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S. G. & E. L. ELBERT 



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Published by order of the Managers of 








Abdnhl Rahhahman, the Moorish Prince, - - 77 1 243, 379, 380 

Anthony Benezet, ..---- 61 

Africa, - - - - - - 289, 321, 354 

Voice from "1 - - - - - 25 

Missions to- - - - - - -27 

by VV.B. Tappan, ... 189 

Expedition to ....-- 253 

African Mission School, ----- 186, 193, 375 

Teak and Ind'go, ------ 239 

Africans, Park's testimony in favour of civilizing them, 76 

Address by Wm. M Blackford, - - - - - 73 

of the Managers of the Con. Society, - 116 

of Executive Committee of the African Mission School, - 193 
by Wm. B Peabody, - .... 225 

by Mr. Key, - - - - . - - 298 

of Uockbridge Society, ----- 273 

Annual Meeting of the American Col. Society, 285, 317, 348, 360 

Contributions, - - 32, 64, 96, 128, 159, 190, 253, '^7 

Communications, - 305, 734, 319, 552, 383 

Crisis, - - - - - - - - -38 

Candid acknowledgment of Error, - 376 

Death of Dr. William Thornton, - - - - - 31 

of Rev. Jacob Oson, ----- 283 

of Mr Ashmnn, ------ 214, 287 

Dahomy, account of - » - 145 

Extracts from Correspondence, - 90, 236 

Emancipation and Colonization, ----- 251 

Gerrit Smith, Esq. (his plan promoted) - 30, 95, 185, 252, 270, 379 

Good devised, ------- S7B 

July, Fourth of - - - - - - 93, 159, 317 

Kentucky State Society, ------ $51 

Laing (Major), Fernando Po, &c. - - - - -158 

Ladies' Association, ------ 285 

Colonization Society, ------ 350 

Liberia, latest from - - - - 14, 40, 82, 87, 209, 380 

Lt tters from ------- 234 

Expedition to ----- 318, 349 

Coffee from ------- 318 

Letter from a Gentleman in South Carolina, 60 

Matthew Carey, Esq. - 270 

Rev. Dr Blumhardt, ----- 296 

Gen. Lafayette, --.-._ 349 
Legacies, Mr Burr's ------ 93 

Liberality, Masonic - - - - - . -62 

remarkable ----.. 185 

Missions to Africa, - - - - - - -27 

Missionaries, Swiss ------- „4X 

Nicolson's (Captain) Testimony, - - - - - 95 


Note, Notice, - • - - - - -187 

Niger, Theories respecting the - 106 

Remarks on the course and termination of the . - 151 

Omens of success, --.„... 138 

Park's Testimony, ------- 76 

Plan for the establishment of State Col. Societies, - 372 

Pecuniary wants of the Society, ----- 224 

Postcript, - - - - - - - -63 

Report of the select Committee to Congress, 51 

of Manage™ of the Lynchburg Society, ... Ipl 

of Vermont Society, ------ 312 

Religion, the power of- - - - - - -231 

Review of Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashan tee, 1, S3, 65, 97, 129 
of Report of the Committee of Foreign relations in the Senate, 
to whom were referred sundry petitions and memorials in 
relation to the Col. Society, - - - 161, 

of Dr. Wainwright's Discourse on the occasion of forming the 
African Mission School — and of Address of the Executive 
Committee of that School, - 

of an Address by Wm. B. Peabody, - 

of Mr. Tazewell's Report, - 
Resolutions of Gen. f Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Ship for the Society, Plan for purchasing a - 
Society, Connecticut Colonization - - - » - 

African Mission School - - - 186, 193, 

Rockbridge Col- ---#-- 

Virginia, Col. -•••--- 
Vermont Col. ------ 

Kentucky Col. ------ 

Societies, To Auxiliary ----- 94, 

Auxiliary - - - - - • - 

Plan for the establishment of State Colonization 
Serious Considerations, .----*- 

Transportation Plan, or Good devised, - - - - 

To our Friends, ------- 

Auxiliaries and Friends, - - * 

and Agents, - - • * 







Vol. IV. MARCH, 1828. No. 1. 

Of Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, with a Statis- 
tical account of that Kingdom^ and Geographical Notices of 
other parts of the Interior of Africa* By Edward Bowdich, 
Esq., Conductor. London, 1819. 

While Christian nations have explored almost every region 
of the globe, Africa still offers to their enterprise an immense 
and interesting field for discovery. The efforts already made 
to ascertain the features and resources of this country, and the 
character of its population, have but very partially dispelled 
the mystery which has so long enveloped them. Sufficient in- 
formation, however, has been obtained to excite an eager desire 
for more, and to create the belief, that people and objects of ex- 
treme curiosity and interest, are to be disclosed to the eyes of 
future adventurers into the interior. 

We w^ould not be understood as estimating lightly, the contri- 
butions which have been made to our knowledge of Africa, by 
those fearless and persevering travellers, who have during the 
last century crossed its deserts, penetrated its wildernesses, and 
sought to ascertain the sources, and trace out the windings of 
its noble rivers. They have accomplished much, and no one 

2 Review of Mission from Cape [March, 

can peruse their journals without thrilling emotion. Still a sin- 
gle glance at the map of this immense continent, will convince 
us, that only small portions of its territory have opened upon 
the view of these enterprising individuals; and that vast fields, 
of which we are in utter ignorance, remain to tempt the daring 
and inquiring spirit of this age. 

The discoveries already made in Africa, are of a nature cal- 
culated to attract universal attention, and to excite an intense 
desire for the further prosecution of researches into its Geogra- 
phy, Natural History, the products of its soil, and the condition 
and habits of its population. It is in Africa, that we see nature, 
rude, eccentric, magnificent, romantic and sublime. In one 
place we behold the earliest and grandest monuments of civili- 
zation, in others her footstep is scarcely visible to the most ac- 
curate observer. Here, are deserts, which the swift-footed and 
long-enduring dromedary sometimes attempts to pass at his pe- 
ril; there vales, rich in loveliness and beauty, as any whichever 
greeted the imagination of the child of genius and romance. In 
some parts, are to be found tribes gentle and amiable in their 
dispositions, with manners of artless simplicity, while in others 
the darkest and most odious features of barbarism frown away 
from their presence all the kindness and tenderness of humanity. 

The establishment of civilized colonies on the African coast, 
will doubtless bring speedily to light, much very interesting in- 
formation concerning Africa, with which we have hitherto been 
entirely unacquainted. What glorious effects may be antici- 
pated from the growth and influence of these colonies ! Prompt- 
ed by the spirit of commercial enterprise, if by no better motive, 
the citizens of these colonies will maintain a friendly intercourse 
with the neighbouring tribes, through them become acquainted 
with those more remote, and finally open the way to the won- 
derful and well-nigh unexplored regions of Central Africa. — 
But benefits of higher interest to the philanthropic mind, than 
the mere acquisition of knowledge, may be expected from the 
plantation of these colonies — the introduction of a civilizing and 
Christian influence among the vast and uncounted population 
of the interior. "It has been, indeed, by the visits and exer- 
tions of 'intelligent strangers,' that many rude tribes have been 
rescued from barbarism, and elevated to importance and dignify 

1828.] Coast Castle to Ashantee. 3 

among the nations of the world."* "In the early traditions of 
Greece and Italy, some traces of such sources of civilization 
may be found, and a similar origin has been ascribed to the civi- 
lization which prevailed in some kingdoms of South America on 
their first discovery by the Spaniards. 

If the natives of the old world had their Cadmus and Saturn, 
Peru had her Manco Capac, who instructed her once barbarous 
people in agriculture and the liberal arts, and whose accidental 
arrival from some unknown region probably gave rise to the fa- 
ble of his descent from the Sun."t 

We formerly (Vol. i. p. 321.) expressed the opinion that 
Christianity once established in Africa, would make rapid pro- 
gress, and gain signal triumphs over the vice and superstitions 
of the natives. The faith of the Africans generally, (if it can be 
properly termed faith,) is superficial and undefined, and cherish- 
ed, rather because favourable to the indulgence of unhallowed 
passions, than from any conviction of its truth. The most pow- 
erful opposition is to be apprehended from the disciples of Ma= 
hornet; but among the negro tribes, their authority is partial, 
and exerted rather from motives of avarice than from sincere at- 
tachment to the honor of their prophet. 

And did poetic imagination ever represent in its fairest visions, 
abrighter, a sublimer scene, than Africa must exhibit if regenerated 
by Christianity — Christianity introduced and propagated by her 
children once torn from her in chains, but now restored as freemen 
to give her the charter of all civil liberty, and to invest her sons 
with the priceless immunities of the heirs of God? Then will the 
fierce and intractable Arab of the desert, throw his Koran on the 
sand; and while with softened heart and features, he reads the 
messages of the Prince of Peace, feel his spirit glow with the 
hope of a pure Heaven, where the warrior's shout is unheard, and 
no garments are seen rolled in blood. The African despot, 
who like the King of Dahomey, now walks to his throne in blood 
and enters his palace on a pavement of human skulls, will lose 
his ferocity; nor will death ! death ! death ! (ominous of human 
sacrifices) as echoed at midnight from the silver horns of the 

* Sixth Report of the Society, page 15. 
f First Keport of the African Institution, 

4 Review of Mission from Cape [March, 

slaves of Ashantee*s monarch, strike terrible as a demon's voice 
through every heart in the capital of a populous and powerful 
empire. The Abyssinnian, the natives of Tombuctoo, of Bor- 
nou, and Darfour, those who inhabit the mountains of Kong, and 
the poor Hottentot near the Cape of Good Hope, shall cherish 
the sentiments of brotherly affection, and taste the rich but quiet 
pleasures of a virtuous and benevolent life. 

If it were lawful to express a wish which cannot be realized, 
that of the writer would be, that he might be permitted to wit- 
ness the change which Christianity will produce in Africa, to 
look over this land after Truth shall have achieved its conquests, 
to see Agriculture in its vales, and Art and Commerce in its 
cities, to hear Science instructing her votaries, and Religion 
proclaiming her sanctions, and to perceive all the bland and so- 
cial virtues cherished by a population rejoicing under the do- 
minion of righteous law. "Eheu! fugaces Labuntur anni," nor 
will a few years be adequate to the accomplishment of so great 
a work; yet, might we hazard a prediction, we would say the 
year 1928 will exhibit proofs that our hope for Africa is not the 
effect of enthusiasm. 

The volume before us, it is seen, was published in London, in 
1819. It may be well, perhaps, to state, concisely, the origin and 
objects of the mission which it describes. According to Mr. Bow- 
dich, several writers mention that reports of Ashantee had reached 
Europe as early as the year 1700, and that it was then regarded 
as preeminent in wealth and power. An Ashantee army reach- 
ed the coast for the first time in 1807, conducting a very de- 
structive war against the Fantees; and again in 1811, and a 
third time in 1816, invaded the country of these people, and in- 
flicted upon them the severest sufferings. Cape Coast Castle was 
placed in imminent hazard, and the Gov. felt compelled to advance 
large sums of gold on account of the Fantees. In consequence 
of these calamities, "the Government desired from the African 
Committee, to authorize and enable them to venture an embassy 
to conciliate the powerful monarch of Ashantee, and to propitiate 
an extension of commerce." In 1817 a store ship arrived from 
England with suitable presents for such an expedition, and in- 
structions from the British Government in reference to its cha- 
racter and the objects to be effected. The Governor at Cape 

1828.] Coast Castle to Ashantee. 5 

Coast Castle, (John Hope Smith,) immediately selected four 
gentlemen for the embassy, represented to them in a letter the 
importance of the mission, and the various and numerous subjects 
for inquiry and observation during their visit; and these individ- 
uals, under the guidance of natives of Ashantee, selected by an 
Ashantee captain, commenced their journey on the morning of 
the 22d of April, 1817. The names of the individuals upon 
whom devolved the duties of this interesting mission were, 
Frederick James, Esq. principal, Edward Bowdich, Esq. Mr. 
Hutchison and Surgeon Tedlie; but owing to an important dif- 
ference of opinion in reference to measures to be adopted soon 
after their arrival at Coomassie, the capital of Ashantee, Mr. 
James was recalled, and Mr. Bowdich became the conductor of 
the embassy. 

Coomassie, the Capital of Ashantee, lies about one hundred 
and fifty miles in the interior, north of Cape Coast Castle.-^ 
The expedition found the paths through the Fantce territory in 
many places excessively bad, but the slowness and difficulty of 
their progress was in some measure compensated by the novel 
and striking aspect of the country, and the occasional surpassing 
beauty of the region through which they passed. The second 
day they entered "a valley profusely covered with pines, aloes, 
and lilies; and richly varied with palm, banana, plantain, and 
guava trees; the view was refreshed by gentle risings, crowned 
with cotton trees of a stupendous size." "I never saw," says 
Mr. Bowdich, u soil so rich, or vegetation so luxuriant." The 
following is the account given of one of the Fantee Crooms, (vil- 
lages) situated about twenty miles from the coast. 

"I made Payntree's Croom. We received the compliments of Payn- 
tree and several Caboceers (chiefs) under a large tree, and were then con- 
ducted to a neat and comfortable dwelling', which had been prepared for 
us; a small square area afforded a shed for cooking in, on one side, and a 
sleeping room in each of the others, open in front, but well thatched, and 
very clean; from this we passed to our sitting room, the floor of which was 
elevated about two feet from the ground. The Croom was prettily situat- 
ed on a level, encircled by very fine trees, and consisted of a very broad 
and well cleaned street of small huts, framed of bamboo, and neatly thatch- 
ed. "We observed a great number of small birds, which were even more 
beautiful from their delicate symmetry, than their brilliant plumage. They 

6 Review of Mission from Cape [March, 

were generally green, with black wings, and their nests hanging from the 

"I walked with Mr. Tedlie along a veiy neat path, well fenced and di- 
vided by stiles, to a corn plantation of at least twenty acres, and well culti- 
vated. Payntree's farm house was situated here, and afforded superior 
conveniences; a fowl house, a pigeon house, and a large granary, raised on 
a strong stage. As we returned we paid him a visit, and were refreshed 
with some excellent palm wine; his dwelling was a square of four apart- 
ments, which were entered from an outer one, where a number of drums 
were kept; the angles were occupied by the slaves, and his own room, 
which had a small inner chamber, was decked with muskets, blunderbusses, 
cartouch belts fantastically ornamented, and various insignia. The order, 
cleanliness, and comfort surprised us; the sun had just set, and a cheerful 
fire on a clean hearth supported the evening meal. The old man was seat- 
ed in his state chair, diverting himself with his children and younger wives; 
the elder one was looking on from the opposite apartment with happy in- 
difference : it was the first scene of domestic comfort I had witnessed among 
the natives. There was a small plantation or garden neatly fenced in, near 
the house, for the supply of the family." 

The following will give our readers an idea of the obstacles 
which sometimes obstructed their path: 

"The doom and iron trees were frequent: the path was a labyrinth of 
the most capricious windings, the roots of the cotton tree obstructing it 
continually, and our progress was generally by stepping and jumping up 
and down, rather than walking; the stems or caudices of these trees pro- 
jected from the trunks like flying buttresses, their height sometimes 2© 
feet. Immense trunks of fallen trees presented constant barriers to our 
progress, and increased our fatigues, from the labour of scaling them; we 
were also frequently obliged to wait the cutting away of the underwood be- 
fore we could proceed, even on foot. The large trees were covered with 
parasites and convolvuli, and the climbing plants, like small cables, ascend- 
ing the trunks to some height, abruptly shot downwards, crossed to the 
opposite trees, and threaded each other, in such a perplexity of twists and 
turnings, that it soon became impossible to trace them in the general en- 

After a toilsome march of several days, they beheld a scene of 
singular beauty, which is thus described: 

"At the end of five miles and a quarter, the herbage to the right disclos- 
ed the cheerful reflections of the sun from the water; and we descended 
through a small vista of the forest, to the banks of Boosempra, or Chamah 
river. Nothing could be more beautiful than its scenery. The bank on 

18£8.] Coast Castle to Jlshantee. 7 

the south side was steep, and admitted but a narrow path; that on the north 
sloping"; on which a small Fetish house, under the shade of a cachou tree, 
fixed the eye; whence it wandered over a rich variety of tint and foliage, 
in which light and shade were most happily blended; the small rocks stole 
through the herbage of the banks and now and then ruffled the water; the 
doom trees towering" in the shrubbery, waved to the most gentle air a rich 
foliage of dark green, mocking the finest touch of the pencil; the tamarind 
and smaller mimosas, heightening its effect by their livelier tint and the more 
piquant delicacy of their leaf; the cotton trees overtopped the whole en wreath- 
ed in convolvuli, and several elegant little trees, unknown to me, rose in 
the back ground, intermixed with palms, and made the coup d'oeil en- 
chanting. The bright rays of the sun were sobered by the rich reflections 
of the water, and there was a mild beauty in the landscape, uncongenial to 
barbarism, which imposed the expectation of elegance and refinement. I 
attempted a sketch, but it was far beyond my rude pencil; the expression 
of the scene could only have been traced in the profile of every tree, and 
it seemed to defy any touches, but those of a Claude or a Wilson, to depict 
the life of its beauty." 

In a few days they entered the kingdom of Ashantee. At the 
second village within its limits, they stopped awhile at the re- 
quest of a "venerable old man, whose manners were very pleas- 
ing," and who refreshed them with wine and fruit. They were 
pained to learn that the "life of this old man was forfeited to 
some superstitious observances, and that he only waited the re- 
sult of a petition to the King, that in consideration of his infir- 
mities, he might be executed at his own Croom. He conversed 
cheerfully and congratulated himself on seeing white men be- 
fore he died." His head was brought to Coomassie the day after 
their arrival. 

On the 19th of May they arrived at Coomassie. Their ap- 
proach was announced to the King, who desired them to rest at 
a little Croom until he had finished washing, when Captains 
would be deputed to conduct them to his presence. The pomp 
and ceremony displayed on this occasion were of a very striking 
and imposing character. 

"We entered Coomassie at two o'clock, passing under a fetish or sacrifice 
of a dead sheep, wrapped up in red silk, and suspended between two lofty 
poles. Upwards of 5,000 people, the greater part warriors, met us with 
awful bursts of martial music, discordant only in its mixture ; for horns, 
drums, rattles, and gong gongs, were all exerted with a zeal bordering on 

8 Review of Mission from Cape [March, 

frenzy, to subdue us by the first impression. The smoke which encircled 
us from the v incessant discharges of musketry, confined our glimpses to the 
foreground; and we were halted whilst the captains performed their Pyrr- 
hic dance, in the centre of a circle of warriors; where a confusion of flags, 
English, Dutch, and Danish, were waved and flourished in all directions; 
the bearers plunging and springing from side to side, with a passion of en- 
thusiasm only equalled by the captains, who followed them, discharging 
their shining blunderbusses so close, that the flags now and then were in a 
blaze, and emerging from the smoke, with all the gesture and distortion of 
maniacs. Their followers kept up the firing around us in the rear. The 
dress of the captains was a war cap, with gilded rams horns projecting in 
front, the sides extended beyond all proportion by immense plumes of 
eagles feathers, and fastened under the chin with a band of cowries. Their 
vest was of red cloth, covered with fetishes and saphies* in gold and silver; 
and embroidered cases of almost eveiy colour, which flapped against their 
bodies as they moved, intermixed with small brass bells, the horns and tails 
of animals, shells and knives; long leopards tails hung down their backs, 
over a small bow covered with fetishes. They wore loose cotton trowsers, 
with immense boots of a dull red leather, coming half way up the thigh, 
and fastened by small chains to their cartouch or waist belt; these were also 
ornamented with bells, horses tails, strings of amulets, and innumerable 
shreds of leather; a small quiver of poisoned arrows hung from their right 
wrist, and they held a long iron chain between their teeth, with a scrap of 
Moorish writing affixed to the end of it. A small spear was in their left 
hands, covered with red cloth and silk tassels. Their black countenances 
heightened the effect of this attire, and completed a figure scarcely human. 
This exhibition continued about half an hour, when we were allowed to 
proceed, encircled by the warriors, whose numbers, with the crowds of 
people, made our movement as gradual as if it had taken place in Cheapside; 
the several streets branching off to the right, presented long vistas crammed 
with people: and those on the left hand, being on a declivity, innumerable 
rows of heads rose one above mother; the large open porches of the houses, 
like the fronts of stages in small theatres, were filled with the better sort 
of females and children, all impatient to behold white men for the first time; 
their exclamations were drowned in the firing and music, but their gestures 
were in character with the scene. When we reached the palace, about 
half a mile from the place where we entered, we were again halted, and an 
open file was made, through which the bearers were passed, to deposite the 
presents and baggage in the house assigned to us. Here we were gratified 
by observing several of the Caboceers pass by with their trains, the novel 
splendour of which astonished us. The bands principally composed of 
horns and flutes, trained to play in concert, seemed to soothe our hearing 

* Scraps of Moorish writing, as charms against evil. 

1828.] Cape Coast Castle to Jlshantte. § 

into its natural tone again by their wild melodies; whilst the immense um- 
brellas, made to sink and rise from the jerkings of the bearers, and the 
large fans waving mound, refreshed us with small currents of air, under a 
burning sun, clouds of dust, and a density of atmosphere almost suffocating. 
We were then squeezed at the same funeral pace, up a long street to an 
open-fronted house, where we were desired by a royal messenger to wait a 
further invitation from the King. Here our attention was forced from the 
astonishment of the crowd to a most inhuman spectacle, which was paraded 
before us for some minutes; it was a man whom they were tormenting pre- 
vious to sacrifice; his hands were pinioned behind him, a knife was passed 
through his cheeks, to which his lips were noosed like the figure of eightj 
one ear was cut off and carried before him, the other hung to his head by 
a small bit of skin; there were several gashes in his back, and a knife was 
thrust under each shoulder blade; he was led with a cord passed through 
his nose, by men disfigured with immense caps of shaggy black skins, and 
drums beat before him; the feeling this horrid barbarity excited must be 
imagined. We were s90n released by permission to proceed to the King, 
and passed through a very broad street, about a quarter of a mile long, to 
the market place. Our observations en-passant had taught us to conceive 
a spectacle far exceeding our original expectations; but they had not pre- 
pared us for the extent and display of the scene which here burst upon us; 
an area of nearly a mile in circumference was here crowded with magnifi- 
cence and novelty. The King, his tributaries and captains, were resplen- 
dent in the distance, surrounded by attendants of every description, fronted 
by a mass of warriors which seemed to make our approach impervious.— 
The sun was reflected with a glare scarcely more supportable than the heat 
from the massy gold ornaments, which glistened in every direction. More 
than a hundred bands burst at once on our arrival with the peculiar airs of 
their several chiefs; the horns flourished their defiances with the beating of 
innumerable drums and metal instruments, and then yielded for a while to 
the soft breathings of their long flutes, which were truly harmonious; and a 
pleasing instrument like the bagpipe without the drone was happily blend- 
ed. At least a hundred large umbrellas or canopies, which could shelter 
thirty persons, were sprung up and down by the bearers with brilliant ef- 
fect, being made of scarlet, yellow, and the most showy cloths and silks, 
and crowned on the top with crescents, pelicans, elephants, barrels, and 
arms and swords of gold; they were of various shapes but mostly dome, and 
the valances (in some of which small looking-glasses were inserted) fantas- 
tically scalloped and fringed; from the fronts of some, the probosces and 
small teeth of elephants projected, and a few were roofed with leopard 
skins, and crowned with various animals naturally stuffed. The state ham- 
mocks, like long cradles, were raised in the rear, the poles on the heads of 
the bearers; the cushions and pillows were covered with crimson taffeta, 

and the richest cloths hung over the sides. Innumerable small umbrella?, 


10 Review of Mission from Cape [March, 

of various coloured stripes, were crowded in the intervals, whilst several 
large trees heightened the scene, by contrasting the sober colouring of na- 

"Discolor unde auri perramos aurarefulsit." 
The King's messengers, with gold breast-plates, made way for us, and we 
commenced our round, preceded by the canes and the English flag. We 
stopped to take the hand of every Caboceer, which as their household suites 
occupied several spaces in advance, delayed us long enough to distinguish 
some of the ornaments in the general blaze of splendour and ostentation. 

"The Caboceers, as did their superior captains and attendants, wore 
Ashantee cloths, of extravagant price, from the costly foreign silks which 
had been unravelled to weave them in all the varieties of colour as well as 
pattern; they were of an incredible size and weight, and thrown over the 
shoulder exactly like the Roman toga. A small silk fillet generally encir- 
cled their temples, and massy gold necklaces intricately wrought, suspend- 
ed Moorish charms, dearly purchased, and enclosed in small square cases of 
gold, silver, and curious embroidery. Some wore necklaces reaching to 
the navel entirely of aggry beads; a band of gold and beads encircled the 
knee, from which several strings of the same depended; small circles of 
gold like guineas, rings, and casts of animals, were strung round their an- 
cles; their sandals were of green, red, and delicate white leather; manillas, 
and rude lumps of rock gold, hung from their left wrists, which were so 
heavily laden as to be supported on the head of one of the handsomest boys. 
Gold and silver pipes and canes dazzled the eye in every direction. — 
"Wolves' and rams' heads as large as life, cast in gold, were suspended from 
their gold-handled swords, which were held around them in great numbers; 
the blades were shaped like round bills and rusted in blood; the sheaths 
were of leopard skin, or the shell of a fish like shagreen. The large drums 
supported on the head of one man, and beaten by two others, were braced 
around with the thigh bones of their enemies, and ornamented with their 
skulls. The kettle drums, resting on the ground, were scraped with wet 
fingers, and covered with leopard skin. The wrists of the drummers were 
hung with bells and curiously shaped pieces of iron, which gingled loudly 
as they were beating. The smaller drums were suspended from the neck 
by scarfs of red cloth; the horns (the teeth of young elephants) were orna- 
mented at the mouth piece with gold and the jaw bones of human victims. 
The war caps of eagles' feathers nodded in the rear, and large fans, of the 
wing feathers of the ostrich, played around the dignitaries; immediately be- 
hind their chairs, (which were of a black wood, almost covered by inlays of 
ivory and gold embossment) stood their handsomest youths with corslets of 
leopard skin, covered with gold cockle shells, and stuck full of small knives 
sheathed in gold and silver, and the handles of blue agate, cartouch boxes 
of elephant's hide hung below, ornamented in the same manner — a large 
gold-handled sword was fixed behind the left shoulder, and silk scarfs and 

1828.] Coast Castle to Jlshantee. 11 

horses' tails (generally white) streamed from the arms and waist cloth. — 
Their long Danish muskets, had broad rims of gold, at small distances, and 
the stocks were ornamented with shells. Finely grown girls stood behind 
the chairs of some, with silver basins. Their stools (of the most laborious 
carved work, and generally with two large bells attached to them) were 
conspicuously placed on the heads of favourites; and crowds of small boys 
were seated around, flourishing elephants' tails curiously mounted. The 
Warriors sat on the ground close to these, and so thickly as not to admit of 
our passing without treading on their feet, to which they were perfectly in- 
different; their caps were of the skins of the pangolin and leopard, 
the tails hanging down behind; their cartouch belts (composed of 
small gourds, which hold the charges, and covered with leopard or pigs' 
skin, ) were embossed with red shells, and small brass bells thickly hung to 
them; on their hips and shoulders was a cluster of knives: iron chains and 
collars dignified the most daring, who were prouder of them thanof goldj 
their muskets had rests of leopard's skin, and the locks a covering of the 
same; the sides of their faces were curiously painted in long white streaks, 
and their arms also striped, having the appearance of armour. 

"We were suddenly surprised by the sight of Moors, who afforded the 
first general diversity of dress; there were 17 superiors, arrayed in large cloaks 
of white satin, richly trimmed with spangled embroidery, their shirts and 
trowsers were of silk, and a very large turban of white muslin was studded 
with a border of different coloured stones; their attendants wore red caps 
and turbans, and long white shirts, which hung over their trowsers; those 
of the inferiors were of a dark blue cloth; they slowly raised their eyes from 
the ground as we passed, and with a must iualigaa.ui scowl. The prolong- 
ed flourishes of the horns, a deafening tumult of drums, and the fuller con- 
cert of the intervals, announced that we were approaching the King: we were 
already passing the principal officers of his household; the chamberlain, the 
gold horn blower, the captain of the messengers, the captain for royal exe- 
cutions, the captain of the market, the keeper of the royal burial ground, 
and the master of the bands, sat surrounded by a retinue and splendour, 
which bespoke the dignity and importance of their offices. The cook had 
a number of small services covered with leopard's skin held behind him, and 
a large quantity of massy silver plate was displayed before him, punch 
bowls, waiters, coffee pots, tankards, and a very large vessel with heavy 
handles and cloved feet, which seemed to have been made to hold incense; 
I observed a Portugese inscription on one piece, and they seemed generally 
of that manufacture. 

"The executioner, a man of immense size, wore a massy gold hatchet on 
his breast; and the execution stool was held before him clotted in blood, 
and partly covered with a cawl of fat. The king's four linguists were en- 
circled with a splendour inferior to none, and their peculiar insignia, gold 
canes, were elevated in all directions, tied in bundles like fasces. The 

12 Review of JEssion from Cape [Marclt ? 

keeper of the treasury, added to his own magnificence, by the ostentatious 
display of his service; the blow pan, boxes, scales and weights were of solid 

"A delay of some minutes whilst we severally approached to receive the 
King's hand, afforded us a thorough view of him; his deportment first excit- 
ed my attention; native dignity in prince9 we are pleased to call barbarous, 
was a curious spectacle: His manners were majestic, yet courteous; and he 
did not allow his surprise to beguile him for a moment of the composure of 
the monarch; he appeared to be about thirty-eight years of age, inclined to 
corpulence, and of a benevolent countenance; a fille" of aggry beads round 
his temples, a necklace of gold cockspur shells strung by the largest ends, 
and over his right shoulder a red silk cord, suspending three saphies cased 
in gold; his bracelets were the richest mixtures of beads and gold, and his 
fingers covered with rings; his cloth was of a dark green silk; a pointed di- 
adem was elegantly painted in white on his forehead; also a pattern resem- 
bling an epaulette on each shoulder, and an ornament like a full blown rose., 
one leaf rising above another until it covered his whole breast; his knee 
bands were of aggry beads, and his ankle strings of gold ornaments of the 
most delicate workmanship, small drums, sankos, stools, swords, guns, and 
birds clustered together; his sandals of a soft white leather, were embossed 
across the instep band, with small gold and silver cases of saphies; he was 
seated in a low chair, richly ornamented with gold; he wore a pair of gold 
castanets on his finger and thumb, which he clapt to enforce silence. The 
belts of the guards behind his chair were cased in gold and covered with 
small jaw bones of the same metal; the elephants' tails waving like a small 
cloud before him were spanglal with gold, and lujge plumes of feathers 
were flourished amid them. His eunuch presided over these attendants, 
wearing only one piece of gold about his neck; the royal stool, entirely cas- 
ed in gold was displayed under a splendid umbrella, with drums, sankos, 
horns and various musical instruments, cased in gold about the thickness of 
cartridge paper: large circles of gold hung by scarlet cloth from the swords 
of state, the sheaths as well as the handles of which were also cased; hatch- 
ets of the same were intermixed with them: the breast of the Ocrahs, and 
various attendants were adorned with large stars, stools, crescents and gossa- 
mer wings of solid gold. 

"We pursued our course through this blazing circle, which afforded to the 
last a variety exceeding description and memory, so many splendid novelties 
diverting the fatigue, heat, and pressure we were labouring under; we were 
almost exhausted, however, by the time w r e reached the end; when instead 
of being conducted to our residence, we were desired to seat ourselves under 
a tree at some distance to receive the compliments of the whole in our turn. 

"The swell of their bands gradually strengthened on our ears, the peals of 
the warlike instruments bursting upon the short, but sweet responses of the 
flutes: the gaudy canopies seemed to dance in the distant view, and floated 

1828.] Coast Castle to Jlshantee. IS 

broadly as they were springing up and down in the foreground; flags and 
banners waved in the interval, and the chiefs were eminent in their'erimson 
hammocks, amidst crowds of musketry. They dismounted as they arrived 
within thirty yards of us; their principal captains preceded them with the 
gold-handled swords, a body of soldiers followed with their arms reversed, 
then their bands and gold canes, pipes, and elephants' tails. The chief, with 
a small body guard, under his umbrella, was generally supported around the 
waist by the hands of his favourite slave, whilst captains holla'd close in his 
ear, his warlike deeds and (strong) names, which were reiterated with the 
voices of Stentors by those before and behind; the larger party of warriors 
brought up the rear. Old captains of secondary rank were carried on the 
shoulders of a strong slave; but a more interesting sight was presented in 
the minors, or young Caboceers, many not more than five or six years of 
age, who overweighed by ornaments, were carried in the same manner, (un- 
der their canopies,) encircled by all the pomp and parade of the predeces- 
sors. Amongst others, the grandson of Cheboo was pointed out, whom the 
king had generously placed on the stool of his perfidious enemy. A band 
of Fetish men, or priests, wheeled round and round as they passed, with 
surprising velocity. Manner was as various as ornament; some danced by 
with irresistible buffoonery, some with a gesture and carriage of defiance; 
one distinguished Caboceer performed the war dance before us for some 
minutes, with a large spear, which grazed us at every bound he made; but 
the greater number passed us with order and dignity, some slipping one 
sandal, some both, some turning after taking each of us by the hand; the 
attendants of others knelt before them, throwing dust upon their heads; and 
the Moors apparently, vouchsafed us a blessing. 

"The King's messengers, who were posted near us, with their long hair 
hanging in twists like a thrum mop, used little ceremony in hurrying by 
this transient procession; yet it was nearly eight o'clock before the King 

"It was a beautiful star-light night, and the torches which preceded him 
displayed the splendour of his regalia with a chastened lustre, and made 
the human trophies of the soldiers more awfully imposing. The skulls of 
three Banda Caboceers, who had been his most obstinate enemies, adorned 
the largest drum; the vessels in which the boys dipped their torches were 
of gold. He stopped to inquire our names a second time, and to wish us 
good night; his address was mild and deliberate; he was followed by his 
aunts, sisters, and others of his family, with rows of fine gold chains around 
their necks. Numerous chiefs succeeded, and it was long before we were 
at liberty to retire. We agreed in estimating the number of warriors at 
thirty thousand." 

fTo be continued. J 

14 Latest from Liberia. [March, 

Xi&iest from lAbraia. 

We now offer to our readers, Mr. Ashmun's communication by the On- 
tario, to which we alluded in the last number of our work. 

Caldwell, November 28, 1827. 

My last advices from your Board are those re- 
ceived by the Norfolk — and my last despatches those sent by the 
same ship. She sailed from Montserado on the 26th of Septem- 
ber — and except Dr. Todsen, then nearly recovered from a 
strong touch of the fever, all in good health. — The strength of 
the rains having abated, we, about that time, renewed the ac- 
tive operations of the present dry season, which are still carry- 
ing on, under the favour of Divine Providence, in a more satis- 
factory and effectual way than in any former year. The estab- 
lished state of the Colony — a treasure of past experience — the 
confirmed health of the settlers — our better knowledge of mate- 
rials for every useful work — and a path trodden smooth by use, 
begin, now, as the fruit of perseverance in the unfavourable cir- 
cumstances of former years, to requite in a fuller measure, the 
labour, and expense bestowed on the improvements of the Colo- 
ny. Every month adds to it some new acquisitions, discloses 
some new resources — or produces some new valuable improve- 

The dry season is but just settled. Four new decked schoo- 
ners have, however, been already built, fitted for sea, and actu- 
ally gone abroad under the flag of the Colony. Three more of 
the same description, all new, will follow in a very few weeks 
and these exclusive of three more decked vessels, and a varie- 
ty of open coasting craft before in use. Most of these vessels 
have been wholly built at Monrovia, of country materials, ex- 
cept iron, copper, pitch and cordage. 

We have the present year succeeded in introducing cows into 
the Colony from the interior. Formerly they were prohibited, 
and male cattle only suffered to be sent to market. It is but a 
few months ago, that the Colony had no others, except the pro- 
duce of a cow brought from Sierra Leone in 1822. We have 

X828.J Latest from Liberia. 15 

now, in all, 14, and begin to get milk in considerable plenty.— 
Monrovia has a butchering establishment, which slaughters never 
less than two bullocks weekly — sometimes four, and even more, 
when beef is in demand. We have a path open, about 120 miles 
towards the Northeast; by which we receive as many bullocks- 
as we choose to order. 

There is one team of small but good oxen in use; and several 
others are now breaking in — and will shortly be serviceable. — 
And we have at length succeeded in possessing ourselves of that 
invaluable animal, the horse. Francis Devany deserves the cre- 
dit of introducing the first, a vigorous steed, a few weeks since. 
Several others, are now ordered. The path from the interior 
direct to the Colony, by which horses will hereafter be brought 
into it, is at present too difficult to allow them to pass. While 
on this subject, permit me to enumerate the different species 
of domestic animals and products, rearing, and which, we have 
reason to expect, will ever hereafter be had in the Colony, in 
the greatest plenty. If not — it is certainly not the fault either 
of climate, seasons, or soil — but must be wholly chargeable on 
the indolence of the settlers. 

Of Animals, 8,-c. We have (now) Horses, Cattle in abun- 
dance, Sheep, Goats in abundance, fowls, ducks, geese, Guinea 
fowls, swine in plenty. — Fish, are no where found in greater 
quantities. Asses, are lately introduced. Fruits, are, Plan- 
tains, Bananas (reges frugum) in endless abundance — Limes, 
Lemons, Tamarinds, Oranges, Soursop, Cashew, Mangoe — 20 
varieties of the Prune — Guava, Papaw, Pine-apple, Grape, tro- 
pical Peach and Cherry. 

Vegetables, are, Sweet Potatoe, easily made, and the crop 
abundant — Cassada — the chief edible root of the country, grows 
almost without culture — Yams — not so easily made, but a better 
vegetable, beginning to be plenty — Cocoa — a root easily grown, 
and nearly equal to the Yam. Ground-nuts — sowed often in 
Rice-fields, very prolific — Arrow Boot— easily made, nutritious, 
but best for sale — Egg-plant — grows, once planted, without cul- 
ture, very prolific — Ocra — every variety of Beans, and most 
sorts of Pease — Cucumbers — indigenious — Pumpkins — the sever- 
al varieties succeed well. 

Grains, are: Bice — the staple; several crops by way of expe- 

16 Latest from Liberia. [March, 

riment the past season. It is a sure crop, but requires assidu- 
ous care. Indian Corn — does not succeed well — there is some- 
thing unfriendly in either soil, or climate; supposed to be the 
too great heat of the latter. Coffee — of an excellent quality, 
and abundantly sufficient for the wants of the Colony. Pepper; 
of three varieties, of which either is equal to the Cayenne.-— 
Millet and Guinea Corn — easily raised, but little cultivated. — 
Their place is supplied by the rice of the country. 

Cotton is not yet cultivated, except on a small scale — staple 

The food of labouring people in the Colony consists chiefly of 
the various preparations of Rice, Palm Oil, Beef, Coffee, Fowls, 
Goat's meat; Cassadas, Plantains, and Sweet Potatoes. Of all 
these articles, there are, and we trust will ever hereafter be 
had, the greatest abundance. But hitherto, yielding to the force 
of habit, formed in America, most of the colonists have, perhaps 
too liberally for their own interest, indulged themselves with 
flour, corn meal, butter, lard, pickled beef, fish and pork, and 
bacon, — a very large amount of all which is consumed every 
month — and I fear monthly becoming larger. 

With the pardon of the Board, while on these minutiae, I will 
here add a sketch of the inside economy of this little community. 

The older classes of settlers, fixed in comfortable dwellings, 
and surrounded with their little cultured premises, are variously 
and in general, successfully and actively employed in the coast- 
ing commerce, and the country trade; either through the facto- 
ries, or at home. To this they add, as a source of profit, their 
transactions with trading vessels — and several of them, the ex- 
ercise of their mechanical trades. Most of the mechanics of 
long standing, have from four to ten or twelve apprentices and 
journeymen working under them. To the same class is restrict- 
ed, in the first instance, the benefit of nearly all the public mo- 
ney expended in the Colony — whether in the payment of sala- 
ries, job work, or building materials. — They are now beginning 
to add both to their comfort and their independence, by agricul- 
ture. Belonging to this. class of settlers, is to be found, nearly 
all the trading capital, and much the greatest proportion of the 
whole wealth of the Colony. And it comprehends a large hall 
of its entire population. 

1828.] Latest from Liberia, 17 

A second class (estimated at one-third of the population) have? 
after an exhausting effort, just placed themselves in thoir new — 
some, even not yet quite finished — houses; and are completing 
with great zeal and solicitude, the improvements on which the 
titles of their lands depend. Many, having large families to 
support while thus burdened with the severe labour of subduing 
a piece of forest land, and erecting houses, and very few bring- 
ing with them a spare dollar, feel the pressure of their circum- 
stances, at this period, more sensibly than at any other perhaps 
in their lives. Earlier, they received a little weekly aid — (and 
a little, in an industrious and thrifty family, goes a long way,) 
from the public store. Later, they will have emerged into a 
state of comparative independence and ease — having houses over 
their heads, a title to their lands in their pocket, cleared and cul- 
tivated enclosures about them, and generally a healthier habit of 
body, from a longer residence in the climate. But at the stage 
I speak of, settlers are in want of all these comforts and helps— 
and obliged by their own incessant exertions, to create them all. 
Many of this class live, slenderly fed, slenderly clad, and not 
seldom, while the pressure lasts, indulge despondency; — and 
some of them even complain, that for ideal privileges, they have 
abandoned many substantial comforts, in America. — If mechan- 
ics, they spend nearly all their earnings in purchasing building 
materials — and in carpenters', masons', and labourers' hire, 
about their own houses. If simple farmers, or common labour- 
ers, it costs them two days' labour in every week for their more 
opulent neighbours, or the public, to get provisions for them- 
selves and families — two days more, to pay for such building 
materials and clothing as they cannot make for themselves; and 
the remaining two days they spend on their buildings and lands. 
This is nearly the proportionate distribution of their industry, 
taking a month or season together. Some who have credit, go 
in debt at this stage of their residence in the Colony, and thus 
protract their embarrassments a couple of years longer. I do 
what I can to sustain their resolution in this emergency — en- 
courage special industry, or merit struggling with too many diffi- 
culties at once, by a little seasonable relief — give them the refu- 
sal of certain little jobs, and contracts which promise to pay 

them best — and, to their credit be it said, few are iound ungrate- 

18 Latest from Liberia. [March, 

ful; and few but acquit themselves in this season, with much 
credit; and, as the reward of their perseverance, look forward, 
in a few months, to an easy and respectable establishment in the 

The third class consists of settlers not a twelvemonth in the 
Colony. Most of these are yet in the Public Receptacles, and 
in rented houses. Imperfectly inured to the climate, they are 
incapable of severe labour — receive (for the early part of the 
period under consideration,) a little rice, tobacco, &c. from the 
public store, weekly — labour moderately, either on their own 
lots, and in preparing shingles &c. for their future houses — hire 
themselves, as journeymen, or labourers, to the older settlers — 
or employ themselves in preparing lumber, lime, stones, &c. 
&c. for sale. 

To these may be joined a fourth class, not quite useless to the 
Colony — but altogether so to themselves. Men and women of 
too little forecast to see a month into the future, or care for any 
other part of their lives except the present hour. They lose 
their lands, because they never feel the necessity of taking mea- 
sures to secure them, till it is too late. They never build hou- 
ses, because a house can, for the present month, be hired much 
cheaper than they can build one. All the incurably lazy of the 
Colony, of course, muster in this class — but not a few, from a 
blind and constitutional improvidence, are referred to it, who 
labour hard the year round — but know not how to use their in- 
dustry for their own benefit. 

From this view of our interior economy, it results: (and the 
statement is made for the sake of the result) — 

Firstly, That the Colony is sustained, and derives its growth, 
almost wholly from its own industry. True, there is a conside- 
rable amount of public money laid out, and which eventually 
stays in the Colony. But very few indeed receive even a part 
of their support^ by a direct application of the public funds to 
their subsistence. And of these few, none, except too small a 
number of the sick to affect the account, receive, in that way, 
more than a small part of their subsistence. It is the labour of 
the colonists which sustains them — and which consequently sus- 
tains the Colony itself. — For the public supplies, instead of go- 
ing to feed the people, after accomplishing this object, interme 

1828.] Latest from Liberia* 19 

diately and as regards only a certain number, for a limited time, 
are made to end in permanent buildings and other public and 
durable improvements of the Colony. — So that it has the princi- 
ple of its own growth within itself. 

Secondly, The productive part of this industry, and that 
which directly administers to its growth, more than all others, 
is its trade and commerce. The expenditure of American funds 
here is subsidiary — and so is our gardening and agriculture. — 
But, these are only subsidiary to the trade of the Colony, as re- 
gards the share they contribute towards its prosperity. True, 
our rivers produce lime-shells — our hills building stones — our 
forests all the varieties of lumber, and other materials for build- 
ing; for domestic furniture, and for naval uses: — and a very 
large proportion of the industry of the people is employed in 
preparing, transporting, and working up these materials. But 
what feeds and clothes them while thus employed? — What pays 
for these materials when brought into market? — or settles the 
joiners', cabinet makers', masons', plasterers' bills, when they 
are finally worked up? To all these inquiries, I answer, the 
trade and commerce of the Colony: and not, as I gladly would 
say, its agriculture. But, 

Thirdly, So long as all the profits of trade remain in, and are 
laid out in permanently improving the Colony, the effect is near- 
ly the same, on its general prosperity, as if the same improve- 
ments were effected by the surplus produce of agriculture. As 
many houses are built, as many roads opened, as many forts con- 
structed, as many schools supported, on the one supposition as 
the other. But there is this difference. Every surplus bushel 
of rice, &c. made in the Colony, not only feeds as many people 
as the same quantity introduced by trade; but that bushel of rice 
proves the Colony capable, of itself, to produce another, and 
another bushel in its place, annually, so long as the world stands 
— which the bushel introduced by trade does not. — Found the 
Colony's independence, on its agriculture, and it stands on the 
surest of all grounds — on commerce, and it is precarious; liable 
to be affected by a thousand circumstances over which the Colo- 
ny itself can exercise no control. 

The truth compels me to say, that the sources of trade and 
commerce naturally belonging to the Colony, placed as it is oh 

20 Latest from Liberia. [March, 

the central part of a coast of vast extent — and bordering on po- 
pulous and industrious nations in the interior of the continent, 
are not a tenth part explored: — and until they shall be both ex- 
plored and occupied, — and so long as this vast field of commer- 
cial enterprise holds out new inducements to the settlers, to en- 
ter upon and cultivate it; is agriculture destined to follow in the 
train of trade — and not to lead it. Then, and not till then, is 
it likely that the tide of industry will shift its direction, and be 
made to set very strongly towards any other object. In the 
meantime it has been my invariable practice to hold out all pos- 
sible encouragements, to the enterprise and perseverance of the 
farmers. The premiums authorized to be proposed for this end, 
by the Board of Managers, the last year, have to a certain Ex- 
tent, been beneficial. The survey on which the first annual 
award of these premiums is to be made, is now accomplishing. — 
But, as it was made a condition of carrying the several premi- 
ums, that the competitors should not only excel others, in the 
several crops, &c. but should deserve them, for the absolute val- 
ue of those crops, and by the style of their work, as well as its 
relative quantity, I am apprehensive that not more than $50, 
out of the 8200, will be, this year, awarded at all. But the com- 
petition has proved useful, and promises much better effects the 
ensuing year. All the practical farmers of Caldwell, (and most 
of the inhabitants are of this number,) are associated into an 
Agricultural Society. They meet weekly for the purpose of re- 
porting, individually, the progress they have made in the week, 
on their plantations. These reports are recorded. Two, three 
or more questions, of the most practical nature, are then brought 
forward, every one is permitted to deliver his opinion; and state 
the reasons on which his opinion is founded. The question is 
then decided by a vote of the meeting; and if unanimously de- 
termined, is recorded as a maxim in the practical agriculture of 
the settlement, established for the present and future direction 
of all. The members are pledged to reduce to practice the ax- 
ioms established in these meetings. I attend them myself — and 
can so far, bear a very decided testimony in favour of their great 
utility. The expedient will be attempted at the Cape: but pro- 
mises less there than in Caldwell. Many, however, of that set- 
tlement are actively employed on their farms, this season: and 

i828.] Latest from Liberia* 21 

there remains not a doubt, that the products of the Colony, the 
ensuing year, will equal its consumption, in every article except 
rice. I have led the way in a farm of eight acres — which, con- 
sidering the richness of the soil — the perennial growth of every 
plant and crop — and the most prolific nature of vegetation, in 
this country, is no contemptible piece of tillage. The articles 
cultivated on this land, are Cassada, Potatoes, Plantains, Bana- 
nas, Yams, several species of Pulse, a little Rice and Sugar- 
cane by way of experiment, Eggplants, Pepper, Coffee plants, 
Cotton, and a variety of fruit trees. 

A concurrence of circumstances has given us, this season, the 
entire trade of Cape Mount Two English vessels attempting 
to trade there, were not long since, totally lost. The difficult 
nature of the trade to strangers, deters some others. The con- 
tiguity of the Gallinas, which is still the occasional resort of pi- 
ratical slavers, excludes a few more. And, to close the door 
still more effectually, the commercial regulations of the Colony 
prohibit the trade of Cape Mount to all foreign vessels trading 
to Cape Montserado. The same prohibition is extended to the 
whole line of coast between Cape Mount and Young Sesters, 
both inclusive— all of which is, constructively, within the occu- 
pation of the Colony. 

The direct intercourse of the Colony with the interior is great- 
ly improved and extended this season. Three individuals, 
Frederick James, Reuben Dongey, and David Logan, have, at 
great labour, and some personal hazard, been chiefly instrumen- 
tal in procuring the advantages of this extension of our trade in 
that direction. We are now in treaty with King Boatswain to 
open an easy trade route to the distance of 150 miles. Beyond, 
the roads are good, and the communication free for traders, for 
aught we know, to Tombuctoo. This path already brings us 
. nearly all our bullocks, and no inconsiderable amount of Ivory. 
And nearly all the Ivory received by this channel, is large and 
very valuable. James and Dongey are now in the interior — the 
former engaged in exploring the St. Paul's river from this place 
upwards of 200 miles, towards its source. There is reason to 
hope that its channel is not obstructed, in that whole distance, 
by more than two rapids. And only one of these is believed to 
amount to a complete obstruction of the boat navigation. 

22 Latest from Liberia, [March, 

No change has occurred in the state of our establishments on 
the Junk and on Factory Island, since my last letters. We 
have derived from them, a large quantity of rice and oil. Of 
the former article, there is now on hand 20 tons, or about 800 
bushels; and we may safely depend on collecting a much greater 
amount of country produce this season, than in any former year. 
The many advantages even of a simple factory at Grand Bassa, 
(Factory Island) sufficiently indicate the usefulness of a snug 
little colony established at the same place. The chiefs of that 
country continue as solicitous as ever for such a settlement. — 
The want of settlers is the only obstacle — which we are eagerly 
expecting to see removed by the next arrival of colonist from the 
United States. 

The Colony remains, still, on bad terms with Little Bassa. 
That place continues to be a depot for slaving — two vessels 
having carried off slaves since September. It, indeed, furnishes 
our traders with large quantities of our best camwood — but re- 
fuses to punish the banditti who have perpetrated various acts of 
violence and pillage, on persons and property claiming the pro- 
tection of the Colony. We have repeatedly proved the use of a 
forbearing policy — one effect of which is, to secure the suffrage 
of the judgment and moral sense of all the neighbouring tribes, 
in our favour. But, forbearance has its limits, beyond which it 
cannot be carried without pusillanimity, and an abandonment of 
the persons and property confided to, and confiding in, the pro- 
tection of the Colony, to lawless violence and savage rapacity. 
And our forbearance, as regards this unprincipled tribe, certain- 
ly approximates very closely to those limits. May Heaven avert 
the necessity of bloodshed! But our little armed force is fitting 
for sea — and if the Board of Managers intend that arms shall not 
be used — and the calamity of war be forever and entirely avoid- 
ed by their Colony; I see not but their present agent must be re- 
called, and a much wiser (I will not say more pacific) substitu- 
ted in his place. Tom Bassa not only harbours, but protects, 
and shares the pillage of some sixty or eighty bandits, natives of 
Grand Battou and the other leeward parts of the coast, known 
b} r the name of Fishmen. These have, with arms, assaulted in 
three or four several instances, our own citizens, and country 
carriers, charged with the public property, and passing to and 

1828.] Latest from Liberia. 25 

from the leeward factories. They have wounded and maimed 
several men with fire-arms and cutlasses, and robbed them of 
81200 worth of property, belonging either to individual colo- 
nists, or to the public store. Tom has permitted the leader to 
withdraw with his booty — refuses to punish the rest — and neg- 
lects to restore more than a trifling part of the property: and all 
this in violation of solemn written engagements. Three differ- 
ent delegations have been sent from Montserado — without ob- 
taining the least satisfaction. And what, I would respectfully 
inquire, now remains, except the "ultima ratio regum"? 

We have been in the possession of Young Sesters since my 
last: — the war still prevailing, has rendered the situation of the 
factor and other occupants, resident in that country, less secure 
than could be wished. The site of the factory, on one occasion, 
having become the theatre of hostilities, they were obliged to re- 
move the property to a place of greater safety. An old and 
slight building, the property of the Colony, was soon after de- 
stroyed, with about 860 worth of private property. The King 
Has engaged to make good this small loss, to the satisfaction of 
the owners. And a substantial frame house has since been erect- 
ed. King Freeman is importunate for a small colony from Mont- 
serado to be established in his territories. All the chiefs of the 
neighbourhood, Tradetown excepted, concur with him in his so- 
licitations for the same object. Such special grants of lands are 
now executing with those chiefs, as shall authorize the making 
of subordinate grants to colonists, on sure grounds; and a com- 
pany of' six or eight settlers is now raising, for the purpose of 
permanently and effectually settling that country. These, toge- 
ther with about fourteen labourers under them, and accompanied 
at first with a force of 10 or 12 recaptured Africans, may be ex- 
pected to remove to that territory early in January; and com- 
mence the building of a small town and fortification, and the 
making of farms. The lands along the banks of Poor river, are 
of the very best quality — and having been in the cultivation of 
the natives, are easily cleared and subdued. 

Our inducements for colonizing this territory, are, 
1st. To establish and extend in the most effectual method, the 
influence of the Colony over not only the Sesters, but all the 
leeward tribes — especially such as will be thus placed between 
that settlement and Montserado. 

24 Latest from Liberia. [March; 

2d. To assure the safety of all the intermediate establishments 
of the Colony — as well as of the Sesters itself. Some method 
of protection must be adopted for the security of our two estab- 
lishments at Grand Bassa, and our third at the Junk. But* 
shall we fortify, and support a guard at each of these factories, 
as well as at the Sesters? If such an expense were possible, it 
would be most absurd and unnecessary. Fortify the out-post — 
strengthen the frontier; and there will be little use of fortifica- 
tions at each of the several posts within those limits. But the 
absolute expense to the Colony, of guarding a factory, and main- 
taining a military post at Sesters, is not less than that which 
would be sufficient to colonize it. For the colonists, while they 
support themselves, and carry on their farms and buildings, are, 
for all general purposes, the best possible defence. A whole 
territory in our occupation there, will extend our influence much 
more effectually than a simple fort — a town will form a much 
more formidable barrier, than a factory — and a little community 
of inhabitants, than a very numerous guard. Settle the Sesters, 
and we may securely settle any part of the territory within.— 
For example, What insecurity can colonists on Factory Island 
feel, so long as they have a protecting settlement 25 miles be- 
yond them? Among the candidates for this little sub-colony, 
not a man is enrolled, who has not been, at least, three or four 
years in Africa, and who is not personally acquainted with hun^ 
dreds of the people among whom they are going — and entirely 
devoid of that suspicious timidity, which invites the aggressions 
of the country people, by seeming to fear and distrust' them. — 
But, as their enterprise is one of great self-denial, and not a lit- 
tle arduous, I have thought it but just to hold out to adventurers 
extraordinary inducements. The first 12 families are, there- 
fore, to be permitted to hold lands in the Sesters, without regard 
to lands previously held by them in any of the other settlements 
of the Colony. They arc, further, to have the selection of these 
lands in an order to be fixed by lot. And their charter secures 
to the settlement a monopoly of its own trade for five years — ■ 
(the public purchasers of rice and oil always excepted.) It is 
proposed to build a town on a height at no great distance from 
the sea on the one hand, and a few hundred yards from the river, 
on the other. A considerable chief of Tobocanee has just offered 

1828.] A Voice from Africa, 25 

the Colony, all the beach from G. Bassa to the village of Tapo- 
canee. The remaining portion between that village and Poor 
river, it is thought, may be had for a reasonable consideration. 
This territory abounds in Coffee — but the lands, near the Sea, 
are generally poor and lean, and the beach affords no commodi- 
ous landing place — so, that, I have not definitively replied to 
the offer made us by its owners. The matter will be, however, 
kept alive till I make a visit to that part of the coast, which I 
propose to do about Christmas. 

(To be continued.) 

u A Yoiee, trom Africa." 

A duodecimo pamphlet of thirty-four pages, with this title* 
has been transmitted to us, by a highly esteemed friend in Bal- 
timore, who has likewise favoured us with the following account 
of its origin and object. 

"The idea occurred to some benevolent friends of African Colonization 
in this place, that great benefit to the cause would ultimately proceed from 
instructing children in the principles of the great scheme in which we are 
all engaged. Many years must elapse before the emigration from this coun- 
try can be as great as we wish it, both on account of the paucity of our 
means to send emigrants, and the want of accommodations in Africa for 
more than a very limited number. This time it was thought could not be 
better employed than in spreading among the coloured people an earnest 
desire to emigrate, whenever circumstances would permit: and this could 
not be better effected than by commencing with children, teaching these 
to consider Africa as their natural home, making them acquainted with its 
history and productions, and convincing them that it is there alone they can 
ever hope to attain the full enjoyment of the rights of free and independent 
men. With this view, I undertook, at the request of Moris Sheppard, a 
member of the Society of Friends, to compose an easy history of your 
Colony and of the Society — which the youngest child might spell, — 
as an introduction to the Address of the Citizens of Liberia. To 
this I added a hymn and prayer, written with the best of my skill, 
for children to commit to memory. A Glossary of the hard words clo- 
ses the book — the titlepage tells the rest- Mr. Sheppard has caused 3000 
of these primers, if they can be so called, to be printed at his own expense, 
in the style of that which I send you; and he has placed them with me for 

2b Ji Voice from Africa. [March, 

distribution. He intends that this shall be the first of a series of "minor 
publications" for the use of African schools; and he has ordered an engra- 
ving of General Harper's head for the next. 1 feel satisfied that the Board 
will acknowledge this distinguished liberality on the part of a private indi- 
vidual. The "Voice from Africa'' will exert an influence beyond the pre- 
cincts of the school room. — Parents will derive information from their chil- 
dren; and the views of the Society, and the history and productions of Afri- 
ca, will be widely and advantageously disseminated. It is proposed to offer 
a premium in each African school to the youth who shall 'commit the Ad- 
dress to memory. All will no doubt attempt, and very many will succeed. 
Depend upon it, my dear Sir, African emigration will yet become so popu- 
lar among the blacks, that they will themselves in many cases furnish their 
own passage money to Liberia." 

"We wish all possible success to this very judicious method of 
instructing the Free People of colour in the design of our Insti- 
tution, and the benefits to be realized from its execution. When 
well-informed on these subjects, it will be impossible for them to 
remain indifferent spectators of our proceedings; they will be 
excited to action, and thousands will lay aside the gains of their 
more productive industry, that they may be able to remove to 
Liberia. The expense of transportation, will probably be re- 
duced by the increase of commercial intercourse with the Colo- 
ny, although it is not now beyond the means of any healthy, sin- 
gle young man of colour, who can command the profits of his 
labours. We hope that all such will consider the prize which a 
kind Providence now holds out to their enterprise, and resolve 
that neither idleness, inconsideration, nor improvidence, shall 
prevent their obtaining it. 

As pleasing specimens of the little work before us, and to show 
how well it is adapted to the use of the African schools in the 
United States, we here insert the Hymn and Prayer, which suc- 
ceed the Address of the Colonists to their brethren in America. 

Land of our fathers, Af-ri-ca, 

We turn our thoughts to thee — 
To gain thy shores we'll gladly bear 

The storm upon the sea. 

For He, who on the firm-set land 

Can wield His power to save, 
Will watch above the pilgrim ban<* 

And guard it on the wave. 

1828.] Missions to Africa. xt 

Land of our sires, thy spreading palm 

Above us yet shall wave, 
And on thy shore the sacred psalm 

Shall tell Who came to save. 

We left thee drowned in Pagan night, 

A Saviour's name unknown; 
We'll bring thee back the heav-en-ly light, 

Which is the Christian's own. 

We'll live, where flow the rivers by, 

Which were our fathers' pride,— 
And die beneath the same blue sky, 

'Neath which our fathers died. 

Then welcome day, and welcome hour, 

When on the sea we roam, — 
Our guide, the God whose word is power, 

To gain our fathers' home. 


Almighty and everlasting God, whose all-seeing eye is over the plains of 
Africa, as well as over the cities of America, we give thee our humble and 
hearty thanks, that thou hast protected, on the great sea, and at last estab- 
lished in the land of their forefathers, the free citizens of Liberia. We bless 
thee, that thou hast preserved them in health and safety through all the toils 
and perils of strangers in a strange land, until "the wilderness around them 
has blossomed as the rose." And most especially, Oh, most merciful Fa- 
ther, do we bless and magnify thy holy name, that thou hast vouchsafed thy 
spirit to the people of Liberia, and that thy Everlasting Gospel is made -their 
animating spring of action, their daily rule of life, and their source of im- 
mortal hope and ineffable enjoyment. We humbly beseech thee so to cpnr 
tinue thy gracious protection, that the Colony now established, may in- 
crease in temporal as well as spiritual happiness, until a mighty nation, peo- 
pled by pilgrims returning to their fathers' homes, shall arise, from which 
the light of thy truth shall beam upon Pagan Africa; and Ethiopia, lifting 
up her hands unto God, shall embrace the hope of everlasting life held 
forth to all through the merits of Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen, 

Missions to Mxica. 

"We have received, through the kindness of its Secretary, the 
first of a series of Quarterly Papers, to be published by the Do- 
mestic and Foreign Missionary Society, of the Protestant Epis- 

28 Jlissions to Africa, [March, 

copal Church in the United States. The number before us re- 
lates almost entirely to the subject of missions in Africa; for 
which, we have already stated, a missionary has been selected 
by this Society (the Rev. Jacob Oson), who will shortly embark 
for Liberia. This paper contains part of a speech by the Rev. 
J. Raban, one of the English Missionaries at Sierra Leone, de- 
livered at the Anniversary Meeting of the Church Missionary 
Society in 1827, from which we make the following extracts: 

"It is well known, that our efforts in Sierra Leone, have been particu- 
larly, though not exclusively, directed to the instruction and improvement 
of the liberated Africans. Our congregations during" the past year, in the 
di ; :crent vdlages connected with the Society, have amounted on the aver- 
age, to 3,000 persons on Sundays, and about half as many on the week 
days. The attention and seriousness manifested by all were truly gratify- 
ing-. I heard many of them join in the forms of our excellent liturgy, and 
sing- the praises of God; and I saw many attend to the word of life, with an 
anxiety, which proved that they were desirous of profiting by what they 

** The number of our scholars, in the last year, was about 1900; the 
greater part of whom, were children liberated from slave vessels. Of their 
behaviour, I am justified in saying, that on the whole, I consider it equally 
good with children of the lower class in this country. Respecting their 
progress, it cannot be expected to be rapid, when it is considered that all 
that is imparted to most of them, is by the medium of a foreign language; 
and that those who were born in the Colony, can have scarcely any assist- 
ance from their parents, they themselves being almost equally strangers to 

*' Of our native teachers and assistants, several give us very great plea- 
sure; and we ardently hope that it may please God, to raise up many more, 
both children and adults, who shall take a part in assisting to convey to 
their own countrymen the glad tidings of salvation. 

" With respect to our communicants, we have, including Free Town, 
four hundred and thirty. A greater number occasionally attend, but I 
speak now of the average attendance. 

*'I have had much pleasure in baptizing the children of the liberated 
Africans; the attention which the parents have shown on these occasions 
has been very gratifying, and I have reason to believe that they have beep, 
desirous to bring them up in the fear and knowledge of God." 

While on this subject, we are happy to mention the very 
successful efforts of the Rev. Lott Carey to preach the Gospel 
to the natives in the vicinity of our Colony, and to instruct then 
clnldren in the knowledge of the Scriptures. We observe by" 

1828.] To our Friends. 29 

his letter to a Christian Brother in Richmond, dated Monrovia, 
Dec. 20, 1827, that a school has been established, through 
his agency, near Grand Cape Mount, and that the chiefs of the 
country have unanimously resolved to encourage and protect it. 
The following extract will show, w r hat a desire for knowledge 
exists among the natives. 

" The heathen in our vicinity are so very anxious for the means of light 
that they will buy it — beg" it — and, sooner than miss of it, they will steal it. 
To establish this, I will mention a circumstance which actually took place 
in removing" our school establishment up to C. M. I had upwards of forty 
natives to carry our baggage, and they carried something like 250 bars, a 
part of them went on four days before hand, and had every opportunity to 
commit depredations; but of all the g-oods that were sent and carried there, 
nothing was lost except fifteen Spelling- Books, five of them we recovered 
again. I must say that I was almost pleased to find them stealing books, 
as they know that you have such a number of them in America, and that 
they can, and no doubt will, be supplied upon better terms." 

To owy TTiemAs. 

It will be recollected, we trust, that the operations of the 
Board of Managers the present year must depend, as to their ex- 
tent and importance, almost entirely upon the funds which may 
be contributed within three or four months from the present time. 
The expeditions which may be fitted out should leave our shores 
early in the autumnal months — certainly, the departure of none 
of them should be deferred until winter. Much time must ne- 
cessarily be consumed in the outfits; hence the importance of en- 
abling the Managers speedily to decide upon the amount of 
funds with which they are probably to be favoured for the prose- 
cution of their enterprise the ensuing year. May we be pardon- 
ed, for expressing the hope, that the Managers of Auxiliary Soci- 
eties will seriously consider this subject, and inform us as ear- 
ly as convenient of the sums which the several associations they 
represent, may probably be enabled to contribute, and of the 
time when their remittances may be expected. Another subject 
which we regard as immensely important, and to which we 
earnestly solicit the attention of all who wish success to our In- 
stitution, rs that of securing the consent of tho Churches of atl 

3© The Gentrous Scheme promoted. [March, 

denominations throughout the Union, to take up Collections for 
the Society, on or about the Fourth of July next. The very lim- 
ited adoption of this measure, produced, the last year, a valuable 
income to the Society, and its general adoption could not fail to 
Secure a. revenue greatly exceeding the amount which has been 
received by our Treasurer during any single year. Let every 
Friend to our scheme feel it a solemn duty to promote this object, 
and it may be accomplished. Let every Minister of Christ re- 
flect upon it, and it will be effected in a manner honourable to 
our country, and cheering to Africa. 

It may be well to state, (as some of our readers may not have perused our 
last volume) that Gerrit Smith, Esq. of Peterboro, N. Y. has offered to give 
one thousand dollars to our Society, payable, one hundred annually, for ten. 
years, provided that ninety-nine others can be found who will subscribe in 
the same manner. We published in our last number, a letter from a gen- 
tleman in Charleston, S. C. expressing his wish to be considered one of the 
number. Two other individuals, whose names we are not now at liberty to 
mention, have resolved to join in this great work of charity. We cannot, 
however, withhold the following letter, the spirit of which we pray may 
pervade many minds. 

Newark, March 15, 1828. 
Rev. and dear Sir: 

I duly received your communication on the subject of 

Mr. Gerrit Smith's proposition of raising funds for the Colonic 

zation Society. I ardently hope, that it may be cherished by at 

least a hundred friends. 

With our disappointed expectations in New Jersey, in the 
cause of African Education, you are acquainted — these and 
other difficulties have led me fully into Mr. Smith's conclusion, 
"that the only present channel for our labours in behalf of Af- 
rica and her unhappy children on our shores, is that which the 
American Colonization Society opens up." 

You will please, therefore, receive this as my stipulation to 
become one of the hundred subscribers to pay one hundred dol- 
lars each for ten years, payments to be made on the 1st of July 
of each year. And may He, who has the hearts of all men in 

182 8. J. Death of Dr. William Thornton., 3i 

his hands, bring to this blessed enterprise the patronage, it so 
much needs and deserves. 

With great regard, Yours truly, 

Rev. R. R. Gurley. 

Deatl\ of "Dr. William Thornton. 

"With heartfelt sorrow we record the death of Dr. William 
Thornton of this city, a devoted friend of our Society, and 
from its origin a highly valued member of the Board of Mana- 
gers. Gifted with rare genius and endowed with most amiable 
and philanthropic dispositions, he engaged with deep interest 
and untiring zeal in the cause of African improvement, and 
indeed, in every scheme which he considered favourable to 
human liberty and happiness. The project of African Colo- 
nization, first suggested by Doctor Fothergill, (who is styl- 
ed by Biissot "the great Apostle of Philanthropy,") and 
partially executed by Granville Sharp, excited the benevo- 
lent enthusiasm of Doctor Thornton while quite a young man, 
and he generously proposed himself to become the conduc- 
tor of American Negroes to the country of their ancestors.-— 
Though unable to secure funds adequate to the execution of this 
purpose, he still cherished the hope that a plan so patriotic and 
beneficent would ultimately be adopted by the American people, 
and rejoiced in the establishment of the American Colonization 
Society, as an evidence that this hope was not to be disappointed. 

Punctual and faithful in his attendance on the deliberations of 
the Board, liberal towards the sentiments of others, while ex- 
pressing with candour and firmness his own opinions, with a spi- 
rit that would quickly glow with indignation at deeds of inhu- 
manity or baseness, or yield prompt and joyous praise to gene- 
rous and noble actions, his occasional peculiarities of thought 
sprung from ardent enthusiasm in the cause of man, an enthusi- 
asm not easily satisfied with the present progress of improve- 
ment, but high-wrought with the anticipations of a better age. — 
The grief of the Board on the occasion of the decease of this la- 
mented individual, is expressed in the following Resolutions: — ■ 

32 Contributions. [ftlarch, 

Office of the Colonization Society, Washington, March 29, 1828. 

At a meeting- of the Board of Managers of the American Colonization So- 
ciety, called for the purpose of paying- an honourable and merited tribute of 
respect to the memory of Dr. William Thobnton, late one of its zealous 
and much esteemed members, the following- preamble and resolution^ were 
unanimously adopted : 

This Board having heard with very deep regret of the death of Dr. Wil- 
liam Thornton, one of its earliest and most highly valued members, and 
whose loss must be severely felt by the friends of Africa and mankind; 

There fore. Revoked, That, as a tribute of respect to the memory of the de- 
ceased, the members of this Board will attend his funeral, and that they will 
wear crape on the left arm for thirty days. 

Ecxolvcd, That the above preamble and resolution be transmitted to the 
family of the deceased, and published in the National Intelligencer of this 

C owtYibwtioiis 

To the American Colonizatian Society, from 1st March to 1st 

April, 1828. 

An association of Ladies of the two Presbyterian Churches, Rich- 
mond, Va., to constitute Rev. Jonas King a life member, $30 

Literary Society, Romney, Va., per Wm C. Woodrow, Esq. Sec. 26 

Collections per Mr. Tappan of Boston, as follows: 

From North Yarmouth and Cumberland — 4th July last, 18 36 
Harvey Sessions, Newport, for Repository for 1827, ... 2 

From Westhampton, Mass. — 4th July, 13 08 

From Southampton, Mass 4th July, 8 58 

From South Hadley, Mass., 1st Parish, 12 

From East Hampton, 7 58 

From a Lady in Greensborough, Vermont, 1 

From Hendley, Mass.— 4th July, 17 03 

From individuals in Ashfield, Mass 2 68 

From Executors of the late Aaron Woodman, of Boston, 250 
"Female Society in Dedham, for educating children in 
Africa," to constitute Rev. Mr. Searle a life member, 30 

362 31 

Jasper Corning, Esq., of Charleston, S. C. — his first payment un- 
der the proposition to contribute the same sum annually for ten 

vears, on condition that 100 persons can be found to do the same, 100 

Tlios. P. Wilson, Esq., of Bockville, Md 10 

Collections by Rev. B. O. Peirs, as follows: 

In Doct. Herron's Church, Pittsburg, 22 55 

Auxiliary Society, Pittsburg, 42 

Do. Maysville, 60 

Rev. Mr. Todd's Church, Flemingsburg, 15 

Mr. Smith's Church, Frankfort, 4 

Mr. Coxe, of Maysville, 5 

Repository, 4 

152 55 

$680 86 





Vol. IV. APRIL, 18Z8. No. 2. 

Of Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, with a Statis- 
tical account of that Kingdom, and Geographical Notices of 
other parts of the Interior of Africa. By Edward Bowdich, 
Esq., Conductor. London, 1819. 

(Continued from p. 13.) 

Our last number contained a minute account of the very im- 
posing circumstances which attended the entrance of Mr. Bow- 
dich and his companions into Coomassie, the capital of Ashan- 
tee. "A range of spacious but ruinous buildings" were allotted 
to them for a residence, and several days elapsed before they 
were permitted to make known, publicly, the objects of their 

They were invited to "speak their first palaver" in the mar- 
ket, that all the people might understand it. Here they foun4 
the King, "encircled by the most splendid insignia and sur- 
rounded by his caboceers," Mr. James, "through his linguist, 
declared to the King's, (who are alone allowed to speak to him 
in public) that the objects of the mission were friendship and 

commerce"— that the English desired that §ome ©ne of their na* 

34 Review of Mission from Cape [April ? 

tion might be permitted to reside at Coomassie, and that a direct 
path should be opened to Cape Coast Castle. He assured the 
King that the valuable presents which they had brought, would 
convince him that they were acting with perfect sincerity and 
good faith. 

Shortly after this interview, the King requested that the pre- 
sents should be sent to his own house. This it w r as supposed 
was from policy, to prevent any favourable bias on the part of 
the caboceers and people towards the mission, which a publiG 
exhibition of them might produce. 

When the packages were opened, nothing could exceed the 
pleasure and surprise of the King. — "Englishmen", said he, ad- 
miring the workmanship of the different articles, "know how to 
do every thing proper." "This showed him that the English 
were a great people, that they wished to be friends with him, to 
be as one with the Ashantees; this made him much pleasure to 
see, and he thanked the King of England, the Governor of Cape 
Coast Castle, and the officers who brought the presents, much, 
Very much." 

Thus far every thing seemed prosperous. The King sent his 
messenger to repeat his expressions of gratitude for the gifts 
which had been bestowed on him. The mathematical and astro- 
nomical instruments were greatly admired, particularly the tele- 
scope and camera obscura, and called forth the exclamation, that 
"Englishmen knew more than Dutchmen or Danes — that black 
men knew nothing." Suddenly, however, a difficulty occurred 
of a very alarming nature, and which came near to defeating all 
the purposes of the mission. The following is the account given 
of it by Mr. Bowdich, which we insert for" the purpose of strik- 
ingly illustrating the disposition of the King, and showing the 
necessity of promptness and resolution in dealing with such rude 
and undisciplined minds. 

"The King- then ordered our people to be dismissed, said he would look 
at the telescope in a larger place, that now he wished to talk with us. He 
again acknowledged the gratification of Tuesday, and desired Mr. James 
to explain to him two notes which he produced, written by the Governor 
in chief, at the request of Amooney, King of Annamaboe, and Adokoo, 
Chief of the Braflbes, making over to Sai, King of Ashantee, four ackies 
p'er month of their Company's pay, as a pledge of their allegiance, and the 

1828.] Coast Gastle to Jshantee*. 3.5 

termination of hostilities. The impression seemed instantly to have rooted 
itself in the King's mind, that this was the Governor's individual act, or that 
he had instanced it? his countenance changed, his counsellors became en^ 
raged — they were all impatience, wc all anxiety. 'Tell the white men,' 
said the King", 'what they said yesterday made me much pleasure; I was 
glad we were to he friends; but to-day I see they come to put shame upon 
my face; this breaks my h< art too much. The English know, with my 
powder, with my own shot, I drove the Fantees under their forts; I spread 
my sword over, they were all killed, and their books from the fort are mine 
I can do as much for the English, as the Fantees: they know this well; they 
know that I have only to send a captain, to get all the heads of the Fantees. 
These white men cheat me; they think to make 'Shantee fool; they pretend 
to make friends with me, and they join with the Fantees to cheat me, to 
put shame upon my face: this makes the blood come from my heart.' This 
was reported by his linguist with a passion of gesture and utterance scarcer 
ly inferior to the King's; the irritation spread throughout the circle, and 
swelled even to uproar. 

"Thus much was inevitable (says Mr. Bowdich in his communication to 
the Governor); it was one of our anticipated difficulties; it was not a defeat, 
but a check; and here originates our charge against Mr. James, whom we 
declare to have been deficient in presence of mind, and not to have exert- 
ed those assurances and arguments, which, with a considerate zeal, might 
at least have tended to ameliorate the unjust impression of the King, if no.t 
to have eradicated it. Mr. James said, 'the Governor of Cape Coast Castle 
had done it, that he knew nothing about it, that he was sent only to make 
the compliments to the King, that if the King liked to send a messenger 
with him, he was going back, and would tell the Governor all that the King 
said.' This was all that was advanced. Was this enough for such a mis- 
sion to effect* The King repeated, 'That he had expected we had come 
to settle all palavers, and to stay and make friends with him; but we came 
to make a fool of him.' The King asked him to tell him how much had 
been paid on these notes since his demand — that he knew white men had 
large books which told this. Mr. James said he had seen, but he could 
not recollect. Nothing could exceed the King's indignation — 'White men', 
he exclaimed, 'know how many months pass, how many years they live, 
and they know this, but they wont tell me; could not the other white men 
tell me?' Mr. James said 'we never looked in the books.' 

"Mr. James's embarrassment had not only hurried him to extricate him- 
self, as an individual, at the expense of his own dignity and intellect, but, 
which was worse, he had thrown the whole onus of this invidious transac- 
tion on the shoulders of the Governor in Chief; against whom the King's 
prejudice would be fatal to all, and whose interest in his honour was most 
flattering to the King, most auspicious to us and the hopes of the mission; 
not only the future prosperity, but the present security of the settlements 

36 Review of Mission frdm Cape [April, 

hung upon this, and the dagger was at this moment suspended by a cob- 
web. Mr. Bowdich urged this in the ear of Mr. James, urged the danger 
of leaving the King thus provoked, the fatal sacrifice of every object of the 
mission, the discredit of the service, the disgrace of ourselves. Mr. James 
replied, 'he knew the Governor's private sentiments best.' 

"The Moors of authority seized the moment, and zealously fanned the 
flame which encircled us; for the King looking in vain for those testimonies 
of British feeling which presence of mind would have imposed, exclaimed 
as he turned his ears from the Moors, 1 know the English come to spy out 
the country; they come to cheat me; they want war, they want war.' Mr. 
James said, 'No! we want trade.' The King impatiently continued, 'They 
join the Fantees to put shame upon my face; T will send a captain to-mor- 
row to take these books, and bring me the heads of all the Fantees under 
the forts; the white men know I can do this, I have only to speak to my 
captains. The Dutch Governor does not cheat me, he does not shame me 
before the Fantees; he sends me the whole four ozs. a month. The Danes 
do not shame me, and the English four achies a month is nothing to me; I 
can send a captain for all; they wish war.' He drew his beard into his 
mouth, bit it, and rushing abruptly from his seat, exclaimed, 'Shantee foo! 
Shantee foo! Ah! ah!' Then shaking his finger at us, with an angry as- 
pect, would have burst from us with the exclamation, 'If a black man had 
brought me this message, I would have had his head cut off before me.' — 
Mr. James was silent. Not a moment was to be lost. Mr Bowdich stood 
before the King, and begged to be heard; his attention was arrested, the 
clamours of the council gradually abated; there was no interpreter but the 
one Mr. James brought from his own fort, and no alternative but to charge 
him promptly in the Governor's name, before reflection could associate the 
wishes of his master, to speak truly. Mr. Bowdich continued standing be- 
fore the King, and declared "that the Governor wished to gain his friend- 
ship more than he could think;' that we were sent not only to compliment 
him, but to write what he had to say to the Governor, and to wait to tell his 
answer to the King, and to do all he ordered; to settle all palavers, and to 
make Ashantees and English as one before we went back. That the Gov- 
ernor of Accra (Mr. James) was sick and in pain, and naturally wished to 
go back soon, but that himself and the other two officers would stay with 
the King until they made him sure that the Governor was a good friend to 
him That we would rather get anger and lose every thing ourselves, than 
let the King think the Governor sent us to put shame on him; that we would 
trust our lives to the King, until we had received the Governor's letter to 
make^ him think so, and to tell us to do all that was right, to make the 
Ashantees and English as one; and this would show the King we did not 
come to spy the country, but to do good.' Conviction flashed across the 
countenance of the interpreter, and he must have done Mr. Bo\vdich*B 
speech justice; for the cheerful aspect of the morning was resumed in every 

1828.] Coast Castle to Ashantee. S7 

countenance. The applause was general; the King (who had again resum- 
ed his seat) held out his hand to Mr. Bowdich, and said, 'He spoke well; 
what he spoke was good; he liked his palaver much/ " 

I >> 

By this energy on the part of Mr. Bowdich, the great difficul- 
ty which threatened defeat to the purposes of the mission, seem- 
ed to be removed. The preceding extract is from the joint let- 
ter of Messrs. Bowdich, Hutchison, and Tedlie, to the Governor 
of Cape Coast Castle, in consequence of which Mr. James was 
recalled, and Mr. Bowdich appointed Principal in his place. — 
The Moors exerted themselves continually, to prevent the suc- 
cess of the English. Two days after the interview of which we 
have just given some account, Mr. Bowdich and his associates, 
were conducted a short distance out of town, to an assembly of 
Moorish Caboceers and dignitaries, and required to swear upon 
the Koran that they had put no poison in the King's liquor.—* 
This they refused to do, but offered to take oath upon their own 
prayer books. The King's linguist requested them to strike the 
Koran thrice, and make the desired declaration, because the 
Moors said, that the book would kill them if they spoke false- 
hood. Having done this, they received about two hours after- 
wards, the following present from the King: — 

"One Bullock, two Pigs, eight ounces of Gold, for Mr. James. 

"One Sheep, two ounces four ackies of Gold, for each of us. 

"To each of the numerous Fantee Messengers, ten ackies of 

"To our Cooks, a large assortment of pots and country ves- 
sels, 100 large billets of wood, 100 Yams, 100 bunches of Plan- 
tains, four of Sugar Cane, four (24 gallon) pots of Palm Oil, 
three jars of Palm Wine. 

"To the Soldiers, ten ackies of Gold. 

"To the Accra Linguist, ten ackies of Gold." 

This was not the only instance of the King's liberality; it was 
repeatedly manifested in an equal degree, whenever he was gra 
lifted with the conduct of the mission. Mr. Bowdich declares 
the sentiments of the King on one occasion, to have been "in- 
credibly liberal, and such as would have ennobled the most civi- 
lized Monarchs." The palace is thus described: 

"On Saturday we were summoned to the King, and waited as usual, b 

3& Review of Mission from Cape [April, 

considerable time in one of the outer courts of the Palace, which is an im- 
mense building of a variety of oblong courts and regular squares; the for- 
mer with arcades along the one side, some of round arches symmetrically 
turned, having a skeleton of bamboo; the entablatures exuberantly adorned 
with bold, fan, and trellis work of Egyptian character. They have a suit 
of rooms over them with small windows of wooden lattice, of intricate but 
regular carved work, and some have frames cased with thin gold. The squares 
have a large apartment on each side, open in front, with two supporting 
pillars, which break the view, and give it all the appearance of the prosce- 
nium of front of the stage of the older Italian Theatres. They are lofty 
and regular, and the cornices of a very bold cane work in alto relievo. A 
drop curtain of curiously plaited cane is suspended in front, and in each 
we observed chairs and stools embossed with gold, and beds of silk with 
scattered regalia. The most ornamented part of the palace is the residence 
of the women. We have passed through it once: the fronts of the apart- 
ments were closed (except two open door ways) by pannels of curious 
open carving, conveying a striking resemblance at first sight to an early Go- 
thic screen: one was entirely closed and had two curious doors of a low 
arch, and strengthened or battened with wood work, carved in high relief 
and painted red. Doors chancing to open as we passed, surprised us with 
a glimpse of large apartments in corners we could not have thought of; the 
most secret appeared the most adorned. In our daily course through the 
palace there is always a delay of some minutes, before the door of each of 
the several distinct squares is unlocked; within the innermost square is the 
Council Chamber." 

The appearance of the King on one occasion, is thus de- 
scribed: — 

"He was encircled by a varied profusion of insignia, even more sumptu- 
ous than that we had seen before, and sat at the end of two long files of coun- 
sellors, caboceers, and captains; they were seated under their umbrellas, 
composed of scarlet and yellow cloth, silks, shawls, cottons and every glar- 
ing variety, with carved and golden pelicans, panthers, baboons, barrels, 
crescents, &c. on the top; the shape generally a dome. Distinct and pom- 
pous retinues were placed around, with gold canes, spangled elephants' 
tails to brush off the flies, gold headed swords, and embossed muskets, and 
many splendid novelties too numerous but for a particular report. Each 
had the dignitaries of his own province or establishment to his right and 
?eft; and it was truly a "Concilium in concilio." This magnificence seem- 
ed the effect of enchantment. " 

On one occasion the embassy proceeded to Sallagha, a town 
situated at a considerable distance to the North East of Coomas- 
sie. Here the King received them with every mark of attention 
and respect. He anxiously inquired if they had breakfasted, 

1&2&.] Coast Castle to Askantte. S9 

and ordered refreshments. In a house prepared for their recep- 
tion, they found soups, stews, plantains, yams, rice, &c. (suffi- 
cient for an army, all excellently cooked) wine, spirits, oranges, 
and every fruit. About two o'clock dinner was announced. 

"We had been taught to prepare for a surprise, but it was exceeded. — 
We were conducted to the eastern side of the croom, to a door of green 
reeds, which excluded the crowd, and admitted us through a short avenue 
to the King's garden, an area equal to one of the large squares in London. 
The breezes were strong and constant. In the centre four large umbrellas 
of new scarlet cloth were fixed, under which was the King's dining table, 
(heightened for the occasion) and covered in the most imposing manner; 
his massy plate was well disposed, and silver forks, knives, and spoons, 
(Col Torrane's) were plentifully laid. The large silver waiter supported a 
roasting pig in the centre; the other dishes on the table were roasted 
ducks, fowls, stews, pease, puddings, &c &c. On the ground on one side 
of the table were various soups, and every sort of vegetable; and elevated 
parallel with the other side, were oranges, pines, and other fruits; sugar 
candy, Port and Madeira wine, spirits and Dutch cordials, with glasses. 
Before we sat down the King met us, and said: that as we had come out to 
see him, we must receive the following present from his hand: two ounces, 
four ackies of gold — one sheep and one large hog for the officers — ten 
ackies to the linguists, and five ackies to the servants. 

"We never saw a dinner more handsomely served, and neve? ate a 
better. On our expressing our relish, the King sent for his cooks and 
g-ave them ten ackies. The King and a few of his captains sat at a distance, 
but he visited us constantly, and seemed quite proud of the scene; he con- 
versed freely, and expressed much satisfaction at our toasts: — "The King 
<of Ashantee, the King of England, the Governor, the King's Captains, a 
perpetual union (with a speech which is the sine qua non,) and the hand- 
some women of England and Ashantee." After dinner the King made ma- 
ny inquiries about England, and retired as we did, that our servants might 
clear the table, which he insisted on. When he returned, some of the 
wine and Dutch cordials remaining, he gave them to our servants to take 
with them, and ordered the table cloth, to be thrown to them and all the 
napkins. A cold pig, cold fowls, (with six that had not been dressed) 
were despatched to Coomassie for our supper. We took leave about five 
•'clock, the King accompanying us to the end of the croom, where he took 
our hands and wished us good night." 

One great object of the mission, the ratification of a treaty of 
peace, friendship and commerce, could not be effected without 
repeated explanations from the Governor of Cape Coast Castle. 
Four months therefore elapsed, before Mr. Bowdich's return be- 

40 Latest from Liberia. [April, 

came possible, without leaving unaccomplished, a principal de- 
sign of the expedition. During this period no pains were spared 
to acquire information in reference to the character, government 
and customs of Ashantee* the geography and natural history of 
the neighbouring tribes, and of the interior,* and on all these 
subjects the work before us is full of interest. We must post- 
pone further notice of it however, until our next number. 

(7b be continued.) 

liatcst from TAberia. 

(Concluded from p, 25-) 

The Schools of the Colony continue to receive the attention 
which their importance demands. But the want of erudition in 
our instructors, is sorely felt. 

The want of school books is likewise a great impediment to 
the progress of elementary education in the Colony; and I beg 
pardon for reminding the Board of the plan I took the liberty to 
propose to them a few months since, for supplying the Colony 
with school books, by engaging some respectable Bookseller, 
whose capital should bear him out in the design, to make ample 
consignments to some commission merchant of the Colony, on 
such terms as shall pay him for the risk incurred. 

In the chain of great moral causes and effects, it may be no 
trivial event, that a school has been opened by the Baptist Mis- 
sionaries of the Colony, 35 miles in the interior from Cape Mount, 
and 65 or 70, from Montserado, under very flattering auspices, 
for the instruction of the children of the Vey nation. Its direct 
management is confided to a pious and prudent young man, six 
years in Africa — and superintended generally, by the Missiona- 
ries, Carey and Lewis. It commenced with 35 scholars — and 
is decidedly patronized by the Prince, and first Chiefs (King 
there is none at this time) of the nation — who declare it to be 
their intention to clothe, and train in all respects to the habits of 
civilized life, all the youth who receive instruction at this school. 

The experiment of the Infirmary of Invalids, established on 
the 15th of August last, perhaps, answers its design fully. Its 

1828.] Latest from Liberia. 41 

average number of members, including invalids and poor, is 20. 
Three-fourths of this number are sufferers from ulcerated feet, 
ancles, and legs. It is found that patients, some of whom were 
thought to be incurably afflicted, most certainly recover under 
the treatment followed in this Institution — and in less than half 
the time which they formerly suffered in arriving at a cure. — 
The expense attending the establishment is less than the original 
estimate. But the patients earn less — as most of the cases are 
judged by the physician of a nature not to admit of the exercise 
of the limbs, by any sort of labour which we have yet been able 
to introduce. 

Present state of the Infirmary of Invalids, Nov. 28. 

Patients, Confined of ulcerated limbs, 13 

" not recovered from sickness caused by climate, 2 

" Decays of age, 1 

African Women (Norfolk's company) having no other 
places — and put in the Infirmary to be employed, in- 
cluding their children, 9 

Poor, Orphan, and other friendless Children, 5 

Superintendent, • •••• 1 

Of this number, it is seen, that fifteen out of thirty-one, are 
in perfect health — and one afflicted with a disorder, which would 
certainly have overtaken her in America. Of the 2 reported there 
from the effects of fever, one has obtained his discharge and this 
moment left me; the other is nearly well. Of the thirteen cases 
of ulcers, one half will be discharged in four weeks. Without 
the Infirmary there is no sickness, and very few cases of diseas- 
ed limbs, or even of slight indisposition, within my knowledge 
(none therefore that has attracted the notice of the Commission- 
ers of Health). Three deaths, of which two were of aged peo- 
ple, have occurred since my last. , 

*Note. — December 22, — last report for December: 

Ulcers, 8 

Age, 1 

Africans, assisting", and supported at the Infirmary, 9 

Poor children, 3 

Superintendent, ...,,,.,,.,..».*..... i • * •• l-*-22 5 of 
whom 13 are in good health, 

42 Latest from Liberia. [April, 

It is important to be reported to the Board, as a fact in 
the history of the health of the Colony, well attested by ex- 
perience, that persons advanced in age, are almost sure to \ 
abridge by several years, the length of their lives, by removing 
to this country. They are not particularly liable to be cut oft* 
by the first impression of the fever — but generally sure to be 
worn out by slow degrees, within a very few years afterwards. 
The mind sympathises with the body, and both gradually sink 
together. But it is otherwise with the vigorous and the young. 
They readily adapt their habits to the peculiarities of the African 
life — and enjoy the most perfect health. It is but little, indeed, 
that the aged can gain on the most favourable supposition, by re- 
moving to this Colony. Eight in ten shorten their days by it. 
And it is my decided opinion, that they ought to end their lives 
where they have worn. them out; and not be sent out to Africa, 
merely to save America a grave to rest their bones in. Thej 
cannot contribute to multiply their race — which is itself an apo- 
logy for their remaining in America, and an objection to their 
transportation to the Colony. — And, on this point, indulge me 
in remarking, further, that we, on this side the water think we 
sometimes discover reasons why certain individuals do, and cer- 
tain others do not, leave America, which may have escaped the 
agents in that country. 

Admitting the popularity of the scheme at home, to require 
the indiscriminate acceptance of every man that may be offered 
as a candidate for transportation — yet, at this stage of our set- 
tlements, it is altogether unquestionable, that the welfare of 
the Colony requires no little discrimination in the selection of 
emigrants. — In 1824, the Colony was saved by the seasonable 
arrival of three or four scores of select emigrants from Virginia. 
It is not impossible even now, for as many thousands, sent out 
without selection, to overthrow it. A man of sound principle 
and sterling worth, and much more, a well trained, industrious 
and virtuous family, is beginning to be appreciated as an impor- 
tant accession to our community. Not that such individuals 
or families are not already numerous — but the sphere of every 
man's influence, placed on so raised an eminence, as he must 
here occupy, is so wide, as to make it desirable, were the thing 
possible, that we should have few, or none of opposite character. 

j 8.] Latest Jrom Liberia. 43 

Caldwell, December 7, 1827. 
The militia of the Colony has undergone an important change, 
in its organization this season. As intimated in my last, the 
compulsory system, which has so often left the militia of the U. 
States to disgrace their country, in the face of an enemy, by 
their want of science, discipline, and (in consequence) of firm- 
ness, has been exploded. It is not possible to introduce into 
any militia system, the severity of military law — consequently 
the efficiency of militia, must depend on such qualifications as 
are the growth of the voluntary principles of human nature.—- 
But where the military spirit is not sufficiently active to engage 
the soldier, under reasonable encouragements, to improve, and 
perfect himself, without compulsion, in the military art — it is 
not sufficient to make him a soldier under any circumstances ap- 
plicable to the people of the Colony. 

Certain fatigue services, and much drudgery connected with 
the defence of the Colony, there is to be done — and as this duty 
Requires nothing but a pair of able hands, it is divided in the 
shape of a labour-tax amongst all the settlers. But the duty of 
bearing arms, and of enrolment in the serviceable militia of 
the Colony, is left to the public spirit of the people. And I am 
pleased to be able to state, that there are but about half a dozen 
able-bodied men, not specially exempted, who are not, by volun- 
tary enrolment, members of an uniformed corps. 

The oldest of these companies, is Captain Barbour's Light In« 
fantry — composed of select young men, completely armed and 
equipt, highly disciplined (relatively) — and consisting of about 
forty men. Uniform, light blue, faced with white. 

The next, in age, is Captain Davis's, (Caldwell,) heavy In- 
fantry. Uniform, white with blue bars — well armed and ac- 
coutred, and indifferently well disciplined. It has, at the pre- 
sent moment, fewer men than the Light Infantry, but will dur- 
ing the ensuing season become the larger company. 

The third is a company of Light Artillery, Monrovia, compos- 
ed of select young men — completely uniformed and equipt, and 
having been lately organized on the new principle, consists of 
only about thirty men. But, as this corps is exceedingly popu- 
lar, it must very rapidly increase for some time to come. Capt. 
Devany is the present commander of the corps. Its uniform, 
deep blue with red facings. 

44 Latest from Liberia. [April, 

The fourth corps is also a newly organized Artillery compa- 
ny, commanded by Captain Prout — and belongs to Caldwell. 
Its number is nearly equal to Captain Devany's. 

No. 5. is properly a detachment of twenty Guards, under 
Lt. Johnson; enlisted, or drafted for one year from the body of 
the citizens, for the exclusive purpose of manning Fort Norris 
battery. These guards being liable at any moment, to be called 
to their posts by a signal gun from the battery, ought to be in 
high discipline. We endeavour to make them perfect in all 
that relates to the management of garrison ordnance. When 
stationed for the protection of foreign vessels, or for the deten- 
tion of vessels attempting to violate the port, or commercial re- 
gulations of the Colony, they are entitled to be paid each man, 
five cents per the hour. 

Besides this guard, a subaltern officer, at a compensation of 
18 dollars per month, is stationed constantly at Fort Norris 
battery, where he resides with his family. His duty is to keep 
the guns, armament, and ammunition of the battery, in a state 
of complete readiness for service. He is charged with the sig- 
nals of the Colony; by means of which every vessel that ap- 
pears, with all its movements, and every circumstance relating 
to it, is instantly announced to the Agent, or officer of the 
guard, in town. 

Two-thirds of this officer's pay is from the store house; one 
third from the colonial treasury. 

The Tower on Crown Hill has not been resumed this season. 
Central Fort is slowly advancing towards completion, on the 
plan sent home, last winter. The three pentagonal, two-story 
Towers at the angles, were erected, and roofed, and used even 
before the last rains, as green houses. But they want plaster- 
ing, and some additional work about the port -holes. The three 
walls connecting these angular works into one, and covering the 
principal battery of the Fort, are now laving — and without un- 
known interruptions, will be completed during the present dry 

The Market House, of which a plan was sent home nearly 18 
months ago, and a part of the materials at that time collected, 
after having been suspended from time to time since, is now pro- 
ceeding with fresh spirit. The work was dropped in 1 826, in 

1828.] Latest from Liberia. 45 

consequence of a part of the settlers withholding their quota of 
the money required for its erection, from a disagreement as to 
its situation. And I did not feel authorized to make so large 
an appropriation of the public funds, for such a building, as a 
partial and limited contribution on the part of the people to the 
work, would require. — Its site is Central Avenue, a little to the 
Eastward of the centre of the present settled part of the town. 

A neat, but small building of two stories has been erected 
since my last, for a Colonial Dispensary. Hitherto, not only 
great inconvenience has been the consequence of having no 
building: in which our medicines and hospital stores might be 
disposed in an orderly manner, but much loss by damage and 
waste, has been suffered from the want of one. The basement 
story is of mason-work — the upper, frame — well plastered in- 
side, and painted without. The building will cost about $270, 
and be completed in the month of January. 

It is not my intention to erect many new buildings this sea- 
son — but direct my attention to the completion of such as are 
already erected, but not entirely finished. — Of these, are the 
new Agency house, into which I have determined, in case of 
the continuance of my life, to remove on the first day of March. 
The Piazza — much more expensive than the body of the house, 
is now nearly completed. But little remains to be done to the 
house, except the Venitian work — plastering and painting. 
Some out-houses and additions must be constructed — but these 
I shall defer to another season — as they are not at present abso- 
lutely required. — I am now employed in walling in the public 
premises, both at the Cape, and at Caldwell — a work very ne- 
cessary; but as the Cape lot embraces an acre of ground — and 
the Caldwell buildings occupy more than two acres, it will be 
attended with great labour, and considerable expense. 

The United States' Buildings at Stockton have also to be 
painted — some of them plastered — and all underpinned this sea- 
son; as also the Public Receptacle on the St. Paul's. The last 
named item of building, except at Monrovia, is very expensive, 
as we must either use bricks, or transport every stone the dis- 
tance of 4 to 7 miles from the Cape, not a stone being to be 
found in either of the other settlements. 

The recaptured Africans, introduced per the Norfolk, gener- 

46 Latest from Liberia. [April, 

ally retained their health through the first months — but there 
were in all, from 40 to 50 exceptions. All are now in perfect 
health — and in a condition vastly improved. They have more 
than equalled our highest anticipations; proving to be generally 
orderly, easily governed, and willing to labour. They have, 
indeed, proved an acquisition to the Colony; as they supply the 
places of vagrant country labourers, whose object in hiring; to 
the settlers, in short terms of one or two months at a time, have 
commonly been, less their wages, than the means of committing 
depredations on their employers. — I have retained in the public 
service for the year, at Monrovia, seven men and three wives — 
at the Infirmary, three women, and three children — and at 
Caldwell, four men, two women, and a child, total 21. — The 
residue have places among the settlers. — At the end of the year, 
(or in August 1828,) I am pledged to grant to all such as de- 
serve them, lands on the Stockton and elsewhere. — I have judg~ 
ed it sufficient, at first, to allow to single men two acres; and to 
married, three. This will suffice for several years to come-— 
and better even make to the industrious and deserving a second 
grant subsequently, than grant them the choice of the public 
lands in unnecessary quantities, before it can be known whether 
they possess sufficient industry and enterprise to reduce them to 

After the first of January it is intended that a Packet Boat, 
large enough to accommodate 20 passengers with their baggage, 
will ply every second day between Monrovia and Caldwell, and 
return on the intermediate days; touching at Stockton Town, and 
the halfway farms, going and returning. — Such an accommoda- 
tion has become almost indispensable, the intercourse between 
the settlements, particularly from Caldwell to Monrovia, and 
from Monrovia to the halfway farms, having grown too frequent 
and large for individuals to provide themselves with the means 
of conveyance. It is not improbable, that two or three years 
will produce a demand for Steam-boat Engines in the Colony. 
A single Boat of about forty tons could, at this moment, be 
employed with advantage and economy, to ply, one half the year, 
between Monrovia, and all our factories. The climate is 
destructive to all machinery intended to work with exactness, 
unless kept in constant use; and it is only the circumstance of 

1828.] Latest from Liberia. 4? 

being obliged to lay up a Steam-boat for half of the year, that 
prevents an immediate application for one. 

It was stated in former communications, that I had entered 
on a negotiation with "Mama," the proprietress of the North 
half of Bushrod Island, the object of which was, in the Ameri- 
can phraseology, "to extinguish her title" to all the lands form- 
ing the right, or Western bank of the Stockton. Since I began 
this letter, I have effected the ceremony of executing the deed 
ceding to the Colony this tract of land. The cession was agreed 
upon several months ago. Enclosed (See Paper A) is the deed. 
A settlement had already been commenced on this tract, oppo- 
site to Caldwell, of which it is designed for the present, to form 
a part. We have thus occupied Bushrod Island; which, contain- 
ing a tract of 20,000 acres of fine, level land, is destined at some 
future period, and that not very remote, to become the orchard 
and granary of the Montserado district of Liberia. 

Monrovia, Dec. 18, 1827. 

To-day arrived in our Roads the schooner Susan, Edwards, 
of and from Baltimore, after the very uncommon passage of 70 
days. Passenger, John Henson, a colonist, who brings advice 
of the outfit of a transport with 100 emigrants — whose arrival 
may be expected in January. 

Capt. Edwards brings an assorted cargo, which will readily 
sell for wood; but the articles are not in sufficient demand to 
sell readily for Ivory or dollars. 

The sooner the emigrants now arrive the better. We have 
shelters ready for their reception — and have so systematized the 
provisioning department, as to be put a very little out of our 
ordinary course, by the addition of 1 to 2 hundred settlers — an 
event, which, two years ago, would have reduced the whole 
Colony, for a month or more, to a "make-shift." 

It must have occurred to the Board of Managers, that their 
colonists have put them hitherto, to very great expense, for 
their support after they reach this country. It has occupied a 
large share of my attention the year past — and I believe the plan 
hitherto acted upon, is susceptible of considerable improvement 
in point of economy. Six months' support has been afforded to 
all without distinction, or other exceptions, than of such indi- 
viduals as proved able to take care of themselves. 

48 Latest from Liberia* [April, 

The improvement proposed, is, to provide all with comforta- 
ble houses for a reasonable term, gratuitously; and, as far as 
prac i cable, with tools and implements of husbandry. Thus far, 
all are to be assisted, unconditionally, and equally — but no far- 
ther. Every man is immediately to have his building lot, and 
other lands, laid off and assigned to him — and encouraged with- 
out delay, to proceed to occupy and improve them; and to such 
as actually do so, such farther aid, in the way of provisions, 
coarse clothing, &c. will be afforded, as the supplies on hand 
will allow, and the diligence of the settlers individually, entitle 
them to. All others^ if mechanics, are expected to exercise 
their trades; if farmers, will be put to work on the public farm, 
and paid according to their earnings — chiefly in provisions, and 
common materials for clothing, with a few building materials. 

Few. under these circumstances, will long delay to fix them- 
selves on their own premises, and spend their labour on their 
own improvements. 

The sick, for the time being, must receive their subsistence, 
as well as medical treatment, at the public expense. But so 
soon as they are struck from the sick list, let them be replaced 
on the common footing of the other new emigrants in health. 

The aged — some single women — and particularly single wo- 
men with large families, are obliged to be a greater burden on 
the public funds — and must have a large part of their support 
at the public expense, for 6, 9, and even 12 months. With 
the approbation of the Board, I will make a thorough experiment 
of this method — which I must beg leave to observe, cannot be 
well attested in any other way. Of one point, I have not a 
doubt — and that is, that a very great reduction can be effected 
in the expenses incurred on account of settlers after their arrival 
in the Colony: and it is a subject too deeply affecting the whole 
scheme of colonization, not to receive immediate and constant 
attention. I am sensible, that much depends on the Agent in 
this country. But he requires the advice and instructions of 
the Board; and much may certainly be done towards lightening 
future expenses, by not only suffering, but encouraging all emi- 
grants to bring all their tools, implements, cooking and domes- 
tic utensils, except such bulky articles alone, as it would be 
manifestly absurd to lumber a ship with* When tools, &c. are 

i828.] Latest from Liberia. 49 

bought for, or by emigrants, they ought, if for mechanics, to 
be of course, those of their trades — otherwise, to consist almost 
wholly of Axes, broad and narrow, a large supply; — Hbes 9 
hilling and grubbing; — Picks; Spades; Bill-hooks; Saws, whip, 
cross-cut, and hand; Files; Froivs; Drawingknives; and Jack and 
Fore Planes. 

To these tools, add nails; and your emigrants are equipt for 
their first two years' work. 

Friday, December 21, 1827. 

Arrived, the U. States' ship, "Ontario," returning home from 
the Mediterranean — from Gibraltar, the 11th of Nov. Captain 
Nicolson has kindly offered to take charge of letters. This gen- 
tleman has, since his arrival, taken unwearied pains to ascertain 
from personal inspection, the true state, and I think has quali- 
fied himself to judge correctly of the prospects of the settlers.—* 
His ship will probably remain five days at the Cape. 

Same day, arrived from Basle, by way of England and Sierra 
Leone, a pioneer of the Swiss Mission, to be established in Li- 
beria. In May last, three Missionaries, Handt, Hegele, and 
Sessing, all single, were deputed by the Evangelical Society of 
Bashi for Liberia. They arrived in England in June — where, 
pursuant to instructions, they remained till the 11th of Novem.- 
ber — when they went on board, at London, of an English ship, 
bound to Sierra Leone; but were obliged, by stress of weather, 
to put back into Portsmouth. On the point of sailing from that 
port, Hegele received a wound on the head, by the falling of a 
block, which, it was feared, would prove mortal. He was con* 
veyed on shore, and necessarily left to the providence of God, 
and the care of Christian friends; while the two others, Messrs. 
Handt and Sessing, proceeded on their voyage, and arrived at 
Sierra Leone about the 10th of the present month. On the 
12th, the U. S. ship Ontario, leaving Sierra Leone for Liberia, 
Capt. Nicolson generously offered the Missionaries a passage to 
this place. It was not possible, however, for a public vessel to 
bring more than a very small part of the very ample stores with 
which the munificence of European Christians had furnished these 
devoted servants of God and man, on their final departure from 
their native country. Only one could, therefore, accept of 

50 Latest from Liberia, [April, 

Capt. N's. overture, and Mr. Sessing has accordingly arrived 
here by that ship, on the 21st. Mr. Handt awaits at Sierra 
Leone, a passage for himself and the missionary property, to 
this Colony. 

But these two gentlemen are only the pioneers of a much 
larger force, nearly ready to follow. Two more were on 
the point of leaving Switzerland, when these left England, and 
may be expected in two months' time. Dr. Blumhardt has 
written me, in the name of the Directing Committee of the Basle 
Evangelical Institution, a letter full of the most excellent senti- 
ments — and of paternal and affectionate concern for the young 
men of the Mission. It is needless to say, that they possess the 
entire confidence of that judicious and excellent man, and his 
very respectable associates — and that all temporal views, in the 
formation of this Christian establishment, are utterly discarded. 
Too much is, perhaps, left to my discretion, in regard to the se- 
lection of a site for the mission, and in recommending the mode 
of carrying it on, and the arrangement of its temporal concerns. 
While the civil and religious departments of the Colony arc 
preserved as distinct, as interests so infinitely dissimilar in their 
nature and importance should be, nothing can have a more salu- 
tary influence, both on the Colony and surrounding tribes, than 
a well conducted Christian Mission in the hands of pious and 
enlightened men. 

For what is civilization, — regard either its real value to ra- 
tional and immortal beings, or its intrinsic nature and character, 
without the Christian religion? Two hundred years' constant 
intercourse with Europeans, has left the people of the coast less 
intelligent, less industrious, lower in the scale of human nature, 
and more debased in moral principle, than the heathen tribes of 
the interior which never saw a white man. 

The gentlemen of the Mission are all liberally educated — and 
all either possess mechanical trades, or have been accustomed 
to agriculture. I expect them to remain a few months in our 
settlements, to learn to stand the climate — and then proceed to 
some station not upon the sea coast, nor yet, at too great a dis- 
tance in the interior, and to sit down under the protection of 
the Colony. At present, it appears likely they will fix their 
first station some where among the leeward tribes, who speak 

1828.] Report made to Congress* 51 

the Bassa language — perhaps, on one of the smaller islands in 
the St. John's River, about 8 or 9 miles from its mouth. But 
nothing has yet been certainly determined. Their whole lives 
are devoted to the work of evangelizing and civilizing these 
tribes; and may they receive a great reward in that world to 
which they look for it. 

Eight coloured people, natives of the United States, and all 
capable of great usefulness, and recommended in strong terms 
by Capt. Nicolson, have buen discharged from the "Ontario," 
and received at the Colony, as probationers for citizenship. — 
They have received in drafts on the United States, and other- 
wise, nearly three years' wages — which, well managed, will set 
ihcm all up in business at once. 

Capt. N. also deserves, in behalf of the Colony, my very par- 
ticular acknowledgments. Having, at Gibraltar, notice of the 
destination of his ship, he was at the pains to procure for the 
Colony, from Tunis, a collection of most of the useful garden 
and other seeds, of African production. These, with other 
seeds collected in the Archipelago and Asia Minor, he has left 
in my hands. Our hope is, that they may so far succeed as to 
seed the Colony permanently with such species of the different 
vegetables as shall be natural to the climate, which we have in 
vain attempted to do with the American species. 

Capt. N. has, greatly to his own credit, and my gratification, 
evinced not only a favourable disposition, but anxious solicitude 
for the advancement of your Colony — of which he has given 
more substantial proofs than by mere professions. 
Respectfully, Gentlemen, 
I have the honour to remain 

Your obedient servant, 


IWgort o£ t\ve Select Com. to Cotvgxess. 

Many of our friends will doubtless read the following Report 
with deep interest. We have ever believed that the great work 
so auspiciously commenced by the Society, must be completed 

52 Report made to Congress. ^ April, 

by the pow^r of the States and the Nation. We hail with de- 
light, therefore, every indication of a friendly disposition, either 
on the part of the State Legislatures or the Federal Govern- 

Mr. Mercer, from the Select Committee appointed on the subject, made 
the following- Report: March 3, 1827. 

■The Committee to whom were referred sundry memorials of the American Colo- 
nization Society, of citizens of various portions of the United States, together 
with the resolutions of the Legislatures of the States nf Delaware and Ken- 
tucky, inviting the aid of the Federal Government to colonize in Jlfrica, with 
their own consent, the free people of colour of the United States, report: 

That the memorials and resolutions present to the consideration of Con 
gTess an object which must be regarded as of the highest importance to the 
future peace, prosperity, and happiness of the United States. 

Surrounded with difficulties, in proportion to the magnitude of the inten- 
ests that it involves, has been the circumspection with which the committee 
have approached it. Could they hope that the evil, to which the memorl^ 
als and resolutions point, would find a remedy in silent neglect, or could be 
mitigated by concealment, they would ask to be discharged from its further 
investigation. The peculiar delicacy of another topic, almost insepara- 
ble, in imagination at least, however distinguishable in truth, from the pur- 
pose of the several memorials and resolutions referred to them, would in- 
duce the committee to avoid its consideration, if a sense of duty, prompted 
by the hope that their labour may not be in vain, did not urge them to pro- 
ceed in the delicate task imposed upon them by the order of the House. 

Its object, the committee are well aware, is not novel, nor even now for 
the first time, presented to the notice of Congress. 

It involves an inquiry into the expediency of promoting, by the authority 
and resources of the General Government, the colonization of the free peo- 
ple of colour, beyond the territorial limits of the United States. 

The existence of a distinct race of people, in the bosom of the United 
States, who, both by their moral and political condition and their natural 
complexion, are excluded from a social equality with the great body of the 
community, invited the serious attention and awakened the anxious solici- 
tude of many American statesmen, as soon as the unhappy traffic which had 
annually multiplied them, ceased to be regarded as innocent. A part of 
them, once held by the same tenure which originally introduced them all 
into America, were, in some of the United States, liberated before, and in 
others, by, the revolution. In many States, however, their total number 
was, as it still continues to be, so great, that universal or general emancipa- 
tion could not be hazarded, without endangering a convulsion fatal to the 
peace of society. No truth has been more awfulty demonstrated by th« 

IB28.T Report made to Congress* 53 

experience of the present age, than that to render freedom a blessing, man 
must be qualified for its enjoyment; that a total revolution in his character 
cannot be instantaneously wrought by the agency of ordinaiy moral and 
physical causes, or by the sudden force of unprepared revolution. 

Still, in many States of the American Union, all the coloured population 
are now free; and, in others, so circumstanced as still to render universal 
emancipation dangerous to the public happiness; large bodies of free 
coloured people have arisen, from the influence of humanity in the master, 
under a system of laws which, if they did not promote, did not till recently 
prohibit, voluntary enfranchisement. The enlargement of the rights of the 
coloured race extend, however, to very various limits in the different States. 
In no two, perhaps, has it precisely the same extent. In none does it ef- 
face all civil and political distinctions between the coloured man and the 
white inhabitant or citizen. Over moral influences mere laws have every 
where less power than manners. No where in America, therefore, has 
emancipation elevated the coloured race to perfect equality with the white; 
and, in many States, the disparity is so great that it may be questioned 
whether the condition of the slave, while protected by his master, however 
degraded in itself, is not preferable to that of the free negro. Nor is this 
any where so questionable as in those States which have both the greatest 
number of slaves and of free people of colour. It is, at the same time, 
worthy of remark, that, among these t the principle of voluntary emancipa- 
tion has operated to a much greater extent than the laws themselves, or the 
principle of coercion upon the master has ever done even among those 
States who had no danger, whatever, to apprehend from the speedy and 
universal extension of human liberty. So little ground is there, in fact, to 
be found among the different sections of the Union for those uncandid re- 
proaches which, where not reproved, as alike impolitic and unjust, are cal- 
culated to sow the seeds of lasting jealousies and animosities among socie* 
ties of men whose best interests are indissolubly connected, and who have 
only to know each other, intimately, to be as cordially united by mutual es- 
teem as they are by a common government. 

All must concur, however, in regarding the present condition of the free 
^coloured race in America as inconsistent with its future social and political 
advancement, and, where slavery exists at all, as calculated to aggravate 
its evils without any atoning good. Among those evils, the most obvious 
is the restraint imposed upon emancipation by the laws of so many of the 
slave holding States: laws, deriving their recent origin from the obvious 
manifestation which the increase of the free coloured population has furnish- 
ed, of the inconvenience and danger of multiplying their number where 
slavery exists at all. 

Their own consciousness of their degraded condition in the United States, 
has appeared to the North as well as the South, in their repeated efforts to 
find a territory beyond the limits of the Union to which they may retire, 

,4 Jieport made to Congress* [April? 

and on which, secure from external danger, they may hope for the enjoy- 
ment of political as well as civil liberty. 

The belief that such would and should be their desire, and a conviction 
that the voluntary removal of this part of the population of the U. States 
would greatly conduce to the future happiness of the residue, have turned 
the anxious attention of many private citizens, and the Legislatures of 
several States, to the expediency of affording to them the means of colo- 
nizing a territory in Africa. 

Anterior to the year 1806 three several attempts to procure a country 
suited to this object, had been secretly made by the General Assembly of 
Virginia, through a correspondence between the Executive of that State 
and the President of the United States. 

The last, but, at the same time, the earliest public effort to attain this 
object, was made by the Legislature of the seme State, in December, 1816, 
some time before the formation, in the City of Washington, of the Ameri- 
can Society for colonizing the free people of colour. The design of this 
institution, the committee are apprized, originated in the disclosure of the 
secret resolutions of prior Legislatures of that State, to which may also be 
ascribed, it is understood, the renewal of their obvious purpose in the reso- 
lution subjoined to this report: a resolution which was first adopted by 
the House of Delegates of Virginia, on the 14th of December, 1816, with 
an unanimity which denoted the deep interest that it inspired, and which 
openly manifested to the world a steady adherence to the humane policy 
which had secretly animated the same councils at a much earlier period.— 
This brief and correct history of the origin of the American Colonization 
Society evinces, that it sprung from a deep solicitude for Southern inter- 
ests, and among those most competent to discern and to promote them. 

Founded by the co-operation of several distinguished statesmen, co-op- 
erating with many patriotic and pious citizens, the American Colonization 
Society, for colonizing the free people of colour, soon received the counte- 
nance of the Legislature of Maryland, and, succeeding it, at shorter or lon- 
ger intervals, the unequivocal approbation of the States of Georgia and 
Tennessee, as it has very recently done of Delaware and Kentucky. 

To these have been added, during the prosecution of its benevolent de- 
sign, the favourable opinions and pious aspirations for its success, of almost 
every religious society in the United States. 

To these influences, and to the success of its measures, it may be ascrib- 
ed, that private subscriptions to the extent of near sixty thousand dollars, 
have co-operated with the collateral aid of the American Government in 
founding the present flourishing Colony of Liberia. On two several occa- 
sions, in the years 1825 and 1826, the General Assembly of Virginia have 
voted, at the request of the Society, a small pecuniary aid to its resources \ 
and that of Maryland has, by a fixed annuity, very lately concurred in a 
similar benefaction. These acts may be regarded as an earnest of the con- 

1 828.] Report made to Congress. 53 

tinued adherence of both States to the opinions which they have repeated- 
\y expressed in behalf of the object of the American Colonization Society. 
The success of the Society, however, so far as it has advanced, is attribu- 
table, under Heaven, mainly to the persevering- zeal and prudence of its 
members, and to the countenance and aid which it has both merited and 
received from the Federal Government. 

The last annual report of the Society, which is hereto annexed, and the 
following- extracts from the various reports and resolutions of former com- 
mittees of the House of Representatives, charged, from time to time, with 
an inquiry into the most effectual means of suppressing the African Slave 
Trade, will show the present condition of the Colony which the Society 
have planted on the coast of Africa; its present relation to the Federal Go 
vernment; and the character and extent of the aid which it has derived from 
the national resources. The prosperity of the Colony, your committee are 
assured by the report and memorial of the Society, surpasses the most san- 
guine hopes of its early founders, and furnishes conclusive evidence of the 
capacity of such communities, spread along the coast of Africa, not only to 
abolish, effectually, that inhuman traffic which has hitherto baffled the com- 
bined efforts of the Christian world, but to afford, on this oppressed conti- 
nent, the long-sought asylum to such of its free descendants in America, as 
may choose to return to the land of their progenitors. 

The aid hitherto derived by the Society from the co-operation of the Fe- 
deral Government, has been limited to the execution of the act of 1819, un- 
der "the just and liberal construction" given to it, by the late President of 
the United States, in honour of whom, the chief town of the Colony has re- 
ceived a name which it will hand down, it may be hoped, to remote poste- 
rity, as a perpetual memorial of the wisdom and benevolence of the nation, 
over which he presided. 

This construction harmonized the benevolent spirit of the act of Congress 
of 1807, which sought to abolish the American branch of the African slave 
trade, with the constitutional obligations of the General Government, to 
the several States, and to the Union. 

The memorialists found, on views yet more enlarged, an application to 
the General Government for more extended aid; and, sustained as they are, 
by their own weight of character, and the approving voices of so many 
States; by the wishes of so large a portion, indeed, of the American people; 
these views are entitled to the most respectful consideration. 

They request the Congress of the United States to assume the govern- 
ment and protection of the Colony of Liberia, and to furnish to the free 
people of colour, in America, the means of defraying the expense of their 
voluntary removal to the continent of their ancestors. 

Objects of greater interest, though not now pressed, for the first time, on 
the consideration of Congress, have rarely been brought to the notir 
this Government. 

56 Meport made to Congress- [April, 

The first inquiry which they suggest, refers the Committee to the power 
of the Federal Government to gTant the prayer of the memorialists; the next, 
to the exprdiency of doing so. 

Th f.ommittee entertain no doubt, whatever, but that the Government 
of the United States has the constitutional power to acquire territory; and 
that the people of every inhabited country, so acquired, must be regarded 
as standing, towards the Federal Government, in the relation of colonial de- 
pendence, till admitted as co-ordinate States with the common Union. 

The inhabitants of every portion of the former Northwestern Territory, 
deriving their birth from the thirteen original States, and possessing the 
right of emigration, were, strictly speaking, recognized colonies of their 
common mother country, as are, at present, the territories of Arkansas, 
Michigan, and Florida. They had not the right of self-government, nor 
have these; but they were, or are, dependent, for their laws, upon the 
Congress of the United States. Such territories, with their inhabitants, 
can, in no sense, be regarded as the colonies of any particular State, being 
made up of emigrants from all the States to the common territory of all, and 
the power to govern them has been exercised, at all times, under the un- 
questioned and indisputable authority of the Union. 

No State having the power to enter into any negotiation for the acquisi- 
tion of foreign territory, the authority to make a treaty for that object must 
and does, vest in the United States, or it exists no where. This reasoning 
is in accordance with the past history of the United States, and the tenor of 
the earliest report upon this subject from a Committee of this House. But, 
while this Committee recognize, in the Federal Government, the power to 
negotiate for the acquisition of territory, and to govern it and its inhabitants 
when acquired, as a Colony, they are not prepared, at present, to admit 
the expediency of doing so, in relation to the people and territory of Afri- 
ca. Were the exercise of such a power deemed, by the Committee, indis- 
pensably necessary to the benevolent and useful purposes of the memorial- 
ists, a decision on the expediency of the measure proposed, would be in- 
volved in greater difficulty, and inspire the deepest solicitude. But, the 
Committee entertain a different opinion. The Colonial Agent of the Ame- 
rican Society has experienced, especially of late, very little difficulty in 
procuring accessions of territory. No such difficulty need hereafter be ap- 
prehended, or none that mere pecuniary aid would not promptly obviate. 
Nor, for the protection of the Colony against a civilized enemy, does it ap- 
pear to your Committee to be required, that the United States should as- 
sume over it any jurisdiction or power of political and civil government— 
The fatality of the climate of tropical Africa to the constitution of the white 
man, forms one source of the security of any Colony of persons capable df 
withstanding its influence. Against the predatory incursions of the feeble 
tribes in the neighbourhood of the American Colony, its own strength man- 
ifestly suffices for its defence; and, from the power of the maritime States 

18£8.] Report made to Congress. 57 

of Europe and America, and the agitations and dangers of their frequent 
wars, the humanity of the world would afford a better protection than the 
flag- of any single State, however powerful. 

While the Colony of Sierra Leone was subject, as is that of Liberia at 
present, to the moral control of a society of private gentlemen, it was 
once, during the disorders of the French Revolution, attacked by a 
French squadron; but, such was the indignation awakened by this act of 
wanton barbarity, that it was promptly disavowed by the Revolutionary 
Government of France: and, in all the subsequent wars of Great Britain, 
such an act has never been repeated, or even apprehended. * 

To render this moral protection more authoritative, your Committee beg 
leave to recommend to the House, in conformity with the report of a for- 
mer Committee acting in relation to the same subject, the adoption of a 
resolution, requesting the President of the United States to "enter upon 
"such negotiations as he may deem expedient, with all the maritime Pow- 
" crs of the Christian world, for the purpose of securing to the Colony of 
" Liberia," and such other colonies as may be planted on the African coast, 
for like purposes, so long as they may merit it, "the advantages of a per- 
petual neutrality." 

Against the hazard, which must, however, shortly cease, if it has not al- 
ready done so, arising from the desperate enterprises of those piratical ad- 
venturers who frequent the African coast, for the purpose of carrying on a 
trade now prohibited, North of the Equator, by all nations, and continued 
to the South by Brazil and Portugal alone, the growing strength of the Col- 
ony, aided by the frequent presence of the American flag in its vicinity, 
will furnish adequate security. To provide for its internal tranquillity, an 
assumption of its government, by the United States, would seem at first to 
be of greater moment. To the future peace and prosperity of the Colony, 
it may appear to be an indispensable guarantee. Some of the memorialists 
have so regarded it. 

But as a responsibility, involving political considerations of no small mag- 
nitude, would, of necessity, attach to the exercise, by the United States, of 
a sovereign jurisdiction over a remote territory and people, the committee 
have been led, in conformity with the principles which they have already 
laid down, to consider it more prudent to trust the internal government of 
the Colony to the administration b)' which it has been, hitherto, so success- 
fully conducted. 

A mixture of the control of other magistrates than those of the same co- 
lour with the colonists, to be drawn, for that purpose, from the white popu- 
lation of the United States, might possibly arouse in other States, as well as 
in the colonists themselves, jealousies which do not at present exist, while 
no small sacrifice of human life would be the obvious consequence of at» 
tempting to sustain an authority over the Colony by the force of any other 
power than that moral control which repeated benefactions, a sense of gratis 

58 The Crisis: [April, 

tude, and the dictates of interest, may long preserve to its American found- 
ers, and their successors. 

When its population and power shall entitle Liberia to rank, as it may, 
and in all human probability will, hereafter do, among the civilized States of 
the Earth, negotiation will keep open and improve the avenue which, in its 
feeble, though yet flourishing condition, it now ofFers to the admission of 
the coloured race from America. Thus it may continue to subserve all the 
benevolent and useful purposes which its early patrons and friends had in 
view, without subjecting it to entangling alliances with, or a degrading de- 
pendence upon, any other political community. 

The power and the expediency of affording pecuniaiy aid to the volun- 
tary removal of the free people of colour, from America to Africa, are ques- 
tions presenting to the committee fewer difficulties. 

It is not easy to discern any object to which the pecuniary resources of 
the Union can be applied, of greater importance to the national security 
and welfare, than to provide for the removal, in a manner consistent with the 
rights and interests of the several States, of the free coloured population 
within their limits. And your committee would not hesitate to accompany 
this report with a resolution recommending, with suitable conditions, such 
an appropriation, did not the public business remaining to be disposed of, by 
the present Congress, preclude the hope, if not the possibility, of obtaining 
for such a resolution the sanction of this House. 

They close their report, therefore, with an earnest recommendation of 
the prayer of the memorialists, and the accompanying resolutions of the 
States of Kentucky and Delaware, to the early attention of the next Con- 

"T\\e Crisis, 

Or Essays on the Usurpations of the Federal Government." 

A pamphlet, with the above title, of 166 pages, has recently 
been published in Charleston, South Carolina. It is an extraor- 
dinary production. The adoption of any measures by the Fede 
ral Government in aid of the Colonization Society, (and the Ta- 
riff and Internal Improvements are regarded with a like spirit,) 
is denounced as a most wicked usurpation, justifying on the part 
of South Carolina, not only remonstrance but rebellion. Rather 
than submit to such usurpation, the author declares himself rea- 
-dy for war, or even disunion. He compares himself to 

1 828. J The Crisis. §& 

Cassandra, and in this respect we doubt not the resemblance will 
hold good — that his ravings will be disregarded. To examine 
these essays generally, is not our present purpose. When not 
better employed, we may give them some attention. Our ob- 
ject now, is to show by one or two short extracts, how little re- 
liance is to be placed upon the statements of this writer; and 
leave our readers to conjecture, if such are his assertions, what 
must be his arguments. The following is the account given of 
our Journal. 

"It (the Colonization Society) causes to be published, at the seat of 
Government, under its immediate auspices, a monthly Journal, which it 
styles the "African Repository," published by order of the Managers of the 
Society. It is in this periodical that are constantly disseminated, the senti- 
ments which are to make the slave dissatisfied with his condition, and the 
master doubtful whether he ought to hold in subjection his slave. It is here 
that we have essays, in which the system of servitude is pourtrayed in colours 
the most frightful and disgusting-. It is this Journal in which the tales are to 
be told, and the anecdotes related, of the cruelty of owners to their slaves. And 
it is here again, that are recorded the examples of those silly mortals who sa- 
crificed their wealth upon the altars of a moral enthusiasm; who think they 
aggrandize their country by manumitting their slaves, and thus letting loose 
beings, neither fitted, by education or by habit, for freedom; and who must 
be a walking pestilence wherever they go. It is in this Journal, that are 
constantly expressed, those mischievous forebodings, 'that the time must 
come, when the oppressed must rise against the oppressor with a desolating 
vengeance.' " 

Now we appeal to the candour of our countrymen, and ask, 
is the above a fair representation of our work ? Have we aimed 
to excite discontent among slaves ? Have we sought to render 
the owners of slaves odious, by retailing anecdotes of their cru- 
elty ? Every honorable man will do us the justice to answer no. 

Again, the Essayist remarks that, 

"The negro Colony has been established ten years, and now consists of 
about 600 poor wretches, who would be very glad, no doubt, to return if 
they could." 

Compare this with the account of Capt. Nicolson, who visited 
the Colony in the Ontario, and who cannot possibly be supposed 
guilty of misrepresentation. His words are, 

'•The population is now 1,200, and is healthy and thriving. The appear 

60 Letter from a Gentleman in S. Carolina. [April, 

ance of all the Colonists, those of Monrovia as well as those of Caldwell, 
indicated more than contentment. Their manners were those of freemen, 
who experienced the blessing-s of liberty, and appreciated the boon. Ma- 
ny of them had, by trade, accumulated a competency, if the possession of 
from three to five thousand dollars can be called so." 

Who but one under the influence of a disordered imagination, 
could have penned such a sentence as the following? 

"The abolitionists of Philadelphia, by a gTeat effort, have just returned 
as a member to Congress, Mr. Sergeant; and that the labours of this Wilber- 
force of the western world, in the next CongTess may not be in vain, the 
seat of the operations of the Abolition Society, is to be transferred from 
Philadelphia to Washington, that in conjunction with the Colonization So- 
ciety, and the labours of Judg-e Washington, of the Supreme Court, that 
great National object may be accomplished: — The Rdik of the South- 
ern States ! ! ! 

The parts of the preceding sentence in capitals, were so print- 
ed by its author. We leave him for the present, wishing to him 
4 "mens sana," when he may again attempt to instruct the public. 

liettfcY fYom a Gentleman in S. Carolina. 

We have reason to believe that many of the most respectable 
citizens of South Carolina, entirely approve of the design of our 
Institution. All the virtuous and religious will, we doubt not, 
be with us, when they correctly understand our objects. The 
misrepresentations and abuse of our enemies will finally place 
the true character of our Society in a stronger light, and give to 
our cause a nobler triumph. The "crisis" is indeed near, when 
the people of the South will feel that our Institution has special 
claims to their efforts, since its success would confer on them 
peculiar benefits. We publish the following from a Gentleman 
in South Carolina with great pleasure. 

"I have just read the Eleventh Annual Report of the American Coloniza- 
tion Society, together with the 36th number of the African Repository, with 
great satisfaction. I am extremely glad to hear of the generar\nterprising 
spirit which is now in exercise, among many of the free-born sons of Ame- 
rica, in behalf of that unfortunate race of the human family, whom we have 
among- us. While our philanthropy, generosity, and goodwill have abound- 

i828.] Anthony Benezet., 64 

ed towards heathen nations, sympathies have at length been aroused in fa- 
vour of that oppressed part of our species, the commonness of whose de- 
plorable case, and the selfish interest that many had in them, made it a mat- 
ter of no concern, with even the Christian and the professedly humane for 
many past years. 

"But I thank the Lord, that at length the thunders of conscience and 
justice have awakened to action many, who, till lately, cared but little 
about the miserable slave, or the degraded free black man; and that they 
are now active in the great work of colonizing- the free people of colour in 
the land of their forefathers. Though a slave country has been the place 
of my nativity, yet I hope ever to cherish that principle of right, which, 
unvitiated by interest or prejudice, rejoices at the welfare of the poor Afri- 
cans, and at every effort which is made to better their condition," 

Anthony lienezet. 

In 1786, four years before Mr. Wilberforce made his eel ebraU 
ed motion in the British Parliament for the Abolition of the 
Slave Trade, Dr. Rush delivered a discourse before the 
American Philosophical Society, from which we make the fol- 
lowing quotation. The sentiment it contains, affords striking 
evidence of the sagacity of its author, and proves that amid hi3 
investigations and discoveries in medical science, he found time 
to reflect profoundly upon the influence of moral causes on the 
character and conduct of nations. Dr. Rush could discern in 
"the labours, the publications, the private letters, and prayera 
of Anthony Benezet," a power which, in its progress, though 
it might be silent and slow, would be resistless and sure ; which 
accumulating and expanding among future generations, would 
accomplish the most glorious revolution in favour of human hap- 
piness — sweep from the face of the earth the most intolerable 
evils, and cover the wide territories of the unenlightened and 
oppressed, with the habitations of civilized life and with the 
churches of God. 

"The State of Pennsylvania still deplores the loss of a man, in whom not 
only reason and revelation, but many of the physical causes that have been 
enumerated, concurred to produce such attainments in moral excellency, 
as have seldom appeared in a human being 1 . This amiable citizen consider- 
ed his fellow-creature man as God's extract, from hi* own works; and 

62 Masonic Liberality. fApril, 

whether this image of himself was cut out from ebony or copper: whether 
he spoke his own or a foreign language; or whether he worshipped with 
ceremonies or without them, he still considered him as a brother, and 
equally the object of his benevolence. Poets and historians, who are to 
live hereafter, to you I commit his panegyric; and when you hear of a law 
for abolishing slavery in each of the American States, such as was passed in 
Pennsylvania in the year 1780/ when you hear of the Kings and Qtieens of 
Europe, publishing edicts for abolishing the trade in human souls,- and lastly, 
when you hear of schools and churches, with all the arts of civilized life, being 
established among the nations of Africa; then remember and record, that this 
revolution in favour of human happiness, was the effect of the labours, the 
publications, the private letters, and the prayers of Anthony Benezet." — [Dn 
Bush's Inquiry, Uc. 

We find in the Montpelier Patriot, an Address of Hon. Phi- 
nehas White, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of this state, 
made to that Lodge on declining a re-election. It breathes a 
most excellent spirit — urging the duty of active beneficence, 
with an earnestness that well becomes a Grand Master, who 
would have Masonry benevolent, not in name only, but "in deed 
and in truth." In the discharge of the duties of his office, he 
last summer laid before the several Lodges in the state, the 
claims of the Colonization Society, which he again stated at 
some length in his Address. The result has been that the 
Grand Lodge at its late meeting, adopted the following resolu- 

Resolved, That this Grand Lodge, highly approving of the objects of the 
American Colonization Society, present the sum of $100 as a donation in 
aid of the funds of that Society. 

Another resolution adopted at the same time, appointing a 
committee on the establishment of a Grand Lodge at Liberia, may 
be considered as evidence that so much interest is felt on this 
subject, that this donation will be followed by others. 

The following sums were received of subordinate Lodges, by the Grand 
Secretary, as donations to the Colonization Society. Of Federal Lodge 
No. 15, at Randolph, $10, — of Warren Lodge No. 23, at Woodstock, 
$10, — of Social Masters No. 19, at Williamstown, $20,-— of Rural Lodge 
No. 52, Stockbridge, $10. — [Vermont Chronicle". 

J.828.J Postscript. 6: 


Despatches up to March the third, were received from the 
Colony by the Schooner Randolph, just as this sheet was going 
to press, and we have opportunity only to say, that the affairs of 
the Colony appear to be generally prosperous. The Doris, Ran- 
dolph and Nautilus had all arrived in safety. It is with pain 
that we add, that the emigrants by the Doris, have since their 
arrival suffered severely by sickness, and among those from the 
of Virginia, a more than usual number of deaths (24) has 
o urred. The Doris had along passage of sixty -one days. This 
d Libtless (having produced, as was ascertained, a scorbutic taint 
in the system) had some effect upon the subsequent health of those 
who embarked in her. Mr. Ashmun had been very ill, but was 
thought to be convalescent. Further information must be post- 
poned until next number. We publish the following from the 

Colonial Agent. 


J. Ashmun, Agent A. C. S. for the Colony of Liberia, takes this method 
of acknowledging-, generally, the receipt of numerous valuable and esteem- 
ed communications, and a variety of donations, from the friends of the Col- 
ony in the United States, by the Brigs Doris and Nautilus, and the Schoo- 
ner Randolph, all of which vessels arrived in Liberia between the ,15th of 
Jan. and the 19th of Feb. inclusive; and adds with regret, that a severe 
illness, which has laid him aside from the 5th of Feb. to this date, renders it 
utterly impossible to reply to those favours in the manner they deserve. — 
Should a merciful Providence restore to him sufficient health, one of the first 
duties to which it shall be devoted, will be to satisfy the claims of these es- 
teemed correspondents and benefactors of the Colony. 

Monrovia, February 29, 1828, 

The last London Missionary Register says, "The American 
Colony at Liberia possesses, it must be acknowledged, very 
great advantages over every other on the Coast, for all the pur- 
poses of benevolence and piety." — [Vermont Chronicle* 

64 Contributions. [April, 


To the American Colonizatian Society, in April, 1828. 
Auxy. Society, Washington co., Maryland, per S. Steele, Esq. Tr. $29 

Rev. Otis Thompson, Rohoboth, Mass 2 

Thomas White, Esq., Cambridge, Md 4 

Repository, 58 

Collections in North Carolina, by the Rev. James Nourse, viz: 

J. Orkney, Washington, Beaufort county, $2 

J. Fowle, do. do. 2 

P. Brown, Murfreesborough, 2 

Miss Ann E. Winns, 2 75 

J. C . Stanley, Newbern, 5 

Dr. E. Hawes, do 25 

Rev. J. Crowdcr, 1 10 

Rev. L. D. Hatch, 10 

Miss Bendict, Raleigh, 2 

Cash from three persons, Cumberland, 50 cts. each, ... 1 50 
Cumberland County Auxiliary Colonization Society, ... 30 

James Webb and Wife, Orange county, 4» 

Elizabeth Waters, do. 

Eliza G. Hascll, do. 

Dennis Heart, do. ....... 

W. Kirkland, do. 

James Child, do. 

Professor Hooper, Chapel Hill, 5 

J. W. Norwood, a balance collected, 55 

Collection in Church, Murfreesborough, 15 50 

Do. do. Newbern, 5 50 

Do. do. Chapel Hill, July 1827, 10 75 

Repository subscriptions paid him, 6 

135 65 

Collections by C Frye, Jefferson county, per Bcnj. Waters, ..... 7 5C 

Rev. Rob. Logan, Fincastle, Va — collected in 1825, 10 

Rev. Mr. Davis, of Methodist Church, Washington, D. C, for col- 
lections by Ministers of his Church, as follows, viz: 

Rev. Robt. Barnes, $3 

John Rhodes, 6 

John Munroe, 1 62 £ 

John White, 7 37} 

Wm. Pretty man, 4 06| 

Th. Magee, 10 

52 06 

Mr. & Mrs- Maynadier, Annapolis, Md 2 

Rev. Jos. Caldwell, Chapel Hill, N. C 10 

» King Solomon Lodge No. 6, Gallatin, Tenn., per S. D. Ring, Esq. 20 

$310 21 






Tol. IV. IVIAY, 1S2S. No. 3. 


Of Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, with a Statis- 
tical account of that Kingdom, and Geographical Notices of 
ether parts of the Interior of Africa, By Edward Bowdich, 
Esq., Conductor. London, 1819. 

(Continued from p. 40.) 

The well-directed and persevering efforts of Mr. Bowdicli 
finally resulted in the establishment of a treaty of peace and 
friendly intercourse, between the kingdom of Ashantee and 
Cape Coast Castle, and it was agreed that a British Officer 
should be constantly permitted to reside in Coomassie. Having 
therefore instructed Mr. Hutchison to remain, Mr. Bowdich, af- 
ter encountering numerous difficulties, both in taking his depar- 
ture, and in prosecuting his journey, returned to Cape Coast. 

The remainder of this volume is occupied with a very minute 
and valuable account of the History, Population, Government 
and Laws; Superstitions, Customs, Language, Trade, Arts and 
Commerce of Ashantee; with a Diary, kept by Mr. Hutchison, 
during his residence in its Capital. It also contains a sketch 
of Gaboon, and a few remarks in reference to future missions 
into the interior. 

bo Review of Mission from Cape [M&yV 

To illustrate successfully, the important information obtained 
by Mr. Bowdich, of the Geography of Africa, would require a 
Map, which circumstances do not permit us at this time to pre- 
sent to our readers. We pass over, therefore, this portion of 
the work, with the single remark, that the countries bordering 
upon Ashantee contain a population far more numerous, wealthy 
and powerful, than we had imagined; and open a vast and entire- 
ly unexplored field, for the inquiries of future adventurers. 

Of the History of Ashantee, founded principally upon vague 
traditionary testimony, we will give but a few of the more pro- 
minent particulars. In his investigations on this subject, Mr. 
Bowdich was obliged to encounter the absurd superstition of the 
natives, "that to speak of the death of a former King, affects 
the life of the present equally with inquiring who would be his 
successor; and to converse of either is made a capital crime by 
the law." Hence information was to be derived principally from 
the Moors, whose recent establishment in the country could 
not justify entire confidence in the accuracy of their statements. 

"According to a common tradition, which I never heard contradicted 
but once, the Ashantees emigrated from a country nearer the water side, 
and subjecting the western Intas, and two lesser powers, founded the pre- 
sent kingdom. These people being comparatively advanced in several 
arts, the Ashantees necessarily adopted a portion of their language with 
the various novelties; which probably created the limited radical difference 
between their language and that of the Fantees; for I could not find, after 
taking the greatest pains, more than two hundred words unknown to the 
latter. The weights of the Inta country, in particular, were adopted with 
their names, by the conquerors, without the least alteration. 

"The Ashantee, Fantee, Warsaw, Akim, Assin, and Aquapim languages 
are indisputably dialects of the same root; their identity is even more strik- 
ing than that of the dialects of the ancient Greek: now the Fantees and 
Warsaws both cherish a tradition, which exists also in many Ahanta fami- 
lies, that they were pressed from the interior to the water side by the suc- 
cessful ambition of a remote power; whence it may be concluded, that the 
Ashantee emigration we are now considering, was posterior to a more im- 
portant movement of the whole people, corresponding with that of their 
neighbours. I will not dilate upon this secondary subject by referring to 
internal evidence, there is nothing to recompense either the investigation 
or the perusal. 

"One curious evidence however may be added of the former identity of 
the Ashantee, Warsaw, Fantee, Akim, Assin, Aquamboe, and part of the 

1828.] Coast Castle to Jlshantee. 6? 

Ahanta rations; which is a tradition that the whole of these people were 
originally comprehended in twelve tribes or families; the Aquonna, Abroo- 
too, Abbradi, Essonna, Annona, Yoko, Intchwa, Abadie, Appiadie, Teh- 
weedam, Agoona, and Doomina; in which they class themselves still, with- 
out any regard to national distinction. For instance, Ashantees, Warsaws,, 
Akims, Ahantas, or men of any of the nations before mentioned will sever- 
ally declare, that they belong to the Annona family; other individuals of 
the different countries, that they are of the Tchweedam family; and when 
this is announced on meeting, they salute each other as brothers. The 
King of Ashantee is of the Annona family, so was our Accra and one of the 
Fantee linguists; Amanquatea is of the Essonna family. The Aquonna, 
Essonna, Intchwa, and Tchweedam, are the four patriarchal families, and 
preside over the intermediate ones, which are considered as the younger 
branches. I have taken some pains to acquire the etymology of thes* 
words, but with imperfect success; it requires much labour and patience, 
both to make a native comprehend, and to be comprehended by him.— 
Quonna is a buffalo, an animal forbade to be eaten by that family. Abroo- 
too signifies a corn stalk, and Abbradi a plantain. Annona is a parrot, but 
it is also said to be a characteristic of forbearance and patience. Esso is a 
bush cat, forbidden food to that family. Yoko is the red earth used to 
paint the lower parts of the houses in the interior. Intchwa is a dog, much 
relished by native epicures, and therefore a serious privation. Appiadie 
signifies a servant race. Etchwee is a panther, frequently eaten in the in- 
terior, and therefore not unnecessarily forbidden. Agoona signifies a place 
where palm oil is collected. These are all the etymologies in which the 
natives agree. Regarding these families as primaeval institutions, I leave 
the subject to the conjectures of others, merely submitting, that the four 
patriarchal families, the Buffalo, the Bush Cat, the Panther, and the Dog, 
appear to record the first race of men living on hunting; the Dog family, 
probably, first training that animal to assist in the chase. The introduction 
of planting and agriculture, seems marked in the age of their immediate 
descendants, the Corn stalk and Plantain branches. The origin and im- 
provement of architecture in the Red earth; and of commerce, probably, 
in the Palm oil: indeed, the natives have included the Portuguese, the first 
foreign traders they knew, in that family, alleging, that their long and 
more intimate intercourse with the blacks, has made the present race a 
mixture of the African and Portuguese The Servant race reminds us of 
the curse of Canaan. This resembles a Jewish institution, but the people 
of Accra alone practise circumcision, and they speak a language, as will 
be shown, radically distinct, yet not to be assimilated to the Inta, to which 
nation they are referred by the Fantees, merely because it is the nearest 
which practises circumcision. Accra is a European corruption of the word 
Inkran, which means an ant, and they say the name was either given or 
assumed on account of their numbers: this must have been before their 
wars with the Aquamboes. 

68 Review of Mission from Cape [May, 

"The conduct of the later emigration of the Ashantees is ascribed to Sai 
Tootoo, who, assisted by other leading men of the party, and encouraged 
by superstitious omens, founded Coomassie, and was presented with the 
stool, or made King, from his superior qualifications. This account is sup- 
ported by the mixed nature of the government, founded on equality and 
obligation, and the existence of a law, exempting the direct descendants 
of any of SaY Tootoo's peers and assistants (in whom the Aristocracy origi- 
nated) from capital punishment. 

"The Dwabin monarchy is said to have been founded at the same time 
by Boitinne, who was of the same family as Sai Tootoo, being the sons of 

"The Ashantee government concentred the mass of its original force* 
and making the chiefs resident in Coomassie and the few large towns they 
built in its neighbourhood, with titular dignities, conciliated those whom 
they subdued by continuing them in their governments, and checked them 
by exacting their frequent attendance at festivals, politically instituted.— 
Military command seems to have been the sole prerogative of Sai Tootoo; 
his judicial and legislative power being controlled by the chiefs or aristoc- 
racy much more than at present, who, as in the Teutonic governments, di- 
rected the common business of the state, only consulting a general assem- 
bly on extraordinary occasions. 

"Sai" Tootoo did not live to see all the streets of Coomassie completed, 
for war being declared against Atoa, a district between Akim and Assin* 
he invaded that country. The chief of the Atoas, unable to face such a 
power, dexterously insinuated his small force through the forest, until he 
reached the rear of the Ashantee army, which the King was following 
leisurely with a guard of a few hundred men, all of whom were destroyed 
by the Atoas, who shot the King in his hammock. This happening near a 
place called Cormantee, (razed to the ground in vengeance,) and on a Sa- 
turday, the most solemn oath of the Ashantees, is 'by Saturday and Cor- 
mantee;* ('Miminda Cormantee;') and no enterprise has since been under- 
taken on that day of the week. 

The report of the Moors is, that the kingdom of Ashantee has 
been founded about 110 years. The present King, Sai Tootoo 
Quamina, is the sixth that has occupied the royal seat, and was 
elevated to the throne in 1799. He is represented as intelli- 
gent, brave, generous, amiable in private life, but ambitious, 
and anxious to extend his kingly power. The following anec- 
dotes are illustrative of his character. 

"The King had sent to demand the royal stool of Buntooko or Gaman, 
which was thickly plated and embossed with gold; it was given up by 

1828.] Coast Castle to Jlshantee. 69 

Adinkara, the King, from fear; his sister, a woman of masculine spirit and 
talent, and the soul of the government, being absent. On her return, she 
reproached her brother severely, and ordered a solid gold stool to be made 
to replace it. That being also demanded, as the right of the superior, with 
a large gold ornament in the shape of an elephant, dug out from some ru- 
ins, the sister, receiving the ambassadors, replied, that the King should not 
have either, and added, impressing it with more force than delicacy, that 
her brother and she must change sexes, for she was most proper for a King, 
and would fight to the last rather than be so constantly despoiled. The 
King of Ashantee sent word that she was fit to be a king's sister, and a 
strong woman, and he would give her twelve months to prepare for war. — 
Several embassies have been sent, however, to negotiate; two during our 
stay, the latter, it was said, with an offer of 400 Bendas, (£3,200) but the 
aristocracy were obstinate, and urged to the King, that his other tributa- 
ries would laugh at him, if he did not get the King of Gaman's head. 

*'His admiration of ingenious rather than splendid novelty, has frequent- 
ly imposed the appearance of a covetousness, scarcely culpable from his 
reverence for invention, and the amazement its extent excited. To pre- 
sent him with the trifles which attracted his notice when he visited us, of- 
fended him: he told us we must only answer his questions, and let him ex- 
amine them ; to make dashes on the occasion of a private visit, was to viti- 
ate the motive of the condescension, which could not be repeated unless 
we paid more respect to his dignity and friendship. His humanity is fre- 
quently superior to his superstition and policy; he offended Quatchi Quofie, 
one of the four, by limiting the human sacrifices at his mother's funeral, 
and resisted all the importunities, founded on precedent, for the allowance 
of a greater number. He dismissed us twice with apologies for not pro- 
ceeding to business; confessing, the first time, that he had been unusually 
irritated just after he sent for us, and had not recovered his calmness; the 
latter, that some agreeable news had induced him to drink more than fitted 
him to hear great palavers like ours. In his judicial administration, a lie 
always aggravated the punishment, and truth generally extenuated, and 
sometimes atoned of itself for the offence: he invariably anticipated the te- 
merity of perjury, where convicting evidence was to be opposed to the ac- 
cused. The King's manners are a happy mixture of dignity and affability, 
they engage rather than encourage, and his general deportment is concili- 
ating though repressive. He speaks well, and more logically than most 
of his council, who are diffusive, but his superior talent is marked in the 
shrewd questions by which he fathoms a design or a narrative. He excels 
in courtesy, is wisely inquisitive, and candid in his comparisons: war, legis- 
lation, and mechanism, were his favouril e topics in our private conversa- 
tions. The great, but natural fault of the King is his ambition; 1 do not 
think it has ever proved superior to the pledge of his honour, but it cer- 
tainly has, and that frequently, to his sense of justice, which is repressed 

70 Review of Mission from Cape [May, 

rather than impaired by it. This sketch of his character being" narrowed to 
my own knowledge, will be assisted by the following- history of Agay,- the 
second linguist. 

"Agay, when a boy, carried salt from Aquoomo to Coomassie for sale; 
he was afterwards taken into the service of Aquootoo, caboceer of that 
p!ace, against whom the government had instituted a palaver; but wrong- 
fully. Agay accompanied the caboceer when he was sent for to Coomassie 
for judgment. After the King's messengers had spoken, misrepresenting 
the case in preference to confessing the King to be in the wrong, and the 
caboceer was confused, this boy suddenly rose, and said, to use the words 
of the narrators, 'King, you have people to wash you, to feed you, to serve 
you, but you have no people to speak the truth to you, and tell you when 
God does not like your palaver.' The assembly cried out unanimously, 
that the boy might be hurried away and his head taken off; but the King 
said, *No! let him finish;* and Agay is said to have spoken three hours, and 
to have disclosed and argued the palaver to the King's conviction, and his 
master's acquittal. He was retained to attend the King, but treated with 
no particular distinction. A serious palaver occurring between two princi- 
pal men, it was debated before the council, who were at a loss to decide, 
but inclined to the man whom the King doubted; judgment was suspend*- 
ed. In the interim the King sent Agay, privately, to the house of each, to 
hear their palavers in turn, tete-a-tete; he did so, and when the King asked 
him who he thought was right, he confirmed his impression. 'Now,' said 
the King, *I know you have a good head.' Agay was then made a Lin- 
guist, and presented with a house, wives, slaves, and gold. Sometime after- 
wards, the King confessing a prejudice against a wealthy captain, his lin- 
guists, always inclined to support him, said, *If you wish to take his stool 
from him, we will make the palaver;' but Agay sprung up, exclaiming, 
*No, King! that is not good; that man never did you any wrong; you know 
all the gold of your subjects is yours at their death, but if you get all now, 
Strangers will go away and say, only the King has gold, and that will not 
be good; but let them say the King has gold, all his captains have gold, 
and all his people have gold, then your country will look handsome, and 
the bush people fear you.' For this the King made him second linguist, 
and much increased his property. When Amanqua had the command of 
the army against Cudjo Cooma, the King asked him which linguist he 
would take, he replied, Adoosee or Otee; the King said, No! I will give 
you this boy, he has the best head for hard palavers. Amanqua urged 
that he was too young, the King told him he was a fool to say so. He 
then made Amanqua take fetish with him to report the merits of Agay 
faithfully, who distinguished himself so much, that he is always employed 
in difficult foreign palavers." 

The higher order of Captains are represented as "dignified 

1828.] Coast Castle to Jlshantee. 71 

courteous, and hospitable in private; but haughty and abrupt in 
public. In their opinion, war affords the most desirable field 
for glory, and the ambition of their King is his greatest virtue. 
The common people are ungrateful, insolent and licentious. 

The King, the Aristocracy, now reduced to four, and the As- 
sembly of Captains, are the three estates of the Ashantee Gov- 
ernment. The Aristocracy exert their influence without hesita- 
tion in reference to foreign politics, but seldom express an opin- 
ion concerning: the domestic administration of affairs. The 
Ashantees believe that this form of government renders them 
more formidable to their enemies, "who feel that they cannot 
provoke with impunity, where there are so many guardians of 
the military glory," and also that the decrees of a monarch have 
naturally more force with a people, (over whom his power is 
unlimited) when issued without regard to any inferior authority. 
The following are among the laws enumerated by Mr. Bowdich, 

"The most original feature of their law, that of succession, has been, 
mentioned in the History, with the argument on which it is founded: it is 
universally binding; the course is, the brother, the sister's son, the son, the 
chief vassal or slave to the stool. In the Fantee country, the principal 
slave succeeds to the exclusion of the son, who only inherits his mother's 
property, frequently considerable, and inherited from her family indepen- 
dently of her husband: the daughters share a small part of the fetish or or 
namental gold, which is much alloyed with silver. 

"The King is heir to the gold of every subject, from the highest to the 
lowest; the fetish gold and the cloths are generally presented by him to the 
successor to the stool, from which the slaves and other property of the de- 
ceased are inseparable. 

"The gold buried with members of the royal family, and afterwards de* 
posited with their bones in the fetish house at Bantama, is sacred; and can? 
not be used, but to redeem the capital from the hands of an enemy, or i$ 
extreme national distress; and even then, the King must avoid the sight of 
it, if he wotdd avoid the fatal vengeance of the fetish or deity. 

"If a slave seeks refuge from an ally or tributary, he is restored; if from 
an unconnected power, he is received as a free subject. 

"The blood of the son of a King, or of any of the royal family, cannot be 
shed; but when guilty of a crime of magnitude, they are drowned in the 
river Dah, by a particular captain, named Cudjo Samfani. 

"If a man swears on the King's head, that another must kill him, which 
is understood to be invoking the King's death if he does not, the other man 
must do so; or forfeit the whole of his property, and generally his life,—- 

7t Review of Mission, 4*c. [May, 

This very frequently occurs, for the blacks in their ardor for revenge, do 
not regard sacrificing their own lives to bring a palaver on their murderer, 
which their families are sure to do. 

"To be convicted of cowardice is death. 

"If any subject picks up gold dropped in the market place, it is death, 
being collected only by order of the government on emergencies. 

"Interest of money is 33 5 per cent, for every forty days, which is accom- 
panied after the first period by a dash of liquor. When the patience of the 
creditor is exhausted, he seizes the debtor, or even any of his family, as 
slaves, and they can only be redeemed by the payment. This barbarous 
law was nearly the same in Athens.* 

"The accuser is never discovered or confronted to the accused, nor the 
evidence revealed, until the latter has fully replied to the charge, as out- 
lined by the king's linguists. 

"If a great man kills his equal in rank, he is generally allowed to die by 
his own hands: the death of an inferior is generally compensated by a fine 
to the family, equal to seven slaves, f 

*1f an aggry bead is broken in a scuffle, seven slaves are to be paid to 
the owner. 

"It is forbidden, as it was by Lycurgus, to praise the beauty of another 
man's wife, being intrigue by implication. 

"Those accused of witchcraft, or having a devil, are tortured to death. 

"The good treatment of slaves is in some degree provided for, by the li- 
berty they have of dashing or transferring themselves to any freeman \ 
w r hom they enjoin to make them his property by invoking his death if he 
does not; an imperative appeal." 

fTobe continued. J 

* " In Ahanta, all old debts must be paid within six weeks from the com- 
mencement of the Contoom or Harvest Custom. The creditor can panyar 
or seize not only the family, but the townsmen of the debtor. 

f "A person accidentally killing another in Ahanta, pays 5 oz. of gold to 
the family, and defrays the burial customs. In the case of murder, it is 
20 oz. of ,<old and a slave; or, he and his family become the slaves of the 
family of the deceased. If a man dashes himself to the fetish on the head 
of another, the other must redeem him. If a man kills himself on the head 
of an - *r, the other must kill himself also, or pay 20 oz. to the family: in 
Fantee the sum is indefinitely great: this is frequently resorted to, when 
there is no other prospect of revenge. 

"Adumissa, an extraordinarily beautiful red skinned woman of Cape 
Coast, possessed numerous admirers, but rejected them all. One of them, 
in despair, shot himself on her head close to her house. The family de- 
manding satisfaction; to save her relations from a ruinous palaver, she re- 
solved to shoot herself in expiation. She accordingly assembled her 
friends and relatives from various parts of the country, and sitting, richly 
dressed, killed herself in their presence with golden bullets. After the 
body bad been exposed in state, it was buried with a profusion of cloths 
and gold. The beautiful Adumissa is still eulogised, and her favourite 
patterned cloth bears her name amongst the natives." 

ii628.] M-. Blackford's Address. ? $ 


Before the Auxiliary Colonization Society of Fredericksburg i 
Virginia. By William M. Blackford, Esq. 

The considerations presented in this very valuable address, 
must lend, we think, especially at the South, a very important 
influence in favour of our cause. The honour of having first 
proposed the scheme of the Society, is claimed by Mr. Black- 
ford, for the State of Virginia. Nor can it be denied, that the 
Legislature of that State is entitled to vast credit, for the reso- 
lution adopted by her on this subject, in December 1816. This 
resolution, doubtless, encouraged the founders of our Society 
in their earliest efforts, and excited a hope, which we trust, will 
not be disappointed, that the object of our Institution would 
finally receive the patronage of the- States and the Nation. — 
Public sentiment will, we believe, at no very remote period, re- 
quire that our enterprise should be promoted by the Legislatures 
of the Country. The following extract from this address, we 
earnestly recommend to the perusal of all our readers. 

"Not more injustice has been done the Society in misrepresenting its 
views, than in misapprehending- the means by which it seeks their accom- 
plishment. It has been sneeringly asked if we hoped to effect a work so 
mighty as the removal of the free people of colour, by the precarious means 
which public charity from time to time places at our disposal. We answer, 
no. — As well might we undertake by throwing pebbles at the pyramids to 
Jay them prostrate on the ground. No one who is conversant with the 
proceedings of the Society — no one who has read its annual exposes, could 
rest under such a delusion. Repeatedly has the Society unequivocally 
avowed that it depended on the state and national governments to complete 
the fabric of which it could only hope to lay the foundation. The employ- 
ment of the energies of the nation entered into the views of the original 
friends of the scheme. The object was national, and justly they thought, 
that national should be the means used in its accomplishment. But before 
the assistance of the nation could be asked with any prospect of success, 
much was to be done. The practicability of the plan, was to be in some 
measure ascertained— information collected — territory purchased — the wil- 
lingness of the people to emigrate tested — and the problem of the possibil- 
ity of a Colony existing in Africa solved. The public mind moreover was 
to be acted upon, and conflicting interests enlisted in the cause. Here 

T4 Mr. Blackford's Mdrtss. [May, 

was a sphere for the operation of a private society, unconnected with gov- 
ernment anil supported by voluntary contribution, and in this sphere has 
the Society laboured faithfully and successfully. 

"Deeply conscious of their inability, without national aid, to remove from 
this and to establish in Africa a number sufficient to produce a sensible di- 
minution of the free coloured population, they did indulge the hope, 
which has been fully realized, that zeal and perseverance would enable 
them to transport as many as would illustrate the feasibility of the scheme. 
They well knew that the existence of a settlement, however small, whilst 
it served as a rallying* point for the hopes of friends, would address itself 
with more force to the lukewarm, than arguments the most convincing or 
appeals the most animated. Such a settlement there is now on the coast 
of Africa, enjoying, in the seventh year of its existence, happiness and 
prosperity without a parellel in the a nnals of colonization; and the Society 
is now prepared to solicit and expect the harmonious co-operation of the 
federal and state governments. It is asked, not in behalf of some Utopian 
scheme of impracticable philanthropy, or adventurous folly: the request is 
founded on considerations of justice, interest, and humanity; and although 
national aid may be for a season postponed, it will ultimately be granted. — 
Constitutional scruples and sectional jealousies will be merged in the patri- 
otic considerations of enlightened policy — and with the aid of the national 
government, who will say the scheme is impracticable ? Bear with me, 
whilst I show at what a comparatively trifling expense the whole number 
of free blacks might be removed from our shores, — we will take 250,000 as 
the present number. The expense incurred by the Society in the expe- 
ditions recently fitted out, did not exceed $20 per head, including provisions 
for a six weeks' voyage. Now, it is apparent that competition and the fa- 
cilities afforded by a growing commerce between the colony and the pa- 
rent country would diminish this price perhaps one-half — certainly one- 
fourth. Let §15, then, be the charge. The removal of the whole num- 
ber would cost but §3,750,000. The removal of course would be gradual, 
and this amount not called for in any one year. The number which might 
annually be removed would depend on the capacity of the Colony to re- 
ceive, and this capacity would increase in an accelerated ratio. Take then 
a period — say 20 years, and let the average annual exportation be 12,500 — 
within that time, at an average annual expenditure of less than §190,- 
000, the whole of this anomalous population would be drained off. — 
Is this a chimerical project } Is the scheme of colonization so absurd, that 
the bare mention of it should curl with contempt the lip of the pragmatic 
politician? are the resources. of the country unable to sustain such a draft 
on the Treasury? Shall it be said that the energies of a great nation are 
incompetent to the restoration of some 10 or 15,000 souls to a land, from 
which the cupidity of individuals annually purloins ten times the number, 
in defiance of all the legislative denunciations which British or American 
humanity has prompted. 

1828.] Mr. Blackford 9 s Address. 75 

"To many ardent friends of the scheme, and to all its opponents, the idea 
of federal agency in its accomplishment is, I am aware, sincerely deprecat- 
ed. To the first of these, with all possible respect for their scruples, I 
would remark, that if colonization ever is to be effected, the interposition 
of the General Government is indispensable, from the disabilities which 
the states labour under, by the constitution. No state is permitted to enter 
into any treaty or to support a naval force — now it is apparent the exercise 
•f both these powers would be necessary in the establishment of colonies; 
or granting" the states to possess all requisite powers, were they to attempt 
coloniiation, each would, perhaps, have its own settlement; and, instead 
of one flourishing and profitable colony, we should see a number of feeble 
ones, burthensome to the parent state and conflicting in interests with 
each other. The states, most interested, might and would, no doubt, con- 
tribute to the society, when the patronage of the National Government had 
given to it that stability which, as a private institution, however respecta- 
ble, it could not possess. Maryland, indeed, in the spirit of a liberal and 
enlightened policy, already makes an annual appropriation; and Virginia 
has shown her sense of its importance by repeated and generous dona* 

Mr. Bradford expatiates upon the inestimable benefits, which 
will result from the execution of the Society's plan. The sup- 
pression of the slave trade, the civilization of Africa, and the 
deliverance of our country from its most threatening evil, may 
all be consequences of its vigorous prosecution. But we must 
conclude our too brief notice of this address, by inviting the 
public attention to a few of the closing sentences. 

*1 have now recapitulated, and answered I hope, objections whieh have 
been coeval with the Society. One word more in relation to others of re- 
cent date, so equivocal in character as to seem like compliments in disguise. 
It has been gravely alleged that ours is a 'gigantic* Society. Granted; and 
is not the object to be attained gigantic? It has been said that it is 'self- 
created .' We ask when was there a benevolent society that was not self- 
created? We are charged with possessing a 'great moral influence ' We 
are happy to hear it, and hope it may increase, until it pervades every sec- 
tion of the Union. Again, the clergy, and Christians of every denomina- 
tion, support it. This is a charge which we can neither palliate nor deny; 
we confess its truth, but see in it no turpitude. 

"Such, fellow-citizens, is the American Colonization Society — such its 
origin — such its progress — and such the results which, in a sober spirit, we 
may anticipate from the success of its plans. And should the mighty 
scheme be not realized in all its parts and to its full extent, blessings will 
nevertheless be attained proportionate to the degree to which it will bare 

76 Vark on the Civilizing of Jlfrica. [May? 

been carried. This is not a charity which accomplishes nothing", if it ac- 
complishes not all. On the contrary, a great good has already been done. 
The germ of an Americo-African empire has been planted; and though our 
Society should be dissolved to-morrow, it will flourish and expand until it 
overshadows a continent. Already has the miniature Commonwealth of 
Liberia impressed the natives with respect for the strength, and admiration 
for the beauty of the institutions of civilized life. By the justice which has 
marked its intercourse with them, the Colony has already attained an al- 
most boundless influence over the neighbouring tribes. The ascendency 
will be maintained, and must increase, until tribe after tribe, subdued by 
the bland influence of civilization and the simple power of the gospel, shall 
melt into and become incorporated with the community. No cruel process 
•f extermination, such as marked with blood the settlement of this country, 
will there be necessary. The settlers and natives are of the same race, and 
amalgamation, so far from being there impracticable, will be natural, and 
indeed unavoidable. Let no one, then, refuse his aid, because years, ge- 
nerations, perhaps, must pass away, before the vast outline can be filled 
up. We may not live to enjoy the blessings which must result from the 
accomplishment of the plan; but with a firm faith in its ultimate success, it 
is our duty to bring heart, hand, and purse, to secure to our children and 
ft> our children's children the rich inheritance. The plan will succeed. — 
It is, I verily believe, from Heaven — and Heaven's blessing will attend it 
in every stage of its progress . A glorious era is yet in store for Africa, 
when we shall have rendered unto her the things which are her's — an era, 
more glorious than any she has known, awaits America, when, from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific, there shall be none other than one happy, united, ho- 
mogeneous race of freemen. Then in the fulness of time shall two mighty 
renovated continents rise up to call him blessed, who gave the first impulse 
to the cause of African Colonization ! ! " 


Testimony in favour of the possibility of Civilizing the Africans, 

"It appears" (observes Mr. Park in summing up his account 
of the trade of Africa), "that slaves, gold, and ivory, together 
with the few articles enumerated in the beginning of my work, 
viz. bees- wax and honey, hides, gums, and dye-woods, consti- 
tute the whole catalogue of exportable commodities. Other pro- 
ductions, however, have been incidentally noticed as the growth 
of Africa; such as grain of different kinds, tobacco, indigo, cot- 

1828.] Jlbduhl Rahahman. 77 

ton-wool, and perhaps a few others; but of all these (which can 
only be obtained by cultivation and labour) the natives raise suf- 
ficient only for their own immediate use; nor, under the present 
system of their laws, manners, trade, and government, can any 
thing farther be expected from them. It cannot, however, ad- 
mit of a doubt, that all the rich and valuable productions, botb 
of the East and West Indies, might easily be naturalized and 
brought to the utmost perfection in the tropical parts of this im- 
mense continent. Nothing is wanting to this end but example 
to enlighten the minds of the natives, and instruction to enable 
them to direct their industry to proper objects. It was not pos- 
sible for me to behold the wonderful fertility of the soil; the vast 
herds of cattle, proper both for labour and food; and a variety 
of other circumstances favourable to colonization and agricul- 
ture; and reflect, withal, on the means which presented them- 
selves of a vast inland navigation; without lamenting that a 
country, so abundantly gifted and favoured by nature, should 
remain in its present savage and neglected state. Much more 
did I lament, that a people, of manners and dispositions so gen- 
tle and benevolent, should either be left, as they now are, im- 
mersed in the gross and uncomfortable blindness of pagan super- 
stition, or permitted to become converts to a system of bigotry 
and fanaticism, which, without enlightening the mind, often de- 
bases the heart." — [Park's Travels, chap, xxiii. 

AbOxRil T^alialmvaii, 


Our number for February contained some account of this very 
interesting individual, in a letter from a Gentleman of NatcheZo 
A few days since we had the pleasure of receiving a communi- 
cation from the same Gentleman, by the hand of Prince. The 
following is an extract: — 

"It affords me the highest gratification to say, that the bearer 
of this letter is Prince, the Captive Moor, in whose behalf I ad- 

78 Abduhl Rahahmaiu [May, 

dressed you in February last. Since the date of my letter, he 
has been manumitted, and now\ proceeds to Washington. 

"Prince, ascertaining that he was about to proceed to his na- 
tive country, became deeply solicitous that his aged wife might 
accompany him. I immediately issued a paper for subscriptions; 
and so great was the respect for this unfortunate man, that the 
sum of two hundred dollars, the price at which his wife was 
valued by her master, was raised I believe in twenty -four hours. 
We are able, of course, to forward her and Prince by the same 
conveyance. They have children, and most devoutly wish they 
might go with them, &c. 

"Prince is extremely anxious to obtain an Arabic Testament. 
This, I presume, you can provide for him. He leaves this place, 
Sir, with many benedictions. May the kindness of an overru- 
ling Providence protect him from the dangers of the mighty 
deep — return him in safety to the land of his nativity — make 
him an instrument of much good — may he be gathered to his 
fathers in peace." 

We have repeatedly conversed with Prince, since his arrival 
in our City; nor have our expectations concerning him, in any 
respect been disappointed. He is intelligent, modest, and 
obliging. Though he has been in slavery forty years, his man- 
ners are not merely prepossessing, but dignified. He is now 
anxiously engaged in seeking to obtain the means of purchasing 
his children. A liberal subscription has been commenced in this 
District, and it is the purpose of Prince to visit our more north- 
ern cities for the same object. When we recollect the kindness 
of Prince's family in his own country to an American Citizen, 
(unintentionally left by a vessel on the coast,) how this individu- 
al during a period of sickness was hospitably entertained by his 
Father for six months, and in all probability by this means, his 
life preserved; we cannot but regard this unfortunate man, as 
having peculiar claims upon the assistance of our countrymen. 
At our request, Prince has written a concise history of himself, 
and we have penned a translation of it from his own lips. The 
only liberty we have taken, is to correct those grammatical in- 
accuracies, which resulted from his imperfect knowledge of our 

1828.] dbduhl Rahahman. 79 


"I was born in the City of Tombuctoo. My Father had been 
living in Tombuctoo, but removed to be King in Teembo, in 
Foota Jallo. His name was Almam Abrahim. I was five 
years old when my father carried me from Tombuctoo. I lived 
in Teembo, mostly, until I was twenty-one, and followed the 
horsemen. I was made Captain when I was twenty-one — after 
they put me to that, and found that I had a very good head, at 
twenty-four they made me Colonel. At the age of twenty-six, 
they sent me to fight the Hebohs, because they destroyed the 
vessels that came to the coast, and prevented our trade. When 
we fought, I defeated them. But they went back one hundred 
miles into the country, and hid themselves in the mountain.—- 
We could not see them, and did not expect there was any ene- 
my. When we got there, we dismounted and led our horses, 
until we were half way up the mountain. Then they fired upon 
us. We saw the smoke, we heard the guns, we saw the people 
drop down. I told every one to run until we reached the top 
of the hill, then to wait for each other until all came there, and 
we would fight them. After I had arrived at the summit, I 
could see no one except my guard. They followed us, and we 
ran and fought. I saw this would not do. I told every one to 
run who wished to do so. Every one who wished to run, fled. 
I said I will not run for an African. I got down from my horse 
and sat down. One came behind and shot me in the shoulder. 
One came before and pointed his gun to shoot me, but seeing 
my clothes, (ornamented with gold,) he cried out, that! the 
King. Then every one turned down their guns, and came and 
took me. When they came to take me, I had a sword under 
me, but they did not see it. The first one that came, I sprang 
forward and killed. Then one came behind and knocked me 
down with a gun, and I fainted. They carried me to a pond of 
water, and dipped me in; after I came to myself they bound me. 
They pulled off my shoes, and made me go barefoot one hundred 
miles, and led my horse before me. After they took me to their 
own country, they kept me one week. As soon as my people 
got home, my father missed me. He raised a troop, and came 
after me; and as soon as the Hebohs knew he was coming, thry 

&0 Jbbduhl Rahahman, [May, 

carried me into the wilderness. After my father came and 
burnt the country, they carried me to the Mandingo country, on 
the Gambia. They sold me directly, with fifty others, to an 
English ship. They took me to the Island of Dominica. After 
that I was taken to New Orleans. Then they took me to Nat- 
chez, and Colonel F. bought me. I have lived with Colonel F. 
40 years. Thirty years I laboured hard. The last ten years I 
have been indulged a good deal. I have left five children be- 
hind, and eight grand children. I feel sad, to think of leaving 
my children behind me. I desire to go back to my own 
country again; but when I think of my children, it hurts my 
feelings. If I go to my own country, I cannot feel happy, if 
my children are left. I hope, by God's assistance, to recover 
them. Since I have been in Washington, I have found a good 
many friends. I hope they will treat me in other cities as they 
have treated me in the city of Washington, and then I shall get 
my children. I want to go to Baltimore, Philadelphia, and N. 
York, and then I shall return hither again." 


"Dr. Cox was a surgeon on board a ship. He went ashore in 
Africa, and got lost. When he returned, he found the vessel 
gone. He set out to travel, and came into my country, Foota 
Jallo — our people saw him, and ran and told my father, that 
they saw a white man. My father told them to bring the white 
man here, that he might see him. They brought Dr. Cox, and 
my father asked him whither he was going. He said he knew 
not where to go, that the ship had left him, and that he had a 
bad sore leg. My father inquired what was the matter with his 
leg. He said he had wounded it in travelling. My father told 
him, he had better go no farther, but stay with him, and he 
would get a woman to cure his leg. He was soon cured. My 
father told him to stay as long as he chose. He remained six 
months. One day my father asked him, if he wished to go to 
his own country. He said yes. My father said, what makes 
you desire to go back — you are treated well here? He answer- 
ed, that his father and mother would be anxious, when the ves- 
sel returned without him, thinking he might be dead. My 
father told him, whenever you wish to go, I will send a guard to 

1528.] Abduhl Rahahmau. &! 

accompany you to the ship. Then fifteen men were sent with 
him by my father for a guard, and he gave him gold to pay his 
passage home. My father told the guard, that if a vessel was 
there, to leave the Doctor, but not to go on board the ship; and 
if there was no vessel, to bring the Doctor back. They waited 
some time, and then found the same vessel in which he came, 
and in that he took his passage. After that I was taken prison- 
er, and sent to Natchez* When I had been there sixteen years, 
Dr. Cox removed to Natchez, and one day I met him in the 
street. I said to a man who came with me from Africa, Sambo, 
that man rides like a white man I saw in my country. Sec 
when he comes by; if he opens but one eye, that is the same man. 
When he came up, hating to stop him without reason, I said 
master, you want to buy some potatoes? He asked, what pota- 
toes have you? While he looked at the potatoes, I observed 
him carefully, and knew him, but he did not know me. He 
said boy, where did you come from? I said from Col. F's. He 
said, he did not raise you. Then he said, you came from Teem- 
bo? I answered, yes, sir. He said, your name Abduhl Rahah- 
man? I said, yes, sir. Then springing from his horse, he em- 
braced me, and inquired how I came to this country? Then he 
said, dash down your potatoes and come to my house. I said I 
could not, but must take the potatoes home. He rode quickly, 
and called a negro woman to take the potatoes from my head. 
Then he sent for Gov. W., to come and see me. When Gov. 
W. came, Dr. Cox said, I have been to this boy's father's house, 
and they treated me as kindly as my own parents. He told the 
Gov., if any money would purchase me, he would buy me, and 
send me home. The next morning he inquired how much would 
purchase me, but my master was unwilling to sell me. He of- 
fered large sums for me, but they were refused. Then he said 
to master, if you cannot part with him, use him well. After 
Dr. Cox died, his son offered a great price for me," 


Su Late from Liberia- [May. 

"Late from lAbfcYia. 

We had room in our last number, merely to announce to our 
readers, the arrival of despatches (bearing date March 3d) by 
the Randolph from Liberia, and to state a few of the leading 
items of intelligence. The Randolph with 26 passengers from 
Georgetown, South Carolina; the Doris with 107, principally 
from Virginia, North Carolina, and Maryland; and the Nautilus 
with 160, most of them from the three last mentioned states, 
had arrived in safety. The Emigrants from South Carolina first 
arrived, and had enjoyed almost universal and perfect health. — 
"We confidently expect them (says Mr. Ashmun) to escape the 
fever altogether." The passengers by the Doris had suffered 
severely, and a very unusual number of deaths (24) had occur- 
red among those who had resided in states north of Virginia. 

"Draw a line," says Mr. Ashmun, "due east and west, across 
Elk Ridge, in Maryland, and not a death has invaded the peo- 
ple from the south of it." It deserves likewise to be mention- 
ed, that the last dry season upon the African Coast, was a pe- 
culiarly unhealthy one; that the passage of the Doris was pro- 
tracted to the period of sixty-one days; and that in consequence, 
symptoms of the scurvy had appeared among the emigrants. — 
The combined influence of these causes, doubtless, increased 
the violence of the disease; and of course, the extent of the 
mortality. One other fact should be mentioned, which is, "that 
all the deaths occurred in Monrovia, not one in Caldwell; where 
somewhat less than one-half of the company, had from the first 
been quartered. Most sent up the river were, however, Virgi- 
nians — but not all." On this fact, we quote the remarks oi 
Mr. Ashmun. 

"There is, as I have before stated, an average difference of temperature 
in favour of Caldwell, of 3£ to 4°, taking 1 the heat of the 24 hours, at the 
two places, for months together. No doubt, a corresponding difference in 
other properties of the atmosphere, affecting the healthiness of the two 
situations, exists. What we have experienced in this instance, is the coun- 
terpart of all our past experience, of the relative healthiness of the two 
places. Except two children, I know not that ever an individual has yet 
died of fever in Caldwell. It may be inquired, why were not all the pen 

1828.] Late from Liberia. 83 

pie sent to Caldwell ? A large proportion of the whole company had 
friends in Monrovia, who insisted with great earnestness, on retaining them 
in their families; or, in such spare buildings as they could fit up for their 
accommodation. I advised all except one family, whom I wished to settle 
in Monrovia, to go. Perhaps I ought to have compelled. But 300 people 
was more than the Caldwell Receptacle could contain. I was obliged to 
acquiesce in some arrangement which would furnish more room, and there- 
fore the more readily consented to the stay of too great a number in town.'* 

At the date of these communications, the emigrants by the 
Nautilus were in good health, though they had been in Africa 
far too short a time to feel the influences of the climate. As 
they are mostly from the South, we may reasonably hope, that 
they will escape any severe sufferings from sickness. 

All who have observed the progress of our infant Colony, 
must be aware, that its high character of prosperity and promise, 
results in great measure, at least, from the distinguished energy 
and wisdom of the Colonial Agent. That his life and useful- 
ness should have been so long continued, considering the dan- 
gers and toils of his station, will be viewed by the devout, as a 
cause for special gratitude to the Supreme Disposer of events. 
From the season (more than six years ago) when the earliest 
emigrants began to erect their dwellings on Cape Montserado, 
the present Agent has superintended with dauntless courage, 
unyielding fortitude, and an energy and discretion perhaps 
never exceeded, the affairs of the Colony, and conducted it for- 
ward to its present interesting and imposing position; nor in all 
this time has he once permitted any personal affliction, however 
severe, or public calamity, however discouraging, to subdue his 
confidence or quench his hopes. All will regret to learn, that 
the strength of his constitution has proved inadequate to sustain 
uninjured his recent efforts; and read with more than ordinary 
emotion, the concluding sentences of the following extract. — ■ 
May the Father of Mercies long defer the event, the probable 
speedy occurrence of which is alluded to by the writer in terms 
expressive of piety and benevolence, so deeply affecting! 

"Early in January, I made a most fatiguing visit of inspection, &c, to 
some of our leeward settlements. Returning on the 17th, I found in our 
harbour, the Brig Hope of Boston, awaiting my return, according to the 
*enor of instructions given by the owners to their Captain. 1 also found the 

84 Late from Liberia. [May. 

Romp, and Aretas from Portland, awaiting" my return, under somewhat simi - 
lar circumstances. The Schooner Susan was also there — and the Ran- 
dolph had arrived with emigrants the evening before. The same evening 
came to anchor the Doris, with her 107 people. Such an accumulation of 
labour I never felt pressing on me before. Days and nights were too short. 
But I despatched previous to the 25th, three of the vessels — when another 
arrived from Sierra Leone, with special claims on niv attention. A pirati- 
cal Spaniard now came into our waters strongly armed, and being refused 
in his saucy application to trade ashore, he uttered certain threats of re- 
taliation in the course of the night,' which made it necessary to chase him 
out of our roads, and keep him off by force. In this business, I had my 
3hare of the fatigue and exposure till a late hour. Immediately after, I re- 
ceived a proposal from the interior, for opening a new trade path, on con- 
dition of our forming a settlement and factory at the head of navigation on 
the St. Paul's river, which admitted of no option — but required me imme- 
diately to explore that situation — and visit, for tedious negotiation, all the 
intermediate kings on both sides of the river. This business I accomplish- 
ed in three days and nights — spending one night in the bush, beyond the 
habitations of the coast tribes. Returning, one of the most tedious inquests 
(of which such particulars as the Board are interested in, shall be given) I 
ever assisted in, employed me, and our magistrates, for four successive days. 
This ended — after assigning the emigrants their land, on the 2nd of Febru- 
ary; I was confined by a laborious session of our Court, to the Court-House, 
two successive days longer. This was the 5th of February. I had felt my 
strength giving way — but there seemed no alternative. But Providence 
now taught me, He could do without my officious services. February 5th 
at night, a raging fever seized me. Several of the people sickened about 
the same time. Up to the 21st, I was tossing on the brink of eternity — 
And that I am recovered so far as, for the two days past, moderately to re- 
sume my labours, is to me matter of great astonishment. My delirium com- 
monly abated with the return of day-light, and left my shattered mind suf- 
ficiently clear to gve a few plain general instructions to those, on whose 
immediate activity the welfare of the people, and the progress of the Colo- 
ny depends. These were very faithfully followed out — and little detri- 
ment, I trust, has resulted to any of its affairs from my being laid aside. — 
One death has, in the time, occurred, within my own family — Mr. S. E. 
Burnham, Supercargo of several of Mr. Cox's vessels on the coast, who died 
of consumption; in the last stage of which, I had received him into the 
house only ten days before. For the last four days my strength has return- 
ed, almost as rapidly as it went. But I hope the event will advertise the 
Board, that the constitution of their Agent, here, is not to be depended on 
— and that a most probable item of intelligence may very shortly be, that 
he too, is numbered with the departed. May provision be made according- 
ly. For myself, alone, the event has no appalling features — but, to leave 

1828.] Late from Liberia* 85 

the Colony — to quit a field of labour forever, in which so Utile is yet done 
and so much ought to be done — here, I fear, will be the distressing pang" of 
dying". But the Colony depends, I am persuaded, on the life of no one or 
ten individuals; and it is a vanity I do not indulge, that it has any such de- 
pendence on my own. But it is a field of labour, in which, if better work- 
men are not employed, I wish to be myself, so long as, with the divine bles- 
sing", I can do any good." 

The feeble health of the Colonial Agent, prevented any full 
communications in regard to the general concerns of the Colony; 
The Board have been favoured, however, with the following in- 
teresting facts, relating to New Settlements. 

"Having just before my illness chartered to a small company of our old- 
est settlers, certain exclusive privileges for the term of two years, on con- 
dition they immediately removed to the head of Navigation on the St. 
Paul's, and there formed an agricultural settlement in connexion with a 
public factor}', to receive all the interior trade from that direction, I have 
the satisfaction to state, that they proceeded to occupy it on the 12th of 
February. — I had previously, perfectly reconciled the minds of the Dey, or 
St. Paul's Chiefs, to the idea of such a settlement at that place, at an ex- 
pense of about 100 bars. The country — the finest, I must say, I have yet 
seen in Africa for a settlement — had long been vacated — and left as a sort 
of barrier between the coast and interior tribes — without being particularly 
claimed by any. Hence the easy terms on which we have obtained the oc- 
cupancy of it. A large log factory is now nearly completed, and with a 
range of houses sufficient to accommodate thirty or forty people, — built 
chiefly in the country style. One of the conditions of the charter is, that 
the settlers cultivate the present season (ending 15th of May) 32 acres.—- 
The country is easily cleared — and abounds in small streams of fresh water; 
the St. Paul's itself, at the Falls, is always sweet. To this settlement king 
Boatswain, with whom we are at present on very free and friendly terms, 
has engaged, and is believed to be now employing a large force in opening 
a trade road from his own residence . The distance is about one hundred 
miles; but from the nearest part of the old route, not more than fifty. It is 
hoped the great thoroughfare into the heart of Africa, will therefore, as re- 
gards the native traders, lie directly to, and terminate at this settlement. — 
Its agricultural advantages will of course attract to it, a large body of far- 
mers in a short time; and its growth may be reasonably expected to be ra- 
pid. Agreeably to the order of the Board, we call it 'Mills & Burgess;' or, 
by way of contraction, to avoid some worse abbreviation, the charter has it 
'alias, Millsburg.' The Young Sesters settlement, contemplated in my last, 
has been deferred in consequence of the obstinate and wretched war be- 
tween Sesters and Trade Town, continuing to rage with a blind fury; which 

86 Late from Liberia, L^ a y> 

forbids the hope of its speedy termination — and would place a few settlers 
in a state of perpetual alarm and insecurity. 

"Most of the candidates for that settlement, are now at St. John's — - 
We are beginning 1 this long contemplated Sub-Colony, but in a very mode- 
rate and silent way — as nothing seems likely to be gained by forcing its 
growth, beyond its own natural speed. Mr. Benson is our steward for that 
station — but has not yet repaired to his charge. The factor at present has 
charge of the public property — and the direction of the operations of the 
settlers. Mr. Warner, so long and deeply interested in the Sesters — has 
associated five or six individuals with himself, and petitioned us for liberty 
to proceed and settle there, notwithstanding the great unseasonableness of 
such an enterprise. We refused to sanction so wild a project — by afford- 
ing it the public aid and protection. He persisted in his petition for liber- 
ty to go without either; and having obtained it, has actually gone with his 
followers. The enterprise, as a private one, is however not perfectly ap- 
proved — but the individuals can only injure themselves — and if they should 
happen to keep a footing there, may benefit the Colony. This company 
consists wholly, (except Woods of Baltimore, per the Doris) of old set- 
tlers, who in such an undertaking, ought to know what they are about." 

It is the decided opinion of Mr. Ashmun, ''•That for at least 
two years to come, a much more discriminating selection of set- 
tiers must be made than ever has been — even in the first and se- 
cond expeditions by the Elizabeth and Nautilus, in 1820, and 
"21 — or that the prosperity of the Colony will inevitably and ra- 
pidly decline." * At the end of that time, he remarks, a "healthy 
proportion of working and idle people will be found here, and 
the free coloured population of the United States, may then be 
taken up just as they are found there, the working and the idle, 
as they are now naturally distributed throughout the American 
States — and sent to this Colony — and my character for the 
stake, under good management, they will not be felt by it as a 

Again he observes, "If rice grew spontaneously, and covered 
the country, yet it is possible by sending few or none able to 
reap and clean it, to starve ten thousand helpless children and 
infirm old people in the midst of so much plenty. Rice does 

* Mr. Ashmun advises that no person be received for emigration, wlio if 
he is not an abh bodied man, is not a member ofsutha man's family — or, any 
able bodied man who has more than 3 or 4 at most, dependent on him for a 

1828.] Latest from Liberia. 87 

not grow spontaneously however, nor can any thing necessary 
for the subsistence of the human species, be procured here with- 
out the sweat of the brow. Clothing, tools, and building mate- 
rials are much dearer here than in America. But send out your 
emigrants laborious men and their families only — or laborious 
men and their families, accompanied with only their natural pro- 
portion of ineflicients; and with the ordinary blessing of God, you 
may depend on their causing you a light expense in Liberia, and 
fixing themselves speedily and easily in comfortable and inde- 
pendent circumstances. I further think I may safely say, that 
in no new country in the world, would they be likely to meet 
with so many advantages, and find it so easy to get in a way of 
comfortable living, by their own moderate industry." 

To send out "inopcratives" at the present, is deemed by the 
Colonial Agent highly inexpedient. His views are concisely 
stated in few words. "If such persons are to be supported by 
American funds, why not keep them in America, where they 
can do something by picking cotton and stemming tobacco, to- 
wards supporting themselves? I know that nothing is effectual- 
ly done, in colonizing this country, till the Colony's own re- 
sources can sustain its own and a considerable annual increase 
of population. To this point it has been my great anxiety to 
bring it; and adopting and persisting in the course I have recom- 
mended, I am certain the Board will see it soon reach this point." 

"Latest from TAberia. 

We have received information (just as the last sheet of our 
number is going to the press,) of the arrival of the Doris, Capt. 
Matthews, in New York, by way of the West Indies. The Co- 
lonial Agent, Mr. Ashmun, was compelled as the last hope of 
recovering his health, to take passage in the Doris for the Unit- 
ed States. His sufferings during the voyage to the West In- 
dies, were extreme; and on his arrival at St. Bartholomews, he 
was obliged to place himself under the care of a Physician, and 
to see the Doris sail him. . The following letter, it will 

88 Latest from Liberia. [May, 

be seen, was written before he had fully determined to make 
any stay at that Island. 

Island of St. Bartholomews, West Indies, May 10, 1828. 

"Dear Sir. By a small Baltimore vessel bound hence to-morrow, I have 
just time and strength to inform you, of my arrival here yesterday evening 
in the Doris, 47 days from Liberia. The enclosed certificate and accom- 
panying letters will show, in what a low state of health I left — and am sor- 
ry to be unable to state, that the passage has been attended with all the 
advantages anticipated from it. The form of my disorder has, however, 
taken on a new appearance, and at present consists chiefly in swelled feet 
and legs, attended with topical inflammation, and a severe, seated, and con- 
stant pain — which nearly takes from me the power of sleeping, and is at 
times nearly intolerable. I am now in the hands of a physician of the Is- 
land, who has the reputation of being skilfull — and with whom it will be 
necessary for me to remain — 1 hope not many days — but God knows — and 
I am submissive. The Doris remains here only four or five days — I shall 
certainly continue my passage home in her, if it can be done without rash- 
ness — and if not, by the next conveyance after my health is sufficiently 
amended to endure the voyage . 

"I left the Colony the 25th March. The severe sickness had extended 
no further than to the Doris's company — all the other late emigrants had 
passed their seasoning without much danger or suffering. The health of 
the people generally, was good; and the usual internal prosperity, and ex- 
ternal tranquillity happily prevailed. 

"I was enabled to arrange the concerns of the Colony with Mr. Cary, 
even to the minutest particulars — and I have the greatest confidence that 
his administration will prove satisfactory, In a high degree, to the Board, 
and advantageous to the Colony. 

"Excuse the unavoidable brevity of this note — and expect, Dear Sir, 
very shortly, either to hear from, or see me, per the Doris. 

Meantime, Respectfully 

Your Obedient Servant, 

The Rev. R. R. Gurlet, S. A. C. S. t Washington. 

Under date of May 13th, he writes, "after a severe struggle 
with myself, I am obliged to yield to necessity, and see the Do- 
ris sail hence for the United States without me, uncertain when 
I am to follow, if at all. The nature of my first attack, I have 
already stated by the Randolph Mr. Cary's certificate will 
show the nature of my symptoms, on leaving Liberia. During 
the passage of 47 days, my sufferings were nearly indescribable. 

1828.] Latest from Liberia. 89 

I spent two weeks in the anticipation of an almost certain death, 
before I should see land again, and was at length wholly con- 
fined to my cot. On my arrival here, a thorough examination 
of my case discovered, that the form of the disorder had chang- 
ed since leaving the African Coast; and that the evils of it could 
only be removed by slow degrees, and my exhausted strength, 
and skeleton frame, could bear none but the mildest medical 
treatment. To pursue my voyage home by the Doris, has been 
pronounced by my physician, as a certain means, either of bring- 
ing all my complaints to a speedy and fatal termination, or of 
giving them an inveteracy, which would render them incurable. 

fci Such are the circumstances under which I am obliged to 
submit to the heavy expense, and other still more painful conse- 
quences attendant on a stay (perhaps a final one) in this Island. 
I entered three days ago, on an active course of medicines, and, 
while my strength remains much as it was, my disordered legs 
and chest are already very sensibly relieved." 

From the concluding sentence, we are led to indulge strong 
hope, that a merciful God will yet spare to a cause, which he 
has served with such pure and heroic devotedness — with such 
remarkable energy and success — this invaluable man; and that 
we shall be permitted to see his face once more — be allowed to 
express to him, personally, the respect, more, the admiration 
which we feel for him, and which his conduct in laying the foun- 
dation of the African Colony, and conducting it forward to its 
present high place of promise, has excited in the breasts of 
thousands. The reward which he seeks, is not this world's 
honour; but cold would be the heart that at a moment like this, 
could hesitate to offer with its expressions of sympathy, a sin- 
cere tribute of praise. 

Mr. Ashmun mentions the kind attentions of Mr. Matthews, 
in terms of great respect and gratitude; and observes, that 
nothing could have given him greater satisfaction, than to have 
completed the voyage in the Doris. 

We have received several letters from the Rev. Lott Cary, 
Vice-Agent of the Colony, and others; all of whom mention with 
grief, the departure of Mr. Ashmun; yet appear to be in the en- 
joyment of great prosperity. 


!W) Extracts from Correspondence- [-May, 

"Extracts from CoiTes^owAewce. 

From a Gentleman in Virginia. 

I congratulate you on the handsome legacy which He, who, as I 
believe, first put it into the hearts of some of his faithful servants to 
establish our Society, and whose kind providence fostered and 
protected it, has lately caused Mr. Burr, of Vermont, to leave 
to this Institution. I would fain hope that it may be the means 
of inspiring its friends with new ardour. A pious and exempla- 
ry Christian of this town, lately deceased, has, by her last will, 
directed her slaves, six in number, to be sent to the Colony, at 
the expense of her estate, if they shall think proper to accept 
the boon. 

From a Gentleman in Maine. 

Your affairs have an unusually bright aspect. Though I was 
once utterly an unbeliever in the success of your scheme, I am 
brought wholly over to the faith. I should now as soon calcu- 
late upon the failure of any one of the benevolent projects of the 
day, as upon that of your Institution. 

Fi'om a -Gentleman in Vermont. 

At my request, the Editor of a Newspaper in this village, has 
republished your letter to Joel Early, Esq.; also the Address of 
the Colonists to the Free People of Colour in the United States. 
Those publications have produced among the Christians and 
philanthropists, an extensive inquiry, relative to the Society. — 
If every Editor would admit in the columns of their papers, 
suitable extracts from the Repository, it would diffuse much in- 
formation, of which the great body of the people are ignorant. — 
The Society is gaining ground rapidly in this state. I calculate 
that there will be greater exertions made for its benefit, the 
coming fourth of July, than at any former period. There is no- 
thing wanting but information. I am well persuaded, that the 
Society will rank first after the Bible Society. 

From a Gentleman in Massachusetts. 

The Colonization Society appears to be gaining in the affec- 
tions and solicitude of many in our beloved country, especially 

18£8.] Extracts from Correspondence* 91 

in this section of it. I view it as the instrument in the hand of 
a kind Providence, of restoring lost liberty to the African, and 
honour and glory to this land of freedom. With these views, I 
send you my mite, (S5) for this benevolent and highly praise- 
worthy object. It is near my heart; and had I the ability^ I 
would freely give one hundred times the amount. 

From a Gentleman in Maine. 

On the Fourth of July last, in this town, or rather township, 
we celebrated the Anniversary of American Independence," by 
forming a Bible Society, and a Peace Society, auxiliary to the 
American Colonization Society. It was my intention to com- 
municate this information sooner, but a press of other concerns 
has prevented me. Nor did I wish to send an empty letter, but 
meant that my first letter to you, should contain the first fruits 
•f our offerings. I, therefore, postponed writing, hoping to see 
you, on my visit to the South last winter. In this I was disap- 
pointed, as I went no further than Philadelphia; and I embrace 
the first leisure moment, after my return here, to write to you, 
not knowing when I shall have another opportunity. 

I do not expect great pecuniary contributions from my towns- 
men, who, generally speaking, are not able to do much in this 
way, and who have been taxed by their liberality, to the utmost 
of their ability — for I was happy to hear on my return, that the 
Bible Society had actually supplied every destitute family in 
town with a Bible. As soon, however, as the travelling shall 
be good, I will endeavour to see what can be done for your So- 
ciety, so that by the next Anniversary, I hope to be able to make 
a remittance. But we have done something. In a scheme, the 
success of which, depends upon public opinion, as in fact, all 
benevolent schemes of a public nature do, the gaining of one 
convert is doing something. I have endeavoured to give the 
African Repository a wide circulation, by placing it among the 
tracts of our Peace Society. 

I have no doubt that all the benevolent exertions of the day, 
like strands in a rope, mutually strengthen each other. They 
all tend to the same great cause — peace on earth, and good will 
to man. The greatest obstacles which lie in the way of benevo- 
lent enterprises, is a spirit of selfishness. In condemning as 

92 Extracts from Correspondence. [May, 

mischievous or impracticable, any benevolent scheme, a man 
finds a plausible excuse for his own covetousness. Yet man- 
kind are willing to sacrifice immense sums, on their own per- 
sonal gratification. For my own part, I cannot endure this 
Selfish, fearful, distrustful spirit. I am convinced, that there is 
no moral difficulty which will not yield to zeal and persever- 
ance — and that every thing which ought to be done can be done. 

In order to secure the peace and liberty of all mankind, the 
two leading passions of the human heart, pride and avarice, must 
be subdued. This would be a hopeless task, were not the two 
passions, in many cases, opposed to each other, and we are wil- 
ling sometimes, to sacrifice one to the other. 

The time must assuredly come, when the people of this coun- 
try will be willing to be taxed to rid ourselves of the opprobri- 
um under which we now suffer; which it is as much the interest 
as it is the duty of the country at large to accelerate. But I 
would by no means, have a hair of the constitution touched for 
this purpose. Nothing should be done by law, without the full 
consent of the slave-holding states, which it is as much their inter- 
est as it is their duty to give. And we have reason to be thankful 
that God has so kindly united our interest with our duty, that 
they are in the long run inseparably connected. The command 
to do to others, as we would that others should do to us, increases 
the happiness of all who make it the rule of their conduct. 

From a Gentleman in the State of New York. 

I have read the March number of the Repository, with much 
interest. The steady, unwearied, and dignified devotion, and 
the judicious, intelligent, firm administration of Mr. Ashmun, 
command my admiration, my warm interest in his prosperity, 
and my prayers for the preservation of his valuable life. Should 
he come to this country, and to this place, 1 hope you will 
not fail to give me an opportunity of knowing him face to face. 
I rejoice in all your prosperity and encouragement, particularly 
in the late Vermont donation, and the enlarged liberality of G. 
Smith, Esq. I trust the co-partners in the liberal plan, will in- 
crease, and that rapidly. 

1828.] Mr. Burr 9 s Legacies. — Fourth of July 

My. Ii\\TY'S legacies. 

It appears from a statement of the legacies of this gentleman 
in the last Vermont Chronicle, made by two of his executors, 
that the account which has gone the rounds of the papers is not 
entirely accurate. The following is official: 

To the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, . .$17,000 

American Bible Society, 15,000 

American Home Missionary Society, 10,000 

American Tract Society, 5,000 

* American Colonization Society, 5 f 000 

Vermont Domestic Missionary Society, 5,000 

North West Branch of American Education Society, 3,000 

Middlebury College, 12,200 

Dartmouth College, 1,000 

Williams College, 1,000 

Congregational Society in Manchester, 5,000 

Also, a lot of land worth 400 

To Trustees, to support a public Seminary of Learning in Manches- 
ter, (a permanent fund,) 10,000 

To constitute Rev. William Jackson and Rev. Abraham Bronson, 

life directors of the American Bible Society, 300 

To Baptist Clergymen in Manchester, 300 

To purchase a farm for the support of the poor in Manchester, .... 1,200 

Making a total of, $91,400 

Besides several smaller legacies. A large amount of property was also 

given to the relatives and other friends of the deceased. — [N. Y. Observe?', 

T\ve Tourth of July . 

Whether a single expedition shall sail for Liberia the present 
season, must depend upon the amount, which shall within three 
or four months be contributed to the funds of our Society. We 
make our appeal, then, to every Minister and to every Church in 
the United States, and entreat them, on the approaching Anni- 
versary of our National Independence, or on some Sabbath near 

* There is little hope that this generous bequest can be realized until 
after several months. 

94 To Auxiliary Societies and our Friends. [May, 

to that day, to consider the claims of that cause which it has 
been our endeavour to promote, and to aid it by their prayers 
and their charities. What could be more appropriate; more 
honourable; more religious; than, for all the congregations in 
our land to unite at such a season, in testifying their gratitude 
to Heaven for our political independence, and the benefits of 
our free institutions, by offering their aid to those who are leav- 
ing us to seek similar blessings on a distant shore — who are 
leaving us to instruct the wretched tribes of Africa in the arts 
of civilization, the knowledge of human rights, and the blessed 
doctrines of Christ We hope that every editor who wishes 
success to that cause, which it is our duty and privilege to re- 
commend, will bring this subject distinctly before the eyes of 
the public. 

To Auxiliary Societies and ora Txiew&s. 

It is now the season when every possible effort is required 
from those who regard our cause with affection, to augment the 
funds of the Society. The outfit of expeditions late in the year, 
has in times past, we think, proved unfortunate; and we trust 
that in future, all will leave our shores before the end of Novem- 
ber. Permit us then to hope, that every Auxiliary Society will 
shortly send in its annual contribution, and that whatever individ- 
ual friends can do for us, will be done with their might. To ani- 
mate us, there is every thing; to discourage us, nothing. No 
Colony, we believe, has ever in the same period, attained to au 
equal degree of importance. A light kindled by humanity and 
religion within the precincts of cruelty and darkness, many 
hearts have already felt its softening influence; it has excited the 
admiration of barbarians, while it has shown itself a warning 
beacon to the enemies of mankind. Let us then prosecute with 
increased ardour and energy, the great work in which we are 
engaged. Forget not, that influence as well as knowledge, is pow- 
er; that for the use we may make of both, we are responsible to 
heaven; and that the ability to do good, which results from both, 
can only be measured by experience. 

1812 8.] €apt. Nicholson. — The Great Object Promoted. 95 

Contain Xicholson's Testimony. 

Capt. Nicholson, of the U. S. Navy, very lately from Liberia, 
makes the most favourable representations in a letter to Mr. Clay. 
The state of society is so inviting that eight of his crew, free 
coloured mechanics, obtained permission to remain. — The fol- 
lowing is an extract from Capt. N's. letter. "The importance 
of this Colony, as regards the native tribes of the coast, is, in 
my estimation, great. They already begin to perceive that it is 
civilization and the blessings of religion, which give superiority 
to man over his fellow man. They had supposed it was the 
white skin; but now they see in their neighbourhood, men of their 
own colour, enjoying all those advantages hitherto deemed pe- 
culiar to the former. This has elicited a spirit of inquiry, which 
must tend to their benefit. The philanthropist may anticipate 
the day when our language and religion will spread over this now 
benighted land. The slave trade will cease as the Colony pro- 
gresses, and extends its settlements. The very spot where now 
exists a free people, was a depot for the reception of manacled 
slaves. This fact alone is entitled to consideration, and ought 
to arouse the zeal of the friends of humanity every where." 

[Boston Recorder. 

T\ve Great Object "Promoted. 

Yet, great as it is, we will not despair of its accomplishment. So impor- 
tant is this object, and so easily might it be effected, if our friends who are 
blessed with wealth could be induced seriously to reflect upon it, and act as 
we have no doubt they would be inclined to do, after serious consideration; 
that we cannot but hope shortly to receive other subscriptions, as gratify- 
ing and liberal as that which we now record. 

Dear Sir: Please add my name to the list of subscribers un- 
der the proposition of Gerrit Smith, Esq.; as, in conformity 
thereto, I hereby agree to pay one hundred dollars a year, for 
ten years, to the American Colonization Society; provided, one 
hundred persons agree to do the same. 

Very respectfully, Your Obedient Servant, 

Rev. R. R. Gurley, City of Washington. 

9£) (contributions. [May, 

C Qiitoibutiorvs 

To the A. C. Society, from 1st to 50th May, 1828. 

From Rev. Samuel Ellis, for collections by him in Virginia, as 
follows, viz: 
Colonel Jacob Vanmeter, of Fort Pleasant, Oldfield, Hardy 

County, $5 

Isaac Vanmeter, Esq. of do. do. 5 

Sundry persons, 6 10 

16 10 

Auxiliary Society, New Jersey, per R. Voorhees, Esq. Tr. 100 

Do. Charleston, Va. per W. Brown, Esq. Tr. 32 70 

Thos. Hastings, Esq. Utica, New York, collections by him, 154 70 

Simon Cronise, Esq. Frederick County, Md. for collections 
us follows, viz: 

By Rev. Mr. Greer, in Pine Creek Church, 15 50 

By Do. in Thomas Creek Church, 12 13 

By Rev. David Bossier, in German Reformed Church, 

Emmetsburg, Pa 3 45 

31 08 

Auxiliary Society, Alexandria, per C. Page, Esq. Tr 100 

Collection in Presbyterian Congregation, Lewistown, and 

Paymborough, Mifflin County, Pcnn. Rev. J. S. Poods, 

through Hon. Bushrod Washington, 5 

Collections by Grove Wright, agent of the Society in New 

York, per Rev. Mr. Gurley, 22 76 

From I. J. Roberts, Esq. Edgefield, S. C 1 00 

Luther Bailey, Esq. Medway, Ms 5 00 

Rev. A. Hemphill, York, Pa 3 00 

A Friend to the cause, per Hon. Mr. Whipple, . . 8 00 
Manumission and Emigration Society, Loudon Co. 

Va. per B. F. Taylor, Esq 21 25 

Peace Society, of Minot, Me. per W. Ladd, Esq. 10 00 
Rev. John Schermerhorn, Utica, New York, ... 15 00 
Collection at Canaan, Columbia Co. New York, 6 124 

J.B.Lawrence, Esq. Salem, Ms 6 00 

Collection Presbyterian Congregation, Wooster, 

Ohio, per Hon. John Sloane, 5 00 

Repository, 26 00 

106 37i 

$568 70 \ 





Vol. IV. JUNE, 1823. No. 4. 

O/* Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Jlshantee, with a Statis- 
tical account of that Kingdom, and Geographical Notices of 
other parts of the Interior of Africa. By Edward Bowdich, 
Esq., Conductor. London, 1819. 


Among all the great and beneficial consequences, which may 
be anticipated from the establishment of Christian Colonies on 
the African Coast, perhaps none is more cheering than the intro- 
duction of our holy religion, to supersede the absurd and relent- 
less superstitions, to which the population of Africa has been so 
long subjected. For the honour of humanity, we should hope, 
that in no part of Africa were the superstitions more odious and 
cruel, than in Ashantee; but of the tribes far in the interior, we 
know comparatively little, and the information which has reach- 
ed us, is certainly of no favourable character. We except in this 
remark the followers of Mahomet, who are known to occupy large 
territories, and who from the extent of their trade, and their in- 
tercourse with other nations, and perhaps, from the doctrines of 
their Prophet, have attained to a degree of elevation above the 

great mass of the negro tribes. But Mahomedanism though in 
13 o 

U# Review of Mission from Cape ' [Junfy 

some respects less appalling in its effects,, will, we believe, be dis- 
placed with more difficulty by the Gospel, than the revolting su- 
perstitions which inflict their curses upon the immense popula- 
tion, who know little or nothing of the Koran. The former is 
a written system, sustained by the power of a disciplined and 
crafty priesthood, teaching doctrines adapted to enlist in its be- 
half many of the deepest and strongest passions of the heart: the 
latter are vague and traditionary, poorly compensating for their 
terrors in this life, by any hopes of another; shadowy and unsub- 
stantial, filling the imagination with horrors, but leaving the un- 
derstanding in midnight darkness. How gratifying to think, 
that the disciples of our own pure faith have fixed their habita- 
tions upon the shores o£ Africa, that the influence of their prin- 
ciples and their example must rapidly extend itself into the in- 
terior; that from them shall go forth light and truth to make thi« 
moral wilderness like Eden, this desert like the garden of God. 

The Ashantees may emphatically be said to be led captive by 
Satan at his will. Their worship (if such it can be called) is 
demoniacal, and their rites are celebrated with the blood of hu- 
man victims. Indeed, when perusing the account of their relig- 
ious ceremonies, no one, it would seem, could doubt the reality 
of satanic influence. 

The Negro tradition of the Book and the Calabash cited by 
St. Pierre, (says Mr. Bowdich) is familiar to every native of 
these parts, and seems the source of their religious opinions. — 
The following is the Ashantee manner of relating it. 

"In the beginning of the world, God created three white and three black 
Bien, with the same manner of women; he resolved, that they might not af- 
terwards complain, to give them their choice of good and evil. A large 
box or calabash was set on the ground, with a piece of paper sealed up, on 
one side of it. God gave the black men the first choice, who took the box, 
expecting it contained every thing; but on opening it, there appeared only 
a. piece of gold, a piece of iron, and several other metals, of which they did 
not know the use. The white men opening the paper, it told them every 
thing. God left the blacks in the bush, but conducted the whites to the 
water side, (for this happened in Africa) communicated with them every 
night, and taught them to build a small ship, which carried them to another 
country, whence they returned after a long period, with various merchan- 
dise to barter with the blacks, who might have been the superior people. 

'•WitX this imaginary alienation from the God of the Universe, not a shade 

U528.] Coast Castle to Jlshantee* $V 

of despondency is associated; they consider that it diminishes their comforts 
and endowments on earth, but that futurity is a dull and torpid state to the 
majority of mankind." 

The Ashantees believe in Fetishes or subordinate Deities, in- 
habiting particular rivers or mountains, and these are venerated 
in proportion to the actual fulfilment of their equivocal predic- 
tions. The favourite Fetish is at present the river Tando. The 
kings and higher classes are believed to dwell with the superior 
Deity after death, in a state resembling their condition on earth; 
hence, at the death of such, many of both sexes are sacrificed, 
that they may accompany the deceased and minister to their 
pleasures. The inferior classes are supposed to inhabit after 
death the houses of the Fetish, in a state of torpor and inactivity. 
Those who neglect the funeral rites of their family, are believed 
to be accursed by their spirits. 

There are two orders of Fetishmen; the higher, who attend 
upon the Fetish and receive his oracles — the lower, who mingle 
in society, and are often consulted as fortunetellers and conju- 
rors. There are domestic Fetishes in every family, answering 
to the Penates of the Romans. These receive offerings at the 
Yam Custom, but are not brought out of the house. 

"The Ashantees have their Fasti and Nefasti; or lucky and 
unlucky days, as the Romans had."* When they drink, they 
spill a little of the liquor on the ground as an offering to the Fe«- 
tish. But the influence which the Moors exert over these 
people and other tribes, is perhaps, the most surprising. 

"The confidence of the Ashantees in the fetishes or saphies they purchase 
so extravagantly from the Moors, is such, that they believe firmly that they 
make them invulnerable and invincible in war, paralyse the hand of the 
enemy, shiver their weapons, divert the course of balls, and avert all evils 
but sickness, (which they can only assuage,) and natural death. The King 
gave to the King of Dagwumba, for the fetish or war-coat of Apokoo, the 
value of thirty slaves; for Odumata's, twenty; forAdoo Quamina's, thirteen,; 
for Akimpon's, twelve; for Akimpontea's nine; and for those of greater cap? 
tains in proportion. The generals being always in the rear of the army are 
pretty sure to escape, a circumstance much in favour of the Moors. A 
sheet of paper would support an inferior Moor in Coomassie for a month. f 

* Ule et nefasto te posuit die. Hor. 12, 13. 

f The saphies consist of pieces of paper upon which the Moors have writ- 
ten, and which they incase in leather, gold, or silver. 

ttJO Review of Mission from Cape [June, 

Several of the Ashantee captains offered seriously to let us fire at them. — 
The Ashantees believe that the constant prayers of the Moors, who have 
persuaded them that they converse with the Deity, invigorate themselves 
and waste the spirit and strength of their enemies." 

The Yam Custom (says Mr. Bovvdich) is annual, just at the 
maturity of that vegetable, in the early part of September. "It 
is like the Saturnalia; neither theft, intrigue, nor assault are pun- 
ishable during the continuance; but the grossest liberty prevails, 
and each sex abandons itself to its passions. All the Caboceers 
are commanded to attend, and if any one has given offence, it is 
at this time that his accusation is generally made known. The 
show, riot, and confusion of this occasion, are thus described by 
Mr. Bowdich. 

"On Friday the 5th of September, the number, splendour, and variety of 
arrivals, thronging from the different paths, was as astonishing as entertain- 
ing; but there was an alloy in the gratification, for the principal caboceers 
sacrificed a slave at each quarter of the town, on their entre. 

"In the afternoon of Saturday, the King received all the caboceers and 
captains in the large area, where the Dankara canons are placed. The 
scene was marked with all the splendour of our own entre, and many addi- 
tional novelties. The crush in the distance was awful and distressing. AH 
the heads of the kings and caboceers whose kingdoms had been conquered, 
from Sai Tootoo to the present reign, with those of the chiefs who had been 
executed for subsequent revolts, were displayed by two parties of execu- 
tioners, each upwards of a hundred, who passed in an impassioned dance, 
'some with the most irresistible grimace, some with the most frightful ges- 
ture: they clashed their knives on the skulls, in which sprigs of thyme were 
inserted, to keep the spirits from troubling the King. I never felt so grate- 
ful for being born in a civilized country. Firing and drinking palm wine 
were the only divertissemens to the ceremony of the caboceers presenting 
themselves to the King; they were announced, and passed all round the cir- 
cle, saluting every umbrella: their bands preceded; we reckoned above for- 
ty drums in that of the King of Dwabin. The effect of the splendour, the 
tumult, and the musketry, was afterwards heightened by torch light. — 
We left the ground at 10 o'clock; the umbrellas were crowded even in the 
distant streets, the town was covered like a large fair, the broken sounds of 
distant horns and drums fdled up the momentary pauses of the firing which 
encircled us: the uproar continued until four in the morning, just before 
which the King retired. 

"The next morning the King ordered a large quantity of rum to be pour- 
ed into brass pans, in various parts of the town; the crowd pressing around, 

1828.] Coast Castle to Ashantee. 101 

and drinking like hogs; freemen and slaves, women and children, striking, 
kicking, and trampling each other under foot, pushed head foremost into the 
pans, and spilling much more than they drank. In less than an hour, except- 
ing the principal men, not a sober person was to be seen, parties of four reel- 
ing and rolling under the weight of another, whom they affected to be carry- 
ing home; strings of women covered with red paint, hand in hand, falling 
down like rows of cards; the commonest mechanics and slaves furiously de- 
claiming on state palavers; the most discordant music, the most obscene 
songs, children of both sexes prostrate in insensibility. All wore their 
handsomest clothes, which they trailed after them to a great length, in a 
drunken emulation of extravagance and dirtiness. 

"About a hundred persons, mostly culprits reserved, are generally sacri- 
ficed, in different quarters of the town, at this custom. Several slaves were 
also sacrificed at Bantama, over the large brass pan, their blood mingling- 
with the various vegetable and animal matter within, (fresh and putrefied,) 
to complete the charm, and produce invincible fetish. All the chiefs kill 
several slaves, that their blood may flow into the hole from whence the new 
yam is taken. Those who cannot afford to kill slaves, take the head of one 
already sacrificed and place it on the hole."* 

There is another national custom called the Adai, which com- 
mences on the first of October. "This is supposed by the com- 
mon people to be marked by the falling of a fruit like a gourd* 
from a tree called Brebretim. They further pretend, that from 
the fruit of this tree spring various kinds of vegetables. The 
customs ar.e alternately called the great and little Adai, the for- 
mer taking place always on Sunday, the latter on Wednesday; 
and it appeared, that there were six weeks between each great 
Adai, and six between each little one; so that the custom was 
generally held every twenty -one days." The proceedings at 
these, appear to resemble in many respects, those of the Yam 

* In Ahanta, at the Contoom or Harvest custom, each family erects its 
Hide altar, composed of four sticks driven in the ground, and twigs laid 
across the top; the whole is then covered with fresh pulled leaves. A hog, 
a sheep, a goat, or a fowl is killed, according to the means of the family, 
and the most delicate parts laid on the altar; a mixture is made of eggs, 
palm oil, palm wine, the blood of the animal slain, and other ingredients, 
and also dedicated to the Fetish, in small pots placed on the altar. In a few 
days these altars become so offensive as to render it disagreeable to pass, 
them, but fhey are never removed," 

iOii Review of Mission from Cape [June, 

Mention has been made already of human sacrifices. These 
Are frequent, but most numerous on the decease, and at the fu- 
nerals of distinguished individuals. On the death of a person 
of wealth or rank, a discharge of musketry announces the fact, 
and "in an instant you see a crowd of slaves burst from the 
house and run towards the bush, flattering themselves that the 
hindmost, or those surprised in the house, will furnish the hu- 
man victims for sacrifice, if they can but secrete themselves un- 
til the custom is over." As soon as the bodv is dressed out in 
silk and gold, one or two slaves are then sacrificed at the door 
of the house. Mr. Bowdich describes particularly what he wit- 
nessed at the decease of Quatchie QuofiVs mother, whose fune- 
ral ceremonies he concludes, were less splendid and barbarous 
than common. 

"The King, Quatchie Quofie, and Odumata, each sacrificed a young- girl 
directly the deceased had breathed her last, that she might not want for at- 
tendants until the greater sacrifice was made. The retainers, adherents, 
and friends of the family then sent contributions of gold, powder, rum, and 
cloth, to be expended at the custom ; the King, as heir, exceeding every 
quota but that of the nearest relative, who succeeded to the stool and slaves. 
The King also sent a sum of gold, and some rich cloths to be buried witb 
the deceased, in the basket or coffin. I could not learn the various sums 
of gold dust with sufficient accuracy to note them, but the following were 
the quantities of powder presented on the occasion." 

Here follows a statement of forty -four ounces of gold, or near- 
ly twelve barrels; which were presented to different persons. 

"We walked to Assafoo about twelve o'clock; the vultures were hover- 
ing around two headless trunks, scarcely cold. Several troops of women, 
from fifty to a hundred in each, were dancing by in movements resembling 
skaiting, lauding and bewailing the deceased in the most dismal, yet not 
discordant strains; audible, from the vast number, at a considerable distance. 
Other troops carried the rich cloths and silks of the deceased on their heads, 
in shining brass pans, twisted and stuffed into crosses, cones, globes, and a 
fanciful variety of shapes only to be imagined, and imposing at a small dis- 
tance the appearance of rude deities. The faces, arms, and breasts of these 
women were profusely daubed with red earth, in horrid emulation of those 
who had succeeded in besmearing themselves with the blood of the victims. 
The crowd was overbearing; horns, drums, and muskets, yells, groans, and 
screeches invaded our hearing with as many horrors as were crowded on 
our sight. Now and then a victim was hurried by, generally dragged or 

4828/] Coast Castle to Jlshantee. las 

run along- at full speed; the uncouth dress, and the exulting countenances 
of those who surrounded him, likening" them to as many fiends. I observ- 
ed apathy, more frequently than despair or emotion, in the looks of the vic- 
tims. The chiefs and captains were arriving in all directions, announced 
by the firing of muskets, and the peculiar flourishes of their horns, many of 
which were by this time familiar to us; they were then habited plainly as 
warriors, and were soon lost to our sight in the crowd. As old Odumata 
passed in his hammock, he bade us observe him well when he passed 
again : this prepared us in a small degree. Presently the King's arrival in 
the market place was announced, the crowd rolled towards it impetuously, 
but the soldiery hacked on all sides indiscriminately, and formed a passage 
for the procession. Quatchie Quofie hurried by, plunging from side to side 
like a Bacchanal, drunk with the adulation of his bellowing supporters; his 
attitudes were responsive to the horror and barbarism of the exultations 
which inspired them. The victims, with large knives driven through their 
cheeks, eyed him with indifference; he them with a savage joy, bordering 
on phrenzy : insults were aggravated on the one, flattery lavished on the 
other. Our disgust was beguiled for an instant by surprise. The chiefs 
who had just before passed us in their swarthy cloths, and the dark gloomy 
habits of war, now followed Quatchie Quofie, glistening in all the splendor 
©f their fetish dresses; the sprightly variety of their movements ill accorded 
with the ceremony. Old Odumata's vest was covered with fetish, cased 
invariably in gold or silver. A variety of extraordinary ornament and novel 
insignia, courted and reflected the sun in every direction. It was like a 
splendid pantomime after a Gothic tragedy. 

"We followed to the market place. The King, and the chiefs not im- 
mediately connected with Quatchie Quofie, were seated under their cano- 
pies, with the usual insignia and retinue, and lined about the half of a cir- 
cle, apparently half a mile in circumference; the soldiery completed it, 
their respective chiefs situated amongst them. Thirteen victims, surround- 
ed by their executioners, whose black shaggy caps and vests gave them the 
appearance of bears rather than men, were pressed together by the crowd 
to the left of the King. The troops of women, before described, paraded 
without the circle, vociferating the dirge. Rum and palm wine were flow- 
ing copiously, horns and drums were exerted even to frenzy. In an instant 
there was a burst of musketry near the King, and it spread and continued 
incessantly, around the circle, for upwards of an hour. The soldiers kept 
their stations; but the chiefs, after firing, bounded once round the area with 
the gesture and extravagance of madmen; their panting followers envelop- 
ing them in flags, occasionally firing in all the attitudes of a scaramouch, 
and incessantly bellowing the strong names of their exulting chief, whose 
musket they snatched from his hands directly he had fired. An old hag, 
described as the head fetish woman of the family, screamed and plunged 
about in the midst of the fire as if in the greatest agonies. The greater the 

1Q4 lievkw of Mission from Cape [June, 

chief the heavier the charge of powder he is allowed to fire; the heaviest 
charge recollected, was that fired by the King- on the death of his sister, 18 
ackies, or an ounce avoirdupoise. Their blunderbusses and long guns 
were almost all braced closely with the cordage of the country; they were 
generally supported by their attendants whilst they fired, several did not 
appear to recover it for nearly a minute; Odumata's old frame 9eemed shak- 
en almost to dissolution. Many made a point Of collecting near us, just 
within the circle, and firing as close as possible to startle us; the frequent 
bursting of their muskets made this rather alarming as well as disagreeable. 
The firing abated, they drank freely from the bowls of palm wine, religious- 
ly pouring a small quantity on the ground before they raised them to their 

"The principal females of the family, many of them very handsome, and 
•f elegant figures, came forward to dance; dressed, generally, in yellow 
silk, with a silver knife hung by a chain round their necks; one with a gold, 
another with a silver horn; a few were dressed as fetish women; an umbrel- 
la was held over the grand daughter as she danced. The Ashantees dance 
incomparably better than the people of the water side, indeed elegantly; 
the sexes do not dance separately, as in Fantee, but the man encircles the 
woman with a piece of silk which he generally flirts in his right hand, sup- 
ports her round the waist, receives her elbows in the palms of his hands, 
and a variety of figures approximating, with the time and movement, very 
closely to the waltz. 

"A dash of sheep and rum was exchanged between the King aud Quat- 
chie Quofie, and the drums announced the sacrifice of the victims. All the 
chiefs first visited them in turn; I was not near enough to distinguish where- 
fore. The executioners wrangled and struggled for the office, and the in- 
difference with which the first poor creature looked on, in the torture he 
was from the knife passed through his cheeks, was remarkable: the nearest 
executioner snatched the sword from the others, the right hand of the vic- 
tim was then lopped off, he was thrown down, and his head was sawed 
rather than cut off; it was cruelly prolonged, I will not say wilfully. — 
Twelve more were dragged forward, but we forced our way through the 
crowd, and retired to our quarters. Other sacrifices, principally female, 
were made in the bush where the body was buried. It is usual to 'wet the 
grave' with the blood of a freeman of respectability. All the retainers of 
the family being present, and the heads of all the victims deposited in the 
bottom of the grave, several are unsuspectingly called on in a hurry to as- 
sist in placing the coffin or basket, and just as it rests on the heads or skulls, 
a slave from behind stuns one of these freemen by a violent blow, followed 
by a deep gash in the back part of the neck, and he is rolled in on the top 
of the body, and the grave instantly filled up. A sort of carnival, varied 
by firing, drinking, singing, and dancing, was kept up in Assafoo for sever- 
al days; the ehiefs generally visiting it every evening, or sending their Hh< 

1828.] Coast Castle to Ashantee. X05 

guists with a dash of palm wine or rum to Quatchie Quofie; and I was given, 
to understand, that, but for the approaching" war and the necessary econo- 
my of powder, there would have been eight great customs, instead of one, 
for this woman; one weekly, the King himself firing at the last. The last 
day, all the females in any way connected with the family (who are not al- 
lowed to eat for three days after the death, though they may drink as much 
palm wine as they please,) paraded round the town, singing a compliment 
and thanks to all those who had assisted in making the custom. 

"On the death of a King, all the Customs which have been made for the 
subjects who have died during his reign, must be simultaneously repeated 
by the families, (the human sacrifices as well as the carousals and pagean- 
try) to amplify that for the monarch, which is also solemnised, independent- 
ly, but at the same time, in every excess of extravagance and barbarity.— 
The brothers, sons, and nephews of the King, affecting temporary insanity, 
burst forth with their muskets, and fire promiscuously amongst the crowd; 
even a man of rank, if they meet him, is their victim; nor is their murder 
of him or any other, on such an occasion, visited or prevented; the scene 
can scarcely be imagined. Few persons of rank dare to stir from their hou- 
ses for the first two or three days, but religiously drive forth all their vassals 
and slaves, as the most acceptable composition of their own absence. The 
King's Ocras, who will be mentioned presently, are all murdered on his 
tomb, to the number of a hundred or more, and women in abundance. I 
was assured by several, that the custom for Sai' Quamina, was repeated 
weekly for three months, and that two hundred slaves were sacrificed, and 
twenty five barrels of powder fired each time. But the custom for the 
King's mother, the regent of the kingdom during the invasion of Fantee, is 
most celebrated. The King of himself devoted 3000 victims, (upwards of 
2000 of whom were Fantee prisoners) and twenty-five barrels of powder* 
Dwabin, Kokoofoo, Becqua, Soota, and Marmpong, furnished one hundred 
victims, and twenty barrels of powder, each, and most of the smaller towns 
ten victims, and two barrels of powder, each. The Kings, and Kings only, 
are buried in the cemetery at Bantama, and the sacred gold buried with 
them; (see Laws;) their bones are afterwards deposited in a building there, 
opposite to which is the largest brass pan I ever saw, (for sacrifices,) being 
about five feet in diameter, with four small lions on the edge. Here hu- 
man sacrifices are frequent and ordinary, to water the graves of the Kings. 
The bodies of chiefs are frequently carried about with the army, to keep 
them for interment at home, and eminent revolters or enemies also, to be 
exposed in the capital. Boiteam, (the father of Otee the fourth linguist,) 
who accompanied the army of Abiniowa in his political capacity, dying at 

* "Suetonius tells us that Augustus sacrificed 300 of the principal citizens 
•f Perusia, to the manes of liis uncle Julius. We read in Prevost, that 
$4080 persons were sacrificed, with aggravated barbarity, in the dedication 
of a temple in Mexieo." 

106 Theories respecting the Niger. [June, 

Akrofroom in Aquapim, during the campaign, his body was kept with the 
army two months before it arrived at Coomassie. I could not get any in- 
formation on their treatment of the corpse, beyond their invariable reply 
that they smoked it well over a slow fire." 

(To be continued. J 

TlveoYi^s Ye&\>ect\ng fhfc Couvse, anft. Ter- 
mination ot t\\e XigCT. 

We have thought it might be interesting to our readers, to see 9ome ac- 
count of the various opinions which have been adopted, in reference to the 
course and termination of this mysterious river, and the statements upon 
which these theories have been founded. The following article is made 
up of extracts from the most valuable works on Africa. 

The course and termination of this celebrated stream is now 
the most interesting problem which remains to be solved, not 
only in Africa, but in any other portion of the globe. 

Herodotus,* more than twenty -two centuries ago, describes, 
from the information of the Africans, a great river of Africa, far 
removed to the south of the Great Desert, and abounding with 
crocodiles. That it flowed from west to east, dividing Africa. 
in like manner as the Danube does Europe. 

Pliny also believed that the Nile came from the west; but he 
is far from identifying it with the Niger, which he describes as 
a distinct river. But we have at least his negative opinion res- 
pecting its western course; for he speaks of the Bambotus river 
as running into the western ocean; meaning to express by it 
cither the Gambia or Senegal river, and not the Niger.! 

Ptolemy is positive in describing the Niger as a separate 
stream from the Senegal and Gambia, which two rivers are de- 
signed by him under the names of Daradus and Stachir; and 
they are by no means ill expressed; falling into the sea on differ- 
ent sides of the Jlrsinarium promontory, or Cape Verd.;j; The 
Niger of Ptolemy is made to extend from west to east, over 
half the breadth of Africa, between the Atlantic ocean, and the 
course of the Nile. 

* Euterpe, c. 32. | Lib. v. c. 9. 

1828.] Theories respecting the Niger. 107 

These may suffice for the ancient authorities, which in very 
early times fixed the course of the Niger in the systems of geo- 
graphy, to be, from west to east. [Major Rennell.~\ 

Pliny, however, enters into much greater detail in that extra- 
ordinary passage, where he traces the origin of the Nile, and its 
various transformations.* First, he informs us, that it springs 
from a mountain in Lower Mauritania, and issues out of a stag- 
nant Lake, called Nilis. Indignant, however, at flowing through 
rugged and sandy tracts, it hides itself under ground for several 
days, after which it issues anew from another lake in Mauritania 
Caesariensis. Finding itself again among sands, it plunges a 
second time beneath them, and continues hid during the whole 
extent of a desert space of twenty days' journey. On reaching 
ihe country of the Ethiopians, it again emerges, and, as Ptolemy 
supposes, from the fountain Nigris; when, continuing to flow, it 
divides the Africans from the Ethiopians. In a subsequent part 
of its course, it assumes the name of Astapus, evidently the 
river of Nubia. In this succession of rivers, so fancifully united 
to form one Nile, it seems clear that the two first are streams of 
the Bled-el-Jereede; but in respect to the other, situated on the 
other side of an immense desert, and in the country of the 
Ethiopians, whom it separates from the Africans, there seem 
fair grounds for believing it to be the Niger itself. We then 
find Pliny to be the strenuous advocate for the ancient system, 
by which the Nile and the Niger were viewed merely as succes- 
sive portions of the same great river. 

Mela leans to the same opinion.! He describes very distinct- 
ly, to the south of Mauritania, the great desert, and beyond it 
the country of the Ethiopians. There rises the river Nuchul, 
on which he makes the striking remark, that, "while all others 
direct their course towards the ocean, this one flows towards the 
east, and the centre of the continent^ and whither it goes is 
quite uncertain." 

The next geographical system was that of the Arabians, in 
whose opinion, with regard to the course of this river, there is 
nothing dubious or equivocal. They all identify it with the 

* Hist. Nat, f Lib. iii. 9, 

10S Theories respecting the Niger. [June, 

Nile, but only in its source and earliest, course, borrowed appa- 
rently from Ptolemy. But they conceive that, at a particular 
point, this primary Nile separates into two branches, or Niles; 
of which one, the Nile of Egypt, flows northward through Nubia, 
and falls into the Mediterranean; the other, the Nile of the Ne- 
groes, takes its course westward, and traverses the vast range 
of central Africa. According to Abulfeda and Edrisi, the most 
eminent Arabian geographers, it continues to flow till it is re- 
ceived into the Atlantic, or "Sea of Darkness," as they term 
their supposed circumambient ocean. 

Leo agrees with the Arabians in assigning a western course 
to the Niger, but he does not, like them, derive it from the Nile. 
It takes its rise, according to him, from a lake situated to the 
south of Bornou, probably the lake of Cauga, and thence flows 
westward, till it reaches the ocean. Leo, indeed, had heard it 
asserted, at Tombuctoo, that it rose in a mountain, flowed east- 
ward, and fell into a lake; but this he asserts to be contradicted 
by his own actual observation of the navigation from Tombuc- 
too to Ginea (Jinnie). 

The above observations of Leo entirely concurred with those 
which the Portuguese themselves had an opportunity of making. 

The illustrious traveller, Park, finally ascertained, that the 
Niger was entirely distinct from any of the rivers which fell into 
the Atlantic; that it flowed eastward into the centre of the con- 
tinent; and that to it belonged several hundred miles of the 
course which the best modern geographers had assigned to the 
Senegal. Upon these data, Major Rennell founded his theory 
of its course. It had been traced, indeed, by Park, only about 
300 miles from its source; but concurrent testimonies, ancient 
and modern, established the existence of a continued stream, 
upwards of a thousand miles farther, to the extremity of Wan- 
gara. That country is described by the Arabian geographers as 
entirely surrounded and intersected by branches of the Niger, 
(Nile of the Negroes); as containing, at least, two lakes, and as 
entirely overflowed during the rainy season. Major Rennell, 
therefore, very plausibly inferred, that Wangara was the Delta 
of the Niger; that its waters, spread out by the separation of its 
branches, by inundation, and by the formation of lakes, might, 
under the burning rays of a tropical sun, be completely evapor- 

1828.] Theories respecting the Mger. 109 

This view of the subject, supported by the learning and inge- 
nuity of Major Rennel, became, for a long time, the orthodox 
creed with regard to Africa. M. Reichard, of Weimar, ad- 
vanced another hypothesis; according to which, the stream pass- 
ed through Wangara, and directing its course to the south-west, 
poured itself into the Gulf of Benin, by a succession of large 
estuaries, of which the mouths only are known to us. 

The next hypothesis is that famous one by which the Niger is 
identified with the great stream which passes through the king- 
dom of Congo. The extraordinary magnitude of this last river, 
— the prodigious mass of waters which it pours into the ocean, 
whose waves it freshens to the distance of many leagues — its 
perpetual state of fullness, or rather flood, to which other tropi- 
cal rivers are incident only during a few months of the year — 
the occurrence, at two seasons, instead of one, of a perceptible 
swelling of its waters — these circumstances are supposed to indi- 
cate a river, which not only drains a vast extent of country, but 
is fed by the rains of both the tropics. Both these conditions 
are fulfilled, by supposing it to be the hitherto unknown termi- 
nation of the Niger. — [Murray. ~] 

Mr. Murray, in the following extract, gives his own hypothesis. 

The writer of this was led some time ago to form an hypothe- 
sis somewhat different from any of those above stated; and 
though his original confidence in it be somewhat abated, yet, as 
it may at least serve as a link to combine some curious notices 
relative to central Afriea, he will venture on a short exposition 
of it. 

Although the Niger, in Bambarra, carries with it to the east 
all the waters of central Africa, it cannot be doubted, that there 
is a tract on the other side of the continent, where these waters 
flow in an opposite direction. Without having recourse to an- 
cient, or more doubtful authorities, we find Browne expressly 
stating, that all the rivers about and beyond Darfur, were re- 
ported to him as flowing to the west and north-west. Some, the 
Kulla for instance, are so delineated, that they could scarcely 
continue to flow in that direction without meeting the Niger. — 
That a junction therefore takes place, at some point, of rivers 
from opposite sides of the continent, can scarcely be doubted. 

110 Theories respecting the Niger. [June, 

Whether these rivers terminate there, or direct their united 
streams into the ocean, is a separate question. According to 
the general opinion, this union takes place in Wangara. There 
is, however, a considerable weight of testimony which goes to 
prove, that much farther west, and in passing through the king- 
dom of Cassina, the direction of the stream is still westward. — 
Abulfeda, Edrisi, and all the Arabian writers, without a single 
exception, are well known to have described their Nile of the 
Negroes as flowing from cast to west. Now, as Gana was the 
centre of their settlements, and the main channel of communica- 
tion with Northern Africa, it appears very improbable that they 
should be misinformed as to how the matter stood there. Nor 
is it improbable that their knowledge might terminate with this 
westward-flowing river, and might never reach the stream visit- 
oil by Park. 

From these testimonies, it appeared a probable supposition, 
that the long line of river course to which Europeans have ap- 
plied the Roman name of Niger, (a name not known in modern 
Africa,) consists, in fact, of two rivers, flowing, one from the 
east, and the ether from the west, and falling into some common 
receptacle. It is objected, indeed, that no such receptacle has 
ever been reported to exist. But the tract between Cassina and 
Tombuctoo is so entirely unknown, that it might very well con- 
tain the feature in question, without such a report having reach- 
ed Europeans. Moreover, it may be observed, that the most 
recent travellers actually report the existence of a great lake, or 
inland sea, in this quarter. Jackson particularly describes an 
immense lake called the Sea of Soudan, situated about fifteen 
days' journey to the east of Tombuctoo. Park also heard at San- 
sanding of a lake, called the Ba Sea Feena, incomparably larger 
than the Dibbie., at about a month's distance from that place; 
which would nearly agree with the measure of Jackson.* 

[From BowdicWs Mission to •fishantee.'] 
Having reached the Niger, it is time to observe, that it is only 

* His expressions are, "One month's journey south of Baedoo, through 
** the kingdom of Gotto, will bring the traveller to the country of the Chris- 
" tians v/ho have their houses on the banks of the Ba Sea Feena; this wate: 

IS28.] Theories respecting the Niger. Ill 

known to the Moors by the name of Quolla, pronounced Quorra 
by the negroes, who, from whatever countries they came, all 
-poke of this as the largest river they knew; and it was the 
grand feature in all routes whether from Haoussa, Bornou, or 
the intermediate countries,) to Ashantee. The Niger, after 
leaving the lake Dibbir, was* invariably described as dividing in 
two large streams; the Quolla, the greater pursuing its course 
south-eastward, until it joined the Baher Abiad, and the other 
branch running northward of east, near Tombuctoo, and divid- 
ing again soon afterwards; the smaller stream running north- 
wards by Yahoodee,* a place of great trade, and the larger turn- 
ing directly eastward, and increasing considerably, running to 
the lake Caudi or Cadi, under the name of Gambaroo. The 
Moors call the branch running by Tombuctoo the Jolliba, I pre- 
sume figuratively, as a great water; for I was assured by a na- 
tive of Jennie, who had frequently visited Tombuctoo, that this 
branch was called Zahmer by the negroes. De Lisle, in his 
map of Africa, for the use of Louis XV, makes a branch from 
the Niger, running near Tombuctoo, and, what is even more to 
the point, writes "Gambarou ou Niger." Mr. Park, in his me- 
moir to Lord Camden, writes, "the river of Dar Kulla, men- 

" they describe as incomparably larger than the Dibbie, and that it flows 
'* sometimes one way, and sometimes another." 

To conceal nothing, [ cannot help entertaining some suspicion that this 
report may have referred to the sea in the Gulf of Guinea, though it certain- 
ly was not so understood by Park. The southern direction, the coast of 
the Christians, the decked vessels, and the motion one way and another 
(tides), all tend to suggest this idea. To this may be added the etymology 
of the word Ba Sea Feena, which was obligingly furnished to me by Mr. 
Jackson, who states it to signify the "Sea of Ships." I even used the free- 
dom to ask Mr. Jackson, if he considered it certain, that his Bahar Soudan 
might not also be the Gulf of Guinea? Mr. Jackson observed in reply, that 
the Gulf of Guinea was universally called by the Arabs, El Bahar Ginawa; 
that neither the distance nor direction agreed; and that the Arabs, who 
pray daily with their faces turned towards the east, can scarcely blunder as 
to this last point. He is also of opinion; that Park's Ba Sea Feena must be 
the same with the Sea of Soudan. 

The Moors particularly mentioned buying their writing paper there, 

112 Theories respecting the Niger. [June, 

tioned by Mr. Brown, is generally supposed to be the Niger, or, 
at least, to have a communication with that river." The name 
and course of the Quolla suggested this to me, before I observed 
the above remark, which I did not until my return. 

The Gambaroo seems to me to identify the Gir of Ptolemy,* 
carried by him into the centre of Xfrica, and which would ap- 
pear as large as the Niger, by the expression "Maximi suet Gir 
et Nigir. " 

It was an inconsiderate observation of Mr. Maxwell's, "If 
the Niger has a sensible outlet, I have no doubt of its proving 
the Congo, knowing all the rivers between Cape Pa) mas and Cape 
Lopez, to be inadequate to the purpose." The Volta may be 
thought so, but the Lagos certainly cannot, nor the Danger or 
Gaboon; and surely the rivers del Rey.and Formoso are not, 
which are thus noticed within a few pages of Mr. Maxwell's 
observation, by the judicious editor of Mr. Park's last mission. 
"The Rio del Rey and the Formoso are stated to be of consid- 
erable size, being each of them seven or eight miles at the 
mouth; and the supposed Delta, estimated by thp line of coast, 
is much larger than that of the Ganges; consequently, the two 
streams, if united, must form a river of prodigious magnitude." 


In his sketch of Gaboon, Mr. Bowdich has many very inter- 
esting remarks on the Congo hypothesis. He submits the com- 
pilation of seven weeks' investigation and inquiry, under very 
advantageous circumstances. The result was, that he heard of 
a kingdom far in the interior, through which, the river Wola 
or Wole, flows and runs eastward. "My friend, the Governor," 
he observes, "impressed on me, that this was the largest river 
in the world, and ran, to use his own words, for aught he knew, 
farther than Indie; all the great rivers in this country come 
from Wole." 

"The name, situation, magnitude, and course of the Wola, 

* Illorum vero qui per interiorem iEthiopiam fluant, quique fontes et 
•stia in continente habent maximi sunt Gir et Nigir. (Lib. xxiii. 1. D e 

1828.] Theories respecting the Niger. 113 

leave little doubt of its being the KullaorQuolla. "With this, 
the Ojj:ooawai, which enters the sea near Cape Lopez, forms a 
junction, or rather flows from it. At Adjoomla, no great dis- 
tance from the coast, the Ogooawai is represented as dividing it- 
self, and one arm running south to fall into the Congo, which, 
without it, would be an inconsiderable stream." — [Idem.] 

[Extract from Capt. Riley. ] 

Sidi Hamet, whose report is given by Capt. Riley, travelled 
from Tombuctoo, a little south of east, when he came to a small 
town, called Bimbina, walled in with canes and thorn bushes; 
here the river turned more to the south-eastward, because there 
was a very high mountain in sight to the eastward. "We then 
went from the river side, and pursued our journey more south- 
wardly, fifteen days, when we came to the same river again. 
Then we went onward again in about a south-east direction, 
winding as the river ran for three days, and then had to climb 
over a very high ridge of mountains, which took up six days, 
and when we were on the top of them, we could see a large 
chain of high mountains to the westward. Those were thickly 
covered with very large trees, and it was extremely difficult 
to get up and down them, but we could not go any other way, 
for the river ran against the steep side of the mountain; so 
having gotten over them, we came to the river's bank again, 
where it was very narrow and full of rocks, that dashed the 
water dreadfully, then finding a good path, we travelled the 
same way for 12 days, afterwards again 15 days, when we came to 
the walls of the city Wassanah," &c. — [Riley's Narrative."] 

In Mandara, (latitude ten degrees north) Major Denham saw a man who 
said he had been twenty days south of Mandara, to a country called Ada- 
mowa; which he described as being" situated in the centre of a plain, sur- 
rounded by mountains ten times higher than any we could see. — "This man 
spoke of several extensive lakes, which he had seen in his journey, and al- 
so described with great clearness a river running between two very high 
ridges of the mountains, which he crossed previous to arriving at Adamowa." 

This river he declared to run from the west, and to be the 

same as the Quolla or Quana at Nyffe, Kora, and at Raka, but 

not the same as the river at Kano, which had nothing to do with 

the Shary, and which ran into the Tchad; but the main body of 

114 Theories respecting the Niger. [June* 

the water ran on to the south of Begharmi, was then called 
the D'Ago, and went eastward to the Nile. Kaid-Moussa was 
a very intelligent fellow, had visited Nyffe, Raka, Waday, and 
Darfur; by which latter place also, he said this river passed. — 
He was most particularly clear in all his accounts, and his state- 
ment agreed in some points with the information a Shouaa named 
Dreess-boo-Raas-ben-aboo-Deleel had given me; therefore I was 
the more inclined to pay attention to it. To the south of this 
river, the population is entirely Kerdy, until (he Great Desert. 
This desert is passed several times in the year by kafilas with 
white people, not Christians, who bring goods from the great 
sea: some of these reach Adamowa. 

From Mahomad Gomsoo, Chief of the Arabs, at Sackatoo, (lat. 13° 4' 52" 
N., and long" 6° 12' E.) Captain Clapperton received the following- account. 
This man, if we are to credit his own statement, was at Tombuctoo when 
Park was murdered. 

I learned, besides, from Gomsoo, that he had been detained a 
prisoner three years, in a country called Yoriba, on the west side 
of the Quarra; which, he said, entered the sea at Fundah, a lit- 
tle below the town of Rakah. The latter is opposite to Nyffee; 
is a place of great trade between the interior and the coast, and 
all kinds of European goods, such as beads, woollen and cotton 
cloth, pewter and copper dishes, gunpowder, rum, &c, are to 
be had there in exchange for slaves. The inhabitants of Yoriba 
he represented to be extremely ill disposed. I may here men- 
tion, that during my stay in Sackatoo, provisions were regularly 
sent me from the sultan's table on pewter dishes, with the Lon- 
don stamp; and one day I even had a piece of meat served up in 
a white wash-hand basin, of English manufacture. 

Bello, also sultan of Sackatoo, drew on the sand the course of 
the river Quarra, which he also informed me entered the sea at 
Fundah. By his account the river ran parallel to the sea coast 
for several days' journey, being in some places only a few hours', 
in others a day's journey, distant from it. Two or three years 
ago the sea, he said, closed up the mouth of the river, and its 
mouth was at present a day or two farther south; but, during the 
rains, when the river was high, it still ran into the sea by the old 
channel. He asked me if the King of England would send him 

1828.] Theories respecting the Mger. 115* 

a consul and a physician, to reside in Soudan, and merchants 
to trade with his people; and what I had seen among them, 
which I thought the English would buy? Here again I enforced 
the discontinuance of the slave trade on the coast, as the only 
effectual method of inducing the King of England to establish a 
consul and a physician at Sackatoo; and that, as the sultan could 
easily prevent all slaves from the eastward passing through 
Haussa and Nyflfee, it would be the consul's duty to see that 
engagement faithfully fulfilled. With respect to what English 
merchants were disposed to buy, I particularized senna, gum 
arabic, bees' wax, untanned hides, indigo, and ivory. I also 
endeavoured to impress on his mind that Soudan was the coun- 
try best situate in all Central Africa for such a trade, which 
would not only be the means of enriching himself, but, likewise, 
all his subjects; and that all the merchandise from the east and 
from the west would be conveyed through his territories to the 
sea. "I will give the King of England," says he, "a place on 
the coast to build a town: only I wish a road to be cut to Rakah,* 
if vessels should not be able to navigate the river." I asked 
him if the country he promised to give belonged to him? 'Yes:' 
said he, "God has given me all the land of the infidels." This 
was an answer that admitted of no contradiction. 

The author of a Review of Denham and Clapperton, for our 
work, (vol. 2d, page 519,) observes, "From what we have been 
able to collect, we should conjecture, that the Niger must either 
discharge into the Ocean at the Bight of Benin, or through the 
wide mouth of the Congo, or into the Tchad, from the south, 
under the name of the Shary. That immense inland sea, has, 
probably, no outlet, unless it be during the rainy season, when 
it overflows; and if it have one, it must be at its western end, 
where, as Denham, who had examined its other shores, was told, 
there is the dry but elevated bed of a river. In those countries., 
where evaporation is so great, the sands so arid and thirsty, and 
the season so long in which there falls no rain, many of the 
rivers which are impetuous and full in winter, are perfectly dry 

* On the map of Denham and Clapperton, Rakah is represented as m lat, 
N. about 9°, and long. E. 5°, 

116 Connecticut Col. Soc Address* [June, 

at other times. Clapperton looked from an eminence for several 
miles along the dry bed of one, which was two hundred yards 
Vvide, and whose banks were thirty or forty feet high. This 
waste of waters will account for the small ness of the Shary, if 
\ve suppose that river to be the Niger. At its mouth it is about 
half a mile wide, deep, and flowing with a rapid current, even 
in the dry season; and discharges as great a body of water, per- 
haps, as the Niger could have preserved, during its long course 
of 2000 miles, from the absorption and evaporation to which it 
would be subjected." 

An AAAress to t\ie PutoYic, 

By the Managers of the Colonization Society of Connecticut. 

The Managers of this Society, at their recent Anniversary, 
submitted in place of their first Annual Report, this able Ad- 
dress, which we understand has been widely circulated in that 
state, and which, we sincerely wish, may be republished in every 
state of the Union. The spirit of liberality and candour, and 
the convincing argument and eloquence which pervade it through- 
out, must recommend it to the notice of all those whose good 
opinion merits regard. But we proceed, without further pre- 
face, to offer to our readers, liberal extracts from this Address. 

Friexds and fellow Citizens, 

In behalf of the Colonization Society of the State of Connecticut, we 
beg leave to address you on a subject intimately connected with the honour 
and the dearest interests of our common country, and identified with the 
great cause of human happiness. 

You are often called upon to lend your influence to schemes of patriotic 
enterprise and Christian benevolence. The elastic spirit of our age has 
long- been busy here, and has been moving" you to effort. You have found- 
ed and are sustaining" noble institutions of education. You have engaged 
in the work of sending the Scriptures into every family. You have long 
been contributing to impart the means of instruction to the ignorant and 
destitute. You have not held back from the enterprise of giving to Pagan 
tribes the blessed influences of the Gospel. The spirit which has prompt- 
ed you to effort aims at doing good to all within its reach; — it finds none 

1828.] Connecticut Col. Soe. Jlddress* ll? 

too degraded for its beneficence, none too distant for its sympathy. It 
seeks to perpetuate and to brighten that bright legacy of character and of 
privileg' s which has come down to us from sainted ancestors. It seeks to 
scatter every where the seeds of social improvement and of spiritual life. It 
seems to forget none of the children of degradation, or of intellectual and 
moral want. To the Pagan and the Mahommedan — to the degraded and 
abject in our cities — to the inmates of the manufactories rising along the 
streams of our New England — to the settler on the prairies of the far South- 
west — to the boatmen of our mighty rivers — to the sailor on the ocean— 
and even to the pauper, and the convict, and the drunkard — it is directing 
its efforts. 

But there is one large class among the inhabitants of this country — de- 
graded and miserable — whom none of the efforts in which you are accus- 
tomed to engage, can materially benefit. Among the twelve millions who 
make up our census, two millions are Africans — separated from the posses- 
sors of the soil by birth, by the brand of indelible ignominy, by prejudices 
mutual, deep, incurable, by an irreconcileable diversity of interests. They 
are aliens and outcasts; — tiiey are, as a body, degraded beneath the influ- 
ence of nearh all the motives which prompt other men to enterprise, and 
almost below the sphere of virtuous affections. Whatever may be attempt- 
ed for the general improvement of society, their wants are untouched.— 
Whatever may be effected for elevating the mass of the nation in the scale 
of happiness or of intellectual and moral character, their degradation is the 
same — dark, and deep, and hopeless. Benevolence seems to overlook 
them, or struggles fop their benefit in vain. Patriotism forgets them, or 
remembers them only with shame for what has been, and with dire fore- 
bodings, of what is yet to come. 

And of these two millions, the great majority are slaves. In a country 
proud of its freedom, and whose institutions breathe the spirit of universal 
liberty, one-sixth of the entire population are the subjects of a hereditary 
and hopeless bondage. If the political institutions of our country were 
based on the principle of arbitrary power and hereditary distinctions, if the 
privileges of freemen were less widely bestowed or less valued, the exist- 
ence of personal slavery to this extent would hardly be out of place, — it 
would be in harmony with the national institutions and with the national 
spirit, and would be attended with little danger. But as ( it is, the slavery 
which exists in these States, is a deadly and cancerous sore upon the vitals 
of the commonwealth; — it must be eradicated or the nation dies. 

The Society then proceeds to state some of the principles in 
which the "patriotic, prudent, and Christian," of almost every 
religious denomination, and from every quarter of the country, 
united at the origin of the Society. 

1 is Connecticut Col. Soc. Address. [June. 

1. It is taken for granted that in present circumstances, any effort to pro- 
duce a general and thorough amelioration in the character and condition of the 
free peopU of colour must be to a great extent fruitless. In every part of the 
United States there is a broad and impassible line of demarcation between 
every man who has one drop of African blood in his veins and every 
other class in the community. The habits, the feelings, all the preju- 
dices of society — prejudices which neither refinement, nor argument, nor 
education, nor religion itself can subdue — mark the people of colour, whe- 
ther bond or free, as the subjects of a degradation inevitable and incurable. 
The African in this country belongs by birth to the very lowest station in 
society; and from that station he can never rise, be his talents, his enter- 
prise, his virtues, what they may. In consequence of this, it is that they 
are and what they are. The wonder is that in such circumstances, they are 
not far worse. And so long as they continue in these circumstances, they 
must be deeply and incurably degraded. We have only to compute the 
extent, the variety, the power of the motives which are brought to bear 
upon the mind of every man who is truely a freeman, and at the same time 
recollect how few of these motives speak to the mind of the black man, 
bond or free; and we see that the coloured population of this country thus 
degraded by circumstances and degraded in public estimation, must be, as 
a mass, degraded in spirit, degraded in all their habits, degraded by igno- 
rance, and indolence, and want of thrift, and degraded by vice. What 
motive has the black man to cultivate his mind. Educate him, and you 
have added little or nothing to his happiness — you have unfitted him for 
the society and sympathies of his degraded kindred, and yet you have not 
procured for him, and cannot procure for him, any admission into the so- 
ciety and sympathy of white men. What motive has the black man to be 
industrious } He can supply all his physical wants without industry; and 
beyond the supply of his immediate physical wants, he has little induce- 
ment to look. Would you set before him the prospect of wealth as a mo- 
tive to industrious enterprise ? But of what value is wealth to him* Wealth 
can secure a sort of respectability for the ignorant and rude, and even for 
the vicious; it can half atone for crimes against the happiness of society; but 
it can do nothing for the black man. Would you urge him to frugality 
and diligence by the prospect of making provision for his children? But 
if neither education nor property can do any thing for him, education and 
property can do as little for his children after him. Would you set before 
him the importance of a good character? But of how much value is cha- 
racter to him who stands now, and must always stand in the lowest order 
of society ? It is this degradation of the condition of our free coloured popu- 
lation which ensures their degradation of character, and their degradation 
of character reacts to make their condition still more degraded. They con- 
stitute a class by themselves — a class out of which no individual can be ele- 
vated, and below which, none can be depressed, And this is the diffici' 1 

1828.] Connecticut Col. Soc. Mdress. 119 

ty, the Invariable and insuperable difficulty in the way of every scheme for 
their benefit. Much can be done for them — much has been done; but still 
they are, and, in this country, always must be a depressed and abject race. 
2. Another principle, in which the friends of the Colonization Society 
have been united from the beginning- is, that the improvement and ultimate 
abolition of slavery must be brought about by a moral influence only, and must 
be done by the people of the slave-holding states themselves, of their own mill. 
There is indeed another way in which slavery may, at some time or other, 
be abolished — a mode of abolition, at the thought of which, the heart sick- 
ens, and the imagination revolts in horror; but that is the very catastrophe 
which the promoters of this undertaking were anxiously aiming to avert.-— 
But how, in this country, can slavery be abolished, if not by violence and 
insurrection ? By Legislation? The strong hand of an Imperial Parliament 
is indeed introducing the reform of slavery and preparing its gradual sup- 
pression in the British Colonies; but the circumstances of the slave-holding* 
States in this confederacy, preclude the thought of any such interference 
here. The Legislatures of the States where slavery does not exist, have 
no more to do with the laws and social institutions of the States where it 
does exist, than they have to do with the military and ecclesiastical estab- 
lishments of the European kingdoms. The National Government has no 
control over the subject, for the right of the slave-holder to his property is 
guaranteed by the very compact on which the National Government rests 
for its existence. The Legislature of each slave-holding State can Legis- 
late only for its own constituents. Those Legislatures are only the ser- 
vants of the people; and when the people of those States demand the aboli- 
tion of slavery, then slavery will be abolished, and not till then. 

3. A third point in which the first promoters of this object were united, 
is, that yen; individual slave-holders can, in the present state of things, emanci- 
pate their slaves if they would. There is a certain relation between the pro- 
prietor of slaves and the beings thus thrown upon him, which is far more 
complicated, and far less easily dissolved than a mind unacquainted with 
the subject is ready to imagine. The relation is one which, where it ex- 
ists, grows out of the very structure of society, and for the existence of 
which, the master is ordinarily as little accountable as the slave. It is a re- 
lation, like the relation of parent and child, or master and apprentice, in- 
volving reciprocal duties — on the one hand protection and support, and on 
•Hie other hand obedience. It is an arbitrary relation in that it does not re- 
sult from the necessary condition of human nature, but rather from an arti- 
ficial and unnatural organization of society; and yet it is not arbitrary in any 
sense which implies that it . depends for its existence, or its continuance, 
on the consent of the parties. You may go to a slave-holder, and propose 
to him to emancipate his slaves. You may set before him all the evils of 
slavery in the most vivid colours. You may make him feel those evils as 
strongly as you feel them. But what shall he do ? Perhaps the law* of 

120 Connecticut Col. Soc. Address. [June, 

the State forbid emancipation as an act which goes only to swell the amount 
of pauperism, and wretchedness, and crime. But supposing there is n«* 
legal obstacle in the way, what shall he do? Here are a hundred human 
being's dependent on him for protection, and support, and government, 
and he, on the other hand, is dependent on their services for the 
meant of supporting himself and them. This relation he did not volunta- 
rily assume; he was born the proprietor of these slaves, just as really as he 
was born the subject of civil government. It is his duty, a duty which he 
cannot avoid, to make the best provision in his power for their sustenance 
and comfort. It is proposed to him to emancipate them. He looks ground 
him and sees that the condition of the great mass of emancipated Africans 
is one in comparison with which the condition of his slaves is enviable;— 
and he is convinced that if he withdraws from his slaves, his authority, his 
support, his protection, and leaves them to shift for themselves, he turns 
them out to be vagabonds, and paupers, and felons, and to find in the work- 
house and the penitentiary, the home which they ought to have retained on 
his paternal acres. This is no unreal case. There may be slaves — there are 
slaves by thousands and tens of thousands — whose condition is that of the 
most abject distress; but these are the slaves of masters whose whole con- 
duct is a constant violation of duty, and with whom the suggestion of giv- 
ing freedom to their slaves would not be harboured for a moment. The 
case which we have supposed, is the case of a master really desirous to 
benefit his slaves. Hundreds of humane and Christian slave-holders re- 
tain their fellow-men in bondage, because they are convinced that they 
can do no better 

The simple object of the American Colonization Society is to plant Colo- 
nies of free blacks from the United States upon the coast of Africa. This 
object they have been pursuing for eleven years, and they are now more 
fully convinced than ever that the accomplishment of this object will be 
attended with the best results, both as it respects the improvement of the 
character and condition of the free blacks, and as respects the gradual and 
safe abolition of slavery. 

What such Colonies are to do for the free blacks, it is not difficult to 
understand. Here the black man is degraded. You may call him free, 
you may protect his rights by legislation, you may invoke the spirit of hu- 
manity and of Christian benevolence to bless him, but still he is degraded. 
A thousand malignant influences around him are conspiring to wither all 
that is manly and noble in his nature. But in Africa he becomes a member 
of a community in which he is not only free but equal. There he stands 
up to be a man. There he has a home for himself, and for his children after 
him. There, as he looks about him on a soil of unrivalled and almost in- 
credible fertility, on the dark forest already beginning to fall at the ap- 
proach of civilization, on the varieties of mountain, and valley, and stream, 
already known by names dear to freedom and benevolence, on all the mag- 

1828.] Connecticut Col. Soc. Address* 121 

nificence and luxuriance of that tropical land, he can feel that there is his 
home, the land of tiis fathers, the refuge of the exile, and that there his 
children through succeeding ages shall enjoy a rich and noble inheritance. 
There he finds himself moved to industrious and honourable, and virtuous 
enterprise, by all the motives that inspire and quicken the freemen of our 
own New England. Every man of colour who removes from the United 
States to our African Colonies, removes from a land of degradation, from a. 
land where his soul is crushed and withered by the constant sense of inferi- 
ority, to a land where he may enjoy all the attributes of manhood and all 
the happiness of freedom. 

The successful establishment of these colonies will not only bless the colo- 
nists themselves, but will react to elevate the standing of those who remain 
behind. From beyond the Atlantic there will come a light to beam upon 
the degradation of the negro. Let it be known among the coloured popu- 
lation of this country what Africa is, and what advantages it offers to the 
emig' ant; and soon the selfsame spirit which now lands thousands of suf- 
fering Irishmen every year upon our shores, will be yearly landing thour 
sands of our free blacks upon the shores of Africa. 

What effect the execution of this scheme is to have on the progressive 
abolition of slavery in our country, may be easily shown. 

1. In the first place, it will give to many benevolent masters an opportuni- 
ty for the safe and happy emancipation of their slaves. This scheme solves 
the dilemma in which many a humane and Christian slave-holder has found 
himself. It shows him how he can free his slaves, and at the same time 
free himself from the responsibility of holding them in bondage, and at the 
same time secure the permanent improvement of their condition. Already 
has many a benevolent holder of slaves availed himself of the opening which, 
is thus presented. In the State of North Carolina the entire community of 
Quakers have emancipated their slaves, and by their own contributions have 
provided for their emigration to more favourable climes. 

2. In the second place, the prosecution of this scheme will excite discus- 
sion and will fix public attention on this great national interest. Attention, 
discussion is what this subject needs. We need attention and discussion — 
not declamation aiming at no good result — not the invectives of heated po- 
liticians — but calm, serious, kind investigation, leading the nation to esti- 
mate the extent and nature of the evil more exactly, and seeking out the 
remedies by which it may b e alleviated and subdued. To this result the 
scheme is even now most obviously tending. What has already been done 
in the way of fre"eing and transporting slaves, has sent a thrill through the 
hearts of thousands. And every new example of this kind, as it awakens 
new applause will act on public opinion .with a wider and more powerful 
influence. Good men and patriotic men in the slave-holding States will be 
led to examine the subject anew; they will see it in new relations, they will 


i2£ Connecticut Col. Soc. Address* • [June, 

i-egard it with new emotions. Thus the public mind will be gradually en- 
lightened, and public opinion will be renovated. 

But let this enterprise be successfully pursued, and a few years hence, the 
fertile soil of Africa will be cultivated by the hands of freemen. Then there 
will be no monopoly on which slavery can be sustained; and the universal 
abolition of slavery will be not far distant. Then it will fall, not by violence, 
not by sudden commotion, but by the power of public opinion, convinced 
that it is a burthen too heavy to be sustained, and calling" on the wisdom and 
the power of legislation to effect the gradual and safe, but sure removal of 
the curse- 

But here we wouid remark, that such a result would, instead 
af proving injurious, be the greatest of all possible benefits t« 
our southern country. A state of things like the present, can- 
not, permanently, be consistent with the most important inter- 
ests of any class of society. The removal then of the evil allud- 
ed to, every patriot must desire, if such removal can be provi- 
dentially effected without any violation of private right, or pub- 
lic law. 

To what remains of this admirable address, we particularly 
invite the attention of our friends. 

There are other results connected with the success of our enterprise to 
which we might call your attention. We might tell of the slave trade still 
raging with unabated horror, save where its suppression has been effected 
by the Colonies of Liberia and Sierra Leone. We might tell you of a con- 
tinent covered with barbarism, and on which no light of civilization or of 
Christianity has ever shined. But it is enough to name such considerations 
as these. We need not surpass the limits of this appeal to show in detail 
how the prosecution of our enterprise will put a speedy and perpetual end 
to all those horrors which have so long roused the indignation of the world 
in vain. Nor need we tell how from our Colonies the light will spread, 
like the morning on the mountain, when summit after summit, and valley 
after valley catches the sunbeam. Your thoughts glance forward to the 
time when Africa, so long darkened, and defiled, and wretched, shall be 
redeemed from its miseries and washed from its pollutions, and shall be 
filled with the light and blessing of the gospel. 

Jn this enterprise, friends and fellow-citizens, you are invited to co-ope» 
pate. And it is urged upon your notice, not as a newly projected scheme 
of gigantic yet uncertain results, but as a scheme already tried, and at this 
flour in successful operation. It 'is now eleven years since the experiment 
was undertaken. Then every thing was uncertain. It was uncertain how 
many weuld be found to favour the undertaking in its infancy. It was uv 

1828.] Gotinccticut Col. Soc. Address. 12S 

certain whether a suitable territory could be purchased. It was uncertain 
whether a sufficient number of Colonists could be found willing and quali- 
fied to make a beginning. It was uncertain whether savage tribes, or the 
combined power of the slave traders ever hovering over that devoted coast 9 
*r the diseases of that burning climate, might not sweep away the settlers 
at the outset and utterly defeat the enterprise. Then there were few who 
had that prophetic scope of judgment, or that deep and inspiring enthusi- 
asm of benevolence, which could endure such disheartening anticipations 
as seemed inseparable from the project. Then it was no wonder that the 
people of New England, knowing little of the nature, and feeling nothing of 
the direct pressure of that flood of evils fbr which an outlet was to be pro- 
vided, looked on the scheme with comparative apathy and incredulity.— 
Hut the time for apathy or incredulity, the time for doubt and backward- 
ness, is past. 

During the first five years there was little to encourage the promoters of 
this object, and much to create despondency. From the inexperience of 
their Agents in Africa, from the treachery of native proprietors with whom 
they were compelled to negotiate for territory, from the diseases of the 
country, and from the assaults of savage enemies, they suffered multiplied 
calamities. And at home there were obstacles hardly less discouraging. — - 
By some whose favour they had anticipated with confidence, the entire 
project was scouted as chimerical. By others every appeal of theirs was 
received with indifference. By others their motives were misunderstood, 
and their expectations misconstrued. The friends of abolition opposed 
them because they did not go far enough, and charged them with a design 
to perpetuate the evils which they hoped to remedy. The friends of sla- 
very hated them because they went too far, and charged them with a rash- 
ness of philanthropy that was to be the ruin of their country. But for the 
past six years a kind Providence has been pleased to smile on the under- 
taking. The Society is now in possession of a Territory extending one 
kundred and fifty miles on the sea coast. The Colony consists of more than 
twelve hundred souls. It is defended by fortifications sufficient to repel any 
probable attack. It is under the immediate direction of a man,* who, by 
six years of arduous and successful effort, has given the most abundant 
proof of his competency for the work, and of his devotion to the noble en- 
terprise. It is enjoying all the blessings of a government republican in 
spirit, well regulated, and wisely administered. It has under its jurisdic- 
tion eight several stations^ by means of which, it maintains an extensive 
commerce with the natives. Its principal town, which bears the venerated 
name of the late Chief Magistrate of this nation, is a thriving commercial 
village, whose port is "rarely clear of European and American shipping. ,a 
The institutions of religion are planted there; houses are erected for the 

*J. Ashmun, Esq. 

124 Connecticut Col. Soc. Address* [June, 

worship of the Living" God; and on the bold promontory of Monrovia, the 
•white spire, pointing to the heavens, stands a beautiful monument of the 
triumph of the gospel in that land of blood and darkness. Every child in 
the Colony enjoys the advantages of schools, for the support of which the 
settlers in addition to what the Society has done, contribute by voluntary 
subscription eleven hundred dollars annually. Not only are the institutions 
of religion and education enjoyed, but their influence is seen in the order, 
peace, industry, contentment and happiness of the community. The light 
of civilization and religion is gradually spreading among the savage tribes 
of the vicinity. Missionaries from the Baptist churches of this country, 
have for years been stationed at the Colony. Others from the Protestant 
Episcopal Society, and from the American Board of Foreign Missions, have 
been appointed to that work and are soon to embark. And even the Lu- 
theran church of Germany and Switzerland has directed its evangelical ef- 
forts to Liberia, as affording the best means of access to heathen Africa; 
and intelligence has just been received that two missionaries well qualified 
and amply furnished for their work, have already arrived, as pioneers of a 
much larger force expected ?oon to follow. In a word, a civilized Chris- 
tian Colony — the germ of a nation — has been planted on the coast of Afri- 
ca, and is already diffusing light through its benighted regions. 

Such success gives palpable demonstration that the scheme is something 
more than a chimera. The consequence is that the undertaking is daily 
exciting more and more attention, is becoming better understood, and is 
enlisting in greater numbers warm and devoted friends. It is awaking a 
deep and earnest interest throughout our land; and, especially in the slave- 
holding States it is fixing public attention and eliciting inquiry and dis- 
cussion on that great national interest, the remedy and ultimate removal of 
the evils connected with the condition of our coloured population. Alrea- 
dy has it been agitated, and soon will it be thoroughly discussed in the 
halls of our national legislature. 

The Colonization Society of the State of Connecticut, in behalf of which 
we now address you, was organized in the hope of concentrating and 
heightening that interest in this noble undertaking which is known to exist 
among the people of this State. A year has just elapsed since the forma- 
tion of the Society was announced to the public. The managers had hop- 
ed by the employment of some competent agent, to bring the subject in de- 
tail before the minds of their fellow-citizens. That hop-, has been hither- 
to disappointed, but is not yet finally relinquished. Meanwhile we bring 
before you, for your candid consideration, the summary statements contain- 
ed in this address. And as our Treasurer's account for the last year shows 
that without a word of solicitation, and without any direct effort on our 
part, two hundred dollars have been thrown into the treasury, we are the 
more encouraged to hope that this appeal to your patriotism and your 
Christian feeling will not be made in vain. 

1828.] Connecticut Col. Soc. Mdress. 12$ 

We ask you to bestow on this subject a fair and thorough investigation. 
And that you may know fully what has been accomplished, and what is 
now going on, we beg leave to commend to your special notice the publi- 
cations of the National Society. We are bold to say that no man whose 
mind is open to conviction, can read the Annual Ileports and the Monthly 
Magazine of that Society — so full of the most striking and unanswerable 
facts — without becoming interested even to enthusiasm. 

We ask you to use your influence towards forming in this community a 
correct and vigorous and active public opinion respecting the claims of Af- 
rica. We ask you to use your influence in your several spheres, towards 
rousing inquiry and diffusing information on this great subject. Who that 
understands the merits of this enterprise may not in this way lend it an effi- 
cient patronage? Who may not in this way contribute something towards 
forming that strong current of public opinion which will by and by direct 
the application of the national resources for the fulfilment of this national 
design > 

We ask your contributions. A subscriber of thirty dollars at one time 
becomes a member for life of the National Society. The payment of ten 
dollars at one time, or of one dollar annually, is the condition of member- 
ship in this auxiliary. How many men are there in Connecticut who might, 
without material inconvenience to themselves, and without substracting any 
thing from their ordinary charities, constitute themselves life members of 
the parent institution! How many more who might with equal ease be- 
come either annual or life subscribers to the Connecticut Society! How 
many ministers of every denomination might be constituted members of the 
National or State Society, by the benefactions of their people! In which 
of our towns or villages might not the exertions of a few spirited individu- 
als secure a public contribution to this great national object, on the anni- 
versary of our independence ? There are in this State one hundred and 
twenty-nine incorporated towns. If the average amount of only thirty dol- 
lars could be raised annually among the citizens of each of these towns, it 
would send nearly four thousand dollars every year to diminish the yearly 
increasing pressure of the greatest curse which rests upon this nation, and 
to build up the institutions of freedom, and intelligence, and piety, on a 
continent over which darkness and misery have brooded for uncounted ge- 

We trust that this appeal, brief and imperfect as it is, will not be in vain. 
For we address a community famed for its intelligence, and controlled by 
feelings of unquestionable benevolence. We bring before you one of the 
most momentous interests of the country which we all love. We bring be- 
fore you the wants of two millions of fellow-men, existing on our native soil, 
and yet not fellow-citizens — two millions of the human population of this 
country degraded to the dust, notwithstanding the boasted institutions of our 
freedom. We bring before you the horrors of the yet unabolished slave-trade, 

126 Resolutions of the Methodist Gen. Conference. [June, 

and the misery of 50 millions of the pagan inhabitants of Africa. We bring 
before you the claims of a little Christian settlement just planted on a bar- 
barous shore, at the expense of toil and suffering almost incredible, and by 
a patient and persevering fortitude which honours human nature. Such in- 
terests, such wants and claims as these, you are not wont to treat with apa- 
thy. We pray yon to remember these things. As you look round on your 
hills resounding with the song of the husbandman, your cities filled with 
the fruits of enterprise and industry, your homes of peace and purity, youi 
churches, your schools, your thousand noble institutions; forget not, we 
pray you, the poor African in the midst of us, the slave or the freeman 
scarcely happier than the slave, surrounded by all these blessings, yet hav- 
ing no inheritance in them; and forget not the misery of that land whose 
coast has been half depopulated by the cruelties of Christian and American 
slave-traders, and whose tribes are sunk under the complicated wretched- 
ness of barbarism and superstition and endless savage warfare. And espe- 
cially on the return of our national festival, when i1s thousand notes of 
gratulation are pealing on your ears, and you think how many millions of 
your fellow-citizens are shouting their joy, or bowing with grateful devo- 
tion at the altars of their God, — then, as you look backward to the insigni- 
ficant beginnings of this empire and forward to the great results which time 
is now so rapidly revealing, we pray you to remember that three thousand 
miles away, upon the coast of Africa, that day is celebrated by a colony of 
freemen with a joy as deep and rational as yours; and then under the influ- 
ence of such associations determine what you will do to alleviate the evils 
which a degraded coloured population of two millions is inflicting on our 
country, and to spread our language, our institutions, our freedom, out re- 
ligion, over another continent. 

Tkesoluiions of \\xe General Conference 

Of the Methodist Episcopal Church. — May, 1828. 

1st. That this Conference highly approve of the objects pro 
posed, and the measures taken by the American Colonization 
Society, in reference to the colonization of the free people of 
colour on the coast of Africa. 

2nd. That this Conference look to the settlement at Liberia, 
as opening a door for the diffusion of all the benign influences 
of the Gospel over the continent of Africa; and therefore recom- 
mend it to our Ministers and membership, to aid by their exer- 
tions and influence in the formation and support of Auxiliary 

1828.] From Liberia. 127 

Societies, and the making annual collections to aid in carrying 
into effect the benevolent designs of the Parent Institution. 

3d. That the Secretary be, and he is hereby instructed, to 
communicate the foregoing resolutions to the Board of Managers 
«f the American Colonization Society. 

We rejoice in the adoption of the preceding Resolutions. No body of 
Christians probably do more for our cause than the Methodists; and from 
the energy with which they are wont to execute their purposes, we may 
expect much from their exertions in aid of our enterprise. 

T\»om lAbeiria. 

By the Brig Hope, Capt. Woodbury, of Boston, despatches 
Lave reached us from the Vice-Agent of the Colony, the Rev. 
Lott Cary, bearing date the 7th of May. The following items 
are extracted from this communication. 

There have been no very important changes either in the state or face of 
the Colony since Mr. Ashmun left, except by the rapid progress of the far- 
ming- establishments at the "Half-way Farms," Caldwell and Millsburg. • 
As I visited all those establishments during Friday and Saturday, the 2nd 
and 3d of May, I am happy to say, that the prospect for crops the present 
season is tenfold, and that I think these settlements will be beyond the 
reach of suffering, before the close of the present season. 

About six of the families that commenced at Millsburg very late in March 
are nearly housed, and some of them have two acres at least of land in or- 
der for planting. 

I have judged it best to help them a little in getting their houses erected, 
and in planting, and to furnish them with seeds and tools which they had 
not; and as soon as their farms are planted, it is my intention to stop alto- 
gether issuing rations to all who are able to earn wages or subsist them- 
selves, and only feed the poor women and children, in a way, if possible, to 
get them safe through the rainy season, before which time, I trust his hon- 
our, Mr. Ashmun, will return. As to the new settlers in Caldwell, I have 
found it necessary to do rather more than for those at Millsburg, as the latter 
have lands more easy to clear, and the timber for erecting their houses is more 
convenient. There are several families, which have made astonishing pro- 
gress. Those sent out by Col. B. in particular have cleared land sufficient, 
if they can possibly succeed in getting it planted, to render their families en- 
tirely comfortable by the close of the ensuing season; and I trust, with the 

128 Contributions. [June, 

little help that I am now giving- them, that they will be comfortably housed 
on their own lands in two or three weeks. 

I must just beg- leave to mention to the Board, that from information 
which has been received from Jacob Warner, who has very recently leturn- 
ed from the Sesters, a very important section of the country is offered to 
the authorities of the Colony, which from Mr. Warner's account, would 
connect our Sesters and Bassa Lands together, and in time g-ive the whole 
command of that line of coast, which is at present one of the principal ren- 
dezvous of slave vessels, which so enormously intercept and interrupt 
the progress of our factories, that the establishment of the Sesters isoblig-ed 
to be given over at present. From the many deserters which have attend- 
ed that enterprise, Mr. Warner has relinquished the idea of prosecuting it 
&rther at present. 

The slave trade in that neighbourhood prevails to an alarming extent, 
and I think from frequent information, tliat it is increasing very considera- 
bly in our neighbouring ports. 

I am happy to inform the Board, that the whole settlement of Monrovia 
b resolved into a Sunday School Society, therefore our Sabbaths are strict- 
ly observed; also at Caldwell, they liave made a beginning to the same 

C ontYibutiQUs 

To the A. Colonization Society, from 1st to 30th June, 1828. 

By a few young friends in Fredericksburg, Va. $ 16 36 

By Seth Terry, Esq., Treasurer Colonization Society Connecticut, 
(including $30, paid by Mrs. Parmelie, a donation from sundry 
individuals in Bolton, to make Rev. L. Hyde, their Pastor, a 

life member of the American Colonization Society,) 200 

By B. Brand, Esq., Tr. Richmond and Manchester Col. Soc'y., 55 25 

By Richard Potts, Esq., Fredericktown, Md., 41 50 

By John Pilson, Albermarle, Va., 2 

Annual donation from a Member, 1 

Repository, 25 33 

Rev. R. Henry, Agent Pennsylvania 20 

Collection in St. John's Church, Washington, Rev. William Haw- 

ly, 29th June, 13 32 

Collection in Christ Ch., Washington, Rev. Mr. Allen, 29th June, 8 97 

$383 73 





Vol. IV. JULY, 1S28. No. 5. 


t)f Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Jlshantee, with a Statis- 
tical account of that Kingdom, and Geographical Notices of 
other parts of the Interior of Africa. By Edward Bowdich, 
Esq., Conductor. London, 1819. 

(Concluded from p. 106.) 

Though in many respects a truly savage, the Ashantees are 
a very discerning and shrewd people. It is their custom inva- 
riably in war, to place the "revolters recently quelled, or the 
allies last accepted, in the van of the army," and occasionally 
these constitute almost the entire army; the Ashantee part being 
held in reserve, led on to an engagement by the youngest captain 
first, succeeded in order by those of higher rank until you reach 
the King, who occupies the rear. To retreat is considered despe* 
rate, because those in the rear, with heavy swords cut any man 
down who attempts to escape from the contest. "It is one of 
the sentences of the most popular song in Coomassie, 'If I fight 
I die, if I run away I die, better that I go on and die.'" They 
are as the ancient Spaniards have been described, "Prodiga gens 
animae et properare facillima mortem." Their treatment of an 
enemy is barbarous in the extreme. 



130 Review of Mission from Cape [July, 

"Several of the hearts of the enemy are cut out by the fetish men who 
follow the army, and the blood and small pieces being mixed, (with much 
ceremony and incantation,) with various consecrated herbs, all those who 
have never killed an enemy before, eat a portion; for it is believed that if 
they did not, their vigour and courage would be secretly wasted by the 
haunting spirit of the deceased. It was said that the King and all the dig- 
nitaries partook of the heart of any celebrated enemy; this was only whis- 
pered; that they wore the smaller joints, bones, and the teeth of the slain 
monarchs, was evident as well as boasted. One man was pointed out to 
me, as always eating the heart of the enemy he killed with his own hand. 
The number of an army is ascertained or preserved in cowries or coin by 
Apokoo. When a successful general returns, he waits about two days, at a 
short distance from the capital, to receive the King's compliments, and to 
collect all the splendour possible for his entre, to encourage the army and 
infatuate the people. The most famous generals are distinguished by the 
addition of warlike names, mnrp terrific than glorious, as they designate 
their manner of destroying their prisoners. Apokoo was called Aboawassa, 
because he was in the habit of cutting off their arms. Appia, Sheaboo, 
as he beats their heads in pieces with a stone. Amanqua, Abiniowa, as 
he cuts off their legs." 

Architecture and various other arts, appear to have received 
in Ashantee considerable attention. The walls of the houses 
consist of gravelly clay, which is received into a mould formed 
by two rows of stakes and wattle work placed at a distance 
equalling the intended thickness of the wall, and thickly plaster- 
ed, so as to present the appearance of an entire thick mud wall. 
All the houses had gable ends, and the roofs consisted of a frame 
work of Bamboo, covered with an interwoven thatch of pal in 
leaves, the frame work being painted black and polished so as to 
look better than any rude ceiling, with which it appears they 
are unacquainted. Arcades and piazzas were common. Great 
neatness was manifest in their houses as well as in their persons. 
One of the favourite projects of the King was to build a house 
for himself, to be roofed with "brass pans, beaten into flat sur- 
faces, and laid over an ivory frame work appearing within. — 
The windows and the doors to be cased in gold, and the door- 
posts and pillars of ivory." The principle of the Ashantee loom 
is precisely the same with the English; it is worked by strings 
held between the toes, and the web never exceeds four inches in 
width. They use a spindle not a distaff, holding it in one hand 

1828.] Coast Castle to Ashanttt. 131 

and twisting the thread with the finger and thumb of the other. 
The cloths are represented as remarkable for fineness, variety 
and brilliancy. They unravel the richest silks to weave into 
them. We here remark, that cloths (probably of an inferior 
kind) are manufactured in the same way among all the African 
tribes. They have two dye woods, a red and a yellow, and 
make green by mixing the latter with a blue dye in which they 
excel. This is made from a plant called Acassie, which is abun- 
dant in the woods. "They gather a quantity of the leaves, 
bruise them in a wooden mortar, and spread them out on a mat 
to dry; this mass is kept for use, a proportion of it is put into a 
pot of water and remains six days, drying it once every day in 
the sun, it is then a deep lasting blue colour." 

They excel in pottery, having very fine clay which is polish- 
ed by friction, and the grooves of the patterns filled up with 
chalk. They dress leather and work in iron with considerable 
ability. The following extract gives the process adopted in 
making articles of gold. 

"The people of Dagwumba surpass the Ashantees in goldsmith's work, 
though the latter may be esteemed proficients in the art. The small arti- 
cles for the Museum, a gold stool, sanko, bell, jaw bone, and drum, are 
not such neat specimens as I could wish; the man who made them having 
too much costly work on hand for the King, to pay our trifles his wonted 
attention; unfortunately too, he was committed to prison before they were 
quite finished; however, they will give an idea. I weighed out nineteen 
ackies and a half of gold dust for making these articles, one third of an 
ackie was lost in melting, and five was the charge of the goldsmith. We 
lost a beautiful silver pipe in the bustle. Bees wax for making the model 
of the article wanted, is spun out on a smooth block of wood, by the side 
of a fire, on which stands a pot of water; a flat stick is dipped into this, 
with which the wax is made of a proper softness; it takes about a quarter 
. of an hour to make enough for a ring. When the model is finished, it is 
enclosed in a composition of wet clay and charcoal, (which being closely 
pressed around it, forms a mould, ) dried in the sun, and having a small cup 
of the same materials attached to it, (to contain the gold for fusion, ) com- 
municating with the model by a small perforation. When the whole model 
is finished, and the gold carefully enclosed in the cup, it is put in a char- 
coal fire, with the cup undermost When the gold is supposed to be fused, 
the cup is turned uppermost, that it may run into the place of the melted 
wax; when cool, the clay is broken, and if the article is not perfect, it goes 
through the whole process again. To give the gold its proper colour, 

132 Review of Mission from Cape [July^ 

they put a layer of finely ground red ochre, (which they call Inchuma,) all 
over it, and immerge it in boiling' water mixed with the same substance, 
and a little salt; after it has boiled half an hour, it is taken out and tho- 
roughly cleansed from any clay that may adhere to it. Their bellows are 
imitations of ours, but the sheep skin they use being tied to the wood with 
leather thongs, the wind escapes through the crevices; therefore, when 
much gold is on the fire they are obliged to use two or three pair at the same 
time. Their anvils are generally a large stone, or a piece of iron placed 
on the ground. Their stoves are built of Swish, (about three or four feet 
high,) in a circular form, and are open about one-fifth of the circum- 
ference; a hole is made through the closed part, level with the ground, for 
the nozzle of the bellows. Their weights are very neat brass casts of almost 
every animal, fruit, or vegetable known in the country. The King's scales* 
blow pan, boxes, and weights, and even the tongs which hold the cinder 
to light his pipe, were neatly made of the purest gold that could be manu- 

Mr. Bowdich estimates the population of Ashantee at one 
million, of which he supposes 204,000 are men able to bear- 
arms. Though polygamy is tolerated to great excess, yet the 
number of females is not thought to be two to one. The men 
are well made, and among the women Mr. Bowdich saw not on- 
ly very beautiful forms, but in some instances, regular Grecian 
features, and brilliant eyes. The higher classes are remarkable 
for their neatness. The government derives a very considera- 
ble revenue from the taxation of its subjects and tributary states. 
The soil of the market place, which is only washed in cases of 
emergency, has yielded 800 oz. of gold at one time. — (Vide Re- 
pository, p. 72.) 

The Ashantees estimate the population of Coomassie at one 
hundred thousand, and Mr. Bowdich is of opinion that it is 
much larger than Sego, which Mr. Park thought contained thir- 
ty thousand. Fruits are abundant, and grow spontaneously; 
the oranges were large and of an exquisite flavour. The castor 
pil (ricinus communis) rises to a large tree. The sugar-cane and 
cotton plant are common. 

To most of our readers, we presume, the chapter on the Ashan- 
tee language would be uninteresting, though it contains many 
acute and very ingenious remarks. We give but a single ex- 

"The Ashantees generally use much and vehement gesture, and speak in 

i828.] Coast Castle to Jlshantee. 133 

recitative: their action is exuberant, but graceful; and from the infancy of 
the language, nouns and verbs are constantly repeated, for force and dis- 
tinction, as one one, for one by one, or each; one tokoo one tokoo, for one tokoo 
a-piece. They frequently are obliged to vary the tone, in pronouncing a 
word which has more than one meaning, as the Chinese do. They have 
no expression short of, you are a liar; and the King was surprised, when I 
told him we made a great difference between a mistake and a lie: he said, 
the truth was not spoken in either case, and therefore it was the same 
thing; they did not consider the motive, but only the fact. 

"Like the American Languages, those of this part of Africa are full of 
figures, hyperbolical and picturesque.* One of the Kings of the interior, 
whose territories the Ashantees had long talked of invading, sent forty pots 
of palm oil to Coomassie, with the message, that "he feared they could not 
find their way, so he sent the oil to light them." The Accras, instead of 
good night, say, wooa'u d'tcherrimong, sleep till the lighting of the world: 
one of their imprecations against their enemies is, "may their hiding place 
be our flute," that is, "our plaything:" when they speak of a man impos- 
ing on them, they say, "he turned the backs of our heads into our mouths." 
Having occasion, whilst at Coomassie, to protest against the conduct of an 
individual, the King replied, through Adoosee, "The horse comes from the 
bush, and is a fool, but the man who rides him knows sense, and by and 
by makes him do what he wishes; you, by yourself, made the horse, who 
was a fool, do better the other day, therefore, three of you ought to teach 
a man, who is not born a fool, and does not come from the bush, to do what 
you know to be right by and by, though I see he does wrong now." 

The wild music of these people, (says Mr. Bowdich) is scarce- 
ly to be brought within the regular rules of harmony; yet their 
airs have a sweetness and animation, beyond any barbarous com- 
positions I ever heard. Few of their instruments possess much 
power, yet the effect of their combination is surprising. A long 
hollow reed with three holes, is their flute; but it is on the San- 
ko that they best display their musical talents. 

"It consists of a narrow box, the open top of which is covered with Alie- 
nator or Antelope skin; a bridge is raised on this, over which eight strings 
are conducted to the end of a long stick, fastened to the forepart of the box 
and thickly notched, and the strings are raised or depressed into these 
notches as occasion requires. 

* "The messenger concluded this insulting notification, by presenting 
the King with a pair of iron sandals, at the same time adding, that until 
such time as Daisy had worn out these sandals in his flight, he should ne- 
ver be secure from the arrows of Bambarra." — Park's 1st Mission. 

1S4 Review of Mission from Cape [July? 

"The Horns are made of elephants* tusks, they are generally large, 
and their flourishes have a grand and martial effect. These flourishes are 
various as the chiefs to whose bands they belong, and the peculiar senten- 
ces they express are immediately recognized by the soldiers." 

Here it may, perhaps, be well to introduce from Mr. Bow- 
dich's sketch of Gaboon, (or as the natives call it Empoongvva, 
lat. N. 30°, E. long. 8° 42\) an account of a most extraordina- 
ry performer. The inspirations of genius were perhaps never 
more wonderful. 

"My patience during a series of dull Empobngwa songs, was recom- 
pensed by the introduction of a performer, as loathsome as his music was 
astonishing. It was a white negro from the interior country of Imbeekee; 
his features betrayed his race, his hair was woolly, and of a sandy colour, 
with thick eye-brows of the same; his eyes small, bright, and of a dark 
grey; the light seemed to hurt them, and their constant quivering and roll- 
ing gave his countenance an air of insanity, which was confirmed by the 
actions of his head and limbs, and the distortions of his mouth. His stature 
was middling, and his limbs very small; his skin was dreadfully diseased, 
and where it was free from sores, bore the appearance of being thrown on, 
it hung about him so loose and so shrivelled; his voice was hollow, and his 
laugh loud, interspersed with African howls. His harp was formed of wood, 
except that part emitting the sound, which was covered with goat skin, 
perforated at the bottom. The bow to which the eight strings were fixed, 
was considerably curved, and there was no upright; the figure head, which 
was well curved, was placed at the top of the body, the strings were twist- 
ed round long pegs, which easily turned when they wanted tuning, and 
being made of the fibrous roots of palm wine tree, were very tough and not 
apt to slip. The tone was full, harmonious, and deep. He sat on a low 
stool, and supporting his harp on his knee and shoulder, proceeded to tune 
it with great nicety; his hands seemed to wander amongst the strings until 
he gradually formed a running accompaniment (but with little variety) to 
his extraordinary vociferations. At times, one deep and hollow note burst 
forth and died away; the sounds of the harp became broken; presently he 
looked up, pursuing all the actions of a maniac, taking one hand from the 
strings, to wave it up and down, stretching forth one leg, and drawing it 
up again as if convulsed, lowering the harp on to the other foot, and tossing 
it up and down. Whilst the one hand continued playing, he rung forth a 
peal which vibrated on the ear long after it had ceased; he was silent; the 
running accompaniment served again as a prelude to a loud recitative, ut- 
tered with the greatest volubility, and ending with one word, with which 
he ascendtd and descended, far beyond the extent of his harp, with the 

1828.] Coast Castle to Ashaniee. 135 

most beautiful precision. Sometimes he became more collected, and 
mournful air succeeded the recitative, though without the least connection, 
and he would again burst out with the whole force of his powerful voice in 
the notes of tfte Hallelujah of Handel. To meet with this chorus in the 
wilds of Africa, and from such a being 1 , had an effect I can scarcely de- 
scribe, and I was lost in astonishment at the coincidence. There could 
not be a stronger proof of the nature of Handel, or the powers of the ne- 

"I naturally inquired if this man was in his senses, and the reply was, 
that he was always rational but when he played, when he invariably used 
the same gestures, and evinced the same incoherency. The accompanying 
notes were caught whilst he was singing; to do more than set them down 
in their respective lengths, was impossible, and every notation must be 
far inadequate. 

"As regards the words, there was such a rhapsody of recitative, of mourn- 
ful, impetuous, and exhilarated air, wandering through the life of man, 
throughout the animal and vegetable kingdom for its subjects, without 
period, without connection, so transient, abrupt, and allegorical, that the 
Governor of the town could translate a line but occasionally, and I was too 
much possessed by the music, and the alternate rapture and phrenzy of the 
performer, to minute the half which he communicated. I can only submit 
the fragments of a melancholy and a descriptive part. 
Burst of a man led to execution, 

Yawa yawa wo wo oh 

Yawa waif yawa 

What have I done ? what have I done ? 
Bewailing the loss of his mother, 

Yawa gooba shangawelladi yaisa 

Wo na boo, &c. 

My mother dies; who'll cry for me now 

When I die } &c. 

Pahmbolee gwoongee yayoo, &c. 

Which path shall I seek my love } 

Hark ! I know now, 

I hear her snap the dry sticks, 

To speak, to call to me. 
"Jiggledy, jiggledy, jiggledy, too too tee too, often invaded or broke 
off a mournful strain; it was said to be an imitation of the note of a bird, de- 
scribed as the wood-pecker." 

In our last number we published some account of the horrible 
rites, with which the decease of a distinguished person is cele- 
brated. It was stated that upon the death of his mother, the 
King devoted 3,000 human victims for sacrifice. Mr. Hutchi. 

136 Review of Mission from tape [July, 

son. it will be recollected, remained in Coomassie after the re- 
turn of Mr. Bowdich, and had therefore opportunity to become 
more intimately acquainted, than his associates in the embassy, 
with the customs and superstitions of the country. In describ- 
ing the circumstances which attend the human sacrifices, he re- 
lates only those things of which he was an eye, or an ear wit- 
ness; and consequently, his statement deserves full credit. Of 
the following account, we may say, as has been said of the slave- 
trade, "there is a horror in it enough to turn the streams of life 

"When any public execution, or sacrifice, is to take place, the ivory 
horns of the King" proclaim at the palace door, "wow ! wow ! wow !" 
"death ! "death, death, death !" and, as they cut off their heads, the 
bands play a peculiar strain, till the operation is finished. 

"The greatest human sacrifice that has been made in Coomassie during 
my residence, took place on the eve of the Adai' custom, early in January. 
I had a mysterious intimation of it two days before, from a quarter not t<f 
be named. My servants being ordered out of the way, I was thus address- 
ed: — "Christian, take care and watch over your family; the angel of death 
has drawn his sword, and will strike on the neck of many Ashantees; when 
the drum is struck, on Adai' eve, it will be the death signal of many. Shun 
the King if you can, but fear not." When the time came to strike the 
drum, I was sitting thinking on the horrors of the approaching night, and 
was rather startled at a summons to attend the King. This is the manner 
he always takes to cut off any captain or person of rank ; they are sent for 
to talk a palaver, and the moment they enter, the slaves lay hold of them, 
and pinion them, and throw them down; if they are thought desperate 
characters, a knife is thrust through their mouth, to keep them from swear- 
ing the death of any other, when they are charged with their crime, real 
or supposed, and put to death or torture. 

"Whilst I was with the King, the officers, whose duty it is to attend at 
sacrifices, and are in the confidence of the King, came in with their knives, 
&c and a message was sent to one chief to say, that the King was going" to 
his mother's house to talk a palaver, and shortly after his Majesty rose, and 
proceeded thither, ordering the attendants to conduct me out by another 

"This sacrifice was in consequence of the King imagining, that if he 
washed the bones of his mother and sisters, who died while he was on the 
throne, it would propitiate the fetish, and make the war successful. Their 
bones were, therefore, taken from their coffins, and bathed In rum and wa- 
ter with great ceremony; after being wiped with silks, they were rolled in 
gold dust, and wrapped in strings of rock gold, aggry beads, and other 

iSQS.] Coast Castle to Jlshantee* 137 

things of the most costly nature. Those who had done any thing to dis- 
please the King, were then sent for in succession, and immolated as they 
entered, "that their blood might water the graves." The whole of the 
night, the King's executioners traversed the streets, and dragged every 
one they found to the palace, where they were put in irons: but (which 
is often the case) some one had disclosed the secret, and almost every one 
had fled, and the King was disappointed of most of his distinguished victims. 
Fext morning being Adai' custom, which generally brought an immense 
crowd to the city, every place was silent and forlorn; nothing could be 
found in the market, and his Majesty proceeded to the morning sacrifice 
of sheep, &c. attended only by his confidents, and the members of his own 
family. When I appeared at the usual time, he seemed pleased at my con- 
fidence, and remarked that I observed how few captains were present.-*- 
He appeared agitated and fatigued, and sat a very short time- 

"As soon as it was dark, the hitman sacrifices were renewed, and during 
the night, the bones of the royal deceased were removed to the tomb at 
Bantama, to be deposited along with the remains of those who had sat on 
the throne. The procession was splendid, but not numerous; the chiefs 
and attendants being dressed in the war costume, with a musket, and pre- 
ceded by torches; the sacred stools, and all the ornaments used on great 
occasions, were carried with them; the victims, with their hands tied behind 
them, and in chains, preceded the bones, whilst, at intervals, the songs of 
death and victory proved their wish to begin the war. The procession re- 
turned about three P. M. on Monday, when the King took his seat in the 
market-place with his small band, and "death ! death ! death !" was echoed 
by his horns. He sat with a silver goblet of palm wine in his hand, and 
when they cut off any head, imitated a dancing motion in his chair; a little 
before dark, he finished his terrors for that day, by retiring to the palace, 
and soon after, the chiefs came from their concealment, and paraded the 
streets, rejoicing that they had escaped death, although a few days might 
put them in the same fear. I had been attacked by a violent fit of ague in 
the morning, from having stood so long in the sun the day before, while 
with the King, it being unusually hot. I dared not send out my people to 
procure any thing, least they should be murdered, and in fact, there was 
nothing in the market to be had: there was not even a drop of water in the 
house. The sacrifice was continued till the next Adai' custom, seventeen 

We must here take leave of this very interesting and excel- 
lent work. Some surprise, we confess, we have felt that a book 
so much superior, as is this, to any other relating to Africa, 
with which we are acquainted, should be still unpublished in 
«mr country. Mr. Bowdich is evidently a man of learning and 

138 Omens of Success, [July, 

science, and every one who peruses his journal will see evidence 
that in regard to the great objects of his mission, his talents 
Were neither neglected nor misapplied. He has spared no la- 
bour to present, in well arranged order, the facts which he has 
collected; and the remarks which accompany them are those of 
a judicious mind, adding greatly to the value of his information. 
And who that has followed us even in our concise review of this 
work, is not convinced that to plant civilization and Christiani- 
ty in Africa, is an object having immediate claims upon us — 
claims of vast and affecting importance. Who that has the 
feelings of a Christian, or even of a man, would not promote aa 
enterprise which should afford the least hope of disenthralling 
from satan's bondage the wretched Africans, of overthrowing 
the tremendous system of Ashantee superstition, and of publish- 
ing the gospel of peace and salvation wherever human beings 
are to be found throughout the continent of Africa. 

Omens oi Success. 

It is delightful to observe how rapidly the design which we 
are permitted to advocate, is advancing in the good opinion of 
our countrymen. Every mail brings evidence of this, in the 
Well written essays coming forth from a hundred presses through- 
out the Union to defend and promote it. To notice them all is 
impossible, much more so to copy them entire on our pages. — 
Their publication, however, is not on this account the less grati- 
fying or useful; and, indeed, sad would be our reflections, did 
we find that our own work stood the sole representative of popu- 
lar sentiment on this subject. So far as our limits will permit, 
we shall certainly gather into it the arguments of others, 
and strengthen ourselves by all those resources which a good 
Providence is bringing forward for the triumph of our cause. 

We have been favoured with copies of several essays which 
lately appeared in the Snow Hill Messenger, Md. and which, we 
understand, have been read with avidity, and much commended 
in that section of the state. The style is attractive from its 
simplicity, and touches of wit and humour occasionally give 

1828.] Omens of Success. 139 

brightness to the current of the argument. In his first essay, 
the author observes, 

"As to the manner of discussion, we shall avoid every thing- disputatious. 
It is true, we should not decline opposition were it proffered; but we can- 
not anticipate opposition to one of the most benignant schemes ever set on 
foot, to meliorate the condition of our fellow-men. Our style shall be plain. 
The running- style of the reviewers would suit neither myself nor my rea- 
ders We shall not affect, as these learned gentlemen, to take a range.— 
Some of them remind us of a sportsman, who starts in pursuit of game, but 
consumes the day in beating" about every bush. Nor is there necessity for 
being ambitious of the boasted style of Junius. A style of such severe and 
uncompromising statcliness would ill become one who is aiming mildly to 
persuade his fellow-citizens to turn their attention to this benevolent enter- 
prise. But, above all, brevity will be sought after. Were my papers long, 
they would not be read; a man whose heart is in his subject, will gene- 
rally be sparing of words. When attending Congress hall some fifteen 
years ago, in the capacity of a looker on, I always thought that the long 
and frequent speakers could not be patriots. Tt has become a fact well 
known in history, that when the Declaration of Independence was under 
consideration, that far more was said by the alternation of august, intrepid, 
and pensive looks, than by oral debate. 

"Lastly. — If asked for my motives for stirring this business, I reply, 
though we live in a retired part of the country, we send Legislators every 
year to the Capitol of the State — we delegate successively our Representa- 
tives to Congress, we are not behind every other portion of the communi- 
ty in intelligence. We have an equal interest in this scheme at stake with 
other sections of the country, and if the American Colonization Society 
cannot have its advocates in the retired nooks, as well as in the public 
places of the land, the scheme will be successless, for the King himself is 
served of the field. As a ballad has sometimes waked up a nation, per- 
haps these little papers may wake up a few to the importance of this enter- 
prise. By stating simple facts, information may possibly be given to some, 
and interest awakened with others. If Sir William Jones wished all great 
intellectual works to be reduced to their quintescence, it is not improper 
to wish that all great works of philanthropy should be laid before the peo- 
ple in their elements. 

"It is clear that the writer might now choose any signature he pleased 
out of the long roll of philanthropists, and though I dislike his luscious 
style and inconclusive reasoning, I will, notwithstanding, take upon myself 
the illustrious name of WM. PENN." 

At present, we can only avail ourselves of the benefit of No- 

140 Omens of Success* [Juty> 

VII. in this series, which exhibits briefly the principal character- 
istics of our great design. 

"If the Colonization scheme were destitute of the following' properties, 
We should, for one, be willing" to relinquish it. 

"1st. It is practicable. It can be accomplished. The world has been 
peopled by colonization. Greece, Italy, and our own country, are exam- 
ples. The tenth chapter of Genesis is a very illustrative document on thw 
subject. But could the h story of the world be spread out, at one view, 
what light would it cast on the disclosure of the Bible, that all men were 
descended from one pair. Yet, notwithstanding our descent from a single 
pair, the population of our globe is spread incalculably wide. The curio- 
sity and avarice of men have become acquainted with nearly all the eme- 
rald isles of the ocean. When Columbus discovered America, he found mil- 
lions of men, probably of the Asiatic origin. Possibly within the interior of 
our globe, there may be millions of rational beings. If so, the reader may 
rely upon it, that they are all sprung from Adam and Eve. Why human 
enterprise then should be palsied in its efforts to roll the tide of emigration 
over Africa, we are at a loss to imagine. Human enterprise has here dis- 
played itself in another shape. It has been fearfully at work. On the day 
that the subject was agitated in the Presbyterian Church, after an eloquent 
address by E. K. Wilson, our Representative elect to the next Congress, 
Irving Spence, Esq. showed conclusively that if lawless villains succeed in 
removing so many thousands every year from Africa, that influence, intel- 
ligence, and philanthropy, could doubtless remove a vastly greater num- 
ber from our country. The Portuguese, Spanish, French, and English, 
have long had settlements in Africa, and such settlements may be multi- 
plied a thousand fold. But private beneficence is quickly exhausted, and 
the scheme will thus be rendered abortive. This is an erroneous view of 
private benevolence, though we do not rely upon it entirely for the accom- 
plishment of this scheme. Should Congress never deliberate on this mat- 
ter, we do not despair of great success. From private munificence alone, a 
thousand streams will keep always flowing into the channels of African 

"2d. This scheme is expedient. All things are lawful, said an inspired 
Apostle, but all things are not expedient. It is perfectly lawful to remove 
this foul stain from our country, but the question is, whether it be expedi- 
ent. Is it fit and becoming in us to attempt it ? Is it a suitable time to 
beg-in this great work ? Do circumstances and events appear to favour 
the design ? Men might as well not act, as to act without judgment and 
foresight. But for twenty years, events have appeared to favour the cause 
of Africa. There has been an artless and undesigned co-operation among 
philanthropists in different sections of the United States. They were aim- 
ing at the same general objects, but it is now becoming a fixed opinion 

1828.] Omens of Success. 141 

among- the judicious friends of Africa, that the Colonization Society have 
best adapted their means and their measures to the accomplishment of their 

"3d. Necessary. There is necessity for this scheme. We ought to say to 
the evil that surrounds us, come, let us look one another in the face. But 
the truth is, we are afraid to look at it. Yet, it will one day push itself 
upon our notice. We must open our eyes We may shut them and keep 
them so, but this will lead us on to a destructive precipice. By the agen- 
cy of this evil, unless we open our eyes, this country must one day be lost 
in a whirlwind. We are now the happiest people on earth, save for this 
fretting* leprosy, which is creeping over our land. This enormous empire of 
blacks rising up and putting on daily strength, having the shadow of liber- 
ty without the substance, is enough to make our children's children turn 

"4th. Lucrative. By the success of this scheme our country will be en- 
riched. The free blacks constitute a mater/al spoke in that wheel which is 
crushing down the wealth of our land. The moment we carry this plan into 
vigorous prosecution, we shall call many of our countrymen to a state of 
comparative wealth. The removal of the annual increase of our coloured 
population, would give to our mariners a considerable scope of employ- 
ment, whilst the trade of the Colony would be a source of profit. It would 
remove the evil which is daily impoverishing our land, and bring tens of 
thousands to the enjoyment of comforts which they never before possessed. 

"5th. This scheme is philanthropic. Its most implacable enemies have 
done full justice to the pure motives of its upholders. None dare impeach 
a philanthropy which is seeking to become acquainted with the profound 
degradation and wretchedness of our coloured population. We freely ac- 
knowledge that Howard was a philanthropist; but what was the philanthro- 
py of Howard, compared with that which is seeking to re-establish the 
liberties of a continent — to fix watchmen round its coast, and send over it 
the pure light of Christianity! 

"6th. It is a patriotic scheme. Patriotism does not consist in delivering 
a fine speech on the fourth day of July. Nor does it consist in loud profes- 
sions of equality to voters who are reeling towards the polls. Popularity 
should result from a conscientious performance of all our duties, moral, civil, 
political, and religious, and not from familiarity with the vicious and intem- 
perate. He is the best patriot who feels most deeply the evils which afflict 
his country, who wrestles against such evils, and breasts the overwhelming 
tide of immorality and corruption. 

"7th. It is an expeditious scheme. Its opposers have charged it with 
slowness and a want of despatch. But do they expect to remove the world, 
without getting ready for the operation'' How much quicker are their de- 
vices for our relief ? It has been but a short time since the Editor of the 
Genius of Universal Emancipation published Mrs. Hemans's song of Emigra- 

14£ Omens of Success. [J"ty> 

tion. Let him compare that beautiful effusion with the present state of our 
Colony, and answer whether all its imaginative pictures have not been real- 

"8th. This is a national scheme. We are preparing- to take it up in x 
national way. It has about it those lofty attributes which render it worthy 
the attention of enlarged and expanded minds. Upon no other has the na- 
tion ever bestowed a thought. New England has manifested a willingness 
to aid in a plan, which will not only remove an evil, but diffuse Christiani- 
ty over a continent. One of her distinguished Legislators has pledged 
himself to sustain any measure before Congress, which shall be brought 
forward by any prudent friend of Colonization. 

"Lastly. This scheme is pleasing to God. He has not broken the si- 
lence of the heavens, to speak in its favour, nor commanded his angels to 
chant over the song of good will to men, but his approbation has not been 
withheld. The plan has been conducted with a reference to his authority. 
The moral and religious good, as well as the civil and political elevation of 
the Colonists, has been interwoven with all the movements of the managers. 
God has predicted that Ethiopia shall stretch out her hands to him. She 
is now stretching out her hand to implore blessings from heaven, and to 
beckon away her children from the house of bondage to her maternal bo- 

The Editor of the Vermont Chronicle, in a very able article 
designed to impress upon the public the importance of taking up 
collections for the Society on the fourth instant, or on some 
Sabbath near to it, has the following remarks. We ought, here, 
perhaps to state, that Mr. Burr's legacy to the Society, is one 
thousand dollars a year for Jive years, and that two years at least 
must elapse, before the first payment can be realized. 

"There is not, we believe, another benevolent enterprise on earth, so 
well calculated to secure the favourable opinion and enlist the hearty good 
will of all mejj, as this is, when its objects and bearings are fully under- 
stood. In relation to this Society it is eminently the fact, that opposition 
and indifference have their origin in prejudice or want of information. Ig- 
norance may raise an objection which it requires knowledge to remove; 
and to rest one's refusal to co-operate in what he is told is a good work, on 
his own ignorance, is both weak and wicked. Especially in relation to a 
benevolent enterprise of such magnitude as this, and which has been some 
ten or fifteen years before the public, the plea of ignorance is made with 
very ill grace. 

"The Society very much needs the avails of the proposed contributions. 
The expense of sending out the large number of emigrants who left this 

1828.] Omens of Success. 143 

country last year, was of course great; and the ability of the Society to send 
ant emigrants during the coming autumn, depends very much on what 
shall be done on the Fourth of July — We have heard it hinted that the 
Legacies of the late Mr. Burr will diminish the receipts of this and some 
•ther societies, from the usual sources. We cannot believe it — we cannot 
think the Christian public so ungrateful. The intention of Mr Burr was 
to augment the resources of these Societies — to increase them to the full 
amount of his bequests? and any man who withholds a dollar on account of 
these bequests, docs just so much towards defeating the object of them; it 
is in fact neither more nor less than putting so much of the legacy in his 
own pocket. Whether that can be done righteously or not, may be safely 
left to each one's conscience. — Besides, these legacies, it is said, and we 
presume truly, will not be available immediately — perhaps not, to their 
full amount, for several years. But, be that as it may, duties are not to be 
discharged by proxy; Mr. Burr attended to his own; he was not so much of 
a Papist as to think of purchasing Indulgences for a whole community." 

We have just perused a Review of our last two Reports, in 
the Christian Spectator, made up, in great part, of a concise 
history of the origin and proceedings of the Society. The con- 
cluding remarks of this article are very impressive, and we hope 
they will be read and remembered. Surely it is time that the 
great work of benevolence which commands our humble efforts, 
should receive the support of every friend to our country, reli- 
gion, or mankind. We give a single extract from this review.* 

"In reference to this great cause, we think that the Christian public have 
a most solemn duty to perform. With all the civil talent and philanthropic 
enterprise, enlisted in it, we believe that it will no more than partially se- 
cure its objects, unless the devoted friends of the Redeemer, throughout 
the land, give it their earnest and persevering support. Let the Christians 
of the North be fully enlightened in regard to their duty, and their hearts 
will be touched with compassion, and the mists of prejudice will vanish, 
and the rancor of sectional feeling will die away. The interests of this 
whole country will be embraced within the ample range of vision. The 

* We would correct an error in this review. "The Montserado river is 
three hundred miles in length, being the largest African river from the Rio 
Grande to the Congo." This is a mistake. The Montserado is a very 
small river, but about forty miles long, probably much less than even the 
St. Paul's or the St. John's, and certainly less than several others between 
the above named river-?. 

144 Omens of Success. [July, 

tlaims of the children of Africa are somewhat peculiar. The unevangel- 
ized heathen nations implore our pity as members of the human fannly, 
and a? partakers of gospel light, but their misery is an effect of their own 
sin. We are in duty bound to enlighten and save them, but this duty re- 
sults from an obligation of gratitude to God, rather than from an uncancel- 
led debt to them. But Africa — the sin is not at her door. Her cup of misery 
is not of her own mingling. This country has helped to do it. With the 
light of nature on her path, she has outraged nature. With the New Tes- 
tament in her hand, she has broken its plainest rules. When the wail of 
the dying African comes to her ear, conscience within her bosom ought to 
disturb and arouse her. Would every Christian in this country enlighten 
his conscience, he would feel that himself and his fellow Christians are? 
debtors to Africa to a tremendous amount — tremendous, for no repentance 
can now cancel it; in the archives of eternity the full records are sealed. 

"To achieve the redemption of Africa, there is required Christianity — 
the zeal of Christianity in its highest and holiest exercise. There has been, 
and there will be, it is not denied, a great deal of feeling. But how can 
it be otherwise. Man was made to feel, and on all proper occasions he 
must manifest his feelings. And here it will be recollected, that there 
have been, and that there are strong temptations to feel. When the slave 
trade is first unfolded to a person's mind there is a horror in it, enough to 
turn the streams of life backward. It is too incomprehensible to shudder 
at. It is like opening the eyes of a blind man on an immense hospital, or 
like taking off four feet from the surface of a burying ground. But terri- 
ble as this exhibition of depravity has been, laying open, as it does, all the 
fountains of feeling, still the pure and exalted motives of Christianity have 
actuated, and ought to actuate the labourers in this benevolence. Thomas 
Clarkson said he devoted his life to the abolition of the slave trade, "be- 
cause he thought it was God's will " The same noble motive urged on in 
their glorious career, Wilberforce, Macauley, and a thousand subordinate 
agents in Great Britain. And in our own country, Mills, and Caldwell, 
and Sessions, who, for the good of Africa, loved not their own lives, bore 
ample witness to the disinterested spirit of the gospel. This gospel will 
put a final end to the slave trade and slavery Its provisions are broad as 
the wants of the human family, and mightier than the whole array of man's 
pi judice and sin. 

"We cannot bring ourselves to a close without saying to the particular 
friends of this cause, that their services were never more needed than at 
the present time There are a few individuals, scattered through the coun- 
try, who have g-'tven to this subj -ct a ihorough investigation, who have sur- 
veyed the whole ground, and who, like the prophet in the visions of God, 
as thev have seen one abomination after another, have had their inmost 
souls moved within them at the wretchedness and guilt of man. f'pon 
Such persons rests a fearful weight of responsibility. They can spread 

1828-5 Account of Dahotny. 145 

through the respective communities in which they are situated, valuable 
and correct information in regard to the nature and extent of the evils 
which the Colonization Society will remedy. They can shape and mould 
public opinion. They can act as telegraphic signals from one end of this 
land to the other. They can impress upon the southern slave-holder, by 
the strength of facts, and by the recorded declarations of honest men, that 
the objects of the Colonization Society are altogether pure and praisewor- 
thy, and that it has no intention to open the door to universal liberty, but 
only to cut out a channel, where the merciful providence of God may cause 
those dark waters to flow off. The Colonization Society needs fast and 
efficient friends — men whose minds are stored full of well arranged infor- 
mation, who are inspired by a feeling of personal responsibility abiding on 
them and becoming a part of their identity, to do all in their power for the 
redemption of our country from the heaviest curse with which it is afflicted. 
"And what is done ought to be done quickly. The slave population is 
swelling its numbers in a tremendously increasing ratio. Since the morn- 
ing of our last happy national jubilee broke over our land, more than thirty 
thousand have been born within our borders, to be slaves till they die. In 
the domestic trade, more than eighty thousand have been bought and sold, 
The two millions of minds, which have been kept in ignorance and debase" 
inent, will soon be four millions — and eight millions." 

Account oi Dahom^f. 

Dahomy is a fertile and cultivated country; the soil is a deep? 
*ich, reddish clay, intermixed with sand, scarcely containing a 
stone of the size of an egg in the whole country. It is extreme- 
ly productive of maize, millet, beans, yams, potatoes, cassada, 
plantain, and the banana; indigo, cotton, tobacco, palm-oil, and 
sugar are raised, as well as a species of black pepper. Bread, 
and a species of liquor, or rather diluted gruel, are formed of 
the lotus berry. Animals, both wild and tame, are numerous, 
and the lakes abound in fish. The maritime districts of Whi- 
dah and Ardra, before they were ruined by the Dahomans, were 
highly cultivated and beautiful. "The vast number and variety 
©f tall and spreading trees," says Smith, "seeming as if they 
had been planted for decoration, fields of the most lively ver- 
dure, almost wholly devoted to culture; plains embellished with 
a multitude of towns and villages, placed in full view of the sur- 
rounding district; a gradual and almost imperceptible ascent t» 

146 Account of Dahomy. [July/ 

the distance of forty or fifty miles from the sea, which termi- 
nates the prospect; — formed the most picturesque scene imagi- 
nable, unobstructed by hill or mountain." The Ardranese had 
attained such a degree of civilization, that they were able to cor- 
respond with each other by a species of guippos, similar to the 
Peruvian, and formed by the combination of knots upon a cord, 
to which particular significations were attached. 

The character of the Daumanese, or Dahomans, is original 
and strongly marked; they have retained peculiar manners, and 
have had little intercourse with either Europeans or Moors. — m 
They exhibit the germ of peculiar institutions and modifications 
of manners, that have appeared incredible to modern nations 
when they perused the ancient records of the Egyptians, Hin- 
dus, and Lacedemonians. Like the Lacedemonians, they dis- 
play a singular mixture of ferocity and politeness, of generosity 
and cruelty. Their conduct towards strangers is hospitable, 
without any mixture of rudeness or insult. Their appearance 
is manly, and their persons strong and active; and though they 
are less addicted to the practice of tattowing than their neigh- 
bours, their countenance rather displays ferocity than courage. 
Their government is the purest despotism: every subject is a 
slave; and every slave implicitly admits the right of the sovereign 
to dispose of his property and of his person. "I think of my 
king," said a Dahoman to Mr. Norris, "and then I dare engage 
five of the enemy myself. My head belongs to the king, not to 
myself: if he please to send for it, I am ready to resign it; or if 
it be shot through in battle, I am satisfied — if it be in his ser- 
vice." This attachment continues unshaken, even when their 
nearest relations become the victims of the avarice or caprice of 
the king, and his enormities are always attributed to their own 
indiscretions. With this devoted spirit, the Dahoman rushes 
fearless into battle, and fights as long as he can wield his sabre. 
In 1775, when the viceroy of Whidah was disgraced, one of the 
military officers declared, "that it was his duty to accompany 
the general to the field; and if ever he betrayed the least symp- 
torn of cowardice, or showed the soles of his feet to the enemy, 
he hoped the king would have his cutlass ready to behead him, 
at the moment of his return. But this," said he, "will never 
happen; for, should 1 ever suspect that I am accused of treache' 

1828.] Account of Dahomy, 147 

ry, of turning my back on the foe, or giving cause of complaint, 
I shall never afford the prime minister an opportunity of asking 
impertinent questions, or of interfering between me and my sove- 
reign; I prefer death at any time." Soon afterwards, this of- 
ficer found himself left almost alone in his post, after detaching 
the flower of his troops to the assistance of his companions. — 
Perceiving that it was impossible to retrieve affairs, at the ap- 
proach of the enemy he called for his large stool, or chair, dis- 
missed his attendants, sat down, and singly awaited the attack. 
When the enemy advanced, he stood up and fired his musket 
till he was surrounded, when he drew his sabre, and rushed in- 
to the thickest ranks, where, after killing numbers, he was over- 
powered and taken prisoner. The king of Dahomy, who highly 
approved of his conduct, paid his ransom, but he refused to re- 
turn, and observing to the messenger, that, "though he might 
perhaps be the most ugly of his majesty's subjects, yet there 
were none more loyal," — stabbed himself with his sword. — 
Another Dahoman general, being about to engage the Popoes, 
with a very inferior force, drank success to the arms of his king, 
and, dashing the glass to pieces, wished, "that if he was unsuc- 
cessful, he might not survive the disgrace, but perish like the 
glass which he broke." The metaphors and idiomatical expres- 
sions of this nation have generally a reference to their bodily 
strength and the sharpness of their swords. The significant ti- 
tles which the king assumes, are termed his strong names. — 
When the king prohibits the minstrels from entering upon a dis- 
agreeable subject, he announces that the topic is too strong for 
him. The modern history of the Dahomans realizes all that 
history has recorded of ancient Lacedemon, and of those Lace- 
demonians of the north, the inhabitants of Jomsburgh, who were 
forbidden to mention the name of Fear, even in the most immi- 
nent dangers, and who proudly declared that they would fight 
their enemies, though they were stronger than the Gods. Saxo 
relates, that when Frotho, king of Denmark, was taken prisoner 
in battle, he obstinately refused to accept of life, declaring, that 
the restoration of his kingdom and treasures could never restore 
his honour, but that future ages would always say, Frotho has 
been taken by his enemy. The palace of the king of Dahomy is 
an extensive building of bamboo and mud-walled huts, surround- 

148 Account of Dahomij. [Jutyr 

ed by a mud-wall about twenty feet high, enclosing a qua- 
drangular space of about a mile square. The entrance to the 
king's apartment is paved with human skulls, the lateral 
walls adorned with human jaw-bones, with a few bloody 
heads intermixed at intervals. The whole building re- 
sembles a number of farm-yards, with long thatched barns and 
sheds for cattle, intersected with low mud-walls. On the 
thatched roofs, numerous human skulls are ranged at intervals, 
on small wooden stakes. In allusion to these, when the king 
issues orders for war, he only announces to his general, that his 
house wants thatch. In this palace, or large house, as it is 
termed by the Dahomans, above 3000 females are commonly im- 
mured, and about 500 are appropriated by each of the principal 
officers. From this injurious and detestable practice, originate 
many flagrant abuses; the population is diminished, the sources 
of private happiness destroyed, and the best feelings of human 
nature being outraged, the energies of passion are converted in- 
to bitterness and ferocity. The first of these evils is the estab- 
lishment of a legal system of prostitution, as a considerable pro- 
portion of the inferior classes are unable to procure wives. As 
children, whether male or female, are considered the exclusive 
property of the king, they are separated from their parents at an 
early period, and receive a species of public education, by which 
means family connexions are annihilated, and the insulated in- 
dividual becomes a passive instrument of tyrannical power. — 
When an individual is able to procure 20,000 cowries, he pros- 
trates himself at the gate of the king, or his vicegerent, presents 
the money, and begs to be favoured with a wife; when, instead 
of having the opportunity of selecting a natural friend, suited to 
his taste, and adapted to gratify the affections of his heart, he 
must take the female assigned him, whether she be old or young, 
handsome or deformed. Sometimes, out of malicious sport, a 
man's own mother is handed out to him, so that he both misses 
a wife and loses his money. In 1775 the viceroy of Whidah 
was disgraced and punished with death, for the following speech, 
extorted by indignation at a procession of the king's women- — 
"Ah! see what a number of charming women are devoted to the 
embraces of one man! while we who bore the dangers of the 
siege of Whidah, and defeated Abavou and his army, have been 

1328.] Account of Dahomy. 149 

presented with such as are hardly good enough for house-sweep- 
ers. It is ungenerous, but we are Dahoman men, and must sub- 
mit. " The king's female guard seems in some measure to ex- 
plain the origin of the ancient opinion concerning the Amazons. 
Some hundreds of the king's women are regularly trained to the 
use of arms, under a female general, and subordinate officers 
appointed by his majesty. They are regularly exercised, per- 
form their military evolutions with as great dexterity as any of 
the Dahoman troops, and parade in public with their standards, 
drums, trumpets, flutes, and martial music. It is criminal for 
any Dahoman to assert, that the king is so similar to other mor- 
tals, as either to eat or sleep. At his accession, he proclaims 
that he knows nobody, and is not inclined to make any new ac- 
quaintance; that he will administer justice with a rigorous and 
impartial hand, but will listen to no representations, nor receive 
any presents, except from his officers, who approach him grovel- 
ling in the dust. The Dahomans maintain the true doctrine of 
passive obedience, and the divine right of kings, in the utmost 
purity; and their history exhibits no example of a deposition. — 
At his accession, the king ivalks in blood from the palace to the 
grave of his predecessor, and annually waters the graves of his 
ancestors with the blood of human victims. The death of the 
king is only announced by fearful shrieks, which spread like 
lightning from the palace to the extremities of Dahomy, and be- 
come the signal for anarchy, rapine, and murder, which continue 
till the new king ascends the throne. The religion of Dahomy 
is vague and uncertain in its principles, and rather consists in 
the performance of some traditionary ceremonies, than in any 
fixed system of belief, or of moral conduct. They believe more 
firmly in their amulets and fetiches, than in the Deity; their 
national fetiche is the Tiger; and their habitations are decorated 
with ugly images, tinged with blood, stuck with feathers, be- 
smeared with palm-oil, and bedaubed with eggs. As their ideas 
of Deity do not coincide with those of Europeans, they imagine 
that their tutelary gods are different. "Perhaps," said a Daho- 
man chief to Snelgrave, "that God may be yours, who has com- 
municated so many extraordinary things to white men; but as 
that God has not been pleased to make himself known to us, we 
must be satisfied with this we worship. " The Dahomans manu- 

150 Account of Datwmy. [July, 

facture and dye cotton cloth, and form a species of cloth of palm 
leaves. They are tolerably skilful in working in metals. The 
bards, who celebrate the exploits of the king and his generals, 
are likewise the historians of the country. Their historical po- 
ems, which are rehearsed on solemn occasions, occupy several 
clays in the recital. These may probably compare with the le- 
gends of Ossian: and of the Irish, Gaelic, and Welsh bards. It 
is probable that the legends of Dahomy are equally authentic 
with these; for, in every rude age, it is the interest of the bards 
not to touch upon subjects too strong for their respective chiefs. 
The Persian Hafez would have been put to death by Tamerlane, 
merely for preferring, like a true inamorato, the charms of his 
mistress to the gold of Bokhara, and the gems of Samarcand, had 
he not saved himself by an ingenious quibble, to prove a various 
reading. How much authentic history may we then derive from 
oral and poetical legends! The Dahomans, though they do not 
use human flesh as an article of food, yet devour the flesh of hu- 
man victims as a religious ceremony, at their solemn feasts; and 
their ancient practice seems to be marked by their ordinary 
phrase of eating their enemies, by which they denote taking 
them alive. Though the martial genius of the Dahomans remains 
unaltered, their military exploits have not been remarkable since 
the reign of Guadja Trudo, the conqueror of Whida AnJra, 
Torree, Didouma, Ajirah, and Jacquin, who died in 1731. — 
Guadja Trudo was almost as good a conqueror as any barbarian 
that was ever dignified with that appellation. He waded to 
glory through seas of blood, I am not sure if we may call it in- 
nocent; if lie did not exhibit true magnanimity, he always dis- 
played what is equally good for a conqueror, a true belligerent 
insensibility to the miseries of his own, and of every other na- 
tion; and, when he could not lead the Dahomans, he drove them 
to victory. His policy was that of an ambitious savage, who 
sought to retain the territory he had conquered, by burning the 
towns, and massacreing the inhabitants; but his views were more 
extensive than those of his countrymen, and the character given 
of him by Snelgrave appears to be just; who declares, that he 
found him the most extraordinary man of his colour with whom 
he had ever conversed. His fame still remains in Dahomy, 
where his memory is revered, and where, in the most solemn 

1828.] Remarks on the Niger. 151 

oaths, they swear by his name. Bossa Ahadee, and Adahoon- 
zou, the son and grandson of Trudo, possessed the same restless 
ambitious spirit, without his martial talents. — [Dr. Ley den. 

"Remarks on the Course aiul Termination 

of t\\e Xiger. 

In our last number we stated various theories which have 
been adopted in reference to the course and termination of this 
remarkable stream. No one of these has been supported with 
so much learning and ingenuity, as that of Major Rennel, who 
believed that the Niger terminates in lakes, situated in a coun- 
try called Wangara, in the eastern quarter of Africa. The re- 
cent discoveries of Denham and Clapperton, have however, 
shown this theory to be entirely unfounded. Indeed, it ap- 
pears from Major Denham, that there is no such country as 
Wangara. His words are, "I met with two Moors only, besides 
Khalifa, who were able to explain the meaning of the word; they 
all agreed that there was no such place; and-I am inclined to be- 
lieve the following account will be found to be truth. All gold 
countries, as well as any people coming from the gold country, or 
bringing Gooroo nuts, are called Wangara. Bambarra is called 
Wangara; also all merchants from Gonga, Gombeeron, Ashantee, 
&c." Besides, the great lake Tchad, was found by Denham 
and Clapperton, in the very region where Major Rennel had 
laid down Wangara. This is from 12 to 15° N. lat., and from 
14 to 17° E. Ion., or thereabouts. Captain Clapperton visited 
Sackatoo, more than five hundred miles west of lake Tchad, 
(lat. 13° 4 X 52 u N., E. long. 6° 12\) and there learnt that the 
Quarra or Niger, was but four days' journey to the west, or judg- 
ing from the longitude, somewhat less than one hundred miles. 
The theory of Major Rennel then must be rejected. But of the 
several others which have been adopted, is any, and if so, which 
is probably the true one? If none of them can be maintained, 
can any one be proposed, for which better arguments may be 

153 Remarks on the Niger. [July; 

Although we have carefully and anxiously examined, all the 
books and maps, which seemed to promise any information con- 
cerning the course and termination of the Niger, and compared 
their different testimonies and representations, we have found it 
no easy matter, to satisfy our own minds on the subject. It is 
plain however, that the Niger after passing Tombuctoo, which 
most have agreed in placing between 15 and 17° N. latitude, 
and between 1 and 2° East longitude, takes a southwestern 
course, until it nearly reaches the 5° degree of E. long., that 
bending still more to the south, it reaches Yaory or Yeouri, 
(where Park lost his life,) and that passing nearly in the same 
direction it soon enters a country called Noofee or Nyffe, near 
the Kong mountains. By the journal of Denham and Clapper- 
ton too, it is proved that the place assigned to Nyffe, on the 
maps preceding theirs, is incorrect, as they visited this place 
and found it not, but heard of it to the southwest, and as they 
had good means of information, and could not have been many 
hundred miles from it, the latitude and longitude which they 
have given, may be regarded we think, as not far from the truth. 

Nothing, perhaps, can aid us more in forming a judgment in 
relation to the course and termination of the Niger, than a compa- 
rison of the accounts received by Mr. Bowdich, while in Ashan- 
tee, and Gaboon (below the Bight of Benin), with those of 
Messrs. Denham and Clapperton, while in rfaussa or Howssa. 
As all these gentlemen sought information from every possible 
source; as they examined the Moorish travellers with the utmost 
strictness and perseverance; as it was a leading object with them 
to ascertain the truth on this subject; we think the statements of 
either of them, without the other, would be entitled to considera- 
ble credit; but if we find their statements in the main, to agree, 
we can only account for it by supposing them founded on facts. 
Of course it is but in their great outlines, that these accounts if 
true, can be expected to agree, nor can any incongruity between 
them in smaller matters, invalidate their testimony in reference 
to those more important. 

If, as Mr. Bowdich was informed, the river known to Mr. 
Park at Sego and D'jinnie or Jenne, as the Niger, divides itself 
into three branches at or near Tombuctoo, (which we think 
improbable,) it must evidently be the largest branch to which 

1828.] Remarks on the Niger. 153 

the name of Niger has been given, both by the ancient* 
and moderns; and this must be the stream, from all accounts, 
•which enters Nyft'e. It is remarkable that the Niger should 
have been invariably described by the Moors at Ashantee, as 
"dividing itself near Tombuctoo into 2 large streams; the Quolla, 
th^ greater, pursuing its course south-eastward until it joined the 
Bahr Miad, (the principal branch of the Nile,) and the other 
branch running northward of east, near Tombuctoo, and dividing 
itself soon afterwards, the smaller stream running northwards 
by Yahoodee, a place of great trade, and the latter running to 
the lake Caude or Cadi, under the name Gambaroo? and that 
Captain Clapperton should have found a river called Gambaroo 9 
(at some distance from the lake, nearly as wide as the Thames at 
Richmond) flowing from a little south of west into the lake 
Tchad, It is evident from this that the Ashantee Moors had 
some knowledge of the remote interior, and if the Gainbaroo is 
not a branch of the Niger, is it strange, considering its size and 
direction, that it should be thought so? Let us then compare 
the accounts given to Messrs. Denham and Clapperton in the 
interior, east of the Niger, with those received by Mr. Bowdich 
at Ashantee, on the west. 

Maj Denham saw a young teacher (Abdel Gassam) from D'jin- 
nie and Tombuctoo, who remembered Mr. Park's expedition, 
and who said the river which passes Tombuctoo is large, called 
Quolla, and he always understood that it had many names and 
branches, and that it went from Nyffe south through high moun- 
tains. This testimony Major Denham thinks may be relied on. 
On his expedition to Mandara, latitude N. 12°, longitude E. 
15°, a man called Kaid Moussa Ben Yusuf, told Major Den- 
ham that he had been twenty days south of Mandara, to a coun- 
try called Adamowa. He described with great clearness a river 
running from the west between two high ridges of mountains, 
which he declared to be the same as the Quolla or Quorra, at 
Nyffe and Rakah, and that the main body of the water ran on 
to the south of Begharmi, (latitude N. 12°, E. longitude 18°,) 
that it was' there called D'Ago and went eastward to the Nile.—* 
This man was intelligent, and had visited Nyffe, Rakah, Wa- 
day, and Darfur, by the latter of which he said this river passed* 
The above statements agree well with the map laid down for 

154 Remarks on the Niger. [J u ty> 

Captain Clapperton by Bello, Sultan of Sackatoo, who after 
giving to a large river a southern direction from Tombuctoo to 
below Nyffe, and then conducting it eastward, writes: "7%is i> 
the Kowara, which reaches Egypt, and is called the Nile." 'Tis 
true Captain Clapperton informs us, that on his expedition to 
Sackatoo, he saw a lad who stated that he had travelled south 
from Laborge in Nyffe, having crossed the Quorra, fourteen 
days, along the banks of the river, until they were within four 
days of the sea, but where the river entered he knew not; and 
Sultan Bello also drew on the sand the course of the Quarra, 
which by his account, ran parallel to the sea coast for several 
days, being in some places a few hours, in others a day's journey 
distant from it. He wished a road cut to Rakah if vessels 
should not be able to navigate the river. Query, what river? 
Certainly some other than Kowara* which is by the Sultan him- 
self identified with the Quolla or Niger until it passes Nyjfe f 
but then runs eastward until its junction with the Nile, and of 
course cannqt below Rakah enter the ocean. 

Let us now attend to some of the statements of Mr. Bowdich. 
The junction of the Quolla, he observes, with the Bahr Abiad 
or Nile, cannot be more descriptively expressed, according to 
every account I received, than in the words of Mr. Horneman: 
"Some days past, I spoke to a man who had seen Mr. Brown 
in Darfoor; he told me that the communication of the Niger with 
the Nile was not to be doubted, but that this communication be- 
fore the rainy season was very little.*' 

The following is the course of the Quolla, as reported to Mr. 
Bowdich: "From Yaoora or Youri (where I should judge it was 
three miles wide) one journey eastward of Yaoora it passes 
Nooffie or Nyffe, three journies thence Boussa, (mentioned by 
Amadi Fatouma, as it was to me, as the place of Mr. Park's 
death,) twelve journies thence it passes Atagara, but previously 
Hoome and Rakah. Farther thirty journies it flows through 
the kingdom of Quolloraba,* which falls precisely where Major 
Rennel has laid down the kingdom of Kulla, thirty-one journies 

* The Jenne Moor, who reported to Mr. Hutchison, traces the course 
from Yaoora thus: Boussa, Gange, Wawa, Noofa, Quollaliffa, Atagara: the 
only difference being- the position of the latter place, possibly an error of 
mine, as the name Atagara was not noticed in the charts I made the Moor 
draw, but only in the more particular enumerations of the countries t{r* 

Remarks on the Mger. 15 6 

ihence the Quolla received the river Sharee, from the north.-* 
The Quolla was said to pass to the southward of Bagarrime 9 
(the Bagherme of Mr. Brown,) (doubtless the Begharmi of Ma- 
jor Denham,) Poor or Darfur or Darfoor, and lastly to form a 
junction with the Nile, It then went through a large country, 
Soonar, (doubtless Sennaar) and thence to Egypt.* 

On the subject of the Niger, Mr. Bowdich pursued his inquip 
wes with great zeal and perseverance in the country of Gaboon* 
(or as the natives term it Empoongwa,) latitude 3° N., E. long* 
9° 23 s , and here he was told of the river Wola, at some distance 
in the interior, which the Governor pronounced the largest river 
in the world, and added, all the great rivers in this country comt 
from Wola. The Moohnda or Danger, (about 2° N. latitude,) 
he had always understood in the long course of his inquiries to 
flow from it; but he could not speak so positively of that, as of 
the junction of the Ogoowai (about 1° E. longitude) and Wola* 
vAll the nations on this route were said to be cannibals. 

Of this Mr. Bowdich remarks; the name, situation, magnitude? 
md course of the Wola* leave little doubt of its being the Kulla 
•r Quolla. A strong argument, in addition to the above, tor 
the Wola and the Quolla being the same river, (recollecting the 
description that all the nations on the line of the Moohnda are 
cannibals,) is suggested by the reperusal of the following re- 
marks of Mr. Horneman and Mr. Hutchison. "The Yem 
Vems, cannibals, are south of Kano ten days, which agrees very 
well with the leeward course of the Niger, which I have been 
compelled to lay down." 

If we place reliance upon the reports collected by Mr. Bow* 

dich during his visit at Gaboon, we shall be compelled wellnigh. 

to abandon the Congo hypothesis. The Ogoowai was invariably 

represented as proceeding from the Wola, and as subsequently 

dividing itself, the smaller branch running to cape Lopez, the 

_ — , — i . „*■> 

Quolla passed, the names of which I minuted from their utterance, and af= 
terwards attached their remarks as interpreted to me. 

The Jenne Moor calls this Quollaliffa — Mr. Hutchison had a servant a 
native of it. "It is to the king of Quollalifla that the country in which 
Canna Dall and Yum Yum, where cannibals are, is subject. Mr. Horneman 
mentions Yem Yems Cannibals, south of Cano ten days." 

* It is remarkable that Mr. Hutchison writes the course according to the 
Jenne Moor from Atagarathus: "MafTagoodoo, Sharee, lake Chadee, (Shary 
©r lake Tchad, ) Phorr, (beginning of Arabs) WadeyS* This agrees €n<> 
tSrely with accounts received by Major Denham/* 

156* Remarks on the Niger. fJuly> 

larger flowing south-eastward, through the country of Tanyan^ 
and falling into the Congo, which is comparatively small before 
the confluence* This account of the slaves and traders was con- 
finned by the statement of a very intelligent man, who spoke 
English fluently, and acted as interpreter to vessels that visit 
the Gaboon. He had been up the Congo, and to the last mo- 
ment persisted that just beyond a fall, which he described, is the 
confluence of the. Ogoowai and Congo.* 

Rakah is placed on the map of Denham and Clapperton ii\ 
lat. about 9° N., and E. long. 5°, and whatever may be the 
course of the Niger, we cannot doubt that there is communication 
by one or more rivers, between this place and the Bightof Benin. 

This seems evident from the passage above quoted, in which 
the Sultan Bello offers to give the King of England a place on 
the coast, on condition that a road be cut to Rakah, provided 
the vessels are unable to navigate the river. Besides w T e are in- 
formed that <he imports into Sackatoo are Gooroo nuts, brought 
from the borders of Ashantee; and coarse calico and woollen 
cloth in small quantities, with brass and pewter dishes, and some 
few spices from ffiyffe. Captain Clapperton writes Rakah is a 
place of great trade between the interior and the coast, and all 
kinds of European goods, such as beads, woollen and cot ten cloth t 
pewter and copper dishes, gunpowder, rum, fyc. are to be had 
there in exchange for slaves. During my stay in Sackatoo", 
provisions were regularly sent me from the Sultan's table on 
pewter dishes with the London stamp, and one day I had a piece 
of meat served up in a while wash -hand-basin of English manu- 
facture. The distance from Rakah to the Bight of Benin, is 
according to Clapperton, but about 200 miles, and from this as 
well as the statements concerning its trade, we should judge it 
almost certain that these articles must have been carried from 
the latter through the former place. 

To our minds then, the probability is, that the Niger under 
the several names of the Joliba, Quolla or Quarra, Wola and 

* The information received here (at Mawoonda,) of the upward course of 
the river (Congo,) was more distinct than any We have yet had; all the per- 
sons whom we spoke to agreeing, that after ten days in a canoe, we should 
Come to a large sandy island which makes two channels, one to the north- 
mesti and the other to the north -east,- that in the loiter there is a fall, but that 
canoes are easily got above it; that twenty days above the island, the river 
issues by many small streams from a great marsh or lake of mud. 

[Captain Tuckey's narrative of a voyage ty the Congo 

1828.J Death of Captain Clapperton. 157 

Kowara, in its main stream reaches the Bahr Abiad or Nile, but 
that from it one or more branches descend to the Bight of Benin 
and the Gaboon; perhaps entering the former through the Volta, 
the Bonny, the Rio Del Rey or Formoso, and the latter by the 
Danger and the Ogoowai; possibly through some one or two of 
these; possibly through all. What it loses in this way, may be 
partially at least, made up by the accession of other rivers from 
the north, some of which are mentioned by Denham & Clapperton. 

Captain CLArrr.nTox. — The following- particulars of the death of Captaia 
Clapperton, R. N., we have just received from the mouth of Richard Lan- 
der, his servant, who attended him in his last moments. 

It was on the 13th of April, 1827, at 6 o'clock in the morning-, that this 
intrepid traveller breathed his last at the city of Sackatoo, about fifteen days 
journey from Tombuctoo. His illness lasted 32 days. As we stated yesterday, 
the complaint by which he was lost to the world, was dysentery. He appears 
to have been perfectly aware of his approaching fate, was quite resigned to 
it, and died in the arms of his servant, without a struggle. The Captain 
was thirty-eight years of age. 

It is consoling to know, that in the trying- circumstances in which he was 
placed, oppressed by consuming- illness, in a foreig-n land, he did not lose 
sight of the value of the consolations of Religion. Every Sunday morning 1 
he caused Lander to read to him the prayers used in the Service of the 
Church of England, andfrequently occupied himself in other acts of devotion. 

When the Captain was no more, our informant washed the remains of his 
master, and wrapped a clean sheet round his body, which he subsequently 
enclosed in a blanket, and the whole in a piece of matting-, coffins not being" 
known in that country. 

The body was then carried on the back of a camel, and conveyed to a 
grave, which had been prepared for its reception by Lander, and some of 
the Captain's black slaves, in a small garden in the village of Jaungany, 5 
miles to the southeast of Sackatoo. The camel w r as led by one of the 
slaves. The remains were followed to their resting place by four others, 
and by the faithful domestic from whom we have obtained this account. — 
On lowering the body into the grave, the Union Jack was waved over it by 
Lander, and the Burial Service was then read by the same individual. 

While he remained at Sackatoo the natives treated him with the greatest 
respect. During his last illness his wants were imperfectly provided for, 
•wing to the barbarous state of that society, in which he was destined to 
close his career Chicken broth and boiled milk and rice, were the arti- 
cles of sustenance which were supplied. Bee? or wine was notto be obtained. 

15a Intelligence from Mr. Ashmun. [July? 

"Major Laing was reported to have perished in December, 1825. This is 
fully refuted, as a letter was received by his wife at Tripoli, dated Feb. 
1826, from a village but a short distance from Tombuctoo. In that letter 
the Major apologised for its brevity, which, lie added, was caused by a se- 
vere sabre wound on the back of the right hand. — [London Courier. 

More recent accounts, it seems,- have been received by Baron Roger, 
dated at St. Louis, in Senegal, the 8th of March, of the death of Maj. Laing, 
near Tombuctoo — a Moor who had arrived there related the circumstances, 
which receive a melancholy corroboration from the fact, that he is in possession 
of the papers which belonged to this new victim of African research. — [Albion. 

Fernando Po. — On this Island, which is near the coast of Benin, Africa, 
and about 60 miles in circumference, a mssion has just been established by 
the Church Missionary Society y with encouraging prospects. — [Vt. Chron* 

Intelligence from Mx. Aslvmun. 

Since our last number, two letters have been received from 
the Colonial Agent, Mr. Ashmun, dated on the 8th and 18th -of 
June, at Basse Terre, in the Island of St. Christophers. The 
first written by the hand of a friend represents him as extremely 
low, and indulging but little hope of a recovery. The last, it 
will be seen, however, is of a much more favourable character. 
Basse Terre f St Christophers, June 18, 1828. — Monday. 

Dear Sir: I have to acknowledge the Divine Mercy, which, contrary t« 
ill my apprehensions, and the expectations of friends, has again restored 
me to a state of very hopeful convalescence. My lingering and complicat- 
ed disorders, seem to have arrived at a crisis about the 10th instant. I did 
but survive. But, since that date, have been by degrees recovering.— 
Should I escape those relapses, to which persons in my reduced state are 
extremely liable, I think I shall be strong enough in ten days to re-embark 
for the United States. It is my intention (Deo volente), to return to St. 
Barts the last of the present week, where I shall look out for the earliest 
conveyance. My last was written by the hand of a friend, and my strength 
is only equal to the effort which has produced this note. But every day — 
every hour, indeed, I feel an accession of fresh vigour. I want little ex- 
cept gratitude properly to acknowledge so great and unexpected a favour. 

With entire respect and esteem, Dear Sir, Yours, 
Rev. R. R. Gurlet, S. A. C S. J. ASHMUN. 

P. S. Since this form has been composed, intelligence has 
reached us from Mr. Ashmun, under date the 9th of July. — > 
Though very low, he was somewhat better, and was to sail for 
New Haven, Connecticut, on the Kith instant. 

1228.] Auxiliaries. -Fourth of Juhj. -Contributions. 159 

To Auxiliaries and Agents • 

It is important, that whenever new Auxiliaries are established 
the fact should be immediately communicated to the Parent In- 
stitution, with a full and correct list of the officers of such soci- 
eties. We shall be much gratified, likewise, to receive account? 
of the Annual Meetings of Auxiliary Institutions, and copies of 
the Reports which may be made on such occasions. Should 
changes take place in regard to the Officers of Auxiliary Socie- 
ties, lists of which have already been transmitted to us, we hope 
to receive due notice of such changes, that the account of such 
societies may be correctly published in our Annual Reports* 

ToxiYtU ol 3uY$ Collections. 

The list of Contributions in the present number, will show 
that we have already begun to receive the collections which were 
taken up in behalf of our cause in several churches on or about 
the Fourth of July. We fear, however, that but few congrega- 
tions comparatively, have thus lent their aid to our cause; and 
those who have not, may be reminded that it is not yet too late 
for them to unite in this holy work of charity. The pecuniary 
wants of our Institution were never more pressing than at this 
moment, and we must say to all who feel an interest in our 
scheme, that without their prompt and energetic exertions^ no 
expeditions can befitted out for Liberia the present year. 

C ontxibutions 

To the American Col. Soc. from the 1st to the 20th July, 1828. 

By an "Alexandrian," $10 00 

" Th. P. Wilson, Esq. Rockville, Md 10 00 

" Richard Harrison, Esq. Washington, D. C 10 00 

'• Robt. Ware, Esq, of Tappahannock, Va. per Mr. J. C. Dunn, 5 00 

*' Gerard Morgan, Esq. of Harrisonburg-, Va. per ditto 5 00 

I3y Rev. Mr. M'Kenney, per collections by him, as follows, viz: 

In Methodist Church, Smithfield, Va 7 91 

In do called Ben's meeting house, .... 7 64 

In Millswamp, Baptist Church, 6 50 

22 C5 

Carried forward,- $62 05' 

160 Contributions to the Jl. C. Society. [July-, 

Brought forward, $62 05 

*/ Mr. Grove Wright, Agent in New York, for the following 
collections, viz: — 

In Rev. Mr. Sandford's Church, Brooklyn, 70 

In Rev, Mr. Cox's Church, city of New York, 56 

In Presbyterian Church, Elizabethtown, New Jersey, 25 

In Presbyterian Church, Pittsfield, Mass 29 33 

In Presbyterian Church, Chenango Point, N. Y 6 67 — 187 OB 

By Morning Star Lodge, No. 196, Mercersburg, Pa. per 

Rev. David Elliot, . 10 

Collection in Presbyterian Church, Upper West, Conoco- 

cheague, Mercersburg, Pa. per ditto, 13 23 

Collections in 1st Presbyterian Church, Washington, D. C. per. 

Rev. Mr. Post, . ". .' 17 Ifc 

Do. in Methodist Episcopal Church, Leesburg, Va. per. 

Rev. Ch. B. Tippet, 40 13 

Do. in Presbyterian and German Keformed Churches, Har- 

risburg, Pa. after a sermon by Rev. Wm. R. l)c wit, 24 16 

Do. in Elmira, Troy County, N. Y. in Methodist Church, 

Rev. E. O. Flvng, 11 

Do. in 1st Presbyterian Church, Erie, Pa. per George Sei- 
dell, Esq Tr 17 

Do. by Auxiliary Society, Zanesville and Putnam, 
Ohio, after Addresses by Rev. James Culbertson, 

and M. T. Ewnig, Esq 30 

Contributed by said Society, 1 


Do. in Congregational Church, Great Barrington, Mass. . . 15 
Do. from Cross Roads Congregation, Washington, Pa. per 

Rev. Elisha Macurd\ , 20 

Do. in Baptist and Presbyterian congregation, King\s\ ille, 

Ohio, after a sermon by Rev. Jacob Baily, and an Address 

by Rev. Wm. Palmer, 7 

Do. in Rev. J. D. Knowles' Church, Boston, 52 

Do. in Methodist Church, Louisville, Ky. per Rev. W. A. 

Morris, 15 

Do. in 2d Presbyterian Church, Washington, per George 

Gilliss, Esq * 9 37 

Do. additional in same Church 1 50 

Do. in Baptist and Presbyterian Churches, Montrose, Pa. 

per Wm. Jesup, 7 

Do. in Methodist Church, Hillsborough, Ohio, per Rev. J. 

M. Matthews, 5 

Do. in Presbyterian Church, Suckasunny, N. J. by Rev. 

Peter Kanonse, 7 

Do. from Bedford Congregation, Pa. perJno. Coyle, Esq. 18 
From the Auxiliary Society Powhatan County, Va. per Wm. H. 

Henning, M. D 50 

From Do. Ashtabula County, Ohio, per Jacob Austin, Esq. Tr. 33 
From Do. Mount Zion, Buckingham County, Va. per James Sta- 
ples, Esq 20 

From Do. Elkton, Ky 150 

|822 31 

Error.— Pa^e 134, 7th line from the top, for "North £0°," read North 30', 





Vol. IV. AUGUST, 1823. No. 6. 


Report of the Committee of Foreign Relations, in the Senate of 
the United States, to whom were referred sundry petitions and 
memorials, and the resolutions of several Legislatures of differ- 
mit States, in relation to the Colonization of Persons of 

This Report is the avowed production of Mr. Tazewell, of 
Virginia; and from the unquestionable talents, and the known 
hostility of that gentleman to the Colonization Society, it would 
be fair to infer, that in this laboured and (we believe) favourite 
production of his pen, might be found embodied, all that genius 
and intolerance could suggest, against a cause in which a large 
proportion of the best feelings and the best talents of our coun- 
try have so generously embarked. The Report has accordingly 
been referred to, and, in some instances, republished with feel- 
ings of unmeasured exultation, in those sections of the country, 
where hostility to the Colonization Society would seem to be 
the only recognized test of patriotism. 

"With due deference, however, to our fellow-citizens of the 
South, and without meaning to detract, in the smallest degree, 

162 Review of the Report of the [August? 

from the reputation of their senatorial champion, we must be 
pardoned for saying, that, in our humble opinion, this is fai 
from being the most formidable attack to which the Colonization 
Society has been exposed. Much more powerful batteries have, 
at different times, been directed against it, and directed, we 
humbly conceive, by more skilful hands* 

Had this Report, then, come to us on the individual responsi- 
bility of Mr. Tazewell, high as is his reputation, and great as are 
his talents, we should probably have passed it without notice. — 
But it carries with it the sanction of a Committee of the Senate; 
and the appeal it contains, is officially addressed to the most 
august legislative body in the Union. We feel impelled, there- 
fore, by the strongest sense of duty, by our high respect for the 
legislative department of our country, and by an earnest desire 
to clear away the mist that prejudice is continually attempting 
to throw around this interesting subject, to invite the attention 
of our readers to Mr. Tazewell's argument. And we shall be 
\ery much mistaken, if a large proportion of them do not con- 
cur with us in the opinion, that an opposition to the Colonization 
Society, resting on the grounds we are about to expose, is very 
little to be dreaded. 

The distinguished individuals to whom we are indebted for 
the first matured and practical conception of colonizing Africa, 
by ridding America of an injurious population, gave unequivocal 
evidence of their own views in relation to the powers and re- 
sources necessary for the accomplishment of their magnificent 
scheme. At the very moment of their organization, they ap- 
pointed a Committee to solicit the aid of Congress: and similar 
Committees were appointed, and similar petitions presented, 
from time to time, with little other hope, (it would seem,) thaii 
to keep the public attention alive to the subject, and to show 
that their ultimate reliance was on national and not on individu- 
al resources. 

At the eighth and ninth Annual Meetings of the Society, how- 
ever, the subject was at length taken up, with different and more 
serious views; and after a long and animated discussion, it was 
resolved, that memorials should be presented to both Houses of 
Congress, "praying such aid and assistance to the Society, as 
they should think proper to afford." 

1828.] Committee of Foreign Relations. 165 

In pursuance of this resolution, memorials were accordingly 
prepared and presented, and were met by others of similar cha- 
racter, both from state legislatures, and numberless individuals, 
throughout the country. In the House of Representatives, these 
memorials were received with the kindest feelings, and were 
answered by the Committee to whom they were referred, in a 
report of the most favourable character. Their fate, however, in 
the Senate, was entirely different; and they were met, as will 
be seen in the Report before us, by the declaration, that Con- 
gress had no power to grant the assistance asked, and that if 
they had, it would be inexpedient to grant it. 

This declaration contains \n both its branches, matter of most 
serious import; and if it can be sustained in either, must, of course, 
throw a cloud over the sanguine anticipations that have been 
formed in relation to Africa and America. We hope, therefore, 
to be pardoned for inviting the earnest attention of our readers 
©f every description, to the views we are about to present on 
this interesting subject. 

As far as we can gather from the Report of the Committee, 
even those of the memorialists who specified the precise sort of 
aid they desired at the hands of Congress, asked nothing more 
than the provision of a territory on the Coast of Africa, for the 
reception of the coloured people of our country, and the appro- 
priation of the necessary funds for aiding them in their removal 
to it. And yet on both these points, their application is resist- 
ed on constitutional grounds. 

Of the general right of the Government of the United States 
to acquire territory, we do not know that we can present our 
own impression, more strongly, than in the following extracts 
from the Report of the Committee. 

"The acquisition of new territory, no matter where such territory may 
be situated, or in what mode, or for what purpose, such acquisition may be 
made, is an exercise of one of the highest powers which any government 
can ever exert." "All the examples which history furnishes of new terri- 
tory acquired by any nation, in past time, exhibit but three modes in which 
such acquisition hath ever been made. These are by discovery, con- 
quest, or negotiation." "Every government charged with the exclusive 
direction of the exterior relations of the nation for which it was de- 
signed, and specially endowed with the general powers of regulating 

16* Review of the Report of Ike [August 

commerce, of waging war, and of conducting negotiations, must enjoy, 
as incident to these powers, the right of prosecuting discoveries, of achiev- 
ing conquests, and of concluding treaties; and, consequently, must enjoy 
the right of acquiring new territory by any of these means, unless this na- 
tural incident of the powers granted is expressly denied to such govern 
ment, by those who created and so endowed it. The Federal Constitution 
specially grants to the Government of the United States, all these general 
powers, and contains no direct inhibition of the right of acquiring new- 
territory, which, as has been said, necessarily and naturally flows from each 
of them. The Committee, therefore, cannot doubt, that the Government 
of the United States does possess the right of acquiring new territory, by 
some of the modes before referred to, whenever the case may occur, to 
which any of these modes of acquiring new territory is properly applica- 
ble. They see, moreover, that the past practice of this government has 
conformed to this opinion, in the memorable examples of the acquisition of 
the territory of Louisiana from France, and of Florida from Spain." 

We present the above quotations as the most conclusive and 
unanswerable train of reasoning, on the subject to which they 
relate; and when wc first read them, we felt satisfied, that what- 
ever the Committee might decide, as to the right of appropria- 
tion, they entertained no doubt whatsoever, of the right of the 
Government to acquire the proposed territory. What, then, 
was our surprise, when at the commencement of the very ne.vJ 
paragraph, we encountered the following sentence. 

"But while the Committee can readily discern the source of the right 
asserted by the United States in the cases referred to, and can as distinctly 
perceive that such a right may, at any time hereafter, be legitimately as 
serted as an incident and consequence of some of the high powers to which 
they have referred it, whenever the case may arise to which these powers 
properly apply, they cannot discover what support this opinion can afford 
to the legitimate acquisition of the new territory, which is proposed upon 
the present occasion." 

Now we beg the most ingenious and talented of our readers, 
to peruse for a single moment, and to try whether, by the exer- 
cise of all the powers of their minds, they can (admitting the 
correctness of the previous reasoning of the Committee,) assign 
a single reason, satisfactory to themselves, why the acquisition 
of the particular territory proposed, is to constitute an excep- 
tion to the acknowledged general right of acquiring territory. 

1828.] Committee of Foreign Relations* 165 

Having searched the Constitution in vain, for "an express deni- 
al" of this "natural and necessary incident" to the enumerated 
powers of regulating commerce, of making war, and of negoti- 
ating treaties; and finding in its whole extent, no "direct inhi- 
bition" of the right in question, must they not be led to the irre- 
sistible conclusion, that this "natural and necessary right" of 
course exists ? 

But how fallacious are the deductions of the acutest intel- 
lect! How many wonderful things are to be met with "in heaven 
and earth, that are not even dreamt of in the philosophy" of the 
uninitiated! Who but the ingenious gentleman at the head of 
the Committee of Foreign Relations in the Senate, could ever 
have discovered that the case in question was precisely that case,, 
to which alone, the various modes of acquiring territory, acknow- 
ledged to appertain to the General Government, "were not pro- 
perly applicable!" To discover why they are not, would per- 
haps puzzle our readers quite as much, as the stumbling block 
already thrown in their way — and that their patience may n» 
longer be trifled with, we accordingly present them with the 
following summary of the reasoning of the Committee, in sup- 
port of the exception they have been pleased to make. 

"The United States," say they, "cannot acquire territory on the Coast 
of Africa by the right of discovery, because its whole coast has already been 
explored by other civilized nations, who have not thought proper to occu- 
py it. The reasons which restrained them, merit at least as much consid- 
eration from the United States, as they have received from the elder mem- 
bers of the family of civilized man; and must of course preclude them from 
advancing any claim to African territory, on the ground of first discovery 
and prime occupancy. 

"Nor does the right of declaring war apply to the case in question. The 
power to declare war, like all the other discretionary powers, conferred by 
the Constitution, is necessarily limited by the ends and objects for which 
alone it may be rightfully exerted. Now as war is never to be justified ex- 
cept as a means necessary to the preservation of permanent peace and 
greater security; and as the peculiar situation of the savage hordes, occupy- 
ing the coast of Africa, renders it impossible that they should ever threaten 
the peace or disturb the security of the United States, the power to declare 
war can hardly be considered as embracing them within its scope, and of 
course no territory can be acquired amongst ihent, ftoivever it may be eke- 
ivhere, by the right of conquest. 

166 Review of the Report of the [August, 

"Equally inapplicable is the treaty-making power to the case now under 
consideration. This too is a discretionary power granted to the United 
States by the Constitution; but like all other powers of the same kind, it 
has its limits. These limits the Committee do not think it necessary to define; 
but satisfy themselves with the remark, that from the very nature of the 
power, as well as from its effect on the parties concerned, and indeed on 
the whole civilized world, it can be exercised only by two or more sove- 
reigns, acting together for the attainment of the same object, by means of a 
compact, which, when concluded, is to be obligatory on the whole people 
governed by suGh sovereigns. Civilized nations have accordingly seldom 
believed themselves at liberty to conclude treaties with absolute savages — 
no instance can be adduced, in modern times, of the conclusion of such 
treaties with the savage tribes wandering over the deserts, or dwelling on 
the coast of Africa — and hence the Committee infer, that the right of ac- 
quiring new territory, which it is proposed the United States should exert, 
in order to make such acquisition in Africa, can derive as little support 
from the treaty -making, as from the other great powers of the Government. 

"But even if this difficulty did not exist, an insuperable one would be 
found in the remote situation of the territory proposed to be acquired. The 
treaty-making power of the United States is admitted to be equal to the 
legitimate acquisition of new territory, either within or contiguous to 
their original dominions; but it does not extend to the acquisition 
of a distant territory in another quarter of the globe, separated from 
the United States by a wide ocean. A country so situated, being, in 
the nature of things, unable to contribute its just proportion of the 
blessings, or to bear its proper share of the responsibilities of our re- 
presentative system, could, of course, never be admitted into the Union as 
an integral part of the confederation. It must, therefore, either be retain- 
ed in a state of colonial dependence, or it must be endowed with the cha- 
racter and attributes of a sovereign state, entirely independent of the pa- 
rent country. Neither of those are the United States authorized to do; and 
hence it is inferred, that the treaty-making power does not extend to the 
acquisition of a territory, creating an absolute obligation to do one or the 
other. And this impression is strengthened by the fact, that all the trea- 
ties hitherto made for the acquisition of territory, have contained stipula- 
tions for its future admission into the Union, as apart and equal member of 
the confederation." 

Such we believe to be a fair exposition of the reasoning of the 
Committee, and we are perfectly satisfied that with the gene- 
rality of our readers, it might be safely left, without any other 
answer, than could be drawn from the extracts already made 
from their own Report, But it has been so much the fashion of 
late, to cavil «t the exercise of the simplest and most obvious 

1828.] Committee of Foreign Relations. 167 

powers of the General Government — prejudice and interest have 
so often combined to reduce those powers to a scale wholly dis- 
proportioned to the demands of the country, and wholly incom- 
patible with the intentions of the framers of our Constitution, 
that it has become the solemn duty of every lover of law and 
order, and of every friend to the permanency of our republican 
system, to array himself on the side of the Constitution, and to 
shield it, if possible, against attacks, from whatever quarter 
they may come, that are calculated to diminish its value, if not 
to destroy its very existence. Under these impressions, we 
must beg leave to pass the arguments of the honorable Commit- 
tee a little farther in review, before we take our final leave of 

The enumerated powers of the General Government, (and 
amongst the rest, the three specified by the Committee,) are all 
given alike, for the purposes of "forming a more perfect union, 
establishing justice, ensuring domestic tranquillity, providing for 
the common defence, promoting the general welfare," &c. &c. 
Whenever, in the opinion of Congress, any one or all of these 
ends can be attained by the exercise of any one or all of their 
enumerated powers, the authority to exercise them is absolute, 
and the laws they may pass in pursuance thereof, become "the 
supreme law of the land, any thing in the Constitution and laws 
of any state to the contrary notwithstanding." It is of no con- 
sequence, that the exercise of the power in question may fall 
short of or exceed the end proposed — that it may disappoint the 
expectations formed as to its result — that it may violate estab- 
lished principles of policy — that it may fall with severity on 
some portions of our own country — or may even operate unjust- 
ly towards foreign nations. If it only avoid forbidden ground — 
if it involve no incident "expressly denied" — if it violate no 
"direct inhibition" of the Constitution — the power is constitu- 
tionally exercised. It may be injudiciously exercised — it may 
be exercised in a bad spirit, but it is constitutionally exercised, 
and its effects can be got rid of, in no other way, than by an act 
of formal repeal. 

Let us apply these principles to the reasoning of the Commit- 
tee. The Congress of the United States, thinking it important 
to the interests of the country? that we should possess some 

168 Review of the Report of the [August, 

point of territory beyond the Atlantic, authorize an expedition 
for the purpose of discovering and designating a convenient spot. 
A large and commodious territory, in every respect suitable and 
calculated in the highest degree to facilitate our commercial 
operations, or to promote the "general welfare" of the country 
in some other way, is found on the Coast of Africa. It is in- 
habited by no one — not even savages — and no claim is set up to 
it by any civilized nation. We take it for granted, that here is 
a case, to which, the Committee themselves would, according 
to their own showing, pronounce the commercial powers of Con- 
gress "properly applicable." And, as the constitution contains 
no "express denial," no "direct inhibition" of the power exer- 
cised, the territory would of course become the property of the 
United States, on the ground of "first discovery and prime oc- 
cupancy." In process of time, however, it is ascertained, that 
the vessels of some other nation had, many centuries back, 
touched at the same point; but seeing that no great advantage 
could result to their country from so remote and inhospitable a 
possession, had abandoned as soon as they had discovered it. — 
From that moment, the whole proceeding of the government be- 
comes unconstitutional and void, and the power exercised, though 
constitutional in itself, and opposed by no "express denial," no 
"direct inhibition of the constitution," is nevertheless, uncon 
stitutionally exercised, simply because the territory in question 
had been previously visited by the vessels of another nation. — 
Are the honourable Committee prepared for this extraordinary 
result, to which by the process of their own reasoning, they are 
inevitably brought? 

Again, the power of declaring war is expressly given to the 
Government of the United States. It is given, like its commer- 
cial powers, for the purposes exhibited in the preamble to the 
constitution. The time and the mode of exercising it, are left 
without limitation to the discretion of Congress. On that dis- 
cretion, however, the Committee would impose a limitation 
of their own creation — a limitation founded on motives of action, 
and an arbitary selection of one in preference to all the other 
ends, for which the power in question is given. "War," say 
thev, "is never to be justified except as a means necessary to 
the preservation of permanent peace and greater security."— 

1828.-5 Committee of Foreign Relations. 16j). 

And as the condition of the people of Africa "places it beyond 
credulity that any or all of them can now threaten the peace or 
disturb the security of any, the most exposed spot in this 
hemisphere," tne right of making war on them is denied, how- 
ever the "general welfare," (an end as important and as defined 
as the "common defence,") might be otherwise promoted by it. 
Had the Committee been satisfied with representing wars, ex- 
cept for the "preservation of permanent peace and greater secu- 
rity," as in the main unjust and impolitic, we might have argued 
with them. But when they deny the constitutional right of 
Congress to declare war for any other purposes, than such as 
they have specified, we must be pardoned for appealing from 
their judgment, to the express letter of the constitution itself. 

We think it proper, however, here to observe, that in notic- 
ing these arguments of the Committee, we have no view to the 
immediate interests of the Colonization Society. We have ne- 
ver looked to the commercial or military powers of the govern- 
ment as the means of accomplishing the purposes of that Socie^ 
ty; and so far as the acquisition of territory is desirable, we are 
satisfied that the treaty-making power is amply sufficient to ac- 
complish every thing that will be asked. 

If the acquisition of territory be not a legitimate object for the 
exercise of this power, it will be a difficult matter to find one 
that is. And if it be — as common sense would indicate, as the 
Committee themselves acknowledge, and as the uniform prac- 
tice of the government demonstrates it to be — we know of no 
constitutional limitation on the exercise of the power, or on its 
application to any particular case, but that its aim should be the 
general good, that it should disregard no "express denial," and. 

should infringe no "direct inhibition" of the Constitution 

These considerations being regarded, there is nothing to prevent 
the acquisition of desirable territory from one people more than 
from another, or in one situation more than in another. If we 
can purchase territory from the Indians, we can purchase it as 
well from the Africans — the latter are, to say the least, as civi- 
lized as the former. And if we can extend our dominions in 
our own neighbourhood, there is nothing to prevent us from ex- 
tending them in a distant land. In every case, the power is 
equally complete 5 and the only question in relation to any pur- 

170 Review of the Report of the [August, 

chase, is the question of expediency — a question left exclusivelv 
to the discretion of Congress. 

As to the subsequent use of the territory, the Constitution hae 
left no room for doubt Or difficulty. In authorizing "the admis- 
sion of new states" on the one hand, and in giving to Congress 
on the other, express power "to dispose of and to make all 
needful rules and regulations respecting the territory of the 
United States," it has provided for every emergency. It has 
wisely left it to the representatives of the people to dispose of 
the acquired territory, to retain it in its territorial condition, or 
to admit it into the Union, as the general interests of the coun- 
try may seem to require; and the fact, that the acquisition of 
Louisiana and Florida was accompanied by express stipulations, 
as to the future disposition of them, is no evidence that territo- 
ries differently situated, may not be acquired without any such 

The Committee have done the Colonization Society injustice*, 
in charging them with having referred in their petition, to the 
power of Congress "to provide for the common defence, and to 
promote the general welfare," as to "a general authority bestow- 
ed upon that body by the Constitution, in virtue of which, the 
U. S. may lawfully acquire distant territory, or do any other of 
the acts which the Society wishes to be performed." An exami- 
nation of their memorial will show that this is a mistake. The 
only use it makes of the expressions referred to, will be found in 
the following sentence, near its close. "The resolutions which 
have been adopted by a very large proportion of the Legisla- 
tures of the States, in favour of the plan of colonizing the free 
people of colour, indicate it as an object entitled, in every res- 
pect, to the aid and patronage of a government, whose peculiar 
province it is, in the exercise of its legitimate powers, 4 to pro- 
vide for the common defence, and to promote the general wel- 
fare' of the country over which it presides." And will the hon- 
ourable Committee deny that it is the peculiar province of Con- 
gress, in the exercise of its legitimate powers* to provide for the 
common defence, and to promote the general welfare of the na- 
tion? Are these important ends of legislation to be wholly dis- 
regarded, even when they can be attained by means acknow 
ledged to be legitimate? 

1828. J Committee of Foreign Relations. 171 

In one respect, we are aware, that we shall differ from the 
Committee. We consider all the powers conferred on Con- 
gress, in the 8th section of the Constitution, as standing in the 
same relation to the preamble, as well as to each other. Each 
mav be used in giving efficacy to the rest, but each may also be 
us 1 in accomplishing directly the ends for which all are given. . 
The Committee, on the contrary, have selected the first and 
must important of these powers — the power to raise and expend 
revenue — have taken from it, its distinct and substantive cha- 
racter, and would make it entirely and exclusively subsidiary 
to the powers that follow it. Commerce may be regulated, mo- 
ley coined, post offices established, and war declared, for any 
purpose calculated "'to promote the common defence and gene- 
ral welfare," while the power most especially given for this ve- 
ry purpose, is alone withheld from a direct application to it. — 
The treaty -making power, and the power to regulate commerce, 
may, according to the Committee, be employed for the acquisi- 
tion of a desirable territory, because they are thus accomplish- 
ing "the general welfare," for which they are given. But the 
money-raising power cannot be applied directly to the acquisi- 
tion of the very same territory, although the fact of its being 
given for "promoting the general welfare," is embodied in the 
very clause that conveys the power. If the reasoning of the 
Committee on this subject, be correct, it would follow, that the 
revenue of the government, although given 'Ho pay the debts," 
as well as "to provide for the common defence and general wel- 
fare of the United States," cannot be applied to the discharge 
of the revolutionary debt, because, in this case, it must act di- 
rectly on its object, and not indirectly through the medium of 
any of the subsequently enumerated powers. But from a result 
so extravagant, we imagine even Governor Giles and Professor 
Cooper could not hesitate to revolt. 

If, then, we are correct in our views of the general power of 
the government over its revenue — and we are sustained in them 
by the practice of every administration, by decided majorities in 
both branches of Congress, and by the voice of at least three- 
fourths of the nation — there can be no doubt but that the United 
States may both provide a territory for the reception of our co- 
loured population, and appropriate the necessary funds for aid- 

V7Z Report of the Lynchburg Jinx. Society. [August,. 

ing in its removal. Beyond this, neither we, nor (we believe) 
any others of the friends of the Colonization Society desire 
them to go — we ask the exercise of no power calculated to in- 
terfere, in the smallest degree, with either individual rights or 
state authorities — we seek the removal of no free person of co- 
lour without his own consent, and of no slave without the con- 
sent of his master, and of neither, without the consent and co- 
operation of the state in which he lives. Thus guarded and thufr 
limited, we know no possible evil that can result from the pro- 
posed interference of the government, but the expenditure of its 
money — and how far that will be an evil, must depend on the 
value of the object to be accomplished, on its connection with 
the general interests of the nation, and on the amount of expen- 
diture it will actually involve. But we have already trespassed 
so far on the attention of our readers, that we must postpone, 
to some other occasion, the interesting and extensive inquiry 
opened to us by the remarks of the Committee on this branch of 
the subject. 

"Report of tl\e TioaYtY of Managexs of t\\e 
"L^\\e\vb\wg Ayix.. Co\. Society. 

The following Report was presented by J. B. Harrison, Esq., 
of the Board of Managers, a few days since, to the Lynchburg 
Society. Expressing as it does, the sentiments of a highly re- 
spected association in the central part of Virginia, we may hope 
that the Southern People generally, will candidly reflect upon 
the clear and cogent arguments so admirably expressed, with 
which, here, the claims of our Institution are defended. While 
we must acknowledge ourselves disposed to apply for aid to the 
National Government, yet whether such application is or is 
riot to be successful, we look with the very able author of the 
following Report, confidently, for support to individual charity, 
and the patronage of the States. Who can say what these may 
accomplish, when given with the full consent of all? We hope, 
however, that the preceding Review of Mr. Tazewell's- Report 

i828.] Report of the Lijnchburg Aux. Society. 173 

Will not be lightly considered; coming, as it does, from one, dis- 
tinguished alike for candid examination and intellectual vigour. 

Mr. Harrisox, from the Board, presented the following- Report: 
The Board would esteem itself happy, did the state of public sentiment 
throughout the Union, justify it, in this its annual exhibit, in representing 
the prospects of the Society in the United States as obscured by no im- 
pending- cloud, or menaced by no distant portent. But we should be un- 
candid if we dwelt in vague terms on the high motives of humanity and 
patriotism which impel us, and passed silently over certain circumstances 
materially affecting the chances of our success, which have occurred with- 
in the last year. It is manifest, too, that this Auxiliary Society, in the cen- 
tre of the largest of the slave-holding States, and composed chiefly of slave- 
holders, bears a relation to the Parent Society, and to those of our fellow- 
citizens whom we desire to persuade to accede to our plan, essentially dif- 
ferent from that of any Northern branch; for the operative motives with 
these last will be a patriotism more vague, and a benevolence less informed 
by experience than our own. It is due to ourselves, then, that we speak 
to justify the existence of our own Auxiliary in the midst of a community 
of slave-holders, and let us take it for our province to address persuasions, 
not to the general philanthropy of Americans, but to the good sense of the 
SLAVE-HOLDING STATES. It is certainly true, that the aid which is 
to be most efficient to our plan, must come from the slave-holding states 
themselves, and it will be vain to expect success for a scheme which is to 
operate chiefly on the South, if the South should be found decidedly hos- 
tile to its endeavours. Fully impressed with this idea, claiming too to 
speak not unadvisedly of evils of which we ourselves feel our individual full 
share, we too speak as SOUTHERN MEN; not as advocates but as parties; 
not as uninterested propagandists, but as the very subjects of the advice 
we give. It may be well to avow that a doubt has not entered the mind of 
the Board, that if any people in the world have a right to speak out on this 
subject, it is, we. - 

The first matter proper to allude to, is the hostility to the whole ground 
of the American Colonization Society, exhibited by certain writers and 
speakers in our sister state of South Carolina. The Board cannot but re- 
gret that all these opponents have presumed to attribute to the Society ob- 
jects which are not enumerated in its constitution, and which have, more- 
over, been repeatedly disavowed by formal resolutions. It is thought not 
unfair to charge oh a great number of honourable men, united in a body 
which neither desires mystery, nor by possibility admits of secret purposes 
from the mode of its existence, the harboring of designs, of which no man 
who proposes to live in the country on which such experiments are to be 
practised, could with common sense desire to witness the progress. It is 
thought not unfair to charge a body composed in one-half certainly of slave- 
holders, with a deliberate policy, which, to that half would be suicidal. 

1T4 Report of the Lynchburg Aux. Society. [Augus% 

and baneful to all the country; or else the malice is laid on the non-slave- 
holding part, and the rest are looked on as deluded by an ill disguised 
scheme, of fatal tendency Having", before this time, declared the true ob- 
jects of the Society, we may well demand the grounds on which any man 
may attribute to it a secret purpose to emancipate the slave property of 
the United States. Is it permitted to harbour itself in the Northern and 
Eastern branches as yet, to be shortly brought thence into light and action? 
Those who think so, are not aware, that, of all parts of the country, New 
England is most indifferent to our plan. Perhaps South Carolina itself has 
contributed as much to its aid as Massachusetts, the head of the Eastern 
states. Indeed, except Vermont, which has honourably distinguished it- 
self by the charities of its citizens to the Society, there is no part of New 
England that has yet paid even the fair tribute of patriotism to it. In the 
middle and Western non-slave-holding states, where, if at all, there exists 
any anxiety to rid us of our slaves, this feeling has in no great degree asso- 
ciated itself with the Society; above all, it derives no warrant, but rather 
meets rebuke from that body. Again: does this secret purpose exist in the 
bosom of the Managers at Washington, citizens, let us not forget, like our- 
selves of a slave-holding district? Or, is it a subject of consultation among 
certain persons who assemble at the Annual meetings? On this head, the 
Board feels itself able to report, to the Society — that a satisfactory answer 
may be given this day to our opponents. For several reasons, the Board 
thought proper to have a representative at the last annual meeting at Wash- 
ington, J. B. Harrison, Esq., at which, also, he was instructed to assure the 
Society of resolute co-operation, and cause of increasing hope in this part 
of Virginia. We have every reason to believe that his zeal in the cause 
gave him free admission into the plans of the managers, and attending mem- 
bers; and from him we derive authority to say, neither the Managers nor 
the invaluable Secretary, Mr. Gurley, on whom, happily for us, devolve 
more immediate^ the general interests of the Society, nor any single mem- 
ber who spoke more than his own isolated opinion, entertains a thought of 
operating through this Society either the seduction of slaves, or the libera- 
tion of a single slave without the entire consent of the master. This is their 
leading sentiment; and, when, in the course of some rhetorical aberrations, 
a speaker happened to characterize the plan as one of different intent from 
this, it was gratifying to the Virginia feelings of our delegate, that every 
member with whom he conversed protested against the ascribing such a 
character to it. By this general expression of opinion he is convinced that 
he spoke not unauthorizedly, when he there declared that the American 
Colonization Society had no connection in fact or by resemblance, with 
any Abolition Society in America or elsewhere, and that the Society were 
ready then, if necessary, to pass a censure on such Societies in America. 

Certainly the Society cannot justly be held to account for the overheat- 
ed zeal of all persons scattered through the country, who have connection 

18*8.] Report of the Lynchburg Jluoc. Society. 175 

in scarce any instance with it, nor should very heavy wrath fall on it for 
permitting" to pass within its own halls the indiscretion of those rhetoricians 
to whom a simile is a hard temptation, and to resist an inviting- trope is a 
fortitude for which the flesh is quite too weak. We rely then with confi- 
dence that the authorized officers, and its influential members do with 
honesty pursue the ostensible objects set forth in the constitutions of the 
Parent and the Auxiliaries, and have none other ulterior in view. Were not 
this our unanimous opinion, on full examination, no consideration, would in- 
duce a single member of the Board, and we venture to say, of this Auxiliary 
itself, to give it his co-operation. Satisfied, as we are, that we are uniting" 
with honest men in the pursuit of a great object of patriotism and humanity, 
the brave and true men of Carolina must not expect us, in Virginia, to 
abandon principles dear to our hearts, at the unexpected hostility which 
they who presume to speak for the whole South, are pleased to proclaim 
against them. The elders among- us, who have lent their mature approba- 
tion to our plan, are content to abide the clamour; and the young- men who 
have adventured into this field, and made perhaps their first offering- to 
the public service by the advocacy of this cause in the midst of slave-hold- 
ers, as yet see no reason to recede from their ground; nor will they be dis- 
mayed while they reflect that of all the objects of animated zeal which can 
be pictured to them, none can so well reconcile ambition with a pure love 
of public utility. As for such young men, they are content to begin the 
lace of life in a community where they are aware that popularity is indeed 
a precious treasure, besides that it is almost essential to the usefulness of 
any one, nothing doubting that they will finally be blessed with the grati- 
tude of the Republic, and, by deserving it, acquire the only fame which is 
worth having, the fame that follows. But the Board will by no means ad- 
mit that these, our opponents, speak the voice of the whole South. They 
even flatter themselves that an adversary is to rise up to these champions, 
not out of the defied and insulted North, but that the sensibility, the lofty 
spirit, the distrust of all philanthropy, and the boasted talent of slave-hold- 
ing Carolina, are to be outpeered by the calmer dignity, the better tem- 
pered patriotism and the self-persuaded zeal of slave-holding Virginia. In- 
deed, it strikes us forcibly that there is now and always has been, an essen- 
tial difference between the sentiment of Virginia and South Carolina on, 
the whole subject of slavery. If we may consider the author of an able 
pamphlet, by Brutus, as speaking the voice of our opponents in Carolina, 
we shall find, by a close analysis, that the true grounds of their hostility 
are 1st, an apprehension that there does exist in all the non-slave-holaing 
states a rooted design to abolish slavery among us, an apprehension which 
we will briefly declare, in our opinion to be, to any great extent, manifest- 
ly unfounded. In proof of this, let them reflect either on the declaration 
of Mr. Everett, that, in case of an insurrection of our slaves, he and his 
fellow citizens ef Massachusetts would be the first to take the knapsack 

176 Report of the Lynchburg Aux. Society, [August, 

»nd the musket, to fight for us, the holy war of our deliverance: Or, let 
them believe Mr. McDuffie, who declared that he could most sincerely tell 
them that there were not twenty men in Congress who would not vote as 
South Carolina would wish, on a proposal to interfere, in any manner, with 
her slaves. Let, then, this unworthy suspicion be forever dismissed. — 
2nd. However, they think it a full justification for all their hostility, that 
a Society dares to exist which speaks of slavery at all; and which, by 
the most remote implication, can be shown to desire the amelioration of 
slavery. We, of Virginia, have never so much dreaded the bare hinting at 
slavery as an evil as to attempt to suppress the natural workings of human 
mature. Before the Revolution, we passed 23 Acts to suppress the evil; 
all negatived by the King. As early as '76, feeling that it was an evil, we 
did not go into a corner to whisper out a craven humanity, but we boldly 
closed up and locked forever the great gate through which the pestilence 
was to be perpetually reinforced; we abolished the slave trade. South 
Carolina laughed then at our fanaticism, and pretended to tremble at our 
pernicious example. Her nerves proved tough for thirty-two years after 
this; and, up to the very last limit of the patience of the other states, the 
slave-ship showed its ill-fated flag in her harbours. 

From a period as early as '82, we permitted any master, by deed or will, 
to emancipate his slaves; and, in 1806, for the best reasons, entirely accor- 
dant with the principles of this Society too, we added a clause requiring 
such emancipated persons to depart out of the State. Yet, we learn, from 
Brutus, that no slave can by law be emancipated in South Carolina without 
a special act of the Legislature, and that the Legislature has, particularly of 
late years, set its face against all emancipation. Will any one, after this, 
seek to ally the feeling of Virginia on this head with that of Carolina? — 
We can give but cold applause to that patriotism which declares war 
against the most distant tendency — we use the words of Brutus — "to weak- 
en the attachment of our citizens to the policy which is the life-blood of 
Carolina," and proclaims that domestic servitude is so essentially interwo- 
ven with her prosperity, that for her own citizens to speak of its abolition, 
now or in any future time, is to talk of striking her out of political and civil 
existence. — ("Brutus, page 124. J As for us, we mean to allow no dicta- 
tion of the non-slave-holders; but, in bidding them hold off", we cannot use 
such arguments as these. God forbid, that we should be driven to incor- 
porate with our every -day sentiments of liberty, the detestable paradox 
which those arguments imply. There are not, we believe, a hundred men 
in Virginia who do not hope their posterity may one day find it fit to re- 
lieve themselves of this curse. We should be unworthy of the beautiful 
system which it mars, did we not lament its existence, "as a stain upon a 
vestal's robe, the worse for what it soils." With this sentiment we can see 
in a Society, which, neither by remote operation, promotes disaffection 
among our slaves, nor offers to dictate to us, nothing which cries aloud fa 

1828.] lleport of the Lynchburg Jlurt. Society. IT? 

the indignation of virtue, or the armed defiance of patriotism. Is therfe 
danger of disaffection, from removing- the freed negroes and offering an 
asylum to such slaves as their masters may voluntarily manumit? Virginia 
will think not more than from her law permitting emancipation and requir- 
ing them to leave the State at the moment. Carolina, of course, thinks 
otherwise. The plan is in principle, as it was in fact, Virginian; and ac- 
cords w ith every healthy throb of Virginia feeling. If it be indeed true, 
that the richest cotton lands of Carolina can never be cultivated except by 
slave labour, we sincerely pity our brethren for their embarrassing condi- 
tion; but this, of itself, puts up a perpetual barrier between the interests of 
"Virginia and Carolina, which no attachment for them can make us throw 
down. Virginia, at least, has no physical obstacle which will decree her 
never to become a flourishing commonwealth of homogeneous freemen -—• 
To return, then, from these general Considerations, and taking up the gen- 
oral character of the Society, we note with regret another turn of thought^ 
Which Brutus adopts as his own. The Society, says he, is the nucleus 
around which will be gathered the worst elements of discord. But, for the 
Society, we will assert, that, neither intending to excite nor to encourage 
discord itself, if there arise discord we shall know from what quarter it ari- 
ses. Proud that we have discovered the richest scheme of patriotism and 
kumanity that the age has seen, we offer it to the world, not as a nucleus 
for warring elements to gather around, but as one "entire and perfect 
chrysolite," which we have vowed to keep pure from the taint of fanaticism, 
of sectional jealousy, and of party hatred. If there be faith in man, or fea- 
sibility in any generous purpose, it shall be kept to this; and through this 
will prevail. 

The next matter which requires mention is the passage of resolutions by 
the Legislature of South Carolina and Georgia, not so much affecting the 
general merits of the Society as the right of Congress to afford it aid, under 
the Constitution of the United States; and also a report of a committee of 
the Senate, takiig the same scope, never acted upon. This Auxiliary does 
not consider it a vital part of the scheme of the Society, to demand aid from 
Congress; and our friends in other parts of the United States must excuse 
Us for reminding them of this Doubtful, ourselves whether Congress has 
a right to appropriate money for this end, we need not meet our opponents 
on these points. We look for ample aid from the treasury of the States, 
and individual bounty; and would exhort all of the Auxiliaries to toil for 
kelp through these channels. Above all, we entreat Virginia not to con- 
clude from the want of power in Congress to grant money, that therefore 
the Society does not deserve individual and even state patronage. The 
perfect logic of the author of the Keport to the Senate had taught him that 
many of the noblest subjects ;or individual enterprise, the advancement of 
learning, of piety, of philanthropy in general, are wholly beyond the au« 
tkority of Congress. But this very circumstance lays a heavier responsible 

178 Report of the Lynchburg Jiux. Society. [August 

litv on our private efforts. There is however, a single passage at the close 
of Mr Tazewell's report, which does indeed strike with no unskilfully 
guided weapon at the very vitals of the Society. After cutting 1 us off from 
any aid from Congress, he proceeded to speak of the Society, thus turned 
adrift, and to show it unworthy of any other aid. It is charged on us that 
this is a self-created Society, whose plans are connected with the action of 
the government, and therefore to be looked at with suspicion and distrust. 
Is it, then, true that a government of limited powers, stretching its authori- 
ty over scarcely any of the vital influences of the community, has a just 
right by inuendo, to discourage the formation of associations intended to 
take charge of those vital influences > Is it not unreasonable that that 
which the government will not do, and individuals cannot, should be dis- 
couraged when attempted by a union of many individuals? But, further, 
shoull such an association even petition Congress for aid, can patriotic 
statesmen impose other conditions on them, than that they should be re- 
spectful, peaceable and temperate? Nay, would it not follow, from this, 
that no self-created Society should be allowed to petition any State Legis- 
lature? That which is wise, humane and patriotic, the people begin at 
their firesides; and, if they desire it much, they will unite their scattered 
strength into one body. This is the inevitable succession of popular anxie- 
ty, and he who asks that the government should look with distrust on that 
which does not begin with itself, asks for stagnation in the fountains of the 
public reservoir. Self-created societies would, therefore, be dangerous not 
only to Congress, but to the States, and, by deduction, to the people them- 
selves, where they solicit individual aid from the people. But it is mani- 
fest that government in America is not such a machine of all work as to 
have a monopoly of public feeling and interest. There are some subjects 
wholly within the cognizance of Congress which it would be mischievous 
for bodies of men to presume to control, though even this would not ap- 
ply to all cases so within that cognizance. But it is indolent logic, and 
worse humanity, to indict all self-created Societies having any reference to 
the action of the government, because certain kinds of them have been 
justly condemned by Washington, and others by Jefferson. Just judg- 
ments of conviction or acquittal lie in particulars only. Now, could the ob- 
jects of this Society be put in progress by insulated individuals, without 
the fostering care of a permanent Board of Control > After doing much 
for themselves, they ask Congress to help; thinking it not foreign to their 
jurisdiction, though not belonging to Congress as a subject of necessary 
legislation. They do this peaceably and respectfully. Other cases prove 
only themselves. Let the world judge of this case by itself, if the bare 
fact of its being a self-created Society is enough to condemn it. 

Is not the Board, then, justifiable, at the close of the third year of you* 
existence, in urging you to go on in your great work, and in saying to you, 
that thus far, all is well. "We shall succeed; the South will not all refuse tt 

1828.] Slave Trade. 17$ 

bear its part in the cause? We warn you to beware of fulfilling' the pre- 
diction of a sage Senator of South Carolina, that, "some how, benevolence 
seemed to be an unsuccessful business " It has been indeed true in the 
Southern States. Other things succeed better; ambition and avarice come 
©fa healthy stock, and they last their generation. Unmixed benevolence 
no one would expect to exist long in these States; but we trust, that by ad- 
ding to our benevolence no small quantity of self-interest, and some poli- 
tics, this scheme gives vital heat enough to the philanthropy of the Virgi- 
nia friends of Colonization, to prolong it beyond the ordinary duration of 
public schemes among us 

All which is respectfully submitted, 

Slave, T^aAc, 

We regret to say, that this trade appears to be carried on to 
a great extent and with circumstances of the most revolting cru- 
elty. Many details on this subject are given in the last Report 
of the African Institution. The La Perle, Gibbin, master, hav- 
ing landed part of a cargo of 250 slaves at Guadaloupe, was pur- 
sued by an armed French Cutter, and to avoid detection threw 
the remainder [65) overboard, and they all perished. Several 
of the bodies of the murdered negroes being washed ashore, some 
slight inquiries were made, but the authors of this inhuman mur- 
der, were not apprehended, and they have not yet been brought 
to any account for it. The French slave-trade, notwithstanding 
the efforts of the government, appears to be undiminished. The 
number of Spanish vessels employed in the trade is immense, 
and as the treaty between England and Spain only permits the 
seizure of vessels having slaves actually onboard, many of these 
watch their opportunity on the coast, run in, and receive all 
their slaves on board in a single day. The ravages of disease, 
in consequence of the crowded state of these vessels, and the 
scarcity and wretched quality of the provisions served to the 
victims, are considered so inseparable from the trade, that they 
excite little notice. One instance is mentioned of a Spanish 
Schooner, of 60 tons burthen, into which, 221 slaves were crowd- 
ed, their only provision being bad Yams and putrid water.— 
Thirty died on the passage, and the rest were landed in a mise- 

18a Slave Trade'. [August 

Table state of weakness and emaciation. The Spanish slavers 
act frequently as pirates, sometimes even preying upon their 
brethren in iniquity. When they seize a slaver of inferior force* 
they generally murder the whites, and take possession of the 
living cargo. The slave trade is carried on unblushingly at Ha- 
vana- In one instance when a British cruiser had chased a 
slave vessel, the Minerva, into port, the slaves were landed, 
while the government were pretending to inquire into the com* 
plaint of the British Officer who was sent on shore, and at this 
the authorities connived and screened the delinquents. On 
searching a steam vessel bound to Matanzas, however, this offi- 
cer found 14 of the negroes stowed away between the bulk-head- 
ing, which separated the boilers from the vessel's side, and ex- 
posed to the intense heat produced by the lighted stoves! Six 
females were found concealed under a coil of ropes and a haw- 
ser. These wretched beings thought at first that they were 
doomed to death, but on being undeceived their joy was exces- 
sive. To the Brazils the slave trade is carried on to a great 
extent, and with circumstances of the most odious barbarity. — 
The Intrepida, of 100 tons burden, when captured, was found 
to contain 310 slaves, in a state of great wretchedness and ema- 
ciation; seventy of them had died in a passage of 46 days.— 
Another, the Invincible, contained 446 slaves, so crowded to- 
gether, that it was impossible to separate the sick from the 
healthy, or the dying from the dead; their provisions and water 
were of the worst kind; the filth and stench was beyond descrip- 
tion; and the dysentery, opthalmia, and scurvy, carried off 186 
of these poor wretches in less than GO.days. 

It is consoling to think, that according to a treaty signed with 
Great Britain, in March 1827, the Brazilian slave-trade is to 
cease within three years, from that period. These facts are 
stated in an abstract of the African Institution's Report, in the 
Liverpool Mercury, which is concluded by the following dread- 
ful picture of cruelty and suffering. 

In a Spanish slave Schooner, boarded by H. M. S. Aurora, 
after a diligent search, 240 slaves were found concealed. They 
were in the most dreadful state imaginable. Having in their 
confined situation disease and starvation to contend with at once, 
The vessel had been at sea forty-seven days, from the coast oJ 

1828.] Slave Trade. 1»X 

Guinea; and, when captured, had only one day's provision on 
board. A Yam being thrown among the wretched negroes, they 
fought for it like hungry dogs. 

We will here add a few facts which show (if any thing can 
show,) more strongly the atrocities and horrors of this trade. — 
In 1818, 22,231 slaves, were embarked on the coast of Africa 
for Rio de Janiero; of which number 19,802 only arrived at that 
place, 2,429 having died on the passage. One vessel lost 161 
out of 421; another, 229 out of 659; a third, 238 out of 464.-— 
By an official document from Rio de Janiero, it appears that the 
following importations of slaves were made into that port in 
1826 and 1827. 

1826, landed alive, 35,966 died on the passage 1,905 

1827, landed alive, 41,384 died on the passage 1,643 

Thus it would seem, (says the Boston Gazette,) that to only 

one port in the Brazils, and in the course of two years, seventy- 
seven thousand three hundred and fifty human beings were trans- 
ported from their own country, and placed in a state of slavery. 
At Bahia, Pernambuco, and other ports in that kingdom, there 
is also an active commerce carried on with the coast of Africa 
for slaves, as well as in some of the French and other West In- 
dia Islands; and we apprehend there never will bean extinction 
of this detestable traffic, until more efficient means are adopted 
by this country and Great Britain for its suppression. 

During a voyage to Africa in a vessel belonging to the United 
States, a few years ago, the writer conversed with several of the 
older seamen, who had at some period of their lives been em- 
ployed on board of slave ships. The following is an extract 
from the writer's note book at that time. 

"Our steward says, he has been to Africa five times 
to obtain slaves. On one occasion, when an insurrection 
was apprehended, two hundred of the wretched beings were shot 
dead. Forty was about the number of deaths, which took place 
each voyage, except the last, when the loss was but ten; the 
number purchased each time being about four hundred. Another 
sailor, who has twice visited the African coast for slaves, states 
that from about 800, the cargo each time, 113 died during one 
voyage, and eighty-seven during another. The Boatswain in- 
forms me, that when he went to the Congo for slaves, out of 

182 Valuable Thoughts. — Extracts, Sfc. [August, 

400, the number taken on board, 80 died on the passage."—- 
These extracts will, we presume, give a correct idea of the 
ordinary mortality among the slaves during what is termed the 
middle passage, that is, while crossing the Atlantic. And shall 
Christian nations bear the reproach of this traffic longer? Can 
nothing more be done to save the thousands, men like ourselves^ 
who are thus perishing in agony? 

YaVuable T\\o\\g\\ts. 

We take the liberty to recommend the following extract to 
those who are doubtful and hesitating, in regard to our great de- 

One thing is certain, that the greatest of all obstacles to the improvement of 
the world, is that prevailing 1 belief of its improbability, which damps the 
exertions of so many individuals; and that, in proportion as the contrary 
opinion becomes general, it realizes the event which it leads us to antici- 
pate. Surely if any thing can have a tendency to call forth in the public 
service the exertions of individuals, it must be an idea of the magnitude of 
that work in which they are conspiring, and a belief of the permanence of 
those benefits which they confer on mankind, by every attempt to inform 
and enlighten them. As in ancient Rome, therefore, it was regarded as 
the mark of a good citizen, never to despair of the fortunes of the republic: 
so the good citizen of the world, whatever may" be the political aspect of 
his own times, will never despair of the fortunes of the human race; but 
w W act upon the conviction, that prejudice, slavery, and corruption, must 
gradually give way to truth, liberty, and virtue; and that in the moral world, 
as well as in the material, the farther our observations extend, and the 
longer they are continued, the more we shall perceive of order and of be- 
nevolent design in the universe. — [Dugald Stewart. 

From the Colonial Journal, transmitted by Rev, Lott Cary. 

The Colonial Agent, J. Ashmun, Esq., went on board the 
brig Doris, March 26th, 1828, escorted by three companies of the 

1828.] Extracts from Rev. Lott Cary's Journal 183 

military, and when taking leave he delivered a short address, 
which was truly affecting; never, I suppose, were greater tokens 
of respect shown by any community on taking leave of their 
kead. Nearly the whole (at least two-thirds) of the inhabitants 
of Monrovia, men, women and children were out on this occa- 
sion, and nearly all parted from him with tears, and in my 
opinion, the hope of his return in a few months, alone enabled 
them to give him up. He is indeed dear to this people, and it 
will be a joyful day when we are permitted again to see him. — 
He has left a written address, which contains valuable admoni- 
tions to Officers, Civil, Military, and Religious. The Brig 
-sailed on the 27th. May she have a prosperous voyage. 

Thursday, March 27th. 

Feeling very sensibly my incompetency to enter upon the duties 
of my office, without first making all the Officers of the Colony 
well acquainted with the principal objects which should engage 
our attention, I invited them to meet at the Agency House on the 
27th, at 9 o'clock, which was punctually attended to; and I 
then read all the instructions left by Mr. Ashmun without re- 
serve, and requested their co-operation. I stated that it would 
be our first object to put the Jail in complete order, secondly to 
have our guns and armaments in a proper state, and thirdly to 
get the new settlers located on their lands, as this was a very 
important item in my instructions. This explanation will, I 
think, have a good effect; as by it the effective part of the Colo- 
ny is put in possession of the most important objects of our pre- 
sent pursuit; and I trust through the blessing of the great Ruler 
of events, we shall be able to realize all the expectations of Mr. 
Ashmun, and render entire satisfaction to the Board of Mana- 
gers, if they can reconcile themselves to the necessary expenses. 

March 29th. 
From a note received from Mr. James, dated Millsburg, I 
learn that he has visited King Boatswain, and that the new road 
from Boatswain's to Millsburg will shortly be commenced. — 
The Headmen expect, however, to be paid for opening the road. 
Messrs. James and Cook, who came down this evening, state, 
that the Millsburg Factory will be ready in a few days for the 

l - 84 Extracts from Rev. Lolt Cartas Journal [August 

reception of goods, and wished consignments might be made 
early. But as I had been on the 27th paying off* the kings to- 
wards the Millsburg lands, and found that 120 bars came so far 
/fhort of satisfying them, I thought best to see them together be- 
fore I should attempt to make any consignments to that place. 

[The following is a copy of a deed between Lott Cary, acting 
in behalf of the American Colonization Society, on the one part; 
and the after mentioned Kings, of the other part.] 

Know all men by these presents: That we, Old King Peter, 
and King Governor, King James, and King Long Peter, do on 
this fourth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-eight, grant unto Lott Cary, acting 
Agent of the Colony of Liberia in behalf of the American Colo- 
nization Society, to wit: 

All that tract of Land on the north side of St. Paul's river, be- 
ginning at King James' line below the establishment called 
Millsburg Settlement, and we the Kings as aforesaid do bargain, 
sell, and grant, unto the said Lott Cary, acting in behalf of the 
American Colonization Society, all the aforesaid tract of Land* 
situated and bounded as follows: by the St. Paul's river on the 
south, and thence running an east northeast direction up the St* 
Paul's river, as far as he, the said Lott Cary, or his successor 
in the Agency, or civil Authority of the Colony of Liberia, 
shall think proper to take up and occupy; and bounded on the 
west by King Jimmey's, and running thence a north direction 
as far as our power or influence extends. We do on this day 
ano date, grant as aforesaid for the consideration (here follow 
the articles to be given in payment); and will forever defend 
the same against all claims whatsoever. 

In witness whereof we set our hands and names: 

Signed in the presence of, 

Elijah Johnson, 
Frederick James, 
Daniel George. 

1823.^ Auxilianj Societies. — Remarkable Liberality, 185 
AuxWiaY^ Societies. 

We have recently heard of the formation of several Auxiliary 
Societies in the western part of the State of Pennsylvania and 
in New York, but unfortunately have not yet received lists of 
their Officers. We hope the Secretaries of these Societies will 
soon give us some account of them. The following is the only 
one which has come to hand. 

At a meeting of the citizens of the village of Fredonia, pufsuant to pub- 
lic notice, the Rev. Robert Henry, the American Colonization Society's 
Agent, presented the form of a Constitution for an Aux Society, which was 
adopted, and the following- gentlemen were chosen Officers of the Society. 
John Crane, Esq., President. 

Gen. Leveret Barker, James Mullett, Esq. 

Col. James McMahan, Abijah Young, 

Edward H. Mulford. 
Austin Smith, Treasurer. Philip Wells, Secretary. 

"We announce with great pleasure the fact, that a gentleman 
in Georgia, has recently sought aid from the Society, to remove 
the whole number of his slaves (43), that they may share the 
blessings of freedom in Liberia. The act of giving liberty to 
so large a number, will, we are informed, deprive this individual 
•f the greater part of his fortune, and leave him utterly unable 
to do much towards their transportation. The Society, there- 
fore, in assuming the responsibility of transferring these people 
of colour to the Colony, look confidently for the means to those 
generous Friends, (and we doubt not that there are many such) 
who can feel the full force of the appeal which this simple state- 
ment must make to every humane and Christian mind. 

S\\^scYiY*tion cm the ^\an of G. Smith, Tisq. 

The object of this gentleman, it will be recollected, is to secure 

100,000 dollars to the Society in ten years, by subscriptions of 


186 Mission School. — Mr. Ashmun. [August, 

1000 dollars, each subscriber to pay 100 annually for the tern, 
we have stated. To the number of those who have been men- 
tioned in our previous numbers, as associates in this admirable 
purpose, must now be added the name of E. F. Backus, Esq. 
of New Haven, Connecticut, whose first payment will be found 
acknowledged in our list of donations. The liberality in which 
this plan originated, and with which it has thus far been sup- 
ported, is worthy of all praise; and we may at least hope, that 
a sufficient number will be found to complete its execution* 

African ^Mission Sc\\oo\ Society, 

We observe with great pleasure that an Institution with thi? 
name was established at Hartford, Connecticut, on the 7th inst. 
We regret that the very interesting account of the proceedings 
on this occasion, must be deferred until our next number. We 
can only say, that it appears to have arisen under the fairest 
auspices, and that among its officers, we notice many of the 
most distinguished members of the Episcopal Church, in our 

— ">»©@ 9<t » - ■ 

&r$TOftfi of Mr. &s\\m\m. 

The Colonial Agent arrived at New Haven, Connecticut, al 
ter a protracted passage from St. Bartholomews, on the 10th in- 
stant. We are distressed to state, that our hopes of his speedy 
convalescence are much darkened; and indeed, that he has suf- 
fered a very considerable diminution of strength since he disem- 
barked. Wonderfully has he been defended in times past; the 
shield of a good Providence has covered him amidst a thousand 
dangers: and we still would hope for the Divine interposition in 
his behalf, and that many years will be yet added to his invalua- 
ble life. Let then all who rejoice in the great and benevolent 
work, to which this life has been so ably and faithfully devoted, x 
earnestly implore of Almighty God, that it may be prolonged, 
and that the success of his past exertions, may prove but the 
first fruits of good to be realized from his future labours. 

1228.] Note. — Notice. 1.87 

It having been suggested, that possibly the remarks in our May 
number of the Repository, page 82, in which we mention as one 
of the causes of the mortality among the Emigrants by the Do- 
ris, "that symptoms of the scurvy had during the voyage ap- 
peared among the emigrants," may be misinterpreted as casting 
censure upon the officers of that vessel ; we beg leave to state 
that the Managers never doubted for a moment, that every thing 
possible was done both by Captain Matthews and the other offir 
cers, to secure the comfort and health of the emigrants. 


The Board of Managers of the A. Colonization Society, pro r 
pose to send a vessel, with a select company of emigrants to Li- 
beria, in the course of the ensuing autumn; (provided their ex- 
pectations in regard to funds shall not be disappointed,) and free 
persons of colour disposed to emigrate, are hereby invited to 
send in their names, with testimonials of a fair character and in- 
dustrious habits. The Colony is now believed to be established 
on sure foundations, and the advantages which it offers to. every 
intelligent and enterprising man of colour, constitute motives 
for emigration too numerous and too great to be easily resisted. 

Each settler soon after his arrival, receives a small plantation, 
(to which some addition is made, in case he has a wife and chil- 
dren) and to this tract, if cleared and cultivated within two 
years, he obtains a title in fee simple. This plantation admits 
of enlargement, at a very small expense. The frugal and in- 
dustrious are assisted for some months after their arrival if their 
necessities require it. 

Considering theu, the many inducements for emigration; the 
large number of applicants; the reduced price for a passage; and 
the very limited resources of the Society; the Board of Managers 
deem it reasonable to expect, that, in all cases where it is pos- 
sible, those who wish to remove will defray in whole or in part, 

1*88 Notice. [August, 

the cost of their transportation, (the whole amount not to exceed 
g25 for an adult, and half price for each child under 12) and to 
such as will do this, other things being equal, the Managers feel 
bound to say, the preference will be given. 

Convinced as are the Managers, that in ordinary circumstan- 
ces, every respectable free man of colour might easily obtain 
the means of removal to the Colony, they deem it right to urge 
them to look to their unassisted efforts, for securing to them- 
selves a share in the privileges of the settlement in Liberia. — 
What these privileges are, the Colonists themselves shall state, 
in the language of their late address. "Our constitution secures 
to us, so far as our condition allows, all the rights and privileges 
enjoyed by the citizens of the United States; and these rights 
and these privileges are ours. We are proprietors of the soil 
we live on; and possess the rights of freeholders. Our suffra- 
ges, and what is of more importance, our sentiments and opin- 
ions have their due weight in the government we live under — 
our laws are altogether our own; they grew out of our circum- 
stances; are framed for our exclusive benefit, and administered 
by officers of our own appointment, or such as possess our confi- 
dence. We have a judiciary from among ourselves; we serve 
as jurors in the trial of others; and are liable to be tried only by 
juries of our fellow-citizens, ourselves. We have all which is 
meant by liberty of conscience. The time and mode of worship- 
ping God, as prescribed us in his word, and dictated by our 
conscience, we are not only free to follow, but are protected in 
following. Forming a community of our own, in the land of our 
forefathers; having the commerce and soil and resources of the 
country at our disposal; we know nothing of that debasing infe- 
riority, with which our very colour stamped us in America; 
there is nothing here to create the feeling on our part — nothing 
to cherish the feeling of superiority in the minds of foreigners 
who visit us. It is this moral emancipation, this liberation of 
the mind from worse than iron fetters, that repays us, ten 
thousand times over, for all that it has cost us. We do not ex- 
pect to remain stationary. We feel ourselves, for the first 
time, in a state to improve both our minds and our circumstan- 

Jkit whije we trust that many free men of colour may rely up 

1828.] Africa. 189 

on their own exertions for the means of emigration, we must say 
to our friends, that our pecuniary necessities are at present, 
great; and that without their prompt and liberal contributions, 
much which is urgently demanded must be left undone for our 
cause. Auxiliary Societies and Agents are respectfully request- 
ed to remit such sums as they may have, or may obtain, without 
delay, as this will greatly facilitate the operations of the Mana- 
gers in regard to their intended expedition. 

By TVilliam B. Tappan. 

While on the distant Hindoo shore 

Messiah's cross is reared, 
While Pagan votaries bow no more 

With idol blood besmeared — 

While Palestine again doth hear 

The Gospel's joyful sound, 
While Islam's crescents disappear 

Prom Calvary's holy ground — 

Say shall not Afric's fated land 

With news of gTace be blest } 
Say shall not Ethiopia's band, 

Enjoy the promised rest? 

Ye herald's of a Saviour's love 

To Afric's regions fly; 
O haste, and let compassion move 

For million's doomed to die. 

Blessed Jesus, who for these hast bled^ 

Wilt thou the captives free; 
And Ethiopia, too, shall spread 

Her ransomed hands to thee. 

190 Contributions, | August, 

C otvtvibwtio \\s 

To the Jl. C. Society, from 23 d July to 19th August, 1828. 

[It has been suggested that it might be well to publish the Fourth of Ju- 
ly Collections separately, so that their*mount can be readily ascertained; 
which we do in the present number. We ought here to say, that the 
amount from this source, acknowledged in our last Number, was §619 31] 

Collections in Rev. Dr. Laurie's Church, Washington, $20 68 

Do. in Patucket, R. I., per Rev. Otis Thompson, 3 

Do. by Rev. D. Denny, Chambersburg, Pa., 15 

Do. in College Chapel, Amherst, Mass. per Rev. Doctor 

Humphreys, 31 

Do. in Presbyterian Church, Hillsborough, N. C 13 

Do. at Cedar Spring, Centre co. Pa. 13 

Do. in Presbyterian Church, Bellefonte, Pa. per Rev. Js. 

Linn, $ 

Do. in Rev. Dr. Fisk's Church, Goshen, New York, 13 

Do. in Olive Street Baptist Church, N. Y. to constitute Rev. 

S. II. Cone a life member, 30 

Do. in Nelson, Portage county, Ohio, 4th July 1827, .... 1 12 

Do. ditto ditto 1828, 3 38 

Do. in South Dutch Church, Albany, N. Y 51 92 

Do. from Baptist Society, Charleston, Montg'y. co. N. Y. 3 
Do. of Congregational Church, and Society in Ellsworth 

and Surry, Maine, per Rev. Peter Nourse, 10 

Do. in Presbyterian Church, Prattsborough, Steuben co. 

N. Y. per James Hotchkin, 14 

Do. in Rev. D. Field's Congregation, Stockbridge, Mass. 20 
Do. in Rev. R. Steel's Congre'n., Abington, near Phila. . 6 
Do. by Rev Luke Humphrey, Burton, Granger co. N. Y. 5 
Do. in Baptist and Presbyterian Churches, and Hamilton 

and vicinity, N. Y. per Rev. Pinder Field, thro' C. Porter, 13 
Do. in Foundery Methodist Church, Washington, per Rev. 

Mr. Davis, 23 60 

Do. in Methodist Episcopal Church, Alexandria, per Rev. 

J. Guest, 7 30 

From Joseph Nourse, Esq., for the following collections by Rev. 
Dr. McCleland, near Harrodsburg, Pa. viz. 

From New Providence Congregation, $14 54 - 

From Harrodsburg do 16 75 

31 29 

Carried forward, $336 29 

1828.] Contributions. 191 

Brought forward, $336 19 
Through Gerard Ralston, Esq. Treasurer of Pen. Col. Society, viz. 
Collection in the 6th Presbyterian Church in Phila. $23 30 

Do. 3d do 21 70 

Do. Christ Church, Episcopal, do 36 56 

Do. St. Peter's, do. do 28 77 

Do. St. Andrew's, do. do 30 08 

Do. St. James', do. do 44 1Q 

Do. 2d Presbyterian Church in do 20 50 

Do. 1st Northern Liberties, 28 34 

Do. 5th in Philadelphia, 20 78 

Do. at Milton, Penn., per Rev. G. Jenkin, 5 
Do. at Charlestown, Lancaster co. (E Ch.) 10 

Do. at Morgantown, Berks county, 6 50 

Sash (R. C) thro' the Ed. of the Chris. Advocate, 5 
Collection in a Society near Hamiltonville, Philadel- 
phia county, per Mr. J. Buckman, 11 4£ 

Do. in 1st Presbyterian Church, Kensington, Philad. 3 60 

295 82 

Collection in Presbyterian Congregation, Steubenville, Ohio, ... 11 
The offering of the little flock of Rev. James Arbuthnot, of Put- 
nam, Ohio, per A. Stafford, 5 

From J. G. Birney, Esq., of Huntsville, Alabama, contributed by 

several ladies and gentlemen of that place, 20 

Prom Presbyterian Congregation, Mercer, Pa. per T. Templeton, 10 
" E. Bateman, Esq., of Cedarsville, N. J. as follows, viz. 

Collection in Presbyterian Church, -. $14 50 

Do. Methodist do 3 50 


Collection in Rev. Dr. Balch's Church, Georgetown, per John S. 

Nevins, Esq 25 

Do. in Tabernacle Church, Salem, per Mich'l. Shepard, . 51 
Do. in Presbyterian Church, Cincinnati, Ohio, per Rev. 

D.Root 1 1@ 

Do. in Greenville, Tennessee, Presbyterian Church, per 

Rev. O. S. Hinckly, 11 

Do. in 2d Congregation near Ravenna, Ohio, per Rev. Mr. 

Doolittle, 8 58 

Do. in Presbyterian Church, Brownsville, Pa 8 50 

Do. in Presbyterian Congregation, Uniontown, Pa. per 

Rev. J. H. Agnew, 7 

Do. in Congregation, Granville, Washington county, N. Y. 

per Rev. John Whiton, 13 

Carried forward, $830 19 

J9& "Contributions, [August, 

Brought forward, $830 19 

Collection in Methodist Church, Suffolk, Va. per A. Smith, Esq. 9 
Do. at a Religious Celebration, Newburyport, Mass., per 

Rev. Dr. Dana, 20 60 

Fourth of July Collections, $859 79 

Prom the charity box of Miss M. F. Turner, Va. , 2 11 

" Rev. James Boyd of Lovington, Va. for Repository, 50 

" Col. Benjamin Higley of Windham, Ohio, 50 

" Rev. J. Treat, of ditto, 2 

♦• George Petitt, Esq 22 90 

rt E. F. Backus, Esq. of New Haven, Con., his first payment 

on the plan of Gerrit Smith, Esq., 100 

'* Fluvanna Aux. Society, Va. by John B. Magruder, Sec, . . 78 
■* Robert W. James, Esq of Charleston, S. C. his annual sub- 
scription, per Mr. J . C . Dunn, 25 

rt Rev. B. O. Peirs, to make him a life member of the Lex- 
ington Society, 20 

** Aux. Society, Pasquotank, N. C. per J. C. Eringhaus, .... 60 

" W. C. Pearson of Edgefield, N. C, per J. J. Roberts, 2 

" Adonijah Bidwell of Hillsdale, Mass., 10 

rt Aux. Society Meadville, Pa. per John P. Davis, Tr 12 

" James Kenear, Franklin county, Pa 1 

" C. Foot, Chatagua county, N. Y. I 

" J. Pendergast, ditto, 1 

« Dr. Bristol, Buffalo, 1 

*' Rev. J. W Douglass, Charlotte county, Va 2 

" Repository, 23 

" Benjamin Brand, Esq., Treasurer Richmond and Manches- 
ter Colonization Society, 106 

" Rev. Joseph Checkering, Phillipston, Mass., 3 

" C. A. M , Georgia, 5 

" Mr. Potter, near Kavenna, Ohio, I 

" A Friend, 1 

l< Aux. Society, Steubenville, Ohio, per D. Moody, Esq., Tr. 27 

$1416 3(4 

May Number, page 95, date the letter of John Y. Norton, Esq., Albany. 
May 1828; page 134, 7th line from top, for N 30°, read N. 30'; ditto, page 
134, 8th line from top, for Southwestern, read Southeastern. 





Vol. IV. SEPTEMBER, 1828. No. 7. 

•^ Discourse on the occasion of forming the African Mission 
School Society, delivered in Christ Church, Hartford, (Con.) 
Aug. 10, 1828. By 5. M. Wainwright, D. D., Rector of 
Grace Church, New York. 

Address of the Executive Committee of the African Mission 
School Society, together with the Record of the Proceedings at 
the formation of said Society. Hartford: 1828. 

This recently organized Institution, the plan and objects of 
which are fully developed in the pamphlets before us, we regard 
as of special promise to the cause of African improvement. We 
have long been of the opinion, that the Colony of Liberia has no 
want more pressing, than that of pious and well educated men 
of colour, to manage its schools; call forth its energies; and to 
elevate the intellectual and moral character of the general mass 
of the community. Individuals, there are, in our Colony, of 
•sterling good sense and much practical wisdom; but perhaps not 
one who has been thoroughly educated, and is therefore capable 
of conducting forward the youth to much eminence in literary 
or scientific attain mL-nU Schools there are, to which all the 
children have access; and the fidelity of the teachers and the 

194 African Mission School Society, [Sept. 

Utility of their instructions, are manifest; though nothing more 
is, or can be attempted, than to impart the rudiments of know 

Nor are there generally throughout the Colony, any adequate 
means of religious instruction. In Monrovia, it is true, there 
are several sensible and pious preachers, by whose labours and 
example much good has been effected, and under the Divine 
blessing, the moral and religious character of the settlement 
been remarkably preserved and improved; yet, the other villa- 
ges, we fear, enjoy but few advantages for the acquisition of 
Christian knowledge. Such we know was the opinion of our 
late lamented Agent. Mr. Ashmun, who never lost an opportu- 
nity of urging home upon his countrymen the necessity of send- 
ing to the Colony able teachers, and especially enlightened, de- 
voted Missionaries without the l "?nora! effects" (we adopt his 
own language,) '-of whose exertions, all that has been — all that 
can be accomplished, even with the national patronage — must 
still leave the work incomplete, and short of our early hopes. " 
But our departed friend expressed his feelings on this subject 
in still stronger language; language, which we trust will be re- 
garded by all that love the cause for which he died. And sure- 
ly the testimony of an individual so candid and intelligent, (who 
had resided for more than six years in a small community, far 
distant from civilized -and christian nations, and exposed daily 
to the contagious influence of vice among the native tribes, a 
community, the very existence of which has depended upon the 
order, sobriety, industry and union of its members,) to the in- 
separable connexion of Christianity with the best interests of so- 
ciety, must have no little weight with every well informed and 
thoughtful mind. The paper from which we make the follow- 
ing extracts was written but a few months ago; and could our 
friend speak to us from his tomb, we believe he would but reiterate 
the sentiments which he has here expressed. 

"Considered in their own nature, and separately from their 
sanctifying efficacy, and the promised co-operation of the Divine 
Spirit, if the doctrines of the Saviour, and the ministry of Chris- 
tian teachers can be so considered, these are, of all the means 
of arousing human nature, and setting the heart and understand* 

1,828.] African Mission School Society* 185 

ing — body and soul in action, beyond comparison the most cet> 
tain, and the most effectual. 

"How it is in other parts of the world I have only heard and 
read. But in this Colony I have seen the direct and insepara- 
ble connection of Christianity, taking in its doctrines, its wor- 
ship, and its practical fruits — with all that is stable, all that is 
patriotic, all that is mentally and morally improving, all that is 
exalting to human nature — in a word, all that is good and ex- 
cellent among us. 

"There is no room for speculation on this point — no room for 
reasoning. Premises and conclusion are both embodied in one 
and the same obvious fact. There is a pious family — and there 
stands a inn pillar of the Colony. Industry, intelligence, or- 
der, competency and peace, are its characteristics. There is a 
family without religion; I have only to reverse the characteris- 
tic »» of the first, and that family is described. 

"We have tried the effects of schools. These are by no 
means so well conducted as they should be; still their influence 

- ilutary. But these effects are partial and inadequate, ope- 
rating only on the child, while the parents are left unprofited. 
But such as worthily sustain the office of the ministry, come 
"with an authority which none dare wholly to despise. They come 
with motives which all who must die, all who know what a guil- 
ty conscience is, all who believe they have a God to account to, 
and a soul to save, are obliged to feel. 

"Let then the Colony be a parish. Let the minister visit and 
instruct and labour from house to house. Let him have no other 
engagements in the Colony — no other work to divert his atten- 
tion from his spiritual charge. Above sectarian prejudices and 
feelings, let him be equally at home among Christians of every 
name. A man of discrimination, education, and humility; let 
him employ the whole various compass of means submitted to 
his selection in the Book whence he derives his commission; to 
obviate the prejudices, obtain the confidence, conciliate the af- 
fections, instruct the ignorance, correct the errors, amend the 
morals, and save the souls of all. Such a man might indeed 
meet with trials and discouragements, might realize a success at 
first, by no means commensurate with his wishes and his la- 
bours. But he would sow seed which must grow.'* 

196 African Mission School Society. fSept 

So intent indeed was Mr. Ashmun upon securing missionary 
efforts to the Colony, that he did not hesitate even to recom- 
mend that some able and devoted minister should be sent out 
tinder the patronage of the Board of Managers. 

"I beg respectfully but most pressingly (he observes) to re- 
commend, as in my opinion the only means of rendering the 
Colony what it was intended to be made, a truly christian and 
civilized asylum of an outcast race of men, the immediate en- 
gagement of at least one laborious Christian Minister, of the 
most respectable qualifications: but above all, of the most ardent 
piety and untiring zeal. 

•*If it be doubted for a moment, whether such an appointment 
be consistent with the simple and declared object of the Coloni- 
zation Society, the only question to be determined is, whether 
it be not absolutely necessary as a means of accomplishing that 
object? Is the simple and unique object of the Society accom- 
plished by only landing emigrants on the African Coast, without 
regarding their future situation? I have trespassed farther than 
I fear I should have done in the length of these remarks, but I 
have done it under a feeling of most sacred obligation to report 
what I sincerely believed to be the most urgent of all the actual 
necessities of the Colony, where they ought to be known, and 
where, if from any quarter, those necessities are to be supplied. 
None of us who are now active in the work, can act or labour 
long. And to do seasonably and effectually what little Divine 
Providence permits Dl to attempt, is no doubt the way to ac- 
complish the most in the end. It is in these views that this pa- 
per is submitted: and I cannot more appropriately brinj: it to a 
close, than by humbly supplicating the Almighty in his infinite 
wisdom and goodness, to supply the means of accomplishing a 
work so agreeable to the great ends of his moral government, 
which his word assures us is to build up on earth an universal 
empire of holiness, of which the foundations are to be laid in 
the hearts of all mankind." 

This it must be remembered, was penned before the excellent 
writer had been made acquainted with the determination of va- 
rious missionary associations, both in this country and Europe, 
to occupy and improve the wide field for Christian labour open- 
ed to them in Liberia. 

1323.] African Mission School Society. 197 

Such determinations, and the energy with which they have 
been, or are about to be executed, has been deemed by the 
Board of Managers a sufficient reason for abstaining from any 
measures to effect the purpose so earnestly and impressively en- 
forced by Mr. Ashmun, even had their opinions been altogether 
concurrent with his, and their funds sufficient to justify an ap- 
propriation for the object. The preceding extract, however, can 
hardly fail, we think, to produce a general conviction that the 
introduction of enlightened Christian Teachers is an object of 
essential importance, viewed simply in its bearings upon the tem- 
poral interests of the settlements of Liberia. But our Colony 
has been planted for purposes of more elevated import than any 
the effects of which are limited to time. Many who have la- 
boured and died to establish it on deep and sure foundations, 
have brought to their work the strength of faith and the ardour 
of intense devotion. The Colonists have seen in their example 
the value of religious principle, and been urged by their precepts 
to hold all other considerations in subordination to its authority. 
They have been taught, truly, to regard Religion as their principle 
concern, and that to extend its influence is a chief duty of life. 

But if efforts are demanded to supply Liberia with pious men 
of education, the condition of the native tribes in its vicinity of- 
fers a motive for such efforts not less imperative. To these 
tribes a door of access is fully opened through the Colony. — 
They are prepared to give a kind reception to missionaries, and 
to place their children under instruction. Among these are n© 
well constructed systems of superstition, ancient and powerful, 
to oppose the progress of the Gospel; and the only obstacles to 
remove, are such as are inseparable from the habits of unciviliz- 
ed men. Nor is the field for Christian exertion wanting either 
in pppulousness or extent. We see no reason why the doctrines 
of our holy faith may not (if faithful able teachers can be found 
to inculcate them) be propagated rapidly from tribe to tribe, un- 
til a large portion of the population of Africa shall experience 
their efficacy and practically illustrate the purity and excellence 
of their influence. 

And while we are far from having decided that many white 
men will not be required to accomplish the illumination and regen- 
eration of Africa, we candidly say, that the imminent dangers t© 

19ff African Mission School Society, { Sept, 

which such persons are exposed by a residence in that country, 
seems to indicate it as the will of Heaven, that men of colour 
should be educated and sent forth without delay to this glorious, 
work. These are, doubtless, destined to be the principal agents 
in communicating the arts of civilization and the ever-blessed 
Gospel, to the long neglected and degraded tribes of Africa. 

What friend then of humanity or religion, will not hail witlj 
delight, the formation of the African Mission School Society? — 
It comes before the public sustained by many of the most respecr 
table names in our country. We rejoice to see that it is under* 
the special patronage of the Episcopal Church, that the venera- 
ble Bishops are its Patrons, and that its Board of Directors » 
made up of distinguished gentlemen from many different states,, 
and who would do honour to any institution. We are informed 
that the Rev. Dr. Wainwright, (from whose excellent Dis- 
course we propose to make some extracts,) has been mainly in- 
strumental in exciting that interest which has resulted in the 
establishment of this Society. Should its operations be well 
conducted, and its success equal our hopes, reflections far more 
valuable than human applause, must be the treasure of him who 
has given an impulse to public charity in favour of African Educa- 
tion, and moved that a Seminary should be founded for this ob- 
ject; to the support of which, the public liberality may be ju- 
diciously directed. 

We regret that we cannot give to the Discourse of Dr. Wain- 
wright, that extended notice which it so well merits. The text 
is that beautiful prediction of the Prophet, (Isaih xi. 9.) They 


Dr. Wain wright commences with some remarks to showithat 
if the "Doctrine of human perfectibility" as maintained by the 
"visionary and extravagant," is to be discarded, so likewise are 
the "cold and heartless views" of those who would persuade us 
that men must always remain what they now are, and that we are 
to expect no improvement in the moral condition of the world. — 
Abandoning the "dreams and speculations of philosophers," he 
goes directly to the word of God, and finds there "frequent in- 
timations ©f a happier and better condition of the world, at some 

&828. j African Mission School Society. 199 

fliture period, when peace and virtue shall universally prevail." 
It is not deemed necessary, nor indeed possible to say, precise- 
ly, to what degree of knowledge and virtue individuals or socir 
%iy may be advanced — to decide whether or not, there may be 
some exceptions to the general improvement; or how soon this 
glorious revolution in the character of men is to be effected—- 
the doctrine that a great change for the better is to take place; 
that it has already commenced; accords entirely with our expe- 
rience as well as the testimony of God. 

And here we cannot but observe, how, that while Dr. Wain- 
Wright has expressed opinions agreeing on many subjects with 
those adopted by the distinguished Author of an admirable 
address (lately published in South Carolina,) "On the Charac- 
ter and Objects of Science;" on one, that of the compara- 
tive merits of ancient and modern literature, his views widely 
differ. He remarks: 

"Now we must acknowledge, that in some respects the world has not 
improved. It is hazardous enough, to claim for the literature of modern 
days an equality even with that of ancient times; but to say that our poet- 
ry or eloquence surpasses that of Grecian or Roman fame, is madness.— 
And when we look at the works of art, and human ingenuity and labour, 
the ruins of Persepohs, the pyramids of Egypt, the simple majestv and 
beauty of the Parthenon, or the sublime grandeur of some great Cathedral, 
raised, in Gothic times, as a temple to the Most High; we must acknow' 
ledge, that the labours of modern days sink into comparative nothingness. 53 

Mr. Grimke, on the contrary, is of opinion, that 

"Rossuet, Bourdaloue and Massillon; Pitt, Sheridan, Fox, Erskine and 
Canning, fear no comparison if liberal and candid, with Demosthenes, Pe. 
incles, Socrates and Cicero. Sehlegel has ranked Shakspeare above all 
the dramafsts of antiquity; while the critical judgment and accomplished 
taste of the Edmburgh Ueview, has styled Milton the first of Poets When- 
ever the world shall judge boldly and independently, candidly, liberally, the 
dec'sum mutt be in favour of the matters in literature and science, who have 
onsen Sl nce the Fifteenth Century. Whether in abstruse and comprehen. 
sive, or m refined and elegant speculation; in profound, energetic, lok 
•a reasons in powerfu|j commanding> ^^ , el ^ m ^ ? 

tellectua and imaginative poetry; in the descriptive and pathetic; in prac 
fccal w 1S dom; mcm t I, international, or political; civil social, o, domestic; in 
these arts whpfc employ, while, they improve w* Mess the people; in a 

&QU African Mission Schoot /Society, [Sept* 


word, in all that makes man industrious and useful, virtuous and haopy 9 
and prepares him for thf service of God, his fellow men, and of posterity — 
if with a view to these thing's we contemplate the great men, who have 
arisen since the year 1500, we must acknowledge them unrivalled by the 

We have marked a part of the last quotation, because in the 
Sentiments there expressed, the author of the Discourse entire- 
ly concurs. 

"When were the rights of man so well understood; when were the prin- 
ciples of a sound philosophy so universally disseminated; when was there 
such a vast proportion of intelligent and thinking beings; when was there 
ever such active exertion to remove moral evil, and to accomplish, as far 
as possible, the happiness of every individual of the human family? Never, 
We have fallen, my brethren, upon happy times, — unspeakably happy, 
compared with any that have before existed. The idea of a former age of 
peace, and happiness, and wisdom, called the golden, is all a foolish imagi- 
nation. There never has been an age, (great as present evils are) yet 
there never has been an age as wise, as peaceful, or as happy as the pre- 
sent. And why may not future ages have successively the same advantage 
over those which preceded them? There cannot be a retrograde motion 
now, because we are improving" upon right principles, and we have only 
just begun to improve. 

"Let me here introduce a few observations from the pen of an able 
christian philosopher of the present day. *There are three agents which 
will soon be entwined with the issues of all human affairs, and are the very 
hinges upon which the moral world will speedily turn. The three things, 
in which the present age excels the ancients, are the Inductive Philosophy, 
Printing and Universal Education. Education and the press have only- 
been employed to purpose, of very late years. Every year they have been 
making some improvements upon their former efforts; and as these are in- 
struments capable of an indefinite perfectability, and as the art of using 
will enlarge with the use itself, it only requires to increase the number of 
printing presses, schools, and teachers, to accelerate to any pitch the rate 
of improvement. These two latter discoveries fit in together, and mutual- 
ly render each other available. Printing, by its unlimited multiplication 
of copies, supplying materials for universal education; and universal edu- 
cation creating a demand for copies that proceeds without any assignable 
term. Thest are the two great means to bring about the moral revolution 
of the world; and these two powers are gradually moulding governments, 
and stamping them with the form and pressure of the age."'* 

James Douglas on Missions. 

1828.] African Mission School Society. £01* 

Dr. Wainwright proceeds to show, that if the physician, the 
civilian, the merchant, the agriculturist reasonably expect im- 
provements in their several professions or occupations, the Chris- 
tian may with no less propriety look for greater and wider re- 
sults than have been realized from the gospel. Observe the 
operation of Christian faith upon some individual, and you may 
•onclude, with entire confidence, that its general prevalence 
would prove of the utmost benefit to mankind. "Suppose that 
several Christian nations were to act consistently with their pro- 
fession, should we be so disturbed by wars, and so often behold 
garments rolled in blood?" And why should not all this come 
to pass? Consider what has been effected by the art of printing 
and the power of steam. And shall we, Christians, expect less 
wonders to be accomplished by the Gospel ? Let us hear what 
has been done, within a very short period, in the Islands of the 
South Pacific. 

*' 'The intelligence of the past year enables us to say, definitively and 
positively, that the influence of christian missions has driven idolatry entire- 
ly fr»m twenty-one islands. Their inhabitants are no more alarmed by the of war, nor by the shriek of victims immolated on the altars of de- 
mons; and they have been taught to read and write, and to make provision 
for the necessities, the decencies, and the comforts of life. Some thousands 
have been introduced into the christian church upon a credible profession 
©f piety. When one island had received the gospel, its inhabitants exerted 
themselves to send it to another. The intelligence of the past year states, 
that a missionary society of one group, and that not the largest, contributed 
in a single year, of the productions of the country, to the value of more 
than a thousand dollars; that thirty pious natives had gone as missionary 
teachers to islands and a people, which to them were strange and foreign; 
and that thirteen missionary stations are occupied by native missionaries 

"Now, my brethren, in the contemplation of this, and multitudes of simi- 
lar descriptions from all quarters of the globe, may we not feel encouraged 
to place a full trust in the words of prophecy? But what do I say? Trust 
in the words of prophecy ! Dare we distrust them ! Whose words are 
they? Whose spirit pronounced them? Whose veracity is staked upon 
them? Whose power is put forth to accomplish their execution ? No, my 
brethren, we dare not distrust the words of prophecy. As surely as the 
waters of the ocean reach from pole to pole, and from continent to conti- 

* Missionary Herald. 

£Dj2 African Mission School Society. [Sept." 

*ient, so surely will the knowledge of the Lord make its way to all kindreds 
and nations and people; and wheresoever it makes its way, so surely will it 
promote peace on earth, and good will towards men." 

Inspired with such sentiments, the respected author of thi& 
Discourse, urjres all "joyfully and energetically to put their 
hands to evprv work which can help forward the civilizing; and 
christianizing of the world." The objects of the African Mis- 
sion- School Society he regards as eminently recommended, 
both on the ground of their practicableness and utility. The 
following observations are equally candid, liberal, and just. 

"Africa I regard as a region of peculiar interest to us, and one which, 
presents to us peculiar obligations to care for its moral and religious im- 
provement. We are indeed separated from it by an immense ocean, but 
we have taken its children from their homes, we have held them in bon- 
dage, we have obtained large portions of our temporal comforts and luxu- 
ries from the labour of their hands. We are all, to a certain degree, involv- 
ed in the guilt of injustice towards this much suffering people* J say we, 
for I cannot on this point make a line of distinction. I would indeed on 
every point forever forget the terms north and south, as terms of national 
distinction, but most assuredly upon this. For here we are under a like 
condemnation. Slavery once polluted the now free and untrammeled states 
of New England. And why has it not remained the curse of our land } — 
because we were wiser, or loved freedom better, than our southern breth- 
ren ? No, but because the climate of New England was healthful, and the 
white man could labour beneath its sun, and no pestilence drove him from 
its marshes. 

"Let us not then boast of our exemption from responsibility, and from 
whatever may be the criminality of possessing a slave population. Let us 
rather look upon the cause as one of common interest, and the question 
how we are to alleviate the evil, as one of common obligation. Let us 
have no criminations and recriminations. We are brethren of one family, 
and the faith of Christ commands us to bear one another's burdens. Let 
all animosity subside, and let us address ourselves to that question, as it 
presents itself to me, of awful importance, how we are to be preserved 
from the effects of the gradual increase of our coloured and slave popula- 

But what is to be done? Immediate and universal emancipa- 
tion will find few, if any advocates, among judicious and reflect- 
ing men. 

"The colonizing of Africa is our only hope. It is the only means by 

1,828.] African Mission School Society. &03 

which a drain is to be made to carry ofFour surplus coloured population.-*- 
This measure has received the sanction of the wise and good throughout 
our country. It matters not that some have entered into it with selfish 
yiews, and that they would prosecute the colonizing" of free people of co- 
lour from the southern states, in order to secure a more effectual power 
over the slaves. This has been urged as an argument against the Coloni- 
zation Society by many in our part of the country. Rut very inconclusive- 
ly, as appears to me. I doubt not that there are selfish and ignoble beings, 
who are actuated by such motives, and who have no true love of liberty-* 
and no regard to the condition of the poor African. But what matters this, 
so as the project itself be a good one, and be calculated to effect the ob- 
ject we desire. It should not suffer, because others enter into it with ba? 
ser motives than our own." 

And can any thing be more evident than the truth and im- 
portance of the following remarks of our author, in behalf of the 
^Mission School Society? If there is one which we would 
wish qualified, it is that in which allusion is made to the destruc- 
tive influence of the African climate upon the constitutions of 
Avhite men, and their unfitness (in consequence of their colour) 
for useful exertions among the native tribes. That the danger 
to the life of the white man who fixes his residence in Africa is 
great, we admit; and that among the remote tribes of the inte- 
rior, his complexion might render him an object of disgust or 
suspicion, is possible; yet, we have seen white men in health af- 
ter having lived for many years at Sierra Leone, and "we are 
confident that superior intelligence and influence is generally 
attributed to such, among the natives of the coast. Whether, 
therefore, the propagation of Christianity in Africa without de- 
lay, is not an object, for which some white missionaries, able and 
devoted, might commendably expose themselves to the dangers of 
the climate, is a question which seems to us to merit, at least, 
consideration. Still we would lose no time in preparing young 
men of colour for this work, which we doubt not, is to be effect- 
ed principally by their exertions. Sincerely do we hope and 
pray, that our concluding extract from this eloquent Discourse, 
so honourable to the head and heart of its highly esteemed 
author, may excite new interest in the cause of African Educa- 
tion, and secure to the African Mission School that liberal sup- 
port which it requires and deserves. 

204 African Mission School Society. [Sept. 

"But to make colonization effectual, it is not sufficient that the arts of 
civilized society be carried to a new country: the Gospel is also needed. — 
1 will not insult your understandings and your religious principles by argu- 
ing this point. You know, better than I can declare to you, that civiliza- 
tion without Christianity is valueless — nay, you know that the former can- 
not subsist without the latter. To be civilized, a country must have reli- 
gion, and tins rclig on must be Christianity. Now where is Africa, dark, de- 
graded, ignorant Africa; where is it to obtain this blessed gift? How shall 
they hear without a preacher, and how shall they preach except they be 
sent, and how shall they be sent except by our exertions > All this has 
been felt — the appeal has been made — funds have been raised and appro- 
priated — and still greater sums could be collected for this noble purpose. 
But, alas, we cannot use what we now have — we cannot obtain missionaries. 
The want is universal. It is felt sensibly in Great Britain as well as in our 
own country. But a short time since, letters were addressed to different 
persons from the Church Missionary Society, stating that they had looked 
anxiously to this country for missionaries, catechists, and schoolmasters— 
they wished for pious, intelligent, and active men of colour for this purpose, 
and stood prepared to give them an ample support. The white man, as 
We are convinced from melancholy proof, cannot endure that climate; and 
besides, his colour, which is associated with the idea of disease, unfits him 
for usefulness among most of the tribes. The call then is loud for African 
Missionaries throughout the christian world. Now, to supply this deficien- 
cy so universally and so deeply felt, the African Mission School Society has 
been projected. It is not intended to interfere with any Society already 
established; nor to take upon itself, in any degree, the direction of mission- 
ary enterprises. Its sole object is to select and prepare instruments for 
them. Its hope is, in the present year, to obtain a few pious and intelli- 
gent young men of colour, and to educate them with reference to the pro- 
pagation of the Gospel in Africa. The leading object in such a plan of ed- 
ucation should be, to fit them to become teachers of the Word of God in 
simplicity and purity. Learned and accomplished theologians are not 
needed for this work; but pious, humble, devoted men, deeply instructed 
in the Gospel scheme of salvation, and familiar with the oracles of truth in 
our English version — such will make useful and effective missionaries. In 
addition to this, we would give them a knowledge of the first principles of 
the useful sciences and arts; viz. botany, mineralogy, surveying, civil and 
municipal law, and political economy. Nor should the attainment of an 
adequate manual dexterity, in the performance of agricultural and mechan- 
ical labour, be neglected. These qualifications may be of great importance 
in aiding the native tribes in their approaches to civilization, and in gain- 
ing a desirable influence over them. 

"If, by the present undertaking, we can prepare a few individuals each 
year, who can be rendered useful in the great work of renovating Africa, 

1828.] African Mission School Society* £()£ 

we should think that our society has occupied ground, at present vacant, 
with a structure, which, however humble, promises to be eminently set* 
viceable tothe cause of civilization and Christianity 

a citizen of this country, I can look at Liberia, and rejoice at the- 
bem final influence which the prosperity of that colony is destined to exer- 
cise upon our coloured population. As a citizen of the world, I can rer 
joice that -mother continent will soon be added to the domain of civilization, 
lint as a disciple of Christ, I can infinitely more rejoice that the gospel is 
there advancing-. I see it earned swiftly along- the coast of Africa; 1 see it 
penetrating' the remotest deserts and forests of that benighted continent.— 
1 see it demolishing cruel and degrading superstitions, overthrowing the? 
lllan of Moloch, and carrying in its progress, peace and virtue and happi- 
ness, to regions, where brutal ignorance and vice now bear sway. In this 
view, ! can almost forget my abhorrence of slavery. I can almost feel re- 
conciled to the thought, that our forefathers unjustly and cruelly tore these 
liapless people from their homes, and brought them to our shores. If we 
can send them back with the Gospel of Christ, and thus give them, as are- 
ward for their extorted labours and long continued suffering", the pearl of 
great price, our guilt will be lessened, and our condemnation will be take& 

From the address of the Executive Committee of the Airican 
Mission School Society, it appears that measures have been 
taken to put this school into immediate operation. A suitable build- 
ing has been engaged — the Rector and Teacher have been appoint- 
ed; and the Committee are prepared to receive applications for 
pupils. The school will be opened about the 20th of the pre- 
sent month. 

There may, perhaps, be some objection to the place (Hart- 
ford, Connecticut,) selected for this school, on account of its 
distance to the north, though in every other respect it has pecu- 
liar advantages. We understand, however, that it may, should 
it on the whole be deemed expedient, be ultimately removed to 
one of the middle states. We insert the Constitution, Officers^ 
;uid By-Laws of the Society, that our readers may have a full 
view of this very interesting Institution. 

Constitution of the African Mission School Society. 

Article I. This Association shall be called the Jfrkan Mission School 

20 6 African Mission School Society. [Sept, 

Art. IT. Its objects shall be, to establish and maintain a School for the iiv 
struction of suitable persons of African extraction, with reference to their 
becoming Missionaries, Catechists and Schoolmasters in Africa, under the 
direction of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. 

. Art. III. The Society shall consist of persons paying annually the sum 
of two dollars; or the sum of twenty dollars at one time, which shall consti- 
tute them members for life. 

Art. IV. The President of the Society shall be the Bishop of the Diocess 
in which the School is established; and in his absence, the chair may be 
taken by any other Bishop who may be present. 

Art. V There shall be three Vice-Presidents, whose duty it shall be 
to preside, when neither of the Bishops shall be present, and who cx-ojji- 
cio shall be directors. 

Art. VI. Twenty-four Directors, half clergymen and half laymen, shall 
be elected at the annual meeting". Any person, paying the sum of fifty 
dollars, at any one time, shall have the privileges of a Director. 

Art. VII. The Bishops of the Church shall be ex-officin Patrons; and all 
other persons who shall pay §100 at one time. They shall have a right to be 
present, and to vote at all meetings of the Society, or of the Board of 

Art. VIII. A Treasurer and Secretary shall be chosen at the annual meet- 
ing, and shall be resident in the place where the school is situated. 

Art. IX. There shall be annually chosen by the Board of Directors, ten 
persons, six of whom shall be resident in the place where the school is es- 
tablished; and these, together with the President, the Secretary and Trea- 
surer, shall constitute the Executive Committee. Of this Committee, five 
shall be a quorum for the transaction of business. 

Aiit. X. The Board of Directors shall meet annually on the day before 
the first Thursday in August, at such time and place as the President may 
designate; and shall make report of their proceedings to the annual meeting 
of the Society, which shall be held on the evening of the following day. — 
The Board of Directors shall also meet during the session of the General 
Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Clu rch, at such time and place as 
may be designated by the President; to which body, an account of the pro- 
ceedings of the Society shall be rendered triennially. At all meetings of 
the Board, nine shall constitute a quorum. 

Art. XI. The Executive Committee shall carry into execution the ordi- 
nances of the Board of Directors, and shall have power, during the recess 
of the Board, to perform acts and make regulations, to which the Board is 
competent. It shall meet at the call of the President, and in his absence, 
at the call of three of its members. Its proceedings shall be submitted to 
the Board at every meeting of the same. 

Art. XII. The Board of Directors bhall enact By-Laws for their own 


\9fricau Mission School Society. 


regulation and that of the Executive Committee. They shall also appoint 
the Rector anct Teachers of the School, and prescribe the course of study. 

Resolved, On motion, that the meeting proceed to appoint the officers 
named in the above Constitution: 

Whereupon, the following" gentlemen were appointed: 

Patrons, ex-officio. 
The Bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States. 

President, ex-officio. 
Right Reverend T. C. Browneu, Bishop of the Diocess of Connecticut 

xwright, U. D., of N..Y. -) 

L. Winthrop, of Boston. C Vice-Presidents. 

x, Eso.. of Troy, N. Y. J 

Eev. J. M. Wainwright, D. D., of N..Y. 

His Honour T. L. 

Stephen Warren, Esq,, of Troy, 


Kev. N. S. Wheaton, 

Harry Crosweli, 

G. W. Do we, 

Alonzo Potter, 

■ Dr. Mn.N'oit, 

George Upfold, 

Dr. Turner, 

L. S Ives, 

Dr. Montgomery, 

Dr Wyatt, 

Dr. Mead, 

Dr. Gadsden, 

George Brtnley, Esq. 
Dr. J. C. Wahren, 
EnwAun A. Newton, Esq. 
Peter A. Jay, Esq. 
Peter Khan, Esq. 
Horace Binney, Fsq. 
J. B. Eccleston, Esq. 
Francis S Kky, Esq. 
Simon Greenleaf, Esq. 
James Bowdoyn, Esq. 
Henry Rogers, Esq. 
Samuel Slater, Esq. 

Cyprian Nichols, Esq., Treasurer. 

S. H. Huntington, Esq., Secretary 
The meeting then adjourned. 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the African Mission School So- 
ciety, held in Christ Church, Hartford, on the evening- of the 7th day of Aug. 
1828, the following gentlemen were appointed the Executive Committee: 

Executive Committee of the African Mission School Society. 

Rev. N. S. Wheaton, 
Dr. .Wain wright, 

Horatio Potter, 

G. W.Doane, 

H. Humphreys, 

Dr. J. Smith Rogers, 
C. Sigourney, Esq. 
S Tudor, Esq 
W. H. Imlay, Esq. 
E. A. Newton, Esq. 

9. H. Huntington, Esq., was appointed Secretary to the Committee. 

On motion, Resolved, that the Executive Committee be empowered to pre- 
pare a code of By-laws, to be presented to the B'd. at its next annual meeting. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be governed by said code of 
By-laws until the next annual meeting of the Board. 

Resolved, That the Rev. N. S. Wheaton be, and hereby is, appointed, 
Rector of the African, Mi&tan School, for the year ensuing. 

£bS -African Mission School SocitUf. [Sept, 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee appoint a Teacher, and take 
ftieasures to collect funds, and to carry said School into operation. 

Pursuant to the above resolutions, the Executive Committee held a meet- 
ing on the 11th of August, when they appointed Mr. H. Spencer, Teacher 
of the School — adopted a code of By-laws, and an Address, which, with 
extracts from the By-laws, was ordered to be printed, together with the 
proceedings of the meeting, and of the Board of Directors. 

By-Laws for the government of the Executive Committee. 

It shall be the duty of the Rector to visit the School once a week, and 
of the Executive Committee as often as once a month — to inquire into the 
literary progress, and the religious character and conversation of the pupils. 

The Instructor shall reside and lodge in the same house with the pupils, 
with the privilege of taking his meals elsewhere. He shall also superin- 
tend their education, and direct and assist them in their studies according 
to the plan which shall be prescribed by the Executive Committee. 

No pupil shall be admitted into this School except he have attained the 
age of 18, and can read the English language with facility, and can write, 
and has acquired some knowledge of the rules of common arithmetic— 
He shall also produce to the Executive Committee satisfactory testimo- 
nials of his exemplary religious character, and of his possessing such intel- 
lectual endowments as will, in all probability, render him useful in the 
capacity of Missionary, Catechist, or School-master. 

The pupils shall be required to board in the house provided for them by 
the Committee, and to pursue their studies with diligence. They shall be 
under the immediate care of the Instructor, to whose directions and admoni- 
tions they shall pay a due obedience. It is expected that their conduct 
will not only be orderly and decent on all occasions, but in an eminent de- 
gree exemplary, as becomes Christian disciples. 

The stated religious exercises of the School shall be daily morning and 
evening prayer, with reading of the Scriptifres, by the Teacher, in the 
presence of the pupils; all of whom shall be required to attend. They shall 
also be constant in their attendance on the public services of the Church. 

The pupils shall be required to labour at some mechanical or agricultural 
employment, at least two hours in the day, as the Committee shall direct. 

Should it appear to the Executive Committee, after a reasonable trial, that 
a pupil is disqualified for usefulness in Africa, by a want of piety or of intellec- 
tual endowments, they shall have power to dismiss him from the Institution. 

"VVhenever the Committee shall judge any of the pupils qualified for use- 
fulness in Africa, as a Missionary, Catechist, or School-master, they shall 
g-ive notice thereof to the Executive Committee of.the Domestic and Foreign 
Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Cnurch in the United States 

1828.^ From Liberia* 209 

Tyoiw lAberia, 

Despatches have arrived from the Colony, by the "All Chance," Canf> 
*Russel,and the Brig- Liberia, Captain Sharp, bearing- dates up to the 22nd 
of July, which give very favourable views of the health and prospects of 
the settlement. In a letter of the 18th of June, the Vice-Ag-ent, Rev. Lott 
Gary, writes — 

"I found it necessary, in order to preserve the frame of the 
second floors of the Government House, to have the frame and 
eeiling painted, which is now doing. I have also been obliged 
to employ another workman to make the blinds, or else leave 

the house exposed the present season, as refused to do it under 

the former contract. On the 13th I visited Millsburgy* to ascer- 
tain the prospects of that settlement* and can say with propriety, 
that according to the quantity of land which the settlers have 
put under cultivation, they will reap a good and plentiful crop. 
The Company's crop of rice and cassada is especially promising* 
The new settlers at that place have done well; having all, with 
two or three exceptions, built houses, so as to render their fami* 
lies comfortable through the season. They have also each of 
them a small farm, which I think after a few months will be 
sufficient to subsist them. But I find from a very particular 
examination, that we shall be obliged to allow them to draw ra- 
tions longer than I expected, owing to the great scarcity of 
country produce, the cassada being so nearly exhausted, that it 
is, and will be, impossible to obtain, until new crops come in, 
much to aid bur provisions, unless by going some distance into 
the country. Therefore I think it indispensably necessary, in 
order to keep the settlers to their farming improvements, to con- 
tinue their rations longer than I at first intended; as I consider 
the present too important a crisis to leave them to neglect their 
improvements, although it may add something to our present ex- 

"The people at Caldwell are getting on better with their 
farms than with their houses. I think some of them are very 
slow, notwithstanding I have assisted them in building. The 
Gun House at Caldwell is done, and at present preparations are 

* Mills & Burg-ess. 


210 From Liberia. [Sept 

making for the Fourth of July. I think that settlement gene- 
rally, is rapidly advancing in farming, building, and I hope, in 
industry. Our gun carriages are done; the completion of the 
iron work alone prevents us from mounting them all immediate- 
ly. We have four mounted, and I think we shall put them all 
in complete order by the end of the present week. 

"Captain Russel will be able to give something like a fair ac- 
count of the state of our improvements, as he went with me to 
visit the settlements on the 13th and 14th, and seemed pleased 
with the 'prospect at Millsburg, Caldwell and the Halfwajr 

Mr. Warner, who has been engaged nearly the whole of the * 
last twelve months on business of negotiating with the native* 
tribes to the I e ward, is at present down at Tippicanoe, the place 
which I mentioned in my former communications, as being a 
very important section of country, since it would connect our- 
Sesters and Bassa districts together. He is not, however, now 
engaged in business of negotiation, but only in business ojf 

In his letter to the lamented Mr. Ashmun, Mr. Cary states — 

"Things are nearly as you left them; most of the work that 
you directed to be done, is nearly accomplished. The plasterers 
are now at work on the Government House, and with what lime 
I am having brought down the river, and what shells I am get- 
ting, I think we shall succeed. 

"The Gun House in Monrovia and the Jail have been done 
for some weeks; the mounting of the guns will be done this 
week, if the weather permits. 

"The Houses at the Halfway Farms are done; the Gun House 
at Caldwell would have been done at this time, had not the rain 
prevented, but I think it will be finished in three or four days. 
The public farm is doing pretty well. The Millsburg farms are 
doing very well. I think it would do you good to see that place 
at this time. 

"The Missionaries, although they have been sick, are now, I 
am happy to inform you, recovered; and at present are able to 
attend to their business, and I regard them as entirely out of 

1828.] From Liberia, &U 

"I hope we shall be able to remove all the furniture into the* 
new house in two or three weeks. " 

.June 25th, Mr. Cary writes — 

"About three o'clock to day, there appeared three vessels-*- 
two brigs and a schooner. The schooner stood into the Roads, 
and one of the brigs near in, but showed no colours until a shot 
was fired by Captain Thompson; when she hoisted Spanish co> 
lours, and the schooner the same. All their movements appear- 
ed so suspicious, that we turned out all our forces to-night.-— 
About eight this evening it was reported that they were stand- 
ing out of our Roads, and at sunset that the schooner had come 
to anchor very near the "All Chance," from Boston, and that 
the brig which had passed the Cape, had put about and was 
standing up, trying to double the Cape, and that the third vessel 
(a brig) was standing down for the Roads. The first mentioned 
brig showed nine ports a side. From all these circumstances I 
thought best to have Fort Norris Battery manned, which was 
immediately done by Captain Johnson. I also ordered out the 
two volunteer companies, to make discoveries around the town, 
and the Artillery to support the guns and protect the beach; 
which orders were promptly executed, and we stood in readi- 
ness during the night. At daylight the schooner lay at anchor 
and appeared to be making no preparations to communicate with 
■us; I then ordered a shot to be fired at a little distance from 
her, when she sent a boat ashore with her Captain, Supercargo, 
and Interpreter. She reported herself the Joseph, from Havan- 
na, had been three months on the coast trading, but not for 
slaves, had one gun and twenty-three men. Also, that the 
brig was a patriotic brig in chase of her, and that through fear 
she had taken shelter under our guns. The Captain wished a 
supply of wood and water; but I told him I knew him to be en- 
gaged in the slave trade, and that though we did not pretend to 
attempt suppressing this trade, we would not aid it, and that I 
allowed him one hour, and one only, to get out of the reach of 
our guns. He was very punctual, and I believe before his 

Speaking of the celebration of the Fourth of July in the Colony, under 
date of the 15th July, Mr. Cary remarks — 

£12 From Liberia. [Sept.. 

"The companies observed strictly the orders of the day, 
which I think were so arranged as to entitle the officers whe 
drew them up to credit. Upon the whole, I am obliged to say, 
that I have never seen the American Independence celebrated 
with so much spirit and propriety since the existence oi the Co- 
lony; the guns being all mounted and painted, and previously 
arranged for the purpose, added very much to the grand salute. 
Two dinners were given, one by the Independent Volunteer 
Company, and one by Captain Devany." 

To the Secretary of the Society, July 19th, Mr. Cary writes — 

"I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, 
forwarded by Captain Chase of Providence, also your Report 
and the Repository, directed to Mr. Ashmun, but owing to his 
absence, they have fallen into my hands; and permit me to say, 
that these communications are read with pleasure, aud that 
nothing affords more joy to the Colony, than to hear of the pros- 
perity of the Colonization Society, and that you have some 
hopes of aid from the General Government, which makes us 
more desirous to enlarge our habitation and extend the borders 
of the Colony. 

"I must say, from the flattering prospects of your Society, I 
feel myself very much at a loss how to proceed, in the absence 
of Mr. Ashmun, with regard to making provisions for the recep- 
tion of a large number of Emigrants, which appears to be indis- 
pensably necessary. Therefore, after receiving your communi- 
cation, we conceived the following to be the most safe and pru- 
dent course. First, to make arrangements to have erected at 
Millsburg, houses to answer as receptacles sufficient to shelter 
from one hundred and fifty to two hundred persons. I have 
therefore extended the duties of Mr. Benson so as to embrace 
that object. I was led to this course from the following conside- 
rations. IHrst, from the productiveness of the Millsburg lands 
and the fewness of their inhabitants. I know if Mr. Ashmun 
were present, it would be a principal object with him to push 
that settlement forward with all possible speed, and that for 
this purpose, he would send the emigrants by the first two or 
three expeditions to that place. I think that those from the 
fresh water rivers,, if carried directly after their arrival here, up 

1S28.J From Liberia* Ql$ 

to Millsburg, would suffer very little from change of climate.— < 
Second, the fertility of the land is such a temptation to the far- 
mer, that unless he possesses laziness in its extreme degree, he 
cannot resist it; he must and will go to work. Thirdly, it is 
important to strengthen that settlement against any possible at- 
tack; and though we apprehend no hostilities from the natives, 
yet we would have each settlement strong enough to repel them. 
"I am happy to say, that the health, peace and prosperity of 
the Colony, I think, is still advancing, and I hope that the 
Board of Managers may have their wishes and expectations rea- 
lized to their fullest extent, with regard to the present and fu- 
ture prosperity of the Colony." 

July 17. — "If I could be allowed one suggestion to the Board 
of Managers, I would mention the importance of having here for 
the use of the Colony, a vessel large enough to run down as low 
as Cape Pal mas. It would, I think, be found to save a very 
great expense to the Society. She might occasionally run up 
also to Sierra Leone. 

" Until we can raise crops sufficient to supply a considerable 
number of new comers every year, such an arrangement as will 
enable us to proceed farther to the leward than we have ever 
done, in order to procure supplies, will be indispensably neces- 
sary; as there we can procure Indian Corn, Palm Oil, and live 
stock. For these, neither the slave traders nor others, give them- 
selves much trouble. Corn can be bought there for from fifteen 
to twenty cents per bushel. Fifteen or twenty bushels which I 
bought of Captain Woodbury, I have been using instead of rice 
for the last two months. Besides, it can be ground into meal, 
and would be better than any that can be sent. Upon the sup- 
posed inquiry, will not the lands of the Colony produce Corn? — 
they will produce it in abundance; but with the quantity of 
lands appropriated at present, and the means to cultivate them, 
each land-holder will, I think, be able to raise but little more 
than may be required by his own family, and consequently will 
have little to dispose of to new comers.* 

"Permit me to inform the Board, that proposals have been 

* It has been resolved by the Board of Managers to increase the quantity 
of land allotted to each settler. 

214 JDeath of Mr. Jishmum [Sept 

made by a number of very respectable citizens in Monrovia, to 
commence a settlement near the head of the Montserado River, 
which would be a kind of farming establishment; which, should 
it be the pleasure of the Board to approve, would be followed 
up with great spirit, and found to contribute largely towards ir^ 
creasing our crops, for the soil is very promising." 

Deat\\ of Mx. Aslimvm. 

We weep, for a burning and a shining light is extinguished. 
The Colonial Agent, Mr. Ashmun, expired at New Haven^ 
(Con.) on the 25th of August. 

Having announced this mournful event, we feel inclined to si- 
lence; for we can say nothing which will adequately represent 
the worth of our Friend's character, the moral sublimity of his 
death, or the loss which it has occasioned to that holy cause 
which owed so much to his exertions. A very brief and imper- 
fect sketch of his life however, may perhaps show the necessity, 
and excite the desire for a more particular and extended biogra- 
phy; and thus contribute, in humble measure at least, to pre- 
pare the way for those powerful effects which may be confident- 
ly expected from a full and a fair exhibition of his example. 

Jehudi Ashmun, Esq., was born of respectable and pious 
parents in Champiain, New York, in 1794. In childhood he 
was thoughtful and reserved, remarkably fond of books and ex- 
tremely ambitious of literary fame. At the age of fourteen he 
commenced study, in preparation for college, under the instruc- 
tion of the Rev. Amos Pettingill, the worthy minister of his na- 
tive place, to whom we are indebted for some interesting facts 
in his early history. He made rapid progress, and gave promise 
of distinction. At this time he appears to have indulged doubts 
concerning the truth of Christianity, and intent upon the accom- 
plishment of selfish purposes, was regardless alike of the service 
and the honour of God. 

But it pleased God to show him the glory of his perfections. 

1828.] Death of M\ JshiUiim 215 

and to make him tremble before the power, the justice, and the 
goodness, which he had offended. In view of hi9 sins, he 
felt the worth of Christ's Atonement, and was astonished that 
be had so long been insensible to his criminality and his danger, 
and utterly neglected the only means of salvation. When sub- 
tlued by the truth and the grace of God, the vividness of his own 
impressions led him to believe that it would be easy to produce 
leligious conviction in the minds of others, but having attempted 
to do this, he returned, like Melanchthon, from the effort, griev- 
ed and disappointed. He no longer trusted in his abilities, and 
well nigh despaired of salvation. He was humbled; but the evi- 
dences of his faith soon became clearer to himself and toothers, 
and he publicly professed his hope in the Saviour of the World. 
Henceforth, until his death, his belief in the great doctrines of 
Christianity appears to have been unwavering; and to exemplify 
their spirit and extend their influence, was deemed by him the 
noblest object of life. 

Having pursued his studies with high reputation, both at Bur- 
lington and Middlebury Colleges, he graduated at the former in 
1816, and without delay prepared himself for the ministry, and 
was soon elected a Professor in the Theological Seminary at Ban- 
gor, Maine. Owing to peculiar circumstances, his connection with 
this Institution was of short duration, though he ever remember- 
ed with devout gratitude, the deep religious interest which was 
excited by his preaching and his labours. After leaving the 
Bangor Seminary, he resided for some time in the District of 
Columbia, where he became a member of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church; conducted the editorial department of the Theolo- 
gical Repertory, and published his Memoirs of th; j Rev. Samuel 
Bacon, the earliest martyr in the cause of the Colonization So- 
ciety; a work which exhibited unequivocal evidences both of ta- 
lent and piety, and which thousands would have read with in- 
terest and advantage had they been informed of its merits.— 
Among the various subjects which at this time occupied his 
thoughts, was that of establishing a monthly journal for the 
American Colonization Society, the plan of which was matured, 
and the first number published. Sufficient patronage, however, 
was wanting to sustain it, and the work failed. 

Thus did the Almighty conduct our Friend by unexpected 

&16 1 - Death of Mr. Ashmuui [Sept 

events to a situation, from which Africa presented claims to his 
services in a light and with a force which were well nigh irre- 
sistible. By writing the life of Bacon, and becoming familiar 
with the object and proceedings of the Colonization Society, 
the miseries of Africa were disclosed before him, and his spirit 
was stirred within him at the sight. He embarked for the Co- 
lony in the Brig Strong, June 19th, 1822, and arrived at Cape 
Montserado on the 8th of August. He assumed the Agency at 
the most critical period in the history of the Colony, shortly 
after the little band of settlers had resolved at all hazards to re- 
tain possession of Montserado, and when both the previous 
Agents were on their passage to the United States. The diffi- 
culties of the Colony, and the extraordinary talent and ener- 
gy evinced by the departed, under circumstances most trying t<\ 
humanity, are justly and impressively described in the follow- 
ing passage from the very able Sermon delivered at his Funeral, 
by the Rev. Leonard Bacon. 

"He found them almost without houses to protect themselves 
from the rains of their inclement season, which was then at its 
height, much less able to afford shelter for the new emigrants 
who had accompanied him. He found the establishment just 
ready to sink in disorder and dismay. The settlers were almost 
defenceless. The native princes, who had sold them the terri- 
tory with the treacherous intention that they should not settle 
there, were threatening to destroy them, and were forming com- 
binations for that purpose. In such an emergency it was, thai 
he came to a work entirely new. He had been educated for the 
work of preaching the gospel. He had been a teacher in a lite 
rary institution. He was still a young man. And now he had 
come to place himself at the head of an unorganized, feeble, 
heterogeneous community. He was to act the Legislator; — he 
was to form and put in operation, a system of government; he 
was to sway the minds of this unformed mass of human beings, 
and mould them into unity; he was to make them freemen, and 
habituate them to the business of governing themselves. At the 
same time he must act the Soldier; — he must rouse in his little 
Hock of once degraded men, the spirit of manhood and the en- 
thusiasm of self-defence, and he must head them in the conflict. 
He must act the Engineer;-— he must lay out the fortification** 

t828.] Death of Mr. Ashmum 217 

^f his little city, and superintend their hasty construction; he 
must take care that the very dwellings — even the temporary 
huts and shelters of the people — are constructed with reference 
to security from the enemy, and facility of defence in an assault* 
All this must be commenced at once, for delay was ruin. And 
just as all this was commencing, the fever which attacks almost 
every man on his first arrival from a temperate to a tropical cli- 
mate, attacked him and the fifty emigrants who had come with, 
him, with uncommon violence. They were all sick — sick with- 
out a physician — sick without any proper shelter from the rains 
— sick almost without medicines. His own wife, among others, 
was soon carried to the grave. But for him, and for all, there 
was no time to relax their efforts. Even in sickness and dis- 
tress, there could be no respite. Their works must go on; for, 
daily and nightly, they were expecting that an army of savages 
would be upon them. While prostrated by disease, in the lucid 
intervals between the returns of delirium, our friend was com- 
pelled to rise from his sick bed, to inspect the condition and 
progress of these operations, to receive reports, to give out or- 
ders, to reanimate the weary and desponding, and to superintend 
all the affairs of this dismayed and distressed community. All 
this he did; and when at last the fever had left him in extreme 
debility, and he was just beginning to recover strength, the dan- 
ger which they had been so long apprehending, came. About 
three months after his arrival, when their defences had been on- 
ly partially completed, and when their entire effective force was 
thirty-five men and boys, they were attacked at the dawn of day 
by a force of at least eight hundred armed savages. They were 
taken by surprise, and the enemy were almost in the midst of 
them before the alarm was given. By an effort of desperate va- 
lor, directed by the extraordinary self-possession and energy of 
our departed friend, the enemy were driven off, and the settle- 
ment on which were suspended so many hopes of humanity and 
religion was delivered. A few days afterwards, while the 
wounded were still helpless, and the well were exhausted with 
constant fatigue and watching and alarm, the enemy returned 
with redoubled numbers and redoubled rage for their destruc- 
tion; and again, by a valour and energy which would do honour 

2i8 Death of Mr, Jlshmuu* [Sept 

to the history of any man or any people, they were repulsed, 
and utterly defeated. 

**I have thus described the commencement of his labours and 
sufferings in Africa, because there is no other way in which I 
could so well describe his character: inasmuch as it is only by 
what a man has done, that we can ever distinctly understand 
what he has been. And what sort of character it was that could 
act thus in circumstances such as these, it is not difficult to di- 
vine. Let me say then, that the same energy, the same self- 
possession and promptitude, the same exhaustless diligence, th& 
same vigor and quickness of intellectual power, the same 1 
courage amid difficulties and dangers, have been exhibited in 
all his labours there. The establishment which he found on the 
brink of extinction, he left in prosperity and peace. The little, 
colony which he found defenceless, weak and trembling witk 
dismay, he left so strengthened, as to be safe against any proba- 
ble attack by land or sea. The people whom he began to rule 
when they were few, unorganized, and disunited, he has suc- 
cessfully trained to habits of discipline, and taught to enjoy the 
blessings of rational liberty and real independence. And hovr 
well he has governed that people, how happy he has made them, 
how he has drawn their affections round him, their grief at his 
departure can testify. One of their own number, in whose hands 
our friend, on leaving the colony, placed the administration of 
affairs, thus speaks of the occasion of his embarkation for his na- 
tive country. 'The Colonial Agent, went on board the brig 
Doris, March 26, 1828, escorted by three companies of the mili- 
tary, and when taking leave he delivered a short address which 
was truly affecting. Never, I suppose were greater tokens of 
respect shown by any community on taking leave of their head. 
At least two-thirds of the inhabitants of Monrovia, men, women 
and children, were out on this occasion; and nearly all parted 
from him with tears. In my opinion; the hope of his return in 
a few months, alone enabled them to give him up. He is indeed 
dear to this people, and it will be a joyful day when we are per- 
mitted again to see him.' Ah that day! What grief will be 
theirs, when they learn that they shall see his face no more." 

When we consider the small number and undisciplined cha- 

X828.] Death of Mr. Ashmmip Q1Q 

racter of the colonists, the actual sickness of many of them, their 
almost defenceless condition, the strength of the combination 
against them, and the resolution with which it was brought to act 
for their destruction; when we recollect, that during all the pre- 
parations for an attack, Mr. Ashmun was scarcely able to rise 
from his bed, yet that every arrangement must be made by him, 
and indeed most measures executed under his own eye, we can- 
not indeed fail to admire the directing skill and energy by which 
the settlers were enabled to repel successfully and even trium- 
phantly the repeated assaults of the barbarians. It is our candid 
opinion, that the courage and ability exhibited by the late Colo- 
nial Agent in the contest described in the preceding extract, 
have very seldom, if ever, been surpassed. The result establish- 
ed his character among all the neighbouring tribes, and made 
his name a terror to the chiefs who would gladly have violated 
their solemn engagements could they have been sustained by 
any reasonable hope of plunder. But in the 'single white man' 
on the Cape, they saw a power with which they dared not trifle; 
which controlled by justice, held conscience as an ally even in 
treacherous bosoms; and thus weakened its enemies while they 
knew it not, and frustrated their schemes as by spiritual agency. 
It was a power which they not only feared, but respected. In 
the presence of that white man, who at the head of a little band, 
untrained to war, had withstood their furious onset, and filled 
the hearts of several hundreds of them with dismay, they felt 
the influences of christian kindness; saw manifested principles 
of moral power, to which they were before strangers; which must 
prove firm ground for confidence and the safeguard of the good, 
but which indignantly rebuked every species of falsehood and 
crime. They observed that these principles had an unchangea- 
bleness of character, which mere regard to expediency could 
not produce; and were told of that Omnipotent Father, in whose 
revelation they are inculcated, and who requires his creatures 
to discern and to imitate (at least to aim at imitating) the recti- 
tude and beneficence of his own perfect character. 

It is indeed our conviction, that among the various means 
^hich Providence has been pleased to select and employ for the 
security and improvement of our infant Colony, whether we 
look at its internal arrangements or external relations, none* 

&20 Death of Mr. Jlshmuu.* [Stents 

perhaps, has been more efficacious than the elevated Christian 
principle of the Colonial Agent. 

To exhibit distinctly, fairly, and completely, the character of 
our lamented friend, and to present an adequate view of his 
proceedings, with their results, during his residence of more 
than six years in Africa, would require not a few pages, but a 
volume. From the hour when he landed in Africa to that of his 
re-embarkation for his native country, he evinced a sacred de- 
votedness to the cause for which he died. He appeared from 
the first, to form a clear conception of the greatness of the ob- 
ject to be accomplished by his labours. Hence, his plans were 
comprehensive and perfectly developed to his own mind, the 
means of accomplishing them well ascertained and arranged be- 
forehand, so that in executing them he could readily exemplify 
his own maxim, that the "»;reat kev to success in business was 
to aim only at effects." Placed at the head of a small commu- 
nity formed principally of unlettered men, some of them sadly 
degraded by their past condition, widely separated from the 
Christian World, exposed to the deleterious influences of heath- 
en tribes, just ushered into circumstances designed to prepare 
them for an independent political existence; it was his to create 
(we had almost said) their social character; to kindle in their 
souls public spirit and the sentiments of honourable action; to 
excite industry, enterprise and courage; to shape and polish the 
rough materials before him, and give to them order, strength, 
and union. He must provide for the permanent defence of the 
Colony. He must survey its territory, and allot to each settler 
the farm which he is to cultivate. By every method of economy 
must he direct the scanty means which the Society has entrust- 
ed to him, to meet the demands of the Colony, yet incapable of 
furnishing provisions for its own subsistence. Emigrants are 
expected, and buildings must be erected for their temporary ac- 
commodation. Public labour is required, and the expense of it 
can be defrayed only by the most skilful management and a 
scrupulous regard to the credit of the Agency. A system of 
government is to be set in operation; officers to be appointed 
and instructed in their duties; courts of justice established in 
which the Agent must preside; ordinances to be enacted in rela- 
tion to subjects various and often new; schools to be founded;; 

JS28.] 'Death of Mr. Mhmm'. ttt 

negotiations conducted with the natives, for the purposes of 
trade and the extension of territory; and full and accurately de- 
tailed statements of the wants, the improvements, and the pros- 
pects of the Colony, to be frequently prepared and transmitted 
to the Society. But to all this complex machinery, principally 
depending for its movements upon the mind of the Colonial 
Agent, and which could not be regulated without familiar ac- 
quaintance with all its parts, must be added the entire concern 
for the Recaptured Africans; involving high responsibilities, and 
not to be conducted without a serious amount of care and labour. 
But to our lamented friend belonged a mind prepared for every 
•ffbrt of which humanity is capable; which could adapt itself to 
every variety of circumstances, and which, governed by motives 
from beyond the world, was not to be overwhelmed or broken in 
its powers, by the mere shocks of temporal calamity. On all oc- 
casions did he exhibit a lofty spirit of self-control, which no 
influences of earth could reach; which preserved his faculties 
undisturbed, unclouded, and prompt to engage with their entire 
energy in every work of duty; — a versatility of talent which 
enabled him to turn from one subject to another, from the sever- 
er and more perplexing to the lighter and humbler parts of busi- 
ness, with graceful eas"; decision* seldom unfortunate, because 
resting upon clear and accurate judgments; industry, which 
reckoned moments invaluable, and was, perhaps, never exceed- 
ed; a perseverance which adhered with unyielding tenacity to its 
object; and an activity and laboriousness which permitted no 
one mental power to remain unemployed, but which gave con- 
stantly to each and every such power its full effect. A burning 
and unquenchable ardor to make the most of life, glowed within 
his bosom; and even the stranger could not fail to discern in the 
light of his features, and the deep-toned expressiveness of his 
language, the enthusiasm which pervaded and moved his soul. 
And this enthusiasm was kindled by devotion. It was Piety* in 
its genuine and sublime influences, elevating the affections to the 
"Eternal Spirit, and deriving from holy meditation upon the Di- 
vine Mind, some resemblance of its perfection; which gave to our 
friend's character such dignity, worth, and power. We must 
leave it to another age to estimate the value of his efforts. — 
"Some thing of their importance is indeed manifest to us: a pros- 

2£2 Death of Mr. Ashman, [SepJ, 

perous Colony established upon sure foundations; twelve hun- 
dred individuals, once excluded from the higher blessings of ex- 
istence, now freemen indeed, and blessed with all the motives 
which rouse the soul to useful and virtuous action; wondering 
heathens assembling to learn the lessons of our Faith, and catch 
the spirit of the Gospel; a great and enlightened nation waking 
its dormant energies to consummate a most holy work of charity; 
these are effects already visible, and obviously in great measure, 
perhaps, mainly, resulting from his exertions. But it is only 
by looking to the future, by indulging reflections on what with 
the favour of Providence our infant Colony is destined to be- 
come, by contemplating our own country as relieved from a 
most oppressive evil, and Africa made an empire of truth, liber- 
ty and virtue, fruitful in works of righteousness and joyful in 
christian hope, that we form even a faint conception of the im- 
portance of what the deceased has done, or the loss which both 
Humanity and Religion have sustained by his death. 

But however dark, in this event, may appear the ways of 
Providence, their wisdom and benevolence is not to be question- 
ed. And we trust as our friend did not live, so he has not died 
in vain. Those who stood by his death-bed can never forget 
the moral sublimity of the scene. He survived but fifteen days 
after his arrival at New Haven, and these were days of great 
bodily weakness and occasionally of distress; but his soul pre- 
served a majestic tranquillity and clearness, gathering brightness 
and purity as he approached the grave, from the light of that 
"world which he was so soon to enter. His sufferings appeared 
to be well nigh forgotten, while his duties were constantly re>- 
membered. To expressions of human applause or even of ap- 
probation, he would not willingly listen, and with profound hu- 
mility he remarked, "I do not know of any such thing as self- 
righteousness; I can rely only on the righteousness of Christ." 
Soon after his arrival, he expressed a strong desire, if it might 
be the will of God. to return to Africa; but subsequently, seemed 
only anxious to finish his work and have his spirit prepared for 
the great transition. Indeed, for several days, his remarkable 
patience, his entire resignation, his deep self-abasement, his af- 
fecting devotion, and his holy magnanimity, astonished the 
beholders and they felt themselves in the presence of one who 

1828.] Death of Mr. Ashat&to 22$ 

could adopt the language of Paul, "none of these things move 
me; for I am ready to be offered, and the time of my departure 
is at hand." On the last day of his life, while the writer 
of this sustained him as he sat up, the perspiration flow- 
ing from his pallid brow and every feature expressing death, he* 
offered up his last supplication in terms most solemn and affect- 
ing. A few words uttered with perfect distinctness have been 

Prayer. — "O my Heavenly Father, look mercifully upon thy 
afflicted servant, and do not lay upon him that which through, 
weakness he is unable to bear, but let thy grace be sufficient for 
Bim. May he desire communion with thee above all other bles- 
sings. Bless my friend here present; keep him in thy service, 
and graciously reward him for all his kindness. O bless all 
those who have shown a tender concern for me in this place, and 
all my relatives and friends, and let them never come into con- 
demnation. O bless the Colony and that poor people among 
whom I have laboured. Grant to me, O merciful Father, saving 
faith, sanctifying faith, and glorify thy great name in my eter- 
nal salvation. Grant these blessings, O God of Grace, for the 
Redeemer's sake, who suffered for us, and to thee shall praise 
»e given, through all eternity, through all eternity. Amen! 

During the evening of his departure he conversed with several 
gentlemen who visited him, gave instructions concerning an Af- 
rican lad rescued by him from pirates, and who had accompanied 
him on his voyage, and neglected nothing which seemed to de- 
mand his attention. Just before twelve he sat up, made one or 
two requests and when reclined again upon his pillow, almost 
instantly slept in his Saviour. Not more gently does childhood 
sink to rest, or daylight fade from heaven. Not more simply 
and majestically does the sun finish his course, when he goes 
down amid the brightness of a cloudless sky. 

Blessed be God; the example of our friend survives him, and 
shall survive him, until the end of time. Thousands shall be 
excited by it to apply themselves to the holy work of Africa's 
regeneration; and when this shall be accomplished, when a free, 

-224- Pecuniary Wants of the Society, 8[C. [Sept. 

an enlightened, and christian people, shall cover that continent, 
now buried in darkness and in crime, the name of ASHMUN, 
shall be a word everywhere familiar, even to infant lips; a name, 
loved, admired, and venerated, while the coloured race exists^ 
©r a human voice is heard in the dwellings of Africa* 

TecwwiaYy *Wants of the Society. 

It will be absolutely impossible for the Board of Managers \% 
effect the important purpose of despatching a vessel with emi- 
grants to the Colony this Autumn, unless they shall soon be fa- 
voured with more liberal contributions. Applications for a pas- 
sage are almost daily received from respectable coloured persons, 
which cannot, without increased means, be satisfactorily answer- 
ed. Every Auxiliary Society, and all our friends, are then, at 
this time, earnestly appealed to for that aid. without which, 
many now waiting to embark, our own hopes, and public expec- 
tation, must be greatly disappointed. 

Colonial Agent. 

We have the pleasure to announce the fact, that Dr. Richard 
Randall of this City, a highly respected member of the Board 
of Managers, has been elected to succeed the late Mr. Ashmun 
in the Colonial Agency at Liberia. He is expected very short- 
ly to embark for the Colony, and enter without delay upon the 
arduous duty of his station, and we fervently pray that a good 
Providence may be his safeguard, and preserve him for eminent 
usefulness among those over whom he has been called to preside/ 


We are compelled for want of room, to postpone several arti- 
cles^ with the usual list of Donations, to our next number. 





Vol. IV. OCTOBER, 1828. No. 8. 

Jin Address delivered at Springfield, before the Hampden Colonic 
zation Society, July 4th, 1828. By Wm. B. 0. Peabody, 
Esq. Published by request of the Society. 

The practice of men is generally no better than their prin- 
ciples. The character of the latter, then, is regarded with rea- 
son as of supreme interest to human society, and worthy of the 
anxious and undivided attention of every individual. And 
though correctness of sentiment is not always and universally 
connected with virtuous conduct, yet the last is not to be ex- 
pected, where the first does not exist. 

Christianity is a perfect religion. The whole field of human 
duty is marked out by its laws; and he cannot err who will in 
all things, and with an unbiassed mind, follow the clear light of 
its precepts. Still we cannot deny that the professed advocates 
of this Religion seldom do it justice by a full exemplification of 
its worth. 

The subject of Mr. Peabody's address is "the reason of the 

imperfect influence of Christianity on the public relations of 

men." This leads him to speak of slavery and war, which he 

remarks, "have grown up together; which still outlive many 


226 Review of an Address delivered before [Oct. 

of the abuses that Christianity has overthrown; and which will 
not be divided in their fall, when our religion governs the 

f* 1 may as well say in the beginning 1 , that I am speaking" simply of the 
relation of slavery, and the practice of war. I am not complaining of the 
owners of slaves; *hey cannot get rid of them; it would be as humane to 
throw them from ihe decks in the middle passage, as to set them free in 
our country. Neither do I condemn defensive war; it rests upon the right 
of self-defence, which individuals possess, and may delegate to govern- 
ments if they will. I have no taste for sweeping condemnation. I can 
sympathise with the owners of slaves, and admire the patriotic defenders of 
their country, while I detest war and slavery with all my heart." 

That these evils exist even among those who enjoy the bene- 
fits of Christianity, occasions no surprise to the Author of this 
address. And the reason is "that Christianity has no more au- 
thority among men, than they choose to allow it," and that this 
is by no means equal to what it claims; that it enjoins on us all 
some duties which we leave undone, and demands sacrifices and 
efforts which we have neglected to make. 

"The first reason that Christianity has had so little effect upon war and 
slavery is, that men regard the letter more than the spirit of the religion. 
They are apt to measure and weig-h their duties, that they may learn how 
far they must go; and how much can be left undone. Many have tried to 
show that these things are not directly prohibited in scripture, taking for 
granted that every thing not forbidden in so many words, is allowed. This 
reasoning has had and still has great effect; and yet it would be easy t» 
show that a man might be thoroughly abandoned, without seeming to vio- 
late the letter of the Christian law. Christianity does not attempt to push 
back the rushing torrents of passion; it g"oes to the fountain head, and 
checks them when they are just beginning to flow. — Whence come wars and 
Jightings among you? If they come from your lusts and passions, Christi- 
anity forbids your indulging these passions, and thus prohibits war. It for- 
bids slavery, when it commands men to be just and kind to each other; 
and this is enough for one who desires to know and to do his duty." 

But the man who has properly studied Christianity, and tho- 
roughly imbibed its spirit, will not be inclined to evade the 
strictness of its requirements. He will as Mr. Peabody remarks, 
trace the broadest possible outline of his duty, and fulfil it to the 

1828.] The Hampden Colonization Society. SSv 

utmost of his power." Such a man cannot fail to perceive, that 
we are bound by Christianity to do good unto all men as we 
have opportunity, and to aim at placing all in circumstances, 
favourable to their temporal happiness and spiritual improve- 

"Another reason of the limited influence of Christianity is, that it re- 
quires great Christian principle to make men abandon vices, and very little 
to make men disapprove them. They content themselves with simply dis- 
approving- their own sins. Uut do you consider it much, for a man to con- 
demn liis own vices ? No such thing"! You know that even the guilty will 
go as far as this, without the least idea of reforming 1 their lives. Yet we 
fall into precisely this error in regard to public opinion? we consider it a 
matter of triumph when the general sentiment sets strongly against any 
prevailing sin. A triumph perhaps it is; but not half so great as we ima- 
gine; for long after men have learned to condemn the public reproach, you 
find it nevertheless impossible to make them cast it away." 

"It is mere romance to suppose that the influence of Christianity is felt, 
when men only cease to condemn their crimes. But if we can see this 
point gained, it is something; it may encourage us to redouble our efforts 
to bring about the desired reform. Still we must not regard the nations as 
fully persuaded to be Christian, because they tremble for a moment like 
Felix before the eloquence of Paul; for though Christianity simply con- 
demns the practice; men, influenced by Christianity, must go so far as to 
put down the practice; for right judg.nent is not the same with right con- 
duct; and men must act upon their principles, before they can deserve the 
name of Christians. 

"A third reason of the limited influence of Christianity is, that we con- 
sider this point as gained already. — We think that the public feeling is 
sufficiently alive to the criminality of slavery and war, and that no exertions 
are necessary to add to the prevailing conviction of their guilt I must say 
that we take praise to ourselves too soon. Christianity can do but Utile to 
reform the world, if men are so easily satisfied with their success. I look 
in vain for the proofs of this general condemnation of these gigantic sins I 
see on the contrary a lofty and enthusiastic interest every where excited by 
deeds of battle and blood. I see the guilty paths of great destroyers, 
traced upon the map with breathless emotion; I see the finest productions of 
earthly inspiration growing out of this corruption, like wild flowers from 
the heaps where the bodies of the slain decay, and the warmest reverence 
the world can give, lavished on those, who trample most widely and care- 
lessly on the rights and feelings of men. We may say that we admire not 
the destruction nor the guilt; not the field shaken with artillery and slippery 
with blood, but the great intellectual energy displayed in guiding the vast 
masses of human power; this will not do; for great energy should be detest- 

£28 Review of an Address delivered before [Oct. 

cd for its alliance with crime, rather than crime be forgiven because united 
with energy. The public religious feeling must be pronounced unsound, 
so long as men can admire these splendid sins; and it is absolutely impossi- 
ble for one who worships these destroyers, to have any real reverence for 
the gentle greatness of the Son of God. Still I see this delusion every- 
where spread. I see these magnificent outlaws gazed on by Christians with 
overpowering admiration, while the fair fame of mere defenders of their 
country seems dull and tame beside them. Even that man to whom this 
land is more indebted than to any other; whose name might be pronounced 
here, without taking the place in vain; I see that his greatness, beside that 
of heroes as the world calls them, seems cold and lifeless as the marble from 
which they have hewn his form. 

"Neither is public opinion more decided on the subject of slavery. There 
are not many who will say that the relation of master and of slave is defensible 
in itself, but there is no general sense of the importance of using every en- 
deavour to remove the necessity which is its only justification. 

"I do not doubt that masters treat their slaves with kindness, nor that the 
slaves are happier than they could be if set free in this country; I believe 
that many a slave-holder would rejoice to throw off the burden; but they 
should never forget, that when the necessity which now weighs upon them 
exists no longer, no humanity on their part will atone for their holding man 
in bondage." 

But another reason is specified by our author, why Christian- 
ity so imperfectly regulates human conduct, which is perhaps 
the most formidable, particularly as it regards any attempts to 
remove the great evils, principally considered in the Address. — 
We are well convinced that an able and judicious work on the 
influence which Christianity should exert on Governments 
and all the relations of political society, would prove a noble 
contribution to the best interests of mankind. Many things there 
are, which go to makeup what is called National Honour, which 
deserve (as is observed by the Author,) "the curse which David 
breathed upon the mountains where the mighty had fallen. " The 
obstacle to which we have alluded, is mentioned in the following 
extracts, which merit the most serious consideration. 

"Another obstacle to Christian influences has beeu, that men have ap- 
plied a different morality to public and private affairs. In private concerns 
they profess to follow Christianity; but in public relations they have made 
up a different standard of right and wrong; a standard of interest and con- 
venience, founded on the right of power. Thus we hear measures defend- 

1828.] The Hampden Colonization Society, &£9 

ed on the ground of necessity, in which there is no necessity, except what 
oppression creates for itself; thus, belligerents claim a right to plunder 
neutral vessels trading with their enemy; thus private property is free spoil 
on the seas, while all civilized nations profess to respect it on shore. In 
more peaceful relations there have been equally unsocial and unnatural 
opinions; thus it was formerly, perhaps is still believed, that one nation 
could not increase in wealth except in proportion as others lost. 

"What influence can Christianity have on public relations, where such 
maxims are tolerated or forgiven } The law of nations is only an enlarge- 
ment of the rules of justice and kindness that are binding on individuals. 
Is a man who has a quarrel with a neighbour, justified in preventing all 
others from trading with that neighbour? Does any man feel as if he had 
personally a better right to rob and steal on the water than on shore? Yet 
such is the claim of belligerents, and such the piracy which is called priva- 
teering and reprisal. Does any one think that there is no such thing as fair 
exchange between individuals; that no man can prosper in business except 
by injuring others'' Does any one think it right to involve all his friends in 
misery, because some trifling insult has been offered to himself? Such is 
the duellist's principle. More profound absurdities than these cannot be 
imagined; still they rise up in the world, and set bounds to the influence of 
Christianity. But Christianity requires the same of nations as of individuals; 
and if any nation under pretence of barbarous precedent or selfish interest 
refuses to submit to it, that nation's God is not the Lord. 

"But one reason of the limited influence of Christianity on public rela- 
tions perhaps includes all the rest that can be given. Where is there a 
Christian nation? where is there a community to exert this happy influence? 
I know that many individuals every where are faithful, and there are many 
regions where religion is honoured and regarded; but I know of none on 
the face of the earth, where Christian principles govern, nor where the 
spirit of Christianity prevails against the spirit of selfishness and the world. 
Where is the fear of God foremost among those thoughts which every day 
pass over the hearts of men by millions? where do men even think of doing 
to others as they would have others do to them? What community main- 
tains on the whole such a character as our religion is designed to form? In 
a Christian country, the law of God should be at least as well obeyed as 
the law of the land; but if the laws of the land were as often and fearfully 
broken as those of Christianity, society could not hold together. Christian 
communities then must not be expected to remove these evils from the 

But how are we to reform society and bring our holy religion 
to act in and throughout all its departments? How are the great 
evils which all seem to regret, but which are so deeply founded, 
and so powerfully sustained, to be overthrown and destroyed? 

230 Review of an Mdress, $c. [Oct. 

"Some may suppose that these vicious institutions are too firmly establish- 
ed for Christianity to attack them, with any hope of success; that they have 
a grasp which can never be unclenched from the habits and affections of 
men. A strong grasp they certainly have even now; but what was it a 
century ago> The world has outgrown them, and begins to see their folly, 
if not their guilt. The truth seems to be, that they derive their principal 
strength at present, from the strange reverence with which men regard 
them, as institutions founded in the nature of man. There has been nei- 
ther heart nor hope in the exertions made to put them down " 

The true method of bringing these institutions to an end, i»by 
candid and sober argument; by showing their inconsistency vith 
jhe holy precepts of Revelation, and how injurious is their influ- 
ence upon the interests of mankind. And surely if any people 
were ever bound to exhibit a lofty and spotless example of pub- 
lic justice, and public charity, to stand forth as the firm advo- 
cates and supporters of all that is right, honourable, and chris- 
tian in the institutions and operations of society, it is the people 
of this favoured land. 

"When I reflect on the prosperity of the people of this country, such 
prosperity as the world never saw before, there seems to rest upon us a 
momentous weight of obligation to God. When I see the vast tracts sub- 
dued by man from barrenness unto verdure and beauty, and liberally re- 
warding his care; when I see the villages gathering their abodes of plenty 
and peace, round the spires that rise like banners of love above them; when 
I see the wild streams tamed and led to turn the sparkling wheels of labour; 
when I see the sails on every wave of ocean, bringing home through their 
beaten paths, the learning and luxuries which our own land fails to supply, 
when I see the mighty cities that throng our shores, filled with the refine- 
ments of the old world, and far too much of its corruption; when I think of 
the vast reach of our country's boundaries, the magnificence of its military 
preparation, and the navies bearing its thunder to the utmost limit of the 
deep; I leave it to others to boast of this growing power; these things re- 
mind me of a responsibility, such as never rested upon any people. I look 
for the gratitude which this unmeasurable blessing should inspire, for 
mighty efforts in the cause of humanity and religion, at least for an attempt 
to efface the wide and deep stain that now covers half our country, such as 
no other Christian nation now tolerates within its bounds." 

We need hardly say that Mr. Peabody's Address is an excel- 
lent one. May its spirit universally pervade and animate the 
minds of our countrymen. 

1828.] The Power of Religion. 231 

TA\e Tcwer of Religion. 

The following- sketch will be read with interest, not merely on aecount 
»f the remarkable facts related, but as coming- from the pen of the late la- 
mented Colonial Agent, Mr. Ashmun. 

Magnolia Dei evangelii sempiterni. 

L. C. a black man, has been a member of this Colony since 
the beginning of the year 1820. He had made a profession 
of religion in America, but never, since I knew him, either dis- 
charged its duties, or evinced much of its spirit, till within the 
last ten months. He was a man of good natural sense, but 
wretched in the extreme, and the cause of equal wretchedness 
to his young family. His wife, naturally of a mild and placid 
temper, failed in almost every thing to please him, or prevent 
the constant outbreakings of his morose and peevish humour. — 
He was her tyrant — and so instigated with malevolence, the vain 
conceit of superiority, jealousy, and obstinate pride, as to resem- 
ble more an Arab of the desert, or a person destitute of natural 
affection, than a person by education and in name a Christian. — 
As a neighbour, his feelings were so soured and narrow, as to 
render him disobliging, suspicious, and equally an object of gen- 
eral dislike and neglect. His heart was a moral desert — no 
kind affection seemed to stir within it — and the bitter streams 
which it discharged, had spread a moral desolation around him, 
and left him the solitary victim of his own corroding tempers. 

Such an ascendant had these evil qualities over the other fac- 
ulties of his mind, as in a great measure to dim the light of rea- 
son, and render him as a subject of the colonial government, no 
less perverse and untractable, than he was debased and wretch- 
ed as a man. Several times have the laws which guard the 
peace of our little community, been called in to check the exer- 
cise of his turbulent passions, by supplying the weakness of more 
ingenuous motives. Still this person discovered, in the midst of 
this wreck of moral excellence, a few remaining qualities, on 
which charity might fix the hope of his recovery to virtue, use- 
fulness and happiness. But these were few, and mostly of a 
negative kind. He was not addicted to profane discourse. He 

23$ The Power of Iteligion. [Oct 

allowed himself in no intemperate indulgences. Me observed 
towards sacred institutions, a cold, but still an habitual respect; 
and strange as the fact may seem, he was laborious in his avoca- 
tions, even to severe drudgery, and equally a stranger to avarice 
and a passion for vain ostentation. Whether these relieving 
traits of his character were the effects of habits produced by the 
influence of former religious impressions, or whether they were 
the result of constitutional temperament, or of education, is not for 
me to decide. But such was L. C. until the autumn of 1824, when 
not only a reform, but an absolute reversal, of every perverse dis- 
position and habit in the revolting catalogue of his character took 
place. A more obliging and affectionate husband I am convinced, 
is not to be found on this Cape; few, indeed, in the world ! And 
there is no appearance of constraint or affectation in this display of 
tenderness. It is uniform, untiring, cordial, and increasing, as 
far as it is permitted to any one except the Searcher of hearts to 
judge. In all his intercourse with his family and neighbours, he 
carries with him an inimitable air of sweet and profound humili- 
ty. You would pronounce it to be the meekness of the heart 
springing from some deep-felt sentiment of the interior of the 
mind. But so far from abasing the possessor in the estimation 
of others, this very trait commands their respect and their love. 
It gives to him a value which he never appeared to possess be- 
fore. Ten months have I now had daily opportunities to ob- 
serve this altered man in a great variety < f circumstances, and 
some of them, it must be confessed, sufficiently trying. In one 
instance I have had to regret and censure the appearance of that 
perversity which made an important part of his former character. 
But happily this fit of turbulence was of short duration; and 
some months have passed since, without witnessing a repetition 
of the infirmity. Were I this evening asked to name the man 
in the Colony, who would most carefully gunrd against offending, 
or causing even a momentary pain to any of his fellow men, I 
should not hesitate to say, that in my judgment, the man is 
L. C. On this point I insist, because it was precisely 
in his revolting and unfeeling churlishness, that his greatest 
and most incurable infirmity seemed to consist. I hardly need 
add, were silence not liable to misconstruction, that the duties 
and ordinances of religion are matters of his most devout and 

1828. J The Power of Religwu 233 

diligent observance. How often have I been awaked at the 
dawn of Sabbath, by his devout strains of prayer and praise sent 
up from the midst of a little company of praying people, who at 
that hour assemble for religious exercises in a vacant building 
near my residence. How sure am I to find him reverently seat- 
ed in his place among the earliest who assemble in the house of 
God. What an active promoter of every commendable and pi- 
ous design, is sure to be found in him. Every laudable habit, 
which had survived the general extinction of all practical virtue, 
seems to have acquired additional confirmation: and from the 
operation of higher principles, seems to follow of course, and 
derive the best guaranty of its continuance. I might go on to 
particularise — but it would only be to fill up the outline already 
sketched; and which, whether relating to his former or his pre- 
sent character, however imperfect, is strictly true. Ask of him 
the causes of so obvious and surprising a change; and he humbly, 
but unhesitatingly ascribes it wholly to the power of the Divine 
Spirit, operating, he cannot tell how, but evidently by means of 
the word and ordinances of God, upon his whole mind. Such 
was the origin of this great moral renovation — and such are the 
agency and means by which its effects are sustained, and under 
the operation of which they are beginning to combine into a habit 
of holiness. He rejoices in the hope of its duration to the end 
of life, solely, he would say, from the confidence he has in the 
immutable love and faithfulness of the Holy Being who has 
wrought so great a work in him. And let philosophers cavil 
and doubt if they must: but this man's example is a refutation 
in fact, of a thousand of their sceptical theories. He is a new 
man — and the change was effected chiefly before discipline, or 
example, had time to work it. He is an honest man; and sober- 
ly asserts, that to his certain knowledge, he did not perform the 
work himself. But where is the example to be found, of such 
and so great a change wrought by mortal means ? The history 
of the human race is challenged to produce it. To God then, 
who created man; to Christ, who redeemed him; and to the Holy 
Ghost, who sanctifies him, be ascribed without abatement, or 
reserve, the power and the grace displayed in this and every 
similar instance of the conversion of a blind, and hardened, and 
wretched sinner. Monrovia, July 3d, 1825, 


234 Lettei m s from Liberia. [Oct 

lietteYs from lAbeYia. 

We published in our last, several extracts from the commu- 
nications of the Vice- Agent, the Rev. Lott Carey, received by 
the 4 AU Chance' and the 'Liberia.' The same vessels brought 
letters from several of the Colonists; some of the more interest- 
ing portions of which, we now offer to our readers. 

Those who have perused our numbers will recollect, that a 
new settlement has recently been founded, about twenty miles 
from the coast, on the river St. Pauls, called Mills & Burgess, 
or by contraction, Millsburg. The condition and prospects of 
this settlement are thus represented in a joint letter from seve- 
ral individuals who have taken the lead in its establishment. 

"We have to inform you, that we have in good cultivation 
twenty-four acres of rice, cassada, cotton, corn, and other vege- 
tables, and our crops promise better than any which have been 
raised since we have been in Africa; but had we come up to this 
place one month sooner, possessed of tools enough, we should 
have been much farther advanced in cultivation than we now 
are; but we now see that here is land that will produce good 
crops of corn, rice, and many other things that are of great use 
to us. We have seen enough to convince us that we are doing 
well for the time. We must, however, inform you that ten 
acres of land is not sufficient for a farm. Here are large tracks 
of land which no persons inhabit. We have travelled about fif- 
teen miles northeast, and found no person whatever; nothing 
but old country farms, and good brooks of water, and good land 
for cultivation. As we have made more discoveries for the good 
of the Colony than any other set of men, we take the liberty to 
request that you would give us more land, as we intend to pur- 
sue cultivation; for without cultivation we cannot prosper. — 
Although times are hard with us just now, yet we must do the 
best we can; as we came out to Africa to plant a nation in the 
deserts of Africa, and as there are many waiting in America for 
us to clear the forest, we wish our rights for our children in law, 
which we hope you will grant us. As there are mill seats here, 
we wish you would send to us saw mills, running gear for the 
same; also ox chains, reaping hooks, grass scythes, and stone 

1828.] Letters from Liberia* 235 

hammers from 9 to 10 lbs. weight, with seeds and grains of all 
kinds. Our rice is now shooting, and in six weeks we hope to be 
eating it." 

Another very respectable settler at Millsburg, after specify- 
ing several kinds of vegetables, (among which, are cucumbers, 
water mellons, beans, potatoes, radishes, and squashes,) which 
were growing, and most of which had been sent, in considerable 
quantities, for sale to Monrovia, writes to Mr. Ashmun — 

"The improvements made, by the favour of Providence, at 
this place, are the admiration and astonishment of the whole Co- 
lony, at present. You are too well acquainted with new settle- 
ments to be at all surprised when I say to you, that the expense 
of the Company has not been less than 100 bars per month to 
each individual; but we are determined to risk all that we have 
or can accumulate, for the accomplishment of our object. As 
it respects Millsburg, there are now about 24 acres of land un- 
der cultivation in rice, cassada and plantains, peas, cucumbers, 
mellons and other vegetables, also cotton. 

"Sir, the creek, on the bank of which we landed at your dis- 
covery of this place, I have found to be a powerful stream of 
great extent in the Pessa country. There are many tine mill 
seats in our new territory, and also on the other side of the Ri- 
ver. It would be almost incredible if I were to state the many 
advantages which are here visible to men of research. Noth- 
ing appears to be wanting but means and men of industry, and 
in a short time the whole of the present Colony might be support- 
ed by its own inhabitants along the banks of the noble Dey, and 
in the adjacent country." 

Another Colonist at Monrovia writes: 

"The farms, particularly at Millsburg, are in the most pro- 
mising way that any have been, since I have been in Liberia. I 
wish you and the Hon. Board of Managers would make some in- 
quiries, whether it would be prudent and safe for me to trust a 
vessel across the Atlantic with our stripes and cross, and whe- 
ther we would be subject to foreign duties on tonnage; as Mr. 

and myself are about contracting for a schooner, and we 

wish to be very particular, and not to move until we shall hear 
from the Board, as the subject is important, particularly in re- 
gard to the duties. The commercial interest of the Colony is 

£36 Extracts from Correspondence. [Oct. 

increasing hourly, and we would like to hear from you by the 
first opportunity." 

Another, at the same place, writes — 

"Our business is going on in a prosperous way, especially our 
agriculture. The crops, both at Caldwell and Millsburg, ap- 
pear very promising. I have at Stockton and at Millsburg about 
seven or eight acres of rice and cassada; the rice, on an average, 
is about as high as my shoulders, and heading beautifully." 

Another, to the lamented Mr. Ashmun writes — 

"It is with the utmost pleasure, that I seize the present op- 
portunity to forward to you a few lines, to inform you that my 
health has been unusually good ever since the solemn hour you 
left our Roads, and also of my sincere desire to learn that your 
health is restored, and that you meet with the greatest prosperi- 
ty in all your undertakings. The Colony is much in the same 
state as when you left it. Provisions of all kinds are very scarce 
in the Colony; but the Farmers at Millsburg are making rapid 
progress, and at every return of a canoe send more vegetables 
than can be bought up by the people of the Cape under three or 
four days." 

From numerous letters, making application to the Society for a passage 
to Liberia, in behalf of many free people of colour in the south and west, 
we publish the following extracts, in the hope that they may produce a 
deeper and far more general conviction of the necessity of augmenting the 
resources of our Institution. Hundreds of persons, well recommended for 
their moral and industrious habits, are waiting for an opportunity to emi- 
grate, while the Society is left without the means of affording them a pas- 
sage. Shall this continue to be so? 

From a Gentleman in South Carolina. 

In this town and its neighbourhood, are large numbers of free 
people of colour. Favourable reports of your Colony having 
reached them, a spirit favourable to emigration has been evinc- 
ed. By desire, and in behalf of some of them, I take the liber- 
ty to address you. 

1828.] Extracts from Correspondence. 237 

I have received the names of thirty-five, including parents 
and children, that are desirous, apparently, to emigrate. There 
are fourteen grown persons, and the rest from fifteen years down 
to infancy. One is an able-bodied young man, just out of his 
apprenticeship to a carpenter. Some are ordinary labourers, 
and some accustomed to boating. Of their moral habits I can- 
not speak particularly; but have informed them that none will 
be received except such as can produce certificates of honesty 
and sobriety. If they can be taken by you, efforts shall be 
made to have them as well provided for as their circumstances 
will allow. 

From another in the same State. 

There are thirteen free negroes in this district, who wish to 
obtain a passage to your Colony in Africa, of whom I am guar- 
dian. They are well able to maintain themselves, and they may 
be of some service to the Colony, as one of them is a good shoe- 
maker, and three others handy with carpenters' tools. They 
will carry out tools with them, if permitted, and also household 
and kitchen furniture. 

From a Gentleman in Virginia. 

A family of coloured people in this county, who have been re- 
cently emancipated by will, are desirous of emigrating to Libe- 
ria, and of knowing whether the arrangements of the Society 
will allow of a passage this fall. This family amounts to 16 in 

Perhaps no persons could afford better materials for a new 
settlement than those who are now asking your aid. They were 
born and have lived in the neighbourhood which they are pro- 
posing to quit, without a reproach upon their good name; but, 
trusted by their owners and neighbours for their industry and 
honesty, they have long formed, in their habits and characters, 
a prominent and creditable exception from the degraded class 
to which they belong. Occupying poor land, remote from any 
vicious examples, the subsistence which they have supplied for 
themselves and owners, has been the product of a labour, the 
steadiness and economy of which bespeak the success of their 
exertions in the new and improved theatre to which they are 
asking to go. 

238 Extracts from Correspondence. [Oct. 

From a Gentleman in the same State. 

I write at the request of a large family of free people of c© 
lour, who reside in this county and the adjoining one. The fa- 
mily consists of three brothers and their families. Two of the 
ol.d men are yet married, and have between them thirty-three 
children. From a long conversation I had with one of them, I 
judge him to be uncommonly intelligent. Though he is not a 
mechanic by trade, yet he is a tolerable blacksmith. Some of 
the rest are carpenters and some masons. The old man told 
me, he had no idea of being benefited himself by any change, 
and was only anxious to go to the Colony on his children's ac- 
count. I have been informed by a gentleman living near them, 
that thev are, with one or two exceptions, steady and industri- 
ous, and that the old man stands high in the opinion of all wh© 
know him. 

From another in the same State. 

At a meeting of the Board of Managers of the Auxiliary Col- 
onization Society of this place, I was instructed to open a cor- 
respondence with you, in relation to a letter recently received 
by the Board from a free man of colour, in an adjacent county, 
expressing a desire to go to Liberia. In his letter, he remarks, 
"I am now in my 49th year, and infirm. I have ten children, 
and two grand children; all of which, I wish to have conveyed^ 
with myself, to the new African Coloi^; but am not able, nor 
do I know how to proceed. There are twelve families of free 
people of colour in my neighbourhood, consisting of thirty or 
forty persons, who say, that if I will break the ice, and start, 
they will bear me company; and they are all young people but 

In addition to the internal evidence afforded by the letter it- 
self, we have the verbal assurances of those who know him, to 
the same effect, and, what is of more consequence, of his strict- 
ly upright character and industrious habits. 

I think, Sir, that it is all -important for the advancement of 
this great scheme of humanity, that as many as can be induced 
to emigrate from this section of country, should be accommo- 

1828.] African Teak and Indigo. 259 

From another Gentleman in the same State, 

I am very sorry that your funds are so low; the more so, as 
there are so many valuable free people of colour, who are pre- 
pared to emigrate, both here and at Richmond and Petersburg. 
Several families of them have sold their property, and some of 
them have purchased house frames and goods to carry out with 
them. Amongst these people is a number of valuable mechan- 
ics and intelligent and industrious men. They are daily inqui- 
ring of me, if I know when a vessel will be despatched. Some 
of them have lately come down from both Richmond and Peters- 
burg, to make inquiries; but I have been unable to give them 
any information. 

From a coloured Minister in the State of Tennessee, 

Having been highly favoured by Divine Providence, we may 
be said to be ready to set out for Western Africa. I believe 
my family are all quite willing to go. We are waiting with 
great anxiety to hear the words, Go on! to the place of embar- 
kation. Having made preparations for removing, it would be 
better for us to 9et out now, than to remain here. Dear Sir, if 
you know whether a vessel will sail for Monrovia this autumn 
or not, you will greatly relieve my mind by giving me immedi- 
ate information. 

African, Teak, and In&Ago. 

The following- notices of those valuable productions of Africa, we have 
discovered in the Sierra Leone Gazette of 1825. 

Anxiously desirous for the promotion of the timber-trade of 
this colony, which we are happy to see is rapidly rising into im- 
portance, we have much pleasure in inserting the annexed ex- 
tract of a letter relative to the comparative qualities of Oak 
Wood and the Teak of this country. We apprehend, however, 
that A Subscriber is in error as to the two squares being of the 
same weight. We have always understood, that oak is much 
lighter than our teak: and, as a proof of it, that the former will 
float of itself, which is not the case with the latter. 

240 African Teak and Indigo. [.Oct. 

To the Editor of the Royal Gazette. 

Mr. Editor: I send you an extract of a letter from a house 
of the first respectability in London, to a timber merchant of 
this colony, which discloses a fact that seems not to be generally 
known, and which, if it were, must considerably advance the 
character of African Teak. 

"We think it interesting to you to communicate the following 
particulars of an experiment made by a most respectable and 
clever shipwright of this city, to try the effect of the loss of 
weight and size by the action of the atmosphere upon two equal 
squares of Oak and Teak Wood. The squares were each six 
inch* is, and each weighed 8lb. 3|oz. They were placed in a 
situation free from the rays of the sun, under a covering, and 
not subject to wet from rain. At the end of three months, the 
teak square weighed 7lb. 8oz. ; the oak, 61b. 6oz. At the end 
of two years, when they were re-weighed to satisfy our friend, 
the teak weighed 7lb. 2oz. ; the oak, 5lb. 7oz. The teak shrunk 
1-I6th part of an inch, the oak 3-l6th, during the space of two 

This is an important practical result, and speaks volumes in 
favour of Teak. A Subscriber. 

To the Editor of the Royal Gazette. 

Mr. Editor: I beg leave to enclose for your information, and 
for that of the public, the copy of a memorandum given me by a 
gentleman on this coast, who had made repeated experiments on 
the indigenous Indigo of Africa, with the greatest success. — 
Some specimens which he sent home were declared to be equal 
to the Guatimala, and his process was precisely the same as that 
described in the enclosure. 

I intend to make some experiments as soon as the Indigo is 
ripe, and think it would be well if some other farmers would do 
the same. Civis. 

"Take the leaf and stalk of the indigo, and press it in a case 
tight enough to hold water. When well pressed, pour some wa- 
ter on it, just enough to cover it, or about half an inch to an inch 
over. When it ferments, draw the spile or cock out of the 

1828.] Swiss Missionaries. 241 

bottom, and let the water run into another case; when done beat 
it about till it forms little balls, then pour some lime-water in, 
which will cause them to descend. There ought to be, in this 
latter case three or four spiles. After it gets settled, take out 
the top one, and the liquor coming from it will be coloured, but 
clear; if thick, let it stop a little longer. Continue so to do till 
all the water is drawn off, you will then find the indigo at the 
bottom; which must be squeezed till the water is all out of it, 
then put it in forms fit for use; drying it in the shade, by no 
means to let it dry in the sun." 

Srwiss Missionaries. 

By the Brig Liberia, a letter addressed to the lamented Mr. Ashmun, 
was received from the Rev. T. F. Sessing, one of the five Swiss Missiona- 
ries in our Colony, an extract from which, we are sure will be read with 
interest and pleasure. 

Monrovia, July 22, 1828. 

ii Dear Sir: — I embrace this opportunity, the Liberia, Capt. 
Russel, in order to give you a short account of my and my breth- 
ren's welfare. Indeed, we do not know how to thank God for 
our health and life, which latter he has been gracious to preserve to 
this moment. And though my brethren all had an attack of the 
fever, and myself was several times indisposed, yet, at present, 
we are all in good health. This is indeed a privilege, which 
few white people enjoy on this coast. We do, however, 
rejoice with trembling, for the rainy and the dry season have a 
quite different effect on our constitutions; and I am afraid, my 
dear brethren will have another attack of the fever in the next 
dry season. But we are in the hand and under the care of our 
Lord and God; without his will, neither they nor I shall die. — 
The same hope, dear Sir, I have for you; namely, that you are 
not only amongst the living, but that your health is restored 
again, and that we shall soon have the pleasure of seeing you 
here in Liberia in full health and vigour! You may believe, 
there are many here, who long for your return; this I have heard 
from all, with whom I conversed. I myself, do not long less 

&42 tfwiss Missionaries, [Oct. 

for you, when I view the approach of our setting out in the ene- 
my's country. With our present situation, though not very 
pi .isant, we are satisfied. You will have received a letter from 
Mr. Devany some time ago, in which he, as I suppose, has stat- 
ed the affairs of the building of the Missionary House. 

u We five brethren live at present in two houses: brother 
Wulf and mvself in Mr. Lewis's, and the brethren Hands, He- 
gele and Kissling, in the new house you have built for a Mr. 
Lewis in America. Those people, for whom you had the kind- 
ness to send a boat, proved almost all lazy, unfaithful, treacher^ 
ous people, so that we were forced to send them away. They 
were not sent from Sierra Leone, neither by Mr. Hands, nor 
by any other missiona.y, but they only heard of my being here, 
and thought to live on the expense of a missionary's kindness* 
but such a kindness would be sin and unwarrantable. We have 
at present two Bassa boys. 

"On two points yet, I would direct your attention. The 
first concerns our settling in the Bassa country, whither I myself 
with one or two of my brethren think to proceed after the rains. 
Should you be able and willing to answer this letter, would you 
be so kind a id propose the best way, by what opportunity we 
may get down. Whether it is necessary that an authorized 
settler should accompany me to have a conversation with the 
King, about our sta/.ng ii: his country? What articles we are 
to take down with us at the first outset? It is very likely we 
shall want an oar boat — and so on. O! that your health and 
other affairs would permit you to return hither before that time; 
it would be my greatest joy to take the first step in your com- 
pany and under your direction, in founding a mission settle- 
ment amongst the Bnssas, and I know it would not be less yours. 

"The second point concerns some provisions. I recollect, 
that \l,m said, you would have the kindness to send us by the first 
vessel any kind of provisions we want. I, with my brethren, 
accept of your kind offer. 

"But I hope very soon to see and to speak with you here per- 
sonally. The Lord our only Saviour, supporter and preserver, 
be, and r rnain -villi you, dear brother in our Lord, and with 
your humble bervant. 


1828.] Abduhl Rahahman. 24 S 

AbiluMi M\a\\man, the unfortunate Mootn 

Some account has already been given of this individual, in 
our numbers for February and May, of the present volume. — 
We have mentioned his desire to obtain the redemption of his 
entire Family, and that he was on a visit to the Northern cities 
to solicit aid for this interesting object. We rejoice to perceive 
that the Rev. Mr. Gallaudet, Principal of the Asylum of the 
Deaf and Dumb at Hartford, and so well known to the public 
for his truly Christian and charitable enterprise, has generously 
devoted himself for two or three weeks past to this unfortunate 
stranger; examined and made himself familiar with his history; 
brought the facts in it before the public in New England; and 
finally visited New York, and at a large and most respectable 
meeting in the Masonic Hall, appealed powerfully in his behalf 
to the generous and the wealthy of that city. 

The amount of 82500 has already been collected, and at the 
conclusion of Mr. Gallaudet's Address, a committee of five was 
appointed to obtain from the citizens whatever additional sum 
might be required for the purchase of his family. We rely con- 
fidently upon the efforts of this Committee; and should the 
amount necessary, exceed in some degree that specified as pro- 
bably to be demanded, we trust that it will be supplied, and that 
Prince will yet be restored with all his family, to his country 
and friends. Since the perusal of Mr. Gallaudet's Address, 
we have been gratified to find in several works on Africa, and 
particularly in the Sierra Leone Gazette, some statements which 
evidently corroborate the narration of Prince, though his repu- 
tation for veracity might, perhaps, be regarded as a sufficient 
guaranty to its truth. But before offering these to our readers, 
we invite their attention to the following extracts from Mr. 
Gallaudet's Address. 

"While at Hartford the other day, Priri&fi||had an interview with Sterling", 
a well known aged African, who had been a soldier in the army of his 
father, and who corroborated many things, before mentioned. 

"The account which I have received from Prince, is that he is a native 
of Tombuctoo, that interesting city in the very heart of Africa, and of which 
"we know so little, a city respecting which the African Society has expended 
so much money, and to find which the unfortunate Mungo Park lost his life 

244 dbduhl Hahahmaiu [Oct. 

"Prince was at Tombuctoo at the age of 17, and describes that city as being 
surrounded by a wall; that it was as large as New York ; that it contained five 
mosques, numerous schools, several manufactories of steel and of gold ; and 
that caravans were continually arriving. His grandfather, Almam (or Ali- 
mamy) Ibrahim, was king of Tombuctoo, which is the name of the territory 
as well as of the city. His father, Almam Ibrahim Jalloh, at the age of 22 # 
was sent by his grandfather to make war upon the city of Susos, 1200 miles 
S. W. from Tombuctoo, on account of some affront offered by the chief. 
Wars are carried on there by stratagem. The chief or king, seeing Almam 
by the side of a lake, fired at him with an arrow. The fire was returned; 
and as Almam, to use his own words, found it close shooting, he fell down 
as if dead. The king came and danced around him, according to the cus- 
tom of the country. Almam having only feigned death, watched for an op- 
portunity, drew his knife, slew the king, put his head on a pole, and car- 
ried it to the city. This appalling spectacle put the natives to flight, and 
the city was left in possession of Almam. On his return, he was appointed 
governor of that city. He went and took possession of it with a considera- 
ble force. He went back and forth several times The third time he went 
back, Prince was born. His father had, according to the customs of the 
country, two wives at Tombuctoo, where Abduhl was born. He had a 
brother three years older, whose mother was a native of an inferior race. — 
As Abduhl was a full blooded Moor he took precedence and was consider- 
ed the rightful heir to the throne. He was therefore sent back to Tombuc- 
too to be educated; and he represents the school to have contained upwards 
of two hundred pupils under four masters. They read the Alcoran, wrote 
on boards, attended to what they called Geography, to Astronomy, to cal- 
culations, to the Mahomedan Religion, and to the laws of the country. 

"His grandfather lived to the age of 110, and had resigned the throne of 
Tombuctoo to his own brother, Almam Ibrahim Danajoh, so called from his 
white face. Abduhl had another uncle, Moorde Armadu, w r ho was gover- 
nor of the province of Massina, which is as large a territory as N. England. 
The first cousin of his father, Alpha Boomaree, was governor of Jenna, 
and his second cousin, Moorde Sulimana, was governor of Bambougo. — 
(Almam means king, and Moorde means governor.) This territory is fa- 
mous for gold mines, and the governor was tributary to Prince's father, 
paying a peck of gold annually as tribute. 

"I mention these circumstances, to show that Prince's family connections 
were persons of power and influence in Africa; and their territories stretch- 
ed from Tombuctoo to Teembo^ a distance of 1200 miles. At the age of 
17 he was removed from Tombuctoo to Teembo; and at 19 he began to go 
to war. The king possessed a numerous troop This statement is confirm- 
ed by the best geographer of the age, Malte Brun, who says that this na- 
tion, Footah Jalloh, of which Teembo is the capital, possesses sixteen 
thousand cavalry." 

1828.] Mduhl Kahahman. 245 

Mr. Gallaudet then relates the circumstances attending the 
first acquaintance with Dr. Cox in Africa; the return of this gen- 
tleman to the United States, the subsequent capture and slave- 
ry of Prince; the remarkable incident of his meeting Dr. Cox, 
more than 16 years afterwards near Natches; the interest which 
was thus excited among the charitable in his behalf, and his 
final emancipation through the liberality of his master. 

He then observes, 

"I would now ask if this is not one of the strongest cases that can be pre- 
sented to our feeling's. After an absence of forty years from his native 
country, during- which long period he has been a slave in this land, Prince 
has a desire to see once more the land of his fathers, and to lay his bones 
among those of his kindred. It may be asked what are his intentions for 
wishing to go back. I will tell you. When he was lately at Boston he 
met a coloured free man from Liberia, who gave him intelligence from 
the territory of his early years. He told him his father was dead; that his 
brother Almam Abduhl-Gardre, who succeeded, died about 20 years ago; 
and that at the death of the latter the people wanted to make the son of 
Prince, whom he left a boy two years old in Africa, king. But he would 
not be king, he said: king no happy; drink nothing until the man who 
brings it drink first; eat nothing before the other eat first; never sleep twice 
in same room; have his bed made in one room, and when it is dark he get 
up and make his own bed in another room; trust nobody; no trust his wife, 
nor his son, nor his daughter: he no want to be king. He went away ta 
Tombuctoo. They then took Prince's nephew, Almam Boorbarkar, and 
made him king. He is now the reigning prince; is 42 years of age; and is 
said to be a peaceable man, having had only one war during his reign.— 
This person told Prince that a ship which trades to England was named af- 
ter his brother. This son of Prince is now a general hi the army of his 
cousin the King. A road has lately been opened from Sierra Leone to the 
territory of Tombuctoo, (Teemboo 1 ') 100 miles, and a brisk trade is carried 
on. In consequence of opening this road the slave trade has ceased in this 
part of the country, because the British preferred to take the productions 
of the country to slaves. 

"The object of Prince in returning, is not to assert his right to the throne: 
he has seen too much of the dangers of the situation to attempt it at the ad- 
vanced age of sixty -six. He has found too, what indeed might be found by 
any one, that happiness does not depend on one's rank. He proposes 
to have no other desire than to fix himself as a colonist at Liberia; to live 
and die under American protection; and to render this country what aid he 
can in promoting an intercourse between our colony and the interior. The 
late Mr. Ashmun learned that a road of 150 miles length had been made 
into the interior, just touching Footah Jalloh; the capital of which is 200 

24(5 Jlbduhl RaJiahman. [Oct. 

miles north of Liberia. When Prince arrives there it will soon be know* 
that old Abduhl Kahabman is alive, and is come back, with his family. His 
relations at Tombuctoo will hear of it. Think you his son will not go to 
see his aged father, whom he supposes to be dead? He doubtless will; and 
when the peaceful intentions of the old man are ascertained, no apprehen- 
sions will be excited among 1 his relations. They will invite him to visit the 
land of his youth; an intercourse may be opened between Liberia and a ter- 
ritory as large as New England, the capital of which, Teemboo, is as large 
as Baltimore; and probably this intercourse may be extended through a 
line of posts, where the relations of Prince are the chiefs, even to the city 
of Tombuctoo. It ma) r be the means of securing advantages to our trade, 
to Scientific curiosity, and to benevolence. I ask then if humanity and pa- 
triotism do not urge us to render assistance to Prince for the hospitality af- 
forded one of our own countrymen. There is a higher motive: a commer- 
cial intercourse, that may be opened, will strike at the root of the slave 
trade. It has already, as has been stated. Let us make it for the interest 
of Africans to pay for their purchases in the productions of their country. 
"We may be able to dispose of our own manufactures and products in ex- 
change for hides, ivory, beeswax, indigo, and dye stuffs, which abound 
there. We may be able to extend our commercial relations to the very 
heart of Africa, and the influence of our institutions also. As christians we 
must especially rejoice that an opportunity will be afforded for diffusing 
the blessings of Christianity to that dark and benighted region. Prince re- 
collects that at Tombuctoo no one is disturbed for religious opinions, and 
that the Alcoran had given the people a curiosity to see the Bible. It is 
already printed in Arabic, the language of that district. During all his 
trials, Prince has not forgot his Arabic, but reads it fluently, and writes it 
with neatness. The finger of God seems to point to great results arising 
from the return of Prince. His life appears like a romance, and the inci- 
dents would be incredible if the evidence was not so undeniable. We see 
in these events that God's ways are not as our ways, nor His thoughts as 
our thoughts. We see why Prince was not permitted to return with his 
Moorish disposition and his Moorish sword; that Providence continued him 
here so long until grace had softened his heart. He will now return a mes- 
senger of peace. Blessed be God that we are permitted the honour of co- 
operating with Him. Methinks I see him like a Patriarch crossing the At- 
lantic, over which he was taken a slave 40 years since, with his flock around 
him, and happy in the luxury of doing good. I think I see benighted Af- 
rica taking her stand among the nations of the earth 1 think I see 
Egypt, as heretofore, pouring a flood of light into Greece, and Carthage 
arising in former glory. I think I see Africa, one hand pointing to the tab- 
let of eternal Justice, making even us Americans tremble, while the words 
are pronounced, 'Vengeance is mine; I will repay saith the Lord;* and 
with the other hand pointing to the golden rule of the gospel, which if all 

1828.] Abduhl Rahahmatt' 247 

practised, happiness would result to individuals as well as to nations, and 
the efficacy would be felt throughout the world: 'Whatsoever ye would 
that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them. " 

Mr. Gallaudet states that Prince saw a man in Boston, re- 
cently from Liberia, [Sierra Leone r] who informed him that 
his brother, Alimamy Abduhl-Gadre, who had been King of 
Foota Jallo, died about twenty years ago, and that the nephew 
of Prince succeeded him, and is now on the throne. By refer- 
ence, however, to the Sierra Leone Gazette of 1825, we find 
the following notice. 

"Intelligence, which we are assured may be depended on, 
has arrived from the Foulah country, stating that Alimamt Ab- 
duhl-Kadre, King of that country, is again in Teembo. Bo- 
cary, the usurper, it appears, evacuated the capital on the ap- 
proach of the superior army of the King, without risking the 
chance of a battle, and has retired into the northern provinces, 
where his adherents principally reside. The peaceable, unwar- 
like disposition of Abduhl-Kadre renders him very unpopular 
among his subjects, and might prove fatal to him, were it not 
counterbalanced by the youth of his rival, who, in their estima- 
tion generally, is much too young for a King, not being above 
forty years of age." 

In another Gazette of the same year, it is stated that 

"A nephew of Alimamy Abduhl-Kadre arrived in the Colo- 
ny last week from Teembo; he was accompanied by a numerous, 
train of traders, who sought the protection of his name and 
influence for the safe conduct of their caravans." Speaking of 
the object of the visit, the Editor observes, "It is not to be im- 
agined that two great Powers like that of the Alimamy of 
Foota Jallo and this Colony, can any longer suffer themselves 
to be bearded and insulted by such petty chiefs as inhabit the 
tract of country lying between them." 

It is probable then that the Brother of Prince is now tivino- 
and on the throne of Foota Jallo. This country (according to 
Watt and Winterbottom, who visited its capital, Teembo, in 
1794) is "about 350 miles from east to west, and 200 from 
north to south. The climate is good, the soil is stony and dry; 
about one-third is extremely fertile, and produces rice and 
maize, which the women cultivate and the men carry to market 

248 Abduhl Rahahman. [Oct. 

in loads of licwt. which rise four feet above their heads. Their 
cattle, horses, mules, asses, sheep and goats, pasture on the hil- 
ly grounds, which contain considerable quantities of iron stone. 
They dig and manufacture a species of iron, which is extremely 
malleable. At Laby and Teembo, which is about 160 miles 
distant from Sierra Leone, they manufacture narrow cloths, of 
which their dress is composed, and work in iron, silver, wood, 
and leather. Their houses are well built, neat and convenient; 
placed at a distance from each other, to guard against fire; a 
precaution which never occurs to the Mandingoes. Among their 
amusements, horse racing may be enumerated. The markets 
and channels of trade are under the regulation of the king. As 
there are schools in every town, the majority of the people are 
able to read, and many possess books of law and divinity. — 
They profess the Mahometan Religion, have numerous mosques, 
and are not bigots though they pray five times in the day. 

On a sudden emergency, the Foulahs can bring into the field 
16,000 cavalry. As they are surrounded with twenty-four na- 
tions, many of whom are Pagans, their religion affords them a 
pretext for the acquisition of slaves in war. The King's Vice- 
gerent, in a conversation with the travellers, openly avowed that 
the sole object of the wars of Teembo was to procure slaves, as 
they could not obtain European goods without slaves, nor slaves 
without making war. He farther stated, that the European fac- 
tories would not trade with guns, powder and cloth, for any ar- 
ticles except slaves. The King declared, that he would renounce 
the slave trade, if a trade in native produce could he established. 
One of the chiefs who defended the religious wars, admitted, 
that if the Foulahs could procure European goods without mak- 
ing war, he would believe that God would be offended; but as 
this was impossible, God could not be angry, especially when 
the Book desired them to make war on nations that would not 
serve him. The travellers, recommended the use of the plough, 
which had never been heard of in the Foulah country; and the 
King offered to furnish any European with land, cattle, and 
men, who should settle among them." 

Such and so interesting is the country, over which, probably 
at this moment, reigns Alimamy Abduhl-Kadre, the brother of 
Prince. How important then, that this powerful (and as he is 

1828.] Abdahl Rahahmay. 249 

represented) peaceful Chieftain, should be immediately inform- 
ed by special messengers from Liberia, of the benevolent pur- 
poses for which that Colony has been founded; that his brother 
is living, and that by the charity of this Christian Nation he is 
about to be restored with a numerous family to the land from 
which, forty years ago, he was taken by violence to be carried in- 
to distant, and as it seemed, hopeless captivity. How must an 
account like this, if rendered credible, excite the admiration of 
a heathen King, and awaken even in selfish bosoms the kindly 
sentiments of gratitude and affection. And let us gain the 
friendship of Abduhl-Kadre; we have easy access not only to 
Teembo, but may readily penetrate to Tombuctoo and the other 
great cities of Central Africa. 

Mr. Park, in his first journey, penetrated to within 200 miles 
of Tombuctoo, and was informed by the Moors that the king of 
that place was named Abu Abrahima, (the Grandfather of 
Prince) that his court was splendid and magnificent, that he 
possessed immense riches, and that the expenses of government 
were defrayed by a tax on merchandise. This city is repre- 
sented by Mr. Park, as the principal emporium of the Moorish 
commerce in Africa. Tombuctoo, as described by Adams, the 
only white man, we believe, who professes to make report con- 
cerning it from his own observation, stands nearly upon the 
same extent of ground with Lisbon; but as the houses are built 
in a scattered manner, the population is probably not so great. 
The Arab, Sidi Hamet, who assures Captain Riley that he had 
visited Tombuctoo, describes it as in appearance six times more 
populous than Mogadore. As the latter place contains 36,000, 
this would give to Tombuctoo 216.000. 

In 1 804, Mr. Grey Jackson, who had resided many years at 
Mogadore, made a communication to Sir Joseph Banks, relative 
to Tombuctoo, derived from the information of persons who had 
visited or resided in that city. He speaks of it as twelve miles 
in circumference, that^it is subject to Bambarra, but that the in- 
ternal police of the city is in the hands of the Moors. All re- 
ligions are tolerated, except the Jewish. The profits on the 
trade to Tombuctoo, is said to be so great, that 5,000 dollars in- 
vested in European produce at Mogadore or Fez, would, in a 
year or two, produce a return of 20,000. 

How much reliance may be placed upon these statements, we 


250 Abduhl Hahahman. [Oct. 

pretend not to decide; but they appear to be generally confirm- 
ed by the testimony of Prince,* and we hope that to our country- 
men will belong the honour of having fully ascertained the size, 
condition and importance of this famous but wellnigh myste- 
rious city. What glorious results to the cause of humanity, of 
science., of religion, might be expected were there an open path 
from Liberia to Tombuctoo! Mr. Park believed, "that a short 
introduction to Christianity, elegantly printed in Arabic, and 
distributed among the negroes, who read that language, would 
have a wonderful effect in disseminating the mild doctrines of 
Christianity, and from its superior elegance and cheapness, 
might soon be classed among the school-books of Africa." 

We perfectly agree with the Editor of the Journal of Com- 
merce, on this subject, who remarks: 

•'Heretofore no power has been able to gain the confidence of 
the African Tribes in the interior — it now requires but a little 
management on our part, and the work is done. Some may con- 
sider our notions on this point as wild and chimerical, but we 
are soberly convinced, that if Great Britain hail possession of 
Abduhl Rahahman, and he stood in the same relation to her that 
he does to us, she would prize her good fortune beyond almost 
any sum. Philanthropy, curiosity and self-interest, would all 
seize upon the opportunity and push it to the extremity. It is 
more than probable, that within two years, we should hear of a 
thriving commerce with the whole of that vast interior; we should 
have an accurate description of the habits, origin, and resources 
of the people; an accurate geography of the country, containing 
the whole unexplored course of tiie Niger; and what is of more 
weight still with the Christian and Philanthropist, a way would 
be opened for the entrance of Charity and the Christian Religion. 
We really hope that an expedition will be fitted out, if not by 
government, at least by the enterprise of individuals to accom- 
pany the Prince to his native country. It is impossible not to 
expect of such an expedition results favourable to the interests 
and honourable to the character of the American people." 

The Rev. Mr. Gallaudet is preparing- for the press a detailed statement 
of the history of the Moorish Prince, which will be published in pamphlet 
form. A striking- and finished likeness of the Prince has been executed by 
Mr. Inman. It is now in the hands of the engraver, and, as we understand, 
will form one of the illustrations of the Tallisman, te be published by E 
Bliss before the holy day 3. — [JV. Y. Com. Adv. 

1828.] Emancipation and Colonization. 251 

Emancipation and Colonization. 

We have, from the origin of our Institution, entertained and expressed 
the opinion, that of all methods which could be devised to promote volun- 
tary emancipation, none would be so efficient as the establishment of a Col- 
ony for the free people of colour, on the African coast. We have known 
that thousands were connected with the system of slavery, from necessity, 
and not from choice; and that their own liberal sentiments would prompt 
them to avail themselves of the earliest opportunity which should offer, of 
conferring" freedom on their slaves, when this would evidently be benefi- 
cial to the slaves, and without injury to the public welfare That our opinions 
on this subject have been well founded, will be clearly proved, by the fol- 
lowing- extracts from letters now before us. In our August number we 
mentioned that forty-three slaves hail been offered to the Society by a sin- 
gle individual in Georgia. 

From a Clergyman in Virginia. 

After speaking- of the ages and character of seventeen servants whom he 
proposes to liberate, that they may be transferred to Liberia, he observes 

"They are as desirable a parcel of slaves, for their integrity and indus- 
try , as any man owns. But 1 cannot do my duty to them in their present 
situation. 1 have been trying to teach them to read, but the circumstances 
•f their condition render this an almost hopeless task. The young-er part 
are as fine looking little fellows as you have seen, anil in a land of freedom 
they would avoid many habits incidental to a state of slavery, and in due 
time under God's blessing, become useful to the Colony. In giving up my 
negroes I shall become poor. I can at present do nothing more for them 
than give them their liberty. Will you take them on these terms, deliver- 
ed to you in Norfolk or Richmond? " 

From a Gentleman in Virginia* 

" I am now writing from the residence of an old friend in this county. — 

1 introduced to his consideration the present condition of the Colonization 
Society. He is so struck with it, that he has made up his mind to liberate 
a coloured woman and six children; and to purchase and liberate her hus- 
band, and provide them with the means of paying- their passage to Liberia. 
Both the man and woman, are to my knowledge, persons of good moral and 
industrious habits. They are very suitable persons for the Colony. " 

From another in the same State. 

"A gentleman who has recently gone from this county, with an inten- 
tion of residing for a time in Kentucky or Ohio, has left under the care and 
direction of the Colonization Society here, a family of negroes, consisting 
of a man, his wife, and their 3 children; with the wish that they should be 
sent to Liberia by the first vessel sailing for that Colony. He has provided 
funds for paying the expenses of their outfit, and to the place of embarka- 
tion; and it only remains to be ascertained when and from what point, it 
will be convenient for the parent Society to send them, that the necessary 
arrangements may be made for their departure, by their friends here." 

From a Lady in , 

"I had some time since the pleasure of conversing with you upon a sub- 
ject of deep interest to myself, and which has not since, for one moment, 

252 The great Object advanced. [Oct. 

been absent from my mind. I then understood, that in case I could so 
arrange my affairs as to be able to offer my slaves to the Colonization Socie- 
ty, yon thought they would undertake to send them to Liberia. 1 have 
deferred making any direct application to the Society, until I had obtained 
a full and legal title to them, which I might be able to transfer. I 
have laboured incessantly to effect this end, and am now in full possession, 
as a lawful purchaser, of 24 negroes, now 25, so that I have a full and un- 
disputed power to dispose of them, and am prepared to do so, in the way 
which may appear most advisable for their benefit. They are young and 
promising: a number of young boys, some young girls, and a few old per- 
sons: but out of the number, are several who are decidedly opposed to 
going to Liberia, and prefer slavery here, to freedom in Africa. These I 
should not think of using force with. 

"Two or three very old persons, superannuated, or nearly so, refuse posi- 
tively to quit the home to which the) have been so long attached But my 
wish is to transfer, as far as I can in justice, all my title to the whole num- 
ber contained in the list It has been at a heavy expense, and with a total 
disregard of my worldly interests, that I obtained the right to dispose of 
these negroes. My situation is such as precludes the possibility of iny 
doing more than give them their freedom. I therefore hope that the So- 
ciety may be in a situation to take them as a gift from me, and assume the 
entire charge of providing for their passage and settlement in the Colony. 
Will yeu be so kimd as to communicate to the Board in the form you think 
best, a direct proposal to commit to their care for the purpose of colonizing 
them, a family of 20 or more negroes, good subjects for colonization: and 
will you favour me with as early an answer to my proposal as }o>.i can con- 
veniently obtain. The negroes are awarded to me at a valuation of 

From a Gentleman in Kentucky* 

"I will, willingly, give up 12 or fifteen of my coloured people at this 
time, and so on, gradually, till the whole are given up, (about 60) if means 
for their passage to Liberia can be afforded. I accord with your ideas, in 
your letter, as to the policy and morality of the design of the Society, and 
wish it success." 

The question then, now submitted to this enlightened and liberal nation, 
is, shall the funds be raised to effect the great objects of our Society, and 
to fulfil the wishes of these truly noble-minded individuals' 

T\\e gYeat Object advanced. 

A Clergyman in Mississippi writes, "J have much pleasure in announcing 
one of the Hi tnrnsn, who, for ten years, will give to your Society annually 
$100. For reasons not necessary to be mentioned, he wishes his nan.t to 
be concealed. He will commence his payment of $100 next spring, whether 
ninetv-nine others will make the like contributions or not; and this sum he 
will hold himself bound to pay annually for ten years, should he live so 
long. There is one man more, who will, I think, become a subscriber on 
this liberal scale. I have moved him on the subject, and he has it under 
consideration. 1 have little fear of the result of his deliberation. " 

1828.] Expedition to Africa — Contributions. 253 

Expedition to Mirica. 

The following Resolution was adopted by the Board of Managers on the 
31st instant 

"Resolved, That it is expedient forthwith to despatch an expedition, with 
emigrants and supplies to Liberia, provided $2000 can be raised for this 

Wm.*M Atkinson, Esq. of the Petersburg Society, David T. Burr, Esq. 
of the- Richmond Society; John M'Phail, Esq. of the Norfolk Society; and 
J. B. Harrison, Esq. of the Lynchburg Society; have kindly consented to 
act as a Committee to promote this object, and donations either in money 
or provisions, mav be entrusted to their care, or to that of Charles Tappan, 
Esq. Boston; Grove Wright, Esq. New York; Gerard Ralston, Esq. Phila- 
delphia; Messrs Harper and Latrobe, Baltimore. 

We state with pleasure, that the Rev. Isaac Orr, late of the Hartford 
Asvlum for the Deaf and Dumb, has been appointed "General Agent and 
Assistant Secretary" o< our Society. We trust this arrangement may give 
greater extent and energy to our operations. 

C onVcibwtions 

To the A. C. Society, from 20th Aug. to 51st October, 1828. 

Collection in Methodist Episcopal Church at Marietta, Ohio, per 

Rev. James Whitney, $11 23 

w Presbyterian Church, Romney, Virginia, per Rev. 

Mr. Foote, 25 

" two congregations at New Albany, Indiana, per H. 

Schribner, Esq 25 

'* Methodist Church, Petersburg, Va. per William M. 

Atkinson, Esq 17 50 

" at Natural Bridge, Va. per M. Houston, .. . 6 67 

" at Gettysburg, Pa. per Rev D. M'Conaughley, 10 

Receive'd from John M'Phail, Esq. at Norfolk, viz. 
" in Methodist Church, Portsmouth, per Rev Mr. 

Blake, $17 64 

•» Methodist Ch. Norfolk, per Rev. Mr. Holk-y, 20 

*' Presbyterian ditto do. per Rev. Mr Kollock, 23 

M ditto. Portsmouth, per Rev Mr. Nimmo, 5 00 — 65 64 

Mangohiek Aux. Society, Virginia, per Robert B. Semple. Esq. .. 32 

Rev. J. D . Paxton, Rockbridge county, Virginia, 5 

A friend in Petersburg, Virginia, 2 

Dr. Magaw, of Meadville, Pa. per John P. Davis, Esq 5 

An Orphan in New Haven, 1 

A Lady in Hanover county, Va. per Rev. Mr. Meade, 50 

A friend in Hagerstown, Maryland, 5 

J. T Vorton, Esq. Albanv, N. Y. his first payment on the plan of 

Genii Smith, Esq . . . .' ." 100 

Theo. Frelinghuysen, Esq. Newark, N. J. his first payment on the 

same plan, , 100 

Hezekiah Beecher, Esq. Livonia, New York, 5 

Two ladies at Fredericksburg, Va. per W. F. Gray, Esq. ....... 10 

Carried forward, #476 04 

254 Contributions. [Oct. 

J mount brought forward, $476 04 
The mites of a few individuals in Cabarras county, North Carolina, 

per John Robinson, Esq 5 

Greencastle Aux. Society, per J. B. M'Lanahan, Esq. Secretary, . 41 

Maryland ditto 30 80 

7th annual payment from Sunday School Teachers Frcderict'n Md. 10 

Collections by D. T. Baird, Pittsburg-, 5 

Collection in Northumberland, Pa. by J. B . Boyd, 10 

" Lutheran Church, Williamsport, Md. by A. M. C. 

Hamer, per James C. Dunn, 12 

M at monthly concert of prayer, Oxford, Granville co. N. C. 5 

" in 1st Presbyterian Church, Pittsburg', Pa 40 

" Presbyter'n Ch. Morristown, N.J. by P. A. Johnson, 42 25 

" by Rev. Win. Monroe, 20 

'* in Ptesbyterian Church, Princess Ann, Somerset county, 

Md. by Rev. John Moore, 10 

" in Market street Church, New York, by Rev. William 

M 'Murray, per Peter Neefur, Esq. Treasurer, .... 31 58 
at Cannonsburg, Pa. of the citizens, and students of Jef- 
" ferson College, after an address by Rev. Dr. Brown, 10 

" in Congregation of church at Hudson, Portage co. O. 20 

" at Leesburg, Virginia, 11 27 

* at Middleburg, do 5 39 

" at Aldie, do 3 86 

By Rev. James Nourse, as follows: 
Prom Mr. Ripley, forwarded by Joseph Jackson, collections 

at Rockaway and Dover, New Jersey, July 4, 1827, .... $15 00 
Received from Rev. Dr. Ludlow, Albany, collected from 
the citizens of Albanv at the celebration of Independence, 

in the new Dutch Church, July 4, 1828, 70 28 

Received from Ashley Samson, Esq. Rochester, N. York, 

a collection from the citizens ot Rochester, July 4, 1828, 41 27 
Received from Seth Seelye, Esq. collection in Presbvt'n. 

Church, Lansing-burg-, N. Y. 4th July, 1827, 8 50 

Ditto from ditto, collected 4th July 1828, 16 31 

Received from J. House, East Waterford, N. Y. collection 

in Presbyterian Church, 4th July 1' 28, 12 

Received of Mr. Riplrv. collection in Rockaway, N- J. 

Sabbath after 4th July 1828, 9 

Ditto collected in Presbyterian Church, Jamaica, L. I. 

per Rev. E. W. Crane, 29 

Collection by Rev. Mr. Clarke, of Canaan, N. Y 9 

From David Williams, \\ est ford, N. Y 3 

Collection 4th July, Catskill, N. Y. per Rev. J. W. WycorF, 9 
" Congregation of New Windsor, $4 50 and con- 

gregation of Canterbury, Orange county, N. Y. per Rev. 

James H. Thomas, $5 *10, .* 9 60 

Collection, Bioomfield, N. J. Sabbath next succeeding 4th 

July, 1828, per Rev. G. N. Judd, 15 

Received of Mr. Job Squier, Railway, N. J. his annual 

contribution, 10 253 96 

Collection in Christ Ch. Georgetown, 1). C. per J. Marbury, Esq. . 25 31 

Auxiliary Society, Nelson county, V irginia, 20 

Collection in the South Congregational Church, Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, per Rev. Joel H Linsley, 10 

P. A. Johnson, Esq. of Morristown, N. J. his annual subscription, 5 

Carried forward, $1103 46 

1828.T Contributions. 255 

Amount brought forward, $1103 46 
Collection in Pencader and St. George congregation, Delaware, 

per Rev. Mr. Post, 11 

" in Rev George W. Janvier's Church, Pittsgrove, N. J. 5 

" in Reformed Lutheran Church, Newtown, Pa 1 50 

" in St. Joseph's Church, Frederick county, 3 50 

" at Greensborough, North Carolina, ...• 8 

From C. Tappan, Esq Boston, as follows, viz: 

From Rev. Joseph (.off, of Millbury, Massachusetts, $2 

Collected in Marblehead, 4th July, 1827. do 11 

Collected in Congregational Soc. Dalton, do 7 34 

Of William Rock wood, of Hollisl on, for Repository, Ms. .. 4 

Of John Fairbanks, Holliston, for Repository, 2 

From an unknown friend in Roxbury, N. II. 1 

Of George Lord, for Repository, 4 50 

Collection at New Bedford* 4th July, 1827, Massachusetts, 4 

From a lady in Adington, do 1 

From North Brookfield, Massachusetts, do 11 37 

From the Baptist Church in Randolph, do 10 

Collected in Park Street Chuivh, Boston, 4th of July, Ms. . 81 50 
A donation from Azael, Am :S M-rshfield, Massachusetts, . 10 
Collected in S. Parish, Reading and Sioiubam, do. July 4, 17 
Collected in the first Con. Society Ilallouel!, Me. July 4, . 13 
Collected in the Calvinistic Society, Ashby, Ms. July 4, . . 7 85 

Collected in Portland, Maine, July 4, 54 

Collected in the South Parish of Weymquth, Ms. Julv 4, . . 28 37 
Collected in Rev. Mr. Holmes' So. N Bedford, Ms. July 4, 12 75 
Collected in Rev. Mr Woodbury's Society, Falmouth, Ms. 10 56 

Collected in Thomaston, Maine, 4th of July, 12 

Contributed by the children of the Central District School, 

Hopkinton, Massachusetts, 2 

Collected in the West Parish of Brookfield, Ms. 4th of Jul}-, 22 50 
Collected in Rev. Mr. Huntington's Society, North Ifridge- 

water, Massachusetts, 4th of J uly, 32 57 

Collected in Castine, Maine, 26 55 

F'rom Mrs. Almera Ellis of Medway, Massachusetts, .... 5 

Contributed in Southampton, Massachusetts, July 4, 10 37 

*' by inhabitants of Boothbay, Ms. July 4, 4 30 

" by inhabitants of Swaiizev, N H. July 4. 2 60 

" by Con. Society, Rluehill, Maine, ..." 11 15 

in Chapel of the Theo. Sem. Ando. Ms. July 4, 15 

" in Andover, Maine, 4th of July, 5 

Received of the Rev. Jonathan Ward, of Plymouth, N. H. 
contributed by his Soc. to constitute him a life member, 30 

Contributed in Dalton, Massachusetts, 4th of July, 18 

Given by Miss Hannah Goodell, of Millbury, Ms 20 

From an unknown person, 51 

Deduct postage, &c. $1 60, nett amount, 559 68 

Collection at the Chapel', Frederick, Va. by Rev. W. Meade, 52 52 

Wm. Brown, Esq. of Charlestown, Va. the donation of a lady, ... 10 
Geo. Cotton, Esq. Treasurer Hamp. co Mass. for collections 4th. 
July, and the annual subscription of members of the society, . . . 112 

Walter Bayne, Esq Accomac county, Virginia, 5 

Joseph Cowan, Augusta county, Virginia, 30 

Miss Landonia Randolph Fauquier co. Virginia, 10 

Rev. I. J. Roberts, Edgefield, S. C. to make him a life member, . 30 

Carried forward, $1941 66 




Amount brought forward, $1941 66 
Collections in Mississippi, per Rev. William Winans, viz: 

At Laurel Hill, M. Rev. R. L Walker, July 4 $13 50 

At Washington, by Mr. A. Covington, in Class-meeting-, . . 4 

Repository, $9 60 Amount brought up, $64 85 

Rev. Thomas Clinton, . . 5 William Diamond, 5 

Edward M'Gehee, Esq. . 5 

Col. John S. Lewis, .... 5 

Jeremiah D. Brown, .... 5 

Robert Smith, 5 

Cornelius Van Houton, . . 2 

Dav id W illiams, 2 

Ann J . ( imton, 1 

Col. David Davis, 1 

Robert Germany, 1 

George Damon, 1 

Rev. Bevil Taber, 1 

James Reames, 1 

Malachi Bradford, 1 

Isaac Taylor, 1 

James Bowman, I 

Job Poster, 

Joseph Dunbar, 1 

Thomas Freeland, Esq. . 2 

John Nugent, 1 

„Ann Nugent, « . . 1 

Buckner Darden, I 

John Snodgrass, 5 



Rev Benjamin M Drake, 1 

Rev. John O. T. Hawkins, 1 

John Fulks, 5 

John M. Gamble, 5 

Moore F. Hooe, 1 

William Foster, 5 

William Tigner, 

Frances H- Calvit, 3 

Eliza Little, 

Simeon Gibson, 2 

Jarret Hendricks, 

James Hendricks, 

Beverly R. Grayson, .... 3 

John M. Whitney, 1 

Col. John G. Richardson, 1 

Augustine Freeland, ... 5 

Thomas Miller, 

Col. James Smith, 2 

Levin Covington, 3 






George W. Kellogg, . 

Alvarez Fisk, 

William M. Lindsey, 

Dr. John W. Monett, 

Rev. William Winans, 

Martha Winans, 







143 55 

Rev John C Burruss, .. 

Caroline M. Thayer, . . . 

Gen. Samuel L Winston, 

Leonard Bradford, 

Jesse Trahern, ....«/... 

Captain Samuel King, . . 
Collections by the 

C. H. Shipman, Newark, 

John Ta} lor, do. .. 25 Luther Goble, do .. 10 110 

Collection in Hartford, Trumbull co. O. per Rev. W. Anderson, . 5 

" by ttev. Mr. Bennet, 2 

" by Samuel Stocking, Fsq. Agent at Utica, New York, 211 3% 
" by Rev. A. Proudfit and Rev. J. H Seymour, Salem, N. Y. 25 

•* in Downes Chapel, Accomac county, Virginia, 6 

" in Methodist Epis. Church, Bait, per Kev . W. Hamilton, 20 

Subscription to Repository, .... 

A friend in Connecticut 

Miami University Society, Ohio, 
R. I. Alexander, Esq. of Alex. . 

Auxiliary Society, Connecticut, per Seth Terry, Fsq. Treasurer, 

$145 00 

Draft, $ 1 45 

Hon. Theo. Frelinghuysen, N. J. \iz: 

. $50 Isaac Baldwin, Newark, . . $25 

. . 25 Luther Goble, do .. 10 

O. per Rev. W. Anderson, . 





Greensboroug!), North Carolina, 31 

Cuyahoga county, Cleaveland, Ohio 20 

" " Vermont, per J. Loomis, Esq Treasurer, 120 

" " Albemarle, Virginia, ptrJ.B Carr, Fsq Tr. 10 

'* " Rock bridge, Va per J. F. Campbell, Fsq. Tr. 47 

" " K Tit co. Maryland, per P. Worth, Fsq. Tr. .. 50 

Ladies* Missionary Society Frederick county, Virginia, 113 87 

$2,940 46 






Yol. IY. NOVEMBER, 1828. No. 9. 

C ouuwunicaiio i\ . 

Report of the Committee of Foreign Relations, in the Senate of 
llif United States, to ivhom were referred sundry petitions and 
memorials, and the resolutions of several Legislatures of differ- 
ait States, in relation to the Colonization of Persons of 
Colour. * 

[Concluded from p. 172. ] 

In pursuance of an intimation given in a former number, we 
proceed to inquire how far it may be expedient for the Govern- 
ment of the United States, to comply with the earnest solicita- 
tions of the Colonization Society and its friends, and with the 
recommendations of the numerous and highly respectable States 
that have volunteered an expression of their opinions on this in- 
teresting subject. 

The object proposed to be accomplished, is (in the language 
of the memorial of the Colonization Society,) "the removal to 
the Coast of Africa, with their own consent, of such people of 
colour, within the United States, as are already free, and of 
such others, as the humanity of individuals, and the laws of the 
different States may hereafter liberate." 

It is not our intention, at this time, to enter into the various 
views, religious, philanthropic, and patriotic, in which origina- 

258 Review of the Report of the ■ [Nov. 

ted the scheme for colonizing Africa with the coloured popula- 
tion of America. Such an exposition would very properly enter 
into an appeal to popular sentinwnt. But our only object now, 
is to meet the committee of the Senate, on the ground tbay have 
themselves chosen, and to show that the object in contemplation, 
is not only national in its character, but fully within the com- 
pass of the means at the disposal of the Government of the 
United States. 

We were aware that some difference of opinion had at all 
times, existed as to the actual value of the slave population of 
the United States, and that although a very large proportion of 
our fellow-citizens concurred in reprobating its existence, there 
were to be found here and there, highly respectable individuals, 
and indeed in some cases, communities of individuals, who con- 
sidered its benefits, as more than counterbalancing its acknow- 
ledged evils. But until the extraordinary protest of Mr. Taze- 
well, against any effort on the pait of the United States, "to in- 
trude itself within the limits of the States, for the purpose of with- 
drawing from them, an important portion of their population;" 
we had not supposed that a single dissentient could be found, 
from the general sentiment entertained in relation to that por- 
tion of our coloured population, which had been admitted to a 
state of partial freedom. 

The feelings of the slave-holding States, in relation to this 
"important portion of their population," may be inferred from 
the legislative restraints, almost all of them have sought to im- 
pose on its increase, within their respective limits. And even 
the non-slave-holding States, where there must, in the nature of 
things, be a greater degree of toleration, for the free people of 
colour, than in the South, are beginning to exhibit evident symp- 
toms of uneasiness at their rapid increase. 

These feelings, pervading, as they do, every portion of our 
country; extending from the North to the South, and from the 
East to the West, have originated in no unnatural and unreasonable 
prejudices, but rest for their support, on the most obvious prin- 
ciples of political wisdom and foresight. It is impossible, in the 
nature of things, that a population, just emerged from slavery, 
distinguished by the peculiarity of its colour, and cut oft* by un- 
avoidable necessity, from the most powerful inoentives to indi- 

1828] Committee of Foreign Relations* 259 

vidual exertion, and to moral elevation, should constitute a val- 
uable portion of any community, on which it may be cast. It 
can add neither to its wealth, its character, nor its strength. 

44 Whoever," says a late essayist, "is at all conversant with 
the character of the free coloured population of our country, 
must be satisfied, that it is a source of evil, rather than of good 
to us. The very limited addition which it makes to the labour 
of the country, is more than counterbalanced by its extraordinary 
deductions from the gross amount of that labour, by the indo- 
lence and the immorality inseparable from its condition, by the 
distinctions which it creates in our society, as well as in our 
laws, and above all, by the paralyzing influence it must neces- 
sarily exercise over the physical energies of the nation. In the 
slave-holding portions of our country, this balance of evil is in- 
finitely increased, by the effect of an intermediate class of po- 
pulation, such as that we are considering, in the relations sub- 
sisting between the master and the slave. Made up, for the 
most part, either of emancipated slaves, or of their immediate 
descendants, elevated above the class from which it has sprung, 
only by its exemption from domestic restraint, and effectually 
debarred by the law, from every prospeot of equality with the 
actual freemen of the country, it is a source of perpetual uneasi- 
ness to the master, and of envy and corruption to the slave. Its 
effect is to diminish the comforts of the one, while it increases 
the burthens of the other, and to leave to the society, in which 
it exists, no other security, than can be derived from an arbi- 
trary system of laws, not less revolting to humanity, than in- 
consistent with the general character of our institutions." 

Such, we believe, to be a fair and faithful exhibition of the 
real character and influence of the population, whose removal is 
the object of the Colonization Society; and entertaining this 
opinion, we cannot help considering the object itself, as one of 
infinite importance to the nation, and calling loudly for the ap- 
plication of the necessary means, that have been wisely committed 
to the government of the union, "for securing the domestic tran- 
quillity, providing for the common defence, and promoting the 
general welfare." Will not this Government indeed be guilty 
of a gross and unpardonable neglect, of the high and important 
duties devolved upon it, if it shall continue to regard with cold 

260 Review of bhe Report of the • [Nov. 

indifference, an evil, so extensive, so various, and so powerful 
in its operation; an evil pervading in a greater or less degree, 
every section of our country — and affecting by its baleful influ- 
ence, not only our morals and our politics, but our individual 
wealth, and with it, our national strength? 

Even had the fearful exhibition of expenditure, conjured up 
by the fervid fancy of Mr. Tazewell, been justified by the actual 
data in his possession, we are very much inclined to doubt, 
whether the expenditure would not have been more than coun- 
terbalanced by its resulting benefits. Indeed we hardly know 
how to estimate in dollars and cents, the value of a measure, 
that by withdrawing from us, our free coloured population, 
should open the way for the ultimate extinction of slavery, 
throughout the whole extent of our territory. Could such an 
event be instantaneously brought about — could the whole colour- 
ed population of our country be suddenly converted, by the 
magic touch of some enchanter's wand, into a free and industri- 
ous white population, what price should we not be willing pay, 
what terms should we not readily grant for so signal a bless- 

But these are not tl^ days of miracles; and we are not dis- 
posed to attempt, with human means, what omnipotence alone 
could accomplish. Mr. Tazewell need not be alarmed there- 
fore, at the idea of being called on to vote, either one hundred 
and ninety millions of dollars for the immediate extinction of 
slavery, nor twenty -eight millions for the immediate removal of 
our whole free coloured population; and we can assure him, on 
the most unquestionable authority, that even if the Coloniza- 
tion Society were to ask of Congress, means for the transporta- 
tion of the annual increase of the whole coloured population of 
the country, both free and slave, their demand, instead of 
swelling to six or seven millions, would be satisfied by an ap- 
propriation falling short even of a single million.* 

But in truth, the chief object of the Colonization Society in 
applying to Congress, is to procure, in the first instance, the 
national countenance to their undertaking, and in the next place, 

* See the Note after this Article. 

1828.] Committee of Foreign Relations. 261 

to obtain from the Government, such moderate pecuniary aid, as 
will enable them to make their settlement on the coast of Africa 
a safe and desirable asylum for the coloured population of Ame- 
rica, whenever this shall have been so far accomplished as to sat- 
isfy that portion of them already free, that they may, by their 
removal to it, improve their condition, moral, political and pe- 
cuniary; individual enterprise, aided by a very moderate share 
of individual philanthropy, will readily overcome all the antici- 
pated difficulties of transportation. The fact is, that at this very 
moment, a large proportion of the free coloured population of 
America, could furnish abundant means for their own transpor- 
tation, if the situation of the Colony held out sufficient induce- 
ments for their removal to it. And we venture to predict, that 
if ever the time shall arrive, when the most industrious and 
thrifty amongst them shall have been tempted to emigrate, there 
is not a village, a town, a county, nor a state in the Union, that 
will not be prepared, from motives of interest alone, to furnish 
the necessary means of migration to the remainder. 

That a settlement in Africa, thus constituted, and thus pro- 
tected, would also draw from us, if not the whole of our slave 
population, such portions of it, at least, as would relieve us from 
the greatest and most appalling of the apprehensions connected 
with its existence among us, cannot admit of a doubt. Even 
under all the discouragements which the laws of the South are 
compelled to throw in the way of emancipation, individual hu- 
manity is nevertheless continually at work; and under its influ- 
ence, hundreds and thousands of slaves are annually liberated, 
with very little hope that their situation will be improved, and 
with the strongest reasons to apprehend that they may become- a 
more serious evil to the community on which they are thrown,, 
than in their primitive condition. Their removal to Africa un- 
der the auspices and protection of the Government of the United 
States, would obviate every difficulty. Philanthropy and patri- 
otism might then go hand in hand. Individual felling would do 
much, and state legislation yet more, towards relieving the coun- 
try of its greatest curse and its greatest opprobrium. 

It is not for us to point out the extent to which the Government 
(should it see proper to embark in this business) must go, to ren- 
der its co-operation most efficacious/ If ever it does move, its 

26£ Review of the Report of the • [Nov. 

first movements must, of course, be experimental; leaving it te 
time and observation to mature its ultimate plans. We venture, 
however, to predict, that under no possible circumstances, can 
the numerous expenditures anticipated by Mr. Tazewell, ever be 
required; and we repeat our conviction, that one million of dol- 
lars, judiciously expended, would be more than sufficient to de- 
fray every necessary expense, connected with the removal of the 
annual increase of the whole coloured population of the coun- 

But even this amount would very far exceed either the expec- 
tations or the wishes of the Society. The protection of the 
government, and an annual appropriation of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars for some years to come, would, most probably, ac- 
complish every thing that ought to be attempted, would meet 
the demands for immediate emigration; give stability and pros- 
perity to the settlement at Liberia; and ultimately open an effi- 
cient drain, for a population as injurious to the national inter- 
ests, as it is dangerous to the national peace. Who, that is 
conversant with the resources, can doubt the ability of the Gov- 
ernment to make such an appropriation? And what appropria- 
tion, that could be made, would contribute more "to secure the 
domestic tranquillity, and promote the general welfare" of the 


The average price paid by the Colonization Society, for the 
conveyance of emigrants to Africa, and for supporting them dur- 
ing the voyage, has been about thirty dollars for each individual. 
The lowest price was twenty-eight dollars. There cannot be a 
doubt, however, that as emigration increases, and trade to the 
Colony is proportionally augmented, or rather as it is augment- 
ed in proportion to the size and resources of the Colony, the 
price of conveying emigrants will be much diminished, so that 
twenty dollars or twenty-five dollars will be the highest at which 
it can be estimated. Besides, the general rule is obviously ap- 
plicable in this case, that business done on a small scale, is the 

1828.] Committee of Foreign Relations, 263 

most expensive. It has been the usual custom of the Society, 
to receive the emigrants at the place of embarkation. 

From these premises, the glaring unfairness of Mr. Taze- 
well's statements, cannot but appear obvious to every unpreju- 
diced and discerning eye. Indeed it seems remarkable that he 
should venture to present such a report before so enlightened a 
body as the American Congress. And it seems no less unfortu- 
nate, that a subject so momentous, should be entrusted to hands 
apparently so ready to stifle it, without giving a fair exhibition 
of its claims and its character. Judging solely from the guesses 
of others, and from past expenses, he made a rough estimate of 
the cost of planting each emigrant in Africa, at $100. Proceed- 
ing from this goal so ingeniously, but so loosely set up, he esti- 
mates the expense of transporting all the free coloured popula- 
tion of the country, at $28,000,000, and of the annual increase, 
at $700,000: of the whole of the slave population, at $195,000,- 
000, and of their annual increase, at $7,500,000. What would 
we think of the farmer who should count the cost of clearing and 
planting a piece of wild land, and should calculate that the an- 
nual expense of doing it in succeeding years would be the same. 
And more especially, what would be thought of him, if he 
should even attempt to make converts to such an opinion. And 
yet it is exactly on this principle that Mr. Tazewell has pro- 
ceeded. However great the expenses of the emigrants may have 
been in the infancy of the Colony, it is certain, that when the 
facilities of support to the coloured people are as great in Afri- 
ca, as in this country, (and we confidently expect them soon to be 
much greater,) nothing will then remain but the cost of remo- 
val. For this, $20 a head would doubtless be an estimate suffi- 
ciently high. Even admitting, then, the rest of Mr. Taze- 
well's premises, the cost of transporting the whole of the free 
coloured population would be, $5,600,000, and of the annual 
increase, $140,000: the whole of the slaves, $38,000,000, and 
their annual increase, $1,140,000. From this it will be seen, 
that the undoubted loss sustained by the people of the United 
States in a single year by the use of ardent spirits, would more 
than remove the whole African race from our country to their 
native shores. How fortunate, if intemperate men, before pro- 
ceeding to ruin, would appropriate one year's waste to this 
cause of philanthropy. 

264 Review of the Report of the ' [Nov. 

But further. Mr. Tazewell is alarmed at the idea, that if Gov- 
ernment interpose, it must pay something like an equivalent foi 
the slaves, iri order to obtain their manumission. Was he in- 
deed unacquainted with the fact, that the disposition, from 
whatever motive, to liberate them, is already so great, that al- 
most every where, the strong arm of the law is found necessary 
to arrest the progress of manumission? and that it is the avowed 
determination of a great portion of masters, to liberate their 
slaves, as soon as it can be done to the benefit of the slaves, 
without danger to themselves? And docs he know the rapid 
progress of this change of sentiment? He ought at least to have 
contrived some method, by which the chain might have been 
separated that binds the master to his servants, and might leave 
them free to liberate them, according to their desire, before he pro- 
posed to pay them for doing it. The colonization scheme in 
fact, opens the only way in which even the white man is at lib- 
erty to do what he will with his own. Even a child can under- 
stand, that though no human arm can, at a single lift, cast 
Mount /Etna into the sea, its removal thither is, notwithstanding, 
entirely practicable. Only let the work go on, and it will, in 
due time, be accomplished. Only remove entirely the barriers 
to the progress of moral sentiment, and that alone would per- 
form most of the wonders that make such a figure in Mr. Taze- 
well's arithmetic. And further, let such an experiment be fairly 
made, as will show clearly on which side lie individual and na- 
tional interest, and the work is done. The nation and the man 
will hardly be found so selfish as not to gratify their selfishness, 
even if in doing it, they should also obey the dictates of humanity. 

The subject, however plausibly numbers may be set down and 
exhibited, is obviously not within the comprehension of pure nu- 
merical arithmetic. It enters mostly into a moral arithmetic, 
of which many of the digits are yet to be found. For instance, 
only suppose for a moment, that the African Colony held forth 
strong inducements to emigration, as it doubtless will, if well 
managed and properly supported; and that the coloured people 
might be liberated with safety a while before their departure 
thither; how long would it be, before each person, that was fit to 
emigrate would lay up $20; and how soon would they forever 
abandon the shores of our country? It is a pity that Mr. Tazc 

1828.] Committee of Foreign Relations. 265 

well, while he was wandering in the field of conjectures, had 
not touched upon these and similar grounds of more light and 
greater probability. Before such a state of things, his imposing 
estimates would vanish like the meadow mist before the sun of 
a summer morning. The better part of the sons of Africa, 
would proceed by their own resources and their own energies, 
to civilize and renovate their native home; and the remnant 
would very prob;ibly end their days and their lineage in the 
alms-houses and hospitals of our own country. All this may be 
called fancy; but when shadows are made warriors, truly better 
shadows may be set up to oppose them. 

On the supposition, however, that the aid of Government will 
not be obtained immediately, even at the most important crisis 
of our great and very promising experiment, the subject of this 
note presents a fit opportunity to make an urgent and powerful 
appeal to the people of the North. Almost to a man, they are 
anxious that our common country should be delivered from what 
they deem a great and threatening evil. And moreover, it can- 
not be said, that they are backward to do what they see to be 
their duty in the cause of their country. If their feelings are 
in any case too violent on this interesting subject, it is because 
they are mistaken respecting it. It is because they do not see 
clearly the difficulties and impediments with which it is encum- 
bered. But they understand arithmetic. They know too, that 
the owners of slaves have paid for them the market price, the 
very price for which they are now ready to sell them, or set 
them at liberty. Their profit has been wholly that of use, 
which can be considered only as equal to the interest of the mo- 
ney which they have actually expended. The clear profit, if 
there has been any, has mostly fallen to the lot of those who have 
perpetrated the atrocities, and partaken in the horrors of the slave- 
trade. Of these guilty persons, with shame be it spoken, many, 
perhaps the most, belong to the North. Those who give up their 
slaves without an equivalent, must make an actual sacrifice, 
nearly or quite equal to the full amount of their value. We 
may with safety set this value at g200 a head. What then is 
the readiness of the South compared with the North to get rid 
of this evil? We may compute it in decimal arithmetic. If the 

South liberate their slaves, they virtually pay $200 a head to- 


t6$ Meview of the Report of the [Noy. 

wards their emigration to Africa. If the North bear the whole 
expense of removal, they pay, excepting extraordinary expen- 
ses, 825 a head, or one-eighth of what is paid by the South.— 
But in fact, the South bear a very considerable part of the ex- 
pense of removal. And yet there are more than 200 slaves 
whose masters wish to liberate them, and have already offered 
them to the Society; and they must still remain in slavery simply 
because the means cannot be provided of conveying them to Afri- 
ca. By actual computation, then, the South are about eight times 
as ready as the North to get rid of this evil. Surely if emulation 
does not turn the scales, censure must be silent. Those who - 
are now implicated, cannot be blamed for what has fallen to 
them by paternal inheritance. Their fathers expended their 
money for what was then deemed legitimate property. It is 
still so represented by the laws of our country. The evil is uni- 
versally allowed to be national, and it requires for its removal, 
a nation's resources and a nation's energies. 

And what are our free coloured population? They are slaves, 
or the children of slaves, manumitted by the hand of their mas- 
ters. They can, in reality, be considered in no other light than 
that of slaves just set at liberty. The South, as it respects the 
emancipation of their own coloured people, have stolen a march 
on the North, and have left them in the rear in the progress of 
moral sentiment. The actions of the North, then, should de- 
monstrate how much their declarations on this subject are based 
on sincerity. In this respect, the language of the South is more 
unequivocal and more decisive. This is not declamation; it is 
not hyperbole; but truth unvarnished: and to a candid ear, 
a simple statement of facts is the most acceptable and the most 
commanding eloquence. Ed: pro tern. 

Since writing the above, we have, for the first time, noticed 
the following from the New- York Observer. 

"African Colonization. — We mentioned in our last, that more than 400 
free blacks had applied to the Managers of the American Colonization So- 
ciety to be transported to the African Colony, and that the owners of more 
than 200 slaves had declared their readiness to liberate them as soon as 
means are provided for their removal. 

"We with our benevolent readers to dwell for a moment upon these 

1S28.] Committee of Foreign Relations. &67 

facts — particularly the latter. The good people of the North profess to 
regard slavery with utter abhorrence, and often reproach their Southern 
neighbours, in no measured terms, for continuing a practice so opposed to 
every principle of justice and humanity. " But is not the reply just?-— 
"We feel the force of what you say: but we cannot first relinquish our 
slaves, which are half the property we possess, and then transport them to 
another clime: neither can we, nor will we, turn them loose upon our fel- 
low citizens, to become paupers, thieves and robbers. If you are as hon- 
est in favour of emancipation as you are importunate, hand oerto the 
Colonization Society $20, as often as we relinquish $300 or $400. We 
will free our slaves, if you will transport them to the land of their fathers. 

"\nd what can the Northerner say? Nothing. And he ought to say no- 
thing. If with all his boasted patriotism and compassion for suffering hu- 
manity, he cannot do little where he requires others to do so much, let 
him hide his head, and close his lips with conscious shame. 

"Hut is it so? Will the friends of African emancipation in the Northern 
States suffer 200 of* their fellow men to wear the chains of slavery yet lon- 
ger and longer, for lack of the necessary funds to transport them to Libe- 
ria } We do not— we cannot believe it. Exempt from slavery ourselves, 
with all its attendant evils, — the very love of country, the common sympa- 
thies of our nature, much more the dictates of humble piety, would lead us to 
pity and relieve these children of misfortune and sorrow. But let it be remem- 
bered, kind wishes avail nothing- in a matter like this; kind words avail no- 
thing. The necessities of the case can only be relieved by prompt and 
liberal generosity. The season for safe emigration is rapidly passing away; 
and whatever is clone, must be done quickly. Two months longer, and it 
will be too late." 

There is such a resemblance between the note and the quota- 
tion, that it would seem as if one must have been a transcript of 
the other. They are both, however, the transcript of truth, and 
are therefore from the same original. We rejoice to see such 
sentiments from a source at the North so highly respectable. 
We cannot but hope that they will be found already written 
in the hearts of all who are the friends of freedom, of our coun- 
try, and of humanity. And we trust, that wherever they are 
found, they will be like the breath of life, and will arouse each 
and every individual to ardent feeling, and to efficient activity. 
The people of the South are now saying, and what is more, they 
are saying practically to the people of the North, "We are moved 
by your remonstrances; we are convinced by your arguments; 
and moreover, we are willing to set you an example on your own 
lessons of freedom and humanity. We are ready to lead the 

268 Review of the Report of the [Nor. 

way, and even to leave you far in the rear, in the attainment of 
that object for which you have so earnestly plead, and which 
you have so loudly demanded. We hold our coloured popula- 
tion on principles which were approved and practised by you 
and your fathers. We paid for them the market price, at a time 
when no doubt was expressed that they were just and legal 
property. We have ever held them, and we still hold them as 
such by the laws of our country. We obtained them when 
Government was pledged to defend them as our own. This 
pledge stands on the firm basis of a contract. No retrospective 
law can reach and destroy it, without doing inexcusable violence 
to the free principles, and free institutions of our country. 
Such a law would at least operate like the hidden spring of a 
trap, set to catch citizens whom the Government is bound to 
protect. Violence of this kind, though it may assume the name 
of legal, we will repel with all our strength. The free spirit ot 
our fathers, and of our common country, commands us to do so. 
Yet we are ready, we show you that we are ready to give up 
what you have no right to wrest from our possession. — 
Hundreds of thousands have already been so given up. — 
More still would have been given up; but policy, and even 
the voice of humanity forbid the progress of manumission; 
and the salutary hand of law came forward to co-operate with 
our convictions, and to arrest the flow of our feelings, and the 
ardour of our desires. But they are only arrested; not over- 
powered or extinguished. We offer you now more than two 
hundred Africans, and we entreat you to convey them to their 
native shores, whence they were torn by other hands than ours. 
We would call upon those guilty persons to undo what they 
have done; but, Alas! if the curse of Providence has not swept 
them and theirs from the world, their hearts would probably be 
callous far beyond the influence of our entreaties. Accept, we 
beseech you, the offering, and assist in a small degree to accom- 
plish your own desires. We give it freely: we give ten dollars 
to your one. Many of us are embarrassed, and some made poor 
by the sacrifice. But we trust in that God whom we desire to 
obey, and we beseech him to touch your hearts, and impress 
your minds with our own feelings, and our own sentiments." 
Friends of freedom and humanity, shall this language, so much 

1828.] Committee of Foreign Relations. 269 

like your own, be permitted to pass by unheard and unheeded? 
Shall this soft flame of hope, that beams so delightful, and so 
full of promise, be suffered to sink for the want of so small an 
encouragement Ah! who can tell, if it should once expire, 
what hand, or what power can rekindle it? 

Before closing, it ought to be observed, that if the principal 

sround on which Mr. Tazewell rests his estimates, can be made 


good, to us it will inevitably be fatal. About three quarters of 
his supposed expense, must be incurred in supporting the colo- 
nists after their arrival. If the facilities of support to the colour- 
ed people cannot be rendered as great at the Colony as in 
America, or even greater, all our efforts are idle and vain. If 
they can, the Colonists will in the main, support themselves im- 
mediately upon their arrival. If they cannot, then the argu- 
ment not only properly precludes the patronage of Government, 
but it withers entirely the hopes of the Society. Never, in that 
case, can the coloured population be removed, but by the strong 
hand of violence, that dragged them from their native shores. 
But we ought to be thankful that Mr. Tazewell is neither the 
dispenser nor the prophet of futurity. In addition to the known 
fertility of Africa, here the coloured people have to contend with 
the strong and skilful hand of enlightened freemen; there 
with a sparse population of untaught and indolent savages. 

We cannot do better than to close this article with an extract 
of a letter from Gerrit Smith, Esq. one of our warmest friends 
and ablest contributors. "Will another attempt be made, at 
the next session of Congress, to enlist the means of the nation in 
behalf of the objects of our Societj'? Those means are indispen- 
sable to the speedy accomplishment of our work; but let us not 
have them, unless they can be constitutionally afforded to us. — 
I cannot agree with the great majority of our friends, that our 
work cannot be done without these means. There is patriotism 
enough in the people of this republic to do it — and in the face 
of all obstacles, they will do it. Do I count too largely on that 
patriotism? We betake ourselves, then, to a better — ran un- 
failing reliance. If the subject cannot kindle sufficient alarm 
in the bosom of the patriot, yet it has power to move the sym- 
pathies of the Christian; and on the benevolent workings of his 
holy religion, and the blessing of God, which ever accompanies 

270 Letter from Matthew Carey, Esq. [Nov. 

them, do we ground our last and safest confidence, that the next 
generation, if not, indeed, ourown, will witness countless vessels 
employed in carrying back our poor Africans to their mother 
land, and in recompensing all the wrongs we have done her, 
with the blessings of civilization and the gospel." 


We are happy to announce by the following letter, the attain- 
ment of another distinguished friend to our cause; and the more 
so, because he has seen fit at the outset, to place himself in the 
first rank of our friends and advocates. Indeed we are perfect- 
ly confident, that just so far as we can make fully known the 
true state of things, and the designs and prospects of our Society, 
we shall attain, to a man, every friend, that in the promotion of 
a good cause is worth the attainment. 

Dear Sir: 

When the idea of the Colonization Society was first present- 
ed to the public, I was one of thousands and tens of thousands, 
who regarded it as one of the wildest projects ever patronized 
by a body of enlightened men. Thus viewing it, you will not 
be surprised to learn, that I was, as Sterne says, "predeter- 
mined not to bestow on it a single sous." — This view I enter- 
tained until lately, when a careful perusal of the tenth and 
eleventh reports of the Society, which you were so kind as to 
send me, convinced me that I had been egregiously in error; I 
had greatly overrated the expense of the transportation of the 
Colonists, and of their support for some time in Liberia, sup- 
posing it would be from one hundred, to one hundred and fifty 
dollars each. Under this impression I considered the scheme al- 
most as Utopian, as it would be to attempt to drain Lake Erie 
with a ladle. 

It appears by the report, that the conveyance of Colonists to 
Liberia, and their support there for one year, can be accomplish- 
ed for twenty dollars, perhaps less. This wholly changes the face 

1828.] Letter from Matthew Carey, Esq. 271 

of affairs, and places the attainment of the grand object in view, 
(that is, to withdraw from the United States annually, so many 
of the coloured population, and provide them a comfortable home 
and all the advantages of civilization in Africa, as will make the 
number here remain stationary,) within the grasp of the nation; 
provided sound views and a spirit of liberality commensurate 
with the magnitude of the object, can be spread abroad on the 

The mortality that has occurred, and the various difficulties 
and disadvantages that have been experienced in the settlement 
of Liberia have been considerable, but they have been greatly 
exaggerated; they however sink into insignificance, when com- 
pared with what took place in the early settlement of Virginia^ 
famine, pestilence, internal dissensions, idleness, profligacy, 
and the tomahawk of the savages, swept off repeated settlements 
of the colonists, and cleared the country of them;* and it was 
not until about thirty years from the date of the first attempt at 
a settlement, that a permanent establishment was effected. 
This ought to silence forever those who plead the difficulties that 
Liberia has experienced, as a proof of the impracticability of the 

I firmly believe, that numerous as are the objects which claim 
the beneficence of the wealthy, there is none that promises so 
copious a harvest of blessings to the United States — none which 
involves so many of those considerations that oup;ht to influence 
citizens who look beyond their own selfish interests. There is 
one point of view in which it soars in magnitude and import- 
ance, beyond every other object of public utility, and which can- 
not be regarded without the deepest solicitude and terror. By 
a rational calculation in Mr. Darby's valuable work, just pub- 
lished, it appears, that according to the past ratio of the increase 
of the coloured population of the United States, they will in the 
year 1868, amount to above 10,000,000; in 1882, to 15,000,000, * 
unless some efficient measures of prevention be adopted! Who 
can regard this enormous increase without affright? Who can 
consider any expense too great to avert the horrible consequen- 
ces, with which it is pregnant? Could a portion of the national 

*See Note at the end. 

272 Letter from Matthew Carey, Esq. [No> , 

wealth — could individual or State munificence be in any other 
mode better employed? "Can any man who loves his country, 
regard the present prospect on this subject without terror? Can 
we view this state of things and let it pass on, without once cal 
dilating what will be its consequences to posterity." — [-#«# 

I shall conclude this long letter with stating, that in confor- 
mity with the views of Mr. Gerrit Smith, * of New York, I send 
you one hundred dollars, and intend to remit to the Society, the 
same sum, for nine successive years, should I live so long. But 
I wish it distinctly understood, that although this is my present 
intention, I am not to be considered as irrevocably bound by it. 
I hold myself at liberty, should I judge proper, (which however 
is unlikely,) to change my purpose. 

Yours with esteem, 
Matthew Carey. 
Philadelphia, Nov. Sth, 1828. 


Smith left the Colony furnished with three ships, good fortifi- 
cations, twenty-five pieces of cannon, arms, ammunition, ap- 
parel, commodities for trading, and tools for all kinds of labour. 
At James' Town, there were nearly sixty houses. The set- 
tlers had begun to plant and to fortify at five or six other 
places. The number of inhabitants was nearly five hundred. — 
They had just gathered in their Indian harvest, and besides, 
had considerable provision in their stores. They had between 

♦Rev. R. R. Gurlet. Peterboro, N. Y. Dec. 26, 1827. 

Dear Sir.- Above is my draught for $100, which, I trust, you will be 
able to realize without much delay or trouble. I am fully persuaded, that 
the only present channel for our labours in behalf of Africa and her un- 
kappy children on our shores, is that which the Amer. Colonization Socie- 
ty opens up to our patriotic and christian liberality. Can there not be one 
hundred persons found, who will subscribe $1000 each to the funds of 
your Society? — $100 to be paid in hand, and the residue in nine equal pay- 
ments. If there can be, you are then at liberty to consider me as one of 
the one hundred persons, and the enclosed draught as the first payment of 
my $1000. 

Your friend. Gerbit Smith. 

1823.] Address of the Rockbridge Col. Society. £7Q 

five and six hundred hogs, an equal number of fowls, some 
goats and some sheep. They had also boats, nets and good ac- 
commodations for fishing. But such was the sedition, idle- 
ness and dissipation of this mad people, that they were soon re- 
duced to the must miserable circumstances. No sooner was 
Capt. Smith gone, than the savages, provoked by their dissolute 
practices and encouraged by their want of government, revolt- 
ed, hunted and slew them from place to place. Nansemond, 
the plantation at the falls, and all the out-settlements, were 
abandoned. In a short time, nearly forty of the company were 
eut off by the enemy. Their time and provisions were consum- 
ed in riot; their utensils were stolen or destroyed; their hogs, 
sheep and fowls killed and carried off by the Indians. The 
sword without, famine and sickness within, soon made among 
them surprising destruction. Within the term of six months, 
of their whole number, sixty only survived. These* were the 
most poor, famishing wretches, subsisting chiefly on herbs, 
acorns and berries. Such was the famine, that they fed on the 
skins of their dead horses: nay, they boiled and ate the flesh of 
the dead. Indeed they were reduced to such extremity, that 
had they not been relieved, the whole Colony in eight or ten 
days would have been extinct. Such are the dire effects of 
idleness, faction and want of proper subordination. — [Holmes' 
American Annals, Vol. I, p. 60. 

This hideous state of things took place in 1610; and the 
first attempt at settlement was in 1585. Thus we see there 
were twenty-five years of famine, disorder, slaughter and de- 

AAftxess oi i\\e T^ockVritlge Col. Society. 

We introduce the following" extracts from this well-written and very able 
Address, with an entire conviction, that if an apology for their appearance 
in our work should be deemed needful, they will abundantly speak their 
own apology. Coming, as they do, from the central part of Virginia, they 
will fully evince, that we have in that quarter, at least one distinguished 
friend, in addition to those whom we knew before. But further* they 

274 Address of the Rockbridge Col. Society. • [Nov. 

doubtless contain the sentiments of many; and viewed in this light they are 
peculiarly interesting 1 , especially as those sentiments are expressed in a 
clear, concise and forcible manner. We confidently trust, that so much 
zeal and intelligence will ever hereafter be alive and active in promoting 
this great cause of Africa and our country. 

"The scheme of colonizing our coloured people, is not a new 
and untried theory, nor can it be traced to any impure or sus- 
picious origin. Long ago, when the sages of the revolution still 
directed our public affairs, the Legislature of Virginia first adopt- 
ed the scheme, took measures to carry it into effect, and would 
have proceeded with it, as the proper business of government, 
had they been able at that time, to obtain a foreign territory 
adapted to the purpose. 

"About twelve years ago, some of the wisest men of the na- 
tion, (mostly slave-holders,) formed, in the city of Washington, 
the present American Colonization Society. Among them were 
men high in office, who had spent many years in studying the 
interests of their country, and who could not, therefore, be sus- 
pected of short-sighted enthusiasm, or any secret design of dis- 
turbing the rights or the safety of our Southern citizens. 

"Experience has so far proved the wisdom of their plan. — 
They have sent about 1400 coloured people to Africa; settled 
them in a good country, where they flourish beyond all previ- 
ous expectation: and thus have the Society demonstrated, that 
nothing is wanting to complete success, but an adherence to the 
same wise principles, and a general movement of our citizens 
in favour of the scheme. 

"The scheme itself is a simple one. It is, to remove, with 
their consent, the free people of colour from the United States; 
and to colonize or settle them in Africa, the country of their fore- 

•'You will observe, first, that there is to be no intermeddling 
with property in slaves. The rights of masters are to remain 
sacred in the eyes of the Society. The tendency of the scheme, 
and one of its objects, is to secure slave-holders, and the whole 
Southern country, against certain evil consequences, growing 
out of the present three-fold mixture of our population. If 
slave-holders shall choose to liberate their slaves, for the pur- 
pose of having them removed to Africa, there is nothing to pre- 

1828. J Address of the Rockbridge Col. Socieiij. 2,75 

vent them; and this effect of the scheme, instead of tending to 
evil, is not more gratifying to humanity, than it is favourable to 
the general interest of our citizens. 

1 'Observe, secondly, that every thing is to be voluntary: those 
only are to be sent away, who willingly offer themselves. The 
rights of all parties are to be respected. Those who go, will go 
freely, with the hope of bettering their condition. Those who 
are released from slavery, for the purpose of being sent to the 
Colony, will be released by the voluntary act of their masters. 

"The free coloured people are generally too poor to bear the 
expense of a long voyage, and of a new settlement in a distant 
country. They depend on our citizens for charitable aid; and 
this is what we solicit you to join in affording to them. Some of 
them are able to pay all their expenses; others, particularly such 
as are newly emancipated, are so miserably destitute, as to need 
donations of food, clothing and utensils. 

"These are the principles of the Colonization Society. We 
oan perceive nothing in them to alarm the most timid, or to of- 
fend the most conscientious man in the country. " 

"It will appear too on the least reflection, that our interest 
will be promoted by this scheme of Colonization. At a mode- 
rate expense we shall relieve our country of a growing pest; we 
shall make room for a better population, and secure the contin- 
uance of domestic peace and prosperity. 

"The scheme of Colonization will not only extend to the peo- 
ple of colour who are now free, but it will occasion an increased 
dispositon in masters to liberate their slaves, for the purpose of 
sending them to Africa. It has already produced that effect. — 
There are thousands of humane, slave-holders in the Southern 
States, who have been restrained from liberating their slaves, by 
considerations of humanity and policy. The wretched condi- 
tion of free negroes in our country, makes it doubtful to many 
good men, whether slaves would be benefited by manumission; 
unless they could be removed to a better situation than they can 
find in this country. It is certainly inexpedient also to multiply 
the number of our free coloured population, for reasons which we 
have already suggested. 

"Now the scheme of colonizing them in Africa, where they 
will have a fine soil to cultivate, a large commerce to excite 

£~6 Address of the Rockbridge Col. Society. ■ [Nov. 

their enterprise: and every privilege and institution calculated 
to promote their improvement — this will not only remove objec- 
tions to manumission, but will offer every inducement to it» 
which humanity and policy can afford." 

"We have said enough to prove the expediency — or rather 
the absolute necessity of colonization. But the vast amount, 
of the coloured people, seems to afford a disheartening prospect^ 
and makes numbers of our citizens give up the cause in des- 
pair. But the difficulties arc not so great, as at first sight we 
may apprehend. 

"Let us recur to the principle abovementioned — that every 
black family occupies the room of a white family. On this principle 
we are lost, if we suffer the coloured population to multiply, un- 
checked, upon our hands; because they will increase faster than, 
the whites, and will crowd them out of all the Southern country. 
But on the same principle we are saved, if by means of coloniza- 
tion, we can retard the increase of the blacks, and gain ground 
on them in the South. That we can do with ease, if our people 
will unite in prosecuting the scheme. Every family taken from 
the blacks, will add also a family to the whites, and make an 
actual difference of two families in our favour. This exchange 
will leave fewer blacks to remove, while it will increase our 
ability to remove them. Thus, at eveiy step in the work of 
colonization, our labour will become less, and our ability greater. 
If we colonize 1000 a year, we shall every year gain a relative 
strength of 2000. Let us remove 10,000 a year, and we gain, 
relatively, 20,000 each year, and 200,000 in tan years. 

<k We affirm therefore, that a vigorous commencement alone 
is wanting, to ensure success. Set the work fairly in motion; 
and like a stone which rolls down hill, it will gather force and ve- 
locity as it proceeds. A small but happy commencement has 
been made. The fertile country of Liberia has been purchased, 
containing vacant land enough for many thousand additional fam- 
ilies; the business has been put in train, and wants but united 
exertion, on our part, to give it the decisive push. Now is the 
time for every friend of the measure, to put forth all his exer- 
tions in its behalf. Every year's delay now, adds 80,000 to 
those whom it is our duty and our policy to diminish. But eve- 
ry year's exertion will deduct more and more from that fearful 

1828.] Mdress of the Rockbridge CoL Society. 9,77 

increase, and give a constantly accelerated gain to the increase 
of our citizens.'' 

"Self-interest and self-preservation furnish motives enough to 
excite our exertions; benevolence, of the most pure and diffusive 
kind, unites her voice in the same cause. We have before de- 
scribed the wretched condition of our free coloured people. — 
Let us consider whether a removal to Africa, would not place 
them in far happier circumstances. 

^Africa is a continent of vast extent, stretching 4,800 miles 
from North to South; and at the broadest part, 4000 miles from 
East to AVest. Though much of it consists of sandy deserts; 
one half, probably, is a fertile country, and, in many parts, it is 
exceedingly rich. The climate is every where warm, and being 
the native climate of the negro race, it is agreeable to their con- 
stitution. Along the Western side, opposite to America, there 
is a line of coast 3000 miles in extent, backed by a fertile coun- 
try, and rich in valuable products, such as rice, cotton, coffee, 
sugar, drugs, dye-stuffs, ivory and gold-dust. The coast of Gui- 
nea, about 1J00 miles in length, has been for centuries infested 
by the slave-trade; and the greater part of it has been reduced 
to a wilderness. Our negroes came chiefly from that naturally 
rich country: and back to that land of their forefathers we de- 
sire to send them. Probably one hundred millions of fertile 
acres, are lying uncultivated there, which might be purchased of 
the feeble and barbarous natives for a small compensation. The 
Colony of Liberia lies near the centre of that coast. Never did 
a people in similar circumstances prosper more than the people 
of that Colony, who were so lately a portion of our degraded 
and wretched free negroes; they are in their own country; they 
live on their own soil; they are the people of thejand, who will 
have the making of the laws, and the sole management of their 
own affairs, as soon as they are prepared for that event. 

'•It has been doubted, whether our coloured people be capable 
of becoming a free and civilized nation. Those who entertain 
this doubt, have not made sufficient allowance for the unfortu- 
nate condition of the coloured race, both in America and in Af- 
rica. What can be expected of men who have been untaught, 
enslaved, despised, and thrust out from every society and every 
institution, by which they might be improved? How could they 

2f8 Mdress of the Rockbridge Col. Society. {Now 

be otherwise than ignorant, rude, and unqualified to act a part 
in life, for which they were not educated, and to which they 
durst not aspire? In Hayti, where they rose suddenly to liberty 
and independence; they have managed their affairs as well as 
the new nations of Spanish America. In the colony of Liberia, 
to which about 1400 of them have removed, from this country; 
they give promise of becoming as wise and orderly a community 
as ever was formed under like circumstances. 

"We are told, what is in itself agreeable to the nature of 
things, — that when our coloured people reach the African shore, 
and find themselves to be the people, lords of the soil, fathers of 
a free nation, ami heralds of civilization to a vast continent; — 
th< v feel a new spirit within them — their souls rise to the dignity 
of their station, and expand to the breadth of their prospects. 

"It would be imprudent, we admit, to crowd the unprepared 
multitude of our coloured people, too rapidly into Africa. The 
evil consequences of such a measure may be avoided, by the es- 
tablishment of schools in some suitable part of the United States, 
and also in Africa, in order to give some of them a preparatory 
education, — and by taking care to send over the necessary pro- 
portions of the more intelligent and virtuous among them, — 
Schools are established for the whole population of Liberia; in 
process of time, the rising generation will come forth in that 
country, with the ideas and habits of intelligent citizens; and 
will keep up a healthy action in the body politic, though many 
of our rude emigrants should continue to arrive among them. 

"The African tribes are mostly in a state of wretched barba- 
rism, which is not owing to natural incapacity, but to their un- 
fortunate condition. During 250 years, they have been the 
prey of avarice and cruelty. The slave-trade has infested their 
coasts, and kept their people at continual war, to supply the 
traders with captives for the American market. In vain have 
Britain and the United States endeavoured, lately, to stop this 
inhuman traffic. Nothing will stop it, while the diabolical tra- 
ders can obtain slaves in Africa. Let us line the coast with 
colonies; and shut up all the avenues of the trade. Already has 
the little Colony of Liberia excluded the dealers in human 
flesh from 200 miles of coast. A dozen such colonies at proper 
distances, would leave the miscreants scarce a door out of 

1828.] Address of the Rockbridge Col Society. 279 

which to drag their prey. It is time to stop their work, which 
has kept Africa in tears and barbarism — filled America with 
slaves, and whitened the bottom of the ocean between them, with 
the bones of those who perished on the way. Last year, proba- 
bly 80,000 miserable creatures were torn from Africa, crammed 
into filthy ships, and conveyed into hopeless bondage in the 
Southern part of our continent; except eight or ten thousand, 
who were killed by ill usage on the way, and thrown to the 
sharks. This horrible business has been going on in the same 
way for centuries. 

"Our colonies will deliver Africa and America from this deso- 
lating curse. They will make some compensation for the incal- 
culable miseries which it has produced, by diffusing civilization 
and Christianity among all the tribes in their neighbourhood. Al- 
ready is the colony of Liberia exercising a salutary influence on 
the tribes of the vicinity. Some of them have actually petition- 
ed for instruction in the arts and religion, which elevate their 
new neighbors so far above the ancient inhabitants of the coun- 
try. Missionaries are proceeding to the work with every pros- 
pect of success. Hitherto the tribes of Africa have been almost 
unapproachable to the Christian Missionary. The colour of 
white men, the unliealthiness of the climate to their constitutions, 
and the want of a refuge among warring barbarians, have prov- 
ed insuperable obstacles. But these obstacles exist no longer 
in Liberia. Black missionaries can be employed, the tribes are 
at peace, and they see with admiration, the example set before 
them, of what real Christians (not slave-traders) are. The colo- 
ny is a hive from which the labourers can issue, and into which, 
in case of necessity, they may retire. It is a radiating point 
from which light will emanate and diffuse itself, far into the sur- 
rounding darkness. Such will be every successive colony plant- 
ed by the Christian charity of our nation. 

"Does not Divine Providence point oul this as the one and on- 
ly way, in which poor Ethiopia shall at last 'stretch out her 
hands unto God?' 

"Difficulty has been apprehended in obtaining a sufficient 
number of emigrants, if we attempt to colonize on a large scale. 
Many of the free people are either ignorant of the scheme, or 
prejudiced against it. They are suspicious of white men; and 

280 Address of the Rockbridge Col. Society. [Nov. 

judging from past experience, they are fearful of a deep-laid 
plot to enslave them again. Their prejudices will be removed 
in the progress of the work. Information will be diffused — 
they who emigrate will send back word of their situation and 
prospects. The subject will excite increasing attention among 
them, and every successive year will find them better informed, 
and present them with additional motives to join their brethren 
in Africa. Benevolent masters will furnish increasing numbers 
to swell the tide of emigrants. Tlius far, at least, the Society 
has been unable to transport them as fast as they have offered 
themselves. Fifteen who belong to our county have applied for 
a passage. A gentleman of Georgia has lately proposed to send 
his slaves, to the number of 45, if he could obtain aid from the 
Society. But the funds are wanting. If our citizens be wise, 
they will hereafter provide means for all who are ready and 
qualified to go. None should be under the necessity of waiting 
a single year, before they leave our country, and make room for 
white citizens. 

"The expense of the colonization scheme is made a serious ob- 
jection by many of our citizens. We acknowledge the expense 
to be great. But what human evil is removed or blessing obtained 
without cost? We put it to the judgment and conscience of any 
man to say, whether the ends which the Colonization Society has 
in view, would not justify almost any expenditure within the 
compass of our ability? Add the evils which will be removed, to 
the positive benefits that will accrue — look to the future, and 
calculate the amount, and then say how many millions of dol- 
lars it is worth; and how much everv citizen of the United 
States, and especially, in the Southern States, can afford to pay 
for the whole. — We shall then be prepared to demonstrate to you, 
that the actual cost will fall infinitely below the value of the mea- 
sure. Were it possible, or desirable, to remove all our colour- 
ed population at once, Ihe expense would hardly exceed the sum 
which was expended by the government, in one year of the late 
war with Great Britain. But we may take 20 or 30 years to pay 
that sum in the present undertaking, and thereby accomplish the 
main ends of the scheme; the safety of our country, the relief 
of a large portion of our coloured people, the civilization of a 
continent, and the eternal destruction of the slave-trade. 

1828.] Naval Intelligence. 38 J 

1 'The cost is now at the rate of perhaps 830 for each person 
sent to Africa. If the work be carried on vigorously, the rate 
per head will continue to diminish. This will appear evident 
from the following considerations. 

ML It is always cheaper to carry on such undertakings on a 
large, than on a small scale, and to proceed with it after a good 
beginning has been made, and experience has been gained. 

"2. When the colonies have grown and gotten into a regular, 
train of business, a large commerce will arise between us and. 
them. Ships will carry out fine and valuable goods to bring raw 
produce in return. The outward cargo being generally lighter, 
emigrants may be taken at a low rate. 

"3. When the colonists acquire property, and get into regu- 
lar business, they will want hands in their fields, shops and com- 
mercial operations. They can then afford immediate employ- 
ment to new emigrants, and pay their passage in order to obtain 
their services. Thus many poor emigrants may be sent at little 
or no expense to this country. 

•*4. The Colonies will after a while defray all the expenses 
of their own government — purchase lands for new settlers, and 
contribute, in various ways to reduce the expense of adding to 
their own population. 

"It is not unreasonable to calculate, that in the course of time, 
the work of colonization may proceed rapidly with but little aid 
from our citizens. To bring that to pass, however, in any rea- 
sonable time, we must soon lay a broad foundation, by hasten- 
ing the growth of the present Colony, and establishing others." 

' ^"»9 ft 9* *i' .- 

XayaV Intelligence,. 

Portsmouth, July 12. — The Diadem transport arrived on 
Thursday from Sierra Leone; which place she left on the 17th 
May. — She brings home returned stores and invalids. The Col- 
ony and Squadron were very healthy. Com. Collier was there, 
in the Sybille frigate, refitting, but intended to proceed to As- 
cension in about ten days. — The Commodore had been fortu- 
nate in the capture of slave vessels, having carried into Sierra 

Leone a Dutch schooner, with 272 slaves, and a Spanish schoo- 

28£ Naval Intelligence. [Nov. 

ner, with 282 slaves; also a schooner called the Hope, of 180 
tons burden (which vessel had recently been employed as a ten- 
der to the Maidstone), with a cargo on board for the purchase of 
slaves. The Sybille has not been on the station more than ten 
months, and in that period she has captured nearly 1200 slaves. 
The Primrose and Plumper were also there.— About the 1st of 
May, the Black Joke, Lt. \V. Turner, tender to the Sybille, 
fell in with a Spanish privateer, and had a severe action. The 
Black Joke had on board 43 men, with one long gun on a swiv- 
el: the Spaniard mounted 14 carriage guns, of twelve and twen- 
ty-four-pounders, on Gover's principle, with a crew of 87 men, of 
all nations. Two days previously, she had been boarded by the 
Sybille, and had exhibited a regular commission, from the King 
of Spain, to cruise as a privateer against the vessels of the South 
American States. Those two vessels fell in together in the 
night, and at day-light the Spaniard was observed with a red en- 
sign (English); on approaching within hail, he promised to send 
a boat on board the Black Joke, but, immediately afterwards, 
said he had no boat that could swim, and requested one to be 
sent to him. Lieutenant Turner consequently sent a boat with 
two men and a Master's Mate, who were compelled to go on 
board the pirate, and who immediately sent an officer and five 
men in the same boat, to the Black Joke, with a demand to look 
at her papers. Lieutenant Turner, not wishing to compromise 
the safety of his three men on board the Spaniard, showed his 
commission, and Commodore Collier's orders to cruise; which, 
after a parley, were desired to be sent to the privateer, to com- 
pare with the signature of the Commodore, who had previously- 
put his name to the back of the Spanish commission. Lieuten- 
ant Turner, however, prudently detained the officer and two 
men, as hostages for his own people. A demand was then made 
that the Black Joke should send 15 of her crew on board the 
privateer, who would send the like number of men to the for- 
mer, and that both vessels should go to Princess Island. This 
having been, of course refused, the privateer immediately fired 
into the tender a broadside, when the Black Joke, immediately 
taking a position on the Spaniard's bow, engaged him for two 
hours, principally with grape shot, and nearly unrigged him. — 
The Spaniard then hoisted out a flag of truce, and sent our peo- 

1828.] The late Rev. Jacob Oson. 2a3 

pie on board, whose lives had been several times attempted du- 
ring the action, but who were saved solely by the intervention 
of the Captain. The Spaniards would not confess what their 
loss had been; several wounded men, however, were seen. For- 
tunately, the Black Joke had none of her people hurt, though her 
sails and rigging were much cut up. Too much encomium can- 
not be given to Lieut. Turner, for his intrepidity and judgment 
on the occasion. Fernando Po is losing ground in the estima- 
tion of all; its insalubrity rendering it a spot totally unfit for a 
settlement. Since the establishment, we have buried a man 
weekly, and sent home a great number of invalids; the natives 
also have shown a desire to avoid us, and never come near the 
settlement. No fresh beef is to be had, and very few fowls; and 
yams, which were so plentiful, are not now to be obtained; the 
North Star could not get one. Palm wine, for which only six- 
pence a gallon is paid, is drank in abundance by our seamen, 
and a more deleterious liquor cannot be taken; it invariably pro- 
duces illness. The annual estimated cost of this establishment 
is £29,000. The North Star was on the Gold Coast, and the 
Clinker had sailed to the Gambia. 

T\\e late TWv . Jacob Oson. 

Messrs, Editors: — Perhaps it may be gratifying to your read- 
ers, to know something more of the African Missionary (the 
Rev. Jacob Oson) whose death was announced in your last pa- 
per. In his case, we are furnished with a striking instance of 
the triumph of integrity, industry, application, and a patient and 
humble reliance on divine assistance, over all the disadvantages 
of colour and humble birth, and of the early associations arising 
from these circumstances. His early piety, his natural strength 
of mind, and his prudence and sound judgment, seemed to qual- 
ify him for usefulness; and he expressed a strong desire, nearly 
twenty years ago, to enter the gospel ministry. But his educa- 
tion was insufficient, at that time, to enable him advantageously 
to commence the study of divinity; and the state of the coloured 
population throughout the countrv was such, as to hold out but 
little prospect of gathering a congregation to receive his minis- 

284 The late liev. Jacob Oson. fNov. 

trations. Such, however, was his desire to qualify himself for 
the sacred office, that he found time, amid the care and labour 
of rearing a large family, to make very considerable progress in 
an English education; and, eventually, by keeping a school for 
coloured children, he not only added to his stock of knowledge, 
but became an experienced and successful teacher. From the 
moment that an American colony was established on the coast of 
Africa, he began to look forward to that oppressed and degraded 
country, as the scene of his future labours; and having produced 
satisfactory testimonials of character and qualifieatious, to the ec- 
clesiastical authority of Connecticut, he was admitted as a can- 
didate for holy orders. He now applied himself diligently te 
his studies; and when the Domestic and Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety were prepared to send a Missionary to Liberia, he receiv- 
ed and accepted the appointment. He was soon after admitted 
to holy orders, by the Right Rev. Bishop Brownell, and was ta- 
ken into the emnlov of the Societv. The necessarv outfits were 
prepared, every thing was in readiness for his departure, and he 
anxiously waited for a passage to the station which he fondly 
hoped he was destined to occupy. But it pleased Providence to 
disappoint his expectations, and to frustrate, for the present, 
the plans of the Society. Though he had hitherto enjoyed an 
unusual share of good health, he now fell into a rapid decline, 
which terminated his earthly existence, on the very day that 
he was directed to repair to Philadelphia, to take his passage 
for the Colony. In the view of approaching death, but one con- 
sideration appeared to distress him — and this was, that he was 
never to be permitted to see Africa. He frequently remarked, 
that he could realize no terror in death; and sometimes express- 
ed a fear, that this circumstance might be considered as an evi- 
dence of stupidity or hardness. He bore a long and distressing 
illness with fortitude and composure, and enjoyed the unobscur- 
ed use of his reason, until the close of his life. He received 
the holy eucharist, for the last time, a few days before his death; 
and being asked, on the day of his departure, whether his faith 
and hope in the Redeemer remained steadfast, he replied, with 
great emphasis — "stronger and stronger! " He finally sunk 
into the sleep of death, without a struggle. — [E. Watchman. 

1828.] Ladies 9 Association. — Annual Meeting, fyc. 285 

Ija&ics v Associations, 

Auxiliary to the American Colonization Society. 

It affords us great pleasure to announce the fact, that many 
Ladies in Richmond have formed themselves into a Society to 
aid the objects of our Institution, and that efforts for a similar 
purpose have been engaged in by the Ladies of Petersburg. — 
We feel grateful for the interest which has thus been manifested 
in our cause; and we expect much from these proceedings; es- 
pecially, we cannot but hope that they will serve as a bright ex- 
ample to other ladies to exercise their feelings, their talents, 
and their influence in our favour, in a similar way, and thus to 
bring forward their efforts and their sympathies in the cause of 
patriotism and humanity. The state of Africa and of our coun- 
try in relation to that continent, makes its strongest appeal to 
the more mild and tender emotions of the heart; and we trust 
that the fair portion of our community, in whom those emotions 
are peculiarly vivid, will be awake to a subject which calls so 
loudly for their attention, which has not been sufficiently urged 
upon them, and to which in fact, they have, as yet, too little at- 

Annual fleeting of five Society. 

The Annual Meeting of the Society will be held in this City, 
on the 17th of January. It will add greatly to the interest of 
the occasion, should the several Auxiliary Institutions represent 
themselves by Delegates. We misinterpret the signs of the 
times, or the year upon which we are shortly to enter, is to be 
one of vast importance to. our work, and of far more rapid ad- 
vancement to measures for its execution. Let, then, all who 
implore Heaven's blessing upon it, stir each other up to liberali- 
ty and nobler deeds in its behalf. 

EiX^cAition to lAbciria. 

We are happy to say, that the Society is very soon (probably 
within four or five weeks) to despatch an expedition with about 
one hundred and fifty emigrants to Liberia. As the effort to do 
this will bring into requisition all the resources whioh can be 

286 Death of Ashmuiu [Nov. 

obtained, it is hoped that our friends will not relax, but rather 
give new vigour to their exertions. The number which can now 
be transported is only about one-fifth of the whole number now 
seeking a passage. The disposition to remove is daily increas- 
ing among the free people of colour, and hence all who desire the 
improvement of their condition, or Africa's redemption, should 
go forward with more burning zeal and mightier resolution. 

We have just received the following lines on the Death of 
Ashmun from a distinguished lady and poetess, already well 
known to the public for the excellence of her composition and 
sentiments. We give it a place in the Repository, with the 
hope of something more from her pen, confident that it will af- 
ford high gratification to all who may honour our work with a 


Whose is yon sable bier? — 

Why move the throng so slow? — 
Why doth that lonely mother's tear 

In sudden anguish flow? — 
Why is that sleeper laid 

To rest in manhood's pride ? — 
How g-ain'd his cheek such pallid shade ?-*■ 

I spake, — but none replied. 

The hoarse wave murmur'd low, 

The distant surges roar'd. — 
And o'er the sea in tones of woe 

A deep response was pour'd: 
I heard sad Africk mourn • 

Upon her billowy strand, — 
A shield was from her bosom torn, 

An anchor from her hand. — 

Ah! well I know thee now, 

Though foreign suns would trace 
Deep lines of death upon thy brow, 

Thou friend of misery's race. — 
Their leader wben the blast 

Of ruthless war swept by, — 
Their teacher when the storm was pasty 

Their guide to worlds on high. — 

1828.] Contributions. 287 

Bent o'er the lowly tomb 

Where thy soul's idol lay, 
I saw thee rise above the gloom^ 

And hold thy changeless way- 
Stern sickness woke a flame 

That on thy vigour fed, — 
But deathless courage nerv'd the frame 

When health and strength had fled.— 

Spirit of Power, — pass on! — 

Thy homeward wing is free, — 
Earth may not claim thee for her son,— 

She hath no chain for thee: — 
Toil might not bow thee down, — 

Nor Sorrow check thy race, — 
Nor Pleasure win thy birthright crown,— 

Go to thy own blest place! — 
Hartfoud, Cox. 1828. L. H. 5. 

C ontYibutions 

To the Jim. C. Society during the month of November ', 1828. 

Collections by Rev. George Duffield, Esq. as follows, viz: 

in Presbyterian Church, Carlisle, Pa $6 41 

in Associate Reformed Church, at ditto, .... 6 25 
in Dickinson Church, in Cumberland county, 2 50 

$13 16 

Collections by Grove Wright, Esq. in New York, as follows, viz : 

From the Church at Ovid, New York, §10 

From the Church at Percy, New York, 7 

Siles Pepoon, Esq. Ohio, 7 

From the Church at Danvill, New York, 15 17 

From the Church at Williamstown, Massachusetts, . 32 97 

From the Church at Plattsburgh, New York, 10 

82 14 

Collection by Ladies at Shepherdstown, Virginia, to make John 

Matthews, D. D. a life member, 10 

Collection by Ladies at Oak Hill, Fauquier county, Virginia, in 
the parish of Leeds, to make Rev. George Lemmon a life 

member, per Thomas Marshall, Esq SO 

Collection from small country Congregations about Union Town, 

Maryland, per Rev. G. Duris, 8 

Carried forward, $145 39 

288 Contributions, [Nov. 

Amount brought forward j $145 30 
Collections in Alexandria by the Agent, for the expedition this 
fell to Africa, as follow*: 

Thomas Smith, $10 

Rev.W. C. Walton, . 5 

Mr. Riddle, . I 

George Johnson, .... 1 

Mr. Myers, 1 

H. Smith, 1 

Thomas Sanford, .... 1 

Mr. Blacklock, 1 

Mr. Wood, 1 

Thomas W. Smith, . 1 
Rev. Mr. Harrison, .. 1 
Rev. S. Cornelius, . . 1 
Various individuals, . 5 18 

$30 18 
Deduct expenses, . . 1 25 

28 9S 

Rev. Charles Dresser, of Halifax county, Virginia, 3 

James C. Dunn, for the following sums transmitted him, viz: 
By D. A. Sherman, Esq. of Chittenango, New York, ... $3 

By N. M. Wilson, Esq- of Morgantown, Virginia, 2 

— 5 

Vermont Auxiliary Society, per D. Baldwin, Esq. Tr. $234 43 

Deduct discount on draft, 78 

233 65 

Matthew Carey, Esq. of Philadelphia, his first payment on the 

plan of Gerrit Smith, Esq 100 

A Lady in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, 10 

A friend* in Alexandria, 10 

Liberia Society, Essex county, Va. per J. M. Garnett, Esq. ... 20 
The same good "Lady" who transmitted $10 in October, per 

William Brown, Esq. Charlestown, Virginia, . ... 10 

Auxiliary Society, Fredericksburg, Va per W. F.Gray, Esq. .. 100 

Do. do. Cincinnati, per George Graham, Jr 125 

Do. do. of the Ohio State, per L. Reynolds, Esq. Tr. 150 

$940 88 

* This friend is under the impression that he made a similar remittance 
in September — none such was received; but in July last, he will find by 
'he Repository, that such a sum is credited. 





Vol. IV. SE^EMBE^ 1328. No. 10. 


As it has become one of the grand ultimate designs of our So* 
•iety to enlighten and civilize a very large portion of our*vorld's 
population; to deliver them from the miseries of moral and poli* 
tical bondage; and as the field of its substantial hopes and pros* 
pects, if not of its present operations and influence, is already 
extended over the whole of Africa, it is a desideratum of much 
importance, that a concise and comprehensive account should be 
given of that continent, derived from authentic documents, and 
divested of the fiction and idle conjecture, with which most ac» 
•ounts of that dark quarter of our earth have abounded. 


The whole of the History of Africa, ever recorded or made 
known to the civilized world, has reached in the main no further 
than its outskirts and its shores; while the principal part of that 
vast country has from time immemorial been covered with Egyp- 
tian darkness, except that at distant intervals, a brief glance, as 
if aided by a single flash of lightning, has penetrated into the in- 
terior, and has produced no accurate and well defined impres- 
sion; but still it has produced a decided though confused im- 
pression, of depravity and cruelty in the extreme; of vice and. 
disorder; of mental and moral imbecility $ of ignorance and bar- 

•90 Africa. [Dec 

barism; of degradation and wretchedness; a picture, around 
which the horrors and atrocities of the slave-trade scarcely threw 
a gloomier or more distressing aspect; a picture, from which 
all the better principles of our nature revolted, and endeavoured 
to contemplate them as a dream, and not as a reality. 

Africa was doubtless originally peopled by the descendants of 
Ham. The testimony of Scripture on this point is clear and 
decisive. In addition to the evidence, that in the general divi- 
sion of the earth after the flood, the south was assigned to Ham; 
Mizraim, the name of one of the sons of Ham, is generally given 
to Egypt in the Hebrew Bible; and Cush, the name of another 
of the sons of Ham, is generally applied to Ethiopia, or Africa 
in general, and in the English translation it is rendered Ethio- 
pia. Egypt is in the Hebrew Scriptures sometimes called the 
land of Ham, as it was also by its ancient inhabitants, though 
its proper name is Mizraim. The Septuagint uniformly renders 
Phut, another name of the sons of Ham, by Lybians, the name 
of a race of people to the west of Egypt. A colony of Phenici- 
ans, or Canaanites, descendants of another of Ham's sons, it is 
well known, settled at Carthage, and spread themselves over 
the most of the country that is at present comprised in the. 
states of Barbary. 

Africa, notwithstanding, is pronounced by common consent, 
the birthplace and cradle of civilization, as well as of the arts 
and sciences. In one corner of that dark continent was kin- 
dled the light, which was destined to blaze so conspicuously in 
Greece and Rome, and which was to attain, under the auspices 
of Christianity, in Europe and America, the full splendor of its 
meridian brightness. And delightful indeed is the prospect, the 
certainty, that it is soon to return, matured and baptised, un- 
blemished and unclouded, to the place of its nativity. Joyful, 
indescribably joyful to Africa, will be the return of her sons re- 
deemed and renovated, conveying with them the primitive but 
departed production of her own intellect, improved and perfect- 
ed. The impress of her misery will be obliterated, the cloud of 
her grief will vanish, and even the love for her children will be 
almost forgotten, while she exults in the influence and light of 
civilization and of heaven. 

Moses, we are told, was skilled in all the learning of the Egyp- 

1828.] Africa. £9i 

"Hans: and we find in him, aside from his functions as an inspir- 
ed prophet, at that early period when written language was 
scarcely known at all, an eminent example of learning and ac- 
quired abilities: a striking and decisive proof of the greatness afc 
that time of African attainments. 

Both in ancient and modern times Africa has been, perhaps 
equally, an object of intense curiosity, frequently heightened by* 
false or exaggerated accounts. There, imagination delineated 
the hitherto inaccessible abodes of the blest; Edens guarded, if 
not by a flaming sword, at least by burning deserts. There al- 
so, in less favoured spots, she figured to herself the diminutive 
and the monstrous. Permitted to wander alone, she drew her 
delineations, and indulged her phrensy, without fear of restraint 
or danger of contradiction. She even at times exerted a con- 
trolling power over the senses of voyagers and travellers. Prior 
to the date of authentic history, many efforts appear to have been 
made to circumnavigate Africa. The first attempt on record, is 
mentioned by Herodotus as having been made by a number of 
Phenicians, in pursuance of the order of Necho, king of Egypt. 
The voyage, commencing from the shore of the Red Sea, lasted 
nearly three years. When their provisions were exhausted, 
they procured a fresh supply by landing, sowing their seed, and 
waiting till the crop was ready to be gathered. On their return 
they related, that when they were south of Africa, the sun was 
north of them; a fact which Herodotus, from his ignorance of astro- 
nomy, discredited, but which really goes to prove, that the voyage 
around the continent was at that time accomplished. Several 
other strenuous attempts were made, but it is not known that 
any were successful, though a considerable extent of coast was 
in this way explored. Some found supernatural wonders, and 
all of them obstacles, which to them seemed insuperable. It 
was reserved for modern times, to reduce to nothing the impos- 
sibilities of antiquity. 

To penetrate the interior has as yet been found a still more 
difficult and arduous performance. Herodotus relates, that a 
few young men, from the coast of the Mediterranean, traversed 
the habitable parts of Lybia, and the great desert beyond, till 
they arrived at a plain diversified with a few trees, where they 
were seized by a company of blacks, and Gonveyed through ex- 

g9t Africa. £Bec. 

tensive marshes, to a city situated on a great river which flowed 
from west to east, frequented by crocodiles. This river was 
doubtless the Niger. The only character given of the inhabitants 
was that they were impostors or sorcerers; a sufficient indication 
that the present superstitious practices of the Africans at that time 
existed. There is evidence that other attempts at discovery in 
the interior were made in ancient times; but there is nothing re- 
corded respecting them, that is worthy of being; related. 

The arm of conquest appears to have been little more success- 
ful in these inhospitable regions. Nebuchadnezzar, Cimbyses 
and Alexander, successively subdued Egypt: but they found the 
torrid atmosphere and sands of the desert, more powerful oppo- 
nents than the vegetable and animal gods of the Egyptians.— 
Cambyses divided his army into two parts, one of which he him- 
self led toward Abyssinia. Soon, however, their provisions were 
exhausted. They supported themselves first by killing all the 
cattle belonging to the expedition; then on the scanty herbage 
which came in their way; and at last by devouring each other, 
Cambyses returned with only a remnant of the division of his 
army with which he had started. The other division took the 
direction of Ammon, the modem oasis of Siwah, and were never 
beard of again. They were never known to have arrived at Am- 
mon, or to have returned to Egypt, and the sands of the desert 
probablv furnished them with a home and a grave. Alexander, 
instigated at the time more by vanity than a desire or an expec- 
tation of conquest, traversed the desert with his army, through 
immense sufferings, from Memphis to tin temple of Jupiter Am- 
mon, ami obtained from the priests the empty title of the son of 
Jupit r. The Romans* Saracens and Turks, extended their 
conquests over Egypt and the States of Barbary. The numer- 
ous fugitives from their victorious arms fled far into the interior, 
if thev fortunately survived the hardships of their flight, not to 
return to the homes which they had abandoned, but to exercise 
a predominating influence among the more barbarous tribes of the 
country; to impose on ignorance and superstition their religion 
end learning as miraculous; to plant new colonies in unknown 
regions; to sustain the interests of a perilous but lucrative 
commerce, while from jealousy their discoveries were kept a 
secret; or to perish by the climate and diseases oi the less 

1828.] Afric*. 208 

salubrious parts of Africa. These new comers, and their de- 
scendants generally, so far as they were distinguishable from 
the original inhabitants, have been designated by the name of 
M >ors, probably because the most of them came originally from 
ancient Mauritania. The Moorish character, and an excess of 
the Moorish influence, is almost every where mingled with those? 
©f the aboriginals of Africa. 

It ought to be remarked, that besides those who fled from in- 
vasion, a considerable number, influenced by the love of gain, 
subjected themselves voluntarily to the same perils and hard- 
ships that were incurred by the fugitives. Of these the Arabs 
were the most numerous and the most conspicuous. They even 
wrote accounts of the interior of Africa. They described some 
of the kingdoms situated on a great river, at that time called the 
Nde ol the Negroes. It flowed, as they supposed, from east to 
west, and the part described by them lies far to the east of Tom- 
buctoo and Houssa. Situated on the eastern part of this river,. 
was the kingdom of Ghana, the most splendid and powerful at 
that time known in the interior of Africa. The palace of the 
king was adorned with painting and sculpture, and lighted with 
glass windows: and the chief ornament of his throne was a mass 
of native gold weighing thirty pounds. The dress of the com- 
mon people, however, was rude and simple, composed merely 
©f a belt, which was frequently made of the skins of wild ani- 
mals. Subject to the king of Ghana was Wangara, or the land 
of gold. This was overflowed in the rainy season by the waters 
of the river, and it was immediately after they had subsided, 
that the gold was sought for, and that merchants arrived from 
all parts of Africa to procure it. West of Ghana, was the king- 
dom of Tocrur. South of these kingdoms lay Lamlam, an ex- 
tensive, and comparatively barren and savage country, where 
was carried on to a considerable extent the business of slave 
hunting, by those who dwelt near the river. The victims when 
taken became an article of traffic with northern Africa. Other 
countries in that region were described by the Arabs, of which 
the lower orders were rudely and scantly clad; the merchants 
Wore vests, tunics, caps and ornaments of gold; and the nobility 
were clothed in satin. All this does not indicate, that they 
were other wiie than savage: the rough product* oi their country. 

&94 Africa. [Dec. 

slaves, gold and ivory, procured from abroad those convenience! 
and luxuries of civilized life, which could not be produced 
among them. 

About the time of the Reformation, Leo Africanus, a native 
of Grenada in Spain, fled from the arms of Ferdinand, took re- 
fuge in Fez, and both as a traveller and ambassador, traversed 
a great part of Africa. He found that the kingdom of Tombuc- 
too had then recently risen by its commercial advantages, and 
the enterprise of its sovereigns, and that Ghana itself, under the 
name of Cano, and many other kingdoms, had become subject 
to its power. The houses of the city, however, were built in 
the form of bells, the walls of stakes or hurdles, plastered with 
clay, and the roofs of reeds interwoven together. One mosque 
and the royal palace were built of stone; but the artist had been 
brought from Grenada. Cotten cloth was woven in great quan- 
tity, and the merchants were extremely rich; two of whom had 
married the king's daughters. The country abounded with corn, 
cattle and the other necessaries of life. Salt was brought five 
hundred miles, and a camel's load sold for eighty ducats. Hor- 
ses were not bred, but imported from Barbary. Manuscripts 
were in great demand, probably because they were then, as at 
the present day, represented by the Moors, and considered by 
the superstitious Africans, as a charm to keep off evil. The in- 
habitants were mild, and spent a great part of the night in sing- 
ing and dancing. The city was much exposed to fire, and in 
five hours one half of it had been consumed. The religion was 
Mahometan, but apparently more tolerant then, than in modern 
times. The merchants of Tombuctoo, on the rise of the river, 
conveyed their goods in a small canoe made of a single tree. — 
Hardly any characteristics were then to be found, but those of 
barbarism and rudeness. 

In the fifteenth century, the commencement of the era of great 
discoveries in religion and nature, a new impulse was given to 
inquiry respecting the unknown regions of Africa. The Portu- 
guese led the way. But as if fiction itself was doomed to ex- 
tend the boundaries of science, the great object of their search, 
was a reputed christian monarch, whose fame they had heard, 
and whom they called Prester John; but they were uncertain 
whether he resided in Asia or Africa. Thus they must wander 

1828.] Africa. 395 

through the world to find him, like Ceres in search of her daugh- 
ter. Compared with this fictitious catholic prince, gold itself 
had lost its inducements. The mariners in the various expedi- 
tious sent to Africa, were directed to inquire diligently, if the 
inhabitants knew any thing of Prester John; to penetrate fre- 
quently into the interior, and on hearing of any sovereign, to 
send an embassy and inquire if he was Prester John, or if he 
know where Prester John could be found. The result was as 
might be expected: Prester John evaded them; but their search 
in other respects was far from fruitless. They coasted along 
the shores of the Sahara, passed Cape Blanco, discovered the 
rich and productive regions of the Senegal and Gambia, and the 
falsi- idea of their catholic hero, gave way to ambition and the 
love of gain. They formed an establishment on Arguin, an is- 
land not far from the shore. A native prince having called up- 
on them to aid him in regaining his crown, he was taken to Lis- 
bon, and there gave a splendid account of the interior of Africa. 
At least the dominions of Prester John seemed now to have been 
discovered. A formidable fleet was" equipped, and although the 
deposed prince was assassinated on account of some misunder- 
standing between him and the Portuguese, the appearance of 
such an armament in Africa, produced a sensation all along the 
banks of the Senegal and Niger, very far into the interior. Al- 
liances were formed by the Portuguese with nations even as far 
off as Tombuctoo. Still the Portuguese monarch was in quest 
of Prester John; but he took care as much as possible to estab- 
lish his power, wherever he extended his inquiries. He obtain- 
ed, when he could, a promise from all, that they would aid him 
in the discovery of this mysterious personage. He pushed his 
adventures and discoveries around the continent, and far into 
the interior, established the Catholic religion in Congo, and 
other countries; gave birth to the slave-trade; set up every where 
in pillars of stone, the dumb ensigns of his dominion; and had 
his power and success equalled his desires, he himself would 
have become the Prester John, the emperor of Africa. 

This was the birth time of the hopes, as well as the deepest 
miseries of Africa: and when a new world was discovered in the 
west, one in the east was destined to struggle into a new exist- 
ence, through pangs untold and unequalled. The slave-trade 

fl96 Letter from T)r. Blumhardt. [Dec# 

without, acting on the desire of the native Africans for fomgii 
luxuries, kindled ill the fk-rce^st fires of internal war, and spread, 
in an unprecedented and dreadful manner, dissension and hatred 
and rapine throughout the continent. The horrid accompani- 
ments of the slave-trade, and the violence and kidnapping on the 
coast, were but faint indications, although thev were the moving 
causes, of the awful convulsions that rent and distracted the 
heart of Africa. If guilt is answerable for all its consequences, 
dreadful indeed will be the account, hereafter to be rendered bj 
the authors and supporters of the slave-trade. 

From the period of the first brilliant successes of the Portu- 
guese, up to the present time, adventurers into the interior of 
Africa, too numerous even to mention in this article, have fol- 
lowed each other in succession, and have added much to our 
knowledge of that continent. Among them, perhaps the most 
distinguished are Bruce, Ledyard, Lucas, Park, Riley, Brown, 
Bowdich, Denham and Clapperton. Still, however, much remains 
to be done; and perhaps, as in our own country, we must look to 
tile force of steam, acting on the great rivers of Africa, to accom- 
plish what as jet for mere human power, has been found to* 
great an achievement. 

"Letter from Dr. TYlvimhardt. 

Our readers have been already informed that this excellent man is at the 
head of the Missionary College at Basle, Switzerland, and that no less than 
five devoted missionaries have gone forth from the Institution over which 
he presides, to instruct in the arts and Christianity the poor Africans in the 
vicinity of our Colony. Extracts from a letter of Mr Sessing, one of these 
missionaries, were published in our Number for October. 

Basle, Oct. 21, 1828. 

Dear Sir: By a copy of your kind letter of September 10, to 
Messrs. DeRham, Iselin & Moore, at New York, I was yester- 
day informed of the death of your worthy Agent, Mr. Ashmun; 
and I cannot forbear to express to you our heartfelt sympathy 
and grief, on that mysterious dispensation of God. We deplore 
in this late lamented friend, a very excellent and zealoufc sej> 

1828.] Letter from Dr. Blumhardt. 297 

vant of Christ, and cannot but regard his departure to eternal 
blessedness, as a severe loss to your Colony as well as to the mis- 
sionary work amongst the surrounding negro tribes. May out 
heavenly Father guide and help you to find another man after 
his own heart; who, urged by the love of Christ, will be willing 
to take the important office of your Colonial Agent, and who 
will continue to lend his friendly assistance to the work of God, 
for the enlightening and salvation of the poor negroes. 

We take very much interest in your important choice of an 
Agent, as it must exercise a great influence upon our humble 
work on your coast, and beg you to be so kind as to give us no- 
tice whom you have appointed in our late lamented friend's 
place, and whether he is also moved by the same christian spi- 
rit and principles. 

Messrs. DeRham, Iselin & Moore, have sent the provisions 
asked for by Rev. Mr. Sessing, and we are very much obliged 
to you for your having kindly communicated their wants to the 
above gentlemen. Continue, dear Sir, to cherish the Missiona- 
ry work in your Colony and its labourers, our dear Brethren; 
have particularly the kindness to recommend them with concern 
to the benevolence and friendly assistance of your new Agent. 

As I am wanting many numbers of Vol. I. and II. of your in- 
teresting African Repository, I have ordered the above mention- 
ed gentlemen at New York, to procure these two volumes com- 
plete for me. Of Vol. IV. the numbers till June have reached 
me, and I should feel particularly obliged to you, if you would 
kindly order the editor to send the following numbers directly 
to Messrs. DeRham, Iselin & Moore, in New York, forme, and 
likewise your Annual Reports, and whatever you may publish, 
as we are now still more longing for every account of the state 
of your Colony. May the Lord, our God, bless you and your 
work with his best blessing. With Christian respect and es- 
teem, Yours affectionately, J. BLUMHARDT. 

Permit me, dear Sir, to beg you to inform us, what would be 
the amount of the passage money from one of your ports to your 
Colony of Liberia, and how often and in what season your ships 
are generally sailing there. Do you think that our correspon- 
dence with Liberia would go directly, safely and quickly, by 
way of North America? 

To R. R. Gurley, Esq. Sec. A. C. Society, Washington. 

298 Mr. Keifs Address. [Dec. 

It is well known to our readers, that a very respectable Auxiliary State 
Colonization Society has for some years existed in Pennsylvania, the Board 
of Managers of which reside in Philadelphia. In this Citj r , however, so dis- 
tinguished for its contributions to other charitable objects, our 'own, has 
heretofore been regarded with little favour, owing to misconceptions con- 
cerning its nature and the motives of those who seek its accomplishments 
Hence the Managers of the Pennsylvania Society, have, very judiciously, 
availed themselves of various opportunities, to bring the design which they 
would promote, in its true character before their fellow citizens, and to re- 
move the erroneous impressions in regard to it, which have existed in too 
many minds. And we rejoice to state, that the candid exhibition of our 
plan, and avowal of the reasons which demand its execution, have not prov- 
ed inefficient, but that a great and auspicious change, has taken and is tak- 
ing place towards our cause, in the opinions and feelings of the people of 
Philadelphia. Nor can we doubt, that the able address of Mr. Key, deliver- 
ed before a large and respectable assemblage of the citizens on the 25th of 
last month, will powerfully aid this change, since the facts and arguments 
which it contains, show conclusively that it is impossible to reconcile a so- 
ber and commendable concern, either for the interests of the south or our 
coloured population, with hostility to the scheme of African Colonization. 
We here offer to our readers a few extracts from this Address. 

"I feel gratified at the prospect which this meeting presents, 
that the sympathies of the inhabitants of this great city will, at 
last, be excited, in favour of the cause, which I now appear be- 
fore you to advocate. 

"The American Colonization Society, always entertained an 
expectation, from the commencement of their labours, that a time 
would come, when the scheme of patriotism and christian char- 
ity, which they offer to the consideration of their countrymen, 
would find friends and patrons in the northern cities. They 
looked with confidence to Philadelphia, in particular, knowing 
that many of her citizens were zealous in the cause of the aboli- 
tion of slavery. When, several years ago, the subject was intro- 
duced to the attention of the citizens of this place, the Society 
were disappointed on finding that they met with no encourage- 
ment. They were disappointed and surprised; but they did not 
despond, for they felt satisfied that the intrinsic merit of the 
plan was such, as must ultimately recommend it to the approba- 
tion of all the benevolent and reflecting; and they were persuad- 
ed that although repeated efforts to attract favourable regard 

1828.] Mr. Keifs Address. 209 

might fail, they must at length succeed. The managers confi- 
dently trust that the time is come, when their claims will be 
heard. I shall proceed, then, to lay before you a plain state- 
ment of the situation and prospects of the Society; of what we 
have done and what we intend to do: and to explain the grounds 
of that confidence, witli which we now look to you for encourage- 
ment and co-operation. 

"I presume you all know that the object of the Society is to 
establish upon the coast of Africa, a colony composed of free 
coloured persons from the United States, including such as have 
been manumitted by their masters for the purpose of their becom- 
ing colonists. This design has been so far executed, that an ex- 
tensive, fertile and healthy territory has been obtained; and a 
colony, as flourishing, perhaps, for its age, as was ever settled 
any where, subsists upon it. All the difficulties that were ap- 
prehended and which many persons thought insuperable, have 
been overcome; and there is now no rational cause of fear that 
any thing will occur to impede its growth and prosperity." 

Mr. Key proceeds to remark, that one of the consequences expect- 
ed from the success of the Society, was, that manumission would be pro- 
moted: that this consequence has actually followed, even to so great an ex- 
tent, that the Society is wholly unable to curry to Africa all the slaves that 
are offered them: that a way is thus gradually and safely to be opened for 
the peaceful termination of slavery throughout the country: that even to 
those who most ardently desire its termination, the colonizing- scheme, lead- 
ing-, as it does, to voluntary manumission, is the only one which true wis- 
dom can dictate: that it is admitted by all, with the exception perhaps of 
one in a million, to be a great evil: that it is a proper maxim to be 
adopted by a free people, that no political evil is irremediable, and especi- 
ally as Providence will prosper wise and faithful attempts to remove it: that 
the use of force would be disastrous: that inflammatory publications tending 
to this, are no less to be deprecated: that legal compulsion in the case 
would be a direct violation of a solemn compact, and would almost certain- 
ty meet with resistance. He then presents the only alternative. 

"May it not, then, be laid down as a plain truth, which we 
ought never to lose sight of; that, whatever plan may be adopted 
to effect this great object, it must be carried on with the consent 
of the slave owners? Success without this, I insist is hopeless: 
but even were there other schemes by which it was possible to 
effect the work; still, if there be one which can be conducted 
with the consent of those most interested in the subject, every 

300 Mr. Key's Mdress. [Dec; 

man guided by sound discretion and prudence will give it the 

"The Colonization Society, I undertake to show, presents such 
a scheme. Slave holders have given it their approbation; they 
will approve it, and they can approve of no other. Any scheme 
of emancipation without colonization, they know and see and 
feel to be productive of nothing but evil; evil to all whom it af- 
fects: to the white population, to the slaves, to the manumitted 
themselves. It is needless to offer facts and arguments in proof 
of this, to any man who will seriously reflect upon the unavoida- 
ble consequences of the mingling of three so discordant classes 
in the same community. Even among you, where every thing 
that benevolence could do, has been done, to make the freedom 
(as it is miscalled) of the coloured population beneficial to them; 
is it not acknowledged that they cannot be adequately protected 
in their personal, much less in the exercise of the civil rights 
allowed them by your laws, and which are essential to perfect 
freedom? Even here, they have but the name of liberty. 

"If you can remove the great difficulty, that of the emanci- 
pated persons remaining in the country; if you can open a way 
by which they will be willing to remove; you take from thousands 
of slave-holders all their objections to emancipation, and they 
will freely, of their own accord, furnish more colonists from 
among their slaves, than the means to be obtained will enable 
you to transport, and more than it would be prudent to add at 
present to the population of the colony. 

"It remains only to show (continued Mr. Key) that the exe- 
cution of the Society's plan will be followed by the consequence 
predicted; the promotion of emancipation. It is reasonable to 
expect such a consequence. Can any one believe that the states 
in which slavery exists, desire its perpetuation; that they will 
not make an effort to relieve themselves from this evil, if a prac- 
ticable and safe plan be presented to them? Slave-holders are 
like other men, governed by the same feelings, influenced by 
the same motives. Can it be supposed that they are insensible 
to their own interests? They see the injurious effects of the 
slave system: that the value of their lands is lessened by it, the 
progress of improvements retarded, the increase of population 
checked. If the people of Maryland and Virginia, for example, 

1828.] Mr. Key's Address. 301 

have common sense and observation, they must see, thej have 
seen, and do see, that their neighbours of Pennsylvania increase 
in wealth and population in a ratio far greater than theirs. At 
the first census, the number of inhabitants in Pennsylvania, was 
little more than one-half that of Virginia: at the last it was near- 
ly equal. The increased value of lands and houses in Pennsyl- 
vania, in fifteen years, from 1799 to 1814, exceeded that of Vir- 
ginia, though her territory is much larger, upwards of $90,000,- 
000. The lands in the latter state are as fertile as those of the 
former. No other cause can be assigned for this difference, than 
the existence in the one of an evil which has been removed from 
the other. There is, moreover, in each of the slave-holding 
states just mentioned, nearer and plainer proof of the bad effects 
of this evil in their institutions. There are counties wherein 
the slave population nearly equals the white, and others where 
the number of slaves is inconsiderable. In one county of Mary- 
land, having but few slaves, the increase of population between 
1810 and 1820, amounted to many thousands: while in another, 
where the numbers of slaves and of whites are nearly the same, 
there was a decrease of almost a fifth of its whole population. — 
Lands of similar quality, bear very different prices in the two 
districts: for farmers will not migrate to a slave country: and 
there is the same difference in many other particulars of this na- 

"Nor is it only in reference to the value of property and im- 
provement of their outward circumstances that the inconveni- 
ence of the present condition of things is felt and acknowledged. 
In respect of moral advantages, they have impediments peculiar 
to this unfortunate state of society. They cannot with the same 
facility and benefit, have churches, schools, or other institutions 
for religious and intellectual improvement, such as are found in 
every neighbourhood amidst the denser population of the northern 
states. Not only have they no accessions to their numbers by 
emigration from foreign countries or other states, but, where the 
slaves are numerous, the young people of the labouring classes, 
who grow up among them, are unwilling to work in the company 
of blacks, and feel their own station in society to be degraded. 
For this reason, such of them as are industrious and enterprising 
remove to the new settlements of free states, while the idle and 

3D2 Mr. Key's Address. [Dec. 

dissolute remain. So that such districts lose their best, and re- 
tain their worst population." 

Mr. Key proceeds to show, and he shows very clearly, that the morbid 
sensibility which has existed on this subject, is rapidly diminishing 1 , and 
that the subject may now be agitated with much greater safety to the one 
who does so, than formerly : that in fact a great and radical change is going 
on in public sentiment: that of late years, both Virginia and Maryland hare 
passed resolutions approving of the plan of the Colonization Society, and 
Maryland has rendered it pecuniary assistance: that the books of the Socie- 
ty present absolute practical proof that their scheme leads to voluntary man- 
umission, and in this way tends to the peaceful termination of an evil, which 
doubtless all measures of force would only aggravate. He adds, 

"And will not this continue to be the case? Will the causes, 
which produced these effects, suddenly and without any reason 
cease to operate! If so much has been done, when the objects 
of the society and the condition of the colony were but partially 
known; when the difficulties incident to a new enterprise were 
yet to be overcome: what may not be expected, when this great 
cause shall be fairly presented with its success apparent, to the 
patriots, philanthropists and christians of our land? So convin- 
ced am I, that this favourable feeling of the masters will con- 
tinue to be commensurate with any efforts the Society may be 
enabled to make; that if I were invited by the Legislators of 
either of the States I have mentioned, to draw a law in favour 
of emancipation, with the assurance that it would be passed, I 
would say to them pass no law; we have already, by the volun- 
tary consent of their owners, more slaves offered to us than we 
can provide for, and a law is wholly unnecessary. 

"I know (continued the speaker) that very different impres- 
sions, as to the disposition of the people of the South to abolish 
slavery, have prevailed here. I know it has been confidently 
asserted and honestly believed, that all the apparently favoura- 
ble movements in the South, and particularly that which gave 
rise to the Colonization Society, originated in a mercenary and 
selfish spirit; that these who formed this association, desired to 
remove the free people of colour, in order that their slave pro- 
perty might be held more safely and beneficially. There is not 
the slightest ground for such imputations. The Society and their 
*Yiends have always declared their hope; that emancipation would 

1828.] Mr. Key's Address. 803 

be a result of the success of their scheme. It is true, their ope* 
rations have been confined to the single object, colonization. — 
They do nothing directly to effect the manumission of slaves. — 
They think nothing can be advantageously done in favour of 
emancipation, but by means of colonization, of which emancipa- 
tion will be a certain consequence that may be safely and quiet- 
ly awaited. So little reason is there for such a suspicion, that 
th" Society, while suffering under this reproach in the North, 
have been continually assailed by some of the most sensitive of 
their brethren in the South, with accusations of a directly con- 
trary character, with charges of being k rash and dangerous abo- 
litionists.' Tli" middle course of sound and prudent policy, 
steadily pursued by the Society, can alone account for these er- 
roneous and inconsistent opinions respecting their purpose. Im- 
pressions so different cannot long subsist. The Society is daily 
gaining friends from both classes of these conflicting opponents. 
In the North, those who believe that emancipation, without re- 
moval of the manumitted slaves, never can take place but with 
danger, begin to acknowledge that colonization may be carried 
on safely; and that it is better, as something bearing either di- 
rectly or indirectly on the question of slavery will be done, that 
the work should be conducted discreetly, the execution of it be- 
ing entrusted to those who have a common interest with them, 
and who, from their situation, are enabled to understand the 
subject, and to judge how it may be safely dealt with. 

"There is a portion of our brethren, who have been labouring 
for many years, with the most benevolent intentions, but, as I 
conceive, with erroneous views, in the cause of abolition. I ask 
them, why it is that they have exerted themselves to so little 
purpose? Is it not because there has been an obstacle in their 
way, which they have disregarded, but the removal of which was 
necessary to their success? Do not the proofs that have been 
laid before you make this apparent? The Colonization Society 
removes this impediment. It provides on the shores of Africa, 
a refuge for her outcast children. It opens an outlet for our 
greatest evil. Does not wisdom then dictate the propriety of, at 
least, suspending labours that have availed little, in order to 
unite our efforts to remove the obstruction, which stands in the' 
way of the accomplishment of our wishes? 

304 Mr. Key's Address. [Dec. 

"In addition to what I have already urged in favour of Colo- 
nization, I beg leave to offer one or two further considerations. 
Let me call your attention to the influence of the Colony in sup- 
pressing the slave- trade; that horrid traffic, of which you have 
heard frequent descriptions, but can scarcely imagine the enor- 
mity. All the efforts of Europe and of this country to suppress 
it, have been unavailing. Officers of European nations, and of 
our own* who have had experience in the naval service on the 
African coast, have expressed an unanimous opinion that all the 
navies of the world would be insufficient to destroy this trade. 
In fact it is impossible to suppress it but by such means as 
the American Colony employs: by introducing among the wretch- 
ed inhabitants of that oppressed continent, the arts of civiliza- 
tion and the principles of Christian benevolence; and by showing 
them that the rich productions their naturally fine country is ca- 
pable of yielding, are much better articles of commerce than the 
bodies of their brethren. The American Colony has already 
done much in this work. The spot where it is planted was once 
a slave station, from which every year multitudes of wretched 
beings were carried to be sold into bondage. Sierra Leone was 
another such station. A great change has been effected, in a few 
years. The slave-traders dare not now attempt their abomina- 
ble traffic within many miles of these settlements. No more 
from this part of the coast, the slave ship, freighted with human 
misery, launches forth and pursues her course, with all the mon- 
sters of the deep following in her wake to claim their share of 
prey. Instead of this, we see approaching, the American vessel, 
laden with cheerful emigrants, returning to the land of their 
forefathers, bringing with them the blessings of civilization to 
improve that unhappy continent, and bringing the gospel of peace 
to dispel the darkness of gross superstition. What American 
would not feel more pleasure to see the flag of his country giv- 
ing protection to these messengers of peace and joy, than to be- 
hold it waving in triumph over the field of blood? It is thus, we 
may recompense the wrongs of this injured people; thus, we 
may atone for the part we have been forced to take in these 

"To conclude: — Whatever may be thought of the views which 
I have on this occasion endeavoured to present, the immediate 


18*8.] Emancipation, 305 

manumission of two hundred slaves, and their settlement in a 
country where they may enjoy the rights and the improvement 
of freemen, cannot be a matter of indifference to you. These 
are objects according with the desires often expressed by this 
community. In assisting the society to provide for the colonists 
now offered to them, you would in part, accomplish the work to 
which your labours have so long been applied. The society are 
anxious to despatch an expedition to Africa this season, and are 
making great efforts to obtain the means. Without further aid 
from their friends it will be impossible to do it. We ask you 
to assist us in an enterprise, which we believe to be worthy the 
regard of every philanthropist, patriot and christian/ 

C ommunication. 

u Almost all masters in Virginia assent to the proposition, 
that when the slaves can be liberated without danger to our- 
selves, and to their own advantage, it ought to be done." — [Mr. 
Harrison of Lynchburg, before the American Colonization So- 

And is it possible that this can be true? It must be so. — 
Coming as it does, from a distinguished man in the heart of that 
great state, the assertion cannot be doubted. The most emi- 
nent leader of our political career, here presents a very remark- 
able indication, "That she may yet be no less distinguished in 
the promotion of humane and truly liberal sentiments." Alrea- 
dy the wish had almost risen in my heart, and nothing but the 
attachment which I feel for the institutions of my own State 
could have hindered it, that, Providence willing, I had been a na- 
tive of Virginia. 

"When the slaves can be liberated without danger to our- 
selves, and to their own advantage, it ought to be done." By this 
conquer. And when a precipitate or prejudiced enthusiast, con- 
siders it too moderate, and would rashly go beyond it, let him 
know, that he will be pronounced a traitor to his country. Per- 
haps the people of the north have judged those of the south too 

severely. But let the south adopt and vindicate this and its 

306 Emancipation. [Dec. 

kindred sentiments, and they will find a vast majority of the 
north ever ready, to engage with them as brethren, and to hon- 
our tHem, as fellow citizens, and fellow workers in the great 
cause of freedom and humanity. Let such sentiments become 
permanent and universal, and they will do more to perfect and 
perpetuate the union of the States, than the immense influences 
of roads and canals and commerce put together. The union of 
souls no outward force can abolish. 

Never may this sacred maxim remain a mere epitaph on the 
grave of philanthropy. It is a part of the very essence of inspi- 
ration. Let it be a living and an acting principle. Though at 
times it may issue from the lips of the dead who feel not its pow- 
er, while they see and confess its correctness; yet let the lan- 
guage which the very stones cannot but utter and approve, never 
perish in air, nor fall to the ground ineffectual: but let it be in- 
Ivaled by everv active friend of freedom and humanity; let it fas- 
ten on their memories, animate their hearts, rouse their whole 
souls to effort, and even descend to their posterity as one of the 
richest bequests that can be made; till it bears its triumphs into 
every corner of our free country. Thus, and thus only, will it 
accomplish the salvation of this great and flourishing community. 

The Colonization Society, as such, have renounced wholly 
the name and the characteristics of abolitionists. On this point 
they have been unjustly and injuriously slandered. They need 
no such barrier to restrict them, as the sentiment of Mr. Harri- 
son, for their operations are entirely in a different department. 
Into their accounts the subject of emancipation does not enter 
at all. To the religious people of the north, from whom in that 
region they mainly derive their support, they present the almost 
certain and glorious prospect of redeeming and renovating Afri- 
ca. On this account, if on no other, they feel themselves bound 
at least by every consideration of expediency, to render their in- 
stitution decidedly religious m its aspect and in its character. — 
The moment that it ceases to be so, its support in the north must 
fall, and the splendour of its present glory there must vanish. — 
To the south they present the immediate prospect of delivering 
them from the dangers and the trouble of their free coloured po- 
pulation. To all they make a direct and powerful appeal, that 

1898.] Colonization Society of Virginia, 307 

rouses the most dormant feelings of humanity in every breast 
not rendered callous by wrong practice or evil principles, in the 
prospect of giving the death-blow to the miseries and horrors of 
the slave-trade, and of raising all Africa to civilization and peace 
and prosperity. It is by keeping these great and glorious objects 
in view, that they will render their whole cause the cause of 
God and humanity, and will find no enemies to encounter, but 
the enemies of God, and the destroyers of human happiness. 

N. E. 

Colonization Society oi YiYginia. 

We have perused with peculiar gratification an account of the proceed- 
ings of the Auxiliary Colonization Society of Richmond and Manchester at 
its Annual Meeting" on the 15th instant, and the very encouraging Report 
presented on that occasion by its Board of Managers. We particularly re- 
joice in the fact, that this Society has changed its name and character, and 
is now the Colonization Society of the State of Virginia. 

The following is its list of Officers for the ensuing year: 

John Marshall, President. 
Vice-Presiden ts. 

James Madison, 
James Monroe, 
James Pleasants, 
John Tyler, 
Win. H. Fitzhugh, 
John F. May, 

Gen. B. G. Baldwin, 
Philip Doddridge, 
Hugh Nelson, 
Gen. W H. Broadnax, 
William Maxwell, 
Dr. Thomas Massie. 

Benjamin Brand, Treasurer. 
William Barret, Secretary. 
John Rutherford, Cor. Secretary, 


W. H. Fitzwhylsonn, 
Robert G. Scott, 
Hall Neilson, 
John H. Eustace, 
James Blair, 
William Crane, 

David I. Burr, 
James E. Heath, 
Nicholas Mills, 
James Caskie, 
Th's. C. Howard, 
Fleming James. 

The Hall of the House of Delegates was on this occasion crowded, and 
many ladies who have recently made liberal efforts and contributions to aid 
the objects of the Society, evinced by their presence their deep interest in 
its proceedings. Very able and impressive addresses were made by Flem- 

308 Colonisation Society of Virginia. [Dec. 

big" James and J. Forbes, Esqs. of Richmond, and Wm. H. Fitzhugh, Esq. 
of Fairfax, a member of the House of Delegates. The Managers state in their 
interesting Report, "that the sum of $818 10, has been contributed by their 
Association during the year, to the funds of the Parent Society, and that the 
diffusion of correct information has removed in great measure the prejudices 
which have existed against its design. "The clouds of suspicion and distrast 
are rapidly disappearing before the irresistible power of truth and inquiry: 
never probably since the first organization of the Society, have its prospects 
been brighter or its labours more successful. " 

After a brief statement of the plan, principles and success of our Institu- 
tion, the Managers remark: 

"In many parts of the country owners of slaves are ready to 
emancipate them on their being removed hence to Liberia, and 
several are now preparing in the best manner they can their 
slaves for this purpose. So that the Society will find no diffi- 
culty in procuring emigrants of approved character and to any 
number. Already about five hundred free blacks and two hun- 
dred emancipated slaves are soliciting to be removed. Had the 
Society ample means to indulge the wishes of these applicants, 
it would be unwise, in the present condition of the Colony, to 
send thither more than five hundred in any one year, until the 
population of the Colony shall exceed two .thousand; for, a sud-. 
den and too great addition to the present number would be of 
serious injury to the good government of the Colony, and would 
probably produce disastrous, consequences to the emigrants 
themselves, arising from the want of accommodation and the ne- 
cessary supplies. 

"Thus at home we have ample materials and demands to en- 
gage our resources, and to excite our utmost and constant exer- 
tions. Nor is the condition of the Colony less cheering. Its 
agriculture and commerce is respectable, nay considerable and 
very profitable. In an infant country, the former is always and 
naturally the most necessary avocation.— At first the colonists 
did not gucceed so well in their attempts at agriculture, the 
country and sands on the coast not proving so productive, as 
their appearance had led the first settlers to expect. By a ces- 
sion, however, made by the natives to the Colony, of an exten- 
sive tract of country on the St. Pauls river, a territory has been 
acquired, and on which settlements have been formed, where 
agriculturists have succeeded in the most remarkable manner. 

1828.] Colonization Society of Virginia. 609 

"The soil and climate has been found well adapted to the pro- 
duction of Indian corn, millet, rice, cotton, sugar and coffee, 
and of sustaining a population of many thousands. 

"The commerce of the Colony is considerable and rapidly in- 
creasing, as well with the interior as with the United States and 
foreign countries. The exports are not less than fifty thousand 
dollars per annum; and those engaged in commercial pursuits, 
are enterprising, judicious and successful in their adventures.— 
Some of the colonists have acquired considerable fortunes, by 
their care and industry — Most of them are independent — Ml 
can do well, who devote their labour and skill steadily to any 
regular avocation; while common laborers receive on an average 
ninety cents per day, and tradesmen two dollars. 

* k Whatever doubts might have been entertained formerly as 
to the health of the colonists, recent events have entirely remov- 
ed. All who have emigrated from Virginia and South of it, have 
enjoyed good health, and but few deaths have occurred among 
them. Where the colonists have been removed from higher la- 
titudes, they have been subject to the same diseases, as if their 
removal had been from a higher to a lower latitude on this conti- 
nent — and when the total number of deaths among the colonists, 
shall be compared with those that usually occur among the set- 
tlers of any new country, it will be demonstrated that Liberia 
has been founded with a less loss of human life, than probably 
any colony in the old or new world. But we cannot stop here 
with our view of the situation of the Colony. — It is not alone in 
their commerce — their health or their agriculture, that the emi- 
grants have been peculiarly fortunate — the picture of their politi- 
cal, intellectual and moral condition is still brighter — they have 
formed a government, at the head of which has been placed one 
of their own number, Lott Carey, late of the city of Richmond, 
and well known for his good sense, moral character and inflexible 
integrity — they have ordained laws, which punish offenders and 
protect each in his rights of person and of property-r-they have 
created a judiciary for expounding these laws and deciding con- 
troversies — they have instituted a Legislature for the enactment 
of new laws, and the repeal or modification of the existing ones, 
where experience shall show it proper to do so. In short, they 
have instituted for themselves a civil government, the principles 

3X0 Colonization Society of Virginia. [Dec. 

of which recognize the equal rights of all, which protects each in 
his person and in his property; which separates the Legislative, 
Executive and Judicial departments, and assigns to each its 
appropriate functions; which guarantees to all civil, political 
and religious freedom, encourages virtue and discourages vice. 
Such measures have had with the colonists, the same influence, 
which in all time they have had with other men; to improve and 
elevate their moral condition, to promote harmony and to ad- 
vance their prosperity. 

"In this work the name of the lamented Ashmun stands pre- 
eminent, and will be regarded with admiration while this 
flourishing Colony shall remain a proud monument of his la- 

"The Society has then demonstrated the practicability of co- 
lonizing the free black population of the United States, and the 
happy influence this change will have upon the emigrants. In 
doing this, it has expended more than sixty thousand dollars, 
and is prepared to prosecute the undertaking. But has not the 
Society now a fair claim on Government for that aid, which was 
originally denied only because the plan was considered chimeri- 
cal? It has already been asserted, and the assertion is suscepti- 
ble of clear proof, that the cost of transporting each emigrant is 
twenty dollars. The annual increase of the free coloured popu- 
lation of the United States, has been variously estimated at from 
five thousand seven hundred and fifty to seven thousand. Sup- 
pose the latter be the true increase; to remove these will require 
an annual appropriation of one hundred and forty thousand dol- 
lars. But for several years to come, one-third of that amount 
will be more than could be judiciously used, and by its applica- 
tion in thirty years, the total free black population will be re- 
moved. Ought such a people as this to hesitate in bestowing 
this sum, on a work of such a magnitude? — not more than one- 
fifth of the amount now actually employed by individuals im- 
pelled by the most avaricious purposes in transporting into per- 
petual slavery the inhabitants of ill-fated Africa. " 

The example exhibited by the Ladies of Richmond, and to which allusion 
is made in the subsequent extract, is indeed a cheering 1 one, and we trust 
will excite benevolent females throughout our whole country to unite their 
hands and hearts in aid of a work which lays most urgent claim to support 

1828.] Colonization Society of Virginia, 31 J 

from those in whose bosoms dwell the kindest and the best of senti- 

"The Managers cannot pass unnoticed an event of the past 
year, and which they deem a most propitious omen to the future 
hopes and prospects of the Society. They allude to the forma- 
tion of Female Societies for contributing to this object. From 
the efforts of our fair countrywomen we anticipate the happiest 
effects. In the works of kindness and of charity, their appeals 
are never made in vain. More earnest and more constant than 
men; the influence of their sincerity and solicitation, of their 
opinions and their advice, will be felt and seen in every circle. 
Of the contribution of this to the Parent Society in this year, 
one hundred and seventy dollars has been received from the 
Richmond and Manchester Female Society." 

After mentioning some reasons for reorganizing- the Society on the plan 
of a State Society, the Managers conclude: 

"The deep interest which Virginia has in the success of this 
Society, and the favourable expression of her opinions hereto- 
fore on the subject; induce the Managers to recommend that an 
application should be made to the present General Assembly for 
further aid. Nor can the Managers doubt of the success of this 
application, when the objects and views of the Society are pro- 
perly understood; and when it is recollected, that the laws of 
Virginia forbid emancipation, but upon condition that the eman- 
cipated slave shall remove, except in rare cases. Is it not just 
then, that the means of removal should be facilitated and afforded? 
To Virginia an appeal of justice has never been made in vain; and 
when sustained by philanthropy, humanity and policy, we are 
not permitted to doubt of success." 

Nothing can be more auspicious, than the establishment of such a Socie 
ty, in a state which is so deeply interested in our enterprise; which has the 
honour of being the first to give to it the sanction of its influence; and which 
has at all times been most prompt to suggest, and firm to maintain plans, 
founded upon the true principles of national utility, honour and duty. 

312 Report of the Vermont Colonization Society, [Dec. 

The proceedings of this important and energetic Society, continue to be 
quite characteristic of the active and enterprising people of Vermont. — 
They give us a few words, quite to the purpose, and a good deal 
of money. They were among the earliest friends of our cause, and 
through evil report and good report, they have manifested toward it the 
same increasing, unwearied, unwavering attachment. While they, in so 
substantial a manner, honour the purity of our motives, and the rectitude of 
our views and proceedings, it is only the payment of an honest debt, that 
we should honour their zeal and fidelity. In the beginning of their Ninth 
Report, they pay a fervent and merited tribute to the memory of Mr. Ash- 
mun; a tribute which not only manifests their readiness to sympathize with 
the bereaved, and to render to all the meed of their merits; but adds to the 
proof of their zeal in our cause, if indeed any further proof were needed; 
and evinces an enlightened and intimate acquaintance with events and pro- 
ceedings relative to our Society and Colony, and an inquisitive scrutiny in- 
to our concerns which we are highly gratified to witness. This is just 
what we ask, and what we desire : while we consider neglect and apathy 
as our deadliest enemies. Just so far as keen and candid inquiry can be 
excited, the friends of man, to an individual, will be found the friends and 
advocates and supporters of our cause and Society. On this point our con- 
fidence amounts very nearly to certainty. 

The Report proceeds to give a brief and accurate view of the Colony, 
and of the very promising prospects of the General Society It mentions 
the formation of two new Societies, one at Manchester, and the other at 
Bennington, of which Chief Justice Skinner and Hon. Jonas Galusha are 
the Presidents, both of whom were Governors of the State. It alludes to 
the noble bequest, and the efficient testimony in our favour, of the late Mr. 
Burr; and when speaking of the conditional subscription of Gerrit Smith, 
Esq. it asks, with an obvious and well grounded confidence in the genero- 
sity of their fellow citizens, "if Vermont cannot furnish a few instances of 
like liberality." We trust the appeal will not be fruitless: and that those 
who have been' found so faithful in little, in the contribution of smaller 
sums, will, agreeably to Scripture, be found faithful in much. 

We cannot dismiss this brief, but interesting report, without letting it 
speak for itself. 

"It is peculiarly gratifying to be able to state, that the Socie- 
ty's application to Congress was favorably received in the House 
of Representatives, and was, by a committee of that honorable 
body, recommended to the early attention of Congress at the ap- 

1828.] Report of the Vermont Colonization Society. 3 IS 

proaching session. We regret to say* that in the Senate it was 
otherwise. But at this we are neither surprised nor discourag- 
ed. Opposition provokes discussion; and by the collision of such 
minds as that of Mr. Tazewell, and such others as will meet 
him in the field of argument, truth will be elicited, and will ul- 
timately triumph. Should the desired aid be long withheld, 
which we do not believe will be the case, the state legislatures are 
able, and we trust many of them will be found willing, to Sup- 
ply the deficiency. As yet, however, the Society must chiefly 
depend for ability to proceed in the great work it has undertaken, 
on the liberality of its auxiliaries, and the individual donations 
of the benevolent. And we are concerned to state, that the 
wants of the Society were never greater than now. The expe- 
ditions of last year made great drafts on the treasury, and the 
calls of the agent at Washington for pecuniary aid, are earnest 
and importunate. Lest it should be supposed that the legacy of 
Mr. Burr will supply the immediate wants of the Society, it 
should be understood that this legacy will not be placed at the 
disposal of the Society for one or two years, and perhaps a lon- 
ger term. And we will not for a moment suppose, that the li- 
berality of our lamented friend will be so misimproved, as to in- 
duce one friend of the cause to withhold or diminish his aid.— 
We will rather believe it will stimulate all to persevere in this 
work of love, and induce many to come forward with enlarged 

"An expedition should without fail be sent out the present 
autumn. But the means, we fear, are yet to be provided. — 
Many emancipated slaves and free coloured people, are anxious- 
ly waiting to be gone. The Colony, no doubt, is waiting to re- 
ceive them. The friends of humanity are waiting to see, in the 
rapid increase of the population, the improvement, and the re- 
sources of the Colony, the rising dawn of African glory, the abo- 
lition of the slave-trade, and the extension of freedom and re- 
ligion over vast regions of darkness and death. 

"Africa, meanwhile, bleeding, and writhing in agony, stretch- 
es forth her hands, and implores our immediate and vigorous ef- 
forts to drive from her coasts those infamous wretches, who are 
annually dragging hundreds of thousands of her children to en* 

counter the horrors of the middle passage, in which, a! large 

314 To Christian Ladies* [Dec. 

share of them are barbarously murdered, while those who sur- 
vive are doomed to perpetual bondage. 

"Who, that has humanity in his bosom, will not be impatient 
to engage with all the means he can command in an enterprise, de- 
sighed to shut out the pirate from the land where cruelty has so 
long revelled and rioted on the blood of its slaughtered victims, 
and to proclaim freedom, and peace, and social joy, and the 
opened gate of eternal glory, to the sons and daughters of abused 

"The report of the Treasurer, annexed to this, will show 
what has been received in the course of the past year.* 

•"■To the generous sympathies of our countrymen, especially 
those of our beloved commonwealth, and to the patronage of 
Heaven, we commend the sacred cause in which we have unit- 
edly embarked. May its friends increase, and multiply in num- 
bers, and resources, and benevolence, till slavery and all its at- 
tendant evils, shall be banished, not from this nation only, but 
from every nation under heaven. " 

To C\wistia\\ li&&ifcs. 

In presenting to the Ladies of our country, a few thoughts 
"which may serve to excite and bring more generally into active 
operation in behalf of our Institution, those benevolent senti- 
ments, which in their bosoms are ever so ready to answer to the 
calls of charity, we rejoice in the evidences already manifest 
that our attempt is not hopeless — in the knowledge that not a 
few females eminent for whatever adorns their sex, are now 
practically evincing their conviction, that this Institution is 
based upon the purest principles and effecting the noblest ob- 

Some of these, alas! with whom it has been our privilege to be 
acquainted, have finished their earthly service, and while many 
are tasting the fruits of their beneficence, are themselves enjoy- 
ing its rewards amid the brighter light and more exalted minis* 

* The amount is #916" 31, 

1828. j To Christian Ladies. 31.5 

trations of the heavenly world. Others, their sisters, in the spi* 
rit of Him, who came to redeem the world and preach a better 
liberty than poets ever sung, we could name; but must not of- 
fend the modesty which prefers the approbation of conscience 
and of God to the loudest acclamations of human applause. But 
we may be allowed to mention the encouragement which we de- 
rive from the honourable example exhibited by the Ladies of 
Richmond, and which (if we mistake not) has already kindled 
a generous spirit of emulation elsewhere; an example which we 
venture to predict will exert an influence until our nation is de- 
livered from its most degraded and unfortunate population, and 
Africa intellectually and morally regenerated. 

Few of our enlightened countrywomen, we fear, are aware to 
what extent, and with what moral power their influence may be 
exerted. Our own confidence in it is well nigh unbounded. — 
This, we are convinced, when generally active, and judiciously 
directed, will effect more for the interests of humanity, and the 
pious charities of the age, than the ablest arguments and the 
most commanding eloquence. It is an influence which like the 
light of Heaven is silent, all -pervading, and irresistible. It 
changes public sentiment as by miracle, and opposition, if it can 
live, finds its energies paralyzed in its presence. And who 
that loves either God orman, will not rejoice that the Females 
of our own land, are bringing their united influence to advance 
those objects which unless virtue and religion are shadows, de- 
mand the best thoughts and the highest efforts of our nature. 

We have no apprehension that Ladies will attempt too much 
for the various enterprises of Christian benevolence. In asso- 
ciating themselves to promote these enterprises, they but hon- 
ourably fulfil their appropriate duties, and do not in the least 
transcend the limits which reason and scripture have prescribed 
for their efforts. If it is recorded in the sacred volume of one 
female disciple, that she was u full of good works and alms-deeds 
which she did," and of others, that they were "succourers of 
many," and "helpers" of the Apostles' labours, their sisters of 
the present age surely need not be ashamed to evince a spirit of 
kindred charity, to feel their hearts engaged, and have their 
hands employed in similar holy ministrations. 

And can any female heart, especially any one which has been 

316 To Christian Ladies, [Dec. 

warmed by the heavenly spirit of the gospel, remain indifferent 
to the claims which our infant Colony, and the people whom it 
would bless, present for immediate, united, and persevering ex- 
ertions? Consider the magnitude of the object. We would 
transfer thousands, within our own borders, from a state of poli- 
tical, intellectual, and moral degradation, to a country which 
they may call their own; where they must feel the excitements 
of the noblest motives, occupy stations, and discharge duties to 
which there are none superior. We would instruct the count- 
less tribes of a long barbarous and wretched continent, in the 
arts which civilize and the religion which saves our race. We 
would suppress the slave-trade; that evil which the combined 
powers of Christendom, after years of effort, have scarce been 
able to check, and which taken in the whole length and breadth 
of it, is generally admitted to have no parallel in the annals of 
human suffering or crime. And in doing this we bless our own 
country. Patriotism demands the work, no less than Religion. 
So true is it that our scheme "is a circle of Philanthropy, every 
segment of which tells and testifies to the beneficence of the 

But we mistake, or there have been peculiarities in the mise- 
ries of the African race, for two centuries, which appeal irresis- 
tibly to the sympathies of the female mind. How have the sa- 
cred ties of nature been ruthlessly sundered, the peaceful village 
and the quiet home violated by those who would tear children 
from their parents, and bind even a mother's limbs in fetters of 
iron! The mere recital, of what is now almost daily occurring 
on the shores of Africa, would be sufficient to pierce every fe- 
male heart with sorrow, and unite in a holy sisterhood of chari- 
ty all the Ladies of our country. Of such a union, we see, we 
think, the commencement, and may predict that the time so 
much desired by a distinguished female correspondent will soon 
arrive, "when the sufferings and hopes of Africa, shall mingle 
with the morning and evening sacrifices in every household." 

And let none of our female friends forget, "that to do good 
and communicate" is an injunction of Scripture, and that "with 
such sacrifices God is well pleased." Vain are all professions 
of piety, if Charity to mankind is a stranger to our souls. "He 
that loveth not his Brother, whose wants and sufferings are ob- 

1828.] The great Object advanced, $c. SIT 

jects of his daily perception, how can he love the invisible God?" 
that we may all partake more of his spirit "who went about 
doing good," and whose aphorism should be engraven upon eve- 
ry heart, u It is more blessed to give than to receive." She who 
feels and does most for others, is best preparing herself for the 
society of Angels, who themselves deem it no dishonour, but 
their glory, to go forth and minister to the heirs of salvation. 

The gxeat Object Advanced,. 

We have already announced the following individuals as sub- 
scribers on the plan of Gerrit Smith, Esq. — that is, as agreeing 
to give, each, $100 a year to the Society for ten years. 

Gerrit Smith, Peterboro, New York, 

Jasper Corning, Charleston., South Carolina. 

Theodore Frelinghuysen, Newark, New Jersey. 

John T. Norton, Albany, New York. 

E. F. Backus, New Haven, Connecticut. 

A Gentleman in Mississippi. 
We have now the pleasure to add to this list 

Matthew Carey, Philadelphia. (See Mr. Carey's letter 
in our last.) 

Josiah Bissel, Rochester, New York. 

William Crane, Richmond, Virginia. 

Fleming James, ditto. 

Robert Ralston, Philadelphia. 

Elliot Cresson, ditto. 

Animal fleeting of the Society, 

This will be held on the 17th of January. Auxiliaries are in 
vited to send Delegates to this meeting. 

In an acknowledgment of receipts for the American Coloni- 
zation Society in the Utica Recorder, is the following — 

"From the estate of Cyrene Isaacs, late of Genoa, Cayuga 

318 African Golonization. [Dec. 

co. deceased, 'who was born a slave, purchased her freedom, 
and sustained a christian character;' by William Bradley, one 
of the executors, 50 dollars. 

I^^e&iiion for liiberia. 

Arrangements have been made by the Board of Managers to 
send a vessel from Norfolk to Liberia, with from 150 to 200 
emigrants, during the course of next month. 

lAbfcYia Coffee. 

We have observed with great pleasure the following advertise 
ment in a Richmond Paper. 

"LIBERIA COFFEE.— 6000 lbs. Liberia Coffee, shipped by 
Lott Carey, for sale by OTIS, DUNLOP & CO." 

•Mxican Colonization, 


All sights are fair to the recover'd blind — 

All sounds are music to the deaf restor'd — 
The lame, made whole, leaps like the sporting hind; 

And the sad, bow'ddown sinner, with his load 
Of shame and sorrow, when he cuts the cord, 

And drops the pack it bound, is free again 
In the light yoke and burden of his Lord. 

Thus, with the birthright of his fellow man, 

Sees, hears and feels at once the righted African. 

'Tis somewhat like the burst from death to life; 

from the grave's cerements to the robes of Heaven; 
From sin's dominion, and from passion's strife, 

To the pure freedom of a soul forgiven ! 

When all the bonds of death and hell are riven, 
Vnd mortals put on immortality: 

When fear, and care, and grief away are driven, 
And Mercy's hand has turn'd the golden key, 
And Mercy's voice has said, ^Rejoice — thy soul is free!" 

1828.] Sonnet. — Contributions. 819 


Sonnet. — TSuYial of AsYvmun. 

"What desolate mourner rushes to the bier, 

And stays the solemn rites of that sad hour"* 
© God, sustain her as she draweth near, 

Support her in the struggles that o'erpower! 

It is an aged mother that bows down 
Beside the coffined corpse, amid the crowd, — 

It is the ashes of her noble son,— 
His living- face unseen for many a year,— - 
Well may she lift her voice and weep aloud! 

The world cannot console her. God alone 
Hath power to speak to such a sorrowing' one, 

And take her dreadful load of grief away. 

To man it is not given, for who can say, 
In his own single strength, "Thy will be done!" 

C ontYibutious . 

To the Am. Col. Society, from 1st to ZSd of December, 1828. 

Miss Blackburn, of Charlestown, Va. who has often contributed to this fund/ 

per William Brown, Esq $10 

Gerrit Smith, Esq. of Peterboro, N. Y. his second annual sub- 
scription, • 100 

Jasper Corning, Esq. of Charleston, S . C . his first payment on the 

plan of Gerrit Smith, Esq 100 

Hon. Bushrod Washington, of Mount Vernon, his annual sub'n. . 100 

Arthur Shaaff, Esq , of Millidgeville, Georgia, 10 

James D wight, Esq. of Petersburg", Virginia, 5 

Colonization Society of Virginia, perBenj. Brand, Esq. Tr. ... *600 
Collection in Presbyterian Church, Cortland Village, after a ser- 
mon by Rev. Lube Lym, 15 37 

Wilmington (D.) Union Col. Society, per Allan Thompson, Tr. 90 3S 
Collection in the Associate Reformed Church, Newburgh, New 

York, per D. Farrington, 15 75 

Amount carried forward, $1046 45 

* Of this sum, the Female Colonization Society of Richmond and Man- 
chester, contributed by Miss J. R. Shedden, to make Rev. R. C. Moore, 
Bishop of Virginia, a life member, $30; and by Miss Amelia Coleman, 
Treasurer of said Society, to assist in defraying expenses of emigrants froffe 
Richmond to Liberia, $139 75. 

320 Contributions, fBec. 

Amount brought forward, $1046 45 
Chambersburg Colonization Society, Pa. its first annual contri- 
bution, per B. A. Fahnestock, Esq. Treasurer, 37 

New Jersey Col. Soc. per R. Voorhecs, Esq. Treasurer, 150 

Hon. Theo. Frelinghuysen, N. J. from following- sources, viz: 

Mr. F. Thomas, of Newark, $10 

Female Juvenile Sewing- Society, of ditto, 16 40 

Miss Jane A. Philips, of Philadelphia, 5 

Ladies of 2nd Church, Newark, 20 

51 40 

Collection 4th July last at Salem, Indiana, paid by Dr. B. Brad- 

ly , by the hands of Hon. Mr. Hendricks, 6 50 

Collections by Auxiliary Society of Alexandria, to aid an expedi- 
tion this fall, per Charles Page, Esq. Treasurer, 

Collection in St. Paul's Church, $12 57 

Mrs. Sarah Ladd, 1 

Collection in 1st Presbyterian Church, 9 72 
Do. 2nd do. do. . 6 09 

Hugh Charles Smith, 1 

John Emerson, 1 

Frederick Jacob Hirters, 2 

William Gregory, 5 

H. C. Smith, through others, 5 

H. C. Smith, 2 

Jane Muir, 1 

N. R. Fitzhugh, 5 

Robert Jameison, 15 

Mr Walton, 5 

Mr. Harmon, 1 

Mr. Cheres, 2 

74 38 

Rev. Mr. Blodget, of Dawfuskie Island, South Carolina, 50 

Auxiliary Society, Berkely Co. Va. per P. O Pendleton, Esq . 30 
Washington Auxiliary Society, Penn. per Hon. J. Lawrence, . . 50 

Jacob Wagener, Esq. of Easton, Maryland, 10 

Collection at Richmond, Massachusetts, per Rev. E. W Dwight, 8 

Collection at Talmadge, Portage co. (O.) per Hon. E. Whittlesey 16 
Collection at Franklin, do- per ditto, .... 5 

Collection in Congregation of Ludlowvilly, New Jersey, 10 

Collected on the 4th of July, in the Pres. Ch. Charlottesville, per 

O. B. Carr, 20 

Auxiliary Col. Society of New Hampshire, 40 

Right Rev. Bishop Croes, of New Jersey, 3 

$1609 73 





Vol. IT. JANUARY, 1829. No. 11. 


The same causes which have hindered the civilization, and 
darkened the history of Africa, continue also to render very im- 
perfect its civil and physical geography. In view of this imper^ 
fection, however, it is peculiarly gratifying to know, that it will 
soon be removed; not by the theories of ingenious or presuming 
projectors, but by the eyes and energies of enterprising and re- 
solute observers. With regard to our knowledge of the present 
state of Africa, and what is more, with regard to extending 
a saving and a civilizing influence over it, nil est desperandum 9 
may now be placed high on our standard. The laws and pow*> 
ers of the moral world are assuming an aspect and an energy, 
that will throw far in the shade the discoveries of Watt and of 
Newton; and human skill and enterprise are fast hastening to 
the extreme limits of possibility. 

Africa is a vast peninsula, about 5,000 miles in length, and 
4,500 in breadth; and its area is computed at 13,430,000 square 
miles. Its shores are remarkable throughout for their uniformi- 
ty of outline, for the want of gulfs, bays, harbours and naviga- 
ble rivers, and for the smallness and fewness of the islands in 

its vicinity . The gulf of Guinea on the south, and that of Si 

SSfi Africa. £Jaii< 

dra in the north, the two principal indentures made by the sea, 
a*e both of them dangerous to navigators, and besides are sepa- 
rated by a distance of 1,800 miles. All this, while it renders 
access difficult, is also indicative of a level country. In gener- 
al the indication proves to be correct. The rays of a vertical 
sun are not often scattered by the sloping sides of hill or moun- 
tain, or tempered by cool and springy valleys beneath; and the 
winds, burning with heat, or bearing and scattering vast vo- 
lumes of sand or rain, drive over the continent almost without 

In its geofogical character, Africa is chiefly of secondary and 
alluvial formation, and thus presents a correspondence in this 
respect with the general evenness of its surface: there being no 
reservoirs sufficiently capacious for the ruins of these later for- 
mations, unless they had been swept from the continent into the 
ocean. The comparatively flat body of primitive rock remained 
clad with the newer coats of our globe, except where at distant 
intervals its protuberant parts were exposed to the rush of the 
mighty waters, which before they were confined to their present 
boundaries, and shut up in the dark caverns of the earthy mo- 
delled and polished its surface, and prepared it to be inhabited. 
It is certainly determined, however, that there is at least one 
basin in the centre of Africa, from which there is no outlet to 
the ocean. But even this is so remarkable for its shallowness, 
that the waters on its shores advance and retire to great distan- 
ces with the change of seasons, and nothing apparently but the 
influx of great rivers prevents it from being dried up entirely. 
It is perhaps not improbable that there are other inland seas of 
a similar character. The accounts of the natives, though they 
are in the main exceedingly contradictory, and little to be trustr 
ed, agree in representing various and extensive marshes in the 
interior of Africa. 

The isthmus of Suez is marked by several singularities. The 
breadth of the isthmus in a strait line is seventy miles. Its sur- 
face generally declines from the shores of the Red Sea to those 
of the Mediterranean. The level of the Mediterranean is thir- 
ty feet lower than that of the gulf of Suez, Besides this lead- 
ing inclination of the surface there is a particular one in the 
middle of the isthmus. The deep basin called the Bitter Lakes, 

1829.] Africa* &U 

is more than fifty feet lower than the level of the Red Sea, the 
waters of which would enter and fill it, if they were not pre- 
vented by a little sandy isthmus about three feet higher than 
the level of the sea. The ancient Egyptians, being ignorant of 
the principles of hydraulics, it is stated, were not without ap- 
prehension, that the Arabian gulf would burst its low and feeble 
boundaries, and by some unknown, but dreadful power, would 
overwhelm that part of their country which lies below the level 
of its surface. But as the descent to the Mediterranean is iu 
the main \ery gradual, being only about six inches in a mile, it 
is evident that the action of the water could not be very violent, 
even if it proceeded in a body; and it seems by no means a vi- 
sionary opinion, that an ample communication, proceeding by a 
very gentle current, will yet be made between the two seas, 
and thus a direct passage will be obtained for ships, from the 
Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean. All that appears to be 
wanting to accomplish this grand result, is a Clinton at the 
head of a free, enlightened and enterprising community. 

There is a more general characteristic of Africa, that is well 
Worthy of our attention. It is found, that in some parts where 
both the soil and the water at the surface are impregnated with 
salt, fresh water springs up from beneath. A late English tra- 
veller remarks, "As far as I can learn, no salt formations exist 
within the boundaries of the rains." In places where they do 
exist, "there are many fine fresh springs issuing from the soil, 
and none of the wells are brakish; when the water, however, 
remains sometime stagnant, it gets impregnated with saline mat- 
ter." He suggests, that in producing this salt on the surface, 
"the air has a powerful effect, and is a principal agent:" as if 
the air itself might be impregnated with salt, or had the power 
of manufacturing it! The true explanation of this extraordina- 
ry phenomenon, is notwithstanding exceedingly obvious and 
simple. It is found, as has been remarked, only where rains, 
seldom or never occur. The water then which rises from 
iprings, and which is evaporated from the surface of the ground, 
must come from a distance, from a rainy country; and its course 
in the salt districts must be always upward, toward the surface 
of the earth. Of course, even if there were salt beneath the sur- 
face, it would gradually be brought upward to the surface, by 

324 Africa. [Ja». 

the continual rising of the water; and from the surface evapora- 
tion alone could never remove it. We see then in the actual 
state of things, a constant tendency to the remarkable result in 

The extensive deserts of Africa present all the indications of 
having once been the level bed of the ocean. Not only do salt 
plains, and the reliques of sea animals frequently occur, but trees 
are often found in a petrified state. It is altogether unphiloso- 
phical to suppose for a moment, that such results could be pro- 
duced, except by miraculous power, or the waters of the sea.— 
To believe this, however, requires no degree of credulity, since 
it is a well ascertained geological fact, that the highest seconda- 
ry mountains present the same indisputable proof, that the wa- 
ters of our globe formerly enveloped them. Scripture itself 
adds its testimony; that such was the fact, before "the waters 
were gathered together." 

The most noted mountain range in Africa, is the Jibbel Ku- 
mri, or Mountains of the Moon. It lies on the south of Abys- 
sinia, and stretches oft* westward through the centre of Africa. 
Its extent and magnitude arc known very imperfectly; though 
it seems at least altogether probable, from its central position, 
that it surpasses in both these respects all the other ranges oi 
the continent. The actual view which Major Denham had, of 
stupendous mountains to the south of Mandara, in the heart of 
Africa, as well as the coldness of the climate in that region, 
goes very far to confirm this opinion. From Mandara also a 
range is represented by the same traveller, as extending ver\ 
far to the southward. He was told by a i 'very intelligent" Af- 
rican, who had travelled south of Mandara, that the inhabitants 
there "were unanimous in declaring these mountains tp extend 
southward for two months' journey; and in describing them he 
called them mountains large, large, moon mountains." To the 
west of Mandara are the Kong mountains, which range east and 
west, and are probably a mere continuation of the Abyssinian 
Mountains of the Moon. Mount Atlls, which lines nearly the 
whole of the north coast, is a series of five or six small chains, 
rising one behind another, and including many table lands. It 
is stated, however, that toward the desert they increase in ele- 
vation and terminate in steep and inaccessible peaks. It is eer- 

1849.] Africa. $25 

tain that such is the character of others of the African moun- 
tains. But in general, agreeably to preceding remarks, thej 
appear to be of calcareous formation, built in terraces ; and their 
rivers, instead of traversing long and deep valleys, descend in 
a series of cataracts. It is supposed, and the supposition is cer- 
tainly a very plausible one, that the Atlas of Homer and Virgil, 
was the Peak of Teneriffe. 

Of African rivers, the most of the Nile, the Senegal, the 
Gambia, and a part of the Niger, are too well known to require 
a description. It is chiefly the rivers of Central Africa, that 
are not only known very imperfectly, but in the various accounts 
respecting them, present such a labyrinth of mysteries, such a 
series of contradictions, and such a medley of absurdities, that 
it would seem as if they were possessed of no permanent charac- 
ter, but were changeable like the colours of the cameleon, and 
unlike the cameleon indicating no cause of the diversity. A 
good many /acta, however, respecting them, are already estab- 
lished by competent observers. It is certain that a fresh water 
sea or lake, six or eight hundred miles in circuit, called Tchad, 
or otherwise Chad, Shad, Chadee, Shadee, Cauga, Cadee or 
Caudee, lies about 13° north, by 15° east. Into this lake the river 
Yeou or Yow, empties from the west, which near its mouth is 150 
yards across, and its probable source and continued eastern direc- 
tion, have been ascertained entirely. From the south, by seve^ 
ral channels, empties the Shary, Shar or Sharee, running two 
or three miles an hour, measuring only five or six feet in depth, 
and more than six hundred yards across. Its general course, 
though not far ascertained, continues to be from the south. — 
Kano, which is doubtless the Ghana of the Arabs, and the Cano 
of Leo Africanus, and which is near the centre of Houssa, in- 
stead of being situated on a great river running east or west, 
lies between the sources of the Yeou, running eastward into the 
Tchad, and the Quorrama, which runs to the westward. Kano 
is about 12° north, by 2° east from London. 

We now pass from these known premises to the wretched na- 
tive accounts; and of some of them we shall be able at least to 
discover the falsity. Though Major Denham did not go quite 
round the Tchad, it was the unanimous testimony of those who 
had often done so, that it has no outlet-. They agreed, howev- 

326 Afric*. fJai. 

er, that its waters formerly passed off to the east, and that the 
dry bed of its stream still remained, though 'covered with large 
trees and full of pasture. On this account doubtless it is pro- 
per to place no dependence, though the freshness of the lake 
argues in favour of an outlet. Major Denham himself viewed 
from the distant southern hills the great basin, of which the lake 
occupies the centre, and a northern outlet, if any ever existed, 
appeared te him the most probable. A venerable patriarch 
shepherd on the east shore of the Tchad, informed him, that 
from Tchad to Fittre was four days; there was no water, and 
but two wells on the road. ' 'Fittre, he said, was large, but 
not like the Tchad. His infancy had been passed on its bor- 
ders. He had often heard the Fittre called the Darfoor water, 
and Shilluk. A river also came from the south-west which 
formed lake Fittre; and this and the Nile were one; he believed 
this was also the Shary; but he knew nothing to the westward " 
Major Denham says, "There is a prevailing report among the 
Shouaas, that from a mountain, south-east of Waday, called 
Tama, issues a stream, which flows near Darpoor, (Darfoor,) 
and forms the river Bahr el Abiad; and that this water is the 
lake Tchad, which is driven by the eddies and whirlpools of the 
centre of the lake into subterranean passages; and after a course 
of many miles under ground, its progress being arrested by 
rocks of granite, it rises between two hills, and pursues its way 
eastward." Here we have a very intelligible, and very satis- 
factory specimen of African fanciful philosophy. But this is 
not all. Native accounts have agreed, that the river Gambaroo, 
separated from the Niger near Tombuctoo, and flowed eastward 
into the lake Tchad; whereas it has been ascertained with cer- 
tainty, that the Gambaroo is merely a branch or portion of the 
Yeou, which rises at Kano and flows eastward to the Tchad. — 
Here then we have ample proof even if we had no other, that 
the African testimony, with regard to the identity of rivers, is 
not at all to be trusted. By a single freak of the imagination, 
they can make a single river run all over and under the earth. 
And they do not hesitate to make them even run up stream, as 
the Niger was represented by them to run up the Quorrama, 
and down the Yeou, into the Tchad, by Kano. Major Denham 
makes evident another source of error. "An intelligent MooY 

1825.] Africa. 3Q7 

©f Mesu rata again told me, this water, (the Yeou,) was the same 
as the Nile; and when I asked him how that could be, when he 
knew that we had traced it into the Tchad, which was allowed 
to have no outlet, he replied, 'Yes, but it is nevertheless Nile 
water-sweet.' I had before been asked if the Nile was not in 
England; and subsequently when my knowledge of Arabic was 
somewhat improved, I became satisfied that these question? >had 
no reference at all to the Nile of Egypt, but merely meant run- 
ning water, sweet waster, from its rarity highly esteemed by all 
desert travellers." 

We will now proceed with the native testimony, carefully re- 
jecting it, however, when it is plainly rendered worthless; and 
will pursue a course of analogical reasoning, which has hereto- 
fore been too little regarded. They unanimously agree, that a 
little to the west of Sackatoo, the capital of the vast and power- 
ful kingdom of the Felatahs, which was visited by Captain Clap- 
perton, and which lies about 6£° east, by 15° north, flows the 
river Quolla, Quorra, Kowara, Kulla or Wola, which is three 
or four miles wide, and is universally allowed to be the Niger. 
It is certain that the Niger does not pass north of Sackatoo.—- 
The natives also unanimously agree, that the Quolla flows east- 
ward toward the Nile; which latter testimony as has been seen, 
amounts to nothing, but that there is a great river connected 
with the Quolla, and having the same name, in that direction^ 
flowing either eastward or westward. They also agree, that a 
branch flows from the Quolla, southward to the sea. Bello, 
sultan of the Felatahs, a man obviously possessed of extensive 
information, and of a quick and powerful intellect, informed 
Captain Clapperton, in a desultory conversation, that the 
Quolla "entered the Sea at Fundah. Two or three years be- 
fore, the sea closed up the mouth of the river, and its mouth 
was then a day or two farther south. I will give the king of 
England, said he, a place on the coast, to build a town: only I 
wish a road to be cut to Rakah^ if vessels should not be able to 
navigate the river." He said nothing at the time of an arm 
flowing eastward from the Quolla. Afterward, when it was 
known, that he had become jealous of the designs of England on 
kis empire, he drew a map of the river, which represented it as 
flowing eastward to tha Nile, and having no outlet to the aea.— 

328 Africa. Jan. 

The mere fact of his jealousy throws distrust on his map, and 
fixes our confidence on the unbiassed testimony which he had 
given before. By a mere glance at the gulf of Guinea, compar- 
ed with similar gulfs, on the map of the world, we are irresisti- 
bly led to the probable conclusion, that it is the estuary of one 
or more great rivers. ^confirmation of this analogical conclu- 
sion, Mr. Bowdich entered the Gaboon, near the equator, as- 
cended it forty -five miles, and there found two branches, one of 
which was four, and the other two miles wide. Several other 
rivers at the gulf were of a similar magnitude. We have seen 
that the native testimony does nothing to show, whether the 
great eastern branch of the Quolla flows eastward or westward; 
though its existence cannot at all be doubted. It is then at 
least a very probable analogical conclusion, that it rises in the 
country of Dar Koolah or Kulla, a place plainly of the same 
name with the river, and flowing westward, enters the great 
river, the Niger, flowing from the north, or runs directly into 
the gulf of Guinea. Indeed in the map of Malte Brun, the 
source of a river running westward, is laid down in Dar Koolah, 
on the authority of Browne, who visited that region of country. 
"At a distance of three days' journey to the south of Cabbeh, (in 
Darfoor,) there are copper mines; and seven days' journey and 
a half beyond these, is the Bahr el Abiad. To the west of this 
is the river Koolah, (Kulla or Quolla,) the banks of which, ac 
cording to the information of Mr. Browne, abound with pimen- 
to trees." As a proof of the great height of this country com- 
pared with Central Africa, it is stated, that the mountains "are 
frequently covered with snow." A glance at the rivers of the 
gulfs of Persia, Bengal and Birmah; will give at least a proba- 
ble general idea of the rivers of the gulf of Guinea. The native 
testimony that the rivers of Africa in the interior, separate, in 
their downward course, into two or more branches, has been 
shown to be false in some instances, and in all good for nothing. 
At the utmost, there are not more than two examples of this 
kind known In the world; and the obvious reason is, that rivers 
in the interior are constantly lowering their beds, and thus di- 
minishing the chance of a division; and even if a division actu- 
ally existed, there would be a constant and unavoidable tenden- 
cy to flow in a single direction; whereas near their mouths^ 

1829.] Africa. 329 

rivers are continually raising their beds, and thus preparing to 
burst their boundaries, and to pour their waters in any direction, 

Mr. Bowdich concluded from native testimony, that an arm 
of the Quolla passes into the Zaire or Congo: but this, as ha* 
been seen, may amount to nothing more, than that a branch of 
the Quolla and one of th<> Zaire, have th: \r sources nearly to- 
gether, and flow in different directions; and analogy shows al- 
most irresistibly, that such is the fact.* 

Africa is distinguished for the richness and fertility of its soil, 
as well as for the number and magnitude of sterile spots which 
are found on its surface. The fame of Egypt's productiveness 
tas already filled the world, and accounts fully agree, that other 
parts of the continent will even vie with Egypt in point of fer- 
tility. Indeed it would seem as if nothing had contributed 
more to lower the character of the African race, than the com- 
parative ease with which life and even luxury may be supported. 
The abundant resources of Egypt, under a wise and rigid go- 
vernment, were once brought to operate in elevating the charac- 
ter of its inhabitants. But where such a government is want- 
ing, and where there is no sufficient moral influence, and no 
pressure of necessity, to operate in its stead, resources, in al- 
most exact proportion to their abundance, are wasted in dissi- 
pation, and consumed in comparative idleness. The same pro- 
fuseness of nature, which under judicious management would 
improve and elevate its possessors, serves only to degrade them, 
when no controlling influence is exerted over it. 

The climate of Africa has generally had the reputation of be- 
ing unhealthy. But when the number and extent of its marsh- 
es, and the habits of the natives are known, this circumstance 
will appear to be no cause of wonder. When those marshes 
shall be cleared and cultivated, and the inhabitants shall become 
civilized and cleanly, it is perhaps not too much to expect, that 
the world will not furnish a region more salubrious or healthful 
than Africa. 

* Some of the views in this article, it will be seen, differ from those ex- 
pressed in our last July number. On a subject embarrassed with so much 
uncertainty, it is to be expected that different writers will not altogether 
agree; and indeed that the developement of unknown facts, may at any 
time turn the scale of probability. At all events, the exhibition of differ- 
ent opinions, may aid in arriving at the truth. 

350 Mr* Tazewell's Report [Jan. 


•Vhr. Taze^eWa ^e^OYt. 

T\ the Report of the Committee of Foreign Relations to the Senate^ 
April 28, 1828, on African Colonization, Mr. Tazewell seems to have en- 
tirely and most unaccountably misapprehended the petitions of the Ameri- 
can Colonization Society and oftlu -ir frier, ir behalf. For instance, 
nothing" can be more erroneous than his assertion, that the "applicants wish 
generally, that the United States should exei I their power and their means 
to acquire a territory somewhere on the Coast of Africa, which when ac- 
quired, should be opened as an asylum for the reception of free people of 
colour and liberated slaves." If any advocates of our cause in any part of 
the United States have recently made such a request, it is more than we 
are aware of, and must have been done most inadvertently. But as to the 
Society themselves, it is very certain that by them no such application has, 
at least for several years, been urgedj for a territory on the African Coast 
has already been obtamed and occupied, and a Colony of twelve hundred 
souls has been successfully established. So far, then, from being under 
the necessity of soliciting" the aid of Congress for the acquisition of territo- 
ry, the Society have found by experience that that is the least difficult part 
of our undertaking; and we are at this moment in possession of more land 
than we can, with our means alone, people for many years to come. 

It is to be regretted that this simple but highly important fact should 
have escaped Mr. Tazewell's observation; for, if he had been acquainted 
with it, it would not have been necessary for him to waste so much keen 
argument and so much of his precious time in the discussion of the territo- 
rial question; and the whole subject would have escaped from many pages 
of metaphysical torture. 

If, at the very origin of the scheme of Colonization, when those who 
were wise and virtuous enough to discern its merits, had not yet the means of 
forming definitive plans for its accomplishment, but were either awaiting 
the result of experience, and the gradual and natural progress of the sug- 
gestion, or were deliberating among themselves how it might be best pro- 
moted; if, at that period, there did exist among the friends of our cause a 
great diversity of opinions, as each may have happend to spring up sponta- 
neously in remote situations; and if, for some time, the public mind did 
fluctuate among the various courses that were proposed; all uncertainty 
has long sinee disappeared from the councils of our well organized Socie- 
ty, and its more distinguished and influential members have ceased to en- 
tertain either indefinite or conflicting views. It is thus that every project 
is by degrees perfected. Whatever may have been the propositions or 
wishes of many of ourselves in the infancy of our design, as to the proper 
scite for an establishment, the proper measures for acquiring territory, and 

1829.] Mr. Tazewell* s Report S31 

the proper way to found, maintain and govern the Colony, there may be 
said to be, at present, but one persuasion, on those topics, among" the 
fathers and leaders of the cause. Mr. Jefferson, the enlightened and ear- 
liest advocate of colonization, at first suggested that some part of our con- 
tinent might be selected for a Colony: but that idea was soon abandoned 
and is now almost forgotten; and Mr. Jefferson became one of the zealous 
supporters of the settlement in Africa. So, when the idea of colonizing 
our free coloured population had been only recently conceived, and no 
place had been chosen for their new abode, it was proposed that the re- 
quisite territory should be procured by the United States, as this was a 
matter of national concern: but the Society, when afterwards formed, de- 
termined to purchase the territory themselves, and did purchase it without 
the assistance or privity of Government. Thus, another of the early and 
perhaps crude, or at least impracticable, designs of those who had embrac- 
ed the scheme, was abandoned. The position being fixed upon, a settle- 
ment effected, and the Colony prosperous, the question very naturally and 
indeed unavoidably arose, how this new nation should be governed and 
protected. No one, we believe, was ever so extravagant as to suppose 
that it might be or ought to be incorporated into this confederacy. Mr. 
Tazewell's remarks upon that subject are entirely gratuitous. But some 
persons did imagine that, although it could not be adopted as a co-equal 
state, it would be necessary for its defence that it should be held as a terri- 
tory or Colony, until, having learnt from our institutions to be free and 
happy, and being old and strong enough for self-preservation, it might be 
endowed with independence; an imperishable monument to the American 
name, on the shores of injured Africa. This was no wild nor ordinary 
thought, and, if carried into execution, would be both honourable and use- 
ful to our country. We cannot agree with Mr. Tazewell that the acquisi- 
tion, permanent occupation and government of such a territory, for pur- 
poses so national, nay so necessary, would be repugnant to the constitu- 
tion, any more than would an establishment in the Rocky Mountains or a 
garrison at Oregon. No man will, after a moment's reflection, suppose 
that the countries beyond the sandy prairies in the west and north, and at 
the mouth of Columbia river, can ever become members of this Union; for 
they are scarcely less distant than the coast of Africa, and are separated 
from us by a breadth of continent, which it requires more time and ex- 
pense to traverse than to cross the ocean. Yet what American statesman 
of any eminence has denied the right of the United States to claim, possess 
and occupy those regions? If any have denied it, the objection has been 
over-ruled by a contrary practice. 

The power of acquiring territory is an incident to that of negociating 
treaties, regulating commerce and declaring war, and is limited only to 
those occasions when it may be necessary for "the common defence," or 
conducive to "the general welfare." Indeed, any measure that should not 
have those great objects in view, would be contrary to the spirit of our in- 

332 Mr. Tazewell's Report. [Jaft, 

StttutiOfts; and every proposition, no matter how consistent with the letter 
of 1 lie Constitution, is and must be advocated also on those broad grounds. 
The words 'common defence and general welfare" thus become an im- 
portant ingredient in our national policy, and, although conferring, of 
themselves, no powers, encompass and sanation all that are conceded di- 
rectly or incidentally. It is in this sense, as we understand their arguments, 
that those who h;i\e reasoned in favour of African Colonization, have ap- 
pealed to that phrase: not, as Mr. Tazewell imagines, to deduce from it 
the power of acquiring and maintaining distant territories; but to justify, 
by the innumerable adv:< I to our country of that scheme, the exer- 

cise bv Congress of powers inferred from other clauses. In order that 
Congress should wield, for the acquisition and support of colonies or ter- 
ritories, the authority justly implied in the power of declaring war, making 
treaties or regulating commerce, it is not sufficient that such authority ap- 
pear to be manifestly and indubitably contained in the grant of those pow- 
ers; but it is also necessary that the particular act in question be for the 
"common defence" or '"general welfare." For those great primary pur- 
poses all authority is granted and the Constitution itself exists. They vin- 
dicate and limit all the powers entrusted by the people to their rulers. — 
They constitute the only limitation to the power of declaring war, and 
making treaties.* In a maratime war it might become necessary for the 
United States to seize, upon and hold an island in the Mediterranean; and 
in doing so they would be obeying the Constitution. It might be necessa- 
ry to land and possess themselves of a part of the coast of Africa, or of this 
continent in the southern hemisphere or in the Pacific Ocean; and doing so 
would be to obey the Constitution How long these places should be re- 
tained would depend upon the circumstances of the case, interpreted by 
Congress; for the Constitution is silent on that subject. Whether they 
should be occupied for only a few weeks, or for many years, or permanent- 
ly, would be for Congress to determine, with a view to the "common de- 
fence and general welfare. , v The same or similar places might become, 
from peculiar circumstances, necessar) to us in time of peace, and might 
therefore be acquired bv the treaty-making power, provided the President 
and Senate should deem it for the "common defence and general welfare." 
We cannot conceive how these plain inferences can be denied. There 
is no clause, no word of the Constitution, that specifies any particular or 
exclusive purposes for winch territory may be acquired, or that prohibits 
the acquisition of distant and foreign territory any more than of domestic 

* That of regulating commerce is restricted by various additional provi- 

"But all duties, imposts and excises, shall be uniform throughout the 
United States." — [Sec 8, Art. I. Con. 

"Mo tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state." 

[Art. I. Sec. 9. 

1829.] Mr> TaxewelVs Report 33S 

•r contiguous. Tor the great purposes for which the power was created, 
a foreign and distant territory might, in a particular posture of affairs, be 
essential to our security or peace, and a tract of country adjacent to us be 
utterly useless. In such a case the distinction would be worse, than ab- 
surd. The Constitution has wisely left it to the discretion of Congress, 
and to the course of things. We shall not undertake to explain how and 
when it may become necessary to exercise that power for the acquisition 
of foreign and very distant regions, nor where those regions will be situa- 
ted; for, although we think we understand the nature of our institutions, 
we do not pretend to prophesy; but to show that this, as we have given it, 
is the true theory of the Constitution, it is only necessary to recite it.— 
None of us may foretell how soon we shall be called upon to put it into 

The President and Senate having the power of making treaties for the 
acquisition of territory, whether contiguous or remote, whether on this 
continent or on another, and whether separated from us by oceans of water 
or oceans of sand, we may suppose that a juncture might arise in which the 
"common defence and general welfare" would require them to make a 
treaty, stipulating the payment of a sum of money for the territory to be 
acquired. This gentle mode of acquisition would be as much within their 
constitutional powers, as a more forcible one; and, indeed, more congenial 
to our peaceful institutions. If a treaty may be made with the Winneba- 
goes, it may be made with the Foulahs or Mandingoes. There is no re- 
striction, whatsoever, (we repeat it,) but that \mposed upon the discretion 
and honesty of the Executive and Senate, that they enter into such trans- 
actions, not for any sinister or private or frivolous purpose, but for the 
"common defence and general welfare" of their constituents. 

The appropriation of monies under the treaty-making power, however, 
is rather indirect than immediate; and though it would sufficiently answer 
our present object, of demonstrating that a territory in Africa might have 
been constitutionally procured and held by the General Government, we 
will proceed to consider those direct and more common appropriations, 
which have no treaty-stipulations in view. In Article I. Sec. 8, of the 
Constitution, we find this comprehensive clause: "The Congress shall have 
power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises." This at once 
places at their discretion all the power of the purse, and, if it were the on- 
ly clause in the Constitution, would enable them to dispose of the public 
monies in any manner their caprice might prompt, even for their own in- 
dividual emolument. But they are strictly limited by clauses that follow. 
There are certain duties which they must fulfil, and there are other acts 
which they are directly or indirectly forbidden to perform. Among the 
former, to which they must appropriate the funds entrusted to them, are 
"regulating commerce," "establishing post-offices and post-roads," "pro- 
moting the progress of the arts and sciences," &c. "constituting and sup- 
porting the judiciary," "providing aad maintaining armies and navies and 

334 Mr. TazexveWs Report. [Jan. 

all the materials of war," "organizing* and arming the militia," "giving* a 
compensation to the President and other public officers," &c. &c. &c. — 
These acts, being* enjoined by the Constitution, they must perform; to 
neglect any of them, when requisite and practicable, would be an infrac- 
tion of that instrument. On the other hand, there are things which they 
mud not do. For instance, Congress were not allowed to prohibit the in- 
troduction of negroes into the United States before 1808, but mig-ht lay a 
tax of $10 a head upon such as should be imported. Not only to have pro- 
hibited their introduction, before that per'.od, or to have imposed a higher 
duty on them, but also to have mtv.le any appropriation of the public mo- 
nies, by which, directly or indirectly, their introduction might have been 
stopt or interrupted, would have been unconstitutional; for the public 
funds, entrusted to Congress by the Constitution, are not to be used in vio- 
lation or embarrassment of the Constitution. 

There is a third class of acts, which Congress are neither expressly nor 
by implication commanded to do nor prohibited from doing; which seem« 
to be left to their discretion, with the multitude of things which may be- 
come necessary but cannot be foreseen nor indicated, and which time 
alone, in its incessant flight, reveals. Such was the present to General 
Lafayette. Such are appropriations for internal improvements. Neither 
of those expenditures can be justified but on the ground, that the public 
revenue is entrusted to Congress, to be applied to certain enumerated pur- 
poses, and to such others, not repugnant to the Constitution nor inconsis- 
tent with the rights of states, as they may deem for the "common defence" 
or "general welfare." Upon the same grounds and with equal reason, 
may a portion of that revenue be devoted, by those to whose honesty and 
judgment it is committed, to the purchase of a territory in Africa and the 
establishment there of a Colony. 

It would have been most unwise and unavailing* in the founders of our 
government, to have pretended to enumerate and define all the supposa- 
bla objects to which our redundant means should in future years be direct- 
ed. Such an attempt could only have crippled our resources, and led us 
back into the same embarrassments, confusion and ultimate dissolution, 
with which we were afflicted or threatened by the old articles of confedera- 
tion. The framers of that immortal monument of wisdom, our present 
Constitution, contented themselves with indicating certain primary purpo- 
ses for which it was intended, and with laying down a few leading princi- 
ples, sufficient, when properly examined and faithfully obeyed, to give it 
full developement and impose due limitation; and, fortunately, left the rest 
to time and Providence. It appears to us that nothing can be more evi- 
dent, than that, in confiding the national revenue to Congress, the Consti- 
tution designs to make them the judges, within certain bounds, to what 
objects it shall be applied. It can, with propriety, be applied only to those 
purposes that are consistent with the Constitution, not repugnant to state 
rights, and conducive to the "general welfare," or "common defence;" 

18C9.] Mr. Tazewell's Report. 335 

and for a judicious exercise of this discretion, members of Congress are 
answerable to their constituents. Even the most jealous form of govern- 
ment must repose confidence at last in some one; and if that person be re- 
sponsible to an enlightened people, as are those of the United States, 
government has attained its utmost security. The abuse of such a trust can 
be provided against, only by the original selection of proper representa- 
tives, or by the expulsion of those that fail in their duty. Both of these 
privileges have been reserved to the people by the Constitution; and upon 
their own good sense and patriotism must the people rely, to guard against 
violations of that Constitution by its legitimate expounders or those who 
are its necessary instruments. 

If therefore it can be shown, to the r-iitisfaction of the people and their 
representatives, that the scheme of African Colonization would be emi- 
nently conducive to the prosperity, peace, safety, and general welfare of 
our country; and that no state rights would be interfered with, nor any ex- 
press or implied provision of the Constitution violated, by an application 
of some of the public funds to that purpose, Congress will be entirely at 
liberty to appropriate any sum which they may deem reasonable or^suffi- 

It was not necessary for us to discuss the questions of territorial acquisi- 
tion and colonial establishments by the United States; for, notwithstanding 
Mr. Tazewell's long argument, they have no relation to the views of our 
Society. That this is true with reference to the acquisition of territory 
has been already shown, by the fact of a suitable and sufficiently extensive 
territory having been long ago procured at the expense of the Society.-— 
Nor, with regard to the colonial government, is it by any means necessary 
that it should be assumed and its continuance guaranteed by the United 
States. On the contrary, the prevailing sentiment among the leading 
friends of the undertaking, is, we are inclined to think, that the Colony re- 
main under the direction of the Society and of its own laws, until it arrive 
at the proper crisis for entire independence; and that it have no connection 
with the friendship or enmities, war or peace, treaties or alliances, of this 
country. It will thus more certainly escape the vicissitudes to which such 
a connection would expose it. A place of free resort for the vessels of all 
nations, and an institution of a purely benevolent character, it may reason- 
ably hope to be exempt, for many a year, from the troubles of general 
politics and the disasters of European or American wars. The only conflict 
which it may expect, will be with the piratical slave-vessels on the coast, 
and now and then with some petty tribe of the interior; against both of 
whom it is able already to protect itself. Thus it will be, in a political 
point of view, totally distinct from us; but in language, in customs, in in- 
stitutions, in religion, it will be similar; and, though independent, bound 
to us by all the ties of interest and gratitude. 

Such is the consummation at which we devoutly aim. The only assist- 
ance which we desire from the United States is pecuniary; with such ad- 

336 Mr. Tazewell's Report [Jan; 

ditional good offices as their cruizers may properly afford, in their endea- 
vours to suppress the slave trade. All that we ask is an appropriation of 
money; and we confidently claim it for a purpose in every way conducive 
to the "common defence and general welfare." 

In making- such an application, it may he justly demanded of us to ex- 
plain the particular objects for which the money will be used, and give 
some estimate»of the amount that will be required. To tha-t duty we now 
proceed. And we will, at the outset, remark, with due respect for his 
high character and deference to his talents, that in no part of his subject 
has Mr. Tazewell more egregiously shot beyond his mark, than this. We 
humbly venture to think, that on a question of such influence and impor- 
tance, recommended to the attention of the Legislature by many of our 
most distinguished citizens, it would have been more candid and statesman- 
like, to have contemplated its bearings and pretensions, if not in afavoura- 
ble light, at. least in that in which alone they are rational, than to have ta- 
ken sides, like a pleader in the forum, not a Senator in the ( apitol, and 
laboured to ruin the project, by pushing it to extremes with which it has 
no affin'ty. If it have defects, let them be fearlessly exposed: but if it have 
merits also, let them too be acknowledged. We will presume to oppose 
our calculations to Mr. Tazewell*Sj 

The objects to which any monies derived from government would be 
appropriated, are the extension and improvement of the Colon) of Liberia, 
and the transportation thither of such free coloured persons as might be 
willing to go, and of such slaves as their masters might liberate for that 
purpose. The attention of the Society has been chiefly directed to the 
free people of colour, because they furnish more numerous applicants for re- 
moval, and afford the best subjects for a wholesome establishment; being 
generally better educated and more enlightened than the slaves. At every 
expedition to the coast, more of that class of persons have been eager to 
embark, than the Society had the means of gratifj l.g, although in nearly 
every instance a most rigid and judicious selection has been made. 

From free coloured people, in various parts of the union, but principally 
south of the Susquehanna and Potomac, there are, at this moment, 500 
applications for a passage to the Colony. Last year upwards of four hun- 
dred were conveyed thither, generally excellent subjects, its population 
Ls now more than twelve hundred. 

In the present state of the Society's funds, exhausted by previous efforts, 
and not yet sufficiently restored, it will be impossible for us, we fear, to 
afford the means of emigration to more than half the actual applicants. The 
number of applications has gone on mcre^sing from year to year; and we 
feel justified in the belief, that it will continue to augment most rapidly, if 
it be encouraged. It has been ascertained that in one year about six 
thousand free coloured persons emigrated to Hayti, a large part of them at 
their own expense. This reveals an inclination in that class of people to 
emigrate. In another year the number would have been greater: but ur< 

1839.] Mr. Tazewell's Report. 337 

fortunately, they found that their condition wa9 not improved by settling 
among* an ignorant and semi-barbarous people, speaking* a different lan- 
guage, of a different religion, intolerant, and having very limited notions 
indeed of the "rights of man;" and as many of them as could escape, re- 
turned. There are political reasons of great weight, why we should not 
desire to see the power of a nation of blacks in our neighbourhood increas- 
ed, nor much intercourse established between us. It was not from any 
partiality for Hayti in particular, that the free blacks emigrated; but from 
a disposition to leave this country, provided they could go to some other 
where they might enjoy all the privileges and advantages of freemen. — 
Such is Liberia. 

We will now proceed to show, that the object which the Society pro- 
pose to accomplish, can be readily attained without burthening the resour- 
ces of the Union. The probable number of free coloured persons in the 
United States, is 280,000; and their annual increase, about 7,000. The 
cost of transporting such persons to Liberia has been ascertained to be 
about $28 for every adult, and $14 for children under twelve. We will 
put it, respectively, at $30 and $15, that we may not underrate it. Mr. 
Tazewell estimates it at $100, for persons of every age: but he has not 
told us where he obtained his information. According to our calculation, 
which we assert to be correct, (and for which we refer to the statement of 
expenditures in the Navy Department, recently laid before Congress,) to 
transport 280,000 persons, at $30 each, would cost $7,400,000; and to 
transport the annual increase, 7,000 persons, at the same rate, would cost 
$210,000. But who, except Mr. Tazewell, has been ingenious enough to 
suggest the transportation, at once, of the whole mass of the free coloured 
population of this country? Such a design would be even much less ex- 
pensive, than it would be absurd and impracticable. No such scheme was 
ever proposed, and therefore it need not have been combated. Although 
the idea has been, not only plausibly but reasonably, entertained of trans- 
porting in every year the whole annual increase, yet it is very certain that, 
even under favourable circumstances, the Colony will not be capable, for 
several years, of receiving and providing for even such an addition to its 
population. Gentlemen spoke of what might or ought (and no doubt will) 
be, at some future day; not of what should or could be done immediately. 
Thus there is no danger, for the present, that even the $210,000 annually 
will be called for; much less the $7,000,000. And yet where is the man 
of sense or liberality, that would refuse those $7,000,000, if they cquld in. 
one year remove that dreadful nuisance, our free coloured population? 

The progress of emigration must, as we have said before, be gradual. — 
It is in its nature to be slow, and it cannot be driven beyond a certain volun- 
tary and accelerating motion. No doubt, it will acquire an increased mo- 
mentum at every revolution. For this slowness there are various reasons. 
One of them is, that by being surcharged with crude emigrants, the Colo- 
ny would be destroyed: another, that the free coloured people, being un- 

33S Mr. Tazewell's Report. ^ an - 

der no compulsion, could not be persuaded, all of them, to set out at once 
and without delay These are the retarding causes. The accelerating 
causes will be, that as the Colony shall each year expand, it will become, 
like all newly peopled countries, in a geometrical ratio, more and more ca- 
pable of receiving greater numbers; and that when many shall have emigrat- 
ed hence, more will be prepared and willing to follow them. If, therefore, 
the emigration must unavoidably be gradual, the appropriation may also 
be gradual. 

Thus, several years must elapse before the Society can desire to trans- 
port even the annual increase of our iree coloured population. Perhaps 
the Colony may not, the first year, receive more than 1,000 emigrants; the 
second year, not more than 2,000; the third, not more than 3,000; and so 
on, until the whole number be embraced. If this anticipation be correct, 
(and we believe it to be so,) not more than *30,o00 would be required, 
the first year, for the mere transportation of free coloured persons to Afri. 
ca; not more than 60,000, the second year; and not more than 90,000, the 
third. Indeed, it is probable that not even the number of persons we have 
named would emigrate in those three or four years. But, nevertheless, 
the appropriation ought not to be diminished; for a large portion of it 
should be annually applied to the local improvement of the Colony, and to 
the adaptation of it to those purposes for which it is intended. 

Although the sum necessary to transport 7,000 persons be $210,000, yet 
we believe that to effect that object, no greater appropriation will ever be 
required, in any one year, than $100,000. For, we must recollect that of 
those 7,000, one fourth at least are children, who can be conveyed at half 
price; and that there are also many persons, incapable from age or ill 
health, of adding to our species, and many oihers, totally unfit, from cha- 
racter or bodily infirmities, to become members of a young and vigorous 
establishment, who would be either excluded, if bad, or, if unfortunate, ad- 
mitted only at their own expense. From Dr. Halley's tables of births and 
mortality at the various stages of life, it may be ascertained that, if the an- 
nual increase of the free coloured population be 7,000> the number of per- 
sons in those 7,000 between the ages of 20 and 30, will be about 1100 or 
1200. These would be the persons most desirable to remove, as they con- 
stitute the principal source of multiplication. To remove them at $30 
each, would cost about $36,000. It would be impossible, however, in 
practice, to confine gratuitous emigration to them alone, for many reasons; 
and therefore this sum is too small: but to some extent it might be effect- 
ed; and we mention it merely as one of the ingredients of a system of great 

We must also make large allowances for the operation of moral causes, 
so much more powerful than the physical, upon those who are to be re- 
moved. There is implanted in the human breast, whether black or white, 
an active desire of "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness;" and, if the 
free coloured people conceive that their condition will be improved by 

1829.] Mr. Tazewell's Report. 339 

emigration, it is unnatural to suppose that they will not emigrate. The 
Society will assume the task of enlightening" them on that subject. We 
see that many have emigrated, and that many others would follow, if it 
were in their power; persons, too, distinguished above most of their class 
for information and acuteness. The conviction that it is for their own 
greater good and for the happiness of their posterity, is rapidly stealing 
over the whole free coloured population. Let any of them be once ani- 
mated by an irresistible inclination to emigrate, founded on the experience 
of those who have gone before, and on the assurance that they are to be 
immensely benefited, and they will soon create resources for their own 
transportation. Many of them already possess the means of defraying their 
expenses; others would know how to derive them from private benevo- 
lence; and others would, no doubt, receive assistance from individual 

To produce the entire benefit which we anticipate to this country and to 
themselves, it will be necessary to remove not only the wholesome part of 
the annual increase, but also, at the same time, a portion of the general mass 
itself. This would be effected by the aid of Congress and by the causes to 
which we have alluded; and would only require that a somewhat greater 
number should be transported, than might be absolutely necessary to keep 
down the permanent annual increase. In the first year, not more, as we 
have already said, than 1,000 may be removed; and in the second year, not 
more than 2,000; but in the third, there may be 5,000; in the fourth, 
10,000; in the fifth, 20,000. If the experiment succeed, such will be the re- 
sult, or such at least, the tendency. We must not and shall not be discourag- 
ed at the slow developement of the plan. Precipitation would produce 
the most ruinous effects: and we are convinced that one of the most admi- 
rable features of our scheme, in relation to its practicability as well as its 
expediency, consists in its dependance upon a gradual, voluntary, natural, 
and almost imperceptible fulfilment. When we contemplate the stream 
of emigrants that has poured, and is still pouring, into our country, from 
the nations of Europe, bearing upon its surface men of every condition, 
but chiefly, of the poorest and, as one should imagine, least able to remove, 
we cannot but be deeply impressed with the belief, that, when the channel 
shall be properly opened to Liberia, and the motives to which we have re- 
ferred shall have begun to have their natural and unavoidable consequence, 
the torrent of emigration will be more powerful than that from Europe; 
in proportion as the pressure of circumstances is heavier here, and the in- 
ducements and facilities of departure greater. 

The calculations of expense made with reference to the free blacks, are 
equally applicable to slaves. We shall proceed to apply them. We do so 
the more particularly, as Mr. Tazewell's calculation seems to have been 
meant for a caricature of our project. If not designed to ridicule us, it is 
certainly a much less skilful and correct delineation of our views, than we 
had a right to expect from so able a hand. As we have been so greatly 

340 Mr. Tazewell's Report. [Jan. 

misunderstood even by a gentleman of his sagacity, it will be the more in- 
cumbent on us to be explicit. 

With slave* the Society have no concern, but to transport to Africa, as 
far as our funds will permit, such as their owners may liberate for that pur- 
pose. We know of them only through the intervention of their masters. — 
In the last and former years, about one hundred slaves were manumitted, 
and were conveyed by us to Liberia. At this moment the masters of more 
than two hundred have notified the Society, that they are ready to liberate 
them as soon as they can be sent to Africa. Of these two hundred slaves, 
twenty five are offered from Maryland; sixty from Kentucky; eighteen or twen- 
ty from Virginia; and j arty -three from Georgia. Of those that emigrated last 
year, thirty were manumitted in Maryland, and twenty-Jive in South 

These details are important, as they prove the truth of what the Society 
have asserted, that many masters, opposed to unconditional emancipation, 
will be happy of this opportunity of gi . ing their slaves freedom on condition 
of removal. Throughout the slave-holding States there is a strong objec- 
tion, even among the warmest friends of the African race, to slaves being li- 
berated and allowed to remain among us; and some States have enacted laws 
against it. The objection is, in our individual opinion, well founded. But 
whether sound or futile, it operates powerfully to repress the benevolent de- 
signs of masters, and to hold the slave in a situation from which he would 
otherwise be delivered. The authorized organs of the Society have often pro- 
claimed their belief, that a very large number of owners would instantly man- 
umit their slaves or would provide for their manumission at some future day, 
if there were an asyl im, remote from this country and exempt from the demo- 
ralizing effects ot only partial freedom, to which they might be sent. If we 
may judge from such facts as have occurred, (and we can perceive no other 
more legitimate foundation for an opinion,) that anticipation is beginning to 
be realized. This is the only mode, under any general plan, by which the ulti- 
mate expulsion of negro slavery may be promoted; and it is also, the only 
mode which the Society have adopted. Nothing can or ought to be done 
without the consent of the individual master. Each State is competent, no 
doubt, to provide for the gradual emancipation and removal, or the eman- 
cipation only, of the slaves within its boundaries: but that question the So- 
ciety leave, without discussion, to those whom it concerns. We do not, there- 
fore, "intrude within the confines of any of the States, for the purpose of 
withdrawing from thence any portion of its inhabitants;"* nor do we solicit 
the United States to do so. It is our opinion, 'tis true, that the existence 
among us of a free coloured population is a great evil, both to us and to that 
population itself; and that negro slavery is an evil of no less virulence and 
of a much more dangerous extent. This was also the sentiment of Mr. Jef- 
ferson. It is the sentiment, we venture to affirm, of a large majority of 

*See Mr. Tazewell's Report, page 9. 

1829.) Mr. Tazewell's Report. 341 

slave-holders, especially in Virginia and Maryland. If then these be evils 
of an alarming character, we deem it our duty, or at least our privilege, 
as citizens, to do all in our power for their cure or mitigation. In the means 
by which we propose to accomplish that end, there is suggested no compul- 
sion, either of the free or of the bond, either of the master or of the slave. 
The entire process is to be voluntary, and so gradual as to be almost imper- 
ceptible. All our exertions rest upon these incontrovertible grounds; that 
individuals have a right to dispose of their slaves as they think proper; and 
that we have a right with the permission of those individuals, to transport 
such slaves to Africa. Our own resources are not sufficient for the purpose, 
to the full extent to which the object can be effected; and we have, there- 
fore, being engaged, as we believe, in an undertaking of great private phi- 
lanthropy and public and national advantage, solicited the pecuniary aid 
of the nation. 

Such only being our views and actions, we are the more surprised at the 
violent opposition to our Society, that has manifested itself in some places: 
an opposition which tends immediately to abridge the liberty of speech 
and to restrict the master's rightful dominion over the slave. Have we ad- 
dressed ourselves to the slaves? Never. We speak to the master only. — 
But even him we have not endeavoured to prevail upon, by reason or per- 
suasion, to part with his slave. Being, chiefly, slave-holders ourselves, we 
Well know how it becomes us to approach such a subject as this in a slave- 
holding state, and in every other. If there were room for a reasonable 
jealousy, we among the first should feel it; being as much interested in the 
welfare of the community, and having as much at heart, as any men can 
have, the security of ourselves, our property and our families. One or two 
Legislatures, with indignation and terror, "felt or feigned," have interfer- 
ed, to create perhaps the very danger which they apprehend; and have 
done us the honour of denouncing us most violently, in their general ana- 
themas. Do they fear lest the citizen be persuaded or convinced of the 
propriety of transporting his slaves, or approving of our project? Surely, 
the citizen has a right to be persuaded or convinced: and if he ever should 
be so, the Legislature themselves will become our warmest advocates. Our 
object is, not to prevail upon the master to part with his slave, for that we 
leave to his own reflection and convenience; but to afford to those masters 
who have determined, or may determine, to manumit their slaves; provided 
they can be removed from this country, the means of removing them to a 
place where they may be really free, virtuous, respectable and happy. — 
Nothing can be more innocent and less alarming. We advise those hasty 
Solons to confide in the good sense of their constituents; among whom are 
many members of our Society. Did we suppose that such denunciations 
could have any effect upon the national councils, we should proudly op- 
pose to them the recommendations, in our favour, of nine members of the 

If these remarks be correct, (and tkeir correctness cannot be disputed,) 

342 Mr. Tazewell's Report. [Jan. 

no other answer need be given to Mr. Tazewell's fears:* — That the United 
States should, under the pretext of colonization, assume over the coloured 
population of the Union, a power reserved to the respective states alone; 
intrude within the boundaries of those states, to withdraw from thence the 
coloured population, whether slave or free: and finally arrogate to them- 
selves the rig-lit of determining, not only who are free and bond, but even 
who are coloured, to the manifest danger, we might add, to the whites 
themselves, of being ultimately involved in compulsory emigration: these, 
we candidly confess, are usurpations too monstrous to find a place in our 
narrow imagination. 

As we intended, therefore, to appropriate a part of any monies which we 
may receive from the United States, to the transportation, not only of such 
free people of colour as are willing to emigrate, but also of such slaves as 
their masters may liberate for that purpose, it will be proper for us to give 
some estimate of the sum that will probably be required Mr. Tazewell 
sets it down (page 13) at $195,000,000 for the transportation of the whole 
slave population, and $5,700,000 for that of their annual increase; without 
counting some $500,000,000 more that will be required for their purchase: 
and he gives the Senate to understand (at the top of page 14,) that these 
*urns are to be collected and paid immediately, and the coloured 
population to be removed at once without further delay. Such a demand 
on the part of the Society; although urged by Chief Justice Marshall and 
many other wise and learned men, would be little less than insane, under 
actual circumstances; and might well astonish and intimidate even a more 
prodigal and richer government than our own. Rut fortunately it is entire- 
ly a false alarm of Mr. Tazewell's, who has again misunderstood us. 

None of us have ever imagined that the whole slave population of the 
Union, any more than the free coloured, might be or ought to be suddenly 
removed; nor even that the annual increase of either could, for several, 
perhaps many, years to come, be drained from our soil. There are various 
obstacles to such an achievement, almost as great as the want of money, 
and which amount to physical impossibilities. They consist in the unpre- 
pared condition of the Colony, and the danger of crowding such inhabitants 
into it too rapidly. The operation must be gradual, and at first very slow: 
afterwards it will regulate itself. Perhaps not more than five hundred 
slaves will be offered in this or in the ensuing year? and, if more were of- 
fered, the Society might perhaps not choose to convey them to the Colony: 
what then should we want with $195,000,000? 

The same considerations might prevail in the selection of slave emigrants, 
as of free emigrants. Of the 45,000, the annual increase of the slaves, on- 
ly about 8,000 are between the ages of 20 and 30; and although the bene- 
fits of emigration could not be confined to that class, yet they might be ex- 
tended more to them than to the rest. This would essentially diminish the 

* See page 11 of the Report. 

1829.] Mr. Tazewell's Report. 343 

mass itself, and remove in a great measure, or at least retard and weaken, 
the means of further increase. Also, a larger proportion of young females 
than of young men, might be selected. Various other expedients might 
be devised for diminishing the number necessary to be transported, and 
thereby diminishing the expense. The old and infirm might as well die in 
this country as in Africa; and the very young might as well remain here to 
take their chance, until a certain age, of living or dying. We mention 
these suggestions, not as the plan of the Society, but as thoughts occurring 
to ourselves. In offering a master the means of removing his slaves to Af- 
rica, the Society would undoubtedly have a right to refuse to remove, at 
their expense, such as he might be supposed to liberate, in order to rid 
himself of the burthen of maintaining them; and also in purchasing slaves, 
for the purpose of giving them their freedom in Liberia, the Society would 
have an undeniable right to purchase only such as they should prefer. — 
This will illustrate our meaning. 

Mr. Tazewell calculates the expense of transportation at $100 for each 
person; we have shown that it is only $30, at the utmost. This reduces 
his $5,700,000 for the conveyance of the 57,000 to 1,710,000. Then we 
must make allowance for the humanity of individuals, themselves, providing 
for the transportation of their slaves; for the omission of such as are unsuita- 
ble; and for the continually augmenting ability of the Society, derived from 
state and private charity, to furnish the means of emigration to a great num- 
ber. There yet remains, besides, a most important consideration. It is, 
that when intercourse with the colony shall become more frequent, it will 
be proportionably cheaper. The first emigrants cost $100; those of the 
present day, $28; in a few years the price would be reduced to $10. We see 
at how slight an expense people find their way from Europe to this country. 

Of the purchase of slaves it will be time to speak when there shall be no 
masters willing to manumit them gratuitously. 

But suppose that we do require $1,710,000 annually for the transportation 
of the increase of slaves: what are $1,710,000 a year to such a nation as this, 
when public security and the happiness of our descendants are to be pur- 
chased by them? There is no probability that that sum, nor that half of it, 
will be required, for many years yet, if at all: but even if it should be re- 
quired, every year, for an hundred successive years, the object to be effect- 
ed by it would amply justify the expenditure. 

The slave population increases, in most of the States, much faster than 
the white. In Georgia, between 1810 and 1820, the increase of the latter 
was less than thirty per cent; that of the former, more than forty -two. In the 
same period, in South Carolina, the blacks increased above twenty-eight per 
cent, the whites only nine; and in North Carolina, the blacks twenty-six, 
and the whites twelve. The whole number of slaves in the United States 
is now about 1,852,126, and their annual increase about 45,174.* In the 

*Mr. Tazewell estimates them erroneously at 1,900,000, and 57,000, 

344 Mr. Tazewell* s Report. [Jan. 

year 1840, they will be respectively 2,430,149 and 59,272; in 1867, 4,860,- 
298; in 1894, 9,720,596; in 1921, 19,441,192; thus rolling on, doubling 
every twenty -seven years, until it vastly exceed the entire present popula- 
tion, black and white, of our country. If the world continue to exist, and 
the human race to be multiplied on the same principles as now, no one can 
foresee to what a fearful height this inundation may not rise, what frightful 
ravages it may not commit, and what permanent changes it may not leave, 
like convulsions in the natural world, upon the face of American society, — 
Every man who has the welfare of his race at heart, must confess that this 
prospect is appalling, and that it will be wise to do something to avert the 
danger. If his efforts should have no other object or result but to keep 
down the increase, or abate its alarming speed, he will be entitled to the 
gratitude and admiration of all posterity. Compared with such a design, 
$1,700,000 are as a cent. If the United States do not provide the means, 
it will be the interest and policy of each State to do so for herself, and to 
make such regulations (which States alone can make) as will deliver her 
citizens, and their children's children from the awful consequences. We 
entertain no doubt that many States will resort to such measures. All that 
we can do, is to remove such slaves as may be gratuitously manumitted by 
their masters, or bought by us, for that purpose; and it is to effect those ob- 
jects, that we call upon our government to aid us. 

If, by any appropriation of money whatsoever, the annual increase of slaves 
can be arrested or at least retarded, it will be wise to make that appropria- 
tion, be it ever so great. It should be applied to the purchase and transpor- 
tation of such as might be voluntarily sold by their masters; and to the 
transportation of such as might become free under the laws of any State. 
In this there could, surely, be no infringement of state rights. By thus re- 
pressing the too rapid increase of blacks, the white population would be 
enabled to reach and soon overtop them. The consequence would be se- 
curity; and if any state should then desire it, she might the more readily ac- 
complish the entire extirpation of the evil. If she should not choose to do 
so, she might refuse: it is idle to suggest or apprehend compulsion. But if 
the blacks be suffered to accumulate as they have done and are doing, the 
time must arrive when the slave-holding States will present the appearance 
of a handful of whites in the midst of a multitude of slaves, who will have 
become indomitable from their numbers, and from the same cause worthless. 

Mr. Tazewell has estimated the sum which we shall require, at $195,000- 
000. He cannot seriously pretend to think that we shall want the whole 
sum in any one year. Then it will be distributed among many years. Ap- 
portioned among an hundred years, it will be about $2,000,000 every 
year: among one hundred and ninety-five, $1,000,000. We have never 
supposed that the Society's plan could be accomplished in a few years; 
but, on the contrary, have boasted that it will demand a century for its ful- 
filment. What is a century, what are three centuries, in the existence of 
a nation ? They are like years in the life of man. We are not labouring- 

18i0.] Mr. Tazexvell's Report. 345 

and living for ourselves alone: our ancestors lived and laboured for us, and 
we must live and labour for our posterity. When our fathers plunged into 
the war of the [{evolution, where would have been their triumphs, where 
©ur freedom, strength and happiness, if they had stopt to calculate the cost? 
What they expended, for us as well as for themselves, we have done our 
part in paying: and when we undertake this great system of amelioration or 
defence, let our posterity, who will derive the chief benefits, assume a due 
proportion of the burthen. If it had been adopted at the Independence, it 
would now be in the fruit-bearing season and drawing to maturity. If it had 
been commenced a century and an half ago, it would now be complete; per- 
haps mere matter of history. But if it never be begun, it can never be con- 
cluded. Let us therefore lead the way, and earn the applause of centuries 
to come. Our resources are in the vigour of manhood. Our treasury is 
full. In a few years the national debt will have been paid off, and ten mil- 
lions of dollars disengaged to be appropriated to other purposes. Can we 
not spare a small portion of that sum for such an experiment as this! 

Besides the benefits to be derived from this scheme to ourselves at home, 
it has numerous incidental and accompanying advantages, upon which we 
have not now room to dwell. Experience has demonstrated that the slaver 
trade, which all concur in wishing to suppress, cannot be destroyed with- 
out making establishments on land, along the coast. From such establish- 
ments, the slavers would be overawed, and their marts commanded, and the 
deluded natives be taught a better traffic, or compelled to refrain from the 
worse. By such establishments they might be gradually reclaimed from all 
barbarity, and the blessings of Christian civilization be substituted for their 
senseless idolatry. As these establishments should grow into nations, they 
would afford an immense and ever extending market for the products of our 
soil and industry, and furnish incessant occupation for our commerce; more 
than compensating us, perhaps, for all expenditures. 

Tike experiment is not difficult, nor will it be onerously expensive. All 
that remains .to be tested is, whether the free blacks will emigrate in suffici- 
ent numbers, and whether many masters will liberate their slaves for the 
purpose of sending them to Africa. A home is already provided for them 
there, where they will be as free as we are here, and where they will be 
among people of their own religion, language, customs, and colour. Twen- 
ty years will suffice for the experiment. If it succeed, how much is gained! 
If it fail, nothing is lost but a pittance from our coffers. 

The expense can be ascertained by a very simple computation. Let Go- 
vernment grant the Society, each year, a sum sufficient for the transporta- 
tion of as many applicants as may offer during the year. This year, for in- 
stance, as there are six hundred, the appropriation, at $30 for each person, 
would amount to §15,000: to which add £10,000 or $15,000 for incidental 
expenses, and the progressive improvement of the place intended for their 
reception. It must be remarked that, as the Colony shall expand and be- 
come more populous, this additional appropriation, small as it now is, will 

346 Jir. Tazewell's Report. [/an. 

diminish, and the necessity for it gradually disappear. Of the disbursement 
of the whole sum the society might be required to render a strict annual ac- 
count. Next year, if there should be 1000 applicants, $30,000, with a pro- 
per addition, for purposes alluded to above, might be appropriated. So the 
appropriations might continue to be made, from year to year, as long as Go- 
vernment should deem them for the general good. Augmenting and con- 
tracting with the object to which they were applied, they would themselves 
constitute the most unerring measure by which to judge of their utility. — 
Thus, if they should increase, it would indicate that they were producing 
an equivalent advantage: and, if emigration should proceed more slowly, 
so much of the public monies would be saved. Therefore, the appropri- 
ation can never outstrip or surpass its benefits. Indeed, it would not in- 
crease in the same rapid proportion; for, should the scheme grow popular, 
and the tide of emigration swell, the expense, as we have shown, would di- 
minish; and thus, although double the effect that now favours our project, 
might be produced ten years hence, it would be produced by an equal, per- 
haps a smaller amount of money. The apprehensions, then, that, as the 
plan goes on, larger and larger sums must be drawn from the treasury, un- 
til at length they leave it empty, appear to be groundless; and Mr. Taze- 
well's millions shrink into a few thousands. There is not a more intimate 
association between the temperature of the atmosphere and the fluctuations 
of the thermometer, than between these principles and our cause- 

If, for a paltry saving, the rulers of our country allow this design to die 
or languish without a trial, they will deserve to be quoted, in all aftertimes, 
a* the most short-sighted men to whom the destinies of a nation ever had 
the misfortune to be entrusted. 

We publish in our present number another very interesting and 
able article, on the subject of Mr. Tazewell's Report. For this 
we have reasons to render, in addition to the extent and impor- 
tance of the subject, which not only warrant, but demand its inser- 
tion. We wish the public generally to understand, that we are not 
so alarmed at Mr. Tazewell's statements and estimates, as to let 
them pass in silence, lest peradventure they should be found t® 
be correct. We have no such fear. It is true, that for the 
time, the hope of obtaining a grant from Congress was defeated, 
yet we see, and we rejoice to see, that in the main scope of his 
arguments, aiming, as they do, at the general ruin of our cause, 
he is blowing against the wind. In the busy Senate chamber, 
the more immediate sphere of his influence, where there was time 
to commit the subject, but not to consider it, he might be able 
to check or change the current, at least for the timej but abroad 

1829.] •Afr. TaxeweWs Report. 347 

it still movei onward, the disturbance from this source amount- 
ing scarcely to a ripple; and so, we trust, it will move onward 
forever. We speak not merely of the known and certain merits 
of our undertaking; of its entire and easy practicability, in itself 
considered; of its unlimited fund of beneficence; of the sound 
principles of wisdom by which it is supported; but we say that 
our country, even though Mr. Tazewell does not stand quite 
alone, our country is prepared to receive and to accomplish it. 
In proof of this we can say, that in the other and more numerous 
branch of our National Legislature, a report was made and ac- 
cepted, which was directly the reverse of Mr. Tazewell's. — 
In Congress, then, there is an equipoise relative to the 
interests of our cause, and weights are constantly accumulating 
to turn the scales in our favour. But the constituents of Con- 
gress, it may be said without the least shadow of doubt or of ar- 
rogance, even a vast majority of the great arid good of our coun- 
try are for us; and are so fixed in their sentiments, that nothing 
but the most inexcusable supineness, or criminal apathy, can 
prevent our cause from becoming triumphant. In the mean- 
while there is nothing that can justly excite enmity; and we are 
not without the hope, that even the captious and the selfish, 
merely from motives of personal interest, will ere long become 
our well wishers, though we can expect little benefit from their 

But not only do we wish to manifest our entire fearlessness, 
and even our desire, of thorough, minute, and candid inquiry, 
but we are anxious to do what we can in promoting such an in- 
quiry, especially with regard to those topics, around which an 
attempt has been made to throw distrust, by an authorized 
committee of Congress. We have not the least apprehension, 
that this attempt will alienate the minds of any of jour friends 
who have taken clear and candid views of the subject. Our on- 
ly fear is, that it may hinder inquiry, where it has not yet been 
made; and that the unfounded opinions of an individual may be 
adopted without examination as the true description of reality. 
We desire then, we entreat, that all would duly examine the 
subject for themselves; and inasmuch as we have by far the 
greatest weight of talent and influence in our favour, that they 
would not rest their faith on this hostile and exparte authority. 

"48 Annual Meeting of the Col. Society. [Jaa. 

Aim. Meeting ofttve Colonization Society. 

The Twelfth Annual Meeting of the American Society for 
Colonizing the Free People of Colour in the United States, was 
held at the City Hall, in Washington, on Saturday the 17th of 
January. Though the evening was rainy and unpleasant, the 
meeting was quite respectable, and was honoured with the pre- 
sence of many of the most distinguished men of' our country; 
among whom were Chief Justice Marshall, the Secretary of 
State, and many eminent Members from both Houses' of Con- 

At seven o'clock Judge Washington took the Chair, and the 
Secretary, Mr. Gurley, read the names of the Delegates from 
various Auxiliary Societies. He then read the Report: ami tho 9 
from the numerous interesting events of the past year it was ne- 
cessarily rather longer than usual, it was heard with profound 
attention, and deep interest, which were more manifest toward 
the close than near the commencement. The Report developed 
very clearly the state, progress and prospects of the Colony and 
Society. It appears, that though the hand of Providence has 
inflicted great bereavements, yet no year has transpired that has 
been on the whole so auspicious to the interests and prospects 
of our cause. The Colony has been greatly blessed, and in its 
very aspect it stands a conspicuous and unanswerable argument 
to prove the wisdom as well as the benevolence of the scheme 
on which it has been sustained and established. When its op- 
posers require an absolute demonstration of its beneficial ten- 
dency, expediency and practicability, we point in silence to 

In this country too, events have been no less animating and 
auspicious. The sound of opposition has been sinking to a 
whisper: the spontaneous and persuasive tones of the female 
voice, are beginning to be heard in our behalf: an increased in- 
terest, and a decisive conviction, in favour of Colonization, has 
jone forth throughout the Union: the hand of beneficence is ob- 
viously opening to supply the means which have heretofore been 
so scanty, although productive of almost miraculous results: and 
Virginia and Kentucky have risen in their might, and have at 

1829.] Gen. Lafayette. — Expedition to Liberia. 34* 

once taken their stand among the very foremost of our advocates 
and supporters. These states possessing as great an influence 
as any in the country, and having a common interest with all 
the people of the south, the most glorious results maybe expect- 
ed from the bright example which they have so freely and so 
nobly exhibited. At least the shadows of mere suspicion must 
rapidly flee before it. 

The meeting was closed by a series of suitable resolutions f 
and by interesting and able addresses from some of those who 
moved them, and from other gentlemen who attended the meet- 
ing. There was obviously a very great unanimity of sentiment 
and feeling, and the proceedings of the evening were not dis- 
turbed by a single dissenting voice. 

Reserving a further account of the meeting for a future num- 
ber, we close with the animating remark, that the cause of colo- 
nization is triumphant over every thing but neglect and apathy. 

Gen. liaia^ette. 

In a letter now before us, dated "Lagrange, November 29th, 
1828," this venerable and beloved man observes, "I am delight- 
ed to hear that the accounts from our so very interesting Libe- 
ria, are so satisfactory. The honour I have received in being 
elected an Officer of the Society, no one could more highly 
value. Be pleased to present my respects and sympathies to 
our fellow members when you meet them. I have received the 
greater part of the Journals, but would like to have a complete 
collection from the origin of the Institution, to the end of the 
year. " 

T&xpediiioii to lobelia. 

We mentioned in our last number, that the ship Harriet, ly- 
ing at Norfolk, was chartered by the Society to convey emi- 
grants to the Colony. About two hundred are expected to em- 
bark in her, and she will probably sail next week. 

:*50 Coloni%ation Society and the Ladies. [Jaw. 

Colonization Society awiVthe lia&ifcs. 

We rejoice that our fair countrywomen, who have ever evin- 
ced the most laudable spirit whenever appealed to in behalf of 
humane, benevolent, or pious institutions, begin to express a 
deep and active interest in the great and promising enterprise of 
the American Colonization Society. We have long believed 
that it was only necessary to bring this scheme, attractive and 
imposing as it is, distinctly before them, to excite their best 
feelings, and secure their noblest exertions to advance it — to 
kindle within their bosoms a holy and resolute enthusiasm not to 
be extinguished — not to die away, which should soften down op- 
position, and outlive censure, prove admirable in its influences, 
and illustrious in its deeds. They have not waited for our ex- 
planations, our arguments, and our appeal, but have already 
commenced (unostentatiously, to besure, but efficiently we 
know,) their kind and generous operations. Urged by the spon- 
taneous sentiments of their hearts, they have established several 
Auxiliary Associations, which have contributed with no ordinary 
liberality to the funds of the Parent Institution. Other Female 
Societies are to be organized, and various expedients (which the 
charity of Christians is eyer so prompt to suggest) are to be de- 
vised to augment the funds which are so imperiously required 
for our object. We bid them God speed in all their gentle and 
blessed charities, but especially would we cheer them onward in 
this heavenly work. Ours is not the gift of prophecy; yet, we 
venture to predict, that the voice of future ages will speak their 
praise, and the people of two Continents render to them the 
homage of thankful hearts. Regarding the" approbation and ef- 
forts of the ladies for the Colonization Society as meriting all 
possible encouragement, the Board of Managers of the Parent 
Institution, on the 12th instant, unanimously adopted the fol- 
lowing resolution, 

''Resolved, That this Board view with special interest the disposition evin- 
ced by the Ladies, in several cities to promote the interests of this Society, 
and that they earnestly recommend to their female friends, throughout the 
Union, to establish Auxiliary Societies, and to aid in the collection of funds 
by such other methods as their wisdom and charity may suggest." 

1829.] State Society of Kentucky. 551 

State Society of Kentucky. 

Frankfort, Tuesday Evening, Dec. 20th* 1828. — A num- 
ber of -gentlemen met at the Senate chamber, for the purpose of 
taking into consideration the propriety and expediency of form- 
ing a State Society, auxiliary to the American Colonization So- 
ciety at Washington City. 

Mr. Tunstall Quarles, was appointed Chairman, and Mr. 
James Stonestreet, Secretary. 

Mr. John Pope, the Rev. Benjamin 0. Peers, agent of the 
American Colonization Society, and Doctor Louis Marshall 
addressed the meeting, showing the origin, objects and prospects 
of the Society, and the propriety of forming an auxiliary Society. 

Mr. Pope moved the following resolution: which was adopted. 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting", the objects of the America* 
Colonization Society are such, as must be approved by humanity and en- 
lightened patriotism, that its scheme is one calculated to relieve the citi- 
zens of this Commonwealth, from the serious inconveniences resulting- from 
the existence among- them, of a rapidly increasing number of free persons 
of colour, who are not subject to the restraints of slavery; and that for these 
reasons it is desirable that an auxiliary State Society be formed in Kentucky, 
to co-operate with the Parent Society at Washington; and that a committee 
of five be now appointed to draft a constitution, which shall be submitted to 
a general meeting to be held at the Methodist meeting house, in this town, 
on Friday the ninth day of January next, at 3 o'clock, P. M. 

Messrs. John Pofe, Daniel Mayes Adam Beatty, James 
W. Denny and Samuel Daviess, *wcr<3 appointed a committee 
pursuant to said resolution. 

On motion of Mr. Beatty, 

Resolved, That the Secretary of this meeting be requested to cause to be 
published in the several newspapers, printed in Lj e town of Frankfort, a 
copy of the proceedings of this itieeting. 

T. Quarles, Chairman- 
Att. J. Stonestreet, Secretary. 

In the list of contributions, page 320, instead of "Jacob Wagener, Ksq. 
«f Easton, Maryland," read Jfaw6 Waggoner, Esq. ofEaston, Penmylmmn, 

35& Contributions. [Jaw. 

C out r Ybutions 

To the A. C. Society, from 29th Dec. 182«, to Jan. 21, 1829. 

By Rev. Samuel Gutelius, Hanover, Pa. per Hon. A. King", .... $10 

By Rev. Nicholas Patterson, per the General Agent, 3 

Mrs Lucy Minor, of Fredericksburg 1 , Va. as follows, viz. 
Contributed by a Juvenile Society at Edgewood, Hanover Co'ty. 

Virginia, $10 

Ditto by a similar So'y at St, Martins' Parish, Han'r. Co. Va. 10— 20 
A Christmas offering, from a warm friend in Hagestown, Md. ... 10 

Asa Hammond, Esq of Claiborne, Alabama, 1 

W. Frye, Esq. of ditto 5 

G. W.Dillingham, of Clinton, Jones County, Georgia, to consti- 
tute himself a member for 18 years, 18 

Miss Francina Cheston, of West River, Md. per F. S- Key, Esq. 60i 
A few friends in Lynchburg, Va. being the sum required by the 
Rev. Jos. Turner and family, for a passage to the Colony 

at Liberia, 9Q 

From a gentleman of Washington, a loan from him, 800 

Rev. William Hawley, collected by him in the Episcopal Church, 

at Troy, New York, 50 

Mrs. Brewster of Pa. per C. C. Harper, Esq 5 

Rev. J. J. Robertson, formerly of Baltimore, 4 

Dr. Alex. Somerville, of Essex Co. Va. per Hon. C. F. Mercer, 14 

Wm. E . Beckwith, Esq. of Fairfax County, Va. per ditto, 15* 

Auxiliary Society, Berkely County, Va. per Mr. Pendleton, .... 30 

Ditto, Ann Arundell Co. Md. per A. Randall, Esq. . 48 52 

Ditto, Liberty Town, Fred. Co. Md. per R. Potts, Esq. 88 

Ladies' Auxiliary Society, Georgetown, D. C . their first donation, 

per Mrs. Southern, Treasurer, 37 75 

Collections at sundry times, by Rev Messrs. Emory and Waugh, 

by the hands of Mr. James Connell, 5123 

Collections by Rev. William Jackson, of Alex, as follows: 

Mr. Entwistle, $3 Mr. Cowing, $1 

Mrs. Magruder, 1 A friend ? 3 

Mrs. Henderson, 2 William Jackson, 2 12 

Collection by Presbyterian Congregation, at New Lisbon, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, per Hon. Mr. Sloane, 4 10 

Collection by ditto at Middlebury, Va. per Rev. Dr. Williamson, 3 81 
Some person unknown, deposited in Bank to credit of the Treas- 
urer, on the 2d August, 1828, 18 52 

$1,932 93 

* $6 of this for the Repository. 






Vol. IV. MARCH, 1829. No. 12. 



It is one of the greatest and most useful achievements of hu- 
man intellect, to seize upon those complex and extensive sub- 
jects, which to a common or uneducated mind, present nothing 
but confusion and incomprehensible diversity; and by means of 
analysis, comparison, and deduction, to reduce them to simpli- 
city, order, and uniformity, so that the weakest may say, all 
this is plain and easy; so that the great ingenuity of the man, 
may even deprive himself of the credit of any ingenuity. It 
would, however, be a visionary hope, that such a result could be 
attained with regard to African Civil Geography. So numer- 
ous, so diversified, and so buried in oblivion, are the causes 
which have led to the present civil state of Africa, and so blend- 
ed together and confounded, are the innumerable civil charac- 
teristics of that continent, that scarcely any thing satisfactory 
can be expected, except minute and particular details, which 
would not be at all consistent with the brevity of this article. 
The subject, in its very aspect, is about as comprehensible by 
the savage African, as by the consummate philosopher. 

Africa, as it respects its civil character, may be divided into 

two great portions, of which the separating boundary, though 

iomewhat fluctuating, lies at present, near the line of the Sene- 

3o4 Africa. Feb. 

gal, Niger, and Mountains of the Moon. The Northern por- 
tion, by the incursions of the Turks, Moors, and Saracens, has 
been visited and overspread by a species of civilization, obscured, 
disgraced, and deformed, by numerous traits of more than sav- 
age barbarity. The Southern portion, though cursed with much 
of the influence of these marauders, is still in the possession and 
power of the Aborigines of the country; and the name of Ker- 
dies is applied to them by their Northern persecutors: a name 
which is at once outlawed, hated, and despised. The hard 
hearted Mussulman, drawing from heaven the sanction of his 
horrible cruelties, piously hunts them in their villages and na- 
tive wilds, and without mercy or distinction, destroys them, or 
drags them into the miseries of oppression, and perpetual servi- 
tude. Fortunately, the profession of Islamism, saves them from 
the disgrace of slavery, though not from the hand of the destroy- 
er. As followers of Mahomet, they may not be enslaved, but 
they may still be oppressed and subdued, and like domestic 
dogs, be compelled to hunt and destroy their kindred and their 

Many of the Southern nations have improved deplorably om 
these examples of their oppressors. Where they have embraced 
the Mahometan faith, the same tenets justify them, and urge 
them forward in the same ferocious and merciless treatment of 
their countrymen. Frequently uniting these tenets in a horrid 
alliance with ambition, avarice and revenge, and instigated by 
the more enlightened and cunning Northern traders, for the spe- 
cial purpose of maintaining the commerce in slaves, they wage 
war on the slightest pretences; betray their peaceful and unsus- 
pecting neighbours into servitude; visit their defenceless huts 
with rapine and violence; doom their subjects and fellow-citi- 
zens, for the slightest offences, and often on suspicion, to per- 
petual exile, and foreign bondage; and a great portion of these 
numberless victims, ensnared by every device of savage ingenui- 
ty, after having endured the indignities of their situation, and 
the bitter parting from the endearments of home, are destined 
to perish, famished and exhausted, on the sands of the desert; 
to end an existence, protracted in misery, in the crowded and 
pestilential prisons of the slave ship, or in saving a rapacious 
crew from starvation, to be buried alive in a watery grave. 

1829.3 Africa. .355 

Their bones, when not covered by the winds, are formed into 
pavements for caravans, around the watering places, and along 
the way,* or strewed unseen, on the bed of the Ocean. 

The name of Moors, which is used in Europe, but not in Afri- 
«a, is applied chiefly to the inhabitants of the States of Barbary: 
These are not a single race, but derive their origin from various 
sources. They are a mixture of the ancient Mauritanians, and 
Numidians; the Vandals from the North, the Saracens and 
Turks from the East, and the Brebers, the oldest inhabitants, 
who were driven back, like the ancient Britons, and now occu- 
py the interior and mountainous parts of the country. These 
races, however, art>.so assimilated, by the mouldings of despotic 
power, and religious intolerance, that they can now be hardly 

In Barbary, Jews also are found in great numbers, a distinct 
Face, and indeed, the farthest possible from an amalgamation 
with the other inhabitants. They are an outcast class, hated, 
despised, and derided, and subject to insult and persecution, 
with impunity. But the immense profits of trade, induce them 
to submit with patience to these indignities. 

The inhabitable, or rather the almost uninhabitable portions of 
the vast space between the States of Barbary, and the produc- 
tive regions of Central Africa, are occupied by the Arabs. 
This name is doubtless applied, not only to the descendants of 
those who originally came from Arabia, but to all who lead the 
same rude and migratory life. They dwell in moveable villages, 
consisting of tents, arranged in circles, like the huts of the Hot- 
tentots, and in the intermediate space, supplying their cattle 
with a place of security. When the means of support are ex- 
hausted, they depart for a spot where their wants can be sup- 
plied. They are governed by Sheiks and Emirs, pay homage 
and tribute to the Moorish sovereigns when they must, but seize 
upon every opportunity to act for themselves, and to in- 
dulge to the full, their predatory propensities. They consist of 
several races, of different names, as the Errifi, the Shelluhs, the 
Shouaas, the Tibboos, the Tuaricsj but they doubtless have a 

* A single watering place, says Major Denham, was in some cases, sur- 
rounded by more than a hundred kuman skeletons 

J5fc Africa* [Feb. 

common origin, and they use different dialects of the same lan- 
guage. They are all bigoted Mussulmans. They are much ad- 
dicted to pilfering, and in the use of fire-arms, excel all the other 
inhabitants of Africa. 

- The inhabitants of Egypt are chiefly foreigners. The Copts 
are the only people that derive their origin from the Egyptians, 
of remote antiquity, and even they, are the descendants of a 
confused mixture with the Persian, Grecian, Roman, and Ara- 
bian races. They dwell chiefly in upper Egypt; their numbers 
are small, and they are very far inferior to their ancestors. 
Abyssinia appears to have been peopled from Arabia, having 
many characteristics corresponding to thog* of the Jews and 
Arabians. Its remote parts, however, are inhabited by the pri- 
mitive African race, some of whom, are still of the lowest order 
of savages. 

In the middle countries of Africa, as might be expected, there 
is a mixture of the Southern Aborigines, with the various races 
from the North. They are ruled chiefly by Moorish Mahometan 
chiefs; but in some cases, the negro race appear occasionally to 
resume the ascendancy. Of this, Tombuctoo is said to present 
an instance. 

Further South, Africa is filled with a population almost en- 
tirely native. Among the tribes of that part of the continent, a 
few profess the Mahometan faith, rendered worse, if possible, by 
a mixture of their own superstitions. The austere habits of a 
Mussulman is, however, mostly avoided. The native races are 
generally much devoted to pleasure, and their character is 
marked by carelessness and levity. '"From sunset, all Africa 
dances." Polygamy is practised in the extreme, the number of 
women appropriated to an individual, being sometimes three or 
four thousand. But it is not attended with the same jealous se- 
clusion which exists in most Mahometan countries. The idle- 
ness of the Turkish harems is unknown; and on the women are 
devolved in general, the most laborious employments. On the 
Southern extremity of the continent, the complexion of the popu- 
lation is brown, or copper-coloured; but they are no less, on that 
account, in a state of extreme barbarity. 

The religion of the Northern half of Africa, as has been already 
developed, is almost entirely Mahometan. The general charac- 

1829.] Africa. S5f 

ter of this religion, is too well known to require a description. 
In Africa, it assumes its wor*t aspect, and fully exhibits the ex- 
treme of its cruelties. One that is not a Mussulman, usually 
finds himself an outlaw without a remedy; and death or bondage 
is continually before him. P;tradise being the reward offered 
for deeds of cruelty, there are multitudes who are eager, in this 
way, to procure it. A kind of corrupt Christianity prevails in 
Aon r ^sinia; and relics of the Catholic faith and practice, exist in 
Congo, ;m<\ a few other places visited by the Portuguese. The 
8 ithem natives generally are distinguished for their supersti- 
tions, above all other people in the world. Respecting the crea- 
tion of man. they hold to different opinions. Some believe that 
h" was formed by an enormous spider; others that he emerged 
from caves and holes in the earth. Some believe in the transmi- 
gration of souls; others in future rewards and punishments, 
graduated according to their own absurd notions of religious 
duty, received either in a hell of oblivion, or a heaven of sensu- 
ality. Death is regarded with horror. The existence of ghosts 
is generally credited, and the spirits of those whose crimes are 
unexpiated, are supposed, after death, to wander on earth. 

A species of superstition called fetishism, is almost universal. 
Any thing that strikes the imagination of the negro, as possessed 
of some occult, supernatural influence, becomes his fetish, or the 
idol of his worship. Thus the anchor of a wrecked ship was cast 
on shore. An African broke a piece from it, and happened to 
die the same evening. It was supposed that he was the victim 
of its vengeance, for committing; violence upon it; and the anchor 
was of course, afterwards worshipped as a god. The ignorant 
and superstitious African, adores, and consults in his difficul- 
ties, a tree, a rock, a stick of wood, a fish bone, a bit of paper, 
or a blade of grass, just as his fancy happens to ascribe, to either 
of these or other objects, a secret power over his destinies. Ser- 
pents, and lizards, and leopards, and crocodiles, are the objects 
of solemn public worship; and the various rites connected with 
this stupid devotion, are usually a mixture of folly, lewdness, 
and cruelty. Africans usually carry their fetishes about them, 
and expect assistance and protection from them, on all occa- 
sions. The virtue of a fetish is always determined by the suc- 
cess of its possessor. If one fetish proves insufficient to effect 

358 Jfrica. [Feb. 

the object proposed, another is selected, and another, until the 
right one is procured. Thus in consequence of a combined 
series of experiments, the delusion is never detected. When- 
ever the owner of a fetish performs an improper action, he care- 
fully conceals his fetish, so that its knowledge of his guilt may 
not lead to punishment. The people of Benin consider the shad- 
ow of a man to be a fetish, that has a real existence, and will 
give an account of all his actions. Fetishes whose influence are 
supposed to extend over particular districts, are remarkable 
mountains, rocks, trees, lakes, and rivers. The fetishes most 
valued, are scraps of paper or parchment, with something writ- 
ten upon them by the Moors or Arabs, and sold by them to the 
poor and deluded negroes, at an extravagant price. These in 
general can be procured only bv the chiefs of the people, who 
are often literally loaded with these talismans of security; and 
as in war they usually follow in the rear, an efficiency is ascribed 
to their paper gods, which is owing wholly to their customs or 
their cowardice. 

"These superstitions," says Malte Brun, "were merely ridi- 
culous. Vengeance and brutality, however, gave birth toothers 
of a horrible and atrocious nature. The prisoners of war from 
an adjoining tribe, were sacrificed on the tombs of those against 
whom they had fought. Believing in the necessary connexion 
between moral powers and visible objects, these barbarians were 
persuaded, that by devouring the bodies of their enemies, they 
became imbued with the courage of the deceased. Cannibalism 
arising from the rites of the hideous altar, and at first limited to 
these rites, was soon converted into a capricious taste — a demand 
of luxurious appetite." They in many places suppose that 
death is always the effect of poison or enchantment; and the sup- 
posed author of the mischief, is immediately sold as a slave. 
In Ashantee, three or four thousand victims are often sacrificed 
at the death of one of the principal people, in order that in the 
other world, he may have a respectable suit of attendants. 

While describing the disgusting and the horrible, which pre- 
vail so very extensively in Africa, it will not be considered amiss 
to notice the tribe of Giagas, which is supposed by some, still to 
exist somewhere in the interior. They were a horde of wander- 
ing marauders, and were properly considered, entirely as out^ 

1829.] Africa. 359 

laws, even in Africa. They kept up their numbers by volun- 
teers, and by children stolen at the proper age, to be educated 
in all their atrocities. Their own children, to avoid necessary 
trouble, were destroyed. They lived entirely by robbery, and 
devoured the still palpitating hearts of their victims, in order to 
increase their courage and ferocity. Many tribes, however, par- 
ticularly on the Western coast, are represented by Golberry and 
others, as docile, "amiable and happy. Though superstitious, 
they are not strongly attached to their superstitions, and would 
readily be converted to the doctrines of the Christian faith. — 
The ascendency which has been obtained over them by the disci- 
ples of Mahomet, proves the facility with which Christianity 
might be promulgated among their tribes. 

Their judicial trials consist chiefly of some species of ordeal, 
among which, may be numbered, the use of fire and hot water, 
and the drinking of a decoction of various kinds of barks and 
herbs, by which, at least, the fate, if not the guilt of the indivi- 
dual is decided. It is supposed that those who prepare and ad- 
minister the mixture, are well acquainted beforehand, with the 
ensuing result. Those convicted in this or any other way, even 
of the smallest theft, are doomed at least, to hopeless slavery. 

The arts are still in their infancy. In the vicinity of the 
Colony of Liberia, however, the natives manufacture cotton 
cloths, leather and iron, and in other regions, the art of casting 
gold ornaments and vessels, is practised with much skill and in- 
genuity. In others, a rude blacksmith is regarded as a superior 
being; the plough is generally unknown; the palaces of kings are 
the huts of savages, often adorned with human skulls, and even 
with human heads, fresh and bloody, which constitute also the 
pavements in and about them; and the productions of foreign 
skill are viewed with all the feelings of admiration and astonish- 

The governments of Africa, both in their form and mode of 
administration, are exceedingly diverse, and greatly changeable. 
Military despotism, however, in its various forms, spreads its 
dark and bloody wings, over almost the whole of Africa. In the 
Mahometan states, a long reign and peaceful death, rarely oc- 
curs. In other places, also, the tenure of power i$ exceedingly 

360 Twelfth Annual Meeting of the A. C. S. ■ [Feb. 

Commerce is carried on to a very considerable extent, though 
there is very little facility in the means of conveyance. The 
camel is very properly called, the ship of the African deserts. 
Commerce is almost wholly internal. The traders are usually 
formed into large companies, called caravans, varying in num- 
ber, from two or three hundred, to two thousand. From Cairo, 
three caravans go into the interior of Africa, one to Sennaar, 
the other to Darfur. These two travel only once in two or three 
years. The other to Mourzouk, is the largest, and generally 
performs an annual journey. It is the medium of communica- 
tion between Cairo and all the countries of interior and western 
Africa, From Fezzan, two great caravans go to the South, one 
to Bornou, and the other to Cashna. The last and greatest cara- 
yan, is that from Morocco, by the way of Acca or Tatta, to 

The exports from Africa, are mostly the unwrought produc- 
tions of nature. Slaves are, and ever have been, the principal 
articles, and do more than any thing else, to keep in existence, 
the commerce of Africa. 

Twelfth Annual fleeting of the Amexican 
Colonization Society. 

The Twelfth Annual Meeting of the American Society for 
Colonizing the Free People of Colour on the Coast of Africa, 
was held on Saturday evening the 17th Jan. at the City Hall in 
Washington. Though the weather was quite unpleasant, the as- 
sembly was numerous and respectable, and was honoured with 
the presence of many of the most distinguished men of our coun- 
try, among whom were Chief Justice Marshall, the Secretary 
of State, and many Members from both Houses of Congress. 

At seven o'clock, the President of the Society, Judge Wash- 
ington, took the Chair, and the names of the following Dele- 
gates from Auxiliary Societies were read by the Secretary: 

Prom the State Society of Virginia, 
Chief Justice Marshall, 
The Hon. John Tyler, 
The Hon. C. F. Mercer. 

1829.] Twelfth Annual Meeting of the A. C. S. 361 

From the State Society of Vermont 

The Hon. H. Seymour, 

The Hon. Benjamin Swift. 

From the State Society of New Hampshire. 

The Hon. Samuel Bell. 

From the Society of Lexington, Ky. 

The Hon. Judge Clarke. 

From the Society of Jinn Arundel County, Md_. 

Alexander Randall, Esq. 

Thos. S. Alexander, Esq. 

From the Society of Fredericksburg, Va. 

Iohn L. Marys, Esq. 

From the Society df Petersburg, Va. 

The Hon. Mr. Archer. 

From the Society at Preston, Trumbull County, Ohio* 

The Hon. Mr. Whittlesey, President. 

From the Society at Snowhill, Md. 

The Hon. Mr. Wilson. 

From the Society of Crawford County, Pennsylvania. 

The Hon. Stephen Barlow. 

From the Society at Pittsburg, Penn. 

The Hon. William Marks, 

The Hon. John L. Kerr. 

From the Society of Albemarle County, Va. 

The Hon. Mr. Rives. 

From the Society in Alexandria, D. C. 

George Johnson, Esq. 

Wm. Gregory, Esq. 

From the Society in Georgetown, D. C. 

Joel Cruttenden, Esq. President, 

R. Dunl"op, Esq. 

Gideon Davis, Esq. 

From the Society in Cincinnati, Ohio, 

The Hon. Jacob Burnet. 

From the Society in Wilmington, Delaware* 

The Hon. Kensey Johns. 

The Secretary then read the Report of the Board of Managers 

©n the affairs of the Society for the past year, the progress of the 

Colony, its condition and prospects. 

362 Twe[fth Annual Meeting of the J. C. 8. [Fel» 

The Hon. C. F. Mercer offered the following resolution: 
Resolved^ Thai the thanks of this Society be prrsenl he 

President and Board of Managers, for their able and • 
exertions during the \ear, ind for the report laid before this 
meeting, and that they b» j requested to print the same. 

Mr. Msbceb addressed the meeting", and after congratulating the Presi- 
dent and Board on the return of the present anmv so 
cheering", adverted, bv way of contrast, to tli e- 
ty, and especially, to that, - plan was first submitted, b\ a resol' on, 
ask'ng* the co-operation of the general government, to the 

stature of Virginia. He remembered, he said, the v .- '■» i 
which it encountered in that body, and particularly from i a 

gentleman, now distinguished in tht councils of I th- 

standing that he voted for the resolution, cont< 
sand barren: that the climate was pestilential; and 
there, an asylum for emancipat 

who was transported thither, would cost, for h> .'JO: 

and lhat.1 required to plant a colon;. , u 

greatest empire in the world. The scheme, at iy, met with but 

lukev arm friends or open enemies, in almo- U hat a differ- 

ent spectacle nov. a the view of the patriot and I lanthropist — 

The Society had already, a Colony in Africa, which, in the short space 
of fi\e j ear^ from its actual commencement, had attained a strength and ex- 
tent such as the first settlements of Virginia did not reach in the fourth of a 
cent | it had heen planted by the efforts of a r ty, with- 

out the direel aid of any Go> i , and had succeeded in despite of per- 

secution, (if the c p: i sentiments could he so dt nominated.) 

I support, mainly on the exertions of individual zeal and 

b- i e: underthc blessing, indeed, of that superintending* Pro\ idence 

I all good councils anil all just thoughts proceed. From this 

poii rj , the fr ends of the Society migl t look ba< k with an hon- 

est pride, and forward with the h ghest anticipations of complete success — 
Their errors had already received the sanction of in e of the states of this 
Union, and the da\ v approaching when its advocate would have no 

n to subdue — when but one opinion would prevail, as to the 
nd tin- objects of the enterprise: when the slave-holder and the 
* would consider this Society as a middle ground, where the) 
I lent and action — when our southern brethren would 

beco i, s Mr. 1 that the Society sought nothing" more anx- 

iously than the peace and prosperity of the slave-holding states. Tile time 
is ^qi, we ma) trust, very remote, when there will exist not a district, a city 
or a village in our country, \\ here the success of the American Colony of 
Liberia will m 1 ' hailed with j >y. A place was long sought for in \ain, 
ta which the free coloured population of the United States might be trans 

1829.] Twelfth Animal Meeting of the A. C. S. 36$ 

ported with safety f '> others, and advantage to themselves: at length, sack 

a spot has been found, where every advantage seemed to be concentrated, 

which the most enlightened friend of the African race could have desired. 

Ht re, that race ; s in every form a curse, and if the system, so long contend. 

>r b\ the uneo noromising abolitionist could prevail, its effect would be 

avad discord and devastation from one end of the Union to the other. 

J evil though begun in the South, wo dd be staid by the North. But if 

the interests of the North and of the South, the feelings and views of the 

\ and of the Wes1 can be united in a well-matured s\ stem of colo- 

. not o-..!» may the threatening prospect of future danger be 

as >■ led, but tin- i< and complained of, be greatly mitigated, if 

not wholly removed. H re Mr .to the situation of his native 

state, an k population existing there, whom 

he d jerable people — the objects of universal sus- 

p ;.and then took occasion to refer to the con- 

: population in the City of Philadelphia. After 
lean I ornament of our country, and re- 
l r*aine, as well for the excellence of her police, as for 
th > n arly founders, which still continued, he said, to dia- 

ling idants; he addc L, thai he had so ne time ago availed 

J opportunity of devoting two days in that city to the investiga- 

indition of its coloured population. One of them was a Sab- 
- other, a day of labour — and he had seen on both, scenes ofsqua- 
iniser) — such as be had never witnessed in any part of the 
nong the wretched paupers of England, nor the wooden- 
shod tn of France. He had conversed with a very intelligent phy- 

sic ■an there, who had supplied him with facts, which, if it were proper to 
deia.l on the present occasion, would add a deep and mournful colour- 
ing to Miis picture. Experience had there confirmed the deductions of 
■n, that if we would render freedom, to the slave, a blessing; if we 
would confer r*.al benefits, on the children of Africa, Colonization must go, 
hand in hand, with Emancipation. In endeavouring to accomplish this ob- 
ject, the Society would find ample employment. The pernicious influence 
which had been charged upon its designs, was not only foreign to them, 
but deprecated, by no part of the American people, more sincerely, than by 
the friends of the colonization of Africa by her free coloured descendants of 
the United States. He was happy to believe, said Mr. M, that the fears of 
his Southern friends were, every day, becoming more and more quieted, 
while a conviction was hourly strengthening at the North, that their South- 
ern countrymen were actuated by the same spirit of benevolence with 
themselves. All that was needed, for a just estimate of the views of both, 
was to enable them to understand each other. The result would be to unite 
their efforts by common council. Could both parts of the Union be repre- 
sented in one common assemblv here, it would soon be found that the dele- 

364 Twelfth Annual Meeting of the A. C. JS. ' [Feb. 

gates from every quarter of America had brought with them the same feel- 
ings. Justice would be done, at once, to the policy of the South, and t« 
the humanity of the North. 

In conclusion, Mr. M. renewed his congratulations to the President, on 
the prosperous advances of the African colony, which might be ascribed in 
part to his early and steady patronage, and the moral influence of a name 
deservedly dear to both continents. In offering a resolution of thanks to the 
Board of Managers, which he knew to be merited by their persevering zeal 
and ability, he desired to be regarded not as an officer of the Parent Institu- 
tion, from whose councils other duties had withdrawn him, during die past 
year, but as a delegate of the Colonization Society of his native common- 
wealth, which he had the honour, on the present occasion, to represent, in 
common with his much revered friend, on his left, (Chief Justice Marshall,) 
and an absent friend, recently the Governor of that Commonwealth, (Mr. Ty- 
ler of the Senate,) whose attendance was withheld from the present meet* 
ing by ill health, and the inclemency of the season, 
F. S. Key, Esq. then rose and said, 

That he felt grateful, as a member of the Board of Managers, for the ap- 
probation expressed in the resolution just passed. — He begged leave to 
present to the meeting, by the resolution he was about to offer, a far more 
worthy subject of thanks than the Board of Managers. It becomes this Socie- 
ty, while it expresses its regret for the loss of one to whom it is more indebt- 
ed than to all the labours of all its friends, to express also its thankfulness, 
that he was ever g'ven to us. The lamented Ashmun was a man raised up 
by Providence, fitted for, and called to the post which he had so honoura- 
bly filled, and to which he gave himself as a martyr. 

He did not fear to be thought an enthusiast, in saying, that clearer indi- 
cations were never given that the Almighty interposes in the schemes of 
his creatures, than by the incidents which removed Mr. Ashmun from his 
humble labours here, to a continent where his name will be remembered for- 
ever. It ought to be known, that it was not the wisdom of the Board of 
Managers that selected for the deliverance and government of their infant 
Colony in Africa, the man who so faithfully and eminently performed this 
service. With a meek and quiet spirit he had moved among us, in his 
sphere of humble duties, as if unconscious himself of the energies he was 
afterwards to dev elope. 

While fitting out a vessel about to sail from Baltimore, with settlers for 
the Colony, some apparent accident suggested the necessity of his accom- 
panying them to Liberia, and without any appointment from the Board, or 
any farther design than that of seeing them restored to the land of their 
forefathers, and returning in the vessel, he embarked with them. His re- 
turn, the slate of the Colony upon his arrival, rendered impossible. It was 
on the brink of destruction. The former Agent had been compelled, by 
ill health, to leave it. The people were eut off from all communication 

1829«] Twelfth Annual Meeting of the rf. C. S. 16* 

with the natives, who were then collecting 1 forces to assail them, without a 
leader, and dispirited at the prospect of the unequal contest approaching 
them He resolved to share their fate, and encouraged and prepared 
them for the defence they so nobly sustained From that moment till his 
death, it is well known how he devoted all the powers of his mind and 
bo ly, till he sacrificed health and life to the people he had saved. It is 
well k town, how, in the varying circumstances of danger and difficulty, in 
which they were placed, every variety of quality and talent that could be 
called for, military skill and courage, political sagacity and address, were 
most conspicuously exhibited in this remarkable man. 

Deeplv did the Board and all the friends of the Society lament that he 
was not spared to meet them, and receive the warm tribute of thankfulness 
and admiration they were prepared to offer him. But his parting moments 
WePe cheered and sustained by far higher cons61ations. He could look 
back upon a life given to a great cause, to incalculable blessings which he 
had been made the instrument of conferring upon two Continents of people. 

He has lefl a name to be remembered by generations to come, when 
those that may be more illustrious now on the pages of history, will be 
forgotten. To express our gratitude for the gift of such a man, and our 
reverence for his memory, he would offer a resolution to which all hearts 
would respond. 

Resolved, That this Society is penetrated with the deepest re- 
givt for the loss of their invaluable Colonial Agent, J. Ashmun, 
Esq. and that as a tribute of respect for his worth, the Board of 
Managers be instructed to cause a suitable monument, with an ap- 
propriate inscription, to be erected over his grave. 

Mr. Mercer proposed an addition to this resolution, which was adopted* 

That another monument be erected to. his memory in Liberia. 
Walter Jones, Es-q. moved the following: 

The time having arrived when the diffusive beneficence of the plan, and 
the great political and moral results from the labours of this Society, are 
so well and so generally understood, as to dispense its founders and advo- 
cates from the necessity of dedicating their principal efforts to explain or to 
justify its principles or its tendencies to the great body of patriots and phi- 
lanthropists in the country; it has become the more essential duty of them, 
who are duly impressed with the important truths unfolded by the doc- 
trines and the experiments of this Society, to press on with untiring activity, 
and unquenchable ardour, to the practical accomplishment of their own 
theory, by all the means that sagacity and determined perseverance can 
render available, and not to disparage the very cause of humanity, of pub- 
lic good, of social and individual improvement, by making all public spirit 
and active virtue appear but as a dream of speculative benevolence. — 

366 Tweljth Annual Meeting of the A. C. S. ' [Fob. 

Among the most available and practicable means of establishing an 
^uate fund, to supply the indispensable wants of the Society, the nu ruori- 
©us plan suggested by Gen-it Smith, Ksq. of Petersboro', New York:, de- 
serves the highest commendation. Whilst it would ensure a permanent 
fund for the operations of the Society, it brings the contribution of that 
fund within the compass of the great mass of men possessing 1 moderate, but 
independent fortunes, without a sacrifice of any of the comforts or enjoy- 
ments that a well-regulated mind ought to wish or expect from the pos- 
session of worldly wealth, therefore, 

Resolved, That the pi in proposed by Gerrit Smith, to rV>se 
100,000 dollars, by subscriptions of 1000 dollars, payable by 
instalments, in ten years, be recommended to all the real well 
wishers and active supporters of the Society. 

In commenting upon the resolution, Mr J. contended that enough. had 
been done to meet and to remove the various objection* with which the 
design of the Society had had to contend. It was now time thar its friends 
rested from their speculative labours, and turned their attention to the pre-.- 
tical means of advancing and securing the great interests of the Colony, 
the happy victory of benevolence over force. By peacefully restoring to 
Afrca that of which we had forcibly robbed her, the Society would accom- 
plish a double benefit. It would no* only remove f"o n the trunk of the 
great national tree, a morbid excrescence, whose growth must only termi- 
nate in the ultimate destruction of both, but by separating it and placing 
it in a kindred soil, would plant a germ whose branches might overspread 
another continent, and bear abundant fruit in all the blessings of education, 
morals, freedom, and the arts. He deprecated the idea of remitting exer- 
tions which had been so successful, pressed the obligation which rested up- 
on those who had thus given being to an infant State never to abandon its 
interests, or yield to any difficulties which might present themselves in con- 
summating so noble a design. They were now called to exercise the sa- 
gacity and energy which ought to distinguish the founders of Republics. — 
Mr J. referred with commendation to a scheme first proposed by Gerrit 
Smith, Esq. of New York, for the securing of pecuniary aid, and which con- 
sists in the pledging of a definite sum ultimately to be paid, but vhich is 
to be advanced by easy but certain instalments. This would show the 
Board on what they might calculate, and enable it to graduate ita mea- 
sures by its means. 

A. Randall, Esq. presented the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be given to the Cler- 
gy of all denominations, who have taken up collections for its 
benefit on the Fourth of July, and that they be earnestly request- 
ed to.continue their efforts in aid of this Institution. 

Mr. H. made a short address on the subject of the resolution, 

1829] Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Ji. C. S. 36? 

off >rin«; a merited tribute to those who had availed themselves 
of th> enthusiasm produced by the recurrence of our national 
birth-day, and poured into the treasury of the Society a multi- 
tu leof kfc lr<>p like" contributions, which, though individually of 
small amount, when united, formed a great and valuable stream. 
The Hod. Mr. Marks offered the following resolution: 
Resolved* Tut the thanks of this Institution be presented to 
the several Auxiliary Societies throughout the Union, for their 
efficient efforts, and liberal contributions to the Society during 
the last year. 

Mr Ctjiy rose to perform a duty which he had hoped would have devolv- 
ed on some Other member "f the Institution. But before he presented the 
i . it ion, which he held in his hand, he could not deny himself the grati- 
fteat on of offering to the presiding- officer, to the Board of Managers and 
Others here assembled, the congratulations which belong to the occasion. 
How different is the present triumphant position of the Society from what 
it was a tew yean ago! He recollected about twelve years ago, when 
sou:- fifteen or twenty gentlemen assembled in a room, not eighteen feet 
square, of a tavern in this place, to consult together about this great 
scheme They formed a constitution, and organized the Society. We 
all p member what scoffs and taunts it subsequently experienced, how the 
timid were alarmed, how the ignorant misconceived or misrepresented its 
object, and how both extremes — the partisan of perpetual slavery, and the 
friend of unqualified, immediate and universal emancipation, united against 
us \\\ have triumphed o\er all these obstacles. Prejudice has yielded, 
tlu ignorant have acquired infoimation, and converts are daily made. The 
Report pead this evening shows the flourishing condition of the Colony. 

Among the circumstances of the pa>* year, which are worthy of particu- 
lar felicitation, are tin formation of State Societies, in two neighbouring 
Commonwealths. One of these has been organized, in a manner calcula- 
ted to make a deep impression, in a State which has always exercised, and 
must ever continue to exert great influence on the affairs of this Confede- 
racy. The other has been formed in a State, her daughter, to which I be- 
long as a citizen. In the constitution of each, some of the most eminent 
citizens of the respective States concurred. We may anticipate, with 
much confidence, the best effects from both The past year had brought 
forth another most gratifying incident. Our fair countrywomen, always 
ready to sanction schemes of religion, humanity and benevolence, have 
manifested a warm approbation of that of the Colonizing Society. They 
have, in several instances, formed themselves into auxiliary associations, 
and have otherwise contributed to the promotion of the great object of this 
Society. Their co-operation was wanted to complete the circle of moral ex- 
ertion. They are entitled to our grateful thanks. It is to propose the e** 
pression of them, in the shape of a resolution, that I have now risen. 

368 Twelfth Annual Meeting of the A. C. S-. [Feb. 

Mr. President, said Mr. C. we have a cause inherently good. It is support- 
ed by some of the best, the most virtuous, and eminent men of our country. 
The Clergy, of all denominations, almost unanimously support it, and daily 
offer up their prayers for its success. Our fair countrywomen give us their 
cheering countenance and encouragement. The God of Heaven, (he be- 
lieved from his very soul) is with us. Under such auspices, we cannot fail. 
With zeal, energy, and perseverance we shall subdue all difficulties and ul- 
timately realize every hope. 

He offered the following resolution: 

Resolved, That the cordial thanks of this Society be presented 
to our fair countrywomen, who contribute by their countenance, 
association, and their donations, to the success of the Society. 

The Secretary of the Society, Mr. Gurley, rose and said, 

All the members of this Society, I doubt not, have heard with peculiar 
gratification, of the establishment during the year, of State Societies in Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky. The influence of these states, on the great question 
presented to this Union, by the Society, cannot tail to be felt to the ex- 
tremities of our land, and must conduce most powerfully to the success of 
the cause which we have assembled to advance. The resolution which I 
intend to submit, recommends that the system of organization already par- 
tially adopted, should be extended throughout the United States, nor can 
it fail, if thus extended, to affect the State Legislatures and the nation at 
large; it proposes the formation of a State Society auxiliary to the Parent 
Institution, with subordinate associations in the counties or towns of the se- 
veral states, in every state of the Union. Such a system, I can say with 
confidence, has long been regarded by the whole Board of Managers, as of 
vast importance, well suited to produce those triumphant results which are 
cherished, as objects of hope, at least, by all the friends of this Institution. 
A resolution similar to that which I hold in my hand, was adopted at the last 
Annual Meeting of the Society, and I trust we shall continue to recommend 
the plan until it shall be universally adopted. I trust we shall repeat our 
expressions of opinion on this subject, until a moral and christian influence 
in favour of this Society, has reached every heart in our country; until we 
have not one, but many flourishing Colonies on the African coast, from 
which shall emanate the pure and benign lights of Science and Religion to 
cheer and to regenerate a land long injured, and long involved in darkness 
and crime. Providence has favoured us, nor does the history of Coloniza* 
tion furnish a parallel to our success. Our friends are able and numerous, 
and from the most remote parts of this Union, do they look with interest to 
our proceedings to-night. But we see only the dawning of the day. Let 
this animate us: for the light now faint, gives promise of noonday brightness. 
I hope this resolution will be adopted, and that from the efforts of this Soci- 
ety the present year, we shall witness the happiest and the best results. 

Mr. CuatEY then presented the following resolution: 

1829- ] Txv elf th Annual Meeting of the A. C. 8. Z6\) 

Resolved, That this Institution has heard with great gratifica- 
tion, of the establishment of State Colonization Societies in 
Virginia and Kentucky, and that the experience of another year 
has confirmed' it in the opinion, that the formation of similar So- 
cieties, throughout the Union, with subordinate associations in 
the several counties or towns of each State, is highly important, 
and deserves the serious attention of all the friends of the So- 

Rev. Mr. Hawley moved the. following resolution: 

Resolved, That this Society will cherish a sincere and respect- 
ful regard for the memory of Dr. William Thornton, . late a 
valuable member of the Board of Managers. 

Rev. Dr. Laurie offered the following resolution: 

Resolved, That this Society are deeply sensible of its obliga- 
tions to Richard Smith, Esq. their Treasurer, for his able and 
gratuitous services during the year. 

It is with great pleasure, said Dr. Laurie, the Rev. mover, that T rise to 
offer a resolution embracing a vote of thanks to the Treasurer of this Soci- 
ety. The benefits resulting- from the judicious and efficient labours of the 
Treasurer, he remarked, had been peculiarly, felt, and were highly prized by 
the Board of Managers, and by those more immediately connected with him 
in his official character. Often in cases of depression and perplexity have 
they been relieved by his counsel, and by his energy. Nor ought it to be 
unnoticed that his invaluable services have been rendered without fee or re- 
ward, other than that which springs from the consciousness of being instru- 
mental in planting on the shores of Africa, a Colony, where the blessings Of 
civil and religious liberty are already enjoyed, and from whence it is confi- 
dently hoped light and life and gladness shall be diffused through all the 
regions of tliat vast continent. 

The Hon. Mr. Storrs then said, 

That he was gratefvd to be able to assure the meeting that the objects 
of the Society had begun to excite much interest in parts of the Union 
which were exempt from the evils incident to that personal relation 
which was yet recognized in many of the States. The Society would find 
sure evidence of this feeling, in the generous offer made by Mr. Getrit 
Smith,' alluded to in the Report of the Board of Managers. Mr. S. said 
that he resided near Mr Smith, and spoke in high terms of his public spirit, 
his purity of life, exemplary piety and benevolence. 

Mr. S. said that when the Society was first instituted, he was one of those 

who doubted its success, and believed its objects to be unattainable. So 

great did the undertaking then appear to be, and so chimerical had it been 

generally considered, that few thought it worth the trouble of very close 


sr& Twelfth Annual Meeting of the A. C. 5. [Feb. 

examination. He was one of that great mass who had reflected very lit- 
tle on the subject, and it was perhaps, not too much to say, that the 
pbj cts of the Society were not, tor some time after its formation, fully and 
fairly understood. He was satisfied from the success which had thus far 
followed its exertions, that the colonization of the free black population of 
the Union on the coast of Africa, was practicable. So far as what had been 
done already, was to be considered in the light of an experiment; it had been 
eminently successful, and promised to realize all which its sanguine 
supporters had hoped for. The Keport which had been read, showed 
thai the Colony had prospered as highly during the time since it was 
founded, as the first settlement of New England, so far as any physical 
obstacles to its progress were, to be overcome. It may have, perhaps, 
superior natural advantages. The state of the world, too, was more fa- 
vorabli now to such an enterprise. It was, he. continued, due to candor 
to say, that he was com. need that it was deserving of more general sup- 
port than it had received, and hoped that the efforts of its patrons wovdd 
meet with general encouragement to perseverance. 

Mr. S. expressed the belief* that there had been some misunderstanding 
between different parts of the Union, in respect to the views of each otheron 
the subject of the condition and emancipation of the coloured population in 
the States. He was quite sure that in the Northern States, there was no 
opinion generally prevailing, that immediate, absolute, and universal eman- 
cipation was desirable. There might be, said Mr. S. some who are actuat- 
ed by pure motives and benevolent views, who considered it practicable; 
but he might say with confidence, that very few, if any, believed that 
it would be truly humane or expedient to turn loose upon *the com- 
munity more than a million of persons, totally destitute of the means of 
subsistence, and altogether unprepared in every moral point of view, to en- 
jov or estimate their new privileges. Such a cotemporaneous emancipa- 
tion of the coloured population of the Southern States could only bring a 
common calamity on all the states, and the most severe misery on those who 
were to be thus thrown upon society, under the most abject, helpless and 
deplorable circumstances He might say, however, and he trusted that 
there was no part of the Union where such a sentiment was not favorably 
entertained, that every truly philanthropic man and every friend of our com- 
mon country, looked forward in the confident hope that the period would 
arnv.-, when, at some future day, that great work should be ultimately ac- 
complished. It was to be treated, however, by all, as a work of time and 
prudence, and not of mere feeling. He believed that causes were in opera- 
tion, and daily developing their influence, that were calculated to convince 
those most directly and most deeply concerned in that subject, that it was 
a question which invited their careful and early examination. Desirable as 
such an event might be to any, it was false humanity to disperse such a 
number of our fellow beings, of all ages and both sexes, through the cotm- 

1829.] Twelfth Annual Meeting of the A. C. S. 371 

try, to perish for want, to fill up the jails and penitentiaries, or to sink to 
the lowest and basest degrees of vice and crime. The success of such a 
policy could only end in their final extirpation. Still the question of eman- 
cipation could not in the nature of thing's be long* avoided, and must be met 
at last. He thought that two points might be affirmed in reference to it, 
which none could deny — that it was impracticable to collect this people to- 
gether at any future time, on this continent, at any place or under circum- 
stances that would ensure their happiness, and that even under any plan, 
which had in view the only practicable result — gradual emancipation — the 
first steps to be taken were those preparative measures which onl) could 
render their emancipation a blessing at all No stronger motive could be 
addressed to the human heart, than that which the measures of the Society 
held out, to enable them to estimate the value of freedom. Instead 
of being turned out upon the world, without the means of support, and 
without hope, the emancipated are offered an asylum, where with the first 
enjoyment of liberty, they may rationally know its value and realize its bless- 
ings. Under the patronage and protection afforded to them in the Colony, 
every inducement is presented to persuade them to feel that their happi- 
ness is in their own power They cannot fail to find in the equality of 
their condition, and the sure rewards of industry, the greatest encourage- 
ments to perseverance in their exertions. The acquisition and enjoyment 
of separate property for themselves and their families, and the rules of de- 
scent must there set in motion those principles of action in the human heart, 
which lay at the foundations of social happiness, and all well-regulated 
human government. To this are added the blessings of education and reli- 
gious instruction. Why, Mr. President, said Mr S. should we doubt that 
the African is susceptible of the highest degrees of moral and sociarim- 
provement? We do wrong to human nature in every situation of life, to 
judge of its capacity unfavorably, merely because we find that despotism 
and paganism degrade and debase the human character. This Colony, too, 
planted by you on the shores of Africa, is a Christian Colony, and its growth 
is strengthened under flie moral influences of our religion. If liberty is 
power in the social state — and if knowledge is power — so too, above both, 
is Christianity power. Mr. S. then referred to facts stated in the An- 
nual Report, from which he drew the conclusion that the state of the Colo- 
ny was prosperous beyond what could have" been expected at so early a pe- 
riod, and that the operation of its moral as well as political institutions pro- 
mised to realize the - hopes of its founders and patrons. He thought that 
the benevolent and patriotic would find in the actual experience of its suc- 
cess hitherto, a pledge on which they could rely, that their final hopes 
should be realized, in respect to our own country. The plan of the 
Board of Managers had thus far proceeded under most discouraging cir- 
cumstances from its commencement. In spite of public opinion, and with. 
extremely limited and precarious resources, it seemed to have been sustained 

372 Flan for the establishment of .[Feb. 

by the influence of super-human power. It has certainly, said Mr S. at- 
tained a point of success, which it was not expected to have reached so 
soon, and there was no reason to think that its prusperity was to be check- 
ed. Its final success must depend on the perseverance of its patrons, and 
surely all will admit that to abandon the experiment at the present favora- 
ble point of its progress, would be to trifle with the demonstrations of the 
safest and most instructive of all teachers — experience. 

If, said Mr. S its prosperity shall be continued, the debt which, not 
only our own country, but the civilized world owes to Africa, may be paid. 
Who can foresee in what results your efforts may end > They are not for 
us to know, and it is not for man to set the limits of those blessing's which 
flow in upon that benighted and afflicted country, from the establish- 
ment there of an educated and Christian State. We may hope, however, 
without presumption, that these blessings may not only be perpetuated to 
l may colonize there, but shall extend and expand their be- 

neficent and r isistless influence, till whole nations of the human family shall 
be gathered within the pale of civilization and Christianity. 

A'.i the preceding resolutions were adopted with great una- 
nimity . 

It wus then 

Resolved^ That the fourth article of the Constitution of the 
Society, be so altered, that the time fixed for the annual meet- 
ing of the Society, shall he the third Monday of January. 

After the President had retired, -on motion by Gen. C. F. 
Mercer, it was 

Jiesolved, That the thanks of this Society be presented to the 
Hon. Bushrod Washington, the President of the Society, for 
the dignified and able manner in which he has presided over the 
proceedings of this meeting. 

The Rev. Mr. Ryland, of this city, was elected a member of 
the Board of .Managers, in the place of Or. Randall. The other 
officers remain the same as in the last year. 

We have long desired to see State Colonization Societies, auxiliary to 
the Parent Institution, established throughout the Union, and organized 
on such a plan, as to secure the greatest possible results. We have re- 
garded the object of our Society as truly national, and demanding for its 
full accomplishment, the energies and resources of the nation. Eleven 
State Societies have been already established. The following plan for a 
general organized sisTE.M, was recently submitted to the Board of Mana- 

1829.] Slate Colonization Societies. 373 

gers, by the Rev. Isaac Orr, General Agent of the Society, and after due 
consideration, was unanimously adopted; and is now earnestly recommend- 
ed to the attention of all tlie friends of our cause. Why may not this sys- 
tem be put in f o actual and vigorous operation in the course of the present 
year? Is there any thing' which more imperiously claims the thoughts and 
efforts of every humane, patriotic, or religious mind? 

Plan for the establishment of State Colonization Societies, with 
Subordinate Associations throughout the Union. 

1. That t!t Societies be direct Auxiliaries to the Gene- 
ral Society, and that it be recommended that each State Society 
should, by its constitution, determine to see that a Society, 
auxiliary to itself shall be formed, and kept in efficient activity, 
in each county in the state, from each of which a delegate shall 
be a manager of the State Society. The reasons for this latter 
provision, are, that the members of the State Society, being on 
the ground, and coming indeed from all parts of the State, can 
best discern, and seize iipon the various facilities, which will 
enable them to form County Societies most readily; that they 
can, on the same account, do much without incurring the ex- 
pense of employing an agent; and that if an agent must be em- 
ployed, they have the best means of selecting one that is suita- 
ble, who being on the ground can perform the duties of his office 
without incurring the travelling expenses necessary to be incur- 
red by an agent of the General Society. 

2. That it be recommended to each County Society, to see 
that Societies auxiliary to itself be formed and kept active in ev- 
ery town of district in the County, from each of which a dele- 
gate shall be a manager of the County Society. The reasons for 
this are the same as in the preceding article. 

5. That the annual meetings of the Town and District Socie- 
ties, be in regular order, with regard to places, and in immedi- 
ate succession; that as far as practicable, the same order and 
succession be observed with regard to the meetings of the vari- 
ous State Societies, to the end, that an agent of the General So- 
ciety may attend them all in succession, as far as practicable: 
and that the meetings of the State Societies immediately precede 
the annual meeting of the General Society. 

4. That the monies of the Town and District Societies, be 

374 Plan for State Colonization Societies. . Feb. 

generally collected directly before their annual meetings; that 
they be transferred to the County Societies, by their Delegates 
to the meeting of tha.t Society; that the monies of the County 
Societies, be collected and transferred in the same manner, to the 
State Society; and that the monies of the various State Societies, 
be collected and transferred in the same manner, as far as prac- 
ticable, to the General Society. 

The object of this article, is to save expense and embarrass- 
ment, in the collection of monies for the General Society. 

5. That the various Societies make it the obj?ct of their most 
strenuous efforts, to collect funds sufficient to convey immedi- 
ately to the Colony of Liberia, every coloured person of suitable 
age, and suitable qualifications, that is willing to go; that, with 
the attainment of this object, they will be satisfied; and that they 
combine and increase their efforts, until this object is fully ac- 

6. That inasmuch as it must be deemed a leading object of 
this Society, to diffuse information, and ex"rt an influence, by 
means of the press, it be earnestly recommended to the various 
Societies, to circulate as much as possible, the different publica- 
tions of the Society, to obtain subscriptions for the Repository; 
to collect and transmit the payments for that work, with the con- 
tributions to the funds of the Society; and for compensation and 
encouragement in this undertaking, which may be performed al- 
most without trouble by the collectors of the Town and District 
Societies, they are authorized by the Agent and Publisher 
(Mr. James C. Dunn, Georgetown, D. C.) of the Repository, 
to retain twelve and a half per cent, on all payments for that 
work collected. 

The reasons, in brief, in favour of the whole system now re- 
commended, are, that it contains in itself, the principles of its 
own life, and its own activity; that on this account, it avoids the 
expense and trouble of an extraneous influence; that it will be 
relieved of the various irregularities and embarrassments una- 
voidable by any other system less general in its character; and 
that as a ground of safe dependence for the Society, it will 
procure an income of much greater amount, and greater unifor- 

1829.] Afr can Mission School. 575 

African Mission Sc\\oo\. 


On the establishment of an African Mission School in the city 
of Efartfi I, it w^ hoped that a lively interest would be taken 
in it, by the patrons and friends of the American Colonization 
, in the more Southern Slates; where we were led to be- 
lieve, there were many young men of colour, who would gladly 
avail themselves of the opportunity, to become qualified for 
usefulness to Colony, It was hoped, that pains would be 
taken, to look out suitable pupils for the school, and put them 
in the wav of joining it. The Executive Committee confess, 
that thev have hitherto been disappointed in their expectations 
fron j •• I notwithstanding their exertions to spread 

int •, it is feared that very few of the children of Africa, 

are vet acquainted with I stence of a free school for their 

be IK fit. You will 'do tli [hstituiion a favour, by inserting in 
the itorv, th ng notice ot the African Mission 

School, stable <his place. 

Us obj 'Ct is, i re young men of religious character and 

hah: . td serve in the Colony in Africa, in the capacity of Mis- 
sion tries, Catechists or Schoolmasters. On leaving the school, 
th -v are to be placed under the direction of the Executive Com- 
of the Domestic and Foreign Church Missionary Society, 
to ;>.' employed by them in the sphere, in which they may be 
judged best fitted to labour. — They must be at least 18 years of 
a. — be able to read and write; and have acquired some know- 
ledge of the rules of common arithmetic. They must also pro- 
duce to the Executive Committee, satisfactory testimonials of 
their exemplary moral and religious character, and of their pos- 
sessing such intellectual endowments, as will, in all probability, 
render them useful in some one of the above-mentioned capaci- 
ties. — Such pupils will be received into the School, and be sup- 
ported and educated, free of expense, until they are judged quali- 
fied to proceed to their destination in the Colony. A compe- 
tent instructor has been appointed, and the school is in actual 
operation with a few pupils. 
The clergy, and others interested in the welfare of our infant 

376 Candid acknowledgment of error. [Feb. 

eolony, are earnestly desired, to give all possible publicity 
to the intelligence relative to the school, among the people of 
colour. It is particularly requested, that they will see and con- 
verse with promising young men of African descent, and induce 
them to apply for admission, if they appear to be qualified for 
the situation: and especially, if they sustain a character for de- 
voted piety, missionary zeal, and competent talents. — Letters 
of application, testimonials, &c. may be addressed to the Cor- 
responding Secretary, the Rev. N. S. Wheaton, Hartford, 
Conn. — Donations to the Society, maybe remitted to the Trea- 
surer, Cyprian Nichols. Esq. of the same place. 
Bar/ford, Feb. 25th, 'l 829. 

CantYid Ackno'wle&giviexit of T&yyot. 

The Editor of Freedom's Journal, Mr. Ruswurm, (a very respectable, 
and \vell educated coloured man in New York,) who has for several years, 
been decidedly and actively opposed to the Colonization Society, in his 
paper of the 14th February, candidly and honourably confesses that his 
opinions in regard to our Institution, have become entirely changed. The 
following is his statement. 

"As our former sentiments have always been in direct opposi- 
tion to the plan of colonizing us on the coast of Africa, perhaps 
so favourable an opportunity may not occur, for us to inform 
our readers, in an open and candid manner, that our views are 
materially altered. We have always said, tliac when convinced 
of our error, we should hasten to acknowledge it. That period 
has now arrived. The change which has taken place, has not 
been the hasty conclusion of a moment: we have pondered much 
on this interesting subject, and read every article within our 
reach, both for and against the Society, and we come on, from 
the examination, a decided supporter of the American Coloniza- 
tion Society. 

We know, that in making this avowal, we advance doctrines 
in opposition to the majority of our readers, to many of whom 
we are personally known, and for whose opinions we still enter- 
tain great respect; but how unpopular soever they may be, we 

1829.] Plan for purchasing a Ship for the Society. 377 

know they are conscientious ones — formed from no sordid mo- 
tives: but having for their basis, the good of our brethren. 

We have carefully examined the different plans now in ope- 
ration for our benefit, and none, we believe, can reach half so 
efficiently, the mass, as the plan of colonization on the coast of 
Africa; for, if we take a second look into any or all of them, we 
find them limited to a single city or state. We consider it 
mere waste of words to talk of ever enjoying citizenship in this 
country; it is utterly impossible in the nature of things; all, 
therefore, who pant for this, must cast their eyes elsewhere. 

The interesting query now arises, wKere shall we find this de- 
sirable spot? If we look to Europe, we find that quarter alrea- 
dy overburdened with a starving population: if to Asia, its dis- 
tance is an insuperable barrier, were all other circumstances 
favourable. Where, then, shall we look so naturallv, as to Af- 
rica? In preferring Liberia, we wish not to deprive any of the 
right of choice between it and Hayti; as it is not our design to 
say ought against Hayti or the able ruler at its head; but it is a 
fact well known to all, that our people have strong objections 
against emigrating to that country, arising, in many cases, from 
the unfavourable reports of those who have returned. Sensible 
of the fact, then, of the unwillingness of our people to emigrate 
to Hayti, we feel it our duty, to offer to their consideration, our 
present sentiments concerning African Colonization, and per- 
haps, what we may be able to offer hereafter, may be the means 
of enlightening some, whom it was our misfortune to have mis- 
led by our former opinions." 

T?\an to xaise T\m&s foY ^ucchasing a 
Shi$ tor the Society. 

The Board of Managers have received a communication from a very ac- 
tive and judicious friend, to which they earnestly invite public attention. 
This friend writes, "a few days ago, when in Cincinnati, Ohio, I left a sub- 
scription paper, of which the following is a copy." 

"Proposals to raise the sum of twenty thousand dollars with- 
in 12 months, from Jan. 1st, 1829, to be given to the American 
Colonization Society, for the purchase of a vessel to belong to 

the Society. 

378 Lioo d Devised. ' [Feb. 

"Whereas the benevolent designs of the American Coloniza- 
tion Society, have required appropriations of their funds to a 
larg« amount, for the charter of vessels to transport emigrants 
to Liberia, and whereas their limited resources have not enabled 
the Society to afford the means of transportation to numbers, 
who are anxious to settle in Liberia; we, the undersigned, do 
agree to pay to the Society, or assume ttje responsibility of col- 
lecting, for the purpose of enabling the Society to procure a 
vessel, worth §20,000, the amount of §50 each, upon condition 
that 400 subscribers shall pledge themselves to raise each, the 
like sum; the money to be paid to the Treasurer of the near- 
est auxiliary, or to the Parent Society, upon their annunciation 
that' the subscription of §20,000 has been completed." 

The following gentlemen have given in their names as sub- 
scribers on this scheme. 

Herbert C. Thomson, New York. 

John M. Nelson, New York. 

Andrew Barry, Hillsborough* Highland Co. Ohio. 

Dr. Isaac Telfair, do. do. do. 

Benjamin Harris, do. do. do. 

Col. Edward Colston, Berkely Co. Virginia. 

Henry Miller, Cincinnati* Ohio, 
The Managers have heretofore expressed their opinion, that the posses- 
sion of a ship, by the Society, would greatly facilitate its operations, and in- 
crease their beneficial results. They earnestly invited the attention of l 
their friends to this subject, in their Eleventh Report, and the experi- 
ence of another year, has still more deeply impressed their minds with 
the importance of the object. They solicit the aid of all who wish suc- 
cess to their enterprise, to the plan which is now submitted. They feel 
under special obligations to the gentleman who has suggested it, and who 
has placed his own name at the head of the subscription. Shall not this 
plan as well as that of Mr. Smith, be carried into complete effect during- 
the present year > 

Good DerviseiY. 

The Rev. G. W. Campbell, an Agent of the Society, in the 
State of New York, has submitted the following plan to the con- 
sideration of the Board of Managers, and expressed the opinion, 
that it may be attended with great advantages. The Managers 
approve it, and wish it success. Every plan, indeed, which 
may serve to augment the resources of the Society, should i* 

1829.] The great Object advanced. 57$ 

their view, be immediately adopted. The annual income of our 
Institution, must be increased tenfold, if we would realise the 
benefits which have been cherished as objects of hope at least, 
by its earliest and most constant advocates. The plan now 
offered to public attention, is the following: 

"1st. A transportation shall be $30, payable down, at the 
end of 5 or 10 years; the time to be designated on subscribing. 

2nd. One engaging a transportation, may, when the sum is 
paid, designee the beneficiary of his charity, or name a friend 
who shall designate for him. 

3rd. An individual engaging a transportation, as soon as he 
has paid a tenth of his subscription, shall receive gratuitously, 
the African Repository for one year, and when the whole sum 
is paid, shall be a life member of the Society. 

4th. The payments on the transportation, shall be a sum 
not less than three dollars." 

About twenty subscriptions have, we are informed, been ob- 
tained on the plan here proposed. 

TYie great Object a&Y&nceA. 

We have the pleasure to announce six subscriptions on the 

the plan of Gerrit Smith, Esq. since the publication of our last 


Mrs. M. H. CarhingtonO 

Mrs. Ann Fontaine, I $100 annually by equal contri- 

P. S. Carrington, J . butions. 

Wm. A. Carrington, J 

Gen. Edward Carrington, 

A few Gentlemen near Oak Hill, Fauquier County, Va. 

Rev. Ebenezer Burgess, Dedhain, Mass. 

A friend in Virginia. 

Arthur Tappan, New York, 

"EiTYor Corrected. 

We learn that a statement is circulating" through the papers, that the 
whole amount of funds required for the ransom of the Family of Abduhl 
Rahhahman, the Moorish Prince, has been obtained. This is a mistake} 
somewhat less than half the sum only has been raised. The whole amount 
demanded, is little if any, short of $10,000, for the entire Family; whereas, 
only about $4,000 have been contributed for their redemption. We have 
seen other evidences than this, that many persons, in regard to our Society 
at least, have been indebted to their "imaginations for their facts!" 

J 80 Departure of the Ship Harriet, E^k- 

"Departure, ot \\\e S\\vp HsiYTiet. 

The Ship Harriet, Capt. Johnson, left Hampton Roads on the 
9th instant, with 1 60 emigrants, for the Colony of Liberia. We 
arc happy to say, that a more select and respectable companj 
has not at any time embarked for the African Colony. Of this 
number, 18 were from Norfolk, 67 from Richmond, and 19 from 
Petersburg, Virginia* 

Between 40 and 50 of this number, were slaves liberated by 
less tlun half a dozen individuals, for the special purpose ofbeing 
transferred to the privileges of the Liberian Colony. Fifteen of 
these, very promising subjects for colonization, were emancipated 
by iss Margaret Mercer, near Annapolis, Maryland, and 18 by 
thf Rev. Thomas P. Hunt, of Brunswick County, Virginia. 
Six were lately the property of Edward Colston, Esq. of Vir- 
ginia. Sever. »l others had just received freedom from their bene- 
volent proprietors. Many of those who had long been free, had 
acquired considerable property, and all who embarked, took 
with them a very liberal supply of provisions, household furni- 
ture, tools, and agricultural implements, and articles for trade. 
Most of these emigrants were in the vigour of life, highly recom- 
mended for their correct morals, and industrious habits; and a 
large proportion distinguished among their class for intelligence, 
influence, and piety. Abduhl Rahhahman, the unfortunate 
Moorish Prince, with his wife, took passage in the Harriet. 

Before the departure of the Harriet, the Rev. Joseph Turner 
was ordained to the work of the ministry, by a Presbytery of 
the Church, of which he had long been an exemplary member, 
and a useful preacher. 

The Rev. David Payne, a highly respected preacher in the 
Methodist Church, also embarked in this vessel. 

IwteWiger.ce ftom t\\e> -Colony. 

News has arrived from the Colony, by the way of Bristol, England, whick 
is of a melancholy character. It is stated in a British paper, that on the 
18th of November, the Colonial Magazine was exploded, and that the Rev. 
Lent Cary and nun. other persons were killed. We have no confirmation of 
this account, yet we much fear that something of the kind has occurred. 

1829.] Serious Considerations- 381 

Serious Considerations. 

We would off-r to Heaven our most devout thanksgivings, 
that we are permitted to bring to a close, the fourth volume of 
our Journal. Though in a review of the year which has just 
elapsed, we find occasion for sad and mournful thoughts, we al- 
so discern much to encourage and urge us onward with increas- 
ed industry and pffort, towards the completion of the arduous 
work iq mspiciously commenced, and which so well merits, not 
only the richest contributions of individual enterprise, but of 
state and national means. On this occasion, we beg leave, ear- 
ly to invite the attention of all our friends to some subjects 
which appear to us to claim their immediate and most serious 

It is unquestionable, that the great experiment of founding a 
Colony on the African Coast has been fairly tried, and found 
iful. The entire practicableness of the scheme of the 
cty being then ascertained, the object now is, to reduce to a 
reality* the immense benefits which are promised by this scheme, 
both to this couutry and Africa. The earliest friends of our 
Institution have indulged the expectation, that nothing more 
was requisite to secure general and liberal patronage to their 
plan, than a demonstration of its feasibility: and the question is, 
shall this expectation be disappointed? Will those who con- 
stantly professed themselves ready to lend their aid to this plan, 
the moment they might be convinced that it could be effected, 
prove their professions to have been insincere, when they can no 
longer plead incredulity as an excuse for inaction? Or will those 
who have evinced zeal and energy during the progress of this 
experiment, at first doubtful, prove cold and heartless, when it 
is no longer possible to deny that the work can be done, and 
that its utility would be great beyond conception? Shall efforts 
to secure our object become less, because we perceive that this 
object may certainly be obtained, and that it will amply reward 

But the results at which we aim, can only be realized, by far 
more liberal contributions to the Society than have ever yet been 
received, and its consequent, more vigorous and extensive ope- 
rations. And for these enlarged exertions, the African Colony 

382 Serious Considerations. [Feb. 

is now prepared. Every successive year hereafter, will it be 
ready for the reception of a larger number of emigrants than in 
the preceding one, and of course, the Society should advance 
with accumulating resources and energy. Let it never be for- 
gotten, however, that the work in which we are engaged, de- 
mands the powers of the nation, and that without them, its 
completion is not to be expected. Our endeavour, then, should 
be to send abroad an influence in its favour throughout the 
Union, and secure to it the approbation and support of the 
whole country. 

For this end, no plan suggests itself as likely to be more 
effective than that (submitted in the present number) for the 
organization of a State Colonization Society, with subordinate 
associations, in each of the United States. We hope that it 
will be adopted, and that our friends in those States where such 
Societies do not exist, will without delay, combine their efforts 
to establish them. Such a system as we have ventured to 
recommend, cannot fail to bring the great objects of the Soci- 
ety, constantly and universally before the American people, 
and render them generally, matters of conversation and re- 
flection. A disposition to promote these objects, will be thus 
produced, and the streams of public charity will, through the 
several county societies as their appropriate channels, flow into 
the State Societies, and thence to the Parent Institution. 

May we not confidently rely upon collections in the numerous 
churches in our land, on the 4th of July, for more liberal 
aid than has yet been granted? For such aid we must look 
principally to the influence of the clergy; and surely this in- 
fluence cannot on such an occasion, be better exerted, than in 
turning the gratitude and joy, which warm all hearts, to the ac- 
count of charity — charity towards those, who on the chosen soil 
of freedom, are, and must be, strangers to its blessings. 

All, we hope, will feel, that without vastly increased funds, 
the cause of the American Colonization Society, if it can advance 
at all, cannot prosper. To give it the triumph which it merits, 
this nation must be aroused to exertions* compared to which, 
what has yet been done, is not worthy to be mentioned. And 
these exertions must soon be made, or they will be forever too 
fate. Solemnly and urgently, as by a voice from Heaven, are 

1829.] Contributions. 383 

all the people of this Union called upon, to come forward in- 
stantly, and with their might to the great but glorious work, in 
which the Colonization Society, with entire devotion, but in- 
adequate resources, has been permitted to engage. 

C ontYibutiows 

To the Am. Col. Society, from the 21st Jan. to the 5th March, 

1 829 — inclusive. 

A Lady in Exeter Parish, Lebanon, Con. ... $ 5 

The Associate Presbyterian Congregation of Cambridge, N. Y. 5 
The Wells' Valley (Cherokee Nation,) African Benevolent Soci- 
ety, bv Ucv. William Chamberlain, 10 

Collections by Obed Waite, Esq. of Winchester, Va. as follows: 

James Little, on his subscription, $10 

Coll'n in Pres. Ch Winchester, 6th July last, .... 5 

Obed Waite, himself, 10 25 

Collections by Grove Wright, Esq. of New York, as follows: 
"From the Rev. Mr. Bradford's Church, at Sheffield, 

Massachusetts, ., $ 7 81 

From the Ladies' Freewill Society, at Pittsfield, 

Massachusetts, 6 

From the Reformed Association in Orange Coun- 
ty, New York, . .' , S 75 

From the Presbyterian Church at Catskill, N. York, 14 
From the Church at Meredith, Delaware Co., N. Y. 3 50 
From the Rev. Mr. Shaw, South Hartford, Conn. . 3 20 

From a Lady in this city, 20 

From the Church at Malborough, Ulster Co. N. Y. 6 
From the Rev. Doctor Lewis, Greenwich, Conn, by 

the hand of Zach. Lewis, Esq 20 

From Mr. Griffith Rogan of Kingsport, Tenn 2 50 

From Mr. W. C. Redfield, 10 96 7£ 

Collection by the Congregation at the Chapel, Frederick County, 

Va. per Rev William Meade, 10 

Collections in Granville, New York, per Rev. J. Whiton, .... 30 

Collections by A. R. Plumley, Esq 113 It: 

Collection by Governor Coles, of Illinois: 

Edward < oles and J. M Robinson, each $20 $40 

N. Edwards, J. Tillson, and W. Kitchell, each $10 . 30 
J. Conwav, W. B. Archer, T. Mather, J. Black, J. 
Reynolds, T. Guard, W. L. D. Ewing, J, Harlin, 

S. Wiggins, and J. Douglass, each $5 50 

H. M. Gilhaai, S. H. Kimmel, J. Turney and A.' W. 

Cavarley, each $3 12 

C. Ives, S, B. Shelledy, P . Cartwright, E, C. Berry, 
J. B. Campbell, T. Ford, J. T. Lusk, J. Atwater, 
W. P. McKee, J. Mason & B. F. Edwards, each $2 28 
J. Allen, M. Lemen, C. Mundy, R. J. Hamilton, A. 
Miller, G. Flagg, R. Matheny, J. Adams, K. Till- 
son, E. Baker, R. H. Peebles, J.T. B. Stapp, C. 

B. Berry, J. D. Gorin, each $1 14 — 168 

Collections by Rev. J. Rea, at Cadiz, Ohio, per Hon. J. C. Wright, 14 

384 Erratum* [Feb. 

Amount brought forward, $476 8$ 

Joint Contribution of a few Gentlemen, living near Oak Hill, 
Fauquier county, Va. (a subscription on the plan of Gerrit 

Smith, Esq.) *. 100 

A Friend to the cause in Amherst, Mass. ... ... 3 

Rev. S- M. VY orcester, of do. 5 

Collections by Kev. J. J. Roberts: 

Rev. Mr. Daniel Raker, Savannah, Ga. . . $5 

Mr. H. Campbell, 20 

Mr Josi ph Cumming, 8 

MrS H. Fay 3 

Mr. Geo. W. Coe, % 5 

Mr. Moses Cleland, 5 

Mr. G. B. dimming, 10 

Mr. Homes Tupper, 5 

Rev. Mr. W. O. Wver, 2 

Mr- 0. Mclntire, Charleston, S. C 20 

Mr. Thomas Flemming, 10 

A Fr end 5 

Two Friends, 2 

Mr. W. Riley, 1 

For the Repository, 34 133 76 

Auxiliary Society at Zanesville and Putnam, Ohio, per Hon. Mr. 

Beecher 35 

Auxiliary Society of Georgetown, D. C. per F T Sewall, Esq. 52 
Auxiliary Society of Green Castle, Pa. per M L Fullerton, Esq. 30 
Auxiliary Society of Wheeling, Va. per Isaac I. effler, Esq .... 84 

Auxiliary Society of Lewisburg, Greenbriar County, Va. from 

John S potts, Esq. Treasurer, per Hon. S. Maxwell, 5 

Auxiliary Society of Chester County, Pa. per David Townsend, 

Esq. Treasurer, .' 202 25 

Auxiliary Society of Amherst Court House, per Samuel R Da- 
vis, Esq. Treasurer, 10 

Auxiliary Society of Lexington and Fayette, Ky. per J. Harper, 

Esq Treasurer, 100 

Auxiliary Society of Versailles, Kentucky, 61 

Auxiliary Society of the Ladies in Georgetown, per Mrs. South- 
ern, Treasurer, 29 17 

Repository from sundries, 14 

From Auxiliary Society of Petersburg, Va 443 38 

Rev. Howard Malcom, of Boston 5 

Peter Force, refunded by him, for overpayment for printing, . . 100 
A Friend in Fredericksburg: (a Lady and a distinguished pa- 
troness of the Society, who declines, from motives of delica- 
cy, from having her name made known to the public,) .... 200 
Dr. T. B. Anderson, per Mrs. L. L. Minor, of Fredericksburg, 5 

Rev. W. Hooper, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, ! 3 

Francis Durlavy, Esq. Warren Co. Ohio, per Hon. John Woods, 5 

Hon. John Locke, of Mass. his annual subscription, 1 

Rev.N. Patterson, 30 

$2,133 43 


The first page of this No. should have been dated February 1829, in- 
stf ad of "March 1829."