding to the causes which led to the disgraceful at- 
tempt to pat down the Abolitionists in the City of New-York, Dr. 
Reese, near the close of his pamphlet, has the following remarks : 

" Surely every citizen must feel a personal degradation in these shameful out- 
rages, which nothing: can justify, nor even excuse. However exceptionable and 
even offensive were the meeting^s of the Anti-Slavery Society, however dangerous 
their principles and mischievous their tendency, yet in a government of laws, the 
liberty of speech and of the press belongs to every citizen, subject only to the re- 
straints and penalties of the law. Any combination designed by brute force to inflict 
summary vengeance by a band of outlaws, is to be deprecated as an infinitely 
greater evil, than the causes which are made the pretext of such enormities. And 
accordingly, the perpetrators of these deeds of violence^ who were arrested In the 
act, have Men already subjected to the penalties of the violated law ; and a lesson 
has been thus taught to those who have escaped detection, which will doubtless 
deter them from a repetition of such offences. 

" It is a venerated maxim, that * freedom of opinion may be safely tolerated on 
any subject, while reason is left free to combat it.' And with reference to the 
doctrines and measures of the Anti- Slavery Society, no force is needed but the 
power of iruih. We have animadverted freely upon their official publications, be- 
lieving, as we do, that they contain sentiments wnich are dangerous to our country 
in its political, social, and religious relations ; and, as we have a right to do, we 
have attempted to prove that in their zeal for abstract principles, they have com- 
mitted violence upon the majesfy of truth. The public measures they propose are 
legitimately subject to criticism, as are also all the arguments and means they use 
to propagate their doctrines. 

" In exposing the errors they have committed, in detecting the misrepresenta- 
tions and falsehoods into which they have fallen* and in warning our countryilnen 
of the mischievous and dangerous tendency of this society, which we regard as an 
j^nti-American conspiracy against human rights and human libertv; we have 
aimed to do no injustice to the Society, or to individuals ; while at the same time 
we have fearlessly expressed our sentiments, with the warmth and earnestness 
which our convictions of truth and duty inspire. And now, in conclusion, we 
submit to the people of the United States the opinions v^e entertain on this im- 
portant subiect, with the reasons on which those opinions are founded, which 
uiough briefly expressed, are, we hope, sufficiently intelligible. It remains for 
every American citizen to form his own conclusions as respect his individual duty, 
whether to &vor the doctrine of immediate abolition as a remedv for slavery, 
without regard to consequences ; or to withhold from the Antt-Sfaveiy Society 
any countenance or patronage. And in the event of the latter conclusion being 
adopted, as Americans and a^Christians, we present to them the American Coloni- 
zation Siociety, as l>eing strictly national in its character; supremely benevolent in its 
designs ; wholly peaceable in its measures ; and une^cceptionable in its tendency ; — 
whether viewed as the only safe and practicable methoa of oromotlng the abolition 
of slavery in this country ; or as a plan for the elevation of the colored race in the 
land of their forefathers, where the God of nature designed them to be the lords of 
&e soil ; or as a means of introducing the lights of Cnristiaiuty and kindliog the 
tt^ of civilization upon that continent of heathenism.'* 



9% 



CONTRIBUTIONS. 



[January, 



CONTRIBUTIONS 
7b ihe Amer, Cohnizatum Society in the Month of Dettmber^ 1834. 



GerrU SmUk'aflnt Plan of Subteripium. 
Nicholas Brown, Providence, Rhode Island, ... 

Thomas Buffington, Guyandot, Virginia, . . . 

CoUecHans in Gkurehet, 
CJivton^ Portage county, Ohio, Presbyterian Church, by Rev. Jokn 

Seward, -..-..- 

Brandy wine, Chester county, by Rev. J. N. C. Giier, . - - 

Canonsburg, Pa. Presbyterian Church, by Rev. Dr. M. Brown, 
Chillicothe, after an Address by C. Moore, . . .i^ . 

Columbus, Pa., by the Rev. John H. Symmes, ... 

Derry, Pa., by Rev. James R. Sharon, ..... 
Fage*s Manor, Chester county. Pa., Presbyterian Church, by Rev. R. 

white, ........ 

Hammondsport, Steuben county, N. T., by Rev. £. O. Flyng, 
Lycominp, Pa., by Rev. J.H. Greer, . - - - 

Newark, New York, by Rev. Marcus Ford,^ 
New London, Chester county. Pa., by Rev. R. Graham,' 
Newtown, Bucks county. Pa., by Rev. Alex. Boyd, for 1888, 
Northumberland, Pa. Unitarian Church, bv Rev. James Kay, - 
Oswego, New York, by the Rev. Charles White, 
Penn Yan, Yates county. New York, by Rev. Wilber Hoag, 
Pine Creek, Pa., Presbyterian Church, by Rev. J. H. Greer, 
Salem and Blairsville, Presbyterian Church, by Rev. Thomflfe Davis, 
Steubenville, Presbyterian Church, by Rev. Cf. C. Beatty, 
Washington City, St. John's Church, by Rev. William Hawley, 

.Auxiliary Societiia. 
:^.^rael Township, Preble county, Ohio, by Rev. Nathan Brown, Treasurer, 
Mississippi, Presbytery, their first payment towards $1,000, pledged in 
February, 1834, ...... 

^bio State Society, by L. Reynolds, Treasurer, ... 
Pittsgrove, New Jersey, Female Society, by Mrs. Janvier, Treasurer, • 
Rbmney, Va., Auxiliary Society, ..... 

Tioga county. East Jury District, New York, by Charles P. Pexley, 
Treasurer, ...... 

DsnoHons, 
Albany, Richard V. Dewitt and John T. Norton, each $90, 

Benjamin F. Butler, - - ... 

Edward C. Delevan, Edw. H. Delevan, Packard and Van Ben- 
theysen, and James Gibbons, each $80, ... 
John S. Welch, John Woodworth and N. Wright, each $15, 
William Adams, ...... 

Sandford Cobb, Edw. Wilkins, £. W. Skinner G. W. Newell, 

Joseph Davis, and G. W. German, each $5, 
A. Sikes, $8, £. Alond and John Ewajls, each $2, 
H. Blackman, and S« Brownlee, each $1, ... 

New York, Joseph Brewster, (omitted by mistake iJi the December No. 
of the Repository,) ------ 

L Ohio, firom several individuale, by C. Moore, ... 

Romney, Va., from Wilbam H. Foote, - . . . - 

Sullivan county, Tennessee, from sundry individuals, 
Wa^iington City, Heniy Head, ....-• 



$100 
100 



8 
12 8» 

12* 

6 64 
10 

14 8& 

18 18 

2 
10 91 

9 

688^ 

7 55 
9 82 

16 
5 

10 91 
10 

10 68^ 
10 5a 



188 

160 
147 82^ 

10 

11 6t 

50 



120 
50 


120 
45 
10 


80 
7 
2 


100 
8 8^ 
8 88 
6 75 
2 5ft 



Nathan Brown, - 



jyticon Ripoftiory. 



2 00k 



THE 



AFRICAN REPOSITORYj 



AND 



COLONIAL JOURNAL. 



Vol. XL] ' FEBRUARY, 1835. [No. 5. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY, 

AT THE £IOnT££yTn ANXUIL ?I££T1KG. 

1 

The Ei£;hteenth Annual Meeting of the American Colonization Society 
was held in the Hall of the House of Representatives on Monday, the 19th 
of January, at 7 o'clock P. M.« in the presence of numerous visiters. 

At the commencement of the meeting, the Hon. Charles Fenton 
Mercer, one of the Vice Presidents of the Society, took the Chair, but 
afterwards 3^ielded it to the Hon. Henry Clay, a senior Vice President. 

The meetinj? was opened by prayer from the Rev. Dr. Laurie. 

The Rev. R. R. Gurley, Secretary of the Society, read (he names of 
the following; gentlemen, as Delegates fi-om Auxiliary Societies : 

From the iState Society of New Hampshire, Hon. Samuel Bell. 

From the Vermont State Society, Hon. Heman Allen, Hon. Benjamin 
Swift, Hon. William Slade. 

From the Massachusetts State Society, Hon. Edward liverett, Hon. 
Stephen C. Phillips, Hon. Isaac C. Bates, B. B. Thatcher. 

l*rom the Harttoixl (Conn.) Colonization Society, Flenry Hudson. 

From the New York City Society, David M. Reese, M. D., Colonel 
William Stone, George Douglas, D. Davenport, Rev. Cyrus Mason. 

From the Newark (N. J.) Colonization Society, Hon. Theodore Fre- 
linghuysen. 

From the Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania, Rev. 
John Brcckenridge, Rev. G. W. Bethune, John Bell, M. D.,Rev. Robert 
Baird, Elliot Cresson, Rev. W. A. McDowell. D. D., Hon. Joseph R. 
Ingersoll, Hon. Harmar Denny, and Hon. T. M. T. McKennan. 

From the Wilmington (Del.) Colonization Society, Hon. Arnold 
Naudain. 

From the Ohio State Colonization Society, Hon. Thomas Ewing, Hon. 
Tiiomas Morris, Hon. Robert T. Lytle, Hon. Thomas Corwin, and Hon. 
E. Whittlesey. 

From the Virginia Colonization Society, Chief Justice Marshall, Hon. 
John Tyler, Hon. William S. Archer. 

From the Kentucky State Colonization Society, Hon. Henry Clav, 
Hon. Robert P. Letcher, Hon. James Love, Hon. Thomas A. Marshall, 
Hon. Hiomas Chilton. 
5 



34 ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. [February, 

From the Indiana Colonization Society, Hon. William HendrickSt 
Hon. John Tipton. 

From the Washington City Colonization Society, Matthew St. Clair 
Clarke, Dr. Thomas P. Jones, William Hewitt, Seth J. Todd, Josiah F. 
Polk. • . 

From the Alexandria Colonization Society, Rev. S. Cornelius, Wil- 
liam Gregory, and Hugh C.^^^mith. 

The Rev. William M. Atkinson, George H. Burwcll, of Virginia, and 
several other life members, attended. 

The Secretary read extracts from the Annual Report, and the consi- 
deration of the Report was, on motion, postponed. 

George W. P. Custis, Esq., of the District of Columbia, offered the 
following resolutions : 

Rosolvedf unanimoualy. That, in deepest sympathy with the whole American 
People, and the friends of Virtue and Liberty throughout the world, the American 
Colonization Society mourns the loss of its lamented Vice President, General 
DE Lafatette. 

Hesolved, tinanimously. That the Secretary be requested to address, in behalf 
of this Society, a letter of condolence to the family of the late General di La- 
TATfiTT*, expressing the deep sympathy felt by the Society in the irreparable 
bereavement tliat mmny has sustained. 

Resolved, unanimously. That Ozougk Washixgtobt Lafatette, Esq. be, and 
he is hereby, elected a Vice President of the American Colonization Society. 

In sustaining the preceding resolutions, Mr. Custis gave a brief but 
eloquent sketcli of the life ofGeneral Lafayette, tracing out his illus- 
trious and eventful career of sacrifice and devotion to the cause of Liberty. 
He described him as a youthful volunteer, forsaking the luxuries of the 
French Court, landing upon our shores, and received to the bosom of 
the American Chief, who promised to be to him tk guide and protector, 
while Lafayette, disclaiming rank or emolument, profiered to serve in the 
armies of Liberty for Liberty's sake. 

We saw him fighting the battles of American freedom at the Brandv- 
wine and on the plains of Monmouth. Returning to his own country, he 
is received as the Bayard of his age, without fear and without reproach. 
His influence becomes immense, and he nobW exerts it in the cause of 
American Liberty. Cheered by the success ot his mission, he reassume» 
his rank in our armies, to fight our battles. Intrusted with his important 
command, he bore himself well amid the arduous trials of the campaign 
of 1781. 

Just before the close of the war, when the Count de Grasse arrived in 
our watei-s, and the Marquis de St. Simon landed with 3,000 veteran 
tror»ps, and it was proposeil to General Lafayette to rush upon the enemy 
in his last retreat, the tempting offer was declmed ; " for," said the youthful 
general, ** I could not, I dare not, attempt to pluck a single leaf from 
the laurel which is soon to encircle the brow of the beloved Commander- 
in-chief, then pressing on, by forced marches, to the consummation of 
his long and piighty labors, and the virtual termination of the contest; 
and again, if success had even been certain in the proposed attack, it 
must be attended by a great effusion of human blood." 

The speaker briefly noticed the subsequent conduct of Lafayette in his 
own country, up to the time of his arrival as *' the Nation's Guest" upon 
our shores. 

It is impossible, in this brief abstract, to do justice to his description 
of the |)rogress of this beloved friend to our country and mankind through 
the United States. Of his visit to Mount Vernon, he said : 

*' Let us attend the last of the generals, in his pious pilgrimage to the 
tomb of Mount Vernon. 

** It was in the decline of the year, and, as if the very elements com- 
bined to favor this good man's triumph, the season was genial, the air soft 



cr 

in 



ISoo.] ANNUAL PROCEEDlN(iS. 35 

4ind balmy, while llic sur shed his mild and beniguant ra^i'ditce aiuid the 
decav ol' nature. 

" rhe aged oaks that grow around the sepulchre, touched by the mel- 
lowed lustre of autumn, seemed emblematical of the autumnal honors ot* 
Lafayette, while ever and anon a leaf, ^a sere and yellow leaf,' would 
fall to the ground, marking the progress of time, and the fall of man : 
for the hero, when his race of glor^r is run ; the benefactor of mankind, 
when he has fulfilled the oharities of his mission on earth, they too must 
decline into the ^ sere and yellow leaf,' and fall to the ground, only to he 
renewed by the spring time of eternal life. 

^* A solemn silence reigned, save when broken by the deep and me;i- 
sured thunders of artillery, as they pealed from the neighboring fortress, 
awakening the echoes, and by tne s>^eetly plaintive strains of music, 
^vafted along the broad expanse of Potomac's glosEy wave. And many 
^vere gathered around to behold the pious spectacle that belongs to his- 
tory* bst none approached 5 no, not one ventured to intrude upon the sacred 
privacy of the scene. 

^^ The old man waved iiis hand, the door^ were opened, and the last of 
the generals of the army of Independence descended to the cold and 
lonely precincts of the tomb. For a time he appeared to be wholly 
absorbed in the immensity of his reflections ; and iih, sir, while bending 
over the remains of his hero, his friend, and a country's preserver, how 
4nust the associations of the heroic time, the events ot the days of tiial, 
liave crowded in quick succession on the retina of memory. At length, 
summoning his energies to their last great clfort, he kneeled, and pressinj 
)iis lips to the leaden sarcophagus, containing the ashes of the chief, 
the tomb of the Pater Patriae; received from the most venerable of its pil- 
grims its proudest homage, in the geuerou% the fervent, the filial tear of 
Lafayette." 

After alluding briefly to the disinterested eflforts of this veteran friend 
of Liberty, during the late revolution in France, Mr. Custis closed his 
tribute to this great and virtuous man in the following words : 

*' Lafayette, on finding that the times were ' out of joint,' resignpd his 
command of the Garde ISfationale^ and retired to his chateau of La Grange; 
and France will require another Three Days, ere she enjoy the substance 
of Liberty, after the enormous sacrifices she hath made for its shadow. 

*' It was while a member of the popular branch of the National Legis- 
lature, an object of intense interest to the friends of freedom in the 
old world, and watching wit4i eagle eye the course of events, that the 
"tiays of Lafayette were numbered on cartli. With the courage of a sol- 
dier, and the calmness of a sage, he met the dread summons that none 
may refuse ; and full of years and honors, in peace with himself and 
with all mankind, the aged apostle of Liberty tn two hemispheres closed 
tiis well spent life. 

** And shall he rest in the land which, forgetful of his virtues, and 
abandoning his principles, is unworthy of his ashes ? Surely, where 
Liberty dwelU, tnere, there alone, should be the sepulchre of her apostles! 
Iiet the flag ef the Brandy wine again float on the breezes of la belle 
France, claiming for America the remains of the last of the generals of 
lier army of IndepeHdeuce, and bearing them to the hallowed heights of 
Mount VeKnon, there to repose by the side of the Chief, that, united as 
they were in liie, so should they be in death — the master of Liberty and 
i)is great tiisciple. 

**My tale is told. Peace to the ashes of Lafayette ; and may * the 
peace that passeth- all understanding' shed its divine influence upon the 
good and gallant soul now awaiting its reward in higher and better worlds. 

^^ And when America, in some long distant day, proud of the fame and 
memory of the patriots, warriors, and statesmen, who achieved 'her inde- 



36 ANNUAL PKOCEEUINGS. [Februery, 

pcmlfncc, nud rounded her empire, shall bid them * live forever' in 
marble mcinnrials, in adorn the J^e;;islative Palace, in loOy niche, in (he 
Temple of National Gratitude, will appear (he statue of the Gallic Hero, 
our country V early friend and benefactor ; while on the bra/.en tablets, 
erected to perpetuate the lives and actions of our peat and renowned, 
brightly will be inscribed the name, the virtues, and the services of 

JjAFAYKrrE." 

The orator closed his address amid general applause, and the resolutions 
were unanimously adoptcil. 

The Hon. Samuel L. SovThaud, of New Jersey, offered the folb)win;; 
resolutions : 

licsolvcd. That this Society hipfhly approve of the course adopted by the Board 
of Manag^ers fur lliQ past year, for reducing tiie outstanding debts of this institu- 
tion, and recomiTicncl a continuance of a like policy, until the whole be di&- 
cbtrged. 

Ittsolced, Tliat, notwithstanding the subject has repeatedly been urged on tfic 
Agent by the Board of Managers, agricultural ptu'suits have hitherto been too 
little attended to in the Colony, and that no further lime ought to be lost in in- 
troducing such working animals as are best suited to a tropical climmte, in order 
to bring into use tlie plough, harrow, and cart, without which farming cannot be 
successfully carried on. And that women and children may, in fnture, be use- 
fully employed, it is proper that wheels, cards, and looms, should also be sent to 
the Colony. 

JRcsoivecl, That the exploration of th^ interior of Africa, contemplated by the 
Board of Managers, promises great advantages to the Colony of Libei'ia, as, from 
the late despatches from thence, it appears that Millsburg, its most easterly settle- 
ment, is found to be very salubrious, and it is believed that the interior portions 
of the country will, hereafter, be the most desirable situation fur such emigrants 
as intend to devote themselves to^he cultivation of the soil. 

In support of the foregoing resolutions, Mr. Southard addressed the 
Society in a short, but highly eloquent speech . He commended the Board 
of Managers for resolving to pay olF the debt which thctoozealoris efforts 
of the Society had heretofore incurred ; and he had no <loubt that, by 
sending to the Colony a less number of emigrants than heretofore, for a 
year or two, the Board would be enabled, not only to discharge the debt 
of the institution, but to make such improvements at Liberia as will make 
It a most desirable asylum for such nf our free colored population as may, 
from time to time, desire to enjoy the bb>ssings of freedom. 

In reference to the second resolution which M.-. S. proposed, every 
farmer in the country would see the propriety of adopting it. All know 
that little progress can be made in cultivating the earth without suitable 
working animals, ploughs, harrows, and other implements of husbandry; 
yet, strange to say, it appears that the emigrants have hitherto been so 
intent on trailic, in order to raise a little ready gain, that nothing deserv- 
ing the name of agriculture has been attended to, having extended their 
views no further to this great object than by raising small crops of vege- 
tables by means of the hoc and spade. Should this resolution be adopted, 
and fully carried into effect, we shall no longer hear of the ruinous policy 
of spending thousands of dollars here in the purchase of provisions to 
support the emigrants at Liberia. With well directed industry, no doubt 
can be entertained that the inhabitants will not only raise sufficient food 
hereafter for their own support, but a surplus for sale to others. 

This, said Mr. S., will more especially be the case, should the plan of 
exploring the interior country, contemplate<l in the last resolution, be 
successfully carried into effect. It is well known that the seaboard ot* 
all our Southern States is more or less low, swampy, and insalubrious ; 
and the seacoast of Africa is still more so. But, as the western portions 
of our Southern countiy are remarkably healthy, so, it is saicl, is the 
interior of Africa ; and, like our Southern States^ well adapted to agri- 
cultural pursuits. It will, in future, therefore, no doubt, be found good 



1835.J 



ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. 37 



policy to place such emigrants as are fittest to cultivate the soil (certainly 
the best employment for most of them) in the interior country, where^ 
enjoying good health, they will soon convert the unprofitable forests into 
fruitful and well cultivated farms, sufficient to supply not only their own 
wants, but all the wants of the Colony, and, ere long, have a spare surplus 
for exportation. 

Mr. S. then adverted to the incipient stages of the Colony, when it 
had been necessarj^to condense its population in order to defend it from 
attacks, as well from the natives of tlic country as from pirates engaged 
in the slave tra<le ; and to the trials through which the Society had passed 
in bringing the Colony to the present point in its progress. Rut instead 
of viewing these as causes of regret, he rather rejoiced at the review ; 
considering them as the salutary discipline of Providence, acting under 
that general law, by which those things that were to be great and useful 
neemed destined first to pass through struggles and difficulty. The fos- 
tering care of Government, he said, never had caused any colonies to 
prosper. They had advanced by their own energies, called up in combat- 
ing the obstacles around them ; as an illustration of which, he adverted 
to the barrenness of New England, and the history of the Puritan emi- 
grants. The Society, having trampled over difficulties abroad, was now 
assailed by a new difficulty at home, in the opposition of many misguide<l 
men ; but he viewed this too without regi*et, believing that, like the 
others, it would only conduce to elicit the energies, and combine the 
efforts of the friends of the colonization cause. He spoke in strong terms 
of the good intentions and determined purpose of the great body of the 
people at the North, in relation to slavery. They condemned the sys- 
tem, he^aid, but would pay a sacred regard to the vested rights of the 
citizens^ atul wotdd preserve the constitution from violation in' the pro- 
tection it extended to the possessions and the domestic peace of the peo- 
ple of the South; and he had no sooner uttered the sentiment than he 
was interrupted by a long burst of spontaneous applause. Towards the 
close of his remarks, Mr. S. referred, in a strain ot deep feeling and im- 

f)assioned elof|uence, to the character of the late Mr. Finley, who was 
lis neiglibor ahd friend, the friend of Africa, and the originator of the 
Society, to whose devot^Ml zeal he paid a beautiful and merited eulogium; 
and adverted' to the examination, which, as Secretary of the Navy, it had 
been his duty to give to the plan and purposes of this- Society ; and bor« 
his most unequivocal testimony in favor of its claims upon the Govern- 
ment for co-operation in the establidmient of an agency on the African 
coast ; and concluded by pressing the necessity of cherishing the interests 
of ngriculture in the Colony, and spreading its settlements abnKid, as the 
cmly nieans of elfectually defeating the designs of those neJixrious men 
who haunted the coast for human prey. 
Mr. Southard's resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

n. B. Thatcher, Esq., of Boston, offered the following resolution, 
which was unanimously adopted : 

Resolved^ That llie difficulties tthich have thus far attended the proceedings nf 
this inHtitution furnish nu reasonable {if round of distrust, or discuurug'en^ent, in 
regard either to the soundness of its principles, or the final and total success <»f 
its scheme. 

Mr. TiiATcnER remarked, that some of the suggestions he hat/ in- 
tended to offer in reference to this resolution haifbcen anticipa'ed by 
the gentleman from New Jersey, [Mr. Southard,] but in such a man- 
ner (he need not say) as to leave neither necessity of repetition nor oc- 
casion of regret. The spirit of that gentleman's comment on the difti- 
culties of the Society, however, he .•should gladly assume, as far as he 
was able, for he <leemed it worthy of all admiration. Such difficultifs . 
were no new thing in the history of any institution. Our own was, and 



38 ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. [February* 

is, in its very nature, liable to them in a peculiar degree, and liable to 
many which must be peculiar to itself. The Colony, the principal seat 
of the Society^s operations, is at a great distance from the Society itself. 
The materials of which it consisted, the mod^ of its management, the 
country, the climate, every thins; relating to its location and thrift, wa» 
wholly experimental. The whole scheme was an experiment. It had 
no precedent; it has no parallel. Its managers, wlu), of. course, were 
only men, could only avail themselves, like other men, and other man- 
agers, of the results of experience, and of the wisdom which experience 
alone could give; and this experience must be their own. It could not 
be borrowed from analogous institutions, for none such existed. The 
light of other days was no light for them, for their enterprise was sub- 
stantially the first the world had seen of the series. Not, indeed, that 
colonization was a new thing. Every body knows better than that. Eve- 
ry body knows that colonies have been the pur\'eyors and the conveyors 
of the arts, sciences, and religion of nations; that they have communi- 
cated it from clime to clime, and transmitted it from age to age: that the 
history of colonization, in a word, has been, from firet to last, the history 
of civilization; that we are the children of colonists'; that this vast and 
flourishing empire, stretchinj^ itself, as it does, from shore to shore, till 
it promises to cover the continent as the waters cover the sea — this was- 
but the result of the last great exemplification of the same great scheme. 
No I not the last. The last was our own. It was the renewal on tlif^ 
African shore, in 1820, of tlie splendid drama acted on the ^^ stern and 
rock-bound coast" two centimes before. Still, ho\«ever,it remains true,, 
that, to all personal, practical, economical purposes, the managers of thi^f 
institution could be guided only b>^ their own experience in the strictest 
<«ense. The old principle of colonization itself, its practicability, its ap- 
plicabilitv to all sorts of circumstances heretofore, were the only data 
they could start with. The circumstances themselves of the ne\v appli- 
cation, and the practicability, and the whole policy of that application,, 
constituted an experiment which trial and time ^lone could determine. 

Mr. T. here made some remaiks on {\\q extent of the operations of this 
Society, the necessary extent, as an intrinsic occasion of some embar- 
rassment to which few others were exposed. They included an organi- 
zation at home and abroad, euch suflicient for one Society; they incliKled 
the selection and qualification of emigrants* as well as their removal and 
establishment on the other side; the maintenance of a system of the 
means of transportation; the care of all the institutions of the Colony, 
and the constant provision of ne\v ones; the supervision of its govern- 
ment: the erection of public buildings; the opening of roads into the in- 
terior; the purchase of new territory; the commerce of the coast; the 
care of the recaptured Africans; and the whole routine of negotiation with 
the natives. 

That there had been faults, however, in the management of affairs, 
Mr. T. said he should not pretend to deny; it was only admitting, after 
all. that the institution was conducted by the instrumentality of men. 
The chief fault was one, he thought, which even their enemies, keen as 
they were, had not pointed out; nay, it was the reverse of what bad been 
cl»argcd against them. They had been accused at the North of *' doing 
too little.'^ He woulO not stay to examine the grace with which this ob- 
jection is advanced by those who do nothing themselves, at the best, to 
help us> and perhaps exert every nerve, on the other hand, to defeat our 
schemes, Tind destrojr the confidence of the public. These people seem 
to fancy that the Societjr has an inherent inexhaustibility, like the water 
of a beleagured city, within the waits; rendering it independent (as he 
could wish it were) of the patronage or the praise of a certain part of the 
community. But whatever the consistency between the argument ami 
the action of our f(iK»s, the alif'gation is not true. The reverse is so. Our 



1835.] ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. 39 

great fault has been the doing and attempting too much, Tt was, to be 
sure, a natural error. The evils of a forced growth of the Colony, and 
what was, in fact, a forced gnowth, could only be learned by experience; 
it depended, in some degree, on the character of the materials, and the 
potential competency of the management, both which must be tried. It was 
almost a laudable error. It arose from an anxiety to extend the very ends 
of the institution, all that was good in it, by gratifying as many as possible 
of the applicants for its charity , whether bond or free, and as last as possi- 
ble, of course. Still, it was an error which would bear better to be excused 
than to be repeated. Fortunately, it had been discovered in due timer, and 
corrected; and the excellent conduct of affairs for the last year is an ear- 
nest that nothing further need be feared upon this score. It was now under- 
stood, it could not be understood too well, it should never be forgotten, 
that the true policy of the Society consists not in the increase, but in the 
prosperity of its settlements; not m the transportation of emigrants to the 
Colony, but in the preparation of the Colony for emigrants; not in how much 
is done, or how fast it is done, but in how it is done; not in the haste or 
the height of the edifice, but in its strength. There must be, above all 
things, comfort in the condition, and capacity in the character, of those 
who went there. There must be agriculture, order, education, morality, 
religion; there must be hospitals, roads, schools, colleges, churches; es- 
tablish these, and the rest "shall be added unto you." There will be 
•men enough, you may be sure; intelligent men will always go where 
their interest leads. And these things will make them and keep them 
men indeed, freemen, citizens. Christians. These are the elements of 
success and of greatness in a nation; it is not the size of your colony, 
nor its growth^ it never was the size or growth of any colony, or of any 
country. No sir i It is not these which " constitute a State." It is not its 
numbers, nor the extent of its territory; it is not the amount of its ex- 
ports and imports; it is not its mines, nor the might of its armies, nor 
Its navies, that sweep the seas; it is not its physical resources of any kind, 
but its men— 

"High minded men, 

That know their rights, and knowing, dare maintain : 

These constitute a State." 

How much, said Mr. T., it may have been (in this view of the matter) 
for the best interests of the Society and the Colony, that a strong oppo- 
sition to both— he might say, perhaps, a rancorous prejudice— had been 
fostered in some parts. of the country, he need hot undertake to show. 
He believed, however, the conviction would one day be established, that 
the same overruling Providence which had heretofore so signally crowned 
our operations with its favor, had, in this respect, and especially as re- 
gards the colored people of the 'Sovih^ protected us from what, under 
other circumstances, might have been a fatal source of disaster. If those 
people, without reference to the domestic diversity between their circum- 
stances and those of their brethren farther South, had been as eager as 
the latter have been for colonization, and crowded into it in the same 
proportion, it might well be doubted if the settlements would now have 
been in existence. The multitude of the invasion would have utterly 
borne them down — the mere multitude — independently of any difference 
of character, and independently of the fact that the difference of climate 
is alone a sufficient reason, in the present stage of the business, why no 
colored man from New England should be suffered to go out, were he 
ever so anxious to go. The first result of such emigration, to any con- 
siderable extent, would have been inevitably to ruiii the reputation of the 
Colony; and the second, to ruin the Colony itself. He did not know 
how many other of what have been called the difficulties of the Society 
would turn out to be the very means of its preservation . This, certainly, 
would seem to be one. 



40 ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. [February* 

What he had termed the true policjr of the Society would appear more 
clearly from a consideration of its original design, and its great purpose 
at ail times. No small injury had sprung from the misapprehension of 
both. Hence the imputation of every sort of faqatical and fantastical 
schemes, which he would not detail. Hence the odium of these schemes, 
with alt their several sins on their heads. Hence the additional odium 
of inconsistency in the pursuit of so many; and of inefficiency, or insuf- 
ficiency at any rate, in the pursuit of all. Hence the confusion of the 
Society's true scheme with the arguments in favor of it; and the confu- 
sion At its immediate object with its ultimate results. These results \yere 
ultimate. They were potential rather than actual, perhaps problematical, 
at least in some degree; at the best, only matter of argument,'and also 
of secondary (though not of trivial) importance. Not so with the imme- 
diate object or the original design. This was perfectly simple, and as 
clear as <laylight. Nobody could misunderstand it. It was practicable; 
nobody disputed it. It was unobjectionable; nobody found fault with it; 
not even that part of the public who oppose us most bitterly, merely be- 
cause they have imagined designs for us, not perhap without a needless 
color of reason heretofore furnished by us, but which nevertheless do not 
belong to us. it was sufficient, too, as much as any one institution could 
or should sustain. And what was it? Was it the abolition of slavery in 
the United States? Was it the perpetuation of that system, or the pro- 
longation of it? For we had been accused on either side, with a rival 
bitterness, of both. Far from it. Was it the abolition of the slave trade, 
or the civilization of the Africans, or the promotion of scientific, or com- 
mercial, or national purposes of any sort? 0^* was it the removal of the 
whole colored population of this country, or oi the whole of the free part of 
it, or of anjr particular portion of it? By no means. What then? Why, 
it was colonization. It was the colonization of free colored people, (in- 
cluding, of course, slaves made free for the purpose) of such people, wil- 
ling and anxious to go, at liberty to go, qualified to go, and unable to go 
to advantage without charitable aid. It was the establisliment of a co- 
lony or colonies of such people. It was no question of how many of them, 
or how many such colonies, or how large- The more the better, if they 
were good; and the larger the better, and the sooner the better. But that 
is no matter of ours; we are to colonize^ and to do it well, and to do no- 
thing else — as we can do nothing else, if we do this well j and if we do it 
well, the other results, which we have any right to anticipate, will follow 
as of course. If tite practicability of the schenie, and the desirableness 
of it, be shown, that, with the incidental, individual gomt accomplislied 
by the Society as a bcnevojent institution in the very act, is strictly the 
consummation of our design. The results of that consummation are 
another affair. 

How far colonization itself may be carried on, or how fast, bv other 
agents, is another affair too. Kvery State may carry it on, if it chooses, 
as well as Maryland. The auxijiaries, like the Pennsylvanian, may have 
new cohmies. New societies, like our own, subordinate or co-ordinate, 
may arise, llie Government of the Union may take the matter in hand. 
'I'he colored people themselves doubtless will do so, at all events, sooner 
or later. But all this is speculation. Our object is attained in the proof 
of the practicability and the policy of the scheme, involving, of course, 
the benefit of those persons with whom the experiment has been tried. 

Undoubtedly, also, it involves other benefits, and those of great mo- 
ment. These, however, the abolition of the slave trade; the civilization 
and evangelization of Africa; the care of the re-captured Africans; the 
, promotion of commercial purposes; and especially the benefit conferred 
upon the slaves at home, were not the Society's design, but the conse- 
quence of its consummation. The more it was consummated, the more 
would all these results be extended. The interest of the colony itself 
was the first thing; that of the free colored people at large was the second; 



1835.], ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. 41 

the rest were supplementary and secondary. He should be willing to 
sustain the Society /or any one of them alone^ but they should not be 
confounded with the simple, intelligible, practicable, unobjectionable bu- 
siness of colonization. 

Mr. T. here adduced a few striking facts going to show the effect of 
the colonial system abroad, and also its bearing upon that portion of the 
slaveholders at home, who are desirous uf emancipating, whenever their 
slaves can be, as they think, properly taken care of. He adverted also 
to the rationale of the Society's cle^gn, in regard to the free. It 
amounted to a great experiment for their benefit, and for the liene^t of 
the whole race. Its effect, if it succeeded, would be to place them on a 
level with the white man, as far as possible; of course, including the be- 
stowal of the privileges of locomotion and location, of employment and 
emolument, of a character, a country, a government, and a home of their 
own. What we have to do, then, concluded Mr. T., is to prosecute our 
old and only plan, and that alone. We have no time, especially, to em- 
broil ourselves in a controversy at home, which can do no good to tCtiy 
body, and may do groat harm to all. If we have enemies who can find 
it in their hearts to oppose the plan I speak of, and the vigorous prosecu- 
tion x)f it, let them oppose it, let them talk on, and write on, if they 
please; and let us work on. Sir, we can answer thern as we have an- 
swered them before, again and again. We can give liberty to the cap- 
tive, and light to the blind. We can advocate, and seal with our action, 
the holy bond of the union of the States. We can relieve the afllictions 
of thousands of our countrymen, who enjoy the name of freedom, only. 
We can reduce the slave trade. Wc can carry the glad tidings of thc^ 
Gospel of God into pagan landr.. We can rear, sir, on the shores of the 
fair clime of the palm tree, a new republic, that, ages hence, may still be, 
as ours has been and shall have been, the asylum of liberty and the re- 
fuge of the oppressed of every nation. Let us work on. We shall an- 
swer them, su", as the lighthouse in the storm makes reply to the winds 
that howl around its head, and the \yaves that dash upon its base, tower- 
ing higher and higher as the seas rise; shining brighter and brighter as 
the nigljt grows thick j and pouring, and pouring, fresh floods ol light on 
them all. In God's nan^e, let us work on. 

The Rev. Cyrus MASON,of New York, proposed the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the colonisation of our free people of color on the cou8t of 
Africa deserves the patronage of American, philanthropists, as the only hopeful 
method of elevating" their character, while it promises to confer the greatest bless- 
ings on the African race. 

He took this ground, that facts had demonstrated that.the African race, 
if kept in communities by themselves, were capable of the highest degree 
of civilization, moral elevation, and social improvement; while, on the 
other hand, all attempts to elevate them, while in a country where their 
race was in slavery, had proved utter failures. He adverted, in support 
of his^ssertion, to experience in Santa Cruz, the Carolinas, and Virginia, 
and even in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. He stated. some 
melancholy facts as to the condition of the free blacks in the lanes and 
alleys of the city of New York. 

He next remarked that the present attempt to colonize these people had 
been commenced, and was in progress, under the ujost favorable auspices. 
He adverted to the enlightened philanthropy of those who conducted the 
experiment, and thankeil, for a portion of this light, the indefaligable exer- 
tions of the enemies of the cause to brin^ to view every failure in provi- 
dence or consistency. They had undertaken, and diligently performed, 
all the thankless, and, he had almost said, all the dirty W(u ;k which the 
cause could require to be done for its warning and instruction. Mr. M. 
pronounced a beautiful compliment on the eftbrts of the ladies <»f New 



42 ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. [Febniaiy, 

York and Philadelphia, whose exertions had done so much to carry into 
the Colony the blessings of Christian education, and of the healing art; 
and he then spoke with warmth of the Society's claims on Christian pat- 
ronage, and of the fact of its having roused the exertions of the* friends 
of religion to send the Gospel to benighted Africa, which led him to pro- 
nounce a merited eulogy on the late missionary expeditions. He foncluded 
by responding to the assurances given to the South, in the speech of Mr. 
Southard, touching the safety of their domestic institutions, and the sanc- 
titjr of those safeguards which the constitution extended over them. The 
furious excitement against this Society at the North was confined to a few 
zealous, but misguided and fanatical men, whose numerous publications 
(and eleven thousand dollars had been paid at the counting-house of a sin- 
gle individual for a portion of those publications) did not speak the true 
sentiments of the people of the Northern States. He concluded by inviting 
to the design of the Society, as to a common ground, the united efforts of 
all philanthropists in every section of the Union. 
Mr. Mason's resolution was unanimously adopted. 

Dr. Reese offered the following resolution: 

Resolved, That, in the opinion of this Tneeting, the exclusion of ardent spiritt 
from the commerce of our colony is essential to its prosperity and permanence; 
and we rejoice in the prospect of obtaining this result, with the consent of the 
colonists, through the successful efficiency of the Liberia Temperance Society. 

In support ot his resolution. Dr. (Reese said: 

It was my intention, Mr. Chairman, to have accompanied this resolution 
by offering to the meeting several considerations, which, in my estimation, 
impart to the subject a very high degree of importance; but, at this late 
hour, I know too well what is becoming under such circumstances, to ven- 
ture upon any protracted remarks, especially when an honorable gentle • 
man [Mr. Frelinghuysen] is expected to follow, from whom the audience 
is by this time impatient to hear. I shall, therefore, detain the meeting 
but five minutes upon this resolution. 

It proposes a novel and untried experiment in legislation, by the exclu- 
sion of ardent spirits from the commerce of the Colony of Liberia, and 
expresses the confidence of this meeting in the intelligence and virtue of 
the colonists, that, by their own consent, this desirable object may be * 
attained; and at the same time calls upon us to rejoice in the success of 
the Liberia Temperance Society, which already enrols among its members, 
in the several settlements, a greater proportion of the population than can 
be found in any part of our own country. 

Sir, this resolution not only commends itself to every enlightened under- 
standing, but, in view of the aspect of our own country, it makes a resist- 
less appeal to the heart. Who can contemplate the unutterable mischiefs 
to our civil, social, intellectual, and moral relations, which are distinctly 
and legitimately to be traced to the traffic in ardent spirits, and underVhicli 
this whole land is still groaning, without deep emotion? And who can 
estimate the blessings, the individual, domestic, and public blessings, 
which had been ours, as a nation, if this foul destroyer, ardent spirits, had 
been excluded from our commerce, in the early history of the colonies 
at Plymouth and Jamestown, and if a similar exclusion had been perpetu^ 
ated until now.*^ Are we not then imperiousljr called upon, by every con- 
sideration of high and ho\y responsibility, in the benevolent project of 
regenerating the continent of Africa, to take early and efficient measures 
to preserve them from the withering influence of such a traffic, which, as our 
own bitter experience has demonstrated, is an infinitely greater public and 
private calamity than either war, pestilence, or famine? Sir. I am free to 
declare, that better had.we leave the nnillions of Africans sable population 
in the darkness of Mahometan superstition, and the guilt of Pagan idola- 
try, than, along with the lights of civilization and Christianity, that we 



1335.] ANNUAL PROCEBDINGS. 43 

should send them an army of rum -sellers, whose accursed traffic would 
poison every spring and wither every flower, and blast the hopes which 
genius, philanthropy, or religion itself, may indulge. 

I am aware that we have been denounced, in no measured terms of bit- 
terness and malignity, because, in laying the foundations of the Colony, 
this exclusion of ardent spirits was not then' incorporated in the govern- 
ment of the colonists; ana some of our quondam friends have alleged this 
as a pretext for their apostacy to the cause,''and their adhesion to our ene- 
mies. But let it be recollected, sir, that, when our Colony was founded, 
the lights of the temperance reformation had not dawned upon our hemi- 
sphere, nor irradiated our world. But, thank Heaven, it is not yet too 
late; the beams of our sun of temperance ^have reached the inhabitants 
of our Colony, and, a reformation among them having commenced, we 
trust that the success of this resolution shall redeem and disenthral the 
colonists from the traffic which has already commenced among them, and 
that Liberia is yet destined to become an sisylum for temperance, where 
a nation, free irom the physical and moral pollutions of ardent spirits, 
shall be raised upas a beacon-light for mankind to gaze upon — a spectacle 
for an admiring world. 

I therefore submit the resolution, which I am sure will find a response 
in every heart in this meeting, not dead to the impulses of humanity, and 
I affectionately commend it to the speedy and efficient action of the Board 
of Managers. 

The resolution being agreed to. 

On motion of Mr. Frel^nghuysen', the Society adjourned to meet at 
7 o'clock to-morrow evening, at the Rev. Mr. Post's Church. 



Tuesday, January 20. 

The Society met, pursuant to adjournment. 

The Hon, Charl¥:s Fenton Mercer took the Chair. 

Mr. GuRLEY ofi*ered the following resolutions: 

Reaohed, That the thanks of this Society be. presented to such Clergymen and 
Churches as have, during the year past, taken up collections for its cause, and that 
they be invited to consider annually its claims, and contribute to its funds, on or 
about the Fourth of July. 

Besohed, That this Society is deeply indebted to the citizens of New York for 
the prompt and liberal manner in which they have recently and repeatedly con- 
tributed in Aid of its cause. 

Besolved, That this meetinj^ highly appreciates the zeal and efforts of the Youngs 
Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania, in the cause of this institution. 

Mr. GuRLEY said, that he had looked forward during the whole past 
year with the deepest anxiety to the present meeting of the Society, 
as one which was likely to exert a most decisive influence on its future 
history. He considered it, in fact, as the very crisis of the colonization 
cause. He adverted to the season of trial through which they had passed, 
but expressed his confident hope that now a brighter era was opening u|>on 
them. But, to render this expectation any thing but delusive, it was in- 
dispensable that entire union should be preserved between the North and 
the South, in their future course of action in relation to the great design of 
African colonization; and that union must rest on principle. All true and 
permanent union must have principle for its foundation. The grand prin- 
ciple on which all parts of the country could alone unite in respect to the 
colonization cause, was, that its design was, in its character and aims, 
exclusively benevolent, and as such utterly estranged from all selfish or 
sectional views of every kind. In his opinion* it was impossible, in the 
nature of things, and against all experience of human nature and human 
affairs, th^t three or four different, <listinct, and independent institutions. 



44 ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. [Februaryt 

all propoi^ing the same object, should, for any length of time, work har- 
moniously to^jether. And should the whole ^orthern interest unite itself 
on any combination distinct from this Society, all their sympathies and co- 
operation would soon be withdrawn tVom it. The true policy of the So- 
ciety was, therefore, to keep the North u^iV/i it, and not to alienate its 
feelings or purposes from the plans arid interests of the Society. 
Mr. 6. spoke in terms of hish commendation of the energy and liberal- 

« 1*1111 *i*^l *llt J.I l_ A i* ^LY HT I 




expedition for BassaCove. Tie exhorted tounion,and predicted the his;h-. 
est degree of success and prosperity, on that ground but on that alone. 
The resolutions were successively put, and adopted, without a dissent** 
ing voice. 

Colonel Stonk, of New York, oftered the following resolution : 

Besolued, That the crisis demands immediate and vigY)rous measures to extend 
the influence and increase the funds of this institution ; and tli:it the Board of 
Mana]s^ers be requested, at the earliest practicable period, to establish permanent 
agencies in every section of the country. 

Colonel S. observed, that, as one of the delegates representing the sen- 
timents of the friends of colonization at the North, it was his duty to stat« 
that, in their opinion, unless a more vigorous system of action should be 
adopted and pursued, the design of the Society might as well be aban- 
doned. All that was needed to insure an amount of patronage beyond 
the most sanguine expectations of the warmest friends ot the Society was, 
to extend its operations to a scale commensurate with the extent of our 
country, and the grandeur and importance of the great purpose in view. 
What was most needed wjis, an enlarged and efficient system of agencies. 
Here was the point where the Society had Htilcd. It was rectuisite that these 
should be established forthwith; one general superintending agency for the 
whole country, to be confided to the hands of a man of the highest standin;^, 
and most commanding ability and influence ; and then, that the subordi- 
nate agencies should be greatly multiplied and extended, while the char- 
acter and'attainments of the agents were at the same time raised. AVjtli 
such a system, there would be iio difficulty in raising 8*35,000 in the iii^<t 
year, and as little in doubling it the year following, and doubling it again 
in years succeeding. Hut the thing must be taken hold of with resolution 
and vij^or, and prosecuted in a nianner very different from what had here- 
tofore been done. And, by taking this course, no doubt need be enter- 
tained of speedy and ample success. ^We must, in one respect, take the 
opponents of the Colonization Society for our example ; that is, we must 
in some degree imitate their active spirit. Is it not a burning shame, 
asked Col. S., that a single individual, in the city of New York, should 
have been disbursing, during four or five months of the past season, mon* 
money, in every month, in aid of our opponenti^, than has found its way 
into our treasury during the whole year, from every part of the Union, 
excepting only the cities of New York and Philadelphia ? Yet, humil- 
iating to the true friend of the colored man as the conleshi(m is, such 
is the fact. Yiisi, sir; more than ten thousand dollars per month, for 
st'veral successive months, have been expended by a single individual, in 
disseminating, by a<;ents, and countl(*ss publications, the pernicious doc- 
trines of the Immediate Abolitionists ; and, at one time, that s:4me indi- 
vidual, a very excellent but misjudging man, is understood to have had 
no less than six agents employed in the city of New York alone. A§ to 
the remark of the worthy Secretary on the necessity of union an(l har- 
monious co-operation, if it had any allusion to the auxiliary societies which 
had been formed in New York ami Philailelphia, he could assure that 
gentleman that those associations had had their origin solely and purely 



1835.1 ANNUAL PROCEKDINGS. 45 

in the love of the cause, and in a desire to aid, not to injure or supercede, 
the parent institution. When the resolution of the hoard, to suspend 
lurther colonizing until the debt of the Society should have been dis- 
charged, was proclaimed, it fell on the public mind like a shower of ice- 
water. People would not give to pay an old debt, while nothing of action 
or progress was placed before their view to excite them. Unless the 
friends <»f the design could point to some vessels sailing, or expected to 
sail, with new emigrants, it was vain to expect contributors. The aux- 
iliaries had agreed to pay what was equivalent to 60 per cent, of all their 
own collections into the treasury of the Parent Society. Col. S. con- 
cluded by expressing his conviction that much, if not all, of the jealous 
feeling which marred the harmimy between the North and the South was 
owing to a want of more frequent personal intercourse, and a freer inter- 
change of opini(m between them. A whiskered gentleman would appear 
in some of the northern cities, or watering places, swinging his cane, and 
boasting how he knocked his ** niggers" about at home ; and the people 
of the North viewed him as a specimen of the Southern slaveholders, 
while very likely the fellow did not own a slave on earth, and had come 
to the springs on borrowed money. So it might happen that a Southern 
lady was taken in by a shrewd lank trader from New England, and when 
he was gone the good woman might tind she had purchased wooden nut- 
megs, or the sportsman a horn gun-Hint j and they would at once set him 
down, with equal truth as in the former case, as a trite sample of the 
full-blooded Yankee. It was time the citizens of the same happy country 
knew each other better. 

It had been his intention. Col. S. added, last evening, to have made a 
few remarks in reply to a gentleman who expressed sonje apprehensions 
in regard to the conduct of the Immediate Abolitionists — by some people 
denounced, and perhaps justly, as ^^ fanatics ;" but that gentleman is not 
now present, ana he would forbear. He would take this occasion, how- 
ever, to assure the gentlemen of the South that they have little to fear 
from that source. The great mass of the people at the North are sound 
upon this subject. They are all opposed to slavery in principle, and are 
anxious to be rid of it. But the Immediate Abolitionists, though, for thd 
most part, very good but misguided citizens, are, companatively speak- 
ing, but a handful. At least eighteen-twentieths of the people are opposed 
to tlieir disorganizing principles ; and our Southern brethren may rely 
upon it that the people of the North will not allow of any interference 
with the rights of property, or with the principles of compromise upon 
which the Constitution was formed. This fact had been most amply 
proved by the occurrences of the past season. Some of those occurrences 
were painful, and could not be approved by any friend of the Constitution 
and the laws. But they nevertheless attested the fact. 

Rev. Mr. Mason, of New York, supported Colonel Stone's resolution in a 
short speech, in which he confirmed the view taken by his colleague [Col, 
Stone] of the necessity and advantage of establishing a general agency, 
to be placed in the hands of a man ot the first order ot intellect and mo- 
ral standing, who should be free from all other official ties, and who 
might, once in every year, make a circuit of the Union, pass into all the 
States, and supervise the great interests of the cause. 

As to the auxiliaries, the very first resolution they had adopted, and 
which they laid as the foundation of all their operations, was, that the 
Parent Society was not to be neglected, deserted, or in anywise injured, 
but that its general regulations were to be respected and complied with, 
both here and in Africa. It was their hope and their determination to 
bring this year into the treasury of the Society more, by far, than it had 
ever received before. 

Mr. GuRLEY disclaimed all allusion to any particular Society in the 
general remarks he had ofiered. He entirely approved of the plan of ex- 



46 ANNUAL TROCEBDINGS. [February, 

teuding the agencies of the Society, and e{?pccially of the appointment ot 
a general superintendcncy of the whole. He spoke again, with much 
feeling, of the importance of the present moment, ana his ardent hope 
that such a course would be pursued as should conciliate the confidence 
and secure the support of the America^ people. 

Dr. Reese agreed that the agencies heretofore appointed had been very 
inefficient, and he attributed it to the fact that the agents had been taken 
from individuals who had other occupations in the community, and who 
made the duties of their agency a subordinate matter, attended to only 
at intervals, when convenience might permit. He trusted the managers 
would act in the spirit of the resolutions, and take measures to have the 
true character and design of the Society fairly presented to the nation. 
This had never yet been done. No efforts of the press could effect it; 
nor would it ever be effectually accomplished but by the living agents of 
the Society, meeting and refuting calumny, correcting misapprehensions, 
and removing prejudice by fact and reason. When this was done, there 
would be no difficulty in obtaining funds to any amount that might be 
required. 

Kev.Dr. Laurie expressed his cordial approbation of the principle of em- 
ploying suitable agents, but objected to the resolution as implying that 
the Board obManagers had not acted on that principle ; and showed, by 
reference to their proceedings on the subject, that such implication was, 
in point of fact, erroneous. He noticed numerous instances in which the 
managers had endeavored to till important agencies, and failed to do se, 
because the gentlemen to whom they were tendered declined accepting. 
He concluded his remarks by moving that the resolution be amended by 
expunging the word "establish," and substituting therefor the word 
** re-establish." 

Mr. LowRiE approved heartily of the plan proposed by the resolution, 
but vindicated the Board from any implied censure, as though it had been 
negligent on the subject of agencies. They had used their best exertions 
to obtain such as would be efficient, but had tailed of success. Many oi 
the agents did not collect enough to pay their own salaries. They had 
endeavored to obtain the services of Dr. Hewitt, Mr. Bacon, and Mr. 
Brcckenridge ; but those gentlemen had declined the appointment. If 
gentlemen would onl>; show the Board how tfjey are to accomplish the 
purpose of the resolution, he would support it with all his heart and soul. 
But the Board could not create agents. 

Dr. Reese and Col. Stone disclaimed all reflection on the course of 
the Board, whom they highly commended for their exertions, especially of 
the past year, but insisted that, under the existing system of opposition 
and misrepresentation in lelation to the objects and proceedings of the 
Society, it would be expedient to keep agents in the field, even should 
their collections be insufficient to cover their expenses. The great ob- 
ject to be effected was thoroughly to enlighten the public mind. 

Mr. Cresson stated some facts going to show the enormity of the false- 

liood which was employed in misrepresenting the purposes of the Society. 

Mr. Seaton confirmed the statements ofJMr. Lowrieas to the anxious 

efforts of the Board to obtain the services of distinguished, influential, 

and capable agents. 

Colonel Stone accepted Dr. Laurie's amendment, and conformed his 
resolution thereto. The resolution, thus modified, was adopted unani- 
mously, and read as follows: 

Resohedy That the crisis demands immediate and vigorous measures to extend 
the influence, and increase the funds of this institution; and that the Board of 
Managers be requested, at the earliest practicable period, to re-ebtablish perma> 
ncnt agencies in every section of the country. 

DK Reese offered the following resolution: 



1835.] ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. 47 

Beaolved, That this meetings regard the late intelligence from Liberia, touching 
the medical department of the Colony, under the direction of Dr. Skinner, 
as of the highest importance to the interest of our great cause. The im- 
provement in the hcaltli of the colonists, and the successful treatment of their 
prevailing diseases, encourage us to believe, that, under the blessing of Provi- 
dence, we shall be preserved from the afflicting mortality which we have hereto- 
fore suffered at Monrovia. 

On a call from tlie Rev. William M. Atkinson, from Virginia, Mr. 
GuRLEY stated the general result of the information received from Dr. 
Skinner, concerning the diseases of the Colony; and Colonel Stone 
mentioned some additional particulars on the same subject, which had 
been communicated to him. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

Some conversation took place, on the sug£;estion of Colonel Stone, as 
to the propriety of applying to Government for the employment of a naval 
force on the coast ot Africa, to suppress the slave trade, which of late had 
greatly increased, owing to the destruction of slaves by the cholera in the 
island of Cuba. But it appeared that the Navy Department were already 
fully apprized of the state of things, and of the call for intervention. The 
application was, therefore, waived. 

On motion of Dr. Sewall, the following resolution was unanimously 
adopted: 

Resolved, That, in the opinion of this meeting, the establishment of Common 
Schools in the colony of Liberia is regarded of the highest importance. 

On motion of Colonel Addison Hall, of Virginia, the following reso- 
lution was unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That this Society is highly gratified to hear of the efficient efforts of 
the Ladies' Societies in Philadelphia and New York, to promote education among 
the native Africans in Liberia iind its vicinity, and recommend their cause to the 
affection and support of all the friends of the colored race. 

Rev. Mr. Atkinson offered the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That while this Society again disclaims, as it has always done, the 
design of interfering with the legal rights and obligations of slavery, it still is, as 
it always has been, animated in its exertions by the belief that its operations would 
be productive of unmixed good to the colored population of our country and of 
Africa. 

Resolved, That the great and beneficent results which may be expected from the 
. successful operation of this Society, ought to call forth the united efforts of the 
wise and good of dvery portion of our country to increase its influence and re- 
sources. 

Mr. Atkinson, in supporting his resolutions, obseiTed that they would 
be found to contain a re-aiiirmance of the original principles of the Soci- 
ety — principles from which it had never departed. The only necessity 
of thus re-affirming them was to be found in the fact that the principles 
of the Society had been grossly misrepresented. He appealed to the 
chairman [General Mercer] on the subject of tliese misrepresentations, 
and the necessity, both in public and private, of meeting and refuting 
them. 

As to the first resolution, he presumed there was not one person who 
doubted the position expressed in it; and strange indeed it would seem to 
him (if any tning could so appear to one whose experience had taught him 
not to wonder at any thing in human conductoropimon,) that any rational 
being could believe that such men as had originated this institution could 
have been actuated by any other motive than a desire to promote the real 
good of the colored race. As to the beneficial effect of the Society's ex- 
ertions in tlic condition of the colored population in Africa, the recent 



48 ANN[-AL PUOCEEOrNGS. [February, 

incrca.'O of the slave trade on that coast went to show that nothin«( but 
( ;oloniz;i(i<iii and a ;;;radual exclusion of coast settlements could ever el- 
frctnally put down (hat nel'arious traflic. It was by the belief of this, 
and by the persuasion that nothin;;; would more effectually or speedily 
conduce to the introduction upon that continent of the blessings of civil- 
i/.ation and true Christianity, that the friends of the Society had been 
mainly induced to advocate its designs. It had been proposed toelfect 
the good of the African race by giving them freedom here. But who that 
was iicquaintcd with the condition of those called /rcf among us, could 
suppose for a moment that they were free indeed? Look at (heir condi- 
tion, as it was stamped not cmly by the laws, but by the universal state of 
feelinganiong our population. \Vould any reasonable and candid man 
rail them free? It was impossible, in the nature of things, that anything 
that deserved the name of freedom could be enjoyed by the colored man 
on any part of this continent. But let him be transported to a land where 
there were no white men, superior in numbers, in wealth, and refinement, 
lords of the soil, and dictators of the laws; there we might hope to sec 
him a free man. 

The last of the resolutions was the most important. Its subject was 
indeed delicate, but it was one which might be so presented as to give 
oflencc to ncmr. It was not the intention of the society to interfere, in 
any way, with the legal rights of slavery; yet its operations were calcula- 
ted in their own nature and consequences to exert a powerful influence 
upon it. 'J'liis influence, however, could only be secured by avoiding all 
dnect interference. JiCt this principle cease to be prominent both in the 
cimstitution of the Society, and the conduct of its aflairs, and its whole 
influence on that subject was at once at an end. lie would explain the 
manner in which the Society operated upon the continuance of slavery. 
'I'o its removal, as all know, there were many and various obstacles; but 
one especially was, so long iis it continued, absolutely irreparable. An 
emancipated slave, while remaining here, M-as in circumstances no more 
favorable than before his emancipation. Personal observation liad taught 
him this; as it had tuught the gentleman he was addrei^sing. Kvery man 
acquainted with the South ntust admit that the condition not only of such 
slaves as had humane and indulgent masters, but that of all slaves, cx- 
ceplin;:; those who were subject to very brutal and inhuman owners, (and 
ihese were comparatively rare.) were m a better situation than tho?»e who 
had been set free, but who cnntinucil to reside in a slave State. It was 
the settled policy not only of Virginia, but he believed of all the slave 
States, that a master doiring to emancipate his slaves was prohibited 
from (loin;; so, unless he at the same time removed thenr from the bounds 
of the State. What then was to be tlone? Some, to be sure, would go to 
the Norih: but experience of the ccmsequenccs of receiving such a popu- 
lation had induced some, and would soon induce others of the non-slave- 
holding States, tt) close this avenue. No as^vlum remaining in this country, 
how then were they to be emancipated? The existence of a foreign col- 
<»ny to receive them was indispensable. 

The disposition to emancipate existed to a very great extent in the 
South. There are already 50,000 free colored persons in Virginia. Those 
who have embraced the notion that nothing was to be expected from this 
source, mu^t have failed to |{K»k at facts before them. The laws of our 
State for forty years had permitted the emancipation (»f slaves. But for 
^.everal years (Mist, the Le|;i^lature have been so fully satisfied that the 
nudtiplication among us of free peopje of color was injurious to every 
class of (Mir s(jciety, that (with a very few excentions) they have required, 
in every instance of emancipation, the removal of the freeman from the 
('(mnmmwealth. The number of per^^ons who have been actually eman- 
cipiited by our cili/.ens, therefore, is much greater than might be inferred 
fi-oni the number of free people of c(-'lor now resident among us. 



1835,] ' ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. 49 

Furthermore, the same convictions which have led the Legislature to 
impose this check upon manumission, have. greatly influenced the minds 
of individual citizens. Hence4 in order to give full scope to the principle 
of voluntary manumission, it is indispensable to provide an asylum to 
which humane and considerate masters, disposed to emancipate, could 
send their slaves, with a reasonable prospect of conferring on them a 
real benefit 

The value of slaves actually emancipated within the State of Virginia 
already amounted t6 Yen millions qfdoUara.^ The present white popula- 
tion oi that State amountted to 700,000; yet they and their forefathers had 
emancipated slaves to the value of ten millions, and this under a system 
of jurisprudence which throws guards and difficulties around the act of 
emancipation. Such a feeling, if left unfettered, must surely produce 
the greatest results. To those actuated by it, the Society, by providing a 
safe and accessible asylum, under mild laws and on a fertile soil, pre- 
sented the happiest facilities for the indulgence of their humane purpose. 
But should the Society presume, for a moment, to touch the rights of these 
very individuals over the persons of their slaves, its influence would per^ 
ish. It would at once be denied access to any slave-holding State. It 
was a subject on which those States would allow no intermeddling. The 
Chairman himself, whose sentiments and practice on the subject of slavery 
were well known, would be among the first to resent it. 

As to the efforts of the little band of fanatics, to whom allusion had al- 
ready been made, it was unnecessary for him to say any thing. Every 
member of the Society must be fully convinced that any attempt to 
touch the tenura of slaves would only end in the ruin of both the slave 
and the master. The second proposition expressed in the resolutions 
was a direct consequence of what preceded it. If the design of the Soci- 
ety was solely the best good of the African race, then, of course, every 
wise and good man ought to be ready to contribute heartily to its success. 
Mr. Atkinson's resolutions were adopted without a dissenting voice. 

On motion of Mr. Mason, it was 

Besolved, That a committee of four persons be appointed by the Chair to nom- 
inate the Managers of the Society for the present year. 

The Chair appointed Mr. Mason, Mr. Frelinohuysen, Mr. Slade, 
Mr. Atkinson, and Mr. Stone, to constitute the committee. 

The committee, after retiring for the purpose of consultation, returned, 
and reported the names of the Tollowing persons for the Board of Mana- 
gers: 

Rev. Jamxs Laubis, U. D. Waltxb Lqwbik, 

Gen. Waltxb Joses, Dr. Phiheas Bbadlet, 

Fbaiccis S. Ket, Dr. Thomas Sswall, 

Key. William Haw ley. Rev. Ralph R. Gublst, Secretary. 

JoHir Ujidebwood, Joseph Gales, Sen., J^reamtrer. 

William W. Sxatoh, Philip R. Fendall, Eeeorder* 

Dr. Reese moved that the names of the Rev. William Ryland, John 
P. Ingle, Rev. John Breokenridob, and Elliott Cresson be submit- 
ted to the Society, together'with the names reported by the committee, 
and that from the whole list, thus augmented, the Society should elect 
twelve managers. 

Mr. Frelinohuysen addressed the meeting in support of the nomina- 
tions made by the committee. 

After some discussion, in which Dr. Reese, Mr. Stone, Mr. Lowrie, 
and Mr. Atkinson took part, concerning the nominations, and some re- 
marks from the Chair as to the parliamentary mode of proceeding in the 
case, it was agreed, first, to take the question separately and successively 
on the names reported b^ the committee. The question was so put, and 
each of the persons nominated by the committee was elected. 
6 



50 ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. [February, 

The following resolution was, on motion of Mr. Sladb, of Vermont, 
unanimously adopted: 

Resolvedy That the single object of this Society, namely, the colonization of free 
people of color on the coast of Africa, is larg^ enough to command the highest 
energies, and the warmest aspirations of Christian philanthropy; and that, in the 
prosecution of this object, we will, undaunted by opposition, and unmoved by re- 
proach, steadfastly, and patiently, and perseveringly go forward, with a firm reli- 
ance on Divine Providence that ** we shall, in due season, reap, if we faint not." 

Mr. Polk, of Washington, D. C, moved the following resolution* 
which was adopted unanimously: 

Besohed, That the thanks of this Society are due to the Board of Managers and 
the other officers, for the faithful discharge of their important duties during the 
past year. 

Mr. Stone ottered the following resolution: 

Jiesohed, That the reduction of expenses at the City of Washington be recom- 
mended to the early attention of the Board of Managers. 

After an explanation by Dr: Sew all of the coui*se of the last Board 
of Managers on that subject, and some remarks by Mr. Frklinohvysen, 
Dr. Laurie, and Mr. Mason, the resolution was laid on the table. 

Mr. Cresson again suggested the subject for the consideration of the 
Board. 

On motion of Mr. Mason, the Annual Report was accepted, and ordered 
to be printed under the direction of the Board. 

Mr. Gurley, the Secretary, adverted to a declaration made by him last 
year, of his intention to resign, but stated, in explanation, that his expect- 
ation at that time had been, that ere now the Society would have been 
relieved from debt. As that, unhappily, was not the case, and as he had 
been earnestly pressed bv his frienas to relinquish his previous determi- 
nation, he haa, after much reflection, consented to do so. 

Mr. Cresson suggested the expediency of the Society's holding its fu- 
ture annual meetings at an earlier day than that now prescribed by the 
constitution. 

On motion of Mr. Polk, the fourth article of the constitution was 
amended by expunging the words *^ third Monday in January," and sub- 
stituting in place thereof the words ^^ the first Tuesday after the second 
Monday in December," as the time of the annual meeting. 

The Secretary informed the Society that he had received a letter dated 
on the Kith inst. from the Rev. Kbenf.zer Burgess, whose name is so 
distinguished in the annals of the institution, stating the reasons of his 
inability to attend the present meeting, avowing his ^^ undiminished con- 
fidence" in the Society, and expressing his wish to remit, without delay, 
four hundred dollars^ which he had ready, to pay the balance of his sub- 
scription on the plan of Gerritt Smith. 

'fne Secretary also stated that he had received a letter from Gerritt 
Smith, expressing the warm attachment of that gentleman to the Society, 
and remitting one thousand dollars to it; that being the second donation 
of the same amount which he had made to the Society since the last an- 
nual meeting. 

The Society then adjourned to the next annual meeting. 

A true copy from the minutes: 

P. R. FEND ALL, Recorder. 



laSS.] ANNUAL PROCEEDINGS. 51 

Officers and Managers for the ensuing year. 

President. 

JAMES MADISON, of Virginia. 

• 

Vice President^. 

1. Chief Justice Mabshall. 

2. Hon. He3tht Clat, of Kentucky. 

3. Hon. John C. Heebekt, of Maryland. 

4. RoBsar Ralstox, Esq. of Philadelphia. 
■5. Gen. J«Hir Masoit, of Georgetown, D. C. 

6. Saxuel Batard, Elsq. of New Jersey. 

7. Isaac McKim, Esq. of Maryland. 

8. Gen. Johx Habtwsll Cocks, of Virginia. 

9. Rt. Sev. Bishop White, of Penns}ivania. « 

10. Hon. Daitiel Wsbsteb, of Boston. 

11. Hoa. Chaiiles F. Mxbcbr, of Virginia. 

12. Jebbxiah Day, D. D. of Yale College. 

13. Hon. RicHARB Rush, of PennsylyRnia. 

14. Rev. Wm. McKexdees, Senior Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
. Church in the United States. 

15. Philip E. Thoxas, Esq. of Maryland. 

16. Dr. Thomas C. James, of Philadelphia. 

17. Hon. Johx Cotton Smith, of Connecticut. 

18. Hod. Theodore Fbslixohutsen, of New Jersev. 

19. Hon. Louis McLaxe, of Delaware. 

20. Gerbitt Smith, Esq. of New York. 

21. J. H. M*Clure, Esq. of Kentucky. 

22. Gen. Alsxaxder Macomb, of Washington City. 

23. Moses Allex, Esq. of New York. 

24. Gen. Walter Joxks, of Washington City. 

25. Fraxcis S. Ket, Esq. of Georgetown, D. C. 

26. Samuel H. Smith, Esq. of Washington City. 

27. Joseph Gales, Jr. Esq. of Washington City. 

28. lit. Rev. Wm. Meade, D. D., Assistant Bishop of Virginia. 

29. Hon. Alexaxder Porter, of Louisiana. 
.30. Johx McDoxooh, Esq. of Louisiana. 

31. Hon. Samuel L. Southard, of New Jersey. 
J2. Geobgz Washixotox Lafatettp, of France. 

Managers. 

1. Re%'. James Laurie, D. D. 

2. Gen. Walter Joxeh. 
S. Fraxcis S. Ket. 

4. Rev. William Hawlet. • 

5. William W. Seatox. 

6. Hon. Walter Lowrie. 

7. Phixeas Bradlet, M. D. 

8. Thomas. Sewall, M. D. 

9. Matthew St. Clair Clarke. 

10. Ralph RAXnotpH Gurlet, Secretary, 

11. Joseph Gales, Sen. Treasurer. 

12. Philip R. Fexdall, Recorder. 



52 ANNUAL REPORT. 



REPORT. 



At the last Annual Meeting of the Society, the subject of its most 
anxious deliberation was the heavv debt under which it was found to be 
laboring. This evil, great in itself, was aggravated by the despondency 
with whicl) it oppressed many friends, and the consequent exultation of 
the enemies of the institution. 

Immediately after the adjournment, the Managers advanced promptly 
to the discharge of the duty created by the resolution directing them 
** to lay before the public, throug^i the African Repository, a full and 
detailed statement of the origin, rise, and present condition of the So- 
^ ciety's debt, having particular reference to the causes and manner of its 
rise and increase, the droes at which it has been increased, the individ- 
uals to whom it was originally and is now due, and for what, in every 
case, together with every circumstance within the reach of their inqui- 
ries here and in Africa, which can throw any light on this subject." Of 
the cflbrts of the Board to execute this resolution, the first fruits were 
their Special Report of February 20, 1834. Papers froni the Colony, 
subsequently received, enabled them to prepare another exposition, in 
the form of their Special Report of July 24, 1834. These documents 
appeared without delay in the African Repository, and have been so 
long before the public, that no detailed reference on the present occasion 
to their contents is deemed necessary. They are beli6ved to comprise 
all attainable information tending to elucidate the subject. The Board 
are happy to be able to state, as they now do, their conviction, derived 
from satisfactory proof, that the two reports just mentioned, though pre- 
senting an unreserved statement, without regard to consequences, of all 
the facts and circumstances concerning the debt which their utmost in- 
dustry could obtain, have operated to a gratifying extent in confirming 
public confidence in the Society where it existed, and in recalling it in 
cases where it had been withdrawn. That tl)e systematic opponents of 
the cause, who had made this debt a pretext for assailing it, have been 
persuaded by the published explanations to a more candid course, tlu^ 
Board do not pretend. Such a consequence, however desirable, was 
scarcely an object of rational hope. In connexion with the two Reports 
f oncoming the debt, the Managers invite the attention of the meeting to 
a tabular statement, published in the last number of the Repository, of 
emigrants sent to Africa since the commencement of the Society; from 
which statement it appears that the number sent during the years of 
1831, '32, and '33, exceeded that sent during the whole preceding pe- 
riod of eleven years. 

To discharge as soon as might be the debt of the Society, and to avert 
/ by suitable cautions the recurrence of such a burden, were felt by the" 
Managers to be obvious and immediate duties. They are enabled to 
state that more than one-half of it has been paid; partly out of tho ordi- 
nary revenue of the Society, and partly out of a proposed stock of 
$50,000, bearing a yearly interest of six per centum, redeemable in 
twelve years by annual instalments, which the Board created for the 
payment of the debt. In their efforts to effect this object, they steadily 



ANNUAL REPORT. 53 

tidbered to a determination, formed very soon after their organization, to 
lessen the expenses of the Society, and to refrain from sending out emi- 
grants in any considerable number, until the debt should be paid, the 
affairs of the Colony be brought into a state of improved order, and 
plans of industry and agricultural pursuits be put in a state of successful 
progress, calculated to remove the causes of idleness or unprofitable em- 
ployment that were believed to exist. Though that portion of the debt 
which has been paid out of the stock just mentioned still exists under 
another form, the commutation has, so far as it has been effected, re- 
lieved the Society from discredit, and provided an easy mode for the 
final extinguishment of its obligations. 

Resolving to place the domestic expenses of the Society on the most 
economical establishment consistent with the suitable performance of its 
business, tlie Board abolished the oflice of Clerk: a gentleman appointed 
at the last Annual Meeting one of the Secretaries declining to accept the 
office, they have not filled the vacancy; and they have greatly diminished 
the previous cost of publishing the Annual Reports and the African Re- 
pository. The duties of Clerk, and those which the additional Secretary [ 
was expected to perform, have during the past year been discharged by 
the other executive officers. 

In order to lessen the Colonial expenses of the Society, the mixed 
compensation of salary and sustenance, which certain officers at the 
Colony had before received, has been substituted by a fixed compensa- 
tion wholly pecuni«d*y; and sundry officers before paid by the Society 
iiave been referred to the Colony for compensation, should it require 
their fkture services. 

The stock above mentioned was not created till the failure of the plan 
proposed at the last Annual Meeting for raising $5ll,000 had been ascer- 
tained. The obligation to pay the subscriptions made under that plan ; 
being contingent on an event which did not happen, none of them have 
^cu recognised by the subscribers except that made by the gentleman 
who proposed the plan. He has since paid two annual instalments of 
bis subscription of $1,000 each; and a gentleman who subscribed after 
the adjournment has also paid two instalments. It should be mentioned 
that another distinguished friend of the Society, who had subscribed under 
the plan referred to, has since taken the amount of his subscription in 
the stock. Of this stock about $10,500 have been issued to creditors 
of the Society, and others have promised to take about $10,000 more. 
The Board have also received for stock upwards of $2,000 in cash from 
the friends of tlie Society, and expect to dispose of several other thousands 
in tho same way. The effect of what has been done and is in progress 
in relation to the debt, relieves the Board from any fear of serious injury 
to the cause from that source. 

In addition to the efforts already referred to for discharging the debt, 
the Board resorted to the obvious expedient of soliciting contributions 
from the friends of the Society^ In May last they addressed a circular 
to each of its auxiliary associations, invoking their aid and influence in 
freeing it from pecuniary difficidty, and indicating what seemed a prac- 
ticable mode of accomplishing the object. With few exceptions, this 
appeal was unheeded. Better, though only partial success, attended the 
efforts of the Secretary of the Society, and of two Committees con- 



54 ANNUAL REPORT. 

sisting of distinguished members of the Board, who were at different 
periods deputed to ask aid from the friends of the Society in the northern 
cities. For the liberality manifested on these occasions by many indi- 
viduals, it lias cause for deep and permanent gratitude. 

Through circumstances to be noticed presently, but little progress had, 
at the time of the last advices from the Colony, been made in the plans 
devised by the Board for improving its condition. In April last, despatches 
were received from the Rev. John B. Pinnet, then temporary Colonial 
Agent, manifesting so much diligence and ability in the discharge of hi:* 
functions, that the Board resolved to secure, if possible, his continued 
services; they accordingly appointed him permanent Agent for thb 
Colony, though aware that his acceptance of the situation would require 
the consent of the Western Foreign Missionary Society, in whose ser- 
vice he had gone to Liberia. Application for such consent was accord- 
ingly made to that respected institution, and an answer received, declining, 
for assigned reasons, to yield the services of Mr. Pinney permanently 
to this institution, but permitting him to retain his relations to it for some 
time to come, and urging this Board to make other and permanent ar- 
rangements as soon as practicable. In anticipation of a response favorable 
to their wishes, the Managers' had called Mr. Pinney's attention to the 
measures of Colonial improvement on which they had determined. He 
was instructed to assign to emigrants their land promptly on their arrival; 
to cause a number of lots of five acres each, more or less, in his discre- 
tion, to be laid off in the vicinity of each other; a comfortable cottage of 
native structure to be erected on each, sufficient for the residence of a 
small family; and a sufficient portion of each lot to be cleared and 
planted with the most useful vegetables. The cost of each homestead 
was limited to $50, and the occupant was entitled to become its owner in 
fee simple, provided he should make a similar establishment in its vicinity. 
The Agent was also directed to provide a public farm, on which might 
be employed emigrants requiring work at any time. The Board are 
happy to learn by the last despatches from the Colony that the land for 
A public farm had been laid off; that the lots would be soon ready to 
receive ten families; and that in the opinion of one of the Colonial Phy- 
sicians, in whose judgment the Board place much confidence, the most 
beneficial effects as to both the health and the general prosperity of the 
Colony might be expected from these arrangements. In promotion of 
both these objects, the Colonial Agent was also instructed to obtain a 
healthy territory for settlement in the high lands of the interior country, 
and to open a road thither from Liberia. In his general^nstroctions he 
was urged to encourage the formation of Temperance Societies at the 
Colony, as the most efjfectual instruments for preventing the use of.ardent 
spirits. This vital interest was shortly after made the subject of a spe- 
cial communication, in which were recapitulated the former efforts of 
the Society to promote temperance at Liberia, enjoining on him to exert 
the most emphatic moral influences in its behalf, and to communicate to 
the Board all procurable information bearing on the qiiestion of totally 
prohibiting the introduction of alcoholic liquors-'— on which they were de- 
liberating. In justice to the colonists, it should be stated that the solici- 
tude of the Managers on this subject is not prompted by a belief that 
intemperance is a prevailing vice at Liberia; but that, on tlie contrary, 



ANNUAL REPORT. 55 

after a candid examination of all the facts and evidence which careful ' 
inquiry has hitherto brought before them, they are of opinion that the 
Colony is less obnoxious to the charge than the same amount of popula- 
tion in an equal space of many parts of the United States. In illustra- 
tion of this topic', it affords *them pleasure to add that, in a letter recently 
received from one of the Colonial Physicians appointed since the last 
Annual Meeting, he states that not a drop of ardent spirits had been 
offered to him since his arrival, and that he had not seen any used by 
others. But the Managers strongly desire to eradicate from the infant 
community under their charge the germ of an evil so fruitful of misery 
and crime wherever it has existed. On the importance of the end^ their 
own opinions, as too, they believe, were those of all their predecessors, are' 
unanimous; but the selection pf means presents a question of much em- 
barrassment. Obvious considerations have hitherto recommended moral 
influences in preference to the doubtful experiment of coercion. The 
confidence of the Board in their success is greatly animated by the pro- 
posed establishment, through the contributions of philanthropic citizens 
of the State of New York, of a Temperance Settlement in the Colony, to 
be called Albany. The Board do not permit themselves to doubt the • 
success of this interesting effort to found a community on the principle 
of temperance, nor the benign influence of its example on the neighbor- 
ing society. Despatches from the Agent, under dale of October 4, inform 
them that the Albany settlement would be soon ready for the reception 
of emigrants. 

Mr. PiNNEY^8 health, delicate when he left the United States, was so 
bad during the past summer as to withdraw his attention almost entirely 
from public affairs; and, consequently, to delay the execution of the 
plans of colonial improvement which the Board h^d communicated, or 
his own judgment had suggested to jiim. The result of them, when con- 
summated, cannot fail to advance the prosperity of the Colony, and greatly 
to diminish the expenses of the Society in sustaining it. « 

In the Jupiter, which sailed from New York on the 21st of June last. 
Dr. EzEKiET, Skinner, of Connecticut, and Dr. Robert McDowall, 
a colored Physician, from Scotland, went, tmder appointments by the 
Board, as Colonial Physicians. They were accompanied byiCuARLES H. 
Webb, one of the medical students under the care of this Board, whose 
purpose was to complete the study of his profession under the instruction 
of the Physicians at the Colony, and, afterwards, to engage there in its 
practice. Dr. Skinner and Dr. McDowall have been unremitting in their 
attention to the sick, and have received from Mr. Webb valuable assist- 
ance in the discharge of their duties. Dr. Todsen's oflicial relations to 
the Colony were terminated by the Board in July last. 

After the somewhat encouraging views which have been presented, in 
relation to the adjustment of the old debt of the Society, it would gratify 
the Board to be able to assure it that they have contracted no new obli- 
gations. But, though such is not the fact, they trust that, on due con- 
sideration of the circumstances in which they were placed, it will be ad- 
mitted that they have done all in their power to accomplish the objects of 
their appointment, at the 'least possible sacrifice of the interests of the 
institution. 

It will be observed, from the Treasurer's account current, appended 
to ihh Report, that the receipts at the treasury for the past year have 



-\ 



56 . ANNUAL REPORT. 

been considerably less than those of formbr years. Ancl it is well known, 
that when Mr. Pinney reached the Colony, as temporary Agent, he found 
it in a very distressed state, wanting many of the necessaries of life. He 
was, therefore, obliged to purchase provisions wherever he could find 
them, and at any price^ and to draw on this Board for payment. There 
were, also, many claims outstanding against the agency for supplies, 
salaries, dec, which he was called upon to pay.^ To satisfy these various 
and pressing demands, Mr. Pinney, soon after he entered the agency, 
drew on the Board to the large amount of $11,000, As many of the 
drafts thus drawn were promptly paid as the state of the treasury would 
allow. In some instances, protests were suffered; in others, the members 
of the Board, in their individual capacities, borrowed money from the 
banks to pay the drafts, which loans have since been repaid by the Treasu- 
rer. In addition to the payment of several old claims^ the purchase of 
supplies for the Colony, and the current expenses of the Society^ about 
$3,000 were paid in discharge of a portion of Mr. Pmney's drafts^ a 
like amount was protested, and about $5,000 arc just become due. 

On receiving, in April last, the despatches before referred to, from 
Mr. Pinney, it was found to bo absolutely necessary to send out, with all 
convenient promptitude, a supply of trade goods and provisions, as it ap- 
peared that he had to pay exorbitant prices for every thmg which he was 
constrained to purchase tliere. It was, therefore, determined to send by 
the Jupiter, which was about to carry out several teachers and other 
emigrants from New York, and in which it was resolved to obtain a 
passage for the additional medical ofiicers engaged for the Colony, the 
supplies so much wanted. The Secretary of the Society accordingly 
proceeded immediately to New York, in order to obtain from the benevo- 
lent citizens of that place either money or goods to supply the wants of 
the Colony; and what could not be obtained gratuitously, to purchase on 
credit. The result was, that upwards of $6,000 worth of goods were 
shipped in this vessel; of which amount the citizens oi' New Yovk and 
Albany contributed about one-half; and for the other half draAs were 
given on this Board; and, also, for the freight of the goods and the pas- 
sage of the three Physicians who went in the same vessel. All which 
drafts, except those given for the freight, (which are under protest,) and 
sniall^ amounts due on two others, have been duly paid. 

The Board of Managers, having, early in the year, come to the con- 
clusion that a Currency for transactions of small amount would be very 
fonvenicjnt in the Colony, and prevent tlic necessity of a recourse to ex- 
changes of different articles of mercliondisr, after due consideration, 
adopted the plan of issuing a sufficient qmintity of snraH agency notes, with 
suitable devices, so that one denominwtion might be known from another 
even by persons who could not read, from five cents to a dollar. A quantity 
of these notes was accordingly prepared and filled np, reqairhig'tbe signa*- 
ture of the Agent only, to make tliem ready for drculation. 

With this currency, and a cask of cents for smalksr change, the Trea- 
surer sent particular instructions to the Colonial Agent, as to the manner 
of keeping the accounts of the Colony in futore, so that the Society might 
know the expense attending the different depaFlments of the Colonial 
Government, as well as the profits arising from the store, and the traffic 
carried on by the schooner of the Colony with the natives; ami that there 



ANNUAL REPORT. 57 

might exist something like a system of accountableness between the Co- 
lonial Agent and the Parent Board. 

It appears, by one of Mr. Pinney's late letters, that he had not, at the 
date of it, received the currency notes. Supposing them to be lost, he 
desired a fresh supply. But, it is presumed, that, as the goods sent by 
the Jupiter were, on their arrival, stored in a warehouse of the Vice 
Agent, the box containing these notes was put away with the rest of the 
goods, and that it will be found when the warehouse is examined. 

By the last arrival, an account current, forwarded by the Colonial 
Secretary, was. received; but, from the absence of vouchers, and other 
deficiencies, is not so satisfactory as it is hoped that future documents of 
the kind will be. 

From what has already been said of the financial condition of the 
Society and the wants of the Colony, when the present Board of Managers 
entered on their duties, it may be supposed that they have been unable 
to fit out any expeditions. To engage in new enterprises, while the un- 
paid debt incurred for the old continued a theme of hostile criticism, 
and to add to the numbers of the colonists while the situation of those 
already settled needed material improvement and immediate aid, seemed 
to the Managers a course which, whatever might be its temporary eclat, 
could present no solid advantage, but would fearfully augment the bur- 
dens of their already oppressed treasury. In reaching this conclusion, 
they did not fail to consider the unfavorable tendencies of a remission of 
colonizing enterprise; but they relied on the public candor to estimate 
the difficulties of their position, which determined them to regard the 
sending of emigrants as a secondary consideration, except under special 
circumstances, until the debt should be paid. With the views of duty 
just indicated, they have, since the last Annual Meeting, sent directly 
but fourteen emigrants to the Colony. These were manumitted slaves 
belonging to the estate of the late, Matthew Page, of Frederick county, 
Virginia, and sailed in the ship Ninus, from Norfolk, on the 26th of 
October last, to join others heretofore sent to Liberia by the benevolent 
widow of that gentleman. They went in company with the manu- 
mitted slaves of the late Dr. Hawes, of the same State; and, through the 
liberality of the Young Men^s Society of Pennsylvania, which fitted out 
the expedition, received a free passage. A charge of $280 was thus saved 
to the Society. • 

Another case, which seemed an exception from the rule which the 
Managers' had prescribed to themselves, was that of between thirty and 
forty slaves liberated for the purpose of colonization by the last will and 
testament of the late Rev. John Stockdell, of Virginia. Their contested 
claim to freedom having been decided in their favor, the Board deter- 
mined, under the peculiar circumstances of their case, to make an effort 
for promptly conveying them to the Colony. The preliminary measures 
adopted, in view of this object, were arrested by information that an ap- 
peal had been taken from the decision in favor of the slaves. Should 
that decision be affirmed, as it is expected to be, by the appellate court, 
the next Board of Managers will, of course, resume the efforts of the pre- 
sent Board to carry into effect the wishes of the benevolent testator, 

A correspondence has recently taken place, between the Navy Depart- 
ment and the Board, in relation to sixty-two recaptured Africans, who 
had been placed at the disposition of the Federal Government by the ' 



58 ANNUAL REPORT 

judgment of one of its courts. This correspondence resulted in the ac- 
ceptance by the Department of terms on which the Board ofiered to re- 
store those unfortunate -persons to their native land. This purpose will, 
it is expected, be effected in a few weeks. 

It is a source of high gratiiication to the Managers, that, though their 
immediate concern in the business of emigration has been inconsiderable 
during the past year, Auxiliary Societies, other friends, and similar in- 
stitutions, have not permitted it to languish. They before mentioned 
the proposed establishment of a Temperance Settlement within the 
Libcrian Territory, and the expedition sent out by the Young Men's 
Society of Philadelphia. The former enterprise originated among the 
citizens of Albany, in the Sjtate of New York, who determined to raise 
$3,000 for the purpose of settling at a village, to be called Albany, in 
Liberia, one hundred temperance emigrants. Of this sum $1,093 29 
were, during the last summer, collected and forwarded to this Board, and 
$374 have lately been remitted to it, for the same object. The Colonial 
Agent was' promptly instructed to select a suitable location for this settle- 
ment, and to make preparatory arrangements for the settlers, on the prin- 
ciples of the new plan, for the accolnmodation of emigrants, which was 
noticed in a former part of this report. The progress made, in regard 
to this settlement, has already been adverted to. The emigrants, sent 
out by the Young Men's Society of Pennsylvania, were one hundred and 
ten slaves, manumitted by the last will and testament of the late Dr. Ay- 
lett Hawes, of Rappahannock county, in the State of Virginia, on the 
condition of being sent by the American Colonization Society to Liberia; 
and with a bequest of $20 to each of them in aid of their thinsportation 
and settlement. The financial exigencies of the Parent Institution pre- 
venting it from immediate direct action on this subject, the Managers ac- 
cepted the offer of the Young Men's Society of Pennsylvania to send 
the manumiilcd slaves of Dr. Hawes to Bassa Cove, to be there, formed 
into a distinct, but dependent settlement. The Kentucky Stale Colo- 
nization Society proposes to send out, at its own charge, during the 
present month, about fifty emigrants to the Colony, to be selected with 
due regard to their moral qualifications, and to be well provided by that 
institution with every thing necessary for,their*comfort. The consent of 
this Board to that enterprise, and to the appropriation to its purpose of a le- 
gacy of $500 left by a lady of Kentucky, has been requested and accorded. 

In the last Annual Report was noticed the independent Colony 
established at Cape Palnias by the Maryland State Society. A recent 
communication from that Society to this Board exhibits a gratifying view 
of the procr(!ss of their enterprise. In June last, they sent a vessel with 
supplies; and in December, another with supplies and emigrants. Ad- 
vices received by the return of the former vessel presented the conditiori 
of the settler? in the most favorable light, in regard to both their physical 
comfort and their prospect of moral elevation. 

Since the last Annual Meeting, the following Auxiliary Societies have 
been formed: 

The Young Men's Colonization Society of Frederick county, Va., auxiliary 
to the Virginia State Society. 

A Colonization Society at Methuen, Massachusetts. 

A Colonization SocieU' of the students of Washington College, Pennsylvania. 

\ Colonization Society of Auburn Theological Seminary, New York. 



• ANNUAL REPORT. 59 

The Youn^ Klen's ColonizAtion Society of Pennsylvania. 

The Colonization Society of Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, at Carlisle. 

The Colonization Society. of JLane Seminary, Ohio. 

The Colonization Society of Kinderhook Academy, New York. 

The Young Men's Colonization Society of Geneva, N. Y., auxiliary to the New 
York State Colonization Society. 

The Young Men's Colonization Society of Muskingum county, Ohio, formed 
at Zanesville, December 24, 1834. 

The Tioga county (N. Y.) Colonization Society of the eastern jury district of 
said county. 

The North Carolina State Society has been re-organized. 

Fewer permaDenf Agents of the Society have been employed in the 
past, than in the next preceding year. Shortly after the last Annual 
Meeting, the Board appointed Robert S. Finley, Esq., permanent agent^ 
for the western district, comprising the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
and Missouri, and the Territory of Michigan. In that region, Mr. Finley 
has exhibited his characteristic zeal and ability; and, though his efforts 
to raise funds for the Society have not prospered, he has done much in 
wakening public attention to the cause, in stimulating its friends to exer- 
tions, and in repelling hostilities. The Managers regret to add, that pri- 
vate considerations have determined that efficient officer to retire from 
his agency in the course of a few weeks. A part of his field is at present 
occupied by the Reverend Cornelius Moore, a gentleman highly recom- * 
mended to the Board, and recently appointed Agent of the Society for 
the State of Ohio. A similar appointment for the Stale of Virginia has 
been conferred on Colonel Addison Hall, formerly of Lancaster county, 
in that State. He will shortly remove to Richmond, in order the more 
effectually to promote the interests of the Society; and the Managers feel 
great confidence in the result of his efforts. A prominent friend of the 
Society wat appointed Agent for the New England States, and another 
for the middle district, comprising the States of New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Both these gentlemen de- 
clined to accept, aad the Board have not deemed it advisable hitherto to 
fill the vacancies. Mr. Sylvester Woodbridge is engaged in the service 
of the Society in Connecticut and the western part of the State of New 
York. The Rev. William Matchelt has, for some months, been acting 
as agent of the Society in Delaware and Maryland. 
• The circumstances under ivhich Mr. Pinney was appointed Colonial 
Agent have been mentioned in a former part of this Report. His admin- 
istration, until disease incapacitated him for exertion, was so vigorous, 
provident and discreet, that the Board feci pain in announcing to this 
meeting that the Society is no longer to have the benefit of his valuable 
services, as he proposes to devote himself to his missionary labors so 
soon as a new Colonial Agent can be appointed. 

The cause of African missions has suffered severely by the decease 
of the Rev. Mr. Laird and wife, and the Rev. Mr. Cloud, of the Presby- 
terian Church, and the Rev. Mr. Wright and wife, of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church; individuals who, by their talents, zeal, and piety, were well 
qualified for extensive usefulness in that great and holy work, to which 
their lives were cheerfully devoted. Cut down in the commencement of 
their labors, they could do little more than exhibit, under the most trying 
circumstances, the noble Christian spirit which animated them, and be- 
queath an example of influence to revive something of the primitive 
spirit of our religion in the bosom of the Church. 



60 ANNUAL REPORT. 

Despatches received from the Colony^ by the Ruth and Sarah Priscilla, 
bring intelligence from it as late as the middle of October. At the date 
of these despatches, Mr. Pinney had so far recovered his health, as to 
enable him to resume partially his official functions, and thus to terminate 
some dissatisfaction which had been created by circumstances connected 
with his temporary retirement. Besides plans of improvement in the 
Colony of a more general nature, the execution of which had been sus- 
pended by his unfortunate illness, the completion of the new substantial 
colonial store and saw-mill, which had been early commenced by him, 
was delayed. 

Though there had been a number of deaths among the emigrants who 
went out in the Argus last winter, but few instances of mortality had since 
occurred. Among these, were*the deaths of two individuals of much con- 
sideration in the Colony: the Rev. Colston M. Waring, who emigrated 
from Virginia in the year 1823, Pastor of the First Baptist Church, a 
member of the Colonial Council, and who had twice filled the office of 
Vice- Agent; and the Rev. Gustavus V. Cesar, an emigrant from Hartford, 
in Connecticut, a ^linister of the Episcopal Church, and surveyor of the 
Colony. 

Dr. Skinner's treatment of the diseases of the Colony has thu5 far 
been successful. He considers Millsburg as the mosthealthy of the colonial 
settlements; and states that there are mountains in its vicinity which 
would furnish an eligible site for a medical or high school. As a proof of 
its salubrity, he mentions that there are living there in good health two 
families, each consisting of nine persons, who were among the first set- 
tlers; and that they all passed through the fever without physician or 
medicine. Dr. Skinner is of opinion that every part of Liberia may 
be rendered more healthy than at present, and that nothing is wanting but 
industry and perseverance to overcome the obstacles which now obstruct 
its prosperity. In promoting religion and morality among the colonists, 
and in stimulating them to active usefulness, this officer has been an effi- 
cient co-operator with the Agent. The Board are gratified to learn from 
him that he found the state of society in the Colony moral and orderly in 
a very high degree. 

By the last despatches, njany important subjects were brought to the 
notice of the Board. Among the results of their counsels was a determina- 
tion to send out to Liberia, by the first opportunity, a few bales of cotton, 
and wheels, cards, and looms, for manufacturing purposes, with the view 
to enable hands, hitherto unemployed,,to make necessary articles of cloth- 
ing for the use of the colonists; and to instruct the Agent to obtain from 
the Bassa country, the Cape de Verd islands, or other places, as many 
steers, mules, and asses as may be wanted for agricultural pursuits and 
the transportation of burdens. 

The Board regret to learn that the Colonial Council have passed 
an ordinance suspending the public schools, until some better plan for 
conducing them can be devised. The Agent will be instructed to pro- 
mote this object by all means within his power. Among the wants of 
the Colony, which the Managers have been most solicitous to supply, is 
its need of an improved system of jurisprudence. The Colonial Code, 
which they had taken means to have prepared, is not yet completed. 

At the last Annual Meeting two resolutions were adopted; the first 
containing ten specifications concerning colonial statistics, about which 



ANNUAL REPORT. 61 

the Society directed the Managers to obtain and embody in the present 
Report the fullest and most accurate information; and the second direct- 
ing them to embody in all future Reports details still more minute on the 
same topics. The earliest opportunity was used to call the particular 
attention of the Agent to these resolutions; but the Managers regret to 
say, that, in consequence of his ill health and the pressure of his current 
engagements, he has been unable hitherto to furnish them with the means 
of Qommunicating to the present meeting the desired information. In 
order that no avoidable delay may occur in giving the members of the 
Society all the light that can be Obtained on this subject, it is the pur- 
pose of the Board to publish in tlie African Repository the Agent's re- 
port on the resolutions so soon as it shall be received. 

The Society, at the last Annual Meeting, referred to the Board a reso- 
lution appointing three gentlemen as Commissioners to proceed to Liberia 
and its vicinity, and to submit to the present Annual Meeting the result 
of their inquiry. This reference was an early subject of deliberation with 
the Board; but the object for which the commission was suggested 
having been otherwise attained to a considerable extent, they determined 
not to institute it. They are happy to believe that no injury has resulted 
from this course^ as full reports in relation to the Colony, of the accuracy 
of which they entertain no doubt, have been received since the last 
Annual Meeting. Among these may be specified a letter from Captain 
Voorhees, of the United States Navy, under date of December 14, 1834, 
which was published in the African Repository for March last. 

Another subj[,ect referred to the Board at the last Annual Meeting was 
that of making'arrangements with Mr. Gurley to secure, as soon as prac- 
ticable, the publication of his Biography of the late Mr. Ashmun. That 
purpose has been effected without the agency of the Board, but on terms * 
which secure to the Society a contingent interest in the work.- It is 
expected shortly to issue from the press. 

The Managers cannot close their Report without noticing the dispensa- 
tion of Providence which has deprived the Society, durliig the past 
year, of its three distinguished friends. General Lafayette, William H. 
Crawford, and Thomas S. Grimke. Of these, the two first named were 
among its Vice-Presidents; and the third, though declining to accept a 
similar station, which had been tendered to him, was a constant and 
zealous supporter of the cause. The public interest felt in them all 
would render any particular allusion on this occasion to their characters 
a superfluous tribute to their memories. But the Managers of an insti- 
tution, with which the names of those eminent persons are identified, 
may be allo\^ed to mingle with the more conspicuous manifestations of 
sorrow which their deaths have called forth, an expression of their own 
deep, though unavailing regret. * 

In surrendering to the Society the trust with which they have been 
honored, the Managers are happy to say that nothing has occurred during 
the period of their ^administratioH to shake their cotifidence in the great 
cause of Colonization, nor their hope that the same protection which it 
has received so signally from Heaven jn times past will be continued 
throughout its future course. 

JAMES LAURIE, 
President of the Board of Managers, 

R. R. Gurley, Secretary. 



62 



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PROCEEDINGS. eS 



Resolutions of the Board of Managers of the Colonization Society, 

January 12, 1835. 

1. Jieaohed, That the Board highly approve of the removal of unemployed 
women and children, and others, living at the expense of the agency at Monrovia, 
to Caldwell, to be employed either on the public farm, in manufacturing cotton, 
or in some other way to earn their own maintenance. 

2. Resohedj That nothing further is necessary, on the part of this Board, to 
prevent the introduction into the Colony of aged and unprotected women and 
children, than that strict attention be given to the subject whenever vessels are 
sent out with emigrants to Liberia. 

3. Resolved, That the propriety of converting one or more of the receptacles 
at the Colony into a workshop or workshops, in which to employ such women, 
children and others, as may be engaged in manufacturing cotton or other articles, 
be left to the discretion of the Colonial Agent. 

4. Resolved, That no further regulations are necessary, in addition to those passed 
by the Board in January lost, in relation to emig^nts settling, on their first arri- 
val, on the lots to be permanently laid out for them. 

5. Retohed, That it being, in the opinion of the Board, all-important to the 
future welfare of the Colony that good schools should be kept up in the several 
settlements, any school-boase, owned by the Society in the Colony, shall be used 
gratuitously by the teacher of any public school; and in settlements where the So- 
ciety has no school-house, the Board ag^ee to pay the rent of a suitable house for 
the purpose, on condition that a public school be kept therein, until more effi- 
cient provision in the premises can be made. 

6. Resolved, That, in order to furnish employment to women and children, and 
others unable to labor on a farm, the Board will comply with the request made 
by the Colonial Agent, to send out to the Colony, by the first opportunity, wheels, 
cards and looms, for the purpose of manufacturing cotton; and until the inhabit- 
ants are placed in a situation and furnished with the proper means for raising suf* 
ficient cotton in the Colony, that a few bales of cotton be sent from hence, with 
the implements above mentioned, and from time to time, as it may be wanted. 
By these means, it is presumed, that a large quantity of necessary articles of cloth- 
ing may be made for the use of the colonists by hands which have hitherto been 
unemployed. 

7. Resolved, That a quantity of bootees be sent to the Colony for the purpose 
of preventing injuries to the ankles, which frequently produce ulcers, especially 
in persons recently afflicted with the fever of the chmate. 

8. Resolved, That the Colony has been too long without working animals to aid 
its settlers in agricultural pursuits, and in carrying burdens from place to place, 
and that, therefore, the Colonial Agent be instructed to take an early opportu- 
nity of obtaining, from the Bassa Country, or some other place, as many steers as 
may be wanted for these purposes; and also such number of mules of asses as may 
be needed from the Cape de Verd islands, or other parts. 

9. Resolved, That the schooner Margfaret Mercer being now useless for want 
of repairs, the Agent be instructed either to cause her to be repaired at the Colo- 
ny, or to send her to the United States for that purpose, accordingly as he may 
think best, unless he should think it more expedient to hire her out or to sell 
her, as heretofore authorised to do. 

10. Resolved, That the existing circumstances of the Colony, and the narrow 
finances of the Board, do not justify the purchase, at this time, of a steamboat -for 
the Colony. 

jAirUABT 26. 

Resolved, That Mr. Pinney having expressed a wish to retire from the Colonial 
Agency, Dr. Ezekiel Skinner be appomted Colonial Agent; and that he be ap- 
prised that the Board will relieve him from the duties of that station, and enable 
bim again to devote his exclusive attention to his professional duties, so soon as 
they can procure the services of a suitable successor in the Agency. 



64 AFRICAN COLONIZATION. 

FXBRUART 7. 

Resolved, That Ihe Colonial Agent be at liberty to take up his residence at such 
place or places within the Colony of Liberia as he may prefer for its or their advan- 
tages in respect to health and other circumstances; that he rent a house for his tern- 1 
norary accommodation, in any such place, until he become satisfied with a site for 
his permanent abode; and provided such location be not at Monrovia, this Socie- 
ty will cause a suitable house to be erected there for his residence, and provide 
in other respects for his comfortable establishment. 



AFRICAN COLONIZATION. 

It has been already stated, that a vessel will shortly sail to Liberia from 
New Orleans, with siity-two recaptured Africans, at present in charge of 
the Marshal of the district of Louisiana; and that the Auxiliary Colo- 
nization Society of Kentucky, having resolved to send out to Africa from 
the same port about fifty emigrants from that State, the Board of Man- 
agers of the Parent Society had authorized their agent for the western 
neclion of the United States, Mr. R. S. Finley, to pay a visit to New 
Orleans, in order to charter a vessel, provide the necessary stores for 
the voyage, and to attend to their embarcation. On his way Mr. F. was 
directed to spend a short time in the State of Mississippi, to give infor- 
mation to certain free colored persons there, who had expressed a desire 
to emigrate to Liberia, of the present opportunity. The Board has just 
received from Mr. F. a very interesting account of the success which has 
attended his visit to Mississippi. He states *^that there will be upwards 
of seventy emigrants from that State; that, through the unexampled lib- 
erality of the friends of the cause, with little or no effort on his part, a 
sufficient sum of money has been raised to defrav the expense of the ex- 
pedition; that twenty-six of the emigrants belonging to the estate of 
James Green, deceased, late of Adams county, were selected from one 
hundred and thirty, and emancipated for faithful and meritorious services. 
The acting executor of the estate will accompany these people to New 
Orleans, to purchase for them an outfit of clothing, furniture, implements 
of husbandry, mechanics' tools, 6lc. to the value of a thousand dollars^ 
to pay the expense of their passage, and to advance ^oe thousand doU 
lars for their use in the Colony. Forty-three of the emigrants are from 
Claiborne county, are people of excellent chanqter, and will carry with 
them ten thousand dollars worth of property. Among these emigrants 
are Gloster Simpson and Arciiy Moorr, who visited the Colony more 
than two years ago, on behalf of the free colored people of Mississippi, 
as exploring agents. When the Ajax sailed for Liberia, in the spring 
of 1833, they were not ready to return, their families being still in bond- 
age; but they have been waiting, for a year past, with great anxiety to 
return. On paying them a visit, and informing them of the opportunity 
lor their immediate departure, they received the intelligence with raptu* 
rousjoyy Mr. F. adds, '*that he shall sail in the next steamboat, and 
expects to meet the Kentucky emigrants at New Orleans, as they were 
to leave Louisville on the 16th of January." Mr. Finley's letter is dated 
February 2d. 



OCj* A list of donations and collections in the March No. 



Tin: 



AFRICAN REPOSITORY. 



AND 



COLONIAL JOURNAL. 



Vol. XL] M.\RCH, 1835. [No. 3. 



MR. GERRIT SMITH ON COLONIZATION. 

Want of room has obliged us to postpone ootil the present occa- 
sion, the re-pubiication of an Essay on Colonization, b^ that distin- 
guished philanthropist Gbrrit Smith, it is the third 'and last of a 
aeries of Essays from his pen, originally published in the New-Haven 
Journal of Freedom. The writer, though a warm advocate of the 
* Colonization Society, has given it several occasional blows, which 
would be more easily borne, had they been inflicted by a less friendly 
and less distinguished hand. But we are not deterred by this consid- 
eration from re- publishing his piece. The name of the writer is suffi- 
cient to bespeak for it a very general perusal: 

It is BOW tome e]g:hteen or twenty years, since saeh men, as Finley, Milk, and 
Gald well-^namee ever dear to PhilaDtnropy— began to inquire, what could Iw dona 
for Africa and the children which bad been torn frozn her. The spots, which civi- 
lixatkm had fadaened frt>m her vast moral waste, were fewer and scarcely larm 
than the Oases of her deserts. Nor could benevolence survev the condition of tne 
Afiican any where else, but wiUi a bleeding heart. In South America; in the W. 
Indies; in the U. States;~he was still in chains. Indeed, as to our own land, 
there had never been creater, nor more successful efibrls made, than were then 
makiag, to extend and perpetuate the dark and cruel empire of Slavery: and this 
too, nutwithstandine all the opposition to it— as well, that of Manumission Socie- 
ties, as of individuals. 

These inquirerp for reliaf to the wretched objects of their solicitude, were led by 
Providance to project the American Colonization Society: and, after lonf; continu- 
ed, but unwearied exertions, for this end, tl^ succeeded, in interesting in their 
views, persans enough to form the Society. It is surely no sli^t commendation 
of the wisdom of its pfam, that, l>efore the Institution had been m operation half a 
doaen yams, the eyes of the wise and good fiwerr where were turned to it, as the 
harbinger and chief iostrament of deliverance to ine down trodden African race. — 
From me first, the Society continned to advance, with but rare and unimpcMrtaat 
interraptiMis of its prosperity. God smiled on its Colonists. He "covered their 
heads in the day ofbattja," when the infiiriatad natives roshed against then, with 
thirty fold their number: and either all which has bean said, and much of it justly, 
ofthedesolatfaiic diseases of Western Africa, wbeia».!n all the annals of modem 
coloniiatlon. do wo find* ttiH the foundatibttf of a State were laid with less sacri* 
fice of life, than in Liberia? The mosperity 4ftb Calony wakenad up, tbroog^t 
oar hmd, a fine^ totemat hi the African raal^ twU mora interest than before, 
was now taken by oa in the hondrSd milliaipormihappy Afiiea; and the feeling 
came to be strong hi oor hearts, that it was aialnSBtly ftle dnfy of the people of the 
Unitad States la ba faMlmsa«ttl in i t t a ae i i t laa her. -Abort aO, the sentiffleot. 
that the negro 4avf k asysMs af fteeSsm, aiMis tntlflsd to it, was now spreading 



66 MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATION. [March, 

rapidly. Even, at the South, the long undiaturbed seal of silence on the subject of 
slavery was broken: and the subject was discussed; — not in the confidence of the 
fireside and in tiie whispers of secret places only; but, in the public prints and 
"upon the house tops." A spirit of manumission began to run through the ranke 
of our slaveholders. Some of them liberated all tbeir slaves: and there were in- 
stances, in which the slaveholder, not only gave up his slaves, but also furnished 
the partial or entire means for removing them to Liberia. A thousand slaves were 

S'ven to the Society; and, could it have defrayed the expense of colonizing them, 
ousands more would have been at its service. A spirit of alarm also began to 
run through the ranks of our slaveholders; as was evident by the enactment of new 
laws to secure the slave andprolong slavery. But, here I muat turn fi-om my enu* 
meration of the beneficial efiects of the Colonization Society, to defend it: for, with 
some minds, these laws, which I have set down to the praise of the Society, pass 
to its discredit. Even Mr. Birnev, the recent productions of whose polished mind 
so justly endear him to the friends of the poor slave, brings up, in nis celebrated 
letter to the Secretary of the Kentucky Colonization Society, the increased rigors 
of the slavery system, since the organization of the Society, as matter of accuse* 
tion against it. I will agree with him, if he wishes me, that the Society occasioned 
a part, or even the whole of these rigors: but, then, I will claim for the credii of it, 
that, which is, in his view, its reproach. Just as reasonable is it to tax God's truth 
with the sin of the rebel's bracing himself against it, as it is to hold the Coloniza- 
tion Society res{>onsible for the sin of these new measures for oppressing the slave, 
and confirming slavery: and just as well may the occasion of the sin, in the one 
case, be pronounced criminal, as the occasion of it, in the other. That these new 
measures were not accordant with the spirit and tendency of the Colonization So* 
ciety; but, that* they were occasioned by it, so far as at all, throq^ the dk«ad of^ 
and in opposition to that Anti-Slavery feeling, which we have credited the Society 
with promoting, acquires no little probabilify from the fact, that these measures 
were adopted by such of the slave States, as bad, all along been foaming out tbeir 
hatred a^nst khe Society, instead of such, as had ever re^uded it with mvor. In 
Maryland and Kentucky, for instance, where the Colomzation scheme bad, from 
its origin, been very popular, the public mind was purposing the abolition, instead 
of the prolongation ot slavery. Virginia too, where that scheme had been rapidly 
gaining favor, was found, a few years a^o, well nigh prepared to resolve on being 
a free State: whilst, on the other hand, in South Carobna and Georgia, where no 
man could ever have freely and fully advocated the cause of Colonization without 

Seril of his life, no new measures awaited the condition of the wretched slave, savit 
lose, which multiplied his chains; increased his darkness; and deepened his des* 
8 air. Who can find, in these facte, any ground for the often repeated charge, tiiat 
le Colonization Society and Slavery go hand in hand? And who will -pretend, 
that the Society acquired its hold on the affections of the free States, otherwise thao* 
as it commended itself to the dislike of shivery and the desire for universal fiee* 
dom, which prevail there? The Southampton insurrection was doubtless the prox- 
imate cause of the recently increased severity of the slave code in Virginia. Will 
it be said, that the further oppression of the slave was the denpi of that insurrec- 
tion; and, that the spirit of the insurrection was in fellowship with the spirit of 
slavery? As well however, may this be said, as that the new legislative rigors, 
which the slave suflfers in several of the States, and of which the Colonization So- 
ciety may, to no small extent, have been the occasion, prove, that the Society and 
Slavery eo hand in hand. It is greatly to be feared, that it will be the policy of 
most of the slave States to ti|;hten the bands of the slave in proportion as the An- 
ti-Slavery Society succeeds m disseminating its principles and extending its influ- 
ence. Indeed, the Society is already and frequently conjured hf its love of tlio 
slave, and in view of the additionally severe treatment, to which it is exposing himy 
to cease altc^ether from its labors. But, although it should be the occasion of new 
sufferings to the slave, would criminality necessarily attach to it, for being sof— 
and would these incidental sufferings, deeply re^tted on tbeir own account, bo 
of such comparative moment, as to justifjrme Society in self-annihilation and in the 
sacrifice of the great objects which called it into existence? An afilrmative an- 
swer to this interrogatory involves a doctrine, which would stop the wheels, as well 
of Divine, as of human benevolence: for, in either case, (and bow plainly does this 
show, that we live in a sin-deranged world !) the revolution is attended with dam- 
age to some. The Anti-Slavery Society is not to be blamed therefore, if it shall be, 
as, we have supposed it may Docome, the innocent occasion of sufferings to somo 



1835.] MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATION. 67 

of the objects of its benevolent solicitude. Nor, if the Colonization Society has 
been the occasion of a fresh infusion of severity into any of our slave codes, does 
it merit blame for it, any more than the Anti-Slaveiy Society would for a similaf 
e&ct of its legitimate operations. One thin^ is certam: if the Colonization Socie- 

2r has been designedly, or in effect; on the side of slavery, the thoroueh fiitfnds of 
aveiy have not thought it to be so. John Randolph, that remarlaibly tenacious 
holder of slaves, that unflinching advocate of slaveiy, "through evil as well as good 
report;'* and who could pronounce the ''Declaration of Independence," because it 
asserts the doctrine of "equal rights," a "fanfaronade of nonsense;" took a promi- 
nent part in forming the Gol<mizatlon Society. Why did he and others of his senti« 
ments on the subject of slavery, so soon fall away from the Society, and denounce 
it' Because they so soon discovered, that the moral influences of the Society were 
hostile to the institution of slavery. And why do we find the Representatives in 
Coneress, from those States most attached to slavery, voting annually a^ainstgrant- 
insr 3ie use of their Hall for the Anniversary Meeting^ of the Colonization Society? 
l^y do we find them continuing to vote so, even amidst the abundant declarations 
made the past winter by the Anti-Slaveiv Society, that the Colonization Society is 
a mighty engine to promote slavery? Why else, but that they^see and feel (tiiough 
Mr. Bimey cannot see and feel it,) that the Colonization Sociebr is the foe, and not 
the friend, of slaveiy? But, there are many passages in the publications of the So- 
ciety, which are referred to by its enemies, to prove, that it has, all along, been 
on tne side of slavery. These passages disclaim for the Society any purpose, on 
its part, of promoting "emancipation." May we thence aigue, that tiie influences 
of tne Society are hostile to emancipation.^ Certainly not. But, on the otiier 
hand, may we not argue from them confidentiy, if not indeed, conclusively, that 
those influences are felt to be so strongly and exclusively in favor of "emancipa- 
tion," that they are liable to be mistaken for a purpose, on the part of the Society, 
to promote emancipation? A passage is often quoted from the speech of Mr. Har- 
rison of Virginia, to show, that the Colonization Society is the ally of slavery. In 
this passage, Mr. Harrison supposes, that the Society would, in order to show that 
it is not itself an Abolition Society, go even so far, as to "pass a censure on Abo- 
lition Societies." But does this passage justify, or, in the least degree, favor the 
construction put upon it? So far firom that, does it not show most cieariy, that the 
influences of the Society were of a character to awaken the suspicion of its cher- 
ishing the design of "emancipation?" — a suspicion too, so eeneral and so con$- . 
dent, as might make it necessary, in Mr. Hamson's judgment, & resort to the strong 
measure suggested by himself for banishing it? And, even if the Society had 
adopted this measure, it would not yet have given any evidence that its influences 
were favorable to slavery. On the contrary, the adoption of tiie measure would 
have aisued, more strongly, than the bare sug^stion of it, that those influences 
were adverse to slavery. It is true, that the adoption of it would have shown one 
thing more; and that is, the ridiculous attitude of the Society, in striving to vot^ 
down a spirit, which, from its very nature, it is inevitably acting t^i — to check with 
a few futile words the irresistible and happy tendencies of the Institution. 

Let any candid and sensible man take up the publications of the Colonization 
Society, previous to the last two years, and ne will not fail of coming to the con- 
clusion, that it had been an anxious and continual labor of the Society, from its 
very origin, to allay the suspicion, arising out of its palpable Anti-Slavery influ- 
ences, that it bad, in respect to the question of slavery, departed from the neutrali- 
ty of ite Constitution. I am well aware, however, that this neutrality is a crime 
in«the eves of many, and that the Society is, oftentimes, puUicly denounced on ae* 
count 01 it. But the persons, to whom the Society is obnonous in this point of 
view, are generally the same, as those, who would mix up, in one huge Socicdty, 
opposition to intemperance, to lotteries, to slaveiy, to infidelity, and to otiier em. 
Because a Society aoes not undertake to accomplish awry good thing, they con- 
ceive it to be good for nothing. The injury; which such persons unwittingly do 
to th6 cause im benevolence, and tiie pain which tbey, as unwittinriy, inflict on 
the discreet friends of that cause, need not be described here. That me Colonisa- 
tion Society may never be tempted to violate tiie neutrality, to which I have i«fer- . 
red, is "most devouti3pE to be wiraed." In the language addressed to the' last Annu- 
al Meeting of the Society, and which, if it be vanity, it will be no pl^arism in 
the writer to ose: "^We ask, that the Society may adhere to ite psofossed, its Con- 
stitutional nantralilgr* on ttiia subjeet: aiid Hiat, on the doe Jiand, whilst it ' 
shall not dsttooace stemy, to, oo te €<kar» it iliall not deooaiiet any— 



49 Mil. SMITH ON COLONIZATION. [March. 

not even the tvUdt'Rt foroM of opposition to it. Such is, or rather such 
sboold be the neutrality of our Society, on the sabject of slavery; that ttn 
members may be free on the one band, to be slavehokiers, and, on the other, to 
join the Anti-Slavery Society, without doin^ violence to their connexion with the 
Colonization Socie^." Let the Colonization Society evince the impartiality, 
which has ever been so happily maintained by the Temperance Society; and let it 
allow its members to diA'er, as widely a^ they please, on all other subjects than 
that one pointed out in its Constitution, and on which they have agreed to act 
unitedljT' The political economist poins the Temperance Society, because be sees. 
that it is drying up the most prolific sources of his countntr's impoverishment. 
The moraJibt joins it, having perhaps no other view of ite utility, than the con* 
tracted one, of its promotion of sobiiety. The Christian joins it, not merely from 
his appreciation ot its direct and more* immediate results; but, because be is per* 
nuadea, that it will subserve the infinitely higher and more comprehensive object 
of Christianity. The Colonization Society has as little, as the Temperance Socie- 
ty, to do with the creeds of its members, and with the variety of views which moved 
them to join it. It is not competent for the Society to question its sbveholding 
members, whether their object, in joining it, was to promote slavery; nor to quet- 
tion its other members, whether theirs was to abolish slavery. The' writer ofthese 
Kssaj^s joined the Colonization Society in the spirit and with the objecte of an abo» 
htionist. In that spirit, and with those objects, he continues his connexion with 
It. In that connexion, no more than in the Temperance Society, has he any dif* 
f^rence with the slaveholder. A few — a very few, have joined the Society; be- 
lieving that the tendency of the Institution is to the protection of slavety. fallow 
them to entertain their view of the influences of the Society on slavery; and they 
»Uow me to entertain mine, which is diametrically opposite to their own. They, 
perhaps, laugh in their sleeve, at seeing Northern abolitionists gnlhsd into tiie sun* 
)-ort of a pro-slavery Society: whilst 1, on the other hand, looking on it to be, in 
edect, an Anti-Slavery Society, would be quite Ss well pleased to see aU tbs 
sUvebolders in the land at work in filling up its treasury. 

But. not to mention other evidences of tne anti-slavery inflnencesof the Coloni- 
zation Society, there is one witness I would call to the stand, whose credibility its 
Northern enemies, at least, wi>l not impeach. This witness is none other, than 
the Anti-Slavery Society itself— the Colonization Society's own child — disowning 
and scorning its parentage, it is true; and, in its turn, often stigmatized, as a ton- 

(;ous, instead of a healtby production of the Colonization Society; — but, neverthe* 
eiff, and in spite of all their railing at each other, the Colonixation Society's own 
child. Take the foremost man in the Anti-Slavpry Society, William Lloyd Gar* 
rison. I would speak kindly of hiro; for with all his faults, I love the man, who 
counts *ihe tears of such as are opipreMied and have nu comforter/* Whm did 
he learn to abhor slavery?— where, but in the school of the Colonization Society, 
whose merits, if I am not misinformed, his eloquence has urged upon the pubAc 
assembly? Or, if it be true, as I have somewhere read, that a mother's hand planted 
the principles of Anti-slavery in his youthful breast; how honorable, nevertheless, 
is it to the Colonization Society, that he should have chosen to cherish that sacred 
germ and cultivate its growth, amidst the genial influences of tliis noble Institu- 
tion! Soalso the excellent gentleman who presides over the American Anti- 
Slavery Society, was not only a munificent patron, butt as is now evident, an apt 
pupil of the same school, which lent its s^ency to fashion the champion of tm 
Anti-Slavery Society. And what Colonizationist can be so ungenerous as to 
quarrel with William Goodell, the Editor of the Anti-Slavery Society; when h« 
odls to mind, that, during ten times the period he has labored for that Society, his 
editorial talents were at the service of the Colonization cause: and that, in his de- 
votion to this cause, he probably acquired much of the interest, which be has now 
transferred to another, but kindred cause? Tell me, indeed, of a single leader in 
the Anti- Slavery Society, who has not been a member of this same despised school: 
nnd then tell me of any one of them, who, before he came under the instmction and 
influences of this school, ever manifested any considerabls regard for the Africia 
race. If, in this school they made more rapid progress than did their follow pupils, 
it is to their praise: but do not gratitude and Donor forbkl, that they should took 
down with scorn upon the humble steps, by whose help they hAve attsioed to 
their present superior elevation? 

I have retd, in the "Kmaoeipator,** a very long editorial article altmt '^ar.tece* 
deafaad **etibee^ot'' eveoto^ itti^pti to show the nsf onsjbUlty oftbe Colooi* 



l^io.j 



MB. SIVilTH 0:i COLOMZAXiON. 69 



Eation Society for the scenes of violence, enacted in the city of New York, first of 
July. Allow me to commend to the attention of the truly worthy Editor of that 
Newspaper, the *<«intecedent" and ''subsequent" events, to which I have just now 
adverted. The ''antecedent*' event is, that, at a time, when there was not in this 
nation, any thing like a general or systematic opposition to slavery; but when, on • 
the contrary, there wu a very general quietness and indifference about it, the Ame- 
rican Colonization Society was formed. The "subsequent" event is, that this So* 
citrtjr had not been in aetnal operation fifteen years, before a strong anti-slavery 
sentiment had spread over more than half the land; and aome of the most promi- 
nent members or that Society had become so full of zeal for the abolition of slavery, 
as to flout at the tameness of all indirect elforts towards (^tfecting it. If the Kditor 
of the "Emancipator" be blind to the palpable connexion between the "autece- 
dent" and "subsequent'*' in this case, he must not wonder, if the public fail to per- 
ceive the fanciful and unreal connexion between a poitioii ut least oi his own *'an- 
tecedents" and "subsequenls."^ 

There is one gronnd, on which Mr. Bimey maintains the pro-slavery influences 
of the Colonization Society, which 1 must not pass over; for there is enonuh of 
plausibility in it to give it effect on suf>erficial minds. Mr. Birney says substanti- 
ally that, "in Mexico, in Columbia, in Gualimala — in fint', in all tlie Republics of 
the South," where there has t>een no Colonization Society, slavery has ueen abo» 
lished: whilst in our own country, where there is such a Society, it still exists. — 
His inference, of course, Ss, that the Colonization Society makes all the diderence. 
The long continued aud bloody revolutions in those regions, and the furious storms 
of anarcny, which repeatedly swept over them, whilst they prostrated other insti- 
tiltions, had, in Mr. Bimey's judgment, no effect on that one, which was interwo^M 
with them all. Having withstood this mighty power, slavery then died, merely be- 
cause there was no Colonization Society tnere. Why, the iron-sided monster, after 
having covered himself with glory in bis matchless resistance of all the elements of 
war and confusion, should have been ashamed to die for the lack of the petty nour- 
ishment of a Colonization Society ! It was even meaner, than for .the «;reat Cssar 
to cry — "ffivc me some drink Titinius — like a sick giil." No, Mr. Birnev, before 
our credulity can swallow your inference, you must, at least, .show us, tliat there 
is (our Colonization Society out of view) a striking similarity in the condition of 
tliis country and that of the countries referred to. This however you will not at- 
tempt to do; as you are well aware, that numberless causes have operated to n;mo- 
del society there, which have no existence here. It is deeply to be regretted, that 
Mr. Birnev has 9o oflen in the course of his eloquent letter. a.s, in the instance un- 
der consideration, substituted 5'pecious dechmution for the vigorous and exact 
rea^ning, of which I will Tiot doiibt that he is capable. 11 he docs nut write more 
carefully in future, his generous eu]o<^ist will be thought extravagant, in saying, 
that "A Birnev has shaken the continent, by putting down his foot; and his fame 
will be envied before his arguments are answered, or their force forgotten.'' When 
I read this passage in Dr. Cox^s letter of the 17th inst. to the Kditor of the New 
York Evangelist, I was forcibly reminded of an infirmity, which seems to be 
somewhat peculiar to a certain class of anti -slavery gentlpmcn; and a very strik- 
ing example of which was furnished by the Convention that assembled in PhUa- 
delpbia to organize the American Anti-Slaven' Societjr. To judge by the publish- 
ed proceedings of that Convention, no small share of its time was consumed in the 
apotheosis of JVIr. Garrison. 

I will not now return to the point, whence I was drawn off from my enumera- 
tion of some of the good effects of the Colonization Society, to defend the position 
tb^t even the increased severity of the slave code, in some of. our States, argues 
in favor of the happy influences of the Society. I mi|^t have added, when de- 
fending the position — ^that this severity, so far from indicating a growing sentiment 
In favor of slavei7,as they maintain it does, who are interested to show all the 
influences of the Society to be on the side of slavery, is, in fact, a measure of the 
alarmed slaveholders for shoring up the endangered and tottering system of slavery. 
But although I will not now extend this enuineration of the goml effects of the So- 
ciety; some more of its merits will be brought Into view, before this essay is closed. 
I wall, for the present, look at the git>at error, which these very -effects and the ra« 
pid success of the Society were the occasion 6f producing in the public mind. 

So much good had the Society already accomplished, and so increasingly bright 
were the prospects of itsbenejficence to jtbe AfticaB. race, and. so rapidly withil 
w^i the ctbar fcb^mes^lbr l^ssedWi;!: this race'* fklUng into disrepiite amoopt 



70 MR SMITH ON COLONIZATION. [March, 

us; that the conviction unhappily became general and strone, that the ColonizatioD 
Society afforded the only channel of doing good either to Anica, or to the colored 
population of this land. No wonder, that the prevailing delusion reached the So- 
ciety also. Let those, however, who judge it harshly tnerefor, remember, that it 
did but share in this delusion with nearly the whole countrjr: and tiiat the fisuilt* 
which, in this respect, is imputed to the Colonization Society exclusively, waa 
alike the fault of the country; — the fault, indeed, of most, if not of all, of those veiy 
persons, who are now foremost to blazon it. But, I would not have the Socie^ 
acquitted of blame, because others are also deserving it . It should have resisted 
the public dattcry, and not have been puffed up by it. No matter, if the whole 
mibiic sympathy for our colored people sought this channel; the Society should 
nave had modesty and firmness enough not to consent to engross it. It should, at 
least, have had fidelity enough to its Constitution, not to simer itself to be drawa 
into the occupation of ground, which that instrument does not give it. So far 
from this, however, we find the Society, (if the language of its advocates and the 
paces of its periodical may be taken for proof,) as soon as its success and the 
public voice inspired it with confidence to make the pretension — setting itself up,^ 
not onlj^ as the exclusively fit means of promoting the interests of our free colored 
population; but, even as the only means, which could be riffhtiUlly employed ta 
deliver this lanti from ttie curse of slavery. Hence was it, that when recently a 
scheme of direct action tbr the abolition of ^avery was adopted by lar^e numbiers 
of our estimable citizens, it was frowned upon by the Colonization Society: not sa 
much, l>ecause the leading principles of the scheme ai^ exceptionable to the friendt 
of the Society — for in trutii, they are approved of by no small proportion of them— 
but, far more, because the Society looked upon the scheme, as presumptuously in- 
terfering with its own work. To such a measure of vanity and self-sufficiency had 
the Colonization Society attained, that it could tolerate no enterprise in behalf of 
ourcolored population, '*bond or free,*' unless conducted under its own auspices. 
The character of many of the Colonization meetings held in New York and Phila- 
delphia, and elsewhere, within the last year and a half, shows, very plainly, how 
inflated the Society had become with this spirit, which I have imputed to it« I 
will not take the pains to distinguish the meetings of its Auxiliaries from those of 
the Parent Society. The same spirit generally characterizes both: and, for a simi- 
lar reason, I made no distinction, in my second essay, between the Anti-Slaveij 
Society and its Auxiliaries. Not a few of the meetings, to which I rtffer, were got 
up, obviously to oppose Anti- Slavery measures: and the spirit, which characterized 
fhem all, was that of intolerance towards any action, in relation to our colored peo- 
ple, other than that of the Colonization Sociefy. I am far from denying, that the 
Colonization Society has the right of defending itself against misrepresentation of 
its acts and character, come that misrepresenUtion from what source it will.-* 
But, I do solemnly deny, that it has the right of assaUing any mode whatever, 
which may be suggested or adopted for the abolition of slavery. I do solemnly af- 
firm, that it never meddles with the question of slavery, without violating its Con- 
stitution. If the Society, unless it do meddle with this exciting question, be, as 
many, both of its friends and fo^s, seem to think it, too cold and too barren of in- 
terest to gain the public attention and support — then, let it die for the lack of that 
attention and support. An honest death will be a thousand fold better for It, than 
a life of fraud. The single Constitutional business of the Crblonization Society is, 
to promote the emigration to another country of such of our free colored people, as 
wish to be the subjects of this emigration. Far am I from taking the groana> that 
the Constitution does not admit the sensibility of the Society to the moral influ- 
ence, which it exerts. If it sees, in the successful prosecution of its olyect, a ten- 
dency to the abolition of slavery, it has a perfect nght tp rejoice in that tendency, 
and to draw from it fresh motives for the more vigorous prosecution of its object 
It has neither more nor less liberty in this respect Qian other BenevoleDt Societies 
have: though, its peculiar circumstances require a more prudent and delicate exer- 
cise of that liberty. The Bible Sociehr, for instance, cannot, wiAout violating its 
Constitution, adopt a single measure for promoting the distribution of the pubuca- 
tionsof the Amencan Tract Society: yet it may rejoice in the fiict, that, trom tbt 
affinity of these Heaven-bom Societies, its own success is promotive of that of tlM 
Tract Society. 

I am aware of the exceedingly provoking character of many of the amnlti of 
the Antl-SUvenr Society on tiie Colonization Socieiy; and particularly do I i». 
ttMbtr, <ii«t tt Mftt 16 «iiitftttt with t declmtloft of WW apiM 



1635.] MB. SMITH ON COLONICS ATION. 7i 

lion Socie^. (1) But no treatment, which it ma^ receive, at the hands of the An- 
ti-Slavery Society, can ever justify the Colonization Society in departing from its 
own Constitutional CTOund to retaliate on the Anti-Slavery Society. Hence to 
those, who ardently desire, that the Colonization Society should keep within its 
proper limits, it is very painful to see the pages of* its periodical continuing from 
month to month to abound in the denunciation and ridicule of "immediate emanci- 
pation" and of other doctrines of the Anti-Slavery Society. I put the question to 
the gentlemen, who control this periodical: "What has the Colonization Society, 
to do with 'immediate emancipation,* ot 'gsadual emancipation?' — in a word, what 
has it to do, but to mind its owb business, and to cease entirely and forever iVom 
the offensive impertinence of meddling with that of others:" (2) If the Coloni- 
zation Society should correct this- grievous fault in itself, I should not despair of 
seeing even the Anti-Slavery S^ety reconciled to its existence. The Anti- 
Slavery Society is right, in regarding the Colonization Society, according to its 
practical character, rather than its Constitution; and it is not competent for the 
Cdonization Society to attempt to vindicate itself b^ pleading, that its principles 
are better than its practice — ^its Constitution than its measures. And here let me 
add, that, in my juogment, the Anti-Slavery Society is bound to maintain an oppo- 
sition to the Colonization Society, until it shall have corrected this crievous fiiult: 
but, this opposition must be intelligent and temperate, and awakened by the cause 
here stated, or some other sufficient cause. ^ It must not be such an opposition, as 
is now waged against the Colonization Society — I wUl not say, by the A nti -Slavery 
Society, but by some of its members— one, in which reason has indeed a share, but 
ihe spirit of ignorance, and fanaticism, and malignant hatred, a so much greater 
share, as to make the opposition unreasonable, boundless, violent, and implacable. 
•There is another and still greater fault, which I must charge upon the Coloni- 
zation Society. Toa veiy great extent, it **left'* its "first love:" and although it 
has undeigone a happy change in the last year, still it has not besun to regain that 
*'first love." Mr. Bimey says: "It will oe admitted, I think by every one ac« 
•quainted vnth the Socie^, tnat it originated in feelings of kindness towards th^ 
colored people." But tms kindness, in which Finley and 'his associates laid the 
foundations of the Society; this kindness, which filled young hurley's pure and 
generous bosom; and, under the impulses of which, the beloved Ashm'un sacrificed 
one of the noblest lives ever offered upon the altar of benevolence; — ^this kindness 
ceased in a ^jeat measure, to influence the counsels, and to characterize the spirit, 
of the Colonization Society. Statesmen, whose characters had been formed upon 
prudentis^maxims and the cold lessons of political economy: slaveholders, who 
thought qnite as much of the profits of slave labor, as of the obligations they wen 
under to the Afiican race; — considerable numbers of such persons had come to in- 
terest themselves in the Society: and that ambitious spirit in the Society, for which 
I have in some measure accounted, was of course, very ready to court the favo( 
and accession of this description of persons. No wonder then, if, under their in- 
fluence, and under the influence which the Society employed to enlist them, its 
original benevolence was found to give way to a policy, which studied the advan- 
tages of the whites and the political and economical interests of the nation, rather 
than the welfare of the poor nejgro. I will not say, that it was a policy, which 
sacrificed the negro: but, I wilTsay, that, in this policy, his interests were made 
secondaxy and subservient to the promotion of other objects: and, I will say, that, 
inasmuch as the Society was instituted to do good to the negro, it was treachery 
for it to give into this policy. 

I have thus admittea another substantial ground of complaint against the Coloni- 
zation Society: and I recollect no other reasons for making war on it, which are 
not either frivolous or unfounded. Those among them, which are most plausi- 
ble, and on which most stress is laid, will now be brousht into view. 

"The Society favors, oris indifferent to the crime ofrum-drinking in its Colo- 
ny,'' Great use has been made of this groundless charge to excite the public in- 
dignation aeainst the Society. But, wno can believe, that the wise and good 
men, who curectthe afiiurs of the Society, can have any dispoeition or interest to 
see its Colony ofterwise than adyancing in temperance and every other virtue? 

The Cobnization Socie^ is opposed on the ground, that "its members are pre- 
judSced aeainst the coloredpeople of this coun^." I admit, that tiiey are jQiiis 
fHpejudicea— wickedly prejudiced. But, is this preiudice peculiar to them? Have 
they mdre of it than tneir countrymen generally nave? It is even alleged, that 
the Sod^ was founded in this prejudice, t am giad, that Mr. Bimey teetifiee lo 



7-^ MR. Smith ox COLOMZATIOX. [March. 

the contrary. That the dear men, who projected the Colonization Society, were 
actuated to do so, by their prejudice against our colored people, instead of the 
purest benevolence towards them, is for those lo believe, who have the efirontery 
to assert it. It is alleged too, that the Society has been carried on from the first, 
io the spirit of this ]f)rejudice; and impliedly, that it is indebted to the promptioss 
of this prejudice for the tens of thousands of dollars and the hundreds or thousanda 
of prayers, which devoted Christians have g^ven to m. The bare statement of thia 




dice moved them to majce their generous and self-denying efforts on his account; 
and, above all, to have this said oy so many, who never contributed a penny, nor, 
until they joined in the modern chorus against the Colonization Society, ever 
opened their lips in his behalf, is really past endurance. 1 may confess for myself, 
that I have a prejudice against the loathsome drunkard, who lies perishing by tbe- 
way side: but, it surely does not become those, who pass him by with callous 
hearts, to ascribe to prejudice in me the kindness, in which I give him a pallet of 
straw in my kitchen — because I do not take him to my parlor and give him a feath- 
er bed. Admit, if you please, that, but for their prejudice against the negro, the 
members of the Society would have done far more and better for him, than they 
have done: and, still, 1 must abhor the imputation, that, what they have done, has 
been done in consequence of that prejudice. AVliat generous mind would not 
conclude, that the good was done in spite of, rather than in conformity with the 
prejudice? — and how unenviable the heart, which could refuse to rejoice in the vic- 
tory, measured though it maj be, which, in such a case, beneroleoce achieves over 
the selfish and hateful affections ! 

But, it majT be said, if it be unfair to ascribe to this prejudice against the negro 
the good, which the Colonization Society has sought to do for him; it is nererae* ' 
less true, that the operations and the very existence of the Society go to s^ngthen 
the prejudice in the community at large— in that vast maiority, who, as they are 
not doing any thing for the negro, are, therefore, doing nothing to counteract their 
prejudice against him. Most persons, it is said, do, whether right or wrong, take 
such views of the Colonization Society — of its imputed prejudice acainst our color* 
ed population — as to confirm thereby the like prejudice in themselves. Whilst I 
am constrained to admit, that there is no little truth in this position, I am bold to 
affirm, that these eiToneous views of rhe character of the Society are p^cipally 
owing to the misrepresentations of it by its modem enemies. 1 say pnncipaJly-— 
not entirely — for two other causes of these erroneous views occur to me. One is, 
that there are some minds — minds of a base order, whose grovelling views of the 
noblest object impart their own complexion to it, and bring it down to the level of 
their own baseness: and where such minds cherish a prejudice against the hegro,- 
I doubt not, that their perverted views of the Colonization Society— even of its 
legitimate and happiest operations— may serve to confirm that prejudice. In all 
that the Colonization Society does, they cannot conceive, that it is affected with 
any other feelings towards the man of color, than those, which enter into, and 
make up their own wicked prejudice against him: and they, therefore, look at the 
Society, but to indulge this prejudice. The other cause of these erroneous views, 
which confirm the prejudice against the ne^ro, I do, for the honor of the Coloni- 
zation Society, most deeply lament. The first and second present the Society to 
us, as but the innocent occasion of the evil. This, however, is of a different char* 
aeter, and shows the positive agenc)r of the Society in promoting the ravjudice.— - 
Let me add, that I am not here admitting another just ground of comnlaint against 
the Society. It is one of these, which I have previously admitted. In that heart- 
less and calculating policy, which, we see, has soiled the pore benevolence of its 
original character and earliest years, the Society is the guilty cause of encouranng 
the popular undervaluation and scorn of the man of color. The language, which 
this policy dictated, is to be found upon many, very many of those pages of the 
Society's publications, which tell about the (rte person or color being ineviti^ » 
nuisance, whilst among ourselves; about the impossibility of his ever being ele- 
yated on our shores; and about the invincibility even to the Christian Religion it- 
self, of the white man's prejudice against him. That this language has proved a 
great drawback upon the interest in the welfare of our colored population, awak- 
ened by the Society throughout the nation, I shall neyer deny. 
The objections to the Colooization SociHy, wfaieh we naye now eoiftsidersd* 



1836.] MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATION. 73 

spring mainly, if not entirely, from the abuse and mismanagement of the Institu- 
tion, lather than from its nature. But, these are not of that class of objections to 
the Society, which its soundest opponents urge in favor of its abandonment. They 
ate too liberal and candid to insist, that the Society should be rejected, because of 
its corrigible faults; and especially, since they see, that these faulis are in a process 
of correction; and that the Society, since its last Annual Meeting, has been get- 
ting back towards its true Constitutional ground, and is beginning to reanimate it- 
sell with that spirit of unminded benevolence, which Fiz3ey, and Mills, and Ash* 
mun, and kindred souls breathed into its early operations. These better reasoners 
claim, that the Society should be given up on tne far more suitable grounds of 
what they deem to be its essential, inherent, and therefore, incorrigible faults^ — 
Their belief Is, that, modify the Society as you will, and yet these faults will still 
pertain to it; and will make its operations, and even its existence, injurious totiie 
interests of the colored man, both here and in Africa. Of course, when conducting 
the argument with them, I am at liberty to regard the Society, as having already 
cast oif all its remediable errors, and as having become as perfect, as from the na- 
ture of the Institution, man*s wisdom and oenevolence can make it. 

Before examining the objections, that are raised to the nature of the Coloniza- 
tion Scdety, let me inquire, why such a Society must exist, and operate, necessa- 
rily^ to the disadvantage of the colored population, in this country? — and, also, why 
Atrica must be harmed by it' The interest, which the Society has awakened in. 
behalf of the African race — ^the thousands it has aroused to labor for the redemptioa 
of that race — certainl;^ prove no such necessity. Where then can tiiat necessity b& 
found? It cannot be iiuerred firom what the Society has done. It is to be found 
alone inthat ajirtorttheoryof the Society, which its opponents have constructed. 
Gain from them the admission, that the Society was not founded in the prejudice 
against our people of color; and they will uevcrtlieless maintain, that it must aug- 
ment that prejudice, because its ver^ plan implies, that this people cannot be ele* 
vated here. In this, we have one of their leading; objections to the nature of the 
Society. In attempting to dispose of it, we will admit, that the plan of the Society 
does imply what it is here charged with implying: — and then does it follow, that 
it is fairly taxable with the authorship of any share of this prejudice? The good 
men, who projected the Society, saw, la their own countr}^, a class of persons, who, 
though nominally free, were cursed with the mockery of freedom; were persecuted 
and down-trodden; and were studiously precluded by the laws, and by sentimenfi 
and customs, even stronger than the laws, from improving their condition. Wifli 
hearts bleeding with compassion for these wretched countrymen, and supplicating 
God for His direction, they were led to the attempt of providing on a foreign shore 
an asylum for such of these victims of prejudice, as might choose to go to it; — an 
asylum, where, unfettered and unawed by the humiliating relations, which they 
bore towards their superiors here, and where, no longer opposed by wicked laws, 
they would have scope for the play of their energies, and for raising themselves to 
the level of men. Cfan it be, that this kindness, so pure and so rational, did harm 
to those who were its objects? — or, that it had an injurious efiect upon any of their 
race? Can it be, that the depravify of the whites was so great, as to avail itoelf of 
this kindness to strengthen the prejudice, which they entertained against their co- 
lored brethren? It was even so, says the Anti-Slavery Society. The wicked feel- 
ing in the white man*s breast, says that Society, which would not permit the negro 
to rise by his side, was gratified and strengthened by this prospect of getting ricT of 
him: and thence the poor negro was made the object of fresh hatred an(r persecution, 
to multiply his inducements for (quitting the land which abhorred him. That there 
were instances, in which this kindness had no better effect than is here chai]^ 
upon it, I know too much of the extreme depravity of some minds to doubt. But 
how can I think so badly of my white countr}'men, as to suppose, that a majority, 
or, indeed, any considerable portion of them could so pervert this kindness?— or, 
even, that they could be insensible to it, and close their hearts against all the mer- 
ciful and blessed influences, which such Idndness produces? There is but one 
way, says the Anti- Slavery Society, to subdue the prejudice, which will not let our 
roan of color rise, save on condition of his expatriation: and that is, to resist it, attd 
to 8uflS>cate it, by pressing bkck upon it the object of its loatBing. In my judg- 
ment, the CdonizatioB Smsiety adopted a far better course in yiehungto this preju- 
dice: for that very yieldinjg produces moral influences to mdt it away. I see the 
cruel husband tiufnstin^ lus wife fiK>in his door, and bolti^ it against her. I most, 
acooniin^tothif4ooifawieof the Anti-SltHery teiety^ ftifle n^ comp m io^fbr 

to 



71 MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATION, [Marcb, 

ker. I must not take her under my roof, and soothe her aching heart; lett, in ' so 
doing, I should be humoring and strengthening the husband's hatred. Now, though 
it were true, that the policy, which wmild take up the wife aid force open the door, 
and throw her back on her angry husband, might aare the good effect of abating his 
evil dispositions towards her, l^ discouraging his indnlgeuce of them; yet, it is a 
policy, which operates to the benefit of the husband, at far too jgreat an expense to 
nis poor wife: and the philosophy, which can adopt it, is of quite too Spartan and 
iroi) a character tobe resorteif to oy any, but persons of strong nerres and controlla- 
ble sensibilities. The humane treatment, however* which has been alluded to, i» 
better every way, than the rigorous course with ^idiich it stands in contrast Not 
only is it better for the unhappy subject of it; but the influences, which would 
flow forth from my actsof kinoness to the helpless, outraged wife over the commu* 
nity at large, and reaching p«rhaps, the heart of tfie husband himself, would pro- 
duce a hundred fold happier effects, than would the unfeeling remedy we have 
been contemplating. Tney, who object to our listening to (hose of our colored 
brethren, who ask us to help them remove to a forei^ land, from the persecutions 
which they suffer in their own, are manifestly led into error, by fixing their eyes 
ezdusivelyon tiie indulgence, which this removal is charged wi&i affording to the 
prejudice under consideration. But, even if it were grant^ to these objectors, that 
uis removal, in itself considered, is suited to strengthen that preiudice, yet, it is 
not granted to them to overlook the moral influences which wouM flow firom the 
circumstances aind consequences of this removal, and be so powerful to dispel that 
prejudice; nor to overlook the inhumanity of refusing the entreated aid, in the re- 
moval— an inhumanity, which would harden the public heart, and do more to 
strengthen the prejudice in question, than would the retreat before that prejudice 
of every ne^ in the land. 

But, .twill be said, that my premises are rtot all true; and, that none of our 
colored people ask to be removed to Africa. The old charge, that the Coloniza- 
tion Society removes to Africa those, who are unwilling to &;o there, will be reiter- 
ated. An assertion of Rev. R. J. Breckinridge, before the last Annual Meeting of 
the Society, is generally quoted to sustain this charee. Mr. Breckinridge's Chris- 
tian boldness, sSmirable as it is, does not surpass nis love of truth. He utters 
nothing, which he does not believe to be true. But, I have good reason for sup- 
posinc;, that he was entirely misinformed, when he was told that certain emigrants 
to Liberia were coerced thithen or, if there were compulsion in the case, least 
of all can I beHeve, that the Society had any hand in iU or even suspected it. Mr. 
B. does not, however, in terms, implicate the Society in it. What is there; I pray, 
in the character of the honorable and pious men, who conduct the affairs of the 
Society, to justify the suspicion, tlrat they could be f^uilty of such baseness and 
wickedness; and of such a violation of the very letter of its Constitution? — and, as 
they desired to build up their Colony, what policy could have prompted them to send 
men to it, who were unwilling to go, and who would of course, be destructive 
malcontents in it' — and to do this too, when there were hundreds and thousands of 
others, who were anxious to ^i Bat, we are told on the authority of Dr. Cox, 
whose eminence both forgemus and piety, I teke ^p^at pleasure in conceding, of 
the **unanimou8 opposition of the colored people of this country" to emigrate to 
Africa; and that the Colonization Society is tnerefore "annihilated." The Socie- 
ty still lives, howeven and lives too in new beauty and promise: and the Doctor 
was, therefore, mistaken in the premises, whence he inferred it^ death. But the 
Doctor probably meant no more than this; and, if so, lie is nearly right — ^that the 
colored people would all rather remain here than ^ to Africa, could they but en- 
joy the privileges, which they desire, and to which the Doctor and I equally think, 
that they are entitled. He surely meant no more than this; for he knows, that 
great numbers of them are kept from going to Africa, by nothing, but the want 
of means to eet there; and, if it be but to escape from the white man's preju- 
dice azainst Siem, that they are willing'to go, he surely would not blame the 80- 
eiety tor this prejudice; and, as surely, he is not the man to commend the worse 
^an stoic philosophy, of which we have just been speaking, and which would con- 
tinue these wretooed fellow-inen within the withenng reach of this prejudice, lest 
by removing them beyond it, it should be humored and strengtiiened. Because 
it benevolently aids in removing some of our colored people out of ^e reach of 
that preju<&ce, which demands nieir expulsion from ^e county. Doctor Cox would 
116 inore-think of loading the Society with the sin of Ihat ptigiidice, than he would 
of impltcatittg me In the tin of ^ husbaad't hatred, beeniM, intteid of fbrdng hie 



1635.] MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATION. 75 

wife upon his presence, I adopted the more humane and Christian policy ot*'ar^ 
Inx place to wrath," and of doing the best I oould for her in heroutcast conditiea. 

We will now proceed to the examination of another reason why, in the jodgmenit 
•of its opponents, the Society must exist and operate, to the injury of the colored 
people of this country. Admit, k is said, that the Colonization Society is a beat- 
volent InatitutioQ, and in good hands; and that it is doiag good and will continue 
to do good to Africa: — ^tt nevertheless should be eivea up, because, from its very 
nature, it stands in the way of the objects of the Aati-Slaveiy Society, and inter- 
feres with its efforts to benefit the people of color ia this country. The memben 
of the Anti-Slavery Society, who make this coaceasioii of the merits of the Colo- 
nization Society, and yet maintain, that the one Institution obBtructB die progrets 
of the other, are surely not aware of the ua&vorable iaference, whidi they feave 
to be drawn of the character of their own Society. If the Colonization Society is 
a Heaven-blessed means of doing good to any portion of the human family, tiien it 
does not interfere with any other like means. Such a coUision is not to be met 
with in the perfect and harmonioas arrangements of Providence. If it does good to 
Africa, I believe, that I have the warrant of those arrangements for saying, that it 
is not only not interfering with any other system of benencence whatever; out » that 
it is promotive of every other; and cannot innocently be viewed with jealousy^— 
much less marked for destruction. Let the member of fht Anti-Slavery Society, 
who concedes this good character to the Colonization Society, and nevertheleps 
perceives a collision between the two Institutions, examine into the character of 
nis own Society for the guilty causes of that collision. If ever the American Bi- 
ble Society, still aclmomedging the merits of its sister Institutions, and their use- 
fulness in their respective depfvtments of benevolence, shall nevertheless suppoae, 
that there is a jarring between itself and them, it will then be high time for that 
noble Institution to search itself for the causes of tibis jarring; to repent of them; 
and to cease frooi looking for discord among the estabiishea harmonies of Provi- 
dence. So, if the Colonization and Anti-Slavery Societies are both good Institu- 
tions, their influences will be mutually beneficial, instead of injurious. Whatever 
good the one may do to Africa or to the free people of color in this country, will 
be so much advantage to the cause of the other; and all the blessings, which the 
Anti-Slavery Society may bring to the slave, and all the success which may attend 
its labors, will proportionably tacilitate the obiects of the Colonization Society.— 
If they are, indeed, both good Societies, and tiiere be, in the view of some of 
their members, an apparent contrariety in their influences, it probably arises firom 
some misapprehension of each other's objecte and tendencies; or firom some talee 
position, which the one has taken towards the other. This contrariety, existing 
alone in their shortsightedness, will soon disappear: time and truth will soon dispS 
the mists in which ignorance and passion have unhappily enveloped the subject; 
and the welcome fact, that these two Societies constitute no exception to that uni- 
versal accordance of all good things, which is the settled order ot Providence, will 
be brought fully to the light. 

If the views, here presented, are just, and the Institutions are both good, as we 
have supposed them to be, then the ooinion, that the Anti-Slavery Society will 
lack its necessary measure of support, oecause of the great frivor shown to the otiber 
Society, and because of the many names of moral power, which it enrols, is ground- 
less. I was not a little surprised, a short time since, to find one of the very ablest 
advocates of the Anti-Slaverer Society advancing ^s opinion in a public assem- 
bly. It b an opinion, which, in my judgment, has no little prevalence, and woila 
great injury to the Colonizadtion Society: and, therefore, great pains shoiUd be 
teken to expose its fallacy . [7b be continued.} 

NOTES. 

1. In this latter respect, the Anti-Slaveiy Society beats even Hannibal hima^ fi 
lor he was nine years okl, before he swore eternal hatred against the Romans.-^ 
Had it but been uie power, instead of ^e dupotiiion to destroy, with which the So- 
ciety was bom, its origin would have borne no mean resemblance to the splendid 
birth of Ae Goddess, who sprung armed eap-e^-pk firom- the brain of Jupiter. 

See the paragraph in the Decuration of the Anti-Slaveiy Society, referring ob- 
yiousljrtome Colonization Society, and stigmatidng the voluntaiy eml^Sion, 
which it promotes by so honorable a generosity ana self-denial, as a "ddnsiye, 
cruel andf dangerous scheme of expatriation.*' 

2. No person undostuids better, than doee the Bey. Leonard Bacon, tfaetnie 
Conttitntiooalgrowiidanddiiiicterof ^ Crioftintioii Society; andtiw IbUowing 



76 TO OUfl R£AD£&S. [Maidi, 

lanmgt, ia his letter pabllebed in the Afiiein Repository, December, ISn, b 
taA^9a miglit hare been ezpeeted from his pen : 

^ hope, theiefofe, that do eflbrt will be made to brin^ the Societj to anj new 
positioD.as it respects elareiy. The memben of the Society are, of comae, U. Iibcr> 
ty and hare always iiett themselTea at liberty, not only to adopt and cayRSs any 
afrinlons on alareiy, which to them seem reasonable, hot to emplov whatever 
measures are lawful and expedient for accelerating the abolition of sUveiy. Of 
that libertjr, I, as an indiridual, shall eontinne to avail mysdf. — I ask not the Colo- 
nization ^iety to become responsible for my opinions; nor can I believe, that it 
ongfat to be responsible ibr any opinions whatever, in relation to such a subject. I 
say *any opinions whatever;' for, while I have bad in view more partieolarly, in 
the conrae of these remarks, that class of our friends, who wish to see a little moie 
«ili-«Jxrfry written on the finnt of our proceeding, I bare also had in view those, 
who p^rfaap? may be desirous of leading the Society to condemn, by a solenm reso- 
lution, the priijciples of certain abolitionists. The recent attacks of some Southern 
politicians miy influence some of our friend?, in that quarter, to ima^e, that a 
disclaicipr, sod something more than an ab^ract disclaimer of aH abolitionism, is 
demanded of the Society, at this juncture. Let me, then, in closing this comma- 
nieation, record my serious conviction, that the dij^ty and usefulness of the Socie- 
ty require it to stand entirely aJoof from all opinions about the mode of dtingnish- 
i(tg slavery. Members and'contribntors may pursue what course they please; the 
Society takes no cognizance of their principles, their motives, orthieiraetioiiiw-- 
The same amment, which convinces me of the Society's int^rc^ and obUgatkm to 
commit itsellj'br no scheme of abolition, convinces me also of its interest and obli- 
gation to commit itself against none. It would be as right on the part of the Socie- 
ty, and as wise, and as magnanimous, to yield to the swaggering of the Liberator, 
af it would be to be awed into a protest by the fanaticism of the Columbia Tele- 
scope." 



TO OUR READERS, 



We n«e the orcasion of issuing the present number of the Afiricmn 
Kepositury to ^y a few words conceruing the purpote and condoct 
of that wurk. 

Its objects, as ap.nounced by the Mana<;er8 of the American Coloni- 
zatioo .Society in its Prospectus, were to 

**Purniih the public with accurate in format ion concemin;: the plans and pros- 
pects of their Institution — give a minute account of its operations, and of the con- 
dition and process of the Colonv — communicate any new and interesting intelli- 
gence which may be received, relating to the geography, natural history, manners, 
and customs of Africa; and admit into its pages, such essays as may be^ thooght 
calculated to advance the interests of the Colony, or the cause of African improve- 
ment, as well as select passages from authors who have already written on this snb- 
Jject; and important extracts from the reports of such foreign associations as are 
making exertions to suppress the Slave Trade or relieve the African race.'* 

Of a work so comprehensive in its nature, and so varioas in its de- 
tails, no monthly number of thirty-two pages could be expected to 
carry out the full design. All that candid criticism could reasonably 
exact — all that editorial diligence coald accomplish, — was that no part 
of the general scheme shonld be lost sight of for any considerable 
time; and that such topics as might he excluded by others from any 
giren number, should in their turn become engrossing subjects of at- 
tention. To this rule, the African Repository, now in the deyentb 
jear of its existence, has so far been conformed, that no Tolame of it 
otn, it is believed,' be stleeted, which does not exhibit feller informa- 
tieo eo the eggregete of heids etned in the Prespeetnsy tibtt t&y 
pflter book in oar nnginge of equal sixe. 



1835.] TO (XJE READERS. 77 

The attempt to reach tiiis result has been attended, of course, with 
the inconvenience of offending particular tastes. Like the candidate 
for universal favor, in the Fable of the Old Man and the Ass, we 
may often have had the fortune to please nobody; hut unlike him, we 
bave tlie consolation, if it be one, of reflecting that we have never at- 
tempted to please every body« Avoidiitg this thankless and hopeless 
task, we have simply striven to understand and perform our duty to 
the great cause of which this Journal is an humble exponent. Of 
any errors in the conception or discharge of this duty, we shall always 
be glad to be suitably admonished; and on being convinced of tbdr 
existence shall endeavour to correct them. 

In making this pledge, which is made in all candor and hnmility, 
we take leave, however, to say that we by no means expect to ac- 
quire the power of adapting the Repository to any standard which 
any one of our numerous readers may in his own mind have prescrib- 
ed for it. "Essays calculated to advance the interests of the Colony, 
or the cause of African improvement,''' must sometimes be postponed 
for our own inferior compositions concerning *^\he pkins and pros- 
pects" of the Colonization Society; and^ on the other hand, original 
matter must sometimes be withheld, to make room for selected arti- 
eles entitled to a place in a work professing to be a *' Repository** of 
valuable information, faistorfcal or argumentative, connected with Af- 
^-ica. When the Colonization cause is -so assailtfd as to require 
prompt defence, that space will probably be occupied in controversy 
which some readers would prefer to see devoted to intelligence ''relat- 
ing to the geography, natural history, manners and customs of Afri- 
ca.'' Faithful information "of the condition and prospects of the Co- 
lony'' will continue to be, as it has heretofore been, a subject of pri- 
mary attention in this^Co^oiita^ Journal,'^ And, as some have com- 
plained that every number does not contain matter corresponding to 
this title, we now respectfully remind that class of obje^ors, that we 
publish all such information, if believed to be authentic, as promptly 
•as we can do after receiving it; but that when we have it not, we 
cannot impart it, for we are not so partial to facts as to make them.* 
2t may sometimes happen that the appearance of African news in the 
Repository is delayed for a month in conseqvence of its arrival be/are 
the <fi«trt6tinoi»butq/]fcrtheorinfiRg' of the Repository; and it happens 
yet oftener that such news is old as to dale, though recent as to Ae 
time of its reception in the United States. Our general rule in the 
arrangement ofinatter is to prefer immediate subjects, and especialhr 
Colonial news, to those which, in technical language, "will keep*" 

For several months past the African Repository has, it is admitted 
and regretted, been issued and distributed with less promptitude than 
is desirable. This Irregularity has proceeded from causes temporaiy 
in their nature, and not easily controlled. Means have been takes, 
affording, it is believed, a sufficient guaranty that no just cause will 
liereafter exist for complaints on that score. 

* It is said, that When a politician of ibnner times on^e boasted in a Leeislativa 
a88embIjrtfaathewa8<HiplaiD,}iittttfiHMr:/bd masi^" another pditidaa, admrfag 
tile presiding oiBfier, replied **Ye8* Sir, i kaow it I know tiie gantleman la a 
jMtter-of'&ct man, te wiiea he hM'Dt got a iwt he nu^Move*'' 



78 ADDRESS TO THE COLONISTJ^. [March, 

At the coDclusion of the tenth volume it was mentioned that a co« 
pious Index to the whole ten volumes had been prepared for the 
Press. It will appear so soon as other engagements of the Publisher 
may enable him to print it» and will, it is hoped, be found useful to 
the patrons of the Repository, especially to such as possess the work 
from its commencement. Even to others it will not be without ad- 
vantage, as several of its leading heads are in the nature of a Digest. 
A similar Index to the Annual Reports and Journals of the Annual 
Meetings of the Colonization Society ^as been prepared, and has al- 
ready been published at the end of the^ Eighteenth and last Annual 
Report. 



ADDRESS TO THE COLONISTS. 

The following Address has been prepared and transmitted to Li- 
beria, by order of the M8^nag.ers of the American Coloniatation So- 
ciety : 

To the Citizens of Liberia. 

The Managers of the American Colonization Society, with an affectionate con- 
cern for the prosperity of the Colony, invite the special attention of the citizens of 
Liberia to a few considerations. 

The Managers have, from its origin, regarded the Colony of Liberia with the 
deepest interest. Thousands of the wiwe, the benevolent, and the pioos, throu^out 
the United States, have so regarded it. Their interest in it continaes uaabated. — 
They stiU hope, and believe, thatit will prove an asylum of freedom for the celofed 

Seople in this country, and that it will impart civilization axid Christianity to the 
esraded and miserable population of Africa. They look to Liberia as to a bless- 
ed lidit of hope and promise to Africa and her children throoriunitthe worid. 

The Managers trust that the Colonists will act wortiiy of tnote principles which 
animated the founders of the Colony, and many of the eariy settlers who, so cheer- 
fully exposed themselves to suffering, and dangers, and death. They have not 
looked with indifference upon the tnals which the eariy emigrants to Africa en- 
dured with a fortitude springing not from insensibility, but from a noble devotion 
to the ereat interests of their race. While the Managers have felt that difBculttea 
and cafiimities were, in an]|r attempt to plant a Chriraan Colony on the African 
shore, not wholly to be avoided, thev have desired and endeavored, as far as possi- 
ble, to prevent their occurrence. Nor wiU they cease to do all in their power, to 
promote the security and prosperity of the settlers in Liberia. 

The Mana^ersfcannot, however, impress too deeply upon tbemiods of the citi- 
zens of Libena,^ the truth, tiiat their success and happiness depend mainly upon 
themselves. To each, and all the Colonists^ would tne Mana^^ say, your own 
interests, the most precious interests of your posterity^ and to a great extent, of 
your race, are by Providence entrusted princiTMdly to your own buids. Be tem- 
perate, industrious, united, public-spirited, and reuflous^ and your best hopes will 
06 realized. You wiU build up even in a daik and Pann land, free,and Cnristianl 
and chorions institutions, which shall stand forever. Ton will be venerated by all 
tucccedm^ ages as the founders of a Nation, in which knowledge, and llbertjr, and 
pore relieion shall live forever. 

The lOanagers have heard with inexpressible regret, that a spirit of dissention 
and insubordination has recently been manifested by some individuals in the Colo- 
ny. They would solemnly warn the settlers against the indulgence of this spirit. 
Iti effects, should it be permitted to prevail in the Colony, win be more fond to 
Its character, and more subversive of its prosperity* than noBiiiey pestilence, or the 



1835.] MR. BURROS LEGACY. T9 

liofltUity of savage foes. The Managers would thea urge the citizens of Liberia, 
at they value their own peace, the respect of mankind or the blessing of God, to 
banish utterly and forever from among them, all strife and discord, and to unite in 
a firm support of the Government and Laws. 

The Managers hope, at an early day, to transmit in a printed form to the Colony, 
a brief code of Laws, adapted to the circumstances of the settlers, and which shall 
remove any doubt and perplexity which may arise from the imperfection of the 
present legal system. 

The Managers have been ^putiiied to know, that Agriculture is receiving the 
special attention of the Colonists. They hope it will be prosecuted with the ut- 
most energy and perseverance, and that no settler will consider the Colony as 
truly prosperous, until it has within itself ample means of subsistence, not only 
for its own population, but for such emigrants as may, from time to time, seek a 
home within its limits. 

A system of education, extending its benefits to every chiW in the Colony, the 
Managers regard as of vital importance. They hope it will be so regarded by every 
Colonist. 

The Managers cannot conclude this short address, without reminding the citi- 
zens of Liberia, that great responsibilities rest upon them; that the friends of Africa 
in the United States and other lands, are watching their progress, and that upon 
the success of the enterprise in which they in common with all the friends of this 
great cause, are engaged, depends in no smaU degree, ^e hopes of the people of 
color, bctii in Amenca attd in Africa. 



MR. BURR'S LEGACY. 

It will be seen by the subjoined article, that Mr. Burr's legacy to 
this Society, has been decided by the Sup^e^le Court of the State of 
Vermont, to be valid. The amount of this beq^iest, is five thousand 
dollars; and ^even years h^ve passed away since the death of the be- 
nevolent testator. Yet longer delay in the payment of the money may 
take place; as the defeated p^rty has moved for a rehearing. The 
motion is to be argued the last w-eek in April next. 

The Society have not yet received the avails of their interest as co- 
xesiduary legatees of the estate of the late Mr. Ireland of New Or- 
leans. The «mount, it is estimated, will ran^e from itn to fifteen 
OT even to tweniy thousand dollars. 

From ike New York Observer. 

In the Supreme Court of the State of Vermont at the last term held in Manches- 
ter, the case of Burr's Will was brought on and disposed of. The case was short- 
ly this: 

Joseph Burr, formerly a wealthy inhabitant of Manchester, Vermont, in hts last 
will and testaqient, left several legacies to the treasurers of ^hfierent pious and 
charitable institutions, for the uses and purposes of the Societies, viz. of the Aiae- 
rican Bible Society, the American Home Missionary Society, the American Tract 
Society, and the American Colonisation Society. 

The Treasurers presented to the executors ol the will their daims on behalf of 
their respective Societies. The residuary legatees under the will, also claimed 
the money of the executors on the ground, that these Societies were voluntaiy as- 
sociations, andthat the bequests to them, were therefore void, both at law and In 
equity. 

The executors exhibited their bill on the equity nde of the Court, in order to 
settle the construction of the will, and called upon the respective claimants to in- 
terplead and have their claims adjusted. 

The Court deddad that the %e4iiest8 to t]iea« 4ifRtrant Societies, though volimta- 
Ty associations, not tacofponted, were -good la equity as .bequasts to. ckonMfe 
tfitff. That ^ faw^ehantable vses, in Englaad^ is not derived from tte ttatate 



8a WTLLIAW TURPIN'S WILL. [SfMeb, 

of 48d Elizabeth, commonly called the statute of charitable uses, but existed Inde- 
Mudentlyofihat statute, and that the Court of Chancery can protect and enforce 
Oequests to vuluntary associations instituted for definite charitable purposes, under 
its eeneral equity jurisdiction. 

The Court further gave it as their opinion, that' eren if the jurisdiction of chan- 
eery over bequests to voluntary associations for charitable purposes, has- grown out 
of the statute of 43d Elizabeth, yet the principles of the cases decided in* Englandl 
since that statute, are in the main, applicable to our situation, and are therefore to 
be regarded as part of the Local Common^ Law of Vermont. 
^ The Court decreed the legacies to be paid over to the Treasurers of the Socie- 
ties. The cause was argued by M. L. Bennett of Manchester, Vt — and 6. Wood 

of New York, on behalf of the Societies, and J. S. Robinson and Smith of 

Vermont, for the residuary legatees. 



WILLIAM TURPIN'S WILL. 

Mr. William Turpin, who- recently died in the city of N. Torkr 
ftnd had resided there for the last nine years of his life, was formerly 
of Charleston iiv South Carolina. The circumstaDces of his dying, 
possessed of a lairge fortune and without chifdren, excited a general 
curiosity concerning, bis will, which the New Yopk Journal of Com- 
merce has gratified. We extract the following particulars from it, odi 

the subjeeti — 

''Before he uame to the North, he freed all his slaves, and there is observable odi 
the WiU a very special regard for the interests of those of them who survive, a» 
well as the colored race generally. 

The Willis dated. April 20tli, 1S33. It covers eight pages of double lenctb, and 
is in a plain and steady hand, though vnitten by the testator himselr, in- bia 
•ightieth year. It begins by very liberal bequests of real estates and other proper- 
ty to hb fireed blacks, remaining in Charleston. In its progress, a very large num- 
otT of nephews, nieces, cousins and other relations, are named, in general, with 
such bequests as will gladden their hearts if in any need of assistanee. Several 
will receive what may well be considered fortunes, and two-orthree an mentioned- 
with small sums, just to show that they were not forgotten. Of the numeroua 
items, however, those below ate all which will particularly interest the public. 

To his faithful 'friend and freed black man' Joseph Thomas Turpin, the stores- 
and lot No. 18, South street, now leased for 900 dollars per annum. Also the l<Vt 
and house. No. 271 Bowery. Also the lot and four story brick store, No. IM» 
South street. Also the lot and three stoiy brick house, N<k 253, Front street-r 
These estates are worth fifty orsixl]^ thousand dollars. 

T'j Judah Jackson, a free black girl, and her brother, Edwaid Butler, the house 
and lot. No. 871, Broadway^ now leased at 400 dollars. 

To his freed black man, Lund Turpin^ a Methodist preacher, 1000 doUarsw 

To twenty-one slaves, set free by tne will of his partner, Thomas Wadsworth, in 
1799, 8000 doUars, 'as a proper remuaesation for their servioes when slaves to* 
Wadswerth and Turpin.' 

To Peter Williams, a colored man and Episcopal clergyman» 600 dollars. 

Executors, Francis Depau, Isaac Lawrence, Morris Robinsoa^ WiUet J^ksy 
Bamabus Brown, of Chenango county, Peleg Brown and Wok Turpin, Jr. of 
Charleston. Attached to the will is a schedule of the value of the properly, stated- 
at cost for real estate and par for stocks^ The aggregate is as- foDowi: 
Personal estate^ - - . - #144,000< 

Beal estate in South Caxolina» • » * • • TOfOOO" 

Real estate in New Toik> • • ^ . . ^ 115^o6o 

Total m29fi0(k 

The actual vsHic of die pmeityii at41iistiBia,caDaat»wepmfiUM»b8lsiattaBi 
bdfanillicmordofliia. 



18S6.] INT£LU6£NC£ FROM LIBBBIA. 81 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

Washington, Febrvajlt 26, 13S5. 
Dear Sir: 

I herewith enclose my annual subscription, to Mr. Smith's plan, 
in aid of the funds of your Society. I wish that my means would 
justify a great enlargement of this contribution. Th« late trials 
through whtcli the Society haspasse^, have illustrated^its estellence 
and streogtheped its claims. 'Fae scheme baa become more firmly 
rooted by reason of the storm that has beaten against it: and I trust 
the Providence of Gkid will sustain this blessed Institution, until Afri* 
ca throughout all her coasts shall rejoice in the light and purity of 
the gospel of salvation, and her wandering children shall bail the day 
of their redemption from bondage and sin. 
Yours very truly, 

THEO. PRELINOHUYSEN. 

Rev. R. R. OuRLXT, Seeretanf A. C £ 



EmIORANTS from NRW-OtttAVS. 

The following is an extract from a letter from R. 8. Ttvutv. Esq* 
Agent of the Colonization Society, dated New-Orleans, March A 
1835: 

'•The brig Hover left this poctywterda^ fbr Liberia, with 71 emigrants* all of 
whom were from the State of Jmssissippif^ except ttiree, who were from this citv. 
For intelligence, useful knowlede^e, moral worth and property, they are probably 
much superior to any compaav that have ever left this country for Liberia. Their 
embarkation excited great interest amongst the white popuUitiOD and the free peo* 
pie of color. Indeed, i have never witnessed, any where, the same deep and ex- 
busive interest on the subject of African Colonization as I have witnessed within 
t^^ la9t two months in the States of Mississippi and Louisiana. The cause is here 
sioriously triumphant. A lam number of tne free colored people of this city 
have signified their intention & emigrate to the Colony, and among them, a man 
of excellent character, said to be worm from twenty to thirty thoasaiid doUaft.'-** 
Among those who nave applied for a passa^re in me next expedition, are the ser* 
vants emancipated by the will of the . late WUUam B. Itttand^ of tUa place, who 
left a large legacy to the Coloniiation Society. 

**Tbe 82 emigrants expected finom Kentucli^, did not arrive in time. I have 
written to Mr. Mills, the Agent of the Kentucky Cobniaation Society, that he had 
better apply to you to have them sent out with the recaptured Africans. 

*' A gentleman, in this vicinity, who owns 160 slaves, and intends sending tiiem 
an to Liberia, informed me the other day, that aU that were dd enoogfa eonld lead 
ftttnUy." 



•w»*p 



INTELLIGENCE FROM UBEBIA. 

SaAraOM ^a kUtrfiomlke Be9. JoRir Serf, h Ihi Otrn t ami k g iSMtfivy^flb 
MUntmanf Socie^ rfihe Mdhidui EpUtopal Ctmtk, doMMoimona, LiBftauK» 
W.J/nea,(kbberU.f7. 

I 

It is said, however, by tiie hitimsla fHends and jssodatw of tiw d e w iss d » 
(Bev. fiir. Seari Slide. H. Wsttb] th«t in dussmbaor Mr«tatasi|to4» 
11 



62 INtELLIGrNCE FROM LIBEBIA. [Match, 

£000, they took a great deal of fatiguing and unneeesswy l&bor, walkinr miles in 
the heat of the day, and. exposing thetz^eWe^ vtry hti «t ni^ht to the iDelement 
atino.^phere. My own health haa been excellent since my arrival, with the excep* 
Tion.91 part of one da^\ The ciiinate appears thus far to be quite coneenial to my 
constitution, and in fact I seem to breathe my native air. while on the one hand 
I conceive il.my duty to the Church, to my iamily, and to God, to use every j>os« 
sible ]irecaution to preserve health, watching with the ortmost vigilance the 8li|^hc> 
eat change in the system, and acting nccordingly; — on the other, 1 cannot conaeieii* 
tipusly neglect any known duty which devolves npon me in my very responsibU 
i^Jatioa to tie Cnurch of Christ, through fear that la luililiing it i may contract 
disease. I am pleased, much pleaScd, with Monrovia and its inhabitants. Every 
t^^frig exceeds my most saii^iine expectations. I see vegetables and fruit treet 
*v th which i have been intimately acquainted all my life, auqiassing in luxurimnc^ 
uuy thing i ever saw in either ot the tilleen West India Islands, wnich I hivt r«* 
8tclcd in and visited. 

I find the people intelligent, kind and hospitable. Our little Society of 78 mem- 
hetn appear iceiienxlly to be walking worthy of their high vocation, and the faith- 
fulness and xeal of tiie preachers ar« a scarce of much encouragement to the mis* 
slonary. I have been much gratified while endeavoring to preach to lai^e and at- 
tcnti^ coniovgations thetrath as it is in Christ, and in attending their prayar 
meefinc:^, class meetings, and other mean.^ of grace. I called a meeting of tiM 
(inarteriy conference of the Monrovm station yesterday afternoon, presented ny 
I'/Ticial appointment to the charge of the Liberia mission, during the absence of 
brother Spaulding, and was very cordiall5r received, and handsomely and affection- 
ately WHlcomnd oy them* I «»ndeavored in a few brief remarks to exhort them to 
a holy life and union among themselves, assured them of the sincere affection of 
their brefteen in America, and the deep interest which the Church at home ftel fer 
their prosperity. We had ao affecting tirue; and while I listened to the account 
^Iven by several of the brethren, at my parlicularreauest, of the state of the socie* 
ties ii\ oth^r parts oC the conference, the wants of tte people, the Macedonian err 
sound! (1^ from every direction — missionaries anxiously desired, application after . 
application for schools, I uept in the fulness of my soul at the. remembrance of our 
Lord's wonls, "The harvest truly is plenteous, but the laborers are few.** Surely 
tfiis is an interesting field, and an effectual (!oor opened into the heart of long neg- 
lected, benighted Africa. 

t * • • # # # 

Oddhcr 27.— Since writing the above, I have vii»ited Millsburg lod Caldwell.— 
I went up on Friday,, in company witti Dr. Skinner, the colonial physician, a gen- 
tlemaii vriiosc indefatigable labors as a uedical man. as well as mfssionary, baire 
won^e hearts of the people. We left Monrovia at half past one, in a boairowert 
by six sturdy Kroomen, and were propelled on the smooth surface of the Stockton 
%*re£k with mach rapidity. It is amusing to the stranger to siee these useful fellows' 
togging at th(*ir oars and accompanying each moveinput with a roost vociferous anrf 
;Uaost^eafcni|)g song. Afler ascending the Stockttjji a few miles, the so mncb 
drca'ied Maogrovc swamps disappear, and the banks of the stream present t rich 
and luxurhtit foliage, heie and tnere interspersed with native villages. At the djs*' 
tones. of eight miles from Monrovia, we stopped and dined at Caldwell. The most 
thickly settled part of this to^n.i^. situate^ opposite the function of the Stockton 
creek and the St. Patil's river. The land here is very fertile, Ae colonists appeir] 
to be industrious, and their neat little farms and gardens, and comfortable habiti-' 
tions a^brd a pleasing prospect to the stranger. At half past five we left Caldwrll^ 
and launched forth into the beautiful St. Paul's. This river is in some places three 
quarter? of a mile wide, and the increasing luxuriance of the vecetation on itt 
Mmks surpassed all I haid expected to see. At nine we arrived at Millsburg, tod 
wert accommodated very comfortably at a house, which is at present the tempora- 
' rr itlidfDce of Governor Pinoejr whenever ho visits Millsbiirg, «kd will be until 
• Mldlvg whi^ he is ha ing erected there is completed. If 1 saj^. I am pleated 
wK^lmfoviii ai^ to express m/self in rtferenjMt» 

tnit Vfiutif\J.spot. Glurely nature's God has been Itvifb in his liestowffltQt.of 
blessidgl^ad Tins fiivortd pai-t of Litieria. The soil is extremely productive. Here 
2Qaybe.aeefl cultivated with a little pains, and certain success, plantains, sweet 
eaMtdt* pdtatoea,.yams, ptMWfi. tugar cane^ arrow root, excellent cotton, pine ap« 
nlet, aiMla neat variety of otatffr P^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ which grow lo an astoa* 
WogIkeigQt,aiidweliiepay the labor of the agrieaftariit IIm coloiiittt aie la- 



■>. 



183{^] INTELLIGENCE FROM LIBKRU. S3 

Uustrioas, and safier much lets fttna ill health than those who'reside in Monrovia. 
Indeed those who on their arrival from America went up the- river immediately^ 
either did not take the fever at all, or had it very U^tly. The next morning after 
my arrival I called our little society of 19 members toother and preached to thtJh, 
They have a meeting house, but it is very small, yet would answer well ibr a Sab- 
bath school house, could we erect a larger oas. Millsborg is about twenty-one 
miles from Monrovia, and is thus much on the way to King Boatswain's territory, 
which 1 intend to visit the first favorable opportunity that occurs, should the Lord 
in his mercy see iit to spare my life. Unless the Grand Bassa rAbrds a c^ore 
healthy locution than M illaburg, 1 shall conclude it to be my duty immediately to 
return there, obtain a lot of land, which, were I to judgi; of ^bo attt-ntion and friend- 
ship of Gov. Pinney, thlis far, there will be no difficulty in doing; have it secured 
to the Missionary Society of the M. £. Church, and emrX a house, whire my fami- 
ly and those who come aUler me may ^et acclimated with comparative security. 

1 will now say something more particulariy on the subjisct ot schools. By a late 
act of the court' here, all public schools cease, in November; the fundo hitherto de- 
voted to them, to be then appropriated to the erection of public buildings and im- 
provements. The children of our people will be thus deprived of insfriiction.-^ 
Miss Farrington, though full of zeal and devotedness in the good cause, is- rather i<n 
feeble health, and as yet has not undertaken a school. This has bec») owing to the 
want of a phice to teach in, and one near enough to her place of board to admit of 
her walking to and from her school. In a week or two i hope to have the addition 
to the mission house completed so far as to accommodate her with a room, and then 
I shall open a school in our meeting house under ber superintendence. Brother 
Bums, whom 1 find to be an amiable, pious, and well informed young man, will 
pcobaUy accompany me to MUlpbur^, where, as soon as practicable, I shall en- 
deavor to organize a school under his care. Sister. Sharp has been attacked with 
the lever of l£e climate, but slightly, and is now in tolerable health. Her senricas 
at Caldwell will be no doubt a oiessing to the youth and children there. We hav« 
two more teachers on the ground alreiuiy acclimated, members of our society, and 
welt qualified, who may be profitably employed at New-Georgia and Grand Basa^, 
and I shall lose no time, with the blessing of. God, in setting them all to work in 
ibis promising field. 

ExtraeU ofaUUerfrom ikt lUv. John $£YS, to 2Ae Corretponding Secretary of the 
MeHuMkU EpitcopiU C%urcA, diUed Monrovia, December 6. 

Since the date of my former letter, I have attendt'd tivo quarterly meetings, one 
at Caldwell and the otner at Millsbur^, iat both of wiiich tlie Lord was present with 
his people, owning his word in the conviction of sinners, and speaking peace and 
pardon to thoee wno diligeotlv toitght him. We have reason to believe from these 
marks of Divine favor, that'tne work of the Lord is about to revive in Liberia. — 
Our preachers are zealous and faithful in preaching tlie word, and the membership 
seem much enga8:ed in the performance of their religious and Christian duties. I 
have put two schools in operation, one at New-Gecrgia amon^ the recaptured Af- 
ricans, where the desire to learn is so great that there are 20 children, 80 female and 
28 male adults, attached to the school, and another at Kdina, or Grand Bassa, coni- 
posed of 43 children. These are taught by two acclimated members of our socie- 
ty, of whose faithfulness to their respective charges,- from what I know and hear, ( 
have every reason to be satisfied. I had intended brother BurzHi, who came out 
with me, to take a school at Millsburg, but several circumstances have led me since 
to alter my plans. There is a verjr strong desire among our people that he should 
be permittee! to remain in Monrovia. tiCe is decidedly better qualified to take 
charge of such a school as the msterials in this town require, than any ofther mafe 
teacher we have. I design then, the Lord permitting, that with the begiinlng'Of 
the year, Miss Farrington (whose health is much better, particularly alnce ner 
recent trip with me toMillsburg) and brother Bums shall commetiee i( male and 
female scnool in Monrovia. Millsburg too is very providantially pnivided for. — 
Brother Harvey, a member of the conference, was stationed at that place i&ttiki 
last annual meeting, but in order to support his family, accepted of the Charge of a 
public school at CaldweU, and as the expense of trdveUing h^re is very firm^ wrai 
not able to co to his station as otten as was desirable . This public school has oMi- 
cd, and he has accepted my offer to renoiove bis ftmily to Miusburg; take the scbaHl 
tbm at $900, and ai I fhijl reappoint lum to that station, fiith tSe ooncummce ef 



84 INT£LUO£NC£ FROM UBEBIA. [M«fdl, 

tbe Coaferenee, which meets in January, this pertion of the work will be wdl pre- 
Tided for. Brother Harvey is well qualified to teach a school. He bu a coed 
knowledge of Enelish grammar, (which by the by is a rare qualification in tneie 
parts,) writes well, and from what I learned on the spot, wiM be very acceptable 
to the people. 

Sister Sharp will soon be settled at Caldwell. I have now to inibrm you that I 
have been running the Society still more largely in debt. On Monday, the lOlh 
ultimo, I purchased at public auction, for the Missionary Society of the M. £. 
Church in the United States, the dwelling house and lot, with all the out hovses 
and improvements, of the lateF. Devaney, Esq. for the sum of #076, one-fottith 

8 art ofwhich is to be paid down, or as soon as 1 obtain a deed for tiie premises, and 
le other three-quarters in three, six, and nine months. The situation is unques- 
tionably one of the most healthy, if not quite the healthiest, in all Monrovia; wip 
much so that the gentlemen who came out in the Jupiter, on the advice of Dr. 
Skinner, whose judgment all who know him place eveiy confidence in, were in* 
duced to give an extravagant rent ibr it, and all have done well excepting twd, 
whose very great imprudence caused their attacks to prove fatal. Gov. finn&y 
was very desirous to purchase the place, and told me so, but at the time of torn 
sale was necessarily obliged to leave. It is considered by many to be worth, at 
least $I»500; but the want of cash to meet the first instalment was a hindnuwe 
to those who bid against me from going higher than the sum for which it was soM. 
The lower story of the house is built of stone, and contains one large and pleasant 
room, with a smaller one annexed to it In the upper story there are two bad 
rooms, one large and remarkably pleasant. The out houses consist of a room lae* 
ing tbe street, which was occupied as a store by the late owner, and would answwr 
wellfof either a study, bedroom, or school room; a stone building in tbe yanl 
well adapted for a store room; a good kitchen, to which access ean be bad by meant 
of a naved pent house, without &iog exposed to the sun or rain; a well which 
supplies water during part of the year, and with some additional expenses may be 
sunk deeper; and a small brick buildine, intended for a poultry room or coat 
house. Added to all this, there is an orcoard containing a greater variety of finit 
trees than in any place in the town. Mr. Devaney seems to have taken great 
pains in this particular. We have tamarind trees, oranges, pomegranates, guavat, 
soursops, a very thriving young cinnamon tree, a grape vine, mango plant, African 
fig, p^>aws, limes, &c. kc— growing Ir.xuiiantly in our new mission lot— beside 
room enough «br a kitchen garden. I bad previously made arrangements with 
Messrs. Roberts and Colston to get my bills cashed by them to enable me to meet 
the instalments, and as I did not design to occupy the butldine myself, being quite 
comfortable in the former mission bouse, I have rented the late purchase to broth* 
er James Brown for $100 per annum, with this proviso in our'contractytiiat imme- 
diately on the arrival of otner missionaries, he is to vacate the premises. I hope 
that what I have done will meet your approbation, and ^at of tbe Board. Shoiud 
it be otherwise, I can at any time dispose of the premises certainly for as much aa 
I gave, and very probably tor much more. In the mean time we are progre^siDg 
with the addition to this house that brother Spaulding commenced. I have been 
occupying, for upward of two weeks, the new bed room I hwl offered Miss Far- 
rington, as she prefc rred boarding wiUi brother Brown in tbe late purchase. It an- 
peau ^me very necessary that one of our riiissionaries, if it be possible* should 
Jive in Monrovia. It is our central point of action, and ought not to be given up. 
Now if when some one is appointed to the permanent supenntendency, the lot faUi 
to me to occupy the grouna here, I believe I can retain my health as well in my 
present residence as any where else, as in the providence of God my constitutioo 
seems so well adapted to the climate. In that case tiiie other house can be sold. 
Should I be sent to some other part of the field, the brother who resides in Monro- 
via can occupy the late purchsM, and there will be no difficulty, provided a prop- 
er title to the land can be obtained, of selling the house which has proved so fanl 
to our former missionaries. I have been thus explicit and minute because I ima- 
gine it highly necessary that you should be acquainted vrith every thing connected 
with the mission, and tnen can you instruct us Jm>w to act accordingly. 

I have not yet visited Bassa. Could not conveniently, with my engagements 
in other places. liutl havewTitten to, and heard from the brethren thm. The 
house is progressing. I am to send fclass and other necesraries by the first opportu- 
nity. Tnere is a brother here who owns a house and lot at MUlsbuii^, ano who 
wiibea to dispote of diem« as he intends retumini^ to Aamm te tij Md efieef 



1830.] IKTELUGENCE FROM UBERIA. 86 

the emancipation of his hmilj, who are slaves in Alabama. Perniit me to recom* 
mend him to your notice, lie will sell his premises for $850. They are veiy 
cheap for this sum; and should it be thought advisable to get an establishment at 
Millsburg, wUch to me seems very desirable, this will be a g:ood opportunity, and 
besides it will be serving him essentially. 1 shall write by him particularly when 
he is ready to sail. ♦♦♦♦••• 

ExbracUofa Utter from Mr, Pinnet to the Hon, Walter Lowais. 

Monrovia, October 28, 1884. 

* * * * The Colony remains quiet, but war rages among the na- 
tions at the north. I have directed Mr. Russwurm to make out a commission to 
some of the most respectable of the Colonists, with powers to proceed among thein* 
with design to make a permanent peace. This will present an excellent opportuni- 
ty for them to see, examine, and report upon the soil, and probability of nndiug a 
healthy place for the settlement of new emigrants. In the mean time we shall not 
forget the other great objects of the Board; but proceed forth^ivith, with every possi- 
ble naste, to prepare a place for the Pennsylvania settlement; also, for New Alba- 
ny. Secretary Kusswurm will either accompany or follow in a very few days Mr. 
6eys, to view Bassa Cove, and report upon its advantages, if any, over Junk, for 
the contemplated settlement. According to their united report will be our course 
of action. Mr. Woodland, an enterprising citizen, has been directed to proceed to 
Junk, and clear land and prepare houses for such settlers as the Board may send 
out speedily. Pressed bv the general wish for farms, your wishes being known to 
eoncur, I have directed the Public Surveyor to lot off farms on the whole course of 
the St. Paul's to Millsburg; likewise on Bushrod Island and at the Albany Settle- 
ment, behind Millsburg. xhere is, I am glad to saj, an evident increase of atten- 
tion to agriculture throughout the community, and, if fostered, may retrieve the Co- 
lonists from the effects of all that has been amiss in the past. The storehouse is 
rapidly completing. The schooner will be ready for sea again, I ^ trust, in two 
weeks, new coppered, with new masts, ringing, and thoroughly repaired. I hope 
by her to obtain a supply of rice, and then intend to attempt a supply of horses and 
jacks from the Cape de Verd Islands. They would be invaluable, if once fairly 
introduced; and the object is too important to be left to individual eDterprise~-they 
are needed now. The ploughs and harrows sent by the Board, are lying idle for 
tile want of them.* The expenses will not CTeatly exceed the profits which can 
be made, and are as the small dust of the balance, in comparison with the advan- 
tages which will probably result, successfully accomplished. 

♦ m • • • • 

December 6. 

* * • • • The Commission to the interior consisted of Messrs. 
Whitehurst, Williams, and McGill, accompanied by a Missionary, Mr. Matthews. 
They have not been heard from but indirectiy, and had made but little progress.*- 
To-day the inhabitants of Monrovia had their curiosity excited by the entrance of 
a messenger from Boatswain, with fifty armed warriors. They have made tiieir 
way down through 'the Goodah country, to bring a message from Boatswain to the 
Governor of the Colony. I defeired an audience untfl Monday. This occurrence 
will, however, further our object I doubt not, and be ordered for good. By an ex- 
press this evening, I am informed by Dr. McDowell, Rev. C. Teage, and W. L. 
Weaver, Commissioners to purchase Bassa Cove, ^at they have secured the part 
belonging to King Joe Hams, containing about 700 acres, on the side of the St. 
John's immediately opposite Edina. The Pennsylvania Settlement will therefore 
be ready in about four weeks for Dr. Hawes's temperance servants to be land- 
holding freemen. 

f Mr. Russwurm declined acting, and Mr. 8e3r8' health forbade him to act as 
Commissioner— hence the chanee from the appointment mentioned in a former 
paragraph. I feel ready, with m my heart, to enter into your plan of exploration, 
and were I at liberty, should esteem the present a most favoraole opportunity for 
its commencement. The August number of the African Repository never reached 

-- 1^ 111 • ' — — ^"~ 

* Would it not be an excellent plan for eveiy emigrant vessel, and others char- 
tered bjtiie 8odeW,totoacbattboaeliUiids. aad.mjflig afew otftttrs* gnduaQf 
Iteramog fh« aomDef. 



S6 INTELLIGENCE FROM LIBERIA. [M«ldi, 

Bie, nor have the vatiouft numbers of the Herald and Misaionary Chit>nicle eoflw 
to hand. Pamphlets put up in small boxes of gciods, &c. would not be so liable to 
miscarry. The opening of an interior load will require more money than we can 
command just now in the Colony, but, if funds or credit were here, it would be 
worthy an immediate attempt. The agitation and party spirit of the age has scat- 
tered some se^ds amongst us here, and political storms lower at times. At present 
the sky is totally clear, and we hope the best for the future. 

The most unpleasant fact I have to communicate, is the suspension for a time of 
schools. The motives tempting to this step were, the dissatisfaction as to the past 
method of teaching which prc^vailed generally in^the community — the desire to ap* 
propriate all the public revenue to build a court house and jaih Do send a succes- 
sor, and let me be free to enter the native village with the word of God. 

I forgot, by the way, to state the fact, that several hundred Bibles and Test»- 
ments, Arabic, have arrived here from England very lately, a present from the 
British and Foreign Bible Society. They will give lieht to many a benightad 
ioul. Some half a dozen were sent to King B. and other Chiefs, with the von^ 
misdioners. 

Dr. McDo wall's Lxtter. 

An interesting letter, written in September and October hst, bf 
Dr. Robert McDowall to Mr. Cresson of Philadelphia, has been pml^- 
lifthed in several newspapers, and should have promptly appeared in 
the Repository, could we have found room for it. Dr. McD., it 
will be recollected, is the young colored physician educated tt Edin- 
-faurgh, who has been sent in his professional capacity to Liberia, by 
the American Colonization Society. Though two months have elapsh 
ed since the original appearance of the letter in this country, we are 
sure that a few extracts from it will be gratifying to our readers, and 
therefore insert them:—' 

On the morning of the Ist of August, we went on shore and were vetj kindly 
received by the Vice Agent, Mr. G, K. McGill, at the Agency House, Mr. Pinnev, 
the Agent, being absent at New-Georgia, and in rather a baa state of health. Wiu 
the place, I must say, I have, and we have all, been a^eeably dieappointad. la* 
stead of finding a sorry, wretched looking place, inhabited by a sickly, discontent- 
ed race of beings, I am glad to say, we found quite the opposite. After pasviag 
the bar and approaching towards the landing place, large and substantial uoMumn* 
koutei met our view; a^ many very excellent though small trading vessels lagr 
quietly reposing on the waters of the Montserado: nor was there any appearance 
of want of business; schooners loading and unloading; some building, others re- 
pairing; natives employed in weighing and cariying camwood, &c. into the ware- 
nouses. 

On ascending the hill we were still more pleased with the commodious and very 
comfortable appearance of the houses. The people all looked hapny and content- 
ed; nor have 1, upon further acquaintance and examination into their state, foand 
any reason to see why they should be otherwise, provided they are industrious, a* d 
the administration of the affaiis of the Colony is iudicious. The scheme of Colo- 
nization is indeed worthy of all your eloquence and all your enthusiasm. There are 
circumstances attending it, and materials here, which, like the colors of a painting 
•r stones for a building, it seized and combined by a masterly hand, would produce 
as beautiful a picture, and as pleasijig an edifice, as the philanthropist or the phi- 
losopher could wish to see. Kven as it is now, I cannot describe what were my 
feelings, as I stood on a height of the Cape, and looked down on the dwellings of 
this Christian community, peacefully placed on the shores of Africa, and remem- 
bered that but a few years ago where savages and ilaver$ wouM have scowled on 
the path of the traveller, he may now "rej^e himself with the hum of missionary 
schools, and the lovely spectacle of peaceful and Christian villages." Theexpen- 
ment of Colonization I consider fully tried, and its practicability unauestionablv 
estabKshed. And considering the want of rapport, and the well-oryuuxtfdopposit 
tloa which the Society has net. it 4s a matter of aacb astoiririiB>»at ioi^,^^/^ 



1835.] INt£LLI6£NC£ FROM LIBERIA. 67 

they have effected what has been done. There ai-e manf evib here, but the most 
part of those evils are not essentially attendant on Colonization. There are many 
poor here, and there are some discontented. The first are in ftgreat measure una- 
voidable, the latter we do not wish to retain in the Colony. That there has been 
much sickness and much mortality, is a melancholy fact; but for this we must not 
look to the climate as the sole cause. Much, nay, a very great deal depended on 
the circumstances under which the emigrants were seni out. The Society provi« 
ded provisions and accommodation for them to the best of their power; but those, 
from the number sent, were oflt'n inadequate to supply all their wants: and the 
provisions were not always such as suited the fastidious taste of a sick person. Many 
also went on board of the ship with only one suit of clothes. Hence when they did 
^et through the fever, which under favorable circumstances need not be dreaded. 
It was not always in the power of the Agontto supply them with clothes and nutri- 
tious food suited to them. But who are to blame for this? Not the Socuty, but the 
public of America. 

• ■ m « * • m « 

^ The weather since our arrival has been cool and pleasant, the thermometer ran- 
ging between 76 and 80 degrees of Farenheit. I think we have arrived at a most 
excellent time. The change is not so great. On the 14th day after landing I was 
seized with fever, but got over it, and was getting on pretty well; but longing to 
visit my patients, I went out at night, and brought on another attack. I had some 
severe agues, but have had none for three days past, and now feel pretty well, only a 
little weak. I intend now to take better care of myself for some time, and hope to 
be ready, when your expedition comes, to join it. The fever seems to be a sort of 
bilious remittent, in the first instance, but eventually assumes the intermittent type. 
Mine has now taken the character of the tertian ague. In violent cases, we have 
treated it actively by venesection and purgatives with success. This had not been 
the cu&tom previous to our arrival, cut Dr. Skinner and I feel convinced of the 
necessity and superiority of such a mode of treatment, over that of trusting to qui- 
nine alone, from the organic diseases which so often follow the latter plan. Much 
ajso, as I have said before, depends upon having the comforts of lifb, m addition to 

gK)d medical treatment. In the last number of the Liberia Herald, you will see 
r. Skinner's description of the town, and his plan of erecting a building upon the 
top of the high land which forms the Cape, for the acclimation of Missionaries and 
others. In this I cordially agree with him. There they will always have the sea 
breeze; the swampy exhalations will not reach them. I nope the Christian denomi- 
nations will respond tu bis invitation, and enable him to put this desirable scheme 
into execution. In Dr. Skinner we have a valuable friend, both as a physician and 
a preacher. His labors already among the colonists, in both capacities, have been 
such as to show that he possesses a mind and a body of no ordinary strength and 
vigor. 

Coffee trees are scattered throughout the Cape in great abundance. At Bassa 
the settlers are often furnished by the natives with coffee beans, which the house- 
keeper of the agency, who has lived for a considerable time at that place, tells rae 
she prefers to any other coffee imported. Of the superior quality or it there is no 
question. An active, intslligent colonist here, who was employed on the late Mr. 
Waring's coffee plantation, says he finds it growing oi' a much superior size to any 
he has seen in the West India Islands. I think in your new settlement he would 
be useful, as he is well acquainted with the raising of coffee and sugar. With this 
view, I have thought it may be well to ke^p him in mind«' I have visited Mr. 
Waring's cofi^ plantation, but do not like the nature of the ground. The soil is 
scanlji and interrupted with rocks protruding up through it. 

I tftink, in addition to planting young coffee trees, a double chance would be 
given by trainSplanting into nreparecf ground those trees we find growing wild, and 
wh|^ alDsltdy yield a consioerable quantity of beans. ' At least it would be well to 
givfl it •trtal^ at Bassa I shall certainly do so. CottOn is also abundant, and might 
Se treated in the same way. The excellence of its quality is unquestionable. In 
oUr lk>tanical investigations we have met with* a great Ipiany useful and curious 
plants. "^ Two kinds of senna grow wild at the sides of the* streets. The indigo 
plant is met all over the Cape; but it said not to be the same as that used by the 
aatives^ in dying. This and the mode of dying their cloth, they keep a secret We 
have also met with a species of penper, said to be the Malaghetta pepper. Birds 
%t the upper settlement are particularly nmnerous and beautiful. Insects are aleo 
fMy abuMant, hut not veiy tronbtofomo; The appearance', habits, and iufltioctir* 
puf oita of thoee creatiira, are novel and inttrestioig. 



86 INT£UJO£NC£ FROltf UBERIA. [Maieh» 

ExtraHo/aLetUrJhfn Liberia, dated October 28, 

The day we landed at this place> Mr. Searle breathed hia lastf; and in leM than 
forty-eight hoars after, Dr. Webb followed liim to the world of spirits. I am well 
pleased with this place, and its community. It is, however, to be lamented, that 
the town is situated in an unhealthy location; but I am persuaded, that weiB the 
brushes and thickets around it cleared off, and some of the marshes drained — which 
is quite practicable — the people would enjoy much better health, and it would not 
be fatal to strangers. The Cape is rocky, the soil very g^velly, but, at the same 
time, very fertile. Here arc gardens to be seen, in which a variety of vegetables 
are raised witli very little labor, and more than sufficient for the consumption of a 
large family. But all are not as industrious as they might be, and hence complaints 
are heard from the indolent and lazy. I have visite/|l Caldwell and MiQsburg; the 
latter may be made an earthly paradise. The astonishing growth of the fruit trees 
and vegetables exceeds what I had ever expected to see in Liberia — the situation 
of the place, too, is more healthful than that of Monrovia. It is freed Irom marsheSy 
surrounded with good timber for building, and has the advantage of a beautifal 
river, abounding with excellent fish. A man, with his wife and seven children, 
who came from one of the Southern States some time ago, all enjoy excellent 
health; and this is but one of many similar cases. — IN, Y. Spectator , March 4. 

Extracts ofja letter dated New- Georgia, Liberia, 17th of jSvgutt, ISSi, from Mr. 
Jamfs £d£k, a colored Teaditr at Liberia, to the LaAci* ji$8ociation o/FhikuUl* 
phia, under whose patronage he toent to that country. 

Esteemed Ladies, — It is with peculiar pleasure I acknowledge the receipt of 
your letter of the 25th of April, with instructions ia relation tomv schooL In ac- 
cordance with your instructions, I convened the inhabitants of both towns in th« 
church in this place, Heading to them ^our letter, and explaining the wishes of th« 
Association. They appealed to be highly gratified with the contents of your let- 
ter, and I succeeded in receiving forty adults to the school. As these people are 
engaged in labour through the aa^, the males sawing lumber in the swamp, an4 
the females at the farms and in their domestic concerns, I have appointed 4 oxlock, 
P. M. for their school hour. I have in all seventy-two scholars, toiiy idults and 
thirtv-two children. I am sorry to inform you that my dear finend and broker, 
the Kev. J. B. Pinney has been very ill for the last two weeks. He staid in my 
family nearly a week until he heard of the anrival of the Jupitcr» when I accom* 
panicd him to the Cape. He is desirous to vacate his seat as Agent, and to devotf 
idmself entirely to the Missionanr cause. 

On the arrival of the Jupiter, August Ist, the Rev. Dr. Skinner assembled tii# 
citizens of Monrovia at the A^ncy houle. The meeting Was very law, includ- 
ing the clergy of every denomination. The exercises were commenced by tiogine 
a n^mn, composed by the Dr. the evening previous to his anrival on our cSuC 
while reflecting on the death of those missionaries who hid ftdleo asleep In that 
f;lorious cause, and his coming hither to sacrifice himself on the same altar, should 
it be the will of the Lord. The hymn was given out by the Doctor, and san^ by tbo 
audience; that venerable man then arose and addressed the meeting for a consid- 
erable time on the su^ect of his mission, stating the object of his coming to Libe- 
ria, and the great loss ne had previously sustained in tiie death of his son. Doriag 
the whole of the exercises, a deep solemnity pervaded the assembly, such as I have 
seldom if ever witnessed, and when the Doctor in an appropriate and forveat 
prayer, closed tho exercises, a solemn awe seemed to impress eveiy one with the 
sacredness of the occasion. 

On Sunday morning, 3d August, Dr. Skinner preached at the Second Baptist 
Church, (Rev. C. Teage, Paster,) from John iii. 16. In the afternoon be preached 
at the First Baptist Church, (Rev. Mr. Waring, Pastor.) I was not present, haviag 
to attend my own conn-egation. 

September 8. I am nam>y to inform you that for the last two or three weeks, 
Mr. Pinney has been recovering, and now pleaches occasionally. I am also happv 
to inform you that the Methodist people amon^ the Eboes have erected a log meef- 
ing house, and now occupy it tor public worship. During the evenings of the week 
as you pass among their humble dwellings, you may hear the voice of prayer and 
pnuse to God in sweet and frequent conceit orom many a lowly hut 

AflBOBg the Congees thoe axe sixteen ftniM houses finished, besides a fsed 



laa*.]: SEIZURE OF AMERICAN -SliAVES. 99 

many on the way. In Eboe town there are five. This difference is owing to the 
fact that the Eboes are turning: their attention to agriculture, while the Congees ate 
chiefly engaged in sawing lumber. 

Agriculture in this town is in a flourishing state this year; the farms are nuzne* 
roos, and the crops fine. Potatoes, rice, corn, peas, and cassada, are plenty. 

Having, since my arrival in Africa, been so constantly engaged in my school ijt 
to prevent my visiting the other settlements, I can give no certain account of theo^. 
I am informed, however, that the citizens of Caldwell also are giving increased at- 
tention to agriculture. * • • • • • * 

Accompanying the letter, of which the forec^oing is a part, is the 
following from Mr. Battan, Superintendent of New Georgia. 

The following is a list of the children df recaptured Africans, to whom I have 
distributed the donation of wearing apparel, received from the ladies of Philadel- 
phia, per Ship Jupiter, Captain ELnap. [Here follow the names of the young re- 
cipients of this kind bounty; to the males were given two suits of clothes each, and 
to the females three each. The number of suits distributed is eighty-four.] 

Ladies: in the distribution of your donation, ^ I cannot express the joy manifested 
by the children. I am requested by them as well as by their parents, to return you 
their most unfeigned thanks for the kind interest you have taken in their welnire» 
in making them comfortable and happy, and to assure you that they will ever re- 
gard your interest in them as a high honor. 

With sentiments of respect and esteem, 

I am your humble and obedient Servant, 

James Battan, 
Superintendent New Georgia, Congoe Town. 



SEIZURE OF AMERICAN SLAVES IN BERMUDA. 

The New York Journal of Commerce gives from the Bermuda 
Royal Gazette, the particulars of the seizure and subsequent disposi- 
tion of 7S slaves, taken o a board the brig Enterprise, Elliot Smith 
master, bound to Charleston, S. C. which put into Bermuda, some 
weeks ago, in distress. 

** It immediately became known to the inhabitants that there were slaves on boards 
and accordingly, on the following day, at the instance of the "Friendly Society" 
of colored people of Bermuda, a writ of Habeas Corpus was served upon all the 
slaves, commanding them to be brought before the Chief Justice and answer for 
themselves whether they would proceed with the vessel to her destined port, and 
continue slaves, or remain at Bermuda and he free." 

On being carried before the Chief Justice, they were severally in« 
formed by him of their right to freedom, interi^ogated whether they 
purposed remaining at Berm ida, under the protection and govern- 
ment of the laws, or proceeding to the port whither they were bound. 
All of them, except a woman and five children, named Ridgely, de- 
dared their preference for remaining on the Island. The Chief Jus- 
tice gave them a parting admonition, exhorting them to lead sober, 
honest and industrious lives; and* for their immediate aid, on motion 
of the Attorney General, a subscription was entered into. About $70 
were collected; and they are understood to have been all either pro- 
vided for as domestic servants, or takeb under the protection of the 
members of the Friendly Society. 



90 AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. [Mareh, 

Eirrw eomcted. — Owineto an otnissioD in the Register kept in the Office 9f tiie 
Colonization Society, of Emigrants sent to Liberia, fTom|which the Tabular State- 
ment was made which appeared in the December No. of the African Repository, 
the Schooner Crawford, which sailed from New-Orleans in December, 1881, with 
twenty-one emigrants, and the Schooner Margaret Mercer, which sailed about the 
tame period, from Baltimore, wi^nine emigrants, were omitted. If these be added, 
it is believed, tlie statement will be correct. 



AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. 

Cincinnati Colonization Society. — The sixth Annual Meeting 
of the Colonization Society was held on Wednesday Evening, the 5tA 
of November, in the Presbyterian Church. Hon. Jacob Burnet <me 
of the Vice Presidents, in the Chair. 

The Meeting was opened with prayer, by the Rev. Leonidas L. 
Hamline of the M. E. Church. The Chairman apologized to the 
Meeting for the absence of the Rev. J. L. Wilson, who was to have 
been present and addressed the Meeting, but was prevented by sick- 
ness in his family. 

After a few remarks from R. S. Finley, Agent of the American 
Colonization Society, Mr. Jones, a colored man from Liberia, was 
introduced to the Meeting and examined, relative to the condiUon and 
prospects of the Colony. 

The Rev. James Gallaher, then oflered the following resolution : 

JUiolved, That the Colonization Cause commends itself to the confidence of the 
Christian and Philanthropist by itd influence in extinguishing slavery and ad- 
vancing the best interests of the Airican race. 

Which was seconded by P. S. Symmes, Esq., supported by an 
eloquent address ft on; Mr. G., and unanimously adopted. An inter* 
etting exhibition then took place of the productions of the soil of 
Liberia, viz: Coffee, Palm-fruit, &c. Some interesting specimens 
were also exhibited of the skill of the Native Africans in the manu* 
facture of Steel, Cotton, &c. The following Officers were thea 
elected to serve for the ensuing year : 

Officers. 

Rev, B. P. Aydelotte, Pretident. 

Hon. Jacob Burnet, 

Rev. J. L. Wilson, 

Rev. L. L. Hamline, 

Rev. 8. W. Lynd, 

Rev. I. Gallaher, j 

W. T. Truman, Dreatwrer. 

George Graham, Secretary. 

Manageri* 

William Greene, John P. Foote, 

H. Starr, William Neff, 

N. Wright, H. B. Funk, 

Nathan Baker, Augustus Moore, 

James Foster, William S. Ridgelt, 

Wm. Schillinqkr, £. Jollt, 

R. 8. FiNLET, P. S. Stmmss, 
8. Burrows. 
The Meeting then adjourned. 

QECBOS GRAHAM, Jr. Steniarf. 



► Vice PretidentM. 



1835.] AUXILIARY S0CI£TI£8. 9| 

ViBGINIA COLOKIZATION SoCIBtT. ^ 

The Fourth Annual Meeting of the Colonization Society was held 
at the Captital, in Richmond, on Wednesday evening, the 7th of 
January, 1835. 

Chief Justice Marshall, the President^ took the Chair. 

The Annual Report of the Board of Managers was read, and also 
the account of the Treasurer. 

On motion of Mr. Jos. S. James, it was 

Resolved, That the Report just read be received, and that it be published in tllk 
newspapers of this dty. 

On motion of Mr. Fleming James, 

Resolved, That we regard the prog^ress which the various settlements established 
bv the American ColonizatioD Societjr in Liberia have been making, also tha. 
piaoting of new colonies on the coast of Africa durine tiie past year, with the most 
lively satisfaction, inasmuch as they afibcd new eviaence of the wisdom of the en* 
terprise, and furnish new £icilities for the prosecution of it hereafter with increased 
energy ^d effect. ' 

On motion of Edward Colston, Esq., 

Resolved, That it is not true, as has been most erroneously supposed by soma 
olnectors, that the movement of our Society is either designed, or at all lisely to 
interfere, in any manner whatever, with the ri^ts of masters over their slaves, ai 
established by law, but that, on the contrary, it is most clear that it must rattier . 
tend to make those rights more secure, while it shall be deemed expedient to re- 
tain them, and, at the same time, more disposable for any purpose or benevolenca 
to which they may be applied. \ 

On motion of Wm. Maxwell; Esq., 

Reeohed, That it is not true, as has been most falsely and injuriously chaigsd 
against the Ck>bnization Society by the Abolitionists of the North, that the en- 
terprise in which we are engaged, is either intended or calculated to perpetuate 
the existence of slavery in our Southern States, but that, on the contrary, it is 
most apparent both from the benevolence of its principles and the history of its- 
operations, that it must tend to increase and multiply cases of voluntary manumis- 
sion, and so to aid the cause of Liberty and Humanity in the most safe and desira* 
ble manner. 

On motion Mr. Jas. C. Crane, 

Resolved, That the object of the American Colonization Society, which is simp* > 
ly and solely to remove our free people of color, with their own consent, to tne 
coast of Africa, assailed, as it has been and still is by the false and contradictoiy ' 
objections of the advocates of slavery on the one hand, and pf the abolitionistii on 
the other, is eminently worthy of the continued and increased support of all who 
desire to promote the welfare and happiness of our country and oftiie world. 

On motion of Rev. Wm. Plumer, 

Resolved, That the Colonization cause is worthy of the support of the humane 
and benevolent in every section of this nation, inasmuch as it affords the only com* 
mon ground on which me friends of the African race in every portion of this land 
can, with nSetv and consistency of principle, meet, and thus strengthen ttie bonds 
of our National Union . 

On motion of the Recording Secretary, 

Reaohed, That our President, Judge Marshall, John Tjier, one of the Vice- 
Presidents, and Wm. S. Archer, be appointed Delegates to represent tins Society 
at the ensuing Annual Anniversary Meeting of ttie American Colonization Society 
in Washington City. 

On motion of M. M. Rohinson, Esq., 

Reeohed, That it be referred to ttie Board of Mansgeisto inquire into the expe- 
diency of adopting the necessary means Ibr fhrtbering the views of this Society* hf 
availing itself of tne asslsUace of the periodical press. 

The following gentlemen were elected oAoers and msaafeis of the Sfciety fc| 
the ensuing year 

JOHN MARSBAXOk iVwidful 



•* 



92 AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. [March, 

James J^adlson, James Pleasants, John Tyler, Briscoe 0. Baldwin, Hneh Nel- 
son, William Maxwell, Dr. Thomas Massie, Horatio G. Winston, Abel P. upsher, 
Edwaid Colston, John H. Cocke, and Lewis Summers, Vke-Pretidmit. 

Johfi Rutherford, Correspondiitg Sccretiuy, 

David I. Burr, Recording: Secretary, 

Benjamin Brand, lYeasitrer. 

William H. Fitzwbylson, Nicholas Mills, James £. Heath, Robert G. Scott, 
John H* £ustace, mil Neilson, Fleming James, Herbert A. Claiborne, Joseph 
Majo,J. H. Pleasants, GurJavus A. Myci?, and James C. Crane, Mana^ere. 

Ordered, That the proceedings of this Meeting be published in the newspapers 
of this city. 

D. I. BURR, Recording Secretory. 

The Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsyltania, i^ 
cently held at Philadelphia, its First Aunual Meeting. The AoDijial 
I^eport is a brief, hut comprehensive documeDt, exhibiting th« out- 
lioes of the history of African Colonization, and of the particular So* 
ciety from which it emanated. We extract from it the following 
pMsages: 

In April last, the Y. M. C. S. of PeDosylvauia, was organized from the foUowhig 
coDsiderations: 

Ist A belief that a direct appeal should be made to the beneTolence and Chris* 
tian zeal of Pennsylfinia, in favor of the establishment of anew Colony upon tht 
coast of Afidca. 

"Id. The nteessity of prompt measures to cany into effect, the will of Dr. Aylett 
* H^^res of Virginia, oy wnieh. he manamitted more than a hundred ^ves, on con- 
dition of their being sent to Liberia. 

8d. The canying into practice in the new Colony, certain principles of politi- 
cal economy; as the fostenng with greater care the aipcultund interests, cboeldDg 
the dsteilorating influence of petty and itinerant tramckmg, maintaining the virtna 
of sobrie^ by obtaining from the Colonists a pledge of abstinence from ardent 
spirits; and oy withboloing all the common temptations and means for earnring on 
war, or for engaging in any aggressive steps upon the native population m Africa. 

How (ar we niave been sustained by the liberality of our friends, our Treasurer's 
report will show; and the account which has l>een already presented to the public 
ofthe sailing of the Niuus on the 24th October, from Norfolk, with 129 emigrants, 
is proof that we have not been altogether idle. These, we trust, are but the earn- 
ests of our future prospeiity and zeal. 

By a happy arrangement lately concliidfd with the New York Colonization So- 
ciety, the energies of both Institutions will be devoted to the prosperity of our in- 
fiint Colony atBassa Cove; while tlio iutcrosts ofthe Parent Board are secured bj 
our pledge to pay into their trt>a-<u;y SO rM?r cent, ofall the collections we may make 
ffithin the limits of Peitnsylvaiiiu, wliica is assi*;jicd tu us as our fieki. 

Under these circumstances we feci coiifideiit iu commencing our cause to the 
nK>d and the wise of Pennsylvania; we believe it to be the cause of mercy and of 
God. The mater our experience of the effect of Cobnization, the greater is our 
conviction or its expediency and virtue. It is the most immediate relief we can 
Bve to the colored man, for it leaioves him at once from the influence of preju* 
See and oppression. 

The Rev. Dr. Tyng, of the Epiphany Church, in West Chesnut 
street, took a brief but comprehensive view of the general principle 
of Co'ioniz;».tiin:, ur.J th«::: j t-:; . ! C.-.-: exisf^ncn of sK»-t»r> in our 
ccuntrvr an:i Ll:*^ scheme ••'" ri,u /..ne. !<•'..: (^■l(.i<iZJlIOuSocit:■»'. 

"Of t/i>: v\i.:- \-- '.« ■ ■■• ■ '".. • •/■ • /r-ir^v ^rr.-. ';1!. T ]'dvv sp.cr. v''h ;»?in ar ire- 

ZTBt, \\.*i itfp •drvr'' ;y clT-^e Chnt'isj •. siav* hx^\^^x fcr two ir'ortl and Hpirir.-n? weU 

Ore of his bondmen, and I have mottmed with the slave also, though I have not 

^und amoc^ them that degree of mise^ and unhappiness, which Is imputed by 

laany to their peculiar sitnation. ' 

• ••••• 

"I leave tbs question of slavery to other bands. Ilsavs all poiticai questions to 



« 



1835.] AUXILIARY SOCI£ri£S. 93 

others. 1 look upon this cause as a Christian philanthropist; and in mj desire to 
promote the best interest of the slaves, and secure to them their natural nghts, % in* 

a aire how am I to do this? by giving to Ihcm the ability to enjoy their right, and 
lenplacing them where they can enjoy it. * ' 

^'Throughout our southern country, there is many a man who daily collects- his 
slaves, instructs them in the great things tliat belong to their ^ood, and at evening 
kneels and prays with them himself, or employs a preacher to instruct them in gos- 
pel truth. I correspond, sir, with a gentleman of nigh standing, (I speak this to 
illustrate, not boastingly,) who thus devotes himself to the good of those committed 
to his care, whose etiorts God will prosper, though uninformed men may deridis 
them, because they proceed from a slaveholder. Like Cowper, I abhor vlavexY, 
and deplore its evils. I know what those evils are, but I know they are not with-, 
out alleviation. Colonization will afford a system of alleviation, but this is not a^» 
it will civilize and Christianize a continent Suppose every Christian had opposed 
Colonization, what could have been done for Africa? They are the friends of Af- 
rica, to whom every regenerated African owes the conversion of his soul. 

*'I know not, Mr. President, how long we may (though our ages are so unequal) 
be allowed to watch the eiibrts made by Colonization Societies. But Africa is to 
owe all lier regeneration to Colonization. Should she be left to those who oppose 
this system, she would come up to the great judgment with her hands stretched out 
for help, but stretched in vain. Sir, the friend of Africa, is the friend of Coloniza^ 
tion." 

The Right Revekend B. B. Smith, Bishop of Kentucky, io the 
course of his remarks, stated that a great proportion of the people of 
that State were in favor of gradual emancipation, and referred to the 
Society which had been formed, each member of which pledged him- 
self to free his slaves at twenty -five years of age. 

'^Kentucky, Sir," said the Bishop, "was settled from Virginia by poor men, who 
took with them but few slaves, and hence slavery was less strongly established 
there. The republicanism of Kentucky dictated to most of these citizens the pro- 
priety of seekin? some relief for their slaves, and a large number of the most res- 
pectable Kentuocians, at the head of whom wss the Hon. Henry Clay, asked from 
the legislature an amendment of the constitution, to prohibit the introduction of 
slaves; but, alas! exactly the opposite was the result, and it was resolved, that 
thero should be no legislative action on the subject. But thero is a great deain 
(o call a convention on this very question, and last winter a proposition was pro- 
sented to the Les^isJature of the State §ot this purpose; it was lost in the Senate by 
a vote of nineteen to twenty. 

*'0f all the portions of our country, Kentucky has the most reason to deplore the 
effects of a slave population. Once, Sir, the negro ran away from the white man, 
now the white man runs away from the negro, and the best of our hardy citizens 
are removing rapidly to Illinois, on account of slavery, so evidently injurious to an 
a^cultural country. 

**1 have witnessed in Kentucky the effects of Colonization on Christian people, 
and I know the joy and gratitude of their hearts, that such an avenue is open for 
their relief; and I believe that a system of a series of Colonies, devised here, will 
be seconded in Kentucky by preparing Colonists for their new homes. 

'*Tbe colored population there are a better people than in the South, though cer- 
tainly not so well prepared as could be desired; yet from year to year many might 
be sent fully prepared, if Colonization Societies at the North and East would boar 
their expenses, to colonies founded on temperance and Christian principles. 

**Tra veiling as I do several months every year, through .a most magnincent coun- 
try, burthened with only one evil, the curse of slavery, and witnessing as t do its 
blighting eti'ects on the slave, and the curse of God on the master, how can I do 
otherwise than rejoice at any measures for sending the blacks to a place whero they 
can be instructed in Christianity, and be blessed with liberty. My haart would m 
dead to every feeling if it did not weep with t&e neflnno, and I bless every effort to 
let the cajilive go free. Jiidge, then, of my joy, at nndine in New Tork the young 
men unibpg witn their brethren in this ci^, in sending Um black man to Africa* 
^d prayifig to bless jour enterprise. 

''I leave the question of ^mapcipa^ and Cokwiaaftioi^aad aQ other schoBes q{ 
gDod,tootbei8; my object has besii to staistbat Cotel^atioB 1m bera sdambif 



94 AUXILIARY SOCI£TI£S. [Maiich^ 

adapted to produce good in Kentucky. "It has been good, only good» and that 
continually"— and I have borne testimony to the fact wiUx pleasure. 

"I concFude with the hope that the Colonization Society may extend its useful- 
ness, and spread abroad science and religion, and satisfy all that it is a good way 
of blessing the colored race." 

Mr. Cresson announced the gfatifying intelligence, received that 
day, of the safe arrival of the Ninus at BassaCove with 1S6 emigrants 
to that settlement. He stated that though about $8000 had been 
received into the Treasury of the Society, the expenditures necessary 
icr its recent enterprise had been so great, that large and immediate 
additional aid was wanted. Mr. C. was happy to say, that a gentle- 
man then present, had offered to pay to the Society one hundred dol- 
lars annually, for ten years, provided eleven other similar pledges 
could be obtained in the city. 

Oue of the most interesting incidents of this meeting, was the read- 
ing of the following letter from the illustrious and venerated Chief 
Justice of the United States: 

Washington, Frbvjamy 22, 1885. 
Dear Sir: — I had the pleasure a day or two past, of receiving your letter oi tha 
16th. 

Though entirelv unable to attend tite meeting of the Young Men's Coloiiizatilm 
Soeiety of Pennsylvania, they have my best wishes for their most complete ioce^ss*' 
In pursuing their object, wbich is at the same time patriotic and philtnthfDpic 
tbev seem to me to temper the ardour of youth with the wisdom or age. I look' 
wim much interest at the effective measures they have taken, and are taking, to. 
accomplish an bbject which ought to be dear to eveiy American boeom, and par^. 
ticnlariy so to our fellow-citizens of the South. -^ 

I hope their judicious zeal will go far in counteracting the malignant eflbcti of 
^ insane fimaticism of those who defeat all practicable good, by the punuit cf 
unattainable objects. 

With great respect and esteem, 

I am your obedient servant, 

J. MARoHAIil*. 
The following elections of officers of the Society were made unani- 
mously: 

President. 
REV. JOHN BRECKINRIDGE. 
Patbons. 
James Madison, Elliott Cresson, Chief Justice Marshall, Gerrit Smith, Esq. Bight 
Reverend William White, D. D. William Short. 

Vice-Pbesidents. 
Joseph R. IngersoU, Esq. Dr. John Bell, Benjamin Naglee, Eso. Rev. W. H. Dt 
Lancey, D. D. Alexander Mitchell, M. D. Joseph Dugan, Eso. Rev. 8. H. Tyng, 
D. D. Rev. Cors. C. Cuyler, D. D. B«v. A. Barnes, Matthew Newkiric, Esq. Hon. 
J. Mcllvdne, Gerard Rabton, Esq. Rev. J. W. James, Rev. John Ludlow, D. D* 
Rev. C. Van Rensselaer. 
Lloyd Mifflin, J^etuurer. 
Elhott Cresson, Foreign Secretary. 
Rev. W. A. McDowell, D. D. Zkmettic do, 
Topliff Johnson, Recording do. 

MAlfAGEBS. 

SamuelJaudon, William M. Muzzy, George W. North, Rev. J. A. PMbody, 
Samuel Caldwell, Charles Naylor, Esq. Robert B. Davidson, R«v. Own W. B«« 
ttiuBe,John Elliott, Josiah White, P^ Lesley, William McMain, H^OUam E« 
Oarrett, James W. Dickson, Lewis R. Ashorst, Samuel W. Hallowvll, William M* 
CoUiBs, Benjamin D. JohnsoD, D. GebhanL Beigamin Cottes, Ber. H. A. Boii#»' 
••a, H. 8. Spackmsn, Clsric Gulp, C^iCsia SkermaB. 



1S35.] CONTRIBUTIONS. 95 

WEST AFRICA. 

Increase of the SUne.l^ade. 

A letter from FernaDdo Po of the 10th of November, says : 
<* Yesterday the American ship General Hill arrived here,*and reported that there 
are to the South oi'the Line 26 slavers; in the Whydah, to tbe northward of us, 12; 
in Bonny, 6; in Old Calabar, 4; and one in the Camaroons. These vessels will take* 
away about 20,000 poor victims. I am further informed that there are 100 slave 
vessels fitting out for the coast. We have but one cruiser now on the station, the 
Lynx, so that the trade of our merchants will be ruined, if steps are not taken to 
stop these miscreants. Five sail of merehant ships will have to remain at Cahibar 
until next year, for want of Cargoes, wnich will be a great loss to both their owners 
and tbe revenue.'* — London Globe. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 

To the American Colonization Society , in the month of January, IBSI^ 

Gerrit Smith's First Plan of Subscription, 
Geoi|retown Female Colonization Society, its fifth insttalment, and de- 
ficiency in a former pa3rment, ..... 
John M'Donogfa, New Orleans, his 4th instalment, ... 

Gerrii SnJih's Second Plan of Subecripiicm. 
Gerrit Smith, second instaltacut, ..... 

Rev. Bishop Meade's second instalment, .... 

Collections from Churches, 
Blue Hill, Maine, firom Rev. Mr. Fisher's Society, ... 
Bradford, Mass. Rev. Mr. Perry's So<;iety, .... 
Columbus, Ohio, Methodist ClKirch, ..... 
Concord, Mass. from the churches of Rev. Br. Ripley, and Rev. H. B. 
Goodwin, -----..- 
Cumberland, Pa. Dickinson Church, by Rev. M*Kmght Williamson, - 
Cummiugton, Mass. Rev. J. L. Pomeroy's Society, ... 
Duanesburgh, N. Y. Reformed Presbyterian Ch. Rev. Or. M'Masters, 
Framingham, Mass. Rev. Charles Train's Parish, ... 
Hanson, Mass. firom Congregational Society, - ... 

Hardvv'nk, Mass. Rev. Mr. Tupper's Society, • - - 

Hatfield, Mass. Bav. L. Pratt's society, ..... 
Leesburg, Va. Methodist Church, by Rev. Edwin Dorsey, 
Mat^iDoisett, Mass. Rev. Thomas kobbins' Society, ... 
New Bedford, Mass. Rev. S. Holmes' North Congregational Society, . 
New Braintree, Mass. Rev. Mr. Smith's Society, 
South Brookfield, Mass. Rev. Mr. Stone, Evangelical Society, 
Stockbridge, Mass. Rev. Mr. Field's Seciety, . • - - 

Sudbury, Ma&s. Rev. R. Hurlburt's Society, .... 
T<^field, Mass. Rev. Mr. M'Ewen's Congregational Society, 
Washington, Pa. Methodist Episcopal Church, ... 

Washington County, Mingo Cfreek Presbyterian Church, 

Cross Creek Congregation, Rev. J. Stockton, 
Worcester, Mass. Rev. Mr. Abbott's Society, .... 

Rev. Mr. Hill's do. . 

York, Pa. Methodist Episcopal Church, by Rev. E. Smith, 

JiuxUiary Soeietiis, 
Dedham, Mass. Juvenile Colonization Society, by John S. Hooghton, 
Georgetown, D. C. Auxiliary Society, - - . . - 

Massachusetts Auxiliaiy Society, (|^27 70 of which, receipts from col- 
lettions, donations, entered under their appropriate heads,) by 
Isaac Mansfield, Treasurer, ... 
Middlesex North and vicinity Charitable Society^ by J. 8. Adams, Tr. 
Virginia Auxiliaiy Society, by B. Brand; Treasurer, • 
WatfiingtonCibr do. Wm. MecUin, Tieasarer, 
WiUee* Valley Africtt SiMvoknt Society, by WUUam Cbtinberlain. 



#188 SO 


100 


1000 


20 


8 00 


5 20 


42 70 


16 


4 


10 


11 


17 25 


1 77 


7«l 


18 W 


17 50 


10 


9 25 


19 


7 01 


17 61 


12 75 


10 62 


8 81 


7 14 


80 


19 25 


20 


10 


425 


84 25 


750 


580 


180 



96 CONTRIBUTIOdiS. [Mnck, 

LifiMtmber. 

Rev. Daniol Green, Boston, ...... 80 

Donations, 
Acton, Mass. from S. T. ...... i 

Boston, from a friend, by Rev. Daniel Green, - - - - 10 

Charlestown, Va. from a lady near that place, - • - - 15 

Columbus, Ohio, from Mr. Bj.rborough, ... - 50 

Cummii.^on, Ma93. from Clarissa Brigs, .... 1 

Delaware, Hon, A. Naudain, ..-.-• 20 
LccTburg, Va. Mrs. Hani:.ih B. Richards, - - - - 1 50 

Maryland, Mrs. Rebecca Goldsboruugh, - - - - 20 

Millbury, Mass. Mrs. Mary and Miss Hannah Goodell, ^5 each, . - 10 . 

Pittsburg, Pa. Charles Brewer, -.---- 80 

Plymoutn, Mass. by a poor laborer, ----- 2 

Rutherford Countj% North Carolina, John Moore, ... 4 

Tewksbury, Mass. Llisses Rebecca and Mary Kitredge> by Rev. Isaac 

Coffin, - - - . - - - - - 10 

Warwick, Mass. from Samuel Kingsbury, .... 2 

Worcester, Mass. from Mr. Wahio, .... - 50 

Misses Waldo, - .... 50 

Mrs. Salisbury, - - - 50 

Contributions in the month of February. 



50 

100 
100 

100 



7 50 

8 

10 M 
5 
2 IS 

2 

10 

5 

604 

7 



GerrU Smith* s First Plan of Subscription, 
JRev. C. Andrews, Frederick County, Va. (in part) 
Hon. Thomas Emerson. Windsor, Vermont, ... 
Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, New Jersey, ... 
John Gray, Esq. FredericKsburg, 

CoUeciions from Churches, 
Abington, Pa. from the Presbyterian Church, ... 
Alexandria, D. C. by George Johhson, - - - - 

Hamilton, Ohio, from the Associate Reformed Congregation, - 
New Glasgow, Amherst county, Virginia, Church, 
New Lisbon, Ohio, by the Rev. Mr. Vanlandingbam, - 
Plattsburg, by the Rev. J. T. Adams, - - - . 

Princeton,. Indiana, from the Society of Covenanters, • 
Randolph, Illinois, from the Bethel Reformed Presbyterian Church, 
Seven Mile, Ohio, from the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Churcb 

by the Rev. David Macdill. - - . - 

Washington City, by Miss Eliza B. Lindsley, ... 

Auxiliary Societiss, 
Indiana Auxiliary Socie^, --..-. 40 
From Benjamin Brand, Treasurer of the Virginia Colonization Society 24 

Donations. 
Hillsborough, Ohio, from Moses Tomlinson, .... 20 

Huntingdon, Pa. from Jacob Miller, - .... 5 

Lunenburg, Va. a lady, by Rev. Mr. Atkinson, - - - . 5 

Plattsburg, from William Young, - .... 2 

Ruggles, Huron Co. Ohio, from William L. Buffett, ... 2 

Sereno Wright, Granville, Licking CoUiitv, Ohio, -. - - 10 

Legacy. 
From the late Isaac Van Horn, Zanesville, Ohio — $50 to be paid in four 

annmil instalments, - • - - - - -12 50 

Riposiiory. 
Mrs. Judith Smith, of Powhatan County, Va. - - - - 18 

Dr. Lewis L. Near, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, .... 2 

Dr. Benjamin Wilkins, Hopkinsville, Ky. - • - • 10 

CoHedions, omitted hy ike printer, in October last, 
Newburgh, Pa. Associated Reformed Church, • - . - 25 

Plymoutti, N. Y. by Rev. L. Clark, - - - - - 5 

Rockspring, Ky. by Rev. R. W. Januaiy, - - 1 02 

HusselviUe, Ky. by Rev. Hooper Crerws, ... .. 12 tt 



THE 



AFRICAN REPOSITORY, 



AND 



COLONIAL JOURNAL. 



L .JZ 



Vol. XL] APRU^^r [No. 4. 

RESOLUTION OF THE BOARD. 

At a meeting of the Board of Managers of the American Colonizalion Society, 
March 6th, 1885, the following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

**Re$olDed, That this Board, relying upon the aid of Divine Providence and the 
liberality of the Friends of this Society, will endeavor to raise ons hundred thou- 
sand DOLLARS for the cause of African Colonization during the present year/* 

The preceding resolution has been adopted, it is believed, by the 
Board of Managers, under a deep sense of duty to the cause with 
which they stand connected. They dare not, in view of thecircum* 
stances of the Society, and of the African Colony, attempt, during the 
present year, to accomplish less than is proposed in this resQlution. 
They would hope that every friend of the great scheme of African 
Colonization, will feel individually responsible to assist in effecting 
this object, which will thus be rendered as practicable as it is im* 
portant. 

It is to be regretted that men engaged in objects of great and un* 
questionable Philanthropy, are so liable to be elevated or depressed by 
particular events, encouraging or unfortunate, incidental to their work, 
but which afford to the eye of reason no true tests of its character.-— 
It is not impossible that some of the friends of this Institution, instead 
of finding in the embarrassments which for two years past have retard* 
ed its operations, new motives for activity and liberality, have been 
led to pause and inquire whether it was indeed entitled to the support 
which they had previously and with so much cheerfulness afforded. 
It is hopedthat if such was the effect of these embarrassments on any 
individuals, their own reflections have taught them clearly to separate 
the great and beneficial ends proposed by the Soaiety, and which its 
policy is so well designed to secure, from the occasional, incidental, 
and temporary misfortunes which may occur in its progress. 

The Society is already partially relieved from pecuniary difficulty, 
by the sale of stock created for the purpose, and may expect from the 
early disposal of what remains of this stock, to free itself from that 



ge RESOLUTION OE THE BOARD. [April; 

pressure of obligation, which has, for a season, diminished the power 
and extent of its efforts. 

But there are objects of great interest to the Colony and the cause, 
to which its attention is now invited, and which, without increased 
resources, it will be impossible to accomplish. Applications for a pas* 
sage to Liberia in behalf of nearly eight hundred persons of color, (many 
of them slaves now ready to be liberated) have been recentlv made to 
the Society. It is the determination of the Board to avail themselves 
of the best lights of their past experience in the selection of situations 
for future emigrants, and in the measures to be adopted for the preser* 
vation of their health and the advancement of their prosperity. They 
desire to render Liberia an inviting residence for all who mav choose 
it as a honie for themselves and their descendants. Thej have re- 
solved to construct houses and to clear and put in cultivation plots of 
ground in the vicinity of the interior settlements, to which, immedi* 
ately on their arrival, emigrants may remove, supplied with such 
mechanical tools and implements of agriculture, as may enable them 
to engage at once, and successfully, in the pursuits to. which they 
have been accustomed. 

The sum of fifty thousand dollars is at this moment required to ena* 
ble the Board to fulfil its benevolent intentions towards the' present 
applicants for removal to Liberia. 

There are other objects of essential interest to the colony and to 
the cause for which it was founded, which the Board have long re- 
gretted its want of means to accomplish. To explore the interior, 
ascertain its advantages for health, agriculture, and the useful arts, 
the character of its population, and their disposition in regard to the 
admihsion of emigrants among them; to secure by fair purchase such 
territory as may be required for emigrants, and to prepare comfortable 
temporary accommodations for their reception, are objects to which 
the thoughts of the Board have been long directed, which they re- 
gard as indispensable to a very successful prosecution of their scheme, 
and which can only be effected by a very considerable augmentation 
of the funds of the Society. 

It is also the desire of the Board to give a new impulse to agricul- 
tural industry and improvement within the present limits of the 
colony; to introduce useful animals, and better modes (than tho^e now 
existing) of cultivation; and to encourage, by various methods, that 
activity and enterprise ainon;^ the settlers, by which alone they can 
overcome obstacles, subdue the wilderness before them, and attain 
upon their own soil, to independence. 

Education in Liberia needs at present to be encouraged and foster- 
ed by the Society. All the good to be expected from the plan of Af- 
rican Colonization is dependant upon the intellectual and moral culture 
of the people of Liberia. 

Their respectability and happiness as a community, their beneficial 
influence upon the African tribes, all the power they may exert to 
elicit the energies and elevate the hopes of their race, are principally 
(under God) dependant upon their education. It is true the circum- 
stances in which they are placed are favorable to the development of 
their faculties, and the excitement of the strongest principles of 
action. But, without instruction in letters, and the most uiefol sci- 



1885.] ietEsoLunoN of the board. m 

ences and arts, no people can be well qualified to discharge their so- 
cial, political, and religious duties. And the more necessary is this 
instruction to a community situated on the shores of a barbarous 
country, and in constant intercourse with those degenerated in under- 
standing and moral habits, and whose influence upon their superiors 
may be to bring them down to the depths of their own degradation. 

In considering the claims of the Colonists of Liberia upon this So* 
ciety for the means of extending their territory, improving their ag- 
riculture, and founding a system of education, the benefits of which 
shall be enjoyed by every child within their settlements, their pe- 
culiar condition prior to their emigration deserves to be considered. 
It is not a people favored from their youth with all means and oppor- 
tunities for the acquisition of knowledge and wealth who are now 
planting freedom and the Christian religion among their less favored 
Drethren in Africa. In a spirit which might do honor to the, most 
enlightened of our race, those who are now settled in Liberia, went 
forth, uneducated, to a great extent, except in the doctrines of Christ, 
and almost destitute of property, to secure for their posterity, in another 
land, privileges and blessings denied to themselves in this. 

It is but little more than twelve years since a few rude huts, amid 
the uncleared forest of Cape Montserado.. alone gave evidence to 
the passing mariner that civilization had obtained a foothold on that 
shore of piracy and blood. And could any rational man expect that 
those who in successive years since that time have become citizens of 
this Colony, with scanty resources, and feeble aid, exposed to the in- 
fluences of a tropical climate and the duplicity of barbarians, with 
every thing to do for themselves and their families, should, before 
this, have risen above all difficulties, and firmly established those iu- 
stitutions which most conduce to social and public prosperity? TTiose 
colonists have not merely done much. Tliey have pushed their efforts 
to what, considering all the circumstances of the case, must be pro- 
nouneed, unexampled success. 

The present resources of the Colony are insufficient to accomplish 
the numerous objects of public necessity, and to maintain an adequate 
system of education even for its own population, while many of the 
native tribes in its vicinity desire to place themselves under its laws and 
receive from it the rudiments of knowledge. 

In addition, then, to the amount of funds required to enable the 
present applicants for a passage to Liberia to become settled in pros- 

gerity on its soil, a sum not less, certainly, is demanded, to enable the 
ociety to afford, without embarrassment, that aid to the Colony, which 
shall render it in all respects a fit asylum for our free colored people^ 
and powerful in its intellectual and moral influence for the suppression 
of the slave trade, and the regeneration of Africa. 

And can the great purposes for which thisSocie^ was founded, have 
been forgotten? And can any one who has duly considered them, 
believe that a smaller sum than that suggested in tne resolution of the 
Board should be solicited for such purposes, of the American people ? 
Are the friends of African Colonization convinced that it is t 
scheme most wisely adapted to elevate the free people of color, to 
open the wty for the voluntary emancipation o£.ine enslaved, to de- 



100 RESOLUTION OF THE BOARD. t^pffilr 

liver Africa from the terrors of superstition and the infamy of Tict, t0 
drive from her shores the deitroyers of her peace and the mnrdereis 
of her children, tohuild up thereon the institutions of justice, liberty, 
and the true religion? And will they fail to contribute the means for 
prosecuting with energy so great a work of benevolence ? 

The Colonial Agent in his last letters, earnestly invokes the attention 
of the Managers and the friends of freedom in America to the alarming 
fact that slave vessels are now swarming on the African Coast. "At tKe 
Gallenas river," he observes, ** Blanco has several vessels at the pre* 
sent time waiting, and others have lately sailed with cargoes of the 
miserable victims of avarice." At Little Bassa there is a slave vessel 
ready to depart with a full cargo. 

"On this point." he adds, " Abolitionists and the friends of Coloni- 
zation may unite and leave no stone unturned until the policy of our 
Government is changed. Dare the American seamen encounter the 
sickly clime of Cuba and hesitate not even to invade the settled do« 
minions of Spain in pursuit of the lawless violator of his country's 
flag, and the safety of commerce, and yet shall they not dare to land 
upon the coast of unclaimed Africa to break up a traffic, carrying 
more extensive misery than all other piracies ever known ? 

"I am sure every American heart would sympathize in the strong 
desire to secure an active interference on the part of their Govern* 
ment, could they realize but half the truth. Two or three cold blood- 
ed murders have lately occurred at Bassa, some at Cape Mount, and 
extensive wars are now existing among the tribes, the causes of which 
can be traced in every case directly to the presence of slavers. Tha 
extensive war between the slaves and their former masters at Cape 
Mount, has finally embroiled the whole Goolah country in a war with 
Boatswain. As well for humanity's sake as to restore the interior 
trade, which is almost entirely interrupted, a commission of three has 
been sent — Messrs. Whitehurst, Williams and McGill, to negotiate a 
peace, and restore harmony." 

It is certain that the Colony has done much for the tuppreuion of 
the slave trade; that under the administration of Mr. Ash mun, /or Zong* 
periods, this trade was well nigh if not entirely banished from every 
part of the coast under the jurisdiction of the Colony; that it has ex* 
cited in the hearts of many of the chiefs of the country a sense of the 
wickedness of this traffic, and extended to them and to their people the 
means and motives of a better commerce. But while every reasonable 
man must know, that a few scattered and feeble Christian settlements on 
the African coast may be incapable of effecting the entire overthrow of 
this giant evil, it will be equally clear to him that in the increase of their 
population and the growth of their power will be found a cause nde« 
quate to its utter extinction wherever this power is exerted. 

The Colonial Agent, from whose last letter we have already quoted, 
states many encouraging facts in regard to the increasing temperance, 
industry and public spirit of the Colonists. 

"The subject of Temperance," he remarks, "has of late, been mak* 
ing silent but sure progress. Twenty men assisting to raise the masts 
of the schooner, did it voluntarily, without a hint that ardent spirits 
were wanting. Two years ago, this would have been a mirede. At 



laaik] B£80LUTI0N OF THE fiOARD. 101 



Millsbiirg a mhaU Society exists. At Caldwell there is one establish* 
ed, requiring total abstiDence even as an article of traffic ; and it is 
increasing-*-while its effect has been such, that among a population 
of twelve hfiadved, there is found sufficient scarcely for foedical 
purposes. £ven at Monrovia the sentiment is so strong, that we an- 
ticipate a Iriamph before long." 

In regard to a public farm laid off at Caldwell he observes, ''This 
&rm employs such of the poor and destitute as have their health 
sufficiently for such active labors, while others spin and knit the 
cotton forwarded to us by the Jupiter. By this means, many who 
draw rations on account of laziness, being compelled to work, sup* 
sort themselves* while the expenses of all are lessened-*-industriou$ 
habits are inculcated «and enforced ; and a sample farm secured for 
Baking experiments of various plants, and modes of cultivation. The 
plan to be perfect should have a school connected with it, and greater 
Ucilities be offered for labor .^^ 

"More farms have been cultivated the past year than at any pre* 
vious period; and we may expect to see them doubled the next 
aeason. Indeed the surveyor, Mr. Revey, with all his diligence, 
cannot lay off the land as fast as it is wanted. He will be kept in 
constant employment, and according to the request of the Board, lay 
off farms as regularly as maybe, for future emigrants. — Lines are now 
actoally being cut from Caldwell to Millsburg, and from Monrovia to 
Caklwell, on which to lav off the lauds." 

Our readers may recollect* that some time ago, the number of the 
'Colonial Council was increased to six, and that the duty of affording 
support to nearly all the officers of the Colony was devolved upon 
the Colonists themselves.— Alluding to this change in the political 
condition of the Colony, the Agent observes, 

"Political agitation has been considerable amongst us — but the ele* 
ments are subsiding, and when the exciting cause is removed our agi- 
tated community will rest. The new system of Coverument which 
began in September, has created no soaall degree of feeling and ex* 
citement, followed as it immediately was by a light and extensive 
tariff. The Council have gone forwaid, however, with vigor, to fix 
the salaries, and provide for the payment of officers. They have also 
veted $700 for a new court house and jail, and are looking forward 
to other improvements. These efforts, at this time of almost unpa« 
ralleled commercial distress, are encouraging evidences of much re« 
maining enterprise and vigor." 

Oar present number contains much to animate the friends of the 
Society. 

The plan submitted in the resolution of the Board must, if executed^ 
five a powerful impulse to the cause of African Colonization. It 
wiH bind to it in eonfidence thousands who have looked to it with 
apprehension. It will scatter finally, and forever, the objections and 
sophisms of those who would extinguish the light, and cast down the 
hope of Liberia. It will do much to settle a benevolent system of 
poliey, tending to strengthen and perpetuate the Union of these States; 
and to eonfer the blessings which are secured by it to our country* 
acB, Qpoo the millions of Africa. 



v 



102 COLONY AT CAPE PALMA8. YA^^U 

COLONY AT CAPE PALMAS. 

Since we had last an opportunity of noticing particularly the set* 
tlement founded at Cape Palmasby the Colonization Society of Mary* 
land, a communication baa been made by that Institution to the Am^* 
rican Colonization Society, indicating the causes which led toasepa* 
rate action on the part of Maryland, and giving many interesting par* 
ticulars in relation to the progress and condition of the new settle*^ 
ment. After referring to the despatch of two vessels to Cape Palmas-^ 
the "Sarah and Priscilla/' in June last with supplies, and the "Bourne'' 
in December last with supplies and emigrants, the communicatioD 
proceeds as follows: 

"The expedition by tlie Bourne is accompanied by the Rev. Mr. GouId» a cleigT- 
man of the Methodist church, who goes out to superintend the setUemeot of toe 
emigrants, each of whom is fumisheawith the implements necessary to enable hiin» 
at once, to commence clearing and cultivating. Mr. Gould will return, and be ac" 
tive, most probably, in the collection of emigrants llirougbout the State. The 
Board have great confidence in him. From the concurring testimony of all who 
have been to Cape Palmas, the Board feel satisfied, tliat there is no objection to it 
on tlie score of health. Dr. Hall writes that he enjoys excellent health — ^better, in- 
deed, than he has known for years, — has thrown aside his crutch, and works, eats 
and sleeps, as well as ever he did in the United States. The country is every thing 
that could be desired — alternating with wood and fields of rice — remarkabl]^ easy w 
cultivation and clearing, and altbrding facilities for excellent roads. Besides the 
ordinary- productions in the vicinity of the old Colony, rice is cultivated in great 
quantities, and cattle, sheep, and goats abound to any extent.** The natives are in 

g'eat numbers in the neighoourhoo:), an<i are exacting and troublesome, at times.— 
r. Hall has maintained peace with them. They have to be dealt with, with great 
firmness: they are intelligent, and, to a certain degree, industrious; and the leading 
men amon^ tnem are fully sensible of the advantage of having the Colony where 
it is. Their villages are under command from the stockade fort, and the position of 
our town makes it very easy of defence. 

"The Board have found, that gpreat economy can be bad, by sending from this 
countr3r trade goods for the use of the Colony, in place of permitting drafts. Tha 
Agent is now well supplied with every requisite, and but two drafts have come to 
hand, for one hundred dollars each, beine for tpecie furnished him out there, for 
particular branches of traffic, and on whicn, of course, no profit, like that on goocb, 
was made out 0^ the Society. 

*'The Board (yi Managers have become satisfied, already, of the absolute necessity 
of a coin for the Colony, and propose taking immediate measures to procure one. 
The intention is to make itb^lowthe standard in this country, so as u> prevent its 
exportation. As your Board may design something of the same kind, and as it 
might be advantageous, perhaps, to have the same coin for both Colonies, the ma^ 
ter is here suggested, that there may, if you desire it, be a consultation, for the 
purpose of adjusting the standard, and fixing upon the device." 

The letter from which the foregoing extract is made, was accom- 

Gnied by copies, on tissue paper, of two maps received from Dr. HalL 
r. Latrobe, the Secretary of the Maryland Society, adds: 
'*I likewise transmit copies, on tissue paper, of two maps received from Dr. Hall. 
The general one of the coast, corrects an egregious error in all maps and charti^ 
heretofore published, which made Cape Palmas the southernmost point of the coast 
of Guinea, instead of Tabou Point, which is considerably to the southward of it 
Dr. Hall describes the Cavally river as being a mile wide, and running with so 
swift a current, that for the greater part of ttie year, its waters are fresh even to its 
mouth. It is beUeved to be navigable a distance of from 200 to 250 miles fross Hit 
ocean. 

* AD these articles sre found plentifully in the vicinity of Montsesado.— Epb- 



IStt.} COLONT AT CAPE PALMA8. log 

'*The Boaid propose to fond at least two ezneditaons to Cape Palmas, during tfat 
cominz yean One, on or before the first of May — and the other, on or before the 
first of October. Aa these will pass by Monrovia, it will afibrd the Board great 
pleasure if they can, at the same time, render any service to your Society.'* 

The offer made at the close of Mr, Latrobe's letter, has been cor* 
dially acknowledged by the Managers of the American Colonization 
Society, and they have in the same spirit reciprocated the wish ex* 
pressed by the Maryland Society, ''to seize every opportunity of es- 
tablishing and maintaining that kind feeling which ought always to 
exist between fellow laborers in a great work of philanthropy." 

Our readers will doubtless be interested by the following passages, 
extracted from a Report of Dr. James Hall, Governor of the Colony 
at Cape Palmas: 

**0n leaving Grahway, [distant from the Cape about two hours' ride] I entered 
one of the most beautiful meadows I ever beheld, from one to two miles m breadtii, 
extending from Grahway Point to Half Cavally, as it is termed, a distance of near 
&ve miles. It was literally covered with fine fat catUe, sheep, and goats, belonging 
to the neighboring towns. When within a mile or two of Half Uavally, we were 
met by not less than a thousand men, women, and children, in whose countenance 
and gestures nothing but wonder and astonishment were visible. Their fear and 
joy knew no limits, as to their manner of showing them, and I much feared, in du* 
ration, for the roar was absolutely insupportable. 

"The town, or rather towns, of Half Cavally are veiy large, containing over fifteen 
hundred people, (guessing,) who are supported pnneipally by trading with the 
Bush people. Their territory is not very extensive, and as yet not deeded to us. 
The head trade-men of this place are the most intelligent of any I have found on the 
coast. One, in particular, who has lived twelve years in England, is, as far as I 
have observed, a gentleman. I may safely say I was never treated with more civil- 
ity and propriety than I was by this man. His bouse was built by a native of Ca- 
vally, in the European fashion ; framed and weatherboarded, but covered with 
thatch. The nails and hinges were made by the country smiths. The lower story 
was used as a store, and the upper as sleeping and drawing rooms. I rested myself 
on a hair matrass, laid upon a high post field bedstead, and was favored the while 
by mine host, with sundry popular airs upon a fine-toned chamber orean. The room 
was ornamented with many good English engravings, a large looking-glass, and 
contained the common useful articles of chairs and tables, etc. Owing to the jea- 
lousy existing between these people and the gentry who accompanied me, I deem- 
ed it advisable to stop but a snort time. 

"To an enthusiastic admirer of nature,nothin^ could be more delightful than a stroll 
alon^ the borders of these beautiful fields, winding occasionally along almost im- 
pervious clusters of young palm trees, whose spreading branches excluded every 
ray of the scorching sun ; then opening suddenly upon am immense rice field of the 
most delicate pea-green, skirted oy the beautiful broad-leaved plantain and banana, 
literally groaning under the immense masses of their golden fruit. I reached the 
Cavally nver about two miles above the mouth, at a very considerable town, sub- 
ject to Baphro, king of Grand Cavally. 

"I arrived at Grand Cavally, the town of king Baphro, about two o'clock, P. M., 
and was received with all the attention I could expect. This town is situated at 
the river mouth, and, I should think, contained 1,000 inhabitants, but I may over- 
rate them, as the bustle was so great. 

^'Judging from my speed, ana the time I was in returning, I should say that Ca- 
vally was eighteen miles distant, certainly not less : and eighteen miles of more 
beautiful, easily cultivated, and at the same time rich land, Ido not believe skirts 
any sea coast in the world. Previoqs to my visiting Cavally, I ascended the main 
branch of our Cape Palmas river. The land on either side of the river is sufficient- 
ly elevated, the soil rich, and (what is of great importance in this country) easily 
cultivated. I have also bravelled abusbpath running in an £. N. E. direction eight 
or ten miles, and found the country e(^ally fertile in all directions as on the borers 
of the river, or as that already described on the road (o Cavally. The whole is 
well wooded and watered, with few or no fens or swamps, so common on the sea 
coast, the surface generally slightly undulating, and covered in some parts with a 
second growth of timber, at intervals, however, spreading into most luxuriant and 
extensive savannahs." 



JM POETRY. [AprH 



POETRY. 

The following hymn, composed by the Rev. Gsoroe W. Bxthuni^ 
was suDg at the first annual meeting of the Young Men's Colonization 
Society of Pennsylvania: 

PRAYER FOR THE NEW AFRICAN COLONY. 

Ob, Thou who built Jerusalem 

For Israel's wandering race. 
And yet in love wilt gather them 

Back to their dwelling place — 

Who, captive Joseph like a flock. 

Led forth with prowess high, 
And gave them water from the rock 

And manna from the sky — 

, Smile on our efforts — who would fain 

Redeem each outcast slave, 
And waft them to that land again. 
Thou to their fathers gave. 

"They seek a better country," where 

Their toils and tears shaU cease ; 
Build Thou their city— grant them there 

J? heritage of peace. 

Thy name, O Christ, and thine alone. 

Is all their hope and trust; 
Be thou their precious "comer stone," 

To raise their walls from dust. 

Thy Spirit's sword, unto them lent 

Thy cross, their banner free, 
Thy word their only battlement, 

And faitJi their victory. 

Their watchmen shall liH up their voice. 

Together shall they sing. 
And in ttie guardian care rejoice 

Of Israel's sleepless King — 

The little one — men's scoff and scorn, 

A mighty realm shall be, 
And generations yet unborn. 

Shall give the praise to Tbxx. 



1635.] MR- SMITH ON COLOmZATIOX. ' Itl5 

MR. GERRIT SMITH ON COLONIZATION. 

(CONCLUDED FROM PAO£ 76.) 

Having now examined the two reasons, on the ^^und of which it is alleged, that 
the Colonization Society must, from its very nature, prove iujurious to the people 
of color in this country, we turn to the supposition, that, it must, from that cause, 
prove injurious to Africa also. 

The ridiculous sophistry of a British pbilanthrcpisthas been circulated through'* 
out the land to convince us, that the more civilized settlements on the Western 
coast of Africa, the more extensive will be the slave trade there. I will not in* 
suit the understandings of my readers, by ai]^uing down this first objection to the 
nature of the Colonization Society, in its bearings on Africa. The gentleman, who 
brings forward this objection to the nature of the Institution, would prefer a never- 
ending night 01 barbarism along the whole Western coast of Africa, to the danger 
there would be of the slave trader getting ship stores in civilized and Christian 
towns upon it. It is creditable to tb^ discernment of our countrymen, that they 
were not plied, a long time, with this objection to the Colonization Society. 

Mr. Birney also believes, that the Society must, from its nature, prove injurious 
to Africa; and we will now see, whether all the grounds of his belief are good. — 
The reader will excuse my frequent reference to Mr. Bimey*s letter. It is not t© 
be denied, that it has exerted a strong influence, at the North, against the Coloni* 
za^ion Society: and I have much reason to believe, that the portion of it, which we 
are now to bring under consideration, has been very powerful to weaken the at- 
tachment to the society, of that class of its members, who value it mainly, if not 
entirely, for its probable benefits to Africa. Here let me premise, that the views, 
which a slaveholding member of the Colonization Society takes of its nature and 
tendencies, have but Kttle authority with myself. The fact, that ho continues to 
be a slaveholder satisfies me, that he has not imbibed that spirit of kindness and 
iustice towards the man of color, in which the Society was founded; and which ever 
has been and ever will be the spring — I will not say, of all its legitimate operations 
— but certainly of the most important and precious of them. Far am I from using 
this language with the view of censuring the slaveholder, or of intimating, that he, 
any more than a non-slaveholder, is out of his place, when in the Colonization So* 
cicty. I would, that all the slaveholders in the land belonged lo it: for there are 
objects to promote in that connexion, aside from the direct and primary one of be* 
Defiling the man of color, which are interesting to themselves, in common witii 
others;— objects of the deepest interest, for instance, . to the political economist, 
the statesman and the patriot. But, especially, would I have them all connected 
with it, to the end, that they might thereby conceive a greatly increased interest 
in its benevolent character, and be brought more within the reach of its indirect 
anti-slavery influences. Nor have I a doubt, that slaveholding members of the So* 
ciet}% who have been faithful to the duties of their connexion with k, and attended 
to its principles, objects, and operations, have Ibund their attachment to slavery 
much weakened, if not entirely overcome. The position I had taken, when led to 
disclaim the entertainment of views, which I feared might be imputed to me, was 
simply, that tlic slaveholding member of the Society, lacking, as his slaveholding 
indicates, that spirit of justice and kindness to the man of color, which was the 
moving cause of the organization cf the Society, is liable to form erroneous con- 
ceptions of its nature and tendencies. 

But, to proceed witli Mr. Birney. He was a slaveholder when he united with 
the Society, and unhappily continued to be such, as I am informed, during the 
whole period of his distinguished advocation of it. Although he has withdrawn 
from the Society, and repented of the sin of slaveholding, yet it is by no means to 
be supposed, that he has abandoned all the views, which he took of the Society, 
whilst ne belonged to it, and was a slaveholder. Some of these views he manifest- 
iy retains: and nis present erroneous opinions of the expectations cherished by the 
great body of the Society, of its action upon Africa, arise from these views. The 
Colonization Society, to judge from some of his writings, was doubtless largely in- 
strumental in calling up Mr. Bimey's attention to the claims of our colored people: 
but, unlike its power in the case of some slaveholders, it failed to open his eyes to 
14 



106 MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATION. [ApriU 

the wbde extent of these claims. That they are now so opened, I rejoice. That 
they would have been, but for the instrumentali^ of the Colonization Society) I do 
not believe: and well may the able Reviewer in the Journal of Freedom, of Mr. 
Birney's letter, '-'regret that, after he had thus risen to the commanding position of 
unqualified opposition to slavery, he strangely turns to kick down the ladder, by 
which he mounted." That Mr. Birney did not sooner see his whole duty to ms 
colored brethren, is because continued slaveholding had clouded his moral vision. 
As recently as the last year, he was opposing in the public prints (to the ^reat 
injury of the Colonization cause, as I then wrote to ipme of its friends) the pnoci* 
pfes of the Anti-Slavery party. See his letters republished in the African Repo- 
sitoiy. Why did he oppose these principles? One would infer from the tenor of 
his letter, that Mr. Birney would ascribe this opposition solely to that delusion, 
which he charges **tlie doctrines of Colonization with having spread over the 
country." Bui, how much more truly and satisfactorily is this opposition account- 
ed for, in another way ! It existed in Mr. Birney's heart, because his was the 
heart of a slaveholden and, from having such a heart, he was led into the px>sse8t 
misapprehensions, not only of those principles of the Anti-Slavery party, \vnich he 
then opposed; but also of those "doctrines of Colonization," which he now stigma- 
tizes. The simple solution of Mr. Birney's mistakes about the nature of the Colo- 
nization Society is to be found in the fact, that he viewed the Institution through 
the medium of a slaveholder's passions and prejudices and interests: and, it is no 
wonder, therefore, that it was such a thing in his eye, as the passions and pr?judi- 
ccs and interests of a slaveholder would nave it to be. Had he but given up his 
slaveholdii.;; many years a^o, and thus made room for all the legitimate influences 
of'ihe Society to come to his understanding and heart, he would, I trrst, have been 
able to witness along with many others, whose understandings are not perverted, 
and v.hose hearts ^re not hardened by the sin of slaveholding, that the Society has 
been a fountain of precious influencet. Is it asked why, since he has given up slave- 
holding, he does not find the Society possessing this character? I should perhaps 
admit, us a partial reason, why he does not, that this character does not belong to 
the Society, to the extent, it once did. But the grand reason is, that Mr. Birney 
persit.^ in takingmany of the erroneous views of the Society, which he took of it, 
when he was a slave uolder: and, not improbably, he combines with these views 
bomewhatof the modern prejudice si^ainst it. 

With all my esteem, and I can tnify add, my stronc: affection for Mr. Birncj, I 
must stiil greatly marvel, that the views which a gentleman took of the doctrines 
ana influences of the Colonization Society, whilst a slaveholding member of it, 
should be pressed on the members of tl'.at Society at the North, who are all opposed 
to slavery, und who Vccame members of it, because they were opposed to slavery. 
Hi the canonical and concl'isive interpretation of those doctrines and influences — 
1 must decidedly prefer the judgment, which a Northern man forms of the Coloniza- 
tion Society, to that, which the slaveholder forms of it. In a slaveholding comma- 
iity the Society has litlie scope for unfolding iU nature. There, for the most part, 
its.tendencics are eitlier cramped and perverted, or resisted altogether: but, at the 
North, it may have "free cou.iie." Justice and kindness to the man of color beinr 
among its first priiiciples. it would be absurd to look into a community, whicn 
oppresses him, for any thing Ukx.' a full and fair exhibition of its practical charac- 
ter. We may lenrn sometlurig of the views and f<»clings of the slaveholder by his 
opinions and treatment of tue Society: but to learn what arc its free and happiest 
bearings, we must go ols where. 'V^e may learn something 'of the character of a 
family, by i:.i resistance or perversion of the Bible: but, to learn what the Bible 
is, and to w»4ness the happy developementof its power, we look inlr the "meek" 
family, who submit :o j*.*? ttachings, and whom *'He will teach hi* way." Is it 
said, that, as the South is the region, where we most wish the Colonization Society 
to take elfect, wj should go there to learn its chara? ter? How wou!d the Anti- 
Slaverv Socie*^y, v.hos** operations look quite as much to ihr same region, like to 
take iu character from th« testimony of the South? Whilst, it is true, we are in- 
t:?rested to study the herrings of both these Institutions on the South, no one 
thinks of goin^ there for the most valuable lessons on their nature and proper char- 
acter. The presses, wliich have been so epirer to circulate Mr. Birney's views 
of th*» Colonization Society, many of which he took of the Institution whilst he 
was a slaveholder, would not like to have the public receive, as the true character 
of the Anti-Slavery Society, tho "rut throat" character, which filav<»?;olders give 
to it 



1885.] MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATION. Kff 

What I have thus said of Mr. Blrney, will perhaps serve to show in some mea* 
sure, how that intelligent and good man, from his disadvaatageouscircumstance* 
and relations, came to conceive some of his erroneous views of the Colonization 
Society and of the designs of the great hody of its friends, in supporting it. One 
of these erroneous views is to be found in his supposition, thai Colonizatlonists 
look to their Society to accomplish all that is necessary for our colored people: 
whereas the great majorit;^ of them, notwithstanding some contrary appearances, 
to which I have referred in my censures of the Society, look to it, as but one of 
the means of doiu^ good to this unha(>py people. No wonder, however, that Mr. 
Birney fell into this mistake: for, having the feelings and interests of a slaveholder, 
he could not think of favoring any of the means, which would directly cross those 
feelings and interests: and he seems to have taken it for ^ranted, that all other Co* 
lonirationists bad unequal aversion with himself to such means; witliout consid* 
ering, that there was nothing in the education and circumstances of the great ma- 
iority of them to produce this aversion. Mr. Birney*s slaveholding prejudices 
having twisted the Society into a thing precisely to suit themselves, they were 
wholly on the side of it; and it is not surprising, that they greatly overrated its 
capabilities. The Colonization Society could do every thing, thought Mr. Birney, 
in the days of his slaveholding attachment to it. The error he has fallen into in 
the case we are now to consider, proceeded from the same misapprehension of the 
power and objects of the Society, and from the unauthorized inference, that the 
Society is, in the minds of its members generally, as it was in his own mind, the 
sole and exclusive means of beneficence, whether to her children here, or to Afri- 
ca herself. This misapprehension combined with this unauthorized inference, 
accounts for Mr. Birney s undertaking "to prove, as briefly as he (I) can from 
facts, that the prospect of converting to Christianity and civilizing the heathei^ of 
Africa by the direct instrumentality of the Colony is — if not wholly — in a great 
measure, delusive.'' I fUlly azree with him in the delusiveness of this prospect: 
but I do not agree with him, that the Colonization Society is deluded by it. In^ 
deed, I do not know one member of it, who indulges^ himself in such dreams of its 
''wonder-working" power. It is sometimes said, either through ignorance, or for 
the purpose of disparaging its merits, that the Temperance Society is a failure, 
because it has not reformed the drunkards: whereas, in truth, it was not established 
to reform drunkards. Now, it is quite as wrong, to intimate, that the Colonization 
Society will be a failure, unless it Christianize and civilize Africa; when in fact, 
neither its Constitution, nor its members contemplate such a work for it. Al- 
though, the Colonization Society is now abandoned bjr Mr. Birne3r, his present 
views of its Colony, as an agent in Christianizing and civilizing Africa, are never- 
theless quite as elevated, as are the views taken of it, in this respect, by Northern 
Colonizatlonists. Mr. Birney says: "In one sense this is not denied;" viz. *'that 
the Colony will be the great means of Christianizing and civilizing Africa."—- 
"That the Colony will continue to erow in numbers and importance, until it may 
be considered as permanently estabushed; that it will furnish a footing for mission- 
aries and others, who may engage In this work of benevolence; thaS here, in fu- 
ture times, as in many of'^our cities now, the religious will assemble to consult and 
organize associations for diffusing a knowledge of Christianity among the heathen, 
I shall not, for a moment, controvert." Better than this I myself do not expect!^ 
and, if I live to witness such prosperity of the Colony and such blessed uses of it, 
as Mr. Birney, with the fullest confidence is anticipating for it, I shall most assu* 
redly think that I have abundant reason to thank God for His having put it into 
my heart to do the little which I have done to sustain it and advance its prosperity. 
So much loftier were his views of the Colonization enterprise, than my own, that 
even now, when he has discarded it, he continues to expect as much from it, in 
some of the most important relations in which it ean be viewed, as I do, who le^ 
main warmly attached to it. But |how could he find it in his heart, to discard an 
enterprise, of whose blessed effects he continued to have so perfectly confident 
expectations? How could belabor so strenuously for the destructioo of the Colo- 
nization Society, and, of necessary consequence, for the destruction of its Colony, 
when he saw, in so clear and certain prospect, its delightful bearing on the cause- 
of civilization and the cause of his Saviour? Is it not a tearful responsibility, which 
he and his associates have assumed in consigning to destruction this Colony of 
precious promise? But, I pass «n to examine nis principal and altogether moit 
plausible reason for believing that the Colony will do harm to Africa; for even, 
after his admission of its future prosperity and important service, be still main- 
taia»-most gtrangety wtiiiteif ihit it will be detnaeatel Ip Airica. 



JOe ^R- SMITH ON COLONIZATION. [April, 

Mr. Birney predicts that the colony will be iigunoos to the natiYes of Africa, be* 
cause Spanish and British colonization was so destructive to the natives of America. 
He ascnbes undoubted piety to Columbus, and to a portion, at least, of the **men 
who made up the colonies ]^lanted by him." I am not called on to give an opinion 
of their piety ; but, among other and worse things which they did, they stole large 
numbers of the natives and sent them to Europe to be sold as slaves; and history 

§TOS9}y wrongs him if Columbus himself did not send, at one time, five hundred of 
leH' to be sold at Seville. In the darkness of that age even a pious man might do 
this ; for, in a far more enlightened one, the unquc ctionably pious John Newtoa 
was f uiUy of a similar crime. I can easily believe, and I do believe, that Colum* 
bus is in Heaven ; for, with all my abhorrence of slaveholding, I am not of the num* 
ber of those who consign all our Southern slaveholders to perdition. Now, unless 
Mr. Birney mea?is to be understood to say that the colonists we have sent, or may 
hereafter send, lo Africa will be asignoiaut and regardless of Uie true principles of 
Christianity, and as insensible to the rights and happiness of the natives, as were 
the Spanish colonists to those of our aborigines ; and that the people of the United 
States will stand ready, as did the people of Spain, to purchase the enslaved natives 
from the colonists — then be should not have quoted this inst^ce oi Spanish colo- 
nization to illustrate the probable effects of our colonization on the natives of Africa. 
But he cannot wi.sh to be so understood. He cannot wish to wrong so cruelly the 
character of our colonists and that of his own countrymen. I will rather believe 
that he wrote this part of his letter hastily, and that, were lie to re- write it, he would 
omit an illustration which recognizes no distinction between the spirit of conquest 
and gain that prompted Spanish colonization, and the spirit of benevolence in which 
be admits the Colonization Society was founded, and is, of course, carried on by that 
'*large maiority*' of its friends, to whom he accords '^stainless purity^ of motive in 
what they nave done and are dcinjg." 

Now let ns see bow much Mr. Birney can make outforhisposltion, by his reference 
to the " pilgrim fathers of New England,'' and to TVilliam Pcnn's colony. In the first 
place, bow wide is the difference between the condition and character of the aborigines 
with whom those "pilgrim fathers" and William Penn's colony had to do, and the con- 
dition and character of the natives, to be influenced by our settlements on the coast of 
AfVica ! Thbs^ natives are partially civilized, as their occupation and modes of living 
denote. They dwell in large towns; tley cultivate the soil; they pursue many of the arte 
of civilized life ; and, so far as the Mahomcdan religion prevails among them, it is 
accompanied with more or less literature. They are, eminently, a trafficEing people, 
and trade directly and indirectly with various parts of the civilized world. They 
are, witlial, to bs numbered by teni« of millions. On the other hand, the native's 
of this portion of America, when the **pilgrim fathers" and Penn's colony laLdedon 
its shores, were a cduparativo handful, fhey seemed to be but the remnants of 
nations, which violence, or di^easp, or both, had wasted away. Their forests were 
their world ; and the game, wiiicli they pursued in them for their chief subsistence, 
was scarcely wilder than were their pursuers. AVith modes of living but a single 
remove above therudeneos of simple nature, they had not acquired, for they did not 
need, any knowledge of the arts. That such a people, whose very element it was 
to roam through the limitless and unbroken wildernesa, might chafe, under the ra*. 
pxd imposition of the restraints of civilized life, and be found almost as untameaUe 
as the minted animals with which they vied in the unmodified fh^edom and wildnest 
of nature ; that the kindest efforts to ^ve them '*a local habitation," and to mould, 
them to the pursuits and habits of cultivated man, might, if not dictated by an ex* 
perience of ttieir peculiar character, be such as to tax their physical and moral con* 
stitutions with changes too sudden, if not too ^eat, to be oome by either — would, 
by no means be surprising. That the h]rpothetica1 errors of treatment here alluded 
to were actually fallen into by our excellent ancestors, I am far from affirming ; 
though it is probable that they were to some extent. I have alluded to them merely 
to introduce and give force to the remark, that whatever fsdlure may have attended, 
tke means which were emploved to benefit these aborigines, it cannot be fairly pre* 
imned that there would be the like failure, or even any failure, of the like means, 
if employed in behslf of a people so essentially different fix)m them as are the na* 
tbei of Western AfHca. But a great advantage which we have over these ancas* 
tors is, that, In meliorating the condition of the heatiien, we are not confined to the 
use of their means in such a work» but we have the rich andcomulatiTe experienea 
of bso oeotones* by wt^kb to vaiy and ioi|«ovo ihoo^ o^caos. 



1835.] MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATIOX. lOQ 

B«t, after all, are we to admit the correctness of the universal opinion, that 
the natives of New England and the Middle States were wasted, hy their 
eoiiitact with a civilized people ? It is a speculation of my own, and, therefore^ 
may not be of much worth, that their rapid diminution was the result of causes, 
which were wholly independent of this contact, and had long been in operation. 
A proximate cause uf it was their utter want of civilization; and for tliis want we 
need not here attempt to account. The perfect wildness ol nature, though favora- 
ble to the multiplication of brutes, is not so to that of the human family: and the 
settlements of Europeans on our coast may have contributed quite as much to ar- 
rest, as to accelerate the waste of life, which the aborigines had l>een suffering for 
ages, and suffering too in the ratio of their degradation to mere nature. The sound- 
ness of this speculation, that the sparsencss of the Northern Indians, at the time of 
the European lauding amongst them, was owing to their want of civilization, is 
much favored by the fact, that other parts of our continent, (as Peru and Mexico, )* 
where a considerable degree of civilisation was found, were then teeming with hu« 
man life. 

I regret the sarcasm on the piety of our New England ancestors in Mr. Birney's 
declaration, that ** the scorching spirit of colonial Christianity has consumed them" 
(the aborigines.) Closer examination of that "colonial Christianity" will give 
him better opinions of it. At least will he tbibk better of it, when he sLall meet 
in Heaven with the thousands of red men, broujg;ht there through the insirumen- 
tality of the Moravians of Nazareth and Bethlehem, and of the Eliots and Mav- 
hejvs and Brainerds of New England, who devoted their self-denying lives to ^e 
propagation of this *' colonial Christianity." Mr. Birney answers his questidn: 
*' where are the aborigines of New England f" with the declaration that: '* the scorch- 
ing spirit of colonial Christianity has consumed them." I can give him a Ur more 
satisfactory account of some of the mbsing in the language of the December No. of 
the Missionary. Herald, just come to hand. " It surely, however, cannot be a cause 
for despondency, that Indians converted by the instrumentality of missionaries, who 
^ied a hundred years ago, are not this day among the living. We tnist, that they 
now constitute a part of the general assembly and church of the first-born in Hea- 
ven." Were I asked for a striking instance of the benefits of this '* colonial Chris- 
tianity," I would refer the inquirer to the fact, that it preserved peace in Pennsyl- 
vania between the Indians and colonists for more than seventy years from the 
foundation of the colony : that, in all that time, but one violent Leath occurred 
between the parties ; and, that in this case, to use the language of my friend Ro- 
bert Vaux*s Anniversary Disourse before the Pennsylvania Historical Society, 
** they (the Indians) were so fully satisfied of the sinceritv of the government of 
Pennsylvania to do them justice and prevent or punish all such abuses in future, 
that, remarkable* as it may serm, the Indians interceded for the murderer (a white 
man) and the difficulty was settled." Such facts ss I have adverted to should have 
no small influence upon our minds, when we make up an es^tirnate of the bearing of 
British colonization, on our Indjans. 

But I will not deny, that whatever other causes there were to (lasten the destruc* 
tion of the tribes of the North, tliere were many in our colonies ; and, especially, 
after their degeneration for a half or a whole century. The spirit of conquest and of 
unrighteous gain invaded the colonies ; and, worse tiian all, strong drink came and 
wrought its maddening work in them, and thence was poured in broad streams of 
death over the native population. But these chief causes of destruction, which I 
have instanced, and which are the same, that have long borne down with mightf 
power on devoted Africa, will, I would fiiin hope, soon cease to afflict her. That 
ner people have not been almost annihilated by them, goes to prove that wide dif* 
ference of condition and character between them and our aborigines, which I have 
attempted to make appear. Wise and good men are combining their energies to 
banish ardent spirits from the world ; and God*8 blessing rests upon their work 
beyond all parallel. The Chuich of Christ is also be^nning to believe, that it» 
^ments have been long enough i)olluted with war: and that war is not disappear- 
ing from chrietendom, as fast as intemperance is, only because there are not at 
many hearts lifted up to God for its expulsioB. He will rid the world of both tbeM 
cursef , when bis people shall unitedly call on him to do so. But, am I told, that it 
IS viaiopary to ho])e, that cctem'zation in Afn^ will be unaccompanied by tboso^ 
causes of destruction to the natives, which luM|s generaUy attended it elsewhere I' 
I reply, tb^it it it oo mora visionaiy to bopt fcr ^lis, than it is for the Anti-SltveiyB: 
QoeM^r to bo||i» tbtt atoeiy ^««tt soon cettt. lit btpt it grauaded, at mine it,-' 



110 MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATIOJPT. [April, 

tmder God, oo the s}>irit of the age ; on that respect for the laws of God and flie 
rights of man, which is beginning to characterize the age ; and on that conquest of 
truth, never so rapid as cow, over the evil passions and practices of our race. Let 
the Anti- Slaver}' :y)ciecy be assured that abhorrence of war and of slavery and of 
intemperance and of the other strong holds of Satan in our fallen world, will,.un* 
der the pres'*r.t brvXid and bright illuminations, which God has graciously cast over 
Hie field of human duty, advance an the church with no very unequal pace ; and 
that he, who calculates on the fall of one and the survival of the others ; — on the 
deliverance of Africa from the curse of slavery and the slave trade ; and, yet, on 
her continued attiiction witli war and intemperance, — has no warrant for doing 80» ^ 
either in Providence or revelation. 

In my further remarks on the bearing of the Colonization Society on Africa, I 
shall occasionally quit tbe defensive, to which I huVv^ hitherto confined myself on 
^g topic, to show that this bearin<^ is not only, not evii, but positively and im- 
mensely good. 

Wliv, it is asked, must we have a Colonization Society to christianize and ciril- 
Ize Africa? Why, in her case, employ means to this end, so difierent from the 
means employed by the church to christianize and civilize other portions of the 
heathen world ? \Vill the inquhrer allow his mi8ap])rehenflions on this point to bs 
corrected I He mistakingly looks on the Colonization Society as employed hy its 
friends, in exclusion of the ordinary means for accomplishing sncn an object: 
whereas, it is employed but as auxiliary to them. But why, continues the inquirer, 
are auxiliary means needed in the case of Africa, any more than in another case f 
Even, if they were not, yet if Providence has cast them in our way, it would be 
wrong to reject them : and, it seems rery apparent to us, that our country has ad* 
vantages as peculiarly numerous and great, as are her obligations, to do good to 
Africa. But, we will quote from the Rev. Dr. Philip's writinn to show, that means 
additional to those which the church employs in other beatnen lands, are, if not 
indispensable, yet very important in the work of christianizing and eivitizine 
Africa. It will be readily admitted, that Dr. Philip's long residence in A? 
rica, and his eminent wisdom and piety, entitle his opinions, respecting the 
peculiarities of her moral condition and moral wants, to far more respect, 
than can be reasonably claimed for those of any other man. Dr. Philip says: 
«« So far as our plans for the future improvement of Africa are concerned, I 
Tegard this settlement (Liberia) as full of promise to this unhappy continent. 
Half a dozen such colonies, conducted on Christian principles, might oe the means, 
under the divine blessing, of regenerating this degraded quarter of tbe globe. Every 
prospective measure for the improvement of Africa must have in it tbe seminal 
principles of good government; and no better plan can be devised for laying the 
foundations of Christian governments than that which this new settlement presents. 
Properly conducted, your new colony may become an extensive empire, which 
may be the means of sending the blessings of civilization and peace over a vast 
portion of this divided and distracted continent," 

Dr. Philip says a<^d\n : '* Missionaries will have two difficulties to encounter in 
this countty — the demoralized state of the people, and the zeal of tbe Mahomedtnt 
among them. In an incidental manner our travellers have furnished ns with facts, 
the importance of which they did not seem to be aware of, which clearly show, that 
the apostles of the Koran are numerous and indefatigable on the lands of the Niger. 
There is a something in the doctrines of tbe Koran exceedingly favorable to ^e do* 
minion of its votaries, in such a country as i^ca. They raise the savage to the 
condition of the barbarian ; but, as there is nothing in them to raise them above a 
semi -barbarous state of society, and there is sometning in them to prevent a higher 
rise in the scale of civilizabon, a Christian commnnity in the centre of Afnca, 
keeping up a constant communication with America, would soon nin the ascen- 
dency in that (quarter. Could you plant another colony Kke that of Liberia on the 
banks of the Mger, it might be the means of rolling back the tide of Mahomedan- 
bm, which appears to have set in with so strong a current from the North, and of 
establishing a Christian state in the centre of Afiica. If this is impractrcable, a 
mission may be undertaken on ordinary principles ; but tbe eoaductinfi of it should 
not be left to ordinary men ; and those, who are to engage in it, shoufi go forth in 
numbers, and with resources at their command, from wbidi a great unpression 
night soon be expected. A solitely individoal may do mneh among a reading 
paople,.and who hold many principtos in common with himself, to ^icb be can 
appeal in his addresset to their imdarstaadingi and to their hearts. B»t, in tneh a 
cmniry u Africa, we moft ieott cen trite eor streng^, and Ideh^ ftfm powsirtoa of 



1835.] MB. SMITH ON COLONIZATIOJWi m 

every inch we have gained, and make use of the resources we may be able to raise 
upon it for the further extension of our conquests. It was long a prevalent notion 
in England, that we might plant missionaries in Africa, as a man may in the fer- 
tile lands of the United States plant acorn5), and leave them to the rain and to the 
climate to spread themselves into forests. But our experience has shown the folly 
of that notion, and taught us, that, if we would succeed in our object, a more ex- 
pensive and laborious system of cultivating is necessary. Like the trees of the 
field, the greatest difficulty is in rearing the first plantation ; and when that has 
risen to a sufficient height, to afford shelter, every new seed or young sapling should 
be planted, within the range of its protection. 

*' In makine; choice cf a situation for a missionary station, a country, that would 
repay the cultivator of the soil, and, having, if possible, a water communication 
with the rest of the world, is to be preferred to an inlaod desert. The inhabitants 
of the rock and the dwellers in the wildemocs arc not to be forgotten, as the oo^ 
are to shout for joy at the glad tidings of the gospel, and the oUier to bow dowll 
before the Saviour of men. But, the most crowded parts of Africa are first entitled 
to our attention, and our object in following the oth^ should be to induce them to 
exchange their wandering habits and their barren s(A\, to locate themselves on spots 
of the earth where they can cultivate the soil, and enjov in Christian communities 
the social blessings of Christianity and civilization. The desert is unfavorable to 
the fruits of Christianity : and, after repeated trials, we have found that they never 
can be brought to perfection, or cultivated to any extent, unless they are literally 
planted by tlio rivers of water, where they may rise into families and tribes. Thie 
ark of the Lord was carried into the wilderness : but it would not have remained 
long with Israel, if the people had been allowed to choose the wilderness, as their 
finad abode. 

" The civilization of the people, among whom we labor in Africa, is not our 
highest object; but that object never can be secured and rendered permanent 
among them, without their civilization. Civilization is to the Christian religion 
what the body is to Uie soul : and the body must be prepared and cared for, if the 
spirit is to be retained upon earth. The blessings of civilization are a few of the 
blessings, which the Christian religion scatters in her progress to immortality : but 
they arc to be cherished for her own sake, as well as for ours, as they are necessary 
to perpetuate her reien and extend her conquests. 

•' Because multituoes in England and America have lost th(?ir relij2;ion, to which 
they are indebted for their civilization, many ]»ious people make light of civiliza- 
tion as connected with the labors of missionaries ; but it should nev<ir be lost sight 
of, that if men may retain their civilization, after they have lost their religion, that 
there can be no religion in such a country as this, without civilization : and that 
it can have no permanent abode among us, if that civihzation does not shoot up 
into regular and good j^ofernment," 

Dr. Philip says a«rain: '^The next question wijich occurs to me, and which I 
shall answer, as briefly as po.ssible, is, as to the manner, in \Uiich we may expect 
the gospel to proceed in iis advances ^ver this vast and benighted continent. Rea- 
soning from the circumstances of this colony, from what is to bj learned of the 
progress of Christianity from history, and from what has come under my own ob- 
servation, my decided opitdon is, iliat tlic progress of Christianity in Africa must 
be slow; that its light ipust radiate from certain well chosen positions : ajid, that 
the district^ in the neighborhood of the first position chosen, should be enlightened; 
and, that every new missionary establishment must keep wnat has been gained, 
while ,it is ex' r.fling its conquest.-^ in the regions beyond it. The growth of Chris- 
tianity in such a country should be lik" that of an Hmpire, which is enriched and 
Ktrengthencd by every inch of new territory, which exten'ls the line of its frontier. 
What is gained is by this means secured ; and out of the materials accumulated in 
this laannf^r, the conquests still to be made, become ea«v and ra|iid. Every new 
village, brought within llie pale of the church, increases her resources, and adds to 
the efficiency of her native agency. By this means, in goiu^ forth to li'esh con- 
quests she becomes to her enemies ' bright as the sun, clear as the moon, and ter- 
rible as ciD army with banners.'* 

" Every aid should be afforded by your missionary societies to your new and in- 
teresting settlement. By ?s. v;Llcient ministry and due attention to the schools of 
Liberia, the foundation of a future empire may be laid in that settlement, that may 
in a short time do much to evangelize the surrounding country to a great extent. — 
When th? government of that country has gained tlie confidence of the nations 



112 MR. SMITIT ON COLONIZATION. [Aprfl, " 

beyond it, multitudes of those nations will put theaoselvcB under its pfotection> aiid 
amone such people ^ou will find employment for a larp^ body of missionaries. 

*' My views on this subject cannot be more happily expressed than they have 
been by your own countryman, the late Rev. Samuel J. Mills, in the ibUowing; ex- 
tract : — **lf by pursuing the object now in view, a few of the free blacks of good 
character could be settled in any part of the African coast, they might be the 
means of introducing civilization and religion among the barbarous nations already 
there. Their settlement might increase gradnally, and some might, in a suitable 
time, go out from that settlement, and form others, and prove the occasion of great 
good." 

*^ The memoirs of tbati nteresting man did not come into my hands, till a few 
days a^o, and till I bad written my own sentiments upon this subject. Mentioning 
to a friend that I was very anxious to see something respecting the settlement ot 
^Liberia, the memoir of Mills was put into my bands, and in perusing it I vna very 
much struck with the largeness and comprehension of Mr. Mills' views. 

** Them is so exact a corres{)ondence between his views as to the best mode of 
evangelizing and civilizing Alricti, and my own, that the one seemed ^E> me, as if it 
were a copy of the other. From the first notice I had of your settlement of Libe* 
ria, I contemplated it under the same aspect aa those, under which Mr. Mills ap- 
peared to have viewed it, when he was sacrificing his health and lifi for its esta* 
olishmen'. And I cannot help feeling sur^^rised that Mr. Mills with his opportu- 
nities sho id have arrived so soon at the just conclusions, to which he had come « 
on this subiect. 

^ " The whole of Mr. Mills* memoirs, (which I have perused at one sitting,) con- 
vinces me, (hat, from your intercourse with the native tribes of America, or some 
other cause, you have much more enlarged view!> on this subject, thin are, gene- 
raUy speaking, to be f(;und in England. But however far you may have got before 
my countrymen on t!»is point, vou will not be displeased to find, that the fiiiit of 
fourte^-n years* experience, which I have had in Africa, goes to confirm the views 
of your own enlightened and lamented countryman. 

" The details I have already given of the history of the Griquas, while they il- 
lustrated the elevating power of Christian principles and Christian education, con- 
firm what I have said, as to the manner in which you may expect the gospel to be 
propagated by means of your new and interesting colony on the African continent." 

Dr. Philip closes the communication, from which I have quoted in the following 
language *. " To heal the wounds of Africa — to remove the evils generated on ihS 
unhappy contiuent br the nefarious slave trade — to raise minds long embruted by 
the avarice and ciuol selfishness of civilized nations — to cover Africa with Chris- 
tian churches and Christian schools — and to conduct the process of civilizatioD 
from the first g^^rmination of tlie seed in the minds of indiviauals, till it shall cover 
with its shp'le, and enrich with its fiuiis, the ra^ral wastes of this desolated ouarter 
of th« globe — is an undertaking worthy of the zeal and benevolence or your 
churches. And as mnch of your future success will, under the blessing of God, 
depend on the character of the agency you may employ, and the wisdom of the 
measures you may adopt, you cannot do me a greater pleasure than to make any 
demandj upon my experience you may choose to call lor. Question me freely on 
every poiul, on which ynu visfi for additional illustration or fv.formation. Let me 
hav'j aJl ■ 1:^ objections whicn tlie intelligent friends of missions have to urge against 
my views. State fully all Ihe difficulties you may suppose one in Africa, alone, or 
in company with other missionaries, would have to encounter in carrying my views 
into pnicfice ; and I pledge myself, if the Lord spare me and continue my health, 
to give you my sentiments upon all those subjects, and every other connected with 
mis.^ions, on which you mav wish to have my opinions." 

But wo have other very high authority, besides Dr. Philip's opinions, in favor of 
the position, that American Colonization on the coast of Africa furnishes facilities 
and nelps to the nftans ordinarily used by the church for prosecuting the work of 
Christianizing and civilizing a heathen country. Never before the American Colo- 
nization Society began its operations, were missions to Africa undertaken by the 
American churches. Peculiar, as were her ' laims on these churches, they had 
never, up to that time sent her one herald of the cross. Nor is there much prolm- 
bility that they would have sent one, up to the present time, had the Society not 
been formed. Two other facts in this connexion, claim the reader's attention. 
The first is, that, since the Society began its settlements in Africa, the varioos 
Christian denomination^ of o<ir countrv bavf ser^t thither a considerable number of 



1885.] MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATION. ]13 

missionaries : and the other is, that iheu have all choten ifMr datkm» vOkin 1h» Hmiii 
qf Liberia! Whether they acted wisely, in availing themaelyei of cor settlements 
to promote their objects, 1 do not say. Let those who think that the missiohaiies 
should have shunned Liberia, controvert the point with the churches, which sent 
them out, and approve of the use, which they made of the settlements of the Colo- 
nization Society, to promote the great ^%ork of gospelizing Africa The Swiss 
missionaries to Alrica gave similar testimony in favor of those settlements. Within 
the last year, the American Board of Commissionerv for foreign missions sent out 
Messrs. Wilson and Wynkoop, tu explore a portion of Western Africa, and to fix 
on a site lor a missionary station. They also, after balancing the advantages and 
disadvantages of ^he indirect connexion, wliich would necessarily exist, in that 
case, between the station and the colony of the Maryland Colonization Society, 
made the location within the limits of Liberia, and on ground, just then purchased 
by that Society. They have since returned. The Board have sanctioned the lo- 
cation, and, within a few weeks, Mr. and Mrs. Wilson have been commissioned to 
Sroceed to Cape Palmas, where their station will be in the very settlement of the 
laryland Colonization Society : — a settlement, by the way, which has been unusu- 
ally and wonderiuUy marked with the approbation of Heaven. 

The enemies of American Colonization in Africa will not say that the missiona- 
ries preferred Liberia, on account of its peculiar healthiness; for, themselves being 
judges, it is not only the sicklieat part of the coast, but the sickliest part of the 
whole earth. 

Now, I would not deny, that much danger to the best interests of Africa is to be 
apprehended from the British and American colonies on her coast. These colonies 
will be fountains of evil, as well as of good, to her. But, I ask, have we not far 
more to hope than to fear from them? — and I ask, if the city of New York were 
translated to Airica, would not the church of Christ rejoice m so mighty an 'instru* 
ment for renovating her.' Polluting and deadly as would be many of the influences, 
from such a source, the Christian would expect to see them neutralized by those 
other influence.^, which would travel out from that city to wake up Africa from her 
moral death, and to clothe her with livinz and spiritual beauty. Nor would it be 
that the city would act, of itself only, on uat benighted continent. All the nations 
which sympathized with poor down-trodden Africa, would pour their benevolence 
into her bosom through this city. 

Many persons seem to think that the only effectual and suitable way of evange- 
lizing a heathen nation, is to shut out from it the iniuence of the world. If, for 
argument's sake, it were admitted, that this would be the best way, were it a prac- 
ticable one, the admission would avail nothing, because such a way is not practica- 
ble. It may be practicable, to be sure, in the case oi the handful ot the Esquimaux, 
and some of the tribes in the frozenregions of the earth; but in the case of those 
heathen nations, which lie in the track of the world's intercourse, a little reflection 
shows its impracticableness. The church has no power thus to insulate a people: 
no power to divert or dry up the streams of commercial and international inter* 
course, whose influences, on the country she is endeavoring to evangelize, are so 
jufltly dreaded by her. Her proper business, in respect to those streams, is to labor 
to sanctify them, and to mate even the whole commerce and intercommunication 
of the nations of the earth minister to the whole earth^s salvation* Our missiona* 
ries on the Sandwich Islands, when contending against the pernicious influences 
of corrupt crews in their ports, are doubtless often, very often, tempted to wish, 
that the frail people over whom their solicitude watches day and night, were en- 
tirely and forever estranged from the rest of the world. But they are sensible that 
in proportion to the success of their labors, and the spread of Christianityr and civ- 
ilization among their people, that people will both attract and desire the inter- 
course and trade of foreigners. Tney lay their account, therefore, with having that 
intercourse and trade, necessarily and ever, for good or for ill, among the elements 
employed to form the character of the Sandwich Islanders. 

u ^e views which I have taken be not erroneous, then the anxiety to shut out 
colonial influences from the work of Christianizing and civilizing Africa, is^* 
called for.. If not preciseljr these, yet similar influences will not fail to find M«ir 
way into the work: audit is idle to hope, that the work will be exclusively mis- 
sionary. The other nations of the earth will cany on t secular intercoofie with 
Africa, and exert an influence upon hei: «ndif they have not their colojilts on her 
coast, thrcugh which to do so, this intercourse tad inflfl^FT^t will proMly benotM 
the Im$ honfig for being diwctaad imnwii«tff> 
15 



114 MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATION. [April, 

Th« iiew*boni etgenieM to rob the Colonization Society of alJ its merit, besitatM 
^ttod^ny, that eolonieS'OD the Western coast of Africa will be of anj avail to 
suppress the slave trade. Nay, in that veiy respect in which all once admitted that 
sncn colonies would do good, it is now alleged, as we have seen, that they will do 
harm. The only way, says the Anti-Slavery Society, to break up the slave trade, 
is to abolish slavery and break up the market for slaves. It is admitted, that this 
is ihebest way — indeed, that it is the only way to br^ak it up entirely; and yet the 
admission by myself and every other abolitionist in the land does not secure its 
adoption. But shall nothing — may nothing be done to obstruct and limit the slave 
tracle, until the spirit of abolition shall have pervaded the whole earth, and broken 
up every where the m^irket for slaves? The wisest and most benevolent nations, 
including our own, think diflerentiy: and, with the view of checking the slave 
trade, they have enacted laws which declare the trade to be piracy. It is true that 
these laws, and the colonies referred to, do not, when considered in the light of their 
bearing on the slave trader only, strike at the mo vine causes of the traffic, as does 
the effort to break up the market for slaves. Their oesign is but to make the com- 
mission of the sin as difficult as they can. But to say that they are useless, because 
they are not so radical in their operation, as is this effort, is to lay down the doc* 
trine, that locks, and guards, and prisons, and gibbets are to be abandoned; and 
that the only dut}' of uie community, in relation to crimes, is to persuade, tftiktf 
ean^ those who are guilty of them, to **go and sin no more." We spoke of the 
laws and colonies, in the li^ht of their bearing on the sUve trade only. But the 
happy agency of the colonies, in respect to the slave trade, is not all to be seen in 
this light. Whilst, on the one hand, the slave trader trembles before their phyri* 
cal power; on the other, the whole body of their influence on the natives is suited 
to wean them from a traffic which, in their intercourse with the colonists, they ui 
fast learning, is every way disadvantageous and ruinous to themselves. Before 
leaving this topic, I will quote two paragraphs from an address of the Rev. £^. 
Beecher, one of the most distinguished advocates of the Colonization Socieh^» 
which serve to show, in the first place, the great importance of abolishing t£e 
slave traJe on the African coast, and that colonies there are suitable means for 
abolishing it; and secondly, that these colonies, instead of being hindrances to 
missionarv operations there, are indispensable to the safet}r of these operations. 

"But the influence of the slave trade over the petty kings on the coast and in 
the interior is such, as renders impossible the estaolisbment of mere missionair 
stations. Fast as they could be planted, they would be instigated to cut them olr» 
with moral certaiiity." 

"In these circumstances, naval protection would not avail. The great expense, 
and the inconstant elements, render the exclusion of the slave pirate from accese 
impossible. There must be land defences, and these must be colonial establish- 
ments, stretched alon^ the coast, conciliating the natives and substituting a health- 
ful commerce for traific in the pouls and bodies of men." 

But the opponents of the Colonization Society, though they were constrained 
to admit, that it will probably do good, immense good, u> Africa, would still deny, 
that it will exert any oeneficial iimuences on the condition and character of tna 
eolored people in this country. That its operations, at home, are suited to exeH; 
end have already exerted, such influences, I have, in former parts of this essaj, 
attempted to prove: and I will now add some remarks to show the probebiUtj, 
that its operations in Africa will specially benefit the eolored population of oar owft 
country. I do not suppose, that any considerable proportion of our colored peo* 
pie — at least, of this generation— will emigrate to Atrica. That those, who do^ 
will, in general, greatly improve their circumstances and eleva(te their character, 
I have nodoubt. But there is no motive, impelling me to exertions for the Coloni* 
zation Society, which is more powerful and delightful than that, which springs froa 
the prospect of the happy and resistless reflex influences of its colonies on thii 
country, and especially on our slaveholders. 

The leading objection to the liberation of their slaves, put forth b^ otnr sUvebol* 
^rs, is, that when emancipated, they would be incapable of providing for them* 
*ei^s, and would, consequently, be worse situated tnan they now are. This ol>- 
jectiii^ is sincerely held by many of them: and, where it is but a mera pretext ibr 
continiiog their fellow men in bondage, it is immensdy important to tne eaose af 
abolition, tiiat its ikiiacy shobld be shown. That this objection should prenfl 
amongst &se fh.Tehdders, who look on the negnv'as holding but a aiidway ^laea 
between man ukj the brote; aadattoBfrt tjwwt Mio» idioU^ babitttilly^nwiiMft| 



1835.] MK. SMITH ON COLONIZATION. XI5 

cf tiie fact, tbat he and they have a common rank in the &cale of existence, is not 
surprising: — and, that some of our slaveholders deliherately deny, that the negro 
is "created in the image of God;" and that most of them seldom think of the die^i- 
tv andresponsii^ility of his being, and have, continually, need to be admonished of 
the truth, that he is a man — are propositions, too obviously true, to be gainsayed. 
The excellent Mills, who had so useful and so honorable a share in laying the 
foun^'.ations of the Coloniziition Societ/, rcmar]L;.J, after r»^turning from me of his 
tours through the Southern States: **More or less of the slavehoidei-s soberlv l-c a* 
tain, that fhe people of color have no souls." 

Now, ihii int'jJligent tnend of abolition perceives, that a j^reat point would be 
gained in his cause, by the removai of these errors, which so many slaveholders en- 
tertain, or aifect to entertain r-;rspecling the nature of the n;^gro, and his capabilities 
for self-improvement. The American Colonization Society, in its operations oil 
the coast of Africa, is giving a solution of the projiem, whether the negro is a 
man, and capable of exercising himself as a man, that will serve to put to flight 
these errors, which are so cruelly and wickedly disparaging to him. If the inhaoi- 
tants of Liberia can, in their infancy, and under all their peculiar disadvantages, 
sustain their political and social structures, and wear, to so respectable an extent, 
the aspect of a civilized and Christian community; then the experiment, undertaken 
by the Society, of building up free and happy States on the coast of Africa, loses 
much of its doubtfulness. Hitherto the mm curse has been upon tlic Colony; and, 
no wonder — for the Colony was founded long before that same curse began to depart 
from our own country. As yet, Russwurm is the only liberally educated colored 
man in the Colony; and he, unhappily, is not pious. I presume, that there are not 
a dozen persons in it of attainments in learning, equal to what is understood 
amongst us by a "respectabh common education." Now, when a few more years 
shall have passed away, and whole Counties and States in cur own country shsdl 
have set the example of an entire cleansing from the pollutions of rum selling and 
rum drinkin?, and Liberia shall have followed this attractive example; and when 
also, there shall be a number cf educated men and women in the Colony, to exert 
a refining and elevating power on the mass of mind around tbf m; then will it send 
back influences of an incalculable, great and happy bearing on our whole country; 
but, especially, on our slaveholders and our people of color. 

That this evidence of capability on the part of our colored people, to improve 
their condition and elevate their character, would produce, at least, somewnat of 
the good eflect on our own country, which I have claimed for it: and that such an 
evidence is greatly needed to remove the prevalent misconceptions, respecting the 
nature and power*; of this people — is plain, beyond all dispute. But it will be said, 
"admitting that the evidence will have these important bearings, yet why go all the 
way to Atrica to create it? Why not create a similar evidence here?" The answer 
is at band: ^'because the wicked prejudices of the whites will not suffer it to be 
created here: — because these prejudices will not suffer a fair experiment to be 
made, wit^in the limits of this nation, on the capacities of the colored people.'*— 
The Rev. Dr. Spritig has b«en much censured for saying, lliat the colored man can- 
not rise in New England. He doubtless intended no more in this remark, than that 
these prejudices will not let him rise there. 

But the iniluenci'S, which will come from Africa, fraught with immeasurable 
blessings to our colored people, will be, not solely the direct and immediate influ- 
ences of the colonies. They will be, still more, the inlluences evolved by that 
progressive regeneration of Africa, which our own colonies and those of other na- 
tions on her coasts will be mainly instrumental in accomplishing. To use language 
somewhat similar to that which I used on a former occasion — Africa, whom fpiiry 
Christian nations have for centuries combined to keep down to the lowest point of 
degradation, is already beginning to nse, and enter upon the redemption of hsr 
character. She is be^innmg to clothe herself with the garments of civilization, and 
to awaken throughout the earth a respect for her name and her people. This res- 
peel will ere ]'M;g1)e felt even bv the slaveholder hiniself; and he will shrink froia 
the sinful and odious relation, which he bea^ to such a people. The haple^ slavey 
whom he once regarded as but a few removes above tne orute, will theh present 
himself before his master's mind, under associations so altered and elQi^ating, that 
the master will recognize in him a fellow man and a brother; — and tbeTod of me op- 
pressor will fall to the ground, and **the oppressed go free." For a little time long- 
er, the white man may be able to continue his oppression of the black; — ^but, when 
Africa "shall hare taken her piece among the nations of the ear^,'* and theinflu- 



110 MIL SMITH ON COLONteATION. {AprtU 

•oces of her regeneration shtll pervade all these nations, and the colored man» 
wherever his lot may be cast, Bhall feel these influences coming over his own be* 
numbed, depressed spirit, awakening and elevating it to the £^g;nity of his noble 
being: — who will then be found with enough of hardiness and imperviousness to 
moral influences to continue to hold her children in bondage? When the time shall 
come ior our having a measure of that reciprocal intercourse and science, which 
we now have with i^urope; when Alrican snips, manned and owned by Africans, 
shall be in our ports; when African governments shall be officially represente 1 in 
our cities and at the seat of our government; and when intelligent AiricaLs shall 
visit our country, and receive at our hands, those attentions of which every in- 
telligent foreigner is sure; then will there be moral influences at work amongst us, 
that will speedily relieve both our slave and our freeman o'l color of their present 
degrading and mortifying relations to society. The principle, that "they cannot 
rise above their source,*' is scaiceiy less applicable to our colored people, than it is 
to waters. It is very difllcult for them to rise in the world's esteem above the mo- 
ral level of their ''fatherland" — for they are always associated with that land.— 
But let Africa become civilized, and there will be a moral impossibility in the way 
of continuing to hold her children amongst us in bondage, such as we should have 
to encounter in an attempt to reduce to slavery the sons of England or France oa 
our shores. To my countrymen, who are in chains, let me therefore say, '*Look 
to Africa for many of your brightest hopes. The world's interest in her, will awa- 
ken its sympathy for you: her ratio of elevation will be yours: and, ere the bleed- 
ing Mother becomes erect, her outcast children will rise up from the dust and gore 
of slavery, to unite with her in the song of deliverance." 

But the colored people of this country iiave a contingent interest in our colonial 
settlements in Africa, which 1 have long valued, and cannot yet cease to value, 
although I have never seen it adverted to. Will this people, even when slavery 
shall have ceased in our land, ever attain to that equality of privileges with the 
whites, which will make them contented to dwell in the same land, and under the 
same government with us? We can hardly expect that such justice will be accord- 
ed to them. Taking human nature as it is, and as history presents it, we may 
rather expect, that our unhappy brethren who are in bonds, will pass from slavery, 
only to become the objects of greatly increased jealousy and of new persecutions. 
The arrogance of caste will, 1 apprehend, be, as yet, but partially subdued; and, 
among many other ways, it will not fail to manifest itself in the exclusion of the 
colored people from civil office. Such an exclusion will not be quietly submitted 
to by them. Efforts lo gain their merited participation in the Government may be 
protracted by that oppressed people through several generations; but too probably 
they will be efl'orts against majorities increasing in numbers and in olratlnacy. — 
Peniaps they will come at last to despair of seeing their wrongs redressed. They 
may then be dispored and be able to organize an independent government in tho 
Southern portion of our countr>-; aud as Mr. Jefl'erson long ago predicted, the 
whites may fly thence to the North. Bat against this alternative, all the moft 
cherished feehngs of our hearts, the feelings of patriotism, of kindred, and of 
friendship rise up in the strongest remuustrance. To what other course will this 
wronged and persecuted people betake themselves? They may cast their eyes 
abroad for a home; a bome which will not be cursed to them, as this land is, and 
may continue to be for ugej, by the x.icKnd intolerance and oppressions of caste. — 
How natural to suppose, that, to a portion of them at least, the land ol their origin, 
and especially the colonies in it, planted and added to from year to year, by emi- 
grants from their own neighborhoods and families, should present more attractions 
than any oth< r pcuion of the earth! Even a small probability that these colonies 
will aflbrd such an asylum to a portion of our peT:<ecuted countrymen of some iuturs 
age, is enough to crdear them to us, and to justify all our expenditures upon them. 

But I must diaw this already too lengthened essay to a clt):ie. And now, if my 
sketch of the origin, operations, and prospects of the American Colonization So- 
ciety be not very wide of the truth, I a«k. is this an Institution d^erving of the un- 
compromising and furious hostility which is airayed against it> and of being pur- 
sued by a spirit, which, for ferocity and indiscriminateness of havoc, rivals even 
Vandalism itself? Is there nothing in the history of this Institution, which was 
prayed into existence, as one of its founders is often said to have prayed other of 
our benevolent Institutions into existence; which has been sustained in its arduous 
labors by the contributions and prayers of the Church; and has been smiled on by 
Heaven, as wai never any other Colonization entej;prise; is there nothing, I ask, in 



S' 



1835.] MR. SMITH ON COLONIZATION. HT 

such portions of its history, to entitle it to exemption from rash and ruthless hands; 
and to commend it iu all its past and present an4 future errors, to gentle and patient 
and prayerful correction? One would have thought, that when such an Institution 
had erred, Christians would assemble around it, to wash out its faults with their 
tears, rather than abandon themselves to unrestrained and savage exultation over 
its anticipated "funeral." (3) •*liut iio," says the Anti-fcilaverv Society; "the 
American Colonization Society, under whatever modifications, and by whomsoever 
supported, must be abandoned; its colony, though it should become a paradise,' 
must be broken up; a7yi even the very pnncipU of Colonizatiou must be abjured for' 
ever:'* The general tone of its publications, respecting the Colonization Society, 
fully bears ue out ^in this assertion. Instance the language of the Anti Slavery 
Reporter, — a periodical, which, as well as the Emancipator, is a confessed organ 
of the Anti-Slavery Society — and is, indeed, published at the chars:es of the So- 
ciety. In tlie 4th No. of the Reporter, the Society says: — We regard the Coloniza- 
tion scheme, under whatever modifications, and by whomsoever advocated, as but 
the outbreaking of thai spirit of slavery which rivets the chains of Iv.o inillions of 
our brethren. But if they (the Colonization Society) could make Liberia a para- 
dise, the plan would be liable to two fatal objections. We shall never cease to op- 
pose this plan, till it is explicitly given up, and the flag of Colonization struclc 
from the mast." Mr. Birney's letter accords with this lanjjuage, in recommendine: 
that "this community be* utterly divorced from colonization in all its parts and 
measures." The two objections aforesaid have been referred to in this essay. — 
But the members of the Anti-Slavery Society will perhaps tell me, that there is one 
reason for justifying the war of extermination its Society is waging against the 
Colonization Society, which I have not referred to. This reason is, that tiie Colo- 
nization Society has become the Institution — the very property and organ of the 
wicke<l and vile, who have recently gathered around it in large numbers. I admit 
that this description of persons have, of late, manifested, in a way characteristic of 
themselves, their partiadity for the Institution; and that, on this account, it is in bad 
odour with many good men, who have not taken the pains to search into the principal 
cause of the recent and undesirable clustering about it. Such is this principal 
cause, however, that, so far from justifying good men in divorcing the Colonization 
Society from their hearts, and seeking its destruction, and so far from furnishing 
any proper ground to censure it, for this accession of unsough*: and unwelcome 
friends; it is a cause which authorizes me to charge, as I now i.iost »oiemnlv do, 
the chief blame of this greatest calamity that the Colonization Society ever suffer- 
ed, on the Anti- Slavery Society itself. Did the wicked and the vile manifest any 
partiality for the Colonization Society until twelve or fifteen months ago? No — 
they previously either neglected, or hated and reviled it, as they did and still do, our 
other benevolent Institutions. But, about that period, some good men in our country 
entered into an association for the promotion ol the great and blessed object of 
abolishing slavery. That the wicked and the vile should hate this Association, 
founded so deeply in the principles and benevolence of the gospel, is as natural, a3 
it is creditable to the Association: and had not this Association been guilty of the 
sin (for good Societies, no more than good men, are infallible) f f making violent 
and bitter war on the Colonization Society, the wicked and the vile would, in addi- 
tion to their hatred of the Anti-Slavery Society, have continued to neglect, to hate 
and revile the Colonization Society also. But, unhapf)ilv, the Anti-Slavery So- 
ciety, xs we have seen, laid down, among its first principles, the necessity of de- 
stroying the Colonization Society: and no more faithful was the Roman orator to 
inculcate "in season and out of season" his celebrated motto "Carthage must be 
destroyed," than the Anti-Slavery Society has been to rally its forces Tor the de- 
struction oi the Colonization Socitiy. This the evil and base were not slow to 
see; and now, not because of any amnities between themselves and the Coloniza- 
tion Society (for had there been such, they would surely have been developed du- 
ring the previous sixteen years of its existerice;) but, merely to spite the Anti-Sla- 
very Society, which, from the nature of the objects it was pursuing, from its de- 
serve<l character for benevolence and piety; and still more from its assumption of 
peculiarly high and holy principles of action, they hated with a malignity, such as 
no other of our benevolent Societies provoked in them. I said that there were no 
affinities between these evil and base persons and the Colonization Society. I am, 
however, constrained to admit, tliat some members of the Colonization Society al- 
lowed themselves to return the war of the Anti-Siavery Society with revilings and 
persecutions, and thus disgraced themselves and the Society with which they 



J 18. MR. SMITH ON COLOi'^IZATrON. [Aprfl, 

were connected, by a bommumty of feeling and action with the wicked and 
worthless. 

It will aid us in ascertaining the motives which have prompted ?o many unclean 
and belligerent spirits to flock of late about the Colonization standard, it' we keep 
in mind tae fact, that, though they cull themselves Colonizationist 3^ and talk loudly 
in praise of the Society, yet they do not join it, or give it mom y . Manifestly 
then, it is not i'voiu motives of friendship that they come to u?. ^or would they 
come to us at all, did they not flatter themselves that uniicr a show ot regard for the 
patriotic and benevolent objects of the Colonization Society, they might indulge 
mo*^ eftectively their irlaiignant hatred of the A nti -Slavery Society. And it is 
politic in them n'ol to muster by themoclves, and under an maependent flag, lest 
thoir opposition to the Anti-Slavery society might be construed into an approval 
of slaver}', and might thorefo/e be discountenanced. 

Such is the just explanation of the nature and of some of the causes of tlie new- 
born attc. • .IE nt of thousands of hid men in our country for the Colonization So- 
ciety. And now, I ask, is it fair, is it Christian, in the Anti-Slavery Society, after 
haviog by means of which it should hasten to repent, driven these men to the Co- 
lonization Society — to make their presence there a justifyi;i.^ cause of its destruc- 
tion? Rather, let it look on this evil consequence of its hatred to the Colonization 
Society, and be led to contemplate how fearful a responsibility it assumed, in de* 
daring a war of cxtermiii»tIoi: against that Society. I am confident, that I have not 
reasoned this point falsely: and, if the Anti- Slavery Societ}- will only follow up 
the war It hasbegun on the American Bible Society, and make that war as bitter 
and relentless as the war against the Colonization Society, it will have the pleasure 
of seeing the wicked, who have hitherto despised and hated that Institution, flock- 
ing to its anniversaries, and shouting its praises. (4) 

And now, having exposed the fallacy of another ground, on which the destruc- 
tion of the Colonization Society is called for; — I repeat my inquiry, whether the 
Society shall be destroyed? A very large majorify of the purest men and wis^t 
Christians of our country believe, with all tncir hearts, tnat the best interests of 
our colored people are intimately connected with the existence and prosperity of 
this Society. Must they be told, that they shall not seek the welfare of this peo- 
ple, by means of this Society — nor, indeed, by any other means, than those wnich 
th:j intolerance ot the Anti-Slavery Society prescribes? A very large majority of 
such persons do ulso believe, fully and religiously, that through this channel much 
can be done for Christicinizing and civilizing Africa. Must they become comnelled 
to endure the heart-breaking sight of seeing this channel closed forever? One of 
the most delig!.lful, benevolent and ennobling ho;)es, that ever animated the bosom 
of the American patriot, is, that the Western coa«.t of Africa will yet be fringed 
with American colonics; and that, under the influence of their happy example, the 
Governments of all that benighted continent will come to be raodeicd after tne pre- 
ciou3 free institutions of his own beloved country. Must this hope, that Africa may 
be thus .dmericanizedj be extinguished ? Must even the <iear colonies, which are 
now therp, be broken up and scattered? ; Must the **i».bomination of desolation 
stand in those holy places?'* — and idolatry again pollute the whole length and 
breadth of Liberia? — and the slave factories, which were once there, be re-estab* 
lishi'd? Must the lights, which American patriotism and piety have for fifteen 
years been kindling up, on that dark coast — lights, on which the philanthropy of 
the world has fixed its ^-aze; and, to which the eyes of thousandj and tens of thou- 
sands of native Africans are already turned with joyful hope; — must these lights 
be put out forever? Must humanity fiil of reaping a bricjht harvest from the pre- 
ciom seed, which has been sown there, at .so great an expense of treasure and life? 
To all theio inquiries the Anti-Slavery Society makc.<; an afiirmative answer; and 
manifests, in doing so, the sad effects of party spirit on the good men, who give 
tone to the Society. For what more striking proof could there be of these sad ef- 
fects, than is to be found in this callous indiflerence to Africa? This indifference 
is, indeed, eminently characteristic of that Society. Painful, as it is, that it should 
be so, it is, nevertheless, too easily accounted for to be surpriiiing. It proceeds 
from the hostility of t!iat Society to the Colonization Society. So much does it 
hate the laborer,* that I had almost char.-^ed it, with hating the field in which he 
labors. The benevolent men who lead the Anti-Slavery Society, once had sytnpa- 
thy for Africa. " Where is it now? How little evidence of its continued existence, 
in the proceedings and organs of that Society ! How little, in the conversation and 
prayers of its members! in colonization among the wilds of Texas and Canada' 



1836.] PRESIDENT YOUNG ON SLAVERY. 119 

{notwithstanding their ahjurefneni of the very principle of coUmxzati(mi\ they mani- \ 
fest a lively interest; but with colonization, designed to strow the ricnest blessings ; 
among tiie millions of Africa, and, in which they should be unspeakably more in* 
terested, they have nothing to do — save to oppose it with all their might — and this 
too, for no better reason, than because Ihey are burning with hatred towarJs the 
agents, who carry it on. 

Again, we entreat these unrelenting enemies of the Colonization Society to re- 
vise their judgment against it; peradventure they may be moved, in view of the 
unreasonableness, vindictivcness, and severity of that judgment, to reverse it. — 
But if they shall still be inexorable to our calls on their justice and their Christian 
sympathy and forgiveness; if they shall still persist in demanding the unconditional 
destruction of tiic Society; and, if nothing short of this can appease their implaca- 
ble malevolence towards it, then let them know that its friends are as determined 
as its foes. Our determination is fixed — fixed, as the iove of God and the love of 
man in our hearts — that the Colonization Society, under the blessing of Him, who 
never even *'for a small moment has forsaken" it, shall continue to live; — and to 
live too, until the wrongs of the children of Africa amongst us are redressed; until 
the slave trade has ceased, and the dark coasts which it has polluted and desolated 
for centuries, are overspread with the beautiful and holy fruits of civilization and 
the Christian religion. And, as we fear the judgments of heaven on those who 
commit great sin, so we dare not desert the Society, and leave Satan to rejoice over , ' 
\ the ruin of all this "work of faith and labor of love." / We know that the SocietjT^ 
has its faults; and our prayer is, that God will forgive them — though there be some 
of his children who will not foi^ve them. We know too, the greater faults of the 
An,ti-Slaver3r Society; but instead of these faults giving us the right or inspiring us 
with the desire to crush it, they impose on us the obvious duty of praying for their 
forgiveness: and we pledge ourselves to this Society, never to pattern alter its un- 
christian exultation over our errors and embarrassments: — "for yet our prayer shall 
be also in their calamities.*' Let the Anti-Slavery Society hasten to correct its 
own errors; and let the efibrt which has been so well begun to correct those of the 
Colonization Society, be persevered in, until, under the blessing of God, the whole 
amount of influence of both Societies shall be for good, and for nothing but good: 
and to use the language, so happily quoted by Dr. fieecher for the like purpose, 
let the two Societies, which are truly "brethren," "see that," in future, they "fall 
not out by the way." 

NOTES. 

3. See the speech of the Rev. Mr. Ludlow, before the A nti- Slavery Society last 
spring. I do not refer to it, to derogate from the merits of this heavenly-minded 
man; but merely to show, how frensied even a good man becomes by imprudently 
suffering himself to be inoculated with the hatred of a good thin^. 

4. In considering the kind of friendship which the enemies ot all righteousness, 
who have recently clustered about the Colonization Society, bear towards it, I have 
thought of the answer of a Dutchman on the Mohawk river, who was asked at the 
poll of an election, for whom he wished to vote. "Give me a vote for dem dat 
General Myers hates," was his reply. All that the Dutchman aimed at, in his vote, 
was to thwart General Myers. Ail that these enemies of righteousness aim at, in 
their clamorous suffrages for the Colonization Society, is to thwart that Socie^, 
which has tfae unenviable distinction of hatiag it. 



PRESIDENT YOUNG ON SLAVERY. 

JL far longer interval than was agreeable to ua baa passed since the 
appearance of a letter from the Rev. JohnC. Young, President of the 
Transylvania College at Lexington, on the subject of Slavery, till wa 
could find room for even a portion of that excellent performance. Aa 
an answer, at once temperate and overwhelming, to the dogmas of im« 
mediate aMitjooism, it is at least equal to amy publicalioo to wiucb 



120 PRSIDENT TOUNG ON SLATERY. [Apri^ 

tbe controversy hag given rise. The specific purpose of the writer 
tvas to make some remarks on the "declaration and resolutions of the 
Synod of Kentucky, in reference to slavery." The most important 
principles of that paper are, he thinks, 

"1. The system of slavery (or involuntary and hereditary bondage) is sinful. 

2. It is not sinful in an individual to retain his legal authority over those of his 
servants whom he sincerely and conscientiously believes to be unfit for freedom^ 
f\ hile he is, by the application of proper and vigorous means, preparing them for 
the rieht and heneficial enjoyment ol liberty. 

3. ft is sinful in any individual to delay the commencement of these benevolent 
and conscientious labors, or to prosecute them deceitfully when they are commen- 
ced — thus retarding unnecessarily the day of complete emancipation." 

After some remarks on transactions connected with the preparation 
of the document referred to, the reverend and learned gentleman says : 

"Any person, who has ever attempted to draft a paper on so delicate and difficult 
a subject, knows how small is the probability of so framing the expressions as U> 
guard against all erroneous inferences. Perhaps there might be advantageously 
substituted for the disputed phraseology, some modification of lang^ace more hap* 
py in expressing the idea that the master mi^ht, for a limited time» and simply with 
a view to the good of the bondman, retain bis legal power without a violation of 
that holy law, which requires us to do unto another tnat which we would that ha 
should do unto us. There is no repugnance between this position and tbe position 
that the system of slavery is wrong. If I am a slaveholder, and have used no vigo« 
lous and conscientious etforts to (qualify mv slaves for freedom, I have sinned; and 
if I now, earnestly and in good faith, set about the work of preparation, executiiy 
deeds of emancipation for my slaves, to take etfect at a certain nxed period h«reat- 
ter, by which period I may reasonably hope to be able to give them a suitable pre^ 
paration — ^if I do all this, as duty requires — I do not expect my present coaduct to 
cancel my past sin, but I do conceive that I am now making all tbe atnends in my 

?»wer. So far from sinning tiow, my present course is virtuous and praiseworthy, 
here are three classes on whom the guilt of slavery rests : those wno introduced 
the system among us ; those who have assisted to perpetuate it, either by actual ef- 
forts or by mere negligence ; and those who are now refusing to cooperate in its 
extermination. Thu.^, in asseiting the sinfulness of slavery and the innocence of 
gradual emancipation, we do not commit the absurdity of asserting that there is sin, 
and yet that no one is guilty ; we only assign the i^uilt to tbe real criminals. We 
shield the innocent from false imputation ; we ttnke the serpent, while we spare' 
, the sufferer who is struggling in his coils." 

President Young asserts that "a system of gradual emandpaium 
is not a system of perpetual slavery,^* After noticing tbe fact that, 
wherever the former is established the latter is destroyed, and advert* 
ing to the hereditary and perpetual condition of African slavery, as 
the peculiarity distinguishing it from other and approved cases of in- 
voluntary servitude, he thus proceeds : 

'*The difference, then, between the gradual emancipator and the abolitionist is 
not a difference as to the criminal nature of slavery — ^they dfree in considering it an 
enormous eviia-but it is a difference as to the best mode or getting rid of this evil. 
The gradualist terminates slavery b^ first changing the concUtion of his slaves into 
a kind of apprenticeship ; he organizes them into a class ifi probationers for free* 
dom. He still retains ror a time his authority over them, but exercises it for their 
good as well as bis own ; and thus prepares them, as speedily as possible, for the 
a^joyment of self-government. The abolitioffist would put an end to slavery ay at 
once surrendering up to the slaves all his power pver them ; thus giving them the 
immediate and fiul enjoyment of absolute freedom. It seems strange that a reason* 
able and unprejudiced mind could hesitate (era moment in deeicttng against tbe 
latterplan. Jlu unadncatpd sUva is IjtUa better than an inflmtvdlb meitalBwr^f^ 



ISn.] FREBIDSHT XOVNQ ON SLAVERY. %a 



A wn. To Tvrt nieli « bang with tiie power of «bioliite mnd niKOtitiolM self- 
govemment, is finaglit not only with mitctiief to otben around hioiv but with al- 
most certain destniciion to himself and misery to hit ofi^ring. What chauee 'n 
there for the education and moral instroction of theso tena Of thousands of ignorant 
and depraved bein^» when they are left to provide the elements of knowiedge and 
virtue i'or themselves ? Will they make edbrts and Muenfices to gain; either for 
themselves or their children, objects for which they have no taste, which their for- 
mer habits have unfitted them to relish, and the value of which they are unable to 
appreciate ? The paths to distinction and honorable employment are open to all 
classes of the whites in our country ; and yet, with all the stimulous which possible 
honors and distinction present, what numbers of our laboring classes neglect the 
education and improvement of their children. What hope, then, could we have of 
the future education of the colored race, if they were at once, in their present state 
of ignorance, to be emancipated ? The fathers would have no personal knowledge 
of tbe blessings of education ; would they then make the requisite exertions to se- 
cure it for their children ? The strongest motiv«.> to excite them to such exertion 
would not exist ; for they would see that knowledge could not place their children, 
hereafter, on the bench of the judge, or in the chair of the legislator. The evils 
which the nee would be doomed to suffer, from their almost hopeless and irreclaln^- 
able ignorance, and consequent dc^adation and vice, are truly appalling. But 
even these are, perhaps, less terrific Sian those they would inflict upon the country. 
If we are ever to be oestroyed as a nation, and our liberties wrested from us, the 
catastrophe will be brought about by the ignorance and vice of the populace. Is it 
then wise, is it patriotic, is it humane, to constitute by our own act, an immentt, 
self- perpetuating, and increasing mass, which shall contain in its own bosom the 
very elements ofonr destniction ? And what do we propose to gain, that we shoaU 
be tempted to cut the sluices and let in this deluge oi evils upon us ? Why, we will 
thus be able to give their freedom to thosr of the present generation of slaves who 
are not, and cannot be, prepared for its enjoyment. This is absolutely ali that ei& 
be gained by abolition more than will be secured by gradual emancipation ; tor tht 
gradual emancipator is desirous to give their freetiom to all, even of the pretoiit 
generation, who can be fitted for its safe enjoyment. So (hat the only object which 
abolitionism proposes as a compensation for ail the miseries it will introduce, is to 
give liberty to those to whom it must probably prove a curse." 

"/"he learned President's remarks on the effect of a sudden transla- 
tion ffuiD an old and known position are founded in just views of hu» 
man natare, and most happily i I) filtrated. What have the abolitionistfi 
to answer to the following logic ? 

*< Sovff can any humane and sober mind anticipate, without misgivings a«d ap- 
prehension, the change which would take place by the nuidtn elevation o^.ap im- 
mense, uneducated, and degraded mass of human beings from their low o^ndition to 
a full equality with the rest of the citizens? It may however be replied* that abo- 
litionism does not demand for the black man an investiture of eqiM< oivil ricfatt. 
Boc thu principle on which it relies for proving that he oupht<»M»erfia^Zyto be 
emancipated, without regard to consequences, will prove equalS well, that he ought 
to be invested inmeduUily with all the rights of a citizen. Ir tn« right which eveiy 




rights and for the immediate cnjoT . :^. 

bound on his own principles to contend that the Slav should be immediately put in 
possession of equal civil privileges." • •* * * * * 

'*Juttice demande the tmrnediaU liberation of /A#*^w A-oj» all atUhor^iv of the ma$- 
ier. This is the principle of abolitionism, B^ on what axiom does this principle 
rest? Itisnotself-evident— where, then, i» Its proof? The pjneral truth that ndl 
men are by nature* free and equal,' is relied upon to establish it. But this, like al- 
noat all other axioms of the same kind, a«^its of various exceptions when ^fon come 
to apply it. Freedom from authority ^ never claimed for lunatits or minon, finr 
felons or prisoners of war, on the eef^^ ground that all are free and equal. The 
rule which limits the practical application of the axiom is this — any dan ofhimu^ 
beingi are rtHraiked in the eufoi/m^ of natvral righU, wherever their own intereH er 
the mterett of iociety dearly demnde theif reetraint. Such restraint il certajmhr an 
eviU in itself considered, and can never be honestly contiDued longer than, isun* 
lately Docassaiy. If any q^, then, believer that tae fiitaxv wel&re of the ^riflM 
16 



133 FRESIDERT TOUSO ON SLAYIIRT. [Afrfl^ 

fiee» M wtU M ftkt uileRSt of tbe eoaraxonity, demuids sone y pqw utk ai «■ tfcs 
part of dares for eaiancipotioD, be must believe that ii u right to amitme kit nikB 
rUjf ocer Uum far a Hmu wkiU ikit preparatiun u makhtfi. 

Ag^,a : it is urged that the ouxim 'do uoto others as ye would th<i^ thej rhoald 
do unto yoi,' requ'.-*?s that all autho.-ity of the master should be at one*' reHoquished. 
But, were I such as the vast majority or slaves are, I would that i were, for a time, 
fifctaioed under cootrol. while vigorous uk^pjis were brought to operate upou me to fit 
me Uh the r^'iponsibility of self-covemujeut. I doikotsay thai if i loer^ a slave, such 
would bis foy desire, as / vccmld then patuts ail fas ignorance andfoli^. Tbe rule 
does not r»4uire that I should do for anotlier what, if I were tUippid ofwofprrttrnt 
eapadiy mt.d jud'/n^nt^ I uould deem to be best for me — it siui}>iv refjuires me tD 
imagine triyteifin hi* oundition; and what I then tbink would be beiii (or myteU' in 
Mch a candition, that to do unto him. 

Any otlj :i «*xposition oi t^is r.tle will strip it of all title to its wc!l known appel- 
lation of tlie 'golden rule,' and will make every man's desires the measure 04 hio 
neighbor's duty. Were I a child, I presume that I would be disinclined to the rod, 
€wn\ when it was needed. Abu; I would thit, were i a child, it should not be 
spared ; and thus, when couiplyin*; with the advice of the wise man, I do unto my 
eoildren as I would that they should do unto me. 




a 

continues 

•cientioii-t gradualist. He way ami wi>! givn, to those over whom he holds legal 
power, ii fair equivulent for their labor. lu calculating the amount of compenai^ 
tjon, ho>«rever, ail the items of expenditure for his slave (amilv, for education, food, 
clothing, physicians' bills, &c. &c. are to be estimated, if the expenditure for an 
apprentice, troui the age of 12 to 21, is worth bis Inbor during that period, bow long 
ought one to labor to defray his charges during the useless years of childhood, or 
how much of th^ labor of the grown members of a slave family should g^o towardi 
•npporting the cnildren ? liit all this is the calculition of the economist, and to 
hifli we leave it." 

Severtf ptaasible )mmonp]ace8 of the Abolitionists are tbenasstil- 
ed, and we think with complete success. 1 n noticinc^ the objection that 
"ilaceholding is a ain^ and men akould repent of all tin immediately'^ 
preparation for emancipation %$ only preparation for a future repentance, 
and in the meantime the $in i$ tolerated,'' President Vouno exj'oses 
the abuse of terms pri'.ctised in connecting the word ''slaveholding" 
wi^ gradual emancipation ; and adds some striking illustrations of this 
topic, of which we copy t!* e last : * 

**Pentf#. me to use, in refutation of the duty of an immediate relinqnUbment of 
all authori.j o*'er the servant, an illustration which I have frequently advanceil in 
colloquial ar|{<4ment, and to wbieh I have never heard what I deem a satisfaLtory 
answer. ^ Suppobc^ t;.^ '^-/ar of Russia were to become convinced of the sinfulness 
of exf^rcising despx:'ic aulaority over his fellow-men, >vould it be his duty at onee 
to surreiider his present powei. and atfonl his people an c:)portumty of establishing 
a republic ? Every m^i sv 5 the >Jly of his pur»'ii;*»' such a course. By holding 
bis present station he t>ukl iiiitituie, and secure the operation of means, wbieh 
would work upon his pec^ to fit them for the noble condition of freemen. 5y 
abandoning it. oefore ttme Nd been giv^n to raise them from their ignorance and 
slavish feelings and habits, be5;^ou]d prob \Ky plunge tliem into misririe, anarchy, 
and bloodshetl, and be the instrur»ent of at lengiii imposing upon them a tvranny 
more ^^in^ tlian that under which they now groan. But if he woukl not sin in 
retaining ins authority, vkich fs abnluie over mUlions, n**itiier would the private 
master sin in retaining Ais /est deepoUc y, oer, tckich exiende onljfover a Jew tntkoidu' 
ali. Or is it less contrary to the laws of mature and the principles of rerelation, <a 
hold million* in absointe bondage than to fAId ten* ? 

**Tbe doctrine of abolition," says the Preideoit, "will never secure the liberty of 
tiie blacks, because 

1. Its advocates excite so much prejudice a^inst themselres by the ultraisni of 
tbeir views, that even the force, which reallv exHits in their w^gnrients, will not be 
allowed to them. The ressoniags of those who are considered e ntbosiasts are heard 



1836.] EMICaANTB FBOM NEW tnXEANS. ]J0 

to gteat diiadruit>g«. Tbi Ktnlt U the mum wliathcr entlinaucm and fitfmWiiin 

beju-tJy or unJusUy imputed to tbem. 

2, Xliere are few ol lue alaveboLl^rB wbo will etv* even b faetringtn sach ss 
pr^feij a doclrina which lliey believe to be eo wUo, Now these are the men wbo 
aiii9t be operated upoo, if we erer get rid of slavery, It is, then, all important ttiat 
they should be to addreaaed u to kiiep them etill aecetsibte to tht trutb. 

3. Tbf^ piinciplee of abolitionlim can be refuted, or to »ay clie teait, plaoiiblf 



; ilie Slaveholders to manumil, tbey rely solely on tbe operation of 
their consciences, anu tlius ihef neglect all appeals (o their interest. I have never 
jet read of an tostancc of a general voluntaiy emancipation by the masters, except 
when they had been made to sea that Uitertit as well as duty urged to the penbnn* 
ance of the act. The abolitio[ii>ts, then, throw away the strouf and ttiiid lever, by 
whicU this work has hitlierlo been ia all cases advancud, and apply their wbola 
fotce to a comparatively weak and uatrieJ one. They are like Francis I. at th4 
battle ofPavia. Hi* splendid park nf artillery would have gained hi ii the held had 
he given it time ti> pLy ; but he must ^^lulize his valor by drawing his royal sword, 
anochar^n;; an enemy on whom, witli sucb weapotis, he couid make no impres- 
■ion — deieat and the loss of liberty wc.i: :he forfeit of bis roliy. Duly and interest 
can be shown to coincide on the plan ot'giaduaJ emancipation — tbey caunot ontbat 
of abolition. It is vain to ajy that tae leioperduce i«lorci shows what conscience 
can effect. If ever^ signer ofihe temperance pledge had been called upon to record 
bis dime, at asjcrifice ofiVom $500 to $IO,Ouo,iQeiiu:aberan our listf would bava 
been, i\M kuAdrtiit u/lhousandt—icarcilj/ Kundndi- 

S. Men naturally dread sudden revolutions in society. It ia folt to be a matter of 

Seat importance to- eiiect even a desirable change gradually: for thus only can 
iyeacapea dangerous convuliioa. We oould not, then, if we wished, induce ttten 
to hazard the shock, where they see aaoiher means by wbich they can effect thalr 
end witbo it incurring any danger. 

8. The deatruction ol'slavery bas always been e£ected by the process orgndnil 
•manci patio 11, cxfepi where it bas resulted from tbe overturning of socie^, Cir- 
lair.i^ tlie most sanguine sbclitkinist can not expect that it will ever be effected 
here in any other than one of these two ways. 

Vfe hope and Inist that, very aoon, the example and efforts of patriots and cbrii- 
tiana will so snliKbten the public mind, both aa to the moral obligation and poUtieal 
and economical gain of univera^ emancipation, as to ripen the community for that 
decisive lezialative action which will exterminate the whole system, and thui cut 
oS the entail of calamities which it threaten^ to £z upon us. Mav all the fKendi of 
humanity unite Ihrir efforts, vigorously, peneveriugly, and kindly, to achieve Hlia 
great and blessed victory." 



EMIGRANTS PROM NEW ORLEANS. 

Since the estract from Mr. Fi.iLEv'a letter p. 81, w»« Id type, *• 
btve seen the followiag additiotial information concerning the enl* 
grants Uinler his care. A correspondent of the New Orleans Ob- 
server gives an interesting account of a meeting which wu belli in 
the Baptist church of that city, on the l7tb of January, preparatory 
to the d'-parture of the emigmnU under Ms. Finley's care. 

" The DOliee had been limited ; vet, by seven o'clock, tbe spacious raom wm nonfy 
filled, ood soon after, was so full (hat many had to stand in the aisles. The occ». 
•ioD, tlie scene, and all tbe a^ociatioiii conr.ected wiih it, veve full of thrilUng 
Interests. The coontenaoee of every individual, and the general aspect of tba 
whole andience, naniMted a generous sympathy with the emigrants in then.- fM* 
ines of tender,jret iospliitii^ and elevating emotions always connected with tiw 
aenieveffltat oT a ipNt entsrprise like this, which, beginnine on Qn» eontinrat,'It 
to briog to its coaaummatioQ en tbe shores of another, an entire cbanee in the coa- 
ditionof themselvet and their posterity. Ilach seemed to place himself ia ttafa 
■ituatioB, nd &oa tUa pcM of traiisitio& to look btck to the past ud Amwd to 



ISi £MIGBANT« ¥ROM N£W OKLEABS. [ApHlt 

^ • • • • • 

<<Th«M col<M«d iiMT^** 9tia Mr. Finktf, «■ tittin^ in die front riipt 1mcv« eone 
down From Mississippi^ to go to the coiony of Liberia. AH who go here are re- 
quired to be of food character, end to pledge tbemselves not to driak, buy or sell 
ardent spirits. One man, who has a sister amotie these emigrants, pli»d with ue, 
with tears, to let him go : bat on account^ his nabits of intoxication, he was re- 
jected. To-night, after a sermon by one (fi^their number, these persons are to be 
fonned into a Temperance Society, and publicl]^ givo a pledge to abstain from the 
use of ardent spiriU. Twenty-six of them, from Adams county, are selected by- 
tiieir ntf ler from a company of ISO. and set free, to go to Liberia, for tiirir good 
bebavioa.'. Ttey hau be-^n honest and taillifui se^vuiit). Ad to the ^ood ct aracttr 
of the remainder, from Claiborne county, the Kev. Mr. Butler, who m present, will 
give to tliis assembly Ms view3.** 

Mr. Butler cheerfully Lore testimony to their good character. 

*<£speciall?/' said he, ** am I gratified in speaking of the dcsenredly hieh repa- 
lation of the Rev. Gloster Bimpsoii, who is abort lo nieach to us. As 1 beloDged 
to the Presbyterian cburu, and Mr. Simpson to the Methodist, no undue imparti- 
ality <.f iil be imputed t<j me in what 1 say of him. He has the entire confidence of 
all who know bim. He was one of the t v j, deputed two years ago by the free peo-' 
nie of color of Mississippi, to go to Liberia to examine the coantiy for them. Sab- 
oath before last he preaciied at Lethel, Claiborne county, a farewell sermon, on 
^ich occasion a lar^e congreg».l}on of masters and servants were melted to tears. 
A dc ep interest is felt in their welfrrn, by their fornier masters and friends. I have 
come to this city with them to aid m their embarkation for Liberia, and to see 0iat 
fhey are provi<if*d with every thing necessary iur their cocrfort on their voyage. 
Thrr will be folio ..ed by the prayers of many Christian friends.*' 

Mr. Butler was followed by Mr. Simps^m. Alter the preliminary exercisee of 
fin;;in^ and prayer, be read a part of the ath chapter of Matthew, and took for his 
text the 16th verse, *' Let your li^t so jhine. kc/ His discourse would not have 
been discreditable to many preachers, who ba\'e had the advantage of an early aod 
,Aatu:>e education. Adverting; to his visit to the colony, he exprened a noble aen- 
timentinan eloquent mrnner. ''One day," saH he,* "as a rriend was potntinff 
out to me tlie gnivc-; of tae missionaries, white men who had gone to that land of 
darkness, to diifuse the licht of salvation, and had fallen in quick iucceation, one 
after another, martyrs to the holy cause, 1 could not but exclaim — Good Lord, aiid 
shall there not come from our own rpnks men to t^ke their places tad preach to 
onr benighted brethren, the gospel of Christ ! For one I am willing and deter- 
mined to go." 

Rev. Air. Scott, of the Methodist church, made some appropriate remarki, and 
closed the religious exercises with prayer and the benediction. 

Mr. Fin ley then came ^orwani and remarked, that the Colonization Society 
were unalterabty drtc'rmined to ^en^l to the colony none but such as are willing to 
pledge tbemselves to total aUsliiieDce from ardent apirits, and wbofe cliuractert 
are nuch, as to warrant the expectation of a faithful observance of their engage- 
ment. An a ground of confidence in these emigrants, he was authorized to Jhvo 
the testimony of Mr. Rally, in favor of the twenty-six from Adami county. His- 
sissipti. who were emancipated by his brother* in-laiv, the late James Oreen. This 
feotleman aod Mrs. Woods, a sister of NIt» Green, the executors of hia will, had 
accompanied them to this city to superintend their en>har nation. Mr. Kaily was 
detained from the meeting: by sickness. In regard to the others, Mr. Butler was 
again appealed to, who responded in terms of commendation perfectly satisfactory. 

The pledge was then read by Mr. Finley, and is at follows : 

** We, whose names are si^ed to this paper, being about to emigrate to the co- 
lony of Liberia, and believing that the use of ardent spirits, either as a drink or 
aa an article of merchandise, except for medicinal purposes, is wrong, do pledge 
ourselves to one anoUier, and to the Colonization Society, forever to abctaln frooa 
the use of it as a drink, or as an article of trade, with the above named exception." 

The emigrants were then called on to rise up and so signify their cordial adop- 
tion of the pled|^. They. all rose, and thus were formed into a Tkmptranee Ao- 
eidift on the principle of"^ total abstinence. This transaction closed the oieeting. 
l!be impression upon ^e minds of the assembly was of the noet favorable kind; 
"^' as a respectable and intelligent citizen remarked, as we were coaiing out, "in 
Ms even the most timid or most maltcious cmmiot find tiq(fat f^r alarm or rs« 



18S5.] FAiswfitt BCKsrnm of tbs EKKOAirra. i^ 

The follotriBg flidditiOMi) partitulani conceining the emfgrant^ urn 
der Mr. Finlet's care are taken from an article published in the 
New Orleans Observer, before their departure: 

** This will be the third expedition that has sailed from this port, and is in many 
respects the most interesting and promising that has ever lelY the United States for 
the colon jr. It wiil consist of about 76 emigrants from Mississippi; and through 
the unexampled liberality of the citizens of that State, the whole of the money 
necessary to defray the expenses of their passage and comfortable settlement in 
Liberia, has been secured by their voluntary aid, and without the solicitation of to 
agent. A single planter, living in Natchez, contributed $600, and another living 
in the vicinity of that city, $40ii, towards this object. 

The emigrants are all acquainted with agriculture, and some are mechanics. 
Their moral characters are ^pood, and they will be able to take with them about 
$15,000 worth of property. Twenty-six of them were emancipated by the will 
of the late Mr. James Green of Adams count}*, and will be furnished by bis execu- 
tors with an outfit oi' $1,000 and money to pay their passage, and five thousand 
more to promote, their comfortable settlement in the colony. They were selected 
by their late master from 130 slaves and emancipated for their faithful and merito- 
nouB services. Ten of them were in the same manner and for the same reasons 
emancipated by the wiil of the late Mrs. Bullock of Claiborne county, and will bt. 
furnished by Mrs. Moore, her executrix, with eight hundred dollars. The Rev.' 
Glostcr Simpson and Archy Moore, free men of color of Claiborne county, who 
visited the colony some time since as exploring agents, on behali' of the free colored 
people of Mississippi, will also be of the number. It is two years since their re- 
turn from the colony. They were prevented from going back to Liberia the first 
year after their return to the United States, by the bonidaj^c of their families, and 
the next year by the want of an opportunity. — Gloster Simpson owned a farm of 
IfiO acres and is worth about two thousand dollars. David Moore, a brother of 
Archy, will also go in this expedition. He owned a farm of 280 acres, has paid 
seven thousand five hundred dollars for hla family, together with one female slave 
whom he intends to emancipate and take with him, anJ in addition is worth five 
thousand dollars." 



From the New- Orleans Observer, 

FAREWELL MEETING OF THE EMIGRANTS. 

New-Orleans, February 24, 1835. 

ifr. Editor: — Last week I gave you some account of the meeting of the emi- 
grants from Mississippi for Liberia, oh the occasion of their being formed intQ t 
Temperance Society. 

^ Last evening I was present at another meeting in the Methodist chapel. It con- 
sisted almost exclusively of colored people — the emigrants, free blacks, and slaves. 
When I reached the chapel they were singing. The house was full to overflowing, 
and some were standing outside the door. Rev. Mr. Scott, a preacher of the Me- 
thodist conference, and acting as a missionary among tiie colored population of 
this city, took the direction of the meeting. 

After the singing clpsed he called on Mr. Harper, a colored man and pious mem- 
ber of the church, to lead in prayer; which he did with great propriety and ferven- 
cy, in a very affecting ^nd earnest manner supplicating the blessing and protection 
of God on tne emigrants. 

Mr. Finlev spoke. *'I shall be short. I would say nothing to you at this time, 
my colored iriends, were it not that you might be better able to understand what 
may be said by Mr. Simpson and Mr. Moore. For four years I have been an 
Agent for the Colonization 8ociety--;have travel'ed twenty thousand miles, and 
have been in twenty-one of the United States. Every great and good enterprise 
must encounter opposition in this world. Qur divine master suffered persecution 
while on earth; and as he said himself, "The disciple is not above his master, nor 
the serv^t above his Lord." In his cause we are to ex|)ect opposition. At the 
North ahd at the South I have met opposition and persecution in this work. ^W^i 
hawi I penevwed? Beceuse it was mjr doty, .beciuse I d^ra to promote the fpol 



196 FABBWXU MXBVVXO Of TH£ EKiaRAHTS. [April; 

of the colored people, and because God has bleased mj efibrts. I miglit tdl jroii 

mucii about the plans and operations of the Colouization Society, but 1 wUl'aol 
take up your time now, which will be better spent in listening to Mr. Simpson and 
Mr. Mooi e. They will tell you about Liberia. They have been there. The free 
people of color in Mississippi did wisely about this matter. They heard ditterent 
stoneb about the c«;untry. They determined to do as the children of Israel did in 
serding spies to Canaan, to spy out the land and bring back of the fruit ot it. They 
sent twoioen of their own color, Simpson and Mooie, to see the Crlony. These 
mc a went and examined the land and brought back of the fruit ot it. Now you 
see tlie result of their inquiries. Th(fse men, witli their families and a large com- ^ 
pany ef their friends,' are on their way to Liberia. They take with them property 
to the amount of ^15,000. They are intelligent and honest men, and couid live 
very well here. They say it is a good country and much better for theim than Ame- 
rica. — One word I have to say to you that are slaves. Some say we want to make 
slaves uneasy and dissati8fie(^ and excite them to insurrection. Now, the Lord 
knows we are guiltless of this charge. We are the disciples of the prince of peace. 
If you want ever to go to Liberia, that land of the free and equal, you must be so* 
ber, h3nest, industrious, und faithful servants. Without such a character you could 
not nave permission from the Society to go, if you were free; and by such conduct 
you will be most Ukely to obtain from your masters the privileges of going, if ever 
you want to go.*' 

When Mr. Finley sat down, Mr. Scott asked the assembly if they wished to bear 
Mr. Siuip!fon's statements about Liberia. If so, they would express it by saying 
aye. Aye, aye, aye, aye, resounded from every part of the room. 

Mr. Simpson then came forward. **For a long time," said he, **I had desired to 
find a place of r?fiige, where I might enjoy liberty and such advantages as I could 
not here — not that 1 was treated unkindly in Mississippi. I have many dear 
friends there, fiut It is not possible for colored people to enjov among white men 
all the privileges and advantages of liberty. I heard a great deal about LiberU» 
and read a good deal. Good people told me a heap about it, and I wanted to see 
it. So did some of my friends. One said to another, **will you go and see it for 
us." But all were too busy. They sent to me to know if 1 would go. I said yet. 
So did Archy Moore. We started. First we came to New Orleans, but the ves« 
sel we expected to go in had sailed. Then we bad to go to an eastern port. We 
Stat ted for Washington City. Met with many discouragements. In Frederick- 
town a lady said to me, *♦ Where are you going?" To Africa. "Where?" ToJ^ 
rica. ** What— you such a fool as to go to Africa? Don't you know that the nig- 
gern will kill you and eat you there?" [A laugh.] So other penK>iis tried to dis- 
hearten and dissuade us from going, till we found Mr. Gurley in Washington. He 
received us in a friendly manner — enconraged us to go on, and provided for us a 
passage from Norfolk. Our voyage was much pleasanter than I expected. 1 fimnd 
many Christian friends among the emigrants in the ship. We aprived at Bfonrovit 
the last day of June. There was a qusu^* rly meeting on the second day of July.— - 
I went ashore. The heavens appeared to open over me. 1 seemed to be bom a 
second time. Every thing looked kindly. It looked like the home for the colored 
man. Mr Moore and I travelled about and examined the countr)*— saw Sundance 
of every thing growinji^. The people looked as healthy there as they do bere.-r 
Old Teage, of Virginia* said be had been prejudiced against tiie Colony— bad 
tried Canada and wanted to go to Hayti; but he birssed (Sod that his lot had been 
finally cast there in Liberia. He told me not to trv to persuade others to come, but 
to persevere and come myself, then they'll see what you think of it. There'll be 
enough to come. I have persevered so far, and expect soon to emberk for Liberia* 
I hope to do something for my blessed Master's cause there if he spares my life.— 
If death be my early lot, I hope to be as ready and willing to meet it on the coast 
of Africa, as rm the shores of the Mississippi. Brethren, pray for us." 

Alter Mr. Simpson sat down, Mr. Scott asked the asteroUy if they wished to 
hear Mr. Moore. " Aye, ave, aye," again burst from every month. 

Mr. Moore came forward. *' I dont know as it is necessary for me to say Wf 
thing. 1 will, however, tefltif)r to the truth of the statements made by mv mendp 
Mr. Simpson. As to our moving to Liberia* we have no more cause for going than 
other free people* We go of choice. I go to etgoy Ilbeity and equality oi rights^ 
As to the natural productions of the countrv, they exceed any thing I ever saw Im 
tf ay tra?als aliewhen. Betides such fruit a$ we b«ve hm>thejrhivft«||iiit 



1835.] 



AFRICA. 127 



variety, that grows only there. Thev have fine pjapes. I ate delicious English 

rapes there. The palm tree I htid often heard of, and it is mentioned in the Bible, 
saw it growing, it is a singular tree. 1 saw some two or three feet over. Tb«y 
grow very high, without a single branch or limb. Right on tlie top is a cabbage, cr 
what looks so like a cabbage you could'nt tell the ditterence a Utile way otf. '1 be 
leaves they use for covering their houses, from the trunk they ^et a juice, that makes 
wine, and an oil, that is used i'or butter and lard. I at^ of it, and iound it very 
good. The fore they usrJ instead of flax and hemp. [Of this fibre he exhibited a 
bpecimen — also a piece of the cam woo'i, a valuable dye wood, of a beautiful red 
color.] ** This wood," said he, ** is worth sixty dollars a ton, is abundant and 
easily oL^uJned. It is as j^ood as gold and silver to trade with.'* 

*• As to the style of living among the Colonists, it was quite superior to what I 
expected to 8ee. Many houses, u\i^Ae I visited, look like those of respectable 
white families, and had i not seen the occupants, would have supposed them inha- 
bited by white people. One Sabbatic we were invited by Mr. Devaiiy to dine with 
him. We went home with bim. He introduced us iulo his sitting pjooi. It was 
well furnished with carpet, chairs, two elegant solas, two handsome mirrors, &c. 
in a littlii while the folding doors, separating the parlor from the dinini^ room, were 
I .rown open, and we were iiivited to take seats at the table there, richly set and 
well supplied with everv thing good to eat. Now, some may think, because i have 
lived in the country in Mississippi, I have never seen good style. But I have lived 
in the first families of the country. I lived many years with Governor Claiborne, 
of your State. Twenty years ago, I know, the furniture in the best houses in the 
western country, was not better than what I saw in common use in Liberia. I go 
willingly. 1 have got a living here in slavery; and now that I am free, if I can^, 
with health, get a living there, then let me suffer. There is no winter. there. I 
believe I can live easii'r and better there than I can here." 

Rev. Mr. Butler, from Mississippi, subjoined a few remarks. " I have been cc- 
quainted," said be, ** with many oi these emigrants ever since I have been in the 
country, and knOw them to be of good character. Their removal is considered a 
ereat loss in many respects. They have been mechanics, overseers, and preachers. 
Borne of them were once averse to emigration. Th^ y were living comfortably. 
But the thought of their children; what was to becOiUe of them; has determined tlieui 
to go and provide for their education and future independence. Their former mas- 
ters and other friends in Mississippi feel a most tender solicitude for their welfare. 
Many Christians are praying for them, and will continue to remember them before 
Ood. I hope that you, here in New Orleans will pray for them that God will pre- 
serve them while tossed on the ocean, and finally plai-t them and prosper them In 
Liberia.** Before Mr. Butler had reached this point in bis remarks, the emigrants 
had become tenderlv affected by his expressions of his affectionate regard and by 
his allusions to the kind feelings of their friends of Mississippi. First, silent tears 
stole down Lbeir cheeks, drop after drop — then long drawn sighs were followed by 
loud sobs from s'^me of the females, thus evincing the tenderness of their attach- 
ments to their friends, and their gratitude for the bright prospect opened before 
them in going to the ColoTy of Liberia. Mr. B., overcome with his own feelings, 
as well as interrupted by the expressions of theirs, could proceed no fuilher. A 
parting hymn was then surg, during which the emigrants and their colored friends 
took leave of each other. A more affecting scene I never witnessetl. Mr. Simp- 
son made the concluding prayer, and Mr. Butler pronounced the benediction. No 
one, who witnessed the transactions of this meeting, could avoid the conviction, 
that Colonization is doing good here. O. S. H. 



Africa. — Ih claims to Mistionanj labor.— A late number of the Pbiladelphian 
contains an article bearing this title, being "A Dissertation read before the Society 
of Inquiry lespecting missiond at Andover Theological Seminary, by .Tames Vv. 
Dde of Philadelphia." Much valuable information respecting Africa is embodied 
in it, and judiciously arranged, but we have not room to transfer it to our columns. 
Such appeals m this,0D benalf of the millions of Africa, must, we think, produce 
a state of feellfig in the Christian public, that will result in causing the light of the 



fSB ^ GONnOBimONS. w [Afd, 

Gofpel to OlmiiiM Iho whole of that vast and benighted ConthieBt The debt w$ 
owe to Africa will ^et oe repaid.— There are now on that field of labor about Mf 
iiiisf iooaries of various Protestant denominations, — fourteen on the Western couL 
1'he schoolmaster is now takine his departure from our shores, with a view to ^ 
the whole length and breadth of Africa. The God of Zion has prospered and will 
blesi Christian exertions in behalf of Ethiopia — she shall stretch forth her hands» 
and receiving blessings, will bless the land of her former oppressors. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 
To the American Colonization Society, in the month of March, 168Bw 

Gerrit Smith's Fint Plan of Subicriplhn. 
Judge Burnett, of Ohio, ...... |^106 

Bev. Kt>enezer fiurgess, Dedham, Massachosetts, the balance of his sub- 
scription, ....... 400 

Fleming James, Richmond, Va. ..... loO 

Collections from Churches, 
Hillsborough, Ohio, by Rev. J. McD. Matthews, ... 5 

York, Pa. Irom Lutheran and G. Reformed Churc^hes, • - 11 

Auxiliary Societies, 
Mississippi State Colonization Society, by Jefierson Beaumonty £s^ IMS 

Virginia Colonization Society, by B. Jurand, Esq. • - - 24 

Thnations. 
Adams County, Mississippi, from the estate of the late Jwit OfMB,bj 

James Railev, hie £xr. to pay for the passage to Uberia, of 26 

emancipated cok>red persons, ..... ioo# 

Bedi'brd, Pa. from B. R,ll. - - - - . - 6 

King George County, Va. iVom a Lady, by the Rev. Chas. Mann, - 1^ 

New Jersey, from M atthin<^ Bruen, Ksq. .... loo 

Port Gibson, Miss, from R<tv. Zeb. Butler, for the use of emigrants from 

Claiborne County, • . . . . . . 134. 

Stafford Countv, Va. from Mrs. Skinner and others, through Mrs, Biack- 

ford, FredexLcksbiirg, ...... }5 

Do through the same Lady, ..... % 

Yo^))gstown, Ohio, by Henry Manning, . . . . ^ 

Lift Subscribers, 

New-Orleans, v7. W. Caldwell, . . . « . ^ 

do R. F. Canfield, ..... 9t^ 

York, Pa. Mrs. Reiiy, •.-.-.. jo 



#8980 
~ African Reposilon/. 
Miss Lucv Paine, Goochland, Va. by B. Brand, Tr. - • -2 

Samuel Rhea, Bluntsville, Tcnn. - • ... . 2 

Marvin Leonard, WiDiamsiield, Ohio, - - - - - • 

Samuel Steele and R. Ragan, Hagerstown, Md. $2 each, - - 4 

The foUovJiiff were received through the Rev, C. Pearl, viz: 
Levi Cram, Bangor, Maue, - - - • - - 4 

Abner T?vlor, Jo - . - - - - 12 

Thos. A. hill, do « . . - - * 8 

Geo. W. Pickering, do - - - - - -7 

John Pearson, do ....... 9 

Amos Patten, co - - - - . - J3 

Eev. A. Garrison, WatcrviUo,N. York, . . • . 3 



-»* 



THE 



AFRICAN REPOSITORY, 



AND 



COLONIAL JOURNAL. 



c= 



Vol. XL] MAY, 1835. [No. 5. 



DEATH OF BISHOP M'KENDREEl. 

The AmericaB Colooization Society has again to rooum the loss of 
one of its Vice-Presidents. On Thursday the 5lh of March, died the 
Reverend William M*Kendre£, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, in the 78th year of his age. 

This eminent and pious man was born on the 6th of July, 1757, at 
Williamsburg in Virginia, of Virginian parents. He was an adju- 
tant in the levies of his native State during the latter part of the Rev- 
olutionary War. While in the Commissary Department, he displayed 
his accustomed energy of character in making impressments of cattle 
and other provisions to sustain the allied armies of Washington and 
Rochambeau at York. He entered the Christian Ministry when he 
was a little more than thirty years of age, and remained in it without 
intermission up to the time of his death. He preached his last ser- 
non in the new church at Nashville, on Sunday, November 23, 1834, 
which was reported from his lips, and forms the first number of the 
Western Methodist Preacher. His health, before feeble, immed^tely 
declined, and appears to have continued to do ro until the period of 
his death. About the 22nd of December lie left Nashville to visit his 
brother. Dr. James M'Kendree, in Sumner county, Term., at whose 
house he arrived about Christmas. During his mortal sickness the 
forefinger of his right hand became affected with a singular swelling 
on the end, near where he habitually held his pen in writing. It re- 
sisted medical skill, became exceedingly painful, and wasted away 
the finger, and a sympathetic agony was commnnicated to other parts 
of his body, particularly to the back and head. His strength was at 
length completely prostrated, and his voice stink to a whisper, while 
his chronic asthmatic complaints increased, and his fits of coughing, 
with his inability to raise the accumulating phU*gm, gave warning of 
approaching dissolution. 
17 



130 DEATH OF BISHOP M<K£NDR££. [May» 

** The deceased Bishop was, says the Western Methodist, "in official station, in 
labors, in weight of innuence, and in holiness of life, the elder brother of the 
Aiiif rican MethodiMt Church. He has been most emphatically the shepherd, under 
Christ, of the Methodist Church in the west and southwest; and in tho midst of 
the immense field ol his lauor he has dropped his worn-out t>ody, and his spirit 
has gone upward in the sight of thousands of his spiritual children. Who shall 
catch his mantle as it i'diU from the whirlwind chariut of fire? Wi.o .<hall now go 
forth before th? army of uur ^^<irituai Israel as he has done lor almoc-t filty years?" 

From the }Mper just 4iJotcd, we extract the Inilowiug interesting 
particulars concerning the lamented and venerable Bishop: 

** It was most affecting to learn the aid to which the Bishop resorted while in 
pain. Sometimes members of his own family and religious brethren from the 
neighborhood would be present, when the Bishop would request their prayers. — 
Such was his faith in a prayer-hearing God, that almost invariably the throbbings 
would cease during the prayer, and before its close the Bishop would be in a slum- 
ber as calm as an infant's. In one instance he told a friend and neighbor that he 
wished him to pray with him on account of his pain — *'not," says he, ''as you pray 
in your family, but in faith, with direct reference to my case." After prayer the 
Bishop smiled, raised his hand, and said, *'It is easy now [" This was about two 
weeks before his death. Thus we see what a gracious medicine his Lord and Sa- 
viour gave him to alleviate hi? last hours when all earthly medicine had failed. •*• 

** The Sabbatii previous to his death, lour days before mortality was merged in 
immortality, his brother, the Doctor, addressed him to the following effect: Bishop, 
you are sinking fai>t. We shall in all probability be soon separated. The Bishop 
replied, "Yes, I know.it; but all is well!" His brother then questioned him in 
regard to his lasl wishes respecting his funeral arrangements — when both the Bish- 
op and his brother (both having been similarly ad'ected with asthmatic complaints) 
were seized with a fit of coughing, which interrupted their conversation for that 
time. Soon after the Bishop was seen to make a signal with his hand that he 
wished to speak, when, at the request of Dr. M*Kendree, his son, Dudley M'Ken- 
dree, the Bishop's riephew, leaned over l:!m to receive his communications. 

" With regard to the state of his mind, the Bishop said, "Allis well, for time or 
for eternity. I live by faith in the Son of God. For me to live is Christ— to die 
is gain." In his mo^t emphatic manner he repeated, **I wish that point to be per- 
fectly understood— that all is well with me whether 1 live or die. For two months," 
said he, **I have not had a cloud to darken my hope; I have had uninterrupted con- 
fidence in my Saviour's love." He commenced repeating the stanza, 

" Not a cloud can arise to darken my skies, 
Or hide for a moment my Lord from my eyes;" 

but not being able to finish the couplet it was finished for him. 

** With regard to the circumstances of his interment, he summed up his wishes in 
the following expressive sentence: **I wish to be buried in the ancient Methodist 
style, like an old Christian Minister." • • * • • 

** The Bishop now seemed to summon all the powers of his soul to pass the cold 
stream of death. He had ordered the bedstead on which his venerable father died, 
years ago, (o be brought in; and»if we mistake not, the same bed and bedding to 
be placed upon it, as he wished to die where his father died. Upon this couch he 
waited the coming of the messenger of death. 

*' In the interval between the Sabbath and the Thursday following, when he died, 
he sufi'ered but little pain, was calm, composed, and awaited the coming of hisL«rd 
like one whose earthly labor had been done, und well done. Many were the gra- 
cious expressions which he whispered to one and another of his friends during 
those laot days of his life, many of wbich will no doubt be treasurtd up and here- 
after given to the public. ♦ • ♦ ♦ 

"Death was in the room. The question had been asked of the venerable senti- 
nel, who shall no more stand on the towers of our Zion, "Is all well?" He had 
answered, "Yes I" Just then, by a sudden spasmodic contraction, he seemed to 
have a darting pain in his right side. The muscles on his left cheek appeared to 
fUi'fer a coresponding spasm, and knotted up with a deep wrinkle, which remained 
aftpr tho pain in the side had passed away. Sensible of this musrular distortion, 
the Bishop was obsened to make two energetic efforts to smootbe down hiscoun- 



1835.] 



DEATH OF BISHOP M*K£NDR£X. 13X 



tenance. The second effort succeeded, and a dying smHe came over the brow of 
the veteran, and descended upon the lower features of bis face. Then the senior 
prelate of our episcopacy surrendered the parchment of superintendency which he 
had held of God and the Church since 1808 — he returned it stainless as the moun* 
tain snow. The struggle was over. The chariot had gone over the everlasting 
hills. 

** After death the Bishop's features were calm and beautiful. The woes of earth 
had passed. No trace of ag[ony remained. There was a noble sublimity in the 
inanimate clay, connected with every circumstance of the Bishop's long and useful 
life, that made the gazer liOj^r long over it, as if he was lookineupon features h» 
should see again in some radiant scene over which the curtain of futurity yet hangs 
folds. 

" In conformity with the wishes of the deceased, he was shrouded in a grave 
robe of black silk, and enclosed in a plain but substantial walnut coffin; and on 
Saturday, as we have previously mentioned, he was interred at the left hand of hii 
father, only a few rods from the family mansion where he died. 

" Wheuever the Bishop bad arrived at the family residence aHer his various pil* 
^mages, he was in the habit of walking out to his father's grave and contemplate 
mg the spot where the remains of both now rest in hope of a glorious resurrection. 
He had often conversed with his brother. Dr. M*Kendree, about his being interred 
by the side ol bis father, and bad measured the ground, so as to allow room for 
his brother and his brother's wife to|>e interred to his left, as he wished to be di- 
rectly on the led of his father. He had expressed a wish that a particular kind of 
stone-mason work should be laid over his grave, and that of his father, and that 
one railin||; above the masonry should enclose both graves. He gave directions 
how he wished the railing to be made. 

"His friends intend to fulfil his wishes in the particulars of his burial; but after 
having done their duty to his remains they will interpose no objection to any step 
which the Church at large shall decide upon, as to the final dis|)osal of his remains. 
There has been a strong wish expressed that they might rest under the new church 
in Nashville; but the general sense of the Church should perhaps be taken in view 
of all the facts in t^e case. Should the family mansion pass out of the hands of bis 
brother, or his descendants, it would be rather a melancholy redection that the dust 
of our revered Bishop might be far away from the footsteps of his friends, and liable 
to the desecration of strangers. 

** He lies in a lonely nlace, at a distance from any public road. There is a deep 
ravine to the east, soutn-east, and south of the grave, oo the brink of which it ii 
situated. Through this ravine a gentle stream meanders, and its rugged sides arf» 
formed of large blocks of rock, irregular and broke", from beneath which ensh ever 
living sprin;^. On the north and west of tho ^rave* which is on a level with the 
mansion house, the country stretches away to some distance as a plain, presenting 
DO great variety of surface. ♦ * * * 

"Bishop M*Kendree was one of the ablest Church economists of whom the pre* 
sent generation has had any knowledge. His prudence was both far seeing ana far 
reaching. He understood the great art of accomplishing great thines hy attention 
to small matters. He was emphatically great in small things, or rather from a mul- 
titude of small things he produced great and beneficial resuRs. 

"There is one fact which we will mention, as a testimony against a money-spend- 
ing and extravagant age. This venerable servant of Chnst, from his salary of one 
hundred dollars a year, has saved in the course of his life about three ihou$anddoUar$; 
one-half of which we understand he has left to the Church, and the other half to hia 
reUtives. . • • • 

*< We were permitted, through the politeness of his relatives, to inspect his pa- 
pers, particularly those relating to the nistory of his life, which the vote of the Ten- 
nessee annual Conference respectfully desired himtoprepare for publication throug[h 
the general book concern. In the midst of a mass of manuscripts, all relating to hie 
traveb, labors, and life, we found about thirty pages written consecutively in obe- 
dience to the request of Conference, beginning with his birth and breaking oif in the 
midst of the O^Kelly affair. 

** Such has been the order in which this venerable roan kept his manuscript!* 
that a compilation of his life, if committed to jodiciooi haads» wbuki not be a par* 
pkodog orembaRassiog empbymoDt*' 



13-2 JUDGE JAY AGAINST COLONIZATION. [May, 



JUDGE JAY AGAINST COL, O N IZATI ON. 

The advocates of instaut and uncompromising abolition feel or af- 
fect a pleasure almost amounting to rapture, at a recent publication 
entitled ** An Inquiry into the character and tendency of the Ameri- 
can Colonization and American Anti-Slavery Societies,*' by Judge 
William Jay of New York. This gentleman is so favorably known 
to the Public for his piety and philanthropy, and as the Biographer 
of his father, the illustrious John Jay, that the appearance of a con- 
troversial work from his pen, so elaborate as Ae "Inquiry** is repre- 
sented to be, could not fail to find eulogists among those whose par- 
ticular partialities and antipathies he has undertaken to defend. — 
Whether or not their gratulations are premature, we ought perhaps to 
say that we are unable to determine, jiot having yet seen Judge Jay's 
book ; but if the extracts from it which have been copied into the 
abolition papers are a fair specimen of the whole performance, the 
question may be easily decided. The motto is the following passage 
from iMilton: — "Give me liberty to know, to utter, and to argue free- 
Iv, H'-cording to ray conscience, above all liberties.'* Whatever Judge 
Jay utters is undoubtedly uttered conscientiously ; but the extracts re- 
f(.*rred to make it equally clear that he can carry the right of arguing 
" freely'' to an extent which some reasoners, less ostentatious about 
their consciences, might deem to be licentious. 

His indictment against the Colonization Society appears to be made 
up oi' citations from its Annual Reports and from the African Reposi- 
tory, a Journal published by order of its Managers. He has not how- 
ever given the Society the benefit of the right belonging to all defend- 
ants to criminal charges founded on their publications — that of being 
judged of according to the whole scope of such publications, and not 
according to insulated passajres. To separate one part of a sentence 
from another, a sentence from a paragraph, or a paragraph from its 
catenation ; or to bring into arbitrary connexion materials thus forci- 
bly disjoined, is a process by which any thing can be proved, and 
which therefore is seldom resorted to by inquirers after truth. Dr. 
Beattie, if we remember rightly, in charging such a mode of reason- 
ing on his great antagonist, Mr. Hume, observes that by it the Holj 
Scriptures can be shown to command suicide ; because in one part of 
them it is said "Judas departed, and went and hanged himself;" and 
in another, "go and do likewise.*' In practising such unfairness 
Hume was at least not liable to the charge of disobeying a positive 
precept of his own creed : for he had hardened his heart against the 
law which says " as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also 
to them likewise.** 

As a specimen of Mr. Jay's manner of exercising his invoked liber- 
ty " to argue /ree/y,** may be noticed his imputation of duplicity or 
something worse on the Colonization Society, because, according to 
him, it professes to aim at colonizing aU the people of colour in the U. 
States, and yet promises to send to Liberia only select emigrants.— 
This detection of supposed inconsistency od the part of the &)ciety is 



1835.] JUDGE JAY AGAINST COLONIZATION. 133 

hailed by the Abolitionists as a grand discovery, and an unanswerable 
ar^^ment. A little reflection will show on what slight foundations 
rests the imaginary triumph. 

It is true that the Colonization Society has, as Mr. Jay alleges, an- 
nounced its purpose of sending to Liberia only *' moral, industrious 
and temperate" emigrants: it is true that experience has confirmed 
its conviction of the propriety of this course, and has induced some 
recent emphatic declarations that the principle of selection will be 
adhered to : and it is also true that many enlightened friends of Colo- 
nization have cherished the hope that it will be the instrument, un- 
der Providence, of removing from the United States the whole mass 
of their free coloured population. But has any Quixote of the cause 
ever contended that this thorough removal could be otherwise thaa 
gradual ? Such being the necessity of the case, the Society, in per- 
fect consistency with its ulterior hopes, may regulate its present con- 
duct by the principle of selection. While the Colony is in a condi- 
tion relatively experimental, none should be admitted to it, except 
persons likely to contribute to the successful result of the experiment. 
But when it shall have become firmly established, populous, and prac- 
tised in the art of government, less regard to the qualifications of new 
settlers will be necessary, because its prosperity will be less depend- 
ent on them, and it will be more capable of bringing them under a 
salutary coDtrol. 

Again : While the scheme is in the early stages of progress, and 
accessions to the Colony are restricted by the moral qualities of the 
applicants, the improved social condition of those who are received 
offers an inducement to others desiring the privilege to reform the 
errors of their conduct. In this way, the principle of selection is cal- 
culated to exercise a powerful and favorable influence on the morals 
of the free people of colour in the U. States. None of them is willing 
to go to Liberia, unless he believes that the removal will promote his 
happiness. Once satisfied that such will be the result, he will strive 
to conform his conduct to the moral standard prescribed for admission. 

And besides: the number of applicants for settlement in the Colony 
is so much greater than the Society is able to send thither, that it is 
likely for some time to come to find full employment for its means in 
colonizing only the *' moral, industrious and temperate.'' 

Though the passages which we have seen of Mr. Jay's "Inquiry" 
suggest many topics of reply, we shall defer any detailed notice of 
them until we shall have had an opportunity of examining the whole 
work. It is ushered into the world with tremendous applause. But 
so was Mr. Birney's letter. '' A Birney," said one of its admirers, 
" has shaken the continent by putting down his foot."* But the con- 
tinent has recovered its balance, and the Colonization Society is still 
alive, Mr. Birney's foot notwithstanding. 



* See a letter of Dr. S. H. C^x, dated November 17, 1884» and published in the 
New York Evangeliiton the 22Dd of that month. 



134 UHAUTHOBIZED TRASSFOBMATIOIB. m»J* 



TKAUTHOBIZED TB ASSFOBJiATIOir.«> 

A letter under the above title, from the Rev. Wilbur Fisk, D. D. 
President of the \Ve»leyan Uuivertitj, (Conn.) is copied into the 
Christian (S. W) Advocate, of March 20, from a recent namber of 
Zion's Herald, occasioned by one of the most singular transactions in 
ail controversial history. It appears that the reverend gentleman had 
delivered an address on Temperance, and that some of the Abolition- 
ists, without his knowledge or approbation, published it, substitoting 
"Warery" for ''intemperance.'* In the letter referred to. Dr. F. enters 
his "decided and unqualified protest" against this ''unauthorized traos- 
forrnation'' of himself into an immediate abolitionist; which protest 
consist*) of his objections argued at length. It might, perhaps, have 
been Kuffijient for Dr. F. to stiite simply the facts as they occuired.aa 
the public can need no argument to aid them in forming a just judgment 
of s'.> fraiiduie.'jt d proceeding. But we at least have no reason to com* 
plain that he preferred a difiereut course, as it has led him, in some 
eloquent pks:»a^es.. to place on high ground the claimsof the Colonization 
Soci' ty to public confidence and sopport. 

Th'f following passages are extracted from the letter: 
**5. I protfst ai^aiost this perversiou of my ''address/* because it tberebj makes 
use of loy lan^ua^^e to favor the cau»e of the abolitionists. Aoj use that could ba 
matle of uy word«>, or of my life^ eOectaallj to favor the great cause of hamanity in 
the eiojucipation of the slaves, on priociples safe and practicable, should hare not 
only my irea eonserit, but my hearty co-op«iration. But in my bumble opinion, the 
course ab<jlitio(jisU are pursuin^^ ruDtr vnli do tMi. I should not wouder if, in the 
result, it should be found thev have retarded this desirable work many years. Al- 
ready tJiey have arotised all the jealousies, and by their denunciations proroked all 
the excitable feeling of the south. They commenced this work at a time least la* 
vorable for succesif, when southern jealousy was gjeatly excited by other causes. 
They have pro^eruted it in a manner quite unsuiteil to the accompftshment of the 
end. All the political and moral elements of the country are in a state of feverish 
excitement ; and it is but moral quackery at such times to administer stimalants or 
apply cai^^tics to the social system. In the moral, as in the physical system, there 
may sometimes be too much excitement and heat for a healthy action. And tfaisis 
evidcMitiy the case now. Aportion of the north, particularly, are ^tting too much 
excit'fd HC tin«»t the south. This state of thin^ requires assuasives instead of stimu- 
lants. What then shall we say of those who are still goring the sides of public 
feeling with the spur of excitement ? who are laceratiner and exciting public sym- 
pathy more incessantly and with more recklessness than the cruel slave driver lacer- 
ates his writhing victim, even according to their own exa^^rated descriptions of 
it? Without giving any practical directions, or laying down any feasible plan of 
operation, though they have been called upon again and again to do this, tney are 
goading into !ii;;h-wrought feeling all the sentient principles of the human mind. 
All the stories of cruelty, true or fabulous, that have been repeated for the last half 
century, are revised and edited anew. Lecturers go about our streets with cow- 
hides in their hands ; tens of thousands of dollars are contributed to rouse pub- 
lic sentiment, by agents, tracts, periodicals, and books. Even a P. £. can ped- 
dle out these *'raw-head and bloooy bones'* books all around his district; and at his 
own expense, I am told, send out weekly one hundred copies of the most exciting 
and unreasonable periodical published bv toe at>olitionists of the day, to stir up 
among as many miuiiters the same exclusive, censorious, and fervid spirit. No 
good can possibly arise from this course ; but on the contrary, the most serious con- 
sequences are to be apprehended. Who will allay the elements when they are eli- 
cited ? Who can ride upon the whirlwind of popular feeling, and direct the tempest? 
Can those who are exciting it now, direct it then ? O, my brethren ! I can have no 
part in this hazardous work ! When brother G. 8. tortures mv words to make them 
aid a cause which is experimenting with the most inflammable elements of human 



1835.] SLAVERY IN AMERICA. 135 

nature, do not receive them. On the contrary, let me reeofd In your presence my 
unworthy testimony against so fearful an experiment; and let me conjure you to 
pause before you suifer your minds to be dazzled and captivated by the glare of spe- 
culative benevolence, with which this subject has been exhibited." 

• • m * • ' * 

''Although slavery existed in its worst forms where the apostles exercised their 
miiiistry, did ttiey set a pattern of ministerial duty on this wise? Shall we be told 
it is necessary to get up a healthy public sen^ment on this subject? But fever is 
not health. Public sentiment was abundantly netter before abolitionists touched it 

than it now is. 

* * * * 

6. ''Finally, I object a^inst the abuse of the 'address,' because it thus makes uSe 
of my words to commend the labors of Mr. Bimcy, which, since this bMr. Bir- 
ney's primary object, is the same as commending the dissolution of the Coloniza- 
tion Society. And this, with my present views, I could never do. What ! com- 
mend the dissolution of that Society, which has done more than any thing else to 
excite *a healthy public sentiment' in favor of the man of colour, Mr. Biruey's rea- 
soning to the contrary notwithstanding? A Society that has indirectly liberated 
more slaves, probably, than ail the Anti-Slavery Societies of our country from the 
beginning until now ! • * * A Society which, by a succes-<ful experiment, makes fair 
promise of giving to the world a convincinganu extended exhibition ofnegro eleva- 
tion, moral, intellectual, and social! A Society that has done more to put down 
the African slave trade, than has been done by the decisions ol kingly courts and 
republican conj;ros8es. A Society that holds its banner over the missionary of the 
cross, on the very shores of Paganism; and has already opened up a passage of civ- 
ilization and salvation into the interior of that dark continent! Dissolve this So- 
ciety ? No ! Forbid it. Heaven ! Rather let Christian sympathy gather around it, 
and Christian munificence sustain it, until it shall become tne light of Africa, and 
the K'ory of her sons in both hemispheres. 

**Thus much 1 have thought it my duty to say, as reasons for disclaiming any 
partnership in this unauthorized introduction of my name and composition to the 
world, under the banner of abolitionism. With that cause, under its present leaders^ 
and in its present spirit and measures, I refuse to be identified. When I wish to 
write an article on that subject, or wish my name or composition to be associated 
with it, I will, with the leave of Providence, give due notice; and proceed, in my 
oum person, to consummate the alliance in n3y own way. In the meantime I hope 
the mites which 1 have thrown into the public treasury, small and unimportant as I 
deeply dnd sincerely feel them to be, may be distributed and appropriated, strictly 
according to the original design of the contributor." 

W. FISK. 
Wesleyan University, Feb, 28, 1885. 



SLAVERY IX AiMERICA* 



The London Baptist Magazine for January contains a very inter- 
esting letter from the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions in the U. 
States, in answer to one which the Board of Baptist Ministers in and 
near Loudon had addressed to "the Pastors and Ministers of the Bap- 
tist denomination throughout the U. States of America." The prin- 
cipal object of the English letter was to express the views of the wri- 
ters respecting the character nf nogro slavery, and as to th*e duty of 
Christians in regard to it. The American Board in their answer re- 
ciprocate the assurances of respect and affection made in the commu- 
nication from their brethren, but declare, in one of five resolutions 
adopted on the occasion, that "they cannot as a Board interfere with 



136 SLAVERY IN AMERICA. [May, 

a subject that is not among the objects for which the Convocation and 
the Board were formed." 

The letter accompanying the resolution, is a judicious, well writ- 
ten paper, breathing the finest spirit of Christian charity and social 
duty. It exhibits in a few words the true character of the slavery 
question in this country, and may be read with profit at home, as well 
as by the intelligent and respected gentlemen to whom it was ad- 
dressed. " In the first place, says the American Board, 

" The political organization of the United States is widely different from that of 
£;igland ; and this diiference makes it impossible to adopt here a course similar to 
that which the British Parliament have adopted in reference to slavery in the West 
Indies. This country is not one of a State, with an murestrictcd Legislature, but a 
confederacy of States, united by a Constitution, in which certain powers are grant- 
ed to the National Government ; and all other powers are reserved by the States, — 
Among these reserved powers is the regulation of slavery. Congress have uo pow- 
er to interfere with tiie slaves in the respective States ; and an Act of Congress to 
emancipate the slaves in those States would be as wholly null and void, as an Act of 
the British Parliament for the same purpose. The Legislatures of the respective 
States cannot interfere with the legislation of each other. In some of the States, 
where laws forbidding emancipation exist, the minorUy cannot, if disposed, give 
freedom to their slaves. You perceive, then, that the National Government, and 
the people of the Northern States, have no power, nor ri^ht, to adopt any direct 
measures, in reference to the emancipation of the slaves m the Southern States. — 
The slaveholders themselves are the only men who can act definitely on this sub- 
ject; and the only proper and useful influence which the friends of emancipation 
in other States can use, consists in argument and entreaty. The existence of our 
union, and its manifold blessings, depends on a faithful adherence to the principles 
and spirit of our constitution, on this and on all other points. 

** Tnis view of the case exonerates the nation, as such, and the States in which 
no slaves are found, from the charge of upholding slavery. It is due, moreover, to 
the republic, to remember, that slavery was introduced into this country lon^ before 
the colonies became independent States. The slave trade was encouraged by the 
Government of Great Britain, and slaves were brought into the colonies a^inst the 
wishes of the colonists, and the repeated Acts of some of the Colonial Le^latures. 
These Acts were negatived by the King of England ; and in the Declaration of In- 
dependence, as originally drawn by Mr. Jefferson, it was stated, among the griev- 
ances which produced the Revolution, that the King of England had steadily resist- 
ed the efforts of the colonies to prevent the introduction oi slaves. Soon after the 
Revolution, several of the States took measures to free themselves from slavery. — 
In 1787, Congross adopted an Act, by which it was provided, that slavery should 
never be permitted in any of the States to be formed in the immense territory north- 
west of the Ohio ; in which territory, the great States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illi- 
nois, have since been formed. There are now thirteen out of the twenty-four States, 
in which slavery may be said to be extinct. Maryland is taking measures to free 
herself from slavery. Kentucky and Virginia will, it is believed, follow the exam- 

Ele. We state these facts to show, that the republic did not originate slavery 
ere; and that she has done much to remove it altogether from her bosom. She 
took measures earlier than any other country for the suppression of the slave trade, 
and she is now zealously laboring to accomplish the entire extinction of that abomi- 
nable traffic. 

"Since then, from the character of our political institutions, the emancipation of 
the slaves is impossible except with tlie free consent of the masters, it is necessary 
to approach them wi'h calm and affectionate argument. They claim to be better 
acquainted witli the real condition and the true interests of the negro, than otiier 
persons can be. Multitudes among them freely acknowledge and lament the evils 
of slavery, and earnestly desire their removal, in some way consistent with the wel- 
fare of the slave himself, and with the safety of the whites. Some persons among 
them, it is true, are not convinced that slaver)' is wrong in principle ; just as many 
good men in England, half a century since, believed the slave trade to be just and 
right. Such individuals must be conmnced.hefoTe they will act." 

The Board then notice the difficulty arising frono the number of the 



1885.] 



AMERICAN UNION. 137 



slaves and their present unpreparedness for freedom. They advert to 
the course recently pursued by the British Parliament in regard to 
slavery ia the Diitish West Indies; to the fact that ex en in that case 
immediate emancipation was not decreed; to llie dilferent powers of 
Parliament and Congress; and to some important local diiferences be« 
tvveen slaves ib the West Indies and in the U. States. 
Bt'fore concluding, say the writers of this excellent letter, 

" Besides these general considerations, there is one which affects the duty of the 
Baptist General Convention. There is now a pleasing depjree of union among the 
multiplying thousands of Baptists throughout tie land. Brethren, from all parts of 
the country, unite in our General Convention, and co-operato in sending the gos- 
pel to theheatben. Our southern brethren are liberal and zealous in the promoiion 
of every holy enterprise for the extension of the gospel. They are, generally, both 
ministers and people, slaveholders; not because they all think slavery riglit, but 
because it was firmly rooted long before they were born, and because they believe 
that slavery cannot be instantly abolished. We are confident, that a great portion 
of our brethren at the south would rejoice to see any practicable; scheme devised 
for relieving the country from slavery. 

** We have the best evidence that our slaveholding brethren are Christians, sin- 
cere followers of the Loitl Jesus. In every other part of their conduct, they adorn 
the doctrine of God our Saviour. We cannot, therefore, feel that it is right to use 
language or adopt measures which might tend to break the ties that unite them to 
us in our General Convention, and in numerous other benevolent societies ; and to 
array brother against brother, church against church, and association against asso- 
ciation, in a contest about slavery. 

** We have presented these considerations, dear brethren, as among the reasons 
which compel us to believe, that it is not the duty of the Baptist General Conven- 
tion, or of the Board of Missions, to interfere with the subject of slavery. It ought 
iiideed, to be discussed at all proper tiu.es, and in all suitable modes. We believe, 
that the progress of public opinion in reference to slavery, is very rapid ; and we 
are quite sure, that it cannot be accelerated by any interference, which our south- 
ern orethren would regard as an invasion of their political rights, or as an impeach- 
ment of their Christian character." 



♦'AMERICAN UNION FOR THE RELIEF AND IMPROVEMENT 

OF THE COLOilED RACE.'' 

This Association was formed on the 14th day of Jannary last, by a 
Conventtoit of more than one hundred gentlemen, assembled in the 
city of Boston, from their different States, in consequence of extensive 
correspondence and conference among intelligent friends of the color- 
ed race, and in the hope of contributing to the establishment every 
where and in every heart of the kingdom of Christianity. It has re- 
cently ptiblished, through its Executive Committee, IVlessrs. D»niel 
Noyes, B. B. Edwards, E. A. Atidrews, Charles Scudder, Htnry 
Edwards, Joseph Tracy and Samuel M. Worcester, an exposition of 

its object and plans. 

"The distinct and single object," says this document, to which the efforts of this 
Union are to be directed, is sufficiently indicated by thn title which the Soci« ; y as- 
sumed at its formation. We have associated ourselves to i>ct "for the reliel and 
improvement of the colored race." Of that race, we find at the present time, with- 
in the boundaries of our own country, not fewer than 2,500,000 souls. A greater 
fiart of these are destitute of intellectual cultivation, of habits of voluntary indus- 
r}% and of a knowledge of the arts of civilization. Multitudes may also be set 
down as pagans, no more affected by the genial and savinfi; influences of the Chris- 
tiafiity that tili^ tiie land, thaa weie tbeir iatiiess in tie wiidemeMed of Ainou-* 

18 



138 AMERICAN UNION FOR THE RELIEF AND [BTajT, 

More than two millions of them, the law of the land refuses to recop:nize as having 
the righU of human beiiijjs; and not only so, but holds them, with it* strong arm, 
in a condition in which Ihey are continually liable, and liable without remedy, to 
wrongs ihe most outrageous that tyranny can nraotice upi^n helplessiifss. ix>me 
three or four hundred thousand are recognized by the laws as having rights ; and 
their cofidition, various under the legislation ol diueient States and Territories, and 
variously modified by Ihe usages and sentiments of society in dia?rent places, is one 
wiiich allows them at least some hope and means of self-improvement. Yet of this 
privileged fragment, the civil and social privations, the intellectual and moral 
wants, and the physical sufferings, are notoriously such as demand the efficient 
sympathy of all who would honor God by seeking to promote the well-being of his 
creatures made in his image. 

*• The Constitution of «»ur Union does not confine our views or our efforts totbe 
colored racv in this country. Here, indeed, our energies are to be employed first 
and most continually. Here are to t>e achieved, if at aiU our greatest and most de- 
sired successes. Yet we are not to foig >t that the colored people in tuis country 
are part of a ilepressed and wretched, though most interesting race of men; and that 
the moral, intellectual and political elevation of that race, in any on(* quarterof the 
world, is likely to be accelerated by its elevation or retarded by its continued de- 
pression in whatever other regions it inhabits.'* 

The Expositioa then «;ues on to explain that the full attainment of 
the object of the *' Americau Union, ^c.'' will involve the abvlitioo 
of slavery. 

"This is not, however,** he proceeds to say, " our great end ; for if the legal forms 
of slavery were to ceaM throughout the United States this day, the demand for such 
efforts as our Union contemplates, would be more imperious and impressive than it 
is at this moment. Nor do wc seek it as that without which we cannot begin to 
operate: much can be done for the relief and improvement of the colored race in 
this country and elsewhere, while the measures npcessarj to effect th« abolition of 
slavery are only in progress. We seek it, as that which is essential to the full at- 
tainment of o'lr object. We seek it, as that which mnst nece.^sarily go along with 
the relief and tmprovemeot of the colored race, here and in all other couiitries." 

After Tiuticing various (Jefeiices of bhiveiy in the Unit»-cl States, 
which have been iet up, e»preRstng Ihe expectation ofsati^ryiiig eve* 
ry body that each of those several defences is untenable, and repro- 
bating the doctrine that slavery though wrong ought Dot to be aban- 
doned, the Exposition thus proceeds: 

** While pursuing thus the effort to enlighten public sentiment in regard to the 
many evils of slavery, we hope not to be betrayed into a hostility towards slavehold- 
ers, which shall eat out the spirit of philanthropy in which the ef;ort has its origin; 
ue hope not to become so inflamed with the z^al ot propitgandism, as to forget that 
this crtort is only subordinate to our great end, the relief an<l improvement of the 
colored race. Our object is simply to do ^ood, and to persirade others to do good, 
to an unfortunate race of our fellow men, — to do them good wherever weciin find 
them, north or south, in this country or in other lan<is, — to do them good now to the 
extent of our present opportunities of benpfifin^ them, in the full expectation that 
the doing of it will ensure other and better opportunities, and will infallibly open 
the way for doing more and more, till the work of their relief and improvement 
shall have been completed.*' 

The Exposition notices previous efforts for the relief and improve- 
ment of the colored race ; and disclaims any design of opposing efforts 
previously organized. 

"Two Societies,*' it proceeds fo say, **calling themselves Americrn, and pro- 
fes'-^'My seekini; in different ways t'-e ol. vation of the colored man, are already in 
the field. To neither of these do we place ourselves in oppositioii. So far as our 
views of jiiKtir ?, and benovol»*nce, and wisdom will a!'r w, we shaii be ready to co- 
o.H-rate with either, or with Loth, for the attainmeat of objects common to them and 
to us. 

•♦ The ./'jTf r/«Fn Co^mizalion Fociely, with its Auxiliaries, is planti/ig colonies 
of colored Americans in Africa. In this undertaking, if benevolently ajid wisely 
siaaaged, we see nothing hobtile to the relief and clevutioii of the colored r&ce in 



1635.] nUFStOTEMBirr OF THE COLMUED ftACE. |^ 

thi^ conntry ; bat on the contrary, mncli, if we miftaftto not; Which tends to eleratt 
their social and moral standint;. A^inst nllthosc unequal laws and usages, in eve* 
ry part of the nation, wliicli tf»nd to depress the man of color, to make even his free- 
doai no better thaii an empty name, and ultimately to expel him from the countiy 
in wiiich he and his tatlirT^ tiave loo dearly purchased a right of residence, we are 
readjr to protest on every fit occasion.- But we see no reason to protest against the 
erit ipris'^ of providing lor such colored men as may desire it, an escape i'rom the 
oppressions and unpropitious influences, which here encompass them, or even 
a(;>itnst their being invited to improve the opportunitr of securing a new home for 
themselves and their children. Nor, on the other hind, do we conceive that, by 
any bioevolent and reasonable mind, our undlrtaking can be regai-ded as hostile or 
rival to that 

*' The American Anli- Slavery Society is seeking, as its end, the abolition of sift- 
very, and, as a means to that end, the improvement and social elevation of the free 
people of color. Our enterprise, surely, is not hostile to the object proposed by 
that Society. The relief ana improvement o(f the colored race cannot be put in op* 
position to the abolition of slavery. They, indeed, of the Anti-Slavery Socie^» 
regard our end as in order to theirs ; and we regard their end as in order to ours. 
But between their views and ours, there is no essential repugnance ; the effectual 
abolition ot'slavery, and the thorough improvement of the colored race, are» at tba 
first glance, perceived to be not only inseparable, btit mutually dependrnt. W« 
may pursue our end in our way* and they may pursue their end in their way, with* 
out any necessary collision. On their scheme of operations, and the agenciei 
which they employ, it is not for us, as a Society, to pronounce an opinion. W« 
only say here, that we design neither to oppose them, nor to rival there ; and that» 
so far as they can succeed either in elevating the free people of color, or in promot* 
lug an intelli^^ent and intense disapprobation of slavery and of all who uphold itt 
we shall rejoice in their success as in our own." 

There is, in the opinion of the authors of the Exposition, '* a great 
amount of kind feeling towards the colored race, which has not yet 
been sufiicientiv brought into action." 

** The efforts of the Colonization Society are limited to a single object. It cat 
only move in one lint*. And without disparaging that object, we may 9ay that mora 
than that, far more, must be done, before the claims of the colored race on our be* 
nevolence, or our justice, begin to be answered. The • elibrts of the Anti-SIarery 
Society ail mil of a wider range. But, to confine ourselves to a single specificetioii 
of what lies beyond their sphere^the nature of their undertaking makes it imprae* 
ticable for them to do any tbing, tlirectly or indirectly, to promote the eifbrts which 
are made, or which ought to be made» for the wtlnift and improvtoant of tlavai 
continuing in bondage.*' 

This impracticability is explained to eontiat in the excltnire and 
unaccommodating doctrines of the Anti-Slavery Society, which pre* 
vent it from co-operating with individuala and associations who, in 
the midst of slavery, are seeking, in partieuhr modes, the welfare of 
the slaves. 

The measures proposed to accomplish the objects of the " Ameri- 
can Union, &c." are, the religious instruction of the colored people^ 
the establishment of schools for their benefit, affording them aid in 
bringing up their children to respectable and regular employmentai 
teaching them the habit of saving and aeeomulation ; bringing for- 
ward promising young men of color, and aiding their education in 
the higher branches of knowledge; and a full exhibition of all the 
facts respecting the condition of the colored race, and a full illustra* 
tion of all the influences which conspire to depress them in this 
country. 

** On the last topic," says thi> Exposition, <* We propose, therefore, to spara no 
pain.«, and no reasonable expense, in the work of investigating, and collecting, and 
publishing to the world in the form of clear statements and undeniable deductions* 
all the facts that can be ascertainad in ttladoo to such bands of ioqainr aa te 
iaihoming: ^ 



140 KBUGIOVB INSTRUCTION OF BUlYBM, [Mty* 

1. THE FREX PEOPLE OF COLOR IN THIS COUNTRT. 

" ^2.) Tliclr lumber, and the number of families in each State and District. 

*^(t> ) Their le<^al privileges and disabilities, under the legislation of the several 
States and of Coiii^ross. 

'• (c.) Their einploynients: — from what employments they are excluded by law 
or by public prejudice. 

*' (a ) Their oj)portiinitie3 for acquiring knowledge: — the number and character 
of tn."* schools open to them; the number of pupils; the number of children who 
have :iO means of instructioo. 

*' (c.) The amo;int of property owned by these people in the several States; — 
how much, in proportion to their numbers, as compared with other classes of 
people. 

•* fr\) Their increase, and its causes; — how much of it in each State is natural' 
and how much is by emancip ition or immigration. 

2, SLAVERy AND THE SLAVE TRADE. 

" (a ) The lej!;islation and jurisprudence of each State and Territory inresjipct 
to slavery ; and the practical operation of the laws as affecting the power ot the 
master, and the protection of the slave, and the character and happiness of both. 

'* {b.) The economy of slavery, — or its influence in the production, distribution 
and tonsntnplion of wealth. 

" (c.) The commerce in slaves, as carried on within the United States; — ^how 
many are transported from one part of the country to another; — which are the ex- 
portnig States, and to what amount;— which the purchasing States and Terri tori PS, 
and to what amount, and for what uses; — who are thft carriers; — what restraints 
upon this comm-^rce in the laws; — what the bearings of it, on the wealth, safety and 
character of the parties. 

**(d ) The means of instruction and improvement enjoyed by the slaves^ at 
compared with those enjoyed by the laboring class in other countries, and espe* 
cially under the despotic governments: — their actual improvement,*^how far the]r 
have ceased to be barbarians and pagans. 

3. THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY. 

** Ca.) The causes, political, commercial and moral, which, in various instances, 
have brouirht about or necessitated the extinction of slavery. 

" (b.) The processes of forms of abolition, at different periods, and underdiffercnt 
governments, and their comparative adapted ness to the legitimate end of abolition. 

" (c.) The effect of abolition on property; — what bearing it has had on th* valne 
of re •! estate and of other kinds of wealth in different states of society; and how 
this illustrates the reasonableness and extent of the master's alleged right to com- 
pen«alion. 

"(d.) The resuUsof abolition, as affecting the condition of the emancipated 
population and the general welfare of societv; — the a^^tual condition of the colored 
race where they have beon emancipated, and the influences that modify that con* 
ditioii.'* 



RBIilOIOUS INSTRUCTION OF THE COLORED POPUIiATIOK. 

Our readers will doubtless recollect the Report of the Synod of S. 
Carolina in ref^ard to the religious instruction of the colored people, 
which appeared in our August nunober. (See Afr. Rep. Vol. 10, p. 
174.^ Since the appearance of that able paper, its important subject 
has attracted increased attention, stimulated, we doubt not, by the 
force of its reasoning. 

At the October session of the Synod of Mississippi and South AJt^ 
btmft, the following resolutions were unaoimoiisly Mopted : 



18S5.] 



RfiLtOIOUS INStRUCTION OF SLAVES. 141 



I. Reaohed, That the S)rnod consider the moral and religious instruction of onr 
colored population of vast importance, and that 3 solemn obligation rests on all per* 
sons having the control oCservants* and especially ou the pidk&tsors 0/ religion wnen 
servants are subj-^ct to their authority. 

II. Regolvedy That all proper measures be adopted for bringing Chribtlan masters 
to a sense of their duty with respect to the religious instruction ol their sirvants. 

HI. Resolcedf That it b^^ considered the duty of all Pustors, and Stated Supplies, 
and also Missionaries employed within our bounds, to cive special attention ■ j the 
colored people, as a part uf the flock over which the Holy Ghost hath made us over- 
seers. 

IV. Rewhedj That all Christians of every denomination, so far as practicable, 
be enlisted in this great enterprise. 

V. liesolved^ Thai it be enjoined on all who are under the care of our church, to 
exercise a sound discretion in the use of the following methods of instiuction : 

1. To procure their attendance on the word, and the public ordinauces of our 
holy religion. 

2. To assemble them to hear the Scriptures read, with practical explanations 
suited to their capacity. 

8. To or^nize classes whenever it be practicable, for giving oral instruction, 
and especially that united efforts be made to provide the means lor the emptoymeut 
of Mi:Jsionaries, to give oral instruction to the colored population on the plantations, 
with the permission of those persons to whom they belong. 

Reiohedj That it be recommended to ail the Ministers within our bounds to 
have these resolutions read to their respective congregations. 

Tlie narrative of the state of religion contains the following : 

*' But another very encouraging circumstance in the situation of our churches, 
is the deep interest which is felt m behalf of the colored population, and the ef- 
forts which are made to impart to Iheto, religious instruction. In the States of 
Miss'ssippi, Louisiana and Alabama, all of which, except the northern part of the 
last mentioned State, are included in this Synod ; the laws prohibit us from teach- 
ing the colored people to read, aind we are therefore, entirely restricted to oral in- 
struction, which renders the communication of knowledge far more tedious, tl- 
thoneh it by no means cancels the obligation. 

** AH our Ministers feel a deep interest in the instruction of this part of our pop* 
ulation, and when prudently conducted, we meet with no opposition in preaching 
to them. A few ot as, owing to peculiar circumstances, having no opportunity for 
preaching to them separately at regular and stated times, embrace every favorable 
opportunity which occurs. Others devote a )H>rtion of every other Sabbath to 
them; others the half of every Sabbath; and two of our number preach to them ex- 
clusively. We all feel, that they are part of our congregation, for whose salvation 
we are responsible, and therefore we do not neglect, but plainly and i^miharly in- 
struct them, as we have opportunity. We look upon them as an important f)ortion 
of our people, and as having peculiar and strong claims to our sympathies and ef- 
forts, and we are therefore anxious to adopt the most effectual means for the promo« 
tiori of their salvation. We regard them las creatures of the same God with our- 
selves, and as subject to the same divine law, and objects of the same plan of salva^ 
tion, and we therefore labor to prepare them for the same heaven. A nd although 
our efforts have not been crowned with all the desired success, yet U om the good 
which has already resulted, we are encouraged, and feel solemnly bound to perse- 
vere in this labor of love. During the past year the condition and wants of the 
colored people have occupied more of our attention than at any previous period, and 
in f\iture we hope to make more untiring efforts, to promote their happiuess^ both 
in this life, and In that which is to come." 

A correspmdeDtof the Westero Luminary (Lexin{i;ton, Kentucky,) 

after referring to the resolutions of the Synod of Kentucky* on the 

subject of slavery, assumes it as an undeniable proposition, '*that it Is 

by the religious and moral instruction only of the olacks that slavery 

can be peaceably terminated ;*' and afterwards adds: 



* See these resolotioiif* Afir. Rep. Vol. 10, p. 2S7. 



142 RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION OP SLAVES. [May; 

"That the charge of neglect of the religious instruction of the black population 
which has been made upon the church and Us Ministers, is not without foundation, 
I pjivft the roilovvin^ tacts, which as:sist.-il by alVit^nd, 1 have coltrcled. 

"' Coiriftaraui^e oiew u/lfie ii'a ber oi white and black members lu the stTeral 

pRESBYTKRiAN' CiiURtHES IN IVEML'tKY. 

While. Blade, WhUe. Black. 



GO 


5 


25 


I 


40 


3 


iiO 





100 


10 


80 


5 


80 


3 


154 





110 


2 


109 





100 


6 


75 


5 


130 


3 


170 


6 


50 





30 


1 


100 


3 


410 


67 


200 


16 


80 


8 


90 


12 


80 


10 


300 


15 


120 


35 


200 


3 


106 


1 


80 


3 







"He thinks that this tabls furnishes a fair example of the statistics of (he wfiole 
Presbyterian Church in the United States. To remedy this evil, he recommends 
'* ipeci.il preaddne: in every congregation at stated times, and oral itistruction from 
the J3ible in something like liible classes. Oral instruction is ail perhaps that could 
be ctfected withtlie present generation, and with the VfUOLE popuiavsii. In placet 
where public sentiment would a))probate it, a knowledge of reading might be 
taught But for their relis^ious in!»truction simply, oral instruction would be more 
eft'octual: atid on a general sc«Lie and for the present generation, it is indrspensa* 
ble. The great reason why the blacks are not able to understand the sermons ad- 
dressed to the whites, is their ignorance of the Bible. Constant allusion is made to 
facts and principles wholly unknown to them. A general system of Bible classes 
with oral instruction, (chapters of the Bible bein^ read and familiarly explained) 
in every neighborhood, is the only remedy for this ignorance.*' 

Hi^ article concludes with a proposition to establish **a Stale As* 
sociation for the religious and moral improvement of the colored 
people,*' 

Another correspondent of the Western Lonnioary has, under the 
signature of " Wilberforce/' made a more recent appeal. Dull must 
the breast be which can be insensible to the following pass&ges ex- 
Irarted from it : 

" Prepare the ne^ro for heaven. That heaven was purchased for them, with the 
same precious blood, that bought the white man*s soul from woe and misery. But 
is the captive taught that holy, precious truth ? Or if by chance, he has heard that 
there is a way to glory above, does he know that way ? How can he know it with- 
out a teacher, without a guide? The Bible points out to us an infallible way to 
our Father's boroin. But that holy book is closed to him. Is a substitute ottered? 
Is an interpreter given him ? Has the poor negro, with a mind enveloped in mid- 
night darkness, any kind friend to sit down by his side, and patiently unfold to bim 
that light and immortality which the blessed Bible brings to view ? Any sympa- 
thising bosom, who will explain what is dark, who will solve what is difficult^* 
who will clear away his doubts, and beat down his prejudices ? O, if men gifted 
with the first intelligence, are often deaf to all the calh of Inspiration, and when 
they are not, sometimes miss the way to heaven, how is it possible for the n#»gro, 
who cannot name the first A, B, C, of Christianity, to fifid out the path without a 
guide?" . . • . 

♦* White children, with all the parental counsel they receive; with all their ha- 
bitual attendance in the house of God; with all their catechetical instruction ; with 
all their Sabbath school privileges, are, the most of them, bad enough, all will ad- 
mit: with all their blessings, they are far enough from the kingdom of heaven. O 
how infinitely far theo must the irieodless bUcS child be ijom God, how fiaarfiill/ 



1835.J RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION OF SLAVES. 143 

pear the verge of ruin, who cannot boast of a single one of these privileges. And 
yet men often profess to wonder that they are so destitute of all reJigion, of all ujo- 
ral principle, even before they arrive at mature age. The only matter of r»stoniih- 
menl to my mind is, that they are half so good as they are. And yet, strange to 
tell, many give it as a reason for not paying attention to their religious in ler«'sts, 
that they are so bad it will not do any good, as if God, in his mercy, Iiad never de- 
clared '*! AM WITH YOU always" in preaching and teaching; his word. 

" It has lo.'.g been observed, that three-fourths of those who become church mem- 
bers are the t i iidrcn of professing parents. Why this ? Because they are brought 
up to attend church, read xlie Bible, commit their catechism, tu lisp their prayers, 
and be present to join in lamily religious duty. The natural consequence is, they 
and religious principle, grow up together. The children of pious parents are the 
seedoftne church. And so the great Head of the church ordained it. 

*• Is there any other way for the negro child to be prepared ibr the churcli here, 
r.nd glory hereafter? Cau we suppose that he will grow up, and be converted, as 
it ware by chance ? * * * * . * , . 

*• 1 . would persuade you to give your slaves, especially !he c'wUdren, a Christian 
educotiori. That is, fihord them regular, and constant religious instruction in Bible 
doctrine and duty. Converge with them fi-equently about tht^ir souls. Te h them 
to pray. Rej>eat their catechism to them, until tiiey have Larned it by heart. In 
the same manner, encourage them to commit short verses in the Bible, and appro- 
priate little h>mnd. This will not be difficult to do. I have foun«i^ that the most 
of them can learn a text, or a verse of a hymn by heart, by repeating them half a 
dozen times in tneir hearing. But is it said [ have not time to do this ? Then join 
with otheis, in procuring some one who is competent and self-denying enough to 
teach negroes how to. get to heaven." 

The want of religious instruction to slaves, on which '^ Wilbor- 
force'' so eloquently animadverts, has, we are pleased to observe, 
nfidde a strong impression on the minds of the Christian public in our 
country, and led to the adoption of means cak-ulated iu alleviate, if 
not to remove, the evil. In addition to formtr dud more conspicuous 
tnanifeiitatiotis of an improved state of feeling on this subject, we ob- 
serve that a Cetcchism for the use of the coloi'ed people has been 
published in the city of Richmond in Vitginia. Of thiis an esteemed 
Minister has remarked to the Editor of (he Southern Religious Tele- 
graph, 

*'lhat it is not in his view well adapted to the purpose — yet it is perhaps the 
best catechism of the kind that can now be obtained to aid in their instruction." 

In connexion with this favorable view of the subjict, may be no- 
ticed some facts communicated to theEditor of the (lioston) Christian 
Register, on the authority of a gentleman of distinguished talents and 
character, a natii'e of Massachusetts, who received his education there, 
and now resides in Charleston, S. (-. This gentleman thus wiites: — 

" Slavery is an eminontly practical subject, (no one mere so,) and must be seen 
to be understood. In truth, to understand it thoroughly, I think a man mu&t have 
lived in the midst of it, some, perhaps, many years. Thrrc- appear^ ti- be bnt little 
<:orrert information on this jKibject in the Northern States. Hence all the clamor 
that is raised. 




or, 

siderable. 

382 ; white 320, colored 62. At St. Paul's Church, communicants 320 ; white 290, 

colored 30. At St. Hiilip's Church, communicauts 496; white 321, colored about 

To the foregoing statement the Editor of the Christian Register 
adds the following facts: 

"The number of blacks who are communicants in the Unitarian Church, of 
which the Rev. Mr. Oilman is Pastor, is about one hundred. 

** In Augusta, Georgia, is a meeting-bouse for colored people, filkd by a large 
cQogrc|;atioD> with 4 Cloicb cooaUting oS more tbao 400 laembeis. 



144 EMANCTPATION- [May, 

<*In Savannah, according to the account of public building;8 given in Sherwood's 
Gazetteer of Georgia, 2d edition, 1829, page 158, ** there are two meeting-houses 
for Africans; one of which has more than iivo thousand church members attached 
to the con^rp2:ation." 

** Yet (to use 'he words of an able writer in that region), every church has a por- 
tion of its cralleries set apart for llie accommodation of the slaves. Here they re- 
sort, und listen to the word of God, and partake with their masters aud mistresses, 
and unjt-r the same benedictions, of the holy sacrament." 



EMANCIPATION. 



Mr. Isaac Noyes, a gentleman residing, we believe, in the State of 
Virejinia, informed twenty-five of his adult slaves, on the first of 
January last, that they were at liberty to work for themselves exclu- 
sively ; and that, if they would continue in his employ, he would pay 
them the wages which were received by white men for the same ser- 
vices. He also gave them to understand that he abandoned all right 
of property in thenfi, and designed to do what he could, under the ex- 
isting laws, to instruct their minds and improve their hearts. He is 
now paying them from fifty cents to one dollar a day. 

** This is all," says the Cincinnati Journal, " with a design prospectively to their 
final inanuiiission here, when it can be done without violation of the statute; or 
their r-^.noval to Africa, if they prefer it, whenever a way opens favorable toils ac- 
complishment. Four children of this individual have, within a few years, become 
hopefully pious; together with a younger brother, who was part owner of the slaves. 
Eleven of the liberated slaves have, within the same time, professed a hope in the 
Saviour.'* 

Tht^ Rev. Frederick A. Ross, in a letter to President Young, 
dated iCingston, Tenn., February 6, 1635, states that the letter of the 
latter gentleman, on Slavery, h^d brought to determination (his) viewf 
on " slavery." This determination is announced as follows : 

*' My last Will and Testament, as to these servants, is to be fulfilled in conform- 
ity with — ^TJasurc^ of Emancipation determined on, in reference to my slaves, 
Ja.juary, iSHrj. The State of Tennessee forbids the manumission of slaves within 
its limits. But I can elfect a virtual emancipation in this State, by adopting the 
apprentice sy.item. This system is, in my view, better for the servant than imme- 
diate manumission. It? results secure, also, as far as may be possible, the interests 
of the community into which the liberated -luve is to enter. Vor, during this trial 
of t!ie servant, he has his master's protection from imposition and injury, to l)oth of 
which he miglit he exposed were he immediately set free. He has the certainty of 
employment and support— a most important certainty to the poor laborer, and more 
especially to the free black laborer. He is gradually qualifif d for perfect len^al 
(T.j^.icipation. He has the wa;;e5 of the free man He m?iy lay up a little capital 
with whirh to begin life, when he must take care of himself. An<l, while he is 
thus shielded, secured in employment, acquiringhabitsof self-government, and paid 
i\yr his labor, the community is preserved as much as possible from th*i sudden in- 
troduction of those unprepared for freedom, and protected from the entrance of the 
utterly undeserving. In accomplishing these ends, I think I comply with the word 
of (rod, towards the servant and to society. 

*' With this view of the subject, I have determined on the apprentice system in 
the followinu form: 

** I have t Arenty-one slaves. Ten of these slaves are over, and eleven are under, 
twenty -one years of a«:e. From this time until the first January eighteen hundred 
and forty, which will be five years, I shall place thos? over twenty -one on the trial 
of their freedom in all resnects, except that they will t>e under my authority. At 
many as oiav be employea by me, I shall pay full wages, and treat as free domestic 
MTvoats. liaiao aot ibuiaed in jd/ •ervioe» wiii be parBailtod to hue tboiatelvot 



1835.] EMANCIPATION. 145 

to suitable persons, who will give them the remuneration and the nsage due to the 
free. Af^er the 1st of January, 1840, should they be unwilling to remove, and the 
laws of the State of Tennessee, or a special act, will suiter it, those servants will 
be legally manumitted, provided that they, b^ their upright conduct under this trial, 
shall have shown themselves qualified lor freedom. In the event they should be 
willing to make their \^me in another State permitting their residence, or in a foreign 
country, then such steps will be taken by me, as may be necessary and proper, to 
help them to emigrate to such other State or foreign country. If, on another sup- 
position, the Slate of Tennessee will not permit the emancipation of these servants, 
and they do not wish to go away, in that case they may continue as before under the 
apprentice system, so long as may be thought best for them and their children, un- 
less the circumstances of my family and estate, or other good causes, should render 
that course inexpedient, and impose the necessity of their removal. ThechildreUt 
those which may be born during the five years, as well as those which are now men- 
tioned, will be under the care of their parent^, subject to my authority. At the 
termination of the five years, should the parents remove, their children not of age, 
(and none will arrive of age during that period,) shall go with them, and be em- 
braced in the measures of emancipation taken for the pareiits, unless the parents, 
with my advice, should prefer the children to stay and enjoy the means of improve- 
ment atiTorded them until twenty-one years of age. 

Should the parents not remove, the children not of age will be, as before, subject 
to the care of their parents subordinate to my control. The children which shall 
attain the age of twenty-one, under my authority, in the ways which have been 
mentioned, will be emancipated at that age, according to the condition above re- 
cited, in reference to their parents. Such measures, to qualify them for freedom, 
which my cbcumstances, and other duties and obligations, will allow me to employ, 
shall be used with the children so long as they remain under my authority. 

The conduct by which legal freedom will be forfeited I shall consider— gross and 
hardened crime, or hopeless immorality, or worthlessness. Those who shall exhibit 
such characters, in my judgment, ought not to be free. But they will not be de- 
barred from legal freedom for my benefit. I shall derive nothing but sorrow from 
their failure to attain perfect liberty. In such a restiH, which I neither look for nor 
fear, the unworthy will be cut off from the rest, and that disposition be made of the 
person, or persons, which Christianity will approve. 

The security my servants will have that, it they act uprightly during their pro- 
bation, I will give them legal emancipation, will rest on tne same conscience wnose 
dictates, I hope, have led me to enter on these measures for their good. And that 
conscience will be aided by the expectation I shall have created in an enlightened 
and pious community, everywhere, that these measures of emancipation will be 
faithfully complied with. An expectation, I trust, I shall have no desire to evade. 

So much of these measures in all their parts as may be unfulfilled, should my 
death occur during their progress, I desire may be carried into c(Tmplete effect by 
my executors. And as they will be disinterested, a charity at lea^t as full as mine, 
in reference to the qualifications for legal freedom, will surely be felt by them, 
when called to decide on the duty of conferring the liberty of tne laws on those 
probationers for manumission. 

And I hereby appoint — tay executors to fulfil this my last Will and Testament 
in reference to the servants who may be left under the unaccomplished intentions 
of these measures of emancipation, &,c. 

Your principles and my own are thus in practice. I am living under the new 
order of things. The servants are delighted — ^better irfetsed, they assure me, than 
they would have beeli with a sudden change to uncontroled freedom. I hope I have 
not erred in my duty. Sometimes we are deceived, when we think we have the 
light of the spirit of God, and the approbation of conscience. If I am wrong, it is 
under such persuasion and approval of mind. 

In Kentucky, you are in advance of us, in preparation for measures of emancipa- 
tion. But if we were not joined politically to West Tennessee, we of East Ten- 
nessee, would be moving even before ^ou of Kentucky on this sabiect. Our sound- 
est politicians would at once have their deliberations drawn to incipient measures, 
were they not restrained by our connection with the other part of the State." 

President Young, in a communication under date of March 7, en- 
closing to the Editor of the Cincinnati Joomal Mr. Rois's letter, sayi: 
19 



146 COLORED PEOPLE IN N. YORK, PHILADELPHIA, &e. [Maf , 

'* Our laws in Kentucky are more favorable to emancipation than those of Ten- 
nessee. They enable us to secure the freedom of the slave ag:ainst all contin^ncies 
by recording a deed in the county court, specifying the period at which he is to gno 
out. Beyond that period it is impossible, tlien, to bold him. The guaranty that 
brother Ross has given for the fulfilment of his benevolent intentions, is as ample, 
I presume, as the laws of Tennessee will admit of ; and in hit case it is doubtless 
sufficient. 

" I observe in the Journal received to-day, that my respected brother and kinsman 
Crothcrs, has commenced an assault upon our Synodical resolutions. If his reason- 
ing were as strong as his denunciation, he would make us out a shocking set. I 
understand that there are four other attacks, either commenced, or about to be com- 
menced, on my letter to you. As soon as our brethreu have exhausted their qui- 
vers, I will try to examine the amount of injury our positions have sustained, and 
you shall hear from me again. If we have assumed ground that cannot be main- 
tained, I desire that it may be shown. Nothing has been as yet exhibited to shake 
our confidence. Mr. Birney spent an evening in dissecting the resolutions and let- 
ter defending them, before the Lyceum of Danville. He was replied toon the next 
evening ; and no converts to his sentiments have been heard of as the result of the 
discussion.'* 



THE COIiORED PEOPIiE IN N£:W YORK, PHIIiADELPHIA, Ac 

The Rev. Charles W. Gardner, a colored preacher of the Metho- 
dist Church in Philadelphia, has been induced hy statements which 
he considers as unjustly depreciating his colored hrethren in this conn- 
try, to address a letter to the Secretary of the American Colonization 
Society, containing some interesting details in relation to them.— 
Knowing Mr. Gardner to be a very respectable and intelligent man, 
we cheerfully insert the following extracts from his letter : 

"They,' [i. e. the colored people] "have in New York City, one Episcopal 
Cfinrch, one Presbyterian, four MeU;odist, two Baptist, and one Union Society; all 
ofihese are well attended : besides many respectable persons belonging to white 
congregations. loni not acquainted with the number of Benevolent Societies or 
the amount paid annually. The Garrison, the Philomathean, the New York Juve- 
nile and Phffinix Societies, are for moral and literary improvements : the three 
first have given proof of their utility, in an exhibition of talent not surpassed by 
any of no longer standing. The public schools are well attended, ami the children 
show a thirst for knowlcngp. In Philadelphia we have six Methodist churches^ 
three Presbyterian, one Episcopal, two Baptist, one Lutheran, and one Union So- 
ciety ; total fourteen, two public halls — whole a»nountof public property estimated 
at not less than $150,000. Benevolent Societies sixty; amount paid annually by 
them to the sick, interment of the dead, widows and children, $10,000. In 1831-2, 
the amount of taxes paid (though none pay taxes but freeholders) was something 
considerable over the amount oi pauperage of colored people in the Alms-house.— 
Very seldom, in the last ten years, has any respectable colored person been buried 
at the expense of poor funds — though he was ever so poor. The respectability of oar 
funerals is another proof of monil improvement; these are atten«led by from 100 
to 1000 rpspectable persons. There is also a Library Association in successful ope- 
ration. Tlk^se, with the various mechanics, show us to be on the line of improvement. 

•*Baltin'c»re has four I^Iethodist churches, one Episcopal, am! one Presbyterian, 
with a host that belong to white cor^^regations. They have also Benevolent Socie- 
ties; the number I know not, but there are not less than forty. 
^ *' District of Cohmbin. — Washington has tuo Mcthotlist churches and one Bap- 
tist; Geori^etoN^n one Metliodist church; Alexandria one Methodist church and 
one Baptist. There are some hundreds here also belonging to white congregations; 
to the most of these churches there are Sabbatli Schools and Temperance Societies, 
and, to some, Bible Associations are attached: And a disposition for general im- 
improvemopt is manifested 



1885. j MR. UNDERWOOD'S ADDRESS. I47 

"We are aware that green-eyed Prejudice hath ever stood in our path, yet, nev- 
ertheless, we have risen in moral improvement beyond the expectations of our 
best friends ; and yet we have reason to lament that we have done so litUe. That 
we have vagabonds amon::r us, we wilhngly admit — and if it was not the case, ii 
would proVe us to be more than human. i5ut that there are of the whites our 
equals both in quantity and quality, is well known. Witness the house back of 
Chatham street Chapel, in 1832, that had in five rooms one hundred and five hu- 
man beings, and in a small yard five horses and twenty hogs.'* 



tl^t 

SDOU 



MR. UNDBRWOOD'S ADDRKSS. 

On the 15th of January last, the Hon. Joseph Underwood delivered 
an Address to the Colonization Society of Kentucky, which will, we 
trust, he extensively circulated. His introductory remarks on the 
desire for social improvement, and the association^ formed for its pro- 
motion, which characterize the present age, are conceived in a philoso- 
phical spirit; and he is equally successful in the subsequent exposi- 
tion of the principles and tendencies of the Colonization Society. — 
Though a considerable portion of the Address consists of topics more 
directly bearing on Kentucky, those topics suggest a train of reason- 
ing which may be advantageously applied to the whole question of 
slavery in our country. 

We subjoin Mr. Underwood's plan ' for the gradual abolition of 
slavery in Kentucky, and his concluding remarks: 

'* For myself, I can say, that the difierence between the domestic slave trade, and 
L^t which our forefathers carried on upon the coasts of Africa is so trifling, that I 
fould be willing to r.rrest the one as soon as the other. But I Siiould not under- 
take to do it by emancipating the slaves and permitting them to remain among us. 
"I will endeavor to point out to the abolitionist a better remedy. There are, as 
we have already seen, only three thousand, nine hundred and fourteen male and fe- 
male slaves in Kentucky in their 17th year. Now if we were to send to Africa, 
annually, four thousand males and females, half to be females and in their sixteenth 
or seventeenth year, we should oegin to break up all the evils of slavery. The 
young slaves in Kentucky would supply about 4,000, (half girls in their sixteenth 
or seventeenth year,) annually, for seventeen or eighteen years; after wbich, their 
numbers woulu diminish with increasing rapidity until none could be ^und suita- 
ble for transportation. By removing twq, thousand female slaves anpually, sixteen 
or seventeen years of age, we should get clear of the stock before we were bur- 
dened with the increase. «nd when the last of that agre were sep^, there would re- 
main behind but a few su erannuated slaves, who, wnatever we might owe them, 
would ask us to discharge but one debt, the consignment of their worn-out bodies 
to the reposo of the grave. If the people of Kentucky crtild only be induced to 
adopt thi.s pUn, and to prosecute it witu energy, in fifty years from the time it 
shall be put into operation,. the whole slave population of this State would be re- 
duced to an inconsiderable remnant. In the mean ^me, the rising generations of 
our race, beholding the proj;ress of the great wop^, and perceiving its inevitable 
accomplishment, would conform to the new ojM'er ♦f things thus gradually intro- 
duced ; whilst old persons whose habits and ;?rejudices alike require the services of 
slaves, can live through their lives as they have been living. The time required 
tor effecting this great revolution in the condition of the slaves and their owners, 
is nothing. Fifty or an hundred year? in the age of a nation, is but as one day in 
the life of men. 

" Have we the means of removing to Africa, annually, an army of four thou.«and 
colonists? And let it be remembered, that there is as much necessity for divesting 
such an army, of children and old people to make it efficient, as there is to exclude 
these cumbrous claases firom an army maicbing to the field of battle. At a co«t oT 



148 MR. ITNDERWOOD'S ADDRESS, [MttJ, 

tbirfj-five dollars per bead, it woald require the sum of one buadred and forty 
tbouiand doilars to transport four thousand colonists, and to provide for them in 
Africa until they could support themselves. Six per cent interest on half the cap- 
ital of the State Bank shortly to commence its operations, would furnish the re« 
quisite amount, and likewise supply a surplus of ten thousand dollars for contingent 
ties. A poll-tax, or a charity of sixty or seventy cents on each free person in the 
State, over twenty years of ase, would produce the amount. A tax of less than 
one dollar per head on each slave in Kentucky would raise it. The operation of 
Mr. Clay*8 land bill would give us the amount, if the Legislature thought proper to 
appropriate it for such a purpose. A trifling diminution in our annual expendi- 
tures I'or luxuries, and a moderate curtail m?nt in our consumption of wines and ar- 
dent spirits, would enable us to furnish the money without feeling it. But there is 
not the least necessity to resort to taxation, or appeal to charity, or^ to curtail any 
one of the pleasures of sense, in order to raise tne money required. The colonists 
can do it for themselves, provided we will only let them. The hire of four thou- 
sand hale young men and women, the year before they go to Africa, would average 
at least fiity dollars for each. This would make two hundred thousand doliart^ 
and thus supply a surplus of sixty thousand dollars more than what would be actu* 
ally indispensable to accomplish the object. It must be obvious to every one that 
it IS not a want of ability to raise the means, but that it is a want of will to engage 
hi the work, or to suifer the slaves who are fit for colonization to do it for them- 
selves. Our purses are not the cause of the failure. The Egyptians would not let 
the Israelites go. Our eager pursuit of wealth and rank scarcely allows us time te 
think of a benevolent work, much less to do it; and there lies the cause of the 
failure. If every bosom contained a fountain of love deep and broad enough to 
buoy up the glory and welfare of mankind, we should return to Africa her long 
persecuted race, and exterminate slavery at home with a certainty and succeae 
which would astonish the world. 

*' I think the remarks made must convince the abolitionist that colonization car- 
ried on, upon the plan suggested, would exlirnatc slavery in Kentucky, and pro- 
duce a separation oetween the whites and blacKs, locating each race in a congenial 
climate, and laying n sure foundation for the permanent felicity of both. If he 
wishes to contemplate the operations of the scheme upon a still larger scale, I need 
only inform him that there are three hundred and twelve thousand, five bundled 
ancl sixty -seven male slaves of ten and under twenty-four years of age, and three 
hundred andeierht thousand, seven hundred and seventy females of the same age in 
the United Sta*?<». Divide these numbers by fourteen, and it will give twenty-two 
tho'.>::\ri. thr;»«l-nndredand twenty-six males, and twenty-two thousand and'fifty- 
fi'e {emaies in their seventeenth year, or a tr'.. J of forty-four thousand, three hun- 
dred and ei»^My-one which should be annuii.iy colonized; the expense of doing 
whicV would only amount to one million, five hundred ani fifty tnree thousand, 
three hundred and thirty-fire dollars. Half the pr^»ceed3of the sale of the public 
lands apflied to the object, would accomplish it." • • • • 

"The hostility wbicnhas unfortunately sprung up on the part of abolitionists, to 
our Society and its ojicrations, is well calculated to render inefftcient the exertions 
of the Philanthropist in behalf of the African race. He perceives the want of con- 
cert, the want ot system, and the division of sentiment among those whose motives 
are pure, and sees ♦hat instead of aiding each other by co-operating, they militate 
against the success tf each. My object has been to convince the abolitionist, if 
possible, that he should unite with us: and for the purpose of giving more efficien- 
cy to our scheme I shall anbmit, for the adoption or rejection of the members of the 
Dociety, at 6ur meeting on x-^. morrow, the following resolutions : 

''Resolved, That it is expedient to apply to the General Assembly of the Com- 
monwealth, for the passage of br\ act incorporating the Colonization Society of 
Kentucky, and vesting the corporbiion with power to hold slaves and other estate. 

** Resolved, That the property arq«vired by the corporation, either by gift, de- 
vise or purchase, shall be exclusively devoted to colonizing such people of colour 
as the Managers of the Society,' under ibe control of the Legislature, may from 
time to time direct. 

" Resolved, That the President appoint a t/>mmittee of five to address the Le- 
gislature by petition, and request the passage of a law in conformity to the forego- 
ing resolutions. 

"If the Society should adopt the rc.«o!utions, and an application b accordingly 
tnade totlifi XiegisUtare, the responsibility will be tfaiown upon the xepreac&tativcs 



1835,] REV. MR. TYSON'S DISCOURSE. I49 

of the people to decide, whether they will create an artificial hody with power to 
receive and employ the consecrated funds of benevolence in the cause oi Coloni- 
zation— u cause which has already been approved by a resolution of the General 
Assembly, and which we truat has, and will continue to meet with the signal ap- 
probation of Heaven." 



REV. MR. TYSON'S DISCOURSE. 

Rev. Mr. Ty8on*s Discourse. — A neat pamphlet of 64 pages 8vo. 
has lately been published at Philadelphia, containing a Discourse de- 
livered, October 24, 1834, in St. Paul's church in that city, by the 
Rev. Job R. Tyson, b<!fore the Voung Men's Colonization Society of 
Philadelphia; a Colonization hymn by Mrs. Sigourney, and one by 
the Rev. G. W. Bethune; an account of the Proceedings of the So- 
ciety, in connexion with their settlement at Bassa Cove; the Report 
of the Committee appointed by the Society to superintend the sailing 
of their first expedition; a letter from Samuel Benedict, a colored 
man; and one from the Rev. Francis Thornton, Jr. in relation to 
Isaac, a pious slave manumitted by him, and now a merabir of the 
Bassa Cove Settlement. 

Mr. Tyson's Discourse is an instructive performance, containing 
much valuable matter, historical and argumentative. We can make 
loom for the following passage only, taken from a note to p. 43. 

"The best reply than can be made to attacks upon the iruiHves of colon izationists, 
is to display the names of th*» officers and friends of the Colonization Societies — 
men oi the first virtue and talents in the country — whom the country delights to 
honor, and whom nearly every party holds in a respect approaching to veneration. 
I may name the venerable Bishop White, John Marshall, and .Tames Madison, who 
19 President, of the Parent Society. No one will 3U5pect these men of favoring a 
scheme, which lias forits object, or can have for its effect, the perpetuation of ne- 
gro bondage ! If any one is too idle to investicjate for himself what Vie inevitable 
fruits of colonization principles, judicio'i-^ly administered, are, lei him consult the 
paffes of bright names which the annual Reports furnish, as officers of the Parent 
and State Societies, and make himself acquainted with the many benevolent pri- 
vate individuals, who are silent, but devoted friends of the cause. Let him read 
the former testimonies of the Abolition Societies themselves to the principles and 
effects of colonization. The Convention of these Societies which met at Washing- 
ton, in 1829, uses this language: "A pjreat recommendation of the measure (colo- 
nization) arises from the fact, that it t> the only efficient one which is likely to be 
speedily sanctioned by t':e veople; and is the only one l)y which voluntary emanci- 
pation, in most of the slaveholding States, can be effected" See Minutes, &c. p. 
84.— Among the departed worthies, natives and foreigners, who gave to the prfn- 
ctp/es upon which the Society proceed, their concurrence, I may record the late 
Thomas Jefferson, the celebrated Granville Sharp, the amiable Anthony Benezet, 
the truly philanthropic Elisha Tyson, the immortal William Wilberforce, and the 
lamented Hannal) Kilham." 

Mr. BENEnicTsays: — 

"Soon after the Colony of Liberia was established, although my circumstances 
would not admit my then going to it, I thought that it was the most interesting 
opening of Providence for the elevation of the colored man, and for the civilization 
and christianizing: of Africa, that ever was thought of; and I do believe yet, that 
the colored fiimilv will, in days to come, when oppositions and prejudices are gone 
by, exiiltingly acknowledge that the day the Colonization Society was formed, was 
certainly the most ai\spicions day which bears record in their history, and will blcsA 
the day and the names of those who first thought about Africa; and oiir sons and 
daughters will bless us for conducting them to that land of liberty and equality, and 
I hope of true piety also. • • • • For my part, J do vsantiogo, 
altbtw^hootduK^uywuouasmaxyorteachery ^fctasa, DeiperintluavaatfiMOf 



"50 CONSTITUTION OF THE SOCIETY. [May) 

moralusefulness.andifxny life U spared to get to that country, I will be better 

abic to determine what course to pursue. Tne abolitionists have many ^ood men 
enlisted in their party, but many among them have suifered their zeal to take the 
place ol' their reason, and thereby have materially injured the colored population, 
and have biOught their Society into disrepute. The free colored people in this 
part of the country seem generally determined to remain where they are, prefer- 
ring the empty name of freedom, to that genuine freedom which they cannot obtain 
but in Liberia. I liave received a number of letters from Liberia, from time to 
time, viz. for seven or eight years back, and most of them from some of their most 
intelligent and respectable men, most of which speaks highly of their prospects in 
that country, and recommend my going on. Most of these gentlemen recommend 
my going over in the rainy months, or near it as possible; saying, at that time, the 
air is purer than any other time; however, I do not myself regard what season I 
car get an opportunit}'." 

"The account of the Proceedings, &c." states the reasons which 
led to the formation of the Young Men's Society of Pennsylvania; 
some particulars concerning the manumitted slaves of Dr. Hawes; 
and the result of some negotiations between that Society and the Pa- 
rent Board, in relation to these emigrants. The whole history of the 
negotiations on this subject, will be found in the African Repository, 
Vol. 10. p. 193—196. 

The * 'final result" of them was the adoption on the 22nd of July, 
13S4, of the two Resolutions of the Parent Board, published in page 
198. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE SOCIETY* 

As the Constitution of the American Colonization Society, as amend* 
ed at the 17th Annual Meeting, underwent, at the 18th Annual Meet- 
ing, one farther amendment, we have supposed that our readers would 
like to .see it as now existing, and therefore subjoin it: — 

Art. I. This Society shall be called " The American Society for colonizing the 
Free Pmple of Colour of the United States." 

Art. II. The object to which its attention is to be exclusively directed, is to 
promote and execute a plan for colonizing; (with their own consent) the Free Peo- 
ple of Colour, rosidinj: in our country, in Africa, or such other place as Congress 
shall deem most expedient. And the Society shall act, to effect this object, in co- 
operation with the General Government, and such of the States as may adopt regu- 
lations upon the subject. 

Art. III. Every Cili/.enof the United States, who shall have paid to the funds 
of the Society a sum of not less than thirty-dollars, shall be a member for hfe. 

Art. IV. The Officers of the Society shall be a President, Vice-Presidents, one 
or more Secretaries who shall devote their whole time to the service of the Socie- 
ty ; a Treasurer, a Recorder, and a Board of Managers, composed of the Secre- 
taries, the Treasurer, the Recorder and nine other members of the Society. They 
shall be annually elected by the Society, at their annual meeting, on the first Tues- 
day after the second Monday in December, and continue to discharge thnir respec- 
tive duties till others are appointed. 

Art. V. It slrill be the duty of the President to preside at all meetings of the 
Society, and to call meetings when he thinks necessarjr. 

Art. VI. The Vice-Presidents, according to seniority, shall discharge the da- 
ties in the absence of the President. 

Art. VII. The Secretaries and Treasurer shall execute the business of the So- 
ciety, under the direction of the Board of Managers, the Treasurer giving such 
security hr the faithful discharge of his duties as the Board may require. The 
Recorder shall record the proceedings and names of the members, and diieharge 
fudi other duties as majUe required of him. 



1835.] FRENCH SOCIETY FOR THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY 161 

Art. VIII. The Board of Manag^ers shall meet on the fourth Monday in Janua- 
ry, every year; and at such other times as they may direct. They shall conduct 
the business of the Society, and take such measures lor effecting its object as they 
shall think proper, or shall be directed at the meetings of the Society, and make an 
annual report of their proceedings. They shall also fill up all vacancies occurring 
during the year, and make such by-laws lor their government as they may deem 
necessary, provided the same are not repugnant to this Constitution. 

No Otiicer shall vote on any (question m which he is personally interested. 

Art. IX. Every Society which shall be founded in the United States to aid in 
the object of this Association, and which shall co-operate with its funds for the 
purposes thereof, agreeably to the Rules and Regulations of this Society, shall be 
considered auxiliary thereto, and shall be entitled to be represented by its Dele- 
gates, not exceeding five, in all meetings of the Society. 



FRESNCH.SOCIETy FOR THE ABOLITION OP SLAVERY. 

The following is copied from the Boston Recorder, having been 
translated for that paper from the French Journal "Le Semeur^*: 

We announced, some weeks since, the formation of this Society. The members 
of the Committee, who are mostly members of the two Chambers, were dispersed 
during the vacation of the Chambers, and the Society could not be regularly organ- 
ized till their return. 

The Committee have appropriated two sessions to the examination of the pros- 
pectus prepared by M. Passy, and ordered it to be printed. This remarkable docu- 
ment narrates tlie success of those who have advocated in England the cause Of 
the abolition of slavery. After having shown that emancipation was demanded 
among our neighbors, by men of all political parties, the Honorable Deputy ex- 
pressed the hope that, in France also, divers parties will consent to look only at the 
justice and humanity of this great question, and that men who usually oppose each 
other, will here unite for one purpose. The Society, which is called by the posi- 
tion of a great part of its members to exert a parhamentary influence lor the ter- 
mination ol slavery, proposes also to r.orrpct public opinion by its publications.-^ 
In this respect, the prospectus itself will render important services. 

Among the Deputies who have assisted at the last two sessions, were M. Passy, 
M. Odilon Barrot, who were chosen Vice-Presidents; the Count Alexanderde La* 
horde and M . Isambert, Secretaries ; the Marquis Gaetan de la Rochefoucault-Li- 
ancourt, Victor de Tracy, Roger, Laisne de Villeveque, &c. Mr. Zachariah Macau- 
ley, formerly governor of Sierra Leone, and two members of the English Society 
for the abolition of slavery, then in Paris, Messrs. Cooper and Scobles, communi- 
cated facts of great interest concerning the state of the British Coionies since the 
emancipation of the slaves. The Committee heard, with lively i».ferest, extracts 
from the speech of His Excellency the Marquis of Sli^, at the opening of the as- 
sembly of Jamaica, Oct. 7. This official document is important, as it proves that 
the cessation of slavery in that Island has not produced those terrible results, which 
the adversaries of its abolition pretend are inevitable. 

The news from Barbadoes and Antigua was also very favorable. In the last men- 
tioned Island, the planters rejected the apprenticeship system, and gave their slaves 
entire liberty at once. What powerful arguments are furnished by these facts? — 
The planters in our Col&nies, like the English, represent murder and arson as the 
inevitable effects of emancipation. The expectations of the latter have been dis- 
appointed. Will not those of the former be equally disappointed ? To this day, 
they refuse to instruct their slaves, because they And, in their ignorance, a pretext 
against their emancipation. Now, when their emancipation is inevitable, and the 
only question is, concerniag the manner and the time, let them take advantage of 
the time which they have left, to put an end to that ignorance, which, as Jhey say, 
is dangerous to them, and which, as we say, is a reproach to them. Let them no 
longer treat instruction as an enemy, but as a safeguard and a friend. The Eng- 
lish Colonists fell into the same mistake. They, for along time, opposed the efforte 
of the Missionaries for the conversion and instructioo of their bUcka. But the^ now 



15S EFFECT OF EMANCIPATION LAW AT NEVIS. [Maj» 

acknowledge, that where relipon had exerted the greatest influence, there, since 
the emancipation, the apprentices are the most regular and industrious, and their 
servants the most peaci'able and faithful. The gospel, which is the best law for 
white men, is also the best law for black men ; because it addresses itself to the in* 
most affections of those over whom it reigns. 



CALL FROM AFRICA. 



Extract of the** Sessions of the Executive Committee of the Western Foreign 3ftf- 

sionary Society" Pittsburg, March 9dy 1835. 

"Letters from the Rev. John B. Pinney, Missionary of the Society, were re- 
ceived and read. After apprising the Committee of the restoration of his health, 
his own and Mr. Finley*s labors — the erection of a Mission House, and other items 
of business, Mr. Pinney says : " I would eladly fmd a pa^e devoted to encoura- 
ging the friends of Jesus not to allow a few defeats or disappointments to deter them 
from enterprising missions in Africa. The field is white already to ihe harvest,^ J)q 
but send me a few persons to teach schools, in the Colony and native villages in its 
vicinity, until acclimated, and then go forth to the interior ; or, perhaps without, 
waiting in the Colony at all, to proceed at once; and I would fain believe truth 
would prevail and great good be done." " If the Board at Pittsburg can obtain 12 
pious coloured men of the Presbyterian Church, to send to my assistance, their aid 
would be invaluable." 

In reference to the communication of Mr. P., the following minute was adopted^ 
and ordered to be published, viz: 

'* In view of the encouraging facts stated by Mr. P.— of his earnest solicitation, 
and the entire harmony between the original plan of operation proposed by them 
and Mr. P.'s suggestion, this Committee are ready to receive under their care any 
persons of approved piety and talents, qualified to communicate elementary instruc- 
tion, and coming suitably recommended, who may be willing to devote their lives 
to the service mentioned by Mr. P. The facts as to the reputed insalubrity of the 
climate of West Africa are now before the public ; and it is not the desire of the 
Committee to conceal or controvert any autnentic information on this subject.— 
Those who would bear a part in the spiritual renovation of that degraded race, 
must doubtless feel that they are not to *• count their lives dear unto themselves** 
in attempting so benevolent and transcendant an object as the conversion of Africa. 
Mr. P. and his present associate, Mr. Finley, would seem to have passed the most 
critical period in safety, and express great anxiety to be reinforced. How far their 
firm adncrence to the cause, and their successful conflict with the African fever, 
may embolden and animate others to repair to their assistance and sustain them in 
tltoir measures, the event must now determine. No call on earth makes, in these 
eventful times, a stronger appeal to the piety and humanity of the disciples of Christ; 
and probably no where would individuads of this description, properly qualified, and 
especially such as have been somewhat inured to the climate c( the Southern 
States, enjoy the prospect of as great an amount of usefulness to their fellow men. 
A compliance with the wishes of Mr. P. requires that the Committee should make 
this statement, and refer the important subject which it contemplates to the prayer- 
ful consideration of the friends of Africa." 



Effect of Emancipation Law at Nevis. — Mr. Britten, a Wesleyan Missionary at Ne- 
vis, in the W. Indies, writes : "The Methodist Society has here three Sunday schools, 
one week-night adult school, and an infant school commenced in Charlestown, 
about seven months since. They contain altogf^ther 680scholar8, of whom 480 are 
slaves. It is almost incredible, the effect the proposed alteration in the civil con- 
dition of the slaves has made upon them m this Colony. Their desire for religious 
instruction is intense. By hundreds they have pounced in upon us the last year, so 
that we have sometimes been almost at our wit's end to know what to do with them. 
There never txisted in this Island such favorable openings, and such a favorable 
period for religious instruction and education, as now. If we had the means, we 
could, I have no doubt, immediately double both the number of cor schools* and of 
oar scholars tlso. 



nioK 



1835.] tATE mnfEDTTlOHf mm KEW-ORLEAm. BJ8 



LATE CXPEDrnOir iPROBf VCW-ORLfiAira. 

Our March and April nnmbers contained some account of the emU 
grants who recently sailed from New-Orleans, in the brig Rover, for 
the Colony. So many interesting particulars concerning them have 
since been given in a letter from Mr. R. S. Finlky to the Editor of 
the Western Luminary, that we subjoin the whole communication: 

New-Oblsans, March 7th, 1886. 

Dear Sir: — I take up my pen for the purjxMe of communicating to you a few 
facts in relation to the progress of the Colonizing cause in this part of the country. 
As the most acceptable ink>rmation on this subject, I propose to gi^e you a short 
sketch of the character of the prominent emigrants, who sailed from this port on the 
5th iust. for Liberia, in the brig Rover, and of the eircuaptances attending their 
embarkation. 

The whole number of emigrants was 71. All of them were fit>m Mississippi, 
except three, who were from this place. Among those from Mississippi were tn« 
Rev. Gloster Simpson, a regularly ordained minister of the Gospel of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church ; and Archy Moore, both of whom visited tfa* Colony as explor- 
ing agents on behalf of the free people of colour of Mississippi. They returned 
home from their visit to the Colony in the autumn of 1882. They have been pre* 
vented from removing to Liberia before, by unavoidable circumstances. The fami* 
lies of both of them were in bondaj^. As soon as they returned, however, and 
signified their intention of settling in Liberia, Robert Cochrane, who owned Olos* 
ter*8 wife and five children, gave to Gloster a bill of sale of them. They were es« 
ti mated to be worth $4,000. But another difficulty existed. Mr. Cochrane had 
previously leased Gloster*s wife and children together with his other slaves and pre* 
perty for a term of years, which did not expire until about a year ago. Since wniell 
time Gloster has been exceedingly anxious to emigrate, but no opportunity oecar* 
red until the present expedition. Gloster was much respected in tne neighboriiood 
In which he lived. He owned a farm of 150 acres of good land, which was well 
stocked with every thing necessary for carrying it on to adv^tage. Robert Coch* 
rane has lately deceased, and left to each of Gloster^s children a legacy of |^100. 

Archy Moore is a member in good standing of the Methodist Church. He has 
not much property, but is intelligent, respectable, and has lived without reproach. 
Archy was not so fortunate as Gloster in obtaining his family. H« purchased a 
son and a daughter a few weeks since. For the oauriiter he r^^ $750, and for his 
son $1,000. He was enabled to do this by the libendity of the citizens of Missis- 
sippi, who contributed for that purpose more than |H»tOO, They have both been 
anxiously waiting for an opportunity of emigrating to the Colony for more tiian a 
year ; and when I informed them that tiiey co*^ have a passage In a vessel, which 
I was about to despatch fron New-Orlei»A> as soon as practicable, they received 
the intelligence with rapturous joy. ^^ further illustration of the character of 
Gloster Simpson and or the practi<^t influence of Colonization upon public senti- 
ment at the South, I refer you t^ notices in the New-Orleans Observer of the Colo- 
nization meetings held in tliiscity ;* and to the following letter of Jeremiah Cham- 
berlain, D. D., PresideaC of Oakland College, Mississippi : 

"R. 8. FiNLF*, £sq. 

** Dear BroUier^^At Bethel we had an interestin|^ meeting this day. After tbt 
morning service was closed, I informed the congregation that Gloster would deliver 
his farewell address to his friends and former feUow-servants. Notice had 



given to the plantations around, of this arrangement, and there was an unusual at* 
tendance. The white congregation principally remained to bear the address, but 
gave up the main body of the church to their servants and occupied tiie gallenr, 
which has been fitted up for the negroes, and is osoally occu^iedf by them. Tim 
bouse could not hold the congregation, and many persona remained on the outaide- 
His text wasl Cor. 11: 1—2. **Be ye followers,^ &e. He was much affected, 

_ — -^-~n I I umcm 

* Notices of these meetings were published In the Luminaiy of Sfttfa Maieh. E» 

20 J 



**1 



154 LATE EXPEDITION FROM NEWORtEANS. [May, 

and I feared that it would be a failure. But as he advanced he improred, and gave 
us a good practical sermon. The character of the Apostle Paul was tolerably well 
.drawn, and tiio exhortation was enforced with very considerable power. 1 h« as- 
sembly was iif^lcled, and many of the masters and mistresses were melted (o tears, 
the orrler was ^ood. Every person was pleased, and I hope ^ood was done. The 
feeling in favor of the Society is at this time quite strong. I have not attempted to 
do any thing. 1 have seen no person since you left, excepting at church to-day. 
May the Great Head of the Church direct you and bless your benevolent exertions. 
. Yours affectionately, JER. CHAMBERLAIN." 

Oakland College, Feb. Is/, 1335. 

There also sailed with this company David Moore, a brotherof Archjr. David 
Moore was emancipated about 9 years since for meritorious services. He is a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Church, and a man of high character. He is a shoe-maker 
and a planter. Ho owned 280 acres of land. He sold from his farm last year $400 
worth of pork. He did not put in a cotton crop last year for fear the expedition 
would sail before iie could gather it, which was a loss to him of $500, That amount 
being the difference between the value of a corn crop and a cotton crop. In ad- 
dition to the business of his own plantation, he was for several years an overseer 
on an adjoining plantation, with a salary of $450 per jrear.- He took with him a 
Cotton Gin Stand; about $1,000 worth of agricultural implements and mechanics* 
tools; nearly $1,000 worth of provisions and trade goods: and about $3,000 id 
specie. He also took with him his wife, a very sensible, pious and dijg:nified wo- 
man, for whom he paid $500 ;a female slave, for whom he paid $500; six children^ 
for whom he paid $3,500 ; and three grand children. He is a man of great equa* 
nimity and self-possession ; and I never saw him out of temper, except when at- 
tempts were made to dissuade him from g^ing to Liberia. He said " he could not 
help considering those his enemies, who attempted to do so." David Moore has a 
son, John, aged 15 years, to whom he intends giving a liberal education. He has 
already expended $400 on his education. John is an intelligent and active bov. 
He can read and write very well, and has made some progress in learning the 
Latin language. There also went in the same expedition Richard Saunders, a 
very estimable and much respected mechanic, a Cotton Gin and Mill Wright, who 
brought me the following letter of recommendation, the truth of the statements in 
which are matters of public notoriety in the neighborhood in which he lived : 

*' La Cadu. StaU of MissUsippi, January 24, 1835. 
Mr. Fim-ey : 

Sir :— At the request of Dick, otherwise Richard Saunders, I take pleasure in 
recommending him v» the care and attention of the Colonization Society. A short 
history of him would perhaps be more satisfactory than any labored recommenda- 
tion. In the early part of Itmit, his master. Col. Samuel Burnet, died, leaving me 
his Executor. In the following j4»ar I allowed Dick to hire his time, by paying roe 
at the rate of $250 per annum, eleai of all expenses. In the course of four years 
by his industry and economy he was eubAtied to pay me $1,000 for his value as a 
slave, besides settline his annual hire rcguli*ily and honestly at the close of each 
year. My intimate knowledge of him for the ibst seven or eight years enables me 
to say with entire confidence, that I know him to V faithful, honest, industrious* 
and economical. I am, very respectfully, 

Vour obedient servant, 

SAMTJF.L COBUN." 
Richard took with him a complete outfit of the tools of his trade. He also paid 
for a woman, whom he married a few days before he left Mississippi, and her son, 
aged 6 years, $1,125. They, of course, went with him. There a^o went in the 
same company a young man named Preston Spottswood; who at the time he left 
Port Gibson, was employed as 2nd Bar-keeper in one of the largest and most re- 
spectable Hotels in Mississippi, at a salary of $280 per year. Preston has left his 
wife and family in this country, intending to remain in Liberia long enough to ex- 
plore its resources, and then to return for them. Preston's wife possesses consid- 
erable property, and before her marriage to him bad three children, who are now 
at school in Indiana. 

I have given you above, a hasty sketch of the leading free coloured persons who 
embarked in the Rover. In my next I will give you some account of the emanci- 
pated slaves who went in the same v^sel. 

Respectfully yours, ROBERT S. FINLET- 



1835.] LIBERIA. I55 



lilBERIA. 

ft 

The following is from an interesting letter communicated to the 
Journal of Freedom, by Gerrit Smith, Esq. — and written bv the Rev. 
John Seys, — portions of other letters from whom appeared in our 
March number. It is dated, Liberia, October 29, 18^ : 

I will DOW invite jour attention, to a few remarks respecting the community o^ 
this Colony. This is of a mixed nature indeed, but in what country is it other- 
wise ? Here are to be seen intelligent, sensible, and in many cases, well educated 
coloured gentlemen, with whom it is pleasing to converse, and whose houses and 
families give evidence of good order, morality, temperance, and industry. Uer« 
are Ministers of the Gospel, who add to all this a faithful and zealous and untiring 
zeal to promote the cause of Christ generally, and at U tkould be, to promote the 
prosperity of their respective denominations. They have not classical education, 
out who IS to be blamed for this? and while they receive no remuneration, no sala- 
ry, and are obliged to follow a trade, to be entane;led with the alfairs of this life to 
procure an honest livelihood, is it not much to their praise, that they fill their ap- 
pointments, and go up rivers and creeks at their own expense to teach their bretn- 
ren and neighbors the way to heaven ? There are members of several Christian 
churches, who at the sound of the church going bell, are seen on the holy Sabbath, 
slowly and reverently assembling in their respective places of worship to adore their 
Creator and keep his blessed day. In fact, the Sabbath is* held sacred in Monro- 
via. But there are sinners here, unconverted souls. There are idlers, who having 
no resources of their own, when they came to Liberia, lived for six months on tb« 
bounty of the Colonization Society, became inured to the climate, and, though 
blessed with health and strength, choose rather to live by plundering their neim- 
bor*s ^irdens, sheds, and even houses, than labor for an honest livelihood. But what 
of this ? Is this a cause, why good men should withdraw their patronage and sup- 
port from this deserving people, this growing republic ? First, let us hear, that 
there are no drunkards, no thieves, no incendiaries, no murderers in the U. States; 
that there is no longer a need of a State *s prison or a Penitentiary there, and then, 
and not till then, by comparison with A«r, Liberia may be considered as possessing 
a degraded, vicious, wicked community. These very circumstances should increase 
the zeal of the friends of the Colony, to send more missionaries and teachers to 




guarded against in future. Let industnous men come to Liberia, having 
means of their own on which to live, until they can raise the fruits of the earth, 
and they will be contented and happy. 

I would now say something of temperance. I see no drunkards, no intoxicated 
persons, nor have I yet, though I have visited several families, seen ardent spirits 
or intoxicating liquors in use among them. But ardent spirits are sold in Monro- 
via, sold too by professors of religion, not to be sure in the same way they are re- 
tailed by the American Christian tavern keeper, but sold by the bottle or gallon, 
in barter with the natives for such articles, as cannot be dispensed with, and for 
which the latter will take nothing but rum. But there are honorable exceptions 
to these. Take the following pleasing incident, as an instance. While I was vis- 
iting not long since at the house of Philip M , Esq., some natives came up to 

his door with parcels of rice, &c. for sale. " You buy rice ?" they inouired, ♦* xes, 
what do you want for it ?" ** Rum." " No, I cannot give you rum, I will give you 
cloth." They turned off immediately, disappointed. He then added to me, **thei«. 
Sir, I have lost a bargain, I might have purchased for the value of a few cents in 
rum, what two or three times the amount in goods will scarcely procure. But I 
have invariably acted thus, and I always find others, who will take cloth for their 
provisions, and thus keep my conscience void of offence." Brother M. is a mem- 
ber of the M.E. Churcn, and I would to God, that every professing Christian 
would follow his noble example. Let us establish Temperance Societies in every 
settlement, preach often on tne subject, press it frequently and yet affectionately 
on the minas of the people in our private intercourse witn them, and I see nothing 
to hinder our succeeding in driving this monster from the land in the same propor- 
tion, that success bss attended the eflbctsof ibfi Temperance cause ia the Uaitad 
tote. 



156 MEETING OF THE FBIENDS OF COLONIZATION. [May, 

[From the Standard.] 

Vr, Wilton, of dncinnaiit has kindly sent us the following letter for publication, 

lately received by him, from Jfrica. 

MiLLSBURG, Liberia, C(h Dec. 1834. 

Respected and Dear Sir: — I have but little time to write, but I cannot refrain from 
addressing a line or two to you. Since I wrote you before I have travelled some 
io the country, and have been a few miles below Edina. I am pleased with the 
country. For luxuriance of vegetation, and the ease witli which the soil may be 
cultivated, the country which I have travelled through (more than fifty miles) is not 
surpassed — is not equalled by any other. 

Two, of our little band of six, have literally thrown away their lives. And of 
our predecessors in the missionary work, from the universal testimony of those who 
knew them, a majority have fallen victims to their own imprudence, or the impru- 
dence of their friends. The subject is too painful to dwell on now, but at some fu- 
ture time I will speak more fully. 

There is one more remark I must make, though I have no time to dwell on it. — 
It is this: The Colony of Liberia has done at least five times as much towards 
abclishing the slave Iryde on this coast, as the wfiolc of the United States. 

Tlis is not d*'clr.iii:ition, but it is what I know to be the truth. In a few days I 
intend to take a trip down the coast, as far as Cape Palmas, and as sooh alter my 
return, as an opportunity offers, I will return to America— but must be on my way 
back to Africa by the middle of June. 

Respectfully, J. F. C. FINLEY. 

P. 8. I forgot to say, my health is better than it has ever been since you have- 
known me. F. 



From the Richmond Whig, Jpril 13/A. 
GREAT MEETING OF THE FRIEND^ OF COLONIZATION^ 

Od Wednesday evening, the 8th instant, the First Presbyterian 
Church, in this city, was filled to overflowing by the friends of the 
American Colonization Society. It was known to many, that the 
Managers of the Parent Society had adopted the following resolution r 

Resolved, That this Board, relying on the aid of Divine Providence, and the libe- 
rality of the friends of this Society, will endeavor to raisk one hundred thou- 
sand DOLLARS for the cause of African Colonization, during the present year. 

It is stated by the Managers, in the circular letter which accompanies this reso- 
lution, "that nearly eight hundred applicants for a passage to Liberia (principally 
in behalf of slaves ready to be liberated bv their proprietors) are on the booksof the 
Institution." It is also declared to be the settled purpose of the Board to avail it- 
self of all the light of past experience in the measures to be adopted for the security 
of the health and comfort of such coloured persons as may connde themselves to iUi 
care. It is intended to explore the country and to found settlements on the high 
and healthy lands of the interior, to encourage and assist agriculture, increase the 
means of education, open roads and make such improvements as shall render Li- 
beria an inviting home to such free men of colour as may choose it for their residence. 
The Colonists are engaged, with a most commendable spirit, in improving their 
own condition, but the revenues of these infant settlements must be far from ade- 
quate to the accomplishment of many objects of great and immediate importance. 

The meeting was organized hy the appointment of James £. Heathy 
Chairman, and Fleming James, Secretary. 

The Rev. Mr. McFarland opened the meeting with prayer. 

The following resolutions, supported by various facts and arguments, 
by the gentlemen who offered and seconded them^ were unanimously 
adopted :— ' 



1835.] UJfSTlNG OF THE FRIENDS OF COLONiaT^TION. 157 

Moved by the Rev. Mr. Lee of the Methodist Church, and seconded by the Rev. 
Wm. M. Atkinson, 

1. Resolved, That in the judgment of this meeting, the American Colonization 
Society, on grounds of Patriotism and Philanthropy, is entitled to the united and 
liberal support of the citizens of this State. 

On motion of the Rev. R. R. Guriey, Secretary of the American Colonization 
Society, seconded by the Rev. J. T. Hinton, 

2. Resolved, That this meeting is gratified to know that the Parent Society has 
deUrmined, in reliance upon Divine Providence and the public liberality, to en- 
deavor to raise during the present year, one hundred thousand dollars for the cause 
of African Colonization; and that in the opinion of the meeting, tha friends of this 
cause are urged by the most weighty motives to aid in carrying the i osoiation into 
speeay elle ct. 

On motion of Col. Addison Hall, Agent of the American Colonization Society 
for Virginia, seconded by the Rev. Wm. S. Plumer, 

3. Resolved, That it be earnestly rscommended to the Managers of the Yir'nnia 
Colonization Society, to endeavo.- to raise at least leu thousand dollars of the sum 
proposed in the preceding resolution, within this State; and tbat foi tliis purpose 
they be requested to co-operate with the Agent of the American Colonization So- 
ciety forthi.-* State in the accomplishment of the object, and this meeting hereby re- 
quest that application be made to the Parent Society to apply the amount raised in 
the State towards the establishment and support of a new settlement in Africa, to 
be called New Virginia. 

In the coume of his remarks, Mr. Plumer read to the meeting the following 
letters from Chief Justice Marshall and Bishop Meade : 

. Richmond, April 8th. 

Reverend Sir: — I have read fhe circular lett3r of the American Colonization So- 
ciet}', of the oOth of March, which you were so kind as to leav.3 v.-ith me, 

I wish very sincerely that this application to the friends of the Society may be 
successful. The state of the Colony appears to be critical ; and much, very much» 
must depend on the contributions of the present year. The acquisition of good 
land, in a healthy country, and the encouragement of an agricultural spirit, are un- 
doubtedly objects of the first magnitude. Education must be considered as the 
foundation on which the future prosperity and well being of the Colony is to be 
erected. These objects require money. 
I am, Reverend Sir, 

With great and respectful esteem. 

Your obedient servant, J. MARSHALL. 

Rev. Mb. Gurlet. 

Rev. and Dear Sir: — Indispensable engagements will prevent my being with 
you at the proposed meeting, which you expect to hold in Richmond. I hope thtt ' 
«ll your desires and expectations may be realized at that meeting. 

The great and interesting object of the American Colonization Society, continues 
to be dear to my heart. Let it be pursued zealously and judiciously, according to 
the sound principles on which it was first established. I see not that any evil can» 
and I feel confident tliat great good will result to all whose benefit is sought for. 
Mv best wishes are with you. Your sincere friend, W. MEADE. 

]Rev. Mr. Gurley. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

JAMES E. HEATH, Chairman. . 

Fleming James, Secretary. 



Referring to the above meeting in an editorial paragraph, the 
Richmond Whig says, 

** We wish the whole people could have heard the addresses of Messrs. Atkinson 
and Gurley. Long satisfied of the benevolence and excellence of African Coloni* 
zation, we were never so deeply impressed before, with the grandeur of its ckimt 
upon the Patriot and Philanthropist.'* 



158 AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. fMaj/ 

AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. 

The Trumansburg (Tompkins county, N. Y.) Advertiser of April 
1st, gives an account of a recent meeting of the Tompkins County 
Colonization Society, which was established in February, 1831. A 
brief Report of the Board of Managers was read, chiefly confined to 
their financial operations, from which it appears that the amount os 
collections, since the formation of the Society, was $413 29. 

The following proceedings then took place: — 

On motion of the Rev. E. G. Gear, 

Resolved, That we consider the existence of ^very in the United States as a 

treat national and moral evil ; and as constituent members of the nation, feel it ta 
e our duty to use all prudent and constitutional means, to induce our brethren in 
the slaveholding States to abolish it as soon as practicable : And that the degrad- 
ed condition of the peopleof colour ; the exi8t«>r.ce of the nefarious traffic in human- 
blood ; the benighted condition of millions in Africa, call loudly upon us as Chris- 
tians, as patriots, as friends of human happiness, to increase our efforts and aug' 
ment our zeal in helping forward the noble work of Colonization, by ail the mean* 
which God has placed under our control. 

On motion of the Rev. Mr. Miller, 

Resolved, That the benevolent principles of the American Colonization Society, 
and the happy results attending its eiforts to colonize our coloured population upon 
ttie coasts ot their native country, make a direct and powerful appeal to the heart* 
and consciences of slaveholders to emancipate their slaves — have already in their 
operation induced many masters to emancipate : adff^ others, from the same cause, 
are now willing and ready to do the same, as soon as the Society shall be in posses* 
sioii of the necessary means to remove them. 

On motion of the Rev. Mr. McCullough, 

Resolvedy That the plan of colonizing the coloured population of our conotry upon 
the coasts of their native country, presents the safest and best means of elevaun|^ 
their character — of securing their civil and social privileges — and raising them to 
the highest rank amon^ the members of the human family. 

On motion of B. G. lerris, Esq., 

Resolved, That the Colonization enterprise is worthy of the patroaege, not only 
of the Christian community, but of all who have aay re^rd for the lives and the li- 
berty of the millions of natrve Africans who are constantly exposed to the suffer- 
ing and horrors of the nefarious slave trade, which can be effectually suppressed on- 
ly by the colonies and influence of the Colonization Society. 

On motion of the Rev. A. M. IVlann, 

Resolved, That the Colonization Society commends itself to every Christian and 
Philanthropist in our land, inasmuch as one of its objects is to civilize and Chris- 
tianize more than fifty millions of native Africans who are at present sunk in the 
lowest state of ignorance and barbarism. 

The following persons were ehosen as officers for the ensuing yeav: 

H. Camp, President. Ben. Johnson, Peter Hager, Dr Lewis Beers, and Charles 
E. Hardy, Vtce-PrenderUi. Samuel P. Bishop, Secretary. Arthor S. Johnson, 
Treasurer. Samuel Crosby, Groton ; Bradford A. Potter, Dryden ; Beniamin Joy, 
Lansing ; Joseph Speed, Caroline ; J. B. Gosman, Danby ; M. C. Kelloc^, New- 
field; Jarvis Langdon, Enfield; Alvin C. Bradley, Ulysses; Alex. M. G. Corn- 
stock, Hector; A. St John, W. A. Irving, and Justus Slater, Ithaca, Mana^er$. 

H. CAMP, Pretidmt. 

Samuel P. Bishop, Secretary. 

Young Men's Colonization Society of Muskingum county, Okie,^^ 
This flourishing Auxiliary was a short time ago organized at Zanes- 
ville. Ooe public meeting has been held under its auspices, at which 
funds were collected for the Parent Society. 

The Officers and Managers of the Muskingum Aoxiliarj are as 

follows: 

WtshinftoD Van Hamm, PrmdenL Joseph Chambers and D. B. 8pear» V^c^ 
l^nMm^ffmikitkMidtfi, D. J. OuUmtioo ^ H* £. fiwty, Kw*PraiidM^ 



ISA] ^ COLONIZATION STOCK. 

the IVmi. Aleaouider LnUiiaii, Ihtuurer, Cornetiaf Mooito, Afcnrftwy. ThMUM 
Woods, C. B. Flood, Jtmes Boyle, C. B. Tomkins, Charles 0<Ne«I, L. P. Bloek* 

som, N. Spear, and John Arthar, Managert. 



POBTRY. 

Hymn by Mrs. Sigourney, on the sailing of the Ninus with om. 
hundred mui twenty-six manumitted slaves to Bassa Cove : 

A ship eame o*er the ocean 

When this Western World was young. 
And the forest's solemn shadow 

O'er hill and valley hung, — 
It came ; — o'er trackless biiJows, 

The Man of Peace to bear. 
And the savage chieftain eyed him 

Like lion in his lair. 
But 'neath the o'erarching Elm tree 

An oathless truce was made. 
And the ambush wild no more sprang 

From out the leafy glade; 
Nor the dread war-whoop startled 

Lone midnif^t's slumbering band, ^^ 

For red men took the law of love» aC 

As from a brother's hand ; ^' 

And they blessed him while he founded 

This City of our love. 
Where now we strike the lyre of pralN^ 

To Uim who rules above, 

A ship its sail is spreading. 

For that far tropic clime. 
Where, nurs'd by fiery sun-beams. 

The palm-tree towers sublime. 
It seeks that trampled nation. 

To every ill ^ prey, 
Whom none have turn'd aside to heal. 

When crushM in dust she lay: — 
It seeks tiiat mourning mother. 

Whose exil'd children sigh. 
In manv a strangerregion, 

'Neath many a foreign sky: — 
It brings them, frau^t with blessings. 

Back to her bleeding breast, 
» Heaven's peace, and Christ's salvation. 

And Freedom's holy rest. 
Haste, haste, on snowr pinion. 

Thou messenger of love. 
For those who sow the seed thou bear'st 

Shall reap Uie firuit above. 



COIiONIZATION STOCK* 

The following notice was published on the day after its date, in the 
National Intelligencer, but we were unable to insert it in the April 
number of the Repoutory. The promptitude with which the Socie- 
ty has performed its contract with the purchasers of the stock wlU, 
it is hoped, contribqte to the speedy sale of the portion remaining tm 



160 



CONTRIBUTIONS. 



[May, 



band. The friends of the cause must be aware how important H is 
that the Society should be relieved from the pressure of the debt re- 
ported to the Seventeenth Annual Meeting:— 

Washington, March 24, 1835. 

The yearly subscribers to the Stock of the American Colonization Society, whose 
Certificates bear date on the first of April last, will receive their first annual instal* 
mcnt of said Stock, with six per cent, interest on the principal, on the approaching 
1st of April, or at any time thereafter, on application, by themselves, or any other 
person authorized to receive it, at the office of the Society in Washington. And 
subscribers whose Certificates have been obtained since, will receive uieir instal- 
ments and interest as the same become due, on application as above. 

J. GALES, Treasurer. 

A portion of the Stock, not yet taken, may be obtained on application at the 
Colonization Office, at the corner of E and 9th streets. 



CONTRIBUTIONS. 

To the American Colonization Society, from April 1, to April^O* 

Gerrit Smith's First Plan of Subscription. 

Essex County, New Jersey, Auxiliary Society, 2nd payment, 

Mississippi, K. S. Finley, 1st and 2nd payments, - . - 

Collections from Churdui* 

Aui^sta, United Presbyterian and Baptist Sunday School Children, 

Delaware, Rev. W. Matcbett, on account of collections, 

Elbridge, Massachusetts, from children, - - . - 

Farmington, Connecticut, in Rev. Dr. N. Porter's Church, by Rev. Syl- 
vester Woodbridge, Junior, - - * - 

Frankford, Pa. by lie v. J. Lewis, - . . . 

Madison, Maine, Baptist Association, .... 

Medford Circuit, New Jersey, Rev. A. Owen, ... 

New Hartford, Conn. Rev. Mr. Lord's Cong, by Rev. S. Woodbridge, Jr. 

Newtown, Pa. Rev. Mr. Boyd, - - - - - 

Ohio, balance of collections from Rev. Com. Moore, Agent, 

Pembcrton, New Jersey, Rev. Charles I. Ford, ... 

Port Byron. N. York, Ba])tist Church, - - . - 

Providence Circuit, New Jersey, Rev. Isaac N. Felch, 

Utica, New York, Reformed Dutch Church, ... 

Verona, do, 1st Congregational do. Rev. J. Parker, - - - 

VVaterville, do, Presbyterian do, - - 

Winfield, do, by Rev.'ll. Everitt, - - - - - 

Muciliary Societies, 

r.fspx County, New Jersey, Auxiliary Society, - - - 

l.i.u:i ingum, Ohio, Young Men's do, - - . - . 

Donations, 

Doncnster. Kn;!:land, collected at the Bank of Sir W. B. Cook, and received 
through Elliott Cresson, Esq. - . - - . 

Life Subscriber. 

Conway, Massachusetts, Joseph Avery, Esq. - - - 

Augusta, Maine, from the late Mr. Horton Strong, 



1835. 

100 
200 

6 48 

20 



82 68 

2 68 
7 28 
4 50 
14 81 
6 50 



60 
60 



7 
4 
2 

8 46 
6 
60 



29 
6 

7 
1 



50 
24 



111 48 

10 
10 



African Repository. 
Garritt Meriwether, Oak Grove, Ky. 
A. L. Hitchcock, Burton, Ohio, 
S. Franklin, New-Orleans, La. - - - 

Geo. E. Harrison, Surry County, Va. 
Kinderhook, (N. Y. ) Colonization Society, 



$660 48 

8 
2 
2 
5 
2 



* The Lists of Contribations will hereafter ba from the 20tb of one month to 
the 20th of the next 






THE 



AFRICAN REPOSITORY. 



AND 



COLONIAL JOURNAL. 



Vol. XL] JUNE, 1835. [No. 6. 



LIBERIA AND THE NATIVE TRIBES. 

In some extracts copied into the abolition papers from Judge Jay's 
late work on Colonization and Slavery, is the following passage: 

" On the 17th of Jutie, 1833, Mr. Gurley, SecreUry of the Society, 
in a speech at a Colonization meeting in New York, hazarded the 
following roost extraordinary assertion, ' Ten thousand natives had 
placed themselves under the protection of the Colony, receiving from 
it instruction in civilization.' " 

In characterizing this alleged assertion as '' most extraordinary," 
Mr. Jay doubtless meant to indicatei^ an opinion on his part, that it 
was incredible, or unfounded, or at least grossly exaggeratory. Be- 
fore venturing so harsh an insinuation, Mr. Jay ought to have verified 
his citation by reference to the report of the speech from which it is 
taken ; and thus have enabled his readers to ascertain from the con- 
text the species of protection meant by Mr. Gurley, and the degree 
of instruction in civilization which he supposed might arise from it. 
Mr. G. did address a Colonization meeting in the city of New York 
in June, 1833, and may have made on tnat occasion the remarks as- 
cribed to him. That he might have made them without justly in- 
curring Mr. Jay's censure, a little candid inquiry might have satisfied 
this gentleman. 

It is highly probable that on many occasions, friends of the Socie- 
ty, of indiscreet tempers or imperfect information, may have exag- 
gerated the numbers of the natives under the protection of the Colo- 
ny, as well as^her favorable incidents of its condition. But for 
such errors of zeal,, the Society of course is not responsible, having 
never either prompted or approved them. It is a responsibility which 
hostile associations in our country should especially desire not to fix 
on it, if they would aypid the application of the same rule to them- 
selves. If every doctfine which biA been adva,Doed by individual 
21 



16S LIBERIA AND TH£ NATIVE TEIBE6. f Jimet 

• 
members of Abolition Societies were to be regarded as their own 
doctrine, the completeness of their success with the safety of the 
Federal Union would no longer, it is apprehended, be a question for 
reasonable doubt- in a single mind. These suggestions though called 
for by many poitions of Mr. Jay's book which we have seen, are not 
applicable to the. instance now under consideration. We shall shoir 
that if Mr. Gurley did make the " most extraordinary assertion" as* 
cribed to him, he had authority for it, which Mr. Jay will find it 
easier to decrv than to discredit. 

Capt. W. £. Sherman, an experienced and pious ship-master, 
well known to many of the most respectable merchants in New York 
and Philadelphia, was the Captain of the brig Liberia, which carried 
out the emigrants in January, 18-30. In his letter, written in May of 
the same year, after his return, to Mr. Edward Hallowell, he says : 

" Two native kings have put themselves and their subjects (suppos- 
ed to amount to ten thousand)^ under the protection of the Colony, and 
are ready, should it be thought necessary or expedient by the settlers 
to put into their hands arms, to make common cause with them in case 
of hostilities by any of the natives; which, however », is not antici- 
pated, US the most friendly disposition is manifested by all the natives 
of the country from whom any danger might have been apprehended." 

The letter of Capt. Sherman from which the foregoing passage is 
taken, was published in the Appendix to the 13th Annual Report of 
the Society, 2nd edit. p. 47 — 53, in the year 1830, was widely cir- 
culated throughout the U. States and elsewhere, and had been, so 
far as we know, unimpeached when Mr. Gurley made his speech at 
New York in June, 1833. What better authority could he have 
wished for the statement in question, than the testimony of a highly 
respectable witness, thus contirmed by the absence for three years of 
any attempt at contradiction, unless he had himself proceeded to the 
Colony, and personally taken a census of the two native tribes ? Capt. 
Sherman, it is true, does not say peremptorily that they consisted of 
10,(KH) persons; but he states that to be their reputed number; and 
on the same. data, it may be presumed, on which we are accustomed 
to estimate the population of all African tribes or nations. 

That Captain Sherman's statement on this point was substantially 
correct, may be inferred not only from his own character, and from the 
reception of the statement without contradiction for three years, but 
from subsequent testimony, positive as well as negative. In the Li- 
beria Herald for August, 1834, the Editor of that paper, at the close 
of an article animadverting on the celebrated '^ Examination,'' so 
called, of Thomas C. Brown, makes the following remarks: 

" Braxil Gray.— The liberty nrhich Mr. B. has taken in stating, that Brazil 
Gray has adopted native btbits, and married native wives, isaltogether unwarranted 
by Tacts. It is a siaoder on an innocent man, who baa never led bis family lor a 
moment to take up his residence in the country, trading with lb« natives. He is a 
marripd man, with a wife and three children, and though he rcsMes on the North 
side of St. Paul's river, has always been punctual in his attendance on parades and 
other duties i^qtired from every settler. 

" We are sorry to find Mr. B. so ignorant on every subject, upon which the least 
true information, would throw the scales in favor of the Colony. It is a well 
known fact, that almost all the tribes aroimd here, havt thrown themselves under 
the proitectioD of the*ODkmr, and ifaay aisn dcmWtcmr aisiiftk)n» vs hK^ onlf 1# 



C( 

(( 
<( 
«( 
*t 



1836.] LIBERIA AND THE NATIVE TRIBES. (ft^ 

refer to the official records, where the names of the parties are ^iven. It is also a 
well known &ct, that whenever Boatswain brings war on tbeiu, they are sure to 
flee within our territory for protection, never considering themselves secure a mo- 
ment out of it, till peace has oeen restored. 

" The following will show the names of such kings and headmen, all at present 
we remember, as being under the protection of our Laws, and subject to their 
jurisdiotions : ' 

King Gray, and people. 

Short Peter, and people. 
Bob, and people. 
Willey, and people. 
Brisker, and people. 
" Peter, and people. 
Mary McKinzie, and people. 
Farga, and people of the district of the Dey country. 
Prince Will, and people of Junk. 
Bob Gray and people, of Grand Bassa." 

So that, according to Mr. Russwurm, in August, 183^4, it was 
^* a well known fact /Aa( almost all the TRiBEi around ^ere (had) 
thrown themselves under the protection of the Colony.^' and for the 
truth of this allegation, he refers to official records. This arti- 
cle, it will be observed, was written about four years after the date of 
Captain Sherman's letter ; a letter with which Mr. Russwurm was 
undoubtedly familiar, as the reports of the Society are regularly trans- 
mitted to theXolony, and he was the Colonial Secretary. Any mate- 
rial error in Capt. Sherman's Jetter, having relation to the subject 
on which Mr. Russwurm was wiiting, could not have escaped the 
notice of the latter. From these premises it is reasonable to conclude 
that the ten tribes enumerated by the Editor exceed ten thousand per- 
sons, and that this was (he number under the protection of the Colony 
when Capt. Sherman wrote. At all events, it must be admitted, 
whether Capt. Sherman's estimate was accurate or not, in 1830, or 
even in 1833, when Mr. Gurley spoke, the latter had sufficient 
grounds for believing in its correctness ; and indeed that it would have 
been much more -• extraordinary" if he had doubted it. 

In connexion with this topic, it may be mentioned that the official 
communications of the Colonial Agents to the Managers of the Socie- 
ty, exhibit frequent indications of the general influence of the Colony 
on the native tribes. At present, we shall mention two only: 

So far back as the year 18'26, Mr. Ashmun wrote to the Board : 

*'The country people begin, as a customary thing, to honor me 
with the title of * Head man for all their country,' and * Father of we 
all;' and whenever a proposition is submitted to them, they are ia 
the habit of replying, ' You know best what is good for us ;' and in 
case they shall ever be straitened in consequence of yielding to my 
requests, they are "careful to let me know that the Colony will ulti- 
mately be obliged to provide them with the means of subsisting them- 
selves. 

'' All this region of Africa opens its bosom for the reception of her 
returning children." 

In subsequent communications, Mr. Ashmun informed the Mana* 
gers, ''that the chiefs between Cape Mount and. Trade Town had 
bound themselves to exclude all others, except the people of Liberia, 
from a settlement in their country ; that they were anxiously seeking 



164 EXTENT OF LIBEfUA, Hm. [Jqbc, '^ 

an education for their sons in the Colony ; that they were universally 
at peace with its inhabitants; and that when a robbery had been 
committed by a few lawless individuals on a company of the Bassa 
people under the protection of the Agent, more than one thousand no 
tive men were marched under arms, to place themselves at his com- 
mand.''* 



EXTENT OF LIBERIA, AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE SLAVE 

TRADE. 

[From the New York Evangelitt, Jpnl 18.] 

Mb. Leavitt: — It is probable that the most of your readers are yet in doubt as 
to the true t xtent of Liberia. Indeed it would be strange, if a correct impression 
could be received from the multitudes of contradictory statements presented to the 
public. About a year since, I explored the western coast from Grand Cape Mou&t 
to Cape Palmas, lor the purpose ol learning the most favorable points ior the esta- 
blishment of missions. I availed myself of every opportunity of asccilaining the 
condition of the colonies — their extent, &c. I iearnea, from unquestionable autbo- 
rity, that the American Colonization Society had made three purchases : 1st. 
Cape Montserado and its vicinity. 2d. Junk Territory. 3d. That section of 
Grand Bassa that lies on the northwest side of the river St. Johns. This river la 
the boundary of that Society's possessions. These three districts include a coast- 
extent of aboiit forty miles — no other districts have been purchased by the American 
Colonization Society. It was ascertained that all the tribes from the Gallinas to 
Trade Town were willing to dispose of their lands — and hence, the Society named 
this region, "Liberia." 

I learned the following facts, touching the slave trade. They are unquestiona- 
bly true. The river Gallmas is the most extensive slave mart on the western coast. 
It is not within the limits of Liberia — it is the northern boundary of what vxu tm- 
properly called Liberia. 

Grand Cape Mount was for many years an extensive slave mart. About two 
months previous to my visit, the natives had resolved to abandon the slave trade 
forever. They were led to take this noble step, jartly by tlieir own convic- 
tions, and partly by the persuasion of .the Governor, an«t citizens of JVlonrovia. 

Cape Montsera(K} was a slave mart at the time it was purchased by the Agenta 
of the Colonization Society. The establishment of the Colon}* broke up the slave 
trade entirely. 

Littlir Bassa was a slave mart up to Jan. 1834. Two tribes, the Fishmen and 
Krooraen, combined their forces— demolished the factory, and diove otf the traders. 
This place is between Monrovia and Gnind Bassa. It is still owned by the na- 
tives. 

Grand Bassa was a slave mart. There were two factories, one on each side of 
the river. The first was destroyed when the American Colonization Society ob- 
tained the north-western section, and the other when the Young Men s Society, by 
their Agent, purchased the south-western section. 

It was thought by some that Young Sesters wr.s a slave mart, but no evidence 
of it could be obtained. The slave trade has never been tolerated between Young 
Sesters and Cape Palmas, and for some distance beyond. If there is no slave 
mart at Young Sesters, then indeed colonization has been the means of destroyiii|^ 
that cursed traffic from C,;pe Mount to Trade Town, a distance of 170 miles. 
Respectfully, 

Princeton, Apnl 6, 1835. S. R. WYNKOOP. 

Remarks. 

Tbe statement of Mr. Wynkoop may be added to the mass of tes- 
timony before existing, to show that the Liberia Colony has exer- 

• See Gurley's I.ifp of At^hmim, p. 364. 



183&.] £XT£NT OF LIBERIA, &c. 166 

cised a highly salutary infiueoce in suppressing; the slave trade. His 
accouut, however, of the territorial limits of Liberiti is so inaccurate 
as to require correction in this Journal. Mr. VVyukoop enumenites 
three districts of country, including a coast-extent ot about forty niiios; 
and then adds, ^* no other diatr ids have been purchased bij the American 
Colonization Society." That this assertion is erroneous, wiil appear 
from the following abstract of purchases made by tlje Parent Society, 
and described in deeds and other documents in its puMstssion : 

1. The original settlement o( MoiUseradOf was purchased by Dr. Eli Ayres and 
Captain R. F. Stockton, Agents of this Society, from Kings Peter. George, Zoda, 
Long Peter, Governor and Jimmy, on the 15th of December, 1^21, (le?:cnbed as 
"certain Lands, viz. Doxoa Island, and also all that portion of Land hounded North 
and West by the Atlantic ocean, and on the South and East by a line drawn in a 
South-East direction from the North of Moutserado river.'* 

2. The Caidwell settlement was purchased by J. Aslunun and C. M. Waring, on 
the nth of May, 1825, from Kings Peter, Long Peter, Governor, Zoda and Jim- 
my. It is described as a Tract of Land *' bounded towards the West by Stockton 
Croek, and on the North by St. Paul's river, including the free use of the clianael 
of said river." 

3. The Young Sesters Tract, was purchased by C. M. Waring and Jacob War- 
ner (commissioned for the purpose by J. Ashmun, Colonial Agent), on Ihe 27th of 
October, 1825, on which day they entered into an agreement with King Freeman 
of Young Sesiers, for a ** Tract of country lying on eithe^side of the Young Ses- 
ters river, and ext^odinghalf a league Southwardly of its South bank atid the same 
distance to the Northward of its Northern bank, being every whereof the width of 
one league, exclusive of the bed of the river, and extending longitudinally from 
the mouth of the said river to its source.*' 

4. The JurJc Tract was purchased by the Colonial Aerent, Mr. Asbmun, oo the 
nth of October, 1826, who agreed with King Prince Will, King Tom, and Peter 
Harris, all of Juukfor "perpetual use and entire jurisdiction of all that piece of 
Territory situated on tlie mouths of the Red Junk and the Junk, bounded on the 
Norlh-West and N-irth by the ocean and mouth of the Red Junk river, on the North- 
East by the same river, on the East by a line drawn across the narrowest part of 
the Peninsula from the Red Junk to Junk rivers, on the South-Kast by the Junk 
River, and on the South and South- West by the moiith of the Junk river and the 



ocean.** 



6. Factory Island was purchased by the Colonial Agent, Mr. Ashmun, on the 
17th of November, 1826, from King Joe Harris of Grand Bassa. It is described as 
** all that parcel and district of country, known by the name of Factory Island, be- 
ing an Island situate, lying '-ind being in the river St. John in the country of Grand 
Bassa, commencing towaras the West, and about two miles from the mouth, and in 
the Northern branch of the said river, and extending East wardly up the said branch 
four miles less or more, and being of the average breadth of half a mile, less or 
more, and containing one thousand acres, lessor more, together with the Houses, 
Timber, Fruit-Trees, and other appurtenances, in fee simple for ever.** 

6. St. John's River IVact was purchased by Mr. Ashmun, on the 20th of No- 
vember, 182G, from Bob Gray, Jack Gray and Centipade, Headmen of Grand Baa* 
sa, the King and other chiefs consenting. It is described as "all that Tract and 
Parcel of country, situate on the North bank of the Great Central Trunk of the *s 
river St. John, in the aforesaid country of Grand Bassa, bounded as fbllovvp, to wit: 

on the West by a line running due North indefinitely, from the water's edge due 
North of the West end of Factory Island — on the East by a line running in the 
same manner from the water's edge, due North of the East end of Factory Island, 
and by the St. John's river South, and extending Northward indefinitely.*' 

7. Bvshrod Island Tract was pufchased by Mr. Ashmun on the 15lh of Dec'»m- 
bor, 1827 ; he entered into an agreement with Mary McKenzie, Proprietress of the 
Northern Half of Bushrod Island, to purchase "all that parcel and tract of Land 
lying and bei/ig on and a part of the right bank of the Stockton Creek, commenc- 
ing at the disjunction of the said Creek from the river St. Paul, and extending 
from the said head or disjunction, so far downward towards the South- West as her 
right in the lands of the said bank reaches, and one-half mile inland, measured 
from the Western margin of the said rrrek.** 



J66 LATEST PROM LIBERIA. [June, 

8. MUUtwrg TVadwas purchased by Lot Caiy, acting Colonial Aeent, od the 
4th of April, 1928, from Old King Peter, Kings Grovernor, Jimmy and LonjEf Peter. 

It is described as ** all that tract of Land on the North side of St. Paul's nver, be- 
ginning^ at King Jimmy's line below the establishment now called Millsburg set- 
tlement, bounded by the St. Paul's river on the South, and thence running an East 
North-East direction on St. Paul's river, as far as he the said Lot Gary, or his suc- 
cessors in the Agency, or the civil authority of the Colony of Liberia shall think 
proper to take up and occupy, and bounded on the West by King Jimmy's, and 
runnini^ thence a North direction as far as our power or influence extends." 

9. JCdina Settlement was purchased by Dr. Joseph Mechlin, Jr. Colonial Agent, 
and Elijah Johnson, a citizen o/ Liberia, on the 11th of February, 1832, from King 
Yellow Will and Boh Gra>. It is described as "all that parcel and district of 
country situate on the West bank of the St. John's river, bounded as follows, viz. 
commencing at the mouth of said river, and running along the West bank of the 
same to the mouth of the North branch of said river— thence the line running West 
North- West indefinitely, or until it strikes the sea-shore — thence running along the 
sea-shore to the mouth of the said St. John's river, or the point whence it started: 
Also the four largest Islands, situate in the Great Central Trunk of said St. John's 
river, about four miles above Factory Island." 

10. Grand Baxsa Tract was pnrcnased by Dr. Mechlin, on the 16th of January, 
1833, from Kins: Joe Harris of Grand Ba.*)sa, with the consent and concurrence of 
the Chiefs and Headmen of the said country. It is described as "all that parcel 
and district of country, bounded as follows, viz. by a line commencing at low-wa- 
ter mark on the point of land formed by .the junction of the principal or Central 
Trunk of the St. John's river and the South-Eastern branch of said river, known by 
the name of Benson's river, tlience running abne the Northern bank of said South- 
Eastern branch of the St. John's river, for the distance of fifteen miles, thence by 
a line runnin*? due North xmXW it strikes the Southern bank of the principal or 
Central Trunk of the St. John's river, thence running along the Southern bank 
of said river to the point whence it started." 

In addition to the above purchases, in December, 1831, a small tract of land at 
Cape Mount was formally added to this Society, on the shores of a Lake formed by 
the continence otsevcril large rivers, about ten miles distant from the sea. A 
fresh-water river discharges itself into the Lake at this place, and the point of land 
formed b> their junction is that ceded. The Lake is about 20 miles long and 10 or 
12 miles wide, and navigable for vessels drawing seven or eight feet. Several 
large rivers, which penetrate into the interior, and divide into numerous branches, 
afford great facilities for inland navigation and trade. The situation thus selected, 
is f-aid to be one of the most healthy on the coast, and the land is remarkably fer- 
tile. It was granted o%) the sole condition that settlers should be placed upon it and 
Schools established for the benefit of native children. It has not yet been found 
convenient to comply with the terms of the cession. 

Besides the territory described as above, obtained by the Af^ents 
of the Parent Society, its Auxiliary, the Voting Men's Colonization 
Society of Pennsylvania, has recently purchased and taken possession 
of a considerable territory at Bassa Cove, South of, and immediately 
adjoining, the last purchas4> made by the Colonial Agent of the Pa- 
rent Society. 



LATEST FROM LIBERIA. 

The late arrivals from West Africa, of the schooner Edgar, Capt New, at New 
York, of the brig Bourne, Capt. Gaunteaunes, at the same port, and of the C<^onial 
schooner Margaret Mercer, at Philadelphia, bring news from the Colony up to 
the 12th ot March. 

Mr. Hilary Teage had succeeded Mr. Russwurm as Editor of the Liberia Her- 
ald, and as Colonial Secretary. The Bourne brought as pafiiRengers the Rery Johr 



1885.] LATEST FROM UBEAIA. 107 

Seys, Missionary of the Metiiodist Episcopal Church, Miss Farrington, attached to 
the same mission ; Doctor Skinner and Doctor Todsen ; Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Robeifa, 
of Monrovia. Dr. Skinner had not heard before he left Liberia, of his appoint- 
ment as Colonial Agent. Mr. J. F. C. Finley had been attacked by the fever, and 
had recovered from it. M 

By the recent arrivals, letters were received from Mr. Finney, Colonial Agent, 
addressed to the Secretary of the American Colonization Society, from which the 
following passages are extracted : 

Monrovia, January 7, 18S6. 

** We shall triumph. The advantages of soil and products and free- 
dom, which exist in Liberia, will, when prejudice yields to sober rea- 
son, induce the highminded and enterprising men of colour in Ame- * 
rica, to emigrate here on their own resources. The crops of arrow- 
root, coffee, pepper, and cotton, exceed all that can be boasted of in 
the United States. 

The people of Mr. Andrew^; in whom you express so much inter- 
est, have proceeded to Grand Bassa. They arrived here in excellent 
health, as did the whole ship's company. 

Without proper orders, themselves and goods were landed, and by 
the misrepresentations of the opposers, they were poisoned against 
proceeding farther, and made to consider it degrading to them as free- 
men, not to be permitted to settle immediately with their friends.-— 
Knowing the importance of keeping them together, and thus giving 
them all the benefits of the best medical aid, I made it a matter of option 
with them, either to stay at Monrovia and be thrown on their own 
resources, — to go to Miilsburg and be assisted, or to proceed to Bassa 
with the privilege of settling where they chose after six months.-— 
They preferred the latter, and are so pleased with the place, that I 
received word by Dr. Skinner, from them, a few days since, that '' a 
present of all the Cape would not induce them to come back to re- 
side.''**"* I feel it a matter of such importance to place them on farms, 
that so soon as the public boats are put in order, all such shall, even 
at public expense, be permitted to visit the upper settlements. By a 
very careless trial of arrow-root, it is ascertained that at ten cents per 
pound, the land will, with very little trouble, produce at the rate of 
$100 per acre, — and so of other crops — sugar-cane, coffee, and cot- 
ton.» ♦ • 

The annual meeting of Council, has taken place this week. Among 
the most important resolutions, is that giving to each settlement incor- 
porate powers. By this measure we secure to the temperance cause 
almost complete success. At present, although a large majority in 
some settlements would banish the article, the traders of Monrovia 
claim and exercise the privilege of introducing and selling to any 
amount, even in violation of law. The several incorporations can 
now make their own bye -laws and prohibit its introduction or sale by 
fines. They will also be enabled to iay taxes for bridges, roads^ 
schools, &c. &,c. There are many plans proposed, to amend the laws; 
amongst others has been the calling a convention of delegates from 
each settlement to meet in Monrovia. ^ * ^ 



]08 LATEST FROM LIBERIA. [June,^ 

Indeed, under Gk>d, all things are working for our good, and oppo- 
sition gets foiled on every tack. The last news from Bassa Cove 
is encouraging. Many are sick, hut the fever is light. Mr. Hankin- 
son, who was appointed Agent proteropore, writes very encouraging- 
ly. Mr. Finiey and(^yself were there a few days to assist, and sev- 
eral carpenters were employed from Monrovia to go down to hasten 
the erection of suitable buildings. 

The new emigrants, anxious to earn their own money, have peti- 
tioned to be allowed to do their own work, — and the former are 
about to return. I hope for the best, and relative to their health, am 
encouraged by the sanguine hopes of Dr. Skinner. Several articles 
due for the purchase of Bassa Cove, are warlike, — and I am requested 
by Mr. Hankinson to procure them. An opportunity offers just now 
to obtain them from the Edgar, Capt. New, owned by Mr. Garretsou of 
New York. As I need a few articles to make out a cargo for the 
Schooner, I shall probably sell him a small draft upon the Society, at 
six months' sight. I hope as I send no drafts but such as are necessa- 
ry, none of them will be suffered to be protested. 

The facts and tables which you ask for, it shall be my immediate 
endeavour to procure and forward. It shall embrace the whole sub- 
ject of inquiry made by Gerrit Smith, Esqr. • * ♦ 

I have enclosi'd a rough sketch of the course travelled by the Com- 
mis<«ioners during the month of their absence among the natives.— 
Their mission, though not completely successful, has doubtless done 
much good in the way of preparing the natives for peace, and I hope 
the parties will soon be heartily glad of our intervention. The chief 
events connected with the journey, have appeared in the Liberia He- 
rald ; nevertheless, the original journal is forwarded for the use of 
the Board. The only minerals brought back by them, are several 
beautiful specimens of Silex, nearly transparent. 

The anxiety of parents and children for instruction was very great; 
and Messrs. Mathews and Titler, speak of going into some one of the 
native villages, as instructers. Indeed, the call is all around us, and 
hundreds of young laymen, members of the Church, could do more 
good than the most learned professors. To-day, the Schooner M. 
Mercer, Capt. Uiggins, arrived from the leeward, and brings a mes- 
sage for teachers from Siuno river. The King says ''America man make 
town up the coast and down the coast: why he no come here too, and 
build town in my country?" 

The advantages of settlements along the coast, in preventing the 
slaver, and the peculiar local superiorities possessed by this river over 
any other along the coast, render it so desirable to secure a footing 
there, that I am tempted to make a purchase for the Society. The 
public Store, I presume, will be finished and in use before this arrives in 
America. The Council are building a Court-bouse 40 by 30, of rock, 
on the eminence on Crown Hill, where my predecessor had collected 
stones for a house. It is to be two stories high. The lower one oc- 
cupied as a Jail, the other, to have two Jury rooms, and a bac and 
bench. It will make a fine appearance when completed. The walls 
are rising rapidly, and the Committee are allowed to use the materials 
ready at their hands. At the same time a tubocription for a Light- 



ia35.] LATEST FROM LIBERIA. 169 

house is rapidly filling up. If ttii funds were only at corrmand, 
which would enable me or your Agnet to complete the Mill, I should 
feel that niy efforts here had not eniirely failed of success. 

The opening a road to Boatswain, s is necessarily delayed for the 
present, until peace can be established, when I doubt not powerful 
aid can be obtained from him. 

January 9th. 

Among the acts of the Council which closed its sess'^ ^i to-day, was 
one to build a large stone edlHtre on the top of the Cape, to answer 
the double purpose of Fort and Light-house. To meet the expense, 
they voted $150 from the Public Treasury, and I ventured t(» pledgt: 
an equal sum from the Society. To this may be added $100 of sub- 
scription from citizens and masters of vessels, who feel a need of it; 
and $50 on my own account.' With these sums, we are fully impressed 
with the belief that it can be completed. Considerable and warm 
debate occurred on the resolution which was pas«*ed (o create a Su- 
preme Court of Appeals, and limit its powers. The objection urged, 
was entirely on the ground of its being a violation of the Constitu- 
tiou. The reply was made by reference to the late resolution of the 
Society, by which it creates the Council of six, and defines its pow- 
ers — especially the clause empowerinjij them lo make laws for the 
general welfare of the Colony, subject to revision by the Board of 
Managers. Vour Society will, of course, decide upou it, and perhaps 
explain the point in dispute amongst us. 

According to your wish, I have made particular enquiries relative to 
the Page family. They have been here thrce'years. The whole 
twelve are alive, excepting one little child. Having remained upon the 
Cape, they, like others, are poor, and find it '*hard times." How- 
ever, as they express a willingness to become tillers of the earth, I 
hope the next notice will be more cheering concerning their condi-* 
tion.. 

The Temperance Societies have received new life within a short 
time. Dr. Skinner, while atBassa, was so successful as to form one 
in Edina, numbering 49 members, — ^who are pledged neither to use 
spirits themselves, nor sell or give it away to others. Many were con- 
vinced, who only wait to get rid of their present stock, to put down 
their names, and buy no more for sale or use. Nearly a year ago, the 
• Methodist Conference formed a Society of its members, but at their 
meeting a few days since, the name was altered, and the doors Hung 
open for all; many have joined. * * • 

January 20th. 

Since my last, the fever has touched me onre more with its cold 
fiertj hand, and with magic speed, taken more than half my strength 
away, while fast as time wings its way, business close pressing on its 
heels, demands attention and permits no rest. 

Poor Burnes too has come and talked of Heaven, and while he 
talked, the word went forth, **come to thy home." His feeble 
frame did not endure the attack of fever but a single week I — 
and Sabbath evening he died, or rather Monday morning, at 1, a. m^ 
He expected it, though not so suddenly. This afternoon a small but 
respectable little band attended his remains; saw them deposited by 



170 LATEST FROM LIBERIA. [June, 

• 
the side of Mr. Laird, with whom I doubt' not his spirit now rejoices 
above. He was examined by Dr. S. after death, and the climate fully 
acquitted from blame in his case. * * * 

This morning, the Bourne from Baltimore, for Palmas, touched for 
a day or two. Her letter-bag was indeed a treat, but nothing official 
came as to a successor. Why delay so long ? * * * 

March 3rd. 

Tiie brig Bourne expects to sail to-morrow, and like every one 
whose disposition is to procrastinate, I*am overdone with business. 
Esp(.'cially is thi^ the case, because Mr. Finley, whose acquaintance 
witii my affairs and desires would have rendered it useless to write, 
has not yet returned from tne interior, and I fear will fail to secure a 
passage. So important is it that some one who can explain all the 
events which have happened during the past year, at a personal in- 
terview with the Board of Managers, that in the event of his not ar- 
riving by to-morrow. Dr. Skinner, who intended to return in the sum- 
mer, will embrace the opportunity and proceed to America at this 
time. 

My chief desire for this, arises from the hopelessness of obtaining a 
successor without it. Your own kindness will, I trust, lead you to 
uri>;e this wish upon the minds of the Board, and secure immediate 
mtion. You greatly need another Randall here.*** Let your se- 
lection have ai^eye to the firmness and prudence of the individual. 

But there are other things of a pecuniary nature, which I bad gieat* 
ly confided in Mr. F.'s assistance to have settled. When Dr. S., Mr. 
Finley, Mr. Searle, &c. arrived in the Jupiter, we received a large 
supply of provisions and other articles. From this, as productive of 
benefit in forwarding the buildings which were attempted, must be 
deducted the larf^c rations issued by Dr. S. to the poor, — the amount 
nearly $i)00 used and intended to repair the Schooner, — the payment 
of oflicers'- salaries, nearly all of whom claim the right of receiving 
thii whole amount due in provisions — at 25 per cent, advance. The 
expense of clearing land and erecting houses at Junk river, in expec- 
tation of new emigrants, — the expense of sending Commissioners to 
the interior, to open a road, secure peace, and examine the country, at 
JeHst $500. These deductions made, and a thousand incidental ex- 
penses added, and the remainder would have done little toward fin- 
ishing the new Store, now nearly completed ; and (he want of which 
at the time of the Jupiter's arrival, has not added less than $300 to the 
incidental expenses. * ♦ * 

The readiness with which I have consented that Dr. Skinner should 
proceed to AiAerica, instead of Mr. Finley, arises from a firm convic- 
tion, that he can do great good in giving facts concerning the Colony, 
and especially toward hastening the arrival of another Agent. 

His asbsence will be felt byall as an evil of uncommon magnitude-— 
but will render his return the more valued, and perhaps this is a bet- 
ter season for his absence than any future period might present. Un- 
der his constant, faithful and indefatigable efforts, nearly all the ul- 
sers and sore limbs are cured, cut ofi, &c., — in other words, the 
number of helpless and feeble is diminished, in almost a ten-fold 
ratio 



1835.] LATEST FROM LIBEifUA. . 171 

The accounts of the past year have been made up, and are for- 
warded with the regular vouchers, so far as settled. Those for the 
Mill were neglected to be sent in August, and are now forwarded. — 
Their amount is considerable, indeed to so much as to make me re- 
gret my inability to complete it. There are several old claims which 
I do not settle, hoping another will speedily come with full authority 
to act. Mr. Devany's estate claims $600 or more, as due him by your 
former Agent Mr. Waring's estate claims $500^ for old lime tierces, 
now rotten, which they suy Dr. Mechlin agreed to return or pay for. 
This, too, I have referred to the Board, for their decision. 

March 6th. 

I have, by the advice of all the friends of vour Society, concluded to 
send the Schooner M. Mercer to America, bound for Fhiladelpbia-^ 
to be disposed of as your wisdom may decide. I forward an account 
of her expenses since my arrival, by which you will perceive she is a 
constant source of expense. 

1st. From her draft of water being too great for our bar. 

2nd. From want of goods' to fit her well ; if we had a vessel of 
35 or 40 tons, having only a draft of four and a half feet when loaded, 
and a good supply of goods, she might, with the new store on the 
water, be profitable and of service. But if your funds are yet narrow, 
the Agent can do better without her. 

I entrust her to a young gentleman from Charleston, formerly mate 
of the Edgar belonging to Mr. Garretson, now Captain of the schr. 
Margaret Mercer. The crew be will ship from the Colony. 

The freight will be small, yet quite sufficient to cover the expense 
of her voyage. The Captain is to receive $100, at the close of the 
voyage. * * * 

March 8th. 

I am anxious that by the first vessel which the Board may charter, 
a cargo of mules, horses and jacks, fi'om some place, should be sent to 
us. Our agriculture will languish, until something of the kind is 
done. The people get quite disheartened at the slow progress of 
planting with the hoe, and choose any other labour. I should have 
sent the Schooner for some long ere this, but when we had funds 
she Was out of repair, and now that the repairs are complete*^, our 
funds are. exhausted, and we have nothing for her to do. 

If the Spciety shall determine to return her to the Colony, the 
freight will exceed the expense ; and by a few days' delay at the Cape 
de Verds, a number of animals might be procured. The Colonists will 
not do it — those who are able are too prudent to embark in any business 
that will not yield an immediate return, and would not invest money 
in a farm of coffee on any account, lest, perad venture, the Colony 
should be ruined by the Abolitionists, and they could not remove. — 
The rest cannot, for want of funds; so the matter will devolve upon 
the Society. But I sincerely hope, as was remarked a few days 
since, that, in case the succeeding Agent can be furnished with 
goods, and kept furnished, the Schooner will be exchanged for 
one which draws less water, accompanied with a 3 ton boat, copper 
bottomed. The destructiveness of worms in this climate, is past ima- 
gining. The specimens of Uieir destmctiveness, which I send by the 



172 LATEST FROM LIBERIA. [June, 

Captain, are taken from a boat formerly used by Mr. Weaver, at 
Grand Bassa. As you will perceive it is honeycombed. 

In a box, forwarded by the brig Bourne to you, I enclosed several 
packages of seeds and shells, which I hope you will have the good- 
ness to distribute. There are also two large and very fine country 
cloths, sent roe as presents by Boatswain. They are white, emble- 
matic of peace. They were accompanied with a request for arms and 
ammunition, which, of course, I refused; but hope the Commissioners 
sent for the purpose-of mediation will. succeed. -The first interview 
with them, was quite interesting. Nearly fifty natives with their 
long robes were around. 

iZingby, the chief warrior, arose, and with the interpreter approach- 
ed near me, and plead his master's claim to our friendship. The 
words of the interpreter were written down at the time, as follows: 

Zingby say " hoar him now, 

** He speak King Boatswain's word ; 

** K. B. send him. You and K. B. be friends. 

** K. B. send hi:a book* lor you. (I then received the manilla and imallett 

roll sent you.) 
"When you look him (i. e. Zingby with the manilla), 
** Ye look King Boatswain. 
" He say him light war. 
*' He say Goululi people fight him for America 
"Pi^oph* palaver. Him cut path and Goulah people make 
" War, so path be stopped, and Am<;rica man no get bullock. 
'* All ivory and bullock come from K. Boatswain. 
"Cjioolah ho have too much. 

** 'J'hat way (therefore) Goolah people make path close. 
'* All America people belong to King B., and King B. he belon|^ 
**To America people-<-(i. e. there is mutual Iriendship and delence.) 
'- 1 be KingB. Boy — true — no more. I be head war man for K. Boatswajo. 
" Let all America live in my hand. 
I** I cut path — Coolah no be able to keep path close. 
*' Iv. Boatswain say that white cloth be nim heart. 
•*This war belong to America people's palaver. 
''Goolah man no look — (i. e. possess) bullocks and ivory like 
*' King Boutswain*s man. 
** They fij^ht cause K. B. send goods here. 
*' Zingby come tell you Am, i. e. K. B. fight war this time.** 

Here there was consideiable hesitation, as if he was uncertain 

whether to proceed any faither — the vihole of the preceding part htd 

been no uniugenious introduction to the main object — a request for 

powder and a large gun. The efibrt had been to work upon our pride 

and cupidity, to lead us to assist in fighting the Goolahs. He pro* 

ceeded : 

** K. Boatswain say come back quick. 
**Let Gov. send him book. If Gov. send a book, 
** No make war. King B. set down— only he 
** No wantGoolali man trouble Cape, and close 
" The path. Interpreter, my name be Kili. * 

** I be him boy. I live in your htind till Zingby 

*' Carrjr book. (I had then sent the Commissioners the first time, though unsuc- 
cessfully ; they have gone a second time.) 



* This book is a token ; a silver manilla with his name upon it. 
t Poor fellow, he was killed about two weeks after, in an attempt to scale a 
barricade of the Goolahs. 



1835- * LATEST FROM LIBERIA. 173 

** Zingby come quick and bring money— let the news about the Commissioners 

live in tiie book," 
Hesitatingly. " Kin? Boatswain want big gun. He say Goolah people make 
Condo man run, cause he have little big gun." 

As our policy and Christian character unite in requiring peace, I 
refused the gun, but sent presents and urged peace. 

I am quite disappointed at hearing nothing from the Commission- 
ers since tlieir second departure. It is nearly a fortuii^bt since 1 ex- 
pected the return of one of them, Mr. Finley, but not a word has 
been heard from them sioce the notice of their safe arrival at Boat- 



iswain's. 



I fear the negotiation will proceed so slow, that the rains Will have 
set in before the road can be opened to the interior. ^ 

Our only hope is by obtaining native assistance, for there is no 
probability of ever obtaining enough Colonists to accomplish it. The 
report which Mr. Whitehurst presented at their first return, I di,d 
expect to have forwarded, but as he published in a letter to Gerrit 
Smith, Esqr. in the Herald, the leading facts, and has agreed to take 
his journal for the compensation for his time, I have consented, knd 
trust the facts collected, will form an interesting volume — while they 
disseminate information relative to the native cubtoms, manners, and 
productions of our neighbourhood. 

March 12th. 

The accounts are as yet deficient, — the Book-keeper and Store- 
keeper being both sick. The accounts of the Mafgaret Mercer are so 
hadiy arranged, that I am almost ready to keep them until Capt. Lawlin 
comes up from the leeward. If they are sent as the Secretary present- 
ed them to me, I can only say they will not present any thing like the 
real state of the case. She is overcharged, and her credits are too 
small. Having more leisure, I shall immediately examine the books 
and endeavour to«pat the accounts straight. 

We need printing ink and paper, as also a more complete &et of 
school books for our schools, — primary works to secure a reading pop- 
ulation. • 

)ii There are now two Schools at Millsburg. A female one by Miss 
Sharp, and one forboysby the Rev. W. Anderson. Two at Caldwell, 
one by Mrs. Csesar, supported by the ladies of Philadelphia, and the 
other for orphans and poor, by Miss Bush, paid by the Coloiii^.dtion 
Society. 

' At New Georgia two, Mr. Eden for children in the morning, 
and adults in the afternoon (about 20 adults attend, and are making 
rapid advance.) 

The other, by S. Caesar, under the care of the M. £. Church. In 
Monrovia there are three.' Two for females, supported, one by the 
ladies of Philadelphia, the other under patronage of a similar associa- 
tion in Philadelphia. 

The inhabitants of Edina support a teacher, F. Le^is. 

The Rev. C. M. Waring, before his death, had, with great care 
and much expense, nearly completed a small schooner of 35 tons. — 
Since his decease, it has oeen purchased by his son-in-law, Mr. John 
Lewis, and fitted for sea. Her name is in compliment to my esteem- 
ed /rufi(f, R, R. Ourley: and to-day, she commences her first voyage 
to Grand Bassa." 



174 LATEST FROM LIBERIA. [June, 

The Liberia Herald of December 31, announces the return on the 19th 
of that month, of Messrs. D. W. Whitehurst, A. D. Williams, and G. 
K. AtcGill, who had been despatched to the interior to negotiate a 
peaceamong the tribes in the vicinity of the Colony, and to select a 
highland location suitable for an interior settlement. They were re- 
called by the Colonial Agent, in consequence of his apprehension that 
the distracted state of the country would subject them to great danger. 
It appears from the Herald of February 28, that a few days before, a 
strong escort arrived from King Boatswain, soliciting the immediate 
renewal of the embassy, and giving the most earnest assurance that 
every facility would be rendered on his part for the full accomplish- 
ment of one of the objects of the mission. The Colonial Agent im- 
mediately re-appointed the same Commissioners, associating with them 
Mr. Josiah F. C. Finley. 

" Under any circumstances/* says tlie Herald, "the duties assigned these Gen- 
tlemen are arduous and difficult, — but in the present instance, they arc peculiarly 
so. 'J'he interests of the parties, between wliom they ^o to mediate, are in direct 
opposition. One has always been accustomed to replenish his store, or recruit his 
revenue, from the spoils of the other, and having 9o often succeeded in his predato- 
ry attempts, he is conlident of continued success. The other, having at length se- 
cured the assistance and concurrence of the surrounding tribes, seems inclined to 
risk the decision on a battle, rather than to trust to any treaty of amity or peace 
vs'ith him whom he has so often found faithless. 

We hope, iiowever, that the Commissioners may persuade them to **bury the 
hatchet.'* The well-bcinp; of the Colony, in a great measure, certainly depends on 
it. If the war should continue to rage for a few months, as it has for some short 
time past, amon«^thc evils that will result, we may with certainty anticipate that 
of the advance in the price of rice, to one dollar ana twenty-five cents a croo; and 
1 sorer evil, all circumstances considered, we cannot be afflicted with." 

The wars in which the different tribes or nations are now engaged, 
are described as being very sanguinary and destructive, and as raging 
almost at the doors of the Colonists. Jenkins, one of the belligerents, 
had received from one uf the native Kings a subsidy of 500 men, 
completely armed and equipped for African warfare. The. informant 
of the Herald, who was at Jenkins' when the reenforcement arrived, 
says : 

** They were accompanied by the largest bullock he remembers having seen in 
Afric'i —a ix'csent from their King to Jenkins, with the following very singular in- 
juncliou — un injunction truly African, which has reference to a custom prevailing 
among them, oxpressive of their determination to reject all conciliatory overtures. 
The injunction was, that the bullock must not be sold for tobacco, rum, nor any 
thing else ; but killed in the centre of Jenkins* Town — the blood to be sprinkled 
throughout the town — and a piece of the flesh to be eaten by every man that in- 
tends to fi^ht. What secret energy there is in the sprinkling of blood, or flesh, 
other than the strength it yields to the muscles of the human animal, I am not 
enough of a philosopher to divine. Perhaps, though, a secret virtue has its resi- 
dence in tlie blood and flesh of the beast, and by sprinkling and deglutition, is 
transfused throu^rh the souls of the doughty warriors. Perhaps it acts as an amu- 
let, and transmutes the balls of its adversary to water, or charms them harmless 
to the feet of the beof-eating warrior." 

"A little knowledge," proceeds tlie Herald, "of African diplomacy and politi- 
cal etiquette, forbids ^us to anticipate the cessation of hostilities within any short 
period. Jcnkms seems confident of success in the event of a general engagement. 
Our informant sa)[s he will not listen to any thing like a treaty, and declares that 
Boatswain feels himsrlf bound by an engagement, only so k)ng as adherence is 
strictly compatible with his interest." 

(^ape Mount was again the seat of war, the chief actors in the scene 



1835. ] latest: from LIBERIA. 175 

being the two veteraDS Gomes aod Brown, and bad become almost 
deserted by even the natives of the place. The object of the con- 
tention, is to determine who shall, and who shall not, reside on the 
beach. 

BrowQ puts in his claim from alliance H'itb Prince Jarrah, and superiority in 
pointiot* possession of this world's goods. Gomes, on the other hand, contests his. 
claim on these very grounds, and contends that Prince's right to the beach was 
only founded in the conquest of his father, and expired with the power to support 
it ; and alleges, in support of his claim, his connexion with Far-Torah, whom he 
declares to be the rightful ** Monarch of all he surveys." Old Gray steps up and 
denounces them all — robbers — declaring that he is the only king in that country ; 
that they refuse to obey him merely because he has not power to enforce obeili- 
ence. Among these conliicting claimants, as the turban and horsciaily are not ex- 
actly hereditary, it is diiiicult to say which is the rightful owner. It is indeed to 
be lamented, that this place, which has hitherto yielded so large a portion of oiir 
commercial exports, should be rendered so completely unproductive, merely from 
the caprice of a few pra^^matical headmen. It is well known that neither Brown 
nor Gomes, has any right to the country ; neither of them being natives of Cape 
Mount, and it is also equally well known, that they are ihe chief instigators of all 
the hostile measures, that have been recently conducted in that region. We have 
been informed that Brown is at Gambia, a town about tliree miles from the, beach, 
and when the Henrietta sailed, a battle was hourly expecte^. 

The following article from the Herald, adds to melancholy proofs, 
that the slave trade is still actively carried on, and loudly demands 
the extension and invigoration of the Colonization principle in Africa, 
as the most efficient means of prostrating that horrid traffic : 

Comforts of Slavery. — We have been informed that the slaves purchased by 
the Captain of the French schooner at Little Bassa, have killed one of their keep- 
ers ana effected their escape. Two or three of the men wIjo were secured in cou- 
ples, by chains on their feet, contrived to get olf the irons at a time when the Cap- 
lain and cook were out of the enclosure. They instantly entered the house and 
secured the arms and ammunition. The Captain and cook returning shortly after, 
the latterwas killed on entering the gate— one of the slaves pouringihe contents 
of the musket precisely in bis mouth. The Captain instantly fled, and also the 
rest of the Frenchmen, that were confined to the house by illness, and who, until 
aroused by the report of the gun, wer? unconscious of their dangerous situation. — 
These slaves immediQtely proceeded to liberate, their companions in thraldom, and 
after rifling the house of articles of comfortand security, they retreated to the bush. 
Thirty of them have been apprehended, and delivered to the Captain, who im- 
mediately on obtaining them, sent them on board. The remaining eighty-seven 
are still in the bush , bidding defiance to all that are disposed to molest them. Five 
days after this occurrence, the Captain left the coast. 

The Herald notices the arrival of 54 emigrants to Cape Palmas in 
the following remarks : 

Arrival or Emigrants. — Arrived in our harbour on the 18th instant, the brig 
Bourne, of Baltimore, Md., Capt. Gaunteaune, having on board 51 emigrants, des- 
tined for Cape Palmas. We are indeed happy to see that the jatrons and friends 
of that newly established settlement, are still prosecuting their object with vigor. 
We regard colonies along the coast as the most important weapons, with which to 
combatthe African slave trade. The idea of putting an end to the slave trade, by 
stationing a few armed ships on the coast, we deem visionary— 'and serves, we 
tliink, only one good purpose; that is, it exposes the vanity of the attempt: it 
Forves only to show in a degree, to what an enormous extent the traffic in human 
flesh is prosecuted on the coast. Slavers, possessing the same cunning as men-of- 
war-men, watch an armed vessel as closely as they can possibly watch him, and 
take advantage of every movement; no sooner is the armed vessel out of sight, 
than they cram their human cargo in the hold, and commit their safety to the agil- 
ity of the vessel, which is almost always superior, and nine times out often, arc 
not detected, even though they should he pursued. LiBeriais a standing; evidence. 



176 LATEST FROM LIBERIA. . [June, 

that slavers cannot breathe in a moral atmosphere; their detestable trailic shuns 
the abodes of fair and legitimate trade, as the blear-eyed bat, the biaze of noon-day; 
hence we conclude that one Colony, established on the principles of temperance 
and peace, sustainiiif^, in their purity, the moral and religious institutions of the 
motljcr country, is worth a dozen scores of men of war. 

Apart froii/tliis, there is another advantage of colonies, which has not as yet 
been mentioned. If ever Africa is to be civilized and christianized, tisto be done 
by colonies. I'hey are the points from which the rays of light are to diverge, to the 
b«rjii:hted sons of Africa. A moral anli industrious' colony, prosecuting honorable 
and h*gitimatc trade, appeals to the selfisimess of the natives, and attacks them on 
the side of their avarice ; and we, who nave had much intercourse with them, know 
that avarico! and imitative curiosity are piedominant features in the African char- 
acter. J3ut in our rage for the plantation of colonies, prudence ought to guide our 
steps, and tiirect our movements. We should be cautious, that we do not turn our 
attention to the establishment ol another, ere the former has taken sufiicient root 
to progress towards maturity, without the continual attention of the fostering hand 
thatfnyt ]»lanted it. The moment a colony begins to flag, or ceases to progress, 
that moment the intluence it exerts on the minds of the natives, is unfavorable. — 
How soon do we licar them say, (in reference to some trader, perhaps, with whom 
they werr» accuFtomed to deal,) "first, he be my friend, he have money;" (waa 
ricli) ** this time, he be poor fellow : I look *tother friend." They naturally thinks 
that the stamina — the principle of that system cannot be good, which doe^not con- 
tinue progressing. 

A splendid new schooner, called *'R. R. Gurley," in complimeDt 
to the Secjetaiy of the American Colonization Society, bad beea 
launched. In noticing this occurrence, the Herald 8ay.s: 

"From some causes, which have been beyond our control, but which, it were 
only reasonable to expect in an infant community like this, some have concluded 
the colony aid every thing conneeted with it, on the retrograde march. Wc think 
the conclusion gloomy and unjust; and that the numerous buildings and repairs of 
houses and vessels, at present carrying on in the colony, afford ground foriin infer- 
ence dir.'ctly oi)posite.'* 

Our nadcrs will 'loublless be pleased with the following fdrtiicr ex- 
tracts from tiie Herald : 

The C'-ntril l^resbyterian Chnri'Iu hit^^ly under the care of Rev. Wm. Patton, 
li.ivefiv<-n u unaniiiiMii", iirvitat'oi; \o **ev.Wm. Adams, recently of iirighton, Mas- 
s;ichu.-eit««. tol)c*co;no their p:. tor. 

nnpii\l (Viv.rch ff Mtmrfwin . — Th"? First Baptist Church of Monrovia, recently 
!mder the ]>asl(Mid eiue of the late C. jM. Waring, sitting in a conference capacity, 
have, by a unanimous vot's elected the Rev. Jons Lewis, of th.s town, as 
pfistor. 

"We arp pleased to state that a fifth Ijapti^st Church in Liberia was constituted 
at raldwelloii tlic2i>th of Februaiy, to which the Rev. Dr. Skinner attached him- 
self."' 

fiisirntinn of thr Nu.ivcR. — " V/e feel proud to noticfi tlic commencement of a 
•■ciiool, i'or the tuition of the natives, by Mr. Titler, under the patnmaefe of the 
Wtst.T'i lioard of Foreign Missions. This school is established on the Junk river, 
about iniOwiiv between this place and that. Tlie account Mr. Titler gave of the 
extieir.o anxiety evinced by the natives for the instruction of tlieir children is truly 
grati lying 

In Vno Coup.t 'i tlint were called, when the subject was first proposed to th^m, 
Wv.'To wni !)ut onedissenting voice; not only a general aprprobation was expressed, 
but tbo iiiO't voI'Mun nssuranee given mh the part of the headmen, that every thing 
.'^iiould be done to facilitate the o!){ect: and in testimony thereof, they im'nediately 
pl'MlLced tlv'Mjsr'.es to furnish as much rice and other necessary provision?, as wo'ild 
be s'lfnciont for the scliohirs. As the farming season is at hand, they furnished Mr. 
Titler with a large lumse, hitherto used for domestic purposes, promising that as 
•-ocii as l!iey finish cutting their larms, they will furnish a new one. Thej' have 
:«l>o put soine of their female children undcrthe care of Mrs. Titler, to learn, asrthej* 
cali it, " Whito man fash." 



1836.] LATEST FROM LIBERIA, 177 

jSgricuUun. — ** We have been pleased lately in witnessing the immense quan- 
tity of potatoes exhibited for sale by the New 6eorgia, and Caldwell agriculturists. 
The Quality this season in size and flavor is far superior to any raised at an^ past 
period ; and the quantity has been so great, as to reduce the price one half from 
that at which they were a year ago sold; and yet they have literdly gone begging 
for the want of purchasers. This augurs good; for if in proportion as money be- 
comes scarce, provisions fall in price, the scarcity will not be fel^ so far as it is 
wanted for provisioning ; and that provisions can be produced at prices greatly un- 
der those it which they have heretofore been sold, and at the salQic time, yield a fair 
and reasonable profit to the cultivator, attempts lately made most abundantly 
testify." 

Juriipnidence, 

** Court or Appxaxs. — It is with pleasure we announce to the citizens, the 
organization of a Court of Appeals in the Colony. This Court was created by an 
Act of the Agent and Council of this Colony, in January last. Its first session was 
held on the second Monday in this month, on which day it was organized and ad- 
journed to the second Wednesday in February, when it met for the final decision 
of all cases which were legally referred to it. 

" Such a Court has long been a desideratum in the Colony. The complaint^ we 
have 80 often heard, from those who have been dissatisfied with the decision of the 
Court of Monthly Session, is hereby remedied, and we hope by this wise legisia- 
tioti, that all parties may be satisfied. The person that considers justice is done 
him in the lower Court, never thinks of appealing, and if the Supreme Court should 
in any instance confirm the decision of tne lower, the appellant, if he is a reasona- 
ble being, must surely be convinced of the justice of the decision, even thoup;h he 
should come ofiT minus. If we were allowed to express our opinion, we would in- 
timate that the Court commences too far in the rule of addition, for a great many, 
to whom the sum of fifty, or even ten dollars, would be an object of great impor- 
tance. Laws are made for the benefit of the poor, as well as the rich ; and in le- 
gislating, the former should be mors especially kept in view. This Court, of 
eourse, nas original jorisdictioB in no cases ; and appellate jurisdiction only in 
such, in which the sum in dispute is over one hundrea dollars. If the word " hun- 
dred" was fifty, we should say, it would be more likely to embrace a greater num- 
ber of proper subjects, for its decision." 

OMuary. — Died in Monrovia, on Monday, the 20th of October, of fever, Mr. 
Chaklxs H. Webs, of Winchester, Va., ai^d 22 years. 

Mr. Webb, formed one of the band who have devoted their lives to the cause of 
African prosperity, and arrived here in July last, by the ship Jupiter. Ardently 
attached to the profession of medicine, he quitted his attendance on the lectures at 
Washington, that he might be enabled to derive an acquaintance with the diseases 
of Africa, and be the better enabled to graduate with honor to himself, and advan- 
tage to his fellow beings. Since his arrival, his exertions have been unceasing 
in attendance on the sick, and his fatal illness may be attributed to the zeal and de- 
votion which he uniformly exhibited in the discharge of duty. He was an honora- 
ble man, with an amiable disposition, and it may l£ mentioned here, as a high tes- 
timony of his worth, that he was beloved by all in our town, who feel in this dis- 
pensation of Providence, a regret for his untimely loss. 

Died at Millsbure, on the 11th of February, Fbcdsrick James, Esqr, Mr. 
James was one of tne fathers of the Colony. He left the United States in 1820, 
and followed and sustained, by all the means in his power, the embryo republic, 
until it took up its abode on Montserado. When the Colony was assailed by the 
surrounding sava^, and threatened with immediate and total destruction,. he was 
seen foremost in its defence, defying deatii in whatever form it presented itself, and 
was never known to desert his post until the host of savages were vanquished, and 
the Colony placed in comparative safety. Ever firm in his attachment to the Colo- 
ny, and true to Uie principles which urged him to leave the land of his birti), Mr. 
James has successively fiUed almost every officeof honor and respectabiUfy in th« 
Colony with credit to nimself and satisfaction to his constituents. 

JtfsrooMitls.— There is at present a great demand in the market, for Lea&er and 
Shoe Thread ; fbr the want of it, we biegin to apprehend that many will be found 
shoeless. All kinds of articles in the shoe and boot makine line, would meet with 
•'Mdysale, and eommmd n advmead price. H. B. MATTHEWS. 

23 



178 



LATEST FROM LIB£IUA. 



[Jant, 



ROBERTS, COLSON, & Co. offer for sale on moderate terms, tbe fo1]owin|: 
5 Hbds. Tobacco, 24 Boxes Gumbo Pipes, 6 doz. Cast Steel Axes, 10 do Hat<£* 
eta, 6 do Spades and Shovels, 6 do Hand Saws, 6 do Gimblets, assorted, 6 Boxes of 
Beeds, 8 Cases of Hats, 1 do Shoes, 24 Boxes of Cider, 6 Bbls. Madeira Wine, S 
Cases Claret do, 3 Crates Edgd. Plates, 4 do Moco Bowls, 4 do Cups and Sauceri, 
] do Pitchers, 2 Boxes Boventeens and Satinets, 2 do Calicos, Gringuams and Can* 
brics, 1 do Bed Ticking, and 1 do Muslins and Silks. 

Ladies Shawls, Scans, Ribbons, Silk, Muslins, Silk Gloves, Silk and Cotton 
Stockins, printed Muslins, Parasols, worked Collars, cotton and linen Tapes; sew* 
ing Silk, cotton Thread, various colours. Elastic Suspenders, cotton Cloths, feather 
and palm leaf Fans, fancy beed Bags, guard Ribbon, rich figured bobinet Lace* 
casimere, carved Combs, linen and cotton Diapers, superior Stocks, Collars and Bo- 
soms, Coii'ee, Tea, Chocolate, &c. 

MoNBOviA, Febbuabt 28, 1836. 

WhoUBole Pricei Ctarrent, 



Articles. 


Per 


From 


To 


Articles. 


Per 


From 


To 


Bacon, 


lb. 


— 20 


26 


Nails, 


lOOlb. 


9 00 


10 00 


Beef cargo No. 3, 


Bbl. 


a 


— 16 


Oil, Palm 


gall. 
Ibl. 


— 50 


—•50 


Beads pound. 




— 86 


50 


Pork, 


none 




Blue Bafts, 


ps. 


none 




PoU, 


cwt. 


7 70 


8 00 


U ricks. 


1000 


8 00 


10 


Powder, 


Bbl. 


17 00 


18 00 


Candles, Sperm 


lb. 


— 45 


50 


Padlocks, 


doz. 


1 00 


200 


Cheese, 


«< 


none 




Porter, 


« 


none 




Corn Meal, 


Bbl. 


6 OQ 




Pipes, Gumbo 


box 


4 50 




Checks, Domestic 


ps. 


— 14 


— 20 


Romania, 


ps. 


2 00 




Cotton, White 
Flour, superfine 


Bale 


— 18 


— 20 


SaU, 


sack 


8 00 


8 00 


Bbl. 


10 00 


12 00 


Sugar, Loaf 


lb. 


— 20 


— 2ft 


Guns, U. S. 




4 00 


4 50 


Shoes, 


various 


prices 




Iron Bars, 


cwt 


3 00 


5 


Slippers, 


lOOpr. 


- 7ii 


70 


Lead, Pig 


(( 


6 00 


6 


Soap, 


box 


2 0<: 


220 


Lard, 


lb. 


— 16 


— 17 


Shad, 


Bbl. 


IS (H 


14 00 


Lime, pr. 


cask 


8 00 




Tobacco, 


100 


16 or 


• 


Molasses, 


Rail. 


— 60 




Wash-bowls, 


doz. 


2 5r 


8 50 


Mackerel No. 8, 


Bbl. 


none 




Satin, stripe 


ps. 


4 50 





Marine LiU, Port of Monrovia, jSrrived since our latL 

On the Sd inst Brig Selina and Jane Rider, 12 days from the Nunez. On tb« 
10th. Brig Active, Causte, 6'» days from New Orleans. On the 17th, British Brif 
William Gait-Herbert, 29 days Irom London. Schr. Edgar, New, from the Wino* 
ward. On the 18th, Schr. Henrietta, Briten, 53 days via Gambia, from N. York. 
French Brig Hercules, Canaud, 42 days from Naptz. 

SAILED. 

On the lOth, Brig Selina and Jane, Rider, for Salem, Mass. On the ]5tb, Frendl 
Brig Active, Causte, for the Leeward. On the 21st, French Brig Hercules, Canaud* - 
for the Leeward. On tbe 22d, Schr. Henrietta, Briten, for the Leeward. 

jSgenU for the Liberia Herald. 

Wanhinglon, 2>. C— Rev. R. R. Gurley. Bo/iimor*.— Dr. Eli Ayres. jPJUte- 
delphta.—Einott Cresson, Esq. New yoF^.— Thomas Bell, 221 Front Street. Bat* 
(on.—Rev. J. N. D&nforth. 



Since tbe foregoing was id type, leveral additional articles of inter- 
est relating to Liberia, hive been furnished to the New York 
Spectator, bj the Editor of the Philadelphia Colonizationist. The 
space in this number already occupied by similar matter, prevents ut 
from doing more than briefly noticing their contents. , 

Emanuel Elliott, mate of the Margaiet Mereert who emigrata^ 
about seven years ago £nmd Richmond toJk&Wkfmhm tw baa n a rtd 



1 .. 



1835.] LATEST FROM LIBERIA. 179 

ed ever since, gives a very favorable account of the state of things la 
Liberia. He considers Btssa Cove the best spot that could have been 
selected for a Colony. The St. Johns, he says, is a magnificent river, 
penetrating far into the interior, and commanding an extensive and 
profitable trade in camwood, ivory, rice, palm oil, &c. At about 25 
or 30 miles inland, mountains appear. 

"The stories,'* adds Mr. Elliott, *< about the slave trade being carried on at the 
old Colony, are utterly false: — very few are intemperate, and trade in spirits has 
very much lessened, owing to the efforts of the Society and the influence of Tern- 
perance Societies; and no sales permitted less than a gallon. Some few are dis- 
contented, but these are the wortnless and idle : The industrious are well pleased 
with the country, and such only should go. Such people cannot be induced to 
leave Africa. The tales of Brown, Temple and others who have learned little or 
nothing of the country, are utterly ridiculous." 

One of the emigrants manumitted by Dr. Hawes's will-, writes that, 
fter a pleasant passage of 43 days, they had all arrived in good health, 
except five who had experienced the fever lightly, and two who were 
drowned in consequence of their imprudence in venturing in a boat 
through the surf. 

Mrs. Eunice Sharp writes that it was her intention to open a school 
soon. She says— - 

"The settlers are generally civil and moral; religion has formed a connection 
with temperance ; and an intoxicated person is seldom seen. There are three de- 
nominations in Monrovia, and three meeting houses are biiilding, and a jail. Mr. 
Burns will keep the school on the Cape, myself at Millsburg. There is a Bible 
class, and Sabbath School on the Cape ; likewise at Bassa ; taking into considera* 
tion, the great field that is ripe for harvest, and the few laborers therein, we may 
thank God and take courage." 

Mr. Edward Y. Hankinson (a member of the Society of Friends, 
who went last fall to Africa; principally to establish a Manual Labor 
School at Bassa Cove, and to instruct the natives and Colonists in the 
mechanic arts) gives the following account of an interview between 
himself and one of the neighboring Kings : 

** Our neighbor, and most powerful King in the country, was to see me to-day; 
I took my wife to him, and told him, that I was goioff to move with her on his 
side to-morrow, and asked him if he would be our mend and take care of us. He 

gut bis hand on his breast, and with the solemnity of a Christian, said he would ; 
is son, a fine younr man, was present. I told the fiither that I would teach him 
to read and write ; this pleased the old man exceedingly. His land is that which 
you wish to purchase, and 1 desire that you a^e to have schools established as a 
yearly contriDution, which their usual improvidence cannot lay hold of and waste." 

The following extracts are from Dr. Skinner's letter of December 
15, 1634, to Mr. Cresson : 

I have examined. Bassa Cove, and it has been, in a great degree, through my 
influence, that the recently arrived emigFanti have been finallv sent to that place. 
We did not succeed in this purchase, until the week before last The stand is im- 
portant in three respects : 1st, I have no doubt but it nfill be the healthiest loca- 
tion on the seashore, to be found any where between it and the Northern Tropic; 
2iidly, it will abolish an extensive slave factory, now established there ; and, 8dly, 
it is one of the best landing places to be found on the coast These advantages 
will, 1 think, give prosperity to that settlement. Every assistance in my power 
will be given to Dr. McDowall, and every effort be made to preserve the lives and 
health of the emigrants. 

I become daily more convinced that the CdoBixation cause is the cause of God. 
Slavery in a form, far more horrid than in the United States, exists in an unknown 
extent, spread over this vast continent A general effort to dviliie and christian - 
i2eth«iiativ«i»i0tii*oMsrBiM*tfpi^»^BnfD. aiMwtelorittaretatdiliih'^ 



180 JAMES BROWN. [June, 

ed a)l along the coast. Liberia only excepted, from whic|i tfao u sande erery vep are 
carried into perpetoaf bondage ; there is no other conceivable means to aoohsb i^ 
but by the estabiishment of colonies on the coast I wonla aid the cause of Chiis- 
tianify and Colonization here, if Jew or Infidel, and so would every man that knew 
the facts, and had the least regsurd for the temporal welfare of millions that are in 
this land. Had I a thousand lives, I would devote them all in such an enterprise 
as is now ^ing forward here. All the money necessary would be furnished, did 
the Christian public know the facts, and what was needed. That there are diffi- 
culties in our way is true, and that there has been some bad management here is 
also true ; but shall these things discourage us, and lead us to give up the only coo- 
ceivable means of meliorating the condition of millions of our fellow-men ? ahall 
we forsake the last plank, the only ^und of hope, for causea such as these ? What 
would have been the fato of Christianity, had such been the dastardly spirit of its 
first propagators? 



TEMPERANCE IN THE COIiONY. ^ 

The Temperance cause has become the subject of mach attention 
in the Colony ; and strenuous efforts appear to be making throiigh the 
press and public meetings, to enlist popular feeling actively in its 
favor. On the 6th of January a meeting was held in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, for the purpose of promoting it; on which occa- 
sion a sermon was preached by the Rev. Mr. Seys, from Habakkuk, 
ii. chap, and part of the 15th verse. " Wo unto him that giveth h%$ 
neighbor drinks that puttest thy bottle to him and makest him amuken,** 
The meeting was well attended, and after the discourse was deliver* 
ed, a Constitution was read, embracing a pledge of abstinence from 
the use and traihc of ardent spirits; and 43 persons became members 
of this Society. It is denominated the " Liberia Temperance Soeie* 
ty of the Methodist Episcopal Church:*^ and its business is to he trass* 
acted by a President, Vice President, Treasurer, Secretary and seven 
Managers- These are to be chosen annually from among the mem- 
bers of the Institution, without any regard to sect, party, or denomina- 
tion, as any individual may become a member by signing the pledge; 
and any member elected to office. The want of time, caused ue 
election of officers to be postponed to a future period ; and on Wed- 
nesday, the 14th of January, another meeting was heidt equaUj 
well attended. The foUoviog officers were duly elected : 

Rev. John Sets, President. D. W. WniTBHuasT, Esq. Vice-President N. H. 
Elbick, Secretary, James Browk, Treasurer, Mr. Moses Jacobs, Dt, J. W. 
Prout, Rev. A. D. Williams, Rev. Francis Burns, Rev. B. R. Wilson, and 
Rev. Solomon Bailet, Managers, 

The Vice President addressed the meeting on this occasion, and 
by a unanimous vote of the members, was requested to femish a copy 
of his remarks, for publication in the Liberia Herald. Seventy-one 
additional members have united with this Institution, and the cause of 
Temperance, seems on the onward march to success. 



JAMfiS BROWH. 



Our readers will rocoUect a well writt^ vtide from Ibe pen ^ 
[r. Jamm Broww, wbkb appeuvd iiillM'R^aMtory finr 8efilt«»cr, 



1836.1 JAMES BROWN. 181 

1833* This respectable individual was formerly a resident of Wash* 
ington, where he learnt the business of an Apothecary under the in- 
structions of Messrs. Todd & Co. Those gentlemen very kindly and 
liberally aided him in establishing himself as an Apothecary and 
Druggist at Monrovia, where, we are happy to learn, that he meeta 
with the success to which his merits entitle him. 

Mr. Brown has recently issued some proposals which are likely to 
be interesting to the public. They are contained in the following 
letter from him to the Editors of the New York Commercial Ad- 
vertiser : 

Liberia, Monrovia, March Sth, 1836. 

Mestrs. Editors: — You will confer a favor upon me by publishing the following 
proposals. I lately understood that there are several gentlemen in the U. States, 
and, for what I know, ladies too, wishing a Collection of African curiosities, such as 
sea shells, flowers, fruits, &c. It gives me pleasure to say, that none are more de- 
sirous of receiving them than lam to supply them, without the slightest motive of 
selfishness about it, for I am not to be benefitted, as the reader may see. The curi- 
osities that can be sent bv me to the United States are as follows : Sea shells, of 
different sizes, shapes and colors; the feet and heads of birds : a few pots of pickled 
oysters — this will ee done to show the uncommon size of the oysters, yet very 
good to eat ; the skins of different animals ; flowers of different kinds ; the leavea 
of some of our trees, which would be a great curiosity to those who have not seen 
them, on account of their uncommon size and beauty ; a few pots of preserved 
fruits, which I presume that none have been seen outside of the Colony, namely, 
the African cherries, peach and 'apple, soursop and gauver, (guava.) — the cherry, 
peach and apple, seldom eaten in their natural state, but make a splendid preserve 
— but few of our fruits could be sent to America in their natural state ; country 
cloths, manufactured by the natives, that would do credit to any people ; a smaU 
quantity of coffee, raised in the town of Monrovia, can be sent by the way of show- 
ing the quality ; we have three species of senna growing in our streets — the seed, 
leaves and stalk, I can send to Inose who wish to examine them, a few seeds of 
which I shall send to Dr. Mc Williams, of Washington City, believing that they 
will grow in his excellent hot-hoose. Among the curiosities that have been men- 
tioned, ^re is none more desirable than our beautiful Liberia wood, calculated to 
be worlcMl into toiiture of all kinds. Believing, as I do, that the benevolent 
people of tiie United States are not onh^ willing to gratify themselves with tfaa 
sieht of this wood, but woold be gratified to have it made up into furniture and 
subject to their order, and thereby encourage our excellent and worthy citizen, Mr. 
John Bi^y; I called upon Mr. Ijaynotlongsince, to know if he was willing to 
make up fomitore for nireiffn markets : Mr. Day informed me that he was willing 
to supply any order of this kiiid. I will here observe|that Mr. Day is a first rate 
cabinet^midceF^and a man of excellent character. lam convinced tnatif the friends 
of Liberia in Arnica, Jis well as others, could see the two beautiful side boards Mr. 
Day kas lately made of w African wood, that they would give them the preference 
oyer those made of mahogany. 

With respect to the payment for the above articles, I would observe, that Mr. 
Day and myself both Imow that there would be great inconvenience in sending the 
cash. Bespecting all the articles mentioned by me, furniture excepted, I would 
here state, as before, that my object is not money, though I am aware that I shall 
have to purchase those things, find even pay the natives to collect the shells, for 
they are like most people, as soon as they find a thing in demand, they wiU raise 
then* price according^. For my] services I shall charge nothing— only enough to 
pay off those who colteet tiio euiiosities, who generally demand something in tho 
dry goods way. Therefore, any thing in the dry goods or grocery line, will be re- 
ceived in exenange, ardent ^triti exnrated. 

But my particular object is, to t^, tntough fliis easy and simple means, to assist 
in defri^i^ the expense of three ^ebnrches now buildinjj;, viz. Methodist, Baptist 
and Presbj^riaa. Therefore those #iM> cannot make it convenient to send tho 
cash, dry goods and noeeries can al^ys be converted into money here. But no 
aitildss an mooe dedraiilo tfaan ntili of. different sizes, window glass 12 by 14» 
fmiiaAt9iEAml,kmlf§viAkm^diiip^ In Mlatton tote 



182 AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. [Jttiie, 

payment for any furniture that may be ordered, I believe tbat Mr. Day will reeetrv 
cash, and goods at reasonable prices. Any orders addressed to James Brown, 
Druggist, Broad street, or John Day of Green street, wiU be attended to. Mr. Day 
wiJJ particularly attend to the orders for the furniture. 

Gentlemen, in consequence of the short notice I had that there was an opportu- 
nity for me to write, and so much of it to do, you will please excuse the form Id 
wmch this comes to you ; and let me ask the fetvor of you to make corrections. 
Respectfully yours, &c. 

JAS. BROWN. 



AUXIIilARY SOCIETIES. 

The foIlowiDg interesting^ communication was received during the 
last fall. Its publication in the Repository was for sometime casually 
delayed ; and afterwards bj the impossibility of making room for it. 
The subject, however, is such that the appearance of the article at 
this time, is quite seasonable. The project of applying to the Na- 
tional Governoient for aid, is one on which a far greater difference of 
opinion is understood to exist now among the friends of Colonization, 
than there was among the founders of the Society. Whatever may 
be the sound opinion on this subject, so respectable an Auxiliary a* 
the Society at Xenia, Ohio, is entitled to a full bearing from the 
friends of the cause: 

Extract from the minutes of the Green County jiuxUiary Colonization Society. July 

4/A, 1884. 

'* Resolved, That this Society shall present to the American Colonization Society 
at Washington, and beg leave through them, to present to each of the several Aux- 
iliaries, their respectful request, to take into serious consideration, the propriety 
and expediency of attempting to unite the friends of Cok>nization throogliout the 
Union, in one simultaneous etiort of petitioning Cong^ress to atibrd the national aid 
either by making appropriations of money for the transportation of emigrants to 
Liberia, or by sucii other means as they, in their wisdom, may judge to be just and 
expedient. 

" Resolved, That the Board of Managers be authorized to transmit to the Parent 
Society a copy of the above lesolution, accompanied with such remarks as may, in 
their judgment, serve to illustrate the views of the Society on thin important sab* 
ject." 

In pursuance of the above resolutions, the Board of Managers of the Green coun- 
ty Auxiliary Colonization Society, have a^nreed to lay before the American Colo- 
nization Society, the following expressions of their sentiments, in relation to the 
great object contemplated. 

It is not from any diminution of confidence in the efficacy of the system, or in 
tbe energy of the Institution, to which we have become auxiliary, that we have 
conceived the idea of invoking the co-operation and aid of the National Arm. It 
it not from any view or apprehension of a fiediure of that spirit of philanthropy, so 
widely pervading the minds of the community, which has hitherto suitalnea tb« 
eause, and impartnd dail^ increasing celerity and force to its movements, ^or da 
we wish it, even by a single individual, to be, for a moment, supposed, that any 
discouragement, or distnist, arising from the late embarrassment in the fiscal con- 
cerns of the Society, has prompted the measure now adopted. And, above all, it 
ii confidently expected of the Parent Society, and its Auxiliaries, and of the can- 
did and generous of our fellow citizens, of eveiy class, not to impute to us a desire 
to see changed, from their original and avowed end, the organization and operation 
of the American Colonization Society —which is, '*tAe oo^onuin^, with theurtfim 
cansenf, the free peopU of colour,*' It is far from our design, to be iutnunental in 
Mvakaning, orfoaientiog,tliatbalefid8|iiritofaadkMialjaalaiHyandnBiBHMi^ 



1835»J AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. 188 

hostile to the {genius and Constitution, not only of the General Government, bat 
likewise of this noble and magnanimous Society. Our views and motives are of a 
character quite diderent from any of these now enumerated. 

The original Constitution of t^e Society (see Vol. 10, No. 22, p. 2, African 
Repository^) appears to have contemplated the co-operation and aid of the United 
States* Government; if not from the commencement of the Colony, to be brought 
into action, at least, at some future, convenient, and more distant period. 

The interest, in part, which the United States possess in the settlement at Libe- 
ria, is already acknowledsed by the connection of the Society's Agent, with ibt 
Naval Department, and by tlie appropriation made from the National Treasury, of 
a salary f^r his support. 

The constitutional power of Congress " to provide for the common defence and 
general welfare*' as well as **to regidate commerce with foreign nations," and "to 
mike rules for the government and regulation of the Naval forces," may, in our 
bumble opinion, be fairly construed to imply a power of legislation, more favoura- 
ble to the interests of Colonization, than any that has yet been exercised. The 
specific and particular enactments, to result from this exercise of legislative power, 
infivourof the Colonv and Colonization, we presume not to dictate. We confide 
in the wisdom and integrity of tho«e, whose functions it will be, to decide upon 
the expediency of acting in the case, and likewise to select and determine the pre* 
cise meas4ires requisite to secure the object proposed. The question is, shall we» 
who have openly espoused the cause, from avowed motives, not only of philanthro- 
py and religion, but of patriotism and national policy, — shail the members of this 
vast republic generally, so far as our example and influence can be honourably ex- 
tended* unite their voices, to invite the attention of our legislative councils to this 
momentous subject ? Liberia is already a republic, politically independent of 
every other nation ; although physically dependent on that Society which gave it 
birth. This physical dependence can readily be, in whole or in part, at any time 
transferred from the Society to the United States, by the Colonists themselves, 
with consent of the Society. And no sooner shall Congress decide it to be proper 
to act in the premises, than the aid of the executive departments, in their power 
*Mo make treaties, appoint ambassadors, other public ministers, &c." may be le- 
gally called to assist, so far as may be requisite, by provisions of the same na- 
ture with those which are usually resorted to on similar occasions. 

The resources of our happy country, so highly favoured by the beneficent 
Parent who rules the destinies of man, are obvious to all. The most intricate 
problem in our national policy, is, not how to accumulate a sufficient revenue, but 
Jiow to prevent the appalling sums which spontaneously accumulate, from assum- 
ing such eaormous ma£:nitu(^, as to prove a mountain of destruction to our civil and 
political liberties. Wnile inventive minds are ever framing new projects of na- 
tional or State grandeur and wealth, let justice, humanity, and mercy, be permitted 
to present their united claims, and to receive a reasonable appropriation. 

The present animated and almost universal agitation of the question between 
the Abolition scheme and that of Colonization, must, at no distaiit day, such, we 
are confident, is the merits of our cause, result in the irrevocable decision of public 
sentiment in favour of the latter. The cause will be stamped with this motto and 
monition, — ^the words are from one of its most eloquent advQ;cates, — " Hands off an 
ark so holy : it contiins the tables of the covenant, for millions of your fellow 
beings !' This decision will form a crisis most suitable for action. 

In fine, the two eyes of the nation, are the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives. The only natural and legitimate method of bending those eyes upon an^ 
object of high and general utility, which has net hitherto arrested their attention* 
is, by an impulse from the spirit pervading the body politic. Should efforts be 
made, at this time, respectful, modest, and such as shall accord to every citizen, 
Jiot belonging to any of our Colonization Societies, the undisturbed enjoyment of 
all his natural and constitutional rights, — to call this impulsive spirit into action? 
This is the question, which, togjether with this illustration of -ewr owu views, and 
of what we conceive to be the views of that AasociatioB which we have the honor 
io represent, is respectfully submUted. 

By order of toe fioard. 

S£PT£MB£K. JOSEPH VEYLE, Pretident 

HUGH McMillan, V, PmidtaL 
Ji a. PUfiDY, Socf^karg. 
.-....: < . .... -d . . 



184 EMANCIPATION. I June. 

Extract of a letter fiom a gentleman in Xmia, Ohio, dated March iO, 1885. 

The Society in this place, at its last aoDiveraary, directed a correspondenee to 
be opened on the subject of a simultaneous effort, to ask aid of Congress. Individ- 
ual or sectional action on that subject, will do injury, rather than good. It was 
believed the Parent Society could best determine the expediency of the measurt. 

I still regard the plan of the Society as the best hope yet disco vei[ed for the whole 
African race, and for our Republic. S^very is a Uighting curse ; and disguise 
it as you may, the draught is bitter. If the Christian enerjg^es of the nation do 
not act on that subject, no other will. Interest is the moving spring of all selfish 
politicians ; and just so far as this suits, they will act; and under it tiiey will act 
Id others* ruin. On this subject we are not to be idle. The enernes of the wise 
and the good are to be combined. Please so far as you can, remecfy the above de- 
fects. It will eratify many friends of the Society, and prevent the cause from 
sinking, towards which there is at present an evident tendency. 

[From the. Drederidcebvrg Arena.l 

At a meeting of citizens held pursuant to notice, in the Town Hall, on Uie ere- 
nio^ of the 24tn of April, for the purpose of re-oiganiung the FrederieJabni^g Co- 
lonization Society, auxiliary to the State Colonization Society of Yirginia, the fol- 
lowing gentlemen were chosen as officers : 

Hon. John Co alter, Pregidenl, John L. Marye, Geo. Hanilton, J. H. Fits* 
gerald and W. M . Blackford, Vice-PrendenU. Wm. Browne. M. D. Cbr. Sscrsta- 
rv. Robert T. Berry, Rec, Secretary 4r l^eaturer. Rev. £. C. McGuJre, Rev. 8. 
B. Wilson, Rev. Jas. D. McCabe, Fayette Johnston, James Taas, Beoben T. 
Thorn, William C. Beale, John M. Hemdon, John 8. Caldwell, Baiil GoidoB, 
George W. Bassett, and Wm. Warren, Ma$wgert, 



EMANCIPATION. 



Mr. Thomas Higginbotham of Amhent County, Virginia, who 
died in February last, left a will in which he directed that his alaTes, 
about fifty in number, should all be free, inroyided they should be 
willing to leave the State ; if not, that they snould have the privilege 
of selecting owners, among his brothers and sisters. A correspond 
dence concerning them has taken place between Mr. Higginbothasi's 
Executor and the officers of the Colonization Society. A letter from 
the Executor, dated on the 23rd of April, states that all the servants, 
except one man, two women and two children, have elected to accept 
their freedom on the terms prescribed by the will. A farther com- 
munication on the subject is expected by the Society. 

A gentleman in Buckingham County, Virginia, now deceased, left 
twenty-three slaves, with directions in his will that they should be 
hired out until his debts were paid, and then be free. His debts have 
been paid,*and application has been made on behalf of his Executor 
to the Colonization Society, inquiring whether it will send them to 
Liberia on certain terms which are stated. 

A gentleman in the neighbourhood of Jonesborough is willing to 
liberate /our, perhaps ^ce, slaves, on condition of their going to Libe- 
ria ; and the Society has been applied to on the subject. 

A gentleman in "pennessee not long since died possessed of iwentif 
slaves, whom he manumitted by his will. His heirs contested thie 
clause of the will, and it has been judidally decided thai Uie aiavee 
should be free on coadition of their going to Liberia. 



1885.] ^LONIZATION MEETINGS. 185 

Colonization Meetings. — The Southern Churchoaan, an Episco- 
pal periodical lately established in Richmond, in publishing the 
proceedings of the Colonization meetiug held there in Aprillast, 
says: 

On our fourth pa^e will be seen tne proceedings of an important meftin^ held 
in this city, of the fnends of African Colonization. Jt is earnestly to be hoped that 
the efforts of the Board to raise the sum of money mentioned in their resotutirm, 
may b^uccessful. There are now upon the books of the Colonization Society, 
the names of 600 applicants for passages to Liberia, and they are principally slaves 
ready to be li berated by their ownei-s. The Managers of the Virginia Society have 
determined to recommend to the favorable regard of its members and friends, the 
proposition to raise of the $100,000 wanted, 10,000 in Virginia, to be applied to the 
formation of a new settlement in Africa, to be called New Virginia. 

Meetirufin Frederidesfmrg. 

At a meeting of the citizens of Fredericksburg, held pursuant toliotice, in the 
Town Hall, on Friday evening the 17th of April, 1835, to consider and promote 
the cause of African Colonization, James H. Fitzgerald was called to the chair, and 
Wm. M. Blackford appointed Secretary. 

The meeting was opened with prayer by the Rev. Mr. McGuire. 

The Rev. R. R. Gurley, Secretary of the American Colonization Society, was 
then introduced, and addressed the meeting at considerable len^^th, explanatory of 
the origin, present condition, and future prospects of the Society, and the Colony 
of Liberia, concluding by an eloquent appeal for prompt action on the part of all 
the fnends of the scheme, with reference to the resolution recently adopted by the 
Board of Managers to attempt to raise, within the present year, the sum of one 

HUNDBED THOUS \ND DOLLABS. 

The Rev. Mr. McGuire then offered the following resolution, which he supported 
at some length: 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting, the cause of the American Colo- 
nization Society merits the immediate, earnest and liberal support of this State. 

The resolution was adopted. 

The Rev. Mr. Wilson offered the following resolution, which was adopted. 

Resolved, That in the judgment of this meeting, the necessities of the Society 
and of the Colony of Liberia, at the present time, give it^ special and powerful 
claims upon the liberality of all the fnends of the caiise of Afi ican Colonization 
throughout the Union. 

The following resolution was offei^ed by Wm. M. Blackford, and adopted: 

Resolved, That this meeting cordially approves of the resolution of the Parent 
Board to endeavor to raise one hundred thousand do^ars, during the present year, 
and of the purpose of the Auxiliary State Colonization Society of Virginia, to 
raise, in conjunction with the Agent of the Parent Society, teQ thousand dollars 
of this amount within this State, to be applied to founding a settlement in Africa, 
to be called New Virginia. 

Dr. Wm. Browne offered the following resolution, which was adopted: 

Resolved, That a subscription be now offered for this object, and that it be ear- 
nestly recommended to the Managers of the Society here, to appoint a Committee 
to extend the sa^cription and to adopt the most efficient measures for the advance* 
ment of the general cause. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

JAS. H. FITZGERALD, Oairman. 
Wm. M. BLACEFoan, Secretary, * 

[fVotii iU Pittsb^ jSdiDocati, May 11.] 

Agreeably to pnblic notice, a very large meeting of the yonm^ men of Pittsburg, 
was held in the Hall of the Young Men's Society, on Thursday evening last, for 
the purpose of forming a Society auxiliary to the iToun? Men's State Colonization 
Society of Pennsylvania, for the settlement of the African Colony of Peansylva- 
nia, at Bassa Cove. 

TheRev.Dr. Upfoldi»aBcanedtothechair, and Messn.R. BnrkeandA. W. 
M arks appointed Seerslariet. 



186 COLONIZATION M£ETINGS. f June, 

The objects of tl)e Society were eloquently and earnestly explained by Professor 
Richard Henry Lee, of Washington College, in behalf of the Youn; Men^i State 
Society. 

The following resolutions, offered by Mr. Marks, seconded by Mr. Burke, and 
ably supported oy him, in some appropriate and eloquent remarks, were unani- 
mously adopted : 

Retohed, That in the opinion of ftis meeting, the scheme of colonizing the frte 
people of colour of the United States, in some territory on the coast of Africa, is 
one which deserves the attention and support of every philanthropist and patriot. 

Retolved, That it is incumbent upon the young men of the Umted States, to use 
all their influence in favor of any of the great enterprises which have in view the 
melioration of the condition of any portion of their tellow-men. 

Retolvedt therefore, that it is expedient to form a Young Men's Colonization 
Society of Pittsburg, auxiliary to the Young Men's State Colonization Society of 
Pennsylvania. 

Messrs. Robert Burke, Alfred W. Marks, and Wm. M. Shinn, were ap]iointed a 
Committee fb prepare a Constitution and Bye-laws for the government of the So- 
ciety. 

Messrs. James Veech, John D. Baird and W. W. Irwin, were appointed a Com- 
mittee to obtain signatures to the Pittsburg Society, auxiliary to the Toung Men's 
State Colonization Society. ■ 

The meeting then adjourned. 

GEO. UPFOLD, Prtndtnt. 

Robert Burke, \ o.^^t»^». 
Alfred W. Marks, J ^'<^^^*' 

[From ihi New York Papen,] 

The Colonization Society of the City of New York, held its anniversary meeting 
on the 13th of May, P. M. in the Brick Church, Beekman street. The church wis 
crowded, and hundreds were unable to obtain admission. President Duer, of Co- 
lumbia College, who is President of th% Society, took the Chair, and read a iosg 
and able report from the Board of Managers. • 

The printing of the Report was moved by Rev. Dr. Hewitt, of Connecticut. In 
the course of his remarks. Dr. H. said it so happened that the Colonization Society 
was a twin, and its sister was the Bible Society, — as a statement ot facts would 
show. After Samuel J. Mills returned from the exploring tour on which he was 
sent in company with Mr. Smith to the South and West, he one day, at the Ando- 
ver Theological Seminary, had a long conversation with Dr. Hewitt on the condi- 
tion of the whites and the blacks in me slaveholding States. Mr. Mills stated that 
he had become acquainted with a large number of excellent men who were sla^- 
holders, and who were ready to manumit their slaves if only any plan coald be de- 
vised by which they could do so consistently with the laws ol the States, a'>d the 
happiness of those to be liberated. At that conversation it was proposed that a So- 
ciety of Enquiry on the subject should be formed in the Seminary. Such a Socie- 
ty was formed. That Society sent out Mills and Burgess to England, and from the 
report which they made on their return, proceeded the Bible Society in 1816, and 
the Colonization Society. 

Rev. Dr.Fisk, President of the Methodist College atMiddletown, then addressed 
the audience, and was followed by Mr. Breckinridge, who concluded his speech 
at ten o'clock. The intense interest manifested by the audience induced Mr. 
Bethune to move an a4Joumment to the next evening, at half past 7 o'clock at the 
same place, which pafsed unanimously. 

Of the meeting on the second evening, the New York Commer- 
cial Advertiser gives the following account: 

*<The work indeed *goes bravely on.' Notwithstanding the inclemency of the 
weather — for the city was drenched the whole day by a cokl, heavy rain — uie brkk 
Church was thronged to its utmost capacity before the hour of meeting. The chair 
was taken, at the time appointed, by President Duer, and the proceedings were 
commenced by a very sound and judicious speech from the Rev. Cortlandt Van 
Rensselaer, who is devoting his life to the gratuitous preacbiDg of the f^ospel amon^ 
tke •!&▼• plM|(ationt of the South. He was liftened to with great ittentioii. The 



ld3&J COLONIZATION MEETINGS. IgJ 

Rev. Mr. Betbune next addressed the meetingr in his peculiarly happy Tein, and de« 
lighted the audience for three-quarters of an nour with great effect We have list» 
ened to few specimens of racy humor and sarcasm, more felicitous than portions 
of this speech ; particularly the form of tiie report which it will become Mr. Geo. 
Thompson to present to the venerable sinde ladies of Glasgow, who have sent him 
over to emancipate the slaves of the South, by abasing their owners at the North. 
The next speaker was the Rev. Mr. Seys, one of the Methodist Missionaries in 
Liberia, who spoke with great force and eloqnence. His appeal to the audience 
went directly to the heart. After he sat down, collections and subscriptions were 
received, which amounted to the sum offhe thousand seven hundred and sixty-two 
dollars. The hour was now late, but such was the interest of the meeting in ^e 
ereat subject — the glorious cause which had called them together — that they mani- 
fested no disposition to retire, and the proceedings were resumed. Some gentle- 
men became so deeply interested, that they rose and made spontaneous appeals to 
the audience, coming warm from the heart, in favor of the noble enterprise. The 
Rev. Mr. Gurley next occupied the forum for a few minutes, and, in offering a re- 
solution of thanks to the New York and Philadelphia Societies, for their efforts in 
the cause, spoke with much eloquence and spirit. A Krooman from Africa was 
next introduced. He spoke warmly in favor of the operations of the Societ7 upon 
his native coast, and his remarks were rendered into intelligible English oy Mr. 
Seys. The Krooman was followed by the Rev. Ezekiel Skinner, M. D., from the 
Colony, who made an interesting address. A Colonist, formerly firom Vii^inia, 
and iiow on his return from Aihca for his family, addressed the meeting with very 
sreat eff*ect. The last speaker was Elliott Cresson, Esq., of Philadelphia, a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends, whose whole heart and soul are engaged in this 
cause. In the course of his remarks, he adverted with very evident feeling to the 
calumnies with which he had been assailed (by the Abolitionists) when acting as 
an agent of the Society in England. Mr. Cresson introduced to the audience a 
son of one of the native Kings, who had just been sent hither for education. At a 
quarter past 11 o*clock the proceedings were closed. The most perfect order pre- 
vailed, except when the Abolitionists, the instigators of the riots of last summer, 
attempted to interrupt the proceedings by their * hisses. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

Such was the excitement of the occasion — such the enthusiasm — that the calk 
upon the Board of Managers for another adjourned meeting, were numerous and 
pressing. In order to meet the case, therefore, the officers of the Toung Men's 
Colonization Society, who were present, determined to g^tify the public by hold- 
ing their anniversarv meeting on the next evening, at the same place. 

Accordingly, on the evening of May 15, the third meeting was held by the Young 
Men's Socie^, in the spacious church of Rev. Dr. Spring, occupied for the two 
previous meetings, and like those it was attended by a crowded assembly, notwith- 
standing the Temperance Anniversary at the same hour. 

President Duer occupied the chair, at the special request of the President of the 
Society ; and, after prayer by Rev. Dr. De Witt, the meeting was addressed by 
Elliott Cresson, Esq. orPhiladelphia; Rev. R. R. Gurie^, Secretanr of the Ame- 
rican Colonization Society ; Rev. Mr. White, of Virginia ; Rev. Walter Colton, 
Chaplain in the United States Navy ; and Rev. Mr. Beuune, of Philadelphia, who 
were all received with rapturous applause. President Duer announced that the 
Board were making arrangements for the immediate despatch of a vessel with emi- 
gnints, and supplies for the Colony at Bassa Cove, encouraged as they were to 
mis prompt action -by the liberality of the New York Public, at the meeting of the 
previous evening. A collection amounting to $600 was then taken up for the 
funds of the Society. 

Thus, for three successive nights, has the real feeling of ^e People of N. York 
been developing itself upon this great question of national philanthropy ; and we 
beg our friends m the country, a^ especially at the South, to note <*tfae signs of 
the times." It is true, that for the last two years the Anti-Colonizationists have 
been filling the country with their uproar, but when the end comes it will be found 
that their money, and their vituperation, and their calumnies, have been exerted 
in vain. The great body of the people are sound upon this question. The Anti- 
Slavery meetings of this week, it is now almost universally conceded, have been 
failures ; while, on the other hand, the Colonization cause has received a glorious 
impulse, which is the precursor that, with tiie smiles of Heaven, it will go on with 
accelerating power, until, when the time has come,^ under the fostering eare of 

aiistian lin«ica,fhewU4fof Atiea ibdl be|M»»dite^l**^^ 
less. 



186 COLONIZATION HERALD. [June, 

OPINIONS OF MR. MADISON AND CHIEF JUSTICE BIARSHAIilj. 

Moi^FELiXR, Feb. 7, 1885. 
Dear Sir: — I have received the copy of Mr. Tyvon't Discourse before the Yotuur 
'Men's Colonization. Society of Pennsylvania, forwarded by you at his request, anl 
1 take the liberty of returning* through the same channel, my thanks for a pubkea- 
tion so valuable and appropnate. It gives me great pleasure to find that the Parent 
Society has gained such an auxiliary as that in question, which has comroenMd 
its benevolent and patriotic enterprise with a discretion equal to its zeal, and widi 
a success worthy of both. The triends of the great object contemplated, are mneli 
encouraged by co-operating examples, which multiply the trees that are pUnted^ ai 
well as the hands that are to water them. 
I renew to you, the offering of my high esteem. Ice. 

JAMES MADISON. 
To P. S, DupoxcxAU. 

Washington, Feb. 22, 1886. 

Dear Sir: — I had the pleasure a day or two past, of receiving your letter of tlie 
18th. 

Though entirely unable to attend the meetinj^ of the Young Men's Colonizatioil 
Society of Pennsylvania, thej have mv best wishes for their most complete suceess. 
In pursuing their object, which is at the same lime patriotic and nhilanthropic, tfaer 
seem to me to temper the ardor of youth with the wisdom or age. I look with 
much interest at the effective measures they have taken, and are taJdng, to accom- 
plish an obiect which ou)^ht to be dear to every American bosom, and particulail]^ 
so to our fellow-citizens of the South. 

I hope their judicious zeal will go far in counteracting the malfrnant effects of 
the insane fanaticism of those who defeat all practicable good, by me partoit of aa 
unattainable object. 

With great respect and-esteem, I am your obedient servant, 

J. MARSHALL. 

To Elliott Cresson, Esq. of Philadelphia. 



Presbyterian Church in Monrovia, — The Rev. William S. PlvmsEa 
a distinguished Presbyterian Minister in RichmoDd, has published 
in the Southern Religious Telegraph, an appeal "to the frieods of 
Africa" for aid in the erection of a Presbyterian Church id Monrovia. 
The buildin{( has been commenctrJ ; a large Bible and many hymn- 
books have been procured for the Church ; and there is also a small 
sum of money in hand. But at least two hundred and fifty dottan, the 
Reverend gentleman states, ** are needed to meet the necessary ex- 
penses of this important house of worship." 

Mr. Jay's Letters. — A reply to Mr. Jay by David M. Reksx, 
M. D., is announced as being in the press at New York. Dr. Reese'a 
work is said by competent judges who have seen large portions of it 
in manuscript, to be a masterly and conclusive performance. 

"Colonization Herald." — The Young Men's Colonization So^ 
ciety of Pennsylvania have resolved to publish a periodical with Iha 
above title, twice a month. It will be devoted to the faithful exposi- 
tion and defence of the principles announced in the second and Ihini 
articles of the constitution of the Society. (See the Constitution, Af" 
rican Repository, VoL X, p. 151.) The terms are as follows : 

*' It will be published in a neat newspaper form, twice a month, atfl per anDQa, 
payable in advance. The first number will be issued early in April. 

bverv person obtalnior tsn subscribers, and fbmwiding thdr fubseriptfoiis^diaB 
be entiOed to a copy mUs, awl fiioie wfsldBg fodisliihQts aM momr^fllt* 
supplied OB the kmeft tenns. 



1835.5 COLONIZATION. iS8 

Every c]erfi[3nnan and 8U]>erintendant of a Sunday school, taking up an annua! 
collection in favbr of the society — each life member, and every annual subscriber of 
not less tiian ten dollars, sbafl be entitled to the Colonization Herald. 

All editors friendly to our object are requested to give this prospectus circulatfon 
in their columns, and their agents are rpspectfully invited to obtain and forward 
subscriptions, which, with other communications, are to be directed to the Society's 
agent, Thomas Buchanan, No. 77, North Fifth street, Philadelphia." 

Since the above was io type, we have received two numbers, the 
first and fourth, of the Colonization Herald. They are very neatly 
printed, and full of interesting matter. Should the future numbers 
be equally instructive, this new periodical will b^ a valuable^agent 
in the great cause of Colonization. 



" Maryland Colonization Joubnal." — Another ^ Colonization periodical, 
bearing this title, has been commenced at Baltimore. It is conducted by the Com- 
mittee on publications of the Maryland State Colonization Society, under the au« 
spices oi tne Managers of the State fund ; and will be published at least once a 
(;|uarter, and sometimes oftener. Persons wishing to receive it regularly as pub- 
lished, may become subscribers by paying fifty cents per annum in s^ivance. The 
first number was published on the 16th of May, and contains much interesting 
matter in relation to the plan of Colonization recently adopted in the State of 
Maryland, and to the Colony at Cape Palmasl Among the contents of this num- 
ber IS an address from the dolonists to their coloured brethren in the State of Ma- 
ryland. The " Maryland Colonization Journal" is well printed, and there is every 
reason to expect that it will be conducted wiih candor and ability. 

Communications are to be directed to the " Maryland Colonization Journal, 
Office of the Maryland State Colonization Society, Baltimore.'* 



COLONIZATION. 

, [From Hu Ckriatitm Jbiielligericer, New York, jSpril 26.] 

EXT&ACT TBOM A LETTER OF THE ReV. ThOMAS P. HUNT. 

I have returned onl^ a few days from North Carolina. We have just formed a 
State Colonization ^iety. It would have done your heart good to have beard 
that cause advocated as it was, on the ground of i& bearing on Oie final renuMtl of 
ilaoery from among ut. I know of but few deeply interested friends of coloniza- 
tion, who are not so, because they desire the stain of slavery audits sin to be vriped 
away. And just in proportion as the subject of colonization is a^tated among U8» 
so do proper and Just feelings extend on this delicate subject. It is perfectly with- 
in my recollection, when emancipation was spoken of in whispers ; and with 
trembling, and as secretiv and cautiously mentioned as would have been treason. 
The colonization cause has broken this spell ; and, through its influence, the sab- 
iect of slavery is now discussed in our legislative halls, our court greens, and par- 
lors, 88 fearlessl;^ and as openly as any otner topie. If no otiier good ever result 
from the instituting of this heaven-born benevolence, the change wnich this Socie- 
ty has already wrought in the South, in public opinion, would be worth ten fold' 
all the expenditure made in its behalf. Its bitterest enemies at the South are 
slav€r»t wno are determined never to relinquish their ungodly grasp on the captivg 
exile. There is no other evidence needed to ascertain a man's opinion on the mo- 
rality of slavery, than to know his feelings towards colonization. If opposed to it» 
the reason is evident; he is determined to live and to die in the enjoyment of all 
that can be found in hoUiog his feitow beina in UBJost bondage. If he be in ftmr 
«fooleiUMlioD»tlienw«kiioirtbat be deniea to do bii dnfy, and la aaziowft^ 



190 COLONIZATION. [Jitne^ 

that change which will fill the extended arms of Ethiopia with her long absent 
children, and at the same time remove from this land an evil which ages cannot re- 
move, while the black man shall remember his condition ; or his condition, debased 
by situation, neglect, prejudice, or any other cause, shsdl be remembered by the 
whites. While there may be exceptions in both cases — ^yet I am confident that 
colonization among us is advocated by the friends, and opposed by the enemies, of 
emancipation. I mentioned the etlect of colonization in cnaqging the public opin- 
ion on tnis subject. I do not allude to a mere speculative change. Ithaslc^ito 
many emancipations, and prepared the minds of many for the same act of justice. 
You may inquire, would not a different theory, such as is advocated by albioiition- 
ists, have produced a jgreater effect? I believe not. The abolitionists have no 
principle that is worth any thine, that is not already embraced in colonization ; 
while they have in their practical views many things which would for ever shut 
them out from all intercourse with the Southern States. Since my retom home, I 
have hod many conversations witli my friends about them. I have not met a man, 
who does not denounce their views, and who will partially hear them spoken of 
with respect. It is in vain that I tell them, all the abolitionists are not like those 
men who justified the slaughter of their children ; nor like those who circulated 
the Walker pamphlet; nor like tliose who are debating the propriety of sutferiog 
generation alter generation to go down to eternal sorrow, rather than aid in any be- 
nevolent plan at the South, while there is a slave among us. They ask, Do they 
invite a British subject, supported by a British Society, to come and aid them in 
their mad projects ? They ask. Why have these men oo sympathy for the whites i 
Why are thcv opposed to the voluntary return of Africans to their fathers* land ? — 
Why should they set themselves in array against a plan, which all seem willin|^ 
to try, and condemn it as unsuccessful, even while it has to struggle in its cradle 
with difficulties which none, no, not the full grown man, could live under, unlets 
God was with him? No answer can be given that can satisfy them ; and I am fully 

Sersuaded that no man, with safety to himself, can be an advocate of abolition at 
le South. ' 

Tou observe that I am not passing sentence upon the correctness and iustness of 
this state of feeling. I only introduce it, to answer the question. Would not abo- 
litionists have accomplished much more at the South than has colonization ? If 
they could not be heard — if they cannot have access — if reason, or prejudice, or 
any other cause, shut the eyes, ears, and hearts of Southern men against them thej 
certainly could not accomplish any thing. That my statement has not even hinted 
et the deep and utter detestation with wnich the abolitionists are regarded at the 
South, will be evident to any abolitionist who will come among us. And if they 
do not believe me, now, I should, for their sakes, be really sorry for them to be- 
come convinced in the way I know they would, were they to attempt to make a 
lodgement in this land. I do, therefore, rejoice to find that principles of coloniza- 
tioti are becoming more popular at the North. Every memoer ot that Society at 
the North, is a link in the chain of our Union. And I do pray that that link may 
soon be composed of so many lays and folds that nothing snail be able to break it. 
The subject of slavery is a dark one. Remove the colonization cause, and it if 
** black darkness," without one ray of light God reigns — he is just — we deserve 
chastisement. The penalty may come, as it often does, in the line of the trani- 
gression. Africans sold their brethren into slavery — brothers again may be the 
instniment of visiting upon the third or fourth generation the sins of their ancestors. 
Infatuation may have the semblance of right and justice on its side ; and if aboli- 
tionists urge their schemes, the consequences must be fatal. From God, it will be 
just; but from man, by whom the offence cometh, it will be cruel. Brother may 
rise against brother, and State against State — affections may be alienated — and 
blood may flow — and Grod bn just; yet man, a sinner, even while be thinks he is 
doing God service. But colonization is not a rod ; it is a cup of blessing. I wa» 
very much struck with a remark of a foreign missionary (Mr. Abeel), in relation 
to evangelizing certain portions of the world : *' Colonize them." And ii not thii 
the way to evangelize Africa, and the only way? I believe it; and I moreorer 
believe that, of all the nations now groaning under superstition, Africa will be first 
to arise and shine, her li ht being come ; and that through the instrumentality of 
the colonization cause, ner sons and daughters shall be the Lord's: iftbiscaoss 
fidl, and the other is urged on, darkness shall cover her, and mouming and lameft* 
tation, such u Rachel never uttered, slisU be heard in our land. 



1886.] COLONIZATIOK. 191 

[Bxwn th€ PitUburg OhriiHan Herald, JprU 18.] 
COIiONIZATION. 

In the numbers vof the <* African Repository" for March and April, as well as in 
other publications we have seen, there is much to cheer and encourage the friends 
of Africa, and to stimulate the friends of Colonization. Whether it may be the 
prejudice we have entertained, or the obtuseness of our perceptions, it is not for ut 
to say ; but all the vituperations in which some have indulged, and all the arts, and 
arguments which others have employed, have utterly failed to alienate our minds 
from that noble institution, the Coloni^tion Society. We were personal!} acquaint- 
ed with some of those by whom it was planned and put into operation, and ot others 
who are now aiding in its management — we have observed its progress from its 
commencement untU the present time, and we have seen and regretted its mis- 
takes : but without fear, we assert ths^t they have been fewer and less serious than 
have generally attended enterprises of such magnitude ; for what great work is ac- 
complished by man, without such as have occurred and much greater? 

From evidence, the correctness of which wg have no reason to question, it seems 
to be one of the most prosperous colonies of which we have ever read, and attended 
with fewer disasters — its prospect of exerting a salutary influence on the natives is 
not lessened — and the favorable impressions made upon the minds of those settlers, 
and visiters who are most capable of forming an opinion, and most worthy of con- 
fidence, have been with remarkable uniformity of a pleasing and encouraging 
character. 

It has been denominated a failure, and even its funeral oration has been pro- 
nounced. In our view, the argument would not be less absurd to rob an individual 
of his property, or at least to turn away by every means in our power the current 
of businesH <^nd means of employment from him, and then tell him his exertions to 
eet rich had proved a failure, and it would be, therefore, in vain to make or con- 
unue his elibrts. 

But it is objected that the slave trade is not arrested — perhaps not lessened — pos- 
sibly increased. We have no terms which we can permit ourselves to employ to 
express our horror or detestation of this traffic, but we are in a strange and egre- 
gious mistake if the formation of a chain of colonies along the accessible and habi- 
table parts of the African coast, would not more effectually, more speedily, and 
more saf^'ly break up that abominable piracy abroad and at home, than all the vitu- 
perations of Abolitionists— all their denunciations of Southern slaveholders — and 
all the efforts that are in progress to array the North against the South, or scatter 
the firebrands of discord through our hitherto "United States." Let, then, all those 
who profess to be the friends of the coloured man, unite their influence and all their 
means for this purpose, andpW/ all together, and the enterprise will by no means 
prove a failure. 

It is, however, objected that improper means are employed to force or induce 
coloured people to go to Africa, and tliattbis itself is unlawful. That force is mo- 
rally unlawful we admit, but to state to an uninformed negro the difl'erence be- 
tween living a freeman in Africa, and either bond or free in this countir, and <^- 
fering an honest opinion in favor of removal, is in our view neither unlawful nor 
inexpedient, nor do we think the objection ought ever to be raised by those who 
endeavor to fill the minds of coloured persons with prejudices against Africa, and 
the Colonization Society, and also with high notions of their rights and prospects 
in this country, and often prospects that will never be realized. 

America was first colonized by oppression, but when it began to flourish, men 
were induced to seek these shores by the opinions they were enabled to form of 
the prospects presented to their view, while sometimes Ine information was favor- 
able, and sometimes far otherwise. Enemies to this country represented removal 
as the greatest madness and folly, but emigration went onward until the United 
States have become what they now are. 

If, then, a slave should have by his master's offer while alive, or his will when 
dead, the choice of goin^ to Africa or continuing in bondage, must he refuse his 
liberty with these conditions because he ought to have it without conditions, or- 
must a friend advise him to continue a slave l^cause he cannot without those terms 
be made free ? 

For our own part, onr steadfast opinion is, that on the broad ground of universal 
philanthropy — ^tne advantages to Amca,and to the man of odour of this coontiy* 
would for many reasons be decidedly greater in Africa than they ever will or can 



192 



CONTRIBUTIONS. 



^iune. 



be in the United States, if they were all maoumitted at the present moment. We 
have, however, nefther time nor room to pursue the suhject. We therefore, only 
add, that we have not been able to see why even Abolitionists mig^ht not aid Colo- 
nization as one of the instruments — even if not the most efficient in their view — ^by 
which the oppressed may be set free. 



FOURTH OF JUIiY. 

7b thi Clergy throughout the Unittd SUOet.— The Managers of the American 
Colonization Society respectfully remind the Ministers of the Gospel of every de- 
nomination, who are comj>idered as amongst the best friends of the Colonization 
cause, that the Society continues to rely on their annual remembrance of it on the 
Sunday immediately preceding or following the day on which our Independence 
was declared. Though some of the Churches, whose con^gations are not lai^y 
may make but small collections, yet when these kind oifenngs are added together, 
they make a handsome amount, and will be the means of annually placing a num- 
ber ot deserving emigrants, and their descendants, in a state of comfortable Inde- 
pendence. Money collected at this season of the year, is also received in rood 
time to aid the Society in sending out emigrants to the Colony in the fall, so that 
they may arrive in Liberia soon alter the commencement oi the dry and healthy 
season. 

The Managers hope also, that the Auxiliary Colonization Societies will take in 
early opportunity of transmitting to the Treasurer of the Parent Board at Wash- 
ington, whatever sums they may have been able to collect for the use of the Colo- 
nization cause. 



CONTRIBUTIONS. 

To the American Colonization Society, from April SO, io ifaySO, 1880u 

Gerrit SmithU Firtt Plan of SuhteripHon. 
Wm. Crane, Richmond, his 7th payment, - • - 

CollecHonf from CS^iireAes. 
Delaware, by Rev. Wm. Matchett, A^ent, - . - 

New Gloucester, Maine, in Rev. ^, Rice's Church, 
Phippsbiirg do, in Rev. J. Boynton's do, ... 

Smith Grove Camp Ground, Rowan, N. C. by Rev. J. W. Childs, 

^uxiiiary SocieHea, 
North Carolina State Society at Raleigh, - - . 

Rockbridge, Va. Female Colonization Society, . . . 

Somerset county. New Jersey, Colonization Society, - 

Donatiofti, 
Burlington, Ohio, from Rev. E. H. Field, - . - 

Chester District, S. Carolina, from Wui. Maffitt, Esq. 
Gorham, Maine, fiomT. S. Rahio, - - - • 

!^^'> Benevolent Society, by do, 
i.iChoiond.Va. from Chief Justice Marshall, ... 

Do, Nicholas Mills, .... 

Do, James Gray, - - . . - 

Do, James C.Crane, ... 

New York, from James Boorman, which he had subscribed, pajable on 

the departure of the next vessel wiih emigrants to Liberia. — [See 

Jfr, Repository, Vol, 10, p. 820,] 

Life Subtcriber. 
Mrs. Dorothy Goddin, Somerville Alabama, 



100 

TO 
S 

12 72 
15 40 

1^ 
80 
37 

(( 

80 

2 

800 
800 
100 
100 



800 



#1,480 12 

Aft'iean Reposifory. 
Mrs. Ed roonia Preston, Rockbridge, - - - - - .2 

Per Hon. £. Whittlesey, J., Crowell $15, Benj. SteveM $10, Wirren, O. 25 
N. Thomas, Benetsyille, Si C. - . i . . . 2 

Richard Mendenhall, Jaaetlown, K. C 8 



THE 



AFRICAN REPOSITORY, 



AND 



COLONIAL JOURNAL. 



Vol. XI.] JULY, 1835. [No. 7. 



CAULIiIE*S TRAVBIiS IN AFRICA. 

In a former volume of this Journal,* was noticed the appearance 
of M. Rbne Caillie's Travels through Central Africa to Timbuo- 
too, and across the Great Desert to Morocco, in the years l&iU — 18^. 
It is only recently that we have been enabled to obtairv a copy of the 
work ; and we hasten to give some account of it. 

The author is a native of Prance^ born in the year 1800 at Mauze 
in the Department of the Deux-Sevres. His parents were obscure 
persons, and died in his childhood. He was indebted for his small 
modicum of education to a village charity school, where the perusal 
of Robinson Crusoe, which he speaks of as a real history, gave his 
mind a bias that proved to be irresistible in favor of travel and roman- 
tic adventure. The hope of exploring some unknown portion of 
Africa, and especially of visiting Timbuctoo, became the constant 
object of his thoughts, and he resolved to reach that mysterious city, 
or to perish in the attempt. This image took entire possession of his 
mind ; it grew into an engrossing and predominant passion ;. he ceas- 
ed to join in the sports of his youthful associates ; and devoted him- 
self to the study of geographical books, maps and travels. In the 
10th yiear of his age, against the remonstrances of his uncle, who 
was also his guardian, and with only sixty francs, he proceeded to 
Rochefort, and embarked in the brig La Loire, a tender to the Me- 
duse, bound to Senegal. The brig having separated from her un* 
fortunate companion, arrived safely in the road of St. Louis. From 
that place, M. Caille proceeded to Dakar, a village in the peninsula 
of Cape Yerd, and after remaining some months at that dreary spot, 
returned to St. Louis. By this time the £nglish had restored the 



* See African Repository, Vol. 6, p. 183. 
25 



]94 CAILLIE'S TRAVELS IN AFRICA. [July, 

Colony to tbe French, and were preparing an expedition, under the 
direction of Major Peddle, for exploring the interior of Africa.— 
This gentleman died on the arrival of the expedition at Kakondy, 
a village situated on the Rio Nunez ; the expedition was detained by 
order of the almamy (a sort of sovereign) of the Fouta-Diallon terri- 
tory ; Capt. Campoell, who had assumed the command of it, and 
several of his officers, subsequently died, and the rest of the troops 
sailed for Sierra Leone. 

The English were not deterred by the disastrous result of this ex- 
pedition from forming, at great trouble and expense, a new one, tHe 
command of which was given to Major Gray. M. Caille, not doubt- 
ing that men would be acceptable, proceeded on foot, accompanied by 
two negroes, to Dakar, and thence in a boat to Gk)ree. The hard- 
ships which he had encountered in his journey, aided by the advice 
of friends, induced him to abandon his design ; and having been gra* 
tuitously conveyed to Oaudaloupe, he was enabled to obtain a petty 
appointment in that Colony, which he held for six months. His 
passion for travelling revived, and his projects acquired new strength 
from his perusal of Mungo Park's writings. He sailed for Bordeaux; 
and thence, at the end of the year 181cj, returned to St. Louis, witli 
but scanty resources. Here, he joined as a volunteer, Mr. Adrien 
Partarrteu, who had been sent by Major Gray to purchase at St. Louia 
certain goods required by the King of Bondou, on pretext of some 
old debt from the British Government. M. Partarrieu's caravan^ 
composed of 60 or 70 men, white and black, and 32 camels, richly 
laden, set out, February 6, 1819, from GandioUe, a villsge in the 
kingdom of Cayor, not fur from the Senegal. Of the distresses en- 
dured by this party, some conception may be formed from the foU 
lowing passages : 

" I was sometimes reduced to extremity ; foi\ havinr no beast to ride npon, I 
was obliged to follow on foot. 1 have been since told that my eyes were hollow* 
that I panted for breath, and that mv tongue bung out of my mouth : for my own 
]]art, I recollect that at every halt, I fell to the ^-ound from weakness, and had not 
even the courage to eat. At len|^ my suircrinfi|8 excited the pity of all ; and M. 
Partarrieu had the kindness to divide with me bis portion of water as well as a 
fruit which he had found. This fruit resembles the potatoe ; its pulp is white and 
of an agreeable flavour : we subsequently found many such, which were of great 
service to us. 

** A sailor, having in vain tried all means "to allay his thirst, and set about seek- 
ing fruits, was deceived by the resemblance borne by one to that which M. Pfer* 
tarrieu had given to mc*. He ate it, and it set his mouth on fire as if it had been 
])imento : from the retching and the violent pains with which he was seized, we 
concluded that he was poisoned ; every one cheerfully gave up to him some of his 
allowance of drink ; but he app<*ared to be relieved so suddenly that 1 have since 
thoii«;ht his illness was only a feint to excite pity and get a little more water. I 
was not, however, the worst off, for I saw several drink their urine.*' — Vol. 1» p. 
6.7. • • • • * 

" On the fifth day, however, we were all exhausted : we suffered from thirst, sad 
our water was nearly spent. European ingenuity came to our snrcour: pepper- 
iiiint-drop^ were distributed among us, and we experienced immediate relief. Oor 
eauiels suffered severely for want of water and forage, having no other food than 
young branches of tree.«i, cut olf here and there. 

" At length we reached a hamlet where th«» negroes readily brought us some ca- 
lebashes of water, but they were not proili^al of it. and this was pnuient, consid- 
ering the number of mf n and animals to be supplied : (or my part, I received no 
more than about a large glassful. But no sooner did we begin to drink than 
sw nns of bees settled upon the vessels containing the water, and even upon on 



1635.] CAILLIE*S TRAVELS IN AFRICA, 195 

lips, disputing it with us ; and to this horrid punishment, these grierous pangs, we 
oad been several times exposed daring the journey. I have fre<}iiently seen the 
water-skins covered with bees, which we had no means of driving away bat by 
burning green wood, the smolce of which forced them to quit"— Vol. 1» p« 8jB, 

On reaching Bakel, M. Caille was attacked by a feyer» which 
soon assumed so alarming a character, that he quitted the expeditioPf 
and finally determined to return to France, and sailed for L'Orient, 
where he learnt the total failure of Major Gray's expedition. In 
1824 he returned to the Senegal, with a small venture, kindly pro- 
vided for him by M. Sourget, a merchant. M. Roger, the Gk)vemor 
of the Colony, after vainly attempting to dissuade him from the design 
of penetrating the interior of Africa, granted him some goods, in 
order that he might sojourn among the Braknss, and learn the lan- 
guage and religious ceremonies of the Moors, and thus facilitate the 
execution of his plan. From August 3, 18*24, to May 11, 1825, he 
resided among these people, pretending to be a convert to the Mo- 
hammedan religion. On reaching the camp of the chief of the tribe 
of Dhiedhiebe, be was asked by that potentate what motives had in- 
duced him to change his religion ; what he had been doing at St. 
Louis; of what country he was; whether he had any relatives in 
France ; and lastly, whether he was rich. 

"I was obliged^*' says our author, «to answer these questions, for I perceived from 
the way in which they were put, that tills marabout had conceived suspicions 
in regard to me, which, for my securitv, it was of consequence to remove: I re- 
plied therefore, that, having met wim a French translsuon of tiie Koran, I bad 
there found important truttis, with which I was deeplv impressed ; that ever sinco' 
I had ardently desired to embrace IsUmism, and had been incessantly engaged in 
devising the means of accomplishing this purpose, but tiiat mv ftther had opposed 
it ; that since I had resided at the Seneeu, where I had settled as a trader, 1 had 
received intelligence of his death, on vniich I returned to France to secure what 

froperty he had left ; and that, being then my own master* I had sold every thing 
had in my country, and bought merchandise, for the purpose of carrying my de« 
sign into execution. I added that, at the Senegal, I had heard the wisdom of the 
Braknas highlv extolled, and had in consequence determined to come and live 
among them: but that, on entering the Senegal, the vessel which I was in was 
wrecked, and I had saved but a smui part of my goods ; that I had left them with 
M. Alain, who lived at St Louis and was advantageously known to them, and in- 
tended to lay out the produce of the little j>ack whidi I haid brought with me in tiie 
purchase of cattle, for fiie purpose of setdinf^ in their eoontiy, as soon as my edu* 
cation should be finished. He seemed satisfied with my answers ; the intimatioii 
concerning the goods was what pleased him most, and I eengratiuated myself on 
having resorted to this artifice. It was agrsed tiiat I should remain witii him, that 
he thaald undertake my education and provide finr my wants : and he added, m aa 
emphatie manner, that he already considered me asoneofhischildien.'*— >VoI. 1» 
p. 42, 4S. 

It thus appears that to the five interroffatories put to M. CaiOie, 
he returned answers either directly fidse, fake by implicatioOi or eva» 
sive; adding several gratuitous untruths. It is difficult to decide 
whether his profession of Islamismy the salient point of all this decep« 
tion, is more objectionable on Uie score of Drineipie or on that of expe- 
diency. In " repeating the usual form or prayer of the Mussulmans: 
There i$ but (me God, and Mahomet U hi$ prophet,'* M. Caillie took 
the course which he deemed indispensable u>r the purposes of a laud* 
able curiosity. But this motive is rarely inferior to compulsion ; and 
no duress has evir yet been deemed sumdent to excuse a Christiaa 
for denying his Saviour. And ia refaid to the object in viewi eould 



lyG CAILLiE'S TKA\ KLS IN AFRICA. [July, 

this renegade from religion for the benefit of science Lave reasonably 
expected, in the character of a Mohammedan, to acquire any valuable 
«ciei»fi/ic information? The very adoption of the means necessary 
for its attainment would have betrayed him. He could doubtless 
gain, as he did, a knowledge of African customs, traditions and anec- 
dotes, more or less interesting according to his opportunities for record- 
ing them, and to the tenacity of his memory. How precarious was 
the first of these sources of reliance, will appear from the following 
incident: 

*' In the evening, being in the tent of a marabout, who save instruction, I took 
advantage of a moment when I could procure tome ink, and feD to work upon my 
journal : I had written about a page, when the Koont shexif came in ana caught 
me ; he took the paper from me, and, amazed to see no Arabic charactan, asktd 
jne what 1 was writjnj^. I thought at first of saying that I had set down some 
prayers that I wanted to remember, but ^collecong that I bad not learnt prayers 
enough to take up a page, I told him it was a sons, and I began to sing to conviDce 
him. The incredulous sherif did not appear to oelieve it, and he accused me of 
coming to spy out their ways, that I mi^ht nva an account of them to the chria- 

to dnve fliis i<" ~ 



tians. It was of importance to me to dnve this idea out of his head, and I sac- 

111 A !• A.V. A. ». • A' IP ^ 1_ A r I. • *" W A. .*■_ 




me to rcait another verse. I siin^ another couplet ; the sherif appei^ed convinced* 
and leit me, to my p^eat joy, for his surmises alarmed me exceediD^ghr. I thanked 
God that I bad come oif so well, and resolved to be more prudent in rature. From 
that time forward, when I wanted to write, I took care to get behind a bush, and 
at the least noise I hid my notes and tctok up my beads, pretending to be saying my 
prayers. Tliis feigned devotion procured me much commendation ftom tiiose who 
surprised me ; but it was painful to me to perform such a part." — ^Vol. 1, p. 51, St. 

M. Caillie was equally surprised and annoyed by tbe diet of the 
Moors. Milk, its principal, or rather its only article, was sq scaotilj 
afibrded to him in the morning, without any farther sustenance during 
the day, that at night he became ravenously hungry. He venture^ 
on one occasion, to request from those about him something to eat. 
His petition was repeated to the King, who sent for him, made him 
say a prayer, and then ordered a slave to milk a cow for him. On 
his expressing a wish for something more substantial before he should 
drink the milk, those about him were excited to *' laughter unextin- 
guibhabie ;" and the King, not the least clamorous of the laughers, 
declared that he never took any other nourishment About ten 
o'clock at night, a Moor brought in his hand to our traveller some 
scraps of mutton, boiled and full of sand. '' For the last three days," 
says M. Caillie, 

** Fatme-Anted-Moctar had omitted to send me a meal of sangleh,* as she had 
been accustomed to do ; I received nothing from her but a little milk moningand 
night, and was tonoented with hunger. The kins had told me, it is true, to ask 
him for every thing I wanted ; but I got no more for that ; and the milk, instead of 
satisfying me, gave me the colic, and impaired my strength. 

** Dunng tlie month that I passed with ttie Idnr, I never once saw him taka any 
solid food, or drink any thing but milk. When I asked him why he took neitfaor 
sangleh nor meat, he replied that he preferred milk to all other food. To dtstin* 
guiso themselves from toe common people, the king and his nobles always drank 
camel'ta mUk, and said they preferred it ; but I alwajrs suspected that their ody 

* Asoitof porridge made with meal fiom millet or any other grain* 



1835.] CAILUE'S TRAVELS IN AFRICA. lyQIT 

motive was the difficulty of procuring it, which prevented the slaves from drinkiig^ . 
it also; a sort of distinction of which they are jealous. I have seen the queen seve- 
ral times eat meat swimming in melted butter." — ^Vol. 1, p. 58, 54. 

Milk appears to be the specific for producing that extraordinary 
fatness which has long been known as realizing the Moorish idea of 
female beauty : 

'* The favourite female slaves of the princes receive the milk in calabashes, and • 
distribute it a^n to their masters. Beauty amongst the Moors consists in enor- 
mous embonpoint ; and the young girls are therefore obliged to drink milk to ex- - 
cess ; the elder ones take a g^eat quantity of their own accord, but the younger 
children are compelled by their parents, or by a slave whose office it is, to swallbw 
their idlowance. This poor creature cpmmonly takes advantage of the " brief 
authority** that is granted her, to reven^ herself by her cruelty lor the tyrancjf of 
her masters. I have seen poor little girls crying and rolling on the ^ound, and 
even throwing up the milk which they had just drank ; neither their cries nor 
their sufferines making any impression upon tne cruel slave, who beat them, pinch- 
ed them till they bled, and tormented them in a thousand ways, to force them to - 
take the quantity of milk which she thought proper. ^ If their food were heavier, ^ 
such a system would have fatal consequences ; but it is so far from hurting their 
constitutions, that they grow visibly stronger and fatter. At twelve years old ^ey 
are enormous, but at twenty or twenty-two they lose their embonpoint; I never 
saw a woman of that age who was remarkably corpulent. 

<*The largest women are reckoned the handsomest. The Moors have no taste^or 
beauty of form or mind; on the contrary, what we consider a capital defect itan 
attraction with them ; they admire women who have the two firont teeth of the up- 
per jaw projecting £rom the mouth ; and ambitious mothers employ all possftie - 
means, to make their daughters* teeth grow in that direction. 

<*The men, as I have said, feed also on milk ; bat they drink less than the wo- 
men. The slaves live upon cows' milk, and in fte season when milk is scaice, 
they are allowed a small portion of grain, about three quarters of a pound, witbbiit 
milk ; at that season they eat only at 11 o'clock at night, when their masters are 
in bed. Such of the Moors as have young slaves ten or twelve years old, send - 
them to the enclosure where the calves are, at milking time : and from every oow 
they let them drink a mouthful of milk ; which is all the food they receive, so tliat 
they suffer much from hunger. 

*' When supper is over, the milk which is left is put in a leather baff, calfcd 
wuoou, to curdle. In the morning, after the cows are milked they breakfast as ijttty 
supped over- night, that is to say upon milk; the difference being that they have 
less of it, because the calves are allowed to suck in the morning. 

** At noon, a slave churns the milk to make butter ; filling the soucoa which:/< 
holds it with wind, and then shaking it on her lap for a quarter of an hour. When • 
tlie butter is made, they work it into little balls of the size of a walnut^ and add • 
three parts water to the milk, which is set by in calabashes to be distributed at 
dinner. The balls are put into the portion destined foi^the women, and they swal- 
low tiiem in drinking; this beverage of milk and water is caUed cheni. 

"The Moors are naturally filthy ; and they seem to choose the dirtiest slave-on-' 
purpose, to make the butter and apportion the cheni. I have seen the veoraen* 
makinr the balls of butter with their hands wipe their fingers on their haiir, and > 
then plunge them again into the calabash containing the butter and milk. Thby 
disgusted me to such adeeree by tiieir uncleanly ways, that I have often stiffisftd • 
hunger, ratiier than accept a driiik which they had prepared so filthily.'*— ^^oL.l, . 
.i. «7, 68: 

The diet of which M. Caillie complains, however advantageou8<m.' 
some respects, was not without its evils. "I have observed/' Bcl 
says, 

'^That the Moors in general are not subject to severe iUnesset, an exemp Ion 
which they probably owe to their temperance ; but they are veiv 8nscepti£/«>«ir 
pain, and the least suffering unmans them. I have seen a Moor wi& a slignt h od* 
ache CIV like a child. The remedies most in vogue amongst them, are the foVt«w- 
ing : when HI, thev diet themselves and take nouiing but milk, and as soon as tftiqr 
are convalescent, mev feed upon flesh only» that they may recover their stre p^ 
the sooner. Ifhan mey have a head-acha they bind a cloth roond the fonh «idU 



196 CAILLIE'S TRAVELS IN AFRICA. [July, 

as tight as they can. For a cold, they introduce meited butter into their noiea, ^ 
means of a pipe fitted into a vessel, and they pretend that they derive much benefit 
from this, especially for a cold in the head." — Vol. 1, p. 72. 

The Moorish mode of cultivating the graio called ''Millet/' is as 
follows : 

** The millet is reaped at the end of May ; at that time the marabouts receive it 
from tlieir slaves and the haasanes from their zenagues, or tributaries. This millet 
supports them till the month of July when the rainy season commences ; they then 
witndraw from the banks of the river, and live entirely on milk. If any millet re* 
mains, it is laid by till the next dry season. 

*' In the month of November, when the waters begin to subside, the Moors send 
their slaves to sow the ground which has been flood^ by the rains, or by the over* 
flowing of the river. It is at this season also, that the zenagues come (iown to the 
banks of the river to cultivate millet. The slaves of the same camp iodse togeth- 
er, and cultivate the same district ; each field is marked out, and the produce caxe- 
fully kept in a separate place. Their method of cultivation is exceedingly bed, but 
it gives them little trouble. With a thick stick they make holes in'the eround lix 
inches deep, and ihto these holes they drop three or four grains of milleC covering 
them with sand or light mould. They never prepare the mund in any way, ana 
only weed it after the millet has come up. To save themselves trouble they select 
a poor soil, because a richer would require more weeding, and they are natunUy 
lazy. When the seed is sown, they wait quietly tiU the millet makes its appeal^ 
ance, then thin it a little, and weed round the roots to give it air; many ao no 
more than this, and suffer the jgrass to grow up between the roots. 

*' Wliei) tfip '^ar begins to show, they stay in the field to drive away the birds, 
which would devour me grain before it is ripe ; and tliis occupation does not allow 
them a moment's rest : they walk about the field incessantly, shouting and throw- 
ing stones, and at night they lie down among it to protect it from gazelles, porcu- 
pines, and wild boars, which would make great havoc. 

" When the millet is ripe, they cut it, and thrash it with sticks. The grain is put 
into sacks, and carried to the camp, and those who have reaped mora than they are 
likely to want, cany the surplus to the markets, and sell it to the dealers." — VoL 
1, p. 79, 80. 

Our author thus describes the customs of Moorish courtship, mar* 
riage, &c« 

** When a young man becomes attached to a giri, and wishes to marry her, ha 
seeks her in secret, and obtains her consent. That point secured, he commissions 
a marabout to treat with the girl's relations, as to the presents which he is to make* 
the number of oxen he is to give to the bride's mother, &c. This being arranged, 
the marabout who has undertaken the negociation informs the other marabouta« 
when they are assembled %> prayer, the lover himself being present From this 
moment tne lover is not to see the father and mother of his muue bride ; he takes 
the greatest care to avoid them, and if by chance they perceive him mer cover 
their faces, as if all the ties of friendship were broken. 1 tried in vain to discover 
the origin of this whimsical custom ; the only answer I could obtain was, '*It is 
our way." 

** When the marriage is celebrated, the husband may take away his wife forth- 
with if he has a camel; in that case the mother-in-law supplies the equipage for 
the beas^ the cradle, and the carpet which lines it ; she adorns the daoghter witii 
her finest ornaments, gives her a mat to lie upon, and a sheep-skin for a coverlid : 
the husband leads the camel, and keeps his face covered till he is out of the camp. 
If he has no camel, he leaves his wife in the camp till he caa procure one» for It 
wouldbe a terrible disgrace if the woman were brought hone to her husband^ 
camp on a bullock, ^metimes he settles in his wife's camp, sends for his flocks ' 
and nerds, and ceases to hide himself. 

<*It often happens that tiie husband and wife cannot ame, or are desirous of a 
separation ; one of them then quarrels with the other, ana they pait witiioat hav- 
ing recourse to the marabouts who brought them togetiier. The one who wishes 
for a divorce makes a present to the other. If there are children, the boys go witii 
the father, and the girls remain with their mother; if she is pregnant at the time« 
and brings forth a lx>y, it is sent to the father ¥^o has it nursed by a zenague. 

*< When the husband dies, his wife goes into mourning and weais it four m<HitliS 



;i835.] CAILLIE'S TRAVELS IN AFRICA. 199 

and ten days; daring this time, she puts on her wont apparel, receiving nobody 
into her tent but her nearest relations, and covering her race when she goes out. — 
The husband, on the other hand, does not wear mourning for his wife, and many 
marry again the next day. 

** The law of inheritance is as follows : when a man dies bis wife receives one- 
fourth of his goods ; the mother of the deceased has a tenth of the three other 
fourths, and the father a fourth of the remainder ; the children *s share, which is thus 
reduced to one-half, is so divided, that each boy shall have twice as much as each 
giri. When the husband inherits, he takes half the property of his wife, and the 
other half is divided amone the grand-parents, and the grand-children, in the same 
proportions. At the death of husband and wife without offspring, the property 
goes back in the ascending line ; for collateral branches never inherit. 

** At the death of husband or wife, the uncle of the deceased becomes guardian 
to the children, until they are eighteen, which is the age of majority ; the oxen 
which they are to inherit are confided to the grandfather until that time. Children 
who are still at the breast are sent to the zenagues, till they are two years old, and 
then return to their uncle. 

** The Moor8-%ever grieve for any body's death, and would think it very improper 
to shed tears over the deceased, bein^ persuaded that his soul has ascended 
straightway to heaven ! They shave the whole body with the exception of the 
beard, and wrap it in a white shroud, after having washed it with care ; it is then 
left exposed in the tent for four days, during which time the marabouts assemble 
round it and sing verses of the Koran. 

** If the relations of the deceased are rich, they kill an ox to regale the singers ; 
if they are poor they only give a little sandeh every evenine^. On the fifth day, 
they dig a sprave about two feet and a half deep, and the boc^ is laid in it on one 
side, with uie face towards Mecca. Briars are placed upon the grave to protect it 
from wild beasts. If the deceased was a person of conseouence, the grave is lined 
with mats ; when it is filled up, an inscription is placed upon it ; the marabouts 
perform the salam and return to the camp. 

" The hassanes and zenagues do not bury their own dead, but have recourse to 
the marabouts, who undertake the business for a small remuneration. The women 
are not present at the interment of a man, nor the men at that of a woman. 

** When a child is born its body is rubbed all over with fresh butter, which is 
also ^iven to its mother to take ; her face is likewise rubbed with it ; she eats 
nothing but meat till her complete recovery. The husband takes care to be ab- 
sent himself when his wife is in labour, for no sooner does a woman feel her pains 
coming on, than she screams in the most frightful manner, and assails her husoand 
in the most abu»ive and indecent language. This Is another of their customs ! — 
When the child has acquired a little strength, it is slung in a pagne, tied at the 
four corners to serve as a hammock. The mother usually suckles the child her- 
self."— Vol 1, p. 94, 95— »7. 

The country of the Braknas, in which M. Caillie was sojourning, 
is described by him to be situated about 60 leagues E. N. £. of St. 
Louis ; and to be bounded on the South by the Senegal, on the East 
by the country of the Douiches, on the North-east by that of the 
Koonts, or Takants, and on the North by the tribe of Oulad-Lame. 
This tribe is united with another neighbouring tribe, neither of which 
is Mohammedan, and the two compose a formidable nation. The 
Trarzas nation is composed of several tribes — some hassanes, and 
others marabouts (priests), each of which has its separate and inde- 
pendent chief. 

" These tribes are often engaj^ed in war with one another, which they undertake 
without the king's consent. The crown is hereditary only when the king leaves 
a son who is of age ; if he leaves no children, or minors only, it devolves to his 
brother, who enjojrs it during life, after his death, if the sons of the preceding kin? 
are of age to inherit, the eldest succeeds to his father's rights. The population oT 
the Braknas is not very numerous ; it is divided into five classes, which have been 
already mentioned : hastanes, marabouts^ zenaguett laratmea, and slaves. 

** The hassanes may be considered as the aristocracy of the country and its 
warriors ; their armies consist of themselves and their slaves ; the zenagues join 



'5SD0 CAILLIE^S TRAVELS IN AFRICA. [Jifly; 

.ftL«o, in the hope of pillage ; the common people, that is, the poorer hansmea, are 
attracted by the same ho^e, bat they serve onlf as volunteers, and the princes 
have no power to compel tree men to enlist in their armies. 

" When the chief of a tribe is cruel or unjust towards his subjects, or ev«i defi- 
cient in liberality, it is at every man's option to remove with his flocks, and to join 
any other tribe which he pleases ; hence nothing is more uncertain than the pajra- 
lation of a tribe, which increases or diminishes accoidine to the reputation oi iti 
chief; even the king's own tribe is not exempt from deseraon. 

"When the Moors make war upon one another, tiiey take no prisoners ; if any 
of their enemies fall into their bauds, they kill them immediately, and the spoils oi 
the slain belong to the conqueror. They fight from a distance, and only attack by 
smprise. The chie& fight like their subjects ; I have been told, however^ that 
when Hamet-Dou* goes to war, he is always accompanied by one of his ministers, 
whose business it is to hold him by his coussabe and to keep him at a safe dis- 
tance : report says the coussabef has never been torn ; but this may be a ealnmny. 

• It is the hassanes who always make excursions against the negroes to pillage tiwBi, 

• and carry off slaves ; and on these occasions they are seldom accompaniM hf the 
zenagues. The hassanes are idle, mendacious, thievish, envious, superstitions, 
and gluttonous ; they combine in short, all possible vices. An hassane who pos- 
sesses a horse, a gun, and coussabe, thinks himself the happiest of mortals. JH- 
thiness they seem to consider as a virtue. The men swann vrifh vermin, of which 
they take no pains to rid themselves. The women are disgusting ; lying always 
upon their couches, with their heads besmeared with butter, whidi, being meltad 

• by the heat, runs down their faces and their whole bodies : they exhale in conee- 

Suence a perfume which to Europeans is any thing but agreeable. In idleneee 
icy surpass the men, for they will not even nse to take their food, but rest on their 
.elbows while a slave gives them their milk." — Vol. 1. p. 98, 99. 

The order of Moorish population next to the marabouts, are the 

. zenagues, or tributaries, who are the serfs of the hassanes. They 

pay to their masters annual contributions of millet, butter, a few 

sheep-skins, &c. for rent, which are unsparingly, and often unjosdy 

and with horrible tortures exacted. 

'* The fourth class of the Moorish population is composed of the offspring of a 
Moor and a black slave ; they arc called laratines. Though slaves by birth, they 
are never sold, but have land of their own, and are treated almost like tlie zenagnee. 
Tbe laratines, whose fathers are hassancti, are warriors; those, whose fiitherBare 
marabouts, receive instruction and embrace the j^rofession of their fathers. IVoiid 
of their birth, they are not very obedient to their masters, and it is only by foice 
that the latter can compel them to pay the tribute which is due to them. Th&f 
possess few cattle, for the^ are not allowed to increase their herds, lest they should 
enfranchise themselves if thev were to become wealthy. The laratines and tbe 
zenagues have the care of tne herds which the hassanes possess out of their 
camps. 

** The slaves form the fifth class, and are all negroes. They are chai^ged with 
all the labours of the camn — the care of flocks, the providing of water and woed« 
and the culture of the lana. The women pound millet, prepare food, wait upon 
their mistresses, water the calves, fetch water, and if they belone to maraboats» 
collect haze and gum. On a journey, the slaves carry on their heads whatever 
cannot be laid upon oxen. Thev are, as I have already mentioned, ill treated, ill 
fed, and beaten at the caprice of their masters, whether they have committed my 
fault or not. They are seldom addressed by any name but that of slave. In sbm, 
there is no species of vexation, which they are not obliged to endure." — ^Vol. I, p. 
106, 107. 

(to be continued.) 

* A principal chief of the Trarzas nation, recognised as king by the French 
Government. 

t A coussabe is a piece of cloth two yards long and three quarters wide, doubled 
aiid sewed together, with holes left for the arms at the top. Another opening is 
leit for the head ; 80 that it is a sort of shirt without sleeves. 



1835.] COLONIZATION MEETING IN NEW TORK. 201 



COIiONIZATlOTr MEETING IN NEW YORK. 

Our last number contained some account of the Colonizatidd meet- 
ing which was held in the city of New York on the 13th, 14th and 
15th of May. The New York papers have since furnished addition- 
al details, and reports of the speeches delivered on tlie second eve- 
ning. Regretting the impossibility of republishing them in extenso 
in the Repository, we must beg our readers to be contented with such 
extracts as we can find room for : 

The Rev. Cortlandt Van Rensselaer, formerly of Albany, but who has late- 
ly resided in Virginia, addressed the meeting, and after alluding to tiie diii'erence 
of opinion which prevailed among the friends of Colonization, touching the pres- 
ent condition and treatment of the coloured population in this countr>% proceeded 
to oiler reasons why the people of the North snould approach their i>rethren in the 
South, who held the control of the coloured population, with deilcrence, and In a 
spirit of kindness and conciliation. 

These reasons were briefly as follows : 1. Because the people of the South had 
not consented to the original introduction of slaves into the country, but Jiad so- 
lemnly, Earnestly and repeatedly remonstrated a^inst it. 2. Because having 
been born in the presence of slavery, and accustomed to it from their infancy, ttiey 
could not be expected to view it in the same light as we at the Nortl). . 3. Slavery 
beingthere established tn/ law, it was not in the power of individuah to act in re- 
gard to it as their personal feelings might dictate. The evil had not been eradicat- 
ed from the State of New York all at once: it had been a gradual process, com- 
mencing with the law of 1799 and not consummated until 1827. Ought we to de- 
nounce our Southern neighbors if they refused to do the work at a blow ? 4. The 
Constitution of the United States tolerated slavery, in its articles apportioning]: rep- 
resentation with reference to the slave population, and re(juirin<; tiie surrender of 
runaway slaves. 5. Slavery had been much mitigated of late years, and tlie con- 
dition of the slave population much meliorated. iS former rigor was almost un- 
known, at least in Virginia, and it was lessening continually. It was not consist- 
ent with truth to represent the slaves as groaning day and night under the lash of. 
tyrannical task-masters. And as to being kept in perfect igiioi unce, Mr. V. had 
seldom seen a plantation where some of the slaves could not read, and where they 
were not encouraged to learn. In South Carolina, where it was said the gcspel 
was systematically denied to the slave, there were twenty thousand of them church- 
members in the Methodist denomination alone. He knew a small church where 
out of 70 communicants, 50 were in slavery. 6. There were very great difficul- 
ties connected with the work of Abolition. The relations of slavery nad ramified 
themselves through all the rektions of society. The slaves were comparatively 
very ignorant ; their character degraded ; and they were unc^ualified for immediate 
freedom. A blunder in such a concern as universal abolition, would be no light 
matter. Mr. V. here referred to the result of experience and personal observation 
on the mind of the well-known Mr. Parker, late a minister of this city, but now of 
New Orleans. He had left this city for the South with the feelings of an immedi- 
ate abolitionist; but he had returned with views wholly changed. After seeing 
slavery and slaveholders, and that at the far South, he now declared the idea of im- 
mediate and universal abolition to be a gross absurditjr. To liberate the two and 
a half millions of slaves in the midst of us, would be just as wise and as humane, 
as it would be for the father of a numerous family of young children to take them 
to the front door, and there bidding them ^od bye, tell them tliey were free, and 
send them out into the world to provide for and govern themselves. 7. Foreign 
interference was, of necessity, a delicate thing, and ought ever to be attempted 
with the utmost caution. 8. There was a ku-ge amount of unfeigned Christian 
anxiety at the South to obey God and do good to man. There were many tears 
and prayers continually poured out over the condition of their coloured people, and 
the most earnest desire to mitie;ate their sorrows. Were such persons to be ap- 
proached with vituperation and anathemas ? 9. There was no reason why all our 
9ympat]ucs should be confined to the coloured race and utterly withheld firomour 
white Soutliern brethren. The apostle Paul cxhibite<l no such spirit. 10. A re 

2G 



S92 COLONIZATION Bft££TINO IN N£W YORK. [Julj, 

^aid to the interest of the slaves themselves dictated a cautious and prudent and 
torbearinir coone. It called for conciliation: for the fate of the slaves depended 
on the wm of their masters, nor could the North prevent it The late laws against 
teaching slaves to read had not heen passed until the Southern people found iu- 
flamma&iy publications circulating among the people. 1 1 . The spint of the gos- 
pel fofbade all violence* abuse and threatening. The apostles had wished to call 
nre from heaven on those tbey considered as Christ's enemies; but the Saviour in- 
stead of approving this fiery zeal, had rebuked it. 12. These Soutbeni people, 
who were represented as so grossly violating all Christian duty, had been tne sub- 
jects of gracious blessings m)m God in the outpourings of his spirit. 13. When 
God convinced men of eri-or, he did it in the spirit of mercy; we ought to endeav- 
or to do the same thing in the same spirit. 

But it might be asked, was nothing to be done ? Were things to be left just as 
they were, to their own results ? He replied, that spmething was to be done, and 
much could be done. If asked how : he would reply by fray£r to God. He 
had been happy to hear this mode of benefiting the stave recommended at the late 
anniversary oi the Anti-Slavery Society. Good could be done by dUseminating 
Me Ooipsi more fully among the slaves: and to this Mr. V. earnestly exhorted 
those mo heard him. ^ Why did the friends of the Anti-Slavery cause refuse to 
lend the least aid to this object ? They had been applied to in Boston, in Port- 
land, and in this city, to contribute towards this good work, and had utterly refus- 
ed. Yet these were the men who so loudly charged the slaveholders of the South 
for refusing to benefit the souls of their slaves. Southern Christians and Southern 
minisiers were urging on the plan of giving religious vislruction to these unhappy 
people. Thus they were counteracting the worst evils of the system. And thus it 
became the real friends of tjie slave everv where to act. • • • • 

The Rev. G. W. Bethune. • • • "i'he question then returned. How shall wt 
do good to these people ? Admitting that the power to liberate or not to liberate 
them, was de facto m the hands of the white maisters at the South, two things 
were needful : first, to obtain the consent of their masters ; and secondly, to show 
how the benefit may be conferred with safety to those who receive it, the poor 
slaves themselves. One thing was certain : you never could convince any such 
man unless yot/ approached him in a spirit of kindness and moderation, a spirit 
which admitted and sympathized with the difficulties of the slaveholder. The gos- 
pel, while it testified of sin, came with the olt'er of grace in its hand, with sympa- 
thy and compassion in every look and every tone. So while it was a Christian 
duty to rebuke the sin of slaveholding, and to search it out, yet this was to be done 
only in a spirit of love and pit^, and not in a spirit of denunciation, and rash, and 




the world through him might be saved ? Let us imitate his example : let us act in 
his spirit. * • . * * 

As to the second point, viz. the safety of the slave, the mode of relief must be 
distinctly shown. Every great object of a national kind must be accomplished 
gradually. History did not show a single instance where it had been ellected of a 
sudden. The Southern people, in this matter of emancipation, held the power in 
their own hands : and it was nonsense for us on this side of the Potomac, to talk 
authoritatively in the case. We could not emancipate the slaves of Southern plan- 
ters, if we would: the duty was not ours, but theirs. Now it was obvious that 
when an address was directed to conscience, it wus, and must always be virtually 
an address to individuals. It must be so in the nature of things; and the appeal in 
behalf of liberating the slave mi.st be an individual appeal. The Northern people 
came to a Southern slaveholder, and said to him : '* It is a duty binding on you to 
abolish slavery as soon as vcu can. If you will emancipate your slave we will 
provide him a home upon ttie soil of Africa. We are aware that the laws of your 
State forbid you to set him free where he is: but if you confide him to our care, 
we will place him where those laws cannot reach hiin, and where he may walk 
abroad in the erect majesty of a freeman." To such a propo.«*ition there wirre ma- 
ny slaveholders ready to listen ; many had acted u|>on it: an<1 could any man doubt 
tliat one such example would have more influence toward the abolition of slavery 
than all the invectives and vituperations that could be poureil out upon slaveholif- 
ing? Beyond all question it would. It was upon the erieet of sucn appeals that 
Mr. B. founded hi:) hopes of ultiuiate succc&h; anU he believed that the great ob- 



1835.] COLONIZATION MBETlIfG UT MW TOML 90b 



ject might thus be obtained Ivithottt aendin^ oot all tht coioiired popolation 
the country. 

fiut it was said that to send them to Africa was impossible : it could not be dose. 
Yet was it not a fact that millions upon millioDS of slaves had been brought from 
Africa, by the mere cupidity oC bad men. Wen tiiere not in a sinjj^ year 40,000 
carried into the Brazils alone I And should it be said that the Christian philantluo- 
py of America, backed by all our abundant and increasing national wMlth, could 
not effect what the bare avarice of the slave trader had done and was every day do- 
ing? Surely if the Society had the pecuniary means this nucht be effected: and 
they should nave had more of those means but lor the mternrence of those who 
insisted upon the visionary scheme of immediate and universal emandpation. Te( 
no : he was wrong. The Society had not received less, but more, in conseauenec' 
of the abuse of its opponents : a fact in which he recognized with joy the fulnloMnt 
of God's ancient promise, that the wrath of man shouU praise him. • * • « 

Mr. Bethuve, in continuation, observed that he was sorry not td see some ot 
our English friends present, and while speakine of them he could not bdp tfahik- 
ing what sort of a reception the agent of the J&linburgh ladies (Mr. Tbompaon,) 
would meet on his return to his constituents, and what sort of a report he would 
probably make on the subject of his mission. He could not but picture to hinoelf 
the fair lady President enquiring, 

" And pray, Mr. Thompson, what did you do in America?" 

To this he thought he neard the agent responding, <* Whv, ladies, I made speech- 
es there : for which one part of my audience loudly applauded me» and anotlMr 
part as loudly hissed me." 

** And pray where didjrou make your speeches, Mr. Thompson ? did you go to 
that psjrt of the country where slavery prevailed, and tell them how vnong it 

was?" 

'* Oh no ! if I had, they would have hanged me ! But I went to tbf NiofAtm 
States, ladies, and I told them what wickedpeiMDle they were at the South." 

" But, Mr. Thompson, had the people of the North any power to nmnripilii the 
slaves of the Southern holders?" 

** Oh no. No more, ladies, than you have yourselves." 

*' Indeed! and tiien Mr. Thompson, why did not you stay at home* and make 
your speeches to us?" 

<* But pray, Mr. Thompson, w|ule you were in the United States, were there no 
slaves aduaibf liberated and placed in circumstances of comfort and happiness?" 

** Oh yes, ladies, there were one hundred and twenty emancipated and sent to 
Liberia soon after my arrival: and preparations were making to send one hundred 
more from Savannah, so that in a few months there were 220 delivered entirely and 
forever from slavery." 

** And by whose agency was the emancipation of these slavee efibeted» Mr. 
Thonapson?" 

" why, ladies, by the very people against whom I was all the while direetiBg 
myvituperative speeches." • • • • • 

The Kxv. John Ssts. — ^Mr. Sejre* nfter congratulating: himself on the honor •■ 
well as pleasure he now ei^oyed, went on to state tiiat ne had been bom and 
brought up in the midst of West India slavery, (the island of Trinidad«) httvifijg 
vievred the black man as made to be a mere instrumoit tor the gratification of hS 
white master; but having become the subject of converting grace, hi had biui 
taught a veiy different creied. After his conversion he began to long fiir some pton 
by which the emancipation of the slaves from IxMidage mig^t be happily aeeoai- 
plished; but could devise none, until about fiY9 years since he hadoome to thi'U* 
Stetss, and learned for the first time tiie olgeete and measures of the CokmiialiDli 
Sode^. Here he discovered flie desideratum he had so lone (soogfat, and o««r 
sincehad been a decided firiend to flie Society. HHth the flillest aquaiatipMO wtt 
slaveiT inall its details, and in its worst fixrm, finr he had himself Mrvwifi hmm 
intended a West India plantation, he was dear in tiie conviction that this Sooelgr 
was an instrument raised up by God himself to efibet tiie best good of tfaeookmd 
population, and to Mess the continent of Afidca with the ben^n of dviliiatioa and 
Christianity. He had been sent out by a bunch of Chiisfs church to Isaeh tim 
unsearchable riches of Chiist to the Cmtilee; and on his way he had stopped at 
Liberia, which, like tiie landof Canaaa»wuafi«tileanddeliriitfrilland. 

Mr.8.tiienw0ntintoadeferiptionof tiMtdul cooditioDc^tiioOolaiiyatLi* 



iSOl COLONIZATION MEETING IN NEW YOIUC. [Jul>% 

beria. He bad not received his information Iroin disappointed and irritated men, 
who liad been examined and re-examined till they did not know what they 8aid; 
but )ic had been on the spot, seen with his own eyes, and conversed wiUi almost 
every individual in the Colony; and, the result was a belief, that nothing could 
iihake, that the Colonization cause was the cause of God; and that thonp^b it was 
opposed by some ^ood men, they were in error and deceived. The Colonists were 
contented and happy in proportion to their intelligence and industnr. A few, and 
thf>y n ere very lew, were discontented ; but these were persons ot indolent habits 
'and not enough knowletige or understanding to appreciate what they enjoyed. This 
was owin;; to the want of previous culture. There were very few such people 
there: and tliey ought not to be palmed upon the American public as true speci- 
mens of the feelings and views of the Colonists at Liberia. 

Mr. Seys gave a most decided testimony in favor of the exemplary moral charac- 
ler of the Colonists. In the five months he had spent there, in constant intercoune 
with the people of all classes he had not seen one person in a state of intoxication, 
nor had he heard one profane word. 

He dwelt upon the value of tlie Colony as the door to all mifsionary operations 
for the illumination of that vast but benighted continent : a nursen^ from which 
missionaries woidd be raised up to make the wilderness rejoice. He avowed his 
iirin persuasion that the Colonization Society was the most genuine Anii'Slaeenf 
Society in existence. Other Societies expressed lively sympathy for the slave : 
but thf:y seemed conversant chietly with his bodily wants and sutferings ; but this 
Society mailc the best provision lor the good oithc mind and ioul by removing the 
coloiirrd riidti beyond tne contaminatinp: example of the wlute people, and placing 
him whore cvciy passing zephyr whispered in his ear, "Thou art free." Here he 
had every religious opportunity, and full liberty of conscience in the midst oi' a 
nioMJ coiiiiii unity. • • • » • 

Mr. Seys said, that the soil of Liberia contained a mine of cxhaustlcss wealth 
to the Coionidts : it was well adapted to the culture of the Sugar Cane. He knew 
all about the culture of sugar, and he had examine<l the soil of Liberia: and this 
was \\h settled ofiiniuii. It wanted nothing but caltivation, and it would repay the 
labor ot'llieai;riciilturist ten-fold. He here publicly declared it as his iuugmcnt» 
that if the Society would raise and put into the luind^ of an agent the sum of 
$10,000, to be liiid out in the culture of sugar, it would clear all expenses, and in 
five yeaVs would iiett a profit of $100,000. He ^ad gone carefully into tlie calcu- 
lation, allowing largely for all expenses; and tliis was the result. This might 
Found chiuioric;il : but he know what he was saying. He had long been himself iu 
the business, ami in latitudes so near that of Monrovia, as to warrant him to speak 
with ronfidence. The lands of the Colony contained the means not only of render- 
in;; the (^oloisists easy in circiunstmccs, but of enriching them with every thing 
that could lender life desirnble. 

My. S. tiiLii inlv-rt<'(l fo Hie liappy air^ncy oftho Colony in piiftinjr an end to the 
slave trude. \Vlicre\ 'T the iSociety advanced iij» foot, the slaver lied before it. — 
(jjoiid apj'iousr.) Wherever an American enii;;rant put up a house, the man- 
ptealer tied and never returned. Thousands of slaves were formerly sold where 
the Colony was now sitnated, but the trade had now disappeared. (Long and loud 
burst of applause.) 

Fit>m a lonir aiicl intimate acquaintance with slavery in all its departments, Mr. 
K. (;ave it as his advice, that the slave-owner should be approached with netUUneu, 
And treated with candor and Lutdncss. He had no )ien<onal interest in the matter. 
He hud devoted himself to the work of a mi.s'^ionary in Africa. Ho prayed that 
God^s blessing mi^ht come vfmn all who were seeking to benefit the slave, and put 
an end lo the abominations of the slave trade, however they might diilcr in tlieir 
^iews. He conchided by expressing bright anticipations of^he future growth and 
pn>sp«iity, wealth and })ower of the now infant Colony, autT took his seat amidst 
the apfhnsc of the auditory. 

Moses Allkk, Ksq., the Treasurer of the Society, rose, and made to the audi- 
ence this offer : that if any individual present would nut into his hands tlie sum of 
Twenty Dollars, he would engage, on behalf of tne Society, to place, for that 
money, a liberated slave upon the coast of Africa. He farther stated, that a gen- 
tleman present oH'ered to give $3 a-piece to thet first five hundred emigrants 
who should pii out to Africa for the bona julc purpose of settlement, and $2 a- 
piece lo the next five hundred on condition that the sum of two thousand dollars 
should now be given or secured. 



163^.] COLONIZATION M££TIN6 IN NEW YORK. 205 

After mauy manifestatioDS of applause, in the course of a short 
time, the President announced that the two thousand dollars had been 
given. 

Mr. Allen then stated* tliat if the Society could have |^5,000 now subscribed,, a 
ship would be chartered immediately, tfnd the hundred liberated slaves now wait- 
ing at Savannah might be on shipboard and under sail for Africa by the 15th of 
June. 

A coloured man was now presentefl to the audience, who expected shortly to go 
out as an emigrant to Liberia. The gentleman who presented him said that he wa^ 
an educated man, that he spoke, read, and wrote the Arabic language very per- 
fectly ; and was a professea believer in Christ. He intended to act as a missionary 
to his race. He had been liberated by Ms master for this end ; and had been wait- 
ing now for 90 days for an opportunity of going. 

Mr. GuBLET, Secretary of tne Parent Society, rose and said that he had intended 
making a speech of some extent on the present occasion : but the time had been 
so much better occupied that he should waive that purpose. He now believed that 
the cause of Colonization would triumph and prevail. He had had some doubts 
and fears; but thejr were gone. America would yet regenerate Africa. (Cheer- 
ing. ) He held in his hand two sentences, extracted from the last letter written by 
Washington before his death. The letter was dated on the 17th of August, 1799. 
After alluding to the condition of his slaves at Mount Vernon, and giving directions 
respecting some of them, he adds, **To sell the overplus is what I cannot do. I 
am principled against it. To hire them out would be as bad, because it must dis- 
perse their families ; to which I have an aversion." Here were two noble princi- 
ples of action avowed by the father of his country, himself a slaveholder. First, 
not to sell slaves; against that be was principled : and secondly, not to tear asun- 
der their families ; to this he had an aversion. Was it not possible that many of 
the best men at -the South found themselves under similar embarrassments ? How 
«asy and happy an expedient was held out to such by the Colonization Society. — 
After some remarks of a general character on the design of the Society, Mr. Ci' . 
referred to the coloured citizens of the Colony who- were now present on the front 
of the stage, and who would speedily be presented to the audience. They coul({ 
testify whether any thin^ haa been falsely stated by those who had addressed or 
should address the meeting. He concluded by expressing his firm hope that no 
vraves of opposition would now destroy the cause, unless, indeed, the abolitionists 
should so far succeed as to break our happy Union into fragments, and the Society 
would oven then perish only in the general wreck of our country and its institu- 
tions. 

The President now announced to the meeting, that a gentleman from New Or- 
leans had made a donation of another hundred dollars, on condition that it should 
be raised by additional subscriptions to a thousand. Two hundred were immedi- 
ately subscribed towards (he thousand. 

Mr. Gurley now introduced to the assembly a native African, lately from Libe- 
ria : he stated that he was one of the Kroomen of Africa, a veiy peculiar tribe of 
men, who are occupied chiefly in boating on the coast, from the Senegal to the 
Congo. They were remarkaole for holmng no slaves themselves, and having 
never been in bondage to any man. This man seemed past the middle of life ; he 
was awkwardly built, and of a very marked and peculiar look. He spoke English 
after a fashion, but was scarcely intelligible without an interpreteiw-Mr. Seys 
performed that office. 

Dr. Skinner, one of the Colonial Physicians, then on a visit to 
the U. States, was introduced to the audience by the President. 

Dr. 8. said, that he considered this as one of tiie pleasantest evenings of his life. 
He adverted to his earl^ attachment to the Colonization canse, and went into some 
general remarics as to its objects and spirit. He then went on to give his fullest 
sanction to the statements which had oeen made by the Rey. Mr. Seys. He ad- 
mitted that there were a few persons discontented ; out they were such as had lost 
their companions there, and nad surviving friends in America ; and there were a 
lew in needy circumstances from sickness or other causes ; but the vast majority 
of the settlers were perfectly content and happy. A spirit had gone forth among 
them which promised more attention to agriculture than had heretofore prevailed! 



206 COLONIZATION MEETING IN NEW YORK. [Jaty, 

So rich was the soil, and so abundant all the means of livlngr, that two boun labor 
out of the twenty-ibur would furnish a man with ali the comforts of life. The 
state of Society was quite as good as was found in most parts of the U. Statat. — 
In seven montiis sojourn there, he had not heard a profane word; and thouch he 
had seen two or three persons intoxicated, they were far fewer, in jpropoition to the 
population, than was common in this country, and fewer than he had ever seen be- 
fore, in the same length of time, in his life. 

After expressing his concurrence in the sentiment that Colonization afforded the 
best ground of hope for the Christianization of the African continent. Dr. 8. refer- 
red to a fact whicn illustrated its effect in suppressing the slave trade. No eoooer 
was it known to the owner of a slave factory, near Bassa Cove, that the fioclet^ 
had effected the purchase of Port Cresson, (for which they paid #180,) than his ee- 
tablishment was at once annihilated. The very next day he commenced his re- 
moval, observing: ** If they have completed that purchase, it is time fermeto 
quit." [Loud applaase.] There was another slavery establishment in tlie vidnity, 
but, with 1^200, be would pledge himself to dislodge it and drive the ownera off 
with great ease. He concluded, by urging the Society to leave no means untried 
todi^e tlie light of knowledge over dark, benighted Africa; and by i ■ pi mini 
his thankfulness to God, notwithstanding all his sufferings in Africa, (where he haa 
lost his son and some other members of his family, betides enduring much from 
bodily disease,) that ever he had embarked in the enterprise ; and added* that he 
was willing, now, to go back and to lay down his life with joy in the mehoratio& 
of the condition ot that much iniured race. 

The President now announced that subscriptions and contributions had been re* 
ceived, during the evening, amounting, in uU to $6,762. (The information was 
hail. lUvilh long and reiterated plaudits.) He added th.it, in conseouence, aship 
would be chartered, without an hour's delay, and tiie Savannah enugrants would 
probably be upon their voyage before the middle of June. 

The Rev. Mr. Wilsov, a man of colour, and an ordained minister of tiie Metho- 
dist Church, recently arrived from Liberia, was presented to the audience, aad 
made^a short but impressive address. 

Mr. Cbksson observed that be had intended to have said something in relation 
to tlie infant Colony at Bassa; but that subject was now gone by. Yet the subject ' 
was so inviting that he could scarce refrain from touching upon it. By the itar- 

Saret Mercer and the Ninus, the gratifying intelligence had been recMved, that 
le 126 emancipated slaves who had gone out last autumn, had safely arrived, with 
the loss of only three persons, two by drowning, and another from tiie effects of 
cold. And without a shot being fired, without the employment of one drop of 
liquor, and without the occurrence of any deed or word of violence, buton the een- 
trary, in perfect love and harmony, the land for a Colony at Bassa Cove had been 
purchased from the native chiefs. He alluded to the slanders which had been cast 
upon his character abroad, and to the refutation which they had received in the 
successful issue of this undertaking. Their British friends would be deligfated to 
know that, instead of extending and multipljring the miseries of slaveiy, the Colo- 
ny had already been the means of destroying a factory where, in October iMt, thm 
were not less than 600 slaves. 

Mr. Cresson then placed before the audience a youne negroe of pleasing coun- 
tenance, whom he introduced as the son of king Joe Harris, once nimseua sbve 
trader ; but now a friend of the Society ; and reposing such entire confidence in it, 
that he bad committed his son to our care, to remain uree years in this country fcr 
his education. Master Harris had come here to '* learn book," and go beck a white 
man—not in colour, but be trusted, in what surpassed all outward change, in h«r« 
ing his sins washed away. (The lad smiled, as if he comprehended tms acemm 

Mr. Cresson read an extract of a letter firom what he denominated the good oU» 
fashioned broad-brimmed Governor of the Colony. The friend observed, **FriMid 
Bimey has asked, if ever it was heard that a trading: establishment distrihntedtha 
word of God ? All I can say, is, that it has been so nere." Such was abea4f flie 
actual practical result of a bradhi^ establishment, founded by the united philainhio* 

Ey of New York and Philadelphia. He had been branded as abase deceiver; let 
IS deeds tell whether in tiusmatterhe had not acted as the finend both ef God 
and man. 



183&] 



LATEST FROM LIBERIA, 201 



liATBST FROM lilBERlA. 



Since our last number went to press, the brig Susan Elizabeth ar- 
rived at New York, bringing the Liberia Herald for March. Not 
haying yet seen it, we are indebted for the following extracts from it 
to the New York Journal of Commerce : 

Capk Palmas.— By the arrival of the brig Susan Elizabeth, we are gratified to 
learn, that the health of the settlers at Cape Palmas is unusually good, and that 
they arc progressing rapidly in agriculture, the chief object its patrons had in 
view, in the settlement of the Colony. Dr. Hall's health is as usual. The Rev. 
Mr. Wilson and Lady have suffered severely from tho eitectsof the fever; but ihey 
are now convalescent, and bid fair to be able shortly, to commence their pious and 
benevolent operations. 

Grand Bassa. — Bv the arrival of the schooner Timbuctoo, from Grand Bassa, 
we rejoice to learn the continued health of the older Colonists at Ediua, and the 
general recovery or convalescence of the late emipants of Bassa Cove. V/ith pe- 
culiar pleasure we heard, that Mr. Hankinson and Lady are quite restored from the 
severe effects of the fever, and wish they may never again experience its return. — 
We congratulate our Basse friends, that they can make the advantage of their loca- 
tion 80 evident as to enveigle awav several of our settlers. For surely if Bassa 
possesses a more productive soil tnan the regions adjoining the St. Paul's river, it 
18 blessed indeed. The latter yields a crop worth $100 to the acre. 

Public Spirit at Caldwell. — On Saturday the 14th instant, the inhabitants of 
Caldwell, with a spirit that is truly laudable, (and of which we of Monrovia seem 
too much destitute,) turned out and cut downtlie bush, weeds, and high grass in 
the town, through a distance of nearly threo quarters of a mile. Those noxious 
weeds so deleterious to the health, and destructive of every like beauty or regula- 
rity, and 80 strongly indicative of the absence of industry, have long disgraceathat 
settlement. 

Internal Improvement. — We feel proud to state that no other period of the 
Colony can boast of so much valuable and substantial internal improvement as this : 
and if we are allowed to make it the standard, by which to estimate the real condi- 
tion of the Colony, we would say, as a natural consequence, that its actual strength 
is greater now than at any former perioil of its history. It should be borne in 
mind, that what has been done hitherto, has been elfected by the resources of the 
Society. Two years ago, the idea of making improvements distinct from, and in- 
dependent of, the Colonization Society, was ridiculed. What can we do? was the 
cry; all saw the necessity, but none had the resolution to lay their shoulders to 
the wheel. 

The Council this year, has awakened from the torpor that has so long paralysed 
them, have taken hold of the subject, and by an Act increasing and extending the 
Tariff, have brought an amount into the Colonial fund, sufficient to justify the im- 
mediate commencement of a Jail and Court House. The site of this building is 
Crown Hill ; it is to be entirely of stone ; and is already raised one story on the 
basement. It has a beautiful and commanding view of the harbor, and will, when 
the intervening forest is cleared away, ailbrd an extensive view of the ocean on the 
South-west. 

A Light-house, the want of which has been so severely felt by Cajitains of ves- 
sels entering the harbor in the night, has been projected, and is now in a state of 
forward preparation ; nearly a sufficient quantity of rock being quarried. The 
Light-house is to be erected on the apex of the Cape ; to be thirty feet high, which 
superadded to two hundred and fifty feet, the altitude of the Cape, will make the 
elevation of the light above the level of the sea, two hundred and eighty feet. 

New Georgia. — Under date of 23d of March, Mr. J. Day gives aa interesting 
account of a visit he had made to New Georgia,— a settlement of re-captured Afn- 
«»?n8, sent there by the Government of the United States. After stating what he ' 
liad witnessed in their religious assemblies, and on their farms, he adds: 

From the observations I have made, and the conversation I had with them, I will 
venture to assert, that they are in a high state of civilization and Christianity.— 
Whence have they derived so much knowledgf" of ci\'ilized life', and of the Lord?— < 
Could they have learned it during tlicir short stay in America? I think it has been 



208 WEST AFRICA. [Jniy^- 

tbe efTect of an influence from neighboring settlementa, and the flourishing state of 
their farms is attributed to their own industry. Their bouses are generally fram- 
ed, one story high, their cabinet furniture coarse, but every tbin^ m their houses 
shows forth industry and decencjr. Any gentleman who may think the Colony 
on the retrogade andlikeljr to dwindle awa^, I invite him to New Georgia, to wit- 
ness the rewards of their industry and their piety. Before concluding, I wish to 
say a word of the settlements generally. Rev. James Jones says, when here, be 
visited the poor, and of all misery, poverty, and repining, his imagination had ever , 
before conceived, it had not reached what his eves saw and ears heard. I have 
had tlie honor of filling tlic censor's oflice, and all that know oiir Constitution, know 
that it is the duty of such oflicers, to ascertain in what way suspected pei-sons ac- 
quire a livelihood. It, of course, then becomes the duty of such oflicers, to visit 
trie poor ; and I declare, I never visited one industrious, careful family, but what 
was well provided for, contented and happy. ' 



LETTER FROM A COLONIST. 



The following letter, from a teacher in the employment of the 
, Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, has been re- 
ceived by the Corresponding Secretary of that Institution : 

Monrovia, March 24fh, 1835. 

Dear Sir: — It affords me a de^c of comfort that I have the opportunity of con- 
versing with you, with pen and ink. I am thankful to God, that I am permitted 
to write to you from Africa — Africa, degraded Africa. The time has commenced 
for the redemption of neglected Africa. I am no way discouraged. Those who 
are opposed to Africa, may as well undertake to stop the sun from risings as to un- 
dertake to prevent the gospel from speaking throughout Africa. God has saitl, Uiat 
£tluopia shall stretch out her hands unto Him — therefore '* let God be true and eve- 
ry man a liar." We have met with some difficulties in Liberia, but nothing to be 
compared with thatwhich those had to undergo in first settling Africa. All that 
we want is to have men of noble minds, we are not alfria;hted at every breeze that 
blows. We want a little more enterprise, and tlien civilization will dilate itself ti> 
the last green verge in Africa. I will not say to my coloured friends, awake up, 
and come to Africa, but this I will<;ay, that every intelligent man of colour and of 
spirit, would rather enjoy liberty than be in tK)ndage. I do say that there is not a 
])«rfectly freeman of my colour in the United States — it cannot be — they cannot 
enjoy oince — here they may. To be free, we must have every privilege eqjoyed 
by our fellow-mortals. I do not want to represent things better tlian tney really 
are. I hope to spend my life in Africa. I enjoy tolerable nealth, and expect its im- 
proval. I wish you to publish this for the information of all. 
I remain, dear sir. 

Your obedient humble servant, SAMSON CiBSAR. 



WEST AFRICA. 

jLxiract of a letter from thi Rev, Thonuu Dofoe, WesUyan MUtionqry, dated Jit Car' 

thy*8 Island, River Gamoier, Auguti 25, 1834. 

" I have every reason to think that the system of Mahommedanism israpidlr on 
the decline, and must, ere long, fall before the light and force of tnitb. I naTe 
distributed several copies of the Arabic Scriptore, which were kindly famished 
by the committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Incalculable good 
is likely to result therefrom ; for the people who can read appear very anxious to 



1835.] CONNECTICUT COLONIZAIUQN 30CIETY. 209 

obtain a copy. I believe that some of the Bibles, Testaments, and Book of Psalms 

liave bien carried hundreds of miles into the iDterior of the coutitiy. 

** A short time ago 1 preaenlt-d Mr. Grant's trade loaii wilh an Arabic Bible.-^- 
Soon after he reached tlie port of Caiitatlicondu, about three hundred niih-5 above 
M'Carthy's Island A Marnbou was so pleased with the Bibjc- that he oiiereri at 
once \o give him three bullocks for the word oi God. Surely such accounts appear 
to auuur well ! 

*' Of late 1 have had many interviews with Bushereens and M'arraboos, (priests 
of Mohamme<l,) and some with no small degree of candor said, that the white 
man's religion must prevail and overthrow their system." 



Capture of a Spanish Slacer. 

A Spanish brig, of three hundred tons, named the Formidable, which had acquir- 
ed no small notoriety among the British cruisers on the coast of i*frica, by her own 
speed and the boldness and dexterity of her Captain, was captured on the Hlh of : 
December, Off the moutli of the old Calabra river, by his Britannic Majesty's brig- 
antiiie Buzzard. The action was commenced bt/ the slaver, alter a chase of some 
hours, and was maintained for ^ome time with i^reat sj>:rit on both sides At . 
leni^th the brig ntine ran the slaver on board, and the iatter aluiO::t immediately 
surrendered. The Captain of the Formidable, an officer of the Spanish Navy, be- 
haved witii great gallantry, fighting ai>d encouraging his men, until disabled by , 
three musket wounds. The captors lound on board tlie prize itven hundred slavef, , 
and a crt^w of sixty -six men, armed v\itli muskets, pistols and cutlasses. The bat- 
tery of the slaver was eight guns. Four of the Spaniards wer« killed and eleven 
wounded ; of the British, six wounded. 



CONNECTICUT COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 

The annual meeting of this Society was held in the Centre Church, on Thnrsday 
evening, the 21st of Mtiy, Chief Justice Williams in the chair Prayer was offered 
by Rev. Mr. White, of Virginia. The Report of the Treasurer was read and ac- 
cepted — from which the contributions to this Society, from our State, appear to 
have been somewhat less, owing to peculiar circumstances, than they were in the 
year previous. In the absence of the Secretary, Rev. T. H Gallaudet, a Report, 
drawn up by Rev.'Leonard Bacon, was read. The contributions, i!> this country, 
to the cause of Colonization, were greater last year, than during any former year. 
The American Colonization Society is now very much relieved irom debt. 

Rev. Mr. Wilson, a Methoilist preacher from Liberia, was intro<Iuced to the 
meeting, and made an interestinj^ address. He was formerly a resident of Norfolk, 
Virginia, and went out to Liberia, at his own ex[)ense. to examine the country for 
himself. Though originally prejudiced against the Colony and the American Co- 
lonization Society, after a residence of fourteen months, in Africa, he has returned, 
to take to that country, his wife and children. He regrets that he had nut gone 
there ten years ago — and regards ten years of his life as lost. He says the Colo- 
nists would laugh at you, were you to propose their return to this country. He 
represents the moral state of the Colony as good — saw not a single citizen of the 
Colony intoxicated, during his resiience. In Caldwell and Millsburg they will 
not receive ardent spirits, and have not, for twelve months. The Sabbath is well 
observed. The natives are sending their cnildren to school. Mr. W. has baptized 
and admitted to the Church. 17 native born Africans,- several of whom were, in 
their own language, "from the DeviPs Bush.'* He said the condition of the Colo- 
ny, had, in his view, been much mi?.«tated. In conclusion, he repeated that he had 
never received a cent from any one, for his serviees— lest his brethren should say 
he was bought to go to Africa and come back. 

Able and eloquent addresses were made by Rev. President Fisk of the Wesleyan 
Seminary, and by Rev. Mr. Gurley, Secretary of the Parent Society*-but ourtlmli 
27 



810 MUNIFICENT DONATiONS. [July, 

and limits forbid a sketch. A moKitioii was passed to attempt to raise, in this 
State, $8000, in aid of the effort of the American Colonization Society, to raise 
$100,000, the present year.— Cbn. Obsr, 



COLONIZATION MEETING. 



A meetiner of the friends of African Colonization, was held at the Capitol in 
Richmond, Va., on Friday evening. May 22d, 1835. 

On motion, David Bhggs, Esq. was called to the chiur, and W. Sands appointed 
Secretary. 

The meeting was opened with prayer, by Rev. W. S. Pliimer. 

Rev. Addison Hall, Agent of tne Society, having briefly stated the object of the 
meeting, introduced Dr. Ezekiel Skinner, the Gov. of the Colony at LibtTia, and 
ikther of the late Missionary. 

Dr. H. has been a residant in the Colony since last fall, until within a few weeks 
past. He expects to return to Africa in three or four weeks. Having carefully 
investigated the conditio i of the CoIonY> both as respects hedlth and commercial 
advautsfges, his statement were listened to witlideep interest; and were, on the 
whole, highly iavorable. Dr. S. embarked in the ser\'ice of the Colonization So- 
ciety as a Physician. He had not received information of his appointment as 
Governor, prior to his embarkation for the U. States. 

The following resolution was offered by the General Agent, who advocated its 
adbption in a bnef bat impressive address, in which he instituted a comparison of 
the sacrifices and condition of the two Colonies at Jamestown and Liberia, in the 
first ten or twelve years of their settlement, greatly to the advantage of the latter. 
The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

Resohed^ That the recent gratifying intelligence of the c^rowing importance and 
continued prosperity of the Colony at Liberia, with the liberal patronage .atlbrdeil 
this enterprise by the citizens of New York, at their recent meeting, call for lively 
gratitude to our neavenly Father, and ought to stimulate to more unwearied and 
strenuous efforts in promoting ^e cause or African Colonization. 

Messrs. J. C. Crane, Jesse Snead, N. Tally, P. R. Grattan, A.Thomas, F. James 
and Jacob Hall, were appointed a Committee to solicit contributions from those 
present in aid of this cause. The subscription at the present meeting, together 
with previous subscriptions obtained by tlie General Agent, amount to neaiiy 
$].')00, towards the sum of $10,000 proposed to be raised the present year. 

On motion, adjourned. DAVID BKIGGS, Chairman. 

W. Sands, Secretary. 



MUNIFICENT DONATIONS* 



An unknown friend of Colonization nnrently presented the sum of 
FIVE HUNDRED DOLLARS to the Parent Society. This act of dictiu- 
gtiished and opportuiit? liberality, was accompanied by tbe following 
letter to the Editor of lh« New York Commercial Advertiser, the 
genllemap throutrh whom the money was transmitted : 

T\j the EdUar of the Commercial Jldvertiser, 

New York, May 28, 1835. 

One who trusts he did his duty in the war of the Revolution, and perhaps was of 
some service to the State, believes that at this late period of his life, he cannot 
serve his country in any manner so benpficially, as in aiding the Coloni/.ation So- 
ciety, in their wise and philanthropic endeavors, by def:rees, to free the UuitPil 

htatt'S from a great and growing evil; and, in icuie roe asiire, to coinp.' nsate the 



1835.] SOCIETY'S CORRESPONDENCE. tH 

present generation of black men for injuries our ancestors have done to them and 
their fatners. The design is nobIe» not only to succour the unfortunate, but to civ- 
ilize Africa, and to spread the light of the Christian religion through the dark and 
dreary solitudes of that benighted land. As to general and simultaneous emanci- 
pation, I am sorry to see even one man of respectability give countenance to it. — 
That profound statesman and uniform Christian, John Jav, would never for a mo- 
ment have countenanced it. He well knew that it would be the breaking of the 
constitutional bond by which the States are held together, and, in its consequen- 
ces, bring on a servile war — horrors which no man of feeling and serious reflection 
can portray to himself without a shudder. No, Sir: Mr. Jay would have rejoiced 
in the hope and belief that the efforts of the wise and virtuous members of the Co- 
lo^nization Society, would ppdually effect the emancipation of slaves, and the spread 
of civilization and the Christian religion ; while general emancipation would let 
loose millions^ without an object, save that of revenge and destrucoon to those they 
may think to be their enemies : and, finally, destruction to tiiemselves. I was 
known to the first members of the Society, and to their first President — ^but, alas! 
I have lived to see almost all my worthv and respectable friends swept away.— 
Unknown, and unknewing, I take the liberty of asidngyou. Sir, to forward the en- 
closed to some member of the Parent Colonization Sc^ety, and I shall be obliged. 

Of the foregoing donation, modest as it is munificent, the Commer- 
cial Advertiser says : 

'* We regard the noble contribution of five hundred doUart to the Colonization 
Society, which we recorded yesterday as sent to us by an unknown hand, as to some 
extent the fruits of Jud^ Jay's book, and the reply of Dr. Reese ; and we hope to 
receive other tokens of similar results, wherever uie reply is read. It is also to be 
ascribed,* no doubt, to the fine spirit awakened by the three great and most grati- 
fying meetings of Colonizationisis held in this aity during the anniversary week. — 
We are strong in hope and joyful confidence. Let the finends of Colonization, only 
exhibit the same zeal in tlie circulation of Dr. Reese's letters, as is exhibited in 
distributing the Judge's book, and the effects will soon be apparent, in the incraase 
of the funos of the Colonization Society.*' 

On the 4th nit. the Editor of the same paper received a small paste- 
board boz, which on examination w«s found to contain a supero lace 
counterpane, made by Miss Mart C. Frost, a young lady of New 
York. This beautiful article had been exhibited at the last Fair of 
the Institute, and there valued at five hundred dollars. The fair 
artist has directed it to be sold for whatever price it can bring, and 
half the proceeds of the sale appropriated to increase thefqnds of the 
Colonization Society. It has been sent to the dry goods store of Mr. 
Stewart, No. 257, Medway, for the purpose of examination and sale. 



SOCIETY*S CORRESPONDENCES 

Mr. Boarman'B Letter. 

New Yowc, May 16th, 1885. 
My Dear Sir.*— Your favor of the 6th ult. was dnlv received. Various causes 
have combined to delay my reply. You will now fina indoeed a chedc on the Pa- 
triotic Bank of your place, to your order for $800; three hundred doUan com- 
pletinjc the payment of my subscription to the American Colonization Society. I 
am pleased that the contingency on which my subscription for this sum was pre- 
dicated, has been realized, and I trust you and the gentlemen with whom you are 
associated, will press onward in your objects, whidi (notwithstanding all the un- 
kind opoosition and absurd denundations you meet witii) I trust and helieve will 
ultimately prove a blessing to our own countiy» as well as to the oppressed race 



212 SOCIETy»S CORRESPONDENCE. [Jo^Ji 

which are thn objects of your benevolence. May the Almighty source of all good. 
smile on, and prosper your labours! 

I am, with much respect and re^rd, 

Dear Sir, your I'riend and obedient servant, 

J. BOOKMAN. 
Tii thfi Rev. Dr. Laurie, P. B. M. American ) 
CoUmixaiion Society, Washington. 5 

Letter from a gentleman in Washington County, Tenn. 

Lexsburo, 18th of May, 1885. 

Dear Sir: — I have delayed writing lonj^er than I had expected, in order that I 
could write with certainty as to the number of emigrants ; and now would sav that 
my own tour are, Alexander, aged 27; Washington 25; Calvin 23; and Mariah 
17. Alexander, Wushington and Mariah, are all members of the Presbyterian 
Church; and all four one woman*s children. The men arelaf]^ stout men. 

Matilda, the property of George il. Gille<jj>ie, and wife ot Alexander, aged 27 
years — will emigrate with him, as 1 am informed by Alexander. She also is a 
member oi the Church. 

Ttie nine are all farmers, and the women have been raised to housework. 

Mine can all read, though some of them not very well. My mother, in her life- 
time, was opjfosed to slavery, although in h<'r transactions in life, she found il ne- 
cessary to take a boyin a d.;bt which rihe intended to give a Christian education, 
aid set free at mature age; but he turmd out so bad that it was found nt-ccssnry to 
s nd him out ol'tnu country, which was a gri'f to her, afui she determined to ap- 
p.'opriuic his price — say Soti or 75 dollars, (nut recollected which) to the benefit of 
|)eo)jL* of colour goin^ tq Liberia, but died witliout collecting the money, and al- 
though she made no will, yet we intend to appropriate the money according tu her 
witih. There is none of the money yet collected, but if it can be had, tne Society 
can have the benefit of it the first Iransportation. I know that I have no more 
legal right to have my slaves taken on that money than any other human being ; 
yet I have a wish that when mine do go, the Society may have the money to en* 
able them to boar the burthen ; but more of this when I see you. 

Yotu^ with respect. . . 

Letter from a gentleman of Rockfiah, Duplin County, N. C, 

NoaTH Carolina, Dupliit County, May 5th, 189fi. 

Sir: — I have a coloured man, labo expresses a desire to emigrate to Liborla, 
and as I cannot, with a clear con^^ciencc, sell or retain him, I have determined on 
com[ilying iKiXU his request. Having but little knowledge of the rules or 
njanagt'incnt of the Coi«»nizati;;ii Socit ly, I beg that you give me to understand 
what rules must be obst*rvt(i in the securing or conveying of this coloured man to 
Libt'ria. 1 had un idea of sending or takiitg him to Norfolk, Va., but fearinz I 
might act improperly in d(Miig so. 1 a^^k your advice in this matter. 1 should like 
to know, af't< r conveying hinj to Norlt.lk, or any other place, whether I should 
havt' to hear his ex|)en«es to Libt»ria or not ; and to know when would be the most 
proper time for his emigration, anrl when there can be an opportunity of his em- 
oaricing on board of souic vessel, and every other necessary intormation that yon 
can give. This colon n^d man is about *^2 years of age, well made, very good fea- 
tures, industriously inclined, and of tolerable good morals. I have no doubt, if he 
can get 3afe to Librria, and seasoned to the climate, but he will do very well. He 
is the only one that I own ; and as I snticipnte emigrating to a free State, I wish 
that he may enjoy equal privileges with myself, in his own native country— and 
in a country, where he msy live under laws simrlar to the laws of the United StatM. 

Be 80 good, a^ soon as vou receive this, to gratify me by giving me every necet- 
sary advice and intormation, — in doing so, you will' much oblige me. 

Letter from another gentleman in South Carolina. 

Elizabeth Citt, N. C, 5th mo., 2Ut, 1885. 
Hmftfiid f)rieiidt^A fiknd of mioe reqaaala wt to pnocnre a pueaga for hia ft* 



leaV] OBITUARY. 213 

male slave, a woman about nineteen years old, with one child, to Liberia. He will 
send thetn to the port, from which the vessel sails, at his own expense, pay their 
passage, and mal^e provision for them after their arrival in Africa. Please advise* 
me of the first opportunity that will likely oiler for them to take passage. 

Very respectfully. ■ . 



MR. FRELiINGHUYSEN. 



Amon^ the recent stratagems of the enemies of the Colonization 
canse, [ Why should \{ have enemit-s ?) was a rumor, industriously 
circulatfd, that Mr. Frelinohuysen bad chan^^ed his opinions cod- 
cerning it. The following letter from that dihtinguished citizeo, 
puts this contrivance to rest : 

Newark, May 28th. 1835. 

Dear Sir: — As vou have requested a line from me in regard to my present feel- 
ings towards the Colonization Society, I take great pleasure in assuring you of my 
uniiihaken confidence in the excellence and importance of that benignant enterprise. 
I regret that rumor should have caused you any apprehension on the subject. I 
rejoice, my dear Sir, that in the good Providence of God, this cause now enjoys the 
benefit of your labors of love. And reuiaiu, very truly. 

Your friend and obedient servant, THEO. FRELINGHUYSEN. 

The Rev. Dr. Peoupfit. 



OBITUARY. 

We observe with pain the decease (on the 24th of December last,) 
of Chauncy Whittlesey, Esq. of Middlttown, Connecticut, an ear- 
ly, intelligent, and active friend of the American Colonization Socie- 
ty. For several years he was engi^ged in tlie practice of the Law in 
New Orleans, and on his return to the North, gave freedom to a fa- 
vourite servant, who is now a respectable citizen of Liberia. The 
following extracts from a letter of a very intimate friend of this ex- 
cellent man, exhibit clearly the principles that governed his life, and 
gave him peace in death : 

« • • Perhaps bis suggestions as early as 1S14 — his endeavours helped to lay the 
foundation of the Colonization Society — of which be was a warm and zealous 
friend, and while in active life a most efficient one. His active, comprebensivai 
mind, was always on the range for modes and means of extensive usefulness. — 
The death of Mun^o Park— the disappointments attendinj^ every attempt to explore 
the interior of Alrica— was the subject of much interesting conversation with him. 
and those that visited him while residing with his mother— and he left her not till 
1819. • • • 

He was the most candid of men ; exceedingly cautious of woundinc^ the feelings 
of men or doing any thing to prevent a thorough investigation of suDJects where 
there was a difference of opinion. I think that I can tnily say, that he was the 
most disinterested man that I ever knew — the most regardless of consequences to 
himself in the performance of any known or supposed duty. He was not a man 
given to change — he gave his whole nowerful mind to the investigations of every 
subjpct going to establish principles or action, but once fixed he did not change. — 
O ! Sir, you must have been with bim through ibur years of the most appdliag 



214 AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. [Joly, 

bodily suffering, and the thousand painful circumstances attending his withdrawal 
from the world, extensive business, and his acquaintance — ^you must have seen the 
f^pirit of true Christian charity, with which he bore and forbore — his^ patience, his 
quiet submission in the spirit of love supreme to God, a sense of -his entire sove- 
rciguty and absolute ri^ht to do with him as he saw fit ; his lore to man — ^his for- 
giveness of injuries — his anxiety to do something for (he good of every individual, 
and the world at large ; his sweet complacency, patience, and equanimilhr. The 
worldling could but have admired his heroism — the Christian adore that God who 
sustained him under unparalleled sufferings. 

Under all circumstances, he was the perfect gentleman — even to the last great 
struggle — that delicpicy of feeling which led him under his accumulated disoraers, 
and their peculiar sufferings always to maintain a propriety and decorum of conduct 
that showed how completely his mind was pained in all the minutia of actions and 
of manners. Lofty and elevated in his feelings, he was quiet as a child. The 
humble Christian was the character tbat he sought for, s;nd was anxious to mani- 
fest. Possessing true greatness of soul — all the tinsel of adventitious circumstan- ' 
ces seemed to pass unnoticed. Characters and actions were judged of as they 
tended to deveiope, or bring into action those faculties which G^ implanted in 
man when he formed him in his own image, and gave him a capacity for attain* 
ments that would fit him for the joys of Heaven. 

He had read to him to the last week of his life, foreign politicks ; and he took 
a great interest in the movements of Governments — considering that they had an 
immediate bearing on the building up of the Church; and that uie mighty Ruler 
would overturn and overturn till he whose right it is, shall come and take to him- 
self his great power, and become King of nations as he is King of saints. The 
]i:iKy politicks of our own country, he would not suffer me to read to him, — he ap- 
l>t Mu'fl siot to bo willing to disturb his mind with them. • • 

W<> lately lidd a letter hom Nugcut WicLs. \ The best written in point of com- 
position of any we have received — showing, I think, that the state ot society and 
the opportunity he enjoys, cause an advance of his iiAellectual powers, which sayv 
something for the state of the Colony. * *" 



AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. 



Oil the 11th of May last, the Board of Managers of tlie Coloniza- 
tion Society of the City of New York, made their Third Au- 
iiuhI Report, whicli has since been published. 

This interesting document explains the dgrecment which had been 
made between the Society and the Young Men's (colonization Socie- 
ty of Pennsylvania for the establishment of a new and nnodel Colony 
on the coast of Liberia ; and states the following articles as being de- 
clared by that agreement : . 

1 . That a union between the two Societies ou^^ht without delay to be formed. 

2. That the basis of the union should be laid in a co-ordinate action of the two 
Institutions, through their respective organs : and that additional conventions or 
agreements should be entered into when special cases might require them. 

3.* That the object of the union should be tlie establishment of a new and model 
Colony on the coast of Africa, on the following principles, viz: — Temperance, dis- 
suasion from war, the promotion of agricultursa pursuits, and the other principles 
embodied in the Constitutions of the two Societies. 

4. That the American Colonization Society to which these Institutions stand in 
relation of auxiliaries, should not be abandoned, but that eveiy thing should he 



t The liberated servant sent by Mr. Whittlesey to the Colony. 



1835.1 AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. 2t5 

done consistently with the primary object of the union, towards aiding the Parent 
Society. 

5. That the new Colony should be located at Bassa Cove, provided Governor 
Pinney should approve of that location, — and if not, at such other place as should 
be agreed on. 

6. That the name of the Colony should be fixed upon thereafter. 

7. Thateach Society should immediately appoint an efficient agent. 

8. That the Pennsylvania Society should ^o on to redeem its pledge in relation 
to the slaves of the late Dr. Aylettnawes, ot Virginia, in expectation of the aid of 
this Society, in their removal to Africa. 

The Report goes on to say that at the time when the Report of 
the Committee of conference, on which the foregoing agreement was 
based, was submitted to the Board, 

"And before its acceptance, an expedition in the ship Jupiter was fittin? out in 
this port, in pursuance to the permission given by the Pareni Board to this Society, 
** to establish a new settlement at some suitable location in Liberia, and to expend 
upon that object the money received, under its immediate auspices:" which Colo- 
ny was to be established upon the principles set forth in the aadress of this Society 
to the Public, in February, 1834. For the purpose of making the necessary en- 
quiries and arrangements for the immediate founding of this Colony, as contem- 
plated by the Board previously to the project of the union with the Pennsylvania 
Society, Mr. Israel W. Searl, a graduate of Amherst College, was appointed to 
proceed in the Jupiter, to take charge of the new settlement under the superinten- 
dence of the Rev. Mr. Spalding, who had been previously appointed the principal 
agent of this Society in Africa. 

With a view therefore to the contemplated union, Mr. Searl was directed *' to 
confer with the principal agent, as soon after his arrival in Liberia as possible, on 
the subject of a suitable location for the oroposed Cobny," and they were jointly 
instructed ** to direct their attention to Cape Mount and Bassa Cove, with the 
view of ascertaining which of the two locations, all things considered, would be 
preferable for a new Colony, in respect both to agriculture and to prospective com- 
mercial advantages.*^ Mr. Searl was ** further directed to act in concert with Mr. 
Spalding, in making such other personal surveys and examinations in regard to the 
soil, climate and productions of the Colonial Territorv» especially in reference tb 
the prosecution ot agriculiural labor, as might enable the said agents to furnish cor- 
rect and useful information to this Board as to the best place for the location of a 
new Colony. 

The Jupiter sailed from this port on the 21st of June last, with stores, supplies, 
agricultural implements and goods for the use of the Colony of Liberia, to the value 
of seven thousand dollars. Among the passengers were, besides Mr. Searl, the 
Rev. Ezelciel Skinner, of Connecticut, a physician as well as a missionary, and 
Dr. Robert McDowal, a coloured man, educated at Edinburgh as a physician, both 
of whom went out under appointments of the Parent Board, as Colonial Physician^. 
They were accompanied by Mr. Charles H. Webb, a medical student under the 
care of that Boanl, whose purpose was to complete the study of his profession un- 
der the instructions of the physicians of the Colony, and afterwards to engage there 
in its practice ; and also by Mr. Josiah F. C. Finley, a graduate of Princeton Col- 
lege, who, as well as Mr. Searl, went out as a teacher, under the patronage of the 
Ladies' Association of this city. Besides those, Eunice St\|arpe, a coloured wo- 
man, of good education, and approved piety, from Vermont, proceeded to Liberia 
in the Jupiter, at the expense of this Society, and in pursuance of a spontaneous 
determination to devote herself to the cause of education in Afric&.'* 

Subsequently to the departure of the Jupiter, Mr. Clay of Georgia 
made a communication to the Board, inquiring whether they would co. 
operate with the Pennsylvania Society in enabling certain persons of 
color in Savannah to emigrate to Liberia. The Board{were induced by 
the pressure of tbi^ case, without waiting for the reports of its Agents 
in Liberia, to co-operate atonc^i with the Pennsylvania Society in es-. 
tablishinfi^ the Colony at Bassa Cove, and appointed a Committee to 
raise funds for transferring the Savannah emigrants to Liberia. The 



216 AUX1LIARY^80CUE:XI£8. [July. 

union between the two Societies was consummated, and an Agent 
appointed. 

** 111 the interval," proceeds the Report, "that occurred between the departure 
of the Jupiter and the finai consuinrnatioM of the union, between the two Auxiliary 
Societies, this Board was visited by the Rev. Dr. Laurie, the President, and the 
Hon. Waiter Lowrie, a member of the Board of Managers of the American Coloni- 
zation Society, as a Committee of that Board; and at their request the proposed 
terms of the agreement between this Board and the Pennsylvania Sooii*ty was com- 
municated to them at a special meeting uf the Board, held tor the purpose of con« 
ferring with them. At this meeting Mr. Lowrie made a statement of the wants 
and necessities of the Parent Boaixl, and requested the assistance of this Society ia 
obtaining donations and subscriptions for the use of the Society at Washington;— 
whereupon it was ** Resolved^ t lat the claims of the American Colonization Socit^ty 
upon the patronage and liberality ol our fellow citizens at the present crisis, pre- 
sented, in the opinion of the Board, an imperious cail for prompt and vigorous ef- 
forts to raise funds either bj^ donations or subscriptions of stock, for the liquidation 
of the debts of the said Society." This Board moreover, warmly recommended 
the appeal proposed to be made in betiaif of the Parent Society to the friends of the 
cause in this City and State ; and appointed ** a Committee to aid the Committee 
of the Parent Board in making t!<eir collections ;" which duty was faithfully dis- 
charged by the former, to the best of their ability, in regard not only to the gentle- 
men composing the latter in the first instance, but in regard also to the Rev. Dr. 
Hawiey and Mr. Joseph Gales, Sen.; also members of the Board at Washington* 
who succeeded the first Committee in their mission, and to the entire satisfaction, 
it is believed, of all of them. 

From the favourable nature of the unofficial accounts received by the Board, 
with respect to Bassa Cove, and from the urgency of the claims of those perso.iS 
who were desirous of emigrating from Georgia, the union of the Young Men*s Co- ' 
bnization Society of Pennsylvaraa was finally consummated by the Committee of 
cont'erenc's in pursuance of the directions of the Board, without waiting for the 
Report of its Agents in Libena. In addition to the former articles of agreement, 
it was then stipulated that thirty per centum upon all monies raised by the two 
Auxiliary Societies, should be pain over to the Parent Board, for its exclusive use; 
that the name of the new Colony should be *' Bassa Cove," and that particular set- 
tlemt'Uts should be designated by the names of ** New York," and '* Pennsylva- 
nia," respectively. 

in thf meantime the promptest means were requisite to secure the manumission 
of upwards of one hundred slaves under the provisions of the Will of the late Dr. 
Uawes of Virginia, and it therefore became necessary for this Board, in preference 
to all other measures, to co-operate in their removal to Liberia within the time 
limited for that purpose, and which was shortly to expire. The^e persons had been 
transferred to the care of the Pennsylvania Society oy the Parent Board at Wash- 
ington *' to be sent to Liberia, and supported there by the former in a separate set- 
tlement or community, unrier the supeiintendence of such agents, and under such 
local laws and regulations as they might adopt ; but that the said community should 
be considered as a part of the Cfolouy of Liberia and subject in all respects to the 
general laws of the same;" and upon accepting the transfer and acceding to these 
conditions, the Pennsylvania Socie y expressly stipulated for the right of making^ 
such modifications and reforms of existing laws, as would enable it to eive greater 
encouragement to agriculture, to prohibit the importation, manufacture or sale of 
ardent spirits within the new Colony, and to adopt an improved plan for supplying 
the public warehouses, and for the issue by gift or sale, of their contents to the co- 
lonists and native inhabitants." 

The Report then gives the details of the expedition by the Ninas; 
particulars with which the readers of the Repository are already fa- 
miliar. 

*• The cost of this expedition was about eie:ht thousand dollars, viz. two thou- 
sand five hundred, for the charter of the vessel, and about five thousand five hun- 
dred, for stores and merchandise. Of this sum two thousand one hundred and 
elghtydollars were obtained from the Executors of Dr. Ha wcs; who by his Will 
bequeathed the sum of twenty dollars towards defraying the expenses or the emi- 
gratioo of each uf his manumitted slaves. The remainder was raised by the dooa^- 



183&.3 AUXOJART SOCIETIES. 217 

tkms and flubseriptionB of benevdenf individutU, principaOy in Philadelphia, and 
partially in this city. 

'* Frooi the contnbutions and exertions of this Board on this pressing occasion, 
it has hitheito been prevented from taking any definitive measure for the removal 
of the Georgia emigrants — ^towards the expense of which are, however, applicable 
a Aum of seven hundred and thirty dollars received from Andover in Massacnnsetts, 
on condition that every twenty-one dollars thereof should be appropriated to the 
payment of the passage to Liberia, of one emancipated slave ; and a further sum of 
twelve hundred dollars collected, and contributed oy fifr. Clay, in express reference 
to this purpose. To make up the deficiency, and provide funds for the emigration 
and settlement, not only of these, but of nnmertnis other slaves in different parts 
of tiie Union, not less in the aggregate than ei^t hundred persons, whose owners 
have offered to manumit them upon condition of their removal to Liberia, the 
Board determined to send as soon as practicable, another expedition to Bassa Cove, 
and for this purpose to raise the sum of fifteen thousand dollars. The first stsf to- 
wards the execution of this measure, was to call a public meeting of the citizens of 
New York friendly to the Colonization cause : whidi waa'accoraingly held on the 
15th of January lut, and was respectably and numerously attended. 

Amongst the resolutions adopted by tnis meeting, was one declaring that it re- 
garded ** the union and plan of operation agreed npon between the Colonization 
Society of the city of New York, and the Young Men's Colonization Society of 
Pennsylvania, as an event promising to be highly beneficial to the Colonization 
cause ; and cordially recommending it to the approbation and support of all the 
friends of our coloured population.'* Another resolution approved ''of the plan of 
raising fifteen thousand dollars in aid of the objects of this Society," and proposed 
''that a subscription should be opened for the purpose;" which was immediately 
done, and the sum of six hnndreid and thirty dollan was collected aiid subscribed 
before the adjournment of the meeting. But this Board has. not since been able to 
procure the balance yet deficient ; aluourh the immediate necessities of the new 
Colony, and the strong claims of the people at Savannah, and of those numerous 
slaves who elsewhere await only the means of emigration to receive their manu* 
mission, press heavily upon the Board, and impel them to renew the appeal to 
their fellow-citizens, in behalf of these meritorious and suffering individuals, and in 
furtherance of the measures designed for th<;ir relief. 

*' Much of the delay which has occurred in carrying th^se plans into execution, 
is doubtless to be ascribed to the persevering opposiuon which the efforts of this 
Board have encountered from certain persons in the Northern and Easten States, 
who believe or pretend, that the system of Colonization is fraught witt evil and 
pernicious consequences to all the people of colour in the counbT> whetl^r held in 
bondage or emancipated, and whether the latter are induced to emlfprate to the 
land from which they spranc, or prefer remaining in that of their involuntary adop- 
tion. In short, that the Cclonization system *< tends to rivet the chaips of the slave* 
and extends to Africa the vices, but not the benefits of civilization-'* Uj^n these 
grounds or pretexts the persons in question both in their individual capacities, and 
collective organization under the name of *< Anti-Slavery" Societies, not only coun- 
teract the influence and traduce the principles of the Americas Colonization So- 
ciety, and impugn the motives in which it originated, but artually if not wilfully, 
misrepresent its acts, policy and proceedings, as well as the lentiments and conduct 
of all who publicly support its objects, or advocate its cause. They indiscrimi* 
nately condemn every measure that has everbe«n adopted or suggested in relation 
to the Colony of Liberia, defame the characters of those who from time to time have 
been engaged in its management and superintendence, exaggerate eveir error and 
misfortune which has occurred in iti admintstration or government, and attempt to 
impesch the evidence they cannot refute, of iti benefidal effects and prospectlTe 
advantages— and all tfiis avowedly, becanse they deem its proeperihr and existence 
incompatible with their uncompromising and impracticable project ibr the imme- 
diate abolition of slavery in the South. 

*' From the characters and reputation of some of these individuals, both for integ- 
rity and understanding, it is impossible to doubt their sincerity ; whilst from tbe 
language and conduct of the most forward of their associstes, it is equally impossH 
ble to concede that these are regalated by the precepts of Christian charity, even 
admitting them to flow trom the purest and most unquestionable motives. Bat 
whether deluded or designing* the ignorance or recklessness of these perMns in^re* 
gud to ri^tstMiiiwItDlbeMftdfllilM aadtlMircitlinii bf te OBostitatioo 



918 AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. [Julji 

of the Union— their misconception or diBieard of public tentimentp even at the 
South, with respect to slavery,— Ibeir misinformation or wanton misrepreaentation 
of the actual condition and uniform treatment of the whole colourea population, 
without exception or discrimination — their crude and Tisionary notions in rq^aid 
to the practicability, and their imperfect views ot the actual progress of emancipap 
tion — ^tne precipitate and hazardous measures which they urge to promote it, tend- 
ing to poetpone instead of accelerating its accomplishment—and tneir oveingiit or 
contempt of the insuperable local obstacles to the real improvement and social ele- 
vation of our free coloured population, ate circumstances, which, in conjuiictioa 
with the propagation of their ooctrines by foreign emissaries — betray, if not the 
foreign origin of their plan, its subservience at IcMst to foreign interests and views." 

The Report then notices Mr. Jay's allegation that the Colonization 
system is *' regarded with abhorrence by almost the whole religions 
community of Great Britain;"— denies, even supposing this to be tnie» 
the competency and authority of foreigners, however respectable or 
distinguished, to determine a complicated domestic question of anoth* 
er country : and refers in disproof of Mr. Jay's assertion to the re- 
cently published letters of Lord Bexley. 

*' That the Colonization in Africa," the Report proceeds to say, " of our free 
people of colour, tends to the immecQate and essential improvement of their condi« 
lion ; that it is in fact the only method by which they can be raised to political and 
social equality with the whites, while so far from preventing or retarding the ex* 
tuiction of slavery, it operates cUrectly to promote emancipation, in the most eligi- 
ble, safe and certain mode, must be plain to e^eiy fair and dispassionate inouirer, 
who will examine this momentous subject, with the patient labour and caretbl at- 
tention its importance demands. It must however be recollected, in entering upon 
the investinition, that the abolition of slavery is not the direct object propoaed by 
the establishment of Colonization Societies ; it is neither embraced iii terms bj 
their plan, nor referred to in their Constitutions ; and to whatever extent it maybe 
encouraged or accomplished by their operations, it is only by incidental, thoajgh 
perhaps necessary consequence. They regard tilie subject as it truly is, one which 
the Constitution of the United States leaves to the sole regulation and control of the 
several States in which slavery exists, and consequently as one, upon which Con- 
gress csnnot legislate, and with which no other power, whether self-created or de- 
riving its authority from the people of the Union, or of any other State, is warrant- 
ed to interfere. « The exclusive rif ht of each State in wnich slavery exists to le- 
gislate in lerard to its abolition," is indeed expressly admitted by the Constitution 
of the Anti'Slavery Society itself, which declares that its aim is to "convince our 
fellow-citizens by arguments addressed to their reason and consciences, that lAave- 
holding is ah^vious crime in the si^htof God; and that the duty, safety, and beat 
interests of all concerned, rec^uire ifai immediate abandonment vriihcut txpatrtO' 
hon :"* whilst tht avowed object of the American Colonization Society and its 
auxiliaries, is merdy the removal and settlement upon the coast of Africa, ef finM 
persons of the African race, with their own free consent" 

The Report con&iders any argument unnecessary to establish the 
first of these propositions. The enlightened slaveholders at the South 
are, it supposes, generally already convinced on this subject. 

*' They deny, however, that it is a crime in them to retain in subjection to the 
laws, and to other imperious circumstsnces, those ignorant and helpless beings who 
have been cast upon tneir protection, as well u thrown into their power, by no act 
of their own. The points reallv at issue then, arise upon the second of the j>ropo- 
•itions embodied in the Constitution of tht immediate abolitionists, taken in con- 
nection with its express repuenancy to Colonization, or as it terms it " egpatHO' 
Hon:" And these as they relate to two descriptions of persons, naturally resolve 
themsdyesinlptwoqnestu>ns, viz: — First, whether *'the safety and hiat inter- 
esli*'oi diose people of colour who have obtained thair freedom, will be most cer- 
tainly and eilectually promoted by their continuance in this country, or by their 

« Vide CoBslitatioo of the Aaetkan Anti-SUveiy Soeiety. 



1835.] AUXILIARY SOCIBTIES. »19 

YoliiDtaij emigntioii •• ColcMiiftB;~aiid lecotkUy, wliittitr tlit fsnertl tiiiaiiei|Ni- 
tioD of toe ilavat in the Southern States wiU he more ipeedily eflbcted by argii* 
mente eddreiaed to their ownen, hy Northern men, than by the inducementt to 
manumission afforded by the plan of Colonization, in which tiie North uid South 
are united in ofl^ringthe means of removing them when manumitted, to Africa.** 

On the/rsf of these questioDS, the Report refers to the results of 
the two systems as furaishiDg a test of their comparative merits ; de- 
nies that even od the point of difference, their co-existence is neces* 
sarily impracticable ; contends that it may be safely left to the Judg- 
ment of tne free coloured people to decide, whether it is better ior 
them to remain in the United States, under all the social disadvan- 
tages incident to their condition, though they should be admitted to a 
civil and political equality with the whites, or to settle in Liberia 
where no invidious distinction exists, and where they may become 
efficient instruments in christianizing and civiliiing a heathen aad 
barbarous continent : Refers to the effects already produced bv the 
American Colonization Society, and to the uncontrolled power of any 
dissatisfied emigrant to leave the Colony and return to this country : 
And counseb the friends of immediate emancipation to proceed in the 
execution of any practical plan for the moral improvement of our 
coloured population, instead of contenting themselves with accusing 
the frienos of Colonization of indifference on that subject ; a charge 
which the Report shows to be unfounded and absurd. 

On the iecond question, the Report argues that any repugnancy be- 
tween the respective objects of the Anti-Slavery and Colonization 
Societies, arises from the denunciation of the latter by the former, and 
from the " positive tendency and eflfects" of the measures proposed 
by the Abolitioniits, to defeat not only the design of Colonization, 
but their own. On this point the Report holds the following impres- 
sive language: 

** Already have tiie jealousies of the South been rekindled by what they consider 
a presumptuous and wanton interference with their political righti and personal 
security, on the part of oflkioiis stranfpsrs, ignorant alike of their position and of 
their opinions. The avowal of Immemate abolitioD as their object was indeed eel- 
calated to excite apprehension, as it could scarcely have been possibia that sueh a 
purpose could he hoped, even l^ those who avowed it, to be soddenfy accomplish- 
ed by means of arguments and persuasion addressed to tiie ownen of slaves ; but 
rather through such as miffht be addrsssed to the slaves themselves ; and aecoi<« 
ingiy, the proceedings and pubUeations of modem abolitioiusti, instead of prodac- 
ing even gradual conviction upon the mind^ of the former, of ^e sinfoiness of 
slavery or leading to improvement in the condition uid treatment of the latter, have 
but provoked resentment and excited alarm in the bosoms of the masters, and occa- 
sioned severer restrainti upon the physical comforts and moral and religious in- 
struction of the slaves. 

** But this is not all ; the doctrines avowed by the immediate aboUtionisti, al- 
though countenanced only by an insignificant portion of our Northern populatioii, 
have revived in the South a oniveml distrust of the pofossions, sentiments, nets 
and designs of all Northern men and Nortiiera Institutions, in reforence to slaveiy; 
and have consequently embanassed and impeded the opentions of the Cobniam- 
tion Society, not indeed in the mode or on the grounds intended bv the abolition- 
ists, but in a manner and for rsasons directly oQMidte in tiieir nature, but to an 
extent and degree, iHiich woaM nevertheless aford to these enemioB of Colonin- 
Hon ample room for exaltation, were it not that this very circumstance disproves 
tlie design imputed to the South, of encouraging Colonization, from iti tendency to 
perpetuate slavcny. 

*«Were it notindaed for these nntowird coMsqueoess of the Anti-Slavery doc 
trines and proceedings, die friends of OolonisatioB alglit well be oo||le%t to jMI 



mo AUXILIARY .SOQIfiTlES. [Mf* 

tb6 field of amuBtot and mcolatioo to Htmt advenaiiM ; and iUa&t](]r ud tta^ 
lttteJ|3rpor»aa uat oouna oTpiietieal mtaaurei, which obviate at leapt one formida* 
ble impediment to emancipation, by offering to the cooBcientioas poteeaior pf .a 
pUve, the opportunity of divesting himself of what is iffli>osed on him as propeitj, 
frequently by the operation of law alone. It offers to him the means not ooljr of 
relieving his conscience of a burthen, but of removing a weight or an opprobium 
cast npon him^peiiiaps as an inheritance, and which he willingly sustains no longer 
than the law allows, andliumataity permita;-^no longer than until he can besfiir 
freefiom without rendering it a greater curf6 than slavery .itself. The institutJQA 
of the Parent Society by tiie oo-operation of citixens from all parts of the Union, 
of whom many were distinguishea for patrioGsm and intelligence, for prudence and 
discretion, as well as phllanthropr aha piety, was hailed as a discovery of the hap- 
uy means of unitinpthe North ana the South in one mnd enterprise of natioottl 
DenevoJence. Besides pimooting an intercourse which might remove jealousiaa 
and prq'udice, and beget mutual confidence and esteem — the direct object propo»^ 
ed, was the Colonization of free people of colour, upon the shores of Africa, imtk 
their own voluntary consent. And luthoogh the motives of difl^rent individoah fbt 
eencurring in the sc!ieme, were donbtlees various, yet the general views of a lafge 
jQaiority of its founders were jiot only directed to the improvement of the mtOK^l 
and pbyfical condition of the free people of colour, and embraced throiuh their 
instrumentality, thb regeneration of Africa, but comprehended the gradualextiae- 
tion of slavery as a necessary result. The founders of the American Colonintioii 
Society were convinced that without the consent and cooperation of the ttoadiy 
not a step could be taken which led to abolition; and that without the aid and 
contribuuons of the North, no funds, or resources could be provided either for the 
removal uf such persons of colour as might be disposed to emigrate, or to^veefieet 
to the intentions of holders of Slaves who might be disposed to manumit them:— 
whilst of those founders of the Institution who might have originally cootempJatMl 
the abolition of slavery as the eventual consequence of the Golonixation sjfitem, 
none probably were ot opinion that even if that end could f)e etfected by any me- 
thod which did not like this, insure the preparation necessary for the enjoyment 
of freedom, it would prove neither advantageous to the slave, safo for his master, 
nor consistent with the spirit of a rational mid discrete humanity. 

" They well knew that amongst the Southern proprietors, there Were many in- 
dividuals who from principle or policy, were anxious for the entire abolitioii of 
slavery, but were prevented from manumitting their own slaves, not merely by ttha 
laws prohibiting, except on condition of removal, but also by those higher 9cropl#B 
and considerations of duty which fortwde the abandonment to their own diaeretion 
and control, those who from ignorance, infirmity, or vice, needed more povrerfnl 
restmints and protection than any which the laws afibrd them. Proprietors of thia 
description would, it is supposed, be encouraged by the Colonization system, in 
their benevolent purposes of manumitting auch of thoir slaves as were capaUe of 
using their own freedom to their own benefit ; and of preparing for freetiom soch 
of them as mi&;ht otherwbe abuse it to their own injury, as well as to the detriment 
of sooiety, — ^by giving them such inatructions as would fit them tor its enjoyment; 
whilst those who regsurd their slaves merely aa lanoperty, woukl be led by the inOu* 
ence of eicample, and from a perception of the enhanced profits to be derivod finn 
free labour, to adopt from motives of policT and interest, the same measure whioh 
others had pursued from principle andf feeling. 

** That these hopes and expectations of the founden of the American Colonisa- 
tion Society were not fallacious, is evident from the number and character of tiM 
alaves who have already been manumitted, and of those who await emancipation 
■olelv from the operation of the Colonizatipn systmn. It i^ also manifest firoin Iha 
rapid increase of free labour in some of the' Southern and Western States: and it 
ia proved beyond a doubt by the actual adoption of a law for the gradual aliolitMn 
flf slavery, founded upon African Colonization, in one of those States; and the 
prospect of that example being speedily, followed by the legislatures of atlewt 
two of the others. Another conclusive proof of the direct tendency of Colopiaa- 
tion to extinguish slavery arises iVom the fact of the larger portioB of the emimnli 
a> Liberia having been manumitted that ther might beeome Colonists ; and if any 
further testimony be requisite, it is affiirded by toe offer of this Society to receiTn* 
and in the circumstance of its having actually received and appropriated to that a^ 
ject, large donations of money, upon tho exprass condition U appl^nf than as* 
-*-' ' '- to ttie itnoval of manninitfeid abftt.'^ 



18350 A0XII.1ABT BOCUBTIES. tM 

The Report then proceeds to angwer the objection that the Coloni- 
zation scheme, even admitting i(»to be beneficial, is too restricted and 
too tardy to prove effectual as a remedy for the evils, and an instru- 
ment for the extirpation of shivery ; and avows the determination of 
the Managers not to intermit their exertions till the efficiency of that 
scheme shall have been fairly tested by experiment. 

"Their past experience,** they add, 'Ms sufficient to confirm and strengthen their 
original confidence in the wisdom, beneficence and practicability of their enterprise; 
and they will resolutely continue to pursue it through good and evil report, with- 
out bein^ overawed by or tempted to deviate from their avowed and legitimate 
purpose of removing to the shores of Afijca, such free persons of colour as are will- 
ing to emi^te, ana are worthy to become Colonists of Liberia ; and if under Pro- 
vidence, this Society should be instrumental in canying Christianity and its at- 
tendant blessings into that boundless waste of heathenism which extends beyond 
the field of their immediate efforts, the Board of Managers will consider themselves 
overpaid for all the labour, anxietv and reproach they have endured, and for all they 
may be called on to sustain. And in conclusion they woidd ask, what directly me- 
ditated purpose can be imagined more exalted or more hallowed than this merely 
incidental consequence of the Colonization enterprise ? Instead of extending ** to 
Africa the vices but not the benefits of civilization,** it has already accomplished 
almost literally the reverse^ and if it has not sent forth the blessings wholly un- 
alloyed by the vices of cultivated life, it is because they are to a certain degree 
inseparable from each other. The essential advantages of civilization have never- 
theless been imparted to Liberia, whilst its inherent evils have been restrained and 
mitigated. Ample testimony moreover is at hand to vindicate the character of the 
Colony, and to prove that as a moial and religions community, it is excelled by few, 
perhaps by none, on the American continent, or in the British isles. Not only have 
the lights of gospel truth, of education and virtuous knowledge, as well as of prac- 
tical science, and the usefhl arts, been enkindled in these infant settlements, but 
thev have ^ne forth amount the heathen who surround them. Already have the 
hallofjustice, and the seminary of learning, been raised at Monrovia*; and there 
the Christian temple already lifts its spire to heaven. Already have the heralds of 
the cross borne sacked fire from its altar into the dark regions lieyond the desert, and 
ere long " £thiopia shall stretch forlh her hand," ana the " heads of her prin- 
ces" be illumined by the lambent flame which as it enlightens, purifies* and as it 
expands the heart and mind to the love and contemolation of the ever-livinf God, 
warms the whole man to sympathy and charity with every tribe and individual of 
bis kiud." 

The Exeentive Committee of the New York City Society announ- 
ces that the Rev. Alexander Proudfit, D. D., of Salem, MaaSt« 
has accepted the office of permanent Agent and Corresponding Secre- . 
tary. The well-knowa character of Uib gentleman for piety ai4 
abilities, authorizes the most sanguine hopes of the operation^of. his 
agency. 

I 

Cfficm^^ifctf Vii CbtonhoHtm BoeUtif tf tki CUy of Nm York. 

PraidmA. WILLIAM A. DUER, L. L: D.. ntB^fPrnidadi. Abraham Tan 
Nest, Oaidner Spring, D. D.John W. Hinton, Hugh Maxwell, JassesMilnortD. 
D. and Nathan Bangs, D. D. /SMrsforiet. Rev. ASezander Preudfit, D. D. Oai^ 
ftntmdmg Secnianf. Ira B. Underinll, Rgeordmg 8§crHary, Tnamnr, iMos« 
Alien. Jumagin . Anson G. Phi^, Israel Corse, Jaihes DoaakMNi, Rev. John 
P. Durbin, Hubert Van Wagsnen, Francis L. Hawks, D. D. David M. Reeee, AC 
D. Samuel A. Foot, Samuel Akerly, M. D. Rav. Wm. Jackson, William L. Stone, 
Rev. Cyrus Mason, James Monroe, Silas Brown, Anson Blake, Francis Hall, Ga- 
briel P. Disosway, John R. Davison, Henry S. Richards, James M. Goold, Daniel 
Lord, Jr. Josiah L. Hale, Thomas De Witt, D. D. Wm. W. Campbell, John Wood- 
bridfre, D. D.Aaron Clark, Thomas G. Fletcher, Thomas C. Doremus, Henry V. 
Garrittson, John W. Mulligan. Exeeuiwi QmmUUi. Anson G. Phelps, Gabriel 
P. Disosway, Thomas C. Donmus» Bar. Wm- Jaekson* Moses Allsa* Thomas De 
Witt, D.D. James M. Goold. Bar, Almnte JPMndfit, D. DT^tiil. ^^ 



roETRY. [Jdy, 



POESTRT. 

[COBOfUNICATXP.] 

THE EMIGRANT. 

Gallantljr, O gaUanUy. 
Tby vessel leaves the strand. 

Thou seekest now on Afiic'k short 
A loved and hapnier land : 

No longer shall thy spirits roam 
O'tr wronp undnly made. 

For thpu hast saQed fat tiiat loved home 
Where wrongs and slavery iade. 

Gallantly, O gallantly. 
That vessel sits the deep. 

And thou art bound amr away, 
Where slaves no longer weep: 

Tet in tlie dreamings of tby mind 
Fond memory brings tne tears, m 

For those whom thou hast left behind^ V 

Friends of thy earlier years. 

Gallantly, gallantly. 
Thy vessel breasts the sale. 

And to tiie breeze's slumbering note. 
Spreads out the flowing sail : 

And thou art borne a pilgrim back. 
To thy loved native shore. 

Where Afric's sons fiom slavery free. 
Shall wake to weep no more. B. R. B. 



Wordi and Deeds.— The Lynchbarg Virginian, in noticing the 
large number of slaves, offered by their owners in various States of 
the South and West, to the American Colonization Society for libera- 
tion and removal to Liberia, asks some pertinent questions tt to the 
means necessary for their transfer and settlement. 

« Cannot the benevolent and patriotic of tills opulent nation fiimish the means? 
Where are the Abolitionists of the North, that they suffer this cry to fall unheeded 
on tiieirean? Iftheybe, in truth, the Philanthropisti that they pretend to be, 
why are not (heir funds fortheominr^at tiiis loud caU of humanity and patriotism ? 
If they are so anxious to see the shackles of the slave ftll off, why do they not 
come forward, when the only barrier to his freedom is tile want of means to send 
Idm to the land of ' his fiithers? It is cheaper to talk than to act, it seems. They 
are vtry mtxUm§, doabtiese, for " universal emancipation," but rather reluctant to 
eootribttte any thina^— save toordt— to its accomj^nment ! In sober earnest, bow* 
ever, we hope that tiie Colonization Societv will be enabled, by the generous sap* 
port of tiie people, to go on uninterruptedly in its benevolent and patriotic wocv, 
heedless alike of Nortiiem and Soatitem ftnatidsm." 



hutruetkm of SUnm, 

At a meeting of the 1300i sesiion of die Presbjf te fj of Orai^e^ N« 
C, the following Resolution wtt passed: 



]08lK] CONTRIBUTIONS. 9^ 

Rttoloedt That it be commended to the members of the chiirchei ondtr the can 
of this Presbyteijr, who are owners of slaves, to impart to them soch oral and cate- 
chetical instructions as are calculated to give them a knowledge of the plan of sal- 
vation, and that for this purpose they make use of the Assemb^r's shorter catechism 
and Jones' cjitechism for colored persons. 



MModigt Mmimmy fiMs^.— The annual meeting of this 8oci«livw«s bald in 
New York, on Monday evening, Biay 11. A native African, whose X^^ith name 
is Joseph Edward Hoehes, was one of the speakers who addressed the me^ting^-^ 
He came to this counoy with Rev. Mr. Seys, missionary at Liberia. The Obsenr* 
er says, «' about $8,800 were subscribed in aid of the Society's missfons, of which 
upwards of $500 were given especially for the mission inXiberia. It appeared 
from the Report that th^ receipts of the Society, which in 1820 were (mty $ISiZ, 
had risen in 1829, to $14,000, and now, in 1886, amounted to $40,000. The num- 
ber of new missions established during the past year, was 41, and the number of 
church members added, more than 4000. ' At the close of the meetiim;, Mr. Wilson^ 
a colored man fivm Libetia, was ordained to the wodL of the ministry. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 

To the American Colanizatian Society from JtfaySO, to June SO, 1836. 

Qtrrit 8miih'i Fbrtt Plan of aubier^ftkn. 
Jacob T.Tow8oii,Williamsport,Md.,his4idi payment, - $100 

OoUecHont from Cmtrches, 
Congregational church, Conn., by the itev. Mr. Boardman, 9 42 

jhudUary SodetUi. 
New London, Conn., by the Rev. Mr. Kirk, - • • 2 18 

Jceomi ofMvMif nceived 6y William Gault, laU l^rtammr of the Ntw Eam^ 
Mtrt JtucOimr^ Cohnixatum 8oeUty,fiom Jum 4, 1884, to 8^. 18, 1884. 

By cub from Bfrs. B. Clark, Stratiiam, (by Rev. J. Cumming) $6 

Individuals in Rye, (by Rev. Mr. Smith) - 2 

** Hon. Titus Brown, (Annual Subscription) • 1 

*< Contributed by the Concn. Society in Newport, Rev. 

John Woods pastor (by ^* ^l^gS*^) 
** From 1st Congn. Society, Hopkinton, for education 
in Liberia, (by R«^* w- KunbaU) 
Contributed in the Centre Congn. Society, Oilman- . 

ton, (by Augustus Duvant) - - • - 8 89 
From (}ong*n Society, Keene, (by Amos Wood) • 8 16 
'' From Dr. Church, Pelham, one year's subscription, • 1 ^ 

«« Ck>ntrib«ted in his Society. 6 84 

*• From Meriden Parish, Plainfield, Rev. Dana Cloyes, 

Pastor, (by Rev. Moses Kimball) • - - 6 80 
From Rev. Jacob Cumminga,Stratham, ... 6 
FhMD Rev. David Perry, HoUis, (by Mr. KimbaU) • 14 
From Cong^ Qnucli, Boieaweo, ligr J. Greenougn, 6 — 77 14 



11 62 
488 



« 



<« 



it 



« 



Jee m mi ofmtmM nuhid hy Asaph Evams, pnunt gHgsurfr of the Nm Hum 

$k^ jiuaMiary OriommUHm Soeid^. 

• - • - $1 . 

• • * 2 

8 

B«v. Dr. Jolm'H. Church, of Fdhia, % Lift Bfomber, • 80 

N.6. Upham, • . ;^0 » 

AM^Knas, 19. .« 







COJNTBIBUTIONS. 



[Jrfy. 



Joseph RoMoflODy 

G«h. I^bert Davis, 

Gen. Joseph Low, 

Ahikt B. Kelly, 

Mr. Cash, 

John Whipple, 

Hon. David L. Morre^, 

Francis N: Fisk, 

Timofty. Walker, 

E. S. Towle, 

John McDftniel, 

Dr. Ezra Carter, • 

James Bpswell, 

John Jarvis, 

Samuel Aiorrell, 

Col. William Kent, 

Stephen Ambrose, 

John Brown, of Row^ 

Wm. G. Wpbster, 

Abiel Walker, 

Asa McFarland, 

W. Odlen, 

H M.Rolfe, - 

W. F. Goodell, 

John M. Hill, 

Franklin Evaniy 

Perkins Gale, 

Oilman G. Mudgett, 

James Rives, 

Daniel Carr, 

Joseph Grover, 

Nathaniel Wheat, 

Samuel Fletcher, 

Hon. Isaac Hill, 

Contribution at a meeting held by the Rev. R. 

William Badger, Governor of the State, 

C J. Atherton, 

Charles F. Gove, 

Isaac Waldron, 

James Clark, 

Ira A. Eastman, 

Thos. J. Parens, 

Smith Lamprey, 

John Page, '•* - 

Samuel M. Richardson, 

Joseph Sawder, 

Joseph L. Richardson, 

Geoi^e W. Nesmith, 

Horace Duncan, ^ 

J.W.Williams, - • • - . - '. 

Samuel Beaof, 

Asa Fowler, 

H.B. Crocket, 

[Deduct 60 eents naid to Rev. BCoies Kimball.] 

ihher Donationi, 
James Millar, near Xenia, Green County, Ohio, • 

An anonymous Benefactor, by Col. Wm. L. Stone, • 

John Tyler, of Salem, N. J., - • • 

Dr. Alexander Somervail, Essex County, Va., 

James MiUer, noff Xenia, Ohio, 

Geom W. Wai4» of Salem, N. Jv ^ 
JUa^^pier, of dittos • w • « 



R. Guriey, 



6 

5 
5 
t 
S 
8 
8 
5 
5 
9 
8 
8 
1 
I 
2 
8 
2 
6 
1 
5 
1 
1 



60 
60 
60 



1 

1 

1 

1 

1 
60 

1 

8 

5 
28 88 
10 
10 
-5> 

6 

8 

2 

2 

2 

8 

2 

2 

1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

2 



• 



229 88 



4. '■-. 
800 

2 
■ 14 ■[ 



8 
1 
2 



7. 



THE 



AFRICAJN REPOSITORY, 



AND 



COLOiriAL JOURNAL. 



Vol. XL] AUGUST, 1836. [No. 8* 



COLONIZATION EFFORTS. 

In the April number of this volame, our readers were apprised of a 
Resolution which the Managers of the American Colonization Socie- 
ty had adopted on the 5th of March preceding, to endeavour to raiie 
ONE HUNDRED THOUSAND DOLLARS duriug the prescut year, and of the 
motives which led to the Resolution. Among the various proceed- 
ings of the Managers to effect their purpose, one was to despatch 
their Secretary to the North, in order that he might lay before our 
friends in that part of the Union, the claims of the Society to their 
confidence and liberal support. Accordingly, when that officer re- 
turned from a visit on behalf of the Society to Virginia, he proceeds 
ed on his mission, and has since been diligently employed in execut- 
ing its duties. 

On his way to New England, Mr. Gurlbt conferred with the 
Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania, and the New 
York City Colonization Society, on the subject of their relations to 
the Parent Institution, the above-mentioned Resolution, and other 
important matters. While in New York, he attended the Great Co- 
lonization meetings held in that city on the 13th, 14th, and 15th of 
Ml^y; of which an account is given in this volume, pages 186, 187, 
901«— 206. He then visited Hartford, and in company with the Rev. 
Dr. Fisk and the Rev. Mr. Wibon, attended the anniversary of the 
Colonization Society of Connecticut At this meeting, of the pro- 
ceedings of which we hope to obtain a full report, sevend interestinsr 
Addresses were delivered to an audience respectable in numbers and 
in character, and a Resolution was adopted for raising $3000 in that 
State. At New Haven, on Sunday evening. May 24th, Mr. Qua- 
lbt preached in the Rev. Mr. Bacon's church to a large congre^« 
tion, sad used the occasion to enforce the claims of the Colonization 
esHse to public favour. At the same tt<ne the audience was address- 
ed by Mr. Wilson. On Thupulay afternoon, May SiSth, Mr. Gvm* 
LET addressed a large and respectable Colonization meeting at the Ma« 
sonic Temple in Boston, the ilon. Alsxandsr H. Everett presid- 
ing, which was adjourned to the next afternoon, when he also attend- 
ed. The second meeting was highly interesting, and was addresMd. 
by several distinguished indiyiduals; end Resolutions favorable to 
29 



226 COLONIZATION EFFORTS. [August, 

Colonization were adopted. A deep impression in favor of Coloniza- 
tion was made at those two meetings. 

On the evening of Friday, Mr. Gurley casually visited the meeting 
of the Young Men's Anti-Slavery Society, and had scarcely taken his 
seat when Mr. George Thompson, an English denouncer of the 
American Colonization Society, rose and proposed the following Re- 
solution: 

** Resolved, That inasmuch as the principles and measures of the American Colo- 
nization Society, and of its aoxilianes, have been clearly shown, in the lic^t of 
truth, of experience, and of demonstration, to be unrighteous, unnatural and pro- 
scriptive — at war with the best interests of Africa— -and diametrically exposed to 
the feelings and voices of the coloured population of this country — we renrd the 
present attempt which is making to give sorength and permanency to that Society, 
as a FRAUD upon the ignorance, and an outrage upon tbetn/€//t^mcf and Mmiaitt^f 
of the community, demanding the strongest public reprobation." 

Afr. Thompson then, says Mr. Gurlet in a letter, dated June 1st, 1836, to one 
of the Editors of the Journal of Commerce, " challenged any person present to 
come forward and defend the Colonization Society. I instantly rose and said that 
I would do it, then, or any other time, there or elsewhere. I was thus, unexpect- 
edly, brought into a discussion with Thompson, and continued it until noon the 
next day. I stated at the outset, that I entered into this discussion, not from any 
sense of obligation to meet my opponent in the field of argument, nor becmnsal 
did not re^d the resolution as impeaching the moral character of many of the 
best men m the country, but that I might give that Society correct views of the 
plan of African Colonization, and the true principles of the Colonization Society. 

" The Resolutiou'was finally passed, but fifteen or twenty voices, I judge, were 
raised against it, and probably fifty or more Colonizationists had withdntwn be- 
fore the vote was taken. You ci^i hardly imagine the bold and determined spirit 
with which the Anti-Slavery men are pushing their cause — ^mainly, now, it would 
seem, to overthrow the Colonization Society, which they deem the great wall In 
the way of their progress. I state these facts, that should other representatioiis be 
made of this aifair, you may have the means of correcting them." 

The Editor of the Boston Recorder, in his remarks on this-diseuf* 
sion, after stating the challenge of Mr. Thompson, and its acceptance 
by Mr. Gurley, says: 

"A debate then commenced, at which each spoke twice for half an hoar at 
each time, and the meeting adjourned till nine o*clock Ihe next morning. The 
debate was then resumed, and continued till past twelve, when Mr. G. said that his 
stren^h would not permit his continuins: it at present, but he was willin|[ at a fu* 
turo time to continue the discussion. On this, a large number rose aM left the 
hall. Mr. Thompson spoke again, and then the Resolution passed; the rcporleri^ 
employed by the Society, says, with four dissenting votes; others estimate'the nays 
at 12, 15, and 20. In such circumstances, nothing but a decided majority in &r 
vor of Mr. Thompson *s Resolution could be expected. 

" This debate has excited a very lively interest in the subject. From remarks 
in the city papers, and of individuals who were pres«nt, it is evident that Mr. Gm^ 
ley has promoted his object. The debate is said by some of the papers, to hare 
been the richest intellectual treat of any debate held in the city for many yean. 

" Mr. Gurley has now gone to Concord, N. H., to attend the meeting of the Co- 
lonization Society of that State. He will probably return to thia city in a few 
days, and lay the objects of the Society before our citizens more generally. From 
what has passed already, it is evident that they will be glad to hear him. Aside 
from his other qualities, not a few of those who heard him, think him decidedly a 
more able debater than Mr. Thompson.** 

In noticing this discussion, the Editoi of the Lynchburg Virginian 
expresses his regret, that Mr. Gurley ''condescended to enter into 
a public discussion at Boston, with George Thompson, the EDgKdi 
incendiary;" declaring that "it was giving to that &natical zealot an 
importance to which neither his mission nor his personal character 



1835.] COLONIZATION EFFORTS: f^ 

entitles him." The same writer then pertinently adds, if Mr. T. 
'< wishes to abolish slavery, why does he confine his labors to the 
North, while the evil rages at the South?*^ 

" He is a cowardly soldier, who gets beyond the reach of his adversary before he 
fires his gun— and surely he is an inefficient crusader, who contents himself with 
attacking a dangerous evil (or, if he please to have it so, a deadly sin,) in the 
midst of those who are free from its accursed influence, and who agree with hira 
as to the necessity of its eradication. Why lecture to those who are already con- 
vinced? Why do not these Anti- Slavery lecturers come among us, who are envel- 
oped in darkness and covered with guilt, and point out to us our iniquity and our 
danger — our duty and the manner in which we may perform it?" 

In regard to any perils apprehended from such an attempt, the 
Lynchburg Editor observes: 

" If his positions be true and his professions sincere, martyrdom in such a cause 
were a glorious end, and he is unworthy of being its advocate who dare not en- 
counter the hazard." 

Mr. Thompson, however, probably feels secured against the dan- 
ger of martyrdom at the South by the inviolability of his diplomatic 
character; for, according to the report of the debate in the Boston 
Advocate, he announced, in reference to the business of abolishing 
slavery in the United States, that " as the representative of £no« 
LAND, he came here for that very purpose." 

But to return to Mr. Gurley's progress: — 

Ou Thursday, June 4th, the anniversary meeting of the Coloniza- 
tion Society of New Hampshire, was held at Concord in that State. 
On motion of the Rev. Mr. Willey of Rochester, supported in some 
cogent remarks by the Rev. Mr. Blodoett of New Market, the 
following Resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That while the members of this Society are opposed in principle to 
every system of slavery, and will be ready, in their individual capacity, to do all 
which they can do, in a judicious and proper manner, to promote the safe, peace- 
ful, and entire abolition of this system in our countrv, they will assist the scheme of 
African Colonization as promising most good to the free people of color, (to the 
slave, by opening a way and presenting efficient motives for his emancipation,) 
and to the whole African race. 

On motion of the Rev. Mr. Clement of Chester, it was 

Resolved, That it be earnestly recommended to the Clergy and congregations in 
this State, to take up collections in aid of the Colonization Society the present year 
and annudly hereafter on or about the 4th of July. 

On motion of the Rev. R. R. Gurley, of Washington, D. (J., it was 

Resolved, That in the judgment of this Society, the crisis demands that all the 
friends of the American Colonization Society in this State and throughout New 
England, should stand forth openly, decidedly, and actively, for the support of its 
cause and the increase of its resources. 

In the course of his remarks in support of his Resolution, Mr. Our* ^^ 

ley said. 

That on his arrival in New England, he bad met with a spirit, among a portion 
of the community^, of hostility to the American Colonization Society. A Resolu- 
tion had been moved in Boston by a stranger to our interests, our Institutions and 
our Laws, impeaching the moral character of the Society, declaring it to be " un- 
righteous, unnatural, proscriptivc, and that the efforts now making to give perma- 
nency to it was a " fraud upon the ^Ttoranc* and an outkaos upon the tfU«2lt- 
gence of the American people," and this Resolution had been adopted by an Anti- 
Slavery Society. Anxious as he miffht be, to commend without controversy, tiie 
simple and unexceptionable object of the Colonization Society, — *' to colonize with 
their own consent, in Africa or elsewhere^ such free people of colour as should 



gcjs COLONIZATION EFFORTS. [August, 

chooM to emigrate,"— to the favour of the public, he waa compelled to stand on Ae 
defensive, to breast the war raging against it. It was not his choice. He sought 
conflict with no body. But it was a duty (from which he dared not shrink) to ex- 
pose misrepresentations and to defend alike the principles and the pelicy of tha 

Society. 
Those who formed the American Colonization Society could not close their eyas 

upon the following facts: ^ ^ .^ ^ . . ^i. 

That the two millions of slaves in the Southern portion of the Union were m the 
respective States where they are found under the exclusive control of state legisU* 
tion. That the free people of colour throughout the United States, were in cir- 
cumstences unfavoraole as a class, to ereat moral and intellectual elevation. — 
That to assist them to remove, (should they desire to do so,) and estabUah 
themselves as a separate and independent people in Africa, would prove be* 
neficial to idl parties concerned. That in no plan of ^pood for the coloured race 
tending in no way to encourage the voluntary separation of that race from the 
whites, could wise and benevolent men from the North and South, be expected at 
that time to unite. That such a union was highlv important, and that to connect, 
if possible, the elevation of the coloured people of this land with that of the milUone 
of Africa, was demanded alike by humanity and religion. 

They united therefore, on the simple and unexceptionable plan of ** colonizior 
withtiieir own consent, in Africa, or elsewhere, the free people of colour renf 
ing in the United Stetes." 

The Society arose out of humanity to the coloured race. It was not confined 
in its direct action to the tree, because of unconcern for the slave, but beeauee it 
was believed that ito morsi influence to promote emancipation, would (were this 
action so restricted) be most certain, extensive and powerful. ^ 

Mr. 6. spoke of the exciting and elevating influences^ which came upon the 
coloured emigrant on his arrival in Liberia. The new circumstances in which he 
stood have a miehty eflfort for good upon his character. It was like that expeii* 
enced by the eany settlers of New England, to whose unequalled enterprise Mr. 
Burke had paid so just and eloquent a tribute even before the Revolution. 

He alluded to the fact that about one thousand of the present inhabitants of Libe- 
ria were manumitted slaves, released from bondage by the humanity of their form- 
er masters, as a proof of increasing disposition at the South to am Colonization, 
not with views of a selfish or oppressive policy, but from a desire to place aUves 
in a situation where they mignt be free and find freedom a blessing. There wie 
much concern among the religious of the South for the happiness and final liberty 
of the slave. 

He spoke of the present condition and promise of Liberia, of what had already 
been done by it, towards expelling the slave trade from that part of the Afiican 
coast; and of the reasons to ex])ect that it would introduce the arts, civilijeation, 
and Christianity among the native population. Several flourishiiijg Christian villa- 

Ses now adorned that shore of piracy and blood. The number ofsettlers was finom 
iree to four thousand. They nad a regularly organized government, all the offi- 
ces of which were filled by coloured men, except that ofColonial Agent They 
had, at their own expense, and with their oi^n hands, erected eleven churches.-— 
Several individuals of the highest respecUbility, some of them whites and others 
coloured men, had recently returned (rom the Colony and united in very favorable 
representetions of its state and prospects. The people are generally moral, sober, 
satisfied with their condition and much engaged in agricultural and other improve- 
ments. Mr. Wilson a coloured minister of the Methodist church, who remained 
fourteen months there, had never seen a citizen of the Colony intoxicated, or heard 
from any a profane word. He had been in no village of this country, where the 
morals of the people were better than were those of the people of Liberia. 

The soil was fertile, and the means of comforteble subsistence easily to be secur- 
ed by the industrious. Mr. Wilson would return with his family to the Colony, 
were temporal advantages alone his object; but religious privileges were there to 
be enjoyed, and the field of usefulness was boundless. 

. *« We do not," says the New Hampshire Observer, from which the forvgofng 
•ketch is taken, **nve in these remarks even an outline of Mr. Ourlbt's Addreaa. 
He spoke of the exterminating war waged against the Colonization Society, and 
showed that Anti-Slaveiy movements bassed upon hostility to Colonization were aa 
impolitic as unjust" 



1835.] COLONIZATION EFFORTS. 229 

On motion of the Rev. Mr. Putnam of Portsmouth, it was 

JUiohedy That it be recommended to the Young Men of this State and of New 
England, to form Auxiliary Colonization Societies, and to exert their best powers 
to give strength and permanency to the American Colonization Society. 

The following observations on Mr. Gurley's visit to Concord, are 
from the New Hampshire Observer of June 12th: 

'* It has been a source of high gratification to meet our old College Classmate 
and roommate, Mr. Gurley. On Friday he was incidentally drawn into discus* 
sion, in defence of the Colonization Society, at an Anti-Slaver]jr meeting, held at 
the Town Hall. The discussion, as far as we heard it, was carried on in good tem- 
per on both sides. Mr. G. we believe gained the testimony of all, that he was a 
fair, able and candid debater: his honest sinceritv won very much the hearts of 
those who heard him. On Friday evening the Hall was crowded, and the audience 
sat patiently till half past 10 to hear the debate. 

'* Mr. G. spoke nearly half an hour from 10, until half past ten. On Saturday, 
the youn^ men of Concord presented a request that Mr. G. would address them 
that evemng, on Colonization; which he did to veiy great acceptance. On Sab- 
bath afternoon and evening, Mr. G. preached for Rev. Mr. Bouion; the exercises 
we did not hear, but others spoke vei^ favorably of them. On Monday evening, at 
the Unitarian Church, Mr. G. aj^n addressed the people on Colonization. At the 
close of the exercises a resolution was introduced by the Hon. Mr. Cushman, to 
this import — that the Colonization Society merits the public patronage. The vote 
was t^en by rising. The audience was large, and the house well filled. Only 8 
rose in opposition; but several were {present who did not vote at all. One recent 
delegate to the Anti-Slavery Society in Boston, expressed his approbation by vo- 
ting and contributing. The contribution raised was handsome. It was principally 
contributed in small sums of a dollar and less. A subscription has been made among 
the young men and others, and it is said about three hundred dollars wiU be raised. 
This is only one half the sum raised by the Anti-Slavery Society. A single indi- 
vidual generously contributed $150, and another $60 to the latter Society. We 
heard it mentioned, that on Friday, $526 had been subscribed; how much was given 
aHerwards we have not learned. 

** The meetings held the last week have evidently given a strong impulse both to 
the A nti- Slavery and the Colonization Societies. * Probably nothing has resuscita- 
ted the latter Society (the Colonization) more than the efibrts of ivfr. Gurley. It 
was an opportunity favorable to his cause inasmuch as the Legislature were in ses- 
sion, and many of the members were interested in his eloquent addresses." 

While at Coneord, Mr. G., in a debate which had been left open 
by the Agents of the Anti-Slavery Society, encountered the Rev. Mr. 
Phelps, the Rev. Mr. May, and Mr. Staunton, of Ohio. The ef- 
fect of the discussion was, we have reason to believe, advantageous 
to the cause of Colonization. 

On the 12th of June, Mr. Gurley went to Lynn, a town about ten 
miles from Boston, and in the evening addressed a meeting in the 
Methodist Church, which was well attended. The members of the 
Conference of that Church, then in session at Lynn, were not present 
at this meeting, being about completing their business and incessantly -^ .. 
occupied. On the 22nd of June, Mr. G. repeated his visit to Lynn, ^^ 
and made a second address in the Methodist Church of that town. On 
the following evening, he accepted an invitation to Andover, where 
he addressed a large congregation, of which were the students of the 
Theological Seminary. He proceeded, on the 24tb of June, to Fra- 
mingharo, a town about twenty miles from Boston, to meet the Gene- 
ral x\ssociation of Congregational Ministers from every part of Massa- 
chusetts there assembled, and in the hope of being permitted to ex- 
plain to that body the principles and purposes of the Colonization So- 



214 AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. [Joly, 

bodily sufTering, and the thousand painful circumstances attending his withdrawal 
from the world, extensive business, and his acquaintance — ^you must have seen the 
ypirit of true Christian charity, with which he bore and forbore — his patience, his 
quiet submission in the spirit of love supreme to God, a sense of his entire sove* 
reignty and absolute ri^ht to do with him as he saw fit ; his lore to man — his for* 
givcness of injuries — his anxiety to do something for the good of every individual, 
and the world at large ; his sweet complacency, patience, and equanimity. The 
worldling could but have admired his heroism — the Christian adore that God who 
sustained him under unparalleled sufferings. 

Under all circumstances, he was the perfect gentleman — even to the last great 
struggle — that delicacy of feeling which led him under his accumulated disoraers, 
and their peculiar sufferings always to maintain a propriety and decorum of conduct 
that showed how completelv his mind was pained in all the minutia of actions and 
of manners. Lofty and elevated iQ his feelings, he was quiet as a child. The 
humble Christian was the character that he sought for, ^d was anxious to mani- 
fest. Possessing true greatness of soul — all the tinsel of adventitious circumstan* ' 
oes seemed to pass unnoticed. Characters and actions were judged of as they 
tended to develope, or bring into action those faculties which God implanted in 
man when he formed him in his own image, and gave him a capacity for attain- 
ments that would fit him for the joys of Heaven. 

He had read to him to the last week of his life, foreign politicks ; and he took 
a great interest in the movements of Governments — considering that they bad an 
immediate bearing on the building up of the Church; and that Uie mighty Rnler 
would overturn and overturn till he whose right it is, shall come and take to him- 
8olf his great power, and become King of nations as be is King of saints. The 
)Kirty politicks of our own country, he would not suffer me to rea^ to him, — he ap- 
j»«-,M<'ri jiof to ho willing to disturb his mind with them. • • 

W<? lately had a letter liom Nuguul Wicks. |^ The best written in point of com- 
position of any we have received — showing, I think, that the state of society and 
the opportunity he enjoys, cause an advance of his iiiAellectual powers, which sayv 
something for the state of the Colony. • •" 



AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. 



On the llth of May last, the Board of Managers of the Coloniza- 
tion Society or the City of New York, made their Third Au- 
iiuhI Report, which has since been published. 

This interesting document explains the agreement which had been 
made between the Society and the Young Alen's (yOJonization Socie- 
ty of Pennsylvania for the establishment of a new and model Colony 
on the coast of Liberia ; and states the following articles as being de* 
dared by that agreement : 

1 . That a union between the two Societies ou^t witliout delay to be formed. 

2. That the basis of the union should be laid in a co-ordinate action of the two 
Institutions, through (heir respective organs : and that additional conventions or 
agreements should be entered into when special cases might require them. 

3; That the object of the union should be the estabUshment of a new and model 
Colony on the coast of Africa, on the following principles, viz:— Temperance, dis« 
suasion from war, the promotion of agricultural pursuits, and the other principles 
embodied in the Constitutions of the two Societies. 

4. That the American Colonization Society to which these Institutions stand in 
relation of auxiliaries, should not be abandoned, but that eveiy thing should be 



t The liberated servant sent by Mr. Whittlesey to the Colony. 



1835.3 NEW PLANS OF Q0L0Ki;S4TIQiN. 881 

men to their judgments; to correct numerous misapprelieiBionB; tore** 
fute countless misrepresentations; and to put forward the claims of 
the colonising system, in its various relations to the happiness of the 
colored race, the welfare of the Union, the regeneration of a henight* 
ed continent, and the diffusion of knowledge and Christian piety among 
the ignorant and the idolatrous; is the tadc confided to Mr. Gijrusy^ 
His progress thus fiur in performing it fuUy vindieates the choice of 
the Managers, and reconciles them to the suspension of his customaiy 
labors. More thoroughly versed, perhaps, ttan any other individual, 
in the aims, history, and condition of the .Society, he is competent t<a 
afford information on those points, whenever desired. Of the deli« 
cate questions of the American polity, on which it has been attempted 
to malce the Colonization Society impiogCi his views are those of a 
Christian Minister and patriot, whose zeal is according to knpw« 
ledge. Secured as well by principle as by temper, from any 
temptation to acrimony in debate, he is nevertheless so penetrate 
by a conviction of the purity of h» cause, that it will never suffer ia 
his hands through lack of ardor in maintaining its just pretensions, off 
in repelling unfounded accusation. 

Mr. Qvrxjiy's reception during his present visit to the Norths is 
such as might have been expected from that respected portion of thtt 
Republic, and cannot fail to gratify the friends of the great principles 
of which he is the advocate. Let us hope that the final result of his 
misMon will be such as to realize their most sanguine hopes. 



If EW PLANS OF COIiONIZATIOV. 

Mr. BsNJAMiN LuNDY, Editor of the Genius of Universal Emanr 
cipation, has recently explored the Eastern paits of the Republic of 
Mexico, and obtaii^ed an extensive grant of land, in the State of Ta?- 
roaulipas, for the purpose of there establishing a Colony. On his rer 
turn to the United States, he has published an exposition of his plaui 
to which he particularly invites tlfe attention of enterprising planters^ 
agriculturalists^ manudBicturers, mechanics and laborers. 

Mr. Lundy describes in glowing colors the physical advantages of 
Tamaulipas, a State bordering on the Gulph of Mexico, and adjoin^ 
ing the South- Western boundary of Texas. He has obtained, bj 
treaty with the Governor, a grant in fee simple of land, on condition 
of his introducing a certain number of settlers within a limited perfr 
od; and has stipulated for their protection in their opinions, eitlier 
political or religious. His principal object in this enterprise is to teat - H^ 
the advantages offree-Mor on the Americaa contioent, in the cultura 
e£ tngar, rice« cotton, dirc*; and he conceives it to be important ibff . 
such experiments be made as near as possible to our alaveholdin( 
States» where such articles are prod<ieea« "In the admissio9 of 40»* 
tiers, no distii»etioii will be made on aecounf of national lOv^ifY or 
eolor. Moraytv, industry, and general respectability^ arc w obIt 
requisites." The .^tablishment of snch a Colonv willi inereforoi be 
supposes, in addition to its primary object, prohiUy pi^ve the way for ^ 

the emiffration oCmany of the colored people in the U. States. 

Mr. L. designs to letiim to Mexico again, as soon itfi bis bqiiiiosp 



233 NI^W PLANS OP COLOKlZATlOW. [Augtist, 

can be arranged for that purpose, and forthwith commence the estab^ 
lishment of this Colony. He wishes to engage from 50 to 100 settlers, 
immediately, to accompany him thither, or to join him at Matamo- 
ras, a seaport town on the Rio Bravo del Norte. 

Another project for Colonization has been proposed by Colonel 
Juan Galindg. This gentleman, in a letter to the Secretary of the 
American Colonization Society, states that he is the owner of a tract 
of land of 3600 miles square, situated in the central American State 
of Guatemala, immediately bordering on the Western limits of the 
British settlement in the bay of Honduras, where he would be will- 
ing to receive 5000 free colored and black people of both sexes. He 
promises to assign to each of them in full property twenty acres; that 
immediately on their arrival th ty shall be entitled to all the rights of 
free citizens; that they shall be exempt from taxes for the first seven 
years, and always from military duty. His account of the climate and 
soil is highly favorable. He offers that any Agent whom the Colo* 
nization Society '' may be pleased to send with authority over the 
emigrants, may preserve such influence for a certain time as may be 
agreed upon in this country prior to their departure. The emigrants 
must be embarked for Campeachy in Yucatan, or better for Belize 
In the bay of Honduras, from either of which ports they can arrive 
at their location in boats, or in wagons over perfectly level roads from 
the former place.'' Colonel Galindo has been informed that it la 
not competent for the American Colonization Society, under their 
Constitution, to participate in his enterprise. 

A philanthropical gentleman in Nortn Carolina proposes the forma- 
tion of a National Society of the friends of the white man and the 
black man, to negotiate with the Mexican Government for a Territo- 
ry bounded North by the Arkansas river, East by the Missouri Ter- 
ritory and the Texas, South-east by the Gulf of Mexico, and West- 
ward as far as might be deemed necessary; to solicit voluntary 8ub> 
scriptions from individuals, and if they prove insufficient, from Con- 
gress and from the State Legislatures to purchase it; to prevail on the 
free colored people to emigrate to the new Territory; to send with 
them competent iustructers; and to constitute them into a free and 
indepeudent community, holding the same relations as the Indian 
tribes to the U. States. 

As the foregoing enterprises contemplate an improvement in the 
condition of the African race, we have felt bound thus briefly to no- 
tice them. But in doing so, we desire pot to be understood as having 
changed our opinion heretofore expressed in this Journal, that Afriem 
is the appropriate resort of colored emigprants from the U. States. On 
the contrary, every day's observation apd reflection, confirm us in the 
belief that it is their interest to become members of a community al* 
ready established in the land of their ancestors, where the avenne to 
lAoral and civil elevation is open to their view; and where the onlr 
obstacles to their comfort which experience has disclosed, are yield* 
ing to the influences and exertions that have been brought to bear on 
them. Witk this view of the subject, we shall pass over the objec- 
tions to all the foregoing plans, arising from the unsettled political 
condition of the countries m which it is proposed to locate the new 
colonies: and other difficulties inherent in the several schemes 






1835.] CA*tLIE-S TRAVELS IN AFRICA. 433 

CAILIilB'S TRAVELS IS AFRICA. 

[continued from page 200.] 

Our limits forbid any further extracts from the parts of Mr. Caiilie's 
book which desciibe the mauuers and customs of the Brakoas. If 
his account be correct, the representations of former travellers, and 
the general opinion of the Christian World concerning the condition 
of Moorish women, must be regarded as erroneous. '* The bus* 
band/' Siiys our author, *' has no authority over his wife, but what a 
superior understanding gives him; I should even say that the Moor- 
esees possess more influence over their husbands than our French 
women.'* He also represents the son as being always submissive to 
his motlier, and paying her the utmost respect; and parents as . 
exhibiting to their daughters not less tenderness than to their sons.-^ 
The greater part of the Moors believe that the French live upon the 
8ea, and have only a few little islands like St. Louis. In this igno- 
rance, however, the priests do not participate; though even they * * ^ 
have no conception of European arts or manufactures. The Braknas 
do not eat fish, but hold it in abhorrence; not through religious 
scruples, but on account of its strong smell. They expect that their 
abstemiousness on earth will be rewarded by unlimited indulgence in 
Paradise ; through which they believe that four great rivers flow« 
one of water, one of milk, one of honey, and the fourth of brandy. « 

M. Caillie having suc<;eeded in dispelling all doubts of the sincerity of 
his conversion, and having acquired the esteem of all the Moors, thought 
the moment had arrived for the execution of the project which he 
Lad long formed of visiting all the must interesting parCs of the des- 
ert, travelling as a merchant and pilgrim to Mecca, and there effect- 
ing his return through Egypt into France. He was disappointed in 
his hope of receiving from the Colonial Government at St. Louis far- 
ther advances to enable him to complete his education among the 
Braknas or proceed to Timbuetoo,.and after suffering many vexations 
went to Sierra Leone. General Turner, the Governor, received him 
kindly, and gave him an office with a salary of iS150 a year. In 18^ 
he applied to Sir Neil Campbell, General Turner's successor, for 6000 
francs to enable him to undertake his journey, but met with a refu- 
sal. Having, however, saved 2000 francs, and resolving to gain the 
premium which had been offered by the Geographical Society of Paris* 
to the first European who should reach Timbqctoo, he laid out his 
savings in paper, glass, and other articles, and undertook the journey, 
at his own expense. 

While at Freetown, the capital of the Sierra Leone Colony, our 
author had become acquainted with some Mandingoes and Seracolets. 
These Seracolets or Seracolas, are a corporation . of itinerant mer* 
chants who travel over Africa, and not a nation, as it has sometimes 
been supposed. He informed them confidentially that he was born in 
Egypt of^ Arabian parents ; that he had in his. infancy been carried * 

into France, by some soldiers of the French army which invaded ^|^ 

Egypt; that he had afterwards been brought to the Senegal by his - 

master, who in consideration of his services had given him his libera 



n •• 



234 CAILLIE'S TRAVELS IN AFRICA. [August. 

ty ; that, being tiow free, he felt a natural inclination to return to 
Egypt, to seek his relations, and to adopt the Mohammedan religion. 
He removed the incredulity with which this story was at first receiv- 
ed, by repeating many passages of the Koran, and joining in perform- 
ing the salam, and excused himself to his conscience for the decep- 
tion, by secretly pniying '' to the God of the Christians to favor his 
undertaking." 

Our author left Sierra Leone on the 2*2nd of March, 1527; arrived 
at the mouth of the Rio Nunez on the 31st; proceeded to Kakondy, 
where and in its environs he remained till the 19th of April, when he 
re -commenced his journey. He gives a singular account of a secret 
association among the tribes on the banks of the Rio Nunez, which 
he imagines to be *' not unlike that of the freemasons.'' 

"Itha8," he says, "a head who is called the Simo ; he makes laws, and they 
are executed under his authority. This Simo lives in the woods, and is ne^er seen 
hj the uninitiated ; he is attended by pupils who are purt)^ initiated in the myste- 
ries. Sometimes he assumes the form ol a pelican, sometimes he is wrapped up in 
the skins of wild beasts, and sometimes covered from head to foot with leaves, 
which conceal his real shape. 

"Novices maybe initiated at several different times of the year. The families 
in several different villages, who wish to have their children admitted, collect nil 
the boys between the a^es of twelve and fourteen, and send for the Simo. He 
comes to the place in disguise, to circumcise th(* children, none but candidates be- 
ing present at the operation ; the ceremony is accompanied by a ^at feast, at the 
expense of the parents, who contribute according to their respective means. The 
feast lasts sometimes for several days ; af[ter it is over, the Simo withdraws to the 
woods, and takes with him the boys who have been initiated; from this time for- 
ward, they have no further communication with their relatives. They lead a 
pleasant idle life , provisions are bestowed upon tliem in abundance, and they dwell 
in huts made of the branches of trees, with no other clothing than a few palm leaves 
skilfully arranged, from ine loins halfway down the thighs, the head ana the rest of 
the body being quite naked. 

" I have often seen them go by with two cal^ibashes of palm wine slung at the 
two ends of a stick, which tney carried on their shoTlIder. They walk at a prodi- 
gious rate, and seem afraid of being seen. When the Simo or his disciples meet 
a stranger in the wood, they ask him for the watchword of the order; if the answer 
is correct, the stranger is adinilted among?** tl)f in; if r.ot, the master and his pu- 
pils, all armed w'th sticks and rods, attack him, an<l, after beating him severely, 
exact a high ransom. If an uncircumcised hoy falls into their hands, theycircum- 
cisehim and keep him, for tlie purpose of initiatinghim. They have no mercy upon 
women, whom they beat most cruel!}', anti, as I have been told, they are somctimea 
barbarous enough to kill them. 

"The young persons thus initiated lead this idle and va^bond life for seven or 
eight years; this period, it is said, is necessary for their instruction. When the 
parents arc dcsirousof getting them back from the woods, they collect all the 
pagnes they can, and make with them a fine girdle, which they adorn with copper 
Deil<;, and send it to their children with a present of tobacco and rum for the master. 
It is only at such times that the son shows himself in public. 

"The eve of this festival is celebrated in the w<.'.v:s, near the spot where he is to 
make his appearance, and he gives notice by his loud shouts that he means to be 
visible. Without this notice no person excepting ti;ft uninitiated durst look at him, 
for they are foolish enough to tliink it unlucky, and if they were to feel ill after it, 
they would not fail to ascribe it to the unfortunate glance. — Vol. 1, p. 1.'3 — 5 

The festival is usually very gay ; much palm wine and rum are 
drunk, sheep and oxen are killed, and the feasting lasts for several 
days. In return for presents made to the master hy the parents of the 
childrcnj^the former gives a tree or stake, •which becomes the tutelmr 



1835.] CAILLlE'8 tRAVELS W AFlUCA. 83* 

Deity of the donee. The families of the initiated believe in sorcery 
and witchcraft, and the Simo acts as chief magistrate to try persons 
suspected of those oflfences. 

*'The accused is questioned, and if he confesses, he is condemned to pay a fine; 
if, on the other hand, he maintains his innocence, be is compelled to drink a liquor 
made with the bark of a tree which gives to water a beautiful red colour. The ac* 
cused and the accuser are obliged to swallow the same medicine, or rather |>oison; 
they must drink it fasting and entirely naked, except that the accused is allowed a 
white pagne, which he wraps round his loins. The liquor is poured into a small 
calabash, and the accuser and accused are forced to t^e an equal quantity, until, 
unable to swallow more, they expel it or die. If the poison is expelled by vomit- 
ing, the accused is innocent, and then he has a right to reparation ; if it passes 
downwards, he is deemed not absolutely innocent ; and if it snould not pass at all at 
the time, he is judg^ed to be guilty. 

" I have been assured that few of these wretched creatures survive this ovdeal; 
they are compelled to drink so laive a dose of the poison, that they die almost im* 
mediately. If, however, the fami^ of Uie accused consent to pay an indemnity, 
the unhappy patient is excused from drinking any more liquor ; he is then put 
into a bath of^ tepid water, and by the applicanon of both feet to the abdomen, they 
make him cast up the poison which he nas swallowed. 

" This cruel ordeal is employed for all sorts of crimes. The consequence is, that 
though it may sometimes leadto tiie confession of crimes, it also induces the inno- 
cent to acknowledge themselvesguilty, rather than submit to it." — Vol. 1, p. 156, 7* 

The Landamas and Nalous practise polygamy and concubinage^ to 
an extent limited only by their condition in life. A wife suspected 
of infidelity is compelled by the fear of the Simo, to reveal the name 
of her paramour, who then becomes the slave of the husband, and is 
sold by him to the negro merchants, or to any other negroes of the 
country. The consent of the female is not necessary to marriage ; it 
being enough for the suiter to propitiate her parents. When a party 
is buried, the relations kill a sheep and sprinkle the grave with its 
blood. 

The food of these uncivilized tribes consists chiefly of rice boiled in 
water, to which they sometimes add the fruit of the palm-tree, from 
which they are too idle to express the oil. They seldom eat fish, for 
they have not skill to catch it ; but they rear poultry, sheep and goats* 
They have few cattle, and still fewer horses. \Vhile at Kakondy, 
our author saw only one ass. These tribes carry on very little trade, 
selling nothing but salt, which they buy of the Bagos, and are ex- 
tremely lazy and improvident. Not being disciples of Mohammed, 
they drink a great quantity of spirits. They have also a sweet wine 
made from the palm-tree, and several sorts ^of fermented liquor.—^ 
Their huts are small and dirty, their costume various, and their soil 
fertile. 

** Bees are vexT common in tills part of Am countnr* and flie inhabifenits ara fyoA 
of honey, which they obtain by placing hives in toe trees. To get at the honey 
without accident, they let down the hive, by means of a rope, to a certdn '^'■ttpfft 
from the ground, and light under it a great tm of damp oerba ; the smoke drives 
away the Dees, and the negroes are left masters d the hive. The wax fdiich tliaj 
make is sold to the Europeans. 

** Bees are so numerous, that it is not uneommoD for them to swarm into the huts 
and drive out the Inhabitants ; recourse is tiben had to smoke to dislodse them.**— 
Vol. 1, p. 161. 

The Bagos, a neighbouring tribe, are more industrious and eonse- 



* - rf rf * 



' « 






il:iG CAELLIC'S TKAVKLS IX AFRICA, [Aiigllbt, 

quontl y more prosperous. M. Caillie was informed •* that Ihey make 
f^ods of af^ thino; that comts into their hands, such as a ram's born, a 
row's tail, a replili.*, &/C., and sacrifice to them." 

l;i his progress, M. Caillie arrived at Bouma Filasso, a village 
on the declivity of a mountain, where he saw a great deal of 
indii^o growing spontaneously, and some cotton plautationa,.- - He de- 
scended a hill, at the foot of which runs the river Cocoub, flowing ra- 
jM ;;y over a bed of granite, and at a little distance froKi (hat place 
Uiliiig, with a terriGc noise, over a precipice to the dcpto^f 60 feet- 
While at Cambaya, says our auih )r, 

** A white infant, tlie aiinprinsrof a i»f';i;ro and ne^re^J, was brought to mc. The 
chill was about eighteen or twenty inontii3 oKl. lis mollior placcrl it in ii^ arms 
iii.d I examined it attentively. Its Ii:iir was curly ami while, an<l itseye-laslifi and 
eye-bro'.vs oi" a li^ht flaxen colour. The tbrohca*!, nose, cheeks, and chin, «;Wiere 
feiightly tinged with red, and the reFt of the skin was white. The eyes were'ligtit 
blup ; b'lt the pupil was of a red flame colour. The lips were of a rather dark red. 
I reftiirii'fl that tKe child had very detective sight. 1 endeavoured to make it look 
up hy ilniwing it? attentivin to my beads ; but it appeared to sufler pain, cried« ami 
hfU\ i'.owi\ 1*3 h"ad. It wa-i just brpinnin^f to cut lis te^th. lis lips were rather 
l! icic. u.il, indt od, it had altoj^ethci the Alandingo physiognomy. The infaptap* '. 
pea/rd to bo in good liealth. The n'?g»oe3 liave no dislike to a while skin ; they 
iner. Iv eoiisider it as a di.s.a."e. I was inibrmt'd that the children of parents of 
this kii.d, that is to say, Alhinoi, are b!ack.'* — Vol. 1, p. 209. 

Afv^r jeavin;:: Sokodat ikha, a plnce so called from the trees hy which 
it is bliaded, M. Caille ai;iin exj)erienced the inconvenience to which 
hi.^ assumed chaiuclcr had before subjected him: 

*'I !iad seated mv^'df for a few moments behind a bush in order to make some 
nct<s, \\hen I saw the wile of Lamila advancing towards me. I immediately hid 
iny pap! rand took up my trowsers which were drying at the fire. She returned 
to h«T husband, who asked her wliether 1 was writing: — ** No," replied she, ** he in 
putting on his cloth'"*." I ua^ ii.ar enouich to hear this converprition, which suffl- 
ririftly indicated thut iheys'isj)ecl<d me. I thefiore became doubly cautious, and 
shovted a greater a^-'.'iduity in tise >iiidy of the Korm. When, on tlie road, I some- 
tiii;^s withdrew a little from my companion?", I saw them looking at me and cndea- Jf 
\n»irinjijlo discover what I \^as ;»boiil ; hut I always took c^re to hold in my haud 
a leal of th-i Koran, on which f laid i:iy note p.ip« r, and when I sa«v any one ad- 
vancing towards me, I concealed my writing, ani! pntended to be reading a verse 
of the sacred book." — Vol. 1, p. 2or>. 

On the 1 1th of .lune, he arrived at Courouassa, a village of Amana, 
situated on the left bank of the Dhioliba or Niger, wheie he remain- 
«'d th«' next day. Among the countries which he passed throtigh, 
was liiiure, a mountainous region, lich in gold mines, wliich from 
the ignorance of the natives, are very imperfectly worked. At Kan- 
kan he was regarded as he had before been on the journey, as a phy« 
sieian: 

•* MamadiSanici sent to ask mo for a remedy to give to one of his wives, who 
had aore eyes. I did not know what to give him, but as it was to my interest not 
to refuse fiim any thins:, 1 put a little volatile alkali in water, and directed the eyei 
to be bathed with it. tliinking that at all events it could do no harm. My presence, 
however, was required, and I went and bathed the patient's eyes myself. The 
mansa took t!:^ opj)ortuMitv of asking me for an application for a bad foot, with 
which ht; had bfcn afflicted for some year:. I prescribed |)0ultices of purslain, 
which ^lows spontaneously all over the country. The diseases which I observed 
to prevail amonj; the people, were ulcers on the'l^^jfs, fevers, leprosy, elephantiasis, 
and goitre. 1 al?o noticed that several negroci had Urge white marks, of the col- 



•f 



i 



4 1835.] LETTER FROM SOUTH AFRICA. 237 

/'^\ our of our skin, on their arms and lees, which I was told arose from ill health. I 
'V '^ ' conjectured that they were marks of leprosy.'* — Vol. 1, p. 279. 

; 'J^ At Wassoulo, a country inhabited by idolatrous Foulahs, agricul- 

. ^ tural industry is in a flourishing state, and the manners of the people 

. ^are kind and hospitable. At 1'ime, a neat village, inhabited by Man* 

V dingo Mohammedans, M. Caillie was seized with a violent illness, 

^ brought on by unwholesome food, during which he was nursed by a 

>, kind old negress, and tormented by the active inhumanity of almost 

i /- every one else. 

" By the 10th of November," he says, " the sore in my foot was almost healed, 
and I hoped to profit by the lirst opportunity of setting out for Jenne. But, alas ! 
at that very time, violent pains in my jaw informed me that I was attacked with 
scurvy, and I soon experienced all the horrors of that dreadful disease : the roof of 
my mouth became quite bare, a part of the bones exfoliated and fell away, and my 
'f teeth seemed ready to drop out of their sockets. I feared that my brain would m 
affected by the agonizing pains I felt in my head, and I was more than a fortnight 
\ . without sleep. To crown my misery, the sore in my foot broke out afresh, and all 
hope cf my departure vanished. The horror of my situation may be more easily 
imagined than described, — alone, in the interior of a wild country, stretched on tha 
\ damp ground, with no pillow but the leathei bag which contained my hig;;|^age» 
with no medicine and no attendant but fiaba*8 old mother. This good creature 
' *■ brought me twice a day a little rice- water, which she forced me to drink; fori 
could eat nothing. I was soon reduced to a skeleton, and my situation was so de- 
plorable that at length I excited pity even in those who were least disposed to feel. 
for me. 

** Suffering had deprived me of all energy. One thought alone absorbed my 
mind — that of death. I wished for it, and 1 prayed for it to Grod, in whom I repos* 
ed all my confidence, not in the hope of cure, for that I had relincj^uished ; but in the 
hope of another and a happier state. This was the only consolation I experienced 
during my long suflferings, and for that I was indebted to the religious principles 
which I had imbibed during the numerous adversities of my wandering life : for, 
we are so constituted that it is often only in misfortune, and when bereff of friend-s, 
that we turn for consolation to that God who never withholds it." — Vol. 1, p. 880,6. 

[to be continued.] 










lifiTTlBR PROM lM>UTH AFRICA. 

The public at large, and especially the friends of Messrs. D. Lind« 
ley, A. E. Wilson, M. D., and Venable, will be gratified to learo by 
th^ following interesting letter from Mr. Wilson to the Editor of the 
Southern Religious Telegraph,, that those gentlemen had arrived safis^ 
\y at Cape Town: 

Cape Town, South Africa, March 18, 1885/ 

My Dear Brother:-^ After a pleasant voyaj^ of 60 days, we laoded at thia plact. 
We were veiy much blessed in having a fine vessel with good accoffimodanont, 
and commanded by a Captain who did eveiy thing to make us eomibnable. Th« 
ship Burlin^n and Captain Evans will be remembered by U8» with no ordinaiy 
feelings of interest. On the evening of the 64th day after our embarkation* tbt 
welcome cry of **iand ho** was heard from the deck. It proved to be a true it* 






a38 LETTER FROM SOUTH AFRICA. [August, 

port. The blue mountains around Cape Town were vbible iuit ove* the brow of 
the ship. This was the first land that we had seen after the last look at our happy 
land. In the course of the evening, when the mountains of South Africa wera 
more fully in view, our roissionanr company consisting^ of six missionaries with 
their wives, together with the Captain and supercargo Mr. Smith, an amiable 
young gentleman from Boston, assembled on deck, and sung the hymn, 

** O'er the gloomy hills of darkness. 
Look, my soul, be still and gaze,'* &c. 

Early next morning we went on shore, and found our way to the residence of the 
Rev. Dr. Philip, Superintendent of the London Missions in South Africa. We were 
received by him and his kind lady with much cordiality : the hospitality of their 
house was tendered to as many of our company as they could accommodate, which 
was gladly accepted on our part. As we sailed into Table Bay, we were struck 
with the arid and barren aspect of the surrounding country. Africa has been apt- 
ly called the " dry nurse ot lions." The scarcity of timber seems to be owing Id 
a great measure to the extreme dryness of the soil the greater part of the year.— 
Cape Town is a considerable place^ontaining about 20,000 inhabitants, about 
one half of which number are Dutch and English; — the remaining population is 
coloured, consisting of apprenticed plaves, in number about 8,000, and free coloured 
persons, fencraily Malays, who emipated to this place from Batavia on the Island 
of Java, Quring the time the Dutch neki possession of the Cape. The Malays are 
Mohammedans. Their priests and levites are quite numerous and active in mak- 
ing proselytes among the slaves to the faith of the false Prophet. According to 
the provisions of the act of the British Parliament, abolishing slavery throughout the 
I* v !.! ricies of England, these slaves are now scrvingan apprenticeship of 4 3'ear8, 
i.» w»j tN'i.iriilloii 01 v»I.i':a ti i .;; '- 'A l> • ri! :i!i;.u to all the privileges of Bri- 

tish subjects. It is worthy of remark that since the system of apprenticeship bae 
been in operation, that the slaves have been no less obedient and orderly in their 
conduct, tnan in I'urtncr times. Cape Town is important to England principally a» 
her stopping place for her East India trade. Nearly all the Indiamen Doth on 
their outward and homeward bound voyages, put into Table Bay, the harbor of 
Cape Town, for refreshments. For this purpose it is well suited, being situated 
pretty much in the middle ground, and furnishing on good terms fresh provisions 
and water. Possessing one of the finest climates in the world, it is a good deal 
frequented by the English residents of India, who here seek restoration from the 
blighting effects of the India climate. 

The principal exports of the Colony are wine and hides. That part of the coun- 
try around Cape Town, is beet adapted to the culture of the vine. Some wheat of 
an excellent quality is exported to England. 

Those of us who arc destined to the country, governed by Masalakatze, viz. 
brothers Lindley, Venable, and mvaelf, will leave Cape Town (D. V.) in a few 
days, on a long journey of at least 1000 miles into the interior, to our field of labor. 
The other brethren, Messrs. Grout, Champion, and Dr. Adams, who were landed 
with us, and are destined to the Zoolah country, under the dominion of Dingaan, 
situated on the Eastern coast between Port Natal and Delegoa Bay, will remain at 
Cape Town until the termination of a war that exists between the Caffer tribes on 
the North-eastern frontier of the Cdony. 

Our mode of travelling will be in wagons drawn by oxen. Our wagons will be 
our houses until we find a resting place for our feet in that land to which we go, 
to publish glad tidings of peace, to publish to them, that their Redeemer lives, and 
that he has rich stores of mercy and grace to bestow upon them, even eternal life. 
By the good hand of God upon us, we are in good health and spirits, and are look- 
ine forward to our arduous journey with pleasure. We regard it to be a good pro- 
viaence, for which we are thankful, that on our arrival here, we found the Rev. 
Mr. Wright, a missionary of the London Society, who has been laboring several 
years at Griqua Town, which lies North of the Orange river. We will bave the 
pleasure and benefit of his company on our journey lor six or seven hundred miles. 
Masalakatze will be found at or near Kurrechane, which is situated 2 or 800 miles 
North-east of Latakoo. We shall be very happy to hear from you. Mrs. WilsoD 
joins me in Christian regards to you and Mrs. Converse, and Christian friends in 
Richmond. 

Yours truly, A. E. WILSON. 



1635.] THE SLAVE TRADE. SS39 

The Mission in South-Eastern Africa. — The Rev. Messrs. 
LiNDLEY, Wilson, and Venablb, with their companions, commenced 
their journey from Cape Town for Mosaledski, their destined station 
in the interior, on the I9th of March. The distance is about 1000 
or 1100 miles from Cape Town, and about 600 miles from Port Na- 
tal, on the Eastern coast. 



THE slave: trade. 



From the subjoined account of a recent Debate in the British 
House of Commons, on an Address to the King, which had been mov- 
ed by Mr. Fowell Buxton, for the more effectual suppression of the 
Slave Trade, it appears that it is still carried on to an appalling ex- 
tent. Though the Address was withdrawn, it will be renewed in a 
modified form ; retaining, it may be presumed, the n^commendation 
which it is understood to have contained of further efforts to se- 
cure the co-operation of other powers with England in suppressing 
the Slave Trade. The adoption of such a recommendation will, of 
course, lead to a corresponaence on the subject between the British 
Government and that of the United States ; and, it may be hoped, 
that on both sides subordinate considerations, however weighty in 
themselves, will be permitted to yield to the holy purpose of crush- 
ing a traffic, of which the continuance is a reproach to Christian na^ 
tions, an outrage on humanity, and a defiance of the justice of the Al- 
mighty. Meanwhile, and until some practical international compact 
between civilized States can be formed for^ extirpating an Infamous 
trade, which the Laws of the United States brknd with the name of 
Piracy, our Crovernmcnt would, it may be supposed, on suitable rep- 
resentations, order one or two of our smaller vessels of war to keep on 
the slave coast, to co-operate with those of other Christian powers in 
suppressing it. This plan was formerly adopted, and with decided 
effect, both in the way of punishment, and in that of prevention, as a 
salutary terror to the slaver. Late transactions in our own country 
recommend in the most forcible manner this suggestion to the feivora- 
ble consideration of the Federal Government. The Editor of the 
New York Journal of Commerce, (see that paper of June 20, 1835) 
pledges himself '* lo prove to the satisfaction of the President , or Sec- 
retary of War,*' ** THAT SLAVE SHIPS have WITHIN THE PAST TEAR 
BEEN ACTUALLY FITTED OUT AT THE PORT OF NeW YoRK !" 

Witb these remarks we insert the Debate in the British House of 
Commons, May 12th, on the Slave Trade: 

Mr. F. BuxtoD, in brinnng forward his promised motion on the subject of tiia 
ilave trade, observed, that no person who had not witnessed the atrocities of that 
ahominable traffic, could have an adequate conception of the crimes, miseries, and 
cruelties to which it eave rise. He requested the attention of the House to fiieti 
which he should lay before them from Pariiamentary documents — facts that indi- 
cated the extent to which the slave trade was now carried on. He h«ld in his band 
a list of importations of slaves into the Brazils. The return from the British Ck>n-> 
suls from the first of January, 1829, to the 80th of June, 1880, a period of one year 
and a half, was as follows, viz: — 



210 THE SLAVE TRADE. L^^^g^st, 





Slaves. 


Ships. 


Died on 


the passage 


Para, 


770 


- 6 


... 


30 


Maranhain, 


- 1,252 


. 13 


... 


8J) 


Pernambuc©, • 


8,079 


- 26 


... 


. 308 


Bahia, 


- 22,202 


- 70 


... 


- 768 


Wiode Janeiro, - 


- 81,956 


200 


... 


- 7,912 



114,288 315 9,107 

In three years and a half, 150,537 slaves were intioduced into Brazil through 
the single j)ort ot'Kio de Janeiro. But this did not include the whole number do- 
ported Iroai Africa; it only extended to the number introduced alive: we knew 
nothing of the amount of mortality that occurred among the slaves on their pas- 
sigc. In 1830 the slave tra le had been legally abolished, notwithstanding which, 
however, he was sorry to say it now proceeded wi;h almost as much activity as 
ever. Tiiis he gathered from the rcj ort of the Minister of :-.Iarin'» to the Legisla- 
tive Assembly, which was as follows: — "Rio de Janeiro, June 17, 1833» Well 
known are the tricks resorted to by speculators, as sordid as they are criminal, to 
continue the disgraceful trathc in slaves, in spite of all the legislative provisions 
and orders issued respecting it, which have been most scandalously eluded. It 
therefore appears necessary to the Government to have recourse to the most effi- 
cacious moans, which are, to arm a sufficient number of small vessels to form a sort 
of cordon sanitaire, which may prevent the access to o»ir shores of those swarms 
of Africans that arc continually poured forth from ships employed in so abomina- 
ble a traflio." Among many causes of the present extent of the slave trade, one 
was an apprehension (which he hoped was well founded) that the European pow- 
ers would soon exeit themselves to put an end to the abominable traffic; another 
cause (which he trusted might prove ill founded) was, that it was thought the ex- 
periment recently made in the West Indies would fail, and consequently that there 
would be an increased demand for Brazilian sugar. Another cause oi the extent 
of tlie slave trade was, that the Brazilian mines were worked by slaves by means 
of the application of British capital. To show the extent to which the trade was 
carried, he might state that there sailed from the port of Havannah alone, as slav- 
ers, for the coast of Africa, in the years 1822, 23, 21, 25, and 1826, 96 vessels, and 
irom the Ist of January, 1827, to the 30th of October, 1833, 264 vessels, in a period 
of six years and a half: It was impossible to state to what extent mortality took 
place on board of such slave vessels as were not captured, but in the vessels which 
w^ere captured, the mortality was known with accuracy, and i^ was most dreadful 
in degree. He would mention the case of the ship Midas, which sailed from the 
coast ^f Africa in the month of May, with 662 slaves on hoard, and was captured 
by the British cruisers in June following. At the time of its capture, 162 slaves 
had already been lost; 40 more threw themselves overboard at the moment of their 
liberation; 79 negroes died before the vessel reached the Uavannah — making the 
total loss not less tnan 2jl slaves; and between the time which elapsed a(\er the 
vessel was brought to the coast, and the period of its adjudication, tne number of 
the surviving slaves was still further reduced to 253. The Hon. Member proceed- 
ed to notice other cases of a still more aggravated nature, with which he had not 
been s'lpplied by means of private information, but which he had collected from 
the public and official documents on the table of the House. The following was 
an account of the mortality on board 106 ships condemned between the Isc of 
January, 1827, and the 1st of January, 1833, at Sierra Leone: — 

Vessels. Slaves. Emancipated. 

Spanish, ... 34 . . . ^,322 - - 7,426 

Portuguese, ... 28 - - - 3,671 - - 3,287 

Netherlands, - - 8 - - - 1,573 - - 1,381 

Brazilian, ... 36 . - - 7,596 - - 6,143 



106 21,162 18,237 

Emancipated, .... 18,237 

2,925 
Left at Fernando Po, ill - - - 161 



•2,764 



* Died between capture and adjudication. 



18:35.] THE SLAVE TRADE. 241 

The next point of importance to which he desired to direct the attention of the 
House, was the crowded state of the slave vessel?. The Hon. Member here read 
the following documents, descriptive of the condition of two slave vessels, the 
Maria and the Carolina:— "Havannah, Jan. 25, 1831.— The Maria being only 135 
Spanish tons burthen, and having on board, in addition to her slaves, 40 seamen, 
Cmaking a total of 545 persons,) gave the almost unprecedented small space of one 
ton iorthe accommodation of four souls, and the quantity of provisions, water, &c., 
required for their support durin* a voyagc^, probably of 40 days, to the Havannah. 
State of the Carolina, captured oy the Isis, Capt. Polkinghofne. The effect pro- 
duced upon all the gallant boarders by the miserable appearance of the slaves could 
only be alleviated by remembering that they were the means of their being rescued; 
but it was still very affecting. A vessel ot only 75 Spanish tons was crammed 
with 350 human beines, 180 of whom were literally so stowed as to have barely 
sufficient height to hold themselves up when in a sitting posture. The poor crea- 
tures crowded round their deliverers with their mouths open, and their tongues 
parched with thirst from want of water. They presented a perfectly ghastly spec- 
tacle of human misery; ten of them died soon after. The crew of the vessel con- 
sisted of 14 Spaniards, who were landed at Prince's Island." He thought that he 
had now stated enough to prove the necessity of introducing some measure for the 
purpose of putting a stop to the odious slave traffic: and then the question arose, 
what kind of measure ought to be adopted with that view? It had been suggested, 
that an enactment requiring that all slave-vessels when captured should be imme- 
diately broken up might be in some degree effectual. This was not an unimport- 
ant suggestion, because it was a fact, that vessels, after being condemned, were 
bought up for the purpose of being again employed in the slave trade. It had also 
been thought that some good might be done if, considering the hardships which the 
men employed in suppressing the slave trade had to undergo, they were to receive 
promotion in proportion to their services, and if the prize money were granted, not 
m reference to the tonnage of the vessels, but to the number of slaves liberated.- — 
But these were minor regulations compared with what the House ought to do in the 
shape of treaties. Those which were already in existence had been most shame- 
fully violated by foreign powers. There were four points to which it was neces- 
sary to attend in the iformation of a perfect treaty for the suppression of the slave 
trade. In the first place, the slave trade ought to be declared to be piracy; 2ndly, 
the mutual right of^ search ought to be established; 3dly, that right ought to extend 
along the whole coast of Africa, where the slave trade existed; and 4thly, vessels 
being equipped for the slave trade should be subject to capture and condemnation, 
though having no slaves on board. Now it so happened that in all treaties hither- 
to drawn up for the suppression of the slave trade, one or other of these points had 
invariably been omitted. It was most important that there should be one uniform 
treaty on this subject. He was happy to believe that no difficulty would be found 
in inducing France to concur in some effectual treaty to put a stop to the traffic in 
slaves, and he did hope that with regard to Spain and Portugal a better feeling be- 
gan to prevail on this subject than had been entertahied by fermer Governments of 
those countries. But, whatever might be the disposition of Spain, England had a 
light to demand the effectual co-operation of that country in the suppression of the 
slave trade. Nothing could be stronger than the language of the treaty concluded 
with Spain, and Endand had in fact paid £400,000 to Spain for the suppression 
of the slave trade. Before concluding he would mention one fact, which had made 
a greater impression on his mind than almost any thing else. In addition to the 
desolation which this shameful traffic created in Africa, it was the cause of the de- 
struction of not less than 100,000 persons year by year, and this large number of 
human beings were sacrificed for trie purpose of enriching miscreants, the acknow- 
ledged enemies of the human race, wno, if justice had been done, would undoubt- 
edly have died the death of murderers and pirates. (Hear, hear.) The Hon. 
Member concluded by moving an address to the Crown, which was read by the 
Speaker, but in a tone of voice almost inaudible. We believe that the object of 
the address, which was of considerable length, and embraced most of the topics 
alluded to bv the Hon. Member in his speech, was to pray His Majesty to take 
steps with the view of inducing foreign powers to co-operate with him for the ef- 
fectual suppression of the slave trade. 

Mr. Hume entirely concurred in the propriety of expressing some strong and de- 
cided opinion on the absolute necessity of putting a stop to the slave trade; but he 

31 



^3 THE SLAYS TRADE. [Augast, 

thought that the Hon. Member would have ejected his object better if he had pro- 
posed a short resolution, and avoided to use language which might serve to irntat* 
foreign powers. Besides, it should be recollected that those powers were ZK>t the 
only parties who deserved blame; for, in his opinion, the Grovemment of this coun- 
try was liable to censure for not insisting on the execution of the treaties for the 
suppression of the slave trade. He thought that the House ought not to be called 
on at once to agree to an address which occupied as maay as nine pages of paper,, 
and he would therefore advise the Hon. Member simply to move that the address 
be printed, and not to call for the decision of the House until an opportunity had 
been afforded of fully considering the nature of the motioa. As he was on his legs,, 
he would take Uiat opportunity of stating that the measure for the abolition of 
slavery had succeeded: beyond all expectation in some of the Islands- of the^Wett 
Indies. (Hear.) 

Mr. S. Rice was understood to say, that the important object of the address be* 
fore the House had been communicated to the -forei^-ofiice, and he understood 
that with respect to it no objection was entertained in that departo^nt. With re* 
gard to the recital of facts contained in the address, that had neen compared witb 
public documents, and found to be correct Whether it would be advisskble or not 
to adopt a shorter address than the one just moved, appeared to him to be rather a 
question of form than of substance; but he knew of no subject more befitting the 
attention of that House and of the Government, than that to which the address had 
reference; and Ite should be sorry to see the tone wliieh the House ought to adopt 
in the discussion of such amitterany way lowered. The British uovemment 
were not only bound by the obligations of treaties to put a stop to the slave trade» 
but were also bound injustice to the West India proprietors to see that they were 
subject to no unfair competition on the part of foreigners. Thus not only hi*ai&- 
nity, but the interest of the West India colonists, called on the Government to omit 
no ste]) calculated to put down the slave trade. With respect to the objection taken 
by the Hon. Member for Middlesex to the length of the motion, he begged to state 
that he certainly did recollect that on a former occasion an address to the Crown 
had been opposed on account of its length; but it should be borne in mind that tliat 
address consisted not of facts extracted from public documents on the table of the 
House, (as the present one did) but of the reasoning of the Hon. Member who 
moved it. W'itli respect to the suppression of the slave trade, he bel'eved that 
France was willing to co-operate cordially witb this country; and he expected that 
Spain and Portugtd would oe found ready to enter into some satisfactory arrange- 
ment for the same purpose. To effect this object no means had been left untried 
by successive Governments, and he was sure that they could not be fairly accused 
of neglect of duty. This address would not impede any negotiations pending at 

Erescint, nor was it inconsistent with an accurate statement c? facts. He asked his 
[on. friend, the member for Middlesex, whether he thought that any iaconveni- 
ence would arise from withholding the assent of the House from this address to- 
night, and from reviving the discussion upon it on a future occasion? He put it to 
the House whether, in uie present state of Parliamentary business, his suggestion 
ought not to be acceeded to? 

Mr. Cobbctt next addressed the House, but was,, from hoarseness, almost inaudi- 
ble in the gallery. We understood him to contend, that until they could prevail on 
the Government of the United States to grant the rigrht of search, they never could 
put an end to the traf&c in slaves. He objected to the length of the address. Nine 
paecs oraddrcf^s carried to the ears of a King was a monstrous absurdity. ("Hear^*' 
and a laugh.) 

Mr. G. F. Young said, that though he entertained a strong opinion in favour of 
all the statements which the Hon. Member for Weymouth Iiad made, and of oU 
the inferences which he had drawn from tliem, he yet hoped that the House would 
be cautions in the mode of exercising its interference. On their decision of that 
mYht might perhaps at some future period depend the question of peace or war. 

i\[r. S. Rice denied that he had given any sanction on the part of Government 
by the proposed address. He had not offeretl any objection to it, as^it contained 
nothing but facts which had been previously stated in ])apers laid on the table of 
that House. 

Mr. F. Buxton concurred with the ITon. gentleman opposite in t! inking the ad- 
drca.^ too long. He knew that the attention of Parliament had not been drawn to 
the subject, and that it was therofoic necessary either to include in the address or 



1S3S.] THE 8LAVB TRADE. S43 

to ezdude from It all th« premisei upon which It trts foande<l. He had tberefon 
detenmined to intrgdace them into the «ddre88> for the purpoee of reviviDg the re* 
collection of them. If he had confined himself to a short address, it must havd 
been to this effect — ^that the House requested His Majesty to take certain measures* 
and that the House weuld support him in those measures, to obtain redress. Hif 
original object had been altered b7t>btaimnf information that cerUin negotiations 
were still pending^ with foreign powers, and ne felt that he ought not to use towards 
liiem in such contingencies any language that might be deemed uncourteous. He 
wished it, however, to be understood, mat if any thing like part trifling were per- 
sisted in, he should call oa the House to take me«rares to put down the abomuia* 
tion which existed at present. Having said this much, ne would now add, tiiat 
he would withdraw his present address, and on a future occasion propose a shorter 
address in its stead. He could not sit down without statin|[ that he had listened 
with great pleasure to one part of &e speech of his Hon. fnend the member l«r 
Middlesex. He had recently seen the authority of his Hon. friend appealed to in a 
debate in the French ChamtJer of Deputies, for the purpose of proving that die 
great experiment attefm»ted by Eagiaad with respect to the abolition of suivery had 
entirely failed. He (Mr. F. Buxton) knew that such was not the case; and he was 
£lad to hear his Hon. friend add his testimony to the same fact. (Hear, hear.)— 
There was also another point which he wished to mention; he should be the last 
fierson to charge either the present Grovemment or that wluch preceded it with any 
neglect on this subject. 
After a few wonu from Messrs. Hume and Cobbett» the address was withdrawn. 



{From the Boston Recorder, June 26.] 
THK SliAVJB TRAPS. 

The Durham (Eng.) Chronicle, forwarded to us by our Correspon- 
dent, contains the following 

TABLES, 

Shewing the wiivity of the Slave Trade^ drawn exdtisively from Par^ 

liamentary documents. 

First.— Slave ships taken by British cruisers, and condemned by the missd 
Conunlssion at Siem Leone, from 1st of Jan. 1827, to 1st Jan. 1888; — 

Spanish vessels ... 84 • - • 8,822 Slaves. 

Portuguese • • • 28 • • • 8,871 do. 

Netherlands ... 8 . . • 1,578 do. 

Braziliaii ... as - • - 7,588 do. 

loS 21,182 



Emancipated 18,287 

2,925 
Left at Fernando Po * • 181 



2,784 died ba» 

tween eaptnre and adjudieatloB* 

NoTxs.— 1st. How many died between eaptnrs and shipment cannot be asesr* 

tained. 
2nd. It is probable that 9 oat of eveiy 10 slave ships escaped eaptore; ptnMVS 

more. 

Sid. In juidition to the above, there were condemned, durii^ the same periott, 
at Havana, 16 vessels with 4,184 slayes$ and at Rto de Janeiro, 4 vessels with 

1 210 s]s.vas 

'szcoNP.-^The number of ilaves impotMittto Biutt from the 1st of Jvly, 1881V 
to the 81st <tf Dee. 1880:-i 






2li 




LIBERIA. 




Years 


ending 


Rio de Janeiro, 

Maranham, 

Pernambuco, 

Bahia, 

Para, 


8 1-2 
8 1-2 
2 1.2 
1 1-2 
1 1-2 


Slat Dec. 1830 
81st Dec. 1830 
30th June 1831 
30th June 1830 
30th June 1830 



[August, 



Slaves 


Vessels. 


150,537 


in 868 


8,301 


in 86 


8,432 


in 2S 


22,202 


in 60 


791) 


in 6 



185,331 49S 

Of whom 12,202 are reported to have died on the passage. 

Note. — How many more slaves were introduced into other ports in the Braxila, 
we have no means of ascertaining. The above accounts were obtained from the 
Custom Houses of those ports, by the British Consuls resident there. 

There can be little doubt but the mortality was considerably greater than report- 
ed, many vessels having simply given the number of slaves landed. 

The number of slave ships employed in the Spanish slave trade, is said to bt 
127. Their slave markets are at Cuba, Puerto Rico, Brazil, French Colonies, a»d 
at Louisiana and Florida, in the United States. The demand for slaves is from 
40 to 60,000 every year I 



lilRERIA. 

In November, 1833, Beverlv R. Wilson, a very respectable free 
man of colour, residing in Norfolk, Va., went in the ship Jupiter to 
Liberia, for the special purpose of personally examining the coirdi* 
tien of the Colony. He recently returned to Norfolk for his family; 
and the Editor of the Herald has full^ conrersed with him on the sub- 
ject of his visit to Liberia. 

** His statement," says that gentleman, ** is worthy of all credit; and we were 
happy to fmd that he fully confirms the accounts which we had previously received 
of the prosperity and steady prog^ress of the Colony in all its civil and nK>raI in- 
terests. 

** He states, more particularly, that he found the town of Monrovia quite a thriv- 
ing and flourifthing place, containing about fifteen hundred inhabitants, with five 
houses of worship: one Presbyterian, two Baptist, and two Methodist, carrying on 
a prosperous little trade with the natives, and with foreign vessels, of which there 
are always seven or eight, chiefly French and English, and some of our own coun- 
try, in the port. The nouses are generally plain; but decently built, and some of 
the new ones are even handsome. It is in fact, he says, a prettier place to look at 
than our Smitbfield, which we know is one of the prettiest villages we have, es- 
pecially as it has the advantages of a fine bay before it with ships in the harbour. 

" The people, with few exceptions, are sooer, industrious, orderly, and well-be- 
haved. They are generally merchants and mechanics, and appear to be doing 
well; some of them have made a clever little property, and have very comfortable 
establishments. They are, also, on the best terms with the natives, who come 
freely into the settlement for trade and otlier purposes, and have no cpprchension 
of any future hostilities with them. He saw several of the petty tings of the 
neighboring tribes, who came to Monrovia while he was there, attended b^ their 
servants, and called on the Colonial Agent, who received them, of course, with dae 
attention, and gave them the customary presents, with which they were much 
pleased. A number of the natives, both men and boys, (but no women,) are em- 
ployed by the Colonists as servants or helpSy in their families, work for wages by 
the moon, or month, which they are always careful to demand at the day, and are 
very sure to get. 

*< The children (including some native ones) are taught in good schools, and 
seem to learn their books with eagerness. There is also a Sunday School which 
has a good many scholars, and is well supported. 



1835.] LIBERIA. d45 

" The climate, ha Mys, is delighyiU, There is no wlater, but tiie rainy season* 
which is, in fact, the most pleasant time. It does not rain constantly, but only a 
few hours in the day, with intervals of as many, and sometimes whole days, and 
several days at the ume, and the weather is very rarely such as to interrupt either 
business or pleasure. The whole year is much more agreeable for people of colour 
than ours. 

**The soil about Monrovia is not fertile, but there are good and rich lands about 
Caldwell, and some other settlements where the Colonists who cultivate the ||pround» 
easily raise cassada, potatoes, and other vegetables, and are beginning to raise rice«: 
which, however, the natives can furnish, as yet, on better terms. The natural 
fruits of the countiy, such as oranges, plantains, and bananas, especially the last* 
are much finer than those of the West Indies. 

" Afber this we are not surprised to hear, that the Colonists, with very few excep« 
tions, (and those easily accounted for,) are not only satisfied, but highly pleased 
with the state of tilings about them, and full of courage and hope for the future» 
and we are truly glad to learn that they remember and often talk or their friends and 
benefactors in this countiy with the gratitude which becomes them, and which cer* 
tainly entitles them (o our best wishes for their continued prosperity and success." 

The subjoined Address by Mr. Wilson, from the Norfolk Beacon, 
is introduced by the following remarks of the Editor of that paper:-— 

"The letter of Beverly Wilson, in this day's Beacon, gives an interesting ac- 
count of the physical and moral condition of this promising Cobny . The state* 
ments of tiie writer are worthy of entire confidence. Wilson has lived many yean 
in this boroueh, and has always conducted himself with great propriety. He is a 
good mechamc, and is also a minister of the Methodist persuasion. The style of 
tne letter is quite impressive, and the writer himself takes the advice which he 
gives." 

TO THE FREE COLOURED PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Norfolk, June 5th, 1835. 

After a residence of rather more than one year in Liberia, I have returned to the 
United States. As my object was to satisiy myself respecting the condition of 
the Colony, previous to emigratins; thither, I sought everjr opportunity of acquir- 
ing information, and flatter myseffthatl am in the possession of every fact that is 
at all calculated to excite interest or even to gratify curiosity . The result, in part; 
I lay before you simply for the reason, that very many conflicting reports have been 
in circulation, so much so, as to render it a most difficult matter to determine wheth- 
er or not, a settlement thither would result advantageously. In consequence of 
this, many, very many, I am induced to believe, have been deterred from emigrat- 
ing, and the Colony tnereby has sustained considerable injuiy. Some of the cooi,* 
munications have presented a fair and candid expose of thinp as they txiti; others 
prepossessed and prejudiced in favor of the Colony, have given altogether too &- 
vorable an account; while a third with a heart bending for the loss of a valued 
friend, or chagrined at the loss of property (occasioned by imprudence in overtrad- 
ing,) have wielded their pens with the avowed design and intention of blasting ite 
prospects and bringing tne whole scheme into disrepute. Should this commumc^ 
tion correct these erroneous statements, my object shall have been accomplishad. 
Liberia forelifipbilit}r of situation is not often excelled^ and the facilities field out 
for a comfortable living rarely equalled; industiy and economy are sure to be n^ 
warded and crowned with a generous competency, for proof of which I cite yoato 
a Williams, to a Roberts, to a Barbour, — and to a number of othiers, who, a few 
years aeo, nossessed very limited means, but who now live in all the affluence and 
style, wnicn characterize the wealthy merchant and gentlenian of Yirnnia. . TIm 
successful prosecution of any enterprise in Africa, (as in America) depends to a 
very great extent upon the amount of capital invested — ^money is power eveir 
where, but particularly so in Africa, and ne who' emigrates tmther with capital* 
possesses decided and very great advantages over eveiy other class of emigrants; a 
small capital I esteem of paramotint importance, and would by all means persuadtt 
my coloured friends, who intend to emigrate, to provide themselves with the means 
to commence business previous to going. This I esteem of ^tal importance, and 
ought not to be neglected. 



246 LIBERIA. LAuguit. 

The soil of Africa is exceedingly fertile, and will produce as much to the acre 
as the famous lands of the great valley of the Mississippi. Fruits of several kinds 
are abundant, and from experiments made, most of tne tropical fruits succeed a« 
well as in their native clime. But little attention thus far has been paid to Agricul- 
ture, owing to the fact that but few emigrants possess the means to embark in it. 
The cultivation of the land is attended with the same expense there as here, and 
the same obstacles present themselves to persons destitute of money. 

Timber of various descriptions abounds, some of which would not for beauty 
and durability lose by a comparison with the Mahogany of St. Domingo, or of any 
other country. I have seen articles of Cabinet Ware manufactured m Monrovia 
that would grace our most fashionable houses, and would vie for beauty and taste 
with most of the same articles made in this country. As it regards the health of 
the Colony, I consider it as good as that of most of the Southern States. The abo- 
rigines live to an advanced period, and are unquestionably the most athletic, hardy 
race of men that I have ever seen. They are remarkably shrewd and cunning, and 
are very far from being those "dolts" or "idiots," which they have been repre- 
sented to be; many of them read and write, and are very frequently an over-match 
for the Colonists in trade. 

The African fever (the great humbug in this country,) is veiy similar to our 
Ague and Fever. It attacks the patient precisely in the same way, and its effects 
are pretty much the same, with this difference, however, that after the first par- 
oxysm, you are apparently restored to health, and thus continue for 16 or 20 daysy 
suti'cring no inconvenience from the attack but slight debility, and an appetite 
bordering upon that of a vulture's. This respite is deemed the most critical time, 
and the severity or otherwise of the 2nd attack depends upon your attention or non- 
uUerition to diet and cxercise~during this respite, if proper attention is paid, the 
attack is slight, and you will in fact so far have recovereu as uot to regard the 8rd 
or 4th attack much. The morals of the Colonists I regard as superior to the same 
population in almost any part of the U. States. A drunkard is a rare spectacle, 
and when exhibited is put under the ban of public opinion at once. To the praise 
of Liberia, be it spoken, I did not bear, during my residence in it, a solitary oath 
uttered by a settler; this abominable practice has not yet stained its moral charac- 
ter and reputation, and Heaven grant that it never may. In such detestation is the 
daily use of ardent spirits held, that two of the towns have already prohibited its 
tale, or rather confined the sale to the Apothecaries* shops. In Monrovia it is still 
viewed as an article of traffic and merchandise, but it is destined there to share the 
same fate. The Temperance Society is in full operation and will ere long root it 
out. 

The Sabbath is rigidly observed and respected, and but few cases occur of disor- 
der, and they are confined to the baser sorts, a few of which infest Liberia. 

Relidon and all its institutions are greatly respected; in fact a decided minority 
are Relidonists, and by their pious demeanor are exerting a very salutary influ- 
ence, not only upon the emigrants, but also upon the natives, among whom, a door 
has been opened for the propagation of Christianity. Several have already em- 
braced the gospel of Christ, and many othera are anxiously desirous for an ac- 
quaintance witn the Word of Life. 

Day schools under the superintendence of competent instructers, are in success- 
ful operation. The advantages of education are properly appreciated, and consid- 
erable progress has been made, not only in the elementary but in some of the 
higher branches of an English education. 

Sabbath Schools are attended to, and much good has already resulted from this 
pious enterprise. 

Having vnitten more than I designed, I conclude by saying, if you desire liber- 
ty, surely Liberia holds out great and distinguished inducements. Here, you can 
never be free; but there, living under the acuninistration of the laws enacted by 
yourselves, you may enjoy that freedom which in the very nature of things, yoa 
cannot experience in this country. 

Liberia, happy land! thy shore 

Entices with a thousand charms; 
And calls — ^his wonted thraldom o'er — 

Her ancient exile to her aims. 



1835.] ^ TESTIMONIAL. 247 

Come hither, ion of Afric, come 

And o*er the wide and weltering; teft. 
Behold thy lost yet lovely home. 
That fon^y waits to welcome thee. 
Yours, &c. 

BEVERLY R. WILSON. 
N. B. — In one or two months I return to Liberia. 



The Commercial Advertiser of New York states that one of tl\.6 
Colonists, formerly a barber in Virginia, recently arrived at that port 
from Liberia, with a cargo of camwood, his own property, and sold it 
for a sum between five and six thousand dollars. 

*< We know," adds the Editor of the Commercial, **of many other instances in 
which coloured men, who, while in this country were not worth a shilling, have al« 
ready realized a comfortable independence in Africa. It cannot be that with such 




School for Orphans in Liberia. — The Ladies' Society of Richmond 
for promoting female education in Liberia, have lately received letters 
from Mrs. Cyples, the coloured female employed by them to teach an 
Orphan School in Monrovia. She states that she instructs 32 girls 
between the years of 4 and 14 in reading, writing, arithmetic, geog- 
raphy, plain sewing and marking. 

Contributions are requested to be sent to Mrs. Charlotte Armstrong, 
Secretary, or Miss Ann Elizabeth Poore, Treasurer. 



Another Missionary for Africa. — Mr. William Mylue, of t^e 
Baptist Church, was ordained to the work of the ministry on the 15th 
of June; and on the 23rd of that mouth, at the Second Baptist Church 
in Richmond, he was solemnly set apart to the work of Missions in 
Africa. Mr. M. together with his wife, sailed on the 11th of July 
in the brig Susan Elizabeth, from New York. 

The same vessel carried out the Rev. John Seys, his wife and 
three youngest children, the Rev. Mr. Crocker, Dr. Skinner who 
goes as Colonial Agent for the present,' and his daughter. 



A Testimonial. — The following is extracted from the New York 
Evening Star, a print which, we believe, had not before taken part 
in the question of Colonization: 

The friends of theLiheria scheme of emancipating the blacks, have really cause 
to be pleased with the experiment. It does seem to get on in a veiy flourishing 
and satisfactorv manner. It goes on slowlv it is true; but while the slave tnide is 
very nearly ended on the one hand, the emi^ation to Africa increases on the other^ 
and in time all who wish to ^o can go and carry with them the improvements of 
the a^e and the lights of civilization and religion. What a vast, benighted conti« 
Dcntit still is — how little we know of it — how much remains yet to he done. The 
work can proceed gradually, but with certainty, and the American Government 
can make liberal appropriations in aid of llie benevolent object in view. We read 
with pleasure the letters which coloured emigrants write to their friends in this 
country in favor of their new and natural home: they feel free, and are free in fact. 
If they will only adopt wholesome checks and restrictions, encourage temperance 
and industry, tliat country may yet be a most valuable asylum to the unfortunate. 



248 COLONIZATION MEETINGS. [August, 

[Prom the Journal of Commerct, June 26.] 

Liberal Bequests. — HasturM. Childers, Esq.of the parish of Carroll, Louisi- 
ana, died on the 21st of December last. The New Orleans Bulletin g^ves the fol- 
lowing extracts from his will: — 

" Having entire control of the following negroes, namely, Pat and family, and as 
many others as may come to my share in the division of the personal property* be- 
tween my wife Matilda and myself, to be emancipated, as soon as provision can 
be made by the Legislature of the State, and conveyance to Liberia. My wish is 
that they shall be furnished from my estate, with tools, provisions, and good com- 
mon clothing sufficient to last them one year, also the passage-money. My body 
servant Lewis, and sore neck Fanny, I wish to have bought, if they soould not faJ 
to my lot, and be emancipated, and $500 to be given to each. I do appoint Hoi • 
ace Prentiss and James H. Hicks, to make the necessary provision with the Colo- 
nization Society, for the embarkation of the aforesaid negroes. I wish to haro 
Martha Sellers to have given her $5,000, provided she live to the age of maturity 
— to Narcissa J. Hewlett, $1,000, for her name that was given to my dauchtert 
who is now no more — to the parish of Carroll, $2,000 — to my mother Dicy Harris, 
an annuity of $500 a year during her life time: Her son Huston Harris, a dona- 
tion of $4,000 — to the Female Orphan Asylum at New Orleans, $10,000, as a do- 
nation — the balance more or less, to the American Colonization Society, for the 
purpose of shipping off the free blacks to Liberia. 

"It is my wish, that Horace Prentiss, James G. Hicks, and William Henderson, 
of Warrenton, be my Executors." 

A Recoil, — A gentleman residing at Trumansburg, Tompkins Co.» 
N. Y., who had a few months ago contributed one hundred dollars to 
the New York City Colonization Society, felt strongly incliacd, on 
reading the account of its late meetings, to enlarge his donation. Id a 
letter to its Treasurer, dated June 12th, he says: "The additional in- 
citement which was necessary to bring me up to the good work, has 
been abundantly supplied by the uncharitable and abusive Resolu- 
tion" oflbred by Mr. George Thompson, and adopted by the Young 
Men's Anti-Slavery Society of Boston, at their recent meeting. The 
writer concludes by saying, 

'' But still he [Mr. Thompson] is doing some good by abusing the friends of 
Colonization, and thereby exciting a generous sympathy for them and for the noblo 
cause in which thoy are engaged. On the other half of this sheet you will re- 
CPivo a draft on Messrs. John Johnson's Sons, for one hundred dollars, which 
please acknowledge when received, and apply it to sending some four or five man- 
umitted slaves to tlie new Colony atBassa Cove." 



COLONIZATION MEETINGS. 

On the 20th of May a Colonization meeting was held at the Mu- 
sical Fund Hall in Philadelphia, which was attended by a large and 
respectable audience. 

The Rev. Mr. Peck of Illinois, addressed the meeting, and con- 
firmed the testimony given last winter by Bishop Smith of Kentucky 
to the happy influence of colonizing operations m his own and neigh- 
boring States. lie declared that more than all other causes, the Co- 



• About thirty negroes. 



1835.] COLONIZATION MEETINGS. 248 

« 

Ionization Society had been instrumental in exciting sympathy and 
originating action in behalf of the colored people in those States. 

The Rev. Geo. W* Bethune addressed the meeting atsome length 
and with his usual felicity, in support of the Colonization Society. 

Mr. Washington Davis, a young coloured man, who hod been 
for some time engaged in studying medicine and surgery, which pro- 
fession he designs to practice in Liberia, presented his views of the 
principles of the Society and the condition of the Colony. He spoke 
with effect, and was listened to with attention. 

Capt. Parsons, of the ship Ninus, testified to the intellectual and 
moral merit of the Colonists who went with him from Norfolk in 
October last; and to the importance of Colonial establishments on the 
coast of Africa in checking the Slave Trade, which, he stated, was 
every where vigorously prosecuted, except at those points which had 
been brought under the influence of the Colonization Society. 

A collection was then taken up, amounting to $170; and the meet- 
ing adjourned to meet on Thursday, the 4th of June. 

Accordingly on the 4th of June, P. M., the adjourned meeting was 
held at the Rev. Dr. Cuyler's Church. Most of the members of the 
General Synod of the Reformed Dutch Church, which had just been 
in session, attended; and addresses were delivered by the Rev. Thos* 
Dewitt, D. D. of New York, the Rev. John Gosman, D. D. of Kings- 
ton, N. York, the- Hon. Peter D. Vroom, Gk>yemor of the State of 
N. Jersey, and the Rev. David Abeel, Foreign Missionary. A col- 
lection, amounting to $150, was taken up. 

A gentleman present has furnished the following sketch of a por- 
tion of the proceedings: 

Gov. Vroom said he had not heard of any feasible plan, in relation to slavenr, 
other than that proposed by the Colonization Society, and he expressed his fears in 
strong language, that if the avowed objects of Abolitionists were pursued, in tho 
spirit evinced by certain persons, the result must be the dismemberment of tho 
Union, the bathing of our peaceful shores in blood. The history of the world, ha 
said, did not present an instance of slavery Vein|[f abolished at once. In New T<nk 
it had required twenty years, in New Jersey thirty years. He then gave a minuta 
statement respecting tne course pursued by N. Jeney in relation to slavery, la 
Feb. 1804, the legiuature passed a law that all bom alter July 4, 1804, should ba 
considered as bom free, but should serve until they arrived at the ages, females c^ 
21, and males of 26 years. Some persons had thoujght this period tSo long, others 
thought it too short. The efiect of this enactment is that there is not now a slave 
in the State of New Jersey under thirty-one jrears of age. It is also a fact that 
manumissions become more frequent, almost in exact proportion to the increase of 
the number of free persons. Ten slaves are manumitted now, where one was man« 
umitted formerly, and this while the number of slaves in the State has become 
comparatively small. If an attempt had been made in the State of N. Jersey, to 
declare the slaves free at once» it would have been put down by force. So he 
thought, the Abolitionists of the j^resent day, by attempting too much, would de- 
feat the very obiect they had in view. The example set by the State of N. Jersey 
ought to be, and he hadno doubt, if proper measures were pursued, would be fol- 
lowed by the slaveholding States. Slaveiy would be abolisoed. 

While the collection was taken up, the Rev. Mr. Bethune presented to the au- 
dience the son of one of the African kings, who has been committed to the care of 
the society to be instructed. His father had lately been a slave dealer, but noir» 
thanks to the Colonization Society, was not 

The Rev. David Abxxl commenced with a very interesting statement respect- 
ing his meeting the distinguished advocate of the Ck>loiiization Society, the Itev* 

32 



250 LATE EXPEDITION FROM VEW ORLEANS. [August, 

Mr. Seys, six years a|i;o in one of the West India Islands. lie, Mr. Abeel, had 
been, he said, among the heathen, where they were engapjed in matters of higher 
worth than attending to the little niceties that he found engaged the attention of 
Christians in this country. He had not knoi^n, had not thought it possible, until 
lately, that a single Christian was opposed to the Colonization Society, lie stated 
the particulars as to a conversation held by him recently with the driver of a mail 
cart 




away 

quaintea wiin all mat is doin^ at the North — mentioned Uic names ot all me prin- 
cipal Abolitionists, and spoke m the most dreadful language of what must result. 
He said that many of the slaves know how to read, though the masters were not ac- 
quainted with the fact, and they did read all that is published at the North. Mr. 
Abeel thought that certain publications would tend to the ruin of the country.— 
The slaves were not prepared for freedom. He concluded by urging that Christians 
should pray in relation to this subject. 

The Rev. Dr. Dewitt, after the congregation had risen, offered a few remarks, 
expressing his congratulation on the union between the Society of Pennsylvania 
and that of New York. He thanked God for what had been effected by their unit- 
ed operation, and concluded by pronouncing the apostolic benediction. 



liATK EXPEDITION FROM NEW ORLEANS. 

lo addition to the particulars contained in the Repository for 
March, April, and May, of the present year, in relation to the recent 
expedition by the brig Rover, we now give the following interesting 
letter from Mr. Finley, to the Editor of the Western Luminary:— 

New Orleans, M.arch 12, 1885. 

Dear Sir: — In my former letter I gave you some account of the leading charac'* 
ters amongst the free people of colour who recently sailed from this port in tbo 
brig *• Kover," for Liberia. I then promised you in my next to give some account 
of the emancipated slaves who sailed in, the same expedition. 

This promise I will now endeavour to fulfil, and I will begin with the case of an 
imlividual emancipation, and then state the ca<«e of an emancipated family^ and 
conclude with an accoimt of the emancipation oi several families by the same indi- 
viduals. 

The first case alluded to, is that of a young woman emancipated by the last 
Will and Testament of the late Judge James Workman, of this city; the same 
who left a legacy of $10,000 to the American Colonization Society. Judge Work- 
man's Will contains the following clause in relation to her, viz: "I request my 
statu libery Kitty, a quateroon girl, to be set free as soon as convenient: and Ire- 
quest that my Executors may send her, as she shall prefer and they think best. 
either to the Colonization Society at Norfolk, to be sent to Liberia, or to Ilayti ; 
and if she prefer remaining in Louisiana, that they may endeavour to have an act 
passed for her emancipation, if the same cannot be attained other^^ise; and it is 
my Will that the sum of S300 be paid to her alter she shall be capable of receiving 
the same. I request my Kxecutors to hold in their hand money for this purpose. 
I particularly request my friend, John G. Grecve, to take charge of this girt and 
do the best for her that he can." 

Mr. Greeve provided her with a handsome outfit, carefully attended to her em- 
barkation, and the shipment of her freight, and placed her under the care of the 
Rev. Gloster Simpson. 

The next case alluded to above, is that of a family of eleven slaves emancipat- 
ed for faithful and meritorious services, by the Will of the late Mrs. Bullock, of 
Claiborne Countv, Mississippi. 

Mrs. Moore, the sister ana Executrix of Mrs. Bullock's estate, gave them $700 
to furnish an outfit and give them a start in the Colony. 



1835.1 LATE EXPEDITION FROM NEW ORLEANS. 251 

The third and last case alluded to above, consisted of teveral families, amounting 
in the whole to 26 individual slaves, belonging to the estate of the late Jamei 
Green, of Adams County, Miss. 

The following interesting circumstances concerning their liberation were com- 
municated to me by James Railey, Esq. the brother^m-law, and acting Executor 
of Mr. Green's estate: 

**Mr. Green died on the 15th of May, 1832, the proprietor of about 130 slaves, 
and led Mr. Railey, his brother-in-law, and his sisters, Mrs. Railey and Mrs. Wood, 
Executors of his last Will and Testament. Mr. Green's Will provides for the im- 
ccmdiiioncd emancipation of but one of his slaves — a faithful and intelligent man, 
named Granger, whom Mr. Green had raised and taught to read, write and keep 
accounts. He acted as foreman for his master for about 5 yearspreviously to his 
death. Mr. Green by his Will left him $3000, on condition that he went to Libe- 
ria, otherwise |^000. Provision was also made in the Will for securing to him 
his wife. Granger has been employed since the death of Mr. Green untilrecent- 
ly as overseer for Mr. Railey, at a salary of six hundred dollars per annum. — 
Granger declines going to Liberia at present on account of tHe unwillingness of hii 
mother to go there. She is very aged and infirm, and he is very much attached to 
her. She was a favourite slave of Mr. Greenes mother, who emancipated her, and 
left her a legacy of $1000. Granger came to this city with Mr. Railey, to see his 
friends, and former fellow-servants embark ; and when he bid them farewell, he 
said with a very emphatic tone and manner, *' I will follow you in about eighteen 
months." 

Granger was the only slave uncondUionally emancipated by Mr. Green's Will.— 
Concerning the emancipation, however, of other slaves, the Will contained the 
following clause, viz: " There are other negroes who will deserve to be liberated 
and receive portions out of mv estate, which I leave to my acting Executors for 
the time being to determine.'' And in a codicil to his Will he expresses a desire 
that certain slaves therein named, (who are the same that sailed for the Colonjr ia 
the Rover) should be^ liberated at such times as his Executors for the time being 
may think proper, if in their opinion said negroes or any of them, from their good 
conduct, should be entitled to their freedom according to his wishes" — and in the 
event of any or all of them being emancipated and removing to Liberia to reside, 
he desired that his Executors should give to each of them, so removing, an outfit 
and liberal provision out of his estate. In case they were liberated and did not gQ 
to Liberia, the provision for such out of his estate was to be regulated and given by 
his Executors according to their best judgment." 

The day before his death, Mr. Green gave very minute instructions concernln(r 
these people ; aqd desired that those whom the Executors might think worthy^ (^ 
emancipation should, if practicable, be instructed in preparing them for Liberia ; 
and that Granger should be particularly enjoined to improve himself; for it was 
his desire that all who went to Liberia ''should go as a band of brothers and sis- 
ters, and look upon Granger as their Father." 

These persons were remarkable not only for their fidelity to their late master, 
and general good character, but also for their intelligence and business capacity. 
Mr. Railey told me, that all the heads of families amongst them, except one, bad 
been overseers on large plantations, and that although their principal occupatioB 
bad been aEriculture, they possessed also a considerable knowledge of all the ordi- 
nary branches of mechanical industry, and three of them had a sufficient know- 
le^e of the medical profession to put up prescriptions, bleed, pull teeth, &c. &e] 

The Executors of Mr. Green's estate were by no means slack in meetine the 
Testator's wishes concerning these people. Mr. Railey accompanied them to New 
Orleans, and both he and Mrs. Wood, who also was in New Orleans whilst th^ 
were preparing to emlmrk, took a lively and active interest in providing them wim 
every thine necessary for their comfort on the voyage and their welfare after their 
arrival in £e Colony ; and placed in my hands $7000 for their benefit. One thous* 
and dollars of which was appropriated towards the charter of a vessel to convey 

them to the Colony, with the r---' ' ' "^ *- '- r-.:-i.*. .:-* — %.»^a,^ 

dollars towards the purchase oi 

meuts of agriculture, household 

mainin^ four thousand four hundred doUari^, partly invested in trade goods, and 

partlj m specie, was shipped and consigned to the Governor of Liberia, for their 

benefit, with an accompanying memorandum made out by Mr. Railey, showing 

how much was each one's portion. 




253 DEATH OP CHIEF JUSTICE MARSHALL. [Aagnst, 

I have been thus minute in my details, not only to show the excellent character 
of these people and their fitness to add to the strength and character of the Colony 
of Liberia, but also to show the benevolent intention of their late owners in rela- 
tion to them, and their deep and tender solicitude for their welfare; — and also to 
show with what prompt and eenerous liberality their wishes were complied with 
by their Executors. For it la worthy of remark, that the extent of the provision 
to be made for them, with the exception of Judge Workman's eirl, was left entirely 
to their discretion. And in the case of the 26 belonging to Mr. Green's estate, 
even their emancipation was left to the option of the Executors, who, if X mistato 
not, are also the Residuary Lef^tees of the estate. 

I will close this communication by relating one additional circumstance, com- 
municated to me by Mr. Railey, to show the interest felt by Mr. Green in the suc- 
cess of the scheme of African Colonization. The day previous to his death, he 
tequested Mr. Railey to write a memorandum of several things which he wished 
done ailer his death, which memorandum contains the following clause, viz: "Af- 
ter executing all my wishes as expressed by Will, by this memorandum and by 
verbal communication, I sincerely hope there will be a handsome sum left for be- 
nefiting the emancipated negroes emigrating from this State to Liberia; and to 
that end I have more concern than you are aware of." 

I am authorized by the Executors to state, that there will be a renduum to Mr. 
Green's estate oi tu:mty or UdHy-Jivt ihoutand dollars , which <Aey tnleiui to appro- 
priate in conformity with the views of Mr. Green, expressed above. 

Yours, &c. ROBT. 8. FXNLEY. 



DE:ATH of CHIEIF JUSTICE MARSHAIil^ 

John Marshall is no more. To other and abler pens, we leave the task 
of minutely delineating his life and character. But a brief notice of them in 
this Journal is required by the relation which he held to the Anierican Colo- 
nization Society as its senior Vice-President, and the friend who gave to it 
the benefit of his constant advocacy, his wise counsel, his liberal purse, and 
his glorious name. 

This great man, the eldest of fifteen children of Col. Thomas Marshall, all 
rcmarkaole for talents, was bom at the residence of his father in Fauquier 
County in the State of Virginia, on the 24th of September, 175.'. Col. Mar- 
shall, a farmer of DK>derate fortune and imperfect education, but po8sessin|f 
high mental poweni, personally instructed him till he was 14 years of age, at 
which time tie was placed under other tuition. When he reached his 18th 
year, he had been the pupil of several successive teachers, under the last of 
whom his classical education was concluded, but was subsequently enlarged 
by himself. He embraced with entbusia:sm the cause of his country, then 
making movements which led to the war of Independence ; and he devoted 
much time to training a miiitia company in bis neighborhood, and to reading 
the political publications of the day. In 1775 he was appointed First Lieut, 
of a company of minute-men enrolled for actual service, and was en^ged in 
tlie battle ot the Great Bridge, of December 9, 1775, where the British were 
bravely repulsed. In July, 1776, he was appointed First Lieut, in the Elev- 
enth Virginia Regiment on the Continental Establishment, and in May, 1777^ 
was promoted to the rank of Captain. He was subseouently engaged in the 
skirmish at Iron Hill, September 8, 1777, and in the battles of Brandywine, 
Germantown, and Monmouth. 

After the surrender of Lord Comwallis at York, Mr. Marshall commenc- 
ed the practice of Law, having attended a course of Law Lectures given 'by 
George Wvthe, afterwards Chancellor of Va., and having been admitted to 
t^ Bar in 1780. He soon became eminent in the profession. In 1782, he was 
electod to the Le^'slaturc of his native State, an<l was made a member of the 
Kxecutive Council. In 17H3, he married Miss Mary W. Ambler, a lady to 
whom he had bfi»n attached before he left the Army. In 178 1, he was again 
sent to the General Assembly as a Delegate from Fauquier ; in 1787, from 
Henrico County, and in 1788, from the city of Richmond, which he continued 






1835.] 



DEATH OF CHIEF JUSTICE MARSHALL. S53 






to represent during the years 1789, 1790, 1791. He ^as a member of 
the Convention of Virginia which assembled to deliberate on the Fed- 
eral Constitution, and was a distinguished advocate of its adoption. In 
1790, President Washington offered to him, but he declined to accept, the of- 
fice of Attorney of the U. States for the District of Yireinia. In 1796 he was 
a^n elected a member of the Legislature. ^ In the foUowing year he was so- 
licited without effect by President Washington, to fill the vacancy in 
the mission to France, occasioned by the return of Mr. Monroe; bat 
in 1797 was induced to accept the appointment tendered to him by President 
Adams, as one of three special Commissioners to that country. He returned 
in 1798, and in 1799 was elected to Congress, where his course, durin|^ the 
session of 1799 — 1800, was conspicuous and memorable. Perhaps no sinele 
intellectual effort in ax^ nation or ^e ever made so deep an impression as his 
celebrated speech on the Resolutions offered February 20, 1800, by Mr. Liv- 
ingston, on toa surrender, by the President, of Jonathan Robbins, alias Thomas 
Nash, in execution of the 27th Article of the Treaty of 1794, between tiie U. 
States and Great Britain. It was a series of propositions of which the logic 
was so closely consecutive as to occasion the remark, that to deny the first of 
them was the only means by which the conclusion could be escaped. 

On the 7th of May, 1800, Mr. Maasuau. was nominated to the Senate as 
Secretaiy of War, and on the 18th of the same month, was appointed Secre- 
tary of State. On the 10th of December following, he was appointed a Com- 
missioner under the Act of Congress for an amicable settlement of limits with- 
in the State of Georgia. 

On the 20th of Jan. 1801, he was appointed Chief Justice of the U. States. 
In this, one of the highest of earthly dignities, his services for a period of 
more than thirty -four years have been the constant theme of public aiuniration. 
His judicial opinions seemed the emanations of mere reason, exerting the high- 
est faculties of which our nature is capable, unclouded by prejudice and puri- 
fied fipom passion. The large class or them which expound the Federal Con- 
stitution, IS regarded by a grateful country as the richest contributions to the 
value of that instrument which time has made. 

During the intervals of official duty, Chief Justick Marshall found time 
to compose his elaborate Biography of Washington : a performance, of which 
the fidelity, the dear and mimly stjle, and the instructive matter have already 
secured for it a hieh rank among historical compositions. 

In the year 1829, he was a member of the Convention called in Virginia to 
revise the Constitution of that State, and took as active apart in its delibera- 
tions as his advanced a^e, and long disuse of public speaking would permit. 

The health of the Chief Justice, invigorated by the hard v athletic exercises 
to which his father had habituated him in boyhood, was shaken by the death of 
his wife on the 25th Dec. 1881, altera union for more than 48 years of uninter- 
rupted affection. In the month of September, 1882, a disease of the Uadder in- 
duced him to visit Philadelphia, where, on the 14th of Oct, an operation was 
performed on him by Dr. Pfcysick, which be bore with characteristic fortitude. 
The result encouraged the hope that his life would be prolonged for many years, 
and tiiat hope was undiminisned so lately as the last term of the Supreme 
Court. But a severe fall before his departure from Washington, and a painlEki} 
journey to Richmond, were followed by a tiunor in his side and a prostration 
of his physical strength. His symptoms became so alarming^ that in June last 
he again proceeded to Philadelphia in pursuit of medical aid, but, as it soon 
appeared, with no prospect of relief. His son, Mr. Thobcas Mabshall, of 
Faucjuier County, a most estimable citizen and a distinguished member of tiie 
Legislature of Virginia, while on the way to visit him, had his skull frac- 
tured in Baltimore on the 27th of June, by the fall of a Vnck from the chimney 
of a burnt Courthouse, whither he had gone for shelter from a atono, and died 
of the injury on the third day subsequent. The melancholy &ct was concc^ 
ed from the dying father. The Chief Justice languished till Monday the A 
of July, when at six o'clock in the afternoon, two days after the anniversary of 
the Independence which he had contributed to achieve for his countiy, at the 
boarding house of Mrs. Crim, his career in this world was terminated. He 



251 DEATH OF CHIEF JUSTICE MARSHALL. [August, 



died, says his physician and friend, " with the fortitude of a Philosopher and 
the resignation of a Christian." 

As soon as the event was known, the Philadelphia Bar met, and adopted Re- 
solutions appropriate to the occasion, appointed a Committee of thirty to co- 
operate on its part with the bar in other parts of the U. States, in erecting a 
monument in the city of Washington, to his memory, a Committee of six to 
attend his remains to Richmond, and Mr. John Sergeant to pronounce bis 
eulogium. The municipal authorities of Philadelphia have since requested 
Mr. BiNNEY, the citizens of Alexandria, D. C. Mr. Snowden, and the N. 
York Bar Chancellor Kent, to perform a similar service; and the N. Y. Bar, 
in compliance with the invitation from Philadelphia, has appointed a monumen- 
tal Committee. Such a Committee has also been appointed by the Bar of Balti- 
more, and one by that of the Bar of the District of Columbia. The Bar of the 
last named place has requested Gen. Walter Jones, that of Boston Mr. Web- 
ster, that of Petersburg Mr. May, and that of Cincinnati Judge Wbight, 
to pronounce the eulogium. Similar proceedings will, doubtless, be adopted by 
the profession generally throughout the Union. Judge Hofkinson has been 
selected by the American Philosopliical Society to prepare **an obituary notice, 
commemorative of the eminent virtues, talents and ser\'ices of the deceased,*' 
to be inserted in the volume of its transactions now in the press. 

On the afternoon next succeeding the death of the Chief Justice, the citizens 
of Philadelphia assembled in town meeting. In pursuance of Resolutions 
then adopted, they attended his remains from his lodgings to the place of em- 

Bbarkation. They reached Richmond about 4 o'clock in the afternoon of July 
9lh, and were received from the steamboat by ten distinguished citizens of that 
capital as pali-bearers, among whom were Henry St. George Tucker, Pre- 
BJuent of the Court of Appeals, Benjamin Watkins Leigh, Chapman 
Johnson, and Robert Stanard. The corpse was met at the County Court 
House by the citizens of Richmond, and conveyed to the new burying ground 
where it was interred next the grave of Mrs. Marshall. The funeral service 
was read by the Right Rev. Bishop Moore. During this mournful day, the 
flags of the shipping were flying at half mast, the bells were tolled, and minute 
guns fired. At three o'clock tiie stores were closed. About six o'clock a 
h avy shower of rain commenced, which continued for an hour and a half, 
completely drenching all engaged in the funeral ceremonies : "but every one," 
says an observer, " bore it patiently, remembering that the patriot and jurist 
hud in early life encountered many storms in the cause of freedom.** 

The citizens of Richmond have since, at a public meeting lield on the 10th of 
July, unanimously requested their Common Council to cause a monument to 
be erected, at the expense of the city, over his remains, with a Auitable in- 
scription commemorative of his merits and of their sense of them. 

Though Chief JudTicE Marshall was once a prominent actor on thft thea- 
tre of Politics, he had so long retired from it, that his countrymen were enabled 
to form a judgment of his character which it is not probable that posterity 
will distun). He had outlived the storm of party, and nad lived down the in- 
justice of envy. His services to his country nad been so various, and in every 
department in which they were rendered so faithful and so able; in that espe- 
cially to which the] latter and larger portion of his public life was devoted, he 
did 60 much to